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THE BULLETIN OF ZOOLOGICAL 
NOMENCLATURE 



The Official Organ of 

THE INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON 
ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE 

VOLUME 43 



LONDON: 



Printed by Order of the International Trust for 
Zoological Nomenclature 

and 

Sold on behalf of the International Commission on Zoological 

Nomenclature by the International Trust at its Publication Office, 

c/o British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, 

London SW7 5BD 

1986 

(All rights reserved) 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 III 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Page 

Notices 1 

Special Announcements 3 

On the proposed amendment to Article 51c of the International Code of 

Zoological Nomenclature. G. C. Steyskal, N. E. Woodley, A. 

Freidberg, R. C. Froeschner, W. N. Mathis, N. L. Evenhuis; C. L. 

Staines 4 

On the proposed completion of the Official List entry for Rhabditis 

Dujardin, [1855] (Nematoda). W.Grant Inglis; R.V.Melville . . 5 

Sur CAECILIIDAE chez les Amphibiens et chez les Psocopteres. A. 

Dubois 6 

On the application concerning Robertus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1879 

(Arachnida, Araneae). O. Kraus; B. J. Kaston; K. Thaler .... 7 

On the proposed conservation of Laspeyresia Hiibner, [1825] (Insecta, 

Lepidoptera). I. M. Kerzhner & V. I. Kuznetsov; J. D. Bradley . . 8 

On the proposed conservation of Hvia lactea Daudin, 1803 (Amphibia). 

H.M.Smith '. 9 

On the proposed grant of precedence to THRESKIORNITHIDAE 

Richmond, 1917 (Aves) over PLATALEINAE Bonaparte, 1838. 

K. E. Campbell; A. R. Phillips; S. L. Olson, A. M. Rea & P. 

Brodkorb 10 

On the proposed conservation of Southernia Allgen, 1929 by the sup- 
pression of SowrAerw/aFilipjev, 1927 (Nematoda). W. Grant Inglis . 13 
On the proposed conservation of Dapsilarthra Foerster, 1 862 (Insecta, 

Hymenoptera). Executive Secretary 14 

Opinion 1369. ^^rac/V/aCordiner, 1793 (Crustacea, Isopoda) .... 15 

O^mon \110. Neadmete okutanWPtiyi, 1974 (MoUusca, Gastropoda) 17 

Opinion 1371. Pachycephalosaurus Brown & Schlaikjer, 1 943 and Troodon 

vvj'ow/ng^eM^wGilmore, 1931 (Reptilia, Dinosauria) 19 

Opinion 1372. Donax hanleyanus Philippi, 1847 (Mollusca, Bivalvia) . . 21 

Opinion 1373. Panesthia saussurii\ilooA-yi.&son, 1876and CaepariaSia\. 

1877 (Insecta, Dictyoptera) 23 

Opinion 1374. .flo/^fl Fitzinger, 1826 (Reptilia, Serpentes) 25 

Opinion 1375. G/o55o^ora Ehrenberg, 1831,//>'/75e/o^on'5Stimpson, 1855 

and Chromodoris Alder & Hancock, 1855 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) . 27 

Opinion 1376. Cuspidaria ( Rhinoclama) adamsi Morgan & Heppell, 1981 

(Mollusca, Bivalvia) 30 

Opinion 1377. Chelydra osceola Stejneger, 1918 (Reptilia, Testudines), 

given nomenclatural precedence over C laticarinata Hay, 1916 and 

C.5cw//7ra Hay, 1916 33 

Opinion 1378. Phalaena bellatrix Stoll, 1780 and Crinodes Herrich- 

Schaffer, 1855 (Insecta, Lepidoptera) 35 

Opinion 1379. Gonodontes rectisectaria Herrich-Schaffer, [1855] and Pero 

Herrich-Schaffer, 1855 (Insecta, Lepidoptera) 37 

Opinion 1380. fwpAa^f/ra Hiibner, [1819] (Insecta, Lepidoptera) ... 39 

Opinion 1381. OMrocneww Baker, 1887 (Insecta, Lepidoptera) . ... 42 

Opinion 1382. ZeMgo/7/iorfl Kunze, 1818 (Insecta, Coleoptera) .... 44 

rr/ox>'canM5 Dumbleton, 1966 (Lepidoptera). J. S. Dugdale 46 



IV Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 



Dasyurus hallucatus Gould, 1842 (Mammalia, Marsupialia). J. A. 

Mahoney & W. D. L. Ride 50 

Cholus Germar, 1824 and Archarias Dejean, 1821 (Insecta, Coleoptera). 

C. W. O'Brien & G. J. Wibmer 55 

Dryophthorus Germar, 1824 and Bulbifer Dejean, 1821 (Insecta, 

Coleoptera). C. W. O'Brien & G. Osella 58 

Lachnopus Schoenherr, 1840, Menoetius Dejean, 1821 and Ptilopus 

Schoenherr, 1823 (Insecta, Coleoptera). C. W. O'Brien & G. J. 

Wibmer 62 

Nemocestes Van Dyke, 1936 (Insecta, Coleoptera). C. W. O'Brien ... 66 
Zygops Schoenherr, 1825 and Eccoptus Dejean, 1821 (Insecta, Coleop- 
tera). C. W. O'Brien &G. J. Wibmer 69 

Cidaris clavigera Mantell, 1822 (Echinoidea, Cidaroidea) as type species 

of ry/odi/amPomel, 1883. C.W.Wright & A. B.Smith .... 72 

Ammonites perarmatus i . Sowerby, 1822 (Cephalopoda, Ammonoidea). 

M. K. Howarth 75 

Clausilia Draparnaud, 1805 (Mollusca, Gastropoda). R. V. Melville. . . 78 

De la Cepede, 1788-1789, 'Histoire Naturelle des Serpens', proposed 

rejection as a non-binominal work. R. V. Melville 80 

ATYIDAE De Haan, [1849] (Crustacea, Decapoda) and ATYIDAE 

Thiele, 1926 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) T. K. Crosby & A. Carpenter . 84 

Carcharias Rafinesque, 1810 (Chondrichthyes, Lamniformes). L. J. V. 

Compagno & W. I. Follett 89 

Pyralis nigricana Fabricius, 1794 and Phalaena rusticella Clerck, 1759 

(Insecta, Lepidoptera). P. R. Seymour 93 

Apanteles ornigis Weed, 1887 and Microgaster robiniae Fitch, 1859 

(Insecta, Hymenoptera). J. B. Whitfield 96 

Neastacilla Tattersall, 1921 and Astacilla faldandica OhHn, 1907 H. M. 

LewTon&G.C. B.Poore 99 

Strongylaspis Spaeth, 1936 (Insecta, Coleoptera) non Strongylaspis 

Thomson, 1860 and Cassida atripes LeConte, 1859. E. G. Riley . . 100 

Nomadacris Uvarov, 1923 (Insecta, Orthoptera): proposed setting aside 

of first-reviser action of Jago, 1981. K. H. L. Key & N. D. Jago; 

comment by K. McE. Kevan 102 

Calymene Brongniart (Trilobita) in Brongniart & Desmarest, 1822 and 

Trilobus tuberculatus Brunnich, 1781. H. B. Whittington & D. J. 

Siveter 105 

Dates and authorship of the text volumes of Histoire Naturelle Section of 

Savigny's Description de I'Egypte. M. E. ToUitt 107 

Tubulanus Renier, [1804] and T. polymorphus Renier [1804] (Polychaeta) 

R.V.Melville 112 

Notices 115 

Special Announcements 118 

On C/ie/rMrMjBeyrich, 1845 (Trilobita). H.B. Whittington 118 

On Olpium Koch, 1873 (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpionida). R. Schuster 118 

On Bervtus Fabricius, 1803 (Insecta, Heteroptera). J. Pericart; W. R. 

Dolling 119 

On//a/5c/ieA:/aPoche, 1902(Copepoda). Z. Kabata 120 

Opinion 1383. /l/7/5/7//jpe5 Fabricius, 1775 (Insecta, Hymenoptera) . . 121 

Opinion 1384. Z)rowo/7/i« Peters, 1869 (Reptilia, Serpentes) 123 

Opinion 1385. y4no/w caro//nen5/j Voigt, 1832 (ReptiUa, Sauria) . . . 125 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 



Opinion 1386. Papilio erato Linnaeus, 1758 (Insecta, Lepidoptera) 128 

Opinion 1387. Curculio picirostris Fabricius, 1787 (Insecta, Coleoptera, 

Curculionidae) 130 

Opinion 1388. Callionymus sagitta Pallas, 1770 (Osteichthyes, 

Callionymidae) 132 

Opinion \'i%9 . Phascolosoma cumanense K.e{ers\.Qin, 1867 (Sipunculida) . 134 

Opinion 1390. /'e//o«i//afta/u>«j/5Steindachner, 1879 (Osteichthyes) . . 136 

Opinion 1391. Zygaena anthyllidis Boisduval, [1828] (Insecta, 

Lepidoptera) 138 

Opinion 1392. Reptomuhisparsa d'Orbigny, 1853 (Bryozoa, 

Cyclostomata) 140 

Opinion 1393. C/joero/75/5Leidy, 1852 (Mammalia, Artiodactyla) . . . 142 

Opinion 1394. Centrurus limpidus Karsch, 1879 and Centruroides ornatus 

Pocock, 1902(Arachnida, Scorpiones) 144 

Opinion 1395. rom/o/75/j Benediktova, 1956 (Brachiopoda) 146 

Opinion 1396. Bvrrhus murinus Fabricius, 1794 (Insecta, Coleoptera, 

Byrrhidae) ' 148 

Opinion 1397. RhopalocerusW. Redtenbacher, 1 842 (Insecta, Coleoptera, 

Colydidae) 150 

Opinion 1398. Ca/>3'5Hewitson, [1865] (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae) . . . 152 

Opinion 1399. Cochliomyia Tov/nsend, 1915 (Diptera, Calhphoridae) . 154 

Bubo Dumeril, 1806 and Surnia Dumeril (Aves). R. V. Melville 156 

Antispila Hiibner, [1825] (Insecta, Lepidoptera). E. S. Nielsen & I. W. B. 

Nye 158 

//e/eroc/o«/«m6/co/or Cope, 1896 (Reptilia, Squamata). S. C. Ayala . . 160 

On the names of two species of Clytia Lamouroux, 1812 (Cnidaria, 

Hydrozoa). P. F. S. Cornelius & C. Ostman 163 

Napomyza Westwood, 1840 (Insecta, Diptera). G. C. D. Griffiths, K. A. 

Spencer & G. C. Steyskal 170 

Microgaster Latreille, 1804 (Insecta, Hymenoptera). W. R. M. Mason 173 

5j^arfl5r/io//r/Fieber, [1860] (Insecta, Heteroptera). A. Jansson ... 175 

Micronecta griseoia Horvath, 1899 (Insecta, Heteroptera, Corixidae). 

A. Jansson 178 

Calcarina calcar d'Orbigny, 1839 (Protozoa, Foraminiferida). H. J. 

Hansen 181 

Agromyza Fallen, 1810 (Insecta, Diptera). K. A. Spencer & G. C. Steyskal 1 83 

rro/7//>/2or«.sSch6nherr, 1842 (Insecta, Coleoptera). H. Silfverberg . . 186 

Tetropium Kirby, 1837 (Insecta, Coleoptera, Cerambycidae). M. 

Mroczkowski 188 

Risomurex Olsson & McGinty, 1958 (Mollusca, Gastropoda). Th. C. H. 

Kemperman& H. E. Coomans 191 

Siphamia Weber, 1909 and Siphamia permutata Klausewitz, 1966 

(Osteichthyes, Perciformes). J. E. Randall, E. A. Lachner & T. H. 

Eraser 193 

Cydaxyra Broun, 1893 (Insecta, Coleoptera). J. C. Watt & R. A. 

Crowson 196 

SINUITIDAE Dall, 1913, MACLURiTiDAE Fischer, 1885 and euromphalidae 

de Koninck, 1881 (Gastropoda, Archaeogastropoda). The late J. 

Brookes Knight; R. L. Batten & E. Yochelson 199 

Laplysia viridis Montagu, 1804 (Mollusca, Gastropoda). P. Bouchet . . 205 

Orbicula Cuvier, 1 798 (Brachiopoda). C. H. C. Brunton & D. E. Lee . . 210 



VI Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1 986 



Criopus Poli, 1791 and Criopoderma Poll, 1795 (Brachiopoda). C. H. C. 

Brunton & D. E. Lee 213 

Crania tuberculata Nilsson, 1826 (Brachiopoda). C. H. C. Brunton & 

D. E. Lee 215 

Trichomonas Donne, 1836 (Protozoa, Mastigophora). Executive 

Secretary) 218 

Notices 221 

Special Announcements 223 

On Brachyderes Schonherr, 1823 (Insecta, Coleoptera). C. Bordon . . 226 
On Nomadacris Uvarov, 1923 (Insecta, Orthoptera). R. E. Blackith; 

M. La Greca& R. F. Chapman 227 

On C£'/7/!fl/o/>/io/warg'U5 Schneider, 1801 (Osteichthyes). G. F. Mees . . 227 

On 'Histoire Naturelle des Serpens' (Lacepede, 1788-89). H. M. Smith . 228 

Opinion 1400. Simiafascicularis Raffles. 1821 (Mammalia, Primates) 229 

Opinion 1401. Lewca^/^wSignoret, 1869 (Insecta, Homoptera) .... 231 

Opinion 1402. 5agrw5Bosc, 1816 (Osteichthyes, Siluriformes) .... 233 

Opinion 1403. Lumbricus lacieus Orley, 1881 (Annelida, Oligochaeta) 235 
Opinion 1404. Indodorylaimus elongatus Baqri, 1982 (Nematoda, 

Dorylaimida) 237 

Opinion 1405. Aphelinus mytilaspidis Le Baron, 1870 (Insecta, 

Hymenoptera) 239 

Opinion 1406. Phalaena stagnata Donovan, 1806 (Insecta, Lepidoptera) 241 

Opinion 1407. La/M/aae/Zi/o/j^Fabricius, 1775 (Insecta, Coleoptera) . . 243 
Opinion 1408. Hypocryphalus mangiferae Stebbing, 1914 (Insecta, 

Coleoptera) 245 

Opinion 1409. yi^/a«r/i«jZj«ca?MjAmeghino, 1891 (MammaHa) . . . 247 

Opinion 1410. W^;7//aw/aMonterosato, 1884 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) . 249 

Opinion 1411. Z)r>TO«jrj'e// Douglas & Scott, 1865 (Insecta, Hemiptera) 251 
Opinion 1412. Leptoclinum fulgens Milne Edwards, 1841 (Tunicata, 

Ascidiaea) 253 

Opinion 1413. Delphinus rr«/ica/M5 Montagu, 1821 (Mammalia, Cetacea) 256 

Opinion 1414. Panopea Menard de la Groye, 1807 (Mollusca, Bivalvia) . 258 

Opinion 1415. /'o/v^«a//iu5M/>i^a/MjRoundy, 1926 (Conodonta) . . . 262 

Opinion 1416. Atractocera latipes Meigen, 1804 (Insecta, Diptera) . . 264 
Opinion 1417. Chromis Cuvier in Desmarest, 1814 (Osteichthyes, 

Perciformes) ... 267 

Rhabdodon Matheron, 1869 (Reptilia, Omithischia) and Rhabdodon 

Fleischmann, 1831 (Reptilia, Serpentes). W. Brinkmann .... 269 
Megalonaias Utterback, 1915 (Mollusca, Bivalvia). A. E. Bogan & J. D. 

Williams 273 

Ammonites neubergicus Hauer, 1858 (Cephalopoda, Ammonoidea). R. A. 

Henderson & W. J. Kennedy 277 

Corixa albifrons Motschulsky, 1863 (Insecta, Heteroptera). A. Jansson & 

I. M. Kerzhner 279 

Dexia Meigen, 1826 (Insecta, Diptera). R. W. Crosskey, B. Herting, L. P. 

Mesnil & D. M. Wood 282 

Lepralia punctata Hassall, 1841 (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata). J. D. D. 

Bishop 288 

PSELiDOCALANiDAE Sars, 1901 (Crustacea. Copepoda). V. N. Andronov & 

N. V. Vyshkvartzeva 297 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 VII 



Geonemus Schoenherr, 1833 and Brachyomus Lacordaire, 1863 (Insecta, 

Coleoptera). G. J. Wibmer and C. W. O'Brien 300 

Phaulacridium vittatum (Sjostedt, 1920) (Insecta, Orthoptera). K. H. L. 

Key 303 

Phisis Stal, 1861 and Teuthras Stal, 1874 (Insecta, Orthoptera 

(Grylloptera)). D. K. McE. Kevan 306 

Proposed new term 'Nomenclaturally valid', an amendment to the Code. 

R.V.Melville 308 

Taeniolabis Cope, 1882 (Mammalia, Multituberculata). N. B. Simmons . 310 

Notices 315 

Special Announcements 316 

Instructions to Authors 317 

Publication of Official Lists 319 

Financial Report for 1985 320 

Comment on Apanteles ornigis Weed, 1887 (Hymenoptera). R. A. 

Wharton 324 

Comment on THRESKIORNITHIDAE Richmond, 1917 (Aves). W. J. 

Bock 324 

Opinion 1418. Glyphipterix Hiibner, [1825] (Insecta, Lepidoptera) 325 

Opinion 1419. Democricetodon Fahlbusch, 1964 (Mammalia, Rodentia) 328 

Liasis Gray, 1 842 (Reptilia, Serpentes). A. F. Stimson & S. B. McDowell 330 
Filellum serpens (Hassall, 1848) (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa). P. F. S. Cornelius 

& D. R. Calder 335 

L>'caena/«/rzaP16tz, 1880 (Insecta, Lepidoptera). T. B. Larsen . . . 342 

Para/j/ij/owjzaEnderlein, 1936 (Insecta, Diptera). K. A. Spencer . . . 344 

Heriaeus Simon, 1 875 (Arachnida, Araneida). O. Kraus & A. Loerbroks 346 
Trypanosoma brucei Plimmer & Bradford, 1899 (Protozoa, Mastigo- 

phora). M. E. Tollitt 348 

5/WM//MW a«5?e«/ Edwards, 1915 (Insecta, Diptera). I. A. Rubtsov . . . 350 

Simulia ferruginea Wahlberg, 1844 (Insecta, Diptera). I. A. Rubtsov . . 352 
Belemnites paxillosa Lamarck, 1801 (MoUusca, Coleoidea). P. Doyle & 

W. Riegraf 355 

Co6;7/5 Linnaeus, 1758 (Osteichthyes, Cypriniformes). M. Kottelat . . 360 
Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, 1797) (Insecta, Coleoptera). R. D. Pope & 

J. C. Watt 363 

Cornalatus Attems, 1931 (Diplopoda, Polydesmida). R. L. Hoffman . . 366 

0/)/w5Wesmael, 1835 (Insecta, Hymenoptera). R. A. Wharton . . . . 369 
Leptura marginata Fabricius, 1781 (Insecta, Coleoptera). M. 

Mroczkowski 372 

Index to Authors 373 

List of Decisions in this volume 375 

Names placed on Official Lists and Indexes in decisions published in this 

volume 377 

Index to Key Names 380 

Corrigenda 388 

Particulars of the dates of publication of the several parts in which the 

present volume was published 388 

Instructions to Binder 388 



pp. i-ii, 1-114 



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THE INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON 
ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE 

A. The Officers of the Commission 

President: Dr. W.D.L. RIDE (School of Applied Science, Canberra College of 

Advanced Education, P.O. Bo.x 1 , Belconnen, A.C.T. 2616, Australia). 
Vice-President: Prof. Dr. Raphael ALVARADO ( Departamento de Zoologia, 

Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Madrid, Madrid 28040, Spain). 
Executive Secretary: Dr. P.K. TUBBS (British Museum (Natural History), 

Cromwell Road. London S W7 5BD) . 
Secretary-General: Dr. L.B. HOLTHUIS ( Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, 

Postbus 9517. 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands) . 

B. The Members of the Commission 

(Arranged in order of election or of most recent re-election) 

Prof. Dr. Raphael ALVARADO (Departamento de Zoologia, Facultad de Ciencias, 

Universidad de Madrid, Madrid 28040, Spain) (30 September 1972) (Vice- 
President) Echinoidea; Asteroidea 
Dr. L.B. HOLTHUIS (Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, Postbus 9517, 2300 

RA Leiden, The Netherlands) (30 September 1972) (Secretary-General) 

Crustacea 
Dr. G. BERNARDI (Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 45 rue de Buffon, 

75005, Paris, France) (30 September 1972) (Councillor) Lepidoptera 
Prof. C. DUPUIS (Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 45 rue de Buffon, 75005, 

Paris, France) (30 September 1972) Heteroptera 
Dr. M. MROCZKOWSKI (Instytut Zoologiczny. Polska Akademia Nauk. ul. 

Wilcza 64, Warsaw, Poland) (14 March 1975) Coleoptera 
Prof. Dr. Otto KRAUS (Zoologisches Institut und Zoologisches Museum, 2000 

Hamburg 13, Germany) (29 September 1976) Arachnida, Myriapoda 
Dr. W.D.L. RIDE (School of Applied Science, Canberra College of Advanced 

Education, P.O. Box 1, Belconnen, A.C.T. 2616, Australia) (29 September 1976) 

(President): Mammalia: Recent and Fossil 
Dr. H.G. COGGER (Australian Museum, Sydney 2000, N.S.W. Australia) (29 

September 1976) Reptilia: E D P Methods 
Prof. Dr. Gerhard HAHN ( Fachbereich Geowissenschaften, Universitdtsgebiet 

Lahnberge, 3550 Marburg, BRD) (27 December 1978) Palaeontology 
Prof. Dr. O. HALVORSEN (Institute of Biology and Geology, University of 

Tromso, P.O. Box 790, N-9001 Tromso, Norway) (27 December 1978) 

Parasitology 
Dr. V.A. TRJAPITZIN (Zoological Institute, Academy of Sciences, Leningrad 

B-164, USSR) (27 December 1978) Entomology 
Dr. P.M. BAYER (U.S. National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C. 

20560, U.S.A.) (23 August 1979) (Councillor) Octocorallia; Systematics 
Prof. John O. CORLISS (University of Maryland, College Park. Maryland 20742, 

U.S.A.) (23 August 1979) Protozoa; Systematics 
Mr. R.V. MELVILLE (93 Lock Road, Ham, Richmond. Surrey, TWIO 7LL, U.K.) 

(23 August 1979) Palaeontology 
Dr. Y.I. STAROBOGATOV (Zoological Institute, Academy of Sciences, Leningrad 

199164. U.S.S.R.) (23 August 1979) Mollusca, Crustacea 



Dr P.T. LEHTINEN (Zoological Museum, Department of Biology, University of 

Turku. SF-20500 Turku 50, Finland) (8 August 1980) Arachnida 
Dr. L.R.M. COCKS (British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, London, 

SW7 5BD) (26 August 1982) Brachiopoda 
Mr. David HEPPELL (Department of Natural History, Royal Scottish Museum, 

Edinburgh EH] IJF. Scotland) (26 August 1982) (Councillor) Mollusca 
Prof. Jay M. SAVAGE (Department of Biology, University of Miami, P.O. Box 

249118, Coral Gables. Florida 33124, U.S.A.) (26 August 1982) Herpetology 
Prof. R. SCHUSTER (Institut fiir Zoologie, Universitdt Graz, Universitdtsplatz 2, 

A-8010 Graz, Austria) (26 August 1982) Acari 
Dr. SHUN-ICHI UENO (Department of Zoology, National Science Museum, 

Hyakunincho 3-23-1, Shinjukuku. Tokyo 160, Japan) (26 August 1982) 

Entomology 
Prof. A. WILLINK ( Universidad Nacional de Tucumdn, Instituto Miguel Lillo, 

Miguel Lillo 205, 4000 Tucumdn, Argentina) (26 August 1982) Neotropical 

Hymenoptera 
Dr. G.C. GRUCHY (National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa, Canada, 

KIA 0M8) (15 April 1985) Ichthyology 
Dr. Z. KABATA (Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Pacific Biological 

Station. Nanaimo, B.C. V9R 5K6, Canada) (4 September 1985) Copepoda 
Dr. F.C. THOMPSON (Systematic Entomolgy Laboratory, USDA c/o U.S. 

National Museum. Washington, D.C. 20560, U.S.A.) (4 September 1985) 

Diptera 
Prof. B.S. ZHENG ( Department of Vertebrate Taxonomies and Faunistics, Institute 

of Zoology, 7 Zhongguancun Lu, Haitien, Beijing, China) (4 September 1985) 

Ichthyology 



INTERNATIONAL TRUST FOR ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE 
A. The Members of the Trust 



Professor H.B. Whittington, F.R.S. 

( Chairman) 
Dr. F.G.W. Jones (Secretary and 

Managing Director) 
Prof. Per Brinck 
Prof. J.H. Callomon 
Dr. P.F.S. Cornelius 
Prof. C.B. Cox 
The Rt. Hon. the Earl of Cranbrook, 

F.L.S., F.Z.S. 
Mr. D. Curry 
Sir Arthur Drew, K.C.B. 
Sir Charles Fleming, K.B.E., F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Forest 
Col. Francis J. Griffin. O.B.E. 



Dr. G.C. Gruchy 
Dr. R.H. Hedley, F.I.Biol. 
Dr. L.B. Holthuis 
Dr. M.K. Howarth 
Sir Peter Kent, F.R.S. 
Prof. Dr. O. Kraus 
Dr. M. Luc 
Dr. R.B. Manning 
Mr. R.V. Melville 
Dr. I.W.B. Nye 
Dr. E.P.F. Rose, T.D. 
Dr. W.D.L. Ride (ex officio) 
Dr. G.B. White 

Prof. J.M. Dodd, F.R.S. (Observer for 
the Royal Society) 



B. The Officers of the Trust 

Dr. P.K. Tubbs, M.A., Ph.D. (Scientific Controller) 

Mr. M.E. ToUitt, M.Sc, F.L.S., F.R.E.S. ( Assistant Zoologist ) 

Mr. J.D.D. Smith, (Administrator ) 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 1 

BULLETIN OF ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE 

Volume 43, part 1 (pp. i-ii, 1-1 14) 9 April 1986 

NOTICES 

(a) Invitation to comment. The Commission is entitled to start to 
vote on applications published in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 
six months after the publication of each application. This period is 
normally extended to enable comments to be submitted. Any zoologist 
who wishes to comment on any of the applications is invited to send his 
contribution, in duplicate, to the Secretary of the Commission as quickly 
as possible, and in any case in time to reach the Secretary within twelve 
months of the date of publication of the application. 

(b) Possible use of the plenary powers. The possible use by the 
Commission of its plenary powers is involved in the following applications 
published in the present part of the Bulletin: 

(1) Dasyurus hallucatus Gould, 1842 (Mammalia, Marsupialia): 
proposed conservation by the suppression of Mustela quoll 
Zimmermann, 1783. Z.N.(S.) 2472. J.A. Mahoney & W.D.L. 
Ride. 

(2) Cholus Germar, 1824 (Insecta, Coleoptera): proposed sup- 
pression of Archarias Dejean, 1821. Z.N.(S.) 2485. C.W. 
O'Brien & G.J. Wibmer. 

(3) Dryophthorus Germar, 1824 (Insecta, Coleoptera): proposed 
conservation by the suppression of Bulbifer Dejean, 1821. 
Z.N.(S.) 2486. C.W. O'Brien & G. Osella. 

(4) Lachnopus Schoenherr, 1840 (Insecta, Coleoptera): proposed 
conservation by the suppression of Menoetius Dejean, 1821 
and Ptilopus Schoenherr, 1823. Z.N.(S.) 2487. C.W. O'Brien 
& G.J. Wibmer. 

(5) Nemocestes Van Dyke, 1936 (Insecta, Coleoptera): proposed 
conservation and designation of type species. Z.N.(S.) 2488. 
C.W. O'Brien. 

(6) Zygops Schoenherr, 1825 (Insecta, Coleoptera): proposed 
conservation by the suppression of Eccoptus Dejean, 1821. 
Z.N.(S.) 2489. C.W. O'Brien and G.J. Wibmer. 

(7) Tylocidaris Pomel, 1883 (Echinoidea, Cidaroidea): proposed 
designation of Cidaris clavigera Mantell, 1822 as type 
species. Z.N.(S.) 2505. C.W. Wright & A.B. Smith. 

(8) Ammonites perarmatus J. Sowerby, 1822 (Cephalopoda, 
Ammonoidea): proposed exemption from the Principle of 
Homonymy. Z.N.(S.) 2479. M.K. Howarth. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



(9) Clausilia Draparnaud, 1805 (Mollusca, Gastropoda): 
proposed correction of Opinion 119. Z.N.(S.) 872. R.V. 
Melville. 

(10) De La Cepede. 1 788-89 'Histoire Naturelle des Serpens' and 
later editions: proposed rejection as a non-binominal work. 
Z.N.(S.) 1985. R.V. Melville. 

(11) ATYiDAE De Haan, [1849] (Crustacea, Decapoda) and 
ATYiDAE Thiele, 1926 (Mollusca, Gastropoda): proposals 
to remove the homonymy. Z.N.(S.) 2357. T.K. Crosby & 
A. Carpenter. 

(12) Carcharias Rafinesque, 1810 (Chondrichthyes, Lamni- 
formes); proposed conservation by the use of the relative 
precedence procedure. Z.N.(S.) 2414. L.J.V. Compagno & 
W.I. Follett. 

(13) Pyralis nigricana Fabricius, 1794 (Insecta, Lepidoptera): 
proposed conservation by the suppression of Phalaena rusti- 
cella Clerck, 1759. Z.N.(S.) 2468. P.R. Seymour. 

(14) Apanteles ornigis Weed, 1887 (Insecta, Hymenoptera): 
proposed conservation by the suppression of Microgaster 
robiniae Fitch, 1859. Z.N.(S.) 2506. J.B. Whitfield. 

(15) Strongyiaspis Spaeth, 1936 (Insecta, Coleoptera) non 
Strongylaspis Thomson, 1860: proposed designation of 
Cassida atripes Leconte, 1859 as type species. Z.N.(S.) 2492. 
E.G. Riley. 

(16) Nomadacris Uvarov, 1923 (Insecta, Orthoptera): proposed 
conservation by setting aside the first-reviser action of Jago, 
1981 . Z.N.(S.) 2425. K.H.L. Key & N.D. Jago. 

(17) Type species of the genus Calymene Brongniart (Trilobita) in 
Brongniart & Desmarest, 1822 and proposed suppression of 
the name tuberculatus Briinnich, 1781: rider to Z.N.(S.) 637. 
H.B. Whittington & D.J. Siveter. 

(18) Tubulanus Renier, [1804] and T. polymorphus Renier, [1804] 
(Polychaeta): proposed reinstatement under the plenary 
powers. Z.N.(S.) 1094. R.V. Melville. 

(c) Receipt of new applications. The following new applications 
have been received since going to press for vol. 42 (4) (published on 6 
December 1985): 

(1) Phymatodes Mulsant, 1839 and Phymatestes Pascoe, 1867 
(Insecta, Coleoptera): proposed conservation. Z.N.(S.) 2532. 
M. Mroczkowski. 

(2) Silurus felis Linnaeus, 1766 (Osteichthyes, Siluriformes): 
proposed designation of a neotype. Z.N.(S.) 2533. W.R. 
Taylor. 

(3) Tetropium Kirby, 1837 (Insecta, Coleoptera): proposed 
conservation. Z.N.(S.) 2534. M. Mroczkowski. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



(4) Family-group names among bees (Insecta, Hymenoptera): 
proposed conservation under plenary powers. Z.N.(S.) 2535. 
D. Michener. 

(5) Rhabdodon Matheron, 1869 (Reptilia, Ornithopoda): pro- 
posed conservation under plenary powers. Z.N.(S.) 2536. 
W. Brinkmann. 

(6) Tropiphorus Schonherr, 1842 (Insecta, Coleoptera): pro- 
posed conservation by suppression of Brius Dejean, 1821. 
Z.N.(S.) 2537. H. Silfverberg. 

(7) Tantilla annulata Boeltger, 1892 (Reptilia, Serpentes): 
proposed conservation by suppression of Homalocranion 
supracinctum W. Peters, 1863. Z.N.(S.) 2539. L.D. Wilson. 

(8) CLEONINAE Schoenherr, 1826 (Insecta, Coleoptera): 
proposed conservation, Z.N.(S.) 2540. R.S. Anderson 

(9) Neamia octospina Smith & Radcliffe, 1912 (Pisces, 
Apogonidae): proposed conservation of the specific name by 
suppression of A^. sphenura (Ehrenberg, 1884). Z.N.(S.) 2541 . 
O. Gon. 

(10) TRAPEZIIDAE Miers, 1886 (Crustacea, Brachyura) and 
TRAPEZIIDAE Lamy, 1920 (Mollusca, Bivalvia): proposals 
to remove the homonymy. Z.N.(S.) 2542. G. Morgan. 

(11) Orbicula Cuvier, 1 798 (Brachiopoda): proposed suppression. 
Z.N.(S.) 2543. C.H.C. Brunton & D.E. Lee. 

( 1 2) Criopus Poli, 1 79 1 and Criopoderma Poli, 1 795 (Brachiopoda): 
proposed suppression. Z.N.(S.) 2544. C.H.C. Brunton & 
D.E. Lee. 

(13) Harpa articularis Lamarck, 1822 and Harpa ventricosa 
Lamarck, 1816 (Mollusca, Gastropoda): proposed con- 
servation by suppression of H. delicata Perry, .1811 and 
H. umiformis Perry, 1811. Z.N.(S.) 2548. H.A. Rehder & 
R.E. Petit. 



SPECIAL ANNOUNCEMENT 
CHANGE OF NAME OF OUR PUBLISHERS 

In keeping with its new international image, the Commonwealth 
Agricultural Bureaux has been renamed C.A.B. International. This change 
was agreed by the 29 member countries at the Tenth Quinquennial Review 
Conference, held in London in September 1985. The Conference also 
agreed to a draft new Constitution, and this document is currently under 
ratification procedures by member governments. 

The provision of information and scientific services in agriculture 
and related fields will remain the primary functions of C.A.B. International. 
However, the organisation will also be aiming to provide a broader range 
of services and will be welcoming to membership other countries. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



including non-Commonwealth countries, which wish to join the traditional 
Commonwealth country membership. 

The organisation is controlled by an Executive Council composed 
of nominees of the various governments, including one for the United 
Kingdom Dependent Territories. 

P. K. TUBES 

Executive Secretary 

March 1986 



COMMENTS ON THE PROPOSED AMENDMENT TO ARTICLE 51c OF 
THE INTERNATIONAL CODE OF ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE 

Z.N.(S.)2474 
(see vol. 41, pp. 149-150; vol. 42, pp. 10-12, 209) 

(1) By George C. Steyskal {retired) and Norman E. Woodley (Systematic 

Entomology Laboratory . U.S. Department of Agriculture , cjo U.S. National Museum 

NHB- 168. Washington, D.C.. U.S.A. 20560); Amnon Freidberg {Department of 

Zoology, Tel- Aviv University, Tel- Aviv, Israel 69-000); Richard C. Froeschner 

and Wayne N. Mathis {Department of Entomology, National Museum of Natural 

History, Smithsonian Institution. Washington, D.C., U.S.A. 20560); and Neal L. 

Evenhuis {Bishop Museum, P.O. Box 19000-A, Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A. 96817) 

We are in favour of the proposed amendment, chiefly because we believe that 
the loss of time spent checking names merely to find out whether or not their 
authors' names should be in parentheses far outweighs the small advantage of 
knowing that a specific combination is not original while not knowing what was the 
original combination. The argument that comprehensive lists are or soon will be 
available in certain groups is as much an argument for the proposal, perhaps even 
more, than against it. 

The fact that a considerable body of literature, including the great Fliegen der 
palaearktischen Region (occupying more than a meter of shelf space), is without 
the presently required parentheses shows how well they can be dispensed with. 
Legitimization of such works by abrogation of the requirement for the use of 
parentheses would not prevent anyone from continuing to use them if he so wished. 
Abrogation of the requirement would do no harm, but it would make things a little 
easier and save some time. 

The confusing practice of citing subsequent author's names immediately 
after the species-name is already ruled against in the Examples following Art. 
5 1(b). (i). We therefore recommend complete removal of Art 51(d), including 
paragraph (i), and the whole of Art. 51(c), but the addition to Art 51(a) of the 
clause: 'if cited, none other than the name of the original author (authors) may 
immediately follow the species-group name.' 



(2) By C. L. Staines, Jr. {3302 Decker Place, Edgewater, MD 21037, U.S.A.) 

Gagne et al. have made some good points in their proposal. To an author of 
both taxonomic and general biology papers there is always the question of whether 
or not to use parentheses. I am of the opinion that the requirement for parentheses 



Bull. zool. Nom.. vol. 43, pt 1 , April 1986 5 

be dropped for biological or ecological papers but retained for taxonomic ones 
lite'rarre revi ^ researcher to trace the nomenclatural status of a species for h;s 

The only valid alternative that I can see for taxonomists would be to list all 
the combinations under which a specific name has appeared. This system is followed 
by some workers but seems even more cumbersome than the present system. 

COMMENT ON THE PROPOSED COMPLETION OF THE OFFICIAL I TST 

ENTRY FOR RHABDITIS DUJARDIN, [1855] (NEMATODA) Z N^S )937 

(see vol. 42, pp. 197-198) 

By W. Grant Inglis {Office of the Chief Scientific Adviser, GPO Box 1625 Adelaide 
South Australia 5001) 

i.n. Jw^^T' ^^'''^^fy has advanced proposals intended to overcome a prob- 
lem which L and others had thought to have been resolved m 1928 when the name 
foi wi h 7^ P^^.P^^'l'y Pl^'^ed on the Official List of Genenc Names by Opinion 
\l% \, 7t ^' .'^P' ^^ subsequent designation' (see Dougherty, E. C. 
\ u, l ""^"'^- ^°'- ^^' PP- '05-152). That not being so. the proposals are 
acceptable because they do not alter the situation as it is generally understood 

anttdn^ .H ^K?'"' °'' '^' '"^r^' "'^"^^' "°^ (') ^°'^^ ^"y k"°^"' obvious or 
anticipated problem in nomenclature, because of the provisions of Article 78f(iv) 

ative vIlnmrnn''.Q 'i^T ^""S^erty's brief paper of 1953 (Thapar Commemor- 
at ve Volume pp. 69-76) but the justifications for those conclusions are given in a 
later paper (1955, J. Helminthol.. vol. 29, pp. 105-152). In this a very persuasive 
case IS made for treating R. terricola as a species of that genus and so' b"^ default 
as Its type species This conclusion was reached, and still stands, on the ba is of 
s^pe'rfluous!'"^'" ^'''^"P"°" ^° '^^' ^"^ ''^'''^'^ '^ ^- ^^P^ra Butschli, 1873 is 
The significant question for the Commission, however, is whether it is necess- 
Ts w ih'''^"" "^"!f;.°.^**her Official List. As I read the latest edition o the Code 
hs would give no additional protection to either name, and there is no evidence 

he oossi^'ihtv oT h '' °"'I '"^'^ ^'^^"^^^^ "'^^^ ^^ '« ^'^' -y«"^ ^^onslnnl 
supplies the root for higher-taxon names up to Class and Subclass. 

Note by R. V. Melville (former Secretary) 

HowevPr"";; grateful to Dr Inglis for the additional information he has supplied. 

effect of h.H™'""'^^'''A'"^-' '^' ^°'™^' P«^'^'°"' "^^'^'^ '^ that the putting into 
^958 nenH ^^'^'f'°" '" ^P'^'^ '^^ on Rhabditis and R. terricola was postponed in 
1958 pending clarification of the taxonomic status of R. terricola. My proposals 
merely aimed to complete this piece of unfinished business before the Commission 
and I maintain that this should be done. -commission, 

snpHp.'^r^^^'"!^"n '^^^ P^P^ '^°'^' ^hat Dujardin's original description of the 
Rei rl t: wm^I A '" 'j^'^-tified beyond doubt. It is only as'a result of 
Keiters work (1928, Arb. zool. Inst. Univ. Innsbruck, vol. 3. pp. 93-184) that that 
trnSn ''h'' "'!? to recognise R. aspersa Butschli as'conspecific wi hi 
terricola Dujardin. so that reference to the latter still has point. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



It is true that placing a name on the Official List does not give that name 
any added protection against hitherto undiscovered senior homonyms or synonyms; 
that protection is afforded by Article 78i. But at least the status of the names 
involved has been thoroughly examined and this alone provided a measure of 
security. 

COMMENTAIRE SUR CAECILIIDAE CHEZ LES AMPHIBIENS ET CHEZ 

LES PSOCOPTERES: NOUVEAUX ELEMENTS ET NOUVELLE 

PROPOSITION. Z.N.(S.)2333 

(see vol. 40, pp. 124^128; vol. 41, pp. 108-109, 207-208 and vol. 42, pp. 220-221) 

par Alain Dubois (Laboratoire des Reptiles et Amphibiens, Museum national 
d'Histoire naturelle, 25 rue Cuvier, 75005 Paris, France) 

Les propositions faites par Moore, Nussbaum & Mockford (1983), par 
Smith & Polhemus (1984) et par Moore (1984) pour resoudre ce cas d'homonymie 
dans le groupe-famille sont interessantes mais reposent sur une connaissance 
incomplete de la bibliographic sur cette question. Comme nous I'avons montre par 
ailleurs (Dubois, 1984, 1985), le premier nom du groupe-famille disponible pour la 
famille d' Amphibiens Gymnophiones comprenant le genre Caecilia Linne, 1758 
n'est pas caeciliadae Gray, 1825, mais cecilinia Rafinesque-Schmaltz, 1814, nom 
fonde sur Cecilia [Rafinesque-Schmaltz, 1814], une emendation injustifiee de 
Caecilia Linne, 1758 (pour plus de details, voir Dubois, 1985). 

L'application des Articles 32(c) (iii) et 35(d)(ii) du nouveau Code exigerait 
dans ce cas de corriger automatiquement le nom cecilinia Rafinesque-Schmaltz, 
1814 en caeciliidae Rafinesque-Schmaltz, 1814, mais alors le probleme 
d'homonymie avec le nom de famille de Psocopteres subsisterait. 

Nous proposons comme solution a ce probleme d'homonymie Taction 
suivante, a notre avis bien plus simple et economique que celles suggerees jusqu'ici: 
il suffirait que la Commission decide de suspendre dans ce cas l'application des Art. 
32(c)(iii) et 35(d)(ii) du Code, de maniere a retablir la simple primaute du Principe 
de Priorite. Le nom valide de la famille d'Amphibiens Gymnophiones serait alors 
CECiLiiDAE Rafinesque-Schmaltz, 1814, et I'homonymie avec le nom caeciliidae 
Kolbe, 1880 serait levee sans qu'aucune autre action soil necessaire. 

REFERENCES BIBLIOGRAPHIQUES 
DUBOIS, A., 1984. Miscellanea nomenclatorica batrachologica (V). Alytes. vol. 3, 

fasc. 3, pp. 111-116. 
DUBOIS, A., 1985. Miscellanea nomenclatorica zoologica (VII). Alytes, vol. 4, fasc. 

2, pp. 61-78. 
MOORE, T. E., 1984. Caeciliidae in Amphibia and Insecta (Psocoptera): reply to 

Smith, Lanham, and Polhemus, Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 41, fasc. 4, pp. 

207-208. 
MOORE, T. E., NUSSBAUM, R. A. & MOCKFORD, E. L. 1983. Caeciliidae in 

Amphibia and Insecta (Psocoptera): proposals to remove the homonymy. 

Bull. zool. Nam., vol. 40, fasc. 2, pp. 124-128. 
RAFINESQUE-SCHMALTZ, C. S. 1814. Fine del prodrome d'erpetologia 

siciliana. Specchio Sci., vol. 2, pp. 102-104. 
SMITH, H. M. & POLHEMUS, J. T., 1984. Caeciliidae in Amphibia and Insecta 

(Psocoptera): alternative proposals to remove the homonymy. Bull. zool. 

Nom., vol. 41, fasc. 2, pp. 108-109. 



Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



COMMENTS ON THE APPLICATION CONCERNING ROBERTUS O 

PICKARD-CAMBRIDGE. 1879 (ARACHNIDA, ARANEAE). Z.N.(S.)1481 

(seevol. 42, pp. 81-84) 

( 1 ) By Otto Kraus {Zoologisches Institut und Zoologisches Museum, 
Martin-Luther-King-Platz 3. 2000 Hamburg 13, Germany) 

According to Bonnet's catalogue, Ctenium was used 10 times and Robertus 
13 times prior to 1939, both by various authors. As Levi mentions in his application, 
Ctenium was used by Kaston in his 1946 revision of North American species, and in 
regional lists since. So Ctenium cannot be considered a forgotten name. 

On the other hand, Robertus has always been the preferred name, and since 
Levi & Levi, 1962, Ctenium has remained practically unused. On this evidence it 
seems advisable to have Robertus now stabilised. 

The type species of the two genera are not very similar; they may even 
represent different species groups (see Wiehle, 1937, figs 261-263 and 270-272). 
Moreover, our knowledge of the two genera is still limited to the western Palaearctic 
and Nearctic regions (Europe and North America). Nobody knows how many 
species may exist in other regions or how widely distributed the genera may be. 

Under such conditions we should not interfere with taxonomic freedom nor 
prejudice future taxonomic judgment. Ctenium is an available name without nomen- 
clatural defects, introduced by Menge, one of the classical authors in arachnology, 
far ahead of his contempories. I therefore propose that the 'relative precedence' 
procedure be used here. Professor Levi agrees with this. 

The following changes should therefore be made to the original Levi 
application: 

(l)(b) to rule that the generic name Robertus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 
1879, is to be given precedence over the generic name Ctenium 
Menge, 1871, whenever the two names are considered synonyms; 
(2)(b) Robertus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1879 (gender; masculine), type 
species, by monotypy, Robertus astutus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 
1879, with an endorsement that it is to be given precedence over 
Ctenium Menge, 1871, whenever the two names are considered 
synonyms; 
(c) Ctenium Menge, 1871 (gender: neuter), type species, by monotypy, 
Erigone pinguis Westring, 1851, with an endorsement that it is not 
to be given priority over Robertus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1879, 
whenever the two names are considered synonyms; 
(existing (c) becomes (d)) 
(3)(c) livida Blackwall, 1836, as published in the binomen Neriene livida 
(the valid name at the date of this application of the type species of 
Ctenium Menge, 1871); 
(existing (c) becomes (d)) 
(4) delete. 



REFERENCE 

WIEHLE, H. 1937. In Tierwelt Deutschlands. Part 33, Spinnentiere oder Arach- 
noidea, VIII: Familie 26. Theridiidae, pp. 1 19-220, 286 figs. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



(2) Additional comments have been received from Professor B. J. Kaston {Depart- 
ment of Zoology, College of Science, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 
92182, U.S.A.) and Professor Konrad Thaler {Institut fiir Zoologie, Universitdt 
Innsbruck, Universitdtstrasse 4, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria. Professor Kaston 
supports Levi's application {Bull. ~ool. Norn. vol. 42, pp. 81-84) with regard to both 
Argyrodes Simon, 1864 and Robertus. Professor Thaler agrees so far as Argyrodes is 
concerned, but prefers Ctenium Menge, 1871 to Robertus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 
1879 on the grounds of priority and because Menge described and illlustrated 
Ctenium in detail whereas Robertus was described less precisely. 

P. K. TUBES 

Executive Secretary 



FURTHER COMMENT ON THE PROPOSED CONSERVATION OF 

LASPEYRESIA HUBNER, [1825] (INSECTA, LEPIDOPTERA). Z.N.(S.)2421 

(see vol. 41, pp. 1 10-113; vol. 42, pp. 8-10) 

(1) By I. M. Kerzhner & V. I. Kuznetsov {Zoological Institute, Academy of Sciences 
of the U.S.S.R., Leningrad. U.S.S.R.) 

We are unable to interpret the figures in the comment by Bradley et al. It 
would be incorrect to judge from them that usage of Cydia predominated in 
1973-1984, especially in the U.S.S.R.. From papers reviewed in 1973 in Review of 
applied entomology Series A (apparently the same as the CAB database) 64 used 
Laspeyresia and only 3 used Cydia. For 1983 corresponding figures are 41 and 46. 
From papers reviewed in 1983, Laspeyresia was used alone in the U.S.S.R. (8 
papers), Poland (4), G.D.R. (2), Netherlands (2), Bulgaria (2), Sweden (2), Greece 
(2), Romania (1) and Israel (1). It was dominant also in F.R.G. (5:1) and France 
(3:1). Usage was equal in Italy, Switzerland, Hungary and Canada. Cydia was used 
alone in U.K. (6), Australia (4), India (4). Czechoslovakia (3), Nigeria (3), New 
Zealand (2), Finland (1), Yugoslavia (1) and Senegal (1) and was dominant in the 
U.S.A. (13:4). It seems that Cydia reached slightly preferential usage in 1982 or 1983 
only. 



(2) By J. D. Bradley (c/o British Museum (Natural History) and C. J. Hamilton 
{Commonwealth Institute of Entomology) 

We give below the latest figures from the CAB database, i.e. everything in the 
Review of applied entomology Series A from January 1973 to May 1985. We give 
figures for citations: 

(a) anywhere in the work reviewed, i.e. a single count, whether in title or 
text 

(b) citations in the titles of papers only. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



The second set of figures seems to support our case even more strongly than 
the first: 





Soviet (%) 


Non-Soviet (%) 


Total 


Laspeyresia 












anywhere 


74 


(9.9) 


671 


(90.1) 


745 


in title 


41 


(15.8) 


218 


(84.2) 


259 


Cydia 












anywhere 


253 


(14.6) 


1480 


(85.4) 


1733 


in title 


5 


(3.3) 


145 


(96.7) 


150 


Laspeyresia and/or Cydia 












anywhere 


254 


(14.6) 


1482 


(85.4) 


1736 


in title 


44 


(11.1) 


353 


(88.9) 


397 


Laspeyresia and Cydia 












anywhere 


73 


(9.8) 


669 


(90.2) 


742 


in title 


2 


(16.7) 


10 


(83.3) 


12 


Laspeyresia not Cydia 












anywhere 


1 


(33.3) 


2 


(66.7) 


3 


in title 


39 


(15.8) 


208 


(84.2) 


247 


Cydia not Laspeyresia 












anywhere 


180 (18.2) 


811 


(81.8) 


991 


in title 


3 


(2.2) 


135 


(97.8) 


138 



COMMENT ON THE PROPOSED CONSERVATION OF HYLA LACTEA 

DAUDIN, 1803 (AMPHIBIA). Z.N.(S.)2341 

(see Vol. 41, pp. 122-124) 

By Hobart M. Smith (EPOB. University of Colorado. Boulder, CO 80309. U.S.A.) 

Despite Stimson's (Vol. 42, pp. 6-7) arguments to the contrary, a reason- 
able case exists for conservation of Hyla lactea Daudin, 1803. Stimson's case for 
suppression of Hyla lactea Laurenti, 1768, solely for purposes of the Principle of 
Priority, and not of Homonymy, appears to be premised upon a key objective of 
the Code to promote stability of nomenclature. Failure of suppression of Hyla 
lactea Laurenti, 1768, for purposes of the Principle of Homonymy, would eliminate 
Daudin's homonym, making its subjective junior synonym Sphaenorhynchus 
eurhostus Rivero, 1969 the valid name for the species. On the contrary, suppressing 
Laurenti's Hyla lactea for purposes of the Principle of Homonymy (as well as of 
Priority, to which Stimson agrees), as proposed by Lynch and Duellman, would 
leave it as a valid name, of which both Hyla aurantiaca Daudin, 1803, and 
S. eurhostus Rivero, 1969, are invalid subjective junior synonyms. 



10 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



Although 'stability' is not and probably should not be explicitly defined in 
the Code, Art. 79c does imply that usage over a 50 year period is a criterion of 
stability. A name uncontested for that period of time, immediately prior to the 
present, is, in effect, a nomen veneratum, a concept not so named but clearly implicit 
(even though not adequately emphasised) in provisions (particularly Art. 79) of the 
Code. Nomina venerata are simply names used without contest for the immediately 
preceding 50 years; they are not automatically conserved, but, if presented, a case 
made for them to be conserved is assured of consideration by the Commission. 
Names with less than 50 years of uncontested use have no such assurance. In other 
words, stability is certainly a consideration for nomina venerata; it is not necessarily 
a consideration for names with lesser periods of uncontested usage. 

Applying these thoughts to the present case, it is obvious that S. eurhostus 
has much less than the desirable 50 years of usage — no more than 16 — whereas 
Hyla lactea Daudin has been in existence for 182 years and has been accepted as 
valid intermittently throughout that time. It seems to me much more in the interest 
of stability to perpetuate that name than to conserve a 16-year-old one even if the 
latter has had more usage during its brief existence than the former. 

Stimson also suggested that, in order to clear the way for retention of Hyla 
hypocondrialis Daudin, 1803. as a valid name. Lynch & Duellman should cite 10 
publications by at least 5 different authors during the last 50 years wherein that 
name was accepted, conforming with Art. 79c of the Code. However, that article 
pertains to synonyms, whereas Lynch & Duellman made it clear that the older name 
Hyla lactea Laurenti, 1768, which has simply been ignored by herpetologists 
throughout its history, despite having been suggested as a synonym of H. hypo- 
condrialis as early as 1803 (by Daudin), is a nomen dubium of uncertain allocation, 
and for that reason had justifiably been ignored. Therefore, the names H. lactea 
Laurenti, 1768, and H. hypocondrialis Daudin, 1803, are not synonyms, and the 
latter need not therefore be supported by explicit data on frequency of its use. 
Both petitions attest to the wide and current use of the name (in the combination 
Phyllomedusa hypocondrialis). However, it would be useful to conserve Daudin's 
name while these related matters are under consideration. 

Accordingly, I recommend approval by the Commission of all of Lynch and 
Duellman's requests, and in addition that the following be considered: 

(5) placement of the specific name hypocondrialis as used in the combi- 
nation Hyla hypocondrialis Daudin, 1803, p. 29, holotype lost, type- 
locality, 'Surinam', on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology. 



COMMENT ON THE PROPOSED GRANT OF PRECEDENCE TO 

THRESKIORNITHIDAE RICHMOND, 1917 (AVES) OVER PLATALEINAE 

BONAPARTE, 1838. Z.N.(S.)2136 

(see vol. 41, pp. 240-244) 

(1) By Kenneth E. Campbell {Natural History Museum, Los Angeles County, 
Los Angeles 90007, U.S.A.) 

I wish to record my strong opposition to the placement of threskior- 
NiTHiDAE Richmond, 1917 on the Official List of Family-Group Names in Zoology 
in place of the widely recognised and long-used plataleinae Bonaparte, 1838. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



Priority, the bedrock of zoological nomenclature, demands that the latter 
name be retamed, if not in specific recommendation, then in the spirit of the 
Code. Temporary convemence in names desired by a few should not invalidate the 
principles of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. 

(2) By Allan R. Phillips (Apartado Postal 370. San Nicolas de las Garza 66450, 
Nuevo Leon, Mexico) 

The application of Eisenmann, Mayr and Parkes is surprisingly inaccurate 
from the start. The incorrect name THRESKIORNITHIDAE Richmond 1917 is 
by no means in 'almost universal' use outside North America, and is not' even in 
universal use in the United States (see, for example, Brodkorb, 1963 Bull Florida 
State Mus.. vol. 7, p. 277; Olson and James, 1983, Smithson. Contrib. Zool no 365 
pp. 33). The weight placed (para. 2 of the Application) on usage being 'now over- 
whelmingly in favour of THRESKIORNITHIDAE' (even if that were true) is a 
reversion to the long-discredited principle oiaiictorumplurimorum, whose instability 
was resolved many decades ago by universal adoption of the basic, non-political 
principle of priority. 

The argument that family names should not be based on atypical genera (cf 
Recommendation 64A of the Code) ignores both the basic principle of priority and 
the fact that just such genera were likely to attract attention and receive early names 
and so It IS not valid against PLATALEIDAE Bonaparte, 1838. A number of avian 
families are named after spectacular genera which are hardly 'representative' 

Para. 5 of the Application refers to the principle of continuing the taxonomic 
concept when a family-group name has to be replaced (Article 39 of the 1961 Code)- 
this IS not over-riding in the latest (1985) Edition, and extension of any subfamily 
name (not just PLATALEINAE) requires adjusting boundaries. ' 

Point 9 of the Application is well taken. EUDOCIMINAE Bonaparte 1854 
mdeed appears to be the correct name if the ibis group is considered a subfamily 
ims, however, is another reason not to use THRESKIORNITHIDAE or any 
THR fi'fnp m'^tmi?^! n". rA;e.A:/«r«/.. (I should perhaps explain that the use of 
, 7^^! , / 7, ^^ ^^""^ '"""^ ""^^^^ "^™^^) '" Monson and Phillips' Anno- 
tated Checklist^ of the Birds of Arizona. 2nd Ed. (1981) was due to the University of 
Arizona Press refusal to correct a number of errors in Monson's first draft seen 
only later by me. Thus this text does not always reflect my opinions or knowledge) 
DT T:r^ A^TAi ^^x^ question of how to deal with the names EUDOCIMINAE and 
PLEGADIDAE Mathews, 1913, shows the complications caused by departures 
from correct nomenclature, and thus the undesirability of interference with 
priority— exactly what Eisenmann et al. propose! 

The 1961 Code introduced the application of the principle of priority to 
family-group names. Since Codes and Commissions derive their authority from the 
will ot zoologists at large, the Commission would be well advised to support at least 
the more reasonable articles of the Code. Having decided on priority, let it maintain 
priority, applying the rules to all If some are exempted, more and more zoologists 
will Ignore the Commission and its recent Codes 

In summary, PLATALEIDAE is preferable and correct: it has priority 
avoids a bad discrepancy among dates of subfamily names, and, contra Eisenmann 
Mayr and Parkes, is in world-wide use and is the current name in the field guides to 
the birds of some continents. It is being used increasingly by those working on the 
phylogeny and paleontology of these birds. To ignore all this in favour of someone's 



12 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



personal preference will only undermine the Commission's credibility and aleniate 
increasing numbers of zoologists. 



(3) By Storrs L. Olson {Department of Vertebrate Zoology. National Museum of 
Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, U.S.A.), Amadeo 
M. Rea (Natural History Museum P.O. Box 1390, San Diego, California 92112, 
U.S.A.), and Pierce Brodkorb (Department of Zoology, University of Florida, 
Gainesville, Florida, 32611, U.S.A.) 

In applying to give the family name THRESKIORNITHIDAE Richmond, 
1917, 'precedence' over PLATALEINAE Bonaparte, 1838, Eisenmann, Mayr, and 
Parkes have contended that the use of PLATALEIDAE as the family name for the 
ibises and spoonbills would 'upset general usage' and might be confusing. We would 
point out that the name THRESKIORNITHIDAE itself had never been used any- 
where prior to 1917, yet when it was introduced no one seems to have admitted to 
being particularly confused by it at the time. One might ask whether nomenclature is 
to be dictated by the inability to comprehend it of those who are not trained in its 
use, or by the mentally deficient for whom the unfamiliar only provokes confusion. 

In their application, Eisenmann et al. have clearly attempted to equate cur- 
rent familiarity with 'general usage'. This ignores the fact that systematic zoologists, 
as opposed to birdwatchers who need use only the most recent field guides, must 
avail themselves to the entire literature of their discipline. For the first 1 59 years of 
formal nomenclatural history of the ibises and spoonbills (1758-1917), all higher- 
level group names that included these birds were formed on some name other 
than Threskiornis. Eisenmann et al. have themselves documented the fact that 
THRESKIORNITHIDAE was far from universally accepted after Richmond 
proposed it in 1917 and that alternative names were in regular use at least up until 
the 1960's. 

Their application does not reflect the fact that many of the most active 
zoologists and paleontologists currently engaged in original systematic research 
on ibises have favoured PLATALEIDAE over THRESKIORNITHIDAE in their 
publications, at least when not obliged to follow the dictates of editors who insist 
that authors conform with 'majority usage'. Furthermore, PLATALEIDAE con- 
tinues to be used in recent general works in areas outside North America (e.g. 
Pizzey, 1980; Maclean, 1985). 

We do not feel that counting the number of papers and books that use one name 
or another is an appropriate activity for systematic zoologists. Nor is it proper to 
advocate a particular nomenclatural usage because it is employed in works that are 
subjectively judged to be 'important', 'authoritative', or 'prestigious', as might be 
inferred from Eisenmann et al. Because of the vagueness and uncertainty of deter- 
mining what shall be taken as 'general' or 'current', the Code of Nomenclature of 
the American Ornithologists' Union (1908), which provided a foundation for the 
modern International Code, unequivocally disavowed the principle of auctorum 
plurimorum (pp. x, xlvii), which is what Eisenmann et al. are now trying to resurrect. 
Even if such an unworkable principle were in effect, it is certain that in the total litera- 
ture of systematic ornithology the name used for the family of ibises and spoonbills 
would most frequently be something other than THRESKIORNITHIDAE. 

Some subfamilial name must be retained for the use of those who would 
segregate the spoonbills from the typical ibises. Therefore, Eisenmann et al. have 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 13 



proposed that PLATALEINAE Bonaparte, 1838, be retained, but that the Com- 
mission use its plenary powers to give THRESKIORNITHIDAE precedence as the 
name of the family. This would mean that the family would contain a subfamily 
based on an older name. Now this we do find confusing, as well as inconsistent, 
illogical, and unnecessary. 

The law of priority is wonderfully simple and can be easily and immediately 
applied by any zoologist. Had priority been in effect earlier for the formation 
of family group names it would have prevented the unnecessary introduction of 
the names THRESKIORNITHIDAE and PLEGADIDAE in the first place. Just 
because there have been 'no adequate available synonymies for family-group names' 
of birds does not mean that sound nomenclatural rules should give way to poor 
scholarship. We particularly deplore the many recent ad hoc attempts by ornithol- 
ogists to subvert various rules of nomenclature in order to preserve names that are 
judged in some quarters to be more familiar (see also Olson's comments in Wetmore 
etai, 1984, p. 553). 

In summary, it is our contention (a) that a case has not been made that the 
continued use of PLATALEIDAE as the family name for ibises and spoonbills would 
'upset general usage' and (b) that the retention of the older name PLATALEINAE 
as a subgroup of the younger name THRESKIORNITHIDAE would result in an 
illogical and contradictory situation that could not and would not be adopted by 
conscientious and knowledgeable systematists. Therefore we strongly oppose the 
application of Eisenmann et al., and we recommend that PLATALEIDAE be used 
as the family-level name for the ibises and spoonbills. If a subfamilial name be 
needed for typical ibises, it would probably be best to use the oldest available name, 
EUDOCIMINAE Bonaparte, 1854, so as not to clutter the literature with further 
applications and opinions. 

REFERENCES 

AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. 1908. The code of nomenclature 

adopted by the American Ornithologists' Union. Revised edition Ixxxv pp. 

New York. 
MACLEAN, G. 1985. Roberts' birds of Southern Africa. 5th ed. Iii-h848 pp. John 

Voelcker Bird Book Fund, Cape Town. 
PIZZEY, G. 1980. Afield guide to the birds of Australia. 460 pp. Princeton, N.J. 
WETMORE, A., PASQUIER, R., & OLSON, S. L. 1984. Birds of the Republic of 

Panama. Part 4. vi + 670 pp. Smithsonian Misc. Coll. 1 50(4). 



FURTHER COMMENT ON THE PROPOSED CONSERVATION OF 

SOUTHERNIA ALLGEN, 1929 BY THE SUPPRESSION OF SOUTHERNIA 

FILIPJEV, 1927 (NEMATODA). Z.N.(S)940 

By W. Grant Inglis (Office of the Chief Scientific Adviser. GPO Box 1625, Adelaide, 
South Australia 5001) 

The former Secretary has resurrected part of a proposal made by Allgen in 
1959 {Bull. zool. Norn. vol. 17, pp. 86-88) on which I commented adversely in 1961 
(vol. 18, p. 8). I still do so, some quarter of a century later. My previous opposition 



14 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



was based on the principle that the problem, if it existed, could be solved by renam- 
ing rather than by action of the Commission. I still believe that this is a sensible 
and obvious solution to such minor problems. However, Gerlach & Riemann, 1974, 
Verojf. Inst. Meeresforschung Bremerhaven Suppl. vol. 4 (2), p. 552, rightly conclude 
that Filipjev's use of Soulhernia was a lapsus. Further, it has also been demonstrated 
that Southernia Allgen, 1929 is a junior subjective synonym of Cyartonema Cobb, 
1920, on what I consider very good grounds (see Juarion, J. V., 1973, Verojf. Inst. 
Meeresforchung Bremerhaven vol. 14, pp. 81-86). No action is, therefore, necessary 
by the Commission. 

Note by R. V. Melville 
I am grateful to Dr Inglis for pointing out that Southernia Allgen, 1929, is a 
subjectively invalid name. As a result, I wish to withdraw this application. 



NOTES ON THE PROPOSED CONSERVATION OF DAPSILARTHRA 
FOERSTER, 1862. ZN(S.) 2312 (see vol. 41, pp. 53-55 and vol. 42, pp. 101-103) 

By the Executive Secretary. International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 



Dr G. C. D. Griffiths has drawn attention to a printing error in his Comment 
on this case, and also to an oversight in the Commission office over the pubHcation 
of a note by Mr R. V. Melville, then Secretary. 

The first error refers to Dr Griffiths' comment in vol. 42, p. 101: the first 
generic name in para. 2, line 6 should (like the second) be spelt Gnamptodon, and not 
Gnaptodon. 

A note by the Secretary had been discussed in correspondence between Dr 
Griffiths and Mr Melville, but unfortunately the agreed version was not that sent 
for printing. The note in vol. 42, p. 103 should be cancelled, and replaced by the 
following: 

(4) Note by R.V. Melville 

The Commission must clearly decide on the relative status of Gnamptodon 
HaHday, 1833 and Gnaptodon HaHday, 1837. Haliday used Gnamptodon in 1833, 
1837 and 1840; he used Gnaptodon only once, in 1837. The Greek word gnampto 
means to bend or curve and relates to the shape of the mandible in these species; the 
Greek word gnapto may be either a variant spelling of gnampto, or a word meaning 
to comb or card wool (the preferred spelling is knapto). The expression 'combtooth' 
would have no relevance to an anatomical feature of these species. There is thus 
some evidence that Gnaptodon is indeed, as Dr Griffiths holds, a subsequent spell- 
ing (in my view, simply an erroneous one, without status in nomenclature) of 
Gnamptodon. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 15 



OPINION 1369 

ASTACILLA CORDINER, 1793 (CRUSTACEA, ISOPODA): 

CONSERVED 



RULING. — (1) Under the plenary powers it is hereby ruled that 
Astacilla is the correct original spelling of the name published as 'Astacillae' 
by Cordiner, 1793. 

(2) The name Astacilla Cordiner, 1793 (gender: feminine), type 
species by subsequent designation by Fowler, 1912, Oniscus longicornis 
J. Sowerby, 1805, is hereby placed on the Official List of Generic Names in 
Zoology. 

(3) The name longicornis J. Sowerby, 1805, as published in the 
binomen Oniscus longicornis (specific name of the type species of Astacilla 
Cordiner, 1 793) is hereby placed on the Official List of Specific Names in 
Zoology. 

HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)2319 

An application for the validation of the generic name Astacilla 
Cordiner, 1793 was first received from Dr B. Kensley (Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, Washington D.C., U.S.A.) on 10 September 1979. After a long period 
of correspondence a revised draft was sent to the printer on 19 April 1983 
and published in Bull. Zool. Norn., vol. 40, pp. 163-164. Public notice of the 
possible use of the plenary powers in the case was given in the same part of 
the Bulletin as well as to one specialist and ten general serials. A comment 
pointing out an earlier type species designation for Astacilla was received 
from Dr L. B. Holthuis (Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historic, Leiden) and 
published in Bull. Zool. Nom., vol. 41, p. 72. No other comments were 
received. 

DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 16 September 1985 the members of the Commission were invited 
to vote under the Three-Month Rule on Voting Paper (1985)37 for or 
against the proposals set out in Bull. zool. Nom. vol. 40, p. 164. At the close 
of the voting period on 16 December 1985 the state of the voting was as 
follows: 

Affirmative Votes — twenty-one (21) received in the following order: 
Melville, Holthuis, Cocks, Willink, Mroczkowski, Savage, Kabata, Corliss, 
Alvarado, Ueno, Hahn, Starobogatov, Trjapitzin, Cogger, Lehtinen, 
Schuster, Bernardi, Ride, Thompson, Dupuis, Heppell 

Negative Votes — one (1) Halvorsen. 

No votes were returned by Bayer, Gruchy, Kraus and Zheng. 

Holthuis commented: 'The proposals set out on page 164 of vol. 40 
of the Bulletin should be amended in so far as that in line 2 of para. (2) 



16 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1 , April 1986 



the words "by designation herein" should be changed to "by subsequent 
designation by Fowler, 1912" {Report of the New Jersey State Museum for 
1911. p. 525).' [Several Commissioners made this point and it has been 
incorporated in the present ruling.] 

ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references to the names placed on 
Official Lists by the ruling given in the present Opinion: 
Astacilla Cordiner, 1793, Remarkable ruins and romantic prospects of North 

Britain. With ancient monuments and singular subjects of natural 

history, plate 4 
longicornis, Oniscus. J. Sowerby, 1805, The British Miscellany, part 4, p. 31. 

The following is the original reference to the subsequent designation 
of a type species for the nominal genus Astacilla Cordiner, 1793: of Oniscus 
longicornis J. Sowerby, 1805 by Fowler, 1912, Report of the New Jersey 
State Museum for 1911, p. 525. 

CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper (1985)37 were 
cast as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper have 
been duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so 
taken, being the decision of the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature, is truly recorded in the present Opinin No. 1369. 

P. K. TUBBS 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
16 December 1985 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 17 



OPINION 1370 

NEADMETE OKUTANII PETIT, 1974 DESIGNATED AS TYPE 

SPECIES OF NEADMETE HABE, 1961 (MOLLUSCA, 

GASTROPODA) 



RULING. — (1) Under the plenary powers all designations of type 
species hitherto made for the nominal genus Neadmete Habe, 1961 are 
hereby set aside and Neadmete okutanii Petit, 1974 { — "" N . japonica Smith" 
sens. Habe, 1861) is hereby designated as type species of that genus. 

(2) The name Neadmete Habe, 1961 (gender: feminine), type species 
by designation under the plenary powers in (1) above, Neadmete okutanii 
Petit, 1974, is hereby placed on the Official List of Generic Names in 
Zoology. 

(3) The name okutanii Petit, 1974, as pubhshed in the binomen 
Neadmete okutanii (specific name of the type species of Neadmete Habe, 
1961) is hereby placed on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology. 

HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)2420 

An application for the use of the plenary powers to change the type 
species of Neadmete Habe, 1961 was first received from Dr R. E. Petit 
(North Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, U.S.A.) on 25 August 1982. It was 
sent to the printers on 19 April 1983 and pubhshed in Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 
40. pp. 173-175. Public notice of the possible use of the plenary powers in 
the case was given in the same part of the Bulletin as well as to ten general 
and two specialist serials. No comment was received. 

DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 16 September 1985 the members of the Commission were invited 
to vote under the Three-Month Rule on Voting Paper (1985) 39 for or 
against the proposals set out in Bull. zool. Nom. vol. 40, p. 174. At the close 
of the voting period on 16 December 1985 the state of the voting was as 
follows: 

Affirmative Votes — twenty-two (22) received in the following order: 
Melville, Holthuis, Cocks, Willink, Mroczkowski, Savage, Kabata, Corliss, 
Alvarado, Ueno, Hahn, Starobogatov, Trjapitzin, Cogger, Lehtinen, 
Schuster, Bernardi, Ride, Thompson, Halvorsen, Dupuis, Heppell 

Negative Votes — none (0). 

No votes were returned by Bayer, Gruchy, Kraus and Zheng. 

ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references to the names placed on 
Official Lists by the ruling given in the present Opinion: 



18 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



Neadmete Habe, 1961, Coloured Illustrations of the Shells of Japan, vol. 2, 

appendix, p. 28 
okutanii, Neadmete Petit, 1974, Venus, vol. 33(3), p. 110. 

CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper (1985) 39 were 
cast as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper 
have been duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so 
taken, being the decision of the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature, is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1370. 

P. K. TUBES 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
16 December 1985 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 19 



OPINION 1371 

PACHYCEPHALOSAURUS BROWN & SCHLAIKJER, 1943 

AND TROODON WYOMINGENSIS GILMORE, 1931 

(REPTILIA, DINOSAURIA): CONSERVED 



RULING. — (1) Under the plenary powers the generic name 
Tylosteus Leidy, 1872 and the specific name ornatus published in conjunc- 
tion with it, are hereby suppressed for the purposes of the Principle of 
Priority but not for those of the Principle of Homonymy. 

(2) The name Pachycephalosawus Brown & Schlaikjer, 1943 
(gender: masculine), type species by original designation, Pachycephalo- 
saurus grangeri Brown & Schlaikjer, 1943, is hereby placed on the Official 
List of Generic Names in Zoology. 

(3) The name wyomingensis Gilmore, 1931, as published in the 
binomen Troodon wyomingensis (the valid name at the time of this ruling for 
the type species of Pachycephalosaurus Brown & Schlaikjer, 1943) is hereby 
placed on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology. 

(4) The name pachycephalosauridae Sternberg, 1945 (type genus 
Pachycephalosaurus Brown & Schlaikjer, 1943) is hereby placed on the 
Official List of Family-Group Names in Zoology. 

(5) The generic name Tylosteus Leidy, 1872 and the specific name 
ornatus published in conjunction with it and as suppressed under the 
plenary powers in (1) above are hereby placed on the Official Indexes of 
Rejected and Invalid Generic and Specific Names in Zoology, respectively. 

HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)2323 

An application for the conservation of Pachycephalosaurus Brown & 
Schlaikjer, 1943 and Troodon wyomingensis Gilmore, 1931 was first received 
from Dr D. Baird (Princeton University, New Jersey, U.S.A.) on 8 October 
1979. After correspondence a revised draft was sent to the printers on 19 
April 1983 and published in Bull. zool. Nom.. vol. 40, pp. 184^187. Public 
notice of the possible use of the plenary powers in the case was given in the 
same part of the Bulletin as well as to ten general and two specialist serials. 
No comment was received. 

DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 16 September 1985 the members of the Commission were invited 
to vote under the Three-Mortth Rule on Voting Paper (1985) 41 for or 
against the proposals set out in Bull. zool. Nom. vol. 40, p. 186. At the close 
of the voting period on 16 December 1985 the state of the voting was as 
follows: 

Affirmative Votes — twenty-two (22) received in the following order: 



20 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1 , April 1 986 



Melville, Holthuis, Cocks, Willink, Savage, Kabata, Corliss, Alvarado, 
Ueno, Hahn, Starobogatov, Trjapitzin, Zheng, Cogger, Lehtinen, Schuster, 
Bernardi, Ride, Thompson, Halvorsen, Dupuis, Heppell 

Negative Votes — one (1) Mroczkowski. 

No votes were returned by Bayer, Gruchy and Kraus. 

Mroczkowski commented: 'As Tylosteus Leidy, 1872 and Pachy- 
cephalosaurus Brown & Schlaikjer, 1943 are only subjective synonyms, I 
think that the relative precedence procedure should have been adopted in 
this case'. 

ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references to the names placed on 
Official Lists and Official Indexes by the ruling given in the present Opinion: 
ornatus, Tylosteus. Leidy, 1872, Proc. Acad. nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1872, 

p. 40 
PACHYCEPHALOSAURIDAE Sternberg, 1945, J. Paleontol., vol. 19(5), p. 535 
Pachycephalosaurus Brown & Schlaikjer, 1943, Bull. am. Mus. nat. Hist., 

vol. 82(5), p. 132 
Tylosteus Leidy, 1872, Proc. Acad. nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1872, p. 40 
wyomingensis. Troodon, Gilmore, 1931, Proc. U.S. natn. Mus.. vol. 79(9), 

pp. 1-t. 

CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper (1985) 41 were 
cast as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper have 
been duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so 
taken, being the decision of the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature, is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1371. 

P. K. TUBBS 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
16 December 1985 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 21 



OPINION 1372 
DONAX HANLEYANUSPHILIPPI, 1847 (MOLLUSCA, BIVALVIA): 

CONSERVED 



RULING. — (1) Under the plenary power the specific name hilairea 
Guerin, 1832, as published in the binomen Donax hilairea. is hereby 
suppressed for the purposes of the Principle of Priority but not for those of 
the Principle of Homonymy. 

(2) The name hanleyanus PhiHppi, 1847, as published in the binomen 
Donax hanleyanus. is hereby placed on the Official List of Specific Names in 
Zoology. 

(3) The name hilairea Guerin, 1832, as published in the binomen 
Donax hilairea and as suppressed under the plenary powers in ( 1 ) above, is 
hereby placed on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Specific Names 
in Zoology. 

HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)2152 

An application for the conservation of Donax hanleyanus Philippi, 
1847 was first received from Dr W. Narchi {University of Sao Paulo. Brazil) 
on 29 September 1975. After correspondence a revised draft was sent to the 
printers on 20 July 1983 and published in Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 40, p. 188. 
Public notice of the possible use of the plenary powers in the case was given 
in the same part of the Bulletin as well as to ten general serials and one 
specialist serial. No comment was received. 

DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 16 September 1985 the members of the Commission were invited 
to vote under the Three-Month Rule on Voting Paper (1985) 42 for or 
against the proposals set out in Bull. zool. Nom. vol. 40, p. 188. At the close 
of the voting period on 16 December 1985 the state of the voting was as 
follows: 

Affirmative Votes — eighteen (18) received in the following order: 
Melville, Holthuis, Cocks, WilHnk, Savage, Mroczkowski, Corliss, 
Alvarado, Ueno, Starobogatov, Trjapitzin, Cogger, Schuster, Bernardi, 
Thompson, Halvorsen, Dupuis, Heppell 

Negative Votes — four (4) received in the following order: Kabata, 
Hahn, Schuster, Ride. 

No votes were returned by Bayer, Gruchy, Kraus and Zheng. 

The following comments were returned by members of the 
Commission with their voting papers: 

Ride: 'No case has been established prima facie that stability is 
threatened (Article 79). No evidence has been presented that confusion will 
result from the adoption of hilairea Guerin, 1832 for the species'. 



22 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1 , April 1986 



Kabata, Hahn and Lehtinen made similar comments. 

Bernardi: 'Je vote "pour" bien que, a mon avis, Walter Narchi 
devrait mieux justifier (au moyen de citations bibliographiques) que "the 
species D. hanleyanus is used by many authors in the area oi fisheries. . . etc, 
etc.". Cela est important pour decider de ne pas appliquer la loi de priorite. 
Au lieu d'ajfirmer simplement Tinteret economique ou en biologic general 
d'un nom du groupe-espece il est preferable deprouver cet etat de fait'. 

ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references to the names placed on an 
Official List and an Official Index by the ruling given in the present Opinion: 
hanleyanus, Dona.x. Philippi, 1847, Zeits.f. Malakozool., vol. 4, p. 84 
hilairea, Donax, Guerin, 1832, Iconographie du Regne Animal de G. Cuvier. 

pi. 30, fig. 4. 

CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper (1985) 42 were 
cast as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper have 
been duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so 
taken, being the decision of the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature, is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1372. 

P. K. TUBES 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
16 December 1985 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 23 



OPINION 1373 

PANESTHIA SAUSSURII WOOD-MASON, 1876 DESIGNATED 

AS TYPE SPECIES OF CAEPARIA STAl, 1877 (INSECTA, 

DICTYOPTERA) 



RULING. — (1) Under the plenary power all designations of type 
species hitherto made for the nominal genus Caeparia Stal, 1877 are hereby 
set aside and Panesthia saussurii Wood-Mason, 1876 is hereby designated 
as type species of that genus. 

(2) The name Caeparia Stal, 1 877 (gender: feminine), type species by 
designation under the plenary powers in (1) above, Panesthia saussurii 
Wood-Mason, 1876, is hereby placed on the Official List of Generic Names 
in Zoology. 

(3) The name saussurii Wood-Mason, 1876, as published in the 
binomen Panesthia saussurii (specific name of the type species of Caeparia 
Stal, 1877) is hereby placed on the Official List of Specific Names in 
Zoology. 

HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.) 2284 

An application to designate Panesthia saussurii Wood-Mason, 1876 
as type species oi Caeparia Stal, 1877 was first received from Dr L. M. Roth 
{U.S. Army Research & Development Command, Massachusetts. U.S.A.) 
and Dr A. B. Gurney {U.S. National Museum, Washington B.C., U.S.A.) on 
7 September 1978. After correspondence a revised draft was sent to the 
printer on 20 July 1983 and pubUshed in Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 40, pp. 
205-206. Public notice of the possible use of the plenary powers in the case 
was given in the same part of the Bulletin as well as to ten general and eight 
entomological serials. A supportive comment was received from Dr D. K. 
McE. Keven {McGill University, Quebec, Canada). 

DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 16 September 1985 the members of the Commission were invited 
to vote under the Three-Month Rule on Voting Paper (1985) 44 for or 
against the proposals set out in Bull. zool. Nom. vol. 40, p. 206. At the 
close of the voting period on 16 December 1985 the state of the voting was 
as follows: 

Affirmative Votes — twenty-three (23) received in the following 
order: Melville, Holthuis, Cocks, Willink, Savage, Kabata, Mroczkowski, 
Corliss, Bayer, Alvarado, Ueno, Hahn, Starobogatov, Trjapitzin, Lehtinen, 
Schuster, Bernardi, Ride, Thompson, Halvorsen, Dupuis, Heppell, Cogger 

Negative Votes — none (0). 

No votes were received from Gruchy, Kraus and Zheng. 



24 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references to the names placed on 
Official Lists by the ruling given in the present Opinion: 
Caeparia Stal, 1877, Ofr. Sv. Vet-Akad. Forhandi, vol. 34(10), p. 37 
saussurii, Panesthia, Wood-Mason, 1876, /. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 45, 

p. 190. 

CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper (1985) 44 were 
cast as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper 
have been duly adopted under the plenary powers and that the decision so 
taken, being the decision of the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature, is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1373. 

P. K. TUBBS 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
16 December 1985 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1. April 1986 25 



OPINION 1374 

BOIGA FITZINGER. 1826 (REPTILIA, SERPENTES): 

CONSERVED 



RULING. — (1) Under the plenary powers the generic name Ibiba 
Gray, 1825 is hereby suppressed for the purposes of the Principle of Priority 
but not for those of the Principle of Homonymy. 

(2) The name Boiga Fitzinger. 1 826 (gender: feminine), type species 
by subsequent designation by Cope, 1860, Coluber irregularis Bechstein, 
1802, is hereby placed on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology. 

(3) The name irregularis Bechstein, 1802 as published in the binomen 
Coluber irregularis (specific name of the type species of Boiga Fitzinger, 
1826) is hereby placed on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology. 

(4) The name Ibiba Gray, 1825, as suppressed under the plenary 
powers in (1) above, is hereby placed on the Official Index of Rejected and 
Invalid Generic Names in Zoology. 

HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)2404 

An application for the conservation of Boiga Fitzinger, 1826 was 
first received from Dr J. B. Rasmussen {Zoological Museum, Copenhagen, 
Denmark) and Mr A. F. Stimpson {British Museum (National History). 
London) on 28 January 1982. It was sent to the printer on 20 July 1983 and 
published in Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 40, pp. 209-210. Pubhc notice of the 
possible use of the plenary powers in the case was given in the same part of 
the Bulletin as well as to ten general and three herpetological serials. A 
supportive comment was received from Professor H. B. Smith {University of 
Colorado. U.S.A.). 

DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 16 September 1985 the members of the Commission were invited 
to vote under the Three-Month Rule on Voting Paper (1985) 46 for or 
against the proposals set out in Bull. zool. Nom. vol. 40, pp. 209-210. At the 
close of the voting period on 16 December 1985 the state of the voting was 
as follows: 

Affirmative Votes — twenty-three (23) received in the following 
order: Melville, Holthuis, Cocks, WilHnk, Savage, Kabata, Mroczkowski, 
Corliss, Bayer, Alvarado, Ueno, Hahn. Starobogatov, Trjapitzin, Zheng, 
Cogger, Schuster, Bernardi, Ride, Thompson, Halvorsen, Dupuis, Heppell 

Negative Votes — none (0). 

No votes were received from Gruchy, Kraus and Zheng. 

Holthuis commented: 'As far as I can see the author's name of both 
Coluber irregularis and Coluber trigonatus is Bechstein only, and not 



26 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



Merrem in Bechstein nor Schneider in Bechstein respectively. Bernstein's 
citations of Merrem and of Schneider as the authors, p. 239 and p. 256 
respectively (the latter wrongly paginated as 1 56 and cited as such in the 
application) are not sufficient. There is no clear evidence in "the contents 
of the publication that . . . some other person [than Bechstein] is alone 
responsible both for the name and for satisfying the criteria of availabiHty" 
(Art. 50a of the Code). Neither is there any statement to the effect that the 
descriptions of these species are not by Bechstein in this volume, nor in the 
introduction of vol. 1 of Bechstein's book'. [This point was put to one of 
the co-authors (AFS), who agreed with the changed wording and this is 
incorporated into the present ruling]. 

ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references to the names placed on 
Official Lists and an Official Index by the ruling given in the present 
Opinion: 
Boiga Fitzinger, 1826, Neue Classification der Reptilien nach ihren 

natiirlichen Verwandtschaften, pp. 29, 60 
Ibiba Gray, 1825, Ann. Phil. vol. 10, p. 209 
irregularis, Coluber, Bechstein, 1 802, Herrn de la Cepede 's Naturgeschichte 

der Amphibien. . . p. 239. 

The following is the original reference to the subsequent desig- 
nation of a type species for the nominal genus Boiga Fitzinger, 1826: of 
Coluber irregularis Bechstein, 1802 by Cope, 1860, Proc. Acad. nat. Sci. 
Philadelphia, p. 264. 

CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper (1985) 46 were 
cast as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper 
have been duly adopted under the plenary power, and that the decision so 
taken, being the decision of the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature, is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1374. 

P. K. TUBBS 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
16 December 1985 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1 , April 1986 27 



OPINION 1375 

GLOSSODORIS EHRENBERG, 1831, HYPSELODORIS 

STIMPSON, 1855 AND CHROMODORIS ALDER & HANCOCK, 

1855 (MOLLUSCA, GASTROPODA): 

CONSERVED 

RULING. — (1) Under the plenary powers the following names are 
hereby suppressed for the purposes of the Principle of Priority but not for 
those of the Principle of Homonymy: 

(a) Actinodoris ^hxtnhtxg, 1831; 

(b) /'/^ro^oraEhrenberg, 1831. 

(2) The following names are hereby placed on the Official List of 
Generic Names in Zoology: 

(a) Glossodoris Ehrenberg, 1831 (gender: feminine), type species 
by subsequent designation by Gray, 1 847, Doris (Glossodoris) 
xantholeucaEhxtnhtrg, 1831. 

(b) Chromodoris Alder & Hancock, 1855 (gender: feminine), type 
species by monotypy, Doris magnifica Quoy & Gaimard, 1832. 

(c) Hypselodoris Stimpson, 1855 (gender: feminine), type species 
by monotypy, Goniodoris obscura Stimpson, 1855. 

(3) The following names are hereby placed on the Official List of 
Specific Names in Zoology: 

(a) pallida Riippell & Leuckart, 1830 or 1831, as pubHshed in the 
binomen Doris pallida (the valid name at the time of this ruling 
for the type species of Glossodoris Ehrenberg, 1831). 

(b) magnifica Quoy & Gaimard, 1832, as published in the 
binomen Doris magnifica (specific name of the type species of 
Chromodoris Alder & Hancock, 1855). 

(c) obscura Stimpson, 1855, as published in the binomen Goniodoris 
obscura (specific name of the type species of Hypselodoris 
Stimpson, 1855). 

(4) The family-group name chromodorididae (correction of 
chromodoridae) Bergh, 1892 (type genus Chromodoris Alder & Hancock, 
1855) is hereby placed on the Official List of Family-Group Names in 
Zoology. 

(5) The following names are hereby placed on the Official Index of 
Rejected and Invalid Generic Names in Zoology: 

(a) Actinodoris Ehrenberg, 1831, as suppressed under the plenary 
power in (1) (a) above; 

(b) Pterodoris Ehrenberg, 1831, as suppressed under the plenary 
power in ( 1 ) (b) above. 

HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)2432 

An application for the conservation of Glossodoris Ehrenberg, 1831, 
Hypselodoris Stimpson, 1855 and Chromodoris Alder & Hancock, 1855 was 



28 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



received from Dr W. B. Rudman (Australian Museum, Sydney. Australia) 
on 18 January 1983. After correspondence a revised draft was sent to the 
printers on 20 July 1983 and published in Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 40, pp. 
21 1-220. Public notice of the possible use of the plenary power in the case 
was given in the same part of the Bulletin as well as to ten general serials and 
one specialist serial. No comments were received. 

DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 16 September 1985 the members of the Commission were invited 
to vote under the Three-Month Rule on Voting Paper (1985) 47 for or 
against the proposals set out in Bull. zool. Nom. vol. 40, pp. 215-216. At the 
close of the voting period on 16 December 1985 the state of the voting was 
as follows: 

Affirmative Votes — twenty-two (22) received in the following order: 
Melville, Holthuis, Cocks, Willink, Savage, Kabata, Mroczkowski, 
Corliss, Bayer, Alvarado, Ueno, Hahn, Starobogatov, Trjapitzin, Cogger, 
Lehtinen, Schuster, Bernardi, Ride, Halvorsen, Dupuis, Heppell 

Negative Votes — one (1) Thompson. 

No votes were returned by Gruchy, Kraus and Zheng. Thompson 
commented: 'The argument is made that Actinodoris and Pterodoris should 
be suppressed so that Chromodoris and Hypselodoris can be used to pre- 
serve current usage. The proposal, however, clearly documents that that 
usage has been confused, as Chromodoris has been applied to three different 
concepts over the years. So by merely following the Code, Actinodoris. a 
name with an untainted history, would be used instead of the confused 
name Chromodoris. Hence I voted against this proposal'. 



ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references to the names placed on 
Official Lists and an Official Index by the ruling given in the present 
Opinion: 
Actinodoris Ehrenberg, 1831, Symbolae physic ae seu icones et descriptiones 

animalium evertabratorum sepositis insectis quae ex itinere per 

African} borealem et Asiam occidentalem. Decas 1, Mollusca. 
CHROMODORiDAE Bergh, 1892, Malacologische Untersuchungen in Reisen im 

Archipel der Philippinen vonDrC. Semper. Sect 2, vol. 3(18), p. 1 103 
Chromodoris Alder & Hancock, 1855, Monograph of the British nudi- 

branchiate Mollusca. Appendix, p. xvii 
Glossodoris Ehrenberg, 1831, Symbolae physicae seu icones et descriptiones 

animalium evertabratorum sepositis insectis quae ex itinere per 

Africam borealem et Asiam occidentalem. Decas 1 Mollusca. 
Hypselodoris Stimpson, 1855, Proc. Acad. nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 7(10), 

p. 389 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 29 



magnifica, Doris, Quoy & Gaimard, 1832, Voyage de i Astrolabe, Zool., vol. 

2, Mollusques, p. 270 
obscura, Goniodoris, Stimpson, 1855, Proc. Acad. nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 

7(10),p.388 
pallida, Doris, Riippell & Leuckart, 1830 or 1831 in Riippell, E., Atlas zu der 

Reise im nordlichen Africa, p. 33, pi. 10, fig. 1 
Pterodoris Ehrenberg, 1831, Symbolae physicae sen icones et descriptiones 

animalium evertebratorem sepositis insectis quae e.\ itinere per 

Africam borealem et Asiam occidentalem. Decas 1, MoUusca. 

The following is the original reference to the subsequent designation 
of a type species for the nominal genus Glossodoris Ehrenberg, 1831: of 
Doris (Glossodoris) xantholeuca Ehrenberg, 1831, by Gray, 1847, Proc. 
zool. Sac. Land., 1847. p. 164. 

CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper (1985) 47 were 
cast as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper have 
been duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so 
taken, being the decision of the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature, is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1375. 

P. K. TUBBS 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
16 December 1985 



30 Bull. -ool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1 , April 1986 



OPINION 1376 

CUSPIDARIA (RHINOCLAMAj ADAMSI MORGAN & 

HEPPELL, 1981 DESIGNATED AS TYPE SPECIES OF 

RHINOCLAMA DALE & SMITH, 1886 (MOLLUSCA, BIVALVIA) 



RULING. — (1) Under the plenary powers all designations of type 
species hitherto made for the nominal genus Rhinoclama Dall & Smith 
in Dall. 1886 are hereby set aside and Cuspidaria (Rhinoclama) adamsi 
Morgan & Heppell, 1981 is hereby designated as type species of that genus. 

(2) The following names are hereby placed on the Official List of 
Generic Names in Zoology: 

(a) Rhinoclama Dall & Smith in Dall, 1886 (gender: feminine), type 
species by designation under the plenary power in (1) above, 
Cuspidaria (Rhinoclama) a(/aA«.s/ Morgan & Heppell, 1981; 

(b) Luzonia Dall & Smith in Dall, 1890 (gender: feminine), type 
species by original designation Neaera philippinensis Hinds, 
1843. 

(3) The following names are hereby placed on the Official List of 
Specific Names in Zoology: 

(a) adamsi Morgan & Heppell, 1981 as pubHshed in the binomen 
Cuspidaria (Rhinoclama) adamsi (specific name of the type 
species o^ Rhinoclama Dall & Smith in Dall, 1886); 

(b) philippinensis Hinds, 1843, as published in the binomen Neaera 
philippinensis (specific name of the type species of Luzonia Dall 
& Smith ///Dall, 1890). 

HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)2151 

An application for the designation of Cuspidaria (Rhinoclama) 
adamsi Morgan & Heppell, 1981 as type species of Rhinoclama Dall & 
Smith in Dall, 1886, was first received from Dr R. E. Morgan (then o^ Dove 
Marine Laboratory, North Shields, U.K.) on 29 September 1975. After a 
period of correspondence a revised application was prepared under the 
joint authorship of Mr D. Heppell {Royal Scottish Museum. Edinburgh) 
and Dr Morgan {University Marine Biological Station, Isle of Cumbrae, 
Scotland). This was received on 19 October 1981, sent to the printer on 20 
July 1983 and published in Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 40, pp. 221-224. Public 
notice of the possible use of the plenary powers in the case was given in the 
same part of the Bulletin as well as to ten general serials and one specialist 
serial. No comment was received. 

On 7 September 1984 a communication from Mr Heppell was 
received recording the whereabouts of Adam's types of Neaera rugata 
(previously unknown) as in the National Museum of Victoria, Melbourne. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 31 



This discovery did not affect any aspect of the application and is recorded 
here as a correction to a statement contained in paragraph 4 of the original 
application. 

DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 16 September 1985 the members of the Commission were invited 
to vote under the Three-Month Rule on Voting Paper (1985) 48 for or 
against the proposals set out in Bull. zool. Norn. vol. 40, p. 223. At the close 
of the voting period in 16 December 1985 the state of the voting was as 
follows: 

Affirmative Votes — twenty (20) received in the following order: 
Melville, Holthuis, Cocks, Willink, Savage, Kabata, Mroczkowski, Corliss, 
Bayer, Alvarado, Ueno, Hahn, Cogger, Lehtinen (in part), Schuster, 
Bernardi, Ride, Thompson, Halvorsen, Heppell 

Negative Votes — 4 (four) received in the following order: 
Starobogatov, Trjapitzin, Lehtinen (in part), Dupuis. 

No votes were returned by Gruchy, Kraus and Zheng. 

Starobogatov commented: 'The concept of customary or general 
usage could not reasonably be applied to rare species which had only been 
studied by one or two specialists'. 

Dr Lehtinen voted against para. 9 (4) of the apphcation and along 
with Dr Ride pointed out that there was no need to place Cuspidaria adamsi 
Thiele, 1934 on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Specific Names in 
Zoology as the name was a nomen nudum and as such unavailable. This 
point is incorporated into the present ruHng. 



ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references to the names placed on 
Official Lists by the ruling given in the present Opinion: 
adamsi ( Rhinoclama ) , Cuspidaria, Morgan & Heppell, 1981, Phil. Trans, r. 

Soc.B, 294,no. 1071, p. 546 
Luzonia Dall & Smith in Dall, 1886, Bull. Mus. comp. Zool. Harv.. vol. 12, 

p. 282 
philippinensis, Neaera, Hinds, 1843, Proc. zool. Soc. Lond., (1 1), p. 78 
Rhinoclama Dall & Smith, 1886, Bull. Mus. comp. Zool. Harv.. vol. 12, 

p. 300. 



CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper (1985) 48 were 
cast as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper have 
been duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so 



32 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



taken, being the decision of the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature, is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1376. 

P. K. TUBBS 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
16 December 1985 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 33 



OPINION 1377 

CHELYDRA OSCEOLA STEJNEGER, 1918 GIVEN 

NOMENCLATURAL PRECEDENCE OVER CHELYDRA 

LATICARINATA HAY, 1916 AND CHELYDRA SCULPT A HAY, 

1916 (REPTILIA, TESTUDINES) 



RULING. — (1) Under the plenary powers it is hereby ruled that the 
specific name osceola Stejneger, 1918, as published in the binomen Chelydra 
Osceola is to be given nomenclatural precedence over laticarinata Hay, 1916, 
as published in the binomen Chelydra laticarinata, and sculpta Hay, 1916, 
as published in the binomen Chelydra sculpta, whenever it is considered to 
be a synonym of either of them. 

(2) The name osceola Stejneger, 1918, as published in the binomen 
Chelydra osceola, is hereby placed on the Official List of Specific Names in 
Zoology with an endorsement that it is to be given nomenclatural pre- 
cedence over laticarinata Hay, 1916, as pubHshed in the binomen Chelydra 
laticarinata, and sculpta Hay, 1916, as pubHshed in the binomen Chelydra 
sculpta, whenever it is considered to be a synonym of either of them. 

(3) The following names are hereby placed on the Official List of 
Specific Names in Zoology with endorsements that neither is to be given 
priority over osceola Stejneger, 1918, as published in the binomen Chelydra 
osceola, when considered to be a synonym of that name: 

(a laticarinata Hay, 1916, as published in the binomen Chelydra 

laticarinata; 
(b) sculpta Hay, 1916, as pubHshed in the binomen Chelydra 
sculpta. 

HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)2282 

An application for the conservation of Chelydra osceola Stejneger, 
1918 was first received from Professor H. M. Smith, Dr R. B. Smith and Dr 
D. Chiszar {University of Colorado, Boulder, U.S.A.) on 19 September 1978. 
After some correspondence, a revised draft, proposing conditional sup- 
pression, was sent to the printer on 20 July 1983 and published in Bull. zool. 
Nom., vol. 40, pp. 225-227. Public notice of the possible use of plenary 
power in the case was given in the same part of the Bulletin as well as to 
ten general and three herpetological serials. A supportive comment was 
received from Dr P. C. H. Pritchard {Florida Audubon Society, Maitland, 
Florida, U.S.A.). 

DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 16 September 1985 the members of the Commission were invited 
to vote under the Three-Month Rule on Voting Paper (1985) 49 for or 



34 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



against the proposals set out in Bull. zool. Nom. vol. 40, p. 226. At the close 
of the voting period on 16 December 1985 the state of the voting was as 
follows: 

Affirmative Votes — twenty-three (23) received in the following 
order: Melville, Holthuis, Cocks, Willink, Savage, Kabata, Mroczkowski, 
Corliss, Bayer, Alvarado, Ueno, Hahn, Starobogatov, Trjapitzin, Zheng, 
Cogger, Lehtinen, Schuster, Ride, Thompson, Halvorsen, Dupuis, Heppell 

Negative Votes — one (1) Bernardi. 

No votes were returned by Gruchy and Kraus. 

Bernardi commented: 'Je vote contre parce que toute decision 
nomenclatorique me semble prematuree au sujet du Chelydra osceola 
puisqu'il n'est pas certain que les especes fossiles C. laticarinata et 
C. sculpta sont cospecifiques avec C. osceola, il ne s'agit que de probabilites. 
Supposons, par example, qu'il s'agisse de sous-especes chronologiques. 
On aurait C. osceola osceola 1918 et C osceola laticarinata 1916. C'est 
peu satisfaisant a mon avis. La question ne se reduit done pas a simple 
synonymic eventuelle'. 

ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references to the names placed on an 
Official List by the ruling given in the present Opinion: 
laticarinata, Chelydra, Hay, 1916, Ann. Rep. Florida State geol. Surv., vol. 8, 

p. 72 
osceola, Chelydra, Stejneger, 1918, Proc. biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 31, 

p. 89 
sculpta, Chelydra, Hay, 1916, Ann. Rep. Florida State geol. Surv., vol. 8, 

p. 73. 

CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper (1985) 49 were 
cast as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper have 
been duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so 
taken, being the decision of the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature, is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1377. 

P. K. TUBBS 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
16 December 1985 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 35 



OPINION 1378 

PHALAENA BELLATRIX STOLL, 1780 DESIGNATED AS TYPE 

SPECIES OF CRINODES HERRICH-SCHAFFER, 1855 

(INSECTA, LEPIDOPTERA) 



RULING. — (1) Under the plenary powers all type designations 
hitherto made for the nominal genus Crinodes Herrich-Schaffer, 1855 are 
hereby set aside and Phalaena bellatrix Stoll, 1780 is hereby designated as 
type species of that genus. 

(2) The name Crinodes Herrich-Schaffer, 1855 (gender, masculine) 
type species, by designation under the plenary powers in (1) above, 
Phalaena bellatrix Stoll, 1780 is hereby placed on the Official List of 
Generic Names in Zoology. 

(3) The name bellatrix Stoll, 1780, as published in the binomen 
Phalaena bellatrix Stoll, 1 780 (specific name of the type species of Crinodes 
Herrich-Schaflfer, 1855) is hereby placed on the Official List of Specific 
Names in Zoology. 

HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)2436 

An application for the designation of Phalaena bellatrix Stoll, 1780 
as the type species of Crinodes Herrich-Schaff"er (together with proposals to 
designate Gonodontis rectisectaria Herrich-Schaff"er, 1855 as type species of 
Pero Herrich-Schaff"er, 1855) was first received from Dr D. S. Fletcher and 
Dr I. W. B. Nye {British Museum (Natural History), London) on 1 March 
1983. After some correspondence a slightly revised draft was sent to the 
printers on 20 July 1983 and published in Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 40, pp 
231-236. Public notice of the possible use of the plenary powers in the case 
was given in the same part of the Bulletin as well as to ten general and nine 
entomological serials. A supportive comment was received from Dr J. D. 
Holloway {Commonwealth Institute of Entomology, London) and published 
in Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 41, p. 72. Further unpublished support was received 
from Dr H. Banziger {Chiang Mai University, Thailand), Dr S. Sugi {Tokyo, 
Japan), Dr P. Viette {Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris) and Dr 
H. Inoue {Otsuma Women's University, Japan). 

DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 16 September 1985 the members of the Commission were invited 
to vote under the Three-Month Rule on Voting Paper (1985) 51 for or 
against the proposals set out in Bull. zool. Nom. vol. 40, p. 233, 1(a), 2(a) 
and 3(a). At the close of the voting period on 16 December 1985 the state of 
the voting was as follows: 



36 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



Affirmative Votes — twenty-one (21) received in the following order: 
Melville, Holthuis, Cocks, Willink, Savage, Mroczkowski, Corliss, Bayer, 
Alvarado, Ueno, Starobogatov, Trjapitzin, Zheng, Cogger, Lehtinen, 
Bernardi, Ride, Thompson, Halvorsen, Schuster, Heppell 

Negative Votes — one (1) Kabata. 

Hahn abstained. Bayer voted with the majority. No votes were 
returned by Dupuis, Gruchy and Kraus. 

Dr Hahn, in abstaining, said that at the present time no action was 
necessary: Crinodes and Tarsolepsis, and also Gonodontis and Pero, were 
distinct genera with separate type species, a case would need to be made by 
anyone who, in the future, wishes (for example) to replace Tarsolepsis by 
Crinodes. 

ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references to the names placed on 
Official Lists by the ruling given in the present Opinion: 
bellatrix, Phalaena, Stoll, 1780, in Cramer, Uitlandsche Kapellen (Papillons 

exot.), vol. 4, p. 32, pi. 305, fig. F 
Crinodes Herrich-Schaffer, 1855, Systematische Bearbeitung Schmetterlinge 

Europa, vol. 6, p. 91. 

CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper (1985) 51 were 
cast as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper 
have been duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so 
taken, being the decision of the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature, is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1378. 

P. K. TUBBS 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
16 December 1985 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 37 



OPINION 1379 

GONODONTIS RECTISECTARIA HERRICH-SCHAFFER, [1855] 

DESIGNATED AS TYPE SPECIES OF PERO 

HERRICH-SCHAFFER, 1855 (INSECTA, LEPIDOPTERA) 



RULING. — (1) Under the plenary powers all designations of type 
species hitherto made for the nominal genus Pero Herrich-Schaffer, 1855 
are hereby set aside and Gonodontis rectisectaria Herrich-Schaffer, [1855] is 
hereby designated as type species of that genus. 

(2) The name Pero Herrich-Schaffer, 1855 (gender: feminine), type 
species by designation under the plenary powers in (1) above Gonodontis 
rectisectaria Herrich-Schaffer, [1855] is hereby placed on the Official List of 
Generic Names in Zoology. 

(3) The name rectisectaria Herrich-Schaffer, [1855] as pubHshed in 
the binomen Gonodontis rectisectaria (specific name of the type species of 
Pero Herrich-Schaffer, 1855) is hereby placed on the Official List of Specific 
Names in Zoology. 

HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)2436 

An application for the designation of Gonodontis rectisectaria 
Herrich-Schaffer, [1855] as the type species o^ Pero Herrich-Schaffer, 1855 
(together with proposals to designate Phalaena bellatrix Stoll, 1 780 as type 
species of Crinodes Herrich-Schaffer, 1855) was first received from Dr D. S. 
Fletcher and Dr I. W. B. Nye {British Museum (Natural History), London) 
on 1 March 1983. After some correspondence a sHghtly revised draft was 
sent to the printer on 20 July 1983 and published in Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 40, 
pp 231-236. Public notice of the possible use of the plenary powers in the 
case was given in the same part of the Bulletin as well as to ten general 
and nine entomological serials. A supportive comment was received from 
Dr J. D. Holloway (Commonwealth Institute of Entomology, London) and 
published in Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 41, p. 72. Further unpublished support 
was received from Dr H. Banziger {Chiang Mai University, Thailand), Dr 
P. Viette {Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris) and Dr H. Inoue 
{Otsuma Women's University, Japan). 

DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 16 September 1985 the members of the Commission were invited 
to vote under the Three-Month Rule on Voting Paper (1985) 52 for or 
against the proposals set out in Bull. zool. Nom. vol. 40, p. 233, 1(b), 2(b), 
3(b). At the close of the voting period on 16 December 1985 the state of the 
voting was as follows: 



38 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



Affirmative Votes — twenty-one (21) received in the following order: 
Melville, Holthuis, Cocks, Willink, Savage, Mroczkowski, Corliss, Bayer, 
Alvarado, Ueno, Starobogatov, Trjapitzin, Zheng, Cogger, Lehtinen, 
Bernardi, Ride, Thompson, Halvorsen, Schuster, Heppell 

Negative Votes — one (1) Kabata. 

Hahn abstained. No votes were returned by Dupuis, Gruchy and 
Kraus. 

Dr Hahn, in abstaining, said that at the present time no action was 
necessary: Crinodes and Tarsolepsis, and also Gonodontis and Pero, were 
distinct genera with separate type species. A case would need to be made by 
anyone who, in the future, wishes (for example) to replace Tarsolepsis by 
Crinodes. 

ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references to the names placed on 
Official Lists by the ruling given in the present Opinion: 
Pero Herrich-Schaffer, 1855, Systematische Bearbeitung Schmetterlinge 

Eur opa col. 6, p. 91 
rectisectaria, Gonodontis, Herrich-Schaffer, [1855], Sammlung neuer oder 

wenig bekannter aussereuropdischen Schmetterlinge, vol. 1(1), pi. 58, 

fig. 325. 

CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper (1985) 52 were 
cast as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper have 
been duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so 
taken, being the decision of the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature, is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1379. 

P. K. TUBBS 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
16 December 1985 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 39 



OPINION 1380 

EUPHAEDRA HUBNER, [1819] (INSECTA, 

LEPIDOPTERA): CONSERVED 



RULING.— (1) Under the plenary powers the generic name Najas 
Hiibner, [1807] is hereby suppressed for the purposes of the Principle of 
Priority but not for those of the Principle of Homonymy. 

(2) The name Euphaedra Hiibner, [1819] (gender: feminine), type 
species by subsequent designation by Scudder, 1875, Papilio cyparissa 
Cramer, [1775] is hereby placed on the Official List of Generic Names in 
Zoology. 

(3) The name cyparissa Cramer, [1775], as pubhshed in the binomen 
Papilio cyparissa (specific name of the type species of Euphaedra Hubner, 
[1819] is hereby placed on the official List of Specific Names in Zoology. 

(4) The name Najas Hubner, [1807], as suppressed under the plenary 
power in (1) above is hereby placed on the Official Index of Rejected and 
Invalid Genetic Names in Zoology. 

HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)1686 

An appHcation for the conservation of Euphaedra Hubner, [1819] 
was first received from the late Mr F. Hemming on 26 November 1964. It 
was sent to the printers on 4 December 1964 and published in Bull. zool. 
Nom.. vol. 22, p. 102. No comments were received and on 19 April 1967 the 
members of the Commission were asked to vote on V.P. (67) 27 for or 
against the proposals set out in the application. At the close of the voting 
period on 19 July 1967 there were 19 affirmative, one negative and two 
late affirmative votes. Two comments were received from members of the 
Commission with their voting papers, both suggesting that Najas Hubner, 
[1807] should be suppressed by use of the plenary powers rather than as a 
nomen oblitum. The application presented Najas Hubner, [1807], as a case 
for rejection under the Code (2nd ed.). Article 23b. At the time of the 
voting period this Article was the subject of an investigation by a special 
committee appointed by the Council of the Commission. The voting papers 
were therefore cancelled. 

On 19 July 1973 a comment from Col. C. F. Cowan (then of 
Berkhamsted. U.K.) was received suggesting that the phrase 'as a nomen 
oblitum' be deleted from the title of Z.N.(S.).1686 as well as two others 
(S.1687 and S.1688) and that the cases be approved as they stood. This 
was published in Bull. zool. Nom.. vol. 30, pp. 133-134. Due to procedural 
difficulties no action was subsequently taken. 



40 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



On 26 September 1983 a revised and updated version of the 
EuphaedrajNajas case (S.1686) was received from Col. C. F. Cowan 
(Grange-over-Sands, Cumbria, U.K.) along with a similarly revised version 
of S.1687 (see Opinion 1381). Both cases were sent to the printers on 5 
October and both were published in Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 40, S.1686 on pp. 
243-245 and S.1687 on pp. 245-247. Public notice of the possible use of the 
plenary powers in the case was given in the same part of the Bulletin as well 
as to ten general and nine entomological serials. No comment was received. 



DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 16 September 1985 the members of the Commission were invited 
to vote under the Three-Month Rule on Voting Paper (1985) 54 for or 
against the proposals set out in Bull. zool. Nom. vol. 40, p. 244. At the close 
of the voting period on 16 December 1985 the state of the voting was as 
follows: 

Affirmative Votes — twenty-three (23) received in the following 
order: Melville, Holthuis, Cocks, Willink, Savage, Kabata, Corhss, 
Alvarado, Ueno, Hahn, Starobogatov, Trjapitzin, Mroczkowski, Zheng, 
Lehtinen, Bernardi, Ride, Thompson, Halvorsen, Schuster, Dupuis, 
Heppell, Cogger 

Negative Votes — none (0). 

Bayer returned a late affirmative vote. No votes were returned by 
Gruchy and Kraus. 

ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references to the names placed on 
Official Lists and an Official Index by the ruling given in the present 
Opinion: 
cyparissa, Papilio, Cramer, [1775], Uitlandsche Kapellen. . . vol. 1, (4), p. 63, 

pi. 39, figs D, E 
Euphaedra Hiibner, [1819], Verzeichniss bekannter Schmettlinge, p. 39 
Najas Hiibner, [1807], Sammlung exotischer Schmettlinge, vol. 1, pi. [60]. 

The following is the original reference to the subsequent designation 
of a type species for the nominal genus Euphaedra Hiibner, [1819]: of 
Papilio cyparissa Cramer, [1775], by Scudder, 1895, Proc. amer. Acad. Arts 
5c/., vol. 10, p. 172. 

CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper (1985) 54 were 
cast as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper have 
been duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 41 



taken, being the decision of the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature, is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1380. 

P. K. TUBBS 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
16 December 1985 



42 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



OPINION 1381 

OUROCNEMIS BAKER, 1887 (INSECTA, LEPIDOPTERA): 

CONSERVED 



RULING. — (1) Under the plenary powers the generic name 
Aetheius Hubner, [1819] is hereby suppressed for the purposes of the 
Principle of Priority but not for those of the Principle of Homonymy. 

(2) The name Ourocnemis Baker, 1887 (gender: feminine), type 
species by monotypy, Anteros axiochus Hewitson, [1867] is hereby placed 
on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology. 

(3) The name archytas Stoll, [1787] as published in the binomen 
Papilio archytas (the valid name at the time of this ruling for the type 
species of Ourocnemis Baker, 1887) is hereby placed on the Official List of 
Specific Names in Zoology. 

(4) The name Aetheius Hubner, [1819] as suppressed under the 
plenary powers in (1) above is hereby placed on the Official Index of 
Rejected and Invalid Generic Names in Zoology. 

HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)1687 

An application for the conservation oi Ourocnemis Baker, 1887 was 
first received from the late Mr F. Hemming on 26 November 1964. It was 
sent to the printers on 4 December 1964 and published in Bull. zool. Nom., 
vol. 22, p. 103. No comments were received. 

Due to certain procedural difficulties with Article 23b at the time, 
the case was never voted on (see the history of the case Z.N.(S.)1686, 
Opinion 1380). 

On 19 July 1973 a comment from Col. C. F. Cowan (then of 
Berkhamsted, U.K.) was received suggesting that the phrase 'as a nomen 
oblitum' be deleted from the title of Z.N.(S.)1687 as well as two others 
(S.1686 and S.1688) and that the cases be approved as they stood. This 
was published in Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 30, pp. 133-134. Again due to 
procedural difficulties no action was subsequently taken. 

On 26 September 1983 a revised and updated version of the 
Ourocnemis/ Aetheius case (S.1687) was received from Col. C. F. Cowan 
{Grange-over- Sands, Cumbria, U.K.) along with a similarly revised version 
of S.1686 (see Opinion 1380). Both cases were sent to the printers on 5 
October and both were pubHshed in Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 40, S.1686 on pp. 
243-245 and S.1687 on pp. 245-247. Public notice of the possible use of the 
plenary powers in the case was given in the same part of the Bulletin as well 
as to ten general and nine entomological serials. No comment was received. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 43 



DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 16 September 1985 the members of the Commission were invited 
to vote under the Three-Month Rule on Voting Paper (1985) 55 for or 
against the proposals set out in Bull. zool. Norn. vol. 40, pp. 245-246. At the 
close of the voting period on 16 December 1985 the state of the voting was 
as follows: 

Affirmative Votes — twenty-three (23) received in the following 
order: Melville, Holthuis, Cocks, Willink, Savage, Kabata, Corliss, 
Alvarado. Ueno, Hahn, Starobogatov, Trjapitzin, Mroczkowski, Zheng, 
Lehtinen, Bernardi, Ride, Thompson, Halvorsen, Schuster, Dupuis, 
Heppell, Cogger 

Negative Votes — none (0). 

Bayer returned a late affirmative vote. No votes were returned by 
Gruchy and Kraus. 

ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references to the names placed on 
Official Lists and an Official Index by the ruling given in the present 
Opinion: 

Aetheius Hiibner, [1819], Verzeichniss bekannter Schmettlinge (7), p. 109 
archytas. Papilio, Stoll, [1787], Aanhangsel van het werk de uitlamche 

Kapellen, p. 25, pi. 5, fig. 5 
Ourocnemis Baker, 1887, Trans, entomol. Soc. Lond.. 1887 pp. 175-176, 

pi. 9. 

CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper (1985) 55 were 
cast as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper have 
been duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so 
taken, being the decision of the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature, is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1381. 

P. K. TUBBS 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
16 December 1985 



44 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1 , April 1986 



OPINION 1382 

ZEUGOPHORA KUNZE, 1818 (INSECTA, COLEOPTERA): 

CONSERVED 



RULING. — (1) Under the plenary powers the generic name 
Auchenia Thunberg, 1792, is hereby suppressed for the purposes of the 
Principle of Priority but not for those of the Principle of Homonymy. 

(2) The name Zeugophora Kunze, 1818 (gender: feminine), type 
species by subsequent designation by Westwood, 1838, Crioceris subspinosa 
Fabricius, 1781, is hereby placed on the Official List of Generic Names of 
Zoology. 

(3) The name subspinosa Fabricius, 1781, as published in the 
binomen Crioceris subspinosa (specific name of the type species of 
Zeugophora Kunze, 1818) is hereby placed on the Official List of Specific 
Names in Zoology. 

(4) The name Auchenia Thunberg, 1792, as suppressed under the 
plenary powers in (1) above is hereby placed on the Official Index of 
Rejected and Invalid Generic Names in Zoology. 

HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)2405 

An application for the conservation o{ Zeugophora Kunze, 1818 was 
first received from Dr H. Silfverberg {Zoological Museum of the University 
ofHelsingJ'ors, Finland) on 22 January 1982. It was sent to the printers on 5 
October 1983 and published in Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 40, pp. 252-254. Public 
notice of the possible use of the plenary powers was given in the same part 
of the Bulletin as well as to ten general and nine entomological serials. No 
comment was received. 

DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 16 September 1985 the members of the Commission were invited 
to vote under the Three-Month Rule on Voting Paper (1985) 56 for or 
against the proposals set out in Bull. zool. Norn. vol. 40, p. 253. At the close 
of the voting period on 16 December 1985 the state of the voting was as 
follows: 

Affirmative Votes — twenty-three (23) received in the following 
order: Melville, Holthuis, Cocks, Willink, Savage, Kabata, Corliss, 
Alvarado, Ueno, Hahn, Starobogatov, Trjapitzin, Mroczkowski, Zheng, 
Cogger, Lehtinen, Bernardi, Ride, Thompson, Halvorsen, Schuster, 
Dupuis, Heppell 

Negative Votes — none (0). 

Bayer returned a late affirmative vote. No votes were returned by 
Gruchy and Kraus. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1 , April 1 986 45 



ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references to the names placed on 
Official Lists and an Official Index by the ruling given in the present 
Opinion: 

Auchenia Thunberg, 1792, Nova Acta Upsala, vol. 5, pp. 95, 116 
subspinosa, Crioceris, Fabricius, 1781, Species Insectorum, vol. 1, p. 155 
Zeugophora Kunze, 1818, Neue Schr. naturf. Ges. Halle, vol. 2(4), p. 71. 

The following is the original reference to the subsequent designation 
of a type species for the nominal genus Zeugophora Kunze, 1818: of 
Crioceris subspinosa Fabricius, 1781 by Westwood, 1838, An introduction to 
the modern classification of insects. (Synposis of the genera of British 
insecta) , p. 42. 

CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper (1985) 56 were 
cast as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper 
have been duly adopted under the plenary power, and that the decision so 
taken, being the decision of the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature, is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1382. 

P. K. TUBBS 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
16 December 1985 



46 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1 , April 1986 



TRIOXYCANUS DUMBLETON, 1966 (LEPIDOPTERA), A GENUS 

BASED ON A MISIDENTIFIED TYPE SPECIES, WITH PROPOSAL 

OF NEW NAMES FOR THE TAXONOMIC GENUS AND SPECIES 

INVOLVED. Z.N.(S.)2462 



By J. S. Dugdale {Entomology Division DSIR, Auckland, New Zealand) 

A. G. Butler, 1877, p. 381, pi. xlii, fig. 7, described and had 
illustrated a large hepialid moth, collected in central North Island, New 
Zealand, either by or for J. D. Enys. Butler named this unique specimen 
Porina enysii. and the specimen is in the collections at the British Museum 
(Natural History). 

2. During an examination of type specimens of New Zealand 
Lepidoptera in the British Museum (Natural History) in 1980-1981, I 
examined the holotype of Porina enysii. I found that Butler's artist had 
depicted the colour pattern faithfully, and there is no trace of pink on 
the pale brown hindwings. He had drawn the antennae as short, simple 
unpectinate organs. There is no indication in Butler's description as to 
whether the specimen had antennae although in descriptions of other moths 
in his 1877 paper, Butler usually mentioned the antennae. In 1965, when 
W. H. T. Tams had the holotype photographed for L. J. Dumbleton, the 
antennae were missing. 

3. Edward Meyrick reviewed the New Zealand hepialidae 
(Meyrick, 1890) and on p. 207 of his paper noted that he had seen Butler's 
type and that it was 'badly damaged'. By 'badly damaged', Meyrick may 
have meant that the antennae were missing, as the body and wings are still 
in good condition. In his redescription, Meyrick stated that, apart from the 
Butler type, he had also seen 'a specimen in Mr Fereday's collection' also 
badly damaged. I have examined this specimen; it is a male of an oxycanine 
species with a squashed body, short, unpectinate antennae, faintly pink- 
tinged ochreous hindwings and a forewing pattern like the specimen figured 
by Hudson, 1928, pi. xli, fig. 5. 

4. G. V. Hudson, in Wellington, New Zealand, produced the first of 
his monographic accounts of New Zealand Lepidoptera in 1898. On p. 133, 
and on pi. xiii, fig. 10 of that work, he described and depicted a large 
hepialid moth with simple male antennae, which he referred to as Porina 
enysii. He gave the adult emergence time as December and January, and 
noted, as a diagnostic feature, 'the hindwings are pinkish brown, tinged 
with ochreous on the termen'. The specimen is still in Hudson's collection. 

5. Alfred Philpott, 1927a, p. 39 and fig. 19 described and depicted 
the male genitalia of Porina enysii based on a specimen from Wellington, 
sent by Hudson. That is, he figures the genitalia of the species described by 
Hudson (q.v.) under the name Porina enysii, that has simple male antennae 
and pinkish ochreous or brown hindwings and emerges in December and 
January. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1 , April 1986 47 



6. In his definitive monograph on New Zealand Lepidoptera, 
Hudson, 1928, pp. 361-362, pi. xli, figs 4-10, repeats his 1898 description 
and gives seven illustrations of colour forms. All have simple, short 
antennae, and pinkish ochreous or brown hindwings. All records are from 
the North Island; the emergence period is given as December-January. 
Some of the specimens are from Wellington Botanical Gardens, a lowland 
site within the city. 

7. L. J. Dumbleton revised the New Zealand hepialidae in 1966. 
His only access to the types held in the British Museum (Natural History) 
was photographs of whole insects provided by W. H. T. Tarns. Dumbleton, 
1966, p. 940, erected the subfamily oxycaninae within hepialidae to 
accommodate those genera with forewing vein R4 branching from a 
common R2-R4 stem, as distinct from the hepialinae, which have vein R4 
branching from a common R4— R5 stem. On p. 942 (key) and p. 943 he 
described as new the genus Trioxycanus to include three large oxycanine 
species with 'filiform' or 'feebly' dentate male antennae. He designated as 
type species Porina enysii Butler. His description and an illustration of male 
genitalia agree with those of Philpott (q.v.). He pubHshed without comment 
the photograph of the holotype of Porina enysii Butler provided by the 
British Museum (Natural History). 

8. When I examined the material identified as Porina enysii in the 
British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I found that Butler's type was neither con- 
specific nor congeneric with, nor in the same sub-family (sensu Dumbleton), 
as the other 10 specimens, which are all from around Wellington. 

9. Butler's Holotype of Porina enysii has: 

(a) hepialine forewing venation, that is R4 and R5 share a 
common stem separate from R2-R3; 

(b) lost the antennae; 

(c) hindwings which are not tinged pink and which are not 'tinged 
with ochreous on the termen', but are a uniform light brown; 

(d) genitalia that accord (in those features that could be seen) with 
the features characteristic of the hepialine Aoraia leonina (Phil- 
pott) as depicted by Dumbleton, 1966, fig. 32-36, p. 933. 

(e) the thorax covered by loose, dark, woolly hair-hke scales, with 
a pallid collar behind the head characteristic of Aoraia 
Dumbleton species, and not — as in the species depicted by 
Hudson and taken by Philpott and Dumbleton to be Porina 
enysii — covered in a dense, smooth, ochreous pile, unicolorous 
over the whole thorax. 

10. Therefore it would appear that: 

(1) Porina enysii Butler, 1877 is a hepialine on venational and 
genital characters exhibited by the unique type male. It is a 
member of the genus Aoraia Dumbleton 1966, pp. 928 (key), 
930-931. The emarginate tegumen on the genitalia of Butler's 
type indicates that it is a member of the montane forest- 
subalpine scrub-inhabiting populations of Aoraia leonina 



48 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



(Philpott, 1927b) as revised by Dumbleton, (1966, pp. 937-939) 
with an adult emergence period over March-April; 

(2) Butler's artist drew the antennae as filiform whereas they 
should have been drawn as pectinate; 

(3) Porina enysii sensu Meyrick, 1 890 is a mixture, being based on 
Meyrick's inspection of Butler's type and on Butler's artist's 
fabrication (the imaginary antennae), and Fereday's male (an 
oxycanine) collected in the North Island; 

(4) Porina enysii sensu Hudson, 1898, 1928 and Philpott, 1927 
cannot be that of Butler, as they differ in venational and genital 
characters that are of subfamily significance in Dumbleton's 
classification; 

(5) Dumbleton's citing of the hepialine Porina enysii Butler as the 
type species of the oxycanine genus Trioxycanus is a misidenti- 
fication of type species as outlined in Article 70(a) and should 
be brought to the attention of the Commission*. 

11. This episode came about because of two things: first, Butler's 
artist put everyone off" the scent by drawing imaginary antennae. Secondly, 
there is a superficial wing-pattern similarity between the taxa involved. 

12. None of the taxa involved in this case is of known economic 
importance, nor is the literature on them extensive enough to prompt 
consideration of conservation of names. I therefore propose that: 

(1) Trioxycanus enysii (Butler, 1877), now be included with Aoraia 
Dumbleton, 1966, and be an available name for North Island 
populations at present included in Dumbleton's concept of 
Aoraia leonina (Philpott, 1927b), as figured by Dumbleton; it is 
thus a subjective senior synonym of ^. leonina in Dumbleton's 
concept of that species; 

(2) as Butler's specimen has been figured by Dumbleton as 
representing (a) the type of Porina enysii Butler and (b) the type 
species of Trioxycanus Dumbleton, then Trioxycanus becomes 
a junior subjective synonym oi Aoraia Dumbleton. 

13. Because there is clearly a valid entity formerly called (variously) 
Porina enysii or Trioxycanus enysii, and because it has been well character- 
ised by Hudson, Philpott and Dumbleton in their publications quoted 
above, I propose a new generic name for Trioxycanus Dumbleton, 1966 
(misidentified type species) and a new specific name for enysii sensu 
Meyrick (in part), Hudson, Philpott, Dumbleton et auct. 

Dumbletonius Dugdale, gen. nov. pro Trioxycanus Dumbleton, 
based on misidentified species. 

*The latest reviser (Dumbleton) had no first-hand access to the types, and this instance 
underlines the necessity for: 

(a) revisers to be extremely careful to establish that their type species are surely identified, as 
examination by proxy — however well-intentioned and well-quahfied — is not sure enough, 
and (b) types to be available — in a very strict sense — to revisers. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1. April 1986 49 



Dwnbletonius svlvicola Dugdale, nom. nov. pro Porina ensyii auct. 

(e.g. Hudson, 1898, p. 133, pi. xiii, fig. 10), nee Butler, 1877. 
The genus name is in memory of the late L. J. Dumbleton; the specific 
name indicates that this species is primarily a forest-dweller. Holotype male 
labelled 'Wellington 25.1.10' (no collector) 'Holotype male, Dumbletonius 
sylvicola Dugdale', in good condition, forewing markings and hindwing 
colour resembling that depicted by Hudson, 1928, pi. xli, fig. 4, New 
Zealand Arthropod Collection, DSIR, Auckland. 

14. The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature is 
accordingly asked: 

(1) to rule that the type species of the nominal genus Trioxycanus 
Dumbleton, 1966 is the nominal species named by Dumbleton, 
namely, Porina enysii Butler, 1877; 

(2) to place the generic and specific names mentioned in (1) above 
on the appropriate Official Lists with endorsements that this is 
without prejudice to the taxonomic validity of Trioxycanus vis- 
a-vis Aoraia Dumbleton, 1966 or of Porina leonina Philpott, 
1927 vis-a-vis Porina enysii Butler, 1877. 

REFERENCES 

BUTLER, A. G. 1877. On two collections of heterocerous Lepidoptera from New 

Zealand, with descriptions of new genera and species. Proc. zool. Soc. 

London for 1877, pp. 379^07, pis xlii, xliii. 
DUMBLETON, L. J. 1966. Genitalia, classification and zoogeography of the New 

Zealand Hepialidae (Lepidoptera). New Zealand J. Sci.. vol. 9, pp. 920-998, 

11 5 figs. 
HUDSON, G. V. 1898. New Zealand moths and butterflies ( Macrolepidoptera) . 

London, West Newman & Co, 144 pp., 52 pis. 
1928. The butterflies and moths of New Zealand. Wellington, Ferguson & 

Osborn, 386 pp., 52 pis. 
MEYRICK, E. 1890. Descriptions of New Zealand Lepidoptera. Trans. Proc. New 

Zealand Inst., vol. 22, pp. 204-220. 
PHILPOTT, A. 1927a. The male genitalia of the Hepialidae. Trans, r. entomol. Soc. 

London, vol. 75. pp. 35^1, 27 figs. 
1927b. New Zealand Lepidoptera: notes and descriptions. Trans. Proc. New 

Zealand Inst., vol. 57, pp. 703-709. 



50 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1 , April 1986 



DASYURUS H A LLUCATUS GOULD, 1842 (MAMMALIA, 
MARSUPIALIA): PROPOSED CONSERVATION BY THE 
SUPPRESSION OF MUSTELA QUOLL ZIMMERMANN, 

1783.Z.N.(S.)2472 

By J. A. Mahoney (Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of 

Sydney, Sydney. New South Wales, Australia) and W. D. L. Ride (School of 

Applied Science, Canberra College of Advanced Education, Belconnen, 

Australian Capital Territory, Australia) 

Since the establishment of the name Dasyurus hallucatus Gould, 
1842, the Australian Northern Quoll has been known by no other specific 
name. For most of the time it has been used in the original combination 
Dasyurus hallucatus, and during the last 58 years, also in the alternative 
combination Satanellus hallucatus. This stable use of hallucatus is now 
threatened by the earlier name Mustela ^i/o// Zimmermann, 1783. 

2. The name Mustela quoll Zimmermann was first used in 1 777 by 
Zimmermann in Specimen Zoologiae geographicae . . ., a work subsequently 
rejected for zoological nomenclature by the Commission because it is not 
wholly binomial (Opinion 257, 1954). The name was later established by 
Zimmermann in Geographische Geschichte des Menschen . . (1778-1783). 

3. Mustela quoll Zimmermann, 1783, is based wholly upon a ver- 
nacular name, Quoll, and a description, in Hawkesworth's account of the 
voyage of Captain James Cook to the eastern coast of Australia in 1770 
in H.M.S. Endeavour, Bark (Hawkesworth, 1773). The species is described 
in volume 2 of Geographische Geschichte des Menschen . . . under the 
vernacular name Quoll that was used by Hawkesworth. Quoll is a represen- 
tation of a word in the Aboriginal Guugu Yimidhirr language. It applies to 
a species of quoll inhabiting the vicinity of the mouth of the Endeavour 
River where the Endeavour was beached for a period, undergoing repairs 
(see Mahoney & Ride, 1984). 

4. Zimmermann, 1780 (zweiter band, p. 312) describes the Quoll 
thus, following the entries for Mustela, under the heading Unbestimmtere 
Arten, 

'(0 Der Quoll. Banks in Hawkesw. Account. Vol. III. p. 626. 

Der Quoll gleicht dem litis; der Riicken ist braun mit Weiss 
gefleckt; der Bauch ganz weiss. Man fand es auf Neusiidwallis, 
der Ostkuste von Neuholland.' 
In the succeeding volume (1783, dritter band, p. 181) Zimmermann lists 
'(3) Der Quoll, Mustela Quoll. Neu-Sud-Wallis.' 
By this use, in both volumes, of the same vernacular name that is 
used for no other species in the work, the description is linked unmistakably 
within the same work (although in different volumes pubUshed in different 
years) with the scientific name. 

5. Professor L. B. Holthuis has drawn our attention to the similarity 
between this case and that dealt with in Opinion 11 (1910, Smithson. Inst. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 51 



Publ. No. 1938, pp. 17-18) in which consideration is given to the method of 
type selection for genera used by P. A. Latreille, 1810 in the work 'Consider- 
ations generales sur I'ordre naturel des animaux composant les classes des 
crustaces, des araclmides, et des insectes; avec un tableau methodique de leurs 
genres, disposes en families'. 

Latreille's work consists of 3 parts. The second part lists and describes the 
genera and gives their names in both Latin and the vernacular (French). 

6. The third part is entitled 'Table des genres avec iindication de 
I'espece qui leur serf de type' and gives a list of the names, in French, of 
the genera each followed by the name, in Latin, of, in most cases, a single 
species. The Commission held that the citation of the species name with 
the vernacular name of the genus (but linked with the scientific name and 
description of the genus, in the second part of the work, by the use of the 
vernacular name in both places) constituted a valid designation of type 
species. 

7. There is little doubt that the name Mustela quoll Zimmermann, 
1783, based on Quoll, is an available name for the species currently known 
as Dasyurus hallucatus Gould, 1842. No type specimen is known to be 
extant for M. quoll Zimmermann, 1783, but there is a drawing of the Quoll 
made during Cook's voyage and this, combined with the linguistic evidence 
from the distribution of the Guugu Yimidhirr language, which is within the 
range of Dasyurus hallucatus, leave little doubt as to its taxonomic identity 
(see Mahoney & Ride, 1984). 

8. Although, as far as is known, Mustela quoll Zimmermann has 
never previously been applied to the species currently called Dasyurus 
hallucatus, it is not a forgotten name. Between 1934 and 1954 it was widely, 
but mistakenly, used for another species of Dasyurus, D. viverrinus (Shaw, 
1800), occurring in south-eastern Australia. Even the widely used Grzimek's 
Animal Life Encyclopedia (Heinemann, 1972) currently uses it in that sense. 
When attributed, the name M. quoll ^nsls credited to Zimmermann, 1777. Its 
use has become progressively less common since the Commission rejected 
Zimmermann's 1777 work in Opinion 257 (see para. 2). 

9. As stated above, Mahoney & Ride, 1984, have shown that the 
association with D. viverrinus can no longer be upheld. Accordingly, we 
conclude that the introduction into the literature of the specific name quoll, 
in a different sense, would introduce confusion. 

10. Although the name Dasyurus quoll for D. viverrinus has virtually 
ceased because of Opinion 257, the use of the name in popular works as a 
name derived from an Australian Aboriginal language has firmly attached 
it to that species as its vernacular name (see Corbet & Hill, 1980, p. 12 and 
Strahan, 1981, p. 31), and the mistaken association of Hawkesworth's 
published description with D. viverrinus continues in the literature (see 
Troughton, 1974, p. 39). 

1 1 . Because of a mistaken belief that M. quoll was not subsequently 
made available by Zimmermann in Geographische Geschichte des Menschen 
. . . (see Ride, 1964, pp. 14,15), it has not been used from that later work. 



52 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



Although technically not a forgotten name, because of its use from the 
earlier work, it has now re-emerged from a state of de facto suppression in a 
new use that would both upset stability (see para. 1), and universality and 
cause confusion (see paras. 8, 9 and 10). 

12. Unfortunately, the case cannot be dealt with under the special 
provisions of Art. 79b. Accordingly, we must seek a ruling from the Com- 
mission under the normal exercise of the plenary powers (Art. 79a), that the 
name Mustela quoll Zimmermann, 1783, as published in volumes 2 and 3 
of Geographische Geschichte des Menschen .. (11^0-17^3), be partially 
suppressed (i.e. suppressed for the purpose of the Principle of Priority only). 

13. In the event that the Commission takes the view that Mustela 
quoll is not available from Zimmermann Geographische Geschichte des 
Menschen . . (1780-1783) and, therefore, does not require suppression, 
the name is next used by Bechstein, 1800 {Thomas Pennant's allgemeine 
Uebersicht der vierfiissigen Thiere . . ., pp. 392, 693) in a manner that would 
make it available. Bechstein describes 'Der Quoll', calls it 'Mustela Quoll', 
refers to both Hawkesworth, 1773 and Zimmermann's 1778-1783 'geogr. 
Zool.' giving volume and page numbers as well as providing a description 
derived from a quoll described under the vernacular name Spotted Martin 
in 'Stockdale's Bot. Bay' (Phillip, A. 1789. The voyage of Governer Phillip 
to Botany Bay. . . , p. 276). This species (distinct from those referred to as 
Dasyurus viverrinus and D. hallucatus in this application) is the species 
currently known as Dasyurus maculatus (Kerr, 1792). 

1 4. Dasyurus maculatus (Kerr, 1 792) is not threatened by Bechstein's 
usage. Moreover it is our view that Bechstein's usage is no more than a 
re-use (and an erroneus application) of Zimmermann's Mustela quoll from 

Geographische Geschichte des Menschen However, if the latter is not an 

available name, then there is no doubt that M. quoll of Bechstein becomes 
an available name in its own right and poses a threat to stability of Dasyurus 
hallucatus Gould. No further action by the Commission would be required 
because we would remove that threat by selecting a neotype comformable 
with Bechstein's description that would make Mustela quoll sensu Bechstein, 
1800, a junior objective synonym of Dasyurus maculatus (Kerr, 1792). 

15. In summary the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature is requested to: 

(1) use its plenary powers to suppress the specific name quoll 
Zimmermann, 1783, as published in the binomen Mustela 
quoll, for the purposes of the Principle of Priority but not for 
those of the Principle of Homonymy; 

(2) place the specific name hallucatus Gould, 1842 as published in 
the binomen Dasyurus hallucatus on the Official List of Specific 
Names in Zoology; 

(3) place the specific name quoll Zimmermann, 1783 as published 
in the binomen Mustela quoll and as suppressed under the 
plenary powers in (1) above, on the Official Index of Rejected 
and Invalid Specific Names in Zoology. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1 , April 1986 53 



REFERENCES 

BECHSTEIN, J. M. 1800. Thomas Pennant's allgemeine Uebersicht der vierfiissigen 
Thieve. Aus dem Englischen iibersetzt und mit Anmerkungen und Zusdtzen 
versehen. Zweyter band. Verlage des Industrie-Comptoir's, Weimar, pp. i-xi, 
pp. 323-768. 

CORBET, G. B. & HILL, J. E. 1980. A world list of mammalian species. British 
Museum (Natural History), London. viii + 226pp. 

GOULD, J. 1842. Characters of a new species of Perameles, and a new species of 
Dasyums. Proc. zool. Soc. London. 1842, pp. 41^2. 

HAWKESWORTH, J. 1773. An account of the voyages undertaken by the order 
of His Present Majesty for making discoveries in the Southern Hemisphere, 
and successively performed by Commodore Byron, Captain Wallis, Captain 
Carteret, and Captain Cook, in the Dolphin, the Swallow, and the Endeavour: 
drawn up from the Journals which were kept by the several Commanders, and 
from the Papers of Joseph Banks, Esq. Illustrated with cuts, and a great variety 
of charts and maps relative to countries now first discovered, or hitherto but 
imperfectly known. Volume 3, W. Strahan & T. Cadell, London, pp. 41 1-799 
(1st edition), pp. 1-395 (2nd edition). 

HEINEMANN. D. 1972. Marsupial carnivores, marsupial anteaters, and mar- 
supial moles (Tasmanian devil and Tasmanian wolf by Bernhard Grzimek), 
pp. 70-95 in Grzimek 's Animal Life Encyclopedia. Volume 10 (Mammals 1). 
EngHsh edition. H. C. B. Grzimek (Editor-in-chieO- Van Nostrand 
Reinhold Company, Melbourne. 627 pp. 

INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE. 
1945 Opinion 11. Smithson. Inst. Publ. No. 1938, pp. 17-18. 

1954. Opinion 257. Opin. Decl. int. commn. zool. Nomencl. vol. 5, pp. 

231-244. 

LATREILLE, P. A. 1810. Considerations generales sur I'ordre naturel des animaux 
composant les classes des crustaces, des arachnides, et des insectes; avec un 
tableau methodique de leurs genres, disposes en families. F. Schoell, Paris. 
444 pp. 

MAHONEY, J. A. & RIDE, W. D. L. 1984. The identity of Captain Cook's 
quoU, Mustela quoll Zimmermann, 1783 (Marsupialia: Dasyuridae). Aust. 
Mammal., vol. 7, pp. 57-62. 

PHILLIP, A. 1789. The voyage of Governor Phillip to Botany Bay; with an account of 
the establishment of the Colonies of Port Jackson & Norfolk Island: compiled 
from authentic papers, which have been obtained from the several Departments. 
To which are added, the Journals of Lieuts. Shortland, Watts, Ball, & Capt. 
Marshall: with an account of their new discoveries embellished with fifty five 
copper plates, the maps and charts taken from actual surveys, & the plans & 
views drawn on the spot, by Capt. Hunter, Lieuts. Shortland, Watts. Dawes, 
Bradley, Capt. Marshall, &c. J. Stockdale, London. 6 + ii + viii + x + xii + 
298+lxxivpp. 

RIDE, W. D. L. 1964. A list of mammals described from Australia between the 
years 1933 and 1963 (comprising newly proposed names and additions to the 
Australian faunal Hst). Bull. Aust. mamm. Soc, No. 7, suppl., pp 1-15. 

STRAHAN, R. 1981. A dictionary of Australian mammal names. Pronunciation, 
derivation, and significance of the names; with biographical and bibliographical 
notes. Angus & Robertson Publishers, Sydney. xxiv+ 196 pp. 



54 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



TROUGHTON, E. 1974. Furred animals of Australia. Revised and abridged 

edition (10th edition). Angus & Robertson (Publishers) Pty Ltd, Sydney. 

xviii + 314pp. 
ZIMMERMANN, E. A. W. 1777. Specimen Zoologiae geographicae , Quadrupedum 

Domicilia et Migrationes sistens. Dedit, tabulamque mundi zoographicam 

adjunxit. Theodorum Haak, et Socios, Lugduni Batavorum. xxiv + 686 pp. 
1778. Geographische Geschichte des Menschcn. undder allgemein verbreiteten 

vierfiissigen Thiere, nebst einer hieher gehorigen Zoologischen Weltcharte. 

Erster band. Weygandschen Buchhandlung, Leipzig. 308 pp. 
1780. Geographische Geschichte des Menschen. und der vierfiissigen Thiere. 

Zweiter band. Enthdlt ein vollstdndiges Verzeichniss aller bekannten 

Quadrupeden. Weygandschen Buchhandlung, Leipzig. 432 pp. 
1783. Geographische Geschichte des Menschen, und der allgemein verbreiteten 

vierfiissigen Thiere, mit einer hiezu gehorigen Zoologischen Weltcharte. 

Dritter band. Weygandschen Buchhandlung, Leipzig. 278 + 32 pp. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 55 



C HO LUS GERM AR, 1824{INSECTA, COLEOPTERA): 

PROPOSED CONSERVATION BY THE SUPPRESSION OF 

ARCH ARIAS DEiEAN, 1821. Z.N.(S)2485 



By Charles W. O'Brien and Guillermo J. Wibmer (Department of 
Entomology, Florida A and M University, Tallahassee, Florida 32307, 

U.S.A.) 
In this application it is proposed that the generally used generic 
name Cholus Germar, 1 824, in the family curculionidae, be preserved by 
the suppression of its nearly unused senior synonym Archarias Dejean, 
1821, often incorrectly attributed to Lacordaire, 1866. 

2. The genus Archarias was established by Dejean, 1821, p. 86, 
by inclusion of three available names, Curculio hystrix Olivier, 1790, p. 
503 (questionably and erroneously attributed to Fabricius), Rhynchaenus 
laticollis Olivier, 1807, p. 169 (questionably but correctly attributed to 
Olivier), and Curculio miliaris Olivier, 1790, p. 499 (erroneously attributed 
to Fabricius). In subsequent years Dejean, 1835, p. 285, and Schoenherr, 
1826, p. 262; 1833, p. 22, treated Archarias as a junior synonym of 
Dionychus Germar, 1824, p. 311. Dejean, 1837, p. 309, Hsted Archarias 
as a junior synonym of Homalonotus Schoenherr, actually Homalinotus 
Sahlberg, 1823, p. 43. Schoenherr, 1836, p. 558; 1844, p. 1, treated Archarias 
as a junior synonym of C/20/M.s Germar, 1824, p. 212. 

3. Germar, 1824, p. 212, established the genus Cholus with the inclu- 
sion of three newly described species, sternicornis. p. 214, albicinctus, p. 214, 
and geometricus. p. 215. He also listed Curculio cinctus Herbst (actually 
Drury, 1782, p. 73) as congeneric. Schoenherr, 1826, pp. 20, 263, designated 
Cholus albicinctus Germar as type species of Cholus Germar, 1 824. 

4. Lacordaire, 1866, p. 38, resurrected Archarias Dejean, 1821 
stating that he was adopting this ancient name which had fallen into disuse 
and was almost forgotten. He included miliaris Olivier, 1790 and several 
valid species of Cholus. Unfortunately, because most workers did not con- 
sider Dejean's 1821 generic names to be available, most subsequent works 
on this genus attributed Archarias to Lacordaire, e.g. Kirsch, 1869, 1889; 
Gemminger & Harold, 1871; Pascoe, 1872; Chevrolat, 1881; and Faust, 
1894. Pascoe, 1872, treated Archarias Lacordaire, 1866 as a junior synonym 
of Cholus Germar, 1824. Champion, 1903 and Heller, 1906 also synony- 
mised Archarias with Cholus. Vaurie, 1977, p. 2, designated Curculio miliaris 
Olivier, 1790, as type species oi Archarias Lacordaire, 1866. She also treated 
the latter name as a junior synonym of Cholus Germar, 1 824. 

5. Archarias and Cholus are subjective synonyms and through 
application of the Principle of Priority, Archarias should take precedence. 
However, except in the checklist by O'Brien and Wibmer, 1982 and in 
Silfverberg, 1984, Archarias Dejean has not been used as a valid name by 
anyone except Lacordaire, 1866, for more than a century and a half, and 



56 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



Chains has been in almost universal use, e.g. Schoenherr, 1836, 1844; 
Latreille. 1825; Gemminger & Harold. 1871; Pascoe, 1872; Champion, 
1903; Heller, 1906; Leng, 1920; Klima, 1936; Blackwelder, 1947; and 
Vaurie. 1976, 1977. Furthermore, Cholus is the base for the subfamily name 
CHOLINAE. Replacing Cholus with Archarias clearly would not be in the best 
interests of stability in nomenclature. 

6. The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature is 
therefore requested: 

(1) to use its plenary powers to suppress the generic name 
Archarias Dejean, 1 82 1 , for purposes of the Principle of Priority 
but not for those of the Principle of Homonymy; 

(2) to place the generic name Cholus Germar, 1824 (gender: mascu- 
line), type species by subsequent designation by Schoenherr, 
1 826, Cholus albicinctus Germar, 1 824, on the Official List of 
Generic Names in Zoology; 

(3) to place the specific name albicinctus Germar, 1824, as 
published in the binomen Cholus albicinctus (specific name of 
the type species of Cholus Germar, 1 824) on the Official List of 
Specific Names in Zoology; 

(4) to place the generic name Archarias Dejean, 1821, as sup- 
pressed under the plenary powers in (1) above, on the Official 
Index of Rejected and Invalid Generic Names in Zoology. 



REFERENCES 

BLACKWELDER, R. E. 1947. Checklist of the Coleopterous insects of Mexico, 

Central America, the West Indies, and South America. Part 5. Bull. U.S. nat. 

Mus. no. 185, pp. I-IV, 765-925. 
CHAMPION, G. C. 1903. Biol. cent-Americana. Insecta. Coleoptera. Rhyncho- 

phora. Curculionidae. Curculioninae (part), vol. 4(4), pp. 145-312. 
CHEVROLAT, L. A. A. 1881. (Diagnoses de trois nouvelles especes de Curculio- 

nides de la division des Cholides). Bull. Soc. entomol. France 1881, pp. 

XXVI-XXVII. 
DEJEAN. P. F. M. A. 1821 . Catalogue de la collection de Coleopteres de M. le Baron 

Dejean. [2-page errata, unnumbered] + viii+ 136 pp. Paris. 
1835-1837. Catalogue des Coleopteres de la collection de M. le Comte 

Dejean: 1835. [2nd ed., fasc. 4], pp. 257-360; 1837, 3rd ed., livr. 5, 

xiv + 503 pp. Paris. 
DRURY, D. 1782. Illustrations of natural history. Vol. 3, 76 pp., London. [2-page 

index, unnumbered.] 
FABRICIUS, J. C. 1792. Entomologia systematica emendata et aucta, vol. 1, 

XX + 538 pp. Hafniae. 
FAUST, J. 1894. Reise von E. Simon in Venezuela. Curculionidae. Stettiner 

e/7/owo/. Zrg., 1893(1894), vol. 54 (10-12), pp. 313-367. (Pars secunda.) 
GEMMINGER, M. & HAROLD, E. VON. 1871. Catalogus Coleopterorum 

hucusque descriptorum synonymicus et systematicus, vol. 8, Curculionidae, pp. 

2181-2668. [+ 1 1pp. (Index Generum, Addenda, Corrigenda).] Monachii. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 57 



GERMAR, E. F. 1824. Insectorum species novae aul minus cognitae, descriptionibus 

illustratae, vol. 1, Coleoptera, XXIV + 624pp. Halae. 
HELLER, K. M. 1906. Neue Riisselkafer aus Central = und Siidamerika. Stettiner 

entomol. Ztg. vol. 67(1), pp. 3-50. 
KIRSCH, T. F. W. 1869. Beitrage zur Kaferfauna von Bogota. Berlin entomol. Z. 

vol. 13, pp. 187-224 (Funftes Stuck). 
1889. Coleopteren gesammelt in den Jahren 1868-1877 auf einer Reise 

durch Slid Amerika von Alphons Stiibel. Abh. berliner zool. Mus. Dresden, 

1888/9(1889), no. (4), pp. 1-58. 
KLIMA, A. 1936. Coleopterorum Catalogus, pars 146, Curculionidae: Cholinae, 

pp. 3-32 (Vol. 29). 
LACORDAIRE, J. T. 1866. Histoire naturelle des insectes. Genera des Coleopteres, 

etc., vol. 7, 620 pp. Paris. (Curculionides (suite), Scolytides, Brenthides, 

Anthribides et Bruchides.) 
LATREILLE, P. A. 1825. Families naturelles du regne animal exposees succincte- 

ment et dans un ordre analytique, avec I'indication de leurs genres, 570 pp. 

Paris. 
LENG, C. W. 1920. Catalogue of the Coleoptera of America, north of Mexico, 

x + 470 pp. Mount Vernon, New York. 
O'BRIEN, C. W. & WIBMER, G. J. 1982. Annotated checklist of the weevils 

(Curculionidae sensu lato) of North America, Central America and the West 

Indies (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea). Mem. amer. entomol. Inst. no. 34, pp. 

i-ix, 1-382. 
OLIVIER, A. G. 1790. Encyclopedie Methodique. Histoire Naturelle. Insectes, vol. 

5, pp. 1-792 [ + p. 793, Glossary.] Paris. 
1807. Entomologie, ou histoire naturelle des insectes, etc., Coleopteres. vol. 5, 

612 pp. Paris. 
PASCOE, F. P. 1872. Contributions towards a knowledge of the Curculionidae. J. 

linn. Soc. London, vol. 1 1, pp. 440-492. (Part III). 
SAHLBERG, C. R. 1823. Periculi entomographici, species insectorum nondum 

descriptas proposituri. fasciculus, 82 pp. Aboae. 
SCHOENHERR, C. J. 1826. Curculionidum dispositio methodica, part 4. 

X + 338pp. Lipsiae. 
1833-1844. Genera et species Curculionidum, cum synonymia hujus familiae; 

1833, vol. 1, pt. 1, xv + 381 pp.; 1836, vol. 3, 858 pp.; 1838, vol. 4, pt. 2, pp. 

601-1124; 1844, vol. 8, pt. 1, 442 pp. Paris. 
SILFVERBERG, H. 1984. The coleopteran genera of Dejean 1821. III. Curculio- 
noidea and Chrysomeloidea. Ann. entomol. fenn., vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 61-63. 
VAURIE, P. 1976. Revision of the Neotropical Cholinae. The subgenus Cholus 

(Cholus) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). Bull. amer. Mus. nat. Hist. vol. 158(1), 

pp. 1-80. 
1977. Revision of Cholus (Aphyoramphus). Part 1. Species Groups basalis, 

breviscapus and undulatus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Cholinae). Amer. 

Mus. Novit. no. 2623, pp. 1-15. 



58 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



DRYOPHTHORUS GEKMKK, 1824 (INSECTA, COLEOPTERA): 

PROPOSED CONSERVATION BY THE SUPPRESSION OF 

BULBIFER DEJEAN, 1821. Z.N.(S.)2486 



By Charles W. O'Brien {Department of Entomology, Florida A & M 

University, Tallahassee , Florida 32307, U.S.A.) and Giuseppe Osella 

{Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Lungadige Porta Vittoria 9, 37100 

Verona, Italy) 

In this application it is proposed that the generally used generic 
name Dryophthorus Germar, 1824, in the family curculionidae, be 
preserved by the suppression of its unused senior synonym Bulbifer Dejean 
ex Megerle MS, 1821. We wish to thank Dr M. A. Alonso Zarazaga for 
bringing this nomenclatural problem to our attention. 

2. The genus Bulbifer was established by Dejean ex Megerle MS, 
1821, p. 99, by inclusion of a single species, Curculio lymexylon Fabricius, 
1792, p. 420, type species by monotypy. In subsequent years Dejean, 1835, 
p. 305 and 1837, p. 330, Schoenherr, 1826, p. 332 and 1838, p. 1088 and 
Lacordaire, 1866, p. 322, treated Bulbifer as a synonym of Dryophthorus. 
Lacordaire attributed Dryophthorus to Schoenherr while the others listed 
Schiippel or Schiippel & Germar as author(s) without a bibliographic refer- 
ence. It was common practice in the late 1700s and early 1800s to cite, as 
author of a name, individuals who had reported names 'in litter is' or even in 
collections; e.g. Dejean, 1821, cited Megerle as the author of Bulbifer, 
although the name had not been published previously. Only Silfverberg, 
1984, has used the name Bulbifer as a valid name since Dejean, 1821. 

3. Germar, 1824, p. 302, established the genus Dryophthorus with a 
brief diagnosis and also included a single species, 'Curculio Lymexylon 
Auctor.', which at that time was lymexylon Fabricius, type species by 
monotypy. 

4. Schoenherr, 1825, column 588, listed the genus Dryophthorus 
with 'Typus: Cossonus Lymexylon Gyllenh. — Lixus idem Fabr.\ 
Schoenherr, 1826, p. 333, cited as type Lixus lymexylon Fabricius. 

5. The valid name for the type species of Bulbifer and Dryophthorus 
is Curculio corticalis Paykull, 1792, p. 41, a senior subjective synonym of 
lymexylon Fabricius, as first reported in footnote 2 by Bedel, 1885, p. 192. 

6. Bulbifer and Dryophthorus are objective synonyms and through 
application of the Principle of Priority, Bulbifer should take precedence. 
However, Bulbifer has not been used as a valid generic name, except by 
Silfverberg, 1984, for more than a century and a half, and Dryophthorus 
has been in universal use, e.g. by Schoenherr, 1838; Lacordaire, 1866; 
WoUaston, 1873; LeConte & Horn, 1876; Bedel, 1885; Champion, 1909; 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 59 



Blatchley & Leng. 1916; Leng, 1920; Csiki, 1936: Winkler, 1939; 
Blackwelder, 1947; Lukyanovich & Arnoldi. 1951; Hoffmann, 1954; Voss, 
1955, 1963; Kissinger, 1964; Hatch, 1971; Folwaczny, 1973; O'Brien & 
Wibmer, 1982; and Dieckmann, 1983. Furthermore, Dryophthorus is the 
base for the subfamily name dryophthorinae. Replacing Dryophthorus 
with Bulhifer clearly would not be in the best interests of stability in 
nomenclature. 

7. The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature is 
therefore requested: 

( 1 ) to use its plenary powers to suppress the generic name Bulbifer 
Dejean, 1821, for purposes of the Principle of Priority but not 
for those of the Principle of Homonymy; 

(2) to place the generic name Dryophthorus Germar, 1824 (gender: 
masculine), type species by monotypy, Curculio lymexylon 
Fabricius, 1792, on the Official List of Generic Names in 
Zoology; 

(3) to place the specific name corticalis Paykull, 1792, as published 
in the binomen Curculio corticalis (the valid specific name at 
the date of this application of the type species o^ Dryophthorus 
Germar, 1824) on the Official List of Specific Names in 
Zoology; 

(4) to place the generic name Bulbifer Dejean, 1821, as suppressed 
under the plenary powers in (1) above on the Official Index of 
Rejected and Invalid Generic Names in Zoology. 



REFERENCES 

BEDEL, L. 1882-1888 (1885). Faune des Coleopteres du bassin de la Seine. Ann. 

Soc. entomol. France vol. 6 (hors serie), Rhynchophora, pp. 1-442 [ + 2pp. 

(Errata, Explication de la Planche)], pp. 1-16, 1882; pp. 17-64, 1883; pp. 

65-144, 1884; pp. 145-200, 1885; pp. 201-280, 1886; pp. 281-384, 1887; pp. 

385-442, 1888. Paris. 
BLACKWELDER, R. E. 1947. Checklist of the Coleopterous insects of Mexico, 

Central America, the West Indies and South America. Part 5. Bull. U.S. nat. 

Mas. no. 185, pp. I-IV, 765-925. 
BLATCHLEY, W. S. & LENG, C. W. 1916. Rhynchophora or weevils of North 

Eastern America. 682 pp. Indianapolis, Indiana. 
CHAMPION, G. C. 1909. Biol. cent. -Americana. Insecta. Coleoptera. Rliyncho- 

phora. Curculionidae . Curculioninae (concluded), vol. 4, pt. 7, vi + 78 pp. 
CSIKI, E. 1936. Coleopterorum Catalogus, pars 149. Curculionidae: RJiyncho- 

phorinae. pp. 3-104; Cossoninae. pp. 105-212 (Vol. 30). 
1835-1837. Catalogue des Coleopteres de la collection de M. le Comte 

Dejean; 1835, 2nd ed., fasc. 4, pp. 257-360; 1837, 3rd ed., livr. 5, xiv + 503 pp. 

Paris. 



60 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



DEJEAN, P. F. M. A. 1821. Catalogue de la collection de Coleopteres de M. le Baron 

Dejean [2-page errata, unnumbered] -l-viii+ 136 pp. Paris. 
DIECKMANN, L. 1983. Beitrage zur Insektenfauna der DDR: Coleoptera — 

Curculionidae (Tanymecinae, Leptopiinae, Cleoninae, Tanyrhynchinae, 

Cossoninae, Raymondionyminae, Bagoinae, Tanysphyrinae). Beitr. 

EntomoL, Berlin, vol. 33(2), pp. 257-381. 
FABRICIUS, J. C. 1792. Entomologia systematica emendata et aucta, vol. 1, 

XX + 538pp. Hafniae. 
FOLWACZNY, B. 1973. Bestimmungstabelle der palaarktischen Cossoninae 

(Coleoptera, Curculionidae) ohne die nur in China und Japan vorkom- 

menden Gattungen, nebst Angaben zur Verbreitung. Entomol. Bl. Biol. Syst. 

Kdfer vol. 69(2), pp. 65-180. 
GERMAR, E. F. 1824. Insectorum species novae aut minus cognitae, descriptionibus 

illustratae. vol. 1, Coleoptera, XXIV + 624 pp., Halae. 
HATCH, M. H. 1971. The beetles of the Pacific Northwest. Univ. Wash. Publ. Biol., 

vol. 16, xiv + 662 pp. (Part V: Rhipiceroidea, Sternoxi, Phytophaga, 

Rhynchophora, and Lamellicornia.) 
HOFFMANN, A. 1954. Faune de France. 59. Coleopteres Curculionides (Deuxieme 

Partie), pp. 487-1208. Paris. 
KISSINGER, D. G. 1964. Curculionidae of America north of Mexico. A key to the 

genera, v + 143 pp. S. Lancaster, Massachusetts. 
LACORDAIRE, J. T. 1866. Histoire naturelle des insectes. Genera des Coleopteres, 

etc., vol. 7, pp. 1-620. Paris. Curculionides (suite), Scolytides, Brenthides, 

Anthribides et Bruchides. 
LECONTE, J. L. & HORN, G. H. 1876. The Rhynchophora of America, north of 

Mexico. Proc. Am.philos. Soc. vol. 15(96), pp. i-xvi, 1-455. 
LENG, C. W. 1920. Catalogue of the Coleoptera of America, north of Mexico, 

x + 470 pp. Mount Vernon, New York. 
LUKYANOVICH, F. K. & ARNOLDI, L. V. 1951. Key to the weevils occurring in 

rotten wood of the subfamily Cossoninae of the fauna of the USSR and 

limitrophic countries of Europe and near Asia. Entomol. Obozr., vol. 31, pp. 

549-565. 
O'BRIEN, C. W. & WIBMER, G. J. 1982. Annotated checklist of the weevils 

(Curculionidae sensu lato) of North America, Central America and the West 

Indies (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea). Mem. amer. entomol. Inst., no. 34, 

ix + 382pp. 
PAYKULL, G. VON. 1792. Monographia curculionum sueciae, [viii] + 151 pp. [+1 

p. emendata, unnumbered.] Upsala. 
SCHOENHERR, C. J. 1825. Tabulae synopticae familiae curculionidum. Isis Oken, 

heft V, columns 581-588. 

1826. Curculionidum dispositio methodica, part 4, X + 338 pp. Lipsiae. 

1838. Genera et species curculionidum, cum synonymia hujus familiae , vol. 4, 

pt. 2, pp. 601-1121 [+pp. 1122-1 124 (Corrigenda).] Paris. 
SILFVERBERG, H. 1984. The coleopteran genera of Dejean 1821. III. Curculio- 
noidea and Chrysomeloidea. Ann. entomol. fenn., vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 61-63. 
VOSS, E. 1955. Zur Synonymic und systematischen Stellung europaischer 

Cossoninen-Gattungen unter Beriicksichtigung einiger Gattungen der 

madeirischen Fauna. Mitt, miinch. entomol. Ges., 1954-1955(1955), vol. 

44^5, pp. 182-239. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 61 



1963. Erganzende Beschreibungen und Bemerkungen zu indonesischen 

Arten aus der Unterfamilien Dryophthorinae und Cossoninae (Coleoptera, 
Curculionidae) (176. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Curculioniden). Beaufortia, 
vol. 9, pp. 219-231. 

WINKLER, A. 1939. Catalogus Coleopterorum regionis palaearcticae, 1698 pp., 
Wien. 

WOLLASTON, T. V. 1873. On the genera of the Cossonidae. Trans, entomol. Soc. 
London, 1873, part IV, pp. 427-657. 



62 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



LACHNOPUSSCnOEHWEKK, 1840 (INSECTA, COLEOPTERA): 

PROPOSED CONSERVATION BY THE SUPPRESSION OF 

MENOETIUST>EiEM^, 1821 AND Pr/LOPf/5 SCHOENHERR, 1823 

Z.N.(S.)2487 

By Charles W. O'Brien and Guillermo J. Wibmer {Department of 
Entomology, Florida A & M University, Tallahassee, Florida 32307, U.S.A.) 

In this application it is proposed that the generally used generic 
name Lachnopus Schoenherr, 1 840, in the family curculionidae, be pre- 
served by the suppression of its nearly unused senior synonyms Menoetius 
Dejean ex Schoenherr MS, 1821, and Ptilopus Schoenherr, 1823. 

2. The genus Menoetius was established by Dejean ex Schoenherr 
MS, 1821, p. 94, by inclusion of the following five available names, all 
originally described in the genus Curculio: valgus Fabricius, 1775, p. 150, 
now in Lachnopus Schoenherr, 1840, p. 380; striga Fabricius, 1798, p. 173 
and punctum Fabricius, 1798, p. 172, both now in Cratopus Schoenherr, 
1826, p. 120; lateralis Fabricius, 1792, p. 454 and rutilans Olivier, 1807, 
p. 333, both now in Astycus Schoenherr, 1826, p. 129. In subsequent years 
Menoetius Dejean was treated as a junior synonym of Ptilopus Schoenherr, 
1823, column 1140 by Schoenherr, 1823, column 1146; 1826, p. 118; 1834, 
p. 28 and Dejean, 1834, p. 253. 

3. Schoenherr, 1823, column 1140, established the genus Ptilopus 
through the inclusion of the available name, Curculio aurifer Drury, 1773, 
p. 68, attributed to Fabricius and Olivier, and designated it as type species. 
The first description for this genus is Schoenherr, 1826, p. 118. In 
Schoenherr, 1834, pp. 30-43, many new species were described in Ptilopus. 

4. Schoenherr, 1840, p. 380, established the name Lachnopus as a 
replacement name for Ptilopus Schoenherr which, in error, he beHeved to 
be a junior homonym of the diperan Psilopus Meigen, 1824, plate 35, mis- 
spelled Ptilopus by Schoenherr in his explanatory footnote. Since Ptilopus 
Schoenherr is properly dated 1823, his name would take priority, regardless 
of the spelling of Psilopus Meigen. 

5. Menoetius and Ptilopus are subjective synonyms, and Ptilopus 
and Lachnopus are objective synonyms, and through application of the 
Principle of Priority, first Menoetius and then Ptilopus should take 
precedence over Lachnopus. However, except in the checklist by O'Brien & 
Wibmer, 1982, in which they designated Curculio valgus Fabricius as type 
species of Menoetius Dejean, 1821, and in Silfverberg, 1984, Menoetius 
Dejean has not been used as a valid name for more than a century and a 
half, and Ptilopus Schoenherr has not been used so for nearly the same 
period, while Lachnopus has been in almost universal use, e.g. Schoenherr, 
1845; Perroud, 1853; Lacordaire, 1863; Gemminger & Harold, 1871; 
LeConte & Horn, 1876; Pierce, 1913; Blatchley & Leng, 1916; Leng, 1920; 
Wolcott, 1924, 1936, 1951; Marshall, 1922, 1926, 1933, 1934; Hustache, 
1932; Dalla Torre et al. 1936; Blackwelder, 1947 and Kissinger, 1964. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 63 



Replacing Lachnopus with Menoetius or Ptilopus would not be in the best 
interests of stability in nomenclature. 

6. The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature is 
therefore requested: 

(1) to use its plenary powers to suppress the generic names 
Menoetius Dejean, 1821, and Ptilopus Schoenherr, 1823, for 
purposes of the Principle of Priority but not for those of the 
Principle of Homonymy; 

(2) to place the generic name Lachnopus Schoenherr, 1840 (gender: 
masculine), type species by original designation Curculio aurifer 
Drury, 1773, on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology; 

(3) to place the specific name aurifer Drury, 1773, as published in 
the binomen Curculio aurifer (specific name of the type species 
of Lachnopus Schoenherr, 1 840) on the Official List of Specific 
Names in Zoology; 

(4) to place the generic names Menoetius Dejean, 1821, and Ptilopus 
Schoenherr, 1823, as suppressed under the plenary powers in (1) 
above, on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Generic 
Names in Zoology. 



REFERENCES 

BLACKWELDER, R. E. 1947. Checklist of the Coleopterous insects of Mexico, 

Central America, the West Indies, and South America. Part 5. Bull. U.S. nat. 

Mus., no. 185, pp. I-IV, 765-925. 
BLATCHLEY, W. S. & LENG, C. W. 1916. Rhynchophora or weevils of North 

Eastern America, 682 pp. Indianapolis, Indiana. 
DALLA TORRE, K. W. VON, EMDEN, M. VAN & EMDEN, F. I. VAN 1936. 

Coleopterorum Catalogus. part 147, Curculionidae: Brachyderinae I, pp. 

1-132 (Vol. 27). 
DEJEAN, P. F. M. A. 1821 . Catalogue de la collection de Coleopteres de M. le Baron 

Dejean, [2-page errata, unnumbered] + viii+ 136 pp. Paris. 
1834. Catalogue des Coleopteres de la collection de M. le Comte Dejean, [2nd 

ed., fasc. Ill], pp. 177-256. Paris. 
DRURY, D. 1773. Illustrations of natural history. Vol. 1, 1770 [1773 (date of 

publication of the index containing the binominal names — ICZN Opinion 

474, 1957)], xxvii+ 130 pp. London. 
FABRICIUS, J. C. 1775. Systema entomologiae , [30] + 832 pp. Flensburgi; Lipsiae. 
1792. Entomologia systematica emendata et aucta, vol. 1, XX + 538 pp. 

Hafniae. 

1798. Supplementum entomologiae systematicae , 572 pp. Hafniae. 

GEMMINGER, M. & HAROLD, E. VAN 1871. Catalogus Coleopterorum 

hucusque descriptorum synonymicus et systematicus, vol. 8, Curculionidae, 

pp. 2181-2668. [+11 pp. (Index Generum, Addenda, Corrigenda).] 

Monachii. 
HUSTACHE, A. 1932. Curculionides de la Guadeloupe. Faune des Colonies 

Frangaises, 1931[1932], vol. 5, pp. 1-142 (Troisieme partie.) 



64 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE. 

1957. Opinion 474. Determination of the dates to be assigned for the pur- 
poses of the Law of Priority to the names pubHshed in Drury's 'Illustrations 
of Natural History' in the period 1770-1782. Opin. & Declar. ICZN 16 (16), 
pp. 297-306. 

KISSINGER, D. G. 1964. Curculionidae of America north of Mexico. A key to the 
genera, v+ 143 pp. S. Lancaster, Massachusetts. 

LACORDAIRE, J. T. 1863. Histoire naturelle des insectes. Genera des Coleopteres, 
etc., vol. 6, pp. 1-608, 615-637. Paris (Contenant la famille des Curculio- 
nides.) [No pages numbered 609-614, 615 follows 608 but nothing seems to 
be missing]. 

LECONTE, J. L. & HORN, G. H. 1876. The Rhynchophora of America, north of 
Mexico. Proc. Am. philos. Soc. vol. 15(96), xvi + 455 pp. 

LENG, C. W. 1920. Catalogue of the Coleoptera of America, north of Mexico, 
x + 470 pp. Mount Vernon, New York. 

MARSHALL, G. A. K. 1922. Some injurious neotropical weevils (Curculionidae). 
Bull, entomol. Res. vol. 13(1), pp. 59-71. 

1926. Two new species of Curculionidae (Col.) from Haiti. Bull, entomol. 

Res. \ol. 17(1), pp. 53-54. 

1933. New neotropical CurcuHonidae (Col.). Stylops. vol. 2(3), pp. 59-69. 

1934. New West Indian Curculionidae (Col.). Ann. Mag. nat. Hist., ser. 10, 

vol. 14, pp. 621-631. 
MEIGEN, J. W. 1824. Systematische Beschreibung der bekannten europdischen 

Zweifliigligen Insecten. Aachen, vol. 4: pp. 12, 428, plates 33^1. [from 

Hagen, Bibliotheca Entomol. 1862]. 
O'BRIEN, C. W. & WIBMER, G. J. 1982. Annotated checklist of the weevils 

(Curculionidae sensu lato) of North America, Central America, and the West 

Indies (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea). Mem. amer. entomol. Inst. no. 34, 

ix 4- 382 pp. 
OLIVIER, A. G. 1807. Entomologie, ou histoire naturelle des insectes, etc., 

Coleopteres. Vol. 5, 612 pp. Paris. 
PERROUD, B. P. 1853. Descriptions de quelques Coleopteres nouveaux ou peu 

connus. Ann. Soc. linn. Lyon, ser. 2, vol. 1, pp. 389-528. [Reprinted also as 

pp. 3-142]. 
PIERCE, W. D. 1913. Miscellaneous contributions to the knowledge of the weevils 

of the families Attelabidae and Brachyrhinidae. Proc. U.S. nat. Mus. vol. 45, 

pp. 365-426. 
SCHOENHERR, C. J. 1823. Tabula synoptica familiae curculionidum. Isis Oken, 

heft X, columns 1132-1 146. 

1826. Curculionidum dispositio methodica cum generum characteribus, 

descriptionibus atque observationibus variis seu prodromus ad synonymiae 
insectorum, partem 4, X + 338 pp. Lipsiae. 

1834-1845. Genera et species curculionidum, cum synonymia hujus familiae; 

1834, vol. 2, pt. 1, 326 pp.; 1840, vol. 6, pt. 1, 474 pp.; 1845, vol. 8, pt. 2, 504 
pp. Paris. 

SILFVERBERG, H. 1984. The coleopteran genera of Dejean, 1821. III. Curculio- 
noidea and Chrysomeloidea. Ann. entomol. fenn., vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 60-63. 

WOLCOTT, G. N. 1924. Tnsectate Portoricensis.' A preliminary annotated check- 
list of the insects of Porto Rico, with descriptions of some new species. /. 
Dep. Agric. Puerto Rico, 1923 (1924), vol. 7(1), pp. 1-313. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 65 



- 1936. 'Insectae Borinquenses'. A revision of 'Insectae Portoricensis'. A pre- 
liminary annotated check-list of the insects of Porto Rico, with descriptions 
of some new species. Jour. Dept. Agr. Puerto Rico Vol. 7, No. 1 (January 
1924), pp. 313, fig. 2. San Juan, March 5, 1924 and 'First Supplement to 
Insectae Portoricensis'. Jour. Dept Agr. Puerto Rico, vol. 7, No. 4 (October 
1924), pp. 38-43, San Juan, August 1924. J. agric. Univ. Puerto Rico. vol. 
20(1), pp. 1-627, [+ 3pp. (Errata), unnumbered]. 

- 1951. The insects of Puerto Rico. Coleoptera. J. agric. Univ. Puerto Rico 
1948(1950) [1951], vol. 32(2), pp. 225^16. 



66 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



NEMOCESTESYAN DYKE, 1936 (INSECTA, COLEOPTERA): 

PROPOSED CONSERVATION AND DESIGNATION OF TYPE 

SPECIES. Z.N.(S.) 2488 



By Charles W. O'Brien (Department of Entomology, Florida A &M 
University, Tallahassee, Florida 32307, U.S.A.) 

In this application it is proposed that the current usage of the generic 
name Nemocestes Van Dyke, 1936, be maintained by designating Geoderces 
incomptus Horn, 1876, as its type species, while designating Trachyphloeus 
melanothrix Kirby, 1837, as type species o{ Geoderces Horn, 1876, thereby 
making Geoderces Horn a junior synonym of Phyxelis Schoenherr, 1843, 
p. 122. 

2. The genus Geoderces was established by Horn, 1876, p. 70, with 
the designation of Trachyphloeus melanothrix Kirby, 1837, p. 202 as type 
species (a misidentified type species) and the description of a new species. 
Casey, 1888, p. 264, described a single new species in Geoderces. Species of 
this genus were listed in numerous taxonomic and economic publications in 
the early 1900s, e.g. Pierce, 1909, 1913; Blatchley & Leng, 1916; Yothers, 
1916; Baker, 1930; Keifer, 1933 and Wilcox et ai. 1934. 

3. Nemocestes Van Dyke, 1936, p. 22 was established as a replace- 
ment name for Geoderces Horn because the latter is based upon a misidenti- 
fied type species. Horn's specimens were not Trachyphloeus melanothrix 
Kirby (a junior synonym of Phyxelis rigidus (Say, 1831, p. 11)). Van Dyke 
correctly renamed this misidentified type species {horni Van Dyke, p. 25) 
but his replacement name for the genus (Nemocestes) is not valid, because 
the 1961 International Code of Zoological Nomenclature requires an 
application to the Zoological Commission under Article 70(a) for a ruling 
on the type species. He designated 'Nemocestes incomptus (Horn)' (original 
binomen Geoderces incomptus Horn, 1876, p. 72) as type species of 
Nemocestes (p. 23). 

4. Following Van Dyke's revision, the name Nemocestes has been in 
universal use for nearly 50 years, e.g. Lona, 1937; Hanson & Webster, 1938, 
1941; Van Dyke, 1938, 1953; Foster, 1942; van Emden, 1950; Johansen & 
Brannon, 1955; Clark, 1956; Eide, 1959, 1966; Breakey, 1961; Rosenstiel, 
1963; Cram, 1964, 1972, 1978; Kissinger, 1964; Hatch, 1971 and Burke & 
Anderson, 1976. To maintain stability in this economically important 
group it is recommended here that Nemocestes be validated. 

5. The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature is 
therefore requested: 

(1) to use its plenary powers: 

(a) to set aside all designations of type species hitherto made for 
the nominal genera Geoderces Horn, 1876 and Nemocestes 
Van Dyke, 1936, and then to designate Trachyphloeus 
melanothrix Kirby, 1837, as type species of Geoderces Horn, 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 67 



1876, automatically making the latter a junior synonym of 
Phyxelis Schotnhtrr, 1843; 
(b) to designate Geoderces incomptus Horn, 1876, as type 
species of Nemocestes Van Dyke, 1936; 

(2) to place the generic name Nemocestes Van Dyke, 1936, on the 
Official List of Generic Names in Zoology; 

(3) to place the specific name incomptus Horn, 1876, as published 
in the binomen Geoderces incomptus (specific name of the type 
species of Nemocestes Van Dyke, 1936) on the Official List of 
Specific Names in Zoology. 

REFERENCES 

BAKER, W. S. 1930. Insect pests of sour cherries and berries. Rep. Wash. St. Hort. 

Assoc.no. 26, 1930, p. 210. 
BLATCHLEY, W. S. & LENG, C. W. 1916. Rhynchophora or weevils of North 

Eastern America, 682 pp. Indianapolis, Indiana. 
BREAKEY, E. P. 1961. A note on the life history of Panscopus torpidus (LeConte) 

(Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Pan.-Pac. EntomoL, vol. 37(1), pp. 28-30. 
BURKE, H. R. & ANDERSON, D. M. 1976. Systematics of larvae and pupae of 

American Curculionoidea: status report, historical review and bibliography. 

Southwest. EntomoL, vol. 1(2), pp. 56-73. 
CASEY, T. L. 1888. On some new North American Rhynchophora. Part I. Ann. 

New York Acad. Sci., vol. 4, pp. 229-296. 
CLARK, M. E. P. 1956. An annotated list of the Coleoptera taken at or near 

Terrace, British Columbia. Part 3. Proc. EntomoL Soc. British Columbia, vol. 

52, pp. 39^3. 
CRAM, W. T. 1964. Inherent toleration of the larvae of the root weevils Sciopithes 

obscurus Horn and Nemocestes incomptus (Horn) to common soil insecti- 
cides. Proc. EntomoL Soc. British Columbia, vol. 61, pp. 17-30. 
1972. The fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarrhizium anisopliae in cultures 

of the root weevil Nemocestes incomptus Horn (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). 

J. EntomoL Soc. British Columbia, vol. 69, pp. 21-22. 
1978. The effect of root weevils (Coleoptera: Curcuhonidae) on yield of five 

strawberry cultivars in British Columbia. J. EntomoL Soc. British Columbia, 

vol. 75, pp. 10-13. 
EIDE, P. M. 1959. Soil fumigation to control weevil grubs in strawberries. J. Econ. 

EntomoL, vol. 52, pp. 3-5. 
1966. The life history and control of Nemocestes incomptus (Horn), a native 

root weevil attacking strawberries in western Washington. /. Econ. EntomoL, 

vol. 59, pp. 1004-1005. 
EMDEN, F. I. VAN. 1950. Eggs, egg-laying habits and larvae of short nosed 

weevils. VII Int. Congr. EntomoL, pp. 1-8. 
FOSTER, R. E. 1942. Insects active throughout the winter at Vancouver, B.C. Part 

1: Introduction and lists of the Coleoptera and Neuroptera. Proc. EntomoL 

Soc. British Columbia, vol. 38. pp. 19-23. 
HANSON, A. J. & WEBSTER, R. L. 1938 and 1941. Insects of the blackberry, 

raspberry, strawberry, currant and gooseberry. St. Coll. Wash. Agric. Exp. 

Sta.Pop.Bull.no. 155, 1938, 38 pp.; no. 164, 1941,40 pp. 



68 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1 , April 1986 



HATCH, M. H. 1971. The beetles of the Pacific Northwest. Univ. Wash. Publ. 

Biol., vol. 16, xiv + 662 pp. (Part V: Rhipiceroidea, Sternoxi, Phytophaga, 

Rhynchophora and Lamellicornia). 
HORN, G. H. 1876. In LeConte, J. L. and Horn, G. H., The Rhynchophora of 

America, north of Mexico. Proc. Am. Philos. Soc, vol. 15(96), xvi + 455 pp. 
INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE. 

1961. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature adopted by the XV 

International Congress of Zoology, xvii+ 176 pp. 
JOHANSEN, C. A. & BRANNON, D. 1955. Insects and related pests of agricul- 
ture in Washington. Wash. Agric. Exp. Sta. Circ. 274, 22 pp. 
KEIFER, H. H. 1933. Some Pacific Coast otiorhynchid weevil larvae. Entomol. 

Am., vol 13(2), pp. 45-85. 
KIRBY, W. 1937. Part the fourth and last. The insects. In Richardson, J., Fauna 

Boreali- Americana; or the zoology of the northern parts of British America: 

containing descriptions of the objects of natural history collected on the late 

Northern Land Expeditions, under command of Captain Sir John Franklin, 

R. N., xxxix-l-325 pp. Norwich. 
KISSINGER, D. G. 1964. Curculionidae of America north of Mexico. A key to the 

genera, v-|- 143 pp. S. Lancaster, Massachusetts. 
LONA, C. 1937. Coleopterorum Catalogus, pars 160, Curculionidae: Otior- 

rhynchinae II, pp. 227^12 (Vol. 27). 
PIERCE, W. D. 1909. Studies of North American weevils. Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus., 

vol. 37, pp. 325-364. 

1913. Miscellaneous contributions to the knowledge of the weevils of the 

families Attelabidae and Brachyrhinidae. Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus., vol. 45, pp. 
365^26. 

ROSENSTIEL. R. G. 1963. Root weevils: their control in strawberry fields. Ore. St. 

Univ. Ext. Circ. no. 717. 
SAY, T. 1831. Descriptions of new species of Curculionites of North America, with 

observations on some of the species already known, 30 pp. New Harmony, 

Indiana. 
SCHOENHERR, C. J. 1843. Genera et species Curculionidum, cum synonymia hujus 

familiae, vol. 7, pt. 1, 479 pp. Paris. 
VAN DYKE, E. C. 1936. New species of North American weevils in the family 

Curculionidae, subfamily Brachyrhininae, IV. Pan-Pac. Entomol., vol. 12(1), 

pp. 19-32. 

1938. New species of Rhynchophora (Coleoptera) from western North 

America. Pan-Pac. Entomol. vol. 14(1), pp. 1-9. 

1953. New Coleoptera from western North America (Carabidae, Melasidae, 

Buprestidae, Curculionidae). Pan-Pac. Entomol., vol. 29(2), pp. 102-107. 

WILCOX, J., MOTE, D. C. & CHILDS, L. 1934. The root weevils injurious to 
strawberries in Oregon. Ore. Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. no. 330, pp. 1-109. 

YOTHERS, M."A. 1916. Bud weevils and other bud feeding insects of Washington. 
Wash. Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. no. 124, pp. 1^3. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1 , April 1986 69 



ZrGOPSSCHOENHERR, 1825 (INSECTA, COLEOPTERA): 

PROPOSED CONSERVATION BY THE SUPPRESSION OF 

ECCOPTUS DEJEA'N, 1821. Z.N.(S.)2489 



By Charles W. O'Brien and Guillermo J. Wibmer (Department of 
Entomology, Florida A & M University, Tallahassee, Florida 32307, U.S.A.) 

In this application it is proposed that the generally used name 
Zygops Schoenherr, 1825, be preserved by the suppression of its nearly 
unused senior synonym Eccoptus Dejean, 1821 . 

2. The genus Eccoptus was estabhshed by Dejean, 1821, p. 86, by 
inclusion of a single available name, Curculio strix Olivier, 1790, p. 506, 
incorrectly attributed to Fabricius. Also included were four nomina nuda. 
In subsequent years, Dejean, 1835, p. 299, 1837, p. 324; Schoenherr, 1825, 
column 586, 1826, p. 300, 1833, p. 24, 1838, p. 601; Desbrochers, 1891, p. 
38, and Blackwelder, 1947, p. 880 treated Eccoptus as a junior synonym of 
Zygops Schoenherr. Latreille, 1825, p. 395, cited 'Eccopte (Dey, poecilmes 
de la div. B de M. Germar) . . .' as a valid name and Mustache, 1934, p. 23, 
in error attributed Eccoptus to Latreille, 1825 and listed it as a synonym of 
Zygops Schoenherr, 1826. Only Latreille, 1825, O'Brien & Wibmer, 1982, 
p. 160, and Silfverberg, 1984, have used Eccoptus as a valid name since 
Dejean, 1821. 

3. Schoenherr, 1825, column 586, established the genus Zygops 
through the inclusion of two available names and his type designation of 
Poecilma wiedii Germar, 1824, p. 259. The second species included was 
Rhynchaenus strix Fabricius, 1792, p. 433, actually Curculio strix Olivier, 
1790, p. 506. Schoenherr, 1826, p. 301, described the genus Zygops for the 
first time. 

4. Eccoptus and Zygops are subjective synonyms, and through the 
Principle of Priority, Eccoptus should take precedence. However, except in 
the checklist by O'Brien & Wibmer, 1982 and in Silfverberg, 1984, Eccoptus 
has not been used as a valid generic name for more than a century and a 
half, and Zygops has been in universal use, e.g. by Dejean, 1835, 1837; 
Schoenherr,' 1826, 1833, 1838; Laporte, 1840; Erichson, 1847; Lacordaire, 
1866; Desbrochers, 1891, 1910; Heller, 1895; Champion, 1906; Hustache, 
1934 and Blackwelder, 1947. Furthermore, Zygops is the base for the sub- 
family name zygopinae. Replacing Zygops with Eccoptus clearly would not 
be in the best interests of stability in nomenclature. 

5. The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature is 
therefore requested: 

(1) to use its plenary powers to suppress the generic name Eccoptus 
Dejean, 1821, for purposes of the Principle of Priority but not 
for those of the Principle of Homonymy; 

(2) to place the generic name Zygops Schoenherr, 1825 (gender: 
masculine), type species by original designation, Poecilma 



70 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



wiedii Germar, 1 824, on the Official List of Generic Names in 
Zoology; 

(3) to place the specific name wiedii Germar, 1 824, as published in 
the binomen Poecilma wiedii (specific name of the type species 
of Zygops Schoenherr, 1825) on the Official List of Specific 
Names in Zoology; 

(4) to place the generic name Eccoptus Dejean, 1 82 1 , as suppressed 
under the plenary powers in (1) above, on the Official Index of 
Rejected and Invalid Generic Names in Zoology. 



REFERENCES 

BLACKWELDER, R. E. 1947. Checklist of the Coleopterous insects of Mexico, 

Central America, the West Indies, and South America. Part 5. Bull. U.S. nat. 

Mus. no. 185, 1-IV, 765-925 pp. 
CHAMPION, G. C. 1906. Biol. cent. -Americana. Insecta. Coleoptera. Rhyncho- 

phora. Curculionidae. Curculioninae (continued), vol. 4, pt. 5, viii+ 136 pp. 
DEJEAN, P. F. M. A. 1 82 1 . Catalogue de la collection de Coleopteres de M. le Baron 

Dejean, [2-page errata, unnumbered] + viii-|- 136 pp. Paris. 
1835-1837. Catalogue des Coleopteres de la collection de M. le Comte Dejean; 

1835, [2nd ed., fasc. IV], pp. 257-360; 1837, 3rd ed., livr. 5. xiv-i-503 pp. 

Paris. 
DESBROCHERS DES LOGES, J. 1891. Catalogue des Curculionides appartenant 

au genre Zygops etc. Ann. Soc. entomol. Belgique, vol. 35, pp. 37-42. 
1910. Etudes sur les curculionides exotiques et descriptions d'especes 

inedites. Ann. Soc. entomol. Belgique, vol. 54, pp. 123-132. 
ERICHSON, W. F. 1847. Conspectus Insectorum Coleopterorum, quae in 

Republica Peruana observata sunt. Arch. Naturgesch. vol. 13, pp. 67-185. 
FABRICIUS, J. C. 1792. Entomologia systematica emendata et aucta, vol. 1, 

XX + 538pp. Hafniae. 
GERMAR, E. F. 1824. Insectorum species novae aut minus cognitae, descriptionibus 

illustratae, vol. 1, Coleoptera, XXIV + 624 pp. Halae. 
HELLER, K. M. 1895. Zygopiden-Studien II, mit besonderer Beriicksichtigung 

der Gattung Copturus. Abh. Ber. zool. Mus. Dresden, 1894/95(1895), no. 11, 

pp. 1-70. 
HUSTACHE, A. 1934. Coleopterorum Catalogus, pars 136, Curculionidae: 

Zygopinae, pp. 1-96 (vol. 30). 
LACORDAIRE, J. T. 1866. Histoire naturelle des insectes. Genera des Coleopteres, 

etc., vol. 7, 620 pp. Paris. (Curculionides (suite), Scolytides, Brenthides, 

Anthribides et Bruchides). 
LAPORTE, F. L. N. DE C. DE. 1840. Histoire naturelle des insectes Coleopteres, 

vol. 2, 563 pp., Paris. (Histoire naturelle des animaux articules, annelides, 

crustaces. arachnides, myriapodes et insectes). [Vol. 2, Coleopteres, corres- 
ponds to vol. 3, animaux articules.] 
LATREILLE, P. A. 1825. Families naturelles du regne animal exposees succincte- 

ment et dans un ordre analytique, avec iindication de leurs genres, 570 pp. 

Paris. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 71 



O'BRIEN, C. W. & WIBMER, G. J. 1982. Annotated checklist of the weevils 
(Curculionidae sensu lato) of North America, Central America and the West 
Indies (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea). Mem. amer. entomol. Inst., no. 34, 
ix + 382pp. 

OLIVIER, A. G. 1790. Encyclopedic Methodique. Histoire Naturelle. Insectes, vol. 
5, pp. 1-792 [ + p. 793, Glossary.] Paris. 

SCHOENHERR, C. J. 1825. Tabulae synopticae familiae curculionidum. his Oken, 
heft V, columns 581-588. 

1826. Curculionidum dispositio methodica cum generum characteribus, 

descriptionibus atque observationibus variis seu prodromus ad synonymiae 
insectorum, partem 4, X + 338 pp. Lipsiae. 

1833-1838. Genera et species curculionidum, cum synonvmia hujus familiae; 

1833, vol. 1, pt. 1, XV + 381 pp.; 1838, vol. 4, pt. 2, pp. 601-1 124. Paris. 

SILFVERBERG, H. 1984. The coleopteran genera of Dejean 1821. III. Curculio- 
noidea and Chrysomeloidea. Ann. entomol. fenn., vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 61-63. 



72 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



TYLOCIDARISVOUm., 1883 (ECHINOIDEA, CIDAROIDEA): 

PROPOSED DESIGNATION OF CIDARIS CLA VIGERA MANTELL, 

1822, AS TYPE SPECIES. Z.N.(S.)2505 



By C. W. Wright {The Old Rectory, Seaborough, Beaminster, Dorset 

DT8 3QY, U.K.) and A. B. Smith {British Museum (Natural History), 

Cromwell Road. London SW7 5BD, U.K.) 

The Cretaceous genus Tylocidaris Pomel, 1883, p. 109 is a common 
fossil in the Coniacian and Santonian chalk of northern Europe. It is 
widely regarded as an aberrant member of the Cidaroidea with imperforate 
primary tubercules and lacking interradial peristomial plates (e.g. 
Mortensen, 1934, p. 399). For these reasons Tylocidaris is currently placed 
in the family psychocidaridae Ikeda, 1936, which was established for 
Psychocidaris Ikeda, 1935, an extant genus with the same aberrant 
characters. 

2. The genus Tylocidaris was established by Pomel (1883, p. 109), 
who gave a full description but failed to designate a type species. He 
included four species within this genus, listed as T. gibberula, clavigera, 
Ramondi and Bower bankii. The type species is generally quoted as Cidaris 
clavigera Konig as designated by Lambert & Thiery (1910, p. 156) (e.g. 
Mortensen 1928, p. 486; Fell 1966, p. U339; Geys 1982, p. 4; Salah & 
Schmid 1982, p. 180); the correct attribution of the species is to Mantell, 
1822, (p. 194). However, Savin (1905, p. 282) had previously designated 
'Tylocidaris Gibberula Aggasiz' as the type species of Tylocidaris, selecting 
the first of the four species Hsted by Pomel (1883) as members of that genus. 
Lambert & Thiery (1909, p. 27) accepted Cidaris gibberula Agassiz & Desor, 
1846, (p. 329) as the type species of Tylocidaris but one year later, in the 
influential Essai de nomenclature raisonnee des Echinides (1910, p. 156) 
chose to nominate C. clavigera Mantell, 1822, as type species for the genus. 

3. Cidaris gibberula Agassiz & Desor is probably not congeneric 
with Tylocidaris clavigera (Mantell) or T. asperula (Romer) [ = Cidaris 
bowerbankii Forbes], both universally treated as typical members of 
Tylocidaris. C. gibberula was based on an isolated spine from the 
Cenomanian Stage of the Upper Cretaceous of France. Agassiz & Desor 
1846, p. 329 gave no illustration and only the following brief diagnosis: — 
'voisin du C. cucumifera, mais a mamelons plus irreguliers'. The spine was 
later illustrated by Desor (1855, p. 34; plate 6, fig. 3), and Cotteau (1862, 
p. 234; plate 1051, figs. 15-18, plate 1054, figs. 1-7) figured additional spines 
along with a test from the same locality and horizon. In both spine and test 
morphology C. gibberula differs significantly from those species generally 
accepted as belonging to Tylocidaris such as T. clavigera. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 73 



4. To the best of our knowledge. Savin's designation of C. gibberula 
as type species of Tvlocidaris has gone unnoticed or been ignored by all 
authors except Lambert & Thiery (1909, p. 27) and Cooke (1959 p. 12). To 
accept Savin's designation would mean that Tvlocidaris would lose its 
generally accepted connotation and consequently confusion would result. 

5. The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature is 
therefore requested, in the interests of stability of nomenclature: 

(1) to use its plenary powers to set aside all designations of type 
species hitherto made for the nominal genus Tvlocidaris Pomel, 
1883, and, having done so, to designate Cidaris clavigera 
Mantell, 1822, as type species of that genus; 

(2) to place on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology 
Tvlocidaris Pomel, 1883 (gender: feminine), type species, by 
designation under the plenary powers in (1) above, Cidaris 
clavigera ManieW, 1822; 

(3) to place on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology the 
specific name clavigera Mantell, 1822 as pubHshed in the 
binomen Cidaris claviger, the specific name of the type species 
of rv/of/^om Pomel, 1883. 



REFERENCES 

AGASSIZ, L. & DESOR, E. 1846. Catalogue raisonne des families, des genres et 

des especes de la classe des echinodermes. Ann. Sci. nat. [3], vol. 6, pp. 

305-374. 
COOKE, C. W. 1959. Cenozoic echinoids of eastern United States. U. S. Geol. Surv. 

Prof. Pap. 321. 106 pp. 
COTTEAU, G. 1862. Paleontologie Frangaise. Terrain Cretace: Echinides. Paris; 

Victor Masson et fils. Feuilles 12-20. 
DESOR, E. 1855. Svnopsis des echinides fossiles. Part 1. Paris; Ch. Reinwald. pp. 

3-46. 
FELL, H. B. 1966. Cidaroids. In R. C. Moore (ed). Treatise on Invertebrate 

Paleontology. Part U: Echinodermata 3(1). Geological Society of America 

and University of Kansas Press: Lawrence, Kansas, p. U312-U339. 
GEYS, J. F. 1982. Regular echinoids from the Turonian and the Coniacian (Upper 

Cretaceous) of the Mons Basin (Belgium). Bull. Instr. r. Sci. nat. Belg., vol. 

53 (3), pp. 1-20. 
IKEDA, H. 1935. Preliminary report on a new cidarid sea-urchin from the western 

Pacific. Proc. Imp. Acad. Tokyo, vol. 1 1, pp. 386-388. 
1936. Preliminary note on a new family of the Cidaroidea. Annot. Zool. 

Japan, vol. 15(4), pp. 486-489, pi. 33-34. 
LAMBERT, J. & THIERY, P. 1909. Notes echinologiques: 1, sur le genre Cidaris. 

Bull. Soc. Sci. nat. Haute-Marne [1909], pp. 5-32. 
& 1910. Essai de nomenclature raisonnee des Echinides. Chaumont. 

Fascicule II. 
MANTELL, G. 1822. The fossils of the South Downs: or illustrations of the geology 

of Sussex, London, 327 pp. 



74 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



MORTENSEN, T. 1928. A monograph of the Echinoidea. I, Cidaroidea. 

Copenhagen, C. A. Reitzel, 551 pp. 

1934. Notes on some fossil echinoids. Geol. Mag. 71, p. 393^07. 

POMEL, M. A. 1883. Classification methodique et genera des Echinides vivants et 

fossiles. Paris: Jourdan, 1 32 pp. 
SALAH, A. A. & SCHMID, F. 1982. Die Tylocidariden (reg. Echiniden) der Ober- 

Maastricht-Stufe von Danemark und NW-Deutschland. Geol. Jb. vol. A61, 

pp. 177-205. 
SAVIN, L. 1905. Revision des Echinides du department de I'lsere. Bull. Soc. Stat. 

Sci. nat. Arts industr. dept. here [4] vol. 8, pp. 109-324. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 75 



AMMONITES PERARMATUSi. SOWERBY, 1822 (CEPHALOPODA, 

AMMONOIDEA); PROPOSED EXEMPTION FROM THE 

PRINCIPLE OF HOMONYMY. Z.N.(S.)2479 



By M. K. Howarth {British Museum (Natural History) London) 

The purpose of this application is to ask the Commission to use 
its plenary powers to safeguard the Upper Jurassic ammonite name 
Ammonites perarmatus J. Sowerby, 1822, against being rendered invalid 
under the principle of homonymy by the prior use o^ Ammonites perarmatus 
Young & Bird, 1822, for a Lower Jurassic ammonite. A. perarmatus J. 
Sowerby is also the type species of the genus Euaspidoceras Spath, 1931, 
and it is advisable to retain the current interpretation of that genus without 
altering the type species. 

2. Ammonites perarmatus Young & Bird, 1822 (p. 249, pi. 14, fig. 11) 
was first described in the first edition of A Geological Survey of the 
Yorkshire Coast, for which the exact date of publication has only recently 
been discovered (Howarth, 1978, p. 262). That book was listed in the 1 June 
1822 issue of the Monthly Magazine (London, vol. 53, no. 368, p. 446) in a 
review of books pubUshed during May 1822; also Rev. G. Young said that 
his book was 'just published' during a lecture on the Kirkdale Cave that he 
delivered to the Wernerian Natural History Society of Edinburgh on 4 May 
1822 (Mem. Wernerian Soc., vol. 4, p. 262). These suggest that the date of 
publication of Young & Bird's book was 1, 2 or 3 May 1822. 

3. Ammonites perarmatus J. Sowerby, 1822 (p. 72, pi. 352) was first 
published in volume 4, part 61, of the Mineral Conchology of Great Britain, 
for which part the generally accepted data of publication is 1 June 1 822 
(Cleevely, 1974, p. 443). Young & Bird's specific name was published first, 
and J. Sowerby's name is, therefore, a junior primary homonym. 

4. Ammonites perarmatus Young & Bird, 1822, is currently accepted 
as a coarsely ribbed and tuberculate species of the Lower Toarcian genus 
Peronoceras, and the holotype is extant (Howarth, 1978, p. 263, pi. 5, 
figs. 1^). 

5. Ammonites perarmatus J. Sowerby, 1822, is the type species 
by original designation of the Callovian to Oxfordian ammonite genus 
Euaspidoceras Spath (1931, pp. 326, 588), a well-known member of the 
family Aspidoceratidae. That species and its holotype were described by 
Arkell (1940, p. 193, pi. 41, fig. 1), and the genus has been widely used as an 
Upper Jurassic ammonite during the last 50 years, especially in the import- 
ant descriptions and compilative works by Arkell (1936, 1940, 1956, 1957), 
Roman (1938), Basse (1952), Orlov (1958), Collignon (1959), Andjelkovic 



76 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



(1961) and Wierzbowski (1975). Peronoceras perarmatum (Young & Bird) 
and Euaspidoceras perarmatum (J. Sowerby) belong to two different am- 
monite superfamilies (Eoderocerataceae and Perisphinctaceae respectively) 
that are so far apart that confusion between them is not a possibility. 

6. The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature is 
therefore asked: 

(1) to use its plenary powers to declare that Ammonites perarmatus 
J. Sowerby, 1 June 1822, is not rendered invalid by the prior 
use oi Ammonites perarmatus Young & Bird, 1-3 May 1822. 

(2) to place the specific name perarmatus J. Sowerby, 1822, as pub- 
lished in the binomen Ammonites perarmatus. and as validated 
under the plenary powers in (1) above, on the Official List of 
Specific Names in Zoology. 

(3) to place the generic name Euaspidoceras Spath, 1931 (type 
species Ammonites perarmatus J. Sowerby, 1822, by original 
designation of Spath (1931, p. 588)) on the Official List of 
Generic Names in Zoology. 



REFERENCES 

ANDJELKOVIC, M. Z. 1961. Ammoniten aus dem unteren Malm (Oxford) des 

Stara planina-Gebirges (Serbien). Geoloski Anali balk. Poluost., vol. 28, pp. 

217-240, pis. 1^. 
ARKELL, W. J. 1936. The ammonites zones of the Upper Oxfordian of Oxford, 

and the horizons of the Sowerbys' and Buckman's types. Quart. J. geol. Soc. 

Lond., vol 92, pp. 146-187, pis. 10, 11. 
1940. A monograph of the ammonites of the English Corallian Beds, part 6, 

pp. Ixv-lxxii, 191-216, pis. 41-47. Palaeontogr. Soc. (Monogr.), London. 

1956. Jurassic Geology of the World. Edinburgh & London, 806 pp., 46 pis. 

1957. In R. C. Moore (editor). Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part L. 

Mollusca 4, Cephalopoda, Ammonoidea. Geol. Soc. Amer. 
BASSE, E. 1952. Ammonoidea. In Traite de paleontologie, (J. Piveteau, ed.), vol. 2, 

pp. 522-555, 581-688. Paris. 
CLEEVELY, R. J. 1974. The Sowerbys, the Mineral Conchology, and their fossil 

collection. /. Soc. Biblphy. nat. Hist., London, vol. 6, pp. 418-481. 
COLLIGNON, M. 1959. Atlas des fossiles caracteristiques de Madagascar, part 4, 

Argovien-Rauracien, pis. 47-95, figs. 226-364. Tananarive. 
HOWARTH, M. K. 1978. The stratigraphy and ammonite fauna of the Upper Lias 

of Northamptonshire. Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist., (Geol.), London, vol. 29, 

pp. 235-288, pis. 1-9. 
ORLOV, YU. A. (ed.) 1958. Principles of Palaeontology. Vol. 6, Mollusca: 

Cephalopoda II, Ammonoidea, Dibranchiata. 359 pp. Moscow. 
ROMAN, F. 1938. Les ammonites jurassiques et cretacees. 554 pp., 53 pis. Paris. 
SOWERBY, J. 1822. The Mineral Conchology of Great Britain, vol. 4, 349-354, pis. 

69-76. 
SPATH, L. F. 1931. Revision of the Jurassic cephalopod fauna of Kachh (Cutch). 

Palaeontogr. indica, Calcutta (N.S.), vol. 9, mem. 2, pp. 279-550, pis. 48-102. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 77 



WIERZBOWSKI, A. 1975. Oxfordian ammonites of the Pinar del Rio province 
(western Cuba); their revision and stratigraphical significance. Acta geol. 
pol., vol. 26, pp. 137-260, pis. 1-8. 

YOUNG, G. & BIRD, J. 1822. A geological Survey of the Yorkshire Coast. Whitby, 
336 pp., 17 pis. 



78 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1 , April 1986 



CLAUSILIA DRAPARNAUD, 1805 (MOLLUSCA, GASTROPODA): 
PROPOSED CORRECTION OF OPINION 1 19. Z.N.(S.)872 



By R. V. Melville (formerly Secretary, International Commission on 
Zoological Nomenclature) 

Clausilia Draparnaud, 1 805 is one of the generic names for which 
the Official List entry was found to be incomplete or incorrect when the first 
instalment of the lists was being prepared for publication in 1958. The 
relevant entry in Opinion 119 (1931) reads: 'Clausilia (rugosa)' in the 
Summary (equivalent to the Ruling in later Opinions); and in the Statement 
of Case: 'Clausilia Draparnaud, with C. rugosa Draparnaud as type'. The 
facts of the case are as follows. 

2. Clausilia Draparnaud, 1805, Hist. nat. Moll, terr.fluv. France, pp. 
24, 68, was established with a number of originally included species but 
with no designation or indication of type species. Two of these species are 
Turbo bidens Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. ed. 10, vol. 1, p. 767 and Pupa 
rugosa Draparnaud, 1801, Tab. Moll. France, p. 63. The first known desig- 
nation of a type species was made by Turton, 1831, Land and freshwater 
shells British Isles, p. 6 as 'Turbo bidens Montagu'. Under Article 67f this is 
to be read as Turbo bidens Linnaeus, 1758, since 'Turbo bidens Montagu' 
is not a nominal species in the sense of Article 69a(v). On p. 75, however, 
Turton included 'Turbo bidens Montagu, p. 357' in the synonymy of 
'Clausilia rugosa Drap., p. 73'. This suggests that Turton thought that 
Montagu, 1803, Testacea britt. (2), p. 357, had misidentified Linnaeus's 
species (although Montagu clearly cited it) and that rugosa was the valid 
name for the species that was before Montagu. This designation as type 
species of a misidentification which is then treated as an invalid name 
cannot be valid. 

3. Turbo bidens (or Clausilia bidens) has been wrongly cited on many 
occasions. As we have seen, Turton cited 'Turbo bidens Montagu' as if it 
were a nominal species. As late as 1922, Pilsbry, Nautilus vol. 35, p. 31-32 
cited 'Turbo bidens Draparnaud' as type species of Cochlodina Ferussac, 
1821, Hist. nat. gen. partic. Moll. Tab. Limagons, p. 28. However, neither 
this unnamed species nor C. laminata (Montagu), which is now held to 
be the species that was before Draparnaud, was originally included in 
Cochlodina. These confusions may arise from the fact that the original 
Turbo bidens Linnaeus is unrecognizable. It is based on a figure in Gualtieri, 
1742, Index Test. Conch., pi. 4, fig. C, which is itself unrecognisable. 

4. Although Turton's type-species designation cannot be accepted 
(and Opinion 119 must be corrected in that particular); and though other 
species, such as C. bidentata (Strom, 1765) have occasionally been put for- 
ward as type species, there is no doubt that Opinion 119 stated general 
usage. Since 1926, four major works of reference concur in citing Clausilia 
rugosa (Draparnaud) as type species of Clausilia. These are: Kennard & 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 79 



Woodward, 1926, Syn. brit. non-marine Moll., p. 270; Thiele, 1931, Handb. 
syst. Weichtierk. (2), p. 538; Zilch, 1960, in Wenz. Handb. Paldozool. vol. 6, 
Gastropoda, Lief. 3, p. 412; and the latest major revision of the group, 
Nordsieck, 1978, Arch. Molluskenk. vol. 109, p. 264. The Commission is 
accordingly asked to ratify this usage and in particular: 

(1) to use its plenary powers to set aside all designations of type 
species hitherto made for the nominal genus Clausilia 
Draparnaud, 1805, and, having done so, to designate Pupa 
rugosa Draparnaud, 1801 as type species of that genus; 

(2) to place the generic name Clausilia Draparnaud, 1 805 (gender: 
feminine), type species, by designation under the plenary 
powers. Pupa rugosa Draparnaud, 1801, on the Official List of 
Generic Names in Zoology; 

(3) to place the specific name rugosa Draparnaud, 1801, as 
published in the binomen Pupa rugosa (specific name of type 
species of Clausilia Draparnaud, 1 805) on the Official List of 
Specific Names in Zoology. 



80 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



DE LA CEPEDE, 1788-1789 'HISTOIRE NATURELLE DES 

SERPENS' AND LATER EDITIONS: PROPOSED REJECTION AS A 

NON-BINOMINAL WORK. Z.N.(S.)1985 

By R. V. Melville (formerly Secretary, International Commission on 
Zoological Nomenclature) 

A. INTRODUCTION 

In 1972 (Bull. zool. Nom. vol. 29, pp. 44-61, Dr L. D. Brongersma 
{Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historic, Leiden) analysed de la Cepede's 
Histoire naturelle des Serpens, 1788-1789 and later editions, in exhaustive 
detail. He put a number of alternative proposals to the Commission, as 
follows: 

I. To reject de la Cepede (henceforth in this paper, Lacepede), 
1788-1789 and later editions as non-binominal, but to conserve 
Crotalus piscivorus Lacepede, 1788-1789, a name in general 
current use. 
II. If the proposal in I was unacceptable, to suppress a number 
of names in Lacepede's work, in the interests of stability of 
nomenclature. 

III. To rule that Bonnaterre, 1790, is the author of the generic name 
Langaha. 

IV, V. To take steps to conserve Boa reticulata Schneider, 1801. 

2. In view of the complexity of the case presented by Dr 
Brongersma, and the mass of detail involved in it, the Secretary considered 
that the case should not be taken further in the absence of any comment on 
it. Eventually, in 1976, Professor Jay Savage (then of the Allan Hancock 
Foundation, Los Angeles) wrote to express interest; but it was not until 1980 
that he submitted his comment. It was published in 1981, Bull. zool. Nom. 
vol. 38, pp. 8-9. Although he had previously considered Lacepede's work to 
be binominal, he now agreed with Dr Brongersma that it was not, and 
should be rejected. He disagreed with Dr Brongersma on a number of 
points of detail. 

3. In 1984, as Dr Brongersma had not repHed to Professor Savage, I 
asked Professor Dr Holthuis to re-examine the case and make recom- 
mendations. I am most grateful to him for the thorough investigation he 
has carried out and for the clarity of his recommendations. He came to the 
same broad conclusions as Dr Brongersma. 

B. IS LACEPEDE, 1788-1789 TO BE ACCEPTED OR REJECTED? 

4. The first question to be answered is, whether Lacepede's 1789 
work and later editions is to be rejected as non-binominal, or accepted as an 
available work. If the work is rejected, then the generic name Langaha and 
the binomina Coluber lanceolatus , Dromicus cursor and Crotalus piscivorus 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 81 



(all of the 1st edition, 1789) and Langaha madag (of the 2nd edition, 1790) 
are lost. However, the first three merely take 'Bonnaterre, 1790' as author 
and date, while the last becomes ^Langaha madagascariensis Bonnaterre, 
1790'. Plenary powers would have to be used to conserve Crotalus piscivorus 
Lacepede. 1789, a name in general current use. 

5. If Lacepede's work is accepted as an available work, then Coluber 
flavocaeruleus Lacepede, 1788-1789 would replace Boa reticulata Schneider, 

1801. Coluber oularsawa Bonnaterre, 1790, which would become the valid 
name for the species if Lacepede's work was rejected, and Coluber oryzivorus 
Suckow, 1798 are both unused senior synonyms of Boa reticulata, which 
must at all costs be conserved. 

C. WHAT IS THE STATUS OF LACEPEDE, 1789 UNDER THE 

CODE? 

6. I have examined Lacepede's 1788-1789 work thoroughly to 
determine its status under the Code. I do not see how even the most indul- 
gent nomenclaturist could claim that it was available. Apart from being 
not consistently binominal, the book as a whole is not even consistently 
latinised. In the main body of the work the descriptions of the species are 
headed by vernacular names. When Latin names are cited within the text, it 
is clear that it is the vernacular name, not the Latin one, that is adopted 
as the valid name. The only place where names of a binominal type are 
to be found is in the Tableau Methodique (readers should refer to Dr 
Brongersma's thorough analysis of the structure of the work). 

7. The Tableau Methodique contains many inconsistencies of 
nomenclature. As it is a detailed table of specific characters, the names in 
the left-hand column must be read as specific names. Whereas 86 species 
received binominal names, 52 received uninominal names, and a specific 
name is not available unless it is published in combination with a generic 
name (Article 1 Ih(iii)). Among these uninominal names are a number of the 
form '17me de Gronovius, 17ma Gronovii, or ' septemdecimagronovir if 
spelt out and written as a single word. Such a name is not available under 
Article llh(v). In the Nomenclature section, all the generic names that 
are adopted are vernacular except two — Boa and Anguis — but these are 
Linnean names, not new ones. 

8. It is thus clear that only a ruHng under the plenary powers would 
render Lacepede's Histoire naturelle des Serpens, 1788-1789 an available 
work. It is also clear that such an action is only theoretically an option for 
the Commission. The names that would thus acquire availability have never 
been used and, given their early date, would introduce instability and con- 
fusion on a massive scale. There seems little point in using plenary powers 
to declare a work available if those same powers have then to be used to 
suppress all but one of the new names in the work. Dr Brongersma has 
shown that the later editions do not differ in any material respect from the 
first, so that all can be rejected out of hand. 



82 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



9. Dr Brongersma has also given exhaustive details of the usage of 
the names that should be protected, and this should be consulted. 

D. PROPOSALS 

10. The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature is 
accordingly asked: 

(1) to rule that Lacepede, 1788-1789, Histoire naturelle des 
Serpens, and its subsequent editions (1790, 1799, 1825, 1834, 
1836) are unavailable works, and that no name acquires the 
status of availability by reason of having been pubhshed in any 
of them. 

(2) To use its plenary powers: 

(a) to suppress, for the purposes of the Principle of Priority 
but not for those of the Principle of Homonymy: 

(i) oularsawa Bonnaterre, 1790, as published in the 

binomen Coluber oularsawa; 
(ii) oryzivorus Suckow. 1798, as pubhshed in the binomen 

Coluber oryzivorus; 

(b) to rule that the specific name piscivorus Lacepede, 1 788- 
1789, as published in the binomen Crotalus piscivorus, is an 
available name, notwithstanding that it was published in 
an unavailable work; 

(c) to exempt the specific name triangulum Lacepede, 1788- 
1789, as published in the binomen Coluber triangulum 
(Official List of Specific Names in Zoology No. 2186) from 
the ruUng requested in (1) above. 

(3) to place the generic name Langaha Bonnaterre, 1790 (gender: 
feminine), type species, by monotypy, Langaha madagascarien- 
sis Bonnaterre, 1 790, on the Official List of Generic Names in 
Zoology; 

(4) to place on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology: 

(a) madagascariensis Bonnaterre, 1790, as published in the 
binomen Langaha madagascariensis (specific name of the 
type species of Langaha Bonnaterre, 1 790); 

(b) piscivorus Lacepede, 1788-1789, as pubhshed in the 
binomen Crotalus piscivorus, and as conserved under the 
plenary powers in (2)(b) above; 

(c) reticulata Schneider, 1801, as pubhshed in the binomen Boa 
reticulata, and as conserved under the plenary powers in 
(2)(a) above; 

(5) to place on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Specific 
Names in Zoology: 

(a) oularsawa Bonnaterre, 1790, as published in the binomen 
Coluber oularsawa, and as suppressed under the plenary 
powers in (2)(a)(i) above; 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 83 



(b) oryzivorus Suckow, 1798, as published in the binomen 

Coluber oryzivorus, and as suppressed under the plenary 

powers in (2)(a)(ii) above; 

(6) to place on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Works 

in Zoological Nomenclature, Lacepede, 1788-1789, Histoire 

naturelle des Serpens and its subsequent editions of 1790, 1799, 

1825, 1834, 1836, ruled unavailable in (1) above, with an 

endorsement that no name acquires the status of availability 

by reason of having been published in any of them (except as 

specified in (2)(c) above). 



84 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



ATYIDAE DE HA AN, [1849] (CRUSTACEA, DEC APOD A) AND 

ATYIDAE THIELE, 1926 (MOLLUSCA, GASTROPODA): 

PROPOSALS TO REMOVE THE HOMONYMY. Z.N.(S.) 2357. 



by Trevor K. Crosby {Entomology Division, Department of Scientific and 

Industrial Research, Private Bag, Auckland, New Zealand) and Alan 

Carpenter (Agricultural Research Division, Ministry of Agriculture and 

Fisheries, Private Bag, Palmerston North, New Zealand). 

Homonymy, as defined in Article 55 of the International Code of 
Zoological Nomenclature, exists between the family-group names atyidae 
De Haan, [1849] (Crustacea: Decapoda) and atyidae Thiele, 1926 
(Mollusca: Gastropoda). Both family-group names are correctly derived as 
specified in Articles lie and 29 of the Code, the former from the generic 
name Atya Leach, 1816 { = Atys Leach, 1815, a junior homonym of Atys 
Montfort, 1810), and the latter from the generic name Atys Montfort, 1810. 
In the case of atyidae De Haan the original family-group name was 
ATYADEA (corrected by Dana, 1852); and Yu, 1936 used attidae as an 
incorrect subsequent speUing (Holthuis, 1955). In the case of atyidae 
Thiele, Abbott, 1954 used atydae as an incorrect subsequent speUing. 

2. The generic name Atys was first used for Mollusca by Montfort, 
1810, p. 342 for the gastropod species Atys cymbulus Montfort, 1810, p. 
343. A. cymbulus was subsequently synonymised with A. naucum (Linnaeus, 
1758, p. 726) by Pilsbry, [1895], and this synonymy was maintained by 
Dodge, 1955 in his review of the molluscs described by Linnaeus. The 
family placement of the genus Atys has changed several times since the 
latter was described and is still a matter of dispute. Thiele, 1926, p. 106 
erected the family atyidae (with Atys as type genus) by removing Atys 
from SCAPHANDRIDAE Sars, 1878. Abbott, 1954, p. 278 used atydae as an 
incorrect subsequent spelling in the index and running head of his book. 
Recently Abbott, 1974, included Atys in haminoeidae Pilsbry, [1895], 
in contrast to Franc, 1968, who considered four subfamilies could be recog- 
nised in ATYIDAE, two of thcsc being hamineinae ( = hamtnoeinae) Pilsbry, 
[1895] and atyinae Thiele, 1926 (haminoeinae was originally described as a 
subfamily of akeridae Pilsbry, [1895]). 

3. The generic name Atys was first used for Crustacea by Leach, 
1815, p. 345, for the shrimp Atys scaber Leach, 1815, p. 345; on discovering 
Atys Leach was preoccupied by Atys Montfort, he changed his Atys to 
Atya (Leach, 1816, p. 421). In 1849 De Haan placed the genus Atya in the 
newly-erected family-group category atyadea; this was altered by Dana, 
1852, p. 13, to the current family name atyidae. Yu, 1936, p. 88, used the 
incorrect subsequent spelling attidae for atyidae De Haan. Holthuis 
(1955) made an application to the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature (Z.N.(S.)622) on 102 generic names of Crustacea for 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 85 



addition to the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology; one of the 
names for inclusion was Atya Leach. Holthuis also asked for Atys Leach to 
be placed on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Generic Names in 
Zoology, for scaber Leach to be placed on the Official List of Specific 
Names in Zoology, for atyidae De Haan to be placed on the Official List of 
Family-Group Names in Zoology, and for atyadea De Haan and attidae 
Yu to be placed on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Family- 
Group Names in Zoology. The application incorporating these points was 
granted by the Commission (Opinion 470, Ops Decls I. C.Z.N, vol. 16, pp. 
129-202, 1957). 

4. The generic name Atys has also been used in Insecta for a genus 
of the order Coleoptera, family scarabaeidae. Reiche 1849, p. 352, des- 
cribed Atys with the single species A. samenensis Reiche in Ferret & 
Galinier, 1849, p. 352. Strand, 1942 p. 391, pointed out that Atys Reiche in 
Ferret & Galinier was preoccupied, and proposed the replacement name 
Atysilla Strand. No family-group name has been derived from Atys Reiche. 

5. Pursuant to Article 55 of the Code, we refer this case to the Inter- 
national Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. Although there are no 
formal grounds for preferring conservation of one family-group name over 
the other, in view of the following facts we request that the crustacean name 
be conserved: 

(a) The crustacean family name antedates that of the molluscan. 

(b) The crustacean family name has been placed on the Official 
List of Family-Group Names in Zoology as number 151 
(I.C.Z.N., 1957, Opinion 470). 

(c) In the indexes of volumes 24-68 of Biological Abstracts 
(1950-1979) the crustacean taxon is referred to 54 times (as the 
family atyidae 38 times, as atyid shrimp or prawn 10 times, 
and as the genus Atya 6 times), whereas the molluscan taxon is 
referred to only 3 times (as the generic name Atys). However, 
it should be noted that the family name atyidae and the 
generic name Atys have been used in books on Mollusca 
published within this period although not indexed under these 
names in Biological Abstracts, e.g., Abbott, 1954; Tinker, 1958; 
Keen, 1960; Franc, 1968; Cernohorsky, 1972; Keen & Coan, 
1974 and Powell, 1979. 

(d) For medical entomology reasons, as in Africa two species of 
atyid shrimps {Atya africana Bouvier, 1904, and an unidenti- 
fied species) have been found to have two species of simuliidae 
(Insecta: Diptera; Simulium (Ptwretomyia) dukei Lewis, Disney 
& Crosskey, 1969, and S. {Lewisellum) atyophilum Lewis & 
Disney, 1969) associated with them (Disney, 1971). S. (P.) 
dukei has been reported biting man, and is possibly a rare 
vector of Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart, 1893) (Nematoda: 
onchocercidae) which causes onchocerciasis (Duke, 1962; 
Lewis, Disney & Crosskey, 1969; Crosskey, 1973). 



86 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



6. If the generic name Atys itself is ruled to be the stem, then there is 
a possibility that difficulties may arise if the generic name Atysa Baly, 1864 
(Insecta: Coleoptera: chrysomelidae) is used to form a family-group name 
with the stem Atys-. 

7. The solution we suggest is for the Commission to alter the stem 
of the molluscan type genus in a way similar to that proposed for Tethys 
Linnaeus, 1767 (Melville, 1978). Atys is a classical Greek noun of a sort that 
would be expected to give the genitive atydis, although its proper genitive in 
Greek is atyos. Therefore, we ask the Commission to rule under its plenary 
powers that the stem of Atys for the purposes of Article 29 is atyd-, 
giving the family name atydidae. 

8. We therefore request that the Commission: 

(1) use its plenary powers to rule that the stem of the generic name 
Atys Montfort, 1810 (Mollusca) for the purposes of Article 29 
is ATYD-; 

(2) place the generic name Atys Montfort, 1810 (Mollusca) 
(gender: masculine), type species by original designation Atys 
cymbulus Montfort, 1810 on the Official List of Generic Names 
in Zoology; 

(3) place the specific name naucum Linnaeus, 1758, as published in 
the binomen Bulla naucum (the vaHd name at the time of this 
application for the specific name of the type species of Atys 
Montfort, 1810) on the Official List of Specific Names in 
Zoology; 

(4) place the family-group name atydidae Thiele, 1926 (emended 
through the ruUng given under the plenary powers in (1) above, 
of atyidae) (type genus Atys Montfort, 1810 (Mollusca)) on 
the Official List of Family-Group Names in Zoology; 

(5) place the following family-group names on the Official Index of 
Rejected and Invalid Family-Group Names in Zoology: 

(a) ATYroAE Thiele, 1926 (an incorrect original spelling of 
ATYoroAE Thiele, 1926 in consequence of the ruling given under 
the plenary powers in (1) above) (Mollusca); 

(b) ATYDAE Abbott, 1954 (an erroneous subsequent spelling 
for ATYDIDAE Thiclc, 1926 (Mollusca). 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

We thank Dr G. Kuschel {Entomology Division, DSIR, Auckland, 
New Zealand) for his advice regarding the classical Greek name Atys, and 
Dr W. O. Cernohorsky (Auckland Institute and Museum, Auckland. New 
Zealand) for providing information on the molluscan family. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1 , April 1986 87 



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541 pp. 
1974. American Seashells. 2nd ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, 

663 pp. 
BALY, J. S. 1864. Descriptions of uncharacterized genera and species of 

Phytophaga. Trans, roy. entomol. Soc. London, ser. 3, vol. 2, pp. 223-241. 
BOUVIER, E. L. 1904. Crevettes de la famille des Atyides; especes qui font partie 

des collections du Museum d'Histoire naturelle. Bull. Mus. Hist. nat. Paris, 

vol. 10, pp. 129-138. 
CERNOHORSKY, W. O. 1972. Marine Shells of the Pacific, vol. 2. Pacific 

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DE HAAN, W., 1849. Crustacea elaborante. in SIEBOLD, P. F. VON, Fauna 

Japonica, vol. 6, xxi + 230, pp. 184-186. 
DISNEY, R. H. L. 1971. Association between blackflies (Simuliidae) and prawns 

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DODGE, H. 1955. A historical review of the Mollusks of Linnaeus. Part 3. The 

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DUKE, B. O. L. 1962. Simulium aureosimile Pomeroy, a possible vector of 

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Zoologie, vol. 5, fasc. 3, pp. 608-893, Masson et Cie, Paris. 
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powers (a) to validate the emendation to "Gnathophyllum" of the generic 

name "Gnatophyllum" Latreille, 1814, and (b) to validate the family-group 

names "Hippolytidae" Bate, 1888 and "Eugonatonotidae" Chace, 1937. 
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1816. In, Supplement to the fourth, fifth and sixth editions. Encyclopaedia 

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Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 89 



C ARCH ARIAS RAFINESQUE, 1810 (CHONDRICHTH YES, 

LAMNIFORMES): PROPOSED CONSERVATION BY THE USE OF 

THE RELATIVE PRECEDENCE PROCEDURE. Z.N.(S)2414 



By Leonard J. V. Compagno (Tiburon Center for Environmental Studies, 

P.O. Box 855, Tiburon. California 94920, U.S.A.) and W. I. Follett 

{California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California, 94118. U.S.A.) 

This application requests the International Commission on 
Zoological Nomenclature to use its plenary powers to conserve the generic 
name Carcharias Rafinesque, 1810, p. 10, which was suppressed by Opinion 
723 in Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 22, pp. 32-36. The ruling given in Opinion 47 
{Smithson. pubi. No. 2026, pp. 108-109) had determined that Carcharias 
Rafinesque, 1810, is monotypic and that its type species is Carcharias taurus 
Rafinesque, 1810. The date of publication of the work in which Rafinesque 
originally diagnosed this genus and species has been shown by Holthuis & 
Boeseman, 1977 to be 1810, rather than 1809 as Fitzpatrick, 1911, p. 69, 
had concluded. The extensive usage of the binomen Carcharias taurus was 
noted by Bigelow & Schroeder, 1948, pp. 106-107. 

Carcharias Rafinesque, '1809', was suppressed by Opinion 723. This 
suppression had been requested by White, Tucker & Marshall, 1961, p. 274, 
'so as to validate Odontaspis'. The type species of Odontaspis J. L. R. 
Agassiz, 1838, is Carcharias ferox Risso, 1826, p. 122 (Opinion 723(3) 
(c)) — a species that we regard as taxonomically referable to a genus 
distinct from Carcharias Rafinesque, 1810. 

3. In suppressing Carcharias in favour of Odontaspis, the Commis- 
sion relied upon the statement of White, Tucker & Marshall, 1961, p. 274, 
that ' . . . the respective nominal type-species of Carcharias Rafinesque, 
1809, and Odontaspis J. R. L. Agassiz, 1838, are congeneric . . .'. 

4. We disagree with that statement. These two species are not 
congeneric — they are referable to taxonomically distinct genera. Characters 
that differentiate Carcharias from Odontaspis include the following: 

5. Genus Carcharias Rafinesque, 1810: Snout moderately depressed, 
not bulbously conical, and short, length 1/2 to 2/3 of mouth width. Eyes 
smaller, 0-9 to 1-4% of total length. Upper symphyseal tooth rows usually 
absent; three rows of upper anterior teeth on either side of symphysis; 
heterodonty strong along jaws, lateral teeth compressed and bladehke, with 
flattened cusps, and posterior teeth strongly diff'erentiated as carinate, 
molariform crushers; cusplets on anterior teeth short and strongly hooked, 



90 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



and cusps stout and broad-tipped; teeth larger, second lower anterior tooth 
1-3 to 1-5 times height of comparable tooth in Odontaspis. First dorsal, 
second dorsal, and anal fins approximately equal-sized; first dorsal fin 
positioned far posteriad on back, its midbase much closer to the pelvic fin 
bases than to the pectoral fin bases, and its free rear tip posterior to the 
pelvic fin origins. Neurocranium with short rostral cartilages, length of 
medial rostral cartilage only 28 to 29% of nasobasal length (distance from 
base of medial rostral cartilage to occipital centrum); node of rostral 
cartilages short and V-shaped; bases of lateral rostral cartilages anterior to 
the anterior fontanelle and separated from its margin; nasal capsules not 
extending below the basal plate, without a ventral projection on the inter- 
nasal plate; basal plate broadly arched, width across it at orbital notches 43 
to 44% of nasobasal length; anterior fontanelle wider than long; cranial 
roof broadly arched; parietal fossa narrow; preorbital processes high and 
angular; post-orbital processes narrowly angular; orbits low, height 42 to 
43% of length; cranial height about 34% of nasobasal length. 

6. Genus Odontaspis J. L. R. Agassiz, 1838: Snout bulbously con- 
ical, not depressed, and longer, length 3/4 or more of mouth width. Eyes 
larger, 1-6 to 2-3% of total length. Upper symphyseal tooth rows present; 
two. rows of upper anterior teeth on either side of symphysis; heterodonty 
weaker along jaws, lateral teeth little compressed and not bladelike, with 
cusps little flattened, and posterior teeth not differentiated as molariform 
crushers; cusplets on anterior teeth long and straight or weakly curved, not 
hooked, and cusps slender and narrow-tipped; teeth smaller, second lower 
anterior tooth 0-6 to 0-8 of height of comparable tooth in Carcharias. First 
dorsal fin larger than second dorsal fin, and second dorsal somewhat larger 
than anal fin; first dorsal fin positioned more anteriad on back, its midbase 
closer to the pectoral fin bases than to the pelvic fin bases, and its free rear 
tip well anterior to the pelvic fin origins. Neurocranium with longer rostral 
cartilages, length of medial rostral cartilage 54 to 58% of nasobasal length; 
node of rostral cartilages elongate and Y-shaped; bases of lateral rostral 
cartilages confluent with the margin of the anterior fontanelle; nasal 
capsules extending below the basal plate, with a ventral projection on the 
internasal plate; basal plate flat, width across it at orbital notches 36 to 
38% of nasobasal length; anterior fontanelle longer than wide; cranial 
roof narrowly arched; parietal fossa broad; preorbital processes low and 
truncate; postorbital processes broadly angular; orbits higher, height 70 to 
79% of length; cranial height about 42% of nasobasal length. 

7. In a forthcoming review of the sharks of this family, one of us 
(L.J.V.C.) desires to demonstrate the taxonomic distinction of Carcharias 
from Odontaspis, but he has been forbidden to do so by Opinion 723, which 
ruled in eff"ect that these two genera are not taxonomically distinct. 

8. That ruling transgressed a fundamental precept of the Code: 
' . . . none [of the provisions of the Code] restricts the freedom of taxonomic 
thought or action' (International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, 
Preamble). 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1 , April 1986 91 



We therefore request the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature to use its plenary powers: 

(1) to repeal the Ruling given in Opinion 723 (1) by which the 
Ruling given in Opinion 47 was repealed; 

(2) to reinstate Opinion 47; 

(3) to repeal the Ruling given in Opinion 723 (2) (a) (i) by which 
Carcharias Rafinesque, '1809', was suppressed for the purpose of the Law 
of Priority; 

(4) to repeal the Ruling given in Opinion 723 (5) (a) by which 
Carcharias Rafinesque, '1809', was placed on the Official Index of Rejected 
and Invalid Generic Names in Zoology; 

(5) to determine the date of original publication of the generic name 
Carcharias Rafinesque to be 1810; 

(6) to determine the date of original publication of the specific 
name taurus Rafinesque as published in the binomen Carcharias taurus 
Rafinesque to be 1810; 

(7) to place the generic name Carcharias Rafinesque, 1810 (gender: 
masculine), type-species by monotypy, Carcharias taurus Rafinesque, 1810, 
on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology, with an endorsement that 
it is not to be given nomenclatural precedence over Odontaspis J. L. R. 
Agassiz, 1838, whenever the two names are considered as synonyms; 

(8) to augment the Ruling given in Opinion 723 (3) (c) (by which 
Odontaspis J. L. R. Agassiz, 1838, was placed on the Official List of 
Generic Names in Zoology) by adding to that RuHng an endorsement that 
Odontaspis J. L. R. Agassiz, 1838, is to be given nomenclatural precedence 
over Carcharias Rafinesque, 1810, whenever the two names are considered 
as synonyms; 

(9) to place the specific name taurus Rafinesque, 1810, as pub- 
lished in the binomen Carcharias taurus (specific name of type-species of 
Carcharias Rafinesque, 1810), on the Official List of Specific Names in 
Zoology. 



REFERENCES 

AGASSIZ, J. L. R., 1838. Recherches sur les Poissons Fossiles. Tome III, Neuchatel, 

viii-|-424pp. 
BIGELOW, HENRY B. & SCHROEDER, WILLIAM C, 1948. Sharks. In: Fishes 

of the Western North Atlantic. Part One. New Haven, pp. 59-546. 
FITZPATRICK, T. J., 1911. Rafinesque. A sketch of his life with bibliography. Des 

Moines, 241 pp. 
HOLTHUIS, L. B., & BOESEMAN, M. 1977. Notes on C. S. Rafinesque Schmalt's 

(1810) Carat teri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante delta 

Sicilia. J. Soc. Bibliogr. nat Hist. vol. 8, pp. 231-234. 
RAFINESQUE SCHMALTZ, C. S., 1810. Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e move 

specie di Animali e Piante delta Sicilia con varie osservazioni sopra i medesimi. 

Palermo, 105 pp. 



92 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1 , April 1986 



RISSO, ANTOINE, 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales Productions de I'Europe 
Meridionale et particulierement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes 
Maritimes. Vol. 3, Paris, pp. 97-480. 

WHITE, E. I., TUCKER, D. W. & MARSHALL, N. B., 1961. Proposal to repeal 
the ruling given in Opinion 47 and to use the plenary powers to stabilise the 
generic names Carcharhinus Blainville. 1816, Carcharodon A. Smith, 1838, 
and Odontaspis J. L. R. Agassiz, 1838, in their accustomed senses (Class 
Pisces). Z.N. (S.) 920. Bull. zool. Norn. vol. 18, pp. 273-280. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1 , April 1986 93 



PYRALIS NIGRICANA FABRICIUS, 1794(INSECTA, 

LEPIDOPTERA): PROPOSED CONSERVATION BY THE 

SUPPRESSION OF PHALAENA RUSTICELLA CLERCK, 1759. 

Z.N.(S.)2468 



By Paul R. Seymour (Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries & Food, Harpenden 
Laboratory, Harpenden, Hertfordshire, U.K.) 

It is proposed that the name Pyralis nigricana Fabricius, 1794, be 
granted nomenclatural precedence over Phalaena rusticella Clerck, 1759, an 
unused senior synonym. The name nigricana has long been used to denote a 
widely distributed palaearctic, and introduced nearctic, pest of cultivated 
pea (Pisum sativum). 

2. Clerck, 1759 (Icones Insectorum rariorum, pi. 10, fig. 11) 
illustrated and named Phalaena rusticella as a new species but gave no 
written description or account. 

3. The name rusticella does not appear to have been used in the 
primary zoological literature for this species until Robinson & Nielson, 
1983 {Syst. Entomol., vol. 8, pp. 191-242) published a revision of the Micro- 
lepidoptera described by Linnaeus and Clerck. In this work the authors 
clarified the synonymy of the two names, nigricana and rusticella, drawing 
upon new evidence — a recently rediscovered Clerck specimen, labelled in 
Clerck's hand as rusticella. This specimen was designated by the authors as 
the lectotype oi Phalaena rusticella Clerck. 

4. Robinson & Nielson, 1983, p. 229, stated that 'It is most unfortu- 
nate that the identity of this name has not been realised until now. Clerck's 
figure is indisputably of the species known until now as Cydia nigricana'. 
They added that 'It may be considered that the International Commission 
on Zoological Nomenclature should be asked to suppress the name 
rusticella. Cydia nigricana is an economically important species with a wide 
literature, and the case for the conservation of the name nigricana is a 
strong one'. 

5. Fabricius, 1794 {Entomologia Systematica, vol. 3(2), p. 276) 
described a new species of moth, Pyralis nigricana from England, in the 
collection of Mr Francillon. John Francillon's insect collection was dis- 
persed following his death in 1817. Part of the collection was acquired by 
the University Museum of Oxford and part by the British Museum at 
Bloomsbury. The remainder, comprising mostly exotic species, was sold by 
public auction in 1818. The species was not listed in the sale catalogue, and 
no Francillon specimen o{ nigricana has been found either at the University 
Museum, Oxford (M. Scoble, 1983, pers. comm.) or the British Museum 
(Natural History) (K.R.C. Tuck, 1983, pers. comm.). There is no specimen 
of nigricana in the Fabrician Collection at Copenhagen, Denmark (O. 
Karsholt, 1983, pers. comm.). 



94 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



6. In contrast to rusticella, the name nigricana has remained in con- 
tinued use albeit in synonymy or under different generic combinations since 
1 794. The species has been known in the taxonomic literature as nigricana 
consistently since its use by Rebel, in Staudinger & Rebel, 1901 {Catalog 
der Lepidopteren des palaearctischen Faunengebiets , part 2, p. 120) and in 
works of applied entomology, also from this time, as the name of a tortricid 
pest causing damage to cultivated pea, Pisum sativum. The species has a 
wide palearctic distribution ranging from Europe to Japan and China 
(Balachowsky, 1966, p. 634). Cydia nigricana was probably introduced into 
North America (Canada) in 1893 (Fletcher, 1895, Report of the Entomol- 
ogist and Botanist for 1894, Experimental Farms Reports, p. 188. Ottawa, 
Canada). It now occurs in most southern parts of Canada and in the 
north-east and extreme north-west of the United States of America 
(Commonwealth Institute of Entomology, 1981. Cydia nigricana (P.). Dist. 
Maps Pests, (A) no. 421). 

7. In the last decade (since 1973) there have been 56 publications 
with the name nigricana in the title; these were published in 10 countries, 
viz. France, United Kingdom, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, 
Sweden, Finland, Czechoslovakia and U.S.S.R. A further 41 publications 
have listed or referred to the species during the same period (sources: 
Agricola, C.A.B. abstracts and Zoological Record to 1980). The species is 
currently placed in Cydia Hiibner, [1825] and has been abstracted under the 
binomen Cydia nigricana by the Commonwealth Institute of Entomology 
for over 70 years in their Review of Applied Entomologv, since volume one in 
1913. 

8. To comply with Article 79(b) of the Code, A representative 
sample of references using the specific name nigricana has been deposited 
with the Commission Secretariat. 

9. Together with the following colleagues, Dr D. V. Alford 
(Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Bristol), Dr J. D. Bradley 
(Commonwealth Institute of Entomology, London), Dr S. A. Ulenberg 
(Plantenziektenkundige Dienst, Wageningen, Netherlands) and Dr C. Wall 
(Rothamstead Experimental Station, Harpenden) who have authorised me 
to make known that they are in accord with the foregoing view, I request 
that in the interest of nomenclatural stability the International Commission 
on Zoological Nomenclature: 

(1) use its plenary powers to suppress the specific name rusticella 
Clerck, as published in the binomen Phalaena rusticella, for the 
purposes of the Principle of Priority but not for those of the 
Principle of Homonymy; 

(2) place the specific name nigricana Fabricius, 1 794, as published 
in the binomen Pyralis nigricana, on the Official List of Specific 
Names in Zoology; 

(3) place the specific name rusticella Clerck, 1759, as published in 
the binomen Phalaena rusticella, and as suppressed under the 



Bull. zool. Nom.. vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 95 



plenary powers in (1) above, on the Official Index of Rejected 
and Invalid Specific Names in Zoology. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

I should like to express my thanks to Dr Ian W. B. Nye, lately of 
the British Museum (Natural History) for his help and guidance in the 
preparation of this case. He strongly preferred the 'relative precedence' 
procedure. However, on the advice of the Secretary to the Commission, the 
partial suppression of the senior synonym has been requested. 



96 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



APANTELES ORNIGIS WEED, 1887 (INSECTA, 

HYMENOPTERA): PROPOSED CONSERVATION BY THE 

SUPPRESSION OF MICROGASTER ROBINIAEFnCH, 1859 

Z.N.(S.)2506 



By James B. Whitfield {Department of Entomological Sciences, 
201 Wellman Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, U.S.A.) 

The braconid wasp widely known as Pholetesor ornigis (Weed) is a 
common parasitoid of blotchmining Lepidoptera and is perhaps the most 
frequently encountered member of its genus in eastern North America. 
Described as Apanteles ornigis Weed, 1887, p. 6, this species has accumu- 
lated a substantial literature due to its parasitism of Phyllonorycter spp. on 
cultivated apple (for an introduction see Johnson et al, 1979; Pottinger & 
Roux, 1971; Maier, 1984). It now serves as the type species for Pholetesor 
Mason, 1981, p. 37. 

2. In 1859, twenty-eight years prior to Weed's description of ornigis, 
Asa Fitch described Microgaster robiniae, p. 836, as a solitary parasitoid of 
Recurvaria (now Sinoe) robiniella Fitch on black locust, Robinia pseudo- 
acacia. His description was inadequate even for his own time and the 
species was considered recognisable only on the basis of its hght coloration. 
The name robiniae has since been used only in catalogs, species lists and 
keys (e.g. Viereck et al, 1916; Muesebeck, 1920; Muesebeck, Krombein, 
Townes et al., 1951; Krombein et al., 1979; Mason, 1981) and then only 
with reference to what is known of the type series. 

3. It now appears that the two names, ornigis Weed and robiniae 
Fitch, are subjective synonyms because; (a) ornigis Weed, as the name has 
been traditionally applied, refers to a parasitoid with a broad host range 
of blotchmining Lepidoptera on a diversity of deciduous trees, shrubs and 
woody vines (Krombein et al, 1979; Whitfield, in prep, PhD dissertation), 
including leafminers on black locust; (b) the holotype of Microgaster 
robiniae Fitch is indistinguishable morphologically from many small 
individuals of Pholetesor ornigis (Weed), differing only in its light reddish 
color; (c) specimens of many species of Pholetesor which have been exten- 
sively exposed to sunlight are apt to bleach to a color similar to that of the 
robiniae holotype; (d) other specimens in Fitch's collection are unusually 
light or bleached in color (R. A. Wharton, pers. comm.) and (e) no fresh 
specimens resembling in color the Microgaster robiniae holotype have 
been recovered since, despite repeated rearings of the essentially morpho- 
logically identical Pholetesor ornigis (Weed) from the type host of robiniae. 
It appears that the holotype of Microgaster robiniae Fitch is a bleached 
specimen of the species generally referred to as Apanteles (or now 
Pholetesor) ornigis Weed. 

4. The name ornigis, by contrast to robiniae Fitch, has been used in 
a large number of non-taxonomic papers during the last fifty years. For 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 97 



example: Dutcher &. Howitt, 1978; Gambino & Sullivan, 1982; Gibbons & 
Butcher, 1961; Herbert & McRae, 1983; Hough, 1957; Johnson et al, 1978; 
Martin, 1956; Putman, 1935, 1942; Weaver & Dorsey, 1965. 

5. To preserve usage of the name ornigis as it has been applied 
for 97 years to a well-known species, the International Commission on 
Zoological Nomenclature is requested: 

(1) to use its plenary powers to suppress the name robiniae, Fitch, 
1859, as published in the binomen Microgaster robiniae, for the 
purposes of the Principle of Priority but not for those of the 
Principle of Homonymy; 

(2) to place the specific name ornigis Weed, 1887, as published in 
the binomen Apanteles ornigis, on the Official List of Specific 
Names in Zoology; 

(3) to place the specific name robiniae Fitch, 1859, as published in 
the binomen Microgaster robiniae, and as suppressed under the 
plenary powers in (1) above, on the Official Index of Rejected 
and Invalid Specific Names in Zoology. 



REFERENCES 

DUTCHER, J. D. & HOWITT, A. J. 1978. Bionomics and Control o( Lithocolletis 
blancardella in Michigan. J. econ. Entomol., vol. 71, pp. 736-738. 

FITCH, A. 1859. Fifth report on the noxious and other insects of the State of New 
York. N. Y. State agric. Soc. Trans., vol. 18, pp. 781-854. 

GAMBINO, P. & SULLIVAN, D. J. 1982. Phenology of emergence of the spotted 
tentiform leafminer, Phyllonorycter crataegella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) 
and its parasitoids in New York. J. N. Y. entomol. Soc, vol. 90, pp. 229-236. 

GIBBONS, C. F. & BUTCHER, J. W. 1961. The oak skeletonizer, Bucculatrix 
ainsliella, in a Michigan woodlot. J. econ. Entomol., vol. 54, pp. 681-684. 

HERBERT, H. J. & MCRAE, K. B. 1983. Effect of temperature on the emergence 
of overwintering Phyllonorcyter blancardella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) 
and its parasite Apanteles ornigis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Nova 
Scotia. Can. Entomol., vol. 115, pp. 1203-1208. 

HOUGH, W. S. 1957. Effect of mouse-control spray of Endrin on insect life in 
orchard ground cover. J. econ. Entomol., vol. 50, pp. 692-693. 

JOHNSON, E. F., LAING, J. E. & TROTTIER, R. 1978. The seasonal occurrence 
of Lithocolletis blancardella (Gracillariidae) and its major natural enemies in 
Ontario apple orchards. Proc. entomol. Soc. Ontario, vol. 107, pp. 31^5. 

, TROTTIER, R. & LAING, J. E. 1979. Degree-day relationships to the 

development of Lithocolletis blancardella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) and 
its parasite Apanteles ornigis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Can. Entomol., 
vol. Ill, pp. 1177-1184. 

KROMBEIN, K. V., HURD, P. D., SMITH, D. R. & BURKS, B. D. (Eds) 1979. 
Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico. Smithsonian Institu- 
tion Press, Washington, D.C. 2735 pp. 

MAIER, C. T. 1984. Abundance and phenology of parasitoids of the spotted tend- 
form leafminer, Phyllonorycter blancardella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), in 
Connecticut. Can. Entomol., vol. 1 16, pp. 443-449. 



98 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



MARTIN, J. L. 1956. The bionomics of the aspen blotch miner, Lithocolletis 

salicifoliella Cham. (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Can. Entomol.. vol. 88, pp. 

155-168. 
MASON, W. R. M. 1981. The polyphyletic nature of Apanteles Foerster: a 

phylogeny and reclassification of Microgastrinae. Mem. entomol. Soc. 

Canada, no. 115, 147 pp. 
MUESEBECK, C. F. W. 1920. A revision of the North American species of 

ichneumon-flies belonging to the genus Apanteles. Proc. U.S. nat. Mus.. vol. 

58, pp. 483-576. 
, KROMBEIN, K. V. & TOWNES, H. K., et al. 1951. Hymenoptera 

of America North of Mexico. Synoptic catalog. U.S. Department of 

Agriculture Monograph 2. 1420 pp. 
POTTINGER, R. P. & LEROUX, E. J. 1971. The biology and dynamics oi Litho- 
colletis blancardella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) on apple in Quebec. Mem. 

entomol. Soc. Canada, no. 77, 437 pp. 
PUTMAN, W. L. 1935. Notes on the hosts and parasites of some lepidopterous 

larvae. Can. Entomol., vol. 67, pp. 105-109. 
1942. Host plants and parasites of some lepidopterous larvae. Can. 

Entomol.. vol. 74, pp. 219-224. 
VIERECK, H. L., MACGILLIVRAY, A. D., BRUES, C. T., WHEELER, W. M. 

& ROHWER, S. A. 1916. Guide to the insects of Connecticut. Part III. The 

Hymenoptera, or wasp-like insects, of Connecticut. Bull. Conn. State geol. 

nat. Hist. Surv.. vol. 5, no. 22, 824 pp+ 10 pi. 
WEAVER, J. E. & DORSEY, C. K. 1965. Parasites and predators associated with 

five species of leafmining insects in black locust. Ann. entomol. Soc. Am., vol. 

58, 933-934. 
WEED, C. M. 1887. Notes on some Illinois microgasters: with descriptions of new 

species. Bull. III. State Lab. nat. Hist., vol. 3, pp. 1-8. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 99 



NEASTACILLA TATTERSALL. 1921 (CRUSTACEA. ISOPODA): 

REQUEST FOR CONFIRMATION OF ASTACILLA FALCLANDICA 

OHLIN, 1907 AS TYPE SPECIES. Z.N.(S.)2509 



By Helen M. Lew Ton and Gary C. B. Poore (Department of Crustacea, 
Museum of Victoria. Russell Street, Melbourne. Victoria 3000, Australia) 

Application is hereby made for official designation of type species to 
preserve current long-standing usage. The case of misidentified type species 
is being referred to the Commission in accordance with Article 70b of the 
International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. 

2. Tattersall, 1921, p. 243, when erecting the genus Neastacilla 
nominated Astacillafalclandica Ohlin, 1907, as the type species. Subsequent 
examination of the specimen from New Zealand which Tattersall identified 
as Astacilla falclandica has revealed a misidentification. This specimen is 
another species of Neastacilla currently being described by us. That 
Tattersall based the concept of Neastacilla upon the specimen at hand is 
apparent — 'examination of its characteristics has led me to decide [that] 
they are characters of generic importance' (1921, p. 244). Comparison of 
topotypic material o^ Neastacilla falclandica with the New Zealand material 
reveals that both species possess the characters which Tattersall used to 
characterise the genus. For this reason we propose that Astacillafalclandica 
Ohlin, 1907, remain as the type species. 

3. The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature is 
hereby asked to take the following actions: 

(1) to confirm that the type species of the nominal genus Neastacilla 
Tattersall, 1921, is Astacilla falclandica Ohlin, 1907, by original 
designation; 

(2) to place the generic name Neastacilla Tattersall, 1921 (gender: 
feminine), type species, by original designation, Astacilla falc- 
landica, Ohhn, 1907, on the Official List of Generic Names in 
Zoology; 

(3) to place the specific name falclandica Ohlin, 1907, as published 
in the binomen Astacilla falclandica (specific name of the type 
species of Neastacilla, Tattersall, 1921) on the Official List of 
Specific Names in Zoology. 

REFERENCES 

OHLIN, A. 1907. Wiss. Ergebn. schwed. Exped. Magellansland. vol. 2(11), 

pp. 261-306. 
TATTERSALL, W. 1921. Br. Antarct. Terra Nova Exped. 1910 nat. Hist. 

Rep. Zool.. vol. 3(38), pp. 191-258. 



100 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



STRONGYLASPIS SPAETH, 1936 (INSECTA, COLEOPTERA) NON 

STRONGYLASPIS THOMSON, 1860: PROPOSED DESIGNATION 

OF CASSIDA ATRIPES LECONTE, 1859 AS TYPE SPECIES. 

Z.N.(S.)2492 



By Edward G. Riley (Department of Entomology, Louisiana Agricultural 

Station, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center. Baton Rouge, 

LA 70803. U.S.A.) 

Spaeth, 1936 {Entomol. Rundsch., vol. 53, p. 216) proposed the 
generic name Strongylaspis for a species which he identified as Coptocycla 
bisignata Boheman, 1855 {Monographia Cassididarum, p. 1 19), type species 
by original designation and monotypy. Hincks, 1950 {Ann. Mag. nat. Hist.. 
series 12, vol. 3, p. 51 1 ) proposed Strongylocassis as a replacement name for 
Strongylaspis Spaeth because the latter name is preoccupied by Strongylaspis 
Thomson, 1860 {Essai d'une classification de lafamille des cerambycides . . . , 
p. 313); however, in the following discussion Strongylaspis Spaeth rather 
than the valid Strongylaspis Hincks is used in order to simplify as much as 
possible an otherwise complex situation. 

2. There are two items of evidence to indicate that Spaeth based 
the genus Strongylaspis on specimens of Cassida atripes LeConte, 1859 
(Smithson. Contrib. Knowl. vol. 11(6), p. 28) and not, as he believed, on 
Coptocycla bisignata Boheman. 

3. First, I have examined the holotype of Coptocycla bisignata 
Boheman in the Riksmuseum, Stockholm, Sweden and the holotype of 
Cassida atripes LeConte in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Cambridge, Massachusetts and find that Spaeth's detailed description of 
the species before him conforms to the morphology of Cassida atripes but 
not to that of Coptocycla bisignata. Specifically Cassida atripes has toothed 
tarsal claws while those of Coptocycla bisignata are simple, and the clypeal 
sculpture also differs between these species. 

4. Second, three of the four specimens of Cassida atripes in the 
Spaeth collection in Manchester Museum, Manchester, England are 
labelled 'bisignata Spaeth det'. 

5. There is no doubt in my mind that the type species of Strongylaspis 
Spaeth was misidentified by Spaeth, and that he had before him specimens 
of Cassida atripes LeConte not Coptocycla bisignata Boheman. 

6. The two species in question are valid and belong to different 
genera in the tribe Cassidini. Cassida atripes has been accepted as a 
junior synonym of Jonthonota nigripes (Olivier, 1791, Encyclopedic 
methodique . . ., vol. 5(2), p. 384) since it was so listed by Spaeth, 1914 
{Coleopterorum Catalogus. pars 62, p. 120), but this synonymy is in error. 
Cassida atripes and the common North American Jonthonota nigripes are 



Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 101 



neither conspecific nor congeneric. Sanderson & King, 1951 (J. Kans. 
entomol. Soc, vol. 24, p. 126) considered Strongylaspis Spaeth to be a junior 
synonym of Metriona Weise, 1896 (Del. entomol. Z.. p. 13). This synonymy 
is also incorrect since neither Cassida atripes nor Coptocycla bisignata are 
congeneric with Cassida elatior Klug, type species of Metriona. 

7. Since the name Strongylaspis Spaeth was synonymised in error, it 
did not appear as a valid genus in subsequent taxonomic works. Suppres- 
sion of C. bisignata as type species of Strongylaspis would therefore cause 
no major change in the existing taxonomic literature. Cassida atripes 
represents a valid and so far monotypic genus that would be left without a 
name \f bisignata were to be left as type species of Strongylaspis. 

8. As shown in (3) above, Strongylaspis Spaeth, 1936, is based on a 
misidentified species. In accordance with article 70(b) of the Code, the 
Commission is requested to set aside the original type species designation 
and designate Cassida atripes as the type species of Strongylaspis Spaeth, 
1936. This action would eliminate the need for a recharacterisation of 
Strongylaspis Spaeth as well as the need for a new genus to accommodate 
C. atripes. Also this action would preserve the original intention of Spaeth 
by retaining the original entity in the genus he described. For these reasons 
the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature is requested: 

(1) to use its plenary powers to set aside all type designations 
hitherto made for the nominal genus Strongylaspis Spaeth, 
1936, and the replacement name Strongylocassis Hincks, 1950, 
and to designate Cassida atripes LeConte, 1859, as type species 
of that genus; 

(2) to place the specific name atripes LeConte, 1859, as published 
in the binomen Cassida atripes (specific name of the type 
species of Strongylocassis Hincks, 1950, replacement for 
Strongylaspis Spaeth, 1936) on the Official List of Specific 
Names in Zoology; 

(3) to place the generic name Strongylocassis Hincks, 1950, 
(gender: feminine), replacement name for Strongylaspis 
Spaeth, 1936, type species, by designation under the plenary 
powers in (1) above, Cassida atripes LeConte, 1859, on the 
Official List of Generic Names in Zoology. 



102 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1 , April 1986 



NOMADACRIS UVAROV, 1923 (INSECTA, ORTHOPTERA): 
PROPOSED CONSERVATION BY SETTING ASIDE THE FIRST- 
REVISER ACTION OF JAGO, 1981.Z.N.(S.)2525 



By K. H. L. Key {Division of Entomology, CSIRO, Canberra) and 
N. D. Jago {Tropical Development and Research Institute, London) 

Following an extended discussion in the Bulletin of Zoological 
Nomenclature, the International Commission in its Opinion 998 (1973, Bull, 
zool. Nom. vol. 30, pp. 11-19) designated a neotype for Gryllus Locusta 
succinctus Linnaeus, 1763. The effect of this action was to preserve the name 
Patanga succincta (Linnaeus) for use in its accustomed sense for a species 
of economic significance in southern Asia. The generic names Patanga 
Uvarov, 1923 and Valanga Uvarov, 1923, with stated type species, were 
placed on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology. 

2. Uvarov (1923) had estabhshed 19 new generic names in the tribe 
'CYRTACANTHACRiNi' of the family ACRIDIDAE. Thosc established on p. 143, 
in addition to Patanga and Valanga, included Nomadacris and Austracris. 
The group concerned, now treated as the subfamily cyrtacanthacridinae, 
includes also the older genera Cyrtacanthacris Walker, 1870 and Schisto- 
cerca Stal, 1873. Dirsh (1979) synonymised under Cyrtacanthacris the 
names Valanga, Patanga, Austracris. and Nomadacris, but this action was 
contested on taxonomic grounds by Jago (1981), who accepted the last 
three as congeneric, but regarded Cyrtacanthacris and Valanga as distinct. 
Patanga, Austracris, and Nomadacris had been published in the same 
work on the same day. As first reviser, Jago gave precedence to Patanga 
by selecting it as the valid name for the genus. This selection has had the 
unfortunate consequence of changing the generic name of one of the most 
serious pests of agriculture in Africa, the Red Locust, universally known 
since 1923 as Nomadacris septemfasciata (Audinet-Serville, [1838], p. 661). 

3. Not only is the Red Locust a much more serious pest than the 
'Bombay Locust' {Patanga succincta), but it has given rise to a literature 
much more extensive. During the 30 years from 1950 to 1979 inclusive, the 
Review of Applied Entomology {A) listed 114 literature references to 
Nomadacris, as against only 1 8 to Patanga. Replacement of Nomadacris by 
Patanga would be a source of serious confusion in the field of economic 
entomology and of hostility and cynicism on the part of economic entomol- 
ogists, especially in Africa. We are in agreement that the situation calls for 
action by the International Commission under its plenary powers to set 
aside the first-reviser selection of Jago (1981) and to declare that the name 
Nomadacris is to have precedence over Patanga and Austracris as well as all 
of the other new generic names pubHshed by Uvarov (1923) in the event of 
any of those names being treated as synonymous with Nomadacris. None of 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 103 



the names concerned has anything approaching the usage of Nomadachs. 
The considerations supporting such a course of action are completely in line 
with those that largely motivated the Commission in reaching its decision 
under Opinion 998, but are even more compelling. A consequence would be 
that the Bombay Locust would come to be known as Nomadacris succincta 
instead of Patanga succincta, but the evidence of usage adduced above 
suggests that this would be a small price to pay. 

4. We accordingly ask the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature: 

(1) to use its plenary powers: 

(a) to set aside the first-reviser action of Jago, 1981, whereby 
the name Patanga Uvarov, 1923 gained priority over 
Nomadacris Uvarov, 1923 and Austracris Uvarov, 1923; 

(b) to rule that the name Nomadacris has priority over any and 
all of the new generic names published by Uvarov, 1923 
that may be treated as synonymous with it; 

(2) to place the following generic name on the Official List of 
Generic Names in Zoology: Nomadacris Uvarov, 1923 (gender: 
feminine), type species by original designation Acridium 
septemfasciatum Audinet-Serville, [1838], with the indication 
that the name has precedence over every other new generic 
name published by Uvarov (1923); 

(3) to place the following specific name on the Official List of 
Specific Names in Zoology: septemfasciatum Audinet-Serville, 
[1838], as published in the binomen Acridium septemfasciatum 
(type species o^ Nomadacris Uvarov, 1923). 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 

We are grateful for advice from Dr W. D. L. Ride concerning the 
presentation of this application. 



REFERENCES 

AUDINET-SERVILLE, J. G. [1838]. Histoire Naturelle des Insectes. Orthopteres. 
Paris. 

DIRSH, V. M. 1979. The species and synonymy of the genus Cyrtacanthacris 
(Orth., Acrididae). Eos. vol. 53: pp. 35-50. 

JAGO, N. D. 1981. The genus Nomadacris Uvarov, 1923 and its recent incorrect 
synonymy under Cyrtacanthacris Walker, 1870 (Acrididae, Cyrtacantha- 
cridinae), with new nomenclatural changes in the Patanga-Nomadacris- 
Austracris complex. Plant Prot. Bull., India, vol. 33: pp. 39^3. 

LINNAEUS, C. 1763. Centuria Insectorum. Amoen. Acad., vol. 6: p. 398. 

STAL, C. 1873. Recensio Orthopterorum. Revue Critique des Orthopteres decrit par 
Linne, de Geer et Thunberg. I. Stockholm. 



104 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



UVAROV, B. P. 1923. A revision of the Old World Cyrtacanthacrini (Orthoptera, 
Acrididae). — I. Introduction and key to genera. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (9) 
vol. 11: pp. 130-44. 

WALKER, F. 1870. Catalogue of the Specimens of Dermaptera Sanatoria in the 
Collection of the British Museum. Part III. London. 



SUPPORT FOR THE PROPOSED CONSERVATION OF NOMADACRIS 
UVAROV, 1923. Z.N.(S.)2525 

By K. McE. Kevan (Lyman Entomological Museum, Macdonald College Campus of 
McGill University, 21111 Lakeshore Road, Ste Anne de Bellevue, Quebec. Canada, 

H9X1CO) 

I am fully familiar with all the facts of this case, and as a research worker 
actively involved with the taxonomic as well as the nomenclatural and economic 
aspects of the problem, I most strongly urge the Commission to comply with the 
proposal with the utmost expediency. We are here dealing with the name to be used 
for one of the world's most important insect pests, as well as with that for another of 
major economic significance. Delay could result in a dilemma for authors and 
readers in many fields, if not in widespread confusion. 

A decision to give precedence to Nomadacris over Patanga would appear to 
be the correct one, despite the fact that the latter genus, in a taxonomic sense, 
embraces several, not merely a single, species and that at least one of these is of 
major economic significance. Other concerns aside, it is also 'tidier" to relegate 
Patanga to the status of a junior synonym in view of the problems that previously 
existed in respect of the type specimen of its type species (see Opinion 998, Bull. zool. 
Nom. vol. 30, pp. 77-79, 1973). 

It is regretted that temporary inconvenience may be caused to those con- 
cerned with the Asiatic fauna. On subjective and aesthetic grounds I regret the loss 
from valid scientific nomenclature (except perhaps as a subgeneric name) of what is, 
historically, one of the oldest of all appropriately used existing names for an insect 
genus. Patanga, after all, is old Sanskrit for a flying insect pest, even if it has not 
always applied specifically to locusts! 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1 , April 1986 105 



TYPE SPECIES OF THE GENUS CALYMENE BRONGNIART 

(TRILOBITA) IN BRONGNIART & DESMAREST, 1822 AND 

PROPOSED SUPPRESSION OF THE NAME TUBERCULATUS 

BRUNNICH, 1781: RIDER TO Z.N.(S.)637 



By H. B. Whittington (Sedgwick Museum, Cambridge, U.K.) and D. J. 
Siveter (Department of Geology, Hull University, U.K.) 

Whittington (1983, p. 177, paragraph 7(2)) was incorrect in stating 
that Calymena blumenbachii Brongniart in Desmarest, 1817, was the 
type species of Calymene; it is the type species by original designation 
of Calymena, a name which it is requested be suppressed. Calymene 
Brongniart in Brongniart & Desmarest, 1822, was proposed (pp. 9-16) 
to include four species, C blumenbachii, C. tristani, C. variolaris, and 
C macrophtalma (presumably an inadvertent error, and should be written 
C. macrophthalmus). The designation of the type species of Calymene by 
Bassler (1915, p. 165) as C. tuberculata "Bronn." (The latter is presumably 
a misprint for "Brunn"., used on p. 476 by Bassler as an abbreviation for 
Briinnich) is invalid since this species was not originally included in the 
genus by Brongniart. The earliest valid selection of a type species known to 
us is that by Shirley (1933, p. 52-53) who chose the first-named species in 
Brongniart's list, C. blumenbachii Brongniart in Desmarest, 1817. 

2. Shirley (1933) selected as lectotype of C blumenbachii a well- 
preserved specimen used by Brongniart in his original description, and des- 
cribed it in detail. Shirley also drew attention to C tuberculata (Briinnich, 
1781) as an older name for the species C blumenbachii, from the Silurian 
Wenlock Limestone ( = Much Wenlock Limestone Formation) of Dudley, 
West Midlands, England. He examined the type material of C tuberculata 
and considered it inadequate and the species as poorly described. Shirley 
therefore considered the name tuberculata for a species of Calymene 'must 
be allowed to fall' (Shirley, 1933, p. 53). In earlier years continental authors 
(Lindstrom, 1885, p. 63; Schmidt, 1907, p. 53; Kegel, 1927, p. 619, text fig. 
2a) had used the name tuberculata rather than blumenbachii for species of 
Calymene of this type from the Silurian Wenlock Limestone. Since Shirley's 
work in 1933, however, authors (for example Whittington, 1959, p. 452; 
Campbell, 1967, p. 24; Haas, 1968, pp. 97-100; Schrank, 1970, pp. 134-8; 
Siveter, 1983, p. 70) have followed him and used the name C. blumenbachii 
for the type species of the genus; R. and E. Richter, (1954, p. 19) cited 
C. tuberculata as a synonym of C. blumenbachii. 

3. Siveter (1986) has re-examined and described in detail the type 
material of C. tuberculata and C. blumenbachii, and shown that these 



106 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



specimens are very similar and should be regarded as belonging to a 
single species. Both lectotypes come from the Much Wenlock Limestone 
Formation of the Dudley area, England. Thus there is now strong subjec- 
tive evidence that the two names are synonyms. In the interests of stability 
in nomenclature the desirable course is to legalise the practice advocated by 
Shirley, a practice that has been followed by authors during the past 50 
years. 

4. The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature is 
accordingly asked, in addition to the requests 1-4 in paragraph 7 of 
Whittington, 1983: 

(1) to note that the type species, Calymena blumenbachii 
Brongniart in Desmarest, 1817, of the genus Calymene 
Brongniart, 1822, was not originally designated by Brongniart, 
but subsequently designated by Shirley, 1933, p. 53; 

(2) to use its plenary powers to suppress the specific name 
tuberculatus , published in the binomen Trilobus tuberculatus 
Briinnich, 1781 (p. 389), for the purposes of the Principle of 
Priority but not for those of the Principle of Homonymy. 



REFERENCES 

BASSLER, R. S. 1915. Bibliographic Index of American Ordovician and Silurian 

fossils. U.S. nat. Mus. Bull. 92, 2 vols. 
BRONGNIART, A. & DESMAREST A. G. 1822. Histoire naturelle des Crustaces 

fossiles. Paris. 
BRUNNICH, 1781. Beskrivelse over Trilobiten, en Dyreslaegt og dens Arten, med 

en nye Arts Aftegning. Nye Saml. k. danske Skr., vol. 1, p. 389. 
CAMPBELL, K. S. W. 1967. Bull. Oklahoma geol. Surv., vol. 115, pp. 1-68, pis. 

1-19. 
DESMAREST, A. G. 1817. in Nouv. Diet. Hist, nat., 2nd ed., vol. 8, p. 517-518. 
HAAS, W. 1968. Palaeontographiea, vol. A 130, pp. 60-207, pis. 26-37. 
KEGEL, W. 1927. Jahrb. preuss. geol. Landes., vol. 48, pp. 616-647, pis. 31, 32. 
LINDSTROM, G. 1885. Ofvers. K. Vetensk.-Akad. ForhandL. no. 6, pp. 37-99, pis. 

12-16. 
RICHTER, R. & RICHTER, E. 1954, Abh. senck. naturforsch. Ges., vol. 488, pp. 

1-76, pis. 1-6. 
SCHMIDT, F. 1907. Mem. I'Acad. imp. Sci. St Petersbourg, Ser. VIII, vol. 30, no. 8, 

pp. xv + 104, pis. 1-3. 
SCHRANK, E. 1970. Ber. deutsch. Ges. geol. Wiss.. A., Geol.-Palaont., vol. 15, pp. 

109-146, pis. 1-12. 
SHIRLEY, J. 1933. Mem. Proc. Manchester lit. phil. Soc., vol. 77, pp. 51-67, pi. 1. 
SIVETER, D. J. 1983. Special Papers in Palaeontology, no. 30, pp. 69-88, pis. 7-10. 
1986. The type species of Calymene (Trilobita) from the Silurian of Dudley, 

England. Palaeontology, vol.' 28(4), pp. 783-792, pis. 90-91. 
WHITTINGTON, H. B. 1959. Treatise on Invertebrate Palaeontology, vol. 0, 

Arthropoda 1, p. 0.452. 
1983. Bull. zool. Nam., vol. 40, part 3, pp. 176-178. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 107 



DATES AND AUTHORSHIP OF THE TEXT VOLUMES OF THE 

HISTOIRE NATURELLE SECTION OF SAVIGNY'S DESCRIPTION 

DE L'EGYPTE Z.N.(S.)2515 



By M. E. Tollitt (The Secretariat, International Commission on Zoological 

Nomenclature) 

The dates of the Histoire naturelle section of M. J. C. L. de Savigny's 
Description del'Egypte have always been somewhat obscure. The authorship 
of one of the parts is also contentious. Nevertheless, the work has long 
been recognised as being of major importance in zoological literature as it 
contains accounts of many new taxa. It is important therefore to reach a 
consensus on its authorship and dating. 

2. The full title of 'Egypte' is Description de I'Egypte, ou recueil des 
observations et des recherches qui ont ete faites en Egypte pendant I'expedi- 
tion de I'armee frangaise, public par les ordres de sa Majeste I'Empereur 
Napoleon le Grand. The first edition of the Histoire naturelle section consists 
of five volumes, three of double folio-sized plates (71-5 x 52 cm), of which 
volumes 1 and 2 contain zoological material (volume 2bis being botanical 
and mineralogical plates) and two folio-sized volumes (39 x 24 cm) of text. 
The plates were almost certainly published independently of the text 
volumes and over several years. Consequently their dating constitutes a 
separate problem and is not dealt with in this paper (but see Pallary, 
1934). Volume 1 of the text volumes consists of four discrete parts. Volume 
2, although containing several individual contributions, is not expressed in 
parts. 

3. Sherborn, 1897, made the first complete analysis of the dates and 
authors of the zoological portions of the text of the Histoire naturelle 
section and because of the meticulous nature of his work and the general 
familiarity with his conclusions it is his guidelines I shall follow. 

4. Volume 1, part 1, Histoire naturelle des Poissons du Nil by 
Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (pp. 1-52) and Systeme des Oiseaux de 
I'Egypte et de la Syrie by Marie Jules-Cesar Lelorgne de Savigny (pp. 
63-1 14; pp. 53-62 dealing with botanical topics) are given by Sherborn as 
pubhshed in 1809. This date agrees with that given by Isidore GeoflFroy 
Saint-Hilaire, 1847, p. 425, for this part of his father's contribution. The 
remaining parts of zoological interest in volume 1 , part 1 , are Description 
des Reptiles qui se trouvent en Egypte by Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (pp. 
115-120 with pp. 121-160 by his son Isidore), Explication Sommaire des 
Planches de Reptiles (supplement) by Jean Victor Audouin (pp. 161-184), 
Description des Crocodiles de I'Egypte by E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (pp. 
185-264), Suite de I'histoire naturelle des Poissons du Nil (pp. 265-310) by I. 
Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire and Histoire naturelle des Poissons de la Mer Rouge 
et de la Mediterranee (pp. 311-343) also by I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. 



108 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



Sherborn considers all these parts as having been published in the same 
year, 1827. This date is in agreement with I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1847, as 
far as his own contributions are concerned but he dates his father's parts, 
'Reptiles' and 'Crocodiles' , as 1809 and 1829 respectively. However, as 
Sherborn points out (p. 286), this conflicts with a footnote Isidore gives in 
du Petit-Thouars, 1855, p. 2, which dates the herpetological and ichthyolo- 
gical parts as 1827. Thus, to standardise the dates of all these parts of 
volume 1, part 1, as 1827 would clearly be in the interests of stability. 

5. Volume 1, part 2, Tableau systematique des Ascidiens ... by M. J. 
C. L. de Savigny (pp. 1-58) is, as Sherborn notes, of minor significance 
because all the specific names were published by Savigny in Memoires sur 
les Animaux sans Vertebres published in 1816. Consequently no date for this 
part is given. 

6. Volume 1 , part 3, Systeme des Annelides by M. J. C. L. de Savigny 
(pp. 1-128) Sherborn attributes, with Httle doubt, to a publication date of 
1822. 

7. Volume 1, part 4, Explication sommaire des Planches, consists of 
ten zoological sections: Mollusques (pp. 1-56), Annelides (pp. 57-76), 
Crustaces (pp. 77-98), Arachnides (pp. 99-186), Insectes (pp. 187-202), 
Echinodermes (pp. 203-212), Zoophytes (pp. 213-214), Ascidies (pp. 
215-224), Polypes (pp. 225-244) and Oiseaux (pp. 251-318). In this part 
both authorship and date are uncertain due to the fact that Savigny, who is 
occasionally cited as co-author with Audouin, began to lose his sight and 
his precise contribution to the work is a moot point. 

8. Savigny's faiHng sight is highlighted by the footnote in Sherborn's 
paper referring to Cailliaud, 1827, p. 271. In this work Cailliaud states: 

'M. Savigny, de I'academie royale des sciences, s'etait charge de 
cette partie relative aux insectes; mais une ophthalmic de plus 
graves et plus opiniatres I'a force de renoncer a toute espece de 
travail.' 

9. Confirmation of Savigny's eventual total loss of sight is given by 
Pallary, 1926, p. 3, who notes: 

'Malheureusment durant son sejour en Egypte, Savigny avait 
contracte une maladie d'yeux qui, sous I'influence des fatigues 
occasionnees par I'examen des etres microscopiques qu'il etudiait, 
evolua rapidement et se changea, en 1 824, en une cecite complete. 
Une maladie nerveuse vint encore, helas! aggraver son etat en lui 
rendant tout travail intellectuel impossible, il ne put publier le texte 
qui aurait du accompagner ses planches.' 

10. Sherborn was in no doubt as to the authorship of volume 1, part 
4. He attributed it solely to Jean Victor Audouin as he apparently had to 
begin the work again from the beginning, because Savigny did not pass any 
of his manuscripts on to him after he went blind. 

11. Bonnet, 1945, p. 551, discussing the arachnid section o^ Explica- 
tion sommaire des Planches, arrives at a different conclusion regarding 
authorship. He states: 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 109 



'P'apres explications donnees au debut de Particle, Savigny avait 
deja redige la description des Arachnides, jusqu'a la planche 4, 
lorsque, malade, il fut oblige d'interrompre ses travaux. Audouin, 
charge de terminer ce travail, a repris ces descriptions, en les 
adoptant, sous la forme de ses Explications sommaires et en y 
ajoutant les descriptions des autres planches. II n'en est pas moins 
vrai que la part de Savigny dans cet article est importante, surtout 
que la publication des planches lui appartient completement, et que 
de nombreux noms nouveaux de genres et d'especes sont de lui. 
C'est la raison pour laquelle I'article, qui est uniquement signe 
d'Audouin, me parait devoir etre mis comme fait en collaboration 
par ces deux auteurs et qu'on doit le leur attribuer sous la forme: 
[Savigny (J. C.) & Audouin].' 

12. Whether this is accurate fact or sentiment for the ailing Savigny 
is arguable. What is clear however, is the extent to which authors differ in 
their interpretation of both the authorship and date of volume 1, part 4. For 
example: 

Bonnet, 1947, p. 2629, attributes Lycosa tarentulina (Arachnida) to 

Savigny & Audouin, 1825; 
Bouchet & Danrigal, 1982, p. 15, attribute Bursatella savigniana 

(Mollusca) to Audouin, 1826; 
Doderlein, 1921, p. 240, attributes Asterias savignyi (Echinoder- 

mata) to Audouin, 1824; 
Pallary, 1926, p. 25, attributes Bursatella savigniana (Mollusca) to 

Audouin 1827; 
Perrier, 1875, p. 340, attributes Asterias savignyi (Echinodermata) 

to Audouin, 1809; 
Roewer, 1954, p. 1572, attributes Lycosa tarentulina (Arachnida) 
to Audouin, 1827; 

1958, p. 250, attributes Lycosa tarentulina (Arachnida) to 

Audouin, 1824. 

13. In general, most workers tend to cite Audouin alone as the 
author of Explication sommaire des Planches, probably as a result of 
Sherborn's original paper. Thus, in following Sherborn's analysis, the 
author and date of volume 1, part 4, Explication sommaire des Planches 
may be cited as J. V. Audouin, [1826]. 

14. In volume 2, the sections dealing with zoological topics are 
Description des Mammiferes qui se trouvent en Egypte by E. Geoffroy Saint- 
Hilaire (pp. 99-144) published, according to Sherborn, in 1818, with 
Description des Mammiferes qui se trouvent en Egypte by E. Geoffroy 
Saint-Hilaire and J. V. Audouin (pp. 733-743) and Description sommaire 
des Mammiferes carnassiers qui se trouvent en Egypte (pp. 744-750) by J. V. 
Audouin published in 1829. 

1 5. For the removal of uncertainty of both dates of publication and 
authorship, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature is 
requested to: 



1 10 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



(1) rule that the authors and dates of publication of the zoological 
portions of the text volumes of the Histoire naturelle section of 
Marie Jules-Cesar Lelorgne de Savigny's Description de 
I'Egypte are to be taken as set out in Sherborn, 1897; 

(2) place the zoological portions of the text volumes of the Histoire 
naturelle section of Marie Jules-Cesar Lelorgne de Savigny's 
Description de I'Egypte on the Official List of Works approved 
as available for Zoological Nomenclature. 



REFERENCES 

BONNET, P. 1945. Bibliographia Araneorum, vol. 1, xvii + 832 pp. Toulouse. 

1957. Bibliographia Araneorum, vol. 2(3), pp. 1927-3026. Toulouse. 

BOUCHET, P. & DANRIGAL, F. 1982. Napoleon's Egyptian Campaign 

(1798-1801) and the Savigny Collection of Shells. The Nautilus, vol. 96(1), 

pp. 9-24. 
CAILLIAUD, F. 1827. Voyage a Meroe et aufleuve blanc, vol. 4, 416 pp. 
DODERLEIN, L. 1921. Die Gattung Luidia und Ihre Stammesgeschichte. Siboga- 

Exped., vol. 46b, pp. 193-291. 
DU PETIT-THOUARS, A. A. 1855. Voyage autour de Monde sur la fregate La 

Venus Commandee par Abel du Petit-Thouars , iii + 351 pp., Gide et Baudry, 

(Eds). Paris. 
GEOFFROY SAINT-HILAIRE, I. 1847. Vie. Travaux et Doctrine Scientifique 

D'Etienne Geojfroy Saint-Hilaire. 479 pp. Paris, Strasbourg. 
PALLARY, P. M. 1926. Explication des Planches de J. C. Savigny. Mem. Inst. 

Egypte, vol. 1 1, pp. 1-138. 
1934. Marie Jules-Cesar Savigny. Sa vie et son oeuvre. Mem. Inst. Egypte, vol. 

23, pp. 1-202. 
PERRIER, J. O. E. 1875. Revision de la Collection de Stellerides du Museum 

d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris. 384pp. Paris. 
ROEWER, C. F. 1954. Katalog der Aranaea, vol. 2, part B, pp. 1291-1751. 

Bruxelles. 

1958. Araneae Lycosaeformia //(Lycosidae). 518 pp. Bruxelles. 

SHERBORN, C. D. 1897. On the Dates of the Natural History portion of Savigny's 

'Description de I'Egypte'. Proc. zool. Soc. London. 1897, pp. 285-288. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



111 



APPENDIX 

SUMMARY OF AUTHORSHIP AND PUBLICATION DATES OF THE 

ZOOLOGICAL PORTIONS OF THE TEXT VOLUMES OF THE HISTOIRE 

NATURELLE SECTION OF DESCRIPTION DE L'EGYPTE 

Based on Sherborn, 1897 



lume 


Part 


Pages 


Author(s) 


Date 






1-52 


E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 


1809 






63-114 


M. J. C. L. de Savigny 


1809 






115-120 


E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 


1827 






121-160 


I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 


1827 






161-184 


J. V. Audouin 


1827 






185-264 


E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 


1827 






265-310 


I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 


1827 






311-343 


I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 


1827 




2 


1-58 


M. J. C. L. de Savigny 


Not given 




3 


1-128 


M. J. C. L. de Savigny 


1822 




4 


1-318 


J. V. Audouin 


1826 


2 


— 


99-144 


E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 


1818 


2 


— 


733-743 


E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire & J. V. Audouin 


1829 


2 


— 


744^750 


J. V. Audouin 


1829 



N.B. There is a misprint on p. 286 of Sherborn's paper, four lines from the bottom 
of the page. For Vol. II read Vol. I. 



112 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 



TUBULANUS RENIER, [1804] AND T. POLYMORPHUS RENIER, 

[1804] (POLYCHAETA): PROPOSED REINSTATEMENT UNDER 

THE PLENARY POWERS. Z.N.(S.)1094 



By R. V. Melville (formerly Secretary, International Commission on 
Zoological Nomenclature) 

In Opinion 316 (1954) the Commission rejected the Prospetto della 
Classe dei Vermi of Renier, [1804] as not having been duly published, and 
ruled that no name became available through its appearance in that work. 
The late Dr Henning Lemche applied for the reinstatement of a number of 
Renier's names; the present case appears to be the last of those not dealt 
with before Dr Lemche's death in 1977. 

2. There are two possible ways of dealing with Renier's names. One 
is to rule that they are available from 1 804; the other would be to accept 
them from Meneghini's Osservazioni postume di Zoologia adriatica del 
Professore S. A. Renier (Venice, 1847). The disadvantage of the former 
course (which has always been followed by the Commission and is adopted 
here) is that it is difficult for zoologists to find out exactly what Renier said; 
the disadvantage of the latter course is that it may convert junior synonyms 
of 1804 names into senior synonyms of 1847 names, which can only be con- 
served by the suppression of any senior synonyms proposed between 1804 
and 1847. The disadvantage of the former course is, I hope, alleviated by 
the reproduction of the 1804 descriptions in question. 

3. Dr Ray Gibson {Department of Biology, Liverpool Polytechnic, 
Liverpool, U.K.) has given invaluable help in the preparation of this case, 
and this is gratefully acknowledged. 

4. Tubulanus and T. polymorphus appear on p. xx of the Prospetto 
della Classe dei Vermi as follows: 

"VII. XXIX TUBULANO TUBULANUS TUBULAN. Renier. (e) 

29 57 Tubulano moltiforme T. Polymorphus T. Polymorphe Renier. (0" 

Tubulanus is described at footnote e as follows: 'Gli Animali che formano 
questo nuovo genere, a mia cognizione da altri ne descritti ne osservati, 
sono privi di qualunque organo esteriore, ne hanno annelli di sorte alcuna. 
La loro figura e variabile. Quando sono in distensione naturale, hanno una 
figura cilindrica molto prolungata, decrescente verso I'estremita posteriore. 
L'estremita anteriore e rotundata. Presso il cominciare di questa estremita 
ha I'Animale uno strozzamento, mediante il quale vi apparisce come una 
testa rotonda. Nella parte inferiore, subito dopo questo strozzamento, vi e 
la bocca longitudinale, con due labbri rialzati laterali di colore bianco. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1, April 1986 113 



Tutto il remanente esterno del corpo e di colore castagno. L'interno dell' 
Animale e senza visceri. La sua costruzione sembra a quella di un Tubo 
vivente formate di due grosse Tonache aderenti. Queste Tonache sono 
Tuna deiraltra facilmente distinguibili, e non difficilmente separabili. 
Hanno color diverso. La esteriore sembra essere muscolare, perche quando 
I'animale e prossimo a decomporsi, si remarcano in essa delle fibre, 
specialmente circolari; e queste gli si travedono anco ad animal vivo, 
laddove exeguisce una qualche forta contrazione. II color di questa Tonaca 
e roseo coll'orlo esteriore, ossia Tintegumento esterno, di color castagno. 
La seconda Tonaca e di color croceo carico, di sostanza piii molle e quasi 
polposa. La parte di essa, che guarda e forma Tinterno e papillosa a papille 
laciniate disposte in ordine transversale. Questi Vermi, che per caratteri 
Generici mi sembrano diversificare da quelle degli altri Generi fin ora 
stabiliti, vengono a costituire un Genere nuovo. Gli ho dato il nome 
generico di Tubulano, dalla lora conformazione simile a quella di un Tubo.' 

5. Tubulanus polymorphus is described at footnote fas follows: 'Gli 
Animali di questa specie, Tunica fin qui che forma questo Genere, hanno 
molta vivacita, ed una contrattilita somma, per la quale nella semplice loro 
organizazione vengono continuamente a cambiarsi di figura, specialmente 
coir ingrossarsi, assotigliarsi, rotondarsi, appianarsi, restringersi e dilatarsi 
ora in questa ora in quella parte del corpo. Da questa loro varazione di 
forma ho per questi Vermi desunto il nome specifico di Moltiforme. In 
istato di estensione naturale arrivono alia lunghezza di sei pollici circa, e di 
larghezza circa di tre linee. Vivono nel Mare. Nel mio Saggio ne dato la 
descrizione e I'anatomia con le figure.' 

6. In 1833 — that is between the date assigned to Renier's [1804] 
work and Meneghini's Oservazioni of 1847 — George Johnston described 
as new a worm that he called Carinella trilineata (Loudon's Mag. nat. Hist. 
vol. 6, pp. 232-233). That name has been regarded as a synonym of 
Tubulanus polymorphus since at least 1905 (Burger, in Bronn's Thier Reich, 
vol. 4, Suppl., Nemertini, Lfg 23-26, p. 406). tubulanidae Burger, 1905, p. 
405 has been adopted in place of the senior name carinellidae Mcintosh, 
1874, Monograph of British marine annelida (Ray Soc), vol. 1, pt. 1, p. 203, 
and should be cited with the date "1905 (1874)". 

7. In 1955 the late Dr Lemche gave the following citations of the use 
of Tubulanus and of T. polymorphus as valid names: Delle Chiaje, 1829, 
Mem. stor. nat. not. Anim. s. vert, regno Napoli, Mem. 4, pi. 62, figs 8, 12; 
Fauvel, 1928, Faune de France vol. 16. p. 77; Claus-Grobben-Kiihn, 1932, 
Lehrb. Zool, ed. 10, p. 534; Hyman, 1951, Invertebrates vol. 2, p. 497 
(also tubulanidae); Fauna Japan, rev. ed., 1953, p. 1474. Dr Gibson adds 
Friedrich, H. 1979, in Seidel, F. ed., Morphogenese der Tiere, Lief .D5-I, 136 
pp.; Gibson, R., 1982a, in Parker, S. P. ed., Syn. Class, living Organisms 
(New York, McGraw-Hill), vol. 1, pp. 823-846; 1982b, British Nemerteans. 
Linn. Soc. Syn. brit. Fauna, n.s. No. 24, 212 pp. 

8. The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature is 
accordingly requested: 



1 14 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 1 , April 1 986 



(a) to use its plenary powers to rule that the generic name Tubulanus 
and the specific name polymorphus in the binomen Tubulanus 
polymorphus are to be deemed to be published and available 
from their use by Renier (S.A.), [1804], Prospetto della Classe 
del Vermi, a work rejected as not properly published in 
Opinion 316 and placed on the Official Index of Rejected and 
Invalid Works in Zoological Nomenclature with the Title No. 
25; 

(b) to place the generic name Tubulanus Renier, [1804] (gender: 
masculine); type species, by monotypy, Tubulanus polymorphus 
Renier, 1804, as deemed in (a) above to be pubHshed and 
available, on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology; 

(c) to place the specific name polymorphus Renier, [1804], as 
published in the binomen Tubulanus polymorphus (specific 
name of type species of Tubulanus Renier, [1804], as deemed in 
(a) above to be published and available, on the Official List of 
Specific Names in Zoology; 

(d) to place the family-group name tubulanidae Biirger, 1905 
(type genus Tubulanus Renier, 1804) (a name having pre- 
cedence over its senior subjective synonym carinellidae 
Mcintosh, 1874 (type genus Carinella Johnston, 1833) under 
Article 40b) on the Official List of Family-Group Names in 
Zoology with the date 1905 (1874). 



Opinion 1379. Gonodontes rectisectaria Herrich-SchafTer, [1855] and 

Pero Herrich-Schaffer, 1855 (Insecta, Lepidoptera) 37 

Opinion 1380. £M/7/ia^tyra Hiibner, [1819] (Insecta, Lepidoptera) ... 39 

Opinion 1381. OMro(7if'm/.v Baker, 1887 (Insecta, Lepidoptera) . ... 42 

Opinion 1382. Ze«go/j/iorfl Kunze, 1818 (Insecta, Coleoptera) .... 44 

New and revived cases 

rn'ojcjca/iMj Dumbleton, 1966(Lepidoptera). J. S. Dugdaie 46 

Dasyurus hallucatus Gould, 1842 (Mammalia, Marsupialia). J. A. 

' Mahoney & W. D. L. Ride 50 

Cholus Germar, 1824 and Archarias Dejean, 1821 (Insecta, Coleoptera). 

C.W. O'Brien & G.J. Wibmer 55 

Drvophthorus Germar, 1824 and Bulbifer Dejean, 1821 (Insecta, Coleop- 
tera). C. W. O'Brien & G. Osella 58 

Lachnopus Schoenherr, 1840, Menoetius Dejean, 1821 and Ptilopus 

Schoenherr, 1823 (Insecta, Coleoptera). C. W. O'Brien & G. J. 

Wibmer 62 

Nemocestes Van Dyke, 1936 (Insecta, Coleoptera). C. W. O'Brien . . 66 
Zygops Schoenherr, 1825 and Eccoptus Dejean, 1821 (Insecta, Coleop- 
tera). C. W. O'Brien & G. J. Wibmer 69 

Cidaris clavigera Mantel!, 1822 (Echinoidea, Cidaroidea) as type species 

of rWonV/amPomel, 1883. C.W. Wright & A. B.Smith .... 72 

Ammonites perarmatus J. Sowerby, 1822 (Cephalopoda, Ammonoidea). 

M. K. Howarth 75 

C/a«5///fl Draparnaud. 1805 (Mollusca. Gastropoda). R. V. Melville . . 78 

De la Cepede, 1788-1789. "Histoire Naturelie des Serpens', proposed 

rejection as a non-binominal work. R. V. Melville 80 

ATYIDAE De Haan, [1849] (Crustacea. Decapoda) and ATYIDAE 

Thiele, 1926 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) T. K. Crosby «& A. Carpenter 84 

Carcharias Rafinesque, 1810 (Chondrichthyes, Lamniformes). L. J. V. 

Compagno& W. I. FoUett 89 

Pyralis nigricana Fabricius, 1794 and Phalaena rusticella Clerck, 1759 

(Insecta, Lepidoptera). P. R. Seymour 93 

Apanteles ornigis Weed. 1887 and Microgaster robiniae Fitch, 1859 

(Insecta. Hymenoptera). J. B. Whitfield 96 

Neastacilla Tatlersall, 1921 and Astacilla falclandica Ohlin, 1907 H. M. 

Lew Ton & G. C. B. Poore 99 

Sirongylaspis Spaeth, 1936 (Insecta, Coleoptera) non Strongylaspis 

Thomson, 1860 and Cassida atripes LeConte, 1859. E. G. Riley . . 100 

Nomadacris Uvarov. 1923 (Insecta, Orthoptera): proposed setting aside 

of first-reviser action of Jago, 1981. K. H. L. Key & N. D. Jago; 

comment by K. McE. Kevan 102 

Calymene Brongniart (Trilobita) in Brongniart & Desmarest, 1822 and 

Trilobus tuberculatus Briinnich, 1781. H. B. Whittington & D. J. 

Siveter 105 

Dates and authorship of the text volumes of Histoire Naturelie Section 

of Savigny's Description de I'Egypte. M. E. Tollitt 107 

Tuhulanm Renier. [1804] and T. polvmorphus Renier [1804] (Polychaeta) 

R.V.Melville 112 

The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature wishes to express 
its appreciation of the facilities provided by the Trustees of the British 
Museum (Natural History) for the Secretariat of the Commission. 



CONTENTS 



Page 

i 



Officers and Members of the Commission 

Membersof the International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature . . ii 

Notices 1 

Special Announcements 3 

Comments 

On the proposed amendment to Article 51c of the International Code of 

Zoological Nomenclature. G. C. Steyskal, N. E. Woodley, A. 

Freidberg, R. C. Froeschner, W. N. Mathis, N. L. Evenhuis; C. L. 

Staines 4 

On the proposed completion of the Official List entry for Rhabditis 

Dujardin,[1855](Nematoda). W.Grant Inglis; R.V.Melville . . 5 

Sur CAECILIIDAE chez les Amphibiens et chez les Psocopteres. A. 

Dubois 6 

On the application concerning Robertas O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1879 

(Arachnida, Araneae). O. I^craus; B. J. Kaston; K. Thaler . ... 7 

On the proposed conservation of Laspeyresia Hiibner. [1825] (Insecta, 

Lepidoptera). I. M. Kerzhner & V. I. Kuznetsov; J. D. Bradley . . 8 

On the proposed conservation o( Hyla lactea Daudin, 1803 (Amphibia). 

H.M.Smith 9 

On the proposed grant of precedence to THRESKIORNITHIDAE 

Richmond, 1917 (Aves) over PLATALEINAE Bonaparte, 1838. 

K. E. Campbell; A. R. Phillips; S. L. Olson, A. M. Rea & P. 

Brodkorb 10 

On the proposed conservation oi Sout hernia Allgen, 1929 by the suppres- 
sion of Sowr/ier/j/a Filipjev, 1927 (Nematoda). W. Grant Inglis . . 13 
On the proposed conservation of Dapsilarthra Foerster, 1862 (Insecta, 

Hymenoptera). Executive Secretary 14 

Opinions 

Opinion 1369. /^.jraaV/aCordiner, 1793 (Crustacea, Isopoda) .... 15 

Opinion lilO. Neadmele okulanii Petit, 1974 (Mollusca, Gastropoda). . 17 

Opinion 1371. Pachycephalosaurus Brown & Schlaikjer, 1943 and 

Troo^on u>'om/«g^«mGilmore, 1931 (Reptilia, Dinosauria) . . . 19 

Opinion 1372. Donax hanleyanusPh\\\px>\, 1847 (Mollusca, Bivalvia) . . 21 

Opinion 1373. Panesthia saussurii Wood-Mason, 1876 and Caeparia 

Stal, 1877 (Insecta, Dictyoptera) 23 

Opinion 1374. fio/ga Fitzinger, 1826 (Reptilia, Serpentes) 25 

Opinion 1375. GlossodorisEhvenhevg, 1831, HypselodorisSixm^son, 1855 

and Chromodoris Alder & Hancock, 1 855 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) . 27 

Opinion 1376. Cuspidaria (Rhinoclama) adamsHAoxgan SLHtTp^ieW, 1981 

(Mollusca, Bivalvia) 30 

Opinion 1377. Chelydra osceola Stejneger, 1918 (Reptilia, Testudines), 

given nomenclatural precedence over C. laticarinata Hay, 1916 and 

C. sculptaH&y, \9\(i 33 

Opinion 1378. Phalaena bellatrix Stoll, 1780 and Crinodes Herrich- 

Schaffer, 1855 (Insecta, Lepidoptera) 35 

Continued on Inside Back Cover 
Printed in Great Britain by Henry Ling Ltd.. at the Dorset Press, Dorchester, Dorset 



pp. iii-iv, 115-220 



ISSN 0007-5167 



The Bulletin 
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Nomenclature 



BRITISH MUrru: 
(NATURH HI' 



I vHY 



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The Official Organ of the International 
Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 




CAB. INTERNATIONAL 



The Bulletin of Zoological 
Nomenclature 



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On behalf of: International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature 
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mechanically, by photocopying, recording or otherwise, 
without the prior permission of the copyright owner. 



THE INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON 
ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE 

A. The Officers of the Commission 

President: Dr. W.D.L. RIDE (School of Applied Science, Canberra College of 

Advanced Education, P.O. Box 1, Belconnen, A.C.T. 2616, Australia) 
Vice-President: Prof. Dr. Raphael ALVARADO ( Departamento de Zoologia. 

Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Madrid, Madrid 28040, Spain) 
Executive Secretary: Dr. P.K. TUBBS (British Museum '(Natural History) 

Cromwell Road, London S W7 5BD) . 
Secretary-General: Dr. L.B. HOLTHUIS (Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historic 

Postbus 951 7, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands) . 

B. The Members of the Commission 

(Arranged in order of election or of most recent re-election) 

Prof. Dr. Raphael ALVARADO (Departamento de Zoologia. Facultad de Ciencias 
Universidad de Madrid, Madrid 28040, Spain) (30 September 1972) (Vice- 
President) Echinoidea; Asteroidea 

Dr. L.B. HOLTHUIS (Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historic, Postbus 9517 2300 
RA Leiden, The Netherlands) (30 September 1972) (Secretary-General) 
Crustacea 

Dr. G. BERNARDI (Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 45 rue de Buffon 

75005, Paris, France) (30 September 1972) (Councillor) Lepidoptera 
Prof. C. DUPUIS (Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 45 rue de Buffon 75005 

Paris, France) (30 September 1972) Heteroptera 
Dr. M. MROCZKOWSKI (Instytut Zoologiczny, Polska Akademia Nauk ul 

micza 64. Warsaw, Poland) (14 March 1975) Coleoptera 
Prof. Dr. Otto KRAUS ( Zoologisches Institut und Zoologisches Museum 2000 

Hamburg 13, Germany) (29 September 1 976) Arachnida, Myriapoda 
Dr. W.D.L. RIDE (School of Applied Science, Canberra College of Advanced 

Education, P.O. Box 1, Belconnen, A.C.T. 2616, Australia) (29 September 1976) 

(President): Mammalia: Recent and Fossil 
Dr. H.G. COGGER (Australian Museum, Sydney 2000, N.S.W. Australia) (29 

September 1976) Reptilia: E D P Methods 
Prof. Dr. Gerhard HAHN (Fachbereich Geowissenschaften, Universitdtsgebiet 

Lahnberge, 3550 Marburg, BRD) (27 December 1978) Palaeontology 
Prof. Dr. O. HALVORSEN (Institute of Biology and Geology, University of 

Tromso, P.O. Box 790, N-9001 Tromso. Norway) (27 December 1978) 

Parasitology 
Dr. V.A. TRJAPITZIN (Zoological Institute. Academy of Sciences. Leningrad 

B-164. USSR) {11 December 1978) Entomology 
Dr. P.M. BAYER (U.S. National Museum of Natural History. Washington D C 

20560. U.S.A.) (23 August 1979) (Councillor) Octocorallia; Systematics ' 
Prof. John O. CORLISS (University of Maryland. College Park. Maryland 20742 

U.S.A.) (23 August 1979) Protozoa; Systematics 
Mr. R.V. MELVILLE (93 Lock Road. Ham. Richmond. Surrey TWIO 7LL UK) 

(23 August 1979) Palaeontology 
Dr. Y.I. STAROBOGATOV (Zoological Institute. Academy of Sciences Leningrad 

199164. U.S.S.R.) (23 August 1979) MoUusca, Crustacea 



Dr. P.T. LEHTINEN (Zoological Museum. Department of Biology. University of 

Turku. SF-20500 Turku 50. Finland) (8 August 1980) Arachnida 
Dr. L.R.M. COCKS (British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road. London 

SW7 5BD) (26 August 1982) Brachiopoda 
Mr. David HEPPELL (Department of Natural History, Royal Scottish Museum, 

Edinburgh EHl IJF, Scotland) (26 August 1982) (Councillor) Mollusca 
Prof. Jay M. SAVAGE (Department of Biology. University of Miami, P.O. Box 

249118. Coral Gables. Florida 33124. U.S.A.) (26 August 1982) Herpetology 
Prof. Dr. R. SCHUSTER (Institut fiir Zoologie. Universitdt Graz, Universitdts- 

platz 2. A-8010 Graz, Austria) (26 August 1982) Acari 
Dr. SHUN-ICHI UENO (Department of Zoology, National Science Museum, 

Hyakunincho 3-23-1, Shinjukuku. Tokyo 160, Japan) (26 August 1982) 

Entomology 
Prof. A. WILLINK ( Universidad Nacional de Tucumdn, Instituto Miguel Lillo, 

Miguel Lillo 205, 4000 Tucumdn, Argentina) (26 August 1982) Neotropical 

Hymenoptera 
Dr. G.C. GRUCHY (National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa, Canada, 

KIA 0M8) (15 April 1985) Ichthyology 
Dr. Z. KABATA (Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Pacific Biological 

Station, Nanaimo, B.C. V9R 5K6, Canada) (4 September 1985) Copepoda 
Dr. F.C. THOMPSON (Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA c/o U.S. 

National Museum. Washington. D.C. 20560, U.S.A.) (4 September 1985)Diptera 



INTERNATIONAL TRUST FOR ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE 
A. The Members of the Trust 



Professor H.B. Whittington, F.R.S. 

(Chairman) 
Dr. M.K. Howarth (Secretary and 

Managing Director) 
Prof. Per Brinck 
Prof. J.H. Callomon 
Dr. P.F.S. Cornelius 
Prof. C.B. Cox 
The Rt. Hon. the Earl of Cranbrook, 

F.L.S., F.Z.S. 
Sir Arthur Drew, K.C.B. 
Sir Charles Fleming, K.B.E., F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Forest 

Col. Francis J. Griffin, O.B.E. 
Dr. G.C. Gruchy 



Dr. R.H. Hedley, C.B., F.I.Biol. 
Dr. L.B. Holthuis 
Dr. F.G.W. Jones 
Sir Peter Kent, F.R.S. 
Prof. Dr. O. Kraus 
Dr. M. Luc 
Dr. R.B. Manning 
Mr. R.V. Melville 
Dr. I.W.B. Nye 
Dr. E.P.F. Rose, T.D. 
Dr. W.D.L. Ride (e.x officio) 
Dr. G.B. White 

Prof. J.M. Dodd, F.R.S. (Observer for 
the Royal Society) 



B. The Officers of the Trust 

Dr. P.K. Tubbs, M.A.. Ph.D. (Scientific Controller) 
Mr. J.D.D. Smith, (Scientific Administrator) 
Mr. M.E. Tollitt, M.Sc, FX.S., F.R.E.S. (Zoologist) 
Miss N.A. Erridge, B.Sc, (Assistant Zoologist) 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 115 

BULLETIN OF ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE 

Volume 43, part 2 (pp. iii-iv, 1 1 5-220) 9 July 1 986 

NOTICES 

(a) Invitation to comment. The Commission is entitled to start to 
vote on applications published in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 
six months after the publication of each application. This period is 
normally extended to enable comments to be submitted. Any zoologist 
who wishes to comment on any of the applications is invited to send his 
contribution, in duplicate, to the Secretary of the Commission as quickly 
as possible, and in any case in time to reach the Secretary within twelve 
months of the date of publication of the application. 

(b) Possible use of the plenary powers. The possible use by the 
Commission of its plenary powers is involved in the following applications 
published in the present part of the Bulletin: 

(1) Antispila Hiibner, [1825] (Insecta, Lepidoptera): proposed 
validation o^ Antispila stadtmiillerella [Hiibner] 1825 as type 
species. Z.N.(S.)2463. E. S. Nielsen & I. W. B. Nye. 

(2) Heteroclonium bicolor Cope, 1896 (Reptilia, Squamata): pro- 
posed conservation by suppression of Chirotes diglossis Saenz, 
1869. Z.N.(S.)2424. S. C. Ayala. 

(3) On the names of two species of the genus Clytia Lamouroux, 
1812 (Coelenterata, Hydroida) common in western Europe. 
Z.N.(S.)2493. P. F. S. Cornelius & C. Ostman. 

(4) Napomyza Westwood, 1840 (Insecta, Diptera): proposed con- 
servation by the suppression of Napomyza Curtis, 1837. 
Z.N.(S.)2495. G. C. D. Griffiths, K. A. Spencer & G. C. 
Steyskal. 

(5) Microgaster Latreille, 1 804 (Insecta, Hymenoptera): proposed 
designation of Microgaster aus trails Thomson, 1895 as type 
species. Z.N.(S.)2397. W. R. M. Mason. 

(6) Sigara scholtzi Fieber, [1 860] (Insecta, Heteroptera): proposed 
conservation by the suppression of Sigara scholtzii Scholtz, 
1846. Z.N.(S.)2494. A. Jansson. 

(7) Micronecta griseola Horvath, 1899 (Insecta, Heteroptera, 
Corixidae): proposed conservation by the suppression of 
Sigara minuta Fabricius, 1794 and Sigara lemana Fieber, 
1860. Z.N.(S.)2519. A. Jansson. 

(8) Calcarina calcar D'Orbigny, 1839 (Protozoa, Foramini- 
ferida): proposed conservation by the suppression of 
Calcarina stellata De Ferussac, 1827. Z.N.(S.)2344. H. J. 
Hansen. 



1 16 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



(9) Agromyza Fallen, 1810 (Insecta, Diptera): proposed valida- 
tion of Agromyza reptans Fallen, 1823 as type species. 
Z.N.(S.)2395. K. A. Spencer &. G. C. Steyskal. 

(10) Tropiphorus Schonherr, 1842 (Insecta, Coleoptera): proposed 
conservation by suppression of Brius Dejean, 1821. 
Z.N.(S.)2537. H. Silfverberg. 

(11) Tetropium Kirby, 1837 (Insecta, Coleoptera, Cerambycidae): 
proposed conservation by the suppression of Isarthron 
Dejean, 1835. Z.N.(S.)2534. M. Mroczkowski. 

(12) Risomurex Olsson & McGinty, 1958 (Mollusca, Gastropoda): 
proposed designation of type species. Z.N.(S.)2507. Th. C. H. 
Kemperman & H. E. Coomans. 

(13) Siphamia Weber, 1909 and Siphamia permutata Klausewitz, 
1966 (Osteichthyes, Beryciformes): proposed conservation by 
the suppression of Beanea Steindachner, 1902 and Beanea 
trivittata Steindachner, 1902. Z.N.(S.)2517. J. E. Randall, 
E. A. Lachner & T. H. Eraser. 

(14) Cyclaxyra Broun, 1893 (Insecta, Coleoptera): proposed con- 
servation by the suppression of Melanochroa Broun, 1882, 
N.Z.(S.)251 1. J. C. Watt & R. A. Crowson. 

(15) Rhabdodon Matheron, 1869 (Reptilia, Ornithischia): 
proposed conservation by suppression of Rhabdodon 
Fleischmann, 1831 (ReptiHa, Serpentes). Z.N.(S.)2536. W. 
Brinkmann. 

(16) siNUiTiDAE Dall, 1913, macluritidae Fischer, 1885 and 
EUOMPHALiDAE dc Koninck, 1881 (Gastropoda, Archaeo- 
gastropoda): proposed conservation by suppression of 

PROTOWARTHIIDAE Ulrich & Schoficld, 1897, MACLUREADAE 

Carpenter, 1861, macluraeidea Gill, 1817 and schizostoma- 
TiDAE Eichwald, 1817. Z.N.(S.)1212. The late J. Brookes 
Knight; R. L. Batten & E. Yochelson. 

(17) Laplysia viridis Montagu, 1804 (Mollusca, Gastropoda): con- 
servation proposee par la suppression de Laplisia viridis Bosc, 
1801. Z.N.(S.)2408. P. Bouchet. 

(18) Orbicula Cuvier, 1798 (Brachiopoda): proposed suppression. 
Z.N.(S.)2545. C. H. C. Brunton 8l D. E. Lee. 

(19) Criopus Poli, 1791 and Criopoderma Poli, 1795 (Brachiopoda): 
proposed suppression. Z.N.(S.)2546. C. H. C. Brunton & 
D. E. Lee. 

(20) Crania tuberculata Nilsson, 1826 (Brachiopoda): proposed 
conservation by suppression of Craniolites brattenburgicus 
Schlotheim, 1820. Z.N.(S.)2551. C. H. C. Brunton & D. E. 
Lee. 

(21) Trichomonas Donne, 1836 (Protozoa, Mastigophora): 
proposed confirmation of spelling. Z.N.(S.)245. Executive 
Secretary. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 117 



(c) Receipt of new applications. The following new applications 
have been received since going to press for vol. 43, part 1 (published on 
9 April 1986): 

(1) CYMATiiNAE Ircdalc, 1913 (1891) (Mollusca, Gastropoda) and 
CYMATiiNAE Hungerfofd, 1948 (Insecta, Heteropoda): pro- 
posal to remove the homonymy. Z.N.(S.)2547. A. Jansson & 
A. G. Beu. 

(2) ETHMiiDAE Busch, 1909 (Insecta, Lepidoptera): proposed 
precedence over azinidae Walsingham, 1906. Z N (S )2550 
J. A. Powell. 

(3) Anniella pulchra Gray, 1852 (Reptilia, Squamata): proposed 
designation of a neotype. Z.N.(S.)2552. R. W. Murphy &. 
H. M. Smith. 

(4) Chrysomya marginalis Wiedemann, 1830 (Insecta, Diptera): 
proposed conservation of the specific name. Z.N (S )2553 
L. E. O. Braack. 

(5) Myriochele Malmgren, 1867 (Annelida, Polychaeta): pro- 
posed conservation. Z.N.(S.)2554. R. Nilsen & T. Holthe. 

(6) Nanophyes Schoenherr, 1838 (Insecta, Coleoptera): proposed 
conservation. Z.N.(S.)2555. M. A. Alonso-Zarazaga & L. 
Dieckmann. 

(7) Hydrolycus Muller & Troschel, 1844 (Pisces, Characoidea): 
proposed designation of Hydrocyon scomberoides Cuvier, 
1 8 1 9 as type species. Z.N.(S.)2556. J. Gery & V. Mahnert. 

(8) pseudocalanidae Sars, 1901 (Copepoda, Calanoidea): 
proposed conservation. Z.N.(S.)2557. V. N. Andronov & 
N. V. Vyshkvartzeva. 

(9) Proptera Rafinesque, 1819 (Bivalvia, Eulamellibranchia) 
Z.N.(S.)2558. A. M. Clarke. 

(10) Parasigara Poisson, 1957 (Insecta, Heteroptera): proposed 
confirmation of type species designation. Z.N.(S.)2559. A. 
Jansson. 

(11) Simulium austeni Edwards, 1915 (Insecta, Diptera): proposed 
conservation. Z.N.(S.)2560. J. A. Rubtsov. 

(12) Opius Wesmael, 1835 (Insecta, Hymenoptera): proposed 
designation of Opius gallipes Wesmael, 1835 as type species 
Z.N.(S.)2561. R.A.Wharton. 

(13) Lepralia punctata Hassall, 1841 (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata): 
proposed designation of a replacement neotype. Z.N.(S.)2562 
J. D. D. Bishop. 

(14) Conus floridanus Gabb, 1869 (Gastropoda): proposed conser- 
vation. Z.N.(S.)2563. W. O. Cernohorsky. 

(15) Pycinaster magnificus Spencer, 1913 (Asteroidea, Valvatida): 
proposed conservation. Z.N.(S.)2564. G. Breton. 

(16) Geonemus Schoenherr, 1833 (Insecta, Coleoptera): proposed 



1 18 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



designation of Curculioflabellipes Olivier, 1 807 as type species. 
Z.N.(S.)2565. G. J. Wibmer & C. W. O'Brien. 

(17) Cobitis Linnaeus, 1758 (Osteichthyes, Cypriniformes): pro- 
posed designation of Cobitis taenia Linnaeus, 1758 as type 
species and request for ruling on the stem of the family 
group name cobitididae Swainson, 1839. Z.N.(S.)2566. M. 
Kotelot. 

(18) Callianidea H. Milne-Edwards, 1837 (Crustacea, Decapoda); 
proposed conservation by suppression of Isea Guerin- 
Meneville, 1832. Z.N.(S.)2567. L. B. Holthuis& K. Sakai. 

(19) OEDiPODiNAE Walker, 1870 (Insecta, Orthoptera): proposed 
conservation. Z.N.(S.)2568. K. H. L. Kay. 

SPECIAL ANNOUNCEMENTS 

OBITUARY 

Professor B. S. Zheng 

Professor Zheng was elected to membership of the Commission on 4 
September 1985, but this was cut sadly short by his death at the end of the 
year. 

Professor Zheng was born in December 1921. He published many 
papers on fish of the Chinese region, and at the time of his death was 
Vice-President of the Chinese Ichthyological Society and Editor-in-Chief of 
Acta Zoologica Sinica. 

COMMENT ON THE PROPOSED DESIGNATION OF A TYPE SPECIES OF 

C//£/^t//?f/5BEYRICH, 1845 (TRILOBITA). Z.N.(S.)2337 

(see vol. 42, pp. 379-381) 

By H. B. Whittington {Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, 
Downing Street, Cambridge, U.K.) 

With reference to the recently published application by P. D. Lane, asking 
that the type species of Cheirurus be designated as C. insignis Beyrich, 1845, 1 write 
in strong support of this application. The case has been put accurately and briefly, 
and I am confident that it will be in the best interest of nomenclatural stability to 
rule in favour of this application. I hope that the International Commission will use 
its plenary powers to do so. 

COMMENT ON THE PROPOSED DESIGNATION OF TYPE SPECIES OF 
OLPIUM YiOCH, 1873 (ARACHNIDA, PSEUDOSCORPIONIDA). 

Z.N.(S.)2484 
(see vol. 42, pp. 85-88) 

By Reinhart Schuster {Institutfiir Zoologie, Universitdtsplatz 2, A-8010 Graz, 

Austria) 

I support the proposals made by Harvey and Mahnert. Following these an 
aggravating unclear point in the taxonomy of the pseudoscorpionid genus Olpium 
will be eliminated. 



Bull. zool. Nom.. vol. 43, pt 2, July 1 986 119 



COMMENTS ON THE PROPOSED DESIGNATION OF A TYPE SPECIES 
FOR BERYTUS FABRICIUS, 1803 (INSECTA, HETEROPTERA) 

Z.N.(S.)2464 
(see vol. 42, pp. 293-295) 

( 1 ) By J. Pericart {10 rue Habert. F-77130 Montereau. France) 

The history of the generic names Berytus Fabricius, 1803 and Berytinus 
Kirkaldy, 1900 is clearly explained on pages 293-294 of the application by Mr 
W. R. Dolling (1985). I beUeve, however, that the publication of my monograph 
(Pericart, 1984), which is intended as a definitive reference work, has introduced a 
new situation. 

2. My monograph gives careful attention to nomenclature. The family name 
BERYTiDAE has been retained, for the same reasons as given by Dolling. The generic 
name Berytinus (type species Cimex clavipes Fabricius, 1775) is used, as done by 
Stichel (1957) and Southwood & Leston (1959), the name Berytus (type species 
Cimex tipularius Linnaeus, 1758) being considered as a junior objective synonym of 
Neides Latreille, 1802. The name Lizinus Mulsant & Rey, 1870 (type species Berytus 
montivagus Meyer-Diir, 1841) is used at the subgeneric level, with Berytinellus 
Stichel, 1957 as a junior synonym. 

3. In order to maintain the stability of nomenclature, I recommend that the 
Commission select the second, not the fourth, of the possible solutions listed by 
Dolling (1985, p. 294). I therefore ask the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature: 

(1) to place on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology the names: 

(a) Berytinus Kirkaldy, 1900 (gender masculine), type species by 
original designation Cimex clavipes Fabricius, 1775, and 

(b) Neides Latreille, 1802 (gender masculine), type species by subse- 
quent designation by Latreille (1810) Cimex tipularius Linnaeus, 
1758; 

(2) to place on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology the names: 

(a) clavipes Fabricius, 1775, as published in the binomen Cimex 
clavipes (specific name of the type species of Berytinus Kirkaldy, 
1900) and 

(b) tipularius Linnaeus, 1758, as published in the binomen Cimex 
tipularius (specific name of the type species of Neides Latreille, 
1802); 

(3) to place on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Generic names in 
Zoology the name Berytus Fabricius, 1803, a junior objective synonym of 
Neides LdiiTQiWe, 1802. 

ADDITIONAL REFERENCES 

DOLLING, W. R. 1985. Berytus Fabricius, 1803 (Insecta, Heteroptera, Berytidae): 

proposed designation of Cimex clavipes Fabricius, 1777 as type species. 

Z.N.(S.)2464. Bull. zool. Nam., vol. 42, pt. 3, pp. 293-295. 
MEYER-DUR, L. R. 1841. Identitat und Separation einiger Rhynchoten. Stett 

Ent. Ztg., vol. 2, pp. 83-89. 
PERICART, J. 1984. Hemipteres Berytidae euro-mediterraneens. Faune de France. 

vol. 70. P^ris, iv-l- 172 pp. 



120 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



(2) By W. R. Dolling {British Museum (Natural History) , London SW7 5BD, U.K.) 

At the time of publication of my request (Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 42, pp. 
293-295) for the designation of Cimex clavipes as the type-species of Berytus, I was 
not aware that Pericart's (1984) revision of the berytidae of the western Palaearctic 
region had been pubHshed. This book will undoubtedly be accepted as the standard 
work on the berytidae of the area for many years to come, and the course of action 
that I had originally advocated would result in a nomenclature at variance with 
Pericart's. Stability of nomenclature would be best served by placing the generic 
name Berytinus on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology, as requested by 
Pericart. 



COMMENT ON THE PROPOSED CONSERVATION OF HATSCHEKIA 

POCHE, 1902 (COPEPODA). Z.N.(S.)2390 

(see vol. 42, pp. 57-59) 

By Z. Kabata {Pacific Biological Station. Nanaimo, B.C.. Canada V9R 5K6) 

I am writing in support of this proposal. To anyone acquainted with the 
genus Hatschekia it is quite obvious that the change of its name at this stage would 
create a veritable havoc in the literature. Its more than 100 species are widespread 
throughout the oceans of the world, particularly in the tropical and subtropical 
areas. If anything, Dr Jones underestimates the presence of the genus (and its name) 
in the literature. 

Dr Jones' proposal makes me wonder why I did not propose the same 
measure long ago. I am sure that all who deal with parasitic Copepoda, and with 
Copepoda in general, will support this proposal without reservation. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 121 



OPINION 1383 

APIS PILIPES FABRICIUS, 1775 (INSECTA, HYMENOPTERA): 

DESIGNATED AS TYPE SPECIES OF MEGILLA FABRICIUS, 1805 

RULING. — (1) Under the plenary powers all designations of type 
species hitherto made for the nominal genus Megilla Fabricius, 1805 are 
hereby set aside and Apis pilipes Fabricius, 1775 is designated as type 
species of that genus. 

(2) The name Macropis Panzer, 1809 (gender: feminine), type species 
by monotypy Megilla labiata Fabricius, [1805], is hereby placed on the 
Official List of Generic Names in Zoology. 

(3) The name labiata Fabricius, [1805], as pubHshed in the binomen 
Megilla labiata (specific name of the type species of Macropis Panzer, 1 809) 
is hereby placed on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology. 

(4) The name Megilla Fabricius, 1805, a junior objective synonym 
of Anthophora Latreille, 1803, by the type designation made under the 
plenary powers in ( 1 ) above, is hereby placed on the Official List of Rejected 
and Invalid Generic Names in Zoology. 

HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)2401 

An application to change the type species of Megilla Fabricius, 
1805, in order to protect the usage of Macropis Panzer, 1809, was first 
received from Professor C. D. Michener (University of Kansas, U.S.A.) on 
23 November 1981. After correspondence a revised draft was sent to the 
printers on 20 July 1983 and published in Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 40, pp. 
207-208. Public notice of the possible use of the plenary powers was given 
in the same part of the Bulletin as well as to ten general and nine entomolo- 
gical serials. No comments were received. Soon after publication, however, 
the author became aware that the type for Megilla (Apis acervorum) was 
widely misidentified. Subsequently, a note proposing the designation of 
Apis pilipes Fabricius, 1775 as type species oi Megilla was published in Bull, 
zool. Nom., vol. 41, pp. 138-139; this would have the effect of making 
Megilla a junior objective synonym of Anthophora Latreille, 1803. 
Commissioners were asked to vote for or against this emended proposal 
and to place the specific name pilipes on the Official List of Specific Names 
in Zoology. They were also asked to place the generic name Macropis 
Panzer, 1809 (see below) on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology. 

DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 16 September 1985 the members of the Commission were invited 
to vote under the Three-Month Rule on Voting Paper (1985) 45 for or 
against the proposals set out in Bull. zool. Nom. vol. 40, p. 208 as emended 
in vol. 41, pp. 138-139. At the close of the voting period on 16 December 
1985 the state of the voting was as follows: 



122 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



Affirmative Votes — twenty-two (22) received in the following 
order: Melville, Holthuis, Cocks, Willink, Savage, Kabata, Mroczkowski, 
Corliss, Alvarado, Ueno, Hahn, Starobogatov, Trjapitzin, Zheng, 
Lehtinen, Schuster, Bernardi, Ride, Thompson, Halvorsen, Dupuis, 
Heppell 

Negative Votes — none (0). 

Cogger abstained. A late affirmative vote was returned by Bayer. 

No votes were returned by Gruchy and Kraus. 

In a comment, Thompson pointed out that Panzer, and not Klug, 
provided the description and published the name Macropis; this has therefore 
been cited as Macropis Panzer, 1 809 and not as in the application. 

Heppell drew attention to Direction 4 of the Commission (1954), 
which had already placed the name pilipes on the Official List of Specific 
Names in Zoology (Opinion 151 had designated Apis pilipes Fabricius, 1775 
as type species of Anthophora Latreille, 1803). Heppell also mentioned that 
Professor Michener (Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 41, p 139) had said that A. pilipes 
is a junior synonym of ^. plumipes Pallas, 1772, but the Commission's vote 
did not consider this question, and the designation of ^. pilipes rather than 
of A. plumipes as type species of Megilla leaves that genus as a junior 
objective synonym of Anthophora even if the two species should prove to be 
different. 



ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references for the names placed on 
Official Lists and an Official Index by the ruling given in the present 
Opinion: 

labiata, Megilla, Fabricius, [1805] Systema Piezatorum, p. 333 
Macropis Panzer, 1809, Fauna Insectorum Germanicae initia . . . heft 107, 

tab 16 
Megilla Fabricius, [1805], Systema Piezatorum, p. 328. 

CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper (1985) 45 were 
cast as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper have 
been duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so 
taken, being the decision of the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature, is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1383. 

P. K. TUBBS 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
16 December 1985 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 123 



OPINION 1384 

DROMOPHIS PETERS, 1869 (REPTILIA, SERPENTES): 

CONSERVED 

RULING. — (1) Under the plenary powers the generic name Philo- 
dendros Fitzinger, 1 843 and its emendation Philodendrus Agassiz, 1 846, are 
hereby suppressed for the purposes of the Principle of Priority but not for 
those of the Principle of Homonymy. 

(2) The name Dromophis Peters, 1869 (gender: masculine), type 
species by monotypy, Dendrophis praeornata Schlegel, 1837, is hereby 
placed on the Oflficiai List of Generic Names in Zoology. 

(3) The name praeornata Schlegel, 1 837, as published in the binomen 
Dendrophis praeornata (specific name of the type species of Dromophis 
Peters, 1869) is hereby placed on the Official List of Specific Names in 
Zoology. 

(4) The names Philodendros Fitzinger, 1843 and Philodendrus 
Agassiz, 1846, as suppressed under the plenary powers in (1) above, are 
hereby placed on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Generic Names 
in Zoology. 



HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)2375 

An application for the conservation of Dromophis Peters, 1869 
was first received from Dr D. G. Broadley {National Museum, Bulawayo, 
Zimbabwe) on 16 March 1981, and was published in Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 
40, pp. 189-190. Public notice of the possible use of the plenary powers in 
the case was given in the same part of the Bulletin as well as to seven general 
and three herpetological serials. No comment was received. 



DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 16 September 1985 the members of the Commission were invited 
to vote under the Three-Month Rule on Voting Paper (1985) 43 for or 
against the proposals set out in Bull. zool. Nom. vol. 40, p. 190. At the close 
of the voting period on 16 December 1985 the state of the voting was as 
follows: 

Affirmative Votes — twenty-two (22) received in the following 
order: Melville, Cocks, Willink, Savage, Kabata, Mroczkowski, CorHss, 
Alvarado, Ueno, Hahn, Starobogatov, Trjapitzin, Zheng, Cogger, Lehtinen, 
Schuster, Bernardi, Ride, Thompson, Halvorsen, Dupuis, Heppell 

Negative Votes — one ( 1 ) Holthuis. 

Kraus returned a late affirmative vote. No votes were returned by 
Bayer and Gruchy. 

In returning his voting paper, Holthuis pointed out that the 
Commission had not been asked to suppress an unjustified (and unused) 



124 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



emendation of Philodendros, namely Philodendrus Agassiz, 1 846. However, 
even though the omission had been overlooked, the existence of the name 
was before the Commission when it voted to conserve Dromophis Peters, 
1869. The suppression of Philodendrus Agassiz, 1846 has therefore been 
included in this ruling. 

ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references for the names placed on 
Official Lists and an Official Index by the ruling given in the present Opinion: 
Dromophis Peters, 1846, Monatsber. konigl. Acad. Wiss. Berlin, p. 447 
Philodendros Fitzinger, 1843, Sy sterna Reptilium, p. 26 
Philodendrus Agassiz, 1846, Nomenclatoris Zoologici Index Universalis, 

p. 285 
praeornata, Dendrophis, Schlegel, 1837, Essaisur la physionomie des Serpens, 

vol. l,p. 157,vol. 2,p. 236. 

CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper (1985) 43 were 
cast as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper have 
been duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so 
taken, being the decision of the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature, is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1384. 

P. K. TUBBS 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
25 January 1986 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 125 



OPINION 1385 

ANOLIS CAROLINENSIS VOIGT, 1832 DESIGNATED AS TYPE 

SPECIES OF ANOLIS DAUDIN, 1802 (REPTILIA, SAURIA) 

RULING. — (1) Under the plenary powers all designations of type 
species hitherto made for the nominal genus Anolis Daudin, 1802 are hereby 
set aside and Anolis carolinensis Voigt, 1832 is designated as type species. 

(2) The name Anolis Daudin, 1802 (gender: masculine), type species 
by designation under the plenary powers in (1) above, Anolis carolinensis 
Voigt, 1832, is hereby placed on the Official List of Generic Names in 
Zoology. 

(3) The name carolinensis Voigt, 1832, as published in the binomen 
Anolis carolinensis, (specific name of the type species of Anolis Daudin, 
1 802) is hereby placed on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology. 

HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)1603 

An application for the designation of Anolis carolinensis Voigt, 1832 
as type species of Anolis Daudin, 1802 was first received from Professor 
H. M. Smith (then of University of Illinois, U.S.A.) and Dr E. E. Williams 
and Dr J. D. Lazell {Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, 
Massachusetts, U.S.A.) on 6 May 1963, and was published in Bull. zool. 
Nom. vol. 20, pp. 438^39. Public notice of the possible use of the plenary 
powers in the case was given in the same part of the Bulletin and sent to two 
herpetological serials. A supportive comment was received from Dr P. W. 
Smith (Illinois Natural History Survey, Urbana, U.S.A.). 

On 3 October 1965 the members of the Commission were invited to 
vote under the Three-Month Rule on Voting Paper (1965) 34 for or against 
the proposals set out in Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 20, p. 439. At the close of the 
voting period there were 20 affirmative votes and one negative vote, with 
four voting papers not returned. The single negative vote by Sabrosky was 
accompanied by a comment which, after long correspondence and delays, 
was published, with counter-proposals to the original application by Mr 
A. F. Stimson {British Museum (Natural History), London) and Dr G. L. 
Underwood {City of London Polytechnic) in Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 40, pp. 
15-19; Stimson and Underwood suggested that Lacerta bullaris Linnaeus, 
1758, was the type species. A comment from Professor J. M. Savage 
{University of Miami, Florida, U.S.A.) was received and published with a 
reply by Stimson & Underwood in Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 40, p. 195. Further 
comments were received from two of the original applicants, Dr E. E. 
Williams and Professor H. M. Smith. These were published, with a reply by 
Mr A. F. Stimson, who now supported the original proposal, in Bull. zool. 
Nam., vol. 41, pp. 132-136. A long and detailed comment by Dr G. Mayer 
{Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard, Massachusetts. U.S.A.) was 
received in July 1984. This comment was also sent to Williams, Sabrosky, 
Stimson and Underwood. A revised version of the comment by Mayer was 



126 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



received in June 1985, three months prior to a proposed second vote on the 
original 1963 proposals. To avoid another potential delay, involved in 
publication, it was agreed with Dr Mayer to include a copy of his comment 
with the voting papers issued on 16 December 1985. 

DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 16 September 1985 the members of the Commission were invited 
to vote under the Three- month Rule on Voting Paper (1985) 57 for or 
against the proposals set out in Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 20, p. 439. At the close 
of the voting period on 16 December 1985 the state of the voting was as 
follows. 

Affirmative Votes — twenty-one (21) received in the following order: 
Melville, Cocks, Willink, Savage, Kabata, Mroczkowski, Corliss, Alvarado, 
Ueno, Hahn, Starobogatov, Trjapitzin, Zheng, Cogger, Lehtinen, Bernardi, 
Ride, Thompson, Halvorsen, Schuster, Heppell 

Negative Votes — two (2) Holthuis, Dupuis. 

Bayer returned a late affirmative vote. No votes were returned by 
Gruchy and Kraus. 

In a comment, Thompson pointed out that 'the unsuitability of 
Lacerta bullaris Linnaeus as type species of Anolis is because it is a 'beta' 
anole, not because the name is a nomen dubium\ Nevertheless, Daudin's 
1802 bullaris was 'confused and composite, and clearly Stejneger (1904) was 
using bullaris in the sense of carolinensis of authors'. 

In voting against, Holthuis pointed out that Chenu (1856, Encycl. 
Hist. nat. Reptiles et Poissons, p. 71) had designated Anolis lineatus Daudin, 
1802 as type species and that this had been overlooked. 

In a letter, Dupuis showed that '. . . en decembre 1802 et juin 1803, 
L. A. G. Bosc a designe comme type du genre Anolis la premiere espece 
incluse et etudiee par Daudin: Lacerta bimaculata Sparrman, 1784: 
(Nouveau dictionnaire d'Histoire naturelle, tome 1, p. 474; ibid., tome 1 1, p. 
571).' Dupuis asked that this valid type designation be considered, and 
added, '. . . si cette designation presente des inconvenients reels, il faudra 
reexaminer la designation de bullaris . . . Toutefois, si, comme il est 
malheureusement trop courant, les faits que j'apporte ne suspendaient pas 
le vote . . . je vote contre la propositon.' 

These early type designations were drawn to the attention of two of 
the original authors. Professors H. M. Smith and E. E. Williams as well as 
to Professor J. M. Savage and Mr A. F. Stimson. All were agreed that, 
despite the undoubted priority of Bosc's and then Chenu's actions, only the 
designation of Anolis carolensis Voigt, 1832 as type species would serve the 
purposes of stabilizing nomenclature. 

Since the Commission had voted to use its plenary powers 'to set 
aside all [i.e. known and unknown — PKT] designations of type species . . . 
hitherto made . . .' the Ruling has been completed in accord with the original 
application. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 127 



With his vote Dupuis pointed out that 'Daudin, Histoire naturelle. 
generale et particuliere des Reptiles, Paris (Dufart), tome 4, a ete presente a 
rinstitut de France le 23 thermidor An 10= 11 aout 1802 (cf. Proc. Verb. 
Acad. ScL, 2 (1800-1804), p. 1912). Daudin y cree le genre Anolis (p. 50)'. In 
accordance with this the authorship o^ Anolis is cited as Daudin, 1802. 

ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references to the names placed on 
Official Lists by the ruling given in the present Opinion: 
Anolis Daudin, 1802, Histoire naturelle, generale et particuliere des Reptiles, 

vol. 4, p. 50 
carolinensis , Anolis, Voigt, 1832, in Cuvier's Das Thierreich . . . Nach der 

zweiten . . . Ausgabe iibersetzt und durch Zusdtze erweitert von F. S. 

Voigt, p. 71. 

CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper (1985) 57 were 
cast as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper have 
been duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so 
taken, being the decision of the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature, is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1385. 

P. K. TUBBS 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
25 February 1986 



128 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



OPINION 1386 

PAPILIO ERATO LINNAEUS, 1758 (INSECTA, LEPIDOPTERA): 

NEOTYPE DESIGNATED 

RULING. — (1) Under the plenary powers all designations of type 
specimen hitherto made for Papilio erato Linnaeus, 1758 are hereby set 
aside and the following specimen deposited in the British Museum (Natural 
History) is hereby designated neotype: '(Berg, en Dal, Surinam, 1898-9. 
M\ch\s.lerato erato Linn./866./20.20. ex coll. Riffarth/Joicey Bequest, Brit. 
Mus. 1934^120.)'. 

(1) The following names are hereby placed on the Official List of 
Specific Names in Zoology: 

(a) erato Linnaeus, 1758 as published in the binomen Papilio erato 
and as defined by the neotype designated in (1) above; 

(b) doris Linnaeus, 1771, as published in the binomen Papilio 
doris. 

HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)1759 

An application to conserve the name Heliconius erato sensu 
Aurivillius, 1882 was first received from Dr J. G. Turner {University of 
Leeds, U.K.) on 5 June 1966. After correspondence between the author and 
the then Secretary, Dr W. E. China, it was suggested that using the plenary 
powers to designate a neotype for Papilio erato Linnaeus, 1758 was the best 
method of preserving current usage. The case was not proceeded with until 
a revised manuscript was published in Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 41, pp. 43^4 
(March 1984). Public notice of the possible use of the plenary powers in the 
case was given in the same part of the Bulletin as well as to ten general and 
nine entomological serials. 

Comments correcting certain facts in the case were received from 
Lt.-Col. C. F. Cowan {Cumbria, U.K.) and Dr L. B. Holthuis {Rijksmuseum 
van Natuurlijke Historie, Leiden). These were acknowledged by the author 
and published in Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 41, p. 197. 

DECISION OF THE COMMISION 

On 17 January 1986 the members of the Commission were invited to 
vote under the Three-Month Rule on Voting Paper (1986)2 for or against 
the proposals set out in Bull. zool. Nom. vol. 41, pp. 43^44. At the close of 
the voting period on 17 April 1986 the state of the voting was as follows: 

Affirmative Votes — seventeen (17) received in the following order: 
Melville, Holthuis, Cocks, Savage, Willink, Starobogatov, Alvarado, 
Schuster, Mroczkowski, Hahn, Kabata, Trjapitzin, Ueno, Ride, Halvorsen, 
Heppell, Bayer 

Negative Votes — four (4) received in the following order: Lehtinen, 
Bernardi, Cogger, Thompson. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 129 

Dupuis abstained. No votes were returned by Corliss, Gruchy and 
Kraus. 

Dupuis abstained primarily because insufficient account had been 
taken of the work of Bates (1862), and also because some of the taxonomic 
doubts. Bernardi did not approve of the designation of a neotype for Papilio 
erato Linnaeus which was different from Linnean usage, and suggested that 
species B (cf. the application) should have the specific name vesta Cramer, 
[1775], erato being suppressed. 

ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references for the names placed on an 
Official List by the ruling given in the present Opinion: 
doris, Papilio, Linnaeus, 1771, Mantissa Plantarum altera, p. 536 
erato. Papilio. Linnaeus, 1758, Sy sterna Naturae, ed. 10, vol. 1, p. 467. 

CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper (1986) 2 were 
cast as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper have 
been duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so 
taken, being the decision of the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature, is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1386. 

P. K. TUBES 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
17 April 1986 



1 30 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



OPINION 1387 

CURCULIO PICIROSTRIS FABRICIUS, 1787 AND TYCHIUS 

STEPHENSI SCHONHERR, 1836 (INSECTA, COLEOPTERA, 

CURCULIONIDAE): CONSERVED 

RULING. — (1) Under the plenary powers the two tychiine weevil 
specimens in the Fabricius and the Sehested and Tonder Lund collections 
at Copenhagen are hereby set aside as types, and the female lectotype 
of Curculio cinerascens Marsham. 1802 in the British Museum (Natural 
History) is hereby designated as neotype of Curculio picirostris Fabricius, 
1787. 

(2) The following names are hereby placed on the Official List of 
Specific Names in Zoology: 

(a) picirostris Fabricius, 1 787, as published in the binomen Curculio 
picirostris, and as interpreted by reference to the neotype 
designated under the plenary powers in (1) above; 

(b) stephensi Schonherr, 1836, as published in the binomen 
Tychius stepheni (sic), and as interpreted by reference to the 
lectotype designated by Clark (1971, p. 10). 

(3) The following names are hereby placed on the Official Index of 
Rejected and Invalid Specific Names in Zoology: 

(a) tomentosus Herbst, 1795, as published in the binomen Curculio 
tomentosus (a junior primary homonym of Curculio tomentosus 
Olivier, 1790); 

(b) stepheni Schonherr, 1836, as published in the binomen Tychius 
stepheni (an incorrect original spelling of stephensi Schonherr, 
1836, in the same combination). 

HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)2266 

An application for the conservation of Curculio picirostris Fabricius, 
1787 and Tychius stephensi Schonherr, 1836, was first received from Dr 
W. E. Clark (then of National Museum of Natural History, Washington, 
U.S.A.) on 23 May 1978. After a long period of correspondence, during 
which several redrafts of the case were produced, a revised manuscript was 
published in Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 41, pp. 45-52 (March 1984). Public 
notice of the possible use of the plenary powers in the case was given in the 
same part of the Bulletin as well as to ten general and eight specialist serials. 

A comment was received from Dr L. B. Holthuis [Rijksmuseum van 
Natuurlijke Historic, Leiden) questioning the applicant's contention that 
stepheni was an incorrect spelling of stephensi. 

DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 17 January 1986 the members of the Commission were invited to 
vote under the Three-Month Rule on Voting Paper (1986)3 for or against 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 131 



the proposals set out in Bull. zool. Norn. vol. 41, p. 50. At the close of the 
voting period on 17 April 1986 the state of the voting was as follows: 

Affirmative Votes — nineteen (19) received in the following order: 
Melville, Holthuis (in part), Cocks, Savage, Willink, Starobogatov, 
Alvarado, Schuster, Mroczkowski, Hahn, Kabata, Trjapitzin, Ueno, Ride, 
Halvorsen, Heppell, Bayer, Cogger, Thompson 

Negative Votes — one (1) Lehtinen. 

Dupuis abstained. No votes were returned by Corliss, Gruchy and 
Kraus. 

Holthuis voted against the treatment of the spellings stephensi and 
stepheni, maintaining that the former was incorrect under Article 32(c)(ii) of 
the Code unless validated under the plenary powers of the Commission. 

ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references for the names placed on an 
Official List and an Official Index by the ruling given in the present Opinion: 
picirostris, Curculio, Fabricius, 1787, Mantissa Insectorum sistens eorum 

species nuper detectas, vol. 1, p. 101 
stepheni, Tychius, Schonherr, 1836, Genera et species Curculionidum, cum 

synonymia, vol. 3(1), p. 412 
stephensi, Tychius, Schonherr, 1836, Genera et species Curculionidum, cum 

synonymia, vol. 3( 1 ), p. 4 1 2 
tomentosus, Curculio, Herbst, 1795, Natursystem aller bekannten in und 

ausldndischen Insekten . . . Die Kdfer, vol. 6, p. 278. 

CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper (1986)3 were cast 
as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper have 
been duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so 
taken, being the decision of the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature, is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1387. 

P. K. TUBBS 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
17 April 1986 



132 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



OPINION 1388 

CALLIONYMUS SAGITTA PALLAS, 1770 (OSTEICHTH YES, 

CALLIONYMIDAE): NEOTYPE DESIGNATED 

RULING. — (1) Under the plenary powers it is hereby ruled that 
the nominal species Callionymus sagitta Pallas, 1770 is to be interpreted by 
reference to the neotype deposited in the California Academy of Sciences, 
Stanford University Collection, San Francisco, 'No. CAS-SU 41392: 
(female, 861mm SL, INDIA: mouth of River Hooghli, Sundarbans, 
Bengal Province, ca 21°50'N 88"00'E, S. W. Kemp, 1911.)'. 

(2) The following names are hereby placed on the Official List of 
Specific Names in Zoology: 

(a) sagitta Pallas, 1 770, as published in the binomen Callionymus 
sagitta and as interpreted by reference to the neotype described 
in (1) above; 

(b) filamentosus Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1837, as 
published in the binomen Callionymus filamentosus. 

HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)2435 

An application for the designation of a neotype for Callionymus 
sagitta Pallas, 1770 was first received from Dr R. A. Fricke {Staatliches 
Naturhistorisches Museum, DDR) on 28 February 1983. After a period of 
correspondence a revised manuscript was published in Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 
41, pp. 58-61 (March 1984). Public notice of the possible use of the plenary 
powers in the case was given in the same part of the Bulletin as well as to ten 
general and three specialist serials. No comment was received. 

DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 17 January 1986 the members of the Commission were invited to 
vote under the Three-Month Rule on Voting Paper (1986)4 for or against 
the proposals set out in Bull. zool. Nom. vol. 41, p. 60. At the close of the 
voting period on 17 April 1986 the state of the voting was as follows: 

Affirmative Votes — sixteen (16) received in the following order: 
Melville, Holthuis, Cocks, Willink, Starobogatov, Alvarado, Schuster, 
Mroczkowski, Hahn, Kabata, Trjapitzin, Ride, Halvorsen, Heppell, Bayer, 
Cogger 

Negative Votes — sic (6) received in the following order: Savage, 
Ueno, Lehtinen, Dupuis, Bernardi, Thompson. 

No votes were returned by Corliss, Gruchy and Kraus. 

Kabata pointed out that references in the application to Article 75 
of the Code should now read 75(d), not 75(c). Bernardi, Dupuis and Ueno 
disapproved of the principle involved in the designation of a neotype 
manifestly different from Pallas' 1770 illustration. Dupuis said that usage 
could have been most appropriately maintained by conservation of the 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 133 



name Callionymus sagitta Valenciennes, 1837 and suppression of Pallas' 
(1770) authorship of the specific name. 

ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references for the names placed on an 
Official List by the ruling given in the present Opinion: 
filamentosus , Callionymus, Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1837, 

Histoire naturelle despoissons, vol. 12, p. 303 
sagitta, Callionymus, Pallas, 1770, Spicilegia zoologica, vol. 1, (8), 29. 

CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper (1986)4 were cast 
as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper have 
been duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so 
taken, being the decision of the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature, is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1388. 

P. K. TUBES 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
17 April 1986 



134 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



OPINION 1389 

PHASCOLOSOMA CUMANENSEKEV^EKSTEl^, 1867 

(SIPUNCULIDA): GIVEN PRECEDENCE OVER LUMBRICUS 

££>t/L/5 PALLAS, 1774 

RULING. — (1) Under the plenary powers it is hereby ruled that 
the specific name cumanense Keferstein, 1 867, as published in the binomen 
Phascolosoma cumanense, is to be given nomenclatural precedence over the 
specific name edule, as originally published in the binomen Lumbricus 
edulis, whenever the two names are considered synonyms. 

(2) The following names are hereby placed on the Official List of 
Specific Names in Zoology: 

(a) cumanense Keferstein, 1867, as published in the binomen Phas- 
colosoma cumanense, with an endorsement that it is to be given 
nomenclatural precedence over edule Pallas, 1 774, as originally 
published in the binomen Lumbricus edulis, whenever the two 
names are considered synonyms; 

(b) edule Pallas, 1774, as originally published in the binomen 
Lumbricus edulis, with an endorsement that it is not to be given 
priority over cumanense Keferstein, 1867, as published in the 
binomen Phascolosoma cumanense , whenever the two names 
are considered synonyms. 

HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)2379 

An application for the conservation of Phascolosoma cumanense 
Keferstein, 1867 (now placed in the genus Siphonosoma Spengel, 1912) was 
first received from Dr E. B. Cutler (Syracuse University, U.S.A.) on 27 April 
1981. After a period of correspondence a revised manuscript was published 
in Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 41, pp. 62-64 (March 1984). Public notice of the 
possible use of the plenary powers in the case was given in the same part of 
the Bulletin as well as to ten general serials. No comment was received. 

DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 17 January 1986 the members of the Commission were invited to 
vote under the Three-Month Rule on Voting Paper (1986)5 for or against 
the proposals set out in Bull. zool. Nom. vol. 14, p. 63. At the close of the 
voting period on 17 April 1986 the state of the voting was as follows: 

Affirmative Votes — sixteen (16) received in the following order: 
Melville, Holthuis, Cocks, Savage, Willink, Alvarado, Schuster, 
Mroczkowski, Hahn, Ueno, Ride, Halvorsen, Bayer, Dupuis, Bemardi, 
Cogger 

Negative Votes — six (6) received in the following order: 
Starobogatov, Kabata, Trjapitzin, Lehtinen, Heppell, Thompson. 

No votes were returned by Corliss, Gruchy and Kraus. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 135 



ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references for the names placed on an 
Official List: 

cumaneme, Phascolosoma, Keferstein, 1867, Zeit. Wiss. Zool., vol. 17, p. 53 
edule, Lumbricus, Pallas, 1774, Spicilegia Zoologica, vol. 10, p. 10. 

CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper (1986)5 were cast 
as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper have 
been duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so 
taken, being the decision of the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature, is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1389. 

P. K. TUBES 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
17Aprill986 



136 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



OPINION 1390 

PELLONULA fi/l/Z/^A^S/S STEINDACHNER, 1879 

(OSTEICHTHYES): REPLACEMENT LECTOTYPE DESIGNATED 

RULING. — (1) Under the plenary powers all designations of 
type specimen hitherto made for the nominal species Pellonula bahiensis 
Steindachner, 1879 are hereby set aside and the following specimen in the 
Naturhistorisches Museum of Vienna is hereby designated as lectotype: 
'(NMV. 76436:4, 76-5 mm SL, 'Bucht von Bahia', Steindachner coll.)' 

(2) The name bahiensis Steindachner, 1879, as published in the 
binomen Pellonula bahiensis and as interpreted by reference to the lectotype 
designated in (1) above, is hereby placed on the Official List of Specific 
Names in Zoology. 

HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)2445 

An application to designate a replacement lectotype for Pellonula 
bahiensis Steindachner, 1879 was first received from Dr P. J. P. Whitehead 
{British Museum (Natural History), London) and Dr G. Nelson {American 
Museum of Natural History, New York, U.S.A.) on 21 June 1983. A revised 
manuscript was published in Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 41, pp. 65-66 (March 
1984). Public notice of the possible use of the plenary powers in the case was 
given in the same part of the Bulletin as well as to ten general and four 
specialist serials. No comment was received. 



DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 17 January 1986 the members of the Commission were invited to 
vote under the Three-Month Rule on Voting Paper (1986)6 for or against 
the proposals set out in Bull. zool. Nom. vol. 41, p. 66. At the close of the 
voting period on 17 April 1986 the state of the voting was as follows: 

Affirmative Votes — twenty (20) received in the following order: 
Melville, Holthuis, Cocks, Savage, Willink, Starobogatov, Alvarado, 
Schuster, Mroczkowski, Hahn, Kabata, Trjapitzin, Ueno, Lehtinen, Ride, 
Halvorsen, Heppell, Bayer, Dupuis, Cogger 

Negative Votes — two (2) Bernardi, Thompson. 

No votes were returned by Corliss, Gruchy and Kraus. 



ORIGINAL REFERENCE 

The following is the original reference for the name placed on an 
Official List by the ruling given in the present Opinion: 
bahiensis, Pellonula, Steindachner, 1879, Sitzber. k. Acad. Wiss. Wien, vol. 

80,p. 181,pl. 3,fig. 2. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 137 



CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper (1986)6 were cast 
as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper have 
been duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so 
taken, being the decision of the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature, is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1390. 

P. K. TUBES 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
17 April 1986 



1 38 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



OPINION 1391 

ZYGAENA ANTHYLLIDIS BOISDUYAL, [1828] (INSECTA, 

LEPIDOPTERA): CONSERVED 

RULING. — (1) Under the plenary powers the specific name 
anthyllidis Hiibner, [1819], as published in the binomen Ly castes anthyllidis, 
and all uses of that name prior to that by Boisduval in 1828 are hereby sup- 
pressed for the purposes of both the Principle of Priority and the Principle 
of Homonymy. 

(2) The name anthyllidis Boisduval, [1828], as published in the 
binomen Zygaena anthyllidis, is hereby placed on the Official List of 
Specific Names in Zoology. 

(3) The name anthyllidis Hiibner, [1819], as published in the 
binomen Lycastes anthyllidis and as suppressed under the plenary powers in 
(1) above, is hereby placed on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid 
Specific Names in Zoology. 

HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)2442 

An application for the conservation o^ Zygaena anthyllidis Boisduval, 
[1828] was first received from Dr C. M. Naumann (Universitdt Bielefeld. 
BRD) and Dr W. G. Tremewan {British Museum (Natural History), 
London) on 4 May 1983. After a period of correspondence a revised manu- 
script was published in Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 41, pp. 73-76. Public notice 
of the possible use of the plenary powers was given in the same part of the 
Bulletin as well as to ten general and nine specialist serials. A large number 
of supportive comments were received and published in Bull. zool. Nom., 
vol. 42, p. 10. 

DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 17 January 1986 the members of the Commission were invited to 
vote under the Three-Month Rule on Voting Paper (1986)7 for or against 
the proposals set out in Bull. zool. Nom. vol. 41, p. 74. At the close of the 
voting period on 17 April 1986 the state of the voting was as follows: 

Affirmative Votes — twenty-two (22) received in the following 
order: Melville, Holthuis, Cocks, Savage, Willink, Starobogatov, Alvarado, 
Schuster, Mroczkowski, Hahn, Kabata, Trjapitzin, Ueno, Lehtinen, Ride, 
Halvorsen, Heppell, Bayer, Dupuis, Bemardi, Cogger, Thompson 

Negative Votes — None (0). 

No votes were returned by Corliss, Gruchy and Kraus. 

ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references for the names placed on an 
Official List and an Official Index by the ruling given in the present Opinion: 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 139 



anthyllidis, Zygaena. Boisduval, [1828], Essai sur une Monographie des 

Zygenides, p. 78 
anthyllidis, Ly castes. Hubner, [1819], Verzeichniss bekannter Schmettlinse 

p. 118. * ' 

CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper (1986)7 were cast 
as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper have 
been duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so 
taken, being the decision of the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature, is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1391. 

P. K. TUBES 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
17 April 1986 



140 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



OPINION 1392 

REPTOMULTISPARSA D'ORBIGNY, 1853 (BRYOZOA, 

CYCLOSTOMATA): TYPE SPECIES DESIGNATED 

RULING. — (1) Under the plenary powers the nominal species 
Diastopora incrustans d'Orbigny, 1850 is hereby designated as type species 
of the nominal genus Reptomultisparsa d'Orbigny, 1853. 

(2) The name Reptomultisparsa d'Orbigny, 1853 (gender: feminine) 
type species by designation under the plenary powers in ( 1 ) above Diastopora 
incrustans d'Orbigny, 1850, is hereby placed on the Official List of Generic 
Names in Zoology. 

(3) The name incrustans d'Orbigny, 1850, as published in the 
binomen Diastopora incrustans (specific name of the type species of Repto- 
multisparsa d'Orbigny, 1853) is hereby placed on the Official List of Specific 
Names in Zoology. 



HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)2400 

An application for the designation of Diastopora incrustans 
d'Orbigny, 1850 as the type species of Reptomultisparsa d'Orbigny, 1853 
was first received from Dr P. D. Taylor {British Museum (Natural History) , 
London) on 17 November 1981. After a period of correspondence a revised 
manuscript was published in Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 41, pp. 77-79 (June 
1984). Public notice of the possible use of the plenary powers in the case was 
given in the same part of the Bulletin as well as to ten general and three 
specialist serials. No comment was received. 



DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 17 January 1986 the members of the Commission were invited to 
vote under the Three-Month Rule on Voting Paper (1986)8 for or against 
the proposals set out in Bull. zool. Nom. vol. 41, pp. 78-79. At the close of 
the voting period on 17 April 1986 the state of the voting was as follows: 

Affirmative Votes — twenty-one (2 1 ) received in the following order: 
Melville, Holthuis, Cocks, Savage, Willink, Starobogatov, Alvarado, 
Schuster, Mroczkowski, Kabata, Trjapitzin, Ueno, Lehtinen, Ride, 
Halvorsen, Heppell, Bayer, Dupuis, Bernardi, Cogger, Thompson 

Negative Votes — one(l)Hahn. 

No votes were returned by Corliss, Gruchy and Kraus. 

Hahn commented that Diastopora microstoma Michelin, 1 846 would 
have been the best choice of type species for Reptomultisparsa, since it is 
listed as such by Bassler in the Fossilium Catalogus (1935) and the Treatise 
on Invertebrate Paleontology (1953). 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 141 



ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references for the names placed on 
Official Lists by the ruling given in the present Opinion: 
incrustans, Diastopora, d'Orbigny, 1850, Prodrome de Paleontologie, vol. 1, 

p. 288 
Reptomultisparsa d'Orbigny , 1853, Paleontologie f ran false, terrains cretaces, 

vol. 5, Bryozoaires, p. 875. 

CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper (1986)8 were cast 
as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper have 
been duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so 
taken, being the decision of the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature, is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1392. 

P. K. TUBBS 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
17 April 1986 



142 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



OPINION 1393 

CHOEROPSIS LEIDY, 1852 (MAMMALIA, ARTIODACTYLA): 

CONSERVED 

RULING. — (1) Under the plenary powers the generic name 
Choerodes Leidy, 1852 is hereby suppressed for the purpose of the Principle 
of Priority but not for that of the Principle of Homonymy. 

(2) The name Choeropsis Leidy, 1852 (gender: feminine), type 
species by monotypy Hippopotamus liberiensis Morton, 1849, is hereby 
placed on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology. 

(3) The name liberiensis Morton, 1849, as published in the binomen 
Hippopotamus liberiensis (specific name of the type species of Choeropsis 
Leidy, 1852) is hereby placed on the Official List of Specific Names in 
Zoology. 

(4) The name Choerodes Leidy, 1852, as suppressed under the 
plenary powers in (1) above, is hereby placed on the Official Index of 
Rejected and Invalid Generic Names in Zoology. 

HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)2407 

An application for the conservation of Choeropsis Leidy, 1852 was 
first received from Drs R. M. Schoch and S. G. Lucas {Yale University, 
U.S.A.) on 1 March 1982. After a period of correspondence a revised 
manuscript was published in Bull. zool. Nam., vol. 41, pp. 94-96 (June 
1984). Public notice of the possible use of the plenary powers in the case was 
given in the same part of the Bulletin as well as to ten general and three 
specialist serials. No comment was received. 

DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 17 June 1986 the members of the Commission were invited to 
vote under the Three-Month Rule on Voting Paper (1986)9 for or against 
the proposals set out in Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 41, p. 95. At the close of the 
voting period on 17 April 1986 the state of the voting was as follows: 

Affirmative Votes — twenty-one (21) received in the following order: 
Melville, Holthuis, Cocks, Savage, Willink, Starobogatov, Alvarado, 
Schuster, Mroczkowski, Hahn, Trjapitzin, Ueno, Lehtinen, Ride, 
Halvorsen, Heppell, Bayer, Dupuis, Bernardi, Cogger, Thompson 

Negative Votes — one ( 1 ) Kabata. 

No votes were returned by Corless, Gruchy and Kraus. 



ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references for the names placed on 
Official Lists and an Official Index by the ruling given in the present Opinion: 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 143 



Choerodes Leidy, 1852, Proc. Acad. nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 6, p. 52 
Choeropsis Leidy, 1852, J. Acad. nat. Sci. Philadelphia, (2), vol. 2, p. 213 
liberiensis. Hippopotamus, Morton, 1849, /. Acad. nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 
(2), vol. l,p. 232. 

CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper (1986)9 were cast 
as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper have 
been duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so 
taken, being the decision of the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature, is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1393. 

P. K. TUBES 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
17 April 1986 



144 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



OPINION 1394 

CENTRURUS LIMPIDUS KARSCH, 1879 AND CENTRUROIDES 

ORNATUS POCOCK, 1902 (ARACHNIDA, SCORPIONES): 

CONSERVED 

RULING. — (1) Under the plenary powers the specific name 
olivaceus Thorell, 1 877, as published in the binomen Centrums olivaceus, is 
hereby suppressed for the purpose of the Principle of Priority but not for 
that of the Principle of Homonymy. 

(2) The following names are hereby placed on the Official List of 
Specific Names in Zoology: 

(a) limpidus Karsch, 1 879, as published in the binomen Centrums 
limpidus; 

(b) ornatus Pocock, 1902, as published in the binomen Centrur- 
oides ornatus. 

(3) The name olivaceus Thorell, 1 877, as published in the binomen 
Centrurus olivaceus and as suppressed under the plenary powers in (1) 
above, is hereby placed on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid 
Specific Names in Zoology. 

HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)2446 

An application for the conservation of Centrurus limpidus Karsch, 
1879 and Centruroides ornatus Pocock, 1902, was first received from Dr 
O. F. Francke {Texas Technical University, U.S.A.) on 27 June 1983. After 
a period of correspondence a revised manuscript was published in Bull, 
zool. Norn., vol. 41, pp. 97-100 (June 1984). Public notice of the possible use 
of the plenary powers in the case was given in the same part of the Bulletin 
as well as to ten general and three speciaUst serials. No comment was 
received. 

DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 17 January 1986 the members of the Commission were invited to 
vote under the Three-Month Rule on Voting Paper (1986)10 for or against 
the proposals set out in Bull. zool. Nom. vol. 41, pp. 98-99. At the close of 
the voting period on 17 April 1986 the state of the voting was as follows: 

Affirmative Votes — twenty-one (21) received in the following order: 
Melville, Holthuis, Cocks, Savage, Willink, Starobogatov, Alvarado, 
Schuster, Hahn, Kabata, Mroczkowski, Trjapitzin, Ueno, Lehtinen, Ride, 
Halvorsen, Heppell, Bayer, Dupuis, Bernardi, Cogger 

Negative Votes — one (1) Thompson. 

Bayer pointed out that, contrary to para. 3 of the application {Bull, 
zool. Nom., vol. 41, p. 97) Centrurus Ehrenberg, 1828 is not a nomen 
nudum: 'even though a full description was not given it was twice character- 
ized in the original publication [on folios 1 and 6] ... It seems clear that 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 145 



Centrurus is an available generic name from Ehrenberg (1828), without 
included species, with type species C. galbineus Koch, 1838 fixed by 
subsequent monotypy'. 

ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references for the names placed on an 
Official List and an Official Index by the ruling given in the present Opinion: 
limpidus, Centrurus, Karsch, 1879, Mitt. Muench. Entomol. Ver., vol. 3, 

p. 120 
olivaceus, Centrurus. Thorell, 1877, Atti Soc. Italiana Sci. Nat., vol. 19, pp. 

151-152 
ornatus, Centruroides, Pocock, 1902, Biologia Centrali- Americana, p. 26. 

CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper (1986)10 were 
cast as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper have 
been duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so 
taken, being the decision of the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature, is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1394. 

P. K. TUBES 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
17 April 1986 



146 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



OPINION 1395 

TO M 10 P SIS BENEDIKTOVA, 1956 (BRACHIOPODA, 

SPIRIFERIDA): CONSERVED 

RULING. — (1) Under the plenary powers the generic name 
Tomiopsis Cope, 1 893 and all uses of that name prior to that by Benediktova, 
1956, are hereby suppressed for the purposes of both the Principle of Priority 
and the Principle of Homonymy. 

(2) The name Tomiopsis Benediktova, 1956, (gender: feminine), 
type species by original designation Brachythyris kumpani Yanischevsky, 
1935, is hereby placed on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology. 

(3) The name kumpani Yanischevsky, 1935, as pubhshed in the 
binomen Brachythyris kumpani (specific name of the type species of 
Tomiopsis Benediktova, 1956) is hereby placed on the Official List of 
Specific Names in Zoology. 

(4) The name Tomiopsis Cope, 1893, as suppressed under the 
plenary powers in (1) above, is hereby placed on the Official Index of 
Rejected and Invalid Generic Names in Zoology. 

HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)2451 

An application for the conservation of Tomiopsis Benediktova, 1956 
was first received from Dr N. W. Archbold and Dr G. A. Thomas {Univer- 
sity of Melbourne, Australia) on 15 September 1983. A revised manuscript 
was pubhshed in Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 41, pp. 105-107 (June 1984). Public 
notice of the possible use of the plenary powers in the case was given in the 
same part of the Bulletin as well as to ten general and two specialist serials. 
No comment was received. 



DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 17 January 1986 the members of the Commission were invited to 
vote under the Three-Month Rule on Voting Paper (1986)12 for or against 
the proposals set out in Bull. zool. Nom. vol. 41, pp. 106-107. At the close of 
the voting period on 17 April 1986 the state of the voting was as follows: 

Affirmative Votes — nineteen (19) received in the following order: 
Melville, Holthuis, Cocks, Savage, WilUnk, Starobogatov, Alvarado, 
Kabata, Mroczkowski, Trjapitzin, Schuster, Ueno, Ride, Halvorsen, 
Heppell, Bayer, Dupuis, Bernardi, Cogger 

Negative Votes — three (3) received in the following order: Hahn, 
Lehtinen, Thompson. 

No votes were returned by Corliss, Gruchy and Kraus. 

Hahn voted against because no explanation had been given of the 
nomenclatural fate of the fossil edentate genus described as Tomiopsis 
Cope, 1893. [As stated in the application, this name was based on a single 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 147 



tooth, and no further contributions have been made since the original brief 
description. The sinking of the name is unlikely to cause difficulties]. 

ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references for the names placed on 
Official Lists and an Official Index by the ruling given in the present Opinion: 
kumpani, Brachythyris Yanischevsky, 1935, Uchenye Zapiski Leningrad 

Gosud. Un-ta, Vyp. vol. 1 , pp. 68-69 
Tomiopsis Benediktova, 1956 Voprosy Geologii Kuzbassa, I, Materialy 

Vtorogo Soveshchaniya po Stratigrafii Uglenosnykh Otlozhenii, p. 

169 
Tomiopsis Cope, 1893, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc, vol. 31, no. 142, pp. 317-318. 

CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper (1986)12 were 
cast as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper have 
been duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so 
taken, being the decision of the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature, is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1395. 

P. K. TUBBS 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
17 April 1986 



148 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



OPINION 1396 

BYRRHUS MURINUS FABRICIUS, 1794 (INSECTA, COLEOPTERA, 

BYRRHIDAE): CONSERVED 

RULING. — ( 1 ) Under the plenary powers the following names are 
hereby suppressed for the purpose of the Principle of Priority but not for 
that of the Principle of Homonymy: 

(a) undulatus Kugelann, 1792, as published in the binomen 
Byrrhus undulatus; 

(b) rubidus Kugelann, 1792, as published in the binomen Byrrhus 
rubidus. 

(2) The name Porcinolus Mulsant & Rey, 1869 (gender: masculine) 
type species by subsequent designation by Mroczkowski, 1984, Byrrhus 
murinus Fabricius, 1794, is hereby placed on the Official List of Generic 
Names in Zoology. 

(3) The name murinus Fabricius, 1794, as published in the binomen 
Byrrhus murinus (specific name of the type species of Porcinolus Mulsant 
& Rey, 1869) is hereby placed on the Official List of Specific Names in 
Zoology. 

(4) The following names are hereby placed on the Official Index of 
Rejected and Invalid Specific Names in Zoology: 

(a) undulatus Kugelann, 1792, as published in the binomen 
Byrrhus undulatus and as suppressed under the plenary powers 
in (l)(a) above; 

(b) rubidus Kugelann, 1792, as published in the binomen Byrrhus 
rubidus and as suppressed under the plenary powers in (l)(b) 
above. 

HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)2314 

An application for the conservation of Byrrhus murinus Fabricius, 
1794 was first received from Dr M. Mroczkowksi {Institute of Zoology, 
Poland) on 30 July 1979. After a period of correspondence a revised version 
was published in Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 41, pp. 1 14-115 (June 1984). Public 
notice of the possible use of the plenary powers was given in the same part 
of the Bulletin as well as to ten general and eleven specialist serials. No 
comment was received. 

DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 17 January 1986 the members of the Commission were invited to 
vote under the Three-Month Rule on Voting Paper (1986)13 for or against 
the proposals set out in Bull. zool. Nom. vol. 41, pp. 1 14^1 15. At the close of 
the voting period on 17 April 1986 the state of the voting was as follows: 

Affirmative Votes — twenty-one (21) received in the following order: 
Melville, Holthuis, Cocks, Savage, Willink, Starobogatov, Alvarado, 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 149 



Mroczkowski, Hahn, Kabata, Trjapitzin, Schuster, Ueno, Lehtinen, Ride, 
Halvorsen, Heppell, Bayer, Dupuis, Bernardi, Cogger 

Negative Votes — One ( 1 ) Thompson. 

No votes were returned by Corliss, Gruchy and Kraus. 



ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references for the names placed on 
Official Lists and an Official Index by the ruling given in the present Opinion: 
murinus, Byrrhus, Fabricius, 1794, Entomologia systematica vol. 4, p. 437 
Porcinolus Mulsant & Rey, 1869, Histoire naturelle des coleopteres de 

France, part 2, Piluliformes, p. 94. See also Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 

vol. 17, p. 328 
rubidus, Byrrhus, Kugelann, 1792, Neuestes Mag. Liebhaber EntomoL, vol. 

1, Heft (2^), p. 484 
undulatus, Byrrhus, Kugelann, 1792, Neuestes Mag. Liebhaber EntomoL, 

vol. r. Heft (2^), p. 484. 

The following is the original reference to the subsequent designation 
of a type species for the nominal genus Porcinolus Mulsant & Rey, 1869: of 
Byrrhus murinus Fabricius, 1794 by Mroczkowski, 1984, Bull. zool. Nom., 
vol. 41, p. 114. 

CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper (1986)13 were 
cast as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper have 
been duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so 
taken, being the decision of the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature, is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1396. 

P. K. TUBBS 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
17 April 1986 



150 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



OPINION 1397 

RHOPALOCERUSW. REDTENBACHER, 1842(INSECTA, 

COLEOPTERA, COLYDIDAE): CONSERVED 

RULING. — (1) Under the plenary powers the generic names 
Spartycerus Motschulsky, 1837 and Apeistus Motschulsky, 1840, are hereby 
suppressed for the purpose of the Principle of Priority but not for that of 
the Principle of Homonymy. 

(2) The name Rhopalocerus W. Redtenbacher, 1842 (gender: mas- 
culine), type species by monotypy Rhopalocerus setosus W. Redtenbacher, 
1842, is hereby placed on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology. 

(3) The name rondanii A. Villa & J. B. Villa, 1833, as published in 
the binomen Monotonia rondanii (considered the valid name at the time of 
this ruling for the type species of Rhopalocerus W. Redtenbacher, 1842) is 
hereby placed on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology. 

(4) The name rhopalocerini Reitter, 1911 (type genus Rhopalocerus 
W. Redtenbacher, 1 842) is hereby placed on the Official List of Family- 
Group Names in Zoology. 

(5) The following names are hereby placed on the Official Index of 
Rejected and Invalid Generic names in Zoology: 

(a) Spartycerus Motschulsky, 1837, as suppressed under the 
plenary powers in (1) above; 

(b) Apeistus Motschulsky, 1840, as suppressed under the plenary 
powers in (1) above; 

(c) Apistus Agassiz, 1 846, a junior homonym of Apistus Cuvier in 
Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1829. 

(6) The name apistini Ganglbauer, 1899 (invalid because based on a 
junior homonym) is hereby placed on the Official Index of Rejected and 
Invalid Family-Group Names in Zoology. 

HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)2456 

An application for the conservation of Rhopalocerus W. 
Redtenbacher, 1842 was first received from Dr M. Mroczkowski {Institute 
of Zoology, Warsaw, Poland) on 18 October 1983. A revised version was 
published in Bull. zool. Norn. vol. 41, pp. 1 16-1 18 (June 1984). Public notice 
of the possible use of the plenary powers in the case was given in the same 
issue of the Bulletin as well as to ten general and eleven specialist serials. No 
comment was received. 

DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 17 January 1986 the members of the Commission were invited to 
vote under the Three-Month Rule on Voting Paper (1986)14 for or against 
the proposals set out in Bull. zool. Nom. vol. 41, pp. 117-118. At the close of 
the voting period on 17 April 1986 the state of the voting was as follows: 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 151 



Affirmative Votes — twenty-one (21) received in the following order: 
Melville, Holthuis, Cocks, Savage, Willink, Starobogatov, Alvarado, 
Mroczkowski, Hahn, Kabata, Trjapitzin, Schuster, Ueno, Lehtinen, Ride, 
Halvorsen, Heppell, Bayer, Dupuis, Bernardi, Cogger 

Negative Votes — One ( 1 ) Thompson. 

No votes were returned by Corliss, Gruchy and Kraus. 

ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references for the names placed on the 
Official Lists and Indexes by the ruling given in the present Opinion: 
Apeistus Motschulsky, 1840, Bull. Soc. imp. Nat. Moscou, p. 186 
Apistus Agassiz, 1846, Nomenclatoris zoologici index universalis, p. 29 
APiSTiNi Ganglbauer, 1899, Die Kdfer von Mitteleuropa, p. 873 
RHOPALOCERiNi Reitter, 1911, Fauna Germanica. Die Kdfer des deutschen 

Reiches, vol. 3, p. 108 
Rhopalocerus W. Redtenbacher, 1842, Die Gattungen der deutschen Kdfer- 

Fauna, p. 21 
rondanii, Monotonia, A. Villa & J. B. Villa, 1833, Coleoptera Europae 

dupleta, p. 36 
Spartycerus Motschulsky, 1837, Bull. Soc. imp. Nat. Moscou, (5), p. 100. 

CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper (1986)14 were 
cast as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper have 
been duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so 
taken, being the decision of the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature, is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1397. 

P. K. TUBBS 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
17 April 1986 



152 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



OPINION 1398 

C/lPrSHEWITSON, [1865] (LEPIDOPTERA, LYCAENIDAE): 

CONSERVED 

RULING. — (1) Under the plenary powers the generic name 
Scoptes Hiibner, [1819] is hereby suppressed for the purpose of the Principle 
of Priority but not for that of the Principle of Homonymy. 

(2) The name Capys Hewitson, [1865] (gender: masculine), type 
species by monotypy Papilio alpheus Cramer, [1777], is hereby placed on the 
Official List of Generic Names in Zoology. 

(3) The name alpheus Cramer, [1777], as published in the binomen 
Papilio alpheus, (specific name of the type species of Capys Hewitson, 
[1865]) is hereby placed on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology. 



HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)1748 

An application for the conservation of Capys Hewitson, [1865] 
was first received from the late Dr N. D. Riley {British Museum (Natural 
History), London) on 8 March 1966. It was published in Bull. zool. Nom., 
vol. 23, pp. 165-166 (October 1966). No comment was received. A short 
time after publication. Article 23b of the Code, which was cited in the case, 
came under investigation by a special committee appointed by the Council 
of the Commission, and consequently no further action was taken. 

In 1974 a proposal to complete this application was received from 
Lt.-Col. C. F. Cowan {Cumbria, U.K.) and published in Bull. zool. Nom., 
vol. 30, pp. 133-134. The case was however left in abeyance until it was 
republished, due to the long interval that had passed, in Bull. zool. Nom., 
vol. 41, pp. 119-121 (June 1984). Public notice of the possible use of the 
plenary powers in the case was given in the same part of the Bulletin as well 
as to ten general and eleven specialist serials. A comment was received 
from Colonel Cowan and published in Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 41, p. 197. As 
a consequence of this comment the Commission were asked to vote on 
proposals (l)(b), (2), (3) and (4) only. 



DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 17 January 1986 the members of the Commission were invited to 
vote under the Three-Month Rule on Voting Paper (1986)15 for or against 
the proposals set out in Bull. zool. Nom. vol. 41, pp. 120-121 as amended on 
p. 197. At the close of the voting period on 17 April 1986 the state of the 
voting was as follows: 

Affirmative Votes — twenty-two (22) received in the following 
order: Melville, Holthuis, Cocks, Savage, Willink, Starobogatov, Alvarado, 



Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 153 



Mroczowski, Hahn, Kabata, Trjapitzin, Schuster, Ueno, Lehtinen, Ride, 
Halvorsen, Heppell, Bayer, Dupuis, Beraardi, Cogger, Thompson 

Negative Votes — None (0). 

No votes were returned by Corliss, Gruchy and Kraus. 

ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references for the names placed on 
Official Lists by the ruling given in the present Opinion: 
alpheus, Papilio, Cramer, [1777], De uitlandsche Kapellen, vol. 2 (16), p. 31 
Capys Hewitson, [1865], Illustrations of Diurnal Lepidoptera. Lycaenidae. 

(Supplement), vol. 1, p. 59. 

CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper (1986)15 were 
cast as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper have 
been duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so 
taken, being the decision of the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature, is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1398. 

P. K. TUBBS 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
17 April 1986 



154 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



OPINION 1399 
COCHLIOMYIA TOWNSEND, 1915 (DIPTERA, CALLIPHORIDAE): 

CONSERVED 

RULING. — (1) Under the plenary powers the generic name 
Callitroga Breauer, 1 883, is hereby suppressed for the purpose of the Principle 
of Priority but not for that of the Principle of Homonymy. 

(2) The name Cochliomyia Townsend, 1915 (gender: feminine), type 
species by original designation Musca macellaria Fabricius, 1775, is hereby 
placed on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology. 

(3) The name macellaria Fabricius, 1775, as published in the 
binomen Musca macellaria (specific name of the type species of Cochliomyia 
Townsend, 1915), is hereby placed on the Official List of Specific Names in 
Zoology. 

(4) The name Callitroga Brauer, 1883, as suppressed under the 
plenary powers in (1) above, is hereby placed on the Official Index of 
Rejected and Invalid Generic Names in Zoology. 



HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)707 

An application to clarify the status of Callitroga was first received 
from Dr C. W. Sabrosky {United States Department of Agriculture, 
Washington, U.S.A.) on 30 August 1952. As no definite standpoint was 
taken regarding the availability, authorship and date, it was agreed that the 
application should be held in abeyance until after the London Congress of 
1958, where it was hoped that a decision would be made on names first 
published in synonymy. 

In December 1982 the then Secretary, Mr R. V. Melville, contacted 
Dr Sabrosky with a view to his rewriting and presenting the case again. 
After a long period of correspondence a revised version of the case was 
pubhshed in Bull. zool. Nom.. vol. 41, pp. 125-128 (June 1984). Public 
notice of the possible use of the plenary powers was given in the same part 
of the Bulletin as well as to ten general and eleven specialist serials. A 
supportive comment was received from Dr Y. Z. Erizinclioglu {University 
of Cambridge, U.K.). 



DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 17 January 1986 the members of the Commission were invited to 
vote under the Three-Month Rule on Voting Paper (1986)16 for or against 
the proposals set out in Bull. zool. Nom. vol. 41, p. 128. At the close of the 
voting period on 17 April 1986 the state of the voting was as follows: 

Affirmative Votes — twenty (20) received in the following order: 
Melville, Holthuis, Cocks, Savage, Wilhnk, Starobogatov, Alvarado, 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 155 



Mroczkowski, Hahn, Trjapitzin, Schuster, Ueno, Lehtinen, Ride, Halvorsen, 
Heppell, Bayer, Bemardi, Cogger, Thompson 

Negative Votes — None (0). 

Kabata and Dupuis abstained. No votes were returned by Corliss, 
Gruchy and Kraus. 

Kabata abstained because he felt that the application reflected only 
one viewpoint, Dupuis primarily because the biological complexity of the 
case might involve taxonomic difficulties. Thompson commented that a 
type species should have been designated before suppression of Callitroga. 

ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references for the names placed on 
Official Lists and an Official Index by the ruling given in the present 
Opinion: 

Callitroga Brauer, 1883, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math-nat Kl vol 

47, p. 74 ■ ■' 

Cochliomyia Townsend, 1915, /. Wash. Acad. Sci.. vol. 5, p. 644 
macellaria. Musca, Fabricius, 1775, Systema Entomologiae , p. 776. 

CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper (1986)16 were 
cast as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper have 
been duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so 
taken, being the decision of the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature, is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1399. 

P. K. TUBBS 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
17 April 1986 



156 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



BUBO DUMERIL, 1806 AND SURNIA DUMERIL, 1806 (AVES): 
PROPOSED CONFIRMATION ON THE OFFICIAL LIST. 

Z.N.(S.)1051 

By R. V. Melville {formerly Secretary, International Commission on 
Zoological Nomenclature) 

Among the generic names deferred for further consideration when 
the first instalment of the Official Lists in book form was being prepared in 
1958 were No. 29, Bubo Dumeril, 1806 and No. 105, Surnia Dumeril, 1806, 
both dealt with in Opinion 67. It appears that both names can be confirmed 
on the Official List without recourse to the plenary powers. 

BUBO 

2. Bubo was described by Dumeril (1806, Zoologie analytique, p. 34) 
with no included species. This was the case with all new genera proposed by 
Dumeril in this work. In the same year L. F. Froriep published C. Dumeril's 
analytische Zoologie aus dem franzosischen mit Zusdtzen. He cited one 
species as an example of every genus and thereby fixed the type species of 
each of Dumeril's new genera by subsequent monotypy. The only example 
so cited (p. 35) under Bubo was Strix bubo Linnaeus, 1758 {Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 
vol. 1, p. 92). 

3. The relevant entry in Opinion 67 reads: 'Bubo Dumeril, Zool. 
Analyt., 1806, 34. Mt, Tt., Tsd., "Les Ducs" = SrrLx bubo Linn. (Froriep 
1806, Opinion 46)'. The abbreviations mean Mt, type by monotypy; Tt, 
type by tautonymy; Tsd, type by subsequent designation. Opinion 46 was 
the ruling that then governed the treatment of genera proposed without 
included species. It has been replaced by Article 69(a)(vii). Although all the 
statements made in the entry are true, it is only necessary to cite one method 
of type-species designation. 

4. The Commission is accordingly asked: 

(1) to confirm the placing on the Official List of Generic Names in 
Zoology of Bubo Dumeril, 1806 (gender: mascuUne), type 
species, by subsequent monotypy, Strix bubo Linnaeus, 1758; 

(2) to place the specific name bubo Linnaeus, 1758, as published in 
the binomen Strix bubo (specific name of type species of Bubo 
Linnaeus, 1758) on the Official List of Specific Names in 
Zoology. 

SURNIA 

5. The nominal type species of Surnia Dumeril (1806, Zoologie 
analytique. p. 34) is fixed in the same manner as that of Bubo, namely by 
subsequent monotypy by Froriep (1806, op. cit., p. 35). Dumeril cited 'Strix 
hudlonia L.' which is a lapsus for Strix hudsonia Gmelin, 1788 in Linnaeus, 



Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 157 



Syst. Nat. ed. 13, vol. 1 (1), p. 295. The valid name for this species is Strix 
caparoch P. L. S. Muller, 1766, Des Ritters C. von Linne's . . . vollstdndige 
Natursystem . . . Suppl., p. 69. Gmelin's type locality was Hudson's Bay and 
Muller's was Europe; but it is now accepted that Muller based his Strix 
caparoch on Edwards, G., 1743, Natural history of birds, pi. 62, which is one 
of the items in Gmelin's synonymy. 

6. The Commission is accordingly asked: 

(1) to confirm the placing on the Official List of Generic Names in 
Zoology of Surnia Dumeril, 1806 (gender: feminine), type 
species, by subsequent monotypy, Strix hudsonia Gmelin 
1788; 

(2) to place on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology the 
specific name caparoch Muller (P.L.S.) 1766 as pubHshed in the 
bmomen Strix caparoch (the valid name at the date of this 
application of the type species of Surnia Dumeril, 1806). 

7. I am grateful to Mr L C. J. Galbraith {Tring Museum) for help in 
compiling the facts concerning Surnia. 



158 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



ANTISPILA HUBNER, [1825] (INSECTA, LEPIDOPTERA): 

PROPOSED VALIDATION OF ANTISPILA STADTMULLERELLA 

[HUBNER] 1825 AS TYPE SPECIES. Z.N.(S.)2463 

By E. S. Nielsen {Division of Entomology , CSIRO, G.P.O. Box 1700, 

Canberra, A.C.T. 2601, Australia) and I. W. B. Nye {Department of 

Entomology , British Museum (Natural History) , Cromwell Road, London 

SW7 5BD, U.K.) 



The object of this case is to request the Commission to suppress an 
unused type-species designation so that Antispila Hiibner, [1825], can 
continue to be used in its universally accepted sense. 

2. Antispila Hiibner, [1825] {Verz. bekannter Schmett., p. 419) was 
established for 1 3 originally included species. The first species was included 
by Hiibner as '4070. Antispila Pagenstecherella. Merianella Hiibn. Tin. 
265.' — i.e. Hiibner was establishing A. pagenstecherella to denote his 
earlier misidentification Tinea merianella Linnaeus sensu Hiibner, [1805] 
{Samml. eur. Schmett., vol. 8, pi. 38, fig. 265). The seventh species was 
included by Hiibner as 'A. Stadtmiillerella. Pfeiferella Hiibn. 398'. — i.e., 
Hubner was establishing A. stadtmuellerella as an objective replacement 
name for Tinea pfeifferella Hiibner, [1813] {Samml. eur. Schmett.. vol. 8, pi. 
59, fig. 398) a primary homonym of Tinea pfeifferella Hiibner, [1813] 
{ibidem, vol. 8, pi. 63, fig. 422) and a junior subjective synonym of Tinea 
metallella [Denis & Schiffermiiller], 1775 {Ankiindung Syst. Werkes Schmett. 
Wienergegend, p. 144). 

3. Ever since Wocke, 1871, in Staudinger & Wocke {Cat. Lepid. eur. 
Faunengeb., p. 324), Antispila has been used as a valid name for a 
widely distributed and large genus in the heliozelidae based on A. 
metallella { = stadtmuellerella Hubner = pfeifferella Hiibner fig. 398). A. 
stadtmuellerella was designated as the type species of Antispila by Fletcher, 
1929 {Mem. Dep. Agric. India (EntomoL), vol. 1 1, p. 17). There is, however, 
an earlier and hitherto overlooked type-species designation by Hampson, 
1918 {Novit. zool., vol. 25, p. 387) who habitually designated the first of the 
originally included species and so cited pagenstecherella and added that 
Antispila 'may be the oldest name in this family when its type can be identi- 
fied'. Hampson was therefore unaware that A. pagenstecherella had already 
been placed by Heyden, 1861 {EntomoL Ztg. Stettin, vol. 22, p. 32) as 
the senior synonym of Tinea vinculella Herrich-Schaffer, 1850 {Syst. 
Bearbeitung Schmett. Eur., vol. 5, Tineides, pi. 40, fig. 275; 1854, ibidem, 
vol. 5, p. 75). This species is currently placed in Eudarcia Clemens, 1860, in 

the TINEIDAE. 

4. Antispila has been consistently used for the heliozelid genus in 
the literature dealing with both its taxonomy, faunistics, biology, and 
morphology, including the following: 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 1 59 



Berestynska-Wilczek, 1966, Folia biol., Krakow vol. 14, p. 455 
Davis, 1983, in Hodges, Check List of Lepidoptera of America 

North of Mexico, p. 4 
Dziurzynski, 1952, Mater. Fizjogr. Kraju, vol. 28, p. 1 
Emmet, 1976, in Heath, Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and 

Ireland, vol. 1, p. 305 
Gerasimov, 1952, Fauna SSSR, vol. 56, p. 306 
Grandi, 1932, Boll. Lab. Entomol R. 1st. super, agrar. Bologna, vol. 

5, p. 178 
Kuroko, 1982, in Inoue et al.. Moths of Japan, vol. 1, p. 57, vol. 2, 

p. 157 
Kuznetsov, 1978, Opred. Faune SSSR. vol. 117, p. 72 
Lafontaine, 1973, Can. Entomol.. vol. 105, p. 991 
Wojtusiak, 1976, Klucze Oznacz. Owad. Poland, vol. 94, p. 9. 
Antispila has to our knowledge never been used in the tineidae. 
5. In order to maintain general current usage of Antispila Hubner, 
[1825], in the heliozelidae and to prevent the confusion that would occur if 
it were to be transferred and used to replace Eudarcia Clemens, 1860, in the 
TINEIDAE, the Commission is requested: 

(1) to use its plenary powers to set aside all type-species desig- 
nations for the nominal genus Antispila Hubner, [1825], prior to 
that of Fletcher, 1929; 

(2) to place the generic name Antispila Hubner, [1825], type 
species by subsequent designation of Fletcher, 1929, Antispila 
stadtmuellerella Hubner, [1825], on the Official List of Generic 
Names in Zoology; 

(3) to place the specific name metallella [Denis & Schiffermiiller], 
1775, as published in the binomen Tinea metallella (valid name, 
at the time of the application, of the type species of Antispila 
Hubner, [1825]) on the Official List of Specific Names in 
Zoology. 



160 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



HETEROCLONIUM BICOLOR COPE, 1896 (REPTILIA, 

SQUAMATA): PROPOSED CONSERVATION BY SUPPRESSION 

OF CHIROTES DIGLOSSISSAEl<iZ, 1869. Z.N.(S.)2424 

By Stephen C. Ayala (307 12th Street. Petaluma, California 94952, U.S.A.) 

In 1869, Nicolas Saenz described a worm-like reptile from 
Colombia under the name Chirotes diglossis, believing it to be a legged 
amphisbaenid related to Chirotes (now Bipes) canaliculatus of Mexico. 
Saenz's detailed description permits identification of his specimens not as 
an amphisbaenid (Suborder Amphisbaenia), but rather as a microteiid 
lizard (Suborder Sauria) currently known as Bachia bicolor (Cope, 1 896). 

2. The genus Chirotes Cuvier, 1817 is now considered a synonym of 
Bipes Latreille, 1802, the only genus of legged amphisbaenids in the New 
World and limited in distribution to Mexico and the Southwestern United 
States. The name diglossis Saenz has apparently never been used since its 
original publication with reference to any amphisbaenid. Dr Carl Gans {in 
lit., 24 Sept. 1982) is of the same opinion. This may be because Saenz's 
description appeared in the Annals of Colombia's National University, a 
journal not widely circulated at the middle of the previous century, and not 
likely to come to the attention of students of amphisbaenids or microteiids. 

3. Saenz did not formally designate a type specimen as such, but he 
based his description on a specimen of imprecise origin donated to the 
School of Natural Science of Colombia's National University in Bogota 
by Dr Vargas Vega. The specimen was said to be kept in the school's 
specimen cabinet. Today the Instituto de Ciencias Naturales at the 
National University of Colombia has the largest collection of Colombian 
lizards in the world, but its oldest specimens date only from the late 1930s 
or early 1940s. It is exceptionally unhkely that Saenz's type specimen of 
diglossis, or a second specimen he said was also present, still exists. 

4. The only published usage of Saenz's name diglossis that I am 
aware of is in the introduction to a list of specimens in the herpetology 
collection at Colombia's National University. Humberto Alarcon, 1979, 
noted only that: 'In 1869, while a student at National University, Nicolas 
Saenz published the description of a new lizard Chirotes diglossis. following 
closely the descriptions given by Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril (of Bipes 
canaliculatus), and specifying that the holotype was deposited in the natural 
history specimen cabinet' (my translation). There is no previous recognition 
as to the correct identification of Saenz's specimens. 

5. In 1896, Cope described Heteroclonium (now Bachia) bicolor. 
doubtless unaware of Saenz's description 27 years earlier. The name bicolor 
Cope has been widely used in the literature, for example by Dunn, 1944a, 
1944b: Aleman, 1953; Valdivieso & Tamsitt, 1963; Niceforo Maria, 1964; 
Medem, 1968; Peters & Donoso-Barros, 1970; Hoogmoed, 1973; Maclean, 
1974 and Presch, 1980. The extensive literature on the genus Bachia and B. 
bicolor was recently unravelled and summarized by Dixon, 1973. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 161 



6. Therefore, in the interest of nomenclatural stability, I ask the 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature to: 

(1) use its plenary powers to suppress the specific name diglossis 
Saenz, 1 869, as published in the binomen Chirotes diglossis, for 
the purposes of the Principles of Priority but not for those of 
the Principle of Homonymy; 

(2) place the specific name bicolor Cope, 1896, as published in the 
binomen Heteroclonium bicolor, on the Official List of Specific 
Names in Zoology; 

(3) place the specific name diglossis Saenz, 1869, as published in 
the binomen Chirotes diglossis and as suppressed under the 
plenary powers in (1) above, on the Official Index of Rejected 
and Invalid Names in Zoology. 



REFERENCES 

ALARCON-P., H. 1979. Los reptiles depositados en la colecci6n de herpetologia 

del Institute de Ciencias Naturales, Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad 

Nacional de Colombia, ICN. I. Sauria y Amphisbaenia. Sciencia {Bogota), 

vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 9-35. 
ALEMAN, C. 1953. Contribucion al estudio de los reptiles y batracios de la Sierra 

de Perija. Mem. Sac. Cienc. not. La Salle (Caracas), vol. 13, pp. 205-225. 
COPE, E. D. 1896. On the hemipenes of the Sauria. Proc. Acad. nat. Sci. 

Philadelphia 1896, pp. 461-467. 
DIXON, J. R. 1973. A systematic review of the Teiid lizards, genus Bachia, with 

remarks on Heterodactylus and Anotosaura. Misc. Publ. Univ. Kansas Mus. 

nat. Hist., no. 57, pp. 1-47. 
DOWLING, H. G. & DUELLMAN, W. E. 1974-1978. Systematic Herpetology: A 

synopsis of families and higher categories. 304 pp. Hiss Publications, New 

York. 
DUNN, E. R. 1944a. Los generos de anfibios y reptiles de Colombia. II. Segunda 

Parte. Reptiles, orden de los Saurios. Caldasia, vol. 3, pp. 73-1 11. 
1944b. Herpetology of the Bogota area. Revta. Acad. Colombiana Cienc. exact. 

fis. nat., vol. 6, pp. 68-81. 
HOOGMOED, M. S. 1973. Notes on the herpetofauna of Surinam. IV. The lizards 

and amphisbaenians of Surinam. 418 pp. W. Junk Publishers, The Hague. 
MACLEAN, W. P. 1974. Feeding and locomotor mechanisms of teiid lizards: 

functional morphology and evolution. Papeis avuls. Zool. Sao Paulo, vol. 27, 

pp. 179-213. 
MEDEM, F. 1968. El desarrollo de la herpetologia en Colombia. Revta. Acad. 

Colomb. Cienc. exact, fis. nat., vol. 13, pp. 149-199. 
NICEFORO MARIA, HNO. 1964. Herpetologia. I. Suborden Sauria, Familia 

Teiidae, Genero Bachia. Bol. Inst. La Salle {Bogota), pp. 5-8. 
PETERS, J. R. & DONOSO-BARROS, R. 1970. Catalogue of the Neotropical 

Squamata. Part II. Lizards and Amphisbaenians. Smithson. Inst. Bull., vol. 

297, pp. 1-293. 
PRESCH, W. 1980. Evolutionary History of the South American Microteiid 

Lizards (Teiidae; Gymnopthalminae). Copeia 1980(1), pp. 36-56. 



162 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



SAENZ, N. 1869. Descripcion del Chirotes diglossis. An. Univ. Nac. Estados Unidos 

Colombia, 1869, pp. 73-74. 
STEJNEGER, L. 1893. Note on the generic name Chirotes. Science, vol. 21, no. 

529, pp. 157-158. 
VALDIVIESO, D. & TAMSITT, J. R. 1963. Records and observations on 

Colombian reptiles. Herpetologia, vol. 19, pp. 28-39. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 163 



ON THE NAMES OF TWO SPECIES OF THE GENUS CLYTIA 

LAMOUROUX, 1812 (CNIDARIA, HYDROZOA) COMMON IN 

WESTERN EUROPE. Z.N.(S.)2493 

By Paul F. S. Cornelius {Department of Zoology. British Museum (Natural 

History). Cromwell Road, London SIV7 5BD) and Carina Ostman 
{Zoologiska Institutionen, Uppsala Universitet, Box 561, S-751 22 Uppsala, 

Sweden) 

1. Introduction 
All the known members of the hydroid genus Clytia Lamouroux, 
1812 (p. 184) are thought to have both hydroid and medusa stages in their 
life cycles. One of the species, which has been variously known as Clytia 
johnstoni (e.g. sensu Hincks, 1868, p. 143) and Phialidium hemisphaericum 
(e.g. sensu Russell, 1953, p. 285), is in western Europe both a very common 
benthic organism and one of the most abundant medusae in the plankton. 
The second species treated in detail here, most frequently reported from its 
hydroid stage alone under the name Clytia gracilis (Sars, 1850, p. 138, as 
Laomedea). is probably the second commonest species of Clytia in the 
North Sea and associated waters. 

2. There are long-recognized nomenclatural problems concerning 
the names of each of these species (summary in Cornelius, 1982a, pp. 
78-79). Until recently there was also a debate concerning the distinctness of 
the two species from each other, and the nomenclatural questions could not 
be confidently resolved. But recent work, spanning several years, on 
Scandinavian populations (Ostman, 1979a, b, 1982, 1983) has resolved this 
debate. The two species were characterized by Ostman on skeletal mor- 
phology, nematocyst differences, anatomy of the medusae, and differences 
in breeding season and habitat. More recently Cornelius (in prep. 1) has 
found differences in polyp morphology between the two. 

3. The species are common, and since several synoptic works are in 
preparation (e.g. Cornelius, in prep. 2; Cornelius and Ryland, in prep.) it is 
timely to resolve the long-standing nomenclatural issues surrounding their 
names. 

2. The genus name Clytia 

4. Two generic names have been most frequently applied to the 
genus in recent years. Phialidium Leuckart, 1856 (p. 18) has traditionally 
been used for nominal species known from the medusa stage; while Clytia 
Lamouroux, 1812, p. 184, has been the name by which those based on the 
hydroid stage have come to be known. Rearing experiments that have 
successfully linked the two stages of some of the species have revealed 
nomenclatural problems in both genus and species names. However, the 
case for regarding Clytia Lamouroux, 1812, as the accepted name for the 
genus is now overwhelming. The arguments have been put recently 
elsewhere (Cornehus, 1982a, p. 71). For some decades it was sensible to use 



164 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



a dual system of names in western Europe, one (including Clytia) for the 
hydroid stages and the other (including Phialidium) for the medusae. The 
problem was that for many years it was not known to which hydroids the 
various medusae belonged, and Clytia has proved one of the more intract- 
able genera in which to resolve these questions. But the life cycles of so 
many species of hydromedusae have now been worked out (summaries in 
Russell, 1953, 1970; Naumov, 1960; Edwards, 1972) so that, in western 
Europe at least, a single nomenclature is being applied throughout the 
order wherever possible (e.g. Naumov, 1960; Cornelius, 1982a; in prep. 2). 
The name to be used for the present genus is unquestionably Clytia. Some 
aspects of the availability of and type species of Clytia which do not 
impinge on the present discussion were treated in recent submissions to the 
Commission on other nomenclatural problems in the Campanulariidae 
(Cornehus, 1981, 1982b; ICZN Opinion 1345, 1985). 



3. The species name Clytia hemisphaerica auct. 

5. The most often collected Clytia species in western Europe is that 
variously known as Phialidium hemisphaericum (Linnaeus, 1767, p. 1098, as 
Medusa, type locality Belgian coastal plankton, the medusa stage) and 
Clytia johnstoni (Alder 1856, p. 359, as Campanularia; the hydroid stage). 
The complex nomenclatural history of both these species names was sum- 
marised by Cornelius (1982a), who followed some other recent authors in 
employing the combination Clytia hemisphaerica consequent upon rearing 
studies which apparently linked the two stages. But johnstoni and hemis- 
phaerica were only subjectively linked (Cornelius & Garfath, 1980, p. 283; 
Cornelius, 1982a, pp. 79-80). Linnaeus, 1767, p. 1098, did not himself see a 
medusa specimen when introducing the name hemisphaerica, and cited as 
indication the description and sketchy illustration of Gronovius (1760, 
p. 38, pi. 4, fig. 7). Millard (1966, p. 477) regarded hemisphaerica Linnaeus, 
1767, and the next available name, johnstoni Alder, 1856, as relating to the 
same species. Reasons for not using the name Sertularia volubilis Linnaeus, 
1758, p. 811, have been discussed by both Millard (1966) and Cornelius 
(1982a). 

6. But the linking of johnstoni hydroid to hemisphaerica medusa was 
only subjective. Although Alder's description of the hydroid stage was 
adequate and unequivocal, that of the medusa by Linnaeus, 1767, was not. 
The illustration and description by Gronovius, indicated by Linnaeus, did 
not include details of the gonads or time of year of collection of the 
specimen, probably making it impossible to determine on which of the two 
stages it was based. 

7. The type series of the corresponding hydroid stage of the same 
species, that of Campanularia johnstoni Alder, 1856 (p. 359) was examined 
by Cornelius & Garfath, 1980 (p. 283). It was re-examined by PFSC and we 
concur that it conforms to the now accepted concept of the species in ques- 
tion. Hence we regard yo/iAj.s/o«/ Alder, 1856, as a subjective junior synonym 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 165 



of hemisphaerica Linnaeus, 1767, with, we feel, more justification than have 
some previous authors who have taken the same view. 

4. The species name Clytia gracilis auct. 

8. The nominal species Laomedea gracilis Sars, 1850, p. 138 (redes- 
cribed in Sars, 1857, p. 160) was based on a mixed type series representing 
two species. This has caused confusion, since the species name gracilis sensu 
Sars has sometimes been applied to the 'wrong' species of the two (sum- 
mary in Cornelius, 1982a, p. 94). Dating of the Sars, 1850, paper has been 
treated elsewhere (Cornelius, 1982a, p. 137). The material later illustrated 
by Sars (1857, pi. 2) was identified objectively with the original description. 
It comprised illustrations of two species, those today known as Gonothyraea 
loveni (Allman, 1859, p. 138, as Laomedea) (viz. Sars, 1857, pi. 2, fig. 4 only) 
and of the species now widely called Clytia gracilis (Sars, 1850) (viz. Sars, 
1857, pi. 2, figs 1-3, 5). Cornelius (1982a, p. 92) assigned the latter illus- 
trations to 'Clytia hemisphaerica^ but this apparently erroneous step reflec- 
ted the past confusion between the two species. The type series (or 'type 
illustrations') of Z-. gracilis Sars, 1850, was perhaps first identified as mixed 
by Stechow, 1923 (p. Ill) who similarly identified the two component 
species as loveni and hemisphaerica auct. We are grateful to Professor W. 
Vervoort for bringing Stechow's observation to our attention. 

9. Cornelius (1982a, p. 94) introduced some stability by designating 
as lectotype 'the material resembling C. hemisphaerica'' in Sars' (1850) series 
(illustrated in 1857). When Cornehus wrote this, he did not imply a distinc- 
tion between gracilis s. str. and hemisphaerica s. str. ( —johnstoni); he merely 
intended to designate as lectotype the material from Sars' mixed series that 
was not Gonothyraea loveni. This was prudent since the very widely used 
name loveni Allman, 1859, p. 138, would have become a junior subjective 
synonym of gracilis Sars, 1850, if the other part of the mixed type series had 
ever been so designated. The lectotype is here restricted to the single colony 
illustrated in Sars, 1857, pi. 2, figs 1-2. 

10. A concomitant necessity, having aired these problems, was for 
Cornelius (1982a) to resolve the invalidity of the species name which had 
become rather widely used in the combination Clytia gracilis (Sars, 1850). 
There was a primary homonymy between Laomedea gracilis Sars, 1850, and 
Laomedea gracilis Dana, 1846 (p. 689; lapsus pro Laomedea gracilis), which 
Cornelius (1982a, p. 78) referred to Obelia dichotoma (Linnaeus, 1758, 
p. 812, as Sertularia). He partly overlooked the then very recent detailed 
study of the two Clytia species by Ostman (1979b) and, like some other 
authors, considered the debate about the two species still unresolved. Hence 
it was then premature to attempt to establish gracilis s. str., and Cornelius 
introduced the nom. nov. sarsi Cornehus, 1982a, p. 78, in place of the 
preoccupied Laomedea gracilis Sars. At the time, it seemed that C. sarsi 
might not prove a valid species. 

11. But it has become apparent, through subsequent publications 
by Ostman and through the two present authors examining live examples of 



166 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



the two species conjointly in both Norway and England, that 'sarsf is 
indeed a valid species. The differences between the two species have been 
touched on already (paragraph 2). Hence it seems appropriate now to 
establish a valid name for "sarsi that will be acceptable and not confusing 
to hydroid taxonomists and ecologists. 

12. Although the name sarsi is valid it has yet to find acceptance. 
The name gracilis has been widely applied to the species in question, and the 
following recent references from several countries, in which gracilis has 
been used in the accepted sense, establish a prima facie case for the name to 
be conserved by the Commission under the plenary powers: Blanco, 1967, 
p. 55; Fey, 1969, p. 393; Jagerskiold, 1971, p. 63; Leloup. 1952, p. 155; 
Mammen, 1965, p. 16; Millard, 1957, p. 196; Naumov, 1960, p. 265; 
Ostman, 1979a, p. 6, 1979b, p. 125, 1982, p. 156, 1983, p. 5; Rees & 
Thursfield, 1965, p. 95; Rossi, 1961, p. 79; Stepanyants, 1979, p. 32; 
Vervoort, 1968, p. 17. Moreover, we feel that continued use of the 
combination Clytia gracilis in the sense proposed here is both sensible and 
unlikely to lead to confusion. Our intention is to use this combination in 
forthcoming publications. 

13. Several nominal species of the genus Clytia were described by 
Forbes (1841, 1848). They were described from British material and were 
certainly of one of the two species here called C. hemisphaefica and C 
gracilis. They were either based on immature stages, or the descriptions 
were inadequate for assessment for other reasons. All clearly postdate the 
species name hemisphaerica Linnaeus, 1767 (see above), but any might pre- 
date the species name gracilis Sars, 1850. In our opinion none can at present 
confidently be referred to either species. The nominal species concerned are: 
Thaumantias pileata Forbes, 1841, p. 84, pi. 1, figs 3a-b; T. thompsoni ibid, 
p. 84, pi. 1 , figs 4a-4b; T. punctata ibid, p. 85, pi. 1 , figs 5a-b; T. sarnica ibid, 
p. 85, pi. 1, figs 6a-b. All four were redescribed by Forbes, 1848, in his 
monograph, but with partly erroneous citations of his earlier work. In the 
later work Forbes introduced the following nominal species which might 
also threaten the name gracilis but which in our opinion are similarly inde- 
terminate: Thaumantias lineata Forbes, 1848, p. 48, pi. 11, fig. 1, and T. 
inconspicua ibid, p. 52, pi. 8, fig. 3. In the interests of nomenclatural stabihty 
we recommend in paragraph 14(l(b)) that these six species names intro- 
duced by Forbes, 1841, 1848, be suppressed and placed on the Official List 
of Rejected and Invalid Specific Names in Zoology. 

5. Proposals 

14. To conserve the established use of the species name gracilis, as 
introduced in the combination Laomedea gracilis Sars, 1850, p. 138 (redes- 
cribed in Sars, 1857, p. 160), the Commission is therefore requested: 

(1) to use its plenary powers: 

(a) to suppress the specific name gracilis Dana, 1846, as 
published in the binomen Lomedea (err. pro Laomedea) 
gracilis and all uses of that name prior to its publication by 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 167 



Sars (M.), 1850, for the purposes of both the Principle of 
Priority and the Principle of Homonymy; 

(b) to suppress the specific names pileata, thompsoni, punctata 
and sarnica Forbes, 1841, and the specific names lineata 
and conspicua Forbes, 1848, all as combined with the 
generic name Thaumantias Eschscholtz, 1 829, for the pur- 
poses of the Principle of Priority but not for those of the 
Principle of Homonymy; 
(2) to place the specific name gracilis Sars, 1850, as published in 

the binomen Laomedea gracilis, and as interpreted by the lecto- 

type restricted herein, on the Official List of Specific Names in 

Zoology. 



REFERENCES 

ALDER, J., 1856. A notice of some new genera and species of British hydroid 

zoophytes. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (2), vol. 18, pp. 353-362. 
ALLMAN, G. J., 1859. Notes on the hydroid zoophytes. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (3), 

vol.4, pp. 137-144. 
BLANCO, O. M., 1967. Contribucion al conocimiento de los hydrozoarios 

Argentinos. Revta Mus. La Plata. N.S. (Zool.), vol. 9, pp. 243-297. 
CORNELIUS, P. F. S., 1981. Clytia Lamouroux, 1812, Laomedea Lamouroux, 

1812, and Campanularia Lamarck, 1816 (Coelenterata, Hydroida): proposed 

designations of type species by use of the plenary powers, and comments on 

related genera. Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 38, pp. 208-220. 
1982a. Hydroids and medusae of the family Campanulariidae recorded from 

the eastern North Atlantic, with a world synopsis of genera. Bull. Br. Mus. 

nat. Hist. (Zool.), vol. 42, pp. 37-148. 

1982b. Further notes on the genus-group names in the hydroid family 

Campanulariidae Johnston, 1836. Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 39, pp. 222-225. 

In preparation {\)0n the use of hydranth characters in taxonomy. 

In preparation (2). The thecate hydroids of western Europe and their 

medusae. (Assisted by F. S. Russell). Linn. Soc. Syn. Br. Fauna. 

& GARFATH, J. B., 1980. The coelenterate taxa of Joshua Alder. Bull. Br. 

Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.), vol. 39, pp. 273-291. 
& RYLAND, J. S. (In press). Hydrozoa. In: Ryland, J. S. & Hayward, P. J. 

(editors) An introduction to the marine fauna of the British Isles. Oxford 

(Oxford University Press). 
DANA, J. D., 1846, 1849. United States Exploring Expedition during the years 1838, 

1839. 1840. 1841. 1842. Under the command of Charles Wilkes. U.S.N. 

Zoophytes. Philadelphia. Vol. 1 (1846), text; vol. 2 (1849), atlas. (Dating after 

Haskell, 1942.) 
EDWARDS, C, 1972. The history and state of the study of medusae and hydroids. 

Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinb. (B), vol. 73, pp. 247-257. 
ESCHSCHOLTZ, F., 1829. System der Acalephen Beriin (F. Dummler), pp. i-vi, 

1-190, pis. 1-16. 
FEY, A., 1969. Peuplements sessiles de I'archipel de Glenan. I. Inventaire: 

hydraires. Vie Milieu, vol. 20, pp. 387-413. 



168 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



FORBES, E., 1841. Contributions to British actinology. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (1), 

vol. 7, pp. 81-85. 
1848. A monograph of the British naked-eyed medusae: with figures of all the 

species. London (Ray Society), pp. 1-104, pis 1-13. 
GRONOVIUS, L.-T., 1760. Observationes de animalculis aliquot marinae aquae 

innatantibus atque in littoribus Belgicis obviis. Acta helv., vol. 4, pp. 35-40. 
HASKELL, D. C, 1942. The United States Exploring Expedition. 1838-1842, and 

its publications 1844-1874. New York (The New York Public Library), pp. 

i-xii, 1-188, pis 1-5 (unnumbered). 
HINCKS, T., 1868. A history of the British hydroid zoophytes. London (Van 

Voorst), vol. 1 (text), pp. i-lxvii, 1-338, text-figs 1^5, frontis.; vol. 2 (plates), 

pis 1^7. 
JAGERSKIOLD, L. A., 1971. A survey of the marine benthonic macro-fauna 

along the Swedish west coast 1921-1938. Acta. R. Soc. scient. litt. gothoburg. 

(Zool.), vol. 6, pp. 1-146. 
LAMOUROUX, J. V. F., 1812. Extrait d'un memoire sur la classification des 

polypiers coralligenes non entierement pierreux. Nouv. Bull. sci. Soc. philom. 

Para, vol. 3, pp. 181-188. 
LELOUP, E., 1952. Coelenteres. Faune Belg., pp. 1-283. 
LEUCKART, R., 1856. Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Medusenfauna von Nizza. 

Arch. Naturgesch., vol. 22(1), pp. 1^0. 
LINNAEUS, 1758. Systema naturae. 10th edition. Vol. 1, Holmiae (L. Salvii), pp. 

i-iv, 1-824. 
1767. Systema naturae. 12th edition. Vol. 1, pars 2. Holmiae (L. Salvii), pp. 

533-1328-1-36 pp. of indexes and appendix, unpaginated. 
MAMMEN, T. A., 1965. On a collection of hydroids from south India. II. Suborder 

Thecata (excluding family Plumulariidae). J. mar. biol. Ass. India, vol. 7, pp. 

1-57. 
MILLARD, N. A. H., 1957. The Hydrozoa of False Bay, South Africa. Ann. S. Afr. 

A/M5.,voi.43,pp. 173-243. 
1966. The Hydrozoa of the south and west coasts of South Africa. Part III. 

The Gymnoblastea and small families of Caiyptoblastea. Ann. S. Afr. Mus., 

vol. 48, pp. 427^87. 
NAUMOV, D. v., 1960. Gidroidy i gidromeduzy morskikh, solonovatovodnykh i 

presnovodnykh basseinov SSSR. Fauna SSSR, vol. 70, pp. 1-626. 
OSTMAN, C, 1979a. Two types of nematocysts in Campanulariidae (Cnidaria, 

Hydrozoa) studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. Zool. Scripta, 

vol. 8, pp. 5-12. 

1979b. Nematocysts in the Phialidium medusae of Clytia hemisphaerica 

(Hydrozoa, Campanulariidae) studied by light and scanning electron 
microscopy. Zoon, vol. 7, 125-142. 

1982. Isoenzymes and taxonomy in Scandinavian hydroids (Cnidaria, 

Campanulariidae). Zool. Scripta, vol. 11, pp. 155-163. 

1983. Taxonomy of Scandinavian hydroids (Cnidaria, Campanulariidae): a 

study based on nematocyst morphology and isoenzymes. Acta. Univ. 

upsaliensis, vol. 672, pp. 1-22. 
REES, W. J. & THURSFIELD, S., 1965. The hydroid collections of James Ritchie. 

Proc. R. Soc. Edinb. (B), vol. 69, pp. 34-220. 
ROSSI, L., 1961. Idroidi viventi sulle scogliere del promontorio di Portofino (Golfo 

di Genova) (1). Annali Mus. civ. Stor. nat. Giacomo Doria, vol. 72, pp. 69-85. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 169 



RUSSELL, F. S., 1953. The medusae of the British Isles. Anthomedusae , Lepto- 
medusae, Limnomedusae , Trachymedusae and Narcomedusae. Cambridge 
(Cambridge University Press), pp. i-xiii, 1-530, pis. 1-35. 

1970. The medusae of the British Isles. II. Pelagic Scyphozoa. With a supple- 
mem to the first volume on hydromedusae . Cambridge (Cambridge University 
Press), pp. i-xii, 1-284, pis 1-15, Is. 

SARS, M., 1850. Beretning om en i Sommeren 1849 foretagen zoologisk Reise i 
Lofoten og Finmarken. Nyt. Mag. Naturvid., vol. 6, pp. 121-21 1. (Dating of 
this paper follows Cornelius, 1982a, p. 137.) 

1857. Bidrag til Kundskaben om Middelhavets Littoral-Fauna, 

Reisebemaerkninger fra Italien. Nyt. Mag. Naturvid., vol. 9, pp. 1 10-164. 

STECHOW, E., 1923. Zur Kenntnis der Hydroidenfauna des Mittelmeeres, 
Amerikas und anderer Gebiete. II Teil. Zool. Jb. (Syst.), vol. 47, pp. 29-270. 

STEPANYANTS, S. D., 1979. Gidroidy vod antarktikh i subantarktikh. Issled. 
Fauny Morei. vol. 22(30), pp. 1-200. 

VERVOORT, W., 1968. Report on a collection of Hydroida from the Caribbean 
region, including an annotated checklist of Caribbean hydroids. Zool. Verh., 
Leiden, vol. 92, pp. 1-124. 



170 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



NAPOMYZA WESTWOOD, 1840 (INSECTA, DIPTERA): PROPOSED 

CONSERVATION BY THE SUPPRESSION OF NAPOMYZA 

CURTIS, 1837. Z.N.(S.)2495 

By Graham C. D. Griffiths {Department of Entomology , University of 

Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E3, Canada), Kenneth A. Spencer 

(Exwell Farm, Bray Shop, Callington, Cornwall PL17 8Q J, U.K.) and 

George C. Steyskal {Systematic Entomology Laboratory IIBIII, 

Agricultural Research Service USD A, c/o U.S. National Museum of Natural 

History, Washington D.C. 20560, U.S.A.) 

Thompson & Mathis (1980, p. 85) pointed out that the name 
Napomyza, used now for an agromyzid genus of wide distribution contain- 
ing approximately 50 species of stem or seedfeeding flies (including several 
of economic importance) was first proposed by Curtis (1837, p. 282) in a 
hitherto overlooked publication, with the sole included species Phytomyza 
nigricornis Macquart, 1835, p. 618. 

2. Curtis treated Napomyza, a name apparently derived from an 
unpublished manuscript by A. H. Haliday, as synonymous with Phytomyza 
Fallen ( 1 8 1 0, p. 2 1 ), and was followed in this by Thompson & Mathis ( 1 980). 
Hendel (1934, p. 334) regarded Phytomyza nigricornis as synonymous with 
Phytomyza affinis Fallen (1823, p. 3). Acceptance of this synonymy, based 
on Curtis' publication of Napomyza, would require all species presently 
placed in the genus Napomyza Curtis to be given another name. In the 
interests of stabihty this is clearly undesirable. 

3. No original specimens of Phytomyza nigricornis Macquart have 
survived and information from Curtis' notebook and specimens, which are 
preserved in the Museum of Victoria, Melbourne, shows that three different 
species were confused by Curtis under this name. Following careful con- 
sideration, Griffiths (1976, p. 21) proposed that Phytomyza nigricornis 
should be treated as a nomen dubium and this is now accepted by specialists 

on the AGROMYZIDAE. 

4. Phytomyza affinis Fallen, the identity of which was clarified by 
Spencer (1965) following study of Fallen's types in Stockholm, is a species 
entirely distinct from that assumed by Hendel (1934) and we therefore reject 
the synonymy of Napomyza Curtis with Napomyza Fallen. 

5. Westwood (1840, p. 152) in his 'Synopsis' contains the following 

entry for Napomyza: 'S.g. Napomyza A.H.H. MSS. 1 sp. P. festiva\ 

This indicates that the name was proposed as a subgenus of Phytomyza and 
derives from an unpublished manuscript by A. H. Haliday. Hendel (1920, 
p. 148) synonymised Phytomyza festiva Meigen (1830, p. 189) with 
Phytomyza elegans Meigen (1830, p. 148). Spencer (1966, p. 3) confirmed 
this synonymy, after examination of the types of both elegans a.ndi festiva in 
the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. Griffiths (1968, p. 4) 
examined specimens of this species in the Haliday collection in Dublin 
which are assumed to be those referred to as Phytomyia festiva in Haliday 's 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 171 



(1833) catalogue of the Diptera occurring near Holy wood in Downshire. 
The entry for Napomyza in Westwood's 1840 'Synopsis' thus poses no 
problems of interpretation. However, Napomyza Curtis, 1837 still remains a 
problem as the senior homonym. 

6. Napomyza was treated as a full genus by Hendel (1920) and this is 
now generally accepted. 

7. On the basis of the above facts the International Commission on 
Zoological Nomenclature is requested to: 

(1) use its plenary powers to suppress the generic name Napomyza 
Curtis, 1837 for the purposes of both the Principle of Priority 
and the Principle of Homonymy; 

(2) place on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology the 
name Napomyza Westwood, 1840 (gender: feminine), type 
species, by monotypy, Phytomyzafestiva Meigen, 1830; 

(3) place on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology the 
name elegans Meigen, 1830, as published in the binomen 
Phytomyza elegans (valid name at the time of this application 
for the type species oi Napomyza Westwood, 1840); 

(4) place on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Generic 
Names in Zoology the name Napomyza Curtis, 1837 as 
suppressed under the plenary powers in (1) above. 

REFERENCES 

CURTIS, J. 1837. A guide to an arrangement of British Insects; being a catalogue of 

all the named species hitherto discovered in Great Britain and Ireland. London, 

yi + 294pp. 
FALLEN, C. F. 1810. Specim. entomolog. novam Diptera disponendi methodum 

exhibens. Lund, 26 pp. + 1 pi. 

1823. Phytomyzides et Ochtidae Sveciae. Lund, 10 pp. 

GRIFFITHS, G. C. D. 1867. Revision of the Phytomyza syngenesiae group 

(Diptera, Agromyzidae), including species hitherto known as '"Phytomyza 

atricornis Meigen". Stuttg. Beitr. Naturk., no. 177, pp. 1-28. 
1968. Agromyzidae (Diptera) from Ireland. Proc. Roy. Ir. Acad., vol. 67(B), 

pp. 37-61. 
HALIDAY, A. H. 1833. Catalogue of Diptera occurring about Holywood in 

Downshire. Entomol. Mag., vol. 1, pp. 147-180. 
HENDEL, F. 1920. Die palaarktischen Agromyziden (Prodromus einer Mono- 

graphie). Arch. Naturgesch., vol. 84(7) (1918), pp. 109-174. 

1934. 59. Agromyzidae. Die Fliegen der palaarktischen Region 6 (2), pp. 

321-368. Schweizerbart, Stuttgart. 
MACQUART, M. 1835. Histoire Naturelle des Insectes. Dipteres. 2. Paris, 710 pp. 
MEIGEN, J. W. 1830. Systematische Beschreibung der bekannten europdischen 

zweifliigeligen Insekten 6. Hamm, xi + 401 pp. 
SPENCER, K. A. 1965. A classification of Fallen's type specimens of Agromyzidae 

(Diptera) in Stockholm and Lund. Entomol. Tidskr., vol. 86, pp. 249-259. 

1966. A clarification of the genus Napomyza Westwood (Diptera: 

Agromyzidae). Proc. Roy. entomol. Soc, Ser B, vol. 35, pp. 29-40. 



1 72 Bull. zool. Norn. , vol. 43, pt 2, July 1 986 



THOMPSON, F. C. & MATHIS, W. N. 1980. Haliday's generic names of Diptera 
first published in Curtis' A Guide to . . . British Insects (1837). /. Wash. Acad. 
Sci.. vol. 70, 80-89. 

WESTWOOD, J. O. 1840. Order xiii. Diptera Aristotle (Antliata Fabricius, 
Halteriptera Clairv.). Pp. 125-158. In: An introduction to the modern 
classification of insects. Synopsis of the genera of British insects. London. 
158 pp. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 173 



MICROGASTER LATREILLE, 1804 (INSECTA, HYMENOPTERA): 

PROPOSED DESIGNATION OF MICROGASTER AU STRAUS 

THOMSON, 1895 AS TYPE SPECIES. Z.N.(S.)2397 

By W. R. M. Mason {Biosvstematics Research Institute. Ottawa, Ontario, 
' KIA 0C6, Canada) 

The Braconid genus Microgaster was described by Latreille (1804) 
with Ichneumon deprimator Fabricius, 1798 as an included species, and in 
1810 he designated (p. 436) /. deprimator Fab. as type of the genus. In 1862 
Foerster subdivided Microgaster into 3 genera, Microgaster, Microplitis 
Foerster, and Apanteles Foerster. He quoted Latreille's type designation for 
Microgaster, and designated (p. 245) Microgaster sordipes Nees, 1834 (vol. 
1, p. 167) as type oi Microplitis. 

2. Microgaster was used for the entire group nowadays called 
Microgastrini or Microgastrinae until Foerster (1862) restricted it. There 
followed a century of stabiHty until Nixon (1965) made another sub- 
division. He kept the name Microgaster for those species that in the North 
Temperate Zone form the largest part of the genus Microgaster Latr. In 
Europe, for instance, about two-thirds of the species of Microgaster {sensu 
Foerster) are still in Microgaster {sensu Nixon). Nixon further revised 
Microgaster in 1968. The genus is large, the Shenefelt (1973) catalogue 
containing 45 pages of entries. 

3. The usage and limits of Microplitis Foerster have remained stable 
since 1862. The N.W. European species were reviewed by Nixon (1975). 
Shenefelt's catalogue has 33 pages of hstings for Microplitis, including over 
140 species and at least 2,000 entries. 

4. Dr C. van Achterberg (1982) has shown that the lectotype 
specimen of/, deprimator Fab. is a species of Microplitis congeneric with M. 
sordipes Nees, the type species of Microplitis. Through the courtesy of Dr 
Paul Marsh, Washington, I have seen the notes made by Mr C. F. W. 
Muesebeck when he studied the Fabricius types in 1928. They agree with Dr 
van Achterberg's observations, but the findings were never published. 

5. It seems probable that Foerster (1862) misidentified /. deprimator 
Fab. and that this interpretation has established the use of Microgaster 
since then. Both Microgaster sensu Nixon and Microplitis Foerster are large 
and widespread genera containing many important parasites of economi- 
cally significant Lepidoptera. Microgaster species attack microlepidoptera 
and are abundant in the Holarctic region. Microplitis species attack macro- 
lepidoptera and are found world-wide, being many times more numerous 
than species of Microgaster. If the already familiar and well established 
name Microgaster Latr., 1804 were transferred to the genus now known as 
Microplitis Foerster, 1862 it would replace the latter name and cause 
endless confusion in fields of ecology and biological control. I see no good 
reason to perform this game of nomenclatural musical chairs. 



174 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



6. A solution would be for the Commission to set aside the desig- 
nation of/, deprimator Fab. as type species of Microgaster Latreille and to 
designate a new type species that will preserve the usage of Microgaster, sensu 
Nixon (1965, 1968). I suggest that Microgaster australis Thomson, 1895, 
which Nixon (1968, p. 51) and van Achterberg (1982) synonymized with 
M. deprimator Auct., would be the suitable type species. 

7. The International Commission for Zoological Nomenclature is 
therefore asked: 

(1) to use its plenary powers to set aside all designations of type 
species for the nominal genus Microgaster Latreille, 1 804, and 
having done so, to designate Microgaster australis Thomson, 
1895, as the type species; 

(2) to place on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology the 
name Microgaster Latreille, 1804 (gender: masculine), type 
species, by designation under the plenary powers in (1) above, 
Microgaster australis Thomson, 1895; 

(3) to place on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology the 
name australis Thomson, 1895, as published in the binomen 
Microgaster australis (specific name of the type species of 
Microgaster 'LdiivQiWt, 1804). 

REFERENCES 

ACHTERBERG, C. VAN 1982. Notes on some type species described by Fabricius 

of the subfamilies Braconinae, Pogadinae, Microgastrinae and Agathidinae 

(Hymenoptera, Braconidae). Ent. Ber., vol. 42, pp. 133-139. 
FOERSTER, A. 1862. Synopsis der Familien und Gattungen der Braconen. Verh. 

naturh. Ver. preuss. Rheinl, vol. 19, pp. 225-288. 
LATREILLE, P. A. 1804. Nouv. Did. Hist. Nat. vol. 24, p. 175. 

1810. Consid. gen. ord. not. Anim., Paris. 

NEES, VON ESENBECK, C. G. 1834. Hymenopterorum Ichneumonibus Affinium, 

Monographium, . . . Stuttgartiae et Tubingae. 
NIXON, G. E. J. 1965. A reclassification of the tribe Microgasterini (Hymenoptera: 

Braconidae). Bull. Brit. Mus. nat. Hist. (Entomol), Suppl. 2, pp. 3-284. 
1968. A revision of the genus Microgaster Latreille, 1804 (Hymenoptera: 

Braconidae). Bull. Brit. Mus. nat. Hist. (Entomol), vol. 22, pp. 33-72. 
1975. A revision of the N.W. European species of Microplitis Foerster, 1862 

(Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Bull. Brit. Mus. nat. Hist. (Entomol), vol. 25, 

pp. 3-30. 
SHENEFELT, R. D. 1973. Braconidae 5, Microgasterinae & Ichneutinae. 

Hymenopterorum Cjtalogus. Junk, 's-Gravenhage. 
THOMSON, C. G. 1895. Opuscula Entomologica. Lund. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 175 



SIGARA SCHOLTZI FIEBER, [1860] (INSECTA, HETEROPTERA)- 

PROPOSED CONSERVATION BY THE SUPPRESSION OF SIGARA 

SCHOLTZII SCHOLTZ, 1846. Z.N.(S.)2494 

By Antti Jansson (Zoological Museum, University of Helsinki 
P. Rautatiekatu 13, SF-00100 Helsinki. Finland) 

Scholtz, 1 846, listed the Rhynchota from Silesia, and in a few cases 
short notes on the biology of the species were provided. Sigara scholtzii (p 
106) was presented as follows: S. Scholtzii Fieb. (in litt.). Bei Breslau haufig 
in Lachen an der Rosenthaler Strasse und im Kratzbusch. Anmerkung 
Diese ebenfalls von Fieber ausgestellte Art wird nachstens durch den Autor 
naher erortert werden. — Die kleinere und von ihr wesentlich verschiedene 
Sigara minuta Fabr., die nicht wie S. Scholtzii in stehenden Wassern mit 
schlammigem Grunde, sondern mehr in klaren Wasser der Fliisse und zwar 
unter Steinen am Ufer vorkommt, fand ich bisher noch nicht. Ob unsere 
Art, gleichwie S. minuta, ein deutlich wahrnehmbares Schwirren horen 
lasse, nahm ich bisher noch nicht wahr.' 

2. As pointed out by Lundblad, 1928, and Wroblewski 1958 the 
above note may be considered insufficient as a description of S scholt-ii 
because it only gives the size of S. minuta as a smaller species and does not 
even niention S. scholtzii as the basis of the comparison although it was 
undoubtedly so intended. On the other hand, even indirect reference to the 
size of a species may be considered by some taxonomists sufficient to make 
scholtzu available and therefore the valid name for the specimen that was 
before Scholtz. 

3^ Fieber, 1851, p. 210, listed S. scholtzii as one of the species to be 
described later. 

4. Fieber [1860] , pp. 89-90 (usually referred to as Fieber, 1861 but 
according to Kirkaldy, 1908, the book was printed in four parts the first 
part up to page 1 12 being published in 1860; cf. also Hagen, 1862) described 

Sigara Scholtzi Fieb.\ also referring to Scholtz, 1846 and Fieber 1851 
thus indicating that the previous references concerned the same species The 
rnaterial from which the description was drawn originated from Breslau 
(Scholtz collection) and Spain (Meyer-Diir collection), and while it is not 
known whether the former material is still in existence, the Meyer-Diir 
col ection in the American Museum of Natural History, New York 
includes a female specimen designated as the lectotype by Jansson, 1986 (in 

5. Micronecta meridionalis (Costa, 1862, p. 361) has hitherto been 
given priority over M. scholtzi (Fieber [1 860]). This inconsistency has arisen 
from the words "XVI Kalendas Septembris I860' (= 17th of August 1860 
not 16th September 1860 as stated by Kerzhner, 1974) on the title page of 
Costa s paper. This date however, only refers to the day of presentation of 
the manuscript, not to the publication date. In fact the correct reference is 



176 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



Costa, 1862 (see Kerzhner, 1974) which makes Sigara meridionalis Costa, 
1862, a junior subjective synonym of Micronecta scholtzi (Fieber, [I860]). 

6. Differing opinions about the availability of the name scholtzii 
Scholtz, 1846 have led to nomenclatural inconsistencies, and the specific 
name has been written either as scholtzi or scholtzii and the author has been 
given either as 'Scholtz' (e.g. Kloet & Hinks, 1964), or '(Fieber) Scholtz' 
(e.g. Kloet & Hinks, 1945; Macan, 1956; Poisson, 1957) or as 'Fieber' (e.g. 
Stichel, 1935; Hutchinson, 1940; South wood &. Leston, 1959). The correct 
references to 'Sigara scholtzii Scholtz' appear only in papers in which the 
name has been considered a nomen nudum, e.g. Lundblad, 1928, Poisson, 
1938 and Wroblewski, 1958. 

7. To stabilize the situation, the International Commission on 
Zoological Nomenclature is asked to: 

(1) use its plenary powers to suppress the specific name scholtzii 
Scholtz, 1 846, as published in the binomen Sigara scholtzii for 
the purposes of the Principle of Priority but not for those of the 
Principle of Homonymy; 

(2) place the specific name scholtzi Fieber, [1860], as published in 
the binomen Sigara scholtzi and as interpreted by the lectotype 
designated by Jansson, 1986, on the Official List of Specific 
Names in Zoology; 

(3) place the specific name scholtzii Scholtz, 1846 as published 
in the binomen Sigara scholtzii and as suppressed under the 
plenary powers in (1) above on the Official Index of Rejected 
and Invalid Specific Names in Zoology. 

[Note: Corisa meridionalis Wallengren, 1875, a South African species now 
well known as Sigara meridionalis (Wallengren), has been overlooked as 
a junior secondary homonym of Sigara meridionalis Costa, 1862, but 
because the latter is a synonymic name and the two are not now held to be 
congeneric, there is no need to reject the former. See Article 59c]. 



REFERENCES 

COSTA, A. 1862 (preprint date, issue published 1863). Additamenta ad Centurias 

Cimicum Regni Neapolitana. Atti 1st. Incoragg. Set. Nat. vol. 10, pp. 

329-367. 
FIEBER, F. X. 1851. Genera Hydrocoridum Abh. bohm. Ges. Wiss.. vol. 7, pp. 

181-211. 
1860-1861. Die europdischen Hemiptera. Verl. Carl Gerold's Sohn, Wien, 

444 pp. 
HAGEN, H. A. 1862. Bibliotheca Entomologica. I. A~M. Verl. Wilhelm Engelman, 

Leipzig, 566 pp. 
HUTCHINSON, G. E. 1940. A revision of the Corixidae of India and adjacent 

regions. Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts Sci., vol. 33, pp. 341-476. 
JANSSON, A. 1986. The Corixidae (Heteroptera) of Europe and some adjacent 

regions. Acta, entomol. Fennici, vol. 47 (in press). 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 177 



KERZHNER, I. M. 1974. On the dates of publication of the work of A. Costa 

'Cimicum Regni Neapolitani Centuria' and of the family-group names 

(Heteroptera) contained in it. Entomol. Rev. Washington, vol. 4, pp. 90-93. 
KIRKALDY, G. W. 1908. Bibliographical and nomenclatorial notes on the 

Hemiptera — No. 9. Entomologist, vol. 41, pp. 188-189. 
KLOET, G. S. & HINKS, W. D. 1945. A Check List of British Insects. Buncle & 

Co., Stockport, 483 pp. 
1964. A Check List of British Insects. 2nd ed. (revised). Part 1: Small orders 

and Hemiptera. Handbooks for the identification of British insects, vol. 11, 

119 pp. 
LUNDBLAD, O. 1928. Studien iiber schwedische Corixiden. VII. Uber Micronecta 

minutissima (L.), M. foveifrons (Thorns.) und M. meridionahs (Costa). 

Entomol. Tidskr., vol. 49, pp. 9-17. 
MACAN, T. T. 1956. A revised key to the British water bugs (Hemiptera- 

Heteroptera). Freshwater Biol. Assoc. Sci. Publ., No. 16, 73 pp. 
POISSON, R. 1938. Les Hemipteres aquatiques Sandaliorrhyncha de la faune fran- 

Qaise. II. Micronectinae. Ann. Soc. entomol. France, vol. 107, pp. 81-120. 

1957. Heteropteres aquatiques. Faune de France, vol. 61, 263 pp. 

SCHOLTZ, H. 1846 (preprint date, serial pubhshed 1847). Prodromus zu einer 

Rhynchoten-Fauna von Schlesien. Theil I. Uebers. Schles. Ges. Vaterl. Kult., 

pp. 104-164. 
SOUTHWOOD, T. R. E. & LESTON, D. 1959. Land and water bugs of the British 

Isles. F. Warne & Co. Ltd., London & New York, 436 pp. 
STICHEL, W. 1935. Illustrierte Bestimmungstabellen der deutschen Wanzen. Verl. 

naturw. Publ., Berlin-Hermsdorf, 499 pp. 
WALLENGREN, H. D. J. 1875. Insecta Transvaaliensia. Bidrag till Transvaalska 

Republikens i Sodra Africa insektfauna. Ofvers. K.VetenskAkad. Forh. 

Stockholm, vol. 32, pp. 83-137. 
WROBLEWSKI, A. 1958. The Polish species of the genus Micronecta Kirk. 

(Heteroptera, Corixidae). Ann. zool. Warsaw, vol. 17, pp. 247-381. 



1 78 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



MICRONECTA GRISEOLA HORVATH, 1899 (INSECTA, 

HETEROPTERA, CORIXIDAE): PROPOSED CONSERVATION BY 

THE SUPPRESSION OF SIGARA MINUTA FABRICIUS, 1794 AND 

SIGARA LEMANA FIEBER, 1860. Z.N.(S.)2519 

By Antti Jansson {Zoological Museum, University of Helsinki, 
P. Rautatiekatu 13, SF-00100 Helsinki. Finland) 

Fabricius (1794, pp. 60-61) described Sigara minuta from material 
collected from France ('Galliae fluviis'). In the Fabricius collection in 
Copenhagen Museum there are two specimens, the lectotype male and a 
female paralectotype, both designated by Jansson, 1986 (in press). 

2. Fieber (1844, p. 291 & 1860, p. 89; the latter is usually referred to 
as Fieber, 1861, but see Hagen, 1862 and Kirkaldy, 1908), indicated that 
S. minuta Fabricius, 1794, was a synonym of Micronecta minutissima 
(Linnaeus, 1758) and this concept was adopted by e.g. Puton, 1886 and 
Horvath, 1899. Only Wroblewski (1958, p. 250) was more cautious in 
stating that it 'may be a synonym of the Linnean species'; this cautiousness 
evidently resulted from the investigation of two males of M. griseola 
Horvath, preserved in the Horvath collection in Budapest, placed under the 
name S. minuta and labelled 'Coll. Fieber'. 

3. Fieber (1860, p. 89) gave a description of what he called 'Sigara 
lemana Meyer' from Switzerland, and referred to 'Mey. Cat. Rh. d. 
Schweiz', a catalogue which was never published. The Meyer-Diir collec- 
tion in the American Museum of Natural History, New York, includes the 
lectotype male and three male and two female paralectotypes of S. lemana 
designated by Jansson, 1986 (in press). Puton, 1886 and Horvath, 1899, 
considered S. lemana a synonym of M. minutissima (Linnaeus), but 
Wroblewski, 1958, suspected that it might be the same as either M. griseola 
Horvath or M. poweri (Douglas & Scott, 1869). 

4. Horvath (1899, p. 103) described Micronecta griseola from 
material collected from Romania. Jansson, 1986 (in press), designated a 
lectotype male from the material preserved in Budapest Museum, and 1 1 
male and 6 female paralectotypes preserved with the lectotype and in the 
museums in Helsinki, Paris, Washington D.C. (coll. Poisson) and Rennes 
(Poisson slide collection). 

5. Jansson's (1986) investigation of the type materials revealed that 
both Sigara minuta Fabricius, 1794 and Sigara lemana Fieber, 1860, are 
identical with Micronecta griseola Horvath, 1 899. However, owing to the 
earlier incorrect identifications M. griseola has unanimously been accepted 
as the valid name of the species, e.g. by Jansson, 1976, 1977a, 1977b; 
Kaiser, 1966; Poisson, 1938, 1957; Stichel, 1955 and Wroblewski, 1958, 
1960, 1963, 1964. 

6. To preserve the present use and nomenclatural stability, the 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature is accordingly 
asked: 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 179 



(1) to use its plenary powers to suppress the following specific 
names for the purposes of the Principle of Priority but not for 
those of the Principle of Homonymy: 

(a) minuta Fabricius, 1744, as published in the binomen Sigara 
minuta; 

(b) lemana Fieber, 1860 as published in the binomen Sigara 
lemana. 

(2) to place on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology 
the specific name griseola Horvath, 1899, as published in 
the binomen Micronecta griseola and as interpreted by the 
lectotype designated by Jansson, 1986. 

(3) to place on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Names in 
Zoology the following specific names: 

(a) minuta Fabricius, 1 744, as published in the binomen Sigara 
minuta and as suppressed under the plenary powers in (1) 
(a) above; 

(b) lemana Fieber, 1860, as published in the binomen Sigara 
lemana and as suppressed under the plenary powers in 
(l)(b) above. 

REFERENCES 

DOUGLAS, J. W. & SCOTT, J. 1869. British Hemiptera: Additions and correc- 
tions. Entomol. mon. Mag., vol. 5, pp. 293-297. 

FABRICIUS, J. C. 1794. Entomologia systematica, emendaia et aucta, secundum 
classes, ordines, genera, species. Vol. 4. Hafnia, 472 pp. 

FIEBER, F. X. 1844. (preprint date, serial published 1845). Entomologische Mono- 
graphien. II. Hydrocores. — Monographic der Gattung Sigara. Abh. bohm. 
Ges. Wiss., vol. 3, pp. 289-293. 

1860-1861. Die europdischen Hemiptera. Verl. Carl Gerold's Sohn, Wien, 

444 pp. 

HAGEN, H. A. 1862. Bibliotheca Entomologica. I. A-M. Verl. Wilhelm Engelman, 

Leipzig, 566 pp. 
HORVATH, A. 1899. Synopsis des Micronecta palearctiques. Revue d' Entomol., 

vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 101-104. 
JANSSON, A. 1976. Records of the distribution of Micronecta species (Het., 

Corixidae) in Finland. Ann. Entomol. Fennici, vol. 42, pp. 162-166. 

1977a. Distribution of Micronectae (Heteroptera, Corixidae) in Lake 

Paijanne, central Finland: Correlation with eutrophication and pollution. 
Ann. Zool. Fennici, vol. 14, pp. 105-1 17. 

1977b. Micronectae (Heteroptera, Corixidae) as indicators of water quality 

in two lakes in southern Finland. Ann. Zool. Fennici, vol. 14, pp. 1 18-124. 

1986. The Corixidae (Heteroptera) of Europe and some adjacent regions. 

Acta, entomol. Fennici, vol. 47 (in press). 

KAISER, E. W. 1966. Micronecta-artene i Danmark (Hemiptera, Corixidae). Flora 
og Fauna, vol. 72, pp. 139-147. [In Danish with English summary.] 

KIRKALDY, G. W. 1908. Bibliographical and nomenclatorial notes on the 
Hemiptera — No. 9. Entomologist, vol. 41, pp. 188-189. 



1 80 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



LINNAEUS, C. 1758. Systema Naturae, 10th ed., Holmiae, 823 pp. 

POISSON, R. 1938. Les Hemipteres aquatiques Sandaliorrhyncha de la faune 

Frangaise. II. Micronectinae. Ann. Soc. entomol. France, vol. 107, pp. 

81-120. 

1957. Heteropteres aquatiques. Faune de France, vol. 61, 263 pp. 

PUTON, A. 1886. Catalogue des Hemipteres (Heteropteres, Cicadines et Psyllides) 

de la faune palearctique. 3-e edition. Re\. d'Entomol., Caen, vol. 5 (Beil), 

100 pp. 
STICHEL, W. 1955. Illustrierte Bestimmungstabellen der Wanzen. II. Europa 

{Hemiptera-Heteroptera Europae), vol. 1, Berlin-Hermsdorf, 168 pp. 
WROBLEWSKI, A. 1958. The Polish species of the genus Micronecta Kirk. 

(Heteroptera, Corixidae). Ann. Zool. Warsaw, vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 247-381. 
1960. Micronectinae (Hemiptera, Corixidae) of Hungary and some adjacent 

countries. Acta zool. hung., vol. 6, pp. 439-458. 
1963. Notes on Micronectinae from the U.S.S.R. (Heteroptera, Corixidae). 

Ann. Zool. Warsaw, vol. 21, pp. 463-484. 
1964. Notes on Micronectinae (Heteroptera, Corixidae) from North- 
western Africa. Commentat. biol., vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 1-16. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 181 



CALCARINA CALCAR D'ORBIGNY, 1839 (PROTOZOA, 

FORAMINIFERIDA): PROPOSED CONSERVATION BY THE 

SUPPRESSION OF CALCARINA STELLATA DE FERUSSAC, 1827. 

Z.N.(S.)2344 

By Hans Jergen Hansen (Geologisk Centralinstitut, Ostervoldgade 10, 1350 
Copenhagen, Denmark) 

In 1781 Spengler published a work on foraminifera and small 
gastropods from sand contained in larger gastropod shells from the 
Coromandel Coast in India (the location of the Danish trading station 
Tranquebar during the period 1616 to 1845). Spengler did not use Linnean 
names but on the basis of his description and illustration, de Ferussac, 
1827, p. 182, named one of the species Calcarina stellata. 

2. The species in question is conspecific with Calcarina calcar 
d'Orbigny, 1826 (p. 276). The latter is, however, a nomen nudum; d'Orbigny 
listed the name, but gave no description of the species and no figure (his 
work was accompanied by a collection of plaster models). 

3. In 1839 d'Orbigny (p. 81) described the species in his work on the 
foraminifera from Cuba; he also gave an illustration (pi. 5, figs. 22, 24). 
Recently Le Calvez (1977, pp. 15-17) selected and depicted a lectotype of 
Calcarina calcar d'Orbigny, 1839. 

4. As Calcarina calcar d'Orbigny, 1826 is a nomen nudum the name 
Calcarina stellata de Ferussac, 1827 has priority. However, to my 
knowledge this specific name has not been in use since 1827, while the name 
Calcarina calcar d'Orbigny has been used in numerous publications (for 
example by Graham & Militante, 1958; Jell et al. 1965; Betjeman, 1969; 
Murray, 1973; Biswas, 1976; Hughes, 1977 and Hallock, 1979). The species 
is a very common shallow water form from subtropical and tropical seas. 

5. In order to stabilize the nomenclature the International Com- 
mission on Zoological Nomenclature is hereby requested to: 

(1) use its plenary powers to suppress the specific name stellata de 
Ferussac, 1 827, as published in the binomen Calcarina stellata, 
for the purposes of the Principle of Priority but not for those of 
the Principle of Homonymy; 

(2) place on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology the 
specific name calcar d'Orbigny, 1839 as published in the 
binomen Calcarina calcar; 

(3) place on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Names in 
Zoology the specific name stellata as published in the binomen 
Calcarina stellata and as suppressed under the plenary powers 
in (1) above. 

[Note: the species Calcarina calcar has erroneously been mentioned as the 
type species of the genus Calcarina d'Orbigny, 1826. However Loeblich & 
Tappan, 1962, pointed out that the correct type species of this genus is 
Calcarina spengleri (Gmelin, 1791). The original type species was described 



182 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



from sand contained in an east Indian gastropod, Buccinum cassideum. The 
shell was located in the Zoological Museum in Copenhagen and Hansen, 
1980, after examination of topotypic material still contained in the shell, 
selected a neotype for Calcarina spengleri. It has been shown (Hansen & 
Reiss, 1971) that the species Calcarina calcar actually belongs to the genus 
Pararotalia Le Calvez, 1949.] 

REFERENCES 

BETJEMAN, K. J. 1969. Recent foraminifera from the western continental shelf 

of western Australia. Cushman Found, foram. Res. Contrib., vol. 20, 

pp. 119-138. 
BISWAS, B. 1976. Bathymetry of Holocene foraminifera and Quaternary sea-level 

changes on the Sunda shelf J. foram. Res., vol. 9, pp. 61-69. 
FERUSSAC, A. DE. 1827. Additions et corrections du Tableau methodique de la 

classe des Cephalopodes, par M. d'Orbigny; Ordre des foraminiferes. Bull. 

Sci. Nat. Geol, vol. 10, pp. 175-185. 
GMELIN, J. F. 1791. Systema naturae Linnaei.ed. 13, vol. 1(6), Vermes. G. E. Beer, 

Lipsiae, Germania. 
GRAHAM, J. J. & MILITANTE, P. J. 1959. Recent foraminifera from the Puerto 

Galera area, Northern Mindoro, Philippines. Stanford Univ. Publ. geol. Sci., 

vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 1-132. 
HALLOCK, P. 1979. Trends in test shape with depth in large symbiont-bearing 

foraminifera. J. foram. Res., vol. 6, p. 107-133. 
HANSEN, H. J. & REISS, Z. 1971. Electron microscopy of rotaliacean wall 

structures. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 20, pp. 329-346. 
HANSEN, H. J. 1980. On Lorentz Spengler and a neotype for the foraminifer 

Calcarina spengleri. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 93, pp. 191-201. 
HUGHES, G. W. 1977. Recent foraminifera from the Honiara Bay area, Solomon 

Islands. J. foram. Res., vol. 5, pp. 45-57. 
JELL, J. S., MAXWELL, W. H. G. & MCKELLAR, R. G. 1965. The significance 

of the larger foraminifera in the Heron Island reef sediments. J. Paleontol., 

vol. 39, pp. 273-279. 
LE CALVEZ, Y. 1977. Revision des foraminiferes de la collection d'Orbigny: 

Foraminiferes de I'lle de Cuba. Tome 2. Cah. Micropaleont., 1977, pt. 2, 

pp. 1-131. 
LOEBLICH, A. R. & TAPPAN, H. The status and type species of Calcarina. 

Tinoporos and Epnides. Contrib. Cushman Found, foram. Res., vol. 13, 

pp. 33-38. 
MURRAY, J. W. 1973. Distribution and ecology of living benthic foraminiferids. 

Heinemann, London. 272 pp. 
ORBIGNY, A. C. V. M. D'. 1826. Tableau methodique de la classe des 

Cephalopodes. An. Sci. nat. Paris, vol. 7, pp. 245-314. 
1839. Foraminiferes, in DE LA SAGRA, R. Histoire physique, politique et 

naturelle de I' He de Cuba. Paris, 224 pp. 
SPENGLER, L. 1781. Nogle nyligen opdagede sma snekkers beskrivelse. K. dan. 

Vidensk. Selsk. Skr., vol. 1, pp. 365-373. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 183 



AGROMYZA FALLEN, 1810 (INSECTA, DIPTERA): PROPOSED 

VALIDATION OF AGROMYZA REPTANS FALLEN, 1823 AS TYPE 

SPECIES. Z.N.(S.)2395 



By Kenneth A. Spencer (Exwell Farm, Callington. PL17 8QJ, Cornwall, 
U.K.) and George C. Steyskal {U.S. Department of Agriculture , c/o U.S. 
National Museum of Natural History, Washington D.C. 20560, U.S.A.) 

The genus Agromyza was originally described by Fallen (1810, 
p. 21) but without named species. Fallen (1823, pp. 1-7) re-described Agro- 
myza. now with 13 species and one variety. The first species, A. reptans, was 
divided into Var. b., Var. c. (host plant recorded as Urtica dioica) and Var. 
d. ambigua. The second species was A. aeneo-ventris (sic). Of the other 
species, most are not in the genus Agromyza as currently accepted by all 
specialists and are not relevant to the present submission. 

2. The first type designation for Agromyza was nigripes Meigen, 1 830 
(by Westwood, 1840, p. 151). This designation, however, is invalid, as 
nigripes was not originally included by Fallen, 1823. 

3. Rondani (1856, p. 121) designated the second of Fallen's species 
as 'Spec: Typ: Agromyza Aeneiventris Fall.' Examination of the unique type 
of A. aeneoventris in the Naturhistoriske Riksmuseet, Stockholm by 
Spencer, 1965, confirmed that this is in another large, economically import- 
ant genus Melanagromyza, described by Hendel (1920, p. 1 14) and selected 
by him (as aeneiventris) as type species. Hendel's work has been accepted by 
all later specialists and his type designation has not been disputed. 

4. It would clearly be highly undesirable at this stage to revert to 
Rondani's (1856) designation oi aeneiventris as type species o^ Agromyza. 
This would necessitate transferring the hundreds of species now known in 
Melanagromyza to Agromyza and a new generic name would be needed 
to replace Agromyza, itself a large, economically important genus of 
worldwide distribution. 

5. By usage since Hendel's (1920) designation of Agromyza 
aeneoventris as type of Melanagromyza, Rondani's (1856) designation of 
this species as type of Agromyza has been effectively discarded. However it 
is important that these conflicting designations should be formally clarified 
by the setting aside o^ aeneoventris as type o^ Agromyza. 

6. Rondani (1875, p. 168), without commenting on his earlier 
designation, now designated as type oi Agromyza 'Sp. typ. A. reptans Fall.'. 
This designation was accepted by Hendel (1920, p. 114; 1931, p. 93) in his 
two major revisionary works on Palaearctic Agromyzidae and is now 
accepted by all specialists on the family. A. reptans was also treated as type 
species oi Agromyza in the three Diptera Catalogues of the Nearctic Region 
(Frick, 1965), the Oriental Region (Sasakawa, 1977) and the Afrotropical 
Region (Cogan, 1980) but with the qualification that suspension of the 
rules of the Code is required to set aside the designation of Agromyza 



184 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



aeneoventris. A lectotype of Agromyza reptans was designated by 
Nowakowski (1944, p. 188) together with illustrations of the male genitalia. 
7. Accordingly, the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature is requested: 

(1) to use its plenary powers to set aside all designations of type 
species made for the nominal genus Agromyza Fallen, 1810 
prior to that o{ Agromyza reptans Fallen, 1823 by Rondani, 
1875. 

(2) to place on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology the 
generic name Agromyza Fallen, 1810 (gender: feminine), type 
species, by action under the plenary powers in (1) above, 
Agromyza reptans Fallen, 1823. 

(3) to place on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology the 
specific name reptans Fallen, 1823 as published in the bino- 
men Agromyza reptans (specific name of the type species of 
Agromyza Fallen, 1810). 

[Note: Coquillett (1910, p. 504) proposed A. ambigua Fallen, 1823 
(described as Var. d. o^ reptans; see para 1) as type o^ Agromyza, making the 
erroneous assumption that ambigua was synonymous with nigripes, thus 
following Westwood, 1840 (see para. 2). The true identity o^ ambigua was 
estabhshed by Spencer (1965, p. 10) and this was found to represent the 
senior synonym of the species previously known as niveipennis Zetterstedt 
(1848). Frick (1952) in an important Revision of New World Agromyzidae, 
also followed Westwood, 1840 and accepted nigripes Meigen as type of 
Agromyza. However, as pointed out in para. 2, nigripes is an invalid desig- 
nation as a non-included species. It is therefore considered that both 
Coquillett's and Frick's designations can be ignored.] 

REFERENCES 

COGAN, B. H. 1980. Family Agromyzidae. In CROSSKEY, R. W., Catalogue of 

the Diptera of the Afrotropical Region. British Museum (Natural History), 

London, pp. 639-647. 
COQUILLETT, D. W. 1910. The type-species of the North American genera of 

Diptera. Proc. U.S. nat. Mus., vol. 37, pp. 499-647. 
FALLEN, C. F. 1810. Specim. entomolog. novum Diptera disponendi methodum 

exhibens. Lund, 26pp. 

1823. Diptera Sveciae. Vol. 2, Agromyzides Sveciae. Lund, 10pp. 

FRICK, K. E. 1952. A generic revision of the family Agromyzidae (Diptera) with a 

catalogue of New World species. Univ. Calif. Pubis. Entomol. vol. 8, pp. 

339^52. 
1965. Family Agromyzidae. In STONE, A. et al. A catalog of the Diptera of 

America north of Mexico. U.S. Dep. Agric. Handb.. No. 276, pp. 794-805. 
HENDEL, F. 1920. Die palaarktischen Agromyziden (Dipt.). (Prodromus einer 

Monographic). Arch. Naturgesch. Abt. A, vol. 84, pp. 109-174. 

1931. Agromyzidae (Part). Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 59, pp. 1-256. 

MEIGEN, J. W. 1830. Systematische Beschreibung der bekannten europdischen 

zweifliigeligen Insekten 6. Hamm, 401 pp. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 185 



NOWAKOWSKI, J. T. 1964. Studien uber Minierfliegen (Dipt. Agromyzidae) 9. 

Revision der Artengruppe Agromyza reptans Fall. — A. rufipes Meig. Dlsch. 

entomol. Z., vol. 1 1, pp. 175-213. 
RONDANI, C. 1856. Dipterologiae italicae Prodromus. 1. Parma, 226 pp. 
1875. Species italicae ordinis dipterorum (Muscaria Rndn.) collectae et 

observatae. Stirps XXIII. Agromyzinae. Boll. Soc. entomol. ital. vol 7 dd 

166-191. ■ '^^' 

SASAKAWA, M. 1977. Family Agromyzidae. In DELFINDADO, M. D. & 

HARDY, D. E., A Catalog of the Diptera of the Oriental Region. Vol 3 

Honolulu, pp. 243-269. 
SPENCER, K. A. 1965. A clarification of Fallen's type specimens of Agromyzidae 

(Diptera) in Stockholm and Lund. Entomol. Tidskr.. vol. 86, pp. 249-259. 
WESTWOOD, J. O. 1840. Introduction to the modern classification of insects. 

Synopsis of the genera of British insects. London, 158 pp. 
ZETTERSTEDT, J. W. 1848. Diptera Scandinaviae. Disposita et descripta Vol 7 

pp. 2581-2934. 



186 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



r/?OP/P//0/?C/5SCHONHERR, 1842 (INSECTA, COLEOPTERA): 

PROPOSED CONSERVATION BY SUPPRESSION OF BRIUS 

DEJEAN, 1821.Z.N.(S.)2537 

By Hans SiMytxhtrg {Universitetets Zoologiska Museum, N. Jdmvdgsgatan 
13, SF-00100 Helsingfors 10, Finland) 

Dejean (1821) introduced a considerable number of new generic 
names in Coleoptera. These genera were recently listed, with their type 
species (Silfverberg 1983, 1984a & 1984b). Many of them have been quite 
ignored, and junior synonyms have been used in their stead. One such name 
is Brius Dejean, 1821 (p. 92), with the type species Curculio mercurialis 
Fabricius, 1801, as designated by Chevrolat (in d'Orbigny, 1842, Vol. 2, p. 
797). Curculio mercurialis Fabricius is listed as a synonym of Curculio 
carinatusMuWtv, 1776 (Schenkling & Marshall, 1931). 

2. Tropiphorus was described by Schonherr, 1842 (p. 257), with Cur- 
culio mercurialis Fabricius as type species. Since then the name Tropiphorus 
has been used uninterruptedly, recently among many others by Hoffmann 
(1950), Lindroth (1960), Zebe (1963), Angelov (1973), Pope (1977), 
Kippenberg (1981) and O'Brien & Wibmer (1982). To replace it with an 
unused senior synonym would only cause confusion. 

3. The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature is 
therefore requested: 

(1) to use its plenary powers to suppress the generic name Brius 
Dejean, 1821, for the purposes of the Principle of Priority, but 
not for those of the Principle of Homonymy; 

(2) to place on the Official List of Generic names in Zoology the 
name Tropiphorus Schonherr, 1842 (gender: masculine), type 
species by original designation, Curculio mercurialis Fabricius, 
1801; 

(3) to place on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology the 
name mercurialis Fabricius, 1801, as published in the binomen 
Curculio mercurialis (specific name of the type species of 
Tropiphorus Schonherr, 1 842); 

(4) to place on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Generic 
Names in Zoology the name Brius Dejean, 1821, as suppressed 
under the plenary powers in (1) above. 



REFERENCES 

ANGELOV, P. 1973. Taxonomische Bemerkungen iiber die Arten der Gattung 
Tropiphorus Schonh. (Curculionidae, Col.) mil einer Bestimmungs- 
tabelle. Acta Entomologica Jugoslavica, vol. 9, pp. 13-21. 

DEJEAN, P. F. M. A. 1821. Catalogue de la collection des Coleopteres de M. le 
Baron Dejean. Paris, pp. 1-136. 



Bull. zool. Norn. , vol. 43, pt 2, July 1 986 1 87 



HOFFMANN, A. 1950. Coleopteres Curculionides (Premiere Partie). Faune de 

France, vol. 52, pp. 1-486. 
KIPPENBERG, H. 1981. 10. Unterfamilie: Leptopiinae, In FREUDE, H., 

HARDE, K. W. & LOHSE, G. A. (eds.) Die Kafer Mitteleuropas. vol. 10 

Goecke & Evers, Krefeld pp. 276-279. 
LINDROTH, C. H. 1960 (ed.) Catalogue Coleopterorum Fennoscandiae et Daniae. 

Lund, pp. 1-476. 
O'BRIEN, C. W. & WIBMER, G. J. 1982. Annotated checklist of the weevils 

(Curculionidae sensu lato) of North America, Central America, and the 

West Indies (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea). Memoirs of the American 

Entomological Institute , vol. 34, pp. 1-382. 
D'ORBIGNY, C. F. 1842. Dictionnaire Universel d'Histoire Naturelle. Paris. 
POPE, R. D. 1977. In KLOET, G. S. & HINCKS, W. D. A Check List of British 

Insects (2nd edit.). Part 3: Coleoptera and Strepsiptera. Handbook for the 

Identification of British Insects, XI(3), pp. 1-105. 
SCHENKLING, S. & MARSHALL, G. A. K. 1931. Subfam. Leptopinae. Cata- 

logus Coleopterorum, vol. 1 14, pp. 1-83. 
SCHONHERR, C. J. 1842. Synonymia Insectorum. Genera et Species Curculio- 

nidum. Tom. 6, pars 2. Parisiis et Lipsiae, pp. 1-495. 
SILFVERBERG, H. 1983. The coleopteran genera of Dejean, 1821. I. Carabidae. 

Annates Entomologici Fennici, vol. 49, pp. 115-116. 

1984a. The coleopteran genera of Dejean, 1821. II. Annales Entomologici 

Fennici, vol. 50, pp. 58-60. 

1984b. The coleopteran genera of Dejean, 1821. III. Curculionoidea and 

Chrysomeloidea. Annales Entomologici Fennici, vol. 50, pp. 61-63. 

ZEBE, V. 1963. Curculioniden im Mittelrheingebiet. Entomologische Blatter, vol. 
59, pp. 113-124. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



TETROPIUM KIRBY, 1837 (INSECTA, COLEOPTERA, 
CERAMBYCIDAE): PROPOSED CONSERVATION BY THE 
SUPPRESSION OF ISARTHRON DE3EAN, 1835. Z.N.(S.)2534 



By Maciej Mroczkowski {Instytut Zoologii Polska Akademia Nauk. ul. 
Wilcza 64, Warszawa, Poland) 

The purpose of this application is to suppress a generic name not 
used during the last hundred years which is a senior subjective synonym of a 
very well known generic name, Tetropium Kirby, 1837. 

2. In 1835 Dejean introduced two generic names: Criomorphus (p. 
337) and Isarthron (p. 329). Criomorphus is unavailable (Dejean included 
only one species, curtus — a nomen nudum), but Isarthron is an available 
name (Dejean included three previously described species under eight 
names). The type species of Isarthron is Callidium aulicum Fabricius, 1 775 
{Syst. Ent., p. 190), designated by Linsley (1962, p. 85). Criomorphus was 
described by Mulsant (1839, p. 58), type species, by monotypy, Callidium 
aulicum Fabricius, 1775; however, this is not only a junior objective 
synonym of Isarthron but also a junior homonym of Criomorphus Curtis, 
1829 (p. 194)(Hemiptera). 

3. In 1837 Kirby (p. 174) described the genus Tetropium. The type 
species, designated by Thomson (1864, p. 266), is Tetropium cinnamopterum 
Kirby, 1837. 

4. L. Redtenbacher (1845, p. 110) gave the description of Isarthron 
(on p. 153 Dejean is cited as author) but without associated nominal 
species. In all subsequent systematic works prior to Linsley, 1962, 
Redtenbacher (with date 1 845) is wrongly cited as the author of the name 
Isarthron, which is treated as a junior synonym of Tetropium Kirby, 1837. 
Neave (1939, Nomencl. Zool., II, p. 785) likewise treats Isarthron Dejean, 
1835 as a nomen nudum and cites Redtenbacher (1845) as the author. 

5. L. Agassiz (1846) emended Isarthron Dej. to Isarthrum. Isarthrum 
Agassiz, 1846 is, as an unjustified emendation, a junior objective synonym 
of IsarthronY>e). 

6. Whenever (as has been the case) Callidium aulicum Fabricius, 
1775 (type species of Isarthron Dejean, 1835) and Tetropium cinnamopterum 
Kirby, 1837 (type species of Tetropium Kirby, 1837) are held to be con- 
generic, Isarthron and Tetropium are subjective synonyms. 

7. Only Linsley (1962, p. 85) has stated that Dejean's name Isarthron 
is available and has priority over Tetropium Kirby, but nevertheless even he 
treated Tetropium Kirby as the valid name in his monograph. In accordance 
with Art. 79(c)(2) of the Code, the following is a selection of 10 different 
publications in which Tetropium Kirby has been used as a valid name: 
1955 Heyrovsky, L., Tesarikoviti — Cerambycidae. In: Fauna CSR, vol. 

5. Praha, (on p. 148). 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 189 



1961 Panin, S. & Savulescu, N. Cerambycidae (Croitori). In: Fauna 
Republicii Populare Romine. Insecta. Vol. X, fasc. 5. Bucuresti, (on 
p. 219). 

1962 Linsley, E. G. The Cerambycidae of North America. Part II. Univ. 
Calif. Publ. Ent., Berkeley and Los Angeles. Vol. 19. (on p. 85). 

1966 Demelt, C. Cerambycidae. In: Die Tierwelt Deutschlands. 52. Teil. 

Jena, (on p. 54). 
1966 Harde, K. W. Cerambycidae. In: Die Kdfer Mitteleuropas, Vol. 9. 

Krefeld, (on p. 16). 

1973 Allenspach, V. Cerambycidae. In: Insecta Helvetica Catalogus. Vol. 
3. Zurich, (on p. 28). 

1974 Horion, A. Faunistik der Mitteleuropdischen Kdfer. Vol. 12. 
Uberlingen-Bodensee, (on p. 10). 

1978 Klausnitzer, B. & Konigstedt, D. Die Bockkdfer Mitteleuropas. 
Cerambycidae. (Die Neue Brehm-Biicherei). Wittenberg, (on p. 
161). 

1979 Silfverberg, H. (editor) 1979. Enumeratio Coleopterorum Fennoscan- 
diae et Daniae. Helsinki, (on p. 54). 

1981 Lobanov, A. L., Danilevsky, M. L. & Murzin, S. V. Systematic list 
of longicorn beetles (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) of the USSR. Part 
I. Ent. Obozr., Leningrad, Vol. 60, (on p. 803). 
8. The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature is, 

for the reasons above, asked: 

(1) to use its plenary powers to suppress the generic name 
Isarthron Dejean, 1835, for the purposes of the Principle of 
Priority; 

(2) to place on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology the 
name Tetropium Kirby, 1837 (gender: neuter), type species, 
by subsequent designation by Thomson, 1864, Tetropium 
cinnamopterum Kirby, 1837; 

(3) to place on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology the 
name cinnamopterum Kirby, 1837, as published in the binomen 
Tetropium cinnamopterum (specific name of the type species of 
Tetropium YAvhy, 1837); 

(4) to place on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Generic 
Names in Zoology the name Isarthron Dejean, 1835, sup- 
pressed under the plenary powers in (1) above. 



REFERENCES 

AGASSIZ, J. L. R. 1846. Nomenclatoris zoologici Index universalis. Soloduri, 

VIII + 393 pp. 
CURTIS, J. 1829. A guide to an arrangement of British insects. London, VI pp. + 256 

columns + 1 p. 
DEJEAN, P. F. M. A. 1835. Catalogue des Coleopteres. Ed. 2 ( = 3), 4' livraison. 

Paris, pp. 257-360. 



190 bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



FABRICIUS, J. Ch. 1775. Systema Entomologiae. Flensburgi et Lipsiae, 32 + 832 

pp. 
KIRBY, W. 1837. In RICHARDSON, Sir J. (Ed.): Fauna Boreali- Americana. Part 

4: Insects. Norwich. 
LINSLEY, E. G. 1962. The Cerambycidae of North America. Part II. Univ. Calif. 

Publ. Ent., Berkeley and Los Angeles, vol. 19, V+ 103 pp., 1 1., 34 ff. 
MULSANT, E. 1839. Histoire Naturelle des Coleopteres de France, Part I. 

Longicomes. Paris, 1 1 + 364 pp. 
NEAVE, S. A. 1939. Nomenclator Zoologicus. Vol. II. D.L. London, 1025 pp. 
REDTENBACHER, L. 1845. Die Gattungen der Deutschen Kaefer-Fauna. Wien, 

13+ 178 pp., 2 tt. 
THOMSON, J. 1864. Systema Cerambycidarum. Mem. Soc. R. Sci. Liege, vol. 19, 

538 pp. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 191 



RI SO MU REX OLSSO^ & MCGINTY, 1958 (MOLLUSCA, 
GASTROPODA): PROPOSED DESIGNATION OF TYPE SPECIES. 

Z.N.(S.)2507 

By Th. C. H. Kemperman & H. E. Coomans (Instituut voor Taxonomische 

Zoologie, (Zoologisch Museum) , Plantage Middenlaan 53, 1018 DC 

Amsterdam, The Netherlands) 

Olsson & McGinty (1958) described (on p. 40) the genus Risomurex, 
for which Engina schrammi Crosse, 1863, was designated the type species. 
However they figured (on PI. 2) their own collected material, mis-identified 
as 'Engina schrammi Crosse', and had not seen the holotype of Engina 
schrammi in Paris. 

2. Subsequently Radwin & D'Attilio (1976, p. 255, pi. 2, fig. 1) 
synonymized Risomurex with Muricopsis Bucquoy, Dautzenberg & 
Dollfus, 1882. The material figured as 'Muricopsis schrammi (Crosse)' by 
Radwin & D'Attilio evidently belongs to the same species as that figured by 
Olsson & McGinty. 

3. Kemperman & Coomans (1984) studied the holotype oi Engina 
schrammi Crosse and recognised it as being a different species from 'Riso- 
murex schrammi (Crosse)' sensu Olsson & McGinty. Recently collected 
material from the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica turned out to be conspeci- 
fic with the shells mentioned and figured by Olsson & McGinty (1958) and 
Radwin & D'Attilio (1976). Since there is no name available the species was 
thereupon described as Risomurex mosquitensis Kemperman & Coomans, 
1984. 

4. Risomurex Olsson & McGinty is considered to be a valid genus, 
distinct from Muricopsis (type species Murex blainvillii Payraudeau, 1826, 
by original designation). Risomurex mosquitensis should be considered as 
the type species of Risomurex, being the actual intention of the authors of 
the genus. If the type designation by Olsson & McGinty is allowed to stand, 
the genus would be typified by Engina schrammi Crosse, a distinct species 
(which we consider also belongs to Risomurex). 

5. According to Art. 70b of the Code it is for the Commission to 
decide whether the type species of Risomurex Olsson & McGinty remains 
(a) Engina schrammi Crosse, in which case the typification of the genus is 
not based on the species originally intended, or (b) becomes Risomurex 
mosquitensis Kemperman & Coomans, in accordance with the intention of 
Olsson & McGinty. We propose that the taxon Risomurex mosquitensis 
Kemperman & Coomans remains as type species for the genus. 

6. The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature is 
therefore requested: 

(1) to use its plenary powers to set aside all designations of type 
species hitherto made for the nominal genus Risomurex Olsson 
& McGinty, 1958, and, having done so, to designate Risomurex 
mosquitensis Kemperman & Coomans, 1 984 ( = 'Risomurex 



192 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



schrammi Crosse' sensu Olsson & McGinty, 1958, non Engina 
schrammi Crosse, 1 863) as type species; 

(2) to place on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology the 
name Risomurex Olsson & McGinty, 1958 (gender: masculine), 
type species by designation under the plenary powers in (1) 
above, Risomurex mosquitensis Kemperman &. Coomans, 
1984; 

(3) to place on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology 
the name mosquitensis Kemperman & Coomans, 1984, as 
published in the binomen Risomurex mosquitensis (specific 
name of the type species of Risomurex Olsson & McGinty, 
1958). 

REFERENCES 

BUCQUOY, E., DAUTZENBERG, P. & DOLLFUS, G. 1882. Les mollusques 

marins du Roussillon, vol. 1, pp. 1-570. Paris. 
CROSSE, H. 1863. Description d'une espece nouvelle de la Guadeloupe. J. 

Conchy!., Paris, vol. 1 1, pp. 82-84. 
KEMPERMAN, T. C. M. & COOMANS, H. E. 1984. Studies on West Indian 

Marine Molluscs, 1. Risomurex mosquitensis, a new Caribbean species, with 

remarks on the status of the genus Risomurex (Gastropoda: Muricidae). 

Bull. Zool. Mus. Univ. Amsterdam, vol. 10 (1), pp. 1-7. 
OLSSON, A. A. & McGINTY, T. L. 1958. Marine mollusks from the Caribbean 

coast of Panama, with the description of some new genera and species. Bull. 

Amer. Paleont., vol. 39, pp. 1-58. 
RADWIN, G. E. & D'ATTILIO, A. 1976. Murex Shells of the World, pp. 1-284. 

Stanford. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 193 



SIPHAMIA WEBER, 1909 AND SIPHAMIA PERMUTATA 

KLAUSEWITZ, 1966 (OSTEICHTHYES, PERCIFORMES): 

PROPOSED CONSERVATION BY THE SUPPRESSION OF BEANEA 

STEINDACHNER, \9Q1 M^T> BEANEA TRIVITTATA 

STEINDACHNER, 1902. Z.N.(S.)2517 

By John E. Randall {Bishop Museum, Box 19000- A, Honolulu, Hawaii 

96817, U.S.A.), Ernest A. Lachner (National Museum of Natural History, 

Washington, D.C. 20560, U.S.A.) and Thomas H. Eraser (Environmental 

Quality Laboratory, 1009 Tamiami Trail, Port Charlotte, Florida 33952. 

U.S.A.) 

Steindachner (1902, pp. 337-338) described Beanea trivittata as a 
new genus and species of the beryciform family holocentridae, from a 
single 36 mm specimen taken in the Gulf of Suez, Red Sea, at Tor (El Tur) 
near the southern end of the Sinai Peninsula. The fish was collected by Dr 
Plate from among the spines of the echinoid Diadema. 

2. No specimens have been reported under the name Beanea trivittata 
since the original description, in spite of extensive fish collecting in the 
Red Sea (Randall, 1983). The name has appeared only in compilations such 
as those of Jordan, 1917-1920; Fowler, 1956; Norman, 1957; Klausewitz, 
1964 (in the reprint edition of Klunzinger, 1870-71) and Botros, 1971. 

3. Woods (1955, p. 95) devoted a paragraph to Beanea. He repeated 
the meristic data given by Steindachner, noted the discrepancy of these 
counts from known holocentrid fishes, and added that B. trivittata 'may not 
even belong to the family Holocentridae'. 

4. Randall, Shimizu and Yamakawa (1982, p. 2) also reiterated 
some of Steindachner's description of B. trivittata and stated, 'With the 
exception of IV anal spines (which we suspect is an error) these characters 
fit the APOGONIDAE not the holocentridae. Beanea appears to represent an 
earlier name for Siphamia Weber (1909). We have asked Dr Rainer Hacker 
and Harald Ahnelt of the Naturhistorisches Museum in Vienna to examine 
the type o^ Beanea trivittata for us, but the specimen was not found. 

5. In his Checklist of the Fishes of the Red Sea, Dor (1984, p. 72) 
included Beanea trivittata in the holocentridae but as a doubtful taxon. 
He quoted Randall (in litt.), cited Randall, Shimizu and Yamakawa and 
added, 'I fully agree, the description of Steindachner fits an apogonid.' 

6. The following characters given by Steindachner for Beanea trivit- 
tata clearly show that it is not a holocentrid but an apogonid: Dorsal rays 
VII-1,9; pelvic rays 1,5; branchiostegal rays 7; lateral-line scales 25; scales 
above lateral line 1 1/2; all fin spines slender; first dorsal spine very short; 
third dorsal spine longest; head bones extremely delicate and thin; scales 
below lateral line smooth; three dark brown longitudinal bands on head 
and body. 

7. Three genera of apogonidae have species in the Red Sea with 
dark stripes: Apogon, Cheilodipterus and Siphamia. Cheilodopterus can be 



194 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



quickly eliminated as a synonym of Beanea because it has VI dorsal spines, 
a body more elongate than Myripristis (Steindachner stated that Beanea has 
a body shape like this genus) and Red Sea species have more than three 
dark stripes. Apogon can also be eliminated on the basis of color, as no 
species have three dark stripes as described by Steindachner. Siphamia is 
represented in the Red Sea by a single species, S. permutata Klausewitz 
(1966, pp. 217-222) which has all the characters mentioned in paragraph 6 
above except for 25 lateral-line scales (Klausewitz recorded 23). The three 
brown stripes on S. permutata are exactly as described by Steindachner for 
B. trivittata. Furthermore, Klausewitz {op. cit.) and Magnus (1976) have 
shown that this species hides among the spines ofDiadema setosum. 

8. Siphamia Weber (1909, p. 168) (type species, by monotypy, 
Siphamia tubifer Weber, 1909) is a very distinctive genus, all of the species 
of which possess an elongate luminous organ ventrally on the body which 
passes from the branchial region nearly to the caudal fin base. Lachner {in 
Schultz & collaborators, 1953) reviewed the genus, recognizing 13 species. 
Fraser (1972) wrote 'Siphamia comprises a natural group, containing at least 
18 nominal species. . .' He summarized the osteology and other anatomical 
features of the genus and cited studies on systematics, commensahsm, 
bioluminescence, etc. 

9. Since there is no type specimen oi Beanea trivittata the status of the 
nominal taxon is doubtful, although it is a probable synonym of Siphamia 
permutata Klausewitz, 1966. We recommend that the latter name be 
conserved and that Beanea trivittata Steindachner, 1902 be suppressed. 

10. In view of the above we ask the International Commission on 
Zoological Nomenclature to: 

(1) use its plenary powers to suppress the generic name Beanea 
Steindachner, 1902 for the purposes of the Principle of Priority 
but not for those of the Principle of Homonymy. 

(2) use its plenary powers to suppress the specific name trivittata 
Steindachner, 1902, as pubHshed in the binomen Beanea trivit- 
tata, for the purposes of the Principle of Priority but not for 
those of the Principle of Homonymy. 

(3) place on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology the 
generic name Siphamia Weber, 1909 (gender: feminine), type 
species by monotypy, Siphamia tubifer Weber, 1909. 

(4) place on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology the 
following specific names: 

(a) permutata Klausewitz, 1966 as published in the binomen 
Siphamia permutata; 

(b) tubifer Weber, 1909, as published in the binomen Siphamia 
tubifer (specific name of the type species of Siphamia 
Weber, 1909). 

(5) place on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Generic 
Names in Zoology the name Beanea Steindachner, 1902, as 
suppressed under the plenary powers in (1) above. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 195 

(6) place on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Specific 
Names in Zoology the name trivittata, as published in the 
binomen Beanea trivittata, and as suppressed under the plenary 
powers in (2) above. 

REFERENCES 

BOTROS, G. A. 1971. Fishes of the Red Sea. Oceanogr. mar. Biol. Ann. Rev., vol. 9, 

pp. 221-348. 
DOR, M. 1984. CLOFRES: Checklist of the Fishes of the Red Sea. The Israel 

Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem, xxii + 437 pp. 
FOWLER, H. W. 1956. Fishes of the Red Sea and southern Arabia. Vol. 1. The 

Weizmann Science Press of Israel, Jerusalem, 240 pp. 
ERASER, T. H. 1972. Comparative osteology of the shallow water cardinal fishes 

[Perciformes: Apogonidae] with reference to the systematics and evolution 

of the family. Ichthyol. Bull. J.L.B. Smith Inst. IchthyoL, Rhodes Univ. 

Grahamstown, no. 34, v+ 105 pp. 
JORDAN, D. S. 1917-1920. The Genera of Fishes and A Classification of Fishes. 

Reprint edition, 1963, Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, Cahfornia, xvi + 

800 pp. 
KLAUSEWITZ, W. 1964. Die Erforschung der Ichthyofauna des Roten Meeres. 

pp. i-xxxvi. In Klunzinger, C. B. 1870-1871, Synopsis der Fische des Rot hen 

Meeres, reprint edition, 1964, J. Cramer, Weinheim. 
1 966. Fische aus dem Roten Meer. VII. Siphamia permutata n.sp. Senckenberg 

6/o/., vol. 47(3), pp. 217-222. 
MAGNUS, D. B. E. 1967. Ecological and ethological studies and experiments on 

the echinoderms of the Red Sea. Stud. trop. Oceanogr., vol. 5, pp. 635-664. 
NORMAN, J. R. 1957. A Draft Synopsis of the Orders, Families and Genera of 

Recent Fishes and Fish-Like Vertebrates. British Museum (Natural History), 

London, 649 pp. 
RANDALL, J. E. 1983. Red Sea Reef Fishes. IMMEL Publishing, London, 192 pp. 
,SHIMUZU, T. & YAMAKAWA, T. 1982. A revision of the holocentrid 

fish genus Ostichthys, with descriptions of four new species and a related new 

genus. Jap. J. Ichthyol, vol. 29(1), pp. 1-26. 
SCHULTZ, L. P. (& collaborators). 1953. Fishes of the Marshall and Marianas 

Islands. U.S. natl. Mus. Bull., 202, vol. 1, xxxii + 685 pp. 
STEINDACHNER, F. 1902. Uber zwei neue Fischarten aus dem Rothen Meere. 

Anz. Akad. Wiss. Wien, vol. 39, pp. 336-338. 
WEBER, M. 1909. Diagnosen neuer Fische der Siboga-Expedition. Notes Leyden 

M«5.,vol. 31,pp. 143-169. 
WOODS, L. P. 1955. Western Atlantic species of the genus Holocentrus. Fieldiana 

zoo/.,vol. 37, pp. 91-119. 



196 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



CYCLAXYRA BROUN, 1893 (INSECTA, COLEOPTERA): 

PROPOSED CONSERVATION BY THE SUPPRESSION OF 

MELANOCHROA BROUN, 1882. Z.N.(S.)251 1 



By J. C. Watt {Entomology Division, DSIR, Auckland, New Zealand) and 

R. A. Crowson {Department of Zoology, The University, Glasgow 

G12 8QG, Scotland) 

Broun (1881, pp. 667-668) described and established the genus 
Cyclomorpha in the combination Cyclomorpha politula. However, the generic 
name is preoccupied by the moUuscan genus-group name Cyclomorpha 
Pease (1871, p. 464). 

2. In a brief anonymous paper whose authorship has universally 
and correctly been attributed to Broun (1882a) it is stated: 'We have been 
requested to pubhsh the following alterations of the names of certain 
genera recently published in Capt. Broun's 'Manual of the New Zealand 
Coleoptera', they having previously been used either in that order or in 
other branches of zoology. 

Melanochroa for Cyclomorpha ' 

There follows a list of nine other replacement names for preoccupied 
generic names of Broun (1880, 1881). This was repeated verbatim in Broun 
(1882b). 

3. Melanochroa Roeder (1886, pp. 139-140) (type species, by mono- 
typy, Melanochroa dubia Roeder, 1886) was described for a genus of 
stratiomyid Diptera. 

4. Broun (1893, pp. 1076-1077) fully described the genus Cyclaxyra 
and briefly redescribed C. politula (Broun, 1881). At the conclusion of the 
species description he stated: 'This species was formerly named Cyclomorpha, 
but as I find the name has been used before, I have substituted Cyclaxyra. 
As it is a very interesting genus the new name is accompanied by the 
description.' There is no mention of the name Melanochroa, which had 
apparently been forgotten by Broun. 

5. In the Coleopterorum Catalogus, Grouvelle (1913, p. 170) listed 
Cyclaxyra Broun, 1 893 as the valid name for this genus, listing Cyclomorpha 
Broun, 1881 and Melanochroa Broun, 1882 as synonyms. 

6. Broun (1915, p. 314) described a second species, Cyclaxyra 
impressa. 

7. Hudson (1934, p. 189) listed 'Cyclaxyra Broun, 1893 (substituted 
for Cyclomorpha)\ as the valid name for the genus. Melanochroa was not 
mentioned. 

8. Crowson (1955, p. 99) referred to Cyclaxyra, which had pre- 
viously been placed in the nitidulidae, and provisionally transferred it to 
SPHINDIDAE (op. cit., p. 102; see also pp. 171, 172). 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 197 



9. Sen Gupta & Crowson (1966, p. 62) included 'Phalacridae, genus 
Cyclaxyra Broun' in a revised key to certain families of Clavicornia. 

10. Crowson (1967a, p. 212) stated: 'Phalacridae: The genus 
Cyclaxyra Broun has the essential larval features of this group, the adult 
differs from other Phalacridae in the middle coxal cavities not closed by the 
sterna, the simple tarsi, and in the aedeagus, inter alia.' 

11. Crowson (1967b) mentioned Cyclaxyra 5 times, while Watt 
(1982) followed Crowson in including the two species of Cyclaxyra in 

PHALACRIDAE. 

12. 'Crowson (1981) gave observations on the biology of Cyclaxyra 
and drew attention to its systematic and biological importance as an ancient 
relict in the New Zealand fauna. 

13. As a result of further systematic study, it is proposed to establish 
a new family for the genus Cyclaxyra Broun, as part of a revised family 
classification of Clavicornia (Crowson &. Sen Gupta, in press). Thus not 
only a generic name but also a family-group name is involved in this case. 

14. As documented above, the name Cyclaxyra is well known, both 
in New Zealand and worldwide. By contrast the name Melanochroa Broun, 
1 882 has never been used as the valid name for this genus since its original 
publication and was forgotten even by its own author. Moreover it is 
an unused senior homonym of the dipteran genus Melanochroa Roeder, 
1886. Accordingly we ask the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature to: 

( 1 ) use its plenary powers to suppress the generic name Melanochroa 
Broun, 1 882 for the purposes of the Principles of Priority and 
of Homonymy; 

(2) place on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology the 
name Cyclaxyra Broun, 1 893 (gender: feminine), type species, 
by monotypy, Cyclomorpha politula Broun, 1881; 

(3) place on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology the name 
politula Broun, 1881, as published in the binomen Cyclomorpha 
politula (name of the type species of Cyclaxyra Broun, 1893). 

(4) place on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Generic 
Names in Zoology the name Melanochroa Broun, 1882 as 
suppressed under the plenary powers in (1) above. 

REFERENCES 

BROUN, T. 1880. Manual of the New Zealand Coleoptera. Part 1. Colonial 

Museum and Geological Survey Department, Wellington, pp. 1-651. 
1881. Manual of the New Zealand Coleoptera. Part II. Colonial Museum and 

Geological Survey Department, Wellington, pp. 653-774. 
1882a. Alteration of generic names. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist., ser. 5, vol. 9, 

p. 409. 

1882b. Alteration of generic names. N.Z. J. Sci., vol. 1, p. 128. 

1893. Manual of the New Zealand Coleoptera, Parts V, VI, VII. New Zealand 

Institute, Wellington, pp. 975-1504. 



198 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



- 1915. Descriptions of new genera and species of Coleoptera. Bull. N.Z. Inst., 
vol. 1(4), pp. 267-346. 



CROWSON, R. A. 1955. The natural classification of the families of Coleoptera. 

Nathaniel Lloyd and Co. Ltd, London, 187 pp. 
1967a. The natural classification of the families of Coleoptera. Addenda et 

corrigenda. Entomol. mon. Mag., vol. 103, pp. 209-214. 
1967b. The natural classification of the families of Coleoptera (with addenda 

and corrigenda). E. W. Classey Ltd, Hampton, 214 pp. 

1981. The biology of the Coleoptera. Academic Press, London, 802 pp. 

GROUVELLE, A. 1913. Byturidae and Nitidulidae in Junk, W., Coleopterorum 

Catalogus, vol. 15(56), 223 pp. 
HUDSON, G. V. 1934. New Zealand beetles and their larvae. Ferguson and Osbom 

Ltd, WeUington, 236 pp. 
ROEDER, V. VON, 1886. Ueber drei neue Gattungen der Notocanthen. Entomol. 

Nachr., vol. 12(1) no. 9, pp.. 137-139. 
SEN GUPTA, T. & CROWSON, R. A. 1966. A new family of Cucujoid beetles, 

based on six Australian and one New Zealand genera. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist., 

ser. 13, vol. 9, pp. 61-85. 
WATT, J. C. 1982. 1981 Presidential Address: New Zealand beetles. N.Z. Entomol, 

vol. 7(3), pp. 213-221. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 199 



SINUITIDAE DALL, 1913, MACLURITIDAE FISCHER, 1885 AND 

EUOMPHALIDAE DE KONINCK, 1881 (GASTROPODA, 

ARCHAEOGASTROPODA): PROPOSED CONSERVATION BY 

SUPPRESSION OF PROTOWARTHIIDAE ULRICH & SCHOFIELD, 

1897, MACLUREADAE CARPENTER, 1861, MACLURAEIDEA 

GILL, 1817 AND SCHIZOSTOMATIDAE EICHWALD, 1817. 

Z.N.(S.)1212 

By the late J. Brookes Knight {Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, 

U.S.A.), Roger L. Batten {American Museum of Natural History, Central 

Park West at 79th Street. New York, N. Y. 10024. U.S.A.) and Ellis 

Yochelson {U.S. Geological Survey, USDI, U.S. National Museum, 

Washington DC. U.S.A.) 

This application was originally submitted to the Commission in 
March 1957. It was published in Bull. zool. nom., vol. 18, pp. 337-339 
(November 1961) and presented to the Commission for voting on 3 October 
1962. A comment by Dr L. B. Holthuis {Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke 
Historic, Leiden) pointed out that it was impossible to suppress a family- 
group name unless the generic name on which it was based, i.e. its type 
genus, was also suppressed. As a consequence of this comment an Opinion 
was never published. 

2. Recently the case was resurrected and analysed by the Secretariat. 
Of the original proposals, one, that concerning the conservation of 
ORiosTOMATiDAE Wenz, 1938 by suppression of horiostomatidae Koken, 
1897, was found to have an automatic solution under Article 35(d) of the 
Code in that horiostomatidae, based on the unjustified emendation 
Horiostoma Fischer, 1885 is corrected to oriostomatidae Koken, 1897. 
The remaining proposals are still in need of Commission action and after 
correspondence with one of the original authors (E.Y.) it was agreed to 
rewrite the case and present it again in full. 

SINUITIDAE Dall, 1913 

3. The generic name Protowarthia Ulrich & Schofield, 1897 (p. 848) 
was proposed for a bellerophontid gastropod from the Ordovician of North 
America. In the same publication the family-group name protowarthiidae 
was proposed for this and allied genera (p. 847), but appears never to have 
been used. A year earlier, Koken (1896, p. 393) had proposed the name 
Sinuites for congeneric forms from Europe; the type species of Sinuites is 
Bellerophon bilobatus Sowerby, 1839 (p. 643) by designation by Bassler 
(1915, p. 1 159). For many years Protowarthia has been recognized to be a 
junior subjective synonym of Sinuites. 

4. Dall (1913, p. 521) proposed the family group name sinuitidae 
based on Sinuites Koken and, although junior to protowarthiidae, this 
has been in common usage since it was first introduced (for example: Wenz, 



200 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



1938, p. 97; Knight, 1947, p. 7; Piveteau, 1952, p. 409; Orlov, 1960, p. 61; 
Waterhouse, 1963, p. 90; Yochelson, 1963, p. 151, 1964, p. 894; Batten, 
1966, p. 6; Peel, 1975, p. 1525 and Hayami & Kase, 1977, p. 17). 



MACLURITIDAE Fischer, 1885 

5. The generic name Maclurite Lesueur, 1818 (p. 312) was evi- 
dentally a lapsus for Maclurites. As pointed out by Knight (1941, p. 184), 
Lesueur had, on the previous page, used the termination -ites for generic 
names and -ite for the vernacular form of the same names. 

7. Lesueur's name Maclurite has been emended several times — to 
Maclurita by Blainville (1823, p. 519), to Maclurites by Menke (1830, p. 53) 
and to Maclurea by Emmons (1842, p. 312). Blaiville's and Emmons' 
emendations are certainly unjustified and as such are junior objective 
synonyms oi Maclurite Lesueur, 1818. Maclurites (Menke, 1830) however, 
we consider to be a justified emendation and this form of the name has 
gained general acceptance (for example by Wenz, 1938, p. 210; Knight, 
1941, p. 184; Piveteau, 1952, p. 395; Miiller, 1960, p. 25; Orlov, 1960, p. 83; 
Yochelson, 1966, p. 748; Grasse, 1968, p. 917; Yochelson, 1975, p. 449; 
Rohr, 1 980, p. 1 53 and Yu Wen & Ning Hui, 1 983, p. 1 99). 

8. The type species oi Maclurites Lesueur, 1818 is Maclurites magna 
Lesueur, 1818 by designation by de Koninck (1881, p. 107). 

9. Carpenter (1861, p. 216) proposed the family-group name 

MACLUREADAE, and Gill (1871, p. 11) MACHJRAEIDEA and MACLURAEACEA, 

all based on the junior objective synonym Maclurea Emmons, 1842. Fischer 
(1885, p. 805) proposed the family-group name macluritidae based on 
Maclurites Lesueur, 1818. Although both maclureadae Carpenter, 1861 
and macluraeidea Gill, 1871 have priority over Fischer's name they have 
been Uttle used and are not adopted in the standard Treatise on 
Invertebrate Paleontology (Knight et ai, 1960). By contrast macluritidae 
Fischer, 1885 has been used widely (for example by Wenz, 1938, p. 210; 
Piveteau, 1952, p. 395; Orlov, 1960, p. 83; Yochelson, 1965, p. 45; Yochelson 
& Jones, 1 968, p. 7; Hayami & Kase, 1 977, p. 2 1 ; Minichev & Starobogatov, 
1979, p. 293; Yu Wen, 1979, p. 256; Rohr, 1980, p. 153 and Yu Wen and 
Ning Hui, 1983, p. 199). 

EUOMPHALIDAE de Koninck, 1881 

10. Although Euomphalus Sowerby, 1814 (p. 97) and Schizostoma 
Bronn ([1834], p. 95) have been considered to be the names of distinct 
genera by some, others, including the applicants, consider them to be 
synonyms. The type species of Euomphalus is Euomphalus pentangulatus 
Sowerby, 1814, by designation by Meek & Worthen (1866, p. 158). 

11. The family-group name EUOMPHALIDAE de Koninck, 1881 (p. 106) 
based on Euomphalus Sowerby, 1814 has been used by almost all workers 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 201 



(for example by Wenz, 1938, p. 187; Burke, 1961, p. 123; Waterhouse, 1963, 
p. 98; Dickens, 1963, p. 128; Yochelson, 1963, p. 179; Batten, 1966, p. 12; 
Peel & Yochelson, 1976, p. 18; Hayami & Kase, 1977, p. 23; McLean, 1981, 
p. 312 and Morris & Cleevely, 1981, p. 196). By contrast the slightly earlier 
family-group name schizostomatidae Eichwald, 1871 (p. 119) has been 
little used and in the Treatise (Knight et ai, 1960) we have abandoned it. 

12. In view of the situation outlined the International Commission 
on Zoological Nomenclature is requested: 

(1) to use its plenary powers to suppress the following generic 
names for the purpose of the Principle of Priority but not for 
that of the Principle of Homonymy: 

(a) Prorowarr///a Ulrich & Schofield, 1897 

(b) Schizostoma Bronn, [1834] 

(2) to use its plenary powers to suppress the following family- 
group names for the purpose of the Principle of Priority but 
not for that of the Principle of Homonymy: 

(a) PROTOWARTHiiDAE Ulrich & Schofield, 1897 (type genus 
Protowarthia Ulrich & Schofield, 1897); 

(b) MACLUREADAE Carpenter, 1861 (type genus Maclurea 
Emmons, 1842); 

(c) MACLURAEIDEA Gill, 1871 (type genus Maclurea Emmons, 
1842); 

(d) SCHIZOSTOMATIDAE Eichwald, 1871 (type genus Schizo- 
stoma. Bronn, [1834]. 

(3) to place the following names on the Official List of Generic 
Names in Zoology: 

(a) Sinuites Koken, 1896 (gender: masculine), type species 
by designation by Bassler (1915) Seller ophon bilobatus 
Sowerby, 1839; 

(b) Maclurites (justified emendation of Maclurite) Lesueur, 
1818 (gender: masculine), type species by designation by de 
Koninck (1881) Maclurites magna Lesueur, 1818; 

(c) Euomphalus Sowerby, 1814 (gender: masculine) type species 
by designation by Meek & Worthen (1866) Euomphalus 
pentangulatus Sowerby, 1814. 

(4) to place the following names on the Official List of Specific 
Names in Zoology: 

(a) bilobatus Sowerby, 1839, as published in the binomen 
Bellerophon bilobatus, (specific name of the type species of 
Sinuites Y^okcn, 1896); 

(b) magna Lesueur, 1818, as published in the binomen 
Maclurites magna, (specific name of the type species of 
Maclurites htsutuT, 1818); 

(c) pentangulatus Sowerby, 1814, as published in the binomen 
Euomphalus pentangulatus , (specific name of the type species 
of Euomphalus Sowerby, 1814). 



202 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



(5) to place the following names on the Official List of Family- 
Group Names in Zoology: 

(a) SINUITIDAE Dall, 1913 (type genus Sinuites Koken, 1896); 

(b) MACLURITIDAE Fischer, 1885 (type genus Maclurites 
Lesueur, 1818); 

(c) EUOMPHALIDAE dc Koninck, 1881 (type genus Euomphalus 
Sowerby, 1814). 

(6) to place the following names on the Official Index of Rejected 
and Invalid Generic Names in Zoology: 

(a) Protowarthia Ulrich & Schofield, 1897, as suppressed 
under the plenary powers in (1) (a) above; 

(b) Schizostoma Bronn, [ 1 834], as suppressed under the plenary 
powers in (l)(b) above; 

(c) Maclurita Blainville, 1823 (an unjustified emendation of 
Mac/«me5 Lesueur, 1818); 

(d) Maclurea Emmons, 1842 (an unjustified emendation of 
Maclurites htsvLQUx, 1818); 

(7) to place the following names on the Official Index of Rejected 
and Invalid Family-Group names in Zoology: 

(a) PROTOWARTHiiDAE Ulrich & Schofield, 1897 (type genus 
Protowarthia Ulrich & Schofield, 1897) as suppressed 
under the plenary powers in (2)(a) above; 

(b) MACLUREADEA Carpenter, 1861 (type genus Maclurea 
Emmons, 1 842) as suppressed under the plenary powers in 
(2)(b) above; 

(c) MACLURAEIDEA Gill, 1871 (type genus Maclurea Emmons, 
1842) as suppressed under the plenary powers in (2)(c) 
above; 

(d) SCHIZOSTOMATIDAE Eichwald, 1871 (type genus 5c/?zzo5/owa 
Bronn, [1834]) as suppressed under the plenary powers in 
(2)(d) above. 

REFERENCES 

BASSLER, R. S. 1915. Bibliographic index of American Ordovician and Silurian 

fossils. U.S. not. Mus. Bull., no. 92, vols. 1 & 2, pp. 1-1521. 
BATTEN, R. L. 1966. The Lower Carboniferous gastropod fauna from the 

Hotwells Limestone of Compton Martin, Somerset. Palaentol. Soc. 

(Monogr.) London, pp. 1-109. 
BLAINVILLE, H. M. D. DE 1823. Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles. vol. 27, 

544 pp. F. G. Levrault, Strasbourg, Paris. 
BRONN, H. G. [1834]. Lethea Geognostica oder Abbildungen und Beschreibungen 

der fiir die Gibergs-Formationen bezeichnendsten Versteinerungen, vol. 1, 

544 pp. Stuttgart. 
1947. Some new Cambrian Bellerophont Gastropods. Smithson. Misc. Col., 

vol. 106, no. 17, pp. 1-11. 
BURKE, J. J. 1961 . A new Euomphalid Gastropod from the Conemaugh Formation, 

Pennsylvanian. Ann. Carnegie Mus., vol. 36, pp. 123-128. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 203 



CARPENTER, P. P. 1861 . Lectures on Mollusca; or 'Shellfish' and their allies. Ann. 

Kept. Smithson. Inst.. 1860, pp. 151-283. 
DALL, W. H. 1913. Pelycepoda. Gastropoda (pars) in Eastman, C. R. & Zittel, 

K. A. von, Textbook of Palaeontology , 2nd ed., vol. 1, x + 839 pp. 
DECHASEUX, C. 1952. Lamellibranches. Pp. 220-374 in Piveteau, J. (ed.) Traite de 

Paleontologie, vol. 2, 790 pp. Paris. 
DICKENS, J. M. 1963. Permian Pelecypods and Gastropods from Western 

Australia. Bureaux of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics, Depart- 
ment of National Development Commonwealth of Australia Bulletin, no. 63, 

pp. 1-150. 
EICHWALD, C. E. I. VON 1871. Geognostica-palaentologische Bemerkungen, iiber 

die Halbinsel Mangischlak und die Aleutischen Inseln. iii + 200 pp. St 

Petersburg. 
EMMONS, E. 1842. Geology of New York, part 2, x+437 pp. New York, Boston 

etc. 
FISCHER, P. G. 1885. Manuel de Conchyliologie et de Paleontologie Conchy liologique 

ou Histoire Naturelle des Mollusques vivants etfossiles. vol. 1, viii + 896 pp. 

F. Savy, Paris. 
GILL, T. 1871. Arrangement of the families of Mollusks. Smithson. misc. Coll.. vol. 

10, no. 227, pp. 1^9. 
GRASSE, P. P. 1968 (ed.). Traite de Zoologie. vol. 5, 1083 pp. Paris. 
HAYAMI, J. & KASE, T. 1977. A systematic survey of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic 

Gastropoda and Paleozoic Bivalvia from Japan. Univ. Mus. Univ. Tokyo. 

Bull., no. 12, p. 17. 
KNIGHT, J. B. 1941. Paleozoic Gastropod Genotypes. Geol. Soc. amer. sp. Pap.. 

no. 32, pp. 1-510. 
et al. 1960. In: Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology (ed. R. C. Moore), 

Part I (Mollusca 1), pp. 169-310. University of Kansas Press, xxiii + 351 pp. 
KOKEN, E. F. R. K. 1896. Die Leitfossilien. 848 pp. Leipzig. 
KONINCK, L. G. DE 1881. Faune du Calcaire Carbonifere de la Belgique. Mus. 

roy. Hist. nat. Belg. (Ser. Paleontol.) , vol. 6, pp. 1-170. 
LESUEUR, C. A. 1818. Observations on a new Genus of Fossil Shells. J. Acad. nat. 

Aci. Philad.. vol. 1(2), 310-313. 
MCLEAN, J. H. 1981. The Galapagos rift limpet Neomphalus: relevance to 

understanding the evolution of a major Paleozoic-Mesozoic radiation. 

Malacologie, vol. 21, (1-2), pp. 291-336. 
MENKE, C. T. 1 830. Synopsis methodica Molluscorum generum omnium et specierum 

earum. quae in Museo Menkeano adservantur, ed. 2, xvi+ 168 pp. Pyrmonti. 
MEEK, F. B. & WORTHEN, A. H. 1866. Descriptions of Invertebrates from the 

Carboniferous System. Geol. Surv. Illinois, vol. II, Palaeontology, section II, 

pp. 145-223. 
MINICHEV, Y. S. & STAROBOGATOV, Y. I. 1979. The subclasses of Gastropoda 

and their phylogenetic relations. Zool. Zh., vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 293-304 [in 

Russian]. 
MORRIS, N. J. & CLEEVELEY, R. J. 1981. Phanerotinus cristatus (Phillips) and 

the nature of euomphalacean gastropods. Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Geol.), 

vol. 35(3), pp. 195-224. 
MULLER, A. H. 1960. Lehrbuch der Paldzoologie, vol. 2(2), xii + 448 pp. Veb 

Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena. 
ORLOV, Y. A. 1960. Fundamentals of Palaeontology [Osnovy paleontologii], vol. 

4, Moscow, 360 pp. [in Russian]. 



204 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



PEEL, J. S. 1975. New Silurian Gastropods from Nova Scotia and Britain. Can. J. 

Earth. Sci., vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 1524^1533. 
& YOCHELSON, E. L. 1976. Two new gastropod genera from the Lower 

Silurian of the Oslo Region, Norway. Norsk. Geologisk. Tidsskrift, vol. 56, 

pp. 15-27. 
ROHR, D. M. 1980. Ordovician-Devonian Gastropoda from the Klamath 

Mountains, California. Palaeontographica Abt. A, vol. 171, pp. 141-199. 
SOWERBY, J. DE C. 1814. The Mineral Conchology of Great Britain, vol. 1, no. 9, 

pp. 97-108. London. 
1839. Fossil shells of the Caradoc Sandstone and Llandeilo Flags or Lower 

Silurian rocks. Pp. 635-644, in Murchison, R. I. The Silurian System, founded 

on geological researches in the counties of Salop, Hereford, Radnor, 

Montgomery, Caermarthen, Brecon, Pembroke. Monmouth, Gloucester, 

Worcester and Stafford; with descriptions of the coalfields and overlying 

formations, xxxii + 768 pp., London. 
ULRICH, E. O. & SCHOFIELD, W. H. 1897. The Lower Silurian Gastropoda 

of Minnesota. Geol. nat. Hist. Surv. Minnesota, Final Rep., vol. 3(2), 

pp. 813-1081. 
WATERHOUSE, J. B. 1963. Permian gastropods of New Zealand Part 1 — 

Bellerophontacea and Euomphalacea. N.Z. J. Geol. Geophys., vol. 6(1), 

pp. 88-114. 
WENZ, W. 1938. Gastropoden in Schindwolf, O. H. (ed.), Handbuch der 

Paldzoologie, vol. 6(1), viii + 480 pp., Berlin-Zehlendorf. 
YOCHELSON, E. L. 1963. The middle Ordovician of the Oslo Region, Norway. 

Norsk. Geologisk. Nordskrift, vol. 43(2), pp. 133-21 1. 
1964. Modestospira, a new Ordovician gastropod. J. PalaeontoL, vol. 38, 

no. 5, p. 894. 
1966a. An operculum associated with the Ordovician gastropod Helicotoma. 

J. PalaeontoL, vol. 40, no. 3. pp. 748-749. 
1966b. A reinvestigation of the Middle Devonian gastropods Arctomphalus 

and Omphalocirrus. Norsk Polarinst. Arbok, 1965, pp. 37^7. 
1975. Early Ordovician Gastropod Opercula and Epicontinental Seas. /. 

Res. U.S. Geol. Surv., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 447^50. 
& JONES, C. R. 1968. Teiichispira, a new Early Ordovician Gastropod 

Genus. U.S. Geol. Surv. pro. Pap., 613B, pp. B1-B13. 
YU WEN, 1979. Earliest Cambrian monoplacophorans and gastropods from 

western Hubei with their biostratigraphical significance. Acta PalaeontoL 

Sinica, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 233-260. 
& NING HUI, 1983. Middle Ordovician gastropods from Ruoqiang, 

Xinjiang. Acta PalaeontoL Sinica, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 199-201. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 205 



LAPLYSIA VIRIDIS MONTAGU, 1804(MOLLUSCA, 

GASTROPODA): CONSERVATION PROPOSEE PAR LA 

SUPPRESSION DE LAPLISIA VIRIDIS BOSC, 1801. Z.N.(S.)2408 

par Philippe Bouchet {Laboratoire de Biologie des Invertebres Marina et 
Malacologie, Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 55 rue de Buffon, 

Paris) 



Rose, 1801, p. 64, decrit une Laplisia viridis avec les caracteres 
suivants: 'Seulement deux tentacules; le corps vert; le bord plus pale. Voyez 
la pi. 2, fig. 4, qui la represente de grandeur naturelle [48 mm]. Se trouve sur 
les cotes d'Amerique, d'ou elle a ete rapportee par Bosc'. A la page 62 du 
meme ouvrage, la localite-type est indiquee de fagon plus precise: baie de 
Charleston.' 

2. Montagu, 1804, p. 76, decrit une Laplysia viridis sans reference 
aucune a Bosc. Originaire du sud de I'Angleterre, son espece nouvelle est 
illustree (pi. 7, fig. 1). 

3. L'une et I'autre de ces deux especes sont des gasteropodes 
opisthobranches appartenant au genre Elysia Risso, 1818. Bien que public 
pour la premiere fois comme un synonyme (de Notarchus Cuvier), ce nom 
est utilisable car il a ete traite comme un nom valide avec sa date et son 
auteur originels. Le nom Actaeon Oken, 1815, qui a pour espece-type, par 
monotypie, Aplysia [sic!] viridis Montagu, n'est pas utilisable (Opinion 417). 
L'espece decrite par Bosc et celle decrite par Montagu ne sont pas synonymes. 

4. La difference d'une lettre entre Laplysia Linnaeus, 1 767 et Laplisia 
Lamarck, 1801 peut etre interpretee de deux fagons: 

(a) Laplisia est une emendation injustifiee de Laplysia: a I'appui de 
cette hypothese vient le fait que Lamarck ait ecrit Laplisia a la 
fois dans le texte (1801, p. 62) et dans I'index; 

(b) Laplisia est une orthographe incorrecte subsequente de Laply- 
sia: a I'appui de cette hypothese vient le fait que I'orthographe 
Laplisia n'a meme pas ete discutee lors de I'elaboration de 
rOpinion 200, qui a emende le nom Laplysia Linnaeus, 1767 en 
Aplysia. Laplysia et Laplisia ont la meme espece-type, Aplysia 
depilans Gmelin, 1791 (par decision de la Commission dans le 
cas de Laplysia, par monotypie dans le cas de Laplisia). 

5. Le probleme des noms Laplysia et Aplysia ayant ete resolu par 
I'Opinion 200, il est preferable de retenir I'hypothese selon laquelle Laplisia 
est une orthographe incorrecte subsequente, sans statut en nomenclature. 
Mais dans les deux cas, selon les dispositions de I'Article 57e du Code, et 
vu I'Opinion 200, les deux viridis doivent etre reputes avoir ete combines 
avec Aplysia. Les deux noms sont, done, homonymes primaires et celui de 
Montagu est le plus recent. 

6. Le nom donne par Bosc a ete tres peu utilise. Toutes les citations 
de ce nom sont des interpretations ou des commentaires sur la description 



206 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1 986 



originale et, a I'exception de Bosc (1817) lui-meme, n'ajoutent rien a la 
connaissance de I'espece. Liste presumee exhaustive des utilisations du nom 
viridis Bosc, 1801: Cuvier, 1803, p. 295 cite 'Apl. viridis Rose' et dit: 'comme 
elle a les yeux derriere les tentacules superieurs, c'est une espece bien 
differente des autres'; Bosc, 1803, p. 553 utilise seulement le nom vernacu- 
laire 'Laplesie verte' et precise que sa taille 's'eleve au plus a un pouce de 
long' [27 mm]. La figure de 1801 n'etait done pas de grandeur naturelle, 
comme Bosc I'avait affirme; Roissy, 1804, p. 173 donne une redescription 
tiree de Bosc; Bosc, 1817, p. 314, complete sa description de 1801 et en 1818 
donne une figure (pi. E23, fig. 3) copiee de celle de 1801; Cuvier, 1817, 
reproduit son texte de 1 804 dans la serie de memoires sur les Mollusques; 
Ferussac, 1822a, p. xxx, cite distinctement les deux Laplysia [sic] viridis dans 
le genre Actaeon Ocken [sic]; dans 1822b, p. 105, il inclut les deux especes 
dans le genre Actaeon Ocken et en donne des descriptions tirees de Bosc et 
Montagu; Blainville, 1823, p. 328 donne une description d'Aplysia viridis 
Bosc tiree de Bosc. Le meme texte est public la meme annee dans le Journal 
de Physique (Blainville, 1823b); Blainville, 1825, p. 472 cite sans description 
I'espece de Bosc; Rang, 1828, p. 73 dans sa grande monographic des 
Aplysiens decrit Aplysia viridis Bosc mais figure (pi. 22, fig. 2) I'espece de 
Montagu, copiee de sa description originale; Deshayes, 1830, p. 59 et 1836, 
p. 690 mentionne Laplisia viridis et renvoie a Bosc, 1801 et 1817; Bergh, 
1872, p. 178, dans un travail sur le genre Elysia, elimine dans une note en 
bas de page Laplisia viridis Bosc qui selon lui serait une Aplysie et non une 
Elysie; Engel, 1934, p. 84 enumere les especes decrites ou citees par 
Blainville, 1823, 1825: 'Aplysia viridis Bosc (qui represente, comme nous le 
Savons maintenant, une Elysia et non une AplysiaY; Pruvot-Fol, 1946, p. 
32, dans sa revision des elysiidae, defend contre Bergh I'affirmation 
d'Engel. 

7. Le nom donne par Bosc, bien qu'ayant priori te sur celui donne par 
Montagu, est change par Ferussac, 1822a et b (qui conserve le nom de 
Montagu), probablement parce que Oken en avait fait le type d'une genre 
noveau, Actaeon, genre dans lequel Ferussac place les deux especes 'Actaeon 
aplysiforme, A. Aplysiformis N.' et 'Laplysia virdis Bosc, vers 1, p. 64, pi. 2, 
fig. 4. Aplysia viridis de Roissy, Buffon, T.v.p. 173'. 

8. L'espece de Bosc est vraisemblablement Elysia chlorotica (Gould 
1870), une espece tres commune dans les eaux saumatres de la cote est 
americaine, de la Nouvelle-Ecosse a la Caroline du Nord. II pourrait peut- 
etre aussi s'agir d' Elysia canguzua Marcus, 1955 qui n'a cependant jamais 
ete trouvee sur la cote des Carolines (Dr K. Clark, Florida Institute of 
Technology, comm. pers.). 

9. Le nom de Montagu s'est rapidement impose dans la litterature 
pour designer V Elysia verte commune sur les cotes atlantiques europeennes et 
en Mediterranee. C'est sous ce nom qu'elle figure dans les ouvrages suivants, 
choisis pour montrer que cet usage n'est limite ni a un pays ni a une epoque: 
Cantraine, 1841, p. 66; Meyer & Mobius, 1865, p. 7; Jeffreys, 1869, p. 31; 
Bergh, 1872, p. 176; Sars, 1878, p. 323; Carus, 1889-1893, p. 229; Vayssiere, 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 207 



1913, p. 240; Tchang Si, 1931, p. 134; Nobre, 1938-1940, p. 77; Odhner, 
1939, p. 13; Pruvot-Fol, 1954, p. 199; Nordsieck, 1972, p. 41; Fez, 1974, p. 
44; Thompson & Brown, 1976, p. 52; Barletta, 1980, p. 46; Bouchet, 1984, 
p. 20. Ces ouvrages servent ou ont servi de reference pour la determination 
par les non-specialistes et le nom d'Elysia viridis (Montagu, 1804) figure 
dans d'innombrables publications d'anatomie, de faunistique, ou d'ecolo- 
gie. Enfin, depuis une quinzaine d'annees, cette espece a servi de materiel 
biologique experimental pour I'etude de la symbiose entre les tissus 
animaux et les chloroplastes des algues vertes: Taylor, 1968; Hinde &. 
Smith, 1972, 1975; Trench & Gooday, 1973; Trench, Boyle & Smith, 1973a 
etb, 1974. 

10. Si le nom de Montagu ne peut etre utilise, le premier synonyme 
utilisable est Aplysiopterus neapolitanus Delle Chiaje, 1830, p. 31. Apres 
Delle Chiaje, ce nom n'a jamais ete cite dans la litterature autrement que dans 
la synonymic d'Elysia viridis (Montagu, 1804), a la suite de Cantraine, 1841. 

1 1 . Dans I'interet de la stabilite de la nomenclature, je demande 
done a la Commission: 

(1) d'utiliser les pleins pouvoirs: 

(a) pour regler que le nom de genre Laplisia Lamarck, 1801 
est une orthographe incorrecte subsequente de Laplysia 
Linnaeus, 1767; 

(b) pour supprimer le nom d'espece viridis Bosc, 1801, public 
dans le binome Laplisia viridis, ainsi que toutes ses utilisa- 
tions anterieures a celle par Montagu, 1804, vis a vis du 
Principe de Priorite et du Principe d'Homonymie; 

(2) de placer le nom viridis Montagu, 1804, publie dans le binome 
Laplysia (emende en Aplysia par I'Opinion 200) viridis, dans la 
Liste Officielle des Noms d'Especes en Zoologie. 

(3) de placer le nom viridis Bosc, 1801, supprime sous les pleins 
pouvoirs en (l)(b) ci-dessus, dans ITndex Officiel des Noms 
Specifiques Rejetes et Invalides en Zoologie. 



REFERENCES 

BARLETTA, G. 1980. Gasteropodi Nudi. (Guide per il riconoscimento delle specie 

animali delle acque lagunari e costiere italiane, 3). Consiglio Nazionale delle 

Ricerche, Geneva. 124 pp. 
BERGH, R. 1872. Malacologische Untersuchungen. Theil 1, Heft 4, pp. 177-204, in 

Semper,C., 1867-1916. Reisenim Archipelder Philippinen, Band2. Wiesbaden. 
BLAINVILLE, H. M. D. DE 1823a. Article 'Lievre marin', pp. 316-328, in 

Dictionnaire des Sciences naturelles, vol. 26. Levrault, Paris. 
1 823b. Monographic du genre Apiysie (Aplysia Lin.). J. Physique, vol. 96, pp. 

277-288. 
1825. Manuel de Malacologie et de conchy liologie. Levrault, Paris. 664 pp. 



208 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



BOSC, L. 1801. Histoire naturelle des Vers, contenant leur description et leurs 

moeurs: avec figures dessinees d'apres nature, tome 1. Detervilie, Paris. 324 

pp. 
1803. Article Laplesie, pp. 552-553, in Nouveau Dictionnaire d'Histoire 

naturelle, vol. 12. Detervilie, Paris. 566 pp. 
1817. Article 'Laplysie', pp. 314-315, in Noveau Dictionnaire d'Histoire 

naturelle. vol. 17 ((1817) et planche E23 (Mollusques) du volume 20 (1818). 

Detervilie, Paris. 
BOUCHET, P. 1984. Les Elysiidae de Mediterranee. Ann. Inst, oceanogr. Paris, vol. 

60, pp. 19-28. 
CANTRAINE, F. 1841. Malacologie mediterraneenne et littorale. Nouv. Mem. 

Acad. Bruxelles, vol. 13, pp. 1-173. 
CARUS, J. V. 1889-93. Prodromus faunae Mediterraneae. Schweizerbart, Stuttgart. 

854 pp. 
CUVIER, G. 1803. Memoire sur le genre Laplysia, vulgairement nomme Lievre 

marin; sur son anatomie, et sur quelques-unes de ses especes. Ann. Mus. Hist. 

A2ar.,vol. 2, pp. 287-314. 
1817. Memoires pour servir a I'histoire et a I'anatomie des Mollusques. Article 

9: Sur le genre Aplysia, vulgairement nomme Lievre marin. Detervilie, Paris. 
DELLE CHIAJE, S. 1830. Memorie sulla storia e notomia degli Animali senza 

Vertebre del regno di Napoli, vol. 4. Napoli, 214 pp. 
DESHAYES, G. 1830. Encyclopedic methodique. Histoire naturelle des Vers, vol. 

2(2), pp. 1-144. Agasse, Paris. 
1836. Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertebres, 2eme edition, vol. 7. 

Bailliere, Paris. 736 pp. 
ENGEL, H. 1934. Les Aplysies de M. De Blainville. J. Conchyi, vol. 78, pp. 83-90. 
FERUSSAC, A. 1822a. Tableaux systematiques des animaux Mollusques... 

A. Bertrand, Paris. 47 + 1 10 pp. 
1822b. Article Actaeon, pp. 104-105, in Dictionnaire classique d'Histoire 

naturelle, vol. 1 . Rey & Gravier, Paris. 604 pp. 
FEZ, S. DE 1974. Ascoglosos y Nudibranquios de Espana y Portugal. Consejo 

Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Valencia. 325 pp. 
HINDE, R. & SMITH, D. C. 1972. Persistence of functional chloroplasts in Elysia 

viridis. Nature, vol. 239(88), pp. 30-31. 
& 1975. The role of photosynthesis in the nutrition of the mollusc 

Elvsia viridis. Biol. J. linn. Soc, London, vol. 7, pp. 161-171. 
JEFFREYS, J. G. 1869. British Conchology. vol. 5. Van Voorst, London. 258 pp. 
LAMARCK, J. B. 1801. Systeme des animaux sans vertebres. Detervilie, Paris. 

432 pp. 
MEYER, H. A. & MOBIUS, K. 1865. Fauna der Kieler Bucht, vol. 1. Die Hinter- 

kiemer oder Opisthobranchia. Engelmann, Leipzig. 86 pp. 
MONTAGU, G. 1804. Description of several marine animals found on the south 

coast of Devonshire. Trans, linn. Soc. London, vol. 7, pp. 61-85. 
NOBRE, A. 1938-40. Moluscos marinhos e das aguas salobras (Fauna malacologica 

de Portugal, vol. 1). Porto. 806 pp. 
NORDSIECK, F. 1972. Die Europdischen Meeresschnecken. G. Fischer, Stuttgart. 

327 pp. 
ODHNER, N. 1939. Opisthobranchiate Mollusca from the western and northern 

coasts of Norway. K. norske Vidensk. Selsk. Skr.. vol. 1, 1-93. 
OKEN, L. 1815. Lehrbuch der Naturgeschichte. vol. 3. Zoologie; 1. Fleischlose 

Thiere. A. Schmid, lena. 850 pp. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 209 



OPINION 200. 1954. Validation, under the plenary powers, of the accustomed 
usage of the generic names 'Tethys' Linnaeus, 1767, and 'Aplysia' Linnaeus, 
1767 (Class Gastropoda). Opin. Decl. int. Commn. zool. Nam. vol 3(19)' 
pp. 241-265. 

OPINION 417. 1956. Rejection for nomenclatorial purposes of volume 3 (Zoologie) 
of the work by Lorenz Oken entitled 'Okens Lehrbuch der Naturgeschichte' 
published in 1815-1816. Opin. Decl. int. Commn. zool. Norn, vol 14(1) dd 
l-*2. ' ^ '^' ^^' 

PRUVOT-FOL, A. 1946. Revision critique de la famille des Elysiadae. J Conchvl 
vol. 87, pp. 29^M. 

1954. Faune de France, no. 58. Mollusques Opisthobranches. Lechevalier, 

Paris. 460 pp. 
RANG, S. 1828. Histoire Naturelle des Aplysiens. F. Didot, Paris. 83 pp. 
RISSO, A. 1818. Memoire sur quelques Gasteropodes nouveaux, Nudibranches et 

Tectibranches observes dans la mer de Nice. J. Physique, vol. 87, pp. 

368-377. 
ROISSY, F. DE 1804. Histoire naturelle. generate et particuliere. des Mollusques, 

tome 5 (Buffon 'de Sonnini', vol. 55). Dufart, Paris. 480 pp. 
SARS, G. O. 1878. Mollusca Regionis Arcticae Norvegiae. Brogger, Christiania 466 

pp. 
TAYLOR, D. L. 1968. Chloroplasts as symbiotic organelles in the digestive gland 

of Flysia viridis. J. mar. Biol. Ass. U.K.. vol. 48, pp. 1-15. 
TCHANG SI, 1 93 1 . Contribution a I'etude des Mollusques Opisthobranches de la cote 

provenfale. Lyon. 221 pp. 
THOMPSON, T. & BROWN, G. 1976. British Opisthobranch Molluscs. Synopses of 

the Bntish fauna, vol. 8. Academic Press, London. 203 pp 
TRENCH, R. K., BOYLE, J. E. & SMITH, D. C. 1973. The association between 

chloroplasts oiC odium fragile and the mollusc Elysia viridis. 1 . Characteristics 

of isolated Codium chloroplasts; 2. Chloroplast ultrastructure and the 

photosynthetic carbon fixation in E. viridis. Proc. r. Soc. (B) vol 184(1074) 

pp. 51-^1,63-81. 

: ^ & 1974. Ibid., 3. Movement of photosynthetically fixed 14C 

m tissues of intact living E. viridis and Tridachia crispata. Proc. r. Soc (B) 

vol. 185(1081), pp. 453-164. 
VAYSSIERE, A. 1913. Mollusques de la France et des regions voisines, 1. Doin 

Paris. 418 pp. 



210 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



ORBICULA CUVIER, 1798 (BRACHIOPODA): PROPOSED 
SUPPRESSION. Z.N.(S.)2545 



By C. H. C. Brunton {Department of Palaeontology, British Museum 

(Natural History), London SW7 5BD) and Daphne E. Lee (Geology 

Department, University ofOtago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand) 

This case involves the inarticulate brachiopod genus Orbicula 
Cuvier, 1798 (p. 435) with its only named (and thus type) species, Patella 
anomala Miiller, 1776 (p. 237). P. anomala is a well understood Hving North 
Atlantic brachiopod belonging to the family craniidae, whereas the name 
Orbicula has been surrounded by confusion from its inception and for most 
of its history has been applied to a genus in a different superfamily of 
brachiopods, the discinacea. There are fundamental differences in their 
shell fabrics. The name Orbicula has been used almost entirely in synonymy 
for over a hundred years. We wish to separate a group of craniid brachiopods 
as a genus distinct from known genera and based upon P. anomala. 
However, to reintroduce the name Orbicula would cause great confusion 
to palaeontologists and zoologists studying brachiopods, and we seek the 
suppression of that name in order to clear the ground for establishing a new 
generic name within the craniidae (Lee & Brunton, in press). 

2. Miiller first briefly described Patella anomala in 1 776 (p. 237); in 
1788 (p. 4 &. pi. 5) he redescribed the species in detail and provided good 
(for his day) and identifiable illustrations. In describing the shell he wrote that 
the exterior [of the dorsal valve] was rough and dark brown in colour; his 
coloured illustrations (pi. 5, figs 1 & 2) show this, which is the proteinaceous 
periostracum. He continued by writing that the interior of the valve was 
white to blueish and strongly endopunctate. This colour indicates that the 
shell was calcareous, as in all craniids. 

3. Cuvier (1798, p. 435) introduced the name Orbicula with a brief 
and very general description of the dorsal valve. He named only P. anomala 
Miiller within Orbicula, but included no figures. 

4. Illustrations attributed to Cuvier appeared for the first time after 
his death in 1832, in the third edition of the 'Regne Animal (1845, pp. 
250-251, pi. 134), in which P. anomala and Anomia turbinata Poh, 1795 
were included in Orbicula, and a clearly named species Orbicula lamellosa 
(Broderip, 1833), which is now the type species of the discinid genus Discinisca 
Dall, 1871, was illustrated. Discinids have brown chitino-phosphatic shells, 
lacking endopunctation; they are never calcareous. 

5. The confusion between chitino-phosphatic discinids and the 
calcareous shelled craniids arose when, according to Dall (1871, p. 40), 
some specimens sent by J. Sowerby to Lamarck were described by the latter 
as Discina ostreoides in 1819 (p. 237). In 1822 (p. 468) G. B. Sowerby 
published descriptions of other conspecific examples from the same 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 211 



collection as Orbicula norvegica, thus associating the name Orbicula with 
discinids. Because of this and also possibly because of the ambiguity of 
Cuvier's original description of Orbicula, all major brachiopod workers 
until the mid- 1860s used the name Orbicula solely for pedically attached 
chitino-phosphatic discinids. Of about twenty papers published from 1822 
to 1862 the currently held view was clearly stated by Chenu (1862, pp. 
230-231) when he included Crania anomala amongst his species illustrating 
Crania Retzius, 1781, and used 'Orbicula Cuvier, 1798' as the diagnostic 
genus for a new separate family. 

6. Early 19th century authors such as Gray (1825, p. 243) recognised 
that P. anomala Miiller was closely related to Crania craniolaris (Linnaeus, 
1758), the type species of Crania Retzius, 1781, and thus made Orbicula a 
junior synonym of Crania. The combination Orbicula anomala (Miiller) has 
not been used in any formal systematic description, but only in synonymy 
listings. 

7. Sherborn (1932, p. 764) listed 68 named species in the genus Orbi- 
cula published between 1800 and 1850. Of these, at the most, four should be 
assigned to the craniids, while the rest are fossil or living chitino-phosphatic 
discinids, now placed in the Discinacea. 

8. This long-standing use of the name Orbicula for discinids declined 
after 1853 when Davidson (p. 128) pointed out that 'as the term Orbicula in 
the Cuvierian and Lamarckian sense is merely a synonym of Crania, we are 
obliged to adopt the genus Discina, proposed and described by Lamarck in 
1819. . .' In a footnote on p. 128 Davidson further noted 'that it would 
certainly be more convenient, under all circumstances, to prevent confusion, 
to use Discina instead of Orbicula, and to suppress altogether the latter 
name'. In 1871 Dall, in a revision of craniids and discinids, also placed 
Orbicula as a synonym of Crania, because P. anomala was recognised as a 
Crania species. 

9. In the Brachiopoda Zoological Records from 1902 there is only 
one taxonomic reference (Roch, 1930, p. 421) to Orbicula, where it is placed 
in the discinacea. Thus for over fifty years, and virtually for over one 
hundred years, the name Orbicula has been out of use. In the Brachiopod 
volume of the Treatise (Williams et al., 1965, H290) it appears as a junior 
synonym of Crania, but nowhere, so far as we can determine, as a valid 
name in its own right. 

10. To reintroduce Orbicula for a craniid brachiopod, when it was 
so widely accepted as a discinid, would further exacerbate the 'confusion of 
forms existing in this unfortunate family' (Dall, 1871, p. 38, referring to the 
discinidae). We believe that zoologists and palaeontologists would find it 
hard to accept that Orbicula be reintroduced as a craniid genus. 

1 1 . The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature is 
accordingly asked: 

(1) to use its plenary powers to suppress the generic name Orbicula 
Cuvier, 1798, and any emendations, for the purpose of the 
Principle of Priority. 



212 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



(2) to place on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Generic 
names in Zoology the name Orbicula Cuvier, 1 798, as suppressed 
under the plenary powers in (1) above. 

REFERENCES 

BRODERIP, W. J. 1833. Descriptions of some new species of Cuvier's family of 

brachiopods. Proc. Zool. Sac. London, Vol. 1, pp. 124-125. 
CHENU, J. C. 1862. Manuel de chonchyliologie et de paleontologie conchyliologique , 

Vol. 2. Masson, Paris. 327 pp. 
CUVIER, G. C. F. D. 1798. Tableau elementaire de I'histoire naturelle des animaux. 

Paris. 710 pp. 
1845. Le regne animal distribue d'apres son organisation, pt. 5, 3rd(Disciples) 

edition. 2 vols. Masson, Paris, iv + 257 pp. + 1 39 pi. 
DALL, W. H. 1871. Report on the brachiopoda obtained by the U.S. Coast Survey 

Expedition in charge of L. F. Pourtales, with a revision of the Craniidae and 

Discinidae .Bull. Mus. comp. Zool.. Vol. 3, pp. 1-45. 
DAVIDSON, T. 1853. On the classification of the brachiopoda. British fossil 

brachiopoda. Vol. 1, pp. 41-136, pis. 26-30. Palaeontological Society 

Monograph, London. 
GRAY, J. E. 1825. Observations on the synonyma of the genera Anomia, Crania, 

Orbicula, and Discina. Ann. Phil. London, pp. 241-244. 
LAMARCK, J. B. P. A. DE M. DE 1819. Histoire naturelle des animaux sans 

vertebres. Vol. 6, Pt. 1 . Paris. 343 pp. 
LEE, D. E. & BRUNTON, C. H. C. (in press). Neocrania n.gen. and a revision of 

Cretaceous — Recent brachiopod genera in the family Craniidae. Bull. Br. 

Mus. not. Hist. (Geol.), vol. 40(4). 
LINNAEUS, C. 1758. Syst. nat. Ed. 10, vol. 1, Regnum animale, ii + 824 pp. 

Stockholm. 
MULLER, O. F. 1776. Zoologiae Danicae prodromus seu animalium Daniae et 

Norvegiae inigenarum characteres, nomina. et synonyma imprimis popularium. 

Havniae. 282 pp. 

1788. Zoologia Danica . . . 3rd Ed, Vol. 1 . Havniae. iv + 52 pp., 40 pi. 

POLI, J. X. 1795. Testacea ustriusque Siciliae eorumque historia et anatome. Vol. 2. 

Parma. 189 pp. 
ROCH, E. 1930. Etudes geologiques dans la region meridionale du Maroc occidental. 

Notes et Memoires, Service des Mines et de la Carte Geologique du Maroc. 

vol. 9, pp. 1-542, pis 22, 23. 
SHERBORN, C. A. 1932. Index animalium. Epilogue, addidons to bibliography, 

additions and corrections, and index to trivia. British Museum, London. 

1098 pp. 
SOWERBY, G. B. 1822. Remarks on the genera Orbicula and Crania of Lamarck, 

with descriptions of two species of each genus. Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 

13,pt. 2,pp.465-473,pl. 26. 
WILLIAMS, A. et al. 1965. Brachiopoda. In Moore, R. C. (Ed.) Treatise on inverte- 
brate paleontology, Pt. H, 2 vols. The Geological Society of America and 

University of Kansas Press. 927 pp. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 213 



CRIOPUSPOU, 1791 AND CRIOPODERMA POLI, 1795 
(BRACHIOPODA): PROPOSED SUPPRESSION. Z.N.(S.)2546 

By C. H. C. Brunton (Department of Palaeontology, British Museum 

(Natural History), London SW7 5BD) and Daphne E. Lee {Geology 

Department, University ofOtago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand) 

This case involves two names, Criopus and Criopoderma, introduced 
by Poli in 1791 and 1795, applied to a number of brachiopods. They are 
available as generic names, but were used by Poli to denote different parts of 
the same animal, yet at the same time to unite species now placed in different 
classes, and their reintroduction would cause considerable confusion. 
Neither name has been subsequently used as the supposedly valid name of a 
taxon. We therefore seek their suppression. 

2. Poli (1791, p. 34) introduced the name Criopus to include the soft 
parts (in contrast to the external shells) of various species of brachiopod. In 
1795 Poli (pp. 189-191) reused Criopus, in the binomen Criopus fimbriatus, 
for the soft parts of Anomia turbinata Poli, 1795 (a craniid inarticulate) and 
A. truncata Linnaeus, 1758 (a kraussinid articulate). On page 255 he 
introduced the name Criopoderma in a tabulation indicating that it was the 
generic name for the shells of Criopus species, and on page 261 he tabulated 
Criopoderma turbinata, truncata Linnaeus and caputserpentis Linnaeus 
{ — retusa Linnaeus, Opinion 924, 1970) as the shells of these three species. 

3. Poli's usage follows a not unusual practice of his day in separating 
the hard from the soft parts of individual species. Thus, for example, PoH's 
own well described and illustrated Anomia turbinata (p. 189, pi. 30) is 
separated into its shelly valves, under Criopoderma, while its internal soft 
parts are called Criopus. Even though different names were used for different 
parts of an animal they are nomenclaturally available under Article 17 of 
the Code. Poli's use of Criopus and Criopoderma leads to the nowadays 
untenable position of: (a) the hard parts and soft parts of single species 
being separated and (b) brachiopod species currently assigned to different 
classes, inarticulates and articulates, being grouped into a single genus. 

4. Davidson (1853, p. 122), while placing Criopus in synonymy with 
Crania Retzius, 1 78 1 , noted that it referred only to the animal (not the shell). 
In 1871 Dall (p. 27 and p 35) indicated that he did not consider Criopus and 
Criopoderma as true synonyms of Crania because in his view they had not 
been published according to the rules of binominal nomenclature. In more 
recent times the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology , Brachiopoda 
(Williams et al., 1965, p. H290) included 'ICriopus PoH, 1791' (incorrectly 
citing Anomia imperforata as type species) and Criopoderma Poli, 1795 
(citing the first named true species Anomia turbinata as the type species). 

5. Crania has an extensive and complicated synonomy. The reintro- 
duction of Poli's generic names would further complicate the situation, 
especially so when any groups of craniid species were deemed separable as 
genera in the modem sense. 



214 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



6. The name Cryopus Deshayes, 1836 (p. 314) is an unjustified 
emendation ofCriopus Poli, and should be similarly suppressed. 

7. In his Index Universalis (p. 301) of 1848 Agassiz 'corrected' 
Criopoderma Poli to Criopododerma; since this Agassiz name is simply an 
unjustified emendation it too should be suppressed. 

8. The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature is 
accordingly asked: 

(1) to use its plenary powers to suppress the generic names Criopus 
Poh, 1791 and Criopoderma Poli, 1795 (including Cryopus 
Deshayes, 1836, Criopododerma Agassiz, 1848, and any other 
emendations) for the purposes of the Principle of Priority; 

(2) to place on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Generic 
names in Zoology the names Criopus Poli, 1791, Cryopus 
Deshayes, 1836, Criopoderma Poli, 1795 and Criopododerma 
Agassiz, 1848, as suppressed under the plenary powers in (1) 
above. 

REFERENCES 

AGASSIZ, L. 1848. Nomenclatoris zoologici index universalis, ... x+ 1135 pp. 

Soloduri. 
DALL, W. H. 1871. Report on the brachiopods obtained by the U.S. Coast Survey 

Expedition in charge of L. F. Pourtales, with a revision of the Craniidae and 

Discinidae. Bull. Mus. comp. Zool., vol. 3, pp. 1-45. 
DAVIDSON, T. 1853. On the classification of the brachiopoda. British fossil 

brachiopoda. Vol. 1, pp. 41-136. Palaeontographical Society Monograph, 

London. 
DESHAYES, G. P. 1836. In Lamarck, J. B. P. A. DE M. DE. Histoire naturelle des 

Animaux sans vertebres, ... 2 ieme ed., revue et augmentee de notes . . . par 

MM. G. P. Deshayes et H. Milne Edwards. Tom 7. Paris et Londres. 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 1970. Opinion 924. Bull. 

zool. Norn. Vol. 27, pp. 85-86. 
POLI, J. X. 1791. Testacea utriusque Siciliae eorumque historia et anatome. Vol. 1, 

Parma. xiv + 214pp. 
1795. Testacea utriusque Siciliae eorumque historia et anatome. Vol. 2, 

Parma, pp. 189. 
WILLIAMS, A. et al. 1965. Brachiopoda. In Moore, R. C. (Ed.) Treatise on inverte- 
brate paleontology. Pt. H, 2 vols. The Geological Society of America and 

University of Kansas Press. 927 pp. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 215 



CRANIA TUBERCULATA NILSSON, 1826(BRACHIOPODA): 

PROPOSED CONSERVATION BY SUPPRESSION OF 
CRANIOLITES BRA TTENBURGICUS SCHLOTHEIM, 1820. 

Z.N.(S.)2551 



By C. H. C. Brunton (Department of Palaeontology, British Museum 

(Natural History) , London SW7 5BD) and Daphne E. Lee (Geology 

Department, University ofOtago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand) 

This is a case for the suppression of an ill-defined senior name, 
Craniolites brattenburgicus Schlotheim, 1820, on the ground that the slightly 
younger and much better described synonym Crania tuberculata Nilsson, 
1826, has long been accepted. 

2. Schlotheim (1820, p. 246) figured, without a formal description, 
Craniolites brattenburgicus from limestones and reworked limestones at 
Copenhagen (the late Danian Saltholm limestone at South Harbour, 
Copenhagen yields this species). His figures (pi. 28, fig. 5a, b) were poor and 
of little value in species recognition. Schlotheim appears to have erected the 
genus as one within his own concept of an Anomia group (Anomia is now a 
molluscan genus) ignoring the creation of Crania by Retzius in 1781, or 
as an (unstated) replacement for Retzius' name. In his discussion of C 
brattenburgicus, a name very close to Crania brattensburgensis Retzius, 1781 
[a junior subjective synonym o{ Anomia craniolaris Linnaeus, 1758, the type 
species of Crania, as designated by Schmidt in 1818], Schlotheim (1820, p. 
249) contrasted his species with what he called 'Craniol. craniolaris', but he 
did not mention the Retzius specific name. 

3. Nilsson (1826, p. 326, emended 1827, p. 37) described Crania 
tuberculata as a new species from hard Danian limestones in Scania, south 
Sweden. The species was well described and illustrated (1826, pi. 2, figs 3a-c 
andl827,pl. 3,figslOA-C). 

4. The first review of Crania species was by Hoeninghaus (1828), 
who accepted Nilsson's C. tuberculata in the place of Schlotheim's species 
name. Hoeninghaus recorded the species from Sweden and from limestone 
blocks in a sandpit near Copenhagen. He repeated and added to Nilsson's 
description and provided good illustrations (figs 7a-d). 

5. In 1885 Lundgren suggested (p. 27) that brattenburgicus 
Schlotheim was a mis-spelling for brattenburgensis Retzius, and rejected 
Schlotheim's name. 

6. Carlsson (1958), describing the Cretaceous Crania species from 
Sweden, followed a mention in a synonymy Hst by Wind (1953, p. 79) and 
on p. 27 exhumed the name C. brattenburgicus. Schlotheim's name was also 
used by Kruytzer & Meijer (1958, p. 135) for specimens from Holland, but 
later Kruytzer (1969, p. 14) rejected Schlotheim's name in favour of Crania 
tuberculata Nilsson, which had been designated as type species ofDanocrania 
(see 7 below). 



216 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



7. Kongiel (1958, p. 17) designated some late Danian beds in Poland 
as being characterized by Crania tuberculata Nilsson. Rosenkrantz (1964) 
reviewed Crania species in Poland, and on page 515 he erected the new 
subgenus Danocrania, with Crania tuberculata Nilsson as type species 
(within which he included C. brattenburgicus Schlotheim). In the synonymy 
Rosenkrantz commented that Hoeninghaus' 1828 description of C. tuber- 
culata was based on Schlotheim's specimens from 'Copenhagen' (certainly 
there was collaboration between these authors, and Schlotheim did not die 
until 1832). Furthermore, in a footnote on page 514, Rosenkrantz deplored 
Carlsson's 1958 reintroduction of Schlotheim's name because, as he pointed 
out, tuberculata had been used for 132 years; a label written by Schlotheim 
with his specimens in the Humboldt University Museum, Berlin, shows that 
Schlotheim had himself accepted Nilsson's name in place oi brattenburgicus, 
and finally Rosenkrantz pointed out that C. tuberculata had become 
adopted as the name of a zone in the Upper Danian. 

8. Danocrania Rosenkrantz, 1964, is now an accepted genus with 
C. tuberculata as type species. 

9. In view of the poor description of Craniolites brattenburgicus 
Schlotheim, 1820, and its lack of use for over 150 years, other than by three 
connected publications in the mid-1950s, we propose the suppression of the 
name. In contrast, the description o{ Crania tuberculata Nilsson, 1826 is full 
and well illustrated; his name was accepted by contemporary authors 
including Schlotheim, and has remained in use ever since. C. tuberculata is a 
species giving its name to a late Danian zone and it has become the type 
species o^ Danocrania Rosenkrantz, 1964. Thus to allow the reintroduction 
of Schlotheim's name would be highly confusing to palaeontologists and 
stratigraphers. 

10. The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature is 
accordingly asked: 

(1) to use its plenary powers to suppress the generic and specific 
names Craniolites and brattenburgicus Schlotheim, 1820, and 
any emendations, for the purpose of the Principle of Priority; 

(2) to place on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology the 
name tuberculata Nilsson, 1826, as published in the binomen 
Crania tuberculata; 

(3) to place on the Official Index of Rejected and invalid Generic 
Names in Zoology the name Craniolites Schlotheim, 1820, as 
published in the binomen Craniolites brattenburgicus, and as 
suppressed in ( 1 ) above; 

(4) to place on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Specific 
Names in Zoology the name brattenburgicus Schlotheim, 1 820, 
as published in the binomen Craniolites brattenburgicus, and as 
suppressed in (1) above. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 217 



REFERENCES 

CARLSSON, J. G. 1958. Le Genre Crania du terrain cretace de la Suede. Lunds. 

Univ. Ars. N.F. Avd. 2, Bd. 45, pp. 1-32. 
HOENINGHAUS, F. W. 1828. Beitrag zur Monographie der Gattung Crania. 

Schiiller, Krefeld. 12 pp. 
KONGIEL, R. 1958. Sur les radicles des Echinides des couches a Crania tuberculata 

Nilss. a Borszew pres de Sochaczew. Prace Muzeum Ziemi. vol. 2, pp. 17-27. 
KRUYTZER, E. M. 1969. Le genre Crania du Cretace superieur et du Post- 

Maastrichtien de la province de Limbourg Neerlandais (Brachiopoda: 

Inarticulata). Publ. Natuurhist. Genootschap. Limburg. vol. 19, pp. 1-42. 
KRUYTZER, E. M. & MEIJER, M. 1958. On the occurrence of Crania bratten- 

burgica (v. Schlotheim 1820) in the region of Maastricht (Netherlands). 

Natuurhist. Maandbi, vol. 47, pp. 135-141. 
LUNDGREN, B. 1885. Undersokning-ar ofver brachiopoderna i Sveriges 

kritsystem. Lunds Univ. Ars., vol. 20, pt. 4, 72 pp. 
NILSSON, S. 1826. Brattensburgspenningen (Anomia craniolaris Lin.) och dess 

samslagt ingar i zoologiskt och geologiskt afseende undersokte. K. svenska 

VetenskAkad. Handl. (1825), pp. 324-328. 
1827. Petrificata suecana formationis Cretaceae. Londinim Gothorum, pt. 1, 

pp. 1-39. Lund. 
RETZIUS, A. J. 1781. Crania order Todtenkopfs-Muschel. Schrift. Berlin Ges. 

Naturforsch. Freunde, vol. 2, pp. 66-76, pi. 1. 
ROSENKRANTZ, A. 1964. Note on some Cranias from central Poland. Acta 

Paleontol. Polonica, vol. 5, pp. 241-272. 
SCHLOTHEIM, E. F. VON. 1820. Die Petrefactenkunde auf ihrem jetzigen 

Standpunkte. vol. 1, Gotha. 388 pp. 
SCHMIDT, F. C. 1818. Versuch uber die beste Einrichtung zur Aufstellung . . . 

Gotha. 252 pp. 
WIND, J. 1953. Kridtaflejringer i Jylland. Flora og Fauna, vol. 59, pp. 73-84. 



218 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



TRICHOMONASYiO^^E, 1836 (PROTOZOA, MASTIGOPHORA): 
PROPOSED CONFIRMATION OF SPELLING. Z.N.(S.)245 



By The Executive Secretary, International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature 

The flagellate Protistans known as trichomonads are universally 
distributed in the intestinal and genito-urinary tracts of man and other 
animals. A number of species can be pathogenic, and in particular hundreds 
of papers each year refer to Trichomonas vaginalis. 

2. A nomenclatural problem arises because the first description of a 
trichomonad (Donne, 1836) introduced the name as Trico-monas. An 
adoption of Tricomonas as the correct spelling would have particularly 
serious eff'ects for the automatic information retrieval procedures now used 
to scan the medical literature, and conservation of the universally used 
Trichomonas is particularly urgent since the Council for International 
Organisations of Medical Sciences is preparing an authoritative 
International Nomenclature of Diseases. 

3. The question of Trichomonas, together with four other important 
protistan genera, was in fact referred to the Commission in 1926. Although 
Endamoeba and Trypanosoma were placed on the Official List by Opinion 
95 {Smithson. misc. Coll. vol. 73, pp. 14-15), consideration of Trichomonas, 
Balantidium and Giardia was deferred (despite apparent lack of controversy 
in acceptance of the spelling Trichomonas) and no action followed. 

4. The spelling of Trichomonas was next discussed in a letter from 
Professor Harold Kirby of the University of California, received in January 
1947. This was followed later in the year by a draft application. Due to lack 
of resources the Secretary of the Commission (A. F. Hemming) did not pro- 
ceed further until 1954, when, following correspondence with Dr Ellsworth 
C. Dougherty of the University of California (Kirby having died in 1952)., 
Dr J. O. CorUss and others, the application was prepared for publication. 
Unfortunately this was never completed and the matter lapsed. The present 
application relies heavily on the work of Kirby, Hemming, Dougherty and 
Corhss. 

5. The nomenclatural history is as follows. In a letter to the 
Academic des Sciences, Donne (1836, p. 386), after a description of motile 
cells found in infected vaginal fluid, wrote '. . . J'ai soumis ces animalcules 
a I'examen de M. Dujardin: suivant cet observateur, aucun infusoire 
semblable n'a ete observe ni decrit; il se rapproche des Monas par sa 
trompe et des Tricodes par ces cils, mais il differe des uns et des autres par la 
reunion de ces deux organes; il forme done un genre nouveau qui pourrait 
porter le nom de Trico-monas vaginale'. The following year Donne (1837, 
p. 464) gave the name as trico monas vaginale. 

6. In 1838 Ehrenberg (p. 331) printed the name of Donne's organ- 
ism in emended form as Trichomonas vaginalis, and it has so remained ever 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 219 



since. This spelling of the specific name is correct under Article 31(c) of the 
Code. 

7. Dujardin (1841, pp. 299-300) gave an account of Trichomonas. 
including in it the two species T. vaginalis and T. limacis. 

8. Agassiz (1846, p. 376) listed the names Tricomonas Donne, 1837 
and Trichomonas Ehr., 1838; he omitted reference to Donne's fuller 1836 
paper. Apstein (1915, p. 122) included 'Trichomonas Donne, 1837 vaginalis 
Donne, 1837' in a list of suggested Nomina Conservanda; similarly. Stiles 
and Hassall (1925, p. 27) placed in the Key Catalogue of Protozoa reported 
for Man the genus Trichomonas Donne, 1837 with type vaginalis Donne, 

1837. 

9. Although in 1926 the Secretary of the International Commission 
on Zoological Nomenclature recommended that the Commission adopt 
'Trichomonas (Donne, 1837) Ehrenb., 1838a, 331 (emendation of 
Tricomonas), mt. vaginalis Donne, 1837', and there was no dissent, this was 
never completed, as mentioned above. 

10. Sherborn (1931, pp. 6581, 6590) listed the names 'Trichomonas 
F. Dujardin ... Infusoires, June 1841, 300; Trichomonas L. Agassiz 
Nomen. Zool. Index Univ. 1846 — emend, pro Tricomonas, Donne'' 
'Tricomonas Donne in F. Dujardin, C.R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) III, 1836, 386'' 
Sherborn omitted references to Trichomonas Ehrenberg, 1838, wrongly 
implying that Agassiz had changed Donne's spelling. 

11. Neave (1940, p. 551 and p. 544) hsted as generic names 
Tricomonas Donne 1836 in Dujardin, C.R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 3 386' and 
'Trichomonas (?pro Trico- Donne, 1836) Dujardin 1841, ... Infusoires, 
300'. Neave followed Sherborn in not referring to Ehrenburg. 

12. In his 1836 description of the organism Donne made particular 
reference to the cilia, and it is clear that his name is derived from the Greek 
words conventionally, then as now, transliterated as trichos ( = of hair) and 
monas ( = a unit, or cell). 

13. Family-group names based on Trichomonas are trichomonadi- 
DEA Grassi, 1882 (p. 141); trichomonadinae Chalmers and Pekkola, 1918 
(p. 251); and trichomonadidae Wenyon, 1926 (p. 286). Under Article 
1 1(0(11) of the Code the author is Grassi, 1882. 

1 4. As noted earlier, it is of high medical and veterinary importance 
that the universal spelling Trichomonas be conserved. This could be done by 
suppression of the senior synonym Tricomonas Donne, 1836 in favour of 
Trichomonas Ehrenberg, 1838. However, as suggested many years ago by 
Kirby in his draft application to the Commission, and as was informally 
agreed at that time, 'the authorship of the genus [and discovery of the 
taxon] has been credited to Donne, and it does not seem proper to alter the 
authorship completely because of a correction in transliteration'. 

15. The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature is 
therefore asked: 

(1) to use its plenary powers to rule that the correct spelling of the 
generic name Tricomonas Donne, 1836 is Trichomonas; 



220 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 2, July 1986 



(2) to place on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology the 
name Trichomonas Donne, 1836 (gender: feminine), type 
species by monotypy Trichomonas vaginalis Donne, 1836; 
spelling confirmed as in (1) above; 

(3) to place on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology the 
name vaginalis Donne, 1836, as published in the binomen 
Tricomonas vaginale (specific name of the type species of 
Trichomonas Donne, 1836); 

(4) to place on the Official List of Family-Group Names in 
Zoology the name TRiCHOMONAoroAE Grassi, 1882 (type genus 
Trichomonas Donne, 1836). 

REFERENCES 

AGASSIZ, J. L. R. 1846. Nomenclatoris Zoologici Index Universalis. Soloduri. 

viii + 392pp. 
APSTEIN, C. 1915. Nomina Conservanda. S.B. Ges. natiirf. Fr. Berlin, Jahrgang 

1915, pp. 119-202. 
CHALMERS, A. J. & PEKKOLA, W. 1918. Chilomastix mesnili (Wenyon, 1910). 

Ann. trop. Med. Parasit., vol. 11, pp. 213-264. 
DONNE, A. 1836. Animalcules observes dans les ... secretions des organes 

genitaux de I'homme et de la femme. C.r. hebd. Seanc. Acad. Sci., Paris, vol. 

3, pp. 385-386. 
1837. Recherches sur la nature des mucus ... description de nouveaux 

animalcules decouverts . . . C.r. hebd. Seanc. Acad. Sci., Paris vol. 4, 

pp. 464-465. 
DUJARDIN, F. 1841. Histoire Naturelle des Zoophytes. Infusoires , . . . Pahs. 

xii-l-683 pp. 
EHRENBERG, C. G. 1838. Die Infusionsthierchen als vollkommene Organismen. 

Leipzig, xviii-l-547 pp. 
GRASSI, G. B. 1882. Intorno ad alcuni protisti endoparassitici ed appartenenti alle 

class! dei Flagellati, Lobosi, Sporozoi e Ciliati. Atti Soc. ital. Sci. nat., vol. 

24, pp. 135-224. 
NEAVE, S. A. 1940. Nomenclator Zoologicus, vol. 4. Zoological Society of London. 

758 pp. 
SHERBORN, C. D. 1931. Index Animalium 1801-1850, vol. T-Z. London. 695 pp. 
STILES, C. W. & HASSALL, A. 1925. Bull. U.S. Hyg. Lab., vol. 140. 
WENYON, C. M. 1926. Protozoology. A manual for Medical Men, Veterinarians 

and Zoologists. Bailliere, Tindall & Cox, London, 2 vols., 1563 pp. 



178 
181 



Napomyza Westwood, 1840 (Insecta, Diptera). G. C. D. Griffiths, K. A. 

Spencer & G. C. Steyskal 170 

Microgasier Latreille, 1804 (Insecta, Hymenoptera). W. R. M. Mason '. 173 

S/gara5f/jo//-/Fieber, [ 1860] (Insecta, Heteroptera). A. Jansson ... 175 

Micronecta griseola Horvath, 1899 (Insecta, Heteroptera, Corixidae). A. 

Jansson 

Calcarina calcar d'Orbigny, 1839 (Protozoa, Foraminiferida). H. ]. 

Hansen 

Agromy:a Fallen, 1810 (Insecta, Diptera). K. A. Spencer & G. c! 

Steyskal jo, 

rrop;/?/iorM5Sch6nherr, 1842 (Insecta, Co!eoptera).H.Silfverberg 186 

Tetropium Kirby, 1837 (Insecta, Coleoptera, Cerambycidae). M. 

Mroczkowski 100 

Risomurex Olsson & McGinty, 1958 (Mollusca, Gastropoda). Th. C. H. 

Kemperman & H. E. Coomans 191 

Siphamia Weber, 1909 and Siphamia permutata Klausewitz, 1966 

(Osteichthyes, Perciformes). J. E. Randall, E. A. Lachner & T. H. 

Fraser 

Cyclaxyra Broun, 1893 (Insecta, Coleoptera). J. C. Watt & R. a! 

Crowson 

SINUITIDAE Dall, 1913, MACLURiTiDAE Fischcr, 1885 and euomphalidae 

de Koninck, 1881 (Gastropoda, Archaeogastropoda). The late J. 

Brookes Knight; R. L. Batten «fe E. Yochelson I99 

Laplysia viridis Montagu, 1804 (Mollusca, Gastropoda). P. Bouchet 205 

Orbicula Cuvier, 1798 (Brachiopoda). C. H. C. Brunton & D. E. Lee . 210 

Cr;o;7W5 Poli, 1791 aiX\d CriopodermaVoM, 1795 (Brachiopoda) C H C 

Brunton «fe D. E. Lee 213 

Crania tuberculata Nilsson, 1826 (Brachiopoda). C. H. C. Brunton &. 

D.E.Lee 215 

Trichomonas Donne, 1836 (Protozoa, Mastigophora). Executive 

Secretary 2i8 



193 
196 



The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature wishes to express 
Its appreciation of the facilities provided by the Trustees of the British 
Museum (Natural History) for the Secretariat of the Commission 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Officers and Members of the Commission iii 

Membersof the International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature . . iv 

Notices 115 

Special Announcements 118 

Comments 

On C/je/rMrM5 Beyrich, 1845 (Trilobita). H. B. Whittington 118 

On Olpium Koch, 1873 (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpionida). R. Schuster 118 
On Berytus Fabricius, 1803 (Insecta, Heteroptera). J. Pericart; W. R. 

Dolling 119 

On//a?5c/ieA;/aPoche, 1902(Copepoda). Z. Kabata 120 

Opinions 

Opinion 1383. /l/>wp/7/pej Fabricius, 1775 (Insecta, Hymenoptera) . . 121 

Opinion 1384. Z)romo/j/i/j Peters, 1869 (Reptilia, Serpentes) 123 

Opinion 1385. ^«o//5caro//«e«5/'iVoigt, 1832 (Reptilia, Sauria) . . . 125 

Opinion 1386. Pa/j/'/ioera/o Linnaeus, 1758 (Insecta, Lepidoptera) . . 128 
Opinion 1387. Curculio picirostris Fabricius, 1787 (Insecta, Coleoptera, 

Curculionidae) 130 

Opinion 1388. Callionymus sagitta Pallas, 1770 (Osteichthyes, 

Callionymidae) 132 

Opinion 1389. Phascolosoma cumanense ^ekxs\Qin, 1867(Sipunculida) . 134 

Opinion 1390. /'e/ZonM/aZja/z/ewj/iSteindachner, 1879 (Osteichthyes) . . 136 
Opinion 1391. Zygaena anthyllidis Boisduval, [1828] (Insecta, 

Lepidoptera) 138 

Opinion 1392. Reptomultisparsa d'Orbigny, 1853 (Bryozoa, 

Cyclostomata) 140 

Opinion 1393. C/ioero/»5/jLeidy, 1852 (Mammalia, Artiodactyla) . . . 142 
Opinion 1394. Centrums limpidus Karsch, 1879 and Centruroides ornatus 

Pocock, 1902 (Arachnida, Scorpiones) 144 

Opinion 1395. row/op5« Benediktova, 1956 (Brachiopoda) 146 

Opinion 1396. Byrrhus murinus Fabricius, 1794 (Insecta, Coleoptera, 

Byrrhidae) 148 

Opinion 1397. Rhopalocerus W. Redtenbacher, 1842 (Insecta, 

Coleoptera, Colydidae) 150 

Opinion 1398. Capj'j Hewitson, [1865] (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae) . . 152 

Opinion 1399. CocMom>'/a Townsend, 1915 (Diptera, Calliphoridae) 154 

New and revived cases 

SmAo Dumeril, 1806 and 5«r«/a Dumeril (Aves). R. V. Melville ... 156 
Antispila Hiibner, [1825] (Insecta, Lepidoptera). E. S. Nielsen & I. W. B. 

Nye 158 

Heteroclonium bicolor Cope, 1896 (Reptilia, Squamata). S. C. Ayala . . 160 
On the names of two species of Clytia Lamouroux, 1812 (Cnidaria, 

Hydrozoa). P. F. S. Cornelius & C. Ostman 163 

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THE INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON 
ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE 

A. The Officers of the Commission 

President: Dr. W.D.L. RIDE (School of Applied Science. Canberra College of 

Advanced Education, P.O. Box 1. Belconnen. A.C.T. 2616, Australia). 
Vice-President: Prof. Dr. Raphael ALVARADO ( Departamento de Zoologia, 

Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Madrid. Madrid 28040. Spain) . 
Executive Secretary: Dr. P.K. TUBBS (British Museum (Natural History). 

Cromwell Road. London S W7 5BD) . 
Secretary-General: Dr. L.B. HOLTHUIS (Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historic. 

Postbus 9517. 2300 RA Leiden. The Netherlands). 

B. The Members of the Commission 

(Arranged in order of election or of most recent re-election) 

Prof. Dr. Raphael ALVARADO (Departamento de Zoologia. Facultad de Ciencias. 

Universidad de Madrid. Madrid 28040. Spain) (30 September 1972) (Vice- 
President) Echinoidea; Asteroidea 
Dr. L.B. HOLTHUIS (Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie. Postbus 9517, 2300 

RA Leiden. The Netherlands) (30 September 1972) (Secretary-General) 

Crustacea 
Dr. G. BERNARDI (Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle. 45 rue de Buffon. 75005. 

Paris. France) (30 September 1972) (Councillor) Lepidoptera 
Prof. C. DUPUIS (Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle. 45 rue de Buffon, 75005. 

Paris. France) (30 September 1972) Heteroptera 
Dr. M. MROCZKOWSKI (Instytut Zoologii. Polska Akademia Nauk. ul. Wilcza64. 

Warsaw. Poland) (14 March 1975) Coleoptera 
Prof. Dr. Otto KRAUS ( Zoologisches Institut und Zoologisches Museum. 2000 

Hamburg 13. Germany) (29 September 1976) Arachnida, Myriapoda 
Dr. W.D.L. RIDE (School of Applied Science. Canberra College of Advanced 

Education. P.O. Box 1. Belconnen. A.C.T. 2616. Australia) (29 September 1976) 

(President): Mammalia: Recent and Fossil 
Dr. H.G. COGGER (Australian Museum. Sydney 2000. N.S.W. Australia) (29 

September 1976) Reptilia: E D P Methods 
Prof. Dr. Gerhard HAHN (Fachbereich Geowissenschaften. Universitdtsgebiet 

Lahnberge, 3550 Marburg. BRD) (27 December 1978) Palaeontology 
Prof. Dr. O. HALVORSEN (Institute of Biology and Geology. University of 

Tromso. P.O. Box 790. N-9001 Tromso. Norway) {11 December 1978) 

Parasitology 
Dr. V.A. TRJAPITZIN ( Zoological Institute , Academy of Sciences. Leningrad B- 164 

USSR) (27 December 1 978) Entomology 
Dr. P.M. BAYER (U.S. National Museum of Natural History. Washington, DC. 

20560, U.S.A.) (23 August 1979) (Councillor) OctocoralUa; Systematics 
Prof. John O. CORLISS (University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742. 

U.S.A.) (23 August 1979) Protozoa; Systematics 
Mr. R.V. MELVILLE (93 Lock Road, Ham. Richmond. Surrey TWIO 7LL UK) 

(23 August 1979) Palaeontology 
Dr. Y.I. STAROBOGATOV ( Zoological Institute . Academy of Sciences. Leningrad 

199164. U.S.S.R.) (23 August 1979) MoUusca, Crustacea 



Dr. P.T. LEHTINEN (Zoological Museum, Department of Biology, University of 

Turku. SF-20500 Turku 50, Finland) (8 August 1980) Arachnida 
Dr. L.R.M. COCKS (British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, London 

SW75BD) (26 August 1982) Brachiopoda 
Mr. David HEPPELL (Department of Natural History, Royal Scottish Museum, 

Edinburgh EHl IJF. Scotland) (26 August 1982) (Councillor) MoUusca 
Prof. Jay M. SAVAGE (Department of Biology, University of Miami, P.O. Box 

249118, Coral Gables, Florida 33124, U.S.A.) (26 August 1982) Herpetology 
Prof. Dr. R. SCHUSTER ( Institutfiir Zoologie , Universitdt Graz, Universitdtsplatz2, 

A-8010 Graz, Austria) (26 August 1982) Acari 
Dr. SHUN-ICHI UENO (Department of Zoology, National Science Museum, 

Hyakunincho 3-23-1, Shinjukuku. Tokyo 160, Japan) (26 August 1982) 

Entomology 
Prof. A. WILLINK (Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Instituto Miguel Lillo, 

Miguel Lillo 205, 4000 Tucuman, Argentina) (26 August 1982) Neotropical 

Hymenoptera 
Dr. G.C. GRUCHY (National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa, Canada, 

KIA 0M8) (15 April 1985) Ichthyology 
Dr. Z. KABATA (Canada Department ojf Fisheries and Oceans, Pacific Biological 

Station, Nanaimo, B.C. V9R5K6, Canada) (4 September 1985) Copepoda 
Dr. F.C. THOMPSON (Systematic Entomology Laboratory. USDA c/o U.S. 

National Museum, Washington, D.C. 20560, U.S.A.) (4 September 1985) 

Diptera 



INTERNATIONAL TRUST FOR ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE 



A. The Members of the Trust 



Professor H.B. Whittington, F.R.S. 

(Chairman) 
Dr. M.K. Howarth ( Secretary and 

Managing Director) 
Prof. Per Brinck 
Prof. J.H. Callomon 
Dr. P.F.S. Cornelius 
Prof. C.B. Cox 
The Rt. Hon. the Earl of Cranbrook, 

F.L.S.,F.Z.S. 
Sir Arthur Drew, K.C.B. 
Sir Charles Fleming, K.B.E., F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Forest 
Col. Francis J. Griffin, O.B.E. 



Dr. G.C. Gruchy 
Dr. R.H. Hedley, C.B., F.I.Biol. 
Dr. L.B. Holthuis 
Dr. F.G.W. Jones 
Prof. Dr. O. Kraus 
Dr. M. Luc 
Dr. R.B. Manning 
Mr. R.V. Melville 
Dr. I.W.B. Nye 
Dr. W.D.L. Ride (ex officio) 
Dr. E.P.F. Rose,T.D. 
Dr. G.B. White 

Dr. A.G. Marshall (Observer for the 
Royal Society) 



B. The Officers of the Trust 

Dr. P.K. Tubbs, M.A., Ph.D. (Scientific Controller) 
Mr. J.D.D. Smith (Scientific Administrator) 
Mr. M.E. Tollitt, M.Sc, F.L.S., F.R.E.S. (Zoologist) 
Miss N.A. Erridge, B.Sc. (Assistant Zoologist) 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 221 

BULLETIN OF ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE 

Volume 43, part 3 (pp. v-vi, 221-314) 6 October 1986 

NOTICES 

(a) Invitation to comment. The Commission is entitled to start to 
vote on applications published in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature six 
months after the publication of each application. This period is normally 
extended to enable comments to be submitted. Any zoologist who wishes to 
comment on any of the applications is invited to send his contribution, in 
duplicate, to the Secretary of the Commission as quickly as possible, and in 
any case in time to reach the Secretary within twelve months of the date of 
publication of the application. 

(b) Possible use of the plenary powers. The possible use by the 
Commission of its plenary powers is involved in the following applications 
published in the present part of the Bulletin: 

(1) Rhabdodon Matheron, 1869 (Reptilia, Ornithischia): proposed 
conservation by suppression oi Rhabdodon Fleischmann, 1831 
(Reptilia, Serpentes). Z.N.(S.) 2536. W. Brinckmann. 

(2) Megalonaias Utterback, 1915 (Mollusca, Bivalvia): proposed 
conservation by the suppression of Magnonaias Utterback, 
1915. Z.N.(S.) 2512. A. E. Bogan & J. D. Williams. 

(3) Ammonites neubergicus Hauer, 1858 (Cephalopoda, Ammo- 
noidea): proposed conservation by the suppression o{ Ammo- 
nites chrishna Forbes, 1846. Z.N.(S.) 2460. R. A. Henderson & 
W. J. Kennedy. 

(4) Dexia Meigen, 1826 (Insecta, Diptera): proposed designation 
oi Musca rustica Fabricius, 1775 as type species. Z.N.(S.) 2252. 
R. W. Crosskey, B. Herting, L. P. Mesnil & D. M. Wood. 

(5) Lepralia punctata Hassall, 1841 (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata, 
CribriHnidae): proposed designation of a replacement neotype. 
Z.N.(S.) 2562. J.D.D. Bishop. 

(6) PSEUDOCALANiDAE Sars, 1901 (Crustacea, Copepoda): pro- 
posed precedence of clausocalanidae Giesbrecht, 1892. 
Z.N.(S.) 2557. V. D. Andronov and N. V. Vyshkvartzeva. 

(7) Geonemus Schoenherr, 1 833 and Brachyomus Lacordaire, 1 863 
(Insecta, Coleoptera): proposal to maintain current usage by 
designation of a type species for Geonemus. Z.N.(S.) 2565. G. J. 
Wibmer&C.W. O'Brien. 



222 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 



(8) Phaulacridium vit latum (Sjostedt, 1 920) (Insecta, Orthoptera): 
proposed conservation by suppression o{ Acridium ambulans 
Erichson, 1842, Trigoniza mama Bolivar, 1898 and Trigoniza 
australiensis Bolivar, 1898. Z.N.(S.)2524. K. H. L. Key. 

(9) Taeniolabis Cope, 1882 (Mammalia, Multituberculata): pro- 
posed designation of Polymastodon taoensis Cope, 1882 as 
type species. Z.N.(S.) 2529. N. B. Simmons. 

(c) Receipt of new applications. The following new applications 
have been received since going to press for vol. 43, part 2 (published on 9 July 
1986): 

( 1 ) Halitherium Kaup, 1838 and Metaxytherium de Christol, 1 840 
(Mammalia, Sirenia): proposed conservation. Z.N.(S.) 2569. 

D. P. Domning. 

(2) Eucidaris Pomel, 1883 and Stereocydaris Pomel, 1883 (Echi- 
noidea): revised proposals for stabiHsation. Z.N.(S.) 2570. 
C. W. Wright 8i A. B. Smith. 

(3) Belemnites paxillosa Lamarck, 1 849 (Mollusca, Coleoidea): 
proposed suppression of both generic and specific names. 
Z.N.(S.) 257 1 . P. Doyle & W. Riegraf. 

(4) Leptura marginata Fabricius, 1781 (Insecta, Coleoptera): 
proposed conservation. Z.N.(S.) 2572. M. Mroczkowski. 

(5) Halictus costulatus Kriechbaumer, 1873 (Insecta, Hymenop- 
tera): proposed conservation. Z.N.(S.) 2573. Y. A. Pesenko. 

(6) Paraphytomyza Enderlein, 1937 (Insecta, Diptera): proposed 
designation of Phytagromyza luteoscutellata De Meijere, 1924 
as type species. Z.N.(S.) 2574. K. A. Spencer. 

(7) Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, 1 797) (Insecta, Coleoptera): pro- 
posed conservation by the suppression of Tribolium navale 
(Fabricius, 1775). Z.N.(S.) 2575. R. D. Pope & J. C. Watt. 

(8) Scleropages leichardti Giinther, 1 864 (Osteichthyes, Osteoglos- 
siformes): proposed emendation of specific name to leichhardti. 
Z.N.(S.) 2576. T. M. Berra. 

(9) Caenolestes fuliginosus (Tomes, 1 863) (MammaHa, Marsupia- 
lia): proposed suppression of holotype and designation of a 
neotype. Z.N.(S.) 2577. J. Bublitz. 

(10) Pararatus Ricardo, 1913 (Insecta, Diptera): request for desig- 
nation of type species. Z.N.(S.) 2578. G. Daniels. 

(11) Desorella Cotteau, 1855 (Echinoidea): proposed confirmation 
ofDesorella elata (Desor, 1847) as type species. Z.N.(S.) 2579. 

E. P. F. Rose &. J. B. S. Olver. 

(12) Trypamoma brucei Plimmer & Bradford, 1899 (Protozoa, 
Mastigophora): proposed confirmation of spelling. Z.N.(S.) 
2580. M. E. Tollitt. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 223 

SPECIAL ANNOUNCEMENTS 
OBITUARY 

Sir Peter Kent, FRS 

Sir Peter Kent, Chairman of the International Trust for Zoological 
Nomenclature between 1974 and 1984, died on 9 July 1986. He was eminent 
as a petroleum geologist and rose to become Chief Geologist and then 
Exploration Manager of British Petroleum. His career took him to many 
quarters of the globe, including Alaska where his exploration led to the 
discovery of the North Slope Oil Fields. He was also Chairman of the 
Natural Environment Research Council. 

Sir Peter's wisdom and warm-heartedness, coupled with scientific and 
commercial expertise, made him an ideal chairman to guide the Trust 
through severe financial difficulties at a time when the demise of the Inter- 
national Commission on Zoological Nomenclature was a real possibiHty. 
Even when he gave up the chairmanship of the Trust he continued to serve as 
a member and attended the Trust's Annual General Meeting less than a 
month prior to his death. 



DESIGN AND PUBLICATION OF THE BULLETIN 

As reported in Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 42, p. 320, the Trust has been 
reviewing the contents and format of the Bulletin with the intention of 
making it more useful and attractive. The Trust has decided to introduce, as 
from the 1987 volume, a number of changes in the format of the Bulletin 
including a change from A5 to the larger B5 size. The layout of the cover and 
much of the contents will be redesigned. This will enable a larger number of 
applications to be included in each part. 

In addition, the Bulletin will contain more general articles on 
nomenclature and related issues and authors are invited to contribute such 
articles. These will be especially welcome for part 1, for which the copy 
deadline is 30 November 1986. 

For the last four years the Bulletin has been published by CAB Inter- 
national on behalf of the Trust. As from the volume for 1987, the Trust itself 
will resume publication and for 1987 will hold the subscription at the 1986 
rateof£53or$102. 



INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS 

The Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature is the official periodical of 
the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. It is published 
by CAB International on behalf of the International Trust for Zoological 



224 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 



Nomenclature and appears 4 times a year in March, June, September and 
December. Applications to the Commission are pubUshed in the Bulletin. 
Time is then given for comments to be received, published and considered 
before the Commission votes for or against the proposals at the end of each 
application. The Commission's final decision is published in the Bulletin in 
the form of an Opinion. 

These instructions are primarily for those preparing applications to 
the Commission. However, authors of general articles or comments should 
take note of the parts relevant to them. The instructions are not intended to 
be restrictive and cannot cover all situations. 

Applications: These should be prepared in accordance with the 
3rd Edition (1985) of the International Code of Zoological 
Nomenclature. Particular attention should be paid to the principles 
for use of the Commission's plenary powers (Article 79). 

Title: This should include names to be conserved. Names to be 
suppressed should not normally be in the title, but will be mentioned 
in the Abstract prepared by the Secretariat. When the proposals 
concern a specific name it should be cited in the original binomen 
and except in the case of type species the binomen in current use 
should be given. Examples: 

Halictus costulatus Kriechbaumer, 1873 (currently Lasioglossum 
costulatum; Insecta, Hymenoptera): proposed conservation of 
specific name. 

Tylocidaris Pomel, 1883 (Echinoidea, Cidaroidea): proposed desig- 
nation of Cidaris clavigera Mantell, 1822, as type species. 

THAiDiDAE Jousscaumc, 1888 (MoUusca, Gastropoda) and thaidi- 
DAE Lehtinen, 1967 (Arachnida, Araneae): proposals to remove the 
homonymy. 

Author (s) Name(s) and Address (es): These should be on separate 
lines, with the full postal addresses underlined. 

Text: This should consist of numbered paragraphs setting out the 
details of the case and leading up to a set of formal proposals. The 
advantages (and any disadvantages) of the proposals should be 
included. Text references should be given with individual page 
numbers (e.g. 'Daudin (1800, p. 39) described . . .'). A summary of 
the main points of the case will be prepared by the Secretariat. 

A case to suppress a senior synonym on the grounds that it 
has not been used as the valid name for a particular taxon should be 
supported by a list of at least 10 publications by at least 5 different 
authors over the last 50 years in which the junior synonym has 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 225 



been treated as the valid name (see Article 79c). Individual page 
references should be given. 

The final paragraph of the text should be in the form of 
formal proposals to the Commission. Example: 

The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 
is accordingly asked: 

(1) to use its plenary powers . . . 

(2) to place on the Official List . . . 

(3) to place on the Official Index . . . 

Authors are strongly advised to consult recent parts of the 
Bulletin for the construction of proposals appropriate to their 
particular requests. 



Bibliography: References should start with the names of all authors 
in lower case, followed by the year of publication and the title of the 
paper, book or monograph. In the titles of papers in periodicals, 
capital letters should be used only for proper nouns and all nouns 
in German. The names of periodicals should be given in full and 
underlined. The nominal year of publication, if different from the 
actual year, should be in parentheses immediately after the volume 
number. Series number, volume number, part, fascicule and pagi- 
nation number should be given in arable figures. Part number 
should be in parentheses. Page numbers should be separated from 
any preceding numbers by a colon. Book titles should be underlined 
and followed by the number of pages, publisher and place of publi- 
cation. When a reference has been translated or transliterated, the 
original language should be stated in square brackets at the end. 
References should be provided for all authors cited in the text and 
particularly those whose names are included in the formal proposals 
to the Commission. References to subsequent designations of type 
species should also be given. The following are examples of reference 
styles: 

Wise, K. A. J. 1957. A new species of Lithocolletis (Lepidoptera: 
Gracillariidae) from New Zealand. Proceedings of the Royal 
Entomological Society of London, ser. B, 26 (1-2): 26-28. 
Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae, ed. 10, vol. 1, iv + 824 pp. 

Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae. 
Dunbar, R. W. & Vajime, C. G. 1981. Cytotaxonomy of the 
Simulium damnosum complex. Pp. 31-43, in Laird, M. (ed.), 
Blackflies: the future for biological methods in integrated 
control, xii -1-399 pp. Academic Press, London and New 
York. 
The Secretariat is willing to offer additional advice at an early stage in 
the preparation of an application and can provide specimen applications if 
required. 



226 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 



Two copies of the complete paper must be provided, typed on one side 
only, in double spacing with a left-hand margin of approximately 35 mm (Ij 
inches). The printers will set the text in house style (revised from 1987) but it 
would be helpful if authors would follow this style as closely as possible in 
their typescript. 

Typescripts should be sent to: 
The Executive Secretary 

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 
c/o British Museum (Natural History) 
Cromwell Road 
London SW7 5BD, U.K. 



COMMENT ON THE PROPOSED CONSERVATION OF BRACHYDERES 

SCHONHERR, 1823 (INSECTA, COLEOPTERA). Z.N.(S.)2490 

(see vol. 42, pp. 296-301) 

By Carlos Bordon {U.C. V. Facultadde Agronomia, Inst. Zoologia Agricola, 
Apartado 4579, Maracay 2 101- A, Venezuela) 

I wish to support Dr Anne T. Howden in her efforts to preserve the name 
BrachyderesSc\i6n\iQTr, 1823. 

It is unfortunate how much time I must lose in order to stay on top of all the 
nomenclature changes, which seem to have become more frequent in recent years in 
the CURCULIONIDAE (e.g. Kissinger, 1962; O'Brien & Wibmer, 1982, 1986). It is 
my understanding that all laws should be interpreted in spirit and not down to every 
point and comma. In this sense the final objective of the International Code is to 
maintain nomenclatural stability, thus avoiding disorder and confusion. If an author 
describes today a genus which later on proves to be a synonym, it is logical that the 
name to conserve is the oldest. But I don't understand what is to be gained from 
changing, for example, Brachyderes Schonherr, 1823 to Thylacites Germar, 1817; 
Otiorhynchus Germar, 1824 to Brachyrhinus Latreille, 1802 (Kissinger, 1964), or 
Naupactus Schonherr, 1833 to Alceis Billberg 1820; Zygops Schonherr, 1825 to 
Eccoptus Dejean, 1821; Cholus Germar, 1824 to Archarias Dejean, 1821 (O'Brien 
& Wibmer, 1982). Such changes affect the names of large subfamilies and 
tribes which have been in use for almost two centuries (otiorhynchinae, brachyde- 
NiNAE, NAUPACTiNi, ZYGOPiNAE and cholinae). This is what I would call destabilising 
nomenclature. 

The use of the oldest published name simply for its own sake, even though 
based upon a theoretic principle of justice, does not favor anyone and simply causes 
confusion. It is this confusion which the Code tries to avoid. I urge the Commission to 
discourage changes in names that have long been in use and are solidly established. 

{Editorial note: the Code (Article 40) provides that when the name of a type- 
genus is rejected as being a junior synonym family-group names derived from it do 
not normally have to be replaced. This does not of course cover Dr Bordon's point 
about the generic names themselves, where the conservation of junior names needs 
application to the Commission). 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 227 



COMMENT ON THE PROPOSED CONSERVATION OF NOMADACRIS 
UVAROV, 1923 (INSECTA, ORTHOPTERA). Z.N.(S.)2525 

(1) By R. E. Blackith {Zoology Department, Trinity College, Dublin-2, Ireland) 

I further support the case for conservation of the locust generic name 
Nomadacris as stated by Key and Jago {Bull. Zool. Norn., vol. 43, pp. 102-103) and 
supported by Kevan {loc. cit., p. 104). 

Problems of nomenclature relating to organisms of major economic import- 
ance should not, I believe, be decided without taking into account the reactions of 
those concerned with the organism professionally but who are not particularly inter- 
ested in taxonomic nomenclature. Compilers of reports and reviews on Red Locust 
ecology and control, indexers and abstractors, report writers for International and 
Government agencies, and writers on and teachers of ecology may often fall into such 
a category, and will particularly appreciate stability. 

\i Nomadacris is not formally conserved, I believe that both it and Patanga will 
be used concurrently by different authors in the economic literature, possibly for 
several years to come, as generic names for the Red Locust. This is not an instance of 
mild inconvenience for a few specialists accustomed to such matters, but of irritation 
at best, and confusion at worst, for much larger numbers of workers in Applied 
Entomology, to the detriment of their work and of the respect in which the 
Commission is held. 



(2) The proposed precedence of Nomadacris over Patanga has also been 
strongly supported by Prof. Marcello La Greca {Dipartimento di Biologia Animale, 
Universitd di Catania, 95124 Catania, Italy) and Dr R. F. Chapman {Agricultural 
Experiment Station, University of California, Berkeley, California 947 20, U.S.A.). 

COMMENT ON THE PROPOSED CONSERVATION OF 

CEPHALOPHOLIS ARGUS SCHNEIDER, 1801 

(OSTEICHTHYES). Z.N.(S.)2470 

(see vol. 42, pp. 374^378) 

By G. F. Mees {Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historic, Postbus 9517, 2300 RA, 
Leiden, The Netherlands.) 

In part A, paragraph 2, of the application it is stated that the specific name 
guttata Bloch, 1790: 'Has not been used by authors in spite of its priority over 
Cephalopholis argus Schneider. This was probably due to the realisation that it is 
preoccupied by Perca guttata Linnaeus, 1758, p. 292 . . .' 

Actually, Bodianus guttatus was used throughout the last century, for example 
by Valenciennes (in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1828, p. 357); Gunther (1859, p. 119) 
and Jordan and Evermann (1896, p. 1142). Moreover, these authors recognised 
Cephalopholis argus as a valid species. 

Boulenger (1895, p. 189) united the two nominal species argus and guttatus 
under the name Epinephelus argus. As, in the synonymy, he recorded the year of 
publication of B. guttatus correctly as 1790 with that of C. argus as 1801, it may 
be assumed that Boulenger had recognised the homonymy, although he did not 
expressly say so. 



228 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 



Weber & de Beaufort (1931, p. 28) stated in the synonymy of the species they 
listed as Epinephelus argus: ' Bodianus guttatus Bloch, Ausl. Fische IV, 1 790, p. 36 (nee 
guttatus L.)'. Clearly, if not Boulenger, then certainly Weber & de Beaufort had 
definitely rejected Bodianus guttatus Bloch as a junior secondary homonym and under 
Article 59b, this name remains permanently invalid. 

I submit therefore, that part A and proposals (l)(a) and (4)(a) of the appU- 
cation by Randall et al. be withdrawn, as the name they wish to suppress is already 
permanently invalid. 

ADDITIONAL REFERENCES 

JORDAN, D. S. & EVERMANN, B. W. 1896. The fishes of North and Middle 
America. Part 1. Bull. U.S. nat. Mus., vol., 37, pp. 1-1240. 

WEBER, M. & DE BEAUFORT, L. F. 1931. The Fishes of the Indo-Australian 
Archipelago 6. 448 pp. E. J. Brill, Leiden. 



SUPPORT FOR THE REJECTION OF 'HISTOIRE NATURELLE DES 
SERPENS' (LACEPEDE, 1788-1789. AND LATER EDITIONS). 

Z.N.(S.)1985 

By Hobart M. Smith {E.P.O. Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 

8039. U.S.A.) 

The purposes of the proposals set forth in this account (Melville, Bull. zool. 
Norn., vol. 43, pp. 80-83), namely to reject Lacepede's Histoire naturelle des Serpens 
in nomenclatural contexts, but to maintain stability for some names affected by that 
rejection, are thoroughly justifiable. The work itself clearly does not conform with 
requirements of the Code, but in the past fear of nomenclatural repercussions of 
either rejection or unreserved acceptance of the work has prevented decisive action on 
its status. 

Thus the proposals for conservation of the three names long widely adopted 
that would be affected by rejection of Lacepede's work are vital adjuncts to the 
latter proposal. Agkistrodon piscivorus (from Crotalus piscivorus Lacepede), the 
Cottonmouth of the southeastern United States; Lampropeltis triangulum (from 
Coluber triangulum Lacepede), the Milk snake of North, Central and northern South 
America; and Python reticulatus (from Boa reticulata Schneider), of southeast Asia 
and the East Indies, all qualify as nomina venerata or, in the case of Coluber trian- 
gulum, have already been placed on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology 
(name no. 2186, Opinion 804, 1967). 

Accordingly, I enthusiastically support all proposals pertaining to this case. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 229 



OPINION 1400 

SIMIA FASCICULARIS RAFFLES, 1821 (MAMMALIA, PRIMATES): 

CONSERVED 

RULING. — (1) The specific name aygula Linnaeus, 1758, as pub- 
lished in the binomen Simla aygula, is hereby suppressed for the purpose of 
the Principle of Priority but not for that of the Principle of Homonymy. 

(2) The specific mme fascicularis Raffles, 1821, as published in the 
binomen Simia fascicularis , is hereby placed on the Oflficial List of Specific 
Names in Zoology. 

(3) The specific name aygula Linnaeus, 1758, as pubUshed in the 
binomen Simia aygula, and as suppressed under the plenary powers in (1) 
above, is hereby placed on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Specific 
Names in Zoology. 



HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)2399 

An application for the conservation of Simia fascicularis Raffles, 
1821, was first received from Mrs P. H. Napier {British Museum (Natural 
History), London) and Dr C. P. Groves {Australian National University 
Canberra) on 26 October 1981. After some correspondence a revised draft 
was sent to the printer on 19 April 1983 and published on 15 July 1983 in 5m//. 
zool. Nom., vol. 40, pp. 117-118. Public notice of the possible use of the 
plenary powers in the case was given in the same part of the Bulletin as well as 
to the statutory serials, seven general and four mammalogical serials. No 
comment was received. 



DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 1 5 April 1 985 the members of the Commission were invited to vote 
under the Three-Month Rule for or against the proposals set out in Bull. zool. 
Nom., vol. 40, p. 118. At the close of the voting period on 15 July 1985 the 
state of the voting was as follows: 

Affirmative votes — twenty-two (22) received in the following order: 
Melville, Cocks, Holthuis, Halvorsen, Savage, Trjapitzin, Binder, Corliss, 
Lehtinen, Ride, Alvarado, WiUink, Hahn, Gruchy, Schuster, Ueno, Brinck, 
Dupuis, Kraus, Bayer, Heppell, Bernardi 

Negative votes — none (0). 

Mroczkowski abstained. 

Late affirmative votes were returned by Cogger and Starobogatov. 

Dupuis commented: [I vote for] sous reserve de I'exhaustivite biblio- 
graphique et de I'exactitude taxinomique de la requete.' 

After the vote had been completed, a comment was received from the 
Earl of Cranbrook {Great Glemham House, Saxmundham, Suffolk, U.K.) 



230 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 



suggesting that the Linnean description of Simla aygula (see Bull. zool. 
Norn., vol. 40, p. 117) was composite rather than based on a single species, 
and was not as clearly based on the long-tailed macaque as stated in para- 
graph 5 of the original application. A possible solution would be the selection 
of a Javan leaf monkey as neotype of Simla aygula, thereby preserving the 
long established usage of the name. 

In a letter to Lord Cranbrook, Dr Napier showed that Linnaeus' 
description followed, almost verbatim, accounts given to Linnaeus in letters 
from Pehr Osbeck in 1756, now preserved by the Linnean Society in London. 
From these letters it seems that the description is based primarily on two 
monkeys, one old and the other young, and perhaps in part on other speci- 
mens. Although some doubts of detail remain, it is evident that Linnaeus' 
description cannot have been based on the Javan leaf monkey (now referred 
to as Presbytis comata Desmarest, 1822 by Napier (1985), p. 47 and Weitzel 
& Groves (1985)), and did refer mainly to the long-tailed macaque. It would 
therefore be inappropriate to attach the specific name aygula to the leaf 
monkey by designation of a neotype. Lord Cranbrook accepted this. 



REFERENCES 

NAPIER, P. H. 1985. Catalogue of Primates in the British Museum (Natural 

History) , Part 3. London, x -f- 11 1 pp. 
WEITZEL, V. & GROVES, C. P. 1985. The Nomenclature and Taxonomy of the 

Colobine Monkeys of Java. Intl. J. PrimatoL, vol. 6, pp. 399^09. 

ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references for the names placed on an 
Official List and an Official Index by the ruling given in the present Opinion: 
aygula, Simla, Linnaeus, 1758, Systema naturae, vol. 1, p. 27 
fascicularis , Simla, Raffles, 1821, Trans, linn. Soc. London, vol. 13, p. 346. 

CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper (1985)33 were cast 
as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper have been 
duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so taken, being 
the decision of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 
is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1400. 

P. K. TUBES 

Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
17 April 1986 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 23 1 

OPINION 1401 

LEUCASPIS SIGNORET, 1869 (INSECTA, HOMOPTERA)- 

CONSERVED 

RULING -(1) Under the plenary powers the generic name 
L.«.«./,,. Burme.ster, 1835 and all uses of that name prior to that bv 
S gnoret 1869 are hereby suppressed for the purposes of both the Principle 
ofPnorityandthePrmcipleofHomonymy. me rnncipie 

SDeciesh!!Iinnn"t'"''f''"S'''^'' ^'^'''''^^^ '^^9' (8^"^^^- feminine), type 
OffinS ?^ f^^^^yPy ^IP^d^otus pini Hartig, 1 839, is hereby placed on Ihe 
Official List of Generic Names in Zoology. 

(3) The name pini Hartig, 1839, as published in the binomen 
Aspidwtusptm isv.c^^c name of the type species o^Leucaspis Signoret 1 869) 
IS hereby placed on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology 

(4) The name leucaspidinae Atkinson, 1886 (as Leucaipiaria) rtvne 

Rejected and Invalid Generic Names in Zoology. 

HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)2448 
first reel" ed from h/f' t' '^^'^^^^.^^^i^" of L.„c«.p/. Signoret, 1869, was 

wfrecXd " '° ''" ''"'"' '"' ^•^^^^ ^P^^^^''^^ --'- No'comment 

DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

v.t ?" 'Z ■^^!?"^'"^ ' ^^^ ^^^ members of the Commission were invited to 

thrstrofIhtv'o\'i^gl'a'stVollot"°^ ''^'"^ '''' 

Melvill^^Zfh"' "^""n' 7 ^^/"^y-°"e (21) received in the following order- 

M ic kow" 1 Hahn k"1'\ ^V'^'^ '^'""'^' ^tarobogatov, Alvarado, 
Mroczkowski, Hahn Kabata, Trjapitzin, Schuster, Ueno, Lehtinen Ride 
Halvorsen, Heppell, Bayer, Bernardi, Cogger, Thompson ' 

Negative Votes — one ( 1 ) Dupuis 

No votes were returned from Corliss, Gruchy and Kraus 

p. 103 although he supported the conservation oi Leucaspis Signoret He 



232 Bull. zool. Norn. , vol. 43, pt 3, October 1 986 



considered that the specific name of the type species {pini) should be attri- 
buted to Signoret rather than to Hartig, and commented '. . . je redoute que 
le neotype plus ou moins conditionnel envisage pour le nomen dubium de 
Hartig ne fasse que compliquer la question. Pour eviter tout risque ulterieur 
d'identification erronee de I'espece-type, il eut fallu, la encore, se referer a 
Signoret et si possible a son materiel'. 

Bayer, although voting in favour of the proposals, commented that, 
in his view, the designation of a neotype for L. pini Hartig by Danzig and 
Kerzhner {Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 41, p. 102) was not valid since not all the 
requirements of Article 75 of the Code had been met. 

A member of the Commission questioned the status of the family 
name leucaspidoidae Agassiz, 1846 {Index Universalis, p. 109), based on 
Leucaspis Burmeister, 1835. Since this generic name has now been totally 
suppressed by the Commission it is unavailable, and it follows that the 
Agassiz family name (which was never used) also has no standing. 

ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references for the names placed on 
Official Lists and an Official Index by the ruling given in the present Opinion: 
LEUCASPiDiNAE Atkinson, 1886, J. Asiatic Sac. Bengal, vol. 55, pp. 271, 

273-274 
Leucaspis Signoret, 1869, Ann. Sac. entomol. France, (4), vol. 8, p. 865 
Leucaspis Burmeister, 1835, Arch. Naturgesch, Jahrg. 1, vol. 2, p. 47 
pini, Aspidiotus, Hartig, 1839, Jahresberichte iiber die Fortschritte der 

Forstwissenschaft undforstlichen Naturkunde im Jahre 1836 und 1837 

nebst Original-Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete dieser Wissenschaften. 

Jahrg. 1, Heft. 4, p. 642. 

CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper (1986)1 1 were cast 
as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper have been 
duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so taken, being 
the decision of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 
is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1401 . 

P. K. TUBBS 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
17 April 1986 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 233 



OPINION 1402 

BAGRUS BOSC, 1816 (OSTEICHTHYES, SILURIFORMES): 

CONSERVED 



RULING. — (1) Under the plenary powers the specific name Porcus 
Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1 808, is hereby suppressed for the purpose of 
the Principle of Priority but not for that of the Principle of Homonymy. 

(2) The following names are hereby placed on the Official List of 
Generic Names in Zoology: 

(a) Bagre Cloquet, 1816 (gender: mascuhne) type species by 
absolute tautonymy Silurus bagre Linnaeus, 1766; 

(b) Bagrus Bosc, 1816 (gender: masculine) type species by subse- 
quent designation of Bailey & Stewart, 1983, Silurus bajad 
Forskal, 1775. 

(3) The following names are hereby placed on the Official List of 
Specific Names in Zoology: 

(a) bagre Linnaeus, 1 766, as published in the binomen Silurus bagre 
(specific nanie of the type species oi Bagre Cloquet, 1816); 

(b) bajad Forskal, 1 775, as published in the binomen Silurus bajad 
(specific name of the type species oi Bagrus Bosc, 1816): 

(4) The name bagridae Bleeker, 1858 (type genus, Bagrus Bosc, 
1816) is hereby placed on the Official List of Family-Group Names in 
Zoology. 

(5) The name Porcus Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1808, as 
suppressed under the plenary powers in (1) above, is hereby placed on the 
Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Generic Names in Zoology. 



HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)2371 

An application for the conservation oi Bagrus Bosc, 1816, was first 
received from Dr R. M. Bailey {University of Michigan, U.S.A.) and Dr D. J. 
Stewart {Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, U.S.A.) on 29 January 
1980. After a period of correspondence a revised manuscript was published 
in Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 40, pp. 167-172 (October 1983). Public notice of the 
possible use of the plenary powers in the case was given in the same part of the 
Bulletin as well as to ten general and three specialist serials. 

A comment giving the dates of some of the names involved was 
received from Dr W. R. Taylor {National Museum of Natural History, 
Washington, U.S.A.). He also proposed the suppression of Porcus Etienne 
Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1808 and the placing ot Bagre Cloquet, 1816 on the 
Official List, and these suggestions were welcomed by Dr Bailey in a letter of 
28 September 1984. Dr Taylor's proposals were published in Bull. zool. 
Norn., vol. 42, pp. 14-15. 



234 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 



DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 17 January 1986 the members of the Commission were invited to 
vote under the Three-Month Rule for or against the proposals set out in Bull, 
zool. Nom. vol. 40, pp. 170-171, supplemented by those published in Bull, 
zool. Nom. vol. 42, pp. 14-15. At the close of the voting period on 17 April 
1986 the state of the voting was as follows: 

Affirmative Votes — twenty-one (21) recieved in the following order: 
Melville, Holthuis, Cocks, Savage, Willink, Starobogatov, Alvarado, 
Schuster, Mroczkowski, Hahn, Kabata, Trjapitzin, Ueno, Lehtinen, 
Halvorsen, Heppell, Bayer, Dupuis, Bernardi, Cogger, Thompson 

Negative Vote — one (1) Ride. 

No votes were returned by Corliss, Gruchy and Kraus. 

Ride considered that the reasons for the suppression of Porcus 
Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1808 were insufficient. 

ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references for the names placed on 
Official Lists and an Official Index by the ruling given in the present Opinion: 
bagre, Silurus. Linnaeus, 1766, Systema Naturae, ed. 12, vol. 1, p. 505 
Bagre Cloquet, 1816, Dictionnaire des sciences naturelles, vol. 4, pp. 52-53 
BAGRIDAE Bleckcr, 1858, Act. Soc. Sci. Indo-Neerl, vol. 4, p. 42 
Bagrus Bosc, 1816, Nouveau dictionnaire d'histoire naturelle, vol. 3, p. 147 
bajad, Silurus, Forskal, 1775, Descriptiones Animalium, avium, amphibiorum, 

piscum, insectorum, vermium, quae in itinere orientali observavit, p. 66 
Porcus Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1808, Description de I'Egypte, . . . 

Histoire Naturelle, Planches, vol. 1, pi. 15. 

CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper (1986)1 were cast 
as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper have been 
duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so taken, being 
the decision of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 
is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1402. 

P. K. TUBBS 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
17 April 1986 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 235 



OPINION 1403 

LUMBRICUS LACTEUS ORLEY, 1881 DESIGNATED AS TYPE 

SPECIES OF OCTOLASION ORLEY, 1885 (ANNELIDA, 

OLIGOCHAETA) 

RULING. — (1) Under the plenary powers: 

(a) the genus-group names Incolore Omodeo, 1952 and Purpureum 
Omodeo, 1952, are hereby suppressed for the purpose of the 
Principle of Priority but not for that of the Principle of 
Homonymy; 

(b) all previous type designations made for the nominal genus 
Octolasion Orley, 1885 are hereby set aside and Lumbricus 
lacteus Orley, 1881 is designated as type species. 

(2) The following names are hereby placed on the Official List of 
Generic Names in Zoology: 

(a) Octolasion Orley, 1885 (gender: neuter) type species by desig- 
nation under the plenary powers in (l)(b) above, Lumbricus 
lacteus Orley, 1881; 

(b) Octodrilus Omodeo, 1956 (gender: masculine) type species by 
original designation, Lumbricus complanatus Duges, 1828. 

(3) The following names are hereby placed on the Official List of 
Specific Names in Zoology: 

(a) lacteus Orley, 1885, as published in the trinomen Lumbricus 
terrestris var. lacteus Orley, 1881 (specific name of the type 
species of Octolasion Orley, 1885); 

(b) complanatus Duges, 1828, as published in the binomen 
Lumbricus complanatus (specific name of the type species of 
Octodrilus Omedeo, 1956). 

(4) The following names are hereby placed on the Official Index of 
Rejected and Invalid Generic Names in Zoology: 

(a) Incolore Omodeo, 1952 and Purpureum Omodeo, 1952, as 
suppressed under the plenary powers in (l)(a) above; 

(b) Alyattes Kinberg, 1867, a junior homonym of Alyattes 
Thomson, 1864; 

(c) Octolasia Rosa, 1893 and Octolasium Michaelsen, 1900 as 
unjustified emendations of Octolasion Orley, 1885. 



HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)2469 

An application for the designation of Lumbricus terrestris \aT. lacteus 
Orley, 1885 as type species of Octolasion Orley, 1955, with proposals to 
stabilize other names in the lumbricidae, was first received from Mr R. W. 
Sims (British Museum (Natural History), London) on 14 March 1984. It was 
published in Bull. zool. Nom.. vol. 41, pp. 254-258 (December 1984). Public 
notice of the possible use of the plenary powers in the case was given in the 



236 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 



same part of the Bulletin as well as to nine general, and one specialist, serials. 
No comment was received. 



DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 1 7 April 1986 the members of the Commission were invited to vote 
under the Three-Month Rule for or against the proposals set out in Bull. zool. 
Norn. vol. 41 , p. 257. At the close of the voting period on 1 7 July 1 986 the state 
of the voting was: 

Affirmative votes — twenty (20) received in the following order: 
Melville, Holthuis, Savage, Cocks, Kabata, WilUnk, Mroczkowski, Corliss, 
Starobogatov, Halvorsen, Schuster, Hahn, Ueno, Thompson, Alvarado, 
Ride, Bayer, Kraus, Cogger, Dupuis 

Affirmative Votes — none (0). 

No vptes were returned by Bernardi, Heppell, Lehtinen and Trjapitzin. 
Gruchy was on leave of absence. 

ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references to the names placed on 
Official Lists and an Official Index by the ruling given in the present Opinion: 
Alyattes Kinberg, 1867, Ofvers. K. Vetenskad. Fork., Stockholm, vol. 23, 

p. 97 
complanatus, Lumbricus, Duges, 1828, Ann. Set. not., vol. 15, p. 289 
Incolore Omodeo, 1952, Arch. zool. itai, vol. 37, p. 46 
lacteus, Lumbricus, Orley, 1885, Ertek. Term. tud. Kor., vol. 15, p. 21 
Octodrilus Omodeo, 1956, Arch. zool. ital, vol. 41, p. 206 
Octolasia Rosa, 1893, Boll. Musei Zool. Anat. comp. R. Univ. Torino, No. 

246, vol. 11, p. 3 
Octolasion Orley, 1885, Ertek. Term. tud. Kor. vol. 15, p. 13 
Octolasium Michaelsen, 1900, Tierreich, vol. 10, p. 504. 

CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper ( 1 986) 29 were cast 
as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper have been 
duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so taken, being 
the decision of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 
is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1403. 

P. K. TUBBS 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
18 July 1986 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 237 



OPINION 1404 

INDODORYLAIMUS ELONGATUS BAQRI, 1982 DESIGNATED 

AS TYPE SPECIES OF INDODORYLAIMUS ALI & PRABHA, 

1974 (NEMATODA, DORYLAIMIDA) 



Ruling. — (1) Under the plenary powers all type designations for 
the nominal genus Indodorylaimus Ali «fe Prabha, 1974 are set aside and 
Indodorylaimus elongatus Baqri, 1982 is designated as type species. 

(2) The name Indodorylaimus Ali & Prabha, 1974 (gender: masculine), 
type species by designation under the plenary powers in (1) above, Indodory- 
laimus elongatus Baqri, 1982, is hereby placed on the Official List of Generic 
Names in Zoology. 

(3) The name elongatus Baqri, 1982, as published in the binomen 
Indodorylaimus elongatus (specific name of the type species of Indodory- 
laimus Ali & Prabha, 1974) is hereby placed on the Official List of Specific 
Names in Zoology. 

HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)2335 

An application for the designation of Indodorylaimus elongatus Baqri, 
1982 as type species of Indodorylaimus Ah & Prabha, 1974 was first received 
from Dr Q. H. Baqri {Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta) on 19 February 
1980. After correspondence a revised draft was published in Bull. zool. Nom., 
vol. 39, pp. 57-58 (March 1982). Additional information concerning a lecto- 
type designation for Indodorylaimus elongatus Baqri, 1982 was received and 
published in vol. 39, p. 285. Public notice of the possible use of the plenary 
powers in the case was given in the same part of the Bulletin as well as being 
sent to nine general and seven specialist serials. A comment from Dr Siddiqui 
{Commonwealth Institute of Parasitology , U.K.) was received and published 
with a reply from Dr Baqri in Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 41, pp. 137-138. 

DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 1 7 April 1 986 the members of the Commission were invited to vote 
under the Three-Month Rule for or against the proposals set out in Bull. zool. 
Nom., vol. 39, pp. 57-58. At the close of the voting period on 17 July 1986 the 
state of the voting was: 

Affirmative Votes — seventeen (17) received in the following order: 
Melville, Savage, Cocks, Kabata, Mroczkowski, Corliss, Starobogatov, 
Schuster, Halvorsen, Hahn, Ueno, Thompson, Alvarado, Ride, Bayer, 
Kraus, Cogger 

Negative Votes — three (3) received in the following order: Holthuis, 
WilHnk, Kraus. 

No votes were returned by Bernardi, Dupuis, Heppell, Lehtinen and 
Trjapitzin. Gruchy was on leave of absence. 



238 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 



ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references to the names placed on 
Official Lists by the ruling in the present Opinion: 
elongatus, Indodorylaimus, Baqri, 1982, Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 39, p. 57 
Indodorylaimus Ah & Prabha, 1974, Nematologica, vol. 19, p. 486. 

CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper ( 1 986) 2 1 were cast 
as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper have been 
duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so taken, being 
the decision of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 
is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1404. 

P. K. TUBES 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
18 July 1986 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 239 



OPINION 1405 

APHELINUS MYTILASPIDIS LE BARON, 1870 (INSECTA, 

HYMENOPTERA): CONSERVED 



RULING. — (1) Under the plenary powers the specific name albidus 
Westwood, 1837, as published in the binomen Agonioneurus albidus, is 
hereby suppressed for the purpose of the Principle of Priority but not for that 
of the Principle of Homonymy. 

(2) The name mytilaspidis Le Baron, 1870, as published in the 
binomen Aphelinus mytilaspidis, is hereby placed on the Official List of 
Specific Names in Zoology. 

(3) The name albidus Westwood, 1837, as pubUshed in the binomen 
Agonioneurus albidus, and as suppressed under the plenary powers in (1) 
above, is hereby placed on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Specific 
Names in Zoology. 

HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)2320 

An application for the conservation of Aphelinus mytilaspidis Le 
Baron, 1870 was first received from Professor D. Rosen {The Hebrew 
University, Rehovot, Israel) and Dr P. DeBach {University of California, 
U.S.A.) on 1 October 1979. After correspondence a revised draft was pub- 
lished in Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 39, pp. 73-76 (March 1982). Public notice of 
the possible use of the plenary powers in the case was given in the same part 
of the Bulletin as well as to nine general and nine specialist serials. A com- 
ment was received from several workers from the British Museum (Natural 
History) and the Commonwealth Institute of Entomology, London, and 
pubhshed in Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 40, pp. 70-71. A reply from Professor 
Rosen was published in vol. 42, pp. 214-215. No further comments were 
received. 

DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 1 7 April 1 986 the members of the Commission were invited to vote 
under the Three-Month Rule for or against the proposals set out in Bull. zool. 
Nom.,\o\. 39, p. 74. At the close of the voting period on 17 July 1986 the state 
of the voting was: 

Affirmative Votes — sixteen (16) received in the following order: 
Melville, Savage, Cocks, Kabata, WiUink, Coriiss, Starobogatov, Schuster, 
Halvorsen, Ueno, Thompson, Alvarado, Ride, Bayer, Kraus, Cogger 

Negative Votes — three (3) received in the following order: Holthuis, 
Mroczkowski, Hahn. 

No votes were returned by Bemardi, Dupuis, Heppel, Lehtinen and 
Trjapitzin. Gruchy was on leave of absence. 



240 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 



In voting against, Professor Dr Hahn said that he was not convinced 
that albidus was so definitely a synonym of mytilaspidis that it should be 
suppressed, although he supported precedence for mytilaspidis. 

ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references to the names placed on an 
Official List and an Official Index by the ruling given in the present Opinion: 
albidus, Agonioneurus , Westwood, 1837, Phil. Mag., ser. 3, vol. 10, p. 442 
mytilaspidis, Aphelinus, Le Baron, 1870, Amer. Entomol. Bot., vol. 2, p. 360. 

CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper ( 1 986) 1 9 were cast 
as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper have been 
duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so taken, being 
the decision of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 
is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1405. 

P. K. TUBBS 

Executive Secretary 

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
18 July 1986 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 241 



OPINION 1406 

PHALAENA STAGNATA DONOVAN, 1806 DESIGNATED AS 

TYPE SPECIES OF NYMPHULA SCHRANK, 1802 (INSECTA, 

LEPIDOPTERA) 



RULING. — (1) Under the plenary powers all type designations for 
the nominal genus Nymphula are set aside and Phalaena stagnata Donovan, 
1806 is designated as type species. 

(2) The name Nymphula Schrank, 1802 (gender: feminine), type 
species by designation under the plenary powers in (1) above Phalaena 
stagnata Donovan, 1 806, is hereby placed on the Official List of Generic 
Names in Zoology. 

(3) The name stagnata Donovan, 1806, as published in the binomen 
Phalaena stagnata (specific name of the type species oi Nymphula Schrank, 
1802) is hereby placed on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology. 



HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)2384 

An application to designate Phalaena stagnata Donovan, 1806 as 
type species of Nymphula Schrank, 1802 was first received from Dr D. S. 
Fletcher and Dr I. W. B. Nye {Department of Entomology , British Museum 
(Natural History). London) on 22 June 1981 and published in Bull. zool. 
Norn., vol. 39, pp. 208-21 1 (September 1982). Public notice of the possible 
use of the plenary powers in the case was given in the same part of the Bulletin 
as well as to nine general and nine specialist serials. A comment was received 
from Dr W. Speidel {Karlsruhe, BRD) and published in Bull. zoo. Norn., vol. 
42, pp. 7-8. Following correspondence between Dr Speidel, Dr Nye and the 
Secretariat it was agreed that Dr Speidel should submit a separate case on the 
nitidulaj stagnata synonymy problem. The Commission was therefore asked 
to vote on the original proposals alone. 



DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 1 7 April 1 986 the members of the Commission were invited to vote 
under the Three-Month Rule for or against the proposals set out in Bull. zool. 
Nom. vol. 39, pp. 210-21 1. At the close of the voting period on 17 July 1986 
the state of the voting was: 

Affirmative Votes — nineteen (19) received in the following order: 
Melville, Holthuis, Savage, Cocks, Kabata, Willink, Mroczkowski, Corliss, 
Starobogatov, Schuster, Halvorsen, Hahn, Ueno, Thompson, Alvarado, 
Ride, Bayer, Kraus, Cogger 

Negative Votes — none (0). 

No votes were returned by Bernardi, Dupuis, Heppell, Lehtinen and 
Trjapitzin. Gruchy was on leave of absence. 



242 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 



ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references to the names placed on 
Official Lists by the ruling given in the present Opinion: 
Nymphula Schrank, 1802, Fauna Boica, vol. 2(2), p. 162 
stagnata, Phalaena, Donovan, 1806, Nat. Hist. Br. Insects, vol. 1 1, p. 10. 

CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper ( 1 986) 20 were cast 
as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper have been 
duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so taken, being 
the decision of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 
is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1406. 

P. K. TUBES 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
18 July 1986 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 243 



OPINION 1407 

LAMIA AETHIOPS FABRICIUS, 1775 DESIGNATED AS TYPE 

SPECIES OF CEROPLESIS SERVILLE, 1835 (INSECTA, 

COLEOPTERA) 

RULING. — (1) Under the plenary powers all type species designa- 
tions for the nominal genus Ceroplesis Serville, 1835 are set aside and Lamia 
aethiops Fabricius, 1 775 is designated as type. 

(2) The following names are hereby placed on the Official List of 
Generic Names in Zoology: 

(a) Ceroplesis Serville, 1835 (gender: masculine) type species by 
designation under the plenary powers in (1) above, Lamia 
aethiops Fabricius, 1 775; 

(b) Diastocera Dejean, 1835 (gender: feminine), type species by 
monotypy. Lamia trifasciata Fabricius, 1775. 

(3) The following names are hereby placed on the Official List of 
Specific Names in Zoology: 

(a) aethiops Fabricius, 1775, as published in the binomen Lamia 
aethiops (specific name of the type species of Ceroplesis Serville, 
1835); 

(b) trifasciata Fabricius, 1 775, as published in the binomen Lamia 
trifasciata (specific name of the type species of Diastocera 
Dejean, 1835). 



HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)2180 

An application to designate Lamia trifasciata Fabricius, 1 775 as type 
species oi Ceroplesis Serville, 1835, was first received from Dr R. C. Marinoni 
(Universidade Federal do Parana, Brazil) on 14 May 1976. After correspon- 
dence a revised draft was published in Bull. zool. Nam., vol. 40, p. 248 
(December 1983). Public notice of the possible use of the plenary powers in 
the case was given in the same part of the Bulletin as well as to nine general 
and eight specialist serials. No comment was received. 



DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 1 7 April 1986 the members of the Commission were invited to vote 
under the Three-Month Rule for or against the proposals set out in Bull. zool. 
Nom., vol. 40, p. 248. At the close of the voting period on 17 July 1986 the 
state of the voting was: 

Affirmative Votes — nineteen (19) received in the following order: 
Melville, Savage, Cocks, Kabata, Willink, Mroczkowski, Corliss, 
Starobogatov, Schuster, Halvorsen, Hahn, Ueno, Thompson, Alvarado, 
Ride, Bayer, Kraus, Cogger, Dupuis 

Negative Votes — two (2) Kraus, Cogger. Holthuis abstained. 



244 Bull. zool. Norn. , vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 



No votes were returned by Bernardi, Heppell, Lehtinen and Trjapitzin. 
Gruchy was on leave of absence. 

In abstaining, Dr Holthuis said that in the absence of any information 
on the frequency of usage of the two names, on the consequences of a strict 
application of the code, and on the importance of the genera in general and 
applied science, he felt unable to vote. Dr Ride requested that Diastocera be 
placed on the Official List, and this has been done since the relevant facts 
were before the Commission. 



ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references to the names placed on 
Official Lists by the ruling given in the present Opinion: 
aethiops. Lamia, Fabricius, 1775, Systema Entomologiae . p. 174 
Ceroplesis Serville, 1835, Ann. Soc. entemol. France, vol. 4, p. 93 
Diastocera Dejean, 1835, Catalogue de la collection de Coleopteres de M. le 

Compte Dejean, vol. 4, p. 342 
trifasciata, Lamia, Fabricius, 1775, Sytemata Entomologiae, p. 174. 

CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper ( 1 986) 22 were cast 
as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper have been 
duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so taken, being 
the decision of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 
is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1407. 

P. K. TUBBS 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
18 July 1986 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 245 



OPINION 1408 

HYPOCRYPH ALUS MANGIFERAE (STEBEING, 1914) GIVEN 

NOMENCLATURAL PRECEDENCE OVER CRYPHALUS INOPS 

EICHHOFF, 1872 AND HYPOTHENEMUS GRISEUS 

BLACKBURN, 1885 (INSECTA, COLEOPTERA) 

RULING. — (1) Under the plenary powers it is hereby ruled that the 
specific name mangiferae Stebbing, 1914, as published in the binomen 
Cryphalus mangiferae, is to be given nomenclatural precedence over inops 
Eichhoff, 1872, as pubhshed in the binomen Cryphalus inops, and over 
griseus Blackburn. 1885, as pubhshed in the binomen Hypothenemus griseus, 
whenever it is considered to be a synonym of either of them. 

(2) The name mangiferae Stebbing, 1 9 1 4, as published in the binomen 
Cryphalus mangiferae , is hereby placed on the Official List of Specific 
Names in Zoology with an endorsement that it is to be given nomenclatural 
precedence over inops Eichhoff, 1872, as published in the binomen Cryphalus 
inops and over griseus Blackburn, 1885, as published in the binomen 
Hypothenemus griseus, whenever it is considered to be a synonym of either 
of them. 

(3) The following names are hereby placed on the Official List of 
Specific Names in Zoology with endorsements that neither is to be given 
priority over mangiferae Stebbing, 1914, as published in the binomen 
Cryphalus mangiferae, when considered to be a synonym of that name: 

(a) inops Eichhoff, 1872, as published in the binomen Cryphalus 
inops; 

(b) griseus Blackburn, 1885, as published in the binomen 
Hypothenemus griseus. 



HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)2142 

An application for the conservation of Hypocryphalus mangiferae 
(Stebbing, 1914) was first received from Dr S. L. Wood (Brigham Young 
University, Utah, U.S.A.) on 26 August 1975. After correspondence a revised 
draft was published in Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 41, pp. 189-190 (August 1984). 
Public notice of the possible use of the plenary powers in the case was given in 
the same part of the Bulletin as well as to eleven general and eight specialist 
serials. No comment was received. 



DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 1 7 April 1 986 the members of the Commission were invited to vote 
under the Three-Month Rule for or against the proposals set out in Bull. zool. 
Nom. vol. 41 , p. 1 90. At the close of the voting period on 1 7 July 1986 the state 
of the voting was: 



246 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 



Affirmative Votes — twenty (20) received in the following order: 
Melville, Holthuis, Savage, Cocks, Kabata, Willink, Mroczkowski, Corliss, 
Starobogatov, Schuster, Halvorsen, Hahn, Ueno, Thompson, Alvarado, 
Ride, Bayer, Kraus, Cogger, Dupuis 

Negative Votes — two (2) Thompson, Ride. 

No votes were returned by Bernardi, Heppell, Lehtinen, and 
Trjapitzin. Gruchy was on leave of absence. 

Dr Ride voted against because, although he supported the conser- 
vation of the specific name mangiferae , he considered that inops and griseus 
should be suppressed for the purposes of priority. 

ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references to the names placed on an 
Official List by the ruling given in the present Opinion: 
griseus, Hypothenemus, Blackburn, 1885, Trans, r. Soc. Dublin, (2), vol. 3, 

p. 194 
inops, Cryphalus, Eichhoff, 1872, Berliner Entomol. Zeitschr., vol. 15, p. 331 
mangiferae, Cryphalus, Stebbing, 1914, Indian Forest Insects of Economic 

Importance. Coleoptera, p. 542. 

CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper (1986) 26 were cast 
as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper have been 
duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so taken, being 
the decision of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 
is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1408. 

P. K. TUBBS 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
18 July 1986 



Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 247 



OPINION 1409 

ADIANTHUS BUCATUS AMEGHINO, 1891 (MAMMALIA): 
NEOTYPE DESIGNATED 

RULING — (1) Under the plenary powers all designations of type 
specimen hitherto made for Adianthus bucatus Ameghino, 1891 are hereby 
set aside and the following specimen deposited in the Museo Argentino de 
Ciencias Naturales is hereby designated neotype: '(M.A.C.N. no. A1812, 
described and figured by Ameghino, 1 894, Bol. acad. Nac. Cien. Cordoba vol. 
13, pp. 259^52 and 1897, Bol. inst. Geogr. Argentino vol. 18, pp. 406-521, 
fig. 41)'. 

(2) The name Adianthus Ameghino, 1891 (gender: mascuUne), type 
species by monotypy, Adianthus bucatus Ameghino, 1 89 1 is hereby placed on 
the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology. 

(3) The name bucatus Ameghino, 1891, as published in the binomen 
Adianthus bucatus (specific name of type species of Adianthus Ameghino, 
1891), as interpreted by the neotype designated under the plenary powers in 
(1) above, is hereby placed on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology. 

(4) The name adianthidae Ameghino, 1891 (type genus Adianthus 
Ameghino, 1 89 1 ) is hereby placed on the Official List of Family-group names 
in Zoology. 

HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)2430 

An application for the designation of a neotype for Adianthus bucatus 
Ameghino, 1891 was first received from Dr. R. L. Cifelli {Division of 
Mammals, National Museum of Natural History, U.S.A.) and Dr. M. F. Soria 
{Departamento de Paleontologia ( Vertebrados) , Museo Argentino de Ciencias 
Naturales, Buenos Aires, Argentina) on 14 December 1982. After some corre- 
spondence a revised draft was published in Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 41, pp. 
56-57. Public notice of the possible use of plenary powers was given in the 
same part of the Bulletin as well as to ten general and six specialist serials. A 
comment was received from Dr. R. M. Schoch ( Yale University, U.S.A.) and 
published in Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 41, pp. 208-21 1. RepHes from Cifelli and 
Soria were published in Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 42, pp. 103-109. 

DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 17 April 1986 the members of the Commission were invited to vote 
under the Three-Month Rule for or against the proposals set out in Bull. zool. 
//ow., vol. 41, pp. 56-57. At the close of the voting period on 17 July 1986 the 
state of the voting was: 

Affirmative Votes — sixteen (16) received in the following order: 
Melville, Holthuis, Savage, Cocks, Kabata, Corliss, Starobogatov, Schuster, 
Halvorsen, Ride, Ueno, Alvarado, Bayer, Kraus, Cogger, Dupuis 



248 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 



Negative Votes — three (3) received in the following order: Willink, 
Hahn, Thompson. 

Mroczkowski abstained. No votes were returned by Bernardi, 
Heppell, Lehtinen and Trjapitzin. Gruchy was on leave of absence. 

ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references to the names placed on 
Official Lists by the ruling given in the present Opinion: 
Adianthus Ameghino, 1891, Rev. Argentina Hist. nat. vol. 1, p. 134 
bucatus, Adianthus Ameghino, 1891, Rev. Argentina Hist. nat. vol. 1, p. 134 
ADIANTHIDAE Amcghino, 1891, Rev. Argentina Hist. nat. vol. 1, p. 134. 

CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper ( 1 986) 23 were cast 
as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper have been 
duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so taken, being 
the decision of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 
is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1409. 

P. K. TUBBS 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
18 July 1986 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 249 



OPINION 1410 

WILLI AMI A MONTEROSATO, 1884 (MOLLUSCA, 
GASTROPODA): CONSERVED 

RULING — (1) Under the plenary powers the following generic 
names: 

(a) Allerya Morch, 1877, and 

(b) Brondelia Bourguignat, 1862 

are hereby suppressed for the purpose of the Principle of Priority but not for 
that of the Principle of Homonymy. 

(2) The name Williamia Monterosato, 1884 (gender: feminine), type 
species, by monotypy, AncylusgussoniO. G. Costa, 1829, is hereby placed on 
the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology. 

(3) The mmQgussoniO. G. Costa, 1829, as pubhshed in the binomen 
Ancylus gussoni (specific name of the type species of Williamia Monterosato 
1884) is hereby placed on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology. 

(4) The following names: 

(a) Allerya Morch, 1877 and 

(b) Brondelia Bourguignat, 1862 

as suppressed under the plenary powers in (1) above, are hereby placed on the 
Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Generic Names in Zoology. 



HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)2237 

An application for the conservation of Williamia Monterosato, 1884 
was received from Dr H. B. Rehder {National Museum of Natural History, 
Washington, U.S.A.) on 15 November 1977. After correspondence a revised 
draft was published in Bull. zool. Nom., vol 41, pp. 159-162. Public notice of 
the possible use of the plenary powers in the case was given in the same part 
of the Bulletin as well as to eleven general and one specialist serials. A 
supportive comment was received from Dr W. O. Cernohorsky {Auckland 
Institute and Museum, New Zealand). 



DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 1 7 April 1 986 the members of the Commission were invited to vote 
under the Three-Month Rule for or against the proposals set out in Bull. zool. 
Nom. vol. 41 pp. 159-162. At the close of the voting period on 17 July 1986 
the state of the voting was: 

Affirmative votes — eighteen (18) received in the following order: 
Melville, Holthuis, Savage, Cocks, Kabata, Willink, Mroczkowski, Corliss, 
Schuster, Halvorsen, Hahn, Ride, Ueno, Thompson, Alvarado, Bayer, 
Kraus, Dupuis 



250 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 



Negative votes — one (1): Starobogatov. 

No votes were returned by Bernardi, Cogger, Heppell, Lehtinen, and 
Trjapitzin. Gruchy was on leave on absence. 

ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references to the names placed on 
Official Lists and an Official Index by the ruling given in the present Opinion: 
Allerya Morch, 1877a, Observations sur I'Ancylus gussoni, Costa, et le 

nouveau sous-genre Allerya. J. Conchy liol., vol. 25(2), p. 210 
Brondelia Bourguignat, 1862, Notices monographiques sur les genres 

Gundlachia. Poeyiaei Brondelia. Rev. Mag. Zool. (2) vol. 14, p. 20 
gussoni, Ancylus, Costa, 1829, Osservazioni Zoologiche intorno ai Testacei 

dell'isola di Pantelleria, p. 10 
Williamia Monterosato, 1884, Nomenclatura generica e specifica di alcune 

Conchiglie mediterranee.p. 150. 

CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper (1986) 25 were cast as 
set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper have been 
duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so taken, being 
the decision of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 
is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1410. 

P. K. TUBBS 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
18 July 1986 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 251 



OPINION 1411 

DRYMUS RYEII DOUGLAS & SCOTT, 1865 (INSECTA, 
HEMIPTERA): NEOTYPE SET ASIDE 

RULING . — ( 1 ) Under the plenary powers the neotype designated by 
Le Quesne, 1956, is hereby set aside. 

(2) The name ryeii Douglas & Scott, 1865, as published in the tri- 
nomen Drymus sylvaticus ryeii and as defined by reference to the lectotype 
designated in Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 41, p. 263, is hereby placed on the Official 
List of Specific Names in Zoology. 



HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)1214 

An application to set aside the neotype for the nominal species 
Drymus ryeii Douglas & Scott, 1865 was first received from Mr L. Jessop 
{Department of Entomology, British Museum (Natural History ) , London) on 
14 June 1982. After correspondence a revised draft was pubhshed in Bull, 
zool. Nom., vol. 41, pp. 263-264 (November 1984). Public notice of the 
possible use of the plenary powers in the case was given in the same part of the 
Bulletin as well as to ten general and nine specialist serials. No comment was 
received. 



DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 17 April 1986 the members ofthe Commission were invited to vote 
under the Three-Month Rule for or against the proposals set out in Bull. zool. 
Nom., vol. 41, p. 263. At the close ofthe voting period on 17 July 1986 the 
state ofthe voting was: 

Affirmative Votes — twenty (20) received in the following order: 
Melville, Holthuis, Savage, Cocks, Kabata, Willink, Mroczkowski, Corliss, 
Starobogatov, Halvorsen, Schuster, Hahn, Ueno, Thompson, Alvarado, 
Ride, Bayer, Kraus, Cogger, Dupuis 

Negative Votes — none (0). 

No votes were returned by Bernardi, Heppell, Lehtinen and 
Trjapitzin. Gruchy was on leave of absence. 



ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following is the original reference to the name placed on an 
Official List by the ruling given in the present Opinion: 
ryeii, Drymus sylvaticus, Douglas & Scott, 1 865, The British Hemiptera, vol. 1 

Hemiptera, Heteroptera, p. 197. 



252 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 



CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper ( 1 986) 3 1 were cast 
as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper have been 
duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so taken, being 
the decision of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 
is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1411. 

P. K. TUBES 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
18 July 1986 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 253 



OPINION 1412 

LEPTOCLINUM FULGENS MILNE EDWARDS 1841 

DESIGNATED AS TYPE SPECIES OF LEPTOCLINUM MILNE 

EDWARDS, 1841 (TUNICATA, ASCIDIAEA) 

RULING.— ( 1 ) Under the plenary powers all type designations for 
the nominal genus Leptoclinum Milne Edwards, 1841 are set aside and 
Leptoclmunifulgem Milne Edwards, 1841 is designated as type species 

(2) The following names are hereby placed on the Official List of 
Generic Names in Zoology: 

(a) Diplosoma MacDonald, 1859 (gender: neuter) type species by 
monotypy, Diplosoma ravneri MacDonald, 1859 (subjective 
synonym at the date of this ruling of Leptoclinum listehanum 
Milne Edwards, 1841) 

(b) Leptoclinum Milne Edwards, 1841 (gender: neuter) type 
species, by designation under the plenary powers in (1) above 
Leptoclinum fulgens Milne Edwards, 1 84 1 ; 

(c) Didemnum Savigny, 1816 (gender: neuter)'type species, by sub- 
sequent designation by Hartmeyer, 1909, Didemnum candidum 
Savigny, 1816. 

(3) The following names are hereby placed on the Official List of 
Specihc Names in Zoology: 

(a) listerianum Milne Edwards, 1841, as published in the binomen 

Leptoclinum listerianum (subjective synonym at the date of this 

ruling of the type species of Diplosoma MacDonald 1 859)- 
{h) fulgens Milne Edwards, 1841, as pubhshed in the binomen 

Leptoclinum fulgens (specific name of the type species of 

Leptoclinum Milne Edwards, 1841); 
(c) candidum Savigny, 1 8 1 6, as published in the binomen Didemnum 

candidum (specific name of the type species of Didemnum 

Savigny, 1816). 



HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N(S.)1766 

An application for the conservation of Z)/>/o.yoma MacDonald 1859 
was first received from Dr F. W. Rowe (then of the British Museum (Natural 
//w/oo'j London) on 30 June 1966. The case was published in Bull zool 
^^''"o • xT ?' PP- ^"^^-^^^ (December 1966). A comment was received from 
f- Mather (f//,/v^r5/0' of Queensland. Australia) and published in Bull 
zool. A^om. vol. 25, pp. 131-132 (January 1969). A reply from Dr Rowe was 
received and published in vol. 28, p. 73 (December 1971). After correspon- 
dence between Dr Rowe and the Secretariat a revised application involving 



254 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 



the designation of a type species for Leptoclinum Milne Edwards, 1841, was 
published in Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 41, pp. 260-262. Public notice of the 
possible use of the plenary powers was given in the same part of the Bulletin 
as well as to ten general and three specialist serials. No further comments 
were received. 

DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 17 April 1986 the members of the Commission were invited to 
vote under the Three-Month Rule for or against the proposals set out in Bull, 
zool. Norn. vol. 4 1 , p. 26 1 . At the close of the voting period on 1 7 July 1 986 the 
state of the voting was: 

Affirmative Votes — nineteen (19 received in the following order: 
Melville, Holthuis, Savage, Cocks, Kabata, WiUink, Mroczkowski, Corliss, 
Starobogatov, Halvorsen, Schuster, Hahn, Ueno, Thompson, Alvarado, 
Ride, Bayer, Kraus, Cogger 

Negative Votes — none (0). 

No votes were returned by Bernardi, Dupuis, Heppell, Lehtinen and 
Trjapitzin. Gruchy was on leave of absence. 



ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references to the names placed on 
Official Lists by the ruling in the present Opinion: 
candidum, Didemnum, Savigny, 1816, Memoir es sur les animaux sans 

vertebres, part 2, pp. 14, 194 
Didemnum Savigny, 1816, Memoires sur les animaux sans vertebres, part 2, 

pp. 14,20,138,184 
Diplosoma, MacDonald, 1859, Trans. Lin. Soc. London, vol. 22(4), p. 375 
fulgens, Leptoclinum. Milne Edwards, 1841, Mem. Acad. Sci. Inst. France, 

vol. 18, p. 299 
Leptoclinum Milne Edwards, 1841, Mem. Acad. Sci. Inst. France, vol. 18, 

p. 297 
listerianum, Leptoclinum, Milne Edwards, 1841, Mem. Acad. Sci. Inst. 

France, vol. 18, p. 300. 

The following is the original reference to the subsequent designation 
of a type species for the nominal genus Didemnum Savigny, 1816: of 
Didemnum candidum Savigny, 1816 by Hartmeyer, 1909, S. B. Ges. naturf. 
Freunde Berl, 1909 (9): 578. 

CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper ( 1 986) 30 were cast 
as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper have been 



BM. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1 986 255 

is .ru„ recorded';^ ;r„rOp?„rNr I4°f °°'°*'^^' ^--^'-- 

p. K. TUBBS 

International Commission on ZooloficTZmfndatZ'e 

London 
J8 July J 986 



256 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 



OPINION 1413 

DELPHINUS TRUNCATUS MONTAGU, 1821 (MAMMALIA, 
CETACEA): CONSERVED 

RULING. — (1) Under the plenary powers the specific name 
nesamack Lacepede, 1 804, as published in the binomen Delphinus nesarnack, 
is hereby suppressed for the purpose of the Principle of Priority but not for 
that of the Principle of Homonymy. 

(2) The name truncatus Montagu, 1821, as published in the binomen 
Delphinus truncatus, is hereby placed on the Official List of Specific Names in 
Zoology. 

(3) The name nesarnack, Lacepede, 1 804, as published in the binomen 
Delphinus nesarnack and as suppressed under the plenary powers in (1) 
above, is hereby placed on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Specific 
Names in Zoology. 

HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)2082 

An application for the conservation oi Delphinus truncatus Montagu, 
1821 was received from Dr D. W. Rice {National Marine Mammal Labora- 
tory. Seattle, Washington, U.S.A.) on 21 June 1965. For various reasons the 
case was not proceeded with until a revised draft was published in Bull. zool. 
Nom., vol. 41, pp. 274^275. Public notice of the possible use of the plenary 
powers in the case was given in the same part of the Bulletin as well as to ten 
general serials and five speciahst serials. No comment was received. 

DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 1 7 April 1 986 the members of the Commission were invited to vote 
under the Three-Month Rule for or against the proposals set out in Bull. zool. 
Nom. vol. 4 1 , p. 275. At the close of the voting period on 1 7 July 1986 the state 
of the voting was as follows: 

Affirmative Votes — eighteen (18) received in the following order: 
Melville, Holthuis, Savage, Cocks, Kabata, WiUink, Coriiss, Starobogatov, 
Halvorsen, Schuster, Hahn, Ride, Ueno, Thompson, Alvarado, Bayer, 
Kraus, Dupuis 

Negative Vote — one (1) Mroczkowski. 

No votes were returned by Bemardi, Cogger, Heppell, Lehtinen, and 
Trjapitzin. Gruchy was on leave on absence. 

ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references to the names placed on an 
Official List and an Official Index by the ruling given in the present Opinion: 



Bull. zool. Nom.. vol. 43, pt 3, October 1 986 257 



nesarnack, DelphinushiLchYiidtA^OA. Hist. not. cetaces.\o\AQ p 307 pi 15 
fig. 2 , , . , 

truncatus. Delphinus Montagu, 1821, Mem. Wemerian not. Hist Soc vol 3 
p. 75, pi. 3. ■ ■ ' 

CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper ( 1 986) 32 were cast 
as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper have been 
duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so taken, being 
the decision of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 
is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1413 

P. K. TUBBS 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
18 July 1986 



258 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 



OPINION 1414 

PANOPEA MENARD DE LA GROYE, 1807 (MOLLUSCA, 

BIVALVIA): CONSERVED 



RULING. — (1) Under the plenary powers: 

(a) the generic name Glycimeris Lamarck, 1799 is hereby sup- 
pressed for the purpose of the Principle of Priority but not for 
that of the Principle of Homonymy; 

(b) the generic name Panope Menard de la Groye, 1 807 is hereby 
suppressed for the purpose of the Principle of Priority but not 
for that of the Principle of Homonymy. 

(2) The following names are hereby placed on the Official List of 
Generic Names in Zoology: 

(a) Cyrtodaria Reuss, 1801 (gender: feminine), type species by sub- 
sequent monotypy, Mya siliqua Spengler, 1793; 

(b) Glycymeris da Costa, 1778 (gender: feminine), type species by 
absolute tautonymy, Area glycymeris Linnaeus, 1758; 

(c) Panopea Menard de la Groye, 1807 (gender: feminine), type 
species by subsequent designation by Children, 1823, Panopea 
aldrovandi Menard de la Groye, 1 807 (subjective synonym at the 
date of this ruling Mya glycimeris Born, 1 778); 

(d) Pectmculus da Costa, 1778 (gender: masculine), type species by 
subsequent designation by Juke-Browne, 1911, Pectmculus 
capillaceus da Costa, 1778 (an objective synonym of Venus 
e.vo/e/a Linnaeus, 1758). 

(3) The following names are hereby placed on the Official List of 
Specific Names in Zoology: 

(a) siliqua Spengler, 1793, as published in the binomen Mya siliqua 
(specific name of the type species o{ Cyrtodaria Reuss, 1801); 

(b) glycymeris Linnaeus, 1758, as published in the binomen Area 
glvcvmeris (specific name of the type species of Glycymeris da 
Costa, 1778); 

(c) glycimeris Born, 1778, as published in the binomen Mya glyci- 
meris (valid name at the time of this ruling of the type species of 
Panopea Menard de la Groye, 1 807); 

(d) exoleta Linnaeus, 1758, as published in the binomen Venus 
exoleta (valid specific name for the type species of Pectunculus 
da Costa, 1778). 

(4) The name glycymerididae Newton, 1916 (type genus Glycymeris 
da Costa, 1778) is hereby placed on the Official List of Family-group Names 
in Zoology. 

(5) The following names are hereby placed on the Official Index of 
Rejected and Invalid Generic Names in Zoology: 

(a) Glycimeris Lamarck, 1799, as suppressed under the plenary 
powers in (1) (a) above; 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 259 



(b) Glycimeris Lamarck, 1801, a junior homonym of Glycimeris 
Lamarck, 1799; 

(c) Panope Menard de la Groye, 1807, as suppressed under the 
plenary powers in (l)(b) above; 

(d) Pectunculus hamdivck, 1799, a junior homonym of P^c/w«c«/m5 
da Costa, 1778. 

(6) The following names are hereby placed on the Official Index of 
Rejected and Invalid Specific Names in Zoology: 

(a) capillaceus da Costa, 1778, as published in the binomen 
Pectunculus capillaceus (a junior objective synonym of exoleta 
Linnaeus, 1758, as published in the binomen Venus exoleta); 

(b) orbicularis da Costa, 1778, as published in the binomen Glycy- 
meris orbicularis (a junior objective synonym of glycymeris 
Linnaeus, 1758, as published in the binomen Area glycymeris). 



HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)1049 

An application for the conservation o{ Panopea Menard de la Groye, 
1807 was first received from Professor H. E. Yokes (Tulane University, New 
Orleans, U.S.A.). During the period of correspondence that followed a 
similar application from the late Dr L. R. Cox {British Museum (Natural 
History), London) was received. With the agreement of both the authors 
a joint application was sent to the printers on 22 September 1960 and 
pubHshed in Bull. zool. Nom, vol. 18, pp. 184-188 (1961). 

A comment was received from Dr L. B. Holthuis {Rijksmuseum van 
Natuurlijke Historic, Leiden) pointing out that Menard de la Groye' s pamph- 
let Memoire sur un nouveau genre de coquille bivalve-equivalve . . . of January 
1807 must be treated as having been published for the purposes of the Code, 
so that in consequence the generic name Panope should be suppressed under 
the plenary powers. Mr D. Heppell {Royal Scottish Museum) discovered 
earlier references to the family names pectunculidae and glycymerididae. 
Further comments from Dr R Robertson (then of The Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia, U.S.A.) and Professor H. E. Yokes {Tulane 
University, New Orleans. U.S.A.) provided evidence of usage for the three 
names Panope, Panopea and Panopaea for the genus centrally involved. 

In 1983 the case was updated and completely rewritten. It was 
published in Bull. zool. Nom.. vol. 40, pp. 179-183. Public notice of the 
possible use of the plenary powers in the case was given in the same part of the 
Bulletin as well as to seven general and one specialist serial. No comment was 
received. 

DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 16 September 1985 the members of the Commission were invited 
to vote under the Three-Month Rule for or against the proposals set out in 



260 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 



Bull. zool. Nom. vol. 40, p. 182-183. At the close of the voting period on 16 
December 1985 the state of the voting was as follows: 

Affirmative Votes — twenty one (21) received in the following order: 
Melville, Holthuis, Cocks, Willink, Mroczkowski, Savage, Kabata, Corliss, 
Alvarado, Ueno, Hahn, Starobogatov, Trjapitzin, Cogger, Lehtinen (in 
part), Schuster, Bernardi, Ride, Thompson, Halvorsen, Heppell 

Negative Votes — none (0). 

Dupuis abstained. No votes were returned by Bayer, Gruchy, Kraus 
and Zheng. Lehtinen voted against those parts of the proposals which 
selected the spelling Panopea rather than Panope, because the latter was the 
original form and had considerable usage. 

Hahn pointed out that Myaglycimeris Born, 1778 is mentioned in the 
Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology as type species o{ Panopea Menard de 
la Groye, 1807. Investigation revealed that the designation, by Fleming, 
1818, is invalid because Mya glycimeris Born was not one of the species 
originally included in Panopea. As glycimeris Bom, 1778 is a senior synonym 
ofaldrovandi Menard, 1 807, it has been placed on the Official List rather than 
its junior synonym. 



ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references to the names placed on 
Official Lists and Official Indexes by the ruHng given in the present Opinion: 
capillaceus, Pectunculus. da Costa, 1778, British Conchology. p. 187 
Cyrtodaria Reuss, 1801, Repertorium Commentationum, vol. 1, p. 351 
exoleta, Venus, Linnaeus, 1758, Systema Naturae, ed. 10, vol. 1, p. 688 
GLYCYMERiDroAE, Ncwton, 1916, 7. Conch., vol. 15, p. 83 
glycimeris, Mya, Born, 1778, Index Rerum Naturalium Musei Caesarei 

Vindibonsis Pars 1, Testacea, p. 10 
glycymeris, Area, Linnaeus, 1758, Systema Naturae, ed. 10, vol. 1, p. 695 
Glycymeris da Costa, 1778, British Conchology, p. 168 
Glycimeris Lamarck, 1799, Mem. Soc. Phys. Hist. nat. Paris, 1799, p. 83 
Glycimeris Lamarck, 1801, Systeme des Animaux sans Vertebres, p. 126 
orbicularis, Glycymeris, da Costa, 1778, British Conchology, p. 168 
Panope Menard de la Groye, 1 807, Memoire sur un nouveau genre de coquille 

bivalve-equivalve ... p. 3 1 
Panopea Menard de la Groye, 1807, Ann. Mus. Hist. nat. Paris, p. 135 
Pectunculus da Costa, 1778 British Conchology, p. 183 
siliqua, Mya, Spengler, 1793, Skrivt. naturhist. Selskabet, vol. 3, p. 48. 

The following is the original reference to the subsequent designation 
of a type species for the nominal genus Panopea Menard de la Groye, 1807: of 
Panopea aldrovandi Menard de la Groye, 1807 by Children, 1823, Q. J. Sci. 
Lit. Arts, vol. 14, p. S4. 

The following is the original reference to the subsequent designation 
of a type species for the nominal genus Pectunculus da Costa 1778: of 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 261 



Pectunculus capillaceus da Costa, 1778 by Juke-Brown, 191 1, Proc. malac. 
Soc. London, vol. 9, p. 250. 

The following is the original reference to the subsequent designation 
of a type species for the nominal genus Cyrtodaria Reuss, 1801: oi Mya siliqua 
Spengler, 1793, by Gray, 1847, Proc. zool. Soc. London, vol. 15, p. 190. 

CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper (1 985) 40 were cast 
as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper have been 
duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so taken, being 
the decision of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 
is truly recorded in the present Opinion No . 1 4 1 4. 

P. K. TUBES 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
18 July 1986 



262 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 



OPINION 1415 
POLYGNATHUS BILINEATUS ROUND Y, 1926 DESIGNATED AS 
TYPE SPECIES OF GNATHODUS PANDER, 1856 (CONODONTA) 



RULING. — (1) Under the plenary powers all type designations for 
the nominal genus Gnathodus Pander 1856 are set aside and Polygnathus 
bilineatus Roundy, 1926 is designated as type. 

(2) The name Gnathodus Pander, 1856 (gender: mascuUne) type 
species by designation under the plenary powers in (1) above, Polygnathus 
bilineatus Roundy, 1926, is hereby placed on the Official List of Generic 
Names in Zoology. 

(3) The name bilineatus Roundy, 1926, as published in the binomen 
Polygnathus bilineatus (specific name of the type species of Gnathodus 
Pander, 1856) is hereby placed on the Official List of Specific Names in 
Zoology. 



HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)2279 

An application for the designation of Gnathodus texanus Roundy, 
1926 as type species of Gnathodus Pander, 1856 was first received from Dr 
H. R. Lane {Amoco Production Company, Tulsa, Oklahoma, U.S.A.) and 
Dr W. Ziegler (Geolog.-pdldontologisches Institut, Marburg. BRD) on 4 
September 1978, and pubUshed in Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 36, pp. 57-62 (July 
1979). Public notice of the possible use of the plenary powers in the case was 
given in the same part of the Bulletin as well as to ten general and two 
specialist serials. Supportive comments were received from Dr F. H. T. 
Rhodes {Cornell University, U.S.A.), Dr G. K. Merrill {College of Charleston, 
U.S.A.) and Dr D. L. Clark {University of Wisconsin. U.S.A.) and published, 
with the names of other supporters, in Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 36, pp. 201-202. 
Another supportive comment was received from Dr T. L. Thompson 
{Missouri Department of Natural Resources, U.S.A.) and published in vol. 37, 
p. 67. A counter comment was received from Dr H. Kozur {Staatliche 
Museen Meiningens. DDR) and published with comnaents from Lane & 
Ziegler, a reply from Kozur and a comment from Dr I. S'. Barskov {Palaeon- 
tological Institute, Moscow, U.S.S.R.) in vol. 38, pp. 83-93. A further 
comment from Dr I. S. Barskov and Dr A. S. Alekseev was received and 
pubUshed with a reply from Lane & Ziegler in vol. 39, pp. 7-13. 

An updated report on the case was published in vol. 41, pp. 205-207, 
in which it was proposed that, due to recent work by the original authors 
(Lane & Ziegler) published in Senckenbergiana lethaea. vol. 65, nos. 1-2, 
pp. 257-263, Polygnathus bilineatus Roundy, 1926 should be designated as 
type species of Gnathodus Pander, rather than Gnathodus texanus as was 
originally proposed. The ruling has been accordingly modified. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 263 



DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 17 April 1986 the members ofthe Commission were invited to vote 
under the Three-Month Rule for or against the proposals set out in Bull. zool. 
Nom. vol. 36, p. 61, as modified in vol. 41, p. 207. At the close ofthe voting 
period on 17 July 1986 the state ofthe voting was: 

Affirmative Votes — sixteen (16) received in the following order: 
Melville, Holthuis, Savage, Cocks, Kabata, Willink, Corliss, Schuster, 
Halvorsen, Hahn, Ueno, Thompson, Alvarado, Ride, Kraus, Cogger 

Negative Votes — two (2): Mroczkowski, Starobogatov. 

Dr Starobogatov remarked that he was in complete agreement with 
Professor Barskov's statements. 

ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references to the names placed on 
Official Lists by the ruhng given in the present Opinion: 
bilineatus, Polygnathus, Roundy, 1926, U.S. Geo). Surv. Prof. Paper, no. 146, 

p. 13 
Gnathodus Pander, 1856, Monographie der fossilen Fische des Silurischen 

Systems der Russisch-Baltsichen Gouvernements. p. 33. 

CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper ( 1 986) 1 7 were cast 
as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper have been 
duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so taken, being 
the decision ofthe International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 
is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1415. 

P. K. TUBES 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
18 July 1986 



264 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 



OPINION 1416 

CNETHA ENDERLEIN, 1921 AND PSEUDONEVERMANNIA 

BARANOV, 1926 (INSECTA, DIPTERA): TYPE SPECIES 

DESIGNATED; ATRACTOCERA LATIPES MEIGEN, 1804: 

CONFIRMATION OF HOLOTYPE 

RULING. — (1) Under the plenary powers all type species desig- 
nations for the nominal genera Cnetha Enderlein, 1921 and Pseudonever- 
mannia Baranov, 1926 are set aside and Simulium vernum Macquart, 1826 is 
designated as type species of both nominal genera. 

(2) It is hereby ruled that the specific name latipes. as published in the 
hxnova&n Atractocera latipes, is to be interpreted by reference to the specimen 
recognised by Crosskey & Davies, 1972, as the holotype of that species. 

(3) It is hereby ruled that the specific name vernum Macquart, 1826, as 
published in the binomen Simulia vernum, is to be interpreted by reference to 
the specimens described and figured by Davies in 1966a and 1968 under the 
name Simulium (Eusimulium) latipes. 

(4) The name Cnetha Enderlein, 1921 (gender: feminine), type species 
by designation under the plenary powers in (1) above, Simulium vernum 
Macquart, 1826, is hereby placed on the Official List of Generic Names in 
Zoology. 

(5) The following names are hereby placed on the Official List of 
Specific Names in Zoology: 

(a) latipes Meigen, 1804, as published in the binomen Atractocera 
latipes and as interpreted by references to the holotype identified 
by Crosskey & Davies, 1972; 

(b) vernum Macquart, 1826, as published in the binomen Simulia 
vernum, and as interpreted by reference to specimens described 
and figured by Davies in 1966a and 1968 under the name 
Simulium {Eusimulium) latipes, (specific name of the type 
species of Cnetha Enderlein, 1921 and Pseudonevermannia 
Baranov, 1926). 

(6) The name Pseudonevermannia Baranov, 1926 (a junior objective 
synonym of Cnetha Enderlein, 1921 through the action taken under the 
plenary powers in (1) above) is hereby placed on the OflScial Index of 
Rejected and Invalid Generic Names in Zoology. 

HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)2393 
An application to set aside the specimen considered by Crosskey and 
Davies, 1972 as holotype of Atractocera latipes Meigen, 1804, was first 
received from Professor I. A. Rubtsov {Zoological Institute, Leningrad, 
U.S.S.R.) on 19 October 1981. After correspondence it was published 
concurrently with a comment from Dr R. W. Crosskey {Department of 
Entomology, British Museum (Natural History) London) in Bull. zool. Norn., 
vol. 41, pp. 83-93 (June 1984). Public notice of the possible use of the plenary 
powers in the case was given in the same part of the Bulletin as well as to ten 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 265 



general and ten specialist serials. Support for Dr Crosskey's proposals was 
received from Dr D. C. Currie {University of Alberta, Canada) and Dr T. K. 
Crosby {DSIR, New Zealand) and published in vol. 41, p. 21 1. A counter 
comment was received from Dr I. M. Kerzhner {Zoological Institute, 
Leningrad, U.S.S.R.) and published in conjunction with comments from Dr 
H. Zwick {Max-Planck-Instituts f. Limnologie, BRD) and Dr J. E. Raastad 
{Zoological Museum, Oslo, Norway) and a reply from Dr Crosskey, in vol. 
42, pp. 109-123. 

During the time between publication of these comments and voting, 
Simulium ( Hellichiella) latipes (Meigen, 1804) was recorded from South- 
west Germany. This information was made known on the voting paper. 



DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 1 7 April 1 986 the members of the Commission were invited to vote 
under the Three-Month Rule for proposals set out in Bull. zool. Norn. vol. 41 , 
p. 85 (Alternative A) or the proposals set out in Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 42, p. 
121 (Alternative B). At the close of the voting period on 17July 1986 the state 
of the voting was as follows: 

Alternative A — two (2) Corliss, Starobogatov 

Alternative B — eighteen (18) received in the following order: 
Melville, Holthuis, Savage, Cocks, Kabata, Willink, Mroczkowski, 
Schuster, Halvorsen, Hahn, Ueno, Thompson, Alvarado, Ride, Bayer, 
Kraus, Cogger, Dupuis. 

No votes were returned by Bernardi, Heppell, Lehtinen and 
Trjapitzin. Gruchy was on leave of absence. 

Dr Holthuis commented: 'Had Dr Rubtsov's application been pub- 
lished immediately after the discovery by Drs Crosskey and Davies that the 
holotype specimen ofAtractocera latipes is Simulium subexcisum, I think that 
I would have voted for the establishment of a neotype [or Atractocera latipes 
in Edwards' sense. However, now that the use of the specific names vernum 
and latipes in Crosskey's sense has been accepted by numerous dipterists it 
seems wrong, at this late date, to legalize the nomenclaturally incorrect 
pre- 1972 usage, and cause renewed confusion.' 

ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references to the names placed on 
Official Lists and an Official Index by the ruling given in the present Opinion: 
Cnetha, Enderlein, 1 92 1 ( 1 6 April) Dt. tierdrztl. Wochenschrift. vol. 29, p. 1 99 
latipes, Atractocera, Meigen, 1804, Klassifikazion und Beschreibung der 

europdischen zweifliigligen Insekten. ( Diptera Linn.) Vol. 1(1), p. 96 
Pseudonevermannia Baranov, 1926, Neue. Beitr. syst. Insektenk, vol. 3, p. 164 
vernum, Simuliua, Macquart, 1826, Rec. Trav. Soc. amat. Sci. Lille 1823-4, 

1826, p. 79. 



266 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 



CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper (1986) 24 were cast 
as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper have been 
duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so taken, being 
the decision of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 
is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1416. 

P. K. TUBBS 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
18 July 1986 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 267 



OPINION 1417 

CHROMIS CUVIER IN DESMAREST, 1814 (OSTEICHTHYFS 

PERCIFORMES): GENDER CONFIRMED AS FEMIMNE 

RULING.— (1) The name Chromis Cuvier in Desmarest 1814 

LTnntn/n'ss ""'*'. '^^K '^f^l ^^ °"S'"^' designation. Spams chromis 
Linnaeus, 1758, is hereby placed on the Official List of Generic Names in 

(2) The name chromis Linnaeus, 1 758, as published in the binomen 
Sparus chromis (specific name of the type species of Chromis Cuvier in 
Desmarest, 1814) is hereby placed on the Official List of Specific Names in 
Zoology. 

(3) The application asking that the gender of the generic name 
Or^m/. Cuvier .« Desmarest, 1814 be ruled as mascuhne is refused. Since it 
was treated as feminine in the original work, under Article 30(a) (i) of the 
Code It IS so placed on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology It is to 

chTomts '" "° """^ '^'^"'' '^' ^'"^'' ^^^'"'"'^ names ending in 

HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)2329 

ir, n.cJ^" ^?^1 cfi'°"!°? '""""^ °" ^^^ ^^'"^^' of the name Chromis Cuvier 
Sr R M R '. ..'"^ °^"T'' ""^'"S ^" -'^'''^'' ^^^ fi'-^t received from 
^M. Bailey {University of Michigan, U.S.A.), Dr C. R. Robins (Univer- 
suy of Miami U.S.A.) and Dr P. H. Greenwood ^n7/./. MuseZ NauZl 
^mor^A W.„)on 23 November 1979. After somecorrespondencek^^^^^^ 
published in Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 37, pp. 247-255 (December 1980). PubHc 
notice of the possible use of the plenary powers in the case was given in the 
same part of the Bulletin as well as to nine general and two specmirserials 
A supportive comment was received from Dr W. I. Follett and Dr L j' 
Dempster (California Academy of Science, U.S.A.) and published in vol. 38* 
M, c ""rM comment was received from Dr S. O. Kullander (Swedish 
Museum of Natural History. Stockholm) and published with a comment from 
pp 21 5 218"^'^ (^^('onal Museum of Natural Sciences, Canada) in vol. 42, 

DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

under tZ^'rlt^'^ ^ M^o^'. T""^"'' ""^^^^ Commission were invited to vote 
under the Three-Month Rule for or against the proposals set out in Bull zool 

Zll' r r/.' PP- ^^^"^^^- ^' '^' '^'^^^ °f the voting period on 1 7 July 986 
the state ofthe voting was as follows: Juiy ivoo 

M.I n^ uTt^'"'^ Votes-seven (7) received in the following order- 
Melville, Holthuis, Savage, Cocks, Corliss, Starobogatov, Alvarado 



268 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 



Negative Votes — thirteen (13) received in the following order: 
Kabata, Willink, Mroczkowski, Schuster, Halvorsen, Hahn, Ueno, 
Thompson, Ride, Bayer, Kraus, Cogger, Dupuis. 

No votes were returned by Bernardi, Heppell, Lehtinen and 
Trjapitzin. Gruchy was on leave of absence. 

ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references to the names placed on 
Official Lists by the ruling given in the present Opinion: 
Chromis Cuvier in Desmarest, 1814, Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris (3), vol. 1, 

p. 88 
chromis, Sparus, Linnaeus, 1758, Systema Naturae, ed. 10, vol. 1, p. 280. 

CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper ( 1 986) 1 8 were cast 
as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper have been 
duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so taken, being 
the decision of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 
is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1417. 

P. K. TUBBS 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
18 July 1986 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 269 



RHABDODONUAJUEKO^, 1869 (REPTILIA, ORNITHISCHIA): 

PROPOSED CONSERVATION BY SUPPRESSION OF 
RHABDODON FLEISCHMANN, 1831 (REPTILIA, SERPENTES). 

Z.N.(S.) 2536 

By Winand Brinkmann {Institutfur Paldontologie, Freie Universitdt Berlin, 
Schwendenerstr. 8, D—1000 Berlin 33) 

The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature is 
asked to use its plenary powers to suppress an older homonym, which has 
been used only once, of Rhabdodon Matheron, 1869, in order to make valid 
the use of this name for a widely-spread and well-known European dinosaur. 

2. In 1831 the physician F. L. Fleischmann published his thesis 
written at the then Friedrich-Alexander Universitat, Erlangen (Fed. Rep. of 
Germany). In this paper (p. 26) he describes and shows two specimens of 
living snakes. One of them (Tafel 2) is clearly a Montpellier Snake, Malpolon 
monspessulanus Hermann, 1804, but was considered as a new genus and 
species by the author and was given the binomen Rhabdodon fuscus 
Fleischmann, 1831. My extensive attempts to discover an original specimen 
of Fleischmann's snake have been unsuccessful, and the type of Rhabdodon 
fuscus Fleischmann, 1831 must have been lost. Fleischmann himself says in a 
footnote that the specimen was kept in his private collection. 

3. A revision of the literature concerned has revealed that Rhabdodon 
Fleischmann, 1831 has not been recognized as a valid genus of snakes by any 
of the workers who have followed. Schinz (1840, p. 50) removed Rhabdodon 
Fleischmann, 1831 into synonymy. Other important publications in which 
Rhabdodon fuscus is regarded as a synonym are Boulenger (1896, vol. 3, 
p. 141), Gunther (1858, p. 138), Romer (1956, p. 579) and Schreiber (1875, 
p. 219; 1912, p. 638). Rhabdodon fuscus is not in the lists of synonymy in two 
works which are decisive for the nomenclature of European amphibians and 
reptiles (Mertens & Miiller, 1928; 1940). However, Mertens & Wermuth 
(1960, p. 185) mentioned that Rhabdodon fuscus is a synonym of Malpolon 
monspessulanus. 

4. When Rhabdodon Matheron, 1 869 (Ornithopoda) was established 
two different spellings were used by the author: Rabdodon in the text of 
Matheron (1869b), Rhabdodon in the text of Matheron (1869a) and at the top 
of the tables in Matheron (1869b). As far as I know Gaudry (1890, p. 222) 
and Zittel (1890, p. 763) were the first authors to quote this genus, and they 
adopted Rhabdodon as the correct original spelling. All later workers, includ- 
ing Matheron (1892) have adhered to this, and so Rhabdodon Matheron, 
1869 enters into homonymy with Rhabdodon Fleischmann, 1831. 

5. Rhabdodon priscus Matheron, 1869 (specific name corrected from 
priscum) is one of the dinosaurs which are known as the first representatives 
of this group of reptiles from the Upper Cretaceous of Europe. The type 
material comes from Provence and is housed in the Musee d'Histoire 
Naturelle, Palais Longchamp, Marseille. This material includes jaw-bones 



270 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 



of Rhabdodon priscus with very characteristic teeth. In the drawings pub- 
Hshed by Matheron (1869b) one important feature of the teeth of Rhabdodon 
priscus is not shown (Nopcsa, 1915). Three papers were published before 
1915 (Seeley, 1881; Nopcsa, 1902, 1904) in which Rhabdodon material from 
other parts of Europe (Austria, Romania) was described under the name 
Mochlodon Seeley, 1881 (p. 624). In 1915 Nopcsa pointed out the mistake in 
the drawings published by Matheron (1869b), and it became clear that 
Rhabdodon Matheron, 1869 is a genus of dinosaurs widely distributed 
throughout the Upper Cretaceous of Europe, including Spain (de Lapparent 
&Aguirre, 1956). 

6. The type species Rhabdodon priscus is easy to define on account 
of the morphology of its teeth. This is why Rhabdodon Matheron, 1869 can 
be clearly distinguished from other genera. I know of only two papers 
published after 1915 in which Mochlodon Seeley, 1881 is used as a name of 
the genus-group (Harland et al.. 1967, p. 716; Weishampel & Weishampel, 
1983, p. 44). All other workers have used Rhabdodon Matheron, 1869 as the 
name of this taxon in their studies of European dinosaurs from the Upper 
Cretaceous; it has become widely known and has found its way into the 
textbooks of palaeontology, e.g. Abel (1919, p. 618), Huene (1956, p. 537), 
Kuhn (1936, p. 37; 1964, p. 12), MuUer (1968, p. 472), Piveteau (1955, 
p. 836), Romer (1956, p. 629; 1966, p. 370), and Steel (1969, p. 19). It 
continues to be used at the present time. 

7. From what has been said in this paper it becomes obvious that 
Rhabdodon is by far the most frequently used name of this dinosaur from 
the Upper Cretaceous and that information on this genus can, as a rule, be 
found under Rhabdodon Matheron, 1869, whereas Rhabdodon fuscus 
Fleischmann, 1831 has remained totally unused. Furthermore, it can be 
stated that the taxonomy of European snakes is so well known that 
Rhabdodon Fleischmann, 1831 is not needed as a name of the genus-group. 

8. The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature is 
therefore asked: 

(1) to use its plenary powers to suppress the generic name Rhabdo- 
don Fleischmann, 1831 (type species, by monotypy, Rhabdodon 
fuscus Fleischmann, 1831) for the purposes of the Principles of 
Homonymy and of Priority; 

(2) to place on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology the 
name Rhabdodon Matheron, 1869 (gender: masculine), type 
species, by monotypy, Rhabdodon priscus Matheron, 1869; 

(3) to place on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology the 
name priscus Matheron, 1869, as published in the binomen 
Rhabdodon priscum Matheron, 1869 (1869a, 1869b) (specific 
name of the type species of Rhabdodon Matheron, 1869); 

(4) to place on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Generic 
Names in Zoology the name Rhabdodon Fleischmann, 1831, 
suppressed as in (1) above, for the purposes of the Principles of 
Priority and of Homonymy. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 271 



REFERENCES 

ABEL, O. 1919. Die Stdmme der Wirbeltiere . De Gruyter, Berlin und Leipzig. 

XVIII + 914pp. 
BOULENGER, G. A. 1896. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Natural 

History), Vol. 3. Trustees of the Brit. Mus. (N.H.), London. XIV + 727 pp. 
FLEISCHMANN, F. L. 1831. Dalmatiae nova serpentum genera. Heyder, Erlangen 

35 pp. 
GAUDRY, A. 1 890. Les enchainements du monde animal dans les temps geologiques: 

Fossiles secondaires. Savy, Paris. 323 pp. 
GUNTHER, A. 1858. Catalogue of colubrine snakes in the collection of the British 

Museum. Trustees of the Brit. Mus. (N.H.), London. XVI + 281 pp. 
HARLAND, W. B. et al. (Eds.) 1967. The Fossil Record. The Geological Society, 

London. XII + 828 pp. 
HUENE, F. 1956. Paldontologie und Phylogenie der Niederen Tetrapoden. Fischer, 

Jena. XII + 716 pp. 
KUHN, O. 1936. Omithischia (Stegosauriis exclusis). In Quenstedt, W. (Ed.), 

Fossilium Catalogus, I: Animaha, Pars 78, pp. 1-81. Junk, 's-Gravenhage. 

1964. Ornithischia (Supplementum I). In Westphal, F. (Ed.). Fossilium 

Catalogus, I: Animalia, Pars 105, pp. 1-80, Junk, 's-Gravenhage. 

LAPPARENT, A. F. DE & AGUIRRE, E. 1956. Algunos yacimientos de Dino- 

saurios en el Cretacico Superior de la Cuenca de Tremp. Estud. geol., vol. 12, 

pp. 377-382. 
MATHERON, P. 1869a. Note sur les reptiles fossiles des depots fluvio-lacustres 

cretaces du bassin a lignite de Fuveau. Bull. Soc. geol. France, vol. 26, pp. 

781-795. 
1869b. Notice sur les reptiles fossiles des depots fluvio-lacustres cretaces du 

bassin a Ugnite de Fuveau. Mem. Acad. Sci. Lett. Marseille, 1868-1869, pp. 

345-380. 
1 982. Sur les animaux vertebres dans les couches d'eau douce cretacees du midi 

de la France. Assoc. Franc, avancement Sci., Compte rendu de la 20me Session, 

Marseille. Seconde partie, pp. 382-383. 
MERTENS, R. & MULLER, L. 1928. Liste der Amphibien und Reptilien Europas. 

Abh. sencken. naturf Ges., vol. 41, pp. 1-62. 
1940. Die Amphibien und Reptilien Europas (Zweite Liste, nach dem Stand 

vom 1 Januar 1940). Abh. sencken. naturf. Ges., vol. 451, pp. 1-56. 
MERTENS, R. & WERMUTH, H. 1960. Die Amphibien und Reptilien Europas 

(Dritte Liste, nach dem Stand vom 1 Januar 1960). Kramer, Frankfurt. 

XI + 264 pp. 
MULLER, A. H. 1968. Lehrbuch der Paldozoologie, Band 3: Vertebraten, Teil 2: 

Reptilien und Vogel. Fischer, Jena. XIII + 657 pp. 
NOPCSA, F. 1902. Dinosaurierreste aus Siebenbiirgen II (Schadelreste von 

Mochlodon). Denkschr. Akad. Wiss., math.-nat. Kl., vol. 72, pp. 149-175. 

1904. Dinosaurierreste aus Siebenbiirgen III (Weitere Schadelreste von 

Mochlodon). Denkschr. Akad. Wiss., math.-nat. KL, vol. 74, pp. 229-263. 

1915. Die Dinosaurier des siebenbiirgischen Landesteile Ungarns. Mitt. Jb. 

ungar. geol. Reichsanst., vol. 23, pp. 3-24. 
PIVETEAU, J. (Ed.) 1955. Traite de Paleontologie , Tome V: Amphibiens-Reptiles- 

Oiseaux. Masson, Paris. 1 1 13 pp. 
ROMER, A. S. 1956. Osteology of the Reptiles. Univ. Chicago Press, Chicago. 

XXI + 772 pp. 



272 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 



1966. Vertebrate Paleontology. Univ. Chicago Press, Chicago and London. 
468 pp. 



SCHINZ, H. R. 1840. Europdische Fauna oder Verzeichnis der Wirbelthiere Europas. 

Erster Band: Saugethiere und Vogel. Schweizerbart, Stuttgart. 
SCHREIBER, E. 1875. Herpetologia europaea. Eine systematische Bearbeitung der 

Amphibien und Reptilien, welche bisher in Europa aufgefunden sind. 

Vieweg, Braunschweig. 
1912. Herpetologia europaea. Eine systematische Bearbeitung der Amphibien 

und Reptilien, welche bisher in Europa aufgefunden sind. Zweite, ganzlich 

umgearbeitete Auflage. Fischer, Jena. 
SEELEY, H. G. 1881. The reptile fauna of the Gosau formation preserved in the 

geological museum of the University of Vienna. With a note on the geological 

horizon of the fossils at Neue Welt, west of Wiener Neustadt, by Edw. Suess. 

Q. J. geol. Soc. Lond.. vol. 37, pp. 620-707. 
STEEL, R. 1969. Ornithischia. In Kuhn, O. (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Paleoherpetology , 

Part 15. Fischer, Stuttgart. V + 84 pp. 
WEISHAMPEL, D. B. & WEISHAMPEL, J. B. 1983. Annotated localities of 

ornithopod Dinosaurs: Implications to mesozoic paleobiogeography. The 

Mosasaur, vol. 1, pp. 43-87. 
ZITTEL, K. A. 1890. Handbuch der Palaeontologie . L Abth. Palaeozoologie, IIL 

Band: Vertebrata (Pisces, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves). Oldenburg. Munchen 

und Leipzig, 1887-1890. XII + 900 pp. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 273 



MEGAL0NAIAS\5TT'EK^\CK, 1915 (MOLLUSCA, BIVALVIA): 

PROPOSED CONSERVATION BY THE SUPPRESSION OF 

MAGNONAIAS UTTERBACK, 1915. Z.N.(S.)2512 

By Arthur E. Began {Department of Malacology, Academy of Natural 

Sciences, 19th and the Parkway. Philadelphia, PA, 19103, U.S.A.) and 

James D. Williams (Office of Endangered Species, U.S. Fish and midlife 

Service, Washington, D.C. 20240, U.S.A.) 



This application is for the suppression of the generic name 
Magnonaias Utterback, 1915, in the family unionidae. This is an unused, 
senior synonym of a well known genus, Megalonaias Utterback, 1915 and as 
such, poses a threat to the stability of the binomen Megalonaias gigantea 
(Barnes, 1823). A decision by the Commission is requested in order to 
prevent disruption of existing, universally accepted nomenclature. 

2. Utterback (1915a p. 47) introduced the generic name Magnonaias 
in a key to Missouri unionids and included only Unio heros Say, 1829 (pp. 
291-292) in the genus. The association of U. heros with Magnonaias consti- 
tutes an indication, satisfying the provision set forth in Article 12b (5) of the 
Code. Later in the same year (Utterback, 1915b, pp. 123-125) he described 
the genus Megalonaias and designated Unio heros Say, 1829, as type species. 
However, he did not present a discussion of the earlier generic name 
Magnonaias, nor did he include Magnonaias heros in the synonymy of 
Megalonaias heros (Say). Since both Magnonaias Utterback, 1915, and 
Megalonaias Utterback, 1915 have the same type species, Megalonaias is a 
junior objective synonym of Magnonaias. 

3. Utterback (1916a, p. 460, at the end of part VII), included an 
erratum in which he commented: 

'Some errors have been due to improper and insufficient corrections 
of the MS. which originally followed Lindahl's "Orthography of the 
Names of Naiades,'" — an article that adheres strictly to the Interna- 
tional Code. Most of the other errors are the typographical mistakes 
that usually escape even the most careful proof-reading. Vol. IV., 
No.3 — 
pg. 47 . . . line 40 for ''Magnonaias" read "Megalonaias"; . . . ' 

He recognised his error in using both Magnonaias and Megalonaias and 

corrected Magnonaias to read Megalonaias. 

4. The suggested name change in Utterback's 1 9 1 6a erratum was not 
a spelling correction, but a change of the root from the Latin magnus to the 
Greek megale. This change is not a justified emendation because the nomen 
Magnonaias was not originally mispelled. Utterback made the etymological 
change for philosophical reasons. This change is not allowed under Articles 
1 8 and 23m of the Code. The name change proposed in the erratum is an 
emendation as defined by Article 33b but is clearly an unjustified emendation 
as defined by Article 33b (iii). Thus Megalonaias Utterback, 1916, automati- 



274 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 



cally becomes a junior objective synonym of Magnonaias, in addition to 
being a junior homonym of megalonaias Utterback, 1915. The complete text 
of the naiades of Missouri published in the American Midland Naturalist 
was repaginated and reprinted in 1916 (Utterback, 1916b). 

5. The generic name Megalonaias Utterback, 1915 has been used 
extensively and exclusively in malacological literature for the species 
gigantea Barnes, 1823 {=U. heros Say, 1829). Frierson (1916, p. 64) in dis- 
cussing the synonymy of gigantea and heros used the name Megalonaias. 
Ortmann & Walker (1922, pp. 7, 8) supported Frierson's use of Megalonaias 
gigantea. Frierson (1927, p. 62) in his checklist of freshwater bivalves of 
North America, used Megalonaias as a subgenus of Amblema Rafinesque, 
1820. The genus Megalonaias has been widely used in faunal surveys such 
as those of Baker, 1928; Goodrich & van der Schalie, 1944; La Rocque, 
1953; Murray & Leonard, 1962; Parmalee, 1967; La Rocque, 1967 and 
Starobogatov, 1970. Haas (1969a, p. 284) and Burch (1975, p. 10) in surveys 
of unionids used Megalonaias. 

6. Megalonaias gigantea is a commercially important species. It was 
one of the commonly used shells in the pearl button industry and is today a 
preferred species in the Japanese cultured pearl industry (see Parmelee, 1967, 
p. 33;Oesch, 1984, p. 77). Davis & Fuller (1981, p. 241) recognised the genus 
Megalonaias but suggested that it was a synonym of Amblema. Haas (1969b, 
p. N439) used the genus Megalonaias and in the notes listed 'Megalonaias 
Utterback, \9\5[ — Magnonaias \JiXQrhdiC\i, 1915].' 

7. The genus Magnonaias Utterback, 1915 has not been used in the 
literature on North America freshwater bivalves. Yokes (1967, 1980) hsted 
Magnonaias Utterback, 1915, as the nomenclaturally valid generic name 
followed by '[cf. Megalonaias Utterback, 1915]', noting in the entry for 
Megalonaias Utterback, 1915, '[Magnonaias Utterback, 1915]'. Yokes 
(1967, p. 205) was the first to point out the priority of Magnonaias over 
Megalonaias. The listings of Haas (1969b) and Yokes (1967, 1980) are the 
only occurrences of the nomen Magnonaias in the literature since the original 
description. 

8. In order to avoid undesirable changes in nomenclature and to 
preserve the stabiHty of generic names in the unionidae, the International 
Commission on Zoological Nomenclature is asked: 

(1) to use its plenary powers to suppress the generic name 
Magnonaias Utterback, 1915, for the purposes of the Principle 
of Priority but not for those of the Principle of Homonymy; 

(2) to place the generic name Megalonaias Utterback, 1915 (gender: 
feminine), type species, by original designation, Unio heros Say, 
1829, on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology; 

(3) to place the specific name heros Say, 1829, as published in 
the binomen Unio heros (specific name of the type species of 
Megalonaias Utterback, 1915 and currently treated as a junior 
subjective synonym of Unio giganteus Barnes, 1823) on the 
Official List of Specific Names in Zoology; 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 275 



(4) to place the generic name Magnonaias Utterback, 1915, as sup- 
pressed under the plenary powers in ( 1 ) above, on the Official 
Index of Rejected and Invalid Generic Names in Zoology. 

REFERENCES 

BAKER, F. C. 1928. Freshwater Mollusca of Wisconsin. Bull. Wise. geol. nat. Hist. 

5w/-., vol. 70(2), pp. 1^95. 
BARNES, D. W. 1823. On the genera Unio and Alasmodonta; with introductory 

remarks. Am. J. Sci. Arts. vol. 6, pp. 107-127, 258-280. 
BURCH, J. B. 1975. Freshwater unionacean clams (Mollusca: Pelecypoda) of North 

America. 204 pp. Malacological Publications, Hamburg, Michigan. 
DAVIS, G. M. & FULLER, S. L. H. 1981. Genetic relationships among recent 

Unionacea (Bivalvia) of North America. Malacol., vol. 20(2), pp. 217-253. 
FRIERSON, L. S. 1916. Observations on Unio giganteus Barnes. Nautilus, vol. 30(6), 

pp. 61-64. 

1927. A classified and annotated checklist of the North American naiades. 

11 1 pp. Baylor University Press, Waco, Texas. 

GOODRICH, C. & VAN DER SCHALIE, H. 1944. A revision of the Mollusca of 

Indiana. Am. Midi. Nat., vol. 32(2), pp. 257-326. 
HAAS, F. 1969a. Superfamiha Unionacea. In Das Tierreich. x + 633 pp. Bedin, 

Lieferung 88. 

1969b [Unionacea.] pp. N411-N471, In Moore, R. C. (ed. Treatise on 

Invertebrate Paleontology, part N, vol. 1, Mollusca 6. Bivalves. Geological 
Society of America, University of Kansas Press. 

LA ROCQUE, A. 1953. Catalogue of the Recent Mollusca of Canada. Bull., natl. 

Mus. Canada, no. 129, pp. 1^06. 
1967. Pleistocene Mollusca of Ohio. Ohio. Div. geol. Sur. Bull., vol. 63(2), 

pp. xiv, 1 13, 356. 
MURRAY, H. D. & LEONARD, A. B. 1962. Handbook of unionid mussels in 

Kansas. Univ. of Kansas Dept. Zool. St. Biol. Sur., Misc. Pap., no. 28, pp. 

1-184. 
OESCH, R. D. 1984. Missouri naiades: a guide to the mussels of Missouri. \n + 210 pp. 

Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson City, Missouri. 
ORTMANN, A. E. & WALKER, B. 1922. On the nomenclature of certain North 

American naiades. Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, no. 1 12, pp. 1-75. 
PARMALEE, P. W. 1967. The freshwater mussels of Illinois. Illinois State Mus. Pop. 

Sci. Ser., vol. 8, pp. ix, 108 pp. 
SAY, T. 1829. Descriptions of some new terrestrial and fluviatile shells of North 

America. A^^h' Harmony Dis., vol 2 (19), pp. 291-292. 
STAROBOGATOV, Y. I. 1970. [Molluscafauna and Zoogeographical Partitioning of 

Continental Water Reservoirs of the World.] Pp. 3-372. Akademiya Nauk 

SSSR. Zoologicheskii Instituti Nauka. Leningrad 1970. [In Russian]. 
UTTERBACK, W. I. 1915a. The naiades of Missouri. Am. Midi. Nat., vol. 4(3), pp. 

41-53. 
1915b. The naiades of Missouri. — II. Am. Midi. Nat., vol. 4(4), pp. 97-152. 

1916a. The naiades of Missouri. — VII. Am. Midi. Nat., vol. 4 (10), pp. 

432^64. 

1916b. The naiades of Missouri. ( Reprinted from The American Midland 

Naturalist, vol. 4, nos 1-10) 200 pp. University Press, Notre Dame, Indiana. 



276 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 



YOKES, H. E. 1967. Genera of the bivalvia: a systematic and bibliographic 
catalogue. Bull. Am. PaleontoL, vol. 51, no. 232, pp. 1 1 1-394. 

1980. Genera of the Bivalvia: a systematic and bibliographic catalogue {revised 

and updated), xxvii + 307 pp. Paleontological Research Institution, Ithaca, 
NY. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1 986 277 



AMMONITES NEUBERGICUS HAUER, 1858 (CEPHALOPODA, 

AMMONOIDEA): PROPOSED CONSERVATION BY THE 

SUPPRESSION OF AMMONITES CHRISHNA FORBES, 1846. 

Z.N.(S.)2460 

By. R. A. Henderson {James Cook University of North Queensland, 

Townsville Q 4811, Australia) and W. J. Kennedy {University Museum, 

Oxford 0X1 3PR, U.K.) 



Ammonites neubergicus Hauer, 1858 (p. 12) is the type species by 
subsequent designation by Grossouvre (1894, p. 177) of the widely distri- 
buted Upper Cretaceous ammonite genus Pachydiscus Zittel, 1884, p. 466. It 
is also the index fossil of a widely accepted Maastrichtian ammonite zone (see 
for example Spath, 1926; Muller&Schenck, 1943; Wright, 1957; Kennedy & 
Cobban, 1976; and Wiedmann, 1979). 

2. The stability of the name is now under threat because our current 
research has shown that neubergicus is a junior subjective synonym of 
Ammonites chrishna Forbes, 1846 (p. 103). 

3. Although the name chrishna has seldom been employed in the 
literature, it has been used on at least three occasions in the last thirty years: 
Collignon, 1955; Atabekian & Akopian, 1969; and Matsumoto et al, 1979. 

4. As the type species of the widely distributed and common genus 
Pachydiscus, the species neubergicus has been cited in many publications 
which describe Pachydiscus and in a number of compilations of Cretaceous 
ammonite taxonomy. Additionally, neubergicus is a characteristic element of 
the Cretaceous faunas of Western Europe and is used as a zonal index species 
of the Lower Maastrichtian Stage. For these reasons, considerable confusion 
would be caused in both taxonomy and biostratigraphy if the specific name 
chrishna replaced neubergicus. No adverse consequences in taxonomy or 
biostratigraphy would result {{chrishna were suppressed. 

5. The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature is 
accordingly asked: 

(1) to use its plenary powers to suppress the specific name chrishna 
Forbes, 1 846, as published in the binomen Ammonites chrishna, 
for the purposes of the Principle of Priority but not for those of 
the Principle of Homonymy; 

(2) to place on the Oflficial List of Specific Names in Zoology the 
specific name neubergicus Hauer, 1858, as published in the 
binomen Pachydiscus neubergicus (specific name of the type 
species of Pachydiscus Zittel, 1884); 

(3) to place on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Specific 
Names in Zoology the specific name chrishna Forbes, 1846, 
as published in the binomen Ammonites chrishna, and as 
suppressed under the plenary powers in (1) above. 



278 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 



REFERENCES 

ATABEKIAN, A. A. & AKOPIAN, V. T. 1969. [Late Cretaceous ammonites of the 

Armenian SSR (Pachydiscidae).] Proc. Armenian Acad. Sci., Earth 5c/., vol. 6, 

pp. 3-20. [In Russian.] 
COLLIGNON, M. 1955. Ammonites neocretacees du Menabe (Madagascar). II, Les 

Pachydiscidae. An. geol. Serv. Mines Madagascar. Fasc. 21, pp. 1-98. 
FORBES, E. 1846. Report on the fossil Invertebrata from southern India, collected 

by Mr Kaye and Mr Cunliffe. Trans, geol. Soc. London, vol. 7, pp. 97-174. 
GROSSOUVRE, A. DE 1894. Recherches sur la Craie Superieure, 2. Paleontologie. 

Les ammonites de la Craie Superieure. Mem. Serv. Carte geol. det. France, pp. 

1-264. 
HAUER, F. VON 1858. Ueber die Cephalopoden der Gosauschichten. Beitr. 

Palaeontogr. Ost., vol. 1, pp. 7-14. 
KENNEDY, W. J. & COBBAN, W. A. 1976. Aspects of ammonite biology, bio- 
geography, and biostratigraphy. Spec. Pap. PalaeontoL, vol. 17, pp. 1-94. 
MATSUMOTO, T., KANIE, Y. & YOSHIDA, S. 1979. Notes on Pachydiscus from 

Hokkaido. Mem. Fac. Sci. Kyushu Univ., Ser. D, vol. 24, pp. 47-73. 
MULLER, S. W. & SCHENCK, H. G. 1943. Standard of the Cretaceous System. 

Bull. Am. Assoc. Pet. Geol.. vol. 27(1), pp. 262-278. 
SPATH, L. F. 1926. On new ammonites from the English Chalk. Geol. Mag., vol. 63, 

pp. 77-83. 
WIEDMANN, J. 1979. Die Ammoniten der NW-deutschen Regensburger und 

Ostalpinen Oberkreide im Vergleich mit der Oberkreidefaunen des westlichen 

Mediterrangebiets. In: WIEDMANN, J. (editor). Aspekte der Kreide Europas, 

pp. 335-350. E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart. 
WRIGHT, C. W. 1957. In: MOORE, R. C. (editor). Treatise on Invertebrate 

Paleontology, pt. L, Mollusca 4, Cephalopoda, Ammonoidea, p. L128. 

Geological Society of America, New York and Lawrence. 
ZITTEL, K. A. 1884. Handbuch der Palaeontologie, Cephalopoda. Band 1, Abt. 2, 

Lief 3, pp. 329-522. Munich and Leipzig. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1 986 279 



CORIXA ALBIFRONS MOTSCHULSKY, 1863 (INSECTA, 

HETEROPTERA): PROPOSED CONFIRMATION OF NEOTYPE 

DESIGNATION. Z.N.(S.)2520 

By Antti Jansson {Zoological Museum, University of Helsinki, P. 

Rautatiekatu 13, SF-00100 Helsinki, Finland) and I. M. Kerzhner 

{Zoological Institute, Leningrad 199034, U.S.S.R.) 



Motschulsky ( 1 863, p. 94) described Corixa albifrons apparently from 
a single specimen collected from Ceylon ('environs de Colombo'). The speci- 
men remained in Motschulsky's private collection which, by the beginning of 
the 20th century, had ended up at the Zoological Museum, Moscow State 
University. Professor G. A. Kozhevnikov, who was the director of 
the museum at that time, sent most of the exotic Heteroptera from 
Motschulsky's collection to Finland for inspection by Dr E. Bergroth. How- 
ever, because the collection was badly damaged by dermestids. Professor 
Kozhevnikov did not send all the specimens and evidently overlooked some 
of the material including the remnants of the type of C albifrons. 

2. Bergroth (1921) published a paper on Motschulsky's types of 
exotic Heteroptera. For all the species described by Motschulsky and not 
sent to Finland by Professor Kozhevnikov Bergroth stated that the type 
material 'must be regarded as lost'. Of C. albifrons he further stated that 
it cannot be a synonym of Micronecta striata (Fieber, 1844) [= junior 
secondary homonym of Sigara striata (Linnaeus, 1758), renamed as S. siva 
Kirkaldy, 1897] as had been suggested by Kirkaldy (1897) but would be 
conspecific with M. lucina Distant, 1910 (the latter name thus being a 
synonymic one). 

3. Hutchinson (1940, pp. 379-380) quoted the original description 
and discussed the identity of the species. He also gave drawings of what he 
thought to be M. albifrons (Motsch.) and included the species in his key of the 
Micronectinae of India. 

4. Wroblewski (1962, p. 323) indicated that M. albifrons (Motsch.) 
sensu Hutchinson (1940) was in fact M. ludibunda Breddin, 1905. He further 
indicated that another species from the area, M . fascioclavus Chen, 1960, 
'agrees better in the pronotal pattern with the diagnose of Motschulsky, 
1863'. Wroblewski continued by stating that 'the identity of M. albifrons 
(Motsch.) and M. fascioclavus Chen cannot be proved, as the type of the first 
exists no more in the collection of Motschulsky in Moscow (I have verified 
personally, that there remains only the pin with the labels)'. 

5. Wroblewski (1968, pp. 764-765) designated the neotype and a 
series of paraneotypes for M. albifrons (Motsch.). The neotype is a macrop- 
terous male on a microscope slide labelled, "Ceylon, Colombo, Jan. 29. 1 896, 
Madrasz leg.", and is deposited in the Museum of Natural History, Wroclaw 
University, Poland. As well as designating the neotype, Wroblewski also 
synonymised M. fascioclavus Chen to M. albifrons (Motsch.). 



280 Bull. zooL Norn . , vol . 43 , pt 3 , October 1 986 



6. Zhelokhovtzev & Zimina (1968) published a list of the types of 
Motschulsky's Heteroptera, indicating that the type specimen of Corixa 
albifrons had been destroyed. 

7. Kerzhner & Jansson (1985, p. 35) discovered remnants of 
Motschulsky's original specimen of Corixa albifrons in the Moscow Univer- 
sity collections. They consisted of parts of the right hind tibia with complete 
tarsi and claw, part of the left hind tibia, and part of a middle tibia. These 
fragments were evidently overlooked by Wroblewski (1962). 

8. Measurements made from the remnants revealed that M. siva 
(Kirkaldy) is a much larger species, and the original specimen falls within the 
size range of the species from which Wroblewski (1968) selected the neotype 
of M. albifrons (Motsch.). However, because the remnants are not sufficient 
for giving any further information for positive recognition of the species, 
Kerzhner & Jansson (1985, p. 35) recommended acceptance of the neotype 
designation by Wroblewski (1968). 

9. The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature is 
accordingly asked: 

(1) to rule under Article 75h that the name-bearing type of Corixa 
albifrons Motschulsky, 1863 is the neotype designated by 
Wroblewski (1968); 

(2) to place the specific name albifrons Motschulsky, 1863, as pub- 
lished in the binomen Corixa albifrons. and as defined by the 
neotype confirmed in (1) above, on the Official List of Specific 
Names in Zoology. 



REFERENCES 

BERGROTH, E. 1921. On the types of the exotic Hemiptera Heteroptera described 

by V. Motschulsky. Rev. Russe EntomoL, vol. 17, pp. 96-109. 
BREDDIN, G. 1905. Ubersicht der javanischen M/cronec/a- Arten. Societasent., vol. 

20. p. 57. 
CHEN, L. 1960. A study of the genus Micronecta of India, Japan, Taiwan and 

adjacent regions (Heteroptera: Corixidae). J. Kansas entomol. Soc, vol. 33, 

pp. 99-1 18. 
DISTANT, W. L. 1910. Rhynchota. Vol. V. Heteroptera: Appendix. The Fauna of 

British India, London, 362 pp. 
FIEBER, F. X. 1844 (1845). Entomologische Monographien. II. Hydrocores. 

Monographia der Gattung Sigara. Abh. bohm. Ges. Wiss., vol. 3, pp. 289-293. 
HUTCHINSON, G. E. 1940. A revision of the Corixidae of India and adjacent 

regions. Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts. Sci., vol. 33, pp. 341-476. 
KERZHNER, I. M. & JANSSON, A. 1985. The type specimens of Heteroptera 

described by V. Motschulsky. Ann. Entomol. Fennici, vol. 51, pp. 33-44. 
KIRKALDY, G. W. 1897. Notes on the genus Sigara Fabr. (Rhynchota). 

Entomologist, vol. 30, pp. 238-240. 

1898. Notes on aquatic Rhynchota. No. 1. Entomologist, vol. 31, pp. 2-4. 

MOTSCHULSKY, V. 1863. Essais d'un catalogue des insectes de I'ile Ceylan (Suite). 

Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou, vol. 36(2), pp. 1-153. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 28 1 



WROBLEWSKI, A. 1962. Notes on Micronectinae from Melanesia (Heteroptera, 
Corixidae). Bull. Acad. Pol. Sci.. vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 319-324. 

1968. Notes on Oriental Micronectinae (Heteroptera, Corixidae). Polskie 

PismoentomoL, vol. 38(4), pp. 753-779. 

ZHELOKHOVTZEV, A. N. & ZIMINA, L. V. 1968. Types of Heteroptera of V. 
Motschulsky in the collection of the Zoological Museum of the Moscow State 
University. Sb. Trud. zool. Muz. Mosk. Gos. Univ., vol. 11, pp. 107-112 [in 
Russian]. 



282 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 



DEXIA MEIGEN, 1826 (INSECTA, DIPTERA): PROPOSED 

DESIGNATION OF MVSCA RUSTIC A FABRICIUS, 1775, AS 

TYPE SPECIES. Z.N.(S.)2252 

By R. W. Crosskey {British Museum (Natural History) , Cromwell Road, 

London SW7 5BD, England), B. Herting {Naturkundemuseum, Rosenstein 1, 

7000 Stuttgart 1, West Germany), L. P. Mesnil* {Commonwealth Institute of 

Biological Control. Delemont, Switzerland CH-2800), and D. M. Wood 

{Biosystematics Research Institute, Canada Agriculture , Ottawa, Canada 

KIA 0C6) 

The purpose of this application is to ask the Commission to set aside a 
designation of a type species for Dexia Meigen, 1826 (tachinidae) that 
became binding as the result of an early Opinion, and to designate another 
type species in its stead. 

2. In 1922 the Commission gave a ruHng in its Opinion 71 (ICZN, 
1922) on the nomenclatural status of species names cited in association with 
generic names in Westwood's 'Synopsis of the genera of British insects' 
published in 1840. In the light of Westwood's own statement (p. 1 of the 
'Synopsis', footnote) that the cited species were 'typical species', the Com- 
mission determined that such species are to be accepted as the type species of 
those genera for which there were no prior valid type fixations. The genus 
Dexia Meigen, 1 826 originally proposed with 24 included species (Meigen, 
1826), is one such genus. No type species designation for it exists in the 
literature that antedates the work of Westwood (1840). The type species of 
Dexia, by the operation of Opinion 71, is therefore Musca volvulus Fabricius, 
1794, by designation of Westwood. 

3. Westwood (1840), in common with nearly all later authors, 
recognised the composite nature of Meigen's concept of Dexia and adopted 
narrower genera for the originally included species. He used Dexia in a more 
restricted sense than Meigen and cited it (p. 1 39) as 'Dexia Latr.\ Though not 
explicitly stated, this mode of citation can only have referred to Latreille 
(1829), his entry for Dexia in volume 5 of the second edition of Cuvier's 'Le 
regne animal . . . ', published three years after Meigen's original description 
of the genus. However, the attribution of subsequent instead of original 
authorship does not invalidate Westwood's type designation for Dexia 
(Code Article 67(0). 

Westwood noted that volvulus 'belongs to the s.g. Phyllomyia R.D.' a 
monotypic taxon (correctly Phyllomya) proposed by Robineau-Desvoidy 
(1830, p. 213) for volvulus. Under today's nomenclature Westwood's sub- 
genus Phyllomya would be Dexia sensu stricto (the nominotypical subgenus) 
but use of the same name for the nominotypical subgenus and for the genus 
was not established practice in Westwood's time. His action means nomen- 
claturally that Dexia Meigen is a senior objective synonym of Phyllomya 
(both genera based on volvulus). 

*Dr. Mesnil died on 17 May 1986 while this application was in press. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 283 



4. Another restricted constituent of the old Dexia was defined by 
Westwood (p. 140) and named by him 'Dexilla Westw.'' It was stated to 
contain three species, but only one — the typical species in the sense of 
Westwood's work — was named, viz. Musca rustica Fabricius, 1775 (cited as 
'D. rustica Meig.'). Hence rustica Fabricius is type species of Dexilla 
Westwood by original designation and also by monotypy. (Westwood noted, 
p. 140, by using a bracket-linked entry of the names, that his taxon Dexilla 
was equivalent to 'Dexia Mcq. nee Latr.': evidently a reference to Macquart, 
(1835, p. 21 1), but this is not nomenclaturally relevant.) 

5. Westwood's 'Synopsis' was overlooked by nearly all 19th century 
British and continental European dipterists, and the name Dexilla 
Westwood has even been omitted from each major British work this century 
that should have accounted for it, e.g. the revisionary handbooks on British 
Tachinidae by Wainwright (1928) and Emden (1954) and the checkHst of 
British insects by Kloet & Hincks (1945). No 19th century author adopted 
Westwood's classification, i.e. that with Dexia (syn. Phyllomya) based on 
volvulus and Dexilla based on rustica; instead they either (Zetterstedt 1 844, 
1849, 1855; Walker 1849, 1853) placed rustica and volvulus congenerically in 
Dexia, or (Rondani 1862; Schiner 1862; Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889) 
placed rustica in Dexia and volvulus in Melanota Rondani, 1 853 (replacement 
name for Melania Meigen, 1838, preoccupied). So far as we know, Schiner's 
(1862, p. 558) citation oi Dexilla (as a synonym of Dexia) is the only subse- 
quent mention of this name in 19th century literature. Walker knew 
Westwood but nevertheless neglected to mention Westwood's Dexilla in his 
works on British Diptera, though he referred (Walker 1853, p. 94) to 'Dexia 
et Dinera, Westw.' in synonymy with Dexia. 

6. Rondani (1856, p. 84) designated Musca carinifrons Fallen, 1816, 
an originally included species in Dexia Meigen, and this is the earliest type 
designation for Dexia if Westwood's is rejected. However, acceptance of 
Rondani's designation would cause nomenclatural havoc, irrespective of 
whether he identified carinifrons correctly, because this name (by virtue of its 
senior synonymy over Dinera grisea Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830) is the valid 
name of the type species of Dinera Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830. This genus is 
now universally accepted as distinct from Dexia (e.g. see Herting 1984, p. 
140). 

7. Brauer & Bergenstamm (1889) cited only rustica Fabricius as 
included in Dexia, but this action constitutes mention of an 'example' species 
in the meaning of Opinion 98 (1928) on the Brauer & Bergenstamm works; 
their action is therefore ineligible for consideration as a type species 
designation. 

8. The influential catalogue by Bezzi (1907) of the Palaearctic 
TACHiNroAE did not cite type species as such but it established a definitive 
usage by which — in accordance with the precedents set by Rondani in a later 
work (1862, pp. 73-74), and by Schiner, Brauer & Bergenstamm, and 
others — the name Dexia was used for the genus containing rustica. 
Phyllomya Robineau-Desvoidy was correctly restituted as the vaUd senior 



284 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 



synonym over Melania and Melanota for the genus containing volvulus. 
Dexilla was listed by Bezzi (1907, p. 445) as a synonym oi Dexia. 

9. Coquillett (1910) dealing with type species formally for dipterous 
genera occurring in North America, cited rustica as type ofDexia Meigen by 
designation of Westwood, 1840; Dexilla was therefore listed by Coquillett as 
a junior objective synonym of Dexia. The Bezzi classification, supported by 
Coquillett's designation, became firmly entrenched and universally used in 
the Palaearctic literature and continues so today. It is used, for example, in 
the new catalogue of Palaearctic tachinidae by Herting (1984). The present 
application seeks to validate this nomenclatural treatment by Conunission 
action. 

10. Townsend (1916, p. 10) noted Coquillett's 'misconstruction' of 
Westwood, pointed out that Dexia as used by Brauer & Bergenstamm (i.e. 
for rustica) should be Dexilla Westwood, and (p. 6) cited volvulus Fabricius 
as type species of Dexia. The appearance of Opinion 71 in 1922 effectively 
validated Townsend's nomenclatural standpoint, not Coquillett's, and in his 
grand opus 'Manual of Myiology' Townsend (1936a, p. 120; 1936b, p. 12; 
1938, p. 276; 1939, p. 21) held fast to the correct nomenclature, basing De.xia 
Meigen on volvulus by designation of Westwood. 1840, and Dexilla on 
rustica by monotypy (using also a suprageneric nomenclature so based). In 
this he has since been almost wholly ignored. Post-Townsend only Sabrosky 
& Arnaud (1965) have considered volvulus to be type-species of Dexia, with 
Phyllomya R. D. as its synonym, though in doing so they recognised that 
their action — though nomenclaturally impeccable — was out of step with 
prevailing practice and commented (p. 1022) to this effect. 

1 1 . We concur with Townsend's view that Coquillett misconstrued 
Westwood's action. Westwood, in a work planned as a compendium of 
genera and stated intentionally to be a likeness to Latreille's (1810) 
'Considerations generales . . tableau methodique de leurs genres'. . . etc., 
characterised as separate genera Dexia and Dexilla, naming volvulus as the 
typical species of the former and rustica of the latter. Why would he diagnose 
Dexilla as a genus distinct from Dexia if he intended rustica to be type of 
Dexial Coquillett's assertion that Westwood designated rustica both as type 
of Dexia and of Dexilla is untenable and Townsend rightly rejected it. 

12. We consider that, interpreting Westwood's action and the effect 
of Opinion 71, there is no doubt that volvulus Fabricius is the type species of 
Dexia Meigen. However, as in taxonomic practice the genus Dexia Meigen is 
based by specialists on rustica, not volvulus, and the difference affects 
correlated family-group nomenclature, it is highly desirable for prevailing 
usage to be ratified by Commission action. This will ensure a uniform and 
stable nomenclature for the genera concerned and their associated family- 
group nomenclature. Currently concerned specialists have all adopted Dexia 
in the usage sense based on rustica, and each has noted (in publication) the 
need for Commission action to authorise this. Crosskey (1973, p. 41) gave a 
general comment on the situation, and he (Crosskey 1976, p. 177; 1977, p. 
601; 1980, p. 831), Mesnil (1980, p. 39) and Herting (1984, p. 143) have all 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 285 

marked their citations for Dexia type with a statement that suspension of 
l.C.Z.N. rules is required. This application is to achieve that suspension 

1 3 In the light of the foregoing statement, the Commission is asked- 

(1) to use Its plenary powers to set aside all designations of type 
species hitherto made for the nominal genus Dexia Meigen 

1 826, and to designate Musca rustica Fabricius, 1 775 as the tVDe 
species of that genus; 

(2) to place the following names on the Official List of Generic 
Names in Zoology: 

(a) Dexia Meigen, 1826 (gender: feminine), type species by 
designation under the plenary powers in (1) above Musca 
rustica Fabricius, 1 775; 

(b) Phyllomya Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (gender: feminine) 
type species by monotypy, Musca volvulus Fabricius 1 794-' 

(3) to place the following names on the Official List of Specific 
Names in Zoology: 

(a) rustica Fabricius, 1 775, as published in the binomen Musca 
rustica (specific name of the type species of Dexw Meigen, 
1826); 

(b) volvulus Fabricius, 1794, as published in the binomen 
Musca volvulus (specific name of the type species of 
Phyllomya Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830)- 

(4) to place on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Names in 
Zoology: 

(a) Dexilla Westwood, 1840 (gender: feminine), type species 
Musca rustica Fabricius, 1775 (a junior objective synonym 
of Dexia Meigen, 1826, through the action under the 
plenary powers in (1) above). 



REFERENCES 
BEZZI M. 1907. Tachinidae, pp. 189-597, in Becker, T., Bezzi, M., Kertesz K & 
Buda ^^^^''*' ^"^"^^^ ^^'' Potdarktischen Dipteren, vol. 3, 828 pp., 

^^^K^;.^ f BERGENSTAMM, F. E. VON. 1889. Die Zweiflugler der 
Kaiserhchen Museums zu Wien. IV. Vorarbe.ten zu einer Monographie der 

^""v"ol6tpr6tT8V'"'" ^''"'''''- '"''"■ ^-■' 

COQUILLETT, D.'W. 1910. The type-species of the North American genera of 

Uiptera. Proc. U.S. natn. Mus.. vol. 37, pp. 499-647. 
CROSSKEY, R. W. 1973. A conspectus of the Tachinidae (Diptera) of Australia 

including keys to the supraspecific taxa and taxonomic and host catalogues' 

Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Entomoi.) Suppl. 21, pp. 1-221. 
1976. A taxonomic conspectus of the Tachinidae (Diptera) of the Oriental 

region. Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Entomoi.) Suppl. 26, pp 1-357 



286 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 



1977. Family Tachinidae. Pp. 586-697, in Delfinado, M. D. & Hardy, D. E. 

(Eds.), A catalog of the Diptera of the Oriental region. Vol III, Suborder 

Cyclorrhapha (excluding Division Aschiza). x + 854 pp., University Press of 

Hawaii. 
1980. Family Tachinidae. Pp. 822-882, in Crosskey, R. W. (Ed.), Catalogue of 

the Diptera of the Afrotropical region. 1437 pp., British Museum (Natural 

History). 
EMDEN, F. I. VAN 1954. Diptera Cyclorrhapha Calyptrata (I) Section (a). 

Tachinidae and Calliphoridae. Handbk Ident. Br. Insects, Vol. X, part 4(a), 

133 pp., Royal Entomological Society of London. 
FABRICIUS, J. C. 1775. Systema entomologiae. sistens insectorum classes, ordines, 

genera, species adiectis synonymis, locis, descriptionibus, observationibus. 832 

pp., Flensburg & Leipzig. 
1794. Entomologia systematica emendata et aucta. Secundum classes, ordines, 

genera, species adjectis synonimis, locis, obervationibus , descriptionibus. Vol. 4, 

472 pp., Copenhagen. 
HERTING, B. 1984. Catalogue of Palearctic Tachinidae (Diptera). Stuttg. Beitr. 

Naturk (A), No. 369, 228 pp., Stuttgart. 
I.e. Z.N. 1922. Opinions rendered by the International Commission on Zoological 

Nomenclature: Opinions 68-77. Smithson. misc. Collns, Vol. 73, No. 1, pp. 

1-73. 
KLOET, G. S. & HINCKS, W. D. 1945. A check list of British Insects, lix + 483 pp., 

Kloet & Hincks, Stockport. 
LATREILLE, P. A. 1810. Considerations generales sur iordre naturel des animaux 

composant les classes des Crustaces, des Arachnides et des Insectes; avec un 

tableau methodique de leurs genres, disposes en families. 444 pp., Paris. 
1829. Suite et fin des insectes. In Cuvier, G. L. C. F. D., Le Regne animal 

distribue d'apres son organisation, pour servir de base a Vhistoire naturelle des 

animaux et d'introduction a I'anatomie comparee. Ed. 2, vol. 5, xxiv + 556 pp. 

Paris. 
MACQUART, J. 1835. Histoire naturelle des Insectes. Dipteres. Vol. 2, 703 pp., Paris. 
MEIGEN, J. W. 1826. Systematische Beschreibung der bekannten europdischen 

zweiftiigeligen Insekten, vol. 5, xii + 412 pp., Hamm. 
MESNIL, L. P. 1980. Dexiinae. Fliegen palaearkt . Reg., vol. 64f (part), pp. 1-52. 
ROBINEAU-DESVOIDY, J. B. 1830. Essai sur les Myodaires. Mem.pres. div. Sav. 

Acad. Sci. Inst. Fr., vol. 2, pp. 1-813. 
RONDANI, C. 1856. Dipterologiae italicae prodromus. Vol. 1, 226 pp., Parma. 

1862. Dipterologiae italicae prodromus. Vol. 5, 239 pp., Parma. 

SABROSKY, C. W. & ARNAUD, P. H. 1965. Family Tachinidae (Larvaevoridae). 

Pp. 961-1 108, in Stone, A. et al. (Eds.), A catalog of the Diptera of America 

north of Mexico. Agric. Handb., No. 276, iv+ 1696 pp., Washington, D.C. 
SCHINER, I. R. 1862. Fauna austriaca. Die Fliegen (Diptera). Vol. I. [part], pp. 

441-674. Vienna. 
TOWNSEND, C. H. T. 1916. Designations of muscoid genotypes, with new genera 

and species. Insecutor Inscit. menstr., vol. 4, pp. 4-12. 

1936a. Manual of My iology. Vol. 3, 255 pp., Sao Paulo. 

1936b. Manual of My iology. Vol. 4, 309 pp., Sao Paulo. 

1938. Manual of Myiology. Vol. 7, 434 pp., Sao Paulo. 

1939. Manual ofMviologv. Vol. 9, 270 pp., Sao Paulo. 

WAINWRIGHT,.C. J. 1928. The British Tachinidae (Diptera). Trans, entomol. Soc. 

Lone?., Vol. 76, pp. 139-254. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 287 



WALKER, F. 1 849. List of specimens of dipterous insects in the collection of the British 

Museum [part]. Vol. 4, pp. 688-1 172. 

1853. Insecta britannica. Diptera. Vol. 2, vi + 297 pp. 

WESTWOOD, J. O. 1 840. Synopsis of the genera of British insects. 1 58 pp. [Issued as 

separately paginated supplement to volume 2 (1840) of Westwood's 'An 

introduction to the modern classification of insects . . . ', London]. 
ZETTERSTEDT, J. W. 1844. Diptera scandinaviae disposita et descripta [part]. Vol. 

3,pp. 895-1280, Lund. 
1 849. Diptera scandinaviae disposita et descripta [part]. Vol. 8, pp. 2935-3366, 

Lund. 
1855. Diptera scandinaviae disposita et descripta [part]. Vol. 12, pp. 

XX + 4587^942. 



288 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 



LEPRALIA PUNCTATA HASSALL, 1841 (BRYOZOA, 

CHEILOSTOMATA: PROPOSED DESIGNATION OF A 

REPLACEMENT NEOTYPE. Z.N.(S.)2562 

By J. D. D. Bishop {Departments of Palaeontology and Zoology, British 
Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, U.K.) 



INTRODUCTION 

The marine bryozoan Cribrilina punctata (Hassall, 1841) has been 
widely recorded living on both sides of the northern Atlantic and in adjacent 
seas. The name has also been given to fossils from Neogene deposits in both 
the U.S.A. and Europe. It is the type species of a genus within which approxi- 
mately 100 nominal species have been placed, including many fossils of 
Eocene and younger age. Cribrilina is in turn the type genus of the Creta- 
ceous to Recent, cosmopolitan family cribrilinidae. The exact identity of C 
punctata is therefore of importance but has, unfortunately, been the subject 
of uncertainty and debate. 

2. By the time of Hincks' influential monograph of 1880 a tradition 
of accepting considerable morphological variation within this species had 
arisen, and the concept of C punctata had widened to include what may 
today be recognised as at least three Recent species. In an attempt to elimi- 
nate the prolonged confusion that resulted, a proposal was adopted by the 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature in 1974 (Opinion 
1016) to establish under the plenary powers a neotype of C. punctata in 
agreement with the then widespread (but incorrect) usage of the name. How- 
ever, recent investigations, aided considerably by the use of scanning electron 
microscopy, have shown that taxonomic understanding of the species 
involved was inadequate at that time. In particular, the specimens suggested 
to the ICZN as possible neotypes of C. punctata belonged to two different 
species that had not yet been distinguished. Despite this earlier confusion, 
the differences between these two species now appear potentially very 
significant. The identity of the neotype eventually chosen has important 
implications for the stability of the concept of Cribrilina and the 
CRIBRILINIDAE bccausc the specimen is considered to belong to the genus 
Collarina Jullien, 1886, which is not synonymous with Cribrilina auct. 

3. The purpose of this paper is therefore to propose the setting aside 
of the present neotype (designated under Opinion 1016) and to request its 
replacement by a specimen belonging to the other of the two species present 
in the suggested neotype material at the time of the original case. This would 
restore the original meanings of the generic and family group names 
involved. 

4. The four principal species involved in the following account are 
referred to here as A, B, C and D, and are illustrated in the accompanying 
plate. Spp. A and B show a very close morphological resemblance, as do spp. 












t^gf^; • 







Scanning electron micrographs of the four principal species of cribrimorph bryozoans discussed 
in the text. Scale bars = 0.1 5 mm. A: BMNH 1973.4,6.1 (sp.A). B: Manchester Museum 1060 
(sp.B). C: BMNH 1847.9. 16. 118 (sp.C). D: BMNH 1985. 1 1 .20. 1 (sp.D). 



290 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 



C and D. However there are considerable differences between these two 
pairs of species, as outlined below. Accordingly, the present author would 
place them in two genera: A and B are regarded as congeneric, as are C and D. 

5. In spp. A and B a distinct area of inclined gymnocyst surrounds the 
raised, relatively flat, costate frontal shield. The outermost intercostal pores 
are set in the plane of the gymnocyst, at a distinctly lower (more basal) level 
than the rest of the costate frontal shield. A large pseudopore is seen near the 
base of each costa; smaller pseudopores are scattered throughout the frontal 
shield. The frontal calcification closely follows the relatively straight 
proximal margin of the orifice. Considerable thickening of the frontal wall is 
seen just proximal to the orifice. Small avicularia may occur lateral to this 
thickened bar (i.e. somewhat lateral and proximal to the orifice) and are 
directed predominantly laterally. A distally directed avicularium may also 
occur distally on the ovicell. The ancestrula is cribrimorph. 

6. In spp. C and D little or no gymnocyst is visible frontally; the 
outermost intercostal pores are not disposed markedly differently from those 
nearer the midline; the entire frontal surface arches more evenly than in spp. 
A and B. Although small pseudopores do occur on the frontal shield, there is 
no outer zone of large pseudopores. Thickened frontal calcification arches 
above the proximal margin of the orifice, leaving a distinct gap, rather than 
abutting the operculum. Avicularia occur at the proximolateral corners of 
the orifice, and are distolaterally directed. No avicularium is seen on the 
ovicell. The ancestrula is tatiform. 

HISTORY OF THE CASE 

7. Flustra balzaci was described from the Mediterranean by Audouin 
(1 826, p. 239). Audouin's species is commonly taken to be sp. B, although the 
written account is minimal and Savigny's figure (undated, pi. 9, fig. 8) is 
somewhat ambiguous. No type material is known. 

8. Lepr alia punctata was described by Hassall (1841, p. 368 and pi. 
IX, fig. 7) from east of Kingstown Harbour (Dun Laoghaire), Ireland. The 
description and figure are ambiguous, but a specimen, registered as BMNH 
1847.9.16.118, is believed to be part of Hassall's original material subse- 
quently sent to G. Johnston (see Ryland & Stebbing, 1968, p. 62). This 
specimen belongs to sp. C, and is illustrated here as Fig. C. 

9. The genus Cribrilina was established by Gray (1848, p. 147) with 
Lepralia punctata Hassall, 1841 the type species by monotypy. Examination 
of all the specimens listed by Gray (1848, p. 117) under C. punctata shows 
that the great majority (at least 40 colonies) of the material he had examined 
belonged to sp. C. The only other species present, sp. D, is represented only 
by three colonies on the shell numbered 3 on the slide registered as BMNH 
1847.9.16.62. It may be concluded that the concept of the genus Cribrilina 
was originally based on sp. C and (possibly) sp. D. On p. 116, Gray gave the 
reference 'Cribrilina, Gray, Appendix, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1838' for the genus 
Cribrilina. This reference can not be traced, and S. F. Harmer, in a hand 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 291 



written note in the index of genera in the Bryozoa Section of the BMNH, 
suggested that it had probably been Gray's intention to publish an account of 
his new genera in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, but 
the intention was not realised. 

10. Busk (1854) under the name Lepralia punctata illustrated sp. A 
(pi. XCVI, fig. 3; BMNH 1847.9.16.79), sp. C (pi. XC, figs 5 and 6; probably 
BMNH 1854.11.15.142) and sp. D (pi. XCII, fig. 4; BMNH 1899.7.1.1343). 
The species was described (p. 80) as 'very protean'. 

1 1 . Lepralia cribrosa was described from the Adriatic Sea by Heller 
(1867, p. 109). Although this name was used subsequently for sp. B (see 
below), type material (registration number 17021, Heller Collection of the 
Institut fiir Zoologie der Universitat Innsbruck) is in fact referable to the 
cribrilinid Puellina gattyae (Landsborough, 1852). Heller's figure (pi. II, fig. 
6) appears to indicate the presence of setiform papillae, structures present 
throughout the genus Puellina but not in the four species of cribrimorph 
(A-D) under discussion here. 

12. Lepralia cribrosa Heller, 1867 was redescribed and illustrated 
from Naples by Waters (1879, pp. 36 &. 37 and pi. IX, fig. 4). Waters' 
material (registration number 1060, Manchester Museum) belongs to sp. B 
and is illustrated here as Fig. B. 

13. The family CRiBRiLiNroAE was established by Hincks (1879, 
p. 156) for the genera Cribrilina Gray and Membraniporella Smitt; Cribrilina 
is the type genus of the family (Code: Arts. 12(b)(4) and 63). 

1 4. An account of C. punctata by Hincks ( 1 880) included illustrations 
of sp. A (pi. 26, fig. 4), sp. C (pi. 24, fig. 3; designated "var.") and sp. D (pi. 26, 
fig. 1). Sp. A was formally recognised (p. 191) as C. punctata var. a. C. 
punctata was said to be 'of very variable aspect' (p. 191); 'it appears in a 
multitude of guises, and in some of them is very unlike its proper self (p. 1 92). 

15. The genus Collarina was established by JuUien ( 1 886, p. 607) with 
'Lepralia cribrosa Waters (non Heller)' the type species by original designa- 
tion. It will be noted that a new nominal species, Collarina cribrosa Jullien, 
1886, was thereby established, and is the type species of the genus (Code: Art. 
70(c) (i) and example). There is no indication that Jullien examined actual 
material; rather, the genus was apparently based on Waters' (1879) account 
and figure oi Lepralia cribrosa. 

16. Hincks (1886, p. 266) gave an account and illustration of a form 
he referred to as 'Cribrilina punctata, Hassall, var.', from the Adriatic. He 
suggested that this variety was Heller's Lepralia cribrosa. Hincks' figure (pi. 
IX, fig. 9) is a clear depiction of sp. B, and the available material attributable 
to Hincks' account, BMNH 1899. 5.1.437, belongs to sp. B. 

17. Waters (1899, p. 9) synonymised Lepralia cribrosa sensu Waters, 
1879, Cribrilina punctata, var. sensu Hincks, 1886, and Collarina cribrosa 
Jullien with Flustra balzaci Audouin under the name Cribrilina balzaci 
(Audouin). 

18. Sp. C was described by Norman (1903, pp. 102 «& 103 and pi. IX, 
figs 1 & 2) as Cribrilina cryptooecium from Finnmark (northern Norway) and 



292 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 



other localities in Norway and the British Isles. Norman's intention was to 
recognise as distinct a species that he considered had previously been con- 
fused with true C. punctata; his restricted concept of C. punctata seems from 
his account to have included both sp. A and sp. D. 

19. A lectotype of C. punctata was selected by Lagaaij (1952, p. 56). 
The specimen, BMNH 1847.9.16.1 18, belongs to sp. C, is that mentioned in 
paragraph 8 thought to be part of Hassall's original material from Ireland 
subsequently sent to G. Johnston, and is illustrated here as Fig. C. 

20. Collarina was treated as a valid genus, and the combination 
Collar ina bahaci (Audouin) used, in taxonomic accounts by Gautier (1962, 
p. 107) and Prenant & Bobin (1966, pp. 601 & 602). 

21. An application was made to the ICZN by Ryland & Stebbing 
(1968) to suppress Lagaaij's lectotype of Cribrilina punctata under the 
plenary powers on the grounds that it had been found to be conspecific with 
C cryptooecium Norman. Ryland and Stebbing applied to designate a 
neotype of C. punctata sensu Norman, 1903 {non Lagaaij, 1952; non Hassall, 
1841), i.e. in accordance with claimed accustomed usage of the names C 
punctata and C. cryptooecium. The suggested neotype was BMNH 
1911.10.1.679a, Barlee collection. This specimen belongs to sp. D. In the 
same paper, a lectotype for C. cryptooecium, BMNH 1911.10.1.700, was 
chosen from Norman's material of sp. C from Finnmark. 

22. Opinion 1016 was published in 1974 in response to Ryland & 
Stebbings' proposal. Voting on the proposal was 22 affirmative, two nega- 
tive. Commissioners made the following comments: Dr E. Eisenmann — 'On 
the data provided in the application it seems to me that Lagaaij's (1952) 
designation as lectotype of specimen 1847.9.16.1 18 was correct, and agreed 
with Hassall's (1841) description of punctata. It was Norman (1903) who 
erred in calling true punctata 'cryptooecium ' and assigning the name punctata 
to a different species. No evidence is provided of overwhelming usage to 
justify the transfer of the name punctata. What is needed is a new name (if 
none exists in the Hterature) for Norman's 'punctata'.' Prof. G. G. 
Simpson — 'The aim of the application is evidently laudable, but the device 
of designating a neotype is not, none of the conditions for proposal of a 
neotype evidently being met.' Dr W. D. L. Ride — T request the Secretary to 
include locaUty and other data of collection (so far as is known) in the 
designation of the neotype of Lepralia punctata when he drafts the Opinion 
for publication.' Enquiries arising from Dr Ride's request revealed that the 
collection locahty of the proposed neotype, BMNH 1911.10.1.679a, was 
unknown. Ryland & Stebbing were asked to suggest a second specimen, and 
proposed BMNH 1973.4.6.1 from Raasay Sound (Scotland). The specimen 
belongs to sp. A; it is illustrated here as Fig. A. The commissioners voted 19 
affirmative to one negative on the acceptability of this neotype. A ruling was 
therefore adopted whereby Lagaaij's (1952) lectotype of C. punctata was set 
aside under the plenary powers, and the specimen 1973.4.6.1 accepted as 
neotype. Lepralia punctata Hassall, 1841 was confirmed as type species of 
Cribrilina Gray, 1 848. The generic name Cribrilina Gray, 1848 was placed on 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 293 



the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology, and the specific names 
punctata Hassall, 1841 (as defined by the neotype designated under the 
plenary powers) and cryptooecium Norman, 1903 (as defined by the lectotype 
selected by Ryland & Stebbing, 1968) were placed on the Official List of 
Specific Names in Zoology. 

CONSEQUENCES OF OPINION 1016 

23. If, as is the opinion of the present author, spp. A and B are 
congeneric, the selection of BMNH 1973.4.6.1 (sp. A, the var. a of Hincks, 
1 880) as the neotype of C. punctata means that Collarina (type species B) 
becomes a junior subjective synonym of Cribrilina (type species A). Further- 
more, if the four species under discussion are to be placed in two genera, 
(A + B) and (C + D) (on the basis of the diff'erences outlined in paragraphs 5 
and 6), then sp. C (true Lepralia punctata Hassall = Cribrilina cryptooecium 
Norman) and sp. D must be placed in a new genus. The genus concept of 
Collarina has in effect been transferred to Cribrilina. The concept of the 
family cribrilinidae is thereby affected. 

24. Even if the view is taken that in the present state of knowledge it is 
not desirable to place sp. A in a separate genus from spp. C and D, it must be 
recognised that the form of the frontal wall differs considerably within the 
resultant single genus. Thus Levinsen (1909, p. 158) noted that: .. .'the 
different varieties, which Hincks refers to Cribrilina punctata, show such 
great differences in the structure of the frontal shield, that some of them 
cannot even be entered under his diagnosis of the genus Cribrilina' . The 
probable convergent nature of the costate frontal shield within the 
cribrimorph Bryozoa is widely acknowledged (e.g. Harmer, 1902; Levinsen, 
1909; Lang, 1921; Voigt, 1939; Ristedt, 1979)and the possibility that the two 
forms of frontal shield shown by spp. A and B and spp. C and D respectively 
are convergent cannot be discounted. If future research shows their differ- 
ences to be sufficiently fundamental, splitting the genus on this basis may 
prove unavoidable. There is thus a danger in the present nomenclatural 
position that spp. C and D, upon which the concept of the genus was based, 
might be excluded from Cribrilina, if not eventually from the family 
CRIBRILINIDAE. The Original case was discussed solely in terms of 
accustomed usage at the species-name level; there seems to be insufficient 
justification for the designation of a neotype in which the frontal shield is 
now known to differ significantly from that of the species to which the name 
C. punctata was originally given, especially since this is the type species of a 
taxonomically important genus. 

PROPOSAL 

25. The replacement neotype proposed below, BMNH 1985. 1 1 .20. 1, 
which belongs to sp. D, encrusts a bivalve shell fragment collected in c. 45 m 
of water at 58° 06.8'N 03° 05.2'W, in the Moray Firth c. 20 km from the 



294 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 



Scottish coast. The specimen is illustrated as Fig. D. It is part of a series of c. 
30 colonies (including young examples with the earliest growth stages intact) 
encrusting bivalve fragments on a bottom classified as fine sand on the 
Wentworth scale (0 mean 2.5, standard deviation 1.1; 3.0% mud and 2.2% 
gravel). 

26. Under the following proposal, Collarina would be a vahd and 
useful genus, and sp. A could be described as a new species within it. The 
genus Cribrilina would be closer to its original concept, as would the family 
CRIBRILINIDAE. The names Cribrilina punctata and C. cryptooecium 
would be retained in the accustomed usage claimed by Ryland & Stebbing (a 
usage which has certainly prevailed since the original proposal and Opinion 
were pubhshed, although it should be noted that the confusion of sp. A and 
sp. D under the name C. punctata has continued to complicate the question of 
usage). C. punctata would be sp. D, not the species thought to have been 
described by Hassall, which is the closely-related sp. C to be known under 
this arrangement as C. cryptooecium Norman. Neither sp. A nor sp. D has in 
fact ever been described as new (cf. Dr. Eisenmann's comment reproduced in 
paragraph 22). 

27. The proposal has the support of Prof. J. S. Ryland, in litt.: 'I am 
glad that you are going to resolve what I agree is a mess ... I will strongly 
urge acceptance of proposal (2) . . . '. Proposal (2) of the typescript sent to 
Prof. Ryland (which detailed the history and significance of the case and was 
accompanied by SEM photographs of spp. A-D) was for the replacement of 
neotype BMNH 1973.4.6. 1 with an unspecified specimen belonging to sp. D. 
Dr A. R. D. Stebbing stated, in litt.: T am quite prepared in this case to agree 
with whatever John Ryland suggests; . . . '. Fifteen out of 19 bryozoologists 
additional to Prof. Ryland and Dr Stebbing who were sent the same type- 
script and photographs were in favour of the replacement of the neotype 
designated under Opinion 1016, either with a specimen belonging to sp. D or 
by the re-instatement of Lagaaij's lectotype (sp. C). It should be noted that 
this response implies the specialists' acceptance of the generic distinctions 
recognised in the typescript (which are the same in the present paper); indeed, 
the need for Cribrilina and Collarina to be maintained distinct was explicitly 
stated in the replies of the following people: J. G. Harmelin (France), H. I. 
Moyano (Chile), S. Pouyet (France) and L. Silen (Sweden). The remaining 
four bryozoologists did not reply. 

28. To restore the original meaning of the genera Cribrilina and 
Collarina and of the family cribrilinidae, the Commission is therefore 
requested: 

( 1 ) (a) to use its plenary powers to set aside the neotype designated in 

Opinion 1016 for Lepralia punctata Hassall, 1841; 
(b) to designate as replacement neotype for Lepralia punctata 
Hassall, 1841, specimen number BMNH 1985.1 1.20.1, whose 
details are given in paragraph 25; 

(2) to amend the entry on the Official List of Specific Names in Zo- 
ology (Name Number 2523) arising from Opinion 1016 to read: 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1 986 295 



punctata Hassall, 1841, as published in the binomen Lepralia 
punctata, as defined by the neotype designated in (1 ) (b) above. 



REFERENCES 

AUDOUIN, V. 1 826. Explication sommaire des planches de polypes de I'Egypte et de 

la Syrie publiees par Jules-Cesar Savigny. Description de I'Egypte. Histoire 

Naturelle, vol. I, part 4, pp. 225-244. 
BUSK, G. 1 854. Catalogue of Marine Polyzoa in the Collection of the British Museum. 

Part II. Cheilostomata (part.). Trustees of the British Museum, London, 

viii + 55-120pp. 
GAUTIER, Y. V. 1962. Recherches ecologiques sur les bryozoaires chilostomes en 

Mediterranee occidentale. Reel Trav. Stn mar. Endoume, vol. 38, pp. 1^34. 
GRAY, J. E. 1848. List of the Specimens of British Animals in the Collection of the 

British Museum. Part I. Centroniae or Radiated Animals. Trustees of the 

British Museum, London, xiii + 173 pp. 
HARMER, S. F. 1902. On the morphology of the Cheilostomata. Q. J. microsc. Sci., 

New Series, vol. 46, pp. 263-350. 
HASSALL, A. H. 1841. Supplement to a catalogue of Irish Zoophytes. Ann. Mag. 

nat. Hist., vol. 7, pp. 363-373. 
HELLER, C. 1867. Die Bryozoen des adriatischen Meeres. Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. 

Wien, vol. 17, Abhandlungen pp. 77-136. 
HINCKS, T. 1879. On the classification of the British Polyzoa. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist., 

Series 5, vol. 3, pp. 153-164. 
1 880. A History of the British Marine Polyzoa. Van Voorst, London. Volume 

1 , cxli + 60 1 pp. Volume 2, 83 pi. 
1886. The Polyzoa of the Adriatic: a supplement to Prof. Heller's 'Die 

Bryozoen des adriatischen Meeres,' 1867. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist., Series 5, vol. 

17. pp. 254-271. 
INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE 

1974. Opinion 1016. Cribrilina punctata (Hassall, 1841): designation of a 

neotype under the plenary powers. Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 31, pp. 19-21. 
JULLIEN, J. 1886. Les Costulidees, nouvelle famille de bryozoaires. Bull. Soc. zool. 

France, vol. 11, pp. 601-620. 
LAGAAIJ, R. 1 952. The Pliocene Bryozoa of the Low Countries and their bearing on 

the marine stratigraphy of the North Sea region. Meded. geol. Sticht., Serie C, 

vol. 5, pp. 1-233. 
LANG, W. D. 1921 . Catalogue of the Fossil Bryozoa (Polyzoa) in the Department of 

Geology, British Museum (Natural History). The Cretaceous Bryozoa 

(Polyzoa). Volume HI. The Cribrimorphs. — Part I. Trustees of the British 

Museum (Natural History), London, ex -I- 269 pp. 
LEVINSEN, G. M. R. 1909. Morphological and systematic studies on the 

cheilostomatous Bryozoa. Nationale Forfatteres Forlag, Copenhagen, 

vii-l-431 pp. 
NORMAN. A. M. 1903. Notes on the natural history of East Finmark. Ann. Mag. 

nat. Hist., Series 7, vol. 12, pp. 87-128. 
PRENANT, M. & BOBIN, G. 1966. Bryozoaires. II. Chilostomes Anasca. Faune 

France, vol. 68, pp. 1-647. 



296 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 



RISTEDT, H. 1979. Skeletal ultrastructure and astogenetic development of some 

cribrimorph Bryozoa. In: Larwood, G. P. & Abbott, M. B. (Eds). Advances in 

bryozoology. Systematics Association Special Volume No. 13, pp. 141-152. 
RYLAND, J. S. & STEBBING, A. R. D. 1968. Cribrilina punctata (Hassall, 1841): 

application for designation under the plenary powers of a neotype (Polyzoa). 

Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 25, pp. 62-64. 
SAVIGNY, M. J. C. L. date unknown. Description de I'Egypte, Polypes, Paris, pi. 

I-XIV. (See AUDOUIN.) 
VOIGT, E. 1939. Uber die Dornenspezialisation bei cheilostomen Bryozoen und die 

Nichtumkehrbarkeit der Entwicklung. Palaeontol. Z., vol. 21, pp. 87-107. 
WATERS, A. W. 1879. On the Bryozoa (Polyzoa) of the Bay of Naples. Ann. Mag. 

nat. Hist., Series 5, vol. 3, pp. 28-43. 
1899. Bryozoa from Madeira. J. R. microsc. Soc, vol. 1899, pp. 6-16. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 297 



PSEUDOCALANIDAE SARS, 1901 (CRUSTACEA, COPEPODA): 

PROPOSED PRECEDENCE OVER CLAUSOCALANIDAE 

GIESBRECHT, 1892. Z.N.(S.)2557 

By V. N. Andronov {Atlantic Research Institute of Fisheries and 

Oceanography, Kaliningrad, USSR) and N. V. Vyshkvartzeva {Zoological 

Institute, Academy of Sciences, Leningrad, USSR) 



At present the majority of carcinologists use the names for families of 
Calanoida given by Sars (1900, 1901-1903, 1924^1925). In Sars' system of 
classification some subfamilies estabhshed by Giesbrecht (1892) were ranked 
as families. 

2. A new name pseudocalanidae was given by Sars (1901, p. 19) 
to the subfamily clausocalaninae Giesbrecht, 1892 (p. 185) because 
Pseudocalanus Boeck, 1873 is the oldest genetic name in this family. 

3. Pseudocalanus Boeck, 1873 (p. 37) was established as a replace- 
ment name for Clausia Boeck, 1865 (p 233), a junior homonym of Clausia 
Claperede, 1863 (Copepoda). The type species of Clausia Boeck (and hence 
of Pseudocalanus) is by monotypy Clausia elongata Boeck, 1865 (p. 234), a 
junior subjective synonym of Calanus minutusKreyer, 1845 (pi. 41, fig. 4). 

4. Clausocalanus Giesbrecht, 1888 (p. 334) was established as a new 
replacement name for Eucalanus Claus, 1881 (p. 325), a junior homonym of 
Eucalanus Dana, 1853 (Copepoda). The type species of Eucalanus Claus (and 
hence of Clausocalanus) is by monotypy Calanus mastigophorus Claus, 1 863 
(p. 173). 

5. Since 1901 carcinologists have used the name pseudocalanidae; 
a list of 35 representative references up to the present has been given to 
the Commission Secretariat. From 1901 up to 1982 nobody used 

CLAUSOCALANIDAE (or CLAUSOCALANINAE). 

6. Recently, however, some carcinologists, in accordance with the 
Principle of Priority, have begun to use clausocalanidae (Bayly, 1982, 
p. 162; Bowman &Abele, 1982, pp. 2,9; Vives, 1982, p. 290; Fleminger, 1983, 
p. 610). 

7. In the interests of stability the International Commission on 
Zoological Nomenclature is asked: 

(1) to use its plenary powers to rule that pseudocalanidae Sars, 
1901 (type genus Pseudocalanus Boeck, 1873) with its 
coordinate family-group names is to be given nomenclatural 
precedence over clausocalanidae Giesbrecht, 1892 (type 
genus Clausocalanus Giesbrecht, 1888) and its coordinate 
family-group names whenever their type genera are placed 
within the same family-group taxon; 

(2) to place the following names on the Official List of Family- 
Group Names in Zoology: 



298 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 



(a) PSEUDOCALANiDAE Sars, 1901 (type genus Pseudocalanus 
Boeck, 1873), with the endorsement that it is to be 
given nomenclatural precedence over clausocalanidae 
Giesbrecht, 1892 (type genus Clausocalanus Giesbrecht, 
1 888) whenever their type genera are placed within the same 
family-group taxon; 

(b) CLAUSOCALANIDAE Gicsbrccht, 1892 (type genus Clausoca- 
lanus Giesbrecht, 1888), with the endorsement that it 
is not to be given nomenclatural precedence over 
PSEUDOCALANIDAE Sars, 1901 (type genus Pseudocalanus 
Boeck, 1873) whenever their type genera are placed within 
the same family-group taxon; 

(3) to place the following names on the Official List of Generic 
names in Zoology: 

(a) Pseudocalanus Boeck, 1873 (type species by monotypy 
Clausia elongata Boeck, 1 865), name of the type genus of 
PSEUDOCALANIDAE Sars, 1901; 

(b) Clausocalanus Giesbrecht, 1 888 (type species by monotypy 
Calanus mastigophorus Claus, 1 863), name of the type genu:, 
of CLAUSOCALANIDAE Gicsbrccht, 1892; 

(4) to place the following names on the Official List of Specific 
Names in Zoology: 

(a) minutus Kroyer, 1845, as published in the binomen Calanus 
minutus, vaHd specific name at the time of this ruHng of the 
type species o^ Pseudocalanus Boeck, 1873; 

(b) mastigophorus Claus, 1863, as published in the binomen 
Calanus mastigophorus, specific name of the type species of 
Clausocalanus G'lQshrcchi, 1888. 



REFERENCES 

BAYLY, I. A. E. 1982. The genus Drepanopus (Copepoda: Calanoida): A review of 

species in Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic waters, with a description of D. 

bispinosus sp.n. Austral. J. Mar. Freshwater Res., vol. 33, pp. 161-172. 
BOECK, A. 1865. Oversigt over de ved Norges Kyster iagttagne Copepoder 

Henherende til Calanidernes, Cyclopidernes og Harpactidernes Familier. 

Forh. Vidensk.Selsk., Christ., 1864 (year vol.), pp. 226-282. 

1873. Nye Slaegter og Arter af Saltvands Copepoder. Forh. Vidensk. 

Selsk. Christ, 1872 (year vol.), pp. 35-60. 

BOWMAN, T. E. & ABELE, L. G. 1982. Classification of the Recent Crustacea. In: 
Bliss, D. E., The Biology of Crustacea, vol. 1, pp. 1-27. Academic Press. New 
York. 

CLAUS, C. 1863. Die frei lebenden Copepoden mit besonderer Beriicksichtigung der 
Fauna Deutschlands , der Nordsee unddes Mittelmeeres. Leipzig, 230 pp. 

1881. Neue Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Copepoden. Arb. zool. Inst. Univ. 

H^z^Aj, vol. 3. pp. 313-332. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 299 



FLEMINGER, A. 1983. Description and phylogeny oi Isaacsicalanus paucisetosus, 

n.gen.. n.sp., (Copepoda: Calanoida: Spinocalanidae) from an east Pacific 

hydrothermal vent site (21°N). Proc. biol. Soc. Wash., vol. 96, pp. 605-622. 
GIESBRECHT, W. 1888. Elenco dei copepodi pelagici. Atti Accad. naz. Lincei. Re, 

ser. 4, vol. 4, pt. 2, pp. 284^338. 
1892. Systematik und Faunistik der pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von 

Neapel und angrenzenden Meeres, Fauna und Flora des Golfes von Neapel, 

XIX. Berlin, 831 pp. + 54 tab. 
KR0YER, H. 1845. Crustaces. (Copepoda). In: Bernard, A., Atlas de Zoologie, 

Paris. 76 pi. 
SARS, G. O. 1900. Crustacea. In: Nansen, F., The Norwegian North Polar Expedition 

1893-1896. Scientific Results, vol. 1. Part 5. London. 141pp. +36 pi. 

1901-1903. An Account of the Crustacea of Norway. Vol. 4. Copepoda: 

Calanoida. 1901: pts. 1-2, pp. 1-28; 1902: pts. 3-12, pp. 29-142; 1903: pts. 13 
& 14&suppl., pp. 143-171. Bergen. 

1924-1925. Copepodes particulierement bathypelagiques provenant des 

campagnes scientifiques du Prince Albert I-er de Monaco. Res. Camp, scient. 
Prince Albert I, no. 69. 1924 (atlas); 1925 (text). 408 pp., 127 pis. 

VIVES, F. 1982. Sur les copepodes de la region CINECA (Parties nord et centrale). 
Rapp. P.-v. Reun. Cons. perm. int. Explor. Mer., vol. 180, pp. 289-296. 



300 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 



GEONEMUS SCHOENHERR, 1833 AND BRACHYOMUS 

LACORDAIRE, 1863 (INSECTA, COLEOPTERA): PROPOSAL TO 

MAINTAIN CURRENT USAGE BY DESIGNATION OF A TYPE 

SPECIES FOR GEONEMUS. Z.N.(S.)2565 

By Guillermo J. Wibmer and Charles W. O'Brien {Department of 
Entomology , Florida A and M University, Tallahassee, Florida 32307, 

U.S.A.) 



In this application, it is proposed that the accustomed usage of the 
generic names Geonemus Schoenherr, 1833 and Brachyomus Lacordaire, 
1 863 in the family curculionidae be maintained by the designation of an 
appropriate type species for Geonemus. 

2. The name Geophilus was established by Schoenherr (1823, column 
1 140) with two species listed in column 1141: Geophilus suturalis, cited there 
as type, but a nomen nudum, and Curculio octotuberculatus Fabricius (1787, 
p. 112) thus the type species by monotypy. Schoenherr (1826, p. 161) pro- 
vided a description of the genus and octotuberculatus, from Cayenne, was 
cited as type species on p. 14, again the only available name of the four listed 
on p. 162 (including virgatus, cited there as type). 

3. Geophilus Schoenherr is a junior homonym of Geophilus Leach, 
1814, a myriapod genus (see Neave, 1939, p. 457). Schoenherr (1833, p. 13) 
replaced it with Geonemus and listed Curculio amictus Wiedemann (1823, p. 
1 23) as type, although by Article 67(h) of the Code the type continues to be C. 
octotuberculatus. If the designation of amictus were to be upheld, Geonemus 
would be a senior synonym of the well known genus Rhinoscapha 
Montrouzier (1855, p. 47). Schoenherr (1834, p. 296) included in the genus 
Curculio ftabellipes Olivier (1807, p. 374) from S. France and Algeria. 
Schoenherr's final concept of Geonemus (1834, pp. 289-297) is clearly a 
mixed assemblage, including species from Europe, the East Indies, the West 
Indies, and Central and South America. Lacordaire (1863, p. 131) emended 
the generic name to Geonomus, but this name was not adopted by most 
subsequent workers. 

4. The name Brachyomus was established by Lacordaire (1863, p. 
130) to include octotuberculatus and other New World species previously 
placed in Geonemus, and on pp. 131 and 132 he restricted Geonemus to three 
Old World species, '\r\c\\xd\r\g flabellipes. This concept of the two genera has 
been followed by all subsequent authors, e.g. Gemminger & Harold (1871, 
pp. 2239-2240 & 2240); Bedel (1883, p. 31); Faust (1892, pp. 14^16); Dalla 
Torre, Emden & Emden (1936, pp. 46-47); Lona (1938, p. 508); Hoffmann 
(1950, pp. 360-361) and Wibmer & O'Brien (1986, pp. 73-74). Wibmer & 
O'Brien (1986, p. 73) reported the error, but maintained the current usage to 
maintain stability and designated octotuberculatus as type species of 
Brachyomus. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 301 



5. According to the rules of nomenclature Geonemus Schoenherr, 
1833 and Brachyomus Lacordaire, 1863 are objective synonyms, both having 
Curculio octotuberculatus Fabricius as the type species. Clearly this confuses 
the application of both names, and the consequences can be avoided by 
setting aside the fixation of Curculio octotuberculatus as type of Geonemus 
and by designating for this genus an Old World type species in accordance 
with current usage. 

6. The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature is 
therefore requested: 

(1) to use its plenary powers to set aside all fixations hitherto made 
of type species for the nominal genus Geonemus Schoenherr, 
1833, and then to designate curculio flabellipes Olivier, 1807, as 
type species, thus removing Brachyomus Lacordaire, 1863 from 
objective synonymy with Geonemus; 

(2) to place the following names on the Official List of Generic 
Names in Zoology: 

(a) Geonemus Schoenherr, 1833 (gender: masculine), type 
species by designation in (1) above, Curculio flabellipes 
Olivier, 1807; 

(b) Brachyomus Lacordaire, 1863 (gender: masculine), type 
species by subsequent designation by Wibmer &. O'Brien, 
1986, Curculio octotuberculatus Fabricius, 1787; 

(3) to place the following names on the Official List of Specific 
Names in Zoology: 

(a) flabellipes Olivier, 1807, as published in the binomen 
Curculio flabellipes (specific name of the type species of 
Geonemus Schotn\itrr, 1833); 

(b) octotuberculatus Fabricius, 1787, as published in the 
binomen Curculio octotuberculatus (specific name of the 
type species of Brachyomus Lacordaire, 1863). 



REFERENCES 

BEDEL, L. 1883. Pp. 17-64. In Faune des Coleopteres du bassin de la Seine, 

1882-1888. Ann. Soc. entomol. France, vol. 6 (hors serie), Rhynchophora, 

pp. l^W2[ + 2]. 
DALLA TORRE, K. W. VON, EMDEN, M. VAN & EMDEN, F. VAN. 1936. 

Coleopterorum Catalogus, pars 147, Curculionidae: Brachyderinae I, vol. 27, 

pp. 1-132. Junk, 's-Gravenhage. 
FABRICIUS, J. C. 1787. Mantissa insectorum . . . , vol. 1, XX + 348 pp. Proft, 

Hafniae. 
FAUST, J. 1892. Reise von E. Simon in Venezuela. Curculionidae. Stettiner entomol. 

Ztg., vol. 53, no. 1-3, pp. 1-44. (Pars prima.) 
GEMMINGER, M. & HAROLD, E. VON. 1871. Catalogus Coleopterorum 

hucusque descriptorum synonymicus et systematicus , vol. 8, Curculionidae, 

pp. 2181-2668 [+11]. Gummi, Monachii. 



302 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 



HOFFMANN, A. 1950. Faune de France. 52. Coleopteres Curculionides (Premiere 

partie) , 486 pp. Lechevalier, Paris. 
LACORDAIRE, J. T. 1863. Histoire naturelle des insectes. Genera des 

Coleopteres . . . , vol. 6, pp. 1-608, 615-637. Roret, Paris. [No pages numbered 

609-614; 615 follows 608 but nothing seems to be missing.] 
LONA, C. 1938, Coleopterorum Catalogus.pars 162, Curculionidae: Otiorrhynchinae 

III, pp. 413-600 (Vol. 27). Junk, 's-Gravenhage. 
MONTROUZIER, P. 1855. Essai sur la Faune de I'lle de Woodlark ou Moiou (bei 

Neuguinea). Ann. Soc. agric. Lyon, ser. 2, vol. 7, part 1, pp. 1-1 14. 
NEAVE, S. A. (ed). 1939. Nomenclator Zoologicus, vol. 2, 1025 pp. The Zoological 

Society of London, London. 
OLIVIER, A. G. 1807. Entomologie, ou histoire naturelle des insectes..., 

Coleopteres, vol. 5, 612 pp. Desray, Paris. 
SCHOENHERR, C. J. 1823. Curculionides. Isis Oken, heft Z, columns 1 132-1 146. 
1826. Curculionidum dispositio methodica . . ., part 4, X + 338 pp. Fleischer, 

Lipsiae. 
1833. Synonymia Insectorum. Genera et species curculionidum, cumsynonymia 

hujusfamiliae, vol. 1, XV + 681 pp. Roret, Paris. 
1834. Synonymia Insectorum. Genera et species curculionidum, . . . , vol. 2, 

part 1, 326 pp. Roret, Paris; Fleischer, Lipsiae. 
WIBMER, G. J. & O'BRIEN, C. W. 1986. Annotated checklist of the weevils 

(Curculionidae sensu lato) of South America (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea). 

Mem. amer. entomol. Inst., no. 39, xvi + 563 pp. 
WIEDEMANN, C. R. W. 1823. Zweihundert neue Kafer von Java, Bengalen und 

dem Vorgebirge der guten Hoffnung. Zool. Mag., vol. 2, part 1 , pp. 1-135. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 303 



PHAULACRIDIUM VITTATUM (SJOSTEDT, 1920) (INSECT A, 

ORTHOPTERA): PROPOSED CONSERVATION BY 

SUPPRESSION OF ACRIDIUM AMBULANS ERICHSON, 1842, 

TRIGONIZA MANCA BOLIVAR, 1898 AND TRIGONIZA 

AUSTRALIENSIS BOLIVAR, 1898. Z.N.(S.)2524 

By K. H. L. Key {Division of Entomology , CSIRO, Box 1700 Canberra 
2601, Australia) 



Key (1938) first identified a species of injurious Australian grass- 
hopper as Phaulacridium vittatum (Sjostedt, 1920). Since that time the species 
concerned has been shown to be a serious pest and has been the subject of a 
considerable literature under that name. However, the specific name vittatum 
is threatened by three unused senior synonyms. It is proposed that these 
should be suppressed under Articles 23b and 79c of the Code. 

2. Sjostedt ( 1 920) described two species in a new genus Biformalia: B. 
vittata (p. 49) and B. gemini (p. 50). In the following year (Sjostedt, 1921) he 
synonymised Biformalia with Phaulacridium Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1 893, 
transferring to that genus his vittata and gemini, as well as Trigoniza manca 
Bolivar, 1898 (p. 96). Later he described Phaulacridium intermedium 
Sjostedt, 1 93 1 (p. 1 6) and P. robustum Sjostedt, 1 932 (p. 1 5). Key (1938, p. 79) 
synonymised vittatum, gemini, intermedium and robustum. He stated that 
vittatum had priority; although there were no grounds (vis-a-vis gemini) for 
that statement, it has the force of a first-reviser selection of vittatum in 
preference to gemini, the two names having been published in the same work 
on the same day. Key's synonymisation of the four names has never been 
challenged. 

3. Key ( 1 952, p. 1 27) stated that both Phaulacridium manca (Bolivar, 
1898) and Acridium ambulans Erichson, 1842 (p. 251) were 'probably' 
(senior) synonyms of vittatum, but he retained the name vittatum 'for the 
present' (owing presumably to its already widespread use). Following 
examination of the type series o^ manca and designation of a lectotype, Key 
(1981, p. 29) confirmed his earlier conditional synonymy of that name, and 
this has never been challenged. 

4. The type material oi Acridium ambulans has been considered lost 
for at least 75 years. This species was not listed by Kirby (1910) and Sjostedt 
(1921, 1936) was unable to locate the type material and did not attempt to 
interpret the name. Recently the type series has been found in the Museum 
fur Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universitat in Beriin and I have been able to 
examine it through the courtesy of Dr K. K. Giinther. It consists of five 
well-preserved females, all of which are clearly conspecific with 
Phaulacridium vittatum (see Key, 1986). 

5. I have examined the holotype of Trigoniza australiensis Bolivar, 
1898 (pp. 95-96) in the Instituto Espanol de Entomologia, Madrid and find 
that it too is clearly conspecific with P. vittatum (see Key, 1986). 



304 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 



6. Since 1938 the name Phaulacridium vit latum has been consistently 
used for the economically important AustraHan species (the so-called 'Wing- 
less Grasshopper') and it has been the only name applied to that species. A 
cursory survey shows that it has been used by at least 10 authors in at least 21 
papers covering taxonomy, biology, genetics, cytology, ecology and control 
measures (a list often of these papers is held in the offices of the Secretariat). 
Its senior synonym ambulans has not been used as a valid name during the 
144 years since its publication in 1842. The senior synonym Trigoniza manca 
has not been used as a valid name since it was transferred to Phaulacridium 
by Sjostedt in 1921, except for a listing without comment by Sjostedt (1936). 
The senior synonym Trigoniza australiensis has not been used since its 
publication in 1898, except for listings without comment by Sjostedt (1921, 
1936). 

7. The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature is 
accordingly asked: 

(1) to use its plenary powers to suppress the following specific 
names for the purpose of the Principle of Priority but not for 
that of the Principle of Homonymy: 

(a) ambulans Erichson, 1842, as published in the binomen 
Acridium ambulans; 

(b) manca Bolivar, 1898, as published in the binomen Trigoniza 
manca; 

(c) australiensis Bolivar, 1898, as published in the binomen 
Trigoniza australiensis; 

(2) to place on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology the 
name vittata Sjostedt, 1920, as pubUshed in the binomen 
Biformalia vittata; 

(3) to place the following names on the Official Index of Rejected 
and Invalid Specific Names in Zoology: 

(a) ambulans Erichson, 1842, as published in the binomen 
Acridium ambulans and as suppressed under the plenary 
powers in (1) (a) above; 

(b) manca Bolivar, 1898, as published in the binomen Trigoniza 
manca and as suppressed under the plenary powers in ( 1 ) (b) 
above; 

(c) australiensis Bolivar, 1898, as pubhshed in the binomen 
Trigoniza australiensis and as suppressed under the plenary 
powers in (1) (c) above. 

REFERENCES 

BOLIVAR, I. 1898. Contributions a I'etude des acridiens. Especes de la faune indo- 

et austro-malaisienne du Museu Civico di Storia Naturale di Geneva. Ann. 

Mus. Civ. Stor. not Giacomo Doria, vol. 39, pp. 66-101. 
BRUNNER VON WATTENWYL, C. 1893. Revision du Systeme des Orthopteres 

et description des especes rapportees par M. Leonardo Pea de Birmanie. Ann. 

Mus. Civ. Stor. nat. Giacomo Doria, ser. 2, vol. 13, pp. 1-230. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 305 



ERICHSON, W. F. 1842. Beitrag zur Insecten-Fauna von Vandiemensland mit 

besonderer Beriicksichtigung der geographischen Verbreitung der Insecten. 

Arch. Naturgesch., vol. 8(1), pp. 83-287. 
KEY, K. H. L. 1938. The regional and seasonal incidence of grasshopper plagues in 

Australia. Aust. Commonw. Counc. Sci. Ind. Res. Bull., no. 117, pp. 1-87. 
1952. A provisional check-list of the Acridoidea of Tasmania (Orthoptera). 

Pap. Proc. r. Soc. Tasmania, vol. 86, pp. 127-130. 

1981. Lectotype designations for Australian Acrididae and Tetrigidae 

(Orthoptera). Austr. CSIRO Div. Entomol. tech. Pap., no. 17, pp. 1-58. 

1986. A provisional synonymic list of the Australian Acridoidea 

(Orthoptera). Austr. CSIRO Div. Entomol. tech. Pap., no. 24, pp. 1^7. 

KIRBY, W. F. 1910. A Synonymic Catalogue of Orthoptera. Vol. III. Orthoptera 
Saltatoria. Part II (Locustidae vel Acridiidae). 674 pp. London. 

SJOSTEDT, Y. 1920. Results of Dr E. Mjoberg's Swedish scientific expeditions to 
AustraUa 1910-1913. Acridiodea. Ark. Zool, vol. 12 (20), pp. 1-67. 

1921. Acridiodea australica. Monographic der bisher von Australien 

bekannten Heuschrecken mit kurzen Fuhlern. K. Sven. Ventenskapsakad. 
Handi, vol. 62(3), pp. 1-318. 

193 1 . Acridiodea aus dem Queensland Museum zu Brisbane. Ark. Zool., vol. 

23A(ll),pp. 1-21. 
1932. Neue Acridiodea aus dem Museum in Canberra (The Federal Capital 

Territory, Australia) mit einer Revision der Gattung Chortoicetes (Orth. Trux). 

Ark. Zool., vol. 23A(19), pp. 1-15. 

1936. Revision der australischen Acridiodeen. 2. Monographic. K. Sven. 

Vetenskapsakad. Handi, ser. 3, vol. 15(2), pp. 1-191 [1935]. 

WALKER, F. 1870. Catalogue of the Specimens of Dermaptera Saltatoria in the 
Collection of the British Museum. Part III, pp. 425-604. London. 



306 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 



PHISIS STAl, 1861 AND TEUTHRAS STAl, 1874 (INSECT A 

ORTHOPTERA (GRYLLOPTERA)): CONFIRMATION OF 

LISTROSCELIS PECTIN ATA GUERIN [-MENEVILLE], 1831 AS 

TYPE SPECIES. Z.N.(S.)2528 

By D. K. McE. Kevan (Lyman Entomological Museum, Macdonald College , 
McGill University, 21111 Lakeshore Road, Ste.-Anne de Bellevue, Quebec, 

Canada) 

The object of this application is the confirmation of the nominal 
species Listroscelis pectinata Guerin[-Meneville], 1831 as type species of two 
genera, Phisis Stal, 1861 and Teuthras Stal, 1874, both based on the same 
specimen which had been misidentified. 

2. Stal (1861, p. 324) established the monotypic genus Phisis, giving 
as 'Typus generis: Listroscelis pectinata Guer., Serv. Hist, des Orth. p. 398.3 
(c?).' Later (Stal, 1874, pp. 102 and 1 16) he estabhshed Teuthras, also with 
only one species: 'Listroscelis pectinata' Serv. Orth. p. 398.3 (1839) [sic].' 
These genera are therefore objective synonyms, as first pointed out by Kirby 
(1906, p. 286), though he omitted to indicate the original generic name used. 

3. In the earlier (1861) (Phisis) paper, Stal said he had seen only a 
single 'Specimen femineum ex insula Taiti reportavit Dom. Dr. Kinsberg', 
while in the 1874 (Teuthras) work he says simply 'Patria: Insula Taiti. 
(Mus.Holm.)' How he came to overlook his previous action involving the 
same specimen is just another of those inexplicable mysteries that are the lot 
of the taxonomist to encounter. The Tahiti female before Stal is still in 
excellent condition in the Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Stockholm, and 
bears his hand-written label 'Pectinatus' (to agree with Teuthras) as well as 
two more recent printed labels 'Taiti' and 'Kinsb'. 

4. Stal had clearly not seen the specimen of Listroscelis pectinata that 
had been very well illustrated and described by Guerin [-Meneville] (1831, pi. 
10 and 1838, p. 153) [the dates of Guerin-Meneville's work have been dis- 
cussed by Sherborn and Woodward (1906) and Cowan (1970)]. This speci- 
men, which is preserved in the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris, was 
redescribed by Audinet-Serville (1838, p. 398), the source mentioned by Stal 
in his proposals of Phisis and Teuthras. 

5. Although the holotype of Guerin-Meneville's L. pectinata is male 
and Stal's specimen is female, and although they are generally similar, there 
is now ample taxonomic evidence to enable me to state that they are not 
conspecific. Despite some publications (e.g., Kirby (1906, p. 286)) to the 
contrary, no specimen of L. pectinata is known from anywhere other than the 
island of Buru in the Moluccas, far distant from Kinsberg's locality of 
Tahiti for the specimen seen by Stal. The species occurring in Tahiti could 
even be referable to another genus, though this now seems improbable. 

6. In view of the situation described above, it is necessary to settle the 
question of whether the type species of Phisis (and of Teuthras) should be the 
nominal species designated by Stal, Listroscelis pectinata, or the taxonomic 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 307 

T::ZZm ""' ^^"^^^^ ^^^^"P^^- (-^-h -"Id apply to either) was 
asked: '' '"'' ^"^^^"^^'«"a> Commission on Zoological Nomenclature is 

(1) to confirm the original designations of the nominal species 
Z-^./.o/.yc./,.pe.rm«/aGuerin[-Meneville], 1831 as type soecies 
of the genera P/,/./.Stal, 1861 and TeuthrasSill T^'^l' 'P''''' 

(2) to place on the Official List of Generic Names n Zooloev the 
name msis Stal, 1861 (feminme gender), ypeSrbv 
ongmaldes,gnationandasconfirmedin(l)above,Lw^^^^ 
pmwa/flGuerin[-Meneville] 1831- ^^^isiro/sjcelis 

^^^ l^^r °" '^" ^^"'^ ^''' of Specific Names in Zoology the 
name pectinata. as published in the binomen ListroffVefs 

(4) rpiTo^'the offi^'f ?T r '^'^''^ o^phis;:t^im 

Names in 7nni?K ^"^'^ ^^ Rejected and Invalid Gener c 
JNames m Zoology the name Teuthras Stal, 1874 a iunior 
objective synonym of PAm^ Stal 1861 a junior 



REFERENCES 



voi. 5, pp mUm '"'"'■ ^°^'«' ■' ^'"- "'I'lp'"- «°'- ""'• 

1830-1838- pp. ?47 9" 3 /5'+22nii7 ^f^^^^"^' f^h^'^ vol. 
pp. 1-155 16p]] 5 + 22 pi. + Zoophytes, by LESSON, R. P.; 

SHERBORN, C. D. &WOODWARn r n lon^ xr 



308 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 



PROPOSED AMENDMENTS TO THE CODE INTRODUCING 

THE TERM NOMENCLATURALLY VALID': A USEFUL NEW 

TERM IN NOMENCLATURE. Z.N.(S.)2513 

By R. V. Melville (formerly Secretary) (93 Lock Road, Ham, Richmond, 

U.K.) 

On several occasions in recent years I have felt the need for a term to 
denote a name whose nomenclatural credentials are beyond reproach — that 
is, it is neither a junior homonym nor a junior objective synonym and it has 
not been rejected by the action of a first reviser (Article 24). I have coined the 
term 'nomenclaturally valid' to denote such names and have used it several 
times in the Bulletin. My friend Professor Dr Holthuis objects to this practice 
so long as the term has not been officially adopted by the Commission and 
written into the Code and Glossary. I must therefore explain more fully why I 
think the term is a useful one. 

2. Examples of my use of the term may help to clear the air. I have 
kept no note of my use of the name so what follows is not necessarily a 
complete list of examples. 

(a) vol. 38, pp. 288-291, November 1981. Dr Kerzhner asked that 
Capsus ater Jakovlev, 1889 and Lygaeus quadripunctatus 
Fabricius, 1 794 be ruled under the plenary powers to be nomen- 
claturally valid names. The first is a junior secondary homonym 
of Capsus ater (Linnaeus, 1758) and the second was for a time 
a junior secondary homonym of Calocoris quadripunctatus 
(Villers, 1789). In September 1982 (vol 39, p. 163) Dr Holthuis 
commented adversely on aspects of this application. In reply 
Dr Kerzhner said: T think that if, as a result of nomenclatural 
(not taxonomic) confusion, two or more names are used for the 
same species, the nomenclatural validation of one of those 
names (preferably the oldest and most used) serves stability 
better than the introduction of a further name that has never 
been used for the species'. 

(b) vol. 39, p. 38, March 1982. The Commission was requested to 
use its plenary powers to rule that Thrips ( Aptinothrips ) rufa 
[sic] Haliday, 1836 is a nomenclaturally valid name, although it 
was a junior primary homonym of Thrips rufus Goeze, 1 778 and 
Thrips rufus Gmelin, 1 790. 

(c) vol. 41, p. 186, August 1984. In reporting on the long-standing 
application for the conservation of Rana maculata Brocchi, 
1877 and Eleutherodactylus richmondi Stejneger, 1904, 1 quoted 
a comment by Dr Sabrosky that offered four possible solutions 
to the problem. Under Alternative C (the original proposal) 
Rana maculata Daudin, 1801 would be suppressed. R. maculata 
Brocchi then would become nomenclaturally valid. Under 
Alternative D (Dr Sabrosky's proposal) R. maculata Daudin 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 309 



would be suppressed for priority but not for homonymy, as 
would certain lectotype designations by the applicants. R. 
macroglossa Brocchi, 1877 becomes nomenclaturally valid 
rather than R. maculata Brocchi, which falls as junior primary 
homonym. 

3. The definition of 'nomenclaturally valid' is narrower than the 
definition of 'conserved' because many proposals for conservation are 
concerned with subjective synonymies. A junior subjective synonym is 
taxonomically invalid, but it may be nomenclaturally valid at the same time. 

4. The term 'validation' was long used by the Commission in 
connexion with names being placed on the Official List. At one time it was 
said that names placed on the Lists by an act of 'validation' were protected 
against all senior synonyms and homonyms, known and unknown, but that 
cannot be correct. In at least one case, both of a pair of subjective synonyms 
have been placed on the List; and when the 'relative precedence' procedure is 
applied to synonymous names, both names are placed on the List. The term 
'validation' can now been seen to cover two different acts: 'nomenclatural 
validation' and 'conservation'. A name must be nomenclaturally valid before 
it can be used as a taxonomically valid name in the sense of Article 23; and the 
Commission can validate a name only in the nomenclatural sense. 

5. I should therefore like to propose the following changes to the 
third edition of the Code: 

Article 23m. 'A nomenclaturally valid name is not to be rejected . . . ' 

Article 24a. add a new Subsection (i): 'A junior objective synonym, or 
a junior homonym in the family group or the genus group, or a 
junior primary homonym in the species group that is validated by 
the action of a first reviser in the sense of this Article is 
nomenclaturally valid.' 

Article 79a, add a new Subsection (i): 'A junior objective synonym, or 
a junior homonym in the family group or the genus group, or a 
junior primary homonym in the species that is validated by the use 
of the plenary powers is nomenclaturally valid.' 

Glossary, add a new subparagraph under 'valid': 'Nomenclaturally 
valid. A name that is neither a junior objective synonym, nor a 
junior homonym in the family group or the genus group, nor a 
junior primary homonym in the species group, and that has not 
been rejected by a first reviser is a nomenclaturally valid name.' 



310 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 



TAENIOLABIS COPE, 1882 (MAMMALIA, 

MULTITUBERCULATA): PROPOSED DESIGNATION OF 

POLYMASTODON TAOENSIS COPE, 1882 AS TYPE SPECIES. 

Z.N.(S.)2529 



By Nancy B. Simmons (Department of Paleontology, University of 
California, Berkeley, CA, 94572, USA) 

The purpose of this application is to clarify the status of the type 
species of Taeniolabis Cope, 1882a (p. 604) by: (a) suppression under the 
plenary powers of the specific name of Taeniolabis sulcatus Cope, 1882a 
(p. 604), type species by original designation and an unused senior subjective 
synonym of Polymastodon taoensis Cope, 1 882b (p. 684), and (b) designation 
of P. taoensis Cope, 1882 as the new type species of Taeniolabis. 

2. The holotype of Taeniolabis sulcatus is a broken upper second 
incisor (American Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleontology 
number 3038). Cope (1884, p. 193) pubUshed a second name for this speci- 
men, T. scalper, and referred to the specimen again in this way in a later 
publication (Cope, 1885, p. 493). T. scalper has been used as a senior 
synonym only one other time, in Trouessart's listing of fossil mammalian 
taxa (1898, p. 1253). All subsequent references to this specimen cite T. 
sulcatus as a senior objective synonym of T. scalper. 

3. Cope (1882b, p. 684) erected the genus Polymastodon Cope, 1882 
based upon the type species Polymastodon taoensis Cope, 1 882. The holotype 
of Polymastodon taoensis (diacritic mark omitted) consists of fragments of a 
skull including the right maxilla with first and second molars (American 
Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleontology number 3036). 
Incorrect spellings of the specific name include taoense (Abel, 1913, p. 703; 
1914, p. 39; 1920, pi 417), tabensis (Tims, 1903, p. 142; 1905, p. 1784), and 
tooensis (Granger and Simpson, 1929, p. 619; typographical error). 

4. Cope (1885, p. 493) suggested that Taeniolabis scalper might be 
synonymous with Polymastodon taoensis. This suggestion was based on 
recognition that both P. taoensis and T. scalper ( = T. sulcatus) are restricted 
to the same stratigraphic unit within the San Juan Basin of New Mexico (the 
'Puerco Formation' or lower part of the Nacimiento Formation, Cenozoic 
System), and that the holotype of T. scalper resembles quite closely many 
incisors referred to P. taoensis in size and morphology. Although Taeniolabis 
has publication priority over Polymastodon (the former published in July 
1 882 and the latter in August), Cope (1885) preferred to retain Polymastodon 
to refer to the genus. This retention was probably based on the superiority of 
the holotype of P. taoensis, comparisons with which had resulted in the 
establishment of additional species of Polymastodon. Polymastodon was sub- 
sequently cited as the preferred generic name in three review works 
(Roger, 1896, p. 6; Zittel, 1893, p. 85; Zittel, 1923, p. 432). Matthew and 
Granger (1925, p. 6) were the first to indicate Taeniolabis Cope, 1882 as 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 311 



the senior name for this genus [the reference reads "... Taeniolabis 
("' Polymastodon'') . . . "], and were soon followed by similar references in 
Matthew ( 1 928, pp. 949 and 951) and Matthew, Granger and Simpson ( 1 928, 
p. 1). Granger and Simpson (1929, p. 603) discussed the question of priority. 
All subsequent workers have recognised Taeniolabis as a senior subjective 
synonym of Polymastodon. 

5. The suggested synonymy (Cope, 1885) of the species Taeniolabis 
scalper and Polymastodon taoensis was accepted only in a single catalogue of 
mammalian taxa by Roger (1896, p. 6), who listed both T. sulcatus and T. 
scalper as junior synonyms of Polymastodon taoensis. Granger and Simpson 
(1929, p. 615) rejected this synonymy in what remains the primary reference 
for Taeniolabis, and recognised three species in the 'Puerco Formation' of 
the San Juan Basin, New Mexico: Taeniolabis sulcatus, Polymastodon 
taoensis, and Taeniolabis triserialis Granger and Simpson, 1929 (p. 619). 
Polymastodon taoensis and Taeniolabis triserialis were both diagnosed on the 
basis of molar tooth morphology, with incisors being non-diagnostic. As the 
holotype of T. sulcatus (a single upper second incisor) exhibited no diagnos- 
tic characters which could be used to distinguish it from the incisors of the 
other species, T. sulcatus 1882 was recognised as a nomen dubium. Granger 
and Simpson could not comfortably synonymise the taxon with either P. 
taoensis Cope, 1882 or T. triserialis because of the confluent distribution of 
these taxa, so T. sulcatus was retained as a separate species despite its nomen 
dubium status. Granger and Simpson (1929, p. 616) concluded that 'It is 
probable that T. sulcatus is synonymous with T. taoensis, but here the latter 
better-known name may reasonably be retained. . . . Until such time, there- 
fore, as more abundant associated material makes it possible to determine 
the specific characters shown by the P [upper second incisor], it is proposed 
to apply the little-known name T. sulcatus only to the type.' No specimens 
other than the holotype have ever been referred to T. sulcatus (or its junior 
objective synonym, T. scalper). 

6. Within the last fifty years there have been two references citing 
Taeniolabis sulcatus as a vaHd name. Matthew (1937, p. 381) included a 
summary of Taeniolabis in his volume on the Paleocene faunas of the San 
Juan Basin, New Mexico, in which the holotype of T. sulcatus was described 
with the conclusion that 'The type is regarded as specifically indeterminate'. 
Hahn and Hahn (1983, p. 294) included T. sulcatus in their Fossilium 
Catalogus review of the Multituberculata, with a footnote that 'Es ist 
moglich, dass es sich um einen Incisiv von T. taoensis handelt, doch kann die 
Zugehorigkeit nicht gesichert werden.' [It is possible that it is an incisor from 
T. taoensis, but membership cannot be assured]. 

7. Recent research concerning Taeniolabis has resulted in the 
conclusion that T. triserialis is a junior subjective synonym of Polymastodon 
taoensis (Simmons, in press). This synonymy means that there is only one 
diagnosable species of Taeniolabis known from the 'Puerco Formation' 
( = lower part of the Nacimiento Formation) of the San Juan Basin, New 
Mexico. T. sulcatus is considered synonymous with Polymastodon taoensis 



312 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 



based on general morphology and provenance of the holotype (Simmons, in 
press). 

8. That Taeniolabis Cope, 1882 has priority over Polymastodon 
Cope, 1882 has previously been established. Similarly, sulcatus has priority 
over taoensis. Use of the specific name sulcatus, however, would upset the 
stability of the long-accepted name taoensis in its accustomed meaning 
through the introduction of an unused senior synonym. Although T. sulcatus 
has been used as a valid name twice in the immediately preceding fifty years, 
both of these citations questioned the specific identity of the taxon. In 
addition, T. sulcatus was already considered a 'little-known name' 57 years 
ago (Granger and Simpson, 1929, p. 616). Conversely, Taeniolabis taoensis 
has been used extensively in the literature of the past fifty years as the 
presumably valid name for the taxon (details of nineteen references have 
been given to the Commission Secretariat). Labelled illustrations of the skull 
and dentition of T. taoensis have also appeared along with discussion of the 
genus in several text books: Piveteau (1955, p. 33, Figure 14); Piveteau (1961, 
pp. 551-552, Figures 20-21); Scott (1962, pp. 86-88, Figures 57-59); and 
Gromova (1962, pp. 63-64, Figure 15). In the interest of nomenclatural 
stability, it is therefore proposed that the virtually unused senior synonym 
sulcatus be suppressed in favour of the specific name in general current usage, 
taoensis. 

9. The suppression of T. sulcatus as type species of Taeniolabis Cope, 
1882 requires designation of a new type species for the genus. Clearly, the 
appropriate type species for Taeniolabis is Polymastodon taoensis Cope, 
1882, the holotype of which consists of skull fragments including the right 
maxilla with first and second molars (American Museum of Natural History, 
Department of Paleontology Number 3036). 

10. The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature is 
accordingly asked: 

(1) to use its plenary powers: 

(a) to set aside all previous designations of the type species for 
the nominal genus Taeniolabis Cope, 1882, and to designate 
Polymastodon taoensis Cope, 1 882 as the type species of that 
genus; 

(b) to suppress the specific name sulcatus Cope, 1882, as pub- 
lished in the binomen Taeniolabis sulcatus, for the purpose 
of the Principle of Priority but not for that of the Principle of 
Homonymy. 

(2) to place on the Ofiicial List of Generic Names in Zoology the 
name Taeniolabis Cope, 1 882 (gender: masculine), type species, 
by designation under the plenary powers in (1) (a) above, 
Polymastodon taoensis Cope, 1882; 

(3) to place on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology the 
name taoensis Cope, 1882, as published in the binomen 
Polymastodon taoensis Cope, 1882 (specific name of the type 
species of Taeniolabis Cope, 1 882); 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 313 



(4) to place on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Specific 
Names in Zoology the name sulcatus Cope, 1 882, as published in 
the binomen Taeniolabis sulcatus. and as suppressed under the 
plenary powers in (1) (b) above. 



REFERENCES 

ABEL, O. 1913. Saugetiere (Palaontologie). Handworterbuch Naturwiss., vol. 8, pp. 

695-759. 

1914. Die vorzeitlichen Saugetiere. Gustav Fischer, Jena. 309 pp. 

1920. Lehrbruch der Paldozoologie. Gustav Fischer, Jena. 500 pp. 

COPE, E. D. 1882a. A new genus of Taeniodonta. Amer. Naturalist, vol. 16, 

pp. 604^05. (published July, 1882). 
1882b. New marsupials from the Puerco Eocene. Amer. Naturalist, vol. 16, 

pp. 684-686. (published August, 1882). 
1884. The Vertebrata of the Tertiary formations of the West Book I. In: F. V. 

Hayden (ed.) Report of the U.S. Geological Survey of the Territories, Pt. Ill, 

pp. 1-1009. 
1885. Mammals from the Lower Eocene of New Mexico. Amer. Naturalist, 

vol. 19, pp. 493^94. 
GRANGER, W. & SIMPSON, G. G. 1929. A revision of the Tertiary Multi- 

tuberculata. Bull. Amer, Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 56, pp. 601-676. 
GROMOVA, V. I. 1962. Allotheria. In: Y. A. Orlov (ed.), Osnovy paleontologie, vol. 

XII, (V.I. Gromova, ed.), pp. 63-64. Mlekopitajuschtschie, Moscow. 
HAHN, G. & HAHN, R. 1983. Multituberculata. In: F. Wesphal (ed.), Fossilium 

Catalogus, I: Animalia. Part 127, pp. 1-409. Kugler Publications, Amsterdam. 
MATTHEW, W. D. 1928. The evolution of mammals in the Eocene. Proc. Zoo. Soc. 

London. 1927, pp. 947-985. 
1937. Paleocene faunas of the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. Trans. Amer. 

Phil. Soc. (new series), vol. 30, pp. 1-510. 
MATTHEW, W. D. & GRANGER, W. 1925. Fauna and correlation of the Gashato 

Formation of Mongolia. Amer. Mus Novit., no. 189, pp. 1-12. 
MATTHEW, W. D., GRANGER, W. & SIMPSON, G. G. 1928. Paleocene 

multituberculates from Mongolia. Amer. Mus. Novit., no. 331, pp. 1-4. 
PIVETEAU, J. 1955. Etude systemadque des Mammiferes Mesozoiques. Sous-classe 

de Allotheria MARSH, 1880. In: P. Grasse (ed.), Traite de Zoologie, Paris. 

Vol. 17(1), pp. 30-37. 
1961. Sous-classe: Alotheria MARSH, 1880. In: J. Piveteau (ed.), Traite de 

Paleontologie, Paris, pp. 536-560. 
ROGER, O. C. 1896. Verzeichniss der bisher bekannten fossilen Saugethiere. Neu 

zusammen-gestellt von Dr. Otto Roger, Kgl. Regierungs und Kreis- 

Medizinrath in Augsburg. Ber. naturwiss. Vereinsf. Schwaben und Newburg 

(a.V.), pp. 1-212. 
SCOTT, W. B. 1962. A history of land mammals in the western hemisphere. New York. 

786 pp. 
TIMS, H. W. M. 1903. The evolution of teeth in the Mammalia. J. Anat. Physiol., 

vol. 37, pp. 131-149. 
1905. The dentition of mammals with reference to that of man. J. Amer. Med. 

Assoc, vol. 45, pp. 1784-1787. 



314 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 3, October 1986 



TROUESSART, E. L. 1898. Catalogus mammalium tarn viventium quam fossilium. 

Novo editio (prima completa), Pt. 2, pp. 665-1469. Friedlander und Sohn, 

Beriin. 
ZITTEL, K. A. 1893. Handbuch der Palaeontologie. I. Abth. Palaezoologie. IV Band. 

Vertebrata (Mammalia). Munich und Leipsig. 799 pp. 
1923. Grundzuge der Palaeontologie (Palaeozoologie). Vertebrata, (revised 

by F. Broili and M. Schlosser) Fourth Ed. Munich and Berlin. 689 pp. 



Dexia Meigen, 1826 (Insecta, Diptera). R. W. Crosskey, B. Herting, L. P. 

Mesnil& D.M.Wood 282 

Lepralia punctata Hassall, 1841 (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata). J. D. D. 

Bishop 288 

PSEUDOCALANiDAE Sars, 1901 (Crustacca, Copepoda). V. N. Andronov & 

N. V. Vyshkvartzeva 297 

Geonemus Schoenherr, 1833 and Brachyomus Lacordaire, 1863 (Insecta, 

Coleoptera). G. J. Wibmer and C. W. O'Brien 300 

Phaulacridium vittatum (Sjostedt, 1920) (Insecta, Orthoptera). K. H. L. 

Key 303 

Phisis Stal, 1861 and Teuthras Stal, 1874 (Insecta, Orthoptera (Gryllop- 

tera)). D. K. McE. Kevan 306 

Proposed new term 'Nomenclaturally valid', an amendment to the Code. 

R. V. Melville 308 

Taeniolabis Cope, 1882 (Mammalia, Multituberculata). N. B. Simmons . 310 



The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature wishes to express 
its appreciation of the facilities provided by the Trustees of the British 
Museum (Natural History) for the Secretariat of the Commission. 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Officers and Members of the Commission v 

Members of the International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature ... vi 

Notices 221 

Special Announcements 223 

Comments 

On 5rac/i>'cfere5Sch6nherr, 1823(Insecta, Coieoptera). C. Bordon . . 226 
On Nomadacris Uvarov, 1923 (Insecta, Orthoptera). R. E. Blackith; 

M.LaGreca&R.F. Chapman 227 

On Ce/j/ia/o/?/jo/war^wj Schneider, 1801 (Osteichthyes). G. F. Mees . . 227 

On 'Histoire Naturelle des Serpens' (Lacepede, 1788-89). H. M. Smith . 228 

Opinions 

Opinion 1400. Simla fascicular is Raffles, 1821 (Mammalia, Primates) . . 229 

Opinion 1401. LeMcai/JwSignoret, 1869 (Insecta, Homoptera) .... 231 

Opinion 1402. 5agr«5 Rose, 1816 (Osteichthyes, Siluriformes) .... 233 

Opinion 1403. Lumbricus lacteus OrXty, 1881 (Annelida, Oligochaeta) 235 
Opinion 1404. [ndodorylaimus elongatus Baqri, 1982 (Nematoda, 

Dorylaimida) 237 

Opinion 1405. Aphelinus mytilaspidis Le Baron, 1870 (Insecta, 

Hymenoptera) 239 

Opinion 1406. Phalaena stagnata Donovan, 1806 (Insecta, Lepidoptera). 241 

Opinion 1407. Lam/a aer/j/o/?.$Fabricius, 1775 (Insecta, Coleoptera) . . 243 
Opinion 1408. Hypocryphalus mangiferae Stebbing, 1914 (Insecta, 

Coleoptera) 245 

Opinion 1409. y4^/an//!«5 6Mcar«5Ameghino, 1891 (Mammaha). . . . 247 

Opinion 1410. W^////a/w/a Monterosato, 1884 (Mollusca, Gastropoda). . 249 

Opinion 1411. Drymus ryeii Douglas & Scott, 1865 (Insecta, Hemiptera) . 25 1 
Opinion 1412. Leptoclinum fulgens Milne Edwards, 1841 (Tunicata, 

Ascidiaea) . 253 

Opinion 1413. Delphinus truncatus Montagu, 1821 (Mammalia, Cetacea) 256 

Opinion 1414. Panopea Menard de la Groye, 1807 (Mollusca, Bivalvia) . 258 

Opinion \A\5. Polygnathus bilineatus Ko\in<\y,\92() (Conodonia) . . . 262 

Opinion 1416. /I /racfocera/ar«>es Mei gen, 1804 (Insecta, Diptera). . . 264 
Opinion 1417. Chromis Cuvier in Desmarest, 1814 (Osteichthyes, 

Perciformes) 267 



New and revived cases 

Rhabdodon Matheron, 1869 (Reptilia, Ornithischia) and Rhabdodon 

Fleischmann, 1831 (Reptilia, Serpentes). W. Brinkmann .... 269 

Megalonaias Utterback, 1915 (Mollusca, Bivalvia). A. E. Bogan & J. D. 

Williams 273 

Ammonites neubergicus Hauer, 1858 (Cephalopoda, Ammonoidea). R. A. 

Henderson & W. J. Kennedy 277 

Corixa albifrons Motschulsky, 1863 (Insecta, Heteroptera). A. Jansson & 

I. M.Kerzhner 279 

Continued on Inside Back Cover 



Printed in Great Britain by Henry Ling Ltd., at the Dorset Press. Dorchester, Dorset 



^^ ^/v^^ 



11 December, 1986 Volume 43 Part 4 
pp. vii-viii, 315-388, T.P., I-VII 



ISSN 0007-5167 



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of Zoological 
Nomenclature 



The Official Organ of the International 
Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 



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The Bulletin of Zoological 
Nomenclature 



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mechanically, by photocopying, recording or otherwise, 
without the prior permission of the copyright owner. 



THE INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON 
ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE 

A. The OflBcers of the Commission 

President: Dr. W.D.L. RIDE (School of Applied Science, Canberra College of 

Advanced Education, P.O. Box I, Belconnen, A.C.T. 2616, Australia). 
Vice-President: Prof. Dr. Raphael ALVARADO ( Departamento de Zoologia, 

Facultadde Ciencias, Universidad de Madrid, Madrid 28040, Spain). 
Executive Secretary: Dr. P.K. TUBBS (British Museum (Natural History), 

Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD) . 
Secretary-General: Dr. L.B. HOLTHUIS (Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historic, 

Postbus 9517, 2300 RA Leiden. The Netherlands). 

B. The Members of the Commission 

(Arranged in order of election or of most recent re-election) 

Prof. Dr. Raphael ALVARADO (Departamento de Zoologia, Facultadde Ciencias, 

Universidad de Madrid, Madrid 28040, Spain) (30 September 1972) (Vice- 
President) Echinoidea; Asteroidea 
Dr. L.B. HOLTHUIS (Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historic, Postbus 9517, 2300 

RA Leiden, The Netherlands) (30 September 1972) (Secretary-General) 

Crustacea 
Dr. G. BERNARDI (Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 45 rue de Buffon, 75005, 

Paris. France) (30 September 1972) (Councillor ) Lepidoptera 
Prof. C. DUPUIS (Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 45 rue de Buffon, 75005. 

Paris. France) (30 September 1972) Heteroptera 
Dr. M. MROCZKOWSKI (Instytut Zoologii. Polska Akademia Nauk. ul. Wilcza64, 

Warsaw. Poland) (14 March 1975) Coleoptera 
Prof. Dr. Otto KRAUS ( Zoologisches Institut und Zoologisches Museum, 2000 

Hamburg 13, Germany) (29 September 1976) Arachnida, Myriapoda 
Dr. W.D.L. RIDE (School of Applied Science, Canberra College of Advanced 

Education. P.O. Box 1. Belconnen. A.C.T. 2616, Australia) (29 September 1976) 

(President): Mammalia: Recent and Fossil 
Dr. H.G. COGGER (Australian Museum. Sydney 2000, N.S.W. Australia) (29 

September 1976) Reptiiia: E D P Methods 
Prof. Dr. Gerhard HAHN ( Fachbereich Geowissenschaften, Universitdtsgebiet 

Lahnberge. 3550 Marburg. BRD) (27 December 1978) Palaeontology 
Prof. Dr. O. HALVORSEN (Institute of Biology and Geology, University of 

Tromso. P.O. Box 790. N-9001 Tromso. Norway) (27 December 1978) 

Parasitology 
Dr. V.A. TRJAPITZIN ( Zoological Institute, Academy of Sciences, Leningrad B- 1 64, 

USSR) (27 December 1978) Entomology 
Dr. P.M. BAYER (U.S. National Museum of Natural History, Washington. B.C. 

20560. U.S.A.) (23 August 1979) (Councillor) Octocorallia; Systematics 
Prof. John O. CORLISS (University of Maryland, College Park. Maryland 20742, 

U.S.A.) (23 August 1979) Protozoa; Systematics 
Mr. R.V. MELVILLE (93 Lock Road. Ham. Richmond. Surrey TWIO 7LL, U.K.) 

(23 August 1979) Palaeontology 
Dr. Y.I. STAROBOGATOV (Zoological Institute, Academy of Sciences, Leningrad 

I99I64, U.S.S.R.) (23 August 1979) MoUusca, Crustacea 



Dr. P.T. LEHTINEN (Zoological Museum, Department of Biology, University of 

Turku. SF-20500 Turku 50, Finland) (8 August 1980) Arachnida 
Dr. L.R.M. COCKS (British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, London 

SW75BD) (26 August 1982) Brachiopoda 
Mr. David HEPPELL (Department of Natural History, Royal Scottish Museum, 

Edinburgh EHl IJF, Scotland) (26 August 1982) (Councillor) MoUusca 
Prof. Jay M. SAVAGE (Department of Biology, University of Miami, P.O. Box 

249118, Coral Gables, Florida 33124. U.S.A.) (26 August 1982) Herpetology 
Prof. Dr. R. SCHUSTER ( Institutfiir Zoologie , UniversitdtGraz, Universitdtsplatz 2 , 

A-8010 Graz, Austria) (26 August 1982) Acari 
Dr. SHUN-ICHI UENO (Department of Zoology, National Science Museum, 

Hyakunincho 3-23-1, Shinjukuku. Tokyo 160, Japan) (26 August 1982) 

Entomology 
Prof. A. WILLINK (Universidad Nacional de Tucumdn, Instituto Miguel Lillo, 

Miguel Lillo 205, 4000 Tucumdn, Argentina) (26 August 1982) Neotropical 

Hymenoptera 
Dr. G.C. GRUCHY (National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa, Canada, 

KIA 0M8) (15 April 1985) Ichthyology 
Dr. Z. KABATA (Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Pacific Biological 

Station, Nanaimo, B.C. V9R 5K6, Canada) (4 September 1985) Copepoda 
Dr. F.C. THOMPSON (Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA c/o U.S. 

National Museum, Washington, D.C. 20560, U.S.A.) (4 September 1985) 

Diptera 



INTERNATIONAL TRUST FOR ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE 



A. The Members of the Trust 



Professor H.B. Whittington, F.R.S. 

(Chairman) 
Dr. M.K. Howarth (Secretary and 

Managing Director) 
Prof. Per Brinck 
Prof. J.H. Callomon 
Dr. P.F.S. Cornelius 
Prof. C.B. Cox 
The Rt. Hon. the Earl of Cranbrook, 

F.L.S., F.Z.S. 
Sir Arthur Drew, K.C.B. 
Sir Charles Fleming, K.B.E., F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Forest 
Col. Francis J. Griffin, O.B.E. 



Dr. G.C. Gruchy 
Dr. R.H. Hedley, C.B., F.I.Biol. 
Dr. L.B. Holthuis 
Dr. F.G.W. Jones 
Prof. Dr. O. Kraus 
Dr. M. Luc 
Dr. R.B. Manning 
Mr. R.V. Melville 
Dr. I.W.B. Nye 
Dr. W.D.L. Ride (ex officio) 
Dr. E.P.F. Rose, T.D. 
Dr. G.B. White 

Dr. A.G. Marshall (Observer for the 
Royal Society) 



B. The Officers of the Trust 

Dr. P.K. Tubbs, M.A., Ph.D. (Scientific Controller) 
Mr. J.D.D. Smith (Scientific Administrator) 
Mr. M.E. Tollitt, M.Sc, F.L.S., F.R.E.S. (Zoologist) 
Miss N.A. Erridge, B.Sc. (Assistant Zoologist) 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 315 



BULLETIN OF ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE 



Volume43, part 4 (pp. vii-viii, 315-388) 11 December 1986 



NOTICES 

(a) Invitation to comment. The Commission is entitled to start to 
vote on applications published in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature six 
months after the publication of each application. This period is normally 
extended to enable comments to be submitted. Any zoologist who wishes to 
comment on any of the applications is invited to send his contribution, in 
duplicate, to the Secretary of the Commission as quickly as possible, and in 
any case in time to reach the Secretary within twelve months of the date of 
publication of the application. 

(b) Possible use of the plenary powers. The possible use by the 
Commission of its plenary powers is involved in the following applications 
published in the present part of the Bulletin: 

(1) Liasis Gray, 1842 (Reptilia, Serpentes): proposed designation 
of Liasis mackloti Dumeril & Bibron, 1844 as type species. 
Z.N.(S.) 2439. A. F. Stimson & S. B. McDowell. 

(2) Filellum serpens (Hassell, 1848) (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa): pro- 
posed conservation of both generic and specific names. 
Z.N.(S.) 2508. P. F. S. Cornelius & D. R. Calder. 

(3) Lycaena mirza Plotz, 1880 (Insecta, Lepidoptera): proposed 
conservation by the suppression of Lycaena mirza Staudinger, 
1874. Z.N.(S.) 2426. T. B. Larsen. 

(4) Paraphytomyza Enderlein, 1936 (Insecta, Diptera): proposed 
designation of Phytagromyza luteoscutellata de Meijere, 1924 
as type species. Z.N.(S.) 2574. K. A. Spencer. 

(5) Heriaeus Simon, 1875 (Arachnida, Araneida): request for 
confirmation of Thomisus hirtus Latreille, 1819 as type species. 
Z.N.(S.) 2447. O. Kraus & A. Loerbroks. 

(6) Trypanosoma brucei Plimmer & Bradford, 1899 (Protozoa, 
Mastigophora): proposed confirmation of spelling. Z.N.(S.) 
2580. M.E.Tollitt. 

(7) Simulium austeni Edwards, 1915 (Insecta, Diptera): proposed 
precedence over Simulia posticata Meigen, 1838. Z.N.(S.) 2560. 
I. A. Rubtsov. 

(8) Simulia ferruginea Wahlberg, 1844 (Insecta, Diptera): pro- 
posed precedence over Simulia rufa Meigen, 1838 and Simulia 
borealis Zetterstedt, 1842. Z.N.(S.) 2394. 1. A. Rubtsov. 

(9) Belemnites paxillosa Lamarck, 1801 (Mollusca, Coleoidea): 
proposed suppression of both generic and specific names. 
Z.N.(S.) 2571. P. Doyle &. W. Riegraf. 



316 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 



(10) Cobitis Linnaeus, 1758 (Osteichthyes. Cypriniformes): pro- 
posed designation of Cobitis taenia Linnaeus, 1758 as type 
species and request for a ruling on the stem of the family-group 
name COBITIDIDAE Swainson, 1839. Z.N.(S.) 2566. M. 
Kottelat. 

(11) Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, 1797) (Insecta, Coleoptera): 
proposed conservation by the suppression of Tribolium navale 
(Fabricius, 1775). Z.N.(S.) 2575. R. D. Pope & J. C. Watt. 

(12) Comalatus Attems, 1931 (Diplopoda, Polydesmida): proposed 
designation of Comalatus permutatus Attems, 1938 as type 
species. Z.N.(S.) 2438. R. L. Hoffman. 

(13) Opius Wesmael, 1835 (Insecta, Hymenoptera): proposed 
designation of Opius pallipes Wesmael, 1835 as type species. 
Z.N.(S.) 2561. R. A. Wharton. 

(14) Leptura marginata Fabricius, 1781 (Insecta, Coleoptera): pro- 
posed conservation by the suppression of Leptura marginata 
O. F. Muller in Allioni, 1766. Z.N.(S.) 2572. M. Mroczkowski. 

(c) Receipt of new applications. The following new applications have 
been received since going to press for volume 43, part 3 (published on 6 
October 1986): 

(1) Proposed suppression for nomenclatural purposes of three 
works by R. W. Wells and C. R. Wellington: 1983: A synopsis of 
the Class Reptilia in Australia (Aust. J. HerpetoL, 1 (3,4)); 
1985a: A classification of the Amphibia of AustraHa {Aust. J. 
HerpetoL. Suppl. Ser. 1, 1-61); 1985b: A synopsis of the ReptiHa 
and Amphibia of New Zealand (ibid., 62-64). Z.N.(S.) 2531. 
The President, the Australian Society of Herpetologists. 

(2) LARINAE Bonaparte, 1831 (Aves) and LARINAE Le Conte, 
1861 (Insecta): proposal to remove the homonymy. Z.N.(S.) 
2581.P. J. Spangler. 

(3) Filenchus Andrassy, 1 954 (Nematoda): proposed designation of 
Tylenchus vulgaris Brzeski, 1963 as type species. Z.N.(S.) 2582. 
M. W. Brzeski, E. Geraert & D. J. Raski. 

(4) Disophrys Foerster, 1862 (Insecta, Hymenoptera): proposed 
designation ofAgathis caesa Klug, 1 835 as type species. Z.N.(S.) 
2583. C. van Achterberg. 

(5) Glabellula Bezzi, 1902 (Insecta, Diptera): proposed designation 
of type species. Z.N.(S.) 2584. D. L. Evenhuis. 

SPECIAL ANNOUNCEMENTS 
DESIGN AND PUBLICATION OF THE BULLETIN 

As reported in Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 42, p. 320, the Trust has been 
reviewing the contents and format of the Bulletin with the intention of 
making it more useful and attractive. The Trust has decided to introduce, as 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 317 



from the 1987 volume, a number of changes in the format of the Bulletin 
including a change from A5 to the larger B5 size. The layout of the cover and 
much of the contents will be redesigned. This will enable a larger number of 
applications to be included in each part. 

In addition, the Bulletin will contain more general articles on 
nomenclature and related issues and authors are invited to contribute such 
articles. 

For the last four years the Bulletin has been published by CAB Inter- 
national on behalf of the Trust. As from the volume for 1987, the Trust itself 
will resume publication and for 1987 will hold the subscription at the 1986 
rateof£53or$102. 



INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS 

The Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature is the official periodical of 
the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. It is published 
by the International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature and appears 4 times 
a year in March, June, September and December. Applications to the 
Commission are published in the Bulletin. Time is then given for comments 
to be received, published and considered before the Commission votes for or 
against the proposals at the end of each application. The Commission's final 
decision is published in the Bulletin in the form of an Opinion. 

These instructions are primarily for those preparing applications to 
the Commission. However, authors of general articles or comments should 
take note of the parts relevant to them. The instructions are not intended to 
be restrictive and cannot cover all situations. 

Applications: These should be prepared in accordance with the 
3rd Edition (1985) of the International Code of Zoological 
Nomenclature. Particular attention should be paid to the principles 
for use of the Commission's plenary powers (Article 79). 

Title: This should include names to be conserved. Names to be 
suppressed should not normally be in the title, but will be mentioned 
in the Abstract prepared by the Secretariat. When the proposals 
concern a specific name it should be cited in the original binomen 
and except in the case of type species the binomen in current use 
should be given. Examples: 

Halictus costulatus Kriechbaumer, 1873 (currently Lasioglossum 
costulatum; Insecta, Hymenoptera): proposed conservation of 
specific name. 

Tylocidaris Pomel, 1883 (Echinoidea, Cidaroidea): proposed 
designation of Cidaris clavigera Mantell, 1 822, as type species. 



318 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 



THAiDiDAE Jousseaumc, 1888 (MoUusca, Gastropoda) and 
THAIDIDAE Lehtincn, 1967 (Arachnida, Araneae); proposals to 
remove the homonymy. 

Author (s) Name(s) and Address (es): These should be on separate 
lines, with the full postal addresses underlined. 

Text: This should consist of numbered paragraphs setting out the 
details of the case and leading up to a set of formal proposals. The 
advantages (and any disadvantages) of the proposals should be 
included. Text references should be given with individual page 
numbers (e.g. 'Daudin (1800, p. 39) described . . .'). A summary of 
the main points of the case will be prepared by the Secretariat. 

A case to suppress a senior synonym on the grounds that it 
has not been used as the valid name for a particular taxon should be 
supported by a list of at least 10 publications by at least 5 different 
authors over the last 50 years in which the junior synonym has 
been treated as the valid name (see Article 79c). Individual page 
references should be given. 

The final paragraph of the text should be in the form of 
formal proposals to the Commission. Example: 

The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 
is accordingly asked: 

(1) to use its plenary powers . . . 

(2) to place on the Official List . . . 

(3) to place on the Official Index . . . 

Authors are strongly advised to consult recent parts of the 
Bulletin for the construction of proposals appropriate to their 
particular requests. 

Bibliography: References should start with the names of all authors 
in lower case, followed by the year of publication and the title of the 
paper, book or monograph. In the titles of papers in periodicals, 
capital letters should be used only for proper nouns and all nouns in 
German. The names of periodicals should be given in full and under- 
lined. The nominal year of publication, if different from the actual 
year, should be in parentheses immediately after the volume number. 
Series number, volume number, part, fascicule and pagination 
number should be given in arable figures. Part number should be in 
parentheses. Page numbers should be separated from any preceding 
numbers by a colon. Book titles should be underlined and followed 
by the number of pages, publisher and place of publication. When a 
reference has been translated or transliterated, the original language 
should be stated in square brackets at the end. References should be 
provided for all authors cited in the text and particularly those whose 
names are included in the formal proposals to the Commission. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 319 

References to subsequent designations of type species should also be 
given. The following are examples of reference styles: 
Wise, K. A. J. 1957. A new species of Lithocolletis (Lepidoptera: 
Gracillariidae) from New Zealand. Proceedings of the Royal 
Entomological Society of London, ser. B, 26 (1-2) : 26-28. 
Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae, ed. 10, vol. 1, iv + 824 pp. 

Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae. 
Dunbar, R. W. & Vajime, C. G. 1981. Cytotaxonomy of the 
Simulium damnosum complex. Pp. 31^3, in Laird, M. (ed.), 
Blackflies: the future for biological methods in integrated 
control, xii + 399 pp. Academic Press, London and New 
York. 
The Secretariat is willing to offer additional advice at an early stage in 
the preparation of an application and can provide specimen applications if 
required. 

Two copies of the complete paper must be provided, typed on one side 
only, m double spacing with a left-hand margin of approximately 35 mm (U 
inches). The printers will set the text in house style (revised from 1987) but it 
\yould be helpful if authors would follow this style as closely as possible in 
their typescript. 

Typescripts should be sent to: 
The Executive Secretary 

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 
c/o British Museum (Natural History) 
Cromwell Road 
London SW7 5BD, U.K. 

OFFICIAL LISTS AND INDEXES OF NAMES AND WORKS IN 

ZOOLOGY 

r u i'L^P""^ ' ^^^' ^^^ ^'■^^^ ^^ publishing a revised and updated version 
ot the Official Lists and Indexes of Names and Works in Zoology. For the 
first time a hst of all the names and works on which the International 
Commission on Zoological Nomenclature has ruled since it was set up in 
1895 will be brought together in a single volume. The entries will be arranged 
in four sections giving in alphabetic order the family-group names generic 
names, specific names and works which have been placed on the Official List 
or the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Names. There are about 9 900 
entries of which 1 34 are for works. In addition, there will be a full systematic 
index and a reference list to all relevant Opinions and Directions. 

Persons wishing to have advance details of availability and price 
should notify the International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, c/o 
British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, 
U.K. 



320 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 



INTERNATIONAL TRUST FOR ZOOLOGICAL 
NOMENCLATURE 

FINANCIAL REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1985 

During 1985, income from sales of publications amounted to £28,552 
compared with £9,688 received in 1 984. The large increase arose from sales of 
the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, published in February. 
The cost of printing was £12,181, and the net surplus has enabled a substan- 
tial provision to be carried forward to 1986 as a contribution towards a 
reprint of the Code and the printing of the Official Lists of Names in Zoology. 
Further sales of the Code will generate appreciable revenue in 1986, when the 
only costs will be for the reprint for which provision has already been made. 
Grants and donations brought in £14,078 (£14,166 in 1984). Grants were 
made by the Royal Society (£1 ,000) and the Agricultural and Food Research 
Council, the Medical Research Council, the Natural Environment Research 
Council and the Science and Engineering Research Council (£2,000 each), 
the International Union of Biological Sciences (£3,706) and the American 
Association for Zoological Nomenclature (£1 ,372). Donations to the Appeal 
Fund came from numerous sources, the largest being that made by the 
British Ecological Society (£5,000), Deeds of covenant yielded £3,614 
(£3,575 in 1984). Interest on invested monies increased sharply from £12,143 
to £17,040. Income from all sources rose to £70,722 compared with £48,259 
in 1984. 

Salaries rose from £20,012 to £26,219, partly because of the appoint- 
ment of a new Scientific Controller (who is also the Executive Secretary of the 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature) and partly because 
of national pay awards and the Trust's resolve to begin to pay more reaUstic 
wages and salaries to its staff than was hitherto possible. Office expenses 
increased from £2,072 to £2,888 due to the purchase of further modern office 
equipment which has already paid handsome dividends in increased 
efficiency. Bad debts from unpaid subscriptions for publications accumu- 
lated over several years had been written off in 1984 (£1,1 74). The bad debt in 
1985 (£1,279) is mainly due to the loss of reclaimable income tax on a large 
covenanted donation following the liquidation of the donor company. 
Details of the fixed assets and depreciation are shown in the accounts. 

Provision of £28,03 1 has been made for the reprinting of the Code and 
publication of a new edition of the Official Lists of Names in Zoology, 
£24,650 being appropriated from the Trust's funds as a contribution towards 
this. A decision has been made to recruit an Assistant Zoologist at an annual 
cost of about £8,000, and this will constitute a future commitment. The 
new appointment will enable the Trust's staff" to deal with a number of 
long-standing and difficult nomenclatural problems and to clear a large 
accumulation of cases requiring detailed attention. 

Taking into account all the above items of income and expenditure, 
the surplus for the year was £14,402 compared with £24,693 in the previous 



Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 321 



year. Reserves increased from £128,793 to £155,663 and now include 
£128,000 in National Savings Income Bonds and £22,000 on short-term 
deposit with Coutts Finance Ltd. 

The year has been one of change and solid achievements of which all 
members and staff can be proud. Although proposed changes in the structure 
and functioning of the Commission are being implemented, the Trust is well 
placed financially to meet any additional costs arising from such changes in 
1986 and 1987, although the long term funding of the Trust has yet to be 
secured. 

F. G. W. JONES 

Secretary and Managing Director 

12 June 1986 



INTERNATIONAL TRUST FOR ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE 
BALANCE SHEET AS AT 31st DECEMBER, 1985 



72 

2,086 

122,000 

6,015 


1984 

1,507 

127,286 


FIXED ASSETS 
Tangible Assets (Note 2) 

CURRENT ASSETS 
Amounts due from Sales 
Income and other Taxes recoverable 
Investments 
Cash at Bank and in Hand 

CREDITORS: Amounts falhng due 
within one year (Note 3) 

NET CURRENT ASSETS 


274 

1,084 

150,000 

4,690 


2,490 


130,173 
2,887 


156,048 
2,875 








153,173 




£128,793 


£155,663 



ACCUMULATED FUNDS 
REVENUE RESERVE 



88,538 
24,693 


Balance at 31st December 1984 
Surplus for 1985 

Specific Provisions (Note 4) 

P. E. KENT (Signed) 
DENNIS CURRY (Signed) 


113,230 
14,402 


113,231 
15,562 


127,632 
28,031 


£128,793 


£155,663 




Members of the 
Management Committee 



322 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 



NOTES TO THE ACCOUNTS:— 

1. ACCOUNTING POLICIES: 

(a) Accounts are prepared under the historical cost accounting rules. 

(b) Depreciation is calculated so as to write off the cost of Tangible Assets by reducing 
instalments over their estimated useful lives as follows: 

Office Equipment — 10% of the written down value 

2. FIXED ASSETS: 



COST 

Balance at 31.12.1984 

Additions 

(Sales) 

Balance at 31.12.1985 



DEPRECIATION 

Balance at 3 1.1 2. 1984 
Provided during the year 

Balance at 31.12.1985 

Net Book Value at 3 1 . 1 2. 1 984 

Net Book Value at 31.12.1985 



3. CREDITORS — Amounts falling due within one year: 
Sundry Creditors 
Covenants received in advance 



SPECIFIC PROVISIONS: 
For Printing the 3rd Edition of the 
International Code of Zoological Nomenclature 
Specific Donations 
Appropriation from Trust Funds 
For Printing the New Edition of the 
Official Lists 
Appropriation from Trust Funds 



5. There is a future commitment to recruit an Assistant Zoologist at an estimated annual cost of 
£8,000. 



Office 
Equipment 

2,309 

1,275 

(15) 

£3,569 


Total 

2,309 

1,275 

(15) 

£3,569 


802 

277 


802 

111 


£1,079 


£1,079 


£1,507 


£1,507 


£2,490 


£2,490 


1985 

2,160 
715 


1984 

202 
2,685 


£2,875 


£2,887 



1985 1984 



3,381 

7,250 


8,562 
7,000 


17,400 




£28,031 


£15,562 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 323 



INTERNATIONAL TRUST FOR ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE 



INCOME AND EXPENDITURE ACCOUNT FOR THE YEAR ENDED 
3Ist DECEMBER, 1985 

1984 







SALE OF PUBLICATIONS 






9,572 




Bulletin of Zoological 
Nomenclature 


5,000 




13 




International Codes 


23,451 




98 




Official Lists 


86 




5 


9,688 


Opinions 


15 


28,552 






14,166 




DONATIONS AND GRANTS 


14,078 




8,687 




APPEAL FUND 


7,438 




3,575 




DEEDS OF COVENANT 
BANK INTEREST (Including 
International Code 3rd Edition 


3,614 




12,143 


38,571 


Fund £1,743) 


17,040 


42,170 








48,259 


70,722 






Less: 






20,012 




SALARIES AND FEES 


26,219 




2,072 




OFFICE EXPENSES 


2,888 




140 




AUDIT FEE 


160 




1,174 




PROVISION FOR BAD DEBTS 


1,279 




— 




PRINTING AND DISTRIBUTION 
OF PUBLICATIONS 


25,496 




168 


23,566 


DEPRECIATION OF OFFICE 
EQUIPMENT 


278 


56,320 







SURPLUS FOR THE YEAR 
CARRIED TO BALANCE 
£24,693 SHEET (see Page 2— Note 5) £ 1 4,402 



REPORT OF THE AUDITORS 

We have audited the accounts on pages one to three in accordance with approved 
Auditing Standards and in our opinion the accounts, which have been prepared on the basis of 
the accounting policies set out on page two, give a true and fair view of the state of affairs of the 
Trust at 31st December, 1985 and of the operating Surplus for the year ended on that date and 
comply with the Companies Act 1985. 

3 Kings Head Yard, MORLEY, GRAYRIGGE & CO. 

London SEl INA Chartered Accountants 



324 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 



COMMENT ON THE PROPOSED CONSERVATION OF APANTELES 

ORNIGIS WEED, 1887 (HYMENOPTERA). Z.N.(S.)2506 

(see vol. 43, pp. 96-98) 

By Robert A. Wharton {Department of Entomology , Texas A&M University, 
College Station. Texas 77843-2475. U.S.A.) 



I agree that the specific name ornigis has been used often over that last 20-30 
years, but its usage prior to that was limited. Dr Whitfield, in his petition, cites only 
two references to the usage of ornigis prior to 1956, and both are simply notes on host 
records by Putnam. Whitfield notes that there is a 'substantial literature' due to 
parasitism by A. ornigis of the leaf miner Phyllonorycter on apple. However, the three 
references cited by Whitfield are recent, and references to ornigis cited in these papers 
are also recent (Beckham et al. 1950 appears to be the earliest). Nevertheless, I 
support the petition by Whitfield, since I believe stability is best served by conserving 
the name ornigis. particularly since it is the name used for the type species of 
Pholetesor Mason, 1981. 



COMMENT ON THE PROPOSED GRANT OF PRECEDENCE TO 

THRESKIORNITHIDAE RICHMOND, 1917 (AVES) OVER 

PLATALEINAE BONAPARTE, 1838, Z.N.(S.)2136 

(see vol. 41, pp. 240-244; vol. 43, pp. 10-13) 

By Walter J. Bock (Chairman, Standing Committee on Ornithological 

Nomenclature, International Ornithological Congress. Department of Biological 

Sciences. Columbia University. New York. NY 10027. U.S.A.) 

At its recent meeting, during the XIX International Ornithological Congress 
in Ottawa in June 1986, the Standing Committee on Ornithological Nomenclature 
(SCON) discussed the application by the late E. Eisenmann, E. Mayr and K. C. 
Parkes to the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature to use its 
plenary powers to place threskiornithidae Richmond, 1917 on the Official List of 
Family-Group Names in Zoology with precedence over plataleinae Bonaparte, 
1838. The SCON voted unanimously to once again support this application fully. The 
application had its origins in early discussions of the committee in 1974 and has been 
supported by the SCON ever since. 

At this meeting the SCON also adopted a motion of support of the Principle 
of Established Usage over the application of strict priority, noting that stability 
of scientific names is the central goal of zoological nomenclature. Priority is not 
the bedrock of zoological nomenclature, but only one of the methods by which 
the central goal of stabiHty of scientific names is achieved. The SCON therefore 
wishes to express its strong support for the precedence sought for the name 

THRESKIORNITHIDAE. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 325 



OPINION 1418 

GLYPHIPTERIX HUBNER, [1825] (INSECTA, LEPIDOPTERA): 

TINEA BERGSTRAESSERELLA FABRICIUS, 1781 DESIGNATED 

AS TYPE SPECIES 



RULING. — (1) Under the plenary powers all designations of type 
species made for the nominal genus Glyphipterix Hiibner, [1 825] are set aside 
and Tinea bergstraesserella Fabricius, 1781 is designated as type species. 

(2) The following names are hereby placed on the Official List of 
Generic Names in Zoology: 

(a) Glyphipterix Hiibner, [1825] (gender: feminine), type species 
by designation under the plenary powers in (1) above, Tinea 
bergstraesserella Fabricius, 1781; 

(b) Chrysoclista Stainton, 1854 (gender: feminine), type species by 
subsequent designation by Fletcher, 1928, Phalaena linneella 
Clerck, 1759. 

(3) The following names are hereby placed on the Official List of 
Specific Names in Zoology: 

(a) bergstraesserella Fabricius, 1781, as published in the binomen 
Tinea bergstraesserella (specific name of the type species of 
Glyphipterix Hiibner, [1825]); 

(b) linneella Clerk, 1759, as published in the binomen Phalaena 
linneella (specific name of the type species of Chrysoclista 
Stainton, 1854). 

(4) The following name glyphipterigidae Stainton, 1854 (type 
genus Glyphipterix Hiibner, [1825]) is hereby placed on the Official List of 
Family-group Names in Zoology. 

(5) The name Glyphipteryx Curtis, 1827 (an unjustified emendation 
of Glyphipterix Hiibner, [1825]) is hereby placed on the Official Index of 
Rejected and Invalid Generic Names in Zoology. 

HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)2115 

An application to designate Tinea bergstraesserella Fabricius, 1781 
as type species of Glyphipterix Hubner, [1825] was first received from 
Dr A. Diakonoff" {Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, Leiden, The 
Netherlands) and Dr J. B. Heppner {University of Florida , U.S.A.) on 14 
March 1975. After correspondence a revised version was published in Bull, 
zool. Norn., vol. 34, pp. 8 1-84 (August 1 977). Public notice of the possible use 
of the plenary powers in the case was given in the same part of the Bulletin as 
well as to eight general and eight specialist serials. A comment was received 
from Dr J. D. Bradley (Commonwealth Institute of Entomology, London) and 
Dr K. Sattler (British Museum (Natural History), London) and published in 
vol. 35, pp. 71-73. On 25 May 1982 the Commissioners were invited to vote 
under the Three-Month Rule between Alternatives A (the proposals of 



326 Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 



Diakonoff & Heppner) or B (the proposals of Bradley & Sattler). At the close 
of the voting period there was a less than two-thirds majority for A, which (as 
it required use of the plenary powers) had therefore, under the Bylaws of the 
Commission, to be voted on again. 

In November 1984, a report on the case, incorporating new infor- 
mation received at the previous vote, was published in vol. 41, pp. 250-253. 
Further comments on the report were received from Bradley & Sattler and 
published in vol. 42, pp. 219-220. 



DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 1 7 April 1 986 the members of the Commission were invited to vote 
under the Three-Month Rule for Alternative A (the original Diakonoff and 
Heppner proposals) or for Alternative B, the revised proposals set out in vol. 
41, pp. 252-253. At the close of the voting period the state of the voting was 
as follows: 

Alternative A — four (4) — received in the following order: Melville, 
Alvarado, Bayer, Cogger 

Alternative B — fifteen (15) — received in the following order: 
Holthuis, Savage, Cocks, Kabata, Willink, Mroczkowski, CorUss, 
Starobogatov, Halvorsen, Schuster, Hahn, Ueno, Thompson, Ride, Kraus. 

No votes were returned by Bernardi, Dupuis, Heppell, Lehtinen and 
Trjapitzin. Gruchy was on leave of absence. 



ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references to the names placed on 
Official Lists and an Official Index by the ruling given in the present Opinion: 
bergstraesserella, Tinea, Fabricius, 1781, Species Insectorum, vol. 2, p. 302 
Chrysoclista Stainton, 1854, Insecta Britannica, Lepidoptera, p. 240 
GLYPHiPTERiGiDAE Stainton, 1854, Insecta Britannica, Lepidoptera, p. 169 
Glyphipterix Hubner, [1825], Verzeichniss bekannter Schmettlinge, p. 421 
Glyphipteryx Curtis, 1827, British Entomology, vol. 4, p. 152 
linneella, Phalaena, Clerk, 1759, Icones Insectorum . . ., p. 8, pi. xii. 

The following is the original reference to the subsequent designation 
of a type species for the nominal genus Chrysoclista Stainton, 1854: of 
Phalaena linneella Clerk, 1759 by Fletcher, 1928, Catalogue of Indian Insects, 
part 16, p. 25. 



CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper (1986)28 were cast 
as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper have been 
duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so taken, being 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 327 



the decision of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 
is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1418. 

P. K. TUBBS 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
18 July 1986 



328 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 



OPINION 1419 

DEMOCRICETODON FAHLBUSCH, 1964 (MAMMALIA, 

RODENTIA): DEMOCRICETODON CRASSUS FREUDENTHAL, 

1969 DESIGNATED AS TYPE SPECIES 



RULING. — (1) It is hereby ruled that the lectotype designation by 
Fahlbusch, 1964, for Cricetodon minor Lartet, 1851, is invalid. 

(2) Under the plenary powers all designations of type species made 
for the nominal genus Democricetodon Fahlbusch, 1964 are set aside and 
Democricetodon crassus Freudenthal, 1969 is designated as type species. 

(3) The name Democricetodon Fahlbusch, 1964 (gender: masculine), 
type species by designation under the plenary powers in (2) above, 
Democricetodon crassus Freudenthal, 1969, is hereby placed on the Official 
List of Generic Names in Zoology. 

(4) The following names are hereby placed on the Official List of 
Specific Names in Zoology: 

(a) minor Larter, 1851, as published in the binomen Cricetodon 
minus [sic], as defined by reference to the neotype designated by 
Freudenthal. 1969; 

(b) crassus Freudenthal, 1969, as published in the trinomen 
Democricetodon brevis crassus (specific name of the type species 
of Democricetodon Fahlbusch, 1964). 



HISTORY OF THE CASE Z.N.(S.)1854 

An application requesting a decision on the interpretation of the 
fossil rodent name Cricetodon minus Lartet, 1851 was first received from 
Dr M. Freudenthal (Rijksmuseum van Geologie en Mineralogie, Leiden, The 
Netherlands) and Dr V. Fahlbusch {Institut fur Geologie und Historisch 
Geologie, MUnchen, BRD) on 24 July 1967. After correspondence a revised 
version was published in Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 25, pp. 179-183 (January 
1969). Public notice of the posible use of the plenary powers was given in the 
same part of the Bulletin as well as to seven general and two specialist serials. 
A comment was received from Dr P. Mein {Universite de Lyon, France) and 
published in vol. 26, p. 122. This comment asked that no decision be taken 
until the pubhcation of a thesis, by a French worker, on fossil mammals from 
Sansan, France. This was published in 1972 but made no mention of the 
nomenclatural issues concerning Cricetodon. The case was re-opened in 1983 
and a report published in vol. 41, pp. 245-249 which presented two alterna- 
tive courses of action. It was on these alternatives that the Commission was 
asked to vote. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 329 



DECISION OF THE COMMISSION 

On 1 7 April 1 986 the members of the Commission were invited to vote 
under the Three-Month Rule for either Alternative A, the proposals set out 
in Bull. zool. Nom. vol. 41, p. 248, or for Alternative B, the proposals set out 
in vol. 41, p. 249. At thecloseof the voting period the state of the voting was 
as follows: 

Alternative A — seventeen (17) — received in the following order: 
Melville, Holthuis, Savage, Kabata, Willink, Mroczkowski, Halvorsen, 
Schuster, Hahn, Ueno, Thompson, Alvarado, Ride, Bayer, Kraus, Cogger, 
Dupuis 

Alternative B — three (3) — received in the following order: Cocks, 
Corliss, Starobogatov. 

No votes were returned by Bernardi, Heppell, Lehtinen and 
Trjapitzin. Gruchy was on leave of absence. 

ORIGINAL REFERENCES 

The following are the original references to the names placed on 
Official Lists by the ruling given in the present Opinion: 
crassus, Democricetodon brevis, Freudenthal, 1969, Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 25, 

p. 181 
Democricetodon Fahlbusch, 1964, Abh. bayerischen Akad. Wiss. Math.- 

Naturwiss. Klasse, N.F., vol. 1 18, p. 19 
minor, Cricetodon, Lartet, 1851, Notice sur la colline de Sansan . . ., p. 19. 

CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the votes cast on Voting Paper ( 1 986)27 were cast 
as set out above, that the proposals contained in that voting paper have been 
duly adopted under the plenary powers, and that the decision so taken, being 
the decision of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 
is truly recorded in the present Opinion No. 1419. 

P. K.TUBBS 

Executive Secretary 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

London 
18 July 1986 



330 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 



LIASIS GRAY, 1842 (REPTILIA, SERPENTES): PROPOSED 

DESIGNATION OF LIASIS MACKLOTI DUMERIL & BIBRON, 

1844 AS TYPE SPECIES. Z.N.(S.)2439 

By Andrew F. Stimson {British Museum ( Natural History ) , London 

SW7 5BD) and Samuel B. McDowell {Department of Biological Sciences, 

Rutgers University, Newark, New Jersey 07102, U.S.A.) 

Gray (1842, p. 44) proposed the generic name Liasis for three species 
of python, without designation of a type species. Two of these species, Liasis 
childreni Gray (1842, p. 44) and Liasis olivacea (sic; note feminine ending) 
Gray (1842, p. 45) were described as new (and are recognised today). The 
third included species was Liasis amethystinus (sic; note spelling and mascu- 
line ending), said by Gray to be the 'Python amethystinus, Schn. Schlegel, 
Phys. Serp. t.f.', i.e. Boa amethistina Schneider (1801, p. 254) sensu Schlegel 
(1837, p. 419). 

2. The first designation in a vaUd form of a type species for Liasis was 
that of Desmarest (1846, p. 337) who wrote: 'Quatre especes entrent dans ce 
groupe [following the revision by Dumeril & Bibron (1844, p. 431)]; le 
type est le Boa amethystina Schneid., Daud., dont on ignore la patrie'. 
Desmarest's designation appears to have been overlooked by all subsequent 
workers. 

3. Since its inception Liasis has been accepted almost universally as 
the correct generic name for the species childreni and olivaceus. The species 
mackloti Dumeril & Bibron (1844, p. 440), papuanus Peters & Doria (1878, 
p. 400), albertisii Peters & Doria (1878, p. 401) and perthensis Stull (1932, 
p. 26) have also been consistently referred to Liasis. Boa amethistina on the 
other hand has not been consistently referred to any one genus, having been 
placed in Liasis by about half the zoologists, including Dumeril & Bibron 
(1844, p. 433), Gray (1849, p. 91), Jan & Sordelli (1865, pi. VI), Peters & 
Doria (1878, p. 399), Stull (1935, p. 391), Loveridge (1948, p. 268), de Haas 
(1950, p. 520), Kinghorn (1956, p. 71), Worrell (1963, p. 97) and Stimson 
(1969, p. 23) and placed in Python Daudin (1803, p. 434) by the remainder, 
including Boulenger (1893, p. 83), Zenneck (1898, p. 31), Werner (1900, p. 73 
and 1921, p. 235), Barbour (1912, p. 191), de Rooij (1917, p. 24), Burt & Burt 
(1932, p. 563), Worrell (1951, p. 23) and McDowell (1975, p. 52). 

4. We feel that to accept Boa amethistina as the type of Liasis would 
be most unsatisfactory. Apart from the immediate change of Liasis (sensu 
McDowell, 1975, p. 31) to Bothrochilus Fitzinger (1843, p. 24, type species by 
original designation Tortrix boa Schlegel, 1837, p. 22), future stability will be 
at risk to possible changes in generic assignment of the species Boa amethis- 
tina and Tortrix boa. The latter was first assigned to the genus Liasis by 
McDowell (1975, p. 31) having been placed in the monotypic genus Bothro- 
chilus (or its junior objective synonym Nardoana Berg, 1901, p. 289) by all 
authors during the previous 60 years. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 331 



5. We believe that is not obligatory to accept Boa amethistina as the 
type of Liasis since in our opinion the Liasis amethystinus included by Gray 
in his new genus was not the same species as Boa amethistina Schneider. Thus 
we have a case of 'misidentified type-species' in the sense of Article 70(b) of 
the Code. 

6. When referring 'Python amethystinus' to Liasis Gray stated 
'Inhabits India. Mus. Leyden'. The type oi Boa amethistina Schneider was in 
the Bloch collection in BerUn, as stated explicitly by Schneider, and 'Mus. 
Leyden' must refer to the source of Gray's material. Whether Gray borrowed 
material from Leiden, visited Leiden, or based his account on Schlegel's 
description in 'Phys. Serp. t.f.' of certain specimens in the Leiden Museum is 
unknown, but Gray's diagnosis o{ Liasis would exclude the Boa amethistina 
of Schneider, as well as the Saparua Island specimen figured and described by 
Schlegel as Python amethystinus; but Gray's diagnosis would include certain 
specimens referred (wrongly) to Python amethystinus by Schlegel and 
described by him as variations possibly induced by climate or difference in the 
soil. These specimens, collected on Timor and Samao by H. C. Macklot and 
S. Muller, were in the 'Mus. Leyden' and part of the 'Python amethystinus' of 
Schlegel, thus fitting Gray's brief identification of what he understood that 
name to mean. The disposition of Macklot & Miiller's specimens has been 
recounted by Brongersma (1968). 

7. However, Schlegel's identification of these Timor and Samao 
specimens was incorrect. Dumeril & Bibron ( 1 844, p. 440) later referred these 
specimens to a new species, Liasis mackloti. Gray's separation of Liasis from 
Python was based on the lack of pits in the rostral and anterior supralabial 
scutes in Liasis, in contrast to deep pits in the rostral and anterior supra- 
labials of Python, and it was this very character that Dumeril & Bibron used 
to distinguish Liasis mackloti (with rostral and anterior supralabial pits 
very faint) from 'Liasis amethystinus' (with deep pitting of the anterior supra- 
labials and rostral). Dumeril & Bibron state that their (Paris) specimen came 
originally from the Leiden collection; it is quite possible that this specimen 
was considered the least valuable in the Leiden collection (because not 
typical) and thus the specimen to donate to another museum or, before that, 
to hazard in a foreign loan, such as to Gray in London. The internal evidence, 
from Gray's own description, indicates that the snake Gray examined, in the 
wrong belief that he had the 'Boa amethistina' of Schneider, was the Liasis 
mackloti of Dumeril & Bibron; Gray may, indeed, have seen the specimen 
(MNHN 1625; Paris) designated by Brongersma (1968, p. 57) as lectotype of 
L. mackloti. Gray would have easily missed the error, for the identification 
had been made by Schlegel, the foremost authority on snake taxonomy at the 
time, and Gray had no material of true Python amethistinus for comparison. 

8. Thus Gray's inclusion of amethystinus in Liasis was based on a 
specimen or specimens of Liasis mackloti and it would seem appropriate that 
this, the species actually before Gray, be declared the type. 

9. As to the gender of Liasis, Dumeril & Bibron (1844, p. 442) gave 
Gray's 'Liasis olivacea' the masculine form olivaceus, in agreement with 



332 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 



'amethystinus', and if a 'first revisor' rule is applied to determining the gender 
of a name with no classical derivation and which the original describer 
treated as both mascuhne and feminine in its first publication, then Liasis can 
be taken as masculine. This has been the usage of all subsequent authors 
except Gray himself, who still in 1 849 (p. 9 1 ) treated the gender ambiguously, 
with 'amethystinus ' and 'olivacea ' both included. However, it should be noted 
that Gray used the masculine ending only for a specific name that would not 
now be included in this genus. Fixing the type of Liasis should also be 
accompanied by a fixing of this generic name as masculine. 
10. The Commission is therefore requested: 

( 1 ) to use its plenary powers to set aside all previous designations of 
type species for the nominal genus Liasis Gray, 1842, and to 
designate Liasis mackloti Dumeril & Bibron, 1 844; 

(2) to place on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology the 
name Liasis Gray, 1844 (gender: masculine), type species, by 
designation under the plenary powers in (1) above, Liasis 
mackloti Dumeril & Bibron, 1844; 

(3) to endorse on the entry in the Official List of Specific Names in 
Zoology for mackloti Dumeril & Bibron, 1844 that it is the type 
species o{ Liasis Gray, 1842 by designation in (1) above. 



Postscript 

Since we originally submitted this application Cogger et al. (1983, 
pp. 200-201), in the belief that Boa amethistina Schneider is the type-species 
of Liasis, have placed Liasis in the synonymy of Morelia Gray (1842, p. 43) 
and revived Bothrochilus for those species usually placed in Liasis. These 
authors' actions were based on an assumption that amethistina as the type of 
Liasis cannot be construed as a misidentified type-species in the sense of Art. 
70. They state 'Had Gray nominated amethystinus as type-species of Liasis, 
his designation might have been regarded as based on a misidentification 
and therefore subject to resolution by the International Commission on 
Zoological Nomenclature. There is no ambiguity, however, in Desmarest's 
designation of the nominal species amesthistina of Schneider as type-species 
of Liasis and although it might be argued that Schneider's amesthistina was 
not among the originally-included species in Liasis (and therefore not eligible 
as type-species under Article 69(a) of the International Code of Zoological 
Nomenclature), we believe such an argument could not be sustained, and we 
regard Boa amethistina Schneider, 1801 as vahdly designated type species of 
Liasis Gxdiy, 1842.' 

We do not accept this argument. Article 70 explicitly states that it 
concerns species that an author '(1) refers to a new genus when he establishes 
it, or (2) designates as the type-species of a new or of an estabUshed genus.' 
Boa amethistina Schneider was misidentified by Gray when he referred it to 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 333 



his new genus Liasis and it therefore became a 'misidentified type-species' 
as soon as Desmarest designated it the type. Whether or not Desmarest 
correctly identified the species is immaterial. 

REFERENCES 

BARBOUR, T. 1 9 1 2. A contribution to the zoogeography of the East Indian islands. 

Mem. Mus. comp. Zool. Harv. vol. 44, pp. 1-203. 
BERG, C. 1901. Herpetological notes. Comun. Mus. nac. B. Aires, Vol. 1, pp. 

289-291. 
BOULENGER, G. A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Natural 

History) , London, vol. 1 , xiii + 448 pp. 
BRONGERSMA, L. D. 1968. Proposal to suppress Python timorensis Miiller, 1844 

and Python timoriensis Miiller, 1857, and to add Python timoriensis (Peters, 

1876) to the Official List. Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 25, pp. 55-59. 
BURT, C. E. & BURT, M. D. 1932. Herpetological results of the Whitney South Sea 

Expedition. VI. Pacif c island amphibians and reptiles in the collection of the 

American Museum of Natural History. Bull. Am. Mus. not. Hist. Vol. 63, pp. 

461-597. 
COGGER, H. G., CAMERON, E. E. & COGGER, H. M. 1983. Amphibia and 

Reptilia. In Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia, vol. 1. 

Canberra, vi + 3 1 3 pp. 
DAUDIN, F. M. 1803. Caracteres des vingt-trois genres qui composent fordre des 

ophidiens. Magasin encycl. (8). Vol. 5, pp. 433-438. 
D[ESMAREST], E. 1846. Liasis. in d'Orbigny, M. C. Dictionnaire universel d'histoire 

naturelle, Vol. 7, p. 337. 
DUMERIL, A. M. C. & BIBRON, G. 1844. Erpetologie generate ou histoire naturelle 

complete des reptiles, Paris, Vol. 6, XII + 609 pp. 
FITZINGER, L. 1843. Systema reptilium. Vol. 1, Vienna. 106 + vi pp. 
GRAY. J. E. 1842. Synopsis of the species of prehensile-tailed snakes or family 

Boidae. Zool. Misc., pp. 41^6. 
1849. Catalogue of the specimens of snakes in the collection of the British 

Museum. London. xv+ 125 pp. 
HAAS, C. J. P. DE 1950. Checkhst of the snakes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago 

(Reptiles, Ophidia). Treubia. Vol. 20, pp. 51 1-625. 
JAN, G. & SORDELLI, F. 1865. Iconographie generate des ophidiens. Paris, Livr. 9, 

VI pis. 
KINGHORN, J. R. 1956. The snakes of Australia. 2nd edition. Sydney, 197 pp. 
LOVERIDGE, A. 1948. Australian reptiles in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 

Cambridge, Massachusetts. Bull. Mus. comp. Zool. Harv., Vol. 77, pp. 

243-383. 
McDowell, S. B. 1975. a catalogue of the snakes of New Guinea and the 

Solomons, with special reference to those in the Bernice P. Bishop Museum. 

Part II. Anilioidea and Pythoninae. /. Herpet., vol. 9, pp. 1-79. 
PETERS, W. & DORIA. G. 1878. Catalogo dei rettili e dei batraci raccolu da O. 

Beccari, L. M. D'Albertis e A. A. Bruijn nella sotto-regione Austro-Malese. 

Annali Mus. civ. Stor. nat. Genova, vol. 13, pp. 323-450. 
ROOIJ, N. DE 1917. The reptiles of the Indo-Australian Archipelago, Vol. 2. Leiden. 

XIV + 334 pp. 
SCHLEGEL, H. 1837. Essai sur la physionomie des serpens, vol. 2, La Haye. 606 pp. 



334 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 



SCHNEIDER, J. G., 1 80 1 . Historiae amphibiorum naturalis et literariae, Vol. 2, Jena. 

VI + 374 pp. 
STIMSON, A. F. 1969. Liste der rezenten Amphibien und Reptilien. Boidae 

(Boinae + Bolyeriinae + Loxoceminae + Pythoninae). Tierreich no. 89, XI + 

49 pp. 
STULL, O. G. 1932. Five new subspecies of the family Boidae. Occ. Pap. Boston Soc. 

nat. Hist., Vols, pp. 25-29. 
1935. A check list of the family Boidae. Proc. Boston Soc. nat. Hist., vol. 40, 

pp. 387-408. 
WERNER, F. 1900. Die Reptilien- und Batrachierfauna des Bismarck-Archipels. 

Mitt. zool. Samml. Mus. Naturk. Berl.. Vol. 1 (4), pp. 1-132. 
1921. Synopsis der Schlangenfamilie der Boiden auf Grundlage des 

Boulenger'schen Schlangenkatalogs (1893/96). Arch. Naturgesch., Vol. 87A 

(7), pp. 230-265. 
WORRELL, E. 1951. Classification of AustraUan Boidae. Proc. R. zool. Soc. 

N.S. W., year 1949-50, pp. 20-25. 

1963. Reptiles of Australia. Sydney, xv + 207 pp. 

ZENNECK, J. 1898. Die Zeichnung der Boiden. Z. wiss. Zool, Vol. 64, pp. 1-384. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1 986 335 



FILELLUM SERPENS (HASSALL, 1848) (CNIDARIA, 

HYDROZOA): PROPOSED CONSERVATION OF BOTH 

GENERIC AND SPECIFIC NAMES. Z.N.(S.)2508 

By Paul F. S. Cornelius (Department of Zoology, British Museum (Natural 
History), Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, U.K.) and Dale R. Calder 

(Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Royal Ontario Museum, 100 Queen's 

Park, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S2C6 and Department of Zoology, 

University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S lAI) 

Introduction 

The hydroid species Filellum serpens (Hassall, 1 848) is common and 
near-cosmopolitan in recorded distribution, but it happens that neither the 
genus name nor the species name applied to it is the oldest available. Strict 
application of the Code would cause confusion and a case is made for the 
conservation of both names. 

Coppinia Hassall, 1848 

With the exception of a single genus {Cryptolarella Stechow, 1913, 
p. 138), hydroids of the nominotypical subfamily lafoeinae of the family 
LAFOEiDAE Hincks, 1868 (p. 198) have aggregated gonophores known as 
coppiniae. Resembling muffs or nests, coppiniae occur on the stems and 
larger branches of erect species and on the stolons of those which are reptant, 
and in several genera are protected by a tangle of modified hydrothecal tubes. 
Such aggregated gonophores were initially beheved to be distinct taxa grow- 
ing as parasites or epizoites on other hydroids. The term coppinia is derived 
from the genus name Coppinia Hassall, 1 848 (p. 2223; described more fully in 
Hassall & Coppin, 1852, p. 160), established to accommodate a supposedly 
parasitic hydroid later shown (Levinsen, 1893, p. 162) to have been just 
such clustered lafoeid gonophores. Although scarcely used this century, 
the name Coppinia is available and threatens the familiar and widely used 
name Filellum Hincks, 1868 (p. 214), a name introduced in a well known 
monograph on hydroids. Filellum serpens (Hassall, 1848) (p. 2223, as 
Campanularia), type species of Filellum by monotypy, is a stolonal species 
commonly found epizoic on other hydroids in all oceans. It is inconspicuous 
except for its relatively large coppiniae, but is distinctive and often reported 
in faunal surveys. 

2. The species name serpens was published in 1848 by Gray also 
(p. 151, as 'Capsularia serpens, n.s.; Campanularia serpens Hassall, mss'). 
Although the exact dates of publication of Gray's or Hassall's works could 
not easily be ascertained, Sherborn (1926, p. 272) recorded Gray's work 
being shown to the Trustees of the British Museum on 31 August 1848 for 
approval prior to pubHcation. A note inside a copy in the British Museum 
(Natural History) library records the receipt of the published copy by the 



336 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 



Museum on 25 September 1848, so it can be assumed that Gray's work was 
published between 31 August 1848 and 25 September 1848. Hassall's (1848) 
paper on p. 2223 of volume 6 of Zoologist is, according to a note by C. D. 
Sherborn on the title page of the Museum copy, in the eighth monthly part 
for that year. Part 8 corresponded to August of 1848 and would have been 
published, according to the preamble to the volume, 'three days before the 
end of each month'. Thus Hassall's paper should have been pubUshed on 28 
August 1848. If so, his use o^ serpens would probably have had priority over 
Gray's. We assume that this is so. Reasons for not employing the genus 
names Capsularia Cuvier, 1797 (p. 665), and Reticularia Thomson, 1853 
(p. 443), were given by CorneHus (1975, p. 378). 

3. The nominal species Coppinia mirabilis Hassall, 1848 (p. 2223; 
described more fully in Hassall & Coppin, 1852, p. 160), type species of 
Coppinia by monotypy, was based on a single colony overgrowing another 
hydroid, Hydrallmaniafalcata (Linnaeus, 1758, p. 810) (type specimen of C. 
mirabilis BMNH 1973.10.8.3, on herbarium sheet). P.F.S.C. examined the 
specimen and found it to be a fertile colony of the species known today as 
Filellum serpens (Hassall, 1 848). The type specimen of Campanularia serpens 
Hassall, 1848 (overgrowing colony of Abietinaria abietina (Linnaeus, 1758, 
p. 808), British Museum (Natural History) 1973. 10.8.4, on herbarium sheet) 
has also been examined and found to conform to the modern concept of 
F. serpens. We conclude that Hassall (1848) simultaneously and unwittingly 
based two nominal species, Coppinia mirabilis and Campanularia serpens, on 
material of the same species, thus making either species name available for 
F. serpens auct. Of these two names we select as first revisers the more widely 
used species name serpens as having priority. 

4. Coppinia mirabilis Hassall, 1848, a junior subjective synonym of 
Coppinia arcta (Dalyell, 1847, p. 224, as Sertularia), has commonly been 
assumed to be conspecific with Lafoea dumosa (Fleming, 1820, p. 83, as 
Sertularid), a species recently revised by Cornelius (1975, p. 385). This is 
based on a misinterpretation of the discovery by Levinsen (1893, p. 162) that 
the gonophores of hydroids belonging to the genera Lafoea Lamouroux, 
1821 (p. 8), Grammaria Stimpson, 1853 (p. 9) and Filellum Hincks, 1868 (p. 
214) are aggregated into coppiniae and are identical with nominal species 
once referred to the genus Coppinia. It happens that the name Coppinia has 
mistakenly been regarded as a junior synonym, in part or in whole, of Lafoea 
(e.g. Levinsen, 1893, p. 170; Bedot, 1905, p. 61; Stechow, 1923, p. 137). 
However, our reidentification of the type specimen of Coppinia mirabilis as 
identical with Campanularia serpens shows that the genus name Coppinia is 
available as a senior synonym of the universally used name Filellum. The 
word 'coppinia' has become familiar in accounts of the subfamily lafoeinae 
and promulgation of Coppinia as a genus name might well cause confusion. It 
would unquestionably upset existing usage of Filellum and we consequently 
request suppression of the genus name Coppinia. 

5. The genera Sertularia Linnaeus, 1 758 (p. 807) and Campanularia 
Lamarck, 1 8 1 6 (p. 1 1 2) have both long since been redefined so as to preclude 



Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 337 



any question of the nominal species Sertularia arcta Dalyell, 1847, or 
Campanularia serpens Hassall, 1 848, being retained in either genus (summar- 
ies in Cornelius, 1 979, p. 249; Cornelius, 1 982, p. 5 1 ). Thus Coppinia Hassall, 
1 848, a name scarcely used this century, is the oldest available genus name for 
C serpens. The exhaustive Hterature reviews of Bedot (1905, 1910, 1912, 
1916, 1918, 1925) listed 58 uses of the name Co/jpmw between 1848 and 1905, 
including the first uses of it by Hassall and Gray. Bedot listed no later uses of 
Coppinia, nor are there any listed in Zoological Record. Indeed, it is remark- 
able how soon the name Coppinia fell into disuse once Levinsen (1893, pp. 
162, 170) showed that it was based merely on reproductive structures of 
known taxa. 

6. In contrast, the name Filellum Hincks, 1868, has been widely used 
in the hydroid literature of the past 1 00 years. A list of ten major works in the 
last 50 years estabUshes a prima facie case for its continued use: Fraser, 1944, 
p. 215; Naumov, 1960, p. 280; Blanco, 1967, p. 103; Calder, 1970, p. 1522; 
Vervoort, 1972, p. 50; Cornelius, 1975, p. 378; Millard, 1975, p. 175; 
Stepanjants, 1979, p. 48; Gili i Sarda, 1982, p. 55; Cornelius & Ryland, in 
press. 

Sertularia arcta Dalyell, 1847 

7. We concur with the opinion of Hincks (1868, p. 219) and others 
that the nominal species Sertularia arcta Dalyell, 1847 (p. 224, pi. 42) is 
conspecific with Coppinia mirabilis Hassall, 1 848, and hence in our view with 
Fillellum serpens auct. In the first description of S. arcta it was stated by 
Dalyell that its hydranth had only eight tentacles and that the planula was 
green. Hincks (1868, p. 220) reported that hydranths of C. arcta' had 8-10 
tentacles and were greenish-yellow. Few subsequent authors have described 
the hydranth of this species. Broch ( 1 9 1 1 , fig. 20a) gave no textual description 
but provided an illustration of the hydranth o^ Filellum serpens showing nine 
tentacles. The same illustration was reproduced by Kramp (1935, fig. 54a) 
and Vervoort (1946, fig. 82). Hamond (1957, p. 308, fig. 15) provided a new 
illustration showing 11 tentacles, and stated in his description that the 
number was 'about 12'. Hydranths of the only species from which F. serpens 
need be distinguished in British waters, Lafoea dumosa Fleming, 1 820 (p. 83), 
have 16 tentacles even when young and older ones have up to about 20 
(P.F.S.C., unpublished). Dalyell also described L. dumosa in his 1847 work 
and there seems little possibihty that his S. arcta was identical with it. All 
evidence corroborates Hincks' identification as F. serpens. The species name 
arcta Dalyell, 1 847, which predates serpens, has like the genus name Coppinia 
fallen into disuse. Neither Bedot (1925) nor Zoological Record listed uses 
subsequent to 1905. Indeed, arcta and the genus name Coppinia were used 
almost solely in mutual combination and the comments in paragraph 5 apply 
to both genus and species names. Therefore, we request that arcta Dalyell, 
1847, be suppressed in favour o{ serpens Hassall, 1848. 

8. The species name serpens has been widely used both before the 
turn of the century and since, usually in the combination Filellum serpens. 



338 Bull. zool. Norn. , vol. 43, pt 4, December 1 986 



The 1 important works mentioned in paragraph 6 also illustrate the usage of 
the species name serpens. 

Campanularia intertexta Couch, 1844 

9. The nominal species Campanularia intertexta Couch, 1844 (pp. 
41-42, pi. 1 1, fig. 3) was referred to Lafoea dumosa (Fleming, 1820, p. 83) by 
CorneHus (1982, p. 122). He reported that the type specimen of C intertexta 
was almost certainly not extant. However, the identity of this nominal species 
is in doubt. The possibility that the type specimen of intertexta included 
Filellum serpens has not been adequately eliminated. Couch stated that the 
species as he conceived it grew on both Lafoea dumosa and Sertularella 
polyzonias (Linnaeus, 1 758, p. 8 1 3, as Sertularia). The latter substrate is more 
typical for F. serpens and, as deduced by CorneHus (1982), it is plausible that 
Couch's type series of intertexta included F. serpens as well as L. dumosa (in 
addition to Orthopyxis integra (Macgillivray, 1 842, p. 465), as Campanularia: 
see Cornelius, 1982, p. 122). Cornelius designated the specimen of which the 
coppiniae were illustrated as lectotype of C. intertexta, expressly discrimin- 
ating it from the clearly epizoic O. integra (a distinction not made by Couch). 
Despite the assertion by Cornelius (1982, p. 122) it is not at present possible 
to determine whether the illustrated coppinia was of L. dumosa or of F. 
serpens. Nevertheless one or other is considered to have been in the mixed 
type series. If the coppinia were to be identified as F. serpens, then the older 
name serpens would become threatened by intertexta and an additional case 
for the conservation of serpens would have to be made to the Commission. So 
far as we know the name intertexta has been employed in the original sense 
only twice since Couch's work (references in Bedot, 1905-1925) and we 
therefore request its suppression in favour of serpens. 

Conchella Gray, 1848 

10. Campanularia intertexta Couch, 1844, is the type species (by 
monotypy) of the genus Conchella Gray, 1848 (p. 88). Hence, if the type 
specimen of C intertexta were identified as F. serpens, the name Conchella 
might threaten the widely used genus name Filellum Hincks, 1 868 (see pre- 
vious paragraph). The index of Bedot (1905-1925), covering Uterature up to 
1910, indicated no subsequent uses of Conchella, whereas the genus name 
Filellum had been widely used. The references listed in paragraph 6 establish 
a prima facie case for the continued use of Filellum and we therefore request 
that Conchella be suppressed. 

Proposals 

1 1 . The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature is 
accordingly asked: 

(1) to use its plenary powers to suppress the following generic 
names for the purposes of the Principle of Priority: 
(a) Coppinia Hassall, 1848 (gender: masculine), type species by 
monotypy, Coppinia mirabilis Hassall, 1848; 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 339 



(b) Conchella Gray, 1848 (gender: feminine), type species by 
monotypy, Campanularia intertexta Couch, 1844; 

(2) to use its plenary powers to suppress the following specific 
names for the purposes of the Principle of Priority: 

(a) arcta Dalyell, 1 847, as published in the binomen Sertularia 
arcta; 

(b) intertexta Couch, 1844, as published in the binomen 
Campanularia intertexta; 

(3) to place on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology the 
name Filellum Hincks, 1868 (gender: neuter), type species by 
monotypy, Campanularia serpens Hassall, 1848; 

(4) to place on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology the 
name serpens Hassall, 1 848, as published in the binomen Cam- 
panularia serpens (specific name of the type species of Filellum 
Hincks, 1868); 

(5) to place the following names, as suppressed in (1) above, on 
the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Generic Names in 
Zoology: 

(a) Co/?/?/«/a Hassall, 1848; 

(b) Conchella Gray, 1848; 

(6) to place the following names on the Official List of Rejected and 
Invalid Specific Names in Zoology: 

(a) arcta Dalyell, 1847, as published in the binomen Sertularia 

arcta and as suppressed under the plenary powers in (2) (a) 

above; 
(a) intertexta Couch, 1844, as published in the binomen 

Campanularia intertexta and as suppressed under the 

plenary powers in (2)(b) above. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

We are grateful to Professor W. Vervoort, Leiden, and Dr K. W. 
Petersen, Copenhagen, for commenting on the typescript and to Dr I. W. B. 
Nye, London, for discussing the paper by Hassall (1848). We are grateful 
also to Professor Vervoort also for confirming the identity of the type 
specimen of 'Coppinia mirabilis', and to Mr M. E. Tollitt for advice on our 
submission. 

REFERENCES 

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1871). Revue Suisse Zool. .\o\. 18, pp. 189^90. 
1912. Materiaux pour servir a I'histoire des hydroides. 4me periode (1872 a 

1880). Revue Suisse Zool., vol. 20, pp. 213^69. 



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-1916. Materiaux pour servir a I'histoire des hydroi'des. 5me periode (1881 a 

1890). Revue Suisse Zool., vol. 24, pp. 1-349. 
-1918. Materiaux pour servir a I'histoire des hydroi'des. 6me periode (1891 a 

1900). Revue suisse Zool., vol. 26 (Suppl.), pp. 1-376. 
-1925. Materiaux pour servir a I'histoire des hydroi'des. 7me periode (1901 a 

1910). Revue Suisse Zool., vol. 32 (Suppl.), pp. 1-657. 



BLANCO, O. M. 1967. Un nuevo aporte al conocimiento de la fauna hidroide 

Argentina. Revta Mus. La Plata (N.S.) (Zool.), vol. 10, pp. 97-127. 
BROCH, H. 1911. Fauna droebachiensis. I. Hydroider. Nyt. Mag. Naturvid., vol. 

49(1), pp. 1-46. 
CALDER, D. R. 1970. Thecate hydroids from the shelf waters of northern Canada. 

J. Fish. Res. Bd Canada, vol. 27, pp. 1501-1547. 
CORNELIUS, P. F. S. 1975. A revision of the species of Lafoeidae and Haleciidae 

(Coelenterata: Hydroida) recorded from Britain and nearby seas. Bull. Br. 

Mus. nat. Hist. (Zoo!.), vol. 28, pp. 375^26. 
1979. A revision of the species of Sertulariidae (Coelenterata: Hydroida) 

recorded from Britain and nearby seas. Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.), vol. 

34, pp. 243-321. 
1982. Hydroids and medusae of the family Campanulariidae recorded from 

the eastern North Atlantic, with a world synopsis of genera. Bull. Br. Mus. nat. 

Hist. (Zool.), vol. 42, pp. 37-148. 
& RYLAND, J. S. (In press) Hydrozoa. In: Ryland, J. S. & Hayward, P. J. 

(eds) An introduction to the marine fauna of the British Isles, Oxford University 

Press, Oxford. 
COUCH, R. Q. 1844. A Cornish fauna; being a compendium of the natural history of 

the county, intended to form a companion to the collection in the museum of the 

Royal Institution of Cornwall. xvii-|-1644-8 pp. unpaginated. Royal 

Institution of Cornwall, Truro. 
CU'VIER, G. L. C. F. D. 1 797. Tableau elementaire de I'histoire naturelle des animaux. 

Paris, pp. xvi, 1-710. (Dating follows J. Typogr. Biblphique (1797), vol. 1, 

pp. 81-82.) 
DALYELL, J. G. 1847. Rare and remarkable animals of Scotland, represented from 

living subjects: with practical observations on their nature. Vol. 1 , xii + 270 pp. 

J. Van Voorst, London. 
FLEMING, J. 1820. Observations on the natural history of the Sertularia gelatinosa 

of Pallas. Edinb. phil. J., vol. 2, pp. 82-89. 
ERASER, C. M. 1944. Hydroids of the Atlantic coast of North America, 451 pp. 

University of Toronto, Toronto. 
GILI I SARDA, J.-M. 1982. Fauna de cnidaris de les illes Medes. Treballs Inst. 

catal. Hist, nat., vol. 10, pp. 1-176. 
GRAY, J. E. 1848. List of the specimens of British animals in the collection of the 

British Museum. Part 1. Centroniae or radiated animals, xiii-|- 173 pp. British 

Museum, London. 
HAMOND, R. 1957. Notes on the Hydrozoa of the Norfolk coast. J. Linn. Soc. 

(Zool.), vol. 43, pp. 294-324. 
HASSALL, A. H. 1848. Definitions of three new British zoophytes. Zoologist, vol. 6, 

p. 2223. 
& COPPIN, J. 1 852. Descriptions of three species of marine zoophytes. Trans. 

microsc. Soc. Lond. vol. 3, pp. 160-164. 
HINCKS, T. 1868. A history of the British hydroid zoophytes . Vol. 1 (text) lxvii + 338 

pp. J. Van Voorst, London. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 34 1 



KRAMP, P. L. 1935. Polypdyr (Coelenterata). I. Ferskvandspolypper og goplepo- 

lypper. Damn. Fauna, vol. 41, pp. 1-208. 
LAMARCK, J. B. P. A. DE 1816. Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertebres. Vol. 

2, 568 pp. Verdiere, Paris. 
LAMOUROUX, J. V. F. 1821. Exposition methodique des genres de I'ordre des poly- 
piers, avec leur description et celle des principales especes. 1 1 5 pp. Veuve 

Agasse, Paris. 
LEVINSEN, G. M. R. 1893. Meduser, ctenophorer og hydroider fra Gronlands 

vestkyst, tiliigemed bemaerkninger om hydroidernes systematik. Vidensk. 

Meddr dansk naturh. Foren. (1892), vol. 5(4), pp. 143-212, 215-220, pis 5-8. 
LINNAEUS, C. 1758. Systema naturae, ed. 10, vol. 1, iv + 824 pp. Laurentii Salvii, 

Holmiae. 
MACGILLIVRAY, J. 1842. Catalogue of the marine zoophytes of the neighbour- 
hood of Aberdeen. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (1), vol. 9, pp. 462^69. 
MILLARD, N. A. H. 1975. Monograph on the Hydroida of southern Africa. Ann. S. 

Afr. Mus.. vol 6S, pp. 1-513. 
NAUMOV, D. V. 1960. Gidroidy i gidromeduzy morskikh, solonovatovodnykh i 

presnovodnykh basseinov SSSR. Fauna SSSR, vol. 70, pp. 1-626. 
SHERBORN, C. D. 1926. Dates of publication of early catalogues of natural history 

issued by the British Museum. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist., (9), vol. 17, pp. 271-272. 
STECHOW, E. 1913. Neue Genera thecater Hydroiden aus der Familie der 

Lafoeiden und neue Species von Thecaten aus Japan. Zool. Anz., vol. 43, pp. 

137-144. 
1923. Zur Kenntnis der Hydroidenfauna des Mittelmeeres, Amerikas und 

anderer Gebiete. II Teil. Zool. Jb. (Syst.), vol. 47, pp. 29-270. 
STEPANJANTS, S. D. 1979. Gidroidy vod antarktikh i subantarktikh. Issled. Fauny 

Morei, vol. 22 (30), pp. 1-200. 
STIMPSON, W. 1853. Synopsis of the marine Invertebrata of Grand Manan: or the 

region about the mouth of the Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick. Smithson. 

Contr. Knowl., vol. 6(5), pp. 1-67. (The title page and introduction to volume 6 

are dated 1854, but a note on p. 67 of Stimpson's paper gives its date as March 

1853.) 
THOMSON, W. T. C. 1853. Notes on some British zoophytes. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. 

(2). vol. ll,pp.442^M4. 
VERVOORT, W. 1946. Hydrozoa (C I). A. Hydropolypen. Fauna Ned., vol. 14, pp. 

1-336. 
1972. Hydroids from the Theta, Vema and Yelcho cruises of the Lamont- 

Doherty Geological Observatory. Zool. Verh. Leiden, vol. 120, pp. 1-247. 



342 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 



LYCAENA MIRZA PLOTZ, 1880 (INSECTA, LEPIDOPTERA): 

PROPOSED CONSERVATION BY THE SUPPRESSION OF 

LYCAENA MIRZA STAUDINGER, 1874. Z.N.(S.)2426. 

By Torben B. Larsen {29c Snoghojalle. DK2770 Kastrup, Denmark) 

Christoph (1873, p. 23) proposed the name Lycaena sieversi for a 
Central Asian butterfly, which the following year was named as Lycaena 
mirza by Staudinger (1874, p. 90). Staudinger himself later recognised the 
synonymy (e.g. Staudinger & Rebel, 1901, p. 80), and I have been unable to 
trace any usage of the name this century. The species is currently placed in the 
genus Vacciniina Tutt, 1 909, and is always referred to as V. sieversi. 

2. Plotz (1880, p. 203) gave the name Lycaena mirza to an East 
African butterfly; the species is currently placed in Azanus Moore, [1881]. 
The specific name mirza has been universally used for this butterfly, prob- 
ably on at least a thousand occasions; a Ust of eleven major faunistic and 
taxonomic works has been given to the Commission Secretariat. 

3. Kogak (1980, p. 141) noticed that mirza Plotz is a junior primary 
homonym of mirza Staudinger, and proposed the replacement name 
mirzaellus for the African butterfly. So far as I know mirzaellus has not been 
used since. 

4. Because mirza Plotz is in universal and widespread use, while its 
senior homonym mirza Staudinger has, as a junior synonym of sieversi 
Christoph, always been unused, an attempted introduction of the new 
specific name mirzaellus Kogak, 1980 would cause confusion and serve no 
purpose. 

5. The suppression oi mirza Staudinger would be a simple means of 
maintaining stabiUty. I accordingly ask the International Commission on 
Zoological Nomenclature: 

(1) to use its plenary powers to suppress the specific name mirza 
Staudinger, 1 874, as published in the binomen Lycaena mirza, 
for the purposes of the Principles of Priority and Homonymy; 

(2) to place on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology the 
name mirza Plotz, 1880, as published in the binomen Lycaena 
mirza; 

(3) to place on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Specific 
Names in Zoology the names: 

(a) mirza Staudinger, 1874, as published in the binomen 
Lycaena mirza and as suppressed in (1) above, and 

(b) mirzaellus Kogak, 1980, as published in the binomen 
Azanus mirzaellus, as a junior objective synonym of mirza 
Plotz, 1880. 

REFERENCES 

CHRISTOPH, H. 1873. Weiterer Beitrag zum Verzeichnisse der in Nord-Persien 
einheimischen Schmetterlinge. Hor. Soc. ent. Ross., vol. 10, pp. 3-55. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 343 



KOC^AK, A. O. 1980. On the nomenclature of some genus- and species-group names 

of Lepidoptera. Nota lepid., vol. 2, pp. 139-146. 
PLOTZ, C. 1880. Verzeichniss der vom Professor R. Buchholz in West-Africa . . . 

vom August 1872 bis November 1875 — gesammeten Schmetterlinge. Stettin 

em. Ztg., vol. 41, pp. 189-206. 
STAUDINGER. O. 1874. Einiger neue Lepidopteren des europaischen Faunenge- 

biets. Stettin ent. Ztg., vol. 35, pp. 87-98. 
& REBEL, H. 1901. Catalog der lepidopteren des Palaearktischen Faunenge- 

sbietes. 1 Thiel: Famil. Papilionidae — Hepialidae. Friedlander, Berlin. 

XXX 4-411 pp. 



344 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1 986 



PARAPHYTOMYZA ENDERLEIN, 1936 (INSECTA, DIPTERA): 

PROPOSED DESIGNATION OF PHYTAGROMYZA 
LUTEOSCUTELLATA DE MEIJERE, 1924 AS TYPE SPECIES 

Z.N.(S.)2574 

By K. A. Spencer (Exwell Farm, Callington, PL 17 8QJ, Cornwall, England) 

Hendel (1920, p. 115) erected the genus Phytagromyza, with 
Domomyzaflavocingulata Strobl, 1909 (p. 296) as type species. 

2. Nowakowski (1962, p. 100), following examination of the male 
genitalia of Domomyzaflavocingulata, discovered that it was not congeneric 
with the other species included in Phytagromyza, which he later transferred 
as a subgenus to Cerodontha Rondani, 1861 (p. 10) (Nowakowski, 1972, 
p. 748). 

3. A new name was therefore needed for Hendel's concept of 
Phytagromyza. Paraphytomyza Enderlein, 1936 (p. 42) was available, with 
Phytomyza xylostei Robineau-Desvoidy, 1851 (p. 145) (which is a dark 
species with the third antennal segment and the scutellum black) designated 
by Enderlein as type species. Enderlein clearly followed Hendel (1932) in his 
mistaken concept of this species. Paraphytomyza has been accepted by all 
recent specialists on the agromyzidae as a valid replacement name for 
Phytagromyza sensu Hendel (1920, p. 1 15 and 1932, p. 275). 

4. Hendel (1932, p. 299) gave a detailed re-description of 'Phytomyza 
xylostei' as a pale species, with the third antennal segment and scutellum 
yellow. He correctly included it within his concept of Phytagromyza but 
misinterpreted Robineau-Desvoidy's dark species xylostei, which is now 
accepted as ajunior synonym of /'/2>'/ow>'zafl/7r///«aGoureau, 1851 (p. 145). 

5. The earliest name of the pale species is Phytomyza lonicerae 
Brischke, 1 88 1 (p. 257). However, this name is unavailable, being a homonym 
of Phytomyza lonicerae Robineau-Desvoidy, 1851 (p. 396), a further species 
in the complex of leaf miners feeding on Lonicera (honeysuckle). De Meijere 
(1924, p. 145) therefore pubUshed the new specific name luteoscutellata as a 
replacement for lonicerae Brischke, 1881. Unfortunately Hendel (1932, p. 
299), in view of his misinterpretation of xylostei Robineau-Desvoidy as a 
pale species, treated luteoscutellata as a synonym of xylostei. 

6. The confusion over the true identity of the Lonicera leaf miners was 
in part recognised by Spencer (1976, p. 309), when the type species of Para- 
phytomyza Enderlein, 1936 was designated as 'Phytagromyza luteoscutellata 
de Meijere, 1924 (as Phytagromyza xylostei Robineau-Desvoidy, 1851)'. 

7. In view of the above the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature is asked: 

( 1 ) to use its plenary powers to set aside all previous designations of 
type species for the genus Paraphytomyza Enderlein, 1936, and 
to designate Phytagromyza luteoscutellata de Meijere, 1924 as 
type species; 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 345 



(2) to place on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology the 
name Paraphytomyza Enderlein, 1936 (gender feminine), type 
species Phytagromyza luteoscutellata de Meijere, 1924 by desig- 
nation in (1) above; 

(3) to place on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology 
the name luteoscutellata de Meijere, 1924, as published in the 
binomen Phytagromyza luteoscutellata (specific name of the 
type species oi Paraphytomyza Enderlein, 1936, as designated in 
(1) above). 

REFERENCES 

BRISCHKE, C. G. A. 1881. Die Blattminirer in Danzig's Umgebung. Schr. naturk. 

Ges. Danzig, vol. 5, pp. 233-290. 
ENDERLEIN, G. 1936. Notizen zur Klassifikation der Agromyziden. Mitt, dtsch. 

Ent. Ges., vol. 7, p. 42. 
GOUREAU, C. C. 1851. Memoire pour servir a rhistoire des Dipteres dont les larves 

minent lesfeuillesdesplintes. Annls Soc. ent. Fr., vol. 9, pp. 131-176. 
HENDEL, F. 1920. Die palaarktischen Agromyziden (Prodromus einer Mono- 
graphic). Arch. Naturgesch.. A 84 (7), pp. 109-174. 

1932. Agromyzidae. Fliegenpalaearkt. Reg., vol. 59, pp. 257-320. 

MEIJERE, J. C. H. DE, 1924. Verzeichnis der hollandischen Agromyziden. Tijdschr. 

£•«/., vol. 67, pp. 119-155. 
NOWAKOWSKI, J. T. 1962. Introduction to a Systematic Revision of the Family 

Agromyzidae (Diptera) with some Remarks on Host Plant Selection by these 

Flies. Annls zool. . Warsz., vol. 20, pp. 67-183. 
1972. Zweite Vorlaufige Mitteilung zu einer Monographic der europaischen 

Arten der Gattung Cerodontha Rond. (Diptera, Agromyzidae). Polskie Pismo 

e«/., vol. 42, pp. 735-765. 
ROBINEAU-DESVOIDY, M. 1851. Descriptions d'Agromyzes et de Phytomyzes 

ecloses chez M. le Col. Goureau. Rev. Mag. Zool., vol. 3, pp. 391-405. 
RONDANI, C. 1861. Dipterologiae italicae prodromus. 4. Species italicae ordinis 

Dipterorum, part 3, pp. 1-174. 
SPENCER, K. A. 1976. The Agromyzidae (Diptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. 

Fauna Ent. Scand., vol. 5, part 1, pp. 1-215. 
STROBL, G. 1909. Neue osterreichische Muscidae Acalyptratae II. Wien. ent. Ztg., 

vol. 28, pp. 283-301. 



346 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 



HERIAEUS SIMON, 1875 (ARACHNIDA, ARANEIDA): REQUEST 

FOR CONFIRMATION OF THOMISUS HIRTUS LATREILLE, 

1819 AS TYPE SPECIES. Z.N.(S.)2447 

By O. Kraus and A. Loerbroks (Zoologisches Institut und Zoologisches 

Museum, Universitdt Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 3, 

D-2000 Hamburg 13, West Germany.) 



The type species of the spider genus Heriaeus Simon, 1875 (family 
thomisidae) was misidentified by the original author. The object of the 
present application is to achieve a ruling by the Commission under the 
provisions of Art. 70(b) of the Code. 

2. In 1875 (p. 203) Simon introduced the generic name Heriaeus for 
three nominal species: Thomisus hirsutus Walckenaer, 1824, Thomisus 
setiger, O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1872, and Heriaeus savignyi Simon, 1875. 
Later, he designated T. hirsutus as the type species of his genus (Simon, 1 895, 
p. 206). 

3. Simon's description o{ Heriaeus hirsutus ( 1 875, p. 206) clearly indi- 
cates that he had misidentified the species. He corrected his error in 1918 (p. 
51) and introduced the new name Heriaeus oblongus for the species actually 
involved. At the same time he clarified the true identity of Thomisus hirsutus 
Walckenaer, 1824: 'Latreille [1819] dit avoir regu son Thomisus hirtus. . . de 
Nice ou I'espece en question se trouve exclusivement; Walckenaer [1824, p. 
85] . . . parle d'apres Latreille, mais en alterant I'orthographe ... en hirsutus'. 
This clarification has been accepted by all subsequent workers. There is no 
longer any doubt about the true identity of hirtus Latreille, and hirsutus has 
the status of an unjustified emendation of the original spelhng hirtus. As the 
usage of the name hirtus has been firmly established during the last 60 years, 
there is no need for the designation of a neotype. 

4. According to Art. 70 of the Code, the case has to be referred to 
the Commission to designate as type species one of the two species involved, 
i.e. Heriaeus oblongus Simon, 1918, or Thomisus hirtus Latreille, 1819 
{ = hirsutus Walckenaer, 1824). In conformity with current practice, we 
propose the nominal species T. hirtus as the type species of the genus. 

5. The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature is 
accordingly asked: 

(1) to confirm that the type species of the nominal genus Heriaeus 
Simon, 1875 is Thomisus hirtus Latreille, 1819, by original 
designation; 

(2) to place on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology the 
name Heriaeus Simon, 1875 (gender: masculine), type species 
by original designation Thomisus hirtus Latreille, 1819 
( = Thomisus hirsutus Walckenaer, 1 824); 

(3) to place on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology the 
name hirtus Latreille, 1819, as published in the binomen 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1 986 347 

Thomisus hirtus (specific name of the type species of Heriaeus 
Simon, 1875); 
(4) to place on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Specific 
Names m Zoology the name hirsutus Walckenaer 1824 as 
published in the binomen Thomisus hirsutus (an unjustified 
emendation of Thomisus hirtus Latreille, 1819). 

REFERENCES 

SIMON^F^fsT^S 1' ^^?- ?"^- ^^^^""^^'■^d'Histoirenaturelle. ed. 2, vol. 34. Paris. 
:>1MUN, h. 1875. Les Arachmdes de France, vol. 2, 359 pp. Paris 

lll^nJl'i''^""'"''^''^ "^^^ ^'-a/;?«^e5.ed. 2, vol. 1 (4), pp. 761-1084, figs 
SJO-1U96. Pans. " 

tZ^^' ^""^^l TJ^ synonymic de plusieurs especes de la famille des 
Thomisides. 5m//. Soc. eir Fr. (1) pp 51-52 
WALCKENAER, C. A^ 1824. Faune f ran false . vol. 4, Araneides (1824 & 1830) 
240 pp., pis. 3-5. Pans. ^' 



348 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 



TRYPANOSOMA BRUC EI FLIMMER & BRADFORD, 1899 

(PROTOZOA, MASTIGOPHORA): PROPOSED CONFIRMATION 

OF SPELLING. Z.N.(S.)2580 

(CIOMS Case No. 6) 

By M. E. Tollitt (The Secretariat, International Commission on Zoological 

Nomenclature) 

This application is one of several that have been generated as a result 
of working with the Council for International Organizations of Medical 
Sciences (CIOMS) on an international nomenclature of diseases of man (see 
Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 42, p. 72). In this case the familiar spelling of the specific 
name of an important flagellate protozoan, Trypanosoma brucei, is threat- 
ened by virtue of the fact that it is an incorrect subsequent spelling and hence 
unavailable for the purposes of nomenclature. 

2. Plimmer & Bradford ( 1 899, p. 280) established the name Trypano- 
soma brucii for a new species of protozoan from the blood of a dog. The 
species was named, 'in recognition of the work done in connection with it by 
its discoverer Major Bruce FRS'. 

3. The spelling o^ brucii with the double 'i' continued in 1900 with 
Wasielewski & Senn (p. 458). A year later Laveran & Mesnil (1901a, b) 
published two papers with what appears to be the first spelling using the 'ei' 
ending instead of 'ii'. Strangely, this spelling was not followed by Mesnil & 
Gazeau (1901, p. 284) who retained the original form. 

4. From 1902 onwards, with the exception of Bradford & Plimmer 
(1902, p. 449), the speUing brucei (but with the original Plimmer & Bradford 
( 1 899) authorship) became almost universally used for the specific name (e.g. 
Laveran & Mesnil, 1902). Even the author of the section on Protozoa in 
Zoological Record for that year, H. M. Woodcock, listed Bradford & 
Plimmer's paper under the spelling brucei. 

5. Such is the importance of the organism it denotes that this spelling 
has appeared subsequently in thousands of references in biomedical and 
veterinary literature, and, although the two versions of the specific name 
differ by only one letter, a change would create difficulties with computerised 
information retrieval systems. The confusion that would be caused by 
reverting to the original spelling would be so great that the following support 
has come from Dr B. J. Cooper (Director, WHO Health and Biomedical 
Information Programme) and Dr Z. Bankowski (Executive Secretary, 
CIOMS): 'The speUing brucei has been in virtually universal use for many 
years, and we fully share your view that to revert to the original spelling 
would cause serious confusion. On behalf of the secretariats of both the 
World Health Organisation and the Council for International Organizations 
of Medical Sciences, therefore, we strongly support the proposal that the 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature be requested to use 
its plenary powers to rule that Trypanosoma brucei is deemed to be the 
correct original spelling and thus stabilize existing usage.' 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 349 



6. The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature is 
accordingly asked: 

( 1 ) to use its plenary powers to rule that the correct original spelling 
of the specific name brucii, Plimmer & Bradford, 1899, as 
published in the binomen Trypanosoma brucii, is deemed to be 
brucei; 

(2) to place on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology the 
name brucei Plimmer & Bradford, 1899 as published in the 
bmomen Trypanosoma brucii; spelling confirmed as in ( 1 ) above- 

(3) to place on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Specific 
Names m Zoology the name ^rwczY Plimmer & Bradford, 1 899, as 
published in the binomen Trypanosoma brucii (correct original 
spelling deemed to be brucei). 

REFERENCES 

BRADFORD, i. R. & PLIMMER, H. G. 1902. The Trypanosoma Brucii the 

organism found in Nagana, or the Tse-tse fly disease. O. y lie Sci vol 45n^ 
no. 179, pp. 449^71. • ot/., voi. ^^pj, 

LAVERAN, C. L. A. & MESNIL, F. 1901a. Sur la mode de multiplication du 
trypanosome du Nagana. C.R. Soc. Biol., vol. 53, pp. 326-329. 
^ " l^Ol^- Sur la morphologie et la systematique des flagelles a mem- 

brane onduiante (genres Trypanosoma Gruchy et Trichomonas Donne) C R 
.^ca^.Sc/., vol. 133, no. 3, pp. 131-137. " ' 

* ~ 1^02. Recherches sur letraitementet la prevention du Nagana Ann 
Inst. Pasteur, vol. 1 6, no. 1 L pp. 785-8 1 7 

MESNIL, F. & GAZEAU, P. 1901. Les trypanosomes et leur role pathogene. Arch 
Med. navale, vol. 75, pp. 273-295 

PLIMMER, J. R. & BRADFORD, H. G. 1899. A prelimmary note on the mor- 
phology and distnbution of the organism found in the tsetse fly disease Proc 
roy. Soc, vol. 65, no. 418, pp. 274-281 

WASIELEWSKI, V. & SENN, G. 1900. Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Flagellaten des 
Kattenblutes. Z. Hygiene InfektKrankh., vol. 28, pp. 444-^72. 



350 Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 



SIMULIUM AUSTENI EDWARDS, 1915 (INSECTA, DIPTERA): 

PROPOSED PRECEDENCE OVER SIMULIA POSTICATA 

MEIGEN, 1838. Z.N.(S.)2560 

By I. A. Rubtsov {Zoological Institute, Academy of Sciences of the U.S.S.R, 
Uningrad, 199034. U.S.S.R.) 

Simulium austeni Edwards, 1915 (p. 33) was described from England. 
The species is distributed in Central and Northern Europe and is sometimes 
bloodsucking. The name is in general current use, as shown by the following 
selected references: Puri (1925, p. 347, first excellent figures); Rubtsov (1940, 
p. 441; 1956, p. 778; 1959-1964, p. 556); Zwolski (1959, p. 245); Ussowa 
(1961, p. 178); Davies (1966, p. 488); Raastad (1975, p. 93); Patruscheva 
(1976, p. 317); Zwick (1974, p. 15; 1978, p. 402); Niesiolowski (1980, p. 257); 
Rubtsov & Jankovsky (1984, p. 153). 

2. Simulia posticata Meigen, 1838 (p. 52) was described from Europe 
without any indication of exact locaHty. Beginning with Schiner (1864) the 
name was considered to be a junior subjective synonym of Simulium reptans 
(Linnaeus, 1758). 

3. Zwick & Crosskey (1981, p. 240) found S. posticata to be synony- 
mous with S. austeni and have designated a lectotype of S. posticata from 
the Meigen collection in the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. 
Contrary to established usage but in accordance with the Principle of 
Priority they used Simulium posticatum Meigen, 1838 as the valid name and 
S. austeni as a junior synonym. 

4. In accordance with Article 79c of the Code the International 
Commission on Zoological Nomenclature is asked: 

(1) to rule under the plenary powers that the specific name austeni 
Edwards, 1915, as pubUshed in the binomen Simulium austeni is 
to be given nomenclatural precedence over the specific name 
posticata Meigen, 1838, as pubUshed in the binomen Simulia 
posticata, whenever the two names are considered synonyms; 

(2) to place the following names on the Official List of Specific 
Names in Zoology: 

(a) austeni Edwards, 1 9 1 5, as published in the binomen Simulium austeni 
with an endorsement that it is to be given nomenclatural precedence 
over posticata Meigen, 1838, as pubHshed in the binomen Simulia 
posticata, whenever the two names are considered synonyms; 

(b) posticata Meigen, 1838, as published in the binomen Simulia 
posticata, with an endorsement that it is not to be given priority 
over austeni Edwards, 1915, as published in the binomen Simulium 
austeni. whenever the two names are considered synonyms. 

REFERENCES 

DAVIES, L. 1966. The taxonomy of British black-flies (Diptera, Simuliidae). Trans. 
R. entomol. Soc. London, vol. 118 (14), pp. 413-51 1. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 351 



EDWARDS, F. W. 191 5. On the British species ofSimulium. I. Adults. Bull, entomol. 

Res., vol. 6, pp. 23-42. 
MEIGEN, J. W. 1838. Systematische Beschreibung der bekannten europdischen 

zweifliigeligen Insecten. vol. 7 (Suppl. vol.) xii + 434 pp. Hamm. 
NIESIOLOWSKI, S. 1980. Meszki (Simuliidae, Diptera) rzek Widawki i Grabi. 

Polskie Pismo entomol., vol. 50, pp. 413^62. 
PATRUSCHEVA, V. D. 1976. Fauna and Zoogeography of black-flies (Diptera, 

Simuliidae) from Siberia and Far East. Trudy biol. Inst. Sibir. Otd. Akad. 

Nauk SSSR. vol. 18, pp. 309-325. [In Russian] 
PURI, J. M. 1925. On the life history and structure of the early stages of Simuliidae 

(Diptera, Nematocera). Parasitology, vol. 17 (3^), pp. 295-369. 
RAASTAD, J. E. 1975. Fordeling av knott (Diptera, Simuliidae) i Berbyvassdraget, 

Idd i Ostfold. Fauna, Oslo. vol. 28 (2), pp. 92-96. 
RUBTSOV, I. A. 1940. Fam. Simuliidae. Fauna SSSR. Diptera. vol. 6 (6), 532 pp. 

Moscow and Leningrad. [In Russian] 
1956. Fam. Simuliidae. Fauna SSSR. Diptera, vol. 6 (6), 2nd ed. 890 pp. Moscow 

and Leningrad. [In Russian] 
1959-1964. Simuliidae (Melusinidae), in Lindner, E. Die Fliegen der Paldarkt- 

ischen Region, vol. 4 (3) 689 pp. Stuttgart. 
& JANKOVSKY, A. V. 1984. Key to genera of blackflies of the Palearctic 

Region, 176 pp. Leningrad. [In Russian] 
SCHINER, J. R. 1864. Fauna austriaca. Die Fliegen, Diptera, vol. 2, 658 pp. Wien. 
USSOVA, Z. V. 1961. Fauna of the black-flies (Diptera, Simuliidae) of Karelia and 

Murmansk Region, 287 pp. Moscow and Leningrad. [In Russian] 
ZWICK, H. 1974. Faunistisch-okologische und taxonomische Untersuchungen 

an Simuliidae (Diptera), unter besonderer Beriicksichtigung der Arten des 

Fulda-Gebietes. Abh. senckenb. naturforsch. Ges., vol. 533, pp. 1-1 16. 
1978. Simuliidae. In lilies, J. (Ed.), Limnofauna Europaea. 400 pp. Stuttgart and 

New York. 
&CROSSKEY, R. W. 1981. The taxonomy and nomenclature of the blackflies 

(Diptera, Simuliidae) described by J. W. Meigen. Aquat. Insects, vol. 2 (4), 

pp. 225-247. 
ZWOLSKI, W. 1959. Mustyki (Simuliidae) Lubelszczyzny. Annls. Univ. Mariae 

Curie-Skiodowska, Sect. C, vol. 13, pp. 231-259. 



352 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 



SIMULIA FERRUGINEA WAHLBERG, 1844 (INSECTA, 
DIPTERA): PROPOSED PRECEDENCE OVER SIMULIA RUFA 
MEIGEN, 1838 AND SIMULIA BOREALIS ZETTERSTEDT, 1842 

Z.N.(S.)2394 

By I. A. Rubtsov (Zoological Institute, Academy of Sciences of the 
U.S.S.R., Leningrad 199034, U.SS.R.) 

Simulia ferruginea Wahlberg, 1844 (p. 110) was described from 
Sweden. This species is now placed in the genus Helodon Enderlein, 1921. 
The specific name is in general current use as shown by the following selected 
references: Rubtsov (1940, p. 271; 1956, p. 199; 1959-1964, p. 138; 1974, 
p. 274); Davies (1951, p. 195); Grenier (1953, p. 82); Ussova (1961, p. 44); 
Carlsson (1962, p. 56); Stone (1963, p. 10); Raastad & Mehl (1972, p. 173); 
Raastad (1975, p. 92) and Zwick (1978, p. 398). 

2. Simulia rufa Meigen, 1838 (p. 54) was described from Europe 
without indication of exact locality. The type material is lost and the name 
was long regarded as a nomen dubium and not therefore used as a valid name. 
I do not consider the reproduction of Meigen's colour drawings and his 
hand-written list by Morge (1976) or the short note on the doubtful identity 
of S. rufa by Rubtsov (1959-1964, p. 585) as usage in the sense of Article 79c 
of the Code. 

3. Simulia borealis Zetterstedt, 1842 (p. 515) was first mentioned in 
an itinerary published in a report on botanical research. The name was 
accompanied only by a statement that the species bites badly because it is 
'almost three times as large as the largest species of this genus hitherto known 
to us' (translation from Swedish). S. borealis was subsequently considered to 
be a nomen nudum and placed in synonymy of S. ferruginea beginning with 
Zetterstedt (1850) himself (see Carlsson, 1962, p. 56). 

4. Zwick &. Crosskey (1981, p. 242) examined Meigen's original 
description and colour drawing and concluded that 5. rufa was conspecific 
with S. ferruginea. They further concluded that S. borealis was an available 
name. Contrary to the established usage but adhering to the Principle of 
Priority they used Helodon rufus (Meigen, 1838) as the valid name with 
S. borealis and S.ferrugineus as junior synonyms. 

5. In accordance with article 79c of the Code the International 
Commission is asked: 

(1) to use its plenary powers to rule that the specific mmt fer- 
ruginea Wahlberg, 1844, as published in the binomen Simulia 
ferruginea, is to be given nomenclatural precedence over the 
specific name rufa Meigen, 1838, as pubHshed in the binomen 
Simulia rufa and borealis Zetterstedt, 1842, as published in the 
binomen Simulia borealis, whenever these names are considered 
synonyms; 

(2) to place the following names on the Official List of Specific 
Names in Zoology: 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 353 

{a)ferrugmea Wahlberg, 1844, as published in the binomen 
Simuliafenuginea. with an endorsement that it is to be given 
nomenclatural precedence over rufa Meigen, 1838, as pub- 
lished in the binomen Simulia rufa and borealis Zetterstedt, 
1842, as published in the binomen Simulia borealis. 
whenever these names are considered synonyms- 

(b) rufa Meigen, 1838, as published in the binomen Simulia 
rufa, with an endorsement that it is not to be given priority 
over ferruginea Wahlberg, 1844, as published in the 
binomen Simulia ferruginea whenever the two names are 
considered synonyms; 

(c) borealis Zetterstedt, 1842, as published in the binomen 
Simulia boreulis. with an endorsement that it is not to be 
given priority over ferruginea Wahlberg, 1844, as published 
in the binomen Simulia ferruginea, whenever the two names 
are considered synonyms. 

REFERENCES 

CARLSSON, G. 1962. Studies on Scandinavian blackflies (Fam. Simuliidae Latr ) 

Opusc. EntomoL, vol. 21(1), pp. 1-280. 
DA VIES, L. 1951. Some field observations on Simuliidae (Diptera) at Hollands 

tiord, Norway. Oikos, vol. 3, pp. 193-199. 
GRENIER, P. 1953. Simuliidae de France et d'Afrique du Nord. Encyclo entomol 

ser. A, vol. 29, pp. 1-170. 
MEIGEN, J. W. 1838. Systematische Beschreibung der bekannten europdischen 
N.ir^or^r'-^Ti^^" /«5ef/e/7, vol. 7 (Suppl. vol.) xii + 434pp. Hamm. 
MUKGE^ G^ 1976. Dipteren-Farbtafeln nach den bisher nicht veroffentlichten 

-Handzeichnungen Meigens "Johann Wilhelm Meigen. Abbiidung der 

Europaeischen zweiflugeligen Insecten, nach der Natur", Pars III. Farbtafeln 

CLXI-CCCV. Beitr. EntomoL. vol. 26, p. 543. 

^^^^^.tF^d ?-.'^^^- '^^'■'ieling av knott (Diptera, Simuliidae) i Berbyvassdraget 

Idd 1 0stfold. Fauna, Oslo, vol. 28 (2), pp. 92-96. 

& MEHL, R. 1972. Night activity of blackflies (Diptera, Simuliidae) in 

Norway. Nor. entomol. Tidsskr., vol. 19, pp. 172-173. 
RUBTSOV, I. A. 1940. Fam. Simuliidae. Fauna SSSR. Diptera, vol. 6, (6) 532 pn 

Moscow & Leningrad. [In Russian]. 

1956. Fam. Simuliidae. Fauna SSSR, Diptera, vol. 6, (6) 2nd ed 890 pp 

Moscow & Leningrad. [In Russian]. 

1959-1964. Simuliidae (Melusinidae), in Lindner, E. Die Fliegen der Paldark- 

tischen Region, vol. 4 (3) 689 pp. Stuttgart. 



1974. Evolution, phylogeny and classification of the family Simuliidae Trudy 

^ool. Inst. Leningrad, vol. 53, pp. 230-28 1 . [In Russian]. 
STONE, A 1963. An annotated list of genus group names in the family Simuliidae 

Tech. Bull. U.S. Dept. Agric., no. 1284, pp. 1-28. 
USSOVA, Z. V. 1961. Fauna of the black-flies (Diptera, Simuliidae) of Karelia and 
«, . „,^"'''"««-^^ Region. 2S1 pp. Moscow & Leningrad. [In Russian]. 
WAHLBERG, F. P. 1844. Nya Diptera fran Lapland. Ofvers. K. Vetensk 

Acad. Forh., vol. 1, pp. 106-1 10. 



354 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 



ZETTERSTEDT, J. M. 1842. Berattelse om en Natur-Historisk Resa genom nagra 
Provinser af Nordligare Skandinavien, och sardeles Jemtland, ar 1840. 
Arsberdtt. Bot. Arb. Upptdck.for ar 1838, pp. 401-639. 

1850. Diptera Scandinaviaexi + A\A^^. Lundae. 

ZWICK, H. 1978. Simuliidae. in lilies, J. (Ed.), Limnofauna Europaea. 400 pp. 
Stuttgart & New York. 

& CROSSKEY, R. W. 1981. The taxonomy and nomenclature of the black- 
flies (Diptera, Simuliidae) described by J. W. Meigen. Aquat. Insects, vol. 2, 
no. 4, pp. 225-247. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1 986 355 



BELEMNITES PAXILLOSA LAMARCK, 1801 (MOLLUSCA 

COLEOIDEA): PROPOSED SUPPRESSION OF BOTH GENERIC 

AND SPECIFIC NAMES. Z.N.(S.)2571 

By Peter Doyle {Department of Palaeontology , British Museum (Natural 

History), Cromwell Road, London SW75BD, U.K.) and Wolfgang Riegraf 

{Hollandtstrasse 55, D-4400 Muenster-Gievenbeck, Federal Republic of 

Germany) 

Lamarck (1799) was the first to propose the generic name Belemnites 
but did so without description or citation of any species. He later (Lamarck' 
1801) repeated his generic diagnosis and proposed the single species 
Belemnites paxillosa Lamarck, although without description or illustration 
This species came to be regarded as type of Belemnites Lamarck 1799 (see 
Cnckmay, 1933). Lamarck (1801) did, however, cite the following figures 
trom earlier works as Belemnites paxillosa: Klein (1731) pi VIII figs 2-13 
and Breynius (1732) pi. 1, figs 1-14. The latter plate bears no'belemnite 
Illustrations, and, as discussed by Crickmay (1933), Lamarck was probably 
referring to Breynius' Tabula belemnitarum' ^hich consists of many figures 
of belemnites. Those cited from this plate by Lamarck (1801) (assuming 
Crickmay is correct) are all representatives of the late Cretaceous family 
BELEMNITELLIDAE (namely Belemnitella d'Orbigny, 1840 or Belemnella 
Nowak, 1913) which are characterised by deep ventral alveolar slits clearly 
shown on this plate. Of the cited belemnites from Klein's (1731) plate (figs 
2-13), two are also probably belemnitellids (figs 4, 5; both possess alveolar 
slits), while the remaining twelve are nondescript and capable of fitting any 
one of the numerous belemnite species. Despite this fact, Crickmay (1933) 
selected Klein's ( 1 73 1 ) pi. VIII, fig. 7 as lectotype. 

2 Although Lamarck's concept of his genus Belemnites may have 
been wide, his original description (1799, p. 81) includes the statement- 'Coq 
droite en cone allonge, pointue, pleine au sommet, et munie d'une gouttiere 
^nZ c Z^'f" '^'^^'■'y specifies a single groove (or 'gutter'), as seen in almost 
60 /o of the figures cited by Lamarck (1801) from the plates of Klein (1731) 
and Breymus (1732) (see above). The remaining 40% display no grooves 
whatsoever, and therefore Lamarck's 'gouttiere laterale' may be safely 
interpreted as a ventral alveolar slit. Following Lamarck, Montfort (1808) 
Illustrated a belemmte with a deep alveolar slit, and like him, alluded (p 383) 
to the presence of a single groove: 'une gouttiere sur le tet exterieur qui est 
I?^^,\n{°''^ ^Iso repeated the citation of figures from the plates of Klein 
(1731) and Breynius (1732). 

o u, ,^- ^^e ^^^^ author to discuss Belemnites paxillosa Lamarck was 
Schlotheim (1813, 1820) who, although clearly referring to both Lamarck 
and Montfort (e.g. 1820, p. 47), has been commonly cited as author of this 
species (see Riegraf et al.. 1984, p. 147). However, Schlotheim did Httle 
to restnct this species, although erecting several new belemnite species 



356 Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 



amongst them Belemnites mucronatus (see Christensen et al., 1982) and 
Belemnites lanceolatus, based in part on figures from Breynius' (1732) 
'Tabula belemnitarum '. 

4. Voltz (1 830) did restrict Belemnites paxillosa. although attributing 
authorship to Schlotheim (1813). He interpreted the species as an early 
Jurassic form with two dorso-lateral apical grooves, and without single 
grooves, apical or alveolar, perhaps in opposition to Lamarck's original 
intentions. Subsequent authors have referred to Voltz's interpretation as 
the correct one (e.g. Crickmay, 1933; Jeletzky, 1966; Schumann, 1974; 
Riegrafe?a/., 1984). 

5. However, d'Orbigny ( 1 843) was opposed to Voltz's interpretation. 
He believed the true nature oi Belemnites paxillosa (the authorship of which 
he attributed to Montfort, 1808) lay with the late Cretaceous forms charac- 
terised by an alveolar slit that are now included in the belemnitellidae 
Pavlov, 1914, and consequently he renamed the early Jurassic form described 
by Voltz ( 1 830) as Belemnites bruguierianus. 

6. Bayle ( 1 878) apparently agreed with d'Orbigny, as he figured some 
late Cretaceous belemnitellids (pi. XXIII, figs 1-5) with clear alveolar slits 
under the name Belemnites paxillosus Lamarck, while using the name Mega- 
teuthis bruguieri (d'Orbigny) for d'Orbigny's Jurassic species. Megateuthis 
Bayle, 1878 is now considered to be a genus of distinctive Middle Jurassic 
forms similar to its type species Belemnites giganteus Schlotheim, 1820, 
which was designated by Lissajous (1915). It is clear from his plates that 
Bayle also intended that Belemnites Lamarck should be considered a senior 
synonym of Belemnitella d'Orbigny, 1840, as nowhere does he use Belemnites 
in a wider sense, using instead several new generic names (e.g. Megateuthis, 
Dactyloteuthis, Pachyteuthis, Belemnopsis, etc.). This interpretation was 
later followed by Biilow-Trummer (1920), Lissajous (1925), Lang (1928), 
Saks & Nal'nyaeva (1967a, b, 1970) and Riegraf (1980). 

7. Lissajous (1915) erected the name Passaloteuthis to include early 
Jurassic belemnites characterised by their two dorso-lateral apical grooves 
(as figured and described by Voltz, 1 830), and based it on the type species 
Belemnites bruguierianus d'Orbigny, 1843. 

8. Despite Bayle's (1878) attempt to restrict it, the generic name 
Belemnites Lamarck remained unused, except in a collective sense, until 
Crickmay (1933) attempted to revive it by selecting a lectotype for its type 
species, Belemnites paxillosa Lamarck. Crickmay accepted Voltz's (1830) 
interpretation of this species rather than Bayle's (1878), and in consequence 
selected Klein's (1731) pi. VIII, fig. 7 as lectotype. This specimen does not 
disagree with Voltz's interpretation, but, as was recognised by Crickmay 
himself (1933, p. 14) it is nondescript. The specimen as figured bears no 
generically diagnostic features, such as grooves, and cannot therefore be 
placed with certainty in any belemnite genus. In short, the ultimate stability 
of the genus Belemnites Lamarck and the higher taxa derived from it rest on a 
specimen that is not only generically indeterminate, but that is also lost to 
science (J. A. Jeletzky, personal communication, 1982). 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 357 



9. Jeletzky (1966), in his pre-Treatise work, followed Crickmay's 
interpretation, but recognised the inadequacy of the lectotype selected by 
him. He suggested that a neotype be selected to stabilise the species and its 
genus, as 'an alternative attempt to select a valid type specimen from 
amongst its legitimate syntypes would inevitably result in transfer of this 
species to either Belemnella or Belemnitella and thus, in displacement of one 
of these well-known generic as well as specific names, causing extraordinary 
confusion at both generic and specific levels' (Jeletzky, 1966, p. 140). 

10. Since Jeletzky's work, opinion has been divided. Schumann 
(1974), like Crickmay and Jeletzky before him, continued to use the generic 
name Belemnites Lamarck as senior synonym of Passaloteuthis Lissajous, 
although without selecting a neotype as Jeletzky suggested. Most other 
authors have retained the much better known, defined and used name 
Passaloteuthis\A^?,a.]0\xs{t.g. Naef, 1922; Lang, 1928; Roger, 1952; Krimholz, 
1958; Saks & Nal'nyaeva, 1967a, b. 1970; Cincurova, 1971; Stoyanova- 
Vergilova, 1977; Riegraf, 1980; Riegraf e/ al, 1984) for the early Jurassic 
forms in preference to the poorly defined name Belemnites, although all 
except Saks & Nal'nyaeva have retained the family name belemnitidae 
d'Orbigny, 1845. 

1 1 . Therefore, recognising the instability of the generic name Belem- 
nites Lamarck, 1 799, which at some future point may be transferred from its 
current position as senior synonym o{ Passaloteuthis Lissajous, 1915, to that 
of senior synonym of either Belemnitella d'Orbigny, 1 840, or Belemnella 
Nowak, 1913, with corresponding consequences of priority, and because the 
vernacular use of 'belemnites' is so widespread that its use as a nominal genus 
would be bound to be misleading, the Commission is asked: 

( 1 ) to use its plenary powers to suppress the generic name Belem- 
nites Lamarck, 1799 and the specific neLme paxillosa Lamarck, 
1801, as published in the binomen Belemnites paxillosa, for the 
purpose of the Principle of Priority; 

(2) to place on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology the 
name Passaloteuthis Lissajous, 1915 (gender: feminine), type 
species Belemnites bruguierianus d'Orbigny, 1843 by original 
designation; 

(3) to place on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology 
the name bruguierianus d'Orbigny, 1843, as published in the 
binomen Belemnites bruguierianus d'Orbigny, 1843 (specific 
name of the type species of Passaloteuthis Lissajous, 1915); 

(4) to place on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Generic 
Names in Zoology the name Belemnites Lamarck, 1799 (type 
species Belemnites paxillosa Lamarck, 1 801) as suppressed in (1) 
above; 

(5) to place on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Specific 
Names in Zoology the name paxillosa Lamarck, 1801 (specific 
name of the type species of Belemnites Lamarck, 1799) as 
suppressed in (1) above. 



358 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 



REFERENCES 

BAYLE, E. 1878. Explication de la carte geologique de France. Tome quatrieme, 

premiere par tie. Fossiles principaux des terrains. Atlas. Paris, 176 pis. 
BLAINVILLE, M. H. D. 1827. Memoire sur les Belemnites considerees zoologique- 

ment et geologiquement, Paris, 1 36 pp. 
BREYNIUS, J. P. 1732. Dissertatio physica de Polythalamiis. Nova testaceorum 

classe, cui quaedon praemittuntur di methodo testacea in classes et genera, 

distribuendi huic adiicitur commentatiuncula di Belemnitis Prussicis tandemique 

schediasma de Echinis methodice cumfiguris. Gedani, 64 pp. 
BiJLOW-TRUMMER, E. VON 1920. Fossilium Catalogus. I. Animalia. Pars II. 

Cephalopoda dibranchiata. Berlin, 313 pp. 
CHRISTENSEN, W. K., ERNST, G., SCHMID, P., SCHULZ, M.-G. & WOOD, 

C. J. 1982. Belemnites mucronatus (Coleoidea): proposed use of the plenary 

powers to attribute this name to Schlotheim, 1813, and to designate a neotype 

in conformity with current usage. Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 39, pp. 141-145. 
CINCUROVA, E. 1971. Stratigrafia liasu na zaklade belemnitov v Zapadnych 

Karpatoch. Sb. slov. narod. Muz., vol. 17(1), pp. 3-102. 
CRICKMAY, C. H. 1933. The genotype of Belemnites; with a synopsis of North 

American species of Belemnoidea. Can. Fid Nat, vol. 47, pp. 12-15. 
JELETZKY, J. A. 1966. Comparative morphology, phylogeny and classification of 

fossil Coleoidea. Univ. Kans. Paleont. Contr., Mollusca, Art. 7, 162 pp. 
KLEIN, J. T. 1731. Descriptiones tubulorum marinorum in quorum censum relati 

Lapides caudae Cancri, Gesneri. et his similes Belemnitae; eorumque alveoli. 

Secundum dispositionem Musei Kleiniani Gedani apud Knodium. Gedani, 30 

pp. 
KRIMHOLZ, G. Y. 1958. Subclass Endocochlia. In: Orlov, Y. A. (ed.). Funda- 
mentals of Palaeontology. VI. Mollusca-Cephalopoda II, Moscow, pp. 

145-179. (English Translation of Russian original, 1976). 
LAMARCK, J. B. 1799. Prodrome d'une nouvelle classification des coquilles. Mem. 

Soc. Hist. nat. Paris, vol. 1, pp. 63-91. 

1801. Systeme des animaux sans vertebres. Paris, 432 pp. 

LANG, W. D. 1928. The Belemnite Marls of Charmouth, a series in the Lias of the 

Dorset Coast. Q. J. geol. Soc. London, vol. 84, pp. 179-222. 
LISSAJOUS, M. 191 5. Quelques remarques sur les belemnites Jurassiques. Bull. Soc. 

Hist. nat. Macon, pp. 1-32. 
1925. Repertoire alpabetique des belemnites Jurassiques precede d'un essai de 

classification. Trav. Lab. Geol. Univ. Lyon, vol. 8, 173 pp. 
MONTFORT, D. 1808. Conchyliologie systematique et classification methodique des 

coquilles. Tome I. Coquilles univalves cloisonees. Paris, 410 pp. 
NAEF, A. 1922. Diefossilien Tintenfische; eine paldozoologische Monographie. Jena, 

322 pp. 
ORBIGNY, A. D', 1842-1850. Paleontologie Fran^aise. Terrains Oolithiques ou 

Jurassiques. Tome 1. Cephalopodes. Paris, 623 pp. 
RIEGRAF, W. 1980. Revision der Belemniten des Schwabischen Jura. Teil 7. 

Palaeontographica A, vol. 169, pp. 128-208. 
, WERNER, G. & LORCHER, F. 1984. Der Posidonienschiefer. Biostrati- 

graphie, Fauna und Fazies des siidwestdeutschen Untertoarciums (LiasEpsilon). 

Stuttgart, 195 pp. 
ROGER, J. 1952. Sous-Classe des Dibranchiata. In: PIVETEAU, J. (ed.), Traite de 

Paleontologie , II. Paris, pp. 689-755. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1 986 359 



SAKS V. N. & NAL'NYAEVA, T. I. 1967a. Recognition of the superfamily 
Passaloteuthacea m the suborder Belemnoidea (Cephalopoda, Dibranchia 
Decapoda). Dokl. Acad. Sci. USSR. vol. 173, pp. 229-231. [English trans- 
lation of Russian original]. 

?"; ^1967*. Contribution to the systematics of Jurassic and Cretaceous 

belemmtes. In SAKS, V. N. (ed.), Problems of Paleontologic substantiation of 
detailed Mesozoic stratigraphy of Siberia and the Far East USSR Leningrad 
pp. 6-26. [In Russian]. ^ ' 

* ' ^"^0- ^"'''y ^"d Middle Jurassic belemmtes of the northern part of the 

USSR. Nannobelinae, Passaloteuthinae andHastitinae. Leningrad, 228 pp. [In 

SCHLOTHEIM,E.F.VON.1813.BeitragezurNaturgeschichtederVersteinerungen 
in geognostischer Hinsicht. Leonhard's Taschenbuch fiir die gesamte 
M;«era/og/e,vol. 7,pp. 3-134. 

1 820. Die Petrefactenkunde auf ihrem jetzigen Standpunkte durch die Beschrei- 
bung semer Sammlung versteinerter und fossiler Uberreste des Thier- und 
Pflanzenreichs der Vorwelt erldutert. Gotha, 88 pp 

SCHUMANN, H. 1974. Die Belemniten des norddeutschen Lias Gamma Geol Jb 
A, vol. 12, pp. 1-85. ■ ■' 

STOYANOVA-VERGILOVA,M.1977.Anattemptforbelemnitezonalsubdivision 
,^h| Lower Jurassic sediments in Bulgaria. God. sof Univ. Geol. Geogr Fak 

^rr^r -r^L^ ^'^' ^P" '^'"'^^- [B"lg^"an with English summary]. ' ' 

VOLTZ, M 1830. Observations sur les Belemnites. Mem. Soc. Hist. nat. Strasbourg 

vol. 1, 70 pp. *' 



360 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 



CO Bins LINNAEUS, 1758 (OSTEICHTHYES, CYPRINIFORMES): 

PROPOSED DESIGNATION OF COBITIS TAENIA LINNAEUS, 

1758 AS TYPE SPECIES AND REQUEST FOR A RULING ON 

THE STEM OF THE FAMILY-GROUP NAME COBITIDIDAE 

SWAINSON, 1839. Z.N.(S.)2566 

By Maurice Kottelat {Laboratoire d'Ichthyologie, Gueret 5, 2800 Delemont, 

Switzerland) 

In a study of cobitid fish systematics, I uncovered a nomenclatural 
problem concerning the type species ofCobitis Linnaeus, 1 758. In accordance 
with Article 41 of the Code, I am referring this case to the International 
Commission on Zoological Nomenclature together with a proposal to 
preserve nomenclatural stability. 

2. Cobitis Linnaeus, 1758 (p. 303) originally contained four nominal 
species: C. anableps, C. barbatula, C. taenia and C.fossilis. 

3. Bleeker (1 863a, pp. 362, 364) designated C. taenia as type species of 
Cobitis and this has been widely accepted since then. Unfortunately, most 
workers have overlooked the fact that Blyth (1860, p. 170) designated C. 
barbatula as type species of Cobitis. Of the remaining originally included 
species in Cobitis, C. anableps is now placed in the family anablepidae and C. 
fossilis remains in the family cobitidae Swainson, 1839 (p. 190), (type genus 
Cobitis Linnaeus, 1758), but is not involved with this problem. 

4. Cobitis barbatula is usually considered either a member of Nema- 
cheilus Bleeker, 1863a (type species Cobitis fasciata Valenciennes in Cuvier & 
Valenciennes, 1 846, by original designation) sensu lato or in Orthrias Jordan 
& Fowler, 1903 (type species Orthrias oreas Jordan & Fowler, 1903, by 
monotypy), a generic name whose use presents several taxonomic problems. 
Nemacheilus sensu lato includes some 300 nominal species and is currently 
being revised. It is type genus of the sub-family nemacheilinae Regan, 1911. 

5. Blyth's 1860 type species designation corresponded to the thinking 
at that time, when loaches with suborbital spines (now called Cobitis) were 
called Acanthopsis Agassiz, 1832 and those without spines (now called 
Nemacheilus sensu lato) were called Cobitis. To compound matters Blyth's 
designation appeared in a little-known work, while Bleeker's appeared again 
(1863b) in his Atlas Ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Neerlandgises. 
Bleeker's designation was subsequently adopted by Gunther (1868) and 
quickly became widely accepted. 

6. Acceptance of Blyth's designation of Cobitis barbatula as type 
species of Cobitis threatens stability for the following reasons: 

(a) the name Cobitis would have to be used for a large 'catch-all' 
genus which will later undergo drastic revision {Nemacheilus 
s.l.) or for a genus whose taxonomic limits are badly defined 
(Orthrias); 

(b) the species currently placed in Cobitis would have to be called 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 361 



Acantophthalmus van Hasselt. 1 823 (p. 133, type species, Cobitis 
taenia Linnaeus, 1 758, by monotypy). This will create confusion 
as a related genus in the same subfamily has the widely used name 
Acanthophthalmus sensu Bleeker, 1 859 even though this name is 
an incorrect subsequent speUing and therefore unavailable 
under the Code. While this usage continues the risk of confusion 
remains; 

(c) the Cobitis taenia-\\V.Q fishes would have to be called 
ACANTHOPSiDAE Heckel & Kerr, 1858, instead of cobitidae and 
the C. barbatula-like fishes would have to be called cobitidae 
instead of nemacheilinae; 

(d) HOMALOPTERiDAE, of which NEMACHEILINAE is a Subfamily, 
would become a subfamily of cobitidae. 

7. A further cause of confusion in this and many other groups of fishes 
was the action of Steyskal (1980) who showed that the correct orthography 
of a family-group name based on Cobitis is cobitididae. This spelling had 
virtually never been used, while cobitidae was and still is widely used. 
COBITIDAE is the third most cited family-group name for Palaearctic and 
Oriental fishes. Fortunately, under Article 29(d) of the amendments to the 
2nd edition of the Code usage of the spelling cobitidae could legitimately 
continue (Kottelat, 1984). However, under the present Code (1985) this is no 
longer the case and so, considering the very long usage enjoyed by this 
spelling, I suggest cobitidae be retained. Members of the family include 
Cobitis taenia, Misgurnus fossilis and M. anguillicaudatus which have been 
the subject of innumerable papers on morphology, histology, physiology, 
biochemistry and toxicology. The change to cobitididae will create 
confusion for non-systematists, non-ichthyologists and particularly for those 
using electronic databases or those who did not learn classical languages. I 
believe that stability of usage should prevail over strict adherence to Greek or 
Latin grammar. 

8. The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature is 
accordingly asked: 

( 1 ) to use its plenary powers to set aside all previous designations of 
type species for the nominal genus Cobitis Linnaeus, 1758, and 
to designate Cobitis taenia Linnaeus, 1758 as type species; 

(2) to rule under the plenary powers that the stem of the generic 
name Cobitis Linnaeus, 1758 is, for the purpose of Article 29a, 
Cobit-; 

(3) to place on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology the 
name Cobitis Linnaeus, 1 758 (gender: feminine), type species by 
designation under the plenary powers in ( 1 ) above, Cobitis taenia 
Linnaeus, 1758; 

(4) to place on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology the 
name taenia Linnaeus, 1 758, as published in the binomen Cobitis 
taenia (specific name of the type species of Cobitis Linnaeus, 
1758); 



362 Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 



(5) to place on the Official List of Family-group Names in 
Zoology the name cobitidae Swainson, 1 839 (type genus Cobitis 
Linnaeus, 1758). 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

I thank L. B. Holthuis, V. Mahnert, T. R. Roberts and A. Wheeler for 
commenting on various parts or drafts of this manuscript. This does not 
imply that they share my point of view or have any responsibility for this 
proposal. 

REFERENCES 

AGASSIZ, J. L. R. 1832. Untersuchungen uber die fossilen Susswasser-Fische der 

tertiaren Formationen. Jahrb. Min. Geog. Geol. Pelrefakt., vol. 3, pp. 129-149. 
BLEEKER, P. 1859. Nieuwe geslachten van Cobitinen. Nat. Tijdschr. Ned. Ind., vol. 

16, pp. 302-304. 
1863a. Sur les genres de la famille des Cobitioi'des. Ned. Tijdschr. Dierk., vol. 

1, pp. 361-368. 
1863b. Atlas khthyologique des Indes Orientates Neerlandaises. 3. Cyprins. 

Miiller, Amsterdam, 150 pp. 
BLYTH, E. 1 860. Report on some fishes received chiefly from the Sitang River and its 

tributary streams, Tenasserim provinces. J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal., vol. 29, pp. 

138-174. 
GiJNTHER, G. A. 1 868. Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum. 7. Physostomi. 

British Museum, London, xx + 512 pp. 
MECKEL, J. J. & KNER, R. 1858. Die Susswasserfische der Osterreichischen 

Monarchie mit Rticksicht aufdie angrdnzenden Lander. Engelmann, Leipzig, 

xii-l-388pp. 
JORDAN, D. S. & FOWLER, H. W. 1903. A review of the Cobitidae, or loaches, of 

the rivers of Japan. Proc. U.S. nat. Mus., vol. 26, pp. 165-11 A. 
KOTTELAT, M. 1984. Revision of the Indonesian and Malaysian loaches of the 

subfamily Noemacheilinae. Jap. J. Ichthyol., vol. 31(3), pp. 225-260. 
LINNAEUS, C. 1758. Systema Naturae. Laurentius Salvius, Holmiae, 824 pp. 
REGAN, C. T. 1911. The classification of the teleostean fishes of the order 

Ostariophysi. — 1 Cyprinoidea. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist., ser. 8, vol. 8, pp. 13-32. 
STEYSKAL, G. C. 1980. The grammar of family-group names as exemplified by 

those of fishes. Proc. biol. Soc. Wash., vol. 93(1), pp. 168-177. 
SWAINSON, W. 1 839. On the natural history and classification of fishes, amphibians 

and reptiles. In Lardner, D. The Cabinet Cyclopedia, vol. 2. Longman, Orme, 

Brown, Green & Longmans, and Taylor, London. 448 pp. 
VALENCIENNES, A. 1846. In Cuvier, G. L. C. F. D. & Valenciennes, A. Histoire 

Naturelle des Poissons, vol. 18. Octavo edition. Levrault, Paris & Strasbourg, 

xix + 505pp. 
VAN HASSELT, J. C. 1823. Uittreksel uit een' brief van den Heer J. C. van Hasselt, 

aan den Heer C. J. Temminck, geschreven uit Tjecande, Residentia Bantam, 

den 29sten December 1822. Algemeene Konst- en Letter-Bode voor het jaar 

1823, II deel, no. 35, Vrijdag den 16den Mei, pp. 130-133. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 363 



TRIBOLWM CASTANEUM (HERBST, 1797) (INSECTA, 

COLEOPTERA): PROPOSED CONSERVATION BY THE 

SUPPRESSION OF TRIBOLWM NAVALE (FABRICIUS, 1775) 

Z.N.(S.)2575 

By Robert D. Pope (British Museum (Natural History), London SW7 5BD, 

U.K.) and J. Charles Watt (Entomology Division, Department of Scientific 

and Industrial Research, Auckland, New Zealand) 

The 'rust-red flour beetle' known as Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, 
1 797) is a cosmopolitan pest of stored products and an important laboratory 
insect in the fields of genetics, population studies and pest management. It 
has had six available names appHed to it: 

Dermestes navalis Fabricius, 1775 (p. 56) 

Tenebrio ferrugineus Ydihncxws, 1781 (p. 324) 

Colydium castaneum Herbst, 1797 (p. 282; pi. 1 12, fig. 13E) 

Ips testaceus Fabricius, 1798 (p. 179) 

Tenebrio bifoveolatus Duftschmid, 1812 (p. 304) 

Uloma rubens Laporte de Castelnau, 1840 (p. 220). 

2. Since their original publication, only the first three have been used 
as the valid name of the species, the others being quoted in synonymy. 

3. Colydium castaneum is, by monotypy, the type species of Tribolium 
W. S. MacLeay, 1 825 (p. 47), the generic name in modern usage. Its identity, 
found to agree with current interpretation, has been established by examin- 
ation of the three female specimens so-named from Herbst's collection 
(now in the Museum fiir Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universitat, Berlin) all 
agreeing with the original illustration (Herbst, 1797; pi. 112, fig. 13E) and 
all catalogued by Gerstaecker as 'nr. 47293'. One specimen, additionally 
labelled by Gerstaecker 'Castanea. n. Colydium cast. Ht. Trogosita ferruginea 
[sic] Fab. Tenebr. ferrugin 01. Germ. Ind. or' is here designated as lectotype. 

4. Waterhouse (1896, p. 230), by examining the original material, 
discovered that Tenebrio ferrugineus Fabricius, 1781 was not a synonym of 
Colydium castaneum Herbst, 1797. In the same year Champion (1896, p. 82) 
asserted that Dermestes navalis Fabricius, 1775 could not be one either, 
and after a later review of the situation by Blair (1913, p. 222) Tribolium 
castaneum (Herbst, 1 797) won universal acceptance and has been consistently 
used as the valid name of the species for more than 60 years. 

5. Champion stated (he. cit.) that the original material of navalis, said 
by Fabricius to be in the Banks collection at the British Museum (Natural 
History), London, was missing. He based his interpretation of the species on 
a subsequent description by Fabricius (1792, p. 504). We believe that our 
recent search of the Banks collection has discovered the 'missing' material 
and that it is conspecific with T. castaneum (Herbst). A single specimen, 
although labelled 'chinensis?' in an unknown hand (Dermestes chinensis 
Fabricius, 1775, p. 58 is, according to Motschulsky (1858, p. 146), an anobiid 
belonging to the genus Xyletinus Latreille, 1810), is pinned and mounted on 



364 Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 



identical paper in the same distinctive way as specimens of the same species in 
the Hunterian Museum in Glasgow and the Fabricius' own (Kiel) collection 
in Copenhagen, both standing as "Dermestes namlis\ We beleive they are 
all part of the same original series, are therefore confident of the Banks' 
specimen's authenticity, and have labelled it as lectotype. 

6. It follows that the earliest available name for the 'rust-red flour 
beetle' is Tribolium navale (Fabricius, 1775). The first use of T. navale as the 
valid name for the taxon was by SeidUtz (1894, p. 583). He was followed by 
Heyden, Reitter & Weise (1906, col. 493). The last occasion of its use appears 
to have been that of Reitter (1911, p. 343). In the last 40 years, Tribolium 
castaneum (Herbst) has appeared in the titles and content of more than 30 
papers in scientific journals and in over 100 research reports (Tribolium 
Information Bulletin) by at least 30 different authors. A representative list of 
references has been given to the Commission Secretariat. 

7. The re-discovered identity of Dermestes navalis threatens the 
stability of a long-established and widely-used name. We consider that 
the evidence makes a prima facie case that this is so and we therefore ask the 
Commission on Zoological Nomenclature: 

(1) to use its plenary powers to suppress the specific name navalis 
Fabricius, 1775, as published in the binomen Dermestes navalis, 
for the purpose of the Principle of Priority only; 

(2) to place on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology the 
name Tribolium MacLeay, 1825 (gender: neuter), type species 
by monotypy Colydium castaneum Herbst, 1 797; 

(3) to place on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology the 
name castaneum Herbst, 1797, as published in the binomen 
Colydium castaneum, (specific name of the type species of 
Tr/W/Mm MacLeay, 1825); 

(4) to place on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Specific 
Names in Zoology the name navalis Fabricius, 1775, as pub- 
lished in the binomen Dermestes navalis and as suppressed in (1) 
above. 

REFERENCES 

BLAIR, K. G 1913. Tribolium castaneum Uerhst =ferrugineum, Auct. {nee Fab.). 

Entomologist's man. Mag., vol. 49, pp. 222-224. 
CHAMPION, G. C. 1896. Tribolium ferrugineum (Fabr.). Entomologist's mon. Mag.. 

vol. 32, pp. 82-83. 
DUFTSCHMID, K. 1812. Fauna Austriae. vol. 2, viii + 311 pp. Linz & Leipzig. 
FABRICIUS, J. C. 1775. Systema entomologiae , xxxi -I- 832 pp. Flensburgii & 

Lipsiae. 

1781. Species Insectorum, vol. 1, viii-l-552 pp. Hamburgi & Kilonii. 

1792. Entomologia systematica, vol. 1(2), 538 pp. Copenhagen. 

1798. Supplementum Entomologiae Systematicae , 572 pp. Hafniae. 

HERBST, J. F. W. 1797. Natursystem aller Insecten: die K&fer, vol. 7, xi -I- 346 pp.; 

pis. 96-116. Pauli, Berlin. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 365 

HEYDEN, L. VON. REITTER, E. & WEISE, J. 1906. Catalogus Coleopterorum 

Europae, ed. 2, [iv] + 750col.+pp. 751-774. E. Reitter, Paskau etc 
LAPORTE DE CASTELNAU, F. L. 1840. Histoire Naturelle des Insectes 

Coleopteres. vol. 2, 563 pp. P. Dumenil, Paris. 
MACLEAY, W. S. 1825. Anmlosa Javanica. vii + 50pp., Ipl. Kingsbury, Parburv 

and Alien, London. 
MOTSCHULSKY, V. 1858. Sur les collections Coleoptewlogiques de Lime et de 

Fabricius (Continuation), (pp. 123-152) In Etudes Entomologiques. part 7, 

1 92 pp. Imprimerie de la Societe de Litterature Finnoise, Helsingfors. 

^^ITTER,E. Fauna Germanica. Die Kdfer des Deutschen Reiches. vol 3 436 pp nls 

81-127. K. G. Lutz, Stuttgart. 
SEIDLITZ, G. VON 1894. (pp. 401-608) In ERICHSON, W. F [1877]-1898 

Naturgeschichte der Insecten Deutschlands. Erste Abtheilung Coleoptera 
„ , . ^ ^°'- ^^ ' ^' ^^^"' + ^"^"^ PP- Nicoiaische Veriags-Buchliandiung, Beriin 
WATERHOUSE, C. D. 1896. Note on Tenebrio fenugineus . Fabr., in the Banksian 

Collection of Coleoptera. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. Series 6, vol. 17, pp. 230-231. 



366 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 



CORNALATUS ATTEMS, 1931 (DIPLOPODA, POLYDESMIDA): 

PROPOSED DESIGNATION OF CORNALATUS PERMUTATUS 

ATTEMS, 1938 AS TYPE SPECIES. Z.N.(S.)2438 

By Richard L. Hoffman {Radford University, Radford. Virginia 
24142. U.S.A.) 

The present case involves a generic name in the Diplopoda (milli- 
pedes), erroneously based upon the type species of a much older name which 
is still in use for a genus in a different family. The case is therefore referred to 
the Commission under Article 70b. 

2. In 1 860 Henri De Saussure (p. 326) established the name Rhachido- 
morpha as a new subgenus of Polydesmus Latreille, 1802, including only 
the new species Polydesmus (Rhachidomorpha) tarascus De Saussure, 1860 
(p. 327), which is therefore the type of Rhachidomorpha by monotypy. This 
species (from Cordova, Mexico) was described solely in terms of its external 
appearance, and no information about the structure of the male genitalia was 
given. The subgenus was distinguished chiefly by the form of the metazonal 
paranota, said to be '. . . longuement separees, inserees au sommet des flancs, 
reflechies en haut (montantes), plus ou moins spiniformes . . .'. 

3. In reporting on a collection of polydesmoid millipedes belonging to 
the Hamburg Museum, Attems (1901, p. 95) reported what he considered to 
be the same species as De Saussure's, from the Brazilian state of Espirito 
Santo. In that paper, Attems transferred Rhachidomorpha from Polydesmus 
to the new status of a subgenus in Leptodesmus Saussure, 1859, viz., 
"Leptodesmus (Rhachidomorpha) tarascus Sauss.'. Having an adult male, 
Attems illustrated the genitalia with two reasonably accurate drawings 
showing that the species that he had examined was in fact referable to the 
family chelodesmidae. His species identification was obviously based upon 
a general concurrence in paranotal structure with that described by De 
Saussure for his Mexican form. 

4. In 1 93 1 , Attems (p. 40) without explaining his motivation, proposed 
the new generic name Cornalatus with sole included species, and hence 
type species by monotypy, "tarascus (Sauss.)'. To supplement the written 
diagnosis, he provided very similar drawings to those published in 1901 . 

5. Seven years later, Attems (1938, p. 61) again treated Cornalatus. 
citing his 1 93 1 proposal of the name, but now specifying that the 'Einzige Art 
und Typus' was Cornalatus permutatus Attems. This new specific name was, 
at the same time (same page), proposed as a nomen novum to replace his own 
earlier usage of tarascus, which he now clearly stated was 'nee Saussure'. In a 
later volume of the same journal {Das Tierreich), Attems (1940, p. 471) also 
treated tarascus De Saussure as the type and only species of the genus 
Rhachidomorpha, considered correctly to be a component of the endemic 
Mesamerican family rhachodesmidae. In his 1938 treatment, Attems used 
the same two drawings of genitalia to represent his permutatus that he had 
already used in 1931. 



Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 367 



6. In his book on the generic and family-group names of Diplopoda, 
Jeekel (1971, p. 255) stated that Polydesmus tarascus De Saussure, 1860, was 
the type species of Comalatus by original designation, and that Comalatus is 
in consequence a junior objective synonym of Rhachidomorpha. 

7. It is my opinion however that the circumstances set out in para- 
graphs 3-5 above show that the original identification of the Brazilian species 
as tarascus was obviously incorrect, as later realized by Attems himself. His 
consistent use of virtually identical gonopod illustrations, and use of the 
expressions 'nom. nov.' and 'nee Sauss.' in the 1938 treatment, show clearly 
that he realized his mistake and attempted to rectify it. Except for these 
extenuating circumstances Jeekel's interpretation of the matter would of 
course be correct. 

8. Comalatus has been subsequently accepted as a valid genus for 
Brazilian millipedes by Attems (1943), Schubart (1955, 1956) and Hoffman 
(1980). Its suppression as a junior synonym of Rhachidomorpha would 
not only entail its transfer into a different family (from chelodesmidae to 
rhachodesmidae) but also require that a new name be proposed for the 
genus now known as Comalatus. 

9. It is my belief that minimal disruption of usage and intent would 
ensue from a ruling that would continue the existence of Comalatus as a valid 
chelodesmid generic name by recognizing that its original foundation upon 
the species tarascus De Saussure was the result of a misidentification of the 
latter by Attems. 

10. The International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature is 
accordingly asked: 

( 1 ) to use its plenary powers to set aside all previous designations of 
type species for the nominal genus Comalatus Attems, 193 1 and 
to designate Comalatus permutatus Attems, 1 938 as type species; 

(2) to place on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology the 
name Co r/jfl/a/Mi' Attems, 1931 (gender: masculine), type species, 
by designation under the plenary powers in ( 1 ) above, Comalatus 
permutatus Attems, 1938; 

(3) to place on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology the 
name permutatus Attems, 1938, as published in the binomen 
Comalatus permutatus (specific name of the type species of 
Comalatus Attems, 1931). 



REFERENCES 

ATTEMS, C. 1901. Neue Polydesmiden des Hamburger Museums. Mitt, naturh. 

Mus. Hamburg., vol. 18(2), pp. 85-107. 
1931. Die Familie Leptodesmidae und andere Polydesmiden. Zoologica 

Stuttg., vol. 30(79), pp. 1-149. 
1938. Myriapoda 3, Polydesmoidea II. Fam. Leptodesmidae, Platyrhachidae, 

Oxydesmidae, Gomphodesmidae. Tierreich, vol. 69, pp. 1-487. 



368 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 



1940. Myriapoda 3, Polydesmoidea III. Fam. Polydesmidae, Vanhoeffeniidae, 

Cryptodesmidae, Oniscodesmidae, Sphaerotrichopidae, Peridontodesmidae, 

Rhachidesmidae, Macellolophidae, Pandirodesmidae. Tierreich, vol. 70, pp. 

1-577. 
1943. Myriopoden von Brasilien, gesammelt von E. Bresslau in den Jahren 

1913/1914. Senckenbergiana, vol. 26, pp. 434-458. 
HOFFMAN, R. L. 1980. Classification of the Diplopoda. Geneve, Mus. Hist, natur., 

pp. 1-237. 
JEEKEL, C. A. W. 1971. Nomenclator generum et familiarum Diplopodorum: A 

list of the genus and family-group names in the Class Diplopoda from the 

1 0th edition of Linnaeus, 1 758, to the end of 1 957. Monogr. ned. entomol. Ver. , 

no. 5, pp. 1-412. 
DE SAUSSURE, H. 1860. Essai d'une faune des myriapodes du Mexique, avec la 

description de quelques especes des autres parties de I'Amerique. Mem. Soc. 

Phys. Hist. nat. Geneve, vol. 15(2), pp. 259-393. 
SCHUBART, O. 1955. Materials para uma fauna do Estado de Sao Paulo. Os 

Leptodesmidae. Arq. Mus. Nac. (Rio de Janeiro), vol. 42, pp. 507-540. 
1956. 'Leptodesmidae' Brasileiras IL O genero 'Obiricodesmus' (Diplopoda, 

Proterospermophora). Rev. Brasil Biol., vol. 16, pp. 341-348. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 369 



OPIUS WESMAEL, 1835 (INSECTA, HYMENOPTERA): 

PROPOSED DESIGNATION OF OPIUS PALLIPES WESMAEL, 

1835 AS TYPE SPECIES. Z.N.(S.)2561 

By Robert A. Wharton {Department of Entomology, Texas A &M 
University, College Station, Texas 77843, U.S.A.) 

Wesmael (1835, p. 115) described the braconid genus Opius with 36 
included species, amongst which were the nominal species Bracon carbonarius 
Nees von Esenbeck, 1834 and the new species Opius procerus. He did not 
select a type species. 

2. Haliday (1837, p. 204 and 1839, p. 61) was the first to designate a 
type species for Opius. Although the wording in Haliday (1837) (Typum 
genericum praestabunt O. carbonarius atque proxime affinis') could be 
interpreted as ambiguous, the designation of Bracon carbonarius Nees von 
Esenbeck, 1834 by Haliday (1839, p. 61) is unequivocal. The subsequent 
selection by Muesebeck & Walkley ( 195 1 , p. 153) of Opius pallipes Wesmael, 
1835 as the type of Opius was apparently based on the assumption that 
carbonarius was not an originally included species. Wesmael (1835, p. 153) 
had expressed some doubt that the specimens he referred to as Opius carbon- 
arius were the same as Bracon carbonarius Nees. Haliday (1837, p. 219) had 
supported this by describing carbonarius sensu Wesmael as two different 
species, Opius wesmaelii and O. sylvaticus. However, since Haliday (1837, 
p. 218) also synonymised Opius procerusWesmad, 1835 with Bracon carbon- 
arius Nees, Article 69a (v) applies and Opius procerus should therefore be 
the type species of Opius. Thomson (1895, p. 2200) retained procerus as 
distinct from carbonarius Nees (apparently the only author to do so) by citing 
'carbonarius Hal.' in synonymy. He also accepted (p. 2202) Wesmael's 1835 
interpretation of carbonarius. 

3. Foerster (1864, p. 259) described the genus Bios teres with Bracon 
carbonarius Nees, 1834 as the type species. Ignoring Haliday (1837 and 
1839), Foerster (1864, p. 261) used Bracon pygmaeator Nees, 1834 as the 
type species of Opius. Foerster's 1 864 concept of Biosteres and Opius was 
followed by Marshall (1891, p. 284) and Szepligeti (1904, pp. 161-163). 
However, pygmaeator was only doubtfully included in Opius by Wesmael 
and therefore cannot serve as the type species. 

4. Thomson (1895, p. 2175) and Viereck (1914, p. 21) accepted the 
type designation of Haliday and noted that Biosteres and Opius had the same 
type species. Gahan (1915, p. 66) avoided the problem by regarding most of 
the genus-group names used in the opiinae as synonyms of Opius. Gahan's 
1915 treatment was used until 1959, when Fischer separated Biosteres from 
Opius. Fischer (1959, p. 1) accepted carbonarius as the type of Biosteres but 
defined Opius on the basis of Muesebeck & Walkley's 1951 designation of 
pallipes as its type species (see para. 2). Fischer's 1959 separation of Biosteres 
from Opius is similar to that used by Foerster (1864), since the type species 



370 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 



used for Opius by these two workers, pallipes and pygmaeator, are closely 
related (Fischer, 1972, p. 366). 

5. Fischer (1971) lists 945 species under Opius and 88 species under 
Biosteres. Over 100 new species have been described in these nominal genera 
since 1971. Acceptance oi procerus rather than pallipes as the type species of 
Opius would alter the current concept of Opius, as used by at least 17 authors 
in about 150 taxonomic publications since 1951, and resurrect a concept 
which has not been used since Thomson (1895). 

6. The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature is 
accordingly asked: 

( 1 ) to use its plenary powers to set aside all previous designations of 
type species for the nominal genus Opius Wesmael, 1 835, and to 
designate Opius pallipes Wesmael, 1835 as type species; 

(2) to place on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology the 
name Opius Wesmael, 1835 (gender: masculine), type species by 
designation in (1) above, Opius pallipes Wesmael, 1835; 

(3) to place on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology the 
name pallipes Wesmael, 1 835, as published in the binomen Opius 
pallipes (specific name of the type species of Opius Wesmael, 
1835). 



REFERENCES 

FISCHER, M. 1959. Die europaischen Arten der Gattung Opius Wesm. 

(Hymenoptera, Braconidae) Teil Va. Mitt. Miinch. entomol. Ges., vol. 49, 

pp. 1-35. 

1971. Index of World Opiinae. 1 87 pp. Le Frangois, Paris. 

1972. Hymenoptera Braconidae (Opiinae). Tierreich. vol. 91, pp. 1-620. 

FOERSTER, A. 1864. Synopsis der Familien und Gattungen der Braconen. Verh. 

naturhist. Ver.preuss. Rhein., vol. 19, pp. 225-288. 
GAHAN, A. B. 1915. A revision of the North American Ichneumon-flies of the 

Subfamily Opiinae. Proc. U.S. nat. Mus., vol. 49, pp. 63-95. 
HALIDAY, A. H. 1837. Essay on parasitic Hymenoptera. Entomol. Mag., vol. 4, 

pp. 203-221. 
1839. Ichneumones Adsciti. Pp. 61-65 in Westwood, J. O. Synopsis of the 

Genera of British Insects. 158 pp. Longman, Orme, Brown, Green and 

Longmans, London. 
MARSHALL, T. A. 1891. Les Braconides, 10' Tribu— Opiidae. Pp. 280-359 in 

Andre, E. (Ed.) Species de Hymenopteres d' Europe et d'Algerie, vol. 5, 635 pp. 

Gray, Paris. 
MUESEBECK, C. F. W. & WALKLEY, L. 1951. Braconidae. Pp. 90-184 in 

Muesebeck, C. F. W., Krombein, K. V. & Townes, H. K. Hymenoptera of 

America North of Mexico, Synoptic Catalog. Agric. Monogr., vol. 2, pp. 

1-1420. 
NEES VON ESENBECK, C. G. 1834. Hymenopterorum Ichneumonibus affinium 

monographiae , genera Europaea et species illustrantes, vol. 1, 320 pp. Cottae, 

Stuttgart, Tubingen. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 371 



SZEPLIGETI, G. 1904. Hymenoptera Fam. Braconidae, Opiinae. Pp. 158-167 in 

Wytsman, P. (Ed.). Genera Insectorum, vol. 22, 253 pp. Verteneuil et Desmet, 

Bruxelles. 
THOMSON, C. G. 1895. LII. Bidragtill Braconideraas kannedom. Opusc. EntomoL, 

vol. 20, pp. 2141-2339. 
VIERECK, H. L. 1914. Type species of the genera of ichneumon flies. Bull. U.S. nat. 

Mmj.,vo1. 83,pp. 1-186. 
WESMAEL, C. 1835. Monographie des Braconides de Belgique. Nouv. Mem. Acad. 

R. Bruxelles, vol. 9, pp. 1-252. 



372 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 



LEPTURA MARGIN ATA FABRICIUS, 1781 (INSECTA, 

COLEOPTERA): PROPOSED CONSERVATION BY THE 

SUPPRESSION OF LEPTURA MARGIN AT A O. F. MULLER IN 

ALLIONI, 1766. Z.N.(S.)2572 

By Maciej Mroczkowski {Instytut Zoologii, Polska Akademia Nauk. ul. 
Wilcza 64, Warsaw, Poland.) 



In 1 766 O. F. Miiller {in Allioni, p. 1 88) described from the province of 
Torino (Turin, Italy) a species called Leptura marginata. Since that descrip- 
tion the name marginata of O. F. Miiller has not been used as a valid name. 
The name in question was overlooked by specialists of the cerambycidae 
and has not been used at all in catalogues or systematic works, even in 
synonymy. It is not mentioned in the Synonymia Insectorum of Schonherr 
(Pars 3, 1817) or the Coleopterorum Catalogus edited by W. Junk and S. 
Schenkling (Cerambycidae by Lameere and Aurivillius, 1912-1923). 

2. In 1781 J. C. Fabricius (p. 247) described from Norway another 
species called Leptura marginata (now Acmaeops marginata), a common 
species widely distributed in the Palaearctic Region from north and central 
Europe through Siberia, Mongolia and northern parts of China to the coasts 
of the Pacific Ocean in the Far East. 

3. As the application of the Principle of Homonymy would disrupt 
stabihty and cause confusion, the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature is accordingly asked: 

( 1 ) to use its plenary powers to suppress the specific name marginata 
O. F. Miiller in Alhoni, 1766, as pubHshed in the binomen 
Leptura marginata, and all uses prior to the publication of 
Leptura marginata Fabricius, 1 78 1 , for the purposes of both the 
Principle of Priority and the Principle of Homonymy; 

(2) to place on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology the 
name marginata Fabricius, 1 78 1 , as published in the binomen 
Leptura marginata; 

(3) to place on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Specific 
Names in Zoology the name marginata O. F. Miiller in Allioni, 
1766 as published in the binomen Leptura marginata and as 
suppressed under the plenary powers in (1) above. 

REFERENCES 

ALLIONI, C. 1766. Manipulus Insectorum Taurinensium. Melang. Soc. Turin, vol. 
3, pp. 185-198. 

FABRICIUS, J. C. 1781. Species Insectorum eorum ^ dijferentias specificas, 
synonyma auctorum, loca natalia, metamorphosin adiectis observationibus , 
descriptionibus. vol. 1, viii-|-552 pp. Hamburgi et Kilonii. 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 



373 



INDEX TO AUTHORS 





Page 






Andronov, V. N. . 


297 


Jago.N. D. . 


103 


Ayala, S.C. . 


160 


Jansson, A. . 


175,178,279 


Batten, R. L. 


199 


Kabata, Z. . 


120 


Bishop, J. D. D. . 


288 


Kaston, B.J. 


8 


Blackith, R. E. 


227 


Kemperman, Th. C. H. 


191 


Bock, W.J. . 


. 324 


Kennedy, W. J. . 


277 


Bogan, A. E. 


. 273 


Kerzhner, I. M. 


. 8,279 


Bordon, C. . 


226 


Kevan, D. K. McE. 


104, 306 


Bouchet, P. . 


. 205 


Key, K. H. L. 


103, 303 


Bradley, J. D. 


8 


Kottelat, M. . 


360 


Brinkmann, W. 


. 269 


Kraus, O. 


. 7,346 


Brodkorb, P. 


12 


Kuznetsov, V. I. . 


8 


Brookes Knight, J. (the 1 


ate) . 199 






Brunton, C. H. C. . 


210,213,215 


Lachner, E. A. 


193 






Larsen, T. B. 


342 


Calder, D. R. 


335 


Lee, D. E. . 


210,213,215 


Campbell, K. E. . 


10 


Lew Ton, H. M. . 


99 


Carpenter, A. 


84 


Loerbroks, A. 


346 


Compagno, L. J. V. 


89 






Coomans, H. E. 


191 


McDowell, S. B. . 


330 


Cornelius, P. F. S. . 


163,335 


Mahoney, J. A. 


50 


Crosby, T. K. 


84 


Mason, W. R. M. . 


173 


Crosskey, R. W. . 


282 


Mathis, W. N. 


4 


Crowson, R. A. 


196 


Mees, G. F. . 
Melville, R. V. 


. 227 


Dolling, W. R. 


119 


5, 14, 78, 80, 


112,156,308 


Doyle, P. 


355 


Mesnil, L. P. (the late) 


282 


Dubois, A. . 


6 


Mroczkowski, M. . 


188,372 


Dugdale, J. S. 


47 










Nielsen, E. S. 


158 


Evenhuis, N. L. 


4 


Nye, L W. B. 


158 


Follett, W. I. 


89 


O'Brien, C. W. 




Eraser, T. H. 


193 


55, 59, ( 


32, 66, 69, 300 


Freidberg, A. 


4 


Olson, S.L. . 


12 


Froeschner, R. C. . 


4 


Osella, G. . 


59 






Ostman, C. . 


163 


Grant Inglis, W. . 


. 5,13 






Griffiths, G. C. D. . 


170 


Pericart, J. . 


119 






Phillips, A. R. 


11 


Hamilton, C. J. 


8 


Poore, G. C. B. . 


99 


Hansen, H. J. 


181 


Pope, R. D. . 


363 


Henderson, R. A. . 


277 






Herting, B. . 


282 


Rea, A. M. . 


12 


Hoffman, R. L. . 


366 


Ride, W. D. L. 


50 


Howarth, M. K. . 


75 


Riegraf,W. . 


355 



374 



Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 



Riley, E.G. . 


100 


Tollitt, M. E. 


107, 348 


Rubtsov, I. A. 


350, 352 


Tubbs, P. K. . 


. 8,14,218 


Schuster, R. . 


118 


Vyshkvartzeva, N. V. 


297 


Seymour, P. R. 


93 






Silfverberg, H. 


186 


Watt, i.e. . 


196, 363 


Simmons, N. B. 


310 


Wharton, R. A. . 


324, 369 


Siveter, D. J. . 


106 


Whitfield, J. B. . 


96 


Smith, A. B. . 


72 


Whittington, H. B. 


106,118 


Smith, H. M. 


. 9,228 


Wibmer, G. J. 


55, 62, 69, 300 


Spencer, K. A. 


170,183,344 


WiUiams, J. D. . 


273 


Staines, C. L. (Jr) . 


4 


Wood, D. M. 


282 


Steyskal, G. C. 


. 4, 170, 183 


Woodley, N. E. . 


4 


Stimson, A. F. 


. 330 


Wright, C. W. 


72 


Thaler, K. . 


8 


Yochelson, E. 


199 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 375 



LIST OF DECISIONS IN THIS VOLUME 

Opinion Page 

1369 ^^/aaV/aCordiner, 1793 (Crustacea, Isopoda): conserved ... 15 

1370 Neadmete okutanii Petit, 1974 designated as type species of 
A^eflf/me/e Habe, 1961 (Mollusca, Gastropoda): 17 

1371 Pachycephalosaurus Brown & Schlaikjer, 1943 and Troodon 
M'>'o/M/>?ge«5wGiImore, 1931 (Reptilia, Dinosauria): conserved . 19 

1372 Z)o«ax /ja/j/eyawM^Philippi, 1847 (Mollusca, Bivalvia): conserved . 21 

1373 Panesthia saussurii Wood-Mason, 1876 designated as type species 

of Ca^'/jar/aStal, 1877(Insecta, Dictyoptera) 23 

1374 5o/^aFitzinger, 1826 (Reptilia, Serpentes): conserved .... 25 

1375 Glossodoris Ehrenberg, 1831, Hypselodoris Stimpson, 1855 and 
Chromodoris Alder & Hancock, 1855 (Mollusca, Gastropoda): 
conserved 27 

1376 Cuspidaria (Rhinodama) adamsi Morgan & Heppell, 1981 desig- 
nated as type species oi Rhinodama Dall & Smith, 1886 (Mollusca, 
Bivalvia) 30 

1377 Chelydra osceola Stejneger, 1918 given nomenclatural precedence 
over Chelydra ladcarinata Hay, 1916 and Chelydra sculp ta Hay, 
1916(Reptilia, Testudines) 33 

1 378 Phalaena bellatrix Stoll, 1 780 designated as type species of Crinodes 
Herrich-Schaffer, 1855(lnsecta, Lepidoptera) 35 

1379 Gonodontis rectisectaria Herrich-Schaffer, [1 855] designated as type 
species of Pero Herrich-Schaffer, 1855 (Insecta, Lepidoptera) . . 37 

1380 ^u/j/iae^raHiibner, [1819] (Insecta, Lepidoptera): conserved . . 39 

1381 0«rocAjemw Baker, 1887 (Insecta, Lepidoptera): conserved ... 42 

1382 ZeMgo/>/iora Kunze, 1818 (Insecta,Coleoptera): conserved ... 44 

1383 Apispilipes Fabricius, 1775 (Insecta, Hymenoptera): designated as 
typespeciesof A/e^j7/aFabricius, 1805 121 

1384 Z)roOTo/»/!M Peters, 1869 (Reptilia,Serpentes): conserved . ... 123 

1385 Anolis carolinensis Voigt, 1832 designated as type species of Anolis 
Daudin, 1802(Reptilia, Sauria) 125 

1386 Papilio erato Linnaeus, 1758 (Insecta, Lepidoptera): neotype 
designated 128 

1387 Curculio pidrostris Fabricius, 1787 and Tychius stephensi 
Schonherr, 1836 (Insecta, Coleoptera, Curculionida): conserved . 130 

1388 Callionymus sagitta Pallas, 1770 (Osteichthyes, Callionymidae): 
neotype designated 132 

1389 Phascolosoma cumanense Keferstein, 1867 (Sipunculida): given 
precedenceoverLMwZjncM^e^M/w Pallas, 1774 134 

1 390 Pdlonula bahiensis Steindachner, 1 879 (Osteichthyes): replacement 
lectotype designated 136 

1391 Zygaena anthyllidis Boisduval, [1828] (Insecta, Lepidoptera): 
conserved 138 

1392 Reptomultisparsa d'Orbigny, 1853 (Bryozoa, Cyclostomata): type 
species designated 140 

1393 C/io^ropjwLeidy, 1852 (Mammalia, Artiodactyla): conserved . . 142 

1394 Centrurus limpidus Karsch, 1 879 and Centruroides ornatus Pocock, 

1902 (Arachnida, Scorpiones): conserved 144 



376 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 



1395 Tomiopsis Benediktova, 1956 (Brachiopoda, Spiriferida): con- 
served 146 

1 396 Byrrhus murinus Fabricius, 1 794 (Insecta, Coleoptera, Byrrhidae): 
conserved 148 

1397 Rhopalocerus W. Redtenbacher, 1842 (Insecta, Coleoptera, 
Colydidae): conserved 150 

1398 Cfl/jjiHewitson, [1865] (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae); conserved . . 152 

1399 Cochliomyia Townsend, 1915 (Diptera, Calliphoridae): conserved 154 

1400 Simla fascicularis Raffles, 1821 (Mammalia, Primates): conserved . 229 

1401 Lewca^/JwSignoret, 1869 (Insecta, Homoptera): conserved ... 231 

1402 5agr«5 Bosc, 1816 (Osteichthyes, Siluriformes): conserved . . . 233 

1403 Lumbricus lacteus Orley, 1881 designated as type species of 
Oc/o/fli/oAjOrley, 1885 (Annelida, Oligochaeta) 235 

1404 Indodorylaimus elongatus Baqri, 1982 designated as type species of 
/«rfo</or;'/a/'wM5 Ali&Prabha, 1974(Nematoda, Dorylaimida) . . 237 

1405 Aphelinus mytilaspidis Le Baron, 1870 (Insecta, Hymenoptera): 
conserved 239 

1406 Phalaena stagnata Donovan, 1806 designated as type species of 
M'wip/zw/aSchrank, 1802 (Insecta, Lepidoptera) 241 

1407 Lamia aethiops Fabricius, 1775 designated as type species of 
Cero/7/ej/5Serville, 1835 (Insecta, Coleoptera) 243 

1408 Hypocryphalus mangiferae (Stebbing, 1914) given nomenclatural 
precedence over Cryphalus inops Eichhoff, 1872 and Hypothenemus 
grwfM^ Blackburn, 1885 (Insecta, Coleoptera) 245 

1409 Adianthus bucatus Ameghino, 1891 (Mammalia): neotype desig- 
nated 247 

1410 ^f'/Z/Za/M/fl Monterosato, 1884 (Mollusca, Gastropoda): conserved 249 

1411 Drymus ryeii Douglas & Scott, 1865 (Insecta, Hemiptera): neotype 

set aside 251 

1412 Leptoclinum fulgens Milne Edwards, 1841 designated as type 
species oi Leptoclinum Milne Edwards. 1 841 (Tunicata, Ascidiacea) 253 

1413 Delphinus truncatus Montagu, 1821 (Mammalia, Cetacea): 
conserved 256 

1414 Pa«o/7ea Menard de la Groye, 1807 (Mollusca, Bivalvia): conserved 258 

1415 Polygnatus bilineatus Roundy, 1926 designated as type species of 
G«ar/!oc^«5 Pander, 1856 (Conodonta) 262 

1416 Cnetha Enderlein, 1921 and Pseudonevermannia Baranov, 1926 
(Insecta, Diptera): type species designated; Atractocera latipes 

Mei gen, 1804: confirmation of holotype 264 

1417 Chromis Cuvier in Desmarest, 1814 (Osteichthyes, Perciformes): 
gender confirmed as feminine 267 

1418 Glyphipierix Hiibner, [1825] (Insecta, Lepidoptera): Tinea berg- 
straesserella Fabricius, 1 78 1 designated as type species .... 325 

1419 Democricetodon Fahlbusch, 1964 (Mammalia, Rodentia): 
Democricetodon crassus Freudenthal, 1969 designated as type 
species 328 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 



377 



NAMES PLACED ON OFFICIAL LISTS AND INDEXES IN DECISIONS 
PUBLISHED IN VOLUME 43 



Official List of Specific Names in Zoology 

adamsi, Cuspidaria (Rhinoclama) . 

Morgan & Heppell, 1981 
aethiops. Lamia, Fabricius, 1 775 
alpheus, Papilio, Cramer, [1777] 
anthyllidis, Zygaena, Boisduval, [1828] 
archytas. Papilio, Stoll, [1787] 
bagre, Silurus. Linnaeus, 1 766 
bahiensis, Pellonula, Steindachner, 

1879 
bajad, Silurus, Forskal, 1775 
bellatrix, Phalaena, Stoll, 1780 
bergstraesserella. Tinea, Fabricius, 

1781 
bilineatus. Polygnathus, Roundy, 1926 
bucatus, Adianthus, Ameghino, 1891 
candidum, Didemnum, Savigny, 1816 
carolinensis , Anolis, Voigt, 1832 
chromis. Sparus, Linnaeus, 1 758 
complanatus, Lumbricus, Duges, 1 828 
crassus, Democricetodon brevis, 

Freudenthal, 1969 
cumanense, Phascolosoma, Keferstein 

1867 
cyparissa, Papilio, Cramer, [1775] 
doris, Papilio, Linnaeus, 1771 
edule, Lumbricus, Pallas, 1774 
elongatus, Indodorylaimus , Baqri, 1982 
erato, Papilio, Linnaeus, 1758 
exoleta, Venus. Linnaeus, 1758 
fascicularis, Simia, Raffles, 1821 
filamentosus, Callionymus, 
Valenciennes in Cuvier & 
Valenciennes, 1837 
fulgens, Leptoclinum, Milne Edwards, 

1841 
glycimeris, Mya, Born, 1778 
glycymeris. Area, Linnaeus, 1758 
griseus, Hypothenemus , Blackburn, 

1885 
gussoni, Ancylus, O. G. Costa, 1829 
hanleyanus, Donax, Philippi, 1847 
incrustans, Diastopora, d'Orbigny, 1850 
inops, Cryphalus, Eichhoff, 1872 
irregularis. Coluber, Bechstein, 1802 



kumpani, Brachythyris, Yanischevsky, 

1935 
labiata, Megilla, Fabricius, [1805] 
lacteus, Lumbricus terrestris, Orley 

1885 
laticarinata, Chelydra, Hay, 1916 
latipes, Atractocera, Meigen, 1804 
liberiensis. Hippopotamus, Morton, 

1849 
limpidus, Centrurus, Karsch, 1 879 
linneella, Phalaena, Clerk, 1759 
listerianum, Leptoclinum. Milne 

Edwards, 1841 
longicornis, Oniscus, J. Sowerby, 1805 
macellaria. Musca, Fabricius, 1775 
magnifica, Doris, Quoy & Gaimard, 

1832 
mangiferae, Cryphalus, Stebbing, 1914 
minor, Cricetodon, Larter, 1851 
murinus, Byrrhus, Fabricius, 1794 
mytilaspidis, Aphelinus. Le Baron, 1870 
obscura, Goniodoris, Stimpson, 1855 
okutanii, Neadmete. Petit, 1974 
ornatus, Centruroides, Pocock, 1902 
osceola, Chelydra, Stejneger, 1918 
pallida, Doris, Riippell & Leuckart, 

1830 or 1831 
philippinensis, Neaera. Hinds, 1 843 
picirostris, Curculio. Fabricius, 1787 
pini, Aspidiotus. Hartig, 1839 
rectisectaria, Gonodontis, 

Herrich-Schaffer, [1855] 
rondanii, Monotoma, A. Villa & J. B. 

Villa, 1833 
ryeii, Drvmus sylvaticus. Douglas & 

Scott, 1865 
sagitta, Callionymus. Pallas, 1770 
saussurii, Panesthia, Wood-Mason, 

1876 
sculpta, Chelydra, Hay, 1916 
siliqua, Mya, Spengler, 1793 
stagnata, Phalaena, Donovan, 1 806 
stephensi, 7>r/i/«j, Schonherr, 1836 
subspinosa, Crioceris, Fabricius, 1781 



378 



Bull. zool. Nom.. vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 



trifasciata. Lamia, Fabricius, 1775 
truncatus, Delphinus, Montagu, 1821 



vernum, Simulia. Macquart, 1826 
wyomingensis, Troodon . Gilmore, 1931 



Official List of Generic Names in Zoology 

Adianthus Ameghino, 1891 
Alyaltes Kinherg, 1867 
Anolis Daudin, 1802 
Astacilla Cordiner, 1793 
Bagre CloqueU 1816 
Bagrus Bosc, 1816 
Boiga Fitzinger, 1826 
Caeparia Slk\, 1877 
Capys Hewitson, [1865] 
Ceroplesis ServiWe, 1835 
Choeropsis Leidy, 1852 
Chromis Cuvier in Desmarest, 1814 
Chromodoris Alder & Hancock, 1855 
Chrysoclista Stainton, 1854 
Cnetha Enderlein, 1 92 1 
Cochliomyia Townsend, 1915 
Cr/wo^e^ Herrich-Schaffer, 1855 
Cyrtodaria Reuss, 1 80 1 
Democricetodon ¥a.h\h\isch. 1964 
DiastoceraT)Q]ean, 1835 
Didemnum Savigny, 1816 
Z)/p/ojomfl MacDonald, 1859 
Dromophis Peters, 1 869 
Euphaedra Hiibner. [1819] 
G/o5Jo^ora Ehrenberg, 1831 
G/vcvwer/j da Costa, 1778 



Glyphipterix Hubner, [1825] 
Gnathodus VandQV. 1856 
Hypselodoris Sixmpson, 1855 
Indodorylaimus Ali & Prabha, 1974 
Leptoclinum Milne Edwards, 1841 
Leucaspis S\gnoTti, 1869 
Luzonia Dall & Smith in Dall, 1890 
Macropis Panzer, 1 809 
Neadmete Hahe, 1961 
Nymphula Schrank. 1802 
Octodrilus Omodeo, 1956 
Oclolasion Or\ey, 1885 
Ourocnemis Baker, 1887 
Pachvcephalosaurus Brown & 

Schlaikjer, 1943 
Panopea Menard de la Groye, 1807 
Pectunculus da Costa, 1 778 
Pero Herrich-Schaffer. 1855 
Porcinolus Mulsant & Rey, 1869 
Reptomultisparsa d'Orhigny, 1853 
Rhinoclama Dall & Smith in Dall, 1886 
RliopalocerusW. Redtenbacher, 1842 
Tomiopsis Benedikto\a, 1956 
ff ////aw/a Monterosato, 1884 
ZeugophoraKunze, 1818 



Official List of Family Group Names in Zoology 



ADIANTHIDAE Ameghino, 1891 
BAGRIDAE Sleeker, 1858 
CHROMODORIDIDAE Bergh, 1892 
GLYCYMERIDIDAE Newton, 1916 
GLYPHIPTERIGIDAE Stainton, 
1854 



LEUCASPIDINAE Atkinson, 1886 
PACHYCEPHALOSAURIDAE 

Sternberg, 1945 
RHOPALOCERINI Reitter, 1911 



Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Specific Names in Zoology 



albidus. Agonioneurus , Westwood, 1837 
anthyllidis, Ly castes, Hubner, [1819] 
aygula, Simia. Linnaeus, 1758 



capillaceus, Pectunculus, da Costa, 

1778 
hilairea, Donax, Guerin, 1832 



Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 



379 



nesarnack, Delphinus, Lacepede, 1804 
olivaceus, Centrums, Thorell, 1877 
orbicularis, Glycymeris, da Costa, 1778 
ornatus, Tylosteus, Leidy, 1872 



rubidus, Byrrhus, Kugelann, 1792 
stepheni, Tychius, Schonherr, 1836 
tomentosus, Curculio, Herbst, 1795 
undulatus, Byrrhus, Kugelann, 1792 



Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Generic Names in Zoology 



Actinodoris^hitnhQTg, 1831 
Aetheiusn\xhntv,[\%\9] 
AlleryaUbrch, 1877 
Apeistus MoXscYinhky, 1840 
Apistus Agassiz, 1 846 
Auchenia Thunberg, 1 792 
5ro«^e//a Bourguignat, 1862 
Callitroga Brauer, 1883 
Choerodeshtxdy, 1852 
C/>'c/>Merw Lamarck, 1799 
Glycimeris Lamarck, 1 80 1 
Glyphipleryx Curtis, 1827 
Ibida Gray, 1825 
/nco/ore Omodeo, 1952 
Leuca5;7/5 Burmeister, 1835 
Megilla Fabricius, 1 805 



ATfl/ajHubner, [1807] 
Octolasia Rosa, 1893 
Octolasium Michaeisen, 1900 
Panope Menard de la Groye, 1 807 
Pectunculus Lamarck, 1 799 
Philodendros Fitzinger, 1843 
Philodendrus Agassiz, 1846 
Porcus Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 

1808 
Pseudonevermannia Baranov, 1 926 
Pferot/ora Ehrenberg, 1831 
Purpureum Omodeo, 1952 
Spartycerus Motschuisky, 1837 
Tomiopsis Cope, 1893 
Tylosteus Lcidy, 1872 



Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Family Group Names in Zoology 
APISTINI Ganglbauer, 1899 



380 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1 986 



INDEX TO KEY NAMES 

Page 

/lcn«o^oraEhrenberg, 1831 (Opinion 1375) 27 

adamsi, Cuspidaria (Rhinoclamd), Morgan & Heppell, 1981 (Opinion 

1376) 30 

/lc//je/M5Hubner, [1819] (Opinion 1381) 42 

^gromjzfl Fallen, 1810 183 

albicmctus,Cholus.GQrm.2i'[,\%2A 55 

a/p/iewi', Pa/?///o, Cramer, 1777 (Opinion 1398) 152 

amer/!M//>7a, 5oa, Schneider, 1801 330 

/lA2o/«Daudin, 1802 (Opinion 1385) 125 

anomala, Patella, MuUcT,\716 210 

^«r//o/>/!oraLatreille, 1803 (Opinion 1383) 121 

a«//j>'///(//5,Lvra5/«,Hubner, [1819] (Opinion 1391) 138 

fl«%///&,Zvgae«a,Boisduval, [1828], (Opinion 1391) 138 

^«fw;?/7aHubner, [1825] 158 

^ora/aDumbleton, 1966 47 

^;7e«rM5Motschulsky, 1840 (Opinion 1397) 150 

APISTINIGanglbauer, 1899 (Opinion 1397) 150 

^pmu^Agassiz, 1846 (Opinion 1397) 150 

^/•c/jana5 Dejean, 1821 55 

flrc/2>'to,Pap/7/o,Stoll, [1787] (Opinion 1381) 42 

arcra, S'er/M/ana, Dalyell, 1847 337 

/l^rad/ZaCordiner, 1793 (Opinion 1369) 15 

atripes. Cassida,LeConte, \S59 100 

.4/vfl Leach, 1816 84 

ATYDAE Abbott, 1954 84 

ATYIDAEDeHaan,[1849] 84 

ATYIDAEThiele, 1926 84 

/ir>'5Montfort, 1810 84 

/4Mc/je«/aThunberg, 1792 (Opinion 1382) 44 

aurifer, Curculio, Drury, \n 3 63 

aM5/ert/', 5/mM//Mm, Edwards, 1915 350 

y4M5?/-araUvarov, 1923 103 

australis, Microgaster, Thomson, IS95 173 

fljt/oc/jMJ, ^«?ero5, Hewitson, 1867 (Opinion 1381) 42 

Z?aA/e«j/5, /'e//o«M/a, Steindachner, 1879 (Opinion 1390) 136 

barbatula. Cobitis, Blyth, 1860 360 

5ea«ea Steindachner, 1902 193 

5e/ew«/7« Lamarck, 1799 355 

6f//afn.Y,/'/!a/ae«a.Stoll, 1780 (Opinion 1378) 35 

/)erg.sfA-ae55ere//a, n«ea, Fabricius, 1781 (Opinion 1418) 325 

5em/nM5Kirkaldy, 1900 119 

fier>'/u5Fabricius, 1803 119 

bicolor, Heteroclonium, Cope, \S96 160 

bidens, Twr^o, Linnaeus, 1758 78 

biiobatus, Bellerophon, Sov/erhy,lS39 201 

WMmen6ac/2H, Ca/yAMe«a, Brongniart w Desmarest, 1817 105 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 38 1 



5o/gaFitzinger, 1826 (Opinion 1374) 25 

feore'fl/M, S/mM/Za.Zetterstedt, 1842 352 

brattenburgicus, Craniolites, Sch[oihe\m.A^2Q 215 

brattensburgensis. Crania, Keiz\ViS,\l%\ 215 

finu5Dejean, 1821 186 

brucei, Trypanosoma, 'PWmmQV &.Br2iMoxd,\^99 348 

^A-Mc//, rr>'pa«o.yoma, Plimmer& Bradford, 1899 348 

bruguierianus, Belemmtes,d''OxhignyA^A'i 356 

5M/7oDumeril, 1806 156 

6mZ>o, 5/n.x:, Linnaeus, 1758 156 

5M/6j/erDejean, 1821 58 

CAECILIADAE Gray, 1825 6 

Ca^/7flnaStal, 1877 (Opinion 1373) 23 

ca/car, Ca/fan>!a, d'Orbigny, 1839 181 

Ca///7rogaBrauer, 1883 (Opinion 1399) 154 

Ca/^meweBrongniart /« Brongniart&Desmarest, 1822 105 

Campanularia 'Lamarck, \%\6 336 

ca/>aroc/i, 5/m-, Muller(P. L. S.), 1766 157 

Capj^Hewitson, 1865 (Opinion 1398) 152 

Carc/jan'fl^Rafinesque, 1810 89 

Can«e//a Johnston, 1833 114 

CARINELLIDAE Mcintosh, 1874 114 

caroZ/rte/uw, /4«ofo, Voigt, 1832 (Opinion 1385) 125 

castaneum,Colydium,Y\QrhsU\'l91 363 

castaneum, Tribolium (Herhst, 1797) 363 

CECILINIARafinesque-Schmaltz, 1814 6 

Cero(/o«//!aRondani, 1861 344 

C/!oero(/e.5 Leidy, 1852 (Opinion 1393) 142 

C/jo^To/^mLeidy, 1852 (Opinion 1393) 142 

childreni, Liasis, Gray, \S42 330 

C/io/m5 Germar, 1824 55 

CHROMODORIDIDAEBergh, 1892 (Opinion 1375) 27 

C/irowoJom Alder & Hancock, 1855 (Opinion 1375) 27 

C/i/->'joc/«faStainton, 1854 (Opinion 1418) 325 

c/Tiera^ccni, CwrcM/Zo, Marsham, 1802 (Opinion 1387) 130 

cinnamopterum, Tetropium, K\rhy,\%}>7 189 

C/aw.s/7/a Draparnaud, 1805 78 

c/av/gera, OV/ara, Mantell, 1822 72 

c/av//>e.y, C/we.v, Fabricius, 1775 119 

C/>'na Lamouroux, 1812 163 

COBITIDIDAESwainson, 1839 360 

Co6/7/5 Linnaeus, 1758 360 

Coc/i//ow>'/aTownsend, 1915 (Opinion 1399) 154 

Co«c/ze//a Gray, 1848 338 

Copp/n/a Hassall, 1848 335 

Cor«fl/flrM5 Attems, 1931 366 

corticalis, Curculio,Vay]<i\x\\, \792 58 

crassus, Democricetodon brevis, Freudenthal, 1969 (Opinion 1419) . 328 

cra55«5, Z)emocr/cero^o«, Freudenthal, 1969 (Opinion 1419) . . . 328 



382 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 



Cmofife^Herrich-Schaffer, 1855 (Opinion 1378) 35 

Criopoderma Po\\, 1795 213 

Criopododerma Agassiz, 1848 214 

CriopusPoli, 1791 213 

Cr>'o/>«5 Deshayes, 1836 214 

Ctenium Menge, 1871 7 

cumanense.Phascolosoma.KekTStem, IS61 (Opinion 13S9) . . . . 134 

Cyclaxyra Broun, IS93 196 

Cjrf/aHubner, [1825] 94 

cymbulus, Atys,Mont[ort,lilO 86 

c>'/?arw5a,/'a;?///o, Cramer, [1775] (Opinion 1380) 39 

Dapsilarthra FoeTSteT,lS62 14 

Z)emomcero</o/j Fahlbusch, 1964 (Opinion 1419) 328 

diglossis, Chirotes, Sa.enz,lS69 160 

i^ora, Pop/Y/o, Linnaeus, 1771 (Opinion 1386) 128 

Z)rowo;7/i/5 Peters, 1869 (Opinion 1384) 123 

Dryophthorus Germar, 1 824 58 

^M/wo^a, Lo/bea, Fleming, 1820 336 

Eccoptus, Dejean, 1821 69 

erf«/«^, LHmftn'cM5, Pallas, 1774 (Opinion 1389) 134 

elegans, Phytomyza,yi.Qigen,\%'iO 171 

ensyii. Porina,liui\ev,\%ll 47 

ensyU,Trioxycanus{B\ii\Qr,\%ll) 48 

era/o, Pa/?/7/o, Linnaeus, 1758 (Opinion 1386) 128 

Euaspidoceras SpaVci, \97>\ 75 

EUDOCIMINAE Bonaparte, 1854 11 

EUOMPHALIDAEdeKoninck, 1881 199 

^woAM/j/ifl/M^Sowerby, 1814 201 

^MpAaet/raHubner, [1819] (Opinion 1380) 39 

falclandica, Astacilla, Ohlin, 1907 99 

ferox, Carcharias, Risso, 1826 89 

/errMgmea, 5/mM//Vz, Wahlberg, 1844 352 

festiva, Phytomyza,MtigQn,\%'iO 171 

filamentosus, Callionymus, Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 

1837 (Opinion 1388) 132 

F«7^//MmHincks, 1868 335 

Geoderces Wovn, 1876 66 

geometricus,Cholus,GQTrmx,\i2A 55 

G/o5JOi/oraEhrenberg, 1831 (Opinion 1375) 27 

GLYPHIPTERIGIDAEStainton, 1854 (Opinion 1418) 325 

G/y/7A//7?mxHubner, [1825] (Opinion 1418) 325 

G/>'/7/j//7/er_yx Curtis, 1827 (Opinion 1418) 325 

G«aw/7;oi^o« Haliday, 1833 14 

G«a/7ro<^o«Haliday, 1837 14 

gracilis, Lomedea, Dana, IS46 166 

gracilis, Laomedea, Sars,lS50 165 

grangeri. Pachycephalosaurus, Brown & Schlaikjer, 1943 (Opinion 

1371) 19 



Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 383 



griseola. Micronecta,HoT\a.th, \S99 178 

hallucatus, Dasyurus, Gould, IS42 50 

/!a«/e;'a«Mi, Z)o«a.t, Philippi, 1847 (Opinion 1372) 21 

Hatschekia Poche, 1902 120 

//^/oi/o«Enderlein, 1921 352 

hemisphaericum, Phialidium, (Linnaeus, 1767) 164 

Heriaeus Simon, 1875 346 

Ma/rea, Donax, Guerin, 1832 (Opinion 1372) 21 

/i/r5M/M5, r/;o/M/5M5, Walckenaer, 1824 346 

hirtus, Thomisus.LatreiWe, IS\9 346 

HOLOCENTRIDAESteindachner, 1902 193 

hudsonia, Strix.Gme\in,\7SS 157 

//)'p5e/oi/omStimpson, 1855 (Opinion 1375) 27 

hystrix, Curculio, Olivier, 1 790 55 

/Z>/^a Gray, 1825 (Opinion 1374) 25 

incomptus.Geoderces, Worn, \%7fi 66 

/«crM5/a«5, Z)/a5ropora, d'Orbigny, 1850 (Opinion 1392) 140 

intertexta, Campanularia, Couch, \S44 338 

/rregw/am, Co/w6e/-, Bechstein, 1802 (Opinion 1374) 25 

/5ar//iro« Dejean, 1835 188 

johnstoni,Campanularia, Alder, IS56 164 

/:M/«pa«/', 5rac//>'//iym, Yanischevsky, 1935 (Opinion 1395) . . . . 146 

/a*/a/a,A/eg///a,Fabricius, 1805 (Opinion 1383) 121 

Lachnopus Schoenherr, 1 840 62 

lactea, Hyla, L3iUrenii,\7(i% 9 

/flcrea, //.v'/fl. Daudin, 1803 9 

Lan^a/ia Bonnaterre, 1 790 82 

La/j/w/fl Lamarck, 1801 207 

Laplysia Linnaeus, 1 767 207 

Laspeyresia Huhner,[\i2S\ 8 

/ar/cflr/wara, C/i^/>'(/ra, Hay, 1916 (Opinion 1377) 33 

lalicollis, Rhynchaenus, Olivier, 1 807 55 

/e/Mfl«a, S/^ara, Fieber, 1860 178 

leonma,Porma.Vh.ilpon,l927 49 

L/a5K Gray, 1842 330 

//6me«5/5, ////?/)opo/aA?iM5, Morton, 1849 (Opinion 1393) 142 

//wp/V/w^, Ce«/rMrM5, Karsch, 1879 (Opinion 1394) 144 

//>jAife//a,P/ja/ae'Aja,Clerck, 1759 (Opinion 1418) 325 

//v/V/a, jVme«e, Blackwall, 1836 7 

/o«g^/cor«w, Onwcuj, J. Sowerby, 1805 (Opinion 1369) 15 

luteoscutellata, Phytagromyza, deMeijere, 1924 ....... 344 

L«zon/aDall&Smith,/>jDall, 1890 (Opinion 1376) 30 

lytnexylon, Curculio, F&hricius, 1792 59 

wac^//flr/a, MM5ca, Fabricius, 1775 (Opinion 1399) 154 

mackloti, Liasis, Dumeril & Bibron, 1 844 330 



384 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 



MACLURAEIDEA Gill, 1817 199 

Maclurea Emmons, 1 842 202 

MACLUREADAE Carpenter, 1861 199 

Mac/wma Blainville, 1823 202 

Mac/«me5 Lesueur, 1818 201 

MACLURITIDAE Fischer, 1885 199 

Macro/j/5 Panzer, 1809 (Opinion 1383) 121 

maculatus , Dasyuriis {Y^erx , \192) 52 

madagascariensis, Langaha,Borm3iiQTTt,\190 82 

magrtfl, Mac/wmej, Lesueur, 1818 201 

ma^«/^ca, /)ora, Quoy&Gaimard, 1832 (Opinion 1375) .... 27 

wa/-g/«afa, Lcp^i/ra, O. F. Miiller /'« Allioni, 1766 372 

/Marg/«ara, Lep/Mra, Fabricius, 1781 372 

A/e^///aFabricius, 1805 (Opinion 1383) 121 

A/e/a«oc/irofl Broun, 1882 196 

melanothrix, Trachyphloeus, KiThy,lS37 66 

Menoetius Dejean, 1821 62 

/M^rcMr/a/w, CwrcM/Zo, Fabricius, 1801 186 

meridionalis, Micronecta (Costa., \S62) 175 

w^/a/H/a, r/>jea [Denis &Schiffermiiller], 1775 159 

Microgaster Latreille, 1 804 1 73 

Microplitis Foerster, 1 862 1 73 

miliaris, Curculio, Olivier, 1 790 55 

/w/«or, Cncero(/o«, Lartet, 1851 (Opinion 1419) 328 

«7/«Mra, 5/gara, Fabricius, 1794 178 

m/rra, L^cflfwa, Staudinger, 1874 342 

m/rza, Ljrae«a, Plotz, 1880 342 

mirzaellus. Azanus, Kogak, 1980 342 

More//a Gray, 1842 332 

wo59«/7e«5/5, /?/jow«r^.v, Kemperman &Coomans, 1984 .... 191 

Af«ncopm Bucquoy, Dautzenberg& DoUfus, 1882 191 

wur/rte.Y, 5vTr/2M5, Fabricius, 1794 (Opinion 1396) 148 

iVo/ajHiibner, [1807] Opinion 1380 39 

A^apo/Mj-a Curtis, 1837 170 

A^a/7om>'zaWestwood, 1840 170 

AiflMCM/M, 5M//a, Linnaeus, 1758 86 

nava/e, rn6o/iMm, (Fabricius, 1775) 363 

navalis, Dermestes,¥&hnciViS,\115 363 

A^eat/w^reHabe, 1961 (Opinion 1370) 17 

A^ea5/aa7/aTattersall, 1921 99 

iVe/6?e5 Latreille, 1802 119 

A'^ewoce^re^ Van Dyke, 1936 66 

«/^r/ca«a, /'jraZ/.y, Fabricius, 1794 93 

nigricornis, Phytomyza,M&cqyLdin,\%'i5 170 

A^omnt/acm Uvarov, 1 923 120 

o^jcwra, Go«/Wom, Stimpson, 1855 (Opinion 1375) 27 

OJoma^pwJ. L. R. Agassiz, 1838 91 

oA:M?an//,A^ea<^wer^, Petit, 1974 (Opinion 1370) 17 

o//vacea, L/a5w, Gray, 1842 330 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 385 



o//vacfM5, Cen;rMrM5,Thorell, 1877 (Opinion 1394) 144 

0/;7mm Koch, 1873 118 

Op/M^Wesmael, 1835 369 

0/-WcM/aCuvier, 1798 210 

or/jflrwi, C^«rrMro/^e5, Pocock, 1902 (Opinion 1394) 144 

or«a/Mj, r>7o5/eM5, Leidy, 1872 (Opinion 1371) 19 

ornigis, Apanteles,'WQQ6.,\i^l 96,324 

oryzivorus, Coluber, Suc'ko'w,\19^ 82 

o5ceo/a, CAe/v^ra, Stejneger, 1918 (Opinion 1377) 33 

o«/ar5aM a, Co/w^er, Bonnaterre, 1790 82 

OwrocMemw Baker, 1887 (Opinion 1381) 42 

PACHYCEPHALOSAURIDAESternberg, 1945 (Opinion 1371) . 19 

i'ac//>'ce'/>/!a/o5awr«5 Brown & Schlaikjer, 1943 (Opinion 1371) . . . 19 

/?a///^a, Dora, Riippell&Leuckart, 1830 or 1831 (Opinion 1375) . . 27 

/>a///pe5, O/jm^, Wesmael, 1835 369 

Para/?/i>'romvra Enderlein, 1936 344 

Passaloteuthis 'L\?,s,2i]o\xs,\9\5 357 

Pa/flMga Uvarov, 1923 103 

paxillosa, Belemnites,hSivmirc\i,\%Q\ 355 

pentangulatus, Euomphalus.Sowerhy, \S\4 201 

perarmatus, Ammonites, 3. So'weThy,lS22 75 

perarmatus. Ammonites, Young&Bird, IS22 75 

permutata, Siphamia, Klausewitz, 1966 193 

permutatus,Cornalatus, A\.iQms,\9?)^ 366 

Pero Herrich-Schaffer, 1855 (Opinion 1379) 37 

P/!/a//^jM/M Leuckart, 1856 163 

;7/iz7/p/>/«em«, A^eaera, Hinds, 1843 (Opinion 1376) 30 

PMo^e«i/ro5Fitzinger, 1843 (Opinion 1384) 123 

/•/nVot/ewt/rMiAgassiz, 1846 (Opinion 1384) 123 

Pholetesor Mason, \9%\ 324 

Phyxelis Schoenherr, 1 843 66 

/7/n>05/ra, Cwrcu/Zo, Fabricius, 1787 (Opinion 1387) 130 

/>////5^5, /1;7«, Fabricius, 1775 (Opinion 1383) 121 

/Jwc/vorMi, Crora/wi, Lacepede, 1788-1789 82 

PLATALEINAE Bonaparte, 1838 10 

politula,Cyclomorpha,hro\in,\'i^\ 197 

polymorphus,Tubulanus,KQn\Qr,[\%OA] 112 

Pom«o/M5 Mulsant&Rey, 1869 (Opinion 1396) 148 

/»05//ca/fl, S/>w«//a, Meigen, 1838 350 

/7ra^or«ara, Df-w^rop/iw, Schlegel, 1837 (Opinion 1384) 123 

Pro/OM'ar//!/aUlrich&Schofield, 1897 201 

PROTOWARTHIIDAEUlrich&Schofield, 1897 199 

PSYCHOCIDARIDAEIkeda, 1936 72 

Pr^TOf/oraEhrenberg, 1831 (Opinion 1375) 27 

Ptilopus Schoenherr, 1 823 62 

^Mo//, MM5fe/a, Zimmermann, 1783 50 

rec/wecran'a, Go/iot/o«/w, Herrich-Schaffer, 1855 (Opinion 1379) . . 37 

re/J/am, ^grow>'za, Fallen, 1823 183 



386 Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 



^e/;?ow«//wpar5ad'Orbigny, 1853 (Opinion 1392) 140 

reticulata, Boa, Schneider, ISOl 82 

Rhabditis D\iiaTdm,[]S55] 5 

/?/;/«o<r/awaDan& Smith, 1886 (Opinion 1376) 30 

RHOPALOCERINI Reiner, 1911 (Opinion 1397) 150 

^/lopa/ofcrw^W. Redtenbacher, 1842 (Opinion 1397) 150 

/?/iowMre.v01sson& McGinty, 1958 191 

/^o^t-rrw^O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1879 7 

robiniae, Microgaster, Fitch, IS59 96 

/■o«(/a«//,Mo«orowa, A. Villa & J. B. Villa, 1833 (Opinion 1397) . . 150 

rMW(/w5, 5>Tr/?M5, Kugelann, 1792 (Opinion 1396) 148 

rw/a, 5/mw//a, Meigen, 1838 352 

rw^o^fl, PMpa, Draparnaud, 1801 78 

rusticella. Phalaena, Cierck, 1759 93 

5crg/«a,Ca///o«>WM5, Pallas, 1770 (Opinion 1388) 132 

5aw55Mn7, PflMe^r/z/fl, Wood-Mason, 1876 (Opinion 1373) 23 

5c/z/205/owaBronn, [1834] 201 

SCHIZOSTOMATlDAEEichwald, 1817 199 

5r/io/rz/, 5/gara, Fieber, [1860] 175 

scholtzii. Sigara, Schohz,lM6 175/^^^ 

5cop?e5Hubner, [1819] (Opinion 1398) 152 

5c/2raw«i/', £«^/«a, Crosse, 1863 191 

5cw/;j/a,C/j^/>'t/ra, Hay, 1916 (Opinion 1377) 33 

septemfasciatum . Acridium, Audinet-Serville, [1838] 103 

serpens, Campanularia,HdiS?,&\\,\%A% 335 

serpens, Filellum,{W2iSS?L\\,\%A^) 335 

i'er/M/flna Linnaeus, 1758 336 

.se/oj«5, /?/2o/?a/of^/-M5, W. Redtenbacher, 1842 (Opinion 1397) . . . 150 

S/nw/re^Koken, 1896 201 

SINUITIDAEDall, 1913 199 

5//7/;aw/a Weber, 1909 193 

5'o«//;erAi/a Filipjev, 1927 13 

5owr/2^r«/aAllgen, 1929 13 

5/7ar/j'cerM5Motschulsky, 1837 (Opinion 1397) 150 

5ra^miw//e/-f//a, ^«?/j/7//a, [Hiibner], 1825 158 

5re//a/a, Ca/car/na, de Ferussac, 1827 181 

5re;7/ie«j/, rvc/i/M5, Schonherr, 1836 (Opinion 1387) 130 

sternicornis, Cholus, Germar, 1824 55 

irn;c, CMrcM//o, Olivier, 1790 69 

5?n'x, /^/i^-nc/iaenwj, Fabricius, 1792 69 

Strongylaspis Thomson, 1860 100 

Strongylaspis S^diQih, \91>6 100 

Strongylocassis Y{inck?,,\950 101 

5w65/?/>JOja, Cr/ocem, Fabricius, 1781 (Opinion 1382) 44 

Swrma Dumeril, 1806 156 

rawrw^, Carc/iar/aj, Rafinesque, 1810 89 

raen/a, Co6/7w, Linnaeus, 1758 360 

terricola, Rhabditis, Dujardin, [Nov. 1844] 5 



Bull. zool. Norn., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1 986 387 



Tetropium KiThy,lS37 188 

Thaumantias Eschscholz, IS29 167 

THRESKIORNITHIDAE Richmond, 1917 10,324 

///7M/ar/M5, 0>77f.Y, Linnaeus, 1758 119 

/owert/o5Mi, CMr6M//o, Herbst, 1795 (Opinion 1387) 130 

row/o/J5« Cope, 1893 (Opinion 1395) 146 

row/'opjwBenediktova, 1956 (Opinion 1395) 146 

/r/a«gM/M/M,Co/M*er,Lacepede, 1788-1789 82 

rr//)o//Mw MacLeay, 1825 363 

TRICHOMONADIDAEGrassi, 1882 220 

rr/f/jomo/?aj Donne, 1836 218 

Trioxycanus Dumbleton, 1 866 46 

trivittata, Beanea, Steindachner, 1902 193 

Tropiphorus Schonherr, 1842 186 

/M^ercM/a/a, Cra«/a, Nilsson, 1826 215 

Tuberculatus Bmnnich, nSl 105 

tuberculatus, Trilobus, Briinnich, 1781 106 

tubifer. Siphamia. Weber, 1909 194 

TUBULANIDAE Burger, 1905 114 

rM^M/flMuiRenier, [1804] 112 

r)'/oc/^amPomel, 1883 72 

7>/o5/eusLeidy, 1872 (Opinion 1371) 19 

Mn</u/a?«j, Bjrr/jMs, Kugelann, 1792 (Opinion 1396) 148 

vaginale,Tricomonas,T)ox\nQ,\%'}i6 220 

vaginalis. Trichomonas, Y)onnQ,\?>'}>6 220 

viridis, Laplisia,Bosc,\%Q\ 205 

vjr/(/K, La/>/y5/a, Montagu, 1804 205 

viverrinus , Dasyurus , {S\\Siw , \%QQi) 51 

wiedii, Poecilma, Germar, 1 824 69 

H'>'o/M/>ige/u/5, Froorfow, Gilmore, 1931 (Opinion 1371) 19 

xantholeuca, Doris ( Glossodoris ) , Ehrenberg, 1831 (Opinion 1375) . 27 

Zeugop/iora Kunze, 1818 (Opinion 1382) 44 

Zygo/75 Schoenherr, 1825 69 



388 



Bull. zool. Nom., vol. 43, pt 4, December 1986 



Vol. 42, part 1 

page 19, line 8 (Opinion 1289) 

Vol. 42, part 3 

page 226, line 14 and 
page 227, line 26 

Vol. 42, part 4 

page 355, line 15 (Opinion 1364) 

Vol. 43, part 2 

page 170, line 34 

page 179, line 14 

page 202, lines 1 1-12 of the 
References 



Vol. 43, part 3 



page 253, line 4 (Opinion 1412) 
page 265, line 41 (Opinion 1416) 



CORRIGENDA 

for ' sowerbiensis'' read ' sowerbensis\ 

for 'Olsen' read 'Olson'. 

for 'Dumeril, 1953' read 'Dumeril, 1853'. 



for 'Napomyza Fallen' read "Phytomyza 

Fallen'. 

for 'minuta Fabricius, 1 744' read 'minuta 

Fabricius, 1794'. 

delete Reference reading ' 1947. 

Some new Cambrian Bellerophont 
Gastropods. Smithson. Misc. Col. vol. 
106, no. 17, pp. 1-1 r. 



for 'ASCIDIAEA' read 'ASCIDIACEA'. 
for "vernum, Simuliua read 'vernum, 
Simulid' . 



PARTICULARS OF DATES OF PUBLICATION OF THE SEVERAL 
PARTS IN WHICH THE PRESENT VOLUME WAS PUBLISHED 



Part No. 

1 
2 
3 
4 



Contents of Part 
(pages) 
1-114 
115-220 
221-314 
315-388 



Date of Publication 

9 April 1986 
9 July 1986 
6 October 1986 
11 December 1986 



INSTRUCTIONS TO BINDER 

The present volume should be bound up as follows: 
T.P. I-VII, 1-388 

Note: The wrappers (covers) of the four parts should be bound in at the end of the 
volume. 



The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature wishes to express 
its appreciation of the facilities provided by the Trustees of the British 
Museum (Natural History) for the Secretariat of the Commission. 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Notices 315 

Special Announcements 316 

Instructions to Authors 317 

Publication of Official Lists 319 

Financial Report for 1985 320 

Comments 

Comment on Apanieles ornigis Weed, 1887 (Hymenoptera). R. A. 

Wharton 324 

Comment on THRESKIORNITHIDAE Richmond, 1917 (Aves). W. J. 

Bock 324 

Opinions 

Opinion 1418. G/v/'/»/J/m.vHubner, [1825] (Insecta, Lepidoptera) . . 325 

Opinion 1419. Demochcetodon Fahlbusch, 1964 (Mammalia, Rodentia) 328 

New and revived cases 

Liasis Gray, 1842 (Reptilia. Serpentes). A. F. Stimson & S. B. McDowell 330 
Filellum serpens (Hassall, 1848) (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa). P. F. S. Cornelius 

&D. R. Calder 335 

Liraewa w/>zaP16tz, 1880(Insecta, Lepidoptera). T. B. Larsen . . . 342 

Paz-a/j/j^'/omza Enderlein, 1936 (Insecta, Diptera). K. A. Spencer . . . 344 

Heriaeus Simon, 1 875 ( Arachnida, Araneida). O. Kraus & A. Loerbroks 346 
Trypanosoma brucei Plimmer & Bradford, 1899 (Protozoa, Mastigo- 

phora). M.E. Tollitt 348 

S/>?7m/;mw ai«/£'M/ Edwards, 1915 (Insecta, Diptera). I. A. Rubtsov . . . 350 

S/mM//fl/er/Mg/nc^a Wahlberg, 1844(Insecta, Diptera). I. A. Rubtsov . . 352 
Belemnites paxillosa Lamarck, 1801 (Mollusca, Coleoidea). P. Doyle & 

W. Riegraf 355 

Co6/m Linnaeus, 1758 (Osteichthyes, Cypriniformes). M. Kottelat . . 360 
Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, 1 797) (Insecta, Coleoptera). R. D. Pope & 

J. C. Watt 363 

Co/-«a/a/M.yAttems, 1931 (Diplopoda, Polydesmida). R. L. Hoffman . . 366 

0/j/M.sWesmael, 1835 (Insecta, Hymenoptera). R.A.Wharton . . . . 369 
Leplura marginata Fabricius, 1781 (Insecta, Coleoptera). M. 

Mroczkowski 372 

Index to Authors 373 

List of Decisions in this volume 375 

Names placed on Official Lists and Indexes in Decisions published in this 

volume 377 

Index to Key Names 380 

Corrigenda 388 

Particulars of the dates of publication of the several parts in which the 

present volume was published 388 

Instructions to Binder 388 












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