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Full text of "Bulletin of photography: the weekly ..., Volume 28; Volumes 700-724"

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BULLETIN OF 
PHOTOGRAPHY 



THE WEEKLY MAGAZINE FOR THE 
PROFESSIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER 



FRANKiV. CHAMBERS JOHN BARTLETT 

EDITORS 



1921 



VOLUME XXVIII 
JANUARY 5 TO JUNE 29. 1921 



FRANK V. CHAMBERS, Publisher 

636 S. FRANKUN SQUARE 



PHILADELPHIA 



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INDEX 



A PAGE 

About Posing -^^8 

About Prices 19 

Accessory 100 

Accessory, X'alue of 614 

Accordance of Ilody with Head Pose 108 

Ad. Style of Vour 99 

Adjusting the Light 565 

Advertise Yourself 631 

Advertise? To Whom Do You 612 

Advertisements, Writing Effective 727, 375. 663 

Advertising, Character in "^73 

Advertising, Direct Mail l'*^ 

Advertising, Getting Results from Your 406 

Advertising, Indirect 587 

Advertising Often Unproductive? Why is 227 

Advertising, Photographs for Effective 150 

Advertising Photographs with Photographs 48 

Alkalies, Relativity of 758- 

AU the Way Through 420 

Am 1 a Success ? ■396 

Apparatus, Printing 10- 

Approach to the Patron, The 643 

Architecture, Some Points About 559 

Art in Framing Pictures 526 

Art, The Question of 69 

Artistic Focus in Portraiture 645 

Atlanta Convention 712, 728 

Attractiveness of Genre 501 

Avoidable Troubles 696 

Avoirdupois vs. Apothecaries 388 

B 

Background for Portraiture 13 

Background, Interest in the 109 

Background and Dark Background. Light 714 

Background Relation, Something About 742 

Background and its Artistic Importance in Por- 
traiture 1^^ 

Backgrounds ^92 

Backgrounds and Its Artistic Importance 617 

Backgrounds for Bust Portraits 265 

Backgrounds, Interest in 293 

Be Careful of Your Speech 214 

"Be Sure You're Right. Then Go Ahead" 301 

Best Pose 568 

Black and White 563 

Bouquet, Photographing a 533 

Brightness of the Image 782 

Bromide and Gaslight Prints, Developing 395 

Bromide Paper, Elon and Glycin for 644 

Bromides, Gradation in 522 

Bromides. \'arious Tones on 774 

Buckley Demonstration, From the 681 

Bumps ^12 

Business. Getting 663 

C 

Camera Club Redi vivus 467 

Canadian Photographers 730. 788 

Careful Posing 726 

Carelessness 180 

Character 101 

Character in Advertising 473 

Character in the Portrait, Get 548 

Character of the Negative 528 

Children, Photographing the 555. 432. 453 

Chloride of Silver Emulsions .. 343 

Color Values, Correct Rendering of 233 

Coloring. Prints for 279 

Commercial Photographers of Chicago 711 

Commerical Photography as a Business or a Side 

Line 489 

Commerical Price Lists 205, 206 

Commercial Tpct Complimentary to Artistic Instinct.. 355 

Comparisons 665 

Competitor Worry You? Does Your 269 

Concentration of Portraiture 623 

Consideration of the Print 611 

Contrasty Negatives. Enlarging from 592 

Control in 1 )evelopmcnt 201 

Controllable Factors in Portraiture 35 

Convention at Buffalo, The National.. 163. 492. 555 
585. 619, 686. "24, 748. 785, 



Convention, Middle Atlantic States.. 429, 452. 459, 

594, 399, 300, 333, 357 

Convention, Missouri X'alley Photographers' 436 

Convention, New England 817 

Convention of the Southwestern P. P. A 439 

Co-Operation, The Customer's 461 

Copy, Preparation of Photographic 550 

Copying, Colored Light in 582 

Correct Rendering of Color X'alues 2ii 

Correcting Distortion in Copy 178 

Costs and Bad Practices 745 

Criticism, Value of Lay 790 

Customer's Co-Operation '♦61 

Customers What They Want. Give Your 726 

D 

Dark-Room Tips '. 138, 646 

Decorative Quality ^ 

Density, Proportionate* 707 

Deposits Come in Photographic Solutions, Why 365 

Depreciation 278 

Depth of Focus 364 

Detail and Impression, Shadow 195 

Detroit Photographers Organize 280 

Developer, Response to the 373 

Developing Bromide and Gas-light Prints 395 

Development and Halation 772 

Development and Lighting 41 

Development, Control in 201 

Development, Energetic 532 

Development in Halation . . 619 

Development, Sepia Tones by 116 

Development, Single or Multiple 586 

Dig 567 

Direct Mail Advertising 142 

Direct Sulphide Toning 336 

Distortion in Copy, Correcting 178 

Does Your Competitor Worry You? 269 

Deaths: 

Alpaugh, Mervin 57 

Atwater, Henry Harrison 438 

Bacon, William 600 

Brooks, Frank E 246 

Busser, Oscar W 281 

Chase, Sumner J 794 

Dow, J. Frank 438 

Dozer, Leonard A 235, 309 

Finley. Robert 538 

Finnell, John Warren 762 

Frees, Oliver Perry 730 

Fryett, Frank C 121 

Griffith, S. S 438 

Hammer, Ludwig F 587 

Haynes, Frank Jay 409 

Howard, Garrett W 438 

Johnson, Sven A 281 

Jordan, Joseph A 121 

Knee, Ellis W , 246 

Lenske, Louis 246 

Lett, James 761 

Lovejoy, Charles L 694 

Mason, Oscar G 409 

Micklethwaite. J 730 

Milloy, Paul Neil 600 

Morrison, Wm. M 538 

Nelson. C. .\ 666 

Ollivier. Horace M 342 

Pascal. B. Robert 777 

Post, F. E 121 

Power, Luke Watterman 57 

Rosser, David 121 

Salmela, Isak Hemming 217 

Schlappig, Herman Adam 24 

Stampfer. Oswald 342 

Taft, Edwin R 438 

Townscnd. Charles Henry 24 

Ward. Henry D 

Wyatt, Arthur D 694 

E 

Easter Booklets 1 70 

Eastman Kodak Co.. Government Suit Against the ..211 

Eastman Professional School 44, 45 

Economics of Price Increase 805 

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Bulletin of Photography 



PAGE 

Economy Plus 820 

Effect of Strong Illumination 80 

Effective Showcase 691 

Elon and Glycin for Bromide Paper 644 

Emulsion, Chloride of Silver 343 

Emulsions. Home-Made 276 

Energetic Development 532 

Enlargement, Negatives for 86 

Enlargements, Subduing Granularity in '. 9 

Enlarging from Contrasty Negatives 592 

Equity in Prices 483 

Ethical Duty of the Photographer 739 

Exposing, What to Do in 524 

Expression, Illumination Aid to 717 

Expression, Securing the 359 

Eye Education 73 

Eyes, Direction of the 228 

Eyes Right. The 334 

Eyes. L'sing Your 806 

F 

Face, Study the 566 

Factor Success, The 387 

Fading of Prints 167 

Fallacies, Inconsistencies and Plain "Bull" 389 

Farmer, Photographing the 422 

Fighting for Business 652 

Figure Study Portraits 568 

Fishy! 710 

Flat Lighting 67 

Flattening Mounts, Methods for 569 

Focus, Depth of 364 

Focus in Portraiture, The Artistic 64d 

Form Letters 261 

Formulae, and How to Read Them 493 

Framing Pictures, Fine Art in 526 

Full-Lcnglh Photographs, A Fault in 212 

Full-Length Portraits 708 

G 

Genre. Attractiveness of 501 

Gerhard Engaged in Philanthropic Enterprise, Miss. 464 

Getting Results From Your Advertising 406 

(iive Technique a Chance 4 

Government Suit Against the Eastman Kodak Co. ..211 

Graber's Address, P. P. A. of Chicago 83 

Gradation in Bromides 522 

(irades of Development Papers 1* 

Greatest Vulgarity 249 

Groups, Something About 423 

H 

Halation and Development 772 

Halation, Development in 618 

Half -Tone and Shadow 715 

Hardness, To Remedy 151 

Have Conception of the Pose 468 

Head. Position of the 228 

High-Class Portraiture 43 

Home 54 

Home-Made Emulsions 276 

Honestly Put 547 

How to Have Good Help 297 

How We Grow , 675 

I 

Idea for Signs 475 

Illumination Aid to Expression 717 

Hlumination, The Effect of Strong 80 

Illumination, Simplicity in Portrait 804 

Image, Brightness of the 782 

Importance of Sentiment in Portraiture 78 

**In Passing By" 291 

In Praise of Photography 419 

Income Tax ..22, 56, 99, 105. 110, 119, 184. 280 308, 471 

Indirect Advertising 587 

Individuality 687 

Interest in Background 109, 293 

Interiors, A Word on 16 

Inventory. More About Your 21 

Is Your Stationery Good ? 234 



K. PAGE 

Knowledge for All 694 



Legal Department 12, 42, 76. 143, 173, 198, 210, 

238, 273, 304, 338, 367, 394, 402, 427, 497, 523, 556, 

588, 621, 626, 650. 685, 709, 719. 753, 778, 811, 816 

Letters, Form 261 

Letters to the Editor 356 

Lewis' New Studio 266 

Light, Adjusting the 565 

Light Background and Dark Background 714 

Light, Misplaced 5 1 6 

Lights Tell, Where the Reflex 688 

Lighting 369 

Lighting and Development 41 

Lighting, Flat 67 

Lighting, The Study of 430 

Living Pose, The 37 

M 

Making It Do 229 

Management 665 

Marginal Definition 146 

Measuring Chemicals 590 

Mechanical Pose, The 332 

Middle Atlantic States Convention 300. 333, 357, 

399, 429, 452, 459, 594 

Mmimizing Defects in Sitters i69 

Misplaced Light 516 

Missouri Valley Photographers' Convention ........ 436 

Motive in Portraiture 213 

Mounts, Methods for Flattening 569 



National Convention at Buffalo 163, 492, 555, 

585, 619, 686, 724, 748*, 785 

Negative, Character of the 528 

Negative Drying 37 

Negatives for Enlargement 86 

New England Convention 817 

New York State Photographers 217 



Outline, Unpleasant 75 

Objects in Space Allotted, Distribution of 580 

Obtain Success 344 

O-M-I Convention 666. 689. 784 

On Being Original 452 

On Knowing It 557 

Once ...!!! 536 

Outline in the Portrait, Good 818 



P. A. of A. Convention at Buffalo 163. 492, 555, 

585, 619, 686, 724, 748. 785 

P. A. of A. School of Photography 307 

Pacific Northwest Photographers' Association 788 

Papers, Grades of Development 15 ' 

Patron, The Approach of the 643 

Pictorial Construction 242 

Personal Letter. The 202 

Perspective of the Portrait 620 

Perspective on the Job 658 

Pictorial Intention 174 

Picture. Some Effect in the 113 

Picture.' What Is the Purpose of Your 579 

Pictures in Everyday Life 683 

Pittsburgh Photographers 411. 786 

Philadelphia Photographers 247 

Photographic Solutions I68 

Photographic Subjects 259 

Photographing a Bouquet 533 

Photographing the Children 432, 453, 555 

Photographing Medals and Coins 376 

Photographing the Farmer 422 

Photographs, A Fault in Full-Length 272 

Photographs for Effective Advertising 150 

Photographs With Photographs, Advertising 48 

Photographer, Selling a 484 

Photographer Sued — Prints Wrong Picture 505 

Photography as a Means of Livelihood 803 

Photography During and After the War 677 

Photography in a Hurry m... 239T 

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IV 



Bulletin of Photography 



PACE 

Photography, In Praise of 419 

Photography, The Teeth in 52 

Plates. Red Lamps and Rapid 377 

Playing the Game 119 

Points About Typography 74 

P. O. P. Toning 299 

Portrait and Its Contributaries 654 

Portrait, Get Character in the 548 

Portrait, Good Outline in the 818 

Portrait, Perspective of the 620 

Portrait Photography, Stunt 582 

Portraits, Backgrounds for Bust 265 

Portraits, Figure Study 568 

Portraits, Full-Length 708 

Portraits That Please 298 

Portraiture, Background and Its Artistic Importance 

in 131 

Portraiture, Background for 13 

Portraiture, Conception of 623 

Portraiture, Controllable Factors in 35 

Portraiture, High-Class 43 

Portraiture, Importance of Sentiment in 651 

Portraiture, Motive in 213 

Portraiture, Some Minor Points in 503 

Pose, Accordance of Body With Head 108 

Pose, Have Conception of the 468 

Pose, The Best 568 

Pose, The Living 37 

Pose, The Mechanical 332 

Posing, About 398 

Posing, Careful 726 

Position of the Head and Direction of the Eyes 228 

Practical Experiment • 324 

Preparing for June 495 

Preparing for Spring 1 96 

Preparation of Photographic Copy 550 

Price Increase, Economics of 805 

Price, Where to Put Your 781 

Prices. About 19 

Prices, Equity in 483 

Print, Consideration of the 611 

Print Transparent, To Make a 260 

Printing Apparatus 102 

Printing Out Paper. Rapid 179 

Prints for Coloring 279 

Prints, The Fading of 167 

Profession, The Status of the 323 

Professional Parasites 515 

Proportionate Density 707 

Q 
Question of Art 69 

R 

Rainbow Chaser, The 740 

Rapid Printing Out Paper 179 

Reason Why We Retouch 457 

Restoring Faded Silver Prints 537 

Red Lamps and /Rapid Plates 377 

Relativity of Alkalies 758 

Response to the Developer 37i 

Retouching and Texture 137 

Retouching on the Eye 443 

Retouching Varnish 10 

Rule and Restriction 460 

S 

Salesmanship • 682 

Satisfied 133 

Say What You Mean 302 

School Work, Your Spring 627 

Securing the Expression 359 

Sell Yourself 360 

Sell Your Skill 23 

Selling a Photographer 48-4 

Sentiment in Portraiture, Importance of 651 

Sepia Tones by Development 116 

"Service Is the Word 793 

Shadow and Half-Tone 715 

Shadow. Detail and Impression . 195 

Show 'Em as Well as Tell 'Em 780 

Showcase, An Eflfective 691 



PAGE 

Showcase Notices, Window and 326 

Signs, Here Is an Idea for 475 

Silver Prints. Restoring Faded 537 

Simplicity of Portrait Illumination 804 

Single or Multiple Development 586 

Sitters, Minimizing Defects in 169 

Sitter's Choice. The 207 

Solutions^ Photographic 168 

Some Effect in the Picture 113 

Some Minor Points in Portraiture 503 

Some Points About Architecture 559 

Something About Background Relation 742 

Something About Groups 423 

Southeastern Photographers 712, 728 

Southwestern P. P. A., Convention of the 439 

Space Allotted, Distribution of Objects in 580 

Spring, Preparing for 196 

Staining Prints 411 

Stationery and How to LTse It 202 

Stationery Good ? Is Your 234 

Status of the Profession 323 

Studiograms : 356 

Study of Lighting, The 430 

Study the Face 566 

Study, What to 676 

Stunt Portrait Photography 582 

Style of Your Ad 99 

Subduing Granularity in Enlargements 9 

Success •« 525 

Success ? Am I a 396 

Success For Sale 79 

Success, The Factor 3&7 

System Successful 567 

T 

Tact in Dealing With the Patron 771 

Technique a Chance, Give 4 

Teeth in Photography 52 

Texture and Retouching 137 

Thoughts on Life and Business 87 

To Please ? 5 

To Remedy Hardness . .• 151 

To Whom Do You Advertise ? 612 

Tomorrow 537 

Toning. Direct Sulphide 336 

Toning P. O. F 299 

Trade Acceptances, Some Difficulties of 650 

Transparent, To Make a Print 260 

Typography, Points About 74 

U 

L'npleasant Outline 75 

Usinj Your Eyes 806 

\' 

\'aluc of Accessory 614 

\alue of Lay Criticism 790 

Various Tones on Bromides 774 

X'ignetting -^^ 

W 

War Amongst Photographers 695 

"We Can Live Without Art. But — " 175 

What Is the Purpose of Your Picture? 579 

What to Do in Exposing 524 

What to Study 676 

What's the Use? 330 

Where the Rertex Lights Tell 688 

Where to Put Your Price 781 

Why Deposits Come in Photographic Solutions 365 

Why Is Advertising Often Unproductive 227 

Window and Showcase Notices 326 

Word on Interiors 16 

Work-Room Economy 661 

Worthy of His Hire 107 

Writing Effective Advertisements 727, 375, 663 

Y 

You Can't Stand Still 684 

Youngstown Photographers 784 

Your Photographic Association 518 

Your Spring School Work ^ . . , | • • 627 

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No. 700 



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BULLETIN-OF 
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[trade mark registered] 

IN WHICH IS INCORPORATED "tHE PHOTOGRAPHER" ANO THK "ST. LOUIS AND CANADIAN PHOTOGRAPHER" 

THE WEEKLY BUSINESS PAPER FOR BUSINESS PHOTOGRAPHERS 

ess FrankUn Square {cor. 7ih and Race Sts.) Philadelphia 

FRANK V. CHAMBERS, Editor and Publisher JOHN BARTLETT, Associate Editor 

A. A. SCHENCK, Business Manager 



Yearly subscription, in advance, postage paid. United States, Mexico, Cuba. Philippines and Porto Rico, $2.00. 

Canada, $2.50. Countries in the Postal Union. $3.00. Single copies. 5 cents. 
Remittances may be made at our risk by money order, check, draft or registered letter. 
Items of interest upon photographic subiects will be gladly received. 
Subscriptions received by all photographic and news dealers in the United States and Europe. 



Vol. XXVm, No. 700 Wednesday, January 5, 1921 



Price 5 CenU 
$2.00 per Year, Post Free 



Decorative Quality 

JOHN BARTLETT 



A picture in one sense is an arrange- 
ment of the elements of which it is com- 
posed so as to produce an agreeable im- 
pression. If the various parts are not 
associated in concordance, the result is 
disagreeable to the sense of vision. There 
are other qualities demanded of a picture 
besides the decorative — such as the motive, 
dramatic eflPect, expression, etc., but withal, 
it is essential to pictorial reproduction that 
our subject should conform to the natural 
law^s of harmony and rhythm demanded of 
all art. The public keeps insisting that the 
picture should express some intellectual 
meaning. The average person wants to 
know what the picture means, and if the 
story is pleasant, pathetic, or even tragic, 
he is satisfied ; but the artist is not par- 
ticularly interested in a pretty face or a 
delightful landscape. He does not care for 
what a picture means, but how it looks to 
his artistic eye. He notes whether the 
figures are well drawn, rightly placed, 
agreeable in line, associated eflFectively in 
light and shade and color, what is the 
eflPect of the picture as a whole, has the 
artist handled his material in the right way, 
has he fitted the allotted space properly. 



has he brought together lights and shades 
truthfully. H he has accomplished all this, 
to the painter's eye he has done infinitely 
more than if he has told most effectively a 
story, in terms of light and shade, line and 
color. 

The art of the average person is ad- 
dressed more to the intellect. The art 
which the painter seeks informs his <nesthetic 
sense, in the way music affects. In a word, 
a picture to the artist has a decorative 
meaning. This does not imply that the 
painter has no power of appreciation of 
the poetic in art, has no heart for the 
pathetic, or intellect for sublimity. All 
great art demands these moral qualities, 
but at the same time it is essential that art, 
to be great, must have also the decorative 
quality. 

The decorative sense goes back to pre- 
historic art. The cave dwellers in France 
and Spain give evidence to a fine sense of 
harmony of line and color. The man of 
the Stone Age ornamented his rude 
weapons of the chase and his domestic 
utensils with color and delicate tracings, 
exhibiting his delight in such performance. 
It is worth noticing, too, how this primi- 



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Bulletin of Photography 



tive artist recognized the problem that he 
had a certain space to fill up in a way most 
pleasing to the eye. Just the same problem 
which confronts the artist of the day. He 
appreciated the fact that a vase surface 
required a certain design, an open, free 
sort of a pattern diflFerent from that suitable 
for the haft of his spear. It was not long 
before the decorative quality counted for 
much and that space looked much more 
pleasing when symmetrically filled than 
when the drawing was used merely to con- 
vey some intelligence in the shape of arrow 
heads and squares and circles — that is, 
had literar\' import instead of artistic. We 
cannot follow decoration historically, but 
you see in Egyptian and Assyrian and par- 
ticularly in Persian art how the wall paint- 
ers tried to express in a way pleasing to 
the eye the dull records imposed upon their 
craft ; and how, despite the superstitious 
restrictions, they sometimes break their 
fetters and give posterity something de- 
lightful in the decorative quality. With 
unfettered Greek art this decorative filling 
of space reached perfection. We need only 
call your attention to the marvelous way in 
which the difficulty-to-handle-space of the 
Parthenon frieze is filled with figures of 
men and animals. I^ok at an ancient 
Greek coin, how decoratively the confined 
space is filled up. Compare the effect with 
some recent coin productions of our mint — 
full of a mass of ill-assorted objects. The 
Greek is influenced solely by the decorative 
effect. The American die-sinker wants to 
give you a whole history of the United 
States on a dime. 

When painting began to rise in Italy, 
it was called on by the church — certain 
architectural spaces in the church had to be 
filled, ovals, triangles, panels, recesses in 
the apex, the dome, the ceiling and back 
of the altar. We note the tentative way in 
which this filling up of space is done, but 
there is always a desire to produce a deco- 
rative effect, unpleasantly mechanical at 
times, for it was only when Giotto came 
that we see some refinement and taste in 



the decoration. Then came Masaccio and 
Raphael and Michael Angelo, who show us 
how space may be perfectly filled with lines 
and forms. If you study the Sistine Ma- 
donna just for the line effect in relation to 
the space in which the figures are placed, 
and note, for instance, the reason for the 
flowing curve of the veil, you will see how 
this simple decorative device contributes to 
decorative quality of the picture. 

Modern art is full of telling examples of 
the value of decoration. It has taken hold 
of the old problem and tried to extend 
further the application. We might safely 
say that no painter of the present day be- 
gins upon an oval, square or triangular 
panel without first definitely planning out 
the method of best filling the space with 
lines, forms, shades, lights and colors. 
**What is the decorative quality?" is the 
question with him of first consideration, 
so we think that the photographer should, 
before undertaking his picture, and indeed, 
all the time during its inception, constantly 
keep in view what effect this or that line, 
this or that area, shall have upon the gen- 
eral decorative eflPect of the picture. 

Give Technique a Chance 

Did the artistic photographer, who, sees 
nothing but esthetics in photography, ever 
stop a moment to consider that the high 
phase which modern artistic photography 
has attained is due solely to the more per- 
fect methods of reproduction we now en- 
joy over the workers in the art a half- 
century ago ? Or that these chemical means 
of expression, which translate so effectively 
his high aspirations, are due solely and 
singly to the untiring laboratory w^orkers? 
We are not depreciating photographic art ; 
rather would we hold up the hands of those 
who are exalting its prerogatives, but we 
would make a plea for more interest on the 
part of the profession for the equally im- 
portant technical and scientific phase. 

Even Icarus did not disdain to construct 
the best possible mechanical contrivance in 



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Bulletin of Photography 



his presumptuous aviator>' feat. Yet he 
might have outwitted even Phoebus if his 
wings had been made to resist the influence 
of Old Sol. 

Photography is most essentially a scientific 
art, and even those who have only artistic 
aspirations will fall afoul of their high goal 
if they neglect the means by which photo- 
graphic art alone can advance. 

It is deplorable to note the ahnost uni- 
versal disregard of the average professional 
for the chemistry of photography, and yet 
we get letter after letter, inquiring for ex- 
planation of the cause of failure in the 
working of some recommended formula. 
They protest that they have Hterally fol- 
low^ed directions, and are loud in their in- 
nuendoes about careless editors and faulty 
proofs. Yet the very questions they desire 
elucidated display their woeful ignorance 
of the fundamental principles of the photo- 
graphic science. 

The photographer who has a good 
chemical acqaintance with what relates to 
his profession is able of himself to sur- 
mount impediments. He at once perceives 
what is wrong, and is able, intelligently, to 
modify or adapt to varying conditions. 

Ever}' earnest worker is aware that the 
conditions under which our work is done 
are liable to very considerable variations, 
and when the unexpected equation presents 
itself, they are able either to solve it or to 
determine its impracticabihty. 

(^ne may have plain saihng and a pros- 
perous voyage while things flow cahnly and 
no adverse winds present, and a feeHng of 
security as to results may make one in- 
ch fFerent to the necessity of more than rule- 
of-thumb methods; but a time may come, 
doubtlessly has come to some of us, when 
conditions are not so uniform, and when 
the mechanical means are not adequate — 
factors with which it is impossible to cope, 
because of our ignorance of the principles 
of the science. Then we are the mere slaves 
of circumstance; then we appreciate that 
these imexpected conditions have mastered 
us, because of our lack of knowledge. 



To Please 



.? 



C. H. CLAUDY 

For whom do you make photographs? 
Your customers? Your critics? Or your- 
self? 

Sounds easy to answer. You will proba- 
bly say you make your pictures to please 
your customers and that if you please them, 
you are satisfied. But the chances are that 
you are all wrong in thus answering, and that 
you are only satisfied to please your cus- 
tomers with pictures which please them // 
the pictures at the same time please you. 

A man went to an architect and said, 'T 
want to build a house. I know exactly what 
I want, in a house, but I don't know any- 
thing about drawing plans. Will you take 
my ideas and make the plans accordingly?" 

The architect said he would, ver\^ gladly. 
So the man and the architect w^nt to work. 
The man wanted three towers on his house, 
covered each with a different color tile. He 
wanted a Colonial porch, a Gothic front 
door, a mid- Victorian piazza and a Spanish 
colonnade. He wanted the kitchen in front 
and the parlor on the third floor and the 
library down celler. And when he had 
finished laying out his crazy dream, the 
architect drew a long breath and said, "My 
dear sir, I can't afford to make your house 
for you. I'd Hke your fee, but the shock to 
my reputation would be such that I'd have 
to go out of business. You will find plenty 
of architects competent to erect this house 
by applying to the nearest insane asylum." 

If you go to a doctor and tell him your 
symptoms and he prescribes a course of 
treatment and you say to him, *'but that 
isn't the way I ought to be treated, I want 
you to order me to Europe and to take ex- 
tract of green peas three times a day," your 
doctor will ask you who in time is the 
doctor, anyway, and show you the door. If 
you go to a dentist and he finds a hole in 
one tooth, you don't demand that he fill 
another tooth. If you did he would have 
none of you. If you went to a sculptor to 
be sculpted and demanded a third hand or 



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two heads because you thought you'd look 
better that way, he'd laugh at you. 

If you go into Tiffany's and ask for imi- 
tation diamonds, they would refer you to 
some dealer in such things. If you go to a 
Steinway dealer and ask for a cheap piano 
for the children's play house in the yard, 
you are shown where to go — but it isn't 
there. 

In other words, people who make things, 
or deal in things, or produce things, have 
their own standards of what is good and 
bad and wrong, and they won't alter them 
for the cranky or the exceptional customer. 

You are probably no exception to the 
general rule. You may say you make pic- 
tures just to please customers, but if you do 
a normal thirty-dollar-a-dozen business and 
someone comes in and asks you for a dozen 
ping-pongs at two for a quarter, do you 
make them ? You do not. Why don't you ? 
Because there is no profit? Not at all. 
There is always profit in pleasing a cus- 
tomer, even at a temporary loss. You do 
not make the little pictures because you 
can't afford to compromise with your repu- 
tation, because you don't want your name on 
such work, because, though the pictures 
might please your small-pursed customer, 
they wouldn't please you. 

If a customer comes in and asks for a 
colored photograph, do you supply it ? You 
may show an enlargement carefully tinted. 
Hut suppose the customer says, **\Vhat I 
want is something brilliant, not all pale and 
washed out, like that. I want lips and 
cheeks red and hair yellow and dress bright 
blue, so I'll have some color on my walls." 
Do you supply it? You do not. Why don't 
you? There would be much profit in it, for 
this sort of coloring takes not an artist, but 
a dauber — and daubers are cheap. You 
just can't square it with your conscience, 
that's why. You can't put out work you 
know to be bad work, poor work, inartistic 
work, work you are ashamed of, just to get 
the money. Isn't that true? 

Of course it is. Well, then, if you have 
ever asked yourself the question. "How shall 



I raise the standard of my work, and make 
my customers contented to accept the 
change?" here is the answer. The only suc- 
cessful way is to raise your own standards. 
When you have raised your personal 
standards to the point where nothing less 
than the best will suit you, then nothing less 
than the best will be given to your cus- 
tomers. For, look you, there are plenty of 
ping-pong photographers and plenty who 
put out daubs for colored enlargements. 
They take the money and are happy. You 
can't. If you put yourself in a position 
where you cannot supply pictures which 
your customers will take, because those 
pictures don't suit you, you will inevitably 
raise the standards of your custom. 

The vast majority of people are honest. 
You are honest — not only honest in that 
you will not take what doesn't belong to 
you. but will not give, for money what 
doesn't suit you as honest value for the 
money? You do not make pictures solely 
to please your customers — you want to 
please them, but you must please yourself 
first. It is this which makes you an artist, 
as it is this which makes you honest in 
mind as well as in act. It is this, too, which 
makes it possible for you to do an artist's 
part in the world — which is to increase the 
love of and the amount of beauty the world 
possesses. The higher your standard, the 
less you can compromise with indifferent 
ideals of pictures, the higher the standards 
of those you serve must be — and when you 
come to cast up the final balance sheet in 
this, will lie more profit and satisfaction 
than was ever yet or ever will be expressed 
with the $ sign. 



C Even the goods 
are from Missouri 
— they ought to be 
shou)n. 



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August W. Albrecht 
Courtesy of Eduard Blum Norheim, Cer. 

Chicago 



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G. J. Von Duehren 
Courtesy of Eduard Blum Berlin 

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On Subduing Granularity in Enlargements 



There is not much to complain of at the 
present time with regard to the coarseness 
of the grain of plates even of the most 
rapid type. It was different a decade or so 
ago, when an extra rapid plate meant a 
considerable amoimt of granularity of the 
image. Thanks, however, to the skill of the 
plate-makers that is a thing of the past 
with most brands of extra rapid plates at 
present on the market. We now gee exceed- 
ingly quick plates with a grain almost as 
fine as that of plates of ordinary rapidity. 
Still the grain of the ultra-rapid plates, al- 
though not visible when the negative is ex- 
amined by the eye, may show in a marked 
degree if an enlargement is made from it 
to a degree of, say, ten or twelve diameters. 
The granularity is usually more pro- 
nounced if the enlargement is made by ar- 
tificial light, as in the enlarging lantern, 
than when diffused daylight is employed. 

It is by no means an uncommon thing for 
a photographer to have to produce an en- 
largement, say, a life-size head, from an 
original which may be of the cabinet size or 
smaller, and very often from a paper print. 
This, of course, is a great magnification. 
If it w^ere only three or four diameters 
the coarseness of the grain would in some 
instances pass almost unnoticed, but with 
the great amplification it may become most 
objectionable. The question for considera- 
tion is how may the granularity be re- 
duced to a minimum, for it is obvious that 
when the grain is very conspicuous it en- 
tails a considerable amount of extra work 
in the way of finishing in monochrome or 
color. 

We shall first consider the case where an 
enlarged negative is required to be after- 
w-ard printed from in the ordinary w^ay. 
In this case it will be necessary to prepare 
a transparency, say by contact printing on 
a dry plate, or by the carbon process. If 
in making the enlarged negative from the 
transparency the lens be put slightly out 
of focus, the sharpness of the image will 



not be materially impaired, but the granu- 
larity will be far less conspicuous than if 
the image were sharply focused, and if the 
enlargement is not great it will scarcely be 
noticeable. It may be thought by some that 
making the enlargement a little out of focus 
would be as objectionable as would be the 
granularity, but in practice that is not the 
case, for if the eyes and the darker parts 
are strong and bold the picture will seem 
sharper than it really is, and, what is more, 
if these portions be roughly sharpened up in 
the print with water color, it will alter the 
general appearance of the picture greatly 
for the better. It is in the lighter portions 
that the granularity is so conspicuous. The 
enlarged negative can, of course, be re- 
touched and much of the coarseness got 
rid of in that w^ay. In the development of 
the enlarged negative it should be made 
strong and vigorous, so as to get the blacks 
as bold as possible in the print, as they then 
do not as a rule exhibit the granularity 
visible in the other portions. In connection 
with this method of ameliorating granu- 
larity, we may mention one case which came 
under our notice some few years ago. For 
publication purposes it was required to en- 
large a number of old wax paper negatives 
of very artistic landscapes. Of course, the 
negative showed the grain of the paper very 
strongly, and it was necessary that this 
should be suppressed as much as possible 
in the enlargements. The originals were 
about the half -plate size, and the enlarge- 
ments were about 16 x 13. The method pur- 
sued was as follow\s : Carbon transparencies 
wert made from the small negatives, and 
from them the enlarged negatives were pro- 
duced. In making them a R. R. lens, having 
a great deal of spherical aberration, was 
employed. The lens was really a very bad 
one from an optician's point of view, as it 
would not yield crisp definition unless it 
was well stopped down, but in this case it 
was worked at its full aperture. The en- 
larged negatives were made of considerable 



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vigor in the development. The finished pic- 
tures showed very httle granularity. 

Another way of reducing the apparent 
granularity when an enlarged negative of 
a portrait is used is to mask out the back- 
ground entirely and print in another with 
a graduated tint, for it is in the background 
that the granularity is always the most 
conspicuous, and if that be got rid of and 
another introduced the rest of the picture 
is seen to be much improved in appearance. 
Still another way of subduing the grain in 
enlarged negatives may be mentioned. 
Here, again, it is assumed that the nega- 
tive has been made tolerably strong in the 
development. It is put into the printing 
frame and a print made. When it is about 
half-printed the blacks will have consider- 
able vigor, while the lighter portions are 
but very faint and show but little of the 
granularity. At this point, between the 
negative and the partially made print, a 
sheet or two of thin celluloid are interposed 
and the printing continued to the propef 
depth. In this way much of the pro- 
nounced granularity will be got rid of and 
a good result obtained. The first printing 
secures the necessary sharpness and detail, 
while the second produces a certain amount 
of diffusion, which greatly reduces the gran- 
ularity without materially interfering with 
the definition of the more prominent por- 
tions secured in the first. 

In the foregoing we have been assuming 
that enlarged negatives are employed, but 
at the present time the greater number of 
enlargements have to be made direct from 
the original or bromide paper, and here we 
have not the same scope for getting over 
the trouble. One very general way is to 
make the enlargement with the lens slightly 
out of focus, as mentioned when dealing 
with the enlarged negative. But there is a 
marked difference between a picture taken 
with a lens that gives critical definition, 
put out of focus, and one that has a certain 
amount of spherical aberration worked at 
its best focus. This is well exemplified in 
the portrait lenses,* in which spherical aber- 



ration (''diffusion of focus") can be intro- 
duced at will. A lens with a good amount 
of spherical aberration is best to use when 
granularity is to be reduced to a minimum, 
and thus what is, optically speaking, an 
inferior instrument may at the same time 
be the best photographic tool in some cir- 
cumstances. Most R. R. lenses, even those 
by good makers, are not free from spherical 
aberration, and an imaged focused with a 
small stop will not be at its sharpest if that 
be removed and the image examined with 
the full opening. Advantage may be taken 
of this to reduce the granularity in en- 
larging. The image is focused with the 
smallest stop, and, say, half the exposure 
made; then the stop is removed and the 
necessary exposure completed with the full 
aperture. The first exposure will secure 
the necessary detail in the thinner parts of 
the negative, and the second will yield a 
certain amount of diffusion in the grain, 
thereby reducing its conspicuousness. An- 
other plan sometimes adopted is to slightly 
alter the focus of the picture by moving the 
easel, carrying paper slightly backward or 
forward after a portion only of the ex- 
posure has been made. — The British Jour- 
nal of Photography. 

Retouching Varnish 

The making of varnish for photographic 
purpose is one fortunately no longer neces- 
sitated, as it requires much care and atten- 
tion to detail and, besides, is attendant with 
risk when the formula demands the use of 
heat. In the collodion period every nega- 
tive had to be varnished to protect the film 
from abrasion, but the introduction of the 
gelatine plate did away with the need of 
varnished surface. The only use the 
photographer now has for a varnish is for 
the purpose of forming a hard surface for 
retouching the negative, and so we shall con- 
fine our fornuilae to methods of preparing. 

COLD VARNISHES 

There is or was on the market a varnish 
called *'Cr\'star' varnish, which enjoyed 
some reputation. It is an ammonia varnish 



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containing shellac. Shellac dissolved in 
alcohol does not yield a clear film, but the 
addition of ammonia results in the forma- 
tion of a very clear film upon the cold sur- 
face of the plate. 

The ammonia is added after solution of 
the shellac in the alcohol. 

Another way to make the ammonia shellac 
varnish, which is considered the best : 

Ammonia-alcohol 3^ ounces 

Shellac 120 grains 

.Vmmonia-alcohol is a solution of am- 
monia gas and alcohol. 

I f a thicker varnish is wanted, you may 
increase the content of the shellac to 140 
grains. 

The shellac will merely swell up in the 
ammonia-alcohol, but if the flask is slightly 
heated, the varnish flows nicely and uni- 
formly over the negative and forms an 
excellent surface for the retouching lead. 

The following cold varnish furnishes a 
rapidly drying and very hard surface : 

One ounce of copal (best) and 1 dram of 
amher are finely pulverized and mixed with 

Ether 11 ounces 

.Acetone 8 ounces 

Chloroform 3 drams 

These gums are brought to solution by 
prolonged digestion in the solvents and 
shaking from time to time. 

Let stand and pour off clear portion. 

It forms a quick drying, clear and hard 
film, very good for retouching. 

Benzole Cold Varnishes. — The principal 
ingredient of this kind of cold varnish is 
sandarac or gum damar. X'arnishes pre- 
pared with the latter gum are always softer 
than the former. As these gums dissolve 
only with difficulty in benzole, artificial 
means must be employed, by treating the 
gum first with a little alcohol and then 
adding the necessary quantity benzoic. If 
proceeded with in this manner, clear var- 
nishes are obtained, which furnish a solid; 
but by employing gum damar, a slowly 
hardening, clear film. 



A good formula of this kind is the fol- 
lowing : 

Benzole 3 ounces 

Alcohol 3 drams 

Gum damar 120 grains 

This gum can also be applied to papers, 
and for this purpose a corresponding dilu- 
tion is necessary. 

Collodion Cold Varnish. — Varnishes of 
this kind sold in market (crystalline, brasso- 
line, Zapon-varnish) mostly all contain 
amylacetate. They consist of collodion, 
which has been dissolved in amylacetate and 
acetone with or without the addition of ben- 
zole and sometimes camphor. 

The quantity of amylacetate in these var- 
nishes makes the use of the same under cer- 
tain circumstances very disagreeable, but 
they form very solid and well-adhering 
films. 

Such a varnish can easily be produced by 
pouring 32 ounces acetone upon 40 grs. 
collodion wool (soluble cotton) and then 
adding a mixture of 64 ounces amylacetate 
and 64 oz. benzole. The so-obtained solution 
still contains small fibers of undissolved 
pyroxyline and is, therefore, somewhat 
cloudy, but is cleared the same way as col- 
lodion by filtering and precipitation. 

Finally, we will mention a varnish not 
in the market, but an improvement on the 
ordinary benzol varnish. 

This varnish can be obtained by mixing : 

Sandarac 3>2 ounces 

l>enzole 15 ounces 

Acetone 16 ounces 

Alcohol 8 ounces 

And after solution filtering the same 
through paper. The varnish can be pro- 
duced quickly, particularly if heated care- 
fully in the water bath, clears well, and 
gives clear, quickly drying films, which are 
harder than those which are furnished by 
the ordinary benzole cold varnishes which 
frequently contain damar. 

The world's champ prevaricator lives in New 
^'ork. He claims he has seen a magazine cover 
girl in real life. — Nciv York Evening Mail. 



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OUR LEGAL DEPARTMENT 

CONDUCTED BY ELTON J. BUCKLEY, ESQ. 

(Mr. Buckley is one of the leading members of the Philadelphia Bar, and an authority on legal matters. 
If our subscribers have questions on legal points, and submit them to us, Mr. Buckley will answer them 
free of charge, A stamped and addressed envelope must be enclosed for reply. Make your question brief 
and write on one side of the paper only.) 



More About Business Insurance Under the 
Income Tax Law 



A short time ago I wrote an article dis- 
cussing a ruling by the Internal Revenue 
Department regarding the status of business 
insurance under the income tax law. 
Readers hereof know that it has come to be 
the common practice, among business men 
in all lines, to insure for the benefit of the 
business, the hfe of a partner, or a corporate 
officer, or a valuable employee. This is on 
the theory that the death of the man insured 
would be a loss to the business, which the 
insurance money would at least in part 
recoup. 

The premiums on this kind of insurance 
sometimes run large, and a controversy arose 
between certain business houses and the 
Internal Revenue Department as to whether 
the premiums could be deducted from gross 
income as "expense." The Department 
made a regulation that they could be de- 
ducted only when the insurance policy was 
necessary to give to some creditor as col- 
lateral for a loan. For example : A and B 
carry a firm policy on the life of A, who is 
a particularly valuable man. If that policy 
is merely held by the firm for protection 
against A*s death, the premiums cannot be 
deducted. But if the policy is needed and 
used as collateral security to enable A & B 
to borrow money, the premiums are con- 
sidered a business expense, and can be 
deducted. 

My article was inspired by the fact that 
shrewd insurance solicitors were trying to 
sell that class of insurance on the argument 
that it would be easy to get the premiums 
deducted as business expense by using the 
policy as collateral whether creditors asked 
for it or not. In other words, forcing the 



policy on creditors as security, the insurance 
men argued would legally entitle the pre- 
miums to be deducted. 

I differed in that, and expressed the 
opinion that any such course would be 
considered a fraud on the Government 
carrying a heavy penalty, and that premiums 
on business insurance would be legally de- 
ductible as expense only when used in good 
faith as collateral security, and on the credi- 
tor's demand. Now comes the Salt I^ke 
City, Utah, office of the New York Life In- 
surance Company, which saw the article and 
sends in the following : 

I cannot agree with all the things in- 
ferred in Mr. Buckley's article. He 
seems to infer that life insurance 
solicitors would be breaking the laws if 
they induced the purchase of business 
insurance by appealing to the selfish 
interest of firms or corporations by 
pointing out that they would be saving 
part of the money they would ordi- 
narily be obligated to pay in income 
taxes. The bone of contention is 
whether the insurance is necessary to 
help the credit of the firm or corpora- 
tion adopting it. In this connection I 
could cite you volumes of evidence that 
it is necessary for any modern firm or 
corporation to carry protection against 
the loss of their "guiding spirits." In 
fact, the President of the American 
Bankers' Association states that "com- 
plete coverage of man power of valu- 
able executives is more important in 
many cases than adequate fire insurance 
to cover the physical assets." There- 
fore, isn't it fair to assume that most 



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corporations could claim exemption 
under this ruling? Most executives will 
tell you they have had their bankers sug- 
gest such insurance many times, and 
many banks positively refuse extension 
of credit to any firm or corporation 
unless such protection is carried. 

Any firm or corporation needs it to 
"bolster" their general credit and to be 
in readiness for the time when they 
could not do without it, since insurance 
cannot always be secured whenever de- 
sired — it must be purchased when the 
parties desiring it can pass medical 
and other requirements. 

All in all, it appears to me that there 
should be no hair-splitting concerning 
this ruling of the Internal Revenue De- 
partment. I understand the ruling was 
made as a result of protest against the 
discrimination made against business 
insurance. Fire and similar insurance 
is a deductible item. Business insur- 
ance is considered just as necessary by 
the majority of business men as any 
other form of insurance, so why, in all 



fairness and justice, shouldn't it be a 
deductible item. And furthermore, 
why cannot it be considered legally 
within the ruling referred to? 

I believe it can, and also believe the 
big majority of firms and corporations 
have no desire to defraud Uncle Sam 
of any just tax due him. All they ask 
is a fair interpretation of the law to 
enable them to deduct the items which 
are actually expenses of conducting 
their business. 

I agree that in very many cases business 
insurance, i. e., insurance on the life of 
somebody importantly associated with the 
business, is as necessary as any other insur- 
ance. But I do not agree that it is always 
necessary as collateral for the loans of the 
business. In fact, I happen to know that in 
many cases it is not necessary, the bor- 
rower's credit being sufficient without it. In 
such cases it would, I feel, be dangerous to 
force the policy on a creditor for the sole 
purpose of claiming exemption for the 
premiums. 

(Copyright by Elton J. Buckley.) 



Background for Portraiture 



By the term background may be under- 
stood everything seen in the picture beyond 
the plane on which the figure or figures are 
arranged. 

There must be a setting to the portrait — 
even if we have to call the plain paper of 
the print a background. There must be 
something to relieve the figure, but mere 
relief is not all, because mere relief may do 
injury to the thing relieved, lessen its effec- 
tiveness in a work of art. 

The background, then, first of all, dare 
not be obtrusive, too self-assertive, demand- 
ing too much consideration, and so we have 
to relegate the plain unifomi background to 
the discard just because it is per sc most 
obtrusive. 

Again, the background gets itself in the 
obtrusive class if it is too busy, full of 
multiplicity of detail, too interesting. 



attracting individual attention and divorcing 
the eye from enjoyment of the figure itself. 

Neither should it be unmeaning or in- 
appropriate to the associate figure, but sub- 
ordinate at the same time. 

It ought to play the part of a well 
adapted musical accompaniment to the 
singer. 

So you may conclude that the background 
is something rather troublesome, refractor)*, 
a dangerous companion to the figure, cor- 
rupting by communication like evil manners. 
Nevertheless, it is capable of being made a 
most valuable ally in setting forth the best 
features of the portrait to advantage. But 
it must always be somewhat negative and 
retiring, never pronounced. It often affords 
the artist opportunity for originality by the 
introduction of some well conceived associa- 
tion or ingenious allusion, adding grace and 



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interest to the combination. And, again, as 
a mere technical asset, it is valuable; useful 
in giving vigor to some parts of the com- 
position, softness and repose to others, 
harmony and effect to the whole affair. 

Do you need any further argument to 
convince you of its importance? 

We may classify portrait backgroimds 
into landscape, architectural, drapery and 
atmospheric — by atmospheric, meaning what 
is usually miscalled *'plain," and we said we 
had no use for the plain ground if it im- 
plied uniformity or evenness. 

When landscape is made a setting for the 
portrait, it must always be a constituent 
element of the subject, and not merely a 
contrivance to help out the pictorial intent. 
That is, a landscape background should not 
be selected solely for its initial beauty, but 
for its association on reasonable terms. 

Architecture, early in the history of the 
photographic art. was much used as a por- 
trait setting, but nowadays very seldom em- 
ployed. People got tired of the Doric 
columns, but they can supply forms rich and 
simple, calculated to give effect and grace 
to the figure and, at the same time, a general 
air of dignity to the whole picture. 

As an example, we might point to the 
works of Raphael, where architecture is so 
effectively employed to relieve the figure. 

Titian, Paul \'eronese, Reubens, Claude 
and others of the eminent French painters, 
show how well adapted architecture is to 
portraiture. 

The h^rench exhibit particular skill in the 
treatment of backgrounds. You will find 
just such settings as are adapted to studio 
work. 

They have even made good use of flat 
walls and draperies suspended from the 
ceiling. 

In a full length figure a drapery back- 
ground is of assistance in setting off the 
accunnilation of parts in the costume. It 
determines where the figure should be re- 
lieved. Moreover, a ground made up of 
curtains and hangings may be called to 
service either in making distinct certain fine 



features in the portrait, or for masking 
irregularities. For instance, we may so 
manage the drapery background as to have 
the dark side of the figure merge into the 
darker background, or the light into the 
light without advertising how the softening 
of the contrasts has been effected. Now, 
finally, a word about the plain background, 
or, as it should be called, the atmospheric 
background. Such a setting to the head 
should be studied for the artistic relief it 
affords. It ought to present a massing by 
itself, sustaining the head, not projecting it 
forward as from a vaciumi. 

To do this, the plain ground must be 
properly gradated. 

A perfectly uniform-in-tone ground — flat, 
monotonous backgroimd — even if it is skill- 
fully shifted at angles to the source of 
light, will not always give the atmospheric 
effect to the portrait it needs. 

It is generally too dark on one side and 
too light on the other end. 

It should be in tone considerably below 
the general tone of the head, and have its 
own individual variety. The contrasts be- 
tween it and the head must be carefully 
studied so as to get proper space relations. 
A bold relief must be avoided, and the sug- 
gestion must be conveyed that there is 
atmosphere about the head, not the idea of 
the possibility of great depth of space behind 
the head. 

Income Tax in a Nutshell 

WHO? Single persons who had net income 
of $1,000 or more for the year 1920; married 
couples who had net income of $2,000. 

WHEX? March 15, 1921. is the final date for 
filing returns and making first payments. 

WHERE? Collector of Internal Revenue for 
district in which the person resides. 

HOW? Full directions on Form 1040A and 
Form 1040; also the law and regulations. 

WHAT? Four per cent normal tax on taxable 
income up to $4,000 in excess of exemption. 
Fight per cent normal tax on balance of taxable 
income. Surtax from 1 per cent to 65 per cent 
on net incomes over $5,000. 



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Grades of Development Papers 



A most important step towards efficiency 
in the printing room is the choice of the 
grade of paper to suit the negatives. In this 
note we will endeavor to explain why it is 
not practicable to manufacture an "all-in- 
one" paper of the development type that will 
give perfect prints from all kinds of nega- 
tives, from "ghosts" to "soot and white- 
wash." Our friends must bear in mind the 
fact that all development papers have, apart 
from their speed, a definite scale of grada- 
tion characteristic to the grade, some long 
and some short, and very little can be done 
in the way of modifying the developer to 
alter this scale, excepting at the expense of 
the color of the print. 

Scale of gradation may be described as 
the rendering of steps of density, which are 
steep in the case of vigorous papers and 
gradual in the soft papers. We are told 
that theoretically the best grade of paper to 
use is one that will correctly reproduce the 
actual gradations of the negative, but as we 
have not reached the stage when "perfect" 
negatives are the rule, we must perforce 
adopt another dictum. In our opinion the 
best rule to follow is to endeavor to repro- 
duce the actual gradations of the subject 
itself, as we may very frequently require to 
purposely falsify the gradations of the nega- 
tive. It may be that for some technical 
reason the negative is poor, under-exposed, 
or under-developed, and in order to get a 
correct rendering of the subject recourse 
must be had to the use of a vigorous paper. 
Similarly a negative that is harsh in con- 
trasts will require a soft paper. 

A great deal of misunderstanding exists 
amongst printers in connection with the 
words Vigorous, Normal, and Soft, which 
we use in describing our manufactures. The 
terms are intended to describe the actual 
scale of gradation given by each grade, and 
must not be confused with the appearance 
of the final prints. A soft paper will yield 
a print from a good strong negative quite as 
brilliant as a vigorous paper will produce 



from a thin negative. If a negative is very 
dense it does not always follow that a soft 
paper should be used, as perhaps much of its 
density may be due to inherent fog, or over- 
development, so that the actual scale of gra- 
dation may be long and require the use of 
a vigorous paper. Also, a thin-looking nega- 
tive that has been developed with pyro-soda 
without sulphite may actually require a soft 
paper to produce good results. 

Careful printers who are anxious to ob- 
tain the best prints from all sorts of nega- 
tives that come their way will have at hand 
all three grades, but considerable experience 
is required to choose correctly the grade 
which will give the best result. As a guide 
we give below a description of the types of 
negatives most suitable to the particular 
grades, subject to the reservations above. 

llgorous Papers. — Suitable for very poor, 
thin negatives of weak contrasts. 

Xormal Papers. — Suitable for negatives 
on the thin side, but with good detail and 
medium contrast. 

Soft Papers. — Suitable for negatives of 
harsh contrasts, and also for what is termed 
"good" negatives such as the high-class por- 
trait photographer produces. 

Although we are particularly referring to 
gaslight papers it must be borne in mind 
that bromide papers are also made in dif- 
ferent grades, vigorous and ordinary. 

Most printers are now well aware of the 
great change that has taken place in the 
manufacture of slow development papers of 
the gaslight type. These papers have always 
been regarded as only suitable for printing 
amateurs' under-exposed negatives, and 
gave hard black and white results, but the 
modern gaslight papers will do as much, 
and more, than bromide, with many added 
advantages as to comfort in working, etc. — 
Trade Xotes. 

Bobby (on his eighth birthday to his absent 
father) — "My dear papa, whenever I'm tempted 
to do wrong I think of you and say, 'Get thee 
behind me. Satan.' *' 



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Which Plate Should You Use? 



Photographers are exacting in their demands of plates. In order to produce 
the best work, they must have a plate especially designed to meet their 
individual needs. Your plate is listed below : 

SPECIAL "XX'* An extra fast Portrait or speed plate. 

SPECIAL An all-around Studio plate. 

COMET For Landscape and Copying. 

POSTALS A fast plate for Postal work. 

COMMERCIAL For Commercial photography. 

COLORNON A Color plate rendering Orthochromatic values. 

CONTRAST LANTERN SLIDE . Producing brilliant Lantern Slides. 

PAN ORTHO A Tri-Color, or Pan Chromatic plate. 

PROCESS For all Commercial Process work. 

CENTRAL X-RAY An X-Ray plate of the highest radiographic quaUty. 

NON- HALATION A Double Coated plate eliminating Halation. 

PAN ORTHO D. C A perfect double coated Pan Ortho plate. 

Order horn your dealer — today. 



CENTRAL DRY PLATE COMPANY 

NEW YORK ST. LOUIS, MO. SAN FRANCISCO 



A Word on Interiors 

In taking pictures of rooms, ordinary nicnt of various draperies, tapestries, oil 

lenses which have a somewhat elastic apph- paintings, water colors, etc., the photog- 

cation cannot be successfully used. rapher is obliged to use orthochromatic 

A lens of some angular projection is plates. And where church interiors are 
necessary. There are diflferently constructed subjects, the stained-glass windows demand 
objectives possessing a picture angle of the screen or ray filter in conjunction with 
ninety degrees or more, which give the per- the color sensitive plate, 
spective of the room without apparent dis- The yellow screen may be often dis- 
tortion. * pensed w^ith if the camera is not directed 

liefore attempting to take an interior view towards the light and the windows be 

you must consider what is the most suitable covered with yellow' oiled-skin paper. This 

lighting of it. Since the windows are method permits also the brightening up of 

generally the sole source of the illumination the over dark parts by use of artificial lights, 

you must arrange so that the light may be It is self-evident that in taking pictures 

distributed and not concentrated merely of large rooms with high windows, where 

about the parts adjacent to the chief source, it is difficult to cover the window panes with 

\ow, to avoid too great a contrast of light the yellow paper the photographer must call 

and to obtain as far as possible a uniformity in service the ray filter, 

of distribution of the illumination, it is Another consideration to obtain fine 

necessary to depress and soften the bright effects is to be careful in taking interiors 

light from the windows by means of thin that the sun's rays do not face directly into 

curtains or tissue paper. the room, but only touch the windows. 



In dwellings which show tasteful arrange- When it is possible, take the interior when 

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MILESTONES IN PROGRESS 

OF PHOTOGRAPHY^ SERIES ONE 



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Bulletin of Photography 




c 



TTD A — When you see this 
^^'^^ name on a package of 
developer, you know it stands 
for the best that can be produced. 
Made by the Society of Chemical In- 
dustry in Basle, Switzerland ; makers 
of standard chemicals since 1864. 

Metagol, "CIBA" 

(Monomethyl poLramido phenol sulphate- 
better than the best metol yon ever used.) 

DiamidopheDol "CIBA" 
ParamidopheDol "CIBA" 
Glycm "CIBA- 
HydroqainoDe "CIBA" 
PyrogaUic Acid ''CIBA" 

(Resublimed.) 

At your dealer », or write us 

FREE: New and complete book of developing formulas, 
toners, intensifiers. reducers; lens table and many other 
helps. A copy is yours for the asking. 

CiBA Company, inc., 

91 Barclay Street New York 



A NEW BOO K 

THE AIR BRUSH IN 
PHOTOGRAPHY 

The most comprehensive work ever written 
on work with the Air Brush, especially as applied 
to photography, working up enlargements, etc. 

143 PAGES - 45 ILLUSTRATIONS 

BOUND IN CLOTH 

$3.50 post paid 

Mr. Geo. F. Stine, the author, is known as 
one of the most expert workers with the Air 
Brush in this country, and the series of 32 illus- 
trated lessons, which forms a considerable portion 
of the book, is the most detailed and carefully 
worked out course of instruction that could be 
imagined. With thehelp of this book any photog- 
rapher can learn to use the Air Brush. 

In addition to the comprehensive series of 
lessons, there are seven chapters on coloring with 
the Air Brush, a very valuable addition to the 
book, and something not heretofore found in 
print. 

FRANK V. CHAMBERS 

636 S. Franklin Square Philadelphia 



the sky is overcast with light clouds, even it 
you have to greatly prolong the exposure. 
You thus avoid violent contrasts. 

It is a matter of strict necessity that the 
camera should be perfectly horizontal, so 
as to avoid distortion and whenever possi- 
ble it should be set up to at least one-third 
the height of the room. And in selecting 
the point of view, care should be taken to 
have the lens protected from the ingress of 
any light coming through the windows, and 
that the principal object to be taken should 
not be placed exactly in the center of the 
picture. 

Concerning the putting of the picture on, 
the trouble is sometimes encountered in 
fixing the limits of the subject owing to the 
illumination being weak, even with a large 
aperture of the lens. A lighted candle should 
be used and moved slowly along the room 
until its flame just touches the edges of the 
ground-glass. 

The height may be determined also by 
raising and lowering the flame. 

There is little danger of over-exposure; 
therefore, full time should always be in- 
dulged in. 

A double-coated plate is indispensable and 
pyro development preferable, because the 
development often must be prolonged and 
the pyro used much diluted. Besides the 
slight coloration, incident upon its use, pre- 
serves the thin shadows of the negative 
during printing. 



Give me for a boss the man who has worked 
hard and accomplished much, who has met the 
challenge of adversity with a smile, and listened 
to the flattery of success with a doubting ear; 
give me the man who has never belittled the 
labor that gave him bread, nor fawned on the 
hand that made up the payroll; give me this 
man for my boss and I'll not work under him. 
hut with h'lm.— The Lamp. 



Bill Hohenzollern is saying nothing and saw- 
ing wood. But he'd be yelling his head oflF at the 
size of your 1920 income tax if he were doing the 
collecting. 

Receipt for an income tax entitles a man to 
talk about "our part in the war." The cost in 
dollars is yet to be met. 



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Bulletin of Photography 



19 



About Prices 



While one may be willing to concede that 
photography is a mechanical art, yet it must 
be admitted that it requires the possession 
by the mechanic engaged in it of an amount 
of skill and talent which puts it above many 
of the ordinary trade pursuits. 

Conducted as a business, moreover, it 
demands a combination of artist and busi- 
ness man which puts it completely out of 
the pale of requirements of the mere com- 
mercial man. To buy and sell at a profit is 
one thing, but to originate the product and 
conditionally dispose of it is a different 
proposition. When a tradesman increases 
his business by small profits and increased 
sales, it is a comparatively easy matter for 
him to call to his aid others to handle the 
j^oods — but this the photographer is denied. 

The photographic business, if it is well 
conducted, must be a self-exploited affair. 
It is but little appreciated by the general 
public that the work of photography in its 



artist phase must necessarily be the unit of 
the brain and hands of the artist. If the 
photographer calls in help, like the painter*s 
help, it is merely mechanical and it must 
be seen that there can be no help for the 
real artist in the pursuit of the higher 
phases of his profession, because his repu- 
tation hangs solely upon the artistic quality 
of the work he himself puts forth for sale. 
He must personally, by his individual tal- 
ent, conduct and supervise his work, and 
therefore if he is taxed beyond a certain 
point, he nuist needs break down or he can- 
not give to the public superior work. 

Hence, see the folly, from a business 
point of view, of trying to secure more 
business by offering the commodity at a 
lower rate than its production necessitates. 
What a temptation there is, bearing the 
whole time upon the photographer who cuts 
prices down to the lowest point, to slight 
his work, to let it go at just barely passable. 



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Bulletin of Photography 



Bausch & Lomb 
Tessar Lenses 

for immediate delivery 

THE exacting photographer, 
who seeks the best possible 
lens equipment for his studio, 
will be glad to know that for 
several months past, production 
has been restored to a normal 
basis in this important depart- 
ment of our business. 

This means that you can get the 
famous TESSAR Ic (F:4.5) without 
delay, the lens that embodies all the 
merits of the earlier type of so-called 
''portrait lens" without any of its 
defects, an all-around studio lens of 
long established excellence. 

It also means that you can obtain 
promptly a TESSAR lib (F:6.3) 
which in its larger sizes is invaluable 
for group work because of its depth of 
focus, combined with covering power. 
No studio equipment is completely 
high-grade without one or more 
Tessars. Write for our new, beauti- 
fully illustrated Catalog H. 

Bausch^^ Ipmb Optical (5. 



Rochester, N. Y. 
Chic«ffo San Franciaco 



630 St Paul Street 
N«w York WMhmcton 

Leading American Makers of Microscopes, Projection 
Lanterns {Balopticons), Photographic and Ophthalmic 
Len'ies, Stereo-Prism Binoculars, Range Finders. Gun- 
Sinhls, Searchlight Projectors and other High-Grade 
Optical Products. 



Instead of personal attention to maintain 
his high standard, he relegates the task- 
more and more to his cheap paid assistants, 
with the consequence that there is a tardi- 
ness in filling orders and an unequal and 
imperfect work, discreditable to his former 
standard. 

It must be admitted that the multitude is 
attracted by the cry of cheapness. But the 
photographer of reputation will soon dis- 
cover that it will not do for him to attempt 
to cater to the nibblers of cheap bait. He 
will find that the photographic business can- 
not be conducted on the extended scale of 
sales which may be profitable to the cloth- 
ing business. 

To those who contemplate establishing a 
business, demanding exercise of artistic 
talent and charging of the minimum price, 
we would say — first instruct yourself in the 
business methods of those photographers 
who have been successful in making their 
profession a good business asset, say after 
twenty or thirty years' career. The young 



One of the hesU as well as 
one of the rarest books on 
art and composition is — 

p^ urnet's 
JH^ ssays on /\rt 

Single copies of the original editions 
have been sold as high as $100.00« 
It has been reprinted in a limited 
edition of only 1000 copies. Will 
you have one? 

Send $2.00 and get a 
copy at once. 



FRANK V. CHAMBERS 

636 Franklin Square, Philadelphia 



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Interiors Inaccessible to Daylight 

hold no photographic drawbacks when you have a box of 

Victor Flash Powder 

in your outfit 

It supplies, in any location, instantaneous exposure-light 
of any desired volume. 

YOUR DEALER SELLS AND RECOMMENDS IT 

J. H. SMITH & SONS CO. 3544 Cottage Grove Ave., Chicago, lU. 



aspirant will learn that none of the success- 
ful men were ever cheap men. On the con- 
trary, the best off are those whose aim has 
been to produce the best work ; work which 
is creditable to themselves and work which 
always commanded the highest price — or at 
least a price which remunerated in a fair 
way for the labor and talent bestowed 
upon it. 

The mean spirit of rivalry must end in 
a short-lived success. Financial ruin is the 
ultimate fate of the man who plants his 
business beside an honest, well-established 
studio and endeavors to get all the business 
of the section by cutting prices. He may 
possibly have the mean satisfaction that he 
has ruined his victim at the same time. If 
you want to compete in the vicinity of 
others of your craft, who keep to standard 
prices, let the competition be in the direc- 
tion of trying to do better work than they. 
This is laudable effort and will stir your 
neighbors to higher excellence. 

Let the competition be a best man com- 
petition and if you crowd out your rival, 
you can salve your conscience by applica- 
tion of "the survival of the fittest." 

The photographer should not go into 
business solely for the purpose of acquiring 
a fortune. If money is his sole object and- 
he is assured of his talents in finance, he 
should choose another field of enterprise. 
But most photographers have something of 
the artist in their blood — a hankering after 
the exploitation of the aesthetic talent which 
interferes with money-getting. A few in- 



Haiprper Plates 

Excel in every quality that goes 
to make a perfect negative. 
They are one hundred per cent 
good in speed, brilliancy, ful- 
ness of detail in shadows and 
correct rendering of color values. 

SPECIAL BRANDS for SPECIAL NEEDS 



Hammer's Special Extra Fa«t (red label) 
and Extra Fast (blue label) Plates for 
field and studio work, and Hammer's 
Extra Fast Ortbochromatic and D. C. 
Ortbocbromatic Plates for color values. 




Hammer Dry Plate Co. 

OHIO AVKNUK AND MIAMI STRKET 
ST. LOUIS. MO. 



ENLARGING 

FOR THE TRADE 



A GRADE TO MEET EVERY REQUIREMENT. 

STRICTLY HIGH GRADE WORK. 

COLORING IN OIL. 

Send for free literature or 25 cents 
for sample print in oil. 



CUNNINGHAM'S 

Box 137-A UTICA, NEW YORK 



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Bulletin of Photography 



** Dependable Service^^ 

ENLARGEMENTS 

OF THE BEST— and on time. 

Ask for our price list. 
Photo finishing for the trade. 

Photographers' Portrait Service Co. 

110 South Wabash Ave. 
CHICAGO, ILL. 

A$k your n*ighhor about our Cortotrttiort Exhibit. 



A NEW EDITION 



WALL'S 

Dictionary of Photography 

— lOth Edition— 

Ready for delivery about 
January 1 



TOO Pages 



2000 References 



Revised and re-written with fuil 
explanatory text. 

$5 per copy — post free. 



FRANK V. CHAMBERS 

Tradk Aoknt 

636 South Franklin SQuare 

Philadelphia 



Motion Picture — Commercial — Portraiture 

Cameras and Materials Furnished Free. 

Practical inftruction with modern equipment. Day or evening 

daitet: easy terms. The School of Recognized Superiority. 

Call or write for complete catalog. No. 65. 

N. Y. INSTITUTE of PHOTOGRAPHY 

141 W. 36th St., New York OR 805 State Street, Brooklyn. 



stances of the successful amalgamation of 
art and finance in the photographer might 
be cited — but they are exceptions. Fortune 
or good luck must also be taken into con- 
sideration. 

What Did You Make in 1920? 

Work has begun on the collection of the in- 
come tax for the year 1920. Uncle Sam, through 
the Bureau of Internal Revenue, is addressing to 
every person in the United States the question, 
"What was your net income tor 1920?" The 
answer permits of no guesswork. livery single 
person whose net income for 1920 was $1,000 or 
more and every married person whose net in- 
come was $2,000 or more is required to file a 
return under oath with the collector of internal 
revenue for the district in which he lives on or 
before March 15, 1921. 

The penalty for failure is a fine of not more 
than $1,000 and an additional assessment of 25 
per cent of the amount of ta.x due. For willful 
refusal to make a return the penalty is a fine of 
not more than $10,(X)0 or not exceeding one 
year's imprisonment, or both together with the 
costs of prosecution. A similar penalty is pro- 
vided for making a false or fraudulent return, 
together with an additional assessment of 50 per 
cent of the amount of tax evaded. 

WOMEN .ML' ST I'AV TAX 

The income tax applies to women as well as 
men. Husband and wife must consider the in- 
come of both plus that of minor dependent chil- 
dren, and if the total equals or exceeds $2,000 a 
return must be filed. A minor who has a net 
income in his own right of $1,000 or more must 
tile a separate return. To be allowed the $2,000 
exemption a married person must be living with 
husband or wife on the last day of the taxable 
year, December 31. 1920. Divorcees, persons 
separated by mutual agreement, widows and wid- 
owers, unless they are the sole support of others 
living in the same household, in which case they 
are allowed the $2,000 exemption granted the head 
of a family, are entitled only to $1,000 exemp- 
tion. 

T.\\ RATE FOR 1920 

The normal tax rate for 1920 is the same as 
for 1919—4 per cent on the first $4,000 of net in- 
come above the exemption and 8 per cent on the 
remaining net income. This applies to every 
citizen and resident of the United States. In 
addition to tlie normal tax a surtax is imposed 
upon net income in excess of $5,000. 

INSTRI'CTIONS ON FORM 

hull instructions for making out returns are 
contained on the forms, copies «>f which may be 
obtained from collectors of internal revenue. 
Persons whose net income for 1920 was $5,000 
or less should use Form 1040A. Those with in- 
comes in excess of $5,000 should use l**orm 1040. 

Revenue officers will visit every county in the 
I'nited States to assist taxpayers in making out 
their returns. The date of their arrival and the 
location of their offices will be announced by the 
press or may be ascertained upon inquiry at the 
offices of collectors. This advisory service is 
without cost to taxpayers. 



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Sell Your Skill 

A short time ago a woman stopped at a leading 
store in a large city and bought a sweater for a 
young girl. She asked the clerk if a certain 
shade was not the prevailing color. "Ah," thought 
the clerk, "here is a chance to work off one of 
those slow-selling colors." 

The shopper, not wishing to buy a garment 
that might make the young lady who was to re- 
ceive it feel out of style, took the word of the 
salesgirl. The result was the sweater worn by 
the girl was conspicuous at school. The girl in- 
formed the woman and she replied, "Why, the 
salesgirl in the Blank store informed me the gar- 
ment I bought was the latest color and that all 
the girls were wearing them. I cannot see what 
object she had in deceiving me." 

The shopper did not know there was an object, 
and a big one. She did not know the store was 
heavily stocked on colors which were not moving 
and that to clear the stock that old standby of 
merchandising had been called into practice, the 
P. M. system. The girl who made the sale made 
a "spiff" of ten cents and the customer got 
"stung." 

It does not pay to sell goods along these lines. 
The purchaser of an obsolete style who discovers 
she has been imposed upon will avoid that store 
as she would a dangerous railroad crossing. 

The viewpoint from which you regard selling 
goods has much to do with your success or fail- 
ure. If you make up your mind that your future 
lies in being proficient in the art of selling you 
will have a greater chance to succeed than to use 
mere words of persuasion as a temporary means 
of earning a fixed stipend. 

More About Your Inventory 

The average business man, in taking inventory, 
objects to writing off a certain portion each year 
of what he considers good assets, and in many 
cases his objections are justifiable. At the same 
time, as fixtures do depreciate, there should be 
some arrangement in every well-regulated com- 
mercial establishment to provide new when the 
old becomes obsolete or useless. The provision 
of a reserve against depreciation appears to an- 
swer every requirement. This reserve is estab- 
lished out of profits and can be applied at any 
time to replacements. 

It also is advantageous, in the case of fire, to 
show on the books the actual cost of the property 
that has been destroyed. 

The depreciation reserve is a part of the earn- 
ings of the company, and any portion of that 
reserve that is not required for replacements on 
account of excessive depreciation is available for 
distribution among stockholders. 

It is desirable that goods should be sold in the 
order of their purchase, that is, that goods bought 
last month be sold before newer stock is disposed 
of. Here is the method employed by a well- 
known retailer: All goods are marked as they 
are unpacked, as usual. The selling price is put 
on in the usual manner, but before it is a letter 
indicating a certain year. Thus, we will say that 
the concern started in business in 1885 and used 
a new letter each year and month. The letter 
for the current year is "J" and the month "C," 
or March, the third month of the year. An 
article selling for $1.25 would be marked "J — C" 



"Agfa" Books 

FORMULA AND 

FLASHLIGHT 

Sent Gratis with Orders 



—FOR- 



"Agfa" AMIDOL 
ORTOL 
" GLYCIN 

EIKONOGEN 

RODINAL 

BLITZLICHT 



PRICE LIST ON APPLICATION 



Sagamore Chemical Co., Inc. 

120-122 West Slst Street 
NEW YORK 



HAVE YOU USED 

HaDdorson Flash Powder? 

Unless you have used 
HALLDORSON Flash Powder 
you do not know that it makes 

Less Report, 

Has Greater Acdnic Power, and 

b Higher in Orthochromatic Value. 

This excellent Flash Powder 
is being used by leading pho- 
tographers everywhere, who 
say that 

It Has No Equal 

HALLDORSON Flash Powder 
is made in three grades of 
speed — Medium and Extra Fast for portrai- 
ture, Medium and Slow for the commercial 
user. 

Ask Your Dealer for 

HALLDORSON when you make the next purchase. 

AU dealers have it 



THE HALLDORSON COMPANY 

1778 Wilson Avenue CHICAGO 



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Bulletin of Photography 



THE LATEST DEVICE IN FLASHLIGHT APPARATUS 




The Brieloff Hand Flash Lamp will safely make an exposure all the time. The apparatus 
is constructed with battery and platinum curl in pan. You press the button and the 
powder will ignite all the time. No change of fuse or the use of a percussion cap or flint. 
Every exposure a sure negative. PrIce $5.00 and $7.50. 

The famous Prosch Sunllte Flash Powder, made since 1862. will assure you in making 
every flashlight negative a perfect one. Never fails to turn night into day. 

^ oz. bottle, 45 cents. 2 oz. bottle, $1.50. 

Prosch Portrait Flash Baits is the ideal for home portrait, parties and banquets. The 
only system of its kind; can be operated in series for large areas. 

Complete Bail, ready for operation, $22.50. 
Th€ Pro$eh Blow Lamp ia the mo»t practical on the market for interior work. 
Ask your dealer, or send for catalogue on 

Sunllte Flash Powder Blow Lamps Spotlights and 

Flash Bass Hand Lamps Reflectors 

PROSCH MFG. CO., DepL B, 61 Fulton St., New York City 




$1.25. A casual inspection will show at a glance 
the presence of old stock. 

The great drawback in the taking of an in- 
ventory is the suspension of actual selling while 
stock is being counted. 

This can be overcome, in great measure, by 
counting lots in the duplicate stockrooms a few 
days before the actual inventory. 



What's Doing in Photography 



The studio of Allen J. Butler, Whitestone, 
N. Y., was damaged by fire on December 10th. 

The studio of Fred VV. Bates, MinneapoHs, 
Minn., was badly damaged by fire on December 
27th. Loss. ^,000. 

W. H. Kennedy has re-engaged in the photo- 
graphic business and has opened a studio in 
Poplar Bluflfs, Mo. 

Charles Henry Townsend, formerly conducting 
a studio in Willimantic, Conn., died at his home 
in Flagstaff, Me., aged 73 years. 

O. R. Heineman, Burlington, Iowa, has dis- 
posed of his studio to O. H. Evans, of Chicago. 
\lr. Heineman has gone to Milwaukee, where he 
has taken a position in the Rice Studio. 

Herman Adam Schlappig, of the firm of 
Schlappig & Endy, Reading, Pa., died suddenly 
at his home, December 17th, from apoplexy. He 
was 39 years of age and apparently in good 
health. Mr. Schlappig is survived by his widow. 



J. B. Hostetler, of Davenport, Iowa, opened a 
branch studio in Chicago on January first. 

George A. Black, of Gravelsborg, Sask., 
Canada, has purchased the Ekman Studio, Cen- 
tralia, Wash. 

W. I. Kreps, of Kendall, Wis., has sold his 
studio to Ernest Bukatz. Mr. Kreps and family 
have moved to Milwaukee, temporarily. 

Casper Schmidt, of Middletown, Conn., will 
retire from the photographic business on January 
1, 1921, and will devote all his time to fire 
insurance. 

Mrs. Frederick Crooks, of New York, has 
entered into partnership with D. L. Skeel, of 
Malone, N. Y. The firm name will be the Skeel 
Studios, Inc. 

P. D. Gordon, Greenfield, Iowa, has sold his 
studio to J. D. Wilcox, of Waverly, Mo., to take 
effect March first. Mr. Gordon and family will 
make their home in California. 



Disastrous Fire 

On December 29th fire swept through the third 
and fourth floors of the H. Lieber Company, 24 
West Washington Street, Indianapolis, Ind., 
dealers in art and photographers' supplies, and 
caused a loss estimated by officials of the com- 
pany at $160,000. 

The fire, the origin of which has not been 
determined, started in about the center of the 
third floor, nearly all of which was used as 
offices by the company, and burned its way to the 



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CHAS. M. HIGGINS & CO-^ Manufacturers 

271 NINTH STREET, BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

Brandies: Chlcasow London 



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moving picture exchange on the top floor. Stocks 
on the first and second floors and in the base- 
ment were badly damaged by water. 

Practically the entire third floor was in flames 
when the first fire companies reached the build- 
ing, and the flames swept up the stairway to the 
top floor so rapidly that firemen had great diffi- 
culty getting them under control. 

Many valuable paintings, pictures and other 
works of art were kept on the second floor. 

Officials of the H. Lieber Company are Otto 
R. Lieber, President; Robert Lieber, Vice-Presi- 
dent ; Herman P. Lieber, Secretary, and Carl H. 
Lieber, Treasurer. 



Courtesy 

"If I possessed a shop or store, 
I'd drive the grouches off my floor. 
I'd never let some gloomy guy 
Offend the folks who came to buy; 
I'd never keep a boy or clerk 
W^ith mental toothache at his work, 
Nor let a man who draws my pay 
Drive customers of mine away. 

"I'd treat the man who takes my time 
And spends a nickle or a dime 
With courtesy and make him feel 
That I was pleased to close the deal, 
Because tomorrow, who can tell? 
He may want stuff I have to sell 
And in that case then glad he'll be 
To spend his dollars all with me. 

"The reason people pass one door 
To patronize another store 
Is not because the busier place 
Has better silks or gloves or lace, 
Or cheaper prices, but it lies 
In pleasant words and srniling eyes. 
The only difference. I believe, 
Is in the treatment folks receive. 

"It is good business to be fair, 

To keep a bright and cheerful air 

About the place and not to show 

Your customers how much you know. 

Whatever any patron did 

I'd try to keep my temper hid. 

And never let him spread along 

The word that T had done him wrong." 

—Motor IV or Id. 



If the war had not been won in 1918, what 
would have been your income tax for 1920? Pay 
it with thankfulness. 

Argus had one hundred eyes. In his old age 
he must have made a spectacle of himself. — 
Cartoons Magazine. 



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Bulletin of Photography 



THE 



Commercial Photographer 

By L. G. ROSE 

148 PagM 
85 IUa»traUon9 

Price, mclotk, 

$4.00 per copy. 
Postage 15 cento eztri. 

A work by a thoroughly 
competent and widely ex- 
perienced commercial pho- 
tographer of the highest 
reputation. 

Every branch of the sub- 
ject treated with a view for 
presentation of the essen- 
tials. The various appliances discussed, best methods of 
exposure, illumination and graphic presentation to ensure 
a successful outcome. 

It is a book essentially for the commerical man and meets 
every requirement. Profusely illustrated with examples of 
work of varied kind. 

The book will be found of pertinent interest not only to 
the trade photographer but also to the specialist. The 
application of photography is considered in Its bearings upon 
the commerical man. the architect, the tradesman, the phy- 
sician, the lawyer, and the scientist, by one who has had 
extensive experience in different kinds of work required. 

The edition is limited and we have a firm conviction 
when the value of the work becomes apparent, that it will 
be speedily exhausted. 



OPINIONS OF THE PRESS 

Mr. Rose has handled a venr eoctenslTe subject in a com- 
prebensiTe way. The commercial photographer in the laiger 
cities is, of conrse. a specialist, entirely distinct from the 
portrait man and with totally different problems. In some 
caaes. demands are so great that the pbotosrapher confines 
himself to one line of merchandise to the exclusion of others, 
ssj^for instance, furniture, etc. 

The book will, therefore, appeal to all photographers who 
are called upon from time to time to do commercial jobs. 
—"American Photography." 

Frank V. Chambers, publisher of the "Bulletin of Photog- 
raphy," in Philadelphia, has just nu ott his presses an 
edition of the Tsry complete book on commercial photog- 
raphy, "The Commercial Photographer." It is replete with 
illustrations, instructions and sufsestions of all kinds 
coTering the perplexing conditions that surround this Row- 
ing field and it will be well for every photographer to nave 
one on his shelf, if only for reference when a quick demand 
of some kind or other to do a difficult job which comes under 
the head of Commercial Fhotographv comes in and probably 
finds him somewhat puzzled to obtam the best results. The 
price of the book is S4. It is worth that if only to help 
you through one job, but it will benefit all your employees 
as well and make them more efficient for you.— "Photo- 
graphic Poster." 

"The Commercial Photographer." Since Hance's "Com- 
mercial Photography of Today^' went out of print, there has 
been a sad lack of a good practical book on commercial 
photography in all its various phases. This new book by 
L. G. Rom will find a ready demand. It is splendidly 
printed and illustrated in Frank V. Chambers' best style, 
and we commend it most hii^Iy to our readers, both portrait 
and commercial. The portrait man should have it handy 
for he never can tell when he will be called upon to do 
some bit of work out of the regular, and this book will help 
him out at any and all times: the commercial man can 
afford to have it on hand, for many subjects on which he 

Erobably is not quite conversant are covered thoroughly by 
(r. Rose. Mr. Rose is well knovni to the craft and he has 
covered his subject fully and with a thorough understanding 
of all the difficulties to be met with in commercial work. 
—Abel's "Photographic Weekly." 

Mr. Rose deserves well of commercial photographers, for he 
has written an admirable practical manual on the photog- 
raphy of the wMe diversity of subjects which the commercial 
Shotograpber is asked to imdertake. And the publishers have 
one well by their author, for they have provided a luxurious 
volume, printed throughout on heavy art paper and pro- 
fusely illustrated on almost every page with naif-tone repro- 
ductions. Perhaps they have been a little too lavish in this 
respect, for it has meant fixing the price of the book at 



a figure which, at the current rate of exchange, is aboat 24s 
(|4). Nevertheless, the photographer who is learning to 
qualify himself for this branch of his calling must, be a 
most unreceptive individual if the cost of the book is not 
returned to him many times over in the knowledge and 
guidance which it gives him. . . 

Mr. Rose is an American, and thus, aa roKards choice of 
equipment, states his preferences in terms oT the apparatus 
which is available on the market in the United States. 
These include flash bags and a portable installation of half- 
watt lamps, the equivalents of which appear not to have 
been offered in this country. His chapter on the photog- 
r^hy of architectural exteriors includes some striking ex- 
amples of difficulties surmounted in obtaining views of 
sky-scraper buildings common in American cities, but be 
descends to more homely illustrations, for example, one 
showing the devices used m the way of combination printing 
for eliminating an unsightly telegraph pole from the fore- 
ground of an architectural view. Panoramic views, exterior 
and interior, axe the subject of an excellent chapter in which 
is illustrated the method of joining up without showing a 
sign of the line of junction. The latter part of his treatise 
is devoted chiefly to the photography (in the studio) of 
articles of merchandise from vnist watches to Utchenen. 
He describes a novel form of horizontal table for the photog- 
raphy of small goods, such as machine parts, by means of 
a vertical camera. The easel is of ground-glass, illu m inated 
below so that for part of the exposure the objects are 
allowed to receive a diffused light all around their edges, 
thus eliminating heavy shadows and at the same time pro- 
viding opacity In the ground of the negative sufficient to 
dispense with blocking-out. There are quite a number of 
practical ways and means of this kind described in the 
book, eridently as the result of the writer's own ingenuity 
and practice. The routine in a commercial photographer's 
establishment of making prints and enlargements is the sub- 
ject of other sections, and there are chapters on the design 
of advertisements, part photograph and part artist's work, 
and on the eternal question of drawing up a tariff of prices. 
Altogether a most excellent manual, which vre have no doubt 
will be purchased from Messrs. Chambers by practicing or 
would-be commercial photographers in this country.— 'The 
British Journal of Photography" (London). 

In scope and wealth of detail this is by far the most 
comprehensive handbook to commercial photography thus 
far published. It has the greater merit of being thoroughly 

f»ractical in its information, giving the working methods, 
ormulas, and experience of its author, a well-knovm expert 
in this special field. To particularize the contents of the 
book would be to list the principal branches of modern 
commercial work. I. therefore, content myself with the 
comment that Mr. Rooe has given us a manual and refer- 
ence book which should be on the bookshelf of every pro- 
fessional and commercial photographer. The text is pro- 
fusely illustrated and the volume is well printed and 
substantially bound for service.— "Photo-Miniature, No. 180." 

This is by far the best book published on the subject oi 
commercial photography. It is written by an expert-photog- 
rapher in commercial work, who is likewise a capital writer. 

A careftil examination of this admirable work convinces 
us that the object-lessons here presented constitute in them- 
selves a real course in commercial photography, which 
appeals not only to the student interested in this department 
of photographic work, but to the commercial photographer 
or. as he is generally called, the all-around photographer. 

The text presents all up-to-date methods, tricks and dodges 
that are known only to a thoroughly experienced commercial 
worker, and describes every step, from the choice of equip- 
ment down to the finished print, whether the latter be a 
straight contact-print, an enlargement, a colored print, or 
one that is worked up to suit the needs of the photo- 
engraver. The book is printed on the highest grade of 
coated paper, in large, clear type, and is a credit to the 
printer's art We heartily recommend this book to every 
photo-worker interested in producing technically perfect 

fiictures for the merchant, the architect, or whoever calls 
or the most exacting photographic work.— "Photo Era." 



In stock by following dealen: 

J. Sttssman Photo Stock Co.. 223 Park Ave.. Baltlinore. Md. 
Photo-Era. 367 Boylston Street Boston. Mass. 
Robey-French Co.. 38 Bromfield Street Bocton. Mass. 
Bass Camera Co . 109 N. Dearborn Street Chicago. IlL 
Sweet Wallach & Co.. 133 N. Wabash Ave.. Chicago. HL 
C. Welchsel Co.. 1611 Main Street Dallas. Tex. 
Briggs Photo Supply Ca. 914 Grand Ave.. Kansas City. Ma 
Howland & De%vey Co.. 510 S. Broadway, Los Angeles. CaL 
O. H. Peck Co.. 112 S. 5th Street Minneapolis. Minn. 
Chas. G. Willoughby. Inc. 110 West 32d St. New York. 
Geo. Murphy. Inc. 57 East 9th Street New York. 
J. L. Lewis. 522 Sbcth Avenue. New York. 
New York Camera Exchange. 109 Fulton St. New York. 
Schultz Novelty & Sptg. Goods Co.. 122 Nasttu St. N. Y. 
Sol Pudlin Co.. 1212 Broad%vay. New York. 
Tennant & Ward. 103 Park Avenue. New York. 
Standard Photo Supply Co.. 125 Baronne St. New Orleans. 
John Haworth Co.. 1020 Chestnut Street Philadelphia. 
E. W. Stewart & Co.. Tacoma and Seattle. Wash. 
Francis Hendricks Co.. 116 E. Fayette St. Syracuse. N. Y. 
Hyatt* s Photo Supply Co.. 417 N. Broadway. St Louis* Mo. 
Gross Photo Supply Co.. 1715 Spielbusch Ave.. Toledo. O. 

FRANK V. CHAMBERS, 636 S. Franklm Sqmt, FUa. 



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Bulletin of Photography 59 



Lay your plans now 
for a big business 
in enlargements — 
the extra business 
that brings extra 
profits. 



Place your order 
now for the 



EASTMAN 
PROJECTION PRINTER 

// reduces costs — it increases productio?i 

Makes enlarging as simple as contact printing. Operated 
by one man, it does the work of two ordinary enlarging cam- 
eras, and does it better. It's good business policy— it's good 
advertising to use the most modern equipment. Eastman 
Projection Printer, complete, $450.00. 

Descriptive booklet on request. 



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ROCHESTER. N. Y. 



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That the same certainty and uniform- 
ity that we secure in the manufacture 
of sensitive materials may follow in 
your results, specify: 



Eastman Tested Chemicals 




Look for this seal on the 
bottle or package. 



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY, 
ROCHESTER, N. Y. 



All Dealers'. 



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Bulletin of Photography 253 



EASTMAN 
PORTRAIT BROMIDE 

A new paper made especially for enlarging 
from portrait negatives. 

Portrait Bromide has the quality 
and the tone and the texture that 
enable it to reproduce, in the 
enlargement, the quality and effect 
of the contact print. 

Two stocks — two surfaces, 

D White, Rough Matte E Buff, Rough Matte 
D White, Rough Lustre E Buff, Rough Lustre 

At prices the same as for D. W. Artura Iris 



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SEED 



PLATES 



Latitude is that quality in a plate 
which permits the contrasts of the 
subject to be rendered perfectly with 
considerable variation in exposure. 
So latitude is responsible for a greater 
percentage of good results than any 
other one quality in a plate. 

Seed 30 Plates have exceptional 
speed, fineness of grain and the 
greatest latitude of any portrait plate 
made. 



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY, 
ROCHESTER, N. Y. 
All Dealers'. 



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Bulletin of Photography 159 



That the same certainty and uniform- 
ity that we secure in the manufacture 
of sensitive materials may follow in 
your results, specify: 



Eastman Tested Chemicals 




Look for this seal on the 
bottle or package. 



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY, 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. 
All Dealers'. 



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The greatest progress in present 
day photography is being made 
in the use of artificial light — 
and the broadest possibilities in 
the use of strong, bold lightings 
are open to the man who uses 



Portrait Film 



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. 

All Dealers . 



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No. 708 



Wednesday, March 2, 1921 



Single Copy 5 Cents. 
$2.00 per year, postpaid. 



Entered at the Philadelphia Post Office as Second-Class Matter. 



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IN 

PORTRAITURE 

A THIN, WHITE PARCHMENT-LIKE PAPER 
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VELTEX CHARM, ORIGINALITY AND MERIT ARE REFLECTED IN THE 
ENTHUSIASTIC TONE OF THE LETTERS THAT COME FROM THOSE 

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KANSAS CITY: 
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MINNEAPOLIS: 
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But it was J. N. Niepc^ another Frenchman, who gave most to the 
art of photography, including its name. In 1818 he produced a negative 
image on transparent paper by a six-hour exposure and then printed the 
positive on silvered copper plates. Later he originated the present process 
of copper-plate engraving. In IDecember 1829, Daguerre entered into 
partnership with Niepce and in 1835 discovered that iodine iumes exposed 
to his silver plates reduced the time of exposure to thirty minutes. The 
open flask of mercury supplied the means of development. This was the 
Daguerrotype process which made his name immortal. 

In the photography of today, HAdX^lD ^^Photographic Papers stand for all 
that simplicity, uniformity and dependability can mean to the users of 
photographic papers. They are made under ideal conditons, by men 
and women who know the exacting requirements of discriminating 
photographers. 

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Chicago Office 
68 W. Wuhington Sc. 

ROCHESTER-. NEW YORK 



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ROCHESTER '. NEW YORK 

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PHOTOGRAPHY 



[tradk mark rbgistbrbdI 

IN WHICH 18 INCORPORATED "tHE PHOTOGRAPHER" AND THK "ST. LOUIS AND CANADIAN PHOTOGRAPHER" 

THE WEEKLY BUSINESS PAPER FOR BUSINESS PHOTOGRAPHERS 

636 Franklin Square (cor, 7th and Race Sts.) Philadelphia 

FRANK V. CHAMBERS, Editor mad PubUaher JOHN BARTLETT. Associate Editor 

A. A. SCHENCK, Business Manager 



Yearly subscription, in advance, postage paid. United States, Mexico, Cuba, Philippines and Porto Rico, <2.00. 

Canada. $2.50. Countries in the Postal Union. $3.00. Single copies, 5 cents. 
Remittances may be made at our risk by money order, check, draft or registered letter. 
Items of interest upon photographic subjects will be gladly received. 
Subscriptions received by all photographic and news dealers in the United States and Europe. 



Vol. XXVra, No. 708 



Wednesday, March 2, 1921 



Prices Cents 
$2.00 per Year. Post Free 



Photographic Subjects 



There is a show of justice in the compiaint 
which the painter sometimes makes, that our 
modern life aflfords but a limited scope for 
the expression of grand ideas in art, though 
we would by no means subscribe to the 
dictum some pessimists indulge in that art 
is decadent. Indeed, there is too much 
prattle both about progress and about de- 
generation. People forget that progress in 
any direction, art or morals, is impossible 
without an accompanying decline in another 
^direction. The history of all time has 
forcibly contradicted that progress is one 
continued, onward, triumphant march. But 
we are off the track. 

Apart from scenes of a tragic character 
of a universally absorbing interest, like the 
great painting of M. Rollo, "A Strike 
Amongst the Miners," there are probably 
but few subjects upon which the painter 
might reasonably hope for future fame. 
Xot much, it is true, in the present, that our 
descendants a hundred years from now 
would think of interest. Therefore, let us, 
whether painters or photographers, be true 
to the prosaic period in which it has been 
our lot to be bom. Let us be satisfied with 
what pictorial phases our age permits. If 
we cannot attain the imaginative let us take 



up the incidents from everyday life which 
afford scope enough for the expression of 
whatever artistic feeling we may possess 
without taking an aviatorial trip to the 
realms of idealism. 

We call to mind some of the idealistic 
feats made by the photographer. Before us 
is a photograph possessed of most excellent 
technique, conforming well to the laws of 
artistic composition, quite delightful in 
rendition of light and dark. In a word, 
well studied and well executed. But the 
subject! It is titled "Man, Know Thy 
Destiny." 

It represents a man masquerading (yes; 
that is all it is) as an old hermit, with cloak 
and cowl, a property grizzled beard upon 
his chin, a human skull on a property rock 
by his side, an ancient book (or it looks like 
an ancient book) open before him, from 
which we are to infer he is seeking to find 
"his destiny," or man's destiny, rather. 
Now, candidly, is this a subject to inspire 
modem art, pictic or poetic? Do you not 
think, with ourselves, that most twentieth 
century hermits would be looking for their 
destiny over their bank books, or stock 
accounts or in workshops, around the rattle 
and din of machinery — not in a lonely cell 



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Bulletin of Photography 



of medieval inactivity? Our day and gener- 
ation have no sympathy with such a phase 
of past social existence. We are only too 
glad to have escaped it. Why should our 
art have sympathy therewith, or, rather, 
why should artists expect us to be touched 
thereby? It is bad enough for painting to 
be affected, but when photography under- 
takes depicting such subjects it becomes 
more than ridiculous; it gets disgusting. 

^lany a beautiful piece of work by the 
camera has proved that photography, by its 
own unaided power, can be delightful — can 
captivate not only the eye, but excite even 
our subtler feelings. Photography has a 
broad field for artistic expression — broad 
notwithstanding its present limitations. But 
when it attempts the ideal, aspires to the 
realm of the imagination, or, in other words, 
is not simple and sensuous, it shocks our 
idea of the eternal fitness of things. 

To Make a Print Transparent 

The present method of rendering prints 
transparent, homogeneous, and durable, is 
perhaps the best that has already been pub- 
lished. In the first place you have to pre- 
pare the following composition. Take as 
follows : 

Canada Balsam 6 ounces 

Spermaceti 4 ounces 

Gum Dammar 4 drachms 

Melt these together, and stir them up inti- 
mately in a porcelain or glass evaporating- 
dish ; as soon as the gums are all fluid, pour 
the melted mass into a bottle for future use. 
The next thing required is an iron table. 
For this purpose take the round cover to 
one of the apertures of a common kitchen 
.stove, and fix this on four legs, six inches 
long, formed out of four iron rods. Each 
of these rods is riveted into a hole on the 
outer edge of the iron cover at equal dis- 
tances apart. If you intend to operate on 
large prints, it will be necessary to get a 
rectangular plate of iron of the proper shape 
and size for the table in question. 

The next requirements are two or three 
small spirit-lamps, to be placed beneath the 



table in order to heat the latter and main- 
tain it at an equal temperature for any given 
length of time. Each lamp is furnished w^ith 
a sliding tube around the wick, by means of 
which the size of the flame can be regulated. 

The iron table is now covered with a 
sheet of clean white paper of the size of the 
table, and a quantity of the balsam is spread 
over it so as ju.st to cover it, and the lamps 
beneath are lighted. You must be very 
careful not to let the temperature of the 
table get too high, so as to burn or volatilize 
the gums ; simply keep the balsam in a liquid 
condition. Spread the balsam as it melts 
over the paper uniformly, and then turn the 
paper over, so that the balsam is now be- 
tween the iron and paper. This paper is 
always retained in this position for future 
operations. 

You now lay over the paper a piece of 
clean plate-glass, and smear its upper sur- 
face with balsam uniformly. The surface 
is now ready to receive the print. 

The print is now allowed to dry, and 
when dry it is ready to receive the improve- 
ments from stippling, hatching, etc. As soon 
as the balsam on the plate-glass covers it 
uniformly the print is carefully dried on its 
plate over a stove or open coal fire, taking 
care not to singe the print; whilst still quite 
warm, almost hot, the print is quickly cut 
oflF by placing a ruler along each side, and 
running along the edge with a sharp-pointed 
blade of a knife. The print is now placed, 
picture side downward, on the melted bal- 
sam ; more balsam is placed on the back of 
the print, and spread over it by means of a 
spatula. Keep down the heat, otherwise the 
paper will not lie flat, and place the flames 
of the lamps in such positions as to make the 
heat equally distributed over the iron table. 
In the course of half an hour, or less, the 
print will be quite transparent; you must 
continue the operation until it is transparent, 
and you can easily see when it is transparent. 
Having arrived at this stage, the plate of 
glass with the print on it is raised up from 
the iron table, and all excess of balsam is 
removed both from the back of the glass 



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Bulletin of Photography 



261 



and the back of the print by means of a flat 
piece of thin wood of the size of a common 
letter envelope, which is covered with buck- 
skin on one edge. All excess of balsam be- 
ing thus removed, and the plate being still 
moderately w-arm, the print is cleaned 
thoroughly on the back w-ith a clean linen or 
cotton rag, and all bubbles pressed out. If 
any bubbles arise, and the plate is getting 
cold, hold the latter over the stove, and rub 
again ovef the back of the print until it lies 
evenly adherent to the glass. Of course, by 
this time all excess of balsam has been 



thoroughly removed, and the print is Hat and 
transparent. Turn the print by detaching it 
from the glass, and gently wipe off the sur- 
face. It is now finished, and may be stored 
away between the leaves of a book for an 
indefinite time without change. 

The trouble with other forms of balsam 
hitherto has been this : the prints, containing 
wax or turpentine, are always liable to turn 
yellow^; they frequently, too, become hard 
and lose their transparency. Prints treated 
as above have been preserved for a year and 
a half without any change whatever. 



Form Letters 



S. I. WILLIAMS 



What are form letters and w^hat purpose 
do they serve in the economy of a photo- 
graphic studio? This question seems to be 
a pertinent one, as there are many photog- 
raphers about the country who do not 
apparently know what the words "Form 
Letters" signify. Many seem to possess the 
idea that they are something admirably 
suited to the needs and requirements of 
some other man's studio, but are unable to 
grasp the possibility of their being fitted to 
profitable use in their own. 

Xo greater mistake can be made than to 
suppose that form letters are fitted to any 
nne locality, class of trade or kind of busi- 
ness, to the exclusion of others. A form 
letter, properly constructed and sent out 
through the mails in the proper way, should 
appear exactly like a personal letter to the 
recipient. It should deal directly and force- 
fully with the question or questions under 
consideration. It should build up a logical 
argument for the photographer, and when 
the reader follows it dow^n to and including 
the fac-simile autograph of the sender, he 
should be impressed with the idea that it is 
a personal letter addressed to himself, 
written to himself, full of suggestions and 
argument to himself, and matter in which 
he and the photographer personally are the 
only ones interested. Such form letters can 
be made and are made every day in the year. 



and they bring to their users, in the aggre- 
gate, in the United States, probably more 
money in dollars in the course of a year 
than the income of all the photographic 
studios during the same time measured in 
cents. 

It is because a form letter has this per- 
sonal appearance that it possesses the pull- 
ing power that has ahvays attached to it. A 
modern form letter is prepared in such a 
way as to be, in a sense, general, while at 
the same time, by the addition of the name 
and address of the party to whom it is sent, 
it takes on a direct and personal interest. 
Such a letter may be printed to look almost 
exactly as if it wxre written upon a type- 
writing machine. The signature of the 
sender may be printed from an autograph 
plate in fac-simile, and the name of the 
addressee be written at its top on the type- 
writer in a type exactly matching the b<?dy 
of the letter, and in a color that corresponds 
perfectly thereto. The envelope addressed 
in the same way, and the letter sealed and 
mailed under a tw^o-cent postage, reaches its 
destination, and in ninety-nine cases out of 
a hundred impresses the party who receives 
it as a personal, typewritten, individually 
signed commimication. Is it to be wondered 
at that such a letter receives a greater 
amount of attention than a circular, folder, 
or printed announcement ? People are, as a 



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rule, inclined to be flattered by the attention 
involved in a written communication of this 
kind, and letters of this nature appeal to the 
inhabitants of small towns or rural districts 
with as much or more force than in the 
larger cities where their receipt is more 
frequent; and it, therefore, possesses an 
influence of no small moment in such 
communities. 

Why is such a communication called a 
form letter? Simply because five hundred 
or a thousand, more or less, may be printed 
from the same form, quickly and cheaply, 
each being an exact counterpart of the other 
in every respect. This is the only thing that 
separates the form letter from a personally 
written document, and to the ordinary 
recipient the difference is never known. Its 
value as a business bringer when compared 
with its cost of production can hardly be 
overestimated. The returns from it in every 
business where it is used — and where can a 
business be found that does not employ it? 
— are traceable to the homes and offices of 
all classes and conditions in the community. 
I!y means of such a letter the photographei: 
or business man in any line may present his 
story to the leaders of fashionable society in 
his community, to the wives and daughters 
of the prominent men^ and to the influential 
citizens themselves, feeling sure that in a 
large majority of cases such a letter, if 
properly constructed, will be read and its 
contents absorbed before it becomes apparent 
that it is of an advertising nature. 

It goes without saying that the stationery 
on which these letters are produced should 
be of a fairly good quality, and that there 
should be nothing in the letter to suggest 
a thought that would antagonize the most 
fastidious reader. If the general subject of 
photography be taken up for the first letter 
of a series, a few short sentences should be 
devoted to its importance in the family 
circle; to the facilities possessed by the 
studio from which the letter emanates ; clos- 
ing with a short statement bearing upon the 
desire that the addressee avail himself or 
herself of the advantages of the studio when 



next in town; the object of the first form 
letter should be accomplished. It must not be 
very long; should err on the side of brevity 
rather than of length, and should aim solely 
to create an interest in the quality of the 
work produced by the studio in question and 
its direct value in the economy of every 
household. Suppose a photographer in a 
small town selects a list of five hundred 
names for a trial of the form letter plan, rep- 
resenting the well-to-do-farmers in the coun- 
tr\' round about ; the prosperous business and 
professional men within the limits of the 
town itself, together with such other men 
and women of social standing in the com- 
munity as he would desire to have upon his 
books. His first step should be to write or 
have written such a letter, and to have it 
printed as above outlined, with his signature 
printed in black at the same time that the 
letter heads were printed. The body of the 
letter may be in purple, blue or green, as the 
case may be. He next, if he possesses a 
typewriter, will have written in the names 
of all the parties represented in his list. 
If he does not possess a typewriter, he 
should send the list to the party preparing 
the letter, and let them be addressed before 
delivery to himself. In either case he must 
be careful to submit a sample of the work 
of his machine, if there is one in his studio, 
to the parties printing the letter, so that the 
type of the text may match the type used in 
addressing. Once the five hundred names 
are written in, and the envelopes properly 
addressed in full, they should be sealed and 
mailed to the entire list under full letter 
postage. Results may then be awaited for 
a while with interest and without too much 
hopefulness. 

This is but the first step in the plan, and 
the second is like unto it, inasmuch as it 
means going over the same list with a second 
letter printed in the same way as the first, 
but written with a stronger hand and a 
firmer touch, getting more nearly to a con- 
crete proposition ; some line of work adapted 
to a special season ; some new and p>opular 
style of print or mount, or something that 



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Ben V. Matthews 

Winston-Salem. N. C. 



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Jerome F. Heyn 

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will carry the story introduced by the first 
letter one stage farther, with the idea of 
building up a desire to become acquainted 
at least with the output of the studio. This 
will, in its turn, be followed after an inter- 
val of some weeks by a third letter, and 
after these have all gone out the ground 
should be carefully surveyed before further 
operations. Records should, of course, be 
kept upon a general list, or a card index, 
which is better still, of all results traceable 
in any way to this form letter campaign. 
With each inquiry and each order that 
comes from it entry should be made upon 
the proper card, and all these records should 
from time to time be scrutinized, and the 
business resulting from the letters analyzed 
and tabulated. All this may sound as if it 
meant a lot of clerical work, but it is not so. 
The keeping of a list of five hundred names 
should be so simple in the hands of any 
photographer as not to require the addition 
of a single extra hand or an hour of over- 
time work. He will probably find, if such 



a couise is started, that the results traceable 
to the first letter will be greatly disappoint- 
ing; the second will, however, wake things 
up to a considerable degree, while, under 
the usual conditions, the third letter will 
produce the best result of all. This adver- 
tising has the double advantage of carr>'ing 
a personal element on its face, and has em- 
bodied in it that most necessary attribute of 
all good advertising, persistency. 

If in the minds of the readers of this 
article there is any question as to the effi- 
cacy of the form letter in other lines of busi- 
ness, they have only to inquire of the various 
library bureaus and manufacturers of card 
indexes of all kinds for a hearty endorse- 
ment of the writer's belief expressed above. 
If having found this endorsement they 
doubt its profitable application to their own 
business, let them pattern after a number of 
their more successful brethren who have 
long since become converted to its advan- 
tages, and who are using it regularly in their 
own business and to their material benefit. 



Backgrounds for Bust Portraits 



W. H. TIPTON 



The background for most subjects should 
be lightest at the top, gradually becoming 
darker as it approaches the bottom, where it 
should be almost or quite black. It should 
contain no design whatever, a simple retiring 
effect of light and shade harmoniously 
blended together. The most perfectly made 
revolving grounds answer the purpose ad- 
mirably when properly handled, but if the 
reader takes the trouble to examine a collec- 
tion of bust pictures, from the studios of our 
good photographers, promiscuously gathered, 
he will doubtless find that a large per cent 
of them are made regardless of artistic effect 
in the background. 

It will be found that whilst one operator 
rigidly adheres to the plan of contrasting the 
lighted side of the figure against the dark 
part of ground, another will as uniformly 
practice the reverse, i. c, placing the illumi- 
nated side of face against the light side of 



ground, and the shadow side against the 
darker. Pictures in these two styles will be 
found most numerous. A third party will, 
for all kinds of subjects, invariably use the 
darkest side uppermost, and a fourth the 
lightest. There are subjects suited to all of 
these plans, and it often requires much study 
and care to know which is the proper one to 
adopt. Where the operator is unable to 
decide which is best, we would advise the 
plan w^e have suggested in the beginning of 
this article, or an entirely plain one. 

The principal objections to mode of 
operator No. 1 are, first, the resulting picture 
often has a cut-up, patliy effect, in which the 
proper breadth of light and shade for a fine 
artistic effect are destroyed. Second, a 
homely feature (or maybe a homely face) 
is made too prominent by contrast centering 
interest to that part. In the pictures of No. 
2. breadth is secured and a fine result often 



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obtained, but unless the subject is entirely 
suited, a plain ground would be best. 

If the reader takes the trouble to examine 
a few bust portraits by painters of known 
ability, he will find that the background is 
always subordinate to the figure, and no ac- 
cessories or light or shade is introduced that 
is not necessary to support it, or to bring 
into prominence some pleasing feature, or 
subdue one less so. 

For an example, suppose we take as our 
sitter a pretty young lady, with face of 
almost faultless contour, place her three- 
quarters face or nearer profile, showing left 
side of face, light coming from the right. 
Contrast the illuminated side of face against 
dark side of ground, and the result is all that 
could be desired. Now, let us take another 
subject with high cheek-bones, unpleasing 
nose, or ugly mouth, let the position, back- 
ground, and light be the same, and the 



result will certainly be unsatisfactory; it 
requires but little study to see why it is so. 
F5y many operators the background is 
considered of but little importance, but by 
the thinking successful worker, a thorough 
knowledge of its uses is considered of as 
nuich importance as the knowledge of 
chiaro-oscuro or photographic chemistry. 
And our most feeling and finest photog- 
raphers are not only well informed in the 
foregoing, but also possess a certain knowl- 
edge (whether they know it or not) of 
anatomy, physiognomy, and phrenology. 
And my humble advice to the hungry photog- 
rapher, who seats himself down to the table 
of photographic literature, now so bounti- 
fully spread, is to call for a few of these 
last-mentioned side dishes, and do not leave 
them for the last courses either. Of these 
I shall write more in the near future under 
a proper head. 



C. L. Lewis' New Studio 



We recently received a dainty souvenir 
card showing the new studio just complete<i 
by Charles L. Lewis, at Toledo, Ohio, and 
it proved so attractive that we asked Mr. 
Lewis to give us a descViption of the studio. 
The following excerpts from his letter are 
self-explanatory : 

"The entrance to the studio at the front 
door leads into a spacious hall, where the 
frame cases are arranged on each side with 



a fireplace and cozy nook at the further 
end. Immediately to the right of the en- 
trance, through a large opening off the hall, 
you enter the reception room, suitably fur- 
nished with a cabinet of drawers, contain- 
ing samples, receptionist's desk, display 
table, the necessary seats and rugs, all of 
which harmonize with the room and the 
delightful fireplace. The view from this 
room is very channing, it looking out onto 



Lewis' New Residential Studio 



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Flashlight Photograph made by R. Kolder. Chicago, with Halldorson No. 2 
Home Portrait Lamp 



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Frank Scott Clarke 

Detroit. Mich. 



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the park. From this room you enter an- 
other, where there is again a fireplace, and 
this is a sort of waiting room off which 
there are two quaint dressing rooms. 
Through a mirror door one enters the 
camera room, in which there is ample pro- 
vision for light, both artificial and daylight, 
the studio light being a straight side 
window of the casement type, also looking 
out onto the park. Immediately off this is 
the retouching room, loading room, etc., 
through which you pass to the printing and 
finishing rooms, which are especially well- 
equipped with all things needful. From 
this, through a passageway which serves as 
cloakroom and lavatory, you enter the of- 
fice, which is divided into a general and 
private office, and you have completed the 
circuit back to the entrance hall. 

'*The dark-room, proof -printing, copying 
and enlarging rooms, negative storage, 
heating plant (hot water), and packing and 
shipping rooms are all in the basement, 
which is spacious and comfortable. This, 
with a double garage immediately in the 
rear, completes our equipment of the most 
convenient studio I have ever had. 

''The studio faces on Collingwood Ave- 
nue, and the entrance to our living apart- 
ments on the second floor is on Monroe 
Street, separate and distinct from the 
studio, where we have a delightful home, 
with an abundance of room.'* 



Does Your Competitor Worry 
You? 

C. H, CIAUDY 

If SO, why? 

If not, why not? 

Recently a magazine contained a story 
telling why Willie Hoppe is as yet the un- 
defeated billiard champion of the world. 
"His opponents," stated the writer, "play 
Hoppe, while Hoppe plays billiards." 

Babe Ruth, the phenomenal home-run 
hitter, is credited with the statement that 
he pays little attention to the pitcher who 
opposes him, but puts all his attention on 
the ball. The "contest of wits," which is 
scheduled to occur everv' time Ty Cobb 
faces Walter Johnson, is, according to Ty, 
entirely a matter of whether he can keep 
his eye on the ball or not. 

In other words, sensational successes are 
not made by men troubling about their op- 
ponents, but only about the thing they have 
to do. If they can do that one thing at its 
ver>' best, they know they won't have to 
worry about their opponents. If they can't 
do what they do as well as it can be done, 
fretting about what the other fellow has 
done or will do won't impress their game. 

Business is a game. It is a game with 
very strict rules, and the referee is the pub- 
lic, while the law stands behind as an um- 
pire. All of us, presumably, play the game 
according to the rules, or we would fail or 





1921 CONVENTION DATES 




Place 


Date 




Missouri Valley 


Kansas City, Mo. 


March 7-10 


C. J. Fennel, Columbus. Neb. 


South-Western 


Dallas, Texas. 


March 15-17 


N. B. Stall, Ada, Okla. 


Middle Atlantic States 


Baltimore, Md. 


April 18-21 


L. L. Higgason, Asheville, N. C. 


South-Eastern 


Atlanta, Ga. 


May 16-19 


J. C. Deane, Rome, Ga. 


P. A. of A.(International) 


Buffalo, N. Y. 


July 18-23 


J. C. Abel, 421 Caxton Bldg. 
Cleveland, Ohio. 


Ohio-Mich.-Ind. 


Winona Lake, Ind. 


August 15-19 


Fred. Bill, 746 Euclid Ave. 
Cleveland, Ohio. 


New England 


Dates not yet settled. 




A. K. Peterson, Pres. 
Hartford, Conn. 


North-Central 


Minneapolis, Minn. 


October 3-6 


J. R. Snow, Pres. 
Mankato, Minn. 


Pacific North- West 


Vancouver, B. C. 


August 2-5 


A.T. Bridgman, 413 Granville St. 
Vancouver, B. C, Canada. 


New York State 


Postponed until 1922 







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land in jail. But we play, within the rules, 
well or ill, according to whether we play 
the game or play the fellows who are play- 
ing against us. 

Photographers have always considered 
that location an advantageous one, where 
competition is conspicuous by its absence. 
It does seem, at first thought, that where 
no other man is in a position to serve the 
public, the public must turn to the one man 
who can serve them. And if there were 
only one photographer in a state, perhaps 
the supposition would hold. But in these 
days of motor cars, intern rban trolleys and 
suburban train service, absence of com- 
petition in one's inunediate locality cuts lit- 
tle figure in the photographic game. If I 
make photographs and my townspeople 
don't like them, there is always the next 
town or the nearby city. And folks don't 
stay home as they used to — he is a wise 
man who can tell where the urban becomes 
the suburban and the suburban the rural 
today. 

Business men of all kinds, in all lines, 
are much too prone to think that a com- 
petitor succeeds where they fail on account 
of means and methods, rather than on ac- 
count of product and service. This is natu- 
ral, human vanity cropping out — natural, 
because we all have an instinctive dislike 
of admitting that the other fellow does 
what we do best, better than we can. So, 
when we find customers flocking to his 
door, we say, "He knows more about ad- 
vertising" or "His location is better" or 
**He cuts prices." Rarely, indeed, do we 
stand up in front of a mirror, look our- 
selves in the eye, and say, "lie beat me to 
it because he makes a better picture, and 
does it more quickly and with better service 
than I do." 

"His opponents play Iloppe. while IIoi)pe 
plays billiards." Hoppe doesn't care what 
his opponent does. Nothing that the other 
player can do affects what Hoppe does, 
save only the shot which his opponent 
misses, which may leave the balls awk- 
wardlv. Even that shot cannot be altered 



by anything whatever that Hoppe may do. 
So Hoppe doesn't bother about what his 
opponent is doing, but when it is his shot, 
picks up his cue, and, though his opponent 
have 499 out of a needed 500, proceeds to 
run out his own string as if there were 
no opponent within miles. That is truly 
playing the game. 

The wise photographer doesn't bother 
about what his competitor down the street 
is doing — cares not how many customers he 
has, how much he charges, what his meth- 
ods are. His only interest is in the other 
"chap's products, li it is better than his 
own, he wants to know why and how, and 
proceeds to bring his own up to standard. 
U it is less good, he doesn't care about it, 
and goes on playing the photographic game 
for all it is worth regardless of what his 
opponent does. For he knows, does the 
wise photographer, that if he plays the man, 
instead of the game — if he meets price-cut, 
"special opportunity" with "special oppor- 
tunity" enlargement-as-a-premium with 
enlargement-as-a-premium, he will soon be 
devoting all his time and attention to beat- 
ing out the other fellow, instead of winning 
the game for himself. 

J Seating the other fellow and winning the 
game for one's self are entirely different. 
Where there is bitter contest between two, 
the third man usually wins the race. And 
it is the race, the game, the contest, which 
is to be won, not a place ahead of somec^ne 
else. 

It is a realization of this fact which has 
brought men who compete with each other 
together in local associations. Jim Jones 
is often no longer afraid to tell John Smith 
how he makes his newest lighting, and John 
Smith is no longer fearful that if Jim learns 
his latest formula, he will forge ahead. 
The old days of suspicion and isolation are 
rapidly passing. More and more, not only 
in photograi)hy, but in every other line of 
competitive business, are men coming to 
realize that it is the thing they do which 
counts, not the 7i'ay they do it. Your pub- 
lic is not interested in anything but your 



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COLLINS NATIONAL ADVERTISING is creating added interest and sentiment for professional photography 
each month. Reproduced here, in reduced size, is the appealing advertisement which occupied a full page in 
the February 1921 Ladima* Homm Journal. This ad will awaken the desire for good photography in the hearts of 
two million readers. And Ultrafine Mountingt will contribute added charm and value to your photographic work, 
twelve months in the year. 



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KODAK FINISHERS!!! 

TOU CAN INCREJtSE PRODUCTION WITH A 

SPEED PHOTO PRINTER 

Thia improved model will pay for itself in 30 days, 

TEN BIG FEATURES: 

1. — Automatic order-numberinfr device. 

2. — Pressure platen with oscillatinfr movement, and 

special pressure lock insurinRT absolutely perfect 

contact. 
3.— Insbintly adju.stable masks, with illuminated scale 

of standard sizes of paper. 
4. — (iuick action ftim clip. 
5.- -Automatic paper clip on platen, giving perfect 

rcKister and border. 
6. — No trinimiuK necessary. 
7. — Economizes on paper. 
8.— Practical electric switch inside lx)x. which operates 

after conbict Is nvule between platen and paper, 

and allows up to 400 watts of electric current. 

Release lever for throwinir off lights before raisins: 

platen. No after«:low. 
9. — Only one second exposure required for medium 

dense Alms. 
10. — Operation so simple it can be mastered in a few 

™'""^^« Circiilaf on r«qactf. 

PRICE. 98B.OO 

CHARLES G. WILLOUGHBY, Inc. 

no Weat 32d St. New York City 

DUMhutof for New York State 



results, your prices and your service. It is 
not even much interested in your prices — 
the war taught us that value received is 
much better than a cheap price. Given a 
photographer who makes ju.st a little better 
picture than any other man in his town, 
and set him in the middle of it, and in two 
years he will be the leading photographer, 
regardless of the number of his competi- 
tors, providing he plays the game and does 
nothing but make better pictures. But let 
the same man depend, not upon his supe- 
rior work, but upon meeting every move of 
his competitors with a similar move of his 
own — and in two years they will own his 
plant, and probably have a mortgage on his 
motor car. 

Don't worry about your competitor — 
play the game. Never mind what he does 
or how he does it, so long as you make 
better pictures than he does. Devote all 
your time to making your pictures better 
than any other man within miles can pos- 
sibly make, and not all the advertising, 



price-cutting, prize-giving, coupon scheme 
or talk-behind-your-back can keep you from 
being the winner in your own game. 

This is the one and only true answer to 
the second question at the head of this page. 

A Fault in Full -Length 
Photographs 

J. S. HOVEY 

A great and almost universal fault in full- 
length photographs, in my opinion, consists 
in bringing out or delineating the lower part 
of the picture too distinctly; especially is 
this the case with pictures of ladies taken in 
light drapery. The light from the skylight 
naturally falls strongest on the lower part 
of the dress, owing to its position, thereby 
giving that part the most prominence. Now. 
if the bottom of the picture were taken more 
in shadow, it would add very much to the 
beauty of effect, and consequent pleasure in 
studying it. To illustrate this idea, take one 
of the class of pictures I am speaking of, 
and hold the hand across the bottom part, a 



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273 



little away from the picture, so as to shade 
and partly obscure that portion of it, and 
you will see how greatly it improves the 
appearance of the picture, and how much 
more pleasure there is in looking at it. Now, 
if that part were taken more in shadow, and 
a little obscured, the same effect would be 
produced. 

This is my idea about a picture ; unless it 
is the dress principally that we want photo- 
graphed, then it is all well enough. 

The same rule applies to bust pictures; 
where the drapery is dark, let the lower part 
of the background be the darkest; that will 
give most prominence to the head, and the 
same effect w ill be produced. 

Drawing a Non-Cancellable 
Order or Contract 

The Cleveland (Ohio) Chamber of Com- 
merce has issued the following statement on 
the question of cancellation of contracts and 
orders for merchandise : 

The tendency on the part of many 
buyers to cancel orders or repudiate 
contracts has assumed alarming propor- 
tions and has created a serious business 
situation. 

Contracts that protect only the pur- 
chaser are a menace to business sta- 
bility. 

The purchaser has not the right to 
demand nor expect prompt delivery, 
or price guarantees, according to con- 
tract, in a rising market, if it is his in- 
tention or habit to reject goods when 
prices decline. Such a practice will 
rapidly destroy the fidelity of the con- 
tractual relationship upon which our 
economic structure stands and will 
bring about a serious business dis- 
arrangement with every decline of 
prices. 

It is suggested that every manu- 
facturer immediately examine contract 
making and order taking methods and 
arrange to incorporate into written 
contracts a frank stipulation w'ith re- 



ENLARGEMENTS 

WRITE FOR LATEST PRICE-LIST 

M. S. BRIDLE, ENLARGER 
1034 ARCH STREET, PHILADELPHL\ 



FOR BEST RESULTS USE A 

Packard-Ideal No. 6 Shutter 

operated at 1/25 of a second, in connection 
with a hlab-power light. 

MICHIGAN PHOTO SHUTTER CO.,Makera 

A9k your Daalmr. KALAMAZOO. MICH. 



SPL 



The portraits by the 
Gerhard Sisters, of St. 
Louis, reproduced in the 
February 2nd and 9th 
issues of the Bulletin 
o f Photography, were 
made with a 3>^'inch x 
18-inch STRUSS 
PICTORIAL LENS 

SEND FOR BOOKLET 

FREDERICK W. KEASBEY 
Box 303. Morristown. N. J. 



THE LIGHT THAT TURNS 
NIGHT INTO DAY 

The famous PROSCH SUNLITE FLASH 
POWDER will assure you in milking every 
flashliiclit negrative a perfect one. It never 
failH to turn night into day and get the 
desired expression and pose even of tlie 
most active subject. 

Half ounce bottle, $ .45 
Two ounce bottle, $1.50 

SmA for fail iocripliM of Frmtk SmoIicIcm FU«k 
Bog*. Hand FImIi Laapt ud Bridolf St««o Laaps 

PROSCH MFG. CO., INC. 

61 FULTON STREET NEW YORK, N. Y. 




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gard to cancellations. All contracts 
should be brought within strictly legal 
lines. 

Buyers who repudiate their contracts 
will soon be considered to be lacking in 
business integrity and undeserving of 
confidence. The effort of such buyers 
should be deprecated by the entire 
community. 

A great many business organizations are 
working on this problem of cancellations,, 
and they all seem to be after one thing, viz. : 
to draw a contract which will prevent what 
has been happening all over the country for 
the last six months, viz. : the repudiation of 
orders for goods, chiefly on the part of 
buyers because the market has gone down. 
Most of the discussion on the subject 
seems to be based on the theory that draw- 
ing an uncancellable contract is a difficult 
thing. ()n the contrary, it is the easiest 
thing in the world. As a matter of fact, 
every contract or order would be non- 
cancellable (unless it contained a clause 



specifically allowing cancellation), were it 
not that so many business houses had 
allowed free cancellation in the past. A 
contract or order which says nothing at all 
about cancellation is not cancellable — unless 
the parties have so dealt together that the 
right to cancel is read into every order or 
contract entered into between them. 

Even where such a course of dealing has 
been had, however, it is the easiest thing in 
the world to draw orders or contracts which 
shall not be cancellable. All that is neces- 
sary is to include a clause, "This order is 
not subject to cancellation by either party." 
It is questionable, however, whether the 
seller would agree to this, because he usually 
likes to have a clause in his orders which 
reads something like this, "This order is 
subject to strikes, or fire, or shipwreck, or 
any other cause beyond the seller's control." 

I might observe here that if the seller 
wants the contract absolute as to the buyer, 
he should agree to make it absolute as to 
himself. It would be most unfair to put a 



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non-cancellable clause in an order for mer- 
chandise, to bind the buyer, and at the same 
time put in a clause such as I have 
described to let the seller out. 

A large number of cancellations which 
have occurred recently, even though they 
were illegal, left the seller with little or no 
remedy. That was because they were not 
made on account of a market decline, but 
because the buyer didn't have the money to 
take the goods. Where a cancellation is 
made because the market has declined, the 
seller has a remedy — he can sue the default- 
ing buyer for the difference in value. Hut 
where cancellation is made and the market 
has not declined, while the seller can still 
sue, his damages would have to be nominal, 
because strictly speaking, there haven't been 
any damages. The goods are worth exactly 
what they were when they were sold. Sel- 
lers have, therefore, attacked this problem : 
How shall I make the contract non-cancel- 
lable and at the same time make it cost the 
buyer something when he cancels goods 



which have not declined in price. Some 
have sought to do it by including a clause 
that if the buyer defaults he shall pay 20 
per cent of the amount of the contract. In 
another article I have explained that I did 
not believe this clause could be enforced, 
because it sought to penalize the defaulting 
buyer for his default. This the law will not 
allow, for it only awards actual damages in 
such cases, and where there haven't been 
any, nothing will be awarded. Mow can 
this dilificulty be gotten around? There is 
no way that I know of, in the contract itself. 
The same result might be accomplished by 
letting the various sellers in a given field 
enter into an agreement to require payment 
in advance or not to have any dealings at all 
with concerns who unfairly cancel their con- 
tracts. Would this be legal? I have not the 
slightest doubt of it. 

(Copyright by Elton J. Buckley.) 



Not all of lis can be heroes, but all of us can 
be patriots. Payment of your income tax helps 
to make you one. 



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WHEN IN DOUBT 

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They will score the largest 
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SPECIAL BRANDS for SPECIAL NEEDS 



Hammer's Special Extra Fast (red label) 
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Orthochromatic Plates for color values. 




REG. TRADE MARK 

Hammer Dry Plate Co. 

OHIO AVKNUK AND MIAMI 8TRKKT 

ST. LOUIS. MO. 




CTID A — When you see this 
^^'^^ name on a package of 
developer, you know it stands 
for the best that can be produced. 
Made by the Society of Chemical In- 
dustry in Basle, Switzerland; makers 
of standard chemicals since 1864. 

Metagol, ^'CIBA" 

(Monomethyl paramido phenol sulphate- 
better than the beat metol you ever used.) 

Diamidophenol "CIBA" 
Paramidophenol '<C1BA" 
Glydn "CIBA" 
Hydroquinone *'C1BA" 
Pyrogallic Add "CIBA" 

(Retiubliroed.) 

A( your dealers, or write u» 

FREE: New and complete book of developing formulas, 
toners, intensifiers. reducers; lens table and many other 
helps. A copy is yours for the asking. 

CiBA Company, inc., 

91 Barclay Street New York 



Home-Made Emulsions 

WILLIAM BELL 

The accompanying formula for the prepa- 
ration of a gelatine emulsion for photo- 
graphic purposes are the result of several 
years of constant study and experimentation 
on the part of the writer, and it is believed 
that if the details of the process are strictly 
carried out, with but an ordinary degree of 
ability, plates may be easily and uniformly 
prepared of a considerable degree of sen- 
sitiveness. 

AMMONIA-XITRATE EMULSION 

Xo. 1 

Boiled water 1 ounce 

Iodide ammonium 5 grains 

No. 2 

Chloride ammonium 20 grains 

Water 4 drams 

Acid, nitric, a drop or two to render the 
solution acid. 

No. 3 

Nitrate silver 60 grains 

Water 4 drams 

To the nitrate of silver dissolved in the 
water (No. 3) add, drop by drop, the solu- 
tion of iodide ammonium ( No. 1 ) , until the 
precipitate of iodide of silver formed ceases 
to dissolve in the solution. Then pour in 
the solution of chloride of ammonium ( No. 
2), wash the chloride silver formed with 
three separate waters, draining each time; 
then add some pieces of broken glass to the 
moist mass, and then sixteen grains of 
Nelson's No. 2 gelatine, and dissolve with 
gentle heat (temperature 90 to 100 degrees). 
Shake well, and add the following solution : 
Water, 4 drams; bromide potassium, 43 
grains ; liquor ammonia. 3/2 dram. Pour this 
solution at one time into the bottle contain- 
ing the melted gelatine and chloride of 
silver. Cork the bottle to retain the am- 
monia. Keep at a temperature of 90 
degrees for fifteen or twenty minutes. Test 
the emulsion by a drop on glass, looking 
through by transmitted light from a match 
to see if all reddish color *is gone. When 
this has disappeared, and the emulsion 
viewed by transmitted light is grayish blue 



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Daylight Is Free, Yet Is More Expensive 
as an Operating Light than the 

Victor Studio Flash Cabinet 

r^Hji' -J / The same reasons which eliminated dayligfht from your 

j^Vii-^'^ :aj / printing: room apply with even greater force in favor of 

^^' * your adoption of the Victor Studio Flash Cabinet for your 

operating: ligfht. With it you secure, whenever desired, 
an instantaneous light (l-38th or l-65th second) of any 
required volume. 

This means — uniformly timed negatives, free from 
* 'moves" — animated expression and pose in your negatives 
— and fewer exposures needed per sitting, thereby saving 
materials and operating time. 

With our Improved Normal Grade of Victor Powder — 3 to 6 grains of which 
is ample for portraits — the report is very soft 




Aak on Your Letterhead for Complete Deacriptipe Booklet. 

J AS. H. SMITH & SONS CO. ^**1:S?SS*^'SI! ''^•- 



or green in color, the heating has proceeded 
far enough ; and then 120 grains of Hein- 
rich's gelatine (previously softened in water 
and melted at a temperature higher than 90 
degrees) is added to the emulsion. This is 
to be well shaken, and then allowed to cool 
by gelatinizing it slowly upon the sides of 
the bottle. Let stand six hours. Remelt at 
a temperature of 100 degrees, gelatinizing 
again upon the bottle. Allow to stand six 
hours, and melt once more. It is now ready 
to be mixed with the boiled acid emulsion 
(see following formula). Or, if the am- 
monia-nitrate formula is alone to be used, 
the melted emulsion as just made is to be 
poured into a dish and allowed to cool and 
set ; when cold placed on a clean cloth (mesh 
1/80 inch), squeezed through, the finely 
divided mass well washed, drained, and 
pressed under weight to expel excess of 
water, remelted, filtered through white silk, 
and then coated on glass. The final amount 
should not be more than three ounces. If 
more, then the gelatine has absorbed too 



much water in washing ; to avoid this, press 
longer. In preparing this emulsion it has 
been found that the presence of the bromide, 
with heat and free ammonia, favors the 
acid and alkaline emulsions. When the 
plates are coated they can be immediately 
passed through a small opening into an ad- 
joining room, kept at a uniform temperature 
of 50 degrees, with free circulation of air, 
and dried either on racks or on nails on the 
wall, face outwards. 

Glass. — This should be previously 
cleaned by soaking it in a mixture of equal 
parts of nitric acid and water, well washed, 
dried on racks, polished with cuttle-fish bone 
and water, using a piece of well washed 
flannel. This should be washed with a weak 
solution of soda, so as to remove any traces 
of oil or grease. The plates, after being 
dried, should be edged with a thick solution 
of gum tragacanth, by means of a small 
camel-hair brush tied to a short, thin stick, 
with the end of the stick projecting a short 
distance, so as to act as a guide for the 



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Bulletin of Photography 



** Dependable Service** 

ENLARGEMENTS 

OF THE BEST— and on time. 

Ask for our price list. 
Photo finishing for the trade. 

Photographers' Portrait Service Co. 

110 South Wabash Ave. 
CHICAGO, ILL. 

A»k yonr neighbor about our Convtntion Exhibit. 



lO PER CENT REDUCTION 
ON OUR ENTIRE STOCK OF 

** Camera Work'' 

C)NCEDED to be the handaomeat magazine ever pub- 
liihed for loveri of photographic art. The magazines 
are made up of pictures (with a little descriptive text) 
from photographs taken by those famous and original 
in photography. 

Many of the fine photogravures contained in Camtra 
Work cannot be replaced, and all of them are worthy of 
framing. Many of the editions command three to four 
times their original publication price. We can supply 
copies of the following issues at $1 .50 per copy, postpaid. 



ume 


No. DaU 


PlaUs by 


4 . 


. . October, 


1003 .. 


. . Frederick H. Evan)* 


5 . 


. . . January, 


1904 .. 


. . Robert Demachy 


10 


... April. 


1905 .. 


. . Gertrude Kascbier 


11 . 


... July. 


1905 .. 


. . David Octavius Hill 


22 . 


... April. 


1908 .. 


. . Eduard J. Sieichen 


29 . 


. . . January, 


1910 .. 


.. George H. Seeley 


31 . 


... July. 


1910 .. 


. . I'^rank Eugene 


32 


... October. 


1910 .. 


. . J. Craig Annan 


36 


. . . October, 


1911 .. 


. . Alfred Steiglitz 


37 


. . . January. 


1912 .. 


.. David Octavius Hill 


40 . 


. . . October, 


1912 .. 


. . Huron A. de Meyer 


41 . 


. . . January, 


1913 .. 


. . Julia Margaret Cameron 



Specials Nos. 2 and 3. suitable for art students, will be 
mailed at $1 .00 per copy. Cubistic — not photographic. 
Special \ A„o„.f 1017 i Henry Matisse 
pKr2 i August, 1912 .,\ Pablo Picasso 

Special I ,„_^ ,«,, f Cezanne. Van Gogh. 
No 3 / J""^ *'*^ "\ Picasso. Picabia 



FRANK V. 

636 Franklin Square 



CHAMBERS 

Philadelphia 



brush. The plates should then be stored in 
the hot room until wanted. 

Filtering. — If this is done in the hot 
room it can be accomplished by passing the 
melted emulsion through absorbent cotton, 
otherwise a hot water jacket should be used 
for the filtering funnel, and the emulsion 
passed through well washed white silk or 
cotton. 

Depreciation 

John G. Herndon. Jr. 

When the Treasury Department is asked what 
is a reasonable rate for depreciation on any kin-i 
of asset, it never replies stating a rate which 
suits all conditions, hut attempts to give one 
which works fairness to the government and the 
taxpayers under average conditions. One of the 
questions which was asked me two years ago in 
the column which I was at that time writing for 
the Public Ledger was : "What is the rate of 
depreciation on buildings erected in 1820?" I 
told the inquirer that for the purposes of in- 
vested capital a reasonable depreciation would 
he one half of 1 per cent, of the original cost, 
if the buildings gave prospect of lasting another 
hundred years. For purposes of determining a 
reasonable depreciation, however, as a deduction 
from income in the case cited, the value of March 
1, 1913, should be used as a basis and the rate 
determined by the probable life thereafter. 

If we can assume that the reasonable rate of 
depreciation in most cases for piping is ten years, 
that fact will only place a burden on a taxpayer 
who claims that he is entitled to more than the 
average. I am familiar with a case of this sort. 
A taxpayer demonstrated that he was entitled to 
a rate of depreciation between 25 and Z^ per cent, 
per annum on the pipes in his estahlishment as 
his business was that of the manufacture of acids, 
and that these acids ran through the pipes, caus- 
ing them to corrode at such a rate that they 
needed to be replaced between every three and 
four years. 

However, there are certain rates of deprecia- 
tion, concerning the correctness of which the gov- 



HIGGINS' ! MOUNTER 




THE KIND YOU ARE SURE TO USE 
WITH CONTINUOUS SATISFACTION 



PASTE 

At Dealers^ Generally 



CHAS. M. HIGGINS & CO^ Manufacture* 

271 NINTH STREET, BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

Branches: Chicatfo. London 



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ernment seldom raises a question. They must 
be given in percentages somewhat as follows : 
Stone structures. Yj to V/i per cent.; brick and 
stone, lyj to 2; brick, 2 to 3; brick and frame. 
2y2 to 4 ; frame, 4 to 5 ; heavy machinery, 5 to 7 ; 
light machinery, 8 to 12: office furniture and fix- 
tures, 10; automobiles, 20; trucks, 25. 

Patents are subject to depreciation at the rate 
of one-seventeenth of the original cost in the 
hands of the original owner. In case a patent is 
subsequently purchased by another than the orig- 
inal owner, the rate of depreciation which he 
may take thereon is based on the number of years 
of life which the patent has to run. 

So-called depreciation of bonds is not recog- 
nized in arriving at income subject to tax. A 
loss of this sort can be claimed only when the 
securities mature, are sold or become totalh 
worthless. It is important here to emphasize, 
especially in connection with banks and trust com- 
panies, that they are entitled to add to their in- 
vested capital all of the depreciation of this sort 
which they have written off -on any securities 
which they owned at the beginning of any taxable 
year, in arriving at their invested capital for that 
year. 

The department allows depreciation to be taken 
as a deduction in the case of a corporation, if on 
the corporation's books there are entries explain- 
ing the depreciation charged, even though made 
in a year subsequent to the year for which the 
depreciation is claimed. 

Since depreciation is to be taken in real estate 
only on the value of the buildings and improve- 
ments thereon and not on the value of the land 
itself, it is necessary for the taxpayer to make 
a segregation of the two items of value. Un- 
earned increment will not be considered in fixing 
the value on which depreciation can be based. 

It is not necessary in connection with deprecia- 
tion that profit and loss be charged and a reserve 
for depreciation be credited. Such reserves do 
not constitute a part of surplus in arriving at 
invested capital, but reserves for depreciation in 
the value of securities may properly be added to 
invested capital. 

Prints for Coloring 

Most colorists find some difficulty in obtaining 
at the same time delicacy and brilliance when 
working upon the modern developing papers. If 
a print is made "light for coloring," it is usually 
flat, and requires a great deal of work to give a 
good effect, while a good ordinary print is usu- 
ally too strong in the shadows for the coloring to 
le effective. Black and white prints are pre- 
ferred by many colorists. as the whites are gen 
orally purer, but the difficulty in obtaining a sat- 
isfactory rendering, even of brown hair, is great. 
If nrints are toned by the sulphide method the 
shadows have a tendency to become blocked up. 
if the print is at all vigorous, while weaker ones 
usually tone to a sickly yellowish brown. There- 
fore, we recommend a trial of the liver of sul 



BACK TO THE OLD PRICES 

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16 oz. $10.00 

8 " 5.25 

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16 oz. $10.00 

8 " 5.25 

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CENTRAL CAMERA CO. 

124 M., So. Wabash Ave. - CHICAGO, ILL. 



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Bulletin of Photography 



"A Manual full of good whole»ome material 
and a valuable reference hook for every mem- 
ber of the prof e9»ion, hig or little." 



How to Make a Studio Pay 

By FRANK FARRINGTON 



CONTENTS 

The Man and the Location 
Buying and Arranging the Stock 
System in the Studio 
The Treatment of Customers 
How to Know the Profits 
Credit and Collections 
Developing the Side Lines 
Advertising You Can Do 
Business-Getting Schemes 



Qoth Boimi Price, $1.50, Net, Postpaid 
FRANK V. CHAMBERS 

PUBLISHER 

636 S. FRANKLIN SQUARE, PHILADELPHIA 



A NEW BOO K 

THE AIR BRUSH IN 
PHOTOGRAPHY 

The most comprehensive work ever written 
on work with the Air Brush, especially as applied 
to photography, working up enlargements, etc. 

143 PAGES - 45 ILLUSTRATIONS 

BOUND IN CLOTH 

93.50 post paid 

Mr. Geo. F. Stine, the author, is known as 
o le of the most expert workers with the Air 
Brush in this country, and the series of 32 illus- 
trated lessons, which forms a considerable portion 
of the book, is the most detailed and carefully 
worked out course of instruction that could be 
imagined. With the help of this book any photog- 
rapher can learn to use the Air Brush. 

In addition to the comprehensive series of 
lessons, there are seven chapters on coloring with 
the Air Brush, a very valuable addition to the 
book, and something not heretofore found in 
print. 

FRANK V. CHAMBERS 

636 S. Franklin Square Philadelphia 



phur toning, as by this means a delicate image 
may be toned to a cool brown with little loss 
of depth, while the shadows remain as trans- 
parent as before toning. It is necessary to add 
that all papers do not behave the same with liver : 
some will not go beyond a purple P.O.P. tone, 
while others will give any color between this 
and warm sepia. — British Journal of Photography. 

Income Tax Facts You Should 
Know 

Numerous errors in claims for deductions have 
been discovered in taxpayers' returns. 

To be allowed, deductions for losses must be 
confined to the following classes : Losses sus- 
tained in trade or business ; losses sustained in 
transactions entered into for profit, though not 
connected with a trade or business ; losses sus- 
tained of property not connected with trade or 
business if arising from fires, shipwreck, storms, 
or other casualty, or from theft. To the extent 
any of the above losses are compensated for by 
insurance they are not deductible. 

To be allowed as a deduction in the return for 
1920 a loss must have been actually sustained dur- 
ing that year. A taxpayer may feel certain that 
real estate owned by him is worth less than what 
he paid for it. A merchant may be convinced 
that certain stock cannot be sold unless marked 
below cost. In neither event, however, is he 
entitled to a claim for deduction until the loss is 
made absolute by sale or other disposition of the 
property. 

Claims for losses must conform closely to the 
wording of the statute. A loss sustained in the 
sale of an automobile purchased for personal use 
is not deductible, because it is not a transaction 
"entered into for profit." A loss sustained by a 
taxpayer in the sale of his home is not deductible 
for the reason that ordinarily when a man buys 
a residence and moves into it he has no intention 
of selling and has not "entered into a transaction 
for profit." 

Trade Photographers of Detfoit 
Organized 

The Commercial Photographers' Association of 
Detroit was formed February 11th, at a dinner in 
the Board of Commerce Building, at which 22 
members of the profession were present. F. L. 
Wyckoff was elected President ; George Adams, 
First Vice-President; John J. Manning, Second 
Vice-President; Judd M. Hawthorne, Secretary, 
and JeflFery White, Treasurer. The object of the 
Association is to promote co-operation and good 
fellowship among commercial photographers of 
the city. Meetings will be held monthly. 



Patient — "Doctor, how do you pronounce spinal 
meningitis?" Doctor — "Very dangerous, madam 
— very dangerous !"' 



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What's Doing in Photography 



W. B. Ogden will open a new studio in Win- 
chester, Ky. 

The photographic studio of G. W. Scothern. 
Hagerstown, Md., has been hold to F. D. Gruber. 

After twenty years, G. W. Bullerman has re- 
turned to Sullivan. Ind., and will be associated 
in the studio with Bert Lutz. 

John H. Kellberg, Charleston, W. Va., and 
Lester Kendell, Dayton, Ohio, have entered into 
partnership and will open a new studio in Colum- 
bus, Ohio. 

Arthur Hensen has purchased the Campbell 
Studio. Concordia, Kans., and is now in posses- 
sion. Mr. Hensen has been conducting the studio 
for the past several months for Mr. Campbell. 

On January 28th the studio of S. L. Wright, 
Toronto, Ont.. was destroyed by fire. Investiga- 
tion is being held, as the entire Forum Building 
was destroyed. Loss, $100,000, which includes 
fourteen other businesses. 

Henry Mousel, who has conducted a studio in 
DeWitt, la., for the past fifteen years, surprised 
his friends by announcing the sale of that busi- 
ness to W. J. Clarke, of Clinton. Mr. Mousel 
will devote his entire time to another business. 

Oscar W. Busser, a member of the firm of 
Shadle & Busser, York, Pa., died of Bright's 
disease February 10th at the age of 61 years. 
He was ill about two weeks. Mr. Bi^^ser is sur- 
vived by his widow, one son and three daughters. 

G. W. Bayless, formerly of Carterville, 111., has 
purchased McXetts Studio, Marion, 111. He made 
the purchase from Mr. Davis, who has handled the 
studio ever since McNett entered the army. Mr. 
Bayless has made arrangements for Mr. Davis to 
remain with him for some time and assist in the 
work. 

W. F. Baker, representative of the Eastman 
Kodak Company, gave a lecture on modern pho- 
tography and a special demonstration of new por- 
trait films and special lighting effects at the 
regular meeting of the Associated Portrait Pho- 
tographers of Rock ford. 111., at the Marsh studio, 
February 15th. 

One of the high-lights of Mr. Baker's demon- 
stration was the beautiful hair lighting effects 
obtained with the use of the blue globes. 

Swen A. Johnson, owner of the Johnson photo 
studios at Park Falls and Phillips, Wis., died at 
St. Joseph's Hospital at Marshfield, on February 
9th. 

Little hope was held for his recovery, as he had 
fallen victim to cancer of the stomach. Mr. 
Johnson was born in Sweden in 1866 and came to 
this country in August, 1887, and has been one of 
the leading photographers of that vicinity for the 
past 25 years. Mr. Johnson is survived by his 
widow and six children. 



Bausch & Lomb 
Tessar Lenses 



FOR 

STUDIO 

WORK 

THE Tessar lenses, in their 
larger sizes, more than fulfill 
all the requirements for high 
grade studio lenses. 

Tessar Ic is furnished with a lens 
hood, which can be removed if desired. 
Combining extreme covering power 
with the greatest practical speed, this 
lens is the best possible selection for 
the portrait photographer, for use both 
in the studio and for home portraiture. 

Series lib Tessar, from No. 8 up, is 
particularly adapted for group work, 
due to its depth of focus. It may also 
be used for portraiture, being espec- 
ially suited, in the longer focal lengths, 
for large heads. While it is as high 
grade a lens in workmanship as the 
Series Ic, its lower speed makes it 
somewhat less expensive. 

Every photographer who desires the 
best in studio equipment should be 
supplied with one or more Tessars. 
Our new, illustrated Photographic 
Lens Catalog will be sent on request. 

Bausch^ Ipmb Optical ®. 

632 St. Paul Street Rochester, N. Y. 

New York Washington Chicago San Francisco 

Leading American Makers of Microscopes, Projection 
Lanterns {Balopticons), Photographic and Ophthalmic 
Lenses, Stereo-Prism Binoculars, Range Finders, Gun- 
Sights, Searchlight Projectors and other High-Grade 
Optical Products. 



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282 Bulletin of Photography 



EASTMAN 
PORTRAIT 
BROMIDE 



A new paper made especially for 
enlarging from portrait negatives. 
A paper that will help you to 
sell large prints, because it 
puts the quality of the contact 
print into the enlargement. 
Two stocks— D White, E Buff. 
Two surfaces in each;— Rough 
Matte and Rough Lustre. The 
price is the same as for double 
weight Artura Iris. 



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. 
All Dealers*. 



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Classified Advertisements 



GlaMlll«d Adverdslna Rates — For Sale. Rent. Exch a ng e and 
MiiceUaneous adTertisemenU. Minimum charge. $1.00 for 
thirty wordi; additional wordt. 3 cents each. 

Halp Wantad — Two insertions of twenty-one words, minimum 
dmrge. 50 cenU; additional words. 2 cenU each. Cash must 
accompany order. 

SitiMtlon Wantad — Twenty-one words, one time. free. Addi- 
tional words. 2 cents each. 

No diaphiy allowad — CoMh miut b« —nt with order. 

Diapkiy advartlaina ratea sent upon request. 

Copy must be plain and distinct. 

To secure insertion, advertisements must be received by 9 
A. M., Tuesdays, one week preceding date of publication. 



DO YOU WANT A POSITION ? 

Read the ads, that follow 



Wanted at ONCE—Good printer, retoucher. Ideal 
climate and working conditions. Permanent 
FK^ition. Your advancement depends on your 
ability and co-operation. The Woodward Studio, 
Inc , 21 West Adams Street, Jacksonville, Fla. 

Where can I find a good fellow who wants a 

position in a photo business in view of owning it? 

Address — 948, care of Bulletin of Photography. 

Wanted — A-1 expert printer (Artura). State 
salary, age, experience and send samples of work. 
The Sweet Studio, 67— 12th St., S., Minneapolis, 
Minn. 



DO YOU WANT AN EMPLOYEE ? 

Read the ads, that follow 

Position NVantbd — Refined, educated lady— three 
years* high -class studio experience in every 
branch — desires position as assistant. Salary, $30 
per week. Miss Maye, care of Mrs. Burets, 948 
Second Avenue, New York City. 

DO YOU WANT TO BUY, SELL OR 
RENT A STUDIO ? 

Read the ads. that follow 

Wanted to Buy — Good studio, preferably in 
Michigan. Give full particulars in first letter. 
Cash deal. Address— 947, care of Bulletin of 
Photography. 



Wanted— Small one-man studio, at once. State 
particulars. Address, Box 946, care of Bulletin 
of Photography. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

Read the ads, that follow 

SPL— Get higher prices for your work. The unique 
quality imparted by the STRUSS PICTORIAL 
LENS will appeal to your more discriminating 
customers. Fred'k W. Keasbey, Box 303, Morris- 
town, N. J. 

Motion Picture Developing and Printing for 
the trade. Quality work, dependable service. 
Price list and dealers' discounts on request. 
Photo Finishing Company, 3159 Indiana Avenue, 
Chicago, 111. 



The husband, who had a great habit of teasing 
his wife, was out driving in the country with 
her. when they met a farmer driving a span of 
mules. Just as they were about to pass the farm- 
er's rig the mules turned their heads toward the 
auto and brayed vociferously. 

Turning to his wife, the husband cuttingly re- 
marked, "Relatives of yours, I suppose?" 

"Yes," said his wife sweetly, "by marriage." 



Reliable Photo Sopply Houses 



JOHN HAWORTH COMPANY 

(Eastman Kodak Co.) 
1020 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia 

THE H. LIEBER COMPANY 
24 W. Washington St. - Indianapolis, Ind. 

Western Photo & Supply Co. 

Photographers* & Photo Engravers* Supplies 

328 W. Madison St., Chicago 

WILLOUGHBY "•n^Vork* 
Everything Used in Photography 

SWEET, WALLACH & CO. 

(Battman Kodak Co.) 

133 North Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. 

SUSSMAN PHOTO STOCK CO. 
223-225 Park Avenue, Baltimore, Md. 

Norman-Willets Photo Supply 

— INCORPORATBD 

503-503 LE MO YNE BLDG. ntM in k nt\ 

180 N.WABASH AVE. CtllCAUU 

ZIMMERMAN BROS. 

(Eastman Kodak Co.) 

380-384 Minnesota St., St. Paul, Minn. 

HYATT'S SUPPLY CO. 
417 North Broadway, St. Louis, Mo. 

STANDARD PHOTO SUPPLY CO. 

(Baitman Kodak Co.i 

125 Baronne St., New Orleans, La. 



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prints tell the whole 
story of quality. 



The paper without a 
disappointment. 



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. 



All Dealers' . 



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Water-proof the print with 

KODALAK 

When you know prints will receive much 
handling — will be exposed to the weather, 
will become soiled; suggest a water-proof coat- 
ing of Kodalak W P. 

The print dipped in Kodalak WP is given 
a thin, flexible, transparent, water-proof coat- 
ing that protects it from moisture and permits 
of its being cleaned with water. 

Kodalak W P also gives a pleasing lustre to 
dull surfaced prints that adds transparency to 
their shadows. 



Sixteen ounces of Kodalak WP will water-proof about 
one-half gross of 4 x 6 prints or their equivalent. 
Kodalak WP, 16 oz. bottle, $ l.OO. 



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. 
All Dealers\ 



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318 Bulletin of Photography 



EASTMAN 
PORTRAIT 
BROMIDE 



A new paper made especially for 
enlarging from portrait negatives. 
A paper that will help you to 
sell large prints, because it 
puts the quality of the contact 
print into the enlargement. 
Two stocks— D White, E Buff. 
Two surfaces in each — Rough 
Matte and Rough Lustre. The 
price is the same as for double 
weight Artura Iris. 



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. 



All Dealers'. 



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We test chemicals. When necessary, 
we make chemicals to safeguard 
your results when you use paper, 
film and plate products. 

We recommend 



ELON 



We make it — we know ifs right. 



Now $9.00 per pound 
at your dealer's. 



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 
ROCHESTER, N. Y. 



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When you have a subject that 
requires real contrast — a copy 
of a drawing, a letter, a printed 
page, an advertisement, a trac- 
ing, in fact any example of line 
work, use the material that fits— 
that will give any degree of con- 
trast in negative or positive— 

Eastman 

Process 

Film 



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 
ROCHESTER, N. Y. 
All Dealers'. 



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T L 

The Complete Developer for 
Photographic Papers 

Now $5.50 per pound 

Contains no aaulterants, requires 
no additional developing agent. 
We recommend it for Artura, 
Azo and Velox Papers. 

We make it — we know ifs right. 



1 oz. bottle $ .45 

Hb. " 1-55 

ilb. " 2.90 

1 lb. " 5.50 

51b. can 27.00 



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ROCHESTER, N. Y. 
All Dealers'. 



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COLLINS NATIONAL ADVERTISING ia creating added intereat and aentiment for profeaaional photographj 
each month. Reproduced here, in reduced aixe, ia the appealing advertisement which occupied a fuU page in 
the Febnuuy 1921 Ladimt* Homm JourmiL Thia ad will awaken the desire for good photography in the hearta of 
two million readers. And Ultrafinm Mountings will contribute added charm and value to your photographic work 
twelve months in the year. 



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IN WHICH IS INCORFORATKO "tHK PHOTOGRAPHKR" AND THK "ST. LOUIS AND CANADIAN PHOTOGRAPH KR" 

THE WEEKLY BUSINESS PAPER FOR BUSINESS PHOTOGRAPHERS 

636 FranhUn Square {cor, 7th and Race Sts,) Philadelphia 

FRANK V. CHAMBERS, Editor and Publisher JOHN BARTLETT, AModate Editor 

A. A. SCHENCK, Bustnen Manager 



Yearly subscription. In advance, postage paid. United States. Mexico. Cuba. Philippines and Porto Rico. $2.00. 

Canada, $2.50. Countries in the Postal Union. $3.00. Single copies. 5 cents. 
Remittances may be made at our risk by money order, check, draft or registered letter. 
Items of interest upon photographic subjects will be gladly received. 
Subscriptions received by all photographic and news dealers in the United States and Europe. 



Vol. XXVffl, No. 710 Wednesday, March 16, 1921 



Prices Cents 
$2.00 per Year. Post Free 



The Status of the Profession 



JOHN BARTLETT 



Photography, as a profession, stands in a 
somewhat unique position, relative to other 
professions. In an extended sense it is 
closely associated with the mechanical arts, 
but in the application of the mechanical 
means, it requires so much of the ability — 
demanded of the professor in the fine arts — 
that it needs must be classified considerably 
above even some of the more dignified 
trades in which the mechanical phase is 
called into requisition, to the extent, too, 
that, when conducted as a business, it calls 
for the exercise of talent, associated with 
artistic discernment, complimentary with 
conmiercial instinct. So photography 
stands, as it were, between the profession of 
the painter and the medical practitioner, 
and entirely out of the pale confining to the 
requirements of the mere tradesman. 

To buy and sell simply at a profit on 
investment is one thing, but to conduct suc- 
cessfully a photographic business is some- 
thing quite different. 

When a tradesman increases his business 
by small profits and increased sales, it is a 
comparatively easy matter for him to call 
upon assistants to do the mere handling of 
the goods, who need not necessarily possess 



qualifications equal to his own. But this 
cannot possibly be arranged in a studio 
practice, because a successfully run photo- 
graphic business must be under the constant 
supervision of a responsible chief, familiar 
with the detail and minutiae of the subordi- 
nate positions. 

The business must be evolved principally 
from its head ; to so great a degree that ex- 
tension of it, unless attended by exercise of 
business acumen, may result in its deteriora- 
tion if not ultimate dissolution; because so 
little is it understood that the work of the 
artist must necessarily be the unit of his 
brain and hands. How often do we hear 
the remark made to artists : "I suppose when 
you are very busy you call in help." 

Now, how possibly can there be help for 
a true artist in the pursuit of the higher 
branches of his art? Although this asser- 
tion needs some qualification in application 
to the photographic artist, since he can have 
artistic help to a limited extent, still it holds, 
in a measure, because his profession par- 
takes so much of the character of a fine art 
that he cannot delegate his skill beyond a 
certain point. 

He must personally, and by his own indi- 



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We are told that the man who is willing 
to sacrifice the natural desire for ease and 
comfort and settle down to earnest labor 
has the necessary motive force. He is a 
thinker who projects his brain into his 
hands. The complacent, easy-going com- 
panion may have equal physical grey mat- 
ter, but we all know that, unless cultivated, 
the garden of the fairest mind soon runs to 
noxious brambles and dense growth of un- 
derbrush, whereas the less fertile soil, if 
carefully watered, well weeded, hedged and 
trimmed, will bloom forth with flowers and 
fruit of ripe experience. 

If the photographer looks at his occupa- 
tion as a mere mechanical means of getting 
a living, he eventually becomes identified 
with it as a part of the machinery, instead 
of the motive force, directing its successful 
issue. 

If we in the business remain satisfied that 
our work is up to the general average, good 
enough for the price we can get for it, we 
are the slave of our occupation, not the 
master. 

Such failures in the profession are con- 
stantly advertising the sale of the studio in 
the belief that the lack of success is due 
to misapplication of their talent to the par- 
ticular occupation, and, that to be just to 
their mental qualification, they ought to en- 
gage in some higher profession. They are 
fortunate if they discover in time that the 
fault is " not in the stars, but in themselves, 
that they are underlings." They want en- 
ergy to compel the material to do their 
bidding to healthful growth and ultimate 
success. 

Avoirdupois vs. Apothecaries 

Possibly you have never had occasion to have 
chemicals weighed out by the druggist, and pos- 
sibly you have. Sometimes a formula calls for a 
chemical the photographer does not happen to have 
and he sends to the druggist. 

And possibly he has several chemicals that make 
up his formula weighed on the druggist's scales. 
He knows those scales are accurate, and so they 
are, but he has not remembered that his formula 
is based on avoirdupois weight, while the druggist 
uses apothecaries weight. 



You may think that such examples are rather 
unusual, and possibly they are, but we have also 
heard of cases where the photographer was actu- 
ally using apothecaries weights and thought all 
the time that he was using avoirdupois. 

Photographic formulae are based on avoirdupois 
weights and photographic chemicals are sold by 
avoirdupois weights, and if a formula is made up 
by apothecaries weight it does make a big differ- 
ence. 

In the two systems of weights the grain is the 
same, but the number of grains in the ounce is 
different. The apothecaries ounce contains 480 
grains, while the avoirdupois ounce contains 437^ 
grains. So, if your formula calls for one ounce 
and you weigh your chemicals by apothecaries 
weight, your ounce will contain 42^ grains too 
much. 

The pound avoirdupois, on the other hand, con- 
tains 1240 grains more than the apothecaries 
pound, because the latter contains but 12 ounces, 
while the former contains 16 ounces. 

You can readily see that this would make a 
great difference in a nicely balanced formula. 

If you have a lot of old weights and don*t 
know what they are, have them tested or buy a 
new pair of scales that you know are equipped 
with carefully tested avoirdupois weights. 

Remember that all formulae recommended by 
American manufacturers are based on avoirdupois 
weights, the table for which is given below. And 
all chemicals for photographic use should be care- 
fully weighed to produce the chemical combina- 
tions in proper balance, as intended by the manu- 
facturers. 

AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHTS 

Pound Ounces Drams Grains 
1 = 16 = 246 = 7000 
1 = 16 = 437.5 
1 = 27.34 

And while we are on the subject of formulse 
a word as to the combining of chemicals is not 
amiss. 

Unless otherwise specified, chemicals that go 
into a developer or other solution should aU^ys 
be dissolved in the order in -which they are given 
in the formula. 

The water may be given last, in which case the 
formula is usually written: 

"Water to make 64 ounces." 

But in such a case it is understood that the chemi- 
cals are added one at a time to a convenient 
volume of water, each chemical being thoroughly 
dissolved before the next is added. And finally 
the volume of the solution is brought up to the full 
amount. 

If chemicals are not compounded in the order 
given, the proper combinations are not formed, 
precipitation often ocairs and the solution does 
not function as was intended. 

Use care in weighing chemicals, be sure your 
weights are avoirdupois weights and mix your 
chemicals in the order in which they are given.— 
Photo Digest. 



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Fallacies, Inconsistencies and Plain ^^Bull" 



FEUX RAYMER 



Yep, here I am again after something like 
eight years' silence. Don't just exactly 
know why I have been so quiet for so long 
a time, unless it may be that I am a married 
man and sometimes that plays a very im- 
portant part in a fellow's life. But when I 
received a letter from our handsome editor 
asking me if I would not stage a "come 
back," and send him something in the way 
of an article, and he further added that 
"ever}' once in a while he heard from some- 
one who loves me," it caused my heart to 
miss a beat, and I resolved to surprise him 
(for I know he did not expect me to really 
take him at his word), and send him some- 
thing along the lines indicated in the head- 
ing above. And right here, first of all, I 
want to say that I think the last part of the 
editor's letter was just "plain bull." 

When one looks back over about thirty- 
eight years* experience in a single profession 
he realizes that there have been many 
changes, and, on the other hand, if this pro- 
fession happens to be photography, as it is 
in my case, he realizes that there have been 
dam few changes in some respects. So far 
as the actual product of a studio is con- 
cerned, one would be very foolish to claim 
that there has not been a vast improvement. 
But as far as the fallacies, inconsistencies 
and plain bull are concerned, I must confess 
that I see but blame little improvement. As 
most of my readers will know, for about 
eighteen or twenty years I was connected 
with a college of photography, during which 
time I did but very little actual practical 
work of a studio nature. Prior to that time 
I had been ever>'thing, from an errand boy 
around a studio to a boss. But after having 
served for so long a time in school work I 
was somewhat doubtful as to whether I 
could take my place again in the ranks of 
photographers right oflF the bat. But I find 
that there is but very little difference in be- 
ing a boss nowadays from what there was 
thirty years ago. True, we may be more 



systematic and businesslike in our conduct 
of a studio, but we had systematic men in 
those days, and while we had slipshod men, 
too, at that time, we still have them with us. 
Yes, the business is on a better standing 
somewhat in the community, but too often it 
is the case that we are following in the foot- 
steps of a gone generation. 

For example, even as late as the present 
day it seems that many of the boys seem to 
think that they must live a life of apology 
in the presence of their trade. We are too 
often fearful that we will lose a customer, 
if we stand right up on our hind legs and 
assert ourselves. We are constantly saying 
that the customer is always right. I don't 
believe any such tommy rot. We know that 
nine times out of ten the customer is always 
wTong. Then why should we agree to 
dance to his or her music? Be honest with 
yourself and with your customer and speak 
your little piece just as you feel it. That is 
business and blame good business if you are 
honest in it. We all know that w^e are deal- 
ing with the very worst side of human 
nature, for we are dealing with the vanity 
of each and every customer that comes in 
the house. If we do not make a picture that 
is better looking than the customer, she or 
he (yes, ten thousand times yes, men are as 
bad as women) will want another sitting. 
(And right here I am going to promise the 
readers of this magazine an article on the 
"resitting" problem some time in the future, 
and it's DIFFERENT, too.) I do not be- 
lieve in allowing a customer to play tag with 
me. It is my business, and I expect every- 
one to treat it as a business matter when he 
or she comes into my place for a sitting. 
If I incur expense, they must pa\ it and 
I am going to see to it that they do. If the 
photographer takes himself and his business 
seriously he will impress his trade with the 
same feeling. If he is dignified and attends 
to his business in a businesslike manner, and 
commands the respect of his trade he will 



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receive it. If he agrees to every little foible 
of his trade, and shoulders all the incon- 
venience and expense of a lot of experi- 
mental sittings and then allows his customer 
to dictate terms he is going to lack the 
respect of his trade. 

One of the inconsistencies of the present 
day, is the tendency of many to invest a lot 
of money in fine studios and expect that 
one thing to make them millionaires. A few 
years ago we called it a galler\' ; now it is a 
studio, and I must confess that I like that 
better. But with the change of name came 
the desire to really have a studio, and many, 
to my way of thinking, have overshot the 
mark and tied up too much money. I have 
in mind two of my friends who have opened 
each a studio representing an investment of 
forty thousand dollars (hells, bells! if I had 
that much money I wouldn't give it for ever\' 
studio in America) and I have visited the 
places and they are immense, fine, exquisite, 
rambunctious, BUT, now gfet this: Get it, I 
tell you, be sure you GIT IT. They arc do- 
ing exactly the same grade of zvork that they 
Zi'crc doing before they spent so much money 
on their nice, pretty studios. In other 
words, their studios are far superior to the 
product that comes from them. They em- 
ploy the same help, the same ideas, and 
practically get the same prices for their 
pictures, but the grade of work is the same 
as that turned out of the old studio. Would 
it not be more consistent to make the work 
better so as to keep pace with the fine studio ? 
Personally I have changed my ideas about 
the big studios. (Oh, this is not sour 
grapes, for I have one of the largest south 
of the Ohio River), but I believe the time 
will come when we will economize space, 
work, strength, walking, and furnishings, 
by having our studios more condensed. My 
observation in the past eight years is that we 
have two classes of studios, with a middle 
class uniting the two. First, we have the 
ultra-art studio w^here nothing but something 
that actually smells of art is ever allowed to 
pass out the door. Then we have the studio- 
mill, where we grind out pictures by the 



wholesale. I like that sort, and that is what 
I have. Xot so high up in ART, but a little 
longer on the green stuff that buys auto- 
mobiles. But above all, no matter what sort 
of a place one is conducting, he should give 
the very best work that is in him. My idea 
is to keep my work just a little bit ahead of 
my studio, just a little better. As my work 
improves, then let the studio step up a bit. 
But for the love of Mike, don't let our 
customers come into a palace and depart 
disappointed in the work coming from that 
palace. 

A few years ago the magazines were full 
of praise for this or that operator, showing 
the work coming from him, giving him big 
"write-ups," boosting him, and praising 
everything he did. The operator was all of 
it. He did the work of the entire studio, 
none other had any right to even claim to 
work there. Then all at once things 
changed. Some chap riz up and said, "the 
receptionist" is the whole cheese. She is 
the one that brings in the money or she is 
the most important personage in the studio. 
Neither presumption is correct. Both have 
their places, and both are important. But 
much is claimed for and by the receptionist 
that is foolisli as well as inconsistent. Just 
a short time ago I had occasion to witness 
an order being taken by a receptionist. The 
sitter was a man of considerable reputation, 
and well known all over the State. So the 
operator had made several negatives of him. 
When he first came in for his sitting he had 
placed an order for twenty dollars. When 
he came to see his proofs, I happened to be 
present and watched with no little interest 
the system of the receptionist. He placed 
the proofs in front of his customer, and 
stood silently waiting. At last the gentle- 
man handed the receptionist one of them 
and said, "finish me twelve of this," then 
handed him another and said, "finish me six 
of this." Then another and said, "six of 
this also." And another and said, "three of 
this." and so on. The receptionist had not 
said a word. After the customer left, the 
receptionist went to the boss and said with 



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392 Bulletin of Photography 



A MOVIE ACTOR Karl Tausig 

New York 



Royal Photographic Society. 1920 
Pittsburgh. 1920 
Toronto. 1920 



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a full chest, and large head, "I talked Mr. B 
up to forty dollars on his order," and the 
darn poor fish of a boss fell for it and in a 
short time was telling me what a business 
man he had for a receptionist. Now, say, 
Rube, just listen to your Uncle Si for a 
minute. I don't care a whoop how good a 
receptionist you have, he or she is not worth 
a tinker's cuss, if you haven't a good 
operator, a good retoucher, a good printer 
and good finishers. Get that, and let it 
simmer. I believe in giving the receptionist 
all that is coming to him or her, but remem- 
ber, good work is the best clerk you can 
have. A good receptionist cannot sell poor 
work every day in the week for very long, 
1>UT YEIA, Bo, a poor receptionist can sell 
good work every day in the week, forever 
and ever, amen. So be consistent. If you 
have a humdinger of a studio, have hum- 
dingers for workmen, and do humdinger 
work, and get humdinger prices. Selah ! 

It seems that most operators think that 
just so that they shoot up a lot of plates they 
have done their duty. I believe in using lots 
of plates — if one knows what he is using 
them for. If he does not, he is just plain 
foolish. In conversation with one of our 
well-known photographers a short time ago, 
he told me he had made 83 negatives of one 
lady customer a few days ago. I asked him 
if she paid him to make them. He said well 
he would get a good order out of her. I 
asked him if he knew what he was making 
when he made each and every one of them. 
He said well, no, but he wanted to make sure 
that he would have enough to select a set of 
proofs to show her. Just plain Bull. If a 
fellow exposes a plate and does not know 
what he did it for or what he was going to 
get when he did it, he is not honest with 
himself nor his customer either, for he is 
leading that customer to believe that there is 
something unusual about her and she expects 
to see every proof, and if he fails to show 
every proof, that customer is certain to be 
disappointed. Mr. Operator know thyself, 
and also know thy work so that you have a 
confidence in doing things, and then don't do 



anything without a reason. Don't waste 
material, for it doesn't pay. The little leaks 
in the expenses are the same today that they 
were thirty years ago, in most of the 
studios. 

I notice that we still fly off after every 
little fad or novelty and so on as we did many 
years ago. Every once in a while some 
ambitious chap pops up with a novelty in 
lighting and expects to revolutionize the 
world and send his name down to fame as 
the inventor of *'some" lighting. The rage 
now is the "spot" light (Yep, I have one; 
know how to use it, too) and some of the 
eflfusions made with it would give a fellow 
the "willies" even if the country is dry. I 
see many of them, and feel like taking a nice 
clean handkerchief, and wrapping one comer 
of it around a finger and sticking that finger 
in my mouth and wetting it, and then trying 
to wipe the spot off the lady's face. Now, 
don't misunderstand me. I think the spot 
light is a fine NOX'ELTY. But there is not 
a blame grain of art to it nor anything made 
with it. It's just what it's called — ^a spot 
light. But for certain subjects, some ex- 
quisite pictures can be made. But the 
operator must use judgment in his selection 
of a subject to use it on. Just as he must 
use judgment in making any sort of a light- 
ing of every subject. But to go into that 
will take another article, and I may try to 
take it up later. I believe in taking up any 
novelty that will induce the dear public to 
get reckless and spend some money. But 
remember, that a novelty to be used suc- 
cessfully requires a knowledge of the prin- 
ciple; in this case the lighting. If one does 
not understand the rules of light and shade, 
he will not be a success as a spot lighter. We 
may jump off after all these little fads, but 
when it comes to the real meat and bread in 
picture taking we have to come back to the 
old time principles of light and shade after 
all. 

Well, there are other things that I would 
like to take up, that are inconsistent and a 
few fallacies and some bull, but I suppose it 
will be better to let them pass for a time. 



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Believe nie it's an interesting game studying 
the situation after having been out of it for 
a matter of twenty years. Yes, there are 
some new things, but they will have to be 
dealt with in another article, too. liut I am 
back in again, and tickled to death at being 
in. Never expect to quit the game again. 



Our Legal Department 



Dear Mr. Buckley. — I have just had 
brought to my notice a matter on which I 
wish your advice. It is the matter of copy- 
righting a photograph of a prominent man 
whom I once had a chance to photograph. 
He gave me his consent to sell the pictures 
whenever and wherever anyone wished to 
buy them, and, as I thought that I was going 
to be able to sell them, I sent two in for 
copyright and then wrote across the face of 
one that I sold, "copyrighted by myself" and 
I just received a letter from him saying that 
I had violated the laws of the land by writ- 
ing the words on his picture for there can be 
no copy of his photograph lying in the 
Government office at Washington bearing 
the copyright official seal without his 
authority, and that he never gave nor was 
asked for such permission. Now, I asked 
for his permission to sell and he gave it, but 
I did not ask him for permission to copy- 
right same, did not think that it was neces- 
sary. He is in British uniform and we will 
call him Rev. John Smith, Church Missioner 
Presbytery. 

If I have committed any violation by so 
doing, I did it unconsciously, and wish your 
advice in this matter. 

T. E. D. 

Dear Sir. — Yours of the 2d is received 
and carefully considered. You have a right 
to copyright any photograph which you 
personally make, with or wMthout the per- 
mission of the subject. You are merely 
copyrighting your own work, which, of 
course, is your own affair and a matter in 
which no one else can interfere. 

The above is the law in cases such as I 



understand yours to be, where the subject 

of the photograph did not employ you in 

the regular way to make the pictures. In 

that case the right of copyright would be in 

him. In cases where a photographer asks 

permission of the subject to photograph and 

does photograph him, without consideration, 

the right of copyright is in the photographer. 

Yours very trulv, t- t r> 
t-. J. r>. 

Dear Mr. Buckley. — Your kind letter of 
March 4th just received regarding the 
article which I wrote you through the 
Bulletin of Photography, and thought 
possibly I had not made it altogether clear. 

The before mentioned Dr. Smith was in 
this town, and I invited him, through our 
local minister, to come in and let me take his 
picture, which he did. I made several nega- 
tives of him and made him a present of one 
of each of the best ones, and never received 
a cent for my work, and later I wrote and 
asked his permission to sell his picture, 
which he readily gave me. I, knowing that 
he is a great man, decided that there would 
be some demand for his pictures, and de- 
cided to have same copyrighted, and sent 
two of the best ones in for copyright. Wt- 
fore I got returns, I received a letter from 
a man in Indiana for the purchase of one of 
Dr. Smith's photographs. I wrote and told 
him my prices and got an order for one and 
I wrote across the face at one comer, "copy- 
righted by myself** and sent it after I got 
returns from Washington. In a few days 
I received a letter saying that I had no right 
w^ithout Dr. Smith*s permission, hence the 
reason that I wrote you. 

A'oTi', what I wish to know at this time is. 
after he has given his consent to me selling 
them to whoever want them, and I have the 
copyright, can he prevent me from selling 
them as I choose, as long as I am decent 
about it ; that is, I had hoped to sell them to 
churches where he has preached, and to 
people religiously inclined, who know him 
and want his picture? 

Dr. Smith wrote me that he had instructed 
a newspaper to have a block made from the 



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picture which I sent this man and to run 
same ^in their paper. Now, could I get 
damages from this newspaper company, 
after he, Dr. Smith, had instructed them to 
copy my copyriglited picture, which I had 
sold to this other man whom Dr. Smith had 
instructed to order from me? 

I thank you, indeed, for your kind infor- 
mation. 

Yours very respectfully, 

T. K. D. 



Dear Sir. — Replying to yours of the 5th 
inst., your right to have the picture copy- 
righted under the additional facts which you 
now submit, is clear. Dr. Smith not only 
cannot prevent you from copyrighting his 
photograph and selling it under copyright, 
but he has no more right to sell it himself 
or to make any use of it without your per- 
mission, than a stranger. 

Yours very truly, 

E. J. B. 



Developing Bromide and Gaslight Prints 

"What is the best developer for bromide (excepting the soft grade) in one minute, 

and gaslight prints?" There is no doubt The time of appearance of the image is not a 

that it is the one recommended by the reliable guide, as it varies so much accord- 

makcrs of the particular paper used, as they, ing to the quality of the negative used, and 

knowing the exact nature of the emulsion, the temperature of the developer, 

are able by careful experiments to arrive at There is one chemical in the developers 

a developing formula that will bring put the that calls for special mention, and that is 

best qualities of the paper. sodium sulphite. It is not a good plan to 

Either M. Q. or amidol may be used with make up a stock-solution of this in bulk (as 

equal success, and we append our own many amidol users do) and keep it any 

fonnula with instructions for mixing. The length of time as it deteriorates in solution, 

only alterations that should ever be made We, therefore, advise freshly-made sulphite 

are, when necessary, to dilute the developer, solution for all developers. In order to ob- 

and to increase the proportion of potassium tain blue-black images on gaslight paper 

bromide. A well-restrained dilute developer some workers reduce the proportion of 

gives fine warm-black colors on the soft potassium bromide, but we do not recom- 

grade gaslight, and a well-restrained normal mend that less than 10 grains be used in 20 

strength developer is the one most suitable ounces of developer, 

for developing bromide prints to that METoL-HVDRogrixoxE developer 

greenish color which gives such nice sepias (double strength) 

in the hypo-alum toning bath. In both these Metol 16 grains or 2 grammes 

cases the exposure must be on the full side, Hydroquinone .. .60 grains or 7 grammes 

but printers should bear in mind that (ex- Sodium sulphite 

cepting in special cases) correct exposure cryst 1 ounce or 55 grammes 

followed by full development {i.e., develop- Sodium carbonate 

ment carried on until the image ceases to cryst 1 ounce or 55 grammes 

gain in depth) produces pure black images Potassium bro- 

of fine quality especially suitable for sul- niide 20 grains or 2 grammes 

phide toning. Xo useful purpose can be Water to make . .20 ounces or 1 litre 

served by unduly prolonging development. In about 15 ounces of warm water dis- 

indeed, it may introduce fog, but the solve the metol, then add the hydroquinone 

practised printer will know by experience and sulphite, and when dissolved add the 

when to stop development. Generally speak- carbonate and bromide. Make up to 20 

ing, a bromide print should be fully de- ounces with cold water and bottle off in full 

veloped in two minutes, and a gaslight print well-corked bottles. 

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396 Bulletin of Photography 

For bromides add equal volume of water avarice in friends and in gratitude extended 

— for gaslight prints use full strength for to him for good works, who calls himself a 

the vigorous and nonnal grades, but diluted failure because he hasn't been able to do 

for the soft grade. more than he has. No one else calls him a 

AMIDOL DEVELOPER failure. I know a man who has so many 

Sodium sul- oodles of money (an oodle is more'n a 

phite Ij4 ounces or 60 grammes minion) that he can't count it, who calls 

Amidol 50 grains or 5 grammes himself a success, because he can buy and 

Potassium bro- sell most men, whom his friends call a 

mide 10 grains or 1 gramme failure because he himself has never done 

Water to make 20 ounces or 1 litre anything, never produced anything, never 

In about 18 ounces of tepid water dis- obtained anything, except money and what 

solve the sulphite, then add the amidol and ^^ buys. 

bromide, make up to 20 ounces and use ^ photographer can have more than one 

within three days. Dilute only when de- definition of success. F'rinstance, I know 

veloping prints on the soft grade gaslight ^"^ ^^ho is a huge success, measured by the 

paper. — Rajar, Limited. dollars and cents standard. Makes a lot of 

money, has a lot of customers, employs a 

Am I a Success? lot of people. But if you measure his suc- 

C. H. ci^UDY cess by his ability to make pictures, by his 

Every man some time asks himself this, ability to make friends, by his ability to 

Some men ask the question many times, make himself a factor in the community. 

And, of course, the answer, be the question he's a poor failure. No one likes him, his 

asked once in a lifetime or daily, depends labor turnover is large, and his pictures, 

wholly upon w^hat the definition of success measured by either real photographic or real 

may be. art standards, are punk-to-rotten. 

If I ask myself, "am I a success," and my Per contra, I know a photographer who 

definition of "success" is either the making runs a modest one-man business. He makes 

or the prospect of making a fortune in ex- four or five sittings a day. Every one is 

cess of Rockefeller's, then I must annswer carefully, even lovingly, made, just the very 

"no." Most of us must answer in the nega- best way he can, and his very best is the 

tive to such a question with such a definition product of much study, thought and effort, 

as a premise. But one can easily fancy some It is his boast that once he has a customer in 

wealthy man who has more money than he his studio, the customer never goes anyw^here 

knows how to spend, asking himself if he is else. He doesn't charge as much as he 

a success and answering in the negative, might, he never tried to commercialize his 

because his definition of success reads, "one artistic ability by starting a chain of studios 

who has made himself as famous as Roose- and hiring a lot of operators, and, financi- 

velt." ally, he isn't a success at all. He makes a 

Of course "success," as a generality, has comfortable living, has a flivver and belongs 

no hard and fast definition. Our definition to a golf club, but one suspects him of hav- 

may be totally different from Jim Smith's, ing his shoes half -soled. But any sane 

and Jim's differs from Tom Brown's. And definition of success must include him, it 

if Jim and Tom, and all our friends, have seems to me, because he is doing the job 

one definition and we another, and we don't which is his lot in life, to his own satisfac- 

measure up to their definition, then we are tion and the satisfaction and happiness of 

not a success in their eyes even if we are in those for whom he works, 

our own eyes. I know a minister, poor as There is much, too much, dependence 

Job's turkey, wealthy beyond the dreams of placed on mere money in this world. We 



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Bulletin of Photography 



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are all touched with the gold sign. Deny 
it though we may, we do more or less wor- 
ship cash, and are all too prone to measure 
a man's accomplishments by what they can 
be translated into in green-backs or a bank 
account. And this, curiously enough, in 
spite of the fact that the man we applaud 
the most and venerate to the greatest extent, 
are not men who make money. Neither 
Midas nor Croesus are known to as many as 
are Lincoln or Shakespeare. The man who 
invents the process by which you read these 
words was poor, and the scientist to whom 
we owe the half-tone screen and the color 
process of modern printing never made 
enough to buy himself financial independ- 
ence. Do you, does anyone, know or care 
whether Daguerre was wealthy or poor? 
His success was in what he gave to the 
world, not in what the world gave to him. 

I asked an old, old man who had 
weathered all kinds of storms in life, what 
he called success. His answer was that of 
a sage and a philosopher, and it fits a photog- 
rapher as a glove fits a hand. 

*'Success," he answered, "can only be 
measured in terms of the work one does. H 
the work is well done, the man is a success. 
H the work is ill done, he is not." 

Is my work well done? Could I do it 
better? Am I giving value to my customers 
regardless of whether it be value for value 
received ? When a woman brings a child to 
me to picture, do I make such a picture of 
that child as I would be willing to take be- 
fore a jury of my peers in photography and 
say, "this is the best which I can do?" When 
a woman comes to me to be pictured, do I 
picture her as she is, may be, should be, or 
just her gown? Do I picture a man to 
please his pocket-book or as his friends will 
like to see him? Am I honest in my work 
— not only in using good materials and 
proper workmanship — but honest with life 
and art and reality? 

The answer to these questions is the 
answer to the question which heads this 
story. In any scale of values other than 
monetary, success must be measured by 



ability to do, not to acquire; ability to pro- 
duce, not to amass; ability to create, not to 
collect; ability to give, not to receive. 

No man learns to do, produce, create, 
give, in any line of endeavor, without work. 
No man learns to be a really successful 
photographer by studying only the business 
end of his profession. 

The man whose only interest in his game 
is the collection of money for what he does, 
can never be anything but a financial suc- 
cess. And, while agreeing whole-heartedly, 
that money is a mighty fine thing to have, 
and that its getting is not always easy, it is, 
after all, about the commonest example of 
success there is. There are more people 
who are successful in getting money than 
are successful in any other line. For every 
inventor who gives the world a printing 
press or a flying machine, there are thousands 
of wealthy men. For every writer who 
produces a Hamlet or a Faust, there are 
regiments of plutocrats. For every Wagner, 
Beethoven, McDowell, there are myriads of 
possessors of money. For every Rembrandt, 
Whistler, Sargeant, there are any quantity 
of payers of large income taxes. 

Maybe because making a lot of money is 
the easiest way to be what part of the world 
calls a success, is why that part does call 
that process successful. 

But by real, not artificial standards, what 
is your answer to the question ? 
* 

It is unwise to judge of anything by investiga- 
tion of its defects. The first effort should be to 
discover its excellencies. 



TF you have any new photographic 
-■■ ideas or methods that you believe 
would interest readers of the Bulletin 
of Photograqjhy, send them in. 

Ideas and contributions will be 
paid for. 



BULLETIN-OFl 

photography! 



Philadelphia, Pa. 



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Bulletin of Photography 



About Posing 



A good deal is written about posing the 
figure, but a good deal of the suggestion and 
admonition vouchsafed tends to perplex 
more than to help towards getting a natural 
unconstrained presentation of the model. 

One great consideration is overlooked 
when instruction is given for the proper 
pose, and that is the necessity of getting 
what may be called natural balance, or, 
better, the ** resolution of movement." 

Vou know, how even in the work of our 
best portraitists, we frequently see a 
tendency to rigidity in the repose, as if the 
model at the last moment had been requested 
to brace up, to look animated. Now, 
**natural balance" exhibits none of this. It 
is rather a presentation of muscular repose. 

Whatever passion or emotion may be con- 
veyed by facial expression, unless it be 
accompanied with consistent equipoise of the 
figure, there is registered^ a palpable contra- 
diction. The face says one thing, the body 
expresses another — and the intention of the 
artist is necessarily misconstrued. 

Hence, to represent with truth the relative 
degree of muscular activity, the pose of the 
body must be in conformity with the pose 
of the head, and interpretative of the 
expression. 

Look at a picture of some of the great 
painters, Raphael and Titian, for instance, 
and you note this inevitable unity of purpose, 
how all the parts of the body, even the 
hands and feet, are in perfect accord with 
the head and facial expression. So do the 
great sculptors. Look how they show 
diversity of action with energy of feeling, 
Rubens delights and astonishes by his simu- 
lation of movement, but when we look at the 
faces we are disappointed by the want of 
accordance. How careful were the Greeks 
to avoid the tendency to the dramatic. 
Their art was the ordered evolution of the 
natural faculties under the strict control of 
a well balanced mind. ** Nothing too much 
— ." Their statues of the gods were the 
concrete reproduction in form, feature, ex- 



pression, drapery and pose of their concep- 
tion of the ethical and intellectual qualities 
of which they were symbolic. 

To appreciate this natural accordance of 
parts to unity of expression presupposes 
considerable ability on the part of the artist 
— that is, the painter, because he must have 
the skill to manually reproduce, but with the 
photographer the ability to recognize the 
accordance is all that is necessar\', and this 
is the reason why we see, at the present time, 
so much better portraiture by photography 
than by painting. The camera lends its un- 
erring skill to the photographer. 

Natural pose or grace of figure may be 
seen in the delicate flexions of the head upon 
the neck, and yet how often does the photog- 
rapher destroy nature's pose by his conven- 
tional turn he gives the head to confonn to 
some set instruction. Again, this natural 
balance is seen, also, in the flowing lines of 
the arms, the rising or falling, advancing 
and retiring of the shoulders, in the facility 
with which the body turns on hip axis and, 
besides, in those gradual changes which take 
place all over the body to preserve its 
equilibrium. But instead of noticing all this 
and taking advantage of what nature 
furnishes, the photographer will enquire for 
the best book on posing the figure. He 
wants a cut and dried method and feels that 
his patron tells him the pose looks con- 
strained. 

H the photographer wants instruction in 
posing we would refer him to the distin- 
guished painters of portraits. 

They have left us most valuable examples 
of every kind of draped figure, but even with 
these before him, he must not servilely copy, 
but intelligently study to get at the funda- 
mental principles on which the great painters 
work, and by constant reference to nature 
and due consideration of the demands of 
his own art, get at their import and never 
tr>' to force the figure to conformance to 
some particular example which he thinks 
most worthv of imitation. 



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P. A.^LitiLM. A. S. 

THE "BABY NATIONAL" CONVENTION BALTIMORE, APRIL 18th 

ONLY EIGHTEEN MORE DAYS 



The value and significance of conventions 
goes without saying, but this much may be 
vouchsafed, at any rate: The value is de- 
pendent upon those who project them, and 
those who propose to take advantage of 
what is contemplated want to be assured 
that they will be compensated for the trou- 
ble and expense incidental upon attendance, 
and the assurance of this is estimated by 
the ability of those who inaugurate the 
scheme. The reputation of the Photogra- 
phers* Association of the Middle Atlantic 
States is warranty sufficient that the issue 
will be eminently successful. 

It inspires confidence that the return for 
the expenditure will be ten, twenty or thirty- 
fold in profit. 

We have received from the President, 
J. W. Scott, an interesting letter of the per- 
formance, from which one feels assured 
that it would be simply a piece of folly to 
stay away — a bad business move — a false 
economy. 

The program has been completed and will 
l)e devoutedly carried out. The manufac- 
tures' exhibit will be a revelation, something 
never before attempted at any previous con- 



vention, the Milwaukee Convention not 
excepted. 

The opening demonstration will be "Home 
Portraiture," with a moving picture outfit 
filming the method of making the demon- 
stration, and the results shown directly on 
the screen before the close of the 
convention. ^ 

This is the first time anything of the kind 
has been attempted at a convention and cer- 
tainly will prove a drawing attraction. 

Every phase of the use of electric light 
will be practically exploited: open arc, 
Mazda, spotlight, flashlight. This is an edu- 
cational asset alone. An expert from the 
National Electric Light Co. will be in 
charge, who will give direct information and 
advice in regard to installing and operation 
of the electric light. 

The drapery demonstration, by L. J. 
Buckley, promises to go beyond all former 
demonstrations of the kind. 

Don't forget Jack Garo is going to be one 
of the judges, associated with Howard D. 
Beach. 

Pirie MacDonald will give us one of his 
stirring and eloquent talks on "W^ork and 





1921 CONVENTION DATES 




Place 


Date 




Middle Atlantic States 


Baltimore, Md. 


April 18-21 


L. L. Higgason, Asheville, N. C. 


South-Eastern 


Atlanta, Ga. 


May 16-19 


J. C. Deane, Rome, Ga. 


P. A. of A. (International) 


Buffalo, N. Y. 


July 18-23 


J. C. Abel. 421 Caxton Bldg. 
Cleveland, Ohio. 


Ohio-Mich.-Ind. 


Winona Lake, Ind. 


August 15-19 


Fred. Bill, 746 Euclid Ave. 
Cleveland, Ohio. 


New England 


Dates not yet settled. 




A. K. Peterson, Pres. 
Hartford, Conn. 


North-Central 


Minneapolis, Minn. 


October 3-6 


J. R. Snow, Pres. 
Mankato, Minn. 


Pacific North- West 


Vancouver, B. C. 


August 2-5 


A.T. Bridgman, 413 Granville St. 
Vancouver, B. C, Canada. 


New York State 


Postponed until 1922 







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400 Bulletin of Photography 



But it was J. N. Niepce^ another Fretichinan, who gave most to the 
art of photography, including its name. In 1818 he produced a negative 
image on transparent paper by a six-hour exposure and then printed the 
positive on silvered copper plates. Later he originated the present process 
of copper-plate engraving. In December 1829, Daguerre entered into 
partnership with Niepce and in 1835 discovered that iodine fumes exposed 
to his silver plates reduced the time of exposure to thirty minutes. The 
open flask of mercury supplied the means of development. This was the 
Daguerrotype process which made his name immortal. 

In the photography of today, HAUOloVhotopaphicVapers stand for all 
that simplicity, uniformity and dependability can mean to the users of 
photographic papers. They are made under ideal conditons, by men 
and women who know the exacting requirements of discriminating 
photographers. 

Let us stnd deseripHve booklet 



l-^r 7 he HALOID Co. «,°^°^ 

ROCHESTER '. NEW YORK 



The HALOID Co. 

ROCHESTER '. NEW YORK 

HALOID 



MiUtUmu in Progre** of Photooraphv — Series Three 



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Which Plate Should You Use? 



Photographers are eicactfaig in their demands of plates. In order to produce 
the best woric, they must have a plate especially designed to meet their 
individual needs. Your plate is listed below: 

SPECIAL "XX" An extra fast Portrait or speed plate. 

SPECIAL An all-around Studio plate. 

COMET For Landscape and Copying. 

POSTALS A 6ist plate for Postal work. 

COMMERCIAL For Commercial photography. 

COLORNON A Color plate rendering Orthochromatic vahies. 

CONTRAST LANTERN SLIDE . Producing brilliant Lantern Slides. 

PAN ORTHO A Tri-Color, or Pan Chromatic plate. 

PROCESS For all Commercial Process work. 

CENTRAL X-RAY An X-Ray plate of the highest radiographic quality. 

NON- HALATION A Double Coated plate eliminating Halation. 

PAN ORTHO D. C A perfect double coated Pan Ortho plate. 

Order from your dealer — today. 



CENTRAL DRY PLATE COMPANY 



NEW YORK 



ST. LOUIS, MO. 



SANFRANaSCO 



Smile." This alone ought to take you if 
you are hesitating. 

A. H. Diehl will talk on "Limitations and 
Service." You should send all your em- 
ployees to hear him. It will pay! Diehl 
knows how to talk straight to the subject. 

George W. Harris, another good talker, 
will discuss "Business Success." 

The talk on "Art" will be by Alon 
Bement. Director of Maryland Institute of 
Art and Design, an artist greatly interested 
in pictorial photography. 

Commercial photographers will have a 
chance to hear Howard Webster, of Chi- 
cago, on "Costs and Bad Practices." 

Grant Leet, of Washington, will talk to 
the commercial men on the benefits of 
organization. 

Then there is the competition exhibit, 
which gives a grand opportunity for com- 
parison and self-analysis, and we anticipate 
here great opportunities. We have, of 
course, no definite means of saying any- 
thing till it is accomplished. 



Pictures should be sent to Geo. J. Kos- 
suth, care of Hughes Co., 205 West 
Fayette Street, Baltimore, Md. Three pic- 
tures make an entry. There will be no 
ratings or prizes. 

The ten most meritorious pictures in por- 
traiture and the best five in commercial will 
be awarded Certificates of Merit. 

Our entertainments on April 18th, 8 p. m.. 
Southern Hotel ballroom — reception, enter- 
tainment and dance. We expect most of 
this entertainment to be provided by 
members of the craft. 

Tuesday afternoon, an auto ride for the 
ladies through Druid Hill Park, Guilford 
and Roland Park sections, and then through 
the beautiful Green Spring V^alley. This 
ride goes through one of the most beauti- 
ful sections of these United States, and at 
tips time of year is alone worth making a 
ttip to Baltimore. On Wednesday, we 
make an inspection trip of the harbor on 
one of our city ice boats. During this trip 
one of our fire boats will give us an exhibi- 



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402 



Bulletin of Photography 



Worth Its Weight in Gold' 



SAYS A PROMINENT 
PHOTOGRAPHER OF THE 



SCREEN 



PATKNTK^ JUNK IS. 1»aO 



Does work, while you are lookinir on, that no expert neirative retoucher can equal. Sent complete with combination 
(pink) fllm that produces results. 6x7 inch $5.00. 8x10 inch $8.00. 16c. in stamps for sample photo. 

THE ARTOGRAPH SCREEN CO. BOO FlPTH AVKNUK, NEW YORK 



tion. We shall stop on the spot where 
Francis Scott Key wrote our national an- 
them, a place every American should visit 
at least once. We shall see the flag flying 
from the same spot as the one Key saw "By 
the Dawn's Early Light.'' Thursday night 
we wind up with a big cotillion at the South- 
ern Hotel — oceans of real fun. We'll for- 
get all al)out business on this occasion and 
just break loose. No soup clothes, abso- 
lutely informal. Incidentally, if any one is 
so unfortunate to come alone, we are going 
to have enough regular Baltimore girls on 
hand to go around. NolK)dy need be lone- 
some. Higgy has sent out our hotel 
list, and I advise everyl^ody to make early 
reservation. j ^y ^^^^^ 

President. 

Mrs. Odell to shopman — *'If you will cut me a 
small sample of this I will find out from my 
dressmaker how many yards I need, and can send 
for the goods by post." Little Johnnie — "Why, 
mamma, that's just what vou said in all the other 
shops !" 



The Pro and Con of Cancelling 
Orders 

My observation is that for the last two or 
three years there has been a perfect satur- 
nalia of order cancellation in all lines of 
business. During the first part of that time 
the demand for stuff greatly exceeded the 
supply, and the cancellation was mostly done 
by the seller, sometimes because he could sell 
his goods in a better market. For the last 
several months the buyer has been doing 
most of the cancelling, because the bottom 
has dropped out of the markets, and the 
buyer preferred to unload the burden on the 
seller. 

Undoubtedly it is convenient and eco- 
nomical for the party who benefits by it to 
cancel an order that has gone against him, 
but it certainly does not make for good busi- 
ness. It would, in my judgment, be a good 
thing in the long run for ever)'body if all 
order blanks bore the words, "Not subject 
to cancellation." 



HIGGINS' 



THE KIND YOU ARE SURE TO USE 
WITH CONTINUOUS SATISFACTION 




PHOTO 

MOUNTER 

PASTE 

At Dealers' Generally 



CHAS. M. HIGGINS & CO^ ManufactuNn 

271 NINTH STREET, BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

Branches: Chicago. London 



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I am constantly receiving letters on the 
law of cancelling orders. The following 
letter conies from an Ohio concern: 

We wired the X Co. to cancel our 
order for bottles and return our trade 
acceptance, as we had thought we 
would be unable to handle the propo- 
sition, and wanted to drop it. 

In answer to our wire the company 
wrote us that the goods had been 
shipped and it was too late to accept 
our cancellation. 

The date of this letter was April 16th, 
and with embargoes in eflfect at almost 
all points at that time, we knew the 
goods had never been shipped, and even 
at this date we have never received nor 
heard any more about the goods being 
shipped. 

The company has made several at- 
tempts to get the money for the trade 
acceptance, but we did not think that 
we should pay them, especially since we 
have never received the bottles. 

Will you kindly give us the dealer's 
rights in this matter and tell us whether 
or not the dealer can be forced to pay 
for the acceptances? 

In most lines of trade this custom of 
allowing free cancellation of orders has 
grown up. but it seldom goes so far as to 
allow cancellation after the order has been 
paid for by giving a promissory note in pay- 
ment, for that is practically what a trade ac- 
ceptance is. Still in some cases it even goes 
that far, the only real condition being that 
the goods must not have been shipped. If 
they have been shipped the order cannot be 
cancelled. 

In the case submitted the question is one 
of fact : were the goods shipped prior to 
cancellation? If yes. the order is not sub- 
ject to cancellation ; if no, it is. But a trade 
acceptance having been given, a new question 
is introduced : has the acceptance been in- 
dorsed over to somebody else? If it has that 
somebody else can collect it. and this corre- 
spondent might then just as well take the 



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"A Manual full of good wholtMome material 
and a valuable reference hook for every mem' 
her of the profeeeion, hig or little." 



How to Make a Studio Pay 

BY FRANK FARRINCTON 



CONTENTS 

The Man and the Location 
Buying and Arranging the Stock 
System in the Studio 
The Treatment of Customers 
How to Know the Profits 
Credit and Collections 
Developing the Side Lines 
Advertising You Can Do 
Business-Getting Schemes 



Cloth Bomi Price, $1.50, Net, Postpaid 
FRANK V. CHAMBERS 

PUBLISHER 

636 S. FRANKLIN SQUARE, PHILADELPHIA 



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at foil opening" and giving names of 

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STRUSS PICTORIAL LENS. 



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Frederick W. Keasbey 

Morristown. New Jersey 



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AN KXCKLLKNT PMPARATION FOR BLOCKING 
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No. 0-% OS. jar - - 25 cents. 
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Burnet's Essays on Art 

The standard Art Book of the world. 
A reprint — better than the original 
edition — $2.00; Postage 15 cents. 

F. V. CHAMBERS, 636 Fraaklia Sqaart, PkiUMpkia 



FOR BEST RESULTS USE A 

Packard-Ideal No. 6 Shutter 

Operated at 1/25 of a second. In connection 
with a high-power light. 

MICHIGAN PHOTO SHUTTER CO., Makers 
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goods, for he will have to pay for them any- 
way. But if the acceptance still remains in 
the hands of the seller of the goods, and the 
goods have not been shipped, he can legally 
cancel and demand the return of his accept- 
ance. 

Here is another letter from a New Jersey 
correspondent, also on the subject of can- 
cellation : 

Bros., wholesale grocers of 

Newark, N. J., bought from us a load 
of merchandise, amounting to $600, 
during the month of June, for which 
they were to call in a few days after the 
date of sale. Terms, ten days net. This 
sale was made through a broker, to 
whom we wrote that the buyer had not 
called for their merchandise, and time 
for storage would shortly expire. 
Broker wrote back to me stating they 
had communicated with the buyer, who 
had asked to have the sale cancelled 
because they were unable to handle the 
goods. Since the date of sale the value 
of this merchandise has declined some. 
Could the buyer be held to the sale 
under the above conditions? 
This case is typical of most of the cancel- 
lations by buyers: the market declines be- 
fore shipment of the goods and the buyer, 
of course, cancels. In most cases the seller 
has allowed him to, and so it becomes a 
course of dealing and is binding. 

In the New Jersey case there were a num- 
ber of questions, such as whether it was a 
valid sale in the first place. As a matter of 
fact, it was not, because it did not comply 
with the New Jersey law that no verbal con- 
tract for the sale of personal property worth 
over $500 is valid unless the buyer takes 
part of the goods, or pays for part of them 
or gives some earnest or token to bind the 
bargain. But I am not discussing that phase 
of the case, I use it merely to show what an 
easy and casual thing it has gotten to be to 
buy goods and then, when things go against 
you, to throw the deal up. 

If this had been a valid sale, and the 
parties had never dealt together before or 



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The light may be focused to dom- 
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Send for beautifully illustrated booklet, 
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BEATTIE'S HOLLYWOOD mUTE CO. 

1645 Hndsoa Avf. HOLLYWOOD, CAUF. 



done a lot of mutual cancelling, then this 
order would not have been subject to can- 
cellation, and the seller could recover his 
damages. 

A wholesale cotton dealer told me of a 
recent case which shows how completely all 
rule disappears when one has made a deal 
which goes wrong. His firm sold an order 
to a Pennsylvania buyer at the then market 
price. While the goods were en route, the 
market dropped and after the buyer had 
them in his possession he wrote, "Unless you 
reduce the price on these goods, we won't 
keep them.'' In this case there was not the 
slightest moral or legal obligation to reduce 
the price, because the goods had been 
shipped and delivered, but a concession was 
nevertheless made in order to please the 
buyer. 

(Copyright by Elton J. Buckley.) 

The Baltimore Convention — The 
"BABY NATIONAL," APRIL 18th- 
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406 Bulletin of Photography 



BIND THE BULLETIN OF PHOTOGRAPHY 

THE only Magazine Binder ever invented that will quickly and 
securely bind each issue as published and bind one magazine 
or a complete file without in the slightest manner mutilating 
same, such as punching a hole in the magazine, gluing, lacing, or 
in some manner attaching something to it. No strings, clamps, 
springs or locks used. Retains at all times the appearance of a 
neat and substantially bound book and the magazines are just as 
substantially bound as a regularly bound book no matter whether 
there is only one magazine in the Binder or a complete file, 

C Nothing complicated, nothing to get out of order. A child 
can use it correctly. Every Binder is thoroughly examined be- 
fore shipment and guaranteed to be as represented. 

C The Binders hold 26 copies (6 months) of the Bulletin of 
Photography and resemble the loose leaf ledger binders, only 
each copy is held in place with a flat steel rod fitting on pins, 
holding every copy in its proper place. 

C We've used these Binders in our own office for the past seven 
(7) years and say that they are the best that money can buy. 



Will last for yean. 
Over 400 sold and 
not a complaint 



Price $2.00, Postpaid 

Money back if you don't like them. 



FRANK V. CHAMBERS, 636 S. Franklin Square, Philadelphia 



Getting Results from Your Advertising 

MRS. H. H. DENISON 

Are you getting results from your adver- tell the mothers how good a time it is to 
tising? If not, there must be something have the children's pictures taken, so easy 
wrong with your advertising, your goods or for them to bring the babies in then, etc. 
yourself. Generally speaking, all advertis- Tell the fanners, if you do that kind of 
ing must be honest, attractive, readable and work, that this is just the season for a pic- 
convincing. Photographically speaking, it ture of the farm home and surroundings, 
must be all this and much more. Remind the amateurs, if you do finishing. 

Your goods diflfer from those of the that "vacation days are Kodak days." 

merchant in that people must buy food and Second, make your ads readable; short 

clothing, yet can live without pictures, and to the point, but attractive. Give the 

Therefore, your advertising must create a reader a reason for having his photo taken, 

desire and demand for pictures. There will This done, convince him — but don't tell him 

be comparatively little of either until created ; — that he can get the best service at your 

or, if your business is all you can reason- place. Then prove it to him when he comes, 

ably ask it to be without advertising, Then, last but not least, advertise steadily 

judicious advertising will double it. if you want results. Only this kind counts. 

If you are just starting in a place, adver- The only way to know if your advertising 

tise. If you have been there twenty years, is paying is to watch results. The above 

still advertise. It is the continued advertis- system of advertising has been closely fol- 

ing that counts, provided it is the right kind, lowed in one certain studio for years. Such 

Now, as to the right kind : First, make it direct and immediate results have been 



seasonable. For example — in the summer show^n that when preparing his weeks' ad- 

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vertising. the "Boss" will sit down and 
soliloquize thus: "Well, it's getting just 
right now to photograph the children, so 
here goes for 'children ads'." Then, his 
special samples of children are placed handy, 
everything made ready, the ads appear and 
the children begin to come. 

This past winter, after the holidays, when 
the supposed "dull season" was about to 
begin, the "Boss" decided to make framing 
the thing to knock the dull season out. 
(There is a framing department in connec- 
tion with this studio.) Accordingly, adver- 
tising was carried for oval frames and for 
frames made to order. Orders came and a 
common remark was, "I saw your ad," etc. 
One lady cut the large ad from the paper 
and wrote the order in the space of the ad — 
the "Boss" believes in lots of space, even if 
it does have to be paid for. 

These same ads brought an order from a 
new doctor just moving in from the cities. 
He had several frames to be made for his 
office, but expected to leave his order in the 
city, but after reading the ads, the "Boss" 
got the job. 

Does advertising bring results? Those 
who have tested it thoroughly say "Yes." 
But you must make your advertising timely, 
truthful and attractive and of the kind to 
create a desire and a demand for pictures. 
Then, keep on advertising until results come. 

Gainsborough laid down the following rules 
for portraiture: "First pick out in your model 
the most striking detail ; the expression, or the 
hand, or the mouth, or even the feather in the 
lady's hat. Then pass on to some other detail. 
When you have thus fixed all the details, try to 
unite them in a harmonious whole." 

"What beautiful things are made of celluloid," 
said a lady to a shopman ; *'do you think you 
could fashion a pipe out of it?" 

"Why. madam," exclaimed the shopkeeper, 
aghast. "don*t you know that — " 

"Oh, I don't care what it would cost," she in- 
terrupted. "I want to give it to my husband as 
a birthday gift." 



BACK TO THE OLD PRICES 

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GLYCIN 

16 oz. $10.00 

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AMIDOL 

16 oz. $10.00 

8 " 5.25 

4 " 2.75 
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ORTOL 

16 oz. $10.00 

8 " 5.25 

4 " 2.75 

1 " .75 



ElKONOGEN 

16 oz. $10.00 

8 " 5.25 

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SOLE AMERICAN DISTRIBUTORS 



A NEW EDITION 



WALL'S 

Dicdonary of Photography 

—loth Edition- 
Ready for delivery 
TOO Pages :: 2000 References 

Revised and re-written with full 
explanatory text. 

$5 per copy — post free. 



FRANK V. CHAMBERS 

Tradk Aqknt 

636 South Franklin SQuare 

Philadelphia 



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Bulletin of Photography 



Classified Advertisements 



MISCELLANEOUS 



Read the ads, that follow 



QaMlllMl AdTerdslnft Rates— For Sale. Rent. Exchange and 
MieceUaneoui advertbementt. Minimum charge, $1.00 for 
thirty wordB; additional words. 3 cenU each. 

Halp Wanted— Two insertions of twenty-one words, minimum 
charge. 50 cents; additional words, 2 cenU each. Cash must 
accompany order. 

Sttnatlon Wanted — Twenty-one words, one time, free. Addi- 
tional words. 2 cents each. 

No diaplay allowed — Caah most b« ttnt with order, 

Diapkiy adTortlslng rates sent upon request. 

Copy musi be plain and distinct. 

To secure insertion. advertisemenU must be received by 9 
A. M., Tuesdays, one week preceding date of publication. 

DO YOU WANT A POSITION ? 

Read the ads, that follow 

Wanted at once— Good printer, retoucher. Ideal 
climate and working conditions. Permanent 
position. Your advancement depends on your 
ability and co-operation. The Woodward Studio, 
Inc., 21 West Adams Street, Jacksonville, Fla. 

Where can I find a good fellow who wants a 

position in a photo business in view of owning it? 

Address— 948, care of Bulletin of Photography. 

DO YOU WANT AN EMPLOYEE ? 

Read the ads. that follow 

Position Wanted — Young man (single) who has 
had fifteen years' studio experience (all-around), 
with exception of retouching, wishes to locate with 
some reliable studio; can furnish reference. Ad- 
dr ess R. S., Lock Box 113, Mansfield, Pa. 

Position Wanted by lady, all-round assistant; 
several years' experience; also retouching. High- 
class small studio only. Address No. 952, care of 
Bulletin of Photography. 

DO YOU WANT TO BUY, SELL OR 
RENT A STUDIO? 

Read the ads, that follow 

Wanted to Buy — Good studio, preferably in 
Michigan. Give full particulars in first letter. 
Cash deal. Address— 947, care of Bulletin of 
Photography. 

For Sale— $1000 cash and $500 on terms buys 
well equipped one-man shop. Monthly profit over 
$300, steaaily increasing. Old stand, low rent and 
very large stock. Other business makes sale neces- 
sary. Matzen, Photographer, Plainfield, N. J. 

For Sale — Eight-room studio including two large 
dark-rooms and living rooms, all modern; doing 
fine business in high-class portraits and amateur 
finishing, four large tanks for developing and fixing; 
perfection system. Two-y^ar lease on studio and 
living rooms at the low rent of only $25 per month. 
Kodak finishing now running from $150 to $200 per 
week, business well worth five thousand; for quick 
sale will take ($2500) two thousand and five hun- 
dred cash. A complete Florida home and business 
ready to step in. Act quickly if you want a snap. 
Finest climate in the world. W. V. B. Mullikin, 
Fort Lauderdale, Florida. 



For Sale — One 5x7 Speed Graphic camera, one 
plate holder and carrying case — all in the best 
condition, or as good as new — for $75. One 5x7 
Auto Graflex camera, three plate holders and carry- 
ing case, in fine condition, for $75. R. O. Bennett, 
1042 Main Street, Bridgeport, Conn. 

For Sale — One 100- name National Cash Register 
Credit File; one 5x7 Verito Diffused Focus Lens; 
one Wold Air Brush Outfit complete, except tank. 
The Way Studio, Oskaloosa, Iowa. 

North — "Has Marjorie any education along 
musical lines?" 

West — "I should say so ! Name any record and 
she can tell you what's on the other side I" — Car- 
toons Magazine. 



Reliable Photo Sopply Houses 



JOHN HAWORTH COMPANY 

(BMtmmn Kodak Co.) 
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THE H. LIEBER COMPANY 
24 W. Wathinftton St. - Indianapolis. Ind. 

Western Photo & Supply Co. 

Pliotograpliers* & Plioto En^raTers* Supplies 

328 W. Madison St., Oiicato 



WILLOUGHBY "?,^Vork'' 
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SWEET, WALLACH & CO. 

(BMtniaa Kodmk Co.) 

133 North Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. 



SUSSMAN PHOTO STOCK CO. 
223-225 Park Avenue, Baltimore, Md. 

Norman-Willets Photo Supply 

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18f N.WABASH AVE. CtllCAOU 

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(Baftman Kodak Co.) 
38S-3S4 Minnesota St., St. Paul, Minn. 

HYATT'S SUPPLY CO. 
417 North Broadway, St. Louis, Mo. 



STANDARD PHOTO SUPPLY CO. 

(Battman Kodak Co.) 

125 Baronne St., New Orleans, La. 



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What's Doing in Photography 



S. E. Moore has opened a new studio in Red 
Bluff, Calif. 

H. W. and Emory F. Smith, brothers, have 
opened a new studio in Auburn, Wash. 

Benjamin H. and Samuel Oxman have orga- 
nized a new studio in White Plains, N. Y. 

The studio of Harvey S. Greene, Providence. 
R. I., was badly damaged by fire on March 13th. 

Judson Smith, of Richmond, Va., has moved 
to Fredericksburg, Va., where he has opened a 
new studio. 

Carl Schlotzhauer has moved from I^ncaster, 
Pa., and opened a new and up-to-date studio in 
Baltimore, Md. 

F. A. Withers, Pratt, Kans., has purchased the 
studio of Mrs. Hugh McSpadden. Mrs. McSpad- 
den is selling because of poor health. 

Aufenger & Dunn, for the past four years with 
Underwood & Underwood, Washington, D. C, 
have opened a studio in Roanoke, Va. 

Incorporated: The Cleveland Photo Products 
Company. Cleveland, Ohio; capital, $25,000; F. E. 
Oiler. W. J. Claxton, M. Hird, F. Urban and 
L. G. Nicol. 

"Can you tell if there is any Saxon work in 
this church?" asked an antiquarian. "Why, bless 
yer, sir,*' replied the old native, "I be the Saxon 
myself!" 



OBITUARY 



FRANK JAY HAYNES 

Frank Jay Haynes, first official Yellowstone 
Park photographer, died recently at his home 
in St. Paul, Minn. He was 68 years old. Mr. 
Haynes completed his 40th consecutive season in 
Yellowstone National Park last year. Surviving 
Mr. Haynes are his widow, daughter, two sons, 
G. O. Haynes and J. E. Haynes, who succeeded 
his father as official photographer in 1916. 

OSCAR G. MASON 

Oscar G. Mason, for fifty years a professional 
medical and surgical photographer in Bellevue 
Hospital. New York City, and until recently pho- 
tographer of the unidentified dead in the Morgue, 
died March 16th in the hospital of lobar pneu- 
monia. He was 91 years old and lived at 211 West 
80th Street. 

Mr. Mason became connected with Bellevue 
Hospital as a photographer in 1856. When X-ray 
photography was introduced in 1897 he was made 
the hospital radiographer. In 1906 he resigned. 
Up to the time the Bureau of Unidentified Dead 
was established at Police Headquarters, Mr. 
Mason took photographs of the unclaimed dead. 
He also maintained an office at 333 East 26th 
Street and specialized in telescopic photography, 
taking astronomical pictures. 

Mr. Mason was admitted to the hospital suffer- 
ing from hardening of the arteries. He is sur- 
vived by a wife, his second, and by a daughter. 



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A RARE CHANCE TO 
SECURE NUMBERS OF 

"Camera Work" 

C)NCBDBD to be the handtomett magaxine everimb- 
liihed for loven of photographic art. The magasinet 
are made up of pictures (with a little descriptive text) 
from photographs Ulcen by those famous and original 
in photography. 

Many of the fine photogravures contained in Camif 
Work cannot be replaced, and all of them are worthy of 
framing. Many of the editions command three to four 
times their original publication price. We can supply 
copies of the following issues at $1.35 per copy, postpaid. 

PlcUs by 
. Frederick H. Evans 
. Robert Demachy 
, Gertrude Kasebier 

David Ocuvius Hill 
. Bduard J. Steichen 
, George H. Seeley 
, Frank Eugene 
J. Craig Annan 
Alfred SteigliU 
David Octavius Hill 
Baron A. de Meyer 
Julia Margaret Cameron 
Specials Nos. 2 and 3. suiuble for art students, will be 
mailed at 90c. per copy. Cubistic — not photographic. 



Volumt No. 

4 . 

5 , 
10 
11 
22 
29 . 
31 
32 
36 
37 
40 
41 



DMt* 

. October, 1903 . . 
. January, 1904 . . 
. April. 1905 . . 
. July. 1905 . . 
. April. 1908 . . 
, January. 1910 . . 
. July. 1910 . . 
. October. 1910 . . 
. October. 1911 .. 
. January. 1912 . . 
. October. 1912 . . 
January. 1913 



Wf}!" 



1913 



f Cesanne, Van Gogh. 
' \ Picasso. Picabia 



FRANK V. 

636 Franklin Square 



CHAMBERS 

Philadelphia 



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Bulletin of Photography 



THE 



Commercial Photographer 

By L. G. ROSE 

148 Pag9$ 
85 IUu$tTation$ 

Price, m doth, 

$4.00 per copy. 
Pottage 15 cents extra. 

A work by a thoroughly 
competent and widely ex- 
perienced commercial pho- 
tographer of the highest 
reputation. 

Every branch of the sub- 
ject treated with a view for 
presentation of the essen- 
tials. The varioXis appliances discussed, best methods of 
exposure, illumination and graphic presentation to ensure 
a successful outcome. 

It is a book essentially for the commerical man and meets 
every requirement. Profusely illustrated with examples of 
work of varied kind. 

The book will be found of pertinent interest not only to 
the trade photographer but also to the specialist. The 
application of photography is considered in its bearings upon 
the commerical man, the architect, the tradesman, the phy- 
sician, the lawyer, and the scientist, by one who has had 
extensive experience in different kinds of work required. 

The edition is limited and we have a firm conviction 
when the value of the work becomes apparent, that it will 
be speedily exhausted. 



OPINIONS OF THE PRESS 

Mr. Rose has handled a tctt extensiTe subject in a com- 
prehensive way. The commercial photoffrapher in the larger 
cities is, of course, a specialist, entirely distinct from the 
portrait man and with totally different problems. In some 
cases, demands are so great that the photographer confines 
himself to one line of merchandise to the exclusion of others, 
as. fc»- instance, furniture, etc. 

The book will, therefore, appeal to all photographers who 
are called upon from time to time to do commercial jobs. 
—"American Photography." 

Frank V. Chambers, publisher of the "Bulletin of Photog- 
raphy," in Philadelphia, has just run off his presses an 
edition of the very complete book on commercial photog- 
raphy, "The Commercial Photographer." It is replete with 
illustrations, instructions and sumestions of all kinds 
covering the perplexing conditions that surround this grow- 
ing field and it will be well for erery photographer to have 
one on his shelf, if only for reference when a quick demand 
of some kind or other to do a difficult job which comes under 
the head of Commercial Photography comes in and probably 
finds him somewhat puzzled to obtain the best results. The 
price of the book is $4. It is worth that if only to help 
you through one job, but it will benefit all your employees 
as well and make them more efficient for you.— "Photo- 
graphic Poster." 

"The Commercial Photographer." Since Hance's "Com- 
mercial Photography of Today^* went out of print, there has 
been a sad lack of a good practical book on commercial 

Ehotography in all its Tarious phases. This new book by 
I. G. Rose will find a ready demand. It is splendidly 
printed and illustrated in Frank V. Chambers' best style, 
and we commend it most highly to our readers, both portrait 
and commercial. The portrait man should have it handy 
for he never can tell when he will be called upon to do 
some bit of work out of the regular, and this book will help 
him out at anv and all times; the commercial man can 
afford to have it on hand, for many subjects on which he 

Srobably is not quite conversant are covered thoroughly by 
Ir. Rose. Mr. Rose is well known to the craft and he has 
covered his subject fully and with a thorough understanding 
of all the difficulties to be met with in commercial work. 
—Abel's "Photographic Weekly." 

Mr. Rose deserves well of commercial photographers, for he 
has written an admirable practical manual on the photog- 
raphy of the wide diversity of subjects which the commercial 
Shotographer is asked to undertake. And the publishers have 
one well by their author, for they have provided a luxurious 
volume, pnnted throughout on heavy art paper and pro- 
fusely illustrated on almost every page with tialf-tone repro- 
ductions. Perhaps they have been a little too lavish In this 
respect, for it has meant fixing the price of the book at 



a figure which, at the current rate of exchange, is about 24s 
{%i). Nevertheless, the photographer who is learning to 
qualify himself for this orancn of his calling must be a 
most unreceptive individual if the cost of the book is not 
returned to him many times over in the knowledge and 
guidance which it gives him. 

Mr. Rose is an American, and thus, as regards choice of 
equipment, states his preferences in terms of the apparatus 
which is available on the market in the United States. 
These include flaah bags and a portable installation of half- 
watt lamps, the equivalents of which appear not to have 
been offered in this country. His chapter on the photog- 
raphy of architectural exteriors includes some striking ex- 
amples of difficulties surmounted in obtaining views of 
sky-scraper buildings common in American cities, but he 
descends to more homely illustrations, for example, one 
showing the devices used in the way of combination printing 
for eliminating an unsi^tly telegraph pole from the fore- 
ground of an architectural view. Panoramic views, exterior 
and interior, are the subject of an excellent chapter in which 
is illustrated the method of joining up without showing a 
sign of the line of junction. The latter part of his treatise 
is devoted chiefly to the photography (in the studio) of 
articles of merchandise from wrist watches to kitcheners. 
He describes a novel form of horizontal table for the photog- 
raphy of small goods, such as machine parts, by means of 
a vertical camera. The easel is of ground-glass, illuminated 
below so that for part of the exposure the objects are 
allowed to receive a diffused light all around their edges, 
thus eliminating heavy shadows and at the same time pro- 
viding opacity m the ground of the negative sufficient to 
dispense with blocking-out. There are quite a number of 
practical ways and means of this kind described in the 
book, evidently as the result of the writer's own ingenuity 
and practice. The routine in a commercial photographer's 
establishment of making prints and enlargements is the sub- 
ject of other sections, and there are chapters on the desim 
of advertisements, part photograph and part artist's work, 
and on the eternal question of drawing up a tariff of prices. 
Altogether a most excellent manual, which we have no doubt 
will be purchased from Messrs. Chambers by practicing or 
would-be commercial photographers in this country.— "The 
British Journal of Photography" (London). 

In scope and wealth of detail this is by far the moet 
comprehensive handbook to commercial photography thus 
far published. It has the greater merit of being thoroughly 

f practical in its information, giving the working methods, 
onnulas. and experience of its author, a well-known expert 
in this special field. To particularize the contents of the 
book would be to list the principal branches of modem 
commercial work. I. therefore, content myself with the 
comment that ^fr. Rose has given us a manual and refer- 
ence book which should be on the bookshelf of every pro- 
fessional and commercial photographer. The text is pro- 
fusely illustrated and the volume is well printed and 
substantially bound for service.— "Photo-Miniature, No. 18C." 

This is by far the best book published on the subject of 
commercial photography. It is written by an expert-photog- 
rapher in commercial work, who is likewise a capital writer. 

A careful examination of this admirable worx convinces 
US that the object-lessons here presented constitute in them- 
selves a real course in commercial photomphy. which 
appeals not only to the student interested in this department 
of photographic work, but to the commercial photographer 
or. as he is generally called, the all-around photographer. 

The text presents all up-to-date methods, tricks and dodgeit 
that are known only to a thoroughly experienced commercial 
worker, and describes every step, from the choice of equip- 
ment down to the finished print, whether the latter be a 
straight contact-print, an enlargement, a colored print, or 
one that is worked up to suit the needs of the photo- 
engraver. The book is printed on the highest grade of 
coated paper, in large, clear type, and is a credit to the 
printer's art. We heartily recommend this book to every 
photo-worker interested in producing technically perfect 

fiictures for the merchant, the architect, or whoever calls 
or the most exacting photographic work.— "Photo Era." 



In Btock by following dealers: 

J. Sussman Photo Stock Co.. 223 Park Ave.. Baltimore. Md. 
Photo-Era. 367 Boylston Street. Boston. Mass. 
Robey-French Ca, 38 Bromfield Street Boston, Mass. 
Bass Camera Co . 109 N. Deart>om Street Chicago. III. 
Sweet Wallach & Co.. 133 N. Wabash Ave.. Chicano. III. 
Norman-Willetts Photo Supply Co.. 106 N. Waksh Avr., Okagt 
C. Wekhsel Co.. 1611 Main Street Dallas. Tex. 
Brltfgs Photo Supply Co . 914 Grand Ave.. Kansas City. Mo. 
Howland & Dewrey Co.. 510 S. Brnadway. Los Anfleles. Cat. 
O. H. Peck Co.. 112 S. 5th Street. Minneapolis. Minn. 
Chas. G. Willounhby. Inc.. 110 West 32d St.. New York. 
Ceo. Murphy. Inc.. 57 East 9th Street. New York. 
J. L. Lewis. 522 Sixth Avenue. New York. 
New York Camera Exchanfte. 109 Fulton St. New York. 
Schultz Novelty & Spttf. Goods Co . 122 Nassau St. N. Y. 
Sol Pudlin Co.. 1212 Broadway, New York. 
Tennant & Ward, 103 Park Avenue, New York. 
Standard Photo Supply Co.. 125 Baronne St. New Orleans. 
John Haworth Co., 1020 Chestnut Street Philadelphia. 
E. W. Stewart & Co . Tacoma and SeaHle. Wash. 
FrancU Hendricks Co.. 116 E. Fayette St. Syracuse. N. Y. 
Hyatt's Photo Supply Co.. 417 N. Broadway, St Louis. Mo. 
Gross Photo Supply Co.. 1715 Spielbusch Ave.. Toleda O. 

FRANK V. CHAMBERS, 636 S.FnaUm Spare, PUa. 



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Pittsburgh Boosters' Banquet 

Pittsburgh Section No. 2, Professional Photog- 
raphers' Association, M. A. S.. in connection with 
the Westmoreland and Fayette Sections, held their 
annual "Booster Banquet" on the evening of Mon- 
day, March 14th, at the Americus Club, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. 

One hundred seventy- five persons attended and 
a very delightful evening was spent in speech- 
making, dancing and cards. 

Mr. Howard D. Beach, President of the P. A. 
of A., and Mr. J. W. Scott, President of the 
M. A. S., were the honor guests, both making 
excellent speeches. 

Mr. J. J. Flaherty, President of Section No. 2, 
was toastmaster of the evening, while Mr. A. H. 
Diehl, Mr. E. W. Brown and others gave talks 
on different lines. Mr. George Kossuth, of 
W^heeling, W. Va., was also one of the speakers. 

We were glad to welcome the members of the 
Eastman Professional School, who were here at 
that time and attended in a body. 

Many signified their intention of attending both 
conventions, so these sections should be well repre- 
sented at that time. 

Thos. M. Jarrett. 

Secretary. 



Staining Prints 

Some very attractive effects may be imported 
into bromide prints by staining them with the 
dilute water colors used for tinting and coloring 
purposes. We have found that these give supe- 
rior results to those often obtained with the stains 
generally sold for this purpose. The color of the 
print may be much more varied and is more un- 
der the control of the worker. The colors should 
be used very dilute and applied to the damp print 
in the usual way with a brush. Care must be 
taken to get an even application of color. The 
idea is to give a wash over the entire area of 
the print. The depth of the tint may be con- 
trolled locally by means of a brush lightly charged 
with clean water, which will wash off any excess 
of color in any section of the print, such as the 
face of a portrait or the sky portion of a land- 
scape picture. This method also has the advan- 
tage over the usual commercial stains, that any 
effect desired is readily obtainable, and a far 
greater range of color effects is permissible, 
either when the pure colors are used, or when 
their effect is modified by mixing with others. 
Sometime ago we were shown some very delicate 
garden portraits, colored by a careful mixture 
of blue and light green. Any of the commercial 
transparent water colors may be employed, the 
Velox transparent water color stamps being very 
suitable. — The British Journal of Photography. 

"I am surprised at what you say about Jazz- 
lets and his loafing habits in your employ. I 
thought he was one of those individuals who are 
fired with enthusiasm." 

"You're perfectly right ! No man in my em- 
ploy was ever fired with more enthusiasm than 
that with which I fired Jazzlets." 



A NEW BOO K 

THE AIR BRUSH IN 
PHOTOGRAPHY 

The most comprehensive work ever written 
on work with the Air Brush, especially as applied 
to photography, working up enlargements, etc. 

143 PAGES - 45 ILLUSTRATIONS 

BOUND IN CLOTH 

$3.50 post paid 

Mr. Geo. F. Stine, the author, is known as 
o ic of the most expert workers with the Air 
Brush in this country, and the series of 32 illus- 
trated lessons, which forms a considerable portion 
of the book, is the most detailed and carefully 
worked out course of instruction that could be 
imagined. With the help of this book any photog- 
rapher can learn to use the Air Brush. 

In addition to the comprehensive series of 
lessons, there are seven chapters on coloring with 
the Air Brush, a very valuable addition to the 
book, and something not heretofore found in 
print. 

FRANK v. CHAMBERS 

636 S. Fnaklin Square PhiladdphU 



One of the best, as wett as 
one of the rarest books on 
art and composiHon is — 

"R urnet's 
PT ssays on A rt 

Single copies of the original editions 
have been sold as high as $100.00. 
It has been reprinted in a limited 
edition of only 1000 copies. Will 
you have one? 

Send $2.00 and get a 
copy at once. 



FRANK V. CHAMBERS 

636 Franklin Square, Philadelphia 



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From the deepest shadow 
to the highest light 



HRTORH 



gives perfect reproduction. 



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. 
All Dealer s\ 



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Enlargements on 

EASTMAN 
PORTRAIT 
BROMIDE 

sell better because they are better 
enlargements. Portrait Bromide 
is more than a quality paper. Its 
quality is of a special character 
that suits it to a special purpose — 
enlarging from portrait negatives. 
Two stocks— D White, E BufF. 
Two surfaces in each — Rough 
Matte and Rough Lustre. The 
price is the same as for double 
weight Artura Iris. 



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 
ROCHESTER, N. Y. 

All Dealers', 



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414 Bulletin of Photography 



Safety plus 
Comfort 

WRATTEN 

SAFELIGHT 

LAMPS 

Safety in your dark-room light preserves the 
quality of your negatives — preserves their bril- 
liancy by eliminating the degrading influence of 
fog. 

Wratten Safelight Lamps transmit a soft, in- 
direct light that is a relief to the eyes — a com- 
fortable light that is safe for the material with 
which the Safelight is recommended. 

Wratten Safelight Lamp, No. 1, as above $10.00 
Do., No. 2, without slide for white light . 7.50 
Series 1 Safelight, for plates not color sensi- 
tive, 8 x 10 1.25 

Series 2 Safelight, for Orthochromatic film or 

plates, 8 X 10 1.25 

Series 3 Safelight, for Panchromatic plates, 

8x10 1.25 

EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. 

All Dealers'. 



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Use Eastman 

COMMERCIAL 
ORTHO FILM 

The ideal material for commercial 
subjects, indoors or out. Excel- 
lent orthochromatic quality — non- 
halation properties superior to 
non-halation plates, and no more 
expensive than ordinary single 
coated plates. All the physical 
advantages of Film, too. 



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. 
All Dealers'. 



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476 Bulletin of Photography 



With the coming of Spring, out-door 
work looms big, especially if you are 
developing the commercial side of 
photography. 

Eastman View Cameras No. 2 embody 
all the practical conveniences necessary 
for out-door work. The 7 x 1 1 is an 
excellent size for landscapes or archi- 
tectural subjects. The proportions of 
the picture are pleasing — the materials 
cost no more than those used for 8x10, 
but the pictures look larger. 

See the Eastman View No. 2, 7 x 11, 
before you buy a new outfit. 



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 
ROCHESTER, N. Y. 
All Dealers'. 



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king h&w^rXisti^r' r^r\r\\o 
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Bulletin of Photography 447 



Expose for the shadows, 
the highlights will take 
care of themselves, will 
retain their sparkle and 
brilliancy — if the nega- 
tive is made on 



Portrait Film 



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 
ROCHESTER, N. Y. 
All Dealers'. 



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508 BuLLBHN OF Pbotogiaphy 



When you order a developer, 
be specific — ask for the devel- 
oper that gets results. Say 



ELON 



We make it — we know ifs right 

Now $9.00 per pound 
at your dealer's. 



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. 



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Bulletin of Photography 479 



Enlargements on 

EASTMAN 
PORTRAIT 
BROMIDE 

sell better because they are better 
enlargements. Portrait Bromide 
is more than a quality paper. Its 
quality is of a special character 
that suits it to a special purpose — 
enlarging from portrait negatives. 
Two stocks— D White, E BufF. 
Two surfaces in each — Rough 
Matte and Rough Lustre. The 
price is the same as for double 
weight Artura Iris. 



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. 

All Dealers*. 



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From the deepest shadow 
to the highest light 





TORH 



gives perfect reproduction, 



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 

ROCHESTER. N. Y. 
All Dealers'. 



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Bulletin of Photography 511 



With a Cirkut Camera you can make 
negatives from five to sixteen inches in 
width and up to twenty feet in length. 



Big profits are realized from Cirkut 
Group pictures of conventions, graduat- 
ing classes and similar large outdoor 
gatherings. 

Panoramic views of town and city real 
estate, farm, timber, mining lands and 
manufacturing plants are increasingly 
in demand. 

Cirkut Cameras make some remark- 
ably profitable negatives — such a nega- 
tive as the picture above was made from. 

Let us send you the *^ Cirkut Book. " 
Eastman Kodak Company 

Folmer & Schwing Department ROCHESTER, N. Y, 



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Expose for the shadows, 
the highlights will take 
care of themselves, will 
retain their sparkle and 
brilliancy — if the nega- 
tive is made on 



Portrait Film 



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. 
All Dealers'. 



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No. 717 Wedne«iay, May 4. 1921 ^^^^r^^^^^,,^ 



Entered at the Philadelphia Post Office at Second-Class Matter. 



Veltex 



FOR CONTACT PRINTS 

'ENLARGING 




FOR ENLARGEMENTS 

THIN, WHITE PARCHMENT-LIKE PAPER 
WITH A LIVE MATT SURFACE. 

ENLARGING VELTEX HAS THAT DISTINCTIVE VELTEX SURFACE 
AND TEXTURE AND, LIKE VELTEX. IS REMARKABLY ADAPTED 
FOR MAKING ORIGINAL AND EFFECTIVE PORTRAIT PRINTS. 

VELTEX AND ENLARGING VELTEX. EACH IN ITS OWN WAY, 

WILL FAITHFULLY REPRODUCE THE QUALITY 

OF THE PORTRAIT NEGATIVE 



PRfC/-: LIST IN DEFEShlUl lU.n CATALOG J^OW RKAUY 



MANUFACTURED EXCLUSIVELY BY 

Defender Photo Supply Co., inc. 

ROCHESTER. N. Y. 

BOSTON: NEW YORK: PHILADELPHIA: 

44 Federal Street The Printing Crafts Building 1033 Chestnut Street 

8th Ave., 33rd to 34th Sts 

CHICAGO: KANSAS CITY: MINNEAPOLIS: 

109 N. Wabash Avenue Grand Avenue at 21st Street 322 Fourth Street, S. 

TORONTO, CANADA: 71 Adelaide Street, West 



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Sm so glad me had their picture tal^n 

Photograpfis preaerve for you the ever-changing 
sweetness ot childhood. Such pictures impart enduring 
joy and one never regrets the expenditure for a good 
portrait. 

Birthday anniversaries, commencements and other 
memorable occasions should always be recorded by a 
photograph. 

Your photographer accentuates the character and 
richness of his work by encasing each print in a folder 
of beauty and distinction. 

Ask him to show you how 

COLLINS 

y^r^^.^^^^^ Ultrafine Folders 

&r>;!uJn'L,"'.>S^'"'J "Add Charm to Every Photograph** 

nay i*t >UMti mHch nunr awacx- A. M. CollIlM ManufaouciOC COk 

MiiwjtwomcM'AcnionwafMl PhUaadphto. Pfc. 

r<«lafi and malcri •/ ii««J«r4 »kaiafr«^k<c manutimgt far So t t * t » 



Each page in the National Advertising Campaign increaaeM in excellence and beauty. Thi» appealing 

appean in the March 15 i»$ue of VOGUE and will bring a heart throb reaponae from every father and 

mother who read* it and they wiU note the message: "NO PORTRAIT JS SO COMPLETELY 

SATISFYING AS ONE MADE BY A PROFESSIONAL PHOTOGRAPHER" 



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BULLETIN-OF 
PHOTOGRAPHY 



[trad* If ark rsgistbred] 

IN WHICH IS INCORPORATKO "THK PHOTOGRAPH KR" AND THK "ST. LOUIS AND CANADIAN PHOTOGRAPHKR" 

THE WEEKLY BUSINESS PAPER FOR BUSINESS PHOTOGRAPHERS 

636 Franklin Sqaan {car, 7th and Race Sts,) PhiladMlphia 

FRANK V. CHAMBERS* Editor and Publisher JOHN BARTLETT, AsMciace Editor 

A. A. SCHENCK, Buttnos Manager 



Yearly subscription, in advance, postage paid. United States. Mexico. Cuba. Philippines and Porto Rico. $2.00. 

Canada, $2.50. Countries in the Postal Union. $3.00. Single copies. 5 cents. 
Remittances may be made at our risk by money order, check, draft or registered letter. 
Items of interest upon photographic subjects will be gladly received. 
Subscriptions received by all photographic and newt dealers in the United States and Euroxie. 



Vol. XXVra, No. 716 



Wednesday, April 27, 1921 



Prices Cents 
$2.00 per Year. Post Fret 



Professional Parasites 



Photography seems peculiarly prone to 
attack from parasites which flourish at its 
expense, and, like all such degenerate organ- 
isms, have recourse to dishonest tricks to 
deceive the environment from which benefit 
is derived. 

There are more dishonest schemes and 
cunning methods devised by the lazy and 
disreputable men who have attached them- 
selves to the photographic profession, than 
to any other profession ; so that the honest 
worker is ever on the alert to find some 
means for their suppression. 

Efforts at reformation have been at- 
tempted, but moral suasion seems to have 
no effect, for they prosper and grow upon 
what they feed. The only remedy effective 
in toxodizing this obnoxious bacteria, better 
than all the ethical appeals to the profession 
to preserve its dignity and ignore them, is 
to apply the antitoxin of "printer's ink.*' 

As we said, these schemes of the parasite 
are specious and apt to gull the unsuspect- 
ing photographer by their plausibility. 

The mode of application of the remedy is 
by opening the eyes of the intelligent 
photographer to the economic folly of their 
plans, whose only purpose is complete ab- 
sorption of the profit from the trade, with 



ultimate ruin to the recipient who allows 
himself to be gulled. 

Advertisement of the parasite's wiles is 
the most effective means of extermination. 

If the professional would only examine 
into what is presented as the means for 
improving his business, and conscientiously 
analyze it and not be obsessed by greed for 
gain or envy of competitor, he would 
hesitate, at least, to stultify his sense of 
honor, his honesty of purpose and right- 
fellowship, by its sanction; as to prevent 
the eventual reaction upon himself to loss 
of self-respect and lowering of dignity in 
the profession, if not financial failure. 

In the early days of our profession, when 
photography demanded talent as well as 
mechanical skill, there was, what might be 
called, a sort of monopoly in prices. 

A good daguerreotype could be obtained 
only by paying a good price for it — a price 
compensating the maker and encouraging 
him to efforts of improvement and, at the 
same time, respected as proper by the client. 

Unfortunately, the great .success of the 
daguerreotype, which only an artist could 
make, inspired the making of imitations 
and, at first, the work being done by skilled 
hands, was very creditable and for awhile 



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Bulletin of Photography 



prices were commensurate with the work, 
but the tide soon ebbed to the lowest when 
indifferent work became popular and the 
few high priced, reputable artists were 
forced out of the profession. 

Things got worse, until the advent of col- 
lodion, the performance with which also 
demanded artistic taste and considerable 
skill. 

There was fine work in this line from 
1865 to 1875, and then the profession was 
again flooded with poor, cheap work. 

The coming of the gelatine dry plate 
again improved quality and prices. 

The cheap man had no chance and w^as 
forced to the wall or forced to a higher 
level, being pressed on the one side by the 
good professional and on the other by the 
intelligent amateur. 

He had either to get out or improve and 
most of them thought it better to improve; 
but still feared to raise their prices much 
above what they had received for their in- 
ferior w'ork. But there was an improve- 
ment all around in quality even wnth the 
slight advance in price, which operated 
beneficially on the profession, eliminating 
the man of poor work, keeping out the one- 
time tinker and blacksmith. No attempt, 
however, besides the economic pressure, w^as 
made to kill off the cheap competitor. He 
was left alone to die of inanition. 

There is really no economy in troubling 
to exterminate the cheap man. If he per- 
sists in making bad work, he will fade away. 
If he cannot be pushed up, he cannot go 
lower, because he is already at the dead 
level. 

The chances are that he will try to im- 
prove, and with every advance in quality 
there will follow advance in price. 

Personally we know many, who started 
low but had ambition to rise, who are now 
prominent in the profession and know how 
to charge for work and have an extensive 
clientage. 

So, dread not the parasite, but dread 
meanness and jealousy and competition in 
price scale. 



Misplaced Light 

A great scientist once described dirt as 
matter in the wrong place; photographers 
are badly in want of a term to describe 
light in the wrong place. Sometimes they 
call it fog; it is not really fog, but it is a 
nuisance all the same. How often one finds 
a negative taken under "fancy" lighting (as 
the old stagers call it when the lens is point- 
ing to the light) covered with a thick veil 
which alters the whole scale of gradations, 
and takes all the brightness out of the print. 
This is simply due to the presence of light, 
which was not needed to take the picture, 
and our task is to find out how to dispense 
with it. Some writers have maintained that 
a lens is a window in the camera as well as 
an image-producing instrument, and, while 
this is not strictly correct, it may be well 
to assume that it is so, as we can more easily 
attack the trouble upon this hypothesis. If 
we turn the lens of any ordinary studio 
camera toward a strong light and examine 
the interior from the position usually occu- 
pied by the foaising screen, we shall be 
astonished at the amount of light reflected 
from the lens tube, the camera bellows and 
every portion of the interior. How are we 
to get rid of it? In the first place, we must 
provide a hood screen or canopy for the 
lens, so that no unnecessary light falls upon 
it. A box lined with black velvet fitting 
tightly upon the lens hood is very efficacious, 
and its efficiency is added to by a cardboard 
extension fitting over it in telescope fashion, 
so that it can be pulled forward until dark 
edges begin to appear upon the focusing 
screen. This will remove the greater part 
of the trouble, and we have now to attack 
the minor points. The most important of 
these is the interior of the lens mount, 
which, especially if of large diameter, is 
often in need of attention. The surface of 
nearly all "dead" black varnishes reflects a 
considerable amount of white light, appear- 
ing almost light grey at some angles, and 
there is none which can be compared with 
a velvet or cloth surface for our purpose. 



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The best way to prepare this is to cut a set 
of paper patterns of the strips required to 
line the mount, which will be one for either 
side of the diaphragm ring, and one for the 
inside of the hood. Now take a piece of 
stout paper, "Nature" will do, or even thin 
Bristol board, and cover it evenly with thin 
velvet or melton cloth, taking care to glue 
the paper evenly, and to press the fabric 
gently into contact, putting the whole un- 
der a light pressure, such as a large book 
would give, so that it will dry flat. Care 
must be taken not to force the glue through 
the front of the velvet or the job will be 
spoiled. When thoroughly dry the strips 
are cut out by the patterns and sprung into 
position. If necessary, the ends may be se- 
cured by means of pieces of lantern-slide 
binding, or even stamp-edging, stuck upon 
the paper side. Much trouble can be saved 
by using ready prepared black "flock" paper, 
which has a surface like dull cloth, but this 
is difficult to get, although we believe 
Messrs. Dallmeyer will supply it. It makes 
an excellent lining for telephoto tubes, 
camera bodies, and the like. This leads us 
to the question of the interior of the camera 
itself. We have many revivers offered for 
the outside of the bellows, but none for the 
inside. With age, this usually becomes quite 
light, and will be greatly improved by a 
coat of aniline black dye dissolved in spirit. 
There should, of course, be no gum or resin, 
or the bellows will be made too stiff, besides 
being slightly glossy. A bad condition of 
the surfaces of the lens itself often causes a 
veiling of the shadows through diffusing 
light which should go to form the image 
over the whole plate. This is generally due 
to a partial grinding due to cleaning done 
with more energy than discretion, and re- 
quires the aid of the optician to remove it. 
If a lens appears dull after cleaning with 
pure alcohol, it should be returned to the 
maker to be repolished. This will cost but 
a trifle, and make the instrument equal to 
new. Deep scratches cannot be removed, 
but these will do no harm ; it is the general 
surface which is of consequence. On no 



account should any polishing powder or ma- 
terial be used by the photographer, or irre- 
parable damage will probably be done. We 
know of lenses which have been ruined by 
people whose optical knowledge was con- 
siderable, but who lacked the long, practical 
training which is necessary before the sur- 
face of a portrait lens can be properly fin- 
ished. The lensmaker, as a rule, is pleased 
to do what is needed. 

Outside the camera, the atmosphere itself, 
particularly in London, is a fruitful source 
of flatness. If a beam of sunlight is al- 
lowed to fall across the studio, we see the 
enormous reflective power of the particles 
of dust and moisture in the air. Only in a 
vaaium, or upon a mountain top, is the air 
perfectly clear, and its natural turbidity is 
made more evident as the light passing 
through it becomes more intense. There- 
fore, in strongly lighted subjects we should, 
as far as possible, exclude all light from the 
space between camera and sitter, not being 
content with merely shading the lens from 
direct rays, but shutting off all light except 
that falling upon the sitter. It is desirable 
even to screen off reflectors, so that they are 
not visible from the camera. These pre- 
cautions are especially necessary with the 
powerful electric lights now in use, which 
are necessarily in greatest demand when the 
atmosphere is at its worst. Success is only 
to be attained by attention to details ; all the 
causes we have described contribute to flat 
pictures. — British Journal of Photography, 

On life's highway almost everybody is willing 
to take the rich man's dust. 

Prosecuting Attorney (to opponent) — "You're 
the biggest boob in the city." Judge (rapping 
for order) — "Gentlemen, you forget I am here." 
— Syracuse Herald. 



VICTOR OPAKE 

AN KXCKLLKNT PRKPARATION FOR BLOCKING 
OUT ON NKOATIVES. IS IN SMOOTH. MOIST 
FORM— WORKS UP KASILY— DOKS NOT CHKCK, 
CRACK OR PEEL. WILL WASH OFF WHKN DBSIRKD. 

No. O— % oz. Jar - - 2fS cents. 
J. H. Snitk & Sods Co. , 3544 CotUfe Grove Ave. , Ckkaffo 



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Your Photographic Association 



FRANK FARRINGTON 



Would you slip around a back way and 
down an alley and crawl through a hole 
in the fence to get into the baseball grounds 
or the trotting park? Not much! You 
wouldn't think of doing a thing like that. 
No business man w^ould. It is a kid trick. 

Would you hang back and refuse to join 
the local Chamber of Commerce and refuse 
to help on public enterprises, while absorb- 
ing your share of all the benefits resulting 
from work done along those lines? N-no, 
I don't believe you would. At least I hope 
you would not, and not many photographers 
would. 

Well, then, how about refraining from 
joining or refusing to join the county, state 
or national photographic association that is 
working to promote the interests of your 
profession ? 

That seems a little different, doesn't it? 
But it is a difference of territory only. The 
work done is even more specifically con- 
nected with your profession than the work 
of the local Chamber of Commerce. 

The success of your business is influenced 
by such organizations as comprise in their 
membership the leaders in photographic 
work. Such organizations are prepared to 
act in connection with proposed legislation 
that may affect business conditions. What 
can you do alone, as an individual, to in- 
fluence legislation? You can write your 
congressman or representative in the state 
legislature, and you get a neatly typed reply 
which promises nothing and no real notice 
is taken of your petition. An organization 
stands for something and its representative 
can get a hearing and exert influence. 

Photographic associations keep in touch 
with manufacturers who look to the former 
as representative of the profession. They 
promote scientific investigation and advance- 
ment. They can do things, as organiza- 
tions, that you and others could not do as 
individuals. 

The photographic associations hold meet- 



ings and conventions which give the mem- 
bers a chance to become personally ac- 
quainted with one another and with men 
who have achieved the greatest success in 
photography. These meetings offer you an 
opportunity to find out how others are 
meeting the problems that confront you. 
They give you expert talks on how to make 
your business successful. They bring to- 
gether men from over a large territory and 
give them a chance to exchange ideas. 
They encourage the men who have become 
discouraged, by showing how others have 
won out in the face of similar obstacles. 
They furnish inspiration for the down- 
hearted. They send men home with new 
ideas, with fresh courage and a different 
point of view. 

Just for you to get together with a 
photographer from a hundred or a thousand 
miles away and discuss business with him, 
will be worth money to you, even though 
you know the business much better than he 
does. Merely talking to him about your 
methods will stimulate your brain and 
cause you to think of things you never 
would have thought of at home by yourself. 
Association with other men of common 
business interests develops your own 
ability. It makes you think. You need 
stimulus to make you think and you cannot 
get much of that stimulus if you always 
stay right home in the rut. 

Well, since your photographic association, 
the one covering your location, is doing 
work all the while that is to your advantage, 
the least you can do is to become a member 
and pay the dues, thus contributing a little 
toward the cost of the work that is for 
your benefit. To refuse to do this seems to 
me a good deal like crawling in through the 
fence to see the game — profiting by the w^ork 
without being willing to help pay the bill, 
just as some of your local business men 
profit by the work of the Chamber of 
Commerce without joining. 



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But, if you want to get the most out of 
any association, don't stop with merely be- 
coming a member. Do all you can to help 
to make the organization successful. Sup- 
pose no one did anything but just join? 

In all associations there are some who 
retain memberships, but persist in kicking 
and complaining. "What has the associa- 
tion ever done for me?'* they ask. They 
might better be asking themselves, "What 
have I ever done for the association?" 
They seem to think the organization exists 
for their benefit and for a couple of dollars 
invested they are entitled to several hundred 
dollars return with no effort to get it. It 
does not occur to them that the return a 
man gets from his association is going to be 
in proportion to what he puts into it. 

You ought to take pains to write the 
officials and give them any information that 
might be useful. You ought to compliment 
them on their good work instead of merely 
damning them for their mistakes. You 
ought to be willing to serve on a committee 
now and then. Up to a reasonable extent, 
the time you spend serving the organization 
will be time well spent. Such work will 
improve your own outlook and broaden 
your vision. 

When the association meets, arrange to 
be among those present, and also among 
those taking an active part. Don't go and 
stand around on the side lines and then 
come home and complain that nobody paid 
any attention to you. If you pay no atten- 
tion to anyone else, why should they fall on 
your neck ? There may be bigger men than 
you there who will not rush up to you at 
once and greet you, but there will be mighty 
few men, big or little, who will prove to be 
top lofty or snobbish or above being friendly 
wMth the littlest fellows, if the littlest fellows 
make their presence known. 

The biggest men know the smaller fellows 
have ideas under their hats and represent a 
big and important body of photographers. 
If you feel a little afraid of the bigger men 
who are convention-broken, while you are 
comparatively green at the business, just 



remember that there are other fellows who 
are less experienced than you, and that you 
may look to them to be above them and 
holding yourself aloof. 

A convention of photographers is not a 
society function, where you cannot speak 
to a stranger without an introduction. Don't 
stand around like an icicle, waiting for 
somebody else to come and thaw you out. 
Do your own thawing and then go and thaw 
some fellow who is too chilly to thaw him- 
self. Mix up with the rest and don't be 
afraid to act alive and to take part. 

When you have something to say, get up 
and say it. Don't wait to be called upon to 
make a speech. Express your ideas and 
opinions when you think they are worth it. 
The fellows whose opinions are sought, got 
that way by being ready to speak their 
pieces unasked. 

Theodore Roosevelt said that every man 
owes it to his calling to devote a part of his 
time to bettering its conditions. You owe 
something to the future of photography, just 
as you are indebted to its past for much 
that is of help to you. There is no way in 
which you can work better for the general 
upbuilding of the profession than by help- 
ing your association. 

You will always find that the men you 
meet at conventions are men of greater 
breadth of vision than the fellows you see 
sticking tightly to their own studios, afraid 
to leave long enough to attend a convention 
for fear some patron may get away from 
them. Get the bigger view^point. Don't 
settle down into the narrow groove that 
runs between your studio and your home to 
wear yourself out jogging back and forth 
there. 

Civil actions speak louder than words; a judg- 
ment is worse than a dun. 



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NEW BULLETIN (No. 137) 



• JUST OUT 

CONTAINING BARGAINS IN CAMKRA8. LKNSKS 

AND KVKRYTHING PHOTOGRAPHIC 

110 W. 32Dd STREET 
NEW YORK 



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Gradation in Bromides 



EDWARD FANCOURT 



In a recent issue of your Bulletin of 
Photography you speak of the bad practice 
of adapting the printing process to the nega- 
tive as a premium paid to bad manipulation, 
an encouragement to make indifferent work 
with the expectation of finding accommoda- 
tion for its defects in medium which shall 
not emphasize them. I heartily agree with 
you and would go further and say I do not 
believe any printing process, even including 
carbon and platinum printing-out or develop- 
ing methods of reproduction ever com- 
pletely or adequately translate the excel- 
lencies of our perfect negatives. 

We go to great pains to get beautiful 
gradations of light and shade in our nega- 
tives, by judicious exposure and careful de- 
velopment, only to find that the major part 
of them is lost in the printing. The Daguer- 
reotype owes its beauty to the mode of its 
direct, positive reproduction and if we 
could get some method of developing 
directly, the print impression made in the 
camera I think we would reach the acme of 
printing. Even in a chloride of silver print 
(P. O. P.), if we could preserve the im- 
pression as it comes out of the printing 
frame, it would be in a great measure satis- 
factory, but by toning and fixing we ob- 
literate much of the beauty of the original. 
With developing papers there really is no 
developing, strictly speaking, done. A de- 
posit is formed on the affected portions of 
the paper and after all it is only a substitu- 
tion product and the substitutiorh is im- 
perfect at the best. So is it with platinum 
printing, a substitution product is formed, 
better it may be because the platinum 
particles are much more minute than the 
silver-bromide. With carbon it is somewhat 
better, but even here we are liable to wash 
out some of the beautiful gradations of the 
original. 

Let us hope some one may discover a 
method of printing which shall equal the 
results had on the Daguerreotype plate, a 



sort of paper Daguerreotype. The 
mechanical methods devised in which 
printers' ink is employed to take copies like 
the lithograph process, at the best are only 
passable. Woodbury type probably was the 
most perfect of the kind, but even this could 
not adequately reproduce. 

I shall not say a word about the now 
almost universally employed half-tone proc- 
ess, used to illustrate our photographic 
magazines. They are certainly apologies, or 
rather the publishers ought to apologize, for 
desecrating good artistic w^ork. 

I have been compelled to fall back for 
reliance for tolerable work on some of the 
modern developing papers — and have sought 
by certain modifications of the manipulation 
to get better results than can be had in the 
usual way and perhaps I may be doing some 
good service by giving my method. As I 
remarked, the cause of the falling off is due 
to the too energetic action of the chemicals 
on the latent image. Quite recently one of 
the English magazines recommended the use 
of hypo-sulphite of ammonia in place of the 
sodium salt as a fixing agent, which after 
its work had been accomplished on the film 
could be much easier eliminated. 

I was not specially interested in its 
property of easy work, but rather inclined 
to its use on account of its less energetic 
action on the image. You had an interesting 
paper on fixers in one of the issues of your 
Bulletin, in which you dilated on the 
virtues and shortcomings of a number of 
agents which might be employed. You came 
to the conclusion that hypo, that is the old 
hypo sodium sulphite, would have to be still 
employed, on account of certain peculiarities 
of the other fixers, like ammonium sulpho- 
cyanide, in attacking the film. Your objec- 
tion to ammonium hyposulphite was its great 
expense. The high price certainly is an 
item of consideration. The hyposulphite 
of ammonium is likewise not always so 
easily procured. One catalogue listed it at 



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75 cents a pound, but when I tried to get 
some I found they were just out of stock. 
This price, as compared with that of sodium 
sah, is terrific. One thing to be considered, 
it is more than twice as active (I do not 
mean energetic), but that one-half the 
quantity will do the same work as soda does. 
This fact would make its price about 40 
cents a pound, but I am sure a demand 
would soon reduce the rate. By referring 
to an old price list of chemicals in 1840, I 
find soda hypo sold for 90 cents ; now, you 
know, it is about two cents. Ammonium 
could be made as cheaply as the soda com- 
pound. But even though it be expensive, I 
found it advantageous to use because of the 
giving of better results. In lieu of the real 
ammonia salt, I made up a mixture which I 
found practically to work as well. 

I took 16 ounces of the strongest am- 
monia and diluted it with 8 ounces of water ; 
then I added hypo soda until no more could 
be dissolved. For use I still further diluted 
with 4 volumes of water, that is, 1 part 
stock solution to 4 parts of water, to get rid 
of the superfluous ammonia. As I did not 
want an alkaline hypo bath, I made a solu- 
tion of sodium sulphite, then added sul- 
phuric acid to the sulphite until the odor of 
sulphurous gas was very manifest.^ This in 
very small quantity I added to the hypo 
formed as directed. So nmch for the fixer 
of velox and bromide prints, now for a 
modified developer that will give the best 
gradations : 

Water 8 ounces 

Sodium sulphite (cryst.) ..120 grains 

Sodium bromide 8 grains 

Sodium carbonate 40 grains 

Hydrochinone 8 grains 

Metol 16 grains 

The action, with normal exposure, is 
rather moderate and the image comes up 
with rich gradation. This developer I have 
found to be superior to any other I have 
tried for contact printing on bromide. For 
enlargements I dilute the active developer 
with a little water. 



Our Legal Department 



Dear Sir. — As a regular and interested 
reader of the Bulletin of Photography 
I write you for some advice in collecting a 
bill that has some peculiar possibilities. 

After reading the case I should be 
obliged if you can tell me if it can be col- 
lected and what sort of action or procedure 
is best to follow. 

This is the case: 

I am an ex-U. S. soldier, discharged in 
England, where I started a photographic 
business. In the early part of April, 1919, 
I made a photo of the crew of an American 
boat at Liverpool, England. This crew 
left for France before we had any orders, 
but made arrangements whereby a certain 
Lieutenant X. said he would be responsible 
(verbally). On April 21, 1919, in reply 
to a letter from me, this Lieutenant X. 
cabled me from Brest, France, where the 
boat then was, ordering 200 copies of the 
crew to be posted to a certain Ensign A., 
care of Postmaster, New York City. 

Perhaps it were better if I quote the 
cable word for word, using X. and A. in 
place of names. 

To E. E. D. 

35 Elm Rd., Wembley, 

England. 

Mail two hundred picture ensign A. 
U.S.S. Blank Postmaster New York will 
be responsible 

X. 

I have quoted, capitals and punctuation, 
as the cable stands, leaving name of ship 
**blank" and the men's names A. and X. 

These photos were posted within a few 
days of order as directed, through the U. S. 
Naval headquarters in London. Lieutenant 
X. or Ensign A. never acknowledged receipt 
of same and growing anxious we made 
inquiries at U. S. Naval headquarters in 
London. As this crew was on a boat trans- 
porting troops from France to IT. S., we 



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couldn't catch them in European waters, 
due partly to the officer in London being 
taken to the hospital at the time the boat 
was in Europe. When he got out, we 
learned the boat was laid up to be refitted in 
U. S., and the crew probably broken up. 
I was told to take the matter up with the 
Bureau of Navigation at Washington. I 
have taken the matter up a number of times 
and am now informed that Lieutenant X. is 
demobilized from the Navy and not under 
their jurisdiction any longer. 

I traced Ensign A. to his home and he 
informs me that he turned over 135 unsold 
pictures and $76.00 in cash to Lieutenant 
X. and has a receipt from him to that effect. 
Lieutenant X., in response to a letter from 
my sister here in U. S. A., returned the 
unsold pictures by registered mail, but did 
not write or communicate in any other 
manner. I am obtaining Lieutenant X.*s 
address from the Navy Department, as I 
have lost the letter in which they gave it to 
me before. 

If you can make head or tail of this tangle 
I should certainly like to know if this $76.00 
is recoverable and, if so, what is my best 



way to go about it. As I see it, it is a clear 
case of misappropriation of money. 

Thanking you for your answer, which I 
await with hopefulness, I am, 
Very truly yours, 

E. E. D. 

P. S. — I have recently returned from 
Europe where I have been the past six 
years. 

Dear Sir. — Answering yours of the 15th 
inst. to the Bulletin of Photography, 
your best course, it would appear, is to hunt 
out Lieutenant X. and threaten him with 
legal proceedings unless he pays your whole 
bill. He has apparently, both verbally and 
through a cable message, made himself 
personally responsible for this obligation. 
If it was a debt of another person, it might 
be some question whether his obligation 
could be enforced, in view of the fact that 
you hold nothing signed by him agreeing to 
assume it, but as it is his debt as much as 
anyone's, this question could not be raised. 
I should hunt him out and then go after 
him. 

Yours ver>' truly, 

E. J. B. 



What To Do In Exposing 

JOHN BARTLETT 



We never had any faith in that old axiom 
of photography, "expose for the shadows, 
let the high-lights take care of themselves." 
We prefer to expose for the general effect, 
believing that a conception of the entirety is 
more essential to pictorial effect than a 
consideration of any special feature, and so 
maintain that we shall go wrong or, rather, 
the high-lights will go wrong if we neglect 
the training of them artistically in our ex- 
posure scheme. If we were tempted to 
formulate any we would rather say, "ex- 
pose for the half-tones and let enough 
detail show up in the shadows to give them 
luminousness.** It is this luminousness of 
the shadows, combined with repose, which 
makes a photographic picture so expressive, 
but which is so difficult of acquisition. 



In representing natural objects in mono- 
chrome, we have only one means of trans- 
lating the colors and gradations of light and 
shade; our highest light must be the white 
of the paper, and our deepest shadow the 
darkest tint of the deposit, whether a pig- 
ment or a chemical product. But the 
purest white paper is much inferior in 
brilliancy to the highest light of the object, 
and our deepest deposit is not dark enough 
for the deepest shadow, so that we are 
obliged to modify the natural scale, only ap- 
proximating the tonal values. 

Consequently, artists find themselves 
compelled to express a part of the truth 
only; that is to say, something has to be 
omitted, and here art steps in. 

When we look quickly at a view, the eye 



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is primarily impressed with the masses and 
the general effect of light and shade, the 
principal objects, of course, being seen in 
more detail. This effect is known as 
"impression," and it has been applied to 
photography, also. 

This is no place for discussion, and we 
are glad to avoid it ; but one thing, however, 
is pertinent, namely, the representation 
should be capable of giving something of 
the "impression" which the original effects, 
otherwise it tends to look flat from over- 
elaboration of detail. 

If two objects, such as a smooth and 
rough piece of drapery, be put in a bright 
light and be looked at with half-closed eyes, 
so as to get small variations, it will be ob- 
served that the shadows of both look 
smooth, but the lights, and more especially 
the half-lights, show differences, forming 
what are called the half-tones, which thus 
give the characteristics to the subject, and 
for that reason they ought to be jealously 
preserved. It is just in the rendering of 
these half-tones that differences will often 
be found between good and inferior work; 
therefore, if we are satisfied that it is neces- 
sary to omit any of the gradations, it is 
better to sacrifice other parts than those 
half-tones. 

The depression of detail in the shadows 
to the degree only of keeping them trans- 
parent or luminous, is what renders a good 
oil painting so charming. It is difficult to 
get this luminosity with our matt or dull 
surface prints, but with carbon and gum 
pigment it is possible. It is strange, there- 
fore, why professionals leave these printing 
methods, especially the latter, to the amateur. 
In printing on matt surface the shadows are 
too opaque, even in the best platinum work ; 
less, to be sure, on the rough surfaces, be- 
cause the grain adds texture and trans- 
parency to the shadows. But all of us in 
working platinum have wished it would 
dry down in the appearance it has while in 
the wash water. Brown and sepias have 
some advantage over black, because not- 
withstanding the full depth of color the eye 



imagines or expects something still darker. 
It is generally acknowledged that it is ad- 
vantageous to leave out detail not essential 
to expression. To accomplish this one 
should use as large an aperture of the lens 
as possible consistent with presentation of 
necessary definition. In trying to escape 
the impressionist smudge the critic is apt to 
overrate obtrusive detail, but the just pro- 
cedure is to consider the general effect, to 
study the picture in its entirety, not in 
piecemeal. 

Photography is a means of artistic repro- 
duction, but it may also be productive art 
work. 

Success 

B. T. RICE 

There is a good deal of meaning in this 
little word. And to no one does it have 
more significance than to the photographer. 

If there were more successful photog- 
raphers, "there would be less complaint 
about low prices." I think if we would 
command good prices we must do good 
work, and failing in the latter, we resort to 
the vile practice of cutting down our prices, 
in order to get work. I think the following 
suggestions ver>' good to overcome low 
prices, and to attain success. 

See that your rooms are kept clean and 
tidy, and make everything about your studio 
as fresh and attractive as possible. Never 
let a customer get away until you are sure 
that you have secured as good a negative as 
your skill will allow. I know we have a 
tendency sometimes to slight the most 
essential part of our work in making our 
negatives. But to build up our trade and 
secure good prices, we must not when ex- 
amining our negatives, make use of an ex- 
pression that I have heard used by the best 
of workmen when looking at their nega- 
tives; they assumed a rather doubtful tone 
and said, they guessed "it would do." The 
foundation of all your work is the negative. 
If you get your subject rightly posed and 
lighted, and your negative well developed, 
the rest is comparatively easy. 



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There is a Fine Art in Framing Pictures 



The above sign in artistic gold lettering 
swung over the doorway of a little shop in 
a busy thoroughfare. Everything about the 
place was in exact agreement with the sign. 
In the little show window are seen etchings, 
dainty water colors and choice prints of the 
old masters. The girl who manages this 
little shop so successfully says that in the 
business of picture framing it is only neces- 
sary to have good taste and some ideas on 
the subject, which may be gained by thought 
and investigation. She advises one who 
would like to follow this occupation to 
study frames and study pictures, and study 
how to put both together artistically. She 
says you cannot do it in a haphazard manner. 
You must learn the laws of good taste in 
relation to pictures and their frames. There 
are rules for everj'thing we do, all the way 
from washing a handkerchief to painting a 
picture. 

Ordinarily you go to a shop to order 
something that is sawed off from an orna- 
mental stick of moulding, which may or 
may not be suitable in design and propor- 
tions to the composition of your picture. 
The greater refinement there is in a picture 
and the more evidences of the free artistic 
spirit, the less desirable is the use of machine- 
made framing. The failure of the ordinary 
worker to meet the decorative requirements 
of the frame is not strange. Usually the 
man who does the framing is not even an 
intelligent artisan. His only interest in his 
job is the daily stipend. He does not take 
pride in his work, for it is not known as his. 
Generally it is not designed and executed 
by him alone. Piece-work prevails in nearly 
all of the picture-frame stores to such an 
extent that a dozen pairs of hands may con- 
tribute to the making of a single frame. 
The materials, furthermore, that are em- 
ployed are as unsuited to the art as the 
methods are. 

Study the frames made by experts in 
times past, especially Spanish and Old 



English. While a frame should be designed 
with reference to a picture, and may in 
some cases have details emblematic of the 
subject, it should not attract undue atten- 
tion or be eccentric. The enriched mould- 
ings of frames should diminish in import- 
ance as they approach the picture. Works 
not of much strength in water colors should 
have broader flats than those in oil and not 
heavy gilt frames with much burnish. Some 
pictures are best without any burnish in the 
frames. You will learn by experimenting. 
Landscape pictures, in most cases, are better 
in recessed than in projecting frames. The 
color of a mount should not appear to blend 
with any part of the picture it surrounds, 
and the gold in all frames should be toned 
to suit the pictures. Some works have their 
best effect in carved woods, brown or black 
frames, with or without fine lines of gold 
added. Although a frame may, in and for 
itself, be beautiful, its beauty must be kept 
distinctly subservient to the aesthetic value 
of the picture. In no event should it be 
positively ugly. 

This girl, upon request, also superintends 
the hanging of pictures for those who are 
furnishing their homes and want their pic- 
tures hung in the best taste. In regard to 
this branch of the work she says: 

"In hanging pictures in a room we have 
to consider two things — the pictures and 
the room. The question of how to hang 
them may resolve itself into this : How, in 
a moderate-sized room, so to arrange a 
certain number of pictures that, individually, 
each will be placed in a good light, and, col- 
lectively, they will contribute to the decora- 
tive effect of the room. One solution will 
be to observe how much of the wall space is 
sufficiently lighted that alone is available for 
pictures. A picture ought to be seen in a 
good light. The lightest place in a room 
usually is the floor, but, of course, we cannot 
hang them there. To hang them fairly we 
must limit the number of them in our 
rooms. 



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Which Plate Should You Use? 



Photographers are exacting in their demands of plates. In order to produce 
the best work, they must have a plate espedaUy designed to meet their 
individual needs. Your plate is listed below: 

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SPECIAL An all-around Studio plate. 

COMET For Landscape and Copying. 

POSTALS A fost plate for Postal work. 

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COLORNON A Color plate rendering Orthochromatic values. 

CONTRAST LANTERN SLIDE . Producing brilliant Lantern Slides. 

PAN ORTHO A Tri-Color. or Pan Chromatic plate. 

PROCESS For all Commercial Process work. 

CENTRAL X-RAY An X-Ray plate of the highest radiographic quality. 

NON- HALATION A Double Coated plate eliminating Halation. 

PAN ORTHO D. C A perfect double coated Pan Ortho plate. 

Order from your dealer — today. 



CENTRAL DRY PLATE COMPANY 



NEW YORK 



ST. LOUIS, MO. 



SAN FRANaSCO 



*'Hang very few pictures in the house, 
but each one should be well worth stopping 
before. Do not hang bunches of unrelated 
pictures, each fighting for supremacy. 
E^ch picture should hang alone in its wall 
panel, or occasionally with one harmonious 
neighbor. Each one should count for all it 
is worth, too. In no room should there be a 
picture which approaches the color or tone 
of the wall coloring behind it. Each one 
should stand out in good, strong contrast 
from its background. For instance, in the 
matter of frames, a living room with walls 
covered by a silvery gray Japanese grass 
cloth should have all dark wood frames, 
excepting an oil painting, which needs the 
brilliance of a gilt frame. 

"The height of a picture from the floor 
should be considered. Each picture should 
usually be very nearly central on the nor- 
mal line of sight, about five feet from the 
floor. The blunder of hanging pictures too 
high is as common as that of hanging them 
too low is rare. If vou hesitate between two 



levels decide upon the lower. When they 
are hung on the line of vision a tiked posture 
is unnecessary. They should hang perfectly 
flat against the wall. Large pictures should 
hang on two chains running vertically to 
hooks on the picture molding. 

"Everyone knows that a picture is not 
buih into the wall, but that it is hung from 
above. Why, then, try to conceal this fact 
by using fine wire and invisible picture 
hooks? Supporting chains or woven wires 
heavy enough to give the impression that 
they are well adapted to their work would 
be much more impressive. Use judgment, 
and do not have a chain too heavy or too 
light for the picture. With the usual 
arrangement of screweyes a picture cannot 
hang flat against the wall. Have them put 
on the top edge of the frame, in plain sight, 
where they will hold the picture flat. They 
should be dull black for dark wood frames, 
brass for gilt frames, and should range in 
size according to the size of the frame they 
are to uphold.'* — Chicago Tribune. 



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Bulletin of Photography 



Highly ientidve to all conditioiis of light and color-values 



PWcs 



ARE ID£AL 

at this season. With shortest exposures they produce 
negatives of the greatest detail and brilliancy. Their 
record cannot be excelled. 

Special Brandt for tpedal needt 



Hammer*8 Special Extra Fast (red label) 
and Extra Fast (blue label) Plates for 
field and studio work, and Hammer's 
Extra Fast Orthochromatic and D. G. 
Orthochromatic Plates for color Talues. 




RES. TRADE MARK 

Hammer Dry Plate Co. 

OHIO AVKNUK AND MIAMI STRKKT 
8T. LOUIS, MO. 



TF you have any new photographic 
-*• ideas or methods that you believe 
would interest readers of the Bulletin 
of Photogreqjhy, send them in. 

Ideas and contributions will be 
paid for. 



BULLETIN •OFl 
PHOTO GRAPH yII 



Philadelphia, Pa. 



SPL- 



Send for booklet explaining "control 

at full opening" and giving names of 

some of the prominent users of the 

STRUSS PICTORIAL LENS. 



Box 303 



Frederick W. Keasbey 

Morristown, New Jersey 



FOR BEST RESULTS USE A 

Packard-Ideal No. 6 Shutter 

operated at 1/25 of a second. In connection 
with a high-power light. 

MICHIGAN PHOTO SHUTTER CO., Makers 
Atk voor Deoler. KALAMAZOO, MICH. 



Character of the Negative 

Development is a sort of a fine art; at 
least, it requires artistic perception to know 
how to evolve an image on the plate. 

The "artist" should study just what he 
wants to get and how to get it. 

We have quite a phalanx of developing 
agents, from old pyro to the latest product 
of Agfa, but it is only by judicious use of 
such and intelligent application that wnshed- 
for results are attained. We can have em- 
phasized strength or softness, flatness or 
vigor, wealth of detail or suppression of 
minutiae by their individual use or combined 
assistance, and it savors of folly to give up 
these valuable aids to artistic effect and in- 
discriminately consign all sorts and con- 
ditions of exposure, all kinds of subjects, to 
the one uniforming influence of the tank 
solution. 

Here we do not intend to go into detail 
on methods of development, but desire 
merely to call attention to the well-known 
fact that the method of development, that 
is, what we might call the mechanical phase, 
has a peculiar individual and specific action 
on the character of the image evolved, as 
regards intensity or softness. That is, in 
using precisely the same materials in 
exactly the same proportions, with identical 
exposures, a negative may at will be pro- 
duced in which in the one case harmony and 
softness shall prevail, and in the other case 
intensity or contrast shall predominate by 
mechanical means. 

When the ordinary developer (normally 
constituted) is applied to the exposed film, 
it will be observed that the high-lights first 
appear, the half-lights following, and so in 
regular succession the least illuminated 
areas appearing last. It w'ill also be ob- 
served that in the process of development 
there is a tendency to aggregation in the 
deposit of silver. Wherever light has acted 
most, the silver is there more readily pre- 
cipitated, and hence in an underexposed 
plate the lights acquire great density before 
the less favored by light areas are attacked. 



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Bulletin of Photography 529 



The Discovery of Hypo^^ 

Sir John Hetschel, an English scientist, discovered in 1819, the 
solvent power of hyposulphite of soda on salts of silver. Twenty 
years later he exhibited a number of photographs made permanent 
by fixation, among them ^^a sketch of his telescope fixed from its 
image in a lens." 

Herschel was also the first to apply the well-known terms, 
negative and positive to photographic images, having also experi- 
mented extensively with printing processes. 

Thus, printing papers had their beginnings and passed through 
the experimental stages to the present high standard which is ex- 
emplified in Haloid Photographic ^€f>ers. With the present-day 
papers, photography has become a matter of individual expression 
— a matter of choice among the best that can be produced. And 
whether in portraiture, amateur finishing, or enlarging, HALOID 
Papers give true expression to your photographic ideals. 

Send for dtscripthe pamphlet 



Chicago Ofiot 
68 W. Waahingtoo Sc. 

ROCHESTER '. NEW YORK 



'l-^^r Tfc HALOID Co. 

ROCHESTER '. NEW YORK 

HALOID 



MUeaUmea in Progreia of Photography — Seriea Four 



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Bulletin of Photography 



THE 



Commercial Photographer 



a figure which, at the current rate of exchange, is about 2te 
(%i). NerertheleM. the photosrapher who la learning to 
qualify himself for this branch of his calling most be a 
moat onreceptiTe individual if the cost of the book ia not 
returned to him many times orer in the knowledge and 
guidance which it giTes him. 

Mr. Rose is an American, and thus, as rapirds choice of 
equipment, states his preferences in terms of the apparatus 
which is available on the market in the United States. 
These include flash bags and a portable installation of half- 



Bv L.. Ca. RlJSl!* ^^t lamps, the eguiTalents of which appear not to have 

a*jr a^. v»« a^w^a^ ^^^ otlenA in this country.. Hb chapter on the photog- 



148 Pagtt 
85 IttoMtrationB 

Price, m cloth, 

$4.00 per copy. 
Postftfc IS ccBtt extra. 



^^ 



A work by a thoroughly 
competent and widely ex- 
perienced commercial pho- 
tographer of the highest 
reputation. 

Every branch of the tub- 

Ject treated with a view for 

presentation of the eaeen- 

tiala. The various appliances discussed, best methods of 

exposure, illumination and graphic presentation to ensure 

a successful outcome. 

It is a book essentially for the commerical man and meets 
every requirement. Profusely illustrated with examples of 
work of varied kind. 

The book will be found of pertinent interest not only to 
the trade photographer but also to the specialist. The 
application of photography is considered in its bearings upon 
the commerical man, the architect, the tradesman, the phy- 
sician, the lawyer, and the scientist, by one who has had 
extensive experience in different kinds of work required. 

The edition is limited and we have a firm conviction 
when the value of the work becomes apparent, that it will 
be speedily extiausted. 



OPINIONS OF THE PRESS 



. , photog- 
raphy of architectural exteriors includes some strikuig ex- 
amples of difficulties surmounted in obtaining riews of 
sky-scraper buildings common in American cities, but he 
descends to more homely illustrations, for example, one 
showing the devices used m the way of combination printing 
for eliminating an unsightly telegraph pole from the forfr- 
ground of an architectural tIsw. Panoramic views, exterior 
and interior, are the subject of an excellent ch^ter in wliieh 
is illustrated the method of Joining up without showing a 
sign of the line of itmction. The latter part of his treatise 
is devoted chiefly to the photography (in the studio) of 
articles of merchandise from wrist watches to kitcheners 
He describes a novel form of horisontal table for the photog- 
nphy of small goods, such aa machine parts, by means of 
a vertical camera. The easel is of ground-glasa. illuminated 
below so that for part of the exposure the objecta are 
allowed to receive a diffused light all around their edges, 
thus eliminating heavy shadows and at the same time pro- 
viding opacity In the ground of the negative sufficient to 
dispense with blocking-out. There are quite a number of 
practical ways and means of this kind described in the 
book, eridently as the result of the writer's own ingenuity 
and practice. The routine in a commercial photographer's 
establishment of making prints and enlargements is the sub- 
ject of other sections, and there are chi4>ter8 on the design 
of advertisements, part photograph and part artist's work, 
and on the eternal question of drawing up a tariff of prices. 
Altogether a most excellent manual, which we have no doubt 
will be purchased from Messrs. Chambers by practicing or 
would-be commercial photographers in this country.— The 
British Journal of Photography" (London). 

In scope and wealth of detail this is by far the most 
comprehensive handbook to commercial photography thus 
far published. It has the greater merit of being thoroughly 

ftractical in its information, giving the working methods, 
ormulas. and experience of its author, a well-known expert 
in this special field. To particularize the contenta of the 
book would be to list the principal branches of modem 
commercial work. I. therefore, content myself with the 
comment that Mr. Rose has given us a manual and refer- 
ence book which should be on the bookshelf of every pro- 
fessional and commercial photographer. The text is pro- 
fusely illustrated and the volume is well printed and 
substantially bound for service.— "Photo-Miniature. No. 180." 

This is by far the best book published on the subject of 
commercial photography. It is written by an expert-photog- 
rapher in commercial work, who ia likewise a caoital writer. 

A careful examination of this admirable work conrinces 
US that the object-lessons here presented constitute in them- 



Mr. Rose haa handled a very extensive subject in a com- selves a real course in commercial photography, which 

prehenaive way. The commercial photogn4>her in the larger appeals not only to the student interested in this department 

cities ia, of course, a spadalist^ entirely distinct from the of photographic work, but to the commercial photographer 



lanpr 

portrair'man ~and~~vrith 'totiUl^ In some 

cases, demands are so great that the photographer conflnea 
himaelf to one line of merchandiae to the excluafon of others, 
aa, for inatance, furniture, etc. 

ThB book will, therefore, appeal to all photographers who 
are called upon from time to time to do commercial jobs. 
—"American Photogr^hy." 

Frank V. Chambers, publisher of the "Bulletin of Photog- 
ihy." in Philadelphia.^haa just run off his presses an 



a?i 



ition of the very complete 



on commercial photog- 



raphy. "The Commercial Photographer." It is replete, wiUk 
illustrationa. instructions and suggestions of all kinds 
covering the perplexing conditions that surround this grow- 
ing field and it will be well for every photographer to have 
one on his shelf, if only for reference when a quick demand 
of some kind or other to do a difficult job which comes under 
the head of Commercial Photography comes in and probably 
flnda him somewhat puzzled to obtain the best results. The 
price of the book is S4. It is worth that if only to help 
you through one job, but it will benefit all your employees 
aa well and make them more efficient for you.— "Photo- 
graphic Poster." 

"The Commercial Photographer." Since Hance's "Com- 
mercial Photography of Today ' went out of print, there has 
been a sad lack of a good practical book on conunercial 
photography in all iU various phaaes. This new book by 
L. G. Rose will find a ready demand. It is splendidly 
printed and Ulustrated in Frank V. Chambers' best style, 
and we commend it most hi^Iy to our readers, both portrait 
and commercial. The portrait man should have it handy 
for he never can tell when he will be called upon to do 
some bit of work out of the regular, and this book will help 
him out at any and all times: the commercial man can 
afford to have it on hand, for many subjects on which he 

Rrobably is not quite conversant are covered thoroughly by 
Ir. Rose. Mr. Rose is well known to the craft and he has 
covered his subject fully and with a thorough understanding 
of all the difficulties to be met with in commercial work. 
—Abel's "Photographic Weekly." 

Mr. Rose deserves well of commercial photographers, for he 
haa written an admirable practical manual on the photog- 
raphy of the wide diversity of subjects which the commercial 
Shotographer is asked to undertake. And the publishers have 
one well by their author, for they have provided a luxurious 
volume, printed throughout on neavy art paper and pro- 
fusely Uluatrated on almost every page with half-tone repro- 
ductions. Perhaps they have been a little too lavish in this 
respect, for it has meant fixing the price of the book at 



of photographic work, but to the commercial photographer 
or. aa he is generally called, the all-around photographer. 

The text presents all up-to-date methods, tricks and dodges 
that are known only to a thoroughly experienced commercial 
worker, and describes every step, from the choice of equip- 
ment down to the finished print, whether the latter be a 
str^ht contact-print, an enlargement, a colored print, or 
one that is worked up to suit the needs of the photo- 
engraver. The book is printed on the highest grade of 
coated paper, in large, clear type, and is a credit to the 
printer's art. We heartily recommend this book to every 
photo-worker interested in producing technically perfect 
pictures for the merchant, the architect, or whoever calls 
for the most exacting photographic work.— "Photo Era." 



In Mtock by following dealerB: 
J. Sussman Photo Stock Co.. 223 Park Ave.. Baltimore. Md. 
Photo-Era. 367 Boylston Street. Boston. Mass. 
Robey-French Co.. 38 Bromfield Street Boston. Mass. 
Bass Camera Co . 109 N. Dearborn Street Chicaco, IIL 
S%veet WalUch & Co.. 133 N. Wabash Ave.. Chicago. IIL 
Norman-Willetts Photo Supply Co.. 108 N. Walash Aft.. Oiafi 
C. Weichsel Co.. 1611 Main Street Dallas. Tex. 
Briius Photo Supply Co.. 914 Grand Ave.. Kansas City. Mo. 
Howland & Dewey Co.. 510 S. Broadway, Los Antfeles. CaL 
O. H. Peck Co.. 112 S. 5th Street Minneapolis. Minn. 
Chas. C. Willoughby. Inc.. 110 West 32d St. New York. 
Geo. Murphy. Inc.. 57 East 9th Street New York. 
J. L. Lewis, 522 Sixth Avenue. New York. 
New York Camera Exchange. 109 Fulton St, New York. 
Schultz Novelty & Sptg. Goods Co.. 122 Nassau St. N. Y. 
Sol Pudlin Co.. 1212 Broadway. New York. 
Tennant & Ward. 103 Park Avenue. New York. 
Standard Photo Supply Co.. 125 Baronnc St, New Orleans. 
John Haworth Co.. 1020 Chestnut Street PhlladelphU. 
E. W. Stewart & Co.. Tacoma and Seattle. Wash. 
Francis Hendricks Co.. 116 E. Fayette St. Syracuse, N. Y. 
Hyatf s Photo Supply Co.. 417 N. Broadway. St Louis. Mo. 
Gross Photo Supply Co.. 1715 Spielbusch Ave.. Toledo. O. 

FRAFK V. CHAMBERS, 636 S. Frankb Sqiare, lUi. 



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Bulletin of Photography 



531 



If these facts are borne in mind, I think 
you will see that after the developer is 
applied a precipitation is formed on the 
image, giving it a certain degree of appre- 
ciable density, the rapidity of the deposition 
being in ratio to which light has acted. If 
then the plate be kept still as in tank de- 
velopment, there is a gradual precipitation, 
and the lesser lights slowly but surely ac- 
quire density from the deposit of silver 
immediately in contact, while the high-lights 
do not get excess of the precipitation. 

The result is a negative in which detail, 
rather than intensity, persists. But if the 
developer is subjected to agitation, the 
tendency to aggregation is brought into 
operation; the lights which are brought out 
first having secured the monopoly of the 
silver market, so to say, in immediate con- 
tact find themselves in constant touch with 
the supply, which in turn is precipitated 
upon the parts which, in virtue of the greater 
action of the light, have greatest attraction 
for it. 

In the meantime, the minor lights (detail 
in shadows) suffer. 

So it will be seen that agitation or calm- 
ness of developer affects the character of 
the results, and it is therefore essential to 
consider one or the other way with refer- 
ence to what you want to get in the 
negative. 



Many men have forgotten how to sell. They 
are too busy whispering. But the man who wants 
to sell his product has to talk above a whisper. 
And he has got to think about his ozvn business. 
He can go out right now and get two orders for 
goods, space or whatever he is selling in the time 
he takes whispering about a rumor or worrying 
about a cancellation. 

The engineer of a train, when he comes for a 
moment to the valley below the hill ahead, 
doesn't stop the train. He doesn't invite the con- 
ductor to sit down with him beside the track 
while he tells him hollow-toned ghost stories. 
He gets his fire well coaled, puts his hand on the 
throttle and turns on the steam. 

It is exactly the right time for all American 
business to take a hitch in its trousers and go to 
it. It's time to quit whispering. It's time to 
turn off the poison gas and turn on the steam. — 
Printer's Ink. 



POUND for POUND 

NEGATIVE for NEGATIVE 

PRINT for PRINT 



CUMMINONE 

(PRODUCT NO. 11) 

gives better values— 
than other developers 



DISCARD 

PYRO and its STAIN 
METOL and its POISON 



1 lb. CUMMINONE 

(NO. 11) 

PRICE $3.60 

makes 32 gallons all- 
purpose developer 



'We USE as weU as MAKE" 



Cummings' Laboratories 

73 West Broadway, NEW YORK 



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548 



Bulletin of Photography 



to wash off the silver stains, so as to be 
presentable to Liza Jane in the back parlor. 

We even went so far as to hang out our 
''Artistic Photographer" sign, with no more 
artistic art education than the knowing how 
to get good tones on the prints. 

There have been glorious exceptions to 
this, we must admit, men who have been an 
honor to the profession, who devoted their 
talents wholly to the art, who have leavened 
the whole lump, who have elevated the 
profession, but most of us are men of ordi- 
nary ability, who, in our inner consciousness, 
know just how much of the artistic make- 
up is congenital — how much has been 
mechanically transfused into our system. 

But we respond splendidly to this art 
treatment, and it is furthest from my inten- 
tion to discount the value of art to photog- 
raphy, but there is a possibility of the 
''baker and candlestick maker" being origi- 
nally out of their proper environment, of 
Pegasus being harnessed to a plow. (No 
reference here to myself). 

We are glad to have these misplaced 
geniuses to stimulate us plodders along the 
art road. But it is salutary for us to realize 
just where we stand and not allow our- 
selves to be hypnotized into an auto-sug- 
gestion that we are '7f/' 

It does us good occasionally to present 
ourselves with a lemon. The nearer we get 
to the truth, the better for us financially, 
anyhow. 

Judging from what we know from 
hearsay, many of our most successful men 
in photography have differentiated from the 
farm, the mill, the loom or counting house, 
possessed of the incipient crude knowledge 
of art, but they succeeded, not because they 
kept their eyes fixed on the summit of 
bright Parnassus, but at some little com- 
fortable home of the future. 

I sometimes question whether these ideal 
men survive, whose souls are so full of the 
milk of human kindness, who sacrifice good 
business opportunities to benefit the pro- 
fession. 

I fear they suffer martyrdom, but 



martyrs in photography, like martyrs of 
any great cause, are the seed of harvest of 
a hundred fold. 

Let us then be grateful to such, but, at 
the same time, it is not wise to immolate 
ourselves on the altar of idealism or let 
unwise enthusiasm wreck us on Poverty 
Shoals. 

Get Character in the Portrait 

In our strenuous endeavor to be artistic, 
we sometimes forget to be true, forgetting 
that "truth is beauty, beauty truth," as Keats 
tells us. While appreciating the marvelous 
power we have at command in dealing with 
light and shadow to produce charm of 
effect, we ought to use this very means 
which insures beauty to bring out the 
character of the subject, not to mask it 
or to destroy it altogether. 

A great many of the exponents of modem 
high art in portraiture seem scarcely to 
appreciate the potent factor of light in 
revealing character and individuality. 

In the endeavor to get what is called 
delicate effects, they destroy all semblance 
of truthful representation, just as much as 
if the landscape painter, in giving us a 
moonlit scene, would have resort to mo- 
notony of tone and color. 

An apple ought to look like an apple, and 
not like any kin to related fruit. If the 
apple is rugged and irregular, with charac- 
teristic features, it is only truthful art to so 
delineate it. 

It is not flattering it by smoothing it, but 
is doing it injustice to make it look like a 
luscious Delaware peach. So, with the 
human face, the lighting of it should be to 
emphasize character while we are placing it 
in its most favorable position. 

There should be places made emphatic by 
darkness as much as places made apparent 
by white, and both should be conspicuously 
distinct from the half-tones, from the rich, 
gradated shadows. 

Take, for instance, that spot on your 
studio floor, where the artistic mat is worn 



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549 



threadbare by the much tramping of your 
patrons — the place where you are wont to 
plant every one that comes to your gallery, 
simply because you find it so easy to get 
a good picture from that point. All you 
need do is to reach out to the handy curtain 
cords, and you have your charming stereo- 
typed illumination. Let us ask you, now 
that you have your subject there, to study 
the effect of the light on the face. It seems 
satisfactory this time, just as aforetimes. 
You have discovered that it works best with 
three-quarters view, with the camera 
parallel to the window, so that you get your 
high-light on the nearest side of the window 
— and your shadow side is a nice black, very 
artistic, but as flat as flat can be. 

Now, just tr>' a little change. Instead of 
keeping your blinds open so far as to give 
the full flood of light, draw the blind down 
further from the sitter. You object — it 
will increase exposure. lUit remember that 
hannonious illumination gives a better-timed 
picture in three seconds than harsh illumi- 
nation would in double the exposure. 

Xow, you will notice that the high-lights 
on the forehead and nose and other minor 
lights are seen to perfection, and you get 
fine gradations down to black, and at the 
same time you get proper relief. This little 
curtailment of the light, you see, effects 
changes, but you must not stop here and 
hold this trick as applicable to all sorts and 
conditions. 

You must extend your experiments, and 
tr>- effects applicable to each particular 
face. 

You may reduce your light on occasion 
to the minimum, if needed, but let the little 
light be always of good quality. 

By placing the camera on the dark side 
of the studio and working diagonally, you 
get richness of shadows; you get the darks 
with luminousness and the lights with a 
pearly like brilliancy. 

It is well to get delicacy, but delicacy 
does not imply flatness and poverty of tone. 
You w^ant a certain amount of relief ; not an 
exaggerated, stereoscopic relief, but enough 



to show that your figure is situated in space, 
and not jammed into a mosaic. 

Your space surrounding the figure should 
not suggest mere blankness, but atmosphere, 
and however limited the area, it should not 
seem to confine the sitter. 

If you will take care that the shadows are 
right, you need not trouble yourself inor- 
dinately about the high-lights. 

The practice of indiscriminately using the 
effect of shadow for any face, irrespective 
of its character, is to be condemned, even if 
it gives you a portrait that will hang at an 
exhibition. 

"Johnnie," said a teacher of a juvenile class, 
"what is the term 'etc' used for?" "It is used 
to make people believe that we know a lot more 
than we really do !" replied the bright youngster. 



Heyn Studios 

Omaha. Nebr. 



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Bulletin of Photography 



The Preparation of Photographic Copy 

THE LATE H. A. GATCHEL 

An Address delivered before the Associated Advertising Clubs of the World 



Photographs form the bulk of the copy 
given to the engraver for the making of 
printing plates. They cover a wide range 
of subjects — portraits, interiors, buildings, 
machinery, and manufactured articles. 

In some lines, such as landscapes, art sub- 
jects, portraits, etc., the general effect rather 
than detail is desired, whilst in others the 
reverse is true, more especially in ma- 
chinery and manufactured articles — in 
these, completeness and accuracy of detail 
is imperative. 

It is a common experience amongst en- 
gravers to find that too little attention has 
been given to the most important part of 
the work, that is the making of the photo- 
graph itself, due sometimes to a false idea 
of economy and sometimes to the difficulty 
in finding a competent photographer. By' 
"competent" I mean one with the equipment 
as well as skill and experience necessary to 
properly handle the particular work in 
hand. 

Many large manufacturing plants being 
located at a distance from big cities, utilize 
the local portrait photographer, and it is the 
exception when he has a proper equipment. 

For the classes of work where "picture*' 
effect is the result sought, such as land- 
scapes, art subjects, etc., a very ordinary 
lens serves the purpose, but the more purely 
commercial work requires a lens that is free 
from astigmatism — one that will give equal 
definition of vertical and horizontal lines 
lying in the same plane. Assuming the pos- 
session of such a lens, a strong camera, with 
sufficient length of bellows, a rigid tripod to 
prevent vibration, and a good level to insure 
that the ground-glass is absolutely vertical, 
we have the problem of perspective and 
lighting to solve. 

The normal eye subtends an angle of 60°, 
that is to say, that whatever lies within the 
space bounded by imaginary lines nmning 
from the eye to the horizon is seen complete 



and in natural perspective — any object lying 
so close to the spectator that it projects be- 
yond these lines on either side, cannot be 
seen in its entirety without moving the eye. 
Photographed from such a viewpoint, even 
with a wide-angle lens, the perspective will 
be distorted. Those parts lying nearest the 
spectator will be too large in proportion to 
the most distant parts with a result that is 
no doubt familiar to you through observa- 
tion. Perspective is regulated by the dis- 
tance of the eye from the object and as the 
lens takes the place of the eye, it is the dis- 
tance from the object rather than the lens 
that regulates the correctness of the perspec- 
tive. 

Articles that can be taken to a studio to 
be photographed should offer no difficulties 
to the operator — he has there the facilities 
and the lighting entirely under control. But 
buildings and machinery are frequently 
photographed under conditions which make 
it almost impossible to obtain perfect re- 
sults. With machiner>' particularly, the 
lighting is poor, and as this class of work is 
generally done in the assembling room or 
the foundry, space is generally at a 
premium. 

If the photographer is equipped with the 
necessary knowledge and apparatus, even 
under these conditions, photographs free 
from distortions can be made. Possessing 
this quality, it is then only a question of the 
skill of the artist to add to the photograph 
the proper lighting and perfection of detail. 

In the making of half-tone engravings of 
machinery from photographs, the chief item 
of expense is the retouching of the photo- 
graph to eliminate imperfections, strengthen 
detail, and improve the lights and shadows. 
It is possible to reduce this expense ma- 
terially by a little forethought and care in 
preparing the subject to be photographed. 

The eye, in glancing over a machine, 
takes in the subject as a whole, and quite 



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Bulletin of Photography S51 



From the Beattie Demonstration at the Baltimore Convention 



Hammer Red Label Plate 
Cyko Print 

Negative and Print developed 
with Cumminone 

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552 Bulletin of Photography 



The late L. F. HAMMER, of St. Louis, Mo. 
Died May 8th. 1921. Aged 87 years. 

"God'» finacr touched him, and he •le|>t." — Tennyson. 



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frequently, depending on the habits of ob- 
servation of the individual, passes over 
minor details or defects. Not so the lens. 
With unfailing regularity it picks out flaws 
in castings, oil spots, reflections, etc., and 
reproduces them on the negative with a 
prominence that is sometimes startling, al- 
ways disconcerting and not infrequently 
costly to remove. 

A coat of gray paint on the castings, 
absence of varnish of any part, and careful 
wiping away of oil stains or other foreign 
matter, will contribute very materially to 
the production of a photographic copy that 
will require very little time-consuming art 
work. 

Another source of annoyance and expense 
is carelessness in adjusting the parts in 
exactly the position it is desired to have 
them show in the advertisement or cata- 
logue. 

Careful screening of the surroundings is 
desirable, especially where openings in the 
machine or projecting arms, etc., might 
permit the details thereof to be confused 
with parts of adjacent machinery. 

If the subject being illustrated is an enor- 
mous pipe or a gigantic casting of simple 
design, and the showing of its size has ad- 
vertising value, it is a good plan occasion- 
ally used, to include in the picture a figure 
of a workman, an extended rule, or some 
other object, the size of which is known, to 
suggest without any mental effort on the 
part of the observer, the unusual size of the 
object. 

In the retouching of photographs of ma- 
chinery, or manufactured objects, either 
singly or in groups, the background is a 
matter of some importance. The best rule 
to follow in having such eff"ects added is to 
be sure and keep such eflfects subordinated 
to the object. It is not unusual to see back- 
grounds of such weird and ingenious con- 
struction that they completely dominate the 
composition — the article that is supposed to 
be illustrated, is, paradoxical though it may 
seem, pushed into the background, by the 
background. 



In handling small objects which are to 
appear in groups, it is frequently more de- 
sirable to photograph them separately and 
have them cut out and grouped by the en- 
graver. In this way the proper view and 
right perspective can be had on each item 
and distortion avoided. 

As to the particular kind of print to be 
used there is no hard and fast rule. For 
subjects requiring no retouching by the 
artist, any of the good papers are acceptable. 
For machinery most artists prefer solio 
paper, fixed without the use of a hardening 
solution — the more absorbent the coating 
on the paper, the more readily it takes the 
paint. 

Photographs as copy should be somewhat 
larger than the desired engraving — one-half 
larger, permitting one-third reduction, is a 
good working size, though beautiful results 
are obtained in subjects with detail from 
copy two or three times the size of the plate. 

Speaking along this line, the retouching 
of photographs, there is one phase of the 
proposition that merits a few moments 
attention at our hands. To some buyers a 
retouched photograph is simply a retouched 
photograph and nothing more. But to the 
engraver there is sometimes a marked dif- 
ference between two pieces of prepared 
copy which to the uninitiated appear 
identical. 

Color is not always the same actinically 
as it is optically. That is, the lens does not 
see it as the eye does. Two tones on a 
retouched photograph may appear the same 
to the eye and yet on the engraver's negative 
there will be a marked difference in their 
values. 

A dark photographic tone has a depth to 
it that paint of apparently the same color 
has not. It reproduces differently. A back- 
ground made up of beautiful pearly tints 
shading from red, to purple, to blue, seems 
to the eye to have a smooth gradation of 
color. The negative made from it will have 
several distinct tones with apparent lines of 
demarcation. A polished cylinder, smooth 
and unblemished to the eye, will reproduce 



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full of streaks if the air brush work is 
handled in the wrong way. 

These effects in the engraver's negative 
mean additional and expensive work in re- 
etching and burnishing the copper plate to 
restore the apparent values and effects of 
the original copy. 

I might remark in passing that "outside" 
or "free-lance" retouchers who do work for 
the buyer are frequently responsible for 
much of this kind of work. Being con- 
cerned only with the appearance of the copy, 
its reproductive value is of minor import- 
ance. The natural deduction from the 
preceding is that the artists employed by 
the engraving houses are much more likely 
to have impressed on them the necessity for 
producing copy which would bring results 
most directly and with the least waste of 
effort and expense in the subsequent proc- 
esses. 

The foregoing has all applied to the mak- 
ing of plates to print in one color. Such are 
the modern developments of the engraving 
business, that photographs are now avail- 
able as copy for the making of plates to 
print in two or more colors. In the duo- 
graph, so-called, two half-tone plates are 
made from the one photograph, the lights 
and shadows being re-etched differently in 
certain determined relations to each other, 
so that very beautiful effects are obtained. 

Three or four-color half-tones are also 
made from photographs by artist re-etchers. 
The doing of this involves the production 
of a plate for each of the three primary 
colors from the one-color copy and de- 
mands a high degree of artistic conception 
of color on the part of the re-etcher. 

The most frequently employed method is 
the use of a half-tone of the photograph as 
a key plate and the making of the required 
number of tint blocks with Ben Day treat- 
ments, etc. A rough color sketch indicating 
desired effects should accompany the photo- 
graph for work of this kind, unless the work 
is of such character that a pleasing color 
"picture" effect is all that is wanted. It 
can then be left to the judgment of the artist. 



It is my understanding of the subject 
assigned me that I am limited to the single 
field of photographic copy and its prepara- 
tion, but I would like to add a few words 
more, with due apologies to the other 
speakers, should I intrude on their domain 
in doing so. 

Photographs, in my opinion, are the best 
copy for subjects such as I have referred to, 
when facsimile reproductions of inanimate 
objects are desired or likenesses such as 
portraiture. But where feeling or sentiment 
are to be expressed, the artist must be called 
in. 

For instance, to use a purely commercial 
illustration, a photograph for a clothing ad 
seldom conveys the same atmosphere of 
aristocratic nonchalance as the drawings we 
have grown so familiar with. And who 
wouldn't buy a certain brand of collars if 
the wearer would thereby resemble the 
Adonis who adorns the ads? 

But there are times when a combination 
of photographic accuracy and suggested 
sentiment are required in one composition. 
In such cases a photograph can be skillfully 
combined with drawn accessories either in 
wash or line and very satisfactory results 
obtained. 

This brings a thought with it which is 
one of those things we all know and im- 
mediately concede to be true, but which is 
not put into practice as fully as it should. 
•Conceding the rapid strides the engravers 
are making, the new processes and methods, 
and new uses of old methods which they are 
constantly developing, wouldn't it seem to 
you to be the part of wisdom to seek their 
co-operation in the preparation of any 
printed matter of which engravings are a 
part? 

There are matters of press work limita- 
tions, paper, type, etc., all of which call for 
certain styles, grades and finishes of work 
to produce the best results under the given 
conditions. It requires constant attention 
and alertness on the part of those in the en- 
graving business to keep fully posted, so 
many are the inventions and novel uses of 



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old processes. How, then, can one with 
whom engravings are only incidental, hope 
to utilize these things to the best advantage 
if he works by himself in a narrow groove? 

In closing, 1 would urge you to pursue 
one course in buying engravings — buy the 
best, get good photographs. However much 
or little work you have done on them, have 
it done right for your purpose. Don't buy 
valuable space and spend time, effort, and 
talent on convincing copy and have the work 
neutralized by poor engravings. The best 
engraving is the least expensive, and the best 
is the one that adequately shows in propor- 
tionate quality the article to be sold and is 
so made as to assist the wTitten copy in 
arousing in the beholder's mind the desire 
to possess — 

"A consummation devoutly to be wished." 

What's to be Done at the 
Buffalo Convention 

CLARENCE STEARNS 

Someone has said, ** Nothing succeeds like 
success" and the wonderful success of last 
year's Milwaukee Convention and the start 
which the P. A. of A. has made in giving 
all the year 'round service to the photog- 
rapher, has created a real momentum, so that 
with President Beach at the throttle, we are 
speeding up this year and will go much 
further toward giving every member real 
service. This service will be worth many 
times the amount which one pays in dues. 
The $10.00 dues will furnish fuel for the 
engine which it never had before and surely 
this is the best small investment a photog- 
rapher could possibly make. 

The Association has accomplished a great 
deal in the past with the limited funds with 
which it had to work. Just the little matter 
of keeping the luxury tax off of photographs 
has saved many dollars to every photog- 
rapher in the land. Xow a great deal more 
can be accomplished and I know that Presi- 
dent Beach, with the oncers and members 
backing him, is going to put across a pro- 
gram of service which will make us all glad 
we belong to the P. A. of A. 



The Association School of Photography, 
at Winona Lake, with such men as Harris, 
MacDonald and Marceau on the Governing 
Board, is bound to be a success. 

This year members will receive free legal 
advice and the free use of a fine traveling 
exhibit comprising the work of America's 
foremost photographers. Making use of 
such an exhibit is one of the best advertis- 
ments a photographer can put across. I 
know this because I have tried it. 

Members will be informed every month 
of what is going on through Pure Ginger, 
which is the Association's new bulletin. 
There's a brass membership sign and a 
transparency for your show case as well as 
a cut of the Association emblem for use on 
your printed matter, all free with your mem- 
bership, and no extra convention charge this 
year— and SOME CONVENTION!! 

With a hall even bigger than the hall we 
had at Milwaukee, there will be a complete 
studio doing business every day. The coun- 
tr\''s best receptionists, operator's and work- 
men — all there to show you how they work. 
There's a lot of new talent up for the 
regular program and the commercial men 
will have a hall and a program all their own. 
And the entertainment — it's hard to keep 
my promise not to tell and Pm going to 
chance going this far — they tell me that the 
manufacturers and dealers are going to take 
the whole bunch over to Canada. Now, Pm 
not from Missouri, but Pm willing they 
should "show me" what Canadian hospitality 
is like and I don't expect to be lonesome on 
that trip. 

Mark your calendar — July 18th to 23d. 
Child Photography 

Child photography is an art in itself, and its 
salient point is to keep the little one natural and 
interested. The easiest way to accomplish this is 
to give him the playthings he is used to, and let 
him have a gocxl time by himself until the picture 
is over. The "listen to the birdie" incentive usually 
fails, for your modern child scK^n discovers he has 
been deceived, and begins to bawl at just the 
crucial moment. If matters must be explained, 
do it simply, and interest the little one himself in 
the picture that the "black box" is taking. 



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OUR LEGAL DEPARTMENT 

CONDUCTED BY ELTON J. BUCKLEY. ESQ. 

(Mr. Buckley is one of the leading members of the Philadelphia Bar, and an authority on legal matters. 
If our subscribers have questions on legal points, and submit them to us, Mr. Buckley will answer them 
fru of charge, A stamped and addressed envelope must be enclosed for reply. Make your question brief 
and write on one side of the paper only.) 



Where You Stand When Somebody Quotes You a 

Price on Goods 



The question asked by the letter repro- 
duced below has probably been asked by 
thousands of other retailers, more or less 
often in their business experience: 

Chicago, 111. 

Kindly give us your advice on the 
following question: Last month we 
asked a certain wholesale house to 
quote us prices on certain goods which 
we carry in our line of business. 

The house quoted us the prices, and 
on the strength of the quotation we put 
in an order. However, on receiving 
the goods we discovered that they had 
been invoiced at a higher price than the 
one quoted us. 

The house insists that we should pay 
the prices charged. We insist that they 
are bound to the prices quoted. We 
remitted exchange according to prices 
quoted, the house insists on claiming 
the balance. We refuse to pay the 
balance. 

Are we right in our contention ? We 
will appreciate your advice on the sub- 
ject. Clesi Bros. 
The question therefore is: 

When somebody quotes you a price 
on goods and you accept it, is it a bind- 
ing contract which you can enforce 
against the seller or if the market has 
advanced by the time the goods are 
shipped, can the seller charge you the 
higher price? 

The answer depends on a number of 
considerations. Ordinarily it is a binding 
contract without doubt, but it may not be. 
For instance : A, a wholesale dealer in New 



York, receives a wire, or a letter from B, a 
retail dealer in Philadelphia, asking for a 
price on a certain quantity of merchandise. 
A answers in the same way, that is, if the 
communication was wired, he wires the 
price, and if received by letter, he answers 
by letter. There is nothing on record be- 
tween A and B to show that all quotations 
are subject to change without notice, and 
there is nothing in A's wire to that effect 
or in the letter. It is a straightforward 
request for prices and an unqualified 
answer, giving the quotations desired. B, 
upon its receipt, at once accepts and for- 
wards an order, by wire or by letter, it 
makes no difference. 

That was a binding contract between A 
and B, and in such a situation, no matter 
what the market did by the date of ship- 
ment, A could never charge B a penny more 
than the price he had named him. 

So that if the correspondent's case is like 
that, he has his answer. 

But there are conditions which would 
change the rule. Nobody who quotes prices 
on merchandise is expected to keep the offer 
open forever. Sometimes he stipulates 
"subject to immediate acceptance,*' or "sub- 
ject to acceptance before ." If 

nothing like this is stipulated, the person to 
whom the quotation is given only has a 
reasonable time to accept it. What is a 
reasonable time depends on circumstances. 
If the market was advancing, a reasonable 
time would be shorter than if the market 
were not advancing. At the end of the 
time named for acceptance, or at the end of 
a reasonable time if no time was named for 



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557 



acceptance, an offer comes automatically to 
an end. If it hasn't been accepted by that 
time, it cannot be, and if the buyer sends in 
an order after that, and the seller ships the 
goods, they will go at the market price at 
date of shipment. Always provided that the 
order isn't accepted in such a way that the 
seller can fairly be charged with knowingly 
accepting it at the former price ; that is, the 
price he had quoted. 

The above is, of course, no exception to 
the rule that a prompt acceptance of a 
definite quotation creates a binding contract. 
But the quotation must be definite, the 
acceptance must be just as definite, and, 
moreover, must be prompt. If it fails at 
any of these points, there is no contract, and 
an order sent in can be filled at the market 
price, regardless of all previous quotations. 

For instance, a firm wishing to buy some 
glass jars wired a manufacturer: "Please 
advise us the lowest price you can make us 
on order for ten carlods Mason green jars. 
State terms and cash discount." The manu- 
facturer replied: "We quote you Mason 
fruit jars complete (stating prices) for 



immediate acceptance and shipment not 
later than May 15th (also stating terms)." 
The buyer at once accepted, but the seller 
later tried to get out of it. When the matter 
got into court, it was held that "there was a 
present offer by defendant (the manu- 
facturer), the immediate acceptance of 
which closed the contract." 

In another case a retailer wrote a mill 
about selling some bran, and the mill replied 
that it would sell for $7 a ton. The inquirer 
wired that he would take fifty tons at the 
specified price. This also was held to be 
a good contract. 

A seller of merchandise who quotes a 
price can't get out of it, after it is accepted, 
even if he carries on his letterheads some- 
thing like "Prices subject to change without 
notice." That only has to do with standing 
prices, it does not concern a specified 
quotation, which stands just as long as it is 
stipulated it shall, either "for immediate 
acceptance," or "subject to acceptance be- 
fore ," or if no time is specified. 

then it stands for a reasonable time. 
(Copyright by Elton J. Buckley.) 



On Knowing It 



C H. CLAUDY 



A country boy, who had studied for the 
ministry, ran off to join a minstrel show 
and worked in a circus, became tired of 
roaming, walked the rails to a big city and 
got himself a job in an optical store. This 
was twenty-five years ago. Today he owns 
his own optical emporium, employs a lot of 
people, makes an income which requires a 
four figure income tax to settle up, and goes 
about looking for ways to spend his profits. 

A lad of no education, beyond the eighth 
grade, was given a job sweeping up the 
floor of a composing room. From sweeping 
the floor to distributing type, from distribut- 
ing to setting it, from setting it to proof 
reading it were slow steps, but he took them. 
Then he commenced to read the history- of 
printing, the art of printing, the mechanics 
of printing, and before long he was down 



in the front office making out bills. Today 
he owns the shop, has a hundred employees, 
one of whom is always a boy without much 
education, getting his chance. 

These are both true incidents — they are 
not as spectacular as the stories of the coun- 
tr}' boy who became a millionaire, or the boy 
without education, who became a college 
president. But they are facts — every-day 
facts. The country boy and the eighth 
grade boy arrived at the top of their respec- 
tive little heaps, entirely by learning their 
jobs inside out and upside down. They 
were afflicted, both of them, with that divine 
curiosity which makes its possessor unhappy 
until he knows — knows all there is to know 
about the particular subject which interests 
him. No man ever made even a little suc- 
cess without some of it — most successes are 



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Bulletin of Photography 



in direct proportion to the amount of curi- 
osity their makers have regarding the wheels 
in their particular machine. 

This page will be read, presumably, by 
some printers, operators, retouchers, photo- 
graphic workmen of all kinds. They will 
have read before of "good advice to a work- 
man,'* and "how to be happy on thirty a 
week," and "the sure way to be your own 
boss, take a correspondence school course 
in 'steen lessons, dollar down and dollar for 
life !" There is nothing like that here. 
But, friend workman : 

Of every hundred workmen, some 
become owners of their own busi- 
nesses. 

Something causes A and B and C 
to be the "lucky" ones and something 
else prevents X and Y and Z from 
ever being anything but drawers of a 
salary envelope. 
What is the something? 
You can give it any name you please. 
Sometimes it's ambition, sometimes it's con- 
centration, sometimes it's determination, 
sometimes just bull-dog courage, sometimes 
a natural gift, sometimes opportunity — but, 
be the cause what it may, no man ever be- 
came his own boss and stayed so who didn't 
take time to learn something of his job 
besides the immediate knowledge required 
for its immediate production. 

Knowledge does not have to be applicable 
to be valuable. You will make just as good 
a photograph if you think Botticelli is the 
name of a cheese, Stradivaris the name of a 
disease and Karma the name of an auto- 
mobile. But if painters, violins- or eastern 
religions be a topic of conversation, you 
won't impress your hearers much with your 
general knowledge if your impressions are 
as above. In other words, knowledge may 
be a background of culture, a canvas on 
which you paint the man you are, for all 
who know backgrounds to see. 

Knowledge builds personality. Person- 
ality builds success. But knowledge of 
your job alone is not enough. It is but the 
foundation. If there is anything about 



photography you don't know, you ought to 
learn it. This isn't intended to convey the 
idea that you should be able to calculate the 
curves of a lens or memorize every formula 
you ever used. It does mean you should 
know something of the history and develop- 
ment of your art, something of its ramifica- 
tions and possibilities beyond portraiture, 
something of its literature, science and art. 

But that isn't enough; you want, must 
have (to be a real success) a broad general 
knowledge of anything and everything re- 
lated to your job. In photography this is a 
pretty large order; to be a high-grade, A 
Xo. 1 photographer, means a lot. The 
broad-gauged photographer must know 
business, economics, costs, advertising, 
civics and political history. He must know 
something of chemistry, physics, electricity 
and optics. As photography enters into 
astronomy and navigation, manufacturing 
and mining, mapping and engraving, he must 
know something of these. He must know 
sontething of art, its history, mechanics, 
principles and master artists. Lighting — 
a fundamental of photography — brings up 
decoration, color, color schemes and propor- 
tion. Proportion suggests architecture and 
architecture suggests sculpture; surely the 
photographer should know something of 
these. 

The capable photographer should be able 
to talk with anyone; if he cannot impress 
his cultured sitter with the idea that he 
knows his job, his cultured sitter will re- 
gard him as a mere mechanic. That hurts 
all photography, which isn't a matter of 
mechanics. Wherefore, history, religion, 
literature, music, poetry, song, drama, 
politics and philosophy are necessary to the 
well-rounded photographer. 

Xay, gentle workman, no word is here 
said to indicate you should or nuist know 
all of all of these — you have but one life- 
time. Xo man living knows all there is to 
know of any one of these subjects, let alone 
all of them. But enough should have been 
said to indicate that there is no time for 
wasting — that if you agree that the way to 



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Bulletin of Photography 



559 



get ahead is to know things, then you should 
also agree that there is no more profitable 
investment for spare time than reading and 
studying the thousand and one things which 
enter into the making of a picture and the 
making of a high-grade maker of pictures. 

If this draws an exalted diagram of a 
top-notch photographer, the present scribe is 
glad. To those who regard photography as 
a mechanic's craft and photographers as but 
super-workmen, about on a par with the 
foreman of a ditching gang, or the chief 
janitor of a force of floor scrubbers, this 
story will read as nonsense. But to those 
who see the photographer as he is here seen 
— as an artist using a tool of science for the 
painting of portraits of the personalities of 
people — there will appear nothing incon- 
gruous in the advice given to those who are 
but starting to make of themselves men 
worthy the name of portrait artists. 

To be the best of your kind, to make of 
yourself the best you can, the first, the 
middle, and the last rule is, find out zvhat 
you don't knozv, and then, as far as your 
capacity and time zvill permit, learn it! 

Some Points About Architecture 

There is always something disappointing 
in the reproduction of an architectural pile. 
This sense of a shortcoming in the picture 
is not confined to the photograph, but ap- 
plies equally to the best artistic work of the 
draftsman. Even the most skilled achieves 
an approximation only in a most faithful 
copy. The difficulty encountered lies in the 
subordination of the infinity of detail to the 
mass, giving simplicity and breadth with 
modulation of surface, which is the charac- 
teristic of all great art. However, we can 
say this much: No work of the hand is 
able to present such subjects in a way ap- 
proaching a well-executed photograph, and 
observe we say a well-executed photograph, 
because the conditions demanded in repro- 
duction of such subjects necessitate the 
greater exercise of taste and judgment than 
required by subjects of a different nature. 



AT THE 



Baltimore Convention 

(APRIL 18-21) 

all negatives and prints 
therefrom — made in the 
Halldorson, Beattie and 
Buckley Demonstrations 
were developed with 

CUMMINONE 



Eastman Film, Hammer 
and Cramer plates were 
used in our published 
tank formula and the 
results were unanimous- 
ly endorsed by the re- 
spective Demonstrators 

1 Ih. Cumminone No. 11= 
88 gallons tank deoeloper= 

$3.60 



Cummings' Uboratories 

415-17 Park Row Building 
NEW YORK CITY 



( Wm USE OM wU OM MAKE) 



Please Mention Bulletin of Photography When Writing Advertisers. ^^ j 

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The most successful plate 
ever made 



CRAMER 
HISPEED 



The 



PERFECT 

'ORTRAIT 

LATE 



with Speed 



G. CRAMER 
DRY PLATE COMPANY 

CHICAGO SAINT UHJIS NEW YORK 



From an examination of a great many 
collections of architectural subjects, we 
notice a want of precision which science 
requires. Errors introduced sometimes 
seemingly intentionally, in the belief that 
the view is thereby improved — errors some- 
times from gross ignorance — make the 
reproduction worthless to the student of 
architecture and ridiculous to a draftsman 
who understands the rules of perspective. 

Of course, the perspective of any lens 
must be correct, but, then, it does not follow 
that the particular rendering of the subject, 
say by a short- focus lens, is to be used as 
an argument that the picture is naturally 
true. 

The way in which a horizontal circle, 
such as the upper edge of the capital of a 
column, will seem to be distorted when seen 
at the side of the view in a wide-angle 
photograph puzzles the careless observer, 
who, though he readily enough understands 
that the circle seen foreshortened, becomes 
an oval, yet it is incomprehensible to him 
how^ it can become an ovoid, such as the 
photograph presents. Yet this is correct, 
for the circle, seen horizontally and at the 
side, becomes subject to a double distortion, 
the result of which is this particular ovoid. 
It does not look natural, however, because 
our vision is untrained to so observe per- 
spective facts. We all see things as we 
think or know they are, just as when we 
were little children we insisted on putting 
two eyes in a profile. 

Therefore, in making subjects involving 
perspective, we adopt the rectilinear perspec- 
tive, as giving facts in a manner which can 
be made to agree with actual vision, and are 
at the same time scientifically correct. 

To do this, it is necessary to use mathe- 
matical exactitude in the operation of taking 
the view. 

We are all aware that, if the camera is 
pitched forward a little, it produces an up- 
ward divergence of parallel perpendicular 
lines, while, if thrown back, it produces a 
downward divergence or a pitching together 
of the perpendiculars which is an absolute 



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Bulletin of Photography 561 



and self-evident falsehood, while, if one 
side of the camera back, being perpendicular, 
is swung back, it makes the lines on the side 
furthest from the lens longer relatively than 
on the nearer, which is another, though 
less apparent, falsehood. 

Let us take, for instance, a case where 
the photographer is sighting a high tower 
like one of the Italian campaniles which has 
a slight taper upward. 

It is essential, if we want to present the 
subject as the architect designed it, to look 
to our vision that this taper shall be cor- 
rectly indicated; but, if the photographer 
is careless or ignorant of what is effective, 
he may make it without taper, in conformity 
with his general practice, or with the taper 
the other way — that is, exaggerate it. In 
the taking of Greek architecture, the defect 
is more observable, because a Greek temple 
is architecturally the most scientifically con- 
structed building, the systenj of curvatures 
and inclinations being exceedingly compli- 
cated. The columns have a taper and a 
curve in the profile at the same time; they 
do not stand perpendicularly, but with a 
slight inclination inward, so that, if they 
were prolonged sufficiently, they w^ould meet 
at a point in the air at a certain height above 
the center of the temple. Now, how very 
few of the photographs of Grecian temples 
show^ them in this way. The pictures in- 
variably show that the photographer has 
tilted his camera back so as to get the top 
of the building in from a nearer point of 
view. 

The riiost important precaution to take, 
then, in placing the camera is to have the 
plate absolutely perpendicular, and the next 
is that the sides of the plate shall be at 
exactly the same distance from the lens; in 
default of which, the lateral symmetry or 
proportion is disturbed. A plumb-line is 
indispensable for the former, and for the 
latter a carefully graduated scale on each 
side of the camera bed if it has a side swing. 

The modern, up-to-date architectural 
camera lends itself readily to the work, but 
one cannot expect scientific results with an 



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PICTORIAL 

PHOTOGRAPHERS 

ARE INVITED 

to enter their photographs in competition for 
the prizes to be awarded at 

The 2nd Annual Exhibition 
of Pictorial Photography 

to be held in the FREDERICK & NELSON 
AUDITORIUM from November 1st to 12th, 
inclusive, of this year. Regulations govern- 
ing this year's competition are substantially 
the same as obtained in 1920. with the im- 
portant difference, however, that this year 
no distinction will be drawn between the 
amateur and the professional. 
Detailed particulars concerning the Exhibition 
may be secured by addressing 

Photographic Exhibit Bureau 
FREDERICK & NELSON 

— SEATTLE, WASHINGTON — 



A RARE CHANCE TO 
SECURE NUMBERS OF 

"Camera Work'' 

C)NCBDBD to be the handtomett magazine ever pub- 
liAed for loveri of photographic art. The magasinet 
are made up of picturet (with a little dewiriptive text) 
from photographs taken by those famous and original 
in photography. 

Many of the fine photogravures conUlned in Camtra 
Work cannot be replaced, and all of them are worthy ol 
fnimitj^ Many of the editions command three to four 
times their original pubUcation price. We can supply 
^iet of the following issues at $1.35 per copy, postpaid. 
Volume No, DaU Fto<" ^ 

4 October. 1903 Frederick H. Evans 

5 * * January. 1904 .... Robert Demachy 

10 ". . . April. 1905 .... Gertrude Kasebier 

11 July. 1905 David Octavius Hill 

11 .... April. 1908 .... Eduard J. Stetehen 
29 .... January, 1910 .... George H. Seeley 

31 ... July. 1910 Frank Eugene 

32 October. 1910 .... J. Craig Annan 

36 " ! . October. 1911 .... Alfred SteigliU 

37 ... January. 1912 David Octavius HUl 

40 October. 1912 Baron A. de Meyer 

41 . January. 1913 .... Julia Margaret Cameron 
47 .... Called the Famous " 291" (no illustraUons). 

Specials Nos. 2 and 3. suiUble for art students. wUl be 
maSlS^at 90c. per copy. Cubistlc— not photographic. 

Sg«i^} August. 1912.. {".^g^p^J^ 

FRANK V. CHAMBERS 

636 Franklin Square Philadelphia 



ordinary hand camera constructed solely for 
convenience of travel. The swing back is 
absolutely necessary, but a double swing is 
an unnecessary refinement — indeed, had 
better be dispensed with. 

In selecting the view of an important 
building, it is well to remember that the most 
picturesque is not always the most inter- 
esting or valuable to the student. The most 
important view of a building is generally its 
faqade, or principal front. This in a Greek- 
temple gives an absolutely symmetrical view, 
and the point of sight is easily found by the 
range of the front and rear central pair of 
columns. 

In a Gothic cathedral, it is not so easy to 
find; but, if you have scratched upon the 
focusing screen a series of horizontal lines, 
the parallelism of one of them with the 
main horizontal line of the faqade will show 
that you are opposite the center of the 
faqade. 

The flank, or long side, comes next, and 
then the picturesque views, of which the 
most interesting will generally be the one 
which shows the front with a partial view 
of the side. Focus on the most important 
part of the subject, and then stop down. 
Give full exposure, so as to secure detail in 
the shadows. 

A figure introduced into the view in such 
a way as to give a comparative idea of the 
size of the building is of great value. 

Details of ornamentation with a long- 
focus lens or a telephoto lens, when neces- 
sary, are always valuable, especially in 
(k)thic and Byzantine work, the capitals of 
columns, single windows, doors, etc., and it 
pays sometimes to get access to a house 
opposite the church, so as to get the view 
free of street obstructions. 

The getting of interior views is a matter 
sometimes of extreme difficulty. There is 
not light enough generally to focus, often 
not enough to see the subject with distinct- 



ness. 



Focusing scales on the camera are indis- 
pensable from 30 to 150 feet for the horizon 
or extreme distance, and on the top of the 



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SEND FOR OUR 

NEW BULLETIN (No. 137) 

JUST OUT 

CONTAINING BAROAINS IN CAMMAS, LKNSKS 
AND KVKilYTHINO PHOTOOilAPHIC 

WUIOUGHBY'S "» Sk^'T'ol]^ 



camera have a finder with a large lens, 
which gives an image even in a weak light. 
Have cork tips if you use a tripod. 

There is one thing in architectural work 
of vital importance: Never attempt to 
block out the sky. It is preferable to put 
up with a defective sky than to tamper by 
even the best handwork with the delicate 
outlines of the structure. 

Black and White 

In copying to get merely black and white 
reproduction — that is, a facsimile, special 
plates have been recommended. These 
I)lates are of the slow variety of emulsion, 
and are not always easily procured outside 
large cities, not being much in general de- 
mand. They do the work well when the 
original is perfect in black and white, but 
if there is any tinge of yellow, as frequently 
occurs in old documents, it is impossible to 
get clear images on the negative, and, of 
course, the reproduction is faulty in black 
and white. I have, therefore, always pre- 
ferred a slow orthochromatic plate. When 
such is not procurable I prepare my own 
plate by Ives* method of orthochromatizing. 
This is as follows : 

One grain of erythrosine is dissolved in 
4 ounces of 95 per cent, alcohol, and the 
solution filtered. Bathe the plates in this 
for 2 minutes, keeping the dish in motion 
during the immersion. Then wash in dis- 
tilled water and dry. (All this, of course, 
is done in the dark-room, and then even to 
very faint ruby light.) 

The difficulty encountered is in the show- 
ing of the grain of the i)aper. So it is 
necessary to illuminate with a flat, full light. 
The best way to get such illumination is to 
expose out of doors, with the subject fast- 
ened to an upright board. To get the illu- 



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CTIl A — When you see this 
name on a package of 
developer, you know it stands 
for the best that can be produced. 
Made by the Society of Chemical In- 
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of standard chemicals since 1864. 

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better than the best metol you ever used.) 

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CiBA Company, inc.. 

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STERUNG TANKS 



Place your orders AT ONCE for Sterlinir Tanks and Waterjackets. The most 
com^cf, greatest capacity, least costly outfit made. STERLING Tanks and 
Waterjackets have been ^vinir tatUfaeUon for over 10 YEARS. 

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BEAVER FALLS, PA. 



mination from the front surround the copy 
with a lidless, bottomless box, the whiter 
and more reflecting the faces of the box 
the better. 

Exposure is a matter of a little experi- 
ment, using a plate in sections for varying 
times. Start with 20 seconds. It is neces- 
sary to give a full exposure, as nothing is 
possible with short time. You will find the 
time demanded is more than you estimated. 
It is not necessary to stop down to the 
smallest aperture, /16 will be found small 
enough to cut out extraneous rays entering 
the lens. 

It is necessary to secure density of image 
for such copies. I have always found that 
the developer recommended by the late John 
Carbutt, of dry-plate fame, superior to all 
others for this specialty: 

Sodium carbonate (cryst.) .... 2 oz. 

Sodium sulphite 4 oz. 

Potassium bromide 60 gr. 

Water 60 oz. 

To each ounce of this add 3 grains of 
pyro. 

The image is slow in making its appear- 



ance, but attains great density with abso- 
lutely clear lines. 

Immediately after attaining the density 
desired immerse the plate in citric acid, 30 
grains; water, 16 ounces. Fix in hypo, 
plain, or in an acid fixing-bath. 

The most suitable medium for printing 
is black platinum, but almost as pleasing re- 
sults may be had with bromide paper de- 
veloped with ferrous oxalate, with the iron 
rather strong (1-4) and about 1 dram to 
every ounce of the mixed developer of 10 
per cent, solution of oxalic acid. Beautiful 
velvety black images are thus secured. 
* 
Be Kind— Be Courteous 

Be kind, if for no other purpose, as a business 
asset, a selfish interest. Assume the virtue if you 
have not one. Be courteous to all poor and rich, 
and do not be a respecter of persons only. Be 
courteous to your employes in your daily inter- 
course, and the burden of your labors will be light- 
ened by the kindly feelings on both sides. And 
withal, be prompt. Prompt to meet your obliga- 
tions squarely and to the minute. If circumstances 
forbid the fulfilment, be prompt in presenting your 
apologies. 

Be prompt with your patrons. Do not promise 
to have work done at a given time unless you feel 
assured you can fulfil promptly. Nothing so dis- 
gusts as a broken promise and a lame excuse. 





1921 CONVENTION DATES 




Plac» 


Date 




South-Eastern 


Atlanta, Ga. 


May 23-25 


J. C. Deane, Rome, Ga. 


P. A. of A. (International) 


Buffalo, N. Y. 


July 18-23 


J. C. Abel, 421 Caxton Bldg. 
Cleveland, Ohio. 


Ohio-Mich.-Ind, 


Winona Lake, Ind. 


August 15-19 


Fred. Bill, 746 Euclid Ave. 
Cleveland, Ohio. 


New England 


Dates not yet settled. 




A. K. Peterson, Pres. 
Hartford, Conn. 


North-Central 


Minneapolis, Minn. 


October 3-6 


J. R. Snow, Pres. 
Mankato, Minn. 


Pacific North- West 


Vancouver, B. C. 


August 2-5 


A.T. Bridgman, 413 Granville St. 
Vancouver, B. C, Canada. 


New York State 


Postponed until 1922 







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Adjusting the Light 

Photographers ought to get more credit 
for the excellent work they produce, when 
we consider the very adverse conditions un- 
der which sometimes they are compelled to 
work. We have been surprised, at times, 
at the beautiful character of the portraiture 
after we have examined the seemingly in- 
superable source of illumination under which 
the pictures were made. 

It would seem that any kind or any source 
of light may be made available, provided 
the artist knows what is good illumination 
of the human face. Having this knowledge, 
he is hardly ever handicapped. 

It is from our observation of the meth- 
ods which some of these experts in photog- 
raphy employ to get the good effects that 
we are able to give you a few hints in the 
same line. 

One thing we noticed in particular is that 
they do not employ intense illumination. 
The light is managed, or moulded, we might 
say, to give the desired effect. 

Screens, which may be moved and ad- 
justed to increase or diminish illumination, 
take the place of the sculptor's moulding 
tool, and it is marvelous to see what can be 
effected by simple interposition. By a sim- 
ple system of semi-transparent or colored 
muslin curtains, any part of the surface of 
available light may be utilized with telling 
effect. These curtains run along copper 
wire, passing through rings upon each edge 
of the muslin. The strips or widths of mus- 
lin should overlap each other some three 
or four inches, or enough to prevent any 
open space between them. The wires are 
strained sufficiently tight by using screw- 
eyes. This plan is much to be preferred; 
indeed, it is capable of being better man- 
aged than where the curtains are arranged 
on rollers at the top and l)ottom of the light, 
for a good deal of the light is in this way 
practically useless, besides bothering the 
operator with the cords, that are liable to 
get into a maze at the least provocation. 



Prices 
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on thm wU'known Unm of 

BAUSCH&LOMB 

Photographic Lenses 



To meet the general demand for 
lower prices, we have made an 
average reduction of 10% in the 
prices of practically all of our high- 
grade anastigmats. While such reduc- 
tion is scarcely warranted by any pre- 
sent lowering of production costs, we 
are willing to anticipate such a possi- 
ble condition and to make it easier for 
the photographer, desiring the best 
possible equipment, to acquire one or 
more of our lenses at once. 

This reduction applies to all of our 
famous TESSARS and PROTARS— 
to Tessar Ic (F:4.5), the best possible 
selection for the portrait photographer ; 
Tessar lib (F:6.3), particularly adapt- 
ed for group work; Protar Vila, truly 
convertible lens for the commercial 
photographer and for all-around pur- 
poses; and the Protars IV and V, 
standard wide angle lenses. 

Write for our new price list — and a 
copy of our complete catalog, if you 
have not already received one. 

Bausch^y Ipmb Optical ®. 

636 SL Paul Street Rochester, N. Y. 

N«w York Waahington Chicago Saa Fraacbco 

Leading American Makers of Microscopes, Projection 
Lanterns {Balopticons), Photographic and Ophthalmic 
Lenses, Stereo- Prism Binocidars, Range Finders, Gun. 
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Save 25% to 60% 

ON SLIGHTLY USED 

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ST. LOUIS. MO. 



Study the Face 

The study of human faces should become a 
habit and a pleasure to the student in portraiture. 
The measure of his success depends upon this self- 
imposed training. The eye becomes quick to sec 
and recognize the correct and the beautiful; the 
camera, under intelligent guidance, is quick to 
secure it. If any man fails to notice the lighting 
and the shading of the faces he looks into day 
by day, outside his studio as much as within its 
walls, and note, mentally, their peculiarities; if 
he fails to take the teachings, freely given by 
accident or natural chance; if he does not carry in 
his mind the remembrance of some fine head, well 
posed and lighted, which may have been caught at 
a glimpse or viewed at leisure; if he does not 
carry that image round mentally with him till he 
realizes it on the ground glass, he is in the wrong 
business. 

Announcement has just been made that the 
dates for the Second Annual Exhibition of Pic- 
torial Photography, to be held next fall in the 
Frederick & Nelson Auditorium, Seattle, Wash., 
have been set for November 1st to 12th, inclusive. 

This competitive exhibition was inaugurated last 
fall, there being 1,100 entries, from more than 
40 States, while Canada and several foreign coun- 
tries were represented. Last year the competition 
was limited to the work of amateurs, but this year 
this restriction has been removed and invitation 
extended to all pictorial photographers, whatever 
their status and wherever located, to send in their 
prints. 

There are no separate classifications in this 
competition, portraits, studies in still life, land- 
scapes — all types — entering on an equal basis, the 
only restriction being that hand-colored photo- 
graphs are barred. The board of judges will be 
selected from among the most prominent photog- 
raphers and painters in the Northwest. The 
prizes offered are: First prize, $100.00; second 
prize, $75.00; third prize, $50.00; five prizes of 
$10.00 each, and ten prizes of $5.00 each. The 
exhibition will be held in the Auditorium of the 
Frederick & Nelson store, a large hall especially 
well adapted to this purpose. 

Thousands of visitors inspected the exhibit last 
year, it being free to the public. The first prize 
was awarded to a photograph entered from Brook- 
lyn, New York, but several entries from the West 
ranked high among the prize-winners. 

The object of the exhibition is to encourage 
the cultivation of photographic art in the North- 
west, both by offering artists of this section a 
chance to show their work in competition and 
giving thcni a chance to compare their owti pro- 
ductions with the best of other sections of the 
world. 



"These face powders and things are not for 
anybody except girls!" said the indignant youth. 

"Oh, I don't know, we have one kind made for 
Mennen women." — Retail Public Ledger. 



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Eduard Blum 

The Photo Art Shop 

in the service of the profession 

32 South Wabash Avenue 

CHICAGO 



THE ONLY STUDIO OF ITS KIND IN AMERICA 



BE DIFFERENT FROM THE OTHER FELLOW 
BE DIFFERENT FROM YESTERDAY 



Dig! 

When one task is finished, jump into another. 
Don't hesitate. Don't falter. Don't waver. Don't 
wait. Keep going. 

Keep going. Doing something is always better 
than doing nothing. 

For activity breeds ambition, energy, progress, 
power. And inactivity breeds idleness, laziness, 
shiftlessness, sloth. 

Don't dawdle in the hope that inspiration will 
strike you. Inspiration is more likely to strike a 
busy man than an idle one. 

Save the half hours that are wasted in waiting. 
That is the secret of system. Keep going. 

Dig! 

Success -nuggets do not lie scattered about the 
surface-soil of the business gold mine. Work — 
hard, relentless pick and shovel work — alone un- 
earths life's greatest prizes. 

Just as the diamond lies hidden in the moun- 
tain cave — just as the pearl rests concealed on the 
ocean's bottom — so success lies dormant and be- 
yond reach of him who does not strive to secure it. 

Opportunities, like precious jewels, are all about 
us. But only effort — steady, ceaseless, whole- 
souled cffort^an dig them out and secure their 
value. 

Quit scraping over the surface of your busi- 
ness chances — quit remaining content with the 
pay-dirt on the outer edges of your commercial 
prospects. There is a nugget in every opportunity 
— if you only delve deep enough to get it. 



And don't merely dig without aim or method. 
Just as the miner assays his claim before he 
sinks his shaft, so should you probe each business 
possibility before you begin to work it. 

First locate your claim — your main chance. 
Then prove it. Then plan your system to work 
it. Then take off your coat and dig. — System. 

Successful System 

If we look at the examples upon the walls of 
the convention galleries, where the exhibitors 
have sought to make pictures and not mere photo- 
graphic records, and we have opportimity to 
ask these persons "how they do this" there would 
be but one answer: "We adopt the newest and 
best ideas that promise beneficial results, and which 
are simple in construction, and keep on the lookout 
for any others which may elevate us into the artis- 
tic atmosphere of the profession, endeavoring to 
assist Nature and not to distort. 

Successful system may be summed up thus : 
First, adopt those ideas which are simple, practical 
and beneficial; second, have a system to regulate 
the working of all things; third, aid Nature to 
comeliness; add a charm to the charming; make 
beauty more beautiful. 

Boss — "What was your brother arrested for. 
Mabel?" 

Mabel (blushing) — "Why, I think they said it 
was bootlimbing." 



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Bulletin of Photography 



A NEW BOO K 

THE AIR BRUSH IN 
PHOTOGRAPHY 

The most comprehensive work ever written 
on work with the Air Brush, especially as applied 
to photography, working up enlargements, etc. 

143 PAGES - 45 ILLUSTRATIONS 

BOUND IN CLOTH 

$3.50 post paid 

Mr. Geo. F. Stine, the author, is known as 
o le of the most expert workers with the Air 
Brush in this country, and the series of 32 illus- 
trated lessons, which forms a considerable portion 
of the book, is the most detailed and carefully 
worked out course of instruction that could be 
imagined. With the help of this book any photog- 
rapher can learn to use the Air Brush. 

In addition to the comprehensive series of 
lessons, there are seven chapters on coloring with 
the Air Brush, a very valuable addition to the 
book, and something not heretofore found in 
print. 

FRANK v. CHAMBERS 

636 S. Franklin Sqoare Philaddplua 



One of the best, as well as 
one of the rarest books on 
art and composition is — 

"R urnefs 
PT ssays on A ft 

Single copies of the original editions 
have been sold as high as $100.00. 
It has been reprinted in a limited 
edition of only 1000 copies. Will 
you have one? 

Send $2.00 and get a 
copy at once. 

PoBtage 15 centa extra. 



FRANK V. CHAMBERS 

636 Franklin Square, Philadelphia 



Figure Study Portraits 

Many photographers when attempting at home 
portrait work in gardens, etc., are prone to make 
the mistake of treating the sitter too much in the 
way that may be adopted, quite successfully, in 
the case of a studio portrait, and when this is 
done the result is frequently un satis facto r>\ The 
best plan in such circumstances is to treat the 
picture more after the manner of a figure study. 
For instance, in the case of a feminine sitter, a 
much better picture will be secured if instead 
of simply attempting to pose the lady, standing 
figure studio fashion, the picture portrays her 
gathering the flowers. In this way a far more 
characteristic and appealing picture is secured, 
though, of course, more after the manner of a 
figure study than a studied portrait. Though 
this line of treatment be followed, there is no 
reason why the picture should not be an excellent 
portrait as well. It would not do. of course, to 
make a picture of simply the back of the sitter, 
as is often done in figure work proper from 
purely artistic aims, but the sitter may be por- 
trayed, preferably side face, engaged and inter- 
ested in some familiar occupation. The three- 
quarter figure often gives a better effect in this 
class of work than a full length, since the fea- 
tures of the sitter are not so reduced in size. — 
The British Journal of Photography. 

The Best Pose 

How very few people really know how to sit 
for a photograph! Every face has its weak 
points, and these, unfortunately, have a way of 
cropping up in a picture and ruining the effect. 
Of course, a photograph should be absolutely 
lifelike, but at the same time one naturally pre- 
fers to look one's best. 

Scarcely one face in a hundred has features 
perfect enough to promise a satisfactory photo- 
graph in profile, for this pose brings any little 
defect into the foreground. 

For a full- face picture a sitter must possess 
fine eyes, above all things. If they are good the 
pose will be a success, even if the other features 
are lacking in comeliness. 

If one has any pronounced defects to hide, the 
three-quarter face is really the happiest way to 
be photographed. This position enhances the 
charms of the beautiful and tones down the 
irregularities of the plain face. 

It is never well to be photographed in a hat 
distinctly modem style, for in a year or so the 
picture is ruined by the old-fashioned headgear. 
But a picture hat — such as those worn by the 
Gainsborough women — makes a most picturesque 
setting for a beautiful face, and this, of course, 
is never out of fashion. 

We have just been notified that the South- 
Eastern Convention at Atlanta. Ga., will be May 
23d to 25th instead of May 16th to 19th as pre- 
viously announced. This will give you a few 
more days for making preparations to attend. 



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thirty words; additional words, 3 cents each. 

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charge. 50 cents; additional words, 2 cents each. Cash must 
accompany order. 

Situation Wanted — ^Twenty-one words, one time, free. Addi- 
tional words. 2 cents each. 

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To secure insertion, advertisements must be received by 9 
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DO YOU WANT A POSITION? 

Read the ads, that follow 

Wanted — A reliable lady assistant who is a good 
retoucher, and who has had experience in general 
studio work in towns under 15.000 inhabitants. 
Modern new studio; good position is here for the 
right person Address, Box 954, care of Bulletin 
OF Photography. 

Wanted— A good all-round man. Must be good 
retoucher. A steady position to the right man, 
with salary according to ability. W. R. Loar & 
Son, Grafton, W. Va. 

DO YOU WANT AN EMPLOYEE? 

Read the ads. that folloiv 

Position Wanted — Emulsion chemist, with many 
years* experience in well-known factories of photo 
papers in Europe, desires position in United States. 
Finest references. Please apply to Mr. O. A. 
Larsen, 14 Norton Rd., Letch worth, England. 

DO YOU WANT TO BUY, SELL OR 
RENT A STUDIO? 

Read the ads. that follow 

Wanted to Buy — Good studio, preferably in Phila- 
delphia or vicinity. Give full particulars in first 
letter. Cash deal. Address — 955, care of Bulletin 
of Photography. 



MISCELLANEOUS 



Read the ads. that follow 



To the Kodak Finisher— After twenty years of 
experience in establishing Kodak Finishing Plants, 
I offer to those in need of an efficient system the 
benefit of my experience. More rolls, more prints, 
less labor. Write for particulars. Grace F. Parker, 
founder of the "Parker" System, 540 Federal Street, 
Camden, N.J. 

For Sale — ''Cirkut" season is open — will sell 

16-inch outfit, complete, at a sacrifice. Make 

an offer. Write Box 956, care of Bulletin of 

Photography. 

Retouching acquired in 30 to 90 days by the 
Clarke system of teaching. Only school of its 
class in the country. Limited registration. Act 
quickly. Clarke School of Retouching, 750 E. 47th 
St., Chicago, 111. 



Simple Methods for Flattening 
Mounts 

The warping of mounted prints, especially those 
of large size, can be quickly and permanently 
cured by the following procedure: After mount- 
ing let the print dry naturally over night, which 
will cause it to curve inward; hold it with the 
print side upward a few inches over a gas or 
spirit heater, moving it to and fro horizontally. 
When the mount has become uniformly warm re- 
move it from the heat and it can be bent in the 
opi)osite direction without danger; hold it in this 
position till it has become cold again. The heat 
and the slight moisture still retained by the paste 
softens the fibers, and the stretching while cooling 
tends to keep the mount flat. It is a good plan 
to keep the picture under pressure for a short 
time. — Photo Industrie. 



Reliable Photo Supply Houses 

JOHN HAWORTH COMPANY 

(Eaitman Kodak Co.) 
1020 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia 

THE H. LIEBER COMPANY 
24 W. Washington St. - Indianapolis, Ind. 

Western Photo & Supply Co. 

Photographers* & Photo Engravers* Supplies 
328 W. Madison St., Chicago 

WILLOUGHBY "^new Vork'' 
Everything Used in Photography 

SWEET, WALLACH & CO. 

(Bastmaii Kodak Co.) 

133 North Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. 

SUSSMAN PHOTO STOCK CO. 
223-225 Park Avenue, Baltimore, Md. 

Norman-Willets Photo Supply 

— INCORPORATBD — 

502-503 LE MO YNB BLDG. niM in k n n 

180 N. WABASH AVE. i> M 1 i> A O U 

ZIMMERMAN BROS. 

(Eastman Kodak Co.) 
3S0-384 Minnesota St., St. Paul, Minn. 

HYATT'S SUPPLY CO. 
417 North Broadway, St. Louis, Mo. 

STANDARD PHOTO SUPPLY CO. 

(Eastman Kodak Co.) 

125 Baronne St., New Orleans, La. 



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SEED 



PLATES 



The measure of a plate's quality is not 
the length of the scale of tones it will 
reproduce, but the correctness with which 
it reproduces them. 

Seed 30 Plates have a scale that permits 
of perfect reproduction of the longest 
range of tones that will be encountered 
in a photographic subject. 



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 
ROCHESTER, N. Y. 
All Dealers'. 



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Make portrait enlargements 
on the paper made for por- 
trait enlarging — the paper 
that puts contact quality in 
projected prints: 

EASTMAN 
PORTRAIT 
BROMIDE 

Two stocks— D White, E BufF. 
Two surfaces in each — Rough 
Matte and Rough Lustre. The 
price is the same as for double 
weight Artura Iris. 



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 
ROCHESTER, N. Y. 

All Dealers*, 



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More than 80^c of the X-Ray workers of 
America use Eastman Tested Chemicals 

They must eliminate the element of 
uncertainty from their work. 

The surgeon's knife is guided by a 
diagnosis of the X-Ray result. 

Your results are not a matter of life or 
death, but they are a matter of dollars 
and cents. 

Specify 

EASTMAN 
TESTED CHEMICALS 



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 
ROCHESTER, N. Y. 
All Dealeri'. 



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jiiiiiiiininiiiiDiiiiDiittiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii^^ 

I 



The No. 9 
Century Studio Outfit 

The use of long focus lenses is rapidly increasing 
because they give better perspective and drawing. In 
the making of large heads a long bellows extension 
is necessary with these lenses. 

The No. 9 Century Studio Outfit with its extra 
long bellows extension provides a focal capacity of 36 
inches, sufficient for practically any long focus por- 
trait lens. 

The adjustments of this Outfit are so smooth and 
direct in action that the photographer's attention can 
be concentrated on the delineation of his subject 

See it at your Stock House 

Eastman Kodak Company 
Century Camera Department ROCHESTER, N. Y. 



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The live quality of a 
picture, so easily de- 
stroyed by halation, is 
preserved in the nega- 
tive made on 



Eastman 
Portrait Film 



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. 
All Dealers'. 



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ELON 

The best developer for 
photographic papers 



We use it — we recommend it — 
we make it— we know ifs right. 



Elon now lists at 
$9.00 per pound 



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. 

AH Dealers'. 



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A Britisher^ s Opinion 



''Speaking as a technical worker, I do not 
think there has been anything in my time 
which has marked such a distinct advance in 
the quality and usefulness of photographic 
material as Eastman Portrait Film, When I 
say Eastman Portrait Film, of course, I include 
Commercial, Commercial Ortho and Process 
Film, 

''The one thing about Films which induced 
me to use them instead of glass plates was the 
very important fact that they enabled me to 
make better negatives/' 

Mr. S. GnmsAaw, Official Photographer 
to Ford Motor Co. ^ Manchester^ England. 



There's a Film for practically every commer- 
cial need — Eastman Portrait, Commercial 
Ortho, Commercial and Process. 



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. 

All Dealers'. 



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No. 721 w«i~«i.,, j™. 1, 1921 ^SZ^^'iU^ 



Veltex 

FOR CONTACT PRINTS 



T TENLARGING 

VELTEX 

FOR ENLARGEMENTS 

THIN, WHITE PARCHMENT-LIKE PAPER 
WITH A LIVE MATT SURFACE. 

ENLARGING VELTEX HAS THAT DISTINCTIVE VELTEX SURFACE 
AND TEXTURE AND, LIKE VELTEX, IS REMARKABLY ADAPTED 
FOR MAKING ORIGINAL AND EFFECTIVE PORTRAIT PRINTS. 

VELTEX AND ENLARGING VELTEX, EACH IN ITS OWN WAY, 

WILL FAITHFULLY REPRODUCE THE QUALITY 

OF THE PORTRAIT NEGATIVE 



PRlCt: LIST IN DEFENDER IfL'l CATALOG NOVV^ READY 



MANUFACTURED EXCLUSIVELY BY 

Defender Photo Supply Co., inc. 

ROCHESTER. N. Y. 

BOSTON: NEW YORK: PHILADELPHIA: 

44 Fbdbral Strbbt Thb Printing Crafts Building 1033 Chbstnut Strbbt 

8th Avb., 33rd to 34th Sts. 

CHICAGO: KANSAS CITY: MINNEAPOLIS: 

109 N. Wabash Avbnue Grand Avbnub at 21st Street 322 Fourth Street, S. 

TORONTO. CANADA: 71 Adelaide Street. West 



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r" — " " "' ' 


The Sensation 

at 

The ''Baby NaHonaV 

At the ''Baby National held in Baltimore, 
in April, Kalosat, the "Spectral Diffusion 
Lens,'' made its sensational debut. The 
manner in which it was accepted and the 
spontaneous approval given it, certainly in- 
sured its popularity. 




We will show at Buffalo, July 18-23 at 
Booth 44- 


Write for our catalog **L" or enquire of your dealer 

) 




Pastel Study 

10 P. M.; AO-WattLamp; /4.5; 2 second 
By /I. H. Herz, Weggis, Switzerland 


J 

Hanovia Lens Laboratories 
Newark^ New Jersey 



BIND THE BULLETIN OF PHOTOGRAPHY 

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holding every copy in its proper place. 

C We've used these Binders in our own office for the past seven 
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Will last for years. 
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Vol. XXVra, No. 721 



Wednesday, June 1, 1921 



How We Grow 



Our photography did not, as is some- 
times poetically but falsely asserted, spring 
full-armed and [perfect from the brain of a 
genius. 

With all due appreciation of the wonder- 
ful impulse, at the beginning of the last 
century, which gave birth to the permanent 
photographic picture, we dare not fail to 
accord credit to the long line of indefatig- 
able investigators whose plodding labor 
made the grand discovery possible. 

The dispute as to the priority of par- 
ticular discoveries concerns us less, since we 
hold that, at any time, and among any 
civilized people, a man may appear who, 
starting with very scanty preparation, is 
driven by an irresistible impulse into the 
path of scientific investigation, and by his 
native genius, achieves the most astonishing 
results. 

Such phenomena seem to have been in- 
timately associated with the history of pho- 
tography all along: for if we inquire into 
the reason for the remarkable progress our 
art has made in a little over fifty years, we 
shall discover that it may be traced to just 
such an impulse, stimulated by the demands 
of the times. 

We see the perfect fruit but forget the 



ceaseless efforts which, all unappreciated, 
made the culmination possible. 

Photography, at the first, was recognized 
as the handmaid of science, but it is really 
only on the discovery of the modern gela- 
tine plate that its incalculable service began 
to be realized. 

There is no disputing the fact that the 
great revival of astronomy, since 1880, is 
due to the agency of the improved sensitive 
plate. 

This science has so develoj^d in unsus- 
pected directions and its revelations are so 
wonderful as almost to make the thought 
depressing to humanity ; for the advent of 
the dry plate made it possible to apply pho- 
tography freely in all astronomical work 
and it is indisputable that its service is re- 
sponsible for the great astronomical ex- 
pansion. 

The gelatine plate made possible pro- 
longed exposure to the hosts of heaven, thus 
enabling the record of faintly luminous ce- 
lestial objects, such as nebula and star- 
spectra. 

The serious practical proposal to "chart 
the sky'* by means of photography, was at- 
tempted only when the dry plate demon- 
strated its capabilities. 



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Work on the sun has been entirely rev- 
olutionized by the gelatine plate. Astron- 
omers can now study in detail and at con- 
venience portions of the sun of which pre- 
viously they could get bare indications only. 

The various applications of the gelatine 
bromide film in its modifications in other 
directions — to patholog}'', surgery, medicine, 
microscopic anatomy, in fact, all the phys- 
ical and chemical investigations, are too 
well known, to be more than, here, briefly 
referred to. 

In '^Radiography," alone, call just to 
mind its incalculable service in alleviating 
human suflfering. 

Nor can we forget its contributions to 
human happiness in the cheap means of 
rational delight to the multitude, in the 
marvelous cinematography. 

It would be useless to dilate further on 
the value of the gelatine plate as a factor 
in the progress of the arts and sciences. 

We shall touch but slightly here, upon its 
special value to the professional photog- 
rapher to show that the modern gelatine 
film has been the prime mover in the phe- 
nomenal advance of photography in art. 

The photographer of the past laid greater 
stress on technical performance than we at 
present do. 

He prided himself upon the ability to 
produce good ''chemical effect," because the 
media employed was somewhat refractory 
and demand humoring, as it were, to do his 
will and carry out his artistic intention. 

But the gelatine plate became really a 
willing and pliable handmaid, that made but 
little, if any, hindrance to pictorial exploita- 
tion. So that, now, the photographer can 
relegate technical performance to less con- 
sideration, being assured of the trustworthi- 
ness of his medium. He has opportunity, 
therefore, to add to his other qualities the 
composition of the artist, and make his pro- 
fession esthetic, rather mechanical. 

The young man who enters the photo- 
graphic profession now-a-days must learn 
that he has to amalgamate artistic taste with' 
technical ability and good business sense to 



be successful. Any divorce of the art-phase 
tends to lowering of his standard. So the 
confession is inevitable — that art is the 
most potent factor in the profession. 

It is only by earnest and conscientious 
study in that delightful realm — "the artis- 
tic" — that the modern photographer can 
hope to advance, but he should never forget 
that this has been made possible only 
through the perfection of the means which 
standardized the mechanical appliance. 

We must acknowledge that all this prog- 
ress, this elevation of the status of photog- 
raphy, is due singly and solely to the gela- 
tine plate. Its marvelous qualities enable 
the photographer to accomplish what, once 
in the history of our art, was utterly impos- 
sible, even though the process may have 
been manipulated by a worker of supreme 
artistic instinct. 

What to Study 

As for the artistic element in portrait 
photography I cannot repeat often enough : 
Stop imitating. Do something original. 
Then there will still be time to discuss art. 
Work out your own thoughts by yourself. 
New ideas, true enough, are always antag- 
onized at the beginning. But don't mind 
that. If a thing is good it will survive. 

But the Old Masters won't do it for you. 
Of course, we can learn from them, as we 
can profit by the study of almost everything. 
We should not forget, however, that their 
portraits reflected the conditions of their 
time. Conditions have grown different, we 
live in a different atmosphere than in me- 
dieval Europe. Light conditions have 
changed, we wear different clothes and hats, 
and they need different treatment. We may 
try to imitate the spirit of a thing, but not 
the actual products of the time. They are 
misleading to say the least. 

By far more heartily do I recommend the 
study of works of modem portrait painters, 
as they necessarily deal with the men and 
women and children of today. But even in 
that case one can go too far. Composition 
in color and composition in monochrome are 



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two entirely different things. A good por- 
trait engraving, etching, drawing, etc., can 
teach you by far more than any painting. 
A painting can teach you little more than 
certain laws of posing, the position of the 
head, the attitude of the figure and the 
placing of the hands and the arrangements 
of groups. It may also improve your feel- 
ing for line. But the lighting will play you 
false as it is generally thought out in color, 
while a composition in monochrome lends 
itself more readily to a study of middle 
tints, of values and tones, of the balance of 
dark and light planes, something you can 
use to great advantage in your profession. 
The idealized portrait, where the sitter is 
absorbed in thought and has no connection 
whatever with the world we live in, where 
the expression conveys the impression of 
absentmindedness — akin to the heroic re- 
pose of Greek sculpture — the effect is never 
as vivid, or really sensuously as enjoyable, 
as where the portrait is almost on the de- 



fensive attitude and shows as much vigil- 
ance in gazing at you as it does dignity in 
questioning your intrusion. Such pictures 
always make one collect oneself to reply to 
the question the portrait is about to ask: 
**Well, what do you think of me?'* This 
expression is quite different from that self- 
conscious look which is called the * 'photo- 
graphic face." 

This intense personal character stamps 
such portraits with a living and permanent 
interest. Of ideal pictures you tire if you 
have them constantly before you ; they are 
soon dismissed after you have criticised 
them, even if with enthusiasm. The ecstatic 
state is tiresome when long continued or 
frequent in occurrence. The portrait which 
looks at you is, after all, the most human, 
there seems to be some question pending 
between you, and a fascinating power is 
exercised over you, because of its individ- 
uality which is always new. 

S. A. 



Photography During and After the War 



PROF. O. MENTE. BERLIN 

The unexpected has happened! Photog- 
raphy during the war had a great develop- 
ment, though for about a year it has suf- 
fered abatement. The course of events 
seems now intelligible, but no one could 
foresee it, and no expert could have antici- 
pated the results nor have provided against 
them. Of course, here and there a portrait 
photographer may have laid in a stock of 
gold or platinum salts or of plates, recog- 
nizing that an increase of price was due, 
but how long could such a stock last ? The 
good business that accrued to photograph- 
ers during the war was due, on one hand, 
to the disturbance in affairs (which was 
associated with great activity of industry) 
and, on the other hand, to the fact that 
many of those who participated in the war 
made the supreme sacrifice, and their rela- 
tives utilized occasional photographs, and 
even old portraits as materials for enlarge- 
ments. The greatest run of business of the 



photographer was certainly from that class 
which before had either not patronized the 
studio or, if necessity arose, had selected the 
cheapest places. Almost all industries ex- 
perienced, during the war, a great expan- 
sion, and even unskilled working men and 
women obtained wages that before that time 
were not thought of. This excess of in- 
come found outlet, naturally, in the luxury 
field, to which, in a general sense, photo- 
graphic portraiture may be assigned, hence 
the photographer reaped a golden harvest. 

The higher type of establishments se- 
cured, as patrons, those who had become 
rich in war-work, and also that class who, 
by sinister methods, had acquired profit, a 
procedure still in evidence, though truly not 
to such extent as formerly. 

It is somewhat astonishing that the pho- 
tographic industry was able to secure the 
supply of plates and papers that it needed. 
When we consider the enormous amount of 



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photo-material that the war itself required, 
particularly in aviation work, we wonder 
that the increased demand oti the part of 
civilian photographers was met with rela- 
tively little friction. Naturally, deliveries 
were sometimes delayed, especially when 
many wanted the same line of goods, but in 
general all obtained suitable materials. 

The course of business did not, however, 
run perfectly smooth. Before long, the 
government commandeered the gold and 
platinum, which resulted in the more ex- 
tended use of P. O. P. Although the ''ton- 
ing: bath without gfold,*' which as well known 
contains lead salts, gives, on general inspec- 
tion, the same tints as the gold solution, its 
durability is inferior. Though platinum 
and related metals that were also withheld, 
have no perfect substitute, yet those oper- 
ators who served a. high-class custom, and 
who ordinarily used mat albumen paper and 
similar materials, were somewhat embar- 
rassed, since, although development paper^ 
will give, with comparatively simple manip- 
ulation, namely, by mere development, a 
very similar tone to paper toned by the 
combined gold and platinum bath, yet the 
type of negative needed for such paper and, 
lastly, the quality of the surface and the 
gradation of tone with it are so different 
from P. O. P., that, at first, considerable 
difficulty arose. It is true that the modern 
gaslight papers have been materially im- 
proved, especially as concerns the softness 
and tint of the silver image, but the char- 
acteristic property of the P. O. P., namely, 
its latitude, cannot be given to development 
paper. 

I understand under 'latitude" — or "auto- 
matic adaptability" — the property of P. O. 
P. is to meet the requirements of all nega- 
tives. As is well known, the surface dark- 
ens first under the more transparent parts, 
the superficially altered layer protects the 
silver salt beneath, and hence, the shadows 
darken more slowly, while the high-lights 
and half tones have time to become im- 
pressed. The more "contrasty" the nega- 
tive, the more this automatic equalization 



comes into play, while with flat negatives 
high-lights and shadows proceed in develop- 
ment simultaneously. 

At present photographers have become 
better satisfied with the development papers, 
making soft negatives, and thus securing 
prints that are hardly inferior to those with 
P. O. P., indeed, in the matter of durability, 
apparently superior. The grain of the de- 
velopment paper is coarser than that of the 
other and resists atmospheric influences. 
Together with the development of gaslight 
papers in warm tones, especially dark 
brown, usually obtained by the use of pyro- 
catechin without addition of sulphite, direct 
sulphur and selenium tonings have been em- 
ployed, while indirect toning by bleaching 
and then sulphurizing is especially used 
with silver bromide papers. 

Selenium toning yields easily a sbmewhat 
reddish tone, for which reason it is now 
customary to combine it with sulphur ton- 
ing. Much use is being made of a bath of 
liver of sulphur, which is rapid, convenient 
and cheap. A three per cent, solution of 
liver of sulphur with a little ammonia, the 
solution being warmed to about 90 degrees 
F., will tone all highly sensitive gaslight 
papers to a rich brown. 

Therefore, at present, sufficient methods 
are available in positive printing, and the 
carbon process and pigment printing with- 
out transferring, under the titles *'Buehler 
process" and "Hochheimer gum-printing 
process" offer further opportunities for 
special work. 

Unfortunately, the enormous increase in 
the price of dry plates has materially re- 
stricted photographic work. Since the peace 
treaty we have had little coal available for 
the industries, and the glass works have 
been largely shut down. Never during the 
entire war [)eriod was seen so many un- 
mended windows and store bulks as now. 
and this lack of glass, with the wild rise in 
price of that adapted for dry plates, has led 
to most serious conditions. It is a fact tliat 
a good supply of dry plates is in the market, 
but at a cost of about twenty times that of 



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From the Halldorson Demonstration at the Baltimore Convention 



Portrait Filni 
Cyko Print 

Nrgative and Print Developed 
with Cumroinone 



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Prints made during the Background Demonstration by L. J. Buckley 

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pre-war days, and as the circulating medium 
has become scarce the luxury industries are 
again affected. Efforts have been made to 
escape from the glass famine by the intro- 
duction of paper supports. Two of our 
large manufacturing establishments, the 
Mimosa, in Dresden, and the Farbenfab- 
riken vorm. Bayer in Leverkusen, at Co- 
logne, have placed on the market detachable 
films on paper supports, and these are truly 
very convenient and sensitive, with a fairly 
wide range of color response. Portrait pho- 
tography is being carried out with these, 
which are sold at about half the price of the 
glass plates, and w^hich, in the short time 
that they have been manufactured, have 
undergone such marked improvement in 
quality as to be scarcely inferior in any re- 
spect to the ordinary dry plate. 

The future of photography is not so 
much dependent on the manufacturers of 
photographic supplies and accessories as 
upon a general readjustment of prices in all 
fields, from which one can hope a real re- 
vival of the practice of the art. Perhaps 
this much to be desired improvement is ap- 
proaching; some evidences of it are now 
perceptible, so that we can expect a better- 
ment in every-day conditions, the founda- 
tion of real improvement in the status of 
photographic art. 



Pictures from the Buckley 
Demonstration 

The pictures herewith were made in the 
Continental Hotel Fountain Room before 
Philadelphia photographers through the 
kindness of John Haworth Company and 
the Nela Specialties Division. 

Buckley of Binghamton made the demon- 
stration and was, as usual, full of pep and 
new ideas. His circular latticed background 
proved very popular as he demonstrated the 
many effects and advantages of its use. 



Pullman Posers 

Who is it that searches earth's corners and nooks 
To pick out the names of the sleepers de luxe? 
You notice them here, and you notice them there. 
From Frisco to Brooklyn, Spokane to Bellaire; 
In search of the dining car through them you run, 
But you find 'mongst their names — not a sensihle 

one! 
Emblazoned on portals in letters of* gold, 
They suddenly stare at you, blatant and hold ! 
There's Alterton, Bradigan, Cleops, Diizelle ; 
Elyria, Fugit, Gavenna, Haswell ; 
Itonga, Jaribdus, Karmeno. Lusannc ; 
Manasket, Narcisco, 01)ijah, Pedan ; 
Quotonah, Ravannah, Sylenus, Tulonne ; 
Usilicus, Vera, Wandee, Xenophon ; 
^'olanda, Zarcpta, and some I forget, 
But I never have found one named Morpheus 

yet! 

— Cartoons Magazine. 



He described in detail the manner of 
making the background, which is as follows: 

A screen shade five feet wide and eight 
feet long; cut a circle in the center twenty- 
four inches in diameter ; twelve small pieces 
of lattice one-quarter inch thick, thirty 
inches long, and one inch wide. Tack the 
pieces, across the circle, to the shade, four 
inches apart ui> and down. Hang the shade 
on a roller on a background, framing so 
that it can be raised or lowered to suit the 



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picture. Do not have any other background 
on the frame. Then add a fevV' artificial 
vines or flowers. You can also place a small 
lace curtain draped back for a Japanese 
window effect. Place a light back of the 
circle and you will see some very interesting 
effects. It is especially adapted to children, 
girls and family groups. 

The demonstration of draperies was per- 
haps the most interesting of the evening. 
The latest style of gowns was made with 
the simplicity of turning: your hand and add- 
injij a pin or two. Not only was he clever 
in draping, but instructive in detail in this 
work. 

He proved himself a master of artificial 
lighting, showing several effects of single 
and double back-lighting. A record crowd 
of two hundred and fifty attended the meet- 
ing and much enthusiasm was shown 
throughout the demonstration. 

Salesmanship 

C. H. CLAUDY 

Did you ever go into a haberdasher's with 
a dollar 'n a half tightly clutched in your 
fist, prepared to shoot the whole of it for a 
necktie, and come away with six shirts, a 
dozen pairs of socks, a new belt, a pair of 
garters, some collars and a box of hand- 
kerchiefs? And when you came out of 
your trance, did you ever wonder how it 
hapi)ened, and where the hypnotism came 
from which made you mortgage next 
week's pay for a lot of things you didn't 
know you needed? 

Did you ever go into the tire shop to get 
a patch put on the blow out and come away 
with a brand new cord tire which cost twice 
as much as you ever paid for a tire before? 
And wonder how^ it was accomplished ? 

Did you ever start to buy a modest two- 
room cottage for 'steen hundred dollars and 
finally move into a twelve-room house 
which cost 'steen thousands? And wonder 
what hit you to make you sign a bushel of 
notes for the shack? 

A\'hat haj)pened to you, in every case, was 
running bang up against salesmanship. 



Some one who knew more about wheedling 
the elusive dollar out of your jeans than 
you knew about keeping it there, had op- 
erated on you. You found the operation 
both painless and pleasant, and only when 
you came out from under — when it was too 
late — did you begin to have those unpleas- 
ant afterthoughts which begin *T shouldn't 
have si>ent all that — " and end "where is 
the cash going to come from ?" 

A great many times we go into stores to 
buy something and but it — and nothing else. 
When that happens it is usually because we 
haven't met any one who knows anything 
about salesmanship. People who merely 
say "May I wait on you ?" and then give 
you what you ask for and let you go after 
you pay for what you have asked for, are no 
salespeople. They are mere automatic 
pieces of machinery.. And if people come 
into your establishment and ask for a half 
dozen small pictures and you give them 
w^hat they ask for and nothing more, you — 
or whoever does the attending to the wants 
of the customer — are not salespeople. You 
are merely order-takers. 

jjut how do / know what else my cus- 
tomer wants than what she asks for? It is 
not an alibi — this thing you are now saying. 
Vou don't know. You needn't care. If I 
go into a store to buy one record for the 
talking machine and come out with six, it 
isn't because the saleslady knciv I wanted 
the other five — it's because she imaijincd 
that maybe if I was interested in one record 
of six saxophones playing a fox trot I 
might be interested in other numbers of 
saxophones playing other things, or other 
things playing other fox trots. She doesn't 
knoii' that I am interested — she merely 
takes a chance and tries to make me inter- 
ested. 

The newly-made mother, who brings 
small son in for his first picture, probabl\ 
has a preconceived notion that she wants 
him sitting in a wash bowl, or on grandpa's 
knee, or waving his rattle or something. 
Give her what she wants. But give her the 
chance to want something else. Have a 



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dozen different ways of picturing small son 
all ready to show her. Give her a chance 
to rave about some tinted picture of a baby. 
Let her get the idea in her head that the 
infant is far too pretty to be shown with 
just one i)ose. Make her, in other words, 
zcont some silk shirts besides the necktie. 

If Miss Justcomingout arrives with her 
new gown to be i)reserved for posterity, 
don't let her off with just one picture. 
That's what she came for, but — it's your 
business, or your receptionist's business — to 
make her want something else. If it's a full 
length she wants, give it to her — but see 
that she sees a lot of half lengths and bust 
pictures. If it's a large head she wants, do 
enough judicious admiration of the gown 
to make a full length seem very desirable. 
And make it, anyway, whether she will give 
you the order or not. It costs you a plate 
and a few* minutes — it may be worth a fifty- 
dollar order. 

Salesmanship is not order taking. Any 
one can take orders. Salesmanship is mak- 
ing the customer strongly want something 
more than she originally wanted, want a 
greater quantity than she thought she 
wanted or want something better than she 
thought she wanted. 

Please note the word '^Want." Salesman- 
ship does not consist in making a customer 



take something larger, more expensive or 
different from what she wants. Many peo- 
I)le can be shamed into ordering fifty-dollar 
pictures who want twenty-five-dollar pic- 
tures. That's salesmanship inverted — a 
process which repels the good customer and 
keeps her away forevermore. The customer 
must not be persuaded to buy, or ivheedled 
to buy, or compelled to buy. She must be 
made to zvant to buy. Only when this is 
(lone can it be said to be real salesmanship. 

To make a customer want to spend more 
money than she intended, she must be made 
to feel the desirability of the thing she is to 
purchase. The only way the photographer 
can do this is to have that thing on display, 
have it desirable and have enough tact and 
enthusiasm to instill that desire into the 
heart of the prospect. 

Every sitter for any one picture is a pos- 
sible prospect for a larger order of greater 
value. You have the prospect in your 
hands, you have, the goods in your establish- 
ment, she has the money — the connecting 
thread is true salesmanship, which is noth- 
ing more and nothing less than the creation 
of a desire to possess. 

If this one art is the only thing which 
stands between your last year's profits and 
profits this year twice as great, isn't it worth 
some serious stu^y and attention? 



Pictures in Everyday Life 



One great blessing the Dutch School of 
I*ainting ( despite its so-called vulgarity of 
theme) conferred upon modern art was 
the trumi>et call it sent forth to bring back 
the painters of the seventeenth century 
from their inane wanderings in the realm 
of classic idealism. 

Men of culture had become subject to 
the dominancy of classic pedantry. They 
had come to believe that Nature was too 
crude for the purpose of art, human nature 
too commonplace, to furnish themes for 
their pictures. 

The traditions of classic times were held 
to be invariable. 



Xature was subordinated to man, but 
man was transformed into an etherealized 
being and put in a paradise of dainty de- 
vices. 

The Dutch painters, gross as they are 
sometimes, and sensual as they are often in 
the scenes they dei)ict, awakened artists to 
an appreciation of the beauty of the world 
about them, and at the same time brought 
them to a saving sense of the ridiculous con- 
dition into which their art had degenerated. 

It looks as if motive were only secondary 
in these paintings by the Dutch. They 
wanted to paint, but they ever determined to 
be honest and painted what most appealed 



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to them, just what they saw about them in 
their everyday life, regardless whether its 
tendency was to morality or otherwise. 

But they happened to live in very event- 
ful times, in an atmosphere of freedom of 
thought, and they took a lively interest in 
the stirring incidents, indeed often a pa- 
thetic part. 

They were not wanting in spirit or cour- 
age, as history demonstrates, but they seem 
not to have cared to depict scenes of hero- 
ism and suffering. 

They preferred to paint servant maids en- 
gaged in menial work, or boors in the field, 
or peasants carousing over their pots in 
front of an inn, or cows in the pasture or 
market women along the canals or humble 
interiors — passing by subjects rich in pathos 
which would arouse present-day painters to 
a high state of feeling. 

But they were eminently honest in all that 
they did and painted everything conscien- 
tiously and truthfully. 

To them nothing was common or unclean. 
Their aim we might account low, their 
themes prosaic, but they were genuine. 

It seems as if they reasoned that man 
must be humbled because he had been un- 
duly exalted. And photography might learn 
from them. 

The scenes and incidents of every-day 
life ought surely to afford scope enough for 
expression of pictorial motive. 

Our domestic relations, if sincerely and 
honestly expressed, will embody the true 
feeling for art, better than all the themes 
of melodramatic inflation. 

Photography has suffered not a little 
from the caustic pen of the critic for its 
Icarian flights of symbolism by its grandiose 
representation of distorted actuality. 

It is folly to try to soar into the empyrean 
while carrying along so much that is earthy. 

It weighs the craft down, and it hangs 
between heaven and the nether world in an 
unpleasant condition, till rescued by kind 
oblivion. 

Seek simple themes and render them ac- 
cordingly, emulate the Dutch painters. 



You Can't Stand Still 

If a man is not advancing you know what 
he is doing. It is hardly possible to remain 
at a standstill as to excellence or quality in 
our productions. You have only to glance 
at the walls of the convention exhibit to 
prove the truth of this. You note the ad- 
vance of many a one to a higher plane in his 
work than he stood at the last convention. 
You see some new artistic stars looming 
above the horizon. Shedding their benign 
influence and proving that it is possible to 
grow by nurture in art. It is a dangerous 
thing to be satisfied with what we do or 
persuade ourselves that we are letting well 
enough alone. 

Good teaching is ready for the asking, full 
and plenty, and in a way that is assimilable. 
We may besides learn from the failing and 
shortcomings of others and from those who 
know less than ourselves. The good points 
in another man's work is a challenge to us. 

We can strive to equal or even surpass 
it. While his bad points w^e may take warn- 
ing by and avoid in our practice. Read 
I)hotographic books and journals. Sub- 
scribe for some good photographic maga- 
zine. Exchange work with your competi- 
tors — exchange ideas. Often you get the 
best of the bargain. 

If it chances that you become so well 
satisfied with your own efforts that they 
eclipse, in your own eyes, all the others, just 
retire from the profession. There is a 
fellow at your heels ready to pass. His light 
is dimming yours. 



Nou) and then it^s a 
good plan to look back 
and see the direction lue 
are traveling. 



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OUR LEGAL DEPARTMENT 

CONDUCTED BY ELTON J. BUCKLEY. ESQ. 

(Mr. Buckley is one of the leading members of the Philadelphia Bar, and an authority on legal matters. 
If our subscribers have questions on legal points, and submit them to us, Mr. Buckley will answer them 
free of charge, A stamped and addressed envelop)e must be enclosed for reply. Make your question brief 
and write on one side of the paper only.) 



If You Are a Partner, or Contemplate Becoming One, 

Read This 



One of the most curious, and in a sense 
intricate, things known to the law is the 
relation of partnership. Partnership law 
holds all sorts of traps and pitfalls for 
the unwary, and a very large percentage of 
those who enter into it appear to be "un- 
wary." 

In a former article I have pointed out the 
fact that one of the traps in partnership was 
that the relation of partner, and liability as 
a partner, can be created by actions alone and 
really against the will and intent of the party 
whom the law later says must be held respon- 
sible. 

A case has just been decided which shows 
that the converse of that is also true, and 
that a man who allows another to hold him- 
self out as his partner may actually have to 
give up an interest in the firm to that other 
just because he allowed the claim of part- 
nership to be made. 

The case referred to arose in Pennsylvania 
and is typical of many others which have 
arisen all over the country. Levi M. Paul 
and George ?Ieebner were partners in a retail 
mercantile business under the firm name of 
Heebner & Paul. Paul withdrew, took his 
capital out, and started in business for him- 
self under his own name. Later there was 
some reason to believe that he might have to 
stand good for some of the debts of Heebner 
& Paul, and he conceived what he doubtless 
believed was a very clever idea. He organ- 
ized a "partnership" with himself, his son 
Howard and his daughter Sarah, filing the 
usual certificate giving himself one-fifth 
interest and Howard and Sarah two-fifths 
each. The fact was, as developed later, that 



the whole thing was a fake, that Levi was 
and continued to be the sole owner of the 
business, and that the children were simply 
put in **to make it hard," so to speak. In 
fact, it was admitted when the thing got into 
court, that the only reason for organizing the 
partnership at all was "for the purpose of 
protecting the property of Levi M. Paul 
from possible liability for the debts of Heeb- 
ner & Paul." 

The "partners" had a falling out, and 
Howard, in spite of all the above, demanded 
his interest in the firm, and asked for an 
accounting and dissolution of the partner- 
ship. His father and sister came forward 
and defended on the ground that Howard 
had no interest in the firm, and that the 
whole thing was done for the purpose I have 
described above. The court turned the 
thing inside out and found as a fact that 
a partnership was not intended in good 
faith to be formed between the parties, 
and that plaintiff (Howard) was aware 
he was without actual interest in the 
business or its assets, and at no time 
asserted an interest until August, 1917, 
following a dispute which arose between 
him and his father. 

But in spite of all that, the court said, 
''you must give him his tivo-fifths, because 
you joined with him in a conspiracy to de- 
fraud the creditors of Heebner & Paul, and 
the law will not help you out of the en- 
tanglement which you created in the course 
of that fraudulent purpose." 

I quote the followmg from the decision : 

A voluntary conveyance made or 
contract entered into for the purpose of 



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defrauding creditors, though void as to 
them, is binding upon the parties. This 
rule is based upon the theory that, the 
contract being for an illegal purpose, 
the law will leave the parties where it 
finds them, and as between themselves 
they will not be permitted to set up their 
fraudulent act to avoid their obliga- 
tions under its terms. In applying this 
rule, the test is, whether the plaintiff 
required the aid of an illegal transaction 
to establish his case, and if he cannot 
prove his case without showing he has 
broken the law or participated in a 
fraudulent transaction, the court will 
not assist him. The rule applied in this 
case operates to prevent defendants 
from setting up as a defense the fact 
that the stipulation was filed of record 
for an illegal purpose. 
So Howard got nearly half of his father's 
business, and doubtless had to be bought off 
by the father, or continued to be a sharp 
thorn in his flesh. Readers hereof will be 
(piick to note that Howard, an admitted con- 
spirator for a fraudulent purpose, got the 
big end of the stick. In other words, while 
the others were penalized for their share in 
the fraud, he was rewarded. It seems that 
way, but not by any design of the laws, 
which pays no attention to parties, but to 
principles. The first party who comes into 
court and asks help that he may extricate 
himself from the muss his fraud has gotten 
him into, is always the one who loses, be- 
cause the court will have nothing to do with 
it. Naturally the other man benefits by that 
attitude, because it leaves him with his ill- 
gotten gains in his hand. 

The case emphasizes again the extreme 
care with which business men should go into 
partnership, or into any relation which could 
be construed into partnership, with all of its 
attendant risks and liabilities. 

f Copyright by Elton J. Buckley.) 

"If the thoughtless could always see the mess 
they make and the trouhle reciuired to repair their 
thoughtlessness. T helieve they would he ashamed 
of themselves." — .Idain SinitJi. 



At the Buffalo Convention 

Preparations for the comfort of those 
who w^ill attend the coming International 
Convention at Buffalo during the week of 
July 18th to 23d are practically complete 
and many things will be done for your wel- 
fare that have never been attempted at pre- 
vious conventions. As an example, on the 
opening day a regular get-together luncheon 
will be served, with business suspended dur- 
ing that time, so that everybody may get 
acquainted. We've seen the menu and you 
couldn't get such service for less than about 
65 cents — ^yet you'll only have to pay a dime 
for it. And then there will be a carnival 
idea with it. It promises to be a great in- 
novation. The Woman's Auxiliary of the 
P. A. of A. will look out for you and we 
are printing a letter that they have just 
sent out — but that tells the story itself, 
so here it is : 

"This year the Woman's Auxiliary of 
the P. A. of A., is planning great things. 
We have heen organized for only two 
years, so have not had much opportunity to 
be useful to the Board. But this year we 
are to help entertain the ladies attending 
the National Convention, so that no man 
can go away and say truthfully that 'taking 
the wife to the convention was an inter- 
ference'; or, 'if I had not had the Mrs. 
to look out for, I could have seen how to 
develop that new paper all the boys are 
using.' Xo, indeed ! This year friend wife 
is to he very busy, as she is to meet the 
dealers' and manufacturers' wives, and the 
wives of all the photographers, and all the 
ladies attending the convention ; in fact, 
she is to act as hostess, as the Auxiliary is 
to have headquarters right inside the hall — 
a nice place to rest and visit. Each day, 
ladies from diflferent sections are to act as 
hostesses. Don't you like this idea? 

"Then, we are to have a lovely 'tea gar- 
den' — where tea is to he served every after- 
noon, free. The ladies are also to have 
charge of this — and act as hostesses, so 
you see we need you. 

"It is a little early to plan your vacation, 
hut T know you have heen thinking about 
it ; but wherever you have planned to go 
this year, do go by way of Buffalo and 
make it in time for the National Conven- 
tion. July 18th to 23d. 

"We will have reduced railroad fares to 
Buffalo. Buy a one-way ticket and ask 
the ticket agent for a certificate for the 



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Eduard Blum 

The Photo Art Shop 

in the service of the profession 

32 South Wabash Avenue 

CHICAGO 



THE ONLY STUDIO OF ITS KIND IN AMERICA 



BE DIFFERENT FROM THE OTHER FELLOW 
BE DIFFERENT FROM YESTERDAY 



P. A. of A. ; then when you return home, 
the certificate is honored hy the railroads 
and you pay only half fare. It is impor- 
tant that you ask for the certificate. 

'The Board this year has promised the 
members the best convention ever held, and 
from plans already far advanced, I know 
it will be. There are so many new things 
a man cannot afford to miss. Just one of 
the many things they are to see this year 
is a simple process to save the silver from 
discarded developer. Do you know that 
each year your expenses to the convention 
could be saved from what is dumped down 
the sink? 

"Have a talk with friend husband today, 
and tell him what 1 have told you ; get 
him initerested enough to send in his mem- 
bership dues, if he has not already done so. 

"If this part is settled, please drop me a 
card, telling me you will be in Buffalo, so 
that I may place you on a committee where 
you can help us put the Woman's .Auxiliary 
on record this year as a big success of thf.' 
National Convention. 

"Thank you for giving me so much of 
your valuable time, and I do hope we shall 
meet this year in Buffalo. 

"Cordially yours. 

"BERTHA F. TOWLE.S, 
"Chairman." 



Individuality 

It is an absolute essential of a picture that 
it shall incorporate in some way the indi- 
viduality of the artist; and one of the chief 
arguments on which those who are ignorant 
of photography base their assumption that 
it cannot be an art is that the photograph 
cannot embody any of this individuality. Of 
course, this is absurd, as photographs can. 
and many do. No better i)roof of this can 
be found than in the ease with which the 
experienced frequenter at an exhibition can 
recognize the work of the different leading 
men. If they were not able in some way 
to impart something of their ]:ersonality t(^ 
it, this would be impossible. 

The ])hotographer who seeks to express 
himself in his work finds op|X)rtunities of 
doing so at almost every stage; but none of 
them are greater than the very first — the 
point of view. Here, at the outset, in select- 
ing his subject and in composing it, is the 
best o])ening for manifesting the individual 



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point of view. How much can be done at 
this stage is often shown at the outings of 
photographic societies, where a number of 
members turn their cameras on the same 
subject, but with vastly different resuhs. 
The scene appeals to each in some distinct 
and individual manner, and, consciously or 
not, it is that appeal which he endeavors to 
record. 

One is tempted all the time to make a 
picture on the lines of some other picture 
which may be distinctly carried in mind, or 
simply have left a faint but lasting impres- 
sion, which influences us when we are ar- 
ranging our subject, and leads us to see it, 
not through our own eyes, but through those 
of some prominent painter or photographer. 
It is this which causes such waves of fashion 
in subjects, which are very noticeable at 
times. One year birch and bracken pictures 
abound, another time ploughing subjects, 
and again views seen through open doors. 
These indicate some loss of individuality in 
the photographers, although some individual- 
ity may be manifested in the way the 
subjects are treated. 

Still, if we are to do the best of which 
we are capable, we must endeavor to put our 
own individuality into our work. There is 
scope for it, even in the details of printing 
and mounting, in the selection of mounting 
papers, and in their adaptation to the print. 
Framing, too. may show it ; and we may be 
quite sure that by handing over a picture to 
a frame-maker with just general instruc- 
tions to **put it in a nice frame," we are sac- 
rificing at least one opportunity for the 
exercise of individualitv. 



"The sum of human waste, the result of care- 
lessness, if gathered together each year would 
represent a fortune whose size would feed the 
world for 100 years." — James J. Hill. 



Where the Reflex Lights Tell 

The small spots of high-light seen in 
the eye in the portrait known technically as 
"catch-lights" and scientifically as the reflex 
lights have considerable influence upon the 
expression of the countenance, much more 
than is generally supj^sed. 

In an excellent photographic portrait; 
that is, one made by an artist who appreci- 
ates the factor of expression as an an 
asset, we never see these catch-lights out 
of place. 

But in indiff^erent work, not necessarily 
bad photographic work, but such as rele- 
gates the artistic phase to less consideration 
than the technical, these lights too often 
are incorrectly positioned. 

The question, therefore, is pertinent, how 
shall we place these reflexes and how shall 
they be put to get the best effect? 

The bright spot, or "catch-light," should 
never be seen directly on the pupil of the 
eye, but invariably upon the iris, just under 
the top lid and on the side of the eye from 
which the head is illuminated. 

The cause of going wrong, in the disposi- 
tion of these little spots, is due to the gen- 
eral custom followed by most operators of 
turning the head of the model too much in 
the direction of the dominant light so a^- 
to avoid shadow on the other side of the 
face. 

The correct way to position the lights ef- 
fectively is to turn the head away from the 
window until there is no *'catch-light" 
visible in the eye farthest away from the 
illumination, and then to proceed to slowly 
turn the head back again toward the light 
until a position is reached so that both eyes 
from the selected point of view show equal, 
or almost equal, reflexes. 



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You will generally find that so illumi- 
nated, the head is properly balanced as re- 
gards light and shadow. 

But adjustments may be made if neces- 
sary, or contrasts regulated by judicious 
use of the diffusion lens and reflector. 

Reflex lights are often put in or cor- 
rected by the artist retoucher, and in this 
way the portrait is, of course, benefited, but 
nothing equals the effect had by the direct 
way of positioning these spots. 

Ohio-Michigan-Indiana Photog- 
raphers' Association 

Information relative to the conduct of the 
projected convention of the Ohio-Michigan- 
Indiana Association, Winona Lake, Ind., in 
August next, can be at present only ten- 
tatively given as the program has not been 
yet completed. A full sketch of the plan 
of procedure is now in progress, and the 
secretary, Fred R. Bill, promises a full re- 
port at an early date. 

This assemblage of the O.-^I.-I. is to be 
called distinctively "The Opportunity Con- 
vention" because its object is to feature 
opporttmity as much as possible — an oppor- 
tunity TO LEARN. 

The projectors of this excellent and novel 
scheme of conducting a convention design 
to offer an exceptional chance or oppor- 
tunity to the photographer who is anxious 
to know what is wrong with his pictures and 
how improvement may be eflfected in his 
subsequent efforts, and this laudable ob- 
ject is to be attained through the ''Click and 
Clack Clubs/' who will discuss the merits 
as well as the shortcomings of every pic- 
ture sent in for display. The criticism will 
be done by a group of fellow-workers, fif- 
teen to twenty-five in number, whose in- 
tent and purpose is solely to suggest how 
improvement may be effected in the sub- 
mitted work. 

To increase the educational value of this 
scheme it will be under the direction and 
supervision of a competent leader, who will 
summarize all the individual criticisms. 



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Each will be entitled to his say **withoui 
let or hindrance" — about the pictures of 
all the other fellows in his group or club, 
and then each of these clubs will pick out 
from its assignment a one best picture, and 
then these various bests will be collected as 
a whole, either for general exhibition be- 
fore the convention or with their makers 
only, and receive a final criticism to select 
the supreme best of all bests, to the author 
of which will be awarded the C. and C. 
Club Trophy as his, to be held by him for 
one year, or reawarded if he should again 
win. 

. The inaugurators of this big idea hope 
to make it a permanent feature if supported 
in the enterprise by personal effort; that 
is, by response to the call for pictures and 
attendance at the convention and approval 
of this stunt. 

Now, this certainly is an idea which will 
fructify, and one which ought to receive 
unanimous acclaim. 

No judges but the contributors them- 
selves, each and every one having indi- 
vidual rights of opinion, opportunity to say 
just what he thinks and the trophy awarded 
by the verdict of all — a truly American way 
of self-administration, carrying out the 
fundamental principles of true democracy, 
liberty, fraternity and equality. 



Origin of "Penny'' as Applied 
to Nails 

The origin of the terms "six-penny," "ten- 
penny," etc., as applied to nails, though not com- 
monly known, is involved in no mystery what- 
ever. 

Nails have been made a certain number of 
pounds to the thousand for many years and are 
still reckoned in that way in England, a ten- 
penny being a thousand nails to ten pounds : 
a six-penny one thousand nails to six pounds: 
a twenty-penny weighing twenty pounds to 
the thousand : and. in ordering, buyers call for 
the three-pound, six-pound, or ten-pound variety, 
etc., until by the Englishman's abbreviation of 
"pun" for "pound," the abbreviation has been made 
to stand for penny, instead of pound, as origi- 
nally intended. — Hardware IVorld. 

"Wasting 5 minutes to repair what 5 seconds ex- 
tra care should have prevented, has kept many a 
man poor." — Peter Cooper. 

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An Eflfective Show-case 

THE LATE H. ESSENHIGH CORKE. F. R. P. S. 

I am not referring to a showcase such 
as we i)hotographers use and know, but to 
one that some photographers do. and many 
could, make profitably. Nor do I in any 
way claim originality for the idea, which 
had never before occurred to me, but dur- 
ing a recent holiday at the seaside I saw two 
very attractive large window showcases or 
frames, one in the centre of the window of 
a large dairy shop and the other fixed to 
an advertisement wall to advertise a local 
laundry firm. 

The dairy photograph was simply a pho- 
tograph of a group of cows in a meadow, 
just like many of us have made for similar 
use. while the laundry one was of a large 
drying ground, with the laundry girls hang- 
ing out lines of washing to dry ; the laundry 
buildings forming the background. This 
again being quite an ordinary sort of 
subject. 

In both cases the picture and the pho- 
tography were, in themselves, quite ordi- 
nary and straightforward, but it was the 
method of dodging that caused me. and, no 
doubt, many other people who were not i)ho- 
tographers, to pause in passing and look 
again at it, when, on closer inspection, the 
trick was, of course, apparent. 

Each picture was really composed of two 
separate photographs, one forming the 
background, while the foreground was 
formed by a separate photograph, cut out 
carefully around the chief objects and stuck 
on to the glass of the frame (which was a 
fairly deep sunk pattern), so as to give a 
distinctly showy and attractive a])]>earance 
of deej) perspective to the whole effect. 

The dairy picture consisted of a well- 
selected view of some cows in a field, with 
the farm in the distance, and on the c/lass 
was another print of a grou]) of four or fixQ 
cows, taken on a much larger scale and 
evidently much nearer the camera. 

These had evidently been photogra])hed 
especially in such a place and ])osition that 

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they appeared against a distant and very 
low horizon, which enabled the producer 
not only to have the greater part of the 
cows showing against a clear sky, so as to 
make it easy to cut the sky away, but also 
because the actual distance, which, of course, 
showed in between the animals and in be- 
tween their legs, etc., was by this means 
made to blend more harmoniously into the 
distant tones of the background picture. 

Had it not been for this very evident care 
and forethought on the part of the photog- 
rapher, the eflfect of such a combination 
might easily have been very crude and un- 
satisfactory, so that it showed that careful 
thought must be taken if this kind of picture 
is going to be made. 

In the case of the laundry advertisement, 
the background picture showed the laundry 
buildings, with several lines of washing 
hanging out to dry, while the foreground 
was composed of one line only of washing, 
with three girls hanging it out to dry. 

This was evidently a much more simple 
and easier task for the photographer, as the 
line formed by the rope and the top of the 
clothes hanging upon it made a quite natu- 
ral sort of dividing place, and, moreover, 
one that was simple and easy to cut out, so 
as not to show the division too clearly. 

Both of these advertisement cases were 
about 16 X 20 inches in size, and the prints 
were evidently bromide enlargements. 

The foreground print had been squee- 
geed into contact with the glass of the frame 
and, of course, looked quite glossy, but the 
ordinary prints that formed the background 
were upon a matte surfaced paper. Prob- 
ably those that were squeegeed were orig- 
inally on matte paper also, but the mere 
fact of squeegeeing them would take away 
the matte effect. 

I could not help thinking, and I pass on 
the thought, that the whole efiect would 
have been better if the background prints 
had been made upon glossy paper to match 
the glossy effect of the squeegeed print on 
the glass. 

Besides some amount of careful thought 



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in the planning of such pictures, there 
should not be any great difficulty in mak- 
ing them, and they certainly proved an at- 
traction and fulfilled their purpose in draw- 
ing people to look at them, so that there 
should be a good sale for these if they were 
properly introduced and well done. 

The foreground print should be made en- 
tire; that is, not cut out at all in the first 
place, and of the right depth and scale (with, 
of course, a scheme of lighting to match 
the background print), and when finished 
it should be placed in a weak solution of 
gelatine and squeegeed on to the glass in ex- 
actly the same way that those old "opalines" 
used to be made. 

Then, when thoroughly dry, the parts to 
be cut away can be cut out with a sharp 
knife from the back of the print, which 
should be held up in some sort of frame 
toward the light. 

When this has been done, then the back- 
ground print can be held in several different 



positions, so as to select the best position to 
trim it to so that it shows correctly, and the 
job is done. 

I am unable to give due credit to the man 
or the firm who was cute enough to produce 
the ones that I saw, for the very simple rea- 
son that there was no signature or name on 
either print, which can be accounted for by 
the fact that it would be a rather difficult 
matter to get a signature in the usual place 
at the bottom of the print because of its 
being squeegeed on the glass, so that unless 
one cares to put a neat, small label on the 
front of the frame, it is a little difficult to 
get one's name to show, as probably the 
customer would object to a label on the 
frame. 

This fact should be kept in mind when 
the prints are being made, and, as they can 
be made in bromide and in the enlarger, it 
will be quite an easy matter to write one's 
usual name or signature on a piece of trans- 
parent celluloid and place this against the 



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1921 CONVENTION DATES 



Place 



P. A. of A. (International) Buffalo, N. Y. 



Date 

July 18-23 



Ohio-Mich.-Ind. 
New England 
North-Central 
Pacific North- West 
New York State 



Winona Lake, Ind. 
Dates not yet settled. 
Minneapolis, Minn. 
Vancouver, B. C. 
Postponed until 1922 



J. C. Abel, 421 Caxton Bldg. 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

August 9-11 Fred. Bill, 746 Euclid Ave. 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

A. K. Peterson,. Pres. 
Hartford, Conn. 

October 3-6 J. R. Snow, Pres. 
Mankato, Minn. 

August 2-5 A.T. Bridgman, 413 Granville St. 
Vancouver, B. C, Canada. 



bromide paper during the exposure, so that 
the name is made to print in small white 
letters on the print itself. 

This is a matter that should he seen to, 
as the advertisement given to this kind of 
picture, and the evident drawing power, 
should lead to many inquiries for similar 
work. 

Knowledge For All 

Every man engaged in the business of 
photography owes to it, to himself and to 
his neighbor, as well as to himself, to keep 
the art to the highest phase of respecta- 
bility. 

Respectability is the corner-stone of all 
substantial structures of a business char- 
acter, and particularly of ours. Its hrst 
element is knowledge. To possess a good 
practical knowledge of one's business inspires 
confidence in the patron, who expects to be 
handled and managed intelligently. 

Most people are quick to detect an in- 
decision or hesitation on the part of the 
man taking the picture, which surely im- 
plies a lack of self-confidence, and reflects 
upon his ability. 

Knowledge is power and makes a man 
master of the situation, and directness of 
])urpose inspires respect. 

Every intelligent and progressive photog- 
rapher takes a photographic journal and 
keeps in line with progress. 

Yf)U must make mistakes before you make 
masterpieces. 



What's Doing in Photography 



Charles L. Lovejoy, aged 81 years, died May 7th 

at his home in Owego, X. Y., after a short illness. 

He had been a resident of Owego since shortly 

. after the Civil War and was held in highest 

esteem. His widow survives him. 

Arthur D. Wyatt, photographer of Brattlehoro. 
Vt., died on May 12th in the Presbyterian Hos- 
pital, New York, following a paralytic shock. 
Mr. and Mrs. Wyatt went to New York five weeks 
ago for a vacation. A few days later Mr. Wyatt 
became ill with pneumonia and was taken to the 
hospital. He was 62 years of age and is survived 
by his widow. 

Ben Eichelman, Kenosha, Wis., is now the ju- 
nior member of the firm of Champlain & Eichel- 
man. and is in charge of the new Champlain 
Studio which has been opened at 48O Boylston 
Street, Boston, Mass. Mr. Eichelman is in en- 
tire charge of the posing and making of photo- 
graphs in the studio and he is to put into prac- 
tice there many of his ideals which were worked 
out in Kenosha. 

Reorganization of the Minneapolis Photo Club. 
Minneapolis, Minn., with intentions of seeking 
affiliation with the . Photographers' Association of 
America, was begun at a meeting of Minneapolis 
photographers in the Andrews Hotel on May 9th. 
Completion of plans for reorganization and the 
laying of plans for a membership drive will take 
place at a meeting on May 23, members of the 
Club announced. The Club will seek to join the 
P. A. of A. at its annual convention in Buffalo. 
July 18th to 23d. 

.\nouncement was made on .Mav 13th that 
deorge 11. Pittman & Bro.. dealers in wholesale 
photographic supplies. Dallas. Texas, had pur- 
chased the wholesale stock of C. Weichsel Coni- 
panv, Dallas, consolidating the two into the larg- 
est house of the kind outside of Chicago. Tho 
Pittinan tirni has been in business here twenty- 
one years, since George H. Pittman and Ed F. 
IMttman purchased the stock of S. T. Blessing. 
The Weichsel house has been here twenty-eight 
\cars. The combined house does business in 



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Texas, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Louisiana and Xew 
Mexico. 

Ed F. Pittman is the active head of the busi- 
ness. S. S. Griffith, formerly manager for 
Weichsel, is now with the consolidated house. 



A campaij^n to bring every commercial pho- 
tojjrapher of Spokane, Wash., into the Spokane 
Photographers' Association was launched at a 
meeting of the camera men on May 16th. Five 
new members were signed up, which increases 
the membership to 80 per cent, of its possible 
strength. 

The campaign followed a conference of the 
I hotographers with Thomas Gagnon, of Tacoma, 
who visited Spokane in the interest of the Pho- 
tographers' Association of the Pacific Xorth- 
wcst, of which he is president. He was enter- 
tained at a dinner at the Davenport Hotel. 

The Spokane photographers will endeavor to 
engage a special car for the annual convention 
of the Xorthwestcrn Association in Vancouver, 
B. C, August 2d, 3d. 4th and 5th. The Spokane 
n'eml)ership now includes J. L. Phelps, W. T. 
Tolman, Charles A. Libby, W. W. Phillips. F. J. 
Uke, F. H. Ingalls, M. B. Martin. C F. Solder- 
berg, George F. Romaine, O. L. P. Angvire, J. F. 
Campion. R. D. Lockwood, Robert Smith, Jr.. 
and William Card, of Cheney. 



War Amongst Photographers 

Suits for damages for libel aggregating $20.- 
000 were filed in the Superior Court by J. C. 
Dtane, photographer, of Rome, Ga., against 
Thurston Hatcher, Atlanta photographer, and the 
Southern Photo Material Company, of Atlanta. 
Each defendant was sued in a separate petition 
for $10,000. 

The plaintiff alleges that on February 2, 1921, 
there appeared in Photo Lore, a journal published 
by the Southern Photo Materials Company, 
in Atlanta, a statement to which his name was 
signed, setting out that "owing to a disagreement 
l;etween him and Thurston Hatcher over the il- 
legal election of Mr. liurgert, of Florida, as vice- 
president, petitioner thereby tendered his resig- 
nation as secretary of the Southeastern Photog- 
raphers* .Association": and followed with a state- 
ment signed by Thurston Hatcher, setting out, 
.':mong other things, that J. A. Murdock, of At- 
lanta, Ga., "a live wire," had been appointed to 
succeed Mr. Deane as secretary. Mr. Oeane al- 
leges that he had signed a resignation, but had 
recalled it, and that Photo Lore had no right to 
print it. and the publication of the article and 
.Mr. Hatcher's announcement bad caused him to 
be held up to ridicule through the Southeast. 



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NEW BULLETIN (No. 137) 

JUST OUT 

CONTAININO BARGAINS IN CAMKRAS. LKNSKS 
AND KVKRYTHINO PHOTOGRAPHIC 

WILLOUGHBY'S "» S'^^^d?^^ 



A RARE CHANCE TO 
SECURE NUMBERS OF 

"Camera Work" 

C)NCBDBD to be theiiandtomett magarine ever pub- 
lished for loven of photographic art. The magasiiiet 
are made up of pictures (with a little descriptive text) 
from photographs taken by those famous and original 
in photography. 

Many of the Ane photogravures contained in C^mw 
Work cannot be replaced, and all of them are worthy of 
framing. Many of the editions command three to four 
times their original publication price. We can supply 
copies of the following issues at $1.35 per copy, postpaid. 
Volunu No. DaU . Platts by 

4 .... October. 1903 .... Frederick H. Evans 

5 . . . . January, 1904 Robert Demachy 

10 April. 1905 Gertrude Kasebier 

U .... July. 1^5 .... David OcUvius Hill 
22 .... April. 1908 .... Eduard J. Steichen 

29 .... January. 1910 George H. Seeley 

31 .... July. • 1910 Frank Eugene 

32 October. 1910 J. Craig Annan 

36 ... . October. 191 1 .... Alfred Steiglits 

37 January. 1912 David Octavius Hill 

40 October. 1912 .... Baron A. de Meyer 

41 January. 1913 Julia Margaret Cameron 

47 Called the Famous " 291 " (no illustrations). 

Specials Nos. 2 and 3. suiUble for art students, will be 
mailed at 90c. per copy. Cubistic — not photographic. 



"?S^}j-« 



1913 



/ Cesanne. Van Gogh. 
- ' t Picasso. Picabia 



FRANK V. CHAMBERS 

636 Franklin Square Philaddphia 



One of the best, as well as 
one of the rarest hooks on 
art and a}mposiHon is — 

"R urnet's 
pP ssays on /\ rt 

Single copies of the original editions 
have been sold as high as $100.00. 
It has been reprinted in a limited 
edition of only 1000 copies. WiU 
you have one? 

Send $2.00 and get a 
copy at once. 

Pottage 15 centi extra. 



FRANK V. CHAMBERS 

636 Franklin Square, Philadelphia 



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"A Manual fuU of good wholesome material 
and a valnahle reference hook for every mem- 
heroftheprofettion, hig or little." 



How to Make a Studio Pay 

BY FRANK FARRINCTON 



CONTENTS 

The Man and the Location 
Buying and Arranging the Stock 
System in the Studio 
The Treatment of Customers 
How to Know the Profits 
Credit and Collections 
Developing the Side Lines 
Advertising You Can Do 
Business-Getting Schemes 



Qotfa Boond, Price, $1.50, Net, Postpaid 
FRANK V. CHAMBERS 

PUBLISHER 

636 S. FRANKUN SQUARE, PHILADELPHIA 



A NEW EDITION 



WALL'S 

Dictionary of Photography 

— lOth Edition- 
Ready for delivery 
TOO Pages :: 2000 References 

Revised and re-written with full 
explanatory text. 

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FRANK V. CHAMBERS 

Tradk Aoknt 

636 South Franklin Square 

Philadelphia 



Avoidable Troubles 

In photography, as in most other ordinary oc- 
cupations of life, the greater proportion of our 
troubles is either of our own making or at least 
due to a want of care and foresight. When we 
see the condition into which many photographers 
allow their apparatus to get, we cannot help 
feeling that they liave better luck than they de- 
serve. The camera is the photographer's best 
friend, but, unfortunately, it is not always treated 
with due respect and consideration. American 
business men are fond of displaying a card which 
in bold type bids you to "Do it Now," and the 
wise photographer obeys the mandate, and ad- 
justs, repairs, and refits his camera as soon as 
occasion for doing so arises. Many plates are 
lost both in the studio and the field through worn- 
out or missing screws, swing backs which will not 
clamp, racks which allow the pull of the bellows 
to shift the back, badly fitting reversing frames, 
and leaky slides, singly or in combination, may 
cause the loss of a valuable negative, which would 
have been easily obtained if the camera had been 
kept in perfect working order. How often does 
one see a lens properly hooded or shaded either 
for indoor or outdoor use? And how often does 
one sec flatness and fog on negatives which can 
be definitely attributed to this cause. A formula 
which can be relied upon to produce poor nega- 
tives is to use an imperfectly cleaned lens minus 
a shade and to give a short exposure because the 
plates *'fog so easily if the exposure is a bit full !" 
Forty years ago, when plates were slow and lenses 
liad small apertures, every care was taken to 
prevent any extraneous light from reaching the 
lens or plate; now, with ultra rapid plates and 
lenses of high intensity, no such precautions are 
thought of. Why not? 

Another avoidable trouble . is the flatness caused 
by too high a temperature during development. 
Many photographers spoil their negatives by 
altering their formula as soon as warm weather 
starts causing a noticeable difference in quality. 
This is the wrong way to set to work; use the 
normal developer and cool to the normal tem- 
perature with ice. 

Carelessness in weighing and measuring chem- 
icals, or, worse still, guessing at quantities, is a 
fruitful source of trouble, needing only to be 
mentioned to be avoided. Not long ago we saw 
an operator dipping out sulphite with a card- 
board box which he believed to hold 4 ounces; 
on a doubt being expressed, he weighed a box- full 
and was surprised to find that he had just double 
that quantity. 

"Matter in the wrong place," otherwise dirt, is 
at the bottom of many mysterious worries, and 
we would commend to the present generation of 
photographers the warning common enough years 
ago, "Always consider tliat the dust of a dark 
room is hypo." Many spots and streaks will be 
avoided if this caution is borne in mind, for not 
only is there hypo in the dust, but possibly ferri- 
cyanide, persulphate and half a dozen other re- 



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THE BO OK YO U NEED 

The Commercial Photographer 

By L. G. ROSE 

148 Paget 85 lUustraHoM 

Price, in cloth, $4.00 per copy ; postage 15 cents extra 

INCLUDING PRICES CHARGED IN TWO LARGE CITiES 



A work by a thoroug;hly competent and widely experienced commercial 
photographer of the highest reputation. 

Every branch of the subject treated with a view for presentation of 
the essentials. The various appliances discussed, best methods of ex- 
posure, illumination and graphic presentation to ensure a successful outcome. 

It is a book essentially for the commercial man and meets every requirement. Profusely 
illustrated with examples of work of varied kind. 

The book will be found of pertinent interest not only to the trade photographer but also 
to the specialist. The application of photography is considered in its bearings upon the com- 
mercial man, the architect, the tradesman, the physician, the lawyer and the scientist, by one who 
has had very extensive experience in the different kinds of work required. 

The present edition is limited and we have a firm conviction when the value of the work 
becomes apparent, that it will be speedily exhausted. 

We therefore advise you to secure copy, and not lose the opportunity or suffer from the 
necessity of waiting for a second edition of the work. 

At Your Dealer'9 or Direct from the PuhUther 

FRANK V. CHAMBERS, •«• ^^':3gSiif**"*~ 



agents. A practice which was almost universal 
a few years back seems to be falling into disuse; 
this is the "swabbing" of negatives with a pad 
of cottonwool or piece of soft wash leather under 
the tap after washing and before placing in the 
drying rack. Some water leaves quite a per- 
ceptible precipitate upon the film either during 
washing or more often in developing. This cannot 
be removed by any amount of spraying, but gentle 
rubbing fetches it away at once. Much annoyance 
may be saved by preventing the movements of 
prints in the frames by providing a soft yet firm 
felt pad for each of the latter, at the same time 
better contacts being secured. 

All this seems very trivial and perfectly ob- 
vious to the old hands; but there are now many 
hundreds of workers in photography who have 
picked up their knowledge under conditions which 
are far from perfect, and it is upon them we 
wish to impress a few of the trifles which help 
to make up perfection. — The British Journal of 
Photography. 

* 

That kodak department clerk never did get it 
through his head how that cavalry man objected 
to his prints unmounted when most of the pic- 
tures were of himself on horseback. 
* 

"He told me his was the leading store in the 
town !" 

"He was right as far as he went. But I 
guess he didn't tell you which way the stores in 
his town were headed." 



Jack Is Dull No Longer! 

Time was when all work and no play made the 
life of the average American business man com- 
paratively a humdrum one. 

No longer does the executive toil early and late 
six days in the week and on the seventh take a 
package of left-over jobs home with him. For 
he has discovered that more work can be done, 
more results accomplished, if one or two or even 
more of the week's seven days are occupied in 
building physical and mental vigor against the 
concentrated demands of the other five days. 

There are so many things to do with a holiday 
or half holiday that were unknown in the days 
of our fathers. Excellent highways make it easy 
to get out into the cool, green country. Count- 
less golf courses and hundreds of thousands of 
golfers indicate that the Scotch national pastime 
is in a fair way to become America's national 
pastime also. And soon the time will come when 
every tired business man has his own little air 
bus in which he may take the family, or some- 
one's family, for a spin of an afternoon or 
evening. 

It still may be said truly of this country that 
we have no leisure class, though some large em- 
ployers of labor might contradict this statement 
in sarcastic vein. Rut we are moving rapidly 
toward a saner era of suitably combined work 
and play which will keep Jack from being dull 
without making him a mere shirk. 



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More than 80^/c of the X-Ray workers of 
America use Eastman Tested Chemicals 

They must eliminate the element of 
uncertainty from their work. 

The surgeon's knife is guided by a 
diagnosis of the X-Ray result. 

Your results are not a matter of life or 
death, but they are a matter of dollars 
and cents. 

Specify 

EASTMAN 
TESTED CHEMICALS 



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Miaccllancous advertisements. Minimum charge. fl.OO lor 
thirty words; additional words, 3 cents each. 

Help Wanted— Two insertions of twenty-one words, minimum 
charge. 50 cents; additional words, 2 cents each- Cash must 
accom pany order. 

Situation Wanted— Twenty-one words, one time, free. Addi- 
tional words. 2 cents each. 

No display allowed — Ca»h mutt he sent with order. 

Display advertising rates sent upon request. 

Copy must be plain and distinct. 

To secure insertion, advertisements must be received by 9 
A. M., Tuesdays, one week preceding date of publication. 



DO YOU WANT A POSITION? 

Read the ads, that follow 

Wanted - First-class Retoucher. One who has a 

knowledge of Printing. Carl K. Frey, 247 

Genesee St., Utica, N. Y. 

Wanted— Expert fast retoucher to take charge of 
a high-class portrait finishing room. Prefer a man 
whose past experience will enable him to use execu- 
tive ability in employing retouchers. Address, 
Morrall Studios, 154 East Ave., Rochester, N. Y. 

Oper.\tor Wanted in studio doing high-grade 
work; prominent city in Middle Atlantic States. 
Excellent salary and permanent position to man 
with ability. State particulars and qualifications. 
Address, Box 959 care of Bulletin of Photog- 
raphy. _ 

Help Wanted — Amateur finisher, either lady or 
gentleman; wonderful climate; ocean bathing the 
year around; delightful American colony; chance to 
learn Spanish, and live with employer. Hayman, 
Mayaguez, Porto Rico. 

DO YOU WANT AN EMPLOYEE? 

Read the ads, that follow 

Position Wanted — Operator, manager, thorough 
in every department, especially retouching. 
Anderson, 179 Henrietta St., Rochester. N. Y. 

Position Wanted — By lady well experienced in 
all branches of photography, including operat- 
ing, retouching and coloring in oil or water colors. 
Would like to connect with well-equipped studio, 
preferably in the East. Address, Box 957 care of 
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For Sale— Press Graflex 5x7. magazine, $150; 
63^x8>^ Goerz Dagor Lens /6.8, focus 9K-in, 
$50; 5x8 Bausch & Lomb Tessar Lens Ic /4.5, 
focus 8>^-in. $50. Private party. 929 North 
Franklin Street, Philadelphia. 

Retouching acquired in 30 to 90 days by the 
Clarke system of teaching. Only school of its 
class in the country. Limited registration. Act 
quickly. Clarke School of Retouching, 750 E. 47th 
St., Chicago, 111. 



Mount Salesman 

Experienced to sell to Photo Supply 
Houses and to call on photographers. 

Half of the time required on road- 
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Jack: "Which do you consider the best years, 
of a woman's life?" 

Mac: "Oh, the first five years she's eighteen, 
I should S3iy V— Cartoons Magazine. 



Reliable Photo Supply Houses 



JOHN HAWORTH COMPANY 

(Eaftman Kodak Co.) 
1«20 COiestnut Street, Philadelphia 



THE H. LIEBER COMPANY 
24 W. Washingtoii St. - Indianapolis, Ind. 

Western Photo & Supply Co. 

Photographers' & Photo En^avers' Supplies 

328 W. Madison St., Chicago 

WILLOUGHBY "^^ryORK* 
ETerything Used i n Photography 

SWEET, WALLACH & CO. 

(Baatman Kodak Co.) 

133 No rth Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. 

SUSSMAN PHOTO STOCK CO. 
223-225 Park Avenue, Baltimore, Md. 



Norman-Willets Photo Supply 

— INCORPORATBD 

St2.St3 LE MO YNE BLDG. r- H f r A ro 

18t N. WABASH AVE. i> H I i> A U U 

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(Eaatman Kodak Co.) 
380-384 Minnesota St., St. Paul, Minn. 



HYATT'S SUPPLY CO. 
417 North Broadway, St. Louis, Mo. 

STANDARD PHOTO SUPPLY CO. 

(Eastman Kodak Co.) 

125 Baronne St., New Orleans, La. 



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Make portrait enlargements 
on the paper made for por- 
trait enlarging — the paper 
that puts contact quality in 
projected prints: 

EASTMAN 
PORTRAIT 
BROMIDE 

Two stocks— D White, E BufF. 
Two surfaces in each — Rough 
Matte and Rough Lustre. The 
price is the same as for double 
weight Artura Iris. 



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A Britisher'^ 5 Opinion 



*' Speaking as a technical worker, I do not 
think there has been anything in my time 
which has marked such a distinct advance in 
the quality and usefulness of photographic 
material as Eastman Portrait Film. When I 
say Eastman Portrait Film, of course, I include 
Commercial, Commercial Ortho and Process 
Film. 

'* The one thing about Films which induced 
me to use them instead of glass plates was the 
very important fact that they enabled me to 
make better negatives." 

Mr. S. GrimshaWy Official Photographer 
to Forti Motor Co. y Manchester^ England. 



There's a Film for practically every commer- 
cial need — Eastman Portrait, Commercial 
Ortho, Commercial and Process. 



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Relieve the 
Pressure 



TO get the most out of the photofinishing 
harvest season— delegate your routine 
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An electric motor maintains correct drum 
speed always, independent of changing water pressures. FVints are separated 
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A foot lever lifts the drum nearly out of the water for removal of prints. 
The open door forms the draining tray for wet prints. 

Three batches of prints per hour are washed under average conditions. 

The PA:KO Washer leaves its operator free three-fourths of the time for 
other work. It requires no attention other than loading and unloading. 

The RAKQ Washer is a year 'round cost saver and money maker— but it 
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The price of $150.00 is guaranteed for the year 1921. 

Relieve the pressure— turn out quality prints in 
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THE WEEKLY BUSINESS PAPER FOR BUSINESS PHOTOGRAPHERS 

636 Franklin Square (cor. 7th and Race Sis.) Philadelphia 

FRANK V. CHAMBERS, Editor and Publisher JOHN BARTLETT, AsMcute Editor 

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Vol. XXVra, No. 723 



Wednesday, June IS, 1921 



Price 5 Cents 
$2.00 per Year, Post Free 



Ethical Duty of the Photographer 



Undoubtedly man, early in his existence, 
must have made inquiry as to the cause of 
natural phenomena but, naturally, referred 
happenings to supernatural agency and re- 
mained satisfied. 

Experimental science really did not begin 
until about the tenth century A. D.. and not 
then from a desire to study nature, but to 
find out the philosopher's stone. But the 
alchemists stimulated the minds of a few 
geniuses, like Bacon and Alburtus Magnus, 
who sought to find the reason for the oc- 
currence of phenomena. 

The marvelous Greek mind, to be sure, 
by a sort of scientific intuition evolved 
theories of the nature of things, which mod- 
ern science still holds to be a possible solu- 
tion, but, as a rule, they discouraged experi- 
mental investigation, which was left to the 
philosophers of the sixteenth century to in- 
augurate, and whose beginnings have re- 
sulted in the marvelous discoveries of the 
present. 

We photographers, in the course of our 
work, employ many diflferent chemical 
bodies and call forth performances which 
must, at times, evoke inquiry why things act 
in a certain way, as if they were subject to 
some unseen agency, directing them to a 



fore-ordained end. That is to say, they are 
invariable in action, and, so much so, that 
when the performance goes contrary to one's 
anticipation, we look for some irregularity 
which has invaded orderly conduct of the 
agents employed and the patient investigator 
of the cause of some persistent behavior is 
often rewarded by a discovery of some valu- 
able adjunct to his force, for investigation. 

In the course of our work, we make use 
of many chemical bodies, and often subject 
them to untried conditions. We succeed, in 
a mechanical way, independent of special 
chemical or physical information and there 
rest. But while it may be our privilege to 
l)e placed in a position, with the possibility 
of finding out something new, it is selfish to 
]ye contented with the present gain and not 
he willing to try to investigate the rationale 
of things, so as to benefit others, by reducing 
operations to general principles instead of 
on mere empirical formulae. 

It is a growing conviction whether all 
chemical changes may not be due to actual 
physical operations, that the special phenom- 
ena of photographic activity is only a dis- 
turbance of equilibrium. 

Theory, of course, but we do know that 
under the mere direct influence of heat, sul- 



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phur and phosphorous are transformed 
physically; their molecular structure being 
so altered as to give them entirely different 
physical properties. 

Crystaline, selenium under ordinary cir- 
cumstances, is not a good conductor of elec- 
tricity but becomes so when light falls upon 
it. And there are numerous other examples. 
Chlorine and hydrogen gasses may sport 
around unassociated in a receiver, but let a 
ray of light strike them and they rush to 
embrace. 

This looks as if light was the agent in 
combination, but it is really a decomposing 
influence, for the chlorine, which was once 
thought to be elemental and indestructible, 
is broken up and thus put in shape to com- 
bine. Many unexpected things take place 
from the experimenter refusing to implicitly 
rely upon the performance of things to be 
invariably identical. 

Tempered scepticism is essential to prog- 
ress and in the code of science the investi- 
gator is not damned for doubting. 

The time is past when he was thought im- 
pious or presumptuous to inquire into ulti- 
mate cause. Rational progress has made it 
man's ethical duty to seek and to find, and 
he is accounted an unprofitable servant when 
he shirks his responsibility by burying his 
talent. 

The Rainbow Chaser 

C. H. CLAUDY 

There is no better business than the pho- 
tographic business. There is no finer pro- 
fession than the profession of making por- 
traits. There is no better game than your 
game. 

If you don't find it so, it's because you 
are not playing the game as well as it can 
l>e played. If you are not playing the game 
as well as it can be played, the chances are 
that one of the reasons is because you spend 
so much time chasing the tail end of a 
rainbow. 

There are so many rainbows. There is 
a chap up the street whose sign reads 



**Stocks and Bonds," but it ought to be 
"High Grade Rainbows For Sale." There 
is an oval piece of earth somewhere in your 
vicinity which is called a race track, but its 
real name is "Rainbow Track." There is 
a round green table in a club in your city, 
which half a dozen fellows in shirt sleeves 
and tobacco smoke call a poker table, but 
it's really a "Rainbow Table." There are 
nice-looking mer^ who come into your es- 
tablishment to sell you shares in a new 
patent, an oil well, a radium mine or a sub- 
marine flying machine. They call them- 
selves advance agents of prosperity', but 
their other name is "Purveyor of Rainbows 
to the Innocent." There are salesmen for 
concerns manufacturing new photographic 
"specialties," who want to load you up with 
ten thousand mounts or nineteen thousand 
folders or forty cases of patent double-tone 
plates or something. They call themselves 
traveling men, but unless they are selling 
regular goods to a regular portrait artist, 
they are really advance agents of the pot 
of gold supposed to lie beneath the arched 
end of the colored bow of promise, which 
we all see in the financial sky when we stop 
looking for real dollars right under our 
noses. 

Why chase rainbows? 

Li Hung Chang refused to go to, or bet 
upon, a horse race, because he said it had 
been demonstrated that one horse could run 
faster than another. So it has. We have 
possibility of finding the caudal appendage 
to a Robert-tailed blush on the face of four 
cards, but we do not recall as many times 
when we succeeded as when we shoved over 
a stack and saw it disappear in the other 
fellow's pile. As between trying to knock 
out Dempsey with one hand tied behind us. 
and trying to show Wall Street what it 
doesn't know about stocks, we'll take our 
chances on the Big Fellow. 

Why are you not as wise as these? 

You are. Man, did you never chase a 
rainbow? Did you never follow anything 
else but the little tin god Success in your 
business ? Then you are one of the photog- 



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raphers who are lolling back in a five- 
thousand-dollar limousine, reading over 
your income tax report l)efore drawing 
your five-figure check, on your way between 
your city and your country home. 

Any one can do anything he wants in the 
way of success. All he has to do is want 
hard enough. Any one can make a success 
out of racing or the stock market or playing 
poker if he wants that more than anything 
else, just as any one can make himself into 
a great success as a portrait photographer if 
he wants to badly enough to do the neces- 
sary hard work. But the man never lived 
who could make a great success of rainbow 
chasing and legitimate business at the same 
time. 

Nay, gentle reader, this is not a moral 
lecture. There is nothing wrong with the 
bang-tails, nor the elusive pasteboards, nor 
the playthings of bulls and bears. There 
is nothing wrong with a golf ball nor a 
canoe nor a dancing floor nor an automo- 
bile. But the portrait photographer, who 
spends most of his time figuring how he 
can reduce his average from 102 to 87, or 
how he can get off fifteen days in every 
month of summer to go canoeing with a 
girl, or how he can close early and open 
late trying to rival Terpsichore, or how he 
can swipe time from business to take a 
week-end motor trip every week that begins 
Thursday and ends Tuesday, isn't going to 
make any remarkable success out of por- 
traiture. 

And the principle is the same whether 
the rainbow he chases is pleasure via sport 
or cash via chance. Either way it's a rain- 
bow, and neither way is a good way to 
make the customer think you are "it" when 
it comes to making pictures. 

All work and no play makes the photog- 
rapher a poor fish. But too much play 
makes him a mud-turtle. 

The only free thing in the world is air. 
For everything else we have. to pay. We 
have to pay for success. Ready-made suc- 
cesses are never real successes, any more 
than finding a million dollars in the street 



can produce the same kind of joy as making 
a thousand by work. The price any one 
has to pay for success is only loving his 
job and putting it first. If he does that, he 
can't help succeeding. If he doesn't suc- 
ceed, either he doesn't put his job first or 
doesn't love it well enough to know it. Any 
failure in the world can be put down to one 
of these two reasons. Chasing rainbows is 
a result of not loving the job enough to 
put it first or not loving it well enough to 
know it. 

Buying too much, charging too little, un- 
der advertising to save money, over adver- 
tising to make too greedy a profit, trying to 
be too many jumps ahead and so producing 
outre styles, insisting on being so conserva- 
tive as to be l)ehind the style, failure to 
spend enough on equipment, spending too 
much on equipment — these are all examples 
of chasing rainbows, just like trying to pick 
the winner in the Futurity, bluffing the chap 
who holds four aces, or beating the stock 
market out a fortune with a shoe string and 
a ten-point margin. 

It can't be done. The heartbroken 
kiddie, who tramps all day after the end 
of the beautiful rainbow, only to be brought 
home by a friendly policeman at night, is 
but a prototype. The main diff'erence be- 
tween the baby and the man grown up is 
that the grown-up man usually has to sub- 
stitute "Receiver" for "Policeman" and the 
"Poor House" for "Home." 

Anyway, all rainbows are lots prettier to 
look at than to locate. 



The seedy-looking individual's shirt was far 
from spotless and his ccat and vest were covered 
with grime and grease, but in his buttonhole he 
sported a red, red rose. 

"Where do you suppose I got this?" he asked 
an acquaintance. 

**I don't know," admitted the other. "Maybe 
it grew there." — The American Legion IVeekly. 

An amateur play was being staged and Smith 
had the traditional single line : "My lord, the 
carriage waits without." 

He had been carefully drilled and thought he 
was letter perfect until, just before going on. he 
was seized with an attack of stage fright. Da.sh- 
ing onto the stage, he bellowed : 

"My God! The taxi's outside!" — The Ameri- 
can Legion Weekly. 



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Something About Background Relation 



The best advice to the portrait photog- 
rapher, who is desirous of keeping his sub- 
ject in proper relation with its background 
setting, is to refer him to the painter of por- 
traits; because, if we examine the paintings 
by the masters of portraiture and analyze 
the work, as to the significance of the back- 
ground, we note that the great factor of 
harmony of relation is in the perfection with 
which the background is adapted to the cir- 
cumstances imposed by the motive expressed 
in figure. 

The figure certainly demands the first con- 
sideration, but it is patent to every artistic 
photo portraitist that, in a good many photo- 
graphs, the background has primarily en- 
gaged the attention. It has evidently been 
selected for its intrinsic value without refer- 
ence to its congruity with the portrait study. 

Not that the portrait has not had due 
consideration, but Ijecause the background 
has had injudicious consideration, and, fine 
as it is as a thing in itself, it serves only to 
nullify the virtues of the subject by present- 
ing two things simultaneous as worthy our 
admiration. 

Now the painter is not up against the 
same temptation besetting the photographer, 
because, as a rule, the portraitist with the 
brush is not skilled in all phases of art. He 
is particularly skilled in his own special 
province, while the successful camera por- 
traitist can call upon the scenic artist to sup- 
ply him with most delectable background 
settings, and all kinds are at ready disposal. 

A comparison of the different presenta- 
tions in background used by painters will 
reveal the fact that a background is first of 
all conceived, either as a mere surrounding 
to the figure, whose limit is the borders of 
the canvas, and. therefore, rather quiet and 
wholly unobtrusive, or as an accessory to 
the portrait, to emphasize some feature of 
value in it. 

With bust portraits, it is inadmissible to 
make the background in any degree promi- 
nent. That is because the artist is under 



constraint with such a limited presentation 
of the human figure and dares not introduce 
anything in the background which may in 
any way look out of place with a mere head. 
Because of this restriction, he is not forced 
to have his ground monotonously uniform 
throughout. The good portraitist knows 
that suggestion of atmosphere about the 
mere head presentation will not only not l^e 
out of relation, but may l)e made to play an 
eflPective role in increasing the interest in the 
head as shown. The background may be 
made atmospheric by giving it soft gradation 
from high to low tone. 

With half-length pictures, the admission 
of some little variety in the background may 
be safely indulged in, at times even desirable. 

A landscape oflFers, for instance, peculiar 
charms and often admirably sets off the 
figure, but care must be taken to preserve 
the proper relation. It is just here that the 
most egregious mistakes are made by some 
of our best photo-portraitists. 

Where scenic backgrounds are employed, 
the greatest care is necessary to study the 
perspective. 

Most of such grounds give too extensive 
prospect and the artistic sense is deluded by 
the initial beauty of the scene, to the forget- 
ting of the imposed conditions under which 
the studio picture must be taken. 

We look, for instance, at a very pretty 
scene, a well studied piece of composition 
with a pleasing foreground, and call it into 
immediate service to introduce a figure in it 
from life, without any consideration that the 
size of the figure is wholly out of proportion 
with it. The introduced subject suggests 
Gulliver in Lilliput. The motive of the fig- 
ure, besides, is lost in the superabundance 
of the approximate detail which challenges 
our attention. The lines in the perspective 
take the eye away from the chief object of 
the picture, perhaps away up some charming 
lane. 

If we should make our figure of a size to 
fit in with such a landscape and to have it in 



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Syracuse. N. Y. 
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proper perspective, it would have to be so 
diminutive as not to be accounted a portrait, 
but only something accessory to the scene. 

Murillo has a picture which is called "The 
Flower Girl." There are numerous chromos 
and engravings of it, and the photographer 
could study from it how to introduce an in- 
teresting background, and, at the same time, 
increase the interest of his picture. There 
is a wall shown in the background, and a 
quite well defined one, too, for you see it is 
a stone wall and it gives evidence of solidity, 
it will allow the girl to lean on it, if she 
should so desire — however, she is not lean- 
ing on it. It will not topple over like a 



studio accessory, but note how quietly it per- 
forms its part, how it retreats, exposing the 
lovely posed hand, leading the eye into the 
distance down toward the horizon, right in 
the direction of the girl's head. 

The girl gives us the suggestion of mus- 
cular resistance. She is actually sitting. You 
see all in perfect harmony. Each part plays 
its proper part to unity of expression. There 
is atmosphere alx)ut the figure. It comes 
forward without projecting too much, and 
just recedes to the right degree. All accom- 
plished by the skillful way in which the 
lights and darks of the picture in figure and 
in background are arranged and harmonized. 



Costs and Bad Practices 



When I entered the commerical photo- 
graphic business 18 years ago, the rule of 
the game was, find out the price your com- 
petitor is charging on a certain customer's 
work, then cut the price enough to get the 
work yourself. Under this practice enough 
time was spent and enough money lost to 
the craft, to pay able accountants a good fee 
for putting all the photographers in the 
country on a sound cost-working basis. 
From this bad practice and the absence of 
any attempt to learn what it costs to make 
and sell, has grown all the ills the craft is 
heir to at the present moment. 

Moreover, the photographer has lost the 
respect that other manufacturers have and 
deserve. Other businesses treat the average 
photographer as a loose, unbusinesslike in- 
dividual, who can l)e bluflPed and bantered 
to do his work at any })rice he wishes to 
name. This is because no photographer 
knew what it cost him to produce, and he 
knew his competitor did not know and was 
ready to believe anything his prospect told 
him of the other fellow. In fact, he en- 
joyed to hear his prospect browbeat his 
fellow-craftsman and felt so flattered that 
he usually lost his bearing completely. 

Since the day the Kodak and roll film 
started, we have had a tremendous propa- 
ganda against us. Xot in the Kodak and 



its use as such, but in the abuses that fol- 
lowed its appearance. 

Drug stores and other houses, catering to 
amateurs, put out a sign to the public, 
"Films developed free," thus advertising 
photography, in the eye of the public, as a 
cheap thing. Small prints were made far 
below a profit to the maker and below what 
the i)ublic was willing to pay and was pay- 
ing for other forms of amusements. 

Everyone who has tried to discover the 
logic of this, has come to the conclusion that 
no business is gained by it, no more films 
were brought in for development and no 
increase was noted in the number of prints 
ordered from the films developed "free." 

If there had l)een an increase in the num- 
ber of prints ordered or an increase in the 
money sj^ent for these photographs, there 
might 1)e a vestige of argument to prove it 
justifiable foolishness and nothing more. 
But it had a far more reaching bad effect 
on all photographs. It shaped the public's 
thinking and made photographs discard for 
the waste basket and the gutter. 

Then what happened? — the most natural 
thing in the world — the photographs had 
been brought down to a penny proposition 
for the sake of the amateur; then some 
long-headed idiot with a short-sighted brain 
devised the penny photograph. Who made 



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money out of the penny picture? Three 
people, that is all. The man who made and 
sold the outfit, the man who made the ma- 
terial, and an insignificant small part of the 
public, hut never the photographer. 

Every photographer who adopted it ran 
an eleemosynary institution until he ran out 
of funds, then had to work night and day 
on legitimate work to catch up, but he 
hasn't caught up with his self-respect yet. 

Now, gentlemen, we have this bread-and- 
butter game of ours brought down to a 
penny basis, both in the amateur and pro- 
fessional field. 

Then what happened? Every occasion 
that arose where the photographer was con- 
fronted with an unusual opportunity to cash 
in on some exceptional demand, a group al- 
ways came forward with an idea that spoiled 
the chances of any one to make good. 

They not only killed the immediate op- 
portunity, but forced photography still 
lower down the scale that measures success. 

I was in hope that this practice had died 
with the turmoil that came with the war, 
but it did not ; it is still with us. To prove 
this, I will cite two instances that have hap- 
pened recently: 

The city council in Chicago saw what a 
terrible plight our photographers were in 
from the penny picture abuse, so out of 
the charitable feeling in their hearts, they 
enacted a law compelling every person own- 
ing an automobile and each member of his 
family driving it. to have his picture taken 
and register a print with the police depart- 
ment and carry another in. his pocket for 
identification in case he got into the wrong 
car and attempted to drive home with it. 

What a beneficent thing this was for the 
Chicago photographers — two hundred thou- 
sand automobile owners — a total of three 
hundred thousand drivers, all prosperous 
and free spenders. 

But again what happened? 

Some legitimate profit-loving and profit- 
seeking portrait men tried to realize on this 
ordinance, but the same old propaganda was 
with us and the golden opportunity went 



glimmering by, without a murmur and with- 
out a fight, the men who should have been 
up and pronounced against the propaganda 
that again came forth to cheapen the pho- 
tograph in the eye of the public. 

Business was bad at this time, so they 
tried to make legitimate business out of the 
situation by making the price only nominal, 
instead of a price that would insure a fair 
profit — expecting to make real legitimate 
portraits of the sitter when he came in for 
the necessary ones. Can you imagine any 
one having legitimate photographs made 
under a compulsory proposition? 

The police department charged $1.00 a 
piece for registering the photographs but 
I have heard of but a few photographers 
who charged a dollar for the photographs 
that were registered. 

The business man complained that it cost 
him several dollars in time to go to the pho- 
tographer to have the picture taken. But 
I have never heard of a photographer who 
complained that it cost him anything to 
make them. 

If it cost the average business man two 
dollar? ($2.00) in time to have the picture 
made as he would like to have you think 
it did, it was surely up to the photographer 
to put his time against that of the business 
man and charge the same rate per minute, 
plus material, labor, delivery charges and 
a reasonable profit. 

Does that sound like something for 
nothing — does that sound like a penny busi- 
ness or does it sound like a dollar business? 

The police department realized it was a 
dollar business and charged a dollar for 
their small part of the work in registration 
only. Then what happened? — the manu- 
facturers had gotten busy and put the old 
penny-making outfit on the market again, 
the photographers who didn't have them 
spent money to get them to make the auto- 
mobile portraits, while others took down 
their old ones, dusted them off and put them 
to work; when it was all over they started 
the penny pictures again. Think of it, gen- 
tlemen, the penny in 1921 can't buy enough 



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candy to reach a child's stomach after it 
melts on his tongue, but it will buy a por- 
trait worthy the taste of kings. 

The pecuniary loss may not be great but 
the propaganda that cheapens the photo- 
graph in the eye of the public is far reach- 
ing and has its undying effect. You can- 
not now, and never will )je able to, build 
a dollar business on a penny basis. 

About this time one of our leading papers 
was running a beauty contest in several of 
the states adjacent Illinois. This ad was 
inserted in a Sunday issue — another free 
proposition which tells the public that pho- 
tographs are cheap and the men who make 
them are pikers. 

They expect this to make legitimate busi- 
ness. 

I have no doubt the newspaper was the 
prime mover in having these men take up 
this proposition in the manner shown, but 
it was a newspaper proposition in the begin- 
ning, and because the contest was lagging, 
they went to the photographer with their 
own interests in mind tt'iV/r no mutual con- 
sideration. The photographers should not 
have accepted it in this form. 

This is the kind of an ad with which they 
should have met the situation. 

While all this was going on in the por- 
trait game, what hapi>ened in the commer- 
cial game? Identically the same thing and 
it could not help it because the effects of 
the propaganda were felt throughout the 
two crafts. 

To illustrate the analogy: 

From 1904 up to the time the war started, 
some of our largest commercial houses 
made 10x12 negatives of chinaware, lamps 
and other merchandise without charge (ab- 
solutely free) ; retouched and lettered the 
negatives and made the prints at too low 
a figure to return a decent profit on them, 
let alone to make up for the loss on the 
negatives. 

Houses catering to motion picture stills 
made 8x10 prints at 3>^ cents each. 

Think of selling a manufactured article 
to the fastest growing and one of the rich- 



est industries in our land at a margin of 
a fraction of a cent on the material with 
nothing left for your lalx)r. 

Think of making photographs of a fifty- 
thousand-dollar-a-year movie star at a price 
so low that you yourself cannot think in 
sums with more than two figures. 

A farmer owning a prize brindle cow 
would be afraid to insult the titled beast 
with so cheap a portrait. 

You may argue there is no analogy and 
that the movie star is giving the portraits 
away to admirers. 

That is no rebuttal, l>ecause it is not up 
to our profession to finance the advertising 
of a movie actor. 

Some of the stars used photogravures or 
half-tone prints. Do you realize in this 
case the printer makes a good profit on 
this work at his prices? It would be better 
for our craft if the printer had all of it, 
when the price of the photo is too low. It 
is better the printing craft should make 
money than we should lose it. 

In the color photograph field, the situa- 
tion was even worse. 10x12 plain photo- 
graphs mounted on muslin sold at 30 cents 
each, the same photographs (colored) sold 
for 40 cents. 

The photographer was paying on a piece- 
work basis an average of 10 cents each for 
coloring the prints. 

Some of the photographers also had color 
workers in the studio who worked on a sal- 
ary, doing the work too difficult for the out- 
side artist for 10 cents and also doing the 
real easy work on which it was figured the 
outside artist was making too much if paid 
10 cents each. 

The photographers doing this work 
argued that they made up for the money 
they did not make on the 40-cent photo- 
graph when colored outside, on the easy 
work they did on the inside. I told them 
at that time they were figuring wrong, that 
the inside work would never make up the 
difference, calling their attention to repairs 
on outside work done poorly, spoiled prints, 
photographs turned down by the customer. 



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Then tliey came back with the reply that 
color work brought plain business. This 
was a fallacy actual cost figuring would 
have disspelled if the effort had been put 
forth on it. 

You may want to ask why there was re- 
pair work. That is a point I do not want 
overlooked. 

The girls doing this work at home were 
underpaid, oftentimes the work they were 
getting 10 cents a print to do, was so diffi- 
cult they could not even make pin money, 
so they slighted it. Then it had to be re- 
paired by the inside workers or it never 
would have been accepted. 

In fact, the rate was so low, good 
workers could not l^e gotten. Much work 
was so poorly done the prints had to be 
made over. Many jobs were delivered so 
poorly executed that the customer got dis- 
gusted and took all of his work away, both 
plain and colored. So the colored work 
actually lost plain work to the photographer 
instead of bringing it. Another point that 
must not be lost sight of — all the color ar- 
tists had to be taught — it cost money to 
teach them. This was never figured, either. 
The selling price was 40 cents, with noth- 
ing to bridge the gap between the cost of 
the plain photo and the actual color cost. 
Wasn't this a terrible business? 
I know what you want to ask. Is this 
going on now? To a certain extent — yes, 
but this is the way this same cost sheet 
looks in our plant today. 

The reason I have mentioned these dis- 
agreeable things is to fix in your minds the 
outstanding thought, that in order to make 
photography a business at a par with other 
professions is the business world, we must 
entirely stop all practices that degrade or 
lower public opinion. 

And in addition, we must never overlook 
an opportunity to spread propaganda of our 
own that will make for the betterment of 
our craft. 

And right here I wish to urge you, gen- 
tlemen, of this great organization in the 
Middle Atlantic States, to begin the work 



of killing this detrimental propaganda of 
the past and see to it with diligence that it 
is minimized in the future. 

Our Chicago organization is on its feet 
and working. We are ready and anxious 
to extend a helping hand and to co-operate 
with you in any endeavor you may under- 
take. 

In closing, I want to thank you for the 
opportunity you have given me to say these 
few words today, and in view of the fact 
of a growing number of local associations 
organizing in the different cities, I see and 
hope to realize the vision of all of us joining 
hands in a friendly circle of good fellow- 
ship, for the honest betterment of a pro- 
fession which deserves a full measure of 
prosperity and respect side by side with 
every legitimate business in our country. 

The above talk was given by H. M. Webster at the 
Baltimore Convention. 

The National Convention 

We print the list of exhibitors at the con- 
vention of the P. A. of A. as far as it has 
been possible for us to obtain to date. 

Information or particulars as to what is 
to be done at the convention have not been 
sent us and it is a difficult job to get infor- 
mation from the secretary — not only the 
secretary of the National, but those of the 
various state societies. The photographic 
press is only too willing to boost every- 
thing photographic, but with the apathetic 
condition of the secretaries or those dele- 
gated to supply the news ( ?), who can only 
frame a few paragraphs occasionally saying 
**Pay your dues, pay your dues," etc., who 
the dickens wants to pay dues for some- 
thing that one does not know what the dues 
are for or what is to be done? It is time 
that the secretaries woke up, or else the 
conventions should employ competent ones 
who will be publicity agents in the true 
sense of the word. 

The National cannot help but be a suc- 
cess—but that will l)e due to the manufac- 



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Floor Plan of the P. A. of A. Convention, Broadway Auditorium, Buffido. N. Y., July 18th to 23d 

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Investigate This 
f4,5 Lens 



ASK anyone who has tried the 
'^*' Graf Super-Anastigmat, /4.5, 
about the results they get with U. 
You will learn some interesting 
things about new possibilities in 
depth, sharpness, flatness of field 
and covering power at full aperture. 
Perfection in these respects has won 
for our/4.5 the highest commenda- 
tion from exacting photographers. 
Get one on a ten-day trial basis. 
If your dealer cannot supply you. 
write to us. 

GRAF OPTICAL COMPANY 

606 Newi-rowi BMf . S«ath Kai, lad. 



l'l'li""W':^" 



One of the best, as well as 
one of the rarest books on 
art and composition is — 

"R urnet's 
PT ssays on /\ rt 

Single copies of the original editions 
have been sold as high as $100.00. 
It has been reprinted in a limited 
edition of only 1000 copies. WiU 
you have one? 

Send $2.00 and get a 
copy at once. 

Postage 15 cents extra. 



FRANK V. CHAMBERS 

636 Franklin Square, Philadelphia 



turers and their traveling men who are 
doing the boosting. 

With the convention just one month 
away, the tentative program should be an- 
nounced. It is impossible to give it com- 
pletely, we admit, but who is who and what 
is to be done should be told. It's business 
from the word "go." 

To those who attend the National, we 
say, buy everything you can at the conven- 
tion. YouH see things you never thought 
of, and buying at the convention, you en- 
courage those who are the vital factors and 
these are the manufacturers. 

The list follows, giving their booth 
numbers. 



78 
8a 

23 to 28 
18a 

65 
50 
77 

B 

10 

85,86 

74 

87 
68 
7 
44 to 55 

8,19 
75 
70 
A 

22,29 
13,14 
89 
84 
79 

32 to 43 

D 

47, 52, 59 

58 

16 

17 

4,5 
9 

56a, 57 
61,62 
21,30 
67 



J. F. Adams. BuflFalo, N. Y. 
Alexander Bros, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
An SCO Co., Bingham ton, N. Y. 
Atlantic Photo Supply Co., Baltimore, 
Md. 

N. B. Aukerman Co., Cleveland, O. 
Barston Co., Cincinnati. O. 
Bausch & Lomb Optical Co., Rochester, 
N. Y. 

Beattie's Hollywood Hi-Lite Co.. Holly- 
wood, Calif. 

W. S. Bell & Co.. Pittsburgh,Pa. 
Eduard Blum, Chicago. 
BuflFalo Photo Material Co., BuflFalo, 
N. Y. 

Buerger Flexite Co., New York. 
Bulletin Machine Co.. BuflFalo. N. Y. 
Butler-Sanker Co., Cleveland, O. 
California Card Mfg. Co., San Fran- 
ciso, Calif. 

Central Dry Plate Co., St. Louis, Mo. 
Chilcote Co.. Cleveland, O. 
Ciba Co., New York. 
Colegrove Bros., BuflFalo, N. Y. 
A. M. Collins Mfg. Co., Philadelphia. 
G. Cramer Dry Plate Co.. St. Louis, Mo. 
Cummings Laboratories, New York. 
Cutright-Sharps Co., Buckhannon, W. Va. 
Defender Photo Supply Co., Rochester, 
N. Y. 

Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N. Y. 
Engler Bros., BuflFalo, N. Y. 
Fowler & Slater Co., Cleveland, O. 
Furst Bros. & Co., Baltimore, Md. 
C. P. Goerz American Opt. Co., New 
York. 

J. S. Graham Co., Rochester. N. Y. 
Gross Photo Supply Co., Toledo, O. 
Gundlach-Manhattan Opt. Co., Rochester, 
N. Y. 

Halldorson Co., Chicago. 
Haloid Co.. Rochester, N. Y. 
Hammer Dry Plate Co., St. Louis, Mo. 
John Haworth Co., Philadelphia. 



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45 Hanovia Chemical & Mfg. Co., New- 
ark, N. J. 

64 Howell Photo Paper Co., San Fran- 

ciso, Calif. 
2 Johnson Ventlite Co., Chicago. 

60 L. M. Johnson, Chicago. 

C Kalamazoo Photo Supply Co., Kalamazoo, 

Mich. 

46 Fred M. Lawrence Co., Chicago. 
6 J. L. Lewis, New York. 

15 Kimball-Mathews Co., Columbus, O. 

11 J. W. McCabe Co., New York. 

12 Marks & Fuller, Rochester, N. Y. 
12i John G. Marshall, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
80,81 Medick-Barrows Co., Columbus. O. 
18 Geo. Murphy, Inc., New York. 

54 National Carbon Co., Cleveland, O. 

90 National Engineering Co., Rapid City. S. 

Dak. 

71 Nela Specialties Division. Cleveland. O. 

69 B. Oshrin & Bro., New York. 

20,31 Pako Corporation, Minneapolis, Minn. 

44a. 54a Presto Mfg. Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

12 Prosch Mfg. Co., New York 

66 Sagamore Chemical Co., New York. 

53 Simplex Photo Specialty Co., New York. 

83 Jas. H. Smith & Sons Co., Chicago. 

2, 3a Sprague Hathaway Co., West Somerville, 
Mass. 

63 J. Sussman Photo Supply Co., Balti- 

more. Md. 
la, 1 Sweet Wallach & Co., Chicago. 

48,49 Taprell Loomis & Co., Chicago. 

56 J. H. Wagenhorst & Co.. Youngstown, O. 

76 Waldo-Morgan & Co., New York. 

51 W'arren Products Co., New York. 

82 Wollensak Optical Co., Rochester, N. Y. 

88 F. W. Wolf Co., Cleveland, O. 



The Commercial Section 
at Buffalo 

The following are the classifications for 
the general exhibit of the Commercial Sec- 
tion at Buffalo: 

Group A — Comprising all photographs 
made ux the studio. 

No. 1. Photographs of merchandise for 
engraving. 

No. 2. Photographs of merchandise for 
salesmen's samples, black and white. 

No. 3. Photographs in colors of mer- 
chandise for salesmen's samples. 

No. 4. Still-life illustrations 



for 



en- 



gravers. 

No. 5. 
graving. 

No. 6. 

No. 7. 



Illustrations with life for en- 
Bromide enlargements. 
Microscopic photographs. 




THE 

STANDARD 
TRIPOD 

Best Paris-made French 
Instrument Finish 

T/ie dainii€%\ tHpod in 
Cameradom 

PRICE $4.00 

IN NEAT CASE 
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The Shortest 
The Longest 
The Lightest 



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P 

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WkcB Extended (52V^m.) 
Only 18 



No Sprinf • No Locking Calclies Aatomalic in Action 
Adapted for American or Foreinn Cameras 

Framerican hdustrial Development Corp. 

FUld Cla9»€» and Optical ApparatU9 

21 Emit 40tli Street NEW YORK CITY 



IKXORMTQgDAUTY 

Special Test Package 

10 Sheets 14x20 
Including: 

3 sheets Buff Silk 

3 sheets Buff Platinum Matte 

3 sheets White Matte 

1 sheet White Semi-Matte 

All Double Weight Direction* and Teet Stripe Included 



Prepaid, $3.00 
DEFENDER PHOTO SUPPLY CO., 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. 



Inc. 



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The most successful plaie 
ever made 



CRAMER 
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DRY PLATE COMPANY 

CHICAGO SAINT LOUIS NEW YORK 



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A FULL LINE OF FUSH AND ELECTRIC UMPS 
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O Home Portrait Flash Lamp 
O Giant Portrait Flash Lamp 
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Mark outflts you are interested in and pin to your 
letter. We will send full inTomiation by return mail. 

THE HALLDORSON CO. 

1778 WILSON AVE. CHICAGO 



No. 8. Technical and medical subjects 
ill black and white. 

No. 9. Technical and medical subjects 
in colors. 

Group B — Comprising all photographs 
made outside the studio. 

No. 1. Architecture, exterior. 

No. 2. Architecture, interior. 

No. 3. Landscapes. 

No. 4. Industrial interiors icithout life 
(illuminated in any manner). 

No. 5. Industrial interiors Tcith life (il- 
luminated in any manner). 

No. 6. Machinery. 

No. 7. Mptor industry (including auto- 
mobiles, aeroplanes, motor boats and trac- 
tors). 

No. 8. Pictorial. 

No. 9. Illustrations until lite. 

No. 10. Illustrations unthoitt life. 

No. 11. Banquets and gatherings by 
flash-light. 

No. 12. Photographs made from aero- 
planes. 

No. 13. Marine photographs (including 
ships, shipping and water pictures). 

No. 14. Panoramas. 

Each entrant can enter one to three 
photos in each class; mark each photo 
plainly on the back as follows: If Class 1 
in Group A, mark lA on the back of each 
photograph. No name to appear on front 
or back of ])hoto. 

Be sure to read classifications plainly as 
photographs entered in the wrong class will 
not be hung. 

Judges will be instructed to judge from 
the standpoint of the purpose for which the 
l>hotos were made. Each class will l)e hung 
as a unit. ,^ ^^ ,., 

H. M. \\ EBSTER, 

Chairman Exhibit Bureau. 

All packages must be sent to Buffalo, 
N. Y., prepaid, with return address plainly 
written on outside of package. 

Mark package Commercial Exhibit. 



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What To Do When Your Com- 
petitor Defames You 

I have received two letters during the 
week on the same subject: 

No. 1 

Milwaukee, Wis. 
Please let us have your opinion on 
this, either direct or through the paper. 
We have a very bitter competitor up 
here who has some personal feeling 
against one of the memljers of our firm, 
and he loses no opportunity to say ugly 
things about us and about our goods. 
We also believe that he has instructed 
his clerks and salesmen to do the same 
things with customers of his house. 
The latest story came up as follows: 
We recently purchased a large lot of 

from a jobber who was going 

out of business, and got them at a very 
low price. It was a big deal for us and 
we have been pushing the goods hard 
throughout the territory. The competi- 
tor mentioned sells the same brand and 
other similar brands, and we have sev- 
eral instances in which he had his sales- 
men tell the trade that our goods were 
seconds and a fraud. We have lost 
several sales that way, and are likely to 
lose more, as he is doing this every- 
where. He has also told the same story 
to customers personally when they have 
gone in his place. We have reached a 
point where we think we ought to do 
something and would like your advice. 

' Y. & R. 



'T^HERE is only one Mononiethylpara- 
^ midophenol Sulphate which is 100% 
pure, that is 

METAGOL, "CIBA" 

Made by the Society of Chemical Industry 
in Basle, Switzerland; makers of standard 
chemicals since 1864. 

At your deaUrg, or write us. 

Leading photographic paper manufacturers 
are recommending and three - fourths of 
the moving picture industry are using 

METAGOL "CIBA'^ 

— AND— 

HYDROQUINONE, "CIBA^^ 

"THERE'S A REASON" 




REGISTERED 



CiBA Company, inc., 

Cedar and Waikkftoa Sit. New York City 



T F you have any new photographic 
-*■ ideas or methods that you believe 
would interest readers of the Bulletin 
of Photo9r^^>hy, send them in 

Ideas and contributions will be 
paid for. 

(BULLETIN -GFll 
PHOTO GRAPH yII 



Philadelphia, Pa. 



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754 Bulletin of Photography 



The Hetherington Competition 

OPEN TO ALL PHOTOGRAPHERS 

Some years ag^o Mr. Charles Hetherington was one of the leading: photogf- 
raphers of this country and left the profession to take up painting^, and he has 
become most successful in his art. Mr. Hetherington has never forgotten his 
love for photography and photographers. He has authorized us to offer one 
of his best paintings, handsomely framed, for the 

Best Portrait of an Old Man or an Old Woman. 

Mr. Hetherington's paintings are hung in six large clubs and in sixteen large 
private collections in the U. S., and he says in his offer **I am doing this to 
show *the boys' I have not forgotten them, and the picture will be the best I 
can paint. There is nothing too good for those photogs who made many years 
of my life happy." 

The competition has no restrictions excepting that the prints must not be 
smaller than 8 x 10. And you may enter as many prints as you like. The 
painting will be shown at the National Convention in July, at Buffalo, and the 
pictures judged and prize awarded at that time. 

Entries must be sent only to Frank V. Chambers, 636 S. Franklin Square, 
Philadelphia. The last day for receiving prints is Tuesday, July 12th (at noon), 1921. 



A BIG OPPORTUNITY 

to see the greatest exhibit of photographic material, photographs 
by the greatest w-orkers in the world, the most complete artificially 
lighted studio ever erected, and meet more celebrated photographers 
than ever before assembled under one roof. 

39th Annual (International) Convention 

Photographers' Association of America 

Buffalo, N. Y., July 18th to 23d 

Special Convention Railroad Rates of Full Fare Going and Half Fare Return 

on the Certificate Plan. 
( New England and Pacific Coast paints excepted.) 

ASK YOUR TICKET AGENT FOR PARTICULARS. 



Dues to P. A. of A., including admittance to Convention and every feature, 
$10.00 for employers and $3.00 for employees. 

J. C. ABEL, General Secretary, 421 Caxton Bldg.. Cleveland, Ohio. 



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KODAK FINISHERS!!! 

rOU CAN INCREASE PRODUCTION WITH A 

SPEED PHOTO PRINTER 

This improved model will pay for itself in 30 days. 



TEN BIG FEATURES: 

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special pressure lock insuring: absolutely perfect 

contact. 
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of standard sizes of paper. 
4. — Quick action film clip. 
S. — Automatic paper clip on platen, giving: perfect 

regrister and border. 
6. — No trimming necessary. 
7. — Economizes on paper. 
8. — Practical electric switch inside box. which operates 

after contact is made between platen and paper, 

and allows up to 400 watts of electric current. 

Release lever for throwing off lights before raising 

platen. No afterglow. 
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dense Alms. 
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™*""tes. Cireular on T€qu€»t. 

PRICE, f 85.00 



CHARLES G. WILLOUGHBY, Inc. 



no West 32d St. 



DUtrihutOTM for Ntw York Stat€ 



New York City 



No. 2 

Troy, N. Y. 

For about ten months we have clone 
a thing which has proven profitable, 
viz., we have advertised Friday bar- 
gains, using one article on that day at a 
very low price. It has resulted in big 
business and has hurt another competi- 
tor about three doors away. Our place 
is busy most of the day on Friday, while 
he seems to )>e doing but little. He has 
now l)egim to attack in print and by 
word of mouth. In his last advertise- 
ment it read, '*Do not be deceived by 
fake one-day-only bargains, which are 
only baits to get you to buy something 
else on which you will be cheated by 
inflated prices." We are the only con- 
cern here using one-day bargains, so 
he must have meant us. Customers 
have also come to us and told us that 
he told them the same thing by word 
of mouth. Have we got to stand such 



innuendos? It seems too bad that an 
honest merchant has to stand such treat- 
ment. E. R. & Bro. 

These letters may not be so important in 
themselves, but they are important as reveal- 
ing one phase of the peculiar conditions 
through which business is now passing. 
When there was enough business for every- 
body, competitors didn't have time to black- 
guard each other. They could get business 
without it. But now that there isn't enough 
to go around, the meanness which is inherent 
in a certain type of traders — the tendency to 
strike below the belt — is coming to the sur- 
face and will probably be somewhat notice- 
able for a while. 

The offense which has l>een committed 
against both these correspondents is trade 
libel, which means words directly tending to 
the prejudice or injury of any one in his 
])rofession. trade or business. The action- 
able character is the fact that it injures the 
subject of it in his business, more, perhaps. 



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1921 CONVENTION DATES 




Place 


Date 




P. A. of A. (International) 


Buffalo. N. Y. 


July 18-23 


J. C. Abel, 421 Caxton Bldg. 
Cleveland, Ohio. 


Ohio-Mich.-Ind. 


Postponed until 1922 




Fred. Bill. 746 Euclid Ave. 
Cleveland, Ohio. 


New England 


Springfield, Mass. 


Sept. 7-9 


A. K. Peterson, Pres. 
Hartford, Conn. 


North-Central 


Minneapolis, Minn. 


October 3-6 


J. R. Snow, Pres. 
Mankato, Minn. 


Pacific North- West 


Vancouver, B. C. 


August 2-5 


A.T. Bridgman. 413 Granville St. 
Vancouver, B. C, Canada. 



than personally. This from a well-known 
authority on the subject: 

Language which imputes to one fraud 
or want of integrity in his business is 
actionable per se (that is, you can sue 
even if the victim has not sustained any 
actual damages. — E. J. B.), or, as the 
rule has otherwise expressed, any 
charge of dishonesty against an indi- 
vidual, in connection with his business, 
whereby his character in such business 
may be injuriously affected, is action- 
able. So a charge of adulteration of 
goods, or selling a substitute, are cases 
for damages, shoes as shoes of first qual- 
ity, or selling counterfeit Harlem oil, 
or using false weights or measures, or 
to say that one is a rogue, swindler, 
cheat, villain, rascal or scoundrel is ac- 
tionable. 

As a matter of fact, there are cases which 
hold that words imputing to a business man 
a lack of knowledge or skill in connection 
with his business is libelous, and damages 
can be obtained for their use, showing how 
tenderly the law protects a man's business 
reputation. Much more tenderly, in fact, 
than some business men in question seem to 
want it protected. 

I have long l)een convinced that business 



men were in the habit of speaking much too 
loosely of each other and their goods and 
methods. Only in my office the other day a 
contracting painter said to a real estate man, 
speaking of a competitive painter. "Take 
it from me, his work is no good. He'll skin 
every job he takes." When the real estate 
man had gone, I said to the painter : "That 
was a pretty raw thing you said about your 
competitor. Do you really know that to be 
a fact?" "Everybody says so," he replied. 
"But could you prove it if you had to?" I 
asked. "Why, his prices tell what kind of 
work he does," was the answer. "And is 
that all the evidence you have?" I persisted. 
He admitted it was. Of course, it was no 
evidence at all. 

Now, suppose that real estate man had 
gone straight to that slandered painter and 
told him what had been said. A suit might 
have resulted — if the slandered painter was 
honest — to which the defendant would have 
had no defense whatever. But would the 
slandered painter have brought the suit, even 
if he had been honest? I am not sure. Busi- 
ness men don't seem to be so anxious to 
protect their reputations against these loose 
assaults as it would seem to me they ought 
to be. 

(Copyright by Elton J. Buckley.) 



STERUNG TANKS 



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DEMAND STERLING. There is no substitute. Listen to STERLING. Your DEALER has them or can get them. 

It's your privileife to demand STERLING TANKS and (rood judgement to accept nothing but 

STERLING TANKS AND WATERJACKETS. 



STERLING MFG. CO. 



"PIONEER TANK MAKERS'* 



BEAVER FALLS. PA. 



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LENSES I WOLLENS AK I SHOTT E 



Facts Worth Knowing 
-About the VERITO 



Three distinct qualities of diffusion, 
each different, are available with 
the Verito (1) used in the regular 
way (2) with the lens elements in- 
terchanged and (3) with the rear 
combination alone. 

Variable and Controllable softness, 
as much or as little as you want, is 
possible by varying the diaphragm 
opening. Pleasing softness at F : 4, 
actual sharpness at Fill. 

The Verito is convertible. The rear 
element may be used alone and has 
a focal length about half again the 
equivalent focus. 

Extreme speed characterizes the 
V^erito— the fastest soft-focus lens 
in the world. Even when stopped 
down to lessen diffusion— it is suf- 
ficiently rapid. 

The Verito is optically correct^ vir- 
tually free from flare or halation 
when properly used, and, unlike 
other soft-focus lenses, has the 
same visual and chemical foci. 



Beautiful enlargements from sharp 
negatives, with the same delightful 
softness and atmospheric quality 
as Verito contact prints, can be 
made with this unusual lens. 

The Verito reduces retouching at 

least 60 per cent. Some photog- 
raphers don't retouch V^erito nega- 
tives at all, for while definition is 
not destroyed, the harsh and wiry 
lines are pleasingly subdued. 

Better prices for your work may 
be asked when the Verito is used. 
Customers willingly pay 50 to 100 
per cent, more for work so appar- 
ently superior in artistic quality. 

The Verito pays for itself many 
times over, bringing better prices 
and greatly reducing the constant 
expense of retouching that takes 
dollars from your pockets. 

Free trial of this distinctive lens is 
offered by all stock-houses. Or if 
you want further information, let 
us send— gratis— our beautiful new 
booklet ** Studio Lenses". 



LENSAK;OPn< 

, ROCHESTER, > 

«V.— . V.SJL. 



Manufacturtn of thm Vtlottigmat and Vitax 

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Bulletin of Photography 



Eduard Blum 

The Photo Art Shop 

in the service of the profession 

32 South Wabash Avenue 

CHICAGO 



THE ONLY STUDIO OF ITS KIND IN AMERICA 



BE DIFFERENT FROM THE OTHER FELLOW 
BE DIFFERENT FROM YESTERDAY 



Relativity of Alkalies 

In the composition of the developer we 
have two agents, the reducing agent and the 
accelerating agent. The prototype of the 
reducer is represented in pyro or pyrogallic 
acid, and the accelerator is one of the alka- 
lies, sodium potassium or ammonium. 

Associated with these two essentials, how- 
ever, there is another substance whose pri- 
mary object is a regulator. Ammonium is 
but little employed in this country, although 
it has decided merits on account of the dan- 
ger of encountering fog during development. 
From a comparison of the many formulae 
recommended, the potassium carbonate is 
most frequent in evidence, and in the form 
of anhydrous salt. 

Sodium carbonate and the caustic alkalies 
are more in use in England and the Conti- 
nent than they are here. The question as to 
which alkali is really of more importance 
than is generally admitted, inasmuch as the 
action of the various alkalies is by no means 
identical. 



The givers out of formulae, by the use of 
which they have achieved success, are not 
always explicit in indicating whether the 
alkali recommended is in the crystaline or 
anhydrous state. This information is impor- 
tant, since there is a great difference in the 
values. Anhydrous carbonate of soda will 
not for long retain its anhydrous condition 
unless kept in a well-stoppered lx)ttle, while 
the corresponding potassa salt is so hygro- 
scopic that in a very short time it gets pasty 
l)y absorbing water from the atmosphere. 
The caustic alkalies, both of sodium and po- 
tassium, are liable to change by absorption 
of carbonic dioxide, being converted into 
corresponding carbonates. 

In examining the action of the various 
alkalies with the reducing agents of the de- 
veloper, we note a particularly marked dif- 
ference. In the case of pyro. for instance, 
we find that the difference in result is not 
materially marked by the indifferent use of 
potassium or sodium carbonates. The potas- 
sium prolmbly is a little more energetic than 



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Bulletin of Photography 759 



the sodium, but if we employ a caustic alkali 
it requires the greatest care to avoid fog. 
On the other hand, hydroquinone works well 
in conjunction with caustic alkalies, and be- 
sides it makes also considerable difference 
whether we use potassium or sodium with 
the hydroquinone. 

If we take equivalent quantities of sodium 
and potassium carbonate and note their re- 
spective action with hydroquinone, we shall 
find that, with the use of potassium salt, the 
development begins sooner than with the so- 
dium salt, and in truth proceeds slower, so 
that potassium is more frequently recom- 
mended in formulae with hydroquinone. 

Passing to amidol, we note how small a 
quantity of alkali is required to set develop- 
ment in action, and that the sodium sulphite 
is sufficient without the addition of potas- 
sium or sodium. 

It is safe to bear in mind that if the pho- 
tographer wishes to make use of dry sodium 
carbonate, he should know that he has such 
an article in his possession. He must have a 
sample free from all water of crystalization. 
And on the other hand, if he desires the 
crystals, let him see that he has clean, hard, 
clear-looking objects. Don*t accept powder 
with little white masses. The crystals must 
not be moist to the touch. 

If you take anything between these two, 
you will not l>e able to know what degree 
of alkalinity you have in solution. 

Either crystals or anhydrous salts may be 
used with equally good results, but you must 
know in comj^ounding your developer what 
salt you are using. 

We are advised that the Ohio-Michigan- 
Indiana convention for 1921 will be postponed 
and that no convention will be held until 1922. 



"Here, boy," said the man to the boy who was 
helping him drive a bunch of cattle, "hold this 
bull a minute, will you?" 

"No," answered the boy, "I don't mind bein' a 
director in this company, but I'm darned if I want 
to be a stockholder." — Cartootis Magazine. 



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760 Bulletin of Photography 



THE BO OK YO U NEED 

The Commercial Photographer 

By L. G. ROSE 

148 Pag€9 85 lUuMtraUonM 

Price, in cloth, $4.00 per copy ; postage 15 cents extra 

INCLUDING PRICES CHARGED IN TWO LARGE CITIES 



A work by a thoroup^hly competent and widely experienced commercial 
photographer of the highest reputation. 

Every branch of the subject treated with a view for presentation of 
the essentials. The various appliances discussed, best methods of ex- 
posure, illumination and graphic presentation to ensure a successful outcome. 

It is a book essentially for the commercial man and meets every requirement. Profusely 
illustrated with examples of work of varied kind. 

The book will be found of pertinent interest not onl^ to the trade photographer but also 
to the specialist. The application of photography is considered in its bearings upon the com- 
mercial man, the architect, the tradesman, the physician, the lawyer and the scientist, by one who 
has had very extensive experience in the different kinds of work required. 

The present edition is limited and we have a firm conviction when the value of the work 
becomes apparent, that it will be speedily exhausted. 

We therefore advise you to secure copy, and not lose the opportunity or suffer from the 
necessity of waiting for a second edition of the work. 

At Your Dealer** or Direct from the PuhUther 
FRANK V. CHAMBERS, ^^e S^^F«nkHn^Sauare 



BIND THE BULLETIN OF PHOTOGRAPHY 

THE only Magazine Binder ever invented that will quickly and 
securely bind tach issue as published and bind one magazine 
or a complete file without in the slightest manner mutilating 
same, such as punching a hole in the magazine, gluing, lacing, or 
in some manner attaching something to it. No strings, clamps, 
springs or locks used. Retains at all times the appearance of a 
neat and substantially bound book and the magazines are just as 
substantially bound as a regularly bound book no matter whether 
there is only one magazine in the Binder or a complete file. 

C Nothing complicated, nothing to get out of order. A child 
can use it correctly. Every Binder is thoroughly examined be- 
fore shipment and guaranteed to be as represented. 

C The Binders hold 26 copies (6 months) of the Bulletin of 
Photography and resemble the loose leaf ledger binders, only 
each copy is held in place with a flat steel rod fitting on pins, 
holding every copy in its proper place. 

C We've used these Binders in our own office for the past seven 
(7) years and say that they are the best that money can buy. 



Will last for years. 
Over 400 sold and 
not a complaint 



Price $2.00, Postpaid 

Money back if you don't iike them. 



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S£ND FOR OUR 



NEW BULLETIN (No. 137) 

JUST OUT- 

CONTAINING BAROAINS IN CAMKRAS. LKNSKS 
AND KVKRYTHINO PHOTOGRAPHIC 

WILLOUGHBY'S "" S'^^^T'olJ""" 



What's Doing in Photography 



The Studio of B. J. Anes was destroyed by fire 
on May 16th. 

WilHam H. Penrose has oi)€ned a photp shop 
in Peekskill. N. Y. 

George J. Early has opened a new studio in 
North Cannington, Ontario. 

Elmer A. Whitney, of I'reniont, will open a 
new studio in Gihsonburg, Ohio. 

Mr. and Mrs. J. O. Booen have purchased the 
Anderson Studio. Miles City, Mont. 

Miss Lucia Weeks, of Mansfield, Ohio, is open- 
ing a new studio in Columbus, Ohio. 

Wheeler & Fort, both ex-service men. have 
opened a new studio in Victoria, B. C. 

Owing to ill health, Lynn Reury. of Herkimer. 
N. Y., has sold his studio to E. J. Hale. 

E, E. Palmer has purchased the studio in Mesa, 
.Arizona, formerly owned by W. P. Seyfred. 

J. B. Loyd, formerly of Mt. Vernon. Ohio, has 
purchased the B. Way Studio. Newark, Ohio. 

J. E. Hill, formerly of Cambrai, Wyoming, has 
purchased the Modem Photo Studio, Astoria, Ore. 

The Shook Photo Studio, Liberty. Ind., has been 
sold to Mr. and Mrs. W. DeLong, of Springboro, 
Ohio. 

George Rude has taken over the Swan River 
Studio from N. E. Watson, of Swan River, Man.. 
Canada. 

J. L. Blickenstaff. of North Manchester, Ind., 
has sold his studio outfit and will enter a different 
line of business. 

C. Howcroft, photographer of Utica, N. Y.. has 
leased a studio in Clinton. N. Y., formerly 
operated by George Gibbon. 

Incorporated : Hathaway Dunn. Manhattan, 
photographers* supplies, $10,000; A. W. and H. M. 
Hathaway, C. E. Dunn ; attorney. G. L. Naught, 
100 Broadway, New York City. 

Moorefield Incorix)rated, Indianapolis. Ind.. cap- 
ital, $100,000; $50,000 preferred; to oiKjrate a gen- 
eral photographic studio; directors, R. C. Moore- 
field, G. M. Lewis, Nelle C. Griffin. 

Miami Studios. Inc.. capital $1,000,000. Manu- 
facture of photographic films, etc. T. L. Croteau. 
M. A. Bnice. C. H. Maxwell. Wilmington. Del. 
(Corporation Trust Company of America), incor- 
porators. 

James Lett, aged 68, pioneer photographer of 
Harrisburg, Pa., died on May 31st, after a linger- 
ing illness at his home. He was in the photo- 
graphic business for more than fifty years. Mr. 
Lett is survived bv one sister. 



HAVING TROUBLE WITH THE SHUTTER? 

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and diaphrams. We do it right — we know how. 

Low prices and work guaranteed. 

All make and kinds. 

ROCHESTER PHOTO SHUTTER REPAIR Co. 

1234 N. Clinton ATsnue.. Rochester. N. Y. 



ENLARGEMENTS 

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M. S. BRIDLE. IS!J?gS 

1034 ARCH STREET. PHILADELPHIA 



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They develop and dry quickly with 
firm, tough films, which reduce to a 
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necessity in hot and humid climates. 

SPECIAL BRANDS FOR SPECIAL NEEDS 



llammer*8 Special Extra Fast (red label) 
and Extra Fast (blue label) Plates for 
field and studio work, and Hammer's 
Extra Fast Orthochromatic and D. C. 
Orthochromatic Plates for color values. 




RES. TRADE MARK 



Hammer Dry Plate Co. 

OHIO AVKNUK AND MIAMI STRKKT 
ST. LOUIS, MO. 



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Bulletin of Photography 



A NEW EDITION 



WALL'S 

Dictionary of Photography 

— lOth Edition- 
Ready for delivery 
TOO Pages :: 2000 References 

Revised and re-written with full 
explanatory text. 

$5 per copy — post free. 



FRANK V. CHAMBERS 

Tradk Aoknt 

636 South Franklin SQuare 

Philadelphia 



"A Manual fuU of good wholetome material 
and a valuable reference hook for every mem- 
ber of the profettion, big or little,** 



How to Make a Studio Pay 

BY FRANK FARRINGTON 



CONTENTS 

The Man and the Location 
Buying and Arranging the Stock 
System in the Studio 
The Treatment of Customers 
How to Know the Profits 
Credit and Collections 
Developing the Side Lines 
Advertising You Can Do 
Business-Getting Schemes 



Qoth Bonnd, Price, $1.50, Net, Postpaid 
FRANK V. CHAMBERS 

PUBLISHER 

636 S. FRANKUN SQUARE, PHILADELPHIA 



Burglars visited the Lenny photograph studio. 
Rockford, 111., on the evening of May 21st, and 
departed with forr camera lenses. Apparently 
no effort had been made to look for other loot in 
the studio other than to take the lenses, valued 
at $400. 

John Warren Finnell, photographer of Brad- 
dock, Pa., died on May 21st at his home. Death 
was due to pleuro-pneumonia, Mr. Finnell being 
ill for several months. He was 58 years of age 
and is survived by his widow and mother, who 
is 90 years old. 

The Harrisburg Section of the Professional 
Photographers' Association held their annual meet- 
ing May 25th in the studio of P. D. Ulrich. Leb- 
anon, Pa. There were more than thirty photog- 
raphers present, representing Harrisburg, Carlisle, 
Lancaster, Reading and York. The chief demon- 
strators were C. O, Towles. of Washington, D. C, 
and Al. Newall. of the Eastman Kodak Company. 

The mysterious explosion of a bottle of flash- 
light powder, whch he was preparing to use for a 
night picture on May 24th, burned E B. Cooper, 
Denver, Colo., severely on the face and hands and 
knocked him unconscious. The explosion set fire 
to his clothing. Lester Langer. who was assisting 
Cooper, quickly extinguished the flames. The ex- 
plosion wrecked an arc light nine feet above the 
head of the photographer. 

A charter was granted yesterday to Mooreficld. 
Inc.. Indianapolis, Ind., which takes over the busi- 
ness of Robert C. Moorefield, with studios occu- 
pying the entire ninth floor of the Kahn building. 
The firm is incorporated at $100,000. Mr. Moore- 
field is president. Garret M. Lewis vice-president 
and Nell C. Griffin secretary-treasurer. Tho 
studios will be entirely remodeled and new equip- 
ment added. In time the corporation intends to 
open studios in all of the larger cities within a 
radius of 600 miles from Indianapolis, but have 
all developing and printing done at the Indian- 
apolis studios. Mr. Moorefield opened his studio 
in the Kahn building four years ago, with two 
rooms. 

The Victoria and District Professional Pho- 
tographers' Association w-as formed at a meet- 
ing of members of the profession held on May 
27th at the studio of Mr. A. L. Nengens. Officers 
elected w-ere as follows : 

President, Mr. Wilfred Gibson; Vice-President, 
A. L. Neugens; Secretary-Treasurer, Miss Foxall. 

Two visitors at the meeting were Mr. Mac- 
kenzie and Mr. Calder, photographers of Van- 
couver, who gave information about the big con- 
vention which will be held in Vancouver the first 
week in August, and which will bring together 
photographers from all parts of the Pacific North- 
west. • The Victoria members grew quite enthu- 
siastic about the forthcoming event, and will un- 
doubtedly contribute something of interest to the 
exhibits, which will also include entries from the 
different States in the United States, and from 
Belgium. Australia and other outside countries. 

The object of the local association is to benefit 
the craft, and meetings will be held monthly for 
the purpose of discussing the various matters of 
interest to the members. 



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Classified Advertisements 



GlaMifled AdvertUin^ Rates— For Sale. Rent. ExchanKe and 
Miscellaneous advertisements. Minimum charge. $1.00 for 
thirty words; additional words. 3 cents each. 

Help Wanted — Two insertions of twenty-one words, minimum 
charge. 50 cents; additional words. 2 cents each. Cash must 
accompany order. 

Situation Wanted — Twenty-one words, one time, free .Addi- 
tional words. 2 cents each. 

No display allowed — Cauh mast b« §*nt with order. 

Display advertising rates sent upon request. 

Copy must be plain and distinct. 

To secure insertion, advertisements must be received by 9 
A. M., Tuesdays, one week preceding date of publication. 

DO YOU WANT A POSITION? 

Read the ads. that follow 

Wanted — Traveling man, experienced in selling 
Photographic Supplies. Apply — Zimnlerman 
Bros., St. Paul. Minn. 

Operator Wanted in studio doing high-grade 
work; prominent city in Middle Atlantic States. 
Excellent salary and permanent position to man 
with ability. State particulars and qualifications. 
Address, Box 959 care of Bulletin of Photog- 
raphy. 

DO YOU WANT AN EMPLOYEE? 

Read the ads. that follow 

Position Wanted— By lady well experienced in 
all branches of photography, including operat- 
ing, retouching and coloring in oil or water colors. 
Would like to connect with well-equipped studio, 
preferably in the East. Address, Box 957 care of 
Bulletin of Photography. 

DO YOU WANT TO BUY, SELL OR 
RENT A STUDIO? 

Read the ads. that follow 

For Sale — Photo studio in heart of shopping dis- 
trict; next door to big department store in Balti- 
more. Md. For particulars, address. Photo Studio, 
223 N. Eutaw St., Baltimore, Md. 

For Sale — The leading studio in a thriving sea- 
port city of 40,000 population; easy terms to a 
first-class reliable photographer. Your opportunity 
to get a good paying studio at a reasonable price. 
Investigate. Address, Southland Studio, P. O. Box 
928, Newport News. Va. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

Read the ads. that follow 

For Sale— One Aristo Lamp in good condition, 

$25.00; 5 new Graflex plate holders for $10.00; 

One Paasche Air Brush, $20 00. Lindler Studio. 

1306 Main St., Columbia, S. C. 

Retouchers for the TRADE-y-Quick, consistent 
service since 1905. Experienced retouchers, 
lust shoot *em right along — don't be timid — 
National Retouching Service, 4654 Cottage Grove 
Ave., Chicago. 

Wanted— 16-inch Cirkut for cash. Must be late 
model and in good condition. Address 961, care 
of Bulletin of Photography. 



Mount Salesman 

Experienced to sell to Photo Supply 
Houses and to call on photographers. 

Half of the time required on road — 
balance at factory. 

State age, experience and salary 
expected. All correspondence will be 
treated confidentially. 

AddretM — Box 958, core of 

BULLETIN OF PHOTOGRAPHY 



Flatbush — "Do you think a man profits by his 
mistakes?" 

Bensonhurst — "Not if he marries the wrong 
woman he doesn't." — Yonkers Statesman. 



Reliable Photo Supply Houses 

JOHN HAWORTH COMPANY 

(Baatman Kodak Co.) 
ItM Chestnut Street. Philadelphia 

THE H. LIEBER COMPANY 
24 W. Washington St. - Indianapolis. Ind. 

Western Photo & Supply C!o. 

Photographers* & Photo Engravers* Supplies 

328 W. Madison St.. Chicago 

WILLOUGHBY "llj^VoRK * 
ETerythInt Used in Photography 



SWEET, WALLACH & CO. 

(Baitinaii Kodak Co.) 

133 North Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. 



SUSSMAN PHOTO STOCK CO. 
223-225 Park ATenue, Baltimore, Md. 



Norman-Willets Photo Supply 

— INCORPOMATID^ 

5t2-5t3 LB MO YNE BLDG. #n, u f r> a r^ n 

18S N.WABASH AVB. CtllCAUU 

ZIMMERMAN BROS. 

(Baftman Kodak Co.) 

38t-3S4 Minnesota St.. St. Paul. Minn. 

HYATT'S SUPPLY CO. 
417 North Broadway, St. Louis, Mo. 

STANDARD PHOTO SUPPLY CO. 

(Baitman Kodak Co.) 

125 Baronne St., New Orleans, La. 



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826 Bulletin of Photography 



More than 80^c of the X-Ray workers of 
America use Eastman Tested Chemicals 

They must eliminate the element of 
uncertainty from their work. 

The surgeon's knife is guided by a 
diagnosis of the X-Ray result. 

Your results are not a matter of life or 
death, but they are a matter of dollars 
and cents. 

Specify 

EASTMAN 
TESTED CHEMICALS 



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 
ROCHESTER, N. Y. 
All Dealers'. 



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Bulletin of Photography 765 



Make portrait enlargements 
on the paper made for por- 
trait enlarging — the paper 
that puts contact quality in 
projected prints: 

EASTMAN 
PORTRAIT 
BROMIDE 



Two stocks— D White, E BufF. 
Two surfaces in each — Rough 
Matte and Rough Lustre. The 
price is the same as for double 
weight Artura Iris. 



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 
ROCHESTER, N. Y. 

All Dealers*. 



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A Britisher^ 5 Opinion 



** Speaking as a technical worker, I do not 
think there has been an3rthing in my time 
which has marked such a distinct advance in 
the quality and usefulness of photographic 
material as Eastman Portrait Film. When I 
say Eastman Portrait Film, of course, I include 
Commercial, Commercial Ortho and Process 
Film, 

'' The one thing about Films which induced 
me to use them instead of glass plates was the 
very important fact that they enabled me to 
make better negatives." 

Mr. S. GrimshaWy Official Photographer 
to Ford Motor Co. J Manchester^ England. 



There's a Film for practically every commer- 
cial need — Eastman Portrait, Commercial 
Ortho, Commercial and Process. 



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. 
All Dealers'. 



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No. 725 Wedne«lay, June 29. 1921 Sl'oS'S', ?eS"p~tpaKl. 



Entered at the Philadelphia Post Office as Second-Class Matter. 



Veltex 

FOR CONTACT PRINTS 



T TENLARGING 

Veltex 

FOR ENLARGEMENTS 



THIN, WHITE PARCHMENT-LIKE PAPER 
WITH A LIVE MATT SURFACE. 

VELTEX AND ENLARGING VELTEX ARE BOTH DISTINGUISHED 
BY EASE OF MANIPULATION. 

THE ORIGINAL AND EFFECTIVE PRINTS PRODUCED ARE VERY 
OFTEN OBTAINED BY COMMONPLACE TREATMENT. VELTEX 
ORIGINALITY OF SURFACE AND TEXTURE DOES THE REST. 



PRICE LIST IN DEFEShER I0.:i CATALOG NOW READY 



MANUFACTURED EXCLUSIVELY BY 

Defender Photo Supply Co., inc 

ROCHESTER, N. Y 

BOSTON: NEW YORK: PHILADELPHIA: 

44 Federal Street The Printing Crafts Building 1033 Chestnut Street 

8th Ave., 33rd to 34th Sts 

CHICAGO: KANSAS CITY: MINNEAPOLIS: 

109 N. Wabash Avenue Grand Avenue at 21st Street 322 Fourth Street, S. 

TORONTO. CANADA: 71 Adelaide Street. West 



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The Hetherington Competition 

OPEN TO ALL PHOTOGRAPHERS 

Some years ago Mr. Charles Hetheringfton was one of the leading photog- 
raphers of this country and left the profession to take up painting, and he has 
become most successful in his art. Mr. Hetherington has never forgotten his 
love for photography and photographers. He has authorized us to offer one 
of his best paintings, handsomely framed, for the 

Best Portrait of an Old Man or an Old Woman. 

Mr. Hetherington's paintings are hung in six large clubs and in sixteen large 
private collections in the U. S., and he says in his offer ** I am doing this to 
show 'the boys* I have not forgotten them, and the picture will be the best I 
can paint. There is nothing too good for those photogs who made many years 
of my life happy.'* 

The competition has no restrictions excepting that the prints must not be 
smaller than 8 x 10. And you may enter as many prints as you like. The 
painting will be shown at the National Convention in July, at Buffalo, and the 
pictures judged and prize awarded at that time. 

Entries must be sent only to Frank V. Chambers, 636 S. Franklin Square, 
Philadelphia. The last day for receiving prints is Tuesday, July 12th (at noon) , 1921. 



SKND PICTURKS UNFRAMKD 

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IN WHICH IS INCORPORATKO "THK PHOTOORAPHKR" and TMK "ST. LOUIS AND CANADIAN PHOTOORAPHKR" 

THE WEEKLY BUSINESS PAPER FOR BUSINESS PHOTOGRAPHERS 

636 Franklin Squan {cor. 7th and Race Sts.) Philadmlphia 

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Items of interest upon photographic subjects will be gladly received. 
Subscriptions received by all photographic and newt dealers in the United States and Europe. 



Vol. XXVffl, No- 725 



Wednesday, June 29, 1921 



Price 5 Cents 
$2.00 per Year. Poet Free 



Photography as a Means of Livelihood 



An art like photography, whose genesis 
dates back to little more than three quarters 
of a century, and as a profession to a still 
less period of continuance, occupies a rather 
unique position in the category of trades 
from which a livelihood may l)e derived. 

From its nature it is affiliated intimately 
with the fine arts, but, unlike the profession 
of the painter, demands an education in- 
volving the exercise of the purely mechan- 
ical faculties, demanding exercise of skill, 
only attainable by practice in manipulations 
peculiar to special arts and sciences. 

It is only in recent years that it has 
differentiated to a distinct trade or profes- 
sion to which apprentices are admitted for 
instruction, and special schools established 
for the systematic study of photography in 
its various phases. 

The time was, much to the reproach of 
the standing of photography, when its 
ranks were recruited from those who had 
made failures in other occupations. Now 
that is removed, and its dignity fully estab- 
lished, it ranks among the refined profes- 
sions and attracts men of ability and cul- 
ture in its exploitation:. 

As editors of photographic publications, 
we are in frequent receipt of letters of in- 



quiry desirous of our opinion as to the ad- 
visability of engaging in the occupation as 
a profession, as a prospective means of 
successful livelihood. 

The majority of the inquirers are those 
who seem dissatisfied with the profession 
they are pursuing, either from lack of in- 
terest or from the paucity of the returns in 
cash it affords. 

Generally the information is vouchsafed 
that they are not entirely ignorant of the 
art, having hitherto pursued it as a means 
of recreation and even acclaiming consid- 
erable proficiency in it as amateurs, supple- 
menting expressions of gratitude for the 
information and advice expected. Natur- 
ally such inquiries puts the editor in a 
rather delicate position, l)ecause he feels 
that he is constrained to treat the matter 
dispassionately and, at the same time, not 
depreciate the status of the profession or 
discredit its value as a business asset; and. 
besides, one hates to sui)merge a too en- 
thusiastic but withal incompetent and unfit 
aspirant. 

We fully appreciate the responsibility 
imposed as an adviser because encourage- 
ment may cause the aspirant to give up a 
living, and plunge him in disaster. 



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It is a strange feature in psychology, that 
a man who must be thoroughly informed 
as to his individual knowledge of present 
difficulties and financial anxieties, should 
think that one entirely in ignorance thereof, 
should be in a better position to advise than 
himself. 

It is not safe to conclude, because some 
one else has left his occupation and seems 
to be making successful issue of his ven- 
ture, that amone may follow in his path 
and likewise prosper. One had better re- 
consider the case, and definitely determine 
first whether it may not be more advan- 
tageous to inject some of his present en- 
thusiasm in the work he is now engaged in. 
and thus stimulate the business to a better 
outcome; that is, to combine the labor of 
his hand and brain to improve conditions. 

It is necessary to make a self analysis to 
determine whether the want of success is 
really referable to lack of adaptability on 
his part to his choice or from deficiency in 
general business ability. For if the failure, 
in one direction, is to be traced to this last 
cause, how can he expect even the prob- 
ability of success in another profession? 

Simplicity in Portrait Illumi- 
nation 

A scheme for illuminating the portrait 
picture, which readily interprets itself on 
inquiry, will command more appreciation 
from people of artistic instinct than unusual 
or startling eflFects of the lighting. 

Where novelty of attraction is the motive, 
such exhibitions may be admissible, but 
should be but sparingly introduced for gen- 
eral subjects. 

Whenever introduced, however, the pho- 
tographer must have full assurance of his 
ability to take his place as an artist along- 
side the distinguished ones of the profession, 
they who have spent their eflPorts experi- 
mentally in attaining the position in their art 
which warrants their departure from usual 
methods of portraiture. 

The beginner in the art, and, we may say. 



those of the profession who are after reputa- 
tion in artistic work, will find it more profit- 
aljle to confine attention to the simpler and 
easier explained modes of illumination. 

True, the public is often caught with the 
novelty of fantastic concerts, far-fetched 
and fanciful eflFects and contrasts of differ- 
ent and conflicting lights. 

It is sometimes the unenvied task of the 
art critic of photographic portraiture to be 
called upon to admire and praise portraits, 
which, conscientiously, he would like to 
damn with very loud disapproval, so mani- 
fest in falsity and sensational expression in 
the bold way the work counteracted the 
usual eflFects of natural illumination, violat- 
ing apparent truth, presenting a manifest 
deception. 

Be not afraid of simplicity of illumination. 
Let the light invariably give the spectator a 
rational explanation for its doings. Strive 
not for the "light that never was on sea or 
land." Leave such to the poet or superman 
in the profession. 

The achievement of peculiarities of light- 
ing, we know, is a great temptation, but get 
first supreme skill by working under simple 
lights. 

It is in accordance with the best taste to 
present objects in simplicity of illumination, 
and, on the other hand, any attempt at 
bizarre methods opens the photographer to 
the charge of affectation or desire to attract 
merely by novelty and sensational features. 
To get this simplicity, avoid having conflict- 
ing lights in your studio. In the portrait the 
suggestion must be given that the light is 
dominant from one source only, and that 
source must be from a position where the 
spectator reasonably expects to find it, in 
examination of the portrait. 



Reginald had been hastily bidden to Harry's party 
and his mother had lugged him forcibly into the 
bathroom. 

**Oh. mother," he cried, "do I have to have a 
whole bath?" 

"Certainly." 

"Are you sure that isn't just your idea?" he in- 
quired. *'I heard Harry's mother tell you over the 
telephone that the party was very informal." — The 
Avicrican Legion Weekly. 



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Economics of Price Increase 



C. H. CLAUDY 



Yesterday I went to market to buy a pork 
chop or two to tide the family over the Sab- 
bath. I hoped that we might get by with 
two pork chops, one for the wife, one for 
the servant girl and gravy for the children 
and myself. 

While looking for some beans as a treat 
for the children I happened to i)ass a market 
gardener, selling the finest strawberries I 
have ever seen. I stopped to look rather 
than to buy, and noticed also the biggest egg- 
plant I had even seen; it was as big as a 
l)umpkin. Then I noticed that this man has 
a fine auto truck instead of the usual market- 
man's rattling, broken-down wagon. 

Trying to solve this mystery, I priced the 
l)erries and found they were just 50 per cent, 
higher than other berries around him and 
yet he seemed to be doing more business than 
any man in his neighborhood. 

"How can you get such prices?'* I asked. 

*'Ry producing the best berries.'' he an- 
swered simply. 

Xo people in the world's history have had 
more prosperity than this American public, 
which we serve. No people have made as 
much and spent as much as we have. 

There is nothing too good for the average 
American. 

Xo matter whether you are butcher, baker 
or candlestick maker, l)e you rich-man, poor- 
man, l)eggar-man, thief, doctor, lawyer, 
merchant or i)hotographer, if you will pro- 
duce the best thing of its kind, there will be 
plenty of people who will appreciate it and 
pay for it. 

The man who rises superior to his com- 
petitors in quality also rises superior to them 
in price. 

Elbert Hubbard said, "H a man build a 
l)etter mouse trap than his neighbor, the 
public will wear a path to his door even 
though he build his cabin in a wilderness." 

The man who produces the l)est thing of 
its kind in his city has risen superior to 
questions of price. 



Men have opened studios from Dan to 
Beersheba, from A to Izzard and from Ko- 
komo to Kalamazoo and cut the prices of 
photographs, confidently expecting to do all 
the business in the town. It has happened 
in your town. But can you recall a single 
instance where such a man lasted a year, 
without changing his tactics? 

There is no worth-while photographic 
business in the country today which is l)eing 
conducted on the cut-price basis. 

Quality, then, in photography, the same as 
in raising strawl)erries and egg|)lant, as the 
basis of good business. 

It is not enough to put high prices on your 
pictures. It is not enough to make pictures 
as good as the other fellow. It is not enough, 
even, to do better work than the other fel- 
low. We must do the best possible work. 

Success in photography is a state of mind 
as much as a state of fact. To make a qual- 
ity place we must not only haz'e quality but 
must think quality. 

The way to better prices is to make up our 
mind that every piece of material we use 
shall be the l)est material, that every piece of 
work done on a picture will be the best pos- 
sible work ; then, having determined that we 
will base our business on quality, let us set 
our price at a point where we can do these 
things and still make a profit. 

Having gone thus far we must teach our- 
selves to think in terms of quality rather 
than in terms of price. 

If we forget prices and think of quality, 
we will forget to talk prices and will talk 
quality. 

If we think quality and talk quality, our 
customers 7cill also think quality and talk 
quality, and, like my friend who hatched out 
the mastodonic egg])lant, we will lift our- 
selves out of the question of price competi- 
tion. 

We must talk quality as our fetish, and 
cling to it like a rummy on the trail of a 
hoochlegger. 



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People who buy only on price basis are 
usually either very poor or are failures. 

People who selt on a price basis are usu- 
ally also poor people, failures in their partic- 
ular line. 

A transaction between two, then, usually 
represents a failure trying to make a living 
out of another failure. 

It is much like handing a drowning man 
a drink. 

Without denying the essential need of 
photographs, it is, nevertheless, true that 
photographers deal in luxuries. People who 
buy luxuries are at least people who are well- 
to-do. Thus prosperous potential customers 
of ours are people who can pay and who are 
7cilling to pay but who must have one hun- 
dred cents' worth of real quality portraiture 
for their dollar. 

The world has a bundle of money for the 
man who can produce the goods, and noth- 
ing but disappointments for the man who 
expects to get something for nothing, or give 



nothing for something. Lincoln was right. 
No one can fool all the people all the time. 

Stock in fake oil wells is sold on the idea 
of something for nothing. The red flag of 
financial failure will some day find a crevice 
on the sidewalk of the man who thinks he 
can get high prices for low quality. 

Remember that the cheapest lawyer in 
your town is the poorest lawyer. If he were 
a good lawyer he would not have to be the 
cheapest. 

What is true of a lawyer is true of a pho- 
tographer. 

The public with which we deal is a sophis- 
ticated public. This fundamental fact is as 
well known to them at it is to us. They no 
longer expect something for nothing. But 
they do expect the best work for good prices. 
If we give them that, they are satisfied. 

This, then, is the conclusion. 

Only the man zdio does his job better than 
his neighbor can rise superior to price com- 
petition. 



Using Your Eyes 



Habit is a very valuable part of our men- 
tal make up; it enables work of any kind 
to be repeated with the minimum of eflFort, 
and makes constant reference to memory 
unnecessary. But it is not an unmixed 
blessing. For instance, when one has walked 
into the same studio day after day for ten 
years or so, it l)ecomes very difficult to see 
the place as others, less well acquainted with 
it, see it. For one fails to notice the "effect" 
of a studio or reception room when it be- 
comes too well known. This inability really 
to "see" their own business premises is a 
failing, by no means confined to the photo- 
graphic profession, as visits to many retail 
shops will show; but it is probably more 
important in the case of a studio than in 
any other. There is no easy standard of 
comparison in the studio business, and you 
are not likely to attract customers, however 
good your work, unless your premises are 
attractive. 

To begin with, if your window or show- 



case does not carry a good effect, you will 
not get many customers inside at all. If 
you get them inside and your reception room 
is unattractive, the chances are they will not 
order. And if dressing rooms and studio 
are not "nice" you will not get many clients 
returning for more. It would be altogether 
useless to advise the average studio proprie- 
tor to spend some hundreds of pounds on 
redecoration ; that is too drastic, anyhow; 
it is the way in which things are arranged 
rather than their quality that makes for 
"effect." In fact, it is far more likely a 
business will benefit by the removal of some 
of its present furniture and odd accessories 
than by bringing in more. The great thing 
is to see a place of business as if through 
the eyes of a customer entering for the first 
time. This is not so easy as it sounds, and 
it may be that a few notes on some of the 
more vital points will be of assistance. They 
are the outcome of visits to some hundreds 
of studios, ranging from the humble sticky- 



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E. L. BUTLER 

From the Towles' Demonstration at the Baltimore Convention 



Hammer Plate 
Cyko Print 

Negative and Print Developed 
with Cumminone 



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Demonstration by L. L. Higgason at the Atlanta Convention 



Hammer Plate 
Verito Lens 



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back den to the ^'fixG guinea a dozen" type 
of business. " 

It is very surprising to note in what a 
large number of businesses the spotting and 
finishing of prints is still carried out in the 
reception room. This is bad from at least 
two i)oints of view ; a number of odd prints 
waiting to be finished or to be packed do 
not add to the appearance of a room ; how- 
ever carefully they are stacked they will 
give an untidy impression; and, in the sec- 
ond place, many sitters dislike the idea of 
their photographs being exposed to the pub- 
lic, especially in a half -finished state, cu 
deshabille, as one might say. Then again, 
negatives should never be brought into a 
reception room; they often are, either for 
sorting or for some other reason. It is a 
mistake, not because it gives away "trade 
secrets," but because any evidence of work, 
except the finished product, looks untidy 
and slovenly to an outside eye. The vast 
majority of reception rooms are over- 
crowded. Let the specimens from which 
customers will choose be kept in a portfolio 
or cabinet; a few really good pictures may 
be displayed in frames, but let them be only 
a few. Nothing looks less artistic than a 
heterogeneous collection of prints covering 
every available inch of wall and table space. 
It is difficult to stop them accumulating; in 
fact, the only permanently satisfactory way 
is to make a rule that for every new print 
shown an old one must be withdrawn. 

With regard to the general arrangement 
of the reception room, there are two main 
points. It should l^e as unlike a retail shop 
as possible; a few comfortable chairs for 
the use of customers when waiting are, of 
course, necessary, but a lot of small chairs 
stuck all over the room do not look well and 
are not nearly so restful for sitters as are 
one or two comfortable armchairs or a 
settee. If a dealer's business is run in con- 
nection with a studio, the two branches 
should be kept as separate as possible; the 
shop and the reception room should, when- 
ever possible, be quite distinct. The aim 
should be to impress the customer that you 



are not selling photographs as an iron- 
monger sells tin-tacks, but that you are an 
artist, taking every case separately and giv- 
ing it individual attention. 

The dressing room is an apartment not 
usually so open to criticism as is the recep- 
tion room, but in many cases it leaves some- 
thing to be desired in the matter of "fresh- 
ness." If a brush and comb are provided, 
as they should be, they must be kept scrupu- 
lously clean; cigarette ends or stray strands 
of ladies' hair must not remain about; and 
the window must l)e clean and the room 
well dusted. All very obvious, of course, 
but liable to be overlooked in a busy studio. 

The arrangement of a studio depends so 
much on the work done in it, that any dras- 
tic alteration is inadvisable unless it is ob- 
viously necessary; but there are a numljer 
of things of minor importance in themselves 
which add up to quite a respectable total in 
the general effect. If newspapers or maga- 
zines are provided for the amusement of 
customers, see that they are kept up to date, 
and are removed l)efore they get to the 
dog's-ear stage; if some of the blinds are 
out of use, do not neglect them, keep them 
free from dust and cobwebs and neatly 
folded or spread as the case may l)e. A 
fault, both from the point of view of aj)- 
pearance and of work, is too much furni- 
ture. That old accessory and those old 
backgrounds that you don't use now, but 
keep in case you may need them — you never 
will — get rid of them, sell them or use them 
for firewood ; anything to get them out of 
the way. They collect dust, and however 
carefully they are stored, look untidy. 

To turn from consideration of those parts 
of premises likely to be seen by customers, 
while thinking of rearrangement, it is just 
as well to see if the workroom accommo- 
dation is being used to the fullest advan- 
tage. Here, utility will be more studied 
than appearance, but the same remarks hold 
good to a great extent, the less disused out- 
of-date apparatus there to collect dust the 
better. Plenty of light and fresh air should 
be available in everv room. One often takes 



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the term "dark-room'* too literally. The 
more light you can get in it, of the right 
sort, the better ; better for your eyes, better 
for your work, and better for your break- 
age bill for dishes and measures. It is 
strange what a number of good workers still 
use "ruby glass" as their dark-room light- 
filter. One can have twice the light with 
far less risk by using a scientifically con- 
structed gelatine-film safe-lighr. 

If there is a number of workrooms the 
work should go from room to room with 
as short journeys as possible; for instance, 
the mounting room should, when possible, 
be next door to the spotting room, and yet 
one often finds them at opposite ends of a 
building. It may seem a small matter, but 
the time wasted must be considerable. 



L^p-to-date apparatus is the best invest- 
ment it is possible to make. Labor-saving 
means money saving in the long run, even 
if it is a one-man business. Every profes- 
sional should make a practice of seeing the 
latest in apparatus at least once a year. 
There are many high-class firms doing a 
good business and using apparatus that 
should have been on the scrap heap years 
ago; this means waste of labor in any case, 
and usually it prevents a higher standard 
of work being attained. It is not so much 
in the way of cameras and lenses that firms 
are behind the times, but in the less-consid- 
ered items — trimming boards, mounting 
machines, printing boxes, drying cupboards 
and dozens of other things. — The British 
Journal of Photography. 



Photos by Mrs. Emma Hilton, who will be one of 
the demonstrators In the Complete Studio at the 
Buffalo Convention. July 18th to 23d. 



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OUR LEGAL DEPARTMENT 

CONDUCTED BY ELTON J. BUCKLEY. ESQ. 

(Mr. Buckley is one of the leading members of the Philadelphia Bar, and an authority on legal matters. 
If our subscribers have questions on legal points, and submit them to us, Mr. Buckley will answer them 
free of charge, A stamped and addressed envelope must be enclosed for reply. Make your question brief 
and write on one side of the paper only.) 



What Kind of a Contract Exists When You Give 

a Man a Job? 



The question raised by the following letter 
touches everybody who has employees: 
Can one hold an employer liable for 
wages in case of place of business being 
destroyed by fire, thereby throwing me 
out of employment? Such was a case 
with me just recently. I have been 
with the Farmers' Union Merchandise 
Co., of Mt. Vernon, until December 
13, 1920, when I accepted a position as 
manager of ^Ir. Goldammer's new 
merchandise store in Mitchell, S. D, 
and went to work for him in good faith, 
I am going to ask you for a little en- 
lightenment on the following question : 
resigning my position with the Farmers' 
Union Merchandise Co.. and also pass- 
ing up an opportunity to become man- 
ager of the Farmers' Union Merchan- 
dise Co., of Mt. Vernon, S. D., w^th 
whom I had been. Now% it appears 
that he would be liable .for my w^ages, 
as I agreed to work for him for one 
year at a certain salary per month, and 
the fire putting him out of business was 
no fault of mine, and also no fault of 
his, of course. This agreement was not 
in writing, but I have witnesses to that 
effect. But through this fire I was put 
out of employment and will be for 
some time, as he cannot build for some 
time. What is your candid opinion? 
Would like your idea on same. 

John T. Roescii. 
The question is w'hat kind of a contract 
exists when an employer gives somebody a 
job. What is its duration, and what be- 
comes of it when it is interrupted by some- 



thing like a fire, which prevents service 
from being rendered. 

The w^hole thing depends on the original 
hiring. If A & Co. say to B, "You come 
here and work for us. We'll give you $200 
a month," or 'Sve'll give you $2,400 a year,'* 
or "we'll give you $50 a week," there is no 
particular contract, except from week to 
week or month to month, and the contract 
can be ended at the will of either party. If 
the oflfer is $50 a week, the contract is really 
one for only a week, and so on from week 
to week. If it is for $200 per month, it is 
a contract for a month, and so on from 
month to month. 

Some people think that when a firm says 
"we'll give you $2,400 a year," there is a 
contract for one year, but that is not the case. 
At least it is not necessarily the case. The 
cases all hold that the figure merely repre- 
sents the rate of wage or salary-. And so 
an arrangement to pay so much per year, 
payable so much a month, is merely a 
monthly contract, and cannot be enforced 
for any more. 

The answer to this correspondent's ques- 
tion is, therefore, this: that the employer 
cannot be held responsible for wages after 
the business burned, unless there was some- 
thing more than the kind of contract I have 
described. If that was all it was, it came 
to an end when the fire made it impossible 
to go on with it. 

What kind of a contract would have made 
the employer liable? A definite agreement, 
which should always be in writing, between 
the employer and the employee, that the hir- 
ing shall be for the term of one year, or 



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whatever it is meant to be. A contract like 
that is never ended by any interruption Hke 
a fire, and the employer is just as liable for 
wages after the fire as before. For instance, 
suppose a contract like that has been made, 
and the employer dies. The contract goes 
right on provided there is anything for the 
employee to do. Suppose the employer be- 
comes insolvent or insane: it makes no dif- 
ference, the contract is still in force and the 
employee can collect his wages just the 
same. The only exception to this is certain 
forms of bankruptcy. Where the employer 
is a partnership and voluntarily dissolves, 
the contract goes on unchanged. Nor does 
the sale of the business end it. And in the 
very case submitted by the correspondent, 
where the place of business burns down and 
there is no longer anything for the employee 
to do, he can still draw his wages if he has 
a definite contract hiring him for so long. 
In all these cases the law says to the em- 
ployer, "You are responsible for this man's 
wages in spite of the fact that you no longer 
need him, for you could have protected your- 
self against such contingencies had you seen 
fit to do so.'* I said such a contract should 
be in writing, but a verbal contract is just 
as enforceable, though harder to prove. 

The average employer is reluctant to make 
a definite contract with an employee, partly 
because he may be bound for wages under 
conditions such as I have described, and 
partly because he wants to leave himself 
free to fire the employee if he proves un- 
satisfactory. There is something in the first 
reason, but nothing at all in the second. You 
can discharge an unsatisfactory employee 
just as easily under a five-year contract as 
you can under one for a month — provided 
you have inserted a clause to the eflfect that 
the service to be rendered by the employee 
shall be satisfactory to the employer. 
{Copyright by Elton J. Burkley.) 



"Why did Tom quit the photographer's daughter 
after all these months?" 

"He says he's been calling four times a week, 
and she hasn't gotten half through the picture 
album yet." 



Bumps 

JEANNE SNAZEL 

*'Bumps" — a lot like mumps, is it not? 
Only the disease called ''Bumps" is really 
a great deal worse than mumps, in that it 
is not only serious, and infectious, but 
sometimes incurable. It is a disease of the 
head and the heart, and causes the brain 
to expand or "swell." Unlike an epidemic, 
it is more frequently found in small towns 
than in large cities. It breaks out mostly 
in the business world and we photographers 
are especially susceptible to this horrible 
disease. 

No doubt all other professions and trades 
suflfer from "Bumps," only, being a photog- 
rapher myself, I have particularly observed 
it amongst ourselves. We are so apt to 
seclude ourselves, even to the extent of be- 
coming "narrow minded." 

For instance, we may own a ver>' fniQ 
studio and have it equipped "anciently" 
well, and be doing all the business we can 
handle. How often when such is the case, 
we just throw out our chest and say, "Tm 
all right, Tm making money, and those 
other fellows cannot show me anything that 
I do not already know. I know my busi- 
ness, for IVe been in the game since I was 
young. I don't want any *new-fangled' 
methods in my studio, for the old way is 
good enough for me." 

Haven't you heard 'em talk like that some 
times? I have and I know some of the 
salesmen who have also. 

Look here! Any man who really feels 
like that is sick. Yes, downright seriously 
sick. He "suflFers" but does not know it. 
He wnll always suflfer thus, unless he finds 
a care for his trouble, which of course is 
"Bumps." He is actually hurting himself 
in many ways in manifesting such senti- 
ments. 

No mortal man ever crammed so much 
knowledge into his brain that there re- 
mained no room for more. Supposing one 
person has been in the photographic busi- 
ness ever since the dav of its birth, he can- 



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not know everything about it, and even it 
he does know a heap, why should he remain 
under quarantine with "Bumps," keeping all 
that knowledge to himself 1* Why should 
he not come out of his shell and share it 
with the rest of us, like a real brother? 
"Good begets good," and we cannot expect 
to receive much good from others unless 
we are willing to meet them half way. 

There are many little pointers and prac- 
tical helps stored away in each of our 
brains. Some people's brains are almost 
bursting, so full they are with the many 
things that hundreds of us would be so 
glad to know. If only we all were willing 
to open the doors of our hearts and spread 
the little knowledge seeds far and wide 
amongst our struggling brothers and sisters 
in the dear old profession, what a vast 
amount of good we could do one to another. 
What we need is more of the "give and 
take" spirit. "As we sow, so shall we 
reap." 

Why should the young fellow with a few 
short years' experience, after managing to 
scrape up enough to get into business for 
himself, immediately contract the "Bumps" 
and think he knows all there is to know? 
I once heard somewhere of a l)oy who went 
to college to learn and he actually took two 
years to find out his first lesson, which was 
that he didn't know anything. How many 
photographers there are who run up against 
snags and difficult problems, even after hav- 
ing l^een making good pictures for years. 

I thought seven years ago that I was as 
good a receptionist as ever existed, but I 
sometimes go into other studios and get a 
real useful tip from some receptionist with 
far less experience than I. Then I wonder 
just why I never knew that years ago, and 
a feeling of wonder comes over me at my 
own ignorance, when I supposed I kuezv my 
business. 

Now, what license have you old fellows. 
who learned the business in the days of 
yore when studios were galleries and ex- 
posures meant saying the alphabet forward 
and backward, or relating "Jack and the 




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Bulletin of Photography 



A BIG OPPORTUNITY 

to see the greatest exhibit of photographic material, photographs 
by the greatest workers in the world, the most complete artificially 
lighted studio ever erected, and meet more celebrated photographers 
than ever before assembled under one roof. 

39th Annual (International) Convention 

Photographers' Association of America 

Buffalo, N. Y., July 18th to 23d 

Special Convention Railroad Rates of Full Fare Going and Half Fare Return 

on the Certificate Plan. 
( New England and Pacific Coast points excepted.) 

ASK YOUR TICKET AGENT FOR PARTICULARS. 



Dues to P. A. of A., including admittance to Convention and every feature, 
$10.00 for employers and $3.00 for employees. 

J. C. ABEL, General Secretary. 421 Caxton Bldg., Cleveland. Ohio. 



bean pole" while squeezing the bulb, to 
bulge out your chest because of what you 
kuo'i^\^ What good is that old-fashioned 
education to you NOW in the modern days 
of magic, when most of the work is done 
by merely "pushing the button?'* You'll 
have to "give and take" a little more to be 
able to compete with the lightning-bugs of 
today. 

BUMPS — oh, yes! The biggest majority 
of us have it, more or less, and although it 
gives us mighty big heads, it prevents us 
from having big hearts. It warps our very 
souls till we stop growing, and are utterly 
incapable to either learn anything or teach 
anything. 

Here is a prescription guaranteed to per- 
manently cure the disease called "Bumps." 
First, examine yourself thoroughly, until 
you see yourself as others see you, thus 
you will discover whether or not you have 
any alarming symptoms. If you find you 
have, then follow these directions implicitly : 



Mix one ounce of unselfishness, one 
ounce of generosity, a few grains of broth- 
erly love and a dram or two of real kind- 
ness. Take this internally and wash it down 
by a few more journals than you hitherto 
have been reading, and a "real ginger" con- 
vention or two will assist you to digest it. 

Sometimes an ounce of prevention is 
worth more than a pound of cure — whereas 
I would implore any professional photog- 
rapher who has no symptoms of "Bumps" 
to make a special eflFort to attend the big 
convention at Buffalo, this July, as a pre- 
ventative. 

Of course, you who are reading this piece 
are )iot troubled with the dreadful disease 
called "Bumps," else you would not be 
spending your time so profitably as reading 
journals. YOU will not need this prescrip- 
tion, in which case it might be well to pass 
it on to any photographer of your acquaint- 
ance whose case can be diagnosed as 
"Bumps." 



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Bulletin of Photography 815 



THE 

New York Studio Outfit No. 3 

A DEPENDABLE 
EQUIPMENT 

It is built on the prin- 
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The details of this outfit 
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which every photographer 
should read. A copy will 

I For 8x10 and 5x7 negatives 

be sent you on request. ^.^^ ^,^^^^^.^ ^^^ ,^^,^3 

By reason of its conven- 
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Studio Outfit No. 3 is the logical choice of those who seek a 
higher average of good negatives. Its superior points, its fine 
appearance and mechanical correctness, will impress you on 
even casual inspection. For permanent satisfaction, select the 
New York Studio Outfit No. 3. Ask your stock house about it. 

ANSCO COMPANY 

Binghamton, N. Y. 



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Bulletin of Photography 



Eduard Blum 

The Photo Art Shop 

in the service of the profession 

32 South Wabash Avenue 

CHICAGO 



THE ONLY STUDIO OF ITS KIND IN AMERICA 



BE DIFFERENT FROM THE OTHER FELLOW 
BE DIFFERENT FROM YESTERDAY 



I Our Legal Department 



Dear Sir: 

Can I get private information in the fol- 
lowing matter? 

Two parties enter into partnership for 
a term of five years, each investing an equal 
amount of money; later, one of the parties 
buys the house in which the business is 
conducted. After the f\\e years are up the 
man who has not lx)ught the house wishes 
to dissolve the partnership. What is he 
entitled to? Does he get the money origin- 
ally invested, besides equal share of stock, 
fixtures, etc? Also, if the business has been 
built up and increased to a far greater value 
during the fivt years, leaving the other 
party, the purchaser, to a more prosperous 
business, is not the retiring partner entitled 
to a certain value for his efforts or services ? 

Can one partner sell his share to another 
party before the five years are up? Must 
he have the consent of his partner? P. 



Dear Sir: 

Yours of the 7th inst. to the Bulletin 
OF Photography has been referred to me 
with the request that I answer it. One 
member of a partnership cannot sell his 
share to a third person before the partner- 
ship period is up or at any time without the 
consent of his fellow partner. Upon disso- 
lution of the partnership, each partner 
would be entitled to such a share of the 
partnership assets as would represent the 
original capital investment, plus any accre- 
tions which had come by the development 
of the business. This would include good 
will, if good will is one of the assets, but 
it would not include any allowance for sal- 
ary, unless the partnership agreement con- 
templated the drawing of salary, but the 
salary instead of being drawn out had been 
allowed to remain in the business. In that 
event it would be part of the partner's cap- 
ital investment. 

E. J. B. 



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Bulletin of Photography 817 

Convention of the Professional 
Photographers of New England 

This wide-awake and progressive Asso- 
ciation of Professional Photographers will 
hold its twenty-third convention at Spring- 
field, Mass., on September 7, 8, 9, in the 
magnificent auditorium which has splendid 
conveniences of space and light. 

One of the features will be a studio, fully 
equipped and operated by some of the 
ablest men in the country, so that any man 
or woman who attends the convention may 
have a first-class made of themselves to 
carry home : a thing not possible unless 
they went to a great deal of trouble and ex- 
pense. These sittings will be made by ap- 
pointment, and will illustrate how great 
men in professional portraiture proceed in 
making their masterpieces. 

There will be lectures and business talks 
by competent specialists, and also the usual 
amount of entertainment, consisting of 
music, dancing and a clam bake. A very 
cordial invitation is extended to the ladies, 
for whose comfort and entertainment special 
arrangements will be mac'/3. No effort will 
be spared by the committee to make every 
visitor feel at home, contented and happy. 
Now is the time for those who are inter- 
ested to make their plans and arrangements. 

Springfield has been selected by the com- 
mittee l^ecause it can easily be reached by 
the photographers who live in various parts 
of New England. Springfield is fortunate 
in having splendid and well-managed hotels 
with the modern conveniences and at mod- 
erate prices. No city in this country pos- 
sesses an auditorium the equal of the one 
that has served for the past five years as a 
meeting place of the New England photog- 
raphers. Those who have been there are 
always glad to go again. For those who 
care to make brief and delightful motor 
trips from Springfield, there are attractive 
places within easy reach, north and south 
along the Connecticut River, west to the 
Rerkshires, and east to the Mount Holyoke 
range. 

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Bulletin of Photography 



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Good Outline in the Portrait 

Less attention is given to the character 
of the outHne presented in the portrait than 
to the general effect of the light and shade; 
but outline presentation cannot be slighted 
with impunity, l^ecause in the finished print 
it is so self-assertive a feature, and, when 
not adequately considered, mars the care- 
fully sought out scheme of illumination. 

A pah iter invariably considers the 
decorative effect of the picture, sees that the 
forms which the lines or areas of light and 
shade make, co-ordinate to produce an 
agreeable arrangement. And so the photog- 
rapher should regard the lines for what 
they are capable of effecting. 

The good portraitist, if he discover in the 
survey of the face that something not pleas- 
ing presents, will put that objectionable 
feature in a lower key of light to make it 
less obtrusive, and the same principle is 
applicable to any unpleasant presentation of 
outline. 

The question often put by photographers 
of limited experience is — what subjects are 
best suited to "Rembrandt" or some other 
variety of lighting? 

The answer is, if the photographer is ac- 
quainted with his light, he will have no diffi- 
culty in deciding what subjects are suited 
to it. All subjects are not adapted to such 
a peculiar method of illumination; the ma- 
jority had better be treated under the ordi- 
nary broad plan of illumination, and with 
less chance of misapplication. 

But, as there seems a penchant for Rem- 
brandt effect, it may be well to give a little 
advice concerning it. 

The danger encountered is from the 
method itself. The light side of the face 
being from the camera and coming against 
a dark ground, which is usually the kind 



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selected for this effect, brings the outline of 
the face into such relief that, if it happens 
to be an irregular form, it shows up obtru- 
sively, and is the very feature to attract 
most attention. 

Now, this would not have happened with 
a broader illumination, or, at least, not 
showed up so outrageously. A light ground, 
of course, might be used and the exhibition 
not be so pronounced, but, if we use a white 
ground, it brings the light side of the face 
against the ground and merges the outline 
into it and produces a sort of blur. 

It is possible, at times, by taking the face 
from different points of view, to make it 
presentable in Rembrandt, even though it 
be not particularly adapted to this method, 
but it is better art to suit the face to the 
illumination which shall do it most justice. 
If the subject has hollow cheeks, move 
the camera to a point where the end of the 
nose just crosses the cheek, so breaking 
the outline and, in a measure, filling up the 
hollow. 

The subject may have a hollow temple, 
and the plan here is to move the camera 
to a point where the ear just crosses the 
outline and fills the temple. 

But this is, after all, doctoring cases, and 
the Rembrandt style is for good healthv 
subjects with fair outline, which need no 
treatment. 

An angular face should lje lighted in a 
rather low key of light and with broad 
effect, so that the shadow side of the face 
may be brought against the ground in a 
softened key, avoiding sharp outline. 

When you have a subject under the light, 
study the effect best suited to it. 

Try first the ordinary broad scheme of 
lighting, then venture to compare this with 
some of the special methods of illumina- 
tion, with the model in the same pose. A 
very common mistake is, that, after one gets 
a lighting to his liking, and then essays to 
try something else, he undertakes meddling 
with the model, turning the head to one 
side or the other, instead of manipulating; 
his camera to get the side of the face 



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Bulletin of Photography 



"A Manual fuU of good wholesome material 
and a valuable reference hook for every mem- 
ber of the prof eBsion, big or little," 



How to Make a Studio Pay 

BY FRANK FARRINCTON 



CONTENTS 

The Man and the Location 
Buying and Arranging the Stock 
System in the Studio 
The Treatment of Customers 
How to Know the Profits 
Credit and Collections 
Developing the Side Lines 
Advertising You Can Do 
Business-Getting Schemes 



a«th Bomd, Price, $1.50, Net, Postpaid 
FRANK V. CHAMBERS 

PUBLISHER 

636 S. FRANKUN SQUARE, PHILADELPHIA 



PHOTOCBJVPHIC 

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No extra charge for Ca n adian postage 
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wanted. Such a method practically clianges 
the light by shifting the high-lights to differ- 
ent positions and rearranging the shadows; 
in fact, altering the general aspect and ex- 
pression. 

It is essential that the operator know what 
effect he wants before starting to manipu- 
late curtains, etc. 

Learn first what the subject under treat- 
ment is capable of and then apply your skill 
in getting it under the conditions. 

Economy Plus 

Isadore K. Simpson was a man of con- 
siderable importance. 

That is to say, Isadore had convinced his 
neighbors, his employes, the immediate com- 
munity, that he was of considerable impor- 
tance, but there were some doubts in the 
minds of the banks and Isadore himself as 
to whether or not this was strictly true. 

Isadore had made considerable money dur- 
ing the war and he had increased his busi- 
ness and his personal expenses. He had a 
new office building, numerous clerks, and a 
new country place and a couple of chauffeurs 
and all of the things that go with increased 
prosperity. 

Then the slump came. 

Isadore had boasted so much of his suc- 
cess and had posed so prominently before 
his fellow-men that he felt ashamed to re- 
trench when the sign posts of commerce 
pointed that way. He felt as if he would 
lose his reputation as a successful man if he 
reduced his working force or modified his 
lavish living expenses, so he kept on, hoping 
against hope that things would come out all 
right some how. 

As a result Isadore is now in the hands of 
a receiver and all the economies he might 
have put into effect to save his fortune are 
now in effect under orders of the receiver, 
with his fortune gone and his control of his 
own affairs taken from him. 

This is not an exaggerated vision of things 
as they might be, but Isadore is a reality 
and the lesson which Isadore's experience 



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Bulletin of Photography 



821 



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teaches is that ECONOMY is the password 
of the day. 

Whether we like it or not. the whole world 
is in a state of economic competition. The 
nation, business or individual which would 
survive must make up its mind that the 
competition from now on is more largely 
economic than progressive. 

It is no longer a question of how much 
business can you do, but how little can you 
do business for? 

Of course, economy has always been the 
measure of successful business, under nor- 
mal conditions, but during the boom times 
business has been careless in forgetting this 
all-important factor. 

They may talk improvement of business; 
increase in export trade and all the other 
remedies imaginable, but there is only one 
really, truly remedy to the present conditions 
and that is ECONOMY. 

Some near-sighted folks may preach the 
doctrine that spending makes for prosperity. 



but waste and extravagance never made for 
permanent prosperity at any time or at any 
place. 

We might as well accustom ourselves to 
playing the game according to the rules. 
And economy is the basic rule to all success 
and we need the basic rule now more than 
at any other time in the history of the 
world's commerce. 

Economy is a habit, difficult to acquire, 
but the solution to the present situation is 
difficult. Therefore don't get the false no- 
tion that extravagance is going to help mat- 
ters. Work, earn. save, is the order of the 
day and only by following out this order will 
things be speedily and permanently righted. 
— Chas. E. Carpenter, in The Corn Ex- 
change. 

"I see." said one suburbanite to another, "that 
they have taken the five-fifteen off this line. Do 
you miss it much?" 

"Not as- often as when it was on." — The Atucri- 
can Legion Weekly. 



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Bulletin of Photography 



BIND THE BULLETIN OF PHOTOGRAPHY 

THE only Magazine Binder ever invented that will quickly and 
securely bind each issue as published and bind one magazine 
or a complete file without in the slightest manner mutilating 
same, such as punching a hole in the magazine, gluing, lacing, or 
in some manner attaching something to it. No strings, clamps, 
springs or locks used. Retains at all times the appearance of a 
neat and substantially bound book and the magazines are just as 
substantially bound as a regularly bound book no matter whether 
there is only one magazine in the Binder or a complete file, 

C Nothing complicated, nothing to get out of order. A child 
can use it correctly. Every Binder is thoroughly examined be- 
fore shipment and guaranteed to be as represented. 

C The Binders hold 26 copies (6 months) of the Bulletin of 
Photography and resemble the loose leaf ledger binders, only 
each copy is held in place with a flat steel rod fitting on pins, 
holding every copy in its proper place. 

C We've used these Binders in our own office for the past seven 
(7) years and say that they are the best that money can buy. 



Will last for years. 
Over 400 sold and 
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Price $2.00, postpaid 

Monmy hack if you don't likm thmnu 



FRANK V. CHAMBERS, 636 S. Franklin Square, PhUadelphia 



Effect of Reflecting Screen on the 
Eye of the Portrait 

The reflecting screen is an indispensible ad- 
junct in photographic portraiture, and its value 
in lighting up the shadow side of the face has 
been, time out of mind, dilated upon. But suffi- 
cient stress is not always laid upon the danger 
attending its employment. 

When placed too close up, its tendency is to 
produce false lights and destroy the richness of 
the deep shadows. 

It is better practice to work somewhat back 
from the chief light, give longer exposure and do 
away with reflectors, or introduce them only when 
absolutely called for. 

V'ery frequently enough reflection is had from 
the surrounding walls, even though they may not 
be light in color, and the grey background itself 
may contribute what is needed. 

But what we want to here call particular atten- 
tion to, is the effect of reflectors upon the eyes, 
which often escapes the notice of even experienced 
operators. 

Where the light used comes in from a single 
source, properly manipulated, there is only one 
strong light thrown upon the eye, and that a 
mere speck. 

But when there is much secondary light, so 
situated that it is reflected into the eyes, there 
is projected a second light area, larger than the 
proper catch light, which gives an unnatural look 
to the face. 



The professional who finds himself guilty* of 
doing this gets his retoucher to spot it out. 

If a reflector is necessar>', see that the reflect- 
ing surface is not too bright. 



What's Doing in Photography 



J. F. Hurtik has opened a new studio in Pine 
Bluff, Ark. 

W. L. Harris has opened a new studio in Walla 
Walla, Wash. 

Fred Mould, who has conducted a studio in 
Baraboo, Wis., for several years, has purchased 
a studio in Madison. 

Warren M. Sargent, who for several years has 
oi)erated a studio in Decatur, Ind., has sold out 
to W. S. Porter. Mr. Sargent expects to locate 
in Chicago. 

F. M. Goss, formerly of the Goss Studio, New- 
buryport, Mass., has purchased the studio of the 
late Frank Brooks, Haverhill, Mass., and is re- 
modeling and equipping it into one of the most 
up-to-date studios in the city. It will be open 
July 1st. 

Thieves entered Collyer's Studio, Springfield* 
Mass., on June 6th, and stole two camera lenses 
valued at $300. They gained entrance by forcing 
a transom in a rear door, and ransacked the place, 
selecting only two lenses from half a dozen. The 
appearance of the job indicates their familiarity 
with photographic work and apparatus. 



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Bulletin of Photography 



823 



Classified Advertisements 



ClsMlfied AdTertUing Rates— For Sale. Rent. Exchange and 
Miscellaneous advertisements. Minimum charge. $1.00 for 
thirty words; additional words. 3 cents each. 

Help Wanted — Two insertions of twenty-one words, minimum 
charge. 50 cents; additional words. 2 cents each. Cash must 
accompany order. 

Situation Wanted — Twenty-one words, one time. free. Addi- 
tional words. 2 cents each. 

No display allowed — CoMh muti hm ttnt wUh ordt. 

Display advertising rates sent upon request. 

Copy must be plain and distinct. 

To secure insertion, advertisements must be received by 9 
A. M.. Tuesdays, one week preceding date of publication. 

DO YOU WANT A POSITION? 

Read the ads, that follow 

Wanted — Lady retoucher wanted in first-class 
studio; good salary; short hours and permanent 
position. Address Buckley Studio, Press Bldg., 
Binghamton, N. Y. 

Wanted — An experienced up-to-date Home Por- 
trait operator of pleasing personality, who also 
knows all parts of the business. State salary, ex- 
perience, etc. Gay's Art Gallery, Fall River, Mass. 

Help Wanted — Operator with ability wanted; 
must be well experienced in posing and lighting. 
State qualifications, name of last employer (con- 
fidential) and salary expected. Address Box 962, 
care of Bulletin of Photography. 

Wanted — All-around man, or one who can print 
and retouch. Give reference and state salary 
desired. Address — Zuver Studio, 215 S. Main 
Street, Butler, Pa. 

Operator Wanted in studio doing high-grade 
work; prominent city in Middle Atlantic States. 
Excellent salary and permanent position to man 
with ability. State particulars and qualifications. 
Address, Box 959 care of Bulletin of Photog- 



DO YOU WANT TO BUY, SELL OR 
RENT A STUDIO? 

Read the ads. that follow 

For Sale at a Bargain— Studio, doing good com- 
mercial and amateur finishing business. Reason 
for sale, going into the oil game Terms, if desired. 
Write— Box 937, Great Falls, Montana. 

For Sale — First-class studio; skylight; Cooper 
Hewitt light ; everything up-to-date, in best 
location. A good proposition Owner interested 
in manufacturing business. Call or write to — 
S. Newman, 195 Thames Street, Newport, R. I. 



MISCELLANEOUS 



Read the ads. that follow 



Retouchers for the TRADE-H^uick, consistent 
service since 1905. Experienced retouchers. 
Fust shoot 'em right along — don't be timid — 
National Retouching Service, 4654 Cottage Grove 
Ave., Chicago. 

Wanted— 16-inch Cirkut for cash. Must be late 
model and in good condition. Address 961, care 
of Bulletin of Photography. 



A short time ago a surgeon had three leg am- 
putations in a week. The unusual number caused 
talk in the surgeon's household, and his little 
daughter Dorothy was greatly interested. A few 
days after the last operation the surgeon's wife 
and little Dorothy were rummaging in the attic. 
In a trunk was found a Daguerreotype depicting 
a girl about eight years of age. The portrait, 
through a peculiarity of pose, showed only one 
leg of the subject, the other being doubled up 
under her. 

"Whose picture is that, mamma?" asked 
Dorothy. 

"Mine. It was taken when I was a child not 
much older than you are now." 

"Did you know papa then?" 

"No, dear. Why do you ask?" 

"I thought maybe you did, 'cause you've only 
got one leg." — The Delineator. 



Reliable Photo Supply Houses 

JOHN HAWORTH COMPANY 

(Battmma Kodak Co.) 
It20 Chestnut Street, Philadelphbi 

THE H. LIEBER COMPANY 
24 W. Washington St. - Indianapolis, Ind. 

Western Photo & Supply Co. 

Photographers* & Photo Engravers* Supplies 

328 W. Madison St., Chicago 

WILLOUGHBY ^^yf yoRK 
Everything Used in Photography 

SWEET, WALLACH & CO. 

(BMtman Kodak Co.) 

133 North Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. 

SUSSMAN PHOTO STOCK CO. 
223-225 Park Avenue, Baltimore, Md. 



Norman-Willets Photo Supply 

— INCORPOR ATBI>— 

SS2-SS3 LE MOYNB BLDG. ntitn kf^f\ 

18f N. WABASH AVE. i^HIi^AOU 

ZIMMERMAN BROS. 

(BMUnmn Kod&k Co.) 

38d-3S4 Minnesota St., St. Paul, Minn. 

HYATT'S SUPPLY CO. 
417 North Broadway, St. Louis, Mo. 

STANDARD PHOTO SUPPLY CO. 

(BMtmaii Kodak Co.) 

125 Baronne St., New Orleans, La. 



Please Mention Bulletin of Photography When Writing Adv<0rjyft^^ by V^jQOQ IC 



766 



Bulletin of Photography 



SEED 



PLATES 



The measure of a plate's quality is not 
the length of the scale of tones it will 
reproduce, but the correctness with which 
it reproduces them. 

Seed 30 Plates have a scale that permits 
of perfect reproduction of the longest 
range of tones that will be encountered 
in a photographic subject. 



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. 
All Dealers'. 



Please Mention Bulletin of Photography When Writing Advertisers. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Bulletin of Photography 767 



More than 80^o of the X-Ray workers of 
America use Eastman Tested Chemicals 

They must eliminate the element of 
uncertainty from their work. 

The surgeon's knife is guided by a 
diagnosis of the X-Ray result. 

Your results are not a matter of life or 
death, but they are a matter of dollars 
and cents. 

Specify 

EASTMAN 
TESTED CHEMICALS 



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 
ROCHESTER, N. Y. 
All Dealers'. 



Please Mention Bulletin of Photography When Writing Advertisers. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



The live quality of a 
picture, so easily de- 
stroyed by halation, is 
preserved in the nega- 
tive made on 



Eastman 
Portrait Film 



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. 
All Dealers'. 



Please Mention Bulletin of Photography When Writing Advertisers. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Bulletin of Photography 703 



ELON 

The best developer for 
photographic papers 



We use it — we recommend it — 
we make it — we know ifs right. 



Elon now lists at 
$9.00 per pound 



EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. 

All Dealers', 



Please Mention Bulletin of Photography When Writing Advertisers. 

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