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Full text of "The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary"

PinSBURGH THEOLOGICAL 
SEMINARY LIBRARY 



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t 




The Balletli) 

of tke 

tfestepi) Tbeologleal 
SemiDaFy 




Voi^ XVIII. OcTOBBR, 1925. No. 1. 



The Western Theological Seminary 

North Side, Pittsborgh, Pa. 

FOUNDED BY THE QENEBAL ASSEMBLY, 1825 

The faculty consists of eight professors and three 
instructors. A complete modern theological cnrriculmn, 
with elective courses leading to degrees of S.T.B. and 
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open to properly qualified students of the Seminary. A 
special course is offered in Practical Christian Ethics, in 
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A new department of Religious Education was inaugu- 
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the United States. 

For further information, address 

President James A. Kelso, 
North Side, Pittsburgh, Pa. 



THE BULLETIN 

OF THE 

Western Theologieal Seminary 



A Revie^v Devoted to the Interests or 
Tneological Education 



Published quarterly in January, April, July, and October, by tbe 
Trustees of tbe Western Theological Seminary of the Presbyterian Church 
in the United States of America. 



Edited by tbe President Tvith the co-operation of tbe Faculty. 

Page 

The Athens of Socrates and the Athens of St Paul ... 5 
Rev. A. J. Alexander, D. D. 

Rev. James Caruthers Rhea Ewing, K. C. I. E 21 

Rev. James A. Kelso, D. D. 

Faculty Notes 25 

Alumniana 26 

Necrology 33 



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addressed to 

REV. JAMES A. KELSO. 

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(North Side Station) under the act of August 24, 1912. 



Press of 

pittsburgh printing company 

pittsburgh, pa, 

1925 



Faculty 



The Rev. JAMES A. KELSO, Ph. D., D. D., LL. D., 

President and Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Literature 
The Nathaniel W. Conkling Foundation 

The Rev. DAVID RIDDLE BREED, D. D., LL. D. 

Professor of Homiletics 

The Rev. DAVID S. SCHAFF, D. D. 

Professor of Ecclesiastical History and History of Doctrine 

The Rev. WILLIAM R. FARMER, D. D. 

Reunion Professor- of Sacred Rhetoric and Elocution 

The Rev. JAMES H. SNOWDEN, D. D., LL. D. 

Professor of Systematic Theology 

The Rev. DAVID E. CULLEY, Ph. D. 

Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Literature 

The Rev. SELBY FRAME VANCE, D. D., LL. D. 

Memorial Professor of New Testament Literature and Exegesis 

The Rev. FRANK EAKIN, Ph. D. 

Associate Professor in the New Testament Department and Librarian 



Pkof. GEORGE M. SLEETH, Litt. D. 

Instructor in Elocution 

Mr. CHARLES N. BOYD 

Instructor in Hymnology and Music 

The Rev. HOWARD M. Le SOURD 

Instructor in Religious Education 



The Bulletin 

of the 

WESTERN THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 

Vol. XVIII. October, 1925 No. i 

The Athens of Socrates and the Athens of St. Paul 
Eev. Albert J. Alexander, D. D. 

I 

We are told that when the Jews stirred up a riot in 
Macedonian Beroea also, the Christian brethren sent Paul 
off at once on his way to the sea. His escort apparently 
did not leave him until they had delivered him safe upon 
Attic soil. 

We can imagine the apostle and his companions 
walking the short few miles from the Port of PirsBus up 
to Athens. Many others have taken that path, men liv- 
ing just before Paul's day, or his contemporaries, or 
those to come shortly after. Philo and Josephus have 
followed the line of "the long walls", and Cicero and 
Seneca. All the world went that road to its school-mas- 
ters. For Athens was — shall we say is — the intellectual 
and artistic capital of the world. 

Of course when Paul covered the ground the ''long 
walls" were down. But the tradition regarding those 
walls, which gave to Athens at the height of her power a 
protected way to the sea, was strong in Paul's day. In- 
deed it still abides a proud memory. 

Entering the city and bending his steps toward the 
Agora (or market place) Paul would have the Theseum 
and the temple to Zeus and the Stadium on his right. 
On his left would rise the Acropolis, Mars Hill, and the 
Pnyx. 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Arriving at the market place (Agora) Paul finds him- 
self in the midst of a hollow square, like the Piazza of 
San Marco, Venice. The square is surrounded by public 
buildings. Portico after portico arrests the eye with its 
slightly raised platform and the groups of columns airily 
supporting their roofs, and here and there the eye detects- 
a beautiful statue. The temples and enclosed buildings, 
while larger and really very massive, convey still the 
impression of delicate beauty and airy grace. In places 
one may thread his way through veritable avenues and 
groves of statues. Altars are everywhere. And even 
the street of the tombs makes death as beautiful as it is 
pathetic. The statues, so abundantly in evidence, are 
dedicated to gods and goddesses, to public men, to ab- 
stract qualities, life, truth, wisdom, courage, virtue, and 
to unknown super-powers. 

We are told that Paul spoke on the Sabbath to the 
Jews and the pious (proselytes) in the synagogue, and 
on week-days to those he chanced upon in the Agora — 
the market-place, forum, public square — that center of 
life in every town of the Mediterranean, ancient and 
modern. Precisely that same statement, touching a way 
he had of entering into conversation with men singly or 
in groups in the public square, is made regarding Socra- 
tes four and a half centuries before Paul's day. Socrates 
and Paul were perhaps the two greatest men who ever set 
foot in Athens. Let us attempt to reconstruct first the 
Athens of Socrates' day, then the Athens that Paul vis- 
ited. 

The main lay-out of the city, its salient features, 
even its great individual centers of interest, were much 
the same in the one age as in the other. The difference 
was that in Paul's day buildings and statues— except a 
few, like those to Augustus and Rome— were ancient and 
mellowed by time. In Socrates' day the great statues 
either were new, or were very shortly to be erected— for 
the last days of Socrates ran over into the great century 
of Pericles. Socrates lived just on the edge of creative 

6 



The Athens of Socrates and the Athens of St. Paul 

days — the great blossoming time of the Greek genius — 
the age of the wonderful spring-time in political life, art, 
architecture, literature, drama, and philosophy, which 
accompanied and followed the conflict with Persia and 
the Asiatic powers. A similar outburst is seen in the age 
of Elizabeth following the defeat of the Spanish Armada. 
The "Age of Pericles" sees the erection of the temples 
and altars of the lower town and of the Acropolis. That 
age is the blossoming time also for the drama of Aeschy- 
lus, Sophocles and Euripides, in the theatre of Diony- 
sius, which one passes on the road up to the Acropolis 
and Mars Hill. The theatre snuggles close up to the 
base of the cliff which forms the citadel. Here were pro- 
duced also ' ' The Birds ' ' and ' ' The Frogs ' ' and other 
comedies of Aristophanes, with their powerful satire on 
the men and measures of the age. A strange feeling- 
comes over the traveller as he sits for a moment in one 
of the marble stalls still in place in the first three rows 
of the theatre and reads, carved on the backs of the seats, 
the names of the ancient Athenian families to whom they 
belonged. That age was the blossoming time of a political 
life and a political philosophy of abiding value for our 
western world. It was the blossoming time finally of 
thougl^t — serious, systematic, disciplined thought about 
the world and man and life. 

The three outstanding moral and mental character- 
istics of Socrates were his modest}^, his irony, and a cer- 
tain intellectual method in the examination of concepts 
and the analyzing of experience. Socrates was not mod- 
est in his relation to other men, but in his relation to 
truth and the higher values of life. He declined the 
term sophist — it claimed too much; he wished not to be 
considered a wise man, or as having attained; he chose 
rather the term lover of wisdom, seeker after wisdom. 
An instance of the Socratic irony, and a proof of its effec- 
tiveness, is brought to mind when we recall the place ac- 
corded the "sophists" in the history of philosophy and 
the invidious meaning (not etymologically justified) 



Tlie Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

wMcli the words "sophist" and "sophisticated" carry 
to this day. 

A main element in the Socratic method was his in- 
sistence upon a man's defining the objects of thought in 
terms of their essence rather than of their accidents. 
You speak of a "statesman" — what do you mean? "A 
man like Pericles", you say. A man tall and slight of 
figure — you mean? Not that — what then? And so the 
analysis was carried on until the real essentials of states- 
manship were arrived at. So about the Beautiful — it 
is useless to discuss whether a given thing is — or is not — 
beautiful until some criterea for beauty are agreed upon. 
So in morals, discussion of what to do and what not to do 
is useless until there is some standard of right and wrong. 

As to the true subject matter for thought and for the 
application of this method — shall we ask first as to the 
nature of things like earth, air, water, fire, and the com- 
mon source of these, or shall we not first apjjly the 
method to man himself? Socrates was skeptical about 
the jDossibility of knowing things and the external world 
before knowing the self. Man's knowledge of the whole 
of things is very limited. He can never knoAV fully the 
nature of the world, its origin, its end, or the laws gov- 
erning it. He can know what he himself ought to be, the 
meaning and end of his own life, the highest good of the 
soul. Things such as these a man, not only can, but 
must know. "Know th3^self" — know and cultivate your 
own soul and its powers, know the moral laws governing 
life and revealed in experience. 

Now a man can't think profoundly about himself 
and about the spiritual conditions of life and well-being 
without thinking presently about God. The ethical ap- 
proach to life becomes presently the ethical approach to 
religion. The dictum of experience embodied in the 
saying of the medieval mystic has probably held true of 
the thinking of the pure in heart in all ages and races — 
"When a man gets into the depths of his own soul he 
finds himself on the heights of God. " So it proved with 



The Athens of Socrates and the Athens of St. Paul 

Socrates. Meditation on life led to meditation on God — 
to spiritual insight and vision. 

What form does tlie vision take? Well, there were 
the gods, the temples, the altars everywhere about Soc- 
rates as about Paul later. It all troubled Socrates in 
a vague dim way — nay, in a clear well-defined way — as 
it will Paul four or five centuries later. 

The words "atheist" and ''believer" were being 
bandied about in Socrates' days as in every age since. 
Socrates applied his method. Stop — says Socrates — you 
have no right to call a man either ''atheist" or "be- 
liever" until you have arrived at some clear apprehen- 
sion of the essential concepts of religion — until you can 
state what you men by "God" or "gods". A man may 
be an a-theist in respect to gods possessed of human pas- 
sions and jealousies — an a-theist in respect to gods of 
myth and fable, and yet a believer in respect to one great 
and wise and good Power ruling the world and giving 
laws for the guidance of men's lives. Therefore, before 
you bandy the word "atheist", better check up on your 
definition of your term ' ' God ' ', and on your understand- 
ing of the essence of religion. Would that Christian 
theologians in the generations since and in our da}^ had 
been and were always equall}^ wise ! 

Socrates himself held that God was one, the creator 
and ruler of the world; that he exercised a universal 
providence over the world of things and men; that he 
spoke in a man's soul — if the man would listen. Socra- 
tes held that conscience reflects more than individual 
caprice or taste, that conscience speaks of a world order, 
one, absolute, omnipotent. 

He held that this supernatural power is interested 
in and watches over nations and over men. He held that 
this power, as a sort of inspiring all-informing intelli- 
gence, may preside over a man 's thinking, and may giiide 
him — if he be teachable and free from self-will — into the 
truth. So deep was the persuasion of Socrates at this 
point that he held that this overruling intelligence rested 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

down upon Ms own soul as his ''daimon" or guardian 
spirit, somewhat like an individual angel in later Hebrew 
thought. Socrates held that God had given him a mis- 
sion to help men into ways of right and true thinking. 
He certainly worked as a man conscious of a mission — 
worked with boundless zeal and boundless tact. 

The labors of Socrates bore fruit. The splendid sin- 
cerity of the man, the sense of reality in his appeal to 
experience, the clearness and effectiveness of his argu- 
ments, the humanness and the splendid loftiness of his 
conversation, his disinterestedness in his work (not look- 
ing to fees like the sophists), his courage in lifting all 
problems of the day and of life to the highest ethical 
and spiritual plane, — all this directed the attention of 
thinking men to him. He gathered a circle of lo^^al dis- 
ciples and friends about him. Men, and especiall}^ young 
men, left the sophists with their form of knowledge, 
their ignorance, their dogmatism, their unreality, and 
they became disciples of Socrates, attracted by his mod- 
esty, by his appeal to experience, his searching method, 
his deep sincerity, and his capacity for making thinking 
fruitful. 

But, — but,- — there were the gods, the temples, the 
altars, the statues. The organized life of society, the 
welfare of the state was bound up with these. The high- 
est court tried him. The charge was that his teaching 
undermined faith in the state religion; that he was an 
a-theist, and a corrupter of the youth of Athens. He was 
condemned to die. We have a somewhat detailed ac- 
count of his last hours. He talked quietly of his work, 
of what might await him beyond, until the fatal hemlock 
was brought him to drink. It all reminds one of another 
city in the Eastern Mediterranean, and the way she, too, 
treated her great ones — ' ' Oh, Jerusalem — thou that ston- 
estthe prophets". All in all, Socrates was one of the 
tw^o or three men who came nearest to the spirit of an 
Old Testament prophet, nearest to the wisdom of the 
Man of Nazareth, of all who have arisen in ancient or 

10 



The Athens of Socrates and the Athens of St. Paul 

modern times, apart from the Hebrew tradition and the 
influence of Christianity. 

No wonder Socrates and his pupil Plato have been 
called "Christians before Christ". No wonder the early 
Fathers of the Church — who thought in Greek, wrote in 
Greek, set the Christian facts in a framework of Greek 
words and ideas — no wonder these Church Fathers re- 
garded Socrates and Plato as having done the work of a 
John the Baptist in preparing the way for the Gospel in 
the gentile world. They one and all echo the verdict of 
Justin Martyr : ' ' Socrates did his work by inspiration of 
God." 

II 

But Paul has arrived from Piraeus and is waiting 
down there in the Agora. Paul 's presence recalls us into 
the middle of the first century A. D. We hav^e been lin- 
gering in the Athens of 400 B. C. (Socrates died 399.) 
Crossing the centuries in seven league boots, a sentence 
to a century, let us remind ourselves that Socrates' work 
was done in the four hundreds. Plato, his pupil, and 
Aristotle, his pupil's pupil, worked in the three hundreds. 
The tivo -hundreds see Epicurus in his garden and Zeno in 
his stoa (porch). And we recognize in the last two the 
founders of the two schools of thought which were the 
fashionable schools down to Christian times and the 
days of Paul. 

Here we are at last beside Paul in the Agora. Be- 
fore we listen in to his conversation let us look about and 
orient ourselves and the Apostle in respect to the several 
groups represented among the loungers. 

There, to one side the Agora, and looking out upon it 
is the stoa or porch of the Stoics. They stand closer to 
the Platonic tradition than some others. Their interest 
is in psychology, morals, man, God. They hold to the 
unity of God. The gods of tradition are only personifi- 
cations of the energies and functions of the one God. But 
they have gotten God a bit tangled up, pantheistic fash- 
ion, in his world. The world is the body of God. God 

11 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

is a prisoner, lie works in and througli the world but not 
over it. God therefore functions as a providential and 
moral order, also as a reason ( ^6Yos ) in man. The best 
that can be expected is that God will show himself in an 
occasional great soul possessed of a ''daimon". It nat- 
urally followed that the Stoics were great hero-worship- 
pers ; the paintings in the stoa were of heroic scenes from 
Greek history. The Stoics were also great at drawing 
up schemes of rules and fine ethical formulas for the 
guidance of life. They were a good deal like our splen- 
did group of the nineteenth century Puritans — Carlyle, 
Matthew Arnold, Henly, stronger on the side of ethic 
than of theology. But that only served to make such 
theology as they had ethical through and through. The 
highest wisdom, they said, is to follow the God within. 

Since the world is one, and God is one, and reason 
and the law governing human life is also one, it follows 
that the differences among men are accidental, not es- 
sential. The soul makes a true man independent of sta- 
tion and of the mere conditions — circumstances — of life. 
A slave and a dweller in a palace living by the guidance 
of the immanent ^6Yos are both alike in the right path 
and equally praiseworthy. All men should live accord- 
ing to reason. And as they so live a sense of universal 
brotherhood springs up among men. There was on the 
part of the leaders and the members of this school a fine 
devotion to certain lofty ideals and a note of seriousness 
respecting life and conduct which made of Stoicism a 
veritable religion combining in itself both mystical and 
practical elements. 

And this school of thinkers was in the days of Paul 
exerting a tremendous creative influence in many direc- 
tions. The mingling of the ideals of austerity and self- 
control, on the one hand, and of a broad humanity and 
catholicity of spirit, on the other, gave a splendid basis 
for character and life to great numbers of the Roman in- 
telligencia, and equipped with a high sense of responsi- 
bility that broad-minded and honorable and tolerant ad- 

12 



The Athens of Socrates and the Athens of St. Paul 

ministrative aristocracy which represented Eome — on the 
whole so admirably — throughout the world. Again, 
Stoicism profoundly influenced the development of the 
Boman legal system. Any one who has ever read Eoman 
law (as did the writer devotedly for a year) will never 
forget the impression of humanness and of a world- 
brotherhood which found expression in the wealth of 
provisions for the manumission of slaves, and for the 
extension of the rights of citizenship throughout the 
provinces and to different classes of people. No wonder 
Paul himself was proud of citizenship in such an empire. 
Yet again this system just because it dominated the 
minds of serious thinking people everywhere was des- 
tined presently to influence profoundly the development 
of Christian theology. 

But in plain sight from the market place, but a short 
step away, was the garden of the Epicureans. They, too, 
could easily throng into the public square on short notice. 
They stand closer to the Aristotelian tradition. They are 
interested in the objective world — so much so that they 
have pretty completely lost the feeling for God and the 
soul in the world. Practically they are materialists. 
While the gods may exist, they, like the souls of men, are 
only a finer form of matter. These gods neither create 
nor do they exercise a true providence. There is no moral 
order, only a mechanistic order, a fate and hard necessity. 
The only escape from the mechanistic is through the cul- 
tivation, by the man of taste, of the humanities, the arts, 
literature, the refinements of life. In religion they hold 
that the gods and their worship, the temples, statues, and 
the rest have onlj aesthetic value. In morals they are 
not puritans, but lovers of pleasure, refined pleasure at 
first, but grosser as the pursuit continues. In a word, as 
has been said, if the Stoics were the Pharisees of Phi- 
losophy the Epicureans were the Sadducees. 

Farther out — much farther — the Academj^ of the Pla- 
tonists might have been pointed out in Paul's day (as 
the traditional site is still shown) near the city gate on 

13 



The Bulletin of the Western Tnt^ological Seminary 

the left. And some distance to the right, near another 
gate, would stand the Lyceum of Aristotle's followers. 

In regard to the Court of the Areopagus our interest 
is not in the criminal side of its jurisdiction. As the 
highest court of a Eoman province, the Areopagus of 
Athens has before Paul's time been shorn of much of its 
power in criminal matters. But a nobler function re- 
mains. Athens has long been the great university of 
the world. Other universities have sprung up at Anti- 
och, Tarsus, and Alexandria. All shine with the bor- 
rowed light that had its source in Athens. And at Athens 
the Areopagus is a sort of central Bureau of Education 
with authority to pass on the teaching of professors, and 
on the qualifications of speakers, admitted to address the 
people. In view of this surviving function of the Areop- 
agus, there is a special appositeness in the question of 
some of the philosophers who question Paul in the mar- 
ket-place and later lead him up to the council on the 
hard-by hill-top. "What will this picker-up-of-wisdom's- 
-crumbs — this philosophical parasite — have to say?" 
(or in Moffatt's words — "Whatever does this fellow 
mean with his scraps of learning?"). 

Paul is not ignorant respecting the groups encoun- 
tered in the public square and represented in the Mars 
Hill court. Zeno, the founder of the Stoic system, had 
come from Paul 's northeast corner of the Mediterranean, 
the northern tip of C^^prus. Six great leaders of the 
school had come from that same corner of the world. 
Paul had doubtless encountered this teaching, or felt the 
impact of its spirit, before even he left home to sit at 
the feet of Gamaliel. Of course he had been initiated 
into the teaching of the rival school. Within Judaism 
there had been debate between the schools of Hillel and 
Shammai, whether educated Jewish youth should be in- 
structed in the philosophy of the Greek schools. Gama- 
liel, Paul's teacher, had taken the liberal side, and said 
they should be so taught. 

14 



The Athens of Socrates and the Athens of St. Paul 

Paul's address on Mars Hill shows his easy famili- 
arity with the thoughts of the men before him. The 
opening portion of his address is an adroit argumentimi 
adhominem {or, ad homines, rather). For his words are 
a tissue of balanced allusions and quotation, commend- 
ing him now to the favor of one school, now to the sym- 
pathy of the other. It was a dangerous double role that 
Paul essayed. Evidently he played it with a high de- 
gree of skill and success. He might, to judge fromx the 
record, have gone on indefinitely — driving his philosophi- 
cal steeds neck and neck, and stepping lightly from one 
horse to the other. It is even conceivable that he might 
have come off that day with some considerable reputa- 
tion as a mediating philosopher if he had been content 
to balance compliments throughout his address. But 
having by the art of the rhetorician carried both parties 
with him up to- a point, Paul had the temerity to suddenly 
introduce the Christian matter, and that in its most un- 
philosophical and offensive form. Instantly the budding 
reputation of the mediating philosopher is blasted. The 
close of the story reads like a decided anti-climax, — 
"some sneered while others said, 'We will hear you 
again on that subject.' So Paul withdrew from them." 
And yet the anti-climax is only in appearance. For the 
world's interest in Mars Hill to-day is not because of the 
philosophers, but because Paul once spoke there. We do 
not know the names of those philosophers who opposed 
Paul, while one of the principal thoroughfares of mod- 
ern Athens is to-day named in honor of Paul's convert, 
Strada Dionysios Areopagites. 

Stopping for a moment on Paul's address, we note 
that the one line quoted by the Apostle from Cleanthes, 
the poet-philosopher of Asia Minor (the Troad), is the 
most beautiful line in the so-called hymn by this author. 
What humanism, what masterly apologetic, what Christ- 
like catholicity of soul Paul displays in thus broad-mind- 
edly and freely laying hold of ''pagan" material (as 
some would call it) and incorporating it into an address 

15 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

proclaiming the Christian gospeL After that one won- 
ders if Paul would have shied at "evolution!" Verily 
those were the days when the faith was bold and not tim- 
orous. Let us recall the words of the hymn. 

"0 God, most glorious, called by many a name, 
Nature's great King, through endless years the same. 
Omnipotent, thou by thy just decree 
Controllest all. Hail Zeus, for unto thee 
'T behooves thy creatures in all lands to call. 
We are thy children, we alone of all 
On earth's ways that wander to and fro, 
Bearing thine image whereso'er we go, r^ 
Wherefore with songs of praise I will th^y power forth- 
show. " . 

Having expressed in this line from Cleanthes a dis- 
tinctly stoical sentiment, the next movement of the apos- 
tle's thought leans toward the Epicurean interest as he 
alludes to the relation of temple and statue to religion. 
One may almost detect between the lines a gesture and 
a wave of the hand toward the wealth of temples and 
statues rising on the still loftier spur of the same hill not 
fifty yards distant and not over forty feet above the level 
on which they were all standing. Both the reference to 
the shrines, and the sentiment respecting the limited 
function of these for intelligent men in that day, would 
appeal to some hearers as good Epicurean doctrine. 

Presently the Apostle quotes another poet — neither 
Stoic nor Epicurean, but belonging to an earlier day and 
acceptable to both. This was Epimenides of Crete. A 
short bit of his yields not only an apt line for Paul's 
Areopagus address, but yields also a line found in the 
Epistle to Titus, characterizing the Cretans as liars and 
gluttons : 

''They think, Zeus, thou loftiest and best, 
They have fashioned a grave for thee, 
That is what these Cretans think. 

16 



The Atliens of Socrates and the Athens of St. Paul 

But tliou art not dead, 

For to eternity thou livest and endurest, 

And in thee ive live and move and have our being". 

Ill 

In closing let us ask — why did Paul go to Atliens at 
all? 

If tlie religious thinking of Athens and of the Greek 
world generally projected itself along the line of the tra- 
dition of Socrates and Plato, of Zeno and the Stoics, of 
the Hellenist Jew, Philo, and later of Plautinus, the mys- 
tical neo-Platonist ; and if the thinkers of this great line- 
age were possessed of so profound a religious philosophy, 
such spiritual insight, such sound psychology, and such 
a lofty ethic, and if they displayed a capacity for great 
constructive thinking in matters of the soul, which puts 
much professedly Christian thinking to shame— then 
why did Paul ever move westward from Tarsus and Anti- 
och — why did he cross over into Macedonia? What 
apologia can be made out for the apostolic mission to the 
Grseco-Roman world? What was it that Paul possessed 
in the Hebrew scriptures and the Christian gospel that 
stood unmatched in the whole range of Greek wisdom? 

Let me attempt very briefly to sketch three answers 
to those questions: 

First- — Paul knew that in the message he carried the 
interest of religion and the interest of a high ethic stood 
in perfect accord and harmony. The Socratic-Platonic- 
Stoic ethic was not only lofty and pure, but wonderfully 
thought out, wonderfully close to human experience and 
life. But such a system could be developed in Greece 
only by cutting it loose from the gods and the religion of 
Greece's own past. In Palestine, on the other hand, the 
religion of Jehovah was set forth in connection with a 
moral system and a code of conduct which took its char- 
acter from the character of the God of Israel. Paul, 
whether as Jew or Christian, always associated his Chris- 
tian ethic with the character of his God and his Christ. 

17 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Tliis truism of the oneness of religion and morality has 
become so much a commonplace in our modem world's 
thinking that we forget it was not always a truism. Our 
indebtedness here is not — or not primarily— io Grreece, 
but to Palestine. 

Second — In the realm of religion and of ethics the 
Greeks themselves stress knowledge as the need of men 
and the means of salvation. Yet Greek thought and 
Greek drama together constitute a confession that knowl- 
edge is not enough. It was a wonderful vision of a uni- 
versal providence, of a sublime moral order, and of a 
magnanimous high-souled manhood and human life that 
Socrates, Plato, Zeno, and the others possessed. It is 
a vision which abides still one of the most splendid that 
it has entered the heart of man to conceive. But how 
powerless it was then ! how powerless to-day ! — power- 
less to get life lifted measurably to the level of vision. 
Knowledge is not the crying lack of the world, but some- 
thing else! 

" 'Tis power whereof our nerves are scant 
More power and fuller that we want." 

And right here is the marvel of the religion and religious 
experience snap-shot in the Old and New Testaments, 
and made energic and vital through the proclamation of 
the Christian gospel. And the marvel consists — not so 
much in the revelation of a moral ideal, though, of course, 
that is included — but rather in the glad consciousness 
that takes possession of struggling souls that they are 
not alone in the struggle, but that a boundless grace and 
an almighty power are near — are near and waiting to 
change men's hearts, to reorganize their souls, and to 
lift human life to new levels of loyalty and of strength 
and of assured character, and of victory over the world 
and all things in it. It is this mighty spectacle of power 
— spiritual power sufficient for men's need and freely 
given — it is this which is at once the "charm" of the 
Christ and the dynamic of Christianity. 



The Athens of Socrates and the Athens of St. Paul 

Third — Greek religion stresses at best the abstract 
ideal. It was in the most advanced stage of the develop- 
ment of the cultus — when it was most deeply influenced 
by the newer thinking — that the Athenians erected 
statues and altars to wisdom, and piety, and courage, and 
modesty, and to the unknown super-powers. We have 
here perhaps the "ideas" of Plato's philosophy (more 
real than the things they stood for) becoming the ideals 
of religious contemplation and worship. The theory was 
presumably that by "re-collection" of the powers of the 
soul and concentration upon the elements of the ethical 
ideal considered in the abstract one might grow into the 
possession of those qualities. Is there not a good deal 
of this later Greek religious philosophy in our Christi- 
anity to-day? Biblical Eeligion and Christianity, on the 
other hand, stress the concrete, personal as against the 
abstract; not only the idea of the personal God as the 
source and home of the moral ideal, but also the concept 
of a revelation of that ideal in one historic life. In the 
words of the late Hiram Corson, of Cornell, in his "Aims 
of Literary Study", "the secret of Christianity is found 
in the fact that at the heart of it stands a real person 
in whom all that is potential in humanity has once been 
realized". But even this statement of Corson's is hardly 
complete. For the Christian that which is potential in 
humanity is realized through the help, the moral uplift 
and succor imparted by its central personality, and at 
His cost. "Power had gone out of Him." 

". . . . Think, Abib; dost thou think? 
So, the All-Great were the All-Loving, too — 
So, through the thunder comes a human voice 
Saying, '0 heart I made, a heart beats here! 
Face, my hands fashioned, see it in myself. 
Thou hast no power nor mayst conceive of mine, 
But love I gave thee, with Myself to love, 
And thou must love me who have died for thee!' " , 

19 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

No — tliat truth, ''The All-Great is the All-Loving, 
too", never was sighted through Greek speculation! It 
came through history, and by way of Nazareth and Ca- 
pernaum and Calvary. And now — as Christ has proved 
himself greater than Greek wisdom and supplies that for 
the lack of which this loftiest system failed — shall we not 
believe that this same Christ is the one all men con- 
sciously or unconsciously are seeking, and shall one day 
find? 



20 



Rev. James Caruthers Rhea Ewing, 
D.D., LL.D., KX.I.E, 

Rev. James A. Kelso 

By birth and education James Caruthers Rhea 
Ewing was a son of Western Pennsylvania. He saw the 
light of day on January 23, 1854, near Saltsburg, in 
Armstrong County, Pennsylvania. In 1872 he entered 
Washington and Jefferson College and graduated in 
1876. The same year he entered the Western Theological 
Seminary, Pittsburgh, Pa., and completed the regular 
course of that institution as a member of the Class of 
1879. He was ordained by the Presbytery of Kittanning 
on September fourth of the same year, as he Avas under 
appointment by the Board of Foreign Missions of the 
Presbyterian Church. A few weeks later he landed in 
India, where he was to spend his life as a preacher, edu- 
cator, and leader in the Church of Christ. 

He began his missionary career at Fatehgarh. It was 
here that he learned the language and made his first ac- 
quaintance with the people to Avhom he was to minister. 
After two years he was transferred to Allahabad, the 
capital of the Northwest Province (afterward the 
United Province of Agra and Ough) where he spent 
three 3^ears. At this period of his missionary career 
Dr. Ewing devoted himself to evangelistic work. In 
India the term "evangelistic work" is used to cover 
preaching to non- Christians in bazaars, at the city 
gates, and itinerating among the villages of the district. 
This type of work compels the missionary to learn the 
mental habits of the people and to become acquainted 
with the details of their religion. AA^Iiile the missionary 
learns the mental and spiritual idios;\Ticrasies of the 
people, he himself receives a thorough schooling for his 
future labors. In Dr. Ewing 's case these years of ap- 
prenticeship Avere to bear rich fruit in his career of mis- 
sionary leadership. 

21 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Dr. Ewing's fellow missionaries were so impressed 
with the rapid progress which he had made in learning 
the language and in understanding the people, that he 
was transferred to a chair in the theological seminary 
at Saharanpur within five years of his arrival in the 
country. In this institution he labored three years, train- 
ing native preachers for the Presbyterian Churches of 
India, and in order to make it possible for the native 
preacher, unacquainted with English, to use his New^ 
Testament in Greek, he published a dictionary, "Greek- 
Hindustani Dictionary of New Testament Greek". His 
Alma Mater, Washington and Jefferson College, recog- 
nized his contribution to theological education by con- 
ferring the degree of D. D. in 1887. 

It was at the Theological Seminary that Dr. Ewing 
speedily won his spurs as an educator. Within four 
years after his taking up theological teaching he became 
President of Forman Christian College at Lahore in the 
Punjab, a position w^hich he held for thirty years. Under 
his presidency the institution prospered and came to be 
generally recognized as one of the leading Christian 
colleges of the Indian Empire. Forman Christian 
College is affiliated with the Punjab University, and 
through this affiliation Dr. Ewing was in turn, a fellow 
of the University, dean, and for the seven closing 3'ears 
of his presidency vice-chancellor of the Punjab Uni- 
versity. 

Busy as his teaching and administrative duties kept 
him. Dr. Ewing found time for literary work. The out- 
put of his pen was extensive for one who w^as engaged 
in administrative duties. His writings were devotional 
and biographical. Among the former we may mention 
"Seven Times Victorious", to which ought to be added 
numerous contributions to the religious press, American 
and Indian. Among the latter we note the "Life of Dr. 
Duff" and "A Pioneer of the Church in India" (Life of 
Rev. Dr. K. C. Chatter jee.) In the year 1918, while on 

22 



Rev. James Caruthers Rhea Ewing 

furlough, Dr. Ewing served as lecturer on the Severance 
Foundation at his theological Alma Mater. His course 
of lectures on Hinduism were delivered under the title 
' ^ The Growth of a Might^^ System ' '. 

He severed his connection with the Forman Chris- 
tian College in 1918 and became the Secretary of the 
India Council, a directing administrative agency of our 
missions. In this position he wielded a far-reaching in- 
fluence as the general adviser and counsellor of all the 
work of the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions in 
India. Dr. Ewing returned to his native land in 1922 and 
settled in Princeton, N. J., where as lecturer on Missions 
he became a member of the Faculty of the Theological 
Seminary. A year later he w^as elected a member of the 
Board of Foreign Missions, and on November 17, 1924 
received the high honor of being selected by this same 
Board as its President. But God in His providence did 
not permit the Board of Foreign Missions to enjoy the 
benefit of his ripe experience and wise judgment for 
many months, for on August 20, 1925, he was suddenly 
called to his Heavenly reward. Without question, Dr. 
Ewing was the leading American missionary in India. 
He was trusted and honored by all classes, British and 
native Indians. The British Government recognized hi,s 
services to the people of India by the many honorrt 
which they conferred on him. His zealous labors for the 
alleviation of famine suffering were recognized by the 
Kaiser-i-Hind Gold Medal, which Avas presented to him 
by King Edward VII. in 1907, and a 3^ear later his 
Alma Mater conferred the degree of LL. D. on him in 
recognition of his notable services to the cause of mis- 
sions. In 1915, King George V. created him a Companion 
of the Indian Empire, and a little later (in 1928) made 
him Knight Commander of the Indian Empire. This 
latter honor entitled him to use the title of knighthood: 
he w^as no longer Dr. Ewing, but Sir James C. R. Ewing, 
K. C. I. E. But the honor which he himself prized most 

23 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary- 

of all was the election to the presidency of the Board of 
Foreign Missions. 

Dr. Ewing is survived by his widow, Mrs. Jane 
Sherrard Ewing, who resides in Princeton, N. J., and 
by three daughters and two sons. The missionary mantle 
of the fathers has fallen upon tAvo of the daughters, who 
are wives of missionaries in India. A third married 
daughter resides in America. His eldest son is engaged 
in social service activities, while the younger has re- 
cently been taken under the care of Presbytery as a 
candidate for the ministry. 

When the Associated Press telegrams of August 
21st flashed the news of Dr. Ewing 's sudden and unex- 
pected death there was universal mourning in the 
Church which he had served long and faithfully both in 
India and America, for all realized that a prince and a 
great man in the Church of Christ had fallen that day. 



24 



Faculty Notes 



For the last three seasons Dr. Breed has taught the Men's Bible 
Class of the Shadyside Presbyterian Church, for about three months, 
previous to his going to California for the winter. This class is 
remarkable not for its great numbers, for the average attendance 
Is about 3 5, but for its personnel. There is scarcely a man in at- 
tendance who does not fill some responsible and conspi- 
cuous position in business or professional life. Many of them are 
members of old Pittsburgh families of the first social lank. Some 
are men of large wealth. Some are prominent lawyers, doctors, or 
teachers in our great schools. Some are members of large manufac- 
turing concerns. All are earnest, active Christians. It is doubtful if 
the class can be duplicated in such respects in the United States. Dr. 
Breed's plan has not been to study in detail any passage or book of 
the Bible, but rather to present a comprehensive and systematic sur- 
vey of certain elements of revelation. For six weeks this Fall he 
gave a course on "The Unique Teachings of Jesus." He is now en- 
gaged with "Providential Agents in secular history preparatory to 
the Coming of Christ: Cyrus, Alexander, Judas Maccabeus, Julius 
Caesar, Herod the Great." 

The connection of Professor Schaff with the Seminary will cease 
with the close of the present semester, in December. Dr. Schaff has 
been a member of the faculty since 19 03, when he was called from 
the professorship of Church History in Lane Seminary. During his 
connection with Western he has, in addition to other literary pub- 
lications, issued two volumes on Medieval Church History, two 
works on John Huss, and a small work on the Reformation. He was 
chairman of the Assembly's committee to prepare the Intermediate 
Catechism, also of the Assembly's committee on the celebration of 
the four hundredth anniversary of the Reformation. In connection 
with the commemoration of the four hundredth anniversary of John 
Calvin's birth, he delivered addresses on Calvin at Prag and before 
the General Assembly in Denver. He represented the Seminary at 
the celebration in commemoration of the birth of Calvin and of the 
founding of the University of Geneva. On this occasion the Uni- 
versity of Geneva conferred on him the degree of D. D. In 1917 he 
addressed the Assembly in Dallas in commemoration of the Refor- 
mation and the Ninety-five Theses. He made an address before the 
Pan-Presbyterian Council in Aberdeen in 1913. He was appointed 
to give the opening address at the recent meeting of the Council 
in Cardiff, but found it inconvenient to attend. 

Dr. Snowden spent five weeks during July and August lecturing 
on theology and religious education in the Graduate School of 
Theology at the University of Dubuque. The last week of August 
he was at Chautauqua, where he lectured each morning and 
preached the closing sermon in the amphitheater. 

Mr. and Mrs. LeSourd spent the latter part of the summer 
travelling abroad. They left New York June 27th and returned 
September 12th, their itinerary including Great Britain, the Con- 
tinent, Egypt, and Palestine. 

Dr. Eakin underwent a serious operation for peritonitis in a 
Chicago hospital on August 1st. After spending the early autumn 
in New England and the Adirondacks, in an effort to regain full 
strength, he was able to resume his seminary work in October. He 
is now enjoying excellent health. 

25 



Alumniana 

1872 
Rev. John W. Little, Ph. D., of Madison, Nebraska, was elected 
G. A. R. chaplain for the state at the annual encampment at 
Omaha, May 6th. He was also chosen as delegate to the national 
G. A. R. meet in Grand Rapids, August 30th. He is chaplain of the 
local post at Madison. Dr. Little was born in 18 42, was graduated 
from Washington & Jefferson College in 1869 and from the 
Seminary in 1872. He served in an Illinois regiment during the 
Civil War and was well acquainted with Abraham Lincoln. On last 
Memorial Day he delivered an address in the Madison auditorium 
on "Reminiscences of Mr. Lincoln and the Civil War." 

1881 
Arlington Avenue Presbyterian Church, Brooklyn, N. Y., Rev. 
John H. Kerr, D. D., pastor, has recently celebrated its thirty-fifth 
anniversary. There were 49 charter members, and 18 3 8 persons 
have been received. 

1884 
In the Highland Church, Pittsburgh, Pa., a bronze tablet has 
been dedicated to the memory of Dr. Charles P. Cheeseman, who 
for twenty-nine years was the beloved pastor of this church. 

Rev. Calvin C. Hays, D. D., has accepted the position of 
Synodical Executive of the Synod of Pennsylvania under the plan 
of the organization of the Board of National Missions. His office 
is in the Granite Building, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

1887 
The College of Idaho, of which Rev. Wm. J. Boone, D. D., is 
president, graduated a class of fifty young men and women at its 
Commencement exercises in June. 

Rev. and Mrs. J. A. Eakin, of Siam, are home on furlough.. 
They spent the summer at Chautauqua and are now at Wooster, 
Ohio. 

During the summer Rev. Charles Herron attended the meet- 
ings of the General Presbyterian Alliance at Cardiff, Wales, and the- 
World Conference on Liffe and Work, at Stockholm. Between the 
meetings he visited the churches of Central and Southeastern. 
Europe. 

1889 
Rev. William F. Weir, D.D., acted as official representative of 
the Seminary at the installation of the Rev. Frederick Carl Eiselen, 
Ph.D., D.D., LL.D., as President of Garrett Biblical Institute, Evans- 
ton, 111., on June 9th. 

1892 
Rev. W. E. Allen, for 14 years pastor of the First Church, New 
Cumberland, W. Va., has taken up the work in his new field, the 
Lemington Avenue Church, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

26 



Alumniana 

Dr. R. Lew Williams has completed the twenty-fifth year of his 
pastorate in the Lake Street Church, Elmira, N. Y. This church is 
erecting a new Sunday School building, to cost $100,000. It will be 
ready for occupancy early next year. Dr. Williams was one of the 
Assembly's delegates to the quadrennial meeting of the Pan-Pres- 
byterian Council held at Cardiff, Wales. 

1893 
Rev. E. K. Mechlin, of Cherry Tree, Pa., owing to some severe 
throat trouble, has been obliged to give up the work of the pastor- 
ate. Mr. Mechlin is spending this winter in Florida. 

1894 
College Hill Church, Cincinnati, of which Rev. C. A. Austin is 
pastor, is proceeding with plans for the erection of a parish house. 
The building will cost about $100,000 and will be used for educa- 
tional and recreational purposes. 

On July 12 the West View Presbyterian Church, Rev. E. A. 
Culley, pastor, celebrated the twentieth anniversary of its founding. 

1896 
The church at Rural Valley, Pa., and its pastor, Rev. Dr. U. S. 
Bartz, are receiving numerous congratulatory messages in connec- 
tion with the ninetieth anniversary of the founding of the church, 
which was observed October 9th to 11th. The main address of the 
occasion was to have been delivered by Dr. J. C. R. Ewing, whose 
parents were members of this church at the time of his birth, in 
1854. The vacancy in the program caused by Dr. Ewing's death 
was filled by Dr. Calvin C. Hays, who spoke on "What Presby- 
terianism Has Stood For Through the Years." 

Rev. D. A. Greene, of the Poplar Street Church, Cincinnati, 
has had marked success in promoting a community week-day Bible 
school. The school, started three years ago, had an enrollment of 
420 its third year. Six other churches in the neighborhood are co- 
operating in its support. 

Rev. J. Mont Travis has been stated clerk of Denver Presby- 
tery since 1918. He is now giving his entire time to the work of the 
Presbytery — particularly its church extension work — and to the 
promotion of the Presbyterian Hospital of Colorado. 

• 1898 
The Rev. C. W. Kerr, D.D., with Mrs. Kerr and their daughter, 
spent the past summer travelling in Europe and the Holy Land. Dr. 
Kerr is pastor of the First Church of Tulsa, Oklahoma. 



1900 
Montview Boulevard Church of Denver, Rev. Wm. L. Barrett, 
D.D., pastor, has reached its first goal of $150,000 in its building 
fund campaign, and is proceeding with plans for erecting a new 
church home. 

27 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Sanford Presbyterian Church, of Erie, Pa., Rev. C. S. Beatty, 
D. D., pastor, has recently received a legacy of $120,000, and with 
some other property which they own they are planning a memorial 
church, to be erected within the next year or two, with proposed 
equipment the best in Northwestern Pennsylvania. 

1901 
Rev. Merchant S. Bush is serving as student pastor in Greater 
Boston, representing the Presbyterian Church U. S. A., the South- 
ern Presbyterian Church, and the United Presbyterian Church. His 
headquarters are at the new Westminster House at 185 Bay State 
Road, Boston. Mr. Bush officially represented the Seminary at 
the Centennial exercises of the Newton Theological Institution on 
June 10th. 

Rev. Charles F. Irwin, of Wilmerding, read a paper before the 
Presbyterian Ministerial Association of Pittsburgh on June 15th, 
his subject being "Oliver Cromwell: A Study of His Life and In- 
fluence". 

Rev. J. H. Lawther received. 607 new members into the 
Church during the four years of his pastorate at Niles, Ohio. In 
this time the membership has increased from 400 to 847, contribu- 
tions for current expenses have more than doubled, and the mis- 
sionary gifts are three times what they were. 

1903 
Rev. A. P. Bittinger, Moderator of the Synod of Pennsylvania 
for the current year, on May fourth celebrated his tenth anniver- 
sary as pastor of the Presbyterian Church of Ambridge, Pa. The 
degree of D. D. was conferred upon Mr. Bittinger by Grove City 
College at its Commencement exercises on June 17th. 

Rev. George C. Fisher, D. D., pastor of the Highland Presby- 
terian Church, Pittsburgh, Pa., spent his vacation travelling in 
Mediterranean lands, visiting Egypt, Palestine, and Syria. At its 
next meeting, December 7th, Dr. Fisher is to address the Presby- 
terian Social Union of Pittsburgh on his impressions and observa- 
tions on this trip. During the summer the Highland congregation 
installed a new organ costing $15,000. 

Rev. A. J. McCartney, of Chicago, has been called to the 
Fourth Church of New York City. 

1906 
Rev. C. E. Bovard, of Waukesha, Wis., has taken up his new 
work in Rockledge, Florida. 

The degree of Doctor of Divinity has been conferred upon Rev. 
Harry A. Rhodes, of Seoul, Korea, by Grove City College. 

1907 
Grove City College has conferred the degree of Doctor of 
Divinity upon Rev. G. W. Kaufman, assistant pastor at the Third 
Church, Pittsburgh. 

28 



Alumniana 

Rev. Francis I. Woollett, of Brookville, Pa., has been called to 
the West Broad. Street Church, Columbus, Ohio. 

1910 
Rev. F. F. Graham is home on furlough from his mission field 
in Brazil and may be addressed 144 Avenue A, Westinghouse Place, 
East Pittsburgh, Pa. 

In September, Rev. A. P. Kelso severed his connection with the 
James Millikin University, Decatur, 111., to accept a call to the 
Chair of Bible in Southwestern College, Memphis, Tenn. 

During the first year of his pastorate in the Washington 
Avenue Church, Charleroi, Rev. Frank S. Montgomery received 122 
members, 89 of whom came in by profession. Recently a new par- 
sonage, costing over $22,000, has been built. 

Rev. and Mrs. Herbert W. Stewart are home on furlough from 
their station at Pitsanuloke, Siam. Their present address is 
Wooster, Ohio. 

The First Church of Martin's Ferry, Ohio, is planning the erec- 
tion of a new parish house. Its membership is nearing the thou- 
sand mark. Dr. C. B. Wingerd is pastor. 

1912 
Rev. H. H. Bergen, of Cleveland, Ohio, has accepted a call to 
the Plymouth Congregational Church, Lockport, N. Y. 

1913 
The First Church of Van Wert, Ohio, of which Rev. G. A. 
Frantz is pastor, dedicated its new church home the week of 
October 11th to 18th. The building is a beautiful structure in the 
spirit of fifteenth century Gothic. Adjoining apartments provide 
ample facilities for educational and social activities. Among those 
who took part in the dedication ceremonies was Rev. John W. 
Christie, D.D., '07, a former pastor of the church. 

1914 
Rev. Dwight M. Donaldson, writing from his station at Meshed, 
Persia, reports a variety of interesting activities for the year 1924- 
1925. Much of his time is occupied with building transactions, ac- 
counts, and other matters of an administrative character. But he 
finds time to teach church history to theological students, study 
local history and customs, practice his knowledge of Hebrew on 
Jewish acquaintances, attend mission meetings, attend to social ob- 
ligations, etc. 

Rev. Leroy C. Hensel is secretary of the Children's Foundation, 
with headquarters at Valparaiso, Indiana. This Foundation came 
into existence in 19 21, being chartered as a corporation not for pro- 
fit, its objects being the study of the child and the dissemination of 
knowledge promotive of the well-being of children. In 1924 it pub- 
lished an important volume entitled "The Child: His Nature and 
His Needs" — a survey of the present status of knowledge in the 
fields of child study and elementary education. A second volume 
is promised for 1925. Mr. Hensel reports that his connection with 
the Foundation has been a thoroughly happy one. 

29 



The BuUetin of the Western Theological Seminary 

In the First Presbyterian Church of Hutchinson, Kansas, Rev. 
D. G. MacLennan, pastor, 100 families have enrolled in a promise 
to conduct daily family worship. This was the result of a special 
campaign conducted in this church by Dr. MacLennan assisted by 
Tlev. A. T. Dewey, Synodical representative of the Presbyterian 
Board of Christian Education. 

1915 

Rev. W. P. Harriman was elected a member of the Board of 
Trustees of Cedarville College at their last annual meeting, held 
June 4th. 

Rev. C. V. Reeder, of China, has suffered bereavement through 
the death of his wife. Mr. Reeder's mother will go to China to care 
for his children. His Seminary friends extend their deep sympathy 
to him in his loss. 

Rev. Paul Sappie has been installed over the Presbyterian 
Church of Johnsonburg, Pa. 

1916 
Rev. J. G. 'Bingham was elected Moderator of the Presbytery 
of Shenango at the September meeting. 

Rev. Ralph V. Gilbert, of Independence, Iowa, has published a 
l)00k entitled "The Church and Printer's Ink" (New York, Revell, 
$1.25). Mr. Gilbert has devoted much study to the promotional as- 
pect of the Christian enterprise and has put his theories into prac- 
tice with marked success. His book is being warmly commended by 
reviewers as a suggestive manual on church advertising. 

At the September meeting of the Presbytery of Shenango, Rev. 
J. A. King was elected permanent clerk. 

Rev. Thomas R. Meily, of Montgomery, Pa., has been called 
to the First Presbyterian Church of Masontown, Pa. 

1917 
West Alexander Church, Rev. Glenn M. Crawford pastor, re- 
ports offerings for benevolences totalling 52 per cent, of the 
regular church budget. The average attendance at the mid-week 
prayer service in this church for the past three and a half years has 
been eighty-two. 

The Finance Committee of Central Presbyterian Church, Mc- 
Keesport, Pa., reports that more than ninety-five per cent of the 
pledges for last year were paid. In the year book of this church a 
complete report is given of each member's financial standing with 
reference to the church. Rev. LeRoy Lawther is pastor. 

Rev. and Mrs. Frank B. Llewellyn have returned to their work 
in the Punjab, India. During his furlough Mr. Llewellyn rendered a 
highly appreciated service as special lecturer on missions at the 
Seminary. 

At the meeting of the Presbyterian Ministerial Association of 
Pittsburgh on June 8th, Rev. H. H. Nicholson read a paper on "The 
Place of the Elder in the Government of the Presbyterian Church". 

30 



Alumniana 

Following a year of post-graduate work in the Seminary, M>-.. 
Nicholson has reentered the pastorate, having taken charge of the- 
Presbyterian Church at Wellston, Ohio. 

1918 

Rev. H. A. Gearhart recently read a paper on "The Church ia 
Scotland" before the Pittsburgh Presbyterian Ministerial Associa- 
tion. 

Rev. and Mrs. Wilbur H. Lyon, home on furlough from their- 
station in western India, are at the University of Chicago. 

1919 

The financial report of the Riverdale Church of Glenwillard, 
Pa., Rev. D. Earl Daniel, pastor, after the first year's use of the 
duplex envelope system and a published financial report, showed an 
increase of 370 per cent in benevolences, 80 per cent increase in 
current expenses, and a surplus of over a thousand dollars in the 
treasury. 

Rev. H. M. Eagleson, of Bucyrus, Ohio, has accepted a call to 
the Hawthorn Avenue Church, of Crafton, Pa., where he will be 
installed on November 2 3d. 

Several missionary alumni of the Class of 1919 are home this 
year on furlough. . 

Rev. Donald A. Irwin, of China, will deliver the lectures on 
the Severance Foundation at the Seminary during the second 
semester of the current year. His present address is 915 Irwin 
Avenue, N. S., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Rev. J. E. Kidder, of China, is living in the Seminary dormi- 
tory and taking courses in the Seminary and in the University of 
Pittsburgh. 

Rev. R. L. Steiner, of Persia, is at his home in Oakmont. Pa. 

1920 

We print an interesting extract from a recent letter from Rev^ 
S. Neale Alter, of the American Mission, Hama, Syria. 

"We have been having a rather stormy time here in Syria dur- 
ing the past few weeks, especially in Hama where there was a revo- 
lution against the French, made up entirely of Muslims. Fortunately" 
Mrs. Alter was in the Lebanon and I was in Aleppo when the revo- 
lution took place. 

"The revolutionists succeeded in burning the Post Office, Tele- 
graph Office, and all the government buildings, and had practically 
defeated the two small garrisons of soldiers when help arrived from 
Aleppo and bombing planes from the south. Our house was 
not damaged although it is not far from the scene of some of the- 
hardest fighting between the soldiers and revolutionists. 

"It seems there was a general revolution arranged for all the 
interior of Syria, to begin on Muhammad's birthday, but only Hama 
actually tried to carry it out. Investigation now in progress seems 
to show pretty clearly that robbing and killing the Christians was a. 
scheduled part of the program, and only prevented by the soldiers. 
The bravery and efficiency of the French soldiers when the troop- 
train arrived from Aleppo was very commendable. 

31 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

"The only part of the fighting which I got in for was the hold- 
up of the train by the revolutionists two stations above Ham a, but 
fortunately we had three carloads of soldiers and machine guns 
which quickly overpowered the rebels. It was a very exciting hour 
nevertheless. 

"Syria has been called the gilt edge mission, but in these rather 
stormy days a bit of the gilt may get rubbed off. Nevertheless I 
have not lost hope that there is an awakening here in the Near East 
which may ultimately have very fine results even though the process 
of getting anywhere may be a bit stormy. The problems of this 
part of the world, with its myriads of sects, are so complicated that 
no one sees the way out. The revoluntionists had no program of re- 
construction even if they had succeeded." 

1921 
Among the twenty new members received by the New Salem 
church at the Easter communion were six young men and two 
young women who had been reared in the Catholic faith. This 
church has a building fund of more than $24,000 deposited in the 
local bank. Rev. George K. Bamford is pastor. 

1924 

Rev. John K. Bibby will be installed pastor of the First Presby- 
terian Church, of Clairton, Pa., on Nov. 12th. 

The Presbyterian Church at Champion, Ohio, Rev. J. Carroll 
Wright, pastor, rededicated its building on Sept. 20th. after a very 
extensive remodeling program, which included the installation of a 
new heating plant, new windows, pulpit furniture, and additional 
Sunday School rooms and rooms -for social purposes. Mr. Wright 
has recently accepted a call to the church at Canfield, Ohio. 

1925 

Rev. John B. Barker and Miss Blair Jessop were married on 
June second, and left immediately for a trip to Europe. Mr. Barker 
had been ordained on May 18th and on the following day installed 
pastor of the Presbyterian Church of Smithfield, Ohio. On his re- 
turn from Europe in August he took up the work of the pastorate 
in Smithfield. 

Rev. Claude S. Conley was ordained and installed pastor of the 
Plum Creek and Renton Churches, Presbytery of Blairsville, on May 
22d. His address is R. F. D., Parnassus, Pa. 

Rev. Joseph Holub left this country in August for a short visit 
to his home in Poland. He expects to have his wife and young son 
return to America with him. 

Miss Mary Jeanette Shane and Rev. C. Marshall Muir were 
married at the home of the bride's parents in McDonald, Pa., June 
24. Mr. and Mrs. Muir spent the summer in Europe and are now 
at home in St. Paul, Minn,, where Mr. Muir is associated with Dr. 
Swearingen as assistant pastor of the House of Hope Church. 

Mr. Clayton E. Williams has left Sewickley and accepted a 
position as associate pastor of the First Presbyterian Church of 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

Rev. Albert Z. Maksay sailed from New York late in August, 
expecting to return to his home in Cluj-Kolozsvar and accept a posi- 
tion as teacher in the Reformed Theological Seminary in that city. 

82 



Necrology 

Buchanan, Aaron Moore. Born, Beaver County, Pa., July 7, 1856; 
A.B., 1879, and D.D., 1899, Washington and Jefferson 
College; Seminary, 1882; licensed, April 27, 1881, Presbytery 
of Washington; ordained, October 4, 1882, Presbytery of 
Pittsburgh; pastor, Hebron, Pa., 1882-6; Morgantown, W. Va., 
1886-1915; field agent for College Board, 1916-17; field 
secretary New Era Movement, 11919-20; Superintendent of 
Missions, Redstone Presbytery, 1920-24; stated clerk, Pres- 
bytery of Grafton, 2 5 years; stated clerk. Synod of West 
Virginia, 9 years; chaplain, First Infantry West Virginia 
National Guard; died, Morgantown, W. Va., June 20, 1924. 

Day, Alanson Ritner. Born, Washington Co., Pa., October 2, 1835; 
Washington College, 1858; Seminary, 1859-62; licensed, April, 
18 61, Presbytery of Washington; ordained, September, 18 62, 
Presbytery of Highland; stated supply, Waynesburg, Pa., 
1861-2; Denver, Colorado, 1862-5; Brodhead, Wis., 1873-6; 
near Waukesha, 1876-80; Pleasant Unity, Pa., 1900-3; Saxton, 
1904-8; pioneer home missionary of Rocky Mountain dis- 
trict; residence, Alexandria, Pa., 1903-24; died, Alexandria, 
Pa., February 24, 1924. 

Publications: History of the Presbyterian Church in Colorado 
from 1860 to 1873; Christianity and Sect; The Divine Father- 
hood; The Morning Land (hymn). 

Eldredge, Clayton W. Born, N-Pitcher, N. Y., April 7, 1869; 
Westminster College, New Wilmington, Pa., 1891; Seminary, 
1892-5; licensed, April, 1893, Presbytery of Shenango; 
ordained, October 10, 1895, Presbytery of Allegheny; pastor, 
Fairmount and Pleasant Hill, 189 5-6; Leetonia, O., 189 6-8; 
Poplar Street, Cincinnati, O., 1898-1903; Evanston, Cincin- 
nati, O., 1903-5; Superintendent Cincinnati District Anti- 
Saloon League, 1905-12; Columbus, Ohio, 1913-24; died, 
Columbus, Ohio, July 19, 1924. 

Hepler, David E. Born, Limestone, Pa., August 16, 1863; Wash- 
ington and Jefferson College, 1892; Seminary, 1902-5; licensed, 
April, 1894, and ordained. May 18, 1895, Presbytery of 
Clarion; pastor, Spring Creek, Pa., 1895-1903; Fruit Hill, 
Pa., 1903-7; Williamsburg, Pa., 1907-10; Elders Ridge and 
West Lebanon, 1910-17; Pisgah, Clarion Presbytery, 1917- 
21; Presbyterial Superintendent, Presbytery of Clarion, 
1921-4; died. Clarion, Pa., January 7, 1925. 

Hill, Winfield Euclid. Born, East Liverpool, Ohio, June 2, 1842; 
Jefferson College, 1864; Seminary, 1868; licensed, April 29, 
1868, Presbytery of New Lisbon; ordained. May 11, 1875, 
Presbytery of Lima; stated supply, Gettysburg and Fletcher, 
Ohio, 1869-70; Gettysburg, 1870-1; Wapakoneta, 1872-6; 
Ottawa, 1876-9; pastor, Fairview, W. Va., 1879-90; Waynes- 
burg and Bethlehem, 1890-7; stated supply, Senecaville and 
Lore City, 1898-9; stated supply, and evangelist, 1900-8; 
residence. East Liverpool, Ohio; honorably retired. Presbytery 
of Cleveland; died, East Liverpool, Ohio, May 6, 1923. 
Publications: Birds of the Panhandle; Plants of the Pan- 
handle; many articles in church and science journals. 

33 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Knight, Hervey B. Born, Newcastle, Ohio, July 20, 18 41; Wash- 
ington College, 1864; Seminary, 1867; D.D., Parsons College, 
1904; licensed, June, 18 66, Presbytery of Saltsburg; ordained, 
April 14, 1868, Presbytery of Iowa; stated supply. West. 
Point, Iowa, 1867-9; pastor, Ottumwa, 1869-81; Geneseo, 111., 
1886-7; financial secretary, 1881-4, professor, 1884-6, 1887- 
93, 1899-02, dean, 1899-02, Parsons College, Fairfield, Iowa; 
general secretary, McCormick Theological Seminary, 1893-7; 
principal. Marietta Academy, Marietta, Ohio, 1897-9; general 
secretary, Whitworth College, Tacoma, Wash., 1902-6; Pendle- 
ton Academy, Pendleto^n, Oregon, 19 06-7; College of Idaho, 
Caldwell, Ida., 1907-10; secretary, Presbyterian Bible Train- 
ing School, Chicago, 1910; died, Pueblo, Colorado, March 27, 
1925. 

Lovvrie, Samuel Thompson. Born, Pittsburgh, Pa., February 8, 
1835; Miami University, Oxford, O., 1852; Seminary, 1852-6; 
D.D., Washington and Jefferson College, 1874; post-graduate, 
Heidelburg, 1856-7; Berlin, 1863; licensed, January 1856, 
Presbytery of Ohio; ordained, 1858, Presbytery of Hunting- 
don; pastor, Alexandria, Pa., 1858-63; city missionary, Phila- 
delphia, 1864; pastor, Bethany, Philadelphia, Pa., 1865-9; 
Abington, Pa., 1869-73; Ewing, N. J., 1879-85; associate 
pastor, Wylie Memorial, Philadelphia, Pa., 1891-6; traveled, 
Europe and Palestine, 18 57; professor. Western Theological 
Seminary, 1873-8; chaplain, Presbyterian Hospital, Philadel- 
phia, 1885-9; died, St. David's, Pa., September 21, 1924. 
Publications: Explanation of Hebrews; translated Lange's 
Numbers and Isaiah; translated Cremer's Beyond the Grave; 
published The Lord's Supper; articles in Reviews, etc. 

MacDonald, Herbert O. Born, Oil City, Pa., August 21, 1871; 
Grove City College, 189 6; Seminary, 189 9; licensed, April 
189 8, Presbytery of Butler; ordained. May 8, 18 99, Presbytery 
of Redstone; stated supply, Dawson, Pa., 1898-9; pastor, Daw- 
son, Pa., 1899-1901; New Providence, Carmichaels, Pa.,. 
1901-6; Monessen, Pa., 1907-17; Unity, Shenango Presbyterj'-, 
1917-21; Enon Valley, 1921-4; Chester, W. Va., 1924-5; died 
Chester, W. Va., January 7, 192 5. 

Magill, Hezekiah. Born, near Steubenville, O., September 12, 1842; 
Jefferson College, 1864; Seminary, 1867; D.D., Franklin Col- 
lege, New Athens, O., 1898; licensed, April 25, 1866, Pres- 
bytery of Steubenville; ordained. May 9, 18 67, Presbytery of 
Kittanning; pastor, Co^ncord and Mahoning, Pa., 1867-72; 
Apollo, 1872-9; Union and Midway, 1879-84; Prairie City, 
111., 1884-5; Council Grove, Kans., 1885-8; Phoenix, Ariz., 
1888-90; St. Louis, Mo., (Memorial Tabernacle, 1891-1905; 
Kingsland Memorial, 1906-13; Curby Memorial, 1913-17); 
stated clerk, St. Louis Presbytery, 1900-25; died, St. Louis,. 
Mo., April 6, 1925. 

Mechlin, John Carvithers. Born, Dayton, Pa., May 15, 1859; Wash- 
ingto.n and Jefferson College, 188 2; Seminary, 1887; licensed, 
1886, and ordained July 28, 1887, Presbytery of Kittanning; 
foreign missionary, Salmas, Persia, 1887-96; pastor. Middle- 
port, N. Y., 1897-1904; Fredericksburg, O., 1904-22; stated 
clerk, Presbytery of Wooster, 1910-22; honorably retired,. 
1923; died, Fredericksburg, O., April 15, 1924. 

34 



Necrology 



Minton, Henry Collin. Born, Prosperity, Pa., May 8, 1855; Wash- 
ington and Jefferson College, 1879; Seminary, 1882; A.M., 
1882, D.D., 1892, and L.L.D., 1902, Washington and Jefferso-n 
College; licensed, April 2 7, 1881, Presbytery of Washington; 
ordained, June 15, 1882, Presbytery of St. Paul; pastor, 
Duluth, Minn., 1882-3; pastor elect, 2nd, Baltimore, Md., 
188 3-4; pastor, 1st, San Jose, Cal., 1884-91; St. Johns, San 
Francisco, Cal., 1892; 1st, Trenton, N. J., 1902-18; traveled 
around world, 1888-9; professor of Systematic Theology, San 
Francisco Theological Seminary, 1892-1902; moderator Gen- 
eral Assembly, 1901; chairman of Committee on Creed Revi- 
sion, 1901-2; Stone lecturer, Princeton Theological Semi-nary, 
1901; lecturer (theology), Auburn Theological Seminary, 
1901; died, San Rafael, Cal., Ju.ne 14, 1924. 
Publications: Christianity Supernatural, 19 00; The Cosmos 
and the Logos, 19 02; frequent contributor to religious press. 

Patterson, John Fulton. Born, Wellsville, Columbiana County, Ohio, 
November 13, 1856. Mount Union College, 1878; Seminary, 
1879-82; D.D., Mt. Unio-n College, 1893; D.D., Lafayette Col- 
lege; licensed, April 27, 1881, Presbytery of Steubenville; 
ordained, November 2, 18 82, Presbytery of Pittsburgh; pastor, 
Mingo, Pa., 1882-7; 6th, Pittsburgh, Pa., 188 7-9 4; Central, 
Orange, N. J., 1894-1924; died, Orange, N. J., October 21, 
1924. 

Price, Robert Thompson. Born, New Hagerstown, O., June 2, 1836; 
Washington College, 1861; Seminary, 1864; D.D., Scio Col- 
lege, 1900; licensed, April 28, 1864, Presbytery of Steuben- 
ville; ordained, June, 1866, Presbytery of Washington; pastor, 
Wellsburg, W. Va., 1866-8; Mt. Prospect, Pa., 1868-73; 
Bellevue, 1873-5; Dunbar, 1875-84; Shreve and Hopewell, O., 
1884-7; Hopewell and Nashville, 188 7-9 3; Scio, The Ridge, 
Jewett, 1893-1902; supply, Crowley, La., and vicinity, 1903- 
12; residence, Wooster, Ohio, 1912-25; died, Wooster, Ohio, 
April 18, 1925. 

Reed, John Brice. Born, Washington County, Pa., April 2 9, 1839; 
Washington College, 18 60; Seminary, 1863; licensed, April, 
1862, Presbytery of Washington; ordained, April, 18 64, Pres- 
bytery of West Virginia; stated supply and pastor, Parkers- 
burg, W. Va., 18 63-71; Sistersville, W. Va., 1871-82; Fair- 
mont, W. Va., 1882-8; Laurel Hill, Pa., 1888-1916; honor- 
ably retired, 1917; residence, Uniontown, Pa., 1917-24; died, 
Uniontown, Pa., August 23, 1924. 

Ross, John Elliott. Born, near Smith Center, Smith Co., Kansas, 
January 29, 1883; A.B., College of Emporia, 1912; A.M., 
Princeton University, 1914; Princeton Theological Seminary, 
1912-14; Seminary, 1916; licensed, September 20, 1916, 
Presbytery of Osborne; ordained, September 21, 1916, Pres- 
bytery of Osborne; foreign missio>nary (Ferozepore, Punjab, 
India, 1917; Saharanpur, 1918-25); died, Kasur, Punjab, 
India, January 13, 1925. 

Rutter, Lindley Charles. Born, Chestnut Level, Pa., November 7, 
1847; Lafayette College, 18 67; Seminary, 1867-70; licensed, 
April, 1869, Presbytery of Donegal; ordained, October, 1870, 
Presbytery of St. Clairsville; pastor, Caldwell and Olive, Ohio, 

35 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

1870-2; Nottingham, Pa., 1872-85; North Bergen, N. Y., 1886- 
90; stated supply, Lycoming Centre, Pa., 1891-3; pastor, 
Bethany (organized same), 1891-19 04; pastor, Arkport, N. 
Y., 1905-12; supply, in aad near Williamsport, Pa., 1913-25; 
died, Williamsport, Pa., January 8, 1925. 

Swan, Benjaniin, M. Born, Glasgow, O., May 24, 1865; University 
of Wooster, 1888; Seminary, 1888-9 and 1891-3; licensed, 
April 189 3, Presbytery of Steubenville; ordained, June 6, 
189 3, Presbytery of Mahoning; stated supply. Pleasant Valley, 
Ohio; Bethany Center, N. Y., 1890-1; pastor. New Waterford, 
O., 1893-5; Bakersville and Newcomerstown, O., 1897-1903; 
Mt. Sterling, O., 1904-6; Kingsville and North Kingsville, O., 
1907-10; Calvary, Lockport, N. Y., 1910-15; First, Willard, 
Ohio, 1915-19; First, North Warren, Pa., 1919-24; Lake 
Alfred, Florida, 1924-5; died. Lake Alfred, Florida, Jan. 20, 
1925. 



36 



THE BULLETIN 



OF THE 



Western Theological 
Seminary 




CATALOGUE NUMBER 



Vol. XVIII. January, 1926 



No. 2. 



■0 .>"-',fw '--i. Y'l^-^w^^^^wm 



CATALOGUE 
1925 - 1926 



THE BULLETIN 

OF THE 



Western Theological 
Seminary 



Published quarterly, in January, April, July, and October 
by the 



TRUSTEES OF THE 

Western Theological Seminary 

OF THE 

PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN THE UNITED 
STATES OF AMERICA 



Entered as Second Class Matter December 9, 1909, at the Postoffice at Pittsburgh, 
Pa. (North Diamond Station), Under the Act of Aug, 24, 1912 



PITTSBURGH PRINTING COMPANY 
PITTSBURGH, PA. 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



CALENDAR FOR 1926 



FRIDAY, APRIL 30tli. 

Written examinations at 8:30 A. M., continued Saturday, May 
1st, Monday, May 3d, and Tuesday, May 4th. 

SUNDAY, MAY 2nd. 

Baccalaureate sermon. 

Seniors' communion service at 3:00 P. M. in the Chapel. 

WEDNESDAY, MAY 5th. 

Oral examinations at 10 A. M. 

THURSDAY, MAY 6th. 

Annual meeting of the Board of Directors in the President's 

Office at 10:00 A. M. 
Meeting of Alumni Association and Annual Dinner 3:30 P. M, 
Commencement exercises. Conferring of diplomas and address 

to the graduating class 8:15 P. M. 

FRIDAY, MAY 7th. 

Annual meeting of Board of Trustees at 3:00 P. M. 

in the parlor of the First Presbyterian Church, Pittsburgh. 

Session of 1926-7 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 21st. 

Reception of new students in the President's Office at 3:00 

P. M. 
Matriculation of students and distribution of rooms in the 

President's Office at 4:00 P. M. 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 22d. 

Opening address in the Chapel at 10:30 A. M. 

TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 16th. 

Semi-annual meeting of the Board of Directors at 2:00 P. M. 

WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 17tb. 

Semi-annual meeting of the Board of Trustees at 3:00 P. M. 

WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 24th. (noon) — FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 
26th. (8:30 A. M.) 

Thanksgiving recess, 

TUESDAY, DECEMBER 21st, (noon) — TUESDAY, JANUARY 

4th, (8:30 A. M.) 

Christmas recess. 

3 (39) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 
BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

OFFICERS 

President 
R. D. CAMPBELL 

Vice-President 

R. W. HARBISON 

Secretary 
THE REV. SAMUEL J. FISHER, D. D. 

Counsel 

T. D. McCLOSKEY 

Treasurer 

COMMONWEALTH TRUST COMPANY 



TRUSTEES 



Class of 1926 

The Hon. J. McF. Carpenter Charles A. Dickson 

The Rev. W. A. Jones, D. D. John R. Gregg 

Daniel M. Clemson *Sylvester S. Marvin 

Robert Wardrop 

Class of 1927 

Geo. D. Edwards R. D. Campbell 

John G. Lyon The Rev. P. W. Snyder, D.D. 

The Rev. S. J. Fisher, D. D. Alex. C. Robinson 

The Rev. Stuart Nye Hutchison, D. D. 

Class of 1928 

Joseph A. Herron W. J. Morris 

Ralph W. Harbison Wilson A. Shaw 

Geo. B. Logan William M. Robinson 

The Rev. William J. Holland, D. D., LL. D. 

♦Died May 12, 1924. 

4 (40) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



STANDING COMMITTEES 



Geo. B. Logan 
Robert Wardrop 



Executive 

W. J. Holland, D. D. George D. Edwards 
W. J. Morris S. J. Fisher, D. D. 



C A. Dickson 



Auditors 

"W. M. Robinson 



R. D. Campbell 



R. W. Harbison 



Property 

Geo. B. Logan 



Alex. C. Robinson 



Finance 

President, Treasurer, Secretary, and Auditors 



A. C. Robinson 



Library 

John G. Lyon 



J. A. Kelso, Ph.D., D. D. 



Advisory Member of all Committees 

James A. Kelso, Ph. D., D. D., ex officio 

General Secretary 
Rev. J. W. Laughlin, D. D. 



Annual Meeting, Friday before second Tuesday in May, and 
semi-annual meeting, Wednesday following third Tuesday in 
November at 3:00 P. M., in the parlor of the First Presbyterian 
Church, Sixth Avenue. 



5 (41) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



BOARD OF DIRECTORS 

OFFICERS 

President 

THE REV. HUGH T. KERR, D. D. 

Vice-President 

THE REV. WILLIAM HAMILTON SPENCE, D. D., Litt. D. 

Secretary 
THE REV. GEORGE TAYLOR, Jr., Ph. D., D. D. 

DIRECTORS 
Class of 1926 

Examining Committee 

The Rev. Maitland Alexander, D. D. T. D. McCloskey 

*The Rev. Wm. O. Campbell, D. D. J. S. Crutchfield 

The Rev. Geo. N. Luccock, D. D. James Rae 

The Rev. George C. Fisher, D. D. 

The Rev. J. Millen Hobinson, D. D. 

The Rev. John M. Mealy, D. D. 

The Rev. Samuel Semple, D. D. 



Class of 1927 



The Rev. Calvin C. Hays, D. D. 

The Rev. Wm. H. Hudnut, D. D. 

The Rev. Hugh T. Kerr, D. D. 

The Rev. George Taylor, Jr 
The Rev. William E. Slemmons, D. D 
The Rev. George M. Ryall, D. D. 
The Rev. William F. Weir, D. D. 



Ralph W. Harbison 
Wilson A. Shaw 
Dr. A. W. Wilson, Jr. 
Ph. D., D. D. 



*Died, Jan. 8, 1926. 



(42) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



CTlass of 1928 

The Rev, William R. Craig, D. D. Charles N. Hanna 

The Rev. Charles F. Wishart, D. D. George B. Logan 

The Rev. Frederick W. Hinitt, D. D. Alex. C. Robinson 

The Rev. S. B. McCormick, D. D., LL. D. 

The Rev. William L. McEwan, D, D. 

The Rev W. P. Stevenson, D. D. 

The Rev. A. P. Higley, D. D. 



Class of 1929 



The Rev. Thomas B. Anderson, D. D. 
The Rev. John W. Christie, D. D. 
The Rev. Joseph M. Duff, D. D. 

The Rev. John A. Marquis, D. D. 

The Rev. J. M. Potter, D. D, 

The Rev. William H. Spence, D. D., Litt. D 

The Rev. Stuart Nye Hutchison, D. D. 



W. D. Brandon 
Dr. S. S. Baker 
Wells S. Griswold 



STANDING COMMITTEES 



S. N. Hutchison, D. D. 
A. C. Robinson 



Executive 

S. B. McCormick, D. D. 

Joseph M. Duff, D. D. 

T. D. McCloskey 

James A. Kelso, Ph. D., D. D,, ex officio 

Hugh T. Kerr, D. D., ex officio 

George Taylor, Jr., Ph. D., D. D., ex officio 



A. P. Higley, D. D, 
Samuel Semple, D. D. 



Curriculum 



Williahl F. Weir, D. D. 
J. S. Crutchfield 



Annual Meeting, Thursday before second Tuesday in May, at 10 
A. M. and semi-annual meeting, third Tuesday in November at 
2:00 P. M., in the President's Office, Herron Hall. 

7 (43) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



FACULTY 



The Kev. James A. Kelso, Ph. D., D. D., LL. D. 

President and Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Literature 
The Nathaniel W. Conkling Foundation 



The Kev. David Riddle Breed, D. D., LL. D. 

Professor of Homiletics 

The Eev. David S. Schaff, D. D. 

IProfessor of Ecclesiastical History and History of Doctrine 

The Rev. William R. Farmer, D. D. 

Reunion Professor of Sacred Rhetoric and Elocution 

The Rev. James H. Snowden, D. D., LL. D. 

Professor of Systematic Theology 

The Rev. Selby Frame Vance, D. D., LL. D. 

Memorial Professor of New Testament Literature and Exegesis 

The Rev. David E. Culley, Ph. D. 

Professor of Hebrew and old Testament Literature 

The Rev. Fraitk Eakin, Ph. D. 

fProfessor of Ecclesiastical History and History of Doctrine 



Prof. George M. Sleeth, Litt. D. 

Instructor in Speech Expression 

Mr. Charles N. Boyd 

Instructor in Music 

Rev. Howard M. Le Sourd 

Instructor in Religious Education 

$Dr. Schaff retired from this chair Dec. 31, 1925. 
tDr. Eakin's appointment took effect Jan. 1, 1926. 

8 (44) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



COMMITTEES OF THE FACULTY 

Ck)nfereiice 

Dr. Schapf and Dr. Vance 

Elliott Lectureship 

Dr. Schatf and Dr. Snowden 

Bulletin 

Dr. Culley and Dr. Eakin 

Curriculum 

Dr. Farmer and Dr. Vance 

library 

Dr. Culley and Dr. Eakin 

Advisory Member of All Committees 

Dr. Kelso, ex officio 



Secretary to the President 

Miss Margaret M. Read 

Assistant to the Librarian 

Miss Sara M. Higgins 



9 (45) 



TJie Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



LECTURES 



Opening Lecture 



The Rev. George Johnson, Ph. D. 
"The Perfection of Scripture" 



On the Severance Foundation 



The Rev. Donald A. Irwin is giving a course of lectures on 
Missions, meeting a class one hour weekly during the second 
semester. 



On National Missions 

The Rev. Baxter P. Fullerton, D. D., LL.D., gave a course of 
four lectures. 



Conference Lectures 

"The Great Korean Revival", The Rev. W. N. Blair, D. D. 

"Jerusalem"; "Israel in Egypt"; "The Exodus"; "Footsteps 
of Paul in Italy" — four illustrated lectures. The Rev. 
David R. Breed, D. D., LL.D. 

"Tutuilla Indian Mission", The Rev. J. M. Cornelison 

"Educational Work of the Board of Freedmen", The Rev. John 
M. Gaston, D. D. 

"The Influence of the Near East Colleges", Prof. Philip K. 
Hitti, Ph. D. 

Sermon, preached on Good Friday, The Rev. James G. Hunt, 
D. D. 

"Missionary Education", The Rev. John Bailey Kelly, D. D. 

"Student Friendship Fund", Mr. Ray H. Legate 

"National Council for the Prevention of War", Mr. Frederick 
J. Libby 

10 (46) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



AWARDS: MAY, 1925 

The Degree of Eachelor of Sacred Theology 

was conferred upon 

David K. Allen Paul Lyle Pickens 

John Bryant Barker Jacob C. Ruble 

Claude Sawtell Conley George Henry Rutherford 

William P. Ehmann Lewis Oliver Smith 

C. Marshall Muir Clayton E. Williams 

Charles Edward Ziegler 

A Certificate 

was awarded to 
Joseph Holub 

The Degree of 3Iaster of Sacred Theology 

was conferred upon 

Frank Bowman Llewellyn George Karl Monroe 

Albert Z. Maksay Harry Allen Price 

Henry Harrison Nicholson Earle W. Terry 

The Seminary Fellowships 

were awarded to 
David K. Allen George H. Rutherford 

The Keith Memorial Homiletical Prize 

was awarded to 
David K. Allen 

The Hebrew Prize 

was awarded to 
Lloyd David Homer 

Merit Pi-izes 

were awarded to 

John Lyman Eakin Thomas Davis Ewing 

Lloyd David Homer 

11 (47) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 
STUDENTS 

Fellows 

David K. Allen Mamont, Pa. 

A. B., College of Wooster, 1922. 

S. T. B., Western Theological Seminary, 1925. 

Willard Colby Mellin Himersburg, Pa. 

A. B., University of California, 1920. 

S. T. B., Western Theological Seminary, 1923. 

Harold Francis Post Petersburg, Ohio 

A. B., Washington and Jefferson College, 1918. 
S. T. M., Western Theological Seminary, 1924. 

George Henry Rutherford Dillonvale, Ohio 

A. B., College of Wooster, 1922. 

S. T. B., Western Theological Seminary, 192 5. 

Deane Craig Walter Kennedy School of Missions, Hart- 
ford, Conn. 
A. B., Grove City College, 1920. 
S. T. B., Western Theological Seminary, 1924. 

Fellows, 5 



Graduate Students 

Claude Sawtell Conley R. F. D. 2, Parnassus, Pa. 

Nyack Missionary Institute, 1922. 

S. T. B., Western Theological Seminary, 1925 

Dwight Brooker Davidson Hickory, Pa. 

A. B., College of Wooster, 1916. 
Princeton Theological Seminary, 1919. 

Francis Milton Hall, 1731 Wymore Ave., Cleveland, Ohio 103 

A. B., 1888 and A. M., Washington & Jefferson College. 
S. T. B., Western Theological Seminary, 1891. 

Charles E. Held 2112 Rockledge St., N S. 

Susquehanna College. 

Susquehanna School of Theology, 1922. 

Jonathan Edward Kidder, Britton Heights, Knoxville, Tenn., 

Chenchow, Hunan, China 203 

A. B., Maryville College, 1916. 

S. T. B., Western Theological Seminary, 1919. 

Charles Kovacs, Nagyenyed, Baroczy, U. 4, Roumania 218 

A. B., Budapest Pazmany University, 1918. 
Budapest Reformed Theological Seminary of Dunamellek 
District, 1915. 

12 (48) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

John Maurice Leister Florence, Pa. 

A. B., Lebanon Valley College, 1915. 

S. T. B., Western Theological Seminary, 1924. 

Ralph I. McConnell, Chiengmai, Siam 7813 Susquehanna St. 

A. B., Grove City College, 1914. 

S. T. B., Western Theological Seminary, 1918. 

John Henry Mark, Anthony, Kansas 210 

Westminster College. 
Western Theological Seminary. 

Robert Sheridan Miller 176 Noble Avenue, Crafton.'Pa. 

A. B., Gettysburg College, 1919. 
Gettysburg Theological Seminary, 1921. 

Henry F. Obenauf 64 Grant Avenue, Etna, Pa. 

A. B., Wittenberg College, 1902. 

Lutheran Theological Seminary, Maywood, 111., 1905. 

Paul L. Philipp 208 E. Mclntyre Ave., N. S. 

Prediger Seminar, Frankfort on the Main, Germany. 

Howard Rodgers 141 Oliver Avenue, Emsworth, Pa. 

A. B., 1915 and A. M., 1916, Grove City College. 
S. T. B., Western Theological Seminary, 1918. 

August Francis Runtz 3337 East St., N. S. 

German Department, Rochester Theological Seminary, 

1913. 
Rochester Theological Seminary, 1916. 

Arthur Schade 75 Onyx Ave. 

German Department, Rochester Theological Seminary, 

1910. 
A. B., Oskaloosa College, 1921. 

Lewis Oliver Smith R. F. D. 3, Coraopolis, Pa. 

A. B., Southwestern College, 1916. 

S. T. B., Western Theological Seminary, 1925. 

John Burton Thwing 1021 Kirkpatrick Ave., Braddock, Pa. 

A. B., Valparaiso University, 1920. 

Th. B., Princeton Theological Seminary, 1923. 

John Arndt Yount 1149 Portland St. 

A. B., Roanoke College, 1901. 

A. M., West Virginia University, 1911. 

Mt. Airy Lutheran Theological Seminary, 19 04. 

Graduate Students 18 



Senior Class 

Horace Edward Chandler, 706 Clark St., Cambridge, Ohio, 

Tsingtao, Shantung, China 203 

B. Sc, Brown University, 1906. 

Franz Omer Christopher, Cumberland, Ohio .Y. M. C. A., Butler, Pa. 
A. B., College of Wooster, 1923. 

13 (49) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

John A. Clark Westmoreland City, Pa. 

A. B., Oskaloosa College, 1923. 
John Lyman Eakin, Petchaburi, Slam 302 

A. B., Washington and Jefferson College, 1923. 
Newton Carl Elder, Darlington, Pa 302 

College of Wooster. 
James Herbert Garner, 5 624 Woodmont St 206 

B. Sc, University of Pittsburgh, 1924. 

Paul T. Gerrard, 28 Merritt Ave. Carrick 304 

University of Pittsburgh. 

James Henry Gillespie, Glen Spey, N. Y 304 

Litt. B., Grove City College, 1923. 
Herbert Beecher Hudnut, Cross Creek, Pa 303 

A. B., Princeton University, 1916. 
William C. Marquis Creighton, Pa. 

Mount Union College. 
William Owen, 805 Western Avenue, N. S 214 

Metropolitan Seminary, London, 1912. 

Victor Charles Pfeiffer 305 Millbridge St. 

A. B., Baldwin Wallace College, 1920. 

Fred Eliot Robb, Sarcoxie, Mo 2i02 

Ph. B., Missouri Valley College, 1923. 
*Mrs. Forrest Miller Smith 25 E. Robinson St., N. S. 

A. B., Elizabeth College, Salem Va., 1916. 

Philip L. Williams, Marion, Ind 317 

B. A. S., Young Men's Christian Association College, Chi- 

cago, 1922. 

Senior Class, 15 



/ Middle Class 

V 
Rev. William Augustus Ashley .909 Franklin Ave., Wilkinsburg, Pa. 

Agricultural and Mechanical College of N.C., Raleigh, N.C. 
Thomas F. Cooper, 15 Whitford St., Roslindale, Boston, Mass.. .205 

A. B., Greenville College, 1925. 
Crawford McCoy Coulter, Washington, Pa 306 

A. B., Washington and Jefferson College, 1924. 
Thomas Davis Ewing, 1516 South Negley Ave 303 

A. IB., Princeton University, 1921. 

A. M., American University of Beirut, 1924. 

Curtis Kline France, Blairsville, Pa 305 

A. B., Grove City College, 1924. 

*Pursuing selected studies. 

14 (50) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Semvnary 

Byron Stanley Fruit 4 Trueman St., N. S. 

B. Sc, University of Pittsburgh, 1924. 

William Austin Gilleland, Dunbar, Pa 217 

A. IB., Washington and Jefferson College, 1924. 

Darwin M. Haynes, Hanover, Ohio 316 

; A. B., Muskingum College, 1923. 

Paul Hagerty Hazlett, Newark, Ohio 318 

A. B., Denison University, 1924. 

Lloyd David Homer, Fredonia, Pa 206 

B. Sc, Grove City College, 1922. 

Edgar Coe Irwin, Washington, Pa 306 

A. B., Washington and Jefferson College, 1924. 

Ralph Waldo Emerson Kaufman . . . .111 Columbia Ave., Westwood, 

Grafton, Pa. 
A. B., Albright College, 1924. 

James Allen Kestle, Belief ontaine, 318 

A. B., Ohio Wesleyan University, 1924. 

'Martin Rudolph Kuehn, Richmond, Ind 305 

A. B., Earlham College, 1918. 

Roy Lincoln McQuiston, Dippold Ave., Baden, Pa. 

A. B., Geneva College, 1924. 

Theodore Evan Miller, R. F. D. 8, Bridgeton, N. J 215 

A. B., Lafayette College, 1921. 
William Victor E. Parsons 841 N. Lincoln Ave., N. S. 

Bourne College, Birmingham, England, 1919. 

A. of A., Oxford University, 1919. 

John Alvin Stuart, Erie, Pa 317 

B. Sc, Grove City College, 1924. 

Guy Hector Volpitto, Johnstown, Pa 205 

A. B., Washington and Jefferson College, 1924. 
Middle Class, 19 



Junior Class 



Byron Elmer Allender, 640 Allison Ave., Washington, Pa 217 

A. B., Washington and Jefferson College, 192 5. 

*H. Wayland Baldwin 1008 Zahniser St. 

A. B., Greenville College, 1925. 

*Harry Charles Blews 100 Ruth St., Mt. Washington Sta. 



^Pursuing selected studies. 

15 (51) 



TJie Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

James E. Fawcett 52 Waldorf St., N. S. 

A. B., Maryville College, 1925. 
George Lee Forney, Rea, Pa 204 

A. B., Geneva College, 1925. 
Howard Weston Jamison, Virginia Ave. Ext., Rochester, Pa. . . .204 

A. B., West Virginia Wesleyan College, 1925. 
* Oscar Maurice Polhemus 813 Wood St., Wilkinsburg, Pa. 

A. M., Indiana University, 1922. 
Generoso Racine, 310 Tremont Ave. E. Orange, N. J 214 

William Semple, Jr., 7941 Division St., Pittsburgh 215 

A. B., University of Pittsburgh, 192 3. 
Linson Harper Stebbins, 4 Myrtle St. Warren Pa 202 

A. B., Westminster College (Pa.), 1925. 

Pasquale Vocaturo, 2211 S. Colorado St., Philadelphia, Pa 218 

Gymnasium, Nicastro, Italy. 
*Harry L. Wissinger Manor, Pa. 

A. B., Allegheny College, 1918. 
Junior Class, 12 



Summary of Students 

Fellows 5 

Graduates 18 

Seniors 15 

Middlers 19 

Juniors 12 

Total 69 



REPRESENTATION 

Theological Seminaries 

Budapest Reformed Theological Seminary 1 

Gettysburg Theological Seminary 1 

Lutheran Theological Seminary, Maywood, 111 1 

Metroloplitan Seminary, London 1 

Mount Airy Lutheran Theological Seminary 1 

Prediger Seminar . 1 

Princeton Theological Seminary 2 

Rochester Theological Seminary 1 

Susquehanna School of Theology 1 

Western Theological Seminary 13 

*Pursuing selected studies. 

16 (52) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Colleges aiid LTniversitles 

Agricultural and Mechanical College of N. C, Raleigh, N. C. . . 1 

Albright College . 1 

Allegheny College 1 

American University of Beirut 1 

Baldwin-Wallace College 1 

Bourne College, Birmingham, England 1 

Brown University 1 

Budapest Pazmany University 1 

California, University of 1 

Denison University . 1 

Earlham College 1 

Elizabeth College 1 

Geneva College 2 

Gettysburg College 1 

Greenville College 2 

Grove City College 7 

Indiana University 1 

Lafayette College 1 

Lebanon Valley College 1 

Maryville College 2 

Missouri Valley College 1 

Mount Union College 1 

Muskingum College 1 

Nicastro, Gymnasium .in 1 

Nyack Missionary Institute 1 

Ohio Wesleyan University 1 

Oskaloosa College 2 

Oxford, University of 1 

Pittsburgh, University of 4 

Princeton University 2 

Roanoke College 1 

Southwestern College 1 

Susquehanna College 1 

Valparaiso University 1 

Washington and Jefferson College 8 

Westminster (Pa.) College 2 

West Virginia University 3 

West Virginia Wesleyan 1 

Wittenberg College 1 

Wooster, College of 5 

Y.M.C.A. College (Chicago) 1 

States aud Countries 

Connecticut 1 

Indiana 2 

Kansas 1 

Massachusetts 1 

Missouri 1 

New Jersey 2 

New York 1 

Ohio 8 

Pennsylvania 49 

Poland 1 

Roumania 1 

Siam 1 

Tennessee 1 

17 (53) 



The Bulletin of tJie Western TTieological Seminary 



President: 



STUDENT ORGANIZATIONS 

Senior Class 

Fred E. Robb Vice President: Paul T. Gerrard 

Secretary-Treasurer: Jolin L. Eakin 



Middle Class 

President: James Allen Kestle Secretary: Crawford M. Coulter 

Vice President: Wm. V. E. Parsons Treasurer: Thomas D. Ewing 

Junior Class 

President: B. E. Allender Vice President: L. H. Stebbins 

Secretary-Treasurer: G. Lee Forney 



Y. M. C. A. 



President: Herbert B. Hudnut 
Vice Preident: N. Carl Elder 



Secretary: James H. Gillespie 
Treasurer: E. C. Irwin 



Y. M. C. A. COMMITTEES 



Devotional 

John L. Eakin, Chairman 
William Semple 

Athletics 

Crawford M. Coulter, Chairman 
Paul T. Gerrard 



Darwin M. Haynes 
Theodore E. Miller 



Linson H. Stebbins 
Lloyd D. Homer 



Publicity 



Paul H. Hazlett, Chairman 
Paul T. Gerrard 



Linson H. Stebbins 
Thomas D. Ewing 



Social 

John A. Stuart, Chairman 
J. Herbert Garner Crawford M. Coulter 

Fred E. Robb B. E. Allender 

James Allen Kestle G. Lee Forney 

Leader of Student Volunteer Group 

Newton Carl Elder 
18 (54) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Historical Sketch 

The Western Theological Seminary was established 
in the year 1825. The reason for the founding of the 
Seminary is expressed in the resolution on the subject, 
adopted by the General Assembly of 1825, to wit: "It 
is expedient forthwith to establish a Theological Serai- 
nary in the West, to be styled the Western Theological 
Seminary of the Presbyterian Church in the United 
States". The Assembly took active measures for carry- 
ing into execution the resolution which had been adopted, 
by electing a Board of Directors consisting of twenty- 
one ministers and nine ruling elders, and by instructing 
this Board to report to the next General Assembly a 
suitable location and such ''alterations" in the plan of 
the Princeton Seminary as, in their judgment, might 
be necessary to accommodate it to the local situation of 
the "Western Seminary". 

The General Assembly of 1827, by a bare majority 
of two votes, selected Allegheny as the location for the 
new institution. The first session was formally com- 
menced on November 16, 1827, with a class of four young 
men who were instructed by the Rev. E. P. Swift and the 
Rev. Joseph Stockton. 

During the ninety-eight years of her existence, two 
thousand five hundred and fourteen students have 
attended the classes of the Western Theological Semi- 
nary; and of this number, over eighteen hundred have 
been ordained as ministers of the Presbyterian Church, 
U. S. A. Her missionary alumni, one hundred forty-four 
in number, many of them having distinguished careers, 
have preached the Gospel in every land where mission- 
ary enterprise is conducted. 

Location 

The choice of location, as the history of the institu- 
tion has showTi, was wisely made. The Seminary in 

19 (55) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

course of time ceased, indeed, to be western in the strict 
sense of the term; but it became central to one of the 
most important and influential sections of the Presby- 
terian Church, equally accessible to the West and East. 
The buildings are situated near the summit of Ridge 
Avenue, Pittsburgh (North Side), mainly on West Park, 
one of the most attractive sections of the city. Within 
a block of the Seminary property some of the finest resi- 
dences of Greater Pittsburgh are to be found, and at the 
close of the catalogue prospective students will find a 
map showing the beautiful environs of the institution. 
It is twenty minutes' walk from the center of business 
in Pittsburgh, with a ready access to all portions of the 
city, and yet as quiet and free from disturbance as if in 
a remote suburb. In the midst of this community of 
more than 1,000,000 people and center of strong Presby- 
terian churches and church life, the students have unlim- 
ited opportunities of gaining familiarity with every type 
of modern church organization and work. The practical 
experience and insight which they are able to acquire, 
without detriment to their studies, are a most valuable 
element in their preparation for the ministry. 

Buildings 

The first Seminary building was erected in the year 
1831; it was situated on what is now known as Monu- 
ment Hill. It consisted of a central edifice, sixty feet 
in length by fifty in breadth, of four stories, having at 
each front a portico adorned with Corinthian columns, 
and a cupola in the center; and also two wings of three 
stories each, fifty feet by twenty-five. It contained a 
chapel forty-five feet by twenty-five, with a gallery of 
like dimensions for the library ; suites of rooms for pro- 
fessors, and accommodations for eighty students. It 
was continuously occupied until 1854, when it was com- 
pletely destroyed by fire, the exact date being January 
23d. 

20 (56^ 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

The second Seminary building, usually designated 
''Seminary Hall", was erected in 1855, and formally 
dedicated January 10, 1856. This structure was consid- 
erably smaller than the original building, but contained 
a chapel, class rooms, and suites of rooms for twenty stu- 
dents. It was partially destroyed by fire in 1887 and 
was immediately revamped. Seminary Hall was torn 
down November 1, 1914, to make room for the new 
buildings. 

The first dormitory was made possible by the gen- 
erosity of Mrs. Hetty E. Beatty. It was erected in 
the year 1859 and was known as "Beatty Hall". This 
structure had become wholly inadequate to the needs of 
the institution by 1877, and the Eev. C. C. Beatty fur- 
nished the funds for a new dormitory which was knoAvn 
as "Memorial Hall", as Dr. Beatty wished to make the 
edifice commemorate the reunion of the Old and New 
School branches of the Presbyterian Church. 

The old library building was erected in 1872 at an 
expenditure of $25,000, but was poorly adapted to library 
purposes. It has been replaced by a modern library 
equipment in the group of new buildings. 

For the past fifteen years the authorities of the Semi- 
nary, as well as the almuni, have felt that the material 
equipment of the institution did not meet the require- 
ments of our age. In 1909 plans were made for the erec- 
tion of a new dormitory on the combined site of Memorial 
Hall and the professor's house which stood next to it. 
The corner stone of this building was laid May 4, 1911, 
and the dedication took place May 9, 1912. The historic 
designation, "Memorial Hall", was retained. The total 
cost was $146,970; this fund was contributed by many 
friends and alumni of the Seminary. Competent judges 
consider it one of the handsomest public buildings in the 
City of Pittsburgh. It is laid out in the shape of a Y, 
which is an unusual design for a college building, but 
brings direct sunlight to every room. Another notice- 

21 (57) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

able feature of this dormitory is that there is not a single 
inside room of any kind. The architecture is of the type 
known as Tudor Gothic; the materials are reenforced 
concrete and fireproofing, with the exterior of tapestry 
brick trimmed with gray terra cotta. The center is sur- 
mounted with a beautiful tower in the Oxford manner. 
It contains suites of rooms for seventy students, together 
with a handsomely furnished social hall, a well equipped 
gymnasium, and a commodious dining room. A full 
description of these public rooms will be found on other 
pages of this catalogue. 

The erection of two wings of a new group of build- 
ings, for convenience termed the administration group, 
was commenced in November, 1914. The corner stone 
vvas laid on May 6, 1915, and the formal dedication, with 
appropriate exercises, took place on Commencement 
Day, May 4, 1916. These buildings are removed about 
half a block from Memorial Hall, and face the West 
Park, occupying an unusually fine site. It has been 
planned to erect this group in the form of a quadrangle, 
the entire length being 200 feet and depth 175 feet. 
The main architectural feature of the front wing is 
an entrance tower. While this tower enhances the 
beauty of the building, all the space in it has been care- 
fully used for offices and classrooms. The rear mng, 
in addition to containing two large classrooms which 
can be thrown into one, contains the new library. The 
stack room has a capacity for 165,000 volumes. The 
stacks now installed will hold about 55,000 volumes. The 
reference room and the administrative offices of the li- 
brary, with seminar rooms, are found on the second floor. 
The reference room, 88 by 38 feet, is equipped and dec- 
orated in the mediaeval Gothic style, with capacity for 
10,000 volumes. The architecture of the entire group is 
the English Collegiate Gothic of the type which prevails 
in the college buildings at Cambridge, England. The ma- 
terial is tapestry brick, trimmed with gray terra cotta of 

22 (58) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

the Indiana limestone shade. The total cost of the two 
completed wings was $154,777.00, of which $130,000.00 
was furnished by over five hundred subscribers in the 
campaign of October, 1913. The east wing of this group 
will contain rooms for museums, two classrooms, and a 
residence for the President of the Seminary. A gener- 
ous donor has provided the funds for the erection of the 
chapel, which will constitute the west wing of the quad- 
rangle. The architect is Mr. Thomas Hannah, of Pitts- 
burgh. 

There are four residences for professors. Two are 
situated on the east and two on the west side of the new 
building and all face the Park. 

Social Hall 

The new dormitory contains a large social hall, 
which occupies an entire floor in one wing. This room 
is very handsomely finished in white quartered oak, with 
a large open fireplace at one end. The oak furnishing, 
which is upholstered in leather, is very elegant and was 
chosen to match the woodwork. The prevailing color in 
the decorations is dark green and the rugs are Hartford 
Saxony in oriental patterns. The rugs were especially 
woven for the room. This handsome room was erected 
and furnished by Mr. Sylvester S. Marvin, of the Board 
of Trustees, and his two sons, Walter E. Marvin and Earl 
R. Marvin, as a memorial to Mrs. Matilda Eumsey Mar- 
vin. It is the center of the social life of the student 
body, and during the past year, under the auspices of the 
Student Association, four formal musicals and socials 
have been held in this hall. The weekly devotional meet- 
ing of the Student Association is also conducted in this 
room. 

Dining Hall 

A commodious and handsomely equipped dining 
hall was included in the new Memorial Hall. It is lo- 

23 (59) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

cated in the top story of the left wing, with the kitchen 
adjoining in the rear wing. Architecturally this room 
may be described as Gothic, and when the artistic scheme 
of decoration is completed will be a replica of the din- 
ing hall of an Oxford college. The actual operation of 
the commons began Dec. 1, 1913; the management is in 
the hands of a student manager and the Executive Com- 
mittee of the Student Association. It is the aim of the 
Trustees of the Seminary to furnish good wholesome 
food at cost; but incidentally the assembling of the stu- 
dent body three times a day has strengthened, to a 
marked degree, the social and spiritual life of the insti- 
tution. 

Library 

The library of the Seminary is now housed in its 
new home in Swift Hall, the south wing of the group of 
new buildings dedicated at the Commencement season, 
1916. This steel frame and fireproof structure is English 
Collegiate Gothic in architectural design and provides 
the library with an external equipment which, for beauty 
and completeness, is scarcely surpassed by any theolog- 
ical institution on this continent. The handsome beam- 
ceilinged reading room is furnished in keeping with the 
architecture. It is equipped with individual reading 
lamps and accommodates many hundred circulating 
volumes, besides reference books and current periodicals. 
Adjoining this are rooms for library administration. 
There is also a large, quiet seminar room for all those 
who wish to conduct researches, Avhere the volumes that 
the library contains treating particular subjects may be 
assembled and used at convenience. A stack room with 
a capacity for about 165,000 volumes has been pro- 
vided and now has a steel stack equipment with space 
for about 55,000 volumes. 

The library has recently come into possession of a 
unique hymnological collection of great value. It con- 
sists of 9 to 10 thousand volumes assembled by the late 

24 (60) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Mr. James Warrington, of Philadelphia. During his 
lifetime Mr. Warrington made the study of Church Music 
his chief pastime and had gathered together all the ma- 
terial of any value published in Great Britain and Amer- 
ica dealing with his favorite theme. The library is 
exceedingly fortunate in the acquisition of this note- 
worthy collection, which will not only serve to enhance 
the work of the music department of the Seminary but 
offers to scholars and investigators, interested in the field 
of British and American Church Music, facilities un- 
equaled by any theological collection in the country. The 
collection, together with Mr. Warrington's original cata- 
logue and bibliographical material, occupies a separate 
room in the new building. The latter has been arranged 
and placed in new filing cabinets, thus rendering it con- 
venient and accessible. Already in recent years, before 
the purchase of Mr. Warrington's collection had been 
thought of for the library, the department of hymnology 
had been enlarged, and embraced much that relates to the 
history and study of Church Music. 

Other departments of the library also have been 
built up and are now much more complete. The mediae- 
val writers of Europe are well represented in excellent 
editions, and the collection of authorities on the Papacy 
is quite large. These collections, both for secular and 
church history, afford great assistance in research and 
original work. The department of sermons is supplied 
with the best examples of preaching — ancient and mod- 
ern — while every effort is made to obtain literature 
which bears upon the complete furnishing of the preacher 
and evangelist. To this end the missionary literature 
is rich in biography, travel, and education. Constant 
additions of the best writers on the oriental languages 
and Old Testament history are being made, and the li- 
brary grows richer in the works of the best scholars of 
Europe and America. The department of New Testa- 
ment Exegesis is well developed and being increased, not 

25 (61) 



Tlie Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

only by the best commentaries and exegetical works, but 
also by those which through history, essay, and sociolo- 
gical study illuminate and portray the times, people, and 
customs of the Gospel Age. The library possesses a 
choice selection of works upon theology, philosophy, and 
ethics, and additions are being made of volumes which 
discuss the fundamental principles. A^Hiile it is not 
thought desirable to include every author, the leading 
writers are given a place without regard to their creed. 
Increasing attention is being given to those writers who 
deal with the great social problems and the practical 
application of Christianity to the questions of ethical and 
social life. The number of works on the shelves of the 
library dealing with religious education has multiplied 
many fold in recent years, and new books in this im- 
portant field are being added constantly. 

The number of volumes in the library at present is, 
approximately, 40,000. This reckoning is exclusive of 
the Warrington collection, and neither does it include 
unbound pamphlet material. Over one hundred period- 
icals are currently received, not including annual reports, 
year books, government documents, and irregular con- 
tinuations. A modern card catalogue, in course of com- 
pletion, covers, at the present time, a great majority of 
the bound volumes in the library. 

The library is open on week days to all ministers 
and others, without restriction of creed, subject to the 
same rules as apply to students. Hours are from 9 to 
5; Saturdays from 9 to 12; Tuesday, Wednesday, and 
Thursday evenings from 7 to 9. 

The library is essentially theological, though it in- 
cludes much not to be strictly defined by that term ; for 
general literature the students have access to the Car- 
negie Library, which is situated within five minutes' walk 
of the Seminary buildings. 

The James L. Shields Book Purchasing Memorial 
Fund, with an endowment of $1,000, has been founded 

26 (62) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



by Mrs. Robert A, Watson, of Columbus, Ohio, in 
memory of her father, the late James L. Shields, of 
Blairsville, Pennsylvania. 



The library is receiving the following periodicals : 



All the V^orld. 
Alt^(fc)rient. 
America. 

American Catholic Quarterly Re- 
view. 
American Issue. 

American Journal of Archeeology. 
American Journal of Philology. 
American Journal of Semitic 
Languages and Literature. 
American Journal of Sociology. 
American Lutheran Survey. 
Ancient Egypt. 
Archiv fiir Reformations- 

geschichte. 
Archiv fiir Religionswissenschaft. 
Art and Archaeology. 
Asia. 

Atlantic Monthly. 
Auburn Seminary Record. 
Bible Champion. 
Biblical Review. 
Bibliotheca Sacra. 
B'nai B'rith. 
British Weekly. 
Eiulletin of American Schools of 

Oriental Research. 
Bulletin of National Conference 

of Social Work. 
Bulletin of National Council 

for Prevention of War. 
Catholic Historical Review. 
Chinese Recorder. 
Christian Century. 
Christian Endeavor World. 
Christian Herald. 
Christian Observer 
Christian Statesman. 
Christian Union Quarterly. 
Christian Work. 
Churchman. 

Congregationalist and Advance. 
Contemporary Review. 
Continent. 
Crozer Quarterly. 
Cumulative Book Index. 
East and West. 
Educational Review. 
Ewing Christian College 

Magazine. 27 



Expositor. 
Expository Times. 
Federal Council Bulletin. 
Glory of Israel. 
Harvard Theological Review. 
Hibbert Journal. 
Homiletic Iidviev/. 
International Conciliation. 
International Goodwul 
International Index to Periodicals. 
International Journal of Ethics. 
Internationul Review of Missions. 
Internationale Kirchliche 

Zeitschrift 
Interpreter 
Jewish Missionary Magazine. 

Jewish Quarterly Review. 

Journal Asiatique. 

Journal of American Oriental 
Society. 

Journal of Biblical Literature. 

Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. 

Journal of Hellenic Studies. 

Journal of Palestine Oriental 
Society. 

Journal of Presbyterian Histor- 
ical Society. 

Journal of Religion. 

Journal of Royal Asiatic Society. 

Journal of Theological Studies. 

Krest'anske Listy. 

L'Aurore. 

Liberty. 

London Quarterly Review. 

Lutheran. 

Lutheran Quarterly. 

Meadville Theological Seminary 
Bulletin. 

Methodist Review. 

Missionary Herald. 

Missionary Review of the World. 

Modern Churchman. 

Month, The 

Moody Bible Institute Monthly. 

Moslem World. 

Nation, The 

National Geographic Magazine. 

Neue Kirchliche Zeitschrift. 

(63) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



New Near East Rochester Theological Seminary 
New Republic. Bulletin. 

Nineteenth Century and After. Russell Sage Foundation 
North American Review. Library Bulletin. 

Our Jewish Neighbors. Sailors' Magazine. 

Outlook. Siam Outlook. 

Palestine Exploration Fund. Slovensky Kalvin. 

Pedagogical Seminary. Survey, The 

Philippine Presbyterian. Syria. 

Pittsburgh Christian Outlook. Theologisches Literatur-Blatt » 

Prayer aaf' Work for Israel. Theologische Literaturzeitung. 

Presbyterian. TlieoIogiGChe Studien und Kritiken. 

Presbyterian Advance. Union Theological Seminary 

Presbyterian Banner. ^^ "?«"^i^^"' i. ^ • 

Presbyterian Magazine Uniled Presbyterian. 

Princeton Theological Review. H? ■^' , ,,r. • 

Quarterly Register of Reformed W^^^n^^^ Missions. 

■' '^ World To-morrow. 

Yale Review. 

Zeitschrift fiir die Alttestament- 
liche Wissenschaft. 



Churches. 
Quarterly Review. 
Reader's Guide. 

Reformed Church Review. r^ -x t. -^^ ^- k • i • 

Religious Education. ^^ij''^^^" ^^'' Assy"olofie. 

T?^-,„f^ -oiMir,,-.^ Zeitschrift der Deutschen Mor- 

f !!"! ?^^i^^rH.....o genUindischen Gesellschaft. 



i.evu'e. d' Assyriologie 
Revue de rHlstoire des Reii 



Zeitschrift des Deutschen Pala- 
stina-Vereins. 

Revue des Etudes Juives Zeitschrift fiir Kirchengeschichte 

Revue d'Histoire et de Zeitschrift fiir die Neutestament- 

Philosophie Religieuses. liche Wissenschaft. 



Religious Exercises 

As the Seminary does not maintain public services 
on the Lord's Day, each student is expected to connect 
himself with one of the congregations in Pittsburgh, and 
thus to be under pastoral care and to perform his duties 
as a church member. 

Abundant opportunities for Christian work are af- 
forded by the various churches, missions, and benevo- 
lent societies of this large community. This kind of 
labor has been found no less useful for practical training 
than the work of supplying pulpits. Daily prayers at 
11 :20 A. M., which all the students are required to attend, 
are conducted by the Faculty. A meeting for prayer 
and conference, conducted by the professors, is held 
every Wednesday morning, at which addresses are made 
by the professors and invited speakers. 

28 (64) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Senior Preaching Service 

{See Study Courses 74, 47, 56.) 

Public worship is observed every Monday evening 
in the Seminary Chapel, from October to April, under 
the direction of the professor of homiletics. This ser- 
vice is intended to be in all respects what a regular 
church service should be. It is attended by the mem- 
bers of the faculty, the entire student body, and friends 
of the Seminary generally. It is conducted by members 
of the senior class in rotation. The Cecilia Choir is in 
attendance to lead the singing and furnish a suitable 
anthem. The service is designed to minister to the 
spiritual life of the Seminary and also to furnish a model 
of Presbyterian form and order. The exercises are all 
reviewed by the professor in charge at his next subse- 
quent meeting with the senior class. Members of the 
faculty are also expected to offer to the officiating 
student any suggestions they may deem desirable. 

Students' Y. M. C. A. 

This society has been recently organized under the 
direction of the Faculty, which is represented on each 
one of the committees. Students are ipso facto and mem- 
bers of the Faculty ex officio members of the Seminary 
Y. M. C. A. Meetings are held weekly, the exercises be- 
ing alternately missionary and devotional. It is the suc- 
cessor of the Students' Missionary Society, and its spe- 
cial object is to stimulate the missionary zeal of its 
members; but the name and form of the organization 
have been changed for the purpose of a larger and more 
helpful cooperation with similar societies. 

Christian Work 
The City of Pittsburgh affords unusual opportuni- 
ties for an adequate study of the manifold forms of mod- 
ern Christian activity. Students are encouraged to en- 
gage in some form of Christian work other than preach- 

29 (65) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

ing, as it is both a stimulus to devotional life and forms 
an important element in a training for the pastorate. 
Eegular religious work of various types has been carried 
on under the direction of committees of the Y. M. C. A., 
in connection with missions and philanthropic institu- 
tions of the city. Several students have had charge of 
mission churches in various parts of the city while others 
have been assistants in Sunday School work or have con- 
ducted Teacher Training Classes. Those who are in- 
terested in settlement work have unusual opportunities 
of familiarizing themselves with this form of social ac- 
tivity at the Wood's Run Industrial Home, the Kingsley 
House, and the Heinz Settlement. 



Bureau of Preaching Supply 

A bureau of preaching supply has been organized by 
the Faculty for the purpose of apportioning supply work, 
as request comes in from vacant churches. No at- 
tempt is made to secure places for students either by ad- 
vertising or by application to Presbyterial Committees. 
The allotment of places is in alphabetical order. The 
members of the senior class and regularly enrolled 
graduate students have the preference over the middle 
class, and the middle class in turn over the junior. 



Rules Governing the Distribution of Calls for 
Preaching 

1. AH allotment of preaching will be made directly from the 

President's Office by the President of the Seminary or a 
member of the Faculty. 

2. Calls for preaching will be assigned in alphabetical order, the 

members of the senior class having the preference, followed 
in turn by the middle and junior classes. 

3. In case a church names a student in its request, the call will 

be offered to the person mentioned; if he decline, it will be 
assigned according to Rule 2, and the church will be notified. 

4. If a student who has accepted an assignment finds it impossible 

to fill the engagement, he is to notify the office, when a new 

30 (66) 



Tlie Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

arrangement will be made and the student thus giving up 
an appointment will lose his turn as provided for under Rule 
2; but two students who have received appointments from 
the office may exchange with each other. 

5. All students supplying churches regularly are expected to re- 

port this fact and their names will not be included in the al- 
phabetic roll according to the provisions of Rule 2. 

6. When a church asks the Faculty to name a candidate from the 

senior or post-graduate classes, Rule 2 in regard to alpha- 
betic order will not apply, but the person sent will lose his 
turn. In other words, a student will not be treated both as 
a candidate and as an occasional supply. 

7. Graduate students, complying with Rule 6 governing scholar- 

ship aid, will be put in the roll of the senior class. 

8. If there are not sufficient calls for the entire senior class any 

week, the assignments the following week will commence at 
the point in the roll where they left off the previous week, 
but no middler will be sent any given week until all the 
seniors are assigned. The middle class will be treated in the 
same manner as the senior, i. e., every member of the class 
will have an opportunity to go, before the head of the roll 
is assigned a second time. No junior will be sent out until all 
the members of the two upper classes are assigned, but, like 
the members of the senior and middle classes, each member 
will have an equal chance. 

9. These rules in regard to preaching are regulations of the Fac- 

ulty and as such are binding on all matriculants of the Sem- 
inary. A student who disregards them or interferes with 
their enforcement will make himself liable to discipline, and 
forfeit his right to receive scholarship aid. 
10. A student receiving an invitation directly is at liberty to fill 
the engagement, but must notify the office, and will lose 
his turn according to Rule 2. 



Physical Training 

In 1912 the Seminary opened its OAvn gymnasium 
in the new dormitory. This gymnasium is thoroughly 
equipped with the most modern apparatus. Its floor and 
walls are properly spaced and marked for basket ball 
and handball courts. It is open to students five hours 
daily. The students also have access to the public ten- 
nis courts in West Park. 

Expenses 

A fee of ten dollars a year is required to be paid to 
the contingent fund for the heating and care of the 11- 

31 (67) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

brary and lecture rooms. Students residing in the dor- 
mitory and in rented rooms pay an additional twenty 
dollars for natural gas and service. 

All students who reside in the dormitory are re- 
quired to take their meals in the Seminary dining hall. 
The price for boarding is six dollars and a half per week. 

Prospective students may gain a reasonable idea of 
their necessary expenses from the following table: 

Contingent Fee ? 30 

Boarding for 32 weeks 208 

Books 40 

Gymnasium Fee 2 

Y. M. C. A. Fee 5 

Sundries 15 

Total $300 

Students in need of financial assistance should ap- 
ply for aid, through their Presbyteries, to the Board of 
Education. The sums thus acquired may be supple- 
mented from the scholarship funds of the Seminary. 



Scholarship Aid 

1. All students needing financial assistance may re- 
ceive aid from the scholarship fund of the Seminary. 

2. The distribution is made in four installments: 
on the last Tuesdays of September, November, January, 
and March. 

3. A student whose grade falls below "C", or 75 
per cent, or who has five absences from class exercises 
without satisfactory excuse, shall forfeit his right to aid 
from this source. The following are not considered valid 
grounds for excuse from recitations: (1) work on Pres- 
bytery parts; (2) preaching or evangelistic engagements, 
unless special permission has been received from the 
Faculty (Application must be made in writing for such 
permission) ; (3) private business, unless imperative. 

32 (68) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



4. A student who so desires, may borrow his schol- 
arship aid, with the privilege of repayment after gradua- 
tion, this loan to be without interest. 

5. A student must take, as the minimum, twelve 
(12) hours of recitation work per week in order to obtain 
scholarship aid and have the privilege of a room in the 
Seminary dormitory. Work in Elocution and Musia is 
regarded as supplementary to these twelve hours. 

6. Post-graduate students are not eligible to schol- 
arship aid, and, in order to have the privilege of occupy- 
ing a room in the dormitory, must take twelve hours of 
recitation and lecture work per week. 

Loan Funds 

The Kev. James H. Lyon, a member of the class of 
1864, has founded a loan fund by a gift of $200. Needy 
students can borrow small sums from this fund at a low 
rate of interest. 

Recently a friend of the Seminary, by a gift of 
$2500, established a Students' Loan and Self-help 
Fund. The principal is to be kept intact and the in- 
come is available for loans to students, which loans may 
be repaid after graduation. 

General Educational Advantages 

Pittsburgh is an ideal seat for a theological 
seminary, because it is one of the leading manufactur- 
ing and commercial cities of the country. It is obvious 
that a minister ought to come in contact with the prob- 
lems of community life in one of the great throbbing 
centers of activity, where every social problem is in- 
tensified, in order to be able to enter into sympathetic 
and intelligent relations with the people of the churches 
and communities which he may be called on to serve. 
To put it in a word, a term of residence in Pittsburgh 
brings a man into vital contact with life in its many 
complex modern forms. 

33 (69) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

In Pittsburgh we find some of the largest, most 
aggressive, and best equipped churches of our com- 
munion. Pittsburgh Presbytery is the largest presby- 
tery of the Presbyterian Church, IT. S. A., with 137 
churches and 218 ministers on its rolls. In 1925 the 
total membership of these churches was 65,185. On the 
rolls of the Presbytery there are twelve churches with a 
membership of between 1000 and 2000, and there is one 
church mth a membership of more than 2900. The local 
national missionary budget of Pittsburgh Presbytery for 
the fiscal year 1925-6 reached a total of approximately 
$150,000. This large sum was raised in addition to the 
contributions of the Board of National Missions and the 
Synodical funds. As might be expected, every tj^pe of 
modern church activity and organization is represented 
in the churches of this Presbytery. A student has abun- 
dant opportunity to familiarize himself with the organi- 
zation and methods of an efficient modern church, not 
merely through the study of a text book, but by personal 
observation or actual participation in the work. 

Not only do many of these churches carry on an 
extensive and aggressive program of social service, but 
in addition the student has access to the many social 
settlements and other centers of welfare work with 
which Pittsburgh is well supplied. To prospective stu- 
dents who are especially interested in this type of 
modern philanthropic activity a pamphlet giving de- 
tailed information on Pittsburgh as a social centre will 
be mailed on request. 

In addition to being a manufacturing center, with 
the largest tonnage of any city in the world, Pitts- 
burgh is the seat of a University with an enrollment of 
9,304 (1924-5). Students of the Seminary have the 
privilege of attending the University and of receiving 
the Master's degree under certain conditions (see 
p. 55). Besides the University, there are the Carnegie 
Institute of Technology, the Pennsylvania College for 

34 (70) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Women, and the Pittsburgh Musical Institute. Mr. 
C. N. Boyd, our instructor in Church Music, is one of 
the directors of the Pittsburgh Musical Institute, and 
through him any student who is interested in music may 
have access to special lectures and classes. Some idea 
of Pittsburgh as a musical center may be gained from 
the fact that during each season from two to four or five 
concerts are given by the foremost artists and musical 
organizations of the country. To these should be added 
the free organ recitals which are given every Saturday 
by Dr. Charles Heinroth, one of the world's greatest 
organists, in Carnegie Music Hall. Pittsburgh also oc- 
cupies a prominent place as an art center, with the nota- 
ble permanent and frequent transient exhibits in the 
Carnegie Institute. 

In such a survey the library facilities of the city 
are not to be passed by. In addition to the Seminary 
librar}^, which is exclusively theological in its scope and 
rich in its collections, there are the two Carnegie 
Libraries. The North Side Library, the first founded 
by Mr, Carnegie, in 1886, which is situated within five 
blocks of the Seminary buildings, affords the student 
ready access to general literature of every type. The 
main Library, in connection with the Carnegie Insti- 
tute, with its larger collections, is also available to the 
students. The Museum of the Carnegie Institute is of 
large educational value, and students will be well re- 
paid by a careful survey of its collections. 

Admission 

The Seminary, while under Presbyterian control, is 
open to students of all denominations. As its special 
aim is the training of men for the Christian ministry, 
applicants for admission are requested to present satis- 
factory testimonials that they possess good natural tal- 
ents, that they are prudent and discreet in their deport- 
ment, and that they are in full communion with some 

35 (71) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

evangelical churcli; also that they have the requisite 
literary preparation for the studies of the theological 
course. 

College students intending to enter the Seminary are 
strongly recommended to select such courses as will pre- 
pare them for the studies of a theological curriculum. 
They should pay special attention to Latin, Greek, Ger- 
man, English Literature and Rhetoric, Logic, Ethics, 
Psychology, the History of Philosophy, and General 
History. If possible, students are advised to take ele- 
mentary courses in Hebrew and make some study of 
New Testament Greek. For elementary study in the lat- 
ter subject Machen's ''New Testament Greek for Be- 
ginners" and Nunn's "Short Syntax of New Testament 
Greek" are recommended. 

College graduates with degrees other than that of 
Bachelor of Arts are required to take an extra elective 
study in their senior year. If an applicant for admis- 
sion is not a college graduate, he is required to submit 
evidence that he has had an education which is a fair 
equivalent of a college course. 

Students from Other Theological Seminaries 

Students coming from other theological seminaries 
are required to present certificates of good standing and 
regular dismissal before they can be received. 

Graduate Students 

Those who desire to be enrolled for post-graduate 
study will be admitted to matriculation on presenting 
their diplomas or certificates of graduation from other 
theological seminaries. 

Resident licentiates and ministers have the privilege 
of attending lectures in all departments. 

36 (72) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Seminary Year 

The Seminary year, consisting of one term, is di- 
vided into two semesters. The first semester closes with 
the Christmas holidays and the second commences imme- 
diately after the opening of the New Year. The Semi- 
nary Year begins with the third Tuesday of September 
and closes the Thursday before the second Tuesday in 
May. It is expected that every student will be present 
at the opening of the session, when the rooms will be al- 
lotted. The more important days are indicated in the 
calendar (p. 3). 

Examinations 

Examinations, written or oral, are required in every 
department, and are held twice a year, or at the end of 
each semester. The oral examinations, which are held the 
day before Commencement, are open to the public. Stu- 
dents who do not pass satisfactory examinations may be 
re-examined at the beginning of the next term, but, fail- 
ing then to give satisfaction, will be regarded as partial 
or will be required to enter the class corresponding to 
the one to which they belonged the previous year. 

The Bachelor's Degree 

Upon graduation students receive the degree of 
Bachelor of Sacred Theology. The degree will be 
granted to those students who are graduates of an ac- 
credited college or who sustain satisfactory examina- 
tions, and who have completed a course of three years' 
study, pursued in this institution or partly in this and 
partly in some other regular theological Seminary. 

The candidate for the degree must pass satisfactory 
examinations in all departments of the Seminary 
curriculum and satisfy all requirements for attendance. 

37 (73) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Men who have taken the full course at another Semi- 
nary, including the departments of Hebrew and Grreek 
Exegesis, Dogmatic Theology, Church History, and Pas- 
toral Theology, and have received a diploma, will be en- 
titled to the Bachelor's degree from this Seminary on 
condition: (1) that they take the equivalent of a full 
year's work in a single year or two years; (2) that they 
be subject to the usual rules governing our classroom 
work, such as regular attendance and recitations; (3) 
that they pass the examinations with the classes of 
which they are members; (4) it is a further condition 
that such students attend exercises in at least three de- 
partments, one of which shall be either Greek or Hebrew 
Exegesis. 

Courses of Study 

The growth of the elective system in colleges has 
resulted in a wide variation in the equipment of the stu- 
dents entering the Seminary, and the broadening of the 
scope of practical Christian activity has necessitated a 
specialized training for ministerial candidates. In 
recognition of these conditions, the curriculum has been 
developed to prepare men for five different types of 
ministerial work: (1) the regular pastorate; (2) the 
foreign field; (3) home missionary service; (4) reli- 
gious education; (5) teaching the Bible in colleges. 

The elective system has been introduced with such 
restrictions as seemed necessary in view of the general 
aim of the Seminary. 

The elective courses are confined largely to the 
senior year, except that students who have already com- 
pleted certain courses of the Seminary curriculum will 
not be required to take them again, but may select from 
the list of electives such courses as will fill in the entire 
quota of hours. 

38 (74) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Students who come to the Seminary with inade- 
quate preparation will be required to take certain ele- 
mentary courses, e. g., Greek, Hebrew, Philosophy. In 
some cases this may entail a four years' course in the 
Seminary, but students are urged to do all preliminary 
work in colleges. 

Sixteen hours of recitation and lecture work are re- 
quired of Juniors. In the middle year students who 
entered the Seminary with preparation in Greek will 
have fifteen hours, while those coming without such 
preparation will be expected to take sixteen hours work 
throughout the year. Fourteen hours are required of 
Seniors and twelve of Graduate Students. Those desir- 
ing to take more than the required number of hours must 
make special application to the Faculty, and no student 
who falls below the grade "A" in his regular work will 
be allowed to take additional courses. A student absent 
from twenty-five percent of the classroom exercises in 
any course will not receive credit for that course. 

In the senior year the only required courses are 
those in Practical Theology, N. T. Theology, and 0. T. 
Prophecy. The election of studies must be on the 
group system, one subject being regarded as major 
and another as minor; for example, a student electing 
N. T. as a major must take four hours in this depart- 
ment and in addition must take one course in a closely 
related subject, such as 0. T. Theology or Exegesis. 
He must also write a thesis of not less than 4,000 words 
on some topic in the department from which he has 
selected his major. 



Hebrew Language and Old Testament Literature 
Dr. Kelso, Dr. Culley 

I. Linguistic Courses 

The Hebrew language is studied from the philological stand- 
point in order to lay the foundations for the exegetical study of the 

39 (75) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Old Testament. With this end in view, courses are offered which 
aim to make the student thoroughly familiar with the chief exe- 
getical and critical problems of the Hebrew Scriptures. 

1. Introductory Hebrew Grammar. Exercises in reading and 
writing Hebrew and the acquisition of a working vocabulary. Gen. 
1-20. Three hours weekly throughout the year (five credits). Jun- 
iors. Required. Prof. Culley. 

2a. First Samuel I-XX or Judges. Rapid reading and exegesis. 
Preparation optional. One hour weekly throughout the year. All 
classes. Elective. Prof. Culley. Prerequisite, Course 1. 

2b. The Minor Prophets or Jeremiah. Rapid reading and exe- 
gesis. Preparation optional. One hour weekly throughout the year. 
Seniors and Graduates. Elective. Prof. Culley. 

3. Deuteronomy I-XX or one Book of Kings. Hebrew Syntax. 

Davidson's Hebrew Syntax or Driver's Hebrew Tenses. Two hours 
weekly throughout the year (three credits). Middlers. Elective. 
(Middlers must elect either O. T. Exegesis 3 or O. T. Introduction 
12.) Prof. Culley. 

7a. Biblical Aramaic. Grammar and study of Daniel 2:4b — 
7:28; Ezra 4:8 — 6:18; 7:12-26; Jeremiah 10:11. Reading of 
selected Aramaic Papyri from Elephantine. Two hours weekly first 
or second semester. Seniors and Graduates. Elective. Prof. 
Culley. 

7b. Elementary Arabic. A beginner's course in Arabic gram- 
mar is offered to students interested in advanced Semitic studies 
or those looking towards mission work in lands where a knowledge 
of Arabic is essential. One or two hours weekly throughout the 
year depending upon the requirements of the student. Prof. Culley. 

7c. Elementary Assyrian. After the mastery of the most com- 
mon signs and the elements of the grammar, Sennacherib's Annals 
(Taylor Cylinder) will be read. This course is intended for those 
who propose to specialize in Semitics or are preparing themselves 
to teach the Bible in Colleges. Prince, Assyrian Primer; Delitzsch, 
Assyrische Lesestiicke. Prerequisite, Courses 1, 3, 7a, 7b. Hours to 
be arranged. Prof. Kelso. 

II. Critical and Exegetical Courses 
A. Hebrew 

4. The Psalter. An exegetical course on the Psalms, with 
special reference to their critical and theological problems. One 
hour weekly, throughout the year. Seniors. Elective. Prof. Culley. 

5. Isaiah I-XII, and selections from XL-LXVI. An exegetical 
course paying special attention to the nature of prophecy and criti- 
cal questions. One hour weekly throughout the year (1926-7). 
Seniors. Elective. Prof. Kelso. 

6. Proverbs and Job. The interpretation of selected passages 
from Proverbs and Job which bear on the nature of Hebrew Wis- 
dom and Wisdom Literature. One hour weekly throughout the 
year (1925-6). Seniors and Graduates. Elective. Prof. Kelso. 

40 (76) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Biblia Hebraica, ed. Kittel, and the Oxford Lexicon of the Old 
Testament are the text-books. 

In order to elect these courses, the student must have attained 
at least Grade B in courses 1 and 3. 

B. English 

8a. The History of the HebreAvs. An outline oourse from the 
.earliest times to the Assyria.n Period, in which the Biblical material 
is studied with the aid of a syllabus and reference books. Two 
hours weekly, second semester (192 5-6). Juniors and Middlers. 
Required. Prof. Kelso. 

8b. The History of the Hebrews. A continuation of the pre- 
ceding course. The Babylonian, Persian, and Greek Periods. Two 
hours weekly, second semester (1925-6). Juniors and Middlers. 
Required. Prof. Kelso. 

10. The Psalter, Hebrew Wisdom and Wisdom Liiteratiire. In 
this course a critical study is made of the books of Job, Psalms, 
Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Solomon. One hour weekly, 
second semester. Seniors and Graduates. Elective. Prof. Kelso. 

11. Old Testament Prophecy and Prophets. In this course the 
general principles of prophecy are treated and a careful study is 
made of the chief prophetic books. Special attention is paid to the 
theological and social teachings of each prophet. The problems of 
literary criticism are also discussed. Syllabus and reference works. 
Required of Seniors, open to Graduates. Two hours weekly through- 
out the year. Prof. Kelso. 

12. Old Testament Introduction. This subject is presented 
in lectures, with collateral reading on the part of the students. Two 
hours weekly throughout the year. Middlers, Seniors, and Gradu- 
ates. Elective (Middlers must elect either this course or Course 3). 
Prof. Culley. 

25. Old Testament Theology (see p. 44). 

67. Biblical Apocalyptic. A careful study of the Apocalyptic 
element in the Old Testament with special reference to the Book 
of Daniel. After a brief investigation of the main features of the 
extra-canonical apocalypses, the Book of Revelation is examined in 
detail. One hour weekly throughout the year (1925-6). Seniors 
and Graduates. Elective. Prof. Kelso. 

69. The Book of Genesis. A critical exegetical study of the 
Book of Genesis in English based upon the text of the American 
Revised Version. Seminar. Two hours weekly, one semester 
(1926-7). Seniors and Graduates. Elective. Prof. Kelso. 

All these courses are based on the English Version as revised 
by modern criticism and interpreted by scientific exegesis. 



New Testament Literature and Exegesis 
Dr. Vance 

A knowledge of New Testament Greek is required for gradu- 
ation. Students who enter without previous adequate knowledge 
of the language are required to take Course 13; those who have 
taken Greek in college should review the grammar preparatory to 
an examination. 

41 (77) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

I. Linguistic Courses 

13. Elementary Greek. This course is designed for students 
who have made little or no previous study of Greek. The aim is 
to prepare such students, as thoroughly as possible in the time 
available, to read and interpret the Greek New Testament. The 
text-book used is Machen's "New Testament Greek for Beginners". 
Three hours weekly throughout the year. 

81. Advanced Greek. The aim is to give the student facility 
in reading the New Testament in Greek. Rapid reading of selec- 
tions from the Gospels and Epistles. Two hours weekly, second 
semester. Elective. Prof. Vance. 

*82. New Testament SjTitax. Characteristics of the Greek of 
the New Testament; principles of syntax; translation of 
the Gospel according to Luke; grammatical interpretation. Pre- 
requisite, Course 13 or its equivalent. Two hours weekly, first 
semester. Prof. Vance. 

*83. The Epistle to the Galatians. The principles of Biblical 
interpretation are applied to the study of the Epistle to the 
Galatians. Paul's fundamental doctrines; his relation to the 
Jewish branch of the Church. Prerequisite, Course 81. Two 
hours weekly, second semester. Prof. Vance. 

II. Critical and Exegetical Courses 
A. Greek 

20a. The Epistle to the Romans. Introduction; analysis; 
study of terminology; interpretation. Two hours weekly, second 
semester (1927-1928). Elective. Prof. Vance. 

20h. The Epistle to the Hebrews. The Jewish Christian in- 
terpretation of the person and work of Christ contrasted with that 
of Paul. Analysis; interpretation. Two hours weekly, second 
semester (1928-1929). Elective. Prof. Vance. 

24. The Epistles of James and Petei*. Problems confronting 
Jewish Christians of the dispersion. Analysis; interpretation. Two 
hours weekly, first semester (1927-1828). Elective. Prof. Vance. 

84. The Epistles to the Colossians and Ephesians. Problems 
confronting the churches in Western Asia Minor. Paul's developed 
Christology. Analysis; interpretation. Two hours weekly, first 
semester (1928-1929). Elective. Prof. Vance. 

85. The Gospel according to Matthew. Special attention is 
given to the plan and purpose of the Gospel and the teachings of 
Jesus. Analysis; interpretation. Two hours weekly, first semester 
(1926-1927). Elective. Prof. Vance. 

86. The Pastoral Epistles. Introduction; new conditions of 
the Church; interpretation. Two hours weekly, second semester 
(1926-1927). Elective. Prof. Vance. 

B. English 

87. The Literature of the New Testament. History of the 
Canon, text, and translations. Origin, form, contents, and ideas 
of the several books. Reading of the entire New Testament. Four 
hours weekly, first semester; two hours weekly, second semester. 
Juniors. Required. Prof. Vance. 



*Required of all students in either their middle or senior year. 
42 (78) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

16. The Life of Christ. Critical examination of the Gospel 
material. Constructive presentation of the material in order to 
understand Christ's method, purpose, and person. Modern inter- 
pretations. Two hours weekly, second semester (192 8-1929). Elec- 
tive. Prof. Vance. 

88. The Life of Paul. His Jewish Life; Christian experi- 
ence; missionary work; relation to Jewish and Gentile environ- 
ment. Two hours weekly, second semester (1926-1927). Elective. 
Prof. Vance. 

17. First Century Christianity. (See Early Church History, 
page 44). Prof. Eakin. 

73. History of Biblical Interpretation. (See Church History, 
page 45). Prof. Eakin. 

89. The Epistles to the Corinthians. Conditions of the early 
Christians in the midst of heathenism. Analysis; interpretation. 
Two hours weekly, second semester (1927-1928). Elective. Prof. 
Vance. 

90. The Gospel according to Mark. Characteristics; analy- 
sis; interpretation. Two hours weekly, first semester (1927-1928). 
Elective. Prof. Vance. 

91. The Acts of the Apostles. Reliahility as a source for 
early Christia^n History. Interpretation. Two hours weekly, first 
semester (19 2 6-19 27). Elective. Prof. Vance. 

67. Revelation. (See Biblical Apocalyptic, page 41). Elec- 
tive. Prof. Kelso. 

26. Theology of the New Testament. (See below). Sen- 
iors. Required. Prof. Vance. 



Biblical Theology 

25. Theology of the Old Testament. A comprehensive his- 
torical study of the religious institutions, rites, and teachings of the 
Old Testament. The Biblical material is studied with the aid of a 
syllabus and reference books. Two hours weekly. Offered in alter- 
nate years (1926-7). Elective. Open to Middlers, Seniors, and 
Graduates. Prof. Kelso. 

26. Theology of the New Testament. A careful study is 
made of the N. T. literature with the purpose of securing a first- 
hand knowledge of its theological teaching. While the work con- 
sists primarily of original research in the sources, sufficient collat- 
eral reading is required to insure an acquaintance with the litera- 
ture lof the subject. Two hours weekly throughout the year. Re- 
quired of Seniors, and open to Graduates. Prof. Vance. 

English Bible 

Great emphasis is laid upon the study of the English Bible 
through the entire Seminary course. In fact, more time is devoted 
to the study of the Bible in English than to any other single subject. 
For graduation, 46 term-hours of classroom work are required of 
each student. Of this total, 8 term-hours are taken up with the 

43 (79) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



exact scientific study of the Bible in tlie Englisli version, or in other 
words, more than one-fifth of the student's time is concentrated on 
the Bible in English. In addition to this minimum requirement, 
elective courses occupying 4 term-hours, are offered to students. 
For details in regard to courses in the English Bible, see under Old 
Testament Literature, p. 3 9f. and New Testament Literature, p. 
4 If. See especially the following courses: 

10. The Psalter, Hebrew Wisdom and Wisdom Literature (see 
p. 41). 

11. Old Testament Prophecy and Prophets (see p. 41). 

67. Biblical Apocalji^tic (see p. 41). 

69, The Book of Genesis (see p. 41). 

16. The Life of Christ (see p. 43). 

88. Life of Paul (see p. 43). 

89. L & II. Corintliians (see p. 43). 

90. Mark (see p. 43). 

91. Acts of the Apostles (see p. 43). 

61b. The Social Teaching of the New Testament (see p. 48). 

The English Bible is carefully and comprehensively studied in 
the department of Homiletics for homiletical purposes, the object 
being to determine the distinctive contents of its separate parts and 
their relation to each other, thus securing their proper and con- 
sistent construction in preaching, (see course 45). 



Church History 

Dr. Eakin 

30. General Church History: The Ancient and Mediaeval 
Periods. Two hours weekly throughout the year. Juniors. Re- 
quired. Prof. Eakin. 

31. General Church History: The Reformation and the 
Modern Period. Two hours weekly throughout the year. Middlers. 
Required. Prof. Eakin. 

In courses 3 and 31 the aim is to give the student a general 
view of the whole field of Christian history, from the beginning to 
the present time. In the courses which follow, periods and locali- 
ties of special interest are studied more intensively, or the general 
field is surveyed from the point of view of special interests and 
activities. 

17. Early Church History. The background of early Chris- 
tianity is traced, first on the Jewish and then on the Gentile side. 
This is followed by a sketch of the origin of the Christian move- 
ment itself and its development to the latter part of the second 
century. Two hours weekly throughout the year (192 6-7). Elec- 
tive. Prof. Eakin. 

32. The Reformation. The rise, progress, and effects of the 
movement, both on the Continent and in Great Britain, are traced. 
Two hours weekly, second semester (1927-8). Elective. Prof. 
Eakin. 

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The Bulletin of the M' est em Theological Seminary 

34. American Church History, The trainsplanting of Euro- 
pean faiths in America. The growth, controversies, and practical 
activities of the denominations. Progress to the situation of to- 
day. Two hours weekly, first semester (1927-8). Elective. Prof. 
Eakin. 

73, History of Biblical Intei-pretation. A study of the under- 
standing and use of the Scriptures by representative interpreters 
from the first century to the twentieth. Two hours weekly through- 
out the year (1926-7). Elective. Prof. Eakin. 

79. History of Christian Missions, Christianity's conquest 
of the Roman Empire, and later of northern Europe. The expan- 
sion of Christia-nity in the modern world since the Reformation. 
Particular attention given to the missionary advance in the nine- 
teenth and twentieth centuries. Two hours weekly, second semester 
(1927-8). Elective. Prof. Eakin. 

80. History of Christian Mysticism. The outcropping of the 
mystic temdency is traced through the history of the Church, atten- 
tion being given to the lives and writings of the leading Christian 
mystics in ancient, mediaeval, and modern times. Two hours 
weekly, first semester (1927-8). Elective. Prof. Eakin. 

Systematic Theology and Apologetics 
Dk. Snowdex 

37. Theology Proper and Apologetics. This course includes 
in theology proper the nature and sources of theology, the existence 
and attributes of God, the trinity, the deity of Christ, the Holy Spirit, 
the decrees of God. In apologetics it includes the problem of the 
personality of God, antitheistic theories of the universe, miracles, the 
problems connected with the inspiration of the Bible, and the virgin 
birth and the resurrection of Christ. Three hours weekly through- 
out the year. Juniors. Required. Prof. Snowden. 

39. Anthropology, Christology, and the Doctrines of Grace. 

Theories of the origin of man: the primitive state of man; the fall; 
the covenant of grace; the person of Christ; the satisfaction of 
Christ; theories of the atonement; the nature and extent of the 
atonement; intercession of Christ; kingly ofiice; the humiliation 
and exaltation of Christ; effectual calling, regeneration, faith, justi- 
fication, repentance, adoption, and sanctification; the law; the doc- 
trine of the last things; the state of the soul after death; the resur- 
rection; the second advent and its concomitants. Three hours 
weekly throughout the year. Middlers. Required. Prof. Snow- 
den. 

41a. Philosophy of Religion. A thorough discussion of the 
problems of theism and of Ritschlian and other modern theories. 
One hour weekly throughout the year. Seniors and Graduates. 
Elective. Prof. Snowden. 

41b. The Psychology of Religion. A study of the religious 
nature and activities of the soul in the light of recent psychology; 
and a course in modern theories of the ultimate basis and nature 
of religion. One hour weekly throughout the year. Seniors and 
Graduates. Elective. Prof. Snowden. 

45 (81) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Practical Theology 
Dr. Farmer, PRor. Sleeth, Mr. Boyd 

Including Homiletics, Pastoral Theology, Speech Expression, Church 
Music, The Sacraments, and Church Government 

A. Homiletics 

The course in Homiletics is designed to be strictly progressive, 
keeping step with the work in other departments. Students are ad- 
vanced from the simpler exercises to the more abstruse as they are 
prepared for this by their advance in exegesis and theology. 

Certain books of special reference are used in the department 
of Practical Theology, to which students are referred. Valuable new 
books are constantly being added to the library, and special addi- 
tions, in large numbers, have been made on subjects related to this 
department, particularly Pedagogics, Bible Class Work, Sociology, 
and Personal Evangelism. 

43. Public AVorship. A study of the principles underlying the 
proper conduct of public worship, with discussion of the various ele- 
ments which enter into it, such as the reading of Scripture, 
prayer, music, etc. One hour weekly, first semester. Juniors. 
Required. Prof. Farmer. 

45. Introduction to Homiletics. A study of the Scriptures 
with reference to their homiletic value. One hour weekly, first 
semester. Juniors. Required. Prof. Farmer. 

46. Homiletics. The principles governing the structure of the 
sermon considered as a special form of public discourse. The study 
of principles is accompanied by constant practice in the making of 
sermons which are used as a basis for classroom discussion. Two 
hours weekly, second semester. Juniors. Required. Prof. Farmer. 

74. Homiletics. This course is designed to give the necessary 
practice in the preparation and delivery of sermons. The students 
are required to preach before the class, and the sermons are criti- 
cized by the professor and the students in respect of content, form, 
and delivery. Two hours weekly, first semester, one hour weekly, 
second semester. Middlers. Required. Dr. Farmer. 

47. Advanced Homiletics. Historical and critical study of the 
work of representative preachers in all periods of the church's his- 
tory, with special emphasis on modern preaching as it is affected by 
the conditions 'of our time. Students are required to submit critical 
analyses of selected sermons and also sermons of their own, com- 
posed with reference to various particular needs and opportunities 
in modern life. One hour weekly throughout the year. Seniors. 
Required. Prof. Farmer. 

57a. Pastoral Care. A study of the principles underlying the 
work of the minister as he serves the spiritual welfare of men 
through more intimate personal contact, with practical suggestions 
for dealing with typical conditions and situations. One hour weekly, 
first semester. Seniors. Required. Prof. Farmer. 

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The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

57b. Pastoral Care. A study of the minister's relations 
to the community in which he lives, his problems and opportunities 
as a leader in community life through inter-church activities and 
other forms of united effort for civic and social betterment. One 
hour weekly, second semester. Seniors. Required. Prof Parmer. 

60. Administration. A comparative study of the various types 
of church polity, with special emphasis on the distinctive character- 
istics of the Presbyterian order, and the organization and procedure 
of its several structural units. The course covers also the whole 
field of administration in the individual church and the church at 
large. One hour weekly, second semester. Middlers. Required. 
Prof. Farmer. 

B. Speech Expression 

50. The Foundations of Expression. Imagination and sym- 
pathy. Phrasing, rhythm, and melody. Vocal technique: breath- 
ing, tone production, resonance, articulation. One hour weekly 
throughout the year. Juniors. Required. Prof. Sleeth. 

51. Oral Interpretation of the Scriptures. Reading from the 
platform. One hour weekly throughout the year. Middlers. Elec- 
tive. Prof. Sleeth. 

52. Platfoi-m Training in Delivery of Public Discoui'se. One 

hour weekly throughout the year. Seniors. Elective. Prof. Sleeth. 

C. Church Music 

The object of the course is primarily to instruct the student in 
the practical use of desirable Church Music; after that, to acquaint 
him, as far as is possible in a limited time, with good music in gen- 
eral. 

42. Hynmology. The place of Sacred Poetry in History. An- 
cient Hymns. Greek and Latin Hymns. German Hymns. Psal- 
mody. English Hymnology in its three periods. Proper use of 
Hymns and Psalms in public worship. Text book: Breed's "History 
and Use of Hymns and Hymn Tunes". One hour weekly, first sem- 
ester. Juniors. Required. Mr. Boyd. 

53. Hymn Tunes. History, Use, Practice. Text book: Breed's 
"History and Use of Hymns and Hymn Tunes". Practical Church 
Music: Choirs, Organs, Sunday School Music, Special Musical Ser- 
vices, Congregational Music. One hour weekly, second semester. 
Juniors. Required. Mr. Boyd. 

54. Practical Church Music. A year with the music of the 
"Hymnal", with a thorough examination and discussion lof its tunes. 
A new feature, started in 192 5, is the examination and discussion 
of special musical services for congregational participation, with 
actual use of various types. One hour weekly throughout the year. 
Middlers. Required. Mr. Boyd. 

55. Musical Appreciation. Illustrations and Lectures. One 
hour weekly throughout the year. Seniors. Elective. Mr. Boyd. 

56. Vocal Sight Reading and Choir Drill. Students who have 
sufficient musical experience are given opportunity for practice in 

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The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

choir direction or organ playing. Anthem selection and study. One 
hour weekly throughout the year. Offered in alternate years. Open 
to students of all classes. Elective. Mr. Boyd. 

D. The Cecilia Choir 

The Cecilia is a chorus of twenty-two voices, chosen from men 
and women in various city choirs, organized in 19 03 by Mr. Boyd 
to illustrate the work of the Music Department of the Seminary. 
It is in attendance every Monday evening at the Senior Preaching 
Service to lead the singing and set standards for the choir part of 
the service. During the year special programs of Church Music 
are given from time to time both in the. Seminary and in churches 
throughout the vicinity. The Cecilia has attained much more 
than a local reputation, especially for its performance of unaccom- 
panied vocal music. 

Christian Ethics and Sociology 
Dr. Snowden, De. Faemer 

61a. Christian Ethics. The Theory of Ethics considered con- 
structively from the point of view of Christian Faith. One hour 
weekly throughout the year. Seniors and graduates. Elective. Prof. 
Snowden. 

61b. The Social Teaching of the New Testament. This course 
is based upon the belief that the teachings of the New Testament, 
rightly interpreted and applied, afford ample guidance to the Chris- 
tian Church in her efforts to meet the conditions and problems which 
modern society presents. After an introductory discussion of the 
social teaching of the Prophets and the condition and structure of 
society in the time of Christ, the course takes up the teaching of 
Jesus as it bears upon the conditions and problems which must be 
met in the task of establishing the Kingdom of God upon the earth, 
and concludes with a study of the application of Christ's teaching 
to the social order of the Grsco-Roman world set forth in the Acts 
and the Epistles. One hour weekly throughout the year. Seniors 
and Graduates. Elective. Prof. Farmer. 



Missions and Comparative Religion 
Dr. Kelso, Dr. Culley 

The Edinburgh Missionary Council suggested certain special 
studies for missionary candidates in addition to the regular Semi- 
nary curriculum. These additional studies were Comparative Re- 
ligion, Phonetics, and the History and Methods of Missionary 
Enterprise. Thorough courses in Comparative Religion and Pho- 
netics have been introduced into the curriculum, while a brief lecture 
course on the third subject is given by various members of the 
faculty. It is the purpose of the institution to develop this depart- 
ment more fully. 

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A VIEW OF THE PARK FROM THE QUADRANGLE 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

63. Modem 3Iissions. A study of fields and modern methods; 
each student is required either to read a missionary biography 'or 
to investigate a missionary problem. One hour weekly, one sem- 
ester. Elective. Seniors and Graduates. 

64. Lectures on Missions. In addition to the instruction regu- 
larly given in the department of Church History, lectures on Missions 
are delivereed from time to time by able men who are practically fa- 
miliar with the work. The students have been addressed during 
the past year by several returned missionaries and Rev. Donald A. 
Irwin is giving a course on Modenn Missions, running through the 
second semester. 

65. Comparative Religion. A study of the origin and develop- 
ment of religion, with special investigation of Primitive Religion, 
Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, and Islam with regard to their 
bearing on Modern Missions. Two hours weekly. Offered in alter- 
nate years. (1925-6). Elective. Open to Middlers, Seniors, and 
Graduates. Prof. Kelso. 

68. Phonetics. A study of phonetics and the principles of 
language with special reference to the mission field. One hour 
weekly throughout the year. (192 5-6). Elective. Open to all 
classes. Prof. Culley. 

7b. Elementary Arabic (see p. 40). 



Religious Education 

MR. LE SOURD 

The purpose of these courses is to give the student a knowl- 
edge of the principles and methods 'of religious education. The 
field that is covered includes the psychological and pedagogical as- 
pects of the subject as well as the organization, principles, and 
methods of the Sunday School. They are open to Seniors, Middlers, 
and Graduates. Those who desire to specialize still further in this 
department have access to the courses in Pedagogy and Pychology 
at the University of Pittsburgh. 

75. Principles of Religious Education. A course in the theory 
which underlies the whole program of religious education. It will 
include the question of aims, both general and specific; the social 
point of view; evangelism through education; and the application 
of some of the findings of educational psychology and philosophy 
to the educational task of the' church. Two hours weekly, first 
semester (1926-7). Elective. Mr. Le Sourd. 

76. How to Teach Religion. A practical course in the teach- 
ing process, which will prepare for leadership of teacher training 
classes, and the supervision of teaching. Specific methods for va- 
rious age groups will be studied, along with the application of the 
project method to religious education. This course will be valu- 
able to those who will become supervisors of religious education. 
Two hours weekly, second semester (192 6-7). Elective. Mr. Le 
Sourd. 

77. Organization and Administration of Religious Education. 

This course considers the problems of organizing and administering 

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The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

religious education in the church and community. It deals with 
the Church School, Week-day Religious Education, the Daily Vaca- 
tion Bible School, Community Training School, and cooperating 
agencies in religious education. Two hours weekly, first semester 
(1925-6). Elective. Mr. Le Sourd. 

78. Curriculum Construction for Church Schools. This 
course is a study of the scientific development of curricula, and the 
analysis of religious ideals. Definite curriculum problems, having 
to do with particular situations and specific social conditions, will 
be studied. An experiment in actually constructing a curriculum 
will be carried on in the class. This course will prove helpful also 
in preaching. Two hours weekly, second semester (1925-6). Elec- 
tive, Mr. Le Sourd. 

41b. Tiie Psychology of Religion (see p. 45). 



curricuijUm courses in outline 

Junior Class 
1. Hebrew Grammar 

Prof. Culley 3 hours* 

8. History of the Hebrews 

Prof. Kelso . 2 hrs, 2nd. sem. 

87. Literature of the New Testament 

Prof. Vance 4 hrs. 1st., 2 hrs. 2nd sem. 

30. General Church History 

Prof. Eakin 2 hrs. 

37. Theology Proper and Apologetics 

Prof. Snowden 3 hrs. 

43. PubUc Worship 

Prof. Farmer 1 hr. 1st. sem. 

45. Introduction to Homiletics 

Prof. Farmer 1 hr. 1st. sem. 

46. Homiletics 

Prof. Farmer 2 hrs. 2nd sem. 

42. Hymnology 

Mr. Boyd 1 hr. 1st. sem. 

53. Hymn Tunes 

Mr. Boyd 1 hr. 2nd. sem. 

50. Foundations of Expression 

Prof. Sleeth 1 hr. 

* Unless otherwise indicated courses continue throughout the 
year. 

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The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Middle Class** 
8. History of the Hebrews 

Prof. Kelso 2 hrs. 2nd. sem. 

13. New Testament Greek 3 hrs. 

82. New Testament Syntax 

Prof. Vance 2 hrs. 1st. sem. 

83. The Epistle to the Galatians 

Prof. Vance 2 hrs. 2nd. sem. 

31. General Church History 

Prof. Eakin 2 hrs. 

39. Theology Proper 

Prof. Snowden 3 hrs. 

74. Homiletics 

Prof. Parmer .2 hrs. 1st. 1 hr. 2nd. sem. 

60. Administration 

Prof. Farmer 1 hr. 2nd. sem. 

54. Practical Church Music 

Mr. Boyd . 1 hr. 

Senior Class* 
11. Old Testament Prophecy 

Prof. Kelso 2 hrs. 

26. New Testament Theology 

Prof. Vance 2 hrs. 

47. Advanced Homiletics 

Prof. Farmer 1 hr. 

57. Pastoral Care 

Prof. Farmer 1 hr. 

Elective Courses 
2a. Rapid Reading of I Samuel or Judges 

Prof. Culley . . 1 hr. 

2b. Rapid Reading of Minor Prophets 

Hour to be arranged 
Prof. Culley 1 hr. 

3. Old Testament Exegesis 

Prof. Culley 2 hrs. 

**Mlddlers must elect either O. T. Exegesis 3 or O. T. Introduc- 
tion 12. 

*In addition to the required courses, Seniors must select eight 
hours per week from Electives. 

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The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



7a. Biblical Aranialc 

Hours to be arranged 
Prof. Culley 

7b. Elementary Arabic 

Hours to be arranged 
Prof. Culley 

7c. Elementary Assyrian 

Hours to be arranged 
Prof. Kelso 

4. Exegetical Study of the Psalter 

Prof. Culley 1 hr. 

5. Exegeitical Study of Isaiah 

Prof. Kelso (1926-7) 1 hr. 

6. Proverbs and Job Interpreted 

Hour to be arranged 
Prof. Kelso (1925-6) 1 hr. 

10. Ciitical Study in English of the Psalter and Wisdom Literature 

Hour to be arranged 
Prof. Kelso 1 hr. 2nd. sem. 

12. Old Testament Introduction 

Prof. Culley 2 hrs. 

25. Old Testament Theology 

Prof. Kelso (1926-7) 2 hrs. 

67. Biblical Apocalyptic 

Hour to be arranged 
Prof. Kelso (1925-6) 1 hr. 

69. Critical Study of Genesis in English 

Hours to be arranged 
Prof. Kelso (1926-7) 2 hrs. one sem. 

81. Advanced Greek 

Prof. Vance 2 hrs. 2nd. sem. 

20a. The Epistle to the Romans 

Prof. Vance (1927-8) 2 hrs. 2nd. sem. 

20b. The Epistle to the Hebrews 

Prof. Vance (1928-9) . . 2 hrs. 2nd. sem. 

24. The Epistles of James and Peter 

Prof. Vance (1927-8) 2 hrs 1st. sem. 

84. The Epistles to the Colossians and Ephesians 

Prof. Vance (1928-9) 2 hrs. 1st. sem. 

85. The Gospel according to Matthew 

Prof. Vance (1926-7) 2 hrs. 1st. sem. 

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The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

86. The Pastoral Epistles 

Prof. Vance (1926-7) 2 hrs. 2nd. sem. 

16. The Life of Christ 

Prof. Vance (1928-9) 2 hrs. 2nd. sem. 

88. The Life of Paul 

Prof. Vance (1926-7) 2 hrs. 2nd. sem. 

89. The Epistles to the Corinthians 

Prof. Vance (1927-8) 2 hrs. 2nd. sem. 

90. The Gospel according to Mark 

Prof. Vance (1927-8) 2 hrs. 1st. sem. 

91. The Acts of the Apostles 

Prof. Vance (1926-7) 2 hrs. 1st. sem. 

17. Early Church History 

Prof. Eakin (1926-7) 2 hrs. 

32. The Reformation 

Prof. Eakin (1927-8) 2 hrs. 2nd. sem. 

34. American Church History 

Prof. Eakin (1927-8) 2 hrs. 1st. sem. 

73. History of Biblical Intei-pretation 

Prof. Eakin (1926-7) 2 hrs. 

79. History of Christian Missions 

Prof. Eakin (1927-8) 2 hrs. 2nd. sem. 

80. History of Chi'istian Mysticism 

Prof. Eakin (1927-8) 2 hrs. 1st. sem. 

41a. Philosophy of Religion 

Prof. Snowden 1 hr. 

41b. Psychology of Religion 

Prof. Snowden 1 hr. 

51. Oral InteiT)retation of the Scriptures 

Prof. Sleeth 1 hr. 

52. Platfonn Delivery 

Prof. Sleeth 1 hr. 

55. Musical Appreciation 

Mr. Boyd 1 hr. 

56. Vocal Sight Reading 

Mr. Boyd 1 hr. 

Ola. Christian Ethics 

Prof. Snowden 1. hr. 

61b. Social Teaching of the New Testament 

Prof. Farmer 1 hr. 

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The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

63. Modem Missions 

Hour to be arranged 

65. Comparative Religion 

Prof. Kelso (1925-6) 2 hrs. 

68. Phonetics 

Prof. Culley (1925-6) 1 hr. 

75. Principles of Religious Education 

Mr. Le Sourd (1926-7) 2 hrs. 1st. sem. 

76. How to Teach Religion 

Mr. Le Sourd (1926-7) 2 hrs. 2nd. sem. 

77. Organization and Administration of Religious Education 

Mr. Le Sourd (1925-6) 2 hrs. 1st sem. 

78. Curriculum Constniction for Church Schools 

Mr. Le Sourd (1925-6) 2 hrs 2nd sem. 

Reports to Presbyteries 

Presbyteries having students under their care re- 
ceive annual reports from the Faculty concerning the 
attainments of the students in scholarship and their at- 
tendance upon the exercises of the Seminary. 

Graduate Studies 

The Seminary confers the degree of Master of 
Sacred Theology on students who complete a fourth 
year of study. 

This degree will be granted under the following con- 
ditions : 

(1) The applicant must have a Bachelor's de- 
gree from a college of recognized standing. 

(2) He must be a graduate of this or of some 
other theological seminary. In case he has gradu- 
ated from another seminary, which does not require 
Greek and Hebrew for its diploma, the candidate 
must take in addition to the above requirements the 
following courses: Hebrew, 1 and 3; New Testa- 
ment, 13 or its equivalent, and 82 and 83. 

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The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

(3) He must be in residence at this Seminary 
at least one academic year and complete courses 
equivalent to twelve hours per week of regular cur- 
riculum work. 

(4) He shall be required to devote two-thirds 
of said time to one subject, which will be called a 
major, and the remainder to another subject termed 
a minor. 

In the department of the major he shall be re- 
quired to write a thesis of not less than 4,000 words. 
The subject of this thesis must be presented to the 
professor at the head of this department for ap- 
proval, not later than November 15th of the aca- 
demic year at the close of which the degree is to be 
conferred. By April 1st a typewritten copy of this 
thesis is to be in the hands of the professor for ex- 
amination. At the close of the year he shall pass a 
rigid examination in both major and minor subjects. 

(5) Members of the senior class may receive 
this degree, provided that they attain rank ''A" in 
all departments and complete the courses equivalent 
to such twelve hours of curriculum work, in addition 
to the regular curriculum, which twelve hours of 
work may be distributed throughout the three years ' 
course, upon consultation with the professors. All 
other conditions as to major and minor subjects, 
theses, etc., shall be the same as for graduate stu- 
dents, except that in this case students must elect 
their major and minor courses at the opening of the 
middle year, and give notice October 1st of that year 
that they expect to be candidates for this degree. 

Relations with University of Pittsburgh 

The post-graduate courses of the University of Pitts- 
burgh are open to the students of the Seminary. The 
A. M. degree will be conferred on students of the Sem- 

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TJie Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

inary who complete graduate courses of the University 
requiring a minimum of three hours of work for two 
years, and who prepare an acceptable thesis ; and, on ac- 
count of the proximity of the University, all require- 
ments for residence may be satisfied by those who desire 
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. 

The following formal regulations have been adopted 
by the Graduate Faculty of the University of Pittsburgh 
with reference to the students of the Seminary who de- 
sire to secure credits at the University. 

1. That non-technical theological courses (i. e., 
those in linguistics, history, Biblical literature, and 
philosophy) be accepted for credit toward advanced 
degrees in arts and sciences, under conditions de- 
scribed in the succeeding paragraphs. 

2. That no more than one-third of the total 
number of credits required for the degrees of A. M. 
or M. S. and Ph. D. be of the character referred to in 
paragraph 1. In the case of the Master's degree, 
this maximun credit can be given only to students in 
the Western Theological Seminary and the Pitts- 
burgh Theological Seminary. 

3. That the acceptability of any course offered 
for such credit be subject to the approval of the 
Council. The Council shall, as a body or through 
a committee, pass upon (1) the general merits of 
the courses offered; and (2) their relevancy to the 
major selected by the candidate. 

4. That the direction and supervision of the 
candidate's courses shall be vested in the University 
departments concerned. 

5. That in every case in which the question of 
the duplication of degree is raised, by reason of the 
candidate's offering courses that have already been 
credited toward the B. D. or other professional de- 
gree in satisfaction of the requirements for advanced 

56 (92) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

degrees in arts and sciences, the matter of accepta- 
bility of such courses shall be referred to a special 
committee consisting of the head of the department 
concerned and such other members of the Graduate 
Faculty as the Dean may select. 

6. That the full requirements as regards resi- 
dence, knowledge of modern languages, theses, etc., 
of the University of Pittsburgh be exacted in the 
case of candidates who may take advantage of these 
privileges. In the case of the Western Theological 
Seminary and the Pittsburgh Theological Seminary, 
this paragraph shall not be interpreted to cancel 
paragraph 2, that a maximum of one-third of the 
total number of credits for the Master's degree may 
be taken in the theological schools. 

The minimum requirement for the Master's degree 
is the equivalent of twelve hours throughout three terms, 
or what we call thirty-six term-hours. According to the 
above resolutions a minimum of twenty-four term-hours 
should be taken at the University. 

Fellowships and Prizes 

1. A fellowship paying $600 is assigned upon grad- 
uation to that member of the senior class who has the 
best standing in all departments of the Seminary 
curriculum, but to no one falling below an average 
of 85 percent. It is offered to those who take the entire 
course of three years in this institution. The recipient 
must pledge himself to a year of post-graduate study at 
some institution approved by the Faculty. He is required 
to furnish quarterly reports of his progress. The money 
will be paid in three equal installments on the first day 
of October, January, and April, Prolonged absence 
from the classroom in the discharge of extra-seminary 
duties makes a student ineligible for the fellowship. 

57 (93) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

2. The Michael Wilson Keith Memorial Homiletical 
Prize of $100.00. This prize was founded in 1919 by the 
Keith Bible Class of the First Presbyterian Church of 
Coraopolis, Pa., by an endowment of two thousand 
dollars in memory of the Rev. Michael "Wilson Keith, 
D. D., the founder of the class, and pastor of the church 
from 1911 to 1917. This foundation was established in 
grateful remembrance of his service to his country as 
Chaplain of the 111th Infantry Regiment. He fell while 
performing his duty at the front in France. It is 
awarded to a member of the senior class who has spent 
three years in this Seminary and has taken the highest 
standing in the department of homiletics. The winner 
of the prize is expected to preach in the First Presby- 
terian Church of Coraopolis and teach the Keith Bible 
Class one Sunday after the award is made. 

3. A prize in Hebrew is offered to that member of 
the junior class who maintains the highest standing 
in this subject throughout the junior year. The prize 
consists of a copy of the Oxford Hebrew-English Lexi- 
con, a copy of the latest English translation of Gesenius- 
Kautzsch's Hebrew Grammar or a copy of Davidson's 
Hebrew Syntax, and a copy of the Hebrew Bible edited 
by Kittel. 

4. All students reaching the grade "A" in all de- 
partments during the junior year will be entitled to a 
prize of $50, which will be paid in four installments in 
the middle year, provided that the recipient continues 
to maintain the grade "A" in all departments during the 
middle year. Prizes of the same amount and under 
similar conditions will be available for seniors, but no 
student whose attendance is unsatisfactory wiU be eli- 
gible to these prizes. 

5. In May 1914, Miss Anna M. Reed, of Cross 
Creek, Pa., established a scholarship with an endowTnent 
of three thousand dollars, to be known as the Andrew 

58 (94) 



The Bulletin of ilie Western Theological Seminary 

Reed Scholarship, with the following conditions: The 
income of this scholarship to be awarded to the student 
who upon entering shall pass the best competitive exam- 
ination in the English Bible; the successful competitor 
to have the use of it throughout the entire course of 
three years, provided that his attendance and class stand- 
ing continue to be satisfactory.* 

6. In February 1919, Mrs. Eobert A. Watson, of 
Columbus, Ohio, established a prize with an endowment 
of one thousand dollars, to be known as the John Watson 
Prize in New Testament Greek. It will be awarded to 
that member of the Senior Class who, having elected 
Greek exegesis, shall submit the best grammatical and 
exegetical treatment of an assigned portion of the Greek 
New Testament. The prize will be available for mem- 
bers of the Class of 1927. The passage for the 1927 
assignment is Philippians 2:1-18. 

7. In September 1919, Mrs. Robert A. Watson, of 
Columbus, Ohio, established a prize with an endowment 
of one thousand dollars, to be knowm as the William B. 
Watson Prize in Hebrew. It will be awarded to that 
member of the Senior Class who, having elected Hebrew, 
shall submit the best grammatical and exegetical treat- 
ment of an assigned portion of the Hebrew Old Testa- 
ment. The prize will be available for members of the 
Class of 1927. The passage for the 1927 assignment is 
Psalm 68. 

8. In July 1920, Mrs. Robert A. Watson, of Colum- 
bus, Ohio, with an endowment of $1,000, established the 
Joseph Watson Greek Prize, to be awarded to the stu- 
dent who passes the best examination in classical Greek 
as he enters the junior class of the Seminary. The prize 
will be available in September 1926. The assignment 
upon which the examination will be given in Xenophon 's 
Anabasis, Book II, or Plato's Apology, Chapters I-X. 

*The income from this fund is not available at present. 
59 (95) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

9. At their ten-year reunion (May 1921), the class 
of 1911 raised a fund of one hundred dollars, to be 
offered as a prize by the faculty to the member of the 
senior class (1922) who had maintained the highest 
standing in the Greek language and exegesis during the 
three years of his course. This prize was awarded at 
the Commencement in 1922. 

10. Two entrance prizes of $150 each are offered by 
the Seminary to college graduates presenting themselves 
for admission to the junior class. The scholarships a\^111 
be awarded upon the basis of a competitive examination 
subject to the following conditions : 

(I) Candidates must, not later than September 
1st, indicate their intention to compete, and such state- 
ment of their purpose must be accompanied by certifi- 
cates of college standing and mention of subjects elected 
for examination. 

(II) , Candidates must be graduates of high stand- 
ing in the classical course of some accepted college or 
university, 

(III) The examinations will be conducted on 
Thursday, Friday, and Saturday of the opening week of 
the first semester. 

(IV) The election of subjects for examination shall 
be made from the following list: (1) Classical Greek 
— Greek Grammar, translation of Greek prose, Greek 
composition; (2) Latin — Latin Grammar, translation of 
Latin prose, Latin composition; (3) Hebrew — Hebrew 
Grammar, translation of Hebrew prose, Hebrew composi- 
tion; (4) German — translation of German into English 
and English into German; (5) French— translation of 
French into English and English into French ; (6) Philo- 
sophy — (a) History of Philosophy, (b) Psychology, 
(c) Ethics, (d) Metaphysics; (7) History — (a) Ancient 
Oriental History, (b) Grgeco-iloman History to A. D. 
476, (c) Mediaeval History to the Eeformation, (d) 
Modern History. 

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The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

(V) Each competitor shall elect from the above 
list four subjects for examination, among which subjects 
Greek shall always be included. Each division of Phil- 
osophy and History shall be considered one subject. No 
more than one subject in Philosophy and no more than 
one subject in History may be chosen by any one candi- 
date. 

(VI) The awards of the scholarshij)S will be made 
to the two competitors passing the most satisfactory ex- 
aminations, provided their average does not fall below 
ninety per cent. The payment will be made in two in- 
stallments, the first at the time the award is made, and 
the second on April 1st. Failure to maintain a high 
standard in classroom work or prolonged absence will 
debar the recipients from receiving the second install- 
ment. 

The intention to compete for the prize scholarships 
should be made knowTi, in writing, to the President. 



Donations and Bequests 

All donations or bequests to the Seminary should be 
made to the "Trustees of the Western Theological Sem- 
inary of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of 
America, located in xlllegheny Cit}', Penns^dvania". 
The proper legal form for making a bequest is as follows : 

I hereby give and bequeath to the Trustees of the 
Western Theological Seminary, of the Presbyterian 
Church in the United States of America, incorporated 
in the State of Pennsylvania, the following : — 

Note : — If the person desires the Seminary to get the 
full amount designated, free of tax, the following state- 
ment should be added : — The collateral inheritance tax to 
be paid out of my estate. 

In this connection the present financial needs of the 
Seminary may be arranged in tabular form : 

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The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Chair of Apologetics . . $100,000 

Apartment for Professors 100,000 

Apartment for Missionaries 100,000 

Chair of Religious Education and Missions 100,000 

General Endowment 500,000 

Library Fund 30,000 

Two Fellowships, $20,000, each 40,000 

The Memorial idea may be carried out either in the 
erection of one of these buildings or in the endowment of 
any of the funds. During recent years the Sem- 
inary has made considerable progress in securing new 
equipment and additions to the endowment funds. One 
of the recent gifts was that of $100,000 to endow the 
President's Chair. This donation was made by the Rev, 
Nathaniel W. Conkling, D. D., a member of the class of 
1861. In May 1912, the new dormitory building, costing 
$146,097, was dedicated, and four years later, May 4, 
1916, Herron Hall and Swift Hall, the north and south 
wings of the new quadrangle, were dedicated. During 
this period the Seminary has also received the endow- 
ment of a missionary lectureship from the late Mr. L. H. 
Severance, of Cleveland; and, through the efforts of Dr. 
Breed, an endowment of $15,000 for the instructor ship 
in music; as well as eight scholarships amounting to 
$22,331.10. 

In the year 1918 a lectureship was established 
by a gift of $5,000 from Mrs. Janet I. Watson, of Colum- 
bus, Ohio, in memory of her husband. Rev. Robert A. 
Watson, a member of the class of 1874. Mrs. Watson has 
also founded the James L. Shields Book Purchasing 
Memorial Fund, with an endowment of $1,000, in memory 
of her father, the late James L. Shields, of Blairsville, 
Pennsylvania. 

During the year 1919 Mrs. Watson established two 
prizes, each with an endowment of $1,000 : (1) The John 
Watson Prize in New Testament Greek, in memory of her 
husband's father, Rev. John Watson; (2) The Rev. 

62 (98) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

William B. Watson Hebrew Prize, in memory of Rev. 
William B. Watson, a member of the class of 1868 and a 
brother of Eev. Robert A. Watson. 

Also during the year 1919 the Michael Wilson Keith 
Memorial Homiletical Prize of $100 was founded by the 
Keith Bible Class of the First Presbyterian Church of 
Coraopolis, Pa., by an endowment of two thousand 
dollars in memory of the Rev. Michael Wilson Keith, 
D. D., the founder of the class and pastor of the church 
from 1911-1917. This foundation was established in 
grateful remembrance of Dr. Keith's service to his coun- 
try as Chaplain of the 111th Infantry Regiment. He fell 
while performing his duty at the front in France. 

In December 1919, a friend of the Seminary, by a 
contribution of $2,500, established a Students' Loan and 
Self-help Fund. The principal is to be kept intact and 
the income is available for loans to students which may 
be repaid after graduation. 

In July 1920, Mrs. R. A. Watson established, with 
an endowment of $1,000, the Joseph Watson Greek Prize, 
in memory of her husband's youngest brother. 

In Nov. 1919 a member of the Board made a contri- 
bution of ten thousand dollars to the endowment fund. 
During the same year one of the holders of annuity 
bonds cancelled them to the sum of $7,500. In addition 
a legacy of $25,000 was received from the Estate of 
James Laughlin, Jr. 

During the year 1923 a donation of $5,000 was re- 
ceived from the J. B. Finley Estate. 

At their ten-year reimion (May 1921), the Class of 
1911 raised a fund of one hundred dollars, to be offered 
as a prize by the faculty to the member of the senior class 
(1922) who had maintained the highest standing in the 
Greek language and exegesis during the three years of 
his course. This prize was awarded at the Commence- 
ment 1922. 

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The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

The whirlwind campaign of October 24 — November 
3, 1913, resulted in subscriptions amounting to $135,000. 
This money was used in the erection of the new Admin- 
istration Building, to take the place of Seminary Hall. 
A friend of the Seminary has subscribed $50,000 for the 
erection of a chapel; as soon as conditions in the busi- 
ness world become more normal, the chapel will be 
erected according to plans already adopted. Attention is 
called to the special needs of the Seminary — ^the endow- 
ment, of additional professorships and the completion of 
the building program. 

List of Scholarships 

1, The Thomas Patterson Scholarship, founded in 1829, by 

Thomas Patterson, of Upper St. Clair, Allegheny County, Pa. 

2. The McNeely Scholarship, founded by Miss Nancy McNeely, of 

Steubenville, Ohio. 
b. The Dornan Scholarship, founded by James Dornan, of Wash- 
ington County, Pa. 

4. The O'Hara Scholarship, founded by Mrs. Harmar Denny, of 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 

5. The Smith Scholarship, founded by Robin Smith, of Allegheny 

County, Pa. 

6. The Ohio Smith Scholarship, founded by Robert W. Smith, of 

Fairfield County, O. 

7. The Dickinson Scholarship, founded by Rev. Richard W. Dick- 

inson, D.D., of New York City. 

8. The Jane McCrea Patterson Scholarship, founded bj- Joseph 

Patterson, of Pittsburgh, Pa. 

9. The Hamilton Scott Easter Scholarship, founded by Hamilton 

Easter, of Baltimore, Md. 

10. The Corning Scholarship, founded by Hanson K. Corning, of 

New York City. 

11. The Emma B. Corning Scholarship, founded by her husband, 

Hanson K. Corning, of New York City. 

12. The Susan C. Williams Scholarship, founded by her husband, 

Jesse L. Williams, of Ft. Wayne, Ind. 

13. The Mary P. Keys Scholarship, No. 1, founded by herself. 

14. The Mary P. Keys Scholarship, No. 2, founded by herself. 

15. The James L. Carnaghan Scholarship, founded by James L. 

Carnaghan, of Sewickley, Pa. 

16. The A. M. Wallingford Scholarship, founded by A. M. Walling- 

ford, of Pittsburgh, Pa. 

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HEREON HALL 



TJie Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

17. The Alexander Cameron Scholarship, founded by Alexander 

Cameron, of Allegheny, Pa. 

18. The "First Presbyterian Church of Kittanning, Pa." Scholar- 

ship. 

19. The Rachel Dickson Scholarship, founded by Rachel Dickson, 

of Pittsburgh, Pa. 

20. The Isaac Cahill Scholarship, founded by Isaac Cahill, of Bu- 

cyrus, O. 

21. The Margaret Cahill Scholarship, founded by Isaac Cahill, of 

Bucyrus, O. 

22. The "H. E. B." Scholarship, founded by Rev. Charles C. Beatty, 

D.D., LL.D., of Steubenville, O. 

23. The "C. C. B." Scholarship, founded by Rev. Charles C. Beatty, 

D.D., LL.D., of Steubenville, O. 

24 The Koonce Scholarship, founded by Hon. Charles Koonce, of 
Clark, Mercer County, Pa. 

25. The Fairchild Scholarship, founded by Rev. Elias R. Fair- 

child, D.D., of Mendham, N. J. 

26. The Allen Scholarship, founded by Dr. Richard Steele, Execu- 

tor, from the estate of Electa Steele Allen, of Auburn, N. Y. 

27. The "L. M. R. B." Scholarship, founded by Rev. Charles C. 

Beatty, D.D., LL.D., of Steubenville, O. 

28. The "M. A. C. B." Scholarship, founded by Rev. Charles C. 

Beatty, D.D., LL.D., of Steubenville, O. 

29. The Sophia Houston Carothers Scholarship, founded by herself. 

30. The Margaret Donahey Scholarship, founded by Margaret 

Donahey, of Washington County, Pa. 

31. The Melanchthon W. Jacobus Scholarship, founded by will of 

his deceased wife. 

32. The Charles Burleigh Conkling Scholarship, founded by his 

father. Rev. Nathaniel W. Conkling, D.D., of New York City. 

33. The Redstone Memorial Scholarship, founded in honor of Red- 

stone Presbytery. 

34. The John Lee Scholarship, founded by himself. 

35. The James McCord Scholarship, founded by John D. McCord, of 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

36. The Elisha P. Swift Scholarship. 

37. The Gibson Scholarship, founded by Charles Gibson, of Law- 

rence County, Pa. 

38. The New York Scholarship. 

39. The Mary Foster Scholarship, founded by Mary Foster, of 

Greensburg, Pa. 

40. The Lea Scholarship, founded in part by Rev. Richard Lea and 

by the Seminary. 

41. The Kean Scholarship, founded by Rev. William F. Kean, of 

Sewickley, Pa. 

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The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

42. The Murry Scholarship, founded by Rev. Joseph A. Murry, 

D.D., of Carlisle, Pa. 

43. The Moorhead Scholarship, founded by Mrs. Annie C. Moor- 

head, of Pittsburgh, Pa. 

44. The Craighead Scholarship, founded by Rev. Richard Craig- 

head, of Meadville, Pa. 

45. The George H. Starr Scholarship, founded by Mr. George H. 

Starr, of Sewickley, Pa. 

46. The William R. Murphy Scholarship, founded by William R. 

Murphy, of Pittsburgh, Pa. 

47. The Mary A. McClurg Scholarship, founded by Miss Mary A. 

McClurg. 

48. The Catherine R. Negley Scholarship, founded by Catherine R. 

Negley. 

49. The Jane C. Dinsmore Scholarship, founded by Jane C. Dins- 

more. 

50. The Samuel Collins Scholarship, founded by Samuel Collins. 

51. The A. G. McCandless Scholarship, founded by A. G. McCand- 

less, of Pittsburgh, Pa. 

52-53. The W. G. and Charlotte T. Taylor Scholarships, founded by 
Rev. W. G. Taylor, D.D. 

54. The William A. Robinson Scholarship, founded by John F. 

Robinson in memory of his father. 

55. The Alexander C. Robinson Scholarship, founded by John F. 

Robinson in memory of his brother. 

56. The David Robinson Scholarship, founded by John F. Robinson 

in memory of his brother. 

57-58. The Robert and Charles Gardner Scholarships, founded by 
Mrs. Jane Hogg Gardner in memory of her sons. 

59. The Joseph Patterson, Jane Patterson, and Rebecca Leech 

Patterson Scholarship, founded by Mrs. Joseph Patterson, 
of Philadelphia, Pa. 

60. The Jane and Mary Patterson Scholarship, founded by Mrs. 

Joseph Patterson. 

61. The Joseph Patterson Scholarship, founded by Mrs. Joseph 

Patterson. 

62. The William Woodward Eells Scholarship, founded by his 

daughter, Anna Sophia Eells. 

*63. The Andrew Reed Scholarship, founded by his daughter, Anna 
M. Reed. 

64. The Bradford Scholarship, founded by Benjamin Rush Brad- 

ford. 

65. The William Irwin Nevin Scholarship, founded by Theodore 

Hugh Nevin and Hannah Irwin Nevin. 



*Special Prize Scholarship (vide p. 59). 
€6 (102) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Special Funds 

The James L. Shields Book Purchasing Memorial Fund. 
The James H. Lyon Loan Fund. 
Students' Loan and Self-help Fund. 



Lectureships 

The Elliott Lectureship. The endowment for this 
lectureship was raised by Prof. Robinson among the 
alumni and friends of the Seminary as a memorial to 
Prof. David Elliott, who served the institution from 1836 
to 1874. Several distinguished scholars have delivered 
lectures on this foundation : the Rev. Professor Alexan- 
der F. Mitchell, D. D., Principal Fairbairn, the Rev. B. C. 
Henry, D. D., the Rev. J. S. Dennis, D. D., Prof. James 
Orr, D. D., the Rev. Hugh Black, D. D., the Rev. David 
Smith, D. D., President A, T. Ormond, the Rev. Prof. 
Samuel Angus, Ph. D., and the Rev. John Mackintosh 
Shaw, D. D. 

The L. H. Severance Missionary Lectureship. 
This lectureship has been endowed by the generons gift 
of the late Mr. L. H. Severance, of Cleveland, Ohio. The 
first course of lectures on this foundation was given dur- 
ing the term of 1911-12, by Mr. Edward Warren Capen, 
Ph. D., of the Hartford School of Missions. The subse- 
quent courses were delivered as follows: 1914-15, the 
Rev. Arthur J. Brown, D. D.; 1915-16, the Rev. S. G. 
Wilson, D. D. ; October, 1917 (postponed from the term 
1916-17), the Rev. A. Woodruff Halsey, D. D. ; Januarv, 
1918, the Rev. J. C. R. Ewing, D. D., LL. D., C. I. 
E.; September, 1919, the Rev. Robert F. Fitch, D. D.; 
November, 1922, the Rev. J. Stewart Kunkle; December, 
1923, the Rev. Robert F. Fitch, D. D. The ninth course 
was given as classroom lectures, one hour per week dur- 
ing the first semester 1924-5 by the Rev. Frank B. 
Llewellyn. The tenth course is being given as classroom 
lectures, one hour per week during the second semester 
1925-6, by the Rev. Donald A. Irwin. 

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The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

The Robert A. Watsoist Memorial Lectureship. 
This lectureship was endowed in May, 1918, by Mrs. 
Janet I. Watson, of Columbus, Ohio, as a memorial to 
her husband, Eev. Robert A. Watson, D. D., a graduate 
of the Seminary class of 1874. 



Seminary Extension Lectures 

In recent years a new departure in the work of the 
Seminary has been the organization of Seminary Exten- 
sion courses. Since the organization of this work the 
following courses of lectures have been given in various 
city and suburban churches : 

(1) "The Sacraments", four lectures, by Rev. 
David R. Breed, D. D., LL. D. 

(2) "Social Teaching of the New Testament", 
six lectures, by Rev. William R. Farmer, D. D. 

(3) "Theology of the Psalter", four lectures, by 
President Kelso. 

(4) "Prophecy and Prophets", four lectures, by 
President Kelso. 

(5) "The Fundamentals of Christianity", five 
lectures, by Rev. James H. Snowden, D. D., LL. D. 

(6) "The Psychology of Religion", five lectures, 
by Rev. James H. Snowden, D. D., LL. D. 

(7) "The Personality of God", five lectures, by 
Rev. James H. Snowden, D. D., LL. D. 

(8) "Crises in the Life of Christ", four lectures, by 
Rev. Selby Frame Vance, D. D., LL. D. 

(9) "Jerusalem" and "Petra", two illustrated 
lectures, by President Kelso. 



68 (104) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



ALUMNI ASSOCIATION 

OFFICERS FOR 1925-6 

President 

The REV. LEROY LAWTHER 
Class of 1917 

Vice Presidents 

The REV. J. NORMAN HUNTER 

Class of 1912 
The REV. CHARLES C. CRIBBS 

Class of 1911 

Secretary 

The REV. GEORGE C. FISHER, D. D. 
Class of 1903 

Treasurer 

The REV. R. H. ALLEN, D. D. 
Class of 1900 

EXECUTIVE COIVIMITTEE 

President, Vice Presidents, Secretarj% Treasurer, President of Sem- 

inaiy, ex officio 

NECROLOGICAL COMMITTEE 

The REV. R. H: ALLEN, D. D. 
The REV. J. A. KELSO, Ph.D., D.D., LL.D. 



69 (105) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



DIRECTORY 

Assistant to Librarian .. . .A.L. Middler M. 

Director D. President Pres. 

Fellow F. Professor Prof. 

General Secretary G.S. Registrar R. 

Graduate G. Secretary Sec. 

Instructor I. Senior S. 

Junior J. Trustee Tr. 

Librarian L. 



Ashley, Rev. William A M.909 Franklin Ave., Wilkinsburg 

Alexander, Rev. Maitland, D.D. . .D 920 Ridge Ave., N. S. 

Allen, Rev. David K F Majnont, Pa. 

Allender, B. E J 217 

Anderson, Rev. T. B., D.D. . . . D Beaver Falls, Pa. 

Baker, Dr. S. S D . WasBington, Pa. 

Baldwin, H. Wayland J 1008 Zahniser St. 

Blews, H. C J 100 Ruth St., Mt. Wash. Sta. 

Boyd, Charles N I 131 Bellefield Ave. 

Brandon, W. D D Butler, Pa. 

Breed, Rev. D. R., D.D Prof Bellefield Dwellings 

Campbell, R. D Pres. of T 6210 Walnut St. 

*Campbell, Rev. W. 0., D.D. . . D Sewickley, Pa. 

Carpenter, J. McF T . Frick Annex 

Chandler, Rev. H. E S 203 

Christie, Rev. J. W., D.D D. . . .103 E-Auburn Ave. Cin. O. 

Christopher, F. O S Y. M. C. A., Butler, Pa. 

Clark, Rev. John A S Westmoreland City, Pa. 

Clemson, D.D T Carnegie Building 

Conley, Rev. C. S G R. F. D. 2, Parnassus, Pa. 

Cooper, Thos. F M 205 

Coulter, C. M M 306 

Craig, Rev. W. R., D.D D Latrobe, Pa. 

Crutchfield, J. S d 2034 Penn Avenue 

Culley, Rev. D. E., Ph.D Prof. & R 57 Belvidere St., 

Crafton, Pa. 

Davidson, Rev. D. B G Hickory, Pa. 

Dickson, C. A T 316 Fourth Avenue 

Duff, Rev. J . M., D.D D 1641 Shady Avenue 

♦Deceased 

70 (106) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Eakin, Rev. Frank, Ph.D Prof. & L 90 Pilgrim. Road, 

Rosslyn Farms, Carnegie, Pa. 

Eakin, J. L S 302 

Edwards, George D T Commonwealth Trust Co., 

Fourth Ave. 

Elder, N. C S. . 302 

Ewing, T. D M 303 

Farmer, Rev. W. R., D.D Prof 936 Ridge Ave., N. S. 

Fawcett, James E J 52 Waldorf St., N. S. 

Fisher, Rev. George C, D.D D 5519 Wellesley Avenue 

Fisher, Rev. S. J., D.D Sec. of T. . . .5611 Kentucky Ave. 

Forney, G. L J 204 

France, C. K M 305 

Fruit, B. S ,M 4 Trueman St., N. S. 

Garner, J. H S 206 

Gerrard, Paul T S 304 

Gillespie, J. H S 304 

Gilleland, William A M 217 

Gregg, John R ,T P. O. Box 481, Pittsburgh 

Griswold, Wells S D 102 Woodbine Ave.. 

Youngstown, O. 

Hall, Rev. F. M G 1731 Wymore Ave., 

Cleveland, O. 

Hanna, C. N D Bellefield Dwellings 

Harbison, R. W D. & T. . . 1317 Farmers Bk. Bldg. 

Haynes, D. M M 316 

Hays, Rev. C. C, D.D D 304 Granite Building 

Hazlett, Paul H M 318 

Held, Rev. C. E G 2112 Rockledge St., N. S. 

Herron, Joseph A T Monongahela City, Pa. 

Higgins, Miss Sara M A. L Glenshaw, Pa. 

Higley, Rev. A. P., D.D D..2020 E. 79th St., Cleveland, O. 

Hinitt, Rev. F. W., D.D D Indiana, Pa. 

Holland, Rev. W. J., D.D .T 5545 Forbes Avenue 

Homer, Lloyd D M 206 

Hudnut, Herbert B S 303 

Hudnut, Rev. W. H., D.D D 245 N. Heights Ave., 

Youngstown, O. 
Hutchison, Rev. S. N., D.D D. & T. . . .5915 Wellesley Avenue 

Irwin, Edgar C M 306 

Jamison, H. W J 204 

Jones, Rev. W. A., D.D T. . .136 Orchard Ave., Mt. Oliver 

Station 

Kaufman, R. W. E M Ill Columbia Ave., 

Westwood, Grafton, Pa. 

71 (107) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Kelso, Rev. J. A., Ph.D., D.D. . .Pres 725 Ridge Ave., N. S. 

Kestle, J. A M 318 

Kerr, Rev. Hugh T., D.D Pres. of D. .827 Amberson Avenue 

Kidder, J. E G 203 

Kovacs, Rev. Charles G 218 

Kuehn, M. R M 305 

Laughlin, Rev. J. W., D.D G.S 731 Ridge Avenue, N. S. 

Leister, Rev. J. M G Florence, Pa. 

LeSourd, Rev. H. M I. . . .244 Hilands Ave., Ben Avon, 

Pa. 

Logan, George B D. & T.1007 N. Lincoln Ave., N.S. 

Luccock, Rev. G. N., D.D D Wooster, Ohio 

Lyon, John G T Commonwealth Building 

McCloskey, T. D D Oliver Building 

McConnell, Rev. R. I G 7813 Susquehanna St. 

McCormick, Rev. S. B., D.D D Coraopolis, Pa. 

McEwan, Rev. W. L., D.D D 83 6 S. Negley Ave. 

McQuiston, Rev. Roy L M Baden, Pa. 

Mark, Rev. J. H G 210 

Marquis, Rev. J. A., D.D D 15 6 Fifth Ave., New York, 

N. Y. 

Marquis, W. C S Creighton, Pa. 

*Marvin, S. S T Bryn Mawr, Pa. 

Mealy, Rev. J. M., D.D D Sewickley, Pa. 

Mellin, Rev. W. C F Rimersburg, Pa. 

Miller, Rev. R. S G. . ..176 Noble Ave., Crafton, Pa. 

Miller, T. E M 215 

Morris, W. J T 6735 Penn Avenue 

Obenauf, Rev. H. F G 64 Grant Ave., Etna, Pa. 

Owen, Rev. William S 805 Western Ave., N. S. 

Parsons, Rev. W. V. E M 841 N. Lincoln Ave., N. S. 

Pfeiffer, Rev. V. C S 305 Millbridge St. 

Philipp, Rev. P. L G. . . .208 E. Mclntyre Ave., N. S. 

Polhemus, Rev. O. M J..813 Wood St. Wilkinsburg, Pa. 

Post, Rev. H. F F Petersburg, Ohio 

Potter, Rev. J. M., D.D D Wheeling, W. Va. 

Racine, Generoso j 214 

Rae, James j) 801 Penn Avenue 

Read, Miss Margaret M Sec. to Pres 51 Chestnut St., 

Crafton, Pa. 
Robb, Fred E S 202 

Robinson, A. C D. & T. .Fourth Ave. & Wood St. 

Robi nson, Rev. J. M., D.D D 629 S. Negley Avenue 

♦Deceased 

72 (108) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Robinson, W. M T Union Trust Building 

Rodgers, Rev. Howard G.141 Oliver Ave., Emsworth, Pa. 

Runtz, Rev. A. F • G 3337 East St., N. S. 

Rutherford, Rev. G. H P .Dillonvale, Ohio 

Ryall, Rev. G. M., D.D D Saltsburg, Pa. 

Schade, Rev. Arthur G 75 Onyx Avenue 

Schaff, Rev. David S., D.D Prof 737 Ridge Ave., N. S. 

Semple, Rev. Samuel, D.D D Titusville, Pa. 

Semple, William, Jr J 215 

Shaw, Wilson A D. & T Bank of Pgh., N. A. 

Sleeth, G. M., Litt. D I. . . . 749 River Road, Avalon, Pa. 

Slemmons, Rev. W. E., D.D D Washington, Pa. 

Smith, Mrs. Forrest Miller S 25 East Robinson St., N. S. 

Smith, Rev. L. O G R. F. D. 3, Coraopolis, Pa. 

Snowden, Rev. J. H., D.D Prof 723 Ridge Ave., N. S. 

Snyder, Rev. P. W., D.D .T 634 Fulton Building 

Spence, Rev. W. H., D.D D Uniontown, Pa. 

Stebbins, L. H J 202 

Stevenson, Rev. P. W.., D.D D MarjrvriHe, Tenn. 

Stuart, John A M 217 

Taylor, Rev. George, Jr., Ph.D. ..Sec. of D Wilkinsburg, Pa. 

Thwing, Rev. J. B G Braddock, Pa. 

Vance, Rev. S. F., D.D Prof 237 Hilands Ave., 

Ben Avon, Pa. 

Vocaturo, Pasquale J 218 

Volpitto, Guy H M 205 

Wardrop, Robert T First National Bank 

Walter, Rev. D. C F. . .Kennedy School of Missions, 

Hartford, Conn. 

Weir, Rev. W. F., D.D D 17 N. State St., 

Chicago, 111. 

Williams, P. L S 317 

Wishart, Rev. C. F., D.D D Wooster, Ohio 

Wissinger, Rev. H. L J Manor, Pa. 

Yount, Rev. J. A G 1149 Portland Street 



73 (109) 



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Prof. Snowden 

N. T. Greek-13 

Church History-30 
Prof. Eakin 


Psychology of Rel.-41b 

Prof. Snowden 

N. T. Exegesis-20 
Prof. Vance 

Hebrew-1 

Prof. Culley 


Theology-39 
Prof. Snowden 

Life of Christ-16 
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Church History-30 
Prof. Eakin 


0. T. Intro,-12 

Prof. Culley 

Heb. Sight Reading-2a 

Prof. Culley 

Homiletics-46 
Prof. Farmer 


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0. T. Prophecy-11 

Prof. Kelso 

Church History-31 
Prof. Eakin 

Hebrew-1 

Prof. Culley 


Comp. Religion'-65 

Prof. Kelso 

0. T. Intro.- 12 

Prof. Culley 

Apologetics-37 

Prof. Snowden 


N. T. Theology-26 
Prof. Vance 

N. T. Greek-13 

Homiletics-46 
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Theology-37 
Prof. Snowden 


Pastoral Care-57 
Prof. Farmer 

0. T. History-8 
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O. T. History-8 

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N. T. Theology-26 
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Social Teaching-61b 

Prof. Farmer 

N. T. Exegesis-24d 
Prof. Vance 

Theology-37 

Prof. Snowden 


Philosophy of Rel.-41a 

Prof. Snowden 

Homiletics-74 
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The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

" Index 

Admission, Terms of 35 

Alumni Association 69 

Awards 1 ^ 

Bequests 61 

Boarding i^l 

Book Purchasing Memorial Fund - 26 

Buildings 20 

Calendar J^ 

Cecilia Choir, The 48 

Christian Work 29 

Conference •• 28 

Courses of Study • • 38 

Biblical Theology - 43 

Christian Ethics 48 

Church History « 44 

English Bible 43 

Hebrew Language and O. T. Literature 39 

Missions and Comparative Religion , 48 

New Testament Literature and Exegesis 42 

Practical Theology, Department of „ 46 

Homiletics, Pastoral Theology, Sacred Rhetoric, Speech Expression, 
Church Music, Administration. 

Relig-ious Education 49 

Semitic Languages 40 

Sociology 48 

Systematic Theology and Apologetics 45 

Degrees 37, 54 

Dining Hall , 23 

Diplomas 37 

Directors, Board of fi 

Directory .- 70 

Educational Advantages , 33 

Examinations ^ 37 

Expenses D 1 

Extension Lectures 68 

Faculty ^ 

Committees of 

Fellowships 57 

Funds, Special 67 

Gifts and Bequests 61 

Graduate Students ' 36 

Graduate Studies and Courses „ 54 

Gymnasium 31 

Historical Sketch 19 

Lectures: 

Elliott 67 

Extension « 68 

On Missions 48 

L. H Severance » 67 

Robert A Watson Memorial ., 68 

List of 10 

Library 24 

Loan Funds 33 

Location ^ ]9 

Outline of Courses 50 

Physical Training 31 

Preaching Service 29 

Preaching Supply, Bureau of • 30 

Presbyteries, Reports to ',. '. '. 54 

Prizes ^ 57 

Religious Exercises ....'.!..' 2 8 

Representation, College and State .'.'.'.16 

Schedule of Classes 74 

Scholarship Aid , 32 

Scholarships, List of 64 

Seminary Year 37 

Social Hall 23 

Student Organizations •,.!.'.'.'.'.'.* 18 

Students, Roll of .'.'.'.*.'.'.' .12 

Students from other Seminaries *...'...' ,.'.'.*.*.'.'.'.'. 36 

Trustees, Board of ,'. . //, , // 4 

University of Pittsburgh, Relations with .' .*..".* „".".'.'.'.*.'.'. 55 

Warrington Memorial Library 25 

Y. M. C. A .' .'..'.'.'.".'.!'.'. 29 

Committees of ' ' ' " ig 

78 (114) 



\ 



An 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

~ Index 

Admission, Terms of 35 

Alumni Association 69 

Awards ^ 

Bequests y^ 

Boarding i^l 

Book Purchasing Memorial Fund > 26 

Buildings 20 

Calendar :'' 

Cecilia Choir, The 48 

Christian Work 29 

Conference • ■• 28 

Courses of Study • • 3° 

Biblical Theology 43 

Christian Ethics 48 

Church History 44 

English Bible 43 

Hebrew Language and O. T. Literature , 39 

Missions and Comparative Religion 48 

New Testament Literature and Exegesis 42 

Practical Theology, Department of 46 

Homiletics, Pastoral Theology, Sacred Rhetoric, Speech Expression, 
Church Music, Administration. 

Religious Education 49 

Semitic Languages 40 

Sociology 48 

Systematic Theology and Apologetics 45 

Degrees 37, 54 

Dining Hall , 23 

Diplomas 37 

Directors, Board of fi 

Directory 70 

Educational Advantages 33 

Examinations 37 

Expenses ."] 

Extension Lectures 68 

Faculty ^* 

Committees of f» 

Fellowships 57 

Funds, Special • 67 

Gifts and Bequests 61 

Graduate Students '. 36 

Graduate Studies and Courses 54 

Gymnasium 31 

Historical Sketch 19 

Lectures : 

Elliott 67 

Extension „ 68 

On Missions 48 

L. H Severance »' 67 

Robert A Watson Memorial , 68 

List of 10 

Library 24 

Loan Funds 33 

Location , ]P 

Outline of Courses 50 

Physical Training 31 

Preaching Service 29 

Preaching Supply, Bureau of • • 30 

Presbyteries, Reports to „ 54 

Prizes ^ 57 

Religious Exercises 28 

Representation, College and State '.'.'.". 16 

Schedule of Classes - 74 

Scholarship Aid , 32 

Scholarships, List of 64 

Seminary Year 37 

Social Hall , 23 

Student Organizations .,...'.' i .'.'.' 18 

Students, Roll of , .'.'.'.'.*.*.* .12 

Students from other Seminaries '.'.'.'.'.'.".'. 36 

Trustees, Board of '. . . . 4 

University of Pittsburgh, Relations with *.*.'.'.*.'.'.*. 55 

Warrington Memorial Library 25 

Y. M. C. A ..'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.29 

Committees of . * is 

78 (114) 



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WEST PARK 

SHOWING THE LOCATION Or 

"WESTERN THEOLOGICAL 
SEMINARY 

N.S. PITTSBURGH, PENN'A 




A — HEREON HALL C~DR. SNOWDEN'S RESIDENCE. E— OLD LIBRARY. F— MEMORIAL HALL. 

B — DR. KELSO'S RESIDENCE. D — DR. SCHAFF'S RESIDENCE. G — SWIFT HALL. 



i 



The BaltetlD 

of tke 

tfestepQ Tbeologieal 
Seminary 




Vol. XVIII. 



Aprii,, 1926. 



No. 3. 



The Western Theological Seminary 

North Side. Pittsburgh, Pa. 

FOUNDED BY THB GEWERAl, ASSEMBLY, 1825 

The faculty consists of eight professors and three 
instructors. A complete modern theological curriculum, 
with elective courses leading to degrees of S.T.B. and 
S.T.M. Graduate courses of the University of Pitts- 
burgh, leading to the degrees of A.M. and Ph.D., are 
open to properly qualified students of the Semmary. A 
special course is offered in Practical Christian Ethics, in 
which students investigate the problems of city missions, 
settlement work, and other forms of Christian activity. 
A new department of Religious Education was inaugu- 
rated with the opening of the term beginning September 
1922. The City of Pittsburgh affords unusual opportuni- 
ties for the study of social problems. 

The students have exceptional library facilities. The 
Seminary Library of 40,000 volumes contains valuable 
collections of works in all departments of Theology, but 
is especially rich in Exegesis and Church History; the 
students, also have access to the Carnegie Library, which 
is situated mthin five minutes' walk of the Seminary 

buildings. 

A post-graduate fellowship of $600 is annually 
awarded the member of the graduating class who has the 
highest rank and who has spent three years in the insti- 
tution. 

Two entrance prizes, each of $150, are awarded on 
the basis of a competitive examination to college gradu- 
ates of high rank. 

All the public buildings of the Seminary are new. 
The dormitory was dedicated May 9, 1912, and is 
equipped with the latest modern improvements, includ- 
ing gymnasium, social hall, and students' commons. The 
group consisting of a new Administration Building and 
Library was dedicated May 4, 1916. Competent judges 
have pronounced these buddings the handsomest struc- 
tures architecturally in the City of Pittsburgh, and un- 
surpassed either in beauty or equipment by any other 
group of buildings devoted to theological education in 
the United States. 

For further information, address 

President James A. Kelso, 
North Side, Pittsburgh, Pa. 



THE BULLETIN 

OF THE 

Western Theological Seminary 

A Revie\v Devotea to the Interests or 
Xneological Education 

Published quarterly in January, April, July, and October, by tte 
Trustees of the Western Theological Seminary of the Presbyterian Church 
in the United States of America. 

Edited by the President with the co-operation of the Faculty. 

QlnntnttB 

Page 
Some New and Recent Books 

Dr. Kelso 5 

Dr. Culley 9 

Dr. Vance 3 7 

Dr. Eakin 4 6 

Dr. Snowden 6 3 

Dr. Farmer 6 7 

Mr. Le Sourd 73 

Alumniana 76 



Coraraunications for the Editor and all business matters should be 
addressed to 

REV. JAMES A. KELSO. 

731 Rid«-e Ave.. N. S.. Pittsburgh. Pa. 



75 cents a year. 



Single Number "25 cents. 



Each author is soieiv resoonsible for the views expressed in his article. 



Entered as second-class matter Decemtierg. 1909, at the postoffice at Pittsburgh, Pa, 
(North Side Station) under the act ot August 24, 1912. 



Press of 

pittsburgh printing company 

pittsburgh, pa, 

1926 



Faculty 



The Rev. JAMES A. KELSO, Pli. D., D. D., LL. D., 

President and Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Literature 
The Nathaniel W. Conkling Foundation 

The Eev. DAVID RIDDLE BREED, D. D., LL. D. 

Professor of Homiletics 

The Rev. DAVID S. SCHAFF, D. D. 

IProfessor of Ecclesiastical History and History of Doctrine 

The Rev. WILLIAM R. FARMER, D. D. 

Reunion Professor of Sacred Rhetoric and Elocution 

The Rev. JAMES H. SNOWDEN, D. D., LL. D. 

Professor of Systematic Theology 

Tlie Rev. DAVID E. CULLEY, Ph. D., D. D. 

Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Literature 

The Rev. SELBY FRAME VANCE, D. D., LL. D. 

Memorial Professor of New Testament Literature and Exegesis 

The Rev. FRANK EAKIN, Ph. D. 

tProfessor of Ecclesiastical History and History of Doctrine 



Prof. GEORGE M. SLEETH, Litt. D. 

Instructor in Elocution 

Mr. CHARLES N. BOYD 

Instructor in Hymnology and Music 

The Rev. HOWARD M. Le SOURD 

Instructor in Religious Education 



^ 



JDr. Schaff retired from this chair Dec. 31. 1925. 
tDr. Eakin's appointment took effect Jan. 1, 192 6. 



The Bulletin 



of me 



WESTERN THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 

Vol. XVIII. April, 1926 No. 3 



Some New and Recent Books 

The present is^iie of the Bulletin, following the pre- 
cedent of last year, has been made primarily a book 
number. On the following pages, members of the 
faculty discuss books which they think particularly 
worthy of being brought to the attention of alumni and 
other readers. 



Dr. Kelso 

A Gold Dollar. By Joseph M. Duff. New York and 
Chicago: Fleming H. Revell Company. 1926. 138 
pages. $1.25. 

Twenty-Five Years, 1892-1912. By Viscount Grey of 
Fallodon. London: Hodder and Stoughton. 1925. 
Volume I, 342 pages; Volume II, 329 pages. $10.00. 

The Heart of Aryavarta. By The Earl of Ronaldshay. 
London: Constable and Company Limited. 1925. 
262 pages. $5.00. 

These three books are brought together by the re- 
viewer, not because of any similarity in their subject 
matter, for they are poles apart in their contents, but 
only because he has read them with pleasure and profit. 
With all their difference they have one quality in com- 
mon and that an important one. Each one of these works 
reflects its author's penetrating insight into the vital 

5 (115) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

problems of human life, and his sincerity in dealing with 
them. 

The title, "The Gold Dollar", does not give a elew 
to the contents, but we who know the author open the 
book with great expectations and we are not disap 
pointed. Dr. Joseph M. Duff, a graduate of the AVestern 
Theological Seminary, Class of 1876, and pastor of the 
important church at Carnegie, Pa., for forty years, has 
given us eleven sketches from nature and life. The title 
is taken from the first of these sketches, the story of 
"A Gold Dollar". Minted in the year 1851, "it became 
the persona] property of an old Irish lady, in whose long 
pocket, snug in the knot of a linen handkerchief, it re- 
posed Avhile she lived, seeing the light onh^ for affec- 
tionate inspection, or when ceremoniously displayed to 
the admiring view of favoured friends. It never went 
to market, or jingled across a counter, or clinked into a 
cash drawer". These introductory words are sug- 
gestive of the sentiment and the pathos which runs 
through this sketch taken from a pastor's experience. 
When we liave completed this story, tlie charm of the 
narrative attracts us irresistibly to the succeeding 
chapters with alluring titles such as: ''A Minister's 
Vacation on His Own Acre", "Jock MacGregor's Fu- 
neral", "The Home Sabbath at Murrysville", "A Day at 
the Graves of Ancestors". The scenes of these reminis- 
cences are laid in a beautiful valley nestling among the 
hills of Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, but there 
is one — the last one— entitled "Hill 258", which carries 
us to the battle line in France. This hill is linked by 
the holiest of ties with the valley in Western Pennsyl- 
vania, because a youth who was reared among the nes- 
tling hills of the New World laid down his life for free- 
dom far across the ocean in Northern France. It is im- 
possible in a brief revicAv to give the literary flavor of 
these delightful reminiscences or to indicate the lofty 
Christian idealism which is their dominating note. The 

6 (116) 



Some Neiv and Recent Books 

book must be read to be appreciated, and it ought to 
be in the hands of every minister who knows and loves 
AVestern Pennsj'lvania. 

"Twenty-Five Years 1892-1916", by Viscount Grey, 
is considered by many authorities the most notable book 
of 1925. Viscount Grey entered Parliament in 1892, 
and retired from active service in 1916 on account of 
failing eyesight. Under Mr. Gladstone he was Under 
Secretary of Foreign Affairs, and from this subordinate 
position he rose by industry and merit to be head of 
this important department of the Imperial Government. 
In this capacity he rendered notable service to his 
country, especially during the critical yeai's immedi- 
ately preceding. the Great AVar and the first two years 
of the titanic struggle. From his position of vantage, 
Viscount Grey gives a straightforward account of the 
relation of the great powers of Europe to each other. 
His narrative makes clear that the Great War was the 
result of fear, suspense, and jealousies, which had their 
origin in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, and were 
shared by all the European nations. The impression 
that the narrative makes is one of transparent honesty 
and fair-mindedness. The personal equation is as little 
in evidence as is possible in a Avork of this kind, when 
one considers the prejudices and bitterness which war 
always arouses. The nations of the w^orld as well as 
the statesmen would do Avell to ponder Viscount Grey's 
conclusions in the closing- chapter of the second volume, 
where the origins of the Great War, which almost de- 
stroyed Western civilization, are laid bare. The causes, 
as he traces them, are not economic, but psychological. 
They are rooted in the fear bred of suspicion and jeal- 
ousy; and, in his opinion, if war is to be avoided in the 
future, the nations must not fear each other and mu<t 
keep themselves free from all suspicion of each other. 
In the judgment of this experienced and wise states- 
man, mutual understanding and good will are stronger 

7 (117) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

barriers against war than treaties and leagues. AVhile 
this work is by no means a theological treatise. Vis- 
count Grey's recollections of his life spent in the For- 
eign Office in London is valuable for ministers because 
it will broaden their intellectual horizon and give them 
a world vision. Furthermore, the thoughtful reader as 
he completes these two volumes will realize how greatly 
international relations need the spirit and ethics of 
Jesus. 

"The Heart of Aryavarta" takes us to Southern 
Asia and sets before us the currents of thought and 
opinion that are surging up from the heart of India. 
The author, the Earl of Eonaldshay, is thoroughly con- 
versant with Indian character and is well acquainted 
with Hindu philosophy, literature, and religion. With 
his intimate knowledge of the historical antecedents 
and sjDiritual environment of the Hindu, he set himself 
to the task of presenting the psychology of the Indian 
unrest of our day. In America we scarcely realize 
the ferment that has been injected into Indian thought 
and life by modern science. Western political theories, 
and Christianity. On the foundations of a culture and 
a religion which antedate the historical narratives of 
the Old Testament, a new civilization is rising. Of 
course, many factors are involved in these stupendous 
changes, but let us remember that one of the chief of 
these influences is the work of the missionary who has 
proclaimed the Cross of Jesus and His ethics. While 
"The Heart of Aryavarta" does not purport to be a 
missionary Avork, yet we have discovered that its con- 
tents bear very directly on the probelms which the 
Church in India faces at the present time. 



8 (118) 



-2^ 



Some New and Recent Books 

Dr. CuUey 

Archceology and the Bible. 4th Edition. By Geo. A. ( 

Barton. Philadelphia: American Sunday School 
. Union. 1925. Pp. 561. $3.50. 
A Century of Excavation in Palestine. By R. A. S. » "^-^ 

Macalister. London: Religious Tract Society. 

1925. 10s.6d. 
Israel and Babylon. By W. L. Wardle. NeAv York: 

Pleming H. Revell Company. 1925. Pp. 343. $2.50. 
Egyptian Papyri and Papyrus-Hunting. By James ^ Z 5^ 

Baikie. London: Religious Tract Society. 1925. 

Pp. 324. 10s.6d. 
Babylonian Life and History. By E. A. Wallis Budge. f ^S 

New York: Fleming H. Revell Company. 1925. 

$3.00. 
The People and the Book. Edited by A. S. Peake. Ox- / 7^ S' 

ford: Oxford University Press. 1925. 10s. 
Cambridge Ancient History Volume III. Cambridge: / 3 '^ 

Cambridge University Press. 1925. £1-16-3. 

The Date of the Exodus. By J. AV. Jack. Edinburgh: / ^ 'y 

T. & T. Cark. 1925. 10s. 
The Religion of the People of Israel. By Rudolf Kit- ^ U j 

tel. London: Allen & Unwin. 1925. Pp. 229. ^ 

7s.6d. 
The Books of the Prophets Micah, Obadiah, Joel, and t ^^ 

Jonah. By G. W. Wade. London : Methuen and 

Company. 1925. Pp. CXLIII 156. 16s. 
The Poetry of Our Lord. By C. F. Burney. Oxford : )V ^ 

Clarendon Press. 1925. Pp. 182. 15s. 
Jeremiah and the Neiv Covenant. By W. F. Lofthouse. r \J \^ 

London: Student Christian Movement. 1925. 6s. 

*Two important hooks have been omitted here. They are Prophecy and 
Eschatology hj' Nathaniel Micklem (Allen & Unwin, London, IQ25) and 
The Neiv Psychology and the tlcbrezv Profhets by Major J. W. Povah 
(Longmans, Green & Co., New York, IQ25). It had been expected that Dr. 
Kelso would discuss these volumes but other demands upon his time have 
prevented. As their titles indicate, they have much significance for the 
student of prophecy. 

9 (119) 



,4^ 



' The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

I ^ Sacrifice in the Old Testament. By Geo. B. Gray. Ox- 

ford: The Clarendon Press. 1925. Pp. 434. 16s. 

The Use of the Old Testament in the Light of Modern 
Knou-ledqe. Bv Jno. E. McFadyen. New York: 
Geo. H. boran Company. Pp. 255. $1.00. 

Hoiv to Teach the Old Testament. By Frederick J. Rae. 
London: Hodder and Stonghton. 1925. Pp.255. 5s. 

To know the Old Testament is the Avork of a life- 
time. Or perhaps it should be pnt even more strongly, 
for to he entirely proficient in all phases of Old Testa- 
ment study in the present age is a greater task than 
most men can rightfully hope to accomplish though their 
years stretch to the proverbial three score and ten. By 
reason of this fact it is becoming more and more appar- 
ent that in order to the largest results a division of labor 
here is imperative. 

Up until recently the Old Testament was an isolated 
book to be known largel}^ through a study of its oa\ti 
pages. The Hebrews were thought to be a separate 
people; their life, experiences, development were pecu- 
liar to themselves. Wellhausen and W. R. Smith, it 
was, who first showed that a study of Arabia, its cus- 
toms, institutions, and religious practices might shed 
considerable light upon the pages of the Hebrew Scrip- 
tures and enable us more clearly to understand the life 
and religion of Israel. 

But latterly the Old Testament is being taken out 
of its isolation entirely and is being studied and inter- 
preted upon the background of mingled civilizations and 
races of Avhich Israel is seen to be but a part. No longer 
therefore can we hope to understand Hebrew history, 
Hebrew literature, or Hebrew religion except upon the 
basis of this broad and many-sided, recently recovered 
background. 

The literary study of the Old Testament, which has 
absorbed the attention of scholars for more than a half 

10 (120) 



Some Neiv and Recent Books 

century with the resultant and far-reaching analysis 
of the several Old Testament books, has provided a most 
important ke^^ for the solution of their myriad problems. 
But that work is, in a general way, completed by noAV. 
It was foundation Avork and although certain phases, of 
it Avill be reexamined from time to time, as is being done 
at the present hour in certain quarters, the center of 
interest is shifting, the task is being modified, or has 
already largely changed. kSo that to-day it is the object 
of stud}'' and research to secure for Israel and the Old 
Testament their proper setting, to discover their right- 
ful place in relation to their environment. Much of the 
material for the task is already at hand but much is stiU 
to be provided. The excavator has been busy and has 
brought to light whole civilizations that were once lost 
and forgotten. The historian is revivif^dng the dead 
bones of this great past and setting them before us in 
a man}^ colored and kaleidoscopic pageant. And the 
student of religion, by his masterful reconstruction of 
the religious practices and institutions of the whole Near 
East, has resolved many problems in connection with 
the religion of Israel as well as opened up new avenues 
of investigation. Of course all along the line, as hinted 
above, the question is one of determining Israel's rela- 
tion to the manifold life about her. It is marvellous 
how many new fields of investigation have been, and 
are now, inviting the student, how many Old Testament 
problems are awaiting resolution and also Avhat rich 
rewards are promised the worker. 

Now the books that have appeared during the last 
year, touching some phase of this larger Old Testament 
field, clearly illustrate, it seems to me, what has been 
said here. There is a goodly number of them and they 
cover a wide range of subjects. And of course it is not 
my purpose to review the entire group but simply to 
call attention to those which seem to me to have greater 
significance for the present-day student. 

11 (121) 



•^ 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Of the works whose aim it is to make available the 
results of excavation and archselogical investigation 
generally, three or more should be mentioned. Dr. 
George K. Barton has brought out the fourth edition 
y of his well-known work entitled "Archaeology and the 
Bible". Besides one hundred twenty-three plates, cov- 
ering as many leaves given over to pictorial reproduc- 
tion of monuments and other objects of discover}^, the 
volume has now grown to 561 pages. To those who are 
familiar with its earlier editions it is here only neces- 
sary to say that in this last edition all new material 
which has accumulated since the first publication of the 
work in 1916 has been distributed through the body 
of the book Avhere it belongs instead of being added in 
the form of an appendix. Four entirely new chapters 
have also been added, at the close of which Dr. Barton 
has included an appendix on the Place of the Amorites 
in the Civilization of Western Asia. Since the 3rd edi- 
tion, explorations in Palestine, Mesopotamia, and Egypt 
have brought with them important discoveries and these 
are here ably reported and their significance indicated. 

Perhaps the chief value of this work lies in its 
comprehensive character. Within the compass of a 
single volume its author has gathered together and pre- 
sents in convenient and attractive form the vast results 
of excavation, decipherment, archaeological researches 
of all kinds that promise to shed light upon anj^ por- 
tion of the Scriptures whether of the Old or New Tes- 
taments. And this fourth edition offers us the latest 
finds in all fields from the tomb of Tutankhamen to the 
ancient city of Ur of the Chaldees. 

Every reader will no doubt bear in mind that exca- 
vations and discovery are now making rapid progress 
in many parts of the Biblical Avorld and wiU therefore 
not expect to see here discussed the very latest finds 
about which he may have read in the newspapers. To 
keep entirely abreast of archaeological discovery, a book 

12 (122) 



Some New and Recent Books 

would need to appear in a new edition about every six 
months. 

As I have just indicated, it is a part of the excel- 
lence of Dr. Barton's book that it is so inclusive. Other 
writers, whose books have appeared during the year, 
have been content to confine themselves to some one 
phase of this larger subject. Prof. Macalister, for 
example, has limited his contribution to a presentation 
of the story of excavations in Palestine as these have 
been prosecuted during the last century. The title of 
his book was chosen out of consideration for a com- 
panion volume on Egypt which accounts for its some- 
what misleading character. He himself acknowledges 
that "not more than sixty years have passed since the 
first attempts were made in modern times, to find out 
the secrets hidden in the soil of the Holy Land". 

Even during these sixty years the work has pro- 
ceeded rather intermittently and at no time has it been 
executed on an extensive basis. Palestine possesses 
unique interest for very large numbers of people, it is 
true, and might be expected to attract the excavator. 
But the story of his activities there is rather drab and 
lacks color in contrast with the romance and brilliance 
of discovery in neighboring lands. Several facts, when 
recalled to mind, may easily account for this situation. 
In the first place, Palestine through all the centuries 
never did bring forth a highly developed civilization. 
Her people never showed any aptitude for the things 
that belong to material advance. In the words of Prof. 
Macalister, "It is no exaggeration to say that through- 
out these long centuries [from the Palaeolithic Age to 
the time of the Crusaders] the native inhabitants of 
Palestine do not appear to have made a single contri- 
bution of any kind whatsoever to material civilization. 
It was perhaps the most unprogressive country on the 
face of the earth. Its entire culture was derivative. 
Babylon, Egypt, Crete, Rome, each in its turn lends it 
a helping hand; never is it stimulated to make an etfort 

13 (123) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

for itself" (p. 210). Thus it is not difficult to under- 
stand why the pick and the spade have revealed a monot- 
onously low level of existence among the peoples of Pal- 
estine while elsewhere results of excavation have been 
astounding b}^ reason of the remarkably advanced char- 
acter of the culture uncovered to view. 

Again, in Egypt, thanks to a very dry climate, and 
in Babylonia and Assyria as a result of the writing 
materials emplo^^ed, a large and varied literature has 
come to light, while in Palestine very few ancient records 
of any kind have been preserved, Israel certainly pro- 
duced a much larger literature than that found at pres- 
ent in our Old Testament. But, owing to the fact that 
papyrus and ink were emplo^^ed rather than burnt clay 
or stone upon which to write and also that nothing per- 
ishable can long survive in Palestine's damp climate, 
all such writing has disappeared long ago. Of course 
. it is true that documents more important than potsherds 
and broken jar handles may yet come to light, but so 
far the paucit}'- of inscriptions out of Israel's ancient 
past is striking and no doubt significant. 

Prof. Macalister's brief sketch also reveals some- 
thing of the difficulties confronting the worker due to 
native superstition and inability to understand the 
object a westerner might have in digging into a soil that 
has so little to offer for his pains. Likewise, too, before 
1918, a hostile government hedged him round with every 
difficulty Turkish ingenuity could invent. 

It must not be supposed, however, that these sixty 
years of excavation in Palestine have gone for naught. 
On the contrary, the results are considerable. There 
are large numbers of important places yet to be exam- 
ined, many tells to be opened up, and the workers have 
gained much in experience and method. But, apart 
from this, direct gains have been registered in a better 
knowledge of Canaan before the Conquest; of Pales- 
tinian topography ; of Hebrew life and political history ; 

14 (124) 



Some New and Recent Books 

of Hebrew cultural and religious history. Much light 
too has been shed as a result upon many an obscure 
Old Testament passage, and many an unknown Hebrew 
word has found a meaning. 

One thing more must l)e said in this connection, for 
while the rewards of excavations in Palestine have not 
been so alluring and, as stated above, the work itself has 
been rather colorless as compared with the romance of 
excavation elsewhere, yet the story here is told by a 
master and is most interesting from beginning to end. 
Prof. Macalister knows Palestine and has contributed 
much to our better imderstanding of it as a result of 
his residence there and especially by his excavations 
of the old city of Gezer. 

A book, dealing with a most fascinating enterprise, 
which the author has called "Egyptian Papyri and 
Papyrus Hunting", -we nmst pass by not because it lacks 
importance in this connection but simply for want of 
space. The author is James Baikie. 

Likewise too we must leave to one side "Babylonian 
Life and History", by E. A. Wallis Budge, an able and 
interesting book. 

But Prof. Wardle's "Israel and Babylon" cannot 
be so lightly passed over. It deals primarily with a yX 
problem which has been insistently before the Christian 
world ever since Friedrich Delitzsch startled the Ger- 
man public with his monograph on Babel imd Bihel. 
That book produced a tremendous stir and furnished the 
subject for a controversy the echoes of which may still 
be heard in the halls of German universities and else- 
where. Soon after Delitzsch the Pan-Babylonists came 
to the fore with Hugo Winckler as founder of the New 
School and A. Jeremias as its popularizer. Speedily 
thereupon it ])ecame the vogue to explain much if not 
all of the Old Testament upon the basis of Babylonian 

15 (125) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

mythology. And some members of the New School 
allowed themselves to be carried far afield in the appli- 
cation of their hypotheses to all the heroes of Hebrew 
history. 

Now it will scarcely be denied that Hebrew life has 
some of its roots in Mesopotamian soil. But to explain 
everything Hebrew on a Babylonian basis is no doubt 
extreme. It has become necessary therefore to enquire 
just what the relation between Israel and Babylon is. 
Did Israel borrow extensively from Mesopotamian cul- 
ture and tradition? How are we to explain the ideas 
and ideals, laws and literature that seem common to 
Mesopotamia and Palestine? To answer these questions 
is the task Prof. Wardle has set himself. Not in any 
exhaustive fashion, to be sure, has he attempted to ful- 
fil the obligation. His aim has been rather a compre- 
hensive treatment of the vast and urgent problems in- 
volved with the idea of setting the whole matter before 
the reader, in a clear and careful fashion, that the latter 
may form some independent conclusion for himself. 

The first three chapters of the book are given over 
to what might be called a general introduction in which 
the author treats such matters as the recovery of the 
past; decipherment of ancient scripts; Israel's relation 
to Egypt; Hebrew patriarchs, etc. Then follow chap- 
ters on Babjdonian Religion; Origins of Hebrew Mono- 
theism; Creation Stories; Paradise and the Fall; The 
Deluge; Sabbath and Yahweh; Legislation; The Pan- 
Babylonian Theory. Finally in a closing brief chapter 
the author sums up the conclusions reached. Some of 
these are as follows: That Canaan was deeply influ- 
enced by both Babylon and Egypt for centuries before 
the coming of Israel ; That Israel was made up of many 
elements one of which came from Mesopotamia; That 
thus two Babylonian tributaries flowed into the main 
current of Israel's culture; That Babylonian influence 
on Israel was considerable must be acknowledged but 

16 (126) 



Some New and Recent Books 

must not be exaggerated, — it was not dominant; There 
are certain clear parallels between Babylonian religion 
and the religion of Israel; in particular the same view 
of life after death is found in both religions; in the 
religious poetry of Babylonia evidence is present that 
there were pious souls seeking after God 'if haply they 
might feel after Him and find Him'; but the ethical 
sense of sin which is so marked in the Old Testament is 
absent here ; Hebrew prophecy is unique ; in spite of 
claims to the contrary, nothing like it has 'been discov- 
ered in Babylonia. The author calls special attention to 
the fact that his "investigations into the origins of 
Hebrew monotheism seemed to discredit the assertion 
that they are to be found in Egypt or Babylonia, and to 
show that this great truth was developed among the 
Hebrew people". 

"Babylonian legislation is unquestionably shown to 
present many notable points of contact Avith that of 
Israel, but many of these are of common Semitic origin". 

"That in some details Israel is debtor to Babylon 
may be taken as reasonably proved: these details, 
however, affect rather the outAvard form than the spir- 
itual content of the traditions". 

In conclusion it should be said that Prof. Wardle has 
given us an excellent book on this most fascinating sub- 
ject. It provides evidence of complete familiarity with 
the material or literature involved and his results are 
reached aftej.' careful weighing of the evidence. Indeed 
it is the only book giving us a broad compl'ehensive view 
of the whole Babylon-Bible problem, and can be strongly 
recommended to all those interested in this subject. 

I have grouped Prof. AYardle's book with those 
dealing with excavation and discovery, and it seems to 
me that so it should be classified although it is true that 
some of its problems must also be dealt Avith by the his- 
torian, the commentator, and the interpreter of religion. 

17 (127) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

J Another product of the year's output in the Old Testa- 
ment field likewise covers a wide range of subjects. It 
is a book edited by Prof. Arthur S. Peake, whose edi- 
torial activity is now well knoMH and leads us to antici- 
pate in the present volume a contribution of value. The 
book contains fifteen essays all of them written by mem- 
bers of the Society for Old Testament Study, a group 
Qf British scholars having for their object "to advance 
research in the Old Testament field, to encourage Old 
Testament study, and to deepen general interest there- 
in". Dr. Peake mentions two reasons which led to the 
publication of the book at this time : First, the Society 
desired to put out a work that might serve to counter 
a tendency observed in some circles "to relegate the 
Old Testament to a position of relative insigiiificance". 
And second, they felt that there was need for a volume 
that might serve to take stock, as it were, of the present 
situation in Old Testament study. Knowledge marches 
on and is just now rapidly increasing and a clear state- 
ment of the present position of Old Testament research 
might be expected to serve an admirable purpose. 

Two of the essays sketch the history first of the 
nations surrounding Israel and second of Israel itself. 
The former is Avritten by H. R. Hall whose excellent his- 
tory of the Near East in one volume has now passed 
through six editions; the latter is by Adam C. Welch 
whose recent monograph on the "Code of Deuteron- 
omy" threatens to c( mpel a re-statement of the criti- 
cal view of the i^entateuch. We shall return to these 
essays later. 

Almost all the contributions in the book run from 
thirty to for^y closely printed pages. One however ex- 
ceeds these limits and well it may since it is treating 
of the Modern Study of the Hebrew Language, a depart- 
ment of Old Testament research which has registered 
tremendous gains in recent years. The essay is the work 
of G. R. Driver, the son of Samuel Holies Driver, who 

18 (128) 



Some New and Rexent Books 

more than any other has contributed to the spread of 
the knowledge of the Old Testament in the English 
speaking Avorld in modern times. The son here shows 
himself well equipped to continue the work of the 
father. He possesses a much broader background indeed 
in Semitic knowledge than was possible for the father, 
the appearance of whose "Hebrew Tenses" many years 
ago marked an epoch in the study of Hebrew in Eng- 
land and America. The growing knowledge of Assyrian 
especially is now a great aid in our attempts at clearer 
understanding of the Hebrew both on the side of gram- 
mar and lexicography. But of course all the languages 
of the Semitic group' have been laid under contribution 
by the modern student and all such gains are well illus- 
trated in Prof. Driver's carefull}^ prepared and valuable 
treatise. 

Two further essays present the present status in 
Old Testament criticism. One (on methods) is written 
by Theodore H. Robinson while the other is the contri- 
bution to the volume of Prof. John E. McFadyen. Both 
are well known Old Testament scholars. Prof. Robin- 
son's essay offers nothing new to the well informed stu- 
dent and need not long detain us. It is well written and 
is apparently intended for the general reader who knows 
little or nothing of the higher criticism. He points out 
that many approach the Old Testament through the 
critical method who perhaps would be greatly shocked 
if they discovered that tliey were higher critics. Higher 
criticism he defines as the- study of the structure, date, 
and authorship of any particular book or collection of 
books. The man who arrives at the conclusion through 
serious stud}^ that Moses is the author of the Pentateuch 
is just as much a higher critic as Wellhausen. Higher 
criticism has nothing to do with inspiration; that is a 
question for theology. 

Prof. McFadyen 's article is a well considered 
resume of the present critical position. The critical 

19 (129) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

method has been employed now for more than 170 years 
and the practical-minded man is likely to think that we 
should be in a position to shoAv results, and indeed it is 
possible to tabulate a number of well established con- 
clusions. The most significant of these no doul)t is the 
fact that, thanks to critical study, "the old mechanical 
view of the Bible has gone forever and been replaced by 
an intelligible and living conception of the great his- 

I torical and religious movement of which the Bible is the 

literary deposit". But at the same time it is true that 
there are still remaining many unresolved problems with 
which the scientific student must grapple. Along broad 
lines, it may be said, we have a fairly clear picture of 
the growth of the Hebrew nation and its literature, but 
many details still elude us and no doubt always will. 
The reason for this simply is that we do not possess 
sufficient data upon which to reach indisputable conclu- 
sions at every point. AYe must always therefore, in 
many instances, be satisfied with hypothetical results. 
But, as Prof. Kittel has ably demonstrated in his "Sci- 
entific Study of the Old Testament", such results may 
be accepted with varying degrees of assurance. They 
may be viewed as results of the first, second, or third 
magnitude. It should be kept in mind that life is full 
of hypotheses, many of which we employ as though they 
were facts. The Copernican theory of the universe, for 
example, is an hypothesis, and so in any attempt to mark 
off the "assured results" of Old Testament research 
these considerations must not be allowed to elude us. 

I In his anal}' sis of the present situation Prof. Mc- 

Fadyen points out that the Old Testament text is now 

ji receiving much more attention than was formerly the 

I practice, and this is well. Indeed a very large number 

of Old Testament passages have been very generally 
misconstrued in the past because little or no pains had 
been taken to discover whether the text were sound. 
"Frequently in passages of crucial importance the very 

20 (130) 



Some New and Recent Boohs 

slightest alteration in the traditional text effects a radi- 
cal transformation of the meaning by eliminating ideas 
on which the older orthodoxy lays great stress". Prof. 
McFadyen cites a number of such passages, but his 
citations could be duplicated many, many times. 

One of the most significant phases of the scientific 
study of the Old Testament to-day is the movement to 
be observed in certain quarters away from the more 
radical positions of the generation of scholars who built 
largely on the foundations laid by the Kuenen-Well- 
hausen School. A leading representative of this ten- 
dency is Sellin, who may well be contrasted with Cornill. 
These are both able scholars. They have conducted a 
spirited debate since the appearance of Sellin 's "Intro- 
duction to the Old Testament" in 1910. Prof. McFad- 
yen aptly points put the difference between them. "Cor- 
nill interprets Israel from within", he says, "and on the 
basis of the Old Testament as evolutionally interpreted 
by Wellhausen. Sellin sets Israel in the, framework of 
ancient Oriental histor}-, and, by insisting on the numer- 
ous and subtle points of contact betw^een Egypt, and 
more particularly Babylon on the one hand, and Israel 
on the other he can postulate a far wider range of 
thought, due to this cultural influence, not only for tlie 
prophetic but even for the pre-prophetic period". No 
doubt the conclusions of tlie older scholars were often 
much too sweeping. Tliey will need to be modified. But 
it seems to me on the other hand that the reaction, espe- 
cially in the hands of Sellin, is often much too pro- 
nounced. However, it is liealthy and no doubt in the 
right direction and will culminate eventually in more 
stable and satisfactory results. 

Another most interesting phase of present Old 
Testament research is the reopening of the Deuteron- 
omy problem. At first glance it would seem that there 
is no room for further debate on this question. Surely 
in the whole field of criticism the position occupied by 

21 (131) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Deuteronomy has long been definitely settled. But not 
so. Over against the view Avhich has held the field for 
more than 120 years, namely: that the central portion 
of the book of Deuteronomy provided the program for 
the Josianic reform in 621 B.C., now come two different 
opinions widely at variance one with the other and both 
challenging the older view. Holscher of Marburg is the 
exponent of the position that Deuteronomy is a post- 
exilic product while Prof. Welch maintains that, apart 
from chapter twelve, the laws of Deuteronomy are very 
old, many of them going back to the period of the Judges 
or the early monarchy. Of course we cannot go into 
the merits of these different points of view here, but it 
seems likeh^ that they can neither of them stand. It 
is quite probable, however, that this further investiga- 
tion will at least modif}^ somewhat our view of this book 
that is pivotal in all critical discussion of the Old 
Testament. 

It would be interesting to examine further a num- 
ber of the problems to which Prof. McFadyen calls our 
attention in his essay but space will not permit. The 
reader desiring to refresh his knowledge of Old Testa- 
ment criticism and bring it up to date cannot do better 
than to follow the suggestions of this article. 

No doubt one should not attempt too much in a 
review such as the present, but there is so much of value 
in this volume that the temptation is great. A treatise 
that is most timel}' and offers much that cannot but aid 
greatly in the elucidation of parts of the Old Testament 
is the contribution of Prof. H. Wheeler Robinson on 
Hebrew Psychology. Interpreters have often been sadly 
misled because they failed utterly to understand that 
terms employed in the Old Testament may have a very 
different content when compared with similar terms 
employed in modern speech. The Hebrew word 
nephesh, for example, which we so regularly translate 
"soul" may be used in three well defined senses, none 

22 (132) 



Some New and Recent Books 

of which corresponds to our conception of the soul. The 
Hebrews were not scientific nor did they think in the 
abstract and their terms carry shades of meaning which 
we fail to grasp except as we put ourselves as largely 
as possible back in their world and think as they thought. 
A careful study of psychology will help us greatly in 
our attempts to do this difficult thing. When the Hebrew 
says of Yahweh the good Shepherd, "He restoreth my 
soul", he no doubt simply means "He brings me back 
to the path from which I have strayed". Or again we 
must understand that the Hebrew usually says heart 
when he means head, and so on. An intelligent study 
of Hebrew eschatology must be based upon thorough- 
going investigation of Hebrew psychology. The present 
essay is an excellent illustration of the character of the 
returns to be had from such study. 

It is significant that, out of the fifteen essays con- 
tained in the volume, four or, we may say, six of them 
treat of religion. After all, the value of the Old Testa- 
ment to us, or to most of us, lies in its meaning for 
our religious development, and the study of Old Testa- 
ment history or literature is very largely a means to 
the greater end. 

The most promising and satisfactory approach to 
the religion of Israel is probably by the comparative 
route. Just as Israel is seen to be a part of the great 
pulsing world about her from which she borrowed much, 
so it is only logical to expect that her religious life was 
influenced by her environment. The first of these essays, 
therefore, is "The Religious Environment of Israel" 
contributed by Dr. Stanley A. Cook. There can be no 
question that Israel in her religious development far 
outstripped the peoples about her. Yet many of her 
practices can best be explained when seen in comparison 
with customs observed elsewhere. This method of study 
has its limitations to be sure. As the author here puts 
it: "The comparative method affords parallels, sug- 

23 (133) 



Tlie Bulletin of tlie Western Theological Seminary 

gests explanations; it is highly stimulating, but, in it- 
self, it is inconclusive". It does not conduce to cer- 
tainty or immediate clarity nor does it make our prob- 
lems more simple — rather it adds to their complexity, 
multiplies questions and difficulties. Y/t we are con- 
vinced that it is the path of truth. The method is recog- 
nized as scientific and may be trusted to produce results 
that are sound and in the end acceptable to all. Dr. 
Cook's article offers many examples of such results. 

The treatment of the religious development within 
Israel was assigned to three men : To W. F. Lofthouse, 
Hebrew Religion from Moses to Saul; to Arthur S. 
Peake, Tlie Religion of Israel from David to the Return 
from Exile ; and to W. Emery Barnes, The Develop- 
ment of the Religion of Israel from the Return to the 
Death of Simon the Maccabee. Noting these names, one 
realizes that this important portion of the book has fallen 
into good hands. The form is good and the authors' 
positions are well stated. Dr. Lofthouse is among those 
who see in Moses the founder of Israel's religion 
although he recognizes that Moses has a background. 
His religion did not fall full formed from above. He 
thinks that Yahweh may have been known before Moses, 
but in any case the latter gave the religion of Yahweh 
another content. No one before tlie Exodus ever meant 
by it what Moses saw in it. To him it was new. It was 
a revelation. Of one thing Dr. Lofthouse is quite con- 
fident, and that is that to Moses religion was not ritual. 
When the later prophets, looking back, found no place 
for sacrifice in the Avilderness period they were giving 
voice to a historical fact, he believes. Moses had no 
interest in forms. To him Dr. Lofthouse assigns the 
Decalogue but not the Book of the Covenant. 

AVhen the Israelites came into Canaan, true to their 
heritage from Moses, they brought no ritual tradition 
with them. This they took over wholesale from their 
neighbors. But even now it was Yahweh, it must be 

24 (134) 



Some Neiu and Recent Books 

kept in mind, to whom they offered their sacrifice and 
not Baal, When they used the term Baal, as frequently 
they did, it was of the God of the wilderness. Along 
iwith the ritual system must also be included their legal 
icode. It was Yahweh's will that this too they should 
adopt from their neAV environment. That through all 
[srael's experiences in Canaan Yahweh never ceased 
for a moment to be her God, is the view Dr. Lofthouse 
strongly asserts here. There was of course constant 
danger that He should become simply a Baal with an- 
other name. One thing, however, prevented this dis- 
aster, namely the perpetual call to war. When Israel 
engaged in battle, and that was often, it was by the com- 
mand of the God of Moses who had given her the land 
as He had fought with her for its conquest. The lord- 
ship of Yahweh was thus kept perennially before her. 
Finally when she faced the formidable Philistine foe 
and won, the danger that Yahweh might be eclipsed by 
Baal was passed. In the land of the Baals Yahweh, the 
God of Hosts, had proved Himself the abiding God of 
Israel. 

Dr. Peake gives us a very able and interesting 
sketch of Israel's religion during the Prophetic period. 
Of course we are much better informed concerning this 
portion of the history. Our sources for the period are 
much fuller and more satisfactory by reason of the fact 
that many of them are contemporary documents. Reli- 
gion and life were one in Ancient Israel so the prophet 
had a profound interest in politics and Dr. Peake thinks 
that his "keen political insight" should be drawn upon 
to a much greater extent in an effort to explain his mes- 
sage. In treating the history it is usual to decry the 
disruption of the brilliant kingdom of David and Solo- 
mon so soon after the death of the latter. Dr. Peake, 
however, thinks that it was a blessing in disguise. If 
Solomon's dream of a great Hebrew monarchy had not 
been so soon shattered "the Hebrew state might have 

25 (135) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

developed into a richer and mightier kingdom, after the 
common oriental pattern; and possibly taken its place 
among the powerful empires of the Nearer East. Under 
an established despotism the religion would have been 
stifled. There would have been one more commonplace 
religion, splendid in its ceremonial, but dominated by 
the Court, served by a sycophant priesthood and 
divorced from morality". 

The period covered by Prof. Barnes is in turn more 
obscure and consequently more difficult. The author 
succeeds nevertheless in painting a very fair picture of 
the development of post exilic religious life. In evalu- 
ating the work of Ezra he takes the position "that Ezra 
followed Nehemiah after an interval of about forty 
years and that he took up part of Nehemiah 's work and 
carried it to success". Ezra, that is, came up to Jeru- 
salem in the seventh year of Artaxerxes II (not Arta- 
xerxes I) which would mean 397 B.C. rather than 458, 
the usual date assigned for his coming. Ezra was a 
scribe and legalist but the religious development in post- 
exilic Judaism Avas far from being a dead level of legal- 
ism. Indeed some of the most spiritual writings of the 
Old Testament fell here. It was an age fraught with 
great significance for the future religious history of 
mankind, and Prof. Barnes has given us a most accept- 
able resume of the entire period. 

That worship and ritual play an exceedingly 
prominent role everywhere in Old Testament religion no 
one will dispute, and Dr. W. 0. E. Oesterley has con- 
tributed a very clear and succinct presentation of their 
place and development. Prof. Kennett, discussing "The 
Contribution of the Old Testament to the Religious 
Development of Mankind", has also put us under obli- 
gation to him for his illuminating treatment of this 
important subject. 

All in all, this is indeed a very valuable book, 
written by men whose lives are dedicated wholly to the 

26 (136) 



Some New and Recent Books 

great task of elucidating the Old Testament, not as an 
end in itself but because they are persuaded that it is 
the greatest picture we possess of "The Divine Pro- 
cess working among men". 

In the sphere of history some notable books have 
appeared ; the most important of these doubtless is the 
Cambridge Ancient History, edited by J. B. Bury, S. A. V 
Cook, and F. E. Adcock. It was an ambitious enter- 
prise which many years ago proposed to produce a com- 
plete history of the world from the palaeolithic age to 
modern times. The Cambridge Modern History in 
twelve volumes, the first output of the enterprise, has 
long since been completed; the Cambridge Mediaeval 
History has just reached its fifth Volume (1926) and, 
although the Ancient History was not begun until 
recently (the first volume appeared in 1923), it has made 
rapid progress, sending out a volume each year. As 
we write, a fourth volume is reported available for the 
book trade. But it is Volume III which interests us 
just now. Volume I had carried the history down to 
the beginning of the sixteenth eentur}' B.C. The sec- 
ond volume touches the Old Testament more directly, 
for it covers the advent of the Hebrews into the field 
of histor}^ ; the period of the Exodus ; the Conquest ; and 
the early Monarchy. Volume III takes up the tale at 
a critical moment. It is a time of change. Iron is dis- 
placing other materials, providing mankind a better 
implement of destruction. The earlier splendors of 
Egypt, Babylon, and the Hittite peoples have passed. 
The Hebrew tribes are, as a result of this latter fact, 
left free to work out their oAvn destiny unmolested by 
these great powers which had already so largely deter- 
mined the fate of the land of Canaan. But, within the 
period covered by this volume, Assyria comes to the 
fore. Hitherto the historian has been handicapped by 
the paucity of materials from which to weave his story. 

27 (137) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Discoveries have opened up a new world to him but much 
\\ithin that world still remains obscure. In the present 
instance, on the other hand, that is, in the story of 
Assyria's rise and fall, the writer is embarrassed by the 
wealth of material at his disposal rather than by its 
scarcity, Assyrian and Hebrew history are so dove- 
tailed that the Old Testament student is vitally concerned 
with the history of the former. P'rom the coming of 
Tigiathpileser IV to the fall of Nineveh in 612 B.C. 
Hebrew life was influenced at every point b}^ her great 
neighbor to the east. 

The Hittites also helped mould the world of whicli 
Israel was a part. Modern discovery is piecing together 
bit by bit the obscure narrative of the existence and 
contribution to the civilization of the Near East of this 
great people to the North of Canaan. The history of 
Egypt is of course continued. The writer is, in this 
volume, H. R. Hall, and it is clear from his treatment 
that, although her role is no longer so important, yet 
Egypt's story for this epoch of the history cannot be 
neglected. For the Old Testament student especially, 
a chapter on the Influence of Babylonia has importance. 
It deals Avith such matters as the quest of eternal life, 
the epic of creation, hymns and ritual. Astronomy and 
Astrology. 

But of more direct significance is of course the por- 
tion of the volume devoted to the History of the 
Hebrews. Prof. Macalister has an excellent chapter on 
the topography of Jersusalem, while several chapters 
are from the pen of Dr. Stanley A. Cook, one of the 
general editors. We cannot discuss the details of this 
part of the volume at the present time but this at least 
can be said that the treatment is scholarly, scientific, 
and, generally speaking, quite satisfactory to the mod- 
ern student. 

The Cambridge Ancient History has this impor- 
tance that it so vividly reminds us that Israel was but 

28 (138) 



Some Neiv and Recent Books 

a part of the great civilization of the Ancient Near East. 
It is true that, measured in the light of her relative 
unimportance in a political way, too much prominence 
is assigned her in these volumes. But when considered 
upon the basis of the significance of her contribution 
to the life of the world, to most of us the restoration 
of the. civilizations of the whole of the Near East has its 
greater value in this that these peoples Avere Israel's 
neighbors and their life touched and influenced hers. 

Another book of considerable significance for / 
Israel's history is Mr. J. W. Jack's "The Date of the / 
Exodus". It is well known that this subject presents a 
problem of crucial importance for Old Testament re- 
search. It is not simply a matter of unrelated chron- 
ology. It is much more. For if we knew the exact time 
of the Exodus we could relate Israel's formative period 
to Egypt ; we could, with greater certainty, answer the 
question as to whether the Amarna letters tell us any- 
thing about the Hebrews; we could too, with more con- 
fidence, reconstruct the career of Moses. The Exodus, 
that is, in a real sense is the starting point in our effort 
to understand Hebrew history whether secular or reli- 
gious, and if we could fix it we should thereby have 
taken a long step towards our goal. But, to date, no 
unanimity has been obtained by scholars in this impor- 
tant matter. Three different theories, or even four, 
have been proposed and maintained. The more gener- 
ally accepted theory holds that the Pharaoh of the Op- 
pression was Ramses II, and that his successor Merenp- 
tah Avas on the throne at the time of the Exodus. Prof. 
Kittel, whose History of Israel is an accepted authority, 
argues strongh^ for this vieAV. Prof. Sellin also accepts 
it, as do Petrie, Burney, Driver, and a host of others. 

The second theory connects the Exodus Avith the 
religious movement under Akhenaten. Some have 
thought that his monotheism Avas a model taken by 

29 (139) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Moses who introduced it into Israel, or perhaps indeed 
Moses had inspired the Pharaoh. Moses and the Israel- 
ites were living in Goshen at the time, and in the reli- 
gions troubles they would favor the king as against idol 
worshippers. Under the restoration of the old religion 
thev would, then, come in for persecution and were 
ultimatel}^ expelled from the realm. The date of the 
Exodus in this case would be about 1345. This theory 
has recently become fairly popular in connection with 
the literature growing up about the person and period 
of Tutankhamen. Mr. Jack devotes two chapters to its 
discussion, but it has little to recommend it and may 
be passed over. 

The theory advocated by the author holds 
that the Exodus occurred about 1445. He thinks 
it was natural to see in Ramses II the Pharaoh of the 
Oppression, and in Merenptah the reigning king at the 
time of the Exodus, so long as we had no better data. 
But now two discoveries especially render these dates 
extremely improbable, namely the T ell-el- Amarna let- 
ters and the Merenptah stele showing the Israelites to 
have been already, in Canaan. It is admitted by Mr. 
Jack that the Hebrews may have built Pithom and Ram- 
ses, this simply on the basis of Exodus 1 :11. The 
recently discovered stele of Ramses II, found in the 
excavations at Beisan (the ancient Bethshean), stating 
that Semites aided in the building of Ramses in the 
Delta, proves nothing here. It is not evident that these 
cities were founded b}^ Ramses. They may have been 
built earlier. And, as for the argument that the weak- 
ness of Egypt under Merenptah provided a good oppor- 
tunity for Israel's escape, it seems to the author to 
carry little weight in itself, since the reign of Amenhotep 
II following Thutmose III is just as suitable. 

When, therefore, the Amarna letters make indis- 
putable the entrance of Hebrews into Palestine around 
1400 B.C. (for it is now generally conceded that the 

30 (140) 



Some New and Recent Books 

Habiru could have been none other), and Avhen, in addi- 
tion to this, Israelites are mentioned in Merenptah's 
stele as inhabitants of Canaan in his day, it is difficult 
not to conclude that these facts fix the dates of the Exo- 
dus and the Conquest. Mr, Jack's treatment has con- 
vinced me that he has the best of the argument. ~ It 
should be observed that Prof. Welch in his essay on 
"The People and the Book" also arrives at this conclu- 
sion. H. R. Hall in his article, on the other hand, iden- 
tifies the Exodus with the expulsion of the Hyksos in 
1580 B.C., a position for which he has long argued but 
for which he admits that he cannot adduce any evidence 
unless one might accept the testimony of Josephus in 
this particular. But in other respects his view coincides 
with that of Mr. Jack and Prof. Welch. . 

Mr. Jack's book has value beyond his eloquent and 
well supported plea for the early date of the Exodus. 
Indeed, he covers a vast deal of the history of the last 
half of the second millennium B.C. and presents a vivid 
picture of life in Egypt and Palestine during these 
centuries. 

As touching the religion of Israel, in addition to 
the essays already discussed in connection with "The 
People and the Book", another volume must not be over- 
looked. It is the translation of Prof. Kittel's monograph 
on "The Religion of Israel". This work has been hailed 
by many as a very welcome addition to our present 
literature on this subject: Prof. Kittel has devoted a 
long life to Old Testament research. His "History of 
the People of Israel" {Gescliichte des Volkes Israel) 
is well known as in many respects the best we have yet 
had on this all-important phase of Old Testament 
research. The fifth and sixth editions of the first vol- 
ume of this work appeared in 1923 and the sixth and 
seventh editions of the second volume came out during 
the last year. It is greatly to be hoped that these last 

31 (141) 



/ 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

editions ma}^ be translated. Throughout these volumes 
the author has devoted much space to a discussion of 
Old Testament religion, and the book under review 
gathers up the results of this long period of investiga- 
tion and presents them in an attractive English form. 
Those acquainted with Prof. Kittel's work know how 
s^aiipathetic is his approach to his subject, how care- 
ful also he is to reckon with all the evidence, and what 
insight he has gained into Israel's historical and reli- 
gious development. He is indeed a tried workman in 
whom we may place much confidence. 

In his interpretation of Israel's religion he may be 
said to be conservative. In the present book he first 
reviews the religion of pre-Israelite Cannan, then dis- 
cusses the religion of Moses. He thinks it incontestable 
"that the great factor from which we must seek to 
understand the post-Mosaic, and perhaps the very earli- 
est religion of Israel, is the religion of Canaan". In 
his discussion of terms for deity emplo^^ed in Canaan he 
finds that both ''Baal" and "El" are very old. Baal 
is found in Babylon as earh' as the time of Sargon I. 
He was probably earty introduced into Canaan by the 
Amorites where he took the place of still earlier earth 
and water spirits. Baal never was the personification 
of a natural force. He always remained possessor, 
owner of the land, the spring, or tree. The term "El" 
is found in Canaan first about 2000 B.C. "El" 
however is a generic term until the coming of Israel. 
But in general, just as Canaan was the meeting place 
of the nations, so the gods of east and west met on her 
soil and her religion became syncretistic. Nevertheless, 
Baal worship was always dominant, and a monarchic 
polytheism was the eventual result. 

Kittel has no doubts as to the place of Moses in the 
history of Israel's religion. He was in a real sense 
its founder. He introduced Yahweh to his people and 
a Yahweh it was, too, highly exalted above all concep- 

32 (142) 



Some New and Recent Boohs ' 

tions of deity before known. He was the god of a moral 
will and from him came the Decalogue. Thus Moses 
gave Israel a law, although of course it was not the later 
Mosaic Torah. Kittel does not hold that Moses was the 
author of the Book of the Covenant as we know it but 
he did give the initial stimulus to it, a form of law trans- 
mitted orally. The importance of this law was its inti- 
mate relation to religion. Yahweh religion was ethical 
religion. The religion which Moses bequeathed to his 
people was "national and ethical henotheism". "Yah- 
weh was not yet for Moses as He was for his great suc- 
cessors a world-God but certainly he was an ethical 
national god, lord and protector of an ethical national 
order, and the way was prepared for ethical mono- 
theism". 

When Israel came into Canaan and no longer had 
Moses to guide her, she soon fell away from the high 
conceptions with w^hich her great leader had inspired 
her. She had to learn a manner of life far removed 
from the free easy way of the wilderness. Her tutors 
were her Canaanite neighbors. From them she learned 
not only the approved methods of planting and reaping 
but the secrets of Baal worship held necessary to insure 
the crops. The result was that many went over to Baal 
permanently. Others went to the high places but 
thought of Yahweh there. Many thought themselves 
true to him but were confused. "They paid homage to 
Baal and meant Yahweh". 

It seems to me that just here neither Kittel nor 
Lofthouse goes quite far enoguh. Surely the apostasy 
was much more complete than Lofthouse represents it 
to have been or than Kittel perhaps would allow. Of 
course it is true that Yahweh religion as given by Moses 
never lost adherents, but at times through the period 
of the judges it was in grave danger. Gradually the 
stricter group gained strength until the so-called schools 
of the prophets grew up and in spite of many imper- 

33 (143) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

fections performed an important mission in preserving 
and arousing enthusiasm for the true religion. 

Kittel's sketch is in my judgment the most satis- 
factory presentation of the difficult subject of Israel's 
religion we have yet had. He proceeds carefully and 
upon the basis of all the facts at our disposal and his 
judgments are soundly critical and sane. The book 
should be widely read. 

Several other volumes dealing each of them with 
some phase of Old Testament study should at least be 
mentioned here before closing. Prof. G. W. Wade's 
commentary in the Westminster series on the Books of 
the prophets Micah, Obadiah, Joel, and Jonah is a very 
welcome addition to this series. The treatment is that 
adopted in the series generally. It is conventional and 
offers nothing new. The results are those of the mod- 
ern critical school and are very ably marshalled and 
presented. The commentary on Jonah is especially 
interesting and attractive. Included in the volulne are 
chapters on Messianic Prophecy and Its Fulfilment, and 
on the Principles of Hebrew Versification. 

This last is an important subject the modern study 
of which has already shed light on many an Old Testa- 
ment passage. Another very clear and helpful discus- 
sion of it has appeared recently, having been prepared 
for publication by the late Prof. C. F. Burney whose 
early death has been such a great loss to Old Testament 
scholarship. Prof. Burney called his book The Poetry 
of Our Lord since his main object was a study of the 
poetry of Jesus. A treatment of the elements of Hebrew 
v/ poetry, however, was a necessary preliminary to the 

discussion of his main theme and many will find both 
Prof. Wade's essay and this discussion very illuminat- 
ing and interesting. 

No one can deny that Old Testament research has 
\ accomplished great things in modern times and it is 

\\ 34 (144) 



Some New and Recent Books 

encouraging to find that scholars are more and more 
feeling the obligation to present this knowledge in popu- 
lar form. A very good example of such practice is to 
be seen in Prof. W. F. Lofthouse's new volume on Jere- 
miah. A fascinating book it is, presenting one of the 
greatest religious personalities of all time. Preachers 
desiring inspiration should read this book. 

Another serious loss to the field of Old Testament 
research was the death of Dr. Geo. Buchanan Gray whose 
paper on The Horizons of Old Testament Study appears 
as the final essay in ''The People and the Book". This 
is a stimulating article. Prof. Gray has been held by 
some to have been the greatest Old Testament scholar 
of modern times. Certainly his contributions have been 
very valuable. His temper and equipment fitted him 
for original research and this character of his work is 
manifest in practically his entire output. Before his 
death he had been working on the subject of sacrifice 
in the Old Testament and later it was feared that the 
results of these his last labors had been lost. Fortu- 
nately, however, much of his work was already in manu- 
script form when he laid down his pen for the last time. 
Many scholars have contributed to the task of preparing 
these for the press and our gratitude is due them for 
preserving such an important discussion of a most diffi- 
cult Old Testament theme. It is only possible liere to 
say of Dr. Gray's point of view that he believed that 
W. R. Smith's thesis regarding sacrifice, according to 
which the chief element • in it was communion of the 
worshipper with the deity, wg.s misleading or at least 
wrong in its emphasis. He undertook therefore "to 
examine the extent to which the idea of gift was con- 
sciously associated with sacrifice— the extent to which 
sacrifice was subsumed under the general class of sa- 
cred gifts, and the depth and variety of the belief that 
gifts, whether sacrifices or not, could be and ought to 
be made by man to God". 

35 (145) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

J Two books of a practical nature deserve at least 

^ to be listed here. They are: "The Use of the Old Tes- 
tament in the Light of Modern Knowledge", by John 
E. McFadyen (available for two or three years) and 
''How to Teach the Old Testament", by Frederick J. 
Rae. Dr. McFadyen, after a brief introduction, pre- 
sents a large number of illustrations of the modern 
method, taken from many parts of the Old Testament. 
Mr. Rae proceeds in a somewhat different fashion. He 
selects a passage as the basis of study. He then gives 
(A) directions for the teacher (B) notes on the text, 
and finally (C) lessons deriving from the passage. Both 
books will be found exceedingly helpful by those who 
are persuaded that the critical view of the Old Testa- 
ment is correct and should be utilized in present day 
religious instruction. Such books are greatly needed 
just now. 



:u; (i4(i) 



Some New and Recent Books 



Dr. Vance 



Afi Introduction to tlie Textual Criticism of the New 

Testament. By A. T. Robertson, M.A., D.D., LL.D., V^? 
Litt.D. New York: George H. Doran Company. ' 

1925. Pp. 300. $2.50. 

The Origin of the Neiv Testament, and the Most Impor- . ^ 
tant Consequences of the Neiv Creation. By Adolf ^ ^ ^ 
von Harnack. New York: The Macmillan Com- 
pany. 1925. Pp. 230. $2.00, 

The Making of the English Neiv Testament. By Edgar / f/ ^ 
J. Goodspeed. Chicago : The University of Chi- 7 

cago Press. 1925. Pp. 129. $1.50. 

Tlie Gospel of Jolin, A Handbook for Christian Leaders. / ^"""^ 
By Benjamin W. Robinson. New York: The Mac- 
millan Company. 1925. Pp. 275. $2.25. 

Through Eternal Spirit, A Study of Hebrews, James 
and I Peter. By Joseph F. McFadyen, M.A., D.D. 
New York: George H. Doran Company. 1925. 
Pp. 255. $2.00. 

The Life, Letters and Eeliqion of St. Paul. Bv C. T. / -f^2- 
Wood, B. D. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark. 1925. 
Pp. 418. 8s. 

Jesus and the Greeks, or Early Christianity i)i the Tide- 
Way of Hellenism. Bv William Fairweather, M.A., ^ ^^~\ 
D.D. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1924. 
Pp. 408. $3.50. 



/6-/ 



The Mystery Religions and Christianity, A Study in the 
Religious Background of Early Christianity. Bv S. 
Angus, Ph.D./D.Litt., D.D. New York: Charles 
Scribner's Sons. 1925. Pp. 358. $3.50. 

"An Introduction to the Textual Criticism of the 
New Testament," by Dr. Robertson, is not a. revision 

37 (147) 



^ 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

of Dr. Warfield's handbook (long out of print) on that 
subject, but is intended to take its place. The history 
and material of Textual criticism have been well pre- 
sented by Kenyon, Nestle, and Souter. Dr. Robertson 
feels that the theological student and minister need 
fuller treatment of the method than these writers have 
given. The opening chapter on the ''Textus Receptus," 
in which its inadequacy is made clear, is followed by one 
on the "Critical Text", to the obtaining of which due 
credit is given to the great work of Lachmann, Tre- 
gelles, Tischendorf, Gregory, Wescott and Hort, and 
Von Soden. The material to be used in obtaining this 
critical text is adequately described in five chapters. 
The method of textual criticism is clearly and interest- 
ingly presented in the next 100 pages. One of the most 
helpful features of the book is the eleven facsimiles of 
earl}^ texts. 

The translation of Dr. Harnack's work on "The 
Origin of the New Testament" is a valuable contribu- 
tion in English to the subject of the Canon. The author 
answers five questions. 

How did the Church arrive at a second authorita- 
tive canon, having received from its founders the Old 
Testament? By a very natural process the Church had 
made use of Gospel narratives and writings of the apos- 
tles. Through these writings it felt God had spoken. 
When Montanism arose with its claim to a new mes- 
sage and when Gnosticism presented its peculiar writ- 
ings, the Church felt the need for a clearly defined list 
of books which would give it God's authoritative voice. 
Thus the conception of a New Testament canon arose. 

Why does the New Testament canon contain other 
books aside from the Gospels? The apostles were com- 
missioned by Christ to be his witnesses and the dis- 
pensers of his power. The Gospels were written by 
apostles or their companions. So also are the other 
books of the New Testament. Attestation of the revela- 

38 (148) 



Some New and Recent Books 

tion is no less important than the content. 

Why did the Church accept four Gospels, no more, 
no less? The four arose in different sections of the 
Church. They were accepted elsewhere on the theory 
that they gave testimony to Christ by apostles. This 
apostolic authority was needed in the days of contro- 
versy. Tatian's "Diatessaron," not having such 
authority, ceased to be used even in the Syrian Church, 
where once it had held sway. Other gospels which had 
temporary recognition in certain sections of the Church 
ceased to be so used, because they lacked this apostolic 
authority. 

Why has only one Apocalypse been able to keep its 
place in the New Testament! The Church concluded 
that out of the three that for a time were used the Reve- 
lation of John was the only one by an apostle. 

Was the New Testament created consciously^ ? His- 
tory reveals that in the first half of the second century 
no definite conception of a New Testament existed. By 
200 throughout the Church a New Testament existed, 
for the most part uniform. Controversy in Avhich Rome 
and Ephesus were principally concerned had necessitated 
a definite formulation. This New Testament consisted 
of most of the books now recognized. Others were added 
as they were accepted as apostolic. 

The question often asked, Hoav did Ave get our New 
Testament?, is in this book plainly and interestingly 
answered. The layman as well as the* minister will find 
help here. 

Goodspeed's "The Making of the New Testament" ^ 
is published in celebration of the four hundredth anni- 
versary of Tyndale's translation of the New Testament. 
It is a survey of the efforts that have been made during 
these four hundred years to improve the English form 
of the New Testament. The story of the Tyndale, 
Coverdale, Rogers, Cranmer, and other early transla- 
tions is succinctly presented. 

39 (149) 



/ 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Similar questions to those asked to-day, What need 
is there for a new translation of the New Testament? 
Why not be satisfied with the King James Version?, 
were frequently asked in those days. Satisfactory 
answers are given in this small book. A better Greek 
text than that employed in the King James translation 
has been obtained through the great Greek manuscripts 
that have come to light since those days. This led the 
scholars of the last century to make the efforts which 
resulted in the English and American Revised versions. 

The discovery of the Greek papyri during the last 
thirty years has made it possible to understand the 
Greek text of the New Testament much more accurately. 
So Ballantine, Moffatt, Goodspeed, and others have tried 
their hands at translations. 

Those interested in the New Testament will find 
much valuable information in these 125 pages. 

"The Gospel of John," by Dr. Robinson, is, for the 
preacher, one of the most suggestive and stimulating 
treatments of this Gospel that has appeared for many 
a day. With the critical position, many will find them- 
selves not in agreement. With the treatment of cer- 
tain portions there will be actual opposition. But no 
man can read this book- with open mind, without obtain- 
ing a higher conception of his opportunities in jDortray- 
ing Jesus Christ as the hope of the world, the only 
Saviour. Dr. Robinson believes that the author of the 
Gospel was a personal disciple of Jesus, the Beloved 
Disciple, not the Apostle, the John of Western Asia 
Minor, the leader in the Church at Ephesus for a quar- 
ter of a century, that he spoke from firsthand knowl- 
edge, interpreting the historical Jesus in a wa}^ suited 
to the philosophical and ethical needs of the Hellenistic 
World. 

After reading the book one feels anew that the 
Jesus of History is far beyond one's powers of delinea- 

40 (150) 



Some New and Recent Books 

tion, that He is able to save all men in all ages, if the 
preacher only knows Him sufficiently in his own inward 
life, and is able to present Him to men. The one great 
need of humanity is to be brought into close contact 
with Jesus. 

"Through Eternal Spirit", by Prof. McFadyen of 
Kingston, is written "to help the readers of the Bible 
to feel that its writers were bone of our bone, and flesh 
of our flesh, men who knew perplexity and sorrow, and 
were well acquainted with our doubts, and fears, and 
griefs", "to set forth the human experience that under- 
lies and is reflected in the Bible", "to indicate the per- 
manent interest and worth" of the Epistle to the He- 
brews, the Epistle of James, and I Peter. The work is 
a running commentary on the text of three epistles. 

Of I Peter the author says in one place, "The book 
of Job leaves us wondering Avhether there is any solu- 
tion of the problem of unmerited suffering, or at least 
whether the author has found it. I Peter leaves us won- 
dering whether there is any problem, at least, for one 
who has caught anything of the spirit of Jesus". 

While there are some difficulties in presenting James 
as a modern book, yet for the most part James' practi- 
cal ethical suggestions seem to be self-evidently appro- 
priate for our day. 

The Epistle to the Hebrews is more difficult. How- 
ever, Dr. McFadyen shows that the argument for the 
finality of Christianit}^ as over against Judaism, based 
on the sonship of Christ is just as effective to-day over 
against the World Religions. 

If what the author of the Epistle says of Jesus is 
true, viz: — that He is the Son of God, the perfect re- 
vealer of God, the perfect High Priest, with a perfect 
sacrifice, in a perfect tabernacle, under a perfect cove- 
nant — then the religion inaugurated by Him is the final 
one, and the book has a vital message for to-day. How 

41 (151) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

can there be any other priest in the Christian religion 
or any religion than the priest after the order of Mel- 
chizeciek? How can the man who stands gazing into 
heaven, awaiting the coming of our Lord fail to see from 
Hebrews that there is a very practical life to live now, 
with confidence that when Christ's ministry of interces- 
sion has been completed He will come, and not mi til 
then? How can he who has lost his first love for the 
Saviour fail to heed the warnings of the sixth and tenth 
chapters? How can the earnest reader fail to discern 
that it is not upon the first principles (the milk) that 
one is to feed, but that he is to go forward to the larger 
truth, never fearing the guidance of the Spirit into that 
larger truth of God! The real danger that confronts 
the Christian is drifting on the stream of temptation. 
Dr. McFadyen's treatment of the eleventh chapter is 
wonderfully stimulating. 

This is a good book for a minister, who desires to 
lead his congregation through the exposition of these 
three epistles, to possess. 

Dean Wood's '^The Life, Letters and Religion of 
St. Paul" is one of the notable recent contributions to 
Pauline literature. It is designed especially for theo- 
logical students and ministers. Following a discussion 
of Paul's education, conversion, and early missionary 
labor, each epistle is treated in its chronological setting, 
with introduction, elaborate paraphrase, and notes. 
Separate discussions of more important questions have 
their place, such as the sacraments, the mystical union 
with Christ, expectation of the speed}' return, Paul's 
phraseology on the atonement. 

Galatians is treated as the first of his letters, Avrit- 
ten from Antioch in Syria between the first missionary 
journey and the Council at Jerusalem. The visit to 
Jerusalem recorded in the second chapter is the same 
as that in Acts 11 :27-30, at the time of the famine. The 

42 (152) 



Some New and Recent Books 

author believes in two Roman imprisonments, although 
he does not accept the Pastorals in their present form 
as Pauline. II Thessalonians, Colossians, and Ephe- 
sians are Pauline. 

The closing chapter of the book is a summary of 
Paul's religion as presented here and there in the treat- 
ment of the various epistles. 

A sound scholar, master of the facts, well versed 
in the mystery religions, Greek thought, and Pharasaic 
theology, brings to the subject a mind of singular fresh- 
ness and penetration. The charm of the book lies partly 
in the simplicity of style, partly in the sincerity and 
independence of treatment. The book contains two 
excellent maps and an extensive bibliography. It is one 
of the best introductions to the study of St. Paul that 
exists. The great apostle is presented sympathetically, 
lucidly, dynamically, comprehensiveh\ 

"Jesus and the Greeks", by Rev. William Fair- 
weather, D.D., of Kirkcaldy, is one of the authoritative 
discussions on the study of Christian origins that have 
appeared this past year. Did Christianity have its 
source exclusively in the Old Testament, or have Egypt, 
Assyro-Babylonia, Persia, Hellenism contributed large- 
ly to its content I This book attempts to answer the 
question as to any contribution that Hellenism may 
have made. 

The thoroughness of treatment may be inferred as 
one glances at the table of contents. The first Part is 
entitled "The Diffusion of Hellenism" and such top)ics 
as Xenophon and Isocrates, Alexander the Great, The 
Stoics and Epicureans, Hellenism in Egypt, in Syria and 
the Orient, and Hellenistic Piety are discussed. The 
second Part discusses the Jewish Hellenist Philo and 
the third Part is on Hellenism and Christianity, under 
which some of the chapter headings are The Fullness of 
Time, Jesus and the Gospel, Jesus and the Gentile 

43 (153) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

World, Importance of Greek to Christianity, Early 
Christianity in Relation to Hellenism, The Essential 
Independence of Christianity. 

"Greek philosophy paved the way for the Gospel 
by demonstrating- the inadequacy of the human reason 
to formulate a satisfactory doctrine of God and of sal- 
vation." Philo's doctrine of the Logos was a composite 
from many sources. He would never have agreed to 
John's doctrine that "The Word became flesh". Paul 
knew the Stoic system of ethics but did not derive his 
system thence. Hellenism is polytheistic; Christianity 
is monotheistic. Hellenism teaches man must seek God. 
Christianity teaches God seeks man. "Stoicism was 
materialistic, pantheistic, determinist; for the Christian, 
^Your heavenly Father knoweth what things ye have 
need of before ye ask Him' ". Stoicism teaches that 
moral evil may be eradicated by physical means. Chris- 
tianity declares there is need of a Divine Redeemer. 

This is a very timely book in the midst of the claims 
of certain students of Comparative Religion. 

Those who heard Dr. Angus give the Elliott lectures 
on the Mystery Religions at Western Theological Semi- 
nary in 1920 will eagerly read the pages of "The Mys- 
tery-Religions and Christianity" in which those lectures 
have been incorporated. One of the foremost scholars of 
this age has here written on a subject that interests every 
man who cares to understand the religious conditions 
under which Christianity was founded and spread. As 
one turns over these pages with ever growing interest, 
he will appreciate his Christian belief all the more, as he 
realizes against what his faith had to contend in those 
early days. He will gain a new conception of the reli- 
gious condition of the first centuries of the Christian era, 
and in a new way understand what the "fulness of time'' 
was, in w^hich Christ came into this world. 



44 (154) 



Some Neiv and Recent Books 

Why did Christianity conquer these many saviour 
gods? The last chapter answers that question. Chris- 
tianity's outstanding merits and chief weapons of propa- 
ganda were its intolerance, its genuine universality, its 
faith (a new religious force), its Bible, its satisfj-ing 
message for the widespread sorrow of the ancient world, 
its historic and personal center. Dr. Angus lays special 
stress on the historical center of the Christian faith. The 
mystery religions were based on nature myths, were 
linked with magic and astrology, emphasized the indi- 
vidualistic-mystical type of religion, together with a fail- 
ure to recognize social duties, and were exceedingly 
vague theologically. Thus, although by their promises 
to their initiates, they made a strong appeal to men 
conscious of sin, desiring redemption and an assurance 
of future life, they ultimately failed. 

They were defended by such men as Apuleius, Cel- 
sus, Porphyry, lamblichus, Proclus, and Julian the 
Apostate. In the midst of the failure of the Greek and 
Roman religions, these Mystery Religions gave hope to 
many a soul. What they really were, one may discover 
by a careful reading of this most interesting book. 



45 (155) 



The Bulletin of the Western Trmological Seminary 

Dr. Eakin 

-I The Religion of Yesterday and To-morrow. By Kir- 
/ sopp Lake, D.D. New York: Houghton Mifflin 

Company. 1925. 183 pages. $2.00. 

The Reasonableness of Christianity. By Douglass Clyde 
I ( Macintosh. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 

I ^ ' 1925. 293 pages. $1.50. 

Jesus of Nazareth His Life, Times, and Teaching. By 
I / ^ Joseph Klausner, Ph.D. Tr. by Herbert Danby, 

1^ D.D. London: George Allen & Unwin. 1925. 434 

pages. $4.50. 

, (a St. Mark. By A. E. J. Rawlinson. New York: E. S. 
\y ' Gorham. $5.50. 

An Outline of Christianity The Story of Our Civiliza- 
tion. Volume I. The BiHh of Christianity. By 
O Ernest Findlay Scott, D.D. and Burton Scott 

Easton, Ph.D., D.D. 429 pages. Volume II. The 
Builders of the Church.. By F. J. Foakes Jackson, 
D.D. 505 pages. New York : Dodd, Mead & Com- 
pany (cl926) $5.00 per volume. 

The History and Literature of the New Testament. By 
\ Henry Thatcher Fowler, Ph.D. New Y^ork: The 

V V ^ Macmillan Company. 1925. 443 pages. $2.50. 

^ The First Age of Christianity. By Ernest F. Scott, 
A ' ; D.D. New York : The Macmillan Company. 1926. 

\ 242 pages. $1.50. 

In "The Religion of Yesterday and To-morrow", 
as in "Landmarks of Early Christianity", Professor 
Lake has packed a great deal of thought-provoking 
material in small space. Naturally it has been the chap- 
ter on "The Real Divisions in Modern Protestantism" 
which has attracted most attention. The threefold 
classification— Fundamentalists, Experimentalists, and 

46 (156) 



Some Neiv and Recent Books 

Institutionalists — has already gained wide currency. On 
the other hand it may be questioned whether the two 
opening chapters, on Catholicism and Protestantism, 
have had as thoughtful consideration on the part of 
Protestant ministers as they deserve. 

As Professor Lake sees it, "Two permanent con- 
tributions were made by Protestantism to Christianity, 
and point the way to the religion of to-morrow." (1) 
The reformers abolished belief in the infallibility of the 
Church. It is true that they retained the Catholic belief 
in the infallibility of Scripture; at the same time they 
held that the Bible was its own interpreter, or rather 
that every Christian had the right to interpret it for 
himself. This means "that a long step was taken toward 
the supremacy of logic and reason in the interpretation 
of Scripture. . .'. For the moment, at least, the Protes- 
tant Church was the intellectual leader of humanity." 
(2) "Equally important was the emphasis laid upon Jus- 
tification by Faith as opposed to Sacramental Grace." 
In its essence this means an insistence "that man can 
bring his life to a higher level, not by the magic of sac- 
raments, but by an attitude of will on his own part which 
binds him to all that is noble in life, and sets him free 
from what is base. . . . This effort of the individual. . . . 
is not an attempt to 'do right,' to live in accordance 
with a code of conduct, but to 'be right,' to become capa- 
ble of right action". 

These were "great achievements; but they were off- 
set from the beginning by grave defects, so that though 
Protestantism made real contributions to progress it 
did not and cannot take the place of Catholicism. The 
Catholic Church has remained an incomparable force in 
the world of religion and of politics, for, Avhatever were 
its faults before the Keformation, it had also certain 
great virtues and performed functions which are not 
performed by Protestantism and only very slowly are 
being taken over by other bodies. This is especially true 
of three points: — 

47 (157) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

(1) "Protestantism has not supplied the need of 
a supra-national society. Its curse has always been 
nationalism. When the English, Dutch, German, and 
other North-European nations broke away from the 
Catholic Church, they adopted the principle that each 
nation had independent sovereignty in ecclesiastical as 
well as secular matters. An end was made of any the- 
ory of a power above nations. This was not progress: 
it was retrogression. . . . Nor as time has gone on has 
there been any serious effort in Protestantism to remedy 
its defect; on the contrary, the general trend has been 
toward further disruption and greater loss of powder. 
It soon became evident that a national Church was open 
to exploitation by the government of the country; the 
tyranny of the court proved as evil as the tyranny of the 
Vatican. . . . Thus there arose a movement for 'free' 
churches; free, that is to say, from any organic connec- 
tion with nations. In this way some evils were certainly 
abolished, but the price was considerable." The result, 
especially in America, was a great lot of 'sub-national' 
churches. 

"To achieve a system which shall be supra-national 
has been the vision seen b}^ the noblest minds for two 
thousand years." Some have dreamed of a system 
which would be dominantly political, others of religion 
as dominant. Sometimes it seems as if our generation 
were on the way to the production of a supra-national 
system in which Industry and Finance will dominate, 
with both politics and religion subordinate — "but the 
ideal of the popes appeals to me as the higher. His- 
tory rarely repeats its offer to those who once refuse it, 
but it is still possible that the vision seen by the Catho- 
lic Church, and the opportunity which it missed because 
of human fallibility and wickedness, may be seen again 
and followed to a triumphant end." 

(Is it perhaps more probable— and more desirable — 
that what will triumph is a supra-national spirit rather 

48 (158.) 



Some Neiv and Recent Books 

than a supra-national "system" or organization — a 
spirit manifesting itself in mutual understanding, sym- 
pathy, cooperation 1 ) 

(2) "It has not supplied the need of sacraments." 
(The Mass is particularly in view here). "Regarded 
from the outside, the sacraments of the Catholic Church 
appear to be magical performances in which we mod- 
erns have neither part nor lot. They merely pander to 
the superstititions of the populace. That is half true; 
but the other half" should not be overlooked. "The 
theory of the Mass is indeed Avrong — for the educated, 
perversely wrong — but in Italy or France, not so much 
among the educated and learned as among the peasants, 
that Mass, which is to us a superstitious ceremony, is an 
insight into the mystical value of life, lit up by the splen- 
dor of divine grace. . . . The mistake which so many 
Protestants make is in thinking that, because they can 
see the mythical element of the Mass, or of the sacra- 
mental S3"stem in general, they can achieve truth merely 
by cutting those things out; whereas the error in the 
Catholic system is not in claiming a sacramental value 
for the Mass, but in denying the possibility of that same 
value to all the events of life." 

(3) "It has not supplied the need of personal care 
for the spiritually sick. ... In Catholicism the confes- 
sional heretofore ahvays has been part of its strength, 
because the confessional, like the Mass, is the wrong 
way of doing the right thing. The priest in the confes- 
sional presents himself to us who are outside as merely 
the descendant of the magician who is making a wholly 
impossible claim to forgive or not to forgive sins, and 
we say truly that experience proves that his claim is 
wrong. That is so, but nevertheless there are two groups 
to which he gives the help of trained knowledge when 
it is needed; and this help is not efficiently given in 
Protestant churches. The first group is those who feel 
spiritually ill, unhappy, and miserable." Their souls 

49 (159) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

are sick. Now 'Hhe priest does not know as much about 
the soul as he ought." In treating such cases he mixes 
medicine with magic. Hence "the strength of the 
Catholic Church in this direction is gradually failing 
because it is being surpassed in actual knowledge by psy- 
chopathic doctors, whose methods are often very like 
those of the confessional, but are founded on better 
knowledge, and are free from the taint of magic. An- 
other group . . . contains those who really do not know 
what they ought to do and doubt where the line comes 
between right and wrong. In modern life it is some- 
times impossible not to doubt. ... To whom should men 
go! The Catholic goes to his priest." And often he 
gets good advice which, especially in the case of the 
poor, often could not be otherwise obtained. 

But even Catholicism has not been wholly success- 
ful in its efforts to minister to these two groups. "Other 
men are taking up the burden which the priest has failed 
adequately to carry. The pendulum is swinging back. 
In the Middle Ages the priest was the lawyer, and he 
was also the doctor, for practically all learned profes- 
sions were concentrated into the hands of the priests. 
Now the ministry of the Church is losing function after 
function and other professions are taking hold of them." 
(Is this after all perhaps for the best! Had the minis- 
try of the church better content itself with the effort to 
infuse the Christian spirit into the doctors and lawyers 
— taking care meanwhile to measure up to a high stand- 
ard in the fulfillment of its own office, so that it will be 
in a position to offer constructive criticism to other 
professions'?) 

"Finally a weakness which has no analogy in 
Catholicism has developed recently with alarming rapid- 
ity in some Protestant churches. It is a tendency to 
make the congregation the ultimate court of appeal. 
This is held to be in accordance with the spirit of democ- 
racy; but, though no doubt the will of the people is the 

50 (160) 



Some Neiu and Recent Books 

best method of making certain that they shall have the 
political leaders whom they deserve, it has its limita- 
tions in the ecclesiastical world. It produces a type of 
'echoing' Christianity, in which the pulpit gives back in 
loud tones the whispers which it has heard from the 
pews. ' ' 

The question of wherein the strength and the weak- 
ness of Protestantism lies is a question with which every 
Protestant minister will do well to concern himself, and 
Professor Lake's discussion should serve as a valuable 
stimulus. 

Professor Macintosh's book, which won the $6000 
Bross Prize last year, is an extremely interesting exam- 
ple of the "new apologetics". The modern argument 
for Christianity, ' we are told in the first chapter, has 
two distinctive characteristics: "the choice of the 
essence of Christianity in place of an entire traditional 
content and the defense of this essence without recourse 
to stories of miracle." And from these characteristics 
"two questions of method naturally emerge: How is 
one to distinguish the essence of Christianity from the 
non-essential elements in Christian tradition? And how 
is one to defend this essence of Christianity as true?" 
To these questions two main answers are to be found in 
recent religious thought — the Hegelian answer and the 
Ritschlian answer. "Roughly speaking, the distinction 
between the two groups is this: the Hegelians have 
taken reasonableness, rationality, as the criterion of the 
essence of Christianity, and have sought to defend this 
essence as true by exhibiting its reasonableness, whereas 
the Ritschlians have taken religious value as the criterion 
of the essence of Christianity and have sought to defend 
this essence as true by exhibiting its religious value." 

From the title Avhich he gives to his book the reader 
will naturally expect Professor Macintosh to line himself 
up with the Hegelians. And so he does in a measure but 

51 (161) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

in a measure only. The Hegelian criterion of the essence 
of Christianity he finds unsatisfactory. When the thinker 
of this school "undertakes to select the reasonable ele- 
ment in traditional Christianity as its true essence, what 
he really does is to select that, and that alone, which 
he can interpret as agreeing with his own speculative 
doctrines." The Ritschlian criterion seems more trust- 
worthy. "That in historic Christianity which human 
experience shows to have permanent positive value for 
the life of man must surely belong to the essence of 
Christianity." But when we turn from the discovery 
of the essence to the question of how to defend it as 
true the matter is different. Here the Ritschlian argu- 
ment in effect is "that the spiritually valuable element 
in Christianity is true, not because it is reasonable, but 
just because it is valuable." But against this the objec- 
tion is often, and fairly, made that it is too subjective. 
It has little force except with those who are already in 
the enjoyment of the Christian experience, and they do 
not need to be convinced. In the apology proper, then, 
not the Ritschlian but the Hegelian position must be 
assumed. The thing which needs to be proved is that 
"the spiritually valuable content of historical Chris- 
tianity is reasonable," for "there can be no doubt that 
what is genuinely reasonable is presumably true." 

In the second chapter the effort is made to estab- 
lish the reasonableness of Christian morality. The posi- 
tion is taken, to begin with, that "a moralit}' that is 
truly free, empirical, spiritual, and social is reason- 
able." It must be free — "free from any authority of 
the ultimately external and arbitrary type" — since only 
thus can the power of moral judgment be developed in 
the individual. It must be empirical — ready to learn 
from experience. This is the one adequate means 
of assuring that freedom in the long run will be produc- 
tive of good rather than harm. It must be spiritual — 
that is to say, it must have "an adequate appreciation of 

52 (162) 



Some New and Recent Books 

the relative value of the material and the spiritual", 
must "see that spiritual values are fitted to be made the 
end of life, and the material values never more than 
mere means". (By spiritual values are meant "insight 
into the truth, ideal beauty, ideal love and friendship, 
. . . moral goodness itself, . . . the value of fellowship 
with God", etc.). Freedom, checked by experience, will 
yield an adequate morality onl}^ as there is "a proper 
estimate of the higher values" among the consequences 
wdiich experience yields. And it must be social. "The 
spiritual values must be sought for others, not for one's 
self alone. Truly reasonable conduct must aim at the 
greatest total well-being, spiritual primarily and mate- 
rial as far as may be, of every person concerned." It 
must meet Kant's tests: — "Act so that the principle of 
your action might be made a universal law," and 
"Treat every person always as an end, and never as 
a mere means." 

The next question, obviously, is. Does Christian 
morality measure up to this four-fold test. Professor 
Macintosh believes that it does. He does not contend 
"that all Christian morality has been sufficiently free," 
but he does hold that "Whether the appeal be to his- 
tory or to contemporary experience, it has not been 
shown that an essentially Christian morality cannot be 
perfectly free nor that a free morality cannot be thor- 
oughly Christian," And essential Christian morality 
meets the second condition. At bottom it is empirical. 
"The Christian is to prove all things and hold fast that 
which is good." As to the third and fourth conditions 
there is no room for doubt. Christian morality is "in 
its principles and ideal thoroughly spiritual and social." 
These are, indeed, its outstanding characteristics. "In 
the original documents of our faith materialistic ideals 
and covetousness are constantly condemned," while its 
social quality is "the most conspicuous feature of the 
Christian moral ideal. It is the morality of unselfish 

53 (163) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

love." Therefore, ''we are entitled to conclude that 
Christian morality is reasonable, universally valid, and 
permanently true." 

But is Christianity reasonable also as a religious 
faith f In working toward an answer to this question 
we are to note that there are four general attitudes 
which may be taken toward reality, life, and destiny. 
They are ''pessimism, non-moral optimism, mere melior- 
ism, and moral optimism." And of these four only the 
last (which also may be called "religious meliorism") 
is thoroughly reasonable. "It is the simple resultant, 
the joint product of the natural, normal optimism of 
the healthy mind in a healthy body, and what one of the 
greatest of philosophers has evaluated as the only ulti- 
mately good thing in the universe, the good or moral 
will. . . . Would you be reasonable? Be normal and be 
moral. Be healthy in body and mind, be buoyantly opti- 
mistic; but take full account of your moral responsi- 
bility. Be yourself and your best possible self. Be 
strong, be heroic, but not by fits and starts ; be not weary 
in well-doing. Steadily do your part and for the final 
outcome trust the Higher Power upon which you and 
yours are ultimately dependent. This simple, normal, 
moral, and reasonable attitude is what we mean by moral 
optimism." It is "not only normal; it is necessary . . . 
for the realization of the highest ends." It is "an act 
of self-maintenance on the part of the spiritual life of 
man. Is it not reasonable, then to regard it as a morally 
justified hypothesis, and to act upon the supposition that 
it is true?" 

Now "it is indisputable that this moral optimism 
was present in primitive Christianity, and that it is at 
the heart of what is still vital and essential in the his- 
toric Christian faith." Therefore, essential Christian- 
ity is reasonable not only as a morality but as a reli- 
gious faith. 

54 (164) 



Some New and Recent Books 

Professor Macintosh reaches this point at the end 
of his third chapter. In the next three chapters he 
attempts to show that the reasonableness of moral opti- 
mism carries with it the reasonableness of belief in 
man's Freedom, in Immortality, and in God. There fol- 
low chapters dealing, from the same point of view, with 
Providence, Revelation, the Historic Jesus, the Person 
and Work of Christ. The three final chapters — on 
KnoAvledge in General, Religious Knowledge, and Real- 
ity — are in the nature of a philosophical appendix. It 
is not possible, in the space here available, to follow the 
argument of the book to the end. Nor is it desirable. 
Enough has been said to reveal the author's point of 
view and method: those who wish to follow him further 
should go to the book itself. 

It is a keenly interesting book. Some readers (and 
these not entirely among ultra-conservatives) may have 
a vague feeling that Professor Macintosh makes Chris- 
tianity too reasonable — that they would prefer for it 
not to be quite so reasonable. But that would be an inside 
point of view, and it may be presumed that this book 
is intended for the outsider — or for him who is inside 
but feels that maybe he ought to be out. The book will 
stand or fall by its success in appealing to intellectually 
disposed men and women of these two groups. But 
probably a good deal of this influence will be exerted 
indirectly — mediated, for example, through Christian 
ministers. 

It is a matter for much congratulation that Dr. 
Klausner's Life of Jesus, published only a short time 
ago in "modern Hebrew," is now to be had in an Eng- 
lish translation. It was intended primarily for Jewish 
readers, but Christians will find in it a great deal that 
is of interest and value. The translator calls attention 
to the fact that "here, probably for the first time, there 
is set out a full range of what modern Jewish scholar- 

55 (165) 



TJie Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

ship has to offer on the subject of the Jewish back- 
ground of the Gospels." Much matter from Rabbini- 
cal sources has long been available in the works of Eder- 
sheim, Lightfoot, and others, but in these "there is no 
pretence at critical sifting or weighing of the Jewish 
material. For a critical knowledge of the Jewish back- 
ground of the Gospels the Christian can never wholly 
dispense with Jewish scholarship. The present work 
gives this in a handy, accessible form, and this fact alone 
seemed to justify its translation into English." 

But the value of the book to the Christian reader 
is not limited to the matter of background. Students of 
the New Testament have long known — particularly 
through such a work as that of C. G. Montefiore on the 
Synoptic Gospels — that Jewish scholarship Avas capable 
of making important contributions to our knowledge of 
the character, personality, and outlook of Jesus. Al- 
lowance must be made for bias, of course. This is true 
of Mr. Montefiore, notwithstanding his sound scholar- 
ship and beautiful spirit. It is true also of Dr. Klaus- 
ner. Yet the fact remains that this Jewish rabbi has 
seriously tried to be fair, and, further, that he has suc- 
ceeded at least as well as the majority of Christian 
scholars who have written about the Pharisees. He says 
of his book that "every effort has been made to keep 
it within the limits of pure scholarship and to make it 
as objective as possible." 

Some quotations from the last two chapters ^\i\\ 
serve to reveal the general picture of the Founder of 
Christianity as this modern Jewish scholar sees him: 

"The influence of Jesus upon his disciples and fol- 
lowers was exceptional. In Galilee masses of people 
followed him : for his sake his disciples forsook all and 
followed him to the danger zone, to Jerusalem; th-ey 
remained faithful to him both during his life and after 
his terrible death. Every word he spoke— even parables 
which they did not understand and the more enigmatic 

56 (166) 



Some New and Recent Boohs 

figures of speech — tliey treasured like a precious pearl. 
As time went on his spiritual image grew ever more 
and more exalted till,, at length, it reached the measure 
of the divine. Never has such a thing happened to any 
other human creature in enlightened, historic times and 
among a people claiming a two thousand years- old 
civilization. 

"What is the secret of this astonishing influence? 

"In the opinion of the present writer the answer 
should be looked for in the complex nature of his per- 
sonality and also in his methods of teaching. 

"The great man is not recognizable as such by vir- 
tues alone, but by defects which can themselves, in cer- 
tain combinations, be transformed into virtues. Like 
every great man Jesus was a complex of many and 
amazing contradictions ; it was these which compelled 
astonishment, enthusiasm and admiration." 

"On the one hand, Jesus was humble and lowly- 
minded." On the other hand he "possesses a belief in 
his mission which verges on the extreme of self-venera- 
tion." On the one side he is. "one of the people," a 
Galilean artisan. On the other side he is "as expert 
in the Scriptures as the best of the Pharisees" and 
knows also the "tradition of the elders". Again, there 
is to be seen in him "gentleness and charm on the one 
side, the extremest moral demands on the other . . . 
nothing can more influence and attract people to some- 
thing new, no matter whether that something be of the 
smallest or the gravest importance." Yet again he 
exhibits "extreme kindliness of heart and the most vio- 
lent passion." These traits "show in him a character 
akin to that of the Prophet — save only that he had not 
the wide political perspective of the Prophets nor their 
gift of divine consolation to the nation. However this 
may be, these two contradictory attributes are the sign 
of the great man. Onl}^ such a man, mighty in forgive- 
ness and equally mighty in reproof, could exert so in- 

57 (167) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

effaceable an influence on all who came in contact with 
him." The final contrast is between Jesus the man of 
the world and Jesus the unworldly visionary. "The 
complete visionary and mystic exerts an influence only 
upon other visionaries like himself, and his influence 
soon passes. The man of practical wisdom, alert in 
wordly matters only, merely influences the brain while 
leaving the heart untouched; and never in this world 
was anything great achieved unless the heart, deeply 
stirred, has pla3^ed its part. Only where mystic faith 
is yoked with practical prudence does there follow a 
strong, enduring result. And of such a nature was the 
influence exerted by Jesus of Nazareth upon his fol- 
lowers, and through them, upon succeeding generations." 
"His method of teaching tended to the same end. 
. . . He was a great artist in parable," and there were 
also his striking proverbs — "short, sharp and shrewd, 
hitting their mark like pointed darts, and, in the man- 
ner of homely epigrams and proverbs, impossible to be 
forgotten. Herein lies the secret why his disciples 
could preserve the bulk of his proverbs, almost un- 
changed, precisely as he uttered them. Almost all are 
stamped mth the seal of one great, single personality, 
the seal of Jesus, and not the several seals of many and 
varied disciples." 

For the Jewish nation, then, Jesus is "a great 
teacher of morality and an artist in parable." His 
moral teachings yield "no ethical code for the nations 
and the social order of to-day," yet there is in them 
" a , sublimity, distinctiveness and originality in form 
unparalleled in any other Hebrew ethical code; neither 
is there any parallel to the remarkable art of his para- 
bles. The shrewdness and sharpness of his proverbs and 
his forceful epigrams serve, in an exceptional degree, to 
make ethical ideas a popular possession. If ever the 
clay should come and this ethical code be stripped of 
its wrappings of miracles and mysticism, the Book of 

58 (168) 



Some Neiv and Recent Books 

the Ethics of Jesus will be one of the choicest treasures 
in the literature of Israel for all time." 

Thus the book ends. One might remark that the 
desire to see the Gospels stripped of their mysticism 
and left a bare ethical code seems a little strange ,on 
the part of one who has just called attention to the fact 
that "never in this world was anything great achieved 
unless the heart, deeply stirred, has played its part." 
Probably to most of us, as to St. Paul, an ethical code 
seems rather conspicuously lacking in power to stir the 
heart and so control the life. But it is to be remem- 
bered that St, Paul, in this respect, was not a typical 
Jew. No doubt Dr. Klausner feels much closer affinity 
with the psalmist's "Oh how love I thy law!" than with 
Paul's "to me to live is Christ." Christianity, happily, 
has room for both ; yet it is the Christian conviction that 
Paul got closer to the heart of the matter than did the 
psalmist. 



Mr. Kawlinson's new commentary on Mark prom- 
ises to meet a real need and meet it acceptably. The 
situation with regard to English commentaries on this 
very important pioneer Gospel is admirably summed up 
by Professor Burton Scott Easton in a recent issue of 
the Churchman: 

"We have not lacked for commentaries on St. Mark 
in English; our only lack has been for a commentary 
on St. Mark that was of real utility. Menzies' book, on 
the whole the least unsatisfactory of all, has been out 
of print for years. Bacon's, despite its modest appear- 
ance, makes terrific demands on the student and must 
be employed critically. Swete's ponderous volume for 
the most part might have been published in 1798 quite 
as well as in 1898; Swete never allowed his reading to 
influence his opinions. Gould is eccentric and undig- 
nified; W. C. Allen is dignified but equally eccentric. 

59 (169) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

And Plummer is little more than an aid for school boys 
who are learning New Testament Greek." 

That has been the situation exactly. Space forbids 
more than a bare notice of the new commentary here. 
Suffice it to say that it gives promise of affording sub- 
stantial help in the difficult but fascinating task of try- 
ing to use Mark's Gospel as a means of penetrating back 
of the Jesus of written and oral tradition to the Jesus 
whom his contemporaries knew in Palestine. The study 
is based entirely on the English text and a knowledge 
of the Greek is not presupposed in the discussions, 
though of course the author himself has made constant 
use of it. The book is an excellent example of scholarly 
popularizing in a difficult technical field. It is a pity 

7t the price has to be so high. 
Two volumes of the new "Outline of Christianity" 
are now at hand. They also are expensive, but it is 
safe to predict that many readers of the Bulle- 
tin will want to buy them. There are two rea- 
sons why it would probably be well to do so. In the 
first place these volumes will have great value for the 
preacher with scholarly tastes in coordinating his knowl- 
edge and bringing it up to date. In the second place 
by lending them to intelligent members of his congre- 
gation he can facilitate his task of bridging the chasm 
between pulpit and pew. The editors have aimed at 
producing a work "of indubitable authority and scholar- 
ship" which at the same time would be so lucid as to 
make "vivid appeal to the average reader." And they 
have been at vast pains to assure the realization of this 
end. 

Of the thirty-six chapters in the first volume eight- 
een are written by the two directing editors: eight by 
Professor Scott and ten by Professor Easton. Other 
contributors to this volume are S. Parkes Cadman, 
Henry van Dyke, W. G. Jordan, Samuel Dickey, J. H. 

60 (170) 



Some Neiv and Recent Books 

Leckie, Frederick C. Grant, Edward I. Bosworth, James 
H. Ropes, Benjamin W. Bacon, B. H. Streeter, Arthur 
S. Peake, W. Russell Bowie. 

The second volume carries Christian histor}' from 
the close of the first century to the eve of the Reforma- 
tion. Of its forty-seven chapters twenty-six are written 
by the editor, Professor Foakes Jackson. The remain- 
der are contributed by Dana Carleton Munro, A. C. 
McGiffert, Burton S. Easton, William B. Selbie, A. E. 
J. Rawlinson, Alexander Nairne, William H, Hutton, 
Henry Preserved Smith, Bernard L. Manning, Frank 
Gavin, G. G. Coulton, A. V. W. Jackson, F. C. Burkitt. 
Cornelius Clifford. 

The editing has been carefully done, so that the 
work as a whole .gives the impression not of a series of 
detached sketches but of a compact and unified presen- 
tation. In general the level of literary excellence is high, 
while binding, printing, and illustrations do much toward 
making these volumes works of art. 

It will be seen that the "Outline of Christianity" is 
primarily an American work, though the names of not 
a few British scholars appear among the contributors. 
The directing editors are all Americans (though some, 
as Professors Scott and Foakes Jackson, are British by 
birth and training) and so are all the members of the 
various editorial boards and advisory councils. The 
appearance of the remaining volumes will be awaited 
with interest. 



For those who ma}^ wish to avoid the expense of 
buying the first volume of the "Outline", but would 
like a scholarly and up-to-date work covering the gen- 
eral field of New Testament "Introduction," there are 
two new books Avhich may be recommended. In his 
"History and Literature of the New Testament" Pro- 
fessor FoAvler has covered the ground in pretty nmeli 
the way in which it is usually covered in classroom 

61 (171) 



llie Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

studies in modern institutions. His book is intended for 
class use, though the general reader has also been kept 
in view. Professor Scott's "First Age of Christianity" 
is more brief, more original, and perhaps one might add 
more readable and suggestive. 



62 (172) 



Some New and Recent Books 



Dr. Snowden 

A History of the Warfare of Science ivith Theology in 
Christendom. By Andrew Dickson White. New 
York: D. Appleton and Company. 1914. Two 
Volumes. $5.00. 

.Science and Scientists in the Nineteenth Century. By 
.vi/ Rev. Robert H. Murray. New York: The Macmil- 
P, Ian Company. (1925). 450 pages. $5.00. 

The Letters of William James. By Henry James. Bos- 
Aj ton : Atlantic Monthly Press. 1920. Two volumes. 

1 ^ $10.00. 

Contributions of Science to Religion. By Shailer Math- 
(^ ews. New York: D. Appleton & Company. (cl924) 

427 pages. $3.00. 

Science Religion and Reality, (various authors) Edited 
by Joseph Needham. New York: The Macmillan 
''] "" Company. 1925. 396 pages. $2.50. 

Science and the Modern World. By Alfred North 
Whitehead. (Lowell Lectures, 1925). New York: 
The Macmillan Company. 1925. 296 pages. $3.00. 



(1 



•1 



Religion and science are two fields of human inter- 
est which go back to the beiginning of man's think- 
ing on the meaning of life and the world. At 
first they dwelt under the same roof and were united 
in the same process of thought, the priest being 
also the interpreter of nature. They early sepa- 
rated and went out from the old home along divergent 
roads and in time suspicion and friction and unfriend- 
liness developed between them which have continued to 
this day. Of course there can be no fundamental dis- 
agreement between religion and science as all truth is 
unitary and harmonious, but men's partial and imper- 
fect understandings of these two aspects of reality may 



63 (173) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

disagree and even violently contradict each other. 
The monumental record of this conflict is Andrew D. 
White's Warfare of Science with Theology. This book 
is mournful reading for theologians and yet it is good 
medicine for us to take. The mistakes that our fore- 
bears made we should learn to avoid. White's book, 
however, is a bit unfair in that it does not bring out 
fully enough the fact that the "warfare" has not alwa^^s 
been squarely "of science with theolog}^," but often has 
been between scientists themselves. The line dividing 
the hostile camps has hardly ever run sharply between 
science and theology, but has cut across and run divisive 
lines through both of these camps. Over important new 
truths both scientists and theologians have divided. 
Notable instances are Copernicus, Malthus, and Mendel 
who made epochal scientific discoveries and yet were 
clergymen. A new edition of White's work is now being 
prepared by a professor in Cornell University and the 
publishers recently informed us that it will ha a year 
before it is completed. It is to be hoped that the impres- 
sion created by White that theologians Avere nearly 
always on the wrong side Avill be corrected in the new 
edition. 



/ 



However, this correction has already been made in 
another notable work, entitled Science and Scientists 
in the Nineteenth Century, by Rev. Robert H. Murray. 
In this large and learned volume the author traces the 
history of science through the last century and shows 
how every important scientific discovery was opposed 
and misrepresented and ridiculed by rival scientists. 
Jenner with his vaccine, Simpson with his chloroform, 
Lyell with his uniformitarianism in geologv, Darwin 
and evolution, Pasteur and microbes, and Lister with 
his antiseptics, encountered this unfair treatment and 
unhappy fate. Many lesser scientists who made notable 
contributions to science were neglected and consigned to 

64 (174) 



Some Neiv and Recent Books ' \ 

oblivion. The work is as humiliating reading for scien- 
tists as White's Warfare is for theologians. Sir Oliver 
Lodge writes an Introduction to Murray's book in which 
he admits the truth and gravity of the author's charge^ 
but pleads that scientists have grown more broad-minded 
and tolerant in our day. "In the past," he says, "we 
see the supporters of new doctrines, the detectors of 
unwelcome facts, coming forward apologeticall}^, humbly 
presenting their credentials, and we see them immedi- 
ately snuffed out or else browbeaten and ridiculed by 
High Priests of Science. Surely that sort of thing can- 
not happen to-day!" It is to be hoped not, and yet this 
"sort of thing" may still lurk in some scientific breasts. 
There is such a thing as heresy in science that still per- 
vades the scientific world and makes itself felt. And 
so Murray has turned the tables on White and given him 
a good strong dose of his own medicine. William James 
also in his Letters, Volume II, page 32, took a 
fall out of the scientists for their narrow outlook and 
purblind vision in relation to the things of the spirit. 
"Of all insufficient authorities," he says, "as to the total 
nature of reality, give me the scientists. Their inter- 
ests are most incomplete and their professional conceit 
and bigotry immense." There has been fault on both 
sides and it is to be hoped that both may acquire broader 
minds and better tempers. "It is a sad sight," says 
professor Charles A. Seymour, of Yale Divinity School, 
"to see a physicist come out of his laboratory, with the 
standards and habits which befit his work, and go up to 
that high tableland where the spirit struggles with its 
mighty problems and destiny, to pass pontifical judg- 
ments which only reveal his own limitations. On the 
other hand, the scientist can suffer no more exquisite 
torture than to hear the theologian, who evidenth^ knows 
nothing of the care needed to establish even the sim- 
plest fact, make sweeping generalizations." These dog- 
matists bring both science and religion into disrepute 



65 (175) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

and they in no small degree have been the cause of the 
long nnhappy conflict between these two fundamental 
fields of thought. Both of these classes are now hap- 
pily passing, such prejudice and partisanship are no 
longer respectable and are becoming obsolete in the 
scholarly world, and both old faith and new knowledge 
are beginning to understand each other better and to 
respect each other's rights and results and to w^ork to- 
gether in harmony. 

V Books on the relations of science and religion con- 
tinue to pour from the press in a steady stream. Con- 
tributions of Science to Religion, edited by Shailer 
Mathews, consists of a series of chapters by American 
experts in the various fields of science and is an up-to- 
date handbook of science, the religious interpretation 
being furnished in several chapters by the editor. 
Science Religion amd Reality is a similar composite 
work by English scientists, the religious interpretation 
being given by Dean Inge. This is a work of great 
ability and shows how thorough and profound the 
English thinkers are. In Science and the Modern 
World, A. N. Whitehead, one of the greatest mathe- 
maticians in the world and a profound metaphysical 
thinker, drops his plummet into depths where few 
can follow him. Dr. Whitehead thinks we must 
scrap most of our scientific terminology and view the 
universe of reality in other thought terms. He finds 
that all things are of the nature of organisms and sug- 
gests that this may be the key to reality. Kn organism 
is shaped by purpose and "the new philosophy presents 
us with a purposeful universe, one in which our aspira- 
tions towards the good and the beautiful find a worthy 
place." The general outcome of this discussion is that 
science and religion are coming into better relations and 
religion stands grounded and established in reality and 
is growing with all our growth in knowledge. 

66 (176) 



Some New and Recent Books 



Dr. Farmer 



Putting it Across. By William H. Leach, Ph.D., Editor 
of "Church Management". Nashville, Tenn. : 
Cokesbury Press. 1925. Pp. 125. $1.25. 

Principles of Puhlicity. By Glenn C. Quiett, of Tamblyn 

and Brown, New York City, and Ralph D. Casey, 

J Associate Professor of Journalism and University 

['Ny^ Editor, University of Oregon. New York: D. 

Appleton and Company. 1926. Pp. 420. $3.00. 

Devotional Leadership. By Gerrit Verkuyl, Ph.D., D.D., 
Field Representative, Presbyterian Board of Chris- 
A tian Education; Author of "Scripture Memory 
Work (Graded)" and "Children's Devotions". 
New York and Chicago : Fleming H. Revell. 1925. 
Pp. 160. $1.25. 

The Minister's Everyday Life. By Lloyd C. Douglas. 
New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1924. Pp. 
220. $1.75. 

Best Sermons — 192S. Edited with Introduction and Bio- 
I graphical Notes by Joseph Fort Newton, D.D., 

\i\ Litt.D. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company. 

'^' ,1925. Pp. 337. $2.50. 



\'\ 



The author of "Putting It Across", an admirable 
little book on the technic of organized activity in 
churches and other forms of voluntary association, has 
brought to his task three qualifications of the first order. 
To begin with, he was evidently born with a flair for 
organization. He speaks of getting people to serve on 
committees in the same spirit of joyous enthusiasm that 
Isaak Walton shows in his discourse on catching trout. 
And in the second place, he has given to this natural apti- 
tude the training of the schools which devote themselves 
to the technic of organization, such as the Summer 
Schools of the American City Bureau at the University 

67 (177) 



TJie Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

of Wisconsin, and of the United States Chamber of Com- 
merce at Northwestern University, and finally he has had 
more than twelve years of experience in the pastorate, 
and is now pastor of the Walden Presbyterian Church of 
Buffalo, N. Y. 

It is not surprising that with such an equipment Mr. 
Leach has been able to put into this little book a great 
amount of definite and practical information on the art 
of getting things done through proper organization. 
There are eleven short chapters, on such topics as "The 
Man", "Getting Organized", "Team- Work", "Tools 
for Handling Men", "The Committee Way", etc. The 
treatment throughout is clear and concise, and while 
there is no unnecessary discussion of theory, the practi- 
cal directions given are based on sound principles which 
are stated with sufficient fullness. It wiU be a very use- 
ful book to the pastor who needs guidance in the art of 
developing and using the latent power in his church 
through sound and efficient organization. 



J 



The first thing to be said about "Principles of Pub- 
licity" is that it makes very interesting reading for any 
body who is concerned with the manifold phases of what 
we call modern civilization. For we have here a 
thoroughgoing discussion of the principles and j)ractice 
of what is in reality a new profession, a profession which 
has been called into being by the growing complexit}^ of 
modern life. "The purpose of publicity", say the authors 
in the opening chapter, "is to inform the public about a 
specific individual, an institution, or a cause so as to cre- 
ate a public opinion that is intelligent, informed, and 
favorable. Although the creation of opinion is not a 
problem of modern origin, the technic of publicity has 
recently assumed a new importance. The spread of 
democracy and the attendant shift of authority from top 
to bottom; the release, by reason of educational and eco- 
nomic opportunity, of new energies, ambitions, and 

68 (178) 



Some Neiv and Recent Books 

ideals, and the increase of literacy and knowledge among 
the ranks of common men ; the invention of quick and effi- 
cient means of communication; and the growing com- 
plexity of our institutions, have combined to create a 
situation wherein the opinion of the public is a matter 
to be reckoned with, wherein it may be easily reached, 
and wherein so many things bid for its attention that a 
special technic is required to interest it. Publicity is 
that tecJinic. Publicity is the specialized effort of pre- 
senting to the piihlic particularistic neivs and vieivs in an 
effort to influence opinion and conduct." 

This rather long quotation may be justified by the 
fact that it gives a good example of the clearness, force, 
and dignity of stjde which characterize the whole book, 
but still more because it is an admirable statement of 
the main business of the preacher and of the conditions 
under which he must carry it on. For the preacher is the 
chief of all "publicity men", and any book which sets 
forth the underlying principles and the technical pro- 
cedures of this craft must command his attention, even 
though some parts of this technic may not be adapted to 
his particular work. 

There is only one chapter in the book which deals 
specifically with Church Publicity, and if the preacher 
will study this chapter carefully he will be saved from 
the trivial sensationalism on the one hand and the bar- 
ren stiffness on the other, which, each in its own way, 
defeat the purpose of much of our church publicity. But 
there is not a chapter in- the book which will not help a 
preacher to gain a new conception of his task and a mas- 
tery of better waj'S of doing it. 

y The subtitle of Dr. Verkuyl's book ("Devotional 
Leadership") is "Private Preparation for Public AVor- 
ship", and the first sentence of the Foreword is, "The 
secret of success in devotional leadership is adequate 
preparation". It is the necessity of preparation for this 

69 (179) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

very important part of the minister's work which makes 
it seem worth while to call the attention of ministers to 
a book Avhich was perhaps written rather for leaders of 
Young People's Societies, Missionary Meetings, and 
other gatherings not superintended by the Minister. For 
it can scarcely be denied that very many ministers give 
little care to preparation for the "devotional exercises" 
which they are called upon to conduct, in the prayer 
meeting and elsewhere, or even for the devotional parts 
of Sunday services. 

Dr. Verkuyl places due emphasis upon the necessity 
of a deeply devotional spirit in the leader himself, but 
he recognizes also the necessity of learning how this 
spirit may express itself in such a way as to quicken and 
direct the devotions of others who are gathered for the 
purpose of worshipping God together. The book is char- 
acterized by clear and logical analysis, by sound common 
sense unspoiled by false pietism, and by a wealth of defi- 
nite practical suggestion. It is made available for use 
as a text-book by the valuable apparatus at the close of 
each chapter, consisting of an outline of the chapter, a 
list of subjects for discussion, and some suggestions for 
research, with a brief bibliography on the topic covered 
in the chapter. It is a good text-book for the preacher — 
hipiself being both the teacher and the class. 

Some time ago Dr. Douglas wrote for The Christian 
Century a series of articles upon various phases of the 
minister's life and work which were so admirable in con- 
tent, spirit,^ and style that the author was straightway 
involved in a "voluminous correspondence" with minis- 
ters and theological students i-be sought his counsel on 
matters not touched upon in the articles. And so he was 
led to the writing of "The Minister's Everyday Life", 
which is undoubtedly one of the most delightful and most 
helpful of all the many books that have been written on 
the minister and his work. He makes it clear that he is 

70 (180) 



Some New and Recent Books 

offering his remarks to the youth of our profession — 
seminary students in training for the ministry, and 
young preachers who are meeting many of their pastoral 
experiences for the first time. But for all that, there is 
not a page in the book in which the most experienced 
veteran will not find both entertainment and profit. -As 
for the novices who are invited "to drape themselves 
about the old man's knee, and turn an attentive ear" — 
happy are they, who may begin their life work with the 
help of counsel so full of wisdom and humor and kindness. 
Dr. Douglas in his preface gives fair warning that 
if it pleases him '^to ramble from the motion before the 
house at an}^ time" he will do so "without so much as 
a by-your-leave ". And he does. But in his ramblings 
he pretty well covers the field indicated by the title he 
has chosen. "The Ministry as a Profession"; "The 
Pastoral Relationship"; "Receipts and Disburse- 
ments"; " Machiner}'- " ; "Visiting the Sick"; "Earth to 
Earth"; "For Better, For Worse"; "The Minister's 
Library"; "The Minister's Mail"; "Sermon Making"; 
— these are the titles of the ten chapters of the book, and 
they give some idea of its scope and content. Dr. Doug- 
las has high ideals, but he has no illusions. He has a 
great deal of common sense, a clear insight into the frail- 
ties and foibles, and also the beauties and powers of 
human nature, a very fine and understanding sympathy, 
and a fairly delicious humor. And when to these is 
added a style that is perfectly adapted to its matter the 
result is such that every reader will certainly add to the 
author's chapter on the Minister's Library this footnote 
—"and by all means a copy of "The Minister's Every- 
day Life". 



V 



It is obviously impossible here to make any ap- 
praisal of each of the twenty-one sermons which Dr. 
NeAvton gives us as, in his judgment, the "Best Ser- 
mons"of 1925. It is equally obvious that the selection of 



71 (181) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

a few for critical examination might seem to put the 
present writer in a position which he is wholly incompe- 
tent to fill. The sermons chosen by Dr. Newton are no 
doubt fairly representative of the best preaching that 
has been done in American pulpits in the last church 
year, for no man is better qualified to make such a selec- 
tion than Dr. Newton. Aside from the content of the 
sermons themselves there are two things in this book that 
attract our attention. The one is the inclusiveness of 
the collection. "In the present volume", says Dr. New- 
ton in his introductory chapter, "a larger number of 
communions are represented, and the editor rejoices in 
the cooperation of both the Jewish and the Catholic pul- 
pits, not alone for the high quality of the sermons con- 
tributed, but also to make plain that in our pulpit sym- 
phou}^ all voices are welcome: only exclusiveness is 
excluded". It is a good thing to be brought face to face, 
as we are in this group of sermons, with the evidences 
of spiritual fervor and spiritual power in the preaching 
of men whose intellectual positions are widelj" se^Darated. 
The other noteworthy thing in the book is to be 
found in Dr. Newton's discussion of the position in which 
the pulpit finds itself in this modern world of noisy, hur- 
rying activity. It amounts i)ractically to an admission 
that really great x>reaching is impossible in these days, 
although the preachers are, on the whole, doing the best 
work that could be done under the existing handicaps; 
and that we are to hold on to a hope that there will be 
in the future "new births in this holy line of descent", 
that the Life of the Spirit will ' ' achieve to new and more 
perfect forms". Yet Dr. Newton holds that "In these 
despites we have a great pulpit to-day, as this volume 
bears witness, in many keys and tones eloquent in behalf 
of the spiritual life in a hurrying time". And as we read 
carefully the sermons in this collection we are con- 
strained to accept not only Dr. Newton's hope for the 
future but his belief that in these our own days the pul- 
pit is proving itself worthy of its hour. 

72 (182) 



Some New and Recent Books 



'b 



\ Mr. Le Sourd 

T.eaching the Youth of the Church. By Cynthia Pearl 
Maus. New York : Geo. H. Doran Company. 1925. 
Pp. 211. $1.75. 

The Curriculum of Religious Education. By Wiliiam 
Clayton Bower. New York: Charles Scribner's 
Sons. 1925. Pp. 283. $3.00. 

A Handbook of the Outdoors. By Earle Amos Brooks. 
New York: Geo. H. Doran Company. 1925. Pp. 

238. $2.00. 



(* 



^ Current Week-day Religious Education. By Philip 

uj' Henry Lotz. New York: Abingdon Press. 1925. 

\^ Pp. 412. $2.00. 

<^- ^^' 
The Manuel, The Preshgterian Program for Young Peo- 

li'-^ pie. Philadelphia: Board of Christian Education. 

^^ 1925. Pp. 144. 60 cents. 

The Church's Program for Young People. Herbert 
J Carleton Mayer. New York: The Century Com- 

,p pany. 1925. Pp. 387. $2.00. 

Books in the field of Religious Education are giving 
new insight into the problems, new methods of attaining 
objectives, new inspiration to perfect the organization 
of this department of church work. As in every other 
phase of church work, success comes to those who study, 
and plan, and execute. 

The present list includes just a few of the new books 
that deserve careful reading. 



/. 



'Teaching the Youth of the Church" is a book which 
sums up in an attractive and popular way the modern 
methods of teaching. It is most suggestive to teachers, 
and gives the supervising officers the standards by which 
they can judge the quality of teaching. It is based on 
the theory of education that the pupil is a reacting agent 

73 (183) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

and therefore creates his own personality by his own 
activity. With the acceptance of the principle that chil- 
dren learn by doing, emphasis is placed on those methods 
that call for the largest initiative on the part of the 
pupils. It is a very stimulating book. 



J 



The Curriculmn of Keligious Education." Mr. 
Bower's treatment of the theory of the curriculum is the 
best that has been produced. Every one who is in any 
way responsible for the selection of materials for reli- 
gious education ought to be familiar with this book. Its 
keen analysis of ''The Curriculum as Discipline", '"'The 
Curriculum as Knowledge", "The Curriculum as Re- 
capitulation", and "The Curriculum as Enriched and 
Controlled Experience" should be a part of the 'mental 
equipment of every one interested in religious education. 
The closing chapter on "A Dynamic Curriculum" is a 
clarion call for an ever-changing, ever-grooving body of 
material by means of which the child may enter into the 
richest and deepest experiences of life. 



J 



In "A Handbook of the Outdoors", we at last have 
a source book on the Outdoors that will be most sug- 
gestive to teachers of Religious Education who wish to 
use the great laboratory of nature for the upbuilding of 
character. When the writer urges the religious appre- 
ciation of nature as the highest mode, he is making hik- 
ing, camping, sports, and woodland games, not only a 
means of entertainment, but an integral part of the 
w^hole process of developing a religious personality. Such 
a book as this is valuable to Avorkers with young people. 



y 



Current Week-day Religious Education" is the 
best book that has appeared dealing with the problems 
of Week-Day Religious Education. Its treatment of the 
history of the movement, objectives, program, organiza- 
tion, management, finances, curriculum, teachers, etc., is 



74 (184) 



Some New and Recent Books 

comprehensive and illuminating. In the promotion of 
this work, this book will be an invaluable source book for 
guidance and suggestion. 



'The Manual, The Presbyterian Program for Young 
People." The effort on the part of the Board of Chris- 
tian Education in "The Manual" to correlate the study 
and activities of the young people in all the agencies of 
the church that deal with them, is most promising. The 
first part of this book treats in a general way the place of 
young people in the church and their opportunities of 
worship, instruction, service, and recreation. The sec- 
ond part deals with a practical program in which these 
phases of young people's work ma^^ find expression in 
different organizations. It is published in loose leaf form 
in order that revisions and additions may be made at 
small cost. 

V "The Church's Program for Young People" is the 
best and most suggestive book that is available on young 
people's work. It is a real scientific study of adolescent 
leadership programs. After treating the history and 
significance of work Avith young people, Mr. Mayer has 
a chapter on the psychological study of young people, 
which seems rather inadequate, but excellent as far as 
it goes. He deals with ever^^ phase of the work, the class, 
the department, the curriculum, activities, worship, and 
the program. It is made clear that leadership is the 
crux of the whole program, which it is the purpose of this 
book to develop. 



75 (185) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



ALUMNIANA 

1866 

Dr. William O. Campbell, pastor emeritus of the Sewickley 
Presbyterian Church, died in Atlantic City, January 8th, at the age 
of 85. 

1882 

Dr. Wm. 0. Thompson, recently retired from the presidency 
of Ohio State University at the age of seventy, thus closing a dis- 
tinguished service of twenty-six years. He has since been serving 
temporarily as minister of the Central Presbyterian Church of 
Denver. 

1884 

Dr. C. C. Hays, has resigned the presidency of the board of 
trustees of the Pennsylvania Anti-Saloon League. 

A tablet, in memory of Dr. C. P. Cheeseman, has been erected 
in the Highland Church, of Pittsburgh. Dr. Cheeseman was 
pastor of this church for twenty-nine years. The present pastor 
is Dr. G. C. Fisher ('03). 

1893 

Dr. J. L. Ewing has been elected president of Lincoln Univer- 
sity, located near Phialdelphia. For the three years preceding his 
election to this important position. Dr. Ewing had been superin- 
tendent of national missions in the Synod of New Jersey. He is 
a brother of the late Dr. J. C. R. Ewing and of Dr. Arthur Ewing. 

1894 

The Bulletin has received an attractive souvenir booklet pub- 
lished by the Mingo Presbyterian Church, Finleyville, Pa., on the 
occasion of "Old Home Coming", September 12-13, 1925. The 
celebration commemorated the 13 9th anniversary of the organiza- 
tion of the church. A monument has been erected to the memory 
of the first installed pastor, Dr. Samuel Ralston, a graduate of the 
University of Glasgow. The present pastor is Rev. R. Frank 
Getty. 

1895 

Rev. M. D. McClelland, Ph.D., has resigned his charge at 
Portersville, to accept calls from the Elderton group of churches in 
Kittanning Presbytery. 

1896 

The First Presbyterian Church of Ravenswood, W. Va.. cele- 
brated its seventy-fifth anniversary in November. Rev. W. A. 
Brown is pastor. 

Rev. H. T. Chisholm, D.D., of Rochester, N. Y.. has accepted 
a call to the pastorate of the East Brady church in Clarion 
Presbytery. 

76 (186) 



Alumniana 

Rev. J. S. Cotton read a paper before the Shenango Valley 
Ministerial Association at Sharon, Pa., in December. His subject 
was "Children and the Kingdom." Mr. Cotton has since removed 
from the pastorate of West Middlesex Church to that of Clinton- 
vLlle, Pa. 

The completion of improvements on the Poplar Street Presby- 
terian Church of Cincinnati, was celebrated with a home-coming 
service in March. This church has the largest week-day religious 
school in the county, the enrollment being 565. The pastor is Rev. 
D. A. Greene. 

1897 

Dr. Hugh Thompson Kerr has recently been preaching a series 
of sermons on themes drawn from famous religious paintings. 
These services, held in the Shadyside Church of Pittsburgh, at five 
o'clock each Sunday evening, are broadcast by KDKA, so that Dr. 
Kerr preaches to a very large and widely distributed audience. 

The First Presbyterian Church of Oakmont, Pa., has completed 
an addition to the Sunday School room costing $30,000. The 
church now has four departmental assembly rooms and class rooms 
separated by solid partitions. Rev. C. A. McCrea, D.D., is pastor. 

1898 

The Presbyterian Church of Goheenville, Pa., was rededicated 
in December, following the completion of extensive refurnishing and 
repairs. The pastor is Rev. Harry C. Prugh. 

1899 

Rev. J. D. Humphrey has removed from the Plumville and 
Sagamore Churches to the pastorate of West Lebanon and Elder's 
Ridge, in Kittanning Presbytery. 

1900 

Rev. Harry W. Kilgore has been called from Long Run and 
Sewickley Churches, Redstone Presbytery, to the New Salem Church 
in the same presbytery. 

Dr. P. W. Snyder was reelected president of the Pennsylvania 
State Federation of Churches, at Harrisburg, December 1st. 

1901 

Rev. H. B. Marks, is rector of St. Philip's Episcopal Church 
of Crompton, West Warwick, R. I. This church has recently re- 
opened and rededicated its building after the completion of exten- 
sive reconstruction work. 

1903 

Rev. E. W. Byers has removed from Jersey Shore, Pa., to the 
pastorate of the Morningside Church of Pittsburgh. 

Rev. F. Benton Shoemaker has been called from Jeannette to 
Brookville, Pa. 

The session of the Hopewell Presbyterian Church, New Bed- 
ford, Pa., has published, in an artistic booklet, a "History of a 

77 (187) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Century and a Quarter" — the period since the church was organized. 
The present building is the fourth, the first two having been built 
of logs. The present minister, Rev. T. E. Thompson, Ph.D., is the 
twelfth pastor of the church. The 125th anniversary was observed 
October 14-17, 1925. 

1911 

Rev. John L. Howe, is president of Highland College, the 
oldest Presbyterian College west of Missouri. Some of the schools 
out of which the College grew were established as early as 1837. 
Five years ago the Synod of Kansas gave the College up as a hope- 
less enterprise. This year there are more regular students in 
attendance that at any other time in its history. Recently the 
College raised in the immediate community $127,000, for endow- 
ment and building purposes. The unique thing about the present 
program of the College is its relationship with the State University. 
The University reorganized the educational program, and now 
recommends that the young people of Northwestern Kansas attend 
Highland for the first two years of their University course. 

The Bulletin has received an attractive "Year Book and Church 
Directory," published by the Prospect Presbyterian Church of 
Ashtabula, Ohio. Rev. Malcolm Matheson, Ph.D., has been pastor 
of this church since 1920. 

1912 

Rev. Francis Hornicek, who is employed by Blairsville Pres- 
bytery as a missionary among foreign-speaking peoples within the 
bounds of the presbytery, has recently been preaching in Czecho- 
slovakia. He reports religious progress in that country to be very 
encouraging. 

1913 

Rev. Howard J. Baumgartel has left Parnassus, having ac- 
cepted a call to the First Church of Ebensburg, Pa. 

Rev. Charles W. Cochran has resigned the pastorate of the 
Summerville Church, Clarion Presbytery, and accepted a call to the 
Midland Church in Beaver Presbytery. 

1914 

The First Presbyterian Church of Hutchinson, Kansas, raised 
1103,000 in one day for enlarging the church building and other 
improvements. Twenty-two members were received Into the church 
the same day. Facilities for religious education in the new build- 
ing will be modern in every respect. The proposed construction 
was expected to cost $100,000. Rev. D. G. MacLennan is pastor. 

1916 

Rev. James M. Fisher, of Mount Joy, Pa., has been called by the 
First Presbyterian Church of Marion, Ohio, to take charge of the 
work of the Lee Street Mission in that city. 



78 (188) 



Alumniana 

Rev. R. V. Gilbert, of Independence, Iowa, assisted in an 
evangelistic campaign in Minneapolis Presbytery in February. 

1919 

The Seminary friends of Rev. H. B. Clawson extend to him 
their very deep sympathy in the loss of his wife. Mrs. Clawson 
died at their home at Mt. Pleasant, Pa., in January. 

Riverdale Presbyterian Church of Glen Willard, has received 
substantial improvements, including new lights, new carpet, and 
redecorating. Rev. D. Earl Daniel has been pastor of this church 
for the past three years. Mr. Daniel recently read a paper before 
the Presbyterian Ministerial Association of Pittsburgh, which was 
very favorably commented upon. The subject was, "Where is the 
happiness of sorrow?" 

Rev. Hodge M. Eagleson, entered upon the pastorate of the 
Hawthorne Avenue Church of Crafton, Pa., in November. Mr. 
Eagleson came from Bucyrus, Ohio, where he had been pastor for 
four years. 

Three of the members of the class of 1919, have recently pub- 
lished articles in our Presbyterian papers: Rev. J. E. Kidder, Rev. 
W. W. McKinney, and Rev. D. Earl Daniel. 

1922 

Rev. Ralph K. Merker, after a two year pastorate in the 
Manchester church, has become associate pastor of the Knoxville 
church. Both churches are in Pittsburgh. 

1923 

Rev. R. L. Roberts has removed from the Montour and Moon 
Run pastorate to the Bull Creek church. Both are in the Pres- 
bytery of Pittsburgh. 

Rev. John Lloyd has accepted a call to the Pine Run Pres- 
byterian Church of Markle, Pa., taking charge of the new field the 
second week of April. His mail address is R. D. No. 1, Apollo, Pa. 

1924 

Rev. John K. Bibby, after three years' service as assistant 
pastor of the Knoxville church of Pittsburgh, and teacher of the 
Men's Community Bible Class of Knoxville, has been installed as 
pastor of the church at Clairton, Pa. 

Rev. Harold P. Post, has charge of the Young People's Con- 
ference work of Mahoning Presbytery. A conference was held at 
Alliance, December 5th and 6th. Mr. Post is pastor at Petersburg, 
Ohio. 

Rev. William Merwin has resigned the pastorate of the Yates- 
boro and Atwood churches in Kittanning Presbytery, to accept a 
call to the Summerville church in Clarion Presbytery. 



79 (189) 



Subscription Blank for the Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary. 

Rev. James A. Kelso, Ph., D., D.D., 

Pres. Western Theological Seminary, 

731 Ridge Ave., N. S., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Dear Sir: — 

Enclosed find 75 cents for one year's subscription to the Bulletin of the 
Western Theological Seminary, commencing July, 1926. 



Name 

Address 



I 



The Balletii) 

of tke 

tfestepD Theologleal 
Seminapy 




Vol,. XVIII. July. 1926. No. 4. 



The Western Theological Seminary 

North Side, Pittsburgh. Pa. 

FOUKDBD BY THE OENEEAL ASSEMBLY^ 18^ 

The faculty consists of eight professors and three 
instructors. A complete modern theological curricnlnm, 
with elective courses leading to degrees of S.T.B. and 
S.T.M. Graduate courses of the University of Pitts- 
burgh, leading to the degrees of A.M. and Ph.D., are 
open to properly qualified students of the Seminary. A 
special course is offered in Practical Christian Ethics, in 
which students investigate the problems of city missions, 
settlement w^ork, and other forms of Christian activity. 
A new department of Religious Education was inaugu- 
rated with the opening of the term beginning September 
1922. The City of Pittsburgh affords unusual opportuni- 
ties for the study of social problems. 

The students have exceptional library facilities. The 
Seminary Library of 40,000 volumes contains valuable 
collections of works in all departments of Theology, but 
is especially rich in Exegesis and Church History ; the 
students also have access to the Carnegie Library, which 
is situated within five minutes' walk of the Seminary 
buildings. 

A post-graduate fellowship of $600 is annually 
awarded the member of the graduating class who has the 
highest rank and who has spent three years in the insti- 
tution. 

Two entrance prizes, each of $150, are awarded on 
the basis of a competitive examination to coUege gradu- 
ates of high rank. 

All the public buildings of the Seminary are new. 
The dormitory was dedicated May 9, 1912, and is 
equipped with the latest modern improvements, includ- 
ing gymnasium, social hall, and students' commons. The 
group consisting of a new Administration Building and 
Library was dedicated May 4, 1916. Competent judges 
have pronounced these buildings the handsomest struc- 
tures architecturally in the City of Pittsburgh, and un- 
surpassed either in beauty or equipment by any other 
group of buildings devoted to theological education in 
the United States. 

For further information, address 

President James A. Kelso, 
North Side, Pittsburgh, Pa. 



THE BULLETIN 

OF THE 

Western Theologieal Seminary 



A Revie-w Devoted to the Interests of 
ineological Education 



Published quarterly in January, April. July, and October, by tbe 
Trustees of the Western Theological Seminary of the Presbyterian Church 
in the United States of America. 



Edited by the rresident with the co-operation of the Faculty. 



Page 

Some Reconsiderations of the Ministry 5 

Rev. Harris E. Kirk, D.D. 

The Graduating Class 17 

President's Report 18 

Librarian's Report 2 9 

Treasurer's Report 3 3 

Faculty Notes 35 

Alumniana 36 



Coramunications for the Editor and all business matters siiould be 
addressed to 

REV. JAMES A. KELSO. 

731 Rido:e Ave.. N. S.. Pittsburofh. Pa. 



15 cents a rear. Singrle Number 15 cents. 



Each author is solelv resoonsible for the views expressed in his article. 



Enlereci as second-class mallei December 9, 1909, at tlie posloffice at Pillshiiigli, Pa. 
(North Sifle Station) under llie act of August 24, 1912. 



Press of 

pittsburgh printing compan^■ 

pittsburgh. pa. 

1926 



Faculty 



The Rev. JAMES A. KELSO, Ph. D., D. D., LL. D., 

President and Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Literature 
The Nathaniel W. Conkling Foundation 

The Rev. DAVID RIDDLE BREED, D. D., LL. D. 

Professor of Homiletics 

The Rev. DAVID S. SCHAFF, D. D. 

{Professor of Ecclesiastical History and History of Doctrine 

The Rev. WILLIAM R. FARMER, D. D. 

Reunion Professor of Sacred Rhetoric and Elocution 

The Rev. JAMES H. SNOWDEN, D. D., LL. D. 

Professor of Systematic Theology 

The Rev. DAVID E. CULLEY, Ph. D., D. D. 

Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Literature 

The Rev. SELBY FRAME VANCE, D. D., LL. D. 

Memorial Professor of New Testament Literature and Exegesis 

The Rev. FRANK EAKIN, Ph. D. 

fProfessor of Ecclesiastical History and History of Doctrine 



Prof. GEORGE M. SLEETH, Litt. D. 

Instructor in Elocution 

Mr. CHARLES N. BOYD 

Instructor in Hymuology and Music 

The Rev. HOWARD M. Le SOURD 

Instructor in Religious Education 



JDr. Schaff retired from this chair Dec. 31, 192 5. 
tDr. Eakin's appointment took effect Jan. 1, 1926. 



The Bulletin 

of rhe 

WESTEI^N THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 

Vol. XVIII. July, 1926 No. 4 

*Commencement Address 



Some Reconsiderations of the Ministry 

Eev. Harris E. Kirk, D.D. 

You have laid upon me a divided duty. On the one 
hand I must remember that you are celebrating your 
100th anniversary in 1927, and on the other hand I 
must keep in mind the hopes and aspirations of the 
graduating- class. I believe that I can discharge this 
dual obligation by discussing with you the theme: "Some 
Reconsiderations of the Ministry". 

The function and importance of a theological semi- 
nar}' is intimatel}' connected with a question that is 
being widely discussed to-day, namely whether the pres- 
ent trend of society, and the modern developments of 
the Church, justify us in concluding that there must be 
some radical change of view as to the need and function 
of the gospel ministry. It is a common assumption that 
probably this special vocation in the Church will be 
superseded b}^ something else ; or at any rate that there 
is less need now than formerly for seminaries of this 
type to fit men for the service of the Church. 

It is wise that w^e should frankly face this question, 
not only to justify the sort of training given in semi- 
naries, but also to strengthen one's convictions in the 



^Address delivered at the auunal Commencement exercises, held in 
the First Presbyterian Church Sixth avenue, Pittsburgh. Thursday 
evening May 6, 192 6. 

5 (195) 



The Bullei'n) of the Western Theologicat Seminary 

face of criticism and opposition, to maintain the voca- 
tion of the minister in a world like this. 

If one accept under conviction a call to the minis- 
try, he will not lack positive injunctions to maintain it 
under all the conditions that prevail. He must make 
full proof of his ministry; he must see to it that the 
ministry be not blamed. He must fulfil his ministry 
and not faint. But if he is to do this, he must not only 
have resources within himself, but examine those re- 
sources from time to time, in the face of whatever criti- 
cism ma^^ prevail. On this account, then, I think I am 
justified in asking 3^ou to reconsider the gospel minis- 
try. If we can justify this calling to ourselves, we shall 
go a long way towards the justification of the mainte- 
nance and support of seminaries of a normal type. 

We all know that both ministr^^ and seminary are 
being criticised to-day. Some say that the modern 
church has become such a complicated organization that 
it requires a different sort of leadership than formerly. 
The spread of popular education, the influence of books 
and magazines make it no longer necessary to go to 
church to learn what religion is; the sermon has been 
outgrown, and what is now required is a type of leader- 
ship modeled upon that of a secular rather than a sa- 
cred calling; and in so far as this sort of opinion prevails 
it is said that whatever training a minister needs can 
better be provided by professional schools of a secular 
type, than by seminaries sustained by churches and 
denominations. 

This has an effect upon whatever special training 
the church has to provide. On the one hand, responding 
fully to the demand for the modernization of ministerial 
education, we have seen certain seminaries evolve into 
schools of religion, in Avhich the advocacy of a particu- 
lar conception of the gospel has been superseded by a 
rather impressionistic consideration of comparative reli- 
gion; and some of these modified institutions have 

6 (196) 



Commencement Address 

advanced still further into schools of religions, in which 
it seems to me all special consideration of Christianity 
has been lost. On the other hand, a reactionary tradi- 
tionalism turns away from the normal seminary type 
and sets up Bible Schools, as a kind of religious chiro- 
practic offering a short cut into the ministry, and by 
reducing the educational requirements appears to fur- 
nish a larger number of ministers to the time. 

With neither of these movements have I any sym- 
pathy, for in the long last they completely fail to meet 
the needs of the Church and time. Neither religious 
impressionism nor reactionary^ traditionalism can be a 
substitute for thoroughgoing intelligent advocacy of the 
gospel of Christ. If the gospel is worth preaching, if 
it be true, then no education can be too thorough and 
comprehensive to present it to our age. My own belief 
is that what the Church needs to-day among other things 
is not less or more seminaries, but better seminaries, 
which, while in closest sympathy with the modern world, 
are able vitally and comprehensively to connect our 
present age Avith the stabilizing influence of the great 
past, and to sustain in the modern preacher that true 
apostolical succession, that strong feeling of continuity 
in history, without which influence and power for God 
can hardly be expected. Justify then the preacher of 
the gospel, and 3^ou justify the theological seminary. I 
believe that one function of a seminary is to develop 
scholars in the Church; for if the seminary fail in this, 
we can expect scholars from no other source. But the 
primary function of a seminary is to develop preachers 
of the gospel. If the modern Church is going to con- 
tinue to require preachers, then one of its primary 
duties will be to maintain, at their highest efficiency, 
seminaries which alone can train them. 

I. 

Permit me now to give expression to what I believe 
to be the primary conviction of a preacher. It is this, 

7 (197) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

that if a man believe he is called of God to preach the 
gospel, if he be overtaken by such a conviction as shall 
separate him mito the advocacy of the redemptive sal- 
vation of Jesus Christ as Lord and Saviour, then his 
responsibility in this respect is absolute and not rela- 
tive. The instant he gives force to such a conviction, 
he puts his feet upon a pathway that has no turnings. 
It is a determination to live heroically; to put his life 
and future in jeopardy. In the beginning it led to 
hardship, prison, pain, and sometimes martyrdom; and, 
if we of the modern world have almost lost sight of this 
essentially sacrificial aspect of our calling, it is because 
we have identified religion with comfort rather than 
finding within its awakening and enlarging experiences 
an increasing discomfort and power to upset and to dis- 
turb a complacent and time-serving secularism. We 
should ever aim to face Paul's injunction: ''Seeing we 
have this ministry we faint not." There must be no 
looking back, no alteration of determination at its 
increasing hardships, no surprises at the dangers and 
difficulties in the way. It is literally true that if we are 
to meet the simple obligations of our calling we must be 
ready at all times to take our share of the hardships. 
We must accept the scourgings of time, the reverses of 
fortune, the criticisms of enemies, and the misunder- 
standings of friends with equal good nature ; for finally 
our authority over others will be evidenced and s^niibol- 
ized to them in the marks of Jesus, in the authority of 
the worn life. 

The reason for this is that we are leaders. Look at 
it historically. The human race is divided into two 
groups, the leaders and the led. No human philosophy, 
however optimistic or generous, has ever been able to 
conceal effectively this radical difference in men. Some 
are capable of leadership, others are not ; and no system 
of government, no idealistic philosophy, from the time 
of Aristotle to the present can alter this essential dif- 

8 (198) 



Commencement Address 

ference. The majority of the human race at any time is 
incapable of directing itself ; it must be led, and directed 
by the minority. This distinction is as clearly set forth 
in the Bible. The difference there is between the sheep 
and the shepherds. Read the Bible with discrimination 
aiid see that God praises the doings of the sheep, and 
condemns the misdoings of the shepherds. It is the for- 
tune of leaders to be lonely, misunderstood, criticised, 
and often to die for their convictions ; they are per- 
mitted to ask for only one reward, the right to do their 
work well, "to finish their ministry with joy" and have 
the approval of a good conscience; but one thing they 
must not do, and that is to faint, to fail, or to turn 
back. Once to have finally and completely accepted this 
conception of the function is practically to remove all 
formidable elements of discouragement from the way; 
it gives a supreme sense of finality to one's calling, and 
such a man is practically incapable of failure. It be- 
comes an enthusiasm which defies death: "I am not 
ashamed of the gospel of Christ for it is the power of 
God unto salvation". 

II. 

But it must be obvious that such a mighty persuasion 
about one's self cannot be developed by fine words, by 
simply saying I will be this or that. Enthusiasm of 
itself is of no enduring value. Its value depends at least 
on two things : experience and intelligence. It depends 
on the maturity of actual experience, the testing of the 
practical life, the disciplines of struggle and strain Avitli- 
in the world ; but a vital element in this maturity lies in 
intelligence ; in the breadth, the depth, and scope of one 's 
knowledge of what he is about, what and Avhy he believes 
what he does; or, to put it in another way, enthusiasm 
can be trusted and matured only when it is intelligent. 

The man of God must not only be soundly taught, 
but apt to teach; and without a thoroughgoing theologi- 
cal education, superimposed upon a liberal culture, can 

9 (199) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

a man be safely trusted with so great a sense of his call- 
ing? The product of the Bible school has enthusiasm, 
often out of all proportion to his fitness, but he is rarely 
intelligent, and frequently without historical perspjective. 
The product of the schools of religion has a varied mass 
of things lying upon the surface of his mind, but rarely 
develops any sustained enthusiasms for his calling. He 
has views about religion, but no convictions; many 
diplomas but few of the marks of the Lord Jesus, and 
hence no authority to command the allegiance of the 
troubled soul amid the fearsome experiences of eternity. 
I am going then to insist that Christianity is an in- 
telligent enthusiasm for Christ, based upon actual expe- 
rience of salvation, and that the gospel minister is sus- 
tained in his lonely calling by a sense of predestination, 
of a setting apart unto a certain life, sustained at all 
points by growing practical experience with the world, 
and supported by a sense of historical background. 
Once grant this and the necessity for theological semi- 
naries of a normal t^^pe will be accepted beyond dispute. 
Much of the criticism of seminaries proceeds not from 
zeal for religion, but lack of conviction as to the impor- 
tance of a religion of such absolutely exclusive type as 
Christianity. 

III. 

But granting the truth of this there still remains 
a choice of type. B}^ what means shall a man, inspired 
with a sense of a divine call, serve the cause of Christ? 
Historically there has been a line of cleavage Avithin 
the church from the beginning. There were men of the 
message, and men of the church. One the evangeli- 
cal type, going out to the lost world ; the other the eccle- 
siastical type, with eye turned towards the institution 
of the church, and depending less upon persuasive 
preaching and teaching than on ritual and liturgical 
practices to adequately effect a union with God in the 
experience of worship. This line of cleavage became 

10 (200) 



Commencement Address 

historically distinct at the Reformation; but eventually 
within the Protestant Church it appeared again. Some 
reformers developed rituals and liturgies, others based 
their advocacy upon the message. The liturgical branch 
of the Church stressed ecclesiastical relations, and chiefly 
feared division within the visible Church ; others stressed 
evangelical experiences, and feared the influence of false 
doctrines. One dreaded sedition, the other heresy; and 
such disputes chiefly characterized the Protestant tra- 
dition which finally entered the modern world, the age 
of science and of fresh endeavors to gain de novo a view 
of God and the universe. 

No man is fit to lead the modern Church as a minis- 
ter who does not understand something of the rise and 
development of this tradition, or appreciate the influ- 
ence of this line of cleavage ; and from what university 
or educational institution is one to gain this knowle-dge 
save from a seminary specially appointed to give this 
knowledge and properly to relate it to the body of con- 
viction which gave rise to it! 

IV. 

It is not necessary in this place to say that the 
Presbyterian conception of Christianity and the Pres- 
byterian ideal of the gospel ministry are founded frankly 
upon the evangelical tradition. Other non-liturgical 
denominations stress this of course, but we among them 
all have ventured to base our whole position upon it. 
We advocate no peculiar views as to methods, nor of 
the sacraments ; and while we do hold to a certain type 
of government from which we take our name, our essen- 
tial position is based upon a comprehensive and intelli- 
gent conception of Christianity, a theological concep- 
tion, if you please, consistently based upon the New 
Testament tradition, and logically and historically re- 
lated to the theological development in the Church most 
in harmony with the evangelical tradition. 

11 (201) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Again I affirm the necessity of seminaries to give 
us this consistent, historical knowledge, this sense of 
perspective and contact with the stabilizing influences of 
the great past. No matter how capable our age may be 
in shaping up its consistent religious beliefs and convic- 
tions — and I am entirely certain that it is not only our 
privilege but our solemn duty to God to think our own 
thoughts about these matters — still I insist that no man 
is capable of doing this who is ignorant of our religious 
and theological heritage, and there is and can be no place 
other than the normal seminary to furnish this sort of 
training. It might be asserted of certain types of de- 
nominational religion that they can be sustained in our 
modem world, without specific seminary influence, but I 
am absolutely certain that our Presbyterian conception 
requires systematic seminary training for its full power 
and justification. 

If this be thought by some an old-fashioned view, 
I beg you not to accuse me of being a praiser of old 
times, but rather to think of me as one who honestly pre- 
fers to be behind the times, than forever astride the 
times, for in a very remarkable New Testament book I 
find that when the Church rode astride the times it was 
called an ugly name, but when it stood behind the times 
it was a veritable bulwark of human life and the stay 
and support of the eternal God. I further maintain that 
only he who has a consistent and historical knowledge 
of the tradition of the Church, who is conscious of a 
supporting sense of continuity, can look upon the fevered 
and restless changes of the present day with the philo- 
sophical calm, and intense human sympathy, of one who 
is conscious amid the floods of mortal ills prevailing of 
standing upon a Rock. 

V. 

Notice now some of the implications of this sense 
of historical continuity, which gives to one's enthusi- 
asm for Christ the courage of rich and deep conviction. 

12 (202) 



Commencement Address 

1. It is the most generous and encouraging view of 
the possibilities of human nature that one can take, who 
admits the reality of the limitations of the majority of 
men. For if the majority can never lead itself, but 
must depend upon leaders, that appeal to the majority 
which offers the largest sort of independence and utili- 
zation of latent capacities will always be the most 
potent influence in lifting men from the class of the led 
into the class of the leaders. 

We Presbyterians conceive Christianity partly as 
a movement of living thought ; we frankly insist that men 
shall think about their religious experiences, and develop 
convictions which shall prove superior to emotional and 
environmental changes. We try to train believers in 
the Pauline school: ''I am not ashamed of the gospel, 
because it is the power of Grod unto salvation". And 
in that word hecause we place our whole emphasis. We 
try to get men to see things in relation ; we tell them to 
distrust their first impressions, and to follow their sober 
second thoughts; we endeavor to get them to respect 
guiding principles, and we appeal to them ideally at any 
rate in such a way as to arouse their intellectual powers, 
to make them aware of their hidden resources, to quicken 
and call out their deeper mental capacities; and when 
one can begin a living thought movement in a man, he 
has so far made that man free of mass influence, and 
definitely set him apart as a living, self-conscious move- 
ment. In other words, whatever makes a man think 
about God and salvation so far makes him an indepen- 
dent man. 

That is why we believe in the living voice, . as su- 
perior to the printed page. That is why Ave insist upon 
the glory of the preached word ; for it is not a mere or- 
derly arrangement of thoughts, but the impact of a living 
personality, which arouses men to their hidden capa- 
cities. And so long as we believe this, we shall insist 
upon preaching as the supreme expression of the essen- 
tial Protestant spirit, and seek by normal seminary edu- 

13 (203) 



The Bulletw of the Western Theological Seminary 

cation to develop in men the passion to preach. I wish 
to make this appeal to you of the graduating class. 
Make full proof of your ministry; think no labor too 
severe to fit yourselves for great preachers ; and remem- 
ber that no preacher can be great whose mind is un- 
familiar with the structural lines of development with 
which your seminary training has made you familiar. 
2. If then our approach to the minds of men to-day 
is charged with a thought-provoking movement, does^ it 
not follow that such an appeal is most in harmony with 
what is the chief need of the Church, and also the chief 
need of the time? What the time needs is guiding prin- 
ciples. No age has ever done so much secret thinking 
about the seriousness and gravity of life as ours; but 
it is true that it is not inclined to look for solutions of 
these grave problems within the organized Church. Let 
us confess this, and yet see how needful it is to call back 
to Christ and the Church the intelligence of the age. 

Harold Begbie has recently said: "So far as I 
am able to judge the spirit of the time, it seems to me 
that animalism is wearing itself out, and that the 
pathetic effort to live a small life of petty excitements 
and trivial pleasures is ending in a sensation of rather 
perplexed weariness. Out of this reaction may come, 
not a religious revival as our fathers understood the 
phrase, but a useful curiosity concerning the soul and 
its destiny." If we then can help' this useful curiosity 
to turn itself into living convictions ; if we can recall the 
world to the Church to learn the ways of salvation, we 
shall fulfil our ministry greatly. But we must see to 
it that our preaching is strongly impregnated with teach- 
ing, with consistent interpretation of religion, and how^ 
can we do this if we fail of a thorough theological 
education 1 

3. As to what this teaching should be I can say 
but a word, for I do not think this the place to enlarge 
upon it; but I believe that we should restore to our 
preaching the thorough instruction of our people in the 

14 (204) 



Commencement Address 

meaning of the Christian religion. One plain task is to 
explain to people the nature and meaning of the reli- 
gion they already believe, and then to persuade Chris- 
tians who believe this religion to live in harmony with 
its precepts. But I should go further and say that a 
very necessary task is in the domain of apologetics: 
the justification of Christianity through a sound philos- 
ophy of the universe, and its proper understanding in 
relation to scientific conceptions and prevailing social 
movements. Such tasks call for the best intellects of 
the world; and no calling offers a man such a field for 
the use even of the highest gifts as that of the gospel 
ministry. 

And this again brings the need for the seminary into 
view. The minister is the only liberally educated man 
in society to-day whose mind has been trained in and 
kept in close communion with the fertilizing influences 
of the world. He must strive to be something more than 
useful ; he must become a potent ferment in other minds, 
and stir such minds to deep and passionate thought 
about the ways of salvation and the gospel of God. 

4. But deeper far and of the first importance I 
wish to stress this simple fact. The preacher is an 
ambassador of Christ. An ambasador is the represen- 
tative not of an institution, or a bod}'' of laws, or a 
philosophy of government, but of the sovereign, of a per- 
son. Do not let this slip lightly over the convolutions of 
your brain. You may believe in the institution of the 
Church, you may be possessed of a consistent theologi- 
cal knowledge, and hold all manner of necessary con- 
victions on such points, and yet unless you can in your 
total influence set forth the fact that you are in Christ's 
stead, you will fail and ought to fail. 

What I mean in plain English is this, that the spirit 
of Christ must pervade the totality of your life and min- 
istry. You are set to defend the faith, but remember 
that there are ways of defending it more destructive than 
any frontal attack made on it. The weapons of our war- 
is (205) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

fare are not carnal; uncharitable differences, political 
methods, malice and prejudice, are carnal weapons, and 
never helped or can help the cause we love. Our weapons 
are not carnal, but mighty to the pulling down of strong- 
holds. Let me put it as clearly as possible, that no 
method of presenting Christianity which obscures or 
misrepresents the spirit of Christ can ever hope to be 
blessed of Him, or to help the blind and stumbling mul- 
titudes to find their way to God. 

Let then your walk and manner of life be such as 
shall commend the doctrine of Christ. Keep your mind 
above prejudice and party spirit ; preach your principles 
and not your moods ; ever keep' in mind the harm 3^ou may 
do your cause by forgetting, in the heat of debate about 
ideas, the Person 3^ou represent. Your calling is not to 
order people about, or to separate them into sheep and 
goats, but to beseech them to be reconciled unto God 
through Jesus Christ your Lord. Remember that it Avas 
ipot to insult Christ that the Roman soldiers crowned Him 
with thorns, and placed the reed sceptre in His hands, but 
to pour their scorn upon the Jews ; and that Paul once 
found it necessary to say to Jews: ''the very name of 
Christ your Messiah is blasphemed among the heathen 
on account of 3"ou". Much of the present-day criticism 
of the Church and of Christianity is aimed indirectly 
at those of us who have been unfortunate enough to fail 
of the world's respect. 

Use valiantly the Aveapons which God has given 
you, faith, love, the power of a sound mind; make 
your advocacy of Christ amid the splendour of 
your intellectual and moral wealth; remember that 
the world you go to is full of dangers and hardships, 
that adversaries await you at every turn; and then 
quietly but with the passion of the soldier say to 3^our- 
self, a great door and effectual is open unto me; and 
great indeed will be the way in which God and a good 
conscience will steady you for a noble ministry to an 

16 (206) 



The Graduating Class 

age which in spite of all its vagaries is turning amid 
the twilight of its needs back to the old pathway that 
leadeth unto life eternal. 



The Graduating Class 

Horace Edward Chandler — Brown University, B.Sc. 1906. 
Missionary under Board of Foreign Missions of 
Presbyterian Church, U. S. A. Will return to China. 
Tsingtao, Shantung, China. 

Franz Omer Christopher — College of Wooster, A.B. 

1923. Assistant to pastor, First M. E. Church, But- 
ler, Pa. 

John A. Clark— Oskaloosa College, A.B. 1923. Will 
enter the Presbyterian ministry. 82 Abbott St., 
Plains Parsons, Pa. 

John Lyman Eakin — Washington and Jefferson College 
A.B. 1923. Under appointment of Board of Foreign 
Missions of the Presbyterian Church, U. S. A., to 
Siam. Bangkok, Siani, after September first. 

Newton Carl Elder — College of Wooster. Under appoint- 
ment of Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyte- 
rian Church, U. S. A., to Siam. Bangkok, Siam, 
after September first. 

James Herbert Grarner — University of Pittsburgh, B.Sc. 

1924. Pastor, Presbvterian Church, Cochranton, 
Pa. 

Paul T. Cerrard— University of Pittsburgh, A.B. 1926. 
Pastor, Mt. Pleasant and Scotch Ridge Presbyterian 
Churches, Mt. Pleasant, Jetferson Co., Ohio. 

James Henry Gillespie — Grrove City College, Litt.B. 
1923. Assistant to pastor, Presbyterian Church, 
Tacoma Park, D. C. 

17 (207) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Herbert Beecher Hudnut— Princeton University, A.B. 
1916. Associate pastor, City Temple, Dallas, Texas. 
Patterson and Akard Sts., Dallas, Texas. 

William Owen — Metropolitan Seminary, London, 1912. 
Will enter the Presbyterian pastorate. 805 Western 
Avenue, N. S., Pittsburgh. 

Victor Charles Pfeiffer— Baldwin Wallace College, A.B. 
1920. Pastor, German M. E. Church. 305 Mill- 
bridge St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Fred Eliot Robb— Missouri Valley College, Ph.B., 1923. 
Pastor, Laurel Hill Presbyterian Church, R. F. D. 
1, Dunbar, Pa. 

Philip L. Williams — Young Men's Christian Association 
College, Chicago, B.A.S., 1922. Will pursue a year 
of post graduate study. 731 Ridge Ave., N. S., 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 



President's Report 

May 6, 1926 

To the Board of Directors of the 
Western Theological Seminary 

Gentlemen : — 

In behalf of the Faculty I have the honor to submit 
the following report for the academic year ending Mav 
6, 1926. 

Attendance 

Since the last annual report twenty-nine new stu- 
dents have been admitted to the classes of the Semi- 
nary, and four have re-entered after periods of absence. 

To the Junior Class 

1. Byron Elmer Allender, a graduate of Washington 
and Jefferson College, A.B., 1925. 

18 (208) 



President's Report 

2. H. Wa^dand Baldwin, a graduate of Greenville Col- 
lege, A.B., 1925. 

3. Harry Charles Blews. 

4. James E. Fawcett, a graduate of Maryville College, 
A.B., 1925. 

5. George Lee Forney, a graduate of Geneva College, 
A.B., 1925. 

6. Howard Weston Jamison, a graduate of West Vir- 
ginia Wesleyan College, A.B., 1925. 

7. Oscar Maurice Polhemus, a graduate of Indiana 
University, A.M., 1922. 

8. Generoso Racine, a graduate of Upsala Academy. 

9. William Semple, Jr., a graduate of University of 
Pittsburgh, A.B., 1923. 

10. Linson Harper Stebbins, a graduate of Westmin- 
ster College (Pa.), A.B., 1925. 

11. Pasquale Vocaturo, re-entered after an absence of 
seventeen years. 

12. Harry L. Wissinger, re-entered after an absence of 
seven years. 

To the Middle Class 

1. Thomas F. Cooper, a graduate of Greenville Col- 
lege, A.B., 1925. 

2. Martin Rudolph Kuehn, re-entered after an absence 
of one year. 

3. Theodore Evan Miller, a graduate of Lafayette 
College, A.B., 1921. 

To the Senior Class 

1. Horace Edward Chandler, a graduate of Brown 
University, B.Sc, 1906. 

2. William Owen, re-entered after an absence of three 
years. 

3. Mrs. Forrest Miller Smith, a graduate of Elizabeth 
College, A.B.,.1916. (Pursuing selected studies). 

19 (209) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

To the Graduate Class 

1. Claude Sawtell Conley, a graduate of Western 
Theological Seminary, S.T.B., 1925. 

2. Francis Milton Hall, a graduate of Western Theo- 
logical Seminary, S.T.B., 1891. 

3. Jonathan Edward Kidder, a graduate of Western 
Theological Seminary, S.T.B., 1919. 

4. Charles Kovacs, a graduate of Budapest Reformed 
Theological Seminary of Dunamellek District, 1915. 

5. John Maurice Leister, a graduate of Western Theo- 
logical Seminary, S.T.B., 1924. 

6. Ralph I. McConnell, a graduate of Western Theo- 
logical Seminary, S.T.B., 1918. 

7. John Henry Mark, a student of Western Theologi- 
cal Seminary, 1901. 

8. Robert Sheridan Miller, a graduate of Gettysburg 
Theological Seminary, 1921. 

9. Henry F. Obenauf, a graduate of Lutheran Theo- 
logical Seminary, 1905. 

10. Paul L. Philipp, a graduate of Western Theologi- 
cal Seminary, S. T. M. 1924. 

11. Howard Rodgers, a graduate of Western Theologi- 
cal Seminary, S.T.B., 1918. 

12. August Francis Runtz, a graduate of Rochester 
Theological Seminary, 1916. 

13. Arthur A. Schade, a graduate of the German De- 
partment, Rochester Theological Seminarj^, 1910. 

14. Lewis Oliver Smith, a graduate of the Western 
Theological Seminary, S.T.B., 1925. 

15. John Burton Thwing, a graduate of Princeton 
Theological Seminary, Th.B., 1923. 

The total attendance for the year has been 69, which 
was distributed as follows : fellows, 5 ; graduates, 18 ; 
seniors, 15 ; middlers, 19 ; juniors, 12. • 

20 (210) 



President's Report 

Three members of the Senior Class have gone into 
other lines of work and did not return to the Seminary 
at the beginning of this year: Andrew Babinsky, to 
take full charge of his mission work in the Presbytery 
of Shenango; J. H. P. Logan, to go into business; and 
John Waite, Jr., to do home mission work in Moccasin, 
Mont. 

Two members of the Middle Class were at their own 
request granted letters of dismissal to other Seminaries : 
Howard M. Strobel, to the Presbyterian Theological 
Seminary of Kentucky at Louisville; and J. Carter 
Swaim, to Princeton Theological Seminary. 

Toward the end of the tirst semester of the current 
year, Mr. Generoso Racine, of the Junior Class, was at 
his own request granted a letter of dismissal to Auburn 
Theological Seminary. 

Fellowships and Prises 

The fellowship was awarded to John Lyman Eakin, 
a graduate of Washington and Jefferson College; the 
Michael Wilson Keith Memorial Homiletical Prize, to 
Newton Carl Elder, a graduate of Wooster College; a 
Hebrew Prize, offered to members of the Junior Class, 
to Byron Elmer Allender, a graduate of AYashington 
and Jefferson College ; a Greek Prize given by the Class 
of 1912 was awarded to Newton Carl Elder; and Merit 
Prizes to Lloyd David Homer and Ralph Waldo Emer- 
son Kaufman of the Middle Class, and Byron Elmer 
Allender and William Semple, Jr., of the Junior Class. 

Elective Courses 

In addition to the required courses of the Seminary 
curriculum, the following elective courses have been 
offered during the year 1925-6, the number of students 
attending each course being indicated: 

Dr. Kelso: Comparative Religion, 7 

Post Exilic Pro^Dhets and Apocalyptic 
Literature, 8 

21 (211) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Dr. Schaff : Reformation, 16 

Dr. Farmer: Social Teaching of the New Testament, 



Dr. Snowden: Philosophy of Religion, 15 
Psychology of Religion, 4 
Christian Ethics, 2 

Dr. Vance: New Testament Theology, 12 

New Testament Exegesis (20b) 12 

(24) 2 
(19b) 7 
(20a) 6 
(24d) 4 
Life of Christ, 18 

Dr. Culley: Old Testament Introduction, 27 

Old Testament Exegesis (Psalter), 4 
Middler Hebrew, 6 
Aramaic, 1 

Dr. Eakin: Exegesis of Mark, 13 
Galatians, 5 

Prof. Sleeth : Oral Interpretation of the Scriptures, 13 

Faculty 

Dr. Breed gave a course on Pastoral and Personal 
Evangelism during the first semester, and conducted 
four conference periods at which he gave a series of illus- 
trated lectures. Thirteen students elected this course. 

Dr. Schaff retired from his professorship, in ac- 
cordance with the action of the Board, December 31st. 
and Professor Eakin, Professor elect in the Department 
of Church History, took the courses in this department. 

On account of the transfer of Professor Eakin from 
the New Testament Department to the Department of 
Church History, Dr. Vance assumed full charge of the 
New Testament Department. A special provision had 
to be made for five students in Beginning Greek, and 

22 (212) 



President's Report 

Mr. T. D. Ewing, of the Middle Class, a graduate of 
Princeton University, conducted this class to the satis- 
faction of the head of the Department. 

Missions 

A class in Missions was conducted during the -sec- 
ond semester by Kev. Donald A. Irwin, a graduate of 
the Seminary, Class of 1919, and a missionary of the 
Presbyterian Church, U.S.A., in Yihsien, Shantung, 
China. The class met once a week on Wednesday after- 
noons, and twelve topics on Problems and Programs of 
Missions were discussed, special emphasis being given 
to the subjects of Nationalism and the Indigenous Church 
in foreign lands. For every problem a program was 
worked out, both from the angle of the Mission Field 
and the home Church. An invitation was extended by 
the Seminary to the churches of Pittsburgh PresbAi:ery 
for representatives of the churches to attend the second 
part of the course — on Programs. As the course was 
primarily arranged for Seminary students, the afternoon 
hour was not changed to a more convenient one for out- 
siders. During the course there were seven visitors who 
attended at different times, two of whom took the full 
course on Programs. Dr. D. J. Fleming's recent book, 
''Whither Bound in Missions", was used as a reference 
text book. The interest of the Seminary students was 
good, as demonstrated in the class discussions. 

In connection with the report on missionary instruc- 
tion, we would call your special attention to the fact that 
three returned missionaries have been enrolled as stu- 
dents of the Seminary, doing graduate work both in the 
Seminary and in the University of Pittsburgh. This 
number would be doubled if we were to include other 
missionaries who have been residents of Pittsburgh dur- 
ing the past winter. All these missionaries, except tliose 
who made their homes Avith relatives, have found it very 
difficult to secure apartments in a good environment at 

23 (213) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

a reasonable rent. These facts show that a building with 
missionary apartments, one of the goals of the financial 
campaign, is an imperative necessity. 

Religious Education 

The work in Religious Education was in charge of 
Rev. Howard M. LeSourd, who conducted two courses. 
In one he dealt with "Organization and Administration 
of Religious Education", and in the second,. " Curriculum 
Construction for Church Schools". The enrollment in 
this class numbered 21. 

Lectures 

The lecture at the opening exercises of the Semi- 
nary was delivered by Prof. George Johnson, Ph.D., on 
''The Perfection of Scripture", Mr. Irwin's course of 
lectures on "Problems and Programs of Missions", one 
hour weekly during the second semester, was given on 
the Severance Foundation. In addition the following 
special lectures were given in the Seminary chapel : 

"The Great Korean Revival", The Rev. W. N. 
Blair, D.D. 

Four illustrated lectures. The Rev. David R. Breed, 
D.D., LL.D. 

"Jerusalem" 

"Israel in Egypt" 

"The Exodus" 

"Footsteps of Paul in Italy" 

"Pension Plan", Rev. Reid S. Dickson. 

"The Economic Consequences of Hinduism", Dr. 
Sam Higginbottom. 

"The Influence of the Near East Colleges", Prof. 
Philip K. Hitti, Ph.D. 

"Mission A¥ork in the Philippine Islands", Rev. J. 
L. Hooper. 

24 (214) 



President's Report 

''Three Hour, Sermon", Prof. Paul M. Kanamori, 

''Historic Presbyterianism", Eev. Hugh T. Kerr, 
D.D. 

"National Council for the Prevention of War", Mr, 
Frederick J. Libby. 

"Latin America", Bishop Francis J. McColmell^ 
D.D. 

"Religious Work in the U. S. Navy", Chaplain A. 
N. Park. 

"Some Sidelights on the Situation in China", Rev. 
Charles E. Patton. 

For the session of 1926-7 arrangements have been 
made with the Rev. Maitland Alexander, D.D., for a 
course of five lectures on the general subject, "The Pas- 
tor and His Methods". 



Student Y.M.C.A. 

The students of the Seminary are organized into a 
Y.M.C.A., with the faculty as ex officio members of the 
various committees. Once a month the Wednesday con- 
ference is conducted by the President of the Y.M.C.A. 
and the Devotional Committee of this organization. In 
addition, the Devotional Committee conducts a weekly 
prayer meeting on Thursday evenings in the social hall 
of the dormitory. On the average of once a month a 
member of the faculty, or one of the pastors of the city, 
or a foreign missionary addresses this prayer meeting. 
Under the supervision of the Athletic Committee bas- 
ket ball and volley ball were played. There were inter- 
class matches, as well as games with teams representing 
other institutions. The Social Committee conducted 
four socials during the year. At one of these socials the 
members of the Cecilia Choir were the guests of honor. 
Representatives were sent by the Association to the 
International Y.M.C.A. Conference in Washington^ 

25 (215) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

D.C., to the Interdenominational Student Conference at 
Evanston, 111., and to the Conference of the Association 
of Middle Atlantic Theological Seminaries at Croser 
Theological Seminar^^ The delegates to these confer- 
ences made reports before the student bodv and the 
faculty. The Y.M.C.A. budget was $240. The student 
body contributed $176 to the Church Boards and $37.50 
to the Student Friendship Fund. The total amount col- 
lected was $453.50. 

Visitation of Colleges and Recruiting for the Ministry 

Dr. Kelso preached in the college chapel at Wooster 
and lectured under the auspices of the Oscar A. Hills 
Club. Dr. Vance, as Chairman of the Faculty Conunit- 
tee on Recruiting for the Ministry, conducted a cam- 
paign in many of the Presbyterian Colleges from which 
the Seminary draws its student body. Under his direc- 
tion Dr. Farmer visited Macalester, Carroll, aaid Park 
Colleges; and, accompanied by a student, Grove City 
College. Dr. Snowden, with two students, visited AVash- 
ington and Jefferson College, and addressed the student 
body. Dr. Vance visited Muskingum; with two students, 
Grove City; with one student, Westminster; and with a 
graduate of the Seminary, Wooster. Literature was 
sent to about 550 men (mostly college students), con- 
sisting of a catalogue, a postal picture of Memorial Hall, 
a circular entitled "Western Theological Seminary from 
a Student's View Point", three blotters, a circular by 
Dr. Kelso entitled "Real Men and the Ministry", a cir- 
cular containing two letters from students on finance 
while in the Seminary, and two letters, one at the be- 
ginning of the campaign and one at the end, written by 
Dr. Vance. 

The correspondence that followed indicates a favor- 
able impression has been made and that a number of 
students will be in attendance next fall and in the near 
future as the result. 

26 (216) 



President's Report 

A letter was also sent to all the alumni, asking for 
their co-operation in interesting prospective students in 
Western, to which many kind responses were received. 

An effort has been made to encourage some of the 
Pittsburgh clergymen to employ students as assistants 
in Young Peoples' Work. 

Finances 

In view of the approaching Centennial Campaign 
no attempt has been made to secure additions to the per- 
manent funds of the Seminary, but one gift is to be noted. 
A member of the Board of Trustees purchased a large 
stable standing in the rear of the old library building, 
and gave the deed to the Seminary Trustees. The trans- 
action involved five thousand dollars, but the possession 
of the piece of property means more to the institution 
than its money value. With this building in the pos- 
session of other parties it would be impossible to sell the 
lot and unwise to build upon the front part of this same 
lot. 

The financial campaign has been planned in three 
separate stages: (1) the effort to secure the endow- 
ment for a Chair of Religious Education by personal 
subscriptions of graduates. This part of the campaign 
was inaugurated about the first of April, and encourag- 
ing progress has been made toward the goal of one hun- 
dred thousand dollars. (2) The canvass of a selected 
list of the membership of the Presbyterian churches 
within the limits of Greater Pittsburgh. The details of 
this campaign have been worked out, the publicity has 
been prepared, the canvassing committee organized, and 
it is hoped to begin the canvass Monday, May tenth, and 
finish it during the months of May and June. (3) In 
the third stage it is planned to take up the solicitation 
of contributions from the communities of Western Penn- 
sylvania, Eastern Ohio, and West Virginia outside tlie 
Greater Pittsburgh territory. 

27 (217) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Recommendations 

The Faculty of the Seminary submit the following 
recommendations : 

(1) That the following members of the Senior Class 
be awarded the degree of S.T.B. : 

Horace Edward Chandler Paul T. Gerrard 
Franz Omer Christopher James Henry Gillespie 

John Lyman Eakin Herbert Beecher Hudnut 

Newton Carl Elder William Owen 

James Herbert Garner Victor Charles Pfeiffer 

Fred Eliot Robb 

(2) That the degree of S.T.M. be awarded the follow- 
ing: 

John Arndt Yount, of the Graduate Class 
James Herbert Garner, of the Senior Class. 

(3) That the following members of the Senior Class be 
granted certificates covering the work they have 
completed : 

John A. Clark 
Philip L. Williams 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

(Signed) James A. Kelso^ 

President 



28 (218) 



Librarian's Report 



Librarian's Report 

To the Board of Trustees of the Western Theological 
Seminary : 

I submit herewith my report as Librarian of the 
Seminary, covering the year April 1, 1925 — March 31, 
1926 :— 

1. Additions : 

The additions for the year, classified and compared 
with the data for the four preceding years, have been 
as follows : — 

1921-2 ) 922-3 1923-4 1924-5 1925-6 

Old Testament 51 58 32 79 45 

New Testament 60 45 30 50 53 

Bible (in general) 19 64 15 19 22 

Theologv, Philosoph}^, Psy- 
chology, Ethics, etc. ... 83 84 56 82 96 

Church History 54 44 27 63 93 

Preaching, Sermons, Pas- 
toral AVork 36 60 31 21 37 

Missions, Comparative Re- 
ligion 44 24 62 63 64 

Sociology 35 20 22 20 10 

Religious Education .... 7 30 19 63 92 

Judaism (exclusive of Old 

Testament) 18 20 7 7 3 

Miscellaneous (Religious) 6 8 20 25 56 

Language and Literature . 62 49 34 25 23 

Miscellaneous (Non - reli- 
gious) 98 54 85 61 80 

Periodicals (bound) 145 156 113 64 163 

718 716 553 642 837 

29 (219) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

2. Catalog-iiing : 

The figures for the year, with those of the four pre- 
ceding years, are as follows : — 

Date Volumes Catalogued Cards Added 
1921-2 725 2111 



1922-3 741 1983 

1923-4 490 1881 

1924-5 544 1938 

1925-6 572 1929 

3. Circulation : 

(a) Books loaned: — 

1921-2 1951 

1922-3 1741 

1923-4 2118 

1924-5 ..2194 

1925-6 2696 

(b) Periodicals loaned :— 

1921-2 217 

1922-3 180 

1923-4 133 

1924-5 155 

1925-6 200 

The number of additions was greater than in any 
previous year of the library's history. The distribution 
of these new books, among the different fields of religious 
interest, will be seen from the table above. As in previous 
years, the effort was made to do full justice to the older 
departments of theological discipline while at the same 
time keeping the library well supplied with books repre- 
senting the newer outlook and interests. In the older 
"fields additions in the Church History and Missions Sec- 
tions are especially noteworthy. A number of important 
source books and reference works in Church History 
have been purchased from Dr. Schaff. The price paid for 
these works was very much below their market value. 

30 (220) 



Librarian's Report 

Some of them could scarcely have been secured through 
the ordinary .channels at any price. In the Missions sec- 
tion special attention has been given to supplementing 
the library's collection of books on Latin America, this 
being the subject for study in mission study courses dur- 
ing the year. It will be seen that the Religious Education 
section continues to grow. And by no means of least im- 
portance, among the year's accessions, are the books 
which must be classified as "Miscellaneous — non-reli- 
gious". Included here are the best of the new books in 
the fields of history, biography, science, etc. The library 
makes no attempt to secure all the important books on 
these subjects, but it does aim at making the outstanding 
works available for its patrons, particularly works Avhich 
have a bearing on the experiences and problems of 
religion. 

The figures for circulation also surpass those of 
preceding years. Nearly twenty-seven hundred books 
and two hundred periodicals were loaned in the period 
covered by this report. One hundred and nineteen books 
were sent out by mail. By this means the library is able 
to serve alumni and others in any part of the country. It 
is an important service which could and should be ex- 
tended. Thus far efforts to advertise it have not met 
with as large response as had been hoped. 

During the latter part of the year the library staff 
has been cooperating with a committee of the American 
Society of Church History in an effort to locate source 
materials for the religious history of our country, and 
make them more available for use than they hitherto have 
been. For nearly three months Miss Higgins, the assis- 
tant librarian, devoted a good deal of her time to the task 
of discovering and tabulating the resources of our library 
in this important field. We feel that the expenditure of 
time and work has been well justified. It has yielded in- 
creased familiarity with the materials on our own part, as 
well as being a contribution to the larger enterprise. 

31 (221) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

"We have again to report that in the matter of cata- 
loguing, owing to our small staff of workers, progress has 
not been as rapid as we would wish. We are keeping up 
as best we can. 

Of the 837 books added to the library during the 
year, 63 have been received as gifts. To the following 
donors grateful acknowledgment is due : Dr. J. A. Kelso, 
Mr. A. L. Humphrey, Dr. Clay MacCauley, Trustees of 
Lake Forest College, Mr. Kirby Page, Dr. John Mc- 
Naugher, Princeton University, Dr. A. J. Brown, Bahai 
Publication Committee, Mr. C. L. Wiltse, ISTeAvton Theo- 
logical Institution, Mr, E. E. Eggers, Rev. H. A. Bald- 
win, First Baptist Church of Pittsburgh, W^estminster 
Press, Dr. D. E. Culley, Bigelow Hartford Carpet Co., 
Presbyterian Board of National Missions, Hebrew Union 
College, Rev. S. A. Hunter, Dr. M. W. Jacobus, Church 
Peace Union, Rev. H. R. Johnson, Prof. George M. 
Sleeth, Dr. Stanley Scott, Rev. M. Schwartz, Dr. L. F. 
Benson, Dr. S. A. Brown, Commonwealth of Pennsyl- 
vania. 

Respectfulh^ submitted, 

(signed) FRANK EAKIN, 

Librarian. 



32 (222) 



Treasurer's Report 



Treasurer's Report 

Treasurer's Condensed Financial Report for year ended 
March 31, 1926. 

INCOME RECEIPTS 

Income from investments $ 31,845.68 

Income from Annuity Bond Fund 5,402.00 

Interest on daily balances 438.79 

Income from Room Rents and Old Library 

Building 10,493.66 

Income from House Rents 1,355.25 

Contributions by Individuals 5,200.00 

Contributions from Churches 5,735.02 

Miscellaneous . • 210.13 



$ 63,680.53 

INCOME DISBURSEMENTS 

Salaries paid $ 43,666.44 

Interest paid on Annuity Bonds 7,075.44 

Interest paid on loan from Commonwealth 

Trust Co 910.96 

Insurance, Taxes and Water Rents paid . . 4,981.54 

Office expenses 1,047.63 

Library expenses 2,113.21 

Light and fuel 4,237.53 

Scholarships 4,611.00 

Laundry expense 298.70 

Lectures 405.84 

Sundry Equipment & Improvements 2,140.46 

Repairs to Seminary Buildings 2,580.73 

Other Miscellaneous Expenses 2,185.84 

Professors' Annuities 2,736.90 

Pensions . 1,249.97 

Printing 1,214.20 

33 (223) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Janitor's Supplies 335.75 

Advertising 866.84 

Surveying & Appraisal 175.00 

Commissions 65.25 

$ 82,899.23 
ASSETS 

Land, Buildings and Equipment $ 552,139.70 

Investments 730,495.29 

Cash 18,755.01 

$1,301,390.00 

LIABILITIES 

Notes Payable $ 17,900.00 

Funds 1,287,475.49 

$1,305,375.49 
Deficit 3,985.49 



34 (224) 



Faculty Notes 



Faculty Notes 

Dr. Kelso preached in the college chapel at Wooster, Ohio, on 
Sunday Nov. 8th., and in the evening gave an illustrated lecture on 
"Petra, the Ruined City of Arabia" in the auditorium of Taylor 
Hall. He also gave a stereopticon lecture on Jerusalem in the 
Sharpsburg Church Jan. 17th and in the 3rd Presbyterian Church 
of Pittsburgh Feb. 3rd. 

During the week of March 14th, Dr. Kelso gave a course of 
three lectures at EUwood City, Pa., on "The Teachings of 
Isaiah" under the auspices of the Ministerial Association; he spent 
Sunday, March 28th, in Boston, preaching in the Roxbury Presby- 
terian Church in the morning and in the Brookline Church in the 
evening, as well as addressing an audience of students in the West- 
minster House; and on Sunday, April 11th, he preached the ser- 
mon at the seventy-fifth anniversary service of the First Presbyte- 
rian Church of West Newton, Pa. 

At the celebration of the semi-centennial of the founding of 
Grove City College, on June 15th, the Seminary was represented by 
Dr. Kelso and Dr. Eakin. 

Dr. Snowden has resumed the editorship of the Presbyterian 
Banner, resigning his position as editor of the Presbyterian Maga- 
zine. His connection with the Banner began with the issue of 
May 20th. On Feb. 14th he preached in the Fourth Church, New 
York, and on May 16th delivered the address at the laying of the 
cornerstone of the new edifice of the First Church of Sharon, Pa. 

Dr. Kelso and Dr. Farmer took part in the Pre-Assembly Edu- 
cational Conference held under the auspices of the Board of Chris- 
tian Education on May 2 6th in Baltimore. 

The degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred upon Dr. Culley 
at the recent commencement of Washington and Jefferson College. 

Dr. Culley and Dr. Eakin attended the interdenominational 
student conference at Evanston, 111., the last week in December. 

Dr. Eakin represented the faculty at the inauguration of the 
Rev. Milton J. Hoffman, D. D., as Professor of Church History at 
New Brunswick Theological Seminary, New Jersey, May 20th. 



35 (225) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 
Alumniana 

During the meeting of the General Assembly in Baltimore, 
fifty members of the Alumni Association attended the Western 
Theological Seminary luncheon at the Maryland Club. Short ad- 
dresses were made by Dr. Porter, of Brazil ('84), Dr. Silsley, of 
California ('98), Rev. Albert I. Good, of Africa ('09), Rev. Wilbur 
H. Lyon, of India ('18), Dr. William O. Thompson ('82), and Dr. 
Snowden ('78). 

1872 

Rev. F. X. Miron has suffered great bereavement in the loss of 
his wife, who died in Clarion County, Pa., April 5th, at the age of 
seventy-six. During fifty-two years of wedded life she had been a 
loyal and capable co-worker with her husband in pioneer fields in 
the middle west and in pastorates in the east. 

The address of Rev. J. H. Shields has been changed from Spo- 
kane, Wash., to 16 3 5 Queen Ann Ave., Seattle, Wash. 

1876 

The address of Rev. J. B. Worrall, D. D., has been changed 
from Vanceburg, Ky., to Ashland, Ky. Dr. Worrall is retiring from 
the active pastorate. 

1878 

Rev. Robert L. Clark, D. D., New Park, Pa., is President of the 
Directorate of the Westiminster Bible Conference which held its 
twenty-seventh annual session at the Retreat, Chestnut Level, Pa., 
June 8-10, 1926. 

1879 

On April 27th, a service in memory of Dr. J. C. R. Ewing was 
held in the Third Presbyterian Church of Pittsburgh. Addresses 
were delivered by Dr. E. D. Lucas, President of Forman Christian 
College; Dr. Charles R. Erdman, Moderator of the General Assem- 
bly; and Dr. Robert E. Speer, Secretary of the Board of Foreign 
Missions. Dr. William L. McEwan, pastor of the church, presided. 
The Board of Foreign Missions has approved the plan to raise a 
"Ewing Memorial Library Fund" of $50,000, to be employed in 
meeting the most essential need of the Forman Christian College 
at Lahore, to which Dr. Ewing gave thirty years of his life. 

1882 

Rev. Wm. O. Thompson, D. D., was elected Moderator of the 
General Assembly at the meeting held in Baltimore, Md., May, 1926. 

1894 

The address of Rev. R. J. Roberts has been changed from 
Homer City, Pa., to Hanoverton, Ohio. 

1895 

Rev. and Mrs, William C. Johnston of the West African Mis- 
sion are home on furlough, having sailed from Liverpool June 19th 
on the S. S. Fonconia. 

36 (226) 



Alumniana 

1896 

The West End Community School for Religious Education 
meets in the Poplar Street Presbyterian Church, Cincinnati, Ohio, 
of which Rev. David A. Greene, D. D. is pastor. This school which 
now has 58 5 children enrolled was founded about four years ago by 
Dr. Greene with an enrollment of twelve children. 

1899 

Rev. A. B. Minamyer has accepted a call to the Presbyt-erian 
Church of West Salem, Ohio. 

1899 (P. G.) 

Rev. E. H. Gelvin's address has been changed from Belling- 
ham,. Wash., to Plainsfield, N. J. 

1900 

Rev. Earle A. Brooks is now professor of field science in the 
School of Religious Education of Boston University, in addition to 
carrying on his pastoral work. He has published an interesting 
book entitled "A Handbook of the Outdoors", the aim of which is to 
make usable, in the building of character, the great field of outdoor 
activities. The volume offers many helpful suggestions to the 
young people of the churches. Mr. Brooks' address has been 
changed from Everett, Mass., to 2 8 Newburg St., Maiden, Mass. 

1906 

A congregational reception, in honor of the pastor, was held in 
the Concord Presbyterian Church, Carrick, Pa., May 12th. The 
pastor is Rev. E. C. Ludwig, and the occasion marked the twen- 
tieth anniversary of his ordination to the ministry. The speakers 
were Dr. C. C. Hays ('84) and Dr. M. M. McDivitt ('07). 

1910 

The First Presbyterian Church of St. Clairsville, Ohio, Rev. 
Homer G. McMillen pastor, has just closed a very successful year. 
During the year there were 63 accessions and the contributions to 
missions amounted to more than $7 500. The present membership 
of this church is 600. 

At the Easter service in the First Presbyterian Church of 
Wilkinsburg, Pa., a new echo organ and chimes were dedicated. 
This addition is the gift of Mr. C. D. Armstrong, president of the 
board of trustees, and was dedicated to his wife. The Easter Com- 
munion was the greatest in the history of the church. Sixty-nine 
new members were received. Additions to the church membership 
during the year numbered 18 6, additions to the Sabbath School 
345. Dr. George Taylor has been pastor of this church the past 
twelve years. Rev. George O. Reemsnyder ('19) is assistant min- 
ister and director of religious education. 



37 (227) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

1912 

The First Presbyterian Church of Sharon, Pa. of which Rev. P^ 
E. Burtt is pastor, has under construction a beautiful new Gothie 
church building. The cornerstone was laid on May 16th, the prin- 
cipal speaker on this occasion being Dr. James H. Snowden, ('78> 
who was at one time pastor of the church. 

1913 

The degree of D. D. was conferred upon Rev. G. A. Frantz by 
Grove City College at the recent Commencement exercises. 

1916 

Figures taken from a three-year summary in a report of the 
treasurer of the First Presbyterian Church of Independence, Iowa. 
(Rev. R. V. Gilbert pastor), showed the average gifts per member 
to be as follows: 1923-4, $16.22; 1924-5, $22.64; 1925-6, $24.30. 

1917 

Rev. Alexander Gibson has resigned his position as chaplain of 
the Pittsburgh Association for the Improvement of the Poor and. 
has since been engaged in evangelistic work under the auspices of 
the Presbytery of Pittsburgh. 

At the spring communion 9 6 members were received into the 
Central Presbyterian Church of McKeesport, Pa., Rev. L. R. Law- 
ther pastor. The yearly report of the finance committee of this con- 
gregation shows that 97.47% of the pledges made last year had 
been paid. 

1918 

Rev. H. A. Gearhart, Ph.D., of Aspinwall, Pa., has prepared 
and made available in printed form an attractive and useful "Com- 
municant's Class Book." 

Rev. and Mrs. Wilbur H. Lyon will return to India after a fur- 
lough of one year, sailing August 18th on the S. S. City of Baroda. 

Owing to the death of Mrs. Ralph I. McConnell, which occurred 
in Pittsblrgh while they were home on furlough, Mr. McConnell 
will not be able to return to Siam for a time at least. He and his 
two young children are at present at New Castle, Pa. (R. D. No. 9). 

1919 

Rev. E. J. Hendrix has accepted a call to the Chestunt Street 
Presbyterian Church of Erie, Pa, For the past year he has been 
studying at the University of Chicago and McCormick Seminary. 
He is unable to return to his mission post in India at present, as the 
Board advises Mrs. Hendrix to remain in this country for a rest. 

A son was born to Rev. and Mrs. J. E. Kidder on May 18th. 
They are to sail for China in company with Rev. and Mrs. D. A. Ir- 
win in August. Mr. Kidder was in residence in the Seminary dur- 
ing his year of furlough pursuing courses here and at the Univer- 

38 (228) 



Alumniana 

sity of Pittsburgh which led to his I'eceiving the A. M. degree at the 
University. 

Rev. W. W. McKinney has declined a call to Sistersville, W. 
Va., yielding to the urgent request of his congregation at Elizabeth, 
Pa., that he remain with them. He has been in this pastorate seven 
years. 

Rev. and Mrs. R. L. Steiner and family have returned to Per- 
sia after a year's furlough spent in the vicinity of Pittsburgh. 

1924 

Rev. Ross M. Haverfield and Miss Margaret Cornelius were 
married June 23, 1926, at the home of the bride's parents, Dr. and 
Mrs. S. A. Cornelius, Wooster, Ohio. Since his graduation Mr. 
Haverfield has been pastor of the Westfield Presbyterian Church, 
Presbytery of Shenango. 

1925 

Miss Esther Aileen Symons and Rev. David K. Allen were mar- 
ried on Wednesday, June 16th, at Adena, Ohio. Mr. Allen, who has 
been pastor of the Presbyterian Church at Mamont, Pa., since his 
graduation a year ago, was the winner of one of the Seminary fel- 
lowships in his class and expects to study abroad for a year. He 
and Mrs. Allen will sail for Scotland early in September. 

Miss Hazel Harriet Home and Rev. George H. Rutherford 
were united in marriage at Steubenville, Ohio, on Monday evening, 
June 19th. Mr. Rutherford is pastor of the Presbyterian Church of 
Dillonvale, Ohio. 

1926 

Rev. John L. Eakin and Miss Louisa W. Temple of Grove City, 
Pa., were married June 1st in Grove City, Pa. They will sail for 
Siam August 2 8th, S. S. President Garfield. 

Rev. Newton Carl Elder and Miss Josephine B. Fernyak of 
Mansfield, Ohio, were married near Darlington, Pa, May 28th and 
will sail for the mission field in Siam on Aug. 2 8th. S. S. President 
Garfield. 

Rev. James H. Gillespie was ordained and installed assistant 
pastor of the Tacoma Park Presbyterian Church on June 18th. 
192 6. His address is 310 Tulip Ave., Tacoma Park, D. C. 



39 (229) 



Index 

Vol. XVIII Oct., 192G — July, 1926 

ARTICLES 

Athens of. Socrates' and the Athens of St. Paul, The 5 

Albert J. Alexander 

Ewing, Rev. James Caruthersi Rhea 21 

James A. Kelso 

Some Reconsiderations of the Ministry 19 5 

Harris E. Kirk 

Some New and Recent Books llTi 

Dr. Kelso 115 

Dr. Culley 119 

Dr. Vance 147 

Dr. Eakin 156 

Dr. Snowden 173 

Dr. Farmer 177 

Mr. LeSourd 183 



REVIEWS 

Archaeology and the iBible — By Geo. A. Barton 122 

Babj'lonian Life and History — Ey E. A. Wallis Budge 12 5 

Best Sermons — 1925 — Edited by Joseph Fort Newton, D.D., 

Lltt.D 181 

Books of the Prophets Micah, Obadiah, Joel, and Jonah, The — 

By G. W. Wade 144 

Cambridge Ancient History Vol. Ill 13 7 

Century of Excavation in Palestine, A — By R. A. S. Macalister . 123 

Church's Program for Young People, The — By Herbert Carle- 
ton Mayer 18 5 

Contributions of Science to Religion — )B(y Shailer Mathews .... 176 

Current Week-day Religious Education — By Phillip Henry Lotz 184 

Curriculum of Religious Education, The — By William Clayton 

Bower . 184 

Date of the Exodus, The — By J. W. Jack 139 

Devotional Leadership — By Gerrit Verkuyl, Ph.D., D.D 179 

40 (230) 



Index 

Egyptian Papyri and Papyrus-Hunting — By James Baikie .... 12.". 

First Age of Christianity, The — iBy Ernest F. Scott, D.D 172 

Gold Dollar, A — By Joseph M. Duff 116 

Gospel of John, The — By Benjamin W. Robinson 1.5 

Handbook of the Outdoors, A — By Earle Amos Brooks 184 

Heart of Aryavarta, The — By The Earl of Ronaldshay 118 

History and Literature of the New Testament, The — iBy Henry 

.Thatcher Fowler, Ph.D 171 

History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christen- 
dom, A — By Andrew Dickson White 173 

How to Teach the Old Testament — By Frederick J. Rae 14 6 

Introduction to the Textual Criticism of the New Testament, 

An — By A. T. Robertson, M.A., D.D., LL.D., Litt.D ' 147 

Israel and Babylon — By W. L. Wardle 12.5 

Jeremiah and the New Covenant — By W. F. Lofthouse 144 

Jesus and the Greeks, or Early Christianity in the Tide-Way of 

Hellenism — iBy William Fairweather, M.A., D,D 153 

Jesus of Nazareth His. Life, Times, and Teaching — By Joseph 

Klausuer, Ph.D 16.5 

Letters of William James, The — By Henry James 175 

Life, Letters and Religion of St. Paul, The — By C T. Wood. 

B.D ; 152 

Making of the English New Testament, The — By Edgar J. 

Gcodspeed 149 

Manual, The, The Presbyterian Program for Young People .... 185 

Minister's Everday Life, The — By Lloyd C. Douglas ISO 

Mystery Religions and Christianity, The — By S. Angus, Ph.D-, 

DLitt., D.D 154 

Origin of the New Testament, and the Most Important Conse- 
quences of the New Creation, The — By Adolf von Har- 
nack 148 

Outline of Christianity, An — The Story of Our Civilization. 
Vol. I. The Birth of Christianity — By Ernest Fiudlay 
Scott, D.D., and Burton Scott Easton, Ph.D., D.D.; Vol. II. 
The Builders of the Church — Bv F. J. Foakes Jackson, 
D.D 170 

People and the Book, The — Edited by A. S. Peake 128 

Poetry of Our Lord, The — By C. F. Burney 144 

Principles of Publicity — By Glenn C. Quiett and Ralph D. Casey 178 

Putting it Across — By William H. Leach, Ph.D 177 

Reasonableness of Christianity, The — By Douglas Clyde Mac- 
intosh 161 

Religion of the People of Israel, The — By Rudolf Kittel 141 

41 (231) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Religion of Yesterday and To-morrow, The — By Kirsopp Lake, 

D.D 156 

Sacrifice in the Old Testament — By Geo. B. Gray 145 

St. Mark — By A. B. J. Rawlinson .- 169 

Science and the Modern World — By Alfred North Whitehead . . 176 

Science and Scientists in the Nineteenth Century — By Rev. 

Robert H. Murray 174 

Science Religion and Reality — (various authors) Edited by 

Joseph Needham 176 

Teaching the Youth of the Church- — By Cynthia Pearl Maus . . 183 

Through Eternal Spirit, A Study of Hebrews, James and I Peter 

— By Joseph F. McFadyen, M.A., D.D 151 

Twenty-Five Years, 1892-1916 — By Viscount Grey of Fallodon. 117 

Use of the Old Testament in the Light of Modern Knowledge, 

The — By John E. McFadyen 146 



MISCELLANEOUS 

Alumniana 26, 186, 226 

Catalogue 37 

Commencement Address 195 

Faculty Notes 25, 225 

Financial Report 223 

Graduating Class, The 207 

Librarian's Report 219 

Necrology 3 3 

President's Report 208 



42 (232) 



The Balletin 

oi tke 

tfesterD Theologieal 
Seminapy 




Vol. XIX. OcToBBR, 1926. No. 1. 



The Western Theological Seminary 

North Side. Pittsburgh. Pa. 

POUNDED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY, 1825 

The faculty consists of eight professors and three 
instructors. A complete modern theological curricnlmn, 
with elective courses leading to degrees of S.T.B. and 
S.T.M, Graduate courses of the University of Pitts- 
burgh, leading to the degrees of A.M. and Ph.D., are 
open to properly qualified students of the Seminary. A 
s^pecial course is offered in Practical Christian Ethics, in 
which students investigate the problems of city missions, 
settlement work, and other forms of Christian activity. 
A new department of Religious Education was inaugu- 
rated with the opening of the term beginning September 
1922. The City of Pittsburgh affords unusual opportuni- 
ties for the study of social problems. 

The students have exceptional library facilities. The 
Seminary Library of 40,000 volumes contains valuable 
collections of works in all departments of Theology, but 
is especially rich in Exegesis and Church History; the 
students also have access to the Carnegie Library, -which 
is situated within five minutes' walk of the Seminary 
buildings. 

A post-graduate fellowship of $600 is annually 
awarded the member of the graduating class who has the 
highest rank and who has spent three years in the insti- 
tution. 

Two entrance prizes, each of $150, are awarded on 
the basis of a competitive examination to college gradu- 
ates of high rank. 

All the public buildings of the Seminary are new. 
The dormitory was dedicated May 9, 1912, and is 
equipped with the latest modern improvements, includ- 
ing gymnasium, social hall, and students* commons. The 
group consisting of a new Administration Building and 
Library was dedicated May 4, 1916. Competent judges 
have pronounced these buildings the handsomest struc- 
tures architecturally in the City of Pittsburgh, and un- 
surpassed either in beauty or equipment by any other 
group of buildings devoted to theological education in 
the United States. 

For further information, address 

President James A. Kelso, 
North Side, Pittsburgh, Pa. 



THE BULLETIN 



-OF THE- 



Western Theologieal SeminaFy 



A Review Devoted to tke Interests of 
Theological Education 



Published quarterly in January, April, July, and October, by tbe 
Trustees of tbe Western Tbeological Seminary of tbe Presbyterian Cburcb 
in the United States of America. 



Edited by tbe President with tbe co-operation of tbe Faculty. 

dnnfenta 

Page 
The Opening of the Centenary Year 5 

The Personality of God: A defence 6 

Rev. A. K. Rule, Ph.D. 

Centennial Fund Campaign 26 

An Open Letter 28 

Rev. Geo. Taylor, Jr., Ph.D , D.D. 

The Elliott Lectures 30 

Faculty Notes 31 

Alumniana 32 

In Memoriam 40 

Necrology . . . 41 



Communications for the Editor and all business matters should be 
addressed to 

REV. JAMES A. KELSO. 

T31 Ridge Ave., N. S., Pittsburgh, Pa. 



75 cents a vear. Single Number 25 cents. 



Each author is solely responsible for the views expressed in his article. 



Entered as second-class matter December 9, 1909, at the postoffice at Pittsburgh, Pa. 
(North Side Station) under the act of August 24, 1912. 



Press of 

pittsburgh printing company 

pittsburgh, pa, 

1926 



Faculty 



The Eev. JAMES A. KELSO, Ph. D., D. D., LL. D., 

President and Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Literature 
The Nathaniel W. Conkling Foundation 

The Kev. DAVID RIDDLE BREED, D. D., LL. D. 

Professor of Homiletics 

The Rev. WILLIAM R. FARMER, D. D. 

Reunion Professor of Sacred Rhetoric and Elocution 

The Rev. JAMES H. SNOWDEN, D. D., LL. D. 

Professor of Apologetics 

The Rev. SELBY FRAME VANCE, D. D.^ LL. D. 

Memorial Professor of New Testament Literature and Exegesis 

The Rev. DAVID E. CULLEY, Ph. D., D. D. 

Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Literature 

The Rev. FRANK EAKIN, Ph. D. 

Professor of Ecclesiastical History and History of Doctrine 



Prof. aEORGE M. SLEETH, Litt. D. 

Instructor in Elocution 

Mr. CHARLES N. BOYD 

Instructor in Hymnology and Music 

Rev. WILLIAM H. ORR, S. T. M., 

Instructor in Systematic Theology 

Rev. CHARLES A. McCREA, D. D., 

Instructor in Greek 



The Bulletin 



of the 



WESTERN THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 

Vol. XIX. October, 1926 No. i 



The Opening of the Centenary Year 

The Centenary term of the Western Theological 
Seminary opened Tuesday, September 21st, with the 
registration of students. The customary address at the 
beginning of the academic year was delivered by the 
Eev. Andrew K. Eule, Ph. D., Professor of Biblical Li- 
terature and Philosophy in Illinois College, Jackson- 
ville, 111. Dr. Rule discussed the Personality of God in 
a closely reasoned and philosophical presentation. A 
large and appreciative audience of students, ministers, 
and friends of theological education greeted the lec- 
turer. We are printing the lecture in full in this num- 
ber of the Bulletin, and we commend it to our readers 
as a strong defence of a fundamental doctrine of Chris- 
tian faith. The enrollment for the current term is grati- 
fying. The popularity of the post-graduate courses is 
attested by an enrollment of 24 graduate students. Most 
of the men in this group are ministers who are candi- 
dates for the degree of S. T. M. A year's residence 
with twelve credits and a thesis constitute the minimum 
requirement for this degree. The enrollment in the 
other classes is as follows: Fellows, 5; Seniors, 20; Mid- 
dlers, 9 ; Juniors, 15 ; the total enrollment being 73. 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 
The Personality of God: A Defence , 

Rev. A. K. RULE, Ph. D. 

''Tlie feeling of dependence in religion is akin to 
the dependence which man feels toward other human 
beings who may help or harm him, and this feeling is 
present in religion, even in the cases wdiere the religious 
agency is not attributed to or identified with a personal 
being." 

That is quoted from Wright's recent volume, A Stu- 
dent's Philosophy of Religion^ It is loart of an attempt 
to arrive at a purely descriptive, as distinct from a nor- 
mative, definition of religion. AYright finds its genus in 
the endeavour "to secure the conservation of socially 
recognized values", and the differentia is to be found 
in the type of agency involved and the consequent atti- 
tude of the religious subject. The agency, in brief, is 
always in some sense personal and superhuman. How- 
ever one may evaluate Wright's definition as a whole, 
we may agree that his location of the differentia of reli- 
gion goes to the heart of the matter. It is probably im- 
possible, historically, to draw a hard and fast line be- 
tween religion, in its lower manifestations, and magic, 
but the distinction in thought is clear enough. In so far 
as desired results are sought from a power that is con- 
ceived mechanically and regarded as subject to the con- 
trol of man we have magic; in so far as the object is 
thought of as personal and as superior to man's control 
we have religion. The personality of God, we shall there- 
fore claim, is the calm assumption of the religious con- 
sciousness. It is to this assumption that we wish to in- 
vite your attention. In the time allotted, our treatment 
must, of course, be sketchy and inadequate. We shall not 
attempt to make a formal definition of the terms "per- 
son" and "personality", though certain of the definitive 
elements will be indicated. But we shall endeavour to 
use the term "person" in its ordinary sense except in so 

1. p. 46. 



The Personality of God : A Defence 

far as it is modified in the course of our discussion, and 
when we refer to "the personality of God" we shall 
mean, not His force of character, but the fact that He is 
a person. Our procedure will be as follows. We shall 
notice, first, three types of thought which by their essen- 
tial nature are hostile to the personality of God; then we 
shall consider two specific objections. Having dealt with 
these, we shall briefly marshal the evidence in favor of 
belief in the personality of God. 

In striking contrast with the assurance of religion 
as to the personality of God is the conflict of philosophic 
opinion on the subject. On the face of it, this conflict 
would seem to throw doubt on religion, by suggesting 
that religion essentially makes unscrutinized demands 
which reflection finds it hard, if not impossible, to con- 
cede; but an adequate discussion of the philosophy of 
personality would show, we are convinced, that it is only 
when she is not true to her own best self that philosophy 
finds the demand of religion impossible to grant. That 
the subject of personality has problems of its own we 
readily admit, but these are quite unnecessarily aug- 
mented when philosophy fails to possess the whole of her 
domain. In particular, two tendencies in philosophy 
have caused unnecessary trouble in this discussion. One 
is the tendency of the mechanical sciences to impose their 
forms of thought upon the whole field of reflection to the 
exclusion of those of the distinctively human sciences 
and the arts — a tendency which may be briefly character- 
ized as materialistic; the other is the monistic or panthe- 
istic tendency, a tendency of philosophy to become so 
enamoured of her own principle of unity as to lose sight 
of the manifold which is at once the beginning and the 
goal of thought. 

There is no room in materialism for the concept of 
personality. It simply does not belong there, because 
personality is not a materialistic category. It is there- 
fore not surprising that Democritus, the first thorough- 
going materialist, unless it be Parmenides, just smashed 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

the soul to atoms, denied immortality and teleology, and 
maintained toward religion an attitude of studied indif- 
ference. But what is obviously true of Democritus, with 
his charming Greek frankness, is just as certainly true 
of all materialism, whether, like the fabled ass — a good, 
though not very complimentary analogy — it masquerade 
in the lion's skin of evolution, or with an amusing self- 
assurance that is quite common at present, it act the 
oracle from the pages of a psychology textbook. The 
materialist sacrifices on the altar of a spurious simplicity 
not only the personality of God but also the personality 
of the person who makes the sacrifice. In so far, there- 
fore, as thought is dominated by materialistic presup- 
positions, it necessarily finds itself unfriendly to the per- 
sonality of God. But it need hardly be remarked that 
materialism is as bad philosophy as it is bad religion; — 
bad because it shuts its eyes to so much that experience 
vouches, for, bad because, like some labour organizations, 
it levels down instead of up. 

That pantheistic tendencies are also inimical to per- 
sonality the history of pantheism makes abundantly evi- 
dent. The subject is extremely broad, but we have time 
to notice only its leading stream in modem western 
thought. As a moralist and psychologist, Spinoza was 
forced to ascribe some reality to finite persons, but in his 
metaphysics he all but loses them. His substance is, as 
Hegel put it, the lion's den to which all paths lead and 
from which none return. And this Substance or God, 
I which swallows up finite persons, is not itself personal. 

In His modal nature, God may be said to contain per- 
sonality, for, to quote Joachim, "so far as any human 
properties express reality, they must be absorbed in 
God's completeness "^ But personality may not be pred- 
icated of God in His absolute being. Fichte's funda- 
mental moralism also compels him to ascribe reality to 
finite persons, and from this position he does not waver 
as Spinoza does. But his Absolute Ego is an entirely 
unconscious being, or else its reality consists in that of 

2. Ethics of Spinoza, p. 124. 



The Personality of God: A Defence 

the individual egos. God, for him, at least in the later 
stages of his thought, is merely the moral order of the 
universe. Fichte's religious instincts, however, forced 
their way through the logical fence which strove to con- 
fine them, and in "The Vocation of Man" he addressed 
the ''Sublime and Living Will" in clearly theistic terms. 
Hegel's persistent tendency, and perhaps his final result, 
is to resolve reality into thought without a thinker, but 
the conception of a divine consciousness plays an impor- 
tant part in his system for all that. However, the essen- 
tial interdependence of God and the world, in Hegel's 
thinking, drives him to the dilemma that either history 
is illusory, time being unreal, or the divine consciousness 
is not eternally complete. In all the followers of Hegel 
personality is at best a struggling concept. This fact is 
very patent in Green. In his thinking the individual self 
seems to be lost in the universal self, which somehow, in 
relation to these finite selves, loses its "timeless unity". 
On the other hand, as one studies the eternal ego, though 
Green does refer to it as "an Eternal Self-consciousness", 
one is bound to sympathise with the comment of Francis 
Patton, "I am not always sure whether T. H. Green was 
a theist or a pantheist, whether he regarded God as a 
person or a principle, a reality or an abstraction "^ 
Bradley has equal difficulty with the concept of person- 
ality. On the one hand, he is quite certain that the Abso- 
lute, while it possesses personality, is itself super-per- 
sonal; he also insists that "the plurality of souls in the 
Absolute is appearance, and their existence is not gen- 
uine"*. But, on the other hand, he admits that "to know 
the universe, we must fall -back upon our personal experi- 
ence and sensation '^ In his Gifford Lectures, Bosanquet 
well illustrates the struggle to which we have referred. 
He wavers continually between the view that the mould- 
ing of individual souls is the typical business of the uni- 
verse and the opposite position that the "formal distinct- 
ness" of finite souls is an appearance due to "im- 



3. Pundamental Christianity, p. 39. 

4. Appeaxance and Reality, p. 305. 

5. Ibid., p. 206. 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

potence ' ' ; and he at least leaves it doubtful whether ' ' the 
absolute experience possesses the centrality or focalized 
unity which is the characteristic of a self"®. Pringle- 
Pattison was once a neo-Hegelian, but he has broken 
away from the school. He is definitely a theist. He in- 
sists that if we are to keep the name God at all, then an 
existence of God for Himself, analogous to our own per- 
sonal existence, is an essential element of the conception, 
and he regards the reality of finite centres of experience 
as "the very essence and open secret of the Absolute 
life"^ Pringie-Pattison's position may be regarded as 
the ultimate self-criticism of neo-Hegelianism. 

Agnosticism cannot consistently deny, but it is equ- 
ally unable to permit us to affirm, the personality of God. 
Spencer expressly declared that "duty requires us 
neither to affirm nor deny personality "^ Kant's limita- 
tion of the categories to the materials of sense-experi- 
ence led to Hamilton's doctrine that all the objects of 
knowledge are conditioned. This doctrine grew into the 
explicit religious Agnosticism of Mansel and Spencer. 
To know, so the argument runs, is to condition; but God 
is essentially unconditioned; therefore, knowledge of God 
would involve the self-contradictor}- feat of conditioning 
the essentially unconditioned. God is the unknowable. 
This being so, the ascription of personality to God is 
illegitimate. It is easy to reply that, in that case, God 
must not even be named or thought about. The very 
name would be meaningless. If the word is to have any 
meaning, some attributes must be predicated of God and 
meaning, some attributes must be predicated of God, 
and Orr very properly asks why we should shrink from 
the attribute of personality any more than from that of 
cause^. When we say that God is the unconditioned we 
merely wish to deny that there are any necessary ex- 
ternal conditions. Spencer himself speaks of a relation 
between the Non-relative and the Relative. And surely 

6. Pringle-Pattison, Idea of God, p. 271. 

7. Ibid., p. 277. 

8. Orr. The Christian View of God and the World, p . 101, n. 5. 

9. Ibid., 104 

10 



The Personality of God: A Defence 

he was bound to do so. When he asserts that reason is 
compelled to affirm the existence of an Absolute Being 
as the ground and cause of the universe, and then de- 
nies that we can form a conception of the nature of this 
being, surely he is involved in contradiction. Surely 
the affirmation ikai something exists involves some 
knowledge of ivhat it is that exists ; and if we have some 
knowledge of the what of God, then, though God is the 
unknowable in the sense that He is too great for us to 
know adequately. He cannot be unknowable in the sense 
that, as Huxley put it, a knowledge of Him is "theoret- 
ically inconceivable". A more illuminating answer to 
Agnosticism must involve a refutation of its epistem.o- 
logical foundations; but, in our day, that should not be 
difficult. These views are based on what was intended 
as a vivisection of knowledge that really became a dis- 
section, and the dissevered fragments simply will not 
reunite. Such a system, of course, was quite unable to 
maintain itself. Spencer's was not really an Agnostic 
system at all. It has been well said that he gives us a 
remarkable amount of information about his unknow- 
able. His most ardent follower, John Fiske, what is 
more, has had to work through the position to an ex- 
plicit theism. In the preface to his little book, "The 
Idea of God", he rejects as a serious misstate- 
ment of his position Pollock's assertion that "Mr. 
Fiske 's doctrine excludes the belief in a so-called per- 
sonal God, and the particular forms of religious emotion 
dependent on it". After endeavouring to show that this 
is a misstatement, Fiske continues, "Always bearing in 
mind the symbolic character of the words, we may say 
that 'God is Spirit'. How my belief in the personality 
of God could be more strongly expressed without entirely 
deserting the language of modern philosophy and taking 
refuge in pure mythology, I am unable to see". Here 
we have a denial of Agnosticism by itself. Our belief 
in the personality of God, therefore, need not be disturbed 
by Agnosticism. 

11 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

One of the oldest of the specific objections to the per- 
sonality of God may be expressed in the one word, anthro- 
pomorphism. It is at least as old as Xenophanes. ''If 
oxen and lions had hands," he said, "and could paint 
with their hands, and fashion images, as men do, they 
would make the pictures and images of their Gods in 
their own likeness; horses would make them like horses, 
oxen like oxen. Ethiopians make their gods black and 
snub-nosed; Thracians give theirs blue eyes and red 
hair ". Ever since that time the charge has been made 
that, instead of God making man in His own image, man 
has made God in his. Indeed the term anthropomor- 
phism has become with some thinkers something of a bo- 
gy. Like a lot of the popular delusions, this attitude is 
amusingly illustrated by Mrs. Eddie. She will permit 
us to say that God is a person, but not, she adds, in any 
anthropomorphic sense of the term^°. What sense, other 
than the anthropomorphic, this term might have I can- 
not imagine, and her contrast of the anthropomorphic 
with the scientific sense does not help because I cannot 
find a definition of the latter. In the hands of a writer 
like Feuerbach this attitude to anthropomorphism ex- 
presses itself as atheism. For him, God is mereW the 
projection of our ego into the infinite. There is, of course, 
an element of value in this suspicion of anthropomor- 
phism, for God certainly transcends our best thought 
about Him, and it is to be feared that the popular work- 
ing-conception of God falls far below the Westminster 
Cathechism's definition. From this point of view, it is 
not hard to understand why such eminent thinkers as 
Spinoza, von Hartmann, Spencer, Bradley, Bosanquet, 
and others want to say that God transcends personality 
or is superpersonal. With such a desire to exalt God the 
Christian must be in profound sympathy, but at the same 
time he cannot agree with the way in wdiich the exalta- 
tion is expressed. It is easy enough to say that God is 
superpersonal, and even to know what is meant, as long 

10. Science and Health, p. 336. 

12 



The Personality of God : A Defence 

as that adjective is defined formally. But when an at- 
tempt is made to render it more explicit, the impossibility 
of the task becomes at once apparent. And the reason is 
obvious. The highest categories we have are anthro- 
pomorphic, and we are therefore shut up to only three 
possibilities. We may refuse to think of God at all and 
be atheists ; or we may think of Him in anthropomorphic 
terms; or we may think of Him in terms that are less 
adequate than the anthropomorphic. To admit that our 
best terminology is inadequate to the grandeur of God is 
not to say that it does not express truth as far as it goes; 
and as a matter of fact those who call God Principle are 
not as free of the dreaded anthropomorphism as they 
imagine. For, by Principle, they probably mean, not a 
very general mathematical formula, which is the mean- 
ing of the term- in science, but the real Force which the 
scientific formula may be supposed to represent. But, 
as Fiske well says, "our notion of Force is purely a gen- 
eralization from our subjective sensations of effort over- 
coming resistance", and so "there is scarcely less anthro- 
pomorphism lurking in the phrase 'Infinite Power' than 
in the phrase 'Infinite Person' "". The contention of 
Xenophanes is superficially brilliant, but not very pro- 
found. For these imagined lions of his would need, in 
order to be able to paint pictures and make images, not 
only the hands but also the mentality of man. Then, 
when they made their Gods in their own likeness, they 
might endow them with lion-shaped bodies, but they 
would also ascribe to them mental powers which, because 
like their own, would be like man 's. And, having human 
intelligence, might they not presently come to see that 
God is a Spirit, the lion-shaped body having fallen out 
of the conception and only the anthropomorphic spirit 
remaining? In short, would the^^ not also conceive their 
Gods anthropomorphically ? The argument of Xeno- 
phanes will convince only those Avho are superficial 
enough to believe that the sole necessary equipment of 

11. Idea of God, p. xvi. 

13 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

the artist is a pair of hands. Pringle-Pattison states our 
position in a nut-shell when he writes, "Nothing can he 
more certain than that all philosophical explanation must 
be explanation of the lower by the higher, and not vice 
versa, and if self-consciousness is the highest fact we 
know, then we are justified in using," — he might have 
said, "we are bound to use", — "the conception of self- 
consciousness as our best key to the ultimate nature of 
existence as a whole "^^ 

Perhaps the chief specific objection that philosophy 
has raised to the personality of God arises from the con- 
viction that personality and infinity are mutually repug- 
nant terms. "For me", says Bradley, "a person is finite 
or is meaningless". But why? Among popular thinkers 
one often meets with the conviction that the body is an 
essential element in our personality, and this belief, 
strangely enough, is not unknown in the sphere of more 
instructed thought. It seems to me that James is really 
guilty of it in his Ingersoll Lectures on Human Immor- 
tality, where he curiously subscribes to the doctrine of 
Platonic realism to the extent of making humanity more 
real than human individuals, and compares the relation 
of the latter to the former with that of the coloured lights 
to a unitary stream of sunlight out of which they are 
broken by a stained-glass window. Green suggests that 
our consciousness may be a function of the animal organ- 
ism; the same suggestion is found in Schopenhauer and 
von Hartmann, and I seem to remember that even Bosan- 
quet would like to use this conception. It is, of course, 
a necessary conclusion for those psychologists who think 
to find a facile explanation of proper psychological prob- 
lems by exclusive reference to the brain. If this con- 
ception be granted, then we cannot think of God as a 
person without ascribing to Him a body, which would be 
necessarily finite. In answer it is enough to say that 
the assumption here is entirely w^ithout warrant in fact. 
There is no reason w^hatever for the belief that spirit is 

12. Hegelianism and Personality, p. 89. 

14 



The Personality of God : A Defence 

per se structureless and diffused, or that mind is more 
dependent on matter than matter is on mind. Further, 
this view cannot escape the objections which, as we have 
already seen, inhere in all materialism. 

But the main reason for the belief that personality 
involves finitude is that it involves self-consciousness; 
and this seems to depend on the opfjosition of ego and 
non-ego. It was Kant who laid the foundation for this 
contention by his doctrine of the mutual dependence of 
the unity of apperception and the knowable object of 
which it is the synthesis. Fichte builds his system on 
the idea that the self becomes conscious of itself only as 
its outgoing activity is reflected back by the opposition 
of the not-self which it creates. Schelling holds that to 
say that the absolute reason is beyond the opposition of 
subject and object is to say that it is entirely without 
attributes, and Hegel insists that it is only in this opposi- 
tion that the Absolute exists. It is a commonplace of 
modern Idealism that knowledge is the Avhole in separa- 
tion from which both subject and object are mere ab- 
stractions. If this be so, how can the infinite God be 
self-conscious? And, in the absence of self-conscious- 
ness, how is personality possible? 

In the face of this contention, it might seem prefer- 
able to give up, not the personality, but the infinity of 
God. The list of those who have subscribed to the fini- 
tude of God includes such well-known names as H. G. 
Wells, John Stuart Mill, James, Howison, and even such 
an exponent and respresentative of Christianity as Canon 
KashdalP'. The moment we surrender the infinity of God 
the argument based on His infinity falls to the ground. 
Patton says that 'Hhe doctrine of a finite God opens the 
way to a recrudescence of polytheism except in so far as 
the order of the world would put a veto on this hypoth- 
esis"". This danger does not impress me as at all 
imminent, but there is a much more serious danger in the 
theory of a finite God. It is, in brief, that such a belief, 

13. cf. Merrington. The Problem of Personality. 

14. Fundamental Christianity, p. 62. 

15 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

while it might, as James thought, have a certain appeal 
to the moral heroism of some, and might seem, as most 
of its supporters contend, to vindicate God of responsi- 
bility for evil, would undermine moral and spiritual 
assurance and open the way to hopelessness and despair. 
Before agreeing to give up the infinity of God in the 
interests of His personality, we would be Avell advised 
to attempt to defend both. 

Here it is time to remember that Lotze has consider- 
ably changed the complexion of this discussion by his 
suggestion that, instead of personality and infinity being 
mutually repugnant, jDersonality is essentially infinite. 
Admitting that the non-ego is an inseparable factor in 
our self-consciousness, he yet suggests that the non-ego, 
instead of being a producing cause, is really a limitation 
of our personality, and its necessity in our case is due 
to our relation, as finite, to the system of finite things. 
Personalit}^, he says, "is an ideal, which, like all ideals, 
belongs only to the Infinite as unconditioned, but to us, 
as every good, is only given as conditioned and therefore 
imperfect". This amounts to the suggestion that the 
Absolute Idealists have mistaken an accident of our per- 
sonality for an essential condition of personality as such, 
and, as far as I know, no one has been able to show that 
Lotze is wrong. McTaggart thinks to refute him by 
pointing out that there are other self-contained realities 
that are not, for that reason, persons^°. This Lotze may 
cheerfully admit, for it does not afi:'ect his contention. 
He is not using the self-dependence of God as a proof 
of His personality, — for this he has other considerations 
to rely on; but his contention is that self-dependence may 
be one of the conditions of perfect personality — a very 
different thing. McTaggart 's contention is probably true 
in a measure, but it is irrelevant. In point of fact, I be- 
lieve, Lotze is correct. Personality in us is imperfect, 
and the conditions of personality as such obtain in their 
essence only in God. On the basis of this insight, how- 

15. Hegelian Cosmology, 79-84. 

16 



The Personality of God : A Defence 

ever, Lotze goes on to say that reasoning should move 
from the personality of God to personality in us, and not 
in the opposite direction. This, it seems to me, would 
be an impossible procedure, for it would violate the essen- 
tial principle that we must reason from the known to the 
unknown. By this I would not be understood as con- 
ceding that our knowledge of God in general is purely 
inferential, and that in particular our knowledge of His 
personality is merely an inference from our own person- 
ality; my position in this matter will be made clear pres- 
ently. But it does seem to be true that we have in our- 
selves the clearest and surest knowledge of personality 
and its conditions, and that, therefore, where we know 
it best, personality is conditioned on finitude. 

We, therefore, shall bear in mind the fact that per- 
sonality in us is imperfect, and shall be careful not to 
include an accidens in the definition; but we shall not 
attempt the procedure which Lotze suggested. However, 
it still is not difficult for us to guard the personality of 
God against those whose objection we are considering. 
Let it be granted that, as they contend, limitation of ego 
by non-ego is essential to self -consciousness; it would 
follow that the Infinite could not be self-conscious only 
if, b}^ the Infinite, we mean the All. This assumption is 
by no means uncommon, but surely the fallacy is obvious. 
Cannot a straight line be infinite without being the whole 
universe? And cannot we believe in the infinity of God 
without being pantheists! Surely God could be infinite, 
and there still be a whole universe to serve as a non-ego 
to Him. This answer sufficiently refutes the objection 
we are considering, for it shows that its suppressed pre- 
mise is untenable; but it is not quite adequate for our 
purpose, for it would lead us to consequences all of which 
are unsatisfactory. For if the non-ego which, on this 
theory, makes God's personality possible is something 
outside of Him, then we would have to believe either in 
some form of ultimate dualism like Martineau's, or in an 
eternal creative activity on God's part, as Origen and 

17 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Lotze did, in order to hold that God is eternally a per- 
son; or else we would have to conclude, with Fichte, that, 
to put it crudely, God became a person when His creative 
activity began. Each of these positions has difficuties of 
its own, and they all fall under the condemnation of mak- 
ing God dependent on the world. If we are to grant that 
the opposition of ego and non-ego is essential to person- 
ality, w^e will have to find that opposition as an eternal 
fact within the being of God. And here the profound 
philosophic importance of the Christian doctrine of the 
Trinity makes itself manifest. If that doctrine be true, 
and I believe that even apart from special revelation some 
support for it may be found, then within the Godhead 
there is eternally enough of the distinction of ego and 
non-ego to make personality possible. 

We may feel safe, therefore, in the conclusion that 
the personality of God is philosophically possible; what 
reason is there for believing in its actuality? The theistic 
proofs suggest themselves. Amongst the traditional 
proofs the cosmological establishes merely the eternal 
existence of something without further characterizing 
this something. In its simplest form it merely urges 
that because something contingently exists, therefore 
something necessarily exists. It has to leave to some 
other kind of reasoning the determination of the nature 
of a necessary existence, and the justification of its con- 
tingent starting point lies strictly outside itself. If the 
self be regarded as its point of departure, and the popular 
conception of causation be granted, then this argument 
might, of itself, prove the personality of God; but the 
course of philosophic discussion since Descartes has 
shown that both the existence of a soul and the validity 
of the popular conception of causation are no mean 
assumptions. The teleological proof, on the contrary, 
essentially involves the personality of God, for, if valid, 
it establishes the existence of a universal plan-maker. 
The validity of this proof has often been called in ques- 
tion. Spinoza most emphatically preferred the arbitrary 

18 



The Personality of God : A Defence 

voluntarism of the Scotists to the doctrine of teleology, 
which, he thought, would, with no stronger justification 
than an appeal ad ignorantiam, subject God to fate and 
involve His imperfection. Hume's brilliant dialogues 
searched every nook and cranny of the argument; Kant 
sought to show that its validity rests on that of the 
ontological argument which he regarded as fallacious. 
But he paid it great respect, for all that, and, while re- 
ducing its claims, granted that it is "the oldest, clearest, 
and most in conformity with human reason". It has 
sometimes been treated as if its sole claim rested on such 
incidental adaptions as the fitness of cork-bark for mak- 
ing stoppers for bottles, and in this form it has been held 
up to ridicule. The theory of evolution was once re- 
garded by friend and foe alike as finally handing to 
mechanism what had previously been thought of as the 
impregnable stronghold of teleology; but to date the re- 
sult has been just the reverse. More and more mechan- 
ism has been subordinated, and the place of purpose 
deepened and extended. But, if there is purpose in 
Nature, there must be a personal cause operative in 
Nature; and the unity of the plan demands the unity of 
the cause. Let it be freely granted that this argument 
does not prove all that we wish to prove about God; 
admit also that it is not as strong as we would like, — it 
is a confirmation rather than a proof; still it goes a long 
way toward proving the existence of a personal God. The 
ontological proof properly takes a personal form also. 
In the Anselmic fonnulation of it, it starts from the idea 
of God as that than which nothing greater can be con- 
ceived, and the term "greater" would undoubtedly be 
given a personalistic definition by Anselm. The Cartesian 
form based itself on the concept of the ens perfectissi- 
mum, but the prevalent tendency of the Cartesians to- 
ward a confusion of perfectissimiim with realissiimim 
caused the personalistic element to be submerged. The 
underlying moment of the ontological argument is the 
congruity, involved in the fact of knowledge, between 

19 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

the presuppositions of thought and the constitutive prin- 
ciples of realit}^ This would seem to justify an inference 
from us as persons to the existence of a personal God. 
It is a deep insight that these three theoretic proofs must 
be woven into a unitary, cumulative argument, and not 
presented as though they were separate and independent. 
In such a unitary argument the presence of the teleolog- 
ical and ontological strands would necessitate belief in 
the personality of God. 

To these must be added, of course, the moral proof 
which, since Kant's advocacy of it, has often been re- 
garded as the most compelling. Here we are on definitely 
personalistic ground. The argument has been formu- 
lated in various ways, but its essence is that moral ex- 
perience points beyond itself to the existence of a 
supreme moral Person. There can be little doubt that 
here too we have a necessary movement of the mind, the 
rejection of which would entail serious consequences for 
thought. 

But the best reason for belief in the personality of 
God is to be found in religion itself. It is usually assumed 
by philosophers that religion can validate itself, if at all, 
only in terms of some other kind of experience. But 
surely this assumption is invalid. The history of science 
will illustrate ' my argument. At one time the demand 
was that biological facts take the forms of mathematico- 
physics, and one of the great attractions of Lotze's works 
is the clearness w^ith which they reveal the hopeless 
struggle of biology to conform to this limiting assump- 
tion. It has now come to be acknowdedged that a pre- 
supposition of biology has as much claim on us as a 
presupposition of mathematics. Indeed Bergson, for one, 
would grant it immeasurably more claim. Kant brought 
himself at last to admit, what his fundamental moral 
interests should have caused him to see from the first, 
that the presuppositions of morality have their rights 
along side of those of physics. Similarly, we contend, 
and in doing so we are in harmony w^ith the practice of 

20 



The Personality of God: A Defence 

theologians generally, that the presuppositions of reli- 
gious experience are as valid as any, and that a sound 
philosophy simply must find room for them. We do not 
overlook the obvious fact that the ideal of thought is a 
harmonious unity of all truth in which propositions 
which now seem to conflict find their place; but that 
ideal lies far ahead. Our contention is that, if, in the 
present imperfection of the system of knowledge, the 
necessary claims of religion seem to conflict with those 
of some other branch of experience, the former have as 
much claim on us as the latter in the world of fact and 
more in the world of value, A¥ith this contention, Bosan- 
quet, as we shall see, is in substantial agreement. If 
religion demands a personal Object, then it is narrow 
and unwarranted dogmatism to refuse to regard that fact 
as a sufficient justification for belief in a personal God. 
Of course, if it be granted to Bradley that religion is 
transcended in the Absolute and therefore is not an ulti- 
mate form of experience, my contention is open to ques- 
tion; but a method which, like his, sweeps out of the 
familiar room of experience, not only the dust and litter, 
but also the furniture, the wall-paper, even the family,— 
such a method may well be rejected If, w^e repeat, reli- 
gion demands a personal God, that is a valid and suffi- 
cient reason for belief in a personal God; and, if there 
are difficulties in such a belief,— what system lacks diffi- 
culties? 

The Ritschlian distinction between religion, as the 
realm of value judgments, and science as the realm of 
factual judgments calls for a word in passing. If this 
be taken rigorously, then the contention that religion 
demands a personal God furnishes no basis whatever 
for the factual statement, God is a person. Just what 
the relation is between value judgments and reality we 
are not prepared to say, but we are sure both that they 
cannot be ruthlessly divorced in this manner, and that 
religious judgments essentially claim objective, as well 
as subjective, validity. 

21 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

But does religion demand a personal object? We 
started this lecture with the claim that it does; and now 
we must defend our claim. Many influential thinkers 
would not be prepared to grant it. We have already im- 
plied that a confusion between religion and magic is re- 
sponsible for at least some of the opposition. This re- 
sults in an undue extension of the denotation of the term 
"religion" with a consequent impoverishment of its 
connotation. Another related cause is to be found in the 
effort to maintain a strictly psychological point of view 
in the treatment of religion. Psychology is interested in 
the subjective aspect of experience, and any reference it 
may make to the objective aspect is purely incidental to 
its purpose. Now we may readily grant the value of the 
psychological study of experience without admitting its 
adequacy, for, if there ever is a state of pure subjectivity, 
it is rare and devoid of meaning. Certain writers, how- 
ever, treat religion so predominantly from the psycho- 
logical point of view that they do less than justice to 
the objective factor. It is this influence that explains 
Bradley's definition of religion in terms of a certain 
intensity of feeling, modified by reflection, "no matter 
what the object may be". But such a divorce of the 
subjective from the objective aspect in religion is inex- 
cusable. In an Idealist like Bradley it is almost unbe- 
lievable, and it is no occasion for surprise that this out- 
standing apostle of consistency cannot maintain his o^Yn 
consistency with this position. He recognizes, for ex- 
ample, that the term "religion" is used in senses that 
are higher or lower according as the object is higher or 
lower, and, though he does not clearly indicate what his 
standard of judgment is, this surely shows that the 
nature of the object of religious feeling cannot be indif- 
ferent. He also admits that, in the highest sense, reli- 
gion can have but one object, and that this object must 
be of such a nature as to make possible toward it an 
attitude of moral prostration. But whether moral pros- 
tration is ultimately possible toward any but a personal 

22 



The Personality of God : A Defence 

object may well be questioned. Indeed, in liis earlier 
writings, Bradley was willing to grant that religion 
demands a personal object. 

To find Bosanquet denying that religion demands 
a personal object is, from one point of view, decidedly 
disconcerting; for it has been one of his basic principles 
to found on experience at its highest. If this principle 
justifies him, as he thinks it does and as we will readily 
grant, in finding in religion the key to the nature of 
reality, surely it should lead him to" find that key in reli- 
gion at its highest. If experience as a whole is best 
explained in terms of its highest form, religion, then it 
would seem to follow that religion as a whole is best 
explained in terms of its highest form. And there is no 
question with Bosanquet that the highest form of reli- 
gion is Christianity. He, therefore, should have found 
in Christianity the key to the explanation of reality, and 
the careful reader cannot fail to see that in the main he 
did so. But his treatment of religion is wavering and 
inconsistent. Much of the philosophic and scientific dis- 
cussion of religion in our time is based on the assump- 
tion, the very opposite of Bosanquet 's, that its essence 
is discovered only by isolating what is common to all 
religions, that is to say, by reducing religion to its lowest 
terms. Under the influence of this contradictory prin- 
ciple, Bosanquet resolves religion into a sense of depend- 
ence and denies that the feeling of dependence needs a 
personal object. Of course it is what Pringle-Pattison 
calls his monistic tendency that makes such a conclusion 
congenial to him. On the contrary, it seems likely that, 
in the cases where the' object of specifically religious 
dependence is not explicitly a person, it is personified or 
else regarded as under the control of a person. Now 
Bosanquet 's principle — founding on experience at its 
highest — is, we believe, a valid one. Pringle-Pattison,^ as 
we have seen, also insists that philosophic explanation 
musT be explanation of the lower in terms of the higher. 
''Nothing", he says, "can be more certain". We also 

23 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

agree with Bosanquet that experience finds its highest 
terms in religion, and that religion attains finality in 
Christianity. We, therefore, propose to say, quite frankly 
now, that we are philosophically compelled to grant to 
religion its characteristic presuppositions; that the essen- 
tial presuppositions of religion can best be found in reli- 
gion at its highest, — Christianity; and that a study of 
Christianity leads inevitably to the conclusion that the 
primary presupposition of all religion is the personality 
of God. For, as Orr emphatically states it, "Christian- 
ity is a theistic system; this is its first postulate — the 
personal, ethical, self-revealing God."^^ 

It is so obviously true that Christianity is theistic 
that little need be said in defence of the statement. What 
we do say will be more by way of illustration than of 
proof. But which way shall we turn when, in every direc- 
tion, the aspect is the same? Christianity claims to be 
based on a revelation of God. But the very idea of reve- 
lation implies a personal Revealer; the whole tenor of 
the Scriptural revelation is personalistic; and this prog- 
ressive revelation reaches its height and culmination in 
One Whose final word was this. He that hath seen me 
hath seen the Father. The ultimate revelation of God, 
•therefore, is a theanthropic Person. In its doctrine of the 
Person of Christ the church has always been true to the 
New Testament doctrine of incarnation. It has ever 
rejected explanations of the Saviour's origin in terms of 
the acquisition of deity by a human person, and, w^hen 
pressed to state in which of the two natures the unitary 
person of Jesus is to be sought, it chose the divine. Be- 
fore His advent, therefore, before ever He became man, 
He was an eternal divine Person. If Jesus Christ, as 
Immanuel, proves God to be a Person, His teaching about 
God and the implication of His conscious relations with 
God are perfectly in harmony with what we learn from 
His Person. His name for God is Father; He attributes 
self-conscious acts to the Father; He talks to Him, and 

16. Christian View of God and the World, p. 91. 



The Personality of God : A Defence 

submits to His will; He is conscious of possessing the 
Father 's love, and of living in a relation of peculiar, per- 
sonal intimacy with Him. All this would be unintelli- 
gible apart from the personality of God. The only aspect 
of theology in which there has been any marked tendency 
amongst Christians to obscure the personality of God is 
in respect of the Holy Spirit; and even here it is only by 
implication, it is due to oversight, and it is immediately 
rejected as soon as it becomes explicit. Warfield certainly 
interpreted the Christian spirit aright when he wrote, 
"It would probably be no exaggeration to say that no 
heresy could be more gross than the heresy which con- 
ceives the operations of God the Holy Spirit under the 
forms of the action of an impersonal, natural force"^'; 
and other representative theologians might be quoted to 
similar effect. Thus personality is attributed to Father, 
Son, and Holy Spirit ; but these are not three individual 
persons. Trinitarian Christianity is monotheistic. 

If Christian theology is personalistic, equally so are 
Christian anthropology and soteriology. Sin, in the 
Bible view, is not mere weakness, not just a violation of 
the moral law, but an affront to a personal and holy God. 
The transactions that lead to salvation take place either 
within the being of a personal God, or between a personal 
God and human persons. They find their motive in divine 
love, and the message of God 's love is the greatest power 
Christianity has for melting hard hearts and producing 
repentance and joy. Only a Person can be propitiated; 
only a Person can exercise the creative grace that is 
manifested in Regeneration; only a personal God can 
walk with us in the sanctifying way, and be the object of 
the adoration w^hich is worship and the communion 
which is prayer. The Christian life is in its essence a 
mystical union, by faith, between the soul and its God, 
and this is possible only because God is a Person. We 
simply are unable to adopt toward a non-personal object 
the attitude in which this life consists. In short, the 
Christian view of God is personalistic to the core. 



17. Plan of Salvation, p. 82f. 

25 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Our argument lias been as follows: — first, we con- 
sidered the more respectable objections to the personality 
of God, and found them untenable; then we saw that cer- 
tain of the well-known theistic arguments, separately and 
in their cumulative effect, lead to our conclusion; finally, 
we argued that the nature of religion, as most clearly 
manifested in its most perfect form, Christianity, essen- 
tially demands the personality of God. The last conten- 
tion might easily be extended by a philosophical and 
historical consideration of religion, but in itself it is suffi- 
cient. It is the best, and a quite adequate, reason for be- 
lief in the personality of God. 



The Centennial Fund Campaign 

The Centennial of the Western Theological Semi- 
nary will be observed in November, 1927, with appropri- 
ate public exercises. To make the occasion really me- 
morial the Alumni have undertaken to establish a Chair 
of Religious Education. Up to the present time one- 
fourth of the endowment of this Chair has been sub- 
scribed by 245 of the graduates. This speaks volumes 
for the loyalty and sacrificial spirit of the men who once 
enjoyed the student life of the Seminary. As Secretary 
of the Alumni Association, Rev. George C. Fisher, D. 
D., pastor of the Highland Presbyterian Church, Pitts- 
burgh, has been active in presenting the claims of this 
Chair to his fellow-graduates. In this connection we 
would urge the Alumni who have not already subscribed 
to the Alumni Chair of Religious Education to send in 
their pledges at their earliest convenience. 

It was not anticipated that the full amount needed 
for an adequate endowment and for a modern equip- 
ment would be secured before the Anniversary in 1927, 
and yet so much interest was manifested in the event 

26 



Centennial Fund Campaign 

that preparations were made during the present year 
for a preliminary campaign in which one hundred thou- 
sand dollars have been secured in cash and pledges, 
while an additional two hundred thousand dollars have 
been assured by friends of the institution. Through 
the untiring effort of Rev. George Taylor, Jr., Ph. D., 
D. D., pastor of the First Presbyterian Church of ,Wil- 
kinsburg, and President of the Board of Directors of 
the Seminary, all the churches of Wilkinsburg were 
open for a full and free visitation of the members, and 
his message in the interest of the Seminary has quick- 
ened the zeal of generous people in other congregations. 
A number of the churches in Pittsburgh Presbytery 
have permitted the Seminary to present the Centennial 
Endowment to their congregations and a canvass of a 
selected list of members has been made immediately 
after the presentation, with the results noted above. On 
account of the campaign for the Service-Pension Fund 
and the approaching drive for the Presbyterian Hosi^i- 
tal, the Centennial Committee of the two Boards after 
due deliberation decided that it would be wise for the 
Seminary to suspend an ora'anized effort in the 
churches. It is hoped that it will be possible to resume 
an active campaig-n in the churches of Western Pennsvl- 
vania early in the new year. In order to obviate the 
possibility of a misunderstanding, it is emphatically 
stated that the Centennial Endowment campaign in the 
churches is only temporarily quiescent. 



27 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Western Seminary's Services in Field of 
Learning Lauded 

An open letter to the Philadelphia Co.'s commercial 
development department has heen received hj THE 
PEESS from Rev. George Taylor, Jr., pastor of the 
First Presbyterian church of Wilkinshurg, in ivhich trib- 
ute is paid the Company for its efforts in the Pitts- 
burgh "Forward Movement," and attention called to 
an omission. The letter folloivs : 

Grentlemen : 

I am sure I share the appreciation of the ministers 
of the Pittsburgh district in expressing my indebted- 
ness to the Philadelphia Co. for the information con- 
tained in the pamphlet entitled "Know Pittsburgh" 
and which was put out with the compliments of your 
company in connection with the Pittsburgh Forward 
Movement. It represents a tremendous amount of work, 
is a very ready compendium of useful knowledge and is 
contributing greatly to the disseminating of that infor- 
mation which will help the citizens of this community to 
appreciate the city of their homes. 

Because it is so complete, I venture to call the at- 
tention of the compilers to an omission in estimating 
the greatness of the educational contribution of Pitts- 
burgh to the world. I refer to the seminaries in our 
midst, out from which there have gone about 4,200 
ministers of the Gospel and 300 missionaries of the 
Cross. And especially, as secretary of its board of di- 
rectors, I would mention The Western Theological 
Seminary of Ridge Ave., Northside, which has grad- 
uated more students than any of the institutions of 
higher learning mentioned in "Know Pittsburgh" with 
the exception of the University of Pittsburgh and the 
Carnegie Institute of Technology. Western Seminary 
has sent out into different fields of labor 2,514 ministers 
and 114 missionaries. These men have become centers 
of transforming power in those communities in which 

28 



An Open Letter 

they have settled, and the value of their influence can- 
not be estimated. 

This institution will be 100 years old next fall and 
has stood as a representative institution of learning- 
throughout the history of Pittsburgh. And no one can 
understand the greatness of this city without knowing 
the place of Western seminary in her life. Among her 
noted graduates are Dr. S. Hall Young of Alaska fame ; 
Dr. Adolphus C. Good, the first apostle to the Bulu peo- 
ple of West Africa; Dr. Calvin W. Mateer, a leader in 
evangelistic and educational work of China; Dr. John 
Newton and Dr. John C. Lowrie, founders of the Pun- 
jab missions of northern India; and Sir J. C. R. Ewing, 
who was regarded by the government of India as the 
leading educator of recent years. In recognition of his 
services the British government conferred on him the 
Kaiser-i-hind medal and later knighthood. Among the 
noted men of our country there are Ex-Chancellor Sam- 
uel B. McCormick, the distinguished educator of the 
University of Pittsburgh; President Isaac C. Ketler, 
founder of Grove City College ; Dr. Daniel W. Fisher, 
President of Hanover College for 35 years, and Dr. 
William 0. Thompson, President of Ohio State Univer- 
sity, and Dr. Matthew B. Riddle, a member of the New 
Testament Revision Committee and a New Testament 
scholar of international reputation. These are only a 
few of those who have distinguished themselves in the 
world of service. 

At times in this city, where we are surrounded con- 
stantly by an overwhelming industrial life, perhaps 
greater in capacity than that of any in the world, wo 
are prone to forget that to know Pittsburgh it is neces- 
sary to know those men and women who have kept hei" 
life from crystallizing into a sordid selfishness and 
who have conserved in her midst a generosity of heart 
and a greatness of soul which are not excelled by any 
city of this land. 

I have every confidence that the next ten years will 
see a progress in Pittsburgh which will surpass the ex- 
pectation even of the most optimistic citizen. 

29 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

The Elliott Lectures 

The Elliott Lectures will be delivered by the Eev. 
Maitland Alexander, D. D., in the Seminar}^ Chapel, 
Swift Hall, at 11:20 each morning, on November 30th, 
December 1st, 2d, 3d, and 8th. His general subject is 
''The Pastor and His Methods". The syllabus of his 
course of lectures is as follows : 

I. The Minister and His Personality. 

His spiritual outlook. His great objectives. His 
manners. His place in the community. His sacri- 
fices. His fraternal relationshi^DS. His determina- 
tion in the face of difficulties. His devotional life. 
His temptations along professional lines. His meas- 
ures of success. His proofs of his ministry. 

II. The Minister and His Sermons. 

His preparation. His selection of material. His 
]Dulpit details. The church ser^dce. Doctrinal 
preaching. Evangelistic preaching. Preaching that 
draws. The relation of the pulpit to all other parts 
of a minister's w^ork. 

III. The Minister and His Organizations. 
Promotional w^ork for congregations. Advertising. 
The Session. The Trustees. The Prayer Meeting. 
The organization of the home devotional life of his 
people. Young People's Meetings. Missionary 
Societies. Problems of leadership. 

IV. The Sunday School. The Pastor's relation to it. 
Teachers and their qualifications. Variety in the 
school. Socials and their value. Promotional work 
in the school. Training in prayer and Bible read- 
ing. Men's work. Objectives for men's organiza- 
tions. Recruiting for the Session. 

V. Institutional Worh. 

Interesting the congregation. Financial support. 
Boys' clubs. Girls' clubs. Mothers' Meetings. 
The value of institutional work. 

30 



Faculty Notes 



Faculty Notes 

Dr. Kelso was official representative of the Seminary at the in- 
auguration of Rev. Harry L. Reed, D.D., as President of Auburn 
Theological Seminary on October 2 6th. He will also represent the 
Seminary at the inauguration of Rev. Henry Sloane Coffin, D.D., as 
President of Union Theological Seminary on November 4th. 

Two appreciative reviews of Dr. Kelso's syllabus, "A History 
of the Hebrews in Outline," appeared recently; one was in the 
Jewish Quarterly Review and the other in the Orientalische Litera- 
turzeitung. The latter was especially complimentary to the peda- 
gogical method of the syllabus. 

Dr. Breed is giving a series of lectures on "The Acts of the 
Apostles" to the Men's Bible Class of the Shadyside Presbyterian 
Church. He recently gave an illustrated lecture in the Seminary 
chapel on "St. Francis of Assisi" in commemoration of the seven 
hundredth anniversary of the death of St. Francis. He is also con- 
ducting a course of lectures on Evangelism two hours a week dur- 
ing the first semester. 

Dr. Farmer and Dr. Snowden are lecturing one night a week 
under the auspices of the Y. M. C. A. of Pittsbugh, Dr. Farmer on 
"Eight Great Characters" in Bethel Lutheran Church, and Dr. 
Snowden on "The International Lessons" in Calvary Community 
House. 

Dr. Snowden delivered a six weeks' course of lectures on Theo- 
logy at the Graduate School of Theology in connection with the Uni- 
versity of Dubuque during part of July and August. Dr. Snowden 
again has editorial charge of the Presbyterian Banner. 

In the Department of Systematic Theology Dr. Snowden con- 
tinues in charge of the courses in Apologetics, Psychology of Reli- 
gion, and Philosophy of Religion, while the courses in Theology 
Proper are being conducted by Rev. William H. Orr, B.D., pastor of 
the Avalon Presbyterian Church. Mr. Orr was the fellow of the Class 
of 19 09 and spent a year in the study of Philosophy in Johns Hop- 
kins University. Rev. Charles A. McCrea, D.D., pastor of the Pres- 
byterian Church of Oakmont, Pa., also an alumnus of the Seminary 
(Class of 1897), is acting as Instructor in New Testament Greek. 
We regret to announce that Rev. H. M. LeSourd, who has served 
with marked success as Instructor in Religious Education for the 
past two years, has moved from Pittsburgh in order to accept a call 
to become Professor of Religious Education in Duke University, 
Durham, N. C. We wish Mr. LeSourd success in this enlarged field 
of service in the South. 

Dr. Vance represented the Seminary at the meeting of the 
Synod of Pennsylvania held in Williamsport, Pa., October 26-8. 

At her home in Edgeworth, Pa., on July 2 0th, occurred the 
death of Mrs. Matthew B. Riddle, widow of the late Rev. Matthew 
B. Riddle, D.D., former professor of New Testament Literature and 
Exegesis in Western Theological Seminary. 



31 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 
Alumniana 

I860 

Dr. W. F. Johnson, a veteran missionary of the Board of For- 
eign Missions of the Presbyterian Church, U. S. A., in North India, 
passed to his heavenly reward on June 29th. Dr. Johnson rendered 
notable service in more than one department of missionary work 
and through his contributions to Christian literature he exercised 
a far-reaching influence not only in the Christian Church, but also 
among the non-Christian people of India. 

1861 

Dr. Nathaniel W. Conkling, who endowed the President's Chair 
by a gift of one hundred thousand dollars, met a tragic death May 
18th. Dr. Conkling had reached the age of ninety with the full pos- 
session of all his faculties and in good health. He was returning 
from a meeting which he had attended when he was struck by 
a taxicab at a street crossing. In this accident he received such in- 
juries that he died a few days later in a hospital. Dr. Conkling was 
a generous benefactor of the Western Theological Seminary, and it 
is appropriate that a life-size bust in bronze, a gift of his daughter- 
in-law, Mrs. Paul B. Conkling, has been placed in the Reading 
Room of the Seminary Library. It is interesting that this bronze 
bust was the work of Dr. Conkling's son who was a sculptor, and was 
only completed shortly before his own death and the death of his 
father. 

1873 

Rev. Francis X. Miron of New Bethlehem, Pa., during the sum- 
mer visited Sainte Anne, 111., renewing acquaintances of early youth 
and preaching Sunday morning and evening in First Church. Mr. 
Miron spoke and sang in the French language. He was one of a 
class of thirty-six from Sainte Anne to begin preparation for the 
ministry during the earlier days of Father Chiniquy and Rev. Theo- 
dore Monod. 

1878 

Dr. S. Hall Young, for forty-three years missionary to Alaska, 
was a member of the party under the Missionary Education Move- 
ment which recently made a tour of Alaska. 

1880 

Rev. A. H. Jolly, D.D., was elected Moderator of the Synod of 
Pennsylvania at its October meeting in Williamsport, Pa. 

A book entitled "Evolution Disproved," by Rev. W. A. Williams, 
has been widely and favorably reviewed. A copy has been presented 
to the Seminary library as well as to other libraries throughout the 
country. 

1881 

The Bulletin extends sympathy to Rev. John H. Kerr, D.D., 
whose wife passed away on September 28th. Dr. Kerr is minister 
of the Arlington Avenue Presbyterian Church of Brooklyn, N. Y. 
During the past year he has had the honor of serving as moderator 
of the Synod of New York. 

32 



Alumniana 

1885 

Dr. A. S. Hunter died suddenly on July 30th. Several years 
ago he retired from his professorship at the University of Pitts- 
burgh, but had been very active in philanthropic Avork as President 
of the Board of Directors of the Presbyterian Hospital where he 
was engaged in developing the campaign to raise $6,000,000, for the 
medical center of Pittsburgh. 

1886 

Rev. O. N. Verner, D.D., has recently observed the fortieth an- 
niversary of his pastorate in the First Presbyterian Church of Mc- 
Kees Rocks, Pa. 

1887 

Rev. Matthew Rutherford, D.D., on June first retired from the 
pastorate of the Third Presbyterian Church of Washington, Pa., 
thus closing thirty years of service in this church. At a reception 
in honor of Dr. Rutherford and his family a purse was presented to 
him by the congregation. 

1888 

The address of Rev. James B. Lyle, D.D., has been changed 
from Albert Lea, Minn., to Turtle Creek, Pa. 

1891 

The Third Presbyterian Church, of Newark, N. J., held a recep- 
tion on October 12th, in celebration of the twenty-fifth anniversary 
of the pastorate of their pastor. Rev. Robert Scott Inglis, D.D. 

1892 

Rev. J. E. Giflin, formerly of Cross Roads Church, Gibsonia, Pa., 
has accepted a call to the Presbyterian Church of Plumville, Pa. 

1893 

Rev. Harry A. Grubbs of Oakland, Md., has accepted a call to 
the Presbyterian Church of Waterford, Pa. 

1894 

The address of Rev. Wm. M. Jennings has been changed from 
Adrain, Mich., to 203 South Perry Street, St. Marys, Ohio. 

1896 

Rev. J. Mont Travis of Denver, Colorado, was elected Moderator 
of the Synod of Colorado. 

Rev. Harvey Brokaw writes, "To be bitten by a mad-dog, and 
to have an operation for appendicitis in one year is somewhat of a 
variety in my usual program. Both threw the machinery out of gear 
and took a lot of time." There is much more that is interesting in 
Mr. Brokaw's "Kyoto (Japan) Bulletin," sent out under date of 
June 2 5, 1926. We are glad to note that he recovered fully from 
both the operation and the dog-bite, and is continuing his busy mis- 
sionary life. 

33 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

1897 

The Pine Street Presbyterian Church of Harrisburg, Pa., is de- 
voting the week of October 3-10 to dedication services of their new- 
Church and Sunday School buildings. Among those participating 
will be Dr. Lewis S. Mudge, Dr. W. O. Thompson, and Mr. Ralph A. 
Cram, the architect. The pastor of the church is Dr. C. Waldo 
Cherry, D.D. Dr. Cherry was the official delegate of the Seminary at 
the Centennial of Gettysburg Theological Seminary on September 
21st. 

After a short vacation in Canada in July Rev. Hugh T. Kerr, 
D.D., left for a trip to the Orient in company with Dr. Robert E. 
Speer of the Board of Foreign Missions. They will visit China, 
Japan, and Korea. 

Pikeville College, Pikeville, Ky., Rev. J. F. Record, Ph.D., D.D., 
President, on October 2 8th, celebrated its second annual Founders 
Day. This college was established thirty-seven years ago with two 
teachers in a building of three rooms. At the recent celebration 
a beautiful new administration building and chapel, costing $125,- 
000, was dedicated. 

1899 

Rev. C. O. Anderson was installed pastor of the Presbyterian 
Church of Cherry Tree, Pa., June 24th. 

The degree of Doctor of Divinity has recently been conferred 
upon Rev. George G. Kerr, of Canonsburg, Pa. 

1900 

During the four years that Dr. William L. Barrett has been 
pastor of the Montview Church in Denver, Col., the church budget 
has increased from $11,000 to $33,000 and the benevolence budget 
from $3,000 to $9,000. The membership has been increased by 800 
during the same period. Recent anniversary services were broadcast 
over Station KOA. ' 

1901 

Rev. Harvey B. Marks has been rector of St. Phillips Church, 
Crompton, Rhode Island, since 192 3. Recently after extensive re- 
pairs and renovations, the church was rededicated by Bishop Perry. 

1902 

;Rev. A. B. Allison has resigned the pastorate of the First Pres- 
byterian Church of Tarentum, Pa. His present address is 234 
Laurel Avenue, Ben Avon, Pa. 

Rev. R. P. Lippincott observed October 3-10 as "Autumn De- 
votional Week," in his church at Cadiz, Ohio. Meetings were held 
each evening, with neighboring pastors assisting. 

In the six years ending September first, the Wilson Presby- 
terian Church of Clairton, Pa.. Rev. E. R. Tait, pastor, has received 
437 members and has raised $71,152.00. The present membership 
of this church is 548. ' 

1903 

Bethel Presbyterian Church in the Presbytery of Pittsburgh, 
Rev. Murray C. Reiter pastor, is installing a fine new pipe organ. 

34 



Alumniana 

1905 

The Presbyterian Church of Slippery Rock, Pa., Rev. Geo. S. 
Bowden, pastor, has recently expended $65,000.00 in enlarging and 
refurnishing their church building, which when finished will be com- 
plete in all departments and will be worth approximately $100,- 
000.00. I 

1907 

Rev. C. E. Houk, for many years pastor at Claysville, Pa., has 
accepted a call to New Concord, Ohio. 

Rev. M. M. McDivitt, D.D., was elected a member of the Board 
of Directors of the Western Theological Seminary, to take the place 
made vacant by the death of Rev. William O. Campbell, D.D. 

1908 

Rev. Platte T. Amstutz, D.D., has moved from Detroit, Mich., 
to 551 East Bowman Street, Wooster, Ohio. Dr. Amstutz resigned 
the pastorate of the Covenant Church in Detroit to accept work 
with Dr. A. F. McGarrah in the Department of Building Fund Cam- 
paigns of the Board of National Missions. 

1909 

Rev. Arthur L: Hail of Allison Park, Pa., has accepted a call to 
Donora, Pa. 

1910 

The Waverly Presbyterian Church, of which the Rev. Thomas 
C. Pears, Jr., is pastor, is building a beautiful new edifice at the 
corner of Forbes Street and Braddock Avenue, Pittsburgh. The 
architectural style is Early English Gothic, the entire exterior being 
of stone. The auditorium will accommodate 75 people, while the 
adjoining Sunday School building will provide ample educational 
and recreational facilities. 

Rev. George S. Watson, until recently pastor of the First Pres- 
byterian Church of Nowata, Oklahoma, is taking a post-graduate 
course in McCormick Theological Seminary. During the month of 
August he preached a series of sermons in the First Presbyterian 
Church of Frankfort, Ky., on the general theme "Why I Believe." 

Dr. C. B. Wingerd, of Martin's Ferry, Ohio, has been called to 
Central Church, New Castle, Pa. 

1911 

Graduates of the Western Theological Seminary held a reunion 
and Alumni dinner at Landour, India, early in July. Rev. and Mrs. 
W. H. Hezlep were hosts to Rev. J. L. Dodds ('17), Rev. John E. 
Wallace, ('19), and Rev. Calvin G. Hazlett, ('23). 

Rev. M. A. Matheson, of Ashtabula, Ohio, has accepted a call 
to the Kelvyn Park Church of Chicago, and has taken up the work 
in his new field. 

1912 

Rev. P. E. Burtt celebrated the third anniversary of his pas- 
torate in the First Church of Sharon, Pa., on July 8th. In three 
years 460 members have been received. The present membership 
is 1328. 

35 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Rev. Harry J. Findlay, pastor of Roanoke Churcli, Kansas City, 
Mo., accepted a call to the First Church of Shenandoah, Iowa, and 
assumed his duties September 1st. During the eight and a half 
years of Mr. Findlay's pastorate in the Roanoke Church the mem- 
bership has increased from 200 to 900. 

Rev. Francis Hornicek has returned from Czechoslovakia where 
he went recently to deliver a large sum of money which he collected 
in thi.'J country for an institution in that country. The institution 
was a large castle owned by private individuals before the war, 
"but confiscated by the government and later sold to the Czech 
Brethren for an orphanage,, and is now being turned to this use. It 
was dedicated with elaborate ceremonies June 2 0, in the presence 
of two thousand people. Mr. Hornicek is now engaged in mission 
work among his people in the bounds of Redstone Presbytery. His 
address is 2 3 Cleveland avenue, Uniontown, Pa. 

1913 

Midland Church, Rev. C. W. Cochran pastor, recently raised 
in a three day campaign, $45,000 for a new building. 

Rev. G. A. Frantz, D.D., of "Van Wert, Ohio, accepted a call 
to the First Church of Indianapolis, Ind., and was installed pastor 
on October 2 8th. His present address is 2 3 09 Broadway, Indiana- 
polis, Ind. 

Rev. Ashley S. Wilson has resigned the pastorate of the Pres- 
byterian Church of Union City, Pa., and on July 25th assumed 
charge of the Presbyterian Church of DuBois, Pa. 

1914 

The address of Rev. J. Wallace Fraser, D.D., has been changed 
from Girard, Pa., to New Bethlehem, Pa., he having accepted a call 
to the Presbyterian Church of New Bethlehem. 

Rev. Albert Sheppard, of Forest Hills, Long Island, N. Y., has 
accepted a call to the First Church of Kittanning, Pa. 

1915 

Rev. L. L. Tait was installed pastor of the Presbyterian Church 
of Brockway, Pa., on June 2 8th. 

Rev. G. P. West has taken up the work in his new field at 
Houtzdale, Pa. 

1916 

Rev. George H. Cheeseman was installed pastor of the Porters- 
ville and Mountville United Presbyterian Churches, Beaver Valley 
Presbytery, on June 22nd. 

The "Bulletin" of the First Presbyterian Church of Indepen- 
dence, Iowa, shows a full and interesting program of work planned 
by this church for the fall months. On Labor Day Sunday — the 
pastor, Rev. Ralph V. Gilbert, preached on the subject — "Jesus the 
Worker." 

Rev. Roy M. Kiskaddon, who for some time has been Assistant 
Pastor of the First Presbyterian Church of Pittsburgh, has accepted 
a call to the First Church of Coshocton, Ohio. 

Rev. John O. Miller was installed pastor of the Presbyterian 
Church of Carmichaels, Pa., on July 13th. 

36 



Alumniana 

1917 

Rev. Glenn M. Crawford of West Alexander, Pa., has accepted 
a call to the Presbyterian Church of Jeannette, Pa. 

Rev. A. R. Hickman, of Minneapolis, Minn., has accepted a call 
to the Third Presbyterian Church of Chicago, 111. For 
the past three years Mr. Hickman has been chairman of 
the committee on program and field activity for Minneapolis Presby- 
tery and active in all the religious life of the city. 

The Bulletin is indebted to Rev. LeRoy Lawther for a copy of 
the 192 5-2 6 year book of his church — the Central Presbyterian 
Church of McKeesport — and copies of weekly bulletins. This church 
is observing the week of October 3-10 as Rally Week for the entire 
church. Beginning October 17th Mr. Lawther will preach a series- 
of eight Sunday morning sermons on "The Jesus of the New Testa- 
ment." 

1919 

Rev. D. Earl Daniel began the work of his new pastorate at 
the Memorial Presbyterian Church of Dayton, Ohio, on August 1st. 
"The Beacon," published weekly by this church, contains editorials 
and news items as well as the programs for the church services and 
announcements of .church activities. 

On July 20th Rev. E. J. Hendrix was installed pastor of 
the Chestnut Street Church, Erie, Pa. 

The Old Home Day exercises at the Round Hill Presbyterian 
Church of Elizabeth, Pa., October 2, were planned in commemora- 
tion of the one hundred forty-eighth anniversary of the organization 
of the church. The principal address was delivered by Dr. Percival 
Barker of the Point Breeze Church of Pittsburgh. A very large au- 
dience was present. Rev. W. W. McKinney is pastor of the church. 

A sermon by Rev. O. W. Pratt is included in a recent volume of 
"One Hundred Choice Sermons for Children," edited by G. B. F. 
Hallock. Mr. Pratt is pastor of the Presbyterian Church of Mt. 
Vernon, 111. 

1920 

On August 19th Rev. Roy F. Miller began his new pastorate at 
Reynoldsville, Pa. Mr. Miller has been out of the pastorate for two 
years pursuing graduate studies. 

1932 

Rev Clifford E. Barbour has resigned the pastorate of the 
Herron Avenue Presbyterian Church of Pittsburgh in order to pur- 
sue a year of graduate work in Scotland. 

Rev. Daniel Hamill, formerly pastor of the McKinley Park 
Presbyterian Church, Pittsburgh, has accepted a call to Mt. Gilead, 
Ohio. He began work in his new field September 1st. 

Rev Ralph K. Merker, co-pastor of the Knoxville Presbyterian 
Church, Pittsburgh, was a member of the faculty of one of the sum- 



37 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

mer conferences for Presbyterian young people at Saltsburg, Pa., 
during the past summer. 

On September 11th, Rev. Walter H. Millinger was married to 
Miss Ruth Pingrey, of Lexington, Mass. Mr. Millinger is minister 
of the Puritan Congregational Church of Pittsburgh. 

Rev. Roscoe W. Porter, pastor of the Arlington Heights 
Church since his graduation, has become ah assistant pastor at the 
First Presbyterian Church, Pittsburgh. 

1923 

Rev. J. Morgan Cox of Dravosburg, Pa., has accepted a call to 
the Herron Avenue Church, Pittsburgh. 

Rev. C. H. Hazlett and Miss Sara Higgins were married in 
Mussoorie, India, on September 3 0th. Mrs. Hazlett is well known 
to all recent alumni of the Seminary, by reason of the fine service 
which she rendered as Assistant Librarian. 

1924 

In August the Pleasant Unity Presbyterian Church, Rev. G. K. 
Monroe, pastor, celebrated its eighty-fifth anniversary. 

Rev. Deane C. Walter, who has been appointed to Shantung 
Mission, stationed at Tsining, is just beginning language study and 
registering first impressions of China in the Yenching School of 
Chinese Studies, Peking, China. 

1925 

Rev. Clayton E. Williams has resigned as Director of Religious 
Education in the First Church of Poughkeepsie, N. Y., and accepted 
a call as student pastor in the American Church in Paris, France. 
Mr. and Mrs. Williams sailed September 18th. 

1926 

Rev. H. B. Hudnut was installed as associate pastor of 
City Temple, Dallas, Texas, on June 4th. He preaches over the radio 
every second Sunday night of each month. The pastor of this church 
is Dr. B. P. Fullerton. It is supporting Rev. John L. Eakin, a class- 
mate of Mr. Hudnut's, as its missionary in Siam. 

Rev. Fred E. Robb was installed pastor of Laurel Hill Church, 
near Uniontown, Pa., on July 4th. This church, founded in 1776, 
celebrated its sesqui-centennial October 9th and 10th. An attractive 
souvenir booklet was published, containing a historical sketch and 
pictures of the successive buildings and pastors. 

Rev. Andrew Babinsky was ordained on July 17th and the 
church of which he has charge was received into the Presbytery of 
Shenango on the same day. On July 18th the church was dedi- 
cated and Mr. Babinsky was installed pastor. In April 1924 this 
congregation was organized under Mr. Babinsky with sixteen adult 
members and twelve children. There are now one hundred and two 
members, and seventy children in the Sunday School. 

38 



Accessions 



Accessions 

Following is a tabulated list of accessions received at the sum- 
mer communion of churches administered to by alumni of the 
Seminary: 



Church 



Accessions Pastor 



Class 



First, McKees Rocks, Pa 9 

Elderton, Pa 16 

Currie's Run 11 

Shady Side, Pittsburgh, Pa... 7 
Vance Memorial, Wheeling 

W. Va 5 

Concord and Goheenville 

Kittanning Presbytery . ..11 
Brighton Rd., Pittsburgh, Pa. 19 

First, Brookville, Pa 8 

Mt. Washington, Pgh. Pa 10 

First, Wilkinsburg, Pa 2 5 

First, Sharon, Pa 18 

First, Blairsville, Pa 7 

Sharpsburg, Pa 4 

First, Independence, Iowa ... 7 
Middlesex, Butler Presbytery. 7 
Westfield Ch, Mahoning Pres. 8 
Central, Tarentum, Pa 28 



O. N. Verner, D.D 1886 

M. D. McClelland, Ph.D. . ..1895 
Hugh T. Kerr, D.D 1897 

J. M. Potter, D.D 1898 

H. C. Prugh, Ph.D 1898 

R. H. Allen, D.D 1900 

F. B. Shoemaker 1903 

C. B. Wible 1907 

Geo. Taylor, Jr. Ph.D., D.D. 1910 

P. E. Burtt 1912 

J. Norman Hunter 1912 

A. E. French 1916 

R. V. Gilbert 1916 

H. Russell Crummy 1917 

R. M. Haverfield 1924 

A. N. Stubblebine . . . .p.g. 1924 



39 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



Jn Mi^xnavxnm 



The Boards of the Seminary suffered great loss in the 
death of Rev. William O. Campbell, D.D., and Judge J. 
McF. Carpenter. Dr. Campbell was a graduate of the 
Seminary and had long been vitally interested in the wel- 
fare of the institution. A brief outline of his ministerial 
career will be found in the Necrology published in the cur- 
rent number of the Bulletin. 



Judge J. McF. Carpenter, who has been a Trustee of 
the Seminary since 1897, died very suddenly May 13, 1926. 
His death was a great loss to the institution as he gave 
both his time and his legal knowledge without stint to the 
promotion of the interests of theological education. 



40 



Necrology 
Necrology 

Conkling, Nathaniel W. Born, Coshocton, Co., Ohio, December 21, 
1835; College of New Jersey, 1857; S. T. B., 1861, Seminary; 
D.D.; licensed, 1860, Presbytery of Allegheny, and ordained, 
1861, Presbytery of Philadelphia; pastor, Scots, Philadelphia, 
■ 1861-63; Arch Street, 1863-68; Rutgers Street, New York City, 
1868-81; voluntary home missionary work. New York City, 
.1881-1926; died New York City, N. Y., May 18, 1926. 

Ewinjs. James Caruthers Rhea. Born, Armstrong County, Pa., June 
23, 1854; A.B., Washington and Jefferson College, 1876; S. T. 
B. Seminary, 1879; M.A., 1879; D.D. 1887; LL. D., 1908, 
Washington and Jefferson College; Lift. D., University of the 
/Punjab, 1917; licensed, April 24, 1878, and ordained, Septem- 
ber 4, 1879, Presbytery of Kittanning; foreign missionary, 
Fatehgarh, India, 1879-81; Allahabad, 1881-4; professor Theo- 
logical Seminary, Saharanpur; 1884-8; President Forman 
Christian College, Lahore, 18 88-1918; Dean of the Faculty of 
Arts. University of Punjab, 189 0-1910; Vice-Chancellor, Uni- 
versity of Punjab, 1910-17; Kaiser-i-hind gold medal for 
famine relief work, conferred by King Edward VII, 19 05; 
created Companion of the Indian Empire by King Gorge V, 
1915; Moderator of the Presbyterian Church in India, 1916; 
Knight Commander of the Indian Empire by King George Y, 
1923; Secretary India Council, 1918-22; retired to U. S., 3 922; 
Lecturer on Missions, Princeton Theological Seminary, 1922- 
25; Member Board Foreign Missions, 1922-25; President Board 
of Foreign Missions, 1924-5; died Princeton, N. J., August 2 0, 
1925. 

Zenana Reader; Seven Times Victorious; Life of Dr. Duff; 
Greek-Hindustani Dictionary of the New Testament; A Prince 
of the Church in India (Life of Rev. Dr. K. C. Shatterjee). 

Fife, Noah Hallock flillett. Born. Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, 
February 19, 1840; Jefferson College, 1859; teacher, Louis- 
ville, Ky., 1859-60, S. T. B., 1863, Seminary; D.D., Washington 
and Jefferson College, 1896; licensed, June, 1862, and ordained 
1863, Presbytery of Redstone; pastor, Connellsville, Pa. 1S63-8; 
Long Run, 1868-73; Sterling, 111., 1873-89; Fremont, Neb., 
1889-91; Pasadena, Cal., 1891-9; Bloomington, 111., 1900-4; 
Clearfield, Pa., 1905-8; Philadelphia, Pa., 1909-26; died, Phila- 
delphia, Pa., May 22, 1925. 

Gregg, Andrew Jackson. Born, near Saltsburg, Pa., September 10, 
1855; Western Reserve College *1879; S. T. B., 1885, Semi- 
nary; licensed, April 23, 1884, and ordained, April 29, 1885, 
Presbytery of Kittanning; pastor, Worthington and West Glade 
Run, Pa., 1885-9 9; stated supply, Frankville and Rossville, 
Iowa, 1899-1902; Ringsted, Hoprig, and Depew, Iowa, 1902-3; 
Atkins and Newhall, Iowa, 19 03-7; Frankville, Iowa, 1907-8; 
pastor, Frankville, Iowa, 19 07-8; Sunday School Missionary Os- 
borne Presbytery, 1909-13; Carthage Presbytery. 1913-16; 
pastor, Churdan, Iowa, 1916-19; Waterman, 111., 192 0-23; 
Omaha, 111., 192 3-25; President Benton County Sunday School 
Association, 1903-7; President 13th District Iowa State Sunday 

41 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

School Association, 1905-6; President DeKalb County, 111., Sun- 
day School Association, 1922-3; pastor-at-large, Cairo Presby- 
tery, 1925-6; died Creal Springs, 111., April 3, 1926. 

Hamilton, John Milton. Born, Rowsburg, (near Mansfield), Ohio, 
May 16, 1842; Washington and Jefferson College, 186 6; 
S. T. B., 1869, Seminary; licensed January 1868, Presbytery of 
Richland; ordained, January, 1869, Presbytery of Clarion; 
pastor, Corsica and Greenville, Pa., 1869-71; Plum Creek, Pa., 
1873-87; New Florence and Armagh, Pa., 1885-94; occasional 
supply Johnstown, Pa.; died, Johnstown, Pa., January 13, 1926. 

Irwin, James Perry. Born, Northumberland Co., Pa., November 13, 
1839; Washington and Jefferson College, 1864; S. T. B. 1867, 
Seminary; licensed. May 8, 18 67, Presbytery of Erie; ordained 
July 1, 1868, Presbytery of New Lisbon; pastor Canfield, Ohio, 
1868-79; stated supply, Hanover, Ohio, 1880; pastor Pulaski, 
Pa., 18 81-87; Jamestown and Atlantic, 18 87-8 8; stated supply. 
Belle Valley, Pa., 18 8 8-9 5; supply and evangelist, Erie and 
vicinity, 1895-1917; pastor, Eastminster, Erie, Pa., 1917-1923; 
honorably retired, 1923; died, Erie, Pa., March 22, 1926. 

History of Presbyterianism in Erie County, Pennsylvania, 
and many articles for religious papers. 

Kozma, Michael. Born, Cleveland, Ohio, November 21, 1896; 
Bloomfield Theological Seminary (college department, 1910- 
16; theological department, 1916-20); post graduate. Western 
Seminary, 1922-3; licensed, Connecticut Valley Presbytery; or- 
dained. White River Presbytery, 1920; pastor, Hungarian Pres- 
byterian Church, Lackawanna, N. Y., 1920-22; died, Albuquer- 
que, N. M., March 18, 1926. 

Montgomery, Donnell Rankin. Born, Oakland, 111., April 6, 1870; 

A. B. 1897, Franklin College, Franklin, Ind.; S. T. B. 1900, 
Seminary; licensed, June, 1899, and ordained May 10, 1900, 
Presbytery of Indianapolis; missionary to Alaskan Indians, 
1900-05; stated supply, Cle Elum, Washington, 1905-10; 
pastor, Sharpsburg, Pa., 1910-18; Plum Creek and Renton, Pa., 
1918-2 5; died. New Texas, Pa., January 27, 1925. 

Patterson, James Trimhle. Born, Tuscarora Valley, Juniata Co., Pa., 
April 28, 183 3; Waveland Academy, Hanover College, 18 62; S.T. 

B. 1865, Seminary; licensed, April, 1864, and ordained, Septem- 
ber, 18 6 5, Presbytery of Logansport; stated supply, Monticello, 
Ind., 18 64; Bethlehem and West Union, 18 6 5-7; Sugar Creek 
and Jefferson, 18 68-70; Oxford, 1870-4; pastor, Buffalo and 
Westminster, Pa., 1874-80; stated supply New Salem, 1880-3; 
pastor Two Ridges and Cross Creek, Ohio, 1883-4; Congress, 
1884-7; St. Edwards, Neb., 1887-8; stated supply, Ocome, Neb., 
1888-93; Hamlet and Perryton, 1893-5; Carry's Creek, 1896-7; 
Brighton and Plainview, 1897; honorably retired, 1898; died, 
Newburgh, Ind., August 30, 1925. 

Smith, Matthew F. Born. Falls Creek, Pa., October 12, 1882; 
A. B. 1906, A.M. 1908, Grove City College; S. T. B. 1911, Semi- 
nary; D.D., Geneva College, 1916; licensed, April 19, 1910, 
Presbytery of Clarion; ordained. May 10, 1911, Presbytery of 
Beaver; pastor, Hookstown and Millcreek, 1911-15; First, 

42 



Necrology 

Beaver Falls, Pa., 1915-21; First, Indianapolis, Ind., 1921-26; 
died, Indianapolis, Ind., February 27, 1926. 

Smith, Robert Futhey. Born, Wegee, Belmont Co., Ohio, October 
29, 18 53; Washington and Jefferson College, 1876; S. T. B. 
1887, Seminary; licensed, April 27, 1886, Presbytery of Shen- 
ango; ordained, May 2 6, 1887, Presbytery of Redstone; pastor. 
Pleasant Unity. Pa., 1887-1901; stated supply, Wayne, 
Wooster, Ohio, 1901-10; pastor and stated supply, Cardington, 
Ohio, 1910-24; honorably retired, 1924; died, Wegee (now 
Shadyside), Ohio, Feb. 20. 1926. 

Srodes, John Jay. Born, Allegheny Co., Pa., February 20, I860; 
Washington and Jefferson College *1887; S. T. B. 1890, Semi- 
nary; licensed, April 23, 1889, and ordained, June 10, 1890, 
Presbytery of Pittsburgh; pastor, Phillipsburg and North 
Branch, Pa., 1890-7; Mount Prospect, 1897-1902; Moundsville, 
W. Va., 1902-11; New Athens and Crab Apple, Ohio, 1911-21; 
Woodsfield, Ohio, 1921-25; honorably retired, 1925; died, 
Woodsfield, Ohio, July 23, 1925. 

VVachter, Egon. Born, Prussia; St. Vincent's College, 1881; S. T. B. 
18 84, Seminary; M.D.; licensed, April 24, 188 3, and ordained. 
May 11, 1884, Presbytery of Pittsburgh; foreign missionary, 
Rajaburee, Siam, 1896-1910; Bankok, Siam, 1910-12; Na- 
. kawn, Sri Tamarat, Siam, 1912-18; Trang, South Siam, 1918- 
23; honorably retired, U.S.A., 1924; died, Berkeley, Cal., Aug. 
12, 1925. 

Campbell, William Oliver. Born, Middlesex, Pa., November 14, 
1841; Jefferson College, A. B., 1862; Seminary, 1863-64; U.S. 
Army, 1863-64; Princeton Theological Seminary, 1864-66; D.D., 
University of Wooster, 188 5; licensed, 18 6 5, Presbytery of But- 
ler; ordained, April 17, 1867, Presbytery of Winnebago; stated 
supply and pastor, Depere, Wis., 1866-69; pastor, Mononga- 
hela. Pa., 1870-85; Sewickley, Pa., 1885-1909; instructor. 
Western Theological Seminary, 1883-85; director, Western 
Seminary, 1881-1904 and 1919-26; pastor emeritus, Sewickley, 
Pa., 1910-26; died, Atlantic City, N. J., January 8, 1926. 

liowe, Cornelius Marshall. Born, Warren Co., N. J., February 23, 
1850; Oberlin College, 1878; teacher, Dayton, Ohio, 1878-82; 
Union Biblical Seminary, Dayton, 1881-2; Seminary, 1882-3; 
Ph.D.; professor of Latin, Heidelberg College, 1883- ; ordained 
by Tiffin Classis of the Reformed Church United States America, 
May, 1892; pastor, Presbyterian Church, Osawatomie, Kan., 
1919-22; stated supply, Bern, Kansas, 1922-3; died, Bern, Kan- 
sas, May 27, 1923. 

Marshman, David McGill. Born, Nashville, Ohio, September 1, 
18 50; University of Wooster, 1881; Seminary, 1881-83; 
Princeton Theological Seminary, 1883-84; licensed, June 19, 
1883 and ordained, 1884, Presbytery of Wooster; stated sup- 
ply, DeGraff and Zanesfield, 1883; Royalton, Minn., 1884-86; 
stated supply, and pastor, Shakopee, Minn., 188 6-88; stated 
supply and pastor, Montpelier, Ohio, 1888-96; stated supply 
and pastor, Fall River Mills, Cal., 1899-1901; stated supply, 
Tehama and Red Bank, Cal., 1902-03; stated supply, Richmond 

43 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

and Princeton, Kan., 1904-05; stated supply. Fort Bragg, Cal., 
1906-07; stated supply. Crescent City, Cal., 1908-1909; stated 
supply, Tehama, Cal., 1913-19; honorably retired, 1921; died, 
Yosemite Park, Cal., August 13, 1925. 

Reed, Alvin McClure. Born, Salineville, Ohio, September 21, 1841; 
A.B., 1872 and A.M. (hon.) 1873, Washington and Jefferson 
College; Seminary, 1872-3 and 1874-6; licensed, April 26, 
1876, Presbytery of Mahoning; ordained, June 12, 1876, Pres- 
bytery of Shenango; pastor, Princeton and Hermon, Pa., 1876- 
82; stated supply and pastor. Plain Grove and Harlansburg, 
Pa., 18 82-9 3; stated supply, Salem, Greenville, 189 3-98; stated 
supply, Sandy Lake and New Lebanon, Pa., 1895-99; stated 
supply. Mill Village, Pa., 1899; stated supply, Arlington, Kan- 
sas, 1902-5; stated supply, "Vienna and Brookfield, Ohio, 1905- 
08; residence, Greenville, Pa., 1909-25; honorably retired, 
1917; died, Greenville, Pa., June 3, 1925. 

Szekely, Alexander. Gymnasium Rimaszombat, Hungary, 1903; 
Seminary, 1907-9; licensed, June 9, 1908, and ordained 
September 23, 1908, Presbytery of Redstone; stated supply, 
Uniontown, 1908-9; stated supply, Columbus, Ohio, 1909-11; 
pastor, Hungarian church, Uniontown and Brownsville, Pa., 
1911-25; died, Brownsville, Pa., July 6, 1925. 



44 



THE BULLETIN 



OF THE 



Western Theological 
Seminary 




CATALOGUE NUMBER 



Vol. XIX. January, 1927 No. 2. 



CATALOGUE 

1926 - 1927 



THE BULLETIN 



OF THE 



Western Theological 
Seminary 



Published quarterly, in January, April, July, and October 
by the 



TRUSTEES OF THE 

Western Theological Seminary 

OF THE 

PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN THE UNITED 
STATES OF AMERICA 



Entered as Second Class Matter December 9, 1909, at the Postoffice at Pittsburgh, 
Pa. (North Diamond Station), Under the Act of Aug. 24, 1912 



PITTSBURGH PRINTING COMPANY 
PITTSBURGH, PA. 



i 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



CALENDAR FOR 1927 



MONDAY, JANUARY 24tli. 

Opening of second semester. 

SUNDAY, MAY 1st. 

Baccalaureate sermon. 

Seniors' communion service at 3:00 P. M. in the Chapel. 

MONDAY, MAY 2d and TUESDAY, MAY 3d. 
Written examinations. 

WEDNESDAY, MAY 4th. 

Oral examinations at 10 A. M. 

THURSDAY, MAY 5th. 

Annual meeting of the Board of Directors in the President's 

Office at 10:00 A. M. 
Meeting of Alumni Association and Annual Dinner 3:30 P. M 
Commencement exercises. Conferring of diplomas and address 
to the graduating class 8:15 P. M. 

FRIDAY, MAY 6th. 

Annual meeting of Board of Trustees at 3:00 P. M. 

in the parlor of the First Presbyterian Church, Pittsburgh. 

Session of 1927-8 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 20th. 

Reception of new students in the President's Office at 3:00 

P. M. 
Matriculation of students and distribution of rooms in the 

President's Office at 4:00 P. M. 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 21st. 

Opening address in the Chapel at 10:30 A. M. 

FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 11th. 
Armistice Day. 

TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 15th. 

Semi-annual meeting of the Board of Directors at 2:00 P. M. 

WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 16th. 

Semi-annual meeting of the Board of Trustees at 3:30 P. M. 

WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 23d. (noon)— MONDAY, NOVEMBER 

28th. (7:45 P. M.) 

Thanksgiving recess. 
WEDNESDAY, DECEMtBER 21st. (noon) — TUESDAY. JANUARY 

3d. (8:30 A. M.) 



Christmas recess. 



3 (51) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 
BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

OFFICERS 

President 

R. D. CAMPBELL 

Vice-President 

R. W. HARBISON 

Secretary 
THE REV. SAMUEL J. FISHER, D. D. 

Counsel 

T. D. McCLOSKEY 

Treasurer 

COMMONWEALTH TRUST COMPANY 



TRUSTEES 



Class of 1927 

Geo. D. Edwards R. D. Campbell 

John G. Lyon The Rev. P. W. Snyder, D.D. 

The Rev. S. J. Fisher, D. D. Alex. C. Robinson 

The Rev. Stuart Nye Hutchison, D. D. 

Class of 1928 

Joseph A. Herron W. J. Morris 

Ralph W. Harbison Wilson A. Shaw 

Geo. B. Logan William M. Robinson 

The Rev. William J. Holland, D. D., LL. D. 

Class of 1929 

*The Hon. J. McP. Carpenter Charles A. Dickson 

The Rev. W. A. Jones, D. D. John R. Gregg 

Daniel M. Clemson Robert Wardrop 



*Died May 13, 1926. 

4 (52) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



STANDING COMMITTEES 



Executive 



Geo. B. Logan W. J. Holland, D. D. George D. Edwaj-da 

[ Robert Wardrop W. J. Morris S. J. Fisher, D. D. 



Auditors 

W. M. Robinson R. D. Campbell John G. Lyon 

Property 
R. W. Harbison Geo. B. Logan Alex. 0. Robinson 

Finance 

President, Treasurer, Secretary, and Auditors 

Library 
A. 0. Robinson John G. Lyon J. A. Kelso, Ph.D., D. D. 

Advisory Member of all Committees 

James A. Kelso, Ph. D., D. D., ex officio 

General Secretary 

The Rev. J. W. Laughlin, D. D 



Annual Meeting, Friday before second Tuesday in May, and 
semi-annual meeting, Wednesday following third Tuesday in 
November at 3:30 P. M., in the parlor of the First Presbyterian 
Church, Sixth Avenue. 



5 (53) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



BOARD OF DIRECTORS 

OFFICERS 

President 

THE REV. GEORGE TAYLOR, JR., Ph. D., D. D. 

Vice-President 

THE REV. WI - b - LI A M - H a^^MH aTON DrE I> J . CE -,^D. D.,-4ai4 

Secretary 

THE REV. GEORGE C. FISHER, D. D. 



DIRECTORS 
Class of 1927 

EXAMINING COMMITTEE 

The Rev. Calvin C. Hays, D. D. Ralph W. Harbison 

The Rev. Wm. H. Hudnut, D. D. Wilson A. Shaw 

The Rev. Hugh T, Kerr, D. D. Dr. A. W. Wilson, Jr. 

The Rev. George Taylor, Jr., Ph. D., D. D. 

The Rev. William E. Slemmons, D. D. 

The Rev. George M. Ryall, D. D. 

The Rev. William F. Weir, D. D. 



Class of 1928 

The Rev. William R. Craig, D. D. Charles N. Hanna 

The Rev. Charles F. Wishart, D. D. George B. Logan 

The Rev. Frederick W. Hinitt, D. D. Alex. C. Robinson 

The Rev. S. B. McCormick, D. D., LL. D. 

The Rev. William L. McEwan, D. D. 

The Rev W. P. Stevenson, D. D. 

The Rev. A. P. Higley, D, D. 

6 (54) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



Class of 1929 



The Rev. Thomas B. Anderson, D. D. 
The Rev. John W. Christie, D. D. 
The Rev. Joseph M. Duff, D. D. 

The Rev. John A. Marquis, D. D. 

The Rev. J. M. Potter, D. D. 

The Rev. William H. Spence, D. D., Litt. D 

The Rev. Stuart Nye Hutchison, D. D. 



W. D. Brandon 

Dr. S. S. Baker 
Wells S. Griswold 



Class of 1930 



The Rev. Maitland Alexander, D. D. 
The Rev. M. M. McDivitt, D. D. 
The Rev. Geo. N. Luccock, D. D. 

The Rev. George C. Fisher, D. D. 

The Rev. J. Millen Hobinson, D. D 

The Rev. John M. Mealy, D. D. 

The Rev. Samuel Semple, D. D. 



T. D. McCloskey 
J. S. Crutchfield 
James Rae 



STANDING COMMITTEES 



S. N. Hutchison, D. D. 
A. C. Robinson 



Executive 

Hugh T. Kerr, D. D. 

Joseph M. Duff, D. D. 

T. D. McCloskey 

James A. Kelso, Ph. D., D. D., ex officio 
George Taylor, Jr., Ph. D., D. D., ex officio 
George C Fisher, D. D., ex officio 



duTiculum 



A. P. Higley, D. D. 
Samuel Semple, D. D. 



William F. Weir, D. D. 
J. S. Crutchfield 



Annual Meeting, Thursday before second Tuesday in May, at 10 
A. M., and semi-annual meeting, third Tuesday in November at 
2:00 P. M., in the President's Office, Herron Hall. 

7 (55) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



FACULTY 



The Rev. James A. Kelso, Ph. D., D. D., LL. D. 

President and Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Literature 
The Nathaniel W. Conkling Foundation 

The Rev. David Riddle Bkeed, D. D., LL. D. 

Professor of Homiletics 

The Rev. William R. Farmer, D. D. 

Reunion Professor of Sacred Rhetoric and Elocution 

The Rev. James H. Si^owDEi^r, D. D., LL. D. 

Professor of Apologetics 

The Rev. Selby Frame Vance, D. D., LL. D. 

Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Literature 

The Rev. David E. Culley, Ph. D., D. D. 

Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Literature 

The Rev. Frank Eakin, Ph. D. 

Professor of Ecclesiastical History and History of Doctrine 



George M. Sleeth, Litt. D. 

Instructor in Speech Expression 

Charles N. Boyd, Mus. D. 

Instructor in Music 

The Rev. Wm. H. Orr, S. T. M. 

Instructor in Systematic Theology 

The Rev. Charles A. McCrea, D. D. 

Instructor in Greek 

The Rev. Stanley Scott, Ph. D. 

Instructor in Religious Education 

8 (56) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



COMMITTEES OF THE FACULTY 

Conference 

Dr. Kelso and De. Vance 

Elliott Lectureship 

Dr. Kelso and Dr. Farmer 

BnUetin 

Dk. Culley and Dr. Eakin 

Curriculum 

Dr. Farmer and Dr. Vance 

Library 

Dr. Culley and Dr. Eakin 

Advisory Member of All Committees 

Dr. Kelso, ex officio 



Secretary to the President 

Miss Margaret M. Read 

Assistant to the Librarian 

Miss Agnes D. MacDonald 



9 (57) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 
LECTURES 

Opening Lecture 

The Rev. Andrew K. Rule, Ph. D. 
"The Personality of God: a Defence" 

On the Eliott Foundation 

The Rev. Maitland Alexander, D. D., LL. D. 
"The Pastor and His Methods" 

1. "The Minister and His Personality" 

2. "The Minister and His Sermons" 

3. "The Minister and His Organizations" 

4. "The Sunday School; The Pastor's Relation to it" 

5. "Institutional Work" 

Conference Lectures 

The Rev. Henry A. Atkinson, D. D. 

"International Relations" 
The Rev. David R. Breed, D. D., LL. D. 

"St. Francis of Assisi" (illustrated) 
The Rev. Reid S. Dickson 

"The Pension Plan" 
The Rev. Lindsay S. B. Hadley 

"The New Age in Foreign Missions" 
Dr. Sam Higginbottom 

"Economic Consequences of Hinduism" 
The Rev. J. L. Hooper 

"Mission Work in the Philippine Islands" 
The Rev. Stuart Nye Hutchison, D.D. 

"The Minister in the Modern World" 
Prof. Paul M. Kanamori 

"Three Hour Sermon" 
Dr. Earl A. Kernahan 

"Personal Evangelism" 
The Rev. Hugh T. Kerr, D. D. 

"Historic Presbyterianism" 
Bishop Francis J. McConnell, D. D. 

"Latin America" 
Chaplain A. N. Park 

"Religious Education in the U. S. Navy" 
The Rev. Charles E. Patton 

"Some Sidelights on the Situation in China" 
The Rev. Lee Anna Star, D. D., LL. D. 

"The Bible Status of Woman" 
The Rev. Joseph A. Vance, D. D., LL.D. 

"An Overpaid Vocation" 

10 (58) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



AWARDS: MAY 6. 1926 



The Degree of Bachelor of Sacred Theology 

was conferred upon 

Horace Edward Chandler Paul T. Gerrard 

Franz Omer Christopher James Henry Gillespie 

John Lyman Eakin Herbert Beecher Hudnut 

Newton Carl Elder William Owen 

James Herbert Garner Victor Charles PfeifiEer 

Fred Eliot Robb 

A Certificate 

was awarded to 

John A. Clark Philip L. Williams 

The Degree of Master of Sacred Theology 

was conferred upon 

John Arndt Yount (of the Graduate Class) 
James Herbert Garner (of the Graduating Class) 

The Seminary Fellowship 

was awarded to 

John Lyman Eakin 

Honorable Mention 

Newton Carl Elder James Herbert Garner 

The Keith Memorial Homiletical Prize 

was awarded to 

Newton Carl Elder 

The Hebrew Prize 

was awarded to 

Byron Elmer Allender 

Merit Prizes 

were awarded to 

Lloyd David Homer Ralph W. E. Kaufman 

Byron Elmer Allender William Semple, Jr. 

11 (59) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



STUDENTS 

Fellows 

David K. Allen, Mamont, Pa. ..106 Marchmont Road, Edinburgh, 

Scotland. 
A. B., College of Wooster, 1922. 
S. T. B., Western Theological Seminary, 1925. 

John Lyman Eakin Bangkok, Siam. 

A. B., Washington and Jefferson College, 1923. 
S. T. B., Western Theological Seminary, 1926. 

Willard Colby Mellin Rimersburg, Pa. 

A. B., University of California, 1920. 

S. T. B., Western Theological Seminary, 1923. 

Harold Francis Post Petersburg, Ohio. 

A. B., Washington and Jefferson College, 1918. 
S. T. M., Western Theological Seminary, 1924. 

George Henry Rutherford Dillonvale, Ohio. 

A. B., College of Wooster, 1922. 

S. T. B., Western Theological Seminary, 1925. 

Fellows, 5. 



Graduate Students 

John K. Boston 1332 Liverpool Street, N. S. 

A. B., College of Wooster, 1914. 

S. T. B., Western Theological Seminary, 1917. 

Welsh Sproule Boyd 1517 Fallowfield Avenue 

A. B., West Virginia Wesleyan College, 1921. 

B. D., Drew Theological Seminary, 1924. 

Edna Patterson Chubb (Mrs. A. L.) . .109 Licoln Ave., Bellevue, Pa. 
Michigan State Normal School. 
Divinity School, University of Chicago. 

*Claude Sawtell Conley R. F. D. 2, Parnassus, Pa. 

Nyack Missionary Institute, 1922. 

S. T. B., Western Theological Seminary, 1925. 

* Maxwell Cornelius 201 Waldorf Street, N. S. 

A. B., University of Wooster, 1911. 

S. T. B., Western Theological Seminary, 1914. 

*Zolton Csorba, Szentmihalyuit 104, Rakospalota, Hungary,. . . .318 

Miskolczi Reformatus Fogymnazium, 1922. 
Eretts^gi, University of Biudapest, 1924. 
Reformed Theological Seminary, Budapest 

B. D., Central Theological Seminary, Dayton, Ohio, 1926. 



*Candidate for the degree of S. T. M. 

12 (60) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

*Karoly Dobos, 2094 Laktanya Korut, Szolnok, Hungary 318 

Eretts6gi, Allami Fogymnazium, 1921. 

Reformed Theological Seminary, Budapest. 

B. D., Central Theological Seminary, Dayton, Ohio, 1925. 

S. T. M., Pittsburgh Theological Seminary, 1926. 

Ermanno E. Genre, Inverso Pinasca, Turin, Italy 215 

Ginnasio-Liceo, Torre Pellice, 1922. 

Cand. Theol., Waldensian Theological Seminary, Rome, 
1925. 

Jacob Lott Hartzell, Prae, Siam 315 

A. B., Trinity College, 1908. 
Lane Theological Seminary, 1911. 

*Melvin Clyde Horst Windber, Pa. 

A. B., Juniata College, 1923. 

B. D., School of Theology, Juniata College, 1924. 

* Charles Kovacs, Nagyenyed, Baroczy, U. 4., Roumania 110 

University of Budapest 1918. 

Budapest Reformed Theological Seminary of Dunamellek 
District, 1915. 

* John Maurice Leister Florence, Pa. 

A. B., Lebanon Valley College, 1915. 
S. T. B., Western Theological Seminary, 1924. 
William Ellsworth Marshall East Butler. Pa. 

A. B., Grove City College, 19 04. 

B. D., Auburn Theological Seminary, 1916. 

Owen Wilborn Moran 122 Whitfield Street. 

B. S., University of Pittsburgh, 1926. 

B. C. T., Baptist Bible Institute, 1922. 
George Joseph Muller 1208 Iten St., N. S. 

A. M., Muhlenberg College, 1906. 
*Walter Brown Purnell Imperial, Pa. 

A. B., Grove City College, 1911. 

S. T. B., Western Theological Seminary, 1914. 
*Howard Rodgers 141 Oliver Ave., Bellevue, Pa. 

A. B., Grove City College, 1915. 

iS. T. B., Western Theological Seminary, 1918. 
August Francis Runtz 333 7 East Street, N. S. 

German Department, Rochester Theological Seminary, 
1913. 

Rochester Theological Seminary, 1916. 
Arthur A. Schade • 75 Onyx Ave. 

German Dept., Rochester Theological Seminary, 1910. 

A. B., Oskaloosa College, 1921. 
Harry S. D. Shimp R- D. 1, Oakdale, Pa. 

Westminster Theological Seminary, 1913. 
Hugh Alexander Smith, 38 Penn Avenue, W. Irwin, Pa 314 

Glasgow University, 1900. 

S. T. B., Western Theological Seminary, 19 03. 



*Candidate for the degree of S.T.M. 

13 (61) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Robert Lincoln Smith 2 Mansion Street. 

Moody Bible Institute. 
Frederick Stueber 432 Talco St., N. S. 

A. B., Gettysburg College, 1923. 
Gettysburg Theological Seminary, 1926. 

Isaac Kelley Teal 300 N. Negley Ave. 

B. S., Waynesburg College, 1910. 

Giovanni Arnold Vecchio, 536i/^-5th Ave., McKeesport, Pa. ...202 

A. B., Upsala College, 1924. 
Bloomfield Theological Seminary, 1923. 

B. D., Drew Theological Seminary, 1925. 

Arthur Christian Waldkoenig 1309 Paulson Avenue. 

A. B., Gettysburg College, 1920. 
Gettysburg Theological Seminary, 1923. 

Philip L. Williams, Marion, Ind 317 

B. A. S., Young Men's Christian Association College, Chi- 

cago, 1922. 
"Western Theological Seminary, 1926. 

Edward Myrten Wilson 1142 Wayne Ave., McKees Rocks, Pa. 

B. D., Kenyon College, 1922. 
Divinity School, Kenyon College. 

Graduate Students 28 



Senior Class 

JWilliam Augustus Ashley 855 Hazlett Avenue, Lincoln, Place, Pa. 

Agricultural and Mechanical College of N.C., Raleigh, N.C. 
Crawford McCoy Coulter 1316 Western Avenue, N. S. 

A. B., Washington and Jefferson College, 1924. 

Thomas Davis Ewing, 1516 South Negley Avenue 303 

A. B., Princeton University, 1921. 

A. M., American University of Beirut, 1924. 

$ Joseph Steve Fejes, 8815 Buckeye Rd., Cleveland, 110 

A. B., University of Dubuque, 1926. 

Byron Stanley Fruit 1316 Western Avenue, N. S. 

B. Sc, University of Pittsburgh, 1924. 

William Austin Gilleland, Dunbar, Pa 217 

A. B., Washington and Jefferson College, 1924. 

Darwin M. Haynes, Hanover, Ohio 316 

A. B., Muskingum College, 1923. 

Paul Hagerty Hazlett, Newark, Ohio 302 

A. B., Denison University, 1924. 

Lloyd David Homer, Fredonia, Pa 304 

B. Sc, Grove City College, 1922. 



$Not a candidate for a degree. 
14 (62) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Semvnary 

Edgar Coe Irwin, 833 Allison Avenue, Washington, Pa 304 

A. B., Washington and Jefferson College, 1924. 

Ralph Waldo Emerson Kaufman, Cross Creek, Pa 204 

A. B., Albright College, 1924. 

James Allen Kestle, Belief ontaine, 302 

A. B., Ohio Wesleyan University, 1924. 

$Martin Rudolph Kuehn, Richmond, Ind 206 

A. iB., Earlham College, 1918. 

^William C. Marquis Baden, Pa. 

Mount Union College. 

Theodore Evan Miller 411 S. Graham Street 

A. B., Lafayette College, 1921. 

William Victor E. Parsons .841 N. Lincoln Ave., N. S. 

Bourne College, Birmingham, England, 1919. 

A. of A., Oxford University, 1919. 

Oswald Otto Schwalbe, 106 W. Mowry St., Chester, Pa 315 

Th. B., Gordon College, 1925. 

John Alvin Stuart, 151 East 6th St., Erie, Pa 205 

B. Sc, Grove City College, 1924. 

Joseph Carter Swaim, Brownsville, Pa 303 

A. B., Washington and Jefferson College, 1925. 

Clarence R. Thayer, Scranton, Pa 202 

A. B., University of Pittsburgh, 1922. 

tJohn S. Vance, West Brownsville, Pa 206 

Guy Hector Volpitto, Johnstown, Pa 205 

A. B., Washington and Jefferson College, 1924. 

Senior Class, 22 • 



Middle Class 

Byron Elmer Allender, 640 Allison Ave., Washington, Pa 217 

A. B., Washington and Jefferson College, 192 5. 

James E. Fawcett 52 Waldorf Street, N. S. 

A. B., Maryville College, 1925. 
George Lee Forney . .R. F. D. 9, Box 74, S. Hills Branch, Pgh., Pa. 

A. B., Geneva College, 1925. 
William Semple, Jr., 7941 Division St., Pittsburgh, Pa 203 

A. B., University of Pittsburgh, 1923. 

$Not a candidate for a degree. 

15 (63) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Linson Harper Stebbins, 4 Myrtle St., Warren, Pa 203 

A. B., Westminster College (Pa.), 1925. 
Pasquale Vocaturo, 2211 S. Colorado St., PMladelphla, Pa. ... .218 

Gymnasium, Nicastro, Italy. 
Joseph Lawrence Weaver, Jr .78 Grant Ave., Etna, Pa. 

Colorado College. 
Peter Zurawetzky, Uhriw, Ukraine 214 

Bloomfield Theological Seminary. 
Middle Class, 8 



Jiuilor Class 

H. Wayland Baldwin 1008 Zahniser St. 

A. B., Greenville College, 1925. 
$Harry Charles Blews . . .100 Ruth St., Mt. Washington, Pgh., Pa. 
Howard Salisbury Davis, West Sunbury, Pa 306 

A. B., Washington and Jefferson College, 1926. 
t(Miss) Hester Juanita Deller, South Bend, Ind. .939 Beech Ave., 

A. B., Pennsylvania College for Women, 192 5. N. R. 
Robert Lloyd Dieffenbacher, 925 West 30th St., Erie, Pa 202 

A. S., Lafayette College. 

William Fennell, Export, Pa 204 

A. B., University of Pittsburgh, 1925. 
Dwight Raymond Guthrie, 404 N. Fifth St., Apollo, Pa 305 

A. Bi., Grove City College, 1925. 

Charles Edward Haberly, Washington, Pa 210 

Washington and Jefferson College 
Morris Lyman Husted P. O. Box 94, South Heights, Pa. 

B. S., Washington and Jefferson College, 1926. 

ICharles Andrew Ittel 1216 Tremon Ave., N. S. 

James Howard Kelso, Unadilla, Nebr. 215 

A. B., Hastings College, 1926. 
Gerrit Labotz, Grand Rapids, Mich 314 

Kweek School, Doetichem, Holland, 1912. 
Joseph Luciejko, Lubycza, Ukraine 214 

Ukrainian School of Technology, Czecho-Slovakia. 

Bloomfield Theological Seminary. 
t(Miss) Elizabeth S. McKee, Waynesburg, Pa. ...241 N. Dithridge 

Washington Seminary 1908. St., E. E. 

George D. Massay 5008 Glenwood Ave. 

A. B., Bethany College, 1924. 
Lee Erwin Schaeffer, Apollo, Pa ....317 

A. B., Washington and Jefferson College, 1926. 
Archibald John Stewart, Mount Forest, Ontario, Canada 315 

Stratford Normal School, 1922. 
Oscar Sloan Whitacre, R. D. 2, Dayton, Pa 305 

A. B., Grove City College, 1926. 
Montague White, 836 Pennsylvania Ave., Youngstown, O ....306 

A. B., Hamilton College, 1922. 
Junior Class, 19 



$Not a candidate for a degree. 
tPursuing selected studies. 

16 (64) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



Summary of Students 

Fellows 5 

Graduates 28 

Seniors 22 

Middlers g 

Juniors 19 

Total 82 



REPRESENTATION 

Theological Seminaries 

Auburn Theological Seminary 1 

Baptist Bible Institute, New Orleans, La 1 

Bloomfield Theological Seminary 3 

Budapest Reformed Theological Seminary 3 

Central Theological Seminary, Dayton, Ohio 2 

Chicago, University of. Divinity School 1 

Drew Theological Seminary 2 

Gettysburg Theological Seminary 2 

Juniata College School of Theology 1 

Kenyon College Divinity School 1 

Lane Theological Seminary 1 

Moody Bible Institute 1 

Pittsburgh Theological Seminary 1 

Rochester Theological Seminary 1 

Waldensian Theological Seminary, Rome 1 

Western Theological Seminary 13 

Westminster Theological Seminary 1 

Yale Divinity School 1 

Colleges and Universities 

Agricultural and Mechanical College of N. C, Raleigh, N. C. . . 1 

Albright College 1 

Allami Fogymnazium 1 

Beirut, American University of 1 

Bethany College '. 1 

Bourne College, Birmingham, England 1 

Budapest, University' of 2 

California, University of 1 

Colorado College 1 

Denison University 1 

Dubuque, University of 1 

Earlham College 1 

17 (65) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Geneva College 1 

Gettysburg College 2 

Ginnasio-Liceo, Torre Pellice, Turin, Italy 1 

Glasgow, University of 1 

Greenville College 1 

Gordon Callege 1 

Grove City College 7 

Hamilton College 1 

Hastings College 1 

Juniata College 1 

Kenyon College 1 

Kweek School, Doetichem, Holland 1 

Lafayette College 2 

Lebanon Valley College 1 

Maryville College 1 

Michigan State Normal School 1 

Miskolczi Reformatus Fogymnazium 1 

Mount Union College 1 

Muhlenberg College 1 

Muskingum College 1 

Nicastro, Gymnasium in 1 

Nyack Missionary Institute 1 

Ohio Wesleyan University 1 

Oskaloosa College 1 

Oxford, University of 1 

Pennsylvania College for Women 1 

Pittsburgh, University of 5 

Princeton, University of 1 

Stratford Normal School 1 

Trinity College 1 

Ukrainian Technical School 1 

Upsiala College 1 

Washington and Jefferson College 12 

Washington Seminary 1 

Waynesburg College 1 

Westminster (Pa.) College 1 

West Virginia Wesleyan College 1 

Wooster, College of 4 

Y.M.C.A. College (Chicago) 1 

States and Countries 

Canada ; 1 

Hungary ... 2 

Indiana 3 

Italy 1 

Michigan 1 

Nebraska 1 

Ohio 7 

Pennsylvania 61 

Roumania 1 

Siam ... 2 

Ukraine 2 

18 (66) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

STUDENT ORGANIZATIONS 

Senior Class 

President: E. C. Irwin Secretary: C. M. Coulter 

Vice President: Paul H. Hazlett Treasurer: Darwin M. Haynes 

Middle Class 

President: B. E. Allender Vice President: Linson H. Stebbins 
Secretary-Treasurer: G. Lee Forney 

Junior Class 

President: Montague White Vice President: Dwight M. Guthrie 
Secretary-Treasurer: Howard S. Davis 

Y. M. C. A. 

President: Thomas D. Ewing Secretary: James Allen Kestle 
Vice President: E. C. Irwin Treasurer: William Semple, Jr. 



Y M. C. A. COMMITTEES 



Devotional 



Lloyd D. Homer, Chairman G. Lee Forney 

Paul H. Hazlett Oscar Sloan Whitaker 

R. W. E. Kaufman Dr. D. E. Culley 

Athletics 

Byron S. Fruit, Chairman Dwight R. Guthrie 

Guy H. Volpitto Dr. Frank E. Eakin 

B. E. Allender 

Publicity 

J. C. Swaim, Chairman A. J. Stewart 

W. V. E. Parsons Dr. Selby F. Vance 

J. L. Weaver, Jr. 

Social 

B. E. Allender, Chairman William Semple, Jr. 

Lloyd D. Homer Linson H. Stebbins 

James Allen Kestle Howard S. Davis 

Montague White Dr. Wm. R. Farmer 

Cosmopolitan Club 

President: Karoly Dobos Secretary: A. J. Stewart 

19 (67) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Historical Sketch 

The Western Theological Seminary was established 
in the year 1825. The reason for the founding of the 
Seminary is expressed in the resolution on the subject, 
adopted by the General Assembly of 1825, to wit: ''It 
is expedient forthwith to establish a Theological Semi- 
nary in the West, to be styled the Western Theological 
Seminary of the Presbyterian Church in the United 
States". The Assembly took active measures for carry- 
ing into execution the resolution which had been adopted, 
by electing a Board of Directors consisting of twenty- 
one ministers and nine ruling elders, and by instructing 
this Board to report to the next General Assembly a 
suitable location and such "alterations" in the plan of 
the Princeton Seminary as, in their judgment, might 
be necessary to accommodate it to the local situation of 
the "Western Seminary". 

The General Assembly of 1827, by a bare majority 
of two votes, selected Allegheny as the location for the 
new institution. The first session was formally com- 
menced on November 16, 1827, with a class of four young 
men who were instructed by the Eev. E. P. Swift and the 
Rev. Joseph Stockton. 

During the ninety-nine years of her existence, two 
thousand five hundred and forty-seven students have 
attended the classes of the Western Theological Semi- 
nary; and of this number, over nineteen hundred have 
been ordained as ministers of the Presbyterian Church, 
U. S. A. Her missionary alumni, one hundred forty-four 
in number, many of them having distinguished careers, 
have preached the Gospel in every land where mission- 
ary enterprise is conducted. 

Location 

The choice of location, as the history of the institu- 
tion has shown, was wisely made. The Seminary in 

20 (68) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

course of time ceased, indeed, to be western in the strict 
sense of the term; but it became central to one of the 
most important and influential sections of the Presby- 
terian Church, equally accessible to the West and East. 
The buildings are situated near the summit of Ridge 
Avenue, Pittsburgh (North Side), mainly on West Park, 
one of the most attractive sections of the city. Within 
a block of the Seminary property some of the finest resi- 
dences of G-reater Pittsburgh are to be found, and at the 
close of the catalogue prospective students will find a 
map showing the beautiful environs of the institution. 
It is twenty minutes' walk from the center of business 
in Pittsburgh, with a ready access to all portions of the 
city, and yet as quiet and free from disturbance as if in 
a remote suburb. In the midst of this community of 
more than 1,000,000 people and center of strong Presby- 
terian churches and church life, the students have unlim- 
ited opportunities of gaining familiarity with every t^^pe 
of modern church organization and work. The practical 
experience and insight which they are able to acquire, 
without detriment to their studies, are a most valuable 
element in their preparation for the ministry. 

Buildings 

The first Seminary building was erected in the year 
1831; it was situated on what is now known as Monu- 
ment Hill. It consisted of a central edifice, sixty feet 
in length by fifty in breadth, of four stories, having at 
each front a portico adorned with Corinthian colunms, 
and a cupola in the center ; and also two wings of three 
stories each, fifty feet by twenty-five. It contained a 
chapel forty-five feet by twenty-five, with a gallery of 
like dimensions for the library ; suites of rooms for pro- 
fessors, and accommodations for eighty students. It 
was continuously occupied imtil 1854, when it was com- 
pletely destroyed by fire, the exact date being January 
23d. 

21 (69) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

The second Seminary building, usually designated 
"Seminary Hall", was erected in 1855, and formally 
dedicated January 10, 1856. This structure was consid- 
erably smaller than the original building, but contained 
a chapel, class rooms, and suites of rooms for twenty stu- 
dents. It was partially destroyed by fire in 1887 and 
was immediately revamped. Seminary HaU was torn 
down November 1, 1914, to make room for the new 
buildings. 

The first dormitory was made possible by the gen- 
erosity of Mrs. Hetty E. Beatty. It was erected in 
the year 1859 and was known as "Beatty Hall". This 
structure had become wholly inadequate to the needs of 
the institution by 1877, and the Eev. C. C. Beatty fur- 
nished the funds for a new dormitory which was known 
as "Memorial Hall", as Dr. Beatty wished to make the 
edifice commemorate the reunion of the Old and New 
School branches of the Presbyterian Church. 

The old library building was erected in 1872 at an 
expenditure of $25,000, but was poorly adapted to library 
purposes. It has been replaced by a modern library 
equipment in the group of new buildings. 

For the past fifteen years the authorities of the Semi- 
nary, as well as the almuni, have felt that the material 
equipment of the institution did not meet the require- 
ments of our age. In 1909 plans were made for the erec- 
tion of a new dormitory on the combined site of Memorial 
Hall and the professor's house which stood next to it. 
The corner stone of this building was laid May 4, 1911, 
and the dedication took place May 9, 1912. The historic 
designation, "Memorial Hall", was retained. The total 
cost was $146,970; this fund was contributed by many 
friends and alumni of. the Seminary. Competent judges 
consider it one of the handsomest public buildings in the 
City of Pittsburgh. It is laid out in the shape of a Y, 
which is an unusual design for a college building, but 
brings direct sunlight to every room. Another notice- 

22 (70) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

able feature of this dormitory is that there is not a single 
inside room of any kind. The architecture is of the type 
known as Tudor Gothic; the materials are reenforced 
concrete and fireproofing, with the exterior of tapestry 
brick trimmed with gray terra cotta. The center is sur- 
mounted with a beautiful tower in the Oxford manner. 
It contains suites of rooms for seventy students, together 
with a handsomely furnished social hall, a well equipped 
gymnasium, and a commodious dining room. A full 
description of these public rooms will be found on other 
pages of this catalogue. 

The erection of two wings of a new group of build- 
ings, for convenience termed the administration group, 
was commenced in November, 1914. The corner stone 
<vas laid on May 6, 1915, and the formal dedication, with 
appropriate exercises, took place on Commencement 
Day, May 4, 1916. These buildings are removed about 
half a block from Memorial Hall, and face the West 
Park, occupying an unusually fine site. It has been 
planned to erect this group in the form of a quadrangle, 
the entire length being 200 feet and depth 175 feet. 
The main architectural feature of the front wing is 
an entrance tower. While this tower enhances the 
beauty of the building, all the space in it has been care- 
fully used for offices and classrooms. The rear wing, 
in addition to containing two large classrooms which 
can be thrown into one, contains the new library. The 
stack room has a capacity for 165,000 volumes. The 
stacks now installed will hold about 55,000 volumes. The 
reference room and the administrative offices of the li- 
brary, -svith seminar rooms, are found on the second floor. 
The reference room, 88 by 38 feet, is equipped and dec- 
orated in the mediaeval Gothic style, with capacity for 
10,000 volumes. The architecture of the entire group is 
the English Collegiate Gothic of the type which prevails 
in the college buildings at Cambridge, England. The ma- 
terial is tapestry brick, trimmed with gray terra cotta of 

23 (71) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

the Indiana limestone shade. The total cost of the two 
completed wings was $154,777.00, of which $130,000.00 
was furnished by over five hundred subscribers in the 
campaign of October, 1913. The east wing of this group 
will contain rooms for museums, two classrooms, and a 
residence for the President of the Seminary. A gener- 
ous donor has provided the funds for the erection of the 
chapel, which will constitute the west wing of the quad- 
rangle. The architect is Mr. Thomas Hannah, of Pitts- 
burgh. 

There are four residences for professors. Two are 
situated on the east and two on the west side of the new 
building and all face the Park. 

Social Hall 

The new dormitory contains a large social hall, 
which occupies an entire floor in one wing. This room 
is very handsomely finished in white quartered oak, with 
a large open fireplace at one end. The oak furnishing, 
which is upholstered in leather, is very elegant and was 
chosen to match the woodwork. The prevailing color in 
the decorations is dark green and the rugs are Hartford 
Saxony in oriental patterns. The rugs were especially 
woven for the room. This handsome room was erected 
and furnished by Mr. Sylvester S. Marvin, of the Board 
of Trustees, and his two sons, AYalter K. Marvin and Earl 
R. Marvin, as a memorial to Mrs. Matilda Rumsey Mar- 
vin. It is the center of the social life of the student 
body, and during the past year, under the auspices of the 
Student Association, four formal musicals and socials 
have been held in this hall. The weekly devotional meet- 
ing of the Student Association is also conducted in this 
room. 

Dining Hall 

A commodious and handsomely equipped dining 
hall was included in the new Memorial Hall. It is lo- 

24 (72) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

cated in the top story of the left wing, with the kitchen 
adjoining in the rear wing. Architecturally this room 
may be described as Grothic, and when the artistic scheme 
of decoration is completed will be a replica of the din- 
ing hall of an Oxford college. The actual operation of 
the commons began Dec, 1, 1913; the management is in 
the hands of a student manager and the Executive Com- 
mittee of the Student Association. It is the aim of the 
Trustees of the Seminary to furnish good wholesome 
food at cost; but incidentally the assembling of the stu- 
dent body three times a day has strengthened, to a 
marked degree, the social and spiritual life of the insti- 
tution. 

Library 

The library of the Seminary is now housed in its 
new home in Swift Hall, the south wing of the group of 
new buildings dedicated at the Commencement season, 
1916. This steel frame and fireproof structure is English 
Collegiate Gothic in architectural design and provides 
the library with an external equipment which, for beauty 
and completeness, is scarcely surpassed by any theolog- 
ical institution on this continent. The handsome beam- 
ceilinged reading room is furnished in keeping with the 
architecture. It is equipped with individual reading 
lamps and accommodates many hundred circulating 
volumes, besides reference books and current periodicals. 
Adjoining this are rooms for library administration. 
There is also a large, quiet seminar room for all those 
who wish to conduct researches, where the volumes that 
the library contains treating particular subjects may be 
assembled and used at convenience. A stack room with 
a capacity for about 165,000 volumes has been pro- 
vided and now^ has a steel stack equipment with space 
for about 55,000 volumes. 

The library has recently come into possession of a 
unique hymnological collection of great value. It con- 
sists of 9 to 10 thousand volumes assembled by the late 

25 (73) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Mr. James Warrington, of PMladelphia. During his 
lifetime Mr. Warrington made the study of Church Music 
his chief pastime and had gathered together all the ma- 
terial of any value published in Great Britain and Amer- 
ica dealing with his favorite theme. The library is 
exceedingly fortunate in the acquisition of this note- 
worthy collection, which will not only serve to enhance 
the work of the music department of the Seminary but 
offers to scholars and investigators, interested in the field 
of British and American Church Music, facilities un- 
equaled by any theological collection in the country. The 
collection, together with Mr. Warrington's original cata- 
logue and bibliographical material, occupies a separate 
room in the new building. The latter has been arranged 
and placed in new filing cabinets, thus rendering it con- 
venient and accessible. Already in recent years, before 
the purchase of Mr. Warrington's collection had been 
thought of for the library, the department of h5annology 
had been enlarged, and embraced much that relates to the 
history and study of Church Music. 

Other departments of the library also have been 
built up and are now much more complete. The mediae- 
val writers of Europe are well represented in excellent 
editions, and the collection of authorities on the Papacy 
is quite large. These collections, both for secular and 
church history, afford great assistance in research and 
original work. The department of sermons is supplied 
with the best examples of preaching — ancient and mod- 
ern — while every effort is made to obtain literature 
which bears upon the complete furnishing of the preacher 
and evangelist. To this end the missionary literature 
is rich in biography, travel, and education. Constant 
additions of the best writers on the oriental languages 
and Old Testament history are being made, and the li- 
brary grows richer in the works of the best scholars of 
Europe and America. The department of New Testa- 
ment Exegesis is well developed and being increased, not 

26 (74) 



The Bulletin of the West ern Theological Seminary 

only by the best commentaries and exegetical works, but 
also by those which through history, essay, and sociolo- 
gical study illuminate and portray the times, people, and 
customs of the Gospel Age. The library possesses a 
choice selection of works upon theology, philosophy, and 
ethics, and additions are being made of volumes which 
discuss the fundamental principles. "Wliile it is not 
thought desirable to include every author, the leading 
writers are given a place without regard to their creed. 
Increasing attention is being given to those writers who 
deal with the great social problems and the practical 
application of Christianity to the questions of ethical and 
social life. The number of works on the shelves of the 
library dealing with religious education has multiplied 
many fold in recent years, and new books in this im- 
portant field are being added constantly. 

The number of volumes in the library at present is, 
approximately, 40,000. This reckoning is exclusive of 
the Warrington collection, and neither does it include 
unbound pamphlet material. Over one hundred period- 
icals are currently received, not including annual reports, 
year books, government documents, and irregular con- 
tinuations. A modern card catalogue, in course of com- 
pletion, covers, at the present time, a great majority of 
the bound volumes in the library. 

The library is open on week days to all ministers 
and others, without restriction of creed, subject to the 
same rules as apply to students. Hours are from 9 to 
5; Saturdays from 9 to 12; Tuesday, Wednesday, and 
Thursday evenings from 7 to 9, 

The library is essentially theological, though it in- 
cludes much not to be strictly defined by that term; for 
general literature the students have access to the Car- 
negie Library, which is situated within five minutes ' walk 
of the Seminary buildings. 

The James L. Shields Book Purchasing Memorial 
Fund, with an endowment of $1,000, has been founded 

27 f75) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



by Mrs. Robert A. Watson, of Columbus, Ohio, in 
memory of her father, the late James L. Shields, of 
Blairsville, Pennsylvania. 



The library is receiving the following periodicals : 



Alte Orient. 

America. 

American Issue. 

American Journal of Archaeology 

American Journal of Philology. 

American Journal of Semitic 

Languages and Literatures. 
American Journal of Sociology. 
American Lutheran Survey, 
Ancient Egypt. 
Archiv fiir Reformations- 

geschichte. 
Art and Archseology. 
Asia. 

Atlantic Monthly. 
Auburn Seminary Record. 
Bible Champion. 
Biblical Review. 
Bibliotheca Sacra. 
B'nai B'rith. 
Book Review Digest 
British Weekly. 
Blulletin of American Schools of 

Oriental Research. 
Bulletin of National Conference 

of Social Work. 
Canadian Journal of Religious 

Thought 
Catholic Historical Review. 
Chinese Recorder. 
Christian Century. 
Christian Education 
Christian Endeavor World. 
Christian Herald. 
Christian Observer 
Churchman. 
Congregationalist 
Contemporary Review. 
Crozer Quarterly. 
Cumulative Book Index. 
East and West. 
Educational Review 
Expository Times. 
Federal Council Bulletin. 
Genetic Psychology Monographs 
Glory of Israel. 
Golden Book 

Harvard Theological Review. 
Hibbert Journal. 

28 



Holborn Review 

Homiletic Review. 

Humanity 

Inquiry 

Inter collegian 

International Index to Periodicals. 

International Journal of Ethics. 

International Journal of Religious 
Education 

International Review of Missions. 

Internationale Kirchliche 
Zeitschrift 

Jewish Missionary Magazine. 

Jewish Quarterly Review. 

Journal of American Oriental 
Society. 

Journal of Biblical Literature. 

Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. 

Journal of Hellenic Studies. 

Journal of Palestine Oriental 
Society. 

Journal of Presbyterian Histor- 
ical Society. 

Journal of Religion. 

Journal of Royal Asiatic Society. 

Journal of Theological Studies. 

Krest'ansk§ Listy. 

L'Aurore. 

Liberty. 

London Quarterly Review. 

Lutheran. 

Lutheran Quarterly. 

Magyar Egyhaz 

Magyarsag 

Mercer Dispatch 

Methodist Review. 

Missionary Herald. 

Missionary Review of the World. 

Modern Churchman. 

Month, The 

Moody Bible Institute Monthly. 

Moral Welfare 

Moslem World. 

Nation, The 

National Council for Prevention 
of War, News Bulletin 

National Geographic Magazine. 

National Republic 

(76) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



Neue Kirchliche Zeitschrift. 

New Near East 

New Republic. 

Nineteenth Century and After. 

North American Review. 

Our Jewish Neighbors. 

Outlook. 

Palestine Exploration Fund 

Park Stylus 

Pedagogical Seminary. 

Pittsburgh Christian Outlook. 

Pittsburgh Red Triangle 

Presbyterian. 

Presbyterian Advance. 

Presbyterian Banner. 

Presbyterian Magazine 

Princeton Theological Review. 

Quarterly Register of Reformed 

Churches. 
Quarterly Review. 
Reader's Guide. 
Reformed Church Review. 
Religious Education. 
Revue Arch^ologique 
Revue Biblique. 
Revue Chretienne 
Revue des Etudes Juives 



Revue d'Histoire et de 

Philosophie Religieuses. 
Russell Sage Foundation 
Sailors' Magazine. 
Siam Outlook, The 
Slovensky Kalvin. 
Specialty Salesman 
Survey, The 
Syria. 

Theologisches Literaturblatt 
Theologische Literaturzeitung. 
Theologische Studien und Kritiken. 
Times Literary Supplement 
United Presbyterian. 
Unity. 

Women and Missions. 
World To-morrow, The 
Yale Review. 
Zeitschrift fiir die Alttestament- 

liche Wissenschaft. 
Zeitschrift fiir Assyriologie. 
Zeitschrift der Deutschen Mor- 

genliindischen Gesellschaft. 
Zeitschrift des Deutschen Pala- 

stina-Vereins. 
Zeitschrift fiir Kirchengeschichte 
Zeitschrift fiir die Neutestament- 

liche Wissenschaft. 



Religious Exercises 

As the Seminary does not maintain public services 
on the Lord's Da}^, each student is expected to connect 
himself with one of the congregations in Pittsburgh, and 
thus to be under pastoral care and to perform his duties 
as a church member. 

Abundant opportunities for Christian work are af- 
forded by the various churches, missions, and benevo- 
lent societies of this large community. This kind of 
labor has been found no less useful for practical training 
than the work of supplying pulpits. Daily prayers at 
11 :20 A. M., which all the students are required to attend, 
are conducted by the Faculty. A meeting for prayer 
and conference, conducted by the professors, is held 
every Wednesday morning, at which addresses are made 
by the professors and invited speakers. 

29 (77) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Senior Preaching Service 

{See Study Courses 74, 47, 56.) 

Public worship is observed every Monday evening 
m the Seminary Chapel, from October to April, under 
the direction of the professor of homiletics. This ser- 
vice is intended to be in all respects what a regular 
church service should be. It is attended by the mem- 
bers of the faculty, the entire student body, and friends 
of the Seminary generally. It is conducted by members 
of the senior class in rotation. The Cecilia Choir is in 
attendance to lead the singing and furnish a suitable 
anthem. The service is designed to minister to the 
spiritual life of the Seminary and also to furnish a model 
of Presbyterian form and order. The exercises are all 
reviewed by the professor in charge at his next subse- 
quent meeting with the senior class. Members of the 
faculty are also expected to offer to the officiating 
student any suggestions they may deem desirable. 

Students' Y. M. C. A. 

This society has been recently organized under the 
direction of the Faculty, which is represented on each 
one of the committees. Students are ipso facto and mem- 
bers of the Faculty ex officio members of the Seminary 
Y. M. C. A. Meetings are held weekly, the exercises be- 
ing alternately missionary and devotional. It is the suc- 
cessor of the Students' Missionary Society, and its spe- 
cial object is to stimulate the missionary zeal of its 
members; but the name and form of the organization 
have been changed for the purpose of a larger and more 
helpful cooperation with similar societies. 

Christian Work 

The City of Pittsburgh affords unusual opportuni- 
ties for an adequate study of the manifold forms of mod- 
ern Christian activity. Students are encouraged to en- 
gage in some form of Christian work other than preach- 
so (78) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Semimary 

ing, as it is both a stimulus to devotional life and forms 
an important element in a training for the pastorate. 
Regular religious work of various types has been carried 
on under the direction of committees of the Y. M, C. A., 
in connection with missions and philanthropic institu- 
tions of the city. Several students have had charge of 
mission churches in various parts of the city while others 
have been assistants in Sunday School work or have con- 
ducted Teacher Training Classes. Those who are in- 
terested in settlement work have unusual opportunities 
of familiarizing themselves with this form of social ac- 
tivity at the Wood's Run Industrial Home, the Kingsley 
House, and the Heinz Settlement. 



Bureau of Preaching Supply 

A bureau of preaching supply has been organized by 
the Faculty for the purpose of apportioning supply work, 
as request comes in from vacant churches. No at- 
tempt is made to secure places for students either hy ad- 
vertising or hy application to Preshyterial Comrnittees. 
The allotment of places is in alphabetical order. The 
members of the senior class and regularly enrolled 
graduate students have the preference over the middle 
class, and the middle class in turn over the junior. 

Rules Governing the Distribution of Calls for 
Preaching 

1. All allotment of preaching will be made directly from the 

President's Oflace by the President of the Seminary or a 
member of the Faculty. . 

2. Calls for preaching will be assigned in alphabetical order, the 

members of the senior class having the preference, followed 
in turn by the middle and junior classes. 

3. In case a church names a student in its request, the call will 

be offered to the person mentioned; if he decline, it will be 
assigned according to Rule 2, and the church will be notified. 

4. If a student who has accepted an assignment finds it impossible 

to fill the engagement, he is to notify the oflSce, when a new 

31 (79) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

arrangement will be made and the student thus giving up 
an appointment will lose his turn as provided for under Rule 
2; but two students who have received appointments from 
the office may exchange with each other. 

5. All students supplying churches regularly are expected to re- 

port this fact and their names will not be included in the al- 
phabetic roll according to the provisions of Rule 2. 

6. When a church asks the Faculty to name a candidate from the 

senior or post-graduate classes, Rule 2 in regard to alpha- 
betic order will not apply, but the person sent will lose his 
turn. In other words, a student will not be treated both as 
a candidate and as an occasional supply. 

7. Graduate students, complying with Rule 6 governing scholar- 

ship aid, will be put in the roll of the senior class. 

8. If there are not sufficient calls for the entire senior class any 

week, the assignments the following week will commence at 
the point in the roll where they left off the previous week, 
but no middler will be sent any given week until all the 
seniors are assigned. The middle class will be treated in the 
same manner as the senior, i. e., every member of the class 
will have an opportunity to go, before the head of the roll 
is assigned a second time. No junior will be sent out until all 
the members of the two upper classes are assigned, but, like 
the members of the senior and middle classes, each member 
will have an equal chance. 

9. These rules in regard to preaching are regulations of the Fac- 

ulty and as such are binding on all matriculants of the Sem- 
inary. A student who disregards them or interferes with 
their enforcement will make himself liable to discipline, and 
forfeit his right to receive scholarship aid. 
10. A student receiving an invitation directly is at liberty to fill 
the engagement, but must notify the oflBce, and will lose 
his turn according to Rule 2. 



Physical Training 

In 1912 the Seminary opened its own gymnasium 
in the new dormitory. This gymnasium is thoroughly 
equipped with the most modern apparatus. Its floor and 
walls are properly spaced and marked for basket ball 
and handball courts. It is open to students five hours 
daily. The students also have access to the public ten- 
nis courts in West Park. 

Expenses 

A fee of ten dollars a year is required to be paid to 
the contingent fund for the heating and care of the li- 

32 (80) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Semmary 



brary and lecture rooms. Students residing in the dor- 
mitory and in rented rooms pay an additional twenty 
dollars for natural gas and service. 

All students who reside in the dormitory are re- 
quired to take their meals in the Seminary dining hall. 
The price for boarding is six dollars and a half per week. 

Prospective students may gain a reasonable idea. of 
their necessary expenses from the following table: 

Contingent Fee $ 30 

Boarding for 32 weeks 208 

Books 40 

Gymnasium Fee 2 

Y. M. C. A. Fee 5 

Sundries 15 

Total $300 

Students in need of financial assistance should ap- 
ply for aid, through their Presbyteries, to the Board of 
Education. The sums thus acquired may be supple- 
mented from the scholarship funds of the Seminary. 



Scholarship Aid 

1. All students needing financial assistance may re- 
ceive aid from the scholarship fund of the Seminary. 

2. The distribution is made in four installments: 
on the last Tuesdays of September, November, January, 
and March. 

3. A student whose grade falls below "C", or 75 
per cent, or who has five absences from class exercises 
without satisfactory excuse, shall forfeit his right to aid 
from this source. The following are not considered valid 
grounds for excuse from recitations: (1) work on Pres- 
bytery parts; (2) preaching or evangelistic engagements, 
unless special permission has been received from the 
Faculty (Application must be made in writing for such 
permission) ; (3) private business, unless imperative. 

33 (81) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Semi/nary 

4. A student who so desires, may borrow Ms schol- 
arship aid, with the privilege of repayment after gradua- 
tion, this loan to be without interest. 

5. A student must take, as the minimum, twelve 
(12) hours of recitation work per week in order to obtain 
scholarship aid and have the privilege of a room in the 
Seminary dormitory. Work in Elocution and Music is 
regarded as supplementary to these twelve hours. 

6. Post-graduate students are not eligible to schol- 
arship aid, and, in order to have the privilege of occupy- 
ing a room in the dormitory, must take twelve hours of 
recitation and lecture work per week. 

Loan Funds 

The Eev. James H. Lyon, a member of the class of 
1864, has founded a loan fund by a gift of $200. Needy 
students can borrow small sums from this fund at a low 
rate of interest. 

Recently a friend of the Seminary, by a gift of 
$2500, established a Students' Loan and Self-help 
Fund. The principal is to be kept intact and the in- 
come is available for loans to students, which loans may 
be repaid after graduation. 

General Educational Advantages 

Pittsburgh is an ideal seat for a theological 
seminary, because it is one of the leading manufactur- 
ing and commercial cities of the country. It is obvious 
that a minister ought to come in contact with the prob- 
lems of community life in one of the great throbbing 
centers of activity, where every social problem is in- 
tensified, in order to be able to enter into sympathetic 
and intelligent relations with the people of the churches 
and communities which he may be called on to serve. 
To put it in a word, a term of residence in Pittsbnro'h 
brings a man into vital contact with life in its many 
complex modern forms. 

34 (S2) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

In Pittsburgh we find some of the largest, most 
aggressive, and best equipped churches of our com- 
munion. Pittsburgh Presbytery is the largest presby- 
tery of the Presbyterian Church, U. S. A., with 139 
churches and 209 ministers on its rolls. In 1926 the 
total membership of these churches was 65,945. On the 
rolls of the Presbytery there are twelve churches with a 
membership of between 1000 and 2100, and there is one 
church with a membership of more than 2900. The local 
national missionary budget of Pittsburgh Presbytery for 
the fiscal year 1926-7 reached a total of approximately 
$150,000. In addition, the Presbytery makes a large 
contribution to the work of the Board of National 
Missions. As might be expected, every type of modern 
church activity and organization is represented in 
the churches of this Presbytery. A student has abun- 
dant opportunity to familiarize himself with the organi- 
zation and methods of an efficient modern church, not 
merely through the study of a text book, but by personal 
observation or actual participation in the work. 

Not only do many of these churches carry on an 
extensive and aggressive program of social service, but 
in addition the student has access to the many social 
settlements and other centers of welfare work with 
which Pittsburgh is well supplied. To prospective stu- 
dents who are especially interested in this type of 
modern philanthropic activity a pamphlet giving de- 
tailed information on Pittsburgh as a social centre mil 
be mailed on request. 

In addition to being a manufacturing center, with 
the largest tonnage of any city in the world, Pitts- 
burgh is the seat of a University with an enrollment of 
10,131 (1925-6). Students of the Seminary have the 
privilege of attending the University and of receiving 
the Master's degree under certain conditions (see 
p. 56). Besides the University, there are the Carnegie 
Institute of Technology, the Pennsylvania College for 

35 (83) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Women, and the Pittsburgh Musical Institute. Dr. 
C. N. Boyd, our instructor in Church Music, is one of 
the directors of the Pittsburgh Musical Institute, and 
through him any student who is interested in music may 
have access to special lectures and classes. Some idea 
of Pittsburgh as a musical center may be gained from 
the fact that each week during the season from two to 
four or five concerts are announced for this city by the 
foremost artists and musical organizations of the coun- 
try. To these should be added the free organ recitals 
which are given every Saturday by Dr. Charles Hein- 
roth, one of the world's greatest organists, in Carnegie 
Music Hall. Pittsburgh also occupies a prominent 
place as an art center, with the notable permanent and 
frequent transient exhibits in the Carnegie Institute. 

In such a survey the library facilities of the city 
are not to be passed by. In addition to the Seminary 
library, which is exclusively theological in its scope and 
rich in its collections, there are the two Carnegie 
Libraries. The North Side Library, the first founded 
by Mr. Carnegie, in 1886, which is situated within five 
blocks of the Seminary buildings, affords the student 
ready access to general literature of every type. The 
main Library, in connection with the Carnegie Insti- 
tute, with its larger collections, is also available to the 
students. The Museum of the Carnegie Institute is of 
large educational value, and students will be well re- 
paid by a careful survey of its collections. 

Admission 

The Seminary, while under Presbyterian control, is 
open to students of all denominations. As its special 
aim is the training of men for the Christian ministry, 
applicants for admission are requested to present satis- 
factory testimonials that they possess good natural tal- 
ents, that they are prudent and discreet in their deport- 
ment, and that they are in full communion with some 

36 (84) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

evangelical church; also that they have the requisite 
literary preparation for the studies of the theological 
course. 

College students intending to enter the Seminary are 
strongly recommended to select such courses as will pre- 
pare them for the studies of a theological curriculum. 
They should pay special attention to Latin, Greek, Ger- 
man, English Literature and Rhetoric, Logic, Ethics, 
Psychology, the History of Philosophy, and General 
History. If possible, students are advised to take ele- 
mentary courses in Hebrew and make some study of 
New Testament Greek. For elementary study in the lat- 
ter subject Machen's "New Testament Greek for Be- 
ginners" and Nunn's "Short Syntax of New Testament 
Greek" are recommended. 

College graduates with degrees other than that of 
Bachelor of Arts' are required to take an extra elective 
study in their senior year. If an applicant for admis- 
sion is not a college graduate, he is required to submit 
evidence that he has had an education which is a fair 
equivalent of a college course. 

Students from Other Theological Seminaries 

Students coming from other theological seminaries 
are required to present certificates of good standing and 
regular dismissal before they can be received. 



Graduate Students 

Those who desire to be enrolled for post-graduate 
study will be admitted to matriculation on presenting 
their diplomas or certificates of graduation from other 
theological seminaries. 

Eesident licentiates and ministers have the privilege 
of attending lectures in all departments. 

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The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Seminary Year 

The Seminary year, consisting of one term, is di- 
vided into two semesters. The first semester closes the 
third week of January and the second commences the 
following Monday. The Seminary Year begins with the 
third Tuesday of September and closes the Thursday 
before the second Tuesday in May. It is expected that 
every student will be present at the opening of the ses- 
sion, when the rooms will be allotted. The more impor- 
tant days are indicated in the calendar (p. 3). 



Examinations 

Examinations, written or oral, are required in every 
department, and are held twice a year, or at the end of 
each semester. The oral examinations, which are held the 
day before Commencement, are open to the public. Stu- 
dents who do not pass satisfactory examinations may be 
re-examined at the beginning of the next term, but, fail- 
ing then to give satisfaction, will be regarded as partial 
or will be required to enter the class corresponding to 
the one to which they belonged the previous year. 



The Bachelor's Degree 

Upon graduation students receive the degree of 
Bachelor of Sacred Theology. The degree will be 
granted to those students who are graduates of an ac- 
credited college or who sustain satisfactory examina- 
tions, and who have completed a course of three years' 
study, pursued in this institution or partly in this and 
partly in some other regular theological Seminary. 

The candidate for the degree must pass satisfactory 
examinations in all departments of the Seminary 
curriculum and satisfy all requirements for attendance. 

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Men who have taken the full course at another Semi- 
nary, including the departments of Hebrew and Greek 
Exegesis, Dogmatic Theology, Church History, and Pas- 
toral Theology, and have received a diploma, will be en- 
titled to the Bachelor's degree from this Seminary on 
condition: (1) that they take the equivalent of a full 
year's work in a single year or two years; (2) that they 
be subject to the usual rules governing our classroom 
work, such as regular attendance and recitations; (3) 
that they pass the examinations with the classes of 
which they are members; (4) it is a further condition 
that such students attend exercises in at least three de- 
partments, one of which shall be either Greek or Hebrew 
Exegesis. ' . , 



Courses of Study 

The growth of the elective system in colleges has 
resulted in a wide variation in the equipment of the stu- 
dents entering the Seminary, and the broadening of the 
scope of practical Christian activity has necessitated a 
specialized training for ministerial candidates. In 
recognition of these conditions, the curriculum has been 
developed to prepare men for five different types of 
ministerial work: (1) the regular pastorate; (2) the 
foreign field; (3) home missionary service; (4) reli- 
gious education; (5) teaching the Bible in colleges. 

The elective system has been introduced with such 
restrictions as seemed necessary in view of the general 
aim of the Seminary. 

The elective courses are confined largely to the 
senior year, except that students who have already com- 
pleted certain courses of the Seminary curriculum will 
not be required to take them again, but may select from 
the list of electives such courses as will fill in the entire 
quota of hours. 

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The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Students who come to the Seminary with inade- 
quate preparation will be required to take certain ele- 
mentary courses, e. g., Greek, Hebrew, Philosophy. In 
some cases this may entail a four years' course in the 
Seminary, but students are urged to do all preliminary 
work in colleges. 

Fourteen hours of recitation and lecture work are 
required of Juniors, Middlers, and Seniors, and twelve 
hours of Grraduate Students. Those, entering the Junior 
Class without preparation in Greek will be expected to 
take three additional hours, and anyone desiring to take 
more than the required number of hours must make 
special application to the Faculty, and no student who 
falls below the grade "A" in his regular work will be 
allowed to take additional courses. A student absent 
from twenty-five per cent of the classroom exercises in 
any course will not receive credit for that course. 

In the senior year the only required courses are 
those in Practical Theology, N. T. Theology, and 0. T. 
Prophecy. The election of studies must be on the 
group system, one subject being regarded as major 
and another as minor; for examx)le, a student electing 
N. T. as a major must take four hours in this depart- 
ment and in addition must take one course in a closely 
related subject, such as 0. T. Theology or Exegesis. 
He must also write a thesis of not less than 4,000 words 
on some topic in the department from which he has 
selected his major. 



Hebrew Language and Old Testament Literature 
Dr. Kelso, Dr. Culley 

I. Linguistic Ckjurses 

The Hebrew language is studied from the philological stand- 
point in order to lay the foundations for the exegetical study of the 

40 (88) 




HEREON HALL 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Old Testament. With this end in view, courses are offered which 
aim to make the student thoroughly familiar with the chief exe- 
getical and critical problems of the Hebrew Scriptures. 

1. Introductory Hebrew Grammar. Exercises in reading and 
writing Hebrew and the acquisition of a working vocabulary. Gen. 
1-20. Three hours weekly throughout the year (five credits). Jun- 
iors. Required. Prof. Culley. 

2a. First Samuel I-XX or Judges. Rapid reading and exegesis. 
Preparation optional. One hour weekly throughout the year. All 
classes. Elective. Prof. Culley. Prerequisite, Course 1. 

2b. The Minor Prophets or Jeremiah. Rapid reading and exe- 
gesis. Preparation optional. One hour weekly throughout the year. 
Seniors and Graduates. Elective. Prof. Culley. 

3. Deuteronomy I-XX or one Book of Kings. Hebrew Syntax. 

Davidson's Hebrew Syntax or Driver's Hebrew Tenses. Two hours 
weekly throughout the year (three credits). Middlers. Elect'^e. 
(Middlers must elect either O. T. Exegesis 3 or O. T. Introduc.ion 
12.) Prof. Culley. 

7a. Biblical Aramaic. Grammar and study of Daniel 2:4b — 
7:28; Ezra 4:8 — 6:18; 7:12-26; Jeremiah 10:11. Reading of 
selected Aramaic Papyri from Elephantine. Two hours weekly first 
or second semester. Seniors and Graduates. Elective. Prof. 
Culley. 

7b. Elementary Arabic. A beginner's course in Arabic gram- 
mar is offered to students interested in advanced Semitic studies 
or those looking towards mission work in lands where a knowledge 
of Arabic is essential. One or two hours weekly throughout the 
year depending upon the requirements of the student. Prof. Culley. 

7c. Elementary Assyrian. After the mastery of the most com- 
mon signs and the elements of the grammar, Sennacherib's Annals 
(Taylor Cylinder) will be read. This course is intended for those 
who propose to specialize in Semitics or are preparing themselves 
to teach the Bible in Colleges. Prince, Assyrian Primer; Delitzsch, 
Assyrische Lesestiicke. Prerequisite, Courses 1, 3, 7a, 7b. Hours to 
be arranged. Prof. Kelso. 

II. Critical and Exegetical Courses 
A. Hebrew 

4. The Psalter. An exegetical course on the Psalms, with 
special reference to their critical and theological problems. One 
hour weekly, throughout the year. Seniors. Elective. Prof. Culley. 

5. Isaiah I-XII, and selections from XL-LXVI. An exegetical 
course paying special attention to the nature of prophecy and criti- 
cal questions. One hour weekly throughout the year (1927-8). 
Seniors. Elective. Prof. Kelso. 

6. Proverbs and Job. The interpretation of selected passages 
from Proverbs and Job which bear on the nature of Hebrew Wis- 
dom and Wisdom Literature. One hour weekly throughout the 
year (1927-8). Seniors and Graduates. Elective. Prof. Kelso. 

41 (89) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



Biblia Hebraica, ed. Kittel, and the Oxford Lexicon of the Old 
Testament are the text-books. 

In order to elect these courses, the student must have attained 
at least Grade B in courses 1 and 3. 

B. English 

8a. The History of the Hebrews. An outline course from the 
earliest times to the Assyria^n Period, in which the Biblical material 
is studied with the aid of a syllabus and reference books. Two 
hours weekly, second semester (1927-8). Juniors and Middlers. 
Required. Prof. Kelso. 

8b. The History of the Hebrews. A continuation of the pre- 
ceding course. The Babylonian, Persian, and Greek Periods. Two 
hours weekly, second semester (192 6-7). Juniors and Middlers. 
Required. Prof. Kelso. 

10. The Psalter, Hebrew Wisdom and Wisdom Literatiufe. In 
this course a critical study is made of the books of Job, Psalms, 
Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Solomon. One hour weekly, 
second semester. Seniors and Graduates. Elective. Prof. Kelso. 

11. Old Testament Prophecy and Prophets. In this course the 
general principles of prophecy are treated and a careful study is 
made of the chief prophetic books. Special attention is paid to the 
theological and social teachings of each prophet. The problems of 
literary criticism are also discussed. Syllabus and reference works. 
Required of Seniors, open to Graduates. Two hours weekly through- 
out the year. Prof. Kelso. 

12. Old Testament Introduction. This subject is presented 
in lectures, with collateral reading on the part of the students. Two 
hours weekly throughout the year. Middlers, Seniors, and Gradu- 
ates. Elective (Middlers must elect either this course or Course 3). 
Prof. Culley. 

25. Old Testament Theology (see p. 44). 

67. Biblical Apocalyptic. A careful study of the Apocalyptic 
element in the Old Testament with special reference to the Book 
of Daniel. After a brief investigation of the main features of the 
extra-canonical apocalypses, the Book of Revelation is examined in 
detail. One hour weekly throughout the year (1926-7). Seniors 
and Graduates. Elective. Prof. Kelso. 

69. The Book of Genesis. A critical exegetical study of th© 
Book of Genesis in English based upon the text of the American 
Revised Version. Seminar. Two hours weekly, one semester 
(1926-7). Seniors and Graduates. Elective. Prof. Kelso. 

All these courses are based on the English "Version as revised 
by modern criticism and interpreted by scientific exegesis. 



New Testament Literature and Exegesis 

Dr. Vance, Dr. McCrea 

A knowledge of New Testament Greek is required for gradu- 
ation. Students who enter without previous adequate knowledge 
of the language are required to take Course 13; those who have 
taken Greek in college should review the grammar preparatory to 
an examination. 

42 (90) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

I. Linguistic Courses 

13. Elementary Greek. This course is designed for students 
who have made little or no previous study of Greek. The aim is 
to prepare such students, as thoroughly as possible in the time 
available, to read and interpret the Greek New Testament. The 
text-book used is Machen's "New Testament Greek for Beginners". 
Three hours weekly throughout the year. Juniors. Dr. McCrea. 

81. Advanced Greek. The aim is to give the student facility 
in reading the New Testament in Greek. Rapid reading of selec- 
tions from the Gospels and Epistles. Two hours weekly, second 
semester. Elective. Prof. Vaace. 

82. New Testament Syntax. Characteristics of the Greek of 

the New Testament; principles of syntax; translation of 
the Gospel according to Luke; grammatical interpretation. Pre- 
requisite, Course 13 or its equivalent. Two hours weekly, first 
semester. Middlers. Required. Prof. Vance. 

*83. The Epistle to the Galatians. The principles of Biblical 
interpretation are applied to the study of the Epistle to the 
Galatians. Paul's fundamental doctrines; his relation to the 
Jewish branch of the Church. Prerequisite, Course 82. Two 
hours weekly, second semester. Prof. Vance. 

II. Critical and Exegetical Courses 
A. Greek 

20a. The Epistle to the Romans. Introduction; analysis; 
study of terminology; interpretation. Two hours weekly, second 
semester (1927-1928). Elective. Prof. Vance. 

20b. The Epistle to the Hebrews. The Jewish Christian in- 
terpretation of the person and work of Christ contrasted with that 
of Paul. Analysis; interpretation. Two hours weekly, second 
semester (1928-1929). Elective. Prof. Vance. 

24. The Epistles of James and Peter. Problems confronting 
Jewish Christians of the dispersion. Analysis; interpretation. Two 
hours weekly, first semester (19 27-1928). Elective. Prof. Vance. 

84. The Epistles to the Colossians and Ephesians. Problems 
confronting the churches in Western Asia Minor. Paul's developed 
Christology. Analysis; interpretation. Two hours weekly, first 
semester (1928-1929). Elective. Prof. Vance. 

85. The Gospel according to Matthew. Special attention is 
given to the plan and purpose of the Gospel and the teachings of 
Jesus. Analysis; interpretation. Two hours weekly, first semester 
(1926-1927). Elective. Prof. Vance. 

86. The Pastoral Epistles. Introduction; new conditions of 
the Church; interpretation. Two hours weekly, second semester 
(1926-1927). Elective. Prof. Vance. 

B. English 

87a. The Literature of the New Testament. History of the 
canon, text, and translations. Study of the four gospels. Origin, 
purpose, and plan of each. Synoptic problem. Outline life of 
Christ. Two hours weekly, first semester (1927-8). Juniors and 
Middlers. Required. Prof. Vance. 

87b. The Literature of the New Testament. Continuation of 

* Required of all students in either their middle or senior year. 
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The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

preceding course. Origin, form, occasion, purpose, contents of 
Acts., Epistles, and Revelation. Critical problems. Two hours 
weekly, first semester (1926-7). Juniors and Middlers. Required. 
Prof. Vance. 

16. The Life of Christ. Critical examination of the Gospel 
material. Constructive presentation of the material in order to 
understand Christ's method, purpose, and person. Modern inter- 
pretations. Two hours weekly, second semester (1928-1929). Elec- 
tive. Prof. Vance. 

88. The Life of Paul. His Jewish Life; Christian experi- 
ence; missionary work; relation to Jewish and Gentile environ- 
ment. Two hours weekly, second semester (1926-1927). Elective. 
Prof. Vance. 

17. First Century Christianity. (See Early Church History, 
page 44). Prof. Eakin. 

73. Histoi-y of Biblical Interpretation. (See Church History, 
page 45). Prof. Eakin. 

89. The Epistles to the Corinthians. Conditions of the early 
Christians in the midst of heathenism. Analysis; interpretation. 
Two hours weekly, second semester (1927-1928). Elective. Prof. 
Vance. 

90. The Gospel according to Mark. Characteristics; analy- 
sis; interpretation. Two hours weekly, first semester (192 7-1928). 
Elective. Prof. Vance. 

91. The Acts of the Apostles. Reliability as a source for 
early Christiain History. Interpretation. Two hours weekly, first 
semester (1926-1927). Elective. Prof. Vance. 

67. Revelation. (See Biblical Apocalyptic, page 41). Elec- 
tive. Prof. Kelso. 

26. Theology of the New Testament. (See below). Sen- 
iors. Required. Prof. Vance. 



Biblical Theology 

25. Theology of the Old Testament. A comprehensive his- 
torical study of the religious institutions, rites, and teachings of the 
Old Testament. The Biblical material is studied with the aid of a 
syllabus and reference books. Two hours weekly. Offered in alter- 
nate years. Elective. Open to Middlers, Seniors, and Graduates. 
Prof. Kelso. 

26. Theology of the New Testament. A careful study is 
made of the N. T. literature with the purpose of securing a first- 
hand knowledge of its theological teaching. While the work con- 
sists primarily of original research in the sources, sufficient collat- 
eral reading is required to insure an acquaintance with the litera- 
ture of the subject. Two hours weekly throughout the year. Re- 
quired of Seniors, and open to Graduates. Prof. Vance. 

English Bible 

Great emphasis is laid upon the study of the English Bible 
through the entire Seminary course. In fact, more time is devoted 
to the study of the Bible in English than to any other single subject. 
For graduation, 46 term-hours of classroom work are required of 
each student. Of this total, 8 term-hours are taken up with the 

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The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

exact scientific study of the Bible in the English version, or in other 
words, more than one-fifth of the student's time is concentrated on 
the Bible in English. In addition to this minimum requirement, 
elective courses occupying 4 term-hours, are offered to students. 
For details in regard to courses in the English Bible, see under Old 
Testament Literature, p. 4 Of. and New Testament Literature, p. 
42f. See especially the following courses: 

10. The Psalter, Hebrew Wisdom and Wisdom Literature (see 
p. 42). 

11. Old Testament Prophecy and Prophets (see p. 42). 
67. Biblical Apocalyptic (see p. 42). 

69. The Book of Genesis (see p. 42). 

16. The Life of Chiist (see p. 44). 

88. Life of Paul (see p. 44). 

89. I. & n. Corintliians (see p. 44). 

90. Mark (see p. 44). 

91. Acts of the Apostles (see p. 44). 

61b. The Social Teaching of the New Testament (see p. 49). 

The English Bible is carefully and comprehensively studied in 
the department of Homiletics for homiletical purposes, the object 
being to determine the distinctive contents of its separate parts and 
their relation to each other, thus securing their proper and con- 
sistent construction .in preaching, (see course 45). 



Church History 

Dr. Eakin 

30. General Church History: The Ancient and Mediaeval 
Periods. Two hours weekly throughout the year. Juniors. Re- 
quired. Prof. Eakin. 

31. General Church History: The Reformation and the 
Modern Period. Two hours weekly throughout the year. Middlers. 
Required. Prof. Eakin. 

In courses 30 and 31 the aim is to give the student a general 
view of the whole field of Christian history, from the beginning to 
the present time. In the courses which follow, periods and locali- 
ties of special interest are studied more intensively, or the general 
field is surveyed from the point of view of special interests and 
activities. 

17. Early Church History. The opening weeks are devoted 
to a consideration of the influence of environmental forces (Jewish 
and non-Jewish) on early Christianity. This is followed by a study 
of the origin of the Christian movement and its development to 
the latter part of the second century. A seminar course. Two 
hours weekly throughout the year (1928-9). Elective. Prof. Eakin. 

92. Christian Thought in the Eighteenth and Xiiieteentb 
Centuries. The attempt is made to trace the development of mod- 
ern religious ideas through these two significant centuries. The 
method is largely biographical, the ideas being studied in connec- 
tion with their embodiment in outstanding personalities. A seminar 
course. Two hours weekly, first semester (1927-S). Elective. 
Prof. Eakin. 

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The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

34. American Church History, The transplanting of Euro- 
pean faiths in America. The growth, controversies, and practical 
activities of the denominations. Progress to the situation of to- 
day. Two hours weekly, second semester (1927-8). Elective. Prof. 
Bakin. 

73. History of Biblical Interpretation. At the beginning some 
time is Sipent in a study of the idea and use of Scriptures in gen- 
eral, as illustrated in the great "book religions" of the world. 
The main part of the course, which follows, has to do with the 
understanding and use of the Jewish-Christian Scriptures by repre- 
sentative interpreters from the first century to the twentieth. Two 
hours weekly throughout the year (1928-9). Elective. Prof. 
Eakin. 

79. History of Christian Missions. Christianity's conquest 
of the Roman Empire, and later of northern Europe. The expan- 
sion of Christianity in the modern world since the Reformation. 
Particular attention given to the missionary advance in the nine- 
teenth and twentieth centuries. Two hours weekly, second semester 
(1927-8). Elective. Prof. Eakin. 

80. Histoi-y of Christian Mysticism. The outcropping of the 
mystic tendency is traced through the history of the Church, atten- 
tion being given to the lives and writings of the leading Christian 
mystics in ancient, medieeval, and modern times. Two hours 
weekly, first semester (1927-8). Elective. Prof. Eakin. 

Systematic Theology and Apologetics 
Dr. Snowden, Mr. Orr 

87. Theology Proper and Apologetics. This course includes 
in theology proper the nature and sources of theology, the existence 
and attributes of God, the trinity, the deity of Christ, the Holy Spirit, 
the decrees of God. In apologetics it includes the problem of the 
personality of God, antitheistic theories of the universe, miracles, the 
problems connected with the inspiration of the Bible, and the virgin 
birth and the resurrection of Christ. Three hours weekly through- 
out the year. Juniors. Required. Mr. Orr. 

39. Anthropology, Christology, and the Doctrines of Grace. 
Theories of the origin of man; the primitive state of man; the fall; 
the covenant of grace; the person of Christ; the satisfaction of 
Christ; theories of the atonement; the nature and extent of the 
atonement; intercession of Christ; kingly office; the humiliation 
and exaltation of Christ; effectual calling, regeneration, faith, justi- 
fication, repentance, adoption, and sanctification; the law; the doc- 
trine of the last things; the state of the soul after death; the resur- 
rection; the second advent and its concomitants. Three hours 
weekly throughout the year. Middlersi. Required. Mr. Orr. 

41a. Philosophy of Religion. A thorough discussion of the 
problems of theism and of Ritschlianism and other modern theories. 
One hour weekly throughout the year. Seniors and Graduates. 
Elective. Prof. Snowden. 

41b. The Psychology of Religion. A study of the religious 
nature and activities of the soul in the light of recent psychology; 
and a course in modern theories of the ultimate basis and nature 
of religion. One hour weekly throughout the year. Seniors and 
Graduates, Elective, Prof, Snowden. 

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The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Practical Theology 

Dr. Farmer, Dr. Sleeth, Dr. Boyd 

Including Homiletics, Pastoral Theology, Speech Expression, Church 
Music, The Sacraments, and Church Government 

A. Homiletics 

The course in Homiletics is designed to be strictly progressive, 
keeping step with the work in other departments. Students are ad- 
vanced from the simpler exercises to the more abstruse as they are 
prepared for this by their advance in exegesis and theology. 

Certain books of special reference are used in the department 
of Practical Theology, to which students are referred. Valuable new 
books are constantly being added to the library, and special addi- 
tions, in large numbers, have been made on subjects related to this 
department, particularly Pedagogics, Bible Class Work, Sociology, 
and Personal Evangelism. 

43. Public Worship. A study of the principles underlying the 
proper conduct of public worship, with discussion of the various ele- 
ments which enter into it, such as the reading of Scripture, 
prayer, music, etc. One hour weekly, first semester. Juniors. 
Required. Prof. Farmer. 

45. Introduction to Homiletics. A study of the Scriptures 
with reference to their homiletic value. One hour weekly, first 
semester. Juniors. Required. Prof. Farmer. 

46. Homiletics. The principles governing the structure of the 
sermion considered as a special form of public discourse. The study 
of principles is accompanied by constant practice in the making of 
sermons which are used as a basis for classroom discussion. Two 
hours weekly, second semester. Juniors. Required. Prof. Farmer. 

74. Homiletics. This course is designed to give the necessary 
practice in the preparation and delivery of sermons. The students 
are required to preach before the class, and the sermons are criti- 
cized by the professor and the students in respect of content, form, 
and delivery. Two hours weekly, first semester, one hour weekly, 
second semester. Middlers. Required. Dr. Farmer. 

47. Advanced Homiletics. Historical and critical study of the 
work of representative preachers in all periods of the church's his- 
tory, with special emphasis on modern preaching as it is affected by 
the conditions 'of our time. Students are required to submit critical 
analyses of selected sermons and also sermons 'of their own, com- 
posed with reference to various particular needs and opportunities 
in modern life. One hour weekly throughout the year. Seniors. 
Required. Prof. Farmer. 

57a. Pastoral Care. A study of the principles underlying the 
work of the minister as he serves the spiritual welfare of men 
through more intimate personal contact, with practical suggestions 
for dealing with typical conditions and situations. One hour weekly, 
first semester. Seniors. Required. Prof. Farmer. 

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The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

57b. Pastoral Care. A study of the minister's relations 
to the community in which he lives, his problems and opportunities 
as a leader in community life through inter-church activities and 
other forms of united effort for civic and social betterment. One 
hour weekly, second semester. Seniors. Required. Prof Farmer. 

60. Administration. A comparative study of the various typea 
of church polity, with special emphasis on the distinctive character- 
istics of the Presbyterian order, and the organization and procedure 
oi its several structural units. The course covers also the whole 
field of administration in the individual church and the church at 
large. One hour weekly, second semester. Middlers. Required. 
Prof. Farmer. 



B. Speech Expression 

50. The Foundations of Expression. Imagination and sym- 
pathy. Phrasing, rhythm, and melody. Vocal technique: breath- 
ing, tone production, resonance, articulation. One hour weekly 
throughout the year. Juniors. Required. Prof. Sleeth. 

51. Oral Interpretation of the Scriptures. Reading from the 
platform. One hour weekly throughout the year. Middlers. Elec- 
tive. Prof. Sleeth. 

52. Platform Training in Delivery of Public Discourse. One 

hour weekly throughout the year. Seniors. Elective. Prof. Sleeth. 



C. Church Music 

The object of the course is primarily to instruct the student in 
the practical use of desirable Church Music; after that, to acquaint 
him, as far as is possible in a limited time, with good music in gen- 
eral. 

42. Hynmology. The place of Sacred Poetry in History. An- 
cient Hymns. Greek and Latin Hymns. German Hymns. Psalm- 
ody. English Hymnology in its three periods. Proper use of 
Hymns and Psalms in public worship. Text book: Breed's "History 
and Use of Hymns and Hymn Tunes". One hour weekly, first sem- 
ester. Juniors. Required. Dr. Boyd. 

53. Hymn Tunes. History, Use, Practice. Text book: Breed' 3 
"History and Use of Hymns and Hymn Tunes". Practical Church 
Music: Choirs, Organs, Sunday School Music, Special Musical Ser- 
vices, Congregational Music. One hour weekly, second semester. 
Juniors. Required. Dr. Boyd. 

54. Practical Church Music. A year with the music of the 
"Hymnal", with a thorough examination and discussion lof its tunes. 
The examination and discussion of special musical services for 
congregational participation, with actual use of various types. One 
hour weekly throughout the year. Middlers. Required. Dr. Boyd. 

55. Musical Appreciation. Illustrations and Lectures. One 
hour weekly throughout the year. Seniors. Elective Dr. Boyd. 

56. Vocal Sight Reading and Choir Drill. Students who have 
sufficient musical experience are given opportunity for practice in 

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A VIEW OF THE PARK FROM THE QUADRANGLE 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Semimary 



choir direction or organ playing. Anthem selection and study. One 
hour weekly throughout the year. Offered in alternate years. Open 
to students of all classes. Elective. Dr. Boyd. 

D. The Cecilia Choir 

The Cecilia is a chorus of twenty-two voices, chosen from men 
and women in various city choirs, organized in 19 03 by Dr. Boyd 
to illustrate the work of the Music Department of the Seminary. 
It is in attendance every Monday evening at the Senior Preaching 
Service to lead the singing and set standards for the choir part of 
the service. During the year special programs of Church Music 
are given from time to time both in the Seminary and in churches 
throughout the vicinity. The Cecilia has attained much more 
than a local reputation, especially for its performance of unaccom- 
panied vocal music. 



Christian Ethics and Sociology 
De. Snowden, Dr. Faemer 

61a. Christian Ethics. The Theory of Ethics considered con- 
structively from the point of view of Christian Faith. One hour 
weekly throughout .the year. Seniors and graduates. Elective. Prof. 
Snowden. 

61b. The Social Teaching of the New Testament. This course 
is based upon the belief that the teachings of the New Testament, 
rightly interpreted and applied, afford ample guidance Lo the Chris- 
tian Church in her efforts to meet the conditions and problems which 
modern society presents. After an introductory discussion of the 
social teaching of the Prophets and the condition and structure of 
society in the time of Christ, the course takes up the teaching of 
Jesus as it bears upon the conditions and problems which must be 
met in the task of establishing the Kingdom of God upon the earth, 
and concludes with a study of the application of Christ's teaching 
to the social order of the Greeco-Roman world set forth in the Acts 
and the Epistles. One hour weekly throughout the year. Seniors 
and Graduates. Elective. Prof. Farmer. 



Missions and Comparative Religion 
Dr. Kelso, Dr. Culley 

The Edinburgh Missionary Council suggested certain special 
studies for missionary candidates in addition to the regular Semi- 
nary curriculum. These additional studies were Comparative Re- 
ligion, Phonetics, and the History and Methods of Missionary 
Enterprise. Thorough courses in Comparative Religion and Pho- 
netics have been introduced into the curriculum, while a brief lecture 
course on the third subject is given by various members of the 
faculty. It is the purpose of the institution to develop this depart- 
ment more fully. 

49 (97) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

63. Modem Missions. A study of fields and modern methods; 
each student is required either to read a missionary biography or 
to investigate a missionary problem. One hour weekly, one sem- 
ester. Elective. Seniors and Graduates. 

64. Lectures on Missions. In addition to the instruction regu- 
larly given in the department of Church History, lectures on Missions 
are delivereed from time to time by able men who are practically fa- 
miliar with the work. The students have been addressed during 
the past year by several returned missionaries. 

65. Comparative Religion. A study of the origin and develop- 
ment of religion, with special investigation of Primitive Religion, 
Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, and Islam with regard to their 
bearing on Modern Missions. Two hours weekly. Offered in alter- 
nate years. (1926-7). Elective. Open to Middlers, Seniors, and 
Graduates. Prof. Kelso. 

68. Phonetics. A study of phonetics and the principles of 

language with special reference to the mission field. One hour 

weekly throughout the year. Elective. Open to all classes Prof. 
Culley. 

7b. Elementary Arabic (see p. 41). 



Religious Education 



The purpose of these courses is to give the student a knowl- 
edge of the principles and methods 'of religious education. The 
field that is covered includes the psychological and pedagogical as- 
pects of the subject as well as the organization, principles, and 
methods of the Sunday School. They are open to Seniors, Middlers, 
and Graduates. Those who desire to specialize still further in this 
department have access to the courses in Pedagogy and Pychology 
at the University of Pittsburgh. 

75. Principles of Religious Education. A course in the theory 
which underlies the whole program of religious education. It will 
include the question of aims, both general and specific; the social 
point of view; evangelism through education; and the application 
of some of the findings of educational psychology and philosophy 
to the educational task of the church. Two hours weekly, first 
semester. Elective. 

76. How to Teach Religion. A practical course in the teach- 
ing process, which will prepare for leadership of teacher training 
classes, and the supervision of teaching. Specific methods for va- 
rious age groups will be studied, along with the application of the 
project method to religious education. This course will be valu- 
able to those who will become supervisors of religious education. 
Two hours weekly, second semester (1926-7). Elective. Prof Scott. 

77. Organization and Administration of Religious Education. 
This course considers the problems of organizing and administering 

50 (98) 



TTie Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

religious education in the church and communitj'. It deals with 
the Church School, Week-day Religious Education, the Daily Vaca- 
tion Bible School, Community Training School, and cooperating 
agencies in religious education. Two hours weekly, first semester 
(1927-8). Elective. 

78. Curriculuin Construction for Church Schools. This 
course is a study of the scientific development of curricula, and the 
analysis of religious ideals. Definite curriculum problems, having 
to do with particular situations and specific social conditions, will 
be studied. An experiment in actually constructing a curriculum 
will be carried on in the class. This course will prove helpful also 
in preaching. Two hours weekly, second semester (192 7-8). Elec- 
tive. 

41b. The Psychology of Religion (see p. 46). 



CURRICXILUM COURSES IN OUTLINE 

Junior Class 
1. Hebrew Grammar 

Prof. Culley 3 hours* 

8. History of the Hebrews 

Prof. Kelso . 2 hrs, 2nd. sem. 

13. New Testament Greek 3 hrs. 

87. Literature of the New Testament 

Prof. Vance 2 hrs. 1st., sem. 

30. General Church History 

Prof. Eakin 2 hrs. 

37. Theology Proper and Apologetics 

Mr. Orr 3 hrs. 

43. Public Worship 

Prof. Farmer 1 hr. 1st. sem. 

45. Introduction to Homiletics 

Prof. Farmer 1 hr. 1st. sem. 

46. Homiletics 

Prof. Farmer 2 hrs. 2nd sem. 

42. Hymnology 

Dr. Boyd 1 hr. 1st. sem. 

53. Hymn Tunes 

Dr. Boyd 1 hr. 2nd. sem. 

50. Foundations of Expression 

Prof. Sleeth 1 hr. 

♦Unless otherwise indicated courses continue throughout the 
year. 

51 (99) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Middle Class** 
8. History of the Hebrews 

Prof. Kelso 2 hrs. 2nd. sem. 

82. New Testament Syntax 

Prof. Vance 2 hrs. 1st. sem. 

83. The Epistle to the Galatians 

Prof. Vance 2 hrs. 2nd. sem. 

87. Literature of the New Testament 

Prof. Vance 2 hrs. 1st. sem. 

31. General Church History 

Prof. Eakin 2 hrs. 

39. Theology Proper 

Mr. Orr 3 hrs. 

74. Homiletics 

Prof. Farmer • . 2 hrs. 1st. 1 hr. 2nd. sem. 

60. Administration 

Prof. Farmer ■ 1 hr. 2ud. sem. 

54. Practical Church Music 

Dr. Boyd 1 hr. 

Senior Class* 
11. Old Testament Prophecy 

Prof. Kelso 2 hrs. 

26. New Testament Theology 

Prof. Vance 2 hrs. 

47. Advanced Homiletics 

Prof. Farmer 1 hr. 

57. Pastoral Care 

Prof. Farmer 1 hr. 

Elective Courses 
2a. Rapid Reading of I Samuel or Judges 

Prof. Culley . . 1 hr. 

2b. Rapid Reading of Minor Prophets 

Hour to be arranged 
Prof. Culley 1 hr. 

3. Old Testament Exegesis 

Prof. Culley 2 hrs. 



**Middlers must elect either O. T. Exegesis 3 or O. T. Introduc- 
tion 12. 

*In addition to the required courses. Seniors must select eight 
hours per week from Electives. 

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TJie Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

7a. Biblical Aramaic 

Hours to be arranged 
Prof. Culley 

7b. Elementariy Arabic 

Hours to be arranged 
Prof. Culley 

7c. Elementary Assyrian 

Hours to be arranged 
Prof. Kelso 

4. Exegetical Study of the Psalter 

Prof. CuUey 1 hr. 

5. Exegeitical Study of Isaiah 

Prof. Kelso (1927-8) 1 hr. 

6. Proverbs and Job Interpreted 

Hour to be arranged 
Prof. Kelso (1927-8) 1 hr. 

10. Critical Study in English of the Psalter and Wisdom Literature 

Hour to be arranged 
Prof. Kelso 1 hr. 2nd. sem. 

12. Old Testament Introduction 

Prof. Culley 2 hrs. 

25. Old Testament Theology 

Prof. Kelso (1926-7) 2 hrs. 

67. Biblical Apocalyptic 

Hour to be arranged 
Prof. Kelso (1926-7) 1 hr. 

69. Critical Study of Genesis in English 

Hours to be arranged 
Prof. Kelso (1926-7) 2 hrs. one sem. 

81. Advanced Greek 

Prof. Vance 2 hrs. 2nd. sem. 

20a. The Epistle to the Romans 

Prof. Vance (1927-8) 2 hrs. 2nd. sem. 

20b. The Epistle to the Hebrews 

Prof. Vance (1928-9) 2 hrs. 2nd. sem. 

24. The Epistles of James and Peter 

Prof. Vance (1927-8) 2 hrs 1st. sem. 

84. The Epistles to the Colossians and Ephesians 

Prof. Vance (1928-9) 2 hrs. 1st. sem. 

85. The Gospel according to Matthevp 

Prof. Vance (1926-7) 2 hrs. 1st. sem. 

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TJie Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

86. The Pastoral Epistles 

Prof. Vance (1926-7) 2 hrs. 2n(i. sem. 

16. The Life of Christ 

Prof. Vance (1928-9) 2 hrs. 2nd. sem. 

88. The Life of Paul 

Prof. Vance (1926-7) 2 hrs. 2nd. sem. 

89. The Epistles to the Corinthians 

Prof. Vance (1927-8) 2 hrs. 2nd. sem. 

90. The Gospel according to Mark 

Prof. Vance (1927-8^ 2 hrs. 1st. sem. 

91. The Acts of the Apostles 

Prof. Vance (1927-8) 2 hrs. 1st. sem. 

17. Early Church History 

Prof. Eakin (1928-9) 2 hrs. 

92. Chrisitian Thought in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries 

Prof. Eakin (1927-8) 2 hrs. 1st. sem. 

34. American Church History 

Prof. Eakin (1927-8) 2 hrs. 2nd. sem. 

73. History of Biblical Interpretation 

Prof. Eakin (1928-9) 2 hrs. 

79. History of Christian Missions 

Prof. Eakin (1927-8) 2 hrs. 2nd. sem. 

80. History of Christian Mysticism 

Prof. Eakin (1927-8) 2 hrs. 1st. sem. 

41a. Philosophy of Religion 

Prof. Snowden 1 hr. 

41b. Psychology of Religion 

Prof. Snowden 1 hr. 

51. Oral InteiTpretation of the Scriptures 

Prof. Sleeth 1 hr. 

52. Platfonn Delivery 

Prof. Sleeth 1 hr. 

55. Musical Appreciation 

Dr. Boyd 1 hr. 

56. Vocal Sight Reading 

Dr. Boyd 1 hr 

61a. Christian Ethics 

Prof. Snowden 1. hr. 

61b. Social Teaching of the New Testament 

Prof. Farmer 1 hr. 

54 (102) 



TJie Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

63. Modem Missions 

Hour to be arranged 
65. Comparative Religion 

Prof. Kelso (1926-7) 2 hrs. 

68. Phonetics 

Prof. Culley 1 hr. 

75. Principles of Religious Education 

(1926-7) 2 hrs. 1st. sem. 

76. How to Teach Religion 

(1926-7) 2 hrs. 2nd. sem. 

77. Organization and Administration of Religious Education 

(1927-8) 2 hrs. 1st. sem. 

78. Curriculum Construction for Chtu-ch Schools 

(1927-8) 2 hrs. 2nd. sem. 



Reports to Presbyteries 

Presbyteries having students under their care re- 
ceive annual reports from the Faculty concerning the 
attainments of the students in scholarship and their at- 
tendance upon the exercises of the Seminary. 

Graduate Studies 

The Seminary confers the degree of Master of 
Sacred Theology on students who complete a fourth 
year of study. 

This degree will be granted under the following con- 
ditions : 

(1) The applicant must have a Bachelor's de- 
gree from a college of recognized standing. 

(2) He must be a graduate of this or of some 
other theological seminary. In case he has gradu- 
ated from another seminary, which does not require 
Greek and Hebrew for its diploma, the candidate 
must take in addition to the above requirements the 
following courses: Hebrew, 1 and 3; New Testa- 
ment, 13 or its equivalent, and 82 and 83. 

55 (103) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Semmary 

(3) He must be in residence at this Seminary 
at least one academic year and complete courses 
equivalent to twelve hours per week of regular cur- 
riculum work, 

(4) He shall be required to devote two-thirds 
of said time to one subject, which will be called a 
major, and the remainder to another subject termed 
a minor. 

In the department of the major he shall be re- 
quired to write a thesis of not less than 4,000 words. 
The subject of this thesis must be presented to the 
professor at the head of this department for ap- 
proval, not later than November 15th of the aca- 
demic year at the close of which the degree is to be 
conferred. By April 1st a typewritten copy of this 
thesis is to be in the hands of the professor for ex- 
amination. At the close of the year he shall pass a 
rigid examination in both major and minor subjects. 

(5) Members of the senior class may receive 
this degree, provided that they attain rank "A" in 
all departments and complete the courses equivalent 
to such twelve hours of curriculum work, in addition 
to the regular curriculum, which twelve hours of 
work may be distributed throughout the three years ' 
course, upon consultation with the professors. All 
other conditions as to major and minor subjects, 
theses, etc., shall be the same as for graduate stu- 
dents, except that in this case students must elect 
their major and minor courses at the opening of the 
middle year, and give notice October 1st of that year 
that they expect to be candidates for this degree. 

Relations with University of Pittsburgh 

The post-graduate courses of the University of Pitts- 
burgh are open to the students of the Seminary. The 
A. M. degree will be conferred on students of the Sem- 

56 (104) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

inary who complete graduate courses of the University 
requiring a minimum of three hours of work for two 
years, and who prepare an acceptable thesis ; and, on ac- 
count of the proximity of the University, all require- 
ments for residence may be satisfied by those who desire 
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. 

The following formal regulations have been adopted 
by the Graduate Faculty of the University of Pittsburgh 
with reference to the students of the Seminary who de- 
sire to secure credits at the University. 

1. That non-technical theological courses (i. e., 
those in linguistics, history. Biblical literature, and 
philosophy) be accepted for credit toward advanced 
degrees in arts and sciences, under conditions de- 
scribed in the succeeding paragraphs. 

2. That no more than one-third of the total 
number of credits required for the degrees of A. M. 
or M. S. and Ph. D. be of the character referred to in 
paragraph 1. In the case of the Master's degree, 
this maximun credit can be given only to students in 
the Western Theological Seminary and the Pitts- 
burgh Theological Seminary. 

3. That the acceptability of any course offered 
for such credit be subject to the approval of the 
Council. The Council shall, as a body or through 
a committee, pass upon (1) the general merits of 
the courses offered; and (2) their relevancy to the 
major selected by the candidate. 

4. That the direction and supervision of the 
candidate's courses shall be vested in the University 
departments concerned. 

5. That in every case in which the question of 
the duplication of degree is raised, by reason of the 
candidate's offering courses that have already been 
credited toward the B. D. or other professional de- 
gree in satisfaction of the requirements for advanced 

57 (105) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

degrees in arts and sciences, the matter of accepta- 
bility of such courses shall be referred to a special 
committee consisting of the head of the department 
concerned and such other members of the Graduate 
Faculty as the Dean may select. 

6. That the full requirements as regards resi- 
dence, knowledge of modern languages, theses, etc., 
of the University of Pittsburgh be exacted in the 
case of candidates who may take advantage of these 
privileges. In the case of the Western Theological 
Seminary and the Pittsburgh Theological Seminary, 
this paragraph shall not be interpreted to cancel 
paragraph 2, that a maximum of one-third of the 
total number of credits for the Master's degree may 
be taken in the theological schools. 

The minimum requirement for the Master's degree 
is the equivalent of twelve hours throughout three terms. 
or what we call thirty-six term-hours. According to the 
above resolutions a minimum of twenty-four term-hours 
should be taken at the University. 



Fellowships and Prizes 

1. A fellowship paying $600 is assigned upon grad- 
uation to that member of the senior class who has the 
best standing in all departments of the Seminary 
curriculum, but to no one falling below an average 
of 85 per cent. It is offered to those who take the entire 
course of three years in this institution. The recipient 
must pledge himself to a year of post-graduate study at 
some institution approved by the Faculty. He is required 
to furnish quarterly reports of his progress. The money 
will be paid in three equal installments on the first day 
of October, January, and April. Prolonged absence 
from the classroom in the discharge of extra-seminary 
duties makes a student ineligible for the fellowship. 

58 (106) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

2. The Michael Wilson Keith Memorial Homiletical 
Prize of $100.00. This prize was founded in 1919 by the 
Keith Bible Class of the First Presbyterian Church of 
Coraopolis, Pa., by an endowment of two thousand 
dollars in memory of the Rev. Michael Wilson Keith, 
D. D., the founder of the class, and pastor of the church 
from 1911 to 1917. This foundation was established in 
grateful remembrance of his service to his country as 
Chaplain of the 111th Infantry Eegiment. He fell while 
performing his duty at the front in France. It is 
awarded to a member of the senior class who has spent 
three years in this Seminary and has taken the highest 
standing in the department of homiletics. The winner 
of the prize is expected to preach in the First Presby- 
terian Church of Coraopolis and teach the Keith Bible 
Class one Sunday after the award is made. 

3. A prize in Hebrew is offered to that member of 
the junior class who maintains the . highest standing 
in this subject throughout the junior year. The prize 
consists of a copy of the Oxford Hebrew-English Lexi- 
con, a copy of the latest English translation of Gesenius- 
Kautzsch's Hebrew Grammar or a cop}" of Davidson's 
Hebrew Syntax, and a copy of the Hebrew Bible edited 
by Kittel. 

4. All students reaching the grade "A" in all de- 
partments during the junior year will be entitled to a 
prize of $50, which will be paid in four installments in 
the middle year, provided that the recipient continues 
to maintain the grade "A" in all departments during the 
middle year. Prizes of the same amount and under 
similar conditions will be available for seniors, but no 
student Avhose attendance is unsatisfactory will be eli- 
gible to these prizes. 

5. In May 1914, Miss Anna M. Eeed, of Cross 
Creek, Pa., established a scholarship with an endo^^^nent 
of three thousand dollars, to be lalo^^^l as the Andrew 

59 (107) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Reed Scholarship, with the following conditions: The 
income of this scholarship to be awarded to the student 
who upon entering shall pass the best competitive exam- 
ination in the English Bible; the successful competitor 
to have the use of it throughout the entire course of 
three years, provided that his attendance and class stand- 
ing continue to be satisfactory.* 

6. In February 1919, Mrs. Robert A. Watson, of 
Columbus, Ohio, established a prize with an endowment 
of one thousand dollars, to be known as the John Watson 
Prize in New Testament Greek. It will be awarded to 
that member of the Senior Class who, having elected 
Greek exegesis, shall submit the best grammatical and 
exegetical treatment of an assigned portion of the Greek 
New Testament. The passage for the 1928 assignment 
is Philippians 2:1-18. 

7. In September 1919, Mrs. Robert A. Watson, of 
Columbus, Ohio, established a prize with an endowment 
of one thousand dollars, to be known as the William B. 
Watson Prize in Hebrev/. It will be awarded to that 
member of the Senior Class who, having elected Hebrew, 
shall submit the best grammatical and exegetical treat- 
ment of an assigned portion of the Hebrew Old Testa- 
ment. The passage for the 1928 assignment is Psalm 73. 

8. In July 1920, Mrs. Robert A. Watson, of Colum- 
bus, Ohio, with an endowment of $1,000, established the 
Joseph Watson Greek Prize, to be awarded to the stu- 
dent who passes the best examination in classical Greek 
as he enters the Junior Class of the Seminary. The as- 
signment upon which the examination will be given is 
Xenophon's Anabasis, Book II, or Plato's Apology, 
Chapters I-X. In connection with the awarding of this 
prize in September, 1926, fifty dollars was added to the 
amount of the prize by a special contribution from the 
session of the First Presbyterian church of Apollo, Pa. 



*The income from this fund is not available at present. 
60 (108) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

9. At their ten-year reunion (May 1921), the class 
of 1911 raised a fund of one hundred dollars, to be 
offered as a prize by the faculty to the member of the 
senior class (1922) who had maintained the highest 
standing in the Greek language and exegesis during the 
three years of his course. This prize was awarded at 
the Commencement in 1922. 

10. Two entrance prizes of $150 each are offered by 
the Seminary to college graduates presenting themselves 
for admission to the junior class. The scholarships will 
be awarded upon the basis of a competitive examination 
subject to the following conditions: 

(I) Candidates must, not later than September 
1st, indicate their intention to compete, and such state- 
ment of their purpose must be accompanied by certifi- 
cates of college standing and mention of subjects elected 
for examination. 

(II) Candidates must be graduates of high stand- 
ing in the classical course of some accepted college or 
university. 

(III) The examinations will be conducted on 
Thursday, Friday, and Saturday of the opening week of 
the first semester. 

(IV) The election of subjects for examination shall 
be made from the following list: (1) Classical Greek 
— Greek Grammar, translation of Greek prose, Greek 
composition; (2) Latik^ — Latin Grammar, translation of 
Latin prose, Latin composition; (3) Hebrew — Hebrew 
Grammar, translation of Hebrew prose, Hebrew composi- 
tion; (4) German — translation of German into English 
and English into German; (5) French — translation of 
French into English and English into French; (6) Philo- 
sophy — (a) History of Philosophy, (b) Psychology, 
(c) Ethics, (d) Metaphysics; (7) History — (a) Ancient 
Oriental History, (b) GrEeco-Eoman History to A. D. 
476, (c) Mediaeval History to the Keformation, (d) 
Modern History. 

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The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

(V) Each competitor shall elect from the above 
list four subjects for examination, among which subjects 
Greek shall always be included. Each division of Phil- 
osophy and History shall be considered one subject. No 
more than one subject in Philosophy and no more than 
one subject in History may be chosen by any one candi- 
date. 

(VI) The awards of the scholarships will be made 
to the two competitors passing the most satisfactory ex- 
aminations, provided their average does not fall below 
ninety per cent. The payment will be made in two in- 
stallments, the first at the time the award is made, and 
the second on April 1st. Failure to maintain a high 
standard in classroom Avork or prolonged absence will 
debar the recipients from receiving the second install- 
ment. 

The intention to compete for the prize scholarships 
should be made knoA\Ti, in writing, to the President. 



Donations and Bequests 

All donations or bequests to the Seminary should be 
made to the "Trustees of the Western Theological Sem- 
inary of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of 
America, located in Allegheny City, Pennsylvania". 
The proper legal form for making a bequest is as follows : 

I hereb}^ give and bequeath to the Trustees of the 
Western Theological Seminary, of the Presbyterian 
Church in the United States of America, incorporated 
in the State of Pennsylvania, the following : — 

Note : — If the person desires the Seminary to get the 
full amount designated, free of tax, the follomng state- 
ment should be added : — The collateral inheritance tax to 
be paid out of my estate. 

In this connection the present financial needs of the 
Seminary may be arranged in tabular form : 

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The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary * 

Chair of Apologetics $100,000 

Apartment for Professors 100,000 

Apartment for Missionaries 100,000 

Chair of Religious Education and Missions 100,000 

General Endowment 500,000 

Library Fund 30,000 

Two Fellowships, $20,000, each 40,000 

The Memorial idea may be carried out either in the 
erection of one of these buildings or in the endowment of 
any of the funds. During recent years the Sem- 
inaiy has made considerable progress in securing new 
equipment and additions to the endowment funds. One 
of the recent gifts was that of $100,000 to endow tiie 
President's Chair. This donation was made by the Rev. 
Nathaniel W. Conkling, D. D., a member of the Class of 
1861. In May 1912, the new dormitory building, costing 
$146,097, was dedicated, and four 3^ears later. May 4, 
1916, Herron Hall and Swift Hall, the north and south 
wings of the new quadrangle, were dedicated. During 
this period the Seminary has also received the endow- 
ment of a missionary lectureship ($5000, in 1910) from 
Mr. L. H. Severance, of Cleveland; and, through the 
efforts of Dr. Breed, an endowment of $15,000 for the 
instructorship' in music ; as well as eight scholarships 
amounting to $22,331.10. 

In the year 1918 a lectureship was established 
b}^ a gift of $5,000 from Mrs. Janet I. Watson, of Colum- 
bus, Ohio, in memory of her husband. Rev. Robert A. 
Watson, a member of the class of 1874. Mrs. Watson has 
also founded the James L. Shields Book Purchasing 
Memorial Fund, Avith an endowment of $1,000, in memory 
of her father, the late James L. Shields, of Blairsville, 
Pennsylvania. 

During the year 1919 Mrs. Watson established two 
prizes, each with an endowment of $1,000: (1) The John 
Watson Prize in New Testament Greek, in memory of her 
husband's father, Rev. John Watson; (2) The Rev. 

63 (111) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

William B. Watson Hebrew Prize, in memory of Rev. 
William B. Watson, a member of the class of 1868 and a 
brother of Rev. Robert A. Watson. 

Also during the year 1919 the Michael Wilson Keith 
Memorial Homiletical Prize of $100 was founded by the 
Keith Bible Class of the First Presbyterian Church of 
Coraopolis, Pa., by an endowment of two thousand 
dollars in memory of the Rev. Michael Wilson Keith, 
D. D., the founder of the class and pastor of the church 
from 1911-1917. This foundation was established in 
grateful remembrance of Dr. Keith's service to his coun- 
try as Chaplain of the 111th Infantry Regiment. He fell 
while performing his duty at the front in France. 

In December 1919, a friend of the Seminary, by a 
contribution of $2,500, established a Students' Loan and 
Self-help Fund. The principal is to be kept intact and 
the income is available for loans to students which may 
be repaid after graduation. 

In July 1920, Mrs. R. A. Watson established, with 
an endowment of $1,000, the Joseph Watson Greek Prize, 
in memory of her husband's youngest brother. 

In Nov. 1919 a member of the Board made a contri- 
bution of ten thousand dollars to the endowment fund. 
During the same year one of the holders of annuity 
bonds cancelled them to the sum of $7,500. In addition 
a legacy of $25,000 was received from the Estate of 
James Laughlin, Jr. 

During the year 1923 a donation of $5,000 was re- 
ceived from the J. B. Finley Estate. 

At their ten-year reunion (May 1921), the Class of 
1911 raised a fund of one hundred dollars, to be offered 
as a prize by the faculty to the member of the senior class 
(1922) who had maintained the highest standing in the 
Greek language and exegesis during the three years of 
his course. This prize was awarded at the Commence- 
ment 1922. 

In December 1926 six scholarships, amounting to 
$18,408.36, were founded by the will of Mr. W. B. Neg- 
ley. 64 (112) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

The whirlwind campaign of October 24 — November 
3, 1913, resulted in subscriptions amounting to $135,000. 
This money was used in the erection of the new Admin- 
istration Building, to take the place of Seminary Hall. 
A friend of the Seminary has subscribed $50,000 for the 
erection of a chapel; as soon as conditions in the busi- 
ness world become more normal, the chapel will be 
erected according to plans already adopted. Attention is 
called to the special needs of the Seminary — ^the endow- 
ment of additional professorships and the completion of 
the building program. 

Memorial Funds 

This list includes all memorial fundsi bearing either the name 
of the donor or of those in whose memory the fund was contributed. 
I. Professorships 

1. The Nathaniel W. Conkling Foundation. President's 
Chair. 

2. The Reunion Professorship of Sacred Rhetoric and Elocu- 

tion. 

3. The Memorial Professorship of New Testament Literature 

and Exegesis. 

II. Lectiireships 

1. The Elliott Lectureship. 

2. The L. H. Severance Missionary Lectureship. 

3. The Robert A. Watson Memorial Lectureship. 
m. Prizes 

1. The Andrew Reed Prize in English Bible (see Scholarship 

#63). 

2. The Michael Wilson Keith Memorial Homiletical Prize. 

3. The John Watson Prize in New Testament Greek. 

4. The William B. Watson Prize in Hebrew. 

5. The Joseph Watson Greek Prize. 
IV. Fellowships 

1. The Sylvester S. Marvin Fellowship. 
V. Special 

1. The James H. Lyon Loan Fund. 

2. The James L. Shields Book Purchasing Memorial Fund. 

3. Students' Loan and Self-help Fund. 

VI. Scholarships 

1. The Thomas Patterson Scholarship, founded in 1829, by 

Thomas Patterson, of Upper St. Clair, Allegheny County, Pa. 

2. The McNeely Scholarship, founded by Miss Nancy McNeely, of 

Steubenville, Ohio. 

65 (113) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

b. The Dornan Scholarship, founded by James Dornan, of Wash- 
ington County, Pa. 

4. The O'Hara Scholarship, founded by Mrs. Harmar Denny, of 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 

5. The Smith Scholarship, founded by Robin Smith, of Allegheny 

County, Pa. 

6. The Ohio Smith Scholarship, founded by Robert W. Smith, of 

Fairfield County, O. 

7. The Dickinson Scholarship, founded by Rev. Richard W. Dick- 

inson, D.D., of New York City. 

8. The Jane McCrea Patterson Scholarship, founded by Joseph 

Patterson, of Pittsburgh, Pa. 

9. The Hamilton Scott Easter Scholarship, founded by Hamilton 

Easter, of Baltimore, Md. 

10. The Corning Scholarship, founded by Hanson K. Corning, of 

New York City. 

11. The Emma B. Corning Scholarship, founded by her husband, 

Hanson K. Corning, of New York City. 

12. The Susan C. Williams Scholarship, founded by her husband, 

Jesse L. Williams, of Ft. Wayne, Ind. 

13. The Mary P. Keys Scholarship, No. 1, founded by herself. 

14. The Mary P. Keys Scholarship, No. 2, founded by herself. 

15. The James L. Carnaghan Scholarship, founded by James L. 

Carnaghan, of Sewickley, Pa. 

16. The A. M. Wallingford Scholarship, founded by A. M. Walling- 

ford, of Pittsburgh, Pa. 

17. The Alexander Cameron Scholarship, founded by Alexander 

Cameron, of Allegheny, Pa. 

18. The "First Presbyterian Church of Kittanning, Pa." Scholar- 

ship. 

19. The Rachel Dickson Scholarship, founded by Rachel Dickson, 

of Pittsburgh, Pa. 

20. The Isaac Cahill Scholarship, founded by Isaac Cahill, of Bu- 

cyrus, O. 

21. The Margaret Cahill Scholarship, founded by Isaac Cahill, of 

Bucyrus, O. 

22. The "H. E. B." Scholarship, founded by Rev. Charles C. Beatty, 

D.D., LL.D., of Steubenville, O. 

23. The "C. C. B." Scholarship, founded by Rev. Charles C. Beatty, 

D.D., LL.D., of Steubenville, O. 
24 The Koonce Scholarship, founded by Hon. Charles Koonce, of 
Clark, Mercer County, Pa. 

25. The Fairchild Scholarship, founded by Rev. Elias R. Fair- 

child, D.D., of Mendham, N. J. 

26. The Allen Scholarship, founded by Dr. Richard Steele, Execu- 

tor, from the estate of Electa Steele Allen, of Auburn, N. Y. 

27. The "L. M. R. B." Scholarship, founded by Rev. Charles C. 

Beatty, D.D., LL.D., of Steubenville. O. 

28. The "M. A. C. B." Scholarship, founded by Rev. Charles C. 

Beatty, D.D., LL.D., of Steubenville, O. 

66 (114) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

29. The Sophia Houston Carothers Scholarship, founded by herself. 

30. The Margaret Donahey Scholarship, founded by Margaret 

Donahey, of Washington County, Pa. 

31. The Melanchthon W. Jacobus Scholarship, founded by will of 

his deceased wife. 

32. The Charles Burleigh Conkling Scholarship, founded by his 

father. Rev. Nathaniel W. Conkling, D.D., of New York City. 

33. The Redstone Memorial Scholarship, founded in honor of Red- 

stone Presbytery. 

34. The John Lee Scholarship, founded by himself. 

35. The James McCord Scholarship, founded by John D. McCord, of 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

36. The Elisha P. Swift Scholarship. 

37. The Gibson Scholarship, founded by Charles Gibson, of Law- 

rence County, Pa. 

38. The New York Scholarship. 

39. The Mary Foster Scholarship, founded by Mary Foster, of 

Greensburg, Pa. 

40. The Lea Scholarship, founded in part by Rev. Richard Lea and 

by the Seminary. 

41. The Kean Scholarship, founded by Rev. William F. Kean, of 

Sewickley, Pa. 

42. The Murry Scholarship, founded by Rev. Joseph A. Murry, 

D.D., of Carlisle, Pa. 

43. The Moorhead Scholarship, founded by Mrs. Annie C. Moor- 

head, of Pittsburgh, Pa. 

44. The Craighead Scholarship, founded by Rev. Richard Craig- 

head, of Meadville, Pa. 

45. The George H. Starr Scholarship, founded by Mr. George H. 

Starr, of Sewickley, Pa. 

46. The William R. Murphy Scholarship, founded by William R. 

Murphy, of Pittsburgh, Pa. 

47. The Mary A. McClurg Scholarship, founded by Miss Mary A. 

McClurg. 

48. The Catherine R. Negley Scholarship, founded by Catherine R. 

Negley. 

49. The Jane C. Dinsmore Scholarship, founded by Jane C. Dins- 

more. 

50. The Samuel Collins Scholarship, founded by Samuel Collins. 

51. The A. G. McCandless Scholarship, founded by A. G. McCand- 

less, of Pittsburgh, Pa. 
52-53. The W. G. and Charlotte T. Taylor Scholarships, founded by 
Rev. W. G. Taylor, D.D. 

54. The William A. Robinson Scholarship, founded by John F. 

Robinson in memory of his father. 

55. The Alexander C. Robinson Scholarship, founded by John F. 

Robinson in memory of his brother. 

56. The David Robinson Scholarship, founded by John F. Robinson 

in memory of his brother. 

67 (115) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

57-58. The Robert and Charles Gardner Scholarships, founded by 
Mrs. Jane Hogg Gardner in memory of her sons. 

59. The Joseph Patterson, Jane Patterson, and Rebecca Leech 

Patterson Scholarship, founded by Mrs. Joseph Patterson, 
of Philadelphia, Pa. 

60. The Jane and Mary Patterson Scholarship, founded by Mrs. 

Joseph Patterson. 

61. The Joseph Patterson Scholarship, founded by Mrs. Joseph 

Patterson. 

62. The William Woodward Eells Scholarship, founded by his 

daughter, Anna Sophia Eells. 
*63. The Andrew Reed Scholarship, founded by his daughter, Anna 
M. Reed. 

64. The Bradford Scholarship, founded by Benjamin Rush Brad- 

ford. 

65. The William Irwin Nevin Scholarship, founded by Theodore 

Hugh Nevin and Hannah Irwin Nevin. 

66. The Jacob Negley Scholarship, founded in 1926, by the will 

of W. iB. Negley in memory of his great-great grandfather. 

67. The Alexander Negley Scholarship, founded in 1926, by the 

will of W. B. Negley in memory of his great grandfather. 

68. The Jacob Negley Scholarship, founded in 1926, by the will 

of W. B. Negley in memory of his grandfather. 
6 9. The Daniel Negley Scholarship, founded in 1926, by the will 
of W. B. Negley in memory of his father. 

70. The James Backhouse Scholarship, founded in 1926, by the 

will of W. B. Negley in memory of his maternal grandfather. 

71. The Joanna Wilmerding Negley Scholarship, founded in 1926, 

by the will of W. B. Negley in memory of his wife. 



Lectureships 

The Elliott Lectureship. The endowment for this 
lectureship was raised by Prof. Kobinson among the 
alumni and friends of the Seminary as a memorial to 
Prof. David Elliott, who served the institution from 1836 
to 1874. Several distinguished scholars have delivered 
lectures on this foundation : the Rev. Professor Alexan- 
der F. Mitchell, D. D., Principal Fairbairn, the Rev. B. C. 
Henry, D. D., the Rev. J. S. Dennis, D. D., Prof. James 
Orr, D. D., the Rev. Hugh Black, D. D., the Rev. David 
Smith, D. D., President A. T. Ormond, the Rev. Prof. 
Samuel Angus, Ph. D., the Rev. John Macldntosh Shaw, 
D. D., and the Rev. Maitland Alexander, D. D., LL. D. 

*Special Prize Scholarship (vide p. 59). 
68 (116) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

The L. H. Severance Missionaey Lectureship. 
This lectureship has been endowed by the generous gift 
of the late Mr. L. H. Severance, of Cleveland, Ohio. The 
first course of lectures on this foundation was given dur- 
ing the term of 1911-12, by Mr. Edward Warren Capen, 
Ph. D., of the Hartford School of Missions. The subse- 
quent courses were delivered as follows: 1914-15, the 
Rev. Arthur J. Brown, D. D.; 1915-16, the Rev. S. G. 
Wilson, D. D. ; October, 1917 (postponed from the term 
1916-17), the Rev. A. Woodruff Halsey, D. D. ; January, 
1918, the Rev. J. C. R. Ewing, D. D., LL. D., C. I. 
E.; September, 1919, the Rev. Robert F. Fitch, D. D.; 
November, 1922, the Rev. J. Stewart Kunkle ; December, 
1923, the Rev. Robert F. Fitch, D. D. The ninth course 
was given as classroom lectures, one hour per week dur- 
ing the first semester 1924-5 by the Rev. Frank B. 
Llewellyn. The tenth course was given as classroom 
lectures, one hour per week during the second semester 
1925-6, by the Rev. Donald A. Irwin. 

The Robert A. Watson Memorial Lectureship. 
This lectureship was endowed in May, 1918, by Mrs. 
Janet I. Watson, of Columbus, Ohio, as a memorial to 
her husband. Rev. Robert A. Watson, D. D., a graduate 
of the Seminary class of 1874. 



Seminary Extension Lectures 

In recent years a new departure in the work of the 
Seminary has been the organization of Seminary Exten- 
sion courses. Since the organization of this work the 
following courses of lectures have been given in various 
city and suburban churches : 

(1) ''The Sacraments", four lectures, by Rev. 
David R. Breed, D. D., LL. D. 

(2) "Social Teaching of the New Testament", 
six lectures, by Rev. William R. Farmer, D. D. 

69 (117) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

(3) "Theology of the Psalter", four lectures, by 
President Kelso. 

(4) "Prophecy and Prophets", four lectures, by 
President Kelso. 

(5) "The Fundamentals of Christianity", five 
lectures, by Kev. James H. Snowden, D. D., LL. D. 

(6) "The Psychology of Religion", five lectures, 
by Rev. James H. Snowden, D. D., LL. D. 

(7) "The Personality of God", five lectures, by 
Rev. James H. Snowden, D. D., LL. D. 

(8) "Crises in the Life of Christ", four lectures, by 
Rev. Selby Frame Vance, D. D., LL. D. 

(9) "Jerusalem" and "Petra". two illustrated 
lectures, by President Kelso. 



70 (118) 



TTie Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



ALUMNI ASSOCIATION 

OFFICERS FOR 1926-7 

President 

The REV. GEORGE P. ATWELL, D. D. 
Class of 1898 

Vice Presidents 

The REV. CHARLES C. CRIBBS 

Class of 1911 
The REV. HUGH L.EITH, D. D. 

Class of 1902 

Secretary 

The REV. GEORGE C. FISHER, D. D. 
Class of 1903 

Treasurer 

The REV. R. H. ALLEN, D. D. 
Class of 1900 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

President, Vice Presidents, Secretary, Treasurer, President of Sem- 
inary, ex officio 

NECROLOGICAL COMMITTEE 

The REV. R. H. ALLEN, D. D. 
The REV. J. A. KELSO, Ph.D., D.D., LL.D. 



71 (119) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



DIRECTORY 

Assistant to Librarian . . A. L. Middler M. 

Director D. President Pres. 

Fellow F. Professor Prof. 

General Secretary G. S. Registrar R. 

Graduate G. Secretary Sec. 

Instructor I. Senior S. 

Junior J. Trustee T. 

Librarian L. 



Alexander, Rev. Maitland, D.D., 

LL.D D 920 Ridge Ave., N. S. 

Allen, Rev. David K F 106 Marchmont Rd., 

Edinburgh, Scotland 

Allender, B. E M 217 

Anderson, Rev. T. B., D.D D Beaver Falls, Pa. 

Ashley, William A S 855 Hazelett Ave., 

Lincoln Place, Pa. 

Baker, Dr. S. S D Washington, Pa. 

Baldwin, H. Wayland J 1008 Zahniser St. 

Blews, H. C J 100 Ruth St., 

Mt. Washington Sta. 

Boston, John K G. 1332 Liverpool St., N. S. 

Boyd, Dr. Charles N 1 131 Bellefield Ave. 

Boyd, W. S G 1517 Fallowfield Ave. 

Brandon, W. D D Butler, Pa. 

Breed, Rev. D. R., D.D ,Prof Bellefield Dwellings 

Campbell, R. D Pres. of T 6210 Walnut St. 

*Carpenter, J. McF T Frick Annex 

Christie, Rev. J. W., D.D D. .103 E. Auburn Ave., Cin., O. 

Chubb, Edna P. (Mrs. A. L.) G.109 Lincoln Ave., Bellevue, Pa. 

Clemson, D. M T Carnegie Bldg. 

Conley, Rev. C. S G R.F.D. 2. Parnassus, Pa. 

Cornelius, Maxwell G 201 Waldorf St., N. S. 

Coulter, CM S 1316 Western Ave., N. S. 

Craig, Rev. W. R., D.D D Latrobe, Pa. 

Crutchfield, J. S D 2034 Penn Ave. 

Csorba Zoltan G 318 

Culley, Rev. D. E., Ph.D Prof. & R 57 Belvidere St., 

Crafton, Pa. 



•Deceased 

72 (120) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Davis, Howard S J 306 

Deller, (Miss) Hester J J 939 Beech Ave., N. S. 

Dickson, C. A .T 316 Fourth Ave. 

Dieffenbacher, R. L J 314 

Dobos, Karoly G 318 

Duff, Rev. J. M., D.D D 1641 Shady Ave. 

Eakin, Rev. Frank, Ph.D Prof. & L 9 Pilgrim Road, 

Rosslyn Farms, Carnegie, Pa. 

Eakin, J. L F . . . Bangkok, Siam 

Edwards, Geo. D T Commonwealth Trust Co., 

Fourth Ave. 

Ewing, T. D S 303 

Farmer, Rev. W. R., D.D Prof 511 Amberson Ave. 

Fawceit, James E M 52 Waldorf St., N. S. 

Fejes, J. S S 110 

Fennell, Wm J 204 

Fisher, Rev. Geo. C, D.D Sec. of D. . . .5919 Wellesley Ave. 

Fisher, Rev. S. J., D.D Sec. of T. . . .5611 Kentucky Ave. 

Forney, G. L M R. D. 9, S. Hills Branch, 

Box 74 

Fruit, B. S S 1316 Western Ave., N. S. 

Genre, Ermanno. . G 215 

Gilleland, William A S 217 

Gregg, John R T P. O. Box 481, Pittsburgh 

Griswold, Wells S D 102 Woodbine Ave., 

Youngstown, O. 

Guthrie, Dwight R J ^^^ 

Hanna, C. N D Bellefield Dwellings 

Haberly, Charles Edward J 210 

Harbison, R. W D & T. . .1317 Farmers Bk. Bldg. 

Hartzell J. L G 315 

Haynes, D. M S 316 

Hays, Rev. C, D.D D 304 Granite Bldg. 

Hazlett, Paul H S 3 02 

Herron, Joseph A T Monongahela City, Pa. 

Higley, Rev. A. P., D.D D.2020 E. 79th St., Cleveland, O. 

Hinitt, Rev. F. W., D.D D Indiana, Pa. 

Holland, Rev. W. J., D.D . . .T 5545 Forbes Ave. 

Homer, Lloyd D S ^^* 

Horst, M. C G Windber, Pa. 

Hudnut, Rev. W. H., D.D D 245 N. Heights Ave. 

Youngstown, O. 

Husted, M. L T P. O. Box 94, South Heights, Pa. 

Hutchison, Rev. S. N., D.D X>. & T 5915 Wellesley Ave. 

73 (121) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Irwin, Edgar C S 304 

Ittel, Chas. A J 1216 Termon Ave., N. S. 

Jones, Rev. W. A., D.D T. .136 Orchard Ave., Mt. Oliver 

Station 

Kaufman, R. W. E S 204 

Kelso, Rev. J. A., Ph.D., D.D. . . . Pres 725 Ridge Ave., N. S. 

Kelso, J. Howard J 215 

Kestle, J. A S 302 

Kerr, Rev. Hugh T., D.D D 827 Amberson Ave. 

Kovacs, Chas G HO 

Kuehn, M. R .S 206 

Labotz, Gerrit J 314 

Laughlin, Rev. J. W., DD G. S 731 Ridge Ave., N. S. 

Leister, Rev. J. M G Florence, Pa. 

Logan, George B D. & T 1007 N. Lincoln Ave. 

N. S. 

Luccock Rev. G. N., D.D D Wooster, O. 

Luciejko, Joseph J 214 

Lyon, John G T Commonwealth Bldg. 

MacDonald, Miss Agnes D A. L. Elmhurst Inn, Sewickley, 

Pa. 

McCloskey, T. D D Oliver Bldg. 

McCormick Rev. S B., D.D D Coraopolis, Pa. 

McCrea, Rev. C. A., D.D I Oakmont, Pa. 

McDivitt, Rev. M. M., D.D J5. . . .403 Zara St., Knoxville, Pa. 

McEwan, Rev. W. L., D.D D 836 S. Negley Ave. 

McKee, (Miss) Elizabeth S J.... 241 N. Dithridge St., E. E. 

Marquis, Rev. J. A., D.D D. . . .156 Fifth Ave., New York, 

N. Y. 

Marquis, W. C S Baden, Pa. 

Marshall, W. E G East Butler, Pa. 

Massay, George D J 5008 Glenwood Ave. 

Mealy, Rev. J. M., D. D D Sewickley, Pa. 

Mellin, Rev. W. C F Rimersburg, Pa. 

Miller, T. E S 411 S. Graham St. 

Moran, O. W G 122 Whitfield St. 

Morris, W. J T 6735 Penn Ave. 

Muller, George J G 1208 Iten St., N. S. 

Orr, Rev. Wm. H 1 26 Monitor Ave., 

Ben Avon, Pa. 

Parsons, W. V. E S 841 N. Lincoln Ave. N. S. 

Post, Rev. H. F F Petersburg, Ohio 

Potter, Rev. J. M., D.D D Wheeling, W. Va. 

Purnell, W. B G Imperial, Pa. 

74 (122) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Rae, James D 801 Penn Ave. 

Read, Miss Margaret M Sec. to Pres 51 Chestnut St. 

Crafton, Pa. 

Robinson, A. C D. & T.. Fourth Ave. & Wood St. 

Robinson, Rev. J. M., D.D D 629 South Negley Ave. 

Robinson, W. M T Union Trust Building 

Rodgers, Rev. Howard G 141 Oliver Ave., 

Emsworth, Pa. 

Runtz, Rev. A. F G 3337 East St., N. S. 

Rutherford, Rev. G. H F Dillionvale, O. 

Ryall, Rev. G. M D. . . Saltsburg, Pa. 

Schade, Arthur A G 75 Onyx Ave. 

Schaeffer, L. E J 317 

Schwalbe, Oswald O S 315 

Scott, Rev. Stanley, Ph.D 1 661 Maryland Ave. 

Semple, Rev. Samuel, D.D D Titusville, Pa. 

Semple, William, Jr M 203 

Shaw, Wilson A D. & T.. .Bk. of Pittsburgh, N. A. 

Shimp, Harry S. D G R. D, 1, Oakdale, Pa 

Sleeth, G. M., Litt.,D I. , .749 River Road, Avalon, Pa. 

Slemmons, Rev. W. E., D.D D Washington, Pa. 

Smith, Hugh A G 314 

Smith, Rev. R. L G 2 Mansion St. 

Snowden, Rev. J. H., D.D Prof 941 Miami Ave., 

Mt. Lebanon, Pgh. 

Snyder, Rev. P. W., D.D .T 2010 Comomnwealth Bldg. 

Spence, Rev. W. H.^ D.D D Uniontown, Pa. 

Stebbins, L. H M 203 

Stevenson, Rev. P. W., D.D D Maryville, Tenn. 

Stewart, A. J J 315 

Stuart. John A S 205 

Stueber, Frederick G 432 Talco St., N. S. 

Swaim, J. C. . . S 303 

Taylor, Rev. George, Jr., Ph. D. .Pres. of D Wilkinsburg, Pa. 

Teal, Rev. I. K G 300 N. Negley Ave. 

Thayer, Clarence R S 202 

Vance, John S S 202 

Vance, Rev. S. F., D.D Prof 237 Hilands Ave., 

Ben Avon, Pa. 

Vecchio, G. A G 202 

Vocaturo, Pasquale M 218 

Volpitto, Guy H S 205 

Waldkoenig, A. C G 1309 Paulson Ave. 

Wardrop, Robert T First National Bank 

Weaver, J. L., Jr M 78 Grant Ave., Etna, Pa. 

Weir, Rev. W. F., D.D D 17 N. State St., 

Chicago, 111. 

Whitacre, Oscar S J 305 

White, Montague J 306 

Williams, P. L G 317 

Wilson, Dr. A. W., Jr D Saltsburg. Pa. 

Wilson, E. M , . . . .G 1142 Wayne Ave., 

McKees Rocks, Pa. 
Wishart, Rev. C. F., D.D D Wooster, Ohio 

Zurawetzky, Peter M 214 

75 (123) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



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77 (125) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 






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Prof. Culley 

Church History-30 

Prof. Eakin 


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O. T. Prophecy-11 

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Church History-31 
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Galatians-83 

Prof. Vance 

Church History-30 
Prof. Eakin 


0. T. Intro..l2 

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Homiletics45 

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Church History-31 

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0. T. Iiitro.-12 

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Theology-37 

Mr. Orr 


N. T. Theology-26 
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Theology-39 
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Theology-37 
Mr. Orr 


Pastoral Care-57b 

Prof. Farmer 

Hist, of Hebrews-8b 
Prof. Kelso 

Hist, of Hebrews-8b 
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N. T. Theology-26 
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Homiletics-74 
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Social Teaching°61b 

Prof. Farmer 

The Psalter-4 

Prof. Cullky 

Theology-39 

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Apologetics-37 

Prof. Snowden 


Philosophy of Rel.-41a 

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^ 





79 (127) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Index 

Admission, Terms of 36 

Alumni Association 71 

Awards 11 

Bequests 62 

Boarding 33 

Book Purchasing Memorial Fund 27 

Buildings 21 

Calendar , 3 

Cecilia Choir, The 49 

Christian Work . ^ 30 

Conference • •. . , 29 

Courses of Study ^ 39 

Biblical Theology , 44 

Christian Ethics 49 

Church History 45 

English Bible ; 44 

Hebrew Language and O. T. Literature 40 

Missions and Comparative Religion .- .' 49 

New Testament Literature and Exegesis ', 42 

Practical Theology, Department of , ] 47 

Homileties, Pastoral Theology, Sacred Rhetoric, Speech Expression, 
Church Music, Administration. 

Religious Education 50 

Semitic Languages 4I 

Sociology 49 

Systematic Theology and Apologetics 46 

Degrees 38. 55 

Dining Hall 24 

Diplomas 38 

Directors, Board of 6 

Directory 72 

Educational Advantages 34 

Examinations 38 

Expenses 32 

Extension Lectures 69 

Faculty • 8 

Committees of , 9 

Fellowships ^ 58 

Funds, Memorial 65 

Gifts and Bequests 62 

Graduate Students '. 37 

Graduate Studies and Courses , 55 

Gymnasium 32 

Historical Sketch , 20 

Lectures : 

Elliott 10, 68 

Extension , 69 

On Missions 49 

L. H Severance 69 

Robert A Watson Memorial 69 

List of 10 

Library 25 

Loan Funds •. 34 

Location ■. 20 

Outline of Courses 51 

Physical Training 32 

Preaching Service 30 

Preaching Supply, Bureau of . . , 31 

Presbyteries, Reports to 55 

Prizes • • 58 

Religious Exercises , 29 

Representation, College and State , 17 

Schedule of Classes 76 

Scholarship Aid •. 33 

Scholarships, List of 65 

Seminary Year , 38 

Social Hall , 24 

Student Organizations 19 

Students, Roll of 12 

Students from other Seminaries 37 

Trustees, Board of 4 

University of Pittsburgh, Relations with , 56 

Warrington Memorial Library 25 

Y. M. C. A 30 

Committees of I 19 

80 (128) 



A — HER] 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Index 

Admission, Terms of 36 

Alumni Association 71 

Awards 11 

Bequests • • 62 

Boarding 33 

Book Purchasing Memorial Fund 27 

Buildings 21 

Calendar ,. 3 

Cecilia Choir, The 49 

Christian Work 30 

Conference • •. . 29 

Courses of Study 39 

Biblical Theology » 44 

Christian Ethics 49 

Church History 45 

English Bible 44 

Hebrew Language and O. T. Literature 40 

Missions and Comparative Religion .- ." 49 

New Testament Literature and Exegesis 42 

Practical Theology, Department of , 47 

Homiletics, Pastoral Theology, Sacred Rhetoric, Speech Expression, 
Church Music, Administration. 

Religious Education 50 

Semitic Languages 41 

Sociology 49 

Systematic Theology and Apologetics 46 

Degrees, 38. 55 

Dining Hall 24 

Diplomas 38 

Directors, Board of 6 

Directory 72 

Educational Advantages 34 

Examinations 38 

Expenses 32 

Extension Lectures 69 

Faculty ■ 8 

Committees of ^ 9 

Fellowships , 58 

Funds, Memorial 65 

Gifts and Bequests 62 

Graduate Students '. 37 

Graduate Studies and Courses 55 

Gymnasium 32 

Historical Sketch , 20 

Lectures : 

Elliott 10, 68 

Extension 69 

On Missions • • 49 

L. H Severance 69 

Robert A Watson Memorial 69 

List of 10 

Library 25 

Loan Funds •, 34 

Location -, 20 

Outline of Courses 51 

Physical Training 32 

Preaching Service 30 

Preaching Supply, Bureau of •...., 31 

Presbyteries, Reports to 55 

Prizes • • 58 

Religious Exercises 1 29 

Representation, College and State ., 17 

Schedule of Classes 76 

Scholarship Aid •. 33 

Scholarships, List of , 65 

Seminary Year , 38 

Social Hall 24 

Student Organizations 19 

Students, Roll of 12 

Students from other Seminaries 37 

Trustees, Board of 4 

University of Pittsburgh, Relations with 56 

Warrington Memorial Library 25 

Y. M. C. A 30 

Committees of 7 19 

80 (128) 



^^^ I 




=:WESTERN: 



RIDGE 



kfs 



LYNDALE 


AVE. 










bA 



WEST PARK 

SHOWING THE LOCATION OF 

WESTERN THEOLOGICAL 
SEMINARY 

N.S. PITTSBURGH, PENN'A 



NORTH 



AVE. 




A — HERRON HALL C — DR. SNOWDEN'S RESIDENCE. E— OLD LIBRARY. F — MEMORIAL HALL. 

B — DR. KELSO'S RESIDENCE. D — DR. SCHAPF'S RESIDENCE. G — SWIFT HALL. 



The Balletli) 

oi tke 

Western Theologieal 
Sefflinapy 




% 



Vol. XIX 



April, 1927 



No. 3 



> 



igj/ 



The Western Theological Seminary 

North Side, Pittsburgh. Pa. 

FOUNDED BT THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY, 1825 

The facTilty consists of eight professors and three 
instructors. A complete modern theological cnrriculum, 
with elective courses leading to degrees of S.T.B. and 
S.T.M. Graduate courses of the University of Pitts- 
burgh, leading to the degrees of A.M. and Ph.D., are 
open to properly qualified students of the Seminary. A 
special course is offered in Practical Christian Ethics, in 
which students investigate the problems of city missions, 
settlement work, and other forms of Christian activity. 
A new department of Religious Education was inaugu- 
rated with the opening of the term beginning September 
1922. The City of Pittsburgh affords unusual opportuni- 
ties for the study of social problems. 

The students have exceptional library facilities. The 
Seminary Library of 45,000 volumes contains valuable 
collections of works in all departments of Theology, but 
is especially rich in Exegesis and Churc]^ History ; the 
students also have access to the Carnegie Library, which 
is situated within five minutes' walk of the Seminary 
buildings. 

A post-graduate fellowship of $600 is annually 
awarded the member of the graduating class who has the 
highest rank and who has spent three years in the insti- 
tution. 

Two entrance prizes, each of $150, are awarded on 
the basis of a competitive examination to college gradu- 
ates of high rank. 

All the public buildings of the Seminary are new. 
The dormitory was dedicated May 9, 1912, and is 
equipped with the latest modern improvements, includ- 
ing gymnasium, social haU, and students' commons. The 
group consisting of a new Administration Building and 
Library was dedicated May 4, 1916. Competent judges 
have pronounced these buildings the handsomest struc- 
tures architecturally in the City of Pittsburgh, and un- 
surpassed either in beauty or equipment by any other 
group of buildings devoted to theological education in 
the United States. 

For further information, address 

President James A. Kelso, 
North Side, Pittsburgh, Pa. 



THE BULLETIN 

OF THE 

Western Theologieal Seminary 



A Review Devoted to tne Interests of 
Tneological Education 



Published quarterly in January, April, July, and October, by the 
Trustees of tbe Western Theological Seminary of the Presbyterian Church 
in the United States of America. 



Edited by tbe President with tbe co-operation of tbe Faculty. 



Page 
The Elliott Lectures^ — Second Course 5 

The Christian Doctrine of Forgiveness 7 

Rev. Donald MacKenzie, M.A. 

Faculty Notes 27 

Alumniana 2 8 



Communications for the Editor and all business matters should be 
addressed to 

REV. JAMES A. KELSO, 

T31 Ridge Ave., N. S., Pittsburgh, Pa. 



75 cents a vear. 



Single Number 25 cents. 



Each author is solely responsible for the views expressed in his article. 



Entered as second-class matter December 9, 1909, at the postoffice at Pittsburgh, Pa. 
(North Side Station) under the act of August 24, 1912. 



The manuscript of this number closed April 1, 1927. 



Press of 

pittsburgh printing company 

pittsburgh, pa, 

1927 



Faculty 



The Rev. JAMES A. KELSO, Ph. D., D. D., LL. D., 

President and Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Literature 
The Nathaniel W. Conkling Foundation 

The Rev. DAVID RIDDLE BREED, D. D., LL. D. 

Professor of Homiletics 

The Rev. WILLIAM R. FARMER, D. D. 

Reunion Professor of Sacred Rhetoric and Elocution 

The Rev. JAMES H. SNOWDEN, D. D., LL. D. 

Professor of Apologetics 

The Rev. SELBY FRAME VANCE, D. D,, LL. D. 

Memorial Professor of New Testament Literature and Exegesis 

The Rev. DAVID E. CULLEY, Ph. D., D. D. 

Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Literature 

The Rev. FRANK EAKIN, Ph. D. 

Professor of Ecclesiastical History and History of Doctrine 



GEORGE M. SLEETH, Lift. D. 

Instructor in Speech Expression 

CHARLES N. BOYD, Mns. D. 

Instructor in Hymnology and Church Music 

The Rev. WILLIAM H. ORR, S. T. M. 

Instructor in Systematic Theology 



The Rev. CHARLES A. McCREA, D. D. 

Instructor in Greek 



The Rev. STANLEY SCOTT, Ph. D. 

Instructor in Religious Education 



The Bulletin 

of the 

WESTERN THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 

Vol. XIX. April, 1927 No. 3 

The Elliott Lectures 

A second course of lectures for the present session 
on the Elliott Foundation was delivered by the Rev. Dun- 
can MacKenzie, M.A., on ''The Relation between Chris- 
tian Belief and Christian Practice". The subjects of the 
several lectures were: 1. "Conflict between the Two in 
Eighteenth Century", 2. ' ' The Problem in the Nineteenth 
Century between Science and Conscience and Conscience 
and Creed", 3. "Modem Attempts at Religion Making 
and Criticism ' ', 4. ' ' Solution in Christian Experience of 
Forgiveness", 5. "Analysis of Forgiveness and Its Moral 
Effects". The fourth of these lectures is published in 
full in the current number of the Bulletin. 

At present the lecturer is the minister of the Ferry 
Hill United Free Church of Aberdeen, Scotland. Before 
entering the pastorate he was for three years assistant 
to the Professor of Logic in the University of Aberdeen. 
While a student in the University Mr. MacKenzie distin- 
guished himself both in classics' and philosophy, and in 
recognition of his mastery in the field of the latter he is 
now serving as Examiner in Philosophy at his Alma 
Mater. The mastery of his subject and his clearness of 
expression come to light in articles from his pen on ethi- 
cal and philosophical subjects in Hastings' Encyclopaedia 
of Religion and Ethics. Two of the most notable of these 
articles are the ones on "Christian Ethics" and "The 
Freedom of the Will". 

Mr. MacKenzie is not anything of the dry-as-dust 
philosopher or theologian, and his lectures were far from 

5 (133) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

stereotyped. With Ms wide learning and accurate scholar- 
ship, he combines humor and an interest in the affairs of 
everyda}^ life. His geniality quickly won the hearts of 
his audience, which steadily grew larger as the course 
proceeded. His many Pittsburgh friends hope to wel- 
come the genial lecturer again. 



I 



6 (134) 



The Christian Doctrine of Forgiveness* 

Rev. Donald MacKenzie, M.A. 

What is said in this lecture takes for granted our 
previous discussion and the conclusions we arrived at as 
to what is involved in an adequate doctrine of man's 
nature. As I tried to show in our last lecture we need 
not fear that we do away with the necessity of redemjj- 
tion or dim the unique splendour of divine grace by mak- 
ing the fullest and frankest recognition of natural good- 
ness wherever it is found, nor should we too readily call 
the virtues even of the heathen — "splendida vitia"**— 
splendid vices or "glanzende Armseligkeiten. "*** It has 
been said that the Greek fathers placed such emphasis 
on the imminence of the Divine Logos in human nature 
that the distinction between nature and grace tended to 
be obscured or obliterated in their thinking. There is 
no little truth in this indictment, but on the other hand 
the West and we ourselves tend to go to the other extreme 
in a very legitimate desire to do full justice to Divine 
grace. The Bible and our experience of men correct both 
these extremes. Holy Scripture gives instances of heathen 
putting to shame by their superior conduct the saints, 
and the good Samaritan was cordially recognized by our 
Saviour. We do not hesitate to sing that — "in the dark- 
est spot of earth some love is found", and to acknowledge 
the measure of truth in TertuUian's expression "animae 
naturaliter Christianae". While all this is true, and 
should be frankly and gratefully accepted, it is equally 
true that man's nature to the impartial observer reveals 
disharmony with its surroundings and internal discord 

*This is the fourth in a series of five lectures delivered in the 
Seminary Chapel during the closing week of February and the first 
"week of March. 

**"splendida vitia" — usually ascribed to Augustine. I am not 
sure that the words are his but the doctrine is. See de civit Dei 
XIX: 25. 

***"glanzende Armseligkeiten" Kant, Werke VI: 152. 

7 (135) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

within. Not only is man open to disaster and disease 
and death, not only is he the subject of finitude and 
ignorance and imperfection; he is also when conscious 
of his own inner nature haunted by guilt and burdened 
by moral inability ''Video meliora proboque deteriora 
sequor", Kant who so emphasized man's moral free- 
dom, that he was afraid to admit the necessity of grace 
— who was in fact as far as morality was concerned a 
Pelagian, was in his psychological reading of human 
nature an Augustinian (cf. his radical evil of human 
nature). Now in discussing the reality of forgiveness 
if we neglect this, the actual nature of man, we are deal- 
ing with the subject out of its real, serious environment, 
we are dealing with it in vacuo and not in situ — an un- 
profitable business. We may be saying Peace, Peace, 
where there is no peace. A superficial diagnosis of man's 
sin robs redemption of its worth. Reconciliation in its 
wide sense would embrace a consideration of the healing 
of this outward disharmony arid inward schism in the 
nature of man, but in this lecture I limit myself to the 
conscious experience of reconciliation with God effected 
by forgiveness as this is portrayed for us in the New 
Testament*. It is however important to bear in mind 
that reconciliation has this wider reference. No one saw 
this more clearly than Albrecht Ritschl whose third vol- 
ume on this great topic broadens out to include this 
wider application. But we must for reasons of space 
limit ourselves to the more central topic. 

Now as we contemplate our Lord's activity in the 
pages of the New Testament and especially in the Gospel 
records what strikes one is that He gave to the burdened 
and oppressed and despairing and despised an assured 
sense in their hearts of an appropriated divine forgive- 
ness. Men in need had a kind of instinct for Christ. 
They press on Him, touch Him and find that He can 
meet their need. What He did on earth in the days of 

*A fuller discussion of human nature was attempted in the 
previous lecture and is here taken for granted. 

8 (136) 



The Christian Doctrine of Forgiveness > 

His flesh is what He is always doing according to the 
testimony of the Church in all ages. Lessing has said 
that "contingent truths of history cannot prove eternal 
truths of reason", but this is a false dichotomy. These 
historical instances of forgiveness in the Gospels and 
down through the ages are more than insignificant in- 
cidents — they embody in concrete cases the validity, 
finality, and blessedness of the activity of the Eternal. 
They are not evanescent and insignificant fulgors of feel- 
ing in the souls of the forgiven, but are substantiated in 
God. Tlieir subjectivity is grounded in His objectivity. 
The experience of forgiveness in the Old Testament was 
a real experience, just because Lessing 's dictum is not 
applicable to God's activity in history. It is true that 
the sacrificial ground or rationale of forgiveness in God 
was not fully revealed until Christ's work of redemption 
was accomplished, but the eternal efficacy of the oper- 
ation of forgiveness was thereby not invalidated. There 
is a true sense' in which we can say — "the Lamb slain 
from the foundation of the world." The mystery of its 
ground in God's gracious nature did not diminish the 
blessedness of the experience of forgiveness under the 
old covenant, and as to the mode of its bestowal we can 
still learn from the Old Testament record, Paul at any 
rate is not afraid to do this as we see from his treatment 
of the 32nd. Psalm in Eomans, I would suggest as a 
not unprofitable exercise for students an examination of 
such a word as the Piel of salach in Ps, 86 :5, translated 
in our version as "ready to forgive" as applied to God, 
and to let the fuller light that shines from Christ radiate 
through it. Apart from the linguistic interest there is 
surely suggested to us by the experience enshrined in 
the word and in the goodly cluster that surrounds it in 
the context, that God does not deal with a penitent man 
as he deserves, as for instance human law Avould deal with 
him. We ma}^ put it that God does not deal with a re- 
pentant man on the grounds of bare justice. The con- 

9 (137) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

trast between mercy and law is a Biblical contrast be- 
cause it is a universally human contrast. It is employed 
by our Saviour so that we have the highest authority 
for using it. We are all aware of how these two have 
often been antagonised in careless speech as if as attri- 
butes of God Himself they were in conflict whereas they 
are but ways of redemptive working which are seen in 
harmony in the fact of forgiveness. We may look on 
them, if it helps us to do so, after the manner of Aristo- 
telian theses united in the lusis — the perfect solution of 
forgiveness or rather as the colours of the spectrum in 
the unity of the white light of grace. Distinctions are 
not necessarily contradictions or antagonisms. 

At any rate it helps us to appreciate the greatness 
of forgiveness by starting with them. Our Saviour in 
His table-talk at the house of Simon the Pharisee takes 
for granted that the relation between God and man cor- 
responds in some sense to that between Creditor and 
Debtor. He begins there because by a Divine accommo- 
dation He places Himself on the level of His audience 
that He may lift them up to a higher level. Now if 
God acted on bare justice we could not answ^er Him one 
in a thousand and none of us could stand. He says of 
the two debtors — ''they had nothing to pay" — no assets. 
If there were nothing but a bare impersonal law or if 
even God's law were an external order, external to God 
Himself, there could be no forgiveness. I fancy herein 
lies the misconception so prevalent in our own time when 
science working with mechanical laws — as it is bound to 
do for methodological purposes — raises this soulless sys- 
tem to the level of Ultimate Reality. While I do not 
propose to deal here with the relation of forgiveness to 
the physical universe and to man as a part of that uni- 
verse, I would like to give a concrete illustration of the 
misconception I have in mind. Huxley in one of his Lay 
Sermons has pictured human life after a well-known illus- 
tration as a game of chess, the laws of the game being the 

10 (138) 



The Christian Doctrine of Forgiveness 

laws of nature, and the Unseen Player on the other side 
is always just with the consistency of invariable law but 
He never "overlooks our mistakes, never makes the 
smallest allowance for our ignorance and if we play ill, 
checkmates us without haste but without remose. " Now 
if one were in a ca})tious mood one could say that such a 
picture is very abstract — it omits all the help and guid- 
ance a man gets from others, it takes no account of the 
solidarit}^ of the race, it is tinctured by a false individu- 
alism, but apart from that Huxley kncAv better in other 
moods than his M'Ords would lead us to suppose. He 
brings us himself a kindlier view of things. In another 
place, arguing against the scientific high-brows who 
would eliminate the unfit, he makes this confession: "I 
sometimes wonder whether people who talk so freely 
about extirpating the unfit, every dispassionately con- 
sider their own history. Surely one must be very "fit" in- 
deed not to know of an occasion or perhaps two in one's 
life when it would have been only too easy to qualify for 
a place among the unfit." Huxley is here against those 
who think they need no repentance ; those righteous men 
who go about establishing their own righteousness who 
see the mote in a brother's eye, but not the beam in their 
oM^n, a very disagreeable set of folk. We cannot begin 
thus with God nor with ourselves. In dealing with God, 
law either judicial or natural will not help us because we 
have nothing with which to pay the debt or remed}^ the 
transgression, and unless He is ready to forgive, unless 
He takes some higher ground of dealing Avith us there is 
no hope, there is no gospel. We can then say Avith the men 
of Jeremiah's time — "There is no hope left". (Jer. 2:25; 
18:12cf. Is. 57:10). 

Jesus takes that for granted in saying after saying, 
and parable after parable as He sought now by compas 
sion and now by irony to break through the crust of 
self -righteousness, the greatest of all barriers in the soul 
against God. If we think of our relation to reality in 

11 (139) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

terms of impersonal laAV, we can never understand the 
teaching or the Person of Jesus. His whole work is 
thrown out of focus and perspective. Law is good, but 
law is not ready to forgive not even the penitent. Law 
has its place and a worthy and necessary place, but w^; 
cannot preach law. There is no Gospel of law and so 
Paul with a flash- of exegetical genius reminds us that 
before the law of Sinai there came the gracious promise 
to Abraham, priority in time here indicating priority in 
the Divine method. (Gal. 3:17 ff). The Gospel was alwa^/s 
in the mind and method of God and law is subservient 
to that purpose, a paedagogus to bring us to Christ. Even 
God's perfect law^ is not the ground of preaching but 
unmerited forgiveness in Christ for the repentant sinner. 
What the law could not do He can do and this was as 
true under the old covenant as it is under the new. In 
history and psalm and prophecy alike it was a felt reality 
that God is ready to forgive, Hint He deals witli us not 
after our sins nor rewards us according to our iniquities, 
that He is the Incomparable and Adorable God who 
pardoneth iniquity and passeth by the transgression or 
the remnant of His heritage. He delighteth in mercy. It 
Avas a mystery to them but a mystery that moved them 
to song not an enigma that perplexed their reason just 
because they were dealing not with abstractions but with 
the Living God who pities as a father pities his children. 
That lies at the very basis of the Gospel and it is pro- 
claimed with a frankness, a fullness and a fearlessness 
which is perfectly staggering to some men who have not 
seen the Father, as staggering as his unrecognized father 
w^as to Hector's son until the vizor was removed.* The 
Bible on this point and especially our Saviour speaks 
and acts with a freedom and an abandon which has in 
it nothing of that meticulous solicitude for the laws of 
matter or of morality which is but too familiar to us 
on the lips and pens of those who cannot away with 

*For a description of the incident to which I refer, described 
by Homer, see a popular account in Kingsley's "Hypatia". 

12 (140) 



The Christian Doctrine of Forgiveness > 

free unmerited forgiveness. It was very shocking to the 
Pharisees and always will be. "This man receiveth 
sinners and eateth with them." It looks almost as if 
the incidents recorded in the Gospels were chosen jnst 
to shock Pharisaic moralism. The woman who was a 
sinner, the prodigal son, Zaccheus, the thief on the cross 
are all what decent people would call extreme cases and 
respectable people feel as if they themselves did not need 
so much grace as these did. They are the ninety and nine 
who need no repentance. But after all are there right- 
eous people who need no repentance? Do they exist save 
in their own delusions and in the irony of Godf If they 
exist they are not pleasant to meet, nor pleasant to deal 
with or to worship with. Their prayer is a glorification 
of self and a despising of others. They may feel they owe 
fifty pence but they can pay it and have a little over. 
They come to the marriage feast in their own garments. 
They bring no alabaster box of ointment for Him. If 
they invite Him' to their homes they forget the courtesies 
of hospitality. "Alas", says John Bunyan, "Christ has 
little thanks for the saving of little sinners. To whom 
little is forgiven the same loveth little. He gets no w^ater 
for His feet by the saving of little sinners. There are 
abundance of dry-e3^ed Christians in the world and abun- 
dance of dry-eyed duties too — duties that were never 
wetted with the tears of contrition and repentance, nor 
sweetened with the great sinner's box of ointment. 
Wherefore His Avay is oftentimes to step out of the way, 
to Jericho, to Samaria, to the country of the Gergasenes, 
to the coasts of Tyre and Sidon, and also to Mount 
Calvar^^, that He may lay hold of such sinners as will 
love Him to His liking. ' ' 

One of those very Pharisees, who once thought that 
he had no need of repentance, when Christ's love was 
poured into his heart had quite a different view of him- 
self and w^ent about calling himself the chief of sinners 
or less than the least of all saints, inventing new diminu- 

13 (141) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Serviinary 

tives to express his own humility. His song ever after- 
wards became: — 

''Oh to grace how great a debtor! 
Daily I'm constrained to be": 
It is a singular and surely a significant fact that ad- 
vance in sanctification means an advance in self-depre- 
ciation nor should we put this down to an unhealthy 
morbidity, but to a clearer vision of God's holiness and 
a fuller experience of grace. As an example of this I 
give not the usual classic examples but content myself 
with quoting the motto of Copernicus, the father of mod- 
ern astronomy. 

"Non parem Pauli gratiam requiro veniam Petri 
neque posco, sed quani in crucis ligno dederas latroni 
sedulus oro". He prays not for the grace given to Paul 
nor for the pardon granted Peter, but earnestly for the 
mercy shown the thief on the cross. But Paul and Peter 
would have done the same. There is a saying to the 
effect that the grace that would leave Peter a sinnr^r 
would make John a saint and we understand what is 
meant for of some it can be said that even by nature 
they are not far from the kingdom of God, but John 
would not put himself in indebtedness below Peter we 
may be sure. They would all place themselves beside 
Copernicus in this matter, and what else can the best of 
us say than just this: — 

"I am a poor sinner and nothing at all 
But Jesus Christ is my all in all." 

Tame morality at once raises its protest and says that 
this is a libel on human virtue, that it obliterates moral 
distinctions, that it loosens the bonds and sanctions of 
law and order and places the libertine and the licentious 
on the same level as the elder son who never at any 
time transgressed the commandments. Now it would be 
possible to write a whole lecture tracing this protest 
through the Christian centuries from Celsus down to 
Cotter Morrison and Lewis Sinclair (see for a popular 

14 (142) 



The Christian Doctrine of Forgiveness , 

account a sermon in Dr. Salmon 's of Dublin ' ' Gnosticism 
and Agnosticism" where he gives a reference to Con- 
stantine's baptism, among other matters), but I do not 
here propose to do that. What I have to say on that 
point is dealt with in the next lecture, but we do saj here 
til at when the protest is honest it is based on a miscon- 
ception, and that it forgets that forgiveness does not 
deal with solvent morality but with the insolvent, with 
the morally bankrupt. "They that are whole have no 
need of the physician but they that are sick". They 
need Him and no one else is of any use. Mr. Legality, 
as John Bun} an would say, cannot show them tlie way 
to the Celestial City. The only gateway to a victorious 
joyful morality is the gateway of grace. Perhaps Shake- 
speare may be listened to on this very matter when 
others might through prejudice be refused a hearing. 
Every school-boy knows, as Macaulay would say, the 
wonderful portrait of Shylock drawn by Shakespeare. 
Shylock believes in bare justice, in the letter of his bond. 
He must have his pound of flesh irrespective of the life 
of his opponent. He will admit of no extenuating cir- 
cumstances, no leniency, no deviation from the letter 
that killeth. He knows no higher law. As the drama 
develops Shakespeare proves that the old proverb is 
verified in this case "Summum ins summa iniuria" aui.l 
he contrasts Avith this Sliylockean principle a higher auvi 
a holier principle. He calls it mercy. 
' ' The quality of mercy is not strain 'd. 
It droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven 
Upon the place beneath. It is twice blest: 
It blesseth Him that gives and Him that takes. 
'Tis mightiest in the mightiest: It becomes 
The throned monarch better than his crown; 
His sceptre shows the force of temporal power, 
The attribute to awe and majesty, 
Werein doth sit the dread and fear of kings; 
But mercy is above the sceptred sway, 

15 (143) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

It is enthroned in the hearts of kings, 

It is an attribute to God Himself; 

x\nd earthly power doth then show likest God's, 

When mercy seasons justice. Therefore, Jew, 

Though justice be thy plea, consider this. 

That in the course of justice none of us 

Should see salvation: we do pray for mercy; 

And that same prayer doth teach us all to render 

The deeds of merc^^" 

(Merchant of Venice, Act 4, 1, 184.) 
It is a noble passage, but is it true? To ask such 
ix question is to be guilty of banality. Was Shakespeare 
an immoralist or an anarchist or was he just interpreting 
the human heart in its surest and best instincts and in 
its deepest need? Surely the latter, and yet he says — "In 
the course of justice none of us could see salvation." 
Is that true? We know it is true, then let us preach it 
and preach it with something of the wonder and the 
warmth of the New Testament — of those who have per- 
sonally experienced it — "for the love of God is broader 
than the measure of man's mind and the Heart of the 
Eternal is most wonderfully kind". Rowland Hill once 
said that some men preached the Gospel as a donkeys eats 
thistles — very cautiously^, but the Gospel deserves better 
treatment than 'that both at the hands of the preacher 
and the hearer. Mercy leaves the door open for the 
penitent because God is ready^ to forgive and when he 
enters that door he finds that Christ is the end of the 
law for righteousness to all them that believe. The worst 
man can use that plea and the best man must use it. 
It is not a Gospel that the outcast onl}^ needs, but one 
we all need. "Merit may live from man to man but not 
from man Lord to thee." We are saved freely by His 
grace, says Paul, emphasizing the freeness by a tautol- 
ogy which is no tautology. The Old Testament and the 
New are at one here, for I think it can be said that the 
greatest word in the Old Testament next to God is the 

16 (144) 



The Christian Doctrine of Forgiveness > 

word hesed [and hasid], and it is the greatest word be- 
cause it is the greatest thing. The hasTd is, as old John 
Duncan of Edinburgh used to say,niercy 's man. The hasid 
is the man who clings to God's revelation of Himself 
as the Lord, the Lord God merciful and gracious, slov," 
to anger and of great compassion, forgiving iniquit^^ and 
transgression and sin — what Samuel Rutherford called 
himself, "a drowned debtor to God's grace", overwhelm- 
ingly and copiously forgiven and favored. And similarly 
in the New Testament the greatest word is grace. Grace 
is redeeming love flowing down on the unworthy, the 
guilty, and the need}^ It is now no longer limited to a 
covenant people but embraces, as in the intention of God 
it always embraced, all mankind. It is personalised in 
Christ and energizes through Him. In Christ this revela- 
tion of grace becomes like the shining of the sun. What- 
ever obscurity or dubiety may before have surrounded 
it is now removed, "The grace of God bringing salva- 
tion to all men hath appeared — risen in clarity, teaching 
us that denying ungodliness and worldly lusts we should 
live soberly, righteously, and godly in this present 
world." It shines like a star in the jewelled brow of 
night and neither the utmost ingenuity of man, nor any 
disturbance of man's sin can obscure it. This is the 
source and the foundation of forgiveness, just as it is its 
security and permanence.* 

■ The late Archbishop Trench, whose works have both 
educated and edified the Church of Christ, in liis interest- 
ing "Study of words" notices the tendency in words 
to degenerate with the lapse of time and is thereby led 
to the sad reflection that this is a subsidiary proof of 
the depravity of human nature. AVhatever value we may 
put on that reflection, one cannot help viewing with sor- 
row how in Israel those who called themselves proudly 
the Chasidim par excellence hardened into Pharisees, 
and it is possible, as the history of the Christian Church 

*For an O. T. vision of it cf. Ps. 36:5. 
17 (145) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

shows, to regard grace as a right and as favoritism on 
God's part and so turn the grace of God to lascivious- 
ness and pride. In such instances the corruption of the 
best becomes the worst. With this attitude of mind and 
heart I propose to deal in the next lecture. Meanwhile 
it is sufficient to say that the abuse of grace does not 
in any way tarnish the glory and wonder and freeness 
of the grace of God, nor should it shake our confidence 
in proclaiming it as the source of spiritual power and 
the inspiration of moral life. 

The intensive form of the word salach from which 
we started suggests the truth which in our Lord's atti- 
tude and teaching is clearly seen, viz, that in this matter 
of forgiveness there is a note of glad welcome on God's 
part towards the penitent. It tells us that this is the 
very thing God is waiting to do. He delights in mercy. 
He is waiting to be gracious (Is. 30:18). Whatever other 
creditors are seeking after, God is seeking an opportunity 
to write "Frankly and freely forgiven" over the recoid 
of the returning sinner. If one may use a modern figure, 
God's office is always open to transact this business. He 
is always approachable for those who draw near on this 
errand. We shall see in the next lecture that the reality 
is even greater and more wonderful than this — that there 
is the persistent activity of God pursuing the sinner in 
a gracious intention. Language, like w^aiting and pur- 
suing, which to us are contradictory, must alike be used 
to describe the fullness of divine grace. Now this is the 



&■' 



very heart of the good news of Jesus Christ and we must 
not be afraid of believing it or of preaching it. There 
is no reserve in the preaching of Jesus on this point. 
Think of the story of the prodigal son and his father. 
The son had lost everything in a disgraceful unmention- 
able way and then he comes back. What reception will 
he get? He deserved to be kept out of doors. We have 
a sneaking kind of sympathy with the elder brother's 
a.ttitude — indeed some preachers go the length of white - 

18 (146) 



The Christian Doctrine of Forgiveness , 

wasliing liim. His language was rather strong but had 
he not a reason for his speech! We find it difficult to 
understand the father's conduct. On the ground of bare 
legality it cannot be justified. There is much to be said 
against it on the ground of prudential ethics, and it 
seems to violate outright the law of cause and conse- 
quence. At the best there was involved a considerable 
risk. He might have allowed him in with a frown, and 
put him on probation, but to embrace him, to put the ring- 
on his finger, and shoes on his feet, to kill the fatted 
calf and have music and dancing goes far to justify the 
vehement outburst of the elder brother. "Thou never 
gavest me a kid that I should make merry with my 

friends but when this thy son is come ". 

In the same way we seem quite unable to explain the 
action of the Master of the vineyard who hired the 
laborers at the eleventh hour and gave them a full day's 
wage. There the relationship between God and man is 
pictured as that of employer and employe. It is not fair 
to those who bore the heat and burden of the day. It is 
bad economics and likely to lead to bad morality and 
to a bankrupt business. The moral arguments against 
procedure of this kind are very serious, just as serious 
as the age-long objections against the doctrine of free 
grace and they alike arise from misconception, from fail- 
ing to notice that the arguments and what is argued 
against are in two different universes of discourse, as the 
logicians say. We will never understand these things 
till we get above the ground of merit and desert, of wages 
and working hours altogether, till we leave economics 
and legalism aside and realize that here we are moving 
in a region of grace, of readiness to forgive. God has 
to deal with men who are not morally solvent but bank- 
rupt and this is the only redemptive way in which He 
can deal with us. "I have nourished and brought up 
children and the^^ have rebelled against Me". There is 
however nothing that the broken hearted, contrite sinner 

19 (147) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

understands so well, for liis only chance of life is here, 
and there is nothing the saint understands so well. "If 
God did not save sinners what could I do I" said Dr. 
Thomas Chalmers not at the beginning but towards the 
close of his life, a life consecrated and fruitful in services 
of love. 

Before I come to discuss the influence on moral con- 
duct of this doctrine of free grace which is the main 
object of these lectures, it may be necessary to safeguard 
against a very possible misunderstanding of my position. 
By free grace I am not thinking of the question that 
explicitly emerged in the Socinian controversy. It is well 
known that Socinus in his book "De Jesu Christo Serva- 
tore" antagonised the freeness of grace and the death 
of Christ for our sins and maintained with painful itera- 
tion that if the one were true the other could not be true. 
In my last lecture where I deal with the cost of forgive- 
ness I try to show that the Socinian freeness is an ab- 
straction which makes the death of Christ a meaningless 
and indeed a grotesque superfluity and that it violates 
Christian experience. We sometimes find in rhetorical 
addresses on the Prodigal Son an attempt made to 
invalidate everything that cannot naturally fall inside 
the teaching of that parable or story, forgetting that it 
was our Lord's method to deal with one aspect of truth 
at a time. On this latter point I do not wish now to 
dwell but may be allowed to guide the reader to a very 
excellent though popular treatment of the topic by the 
late Dr. Dale of Birmingham.* 

Well now what is in reality the influence on moral 
conduct of this doctrine of grace livingly apprehended 
by the penitent soul? If am^ one says off hand that this 
doctrine of grace rightly appreciated and personally 
appropriated and applied is in the nature of the case 
subversive of morality, antinomian in tendency, I refuse 

*See the Epistle of James and the lecture No. 12 entitled "The 
Parable of the Prodigal and the Doctrine of the Atonement". 

20 (148) 



The Christian Doctrine of Forgiveness > 

even apart from experience to believe him and refer him 
to Jesus Christ who is full of grace and truth, who, as 
we saw, acted on this very principle. "He knows little 
of England" said Browning "who only England knows," 
and he knows little of morality who only morality knows. 
Law comes now not in the thunders of Sinai, but in love, 
bathed in the smile of a Father who is ready to forgive, 
and of a Brother even Christ who came to seek and to 
save the lost. Law is now enthroned in the heart of the 
sinner who has tasted that the Lord is gracious. Law 
in itself could never save or sanctify, but love in saving 
the prodigal by freely forgiving him sets the law to music 
in his heart. The true order is not, as Kant thought, 
from virtue to grace but from grace to virtue. 

As far as I can make out there are but two main 
alternatives open to those who deny our position. On 
the one hand they may bluntly say that there is no such 
a thing as forgiveness, that we are in a system governed 
by the laws of cause and effect, part of that system. 
"The moving finger writes and having writ moves on, 
Nor all your piety nor wit can lure it back to cancel 
half a line. 
Nor all your tears blot out a word of it". 

In regard to forgiveness the only truth in that verse 
is that a man cannot lorgive himself, that the law he 
has broken is more than a subjective and purely indi- 
vidual magnitude but is universal in its validity, but the 
verse errs, not knowing the Scripture nor the love of God. 
God forgives. Mr. Cotter Morrison and Mr. Eathbone 
Greg, to refer to names well-known a generation ago 
though not so well-known now, bluntly say that God is 
the only one who simply cannot forgive and so for a lot 
of bad people the only thing is to imprison them or better 
still to exterminate them. These writers work with a su- 
perficial view of morality and forget that deeper thinkers 
whose consciences are alive are painfully aware of their 
own guilt and imperfection. They forget also that many 

21 (149) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

of the choicest siDirits who have influenced the race for 
good were at one time deep in sin until grace restored 
them. Where are the perfect people we ask? This is 
not a Gospel, this is not the way to moral victory but 
somewhat like the method described by the old historian 
• — ^"they make a desert and call it peace." If one may 
be allowed to refer to Shakespeare again, and surely we 
may refer to him for he writes with no didactic purpose 
and therefore his teaching is all the more valuable, was 
Shakespeare not speaking for all men when he puts the 
following words into the mouth of a prince of compara- 
tively pure life : 

"I am indifferent honest, but yet I could accuse mo 
of such things that it were better my mother had not 
borne me — with more offences at my beck than I have 
thoughts to put them in, imagination to give them shape, 
or time to act them in. ' ' And is it simply an empty form 
of words when he says : 

"Why, all the souls that were forfeit once; 

And He that might the vantage best have took, 

Found out the remedy"? 

Or have w^e not a right to ask superior people who 
with marvelous facility condemn others to the prison or 
the shambles, this: 

"How would you be. 
If He, which is the top of judgment should 
But judge you as you are ' ' ? 

But enough on that point. The other alternative is 
to say that this is not the forgiveness preached in God's 
word, but a forgiveness which waits for its bestowal and 
its operation on the heels of repentance, reformation, and 
reparation — a kind of probationary forgiveness. 

Now in Scripture there are many levels of teaching 
for it appeals to all the motives that influence men, but 
the point is to determine what is the central stream, the 
living nerve of its message, and when that is asked and 
what the old theologians used to call the status quaes- 

22 (150) 



The Christian Doctrine of Forgiveness , 

tionis is clearly determined, there is in our opinion no 
donbt about the answer. The Council of Trent and those 
who think after their manner try to explain Paul's great 
word §t/.o!toiJv as "to make righteous" — in other words, 
to explain forgiveness as the result of righteousness, and 
obviously they desire to keep the means of making right- 
eous in priestly hands. No scholar with any reputation 
to lose to-day would attempt that. There is no escape 
that way. Grammar and grace are alike against them 
and so they turn on Paul and try to rend him. But Paul 
has weathered a lot of that and he seems to be not much 
the worse but rather the better. It is a counsel of despair 
to pitch Paul against Jesus for on this matter the proba- 
bility is that he knew Jesus better than his critics. Are 
we then to think of God's reception of us after the man- 
ner of David's reception of Absalom when he returned 
from Geshur, a kind of half-hearted affair with a police- 
man's eye upon us expecting that the old virus will break 
out again at any moment 1 We know as a matter of fact 
what the result of that kind of forgiveness was — if for- 
giveness it can be called — a fresh and more fatal out- 
break. Obviousl}- that is not a solution worthy of man 
far less so of God. 

This topic is in my opinion so important that I pro- 
pose to occupy the rest of this lecture with its discussion 
— and it is always a wise course in dealing with an ob- 
jection to take it in its best representatives and no better 
presentation of it can be had than in Moberly's "Atone- 
ment and Personality." 

Instead of undertaking a criticism of Moberly I shall 
leave that to Dr. Sanday who cannot be accused of any 
bias against Moberly, but who rather unduly praises his 
merits as was natural in a fellow-churchman and a 
personal friend. He criticises Moberly's half-hearted 
effort to make Bixatouv mean "to make righteous" and 
then comes to deal with his view of forgiveness. 

23 (151) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

"I think therefore," says Dr. Sanday, "that much 
of our popular theology — the theology of street-preachers 
and evangelists — has really a great amount of Scriptural 
support behind it when it lays stress upon a 'free for- 
giveness'. I do not think that it is wrong in the order 
in which it presents its message — Forgiveness first and 
love and obedience flowing from forgiveness," Then he 
goes on to contrast this with another kind of forgiveness 
which Moberly advocates, a forgiveness of the "peda- 
gogic type." "And if it is contended that that is the 
type most nearly analogous to Divine forgiveness I should 
liave nothing to say to the contrary. But the human 
heart is instinctively drawn to another form of forgive- 
ness that has in it, as we should say, no arriere pensee, 
no element of calculation, but which is simply the pure 
outflowing of love; ignoring misdeeds, forgetting the 
past, and simply going forth to meet the offending and 
alienated friend. A. love such as this asks no question 
and makes no conditions. It is not thinking of conditions 
or of consequences. The rush of its own inner strength 
carries it forward Are we to think that there is noth- 
ing corresponding to this with whatever unseen and un- 
imagined modifications in God I Is it only a product of 
human short-sightedness and imperfection? If we are 
obliged to say that it is, would it not mean that one of 
the purest and most disinterested feelings in man has no 
counterpart above itself " f 

I do not think from the warmth of the language that 
there is any doubt as to what Dr. Sanday's own opinion 
was although by his generous admissions on the altar 
of friendship for Moberly he concedes a place to his so- 
called "pedagogic forgiveness" wdiicli in our opinion is 
unwarranted. There can be no double way of forgiving 
with God. We cannot think of Him as dividing men 
somewhat after the manner of Aristotle's disciples and 
dealing with some esoterically and with others exoteric- 
ally. For one thing a pedagogic or probationary forgive- 

24 (152) 



The Christian Doctrine of Forgiveness , 

ness does not meet the past whatever it may do for the 
future. What of the arrears? No good conduct in the 
future can blot out the past record when we are deal- 
ing with God, however it may do with men. It does 
not treat the burden on the conscience seriously. Nor 
can it supply the motive for future obedience, for like 
Sisyphus' stone the weight rolls down again. It cuts the 
nerve of the Gospel, that power in it which gives tlie 
sinner who believes in Christ an immediate peace and an 
overflowing sense of pardon. It burdens the soul from 
the start and the burden grows greater as time goes on. 
Forgiveness on the part of God is wholehearted and if 
there is one sure thing in Christian experience in its 
purest form it is this joy. Sometimes repentance is so 
described as a condition of forgiveness as if it were an 
activity of the soul directed to itself as a preparatory 
discipline to the receiving of forgiveness — a subtle form 
of introducing merit into the soul's equipment and en- 
dowment in approaching God, but repentance unto life 
is not a new species of good works but, as it is well and 
adequatel}^ expressed in our Catechism, "a saving grace 
whereby a sinner out of a true sense of his sin and appre- 
hension of the mercy of God in Christ, doth with grief 
and hatred of his sin turn from it unto God with full 
purpose of and endeavor after new obedience." If this 
Avere only a scholastic point without much practical bear- 
ing it Avould not be worth serious discussion but it is a 
vital point bearing closely upon our work as Christian 
ministers. 

Perhaps the best Avay of bringing this out is by the 
following reference by Dr. Dale to the preaching of 
Moody. Dale is writing to Dr. Wace of Canterbury, and 
he mentions the criticism passed by some clergymen on 
Moody's preaching during his first visit to Britain. "It 
was said he did not preach repentance; taught men that 
they were saved by believing something, and so forth. 
During his present visit no such criticism has been gen- 

25 (153) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

eral When Mr. Moody was in Birmingham early 

last year I was struck by the change in the general 
tone of his preaching. He insisted very much on repent- 
ance, and on repentance in the sense in which the word 
is now used by ''Evangelists" as well as by other divines 
as though it Avere a doing of penance (instead of a 
metanoia), a self-torture, a voluntary sorrow, a putting 
on of a spiritual hair-shirt. Now observe the effect of 
this. He was just as earnest, as vigorous, as impressive 
as before. People were as deeply moved. Hundreds 
went into the enquiry-room every night. But the results, 
as far as I can learn, have been inconsiderable. Evan- 
gelical clergymen, Methodists, my own friends all tell 
the same story. I have seen none of the shining faces 
that used to come to me after his former visit. From 
first to last in 1875 I received about 200 Moody converts 
into communion and I reckon that 75% of them have 
stood well. As yet I have not received a dozen as the 
result of his last visit. In 1875 he preached in a manner 
which produced the sort of effect produced by Luther 
and provoked similar criticism. He exulted in the free 
grace of God. The grace was to lead men to repentance, 
to a complete change of life. His joy was" contagious. 
Men leaped out of darkness into light and lived a Chris- 
tian life afterwards. The "do penance" preaching has 
had no such results."* 

I venture to suggest that the ''do penance" presen- 
tation of the Gospel and the pedagogic form of forgive- 
ness bound up as they are together are not adequate to 
that gracious Gospel which runs through Scripture and 
which was sealed by our Lord's method and grounded in 
His great sacrifice, and that to put it first is to invert 
the true order of grace and to strike a chilling blow at 
Christian morals. 



*Life of Dale p. 530. 



26 (154) 



Faculty Notes 



Dr. Breed spent the winter at Hollywood, Cal., and as usual 
was in demand as a preacher and lecturer. 

Dr. Snowden suffered from a serious attack of influenza whicn 
kept him from his classes for six weeks. We are glad to report 
that he has completely recovered and is back at his work in the 
Seminary and as editor of the Presbyterian Banner. 

The graduates and former students of the Seminary will 
learn with sorrow of the sudden death of Mrs. G. M. Sleeth at Rich- 
mond, Va., on January 14. Professor Sleeth was giving a course 
of lectures at Union Seminary, Richmond, when Mrs. Sleeth suc- 
cumbed to an attack of pneumonia. The funeral services were 
conducted by Dr. Kelso and Dr. W. A. Jones of the First Church. 



27 (155) 



Al 



umniana 



Accessions 

Following is a tabulated list of accessions received at the winter 
and spring communions of churches administered to by alumni of 
the Seminary: 

Winter 

Accessions Pastor 



Church 

First, Shreve, Ohio 24 

Waterford, Pa 8 

First, West View, Pa. 28 

Clintonville, Pa 8 

First, East Patterson, N. J. .1(5 
Pine St., Harrisburg, Pa. . . .21 

Hiland, Perrysville, Pa 20 

Homer, Homer City, Pa. ...12 
Second, Wilkinsburg, Pa. ...76 

First, Cadiz, Ohio 20 

First, Ambridge, Pa 14 

Brookville, Pa 21 

First, McDonald, Pa 27 

Avalon, Pa 35 

First, St. Clairsville, 14 

First, Wilkinsburg, Pa 51 

Central, New Castle, Pa 32 

Homewood, Pittsburgh, Pa. .29 
Broad Avenue, Altoona, Pa. .38 

Jeanette, Pa 2 5 

East McKeesport, Pa 27 

Chestnut St., Erie, Pa 12 



Class 

C. M. Junkin .1887 

H. A. Grubbs 1893 

E. A. Culley 1894 

J. S. Cotton 1896 

J. C. Lane 1896 

C. Waldo Cherry, D.D. ...1897 

H. M. Hosack, 1898 

H. C. Prugh, Ph.D 1898 

Hugh Leith, D.D 1902 

R. P. Lippincott 1902 

A. P. Bittinger 1903 

F. B. Shoemaker 1903 

B. F. Heany 1906 

Wm. H. Orr 1909 

H. G. McMillen 1910 

Geo. Taylor, Jr., Ph.D. . . .1910 

C. B. Wingerd, Ph.D 1910 

C. C. Bransby 1913 

A. F. Heltman, LL.D 1915 

Glenn M. Crawford 1917 

D. L. Say . 1917 

E. J. Hendrix 1919 



Spring 



Poplar St., Cincinnati, O. . . .17 
Homer, Homer City, Pa. ...31 
Second, Wilkinsburg, Pa. ...40 

Wilson, Clairton, Pa 51 

First, Punta Gorda, Fla 10 

Sharpsburg, Pa 21 



D. A. Greene 1896 

H. C. Prugh, Ph.D 1898 

Hugh Leith, D.D 1902 

E. R. Tait 1902 

W. S. Bingham 1908 

A. E. French 1916 



Installations 

1880 H. C. Calhoun, Wiersdale, Florida, April 20, 1927. 

1898 H. C. Prugh, Ph.D., Goheenville and Concord Churches at 
Homer City and Bethel, Oct. 8, 192 6. 

1909 H. C. Hutchinson, Hazel Mem-orial, Columbus, Ohio, Janu- 
ary 11, 1927. 

28 (156) 



Alumniana , 

1913 G. A. Frantz, First, Indianapolis, Indiana, October 28, 192G. 

R. M. Kiskaddon, First, Coshocton, Ohio, October 20, 1926. 
1915 Gray Alter, Girard, Pa., December 20, 1926. 
1917 Alexander Gibson, McKinley Park, Pittsburgh, Pa., Novem- 
ber 15, 1926. 

A. R. Hickman, Third, Chicago, Illinois, November 3, 1926. 

LeRoy Lawther, Lakewood, Ohio. 

H. H. Nicholson, First, Old Washington, Ohio. 

1919 Dwight B. Davidson, First, Barnesville, Ohio. 

1920 J. A. Martin, Westfield, N. Y. 

1925 C. Marshall Muir, Van Wert, Ohio, February 14, 1927. 

1926 William Owen, First, Cumberland, Maryland. 

1870 

The Faculty are indebted to Rev. T. D. Wallace for an invi- 
tation to be present at the breaking of ground for the fourth bunga- 
low at Monte Vista Grove, Pasadena, California, March 28, 1927. 
Monte Vista Grove is the name given to the pro-perty, covering 
fifteen acres, purchased by the Synod of California for the estab- 
lishment of a series of homes for aged ministers and missionaries 
of the Presbyterian Church and the wives or widows of such. 

1872 

Rev. F. X. Miron of New Bethlehem, Pa., received the first 
prize for an essay on "The Old Home Town". The contest was 
conducted by a local paper. The New Bethlehem Leader. Mr. 
Miron is planning a visit to France, the land of his forefathers, to 
be followed by a journey to the Holy Land. 

1877 

Rev. Seth R. Gordon, D.D., LL.D., President Emeritus of Tulsa 
University, has published a volume of sermons. The title is 
"Prophecies and Fundamentals", and in it the author deals with 
the great doctrines of Christianity combining a homiletical treat- 
ment with that of a Biblical theologian. 

1880 

Dr. William L. Swan has resigned the pastorate of the Pres- 
byterian Church of Willoughby, Ohio, and he does not expect to 
take another church. 

1881 

Dr. George N. Luccock, pastor of Westminster Church at 
Wooster College, served as adviser and counsellor to the Commis- 
sion on Moral Welfare in the Home at the Ohio Pastor's Confer- 
ence in Columbus from January 24 to 27. This Conference is held 
annually and is attended by pastors from all sections of the State. 

1886 

On November 14, Rev. J. P. Anderson closed a pastorate of 
eight and one-half years with the Bethany Church, Grandview. 
Washington, and on November 21, entered upon the work in the 
neighboring fields, Sunnyside and community. He will reside in 
Sunnyside after January 1. 

29 (157) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Rev. Frank N. Riale, Ph.D., D.D., has recently published a 
brochure, "The Creed of Jesus", in which he sounds Christ's trium- 
phant note of victory over death. 

1889 

During the winter Dr. H. Howard Stiles, pastor of the Second 
Church of Altoona, Pa., and Mrs. Stiles spent six weeks' vacation 
in Porto Rico with their daughter and son-in-law, Mr. and Mrs. S. 
Phillips Savage. 

1891 

South Church, Cleveland, Ohio, Rev. F. M. Hall, D.D., pastor, 
has recently celebrated its thirty-fifth anniversary. This Church 
has sent out four missionaries and two ministers and has one theo- 
logical student now in its membership. 

The congregation of the Webster Groves Presbyterian Church, 
Webster Groves, Mo., celebrated the twenty-fifth anniversary of 
pastorate of Rev. David M. Skilling, D.D., by a musical and recep- 
tion on Friday evening, January fourth. Dr. Skilling is to be con- 
gratulated on a long and influential pastorate in this important 
Church. 

1893 

Rev. William Houston, D.D., the student pastor at Ohio State 
University, has published an illuminating volume on "The Church 
at the University". It has great value as it is no mere theoriz- 
ing but gives his experience in this important field of Christian work. 

1895 

Rev. W. C. Johnston, D.D., who has been spending his year of 
furlough in the United States, delivered a missionary lecture in 
the Seminary chapel. Dr. and Mrs. Johnston expect soon to return 
to their field of labor in West Africa. 

1896 

Rev. Harvey Brokaw of Ichijo, Kyoto, Japan, issues an inter- 
esting and informing Bulletin concerning his work. In a recent 
number he referred to the visit of Dr. Robert E. Speer and Dr. 
Hugh T. Kerr, and the heartening influence of these leaders. He 
mentions the disastrous fact of a net loss of 2 6 suffered by the 
Japan Mission in four years, and gives a ringing call for new 
recruits. 

1897 

Rev. Hugh T. Kerr, D.D., visited Japan, Korea, and China 
as a member of a deputation sent by the Board of Foreign Mis- 
sions of the Presbyterian Church, U.S.A. He sailed the first week 
of last August, and returned to America at the close of the year. 
In company with Dr. Robert E. Speer he visited the chief Mission 
Stations and held evaluation conferences. The results of their 
studies and conferences have been published in a substantial "Blue 
Book", Japan and China. 

During Dr. Kerr's visit to China, a group of the Alumni held 
a reunion at Shanghai. The seven graduates present on this occa- 
sion were W. O. Elterich, '88; Hugh T. Kerr, '97; Wilbur M. 
Campbell, '9 8; Robert F. Fitch, '9 8; O. C. Crawford, '00; T. N. 
Thompson, '01; J. Stewart Kunkle, '05. The secretary of the meet- 

30 (158) 



Alumniana ' 

ing wrote: "We have had a reunion out here in China, recalling 
old times in the Seminary, telling stories of 'Bunkie' Riddle, Bishop 
Schleiermacher, Jeffers, Breed, and Kelso. We have had a good 
time, and send affectionate greetings to you, the members of the 
faculty, and the student body. We are waiting for some more 
'Western' men to come East." 

1898 

The Presbyterian Church of Homer City, Pa., Rev. H. C. Prugh, 
Ph.D., pastor, in February held a very successful series of evan- 
gelistic meetings, at the close of which 2 7 members were received 
on confession of faith and 4 by letter. Since the beginning of Dr. 
Prugh's pastorate, Oct. 1, 1926, there have been 43 accessions to 
the church. 

1899 

Rev. Ezra P. Giboney, D.D., has published a helpful and 
instructive volume dealing with successful Church administration. 
It is entitled "Church Quarrels; How Ended". 

The Plymouth Congregational Church, of Des Moines, Iowa, 
Rev. B. R. MacHatton, D.D., pastor, is building a Congregational 
Cathedral with nave, transept, chancel with choir stalls, lectern, 
pulpit, altar, and a beautiful reredos. The seating capacity is to 
be 1400. The religious educational department of the church is 
already finished, and they are worshipping in the assembly room 
of that building. Dr. MacHatton writes: "It has been my dream 
ever since my Seminary days at Western to have a church that will 
inspire everyone who enters to kneel and pray and to keep silence." 
He reports that at his Easter communion he received 103 new 
members, which brings the total membership to over 1300. He is 
planning to have Dr. S. Parkes Cadman with them in the fall to 
help with the dedication. 

1900 

Rev. Charles S. Beatty, D.D., pastor of The Sarah Hearn 
Memorial Presbyterian Church, Erie, Pa., is planning to erect a 
new church building. The proposed building is architecturally 
beautiful and complete in planning for every department of Church 
activity. 

Rev. C. E. Shields has recently been appointed chaplain of the 
London Prison Farm, which now cares for 52 5 State prisoners, 
with new buildings under construction. For more than two years 
he has carried a part of this work which now has been placed 
entirely in his hands. He will continue to care for it in connection 
with his pastorate of the Presbyterian Church of London, Ohio. 

1902 

During the past year a total of 12 9 members have been received 
into the membership of the Second Presbyterian Church of Wil- 
kinsburg. Rev. Hugh Leith, D.D., pastor. The Sunday School 
attendance reached its high water mark on March 13th, when the 
attendance was 1043. 

The membership of the Wilson Presbyterian Church, of Clair- 
ton, Pa., Rev. E. R. Tait, pastor, has gone over the six hundred 
mark, and since the opening of the new Church, Oct. 1, 1925, over 
$15,000 has been paid on the debt of the Church. 

31 (159) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

1903 

Rev. M. M. Rodgers is professor of Bible and Religious Edu- 
cation at Maryville College. Early in March his house was burned, 
and he lost some of the valuable books of his library. 

1907 

Rev. John W. Christie, D.D., pastor of Mt. Auburn Church, 
Cincinnati, conducts a weekly Bible Class for men in the Central 
Y.M.C.A. The average attendance at these lectures is over three 
hundred. The Mt. Auburn Church over-subscribed its quota for 
the Pension Fund to the amount of nearly ten thousand dollars. 

Rev. J. Way Huey was elected Moderator of the Synod of North 
Dakota at its session last October. 

Rev. Plummer N. Osborne has resigned the pastorate of the 
Rocky Grove Church, Franklin, Pa., in order to accept the chap- 
laincy of the Western Penitentiary at Rockview, Pa. 

1908 

On Friday, March 4th, the congregation of the Presbyterian 
Church of Burt, Iowa, with the pastor, Rev. S. H. Aten, celebrated 
the fifteenth anniversary of the present pastorate with a very 
appropriate program. At the close of the program Mr. and Mr.o. 
Aten were presented with a beautiful chair and a purse of money. 

1909 

Rev. Charles R. Miller is the Field Secretary of Huron College, 
N. D., and is rendering efficient service to the Kingdom of God in 
presenting the claims of this Christian College to the churches of 
the Synod of North Dakota. 

1910 

Rev. Stanley V. Bergen, after a successful pastorate in the 
First Congregational Church of Niagara Falls, N. Y., has accepted 
a call to Union Tabernacle Presbyterian Church, of Philadelphia. 
During his pastorate at Niagara Falls, Mr. Bergen was president 
of both the Erie County Sunday School Association and the Niagara 
County Endeavor Union. He also erected a $25,000 Sunday School 
room as an addition to his Church. 

Rev. George Taylor, Jr., Ph.D., D.D., gave a course of sermons 
during February and March at the morning service on the Essen- 
tials of the Christian life. The subjects of these sermons were: 
1. The Personality of Jesus; 2. The Conception of Sin; 3. The 
Meaning of Repentance; 4. The Reality of Forgiveness; 5. Analysis 
of Temptation; 6. The Power of Prayer. 

1912 

Following a week of splendid meetings in the Presbyterian 
Church of Milton, Pa., in which Rev. Floyd W. Barr, D.D., assisted 
the pastor, Rev. W. G. Felmeth, twenty-six new members were added 
to the roll of the church, twenty-two of whom were adults who 
came in on profession of faith. 

32 (160) 



Alumniana ■> 

1914 

Following a religious survey and a series of special meetings 
in January, Rev. M. H. Woolf, pastor of the Presbyterian Church 
of Minerva, Ohio, in four weeks received 76 members into the 
church. 

Rev. Duncan G. MacLennan has accepted a call to the Cal- 
vary Presbyterian Church of Pasadena, Cal. His pastorate at 
Hutchinson, Kans., has been remarkably successful and he closes 
it with the dedication of a new Church building costing $2 00,000. 
In connection with the dedication he published a handsome bro- 
chure, containing historical addresses. 

1915 

During the past church year the Broad Avenue Church, 
Altoona, Pa., Rev. A. F. Heltman, pastor, has added 52 members 
to its roll. 

1916 

Rev. J. M. Fisher has had charge of the Lee Street Mission, 
Marion, Ohio, during the past year. There has been marked prog- 
ress in every department of work, and the future looks very bright 
under the leadership of Mr. Fisher. 

Rev. R. V. Gilbert, Independence, Iowa, preached a special 
Christmas sermon on "The Vision of the Shepherds" which was 
published by special request. Mr. Gilbert is the author of an 
instructive volume, "Printer's Ink", in which he sets forth the 
principles of Church Publicity. He is master in this field. 

The First Presbyterian Church of Lisbon, Ohio, Rev. P. W. 
Macaulay, pastor, during the week of March 13th, dedicated a new 
building in which a beautiful $12,000 organ has been installed. 

1917 

The Presbyterian Church of Jeannette, Pa., Rev. Glenn M. 
Crawford, pastor, has recently built a new manse at a cost of 
$15,000. 

1919 

Rev. Hodge Eagleson of the Hawthorne Ave. Church, Crafton, 
preached a series of sermons on great books during the winter 
months. 

Rev. Donald A. Irwin, who served as Severance Lecturer dur- 
ing the session 1925-26, returned to his field in the autumn of 
192 6. In a letter he briefly characterizes conditions on his field: 
"Our locality is infested with bandits, making itineration very difli- 
cult. We have, however, had some very successful special meet- 
ings in several of our Yi-hsien preaching centers, and the faith 
of the local Christians is growing stronger, as they realize the neces- 
sity for dependence on the Almighty". 

On March 27, Rev. LeROy Lawther preached his farewell 
sermon as pastor of the Central Church of McKeesport, Pa. He 
has accepted a call to the Presbyterian Church of Lakewood, Ohio, 
a suburb of Cleveland. 

1920 

Rev. Gill Robb Wilson of the Fourth Church, Trenton, N. J., 
was the speaker of the occasion at a great patriotic meeting held 
in Trenton on Washington's Birthday. 

33 (161) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

1921 

Rev. W. L. Moser, pastor of the First Presbyterian Church of 
Apollo, Pa., has spent the winter in Scotland pursuing graduate 
courses in the University of Edinburgh. 

1923 

Rev. L. L. McCammon spent six months in European travel. 
Recently he was installed pastor of the Presbyterian Church at 
Delmont, Pa. 

1925 

Rev. David K. Allen, who went to Scotland last fall to pursue 
graduate studies as the Seminary fellow, has decided to remain 
abroad for another year and has resigned the pastorate at Poke 
Run Church, Mamont, Pa. 

Rev. Albert Z. Maksay is instructor in the New Testament 
Department of the Reformed Seminary in Kluj-Kolozsvar, Rou- 
mania. He reports that 140 students were enrolled, with prospects 
for a very successful year. 

Rev. C. Marshall Muir was recently installed as pastor of the 
First Presbyterian Church of Van Wert, Ohio. Since his gradua- 
tion, he had served as assistant pastor at House of Hope Church, 
St. Paul, Minn. 

1926 

Rev. John L. Eakin and Rev. Newton C. Elder reached Siam 
last October and are spending a year at Bangkok, Siam, learning 
the language before going to their stations for active work. 

Rev. James Herbert Garner and Miss Margaret White were 
married at Swissvale, Pa., on November sixth, nineteen hundred 
twenty-six. 

New Addresses 

1881 M. A. Brownson, D.D., Southern Pines, N. C. 
1883 John H. Cooper, 442 Stafford Ave., Erie, Pa. 
1886 T. J. Gray, 22 8 Prospect Ave., Carnegie, Pa. 

1891 J. N. Armstrong, D.D., Rosedale, Long Island, N. Y. 

1892 K. P. Simmons, Pikeville Junior College, Pikeville, Ky. 

189 3 Calvin G. Hazlett, D.D., 151 West Liberty St., Hubbard, Ohio. 
189 4 W. T. McKee, Chester, W. Va. 

1902 F. W. Crowe, 150 Castle Shannon Road, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
W. J. Holmes, West Middlesex, Pa. 

1903 E. W. Byers, 1164 Jancey St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Murray C. Reiter, Box 9 South Hills Branch, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
1905 Geo. S. Bowden, Ph.D., Parnassus, Pa. 

Wm. F. Slade, 3 978 Lake Park Ave., Chicago, 111. 
1907 W. W. Dinsmore, Vanderbilt, Pa. 

P. N. Osborne, Rockview, B3, Bellefonte, Pa. 
1910 B. H. Conley, Adena, Ohio. 

F. F. Graham, Planaltina, Goyaz, Brazil, S. A. 

C. B. Wingerd, Ph.D., Central Church, New Castle, Pa. 

1912 John Sirney, 525 10th St., Monessen, Pa. 

1913 O. Scott McFarland, 303 Orange Avenue, Santa Ana, Cal. 

34 (162) 



Alumniana > 

1916 J. R. Thomson, New Sheffield, Pa. 

1917 Alexander Gibson, 208 Chalfont St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
LeRoy Lawther, Lakewood, Ohio. 

Arnold H. Lowe, Kingshighway Church, St. Louis, Mo. 
H. H. Nicholson, Old Washington, Ohio. 

1918 C. B. Gahagen, 2345 Rosewood Ave., Toledo, Ohio. 

1919 D. E. Daniel, 722 N. Broadway, Dayton, Ohio. 

1922 W. H. Millinger, 3401 Forbes Street, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

1923 Arthur D. Behrends, 1125 N. Main St., Avoca, Pa. 
J. Morgan Cox, 332 6 McNeil Place, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
L. Lane McCammon, Delmont, Pa. 

1924 Ralph W. Illingworth, Jr., Philipsburg, Pa. 
Robert C. Johnston, New Matamoras, Ohio. 

Geo. R. Lambert, 2115 Arlington Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

1925 Wm. F. Ehman, Logan, Utah. 

C. Marshall Muir, 15 W. Maple Ave., Van Wert, Ohio. 

1926 Franz O. Christopher, 72 Mt. Vernon Street, Boston, Mass. 
Victor C. Pfeiffer, 414 Main St., Huntingburg, Ind. 



35 (163) 



Subscription Blank for the Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary. 

Rev. James A. Kelso, Ph., D., D.D., 

Pres. Western Theological Seminary, 

731 Ridge Ave., N. S., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Dear Sir: — 

Enclosed find 75 cents for one year's subscription to the Bulletin of the 
Western Theological Seminary, commencing July, 1927. 



Name 

Address 



The Balletin 



>f thi 



Western Theologieal 
Seminary 




Vol. XIX 



July, 1927 



No. 4 



The Western Theological Seminary 

North Side. Pittsburgh. Pa. 

FOUNDED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY, 18^5 



The Faculty consists of eight professors and three 
instructors. A complete modern theological curriciiliim, 
with elective courses leading to degrees of S.T.B. and 
S.T.M. Graduate courses of the University of Pitts- 
burgh, leading to the degrees of A.M. and Ph.D., are 
open to properly qualified students of the Seminary. A 
special course is offered in Practical Christian Ethics, in 
which students investigate the prohlems of city missions, 
settlement work, and other forms of Christian activity. 
A new department of Eeligious Education was inaugu- 
rated with the opening of the term beginning September 
1922. The City of Pittsburgh affords unusual opportuni- 
ties for the study of social problems. 

The students have exceptional library facilities. The 
Seminary Library of 45,000 volumes contains valuable 
collections of works in all departments of Theology, but 
is especially rich in Exegesis and Church History; the 
students also have access to the Carnegie Library, which 
is situated within five minutes' walk of the Seminary 
buildings. 

A post-graduate fellowship of $600 is annually 
awarded the member of the graduating class who has the 
highest rank and who has spent three years in the insti- 
tution. 

Two entrance prizes, each of $150, are awarded on 

the basis of a competitive examination to college gradu- 
ates of high rank. 

All the public buildings of the Seminary are new. 
The dormitory was dedicated May 9, 1912, and is 
equipped with the latest modern improvements, includ- 
ing gymnasium, social hall, and students' commons. The 
group consisting of a new Administration Building and 
Library w^as dedicated May 4, 1916. Competent judges 
have pronounced these buildings the handsomest struc- 
tures architecturally in the City of Pittsburgh, and un- 
surpassed either in beauty or equipment by any other 
group of buildings devoted to theological education in 
the United States. 

For further information, address 

President James A. Kelso, 
North Side, Pittsburgh, Pa. 



THE BULLETIN 

OF THE 

Western Theologieal Seminary 



A Revie-w Devoted to the Interests of 
Tneological Eaucation 



Published quarterly in January, April, July, and October, by the 
Trustees of the Western Theological Seminary of the Presbyterian Church 
in the United States of America. 



Edited by the President with the co-operation of the Faculty. 



Qlnntenta 

Page 

The Christian Minister's Message 5 

Rev. James I. Vance, D.D. 

The Graduating Class 13 

Rev. William O. Campbell, D.D. — -An Appreciation. ... 15 

Minute on the death of Honorable James McFadden 

Carpenter 21 

President's Report 2 4 

Librarian's Report 36 

Treasurer's Report 40 

Faculty Notes 42 

Alumniana 43 

Index 52 

Communications for the Editor and all business matters should be 

addressed to 

REV. JAMES A. KELSO, 

rsi Ridge Ave., N. S., Pittsburgrh, Pa. 

75 cents a year. Single Number 25 cents. 

E^ch author is solely resoonsible for the views exoressed in his article. 



Entered as second-class matter December 9, 1909, at the posloffice at Pittsburgh, Pa. 
(North Side Station) under the act of August 24, 1912. 



The manuscript of this number closed July 1, 1927 



Press of 

pittsburgh printing company 

pittsburgh, pa, 

1927 



Faculty 



The Rev. JAMES A. KELSO, Ph. D., D. B., LL. D., 

President and Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Literature 
The Nathaniel W. Conkling Foundation 

The Rev. DAVID RIDDLE BREED, D. D., LL. D. 

Professor of Homiletics 

The Rev. WILLIAM R. FARMER, D. D. 

Reunion Professor of Sacred Rhetoric and Elocution 

The Rev. JAMES H. SNOWDEN, D. D., LL. D. 

Professor of Apologetics 

The Rev. SELBY FRAME VANCE, D. D.^ LL. D. 

Memorial Professor of New Testament Literature and Exegesis 

The Rev. DAVID E. CULLEY, Ph. D., D. D. 

Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Literature 

The Rev. FRANK EAKIN, Ph. D. 

Professor of Ecclesiastical History and History of Doctrine 



GEORGE M. SLEETH, Litt. D. 

Instructor in Speech Expression 

CHARLES N. BOYD, Mus. D. 

Instructor In Hymnology and Church Music 

The Rev. WILLIAM H. ORR, S. T. M. 

Instructor in Systematic Theology 

The Rev. CHARLES A. McCREA, D. D. 

Instructor in Greek 

The Rev. STANLEY SCOTT, Ph. D. 

Instructor in Religious Education 



The Bulletin 

of the 

WESTERN THEOLOGiaL SEMINARY 

Vol. XIX. July, 1927 No. 4 

*Commencement Address 



The Christian Minister's Message 

Rev. James I. Vance, D.D. 

Come with me along the love trail worn and hal- 
lowed by the nail-pierced feet of the Son of God. It is 
a long and winding trail, for it started before time began, 
and it winds and widens until it reaches all peoples and 
all worlds. 

No one can follow Jesus far, nor listen to Him long, 
nor study ever so superficially the teachings of the New 
Testament without reaching the conclusion that the domi- 
nant note of Christianity is love, — not hate, but love, 
not law, but love, not zeal, but love, not force, but love, 
not knowledge, but love, not moralit}^, but love, not holi- 
ness, but love, not victory, but love, not service, but love. 
To be sure, it is a religion that touches every chord, and 
that sweeps all the moods of the redeemed life; but the 
melody which runs through everything is the music of 
love. Christianity is first and foremost and always not 
a fear religion, not a force religion, not a ritual religion, 
not a dogma religion, not a mystery religion, not a cul- 
ture religion, but the religion of love. 

Love was the soul and substance of Christ's teach- 
ing. When they asked Him what God is. He said : "God 

*Address delivered at the annual Commencement exercises, held in 
the First Presbyterian Church, Sixth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Thursday 
evening, May 5, 1927. It is the last chapter from a new book by 
Dr. Vance, entitled, "Love Trails of the Long Ago", and is appear- 
ing in the Bulletin by the kind permission of the Fleming H. 
Revell Co. 

5 (169) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

is love." AVhen they asked Him what God looks like, 
He painted the features of fatherhood into the picture. 
"When they asked Him why He came, He told them that 
He came because God so loved the w^orld as to give His 
only begotten Son, that w^hosoever believeth in Him 
should not perish, but have everlasting life. When they 
asked Him how they should live, He told them to love 
one another. When they asked Him about law, He told 
them that love is the fulfilling of the law. When they 
asked Him about the Sabbath, He smashed the rules 
of legalism and said the Sabbath was made for man, not 
man for the Sabbath. "When they urged Him to call 
down fire from heaven on His enemies. He went to 
another village and taught them to love their enemies. 
When they asked Him to condemn sinners, He forgave 
a harlot, went home to dinner with a publican, and opened 
the gate of heaven to a thief. AATien He talked to them 
about the prodigal. He showed them the love-light on the 
road that leads to the Father's house. AAHien they talked 
to Him about their fears and forebodings. He said : 
'^ Perfect love casteth out fear." 

Thus we might go on, turning page after page, 
traveling mile after mile, reciting story after story. And 
it is always the same story, the old, old story of love. 
Leave love out of the teachings of Jesus, and you have 
disfigured and mutilated His message beyond recog- 
nition. 

I know there are good people who do not hold with 
me in these views. They believe in the terrors of the 
law. They clamor for a creed that flames with penalty. 
They have little confidence in the efficacy of a religion 
that keeps hell in the background. At one of the con- 
ferences in which I participated during the past sum- 
mer, I had spoken on the love of God. At the close of 
my address a man in the audience came forward to tell 
me what he thought of the effort. He was the superin- 
tendent of a cit}^ mission. He worked with hardened 
criminals, drunkards, dope fiends, the lost of the under- 

6 (170) 



The Christian Minister's Message 

world. He said: "Your sermon sounded fine, but that 
kind of preaching would not make a dent on my crowd. 
AVhat they need is to be shaken over the edge of a fiery 
hell." Another day I was speaking on the conquest of 
fear. Before I went on the platform a minister said: 
''What is your subject this morning!" When I told 
him, he exclaimed: "Why the conquest of fear? What 
the world needs to-day is a big, healthy dose of fear. 
If the scoundrels are to quit their meanness, they mnist 
be scared, and scared stiff." 

Recently I read an editorial in one of our denomina- 
tional papers on "Stalwart Presbyterians." The editor 
paid a glowing tribute to the old dour, controversial type 
of Christian, and lamented the fact that these militant 
saints of a belligerent creed were being supplanted by 
pacifists and indifferentists who preached chiefly on the 
love of God. Are these men right? Is it a religion of 
fear and fire and force that the world needs? If so, 
Jesus was wrong. He Who came to save the world lost 
His way. The nail-pierced feet which traveled the love 
trail that winds by Calvary's cross Avould best have 
halted on the bleak and barren sides of Mount Sinai. 

There are Christians who live in the Old Testament. 
Moses was good enough for them. Jacob was good 
enough for them. David was good enough for them. 
Elijah and Elisha were good enough for them. Isaiah 
and Jeremiah and the fiery prophets were good enough 
for them. God forbid that I should do aught to dull or 
disturb the halo of these saints of God who in their day 
and generation contended earnestly for the faith once 
delivered. But the New Testament is an advance on the 
Old. It has all that was good in the Old, and more. 
Jesus had all that Moses had, and more. He had all 
that David had, and more. He had all Isaiah and the 
prophets had, and more. He is not to be tested by 
them. They are to be tested by Him. The prophets 
were national. Jesus was international. They were con- 
cerned for the Jew, Jesus for humanity. They Avere 

7 (171) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

reformers, Jesus was a Savior. Their message was law, 
Christ's message was love. 

Love is not such a little thing, such a weak and impo- 
tent thing, colorless, spineless, forceless. We have used 
the word so much and so lightly that it has lost its 
sublime accent for many of us. We think of it as a harm- 
less sentiment, a synonym for indulgence, a license to 
sensuality, exemption from penalty. Someone says: "I 
love flowers; I love music; I love scenery; I love travel." 
A man says: ''I love my dog; I love my horse." A boy 
says : ' ' I love football. ' ' A girl says : "I love candy. ' ' 
And with something of the same flippancy people some- 
times speak of the love of God. 

What is love? Let us travel the trail of the nail- 
pierced feet for our answer. Before you taboo the love 
of God in your mission hall, stop before the cross long 
enough to hear Jesus say to a thief: ''To-daj'' thou shalt 
be with me in Paradise." Before you bank too much on 
fear as the commodity the world most needs, linger long 
enough in Jesus' presence to hear Him say to a wayward 
girl : "Neither do I condemn thee ; go, and sin no more." 
Before you clamor too loud and too long for a return 
of the controversial stalwart, the intolerant dogmatist, 
kneel beside Simon Peter there on the shore of Galilee 
in the gray dawn of the early morning, and listen to 
Jesus as He says over and over again: "Simon, son of 
Jonas, lovest thou Me?" 

Love is the great note in the religion of Jesus. 
When we get a vision of what love really is, we shall not 
despise it. Let us take the love trail of the nail^pierced 
feet. It can show us three great things about the love 
of the New Testament. The love Christ came to reveal 
is uncaused. It is unselfish. And it is unending. 

Uncaused 

It is uncaused, — that is, it was not caused, it was 
not produced, for it always existed. It is not our love 
to God, but His love to us. "Herein is love, not that 

8 (172) 



The Christian Minister's Message ' 

we loved God, but that He loved us." Our love to God 
is unspeakably precious, but it is infinitesimal in com- 
parison with His love to us, Christ came to tell us about 
the love of God, about how the great Father feels toward 
all His creatures, and He sums up His message in one 
word, and that word is love. 

God loves us, not because of what we are, but 
because of what He is. His love, therefore, is not called 
forth by our merit or goodness or obedience, or even by 
our need. It is there already, preexistent, without the 
need of a cause to produce it. The idea is not that God 
will love us provided we behave ourselves, provided we 
are good and obedient children, provided we keep His 
commandments and do His holy will. He loves us 
regardless of whether we are good or bad. He has 
always loved us. His love precedes our being. It ante- 
dates the world. It is not the product of His foreknowl- 
edge. Love is as old as foreknowledge. It is as old as 
God Himself. 

Hence, love is uncaused. God does not make love 
any more than the sun makes light. The sun is light, 
and God is love. God's love is timeless. He loved the 
world before the world had being. He sent His Son to 
be our Savior. We did not send for Christ. Christ 
was sent to us. Redemption originated in heaven, in 
love. Calvary was always in the heart of God. Christ 
was slain from the foundation of the world. 

God can no more stop loving us than He can stop 
being. It is a caricature to represent Him as subject. to 
petty moods, annoyed by disobedience, elated by atten- 
tion, flattered by praise. He is the same yesterday, 
to-day, and forever. His love is the same. Love there- 
fore, is not only uncaused, but is itself the great first 
cause. It is back of everything else. It is not fear, nor 
force, nor hate, that furnishes voltage for the power 
plant of Omnipotence. It is love. Love is not made in 
heaven. Love makes heaven. Love is not an attribute 

9 (173) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

of God. It is His essence. It is what He is and always 
was, and will be forever. 

Unselfish 

The love of God is unselfish. That seems a little 
thing to say about so great a theme. It is not easy to 
find words with capacity big enough to hold our thoughts 
when God's love is the theme. His love does not count 
the cost. When one thinks of the resources at the dis- 
posal of Omnipotence, and keeps in mind that love taxes 
all of these, spends all it has, and refuses to count the 
cost, the unselfishness of God's love begins to dawn. 
Love is absorbed in its object. God suffers when those 
He loves suffer. He flames with righteous wrath when 
those He loves are wronged. There is no hate like thv^ 
hate of love, no wrath like the anger of a loving God. 

Calvar}^ was the great unveiling of the unselfish- 
ness of God's love. Jesus did not spare Himself. He 
made Himself of no reputation. He emptied Himself 
of His Godhood. He endured the cross, and despised 
the shame, for His nail-pierced feet were on the love 
trail seeking to bring the lost world back to God. 

Do you tell me there is nothing in the recital of 
such a love to lift the fallen, to reclaim the wanderer, 
to melt the heart of stone, to quicken the seared con- 
science and stir the dead soul with the pulses of a new 
life! Do you tell me that hell can cast a better spell 
than heaven, that the Pharisee is closer to God than the 
penitent ? I cannot believe it. Let us not forget the old 
fable of the contest between the wind and the sun in their 
effort to make the traveler lay aside his cloak. Love is 
like the sun. Love suffereth long and is kind. Love 
vaunteth not itself. 

This is where souls are born again, — at Calvary, 
in sight of the atoning love of a God Who does not spare 
Himself. The French have a story which they tell of 
a young American who went to Paris to study art. While 
there, he fell under the influence of an evil woman. His 

10 (174) 



The Christian Minister's Message 

mother, with that infallible intuition of motherhood, 
sensing that there was something wrong with her son, 
went over to Paris to be with him. Discovering the situa- 
tion, she endeavored to free him from the influence of 
this vampire. The woman became enraged because of 
this interference, and demanded that her lover break 
with his mother. Finally she said: "If you are to have 
me, you must bring me your mother 's heart. ' ' He killed 
his mother, cut out her heart, and was on his way with 
it to pay his paramour the price, when he slipped and fell 
on the pavement. As he did so, his mother's heart fell 
and rolled into the street. As it struck the pavement, 
the young man heard his mother's voice say: "My son, 
are you hurt?" The French have given this story an 
American setting, whether because of the perfidy of the 
son or the devotion of the mother I do not know. But I 
do know there are American mothers whose love is as 
unselfish as this story describes. But greater than the 
love of any American mother, and more unselfish, is the 
love of God. God is thinking of His children. He is 
asking: "Are you hurt?" No matter what you have 
done, how you have treated Him, listen. It is the heart 
of God speaking. "Son, daughter, are you hurt?" Let 
Him heal you, and love you, and lead you home. 

Unending 

God's love is unending. I cannot conceive of a 
mother ever ceasing to love her children. No matter 
what happens, no matter how they have treated her, 
no matter where she goes, whether in life or in death, 
whether in this world or in some other world, as long- 
as she has being, love lives. I cannot conceive of God's 
love coming to an end. If His love be uncaused^ it is as 
old as God, if unending, it will live as long as God. It 
is eternal. 

That is, no matter who you are, w^here you go, what 
world 3^ou inhabit, Avhat career you adventure, God will 
still be loving you. He takes back nothing. All that 

11 (175) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

He ever offered He still offers. All that He ever said 
He says. He does not change. His love is unending. 

Perhaps you are asking: Does this mean a second 
chance after death for the finally impenitent! No. It 
means that the first chance is eternal. Love never closes 
the door. When the gate is shut, it is shut from the out- 
side. It means that if you are ever eternally bankrupt, 
it will not be because God has foreclosed. It will be 
because you have hardened yourself against Him until 
you are past feeling. Richard Cadbury was once thrown 
with Cardinal Newman in a meeting. The Cardinal had 
spoken to the prisoners, and in his remarks had insisted 
that salvation was to be found only in the dogmas of the 
Homan Catholic Church. At the close of the meeting, as 
he told Mr. Cadbury goodbye, he laid his hand on his 
head and blessed him. Mr. Cadbury, somewhat sur- 
prised, expressed his wonder that after such an address 
he should give him his blessing. Cardinal Newman said : 
'^ Richard, God will find the means of saving you." And 
so He will. God will find the means. He has resources 
larger than those packed into our little creed. 

God's love is uncaused. It is unselfish. And it is 
unending. It is changeless, timeless, eternal, wider than 
all the worlds, older than all years, higher than ail 
heights, deeper than all depths, longer than all the spans 
of time, sweeter than all music, kinder than all tears, 
stronger than death, holier than heaven. Along its path 
comes He Whose feet were pierced with nails for you. 
Will you go with Him to the house of love! How can 
you resist? "Herein is love, not that we loved God, but 
that he loved us, and sent his Son to be the propitiation 
for our sins." 

"0, Love, that wilt not let me go, 
I cannot close my heart^to Thee." 



12 (176) 



The Graduating Class 

Bachelor of Sacred Theology 

Crawford McCoy Coulter — Washington and Jefferson 

College, A.B. 1924. Pastor, Presbyterian Cliurch, 

Dawson, Pa. 
Thomas Davis Ewing — Princeton University, A.B. 1921 

and American University of Beirut, A.M. 1924. 

Pastor, First Presbyterian Church, Port Arthur, 

Texas. 
Byron Stanley Fruit — University of Pittsburgh, B.Sc. 

1924. Pastor, Fairmount and Pleasant Hill Churches. 

Ingoniar, Pa. 
William Austin Gilleland — Washington and Jefferson 

College, A.B. 1924. Pastor, Fairview Presbyterian 

Church, Thomas Sta., Pa. 
Darwin Marion Haynes — Muskingum College, A.B. 1923. 

Pastor, Presbyterian Church, Mineral Ridge, Ohio. 
Paul Hagerty Hazlett — Denison University, A.B. 1924. 

Pastor, Mill Creek and First Presbyterian Church, 

Hookstown, Pa. 
Llyod David Homer — Grove City College, B.Sc. 1922. 

Pastor, Presbyterian Church, Bakerstown, Pa. 
Edgar Coe Irwin — Washington and Jefferson College, 

A.B. 1924. Pastor, Concord Presbyterian Church, 

E. F. D., Karns City, Pa. 
Ealph W. E. Kaufman— Albright College, A.B. 1924. 

Pastor, Presbyterian Church, Cross Creek, Pa. 
Oswald Otto Schwalbe— Gordon College, Th.B. 1925. 

Pastor, Presbyterian Church, Elm Grove, W. Va. 
John Alvin Stuart— Grove City College, B.Sc. 1924. 

Pastor, Presbyterian Church, Edinboro, Pa. 
Joseph Carter Swaim — Washington and Jefferson Col- 
lege, A.B. 1925. Instructor of English, American 

University, Beirut, Syria. 
Thayer, Clarence Richmond — University of Pittsburgh, 

A.B. 1922. Pastor, United Presbyterian Church, 

Sandy Lake, Pa. 

13 (177) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Guy Hector Volpitto — Washington and Jefferson College, 

A.B. 1924. Pastor, Neville Island Presbyterian 

Cliurcli, Coraopolis, Pa. 
Philip L. Williams — Young Men's Christian Association 

College, Chicago, B.A.S. 1922. Pastor, Presbyterian 

Church, Brilliant, Ohio. 

Special Certificate 

William Augustus Ashley — Agricultural and Mechanical 
, College of N.C., Raleigh, N.C. Pastor, Presbyterian 
Church, Lincoln Place, Pa. 

Martin Rudolph Kuehn — Earlham College, A.B. 1918. 
Will enter the Presbyterian ministry. 731 Ridge 
Avenue, N. S., Pittsburgh Pa. 

William C. Marquis — Mount Union College. Pastor, 
Methodist Episcopal Church, Baden, Pa. 

William Victor E. Parsons — Bourne College, Birming- 
ham, England, 1919 and A. of A., Oxford University, 
1919. Pastor, Babcock Memorial Presbyterian 
Church, Baltimore, Maryland. 

John S. Vance. Pastor, Amity Presbyterian Church, 
Dravosburg, Pa. 

The degree of Master of Sacred Theology was con- 
ferred upon: — 

Claude Sawtell Conley, R. F. D. 2, Parnassus, Pa. 
Zoltan Csorba, Rakospalota, Hungary. 
Karoly Dobos, Szolnok, Hungary. 
Thomas Davis Ewing, (of the Graduating Class). 
Charles Kovacs, 43 Cleveland Street, Tonawanda, New 

York. 
John Maurice Leister, Florence, Pa. 



14 (178) 



Rev. William O. Campbell, D.D. 



An Appreciation by His Co-Directors of the 
Western Theological Seminary 

Keverend William Oliver Campbell, D.D., a member 
of the Board of Directors of the Western Theological 
Seminary, was born in Middlesex Township, Butler 
County, Pennsylvania, on November 14th, 1841, and died 
at Atlantic City, New Jersey, on January 8th, 1926. 
Within these two dates lies a life of unusual character, 
usefulness, and beauty; a life which never ceased in its 
growth and development to the very end. 

On the paternal side, he came from that splendid 
Scotch ancestry to which Western Pennsylvania owes so 
much. His father, James Campbell, was, when the boy 
Was born, a farmer and the house in which he was born 
is still standing and is occupied by one of the connection. 
To have been born and to have spent early years close 
to the soil gives great advantages and opportunities to 
the observant and reflective mind. The simplicity of life 
brings the soul into closer contact with the wonders of 
nature, the round of the seasons, the marvel of annual 
rebirth in spring, the beauty of flowers, waters, winds, 
and skies. So one learns the patience and faith which 
encourage to the early tilling and sowing, and the long 
waiting for the harvest which is the real purpose of work. 
In Dr. Campbell ever remained the conscious and uncon- 
scious influence and training of these childhood days and 
he loved nature and all the physical manifestations of 
the God who made the world and all that in it is. 

His mother, Rebecca Bell David, was, as the name 
indicates, of Welsh ancestry, and in her youth a Quaker. 
From this affiliation, he undoubtedly drew something of 
the peace and beauty of his character and religion — a 
beauty which shone in his face with advancing years and 
made his very presence a benediction. 

He was delicate in childhood and had trouble with 
his eyes. Life in the country enabled him to outgrow the 

15 (179) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

early physical weakness, but his eyesight always re- 
mained a limitation on his efforts. He went to public 
school, small and crude as compared with modern build- 
ings and equipment, but giving the privilege of personal 
contacts with teachers and the mingling on terms of 
equality with children of his own age. He wrote in later 
years of the use at school of goose-quill pens and of the 
event when steel pens first appeared. 

At home, he had the strict yet wise and loving 
nurture which is essential to the development of real 
character. Frugality, industry, and purpose were ex- 
pected and inculcated not only by precept but by example 
in his elders. Books were few but were of high character 
and elevating influence, and the young boy needed little 
urging to discover in good literature what was to be one 
of his greatest pleasures through life. His religious 
training and discipline were strict, especially on Sunday, 
but never did he regard them as having been severe even 
though he was in mature years tolerant of less rigorous 
requirements. Strong souls grow stronger under such 
training. 

As he grew older he went first to Witherspoon Insti- 
tute in Butler, Pa., and in 1858 entered Jefferson College, 
graduating in 1862. He gave no signs of precocity in 
school or college. He was a conscientious student but 
not a brilliant scholar. He had, how^ever, formed a taste 
for reading widely but intensively, and in this way he 
educated himself far beyond what the schools taught 
him. He early began the practice of closing a book at 
any striking sentence and carefully thinking out the 
thought with all its implications until he had mastered 
it and had either accepted or rejected it on mature 
judgment. As he said, ''the most valuable faculties we 
have are those intuitional powers of seeing into the heart 
of great truths and the center of imagination. ' ' 

His father had, in the meantime, given up the farm 
and moved into Butler where he conducted a general 
store. Here his son helped, when possible, giving him 

16 (180) 



Rev. William 0. Campbell, D.D. ^ 

an experience in the practical side of life, the carrying 
on of business and the revelation of character which was 
later to be of great advantage to him in understanding 
men to whom he preached. During his College vacations 
he assisted a cousin Avho had a weekly newspaper in 
Butler, and, on occasion, had to assume the editorial 
management. Again is to be noted the advantages in 
experience the young man had in fitting him for the 
ministry far beyond those who from early years are set 
aside for this high calling and fail to come in contact 
with real life. 

As was natural in such a family as Dr. Campbell 
was born into, he came into the Church at the age of 
sixteen without having any feeling of special conversion. 
He grew up a child of God, and with years of discretion 
he naturally and without urging took his place as a mem- 
ber of God's visible Church. The roots of his faith had 
been growing silently and unseen with his years and they 
went doAvn deep and firmly into the everlasting truth 
from which they w^ere never to be torn loose or even 
shaken. 

When he graduated from College the country was 
in the midst of the Civil War, and with a loyalty and 
patriotism which ever distinguished him, he enlisted in 
the 134th Pennsylvania Volunteers. Loving his fellow- 
men he was not too proud to fight for the right and his 
clear vision looked through the horrors of war to the 
purpose of the battle and saw that principle and right- 
eousness must be maintained even with the sword. He 
served with bravery and distinction until mustered out 
because of severe illness. While at home recuperating 
he started to raise a Company when Lee invaded Penn- 
sylvania, but the defeat at Gettysburg made this un- 
necessary. 

Slowly, deliberately while in the army, he made up 
his mind to become a soldier of Christ and to follow in 
the footsteps of the great Captain of our Salvation as a 
teacher and preacher. So in the fall of 1863, he entered 

17 (181) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

the Western Theological Seminary, He had, however^ 
fallen under the spell of Dr. Charles Hodge, who, to him, 
was the greatest living theologian and Christian; so to 
be under his teaching and influence Dr. Campbell went 
after a year to Princeton Seminary, where he graduated 
in 1866. He was licensed by the Presbytery of Butler in 
1866. 

His ministerial work began under Dr. Mitchell, 
Synodical Missionary for Wisconsin and Minnesota. He 
was ordained by the Presbytery of Winnebago, Wiscon- 
sin, in 1866, first supplying a small church at Portage, 
Wisconsin, then was stated supply at Depew, Wisconsin, 
and later pastor for three years. Throat trouble took 
him out of the pulpit for a season but on his recovery 
he was called to Monongahela City, Pa., in 1870, where 
he remained as a successful pastor for fifteen years. In 
1885, he was called to the Presbyterian Congregation of 
Sewickley, Pa., and became its beloved minister until 
in 1909 he insisted on resigning believing that the time 
had come when the growing work of the church required 
a younger and more active man. The congregation re- 
luctantly agreed to his wishes and elected him x>astor 
emeritus, which position he held till his death. 

He was a Director of the Western Theological Sem- 
inary from 1881 till 1905, and from 1919 till his death, 
and served as an Assistant Professor of Homiletics from 
1883 to 1885. His doctor's degree was conferred by 
Wooster College. 

Dr. Campbell married in 1868 Mary Louise Sha^v, 
daughter of Mr. and Mrs. James Shaw, of Glenshaw, Pa., 
a worthy mate for her husband. She survives him as 
do his children, Mrs. Lawrence C. Woods, Wilson A. 
Campbell, Mrs. William B. Miller and Miss Margaret 
Campbell. Two children, Mary and James, died before 
him. 

His life, work and character stand above any verbal 
tribute which may be attempted, A man of strong, well 
thought out convictions, he was unusually tolerant of the 

18 (182) 



Rev. William 0. Camphell, D.D. 

views of others when they did not make for unrighteous- 
ness in life or conduct. An all embracing love for all 
of God's children filled him with a holy zeal to draw 
them closer to God, but he never sought to impose the- 
ological limitations on the way of approach. During his 
first pastorate, he boarded in a household of Unitarians 
and a profound impression w^as made on him of the near- 
ness to God and the Christian life of those who denied 
the real Divinity of Christ in which he always so firmly 
believed. This impression remained with him through- 
out life and led him to place the emphasis on the desire 
and effort to follow Christ rather than on any creedal 
requirements. Fearless always in rebuking sin, in preach- 
ing righteousness, in demanding better living and doing, 
in requiring repentance and regeneration, he came more 
and more to emphasize the constraining love of God for 
all men. His was an unwavering faith in the ultimate 
triumph of the Church of Christ and he preached and 
taught with inspiring courage and conviction. Of a 
scholarly and contemplative character, his w^as yet no 
cloistered faith, but one which went forth militantly to 
fight the good fight. He looked over the walls of denomi- 
nation and saw all part of the great Church of Christ. 
One of the great joys of his life w^as joint services of his 
congregation and the Episcopal Congregation of Sewick- 
ley when he preached in the church of the latter. Retain- 
ing his full mental ]30wers to the end he looked widely 
abroad and took a keen interest in all the affairs of men. 
Full of quiet humor his infectious laugh gave ready re- 
sponse to the lighter side of life. He unweariedly gave 
of his best to everyone and no one failed to receive from 
him that which encouraged and cheered. Wlierever he 
moved he drew to himself respect, honor, and love till 
when he resigned from the active pastorate he found him- 
self the best known and most loved person in the com- 
munity. Day by day he walked closer with God till his 
face shone with beaut}" and peace which were of heaven 

19 (183) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

and liis mere presence became a blessing to those who 
saw bim. 

So having done good work for God and for man, 
having attained the full measures of years — years full 
of success as a man and a preacher, having set a noble 
example of what humanity can attain to in sainthood 
even in this world, God gently led him over to his eternal 
home. Surely no soul was ever more tit and ready to 
come into the real presence of his beloved Lord and 
Master. 



20 (184) 



Minute on the Death of the Honorable James 

McFadden Carpenter Adopted by the Board of 

Trustees of the Western Theological Seminary 

Honorable James McFadden Carpenter was born at 
Murraysville, Pa., January 30, 1850, and entered into 
rest at his home 424 Negiey Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pa., 
on Thursday, May 13, 1926. His boyhood and youth were 
spent at his birthplace where he received his education 
in the public schools and Laird Institute, a private Acad- 
emy located at Murraysville. Like many other young 
men Who later in life distingTiished themselves in one of 
the learned professions, he engaged in teaching school 
for several terms. But on reaching the age of twentj^- 
two he came to Pittsburgh to study law and prepare 
himself for his life work. He was registered as a law 
student in the office of Attorney Thomas C. Lazear and 
after two years he was admitted to the Allegheny County 
bar of which he became a distinguished member in the 
course of the years. His learning in the law and his 
sterling character won recognition when the Governor 
of the State of Penns3lvania appointed him Judge of 
the Court of Common Pleas of Allegheny County on 
January 4, 1915, to fill out a vacancy caused by the elec- 
tion of Honorable R. Frazer as an associate justice of 
the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania. The voters of Alle- 
gheny County endorsed the governor's choice at the elec- 
tion, the following November, by giving him a very large 
majority. After serving a full term on the bench, he 
was re-elected for a second term of ten years. He had 
scarcely more than entered on this term, when he was 
suddenly stricken with the disease that carried him oft'. 
He was actually occupied in the trial of a case and was 
compelled to retire to his chambers with a feeling of 
indisposition. Under medical treatment he was removed 
to his residence and his condition was at first not con- 
sidered such as to cause apprehension. Later the symp- 
toms became serious, and he passed away. Thus he died 

21 (185) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

as lie would have wished, in the harness doing a day's 
work faithfully until the Master's call came to him for 
service in the higher and better world. 

But when we have described Judge Carpenter's 
career as a lawyer and jurist, we do not have a complete 
picture of the man. He had other interests beyond those 
of his profession, very important though these were. 
He was a Churchman with a vital faith in Christ as his 
Saviour and an ardent zeal for the advancement of the 
Kingdorn of God. He was one of the founders of the 
Park Avenue Presbyterian Church and served for many 
years as an elder and clerk of its Session. In 1912 he 
became a member of the East Liberty Presbyterian 
Church, and he was elected an elder of this influential 
congregation on March 17, 1917. He performed the 
duties of the eldership with great faithfulness and his 
character and life gave evidence of the work of God's 
grace in his heart. Sustained by the Holy Spirit he 
seriously heeded the Apostolic injunction to be an 
ensample to all that believe — in word, in manner of life, 
in love, in faith, in purity. With this background of 
service as an elder it is not surprising to find him deeply 
interested in the ministry, and especially in the education 
of young men for the holy office. This interest found a 
practical channel for its expression through his mem- 
bership on the Board of Trustees of the Western Theo- 
logical Seminary. He was elected to this Board in 1897, 
and served on it until the time of his death. Before 
he took a seat on the bench, Judge Carpenter acted as 
the Counsel of the Trustees of this institution, and spent 
his valuable time without stint and gave the benefit of 
his knowledge of the law in the service of this institu- 
tion of theological learning. 

On June 21, 1876, he married Mary H. Knox, daugh- 
ter of John L. and Rebekah Knox of Allegheny. She 
died in 1899, and a daughter lovingly and faithfully made 
a home for him during the years that intervened. A 
son of whom he was justly proud has distinguished him- 

22 (186) 



Minute on the Death of Judge Carpenter 

self as a philologist and is professor of Romance lan- 
guages at Haverford College. To the son and daughter 
the Board of Trustees of the Western Theological Semi- 
nary express their sympathy in their sore bereavement,. 
as they put on record their deep appreciation of the valu- 
able services which Judge Carpenter rendered as a mem- 
ber of their Board. 



28 (187) 



I 



The President's Report 

May 5, 1927. 
To the Board of Directors of the 

Western Theological Seminary 
Gentlemen: — 

In behalf of the Faculty I have the honor to submit 
the following report for the academic year ending May 
5, 1927. 

Attendance 

Since the last annual report forty-four new students 
have been admitted to the classes of the Seminary, and 
one has re-entered after a year's absence. 

To the Junior Class 

1. Howard Salisbury Davis, a graduate of Washing- 

ton and Jetferson College, A.B., 1926. 

2. Miss Hester Juanita Deller, a graduate of Pennsyl- 

vania College for Women, A.B., 1925. 

3. Robert Lloyd Dieffenbacher, a student of Lafayette 

College. 

4. William Fennell, a graduate of the University of 

Pittsburgh, A.B., 1925. 

5. Dwight Raymond Guthrie, a graduate of Grove Citv 

College, A.B., 1925. 

6. Charles Edward Haberly, a student of Washingtori 

and Jefferson College. 

7. Morris Lyman Husted, a graduate of Washington 

and Jefferson College, B.S., 1926. 

8. Charles Andrew Ittel, a member of the Evangelical 

S3T:iod of North America. 

9. James Howard Kelso, a graduate of Hastings Col- 

lege, A.B., 1926. 

10. Gerritt Labotz, a graduate of the Kweek School. 

Doetichem, Holland, 1912. 

11. Joseph Luciejko, a student of the Ukrainian School 

of Technology, Czecho-Slovakia, and of Bloomfield 
Theological Seminary. 

24 (188) 



The President's Report 

12. Miss Elizabeth S. McKee, a graduate of Washington 

Seminary, 1908. 

13. George D. Massay, a graduate of Bethany College, 

A.B., 1924. 

14. Lee Erwin Schaeffer, a graduate of Washington and 

Jefferson College, A.B., 1926. 

15. Archibald John Stewart, a graduate of the Strat- 

ford Normal School, 1922. 

16. Oscar Sloan Whitacre, a graduate of Grove City 

College, A.B., 1926. 

17. Montague White, a graduate of Hamilton College, 

A.B., 1922. 

To the Middle Class 

1. Joseph Lawrence Weaver, Jr., a student of Colo- 

rado College. 

2. Peter Zurawetzky, a student of Bloomfield Theo- 

logical Seminary. 

To the Senior Class 

1. Joseph Steve Fejes, a graduate of the University 

of Dubuque, A.B., 1926. 

2. Oswald Otto Schwalbe, a graduate of Gordon Col- 

lege, Th.B., 1925. 

3. Clarence E. Thayer, a graduate of the University 

of Pittsburgh, A.B., 1922. 

4. John S. Vance, by letter of dismissal from Louis- 

ville Seminary. 

To the Graduate Class 

1. John K. Boston, a graduate of AVestern Theological 

Seminarjr, S.T.B., 1917. 

2. Welsh Sproule Boyd, a graduate of Drew Theo- 

logical Seminary, B.D., 1924. 

3. Edna Patterson Chubb (Mrs, A. L.), a student of 

the Divinity School, University of Chicago. 

4. Maxwell Cornelius, a graduate of Western Theo- 

logical Seminary, S.T.B., 1914. 

25 (189) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

5. Zolton Csorba, a graduate of Central Theological 

Seminary, Dayton, Ohio, B.D., 1926. 

6. Karoly Dobos, a graduate of Central Theological 

Seminary, Dayton, Ohio, B.D., 1925; Pittsburgh 
Theological Seminary, S.T.M., 1926. 

7. Ermanno E. Genre, a graduate of the Waldensian 

Theological Seminary, Rome, Cand. Theol., 1925. 

8. Jacob Lott Hartzell, a graduate of Lane Theologi- 

cal Seminary, 1911. 

9. Melvin Clyde Horst, a graduate of the School of 

Theology, Juniata College, B.D., 1924. 

10. William Ellsworth Marshall, a graduate of Auburn 

Theological Seminary, B.D., 1916. 

11. Owen Wilborn Moran, a graduate of the Baptist 

Bible Institute, B.C.T., 1922. 

12. George Joseph MuUer, a graduate of Muhlenberg 

College, A.M., 1906. 

13. Walter Brown Purnell, a graduate of AVestern 

Theological Seminary, S.T.B., 1914. 

14. Harry S. D. Shimp, a graduate of Westminster 

Theological Seminary, 1913. 

15. Hugh Alexander Smith, a graduate of Western 

Theological Seminary, S.T.B., 1903. 

16. Robert Lincoln Smith, a student of the Moody Bible 

Institute. 

17. Frederick Stueber, a graduate of Gettysburg Theo- 

logical Seminary, 1926. 

18. Isaac Kelley Teal, a graduate of Waynesburg Col- 

lege, B.S., 1910. 

19. Giovanni Arnold Vecchio, a graduate of Drew Theo- 

logical Seminary, B.D., 1925. 

20. Arthur Christian Waldkoenig, a graduate of Gettys- 

burg Theological Seminary, 1923. 

21. Edward Myrten Wilson, a student of the Divinity 

School, Kenyon College. 

The total attendance for the year has been 82, which 
was distributed as follows: fellows, 5; graduates, 27; 
seniors, 23; middlers, 8; juniors, 19, 

26 (190) 



The President's Report 



FellowsMps and Prizes 

The fellowship was awarded to Lloj^d David Homer, 
a graduate of Grove City College; the Michael Wilson 
Keith Memorial Homiletical Prize, to Llo^^d David 
Homer ; the John Watson Prize in New Testament Greek, 
to Thomas Davis EAving, a graduate of Princeton Uni- 
versity; the William B. Watson Prize in Hebrew, to 
Lloyd David Homer; and Merit Prizes to Byron Elmer 
Allender and William Semple, Jr., of the Middle class. 

A letter of dismissal was granted to Howard Weston 
Jamison of the middle Class, at his own request, to Bos- 
ton Theological Seminary. 

Elective Courses 

In addition to the required courses of the Seminary 
curriculum, the following elective courses have been 
offered during the year 1926-7, the number of students 
attending each course being indicated : 

Dr. Kelso: Comparative Religion, 19 
Post Exilic Prophecy, 17 
Apocalyptic Literature, 15 

Dr. Breed: Evangelism, Personal and Pastoral, 20 
Preaching to Children, 20 
Prayer Meeting Talks, 20 

Dr. Farmer : Social Teaching, 24 

Dr. Snowden : Philosophy of Religion, 29 
Psychology of Religion, 32 

Dr. Vance: New Testament Exegesis (Matthew) 3 
(Pastoral Epistles) 4 
(Acts of the Apostles) 10 

The Life of Paul, 8 

Advanced Greek, 3 

Dr. Culley: Old Testament Introduction, 9 
Hebrew Sight Reading, 16 
Psalter (Exegesis) in English, 17 
Arabic Grammar, 2 

27 (191) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Dr. Eakin: History of Biblical Interpretation, 23 
Early Church History, 8 

Dr. Sleeth : Oral Interpretation of the Scriptures, 5 
Platform Delivery, 4 

Faculty 

In addition to their regular Seminary duties, the 
Professors have responded to calls for preaching and 
lecturing in Colleges, Churches, and Presbyteries. They 
have also contributed to the religious press and to 
magazines. 

The Rev. Charles A. McCrea, D.D., has conducted 
the Beginner's Class in Greek. To-day this is a very 
important class because of the increasing number of stu- 
dents coming to the Seminary from College without ever 
having studied Greek. Dr. McCrea has j)roved to be a 
thorough and efficient instructor in this subject. The 
total enrollment of his classes is 8. 

Theology 

The classes in Theology were conducted b}' Eev. Wm. 
H. Orr, pastor of the Avalon Presbyterian Church. He 
met the Junior and Middle Classes each two hours iDer 
week. His work as an instructor was very satisfactory 
and he quickly won the affection and esteem of the stu- 
dents by his ability to illumine the profound questions 
of Theology and to help them to solve their problems 
and difficulties. It was a great loss to the Seminary when 
suddenly, about the last of March, he had to give up his 
work on the advice of his physician. Dr. Vance took 
charge of the Middle Class and Dr. Farmer of the Junior 
Class during the month of April in the Department of 
Systematic Theology. 

Religious Education 

A class in Religious Education, meeting two hours 
a week during the second semester, was conducted by 
Rev. Stanley Scott, Ph.D., a Presbyterian minister and 

28 (192) 



The President's Report ' 

a member of the faculty of the Pennsylvania College 
for Women. 

Lectures 

The lecture at the opening exercises of the Seminary 
was delivered by Rev. Andrew K. Rule, Ph.D., on "The 
Personality of God : A Defense". 

On the Elliott Foundation (First course) 

The Rev. Maitland Alexander, D.D., LL.D. 
''The Pastor and His Methods" 

1. "The Minister and His Personality" 

2. "The Minister and His Sermons" 

3. "The Minister and His Organizations" 

4. "The Sunday School; The Pastor's Rela- 
tion to it" 

5. "Institutional Work" 

On the Elliott Foundation (Second course) 
The Rev. Donald MacKenzie, M.A. 
"Relation between Christian Belief and Christiau 
Practice" 

1. "Conflict between the two in Eighteenth 

Century" 

2. "The Problem in the Nineteenth Century 
between Science and Conscience and Creed" 

8. "Modern Attempts at Religion Making and 
Criticism ' ' 

4. "Solution in Christian Experience of For- 

giveness" 

5. "Analysis of Forgiveness and its Moral 
Effects" 

Mohammedan Apologetics 

The Rev. Samuel M. Zwemer, D.D. (delivered at 

Pittsburgh Seminary) 
I. "Introductory: Points of Contact and of Con- 
trast between Christianity and Islam" 

29 (193) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

2. "The Genuineness and Authority of the 
Bible" 

3. "The Trinity" 

4. "The Death of Christ: the Atonement" 

In addition the following special lectures were given 
in the Seminary chapel : 

"Personal Evangelism", The Eev. Earl A. Kerna- 

han, D.D. 
"Saint Francis of Assisi", The Eev. David R. 

Breed, D.D., LL.D. 
"The Minister in the Modern World", The Rev. 

Stuart Nye Hutchison, D.D. 
"An Overpaid Vocation", The Rev. Joseph A. 

Vance, D.D., LL.D. 
"International Relations", The Rev. Henry A. 

Atkinson, D.D. 
"The New Age in Foreign Missions", The Rev. 

Lindsay S. B. Hadley. 
"The Bible Status of Woman", The Rev. Lee Anna 

Star, D.D., LL.D. 
"Missionarv Education", The Rev. John Bailey 

Kell}^ D.D. 
"The Excavation of an Israelite Cit}^", The Rev. 

Wm. F. Albright, D.D. 
"Missions in West Africa", The Rev. W. C. Johns- 
ton, D.D. 
"Every Member Mobilization", The Rev. Herman 

C. Weber. 
"Y.M.C.A. Policy and Program in Relation to the 

Church", The Rev. David G. Latshaw. 
"New Pension Plan", The Rev. W. S. Holt, D.D., 

LL.D. 

Student Y.M.C.A. 

The student body and the faculty are organized into 
a Y.M.C.A., and this organization conducts and super- 
vises all the Seminary activities outside of classroom 
work. There is a Devotional Committee which conducts 

30 (194) 



The President's Report ' 

a weekly prayer meeting on Thursday evening. Mem- 
bers of the faculty, invited guests, and students conduct 
these meetings. The Athletic Committee supervises all 
games which are played in the gymnasium — basketball, 
volley ball, and indoor tennis. The Seminary supports 
a varsity basketball team which plays games with 
Churches and other institutions. The Social Committee 
conducts four socials during the year: one at the open- 
ing of the term for the purpose of welcoming the new 
students, a second near Christmas, a third on Washing- 
ton's birthday, and the fourth near the close of the year. 
During the past year these social events were very suc- 
cessful. Although not a part of the Y.M.C.A. report, a 
reference to the social relations of the faculty and stu- 
dents may not be amiss. Some time during the year, 
every student is invited to take dinner in the President 's 
home and a formal reception is given to the Seniors and 
friends. The several classes of the Seminary are also 
formally entertained in the homes of Doctors Vance, Cul- 
ley, and Eakin. 

The Y.M.C.A. receipts were $434.89 and the expendi- 
tures $409.23. The Seminary was represented at the 
Auburn Conference of the Inter-Seminary Association 
of the Middle Atlantic States held November 4th and 
5th, 1926, at Auburn Seminary. We were officially repre- 
sented by John A. Stuart. Thomas D. Ewing, Linson H. 
Stebbins, and William Semple, Jr., also attended. The 
Seminar}^ was also represented at the Conference of 
Theological Students and the National Student Confer- 
ence held at Milwaukee, December 27th-January 2. Offi- 
cial delegates were Dwight Guthrie and Montague AAHiite. 
Unofficial delegates were Linson Stebbins and John A. 
Stuart. 

Supervising Student Worh . 

Nearly all of the students of the Seminary engage 
in some form of practical Christian work, supplying 
churches, teaching Bible classes, acting as assistants to 

31 (195) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

])astors, and laboring in missions. All these activities 
are a very valuable part of the student's preparation for 
the ministry. The Faculty have felt that this feature 
of Seminary training ought to be systematized and 
brought under strict supervision. With this end in viev/ 
we have discussed the matter of supervision and coopera- 
tion with Dr. P. W. Snyder, the Presbyterial Superin- 
tendent of Pittsburgh Presbytery. Dr. Snyder, who is 
a member of the Board of Trustees, is willing to assist 
the Faculty in organizing a systematic program for 
supervising and directing the activities of the students. 
We would therefore ask the Board of Directors to author- 
ize the Faculty and Dr. Snyder to work out a method 
which may be tentatively put into operation next Septem- 
ber at the opening of the new term under the supervision 
of the Executive Committee of the Board. 

Finances 

The Centennial Campaign for additional endow- 
ment and equipment w^as inaugairated last Ma^^ and it 
was developing in an encouraging fashion when two 
other campaigns for funds compelled the Seminary to 
stand aside for the time being. These two campaigns 
w^ere : first, the Pension Plan of the Church, and second^ 
the campaign for the New Medical Center in which the 
Presbyterian Hospital was to be the nucleus. In spite 
of the unfavorable circumstances, we are able to report 
cash and subscriptions amounting to $268,646.00. Of 
this sum the Alumni have subscribed $25,000,000 for the 
endowment of a Chair of Religious Education. At on 
opportune moment and as soon as possible this campaign 
ought to be resumed throughout the churches of Western 
Pennsylvania and Eastern Ohio. The deficit as reported 
by the Treasurer and the imperative need of increasing 
the salaries of the Professors as well as the erection of 
an apartment for housing them, indicate that the Semi- 
nary must have additional resources if it is to continue 
its work. An apartment for returned missionaries is 

32 (196) 



The President's Report ' 

also a necessity if we are to keep abreast with the move- 
ments of our age. 

A Vocational Conference for College Undergraduates 

A Vocational Conference w^as held at the Seminary. 
April 1-3, mider the auspices of the Student Asso- 
ciation of the Middle Atlantic Theological Seminaries. 
The Conference Theme was "What opportunities for life 
service does Jesus offer a modern undergraduate?" 
The program was as follows: 

1. The Opportunities for Christian Service: General 

Survey 

Frida}^, April 1, 6 :00 P.M. 

Seminary Dining Hall: Banquet 

Presiding: Thomas D. Ewing 

Address of Welcome : Dr. James A. Kelso 

Address: Dr. C. Wallace Petty 

2. The Opportunities Abroad 

Saturday, April 2, 9 :00 A.M., Seminar}^ Chapel 
Devotional: Dr. George Taylor 
Address : Dr. Hugh T. Kerr 
Address: Dr. James E. Detweiler 

3. The Opportunities at Home 

Saturday, April 2, 11:00 A.M., Seminary Chapel 

1. Y.M.C.A. Work 

A. L. Mould 

2. Religious Education 

Dr. A. J. R. Shumaker 

Saturda^^, April 2, 7 :45 P.M., Seminary Chapel 
Devotional: Theodore E. Miller 

3. The Teaching Profession 
Dr. Frank Eakin 

4. The Ministry 

Dr. Robert F. Galbreath 

4. The Opportunities for Christian Service: Their 

Challenge. 

Sunday, April 3, 10 :45 A.M., Seminar}^ Chapel 

33 (197) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Service conducted by Dr. William K. Farmer 
The Vocational Conference was supplemented by 
a visitation of the chief Presbyterian Colleges from 
which the Seminary draws students. Dr. Kelso visited 
Wooster, preaching in the Chapel, addressing the Oscar 
A. Hills Club, and Centre College, Danville, Kentucky. 
He also gave a lecture at Lane Theological Seminary on 
the occasion of the inauguration of Rev. Richard Ames 
Montgomery, D.D., LL.D. Dr. Farmer addressed the stu- 
dents of Washington and Jefferson and conducted serv- 
ices at the special meetings for students at Macalester 
College. Dr. Vance visited Grove City College, and 
preached at the Vocational Conference at Maryville Col- 
lege. Immediately after the close of the Seminary, Dr. 
Vance expects to visit Presbyterian Colleges of the 
Southwest. This will indicate to the Boards of the Semi- 
nary that the Faculty are making a definite and syste- 
matic effort to present the claims of the ministry and the 
facilities of the Western Theological Seminary to the 
students of our Presbyterian Colleges. 

Recommendations 

The Faculty of the Seminary submit the following 
recommendations : 

(1) That the following members of the Senior Class be 
awarded the degree of S.T.B. : 

Crawford McCoy Coulter 

Thomas Davis Ewing 

Byron Stanley Fruit 

William Austin Gilleland 

Darwin Marion Haynes 

Paul ffagerty Hazlett 

Lloyd David Homer 

Edgar Coe Irwin 

Ralph Waldo Emerson Kaufman 

Oswald Otto Schwalbe 

John Alvin Stuart 

Joseph Carter Swaim 

34 (198) 



The President's Report 

Guy Hector Volpitto 
Philip L. Williams 

(2) That the degree of S.T.M. be awarded the fol- 
lowing : 

Claude Sawtell Conley, of the Graduate Class 

Zolton Csorba, of the Graduate Class 

Karoly Dobos, of the Graduate Class 

Charles Kovacs, of the Graduate Class , • 

John Maurice Leister, of the Graduate Class 

Walter Brown Purnell, of the Graduate Class 

Thomas Davis Ewing, of the Senior Class 

(3) That the following members of the Senior Class be 
granted certificates covering the work they have com- 
pleted : 

William Augustus Ashley 
Martin Rudolph Kuehn 
William C. Marquis 
William Victor E. Parsons 
All of which is respectfully submitted. 

(Signed) James A. Kelso, 

President. 



35 (199) 



The Librarian's Report 

To the Board of Trustees of the AVestern Theological 

Seminary: 

I submit herewith my report as Librarian of the 
Seminary, covering the year April 1, 1926 — March 31, 

1927:— 

1. Additions: 

The additions for the year, classified and compared 
with the data for the four preceding years, have been 
as follows:— 

1922-3 1923-4 1924-5 1925-6 1926-7 

Old Testament . , 58 32 79 45 27 

New Testament 45 30 50 53 41 

Bible (in general) 64 15 19 22 11 

Theology, Philosophy, Psycho- 
logy, Ethics, etc 84 56 82 96 49 

Church History 44 27 63 93 56 

Preaching, Sermons, Pastoral 

Work 60 31 21 37 22 

Missions, Comparative Keli- 

gion 24 62 63 64 24 

Sociology 20 22 20 10 4 

Religious Education 30 19 * 63 92 13 

Judaism (exclusive of Old 

Testament) 20 7 7 3 1 

Miscellaneous (Religious) .... 8 20 25 56 33 

Language and Literature .... 49 34 25 23 11 

Miscellaneous (Non-religious) 54 85 61 80 66 

Periodicals (bound) 156 113 64 163 48 

716 553 642 837 406 

2. Cataloguing: 

The figures for the year, with those of the four pre- 
ceding years, are as follows: — 

Date Volumes Catalogued Cards Added 

1922-3 741 , 1983 
1923-4 490 1881 

36 (200) 



The Librarian's Report 

Date Volumes Catalogued Cards Added 

1924-5 544 1938 

1925-6 572 1929 

1926-7 406 1236 

3. Circulation: 

(a) Books loaned: 

1922-3 1741 

1923-4 2118 

1924-5 2194 

1925-6 2696 

192'6-7 3172 

(b) Periodicals loaned: 

1922-3 180 

1923-4 133 

1924-5 155 

1925-6 200 

1926-7 81 

It will be seen that the statistics for the year covered 
by this report differ from those of preceding years in 
two outstanding respects: the figures for additions and 
cataloguing are unusually small, while the circulation 
for the year was unusually large. 

The decrease in cataloguing activity is easily ac- 
counted for. There was a considerable period when such 
work was of necessity entirely suspended: after Miss 
Higgins left and before Miss MacDonald took the posi- 
tion of assistant librarian. And, of course, much of Miss 
MacDonald 's time, in the few months since she began 
her work, has been taken up w^ith details of adjustment. 
Moreover I am convinced after seven years experience as 
librarian, that little progress in cataloguing is to be ex- 
pected until more help can be provided. As it is, the 
cataloguing work has to be done entirely by the assistant 
librarian, who has so many other duties and responsi- 
bilities that little time is left. 

The fact that the number of additions has been rela- 
tively small is due in part to the disturbance of library 

37 (201) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

routine incident to Miss Higgins' resignation and the 
subsequent interim referred to above. Another reason 
has been lack of funds. A third reason seems to have 
been that there have been less than the usual number 
of requests from professors for the ordering of books 
for the library. It is to be noted, however, that while 
the number of volumes added has been comparatively 
small, the distribution of the additions among the several 
departments and fields of religious interest has been 
approximately the same as in previous years. In other 
words, the effort to preserve a healthy balance in the 
library's development seems still to be effective. 

The figures for circulation are encouraging. The 
number of books loaned by the library to its patrons 
has been increasing steadily since 1922. The total for 
the year covered by this report is well over three thou- 
sand, nearly five hundred more than were loaned during 
the preceding year. Miss MacDonald has introduced what 
is known as the Newark System for charging books. It 
promises to save much time and labor in this important 
branch of the library's activities. 

The most pressing problem in connection with the 
library at present is the problem of shelving space. A 
partial and temporary solution might be reached by a 
drastic weeding out of duplicates and other dead ma- 
terial. But this is a kind of work which requires both 
time and careful supervision; otherwise valuable books 
may be disposed of unwittingly. Thus here again we 
are handicapped by the lack of an adequate working 
staff. In any case it is clear that more stacks will have 
to be provided in the near future if development is to 
proceed along normal lines. Meanwhile the crowded con- 
dition of the shelves is a serious handicap to rapid and 
efficient work. 

During the year books have been received as gifts 
from the following donors, to whom grateful acknowl- 
edgment is due: publishers, Louis Clark Vanuxem 
Foundation, Dr. Snowden, Dr. Edwards, Chicago Daily 

38 (202) 



The Librarian's Report ' 

News Company, Mr. B. N. Bogue, Mr. E. A. Brooks, Mr. 
F. H. Cheley, Dr. Lee Anna Starr, Dr. Neal Anderson, 
Presbyterian Board of Christian Education, Dr. Seth R. 
Gordon, Dr. Samuel W. Purvis, Mrs. W. 0. Campbell, 
Eev. W. P. Buchanan, and Dr. Thomas S. Arbuthnot. 

I should like to take this occasion to express my 
appreciation of the fine spirit, as well as the technical 
efficiency, which Miss MacDonald has shown in the short 
period of her occupancy of the position of assistant 
librarian. 

My resignation as librarian is in the hands of the 
President of the Seminary, and will doubtless be acted 
upon at the May meetings of the boards. 
Respectfully submitted, 

(Signed) Frank Eakiist, 

Librarian. 



'i\\) (2()X) 



The Treasurer's Report 

Treasurer's Condensed Financial Report for year ended 
March 31, 1927. 

INCOME RECEIPTS 

Income from investments $ 44,127.50 

Income from Room Rents 10,023.11 

Income from House Rents 3,050.00 

Contributions by Individuals 2,000.00 

Contributions from Churches 5,284.64 

Miscellaneous 1,052.83 



$ 65,538.08 

IjStcome disbursements 

Salaries Paid $ 41,407.17 

Interest paid on Annuity Bonds 3,312.11 

Interest paid on loan from Commonwealth 

Trust Company 837.85 

Insurance, Commissions, and Water Rents 

paid 622.62 

County Taxes 1926 paid 417.24 

City Taxes 1927 paid . 1,990.11 

Office expenses and Janitors' supplies 1,579.60 

Library expenses 1,945.78 

Light and fuel 5,506.10 

Scholarships 6,517.33 

Laundry expense 363.00 

Lectures 1,116.60 

Sundry Equipment & Repairs 4,902.02 

Other Miscellaneous Expenses 2,922.74 

Professors' Annuities 2,744.05 

Pensions 2,041.66 

Advertising and Printing 2,286.41 

$ 80,512.39 

40 (204) 



The Treasurer's Report * 

ASSETS 

Land, Buildings, and Equipment $ 552,306.43 

Investments 790,197.45 

Cash 59,283.50 



$1,401,787.38 

LIABILITIES '^'I 

Notes Payable $ 17,900.S) 

Capital Funds 1,347,649.83 

Surplus 36,237.55 



$1,401,787.38 



41 (205) 



Faculty Notes 

A great sorrow has come to Dr.' Culley in the death of his 
mother. Mrs. Culley died on June 1, 1927, at her home. Hooks- 
town, Pa., and the funeral was conducted by her pastor. Rev. Paul 
H. Hazlett, a recent graduate of the Seminary. 

At the annual meeting of the Board of Directors, May 5, Dr. 
Frank Eakin, Professor-elect of Church History, presented his resig- 
nation because of his inability to make the subscription to the 
formula required of professors at their inauguration. The Board 
accepted his resignation. 

Dr. Charles N. Boyd acted as choral director of the "Biennial 
Massed Chorus" on Friday evening, April 22, at the Eighth Street 
Theatre, Chicago, 111. This concert was given in connection with 
the fifteenth biennial convention of the National Federation of 
Music Clubs. 

The Board of Directors of the Western Theological Seminary 
have unanimously elected Rev. Donald MacKenzie, M.A., minister 
of the Ferry Hill United Free Church of Aberdeen, Scotland, to the 
Chair of Systematic Theology. Mr. MacKenzie had a very dis- 
tinguished academic career, taking honors both in the Classics and 
in Philosophy. For three years he was Assistant Professor of 
Logic and Psychology at Aberdeen University and at present is 
Examiner in Philosophy for this University. He is the author of 
important theological and philosophical articles in Hastings' "Ency- 
clopedia of Religion and Ethics" and also in Hastings' "Dictionary 
of the Apostolic Age". He is a regular contributor to the Exposi- 
tory Times. During the war he was a chaplain of one of the Scot- 
tish Regiments and has been a pastor for about twelve years. 



42 (206) 



Alumniana 

NEW ADDRESSES 

1903 O. S. Fowler, Claysville, Pa. 

1906 Charles E. Bovard, Rockledge, Florida. 

1906 C. E. Ludwig, Washington, Pa. 

1912 Harry J. Findlay, Shenandoah, Iowa. 

1916 P. W. Macaulay, 10417 Elmarge Road, Cleveland, Ohio. 

1919 Dwight B. Davidson, Barnesville, Ohio. 

1920 J. A. Martin, Westfield, N. Y. 

1922 P. L. Warnshuis, 1727 N. Edgemont Avenue, Hollywood, 

California. 

1923 Willard C. Mellin, Box 143, Ridgeway, Pa. 

1924 G. K. Monroe, Wext Alexander, Pa. 

1924 Harold F. Post, 525 Riverside Avenue, Wellsville, Ohio. 

INSTALLATIONS 
1896-pRev. John Robertson Macartney, Vermont Avenue, Los 

Angeles, Cal., June 6, 1927. 
1903 O. S. Fowler, Claysville, Pa. 

1903-pRev. A. J. McCartney, Santa Monica, Cal., June 5, 1927. 
1906 Charles E. Bovard, D.D., Rockledge, Florida, May 8, 1927. 

1916 John R. Thomson, Mount Carmel & North Branch, Beaver 

Presbytery, May 12, 1927. 

1917 LeRoy Lawther, Lakewood, Ohio. 
1917 H. H. Nicholson, Old Washington, Ohio. 
1919 Dwight B. Davidson, Barnesville, Ohio. 

1924 George K. Monroe, West Alexander, May 31, 1927. 

ACCESSIONS 

Following is a tabulated list of accessions received 
at the spring commnnion of churches administered to by 
alumni of the Seminary in addition to those listed in the 
April Bulletin : 

Church Accessions Pastor Class 

First, McKee's Rocks, Pa. . . .20 O. N. Verner, D.D 188 6 

Cross Roads, Turtle Creek, 

Pa 28 J. B. Lyle, D.D 1888 

Webster Groves, Mo 66 David M. Skilling, D.D. . . .1891 

First, Waterford, Pa 20 H. A. Grubbs 1893 

First, Hubbard, Ohio 54 Calvin G. Hazlett, D.D. . . .189 3 

First, West View, Pa.. 23 E. A. Culley 1894 

Mt. Pisgah, Pittsburgh Pres- 
bytery 21 R. L. Biddle 1895 

First, Rayland, Ohio 8 R. C. Stewart 1895 

First, Turtle Creek, Pa 50 Grant E. Fisher, D.D 189 6 

Poplar Street, Cincinnati, 

Ohio 17 D.A.Greene 1896 

Gallon, Ohio 14 R. E. Porter 1896 

Shadyside, Pittsburgh, Pa. . .35 Hugh T. Kerr, D.D 1897 

First, Des Moines, Iowa ....41 S. A. Fulton, D.D. .(p. g.) 1898 

First, Meadville, Pa 35 E. L. Mcllvaine, D.D 1898 

43 (207) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



Church 



Accessions Pnstor 



Class 



Vance Memorial, Wheeling, 

W. Va . .38 

Cherry Tree, Pa 6 

Brighton Road, Pittsburgh, 
Pa, 9 

New Salem, Pa 28 

Champion, Presbytery of Ma- 
honing 6 

Vienna, Presbytery of Ma- 
honing 25 

London, Ohio 16 

Wilmerding, Pa 5 

Forty-third Street, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa 10 

Cadiz, Ohio 22 

Bethel, Bridgeville, Pa 8 

Brookville, Pa 75 

Kerr, Haffey, Pa 8 

Beulah, Wilkinsburg, Pa. 

R. D 7 

Irwin, Pa 26 

East End, Bradford, Pa 15 

Knoxville, Pittsburgh, Pa. ..97 
Troy Hill, Pittsburgh, Pa. . . 9 

First, Toronto, Ohio 29 

Avalon, Pa 8 

First, Mars, Pa 21 

Roxbury, Mass 22 

First, Wilkinsburg, Pa 95 

Central, New Castle, Pa 30 

Ingram, Pa 32 

Oakland, Pittsburgh, Pa. ...21 

First, Ebensburg, Pa 20 

Homewood, Pittsburgh, Pa. .55 
First, New Bethlehem, Pa. . .19 

Hoboken, Blawnox, Pa 21 

Brockway, Pa 28 

Houtzdale, Pa 58 

Independence, Iowa 4 

Central, McKeesport, Pa. ...68 
Round Hill, Elizabeth, Pa. . .28 
Union First, Cowansville, Pa. 10 

Florence, Pa 16 

Petersburg, Ohio 3 

Central, Tarentum, Pa 3 3 

Bellevue, Pa 46 



J. M. Potter, D.D 1898 

C. O. Anderson 1899 

R. H. Allen, D.D 1900 

H. W. Kilgore 19 00 

W. A. Reed 1900 

W. A. Reed 1900 

C. E. Shields 1900 

C. F. Irwin 1901 

S. T. Brown 1902 

R. P. Lippincott 1902 

Murray C. Reiter 1903 

F. Benton Shoemaker ....1903 
John D. McBride 1905 

John D. McBride 1905 

Samuel Blacker 1907 

Paul G. Miller 1907 

M. M. McDivitt, D.D 1907 

Frank Junek 1908 

F. O. Wise 1908 

Wm. H. Orr 1909 

E. B. Lawrence 1910 

G. S. Macaulay 1910 

George Taylor, Jr., Ph.D., 

D.D 1910 

C. B. Wingerd, Ph.D 

(p. g.) 1910 

C. C. Cribbs 1911 

Geo. L. Glunt 1911 

H. J. Baumgartel 1913 

C. Carson Bransby 1913 

James W. Eraser, D.D. . . .1914 

N. B. Wilson 1914 

L. L. Tait 1915 

G. P. West 1915 

R. V. Gilbert 1916 

LeRoy Lawther 1917 

W. W. McKinney 1919 

A. B. Weisz 1921 

J. M. Leister 1924 

Harold Post 1924 

A. N. Stubblebine . (p. g.) 1924 
R. F. Galbreath, D.D. .Associate 



1878 

The Board of Trustees of Missouri Valley College; at its recent 
meeting reluctantly accepted the resignation which Dr. W. H. Black 
had some time ago placed in the hands of the Board. The action 
taken continues Dr. Black's presidency until September 1, after 
which time he will be president emeritus. 



44 (208) 



Alumniana 

1879 

At the annual congregational meeting of the Glendale, Ohio, 
Presbyterian Church, April 4th, a substantial increase was made to 
the salary of the pastor. Rev. Calvin Dill Wilson. Numerous 
improvements to the church property have been made in the past 
year, all bills for which have been met. 

1880 

Recently Rev. J. P. Calhoun preached a sermon on the subject, 
"Is the Church Worth While?" at the opening of the meeting of 
the Presbytery of South Eastern Florida. The Presbytery ordered 
the sermon printed for distribution. - 

1881 

Rev. G. N. Luccock, D.D., who has been student pastor at the 
College of Wooster and minister of the Westminster Church for 
ten years, has resigned, the resignation to take effect September 
first. His resignation was accepted with great regret as Dr. Luccock 
has been very influential and popular both with the student body 
and the people of the town. He expects to make his home at 
Wooster and will be pastor emeritus of Westminster Church. 

1882 

For several weeks immediately preceding the meeting of the 
General Assembly, the retiring moderator. Dr. W. O. Thompson, 
made addresses on the Pension Plan in churches on the Pacific 
Coast. He was a commanding figure at the meeting of the General 
Assembly held in San Francisco. 

1884 

Rev. C. C. Hays, D.D., was stricken with a sudden illness the 
day after Commencement. The announcement was a shock to his 
many friends as he had acted as Chairman of the Examining Com- 
mittee at the Seminary and had attended the meeting of the Board 
of Directors. We are glad to announce that he is making a rapid 
recovery, and hopes to take up his regular work at an early date. 

Rev. John S. Plumer, D.D., pastor of the Presbyterian Church 
at Gibsonia, Pa., recently formed a flourishing organization of men 
known as the Gibsonia Community Club, with the immediate objec- 
tive of a community building. Dr. Plumer has received an invita- 
tion from Princeton, his alma mater, to be initiated into the Phi 
Betta Kappa fraternity, based upon his record for scholarship while 
in college. 

1887 

Rev. Howard N. Campbell, D.D., of Olympia, Fla., has been 
asked to supply the church at Fort Lauderdale, Florida, and will 
do so indefinitely. 

1892 

The Rev. J. F. Kirkbride, D.D., of New Galilee, Pa., was elected 
to fill the unexpired term of the Rev. W. C. Barnes as permanent 
clerk of the Presbytery of Beaver. 

1894 

Dr. John Livingston Lowes, the distinguished Harvard pro- 
fessor, has recently published a notable work. The Road to Xanadu: 

45 (209) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminars/ 

A Study of the Ways of Inauguration. It might be briefly charac- 
terized as a study of the sub-conscious mind of a poet. The New 
York Evening Post entitled its review, "Prof. Lowes Backtracks 
Coleridge from Xanadu", and went on to say: "There is a new 
thing under the literary sun. From the careful and aristocratic pen 
of a Harvard professor of English comes a novel detective story 
whose brilliant originality and thrilling suspense make Sherlock 
Holmes look like a Chicago policeman. Presumably the interest 
of a good detective story varies in direct proportion to the elusive- 
ness of the criminal and the subtlety of his disguises. In his 
remarkable study Professor Lowes has chosen to pursue no ordi- 
nary law-breaker who leaves thumb prints and cigar ashes behind 
to reveal the trail; his quarry is the most incorporeal one conceiv- 
able: the springs of poetic genius. 

"He has attempted to track to its cavernous lair the dark 
beast of the poetic mind, to trace, with the aid of a monumental 
scholarship and an intuitive aptness in personal identification, the 
origin, growth, and psychologic significance of perhaps one hundred 
and fifty lines of great English verse — the whole of 'Kubla Khan' 
and more especially a portion of 'The Ancient Mariner'. The chase 
has led him through a hundred sixteenth and seventeenth century 
travel-books, a maze of scattered references, maps, ancient chart?, 
a veritable library of works in demonology, witchcraft, geography, 
pharmacology, navigation, and natural science." 

1896 

According to the Cincinnati Daily Times-Star, Rev. D. A. G-reene 
has succeeded m organizing and conducting the largest Week-Day 
School of Religion in the country. It is held in the West End 
Presbyterian Church, Cincinnati, Ohio. Since its organization in 
192 3 with an enrollment of 12 the enrollment has grown to 102 7. 

1897 

The Christian Ministry is indebted to Dr. Hugh Thomson Kerr 
for one of the most illuminating and helpful works on modern 
poetry and its contribution to enforcing the message of the pulpit. 
It is entitled, "The Gospel and Modern Poetry", and ought to be in 
every minister's library. 

Pikeville College, Pikeville, Ky., of which Rev. J. F. Record 
is president, closed a prosperous year on May 2 6th. During the 
past year the endowment was increased by $40,000 and real estate 
to the amount of $6,000. Rev. B. V. Riddle, Class of 1911, is a 
member of the Faculty. 

1898 

The tenth anniversary of the pastorate of Dr. S. A. Fulton, 
at the First Church, Des Moines, Iowa, was recently celebrated. 
During the ten years 52 8 members have been received and over 
$20,000 contributed to benevolences, not including what has been 
raised for Iowa colleges. The Sunday School has more than doubled, 
the church attendance trebled, and the benevolent budget so notably 
increased that this church has been leading the Presbytery in per 
capita giving. 

The reports at the annual meeting of the Vance Memorial 
Church of Wheeling, West Va., Rev. J. M. Potter, D.D., pastor, indi- 
cate a membership of 807 and a Sunday School enrollment of over 

46 (210) 



Alumnicma 

700. The gifts to benevolences amounted to $11,200 and $22,000 
was raised for current expenses. The salary of the pastor was 
increased $900. In the Service Pension campaign last fall this 
church pledged $11,300, or $300 over their quota. The church 
will celebrate the thirtieth anniversary of its organization next 
June, which will also mark the middle of the 24th year of the 
present pastorate. 

1899 

The First Church, Orange, N. J., whose historic edifice was 
recently destroyed by fire, has found its temporary home in the 
Central High School auditorium, two blocks from the site of the 
old building. The pastor. Dr. H. H. McQuilken, took as his serijion 
theme, on the Sunday morning after the visitation by fire, "Springs 
of Water Out of the Rock of Adversity." A new building will be 
erected on a site long owned by the church, less than a half mile 
away from the old site. 

1900 

Rev. Donnell R. Montgomery died very suddenly at New Texas, 
Pa., Jan. 27, 1925, while he was pastor of the Plum Creek Church. 
In connection with the one hundred twenty-fifth anniversary of this 
church, a memorial service was held June 19th, at which both the 
present pastor and Dr. Kelso spoke. 

1902 

The Second Presbyterian Church of Johnstown, Pa., Rev. H. A. 
Bailey, pastor, observed its thirtieth anniversary on April 29. 

1903 

Rev. F. B. Shoemaker of Brookville preached a series of nine 
sermons on "Anchors of the Soul" as preparatory to the celebration 
of Easter. 

1904 

Rev. A. I. Keener, of Clinton, N. Y., was appointed by the 
Faculty of the Seminary to represent the Seminary at the Inaugura- 
tion of the Rev. Gaius Glenn Atkins, D.D., LL.D., as Professor in 
the Chair of Homiletics and Sociology at Auburn Theological Semi- 
nary on May fourth. 

1905 

During his pastorate of a little more than a year. Dr. F. W. 
Evans has received 44 members into the fellowship of the Church 
of the Redeemer. Paterson, N. J. The every-member canvass con- 
ducted on April 24, resulted in the congregation's pledging between 
$5,000 and $6,000 more than in the preceding year. One of the 
ladies of the church recently presented the minister with a beautiful 
new car. 

Anna Jeannette McGrew McBride, wife of the Rev. John D. 
McBride, pastor of the Beulah Presbyterian Church, Wilkinsburg, 
Pa., passed away on March 26, 1927. Funeral services were held 
at the manse, Tuesday, March 29, at 1:30, in charge of Dr. G. E. 
Fisher, assisted by Rev. W. A. Roulston and Dr. R. J. G. McKnight. 

1906 

The Rev. C. E. Ludwig resigned as pastor of the Concord 
Church, Carrick, Pa., and was granted a letter of dismissal to the 

47 (211) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Presbytery of Washington that he might accept a call to the Third 
Church of Washington, Pa. 

1907 
Rev. M. M. McDivitt, D.D., was a commissioner to the General 
Assembly, and had charge of the Western Theological Seminary 
reunion. The Knoxville Presbyterian Church, of which Mr. 
McDivitt is minister, celebrated its Semi-Centennial during the 
week beginning June 2 6. 

1908 

Owing to the serious illness of his wife, Rev. Plummer Harvey 
has asked the Presbytery of Elizabeth to release him from the 
pastorate of the Long Valley, N. J., Presbyterian Church. 

1909 

Rev. W. H. Orr, pastor of the Avalon Presbyterian Church, 
conducted the classes in Theology at the Seminary with success 
during the past year. He won the affection of the students and 
Faculty, and it was with great concern that Seminary circles learned 
of his physical breakdown, which compelled him to give up all work 
by April 1st. During this period he was Moderator of the Pitt.s- 
burgh Presbytery, and at the April meeting the Presbytery adopted 
formal resolutions expressing sympathy and hope of a speedy recov- 
ery. Later Mr. Orr resigned his charge in Avalon. 

1910 

During the past two years Rev. G. S. Macaulay has received 
267 members into the Presbyterian Church of Roxbury, Mass., of 
which he is pastor. 

At the April meeting of the Presbytery of Boston, Mr. Macaulay 
was elected moderator. 

1912 

The thirty new members received into the Presbyterian Church 
of Shenandoah, Iowa, by the pastor. Rev. H. J. Findlay, made a 
total of 100 who had been received during the preceding six months. 

1913 

The Presbyterian Church of Midland, Pa., Rev. C. W. Cochran, 
pastor, have plans made for one of the most complete groups of 
church buildings in Western Pennsylvania. 

At the recent commencement, June 8, Washington and Jeffer- 
son College conferred the degree of Doctor of Divinity on Rev. 
John Connell, pastor of the Grace Presbyterian Church, Minneapolis, 
Minn. 

Rev. G. A. Frantz, pastor of the First Church of Indianapolis, 
Ind., preached the baccalaureate sermon at Wabash College, Craw- 
fordsville, Indiana. Mr. Frantz expects to spend his vacation in a 
European trip. 

1914 

Rev. Dwight M. Donaldson, of Meshed, Persia, was a visitor 
at Commencement. During his furlough he has been carrying on 
research in special phases of Islamic History and Theology. At its 
recent Commencement Washington and Jefferson College conferred 
the degree of Doctor of Divinity on him in recognition of service 
to missions and literature. 

48 (212) 



I 



Alumniana ' 

Rev. George M. Duff, pastor of the Riverdale Presbyterian 
Church, New York City, represented the Seminary at the dedication 
of the new buildings of the Hartford Seminary Foundation, on 
May eighteenth. 

Rev. G. C. Fohner of New Castle, Pa., has been called to the 
Rocky Grove Church in the Presbytery of Erie. 

1916 

Rev. W. C. Barnes has accepted a call to the Presbyterian 
Church of Vandergrift, Pa. 

Rev. R. V. Gilbert of the First Presbyterian Church of Inde- 
pendence, Iowa, teaches a large men's class known as the "Men's 
Main Street Class". During his four years' pastorate the enroll- 
ment has increased from 50 to 230, and the maximum attendance 
from 46 to 424. 

Rev. P. W. Macaulay of Lisbon, Ohio, has accepted a call to 
the Miles Park Church, Cleveland, Ohio. 

On Sunday, June 5, Rev. John A. Shaw celebrated the tenth 
anniversary of his pastorate at Follansbee, West Virginia, preaching 
in the morning on "Ten Years in Follansbee," and in the evening 
on "Why Am I a Minister?" These years have been marked by 
growth, the membership having been more than doubled and the 
benevolences having been trebled. 

1917 (P. G.) 

At its last commencement, Missouri Valley College conferred 
the degree of Doctor of Divinity upon the Rev. A. H. Lowe, paster 
of The King's Highway Presbyterian Church, St. Louis, Missouri. 

1918 

At a recent meeting of Pittsburgh Presbytery the Rev. H. A. 
Gearhart, pastor of the Aspinwall church, was directed to serve as 
chaplain at the United States Veterans' Hospital, in Aspinwall. He 
has been giving volunteer service up to this time. 

An increase of $400 has recently been added to Mr. Gearhart's 
salary. 

1920 

Rev. S. Neale Alter in a recent letter calls attention to the 
revolution in Islamic thought which is going on in Syria, and the 
unique opportunity which the situation offers to the Christian Mis- 
sionary. Mr. Alter may spend his furlough, 1927-8, in Pittsburgh. 

Rev. J. A. Martin, formerly of Corry, Pa., has accepted a call 
to the First Presbyterian Church of Westfleld, N. Y., and began 
work in his new field April 2 4th. 

1921 

Rev. George K. Bamford has been pastor of the St. Davids 
Presbyterian Church, Toronto, Canada, for the past eighteen months. 
During that time three hundred forty-nine members have been 
added to the roll, and the congregation is hoping to begin the erec- 
tion of a new church building during the coming summer. 

Rev. W. L. Moser has completed all the requirements for the 
degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the University of Edinburgh, and 
the degree will be conferred at the next convocation. 

49 (213) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

1923 

A recently received letter from Rev. Calvin H. Hazlett of Alla- 
habad, India, gives an interesting account of present conditions in 
India: "Changing conditions make our work perhaps more diffi- 
cult, but certainly not less interesting and worthwhile. In place 
of the bitter opposition formerly manifested by college students 
to Christian teaching, there is now more of indifference. The 
emphasis on political, social, and economic movements has led many 
students to feel that religion is of secondary importance or can be 
omitted altogether. To me the most distressing feature of the 
present situation is that young Indians are discarding Hinduism 
and Islam and are taking nothing in their place. That is, I believe, 
a passing phase. Among our/ students there are a good many 
earnest seekers after truth, and some of them are, I am convinced, 
secret believers in Christ. 

"The communal tension persists and is a grave menace. 
Bigotry, fear, and suspicion are doing deadly work. Not long ago 
the Y.M.C.A. in Allahabad had the courage to propose and carry 
out an inter-communal, inter-racial dinner. Nearly a hundred men 
and women — Hindus, Muslims, Christians, Indians, Englishmen, 
and Americans, among them officials and other men of distinction — 
ate together and in after-dinner speeches expressed a sincere desire 
to find a way out of the present mess. I would like to shout so 
that all India could hear, 'Christ is the way out; in Him you can 
be one'. Some of the Indian leaders are coming, and giving expres- 
sion, to the conviction that Christ is India's great need, but the 
masses are not yet ready to hear and heed that message." 

On June 22nd, Rev. W. C. Mellin was installed pastor of the 
First Presbyterian Church of Ridgeway, Pa. Mr. Mellin was direc- 
tor of the tenth annual convention for young people of Clarion Pres- 
bytery, held June 28th - — • July 1st, in the First Presbyterian Church 
of Falls Creek, Pa., and conducted a class on "Life Work Choice". 
Two other Western men were among the instructors: Rev. B. A. 
Murray (Class of 1922) conducted a class on "Problems of the 
Group Leader", and delivered an inspirational address; and Rev. 
A. S. Wilson, a course on "Story Telling to Children". 

1923 

The Plum Creek Presbyterian Church, Presbytery of Blairs- 
ville, celebrated its one hundred twenty-fifth anniversary, June 
15-19. Rev. Claude S. Conley is the pastor of this historic church 
which has sent thirteen of its sons into the ministry. Drs. Kelso 
and Farmer of the Seminary took part in the celebration of this 
anniversary. 

1925 (P. G.) 

We have culled the following note from the British Weekly of 
May 26, 1927: 

"Professor Albert Maksay, who represented the Hungarian 
Reformed Church at the Assemblies, is professor of New Testa- 
ment Language and Literature in the college of Cluj-Kolozsvar. On 
Thursday of last week he addressed the students of Glasgow 
United Free Church College. Acknowledging the indebtedness of 
the Church in Transylvania to the Scottish Church and its teachers, 
he spoke of the way in which the Church to which he belonged had 
for centuries maintained Protestant truth in a situation of very 

50 (214) 



Alumniana ' 

great difficulty and of recent developments in the life and work 
of tlie Church." 

1926 

At the spring meeting of Dallas Presbytery, the Rev. H. B. 
Hudnut was elected Chairman of the Committee on Christian Edu- 
cation. The bulletin of the City Temple, Dallas, Texas, of which 
Mr. Hudnut is associate minister, carried the following announce- 
ment: The Ministers are anxious to confer with any young person 
in City Temple who is contemplating the Christian ministry or 
missionary service as a life work. Would not such an announce- 
ment be helpful in recruiting for the ministry if it were printed 
at stated intervals in the bulletins of our churches? 

City Temple sent Christmas greetings in a radiogram to the 
Rev. John L. Eakin, their missionary at Bangkok, Siam. 

1927 

Rev. J. Carter Swaim has been appointed Instructor of English 
at the University of Beirut, which is one of the six American Col- 
leges in the Near East. The others are Roberts College, Constan- 
tinople Woman's College, the International College of Smyrna, the 
Sofia American Schools, Bulgaria, and Athens College, Greece. Mr. 
Swaim will take up his duties at Beirut in September. 

1927 (P. G.) 

On Sunday, March 27, the Hungarian Church at Daisytown, 
Pa., Rev. Charles Dobos, pastor, celebrated the tenth anniversary 
of the organization of the church with most impressive services, 
which lasted over three hours. 



51 (215) 



INDEX 

Vol. XIX October, 1926— July, 1927 

AKTICLES 

Christian Doctrine of Forgiveness, The 135 

DoxALD Mackenzie 

Christian Minister's Message, The 169 

James I. Vance 

Open Letter, An 28 

George Taylor^ Jr. 

Personality of God, The : A Defence 6 

Andrew K. Rule 

MISCELLANEOUS 

Alumniana 32, 156, 207 

Catalogue 51 

Centennial Fund Campaign 26 

Commencement Address 169 

Elliott Lectures, The 30, 133 

Faculty Notes 31, 155, 206 

Financial Report 204 

Graduating Class, The 177 

In Memoriam 40 

Librarian's RejDort 200 

Minute on the Death of Hon. James McFadden Car- 
penter 185 

Necrology 41 

Opening of the Centenary Year, The 5 

President's Report 188 

Rev. William 0. Campbell, D.D., An Appreciation . . 179 

52 (216) 



i 



Supplement to the Bulletin 



of me 



WESTERN THEOLOGICAL SEMINAPY 

Vol. XIX. July, 1927 No. 4 



DIRECTORY, 



This Directory contains the names of all students matriculated at the 
Western Theological Seminary, who are now living. 

The first section is an alphabetical list with classes and addresses. 

It is followed (p. 79) by a list by classes. The names of all graduates are 
here listed, those who received a certificate of graduation instead of a diploma 
being marked (c). In classes where there are two divisions, the second list 
includes the names of students who took only a part of their course in this 
institution. 

Post-graduate students who did not do their under-graduate work in this 
Seminary are listed on page 92. 

Following this Directory (p. 93) is a list of students whose addresses are 
not known. In this section we have included the names of all former students 
whose biographical records are incomplete. 

The Faculty would be glad to receive information in regard to the persons 
whose names appear in this group, or corrections of errors in any part of the 
Directory. 



Ackman, J. B ._... Belle Plaine, Iowa.. 1916 p-g 

Allen, C. G ._.. Holliday's Cove, W. Va ...1890 

Allen, David Dinsmore..... ....Taholah, Wash 1884 

Allen, David K 106 Marchmont Rd., Edinburgh, 

Scotland, c-o Mrs. Mildred Mac- 

Phearson.. ....1925 

Allen, Perry S.... 1805 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa 1877 

Allen, Robert Hill. ...3948 Grenet St., N. S. Pittsburgh, 

Pa 1900 

Allen, William Elliott 4917 Centre Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa 1892 

Aller, Absalom Toner 709 S. 9th St., Salina, Kan 1886 

Allison, Alexander Bertman ....R. D., Glenshaw, Pa.... 1902 

Alter, Robt. L. McCurdy Burkeville, Va 1893 

Alter, S. Neal American Mission, Hama, Syria 1920 

Ambrose, John C 1220 McDonald Ave., Hastings, 

Neb 1887 

Amstutz, Platte T 561 E. Bowman St., Wooster, Ohio....l908 

Anderson, Clarence Oscar. Cherry Tree, Pa 1899-p 

Anderson, F. S..... 148 Codding St., Providence, R. 1 1925-p 

Anderson, J. M Hyattsville, Md 1882 

Anderson, J. P ...Grandview, Wash ,. 1886 

Anderson, J. T Westfield, Wis 1908-p 

57 (221) 



Directory 

Anderson, R. E Onarga, 111 1878 

Anderson, T. B Beaver Falls, Pa 1871 

Anderson, W. W Wilmette, 111 1862 

Armstrong, H. P Winnebago, 111 1901-p 

Armstrong, J. N Rosedale, Long Island, N. Y 1891 

Arney, W. J North East, Pa.. 1871-p 

Arthur, J. H... Hangchow, Chekiang, China 1912 

Asdale, Wilson 2633 Reagan St., Dallas, Tex 1877 

Ashley, William A 855 Hazlett Ave., Lincoln Place, Pa...l927 

Aten, S. H Burtt, Iowa 1908 

Atkinson, Wm. A..... Rochester, Pa 1896 

Atwell, G. P Washington, Pa 1898 

Aukerman, Elmer Malcolm, Iowa 1893 

Aukerman, R. C 3876 Garland Ave., Detroit, Mich 1895 

Austin, Chas. A 1538 Grosbeck Rd., Cincinnati, 

Ohio..... 1894 

Axtell, John S _ ....Winona Lake, Ind..... 1874 

Axtell, R. S..... New Brighton, Pa 1917-p 

Babinsky, Andrew ....42 Thomas St., South River, N. J. ..1926-p 

Backora, V. P..... 604 Broadway, McKees Rocks, Pa...l905 

Bailey, H. A 602 Park Ave., Johnstown, Pa...... 1902 

Baker, H. Vernon Mayview, Pa 1908 

Bamford, Geo. K 1266 Lansdowne Ave., Toronto, 

Canada- 1921 

Banker, Willis G _ ....Tahlequah, Okla 1885 

Barbor, John P Grove City, Pa 1874 

Barbour, Clifford E 53 Salcom St., Edinburgh, Scot- 
land 1922 

Bardarik, George Box 224, St. Clair, Pa 1920 

Barker, John B. Smithfield, Ohio....... .....1925 

Barnes, W. C ....197 Washington Ave., Vandergrift, 

Pa 1916 

Barr, A. H 845 Chalmers Place, Chicago, 111 1895-p 

Barr, Floyd W... Beaver Falls, Pa 191 1-p 

Barr, Robert Lord Elbow Lake, Minn..... 1897 

Barrett, W. L 4503 E. 18th Ave. Denver, Colo 1900 

Bartholomew, A. R..... 1st. Unitarian Church, Morewood 

and Ellsworth Aves., Pittsburgh, 

Pa... 1917 

Barton, Joseph Hughes 1422 Cleveland Blvd., Caldwell, 

Idaho 1884 

Bartz, U. S Rural Valley, Pa ...1896 

Baumgartel, H. J ...Ebensburg, Pa 1913 

Bausman, J. H Rochester, Pa.... 1883 

Beatty, C. S -. 945 W. 9th. St., Erie, Pa 1900 

Bedickian, S. V ....R. F. D., Halstead, Pa 1896 

Behrends, Arthur D 1125 N. Main St., Avoca, Pa 1923 

Bell, Charles R. F. D. No. 1, Ellwood City, Pa.....l899 

Bell, L. Carmon Huron, S. Dak 1889 

Bell, Wm. J Mt. Iron, Minn .....1893-p 

Bemies, C. O 1417-23d Ave., Minneapolis, Minn...l997 

Benham, DeWitt M... The Cecil, Baltimore, Md 1887-p 

Bergen, H. H ....Plymouth Congregational Church, 

Lockport, N. Y ...1912 

Bergen, S. V ....2168 E. York St., Philadelphia, Pa 1910 

Bibby, John K... Clairton, Pa 1924 

Biddle, Eugene L :.. 7422 17th. Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y 1924 

58 (222) 



Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Biddle, R. L -..- Westwood, Crafton, Pa 1895-p 

Bierbaum, M. L 1000 E. Ohio St., N. S. Pittsburgh, 

Pa _.... - ...- - 1925 p-g 

Bierkemper, Charles H Marcus, Wash 1901 

Bingham, J. Greer Wampum, Pa _ 1916 

Bingham, Wm. S Punta Gorda, Fla.... 1908 

Bisceglia, J. B.. 505 Forest Ave., Kansas City, Mo... 1918 

Bittinger, Ardo P Ambridge, Pa - 1903 

Black, Wm. Henry... 405 College St., Marshall, Mo 1878 

Blacker, Saml 617 Main St., Irwin, Pa .1907 

Blayney, Charles P 326 College St., Marshall, Mo 1878 

Bleck, E. A ...Okmulgee, Okla... 1908 

Boggs, John M Marathon, N. Y 1885 

Bonsall, A. J Dr. J. B. Gold, 2459 Perrysville Ave., 

N. S., Pittsburgh, Pa... 1883 

Boone, Wm. J 1904 Hazel St., Caldwell, Idaho 1887 

Boothe, Willis A 413-4th Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa ......1884-p 

Boston, John K.. 1102 Bidwell St., N. S., Pittsburgh, 

Pa 1917 

Boston, Samuel L 805 Western Ave., N. S., Pittsburgh, 

Pa 1886 

Bovard, Charles E ..Box 205, Rockledge, Fla.. ..1906-p 

Bowden, Geo. S 224 Main St., Parnassus, Pa 1905 

Bowman, Edwin M Brownsville, Pa 1889 

Bowman, W. Scott Uniontown, Pa. 1892 

Boyce, Isaac 178 Dakota St., Bellevue, Pa 1884 

Boyd, J. N ...Penny Farms, Fla... 1879 

Boyd, W. S ...-'. 1517 Fallowfield Ave., Pittsburgh, 

Pa 1927 p-g 

Bradley, Matthew H Painesville, Ohio... _.-. ......1927 p-g 

Brandner, E. L... Ness City, Kans.... 1918 

Bransby, C. Carson... 210 N. Lang Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa 1913-p 

Breckenridge, W. L Sedalia, Colo 1886 

Brice, James B.... Plymouth, Ind 1900 

Briceland, J. M ....3112 Landis St., Corliss Station, 

Pittsburgh, Pa Associate 

Broadley-East, A Barnesboro, Pa.. 1924 p-g 

Brockway, J. W ...587 Central Ave., Albany, N. Y 1897-p 

Brokaw, Harvey ..Ichijo Dori, Muro Machi, Kyoto, 

Japan 1896-p 

Brooks, E. A 28 Newbury St., Maiden, Mass .1900 

Brown, Alexander B. ....Canonsburg, Pa 1878-p 

Brown, F. F. Harrisonville, Ohio 1898 

Brown, Geo. Wilber.... ..Nankin, Ohio 1903-p 

Brown, S. T.. 1600 Chislett St., Pittsburgh, Pa. ....1902 

Brown, T. Murray -.. Leetsdale, Pa..... 1923 p-g 

Brown, Wm. A Ravenswood, W. Va 1896 

Browne, H. R ..Shields, Pa ...1915 p-g 

Brownlee, Daniel ....Dayton, Ohio 1895 

Brownson, M. A Southern Pines, N. C 1881 

Bruce, Charles H ....6730 Paxton Ave., Chicago, 111 1881-p 

Bryan, A. V ..Kadoka, S. Dak 1881 

Bucher, Victor Pleasantville, Pa... 1904 

Burns, George G Hamilton, 111 1896 

Burtt, P. E Sharon, Pa 1912 

Bush, M. S 185 Bay State Rd., Boston, Mass 1901 

Byczynski, S. A 396 Mountain Ave., Winnipeg, 

Manitoba, Canada 190S-p 

59 (223) 



Directory 

Byers, Edward W 1164 Jancey St., Pittsburgh, Pa.... 1903 

Byers, Wm. F Corsica, Pa 1910 

Cable, John H Nyack, N. Y...... '... ....1915-p 

Calder, R. S St. Charles, Mo 1897 

Caldwell, David..... New Brighton, Pa 1894 

Calhoun, Joseph P.. West Palm Beach, Fla 1880-p 

Campbell, E. V St. Cloud, Minn 1864-p 

Campbell, Harry M 607 Washington Rd., Mt. Lebanon, 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1904-p 

Campbell, H. N .Olympia, Fla 1887 

Campbell, Howard ..Chiengmai, Laos, Siam 1894 

Campbell, W. M Kiung-chow, Hainan, China 1898 

Carmichael, Geo -3915-65th. Street, Portland, Ore 1900 

Carson, Chalmers F 135 Clarencedale Ave., Youngstown, 

Ohio 1881-p 

Chalfant, Charles L Presbyterian Hospital, Pittsburgh, 

Pa ...1892 

Chandler, Horace Edward. Tsingtau, Shantung, China 1926 

Cheeseman, Geo. H Euclid, Butler Co., Pa.. 1916 

Cheeseman, Jos. F 5003 N. Post St., Spokane, Wash. ..,.1898 

Cherry, C. W 315 N. Front St., Harrisburg, Pa.......l897 

Christie, Jno. W 103 E. Auburn Ave., Cincinnati, 

Ohio 1907 

Christoff, A. T Maunder & Daugherty Co., 209 N. 

7th. St., Kansas City, Kan 1907 

Christopher, Franz O 72 Mt. Vernon St., Boston, Mass.....l926 

Chubb, A. L. (Mrs.) ..109 Lincoln Ave., Bellevue, Pa 1927-p 

Clark, Chas. A Rivera, Calif 1890 

Clark, Chester A.. 3204 Iowa St., Pittsburgh, Pa 1909 

Clark, J. Calvitt..... 400 The 1900-Euclid Bldg., Cleve- 
land, Ohio ......1919 

Clark, John A.... R. F. D., Port Deposit, Md 1926 

Clark, Robert L., Sr New Park, Pa .....1878 

Clawson, H. B.. R. D. No. 2, Mount Pleasant, Pa.....l919 

Coan, F. G .....2420 Lake Place, Minneapolis, Minn.l885-p 

Cobb, Wm. A Cambridge Springs, Pa..... ..1899 

Cochran, Charles W ..Midland, Pa ......1913 

Cole, Wm. D Darlington, Ind 1894-p 

Collins, Alden Delmont Lafayette, N. J .1891 

Compton, Elias .Wooster, Ohio 1884-p 

Conley, B. H Adena, Ohio 1910 

Conley, Claude S R. F. D., Parnassus, Pa ..1925 

Connell, John ......1608 W. 25th. St., Minneapolis, 

Minn.. _. 1913 

Conrad, Ross E. Freeport, Ohio. .1917 

Cooke, Silas. St. Cloud, Fla. 1874 

Cooper, H. C... 2830 N. 25th. St., Philadelphia, Pa...l906 

Cooper, Hugh A Albuquerque, N. Mex 1890 

Cooper, John H 442 Stafford Ave., Erie, Pa 1883 

Cooper, Thos. F 228 S. 8th. St., Connellsville, Pa 1927-p 

Cornelius, Maxwell.. Watson Memorial Church, Perrys- 

ville and Riverview Aves., N. S., 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1914 

Cotton, James S Clintonville, Pa 1896 

Cotton, Jarvis M New Waterford, Ohio 1924 

60 (224) 



Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Cottoa, J. L 109 E. Broadway, Louisville, Ky 1888 

Coulter, C. M .Dawson, Pa.. 1927 

Cox, J. Morgan. ...3326 McNeil Place, Pittsburgh, Pa..-1923 

Cozard, F. A.... ...R. D. No. 11, Grove City, Pa 1898 

Cozad, Wm. K ....R. F. D., Mercer, Pa 1893-p 

Craig, J. A. A Washington, Pa 1895 

Craig, Wm. R .625 Main St., Latrobe, Pa 1906 

Craighead, D. E.... ...Strasburg, Pa.... 1891-p 

Crawford, F. Swartz R. F. D. No. 2, New Milford, Conn. 1879 

Crawford, Glenn M Jeannette, Pa..... ......1917 

Crawford, John A ..536 Haws Ave., Norristown, Pa 1891 

Crawford, Oliver C ...Soo Chow, China .1900 

Cribbs, Chas. C 94 Prospect Ave., Ingram, Pa 19U 

Grosser, John R ..Summitville, Ohio .1885 

Grouse, N. P Stanhope, N. J 1879 

Crowe, A. N...... McGonnellsville, Ohio 1900 p-g 

Crowe, Francis W .....150 Castle Shannon Rd., South 

Hills, Pittsburgh, Pa ......1902-p 

Crummy, H. Russell... R. F. D. No. 6, Butler, Pa 1917 

Csorba, Zoltan.. Vintondale, Pa ....1927 p-g 

Gulley, David E .....57 Belvidere St., Grafton, Pa 1904 

Gulley, E. A ...131 Ridgewood Ave., Westview, Pa. ..1894 

Cunningham, H. G ....Churchville, N. Y 1899-p 

Cunningham, James A. ....138 W. Seneca St., Syracuse, N. Y 1892 

Curtiss, Howard T ....Waynesburg, Ohio 1924 

D'Aliberti, Alfred.. ......707 Lincoln Ave., Steubenville, 

Ohio 1921 p-g 

Daniel, D. E 101 N. Quentin Ave., Dayton, Ohio..l919 

Daubenspeck, R. P.... .....Huntingdon, Pa 1899 

David, Wm. O 606 Fairview Ave., Butler, Pa ...1903-p 

Davidson, Dwight B.... ...Barnesville, Ohio... 1919 

Davidson, Harrison .......Enon Valley, Pa 1918 

Davis, Jno. P Dunlap, Iowa... 1889 

Davis, M. W ....5155 Wildwood Lane, Seattle, 

Wash 1896 

Day, E. W Minerva, Ohio.... 1882 

Deffenbaugh, Geo. L 103 South Branciforte Ave., Santa 

Cruz, Calif... 1878 

Denise, Larimore C ..2020 Spencer St., Omaha, Nebr ...1905 p-g 

Dent, F. R ......Millvale, Pa 1908 

DePrefontaine, C. L Sigel, Pa.... 1924 

Depue, James H ..3104 Mt. Pleasant St., N. W., 

Washington, D. C 1900-p 

Dible, J. C 4120 Pauley Ave., East San Diego, 

Calif .1893 

Dinsmore, W. W Vanderbilt, Pa 1907 

Diven, R. J... ..Wrangell, Alaska 1896-p 

Dobos, Karoly Box 37, Daisytown, Pa. 1927 p-g 

Dodds, J. LeRoy.. American Presbyterian Mission, 

Saharanpur, India ....1917 

Donahey, Martin L Bowling Green, Ohio 1872 

Donaldson, D. M Meshed, Persia 1914 

Donaldson, R. M ...518 Camden Drive, Beverly Hills, 

Calif 1888-p 

Donaldson, W. E 346 N. Lockwood Ave., Chicago, 

111 1883 

Donehoo, Geo. M Menlo, Iowa..... 1897 

61 (225) 



Directory 

Donehoo, G. P 2230 N. Second St., Harrisburg, Pa...l886 

Douglass, Elmer H _ .Bay City, Mich. 1905 

Drake, J. E Holland, Iowa 1891 

Duff, George M Presbyterian Manse, Riverdale-on- 

-the-Hudson, N. Y 1914 

Duff, J. M 1641 Shady Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa 1876 

Duffield, T. E McClellandtown, Pa 1906 

Dunbar, J. W Old Concord, Pa 1895 

Duncan, J. S Mercer, Pa.. 1898 p-g 

Dunlap, J. B Bangkok, Siam. 



Eagleson, H. M Grafton, Pa.. 1919 

Eagleson, W. F 1704 Irving St., N. E., Washington, 

D. C 1898 

Eagleson, W. S 84 N. Ohio Ave., Columbus, Ohio......l863 

Eakin, Frank 90 Pilgrim Rd., Rosslyn Farms, 

Carnegie, Pa... 1913 

Eakin, John A.... Bangkok, Siam ..1887 

Eakin, John L , Bangkok, Siam ....1926 

Eakan, Paul A Bangkok, Siam 1913 

Earsman, H. F.... Knox, Pa 1885 

Edmundson, Geo. R 4654 Tennyson St., Denver, Colo 1892 

Edwards, Charles E. ...6911 Prospect Ave., Ben Avon, Pa...l884-p 

Edwards, C. T Huntingdon Valley, Pa 1884-p 

Ehmann, Wm. F .Logan, Utah 1925 

Elder, Newton Carl ....24 Bamrung Muang Road, Bangkok, 

Siam. 1926 

Elder, S. C Jackson, Center, Pa 1896 

Elliott, A. M ..Millford, Pa 1909 p-g 

Elliott, J. W Dollar Title & Trust Bldg., Sharon, 

Pa ..1885-p 

Elliott, Paul H...: ..R. F. D. No. 1, Elwood City, Pa 1915-p 

Elliott, Samuel E Monongahela House, Pittsburgh, 

Pa 1876-p 

Elterich, Wm. O Temple Hill, Chefoo, China 1888 

Ely, Robt. W...... 556 Jefferson St., St. Charles, Mo.....l885 

Ernst, John L 600 N. Euclid Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa...l914-p 

Espey, J. M South Gate, China... 1905 

Evans, D. H.. P. O. Box 142, West Palm Beach, 

Fla 1862-p 

Evans, F. W 2 W. 122nd. St., New York, N. Y.....1905-p 

Evans, W. E 210 Byron St., Mankato, Minn 1905 

Evans, W. M 1444 B. Ave., Cedar Rapids, Iowa....l882 

Ewing, H. D Scio, Ohio 1897 

Ewing, Joseph L ...132 Bryant St., Rahway, N. J ......1893 

Ewing, Thomas D First Presbyterian Church, Port 

Arthur, Texas.. 1927 

Farmer, William R 511 Amberson Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa... 1895 

Fast, J. W. G 2212 St. Paul St., Baltimore, Md.. 1902-p 

Fejes, J. S.. 737 Mahoning Ave., Youngstown, 

Ohio 1927-p 

Felmeth, W. G...... .Milton, Pa 1911 

Ferguson, H. C. ..1945 N. 31st. St., Philadelphia, Pa...l885 

Ferguson, T. J R. D., Mechanicsburg, Pa 1878 

Ferver, W. C R. F. D. No. 1, Mercer, Pa 1907 

Fields, J. C 100 Jackson Ave., Susquehanna, 

Pa 1899-p 

62 (226) 



Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary * 

Filipi, B. A... - -Clarkson, Nebr '. 1902 

Findlay, H. J. - ....Shenandoah, Iowa 1912-p 

Fiscus, Newell Scott ...5134 Holly St., Seattle, Wash 1899 

Fish, Frank Millsboro, Pa.... 1886 

Fisher, Geo. C 5919 Wellesley Ave., Pittsburgh, 

Pa 1903 

Fisher, Geo. W Neoga, 111 1861 

Fisher, G. E Turtle Creek, Pa..... ...1896 

Fisher, James M 450 Avondale Ave., Marion, Ohio....l916 

Fisher, S. G 2936 Wabash, Kansas City, Mo 1869-p 

Fisher, Wm. J.... 1482-6th Ave., San Francisco, Calif...l891 

Fitch, Robert F Hangchow, China 1898 

Fleming, J. S West Findley, Pa 1879 

Fleming, Wm. F West Newton, Pa 1903 

Fohner, G. C. ..New Castle, Pa 1914-p 

Foote, S. E Williamstown, W. Va..... 1897 

Foreman, C. A 409 E. 14th. St., Long Beach, Calif...l900-p 

Fowler, Owen S Claysville, Pa. 1903 

Fracker, G. H..... Storm Lake, Iowa 1883-p 

France, Curtis K Box 54, White Sulphur Springs, 

Mont 1927-p 

Francis, John Junkin 5719 Aldama St., Los Angeles, 

Calif .......1869 

Frantz, G. A 2309 Broadway, Indianapolis, Ind. ..1913 

Eraser, Charles Daniel ..College of Wooster, Wooster, Ohio.— 1907 

Eraser, C. M Bessemer, Mich ....1881 

Eraser, James A. D Baker, Oregon ....1914 

Eraser, J. Wallace :... New Bethlehem, Pa 1914 

Frederick, P. W. H ...4300 E. 45th. St., Seattle, Wash 1897-p 

French, A. E... Sharpsburg, Pa.. 1916 

Fruit, Byron S Ingomar, Pa 1927 

Fulton, Archibald F Grove City, Pa 1922 

Fulton, G. W... Osaka, Japan 1889-p 

Fulton, John E 335 W. College St., Canonsburg, 

Pa.... 1897 

Fulton, J. T ....Red Wing, Minn 1898 

Fulton, John W Wooster, Ohio 1880 

Fulton, S. A... 1603 E. 9th. St., Des Moines, Iowa..l898-p 

Fulton, William S ...225 N. Granada Ave., Alhambra, 

' Calif 1875 

Funkhouser, G. A.... 27 N. Summit St., Dayton, Ohio. 1871 

Gaehr, T. J. 1198 Jefferson Ave., Brooklyn, 

N. Y 1904 

Gahagen, C. B. 2345 Rosewood Ave., Toledo, Ohio....l9 18 

Galbraith, L. A. ....218 Guy Park Ave., Amsterdam, 

N. Y 1922 

Galbreath, Robert F.. Bellevue, Pa. ...Associate 

Gantt, A. G 6287 FrankstownAv., Pittsburgh, Pa. 1895 

Garner, J. Herbert Cochranton, Pa 1926 

Garver, James C 1449 Josephine St., Denver, Colo 1883 

Garvin, James E... Neville Station, Coraopolis, Pa 1890-p 

Gaut, R. L Jennertown, Pa..... 1908 

Gay, T. Boyd 139 W. 6th. St., Columbus, Ohio......l899-p 

Gearheart, H. A Aspinwall, Pa 1918 

Geddes, Henry Delphos, Ohio 1911 

Gelvin, Edward H Plainfield, N. J 1899 p-g 

Genre, E. E 156-5th. Ave., New York, N. Y 1927 p-g 

63 (227) 



Directory 

George, Arthur H Box 639, Wilson, N. C 1921 p- 

Gerrard, Paul T .Mt. Pleasant, Jefferson Co., Ohio......l926 

Gettman, A. H ......1621 Hillsdale Ave., Dormont, Pa...l902 

Getty, R. Frank Finleyville, Pa 1894 

Gibb, J. D..... Chatfield, Minn ....1893 

Giboney, E. P... ....1616-37th. Ave., Seattle, Wash... 1899 

Gibson, Alexander 208 Chalfont St., Pittsburgh, Pa 1917 

Gibson, E. L ..Davis, W. Va 1922 

Gibson, Wm. F... Brighton, 111 1877 

Giffin, James E..... Plumville, Pa 1892 

Gilbert, R. V 403 Second St., S. W., Independence, 

Iowa 1916 

Gilleland, William A Thomas Station, Pa ...1927 

Gillespie, James H ....Presbyterian Church, Takoma Park, 

D. C. 1926 

Gilson, H. O Castle Shannon, Pa .-. ...1888 

Glass, S. J... .....1500 Orchlee Ave., Pittsburgh, 

Pa Associate 

Glunt, George L 3371 Parkview Ave., Pittsburgh, 

Pa 1911 

Goehring, Jos. S Brewster, Minn 1905-p 

Good, Albert I Lolodorf, Cameroun, W. Africa 1909 

Good, E. C ..Leechburg, Pa 1916 

Gordon, P. H 366 Franklin Ave., Salem, Ohio 1896 

Gordon, S. R 1844 Boston Ave., Tulsa, Okla 1877 

Gourley, J. C ....Delmont, Pa ....1875-p 

Graham, D. S R. F. D., Sewickley, Pa.... 1901 

Graham, F. F Planaltina, Goyaz, Brazil, S. A 1910 

Gray, T. J. 228 Prospect Ave., Carnegie, Pa 1886 

Graybeill, J. H Box 1013, Annville, Pa _ 1876 

Green, A. J.. 3057 Zephyr Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa 1925 p-j 

Greene, D. A '. 806 Dayton St., Cincinnati, Ohio 1896 

Greenlee, T. B.... 811 Lindaraxa Court, Alhambra, 

Calif 1882 

Gregg, O. J Adams Mills, Ohio 1894 

Greves, U. S New Alexandria, Pa 1895 

Griffith, O. C 108 W. 7th. St., Owensboro, Ky.......l918 

Gross, J. H Witherspoon Bldg., Philadelphia, 

Pa 1912-p 

Gross, O. C... 115 E. Luverne St., Luverne, Minn. ..1910 

Groves, Samuel B 1223 Wilmette Ave., Wilmette, 111..... 1891 

Grubbs, H. A Waterford, Pa 1893 

Guichard, G. L Trenton, Mich ...1897-p 

Guttery, A. M Hankow, China 1911 

Hackett, J. T ......Bridgeton, N. J 1895 

Hail, A. L Donora, Pa .1909 

Hail, J. B. Wakayama, Japan 1875 

Haines, A. H .....Seleck, Washington.. 1900 

Halenda, Dimitry 1005 Carson St., Pittsburgh, Pa 1909 

Halenda, Theodore 39 Russ St., Hartford, Conn 1912 

Hall, F. M 3151 Scranton Rd., Cleveland, Ohio..l891 

Hamill, Daniel, Jr Mt. Gilead, Ohio. 1922 

Hamilton, Chas. H Delta, Utah..... ....1903 

Hamilton, Daniel M 241 Brady St., Dearborn, Mich ....1925-p 

Hamilton, James Washington, Pa. 1892-p 

Hamilton, James A.. .....Elkland, Pa 1921 p- 

Hamilton, Joseph Washington, Pa 1893-p 

64 (228) 



Bulletin of the Western TJi^eological Seminary 

Hanna, H. W - ..Loudonville, Ohio 1902 

Harriman, W. P Cedarville, Ohio. 1915 

Harrop, Ben. Galloway, Ohio 1888 

Harter, Otis Lima, Ohio 1895 

Hartzell, J. L Lakawn, Lampariz, Siam 1927 p-g 

Harvey, P. R -Long Valley, N. J 1908 

Haverfield, Ross M R. F. D. No. 8, Mahoningtown, Pa...l924 

Hayes, A. W Somerset, Pa .1893 

Hayes, W. M Tsinan, Shantung, China 1882 

Haymaker, E. C Winona Lake, Ind 1890 

Haynes, Darwin M Mineral Ridge, Ohio 1927 

Hays, Calvin C Granite Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa 1884 

Hays, Frank W College of Wooster, Wooster, Ohio... 1890 

Hays, Geo. S 1708 W. 33rd. St., Oklahoma City, 

Okla 1885 

Hays, W. M...... Burgettstown, Pa 1886 

Hazlett, C. G. 151 W. Liberty St., Hubbard, Ohio..l893 

Hazlett, Calvin H Ewing Christian College, Allahabad, 

U. P., India... 1923 

Hazlett, D. McF 5800 Helen Ave., St. Louis, Mo 1875 

Hazlett, Paul H ..Hookstown, Pa 1927 

Hazlett. W. J Grove City, Pa 1883 

Heany, B. F McDonald, Pa 1906 

Hefner, Elbert ...Clarksville, Ark .......1908 

Held, Charles E 2112 Rockledge St., N. S., Pitts- 
burgh, Pa 1926 p-g 

Helm, John S 131 Linden Ave., Edgewood, Pa 1882 

Heltman, Andrew F,....' 2624 Beale Ave., Altoona, Pa 1915 p-g 

Henderson, S. C Concepcion, Chile .1923 p-g 

Hendrix, Everett J Chestnut St. Presbyterian Church, 

Erie, Pa 1919 

Henry, Robert H Darlington, Pa 1921 

Hensel, L. C ...Valparaiso, Ind 1914 

Herries, A. J ....65 Putnam St., Tunkhannock, Pa 1884 

Herron, Chas 2024 Emmet St., Omaha, Nebr ....1887 

Hezlep, Herbert 3637 Zumstein Ave., Cincinnati, 

Ohio 1898 

Hezlep, W. H A. P. Mission, Jhansi, India 1911 

Hickman, A. R ....3rd. Presbyterian Church, Chicago, 

111 1917 

Highberger, Wm. W... Hangchow, China 1913 

Hill, J. B. G 120 E. Shorb Ave., Los Angeles, 

Calif 1891 

Hilty, J. R Library, Pa 1924 

Hine, T. W .R. D. No. 2, Boise, Idaho 1894 

Hitchings, Brooks La Veta, Colo.... 1893-p 

Hodil, E. A 164 Beeson Ave., Uniontown, Pa 1899 

Hofmeister, Ralph C 170 E. Cleveland St., Stockton, 

Calif 1918 

Hogg, W. E ....Centerville, Mich .....1913 p-g 

Holmes, W. J...... West Middlesex, Pa ...1902 

Holub, Joseph .671 Margaret St., Mt. Oliver Sta., 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1925 

Homer, Lloyd D Bakerstown, Pa 1927 

Hoon, Clarke D. A..... Fairchance, Pa 1894 

Hoover, W. H 3721 Salome Ave., Pine Lawn, St. 

Louis, Mo 1909 

Hopkins, John T ...R. F. D. No. 2, Puente, Calif..... 1884-p 

65 (229) 



Directory 

Hornicek, Francis 23 Cleveland Ave., Uniontown, Pa. ..1912 

Horst, Clyde M ......Windber, Pa _ 1927 p-g 

Hosack, Herman M Perrysville, Pa _ 1898 

Houk, C. E.. New Concord, Ohio 1907 

Houston, Robt. L ....Washington College, Tenn 1908 

Houston, Wm ....1652 Neil Ave., Columbus, Ohio 1893 

Howard, W. E _ 3426 Parkview Ave., Pittsburgh, 

Pa - 1894-p 

Howe, E. C Canton, China 1914 

Howe, J. L ......Highland, Kan ....1911 

Hubbard, A. E.._ ....118 N. Chandler Ave., Monterey 

Park, Calif..-. .1898 

Hubbell, E. B 19 S. LaSalle St., Chicago, 111 _..-__1887-p 

Hudnut, Herbert B City Temple, Patterson & Akard 

Sts., Dallas, Texas 1926 

Hudock, A. J 1628 Wyoming Ave., Kingston, Pa...l921 

Huey, J. Way Bottineau, N. Dak ...1907 

Hummel, H. B __ 1211 N. Weber St., Colorado Springs, 

Colo...... 1893 

Humphrey, J. D Plumville, Pa _ 1899 

Hunter, J. L.... Fort McArthur, San Pedro, Calif 1888 

Hunter, J. Norman _ ....Blairsville, Pa. 1912 

Hutchison, H. C Shelby, Ohio.. _ 1909 

Hutchison, J. E Clarion, Pa... 1894 

Hutchison, William J Boulevard Church, Cleveland, Ohio..l898 

Hyde, W. M _ ._ Walnut, N. C ....1877 

Illingworth, Ralph W., Jr Philipsburg, Pa 1924 

Inglis, John ....808 Majestic Building, Denver, 

Colo... __ _ 1894-p 

Inglis, Robert S... Newark, N. J _.1891-p 

Irvine, J. E . Williamsburg, Pa.. ...1887 

Irwin, Charles F 127 Wall St., Wilmerding, Pa._ 1901 

Irwin, Donald A.._ Yihsien, Shantung, China 1919 

Irwin, Edgar C.__ __.R. F. D., Karns City, Pa 1927 

Irwin, J. C Hamilton, Mont ....1879-p 

Irwin, J. P Tengchow, China._ 1894 

Jackson, T. C Upper Alton, 111..... 1898 

Jennings, William M 203 South Perry St., St. Marys, 

Ohio 1894 

Johnson, H. R ._ ....2502 Cliffbourne Place, N. W., 

Washington, D. C 1886 

Johnston, D. H _ Scranton, Pa 1907 

Johnston, R. C New Matamoras, Ohio. _.1924 

Johnston, S. L ....Box 802, Youngwood, Pa..... ...1913 

Johnston, William C Yaounde, Cameroun, W. Africa 1895 

Jolly, Austin H... 1110 South Avenue, Wilkinsburg, 

Pa _ 1880 

Jones, John Paul Binghamton, N. Y 1925-p 

Jones, Wm. A 136 Orchard St., Mt. Oliver Sta., 

Pittsburgh, Pa - ....1889 

Junek, Frank _ .1015 Province St., N. S., Pittsburgh, 

Pa... _. _ 1908 

Junkin, C. M Shreve, Ohio._ 1887 



66 (230) 



Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary' 

Kane, Hugh 92 Park Place, St. Paul, Minn _ 1889 

Kardos, Joseph 1131 Trendley Avenue, E. St., 

Louis, Mo.--. 1907-p 

Kaufman, George W ......5430 Walnut St., E. E., Pittsburgh, 

Pa.... ...1907 

Kaufman, H. E Elderton, Pa 1904 

Kaufman, R. W. E Cross Creek, Penna 1927 

Keener, A. I.. Clinton, New York 1904 

Keirn, R. E..... Limestone, Pa 1911 

Keller, Claudius A.... Ashtabula, Ohio 1917 p-g 

Kelly, A. A 766 S. Freedom Ave., Alliance, 

Ohio 1893 

Kelly, Jonathan C ...R. F. D., Youngstown, Ohio 1896 

Kelly, N. B Axtell, Kansas ....1884-p 

Kelso, Alexander P., Jr 1694 Tutwiler Ave., Memphis 

Tenn 1910 

Kelso, James A 731 Ridge Ave., N. S., Pittsburgh, 

Pa ...1896 

Kelso, James B ....Unadilla, Nebraska.... 1899 

Kelso, John B.. 1022 N. Bever St., Wooster, Ohio. 1904 

Kennedy, F. F ....2943 Fairmount Blvd., Cleveland, 

Ohio... ....1892 

Kennedy, John Tacoma, Washington 1895-p 

Kennedy, Samuel J ...Alhambra, Calif ...1889 

Kerns, F. A _ 422 Perry Ave., Greensburg, Pa 1888 

Kerr, C. W .1738 S. Boston, Tulsa, Okla....... 1898-p 

Kerr, D. R .'. 116 Courtland Ave., Topeka, Kan. ....1876 

Kerr, George G 221 W. Pike St., Canonsburg, Pa.. 1899 

Kerr, G. M .......R. F. D. No. 1, Bulger, Pa 1871 

Kerr, Hugh T 827 Amberson Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa...l897 

Kerr, J. H ..268 Arlington Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y...1881 

Keusseff, T. M Mt. Pleasant, Utah..... 1904 

Kidder, J. E Chenchow, Hunan, China 1919 

Kienle, Gustav A ......5421 S. Morgan St., Chicago, 111 1907 p-g 

Kilgore, H. W New Salem, Pa 1909 

King, B. R ..1431 Addison Road, Cleveland, 

Ohio 1891 

King, F. Z Arroyo Grande, Calif .._ 1909 p-g 

King, J. A Ellwood City, Pa ....1916 

Kinter, William A... ...Bell Ave., N. S., Pittsburgh, Pa.... 1889-p 

Kirkbride, James F New Galilee, Pa ....1892 

Kirkbride, S. A New Wilmington, Pa.. 1892 

Kirkpatrick, J. Max... ..Center Hall, Pa ..-. 1919 

Kiskaddon, Jesse Fulton North East, Pa 1915 

Kiskaddon, Roy M 138 N. 4th. St., Coshocton, Ohio 1913 

Kmeczik, George Factoryville, Pa 1911-p 

Knepshield, E. J Fayette City, Pa..... ....1905 

Knox, J. T. McClure... .Mason, Mich 1891-p 

Kohr, Thomas H ......R. F. D., Westerville, Ohio...... 1875 

Koonce, M. E...... South Charleston, Ohio 1894 

Kovacs, Andrew W Leechburg, Pa 1915 

Kovacs, Charles 43 Cleveland St., Tonawanda, N. 

Y 1927 p-g 

Kreger, W. S ..Snow Hill, Md... 1897 

Krichbaum, Allan Morenci, Arizona 1890 

Kuehn, M. R ....731 Ridge Ave., N. S., Pittsburgh, 

Pa .1927 

67 (231) 



Directory 

Kumler, F. M DeGraff, Ohio. 1880 

Kunkle, J. S ...Lien Chow, via Canton, China 1905 

Laird, Alexander Glassboro, N. J 1891-p 

Lambert, George R.... ....2115 Arlington Ave., Pittsburgh, 

Pa 1924-p 

Lane, J. C...... East Paterson, N. J ......1896 * 

Lang, John R. D. 1, Nampa, Ida ...1913 

Langfitt, O. T.... Mankato, Minn 1882 

Lanier, M. B 1704 W. Chestnut St., Louisville, 

Ky... 1895 

Lashley, E. E.... Newell, W. Va...... 1895 

Lathem, A. L 434 E. Broad St., Chester, Pa... .1893-p 

Laverty, L. F 5332 Abbot Place, Los Angeles, 

Calif...... ...1884 

Lawrence, E. B Mars, Pa 1910 

Lawther, J. H 35 Neal St., Niles, Ohio 1901 

Lawther, LeRoy Lakewood Presbyterian Church, 

Lakewood, Ohio 1917 

LeClere, George F ..5203 Rockland Ave., Eagle Rock, 

Los Angeles, Calif 1875 

Leister, J. M.... Florence, Pa ...1924 

Leith, Hugh ...1106 Center Ave., Wilkinsburg, Pa... 1902 

Lemmon, Lyman H... Dry Run, Pa 1922 

Leslie, William H... Woodstown, N. J 1898 

Lewis, T. R Concord, N. C 1882 

Lewis, William E Cresson, Pa 1907 

Leyenberger, J. P Wheeling, W. Va 1893 

Leypolt, Frederick C 1232 N. 28th. St., Philadelphia, 

Pa 1921 

Liggitt, A. W ....Kiowa, Colo...... 1896 

Lincoln, J. C... 403 Main St., Grinnell, Iowa 1902 

Linhart, Samuel B ..4100 Allequippa St., Pittsburgh, 

Pa 1894 

Linn, J. P Council Bluffs, Iowa .1898-p 

Lippincott, R. P..... .Cadiz, Ohio 1902 

Little, J. W.. Madison, Nebraska : ....1872 

Llewellyn, Frank Bowman Kasur Dist., Lahore, India.... 1917 

Lloyd, John R. F. D. No. 1, Apollo, Pa 1923-p 

Lloyd, H. E 207 S. Walnut St., Blairsville, Pa.....l907-p 

Logan, J. H. P Conneautville, Pa ....1926-p 

Long, B. J .....Trafford, Pa 1902 

Loughner, J. R N. Nelson St., Allentown, Pa 1908 

Love, C. H Casa Grande, Arizona 1899 

Love, W. B Sidney, Ohio 1911 

Lowe, Arnold H Kingshighway Presbyterian Church, 

St. Louis, Mo 1917 p-g 

Lowe, Titus ..150 Fifth Ave., New York City, N. 

Y 1903-p 

Lowes, John L 7 Francis Ave., Cambridge, Mass 1894 

Lowry, H. W 3514 Bosworth Place, Cleveland, 

Ohio... 1881 

Luccock, E. W Siangtan, Hunan, China..._ 1919-p 

Luccock, G. N.... Wooster, Ohio 1881 

Ludwig, C. E Third Presbyterian Church, Wash- 
ington, Pa 1906 

Lyle, D. M...... Cresson, Pa 1898 

Lyle, James B Turtle Creek, Pa...._ 1888 

68 (232) 



Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Lyle, Ulysses L ....Penfield, Pa ....._ 1891 

Lyon, David Nelson Ovid, N. Y _.- 1869 

Lyon, Wilbur H Miraj, S. M. C, India _ 1918 

Lyons, John F _..._.2304 N. Halsted St., Chicago, 111 1904-p 

Macartney, J. R 102 Independence Ave., Waterloo, 

Iowa 1896-p 

Macaulay, G. S 46 Perrieo St., Roxbury, Mass 1910 

Macaulay, P. W 10417 Elmarge Road, Cleveland, 

Ohio 1916 

MacHatton, B. R 4126 Ingersoll Ave., Des Moines, 

Iowa 1899 

Maclnnis, A. J Leetonia, Ohio... 1910 

Maclver, J. W — 4501 Westminster Place, St. Louis, 

Mo 1905 

Maclver, Murdock John Tionesta, Pa. 1919 

Mackenzie, Duncan Faust, N. Y.. 1918 

MacLennan, D. G .Calvary Presbyterian Church, Pasa- 
dena, Calif 1914 

MacLeod, D. C ...4915 California St., Omaha, Nebr 1898 

MacLeod, K. E Steubenville, Ohio 1905 

MacMillian, U. Watson ......1144 Portland St., Pittsburgh, Pa.....l895 

MacQuarrie, David P 1216 Berger Building, Pittsburgh, 

Pa... 1905 

Magill, C. N..... ..Lucena, Tayabas, P. I 1902-p 

Maharg, M. B 1007 Lexington Ave., Zanesville, 

Ohio 1914 

Mahovsky, Rudolf Humpolec, Czecho-Slovakia 1924 p- 

Maksay, Albert Z.. Reformed Theo. Seminary, Cluj- 

Kolozsvar, Roumania 1925 p- 

Malcolm, William D ..3929 Edwards Road, Cincinnati, 

Ohio 1895-p 

Mark, John H New Wilmington, Pa 1901-p 

Marks, Harvey B... .1565 Main St., W. Warwick, R. 1 1901 

Marks, S. F Saltsburg, Pa 1882 

Marquis, John A 156 Fifth Ave., New York City, 

N. Y 1890 

Marquis, R. R Winona Lake, Ind 1883 

Marquis, Wm. C Baden, Pa 1927 

Marshall, D. C Caldwell, Ohio 1917 

Marshall, J. T 3121 P. St., N. W., Washington, 

D. C - 1888-p 

Marshall, Wm. E East Butler, Pa.. 1903-p 

Martin, James Mififiintown, Pa 1923 

Martin, J. A Westfield, N. Y 1920 

Matheson, M. A.... 240 Prospect St., Ashtabula, Ohio....l911 

Mayne, James..... St. Albans, Long Island, N. Y 1918 

Mayne, Samuel Tincumcari, N. Mexico 1907 

McBride, J. D R. D. 1, Wilkinsburg, Pa.. 1905 

McCammon, L. Lane..._ Delmont, Pa 1923 

McCarrell, T. C...... 19 W. Main St., Middletown, Pa 1880 

McCartney, A. J First Presbyterian Church, Santa 

Monica, Calif 1903-p 

McCartney, E. L Route 1, Uplands, Calif 1892 

McCaughey, Wm. H R. F. D. No. 1, Warsaw, Ind 1877 

McClelland, C. S 423 W. 118th. St., New York City, 

N. Y 1880 

69 (233) 



Directory 

McClelland, M. D Portersville, Pa 1895 

McClelland, R. G Fredericktown, Ohio _ 1881-p 

McClure, W. L.._ Altoona, Pa 1893 

McCombs, H. W -- Fort Pierce, Fla 1900 

McConkey, W. P Washington, Pa .1906 

McConnell, H. W 170 Alexander St., Princeton, N. J...1919-p 

McConnell, Ralph I ...R. F. D. No. 9, New Castle, Pa 1918 

McConnell, S. D Sunset Farm, Easton, Md 1871-p 

McConnell, Wm. G Montrose, Colo 1904 

McCormick, A. B.... 159 Chapin St., Binghamton, N. Y...1897 

McCormick, Samuel Black University of Pittsburgh, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa 1890 

McCoy, J. N Pike, N. Y 1879 

McCracken, C. J Conemaugh, Pa 1895 

McCracken, C. R Utica, Pa ..1888 

McCracken, J. C ....R. F. D., Leechburg, Pa 1878 

McCracken, J. O. C... 7th. Ave., Juniata, Pa 1897 

McCracken, W. H.... Carnlough, County Antrim, Ire- 
land 1915 

McCrea, C. A... Oakmont, Pa.... 1897 

McCutcheon, H. S ....Tinmath, Colo 1897 

McDivitt, M. M 403 Zara St., Pittsburgh, Pa 1907 

McDowell, E. W Mosul, Irak 1887 

McFadden, Hampton T..... ....Box 452, Louisburg, N. C 1921 

McFadden, S. W 724 South St., Peekskill, N. Y 1895 

McFarland, O. Scott...... ....303 Orange Ave., Santa Ana, Calif...l913 

McGarrah, A. F ....Suffern, N. Y... 1903 

McGogney, A. Z Le Mars, Iowa. 1878 

Mcllvaine, E. L Meadville, Pa 1898 

Mclntyre, G. W Dayton, Pa..... 1895 

McKay, A. D Clinton, Wisconsin .1898 

McKee, C. L..: 144 Le Moyne Ave., Washington, 

Pa 1892 

McKee, W. F Monongahela, Pa 1896 

McKee, W. T Chester, W. Va ..1894 

MeKenzie, R. W 1800 Montpelier St., Pittsburgh, 

Pa ..1918-p 

McKibbin, Wm Lane Theo. Seminary, Cincinnati, 

Ohio..... ....1873 

McKinney, Wm. H ....Smithville, Okla 1868-p 

McKinney, W. W Elizabeth, Pa 1919 

McLeod, Donald W E. Liverpool, Ohio 1908 

McMillan, W. L R. F. D. No. 6, Evans City, Pa 1904 

McMillen, Homer George St. Clarirsville, Ohio 1910 

McNees, W. S North Washington, Pa ..1889-p 

McQuilkin, H. H.. ....67 Cleveland St., Orange, N. J 1899-p 

McQuiston, R. L Dippold Ave., Baden, Pa 1927-p 

Mealy, A. A Bridgeville, Pa..... 1880 

Mealy, John M .Sewickley, Pa... 1867 

Mechlin, Ernest K Box 2954, West Palm Beach, Fla.....l893 

Meily, T. R..... Masontown, Pa 1916 

Mellin, Willard C Box 143, Ridgeway, Pa 1923 

Mellott, William Franklin 1000 12th. St., N. W., Canton, 

Ohio 1919 

Mendenhall, H. G.. ....156 Fifth Ave., New York City, 

N. Y ...1874 

Mercer, John M.. Murrysville, Pa 1878 

Merker, Ralph K 148 Jucunda St., Mt. Oliver Sta., 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1922 

70 (234) 



Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Merwin, W. S ._ Summerville, Pa 1924 

Millar, Charles Caven 212 East North St., Butler, Pa 1892 

Miller, Charles R Huron, S. Dakota 1909 

Miller, F. Dean Bradford, Pa ....1903 

Miller, George C...... Box 34, Butler, Pa 1907 

Miller, H. K Harbor Creek, Pa 1907 

Miller, James E Beechview, Pittsburgh, Pa 1900 

Miller, John B Vincennes, Ind 1895-p 

Miller, J. O Carmichaels, Pa 1916 

Miller, J. Walker... 1109 King Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa 1883 

Milller, P. H 422 Witherspoon Building, Phila- 
delphia, Pa 1902 

Miller, Paul G ....16 Welch Ave., Bradford, Pa... 1-907 

Miller, Robert S 176 Noble Ave., Crafton, Pa...... 1926 p-g 

Miller, Roy F Reynoldsville, Pa 1920 

Miller, R. P Phillipsburg, Pa 1888 

Millinger, Walter Harold 3401 Forbes St., Pittsburgh, Pa 1922 

Milman, F. J 567 Highland Ave., Newark, N. J 1899-p 

Minamyer, Albert B West Salem, Ohio 1899 

Miron, F. X R. F. D. No. 3, New Bethlehem, 

Pa.. ...1872 

Mitchell, E. A ...Hillburn, N. Y 1895 

Mitchell, R. C 625 N. Roosevelt St., Cherokee, 

Iowa...... 1900-p 

Mohr, J. R Box 173, Freedom, Pa.. ....1900 

Monroe, G. K ....West Alexander, Pa 1924 

Montgomery, A. J 156 Fifth Ave., New York City, 

N. Y... 1890-p 

Montgomery, Frank S... Charleroi, Pa ....1910 

Montgomery, Samuel T 1151 South Broadway, Los Angeles, 

Calif 1896 

Montgomery, Thomas H 1234 Cochran Rd., Pittsburgh, Pa..... 1909 

Montgomery, U. L 2312 S. Washington Ave., Saginaw, 

Mich 1897 

Moody, Samuel. Dillsburg, Pa 1900 

Moore, C. N Zelienople, Pa ..1896 

Moran, Owen W 122 Whitfield St., Pittsburgh, Pa 1927 p-g 

Moreland, G. B., Jr ..129 W. Swissvale Ave., Edgewood, 

Pa ...1926-p 

Morgan, E. C 8624 S. Sangamon St., Chicago, III... 1916 p-g 

Morton, D. C Hollidays Cove, W. Va 1916 

Morton, S. M... 504 W. Adams St., Taylorville, I11...1867-p 

Moser, W. L..... .Apollo, Pa 1921 

Mowry, E. M Pyeng Yang, Chosen 1909 

Mowry, T. G Halstead, Kansas ....1914-p 

Muir, C. Marshall 15 W. Maple Ave., Van Wert, Ohio..l925 

Muller, Geo. J 1208 Iten St., N. S., Pittsburgh, 

Pa 1927 p-g 

Murray, Basil A ....R. D., Ford City, Pa 1922 

Nadenicek, Joseph... 2670 Taylor St., Youngstown, Ohio.. 1917 

Neal, Samuel G Clinton, Pa 1922 

Nelson, E. A 21 Virginia Ave., Poughkeepsie, 

N. Y... ...1882-p 

Nesbitt, Harry.. Union, N. J 1894 

Nesbitt, S. M. F Wooster, Ohio ._ 1898 

Newell, D. A 199 Milton Ave., Ballston Spa., 

N. Y 1871-p 

71 (235) 



b 



Directory 

Newell, J. M 445 E. Adams St., Los Angeles, 

Calif... 1868 

Nicholls, J. Shane 315 Bryant Ave., Cincinnati, Ohio-...1892 

Nicholson, H. H Old Washington, Ohio 1917 

Notestein, W. L.._ Huron, S. Dakota 1886 

Novak, Frank Bohemian Church, Baltimore, Md. 1903 

Obenauf, Henry F 64 Grant Ave., Etna, Pa 1926 p-g 

Offield, R. L 725 Leonard Ave., Columbus, Ohio..l916 p-g 

Offutt, R. M Indiana, Pa... 1897 

Oliver, J. M 508 Kansas Ave., Frankfort, Kans...l897 

Orr, S. C..._ Buhl, Idaho.. ...1902 

Orr, W. H 26 Monitor St., Ben Avon, Pa 1909 

Osborne, P. N Rockview, B. 3, Bellefonte, Pa 1907 

Owen, William ...Algonquin Hotel, Cumberland, Md...l926 

Palm, Wm. J 2217 S. Colfax St., Sta. F., Minne- 
apolis, Minn .1884-p 

Park, A. N ...Naval Hospital, San Diego, Calif 1914 

Paroulek, Freiderich. Wahoo, Nebraska 1909 

Parr, S. W 3233 Lawton St., St. Louis, Mo 1895-p 

Parsons, W. V. E Babcock Memorial Church, Balti- 
more, Md 1927 

Patrono, F. P 46 Huffman St., Washington, Pa 1910 

Patterson, E. E Alliance, Ohio. 1896 

Patterson, John C. ....Sierra Madre, Calif 1899-p 

Pazar, Nicholaus._ 4 Bowman St., Westmoor, Kingston, 

Pa ....1912-p 

Pears, Thomas C, Jr ..308 East End Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa...l910 

Pearson, T. W Hopedale, Ohio 1893 

Peterson, C. E 1200 Security Bldg., 189 Madison 

St., Chicago, 111 ..1913 

Pfeiffer, Victor C 414 Main St., Huntingburg, Ind 1926 

Phelps, Stephen 404 West 10th. St., Vancouver, 

W^ashington ...1862 

Philipp, Paul L.. 208 East Mclntyre Ave., N. S., 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1924 p-g 

Phillips, Geo. R.... 12 Watsonia Blvd., Pittsburgh, Pa...l902 

Phipps, R. J.... Littleton, Colo... 1886 

Pickens, John C.._ .Canfield, Ohio 1888 

Pickens, Paul L 104 Allison Ave., Washington, Pa 1925 

Plumer, J. S.... Gibsonia, Pa 1884 

Plummer, Wm. F Washington, Pa 1889 

Pollock, G. W Washington, Pa 1881 

Porter, Arthur R.... Marietta, Pa 1916-p 

Porter, J. C 502 Shelbourne Ave., Wilkinsburg, 

Pa 1919 

Porter, R. E 402 Atwood St., Gallon, Ohio 1896 

Porter, Roscoe W First Presbvterian Church, 320 

Sixth Ave.^ Pittsburgh, Pa 1922 

Porter, Thos. J 3 Rua Padre Vieira, Campinas, 

Brazil 1884-p 

Post, Harold F. 525 Riverside Ave., Wellsville, 

Ohio ....1824 

Post, R. W .Petchaburi, Siam. 1902 

Potter, J. M Woodsdale, Wheeling, W. Va.._ 1898 

Potts, T. P ....1230 Nuttman St., Fort Wayne, 

Ind .1894 

72 (236) 



Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Powell, A. C Edgeway Drive, Fairmont, W. Va...l904 

Pratt, O. W 1019 Harrison St., Mt. Vernon, I1I...1919 

Price, H. A.. ...Myersdale, Pa 1925 p- 

Proudfit, J. L.. Connellsville, Pa 1898 

Prugh, H. I. C Echo, Pa - ...1898 

Prugh, I. R Blue Rapids, Kansas 1900-p 

Pugh, R. E 77 W. Washington St., Chicago, 

111 1899 

Purnell, W. B Imperial, Pa 1914 

Ralston, J. H ..153 Institute Place, Chicago, 111 1879 

Ramage, W. G Belle Vernon, Pa 1898 

Ramsey, N. L 209 Central Ave., Oil City, Pa 1917 

Reagle, William G Grove City, Pa 1891 

Reasoner, A. H Irmo, S. C 1914 

Reber, Wm. Frank 944 East End Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa...l897 

Record, J. F Pikeville, Ky ......1897 

Reed, R. R Indianola Presbyterian Church, 

Columbus, Ohio 1910 

Reed, Wm. A Vienna Manse, R. D. No. 2, Tyrrell, 

Ohio 1900 

Reeder, Chas. Vincent American Mission, Weihsien, Shan- 
tung, China ....1915 

Reemsnyder, George 0.._ 5435 Aylesboro Ave., Pittsburgh, 

Pa 1919 

Reese, F. E 319 S. Jay St., Aberdeen, S. Dak 1911 

Reis, J. A., Jr .Kribi, Kamerun, W. Africa 1912 

Reiter, Murray C .'. No. 9 South Hills Branch, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa ......1903 

Reiter, U. D Santa Fe, N. Mexico 1908 

Rhodes, H. A Chosen Christian College, Seoul, 

Korea 1906-p 

Riale, F. N Council Ch. Bds. of Educ, 111 5th 

Ave., New York City, N. Y 1886 

Richards, T. D Mt. Lake Park, Md..... 1888-p 

Riddle, Benton V Pikeville College, Pikeville, Ky 1911 

Riddle, H. A., Jr Greensburg, Pa 1910 

Ridgley, F. H .2011 Maple St., Omaha, Nebr 1903 

Robb, Fred E R. D. No. 1, Dunbar, Pa 1926 

Roberts, R. J Hanoverton, Ohio .1894 

Roberts, R. Lloyd ..Tarentum, Pa 1923 

Robinson, John L Port Royal, Pa 1917 

Robinson, Thos McMinnville, Oregon 1915 

Rodgers, Howard 141 Oliver Ave., Bellevue Sta., 

Pittsburgh, Pa.. 1918 

Rodgers, J. A 156 Fifth Ave., New York City, 

N. Y 1898 

Rodgers, M. M ...Maryville, Tenn 1903 

Roemer, J. L St. Charles, Mo 1892 

Rose, J. G Mercersburg, Pa... 1888 

Rowland, George P .1324 Ridge Ave., Coraopolis, Pa 1903 

Ruble, Jacob West Alexander, Pa 1879 

Ruble, Jacob C West Alexander, Pa. ...- 1925 

Ruecker, August 1716 Chateau St., St. Louis, Mo 1916 p-i 

Runtz, August F 3337 East St., N. S., Pittsburgh, 

Pa 1926 p-i 

Rupp, John C .2317 Cronemeyer Ave., McKeesport, 

Pa 192 1 

73 (237) 



Directory 

Russell, W. P - Box 635, Renova, Pa 1915 

Rutherford, George Henry Dillonvale, Ohio.— 1925 

Rutherford, Matthew ..Washington, Pa.... ...1887 

Ryall, G. M Saltsburg, Pa....... ...1898 

Ryland, H. H Ligonier, Pa...... ....1891 

Sangree, Wm 321 Riley St., Buffalo, N. Y.. ....1887 

Sappie, Paul.. Johnsonburg, Pa.... ....1913 

Satterfield, D. J Wooster, Ohio ....1873 

Say, David Lester East McKeesport, Pa 1917 

Schade, Arthur A , 75 Onyx Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa 1926 p-g 

Schloter, Franklin G Pataskala, Ohio ..1901 

Schmale, Theodore R... 506 Lockhart St., N. S., Pittsburgh, 

Pa 1910 

Schultz, A. R ...Mentone, Calif 1900 

Schuster, Wm. H 4012 Riverside Ave., Cleveland, 

Ohio ..1913 

Schwalbe, Oswald O Dallas, W. Va.... .....1927 

Scott, D. T ....: 1508 L Street, Bedford, Ind 1901 

Scott, W. A Aneta, N. Dakota .1896 

Sehlbrede, G. E. 146 N. Broadway, South Amboy, 

N.J .....1896 

Sewell, M. H Attica, N. Y 1912-p 

Sharpe, John C Blairstown, N. J 1888-p 

Shaw, E. B 1413 Westmoreland St., Phila- 
delphia, Pa... .1913 

Shaw, Hugh S ....269-7th. St., Claremont, Calif ......1902-p 

Shaw, J. A Follansbee, W. Va..... 1916 

Shea, G. H..... R. D. No. 4, Quarryville, Pa 1914 

Sheeley, Homer..... Bergholz, Ohio ..1874 p-g: 

Sheppard, Albert S First Presbyterian Church, Kittan- 

ning, Pa 1914 

Shields, C. E London, Ohio .1900-p 

Shields, R. J Charleroi, Pa ..1910 

Shields, W. F Wallowa, Oregon... 1890 

Shimp, Harry S. D. R. F. D. No. 1, Oakdale, Pa 1927 p-g 

Shoemaker, F. B ....First Presbyterian Church, Brook- 

viUe, Pa 1903 

Shriver, Wm. P 126 Lincoln Ave., Ridgewood, N. J...1904-p 

Silk, Joseph Meryl 3908 Perrysville Ave., Pittsburgh, 

Pa ....1922-p 

Silsley, F. M 26th and Broadway, Oakland, 

Calif 1898 

Simmons, K. P ...Pikeville Junior College, Pikeville, 

Ky ....1892 

Sirny, John.... 525-lOth. St., Monessen, Pa... 1912 

Skilling, D. M Webster Groves, St. Louis, Mo 1891 

Slade, Wm. F....... 3978 Lake Park Ave., Chicago, 111. ....1905 p-g 

Slemmons, W. E 56 W. Maiden St., Washington, Pa... 1887 

Sloan, W. H... Savannah, Ohio 1894 

Sloanker, Paul J ..1211 Boyle St., N. S., Pittsburgh, 

Pa 1895 

Smith, A. E ...Ida Grove, Iowa 1866 

Smith, Forrest Miller, (Mrs.) 151 Union St., Salem, Va 1926-p 

Smith, George B Soldiers' Home, Minneapolis, Minn. ..1871 

Smith, Hugh A 38 Penn Ave., Irwin, Pa 1903 

Smith, James M Pasadena, Calif... ....1876 

Smith, Lewis O... R. F. D. No. 3, Coraopolis, Pa 1925 

74 (238) 



Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Smith, R. L. 25 McKennan Ave., Washington, 

Pa.. 1881 

Sneberger, Frank Jessup, Pa 192 1-p 

Snook, Ernest McC. Barbourville, Ky ....1885-p 

Snowden, J. H 941 Miami Ave., Mt. Lebanon, S. S., 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1878 

Snyder, P. W - 2010 Commonwealth Bldg., Pitts- 
burgh, Pa 1900 

Snyder, W. J _...West Elizabeth, Pa..... .1907 

Spargrove, J. M....... R. D. No. 4, North East, Pa 1894 

Spargrove, Wm. P Willmar Apts., Pittsburgh, Pa 1896 

Speckman, T. A.. ....606 E. Market St., Louisville, Ky 1912-p 

Speer, J. H 156-5th. Ave., New York City, ~ 

N. Y 1896-p 

Sprague, Paul S Emlenton, Pa 1920 

Springer, F. E Caldwell, Idaho.. 1901 

Stancliffe, T. A Waterford, Pa ......1900 

Stanley, W. Payne.... 2409 Hadley Ave., Houston, Texas.... 19 19-p 

Steele, J. C Van Port, Pa.... ....1905 

Steele, M. P R. D., New Salem, Pa .....1906 

Steffey, C. I Nickleville, Pa 1915 

Steiner, R. Lisle Teheran, Persia 1919 

Stemme, H. A Chetek, Wisconsin.... 1925-p 

Sterrett, C. C... Monteverde, Fla 1900 

Steuber, Frederick... 432 Talco St., N. S., Pittsburgh, 

Pa..: 1927 p-g 

Stevenson, Francis B... 3117-4th Ave., S., Minneapolis, 

Minn 1895 

Stevenson, James Van Eman Bulger, Pa 1889 

Stevenson, Joseph A, 408 S. Eight St., San Jose, Calif 1896 

Stevenson, Thos. E Burbank, Calif .1901 

Stevenson, W. P Maryville, Tenn 1885 

Stewart, R. Curtis.. Rayland, Ohio 1895 

Stewart, Geo. P Keene, Ohio .1904 

Stewart, Gilbert W... Mandan, N. Dakota 1907 

Stewart, Herbert W Pitsanuloke, Siam 1910 

Stewart, S. A La Porte, Ind ......1894 

Stiles, H. H 1430 Sixth Ave., Altoona, Pa 1889 

Stoops, P. D Anglemont, B. C 1881-p 

Stophlet, S. W Canal Fulton, Ohio .1882 

Storer, H. B ....137 Margaret St., Pittsburgh, Pa.....l916-p 

Strubel, John C Columbiana, Ohio ..1905 

Stuart, Jno. A Edinboro Presbyterian Church, 

Edinboro, Pa 1927 

Stubblebine, Albert N Tarentum, Pa 1924 p-g 

Suzuki, Sojiro 27 Kita Tanabecho, Wakayama, 

Japan..... 1898-p 

Svacha, Frank 313 Woodford Ave., McKees Rocks, 

Pa 1902 

Swaim, J. Carter 228 High St., Brownsville, Pa .....1922 

Swan, Alfred W 1115-8th. St., Greeley, Colorado...... 1920-p 

Swan, C. W Nankin, Ohio 1892 

Swan, T. W 211 Luzerne Ave., West Pittston, 

Pa 1887 

Swan, Wm. L Willoughby, Ohio ...1880-p 

Swart, C. E 72 E. Wheeling St., Washington, 

Pa 1908 

Swarts, A. A ...3406 Ave. J, Brooklyn, N. Y 1913 

75 (239) 



Directory 

Swoyer, C. E : 4016 Grizella St., N. S., Pittsburgh, 

Pa.._ 1923 p-g 

Szilagyi, Andrew 1233 N. Franklin St., Philadelphia, 

Pa _ 1911-p 

Tait, E. R Clairton, Pa 1902 

Tait, L. L.- - Brockway, Pa 1915 

Tamblyn, Ronald J 2 Sprague Ave., Bellevue, Pa 1925 p-g 

Taylor, Geo., Jr 1305 Singer Place, Wilkinsburg, 

Pa .....1910 

Teal, Isaac K 300 N. Negley Ave., Pittsburgh, 

Pa 1927 p-g 

Terry, Earle W Rigby, Idaho 1925 

Thayer, Clarence R Sandy Lake, Pa 1927 

Thomas, C. R Ada, Ohio... ..1920-p 

Thomas, Isaac N ....Lima, Ohio.. 1877-p 

Thomas, Wm. P...... 1334 E. 112th. St., Cleveland, Ohio....l890 

Thompson, David R Colerain, Ohio. 1915 

Thompson, Jno. M.. Far Rockaway, L. I., New York 1894 

Thompson, T. E .New Bedford, Pa ......1903 

Thomspon, T. N Ichowfu, Shantung, China 1901 

Thomspon, Wm. O ....Ohio State University, Columbus, 

Ohio...... 1882 

Thomson, J. R...... New Sheffield, Pa 1916 

Thurston, Ralph E R. F. D., Pataskala, Ohio 1915 

Thwing, John B 1021 Kirkpatrick Ave., Braddock, 

Pa 1926 p-g 

Timblin, Geo. J R. F. D., Euclid, Pa 1897 

Tipper, William ..234 Dickson St., Bellevue, Pa ....1901-p 

Todd, Milton E Rockford, Ohio 1884-p 

Tomasula, John Jablunka na Morave, U Val. Meze- 

rici Morava, Czecho-Slovakia 1920 

Townsend, E. B .Marietta, Ohio 1909 

Travers, Edward J Lonaconing, Md .1912 

Travis, J. M 651 High St.., Denver, Colo 1896 

Tron, B 366 W. 25th. St., New York City, 

N. Y 1910 

Trosh, W. S .Calvary M. E. Church, Beech and 

Allegheny Aves., N. S., Pitts- 
burgh, Pa.--^..... 1923 p-g 

Turner, J. B Port Deposit, Md 1881 

Ulay, J. D Booneville, Ind 1906-p 

Van Buskirk, W. R Uniontown, Pa.. 1914 

Vance, John S Dravosburg, Pa 1927 

Van Eman, R. C R. F. D. No. 1, Brownsville, Pa .1888 

Veach, Robt. W ...Ridgewood, N. J 1899-p 

Vecchio, Giovanni Arnold 536|^ Fifth Ave., McKeesport, Pa... 1927 p-g 

Vecsey, Eugene A 1118 Darr Ave., Farrell, Pa 1911 

Verner, O. Newton McKees Rocks, Pa 1886 

Vernon, F. E Monticello, 111 1896 

Volpitto, Guy H..-. Neville Island Presbyterian Church, 

Coraopolis, Pa 1927 

Wagner, H. N Twin Falls, Idaho .1900-p 

Waite, John, Jr. Moccasin, Mont..... 1926-p 

76 (240) 



Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Wakefield, C. B 348 Main St., Greenville, Pa 1879 

Waldkoenig, Arthur C 1309 Paulson Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa...l927 p-g 

Walker, A. F Tarentum, Pa _.1884 

Wallace, J. B Saline, Mich _ 1890 

Wallace, John E Fategarh, U. P., India 1919 

Wallace, O. C 1216 Chester St., Little Rock, Ark 1901 

Wallace, Scott I Box 302, Wilbur, Washington .1902 

Wallace, T. D 11025 Eucalyptus St., Inglewood, 

Calif --- 1870 

Wallace, Wm Arenal 42, San Angel, D. F., Mexico..l887-p 

Walter, Deane C. Yenching School of Chinese Studies, 

Peking, China ._ 1924 

Ware, S. M ._... 854 E. 57th. St., Seattle, Wash -..1884-p 

Warnshuis, H. W Blairsville, Pa ..1876 

Warnshius, P. L ...1727 N. Edgemont Ave., Hollywood, 

Calif..... .. 1922 

Watson, Geo. S McCormick Theological Seminary, 

Chicago, 111 ...1910 

Weaver, J. L...._ Rocky Ford, Colo 1883 

Weaver, M. J Homer, Mich .1912 

Weaver, Thomas N Spring Valley, N. Y 1880 

Weaver, Wm. K Billings, Mont 1890 

Weaver, Willis 6047 Ellis Ave., Chicago, 111 1874 

Wehrenberg, Edward L Woodsdale, N. C 1912 

Weidler, A. G Berea, Ky 1911 p-g 

Weir, J. B.... Forman Christian College, Lahore, 

India .....1918 

Weir, Wm. F ! 77 W. Washington St., Chicago, I11...1889 

Weisz, A. B Cowansville, Pa .1921 

Welch, J. R ...22 Seward St., Danville, N. Y..... 1902-p 

Welenteichick, Joseph J 808 13th. St., McKees Rocks, Pa 1921 

Wells, E. B 1002 Union St., Emporia, Kansas...... 1869 

West, Albert M... 4003 W. 12th. St., Chicago, 111 1885 

West, Chas. S.... Freeport, Pa 1882 

West, G. P 823 Elizabeth St., Houtzdale, Pa 1915 

West, J. G Ozark, Ark 1908 

Wheeland, C. R 4045 N. Keeler Ave., Chicago, 111 1917 

Wheeler, F. T Newille, Pa..... .1889-p 

Whipkey, Andrew J 1 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y 1911 p-g 

White, DeWitt Elliott Hotel, Des Moines, Iowa.. 1894-p 

White, Harry C 119 Woodruff Ave., Hillside, Eliza- 
beth, N. J... ...1893-p 

White, Samuel S Great Belt, Pa 1899 

White, W. G.. Schuyler, Neb .1903 

Whitehill, J. B...... .....117 Walnut St., Brookville, Pa ..1901-p 

Wible, Clarence B 301 Grandview Ave., Pittsburgh, 

Pa 1907 

Wiley, A. L Ratnagiri, India 1899 

Wilkins, Geo. H :..163-lst. St., Albany, N.Y ......1903-p 

Williams, B. F Emlenton, Pa.... 1886 

Williams, C. G 2529 Dahlia St., Denver, Colo... 1893 

Williams, C. E 103 Rue Bobillat (13e), Paris, 

France .1925 

Williams, D. P ...East Palestine, Ohio.. 1902 

Williams, Frederick S New Athens, Ohio 1916 

Williams, H. B.... Osborn, Ohio... 1899 

Williams, Philip L Brilliant, Ohio.. 1927 

Williams, R. L 407 East Church St., Elmira, N. Y...1892 

77 (241) 



Directory 

Williams Wm. A 1202 Atlantic Ave., [Camden, N. J.....1880-p 

Willoughby, J. W American Mission, Mosul, Meso- 
potamia. ..1922 

Wilson, Aaron 393 Adams St., Rochester, Pa ...1870 

Wilson, A. B Mollis, L. I., N. Y ..1880 

Wilson, A. S Du Bois, Pa 1913 

Wilson, Calvin D...... Glendale, Ohio 1879 

Wilson, E. M Trinity Church, Sixth Ave., Pitts- 
burgh, Pa..... 1927 p-g 

Wilson, G. I Parkersburg, W. Va 1899 

Wilson, Gill Robb 19 N. Clinton Ave., Trenton, N. J 1920 

Wilson, James M.. 4984 Cuming St., Omaha, Nebr ...1885-p 

Wilson, J. M South Bellingham, Wash 1895 

Wilson, John Nesbit..... 3819 Payne Ave., Cleveland, Ohio-...1869 

Wilson, J. R... .Morningside Farm, Hemet, Calif. ....1870 

Wilson, M. E 124 S. Wade Ave., Washington, Pa...l879 

Wilson, N. B Blawnox, Pa 1914 

Wilson, R. D Princeton, N. J... 1880 

Wilson, Thomas M. Naches, Washington 1906 

Wingerd, C. B Central Presbyterian Church, New 

Castle, Pa 1910 p-g 

Wingert, R. D 115 E. Paradise Ave., Orrville, 

Ohio ..1911 

Wise, F. O Toronto, Ohio 1908 

Wishart, John M 526 Beechwood Ave., Carnegie, 

Pa Associate 

Wisner, Oscar F Oakland, Calif....... ...1884-p 

Witherspoon, J. W., Jr 611 Loucks Ave., Scottdale, Pa 1909 

Wolfe, Arthur Whiting.... Apartado 127, Oaxaca, Mexico 1916 

Woods, D. W., Jr.... R. D. No. 4, Gettysburg, Pa... ....1885-p 

Woods, H. E........ Sharpsville, Pa.. 1912 

Woodward, F. J.... Oroquieta, Misamis, P. I 1911 

Woolf, M. H Minerva, Ohio 1912 

Woollett, F. I W. Broad St., Columbus, Ohio .1907 

Worley, L. A Glenwood, Florida 1911 

Worrall, J. B Ashland, Ky 1877 

Wright, J. Carroll Canfield, Ohio ....1924 

Wylie, Leard R Dunbar, Pa 1892 

Wylie, S. S R. F. D., Shippensburg, Pa 1870 

Yarkovsky, J. J 2330 North Halsted St., Chicago, 

111 1924-p 

Yates, W. O... Swissvale, Pa 1915 p-g 

Young, J. C 119 W. 40th. St., Seattle, Wash ;.1878-p 

Young, S. H R. F. D. No. 1, Bellevue, Wash 1878 

Young, S. W.... . Bucyrus, Ohio 1893 

Yount, J. A 1149 Portland St., Pittsburgh, Pa.....l926 p-g 

Zahniser, C. R 1515 Homewood Ave., Pittsburgh, 

Pa 1899-p 

Ziegler, Charles Edward. 424 Elm St., Cincinnati, Ohio 1925 

Zuck, Wm. J... .1448 Neil Ave., Columbus, Ohio 1882-p 



78 (242) 



Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



LIVING ALUMNI BY CLASSES 



Class of 1862 

Anderson, William Wylie 
Gray, James H. 
Madden, Samuel W. 
Phelps, Stephen 



Bakewell, John 
Bolar, A. J. 
Cooper, Daniel C. 
Evans, Daniel Henry 
Gibson, William N. 
Machett, Alexander 
Price, William H. 
Smith, Joseph H. 
Whiten, I. J. 
Williams, Richard G. 

Class of 1863 

Eagleson, William Stewart 



Beinhauer, John C. 
Geckler, George- 
Paine, David B. 
Patterson, Reuben F. 
Warren, William H. 
Waters, James Q. 

Class of 1864 
Campbell, Charles M. 



Campbell, Elgy V. 
Dagnault, Pierre S 
Davis, David S. 
Davis, James S. 
Jones, Sugars T. 
Kinkaid, James J. 
Peairs, Benjamin F. 
Woodbury, Frank P. 
Young, A. Z. 

Class of 1865 
Bridge, D. J. 
Davis, William 



C. 



Hill, Charles 
Kemerer, Duncan M. 
Park, William J. 

Class of 1866 

McConnell, Alexander S. 
Smith, Alexander Ewing 



Woods, Robert 



Jones, Isaac F. 
Mills, William J. 
Scott, Geroge R. W. 
Thompson, Benjamin 

Class of 1867 

Harbolt, John H. 
Mealy, John M. 
Moore, John M. 



Hippard, Samuel M. 
' McCauley, Clay 

Morton, Samuel Mills 

Class of 1868 

McFarland, George M. 
Newell, James M. 
Rea, John 



Boice, Evan 
Jones, Thomas R. 
King, Joseph 
McKinney, William H. 
Richards, John 
Thomas, William H. 

Class of 1869 
Foy, John 

Francis, John Junkin 
Luty, Adolph E. 
Lyon, David N. 
Wells, Elijah Bradner 
Wilson, John Nesbit 



Dodd, Reuel 

Fisher, Sanford George 

McMartin, John A. 

Class of 1870 

Wallace, Thomas Davis 
Wilson, Aaron 
Wilson, Jospeh Rodgers 
Wylie, Samuel Sanderson 



Jones, Alfred 
Larimore, John K. 
Wycoff, J. L. R. 
Youngman, Benjamin C. 



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Directory 



Class of 1871 

Anderson, Thomas Bingham 
Funkhouser, George A. 
Kerr, Greer Mcllvain 
McNulty, Rob Roy 
Smith, George B. 



Kohr, Thomas Henry 
Leclere, George F. 



Arney, William James 
Brown, Henry J. 
Graham, Thomas L. 
Landis, Josiah P. 
McConnell, Samuel D. 
Newell, David Ayers 
Piper, O. P. 
Sampson, John P. 

Class of 1872 

Asbury, Dudley E. 
Donahey, Martin Luther 
Humphrey, G. H. 
Little, John Wilder 
Miron, Francis Xavier 
Shields, James Harvey 
Welty, F. B. 
Workman, A. D. 



Carter, William J. 

Class of 1873 

Asbury, Cornelius 
Baker, Anthony G. 
McKibbin, William 
Satterfield, David J. 

Class of 1874 

Axtell, John Stockton 
Barbor, John Park 
Bradley, Matthew Henry 
Cooke, Silas 
Copland, George 
Craig, J. E. 
De Long, David D. 
Houston, James T. 
Howey, R. H. 
Jones, E. R. 
McLane, William W. 
Mendenhall, Harlan G. 
Porter, Robert B. 



Gosweiler, Augustus V. 
Kelsey, Joel S. 
Weaver, Willis 

Class of 1875 

Fulton, William Shouse 

Hail, John Baxter 

Hazlett, Dillwyn McFadden 



Fairfax, Isaac 
Fields, Samuel G. A. 
Gourley, John Crawford 
Kellogg, Robert O. 
March, Alfred 
Street, S. T. 

Class of 1876 

Duff, Joseph Miller 
Graybeill, John H. 
Kerr, David Ramsey 
McFarland, William H. 
Murray, Stockton Reese 
Ritchey, James A. 
Smith, James Mease 
Warnshuis, Henry W. 
Worrall, John B. 



Allen, F. M. 
Barr, Frank A. 
Birch, John M. 
Elliott, Samuel Edward 
Hutchins, John C. 

Class of 1877 
Allen, Perry S. 
Asdale, Wilson 
Gibson, William F. 
Gordon, Seth Reed 
Hyde, Wesley Middleton 
Luther, Benjamin D. 
McCaughey, William H. 



Brown, John F. 
Brown, William H. 
Hay, Lewis 
Nesbit, James H. 
Paisley, George M. 
Sampson, George C. 
Thomas, Issac N. 
Thompson, Theodore A. 

Class of 1878 

Anderson, Robert Elder 
Black, William Henry 
Blayney, Charles P. 
Clark, Robert L. 
Deffenbaugh, George L. 
Ferguson, Thomas J. 
McCracken, John Calvin 
McGogney, Albert Z. 
Mercer, John M. 
Neese, William D. 
Oiler, William E. 



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Simpson, John W. 
Snowden, James H. 
Young, S. Hall 



Smith, R. Leard 
Turner, Joseph B. 
Willard, E. S. 



Brown, Alexander B. 
Kerlinger, Charles C. 
McLain, W. J. E. 
Morris, John T. 
Patterson, David H. 
Phillis, T. W. 
Sawhill, Thomas A. 
Wallace, Thomas M. 
Young, John C. 

Class of 1879 
Boyd, Joseph N. 
Buchanan, George Davison 
Crawford, Frederick S. 
Crouse, Nathaniel P. 
De Jesi, L. M. 
Fleming, James Samuel 
McCoy, John Norris 
Ralston, Joseph Hughes 
Ruble, Jacob 
Wakefield, Charles B. 
Wilson, Calvin D. 
Wilson, Maurice, E. 



Creighton, Andrew E. 
Grant, Henry A. 
Irwin, John C. 
Smith, J. A. Livingstone 

Class of 1880 
Fulton, John W. 
Jolly, Austin Howell 
Kumler, Francis M. 
McCarrell, Thomas C. 
McClelland, Charles S. 
Mealy, Anthony A. 
Wilson, Andrew Bloomfield 
Wilson, Robert Dick 



Caldwell, Stewart S. 
Caldwell, Thomas B. 
Calhoun, Joseph P. 
Swan, William Linville 
Williams, William A. 

Class of 1881 

Brownson, Marcus A. 
Bryan, Arthur V. 
Eraser, Charles M. 
Kerr, John Henry 
Lowry, Houston W. 
Luccock, George N. 
Pollock, George W. 



Bruce, Charles H. 
Carson, Chalmers F. 
Lee, George L. 
McClelland, Raymond G. 
Mateer, William N. 
Smith, C. S. 
Stoops, Philip D. 

Class of 1882 

Anderson, Joseph M. 
Beall, Marion E. 
Day, Edgar Willis 
Evans, William M. 
Greenlee, Thomas B. 
Hayes, Watson M. 
Helm, John S. 
Langfitt, Obadiah T. 
Lewis, Thomas R. 
Marks, Samuel F. 
Stophlet, Samuel W. 
Thompson, William O. 
West, Charles Samuel 



Day, William H. 
Granger, William R. 
Lewis, David 
Nelson, Emory A. 
Woolf, G. R. 
Zuck, William J. 

Class of 1883 

Bausman, Joseph H. 

Bonsall, Adoniram J. 
. Cooper, John H. 

Donaldson, Wilson E. 

Graver, James C. 

Hazlett, William J. 

Marquis, Rollin R. 

Miller, Jonathan Walker 

Weaver, Joseph L. 



Fracker, George H. 
Johnson, Neill Davies 
McCarthy, William B. 

Class of 1884 
Allen, David D. 
Barr, Lewis W. 
Barton, Joseph H. 
Boyce, Isaac 
Forsyth, Clarence J. 
Hays, Calvin C. 
Herries, Archibald J. 



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Directory 



Laverty, Levi F. 
Plumer, John S. 
Walker, Alexander F. 



Boothe, Willis A. 
Compton, Elias 
Edwards, Charles E.' 
Edwards, Chauncey T. 
Hopkins, John T. 
Kelly, Newton B. 
Palm, William J. 
Patterson, James M. 
Peepels, Henry C. 
Porter, Thomas J. 
Todd, Milton E. 
Ware, Samuel M. 
Winger, C. N. 
Wisner, Oscar F. 

Class of 1885 

Banker, Willis G. 
Boggs, John M. 
Earsman, Hugh F. 
Ely, Robert W. 
Ferguson, Henry C. 
Freeman, John W. 
Hays, George S. 
Stevenson, William P. 
West, Albert M. 



Coan, Frederick G. 
Grosser, John R. 
Elliott, John W. 
Kuhn, Louis J. 
Morris, Jeremiah M. 
Shepard, Simon P. 
Snook, Earnest M. 
Walker, Edward F. 
Wilson, James M. 
Woods, David W., Jr. 

Class of 1886 

Aller, Absalom Toner 
Anderson, J. Philander 
Boston, Samuel L. 
Breckenridge, Walter Lowrie 
Donehoo, George Patterson 
Fish, Frank 

Gray, Thomas Jefferson 
Hays, William McClement 
Johnson, Hubert Rex 
Notestein, William Lee 
Phipps, Robert Jackson 
Riale, Franklin Neiman 
Verner, Oliver Newton 
Williams, Boyd F. 



Class of 1887 

Ambrose, John C. 
Boone, William Judson 
Campbell, Howard Newton 
Collier, Francis Marion 
Eakin, John Anderson 
Herron, Charles 
Irvine, James Elliott 
Junkin, Clarence Mateer 
McDowell, Edmund Wilson 
Rutherford, Matthew 
Sangree, William 
Slemmons, William E. 
Swan, T. W. 



Benham, DeWitt Miles 
Bente, Christopher H. 
Hubbell, Earle B. 
Jenkins, George W. W. 
Johnson, C. O. 
Miller, John Hoffman 
Sinclair, B. D. 
Wallace, William 

Class of 1888 

Cotton, Jesse Lee 

Dunlap, John Barr 

Elterich, William Otto 

Gilson, Harry O. 

Harrop, Ben 

Hunter, Joseph Lawrence 

Kerns, Francis A. 

'Lyle, James B. 

McCracken, Charles Raymond 

Miller, Rufus Philemon 

Pickens, John Caldwell 

Rose, James Gray 

Van Eman, Robert Clarence 

Vaughn, Bert C. 



McAyeal, Howard S. 



Donaldson, Robert McMorran 
Donehoo, James D. 
Fredericks, William J. 
Gordon, Edwin W. 
Marshall, James Trimble 
Richards, Thomas Davis 
Sharpe, John C. 
Walden, Anthony E. 

Class of 1889 
Bell, L. Carmon 
Bowman, Edwin M. 
Davis, John Proctor 
Jones, William Addison 
Kane, Hugh 

Kennedy, Samuel James 
Plummer, William Franklin 



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Stevenson, James Van Eman 
Stiles, Henry Howard 
Weir, William F. 



Countermine, James Langdon 
Fulton, George W. 
Holliday, Thomas E. 
Kinter, William Alexander 
Lindsay, George D. 
McNees, Willis S. 
Wheeler, Franklin Taylor 

Class of 1890 

Allen, Cyrus Glenn 
Clark, Charles Avery 
Cooper, Hugh Albert 
Haymaker, Edward Graham 
Hays, Frank Winfield 
Kirchbaum, Allan 
McCormick, Samuel Black 
Marquis, John Abner 
Shields, Weston F. 
Sutherland, Joseph H. 
Thomas, William Price 
Wallace, James Buchanan 
Weaver, Thomas Newton 
Weaver, William K. 



Campbell, Henry Martyn 
Criner, Alvin M. 
Garvin, James Ellsworth 
Haworth, James 
Koehne, John Betts 
Montgomery, Andrew J., Jr. 
Munden, J. N. 
Norris, John H. 
Smith, Charles L. 

Class of 1891 

Armstrong, James Newton 
Bradshaw, Charles Lincoln 
Collins, Alden Delmont 
Crawford, John Allen 
Drake, J. E. 
Fisher, William James 
Groves, Samuel B. 
Hall, Francis Milton 
Hill, James Barnett G. 
King, Basil Robert 
Lyle, Ulysses L. 
Reagle, William Grant 
Ryland, Henry H. 
Skilling, David Miller 
Craighead, D. E. 
Inglis, Robert Scott 
Knox, J. McClure 
Laird, Alexander 



Miller, William W. 
Stephens, Herbert T. 
Wightman, J. R. 
Williams, Charles Barnes 

Class of 1892 

Allen, William Elliott 
Bowman, Winfield Scott 
Chalfant, Charles Latta 
Cunningham, James Alexander 
Edmundson, George R. 
Gififin, James Edwin 
Kennedy, Finley F. 
Kirkbridge, James F. 
Kirkbride, Sherman Asher 
McCartney, Ernest L. 
McKee, Clement L. 
Miller, Charles Caven 
Nicholls, James Shane 
Roemer, John Lincoln 
Simmons, Kiddoo Thomas P. 
Swan, Charles Wylie 
Williams, Robert Lew 
Wylie, Leard Reed 



Clark, Walter B. 
Dickerson, J. O. 
Hamilton, James 
Jones, William M. 
Liles, Edwin Hart 
McGrew, James 
Marshall, Thomas Chalmers 
Rodebaugh, William H. 
Watson, James H. 

Class of 1893 

Alter, Robert L. M. 
Aukerman, Elmer 
Dible, James C. 
Ewing, Joseph Lyons 
Gibb, John D. 
Grubbs, Henry Alexander 
Hayes, Andrew Williamson 
Hazlett, Calvin Glenn 
Houston, William 
Hummel, Henry Bradford 
Kelly, Aaron Alfred 
Leyenberger, James P. 
McClure, William Lincoln 
Mechlin, George Ernest K. 
Pearson, Thomas Warner 
Williams, Charles Gaston 
Young, Sylvester Wylie 



Bell, W. J. 

Cozad, W. K. 

Graham, Ralph Laurie E. 



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Directory 



Hamilton, Joseph 
Hitchings, Brooks 
Latham, Abraham Lance 
White, Harry C. 

Class of 1894 

Austin, Charles Anderson 
Caldwell, David 
Campbell, Howard 
CuUey, Edward Armor 
Getty, Robert Francis 
Gregg, Oscar Job 
Hine, Thomas William 
Hoon, Clarke David A. 
Hutchinson, J. E. 
Irwin, J. P. 

Jennings, William Mason 
Koonce, M. Egbert 
Linhart, Samuel Black 
Lowes, John Livingston 
McKee, William Thompson 
Nesbitt, Harry 
Potts, Thomas Pliny 
Roberts, R. J. 
Sloan, Wilson Hurst 
Spargrove, James Marchand 
Stewart, Samuel Arthur 
Thompson, John Milton 



Bettex, Paul F. G. 
Griffiths, William 
Howard, W. E. 
Inglis, John 
Smith, Wayne P. 
Varner, W. P. 
White, DeWitt 
White, Prescott C. 

Class of 1895 

Aukerman, Robert Campbell 
Brownlee, Daniel 
Craig, Joseph A. A. 
Dunbar, Joseph Wallace 
Farmer, William Robertson 
Gantt, Allen Gilbert 
Greves, Ulysses Sherman 
Hackett, John Thomas 
Harter, Otis 
Howell, Otis 

Johnston, William Caldwell 
Lanier, Marshall Bell 
Lashley, Ellsworth E. 
McClelland, Melzar DeLoss 
McCracken, Charles J. 
McFadden, Samuel Willis 
Mclntyre, G. W. 
MacMillan, Uriah Watson 



Mitchell, Eugene Augustus 
Oliver, William Loveridge 
Sloanaker, Paul J. 
Stevenson, Francis Bacon 
Stewart, R. Curtis 
Wilson, James M. 



Barr, Alfred H. 
Biddle, Richard Long 
Blair, Thomas S. 
Bullard, F. L. 
Caliman, D. F. 
Kennedy, John 
Malcom, William D. 
Miller, John B. 
Parr, Selton Wagner 
Wash, Morris T. 
Wilkinson, A. P. 



Class of 1896 



Atkinson, William A. 
Bartz, Ulysses S. 
Bascomb, Lawton Bristow 
Bedickian, Shadrach V. 
Brown, William Albert 
Burns, George Garrett 
Chisholm, Harry T. 
Cotton, James Sumner 
Davis, McLain White 
Elder, Silas Coe 
Fisher, Grant Eugene 
Gordon, Percy Hartle 
Greene, David A. 
Kelly, Jonathan Glutton 
Kelso, James Anderson 
Lane, John C. 
Liggitt, A. W. 
McKee, William Finley 
Moore, C. N. 

Patterson, Elmer Ellsworth 
Porter, Robert Elbert 
Scott, William A. 
Sehlbrede, G. E. (B.D. 1913) 
Spargrove, William Plumer 
Stevenson, J. A. 
Travis, J. M. 
Vernon, Fayette Emery 
Zoll, Joseph 



Allison, Frank R. 
Brokaw, Harvey 
Diven, Robert Joseph 
Macartney, John Robertson 
Montgomery, S. T. 
Speer, J. H. 



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Class of 1897 
Barr, Robert L. 
Bemies, Charles O. 
Benton, Dwight, Jr. 
Calder, Robert Scott 
Cherry, Cummings W. 
Donehoo, George M. 
Ewing, Harry D. 
Foote, Samuel E. 
Fulton, John E. 
Kerr, Hugh T. 
Kreger, Winfield Scott 
McCormick Arthur B. 
McCracken, John O. C. 
McCrea, Charles A. 
McCutcheon, Harry Sylvester 
Matson, Walter T. 
Montgomery, Ulysses L. 
Oliver, John M. 
Reber, William F. 
Record, James F. 
Tinblin, George J. 
Wilson, Walter L. 



Ryall, George M. 
Schleifer, Oscar 
Silsley, Frank M. 



Brockway, Julius W. 
Brown, Nathan L. 
Chisholm, James D. 
Frederick, P. W. H. 
Guichard, George L. 
Seward, Oliver L. 
Yates, Thomas R. 
Young, Alexander B. 

Class of 1898 

Atwell, George P. 
Brown, Franklin F. 
Campbell, Wilbur M. 
Cheeseman, Joseph F. 
Coazd, Frank A. 
Eagleson, Walter F. 
Fitch, Robert F. 
Fulton, John T. 
Hezlep, Herbert 
Hosack, Hermann M. 
Hubbard, Arthur E. 
Hutchison, William J. 
Leslie, William H. 
Lyie, David M. 
Mcllvaine, Edwin L. 
McKay, Alexander D. 
MacLeod, Donald C. 
Nesbit, Samuel M. F. 
Potter, James M. 
Proudfit, John L. 
Prugh, Harry L C. 
Ramage, Walter G. 
Rodgers, John A. 



Brown, Charles H. 
Fulton, Silas A. 
Gilmore, John L 
Jackson, Thomas C. 
Kerr, Charles W. 
Linn, James P. 
Magee, Samuel G. 
Myers, Percy L. 
Rankin, T. C. 
Sharp, Samuel F. 
Suzuki, Sojiro 
Vogan, Frank H. 
White, Daniel C. 
Wishard, Frederick G. 



Class of 1899 
Bell, Charles 
Cobb, William A. 
Daubenspeck, Richard P. 
Fiscus, Newell S. 
Giboney, Ezra P. 
Hodil, Edward A. 
Humphrey, James D. 
Kelso, James B. 
Kerr, George G. 
Love, Curry H. 
MacHatton, Burtis R. 
Minamyer, Albert B. 
Offntt, Robert M. 
Pugh, Robert E. 
White, Samuel S. 
Wiley, A. Lincoln 
Williams, Hamilton Bertel 
Williams, John L 
Wilson, Gill Irwin 



Anderson, Clarence O. 
Cunningham, Harry C. 
Fields, Joseph C. 
Gay, Thomas B. 
Griffiths, S. W. 
Kittell, James S. 
Kritz, William B. 
McQuilkin, Harmon H. 
Milman, Frank J. 
Patterson, John C. 
Sterrett, Walter B. 
Veach, Robert W. 
Waite, James 
Wells, Earl B. 
Wilson, Charles R. 
Zahniser, Charles R. 



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Class of 1900 
Allen, Robert H. 
Barrett, William L. 
Beatty, Charles S. 
Brice, James B. 
Brooks, Earle A. 
Carmichael, George 
Crawford, Oliver C. 
Haines, Alfred H. 
Kilgore, Harry W. 
McCombs, Harry W. 
Miller, James E. 
Mohr, John R. 
Moody, Samuel 
Reed, William A. 
Schultz, Adolph R. 
Snyder, Peter W. 
Stancliffe, Thomas A. 
Sterrett, Charles C. 



Coad,H. W. 
Depue, James H. 
Foreman, Chauncey A. 
Garvin, Charles E. 
Leroy, Albert E. 
Mitchell, Robert C. 
Prugh, Irvin R. 
Schneider, William P. 
Shields, Curtis E. 
Wagner, Henry N. 

Class of 1901 

Bierkemper, Charles H. 
Boice, Robert A. 
Bush, Merchant S. 
Graham, David S. 
Irwin, Charles F. 
Lawther, J. H. (S.T.M. 1911) 
Marks, Harvey B. 
Schloter, Franklin G. 
Scott, DeWitt Talmage 
Springer, Francis E. 
Stevenson, Thomas E. 
Thompson, Thomas N. 
Wallace, Oliver C. 



Armstrong, Harry P. 
McKelvey, Charles M. 
Mark, John H. 
Steele, Alexander 
Tipper, William 
Whitehill, John B. 

Class of 1902 

Allison, Alexander B. 
Bailey, Harry A. 
Brown, Samuel T. 



Filipi, Bohdan A. 
Gettman, Albert H. 
Griffith, Howard L. 
Hanna, Hugh W. 
Holmes, William J. 
Leith, Hugh 
Lincoln, John C. 
Lippincott, Rudolph P. 
Long, Bertram J. 
Miller, Park H. 
Orr, Samuel C. 
Phillips, George R. 
Post, Richard W. 
Svacha, Frank 
Tait, Edgar R. 
Wallace, Scott L 
Williams, David P. 



Crowe, F. W. (S.T.M. 1911) 
Fast, Joseph W. G. 
Magill, Charles N. 
Moore, Will L. 
Shaw, Hugh S. 
Welch, John R. 

Class of 1903 

Bittinger, Ardo Preston 

Byers, Edward W. 

Fisher, George C. 

Fleming, W. F. (S.T.M. 1915) 

Fowler, Owen S. 

Hamilton, C. H. (S.T.M. 1911) 

Kromer, E. G. 

McGarrah, Albert F. 

Miller, Frank D. 

Novak, Frank 

Rail, Emil 

Reiter, Murray C. 

Ridgley, F. H. (S.T.M. 1912) 

Rodgers, M. M. (S.T.M. 1910) 

Rowland, Goerge Peabody 

Shoemaker, Frederick B. 

Smith, Hugh A. 

Thompson, T. E. (S.T.M. 1910) 

White, Wilber G. 



Askew, Tony J. 
Brown, George W. 
David, William O. 
Hicks, Thomas G. 
Lowe, Titus 
McCartney, Albert J. 
Marshall, William E. 
Sarver, Jonathan E. 
Stevenson, James F. 
Wilkins, George H. 



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Class of 1904 
Bucher, Victor 
Culley, David E. 
Gaehr, Theophilus J. 
Kaufman, Harry E. 
Keener, A. I. (S.T.M. 
Kelso, John B. 
KeussefT, Theodore M. 
McConnell, William G. 
McMillan, William L. 
Powell, Amos C. 
Stewart, G. P. (S.T.M. 1910) 



1911) 



Campbell, Harry M. 
Kelly, Dwight Spalding 
Lyons, John F. 
Shriver, William P. 

Class of 1905 

Backora, Vaclav Paul 
Bowden, George S. 
Crawford, Frank W. 
Douglass, Elmer H. 
Espey, John M. 
Evans, Walter E. 
Knepshield, Edward J. 
Kunkle, John S. 
McBride, John D. 
Maclvor, John W. 
MacLeod, Kenneth E. 
MacQuarrie, David P. 
Steele, John C. 
Strubel, John C. 



Evans, Frederick W. 
Goehring, Joseph S. 
Lytle, Marshall B. 

Class of 1906 

Cooper, Howard C. 
Craig, William R. 
Dufifield, T. Ewing 
Heany, Brainerd F. 
Hockman, Stanislav B. 
Ludwig, Christian E. 
McConkey, Walter P. 
Nizankowsky, Alexander (c) 
Steele, Merrill P. (S.T.M. 1911) 
Wilson, Thomas 
Bovard, Charles E. 
Rhodes, Harry A. 
Ulay, Jerome D. 

Class of 1907 
Blacker, Samuel 
Christie, John W. 
Christoff, Athanasious T. 



Dinsmore, W. W. (S.T.M.'1912) 

Ferver, William C. 

Eraser, Charles D. 

Houk, Clarence E. 

Huey, James W. 

Johnston, David H. (c) 

Kaufman, George W. 

Lewis, William E. 

McDivitt, M. M. (S.T.M. 1912) 

Mayne, Samuel 

Miller, George C. 

Miller, Homer K. 

Miller, Paul G. 

Nussmann, Geo. S. A. 

Osborne, Plummer N. 

Schodle, Adam G. 

Snyder, William J. 

Stewart, Gilbert W. 

Wilble, Clarence B. 

Woollett, Francis L 



(c) 



(c) 



Kardos, Joseph 
Lloyd, Howard E. 

Class of 1908 

Amstutz, T. Platte 

Aten, Sidney Henry 

Baker, Henry Vernon 

Bingham, William S. 

Bleck, Erich A. 

Dent, Frederick R. 

Gaut, Robert L. 

Harvey, Plummer R. 

Hefner, Elbert 

Houston, Robert L. 

Junek, Frank 

Loughner, J. R. (S.T.M. 1909) 

McLeod, Donald W. 

Reiter, Uriah D. 

Swart, Charles E. 

Viehe, Albert E. 

West, James G. 

Wise, Frederick O. 



Anderson, John T. 
Byczynski, Sigmundus A. 
Ferrante, Victor 
Puky de Bizak, Stephen 
Streeter, E. E. 
Uherka, Frank 

Class of 1909 

Clark, Chester A. (c) 

Good, Albert L 

Hail, Arthur L. 

Halenda, Dimitry (S.T.M. 1910) 

Hoover, William H. 



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Hutchinson, Harry C. 
Miller, Charles R. 
Montgomery, Thomas H. 
Mowry, Eli M. 

Orr, William H. (S.T.M. 1916) 
Paroulek, Friedrich (c) 
Townsend, Edwin B. 
Witherspoon, John W. Jr. 

Class of 1910 

Bergen, Stanley V. 

Byers, William F. 

Conley, Bertram H. 

Graham, Franklin F. 

Gross, Oresta C. 

Kelso, A. P. Jr., (S.T.M. 1910) 

Lawrence, Ernest B. 

Macaulay, George S. 

Maclnnis, Angus J. (S.T.M. 1911) 

McMillen, Homer G. 

Montgomery, Frank S. 

Patrono, Francesco P. (c) 

Pears, T. C. Jr., (S.T.M. 1910) 

Reed, Robert R. 

Riddle, Henry Alexander, Jr. 

Schmale, Theodore R. 

Shields, Robert J. 

Stewart, Herbert W. 

Taylor, G. Jr., (S.T.M. 1910) 

Tron, B. (S.T.M. 1911) 

Watson, George S. 



Almassy, Lajos 
Cran, John N. 
Kucera, Jaroslav 
Kuziw, Wasil 
Moricz, B. D. 
Morrison, Joseph E. 
Sautuccio, Agatino 

Class of 1911 

Cribbs, Charles C. 

Felmeth, W. G. (S.T.M. 1912) 

Geddes, Henry 

Glunt, George L. (c) 

Guttery, Arthur M. 

Hezlep, William H. 

Howe, John L. 

Keirn, Reuel E. 

Love, Wilbert B. 

Matheson, M. A. (S.T.M. 1912) 

Reese, Francis E. 

Riddle, Benton V. (c) 

Wingert, Rufus D. (S.T.M. 1924) 

Woodward, Frank J. (c) 

Worley, Lewis A. 



Beseda, Henry E. 
Howell, H. G. 
Kmeczik, George 
Pender, Thomas M. 
Szilagyi, Andrew 
Vecsey, Eugene 
Weber, Pierre 

Class of 1912 

Arthur, James H. 

Bergen, Harry H. 

Burtt, Percy E. 

Halenda, Theodore 

Hornicek, Francis 

Hunter, James Norman 

Reis, Jacob A., Jr. 

Sirny, John (S.T.M. 1913) 

Travers, E. J. (S.T.M. 1913) 

Wehrenberg, E. L. (S.T.M. 1912) 

Woods, Harry E. 

Woolf, Mahlon H. 



Findlay, Harry J. 
Gross, John H. 
King, H. W. 
Pazar, Nicholaus 
Sewell, Mayson H. 
Speckman, Timothy A. 
Weaver, Mahlon J. 
Wilson, H. Luther 

Class of 1913 

Baumgartel, Howard J. 
Cochran, Charles W. 
Connell, John 

Eakin, Frank (S.T.M. 1915) 
Eakin, Paul Anderson 
Frantz, G. A. (S.T.M. 1915) 
Highberger, William Waltz 
Johnston, Samuel L. 
Kiskaddon, Roy McKee 
Lang, John 

McFarland, Orris Scott 
Morello, Salvatore 
Peterson, Charles E. 
Schuster, W. H. (S.T.M 
Shaw, Edward B. 
Swarts, A. A. (S.T.M. 1916) 
Wilson, Ashley Sumner 



1914) 



Barr, Floyd W. 



Bransby, Charles Carson 
Jamieson, Roy W. 
Simpson, James Thomas 
Yoo, Charles 

Class of 1914 

Cornelius, Maxwell 



88 (252) 



Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



Crapper, Wm. Horatio (c) 
Donaldson, Dwight M. 
Duff, George Morgan 
Fraser, James Alexander D. 
Fraser, James Wallace 
Hensel, Leroy Cleveland 
Howe, Edwin Carl 
Kish, Julius 
MacLennan D. George 
Maharg, Mark Brown 
Park, Albert Newton, Jr. 
Purnell, Walter B. (S.T.M. 1927) 
Reasoner, Alfred Henry (c) 
Shea, George Hopkins 
Sheppard, Albert Samuel 
VanBuskirk, William Riley 
Willard, Hess Ferral 
Wilson, Nodie Bryson 



Boyd, R. Earle 

Brenneman, Geo. Emmor 

Ernst, John L. 

Fohner, George C. *^ 

Mowry, Thomas G. 

Worth man, Diedrich 

Class of 1915 
Alter, Gray (c) 
Cowieson, William Reid (c) 
Harriman, Walter Payne 
Kiskaddon, Jesse Fulton 
Kovacs, Andrew (c) 
McCracken, W. H. (S.T.M. 1915) 
Reeder, C. V. (S.T.M. 1915) 
Russell, William P. 
Sappie, Paul (c) 
Steffey, Charles I. 
Tait, Leo L. (S.T.M. 1917) 
Thompson, David Ryan (c) 
Thurston, Ralph Eugene 
West, Gusty Philip 



Ambrosimoff, Paul Wasile 
Biddle, Earle Henry 
Binkley, Stanford Burney 
Cable, John Henry 
Elliott, Paul H. 
Falck, Charles M. 
Imhoff, Thomas Burton 
Litten, Ross Burns 

Class of 1916 

Barnes, William Clyde 
Bingham, John Greer 
Cheeseman, George H. 
Fisher, James Mclntyre 
French, Arthur Edward (c) 



Gilbert, Ralph V. 
Good, Edward Clair 
King, John Allison 
Macaulay, Peter Wilson 
Meily, Thomas Ruby 
Miller, John Owen 
Morton, David Chisholm 
Shaw, John Angus 
Strub, Henry M. 
Thomson, John Robert 
Williams, F. S. (S.T.M. 1917) 
Wolfe, Arthur Whiting 



Adams, James, Jr. 
Baillie, Alexander Stuart 
Conn, Lloyd Herbert 
Newell, Harry Nelson 
Porter, Arthur Reno 
Schultz, Irvin Struger 
Storer, Happer Beacom 

Class of 1917 

Bartholomew, Archie Randal 
Betts, John Melson 
Boston, John Keifer 
Conrad, Ross Elmer 
Crawford, Glenn Martin 
Crummy, H. Russell 
DeMarco, Michele Francesco 
Dodds, Joseph LeRoy 
Gibson, Alexander (c) 
Hickman, A. Ross iS.T.M. 1924) 
Lawther, LeRoy (S.T.M. 1917) 
Llewellyn, Frank Bowman 

(S.T.M. 1925) 
McCormick, Thos. Howard (c) 
Marshall, Daryl Cedric 
Nadenicek, Joseph 
Nicholson, Henry Harrison 

(S.T.M. 1925) 
Ramsey, Nathan LeRoy 
Robison, John Lawrence 
Say, David Lester (S.T.M. 1922) 
Wheeland, C. R. (S.T.M. 1917) 



Axtell, Robert Stockton 
Grant, James Alexander 
Gray, D. Vincent 
Kaczmarsky, Roman 
Patterson, Charles David 
Payne, Henry P. 

Class of 1918 

Bisbee, Geo. A. (S.T.M. 1918) 
Bisceglia, Giovanni Battista 
Blosser, Marion Elmer 
Brandner, Edward Lewis 



89 (253) 



Directory 



Davidson, Harrison 
Gahagen, Clair Boyd 
Gearhart, Harry Alonzo 
Griffith, Ole Curtis 
Hofmeister, Ralph C. 
Husak, Alois (S.T.M. 1919) 
Lyon, Wilbfur H. 
McConnell, Ralph I. 
Mackenzie, D. (S.T.M. 1919) 
Mayne, James (S.T.M. 1918) 
Rodgers, Howard 
Weir, John Barr 



Beal, Joseph Ephraim 
Dobias, Joseph 
Garner, Joseph 
Haden, George Richard 
McKenzie, Ralph Waldo 
Sabacky, Vladimir 
Soucek, Frank 

Class of 1919 

Clarke, J. Calvitt 
Clawson, Harry Blaine 
Daniel, David Earl (c) 
Eagleson, Hodge Mcllvaine 
Hendrix, Everett J. 
Irwin, D. A. (S.T.M. 1920) 
Kidder, Jonathan Edward 
Kirkpatrick, J. Max (c) 
Maclver, Murdock John (c) 
McKinney, William Wilson 
Mellott, William Franklin 
Porter, John Craig 
Pratt, Owen William 
Reemsnyder, Geo. Oswald (c) 
Steiner, Robert Lisle 
Trovato, Joseph 
Wallace, John Elder 



Hrbata, Leopold 
Little, Robert Henry 
Luccock, Emory Wylie 
McConnell, Harry W. 
Shauer, Joseph John 
Stanley, Walter Payne 
Toth, Kalman 

Class of 1920 

Alter, Samuel Neale 
Bardarik, Geo. (S.T.M. 1920) 
Martin, Joseph Albert 
Miller, Roy Frank 
Sprague, Paul Steacey 
Tomasula, John (S.T.M. 1921) 
Wilson, Gill Robb 



McSherry, Hubert Luther 
Moore, John Ely 
Richmond, Charles Francis 
Shuey, Theodore George 
Stulc, Joseph 
Swan, Alfred Wilson 
Thomas, Coovirt R. 

Class of 1921 

Bamford, G. K. (S.T.M. 1921) 
Buczak, Leon (c) 
Henry, Robert Harvey 
Hudock. Andrew Jay 
Krivulka, Charles Jesse 
Leypoldt, Frederic Christian 
McFadden, Hampton T. 
Moser, W. L. (S.T.M. 1921) 
Rupp, John Christian 
Weisz, Abraham Boyd 
Welenteichick, Joseph J. 



Sneberger, Frank 

Walrond, Maurice Elrington 

White, Charles G. 

Class of 1922 

Barbour, Clifford Edward 
Fulton, Archibald Ferguson (c) 
Galbraith, Lewis Arthur 

(S.T.M. 1923) 
Gibson, Elgie Leon 
Hamill, Daniel, Jr. (c) 
Lemmon, Lyman N. 
Merker, Ralph K. (S.T.M. 1923) 
Millinger, Walter Harold 
Murray, Basil A. (c) 
Neal, Samuel Galbraith 
Porter, Roscoe Walter 

(S.T.M. 1923) 
Rivard, Emile Augustin 
Warnshuis, Paul Livingstone 
Willoughby, James Wallace 



Silk, Joseph Meryl 

Class of 1923 

Behrends, Arthur Dow 
Cox, Jasper Morgan 
Hazlett, Calvin Hoffman 
McCammon, Lester Lane 
Martin, James 
Mellin, Willard Colby 
Roberts, Robert Lloyd 



Lee, Harold 



McCracken, A. V. 
Lloyd, John 
Wissinger, H. L., Jr. 



90 (254) 



Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



Class of 1924 

Bibby, John Kurtz 
Biddle, Eugene L. 
Cotton, Jarvis Madison 
Curtiss, Howard Truman 
DePrefontaine, C. LeRoy 
Haverfield, Ross M. 
Hilty, James Russell 
Illingworth, Ralph W. Jr. 
Johnston, Robert Caldwell 
Leister, John Maurice 

(S.T.M. 1927) 
Merwin, William Stage (c) 
Monroe, George Karl 

(S.T.M. 1925) 
Post, Harold Francis 

(S.T.M. 1924) 
Walter, Deane Craig 
Wright, J. Carroll 



Helm, A. J. 
Jackson, A. J. 
Lambert, George R. 
Yarkovsky, Jno. 
Vaidyla, Michael 

Class of 1925 
Allen, David K. 
Barker, John Bryant 
Conley, Claude Sawtell 

(S.T.M. 1927) 
Ehmann, William F. 
Holub, Joseph (c) 
Muir, C. Marshall 
Pickens, Paul Lyle 
Ruble, Jacob C. 
Rutherford, George Henry 
Smith, Lewis Oliver 
Williams, Clayton Edgar 
Ziegler, Charles Edward 



Anderson, F. S. 
Fohner, G. C. 
Hamilton, D. M. 
Hart, E. R. 
Jones, John Paul 
Stemme, H. A. 

Class of 1926 

Chandler, Horace Edward 
Christopher, Franz Omer 
Clark, John A. (c) 



Eakin, John Lyman 
Elder, Newton Carl 
Garner, James Herbert 

(S.T.M. 1926) 
Gerrard, Paul T. 
Gillespie, James Henry 
Hudnut, Herbert Beecher 
Owen, William 
Pfeififer, Victor Charles 
Robb, Fred Eliot 



Babinsky, Andrew 
Beecher, Dwight E. 
Blanchard, Forest I. 
Glunt, H. G. 
Kennedy, G. A. 
Logan, J. H. P. 
Moreland, Geo. B. 
Smith, C. M. 
Smith, (Mrs.) F. M. 
Waite, John, Jr. 

Class of 1927 

Ashley, William Augustus (c) 
Coulter, Crawford McCoy 
Ewing, Thomas Davis 

(S.T.M. 1927) 
Fruit, Byron Stanley 
Gilleland, William Austin 
Haynes, Darwin M. 
Hazlett, Paul Hagerty 
Homer, Lloyd David 
Irwin, Edgar Coe 
Kaufman, Ralph Waldo Emerson 
Kuehn, Martin Rudolph (c) 
Marquis, William C. (c) 
Parsons, William Victor E. (c) 
Schwalbe, Oswald Otto 
Stuart, John Alvin 
Swaim, Joseph Carter 
Thayer, Clarence R. 
Vance, John S. 
Volpitto, Guy Hector 
Williams, Philip L. 



Cooper, Thos. F. 
Fejes, J. S. 
France, C. K. 
McQuiston, R. L. 
Philipp, O. J. 
Strobel, H. W. 



91 (255) 



Directory 



POST-GRADUATE STUDENTS 



1873— Pierce, David A. 
1874— Sheeley, Homer 
1884— Ressler, John I. L. 

Staneff, Demetrius 

Currie, J. T. R. 

Sanders, Frank P. 

Duncan, John S. 

Gelvin, Edward H. 

Haupt, H. 

-Crowe, Alvin N. 

Denise, Larimore C. 

Slade, William F. 

Kienle, Gustav A. 

Loos, Carl 

Peterson, Conrad A. 

-Elliott, Arthur M. 

King, Felix Z. 

McMillan, John 

Quick, Errett B. 

Wingerd, Charles B. 

Weidler, Albert G. 

Whipkey, A. J. 

Winn, W. G. 

McGiffin, Russell B. 

Pierce, W. E. 

Hogg, W. E. 

Allen, Louis C. 

Pfeiffer, Erwin G. 

Ansberg, John H. 

Browne, Harry R. 

Heltman, Andrew F. 

Robinson, Thomas 

Ruecker, August 

Stewart, Joseph 

Yates, William O. 
J916— Ackman John B. 

Morgan, Earl C. 

Offield, Robert L. 
1917— Keller, Argyle C. 

Lowe, Arnold H. 
1918 — Simpson, Samuel T. 

Vancura, Vaclav F. 

Wright, John V. 
1921— D'Aliberti, Alfred 

George, Arthur H. 

Hamilton, James A. 



1893- 

1898- 
1899- 

1900- 
1905- 

1907- 

1908- 
1909- 

1910- 



1911- 



1912- 

1913- 
1914- 

1915- 



Nordlander, Eric J. 
1922— Stafford, H. Erwin 

Stanton, Charles E. 

Taylor, Walter Perkins 
1923 — Brown, Thomas Murray 

Eames, Laurence Frederic 

Henderson, Samuel C. 

Swoyer, Grover Elmer 

Trosh, Walter Scott 
1924— Broadley-East, Albert 

Mahovsky, Rudolf 

Philipp, Paul L. 

Stubblebine, Albert N. 
1925— Bierbaum, Martin F. 

Green, Alden J. 

Maksay, Albert Z. 

Moessner, Ludwig R. 

Price, Harry A. 

Tamblyn, Ronald J. 

Terry, Earle W. 
1926— Davidson, Dwight B. 

Held, Charles E. 

Miller, Robert S. 

Obenauf, Henry F. 

Thwing, John B. 

Yount, John A. 
1927— Boyd, Welsh Sproule 

Chubb, Mrs. Edna P. 

Csorba, Zoltan 

Dobos, Karoly 

Genre, Ermanno E. 

Hartzell, Jacob Lott 

Horst, Melvin Clyde 

Kovacs, Charles 

Moran, Owen Wilborn 

Muller, George J. 

Runtz, August F. 

Schade, Arthur A. 

Shimp, Harry S. D. 

Smith, Robert Lincoln 

Steuber, Frederick 

Teal, Isaac Kelley 

Vecchio, Giovanni A. 

Waldkoenig, Arthur C. 

Wilson, Edward M. 



92 (256) 



Bulletin of the Western TJieological Seminary 



STUDENTS WHOSE ADDRESSES ARE UNKNOWN 



Adams, James 1916-p 

Allen, F. M 1876-p 

Allen, L. C 1914 p- 

Allison, Frank R 1896-p 

Almassy, Lajos ....1910-p 

Alter, Gray._ 1915 

Ambrosimoflf, Paul W 1915-p 

Amrine, A. H 1853 

Anderson, S. M _..1851 

Ansberg, J. H... 1915 p- 

Asbury, Cornelius 1873 

Asbury, Dudley E.. .1872 

Askew, Tony J 1903-p 

Avery, R. N - 1850 

Babcock, Orville 1857 

Baillie, Alexander S. 1916-p 

Baker, Anthony G 1873 

Bakewell, John 1862-p 

Barclay, Hugh A... ......1861 

Barr, Frank Alva 1876-p 

Barr, Lewis William..: 1884 

Bascomb, Lawton B 1896 

Beal, Joseph E 1918-p 

Beall, Marion E ....1882 

Beecher, D. E ......1926-p 

Beinhauer, John C .....1863-p 

Bente, Christopher H 1887-p 

Benton, Dwight, Jr 1897 

Beseda, Henry Ernest 191 1-p 

Bettex, Paul F. G 1894-p 

Betts, J. M 1917 

Biddle, Earle Henry 1915-p 

Binkley, Stanford B ....1915-p 

Birch, John M 1876-p 

Bisbee, George Allen 1918 

Blair, Thomas S .1895-p 

Blanchard, F. I 1926-p 

Blosser, Marion Elmer.. ..1918 

Boice, Evan 1868-p 

Boice, Robert A 1901 

Bolar, A. J 1862-p 

Bollman, S. P ..1852 

Boyd, R. Earle ...1914-p 

Brenneman, George E 1914-p 

Bridge, D. J .1865-p 

Brown, C. H ..1898-p 

Brown, Henry J 1871-p 

Brown, John F 1877-p 

Brown, Nathan L 1897-p 

Brown, William H 1877-p 

Buchanan, George D 1879 

Buczak, Leon 192 1 



Bullard, F. L.... 1895-p 

Burchfield, W. A 1859 

g Burton, L. W ...1846 

Caldwell, Stewart S 1880-p 

Caldwell, Thomas B 1880-p 

Caliman, D. F 189S-p 

Campbell, Charles M 1864 

Campbell, Henry M 1890-p 

g Campbell, Samuel L 1861-p 

Carter, William J 1872-p 

Chisholm, Harry 1896 

Chisholm, James D 1897-p 

Clark, Walter B 1892-p 

Coad, H. W 1900-p 

Collier, Francis M ......1887 J 

Conn, Lloyd, H 1916-p 

Converse, Rob Roy 1871 

(formerly McNulty) 

Cooper, Daniel C 1862-p 

Copland, George 1874 

Countermine, James L 1889-p 

Cowieson, W. R ..1915-p 

Craig, J. E 1874 

Cran, John N .1910-p 

Crapper, Wm. H.... ....1914 

Crawford, Frank W 1905 

Creighton, Andrew E.. 1879-p 

Criner, Alvin M 1890-p 

Culbertson, William F 1856-p 

Currie, J. T. R 1893 p-g 

Dagnault, Pierre S. C. ....1864-p 

Dannels, Ellis W 1857-p 

Davis, David S ..1864-p 

Davis, Henry 1845 

Davis, James S.. 1864-p 

Davis, William 1865 

Dejesi, L. M..... 1879 

DeLong, David D... ..1874 

DeMarco, Michele F 1917 

Dickerson, J. 1892-p 

Dobias, Joseph 1918-p 

Dodd, Cyrus M 1861-p 

Dodd, Reuel.. 1869-p 

Donehoo, James D 1888-p 

Eames, L. F 1923 p-g 

Edgerton, John M 1859-p 

Elder, Joshua. 1844 

Fairfax, Isaac... 1875-p 

Falck, Charles M 1915-p 

93 (257) 



Directory 



Ferrante, Victor ....1908-p 

Fields, Samuel G. A 1875-p 

Forsyth, Clarence J 1884 

Foy, John.-.. 1869 

Francis, David 185 8-p 

Fredericks, William J ..1888-p 

Freeman, John W 1885 

Garner, Joseph 191 8-p 

Garvin, Charles E 1900-p 

Geckler, George 1863-p 

Gibson, William N 1862-p 

Gilmore, John 1 1898-p 

Glunt, H. G 1926-p 

Goettman, John G 1865-p 

Gonzales, Benjamin 1838 

Gordon, Edwin W ....1888-p 

Gosweiler, Augustus.. 1874-p 

Graham, Grafton H 1856-p- 

Graham, Ralph L. E 1893-p 

Graham, Thomas L ..1871-p 

Granger, William R 1882-p 

Grant, Henry A 1879-p 

Grant, James A 19l7-p 

Gray, D. V..... ..1917-p 

Gray, James H 1862 

Gray, William S ..1861-p 

Griffith, Howard Levi......l902 

Griffiths, S. W ......1899-p 

Griffiths, William 1894-p 

Haden, George R 1918-p 

Hamer, J. P 1856 p- 

Harbolt, John H 1867 

Hart, E. R 1925-p 

Hart, Joshua 1845 

Haupt, H 1899 p- 

Haworth, James 1890-p 

Hay, Lewis 1877-p 

Hicks, Thomas George... 1903-p 

Hill, Charles 1865-p 

Hippard, Samuel M 1867-p 

Hochman, Stanislav B.....1906 

Holliday, Thomas E 1889-p 

Holmes, G. B 1846 

Houston, J. T 1874 

Howell, H. G .1911-p 

Howell, Otis 1895 

Howey, R. H 1874 

Hrbata, Leopold..: 1919-p 

Hume, Robert 1859-p 

Humphrey, G. H ....1872 

Husak, Alois 1918 

Hutchins, John C 1876-p 

Imhoff, Thomas Burton.. 1915-p 
Irwin, John C 1858 



Jamieson, Roy W... 1913-p 

Jenkins, George W 1887-p 

Johnson, C. O .1887-p 

Johnson, Neill Davies .1883 

Johntson, Daniel 1865 

Jones, Alfred ...1870-p 

Jones, E. R... ...1874 

Jones, Isaac F 1866-p 

Jones, Sugars T 1864-p 

Jones, Thomas R ..1868-p 

Jones, William M 1892-p 

Kaczmarsky, Roman 1917-p 

Keir, William 1857 p- 

Kellogg, Robert 1875-p 

Kelsey, Joel S 1874-p 

Kelly, Dwight S ....1904-p 

Kemerer, Duncan M 1865-p 

Kennedy, G. A 1926-p 

g Kennedy, John B 1847 

Kerlinger, Charles C 1878-p 

King, Courtlen ....1860-p 

King, H. W 1912-p 

King, Joseph 1868-p 

Kinkaid, James J 1864-p 

Kish, Julius ..1914 

Kittell, James S ...1899-p 

Knight, Moses G .1845 

Koehne, J. B 1890-p 

Kritz, William Blakely....l899-p 
Krivulka, Charles Jesse ..1921 

Kromer, E. G 1903 

Kucera, Jaroslav ...1910-p 

y Kuhn, Louis John 1885-p 

Kuziw, Wasil ..1910-p 

Lambe, Henry B .1861 

Landis, J. P - 1871-p 

=• Larimore, John K 1870-p 

Lee, Charles H 1860-p 

Lee, George L .._.1881-p 

Lee, Harold 1920-p 

Leroy, Albert E 1900-p 

Lewis, David 1882-p 

Liles, Edwin H ..1892-p 

Lindsay, George D.. ...1889-p 

Litten, Ross R 191S-p 

Little, Robert H .1919-p 

Livingston, W. S 1852 

Lloyd, William A..... 1861-p 

Loos, Carl 1907 p-j 

Luther, Benjamin D 1877 

Luty, Adolphe E 1869 

Lyons, D. W 1849 

Lytle, Marshall Blaine.... 1905-p 

Machett, Alexander 1862-p 

Madden, Samuel W ....1862 

Magee, Samuel G 1898-p 

94 (258) 



Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



March, Alfred 1875-p 

Marshall, Thomas C 1892-p 

Mateer, William N 1881-p 

Matson, Walter T 1897 

McAyeal, Howard S.... 1886-p 

McCarthy, William B 1883-p 

McCauley, Clay __..._ 1867-p 

McConnell, Alexander S. 1866 
McCormick, Thomas H... 1917 

McCracken, A. V 1923-p 

McElhenny, John J 1861-d 

McFarland, George M 1868 

McFarland, William H...1876 

McGiffen R. B 1912 p- 

McGrew, James 1892-p 

McKelvey, Charles M 1901-p 

McLain, W. J. E 1878-p 

McLane, Wm. W... ...1874 

McMartin, John A..... 1869-p 

McMillan, John. 1910 p- 

McNulty, Rob Roy..... 1871 

(R. R. Converse) 

McSherry, Hubert L 1920-p 

Miller, John H 1887-p 

Miller, William W 1891-p 

Mills, Wm. J 1866-p 

Mitchell, Robert .'.1856 

Moessner, Ludwig R... 1925 p- 

Montgomery, Willis W 1900 

Moore, John E 1920-p 

Moore, John M 1867 

Moore, Will L 1902-p 

Morello, Salvatore 1913 

Moricz, Balint Dezso 1910-p 

Morris, Jeremiah M ..1885-p 

Morris, John T 1878-p 

Morrison, Joseph Emil.... 1910-p 

Morton, J. W .1844 

Munden, J. N 1890-p 

Murray, Stockton R 1876 

Myers, Percy L 1898-p 

Neese, William D 1878 

Nesbit, James Harvey ....1877-p 

Newell, Harry N 1916-p 

Nizankowsky, Alexander 1906 

Nordlander, E. J.. 1921 p- 

Norris, John H 1890-p 

Nussmann, George S. A. 1907 

Oliver, W. L 1895 

Oiler, W. E.... 1878 

Paine, David B 1863-p 

Paisley, George M 1877-p 

Park, William J.. 1865-p 

Patterson, Charles D ..1917-p 

Patterson, David H ...1878-p 



Patterson, James B .1859-p 

Patterson, James M 1884-p 

Patterson, Reuben F 1863-p 

Payne, Henry P 1917-p 

Peairs, Benjamin F 1864-p 

Peepels, Henry C 1884-p 

Pender, Thomas M 191 1-p 

Peterson, Conrad A .1908 p- 

Pfeiffer, Erwin Gordon... 1914 p- 

Phillis, T. W 1878-p 

Pierce, David A.. 1873p-g 

Pierce, W. E ...1912 p^ 

Piper, O. P.. 1871-p 

Porter, J. W 1853 

Porter, Robert B ...1874 

Posey, David R...... .1857-p 

Price, William H 1862-p 

Puky de Bizak, S 1908-p 

Quick, Errett B 1910 p- 

Rall, Emil.... 1903 

Rankin, T. C ..1898-p 

Rea, John... 1868 

Ressler, J. I. L... 1884 p- 

Richards, John 1868-p 

Richmond, Charles F 1920-p 

Ritchey, James A ..1876 

Rivard, Emile A 1922 

Rodebaugh, William H...1892-p 

Sabacky, Vladimir ....1918-p 

Sampson, George C 1877 

Sampson, John P 1871-p 

Sanders, Frank P 1893 p- 

Santuccio, Agatino 1910-p 

Sarver, Jonathan E. 1903-p 

Sawhill, Thomas A 1878-p 

Schleifer, Oscar .1898 

Schneider, William P ..1900-p 

Schodle, Adam G 1907 

Schultz, Irwin S.... ..1916-p 

Scott, George R. W ...1866-p 

Seward, Oliver Lee.. 1897-p 

Shadrack, William ...1834 

Sharp, Samuel F 1898-p 

Shauer, Joseph J ....1919-p 

Shepard, Simon P 1885-p 

Shields, Harry M ..1893-p 

Shields, J. H 1872 

Shuey, Theodore George 1920-p 

Simpson, James T 1913-p 

Simpson, John W 1878 

Simpson, S. T 1918 p- 

Sinclair, B. D..... 1887-p 

Skinner, E. W 1846 

Smith, Benjamin 1848 

Smith, Charles L 1890-p 



95 (259) 



t)irectory 



Smith, C. M 1926-p 

Smith, C. S _...._ 1881-p 

Smith, David -..- 1851 

Smith, James P 1858-p 

Smith, Joseph H 1862-p 

Smith, Wayne P _...1894-p 

Soucek, Frank 1918-p 

Stafford, H. Erwin 1922 p- 

Stanton, Charles E 1922 p- 

Staneff, Demetrius ...-1888 p- 

Steele, Alexander ....1901-p 

Stephens, Herbert T 189 1-p 

Sterrett, Walter B 1899-p 

Stevenson, James F ....1903-p 

Stewart, Joseph... 1915 p- 

Street, S. T 1875-p 

Streeter, E. E ....1908-p 

Strub, Henry M.. ...1916 

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1' 



6 (260) 



The BalletiD 

of tke 

WesteFD Theologieal 
Seminary 




THE FOUNDING AND EARLY HISTORY 

of the 

WESTERN THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 

By Rev. Allan Ditch field Campbell, D. D. 



Vol. XX. 



October, 1927 



No. 1 



THE BULLETIN 

OF THE 

Western Tbeologieal Seminary 



A Revie-w Devoted to the Interests of 
Tneological Education 



PublisKed quarterly in January, April, July, and October, by the 
Trustees of tbe Western Theological Seminary of the Presbyterian Church 
in the United States of America. 



Edited by the President with the co-operation of the Faculty. 

The Founding and Early History 

of the 

Western Theological Seminary 

by 

Rev. Allan Ditchfield Campbell, D. D. 

Director 1825 - - 1S61 

Sometime Instructor in Church Government 
and General Agent 



Communications for the Editor and all business matters should be 

addressed to 

REV. JAMES A. KELSO, 

731 Ridge Ave.. N. S., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

75 cents a year. Single Number 25 cents. 

Each author is solely resoonsibie for the views expressed in his article. 



Entered as second-class matter December 9, 1909, at the posloffice at Pittsburgh, Pa, 
(North Side Station) under the act of August 24, 1912. 



HISTORICAL RECOLLECTIONS 

of the Persons and Means Employed 
in Establishing the 

Western Theological Seminary 
AT ALLEGHENY, PA. 

with 

A Memorial to the Worthy Dead. 

Rev. Allan Ditchfield Campbell, D. D. 



"Blessed are the dead which die in the Lord from 
henceforth: yea, saith the Spirit, that they may rest from 
their labours; and their works do follow them." Rev. 14:13. 



FOREWORD 

A few 3'ears ago Rev. John H. Kerr, D.D., of Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., a graduate of the Seminary, Class of 1881, 
presented to the Seminary a manuscript from the pen of 
his grandfather. Rev. Allan Ditchfield Campbell, D.D. 
The publication of this document was postponed until 
the time of the celebration of the founding of the insti- 
tution as it contained an account of the establishment of 
the institution and its early histor}^, written by an eye 
witness who would have been justified in using Virgil's 
famous line, '' quorum pars magna fui", had his modesty 
permitted. 

The sketch of the life of the author was furnished 
by Dr. Kerr, and is prefixed as an introduction to the 
history. In preparing the manuscript for the press, it 
v\^as decided to print the document without any changes. 
For this reason the reader must keep in mind the fact 
that Dr. Campbell would probably have made some revi- 
sion and rearrangement of the manuscript had he been 
alive to correct it for the press. Time has dimmed the 
ink in some instances to such a degree that in places a 
word was almost illegible even under a magnifying glass. 
In such a case the word as deciphered is printed in 
brackets, sic [ ]. 

On his visit to Great Britain for the purpose of 
securing a Librar^^ for the Seminar}^, Dr. Campbell was 
befriended by men who were influential in ecclesiastical 
circles. He often mentions them in a casual way as if 
they bore household names. We have thought it wise in 
some cases to append a note whereby the reader may 
easily identify them. 

The members of the faculty have generously given 
assistance both in the preparation of the manuscript for 
ihe printer, and in the reading of the proof, but the main 
burden of this work has fallen upon Miss Margaret M. 
Read, the Secretary to the President of the Seminary, 
to whose painstaking care and accuracy the alumni and 
friends of the Seminary are indebted for the printed 
form of this original and interesting account of the begin- 
nings of the Western Theological Seminary. 

James A. Kelso. 



Sketch of the Life of the Rev. Allan 
Ditchfield Campbell, D, D. 



Eev. Allan Ditchfield Campbell (D.D., Washington 
College, 1843), was born at Chorley, Lancashire, Eng- 
land, March 15, 1791. He came to the United States 
with his mother when quite young, and joined his father 
who in 1795 had come to the United States and settled in 
Baltimore. Mr. Campbell graduated from the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania. 

He was licensed by the Presbytery of the Associate 
Reformed Church of Philadelphia in 1815, and appointed 
by that body to preach in vacant churches in Western 
Pennsylvania. 

He was married in 1817 in Pittsburgh. In 1818 he 
was ordained by the Presbytery of Monongahela over the 
churches of Meadville and Sugar Creek, where he labored 
devotedly until the Synod of Scioto separated from the 
Associate Reformed Church east of the mountains. He 
refused to go with them, and united with the Presbytery 
of Redstone of the Presbyterian Church. 

In the fall of 1820 he removed to Tennessee, taking 
charge of the First Presbyterian Church of Nashville, 
where for seven years he labored faithfully in his 
Master's work, amid many difficulties and much pain and 
suffering from frequent attacks of illness. To Andrew 
Jackson h*e was specially indebted for his unceasing 
friendship and kind hospitalities at ''The Hermitage." 
Dr. Campbell returned East with his family in 1827, and 
finally settled in the fall of 1828 at Maple Grove. 

He took a leading part in the establishment of the 
Western Theological Seminary in Allegheny City, hav- 



ing been hj the Greneral Assembly of the Presbyterian 
Church appointed a director of the contemplated semin- 
ary, which was, in 1827, by authority of the General As- 
sembly, located on the "common ground in the reserved 
tract opposite Pittsburgh," the citizens of Allegheny 
having executed a grant to the Assembly (confirmed by 
the Legislature of Pennsylvania in 1827) of eighteen 
acres, including the elevation now called '^ Monument 
Hill," on which was built the original seminary, de- 
stroyed by fire in 1854. The validity of the transfer of 
the commons property having been questioned, in 1850 
the trustees of the seminary, in compromise with the Citj 
of Allegheny, relinquished their title to all of the prop- 
erty except about one acre, on the corner of Eidge and 
Irwin Avenues, on which the seminary and professors' 
houses are now built. 

The infant institution began Avith four students, 
under the instruction of Revs. Joseph Stockton and E. P. 
Swift. In 1828 Dr. Campbell visited England and Scot- 
land, for the purpose of collecting a library for the infant 
seminary, and secured a much needed collection of 2,000 
volumes. Dr. Campbell for a time had charge of the 
Fourth Presbyterian Church of Pittsburgh, but resigned 
that charge to give his entire attention to the seminary, 
in which he discharged with rare fidelity the duties of 
his position as general agent, and instructor in Church 
Grovernment and Discipline, until his official relations 
terminated in 1840, and to the end of his life he was the 
untiring advocate of what he deemed for the best interest 
of the institution. 

For some years after 1840 Dr. Campbell was pastor 
of the Second Presbyterian Church of Allegheny, and, 
after his resignation on account of ill health, was always 
ready in church work, supiDlying vacant pul^Dits and aid- 
ing struggling churches. 



As a true lover of his country, the unhaippy condi- 
tion of public affairs at the outbreak of the Rebellion 
aroused in his mind a profound but anxious interest. He 
had in 1814, when a young theological student, gone out 
with the citizens of Baltimore to resist the British opera- 
tions against that city. So in 1861, although prevented 
by the infirmities of age from going into active service 
for his countr}^, to give evidence of the interest he took 
in the nation 's cause he accompanied a regiment of Home 
Guards of which he had been appointed chaplain, in their 
parade July 4, 1861. He never recovered from the 
fatigue of the long, hot march, and September 20, 1861, 
went to his reward. He is buried in Allegheny Cemetery. 

''He was earnest, loyal, aggressive for his Master's 
work, for the right ; outspoken and candid, warm-hearted 
and impulsive. Peculiarly hapipy in his marriage, he 
owed to it much of his usefulness. His ardent impulses 
were wonderfully tempered by the calm dignity of char- 
acter and judicious influence of Mrs. Campbell." 



Contents 

I. The Founding and Location of the Semi- 

nary 13 

II. The Title to the Site Questioned 36 

III. , Dr. Campbell Visits England 49 

IV. Dr. Campbell Goes to Scotland 66 

V. The First Professors 84 

VI. The Raising of an Endowment 93 

VII. Early Difficulties Surmounted 103 

VIII. The Seminary and Foreign Missions .... 115 

IX. Grounds for Encouragement 121 

X. The Fathers of the Seminary 126 

XI. Conclusion 142 



CHAPTER I. 

The Founding and Location 
of the Seminary 

The establishment of the Theological Seminary of 
Princeton was a movement in response to the neces- 
sity and importance of Seminaries in promoting 
theological education. Probably public attention was 
called to this subject from the experiment that was mak- 
ing by the Reformed Dutch and Associate Reformed 
Churches in the United States. If my history serves 
me, to the Dutch Church belongs the honor of having 
established the tirst theological seminary in the United 
States. Shortly afterwards a similar institution was 
commenced by the Associate Reformed Synod. 

The inauguration of such an idea could have been 
placed in no better hands than those of the Rev. Dr. 
Livingston of the Reformed Dutch Church and the Rev. 
Dr. John M. Mason of New York of the Associate Re- 
formed Church, men of mark in their several denomina- 
tions whose praises are still in the churches, although 
they have long been called to sing the song of the 
redeemed in the upper sanctuary. 

New Brunswick in New Jersey became the seat of 
the Dutch Seminary, and New York that of the Associate 
Reformed Church. 

From a growing interest on the part of the various 
evangelical denominations as to the direction that should 
be given to the theological education of the ministry, a 
deep feeling of interest was called forth in the Presby- 
terian Church as to the practical workings of the experi- 
ment going on in the two seminaries which had been 
established by sister Churches. We find in looking into 
the Digest issued in 1820, under the heading of "Theo- 

13 



Founding and Early' History of Western Seminary 

logical Seminary," that as early as 1809 a committee, to 
which was referred the overture from the Presbytery of 
Philadelphia, reported in relation to the establishment 
of a theological school, and as to the modes of compass- 
ing this important object. In the prosecution of the idea 
of establishing a seminary further action of the General 
Assembly on the subject took place in 3810, in which 
after careful deliberation it was resolved, "1st. That 
the state of our churches, the loud and affecting calls of 
the destitute frontier settlements and the laudable ex- 
ertions of various Christian denominations around us, 
all demand that the collected wisdom, piety and zeal of 
the Presbyterian Church be without delay called into 
action for furnishing the Church' with a large -apply of 
able and faithful ministers. 2nd, That the General 
Assembly will in the name of the Great Head of the 
Church immediately attempt to establish a seminary for 
securing to candidates for the ministry more extensive 
and efficient theological instruction than they have here- 
tofore enjoyed. The local situation of this seminary is 
hereafter to be determined. ' ' 

We find that in 1812 the Assembly resolved that the 
permanent location of the Theological Seminary be in 
the borough of Princeton, New. Jersey. 

From the standing of the professors, with the names 
of Alexander, Miller, etc., the seminary was destined to 
take a high position in the opinion of the Church for 
theological lore and eminent capabilities to train young 
men for the gospel ministry. 

In the language of a plea issued in 1839 in behalf 
of the Western Theological Seminary addressed to the 
members of the Presbyterian Church, we would say, 
"Hitherto Princeton has deservedly ranked highest in 
the list of institutions of this kind. Be it so — let none 
dare detract from the merits of this hallowed place, 
whose venerable professors command the highest respect 
and whose numerous and devoted students have filled the 

14 



The Founding and Location of the Seminary 

highest stations in the Church. But from its locality (it 
was not then the days of railroads) Princeton is not 
equall}^ accessible to all the inhabitants of our widely ex- 
tended country, and hence the necessity for a Western 
Seminary which might be better situated with reference 
to the vast extent of territory west of the Allegheny 
Mountains." The term "Western" may appear now 
somewhat inappropriate. How different the area west 
from what it was thirty-five 3^ears ago ! The Rocky 
Mountains, it was supposed, would be the utmost bounds 
to which population would extend for very many years. 
It may be said with some shew^ of truth, looking at the 
difference of meaning of terms and phrases that occur 
at one period to that of another "'Tempora mutantnr et 
nos mutamur in illis." 

In 1825 at a meeting of the Assembly which Avas held 
in Philadelphia, "iVn overture on the subject of establish- 
ing a Theological Seminary in the west" was reported 
by the Committee of Overtures. The action of the As- 
sembly on this overture is as follows: — "The General 
Assembly taking into consideration the numerous and 
rapidly increasing population of that part of the United 
States and their territories situated in the great valley 
of the Mississippi, and believing that the interests of the 
Presbyterian Church require it, and that the Redeemer's 
kingdom will thereby be promoted, do resolve that it is 
expedient forthwith to establish a Theological Seminary 
in the West, under the supervision of the General As- 
sembly." 

At the same Assembly the committee appointed to 
consider and report the measures which may be neces- 
sary and expedient for carrying into effect the resolu- 
tions of the Assembly relative to the establishment of a 
Theological Seminary brought in a report, which being 
read and amended and adopted, is as follows: — "Re- 
solved 1. That the style or name of the contemplated in- 
stitution shall be the AVestern Theological Seminary of 
the Presbyterian Church in the United States. 2. That in 

15 



Founding and Early History of Western Seminary 

the opinion of your committee the plan of the Theo- 
logical Seminary at Princeton ought to be also the 
plan of the contemplated Seminary in the West, with no 
other alterations whatever than those which are indis- 
pensably necessary to accommodate it to the local situa- 
tion and circumstances of the new institution, and a 
single provision of a temporary kind which will be speci- 
fied in the next particular. 3. The Board of Directors* 
consisting of twenty-one ministers and nine ruling elders 
be axjpointed by ballot by the present Assembly, who 
shall continue in office no longer than till they shall have 
had opportunity to report to the Assembly next year, 
and till that Assembly shall have made provision for a 
future election agreeably to an arrangement to be made 
for the purpose by said Assembly. 4. That five com- 
missioners be appointed by the present Greneral Assem- 
bly to examine carefully the several sites which may be 
proposed for the contemplated seminary, as to the 
healthfulness of the places and regions Avhere these sites 
may be found, as to the amount of pecuniary aid and 
other property which may be obtained trom the in- 
habitants of the sites and their vicinity severally in es- 
tablishing the contemplated seminary. ... 5. That the 
first meeting of the Board of Directors appointed this 
year by the Assembly shall be on the third Friday of 
July next at two o'clock P.M., at Chillicothe in the State 
of Ohio, when they shall choose their officers and do 
whatever else shall be found necessary to their full or- 
ganization." 

"An election was held for Directors of the Western 
Theological Seminary and the following persons were 
chosen : — 



*The Board of Directors from the organization in 1825 to 1857 
consisted of twenty-one ministers and nine ruling elders, but at the 
meeting of the Assembly at Lexington in 1857, at the request of the 
Board, the following resolution was passed: 

"Resolved that the Board of Directors of the Western Theo- 
logical Seminary be enlarged to forty and divided into four equal 
classes one of which shall go out of oflBce annually, that is, 28 Min- 
isters and 12 Elders." 

16 



The Founding and Location of the Seminary 

"Ministers, Rev. Gideon Blackburn, D.D., Matthew 
Brown, D.D., Francis Herron, D.D., Robert G. Wilson, 
D,D., Duncan Brown, Randolph Stone, William Wylie, 
James Scott, James Hoge, John T. Edgar, Allan D. 
Campbell, Obadiah Jennings, Elisha P. Swift, William 
Speer, John Breckinridge, John Seward, James Culbert- 
son, John Thompson, James Blythe, D.D., Murdock 
Murphy, Donald Mcintosh. 

"Elders, Edward Ward of Florence, Alabama, 
George Plummer of Robstown, Pa., Walter Dunn of 
Chillicothe, Ohio, Samuel Hudson of Hudson, Ohio, 
Matthew B. Lowrie of Pittsburgh, Pa., John Milligan of 
Steubenville, Ohio, Thomas T. Skillman of Lexington, 
Ky., Samuel F. McCracken of Lancaster, Ohio, Thomas 
P. Smith of Paris, Ky. 

"The Assembly also proceeded to elect commission- 
ers to act in regard to the location of the Western Semi- 
nary when the following persons were appointed, viz. — 
Gen. Andrew Jackson of Tennessee, Hon. Benjamin Mills 
of Paris^ Kentucky, Hon. John Thompson of Chillicothe, 
Ohio, Rev. Obadiah Jennings of Pennsylvania, and Rev. 
Andrew Wylie of Pennsylvania." 

"The Board of Directors of the contemplated 
Western Theological Seminary met agreeably to the 
appointment of the last General Assembly at 2 o~^clock 
p.m., in Chillicothe, Ohio, July 15, 1825, and after the 
delivery of the sermon by the Rev. William A¥ylie, the 
roll was called and the following members answered tc 
their names, to wit: — The Rev. James Blythe, D.D., 
Robert G. Wilson, D.D., Francis Herron, D.D., Gideon 
Blackburn, D.D., William Wylie, James Culbertson, 
John Thompson, John Seward, John T. Edgar, Elisha 
P. Swift, and Donald Mcintosh, with Messrs. Walter 
Dunn, Matthew B. Lowrie, Esq., Samuel F. McCracken, 
elders. The Rev. Dr. Blythe, the senior member pres- 
ent, being in the chair, the Board was then constituted 
with prayer, after which the Board proceeded to the 

17 



Founding and Early History of Western Seminary 

election of officers for the ensuing year. The following 
members were chosen to the offices annexed to their re- 
spective names, to wit: — 

Rev. James Blythe, D.D., President. 
Rev. Francis Herron, D.D., 1st Vice-President. 
Rev. John Thompson, 2nd Vice-President. 
Rev. Elisha P. Swift, Secretary. 

"The General Assembly having resolved that the 
plan of the Theological Seminary at Princeton should 
form that of the contemplated Western Theological Semi- 
nary with such alterations as the particular local situa- 
tion of the latter should in the opinion of the Board of 
Directors require, the Rev. Robert G. Wilson, D.D., Fran- 
cis Herron, D.D., and John T. Edgar were appointed a 
committee to examine said plan, enquire what alterations 
if an}^ are necessary, and rejDort to this Board to-morrow 
morning. ' ' 

This action of the General Assembly, adopting the 
plan* of the Theological Seminary with such changes as 
local circumstances should dictate as it respects the con- 
templated institution, teaches an imp)ortant moral, name- 
ly, that no Board of Directors or Professors can be at lib- 
erty to ignore the plan or make it very little better than a 
dead letter. The guards against assumption should be 
carefully watched. An opposite course always will be del- 
eterious to any cause. The Board goes on to say, "Re- 
solved that inasmuch as the establishment in the western 
country of such a seminary as is now contemplated by 
the General Assembly of our Church, is to be justly 
viewed both as a felicitous and highly important event 
to the Church of God, this Board, sensible of the 
solemnity and importance of the business intrusted to 
them, do unite this evening with such persons as may 
think proper to join them in devoutly imploring the 
presence of God with them in their present sessions and 



= Refers to the original Princeton plain. 

18 



The Founding and Location of the Seminary 

His blessing upon the great undertaking now about to 
be commenced in the name and in reliance upon the 
gracious aid of the Head of the Church." 

On Saturday morning, July 16th, at 9 o'clock, the 
Board met again agreeably to adjournment, members 
present as before with the addition of the Rev. Obadiah 
Jennings and the Rev. Allan D. Campbell, who took their 
seats as members of the Board. In this preliminary 
meeting at Chillicothe after reading the plan of the Theo- 
logical Seminary at Princeton some alterations were 
suggested by the Board and a circular letter adopted ad- 
dressed '^To the friends of piety and benevolence in the 
western country not only on the subject of the location 
of the contemplated seminary, but also inviting pro- 
posals from different places." All such overtures were 
to be made to the Commissioners on or before the next 
stated meeting of the Commissioners, which was to take 
place on the 23rd, November next, at Washington, Pa., 
when they were expected to act upon the proposals which 
should be offered to them from different places. In such 
proposals it is suggested in the circular "that satisfac- 
tory assurances should accompany the proposals offered, 
that the amount in cash or other property xjroposed to be 
given for the endowment of the Seminary will be ulti- 
mately realized by the Board in case these proposals are 
accepted and care should be taken that every estimate 
of the worth of grounds, buildings, etc, proposed to be 
given be fixed at a fair and equable valuation." 

The Board then brought the business of this first 
meeting to a close and adjourned to meet the third 
Thursday of April (the 20th) 1826, in AVheeling. 

The first meeting indicated a good measure of 
harmony and a pretty clear expression of sentiment as 
to the necessity of having a Western Seminary, but still 
it was plain there w^ould be differences of opinion as to 
the ultimate seat of the institution which might be fatal 
to the idea of general unity of all the interests in the 
West. 

19 



Founding and Early History of Western Seminary 

The Board of Directors of the contemplated Semin- 
ary met at Wheeling, according to their adjournment, on 
April 20th, 1826. A communication was received from 
the Board of Commissioners appointed by the General 
Assembly on the subject of the location of the Seminary, 
stating that proposals had been received from a number 
of places offering various inducements to the considera- 
tion of the Commissioners, but that owing to the fact 
that but three of the five members of which the Board is 
composed had attended either of their meetings, that in 
most instances the proposals inviting a location had been 
considered at their second meeting and, having left the 
business open for further exertions, they had not been 
able to form a quorum, and had concluded to transfer all 
these papers to the Directors without recommending to 
them any one place in particular as the most eligible site 
for the Seminary contemplated. 

As a matter of history and also to see the influence 
these proposals had in the decision of the Board as to 
their preference of location, there had been appointed 
at this meeting in Wheeling a committee to take the 
papers submitted by the Board of Commissioners, and to 
prepare a condensed view of the several propositions 
made to the Board in regard to the location of the 
Western Theological Seminary. The report goes on to 
say that proposals had been received from thirteen 
places, all of which are represented as healthful and 
affording great facilities of communication with differ- 
ent parts of the country and all are furnished with 
abundant and cheap markets. In these respects little 
difference if any can be noticed among the several pro- 
posals. 

Proposals 

1st. West Union, Ohio, offers by subscription 

$4,595, of which $165 is in trade and $125 doubtful as to 

collection. 

2nd. Chillicothe offers their Academy lot and 

/ 

20 



The Founding and Location of the Seminary 

building on condition of continuing in it a grammar 
school in which the languages are to be taught, and also 
a subscription to the amount of $3,130, the principal to 
be paid when the subscribers think it expedient, but 6% 
interest to be paid while the principal is retained. 

3rd. New Richmond, Clermont County, Ohio, offers 
the brick walls of the Court House and a subscription of 
$4,305 to be paid in annual installments and more than 
half in trade. 

4th. Cincinnati offers a lot of ground with a brick 
building valued at $17,000. on which is a debt of $3,000. 

v5th. Springfield, Ohio, offers a lot of one acre for 
a site and four lots in the town and a subscription 
amounting to $1,000. 

Gth. Harmony, Butler County, Pa., offers lands 
and buildings valued (the amount not stated in the re- 
port to the Committee) and a subscription to the amount 
of $4,000. 

7th. Ripley and Georgetown, Brown County, Ohio, 
offer their Court House, sixty acres of land in the 
vicinity, and a subcription to the amount of $1,347. 

8th. Charleston, Indiana, offers by guarantee 
eighteen acres of land valued at $100 per acre and $10,- 
000 in cash to put the Seminary in operation. 

9tli. Lebanon, Ohio, offers $3,400 including a dona- 
tion of lots and eight acres adjoining the town for a site. 

10th. Decatur, Ohio, offers by subscription $3,603, 
one-fourth to be paid in hand and the balance in three 
annual installments, also sixteen acres of land. 

11th. Meadville, Pa., offers the gratuitous use for 
ten years of a college library worth $20,000 and one-half 
of the college edifice for the same time. 

12th. Allegheny town. Pa., opposite Pittsburgh, 
offers a subscription of $21,000 together with eighteen 
acres of land estimated at $20,000. 

21 



Founding and Early History of Western Seminary 

13th. Walnut Hills, Ohio, near Cincinnati, offers 
30 acres of land in three parcels estimated at $6,000. 

A motion was made in the Board after reading the 
report of the Committee as to the proposals that the 
town of West Union in Adam County, Ohio, be recom- 
mended to the next General Assembly as the most suit- 
able place for the location of the contemplated seminary. 
It was after considerable discussion determined in the 
negative. Yeas 5, Noes 8. The members voting yea : Dr. 
Blythe, President of the Board, Dr. Wilson, Mr. Cul- 
bertson, Mr. Hoge, and Mr. Edgar, 5. Noes : Drs. Her- 
ron and Brown, Mr. W^ylie, Mr. Jennings, Mr. Stone, Mr. 
Smft, Mr. Mcintosh, and Mr. Milligan, 8. 

A motion W'as then made that it be recommended to 
the Greneral Assembly to locate the contemplated semin- 
ary in the town of Allegheny, Yeas 8, Noes 5. The names 
the same pro and con as in the previous vote as to West 
Union. 

A dissent by several members of the Board was read 
and ordered to be entered on the minutes as to the reso- 
lution recommending the location in Allegheny town. 
The dissent and the answer to it will cover the whole 
ground for and against the recommendation of Alle- 
gheny town as the proposed site of the contemplated 
seminary. 

The dissent is as follows: — 

"Wheeling, April 21, 1826. 

"The undersigned beg leave respectfully to represent 
to the General Assembly that to the business committed 
to the Board of Directors of the contemplated Western 
Theological Seminary they have hitherto attended at 
Chillicothe and at this place, and now regret that in the 
absence of all the Directors belonging to the Synod of 
Tennessee and the greatest part of those appointed from 
the Synods of Ohio and Kentucky, the members from the 
Synod of Pittsburgh with one from the Reserve Synod 

22 



The Founding and Location of the Seminary 

have by tlieir vote recommended Allegheny town for the 
proposed Seminary. This location we humbly conceive 
will not promote the benevolent wishes of the Assembly 
and hereby enter our solemn dissent from it. 

Robert G. Wilson, James Hoge, James Blythe, 
J. T. Edgar, James Culbertson. " 

Messrs. Stone and Mcintosh were appointed a Com- 
mittee to prepare an answer to the preceding dissent, 
which was adopted and is as follows : — 

"The Committee appointed to express to the General 
Assembly in connection with the solemn dissent from the 
decision of the majority the views and principles on 
which the majority acted, report that the great deficiency 
of pecuniary encouragement manifested by all the com- 
munications from the South and West created a seriouc 
doubt whether an institution of the kind contemplated 
could be carried into effective operation for many years 
to come if located in any of the proposed places. And, 
moreover, that the vast extent of w^hat is called the valley 
of the Mississippi, the variety of its climate, the different 
manners, customs, and habits of its population all con- 
spired to produce and force upon the minds of the 
majority the conviction that no single seminar}' wherever 
located can ever combine the strength and supply the 
wants of such a numerous wide-spread and mixed popu- 
lation. They consider the success of such an attempt as 
a moral and physical impossibility. With these views 
and under this conviction the majority was compelled 
by their sense of duty to select the place within their 
knowledge where such a seminary is most needed and 
which will combine the greatest advantages and promise 
the greatest immediate benefit to the cause of piety in 
the Presbyterian Church. In the humble opinion of the 
majority the Town of Allegheny is that place and there- 
fore is recommended to the consideration of the Assem- 
bly." 

23 



Foundmg and Early History of Western Seminary 

It often happens that high moral intentions art 
seriously damaged by mere collateral issues. Why thi& 
should be so is capable of no better solution than this, 
that even good men sometimes permit the selfishness of 
their natures to get the better of their determinations to 
live up to the gospel rule "to do all to the glory of God." 

A mere question as to the place the Seminary should 
be established was no justification for the alienations 
that occurred to the great cause of establishing a 
Western Theological Seminary. An Allegheny town, a 
Walnut Hills, a West Union, etc., could not answer the 
question, what is the duty of the Church in educating a 
ministry to aid in the evangelization of the world. 

This question of the final location of the Seminary 
called forth no little interest in the Assemblies of '26 
and '27. One would have supposed the place was the 
great question which gave intensity to the discussion be- 
fore that body. It is strange how we are often led 
away ' ' to seek the great things of this world rather than 
those of the kingdom." 

This was the starting point in the history of the 
difficulties in establishing the Western Theological Sem- 
inary which should not have occurred. We may not 
permit our local attachment to have an advantage over 
our better judgment under certain circumstances which 
in our cooler moments we may be ready to condemn. 
The answer to the dissent to recommend Allegheny town 
is full and directly to the point. While Allegheny was 
preferable in a pecuniary point to all other proposals, 
there was another consideration of a most convincing 
character. The surroundings of the Seminary in Alle- 
gheny town would be more thoroughly Presbyterian than 
in any other part of the West or South. 

It is decidedly my opinion that at that period in the 
West a theological seminary could not have been sus- 
tained in any other locality than within the bounds of 
the Synod of Pittsburgh, and even there future events 

24 



The Founding and Location of the Seminary 

made it doubtful whether it should have been commenced 
at that period of time. We are not to look at the ques- 
tion as it is now but what it was thirty-five years ago. 

It is altogether likely the West was not prepared for 
the establishment of such an institution. There was a 
want of similarity of views as well as of means. Could 
the friends of the Seminary cause have foreseen the diffi- 
culties connected with the founding of the Western Theo- 
logical Seminary they would have been led to postpone 
the effort to a more propitious period. 

One of the buddings of the discordant views of the 
Seminary matter was the Synodical movement irre- 
^;pective of General Assembly supervision. The product 
of th^s feeling was the establishment of the New Albany 
Semina.ry by the joint effort of several Synods. If 
there was a comparative failure in the incipient steps 
of the Western Theological Seminary how much more so 
in such an institution as New Albany, having no general 
pledged fidelity either for its establishment or continued 
support. 

In the progress of years this merely sectional 
synodical effort, dwarfed as to insuring general support, 
caused a movement to be got up to remove Allegheny 
Seminary with New Albany, as with a sort of vi et annis 
impulse, to some point which would be acceptable to the 
ones dissatisfied as to Allegheny as the seat of the West- 
ern Theological Seminar}^ Such a scheme could not suc- 
ceed, for the friends of the Allegheny Seminary were not 
consulted as they should have been, but a certain outside 
pressure was attempted to accomplish the object. A 
little cheap civility goes a great way. The removal ques- 
tion received no countenance on the part of Allegheny, 
not only on account of the uncertainty of a general 
agreement in founding a new seminary, but also too 
much had been done at Allegheny to abandon it for a 
Utopian scheme of a very doubtful character. Future 
events shewed the wisdom of the decision. Instead of 

25 



Founding and Early History of Western Seminary 

agreement, the result was that three seminaries were 
called into existence instead of one. Unions are worth 
nothing without there is agreement. May it not be that 
this rage for nmltipl>dng seminaries will be anything 
else bat for good to the Church, creating competition and 
rivalship of a most unhealthy kind. Many ministers are 
drawn off from the legitimate work of preaching the 
gospel and pastoral duties to be professors. The in- 
stitutions themselves arg too often burdened Avith debt 
and difficulties so as to render the matter yqyj doubtful 
whether there were not more imprudence in their 
creation than anything else. It is the qualit}" of the 
thing and not the quantity that should be looked after. 
Again, not only men but means are withdrawn from the 
other great objects of the Church by this rage for multi- 
plication. It would be rather startling to shew how 
much every minister costs the Church for his theological 
education. Every new project demands a further out- 
lay and in so far is increasing the burden. There may 
be too much invested in this way for the good of the 
Church and the expensiveness of our machiner}^ as a 
church may do the cause serious injury. 

The action of the Assembly of 1827 with respect to 
the Western Theological Seminary reads as follows: — 
"The Assembly took up the subject of the location of 
the Western Theological Seminary. Several proposals 
and communications in relation to different sites were 
read, after which prayer was offered for divine direction. 
A motion was then made to locate the Seminary at Alle- 
gheny town and after some discussion the Assembly ad- 
journed until to-morrow morning." "The Assembly re- 
sumed the consideration of the location of the Western 
Theological Seminary. The original motion was modi- 
fied so as to read as follows, viz: 'Resolved that a Theo- 
logical Seminary be, and it is hereby to be located at 
Allegheny town, near Pittsburgh, in the State of Penn'a., 
and that the style and title of said Seminary be The 

26 



The Founding and Location of the Seminary 

Theological Seminary of the Greneral Assembly of the 
Presbyterian Church in the Synod of Pittsburgh. Re- 
solved, as the judgment of this Assembly, that a theo- 
logical Seminary under the care of the Presbyterian 
Church ought to be located in some suitable place in the 
bounds of the Synods to the westward of the Synod of 
Pittsburgh, so soon as it shall appear that there is a 
reasonable prospect of obtaining funds adequate to its 
establishment and support.' After considerable dis- 
cussion a motion was made and carried to postpone the 
above resolutions and the following was introduced as a 
substitute, viz: — 'Resolved, That the Western Seminary 
l»e located at Walnut Hills.' After considerable discus- 
sion a motion was made to postpone this resolution also 
with a view to introduce the following, viz: — 'Resolved, 
that the roll be now called and that each member be 
allowed to vote either for Allegheny town or Walnut 
Hills.' This motion was carried. The roll was called 
when it was decided that Allegheny town be the site of 
the Western Theological Seminary.' " 

It is a curious fact and puts to silence the slanders 
of the grasping character of the Presbyterian Church 
that the General Assembly of 1827 only determined by 
a majority of two votes to locate the Seminary at Alle- 
gheny town rather than Walnut Hills. This did not look 
like a wish to take advantage of the Commons of Alle- 
gheny town in wresting property from them to promote 
the interests of a particular denomination. 

In the proper place I shall take occasion to give the 
history of how the Presbyterian Church got an interest 
in a part of the public commons of that '^ity. For the 
honor of the Presbyterian Church and in justice to those 
who were active in obtaining this transfer a statement 
should be made that may speak for itself. Truth is 
mighty and can plead its own cause. 

By the same Assembly that placed the Western 
Theological Seminary in Allegheny toA\ni the Rev. Dr. 
Jacob J. Janeway, one of the pastors of Arch Street 

27 



Founding and Early History of Western Seminary 

Presbyterian Church, Philadelphia, was chosen its first 
professor of Didactic Theology. He did not assume the 
duties of the professorate until the next year. The elec- 
tion of one so well known gave great pleasure to the 
friends of the Seminary after the toils and vexations 
connected with the question of the location of the insti- 
tution. The Board afterwards elected Rev. Dr. Herron 
President and during the year made such arrangements 
as circumstances seemed to require. The first session 
was formally commenced on Nov. 16, 1827, with a class 
of four young men who were instructed by Rev. E. P. 
Swift and Rev. Joseph Stockton. They assumed this duty 
at the urgent request of the Board of Directors. 

At this stage of the narrative a recognition of the 
eminent services of the Rev. Dr. Ashbel Green, of Phila- 
delphia, is both just and interesting. From the very first 
when the Western Theological Seminary question was- 
mooted, Dr. Green took that lively interest in the move- 
ment that shewed both the generosity and Christianity 
of that venerable man. If selfish views could have in- 
fluenced him the natural conclusion would have been that 
his attachments to Princeton were of such a kind that 
his agency in favor of the West would be of very nega- 
tive character. From the fact of Dr. Green's being one- 
of the founders of Princeton Theological Seminary, a 
Director, etc., it might be supposed that his feelings 
would be there. But there was another thing. Very 
many of the students were to be drawn particularly from 
Western Pennsylvania and Ohio. The setting up of an in- 
stitution in the very portion of the Church Avhere large- 
additions were to be looked for to fill up the classes at 
Princeton shewed how entirely unselfish he was, particu- 
larly when a question of usefulness came before his mind. 
In the eye of my imagination I am carried back to the 
meeting of the General Assembly of 1827 when, having- 
the privilege of being a fellow-member with that vener- 
able father in the Lord during the very ardent discussion. 

28 



The Founding and Location of the Seminary 

on the location question, there was not an individual on 
that floor that took a more lively interest in favor of 
the Seminary and its final location at Allegheny town. 
It is very well known that Dr. Green was the counselor 
to Dr. Herron and others in this whole business and under 
God we are, as it respects outside influence, as much in- 
debted to him as to any other person in the Church. To 
have had the prayers, counsel, and agency of such a man 
is worth a great deal to any cause. As a testimony of 
the thorough appreciation of the course of Dr. Green, the 
same Assembly of 1827 elected him one of the Directors 
of the Allegheny Seminary, although he was an officer 
of the Princeton institution, a delicate compliment that he 
was capable of appreciating. 

I find by a recurrence to the minutes of the Board as 
early as the first meeting at Chillicothe, the Secretary 
gave notice that the sum of $46 had been received from 
the Rev, Dr. Green toward the endowment of a scholar- 
ship to be called the Christian Advocate Scholarship and 
also from the same gentleman one copy of Home's In- 
troduction to the Critical Study of the Scriptures for the 
library of the Western Theological Seminary. Had such 
singleness of purpose and self-sacrifice been manifested 
in the West as to the Seminary and the location of it at 
Allegheny town, how many mortifications and troubles 
the friends of the institution would have been spared. 

If such was the spirit of Dr. Green to the contem- 
plated theological school, equally so Avas the conduct of 
those connected with the Theological Seminary at Prince- 
ton. We hear of no Professor or Director commencing a 
partisan warfare against the enterprise. The eye of 
jealousy was not directed to the Seminary from a source 
that some little feeling might have been expected. It is 
a petty rivalship which would seek pre-eminence over a 
sister institution. A Christian and honorable mind will 
not cherish such a feeling. 

I shall take occasion during this narrative (either in 
the body of it or appendix, by the introduction of letters 

29 



Founding and Early History of Western Seminary 

from those connected with the undertaking or otherwise) 
to speak of many whose names should be held in honor- 
able remembrance for their self-denying spirit in build- 
ing up this school of the prophets. It will not be my in- 
tention to make heroes of some or detract from others, 
but simply to note the doings of bye-gone years, so that 
another generation may know who were the agents in 
doing the work. 

If old Kedstone brightens up the recollection of what 
the Fathers were, certainly it cannot be an unacceptable 
work to speak of Herron, Johnston, M'Millan, Brown, 
Anderson, Ralston, Patterson, Baird, Stockton, Swift, 
Beatty, M'Andy, Speer, Lea and others, together with 
the worthy laymen, Harmar Denny, Esq., Michael Allen, 
Benjamin Williams, elders of the churches of Pittsburgh, 
Allegheny, etc. etc. In this way, by the recognition of 
tJiose who were interested in the Seminary cause, can we 
briefly notice the changes which have taken place in the 
condition of the Western churches since the project and 
location of the Seminary began. 

This Seminary began with the early pioneers of the 
Church. Many received the idea from the primitive 
Theological Seminary under the auspices of that whole- 
hearted heroic old man, Rev, Dr. John M'Millan, who 
with a self-sacrifice greater than the majority of Foreign 
Missionaries have to endure, pitched his tent in the 
wilderness for the purpose of preaching the gospel to 
the early settlers. While many had gone to their solemn 
account before the establishment of the Western Theo- 
logical Seminary, still there were some of them in the 
field when this movement took place. They were mighty 
in the cause of Christ. With such men as a Herron, 
Ralston, Brown, M 'Curdy, and others for the advocates 
of the Seminary it was bound ultimately to succeed. It 
was well that those who caught their zeal in the early 
revivals of Western Pennsylvania should have been 
selected by Providence to lay the foundations of this 

30 



The Founding and Location of the Seminary 

school of the prophets. The original idea of a Theologi- 
cal Seminary west of the Allegheny Mountains had its 
origin in the Synod of Pittsburgh, a body which has had 
no low conceptions in the matter of doing good. The very 
missionary spirit which had always characterized that 
judicatory would naturally suggest a Theological Semi- 
nary both for the domestic and foreign field. The doc- 
trine of influences, how remarkable in producing great 
moral results! 

In the year 1827, when the instruction of the Semi- 
nary commenced under the supervision of Messrs. Stock- 
ton and Swift, steps were taken by the Board both as 
to the possession of the property in Allegheny town and 
also to the erection of building or buildings for the use 
of the Seminary. At the meeting of the Board on the 
J 9th of June, 1827, Michael Allen, Esq., was appointed 
Treasurer of the Board, which situation he held for many 
years, giving his time, and very frequently his money 
to aid in the building up of the Seminary. On motion it 
was resolved that ''Messrs. Joseph Stockton, Elisha P. 
Swift, James Graham with John Hannen and M. B. Low- 
rie be, and they hereby are appointed a Building Com- 
mittee to take possession in the name of this Board of the 
ground given to it for the use of the Seminary in Alle- 
gheny town, to procure estimates of the expense of grad- 
ing it for the use of the same, and to procure plans of a 
building or buildings proper to be erected for the institu- 
tion with the various estimates of the cost of the same to 
be laid before this Board at its next meeting, and they are 
hereby authorized to solicit the advice and co-operation 
of Joseph Patterson and Da;vid Evans, of Pittsburgh, and 
Wm. B. Robinson and James Anderson of Allegheny town 
in carrying into effect the several provisions contained in 
this resolution." 

The Building Committee not only entered upon their 
duties, but at the meeting on October 15th, 1827, made a 
report in part on subjects connected with the appoint- 
ment, and the Board went into the consideration of the 

31 



Founding and Early History of Western Seminary 

site, plan and dimensions of the building or buildings 
proper to be erected for the use of the Seminary. The 
Board proceeded to consider the subject of improving 
the ground belonging to the Seminary and determining 
the site and description of the building or buildings 
proper to be erected on the same, when, after consider- 
able discussion, on motion it was resolved, "That the 
Building Committee be instructed to erect the contem- 
plated building on the center of the hill, provided that it 
can be placed there without incurring (including the ex- 
pense of levelling the eastern and middle sections) an ex- 
penditure of more than $1000 above what a building of 
the same character and dimensions would cost erected on 
the eastern section with the levelling of that section 
onl}'. ' ' 

After considerable deliberation on the subject of the 
form and dimensions of the building necessary to be 
erected for the use of the Seminary, it was "Resolved 
that the Building Committee be authorized and directed 
to proceed as soon as practicable to erect an edifice not 
exceeding in dimensions the Theological Seminary at 
Princeton, three stories high, and that the funds sub- 
scribed or which may be subscribed in the city of Pitts- 
burgh and Allegheny town be, and they hereby are with 
the consent of the donors pledged for the completion of 
the same." 

It is proper to say that some members of the Board 
had great doubts as to the propriety of placing the build- 
ing on the hill, believing it would be very expensive to 
erect the Seminary in such a place and would be also 
very difficult of access, but the general opinion of the 
Board appeared to be otherwise, and therefore they 
acquiesced. Future events proved that these doubts were 
not without reason and added something to the difficulties 
with which the Board had to contend. 

The expense of the grading and the erection of the 
building were much greater than what was calculated 
upon, but still there was a safety clause even in the ac- 

32 



Tlie Founding and Location of the Seminary 

count of profit and loss. A considerable amount of the 
money paid for the grading of the site and for work at 
building was to students, thereby assisting them to meet 
their expenses at the Seminary and promoting their 
health. That this was perfectly legitimate and in accord- 
ance with the opinion of the Board is evident from a 
resolution passed at the meeting at Wheeling, April 24, 
1826, "Resolved, That it be recommended to the serious 
consideration of the General Assembly in the adoption 
of a plan for the government of the Western Theological 
Seminary whether such a plan of government ought not 
to embrace a regulation requiring all the students at the 
said Seminary regularly and habitually to perform such 
an amount of labor either in agriculture, horticulture or 
some mechanic art as may be deemed necessary to main- 
tain and promote health of body and vigour of mind." 

Whether the Assembly responded to this recommen- 
dation I am not able to say, but the Directors practically 
acted upon the theory of labour for the students, for a 
workshop was erected on Seminary Hill where the stu- 
dents made boxes «&c., and sold them and also assisted 
in the grading, not only for health but also to eke out a 
little of their expenses. To erect this workshop Mr. 
Walter Lowrie, Secretary of the Presbyterian Foreign 
Missionary Society, contributed $500. 

In the Spring of 1828, Dr. Janeway came to Alle- 
gheny Seminary and was engaged in discharging the 
duties of the professorship, but for reasons which are 
difficult to unravel for his change of mind a letter was 
received by the Board at .the October meeting, inform- 
ing the Directors that after mature deliberation he had 
concluded that it was his duty to decline the appointment 
made by the General Assembly as Professor of Theology 
in the Western Theological Seminary. Which letter hav- 
ing been read it was moved that the President of the 
Board be authorized to write to Dr. Janeway and an- 
nounce to him the receipt of his letter, express to him the 

33 



Founding and Early History of Western Seminary 

regret of the Board that he had felt it his duty to decline 
the important office assigned him by the General Assem- 
bly, and at the same time assure him that this Board, 
unpropitious as this result may seem to be to the best 
interests of the institution committed to their care, enter- 
tain the fullest persuasion that this decision 'has been 
dictated by his sincere and prayerful convictions of duty. 

Upon receiving the notice of the resignation of Dr. 
Janeway and responding to it, the Board of Directors, 
understanding that sundry students of theology are want- 
ing to enter the Seminary expecting that it would go into 
operation this season and learning that the professor-eJect 
had declined the appointment, and being sensible that an- 
other professor cannot be appointed until the next Gen- 
eral Assembly, "Resolved that in order to provide as far 
as practicable for the reception and instruction of such 
students and to commence the operations of the institu- 
tion, the Rev. Messrs. E. P. Swift and Joseph Stockton be 
appointed to perform the duties of a professor until the 
next General Assembly." 

The provisional help of the Seminary by Messrs. 
Stockton and Swift both before and after Dr. Jane- 
Avay's resignation was most satisfactory to the Directors 
of the Seminary and the friends of the movement. Mr. 
Stockton, with a painstaking that shewed he was reli- 
giously interested in the establishment of the Seminary, 
and Dr. Swift, with fine and noble impulses, entered upon 
the work of instruction. Neither of these gentlemen had 
any intention of permanent professorships or to seek such 
appointments from the Assembly, for they were pastors 
and associated fidelity with such a position as would pre- 
vent their assuming the two-fold obligation of being 
pastor and professor. The mere name of professor had no 
cabalistic influence about it with them. Professor, teach- 
er, instructor, were all words of synonymous import. 

Mr. Stockton has long gone to his reward. On a 
mission of parental affection, he visited Baltimore to at- 
tend a son attacked with the cholera. While the son re- 

34 



The Founding and Location of the Seminary 

covered from the illness the father fell a sacrifice to the 
disease. It was my privilege to preach his funeral sermon 
at Fine Creek, Allegheny County, near Sharpsburg, of 
which place he was pastor, and twenty years afterwards 
to occupy the same pulpit to mingle my sympathies with 
the people on account of the death of Brother Mowray 
their pastor who died away from home and of the same 
disease. The coincidence was striking and calculated to 
produce an impression. 

Mr. Stockton had an agency in the property matter 
in arranging about the surrender of a part of the Com- 
mon of Allegheny town which was endorsed by the peo- 
ple, as an instance of his attachment to the prosperity 
of the town as well as important to the interests of the 
Seminary. 

Dr. Swift is still among us bearing the ennobling 
position before the church of being a good man, full of 
good works. The affection of his people to him is the 
best evidence of his moral worth. 



35 



CHAPTER II. 

The Title to the Site Questioned 

I find the Executive Committee at a meeting on July 
28, 1843, passed the following resolution, "Resolved that 
Drs. Herron and Campbell be a committee to take legal 
counsel in any case connected with the Seminary grounds 
that may seem to require legal advice." 

The character of the suit, decisions and opinions of 
judges will furnish a true history of the property contro- 
versy and place this business in its true light for the 
inspection of those who may desire to know the truth in 
the matter. 

The multifarious positions which Dr. Swift has held 
in the Seminary as agent for the collection of funds, in- 
structor, director, secretary, counselor, vice-president of 
the Board of Directors, Trustee, &c.^all go to shew that 
his connection in building up the interests of theological 
literature in the Seminary was most important. Dr. 
Swift was not the friend of a day, coming in with his aid 
at the eleventh hour of this enterprise, but in the long 
years of difficulty without pecuniary reward and some- 
times almost without thanks. I employ not the language 
of adulation either to the living or the dead, but a feeble 
tribute is due to moral worth and piety wherever found. 

It is not always those who endure the heat and 
tug of the day that get the acknowledgment of gratitude. 
This has always been and ever will be to the end of time. 

The next spring after the Doctor's announcement 
that he intended to retire from the institution was memo- 
rable as the commencement of difficulties which long over- 
clouded the prospects of the Seminary. Although the 
citizens of Allegheny had invited the Assembly to make 
choice of the location and in two town meetings held on 
the subject, of which ample and general notice was given 

36 



The Title to the Site Questioned 

(so that none of the Commoners might plead ignorance 
of such meetings), giving an opportunity which was not 
embraced, to the opposers, if any such there were, to 
express their opinion, and though an Act of the Legisla- 
ture had been obtained at Harrisburg by the exertions 
of Hon. Harmar Denny to authoriS;e the occupation of 
the ground, there were some persons who thought the 
title insecure. Among these was Dr. Janeway (based as 
was asserted on the fact that two prominent lawyers, one 
of Pittsburgh and the other of Philadelphia, had ex- 
pressed this opinion) who gave this as his reason to the 
Assembly in 1829 for tendering his resignation, thus ter- 
minating all the expectations wbich his high standing 
among his brethren and sound judgment had excited. The 
surrender of a part of the public common for Seminary 
purposes did not originate in the Church. No Presby- 
terian domination called for it. The question was one of 
supposed advantage to Allegheny town by the people, 
not by Presbytery, Synod, or General Assembly. The 
only thing that looked like Presbyterian influence Avas 
the fact that the Eev. Joseph Stockton who was a Pres- 
byterian, had an agency in the negotiation more as a 
medium by which the people could approach the church 
on the subject. 

Wh}!^ the prominence of Mr. Stockton in the matter 
is evident. He was a Commoner of Allegheny town, hold- 
ing several lots, and a resident of the place, and would 
have no doubt town sympathies, which would have re- 
sisted Presbyterian aggressions, if any had been attempt- 
ed, either on the property or general interests of the 
place. 

We must seek for another reason rather than Pres- 
byterian aspirings for an explanation of the whole trans- 
action. In order to induce the General Assembly of 1827 
to locate the Seminary in this country the inhabitants of 
Allegheny town came forward with a property proposal, 
while Presbyterians in Western Pennsvlvania had a 

37 



Founding and Early History of Western Seminary 

$20,000 subscription pledge to spread before the Assem- 
bly. In a former action the Commissioners, appointed 
by the General Assembly, in order to obtain proposals 
either of money or property, or both, gave general notice 
to all places which desired that their claims should be 
recognized in the decision of the question as to the 
locality that should be recommended by them to the Gen- 
eral Assembly. 

This notice called forth, as will be perceived by a 
reference to a condensed view of the several propositions 
made to the Board in regard to the location of the West- 
ern Theological Seminary, many offers from various 
places. Amongst the number was that of Allegheny town. 
It was believed by the Allegheny people to have the 
Seminary established in their midst would be an impor- 
tant thing even on the score of pecuniary advantage. 
The property of that place had not the value it now has. 
To have prophesied the use of property according to the 
present standard of valuation a man would have been 
thought a mere dreamer. What now appears large in the 
public eye was much smaller in dimension at the time this 
property proposal was made to the General Assembly. 
The offer M^as very much a question of dollars and cento, 
for it was believed that large sums would be expended 
(which turned out to be the fact) in the erection of the 
building and also in carrjdng on the institution. Such a 
consideration, it was thought, would be no small matter to 
the town in the days of its infancy. Releases of the Com- 
moners, in accordance with the decisions of the two town 
meetings, were obtained from the Commoners as to their 
right of pasturage, while by the efforts of Mr. Harmar 
Denny a bill passed the legislature to give up the title 
to a right of soil which was in the State. The Western 
Penitentiary holds a part also of the public common with 
a title certainly not of the strength of that of the Semi- 
nary, for the State never had the releases of the Com- 
moners to their right of pasturage. 

This property was a dear gift to the Presbyterian 

38 



The Title to the Site Questioned 

Church. It cost a great deal more than it came to, for 
in the end the property was leased by the Trustees of the 
Seminary to the Councils of Allegheny City in perpetuo 
for a sum which did not compensate for the outlay in 
the erection of the building and excavation. So that which 
ultimately could not be accomplished by law was gained 
by the continual agitation of men who should have been 
engaged in a better cause. It would have been better for 
tlie Church, according to the proposition of John Irvine, 
Esq., of Allegheny City, to have purchased a lot of ten 
acres to give to the Seminary. The plot that gentleman 
wished to obtain was that which now embraces the prop- 
erty of Messrs. J. T. Logan, Forsyth, and Brewer. 

So anxious were the Commoners of Allegheny to 
make the matter doubly sure to get the Seminary estab- 
lished there, that no proposition from any source would 
be entertained at those meetings but that of the public 
common. A public release of a part of the common was 
thought by the people would be more effective with the 
Assembly than the purchase of a lot by private donation. 
Now if there was anything wrong in this business it lay 
at the door of Allegheny and not at that of the Presby- 
terian Church. 

When the question of the location of the Seminary 
was decided and the property taken possession of by the 
Directors, things moved on quietly for a time until the 
Board began to make such arrangements as they wished 
for about the property, laying out the grounds, etc. This 
called forth the opposition of Mr. Town, whose property 
was adjacent to the Seminary, who, in connection with 
some secret opposers to this said gift, but more properly 
burden, to the Church, threatened suit. To be on the side 
of peace, the Board made such a compromise with Mr. 
Town as pacified the opposition for a period, but again 
in the process of time were other aggressions made from 
other sources against the title which certainly were pro- 
moted by Dr. Janeway's course. Dr. Janeway's resigna- 
tion and the reason for it acted most unpropitiously for 

39 



Founding and Early History of Western Seminary 

the Seminary. I am ready to admit that the Doctor did 
not intend it. He was a good man, bnt very many_ of 
our troubles could be accounted for by his resignation 
and the reason for it. 

In order to meet the difficulties connected with the 
property, I find the Executive Committee of the Semi- 
nary, to whom was committed the practical carrying out 
of the desires of the Board, at a meeting on July 28, 1843 
passed the following resolution, "Resolved that Drs. 
Herron and Campbell be a committee to take legal counsel 
in any case connected with the Seminary grounds that 
may seem to require legal advice." The character of the 
suits, decisions and opinions of the judges will furnish 
a true history of the property controversy and place this 
business in its true light for the inspection of those who 
may desire to know the truth. 

These threatened suits were in ungracious return for 
expenditures not only large, but important to Allegheny 
town in the days of its infancy. But even now with the 
increasing importance of the institution not only in stu- 
dents, but in revenue from this and other sources for 
maintenance of professors and students (for not a dollar 
is taken away from the community) go to shew it was not 
so bad a speculation in getting the Theological Seminary 
established in Allegheny. 

Take then after the destruction of the old building 
and the erection of the new professors ' houses and 
Beatty Hall, and you have a footing up, even in a finan- 
cial view of the matter, which joroves that the Seminary 
has been a good concern to the community. Now what 
has the Seminary acquired in return? Just the interest 
on $35,000, which is a less sum than was expended in the 
erection of the Old Seminary and grading the hill, and 
one acre of ground which the Trustees reserved for the 
new Seminary. This interest on $35,000 is -created by 
ground rents of lots sold by the Councils, or can be, 
wherever they put the property fairly in the market. 
The purchase on the part of the Councils is much better 

40 



The Title to the Site Questioned 

than Allegheny bonds for laid roads. Things appear 
very different when looked at with the eye of truth than 
when beheld through the magnifying glass of objection 
and detraction. 

The Act of Kelease by the Commoners runs as fol- 
lows: "Know all men by these presents. That, whereas 
the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church have 
declared their intention of establishing somewhere in the 
Western Country a Theological Seminary of learning on 
a plan similar to the one now in operation in Princeton 
in the State of New Jersey, therefore we the subscribers, 
residents, lot holders and land owners in the town of 
Allegheny, opposite Pittsburgh in Allegheny County, 
Pennsylvania, being duly sensible of the advantages that 
would result from the establishment of such an institu- 
tion and as an inducement to its location on condition 
that the Seminary shall be established in said town of 
Allegheny, and so long as the same shall be continued 
there Ave the residents, lot holders and land owners at a 
public meeting held this day in said town of Allegheny 
for that purpose do hereby give, grant, assign and trans- 
fer unto the said General Assembly all our right, title and 
claim to the full, free and entire use and right and pri- 
vilege of use to piece of ground on a public common of 
said town situate in the S. W. corner commencing near 
said 40 ft. from South line to the common and 5 perches 
from West line thence northerly and parallel with said 
West line 45 perches and 9 ft. to a post thence easterly 
and parallel with the South line of said common 64 perch- 
es to a post and thence northerly and parallel with the 
West line of the common 45 perches and 9 ft. to a post 
40 ft. from the South line of the common, thence westerly 
and parallel with said South line 64 perches to the place 
of beginning, containing 18 acres and 37 perches nearly, 
hereby giving and granting unto the said General Assem- 
bly as far as such right, use and privilege is in our power 
to grant and confer for the sole use and benefit of said 
Seminary, provided said Seminary shall be established 

41 



Founding and Early History of Western Seminary 

thereon and that the same shall be commenced within 
four years. And we do hereby warrant and defend the 
grant and privilege hereby conferred unto the General 
Assembly aforesaid on the above conditions against us 
the subscribers, our heirs and assigns forever. In testi- 
mony whereof we hereunto set our hands and seal the 11th 
of November, A.D. 1825. 

"Joseph Stockton, John Scull, Thomas Barlow, 
Thomas Sample, Clemson Moore, Ebenezer Williams, Da- 
vid Wilson, I. H. Howard, Harmar Denny for the Estate 
of Jas. O'Hara, Robert Campbell, James Anderson, Thos. 
Salters, Richard Gray, R. Stewart, John Irwin, Robert 
M'Elhinny, John Snider, Ludwig Cupps, Hugh M'Gon- 
nigle, Hugh Davis, Wilson Stewart, James Sample, 
James Boyle, Sr., John Darragh, John Caldwell, Wm. 
Carson, Wm. Robinson, Jr., James H. Stewart, Wm. 
Leckey, W^m. Hays, Fred Woods." 

This release was acknowledged before John Mason 
one of the justices of the peace for Allegheny County on 
November, 11, 1825. 

Again, Section 6 runs as follows to the release of 
their right of soil for the same purpose:- — 

"Section 6. And be it &c. That all the right and title 
of this Commonwealth of, in and to the reversion of so 
much of the common ground annexed to and belonging 
to the town of Allegheny in the reserved tract opposite 
Pittsburgh as follows, the same as in release containing 
18 acres and 37 perches, be and the same is hereby vested 
in John Brown, John Hannes, and Hugh Davis in trust 
and free use, occupation and benefit of the Western The- 
ological Seminary proposed to be erected and establishd 
under the direction of the General Assembly of the Pres- 
byterian Church in the United States." 

The first suit to test the title was by Samuel Carr vs. 
Mary Wallace. The defendant was the housekeeper of 
the Refectory of the Western Theological Seminary. The 
suit was brought against Mrs. Wallace because she was 
in occupancy at the Seminary. The decision of Judge 

42 



The Title to the Site Questioned 

Grier in the District Court of Allegheny County on the 
issue was carried up to the Supreme Court for their ap- 
proval or reversal of the action of the District Court. 

"Error to the District Court of Allegheny County, 
Samiiel Carr vs. Mary Wallace. This was an action for 
disturbance of the plaintiff's right of common upon a 
piece of land in the town of Allegheny. The plaintiff's 
right was founded upon his right to a part of an inlot 
in the town and an outlot. The opinion of the Supreme 
Court on this case of appeal from the District Court was 
delivered by Judge Rodgers. After reciting that this 
suit was brought to test the title of the Seminary to the 
property, the plaintiff declares as a part owner of one of 
the inlots in the town of Allegheny, and in his second 
as owner of an outlot attached to the town, and in support 
of his declaration he has shown title to a part of an out- 
lot and also to. a portion of an inlot. Judge Rodgers goes, 
on to say that the learned Judge of the District Court 
has given a brief but accurate history of the case which 
appears to be this. After recounting the history of this 
public common, one hundred acres for common pasture^ 
and also referring to the grant given by the Legislature 
on the 18th, February, 1819, of 40 acres of this public 
common to the Western University without the consent 
of the owners of the town lots. In consequence of the 
manner in which the Trustees undertook to locate their 
grant, the lot holders, deeming it highly injurious to their 
interests, resolved to try the constitutionality of the law. 
Accordingly a suit was brought which was decided at 
the September, 1824 session. In this case, the Western 
University vs. Robinson, it was held that the State had 
the right of soil but subject to the right of common and 
that this right the lot holders might release or modify at 
their pleasure with the assent of the Legislature. Two or 
three years after this decision, in which their rights are 
thus recognized, the lot holders, having understood that 
the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church intend- 
ed to erect a Theological Seminary somewhere in the- 

43 



Founding and Early History of Western Seminary 

western country, called a public meeting to devise meas- 
ures to induce the General Assembly to locate the institu- 
tion in the town of Allegheny. They supposed that great 
advantage would result to them from such an establish- 
ment and it has been insinuated that some of them advo- 
cated the measure to rid themselves of the odium which 
has been attempted to be fixed upon them as the enemies 
of education. But whatever may have been their motives 
it is very certain that more than one public meeting with 
that avowed purpose was held and that at the first meet- 
ing but three persons made any objection to such an ap- 
propriation of the public common. After this another 
meeting is called at which all objections previously made 
are abandoned. 

The Commissioners of the General Assembly are in- 
vited to attend, and the land in dispute is offered as an 
inducement to the General Assembly to locate the institu- 
tion in the town of Allegheny. A deed of release is also 
drawn and signed by a large proportion of the lot holders 
and sent to the Legislature. An Act is passed by their 
desire vesting in the Trustees for the use of the Seminary 
the land in question. The deed show^s the motive which 
governed them. It recites (See release of commoners). 

By means of the offer thus made and a liberal sub- 
scription of the inhabitants the General Assembly were 
prevailed on, and it would seem with some difficulty, to 
pass by other advantageous offers made by the inhabit- 
ants of other places and to locate the Seminary in Alle- 
gheny town. Before the expenditure of any money, per- 
sons were employed to go around and procure the written 
assent or release of every person then known to hold a 
lot in the town, whether a resident or not. On the faith 
therefore and with the confident belief the assent of all 
who had an interest in the common had been obtained, the 
Directors of the Seminary proceeded to the erection of a 
building in a most conspicuous place and at the expense 
for the excavations and the necessary buildings. 

Two or three years are spent in making these ex- 



44 



The Title to the Site Questioned 

penditiires, during which not one whisper of discontent 
is heard, nor are the Trustees from any quarter apprized 
that there is the slightest objection on the part of any 
person to the occupancy of a portion of the common for 
the use of the Seminary. After the lapse of several years, 
when the town had increased in size and property had 
risen in value, this suit is brought to test, in effect to 
retract, the grant after this great expense made at their 
instance and request. There can be no doubt as to the 
accuracy of this statement, and on these facts, which can 
not be denied, three questions arise: 1st. "Whether the 
owner of an inlot has a right of commonage. 2nd. Whether 
the proprietors of outlots or parts of outlots are entitled 
to commonage. And lastly, whether under the facts we 
are bound to presume a release from the plaintiff or those 
under whom he claims, or an assent or acquiescence by 
him or them in the erection of the buildings and in the 
occupation of the property of the Theological Seminary. 

The Judge, as the organ of the Court, after consider- 
ing these several questions, gave as the decision of the 
Supreme Court that the judgment of the District Court 
which was appealed from be affirmed. 

The next case to show the ill disposed feelings of 
some to this Seminary grant was an act of trespass in 
which the plaintiffs, the Trustees of the General Assem- 
bly of the Presbyterian Church, commenced suit against 
Samuel S. Shields, George E. Kiddle and others. The 
Trustees of the Seminary had caused an excavation for 
a cellar to be made upon the common on the level ground 
at the base of the Seminary hill, being a portion of the 
ground over which no ownership had been exercised by 
the Seminary agents, other than claiming it as included 
in the 18 acres. The citizens resisted the attempt to 
occupy the ground and filled up the excavation. The suit 
was brought by Trustees to recover damages for the 
alleged trespass. 

(Extract from testimony) Dr. Francis Herron : 
''There were efforts made at different times to obtain the 

45 



Founding and Early History of Western Seminary 

names of persons who were lot holders and we supposed 
we had release from every man owning a foot of any lot 
in that place, Mr. Stockton reported to us that every man 
in that town whose name appeared in the tax lists had re- 
leased to us. Dr. Janeway did this on account of a sup- 
posed difficulty in this title. He was here two or three 
3^ears. Then Mr. Stockton obtained additional releases 
and said he had all, he believed. I cannot tell the number 
of names obtained after Dr. Janeway left. There are 
other releases on record. I think Mrs. Dewsnap (for- 
merly Mrs. Williams) refused, or Mr. Stockton told mo 
so. Montgomery and Geyer were the last two whose 
releases were obtained. I went myself to get Montgom- 
ery to release. He said since I came he would sign it." 

The result of this suit and further testimony given, 
besides that of Dr. Herron, may be seen with the judge's 
opinion in a pamphlet entitled ''The Common Grounds 
of Allegheny embracing the Acts of Assembly laying out 
the town, legal opinions and decisions in relation to tho 
Seminary and University Grant." 

The conclusion of Judge Hepburn summing up in 
his charge to the jury is as follows: "The Court having 
instructed 3^ou that the justification pleaded by the de- 
fendants furnished no defense in this case there would be 
little left for the jury, but to determine which of the de- 
fendants had an agency in the alleged trespass and the 
amount of damages to which the plaintiffs are entitled. 
As to the damages, if the defendants entered under an 
honest claim of title and with no other view than to assert 
that title, then this would not be a case of excessive dam- 
ages. But if they entered with no such view and intended 
to harass and vex the plaintiff and coerce their title to 
this property to be doubted, then the case would demand 
exemplary damages at your hands." To this charge the 
defendants by their counsel excepted and at their instance 
it is written and filed. 

This was the closing up of this business of the Semi- 
nary litigation in a form, which, to say the least of it, 

46 



The Title to the Site Questioned 

was a poor return for Presbyterian expenditures. These 
had more to do with the advancement of Allegheny than 
the loud talking and jealousy of many who had no reason 
for their opposition other than from a hatred of religion 
or from sectarian jealousy. 

Amidst the un-Christian bearing and unjust asper- 
sions that were so liberally dispensed not only against the 
Presbyterian Church but individuals, particularly Dr. 
Herron, myself and others, they called forth more of pity 
than anger for the spirit manifested on the part of those 
who were assailed. The establishment of the Seminary 
in Allegheny town was a great pecuniary loss inflicted by 
those who should have pursued a very different course. 
And pray what was this great outrage perpetrated by 
the Presbyterian Church? It was the prevention of lot 
holders' cows browsing on Hogback Hill and a small strip 
of the low grounds. This is all. The lot holders in and 
out had nothing more. The soil was deeded to the Semi- 
nary by the State and just the surface, the pasture, 
was in controversy; and if Allegheny cows had 
no better source of sustenance, I am certain the 
milk obtained from them would be neither rich 
nor palatable. In Judge Grier's charge in the District 
Court he rather facetiously went to shew that it would 
be rather difficult for a jury to shew what amount of 
damage should be given for the depriving of the com- 
moners of this wonderful right. I would ask whether 
was it better to permit the public commons to be the re- 
ceptacle of tilth &c. &c. than to be adorned for example 
with such a beautiful collection of edifices as are now 
presented to the eye on Ridge Street. Let what has been 
written on this vexed question suffice. I am willing to 
leave the decision of this whole matter to the Christian 
public. Let the Gospel rule be acted on, to do to others 
as we wish to be done by, and then I know the response 
of every unprejudiced mind will be that the Presbyterian 
Church has been treated badly in this property question. 
It is true in morals as well as religion — the sentiment 

47 



Founding and Early History of Western Seminary 

that justitia virtiitum regina. Having been in the Assem- 
bly rej)resenting the Presbytery of West Tennessee in 
1827 when the question of location came up for discussion, 
I united with the majority in saying that Allegheny to^vn 
should be the place where the institution should be 
j)laced; and, being in the first Board of Directors by ap- 
pointment of the Assembly which met at Chillicothe, when 
Providence directed my steps back to Pennsylvania after 
a settlement of seven years as pastor of the Nashville 
Presb^^terian Church, my desire for the establishment of 
the Western Theological Seminary took a more practical 
character than merely good wishes. Having been edu- 
cated in a Theological Seminary under the instruction of 
such a man as the Eev. Dr. John M. Mason, my convic- 
tions were fixed as to the importance of having a limited 
number of well sustained seminaries in a church, with 
competent professors, who have piety, zeal and ac- 
quaintance with a thorough course of study for the bene- 
fit of the students, and in addition a disposition on the 
part of the young men to stay long enough in an insti- 
tution to accomplish something, and when there to make 
laborious study their great business, not attending to this 
little religious meeting and that at the expense of the 
precious time which should be devoted to preparation for 
the Gospel ministry. There is no royal road in the study 
of theology. It is tru« here as w^ell as in other things 
that "the hand of the diligent maketh rich and addeth 
no sorrow in the end. ' ' Slovenly preparation wdien in the 
Seminary for the work is one of the evils from which the 
Church suffers in the present day. Something more is 
required than frothy declamation in the pulpit. There is 
rmich more embraced in the idea "Feed my sheep, Feed 
my lambs" than loose talking. A people may starve spirit- 
ually even with religious ordinances about them. 



18 



CHAPTER III. 



Dr. Campbell Visits England 

As has been stated before, the resignation of Dr. 
Janeway, together with the difficulty about the title to the 
property, had a very unhappy influence upon the public 
mind. The impression with many was that the Seminary 
project would be a failure. To prophesy evil is the sure 
way to bring it upon an enterprise. The croaker of evil 
rather than good is a most undesirable ally to any cause. 

In this state of the public mind, one afternoon I hap- 
pened to visit Dr. Herron at his house with no very defi- 
nite object but' that of attachment and a wish to spend 
a pleasant hour with that venerable father in the church. 
In the course of conversation the condition of things 
about the Seminary happened to be mentioned. How dark 
were our prospects. We must do something to call back 
the confidence of the friends of the Seminary. Very in- 
cidentally I threw out the idea, "Suppose I go to Great 
Britain and beg a library for the institution. This will 
shew the people that if the Seminary is to die it will 
not be without a struggle. We want confidence as well 
as money from the Church." The reply of Dr. Herron 
was to this effect, "You must do one of two things, either 
go to Washington next winter, get 3'our old j)arishoner 
General Jackson to use his influence to have you appoint- 
ed chaplain to Congress and seek from your southern 
friends contributions during the winter to aid the Semi- 
nary, or go to Europe for a library." 

With no lasting impression upon my mind of the 
conversation and certainly with no idea of the practica- 
bility of either of the plans of going to Washington or 
to Great Britain on behalf of the Seminary, on my return 
home I incidentally communicated to my wife the con- 

49 



Founding and Early History of Western Seminary 

versation that took place between Dr. Herron and myself. 
Very promptly and decidedly she made for answer, "1 
do not wish you to go to Washington. Let it not be sup- 
posed that the friendly relation that exists between Gen- 
eral Jackson and yourself has any selfishness in it, asking 
favours of him as President, but if you think it your duty 
to go to Europe and the Board of Directors appoint you 
as an agent to Great Britain to collect a library, I shall 
not oppose it." 

This led to a more serious conversation on the sub- 
ject. While I was astonished at the acquiescence so 
promptly made, yet it caused me to look more seriously 
into the matter. What is the voice of Providence in the 
thing, what do I hear the Lord saying to me as to my 
duty? In a word, the next day I communicated to Dr. 
Herron that if the Board of Directors wished it, I was 
willing to go as an agent for the Board to Great Britain. 
In less than two weeks I left my family for a toilsome pil- 
grimage of 6 (!) months among strangers with a strong 
purpose to try to be useful to the Seminary and feeling 
that the voice of the Lord to me in this rmexpected event 
was ' ' Occupy till I come. ' ' 

The President of the Board of Directors, the Rev. Dr. 
Herron, called a special meeting of that body on the 
25th March, 1829, in Pittsburgh. The proposition was 
submitted to them of my visiting Great Britain as agent 
for collecting a library for the institution. The enter- 
prise r^et with favour. I was commissioned and early 
in May 1829 took passage on the Packet Ship New York, 
Capt. Bennet, and arrived on Sabbath 24th, May, at quar- 
ter before 3 P.M. at Liverpool. 

An appeal to the friends of Christianity in England 
and Scotland was drafted by order of the Board of Direc- 
tors of the Western Theological Seminary, signed by 
Francis Herron, D.D., President, and E. P. Swift as Secre- 
tary. The writer of the said appeal is said to have been 
the Eev. Joseph Stockton, a man whose every feeling of 
heart appeared in consonance with the idea of perfecting 

50 



Dr. Campbell Visits England 

the great work of establishing a Theological Seminary 
in the West. The following is a copy of the circular. 

' ' To the Friends of Christianty, 
in England and Scotland. 

"The Board of Directors for the Western Theologi- 
cal Seminary in the United States, by their agent,, the 
Rev. A. D. Campbell, would beg leave to call your atten- 
tion to a brief statement of the moral condition and wants 
of that part of the world where Divine Providence has 
cast our lot. 

"The great valley of the Mississippi, and its tribu- 
tary streams, where we live, spread over a surface con- 
taining more than 1,800,000 square miles. Here there is, 
at the present time, a scattered population, rapidly in- 
creasing, amounting to more than four millions. 

"What is to be the moral and religious condition 
of this great multitude, is a consideration well deserving 
the serious attention of the friends of religion and human 
happiness in every part of the world. Firmly persuaded 
that where there is no vision, the people perish, the 
friends of the Redeemer, in this western region, are mak- 
ing an effort to erect and endow a Theological Seminary, 
for the education of pious young men, on such a plan, 
and to such an extent, that a competent supply of well 
educated ministers may be prepared to go forth and 
labour in this great, but, as yet, little cultivated, vineyard 
of the Son of God. 

"The plan, constitution, and contemplated course of 
instruction (of which our agent can furnish all the de- 
tails) are upon the most liberal principles. Its Theologi- 
cal views are in entire accordance with the Assembly's 
Catechism, and Westminster Confession of Faith. 

"We are urged to this great undertaking by the 
fact, that more than four-fifths of the inhabitants in this 
western world are living without the benefits of a regular 
ministry; and, at the present time, there are more than 

51 



Founding and Early History of Western Seminary 

a thousand organized cliurclies here, which have no stated 
ministry, and a mnch larger number coukl soon be 
formed, had we men of competent education, and a right 
missionary spirit, to send forth. 

''To save this rising country from the miseries of 
infidelity or superstition, or both combined, is "the sole 
object of this Seminary which has been placed under the 
direction and patronage of the General Assembly of the 
Presbyterian Church in the United States. 

"But, beloved friends, our resources are few, and 
our means limited; our people are yet comparatively 
poor, and therefore it is we have sent our agent to ask 
aid of a people from whom we boast we have descended, 
and whose pious and benevolent exertions are now filling 
the Christian w^orld with delight and thanksgiving. 
Brethren in Christ, we earnestly solicit your aid in this 
arduous undertaking. We send unto you the Macedonian 
cry, "help us;" pity the multitudes dwelling in our vast 
forests, who have none to bring them the glad tidings of 
the gospel. 

"Your donations to this institution shall be sacredly 
devoted in the manner, and to the object, you may speci- 
fy; your names enrolled on its records, among its bene- 
factors, whilst the prayers of thousands in this distant 
land, will be continually offered up in behalf of those by 
whose instrumentality they have received the gospel of 
our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. 

"Signed, by Order of the Board of Directors of the 
Western Theological Seminary. 

Francis Herroit, D.D., President, 

E. P. Swift, Secretary. 
Pittsburgh, March 25, 1829. 

"P. S. Donations of Theological or Scientific Books 
will be thankfully received. It is requested that the 
Donors will write their names in the title pages of the 
books they may be pleased to bestow." 

In order to strengthen my position and make it as 
favorable as possible in view of my proposed agency to 

52 



Dr. Campbell Visits England 

Great Britain, I visited Washington to solicit letters 
from General Jackson, and to obtain a circular letter 
from him. addressed to British Christians and others on 
the subject. I had two objects of the Seminary in view 
in taking this step. As General Jackson had been a Com- 
missioner appointed by the General Assembly to recom- 
mend a suitable location for the institution, to obtain, an 
endorsement from such a source would add respectability 
to the agency. 2nd. In being President of the United 
States it ensured to me civility and kindness not only 
from the American Attache at the Court of St. James, 
but also from the churches in Great Britain. 

In my experience I found the circular not only rec- 
ommended the object but also gave me an open door to 
classes of society which it would have been found under 
the circumstances would have been difficult to approach. 
My having been the pastor of the General and he the 
head of the nation and a successful military chieftan, 
called forth a great deal of enquiry as to the character, 
moral bearing etc. of a man who had attracted public 
attention not only in Great Britain but France etc. The 
Hero of New Orleans even to British eyes was no mean 
personage. To have overcome some of +he veterans of 
Waterloo excited profound interest. 

There was another thing occurred about the period I 
visited England. General Jackson had a little plain talk- 
ing with France about certain spoliations upon American 
commerce. He declared that the matter must be settled 
now, the money must be paid or else he would take steps 
to close the account by reprisals to the amount of the 
American claim. The pluck of the old Chief pleased 
Englishmen, but to British Christians the statement that 
he respected holy things was a feature of his character 
with which they had not been conversant. So we see 
that the old General was worth something to the 
Western Theological Seminary in other countries 
besides that of home. It would be well if in the 
ordering of Providence we had now his stern will 

53 



Founding and Early History of Western Seminary 

to meet in this day the treason, the Judas-like betrayals 
of the peace and happiness of these United States, by 
persons and even some ministers who talk about seces- 
sion as if it were a virtue instead of a great moral wrong. 

It may be considered a work of supererogation to 
write about Great Britain after an interval of thirty 
years. My object is not to describe castles, cities, not- 
able scenes of mighty prowess, but about Christian be- 
nevolence, whole-hearted charity, the brotherhood of the 
gospel which knows no country and is graduated by no 
scale of time. The brotherhood of Christians after the 
lapse of years is just as good and fresh as if it was called 
forth at a more recent period. The Christianity of the 
(Gospel in Great Britain gave me the right hand of con- 
fidence, affection and hospitality. Well might the poet 
Cowper exclaim, "England with all thy faults I love 
thee still." 

On the Sabbath evening that I arrived at Liverpool 1 
attended at Rev. Dr. Raffles' Chapel. I could hardly 
realize that I was in the chapel built by the exertions of 
the Rev. Thomas Spencer, a young man of remarkable 
promise who attracted much attention in England not 
only on account of his piety but his pulpit qualifications. 
He went to bathe in the river Merse}^, Liverpool, and was 
drowned. This event together with his whole history as 
a preacher has embalmed his memory mth a freshness 
of interest peculiarly striking. In casting my eye over 
the place of worship I saw a monumental inscription 
dedicated to the memory of Spencer. How mysterious 
are the ways of Providence that such a burning light 
should have been removed in such a mysterious way in 
the midst of great usefulness. "Thy w^ay, Lord, is in 
the sea and Thy path in the great Avaters, and Thy foot- 
steps are not known." 

When in the Church I could scarcely believe that I 
was in England, so much similarity was there in the wor- 
ship and appearance of the people to those in my own, 
country. 

54 



Dr. Campbell Visits England 

On the day after my arrival I sought an introduc- 
tion to the Doctor at his own house by the Rev. Mr. 
M'Lean, to whom I had a letter of introduction and who 
had formerly been in this country, but had returned to 
England and was preaching in the old chapel in which 
Spencer ministered. Mr. M'Lean was brother of the 
Rev. Wm. M'Lean who was pastor of the Presbyterian 
Church at Beaver for many years. 

Dr. Raffles received me with great kindness and prof- 
fered his assistance to promote the object of my mission 
in England. The Doctor at that period was a very rising 
man among the Independents, frank, generous and 
possessed of a catholic spirit in his desire to encourage 
any cause which had for its design the advancement of 
the Redeemer's kingdom. 

Through hini and Mr. M'Lean a way w^as opened 
up to make my first appeal in Liverpool. A list of 
names was furnished me. The first person I visited 
having a letter to him from Dr. Raffles treated me rather 
rudely and refused to contribute. The salutation I re- 
ceived from him was that the people of the United States 
were able to help' themselves and particular^ the Pres- 
byterians. He thought it very strange that we should 
come there for an^^thing especially from Dissenters. I 
made for answer to all this, if England and Dissenters 
too sent their thousands of emigrants to America it was 
not very unreasonable to ask them to assist the Church 
here in thromng around them the culture of the Gospel. 
How different the conduct of this man from that of an- 
other, a Mr. [Haight], an architect in that city, with a 
true Christian spirit and frankness which went to my 
heart under the circumstances in Avhich I was placed. 
He stated it gave him great pleasure to subscribe, but 
regretted that having a demand of benevolence that very 
day he was unable to respond according to his wishes 
for America and American Christians who were the ob- 
ject of his regard and profound respect and then handed 

55 



Founding and Early History of Western Seminary 

me five pounds. What a solace this conduct so full of 
generosity to a stranger with a thousand fears that he 
might not succeed in the object of his visit. 

The more I saw of Dr. Raffles, the more I became 
attached to him. Generous, kind, and hospitabl-e, he gave 
me a liberal contribution in money and books. The Dr. 
was a cousin of Sir Stamford Raffles of Eastern celebrity. 

If I had ever been sceptical about a particular Provi- 
dence my doubts must have passed away, for in this 
agency I had so many manifestations of the goodness 
of God in raising up friends to me at times in which my 
way, to human observation, appeared to be hedged up. 
With a dark future before me I attended a conference, 
meeting with Rev. Mr. M'Lean among the number. 
Inhere I became acquainted with Rev. Robert Philip* of 
Dalston, London, who formerly was a pastor in Liver- 
pool, of Newington Chapel in the Independent Connec- 
tion. Mr. Philip subsequently attained a world wide 
reputation among Christians as an author of such works 
as Manly Piety, Life of Bunyan, Whitfield, &c &c. This 
gentleman gave me a most cordial invitation to go to 
London. There was the place I should make my great 
effort. He promised his assistance to open up the way 
for me among the Dissenters, a pledge which he most 
religiously fulfilled, while he, together with his amiable 
Lady, made his house everything that I could desire in 
my exiled condition. I am free to say that I was largely 
indebted to him for my success in London. Mr. Philip 
was a native of Scotland, with strong intellect, ardent in 
his affections and determined in his pursuits. He was 
the pastor of an Independent Chapel at Dalston, a mem- 
ber of the London Missionary Society and actively en- 
gaged in all good things. I never knew the value of 
friendship so much as I did during this visit. I was 
taught that there was a depth of knowledge both of head 

Robert Philip (1791-1858), minister of the Maberly Chapel, 
Kingsland London, and a powerful advocate of the claims of the 
London Missionary Society. 

56 



Dr. Camphell Visits England 

and heart in the Apostolic injunction, ''Use hospitality 
and thereby some have entertained angels unawares." 

Another minister in Liverpool brought me under a 
deep feeling of obligation. The Rev. Dr. Stewart of 
Liverpool, a member of the United Secession Church, 
Scotland. This worthy father was pastor of a United 
Secession congregation in connection with the Church -in 
Scotland. The congregation was very large. They 
were principally from Scotland. They used Rouse and 
Watts in the praises of God. Psalmody in this congre- 
gation, as well as in Scotland in the United Secession 
Church, is not made the shibboleth that it is here. While 
Rouse is the foundation of praise in Scotland the para- 
phrases and hymns are used among the Seceders cer- 
tainly without incurring the charge of bringing strange 
fire to the altar of God. It is difficult to give a reason 
for the exclusiveness in this country which does not exist 
in Great Britain. 

From Dr. Stewart I received profitable introduc- 
tions to ministers and others both of England and Scot- 
land, which took away from me the disadvantage of be- 
ing considered a stranger, while a more general publicity 
was given to the object and in this way aided in my 
success. 

I arrived in London on Saturday evening, the 13th 
of June, 1839. On Sabbath morning I sought out the 
Rev. Robert Philip at Dalston and preached to his 
people. Felt very much at home in occupying the pul- 
pit, everything looked so homelike, the gospel the same, 
the worship, attention of the congregation and appear- 
ance of the people so similar to that of ourselves that 
the fact pressed itself upon my mind. Although in the 
Providence of God the churches in England and America 
are in different localities, yet they are the same race of 
people, whose religion, conscience, sense of right and 
spiritual freedom establish that we are all one in Christ 
Jesus. Blot out of the page of history Great Britain 

57 



Founding and Early History of Western Seminary 

and America, and then I would ask where are you to 
find out the true religion of the world. France with its 
scepticism, Germany with its neology, Itab • with its dark 
papal despotism, are poor aids to lead the world to the 
truth as it is in Christ. 

From the very nature of my mission to London, the 
vastness of the place, the slow iprogress m making 
acquaintance of those who would feci an interest in my 
mission created for me great embarrassment in my work. 
In the eight weeks I spent in London I think it was near 
three weeks before I got any contributions to assist in 
purchasing books or had a single volume presented to 
me for the Seminary library. Ignorance of the localities 
of London and of the way of getting from one point to 
another to see persons made the early part of my so- 
journ anything else but pleasant. There must be a 
preparation in this as well as in other things and I had 
to meet it. 

A word by the way. The more I see of London 
the more I am astonished. Such multitudes of 
people, such trappings of grandeur, such abject poverty, 
such buildings, such commercial bustle, such lines of 
shops and houses that the mind is lost in astonishment. 
It was in the midst of this vast assemblage of people 
the lines of Byron came strongly to my mind. 

''But 'midst the crowd, the hum, the shock of men. 
To hear, to see, to feel, and to possess. 
And roam along, the world's tired denizen. 
With none who bless us, none whom we can bless: 
Minions of splendour shrinking from distress! 
None that, with kindred consciousness endued, 
If we were not, would seem to smile the less 
Of all that flatter 'd, followed, sought and sued: 
This is to be alone ; this, this is solitude ! ' ' 



58 



Dr. Campbell Visits England 

I accompanied my friend, the Eev. Robert Philip, to 
the London Missionary Society for the purpose of becom- 
ing acquainted with the ministers and other members. 
-It was held at Austin Friar's in the Missionary Rooms. 
It was a stated meeting and among the persons present 
were the Rev. Dr. Philip, missionary to South Africa, 
Rev. Dr. Henderson, theological tutor of the Missionary 
Academy at Hoxton and formerly an agent for the Bible 
Society in Russia, Rev, John Clayton, Jr., Poultry 
Chapel, London, Rev. Dr. Bennet, formerly theological 
tutor at Rotheram, Yorkshire, but then pastor of Silver 
Street Chapel, London (formerly the place where John 
Howe preached). Rev. Mr. Orme, Secretary of the Mis- 
sionary Society, Rev. Mr. Towne, former missionary to 
India, and Mr. Bennet, companion to the late Rev. Mr. 
Tyerman in his visit to the South Sea. 

On another occasion through the same individual I 
was introduced to Thomas Wilson, Esq., Spencer's early 
friend and supporter during his studies. He was a man 
of fortune and devoted his ample means to the promo- 
tion of Christ's kingdom on earth by erecting chapels 
and supporting indigent students and sustaining the 
interests of Highbury College. Also to Joshua Wilson, 
Esq., son of the former. To both of these gentlemen I 
was under great obligations not only for their hospi- 
tality and Christian attention but contributions for my 
object. Mr. T. Wilson stated that on a former occasion 
he had contributed to aid Dr. J. M. Mason when making 
a similar appeal in England. Mr. Joshua Wilson jiur- 
chased a number of books to give me, for instance, the 
whole of John Owen's works. As laymen these indi- 
viduals very deservedly held a high place in the Dissent- 
ing interests of London. They shewed in their whole 
demeanor to me the catholicity of the Gospel. They 
were Independents, my position that of a Presbyterian 
laboring to build up a Presbyterian Theological Semi- 
nary in the United States. But still they felt, acted and 

59 



Founding and Early History of Western Seminary 

talked to me as if party shibboleths had no right to mar 
our Christian intercourse and affection. This is the 
practical Christianity which is calculated to do good. 
If there were more of it in the Church one should be in 
a holier and happier condition both to be good and to 
do good to a lost and dying world. David sang of "breth- 
ren dwelling together in unity," while one of the love- 
liest of Christ's apostles inculcated love to the brethren 
not only for the happiness it produces but as an evidence 
of our regeneration. 

On the 24th of June, I visited the Eev. Edward 
Irving.* I found Mr. Irving walking about with his child 
in his arms on a green plot before his house. He is said 
to be exceedingly fond of his family. I knew him imme- 
diately from the description I had of him and made 
myself known. His appearance was very singular, quite 
primitive. He was about five feet ten or six feet high, 
black bushy hair hanging in ringlets over his shoulders, 
black velvet cap on his head, and plain breasted coat, 
with a countenance exceedingly peculiar. There was in 
it the lines of thought with a mildness of expression. He 
had a defect in the cast of his eyes which gave his face 
an unique appearance. From the view I had of him I 
saw he was no ordinary man. 

Mr. Irving received me with great cordiality, 
expressed a high sense of the value of the object of my 
mission and promised that he would endeavor to enlist 
the feelings of the Session in my favor. He unhesitat- 
ingly stated it as his belief that I would succeed in Scot- 
land and offered to get the Presbytery of London to 
write in my behalf to the friends in that country. I 
was exceedingly pleased with my visit to that popular 
but eccentric man. It appeared to be a prevalent opinion 
with all classes, however much in fault he was from 



Edward Irving (1792-1834), eloquent and ecceintric British 
divine who claimed the gift of tongues. On his removal from the 
Regent Square Presbyterian Church (1832), he founded the Holy 
Catholic Apostolic Church, London. 

60 



Br. CampheU Visits England 

his strange opinions, that he was a good man and very 
amiable in private life. When I solicited Mr. Irving for 
his works for the Seminary he cheerfully promised them 
and said that he would view it as an honor to have them 
placed in the library of the institution. 

The encouragement that Mr. Irving gave me was 
very pleasant. He told me to keep up, not be discour- 
aged, it might be a crucifixion work to the feelings to 
meet the rebuffs of people, but it was a good cause I 
was engaged in. 

I heard Mr. Irving lecture on Wednesday evening, 
June 25, from 10th chapter of Hebrews, from the first 
to the end of the fourth verse, and was introduced by 
him that evening to his session. After I had made 
known my mission, with prayer and a hearty endorse- 
ment of the enterprize Mr. Irving called upon the elders 
to co-operate with him to aid me in my efforts. 

On another occasion I heard Mr. Irving preach. 
His remarks about other denominations were very 
liberal, particularly with respect to Dissenters. He 
reiterated at that time his notion with respect to Christ's 
human nature being sinful nature. He had not then 
broached the unknown tongue heresy. It was to be 
regretted that a person so amiable in private life should 
have been so indiscreet in his public ministrations. 

The manner of Mr. Irving in preaching was very 
peculiar, his sarcasm caustic in extreme, his sneer was 
withering, his gesticulations strange, his attitudes were 
according to no rule of elocution, his pronunciations full 
of Scotchisms when excited. When I take into consid- 
eration the manner of his discussing subjects, his genius, 
the singular expression and contortion of his counte- 
nance, his power over his body in stretching himself 
out to appear much larger than he really was, his black 
visage and flowing hair, he looked like a being of another 
age. If I could judge at all from the manner of Mr. 
Irving and his mode of illustrating subjects, I should 

61 



Founding and Early History of Western Seminary 

suppose lie imagines he has such views of truth which 
the great mass of ministers and people have not, that 
he is constrained to make them known whatever might 
be the consequences. 

I shall introduce another celebrated minister, but 
of a very different type from that of Mr. Irving, who 
took an interest in my work, the Rev. George Bruder, 
the author of the Village Sermons. Mr. Bruder was 
one of the finest specimens of the Christian gentleman 
that I became acquainted with while in London. 
The practical effects of religion were finely de- 
Xucted in his manner and conversation. He was in 
his 78th year and was suffering under a painful disease 
which he endured with great Christian fortitude. At the 
time I became acquainted with this godly man he still 
discharged his public duties, but expected every Sabbath 
would be the last that he could do so. He gave me his 
works for the Seminary and promised to use his influ- 
ence in behalf of my object. In beholding this venerable 
servant of Christ who after a long life of usefulness was 
waiting calmly for his change I could not but exclaim, 
"The hoary head is a crown of glory, if it be found in 
the way of righteousness." 

Through the Rev. Robert Philip I became acquainted 
with the Rev. Dr. Harris, a minister of intellect and high 
moral standing. The Doctor was professor of S3^ste- 
matic Theology in Highbury College, an institution of 
a theological and literary character under the control 
of the Independent Connection. Dr. Harris was the 
pastor of the Stoke Newington Chapel, of which Dr. 
Watts was the evening lecturer. I attended a missionary 
prayer meeting there and was called on to give an 
account of the state of religion in America and to make 
known the object of my mission. The reflection was 
fraught with interest to my mind that I was speaking 
in the very spot which was the scene of the labors of so 
eminent a man as the late Dr. Watts. 

62 



Dr, Campbell Visits England 

The chapel was near the residence of Sir Thomas 
Abney, a plain brick building. Dr, Harris pointed out 
to me the house where Dr. Aiken lived and that inhabited 
by Mrs. Barbauld. In the latter a shop is now kept. 
How great a transition from being the abode of the 
authoress of 1811! At a future period I preached in 
the chapel and a collection was taken up to aid in the 
purchase of a library. Dr. Harris presented me an able 
dissertation on the question of Infant Salvation. In my 
intercourse with the ministers, however prominent may 
be the situation they hold, they appear to be remark- 
ably unpretending in their manner and affectionate in 
their intercourse. 

To enumerate the long list of persons, par- 
ticularly of the Independent Connection, would cover 
too great space in this history. But while this is so, I 
cannot but recognize the kind interest of the Rev. Dr. 
Bennet, whose literary, religious and moral character 
made him prominent in the religious world, and whose 
genial hospitality proved that he had heart as w^ell as 
head. 

Amongst other worthies who felt an interest in my 
work and gave me assistance were the Rev. Henry 
Bruder, pastor of the Independent Chapel at Hackney, 
the place where Mr. Palmer, the author of the Non- 
Conformist Memorial, preached. Mr. Bruder was his 
successor. This gentleman was the son of Rev. George 
Bruder, was well educated, held a professorship at High- 
bury and was intellectual and highly influential among 
his brethren. 

Rev. Mr. Orme, Secretary of the London Mission- 
ary Society and pastor of the Independent Chapel, 
Camberwell, a Scotchman with strong points of charac- 
ter, of business capabilities, and what was better, conse- 
crated to his Master's service, is the author of 
the best and fullest biography of Richard Baxter. 
Rev. I. Blackburn, pastor of a chapel at Islington and 

63 



Founding and Early History of Western Seminary 

editor of the Congregational Magazine, was a man whose 
heart was in the right place. The Rev. Dr. Henderson 
upon the death of Dr. Harris succeeded him in High- 
bury College. He was also a native of Scotland, has 
tilled a large place not only as an author but was a most 
successful advocate of the Bible Cause as an agent for the 
London Missionary Society in Russia. A layman of 
London of Baptist attachments with whom I became 
acquainted took so direct an interest in my agency that 
he not only contributed books and money to purchase 
others, but after I returned to America continued to send 
us additions to the number of volumes on the shelves. 

To Robert Lee, Esq., of Clapham Common, near 
London, the Seminary owes much and the writer of this 
history much more for Christian kindness was sho^vn 
by him to myself in a way that must be recollected with 
gratitude as long as memory lasts. There are green 
spots in the dark field of human life which prove there 
are blessings as well as sorrows even in this world of 
sin and sorrow. 

With respect to the Presbyterian interests of Lon- 
don, whether springing from the Church of Scotland or 
Secession, their agency was not so prominent in my 
behalf with the exception of the Rev. Edward Irving. 
At that day Presbyterianism had not that prominence 
it may have in that city at the present time, but still the 
countenance from that source was not only encouraging 
there but did much for me in my appeal in Scotland. 
Circumstances, to all appearance quite wonderful, 
opened up ni}^ way for success in Scotland, as the^^ had 
done in England. For as meeting the Rev. Robert Philip 
in Liverpool at the ministerial conference scattered light 
in my path in London, so a Mr. Oliphant, a son of the 
great publisher in Edinburgh, who happened in a short 
sojourn in London to board in the same house with 
myself, at a Miss Nennett's, niece of the late Dr. Nen- 
nett, a leading minister in his day of the Baptist Con- 

64 



Dr. Camphell Visits England 

nection, ensured to me not only his acquaintance but 
friendship together with that of his excellent father and 
family. To this source I am indebted for very much of 
the attentions I received, particularly from the ministers, 
etc. of the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland. It 
is singular how potential sometimes circumstances 
apparently trivial in themselves become, giving a form 
a lid direction to things which in the end may be very 
important. 



65 



CHAPTER IV. 



Dr. Campbell Goes to Scotland 

My introduction into Edinburgh in the prosecution 
of my mission was marked with the same catholicity of 
feeling on the part of the Establishment interest, United 
Secession Baptist, and [ ] or Independent people. 

In all these various denominations I preached, with the 
exception of the State Church, as they had a restricted 
act in force, closing their pulpit against all who had not 
received license from an established Presbytery. This 
act of the Assembly was a feeble attempt to prevent evan- 
gelical practice preaching from influencing the people, 
such preaching as that of Whitefield, Rowland Hill,'* 
and Simeon,** who were amazingly popular and 
did much good in their visits to Scotland. At 
the time of this restricted act against foreign 
or outside effort in the way of preaching, the 
moderates were the dominant j)ower in the Church 
of Scotland, much to the grief of the lovers of piety in 
that communion. Very early in my residence in Edin- 
burgh, through the agency of Mr. Oliphant, my relations 
with Dr. Brown,*** the grandson of John Brown of Had- 
dington, became of the most interesting and confidential 
kind. 



^Rowland Hill (1744-1833), an eloquent and earnest preacher. 
Minister of Surrey Chapel, London (1783-1810), who attracted large 
congregations. 

** Charles Simeon (1759-1836), the famous evangelical of Cam- 
bridge was one of the founders of the Church Missionary Society, 
and influenced Henry Martyn to devote his life to the evangelization 
of India. 

***Rev. John Brown, D.D. (1784-1858), a minister of the so- 
called burgher church, which later joined with other bodies to form 
the United Presbyterian Church. He was a venerable man, an 
author, a theological professor, the editor of a religious periodical, 
and an active participant in the religious controversies of his day. 
In 1830 he received the degree of D.D. from Jefferson College. 

66 



Br. Camphell Goes to Scotland 

In spreading my credentials before the Doctor, to 
shew that I had a reputable standing as a minister in 
the Presbyterian Church, U. vS., he smiled and, taking 
two books down from the shelves of his library, pointed 
out my name in the minutes as a minister of the Asso- 
ciate Reformed Church and again in those of the Pres- 
bj^terian Church. Dr. Brown appeared to be well versed 
in American Ecclesiastical History particularly of a 
Presbyterian type. 

The prominence of Dr. Brown in his connection grew 
out not only from his descent from John Brown and also 
from his father, who was a venerable minister of the 
United Presbyterian Church, whom in spirit and conver- 
sation I found from my acquaintance with him to be 
worthy of his pious father, the late John Brown of Had- 
dington. But the chain of piety was not all that belonged 
to Dr. Brown in his position. He was pastor of Broughton 
Place, one of the leading congregations in this denomina- 
tion, but also a professor in the Theological Seminary of 
that Church. All the professors in that Seminary were 
pastors but it was understood that during the term, which 
I think was about three months, the pulpits wer