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BULLETIN 



OF THE 



PUBLIC MUSEUM OF THE 
CITY OF MILWAUKEE 



VOLUME I 

WITH 25 PLATES AND 3 TEXT FIGURES 



MILWAUKEE, WIS., U. S. A. 
Published by order of the Trustees 

I 9 I o - 1 9 I I 



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CITED AS BULL., PUBL. MUS.. MILW. 



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CONTENTS 



Article 1. Catalogue of the Odonata of North America, Richard 
A. Muttkowski, Pages 1-208. 

Article 2. Lolo Objects in the Public Museum, Milwaukee, 
Frederick Starr, Pages 209-220, Plates 1-8. 

Article 3. Bees of Northwestern Wisconsin, S. Graenicher, Pages 
221-250. 

Article 4. The Dream Dance of the Chippewa and Menominee 
Indians of Northern Wisconsin, S. A. Barrett. Pages 
251-406, Plates 9-25. 

Index. Pages 407-414. 
Errata. Pages 414, 415. 



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BULLETIN 



OP THB 



PUBLIC MUSEUM OF THE 
CITY OF MILWAUKEE 



VOL. I ARTICLE I 



CATALOGUE OF THE ODONATA OF 
NORTH AMERICA 

BY RICHARD A. MDTTKOWSKI 



MILWAUKEE, WIS., U. S. A. 
Published by order of the Trusteei 
May, 1910 



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Milwaukee, Wis. U. S. A. 

PKINTBD BT BUKDICK & ALI.BM 



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FOREWORD 

The publication of a Bulletin by the museum is not to be con- 
sidered an innovation in its policy, but rather as a more ccmiplete 
fulfillment of its agreement with the Wisconsin Natural History 
Society made when the city took over its collections in 1882, that 
they should be used for "public instruction, and the provision of 
materials and helps for Scientific Investigation." For some years 
the desirability of a publication of this nature has been recognized 
by the Trustees, and during the last calendar year the Museum 
assumed part of the expense of publishing the Bulletin of the Wis- 
consin Natural History Society which it has used for several years 
as a medium of exchange. 

The long delay in assuming the responsibilities of a Bulletin has 
been due to the small number of our scientific staff ; and even now 
it is recognized that the burden of publication would weigh heavily 
were an attempt made to issue these at stated periods. It is there- 
fore for the present the intention to publish fascicules of volumes as 
they are ready, with no obligation implied that a volimie will be com- 
pleted within a definite period. 

Primarily the Bulletin is intended to supply a suitable means of 
presenting the results of investigations made by members of the 
Museum's staff or of others based upon the Museum's collections ; 
but in order to be of the greatest value for the objects enumerated 
in the above quoted stipulation of gift it will probably not be advis- 
able to entirely confine it to articles emanating from these sources. 

Publication by the Museum does not imply responsibility by it 
for the author's work. 



The following paper by Mr. Muttkowski has been prepared with 

the direction and advice of Mr. Chas. T. Brues, while he was curator 

of invertebrate zoology, and to a considerable extent the work has 

been done during museum hours. It is presumed that it will be of 

value to students of the Odonata in that it presents in convenient 

form what purports to be a complete list of these insects from the 

North American region, assigns, as far as possible, each species to 

its biological area within the region and cities the more important 

bibliographical references for each species. The author has been 

favored with the co-operation of the leading students of this order, 

and it is therefore presumed that the classification and nomenclature 

employed represents the more approved and advanced ideas of 

odonatologists. 

Henry L. Ward, 

Director. 



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CATALOGUE OF THE ODONATA 
OF NORTH AMERICA 

By Richard A. Muttkowski. 
INTRODUCTION. 

A series of bibliographical notes made in the preparation of my 
paper on the Wisconsin Dragonflies fostered the idea of a catalogue 
of the Order for North America. When the matter of compilation 
was laid before the various workers in Odonatology they, one and 
all, agreed as to the need of a catalogue, especially since Dr. Banks 
had excluded the Odonata from his catalogue of Neuropteroid In- 
sects of North America (Am. Ent. Soc., 1907, pp. 53). This work is 
intended to fill the gap. 

Early in the work of compilation a number of points, such as 
area, scope, and method, presented themselves for consideration, and 
which each had to be carefully weighed for its influence on the final 
form of the catalogue. 

AREA. — To limit the catalogue within any g^ven political bound- 
ary was entirely out of question. To observe the artificial boundary 
of the United States and Mexico as a natural Southern faunal limit 
would have been arbitrary ; especially so in the case of the Odonata. 
Equally inconsistent would be the inclusion of entire North America. 
The wide distribution of the majority of Odonata demands that a 
different criterion be applied. As such the Nearctic zoogeographical 
region with certain modifications was selected. These modifications 
grew out of the difficulty of co-ordinating the range of Neotropic 
species into the U. S. with the region in question. This is 
especially evident when one observes the overlapping and intermingl- 
ing of the two great regions of the Western Hemisphere in Mexico 
and Central America. The Nearctic region in its widest sense may 
be assumed to extend as far south as the mountains of Ecuador, 
though frequently interrupted and isolated in Central America; while 
the Neotropical extends uninterruptedly into Texas and California, 
and overlaps the Nearctic in Florida. 

6 



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6 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

For this reason it became necessary to draw an artificial line 
somewhere. And after careful study it was found that of species 
captured in zones 1-3 (see Calvert, Bidc^a, map; or Proc. Acad. 
Phila., 1908, pi. 26) below 26'' north latitude in Mexico a very small 
percentage extends into the United States. Again, of species cap- 
tured north of this limit by far the larger portion have been taken in 
the United States. As a result I believe that with 20'' north latitude 
an artificial boundary is set which closely approximates the natural 
zoogeographical limit. This division has been fairly well adhered to 
in the catalogue and results in the inclusion of all Cuban and many 
Mexican species. Yet to further preclude artificialty I have added 
all species taken in zones 4-6 south of the line, but within the limits 
of Mexico. 

SCOPE. — I have tried to include all references of taxonomic 
value ; in addition to these there are a large number of ethological 
and morphological papers which occasionally have been referred to. 
But usually ethology has been combined with taxonomy, which 
obviates the need of citing all purely ethological references. Similar- 
ly, Kirby's Synonymic Catalogue (London, 1890) is quoted only 
when the nc«nenclatural changes of that estimable work necessitate 
a citation. 

Counting subspecies as well as distinct species, 494 are treated 
in this catalogue, fossils {27 species) not included. This is 18.77 
per cent, of the total number of known Odonata (2,631). 

CLASSIFICATION.— With Kirby, Calvert, Needham, Will- 
iamson, Ris, and others, the Odonata are treated as a separate order. 

Of the various systems of general insect classification proposed 
since Linne that of Handlirsch (Die Fossilen Insecten, pp. 1227- 
1293, 1908) appears perhaps the most acceptable. Each of the 
many other systems has been based on either morpholc^cal, and in 
such cases more often than not founded on a single detail, or larval 
characters, or upon the metamorphosis. Handlirsch's system pos- 
sesses the merit of considering all of these, and phylogenetical, 
factors and is therefore probably more consistent with the general 
systematic developments of modem times. 

In most systems the Neuroptera (sensu Linne) have been the 
stumbling block. Handlirsch is practically the first to give this 
heterogeneous assemblage his full attention. As a result but three 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 7 

families remain in the Neuropteroidea: the Megdoptera, Raphido- 
idea, and Neuroptera s.s. All the rest have been distributed in 5 
sub-classes, four separately. These are the Odonata (Libelluloidea 
Handlirsch), Perloidea, Embiaria, and Ephemeroidea, Except for 
the assignation of the Lepidoptera, Panorpidae, Phryganeidae, and 
Diptera to the Panorpatae for phylogenetical reasons no other result 
of Handlirsch's studious work is of greater significance than the 
isolation of the Odonata in a sub-class, co-ordinate in rank with the 
ten other sub-classes. 

Handlirsch 's addition of a third suborder to recent Odonata is 
of interest. With the erection of the Anisozygoptera, one may say, 
the Zygoptera and Anisoptera have been more definitely linked than 
heretofore. 

Though some authors recognize as many as ten families of 
Odofiata, I have used but four in this catalogue. I do not subscribe 
to the habit of a few recent writers of raising any well-definable 
group to family rank ; especially when this is done on a purely nega- 
tive character. The same is true of subfamilies. 

The general status of Odonate classification is very unsatis- 
factory ; markedly so in the two largest subfamilies, the Coenagrion- 
inae and the Libcllulinae, Drs. Calvert, Needham, and Ris, have 
shown the urgent need of a different and improved system for the 
Coenagrioninae. For the Libellulinae several systems have been 
proposed in recent years, but as yet all have been foimd wanting. 
Quite recently Dr. Ris has published the summary of a new classifi- 
cation of the Libellulinae in the Catalogue of the De Selys Collec- 
tions, fascicle 9, pp. 18-39, 1909. Previous to the publication of this 
summary Dr. Ris had acquainted me of the disposition and sequence 
of the genera from his manuscript. Even at first glance, while not 
familiar with the reasons for the grouping, the offered arrangement 
presented many points correcting and modifying the harshnesses 
(which necessarily result in a purely mechanical dichotomy) of 
earlier systems. While it is hardly likely that this "natural" system 
will be accepted without discussion and even criticism, this will 
probably not occur imtil Dr. Ris has developed his arrangement fully 
and completed his monograph, which, according to his publishers, 



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8 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

will not be for some months. Nevertheless I do not hesitate to ac- 
cept Ris' classification for this catalogue, as it is the first based on a 
study of the entire subfamily. 

METHOD. — In some respects this catalogue is modeled after 
Aldrich's Catalogue of the Diptera. Yet I have thought it advant- 
ageous to separate the references into four divisions : true descrip- 
tions (not captioned, indicated by heavier type), syn(onyms), 
n3rmph (larval stages and morphology), and distr(ibution). The 
genera I have tried to arrange into natural sequence. Under these 
the species are cited in alphabetical succession, while the references 
are in chronological order. This arrangement is extended to the 
synonyms also. 

References — true and synonymic. — Of the former I have com- 
mented upon all those references seen by me. These will need little 
explanation, except for the abbreviations of which I give a list 
farther on. Synonymic references have been treated as true refer- 
ences, with comments. As far as I was able, I have cited the au- 
thority for the relegation of a species to the synonymy in brackets, 
together with the date; e. g., [Hagen, 1861]. 

Nymph, — ^This caption does not alone include larval stages, but 
also a number of morphological references which I thought it advis- 
aWe to enter. Unhappily, I could select but a small percentage of 
such, as space, and, more often, the very minor mention, precluded 
others from the catalogue. Attention should be called to the follow- 
ing: "adult" cited with a nymph reference means a figure of the 
nymph, not of the imago. 

Distribution, — In citing the distribution I have made use of the 
various life zones as defined by Dr. Merriam. I believe that with 
modifications they will serve better and more accurately in giving 
the area of distribution than the political boundaries. In most cases 
I have been conservative in assigning a specific zone to any one 
species, although I am aware that in a few instances the opposite will 
appear. In fixing the zones such factors have been considered, as : 
the general distribution, the ethology of the species and the locali- 
ties, the sexes, etc. Concession has been made to political geography 
by citing the States also. In addition, an excellent map of the 
temperature zones of Mexico and Central America by Dr. Calvert, 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 



9 



published in the Biologia Centrali Americana and the Proc. Acad. 
Phila., 1908, pi. 26, has been consulted for the territory concerned, 
and reference is made to the zones by number ; e. g., (Calvert z. 2-4). 
Quotation of generic names. — ^The generic name is cited only in 
the case that the reference has placed the species under another 
name. Furthermore, if such a change is quoted, it is implied that 
the references following in chronological order have similarly fdaced 
the species, unless otherwise stated. The following example will 
illustrate my point : 

Sympetrum corruptum Hagen. 

1861. Hagen Mesothemis Quoted 

1873. " " Implied 

1874. " " " 



1875. 


t€ 


It 


tt 


1884. 


Selys. 


Diplax 


Quoted 


1893. 


Calvert. 


(( 


Implied 


1895. 


" 


(( 


(( 


1900. 


ft 


Sympetrum 


Quoted 


1899. 


Kellicott 


Diplax 


tt 


1900. 


Williamson 


Sympetrum 


tt 


1901. 


Needham 


" 


Implied 


1905. 


Osburn 


f< 


(( 


1908. 


Mutticowski. 


ft 


tt 



Types and their custody. — In recent years the demand for more 
knowledge of the types of insects and their custody has become quite 
marked. The necessity of having one type specimen or more pre- 
served in some collection accessible to the student for study and 
comparison is obvious ; moreso, in view of the fact that the original 
description does not always state everything that should be said, but 
is more frequently deficient in some important diagnostic character. 
It follows, then, that knowledge of the types will be of use to the 
student. And, as I had for my own use noted the custody of the 
majority of types of Odonata, I thought it well to include such re- 
ference with the citation of the original description. I am aware, 
that these references are not always correct. Doubt arose in many 
cases, chiefly in connection with descriptions by Hagen, De Selys, 
MacLachlan, and others, who have made use of the expression 
"communicated by M. ," from which the type custody does 



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10 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

not appear. In such cases I have usually referred the type to the 
collection of the describer, unless I was subsequently able to dis- 
cover the true location. The location of the types of species de- 
scribed by Calvert in the Biologia Centrali Americana is very un- 
certain, since Calvert does not specify. He has, however, devised a 
method of computing the type custody from the locality of the 
figured specimen and the collector at that place; this. has proved 
unsatisfactory and such method cannot replace the simpler and more 
convenient direct citation. 

In many instances, when but one sex was originally described, I 
have cited the custody of the other sex, when later discovered. My 
reason for doing so is that I consider it necessary or at least advis- 
able to have a type for each sex among Odonata because of the 
usually pronounced sexual dissimilarity. In the Cocnagrioninae, 
where the females are dimorphic, three types are none too many 
for one species. In this spirit the following suggestions to designate 
the types properly are made : 

Allotype — (oAAos — other) for the sex not designated by the 
holotype. The allotype need not b^ described by the protologist 
(first describer) ; it can be contained in the original as well as in any 
subsequent description by other authors. Thus, if the protolog de- 
scribes only a holotype male, the first female subsequently described 
is to be called the allotype. (A.T.) 

Morphotype — (/M)p€i>rj — form) for the second form of a dimorphic 
sex. Here also the date when and the author by whom described 
are immaterial. (M.T.) 

Note. — Morphotype — suggested by Charles T. Briies. 

To illustrate: Ischnnra kellicotti Williamson; $ orange, 9 
dimorphic — orange or black. A male is selected as holotype; the 
two forms of the female are then to be designated as the allotype 
(as the other sex) and morphotype (for the second form). 

In selection of a holotype among Odofiata the male is usually 
given precedence if both sexes are represented. On the other hand, 
if the female alone is described in the protolog, the female will, of 
course, be the holotype; and the male when later described is the 
allotype. Let us suppose, that Ischnnra kellicotti were described as 
follows : 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 11 

Williamson 1899 orange 9 = holotypc 

Calvert 1900 black 9 = morphotype 

Needham 1901 S = allotype 

The first would then be the holotype (proterotype) — H.T., the 
second the morphotype — M.T., and the last the allotype — A.T. 

Upon the nomenclature of types I have consulted the very ex- 
cellent diagnosis on types by Messrs. Chas. Schuchert and S. S. 
Buckmann in Science, Vol. 21, pp. 900-903, 1905. Their designa- 
tions have been partially adopted. 

Explanatory abbreviations — 

abd. abdomen, abdominal. 

ad. adult (of imago or nymph). 

add. additions. 

ads. adults, imagoes. 

ant. antennae. 

app. appendages (anal). 

bibl. bibliography. 

char, characters. 

col. color. 

coll. collection. 

comp. comparative. 

compl. complete. 

desc. description, descriptive. 

det. and dets. detail, details, detailed. 

diag. diagnosis. 

disc discussed, discussion. 

dist. distinguished. 

distr. distribution. 

ecol. ecological. 

ethol. ethological. 

f., flF., and fig. figure, figures. 

gen. genitalia (appendages of second abdominal segment of the S, 

vulvar lamina or ovipositor of the 9). 
hom. homonymn. 
lab. labium, 
lam. lamina. 

M.C.Z. Museum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge, Mass. 
mon. and monogr. monograph, 
n.n. nomen novum = new name, 
nom. nud. nomen nudum := nude name, 
orig. original. 



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12 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

occ. occiput. 

p. and pp. page, pages. 

patt. pattern. 

pi. plate. 

sp. and spp. species. 

str. structural. 

subf. subfamily. 

subsp. subspecies. 

syn. synonjrmn, .synonymous, synonymy. 

t.f. text figure. 

tars, tarsus, tarsal. 

thor. thorax, thoracic. 

var. variety. 

varr. variation. 

ven. venation. 

vulv. vulvar. 

z. zone (in reference to the temperature zones of Calvert's map). 

It will be noticed that the comments throughout the catalogue are 
gradated, chiefly in connection with description comments; thus 
from "full desc." to "desc. notes." In explaining I would first say 
that "desc.," if at all used, is cited only when the known sex has 
been cited in a previous reference. Accordingly, "desc." alone im- 
plies that the known sex or sexes are redescribed in the papfer men- 
tioned. 

A "full desc." is equal to a "detailed description." A compara- 
tive description ("comp. desc") implies that the author contrasted 
the species he described with another of the same genus. This is 
instanced by Calvert in the Biologia Centrali Americana, in which 
nearly all the descriptions are comparative, owing to the analytical 
method adopted by the author. 

"Desc. notes" are usually of an ethological character, but the au- 
thor in passing mentions some feature of identification^ value. 
"Dist." (distinguished) has been used to designate the occurrence 
of a species in a synoptic identification table, which, by the contrast 
given to the species, is often of considerable value. 

The use of the terms "char." — in varying connection — and "gen." 
will need explanation. The meaning of the former in connection 
with the genus is, as usual, characters distinguishing the genus. 
When used with a species reference, however, the meaning is, that 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 13 

sexual differences are shown, at least in part. Attention should be 
called to the fact that the term has always been used, with the 
species, after a reference to figures. While "gen." (genitalia) re- 
fers to a figure of the appendages of the second abdominal segment 
of the male or of the vulvar lamina of the female, in cases where 
both are figured for one species, "char." (characters) has been used 
to note that fact. When but a single anatomical detail has been 
figured, this has been recorded by the proper abbreviation, as given 
above. If the respective illustration shows a detail additional to the 
sexual character, this is signified by "char." It will then be seen 
that the scope of the term is varying. A few examples will serve to 
indicate the general extent. 

/. Hagenius brevistylus, 

Selys, Mon. Gomph., p. 241, 1858; pi. 12, f. 2, ^ 9 char.—In this the 
anal appendages and genitah'a of the male and female are figured in a detailed 
series of 20 separable drawings. The occiput of the female is also figured. 

2. Gomphus externus, 

Calvert, Ent. News, 12, p. 65, 1901; pi. 3, ff. 2, 10, 17; ^ $ char.— Shows 
the vulvar lamina and occiput of the female, the anal appendages of the male ; 
of the superior appendage there are several figures. The vertex of the head 
with the ocelli and antennae is figured on the same plate. 

J. Gomphus fratcrnus, 

Williamson, Drag. Ind., p. 289, 1900; pi. 6, ff. 8, 9, 30; $ $ char.— Male 
anal appendages figured from superior and lateral view, and the female 
occiput. 

4. Sympetrum obtrusum. 

Needham, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 525, 1901; t. f. 30, 3 9 char.— 
Anal appendages of the male and genitalia of male and female. 

The sex concerned has always been stated. In the case of the 
male alone "char." usually denotes that both the anal appendages and 
those of the second abdominal segment — the genitalia — ^are figured ; 
for the female, that the genitalia and some other diagnostic detail 
are shown. In Gomphines this is usually the occiput, in Coenagrion- 
ines the thorax or prothorax, etc. 

The term "char," has been applied only when either the anal ap- 
pendages or the genitalia of the male or female constituted part of 
the figure or figures cited. If the figures include none of the sexual 



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14 BULLETIN, PUBUC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

differences, the term "str. dets." (structural details) signifies that 
a plurality of details have been shown. 

NOMENCLATURE.— The authorities for the few changes 
made in this catalogue are: The International Code of Zoological 
Nomenclature, and The American Ornithologists' Union Code of 
Nomenclature. The rules governing the changes have usually been 
referred to, except such changes resulting from page-precedence. 
The two codes cited interpret this rule differently, the A. O. U. Code 
advising sexual precedence, while the International Code demands 
strict page precedence. The latter interpretation has been followed 
in this catalogue. 

Personal inclinations to the contrary, the trinomial system is 
adopted upon the advice of all consulted, with the distinction that 
varieties and races of older authors are all referred to under sub- 
species. Like Kirby I have refused all nude names. There are too 
many of them in Odonatology. 

Selys and Hagen. — ^A question involving nomenclature is the col- 
laboration of Hagen and Selys. In his Synonymic Catalogue (Lon- 
don, 1890), Kirby attributed all the species resulting from the col- 
laborations to Selys; which summary dealing, though correct ac- 
cording to existing codes, has not met with general approval. Were 
it not for the various synopses that Selys published prior to the 
issuance of the monographs, disposition of credit would be a simple 
matter. In this catalogue Hagen is given the benefit of the doubt, 
it being assumed that in his synopses Selys only reproduced Hagen's 
descriptions, the now customary "n.sp." being then not in use. Ac- 
cordingly, all species credited to Hagen by Selys are cited thus. 
Unfortunately, Selys himself has not always adhered to the original 
citation; for species credited to Hagen in the original paper have 
frequently been referred to his own sponsorship by Selys, in sub- 
sequent additions. 

Agrion vs, Calopteryx, — By far the most important matter con- 
nected with nomenclature : whether Kirby's reversion of Agrion to 
Calopteryx and the renaming of the former {=Coenagrion) were 
to be adopted? After some correspondence on the subject Mr. 
Kirby kindly furnished the full data upon which his change was 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 16 

based. This included extracts from Fabricius, Latreille, and Leach. 
This materiar, together with a few general remarks regarding the 
results of the change, was forwarded to Dr. C. Wardell Stiles, sec- 
retary of the Commission for the International Code of Zoological 
Nomenclature. Conforming to the decision of the Commission (9 
votes sustaining Kirby, i against the change; total 10 of 15 votes), I 
have adopted Agrion and Coenagrion in Kirby's sense. The reader 
will find the full text of the citations that bear upon the change em- 
bodied in the catalogue. 

Authorship of species, — A cursory glance into the pages of the 
catalogue will show that in many instances the name of an author 
following the species is placed in parentheses. This is merely in ac- 
cordance with recent cataloguers, to show that the described species 
was not placed in its present genus by the original author. In such 
cases it will be noticed that the original genus is cited with the 
reference. 

This was as far as I cared to go in the matter of authorship. A 
few Odonatologists have recently tried to introduce the double credit 
system practised by botanists, i. e., crediting the species to that au- 
thor who has referred it to the genus it at present occupies, while 
the original authority is placed in parentheses. An example of this 
method is Enallagma antennattim (Say) Williamson. Say described 
the species under Agrion, and Williamson has referred it to 
Enallagma, 

This method, while distributing responsibility, is at best but a 
mere recognition of the work of a recent author, an acknowledge- 
ment of his discernment. But we can equally well assume that the 
original author and others following him have spent considerable 
time in studying the respective species ; and these could claim credit 
with equal right to that of the more recent systematist. A case to 
the point is Tclebasis macrogastra, described by Selys as Agrion and 
subsequently referred by him to Leptobasis, with a doubt. Carpenter 
referred the same species to Telebasis in 1896, and to Erythragrion 
in 1897, while Calvert relegated Erythragrion to the synonymy of 
Telebasis in 1902, thereby rereferring the species to Telebasis. 
Obviously, in this case the placing of second credit is difficult ; for 
the claim of Carpenter is fully as strong as that of Calvert. Can we 
solve it by citing Telebasis macrogastra (Selys), Carpenter, Calvert? 



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16 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Still more interesting is LibeUula tninuscula Rambur. Succes- 
sively this species was placed in Diplax by Hagen, in Diplacodes by 
Kirby, Sympctrum by Williamson, Trithemis by Needham, and 
Erythrodiplax by Calvert. The vicissitudes of this species are a 
striking proof of the fact, that second credit, given to any of these 
students, would work an injustice upon the others, since each in turn 
presented reasons for his action, which were considered valid at the 
time they were published. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.— Originally it was my intention to include 
a complete bibliography of North American Odofiata with this cata- 
logue. But here the same difficulty was experienced as with the 
selection of the spectes; namely, that of drawing a dividing line. 
To facilitate handling the literature was arranged in six subdivided 
classes : Bibliographical, Taxonomy, Ontogeny, Morphology, 
Ethology, and Phylogeny, Under Taxonomy much of the literature 
treating of an entirely different fauna contains some noteworthy 
reference which would be of great use to the student of the North 
American fauna, and the respective paper would therefore necessarily 
deserve to be included. Accepting important mention as a criterion 
for the choice of literature, it was found that over 70 per cent, of the 
taxonomic literature was eligible. Of the other divisions, as, for 
example, Morphology, practically all the literature deserved entry. 
In Morphology alone it would be difficult to say where a line should 
be drawn. Though the experiments, researches, and their results 
published in these papers are based on representative local species, 
the results, as such, apply to the order as a whole; consequently 
these contributions are of the same intrinsic value to the American 
as to the European student. 

As a result, the percentage of the entire literature that should be 
included in a complete bibliography of the N. Am. fauna was found 
to be out of all proportion to the percentage of species included, 
namely, 80 per cent, of the literature against 19 per cent, of the 
species. In view of this disparity it was decided to exclude the 
bibliography from the catalogue and to publish a complete biblio- 
graphy for the entire order separately. This work is now in pro- 
gress and will be published, it is hoped, within a year. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 7 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.— Primarily these are due to Mr. 
Charles T. Brues, now of Harvard University, and to Mr. Edward 
B. Williamson, of Bluffton, Ind. To Mr. Brues I am indebted for 
his continual advice and help in the compilation and arrangement of 
the catalogue, while he was connected with this museum. More re- 
cently he has aided me by looking up a large number of references 
in old entomological works in the Cambridge library and sending 
comments upon their contents, which have been incorporated in the 
catalogue. 

Mr. Williamson very kindly placed his entire library on Odontol- 
ogy, containing about 95 per cent, of the systematic literature, at my 
disposal, thereby aiding me immeasurably, as hardly more than 50 
per cent, of the literature was otherwise available. Through this 
kindness I was able to avoid much trouble in handling the many 
periodicals in which the Odonate literature is distributed, and had 
little difficulty in obtaining, examining, and listing the references. 
Further, Mr. Williamson has advised me on the subgenera of Com- 
phus, and on the identity of a number of species of all families ; he 
has also looked over the manuscript of the Cordulinae and made 
several corrections. 

Prof. E. M. Walker, of Toronto, Ontario, Canada, has revised 
the genus Aeshna for me and it stands practically as he left it. Dr. 
Philip P. Calvert, of Philadelphia, Dr. James G. Needham, of Cor- 
nell University, and Prof. Charles Hart, of the University of Illinois, 
have advised me on the identity of various species. Dr. F. Ris, of 
Rheinau, Switzerland, has written to me on the Libellulmae and a 
number of changes which will appear in the Libelluline parts of the 
Catalogue of the De Selys Collections have been made use of with 
his permission. 

To Dr. C. Warden Stiles, of Washington, D. C, and through him 
to the Commission on Ncmienclature of the International Zoological 
Congress, I am indebted for their decision on Agrion versus 
Calopteryx, Dr. Stiles has also decided several minor points of 
nomenclature. 

To Mr. W. F. Kirby, of the British Museum, I am indebted for 
a number of citations from rare editions. Owing to his kindness I 
was able to lay the Calopteryx matter before Dr. Stiles. 



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18 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Mr. Henry L. Ward, the director of the Milwaukee Public 
Museum, very kindly secured several important volumes for me 
from the Crerar Library in Chicago, 111. The Neuropteroid part of 
the Biologia Centrali Americana and a missing fascicle of Hand- 
lirch's Fossilen Insecten, deserve special mention. 

Prof. T. D. A. Cockerell advised me on the Hagen-De Selys 
credit puzzle, and also on a number of minor nomenclatural matters. 
Part 2 of this catalogue containing the fossils, has been corrected 
by him. 

Dr. Skinner, of the Entomological News, Philadelphia, and Mr. 

C. W. Johnson, of the Boston Society of Natural History, have in- 
formed me on the location of various types of dragonflies. 

Dr. C. Hart Merriam, of the Biolc^cal Survey, Washington, 

D. C, Dr. S. Graenicher, Mr. Alfred C. Burrill, Mr. Cari Thai, the 
last three from the Milwaukee Public Museum, have aided me in 
diverse ways. 

Finally, I am indebted to the following gentlemen for lists of 
dragonflies in various collections, sent in response to a circular letter 
at the end of the year 1908 : 
W. A. Ballou — Barbados, West Indies, for list of Barbados. 

E. W. Berger — Gainesville, Fla., for list and specimens. 
E. A. Back — Orlando, Fla., for specimens. 

C. F. Baker — Claremont, Cal., for list of Pacific Coast. 

C. S. Brimley — Raleigh, N. C, for lists of North Carolina. 

Lawrence Bruner — Lincoln, Neb., for list of Nebraska. 

T. D. A. Cockerell — Boulder, Colo., lists of Colorado, New Mexico, 

Arizona. 
Fordyce Grinnell, Jr. — Pasadena, Cal., for lists and specimens from 

N. Am. 
C. P. Gillette — Fort Collins, Colo., for list of Colorado. 
R. W. Harned — Agr. College, Miss., for list of Mississippi and 

specimens. 
C. O. Houghton — Newark, Del., for list of Delaware. 
S. J. Hunter — Lawrence, Kans., for list. 
A. L. Lovett, J. F. Nicholson — Oklahc«na Exp. Station, for list of 

Oklahoma. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATAIjOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 19 

James G. Needham — Cornell University, for lists of Michigan and 

other localities. 
Raymond C. Osbum — Columbia University, for lists of Dakota, 

Minnesota, etc. 
R. H. Pettit — Agr. College, Mich., for list of Michigan. 
L. Raynor Reed — Victoria, B. C, for list of British Columbia. 
William Reiff — Bussey Institution, Forest Hills, Boston, Mass., for 

specimens. 
P. A. Schroers — St. Louis, Mo., for specimens from Missouri. 
E. H. Sellards — Gainesville, Fla., for notes on fossils. 
H. E. Summers — Ames> la., for list of Iowa. 
E. G. Titus — Logan, Utah, for specimens from Utah. 
E. S. Tucker — Dallas, Tex., for lists of Kansas and Texas. 
E. M. Walker — ^Toronto, Ont., for lists from Canada. 
E. B. Williamson — Bluffton, Ind., lists from N. Am. 
Francis Huntington Snow Collections (per M. H. Withington), 
Lawrence, Kansas, for lists of the entire Neuropteroid collec- 
tions. 
To the gentlemen named above and to all others who have in any 
way aided me in the compilation of this catalogue I desire to ex- 
press my sincere appreciation of their unfailing courtesy and the 
help that they extended to me throughout the work. Further, I 
would express my appreciation to the editors of the Entomological 
News for the series of lists, taxonomic, morphological, and other 
papers on Odonata they have placed before the scientific world since 
the inception of their valuable periodical. Were it not for these 
lists, the distribution by life zones as shown in this catalogue would 
have been impossible to determine. 

Finally, if errors and c»nissions be noted in this catalogue, I 
would ask as a favor of the student to inform me so that the needed 
corrections can be made. 

This catalogue closes November i, 1909. 
Milwaukee Public Museum. 
November 13, 1909. 



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20 



BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 

SEQUENCE OF GENERA. 



21 



Agrionidae Agrioniiue. .. /^fi^'^*^ (Calopteryx) 

\H€taerina 



Coenagrionidae. 



c* 



Lestinae. 



Pseudostigmatinae . 



Coenagrioninae. 



'Ortholestes 
Archilestes 
Lestes 



Pseudostigma 
Mecistogaster 



Paraphlebia 

H)rponeura 

Argia 

Argiallagma 

Hesperagrioti 

Ox)ragrion 

Anisagrion 

Enallagma 

Telebasis 

Telagrion 

Leptobasis 

Nehalennia 

Coenagrion (Agrion) 

Atnphiagrion 

Chromagrion 

Ischnura 

Anomalagrion 

Ceratura 

Neoneura 

Microneura 

Protoneura 



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22 



BULLETIN, PUBUC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 



Aeshnidae. 



Gomphinae. 



Petahi rinae — ^Tachoptery x 
Cordulegasterinae — Cordulegaster 

Gomphoides (Progomphus) 

Aphylla 

Cyclophylla 

Negomphoides (Gomphoides), 

Hagenius 

Ophiogomphus 

Erpetogomphus 

Cyanogomphus 

Lanthus 

Gomphus 

Dromogomphus 

Octogomphus 



'Boyeria 
Basiaeschna 
Gomphaeschna 
Oplonaeschna 
Anax 

Gynacantha 
Aeshna 

Coryphaeschna 

Nasiaeschna 

Epiaeschna 



Aeshninae. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 



2a 



Libellulidac— Corduliinac. 



Macromiini. 



Corduliini. 



Didymops 
Macromia 



Epicordulia 

Neurocordulia 

Platycordulia 

Helocordulia 

Tetragoneuria 

Dorocordulia 

Cordulia 

Somatochlora 



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24 



BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 



Group II. 



Libellulidae — Libellulinae. . ., 



Group III. 
Group V. . . 



Group VI. 



Group VII. 



Group IX. 



Group X. 



Ladona 

Libellula 

Plathemis 

Orthemis 

Cannaphila 

Perithemis 

Nannothemis 

Anatya 

Micrathyria 

Erythrodiplax 

Pseudoleon 

Erythemis 

Lepthemis 

Sympetrum 

Pachydiplax 

Leucorrhinia 

Celithemis 

Planiplax (Platyplax) 

Brachymesia (Cannacria) 



Dythemis 

Scapanea 

Paltothemis 

Brechmorhoga 

Macrothemis 

Tholymis 

Pantala 

Tramea 

Tauriphila 

Miathyria 

Ephidatia 

Macrodiplax 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 26 



PART !• RECENT. 

ORDER ODONAT Afabricius. 

Ent. Sjrst^ Suppl., pp. 280, ff., 1793 ; name applied as family. 

LEACH. Edin. EncycL, 9, pp. 136-140, 1815; article Libellula, 

BURMEISTER, Handb. Ent, 2, pp. 805-862, 1839. 

RAMBUR, Ins. Ncur., pp. 1-291, 1842; pis. 1-7. 

HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., pp. 55-187, 1861. 

BRAUER, Verb. Ges. Wicn, 18, pp. 29-57, 1868; tables of genera. 

CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 20, pp. 152-272, 1893; 3 pis.— 

Proc Cal. Acad., (2) 4. pp. 463-558, 1895; pis. 15-17.— L. c, (3) 

1, pp. 361-410, 1899; pi. 25.— Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 25, pp. 26- 

104, 1898; on Burmcister's types.— Biol. C. Am., pp. 26-416, 1901- 

1908; 10 pis.; 1 map. 
KOLBE, Arch. f. Naturg., 1, pp. 154-178, 1888; distr. of Neur. in 

Antilles, tables with results, 1 map. 
KIRBY, Syn. Cat., pp. 9 and 202, 1890. 
CARPENTER, Proc. Dublin Soc., 8, pp. 439-468, 1897; zoogeograph. 

distr. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 114, 1899; 3 pis. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., (Ind. Rep. Geol. for 1899), pp. 229-333, 

1900; 7 pis. 
NEEDHAM, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, pp. 703-764, 1903; genealogic 

study of wing venation ; 24 pis., many text figures. 
HANDLIRSCH, Foss. Ins., pp. 35-37, 1906; pp. 1229-1231, 1908; 

classification. 
WALKER, Ottawa Nat, 23, pp. 1-9, 49-64, 1908; 2 pis. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, pp. 57-127, 1908; 2 

pis., 1 map. 
Syn. Libellulidae AUCTORUM. 

Paraneuroptera SHIPLEY, Zool. Anz., 27, pp. 259-262, 1903. 

SUBORDER Z YGOPTERA selys. 

S3m. Cal., p. 6, 1853 ; cited as tribus. 

NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., pp. 218-279, 1903; life-his- 
tories, illustrated by many plates (some colored) and text 
figures. 



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26 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Agrioninae 

FAMILY AGRIONIDAE LEACH. 

Edin. Encycl, 9, p. 137, 1815; for all Zygoptera, 

SELYS, Syn. Cal, p. 6, 1853; emended, iCalopteryginae) . 

NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 118, 1903; given family 

rank.— Proc U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, pp. 742-743, 1903 ; divided into 

four subfamilies. 



SUBFAMILY AGRIONINAE KIRBY. 

Type genus — Agrion FABRICIUS. Distribution — Cosmopolitan. 
Syn. Cat., p. 96, 1890. 
NEEDHAM, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, pp. 744-746, 1903; (Ves- 

talinae). 
SELYS, Mon. Cal., p. 16, 1854; (Legion Caloptcryx). 
SELYS & HAGEN, Mon. Cal., pp. 9 + 291, 1854; 14 pis. 
SELYS, Syn. Cal., Bull. Acad. Belg., pp. 3-52, 1853.— Addition 1: 

I. c, (2) 7, pp. 437-451, 1859.— Add. 2: 1. c, (2) 27, pp. 645-680, 

1869.— Add. 3: 1. c, (2) 35, pp. 469-518; (2) 36, pp. 610-619, 1873. 

—Add. 4: (2) 47, pp. 349-409, 1879. 

AGRION FABRICIUS. 

Type — virgo (LINNE). Distribution — Cosmopolitan. 

Syst. Ent, p. 425, 1775; ("Labium quadrifidum")- 

LATREILLE, Hist. Nat. Crust. Ins., 3, p. 287, 1803; ((^enre Agrion. 
Antennes i troisieme article alonge, que la tete, sous articles dis- 
tincts. Lcvre inferieurc a trois pieces assez grandes, les laterales 
ayant une piece palpiforme et un angle saillant; celle du milieu 
fortenant ecranchce. 

Tete et corselet ne faisant que le tiers de la longuer totale du 
corps; tete courte, large. Yeux gras, ccartes. Vessie frontale 
petite. Petits yeux lisses, tres-apparens, sans elevation vesi- 
culaire du milieu d'eux. Ailes el^vces. Abdomen tres-long, 
meme, cylindrico-lineaire. Exemple Agrion virgo L") 

KIRBY, Syn. Cat., p. 96, 1890. 
Syn, Calepteryx LEACH, Edin Encycl., 9, p. 137, 1815; ("Wings coriaceo- 
membraneous, without a real stigma, in place of which is some- 
times an irregular opaque spot. Abdomen of the male furnished 
with a forceps-like appendage. Obs. This genus comprehends 
those Agrionida with colored wings.")— [Kirby 1890.] 

STEPHENS, III. Brit Ent, p. 78, 1836. 

SELYS, Mon. Lib. Eur., p. 126, 1840. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 27 

Agrioninae 
CaUepteryx HAGEN, Syn. Lib. Eur., p. 61, 1840. [Rambur 1842.] 
Calopteryx BURMEISTER, Handb. Ent., 2, p. 825, 1839. 
CHARPENTIER, Lib. Eur., p. 16, 1840. 

SELYS, Rev. Odon., p. 133, 1850.— Syn. Cal., p. 9, 1853.— Mon. Cal., 
p. 22, 1854.— Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., 42, p. 337, 1898; applicability, 
Calopteryx versus Agrion; prefers former. 
HAGEN, Psyche, 5, pp. 241-250, 1890; monograph of N. Am. spp., 

synonymy. 
NEEDHAM, Proc. U. S. Nat Mus., 26, pp. 715, 745, 1903; venation. 
Calopteryx AUCTORUM. 
Sylphis SELYS, Syn. Cal., p. 8, 1853.— Mon, Cal., p. 19, 1854.— [Hagen 

1890.] 
Euphaea SELYS, Mon. Lib. Eur., p. 200, 1840.— [Kirby 1890.] 

aeqaabile (SAY), Jn. Acad. Phila., 8, p. 33, 1839; S 9, (Calopteryx), types 
Mus. Bost. Soc. 
HAGEN, Proc. Boston Soc., 15, p. 274, 1873; on disposition of types. 
L. c, 18, p. 21, 1875; distribution and synonymy. — Psyche, 5, p. 
246, 1890; full desc. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 9, 1899; good desc. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 252, 1900; good desc. 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 46, f. 14; S ad. col. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 222, 1903; distinguished, 

ethol. notes. 
WALKER, Ottawa Nat., 22, p. 3, 1908; desc. notes. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 66, 1908; desc. 
Syn. virginiana SELYS, Syn. Cal., p. 11, 1853; $ only, holotype Coll. Selys.— 

Mon. Cal., p. 29, 1854.— [Hagen 1875.] 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, 1. c, p. 223, 1903 ; dist & notes. 
Distr, Alleghanian & Carolinian, Ontario & Iowa to Me. & N. Y. 

Subsp. hudMonleum (HAGEN), Proc. Boston Soc, 18, p. 22, 1875; {Ca- 
lohteryx), synonymy.— Psyche, 5, p. 247, 1890; ^, type M. C. Z.; 
with a doubt (=aequabilis) . 

Syn, virginica SELYS, Syn. Cal., p. 11, 1853; 9 only, (Calopteryx).— Hon, 
Cal., p. 29, 1854.— [Hagen 1875.] 

Distr, Canadian, Lake Superior to Hudson Bay. 

Subsp. yakima (HAGEN), Psyche, 5, p. 248, 1890; ^ 9, (Calopteryx), types 

M. C Z. 
Distr. Washington, Yakima River. 



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28 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Agrioninae 

amatum (HAGEN), Psyche, 5, p. 344, 1890; ^9, (Cahpteryx), types M. 
C. Z. 

NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 222, 1903; dist. 

MUTTKOWSKI. Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 66, 1908; dist. 
Distr. Alleghanian, Atlantic States, N. H. to N. C. 

aagustipenne (SELYS), Syn. Cal., p. 9, 1853; ^. (Sylphis), holotype Brit- 
ish Museum-— Mon. Cal., p. 20, 1854; desc amplified. 

WALKER, List. Neur. B. M., 4, p. 590, 1854; (Cahpteryx) . 

HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 56, 1861; ^ 9, M. C. Z.— Proc Bos- 
ton Soc, 18, p. 21, 1875; correction to Sclys desc— Bull. Acad. 
Belg., (2) 47, p. 552, 1879.— Psyche, 5, p. 242, 1890; full desc. 

NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 222, 1903; distinguished. 

HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 46, f. 10; S ad. col. 

WILLIAMSON, Ent. News, 10, p. 199, 1899; 11, p. 464, 1900; desc. 
notes. 

MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 66, 1908; dis- 
tinguished. 
Syn, elegans HAGEN, Syn. Cal., p. 9, 1853; 9, (Sylphis), holotype M. C. Z. 
Mon. Cal, p. 21, 1854; desc. amplified; pi. 2, f. 1, wing of 9.— 
(Hagen 1890.] 

SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 47, p. 552, 1879. 

WALKER, List Neur. B. M., 4, p. 590, 1854. 
Distr, Carolinian, Ga. to Penn. 

•plcale(BURMEISTER), subsp. sub dimidiatum. 

dlmldlatum (BURMEISTER), Handb. Ent., 2, p. 829, 1839; 9. {Cahp- 
teryx), holotype M. C. Z. 
WALKER, List Neur. B. M., 4, p. 593, 1853. 
SELYS, Syn. Cal., p. 10, 1853; $ 9, Coll. Selys.— Mon. Cal., p. 24, 

1854; amplified. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 57, 1861; desc— Psyche, 5, p. 245, 

1890; good desc 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 25, p. 50, 1898; on Burm. type.— 
Biol. C. Am., p. 41, 1901; synonymy, occurrence in Honduras. 
» WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 252, 1900; desc 

MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 67, 1908; desc 
Syn, cognata RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 222, 1842; 9, type Coll. Selys.— 
[Selys 1854.] 
syriaca RAMBUR, 1. c, p. 224, 1842; ^, type Coll. Selys.— [Selys 1854.] 
Distr. Austroriparian, Ky. to Fla.; Honduras. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 29 

Agrioninae 
Subsp. Mcale BURMEISTER, Handb. Ent, 2, p. 827, 1839; S 9, {Calop- 
teryx), types M. C. Z. 
SELYS, Syn. Cal., p. 23, 1853; short desc— Mon. Cal, p. 23, 1854; 

desc. amplified. 
WALKER, List. Neur. B. M., 4, p. 591, 1853. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 56, 1861 ; desc—Proc. Boston Soc, 

18, p. 21, 1875.— Psyche, 5, p. 246, 1890; extended desc 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 20, p. 228, 1893; desc. (race of 

dimidiata). — L. c, 25, p. 48, 1898; on Burmeister's types. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 253, 1900; desc. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 222, 1903; distinguished; 
ethol. notes. 
Distr. Carolinian, Mass. & Del. to Mich. 

elofaas (HAGEN), syn. ad angustipcnne. 

Iradsoniciiiii (HAGEN), subsp. sub aequabile. 

macalatum BEAUVAIS, Ins. Afr. Amer., p. 85, 1805; pi. 7, f. 3, $ adult 

(Agrion), type British Museum. 
BURMEISTER, Handb. Ent, 2, p. 829, 1839; (Caloptcryx) ^. 
RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 221, 1842; ^. 
WALKER, List Neur. B. M., 4, p. 592, 1853. 

SELYS, Syn. Cal., p. 10, 1853.— Mon. Cal, p. 56, 1854; desc. am- 
plified. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 56, 1861.— Proc. Bost. Soc., 15, p. 

273, 1873.— Psyche, 5, p. 249, 1890; detailed descr. and full 

synonymy. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 20, p. 227, 1893. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 8, 1899. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 251, 1900. 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902 ; pi. 46, ff. 12, 15 ; ^ 9 ads. col. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 222, 1903; distinguished; 

pi. 11, adults.— Proc U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, p. 709, 1903; t. f. 4jr, 

pterostigma. 
HANDLIRSCH, Foss. Ins., 1906; pi. 4, f. 10, wing, after Needham. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. Soc N. H., 6, p. 66, 1908. 
Syn. virgo (gamma) (DRURY), 111. Exot Ent., 1, pi. 48, f. 2, 1773; 9, 

(Libellula). [Hagen 1890.] 
virginica (WESTWOOD), Edit. Drury, 1, p. 118, 1837; 9, (Agrion), 

[Hagen 1890.] 
SELYS, Syn Cal., p. 11, 1853.— Mon. Cal., p. 29, 1854; 9, {Calop- 

teryx). 



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30 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Agrioninae 

WALKER, List Neur. B. M., 4, p. 599, 1853. 
dimidiata RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 222, 1842; 9, desc. after Burm. 

[Hagen 1890.] 
materna ( 9 ) et opaca ($) SAY, Jn. Acad. Phila., 8, p. 32, 1839; types 

in Mus. Boston Soc [Hagen 1890.] 
holosericea BURMEISTER, Handb. Ent, 2, p. 828, 1839; ^9, types 
M. C. Z. [Selys 1854.] 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 25, p. 49, 1898; disposition of 
types. 
papilionaria RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 222, 1842; ^ 9, types Coll. Selys? 
[Selys 1854.] 
Nymph NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 224, 1903; full desc, p. 

221, t. f. 3, adult 
Distr, Canadian to Austroriparian, Ont. & Me. to Fla. & Tex. ; Calif. 

yaldnui (HAGEN), subsp. sub aequabile, 

HETAERINA HAGEN. 

Type — caja (Drury). Distribution — Ncarctic & Neotropical. 

Syn. Cal., p. 30, 1853.— Mon. Cal., p. 96, 1854. 

WALKER, List Neur. B. M., 4, p. 616, 1853. 

BRAUER, Verb. Ges. Wien., 18, p. 378, 1868. 

CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent Soc., 20, p. 220, 1893.— Proc Cal. Acad., 

(2) 4, p. 469. 1895.— Biol. C. Am., p. 19, 1901; synopsis of C. 

Am. species. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 7, 1899. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 247, 1900. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 221, 1903.— Proc. U. S. 

Nat. Mus., 26, pp. 717, 745, 754, 1903 ; venation ; pi. 61, f. 4, wing 

of Het. sp. 

americana (FABRICIUS), Ent. Syst., Suppl., p. 287, 1798; ^ (Agrion), 

type? 
BURMEISTER, Handb. Ent, 2, p. 826, 1839; ^, (Caloplcryx). 
SELYS, Syn. Cal., p. 41, 1853; (Hetaerinay.—Mon. Cal., p. 131, 

1854; detailed description; ^ app. on pi. 12, f. 3. — Bull. Acad. 

Belg., (2) 27, p. 657, 1869.— L. c, p. 483, 1873; additions. 
WALKER, List Neur. B. M., 4, p. 627, 1853. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 60, 1861; desc. 
WALSH, Proc. Ent Soc. Phila., 2, p. 223, 1863; noted. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 20, p. 228, 1893.— Proc. Cal. Acad., 

(3) 1, p. 372, 1899.— Biol. C. Am., pp. 20, 26, 1901; pi. 2, f. 1-17, 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALCXJUE ODONATA OF N. A. 31 

Agrioninae 
showing variation of $ sup. app. ; p. 344, 1907, tabulation of vena- 
tional variation. 
KELLlCOl r, Odon. Ohio, p. 4, 1899 ; desc. & ecol. notes. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 254, 1900; desc. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 226, 1903 ; distinguished, 

bibliography; pi. 12; ^ $ adults. 
HOWARD, Insect Book, 1901; pi. 46, if. 9, 11; ^ 9 adults col. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., 6, p. 67, 1908; pi. 5, 9 wgs. 
Syn. bajalis (SAY), Jn. Acad. Phila., 8, p. 35, 1839; ^ 9, (testes), types 
Mus. Boston Soc. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 17, p. 441, 1859; (Hetaerina), 
basalis HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 60, 1861. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 27, p. 657, 1869. 
FLINT, in Harris: Ins. Inj. Veget., ed. 3, 1862; pi. 1. S ad. col. 
(Agrion). 
texana, et scelerata WALSH, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila., 2, pp. 227, 267, 1863; 

^^99, types destroyed. [Selys 1869.] 
rpseudamericana WALSH, 1. c. p. 223, 1862, $ 9. (Calvert, Biol. 1901, 

with a doubt.) 
calif arnica HAGEN, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 7, p. 440, 1859; ^, type M. 
C. Z.— L. c. (2) 35, p. 480, 1873.— Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 59, 1861. 
[Calvert, 1901.] 
CALVERT, Proc Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 673, 1895; desc. notes, doubt 
of validity. 
Distr. Canadian to Lower Austral ((Talvert zone 2-4), Canada to Guatemala. 

•sticta SELYS, syn. ad macropus. ' 
bipartiU SELYS, syn. ad titia, 
calif omica HAGEN, S3m. ad americana, 
craeiitata(RAMBUR), syn. ad luteola. 
heteroatlcta Selys, syn. ad macropus, 

lofftcU CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 38, 1901 ; ^ 9 , types in Coll. H. H. 

Smith & Schumann; pi. 2, ff. 18, 24, ^ app.— L. c, p. 348, 1907; 

corrections. 
Distr, Tropic (Calvert zone 3-4), Mex., Atl. Coast to C. Rica. 

limlNita SELYS, subsp. sub tricolor. 



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32 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Agrioninae 

lllteola (RAMBUR). Ins. Neur., p. 223, 1842; 9 (Calopteryx), type Coll. 
Selys. 
KIRBY, Syn. Cat., p. 105, 1890; {Hetaerifia). 
Syn. cruentata (RAMBUR), L. c p. 228, 1842; $, (Calopteryx), type Sdys 
Coll. 
SELYS, Syn. Cal., p. 39, 1853; B 9.— Mon. Cal. p. 127, 1854; desc. 
amplified, places cnientata as governing species, luteola as syn- 
onymn; pi. 4, f. 3, wing; pi. 12, f. 1, $ app. — In Sagra: Hist. 
Cuba, Ins., p. 461, 1857. 
WALKER, List Neur. B. M., 4, p. 625, 1853. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 59; 1861; desc 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 23, 1901; ^ 9 and full syn.; p. 343, 1907, 
notes. 
Distr. Lower Sonoran (Calvert zone 3-4), Mex., C. Am., to Venezuela, Brazil. 

macropus SELYS, Syn. Cal. p. 44, 1853.— Mon. Cal., p. 141, 1854; ^9, 

detailed desc— Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 35, p. 481, 1873. Types 
Coll. Selys. 
WALKER, List Neur. B. M., 4, p. 631, 1853. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 62, 1861; desc 

CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 20-34, 1901; full desc; p. 346, 1907, 
notes, synonymy 
Syn. asticta SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 35, p. 481, 1873; as variety of 
macropus. 
heterosticta SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 35, p. 481, 1873 ; as variety of 

macropus. [Calvert 1901.] 
occisa SELYS, Syn. Cal., p. 44, 1853.— Mon. Cal., p. 143, 1854; ^ 9, types 
in Coll. Selys: pi. 12, f. 6, S app.— Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 35, p. 
481, 1873.— L. c, (2) 36, p. 613, 1873. 
WALKER, List Neur., B. M., 4, p. 631, 1873. [Calvert, Biol. 1901.] 
sublimbata SELYS, 1. c, (2) 36, p. 613, 1873; as variety of occisa. [Cal- 
vert 1901.] 
Distr. Tropic (Calvert zone 2-4), Mex. to Panama, Col., Venez. 



SELYS, syn. ad macropus. 

sempronta HAGEN, Syn. Cal., p. 45, 1853.— Mon. Cal., p. 144, 1854; 5, 
holotype in Mus. Berlin; pi. 12, f. 7, app. — Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 
62, 1861. 

WALKER, List Neur. B. M., 4, p. 632, 1853. 

SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 35, p. 482, 1873. 

CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 29, 1901 ; exact desc 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 33 

Agrioninae 
Distr. Tropical (Calvert zone 2), Atl. Coast, Tex., Mex., Panama, Columbia. 

saptentrionalisSELYS, Syn. Cal. p. 36, 1853.— Mon. Cal., p. 119, 1854; ^, 
holotype in British Museum; pi. 11, f. 6, S app. 

WALKER, List Neur B. M., 4, p. 622, 1853. 

H AGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 59, 1861 ; digest of Selys* Mon. desc. 
Disir. Austroriparian ?, Georgia. 

sablimbata SELYS, syn. ad macropus, 

titia (DRURY), 111. Exot. Ent., 2, 1773; $, (Libellula). 

WESTWOOD, Edit. Drury, 2, p. 94, 1837; pi. 45, f. 5. 
BURMEISTER, Handb. Ent., 2, p. 826, 1839; $ {Calopteryx), 
RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 227, 1842. 
SELYS, Syn. Cal., p. 43, 1853.— Mon. Cal., p. 158, 1854; 5$, 

(Heiaerina) ; 9 types Coll. Selys, $ plesiotypes in Coll. Selys 

and British Museum.— Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 36, p. 613, 1873. 
WALKER, List Neur. B. M., 4, p. 630, 1853. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 61, 1861; desc. 
CALVERT, Biol. C Am., p. 31, 1901; detailed desc; pi. 3, f. 2-15, 

variation in colored area of wings; p. 345, 1907; notes. — Ent. 

News, 13, p. 192, 1902; on variation in venation. 
Syn. bipartUa SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 35, p. 481, 1873; $, as (race 

(?) of titia) \ holotype in Coll. MacLachlan. [Calvert 1901.] 
Distr, Gulf Strip & Tropic, Tex. & Fla. to C. Am., Jamaica. (Calvert zone 

2-3). 

tolteca CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 40, 1901; ^, holotype Coll. Trujillo; pi. 

2, ff. 19, 25, ^ app. ; p. 348, 1907, additional notes. 
Distr, Lower Austral. (Calvert zone 4), Jalapa, Mex. 

tricolor (BURMEISTER), Handb. Ent., 2, p. 827, 1839; ^, holotype in M. 

Z. C. (Cfl/o/»/.)— 
SELYS, Syn. Cal., p. 42, 1853, {Hetaerina).^l,ion. Cal., p. 136, 1854; 

^ 9 ; desc. from holotype ^ and plesiotype in Mus. Vienna ; $ 

cotype Mus. Vienna; pi. 12, f. 5, $ app. 
WALKER, List Neur. B. M., 4, p. 629, 1853. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 61, 1861; desc. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 229, 1893 ; desc— L. c, 25, 

p. 48, 1898 ; on Burm. type, ("tampered with, abd. of H, carnifex 

substituted").— Biol. C Am., p. 29, 1901; detailed desc; pi. 3, f. 1, 



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34 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Coenagrionidae 

wings ; f. 20, thor. col. pattern ; p. 345, 1907, notes and additions 
to distr. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 13, 1899; desc. 
WILLIAMSON. Drag. Ind., p. 255, 1900; desc. 
HOWARD, Insect Book, 1901 ; pi. 46, f . 19, ^ adult col. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 228, 1903; ethol. notes; 

t. f. 5b, $ app. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 67, 1908; distin- 
guished. 
Syn, frupinsulcnsis Walsh, Proc. Acad. Phila., p. 383, 1862; ^, holotype de- 
stroyed. 
Trupamnensis Walsh, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila., 2. p. 230, 1863; $ $, types 
destroyed.— [Selys 1869 to limbata; Calvert, Biol. 1901 places 
both uader tricolor, with a doubt.] 
Distr. Austral & Tropic, (Calvert zone 2-4), 111. & Pa. to Ga. & Tex., Mex. 
to C. Rica. 



Subsp. limbata SELYS, Syn. Cal., p. 43, 1853.— Mon. Cal., p. 137, 1854 ; $ , 
holotype Coll. Selys, paratypes in British Museum. — Bull. Acad. 
Belg., (2) 27, p. 657, 1869; 9 type Coll. Selys; synonymy. [Vide 
tricolor, supra.] 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., 9, 61, 1861 ; note under tricolor, 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 30, note, 1901; synonymy, remarks. 
Distr. Austroriparian, Tex. & Ga. 

vulnerata HAGEN, Syn, Cal., p. 40, 1853.— Mon. Cal., p. 130, 1854; $ $, 
types M. C. Z.; pi. 12, f. 2, ^ app. — Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 60, 
1861. 
WALKER, List Neur. B. M., 4, p. 626, 1853. 

CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 24, 1901 ; detailed desc. ; pi. 2, f. 30, $ 
app.; pi. 3, f. 18, thoracic color pattern. 
Distr. Lower Sonoran, Ariz., Mex., Guatem., Col., Brazil. (Calvert zone 
3-4.) 



FAMILY COENAGRIONIDAE KIRBY. 

Syn. Cat., p. 119, 1890; a new name. 

LEACH, Edinb. Encycl., 9, p. 137, 1815; (Family Agrionida). 
RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 216, 1842; family defmed (Agrionidae). 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 10, p. 5, 1860; limited. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 35 

Lestinae 

SUBFAMILYLESTINAE NEEDHAM. 
Type genus — Lestes. Distribution — Cosmopolitan. 

Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 216, 1903; subfamily first defined.— 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, pp. 713, 748, 1903; additional char- 
acters. 

CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 40, 1901. 

WILLIAMSON, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 28, p. 167, 1904; place the 
subf. with the Calopterygidae. 

SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 13, pp. 288-338, 1862; (Legion 
Lestes), 

KIRBY, Syn. Cat, pp. 159-164, 1890; genera of Selys' legion sub 
Nornwstigmatina. (See Selys, Mem. Cour., 38, p. 3, 1886, for 
subdivision.) 



ORTHOLESTES CALVERT. 

Type — clara CALVERT. Distribution — Neotropical. 
Ent. News, 2, p. 199, 1891; char.— Proc. Acad. Phila., p. 377, 1893; 

add. 
MACLACHLAN, Ann. Mag. N. H., (6) 16, p. 20, 1895; notes on 

genus and spp. 

abbotti CALVERT, Proc. Acad. Phila., p. 382, 1893; ^, type Coll. Am. Ent. 

Soc; t. f. 3, ^ app. 
Distr, Tropical; Hayti, Cuba. 

Clara CALVERT, Ent. News, 2, p. 199, 1891 ; ^ 9 , types Coll. Calvert.— 
Proc. Acad. Phila., p. 380, 1893; desc. ; t. f. 1, wing; f. 2, ^ app. 
Distr. Tropic; Jamaica, Ha>'ti. 

ARCHILESTES SELYS. 

Typt—grandis (RAMBUR). Distribution— Nearctic & Neotropic 
Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 13, p. 294, 1862; characterized as subgenus. 
BRAUER, Verb. Ges. Wien, 18, p. 379, 1868. 
CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 469, 1895.— Biol. C. Am., p. 

45, 1901. 
NEEDHAM, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, p. 727, 1903; venation. 

califoniica MACLACHLAN, Ann. Mag. N. Hist., (6) 16, p. 20, 1895; ^, 
holotype Coll. MacLach. 



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36 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Lestinae 

CALVERT, Proc Cal. Acad., (3) 1, p. 374, 1899; desc. after MacL., 
(race of grandis). — Biol. C Am., p. 46, 1901; notes. 
Distr. A single $ from California. Lower Sonoran? 

rrandis (RAMBUR), Ins. Neur., p. 244, 1842; ^9, types Coll. Selys; 
(Lestes), 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 66, 1861 ; desc 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 13, p. 294, 1862; desc. (Archilestes) . 
CALVERT, Proc Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 469, 1895; distr.; pi. 15, ff. 10, 
11, S 9 char.—L. c, (3) 1, p. 374, 1899; notes.— Biol. C. Am., 
p. 46, 1901; complete desc; p. 350, 1907; notes. 
NEEDHAM, Proc U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, 1903 ; pi. 51, f. 6, wing. 
Nymph, NEEDHAM, 1. c, 27, p. 712, 1904; desc; pi. 42, f. 3, adult. 
Distr. LQwer Sonoran, Wash, to Baja Cal., Tex., Mex. to Venez. (Calvert 
z. 2-4.) 



LESTES LEACH. 

Type — sponsa (Hansemann) = {nympha Leach), nom. nud. — Distribution — 

Cosmopolitan. 

Edin. Encycl., 9, p. 136, 1815, 

STEPHENS, 111. Brit. Ent, 6, p. 76, 1836. 

RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 243, 1842. 

SELYS, Mon. Lib. Eur., p. 135, 1840.— Rev. Odon., p. 146, 1850.— 
Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 13, p. 295, 1862; monograph of the species. 

BRAUER, Verh. Ges. Wien., 18, p. 379, 1868. 

CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent Soc, 20, p. 220, 1893.— Biol. C. Am., pp. 
45-47, 1901. — Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 92, 1909; tables of Neo- 
tropical spp. 

WALLENGREN, Ent. Tidsk., 15, p. 260, 1894. 

KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 14, 1899. 

WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 247, 1900. 

SJOSTEDT, Ent. Tidsk., 23, p. 19, 1902. 

NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 229, 1903.— Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 26. pp. 710, 717, 1903. 

FROHLICH, Ver. Aschaff., p. 32, 1903. 

FOERSTER, JB. Ver. Wiesbaden, 59, p. 341, 1906. 

MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. Soc N. H., (2) 6, p. 68, 1908. 
Syn, Puella BRULLE, Expl. Moree, 2 (1) p. 104, 1832. 
Anapates CHARPENTIER, Lib. Eur., p. 18, 1840. 

alacer HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 67, 1861; $ 9, types in M. C. Z. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 13, p. 304, 1862; full desc 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE (MX)NATA OF N. A. 37 

Lestinae 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 48, 1901; ^ 9 ; pi. 3, f. 26, ^ app.; p. 
350, 1907, notes. 
Distr. Lower Sonoran (Calvert zone 3-5), Tex., N. M., Ariz., Mex., Guate- 
mala. 

coogeoer HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 67, 1861; ^, types M. C Z. 

SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 13, p. 316, 1862; S9, 9 type M.C.Z. 

CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 229, 1893 ; good desc 

KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 15, 1899; good desc; f. 15, $ app. 

WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 256, 1900; clear desc. 

HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 48, f. 6; ^ adult. 

NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 232, 1903 ; distinguished. 
Distr. Canadian and Transition into Upp. Austral, B. C. & Colo, to Ont, Del., 
N. Y. 

disjonctlis SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 13, p. 302,1862; S 9 , types British 
Museum, Coll. Selys, and M. C. Z. 

CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 20, p. 231, 1893 ; full desc. ; pi. 3, 
f. 19, 3 app. 

KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 18, 1899; desc 

WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 258, 1900; desc 

NEEDHAM, Bull. 08 N. Y. State Mus., p. 234, 1903; dist. 

MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Sqc. (2) 6, p. 70, 1908; desc 
Syn, Lestes sp. CURRIE, Proc Wash. Acad., 3, p. 217, 1901 ; 9, U. S. N. Mus. 
Distr. Alleghanian, Carolinian, N. Scot. & N. C. to Mo. & Wis. 

earlnus SAY, Jn. Acad. Phila., 8, p. 36, 1839; S holotype in Mus. Boston Soc. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 70, 1861 ; from Sa/s desc 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 13, p. 316, 1862; from Say's desc 
WALSH, Proc. Acad. Phila., p. 385, 1862; ^, detailed desc. 
SCUDDER, Psyche, 6, p. 66, 1891. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 229, 1893; short desc; pi. 

3, f. 14, $ app. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 256, 1900; good desc 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 47, f. 11; $ adult. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 232, 1903 ; dist. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 68, 1908; desc 

Nymph. NEEDHAM, 1. c, p. 233, 1903 ; characters. 

Distr. Carolinian into Alleghanian, Mass. & Pa. to 111. & Wis. 

lorcl|Mitii8 RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 246, 1842; $ 9, types Coll. Selys. 

SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 13, p. 303, 1862; from Rambur's types. 



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38 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Lestinae 

CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 20, p. 231, 1893 ; short desc. ; pi. 3, 
f. 20, S app. 

KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 19, 1899 ; good desc ; f . 19, S app. 

WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 258, 1900, good desc, pi. 7, f. 3, $ app. 

HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 46, if. 1, 5; $9 ads. col. 

NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 235, 1903; dist., ethol. 
notes. 

MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. See., (2) 6, p. 70, 1908; desc. 

WALKER, Ottawa Nat., 22, p. 4, 1908 ; desc. notes. 
Syn, hamatus HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 70, 1861; $. [Selys 1862.] 
Nymph. Needham, 1. c, p. 233, 1903; desc. 
Distr. Carolinian & Transitional, N. Dak., B. C. to Me. & Ga. 

fforfficuUi RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 246, 1842; $, holcrtype Coll. Selys? 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 68, 1861 ; 5 desc. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 13, p. 308, 1862; ^ 9 ; $ types in 

Coll. Hagen, Selys, Museum Vienna. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 48, 1901 ; detailed desc. ; pi. 3, f. 25, $ 
app.; p. 352, 1907, additional notes. 
Distr, Tropic (Calvert z. 2-3) Tex., Cuba, Mex., Guiana, Brazil. 

inaequalis WALSH, Proc. Acad. Phila., p. 385, 1862; $ 9 ; types destroyed. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 20, p. 232, 1893 ; short desc. ; pi. 3, 

f. 24, S app. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 21, 1899 ; good desc. ; f. 22, $ app. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 260, 1900; good desc; pi. 7, f. 6, $ 

app. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 235, 1903; dist, ethol. 

notes. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 69. 1908; dist. 
Distr. Carolinian, Me. & 111. to Tenn. & N. C. 

rectaogulaiis SAY, Jn. Acad. Phila., 8, p. 34, 1839 ; 5 9 , ^ cotype in Mus. 

Boston Soc., 9 ?. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 66, 1861 ; desc. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 13, p. 306, 1862. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 20, p. 231, 1893 ; short desc. ; pi. 

3, f. 21, $ app. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 20, 1899; good desc; f. 18, $ app. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 259, 1900; good desc; pi. 7, f. 5, S 

app. 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 47, f. 9; ^ adult. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 235, 1903; dist. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 39 

Lestinae 
WALKER, Ottawa Nat, 22. p. 4, 1908; desc. notes; pi. 2, f. 2, $ app. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 70, 1908; desc; 
pi. 5, wings. 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, 1. c, p. 233, 1903; dist.— Outdoor Studies, pp. 62, 68, 
1898 ; desc. ; f. 63, adult— Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, 1903 ; pi. 31, 
f. 2, wing. 
Distr. Carolinian & Alleghanian, Me. & N. C. to N. Dak. 

scalarU CALVERT, Ann. Carnegie Museum, 6, p. 96, 1909; ^, type M. C. 

Z. ; pi. 1, ff. 6, 17, 18, thor. col. patt, $ app. 
Distr, Tropic, Cuba, Porto Rico. 

Sigma CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 49, 1901; ^, holotype Coll. Calvert; pi. 

3, f. 33, ^ app. ; p. 351, 1907 ; $ , type ? 
Distr. Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-3), N. M., Tex., Mex. : Northern portions. 

simplex HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 68, 1861; 5, holotype M. C. Z. 

SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 13, p. 298, 1862; desc. 

CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 48, 1901; ^ $, $ holotype ?; pi. 3, f. 
25, $ app. 
Distr. Lower Sonoran, (Calvert z. 3-4), Tex., Mex. 

spumaritts HAGEN, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 13, p. 309, 1862; $ $, types Mus. 

Berlin. 
Distr. Tropic, Greater Antilles ; Cuba, Porto Rico. 

stultiu HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 67, 1861; type M. C. Z., abdl lost 

SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 13, p. 304, 1862; after Hagen. 
Distr. San Francisco. 

teiraatiis RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 245, 1842; ^, types Coll. Selys. 

SELYS, in Sagra : Hist. Cuba, Ins., p. 463, 1857.— Bull. Acad. Belg., 

(2) 13, p. 315, 1862; $ $. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 69, 1861 ; desc. 
CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (3) 1, p. 376, 1899; desc. of tenerals; 
pi. 25, f. 3, $ app.— Biol. C. Am., p. 48, 1901; desc— Ann. Car- 
negie Mus., 6, p. 102, 1909 ; noted ; pi. 1, f. 12, thor. col. patt 
Distr. Tropic, West Indies, Greater & Lesser Antilles, Mexico. 

oncatiss KIRBY, Syn. Cat, p. 160, 1890; nom. nov. for hamata Selys, pre- 
occupied. [Vide hamata Hagen, sub forcipata.] 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 230, 1893; short desc; pi. 
3, f. 18, $ app. 



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40 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Lestinae 

KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 17, 1899; good dcsc; f. 20, $ app. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 257, 1900; good desc; pi. 7, f. 2, $ 

app. 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi 48, f. 3; ^ adult. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 234, 1903; dist., cthol. 

notes. 
WALKER, Ottawa Nat, 22, p. 4, 1908; desc notes; pi. 1, f. D, S 

app. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 70, 1908; desc 
Syn. hamaia SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 13, p. 300, 1862; S $.— [Kirby 
1890.] 
forcipata HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 71, 1861.--[Selys 1862.] 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, 1. c, p. 233, 1903 ; desc. ; p. 230, t. f. 6, tgg. 
Distr. Canadian & Transition into Upp. Austral, N. Scot. & Pa. to Calif. & 
B. C. 

unguiculattts HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 7, 1861 ; ^ 9 , types M. C. Z. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 13, p. 299, 1862; full desc 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 230, 1893 ; short desc ; pi. 3, 

f. 16, $ app. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 16, 1899; good description; f. 23, $ 

app. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 257, 1900; good desc; pi. 7, f. 1, S 

app. 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 47, f. 15; $ adult. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. Sute Mus., p. 234, 1903 ; dist. 
WALKER, Ottawa Nat, 22, p. 4, 1908; desc notes; pi. 1, f. C, S 

app. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 69, 1908. 
Nymph, NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 234, 1903; desc; t f. 7, 

adult. 
Distr. Transition & Upper Austral, N. Scot. & N. J. to Wyo. & N. Dak., Cala. 

vidua HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 69, 1861 ; $ ?, holotype Mus. Vienna. 

SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 13, p. 317, 1862; desc. after Hagen. 
Distribution. New Orleans. 

vigilax HAGEN, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 13, p. 306, 1862; $, types M. C. Z., 
Mus. Vienna, Coll. Selys 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent Soc, 20, p. 232, 1893; $ 9, short desc; 

pi. 3, f. 17, S app. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 20, 1899; good desc; f. 18. cJ app. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 41 

Pseudostigmatinae 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 259, 1900; exact desc; pi. 7, f. 4, 

$ app. 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 47, f. 8; ^ adult. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 71, 1908; desc. 
Distr, Allcghanian & Carolinian, Mass. & Pa. to N. Dak. (Fla.?) 



SUBFAMILYPSEUDOSTIGMATINAE SELYS. 

^ypc genus — Pseudostigma Selys. Distribution — Neotropical. 

Mem. Cour., 38, p. 4-30, 1886; as Legion Pseudostigma; monograph 

of the legion. 
KIRBY, Syn. Cat., pp. 119-121, 1890; Div. Pseudostigmatina, 
NEEDHAM, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, p. 748, 1903; Anormostig- 

matini; a foot note states Thaumatoneura MacLachlan belongs 

here. 



PSEUDOSTIGMA SELYS. 

Type — aberrans Selys. Distribution — Tropic Central America. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 10, p. 18, I860.— Mem. Cour., 38, p. 

27, 1886. 
BRAUER, Verb. Ges. Wien, 18, p. 379, 1868. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 51, 1901 ; char, and table of species. 

•bemuis SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 10, p. 18, 1860; 9, type Coll. Selys. 
Mem. Cour. 38, p. 28, 1886 ; ^ 9 , types Coll. Selys. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 64, 1861; 9. 

CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 54, 1901 ; full desc. ; pi. 3, f. 17, $ app. ; 
p. 352, 1907, notes. 
Distr. Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-3) Mex. — Panama. 

accedens SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 10, p. 19, 1860; $ 9, types coll. 
Selys. — Mem. Cour., 38, p. 29, 1886. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 64, 1861; desc 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 54, 1901 ; full desc. ; pi. 3, f. 22, ^ app. ; 
p. 352, 1907, notes. 
Distr. Tropic (Calvert z. 3), Vera Cruz to Panama. 

MECISTOGASTER RAMBUR. 

Type — lucretia (Drury). Distribution — Neotropical. 
Ins. Neur. p. 281, 1842. 



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42 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Coenagrioninae 

SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 10, p. 19, 1860; char, and monogr. of 

genus. — Mem. Cour., 38, p. 15, 1886. 
BRAUER, Verb. Ges. Wien, 18, p. 379, 1868. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 51, 1901 ; char. ; p. 55, table of C. Am. 

spp. 
NEEDHAM, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, p. 748, 1903; venation. 

modestus SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 10, p.23, 1860; ^9, types Coll. 
Selys, Mus. Paris. — Mem. Cour., 38, p. 22, 1886; additions. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 64, 1861 ; desc 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 56, 1901; detailed desc; p. 354, 1907; 
additional notes. 
Distr, Tropic (Calvert z. 2-3) Vera Cruz, Mex., to C. Am., to Brazil & Peru. 

omatus RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 288, 1842 ; $ ?, broken, type Mus. Paris. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 10, p. 20, 1860; S $ ; Selys' types in 
Muss. Paris, Vienna, Comp. Zool., and Coll. Selys. — Mem. Cour., 
38, p. 17, 1886. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 64, 1861 ; desc. 
CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (3) 1, p. 377, 1899; notes.— Biol. C. 
Am., p. 56, 1901 ; desc ; p. 353, 1907 ; ethological notes. 
Syn. luctuosus SELYS, Bull. Acad., (2) 10, p. 20, 1860; ^, holotype M. C. 

Z.; desc. as race? 
Distr. Tropic (Calvert z. 2-4) Mex., C. Am., to Brazil & Peru. 



SUBFAMILY COENAGRIONINAE kirby.* 

Type genus — Coenagrion KIRBY. Distribution — Cosmopolitan. 
Syn. Cat., p. 119, 1890. 

SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 10, p. 11, 1860; subfamily defined 
(Agrioninae). Following are the parts of the monorgaphs; 
(excl. Legion Pseudostigma) . 
Demiere legion: Protoneura; Bull. Acad Belg., (2) 10, pp. 

431-462, 1860. 
Seconde legion : Lcstes; 1. c, (2) 13, pp. 288-338, 1862. 
Troisieme legion: Podagrion; 1. c, (2) 12, pp. 5-44, 1862. 
Quatrieme legion: Platycnemis ; 1. c, (2) 16, pp. 147-176, 1863. 
Cinquienw legion: Agrion: — Genre Argia; 1. c, (2) 20, pp. 375- 
417, 1865. 

NOTE— Pending the rearrangement of the Cocnagrioninac into a more modem 
classification, the legions of De Selys have not been adopted to designate the various 
groups, but the genera are arranged in natural order along the lines pointed out by 
Calvert, Needham, Williamson, and others. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 43 

Coenagrioninae 
Genre Agrion; 1. c, (2) 41, pp. 247-322, 496-539, 1233-1309; 

(2) 42, pp. 490-531, 953-991, 1876. 
Genres Telebasis, Argiocnemis et Hemiphlebia; 1. c, (2) 43, 
pp. 97-159, 1877. 
Revision du Synopsis des Agrionines. Premiere partie compre- 
nant les legions Pseudostigma, Podagrion, Plaiycnemis et 
Protoneura: Mem. Cour. Acad. Belg., 28, pp. 1-233, 1886. 
KIRBY, Syn. Cat., pp. 122-164, 1890 ; Normostigmaiinae. 
NEEDHAM, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, p. 749, 1903; limited. 

PARAPHLEBIA SELYS. 

Type — soe Hagen. Distribution — Neotropical. 
SELYS, in HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 71, 1861.— Bull. Acad. 

Belg., (2) 14, p. 8, 1862.— Mem. Cour., 38, p. 32, 1886. 
BRAUER, Verb. Ges. Wien., 18, p. 380, 1868. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 59, 1901. 

byalina BRAUER, Verb. Ges. Wien., 18, p. 105, 1871 ; ^ $ , types Mus. 
Vienna. 

SELYS, Mem. Cour., 38, p. 34, 1886 ; after Brauer. 

CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 61, 1901; desc. 
Distr. Lower Sonoran, (Calvert z. 3-4) Mex: Jalapa, Cuemavaca. 

zoe SELYS, in Hagen, S3m. Neur. N. Am., p. 72, 1861; $, bolotype in Coll. 
Selys; a sbort note.— Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 12, p. 9, 1862; S, 
witb good desc. — Mem. Cour., 38, p. 33, 1886 ; note. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 60, 1901 ; $ 9 described. 

Distr, Lower Sonoran, (Calvert z. 3-4) State Vera Cruz, Mex. 

HYPONEURA SELYS. 

Tjrpe — funcki Selys. Distribution — Central America. 
Mon. Cal., p. 275, 1854 ; in tbe additions & corrections to the Mon. — 

Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 20, p. 381, 1865. 
HAGEN, S3m. Neur. N. Am., p. 95, 1861 ; in note to H.lugens 
HAGEN & CALVERT, Bull. M. C. Z. 29, p. 105, 1902; fT. by Hagen, 

text by Calvert. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 65, 1901. 
BRAUER, Verb. Ges. Wien., 18, p. 385, 1868. 

lancki SELYS, Mon. Cal., p. 275, 1854; $ $ shortly noted; types Coll. Selys. 
Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 20, p. 381, 1865; detailed desc. 



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44 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Coenagrioninae 

CALVERT, Biol. C Am., p. 67, 1901 ; comparative desc 
Distr, Lower Sotioran & Tropic (Calvert z. 2-4) Mex. to Venez. 

lagens HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 95, 1861; $, (Agrion), hoiotype 
M. C. Z.; in note— "belongs to (Hyponeura)." 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 20, p. 382, 1865; desc, (Hyponeura). 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 66, 1901; $ $, comp. desc. 
HAGEN & CALVERT, Bull. M. C. Z. 29, p. 104, 1902; bibl; pi. 2, 
f. 22, 9 char. 
Nymph. NEEDHAM & COCKEREL^ Psyche, 10, p. 135, 1903; desc; ethol. 
notes. 
NEEDHAM, Proc U. S. Nat. Mus., 27, p. 715, 1904; desc; pi. 42, f. 
5, adult ; pi. 43, f . 8, structural details. 
Distr, Lower Sonoran, (Calvert z. 3-4), New Mex., Ariz., Northern Mexico. 

ARGIA RAMBUR. 

Typ^^fumipennis (BURMEISTER). Distribution— Nearctic & Neotropic* 

Ins. Neur., p. 254, 1842. 

SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg, (2) 20, p. 382, 1865 ; monograph of genus. 

BRAUER, Verb. Ges. Wien, 18, p. 385, 1868; characters. 

CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 220, 1893 ; char.— Proc Cal. 
Acad., (2) 4, p. 470, 1895; Calif, spp.— Biol. C. Am., pp. 69-72, 
1901 : separate tables for C. Am. $$99; p. 358, 1907 ; addi- 
tions — Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, pp. 118-123, 1909; tables of S. 
Am. spp. 

CALVERT & HAGEN, Bull. M. C. Z. 29, pp. 105-118, 1902; 2 pis. by 
Hagen; Calvett cites bibliography, distribution & custody of 
types. 

KELLICOTT, Odon Ohio, p. 22, 1899, char.; p. 29, table of Ohio spp. 

WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 246, 1900; char.; p. 261, table of 
Ind. spp. 

NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 236, 1903; table of N. Y. 
spp. — Proc U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, p. 727, 1903 ; venation. 

KENNEDY, Proc Ind. Acad., pp. 164-169, 1902; 1 plate; a new diag- 
nostic character for the spp. of Argia (mesepisternum). 

MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 71, 1908; tables of 
Austral spp. 
Nymph, NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 238, 1903; table of 
nymphs; pi. 14, ff. e, f.; pi. 15, f. a., structural details of Argia sp. 

•NOTE— Under this designation I do not include A. concinnum, kurilis, and optata, 
known respectively from the Cape (of Good Hope), Kurile Is. of Japan, and the 
Moluccas. In view of the compact distribution of the other 88 species these ttiree locali- 
ties must be considered anomalous. It is questionable whether they belong to Argia. 
(See Calvert M. C. Z. 1902.) 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 45 

Coenagrioninae 
agrloklM CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 476, 1895; S $, types Coll. 

Calvert & Calif. Acad.; pi. 15, f. 14, $ app. — Biol. C. Am., pp. 

72, 98, 1901, comp. desc. ; pi. 4, f. 26, $ char. ; ff. 62, 62^, S app. 
Distr. Lower Sonoran (Calvert z. 3-4), Calif., Ariz., Tex., Mex. : Nucvo 

Leon. 

Subsp.nthuuM CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., pp. 72, 99, 1901; $ 9, types in 
Coll. Calvert, MacLachlan, Adams, etc.; pi. 4, f. 62ss, $ app. 

Distr. Lower Sonoran (Calvert z. 3-4), Mex.: Tepic, Guadalajara, & Dist. 
Federal. 

apicalis (SAY), Jn. Acad. Phila., 8, p. 40, 1839; $ 9, types?; (Agrion). 

HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 91, 1861 ; good desc. ; ^ 9 , M. C. Z. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 20, p. 414, 1865; (Argia). 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 20, p. 233, 1893 ; short desc 
CALVERT & HAGEN, Bull. M. C Z. 29, p. 106, 1902; bibl.; pi. 2, 

ff. 21, a, b, S app. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 26, 1899 ; good desc. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 264, 1900; good desc; pi. 7, f. 9, $ 

app. 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 47, ff. 6, 7; ^9 ads. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 240, 1903, dist.; pi. 17, 

f. 1, S adult. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 72, 1908, desc 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, 1. c, p. 242, 1903 ; detailed desc 
Distr. Alleghanian & Carolinian, Me. & N. C. to Ark. & N. Dak. 

tarretti CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 87, 1901; $, holotype in Coll. Calvert; 

pi. 4, f. 46, s, S app. 
Distr. Lower Sonoran (Calvert z. 3) Mex.: Linares in Nuevo Leon. 

blnotata (WALSH), syn. ad tibialis. 

blpaoctalato (HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 90, 1861; ^, types M. C. Z.; 

(Agrion). 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 20, p. 415. 1865; S 9, Coll. Seyls; 

(Argia). 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 234, 1893 ; good desc 
CALVERT & HAGEN, Bull. M. C. Z. 29, p. 106, 1902; bibl.; pi. 2, 

ff. 19, a, $ app. 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902 ; pi. 47, f. 16 ; 3 adult. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 72, 1908; dis- 
^ tinguished. 



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46 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Coenagrioninae 

Syn. hipustulata Kirby, Syn. Cat, p. 139, 1890; probably misprint. 

Distr. Atl. coast div. of Carolinian & Austroriparian, N. Y. to Fla . 

calida (HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 93, 1861; $ only, types M. C. Z.; 
{Agrion) \ $, see extranea. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 20, p. 390, 1865; ^, {Argia). 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 75, 1902; comp. desc. 
CALVERT & HAGEN, Bull. M. C Z. 29, p. 106, 1902; bibl.; pi. 1, 
f. 13, $ app. 
Distr. Tropic, (Calvert z. 3), Mex. : Tampico. 

cuprea (HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 96, 1861; 9 ^, types M. C. Z.; 
{hgrion). 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 20, p. 407, 1865; $ 9, {Argia). 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 84, 1901; comp. desc; pi. 4, f. 22, 9 

char.; if. 41, s, $ app. 
CALVERT & HAGEN, Bull. M. C. Z. 29, p. 108, 1902; bibl.; pi. 1, 
ff. 8, a, $ app. 
Distr, Lower Sonoran & Tropic (Calvert z. 2-4), Mex., Guat., Honduras. 

deami CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., pp. 71, 90, 1901 ; ^ 9 , types Coll. Adams, 

Deam; pi. 4, f. 13, 9 char.; ff. 52, s, S app. 
Distr. Lower Sonoran (Calvert z. 3-4), Mex.: Hidalgo, Oaxaca. 

extraoea (HAGEN), Syn, Neur. N. Am., p. 92, 1861; S, holotype in M. C. 
Z. (Agrion). 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 20, p. 399, 1865; 9 $> (Argia). 
CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (3) 1, p. 380, 1899; desc. of $ ; pi. 25, 
f. 8, S app. — Biol. A. Am., p. 92, 1901; comp. desc; pi. 4, ff. 3, 
4, 9 char.; ff. 56, s, 56!*, «, $ app.; p. 375, 1907, note. 
CALVERT & HAGEN, Bull. M. C. Z. 29, p. 108, 1902, bibl.; pi. 1, 
ff. 6, a, $ app. 
Syn. calidum HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 93, 1861; 9 only (Agrion).-- 
[Selys 1865.] 
f variabilis SELYS, Bull. Acad., (2) 20, p. 406, 1865; 9 only, {Argia). 
[Calvert 1901.] 
Distr. Lower Sonoran, (Calvert z. 2-4) Mex., Guatem. to Guiana. 

ffissa SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 20, p. 401, 1865; $ 9, Coll. Selys. 

CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (3) 1, p. 381, 1899; good desc; pi. 25, 
f . 1 1, $ app.— Biol. C. Am., p. 89, 1901 ; comp. desc ; pi. 4, f . 12, 
9 char. ; ff. 50, s, $ app. ; p. 374, 1907, notes on $ . 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 47 

Coenagrioninae 
CALVERT & HAGEN, Bull. M. C. Z. 29, p. 109, 1902; bibl.; pi. 2, 
ff. 13, a, $ app. 
Distr. Lower Sonoran (Calvert z. 3-4) Mex., Guatemala, C. Rica, Columbia. 

ffrequentula CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 3«5, 1907; $ $, types Coll. Will- 
iamson ; pi. 4, f. 33j, under A. pulla, $ app. ; pi. 10, ff. 9-11, $ 
app., mesothorax. 

Distr. Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-3), Mexico: Vera Cruz, to Panama. 

fumipennis (BURMEISTER), Handb. Ent, 2, p. 819, 1839; $, holotype 
M. C. Z.; (Agrion). 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 97, 1861, S . 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 20, p. 403, 1865; $ 9 (Argia), Coll. 

Selys. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent Soc., 25, p. 38, 1898 ; on Burm. type. 
CALVERT & HAGEN, Bull. M. C Z. 29, p. 109, 1902; bibl; pi. 1, 

ff. 18, a, bj c, S app. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 262, 1900; notes. 
NEEDHAM, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, 1903 ; pi. 53, f. 5, wing. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc. (2) 6, p. 72, 1908; dist. 
Syn. obscura RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 256, 1842; type Coll. Selys, broken; 

pi. 8, f. 1, adult colored. [Selys 1865.] 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 27, p. 714, 1904; desc; pi. 38, 

ff. 9, 10, str. dets. 
Distr, Austroriparian, Ga. Ky., N. C, S. C, & Fla. 

harlmessi CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (3) 1, p. 378, 1899; $ $, types in 
Calif. Acad. ; pi. 25, f. 6, S app.— Biol. C. Am., p. 87, 1901 ; comp. 
desc. ; pi. 4, f. 21, $ char. ; ff. 45, i, $ app. ; p. 372, 1907 ; 9 desc. 
corrected. 

Distr. Tropic, (Calvert z. 1-3), Mexico: Tepic, Guerrero. 

herberti CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., pp. 70, 82, 1902 ; S , holotype Coll. God- 
man; pi. 4, ff. 37, s, $ app. 
Distr. Lower Sonoran, (Calvert z. 4) Mexico: Guerrero; (6,000 ft). 

immunda (HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 93, 1861; $ 9, (Agrion), types 

in M. C. Z. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 20, p. 401, 1865; desc, (Argia). 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 97, 1901; comp. desc; pi. 4, ft*. 60, j, 

S app. 
CALVERT & HAGEN, Bull. M. C. Z. 29, p. 110, 1902; bibl; pi. 2, 

ff. 12, a, $ app. 



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48 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Coenagrioninae 

Syn. rvivida HAGEN, Bull. Acad., Bdg., (2) 20, p. 406, 1865; $ only. [Cal- 
vert 1901.] 

Distr. Lower Sonoran, (Calvert z. 2-3), Texas, Mex. : Nuevo Leon, Tamau- 
lipas, Gucrr. 

tmpura RAMBUR, Ins. Ncur., p. 255, 1842; S, ("venant, je crois, de TAmc- 
rique septentrionale"), holotype in Coll. Sclys. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 20, p. 401, 1865; S ( 9 ?), Coll. Sclys; 
identity of 9 doubtful. 

Distr. Tropic, N. America (?) ^, Amazon 9. Orig. locality very doubtful. 

lacrymans (HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 95, 1861; 9, types in M. C. Z. 
(Agrion), 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 20, p. 386, 1865; $ 9, (Argia), Coll. 

Selys, S broken. 
CALVERT, Biol. C Am., p. 88, 1901; comp. desc; pi. 4, f. 16, 9 
char. ; fT. 49, s, S app. 
Distr. Lower Sonoran, (Calvert z. 3-4), Mex. : Chihuahua, Cuernavaca, 
Guerrero. 

mocsU (HAGEN), S)ti. Neur. N. Am., p. 94, 1861; $ 9, types M. C. Z. 

(AgrioH). 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 20, p. 382, 1865; desc. (Argia). 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 76, 1901 ; comp. desc. ; pi. 4, f. 20, 9 

char. ; flf. 29, s, S app. ; p. 361, 1907 ; variation of venation. 

Nymph. PNEEDHAM & COCKERELL, Psyche, 10, p. 136, 1903; desc. by 

Needham, ethol. notes by Cockerell; described as (Argia sp.). 
Distr. Lower Sonoran, (Calvert z. 3-4), Tex., Ariz., Northern Mexico. 

Subsp. putTl6^ (HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 96, 1861; ^9, types 

M. C. Z. (Agrion). 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 20, p. 385, 1865; desc (Argia). 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent Soc., 20, p. 232, 1893 ; short desc. 
CALVERT & HAGEN, Bull. M. C. Z. 29, p. 112, 1902; bibl.; pi. 2, 

ff. 15, (J, S app. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 23, 1899; good desc 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 261, 1900; desc; pi. 4, f. 2, leg.; pi. 

7, f. 7, ^ app. 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902 ; pi. 46, f . 13 ; pi. 47, ff. 10, 13 ; ^ 9 ads. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc (2) 6, p. 72, 1908; desc,. pi. 

5, wings. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 49 

Coenagrioninae 
WALKER, Ottawa Nat., 22, p. 5, 1908; desc. notes. 
Nymph. WILLIAMSON, Ent. News, 13, p. 67, 1902; text fig. of eggs. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 240, 1903; full desc. 
Distr. Transition to Austroriparian, N. Y., Quebec & N. Dak., south to Tex. 
& Fla. 

mtinda CALVERT, subsp. sub vwida, 

natauaiia CALVERT, subsp. sub agrioides. 

oculata HAGEN, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 20, p. 409, 1865; 5, holotype M. 
C. Z. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 81, 1901; 9 ^, comp. desc; pi. 4, f. 11, 
9 char.; ff. 36, s, i, it, $ app.; p. 367, 1907, notes on 9. — Ann. 
Carnegie Museum, 6, p. 134, 1909; add. 
CALVERT & HAGEN, Bull. M. C. Z. 29, p. 112, 1902; bibl.; pi. 1, ff. 
12, a, $ app. 
Distr. Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-4) Mex., C. Am., Venezuela, Brazil. 

oenea HAGEN, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 20, p. 407, 1865; S, holotype M. C. Z. 
CALVERT, Proc. Calif. Acad., (2) 4, p. 481, 1895 ; good desc. ; pi. 
15, ff. 21, 22, $ app.— Biol. C. Am., p. 85, 1901; 9^, comp. 
desc. ; pi. 4, f. 10, 9 char. ; ff. 43, 44, s, $ app. ; p. 372, 1907, ad- 
ditional notes on 9 . 

Distr. Lower Sonoran, (Calvert z. 2-4), Baja Cal, Mex., Guat, Col., Nic. 

pttHens CALVERT, subsp. sub violacea. 

perceUuIaU CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 74, 1901; ^ 9, types in Coll. God- 
man ; pi. 4, f. 5, 9 char. ; f. 27, S app. 
Distr. Tropic, (Calvert z. 3), Atoyac in Vera Cruz. 

plana CALVERT, subsp. sub vivida. 

polla HAGEN, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 20, p. 410, 1865; $, types in M. C. Z., 
Coll. Selys. 
CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (3) 1, p. 383, 1899; detailed desc. of 
^ 9 ; pi. 25, f. 4, $ app. — Biol. C. Am., p. 79, 1901; comp. desc; 
pi. 4, ff. 33, s, ss, $ app. ; p. 364, 1907 ; variation tabulated ; pi. 10, 
ff. 6, 7, $ app. ; f . 8, mesothorax. 
CALVERT & HAGEN, Bull. M. C. Z. 29, p. 113, 1902; bibl.; pi. 11, 
ff. 16, a, $ app. 



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50 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Coenagrioninae 

KIRBY, Ann. Mag. N. Hist., (7) 3, p. 371. 1899; notes. 
Distr. Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-4), Mex. to Venezuela. 

putrida (HAGEN), subsp. sub moesta. 

rhoadsi CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 92, 1901; ^, type Coll. Godman; pi. 4, 

ff. 55, s, S app. 
Distr. Lower Sonoran (Calvert z. 3), Nuevo Leon, Mex. 

sediila (HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 94, 1861; 5, types in M. C Z. 
(Agrion), 

SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 20, p. 411, 1865; $ desc. (Argia). 

KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 78, 1899; good desc. 

WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 263, 1900; ^ 9, good desc. 

CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 78, 1901; comp. desc; pi. 4, f. 7, $ 
char. ; f . 32, $ app. ; p. 363, 1907 ; notes on 9 . 

CALVERT & HAGEN, Bull. M. C. Z. 29, p. 114, 1902; bibl.; pi. 1, 
ff. 10, a, S app. 

HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902 ; pi. 45, fT. 2, 3 ; ^9 adults. 

MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 72, 1908; dis- 
tinguished. 
Distr. Upper & Lower Austral, (Calvert z. 3-4), C & S. States, Ariz., Mex. 

tarascana CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 90, 1901; $ 9, types Coll. Godman, 
Adams, Calvert & U. S. N. Mus.; pi. 4, f. 14, 9 char.; flf. 51, 
s, S app. 

Distr. Lower Sonoran, (Calvert z. 3-4), Elevated Mexico. 

tezpi CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 77, 1901; $ 9, types Coll. Godman, Mac- 
Lachlan, Calvert, and Calif. Acad.; pi. 4, f. 19, 9 char.; f. 31, j, 
$ app.; p. 362, 1907; notes. 

Syn. cupraea CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 479, 1895 ; ^ 9 ; pi. 15, 
f. 2, S app. [Calv. 1901.] 

Distr. Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-3) B. Calif., Mex. to Venez. 

tibialis (RAMBUR), Ins. Neur., p. 241, 1842; 9, holotype Coll. Selys. 

(Platycnentis) . 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 72, 1861; desc. (rrichoaiemis) . 
SELYS, in Sagra: Hist. Cuba, Ins., p. 164, 1857.— Bull. Acad. Belg., 

(2) 20, p. 413, 1865; (Argia). 
CALVERT, Trans. Am, Ent. Soc, 20, p. 233, 1893 ; good desc. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 51 

Coenagrioninae 
CALVERT & HAGEN, Bull. M. C Z. 29, p. 115, 1902; bibl.; pi. 2, 

ff. 7, a, 8, a, $ app. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio. p. 26, 1899; desc 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 263, 1900; good desc; pi. 7, f. 8, 

S app. 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, p. 902 ; pi. 48, ff. 1, 2 ; $9 ads. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 244, 1903; dist. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 72, 1908; dist. 
Syn, binotatum (WALSH), Proc. Acad. Phila., p. 387, 1862; $ $ (Agrion), 
types lost. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 20, p. 414, 1865; (Argia). [Selys 
1865.] 
fontium (HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 91, 1861; $ $, types M. C. Z.; 
(Agrion). [Selys 1865.] 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 244, 1903 ; full desc ; pi. 

15, f. a, struct, details. 
Distr, Upper & Lower Austral, Central & Middle to Southern States. 

tonto CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 89, note, 1901; $ 9, types Coll. Calvert; 
pi. 4, f. 17, 9 char.; ff. 48, s, $ app.; p. 373, 1907; notes on $. 
Distr, Lower Sonoran (Calvert z. 4) Ariz., Mex. : Cuemavaca (8,000 ft.). 

translata HAGEN, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 20, p. 410, 1865; $ 9, types M. C Z. 
WILLIAMSON, Proc. Ind. Acad., p. 120, 1900; desc notes; pi. 1, 

f. 1, $ app. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 76, 1901; comp. desc; pi. 4, f. 18, 9 

char.; flf. 30, s, $ app.; p. 361, 1907; notes. 
CALVERT & HAGEN, Bull. M. C. Z. 29, p. 120, 1902; bibl.; pi. 1, 

ff. 9, a, $ app. 
GRAF, Ent. News, 13, p. 113, 1902; desc notes. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 72, 1908; dist. 
Distr, Austral to Tropic (Calvert z. 2-4) Central & Southern States, C. Am. 



ulmeca CALVERT. Biol. C. Am., p. 80, 1901 ; ^ 9 , types Coll. Godman, 
Calvert ; pi. 4, f. 9, 9 char. ; flF. 34, s, t, S app, ; p. 366, 1907, notes. 
Distr. Tropic (Calvert z. 2-4), Mex., Honduras. 



violacea (HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 90, 1861; S 9, types M. C. Z. 
(Agrion). 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 20, p. 404, 1865; (Argia). 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 233, 1893 ; short desc. 



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62 BULLETIN, PUBUC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Coenagrioninae 

CALVERT & HAGEN, Bull. M. C. Z. 29, p. 116, 1903; bibl; pi. 1, 
ff. 17, a, S app. 

KELLICOTT, Odon., Ohio, p. 25, 1899; good desc. 

WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 264, 1900; good desc. 

HOWARD, Ins. Book. 1902 ; pi. 45, ff. 1, 14 ; $9 ads. 

NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 242, 1903; dist.; pi. 13, 
ff. 4, 5, 3 adult. 

MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 72, 1908; desc. 

WALKER, Ottawa Nat., 22, p. 5, 1908; desc. notes. 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, 1. c. p. 243, 1903 ; full desc. ; pi. 13, f. 5 ; adult nymph. 
DUtr, Me., Ont., & Minn., to N. C. and New Mexico. 

Subsp, pallens CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 98, 1901; $ $, types Coll. God- 
man, Adams, Deam ; pi. 4, f. 25, $ char. ; ff. 61, j, $ app. 
Distr. Lower Sonoran, (Calvert z. 2-4), Arizona, Mexico. 

vivida HAGEN, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 20, p. 406, 1865; ^ only, type M. C. Z. 
[ 9 , vide immunda.] 
CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 478, 1895; $ $ comp. desc; 
pi. 15, f. 13, $ app.— Biol. C. Am., p. 94, 1901; comp. desc; pi. 
4, ff. 1, 2, $ char. ; ff. 57, s, ss, $ app. 
CALVERT & HAGEN, Bull. M. C Z. 29, p. 117, 1902; bibl.; pi. 1, 
ff. 5, a, S app. 
Distr. Upper & Lower Sonoran, (Calvert z. 3-4), Mont. & B. Col. to Mex. 
& Tex. 

Subsp. munda CALVERT, Biol. C Am., p. 96, 1901; $ 9, types M. C. Z.; 

comp. desc. 
Distr. Lower Sonoran, (Calvert z. 3), Arizona, Mexico. 

Subsp. plana CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 96, 1901; $ $, types M. C. Z.; 

pi. 4, f. 58, S app. 
Distr. Lower Sonoran, (Calvert z. 3-4), Arizona, Mexico. 

ARGIALLAGMA SELYS. 

Type — minutum SELYS. Distribution — Neotropical. 
Bull. Acad. Belg.,(2) 41, p. 498, 1876; sub "incertae sedis," gro;up3me. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 376, 1907 ; characters detailed. 

mlDtttttm (SELYS), in Sagra: Hist. Cuba, Ins., p. 464, 1857; {Tricho- 
cnemis) ; Coll. Selys? 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 72, 1861 ; after Selys. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 53 

Coenagrioninae 
CALVERT, Biol. C Am., p. 376, 1907; $9 full desc; (Argtal- 
lagma) ; pi. 10, f. 35, $ app. 
Syn. aduncum (HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 79, 1861; $ $, types M. C. 
Z. (Agrion), 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 41, p. 499, 1876; {Enallagmaf).— 
[Selys 1876.] 
Distr, Tropic, (Calvert z. 2), Cuba, Guatemala. 

HESPERAGRION CALVERT. 

Type — heterodoxum. Distribution — Sonoran. 
Biol. C. Am., p. 103, 1902; separated from Amphiagrion. 

beterodoxam (SELYS), C. R. Soc. Ent. Belg., 11, p. 69, 1868; S2 
(Agrion), types Coll. Selys.— Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 41, p. 288. 
1876; (Amphiagrion), 
CALVERT, Biol. C Am., p. 103, 1902; (Hesperagrion) ; pi. 5, ff. 11, 
12, $ app. ; pi. 6, ff. 1-6, col., showing varr. in abd. col. ; p. 377, 
1907; varr. 
NEEDHAM, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, 1903 ; pi. 54, f. 5, wing. 

Syn, Aavescens SELYS, C. R. Soc. Ent. Belg., 11, p. 70, 1868; $ (Agrion), 
type Coll. Selys; as (heterodoxum, var.f). — Bull. Acad. Belg., 
(2) 41, p. 289, 1876; (Amphiagrion Aavescens). [Calvert 1902.] 

Distr. Lower Sonoran, (Calvert z. 3-4) Arizona, No. Mexico. 

OXYAGRION SELYS. 

Ty^t-^uhidum (RAMBUR). Distribution— Neotropical. 
Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 41, p. 290, 1876. 

nifttlttiii (HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 86, 1861; $ (Agrion), holo- 
type M. C. Z. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 41, p. 302, 1876; $ $ (Oxyagrion), 

9 Coll. MacLachlan ; with a doubt of type locality. 
CALVERT, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 183, 1909; $ ^ ; pi. 3, ff. 49, 
50, $ app. 
Distr, Chilian. Northern California (Hagen), Chili (Selys), Argentine (Cal- 
vert). 

ANISAGRION SELYS. 

Jypf-allopierum SELYS. Distribution — Central America. 
'Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 42, p. 952, 1876. 



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54 BULLETIN, PUBUC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Coenagrioninae 

CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 104, 1902; char. & tables of ^ $s.; p. 
378, 1907; $ 9 s. 

lais (SELYS), Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 42, 1876; ^9 (Nehallennia), types 

Mus. Vienna. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 106, 1902; comp. desc; (Anisagrion) ; 

pi. 5, f. 15, S app. ; f. 19, venation. 
Distr. Lower Sonoran (Calvert z. 3-4), Mex.: higher portions, Honduras. 

ENALLAGMA CHARPENTIER. 

Type— cyathigerum (CHARPENTIER) . Distribution— Cosmopolitan. 

Lib. Eur., p. 21, 1840; as an alternative name, (Agrion subgenus). 

SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 41, p. 496, 1876; given full generic 
rank. 

CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 221, 1893.— Proc Cal. Acad., 
(2) 4, p. 470, 1895.— Biol. C. Am., p. 103, 1902; extensive tables 
of ^ 9s; p. 379, 1907; add. 

KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 15, 1899; table of Ohio spp. 

WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 268, 1900; Ind. spp. 

NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., 1903; pi. 19, $ app. of 
16 spp. 

MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 74, 1908; tables. 

RIS, in Schultze: Forschungsreise, p. 311, 1908; discussion of appli- 
cability and priority of name. "Selys to be credited, nee Char- 
pcntier." 



WILLIAMSON, Ent. News, 11, p. 455, 1900; $ 9, types Coll. Will.; 
pi. 9, ff. 1, 2, S app. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 74, 1908; S dist. 
Distr. Transition, Wyo. & Ariz. 

•nnexttoi (HAGEN), syn. ad cyathigerum, 

aoteimatiiin (SAY), Jn. Acad. Phila., 8, p. 39, 1839; $, type ?, (Agrion). 

HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 73, 1861; $, after Say; (Pro- 

toneura). 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 274, 1900; ^9 {Enallagma), Coll. 

Williamson. 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 48, flf. 10, 11; ^ 9 ads. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 257, 1903; bibl.; pi. 19, f. 

I, S app. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 55 

Coenagrioninae 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 77, 1908; desc. 
Syn. fischeri KELLICOTT, Jn. Cincin. Soc. N. H., 17, p. 206, 1895. [Will- 
iamson 1900.] 
Nymph, NEEDHAM, 1. c, p. 257, 1903 ; full d^sc. ; pi. 16, f. 4, adult. 
Distr. Alleghanian & Carolinian, N. Y. & Pa. to Iowa. 

aspersum (HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 97, 1861; $, types M. C. Z. 

(Agrion), 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 41, p. 518, 1876; $ (Enallagma) , 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 237, 1893 ; ^ $ ; pi. 3, f. 

30, $ app. 
BANKS, Can. Ent., 26, p. 77, 1894; suggests identity with E, 

traviaium, 
MORSE, Psyche, 7, p. 211, 1895; reply to Banks; species valid. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 25, 1899; good desc; f. 2, $ app. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 271, 1900; good desc— Proc Ind. 

Acad., 1901 ; pi. 1, flF. 10, 11, $ app. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 256, 1903; bibl.; pi. 19, f. 

j, $ app. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 7, 1908; desc 
Disir, Carolinian, N. Y. & N. C. to Mo. & Wis. 

basidens CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 114, 1902; ^9, types S9 Acad. 

Phila., S Coll. Banks, 9 Coll. Calvert; pi. 5, f. 16, $ app. 
Distr. Gulf Strip into Austroriparian, Texas: Austin, San Antonio, Corpus 

Christi. 

boreale SELYS, Ent. M. Mag., 11, p. 242, 1875; $ 9 (A enallagma), types 
Coll. MacLachlan, & Selys.— Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 41, p. 509, 
1876; (Enallagma), race? 
WILLIAMSON, Proc .^cad. Ind., p. 173, 1900; suggests identity 
with calverti. 

Distr. Hudsonian, Newfoundland, White Bay. 

calverti MORSE, Psyche, 7, p. 208, 1895; ^, type M. C. Z. 

WILLIAMSON, Ent. News., 11, p. 455, 1900; 9 desc, Coll. Will.; 
pi. 9, ff. 5, 9, 10, $ app.— Proc. Ind. Acad., p. 173, 1900; suggests 
identity with boreale; pi. 1, flf. 12, 13, S app. 
CURRIE, Proc Wash. Acad., 3, p. 218, 1901; good desc 
HARVEY, Ent. News. 12, p. 197, 1901 ; 9 desc 
CALVERT, Biol. C Am., p. 109, 1901 ; comp. desc 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 48, f. 9; ^ adult. 



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56 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Coenagrioninae 

MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 76, 190S; desc 
Distr. Boreal & Transition, Alaska & Wash, to Nev. to Maine. 

cardenium SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., .(2) 41, p. 530, 1876; ^9, types 

Coll. Selys, M. C Z. ; desc. as (race ? of coecum). 
Distr. Tropic, Miami, Fla.; Cuba, Trinidad. 

camnctilatuin MORSE, Psyche, 7, p. 208, 1895; ^, type M. C. Z. 

NEEDHAM, Outdoor Studies, p. 62, 1898.— Bull. 68 N. Y. State 
Mus., p. 255, 1903; bibl.; pi. 19, f. h, $ app. 

KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 38, 1899 ; good desc. ; f. 14, $ app. 

WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 270, 1900; good desc; pi. 5, ff. 7, 8; 
$ app. 

HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 48, ff. 4, 5; 3 9 ads. 

MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 75, 1908; desc 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, 1. c, p. 256, 1903; full desc; pi. 17, ff. 3, a, nymph, 
Distr. Canadian & Alleghanian, B. C. & Nev. to N. Y. & Pa. 

dvtte (HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 88, 1861; $9, t>T)es M. C. Z. 
(Agrion). 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 41, p. 514, 1876; desc {Enallagma). 
KOLBE, Arch. f. Naturg., 54, p. 170, 1888 ; good desc. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 236, 1893; short desc; pi. 
3, f. 31, $ app.— Biol. C. Am., p. 110, 1902; comp. desc; p. 389, 
1907; notes. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 37, 1899 ; good desc. ; f. 15, $ app. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 270, 1900; good desc; pi. 5, ff. 5, 6, 

$ app. 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902 ; pi. 47, ff. 12, 14 ; ^ $ ads. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 256, 1903; bibl.; pi. 19, 

f. f, $ app. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc. (2) 6, p. 77, 1908, desc 
Syn. canadense PROVANCHER, Nat. Canad., 8, p. 325, 1876; (.Agrion). 

[Kirby 1890.] 
Nymph. NEEDHAM & COCKERELL, Psyche, 10, p. 137. 1903; desc by 

Needh., notes by Ckll. 
Distr, Transition to Tropic, N. Am., south of 45® lat, W. Indies. 

daiisum MORSE, Psyche, 7, p. 209, 1895 ; $ , types M. C. Z. 
Distr. Lower Sonoran ?, Franktown, Nevada. 

coecum (HAGEN), S>ni. Neur. N. Am., p. 84, 1861; ^, type M. C. Z.; 
{Agrion). 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 57 

Coenagrioninae 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 41. p. 528, 1876; $ $ (Enallagma). 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 112, 1902; $ comp. desc. 
Distr. Lower Sonoran, (Calvert z. 2-3), B. Cal., Mex. to C. Rica, West Indies. 

^tt6j/>. novae-hlspanlac CALVERT, Biol. C Am., p. 381, 1907; 3 9» new 

name. 
Syn, coecum CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 485, 1895; comp. desc.; 

pi. 15, f. 8, $ app.—[Calvert 1902.] 
Distr, As above for coecum, except W. Ind. ; Colombia. 

cttltellatum HAGEN, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 41, p. 524, 1876; S, type M. 

C. Z.? 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 381, 1907; $ $, comp. desc; pi. 10, ff. 

36, 37, $ app. 
Distr, Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-4), Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti, C. Am. 

<:yatliigeruin (CHARPENTIER), Lib. Eur., p. 163, 1840; $9, types ?; 

(Agrion) ; pi. 42, f. 1, ^9 adults colored. 
SEL\S, Rev. Odon., p. 205-212, 1850; very detailed desc; pi. 10, f. 

2, $ app.— Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 41, p. 505, 1876; {Enallagma), 
RIS, Fauna Helv., p. 39, 1885; desc; pi. 1, f. 3, abd. col. pattern. 
ROSTOCK, Ver. Zwickau, p. 136, 1888; {Agrion). 
WALLENGREN, Ent. Tidsk., 15, p. 205, 1894; {Enallagma), 
GARBINI, Bull. Soc Ent. Ital., 27, p. 130, 1895; desc 
MACLACHLAN, Ent. M. Mag., (2) 10, p. 207, 1899; submergence. 

— L. c, (2) 11, p. 110, 1900; on melanic variety, text fig. showing 

mel. abd. 
TUMPEL, Geradfl. Mitteleur., p. 59, 1900; pi. 2, ^ 9 adults col. 
LUCAS, Brit. Drag., p. 297, 1900; pi. 27, ^ 9 adults. 
WILLIAMSON, Proc Ind. Acad., 1900; pi. 1, flF. 14, 15; ^ app. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 108, 1902; comp. desc 
FROHLICH, Ver. AschaflF., p. 38, 1903; desc {Agrion), 
Syn, annexum (HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 87, 1861; $ 9, types Mus. 

Berlin; {Agrion), 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 41, p. 506, 1876; {Enallagma) as 

(race ? of cyath,) 
WILLIAMSON, Ent. News., 11, p. 454, 1900; pi. 9, flf. 5, 9, 10 and 

text fig., $ app. — Proc Acad. Ind., p. 121, 1902; identity with 

cyathigerum, 
NEEDHAM, Bull. N. Y. State Mus., p. 253. 1903 ; bibl. ; pi. 19, f. a, 

$ app.— Proc U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, 1903 ; pi. 54, f. 6, wing. 
HANDLIRSCH, Foss. Ins., 1906; pi. 4, f. 15, wing, after Needham. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 74, 1908; dist. 



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58 BULLETIN, PUBUC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Coenagrioninae 

brunnea EVANS, Brit. Lib., p. 15, 1845; (Agrion); pi. 4, f. 8. [Selys 

1850.) 
charpentieri SELYS, Rev. Zool. p. 214, 1840; $ $, types Coll. Selys; pi. 
11, f. 1, $ app.— Bull. Acad. Belg., 7 (2), p. 95, 1840. [Selys 
1876.] 
hastulatum STEPHENS, 111. Brit. Ent, 6, p. 74, 1836; {Agrion), 

RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 273, 1842; pi. 7, ft. 3, c, $ ad. col.— [Selys 
1850.] 
pulchrum HAGEN, Syn. Lib. Eur., p. 80, 1840.— [Selys 1850.] 
Nymph. LUCAS, Brit. Drag., pp. 297-307, 1900; complete life history. 
Distr. Holarctic, entire Northern Hemisphere, exclusive of Tropics. N. Am., 
Alaska & Newfoundland, south to Mexico. 

divagans SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 41, p. 52, 1876; $ $, types Coll. 

Selys, MacLachl. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 238, 1893; desc; pi. 3, ff. 

25, 26, $ app. 
KELLICOI T, Odon. Ohio, p. 43, 1899 ; desc. ; f. 12, ^ app. [ 9 

see geminatum.] 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 273, 1900; desc; pi. 5, ft. 15, 16, 

$ app. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 254, 1903; bibl.; pi. 19, 

f. e, $ app. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 75, 1908; $ dist. 
Distr, Alleghanian into Carolinian, Mass. & N. Car. to Ind. 

doubledayi SELYS, Rev. Odon., p. 209, 1850; ^ $, types Coll. Selys; 

(Agrion) ; in note to E. cyathigerum. — In Sagra : Hist. Cuba, 

Ins., p. 469, 1857.— Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 41, p. 502, 1876; desc. 

{Enallagma). 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 89, 1861 ; desc. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 41, 1899 ; good desc. ; f . 6, ^ app. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 268, 1900; good desc— Proc. Acad. 

Ind., 1901; pi. 1, flf. 8, 9; $ app. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 74, 1908; $ dist. 
Distr, Carolinian to Tropic, Atl. Coast, Mass. & Ohio to Fla., Cuba. 

durum (HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 87, 1861; $ $, types M. C Z. 
(Agrion). 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 41, p. 499, 1876; desc (Enallagma), 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 236, 1893; good desc; pi. 
3, f. 22, $ app. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 59 

Coenagrioninae 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902 ; pi. 48, f. 13 ; $ adult. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 253, 1903; bibl.; t. f. 11, 

$ app. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 74, 1908; $ dist. 
IHstr. Carolinian to Gulf Strip, Md. & Tenn. to Fla. & La. 

ebrium (HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 89, 1861; ^, types M. C. Z. 

{Agrion), 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 41, p. 613, 1876; 5$, Coll. Selys, 

(Enallagma). 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 34, 1899; good desc; f. 5, S app. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 270, 1900; good desc; pi. 5, ff. 3, 4, 

S app. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 255, 1903 ; bibl. ; pi. 19, f. g, 

$ app. 
WALKER, Ottawa Nat.. 22, p. 7, 1908 ; desc. notes ; pi. 1, f . H, $ app. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 76, 1908; desc. 
Disir. Canadian to Carolinian, N. Scotia & Md. to N. Dak. 

elseni CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 486, 1895; $, type Cal. Acad.; 

pi. 15, f. 7, $ app. — Biol. C Am., p. 113, 1901 ; comp. desc 
Distr. Lower Sonoran, Baja California. 

exsulans (HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 82, 1861; 3 $, types M. C. Z. 
(Agrion). 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 41, p. 522, 1876; desc. (Enallagma). 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 238, 1893; good desc; pi. 

3, f. 29, $ app. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 42, 1899; good desc; f. 1, $ app. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 274, 1900; good desc; pi. 5, f. 17, 18, 

S app. 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902 ; pi. 46, flF. 4, 8 ; $9 ads. col. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 255. 1903; bibl.; pi. 19, 

f. /, $ app. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 77, 1908; desc 
WALKER, Ottawa Nat., 22, p. 9, 1908; desc notes; pi. 1, f. K, $ app. 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, 1. c, p. 255, 1903 ; full desc 
Distr, Alleghanian & Carolinian, N. Y., Ont, & N. Dak., to N. C. & Tex. 

fischeri KELLICOTT, syn. ad aniennatum. 

geminatum KELLICOTT, Ent. News, 6, p. 239, 1895; ^ $, types Ohio 
Univ. — Odon. Ohio, p. 40, 1899; good desc; f. 11, ^ app. 



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60 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE „_ . , 

Coenagrioninae , '^ 1 1 : * ^ ^|i ^ 

WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 272, 1900; good desc; pi. 5, ff. 11, 

12, ^ app. 
HARVEY, Ent. News, 12, p. 196, 1901; desc. notes. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. See, (2) 6, p. 75, 1908; $ dist. 
Syn. divagans KELLICOTT, Jn. Cincin. Soc, p. 205, 1895 ; $ only.— [Kelli- 

cott 1895.] 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 254, 1903; full desc. 
Distr. Carolinian, N. Y. & Pa. to Mich., 111. & Tenn, 

hageni (WALSH), Proc Ent. Soc. Phila., 2, p. 234, 1863; (Agrion) ; 

named. — Proc. Acad. Phila., p. 386, 1862; desc. as n. sp,; $ $, 

types ? 
SELYS. Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 41, p. 512, 1876; desc. (Enallagma). 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 237, 1893; good desc; pi. 

3, flf. 22, 23, $ app. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 39, 1899; good desc; f. 10, $ app. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 39, 1900; good desc; pi. 5, flF. 1, 2, 

3 app. 
HARVEY, Ent. News, 12, p. 179, 1901 ; varr. in color. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 253, 1903; bibl.; pi. 19, 

f. b, S app. 
WALKER, Ottawa Nat., 22, p. 7, 1908; desc notes; pi. 1, ff. A, d 

$ app. & wing. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 76, 1908; desc 
Nymph, NEEDHAM, 1. c p. 254, 1903; full desc 
Distr. Alleghanian, Me. & Pa. to N. Dak. 

krugli KOLBE, Arch. Naturg. 54, p. 171, 1888 ; ^ 9 . 
Distr. Tropic, Cuba, Porto Rico. 

laterale MORSE, Psyche, 7, p. 274, 1895; S, type M. C. Z. 
Distr. Alleghanian ? ; Mass. & Ind. 

mintisculttm MORSE, Psyche, 7, p. 207, 1895; $, type M. C. Z. 
Distr. Alleghanian ?; Mass. 

minutuin (SELYS), vide Argiallagma, antea. 
novae-hlspanlae CALVERT, subsp. sub coecum. 

plctum MORSE, Psyche, 7, p. 307, 1895 ; ^ 9 , types M. C. Z. 
Distr. Alleghanian ?; Mass. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 61 

Coenagrioninae 
piscinariuin WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 273, 1900; S $, types in Coll. 
Will.; pi. 5, flf. 13, 14, S app. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. Sute Mus., p. 255, 1903; bibl.; pi. 19, 

f. d, 3 app. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 75, 1908; $ dist. 
Disir, Carolinian, Ind., N. Y. & Pa. 

poautum (HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 83, 1861; ^ $, types M. C. Z. 
(Agrion). 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 41, p. 527, 1876; S 9 (Enallagma). 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 20, p. 239, 1893; good desc; pi. 3, 

f. 27, $ app. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 45, 1899; desc; f. 13, $ app. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 276, 1900; pi. 5, flf. 23, 24, S app. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus.", p. 258, 1903 ; bibl. ; pi. 19, f . 

n, $ app. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 78, 1908; desc 
Disir, Alleghanian to Austroriparian, Me. & Wis. to Fla. & Tenn. 

praovarum (HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 88, 1861; S 9, types M. C Z. 
(Agrion). 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 41, p. 516, 1876; desc {Enallagma). 
WILLIAMSON, Ent. News, 11, pp. 456-458, 1900; detailed desc; pi. 

9, flF. 4, 6, $ app. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. Ill, 1902; comp. desc; p. 380, 1907; 
notes. 
Disir. Lower Austral, Kans. & La., west to Calif., Mexico. 

robustum SELYS, Ent. M. Mag., 11, p. 243, 1875; 9, holotype Coll. Mac- 
Lachlan.— Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 41, p. 507, 1876; desc. as (race 
? of cyalhigerum) . 

Disir. Lower Sonoran ?; California. (= cyaihigerum ?) 

semldrciilare SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 41, p. 517, 1876; ^, type Coll. 
Selys. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 112, 1902; $, comp. desc; pi. 5, f. 13, 
$ app.; p. 381, 1907. 
Disir. Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-4), Mex.: Vera Cruz, Putla, Pac Coast 

aignatuin (HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 84, 1861; ^, type M. C Z. 
{Agrion). 



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62 BULLETIN, PUBUC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Coenagrioninae 

SELYS. Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 41, p. 525, 1876; $9 (Enallagma), 

Coll. Selys. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 20, p. 238, 1893; good desc; pi. 

3, f. 28, $ app. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 45, 1899; good desc; f. 4, $ app. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 275, 1900; desc; pi. 5, ff. 21, 22, $ 

app. 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902 ; pi. 47, ff. 1, 3, ^ $ ads. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 258, 1903; bibl; pi. 19, 

i. m, $ app. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 77, 1908; desc 
Syn, dentiferum (WALSH), Proc Ent. Soc. Phila., 2, p. 236, 1863; $9 
(Agrion), types destroyed; desc as («. sp. f = signatum ?) — 
[Selys 1876.) 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, 1. c, p. 258, 1903; full desc; p. 252, t. f. 10, adult. 
Distr. Alleghanian to Austroriparian, Me. & Wis. to Ga. & La. 

traviatum SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 41, p. 521, 1876; $ $, types Coll. 

Selys. 
BANKS, Can. Ent., 26, p. 77, 1894; (= aspersum). 
MORSE, Psyche, 7, p. 211, 1895; reply to Banks; species valid. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 36, 1899; good desc; ff. 8, 9, $ app. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 271, 1900; good desc; pi. 5, ff. 9, 10, 

3 app. 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 48, ff. 7, 8; $9 ads. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 257, 1903; bibl.; pi. 19, 

f. k, 3 app. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 75, 1908; S dist. 
Distr. Carolinian, into Alleghanian, Mass., N. Y. & Ind., to N. C. 

TELEBASIS SELYS. 
Type — salva (HAGEN). Distribution — Neotropical, one sp. into Nearctic* 
Bull. Acad., (2) 20, p. 378, 1865.— C. R. Soc. Ent. Belg., 11, p. 71, 

1869. 
BRAUER, Verb. Ges. Wien, 18, p. 386, 1868. 
MACLACHLAN, Ann. Mag. N. Hist, p. 35, 1873; note 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 115, 1902; char. & tables of C. Am. spp. 
Syn. Erythragrton SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 42, p. 955, 1876.— [Calvert 
1902.] 

dominlclana (SELYS), in Sagra: Hist. Cuba, Ins., p. 466, 1857; $ (Agrion), 
t>-pe ?— Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 42, p. 958, 1876; 6 9 (Erythra- 
grton), $ desc. from Hagen MS. 

•NOTE— I use Neotropical for Telebasis in Kirby's sense, placing the other de- 
scribed species from the Eastern Hemisphere in Teinobasis Kirby. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 63 

Coenagrioninae 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 86, 1861; (Agrion), desc. after Selys. 
Distr. Tropic, W. Indies, Cuba, Haiti, Porto Rico, Guiana. 

filiola (PERTY), Del. Anim. Art, p. 125, 1834; ^, type ?; desc. vague; pL 
25, f. 4, col. fig. of adult, very poor; {Agrion). — [teste Calvert 
1902.] 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 42, p. 956, 1876; $ $ (Erythragrion) , 

$ from Hagen, MS. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 118, 1902; $ 9 (Telebasis) ; pi. 5, ff. 
33, 34, $ app.; p. 383, 1907; notes. 
Distr. Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-3), Mex.; Tamaulipas, C. Am. to Brazil. 

macrogastra (SELYS), in Sagra: Hist. Cuba, Ins. p. 465, 1857; (Agrion) 
S, holotype Coll. Selys.—Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 43, p. 107, 1877; 
$ {Leptobasis ?). 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 74, 1861; {Agrion), after Seyls. 
CARPENTER, Jn. Inst. Jamaica, 2, p. 262, 1896; $ $ {Telebasis).— 
Proc. Dublin Soc, 8, p. 436, 1897; complete desc; pi. 16, ff. 10- 
16, $ $ char.; {Erythr.) 
Distr. Tropic, Cuba, Jamaica. 

salva (HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 85, 1861; $9 {Agrion), types 
M. C. Z. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 42, p. 962, 1876; desc {Erythragrion) . 
CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 483, 1895; desc notes; pi. 15, 
f. 9, $ app. — Biol. C. Am., p. 119, 1902; comp. desc; {Telebasis) ; 
p. 385, 1907; notes. 
NEEDHAM, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, 1903 ; pi. 54, f. 7, wing. 
Syn. boucardi SELYS, C. R. Soc Ent Belg.. 11. p. 70, 1868; $ $, types 

Coll. Selys; {Telebasis) .—[Stlys 1876.] 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, 1. c, 27, p. 716, 1904 ; full desc ; t. f. 8, struct, dets. 
Distr. Lower Sonoran, (Calvert z. 2-4), Calif., Ariz., Tex., B. Calif., Mex. 
to Guat. 



vulnerata (HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 86, 1861; $ $, {Agrion), types 
M. C. Z. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg.. (2) 42, p. 960, 1876; desc {Erythragrion). 
Distr. Tropic, Cuba, Porto Rico. 



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64 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Coenagrioninae 

TELAGRION SELYS. 

Type — longum SEILYS. Distribution — Neotropical & Nearctic. 
Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 42, p. 966, 1876. 
CALVERT, Ent. News, 14, p. 37, 1903 ; char. & affinities of genus. 

daecldi CALVERT, Ent. News, 14, p. 36, 1903; $, types M. C. Z., Coll. 

Daecke ; pi. 3, ff. 1, 3-5, $ adult & char. 
Nymph. ?NEEDHAM, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 27, p. 715, 1904; desc; pi. 43, 

f. 13; t. f. 7, str. dets. 
Distr. Carolinian to Gulf Strip, Atl. Coast, N. J., N. C, Fla. 



LEPTOBASIS SELYS. 

Type--t'acillans HAGEN. Distribution— Neotropical. 
Bull. Acad. Bclg., (2) 43, p. 99, 1877. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 120, 1902. 

vadllaiu HAGEN, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 43, p. 101, 1877; ^ $, types British 
Museum. 
KOLBE, Arch. f. Naturg., 54, p. 172, 1888 ; desc. notes. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 121, 1902; detailed desc; pi. 5, ff. 22-25, 
$ 9 char., tarsi ; p. 385, 1907, notes. — Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 
200, 1909; desc. 
Nymph. PNEEDHAM, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 27, p. 718, 1904; desc; t. f. 11, 

structural details; desc. as (Lcptobasis sp. from Porto Rico). 
Distr. Tropic; W. Ind., Cuba; Mex., Nic, Guat. 

Subsp atrodorsum CALVERT, Biol. C Am., p. 121. 1902; 6 9. 
Distr. Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-3), Mex.: Vera Cruz, Jalisco; Panama. 

NEHALENNIA SELYS. 

Type^-^peciosa (CHARPENTIER). Distribution— Hoi arctic, into Neo- 
tropical. 
Rev. Odon., p. 172, 1850.— Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 46. p. 1235, 1876. 
BRAUER, Verb. Ges. Wien., 18, p. 385, 1868. 
NEEDHAM, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, pp. 710, 727, 1903; venation. 

denticoUis (BURMEISTER), vide Ischnura, postea. 

gracilis MORSE, Psyche, 7, p. 274, 1895 ; ^ $ , types M. C. Z. 

NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 249, 1903; desc notes. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 65 

Coenagrioninae 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 73, 1908; dist. 
Distr, Carolinian; Mass., N. Y., N. J. 

ireneHAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am,, p. 74, 1861; $ $, types M.C.Z. (Agrion) 
(Nehallcnnia). 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 41, p. 1240, 1876; $ $ {Nehallennia). 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc„ 20, p. 234, 1893 ; desc. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 29, 1899; good desc. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 265, 1900; good desc. 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 46, f. 3; ^ ad. col. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 249, 1903; desc. notes; pL 
18, flf. 3, 4, $9 adults.— Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, 1903; pi. 54, 
f. 8, wing. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 73, 1908; desc 
Nymph. NEEDHAM Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 249, 1903; desc; pi. 14, f. 

i, str. dets. 
Distr. Carplinian to Gulf Strip; Me. & N. Dak. to Fla. 

(SELYS), vide Anisagrion, antea. 
(HAGEN), vide Ischnura, postea. 

COENAGRION KIRBY. 

Type — puella (LINNE). Distribution — Cosmopolitan. 
Syn. Cat, p. 148, 1890 ; new name for Agrion, preoccupied. 
SELYS, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., 42, p. 338, 1898; on applicability of 
name, Agrion versus Coenagrion, the former to be preferred. 
Syn, Agrion FABRICIUS, Syst. Ent., p. 425, 1775; in part. 

LEACH, Edinb. Encycl., 9, p. 137, 1815; ("Wings membraneous, with 
a rhomboidal stigma. Abdomen of the male armed with a for- 
ceps-like appendage. Ohs. We have of this genus several 
species, not accurately determined.") 
STEPHENS, 111. Brit. Ent, 6, p. 71, 1836. 
CHARPENTIER, Lib. Eur., p. 21, 1840. 

SELYS, Mon. Lib. Eur., p. 146, 1840.— Rev. Odon., p. 171, 1850.— 
Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 41, p. 1246, 1876. 
Agrion AUCTORUM. 

exclamatioiiis (SELYS), Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 41, p. 1251, 1876; ^, 

{Agrion), holotype Coll. MacLachlan. 
Distr. Lower Sonoran ?; California. 



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66 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Coenagrioninae 

interrogatum (SELYS), Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 41, p. 1254, 1876; 9, 

(Agrion), type M. C. Z.; desc. translated from Hagen MS.; 

(race ? of concinnum). 
Distr. Canadian ?; Saskatchewan. 

resolutum (HAGEN). Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 41, p. 1263, 1876; S 9, 

iAgrion)y types M. C. Z. 
WILLIAMSON, Ent News. 13, p. 145, 1902; dist. 
Distr, Canadian into Transition, Magdalen Is., Gr. Slave Lake, Hudson Bay 

to S. Dak. 

AMPHIAGRION SELYS. 

Type—saucium (BURMEISTER). Distribution— Nearctic 
Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 41, p. 284, 1876. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 20, p. 235, 1893. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 15, 1899. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 247, 1900. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 236, 1903. 
MUTTKOWSKI. Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 68, 1908. 

amphion SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg.. (2) 41, p. 287, 1876; $, type Coll. Selys. 
Distr. Zone ? North America (Selys). 

flavescens SELYS, syn. ad Hesperagrion heterodoxum, antea. 

sauchim (BURMEISTER), Handb. Ent, 2, p. 819, 1839; S, types M. C. Z. 

& Halle; (Agrion), 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 85, 1861 ; 6 9. 
PACICARD, Amcr. Nat., 1, p. 308, 1867 ; desc. ; pi. 9, f. 7, adult. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 41, p. 285, 1876; (Amphiagrion). 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc.,. 20, p. 235, 1893 ; desc— L. c, 25, 

p. 39, 1898 ; on Burm. types.— Biol. C. Am., p. 121, 1902 ; desc. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 31, 1899; desc 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 267, 1900; good desc 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902 ; pi. 46, ff. 2, 6 ; S 9 ads. col. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 248, 1903 ; bibl. ; pi. 18, ff. 

1, 2, adults. 
WALKER, Ottawa Nat., 22, p. 6, 1908; desc notes. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 73. 1908; desc 
Syn, abbreviatum SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 41. p. 1299, 1876; S, type 

Coll. Selys; (PyrrAoimo).— [Williamson 1900.] 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 67 

Coenagrioninae 
discolor BURMEISTER, Handb. Ent., 2, p. 819, 1839; $, type at Halle; 
(Agrion). 
SELYS, Sagra: Hist. Cuba, Ins., p. 467, 1867. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 79, 1861. 

CALVERT. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 25, p. 38, 1898 ; on Burm. types & 
desc; ("made from 3 different species'* ).—[Selys 1876.] 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, 1. c, p. 248, 1903; desc; pi. 14, f. c. 15, f. A, struct, detls. 
Distr. Austral, into Transition ; Wash. & Calif, to Mass. & S. C, Cuba ? 

CHROMAGRION NEEDHAM. 

Type--conditum (HAGEN). Distribution— Nearctic. 
Bull. 48 N. Y. State Mus., p. 246, 1903 ; char, discussed & compared 
to Erytkromma & Pyrrhosoma. 

coodltimi (HAGEN), Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 41, p. 1305, 1876; S 9, iEry- 
thromma f), types M. C. Z., Coll. Selys. 

CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 20, p. 234, 1893; desc. 

MORSE, Psyche, 7, p. 211, 1895; on venation. 

KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 28, 1899; good desc. 

WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 265, 1900; good desc 

HARVEY, Ent. News, 12, p. 179, 1901; desc notes. 

HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 48, ff. 14, 15; ^ $ ads. 

NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., 246, 1903 ; (Chromagrion) ; 
desc. notes ; pi. 13, ff . 1, 2, ^ $ adults. 

WALKER, Ottawa Nat, 22, p. 6, 1908 ; desc notes ; pi. 1, f. F, i app. 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, 1. c, p. 247, 1903; desc; pi. 13, f. 3, adult nymph. 
Distr. Alleghanian & Carolinia*v Me. & N. J. to Ind. & Quebec. 

ISCHNURA CHARPENTIER. 

Type—pumilio (CHARPENTIER). Distribution— Cosmopolitan. 
Lib. Eur., p. 20, 1840. 

SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 41, p. 259, 1876. 
BRAUER, Verb. Ges. Wien., 18, p. 385, 1868. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 221, 1893.— Proc Cal. Acad. 

(2) 4. p. 470, 1895.— Biol. C. Am., p. 122, 1902; char. & tables of 

C. Am. spp. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 15, 1899. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., pp. 247, 277, 1900; char. & applicability 

of name. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 269, 1903; table of N. Y. 

spp. 



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68 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Coenagrioninae 

FOERSTER, JB. Ver. Nassau, 59, p. 334, 1906; systematic 
Syn. Ischnosoma WALLENGREN, Ent Tidsk., 15, p. 270, 1894.— [Calvert 
1902.] 
Micronympha KIRBY, Syn. Cat, p. 140, 1890.— [Williamson 1900.] 

barberl CURRIE, Proc. Wash. Ent. Soc., 5, p. 302, 1903; ^, holotype U. S. 

N. Mus.; t f . 7, ^ app. 
Distr, Lower Sonoran, Colo., New Mexico. 

cervula SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 41, p. 262, 1876; ^ $, types Coll. 

MacLachlan ?. 
CALVERT, Proc. Acad. Cal., (2) 4, p. 497, 1895; good desc; pi. 

15, f. 3, $ app. — Biol. C. Am., p. 128, 1902; comp. desc. 
Distr. Upper & Lower Sonoran; Pac. Coast, B. C. to Baja Calif., Ariz., N. M. 

credula HAGEN, subsp. sub ramburi. 



CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 126, 1902; A, holotype M. C. Z. 
CURRIE, Proc. Wash. Ent. Soc., p. 302, 1903 ; noted ; t f . 6, ^ app. 
Distr, Lower Sonoran; New Mexico, Colorado. 

deflxa HAGEN, syn. ad credula. 

deflxa SELYS, syn. ad perparva. 

demorsa (HAGEN), Syn. Neur, N. Am., p. 81, 1861; $ $, (Agrion), types 
M. C. Z. ; 9 broken. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg.. (2) 41, p. 261, 1876; (Ischnura). 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 128, 1902; comp. desc; p. 390, 1907, on 
varr. 
Distr. Upper Sonoran into Trans. & L. Son., Mont, to Mexico City. 

denticoUis (BURMEISTER), Handb. Ent, 2, p. 819, 1839; $ (Agrion), 
holotype Halle, 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 81, 1861; $9; S type M. C. Z. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 41, p. 1244, 1876; (Nehalennia .^).— 

L. c, (2) 42, p. 990, 1876; notes. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 25, p. 38, 1898; on Burm. type; 
pi. 1, flf. 13, 14, thor. col. pattern; (Ischnura). — Biol. C. Am., p. 
126, 1902; comp. desc; p. 387, 1907; notes on varr. 
Syn. exstriata CALVERT, Proc Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 493, 1895; full desc; 
S 9, types Cal. Acad.; pi. 15, f. 2, S app.— [Calvert 1898.] 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 69 

Coenagrioninae 
Distr. Upper & Lower Sonoran, (Calvert z. 2-5), Calif., Baja Calif., Ariz., 
Mex. 

erratica CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 491, 1895; S 9, types Cal. 
Acad.; pi. 15, f. 1, S app. 
OSBORN, Ent. News, 16, p. 188, 1895; desc. notes. 
Distr, Upp. Sonoran ?; British Columbia to California. 

exstriata CALVERT, syn. ad denticollis. 

kelUcottl WILLIAMSON, Ent. News, 9, p. 209, 1898; ^9, types Coll. 

Williamson.— Drag. Ind., p. 279, 1900; detailed desc— Proc Ind. 

Acad., p. 174, 1900; notes. 
CALVERT, Ent. News, 9, p. 211, 1898; add. to Wills, desc; pi. 11, 

ff. 5-13, showing abd. color pattern & ^ app. 
Distr, Carolinian; R. L, N. Y. to Ind. 

perparva SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 41, p. 263, 1876.; ^ $, types Coll. 

Selys, MacL. 
CALVERT, Proc Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 494, 1895; good desc; pi 15, 

f. 4, $ app. — Biol. C. Am., p. 130, 1903; comp. desc. 
Syn, deiixa SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 41, p. 261, 1876.— [Calvert 1903.] 
Nymph. NEEDH AM & COCKERELL, Psyche, 10, p. 139, 1903 ; desc. & notes. 
Distr. Upper & Lower Sonoran; Rockies, B. C. & Mont, to Calif. & Texas. 

posita (HAGEN) Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 77, 1861; $ 9, types M. C. Z.; 
{Agrion). 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 41, p. 1242, 1876; desc (Nehalennia). 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 235, 1895 ; desc 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 30, 1899; good desc 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 266, 1900; good desc 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 46, f. 7; ^ ad. col. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 261, 1903; bibl.; 

(Ischnura). 
WALKER, Ottawa Nat, p. 50, 1908; desc notes. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 73, 1908; dist. 
(Nehalennia) 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, 1. c, p. 260, 1903; short diag. 
Distr. Alleghanian to Austroriparian, — Me. & N. Dak. to Ga. & Mo. 

progiiatha (HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 83, 1861; ^, type M. C Z.; 
(Agrion). 



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70 BULLETIN, PUBUC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Cbenagrioninae 

SELYS. Bull. Acad. Bclg., (2) 41, p. 259, 1876; desc.; (Ischnura). 

WILLIAMSON, Ent. News, 14, p. 225, 1903; $ dcsc; Coll. Will- 
iamson. 
Distr. Carolinian, Va. to Tcnn. 

rambaril SELYS, Rev. Odon., p. 186, 1850; (Agrion) ; name only.— Sagra: 
Hist. Cuba, Ins., p. 468, 1857.— Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 41, p. 272, 
1876; ^9, (Ischnura), types Coll. Selys, Hagen, MacLachlan. 
KOLBE, Arch. f. Naturg., 54, 1888; pi. 13, f. 3, fore wing. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent Soc., 20, p. 240, 1893; desc— Biol. C. 
Am., p. 125, 1902 ; comp. desc. ; in note, abnormality ; p. 388, 1907, 
varr. tabulated. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 261, 1903; dist. 
Syn. iners HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 75, 1861; ^ $ {Agrion), types 
M. C Z. 
PROVANCHER, Nat. Canad., 8, p. 324, 1876.— [Selys 1876.] 
senegalense (var.) RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 277, 1842.— [Selys 1876.] 
tuberculatum SELYS, in Sagra: Hist. Cuba, Ins., p. 467, 1857. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 76, 1861.— [Selys 1876.] 
Distr. Carolinian to Tropic; Atl. Coast, R. 1. to Fla. ; Tex. to Paraguay, 
W. Ind. 

Subsp eredula (HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 80, 1861; $ $, {Agrton), 

types M. C. Z. 
CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 489, 1895; desc notes, (Isch- 

nura) ; pi. 15, ff. 5, 6, $ app. — Biol. C. Am., p. 125, 1902; comp. 

desc; p. 388, 1907; varr. tabulated. 
Syn, defixa HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 80, 1861; S (Agrion), type M. 

C. Z.— [Calv. 1902.] 
ramburii CARPENTER, Jn. Inst. Jamaica, 2, p. 261, 1896; (hchnura).— 

[Calv. 1902.] 
Distr. Lower Austral into Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-5) Cal., Fla., W. Ind. C. Am., 

B. Cal. 

veitkalis (SAY), Jn. Acad. Phila., 8, p. 37, 1839; $ $, (Agrion), types Mus. 

Boston. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 41, p. 265, 1876; (Ischnura). 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 239, 1893 ; good desc— Ent. 

News, 9, p. 213, 1898; dist; pi. 11, flf. 1-4, $ char. & abd. col. 

pattern. 
NEEDHAM, Outdoor Studies, p. 61, 1898; desc; t f. 1, ad.— Bull. 

68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 260, 1903; desc. notes; pi. 17, flf. 4, 5; 

adults. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 71 

Coenagrioninae 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 48, 1899; good dcsc. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. ^78, 1900; good desc. 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 47, ff. 2, 4. 5; <J $ ads. 
WALKER, Ottawa Nat., 22, p. 50, 1908 ; dcsc. notes. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 78, 1908; desc. 
Syn. ramburii HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 76, 1861; ( A grion) ,—lSt\ys 
1876.] 
discolor (pars) BURMEISTER, Handb. Ent, 2, p. 819, 1839.— [Calvert 
1898.] 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, 1. c, p. 261, 1903 ; dcsc ; pi. 16, f. 5, adult. 
Distr. Alleghanian to Austroriparian, Me., Ont, & N. Dak. to Ga. & Tex. 

ANOMALAGRION SELYS. 

Type — hastatum (SAY). Distribution — Nearctic into Neotropical. 
Sagra : Hist. Cuba, Ins., p. 469, 1857.— Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 41, p. 

254, 1876. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 20, p. 221, 1893.— Biol. C. Am., 

p. 130, 1903. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 15, 1899. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 247, 1900. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 236, 1903. 

Iiastatiiin (SAY), Jn. Acad. Phila., 8, p. 38, 1839; ^ 9 {Agrion), types Mus. 
Boston. 
SELYS, in Sagra: Hist. Cuba, Ins., p. 470, 1857.— Bull. Acad. Belg., 

(2) 41, p. 255, 1876; desc. {Anomalagrion) . 
HAGEN, S>Ti. Neur. N. Am., p. 77, 1861; (Agrion). 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 20, p. 240, 1895; good desc. 

(Anomalagrion), — Biol. C. Am., p. 130, 1903; detailed desc 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 49, 1899; good desc. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 279, 1900; good desc. 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 46, flf. 16-18; $ $ ads. col. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 262, 1903; desc notes.— 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, p. 709, 1903 ; t. f. 4 u, stigma. 
Syn. anomalum RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 281, 1842; $ (Agrion), type Coll. 
Selys.— [Selys 1876.] 
veneriotata HALDEMANN, Proc Acad. Phil., 2, p. 55, 1844.— [Selys 
1876.] 
Nymph NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 263. 1903; desc; pis. 15, 

f. e, 14, f. ;, structural dets. ; pi. 18, f. 7, adult. 
Distr. Carolinian to Tropic ; Me. & N. Dak. south to Panama & West Indies. 



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72 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Coenagrioninae 

CERATURA SELYS. 

Type — capreola (HAGEN). Distribution— Neotropical. 
Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 41, p. 251, 1876. 
CALVERT, Biol. C Am., p. 131, 1903. 

capreola (HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 78, 1861; ^, (Agrion), t>T)cs 
M. C. Z. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 41, p. 252, 1876; $9 (Ceratura), 

Coll. Selys. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 131, 1903; detailed desc; pi. 5, f. 26, 
tars. ; p. 391, 1907 ; variation of ^ 9 s tabulated. 
Distr. Tropic (Calvert z. 2-4) ; Mex., C. Am. to Brazil, W. Ind., Cuba, Porto 
Rico. 

NEONEURA SELYS. 

Type — bilinearis SELYS. Distribution — Neotropical. 

Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 10, p. 459, I860.— Mem. Cour., 38, p. 198, 1886. 

BRAUER, Verb. Ges. Wien., 18, p. 387, 1868. 

CALVERT. Biol. C. Am., p. 137, 1903; char.; p. 392, 1907; tabula- 
tions. 
Syn. Caenoneura KIRBY, Syn. Cat, p. 136, 1890; new name. 

aaronl CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 139, 1903 ; ^ 9 , types Acad. Phila. ; p. 5, 

f . 37, $ app. ; pi. 10, ff. 28, 29, lobe of prothorax. 
Distr. Tropic; Texas — (Corpus (Thristi ?) 

amella CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 138, 1903; 3 9;$ Coll. Champion, 9 
M. C. Z.; pi. 5, f. 36, $ app.; pi. 6, f. 8, $ adult col.; p. 393, 
1907 ; notes ; pi. 10, ff. 25, 26, lobe. 

Distr. Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-3), Mexico to Nicaragua. 

camatica SELYS, Mem. Cour., 38, p. 200, 1886 ; ^ 9 , types Colls. Selys, 
MacLachlan. 
NEEDHAM, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, 1903; pi. 54, f. 4, wing. 
Distr. Tropic; Cuba. 

maria (SCUDDER), Proc. Bost. Soc., 10, p. 188, 1866; 9, types Coll. Scud- 
der; (Agrion). 
SELYS, Mem. Cour., 38, p. 199, 1886; 3 9, (Neoneura). 
Syn. palustris HAGEN, Proc. Bost, 11, p. 190, 1867.— [Hagen 1873.] 
Distr. Tropic; Cuba, Isle of Pines. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 73 

Coenagrioninae 
MICRONEURA SELYS. 

Type — caligata SELYS. Distribution — Neotropical. 
Mem. Cour., 38, p. 206, 1886. 

•caligaU SELYS, Mem. Cour., 38, p. 206, 1886; ^, types Coll. Poey. 
Distr. Tropic; Cuba. 



PROTONEURA SELYS. 

Type — capUlaris (RAMBUR). Distribution— Neotropical. 
Sagra: Hist. Cuba, Ins., p. 470, 1857.— Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 10, p. 

461, I860.— Mem. Cour., 38, p. 207, 1886. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 73, 1861. 
BRAUER, Verb. Ges. Wien., 18, p. 387, 1868. 
CALVERT, Biol. C Am., p. 133, 1903 ; char. & tables. 

capOlaris (RAMBUR), Ins. Neur., p. 280, 1842; ^ {Agrion), type Cdl. 
Selys. 
SELYS, in Sagra: Hist. Cuba, Ins., p. 471, 18.57; (Protoneura) .— 
Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 10, p. 461, I860.— Mem. Cour., 38, p. 212, 
1886; $9. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 73, 1861 ; $ desc. after Selys. 
Distr. Tropic; Cuba. 



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74 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Petalurinae 

SUBORDER ANISOPTERA selys. 

Mon. CaL, p. 1, 1858 ; defined as tribus of the suborder Odonata. 

CALVERT, Trans. Am. Enl. Soc, 20, p. 219, 1893 ; as suborder. 

NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., pp. 429-540, 1901; life-his- 
tories of Attisoptcra, illustrated by plates and text-figures; many 
good diagnostic tables.— Ibid., Bull. 68, pp. 264-279, 1903, additions. 



FAMILY AESHNIDAE selys. 

Mon, Gomph. p. 5, 1858; defined 

NEEDHAM, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, pp. 711, 727, 732-739, 1903; 

places five subfamilies under this heading. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., pp. 145-196, 1905; C Am. subf., genera 

& spp. 



SUBFAMILY PETALURINAE needham* 

Type genus — Petaiura LEACH. Distribution — Cosmopolitan. 
Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 434, 1901 ; as subfamily. 
SELYS, Mon. Gomph., p. 365, 1858; (Legion Petaiura). 



TACHOPTERYX SELYS 

Type — ihoreyi (HAGEN). Distribution — Nearctic & Manchurian (pryeri). 
Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 7, p. 551, 1859. 
BRAUER, Verb. Ges. Wien., 18, p. 375, 1868. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 20, p. 221, 1893. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 248, 1900. 

NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 472, 1901.— Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 26, p. 739, 1903; venation. 

hageal SELYS, C. R. Soc. Ent. Belg., 22, p. 68, 1879; 9, type Coll. Selys ? 
NEEDHAM, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, p. 739, 1903; venation; t ff. 
28, 29, wings & details of venation. 
Distr. Lower Sonoran?; Nevada. 



•NOTE—I do not include the Group Petalia in this subfamily. As has been sug- 
gested by Williamson (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 33, p. 271, 1907) in his excellent diag* 
nosis. based upon characters of at least equal value to those upon which Needham 
based the Petalurinae, Petalia and its composites (except Allopetalia) are fully worthy 
of subfamily rank. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 75 

Cordulegasterinac 

tlioreyi (HAGEN), Mon. Gomph., p. 373, 1857; S (U rope tola), holotype 

M. C Z.— Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 117, 1861; desc (Petalura) ; pi. 

19, f. 3, <5 app. ; pi. 23, f . 14, ven. 

SELYS, Bull. Acad., (2) 7, p. 551, 1859; desc. (Tachopteryx).-'L, c, 

(2) 46, p. 696, 1878; 9 desc; Coll. Selys ? 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 241, 1893 ; $ desc. 
WILLIAMSON, Ent. News, 11, p. 398, 1900; desc. notes.— Drag. 

Ind., p. 281, 1900. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 472, 1901; desc. notes.— 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, 1903 ; pi. 36, f. 1, wings. 
Nymph. WILLIAMSON, Ent. News, 12, pp. 1-3, 1901; desc; pi. 1, ff. 1-4, 
adult & details. 
NEEDHAM, Bull, 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 472, 1901 ; desc ; t. f . 15, 

lab. & ant. 
TILLYARD, Proc Linn. Soc N. S. W., 34, p. 265, 1909 ; comp. notes ; 
t. f. 1, struct, dets. after Williamson. 
Distr. Carolinian & Austroriparian, N. Y. & Ky. to Fla. & Tex. 



SUBFAMILY CORDULEGASTERINAE CALVERT 

Type genus — Cordulegastcr LEACH. Distribution — Cosmopolitan. 
Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 221, 1893; subf. first defined. 
SELYS, Mon. Gomph., p. 323, 1858; (Legion Cordulcgaster — pars). 
See note to Pctalurinae. 



CORDULEGASTER LEACH. 

Type— iiwn«/a/«j (LATREILLE). Distribution— Holarctic 

Edin. Encycl., 9, p. 136, 1815. 

STEPHENS, 111. Brit. Ent, 6, p. 86, 1836. 

SELYS, Mon. Gomph., p. 327, 1858. 

KIRBY, Syn. Cat., p. 80, 1890; complete bibliography. 

CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, p. 221, 1893.— Biol. C. Am., p. 172, 

1905. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 74, 1899. 

WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., pp. 248, 299, 1901; char. & tables. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 474, 1901; subgenera, 

char., table N. Am. spp. — Proc U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, pp. 719, 733, 

750, 1903 ; ven. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 79, 1908; table 

after Necdham. 
Syn. Thecaphora CHARPENTIER, Lib. Eur., p. 14, 1840. 



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76 BULL^rriN, PUBUC museum, MILWAUKEE 

Cordulegasterinae 

SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., 21 (2), p. 100, 1854.— Mon. Gomph., p. 

319, 1858. 
BRAUER, Verb. Ges. Wien.. 18, p. 375, 1868. 
Taeniogaster SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., 21 (2), p. 107, 1854. 
Zoraena KIRBY, Syn. Cat., p. 79, 1890. 

dladema SELYS, C. R. Soc. Ent. Belg., 11, p. 68, 1868; a 9, types Coll. 

Selys.— Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 28, p. 203, 1869; desc. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 173, 1905; comp. desc. 
Nymph, ? NEEDHAM, Proc. U. S. Nat Mus., 27, p. 697, 1904; desc; t f. 1. 

struct, dets. 
Distr. Lowei Sonoran; Mexico, Arizona. 

diastatops (SELYS), Bull. Acad. Belg., 21 (2), p. 101, 1854; $ $, {The- 

caphora)j t)rpes: $ Coll. Dale, $ "Mus. Hunterien Glasgow." — 

Mon. Gomph., p. 320, 1858, detailed desc. ; pi. 16, f. 4, $9 char. 

—Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 46, p. 685, 1878; notes on affinities. 

NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 477, 1901; dist. {Cor- 

dulegastcr) . 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc. (2) 6, p. 79, 1908; dist. 
Syn. lateralis SCUDDER, Proc Bost. Soc, 10, p. 211, 1866; ^, Mus. Boston 

Soc— L. c, 11, p. 300, 1867; notes.— [Selys 1878.] 
Nymph, CABOT, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 5, p. 13, 1872; desc pi. 13, f. 2, 
adult (C. sayi). 
HAGEN, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 12, p. 290, 1885; desc 
NEEDHAM, 1. c, p. 478, 1901; desc notes. 
Disir. Alleghanian into Carolinian; Atl. Coast, Me. to N. C. 

dorsalis HAGEN, Mon. Gomph., p. 347, 1858 ; 9 , holotype Mus. St. Peters- 
burg. — Syn. Neur. N, Am., p. 116, 1861 ; desc. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 7, p. 549, 1859; desc— L. c, (2) 35, 

p. 772, 1873 ; desc. of ^ 9 : $ Coll. Selys. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 79, 1908; dist 
Nymph, PNEEDHAM, Proc U. S. Nat. Mus., 27. p. 696, 1904; desc; pi. 39, 

f. 3, adult. 
Distr. Canadian; Pacific Coast, Sitka, Alaska, to Northern California. 

erroneus HAGEN, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 46, p. 688, 1878; $ 9, types M. 
C. Z., Coll. Selys. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 246, 1893 ; good desc 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 74, 1899; desc 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 299, 1900; desc 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 474, 1901 ; dist. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 77 

Cordulegasterinae 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 79, 1908; dist. 
Disir. Carolinian; N. C. to Ky., Pa. 



RAMBUR, Ins. Neur. p. 178, 1842; $, type Coll. Selys. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 46, p. 692, 1878 ; ^ 9 ; comp. desc. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 474, 1901, dist. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 79, 1908; dist. 
Syn, obliquus SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., 21 (2), p. 108, 1854; (Taeniogaster) . 
Mon. Gomph., p. 349, 1858; (Cordulegaster). 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 116, 1861.— [Selys 1878.] 
Distr. Austroriparian ; Southeastern States. 

godmani MACLACHLAN, Ent. M. Mag., 15, p. 35, 1870; ^ 9, types Coll. 
MacLachlan. 

SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 46, p. 688, 1878; desc. 

CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 173, 1905; detailed desc. 
Distr. Lower Sonoran, (Calvert z. 4), Mexico, Guatemala, Costa Rica. 



SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., 21 (2), p. 105, 1854; 9, type British 
Mus.— L. c, (2) 46, p. 689, 1878; ^ 9.-- Mon. Gomph,, p. 337, 
1858; 9. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 115, 1861 ; desc. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 20, p. 246, 1893; desc. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 476, 1901; dist. 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 44, f. 7, S adult. 
MUTTKOWSKI. Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 79, dist. 
Nymph, NEEDHAM, 1. c, p. 477, 1901 ; desc. ; t. f . 16, labium. 
Distr, Alleghanian into Carolinian; Atl. Coast, N. Scotia, Me. to N. C. 

obttqmis (SAY), Jn. Acad. Phila., 8, p. 15, 1839; ^, type ?; (Aeschna). 

SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 46, p. 692, 1878; ^9, (Cordule- 
gaster), Coll. Selys. ffl 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 75, 1899 ; good desc. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 300, 1900; good desc. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 475, 1901; dist— Ent 

News, 16, p. 3, 1906; ethological notes. 
HARVEY, Ent News, 12, p. 271, 1901 ; good desc. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 79, 1908; desc; 
pi. 6, wings. 
Nymph, NEEDHAM, Ent. News, 16, p. 3, 1906, desc. 
Distr. Alleghanian into Carolinian, Me. & Pa. to Wis. & 111. 



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78 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Gomphinae 

sayl SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., 21 (2), p. 104, 1854; short desc—Mon- 
Gomph., p. 331, 1858 ; 3 9, types British Mus. — Bull. Acad. Belgr., 
(2) 28, p. 203, 1869; noted.— L. c, (2) 46, p. 686, 1878; notes. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 115, 1861; desc 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 474, 1901; dist— Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, p. 733, 1903 ; venation ; t f. 25 ; ven. details. 
HANDLIRSCH, Foss. Ins., 1906; pi. 4, f. 17, wings, after Needham. 
MUTTKOWSKI. Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 79, 1908; desc. 
Syn. obiiqua, var. A, SAY, Jn. Acad. Phila., 8, p. 16, 1839; S {Aeschna), 

type Mus. Boston Soc. — [Hagen 1873.] 
Nymph, PNEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 267, 1903; desc.; t. f. 15, 

labium. 
Distr. Alleghanian into Carolinian, Me., Quebec & Wis. to Ga. 

SUBFAMILY GOMPHINAE RAMBUR. 

Type genus — Gomphus Leach. Distribution — Cosmopolitan. 

Ins. Neur., p. 152, 1842; defined to include all Gomphid genera. 

SELYS, Mon. Gomph., p. 5, 1858; defined as subfamily (sensu Ram- 
bur). 

NEEDHAM, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, pp. 737-739, 1903 ; limited. 

SELYS, Syn. Gomph., in Bull. Acad. Belg., 21 (2), pp. 23-112, 1854. 

SELYS & HAGEN, Monograph des Gomphines, pp. 8 + 460, 1858 ; 
23 pis. 

SELYS, Four additions to the Synopsis : 

1. Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 7, pp. 530-552, 1859. 

2. L. c, (2) 28, pp. 168-208, 1869.— 3 L. c, (2) 35, pp. 732- 
774; (2) 36, pp. 492-531, 1173.— 4 L. c, (2) 46, pp. 408-471, 658- 
698, 1878. 

GOMPHOIDES SELYS. 

Type — ohscura (RAMBUR). Distribution — Neotropic & Nearctic. 

Rev. Odon., p. 360, note, 1850; note to Gomphus hrodiei: "Je pense 
que c'est de mon nouveau genre Gomphoides de I'Amerique, que 
cette aile se rapproche le plus par la disposition des triangles de 
I'aile. Le type actuel est la Diasfatomma ohscura de Rambur" 
(See canon 42 A. O. U. Code and Art. 25 International Code.) 
Syn. Progomphus Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg., 21, p. 69, 1854. — Mon. Gomph., 
p. 194, 1858. 

BRAUER, Verb. Ges. Wien, 18, p. 373, 1868. 

CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 470, 1895.— Biol. C. Am., p. 
146, 1905. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 79 

Gomphinae 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 248, 1900. 
NEEDHAM, Can. Ent., 29, p. 168, 1897.— Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., 

p. 436, 1901. 
NEEDHAM & HART, Bull. 111. State Lab., 6, p. 52, 1901. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 80, 1908. 

boreaUs (MACLACHLAN), subsp. sub obscura. 

intesra (HAGEN), Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 46, p. 659, 1878; 6 9, types M. 

C. Z.; (Progomphus), 
Distr. Tropic, West Indies, Cuba. 

obscura (RAMBUR), Ins. Neur., p. 170, 1842; 9, (Diastatomma) , type 
Coll. Selys? 
SELYS, Rev. Odon., p. 360, note, 1850; (Gomphoides) .—Bull Acad. 
Belg., 21, p. 72, 1854; (Progomphus).—L. c, (2) 46, p. 658, 
1878; 9 only.— Mon. Gomph., p. 201, 1858. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 110, 1861; desc. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 283, 1900; good desc.; pi. 4, ff. 4, 5, 

$ head. 
NEEDHAM, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, 1903 ; pi. 34, f. 2, wings. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 150, 1905 ; comp. desc. 
Syn, borealis HAGEN, Proc Boston Soc, 16, p. 356, 1874; S desc from 

adult and Abbott's drawing in the British Museum. 
Nymph, HAGEN, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 23, p. 246, 1897 ; desc. 
NEEDHAM, Can. Ent., 29, p. 184, 1897; desc. 

NEEDHAM & HART, Bull. 111. State Lab., 6. p. 55, 1901 ; desc. ; pi. 
1, f. 3, adult. 
Distr, Alleghanian to Gulf strip ; Mass. & 111. to Fla. ; Cal., Ore., Mexico. 

Subsp.boreaUs (MACLACHLAN), Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 35, p. 764, 1873; 
(Progomphus) ; S , Coll. MacL. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 46, p. 658, 1878; ^ desc; 9 (pars), 

Coll. Selys. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 151, 1905; comp. desc; p. 398, 1907; cor- 
rections. 
Syn, obscurus CALVERT, Proc Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 499, 1895; desc; pi. 16, 

ff. 74-79, $ 9 char. & wing triangle. — [Calvert 1905.] 
Distr, Lower Sonoran, (Calvert z. 4), Ore. to B. Cal., Ariz., Mex. 

APHYLLA SELYS 

Type — brevipes SELYS. Distribution — Neotropic 

Bull. Acad. Belg., 21, p. 78, 1854.— Mon. Gomph., p. 227, 1857. 



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80 BUIXETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Gomphinae 

BRAUER, Vcrh. Ges. Wien., 18, p. 373, 1868. 

NEEDHAM, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, p. 737, 1903; venation. 

candba SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., 21, p. 79, 1854; (Gomphoides).— In 
Sagra: Hist. Cuba., Ins., p. 456, 1857. — Mon. Gomph., p. 232, 
1857; 9, {Aphylla), type Mus. Berlin; desc as (race ? of pro- 
ducta). 

Distr. Tropic; Cuba. 



prodlicta SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., 21, p. 79, 1854; $ $, types Mus. Berlin. 
— Mon. Gomph., p. 236, 1858; desc. elaborated; pi. 12, f. 6, ^ $ 
char.; pi. 23, f. 4, ven. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 113, 1861; desc (Gomphoides). 
NEEDHAM, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, 1903; pi. 33, f. 3, wings. 
Nymph, NEEDHAM & HART, Bull. 111. State. Mus., 6, p. 53, 1901; desc. 

(Aphyila). 
Distr, Tropic; Fla., Cuba, Guiana, Brazil. 



CYCLOPHYLLA SELYS. 

Type — signata SELYS. Distribution — Neotropical, into Sonoran. 
Bull. Acad. Belg., 21, p. 76, 1854.— Mon. Gomph., p. 216, 1858. 
BRAUER, Verb. Ges. Wien., 18, p. 373, 1868. 
NEEDHAM, Proc. U. S. Nat Mus., 26, p. 737, 1903; venation. 



eloiigata SELYS, Mon. Gomph., p. 224, 1858; ^, type Mus. Paris; pi. 12, f. 
5, end of S abd.— Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 7, p. 546, 1859; notes. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 113, 1861; desc (Gomphoides), 
CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (3) 1, p. 384, 1899; notes on venation; 
(Cychphylla). — Biol. C. Am., p. 156, 1905; $ $, comp. desc; 
(Gomphoides), 
Distr, Lower Sonoran, (Calvert z. 2-4), Mexico: Chihuahua, Jalisco, Urua- 
pam. 



protracta SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 7, p. 546, 1859; S 9. types M.C.Z. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 113, 1861; desc. (Gomphoides), 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 157, 1905; comp. desc; pi. 7, ff. 15, 16, 
S app. 

Distr. Tropic, (Calvert, z. 2-3), Texas, Mexico. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 81 

Gomphinae 
NEGOMPHOIDES n.D. 

Type— in fumata (RAMBUR). Distribution— Neotropic and Nearctic. 
Syn. iz=homonymn) Gomphoides SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., 21, p. 73, 1854. 
Mon. Gomph., p. 208, 1858.— (See Gomphoides^ antea, for ex- 
planation). 
BRAUER, Verb. Ges. Wien, 18, p. 373, 1868. 
NEEDH AM, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, p. 718, 1903 ; venation. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 152, 1905; char.; places Aphylla k 
Cyclophylla as synonyms; p. 154, table of C. Am. spp. 

junMgna (SELYS), Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 36, p. 505, 1873; 9, type Brit. 
Mus.; {Gomphoides), 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 157, 1905; ^ 9, comp. desc; pi. 7, flF. 
17, 18, $ app. ; p. 398, 1907, notes. 

Distr, Lower Sonoran, (Calvert z. 3-4), Mex. : Tamaulipas, Jalisco; Guate- 
mala. 

stignuiU (SAY), Jn. Acad. Phila., 8, p. 17, 1839; 9, {Aeschna), type lost 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., 21, p. 72, 1854; {Progomphus O-— L. c, 
(2) 38, p. 191, 1868; ^ 9, {Gomphoides).— Mon. (^mph., p. 205, 
1858. 
HAGEN, Mon. Gomph., p. 423, 1858; ^9, neotypes 9 M. C. Z., 
$ Coll. Selys; pi. 21, f. 5, $ char. & details; pi. 23, f. 2, base of 
wing. — Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. Ill, 1861; desc. 
NEEDHAM, Proc U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, p. 722, 1903; t. f. 17-2, anal 
loop; pi. 33, f. 2, wings. 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, Proc. U. S. Nat, Mus., 27, p. 687, 1904; desc; pi. 38, 

f. 1, adult. 
Distr. Tropic?; Texas. 



(SELYS), Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 7, p. 545, 1859; 9, {Gomphoides) 
type Coll. Selys.— L. c, (2) 28, p. 191, 1869; 5.— (2) 36, p. 503, 
1876; ^ 9 desc; ^ M. C. Z. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 112, 1861 ; 9 desc after Selys. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 158, 1905; comp. desc; pi. 7, ff. 19, 20, 
S app. 
Syn. perAda HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 112, 1861; S, type M. C. Z.— 

[Selys 1873.] 
Distr. Tropic, into Lower Sonoran, (Calvert z. 3), Vera Cruz, Costa Rica. 

Subsp. pacific a (SELYS), Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 36, p. 504, 1873; ^, {Gom- 
phoides) type Coll. Selys. 



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82 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Gomphinae 

CALVERT, Proc Cal. Acad., (3) 1, p. 384, 1899; notes.— Biol. C. 

Am., p. 158, 1905; ^ $, comp. desc. 
Distr, Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-3), Mex. : Tepic, Jalisco, Putla, Guerrero, More- 

los. 

HAGENIUS SELYS. 

Type — brcvistylus Selys. Distribution — Nearctic & Oriental. 
Bull. Acad. Belg., 21, p. 82, 1854.— Mon. Gomph., p. 238, 1858. 
BRAUER, Verb. Ges. Wien., 18, p. 373, 1868. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 221, 1895. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 248, 1900.— Proc U. S. Nat. Mus., 33, 

pp. 273, 286, 1907. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 435, 1901.— Proc U. S. 

Nat. Mus., 26, pp. 718, 728, 737, 1903. 
NEEDHAM & HART, Bull. 111. State Lab., 6, p. 52, 1901. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 80, 1908. 

brevistylus SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., 21, p. 82, 1854; ^ 9. types: ^ Coll. 

Dale, $ Coll. Selys. — Mon. Gomph., p. 241, 1857; desc. amplified; 

pi. 13, f. 2, ^9 char. ; pi. 23, f. 6, base of wing. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 114, 1861 ; desc. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am, Ent. Soc, 20, p. 241, 1895 ; good desc. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 53, 1899; full desc 
WILLIAMSON,. Drag. Ind., p. 282, 1900; desc— Proc. U. S. Nat. 

Mus., 33, p. 286, 1907 ; dist. ; t. f. 12, ^ wings. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 440, 1901; desc notes.— 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, p. 730, 1903; venation; t. f. 23, wings. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6. p. 81, 1908; desc 
Nymph. CABOT, Cat. M. C. Z., 5, p. 9, 1872 ; desc. ; pi. 3, f. 4, adult. 
HAGEN, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 12, p. 279, 1885; desc 
NEEDHAM, Can. Ent., 29, p. 168, 1897 ; char, of gomphine nymphs. 

Bull. 47 N. Y State Mus., p. 440, 1901 ; desc notes ; pi. 18, f. 7, 

adult; pi. 19, f. 2, t^. 
NEEDHAM & HART, Bull. 111. State Lab., 6, p. 61, 1901; notes; 

pi. 1, f. 3, adult. 
Distr, Transition & Carolinian, Me. & Wis. to Md. & Tex., B. C. 

OPHIOGOMPHUS SELYS. 

Ty^^—serpcntinus (CHARPENTIER). Distribution— Holarctic 
Bull. Acad. Belg., 21, p. 39, 1854.— Mon. Gomph., p. 76, 1858. 
BRAUER, Verb. Ges. Wien. 18, p 371, 1868. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 221, 1893. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 83 

Gomphinae 

NEEDHAM, Can. Ent, 29, p. 166, 1897.— L. c, 31, pp. 233-238. 1899; 
pi. 5, showing char, of ^ 9 s of the genus. — Bull. 47 N. Y. State 
Mus., p. 435, 1901; char.; pi. 20; reproduction of plate in Can. 
Ent., 1899. 

KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 51, 1899. 

WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 248, 1900. 

MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 80, 1908. 
Syn. Diastaiomma KIRBY, Syn. Cat., p. 61, 1890. 

NEEDHAM & HART, Bull. 111. State Lab., 6, p. 52, 1901. 

uioinalas HARVEY, Ent. News, 9, p. 60, 1898; ^, type Coll. Williamson; 
pi. 5, f. 1, S abd.— L. c, 12, p. 240, 1901 ; S 9 desc. 
CALVERT, Ent. News, 12, p. 241, 1901 ; notes on Harvey's desc. 
Distr. Alleghanian ?; Maine: Orono. 

asperstis MORSE, Psyche, 7, p. 209, 1895 ; ^ 9 , types M. C. Z. 

NEEDHAM, Can. Ent., 31, p. 236, 1899; notes; pi. 5, flF. 2, 11, 20, 30, 
S 9 char.— Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 437, 1901 ; dist. 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, L. c, p. 438, 1901 ; desc. ; pi. 18, f. 5, adult. 
Distr. Alleghanian; New York, Massachusetts. 

bison SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 36, p. 496, 1873; 9, holotype Coll. 

MacLachlan.— L. c, (2) 46, p. 437, 1878; 9 desc. 
NEEDHAM, Can. Ent., 31, p. 238, 1899; notes; t. f. 32, 9 gen. 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 27, p. 690, 1904; desc; pi. 38, 

ff. 4, 5, ad. & dets. 
Distr. Lower Sonoran; California, Nevada. 

caroUnus HAGEN. 

NEEDHAM, Can. Ent.. 31. p. 238, 1899; pi. 5, ff. 8. 17, 26. 35, $ 9 
char.; drawings from the types in the Mus. Comp. Zool. 
Nymph. HAGEN, Trans. Am. Ent Soc., 12, p. 257, 1885; 9 nymph, desc, 
Distr. Carolinian ?; North Carolina. 

carolus NEEDHAM, Can. Ent., 29, p. 183, 1897; S 9, types Cornell Univ.; 

pi. 7, ff. 1-4, 6, 7, ^9 char.— L. c, 31, p. 235, 1899 ; noted ; pL 5, 

flF. 1, 28, $ 9 char.— Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 436, 1901; dist.; 

pi. 20. 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, L. c, p. 439, 1901 ; desc. 

NEEDHAM & HART, Bull. III. State Mus.. 6, p. 60, 1901; desc; pi. 

1, f. 4. adult. 
Distr. Alleghanian ?; New York. 



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84 BULLETIN, PUBUC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Gomphinae 

colubrinus SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., 21, p. 40, 1854; ^, type Coll. Seyls.— 

L. c, (2) 46, p. 438, 1878; 9, cksc. after Hagen. — Mon. Gomph. 

p. 76, 1858; pi. 5, f. 1, ^ char.; desc. amplified. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 101, 1861; desc— Geol. Surv. Terr. 

Colo., (1873), p. 592, 1874; 9 desc; type Coll. Uhler. 
NEEDHAM, Can. Ent, 31, p. 238, 1899; noted; pi. 5, flF. 16, 25, 34, 

^ 9 char. 
Nymph, HAGEN, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 12, p. 257, 1885 ; ^ 9 larvae. 
Distr. Canadian; Maine, Newfoundland. 

loluuiilUB NEEDHAM, Can. Ent, 29, p. 182, 1897; 6, type Cornell Univ.; 
pi. 7, f. 5, S ^p.— L. c, 31, p. 235, 1899; noted; pi. 5, ff. 9, 18, 
27, ^ 9 char.— Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 436, 1901 ; dist. ; pi. 
20, f . 5, $ gen. 
HARVEY, Ent. News, 12, p. 209, 1901 ; notes on color. 

Distr, Alleghanian; Maine, New York, Pennsylvania. 

mainensb PACKARD, Proc Ent. Soc. Phila., 2, p. 255, note, 1863; 9, Pea- 
body Acad. 
HAGEN, Geol. Surv. Terr. Colo. (1873), p. 595, 1874; S 9 desc; 

S Coll. Uhler. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 38, p. 208, 1869; 9 desc after Pack- 
ard, — L. c, (2) 46, p. 435, 1878; $ 9 desc after Hagen. 
HARVEY, Ent. News, 12, p. 240, 1901; notes. 
CALVERT, Ent. News, 12, p. 240, 1901 ; addition to Harvey. 
NEEDHAM, Can, Ent., 31, p. 238, 1899; noted; pi. 5, ff. 10, 19, 36, 
^ 9 char. 
Syn, rupinsulensis SELYS, 1. c, (2) 35, p. 741, 1873; 9 desc.--[Hagen 1874.] 
Disir, Alleghanian; Maine, Mass., New Hampshire. 

montanus (SELYS), Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 46, p. 430, 1878; ^, type Coll. 

Selys. ( Herpctogomphus) . 
Distr. Transition; Montana: Yellow Town. 

morrlfloiil SELYS, C R. Soc. Ent. Belg., 22, p. 65, 1879; $ 9, types Coll. 
Selys. 
NEEDHAM, Can. Ent, 31, p. 238, 1899; noted; pi. 5, ff. 5, 14, 30, 
$ 9 char. 
Distr, Upper Sonoran; Nevada, California. 

ocddentis HAGEN, Nature, 27, p. 173, 1882; notes on transformation.* 

*NOTE— O. carolinus and occidentis are accredited to Hagen, according to Rule 
27b of the International Code. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 85 

Gomphinae 
NEEDHAM, Can. Ent, 31, p. 238, 1899; noted; pi. 5, ff. 4, 13, 22, 
^ char. 
Nymph. HAGEN, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 12, p. 259, 1885 ; desc. 
Distr, Canadian; B. C, Wash., Utah. 

phaleratus NEEDHAM, Can. Ent., 34, p. 277, 1902; ^, holotype Coll. Need- 
ham. 
Distr, Canadian ? ; Corvallis, Ore. 

rupiiisuleiisb (WALSH), Proc. Acad. Phil., p. 388, 1862; $ {Erpeto- 
gomphus)t type destroyed. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 28, p. 207, 1869; S desc. after Walsh. 
HAGEN, Geol. Surv. Terr. Colo. (1873), p. 594, 1874; S 9 (Ophio- 
gomphus) ; lectotypes M. C. Z.— Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 46, p. 
434, 1878; 9 desc 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 242, 1893 ; desc. 
NEEDHAM, Can. Ent, 31, p. 236, 1899; noted; pi. 5, flF. 3, 12, 21, 
30, 31, $ 9 char.— Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 437, 1901 ; desc 
notes. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 53, 1899; good desc 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 298, 1900; good desc 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 81, 1908; desc 
Syn. pictus NEEDHAM, Can. Ent, 29, p. 281, 1897; S (Herpetogomphus), 

types Cornell Univ. — [Necdham 1901.] 
Nymph. PNEEDHAM & HART, Bull. 111. State Lab., 6, p. 60, 1901; desc as 

(Diastatomma sp.) from 111. & Ohio. 
Distr. Alleghanian & Carolinian, Me., Toronto, & Wis. to Kans. & Penn. 

Mvenis HAGEN, Geol. Surv. Terr. Colo. (1873), p. 591, 1874; ^ 9, types 
M. C Z.? 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 46, p. 430, 1878; ^9, (Herpeto- 

gomphus) . 
NEEDHAM, Can. Ent, 31, p. 238, 1899; noted; pi. 5, ff. 6, 15, 24, 
33; ^ 9 char. 
Nymph. HAGEN, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 15, p. 259, 1885; desc. 

NEEDHAM & HART, Bull. 111. State Lab., 6, p. 58, 1901. 
Distr. Transition into Upper Sonoran ; Colo., Wyo., New Mexico. 

ERPETOGOMPHUS SELYS. 

Type — crotalinus (HAGEN). Distribution — Nearctic & Neotropic. 
Mon. Ck)mph., p. 69, 1858.— Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 7, p. 535, 1859. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 98, 1861. 



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86 BULLETIN, PUBUC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Gomphinae 

BRAUER, Verh. Ges. Wien., 18, p. 372, 1868. 

CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 159, 1905; char. & tables of spp. 
Syn^ Herpetogomphus SELYS, C R. Soc. Ent. Belg., 22, p. 58, 1879. 

KIRBY, Syn. Cat., p. 60, 1890. 

NEEDHAM, Can. Ent, 29, p. 167, 1897; char.— L. c, 21, p. 234, 
1899; t. f. venation. 

boa SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 7, p. 537, 1859; ^ only, type Coll. Selys. 

HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 100, 1861; after De Selys. 

CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 399, 1907, corrections to p. 165; pi. 10, 
ff. 53, 54, $ app. 
Distr. Tropic, (Calvert z. 2), Mexico: Vera Cruz. 

compositus HAGEN, Mon. Gomph., p. 400, 1858 ; $ , type M. C. Z. ; pi. 20, 

f. 2, apex of abd. — Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 99, 1861; desc. — Geol. 

Surv. Terr. Colo. (1873), p. 597, 1874; 9 {Herpetogomphus). 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 7, p. 536, 1859; additions.— L. c, (2) 

35, p. 740, 1873 ; $ $ desc 
Syn. viperinus HAGEN, Geol. Surv. Terr. Colo. (1872), p. 727, 1873; {Her p.) 

— [Hagen 1874.] 
Distr. Upper & Lower Sonoran; Ore. & Wyo. to Ariz. & Tex., Calif. 

cophias SELYS, Mon. (^omph., pp. 72, 431, 1858; ^, type Mus. Paris; pi. 
4, f. 6, $ char.— Bull. Acad. Belg. (2) 7, p. 537, 1859; additions. 
L. c, (2) 28, p. 175, 1869; 5. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 100, 1861; $ $ desc. (Gomphus). 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 164, 1905; comp. desc; (Erpetogom- 
phus) ; pi. 7, ff. 28, 33, 45, S 9 char. ; pi. 10, f. 47, 9 gen. 
Distr. Lower Sonoran, (Calvert z. 3-4), Mex. : Cuernavaca, Guerrero. 

crotallnus HAGEN, Bull. Acad. Belg., 21, p. 40, 1854; $ 9, (Ophio gomphus), 
types Mus. Berlin. — Mon. Gomph., p. 72, 1854 ; (Erpetogomphus) ; 
pi. 4, ff. 5, ^9 char.— Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 101, 1861 ; desc 
(Gomphus). 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 28, p. 174, 1869; notes; (Erpeto- 
gomphus) . 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 165, 1905; comp. desc 

Syn. boa SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 7, p. 537, 1859; 9 only.— [Calvert 
1905.] 

Distr. Lower Sonoran, (Calvert z. 3-4), Mex.: Chihuahua, etc 

deslgnatus HAGEN, Mon. Gomph.. p. 401, 1858 ; ^ 9 , types M. C. Z. ; pL 
20, f . 1, ^9 char.— Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 99, 1861 ; desc. 
(Gomphus). 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 87 

Gomphinae 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 7, p. 536, 1859; notes; (Erpeto- 

gcmphus). 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 166, 1905; comp. desc; p. 399, 1907, 
notes on $. 
Distr. Carolinian & Austroriparian, Kans. & Ohio to Texas, Mexico. 

diadophis CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 167, 1905; $, holotype Coll. Mac- 

Lachlan ; pi. 7, flF. 35, 47, S 9 char. 
Distr. Lower Sonoran?; Texas. 

elaps SELYS, Mon. Gomph., p. 70, 1858 ; ^ , holotype Mus. Paris ; pi. 4, f. 4, 
^ char.— Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 7, p. 538, 1859; additions.— L.c, 
(2) 28, p. 175, 1869, $ 9 desc. ; 9 Coll. Selys. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 100, 1861; desc. (Gomphus), 
CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (3) 1, p. 386, 1899; notes; pi. 25, f. 2, 
9 gen.; (Herpetogomphus). — Biol. C. Am., p. 163, 1905; comp. 
desc; pi. 7, f. 44, 9 gen.; pi. 10, f. 30, $ hamule: (Erp). 
Syn. boa CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 165, 1905; $ desc— [Calvert 1907.] 
Distr. Lower Sonoran, (Calvert z. 3-4) Mexico to Costa Rica. 

ophibolus CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 163, 1905; 5, type Coll. Smith; pi. 

7, ff. 30-32, 46, 3 9 char. 
Distr. Tropic, (Calvert z. 3), Mex. : Atoyac in Vera Cruz. 

pictus NEEDHAM, syn. ad Ophiogomphus rupinsulcnsis, antea. 

sipedon CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 165, 1905 ; 9 , type Coll. Schumann ; pi. 

7, ff. 30, 40, 42, 9 char. 
Distr. Lower Sonoran, (Calvert z. 3-4), Mexico, elevated portions. 

viperinus SELY'S, C. R. Soc Ent. Belg., 11, p. 68, 1867; ^ 9, types Coll. 

Selys.— Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 28, p. 176, 1869; desc 
CALVERT, Proc Cal. Acad., (3) 1, p. 385, 1899; desc; pi. 25, ff. 1, 

5, ^ 9 char.— Biol. C Am., p. 163, 1905 ; comp. desc ; pi. 7, ff. 

5, a, wings; f. 43, 9 gen. 
Distr. Lower Sonoran, (Calvert z. 2-4), Mex.: Tepic, Jalisco, Vera Cruz; 

Guatemala. 

CYANOGOMPHUS SELYS. 

Type — waltheri SELYS. Distribution — Neotropic into Sonoran. 
Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 35, p. 753, 1873.— Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., 38, p. 

173, 1894. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 147, 1905. 



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88 BULLETIN, PUBUC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Gomphinae 

tumens CALVERT, Biol. C Am., p. 169, 1905; 9, type Coll. Smith; pi. 7, 

flf. 11, a, wings & ven. dets. ; f. 41, 9 char. 
Distr, Tropic, (Calvert z. 3), Mexico: Atoyac in Vera Cruz. 

LANTHUS NEEDHAM. 

Type — parvulus ( SEL YS ) . Distribution — Nearctic. 
Can. Ent., 29, p. 165, 1897.— Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 435, 1901.— 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, pp. 715, 737, 1903 ; venation. 
NEEDHAM & HART, Bull. 111. State Lab., 6, p. 52, 1901. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 80, 1908. 

albistylus (HAGEN). Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 46, p. 460, 1878; 9, (Gomphus), 
type M. C. Z. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 242, 1893; desc. 
HARVEY, Ent. News, 9, p. 63, 1898; desc. 

NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 443, 1901; dist.; (Lanthus). 
Syn. naevius HAGEN, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 46, p. 460, 1878; 9 (Gompltus), 
type M. C. Z. 
HARVEY, Ent. News, 9, p. 63, 1898; $ desc; pi. 5, ff. 2-5, 9, 10, 
$ 9 abdomen, showing characters. — [Needham 1901.] 
Distr. Alleghanian into Carolinian ; Me. to N. C. & Tenn. 

parvulus (SELYS), Bull. Acad. Belg., 21, p. 56, 1854; ^, (Gomphus), holo- 

type British Mus. — Mon. Gomph., p. 157, 1858; desc. amplified; 

pi. 22, f. 1, $ app.— Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 46, p. 459, 1878; 9 

desc; type Coll. Selys.— Ent M. Mag., 11, p. 243, 1875; desc 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 109, 1861; :!esc 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 242, 1893 ; desc 
NEEDHAM, Can. Ent., 29, p. 165, 1897; mentioned as type of 

(Lanthus). —Bull 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 441, 1901; dist— 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, p. 715, 1903; venation; pi. 35, f. 3, 

wings. 
HANDLIRSCH, Foss. Ins., 1906; pi. 4, f. 16; wings, after Needham. 
Nymph. HAGEN, Trans. Am. Ent Soc, 12, p. 281, 1885; desc as (Uro- 

peiala thoreyi f). 
NEEDHAM, Can. Ent., 29, p. 165, 1897; desc notes; pi. 7, ff. 8-10, 

struct dets.— Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 442, 1901; desc; pi. 

18, f. 6, adult; pi. 20, ff. 8-10, struct details.— Proc. U. S. Nat. 

Mus., 26, p. 715, 1903; noted; pi. 32, ff. 2, 3, wings. 
NEEDHAM & HART, Bull. 111. State Lab., 6, p. 63, 1901; desc 
Distr. Alleghanian, New Eng. States, N. Scot., N. Y., N. C. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 89 

Gomphinae 
GOMPHUS LEACH. 

Type—vulgatissimus (LINNE). Distribution— Holarctic into Oriental. 
Edin. Encycl., 9, p. 137, 1815. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., 21, p. 44, 1854.— Mon. Gomph., p. 115, 

1858. 
BRAUER, Verb. Ges. Wien., 18, p. 371, 1868. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 20, p. 221, 1893. 
KELLICOTT. Odon. Obio, p. 51, 1899; table of spp., baesd on ^ app. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 285, 1900; table of spp. 
NEEDHAM, Can. Ent, 29, p. 65, 1897; char.; priority discussed.— 

Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 435, 1901; table of N. Am. spp., 

based on colors.— Bull. 111. State Lab., 6, p. 53, 1901 ; char.— Proc. 

U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, pp. 715. 718, 721, 727, 1903 ; venation. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 80, 1908; table 

after Needham, with additions. 
Syn. Aeshna KIRBY, Syn. Cat., p. 64, 1890.— [Selys 1891.] 

^breviatus HAGEN, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 46, p. 464, 1878; ^9, types 
M. C. Z. 

CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 20, p. 243. 1893; desc. 

NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 444, 1901; dist. 

HINE. Ohio Nat., p. 61, 1901; desc. notes; pi. 5, ff. 27-34, ^ 9 char. 

MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 83, 1908; dist. 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, L.c, p. 448, 1901; desc. 

NEEDHAM & HART, Bull. 111. State Lab., 6, p. 72, 1901; desc 
Distr. AUeghanian; Me. to Pa. 

«delphii8 SELYS, Mon. Gomph., p. 413, 1858; ^, type Coll. Selys.— Bull. 
Acad. Belg., (2) 7, p. 541, 1859.— L. c, (2) 46, p. 457, 1878; 9, 
type M. C. Z. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 104, 1861 ; desc 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 444, 1901 ; dist 
MUTTKOW^SKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 83, 1908. 
Nymph. ?HAGEN, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 12, p. 262, 1885; desc 

NEEDHAM, L. c, p. 452, 1901; desc 
Distr. AUeghanian; N. Y., Mass. 

amnicola WALSH, Proc Acad. Phila., p. 396, 1862 ; ^ 9 , types destroyed ?— 
Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila., 2, p. 252, 1863; additions. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 28, p. 184, 1869; desc 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 294, 1900; desc— Trans. Am. Ent. 
Soc, 27, p. 207, 1901; desc; pi. 8, ff. 7, 8, 11; pi. 9, ff. 21, 31, 
$ 9 char. 



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90 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Gomphinae 

NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 456, 1901 ; dist 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 90, 1908; desc. 

Nymph. NEEDHAM & HART, Bull. 111. State Lab., 6, p. 83, 1901; desc. 

HAGEN, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 12, p. 271, 1885; desc. as {olivaceus). 

Distr. Alleghanian; Me., N. Y. to Iowa. 



australis NEEDHAM, Can. Ent, 29, p. 184, 1897; S, holotype Coll. Hempcl 

or Needham. 
Nymph. NEEDHAM & HART, Bull. 111. State Lab.. 6, p. 78, 1901; desc. 
Distr. Gulf Strip; Gotha, Fla. 

borealis NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 454, 1900; i 9, types 
Coll. Needham; t. f. 12, $ $ char.; (var. of descriptus). — L. c, 
68, p. 265, 1903; notes. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 86, 1908; dist. 

Syn. spicatus HAGEN, Mon. Gomph., 1858; pi. 9, f. 2, ^ app. ; the figure 
only, desc. correct. — [Needham 1901.] 

Nymph. NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 265, 1903; desc. 

Distr. Carolinian & Alleghanian ; Atl. Coast, N. H., N. Y. to N. C. 

brevis HAGEN, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 46, p. 460, 1878; ^ 9, types M.C.Z. 

EMMONS, Agr. Rep. N. Y., 5, pi. 15, f. 2, 1854; adult col.; no desc. 

NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 449, 1901 ; desc. 

WILLIAMSON, Proc. Ind. Acad., 1901; pi. 1, flf. 18, 19, <J 9 char. 

HINE, Ohio Nat., 1, p. 61, 1901; desc notes; pi. 5, flf. 19-26, $ 9 
char. 

MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 84, 1908; desc 

WALKER, Ottawa Nat, 22, p. 52, 1908; desc notes; pi. 2, flF. 4, 5, 
$ app. 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, 1. c, p. 450, 1901; desc; pi. 18, f. 3, adult. 
Distr. Alleghanian into Carolinian, Mass. & N. J. to Wis., Ont. 

cavlUaris NEEDHAM, Can. Ent., 34, p. 276, 1902; ^ 9 ; ^ type Coll. Hart 

MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 82, 1908; dist 
Distr. Gulf Strip, into Austroriparian, N. C. & Fla. 

confraternus SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 25, p. 744, 1873; ^ 9, Coll. 

MacLachlan. 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, Proc U. S. Nat. Mus., 27, p. 291, 1904; desc, with a 

doubt. 
Distr. Upper Sonoran? Calif., Ore., Wash. 



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HUTTKOWSKI^ CATALOGUE QDONATA OF N. A. 91 

Gomphinae 
consanguis SELYS, C R. Soc. Ent. Belg., 22, p. 66, 1879; 5, type? 
Distr. Carolinian ?, North Carolina. 

cornutus TOUGH, Mem. Chicago Ent. Soc, 1, p. 17, 1900; S, type Coll. 
Tough; t. f. 6 app. 
WILLIAMSON, Proc. Ind. Acad., p. 175, 1900; $ 9 desc. 
WALKER, Ottawa Nat., 22, p. 52, 1908; desc. notes; pi. 2, ff. 8, 9, 

S app. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 89, 1908; ^ desc 
Distr. Carolinian; Ont. to Iowa, Wis. 

crassus HAGEN, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 46, p. 453, 1878; 9, tj-pe M. C. Z. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 288, 1900; desc. 
CALVERT, Ent. News, 12, p. 65, 1901; differences tabulated; pi. 

3, ff. 1, 5, 11, 13, 15, 18, 3 9 char. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 83, 1908; dist. 
Syn. externus KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 60, 1899; desc— I Calvert 1901.J 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 289, 1900; desc; pi. 7, ff. 2, 10, 31, 
S 9 char. 
fraternus walshii KELLICOTT, Jn. Cincin. Soc, 18, p. 107, 1896.— 
[Williamson 1900.] 
Distr, Carolinian; Tenn., to Ontario. 

descriptiis BANKS. Jn. N. Y. Ent. Soc, 4, p. 194, 1896; ^ 9, types Coll. 
Banks. 
NEEDHAM, Zool. Bull., 1, pp. 103-113, 1897.-~Bull. 47 N. Y. State 
Mus., p. 452, 1901; desc; t f. 11, ^9 char.; p. 443, t. f. 9, 
wings.— Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, p. 708, 1903, wings. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 86, 1908; notes. 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 454, 1901; desc; pi. 18, 
f. 4, adult. — L. c, 68, p. 265, 1903; notes; p. 267, corrections. — 
Proc U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, 1903; t. ff. 1, 2, tracheal wings; pi. 
31, f. 1, wings. 
NEEDHAM & HART, Bull. 111. State Lab., 6, p. 70, 1901; desc 
HANDLIRSCH, Foss. Ins., 1906; pi. 4, ff. 7, 8,tracheal wings, after 
Needham. 
Distr. Carolinian ; N. Y. to 111. 

dilatatus RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 155, 1842; 9, type Coll. Selys. 

SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., 21, p. 47, 1854 ; ^ 9 , ^ M. C. Z.— Mon. 

Gomph., p. 123, 1858; detailed desc; pi. 7, f. 3, ^9 char. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 103, 1861 ; desc 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 56, 1899 ; desc. 



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92 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Gomphinae 

WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 286, 1900; good desc.; pi. 6, f. 6, S 

app. 
NEEDHAM, Proc U. S. Nat Mus., 26, p. 710, 1903; venation; pi. 

33, f. 1, wings. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 83, 1908; dist. 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 266, 1903; desc. 
Disir. Carolinian into Austroriparian, Ga. to N. Y. & Mich., 111. 

exIUs SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., 21, p. 55, 1854 ; $ , type British Mus.— L.C., 
(2) 35, p. 748, 1873 ; S 9 desc. ; 9 Coll. Selys & M. C. Z.— Mon. 
Gomph., p. 156, 1858. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 108, 1861 ; desc, after Selys. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent Soc., 20, p. 243, 1893; desc. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 65, 1899; good desc. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 293, 1900; desc; pi. 6, ff. 20, 21, 36, 

3 9 char. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 455, 1901 ; dist 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 86, 1908; desc 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, l.c, p. 456, 1901 ; desc 

NEEDHAM & HART, Bull. 111. State Lab., 6, p. 81, 1901; desc 
Distr. Alleghanian into Carolinian ; Me. & Wis. to Ky. & Pa. 

externus HAGEN, Mon. Gomph., p. 411, 1858 ; ^ 9 , types M. C. Z. & Coll. 
Selys; pi. 21, f. 2, ^ 9 char. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 7, p. 540, 1859; notes. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 104, 1861 ; desc. 
WILLIAMSON, Proc Ind. Acad., p. 174, 1900; notes. 
CALVERT, Ent News, 32, p. 65, 1901; differences tabulated; pi. 3, 

ff. 2, 10, 17, S 9 char. ; synonymy & bibliography. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 87, 1908; desc 
Syn. consobrinus WALSH, Proc. Ent. Soc Phila., 2, p. 246, 1863 ; ^ 9 , types 
lost 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 28, p. 178, 1869; desc 
fraternus WALSH, Proc. Acad. Phila.. p. 393, 1862; 9, types lost— 
[Calvert 1901.] 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, Can. Ent., 29, 1897; pi. 7, ff. 11, 12, abd. & labrum; desc 
as {fraternus) .^^uW. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 451, 1901; desc; 
pi. 20, ff. 11, 12.— L. c, 68, p. 264, 1903; notes. 
NEEDHAM & HART, Bull. 111. State Lab., 6, p. 74, 1901 ; desc 
Distr. Alleghanian to Upper Austral ; Me. & Wis. to 111. ; Nebr., N. M., Tex. 

fraternus (SAY), Jn. Acad. Phila., 8, p. 16, 1839; ^9 (Aeschna), types 
lost 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 93 

Gomphinae 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., 21, p. 47, 1854; desc. (Gomphus) .--Uon. 

Gomph., p. 125, 1858; detailed desc; pi. 7, f. 4, ^9 char. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 104, 1861; desc. 
WALSH, Proc. Etit. Soc. Phila., 2, p. 238, 1862; desc. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 59, 1899; desc.; f. 28, $ app. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 289, 1900; good desc; pi. 6, flf. 8, 9, 

30, i 9 char. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 451, 1901 ; dist. 
CALVERT, Ent. News, 12, p. 65, 1901; tabulations; pi. 3, ff. 3, 6-9, 

16, 3 9 char. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 86, 1908; desc; 

pi. 5, wings. 
Nymph NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 264, 1903; desc; pi. 20, 

ff. 11, 12, dets. 
IHsir, Carolinian & Austroriparian ; N. H. & Wis. to Ark. & Va. 

fardfer HAGEN, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 46, p. 458, 1878; S 9, types M. C. Z. 

KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 64, 1899; desc; f. 32, S app. 

WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 292, 1900; desc; pi. 6, ff. 15, 16, ^ 
app. 

NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 461, 1901 ; dist. 

HINE, Ohio Nat, 2, p. 61, 1902; notes; pi. 5, ff. 2, 4, 6, 9, 10, 6 9 
char. 

MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 89, 1908; desc 
Nymph. WALKER, Can. Ent., 36, p. 358, 1904 ; desc. ; t. f ., adult. 
Distr. Alleghanian into Carolinian; Mass. to Mich., Ohio. 

SrasUnelliis WALSH, Proc. Acad. Phila., p. 394, 1862; $ 9, types lost.— 
Proc Ent. Soc Phila., 2, p. 242 ,1863; additions. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 28, p. 179, 1869; desc 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 62, 1899 ; desc ; f . 29, ^ app. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 290, 1900; desc; pi. 6, ff. 11, 12, 32, 
3 9 char.— Ent. News, 14, p. 256, 1903; details; pi. 12, ff. 7-9, 
$ char. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 87, 1908; desc 
Nymph. HAGEN, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 12, p. 264, 1885; desc 

NEEDHAM & HART, Bull. 111. State Lab., 6, p. 69, 1901 ; desc. 
Distr. Carolinian; Md. to Wis. 

hybrldus WILLIAMSON, Ent. News, 13, p. 47, 1902; $ 9, types Coll. 

Williamson. 
Distr. Carolinian; Ind., Tenn. 



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94 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Gomphinae 

intricatiis HAGEN, Mon. Gomph., p. 418, 1858; $, type M. C Z.; pi. 21, f. 
4, $ app.— Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 108, 1861; desc 

SELYS. Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 7, p. 542, 1859; $ desc. 

MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 82, 1908; dist. 
Distr. Austroriparian ? (Lower Sonoran ?) ; Texas to Missouri. 

lentulus NEEDHAM, Can. Ent, 34, p. 275, 1902; ^, holotype Coll. Hart 

MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 82, 1908; dist. 
Distr. Carolinian; Flora, 111. 

livldus SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., 21, p. 53, 1854; $, holotype Brit. Mus.— 
Mon, Gomph., p. 150, 1858; 5 9, pi. 19, f. 1, ^ char. 
HAGEN. Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 106, 1861; desc. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 66, 1899; good desc; f. 37, ^ app. 
Syn. minutus CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 244, 1893; $ only.— 
[Williamson 1900.] 
sordidus HAGEN, Bull. Acad. Belg., 21, p. 54, 1854; ^, type Coll. Selys.— 
[Selys 1858.] 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 292, 1900; desc; pi. 6, flf. 17, 34, 
^ $ char.— Ent. News, 14, p. 256, 1903; desc; pi. 12, ff. 1-3, ^ 
app. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 455, 1901, dist. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 85, 1908; desc 
umhratus NEEDHAM, Can. Ent., 29, p. 184, 1897; 5 9, Coll. Needham. 
[Williamson 1900.] 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, 1. c, p. 455, 1901; desc (sordidus). 
Distr. Carolinian into Austroriparian ; Mass. & Wis. to N. C. & Ark. 

mllitaris HAGEN, Mon. Gomph., p. 416, 1858; S 2, types M. C. Z.; pi. 21, 
f. 3, 3 9 char.— Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 107, 1861. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 7, p. 542, 1859; desc 
MUTTKOWSKI. Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 82, 1908; dist. 

Distr. Austroriparian ? Texas. 

minutus RAMBUR. Ins. Neur., p. 161, 1842; 3, type Coll. Selys. 

SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg.. 21. p. 55. 1854 ; ^ 9 , 9 British Museum. 
— Mon. Gomph., p. 155, 1858; detailed desc; pi. 9, f. 3, ^9 char. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 108, 1861 ; desc 
CALVERT. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 244, 1893; $ app. desc 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc. (2) 6, p. 82, 1908; dist 
Nymph. NEEDHAM. Proc U. S. Nat. Mus., 27, p. 690, 1904; desc; pi. 38, 

f. 6, adult. 
Distr. Austroriparian ; Fla., Ga. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 95 

Gomphinae 
naevhis HAGEN, syn. ad Lanthus albistylus, antea. 

noUtns RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 162, 1842; ^, type mutilated, Mus. Paris. 

SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., 21, p. 57, 1854 ; $ desc— L. c, (2) 46, p. 
466, 1878 ; 9 , type M. C Z.—Mon. Gomph.. p. 159, 1858 ; $ desc. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 110, 1861; desc. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 71, 1899; desc. 

WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 294, 1900; good desc; pi. 6, f. 23, $ 
app.— Trans. Am. Soc, 27, p. 210, 1901; desc; pi. 8, ff. 9, 14; 
pi. 9, flf. 25, 28, ^ 9 char. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 91, 1908; desc 
notes. 
Syn. nuvialis WALSH, Proc Acad. Phila., p. 394, 1862; $ 9, types lost.— 
Proc Ent Soc Phila., 2, p. 252. 1863; desc— [Williamson 1901.] 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 28, p. 185, 1869; desc after Walsh. 
Distr. Alleghanian & Carolinian, Quebec & Mich, to N. C. & Tenn. 

ottvaceus SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 35, p. 749, 1873; 9, type Coll. 
MacLachlan ? 
HAGEN, Rep. Surv. Terr. Colo. (1873), p. 597, 1874; 9 desc 
CALVERT, Ent. News, 14, p. 191, 1903; 9 desc; pi. 8, f. 1, adult, 

ff. 6-8, 9 char. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 83, 1908; dist. 
Distr. Upper Sonoran ?; California, Nebraska. 

pallldus RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 163, 1842; 9, types Coll. Selys. 

SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., 21, p. 52, 1854; $ 9.— Mon. Gomph., p. 

105, 1858; desc. elaborated; pi. 8, f. 6, 9 char. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 105, 1861 ; desc 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 291, 1900; desc 
NEEDHAM. Can. Ent., 29, p. 167, 1897; noted as type of {Ari- 

gomphus). 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 82, 1908; dist. 
Syn. pilipcs HAGEN, Mon. Gomph., p. 148, 1858; ^ 9, types M. C. Z. & 
Mus. Frankfurt; pi. 8, f. 7, ^9 char.— [Hagen 1875, with a 
doubt.] 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 7, p. 541, 1859; desc. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 83, 1908; dist. 
Nymph. NEEDHAM & HART, Bull. III. State Lab., 6, p. 80, 1901; desc 
Distr. Carolinian & Austroriparian ; Mass. & Mich, to Ga. & Tex. 

plagiatus SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., 21, p. 57, 1854; $, holotype British 
Mus— L. c, (2) 46, p. 465, 1878; 5 9 , 9 M. C. Z.— Mon. Gomph., 
p. 159, 1858; $ desc 



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96 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Gomphinae 

HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 109, 1861 ; desc. after Sclys. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 20, p. 244, 1893 ; desc. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 69, 1899; good desc 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 295, 1900; desc; pi. 6, ff. 26, 27, 37, 
^ 9 char.— Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 27, p. 211, 1901; desc; pi. 8, 
ff. 5a, 15; pi. 9, ff. 20, 24, 30; ^ 9 char. & wing detail. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 458, 1901; dist. 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 40, f. 12, $ adult col. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 91, 1908; desc 
Syn, elongatus SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., 21, p. 58, 1854; 9, Brit. Mus.— 

[Selys 1878.] 
Nymph. HAGEN, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 12, p. 269, 1885 ; desc— L. c, p. 270, 
1885; desc. as (notatus), 
NEEDHAM. Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 267, 1901 ; dist— L. c, 68, 

p. 269, 1903. 
NEEDHAM & HART, Bull. 111. State Ub., 6, p. 84, 1901; desc. 
Distr, Carolinian & Auslroriparian; N. J., 111., & Mich, to Tex. & Fla, 

qiiadricolor WALSH, Proc Acad. Phila., p. 394, 1862; S, type lost.— Proc 
Ent. Soc Phila., 2, p. 242, 1863; desc 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., 28, p. 179, 1869; desc after Walsh. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 58, 1899; good desc; f. 39, ^ app. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 288, 1900; good desc; pi. 6, ff. 7, 29, 

$ app., 9 occ 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 452, 1901 ; dist. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 85, 1908; desc 
Distr. Carolinian into Alleghanian ; Mass. & Wis. to Term. 

scudderi SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 35, p. 752, 1873; 9, type Coll. Seyls. 
HARVEY, Ent News, 9, p. 62, 1898; ^ desc; pi. 5, ff. 6-8, S char. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 456, 1901 ; dist. ; pi. 17, 

f. 2, adult. 
WILLIAMSON, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 27, p. 208, 1901; desc; pi. 8> 

ff. 12, 19 ; pi. 9, ff. 26, 32, ^ 9 char. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 90, 1908; desc 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, L. c, p. 457, 1901; desc; pi. 18, f. 2, adult 
Distr. Alleghanian; New England States. 

Sdgregans NEEDHAM, syn. ad spiniceps. 

sobrinus SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 35, p. 745, 1873; $, holotypc Col. 

MacLachlan. 
Nymph. ?NEEDHAM, Proc U. S. Nat Mus., 27, p. 692, 1904; desc; pi. 43,. 

f. 4, str. dets. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 97 

Gomphinae 
Distr. Upper Sonoran ?; Calif., Wash. 

sordidus HAG EN, syn. ad Hindus. 

spicatus HAGEN, Bull. Acad. Belg., 21, p. 54, 1854; $, type M. C. Z.— 
Mon. Gomph., p. 153, 1858; $ desc. — Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 107, 
1861; desc. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 38, p. 183, 1869; $, Coll. Selys. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 97, 1899; good desc; f. 31, 5 app. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 292, 1900; desc; pi. 6, ff. 18, 35, $ 

app., $ occ. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 459, 1901 ; dist. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 88, 1908; desc 
Nymph. HAGEN, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 12, p. 267, 1885; diesc as (pallidus), 
?NEEDH AM, 1. c, p. 459, 1901 ; desc 

NEEDHAM & HART, Bull. 111. State Lab., 6, p. 76, 1901 ; desc 
Distr. Alleghanian & Carolinian ; Me., Ont. & Wis. to 111. & Pa. 

splniceps (WALSH), Proc Acad. Phila., p. 389, 1862; 9 (Macrogomphus), 

type lost.— Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila., 2, p. 256, note, 1863; additions. 

SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 28, p. 205, 1869; 9, desc. after Walsh. 

L. c, (2) 35, p. 750, 1873; 9 desc (Gomphus). 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 69, 1899; good desc; f. 38, S app. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 295, 1900; good desc; pi. 6, flF. 24, 25, 
$ app.— Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 27, p. 209, 1901 ; desc. ; pi. 8, ff. 
13, 18; pi. 9, ff. 22, 23, 29, $ 9 characters. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 91, 1908; dist. 
Syn. segregans NEEDHAM, Can. Ent., 29, p. 185, 1897 ; 6 , type Coll. Hart ? 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 297, 1900; ^, after Needham.— 
[Williamson 1901.] 
Nymph. CABOT, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 1, p. 5, 1872; desc; pi. 2, f. 1, adult. 
HAGEN, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 12, p. 270, 1885; desc 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 447, 1901; dist. 
NEEDHAM & HART, Bull. 111. State Lab., 6, p. 87, 1901; desc 
Distr. Carolinian ; N, Y. & 111. to Pa. & Tenn. ; Mich. 

vastus WALSH, Proc. Acad. Phila., p. 391, 1862; 3 9, types lost. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 28, p. 176, 1869; desc 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 245, 1893; desc. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 57, 1899; good desc; f. 34, $ app. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 287, 1900; desc; pi. 6, ff. 3, 6, 28, 
$ 9 char. 



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98 BULLETIN, PUBUC HUSEUBC, MILWAUKEE 

Gomi^inae 

NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. Stete Mus., p. 459, 1901 ; dist 
WALKER, OtUwa Nat, 22, p. 52, 1908; dcsc notes; pi. 2, f. 3, 

S app. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 90, 1908; desc. 

Nymph. CABOT, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 5, p. 3, pi. 2, f. 4, 1872; desc ft 
adult 
HAGEN, Trans. Am, Ent Soc, 12, p. 265, 1885 ; desc. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. Stete Mus., p. 447, 1901; dist 
NEEDHAM ft HART, Bull. III. Stete Lab.. 6, p. 72, 1901; desc 

Distr, Carolinian; N. Y. ft Iowa to Tenn. & Pa. 

ventricosus WALSH, Proc Ent Soc. Phila., 2, p. 249, 1863; ^, type lost 

SELYS, Bull. Acad. Bclg., (2) 7, p. 540, 1859; desc after Walsh.— 

L. c, (2) 46, p. 453, 1878; $ desc; type Coll. Selys. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 287, 1900; ^ $ desc 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 456, 1901; dist 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 90, 1908; desc 

Distr. Carolinian; Mass. & Mich, to III ft Pa. 

viOosipes SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., 21, p. 53, 1854; ^, Mus. Vienna.— L. c, 
(2) 46, p. 458, 1878 ; short note. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 105. 1861 ; desc 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent Soc, 20, p. 244, 1893; desc. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 63, 1899; good desc; f. 30, 3 app. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 291, 1900; desc; pi. 6, flF. 1, 14, 33, 

^ $ char. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 460, 1901 ; dist. 
HINE. Ohio Nat, 2, p. 61, 1902; desc notes; pi. 5, flF. 1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 

S 9 app. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 88, 1908; desc 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, 1. c, p. 460, 1901; desc 

NEEDHAM ft HART, Bull. III. State Lab., 6, p. 79, 1901; desc 
Distr. Carolinian, into Alleghanian; Mass. ft Mich, to Pa. ft III. 

viridifroos HINE, Ohio Nat, 1, p. 60, 1901; ^ $, types Coll. Hine; pi. 5, 

flF. 11, — , 18, S $ char. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 294, 1900; ^ desc; pi. 6, f. 22, ^ 

app. (Gomphus sp.).— Proc. Ind. Acad., 1901; pi. 1, f. 16, 17, S 9 

char, (viridifrons) . 
Distr. Carolinian; Ohio, Ind., Pa. 

williainsoiii n.n. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE OTONATA OF N. A. 99 

Gomphinae 

WILLIAMSON, EnL News, 14, pp. 253-258, 1903; S, holotypc Coll. 

Williamson; pi. 12, ff. 4-«, 6 char.; a hybrid Csordidus + gnu- 

Diftr, Carolinian; Indiana. 

Subgenera of GOMPHUS.* 

ARIGOMPHUS NEEDHAM, Can. Ent, 29, p. 181, note, 1897; type 

G, pallidus.'-Bnll 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 447, 1901. 

MUTTKOWSKI, Bull Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 88, 1908. 

Syn. Orcus NEEDHAM, Can. Ent., 29, pp. 167, 181, note, 1897; a homonymn. 

GOMPHURUS NEEDHAM, BuU. 47 N. Y. Sute Mus., p. 446, 1901; 
type G, dilatatus, 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 89, 1908. 

GOMPHUS LEACH, NEEDHAM, Can. Ent., 29, p. 167, 1897.— BuU. 47 
N. Y. Stete Mus., p. 445, 1901. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 84, 1908. 

STYLURUS NEEDHAM, Can. Ent, 29, p. 167, 1897; type G. plagiatus,^ 
Bull. 47 N. Y. Sute Mus., p. 446, 1901. 
WILLIAMSON, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 27, pp. 205-217, 1901; pis. 8, 9. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 90, 1908. 

Willsn. Needh. Muttk. Willsn.Needh. Muttk. 

abbreviatus G G G lentulus A 

adelphus G? G G? lividus G G G 

anmicola S U (S) miliUris G? 

australis A minutus G? 

borealis G G G notatus S S 

brevis G G G olivaceus S 

cavillaris G G pallidus A? 

comutus G? A? plagiatus S 

crassus U G quadricolor G 

descriptus G G G scudderi S 

dilatatus U U sobrinus 

exilis G G G spicatus G 

extemus U G spiniceps S 

fratemus U G G vastus U 

furcifer G A A? ventricosus U 

graslinellus G G villosipes A 

hybridus U G viridifrons G 

intricatus G G williamsoni G 



A 




S 


S 


G 


G 


U 


(S) 


A 


(G) 


S 


S 


U 


U 


U 


U 


A 


A 




G 




G 



NOTE— At there if some disagreement as to the position of the various species of 

give the latter in 
and myself. Mr. 

-,- , m's references are 

taken from his papers on the subject (1897 and 1901). The abbreviations are as follows: 
G— Gomphus, A— Arigomphus, S — Stylurus, U — Gomphurus. 



XMUii!^— As there is some disagreement as to the position of the var 
Gomphus since Needham's division of the genus into subgenera I give 
juxtaposition as interpreted by Messrs. Needham and Williamson and 
Williamson has expressed his views to me in a letter, while Needham's 



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300 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Gomphinae 

DROMOGOMPHUS SELYS. 

Type — spinosus SELYS. Distribution — Nearctic. 
Bull. Acad. Belg., 21, p. 58, 1854. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 20, p. 221, 1893. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 51, 1899. 
NEEDHAM, Can. Ent., 29, p. 167, 1897.— Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., 

p. 435, 1901. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 248, 1900. 
NEEDHAM & HART, Bull. 111. State Mus., 6, p. 53, 1901. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 91, 1908. 

armatus SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., 21, p. 59, 1854; ,J, holotype British Mu- 
seum. — Mon. Gomph., p. 122, 1858; desc. (Gomphus). — Bull. 
Acad. Belg., (2) 26, p. 499, 1873; desc. (Dromogomphus) .—L. c, 
(2) 46, p. 467, 1878; $ $ desc. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N, Am., p. 102, 1861; desc. after Selys; {Gom- 
phus). — Proc. Bost. Soc, 18, p. 44, 1875; {Dromogomphus)) 
identity. 

Distr. Austroriparian ; Georgia. 

spinosus SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., 21, p. 59, 1854; ^ 9, ^ types Coll. 
Dale, Mus. Copenhagen, 9 British Museum. — Mon. Gomph., p. 
120, 1858; desc amplified; pi. 7, f. 2, ^ 9 char.; (Gomphus). 

HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 102, 1861 ; desc 

CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 245, 1893; desc; (Dromo- 
gomphus). 

KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 71, 1899; desc 

WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 296, 1900; desc 

MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 91, 1908; desc 
Nymph. HAGEN, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 12, p. 265, 1885; desc as (Gomphus 
sp.). 

NEEDHAM, Can. Ent., 29, p. 186, 1897; dist.— Bull. 47 N. Y. State 
Mus., p. 462, 1901 ; desc ; pi. 18, f. 1, adult. 

NEEDHAM & HART, Bull. III. State Lab., 6, p. 64, 1901; desc 
Distr. Alleghanian to Austroriparian, Me. & Wis. to Fla. & Tex. 

spollatus (HAGEN), Mon. Gomph., p. 409, 1857; S, type M. C. Z.; (Gom- 
phus) ; pi. 21, f. 1, ^ char.— Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 103, 1861 ; 
desc (= armatus f). 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 7, p. 543, 1859; notes. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 72, 1899; good desc 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 296, 1900; desc 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 101 

Aeshninae 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 92, 1908; desc. 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 27, p. 692, 1904 ; desc. ; pi. 43, 

f. 5, str. dets. 
Distr. Carolinian & Alleghanian, Wis., Ind., Ohio, Tex. 

OCTOGOMPHUS SELYS. 

Type — specularis (HAGEN). Distribution — Nearctic. 
Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 35, p. 739, 1873. 
CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 470, 1895. 

specularis (HAGEN), Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 7, p. 544, 1S59; $ (Neogom- 
phus)y type M. C. Z.— Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 110, 1861. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 35, p. 760, 1873; $ {Octogomphus). 
CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 502, 1895; noted; pi. 16, ff. 
80-84, $ 9 char. 
Distr. Lower Sonoran, Calif., Baja Calif., Mexico. 

SUBFAMILY AESHNINAE RAMBUR.* 

Type gtnns—Acshna (FABRICUS). Distribution — Cosmopolitan. 
Ins. Neur., p. 181, 1842; established as family. 
BRAUER, Verh. Ges. Wien, 18, pp. 12-13, 1868 ; table of genera. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (3) 5, pp. 708-748, 1883; synopsis of 

genera. 
KARSCH, Ent. Nachr., 17, pp. 238-300, 1891; (Kritik des Systems 

der Aeshniden) ; tables of the genera, their affinities. 
NEEDHAM, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, pp. 734-737, 1903 ; venation, 

ontogeny. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 174, 1905 ; table of genera. 
COCKERELS Ent. News, 19, p. 456, 1908; wing venation, disc, of 

affinities. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 18, pp. 1-84, 1908; pis. 1-2, t. ff. l-77.~ 

L. c, 19, pp. 85-156, 1909; pis. 3-4, t. ff. 78-156.— L. c, 20, pp. 

157-223, 1909; pis. 5-6, t. ff. 157-219; monograph of the sub- 
family. 

BOYERIA MACLACHLAN. 

Type— iV^we (FONSCOLOMBE). Distribution— Holarctic. 
Ann. Mag. N. H., (6) 17, p. 424, 1896; new name for Fonscolombia 
(= preoccupied). 

'*NOTE— The original spelling of Aeshna is resumed. The vicissitudes of spelling 
will not be followed in this catalogue. I will sufHce to say that practically all of the au- 
thors here cited quote Aeschna. Of modern authors Calvert (Biologia 1905) and Walker 
(Can. Ent. 1908) use Aeshna, while more recently Martin (Cat. ColT Selys 1908-190))) pre- 
lert Aeschna. Composites ot Aeschna will, of course, be quoted in their original form. 



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102 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Aeshninae 

WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 248, 1900; char. 

NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 4«3, 1901— Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 26, p. 735, 1903 ; venation. 

NEEDHAM & HART, Bull. 111. State Lab., 6, p. 31, 1901. 

MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 31, 1908. 

MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 18, p. 5, 1908.— L. c, 19, p. 124, 1909. 
Syn. Fonscohmbia SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (3) 5, p. 736, 1883; a hom- 
onymn. 

KARSCH, Ent Nachr., 17, p. 279, 1891. 

CALVERT, Trans. Am, Ent. Soc., 20, p. 247, 1893. 

KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 77, 1899. 



fniflau WILLIAMSON, Ent. News, 18, p. 1, 1907; ^9, types Coll. Will- 
iamsoa 

MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 94, 1908; desc. 

MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 19, p. 126, 1909; desc; t. f. 122, S app. 
Distr, Carolinian; N. Y. & Ont. to Pa. & Ky. 



vteOM (SAY), Jn. Acad. Phila., 8, p. 13, 1839; S, holotypc Mus. Boston 

Soc.; {Aeshna), 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent Soc, 20, p. 247, 1893; desc. (Fons- 

cohmbia). 
KARSCH, Ent Nachr., 17, p. 285. 1891; dist 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 90, 1899; desc 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 300, 1900; desc {Boyeria). —Ent 

News, 18, p. 1, 1907 ; comp. desc. ; tabulation of differences. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 465, 1901; desc. m^es. 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 44, f. 4, S adult 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 94, 1908; desc 
MARTIN, Cat Coll. Selys, 19, p. 126, 1909; desc; t f. 121, S app. 

Syn, quadriguttata (BURMEISTER), Handb. Ent, 2, p. 837, 1839; $, 
{Aeshna), Mus. Vienna. 
HAGEN, Sya Neur. N. Am., p. 130, 1861; desc— [Hagen 1875.] 
SELYS, Rev. Odon., p. 398, 1850; notes. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent Soc, 25, p. 53, 1898; on Burm. type. 

Nymph, CABOT, Mem. M. C. Z., 8, p. 29, 1881 ; desc ; (Neuraeschna) ; pi. 2, 
f. 3, adult. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 465, 1901; desc (Boyeria), 
NEEDHAM & HART, Bull. 111. State Lab,, 6, p. 36, 1901; desc; pi. 
1, f. 2, adult. 
Distr. Alleghanian to Austroriparian ; Me. ft Wis. to Ark. ft Tenn. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 103 

Aeshninae 
BASIAESCHNA SELYS. 

Type — Janata (SAY). Distribution — Nearctic 
Bull Acad. Belg., (3) 5, p. 735, 1883. 
KARSCH, Ent Nachr., 17, p. 277, 1891. 
KELLICOTT, Ckion. Ohio, p. 77, 1899. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 248, 1900. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 463, 1901.— Proc. U. S. 

Nat. Mus., 26, p. 710, 1903; venaticMi. 
NEEDHAM & HART, Bull. III. State Lab., 6, p. 31, 1901. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 92, 1908. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 18, p. 5, 1908.— L. c, 19, p. 123, 1909. 

Janata (SAY), Jn. Acad. Phila., p. 13, 1839; S, (Aeshna), type Mus. Bos- 
ton Soc. 
H AGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 125, 1861 ; desc. after Say. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 81, 1899; desc. (Basiaeschna) , 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 301, 1900; good desc. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 466, 1901 ; desc. notes.— 

Proc U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, 1903 ; pi. 37, f. 2, wings. 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 44, f. 1, $ adult. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 91, 1908; desc 
MARTIN, Cat Coll. Selys, 19, p. 123, 1909; desc; t. if. 117, wgs., 
S app. 
Syn. minor RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 207, 1842; S, (Aeshna), type ?. — 

[Hagen 1875.] 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. Sute Mus., p. 466, 1901; desc 

NEEDHAM & HART, Bull. 111. State Lab., 6, p. 38, 1901; desc 
Distr. Alleghanian & Carolinian ; Me. & Wis. to Mo. & N. C. 

GOMPHAESCHNA SELYS. 

Type — furcUlata (SAY). Distribution — Nearctic. 
Trans. Ent. Soc. London, p. 413, 1871.— Bull. Acad. Belg., (3) 5, p. 

733, 1883. 
KARSCH, Ent. Nachr., 17, p. 279, 1891. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 22, 1893. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 76, 1899. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 248, 1900. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 463, 1901.— Proc U. S. 

Nat. Mus., 26, pp. 735, 756, 1903; venation. 
NEEDHAM & HART, Bull. 111. State Lab., 6, p. 31, 1901. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 93, 1908. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 18, p. 6, 1908.— L. c, 19, p. 121, 1909. 



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104 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Aeshninae 

furcillata (SAY), Jn. Acad. Phila., 8, p. 14, 1839; ^, (Aeshna), holotype 
Mus. Boston Soc. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 131, 1861 ; S desc. after Say & 

Rambur. — Proc. Boston Soc, 16, p. 352, 1874 ; desc. notes. 
KELLICOTF, Odon. Ohio, p. 79, 1899; desc. {Gomphaeschna). 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 302, 1900; cites antilope as syn.; 

desc. 
NEEDHAM, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, p. 722, 1903; venation; t. f. 

17: 3, loop: pi. 37, f. 1, wings. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 93, 1908; dist. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 19, p. 122, 1909; desc; t. ff. 115, 116, 
wgs., $ app. 
Syn. quadrinda RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 209, 1842; S, holotype Coll. Selys; 

{Gynacantha) . — [Hagen 1861.] 
Distr. Alleghanian & Carolinian; Me. & Mich, to Pa. & Ga. 

^'u^j/). antilope (HAGEN), Proc. Bost. Soc., 16, p. 354, 1874; 5 9, types 
Coll. Uhler; $ Coll. Hagen; (Aeschna). 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 20, p. 247, 1893; desc; {Gomph- 
aeschna). 
Distr. Carolinian ; N. J., Md., Pa., Va. 

OPLONAESCHNA SELYS. 

Type — armata (HAGEN). Distribution — Nearctic 
Bull. Acad. Belg., (3) 5, p. 735, 1883. 
KARSCH, Ent. Nachr. 15, p. 238, 1889. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am,, p. 174, 1905. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 19, p. 119, 1909. 
Syn. Hoplonaeschna KARSCH, Ent. Nachr., n, p. 283, 1891. 
NEEDHAM, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, p. 735, 1903. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 18, p. 6, 1908. 

armata (HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 124, 1891; $ (Aeschna), type 
M. C Z. 
KARSCH, Ent. Nachr., 17, p. 285, 1891; venation; (Hoplonaeschna), 
NEEDHAM, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, 1903; pi. 38, f. 1, wings. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 195, 1905; $ 9 desc; (Oplonaeschna) ; 

pi. 8, ff. 32, 33, S app. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 19, p. 120, 1909; desc; t. f. 114, wgs.; pi. 
3, f. 10, ad. 
Distr. Lower Sonoran; New Mex., Ariz., Mex., Guat. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 105 

Aeshninae 
ANAX LEACH. 

Type — iml>eraior LEACH. Distribution — Cosmopolitan. 
Edinb. Encycl., 9, p. 137, 1815. 
BRAUER, Reise d. Novara, p. 59-63, 1866; spp.— Verb. Ges. Wien., 

18, p. 370, 1863. 
HAGEN, Verb. Ges. Wien., 17, pp. 31-48, 1867; on Brauer's spp. 
KARSCH, Ent. Nacbr., 17, pp. 278, 289, 1891; affinities. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am,, p. 176, 1905; table of C. Am. spp. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 18, pp. 9-27, 1908; monograpb of spp 
Syn. Cyrtosoma BURMEISTER, Handb. Ent., 2, p. 839, 1839. 
CHARPENTIER, Lib. Eur., p. 13, 1840. 

amazili (BURMEISTER), Handb. Ent., 2, p. 841, 1839; types lost; 
{Acschna). 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur., N. Am., p. 119, 1861; $ $ {Anax) ; lectotypes 
M. C. Z.— Verb. Ges. Wien., 17, p. 38, 1867; $ 9 ; very detailed 
desc. — Psyche, 5, p. 305, 1890; desc. 
BRAUER, Reise d. Novara, p. 61, 1866; desc. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 176, 1905; comp. desc 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 18, p. 13, 1908; desc; t. f. 7, ^ app, 
Syn. maculatus RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 188, 1842; $, type Coll. Selys.— 

[Hagen 1867.] 
Distr. Tropic, (Calvert z. 3), Mex., C. Am. to Brazil; Cuba, Barbados. 

concolor BRAUER, Reise d. Novara, p. 66, 1867; 5, type Mus. Vienna; 
pi. 1, f. 15, adult— Verb. Ges. Wien., 15, p. 508, 1865 ; $ desc 

HAGEN, Psycbe, 5, p. 304, 1890; $ 9 desc. 

CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 176, 1905 ; comp. desc 

MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 18, p. 13, 1908; desc 
Distr. Austroriparian into Tropic; Md., Ga., Fla., Haiti, Mex., Brazil. 

Junius (DRURY), 111. Exot. Ent, 1, 1773; pi. 47, f. 5; adult; {Libellula). 
BURMEISTER, Hand. Ent., 2, p. 841, 1839; desc (Aeschna). 
SAY, Jn. Acad. Pbila., 8, p. 9, 1839. 
RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 196, 1842; desc 
SELYS, Rev. Odon., p. 328, 1850; desc (Anax).— In Sagra: Hist 

Cuba, Ins., p. 458, 1857; desc. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 118, 1861; desc— Verb. Ges. Wien, 

17, p. 33, 1807 ; distr. & syn.— Psycbe, 5, p. 305, 1890 ; desc, distr., 

etc 
BRAUER, Reise d. Novara, p. 62, 1866; desc 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 249, 1893; desc— Proc Cal. 

Acad., (2) 4, p. 509, 1895; comp. notes; pi. 15, ff. 15, 16, $ app. 

— Biol. C. Am., p. 177, 1905; comp. desc 



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106 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Aeshninae 

KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 77, 1899; desc. 

WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 306, 1900; desc 

NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 471, 1901; ethol. notes.— 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, p. 709, 1903; venation; t f. 4p, stig- 
ma; pi. 40, f. 3, wings. 

HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 40, f. 15, S ad. col. 

MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis, N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 97, 1908; desc. 

MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 18, p. 11, 1908; desc; t f. 4, ^ app. 

Syn. spiniferus RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 186, 1842; S type ?; pi. 1, f. 14, ^ 
app. — [Hagen 1866.] 

Nymph, CABOT, Mem. M. C. Z., 8, p. 36, 1881; desc; pi. 1, f. 2, adult 

NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 472, 1901; desc; t f. 14, 
illustrating three stages. — Proc U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, p. 712, 1903 ; 
t. f. 5, tracheal ven. ; pi. 31, f. 3 ; pi. 32, f. 1, wings. 
NEEDHAM & HART, Bui. 111. State Lab., 6, p. 47, 1901; desc; pi. 1, 
f. 5, adult. 
Dutr, Entire North Am., Hawaiian Is., Western Coast of Asia. 



looflpes HAGEN, Syn. Neur., N. Am., p. 118, 1861; 9, holotype Mus. 

Zurich.— Verh. Ges. Wien, 17, p. 35, 1867, 9 det. desc— Ent M. 

Mag., 20, p. 169, 1884; notes. Psyche, 5, p. 303, 1890; desc 
BRAUER, Reise d. Novara, p. 60, 1866; desc 
MACLACHLAN, Ent. M. Mag., 10, p. 227, 1874; mutilated $ desc, 

Dublin Mus.— L. c, 20, p. 129, 1883; on types. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 306, 1900; dist. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 176, 1905; comp. desc; pi. 8, f. 10, $ 

app. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 97, 1908; dist. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 18, p. 32, 1908; desc; t f . 6, ^ app. 

Nymph. PNEEDHAM, Proc U. S. Nat. Mus., 27, p. 695, 1904; desc 

Distr, Carolinian to Tropic, Mass. & Ohio to Fla., Haiti, Jamaica, Mexico. 



walsioghaiiii MACLACHLAN, Ent. M. Mag., 20, p. 127, 1882; S 9, types 
Coll. MacLachlan. 
HAGEN, Psyche, 5, p. 306, 1890; desc 
CALVERT, Proc Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 511, 1895; comp. notes; pi. 

15, if. 17, 18, $ app.— Biol. C. Am., p. 178, 1905; comp. desc. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys., 18, p. 14, 1908; desc; L f . 8, ^ app. 
Nymph. CABOT, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 8, p. 15, 1881; desc as {validus). 
Distr. Lower Sonoran, (Calvert z. 3-4), Calif., Ariz., B. Calif., Guatemala. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 107 

Aeshninae 
GYNACANTHA RAMBUR. 

Typt^trinda RAMBUR. Distribitlion— regions of Southern Hemisphere, 
into northern region. 
Ins. Neur., p. 209, 1842. 

SELYS, in Sagra: Hist. Cuba, Ins., p. 458, 1857.— Bull. Acad. Belg., 
(3) 5, p. 745, 1883. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 131, 1861. 
BRAUER, Verb. Ges. Wien, 18, p. 371, 1868. 
KARSCH, Ent. Nach., 17, p. 289, 1891. 
MACLACHLAN, Ann. Mag. N. H., (6) 16, p. 411, 1896; note on 

synonymy. 
KRUEGER, Stett. Ent. Zeit., 59, p. 276, 1898; affinities. 
FOERSTER, Termes Fiizetek, 23, p. 101; 1900; affinities. 
NEEDHAM, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, pp. 710, 735, 1903; venation. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 189, 1905 ; char. & table of C. Am. spp. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 38, p. 8, 1908; char.— L. c, 20, p. 167,.1909 
Syn. Triiicantkagyna SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (3) 5, p. 645, 1883.— [Karsch 
1891.] 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 18, p. 8, 1908.— L. c, 19, p. 148, 1909. 
Acanthagyna KIRBY, Cat. Odon., p. 94, 1890.— [Karsch 1891.] 

bifkia RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 213, 1842. 

KRUEGER, Stett. Ent. Zeit, 59, p. 279, 1898; t. f., S app. 

KARSCH, Abb. Senckb. Ges., 25, p. 215, 1900; venation. 

MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 20, p. 172, 1909; dcsc. t f. 175, i ^p. 
Distr. Tropic, S. Am., Florida. 

mexlcana SELYS, C. R. Soc. Ent Belg., 11, p. 69, 1869; 9, holotype Coll. 
Selys. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 192, 1905; S 9 comp. desc.; pi. 8, ff. 22, 

23, S app. 
MARTIN, Cat Coll. Selys, 20, p. 173, 1909; dcsc. t f. 176, $ aK>. 
IHstr, Tropic, (Calvert z. 2), Mexico: Vera Cruz; Honduras. 



(MARTIN), Cat Coll. Selys, 19, p. 149, 1909; ^ $, (Triacan- 
thagyna), types Coll. Martin; t. f. 148, $ app. 
Distr. Florida. 

oervOM RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 213, 1842; $ 9, S type Mus. Paris, 9 
Coll. Selys. 
KOLBE, Archiv f. Naturg., 54, p. 168, 1888; desc.; pi. 13, f. 1, $ app. 
KARSCH, Ent Nachr., 17, p. 281, 1891; dist. 



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108 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Aeshninae 

CALVERT, Biol. C Am., p. 193, 1905; comp. desc. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 20, p. 169, 1909; desc; t. f. 172,. 3 app. 
Syn, gracilis BURMEISTKR, Handb. Ent., 2, p. 837, 1839; 9 only; type 
Mus. Vienna. 
HAGEN, Proc. Boston Soc, 18, p 41, 1875; in part.— [Calvert 1905.] 
Distr. Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-3); Calif., Fla., Mex. to Brazil; Cuba, Jamaica, 
Haiti. 

septima SELYS, in Sagra: Hist. Cuba, Ins., p. 460, 1857; ^, type Coll. Selys. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 132. 1861; after Selys. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 191, 1905; $ 9, comp. desc; pi. 8, flF. 

20, 21, $ app. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 19, p. 150, 1909; desc (Triacanthagyna) ; 
t. f. 149, S app. 
Distr. Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-3) ; Vera Cruz, Mex. to Brazil; Cuba, Jamaica. 

tibiata KARSCH, Soc. Ent, 6, p. 121, 1891; ^, holotype Mus. Berlin. 

MACLACHLAN, Ann. Mag. N. H., (6) 17, p. 416, 1896; S notes. 

CALVERT, Biol. C Am., p. 194, 1905; $ 9, comp. desc; pi. 8, ff. 24, 
25; pi. 10, f. 17, $ app. 

MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 20, p. 170, 1909; desc; t. f. 173, 3 app. 
Distr. Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-3), Vera Cruz, Mex. to Ecuador. 

tiifida RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 210, 1842; S 9, types Coll. Selys. 

SELYS, in Sagra: Hist. Cuba, Ins., p. 459, 1857; desc 

HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 131, 1861 ; desc 

KARSCH, Ent. Nachr., 17, p. 281, 1891 ; dist. 

NEEDH AM, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, 1903 ; pi. 39, f. 3, wings. 

BUTLER, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 30, 1904 ; pi. 7, f. 4, labium. 

CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 191, 1905 ; desc ; pi. 8, ff. 28, 29, <J app. 

MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 19, p. 148, 1909; desc (Triacanthagyna); 
t. ff. 146, 147, wings, $ app. 
Distr. Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-3) ; Fla., Calif., Mex. to Bolivia; Cuba, Jamaica. 

AESHNA FABRiaUS. 

Typt — juncea (LINNE). Distribution— cosmopolitan. 
Syst. Ent., p. 424, 1775. 
SELY'S, Rev. Odon., p. 112. 1850.— Bull. Acad. Belg., (3) 5, p. 728, 

1883; limited. 
KARSCH, Ent. Nachr., 17, p. 288, 1891; affinities. 
NEEDH AM, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, p. 734, 1903 ; venation. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 18, pp. 33-79, 1908; monograph of spp. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATAU)GUE ODONATA OF N. A. 109 

Aeshninae 
WALKER, Can. Ent., 40, pp. 377-391, 1908; monograph of N. Am. 
spp. — L. c, pp. 450-451, 1909; distribution of spp. 

adnexa (HAGEN), vide Coryphaeschna, postea. 

caUfoniica (CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 504, 1895; $ $, types 
Cal. Acad.; pi. 15, ff. 19, 20, 23, ^ char. 
NEEDHAM, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, p. 736, 1903; venation; pi. 

40, f. 1, wings. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 18, p. 47, 1908; desc; t. f. 43, $ ^p. 
WALKER, Can. Ent., 40, pp. 378, 386, 1908 ; ^ 9 , comp. desc. 
Nymph, NEEDHAM & HART, Bull. 111. State Lab., 6, p. 45, 1901; desc. 
Distr. Upper & Lower Sonoran; B. C. & Cal. to Utah & Ariz. 

canadensis WALKER, Can. Ent., 40, pp. 382, 389, 1908 ; ^ 9 , types U. S. N. 

Mus.— Ottawa Nat, 22, p. 54, 1908; dist. (Aeshna Y). 
WILLIAMSON, Ohio Nat, 7, p. 146, 1907; $ 9 (Aeshna Y). 
Syn. clepsydra MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 18, p. 36, 1908; $ 9 ; types Coll. 

Selys; t. f. 36, S app.— [Walker, in litteris, Aug. 14, 1909.] 
Distr, Canadian, Transition; New England States to Wash. 

clepsydra SAY, Jn. Acad. Phila., 8, p. 12, 1839; $, holotype Boston Mus.* 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 122, 1861; desc. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 20, p. 248, 1893 ; ^ 9 desc— Ent. 

News, 5, p. 9, 1894; identity discussed. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 84, 1899; desc. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 304, 1900; desc; pi. 7, ff. 12, 13, 

^ app. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 91, 1908; desc 
WALKER, Can. Ent, 40, pp. 383, 388, 1908; clear desc 
Syn. arundinacca SELYS, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., 15, p. 36, 1872; 9, type Coll. 
Selys.— L. c, 27, p. 117, 1883; ^ desc— [Martin 1908.] 
maxima HISINGER, Not Faun. Flor. Fenn., 6, p. 117, 1861.— [Calvert 
1894, cites Heikel as author.] 
Distr. Alleghanian & Carolinian, New England to Ont. & Ind. 

constrkta SAY, Jn. Acad. Phila., 8, p. 11, 1839; types lost 

HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 123, 1861; ^, neotype M. C. Z. 

NOTE— Walker, in litteris. Aug. 14, 1909: "The synonyms given by you do not 
belong to the true clepsydra. A. arundinacea and maxima I have not seen. It is very 
probable that the first at least is a good species. A. crenata is a valid species beyond 
any doubt. I have examined Hagen's types carefully and find them unquestionably 
distinct from any American form, coming nearest to eremita." 

VValker, in litteris, Sept. 24, 1909: (To clepsydra) "Some of the references * • • 
do not refer to the true clepsydra. * • * • * I am quite sure arundinacea is not 
clepsydra, but as I have not seen the type it is probably best to let it stand as a 
synonym of the latter on the authority of Martin." 



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110 BULLETIN, PUBUC MUSEUBC, MILWAUKEE 

Aeshninae 

PROVANCHER. Nat Can., 9, p. 42, 1877. 

CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 20, p. 249, 1893; S $ desc—Biol. 

C. Am., p. 185, 1905 ; comp. desc. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 83, 1899; desc. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 305, 1900; desc; pi. 7, ff. 14, 15, i 

app. — EnL News, 17, p. 369, 1903; comp. notes. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 91, 1908; desc 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 18, p. 46, 1908; L f . 44, ^ app. 
WALKER, Can. Ent, 40, pp. 380, 387, 1908; comp. desc— Ottowa 

Nat, 22, p. 54, 1908; dist— In littcris, Aug. 14, 1909; "most of the 

descriptions include constricta &. umbrosa and oittn also paimata** 
Nymph, WILLIAMSON, 1. c, pi. 4, f. 10; adult 

NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 470, 190, desc. 
Distr, Carolinian 8c Allegfaanian; Atlantic Coast to Dakotas. 

coroifeni BRAUER, Verb. Ges. Wien, 15, p. 906, 1865; $ 9, types Mus. 
Vienna; short Latin desc— Reise d. Norara, p. 70, 1866; de- 
tailed desc. 

HAGEN, Verh. Ges. Wien, 17, p. 49, 1867; validity. 

CALVERT, Proc Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 507, 1895; comp. notes; pi. 
15, ff. 24, 31, 32, ^ char.— L. c, (3) 1, p. 408, 1899; brief notes. 
— Biol. C. Am., p. 182, 1905; comp. desc; p. 400, 1907, notes. 

RIS, Magelhaenreise, p. 23, 1904; S 9 desc 

MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 18, p. 46, 1908; desc; t f. 42, $ app. 
Distr, Lower Sonoran, (Calvert z, 3-4) ; Mexico, S. Am., Baja Cal. 

crenata HAGEN, Stett. EnL Zeit., 17. p. 369, 1856; trpe M. C Z.— L. c, 19, p. 97» tSsS. 
SELYS, Ann. Soc Ent. Belg., is» p. as* xo73; ^ $.— L. c, 31, p. 60, x887* 
BERGROTU. Ent. Nachr., 7, p. 86, 1881; noted. 
CALVERT, Ent. Newt, 5, pp. p-xj, 1894; identity (sdepaydra). 

Distr. Arctic; Irkutsk. Uauallr cited from N. Am. Walker in litteris. Sept m* 1909: 
"A crenata— not known from N. Am. The American apecimens men- 
tioned at belonging to thia species are all A. eremita. 

dttgesii CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 184, 1905; $, holotype U. S. N. Mus.; 
pi. 8, f[, 11, 12, $ app. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 18, p. 49, 1908; $ desc; t. f. 50, $ app. 
Distr, Lower Sonoran, (Calvert z. 4) ; Mexico: Guanajuato. 

eremiU SCUDDER, Proc. Boston Soc., 10, p. 213, 1866; $ $, types M.C.Z. 

HAGEN, Proc Boston Soc, 15, p. 376, 1873; notes on types.— L. c, 
18, p. 34, 1875 ; note on f rons. 

CALVERT, Ent. News, 5, p. 9, 1894; validity i=clepsydra) . 

WILLIAMSON, Ohio Nat, 7, p. 146, 1907; notes; (Aeshna X), 

WALKER, Cant. Ent., 40, pp. 383, 388, 1908; $ $, comp. desc. 
Syn, hudsonica SELYS, Ent M. Mag., 11, p. 242, 1875; S 9, types Coll. Selys. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. Ill 

Aeshninae 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 18, p. 35, 1908; desc; t. f. 30, ^ app.— 
[Walker, in litteris, Aug. 14, 1909.J 
Nymph, CABOT, Mem. M. C. Z., 8, p. 23, 1881 ; desc. ; pi. 2, f. 2, adult. 
NEEDHAM & HART, Bull. III. State Lab., 6, p. 42, 1901; desc 
Distr, Hudsonian & Canadian : Labr., N. F., N. H. to Alaska & Wyo. 

florida HAGEN, syn. ad luteipennis. 

tardfeni KARSCH, syn. ad multicclor, 

hodsooica SELYS, syn. ad eremita. 

ingeiis RAMBUR, vide Coryphaeschna, postea. 



WALKER, Can. Ent, 40, p. 381, 388, 1908; ^ 9, types Acad. Phila. 
Distr. Transition; B. C. to Calif. & New Mexico. 



WALKER, Can. Ent, 40, pp. 381. 387. 1908; ^9, types Coll. 
Walker.— Ottawa Nat, 22, p. 54, 1908; dist (Aeshna W)* 
WILLIAMSON, Ohio Nat, 7, p. 146, 1907; notes; Aeskna W), 
Distr. Canadian; N. F. to Mich. & Ont 

iatrloiU MARTIN, Cat Coll Selys, 18, p. 59, 1908; S 9, types Coll. Selys 

& Martin; t. f. 55. ^ app. 
Distr. Lower Sonoran: Mex., (higher parts) ; Venez to Bolivia & Chile. 



WILLIAMSON, Ent News, 19, p. 265, 1908; comp. desc; ^ 9, 
types: ^ ColL Calvert, 9 Coll. Godman; t £., ^ app. 
Distr. Lower Sonoran; Jalapa, Mex. (4,200 ft); Amatillan, (Guatemala. 

laocea (LINNE), Syst Nat.. 1, p. 544, 1758; (LiM/tt/a).— Faun. Suec, p. 

174, 1761. 
STEPHENS, III. Brit Ent, 6, p. 84, 1835; (Aeshna). 
HAGEN, Syn. Lib. Eur., p. 55, 1840; complete synon3miy. — Syn. Neur. 

N. Am., p. 120, 1861.— Stctt. Ent Zcit, 17, p. 370, 1856; ^9, 

notes. 
SELYS, Mon. Lib. Lib., p. 106, 1840; desc— Rev. Odon., p. 116, 1850. 
EVANS, Brit. Lib., 21, 1845 ; pi. 11, f. 2, adult. 
RIS, Fauna Helv., p. 25, 1885 ; desc 

NOTE.— Walker, in litteris, Aug. 14, 1900: "A. interna, interrupta, lineata, and 
nevadentit intergrade. • • • • They are all well marked races, well desenring 
names. A. nevadensis in a possible exception to this statement.'* 



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112 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Aeshninae 

ROSTOCK, Ver. Zwickau, p. 131, 1888; desc 
GARBINI, Bull. Soc. Ent. Ital., 27, p. 120, 1895; brief diagnosis. 
WALLENGREN, Ent. Tidsk., 15, p. 256, 1894; short desc. 
MACLACHLAN, Ent. M. Mag., p. 30, 1899; occurrence in Lappmark. 
LUCAS, Brit. Drag., p. 190, 1900; complete life history; pi. 16, S 9 

ads. col. 
SJOSTEDT, Ent. Tidsk., 23, p. 16, 1902 ; short desc. ; t. f. 3, adult. 
CALVERT, Ent. News, 14, 1903; pi. 2, f. 1, wings. 
FROHLICH, Ver. Aschaffenburg, p. 29, 1903; desc, ethol. notes. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll, Selys, 18, p. 34, 1908; desc; t. f. 34, S app. 
WALKER, Can. Ent., 40, pp. 385, 390, 1908 ; comp. desc. ; pi. 10, ff. 1, 
2, 5, S 9 char. 
Syn. caucasica KOLENATI, Mel! Ent., 5, p. 114, 1850; types Mus. Petersburg, 
SELYS, Rev. Odon., p. 300, 1850. 
ocellata (MULLER), Nova Acta Leop. Carol. Acad., 3, p. 125, 1767; 
(Libellula).— [Selys 1850.] 
HAGEN, Syn. Lib. Eur., p. 54, 1840; (/leshfia). 
picta CHARPENTIER, Lib. Eur., p. 112, 1840; ^ 9 ; pi. 20, ^9 ads. 

col.— [Selys 1850.] 
propinqua SCUDDER, Proc Boston Soc, 10, p. 21, 1866 ; ^ 9 , types 

Mus. Boston Soc — [Hagen 1875.] 
rusiica ZETTERSTEDT, Ins. Lapp., p. 1040, 1840.— [Selys 1850.] 
Nymph. Lucas, Brit. Drag., p. 193, 1900; desc. 

Distr. Circumboreal : Arctic — Alpine & Hudsonian: Europe, Asia, N. Am.; 
N. F. & N. H. to Alaska & Colorado. 

lloeaU WALKER, Can. Ent., 40, pp. 382, 388, 1908; 3 9, types Coll. Walker. 
Distr. Canadian; N. Dak. to Rockies; Manitoba, Sask. 

luteipennls BURMEISTER, Handk Ent., 2, p. 837, 1839; $, types M. C.Z., 
Mus. Vienna. 
CALVERT, Proc Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 503, 1895; comp. desc; pi 
17, flf. 27, 28, 6 app.— Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 25, p. 53, 1898; on 
Burm. types. — Biol. C. Am., p. 186, 1905; comp. desc; p. 400, 
1907; notes. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 18, p. 73, 1908; desc; t. f. 72, 3 app. 
Syn. excisa BRAUER, Verb. Ges. Wien, 15, p. 906, 1865; $ shortly desc; 
type Mus. Vienna. — Reise d. Novara, p. 69, 1866; desc; pi. 1, 
f. 19, $ app. 
HAGEN, Verb. Ges. Wien, 17, p. 50, 1867 ; desc. notes & synonymy. 
norida HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 125, 1861; 9, type M. C. Z.— 
[Calvert 1905.] 
Distr. Lower Sonoran, (Calvert z. 3-4) ; Mex. (elevated) to Brazil. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. Il3 

Aeshninae 
macromki BRAUER, syn. ad. Coryphaeschna adnexa, postea. 

nuiitlimi HISINGER, syn. ad clepsydra. 

maltlcolor HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 121, 1861; $ 9, types M. C. Z. 

CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 508, 1895; desc; pi. 15, ff. 
25, 26, $ app.— Biol. C. Am., p. 183, 1905; comp. desc; p. 400, 
1907; notes. 
WILLIAMSON, Proc. Ind. Acad., p. 177, 1900; desc— Ent. News, 9, 

pp. 265, 301, 1908; differentials; t. f., S app. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 18, p. 48, 1908; desc; t. f. 45, $ app. 
WALKER, Can. Ent, 40, pp. 379, 386, 1908; desc 
Syn. furcifera KARSCH, Ent. Nachr., 17, p. 310, 1891 ; $ , type Mus. Berlin, 

—[Calvert 1905.] 
Distr, Upper & Lower Sonoran; B. C. to Tex., Colo. & Panama. 

OMltaU HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 124, 1861; 9, holotype Mus. Vienna. 

WILLIAMSON, Ent. News, 19, pp. 264, 302, 1908; differentials, 
desc; t. f., $ app. 

WALKER, Can. Ent., 40, pp. 379, 386, 1908; comp. desc 
Distr. Carolinian; Ind. Ohio, Mass. 

■•vad«flsl# WALKER, Can. Ent, 40, p. 382, 1908; d, type M. C. Z. 
Distr. Lower Sonoran ?; Reno, Nevada. 

llAliiBata HAGEN, Stett. Ent Zeit., 17, p. 369, 1856; $, type M. C. Z. 

WALKER, Can. Ent., 40, pp. 379, 388, 1908; $ 9 desc 
Syn. constricta CALVERT, Proc Calif. Acad., (2) 4, p. 509, 1895; comp. 

desc; pi. 15, ff. 29, 30, ^ app. — [Walker, in litteris, Aug. 14, 

1909.] 
Distr. Boreal; Pacific Coast, Kamchatka, Alaska to Colo., Utah, B. Cal. 

pttncUU MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 18, p. 54, 1908; $ 9, types Coll. Martin; 

t f. 51, $ app. 
Distr. Tropic ?; Mexico, Brazil. 

••pttntrionalte BURMEISTER, Handb. Ent, 2, p. 839, 1839; 9, holotype 
M. C. Z. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 120, 1861 ; $ 9 desc— Psyche, 5, p. 

254, 1890; det desc 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent Soc, 25, p. 54, 1898; on Burm. type. 



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114- BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Aeshninae 

MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Sclys, 18, p. 38, 1908; desc; t. f. 35, wings, i. 
36, $ app. 

WALKER, Can. Ent., 40, pp. 386, 390, 1908 ; comp. desc 
Distr. Hudsonian; N. H. & Labrador to Great Slave Lake. 

sltchensU HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 119, 1861; ^, t>'pe M. C Z.— 
Psyche, 5, p. 353, 1890; $ $, very detailed desc 

MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 18, p. 41, 1908; desc; t. f. 37. $ app. 

WALKER, Can. Ent, 40, pp. 386, 390, 1908; comp. desc. 
Distr. Hudsonian & Canadian; N. F. & Mich, to Alaska. 

Sttbarctlca WALKER, Can. Ent., 40, pp. 385, 390, 1908; $ 9, types Coll. 

Walker. 
Distr. Canadian; Nova Scotia to Mich. 

tobercullffera WALKER, Can. Ent., 40, pp. 385, 387 ; ^ 9 , types Acad. Phila. 
Distr. Alleghanian; N. H., Ont. to Wis. 

umbrosa WALKER, Can. Ent., 40, pp. 380, 390, 1908 ; ^ 9 , types U. S. N. 
Mas. — Ottawa Nat, 22, p. 54, 1908; dist (Aeshna Z). 
WILLIAMSON, Ohio Nat, 7, p. 146, 1907; notes (Aeshna Z). 
Syn. constricta SCUDDER, Proc Boston Soc, 10, p. 212, 1866; $ $ desc 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 41, f. 4, $ adult 
WALKER, In litteris, Aug. 14, 1909; (= umbrosa). 
Nymph. CABOT, Mem. M. C. Z., 8, p. 24, 1881; desc; pi. 3, f. 1, adult; {con- 
stricta). 
NEEDHAM & HART, Bull. 111. State Lab., 6, p. 42, 1901; desc 
(constricta). — [teste Walker, loc cit] 
Distr. Canadian to Upper Austral; Atlantic to Pacific Coast. 

vertlcalis HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 122, 1861; S» types M. C. Z. 

PROVANCHER, Nat Can., 9, p. 43, 1877. 

CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent Soc, 20, p. 248, 1893; desc 

KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 84, 1899; S 9. 

WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 304, 1900; desc; pi. 7, flF. 10, 11, ^ 
app. 

MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 78, 1908; desc 

MARTIN, Cat Coll. Selys, 18, p. 38, 1908; desc (race of juncea). 

WALKER, Can. Ent., 40, pp. 385, 398, 1908; desc 
Syn. propinqua SCUDDER, Proc. Boston Soc, 10, p. 214, 1866; in part. 
Nymph. NEEDHAM & HART, Bull. 111. State Lab., 6, p. 46, 1901; desc 
Distr. Alleghanian & Carolinian ; Wis. & 111. to Atl. Coast 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 116 

Aeshtiinae 
virens RAM BUR, vide Coryphaeschna, postea. 

wilUaiiisoiiiaiia CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 185, 1905; S, type Coll. Dcam; 
pi. 8, ff. 13, 14, 19, $ char. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 18, p. 57, 1908; ^ $ ; t. f. 53, ^ app. 
Distr. Lower Sonoran, (Calvert z. 3-4), Mexico: Cuernavaca. 

CORYPHAESCHNA WILLIAMSON. 

Type— 4ngens (RAMBUR). Distribution— Neotropic, into Gulf Strip. 
Ent. News, 14, p. 2, 1903; full characterization. 
CALVERT, Ent. News, 14, pp. 8, 9, 1903 ; further notes, and spp. 

adnexa (HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 127, 1861; $, type M. C. Z.; 
(Aeshna), 
CALVERT, Ent. News, 14, p. 9, 1903; S 9 desc (Coryphaeschna). 

— Biol. C. Am., p. 188, 1905; comp. desc. (Aeshna), 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 18, p. 75, 1908; desc; t. f. 74, $ app. 
Syn. macromta BRAUER, Verh. Ges. Wien, 15, p. 906, 1865; ^, type Mus. 
Vienna. — Reise d. Novara, p. 68, 1866; desc. amplified. — [Cal- 
vert 1905.] 
HAGEN, Verh. Ges. Wien, 17, p. 50, 1867; identity. 
Distr. Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-3), Tamaulipas, Mex. to Brazil; Cuba, Haiti, etc. 

infens (RAMBUR), Ins. Neur., p. 192, 1842; $, type Coll. Selys; (Aeshna). 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 128, 1861 ; $ 9 desc. 
WILLIAMSON, Ent. News, 14, p. 8, 1908; desc.; (Coryphaeschna). 
CALVERT, Ent. News, 14, p. 8, 1903 ; desc. ; pi. 2, f . 2, wings. 
NEEDHAM, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, p. 736, 1903; venation; pi. 

40, f. 2, wings. 
MARTIN, Cat Coll. Selys, 18, p. 77, 1908; desc.; t. f. 76, $ app. 
(Aeshna). 
Syn. abboii HAGEN, Stett. Ent. Zeit., 24, p. 373, 1863 ; 9 .—Proc Bost. Soc., 
16, p. 350, 1874 ; 9 , desc. from Abbot's drawing in Brit. Mus.— 
[Hagen 1875.] 
Distr. Gulf Strip; Ga., Fla., Cuba, Panama; N. C. 

vireos (RAMBUR), Ins. Neur., p. 192, 1842; 9, type Coll. Selys; (Aeshna). 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 127, 1861 ; $ 9 desc. 
SCUDDER, Proc. Boston Soc, 10, p. 190, 1866; on ^ app. 
CALVERT, Ent. News, 14, p. 9, 1903; desc (Coryphaeschna).— 

Biol. C. Am., p. 187, 1905; comp. desc. (Aeshna) ; pi. 8, ff. 17, 18, 

^ app. 



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116 BULLETIN, PUBUC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Aeshninae 

MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 18, p. 7C, 1908; dcsc.; t. f. 27, wings; 
t f. 75, $ app. 
Distr. Trc^ic, (Calvert z. 2-3), Ga., W. Indies; Mex. to Brazil & Bolivia. 

NASIAESCHNA SELYS. 
Type — pentkacantha (RAMBUR). Distribution — Nearctic. 
Termes Fiizetek, 23, p. 93, 1900 ; diagnosis in Foerster*s paper. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 463, 1901; char.— Proc. 

U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, pp. 718, 736, 1903 ; venation, affinities. 
NEEDHAM & HART, Bull. III. Sute Lab., 6, p. 30, 1901 ; char. 
WILLIAMSON, Ent. News, 14, p. 5, 1903; affinities; tabulations. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 95, 1908; char. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 18, p. 7, 1908; char.— L. c, 19, p. 86, 1909. 

penthacantha (RAMBUR), Ins. Neur., p. 208, 1842; 9, type Mus. Paris; 
{Aeshnd). 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 129, 1861 ; ^ 9 desc. 
WALSH, Jn. Acad. Phila., p. 397, 1862; noted. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 305, 1900; desc. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. N. Y. State Mus., p. 467, 1901; ethol. notes; 
{Nasia€schna).'-'PxoQ. U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, p. 755, 1903; ven.; 
pi. 39, f. 1, wings. 
NEEDHAM & HART, Bull. III. State Lab., 6, p. 33, 1901 ; venation. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 95, 1908; dist. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 18, 1908; pi. 2, f. 7, adult colored ^.— 
L. c, 19, p. 87, 1909; desc; t ff. 80, 81, wings, $ app. 
Nymph. GARMAN, Bull. III. State Lab., 3, p. 178, 1888; notes; (Epiaeschna 
heros). 
NEEDHAM, I. c, p. 468, 1901; desc. 

NEEDHAM & HART, I. c, p. 34, 1901; desc; pi. 1, f. 1, adult. 
Distr. Carolinian to Gulf Strip; 111. & N. Y. to Fla. & Tex. 

EPIAESCHNA HAGEN 

Type— heros (FABRICUS). Distribution— Nearctic 
Proc Boston Soc, 18, p. 86, 1877. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (3) 5, p. 729, 1883.— Termes Fiizetek, 23, 

p. 94, 1900. 
KARSCH, Ent. Nachr., 17, p. 279, 1891; affinities. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 228, 1893.— Biol. C. Am., 

p. 196, 1905. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 77, 1899. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 248, 1900.— Ent. News, 14, p. 5, 1903. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 117 

Corduliinae 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 463, 1901.— Proc. U. S. 

Nat. Mus., 26, p. 736, 1903; affinities. 
NEEDHAM & HART, Bull. 111. State Lab., 6, p. 31, 1901. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 95, 1908. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 18, p. 7, 1908.— L. c, 19, p. 85, 1909. 

heros (FABRICIUS), Ent. Syst. Suppl., p. 235, 1798; (Aeshna). 

RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 194, 1842 ; ^ $ desc 

HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 128, 1861; desc. 

WALSH, Proc. Acad. Phila., p. 397, 1862; noted. 

HARRIS, Ent. Corr., p. 326, 1869. 

AARON, Drag. vs. Mosquitoes, 1890; pi. 1, f. 2, adult col. 

PROVANCHER, Nat. Canad., 10, p. 130, 1878; notes. 

KARSCH, Ent. Nachr., 17, p. 286, 1891; dist. (Epiaeschna) . 

CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 20, p. 246, 1893 ; desc— Ent. News, 
14, 1903 ; pi. 2, f . 3, wings. 

KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 81, 1899; desc. 

WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 302, 1900; desc. 

HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 41, f. 7, $ adult. 

WALKER, Ottawa Nat., 22, p. 55, 1908; dist. 

MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 95, 1908; desc 

MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 19, p. 85, 1909; desc; t. flF. 78, 79, wings, 
S app. 
Syn, multicincta SAY, Jn. Acad. Phila., 8, p. 9, 1839; 9 ("this species usu- 
ally referred to hcros Fabr.")— [Hagen 1861.] 
Nymph. CABOT, Mem. M. C. Z., 8, p. 39, 1881 ; desc ; pi. 1, f . 3, adult. 

NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 469, 1901; desc; t f. 13, 
labium. 

NEEDHAM & HART, Bull. 111. State Lab., 6, p. 36, 1901 ; desc 
Distr, Carolinian to Gulf Strip ; Me., Ont. & S. Dak. to Tex. & Fla. 



FAMILY L.IBEIXUL.1DAE RAMBUR. 

Ins. Neur., p. 24, 1842 ; defined. 

BRAUER, Verb. Ges. Wien, 18, pp. 712-790, 1868; groups and generic 

char. 
NEEDHAM, Proc U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, pp. 739-742, 1903 ; defined. 



SUBFAMILY CORDULIINAE SELYS. 

Type genus — Cordulia LEACH. Distribution — Cosmopolitan. 
Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 31, pp. 234-565, 1871; Synopsis des Cordulines. 



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118 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Macromiini 

—Addition au Syn., 1. c, (2) 37, pp. 11-35, 1874.— Secondes Ad- 
dition, 1. C, (2) 45, pp. 183-222, 1878. 

MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, Vol. 17, pp. 94, 1907; monograph of 
subfamily; 99 text figures; 3 plates colored. 

WILLIAMSON, Ent. News, 19, pp. 428-432, 1908; revision of classi- 
fication, 5 groups distinguished, general characters for the groups. 

NEEDHAM, Ann. Ent. Soc. Am., 1, pp. 273-280, 1908; critical notes 
to Williamson ; tables of genera. 



TRIBUS MACROMIINI NEEDHAM.* 

Type genus — Macromia RAMBUR. Distribution — Cosmopolitan. 
Ann. Ent. Soc. Am., p. 278, 1908; defined as subfamily.— Bull. 47 

N. Y. State Mus., p. 479, 1901; insufficient diagnosis.— Proc. U. 

S. Nat. Mus., 26, p. 739, 1903; characters noted. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, pp. 64, 98, 1908; in 

part. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 17, p. 57, 1907; (Groupe Macromia), in 

part. 



DIDYMOPS RAMBUR. 

Typt^iservillei RAMBUR) = iransi^ersa (SAY). Distribution— Nearctic. 
Ins. Neur., p. 142, 1842. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 135, 1861.— Verb. Ges. Wien, 17, p. 

58, 1867. 
BRAUER, Verb. Ges. Wien, 18, pp. 369, 1868. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 45, p. 211, 1878. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 20, p. 223, 1893. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 85, 1899. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 479, 1900.— Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 

37, p. 369, 1909. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 481, 1901.— Proc. U. S. 

Nat. Mus., 26, p. 756, 1903. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 17, pp. 58, 75, 1907. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 98, 1908. 



transversa (SAY), Jn. Acad. Phila., 8, p. 19, 1893; ^, (Libellula), type 
Mus. Boston Soc. 

NOTE. — Though the Macromiinse (sensu Needham) are quite compact as a group, 
they are here reduced to tribal rank. The Cordulinae s. s. and Macromiinae, as de- 
fined by Needham, cannot be coordinated. Needhara's definition on the contrary sub- 
ordinates the Corduliinae to his Macromiinaee. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 119 

Macromiini 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur., N. Am., p. 135, 1861 ; ^ $ , (Didymops) ; $ 
after Say.— Proc. Boston Soc., 15, p. 268, 1873; on type.— L. c, 
16, p. 359, 1874; dist. (Macromia). 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg.. (2) 31, p. 548, 1871; desc. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 20, p. 250, 1893; desc (Didymops). 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 98, 1899; desc. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind.. p. 307, 1900; desc. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 481, 1901 ; ethol. notes.— 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, 1903 ; pi. 41, f . 2, $ wgs. 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 45, £. 9, ^ adult. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 17, p. 75, 1907; desc; t. f. 88, wings. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 98, 1908; desc 
Syn, cinnomomea BURMEISTER, Handb. Ent, 2, p. 845, 1839; $, (Epoph- 
thalmia) holotype Mus. Halle.— [Hagen 1861.] 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 25, p. 57, 1898 ; on Burm. type. 
servillei RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 142, 1842; ^, {Didymops), type Coll. 
Selys.— [Hagen 1861.] 
Nymph. CABOT, Mem. M. C. Z., 17, p. 14, 1890; desc; pi. 1, f. 3, adult. 

NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 481, 1901; desc; pi. 18, 
f. 8, adult. 
Distr. Alleghanian & Carolinian; Me. & Mich, to Ga. & S. C. 



MACROMIA RAMBUR. 

Type — cingulata RAMBUR. Distribution — Cosmopolitan. 
Ins. Neur., p. 137, 1842. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 132, 1861. 
BRAUER, Verb. Ges. Wien, 18, p. 370, 1868. 
SELYS, C. R. Soc. Ent. Belg., 14, p. 7, 1870.— Bull. Acad. Belg., 

(2) 31, p. 536, 1871; monograph of spp.— L. c, (2) 45, p. 210, 

1878. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 223, 1893. 
KARSCH, Ent. Nachr., 25, p. 176, 1899. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 85, 1899. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind.. p. 245, 1900; char.— Proc U. S. Nat. 

Mus., 37, pp 368-398. 1909; monogr. of N. Am. spp., tabulations 

of diflferences, 7 t. flf.* 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 483, 1901.— Ann. Ent. 

Soc. Am., 1, p. 278, 1908. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 17, p. 75, 1907; monograph of spp. 

•NOTE. — Mr. Williamson very kindly sent me the page proof of his Macromia 
paper, from which I have gleaned the references here included; although the paper ia 
not published at the date of this writing (Nov. 12. 1909), the form is final and the refer- 
ences thereto will probably need no correction. 



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120 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Macromiini 

MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6. p. 98, 1908. 
Syn. Pseudogomphus KIRBY, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 229, 1889.— [Kirby 
1890.] 
fHylaeschna SJOSTEDT, Bih. Svenska Akad., 25, p. 40, 1900.— [Will- 
iamson, in litt: "I have Hylaeschna as synonym of Macromia 
on my card. I do not remember who told me of this — **] 

alleghanlensls WILLIAMSON, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 37, p. 376, 1909; 

S 9, types Coll. Williamson. 
Distr, Carolinian; Va., Penn., Ky. 

anntttata HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 133, 1861; $ 9, types M. C. Z. 

SELYS. Bull. Acad. Belg.. (2) 31, p. 544, 1871 ; desc. 

MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 17, p. 66, 1907; desc. 

WILLIAMSON, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 37, p. 387, 1909; desc. 
Distr. Carolinian; Texas, 111., Carolina. 

australenste WILLIAMSON, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 37, p. 381, 1909; $ 9, 

types Coll. Williamson. 
Distr. Austroriparian ?; Wister, Oklahoma; Dallas, Tex. 

flavipemiif WALSH, syn. ad paciAca. 



(SELYS), Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 45, p. 197, 1878; 9, type Coll. 
Selys; (Epophthalmia). 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 17, p. 64,. 1907; desc; t. f. 81, 9 app.; 

pi. 2, f. 14, ad. col. 
WILLIAMSON, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 37, p. 383, 1909; ^ 9, allo- 
type Coll. Williamson; (Macromia). 
Distr. Austroriparian; N. C. & Ga. to Tex. 

Illlnoleosls WALSH, Proc. Acad. Phila., p. 397, 1862; 9. type lost. 

SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 31, p. 546, 1871; S 9 desc; 6 M.C.Z. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 251, 1893; desc 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 87, 1899; desc 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 308, 1900; desc— Proc. U. S. Nat. 

Mus., 37, p. 377, 1909 ; desc, t. ff. 5, 6, ^9 wings. 
NEEDH AM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 483, 1901 ; ethol. notes. 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 42, f. 7, $ adult. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 17, p. 67, 1907; desc; t. f. 86, S app. 
WALKER, Ottawa Nat., 22, p. 56, 1908; brief diagnosis. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 121 

Macromiini 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 99, 1908; desc; 
pi. 6, wings. 
Nymph, ?CABOT, Mem. M. C. Z., 17, p. 3, 16, 1890; desc; pi. 2, f. 1, adult 
Distr, Carolinian; Wis., Ottawa & Penn. to 111. & N. C. 

magnifica MACLACHLAN, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 37, p. 22, 1874; $9, 
types Coll. MacLachlan. 

MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys. 17, p. 67, 1907; desc. 

WILLIAMSON, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 37, p. 389, 1909; desc. 
Distr. Upper Sonoran; California, Arizona. 

paclfica HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 134, 1861; $, type M. C. Z., mu- 
tilated. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 36, p. 542, 1871; $ 9, Coll. Selys. 
WILLIAMSON. Drag. Ind., p. 309, 1900; desc— Proc. U. S. Nat 

Mus., 37, p. 389, 1909; desc 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 99, 1908; desc 
Syn, navipennis WALSH, Proc. Acad. Phila., p. 398, 1862; 9, type lost 

SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 31, p. 545, 1871; desc— [Martin 1907 
to annulata, Williamson 1909 to paMca.] 
Distr. Upper Austral; Wis. to Ind., Texas, Calif. 



taeniotaU RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 139, 1842 ; S , t>'pe Mus. Paris. 

HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 132, 1861; $ 9 desc— Proc Boston 

Soc, 16, p. 359, 1874, notes. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 31, p. 527, 1874; desc. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 250, 1893 ; desc. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 86, 1899; desc 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 309, 1900; desc— Proc. U. S. Nat 

Mus., 37, p. 372, 1909; desc; t f. 3, wings. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 483, 1901 ; dist 
MARTIN, Cat Coll. Selys, 17, p. 64, 1907; desc. (Epophthalmia). 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 99, 1908; desc 
(Macromia) . 
Nymph. PCABOT, Mem. M. C. Z., 17, p. 9, 1890; desc; pi. 2, f. 4, adult 
Distr. Carolinian to Gulf Strip; N. Y. & Wis. to Kans. & Fla. 



wabashensls WILLIAMSON. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 37, p. 374, 1909; $, 

Coll. Williamson ; t. f. 4, wings. 
Distr. Carolinian ?; Bluff ton, Ind. 



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122 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Corduliini 

TRIBUS CORDULIINI SELYS. 

Type genus— -Cordw/k* LEACH. Difctributionr— G)smopalitan- 
Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 31, pp. 234-565, 1871; in part. 
NEEDHAM, Ann. Ent. Soc. Am., 1, p. 278, 1908; defined as sub- 
family. 



EPICORDULIA SELYS. 

Type—princeps (HAGEN). Distribution— Nearctic. 
Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 31, p. 259, 1871.— L. c, (2) 45, p. 207, 1878. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 20, p. 223, 1893. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 249, 1900. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 85, 1899. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 484, 1901.— Ann. Ent. 

Soc. Am., 1, p. 280, 1908. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 17, p 1907. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 100, 1908. 

princeps (HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 134, 1861; ^9, (Epitheca), 
types M. C. Z. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 31, p. 275, 1871; desc. (Epicordulia) . 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 20, p. 251, 1893; desc. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 88, 1899; desc. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 310, 1900; desc. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 489, 1901 ; ethol. notes. 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 45, f. 8; ^ adult. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 17, p. 46, 1907; desc; t. f. 58, wings. 
WALKER, Ottawa Nat, 22, p. 57, 1908 ; brief diagnosis. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 102, 1908; desc. 
Syn. regina SELYS, I.e., (2) 31, p. 277, 1871; ^, {Cordulia), type Coll. 

Selys.— [Martin 1907.] 
Nymph. GARMAN, Bull. 111. State Lab., 3, p. 179, no. 10, 12, 1883; (Libcllula 
nymphs). 
CABOT, Mem. M. C. Z., 17. p. 25, 1890; desc; pi. 3, f. 3, pi. 4, f. 3, 

adults. 
NEEDHAM, 1. c, p. 488. 1901 ; desc ; pi. 21. f. 2, adult. 
Distr. Carolinian & Austroriparian; Me. & N. Dak. to Tex. & Ga. 

NEUROCORDULIA SELYS. 

Type— obsoleta (SAY). Distribution— Nearctic. 
Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 31, p. 278, 1871.— L. c, (2) 45, p. 206, 1878. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 123 

Corduliini 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 20, p. 223, 1893. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 249, 1900. 
NEEDHAM, Bull 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 484, 1901.— Ann. Ent. Soc. 

Am., 1, p. 278, 1908. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 100, 1908. 

obsoleU (SAY), Jn. Acad. Phila., 8, p. 29, 1839; 9, (Libellula), type Mus. 
Boston Soc. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 136, 1861; $ $, (Didymops). 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 31, p. 279, 1873; desc. (fEpitheca), 
HAGEN, Proc. Boston Soc., 15, p. 268, 1873; syn. & type.— Pysche, 
5, p. 369, 1890; desc; pi. 1, flf. 7-9, $ $ char.; (Neurocordulia), 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 252, 1893 ; desc. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 312, 1900; desc— Ent. News, 19, p. 

428, 1908; venation. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 485, 1901; bibl. & notes. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 17, p. 38, 1907 ; desc. ; t. f. 45, wings ; ff. 

46-48, $ 9 char. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 100, 1908; dist. 
Syn. polystkta BURMEISTER, Handb. Ent, 2, p. 856, 1839; $, (Libellula), 
type M. C Z. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 25, p. 81, 1898; on Burm. type.— 
[Hagen 1861.] 
molesta WALSH, Proc Ent. Soc, Phila., 2, p. 254, 1863; 9, type de- 
stroyed; (Cordulia). — [Hagen 1867.] 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, 1. c, p. 486, 1901; desc 
Distr. Carolinian & Austroriparian ; Mass. & 111. to N. C. & La. 

yamaskarensU (PROVANCHER), Nat. Canad., 7, p. 248, 1875; $, 
(Aeshna), type ?— L. c, 9, p. 86, 1877; $ 9, {Epiiheca), 
HAGEN, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 45, p. 191, 1878; desc. (jamaskar- 
ensis) ; cited by Selys as Hagen's species. — Psyche, 5, p. 367, 
1890; good desc; pi. 1, ff. 1-6, $ 9 char. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 17, p. 39, 1907; $ desc; t. f. 49, $ app. 
WALKER, Ottawa Nat., 22, p. 57, 1908; desc notes. 
WILLIAMSON, Ent. News, 19, p. 428, 1908; venation; pi. 18, wings. 
Distr. Alleghanian; Quebec Lakes betw. Georgian Bay & Ottawa. 



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124 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Corduliini 

PLATYCORDULIA WILLIAMSON. 

Type— xanthosoma WILLIAMSON. Distribution— Nearctic. 
Ent. News, 19, p. 431, 1908. 

xantiKMoma WILLIAMSON, Ent. News, 19, p. 432, 1908; $, type Coll. 
Williamson; t. f., S char.; pi. 18, wings. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 17, (add.), p. 98, 1909; desc. 
Distr. Austroriparian ?, Oklahoma. 

HELOCORDULIA NEEDHAM. 
Type— uhleri (SELYS). Distribution— Nearctic. 
Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., pp. 484. 495, 1901; char, tabulated.— Ana 

Ent. Soc. Am., 1, p. 280, 1908. 
MARTIN, Cat Coll. Selys, 17, p. 40, 1907. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc.. (2) 6, p. 101, 1908. 

selysU (HAGEN), Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 45, p. 189, 1878; 3 $, (Cordulia), 
types M. C. Z. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 496, 1901; desc. notes 

(Helocordulia) ; t. ff. 21, o-i, $9 app. 
MARTIN, Cat Coll. Selys, 17, p. 40, 1907; desc; t. f. 50, wings; 

f . 52, $ app. ; pi. 1, f . 7, adult colored 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 101, 1908; dist 
Distr, Austroriparian; Ga., N. C. 

uhleri (SELYS), Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 31, p. 274, 1871; $ 9, (Cordulia), 
types: $ Mus. Boston Soc, $ Coll. Uhler. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 496, 1901; ethol. notes; 

(Helocordulia) ; t. f. 21, x, y, S 9 app. 
MARTIN, Cat Coll. Selys, 17, p. 40, 1907; desc; t. f. 51, $ app. 
WALKP:R, Ottawa Nat., 22, p. 58, 1908; brief diag.; pi. 2, flF. 15, 16, 

6 app. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 101, 1908; dist 
Nymph, NEEDHAM, 1. c, p. 498, 1901 ; desc. ; t f. 22, structural details. 
Distr. Alleghanian & Carolinian; Me. & Ont. to Pa. & N. J. 

TETRAGONEURIA HAGEN. 

Type— semiaquaea (BURMEISTER). Distribution— Nearctic 
Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 140, 1861. 
BRAUER, Verb. Ges. Wien, 18, p. 370, 1868. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 223, 1893. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 86, 1899. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 125 

Corduliini 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 249, 1900. 

NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 249, 1901.— Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 26, p. 724, 1903.— Ann. Ent. Soc. Am., 1, p. 280, 1908. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 17, pp. 10, 40, 1907. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 103, 1908. 
Syn. Tetragoneura SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 31, p. 259, 1871.— L. c, 
(2) 45, p. 207, 1878. 

Iiaslfifttata SEI.YS, subsp. sub cynosura. 



MACLACHLAN, Ent. M. Mag., 23, p. 104, 1886; S, type Coll. Mac- 
Lachlan. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 17, p. 43, 1907; $ 9 desc; t. f. 55, $ app. 
WALKER, Ottawa Nat., 22, p. 58, 1908; desc. notes; pi. 2, ff. 13, 14, 
S app. 
Distr. Transition ?; Ottawa; U. S., Washington (Terr.) 

complaoata (RAMBUR), subsp. sub cynosura. 

costalis SELYS, subsp. sub cyncsura. 

cynosura (SAY), Jn. Acad. Phila., 8, p. 30, 1839; $ (Libellula), type Mus. 

Boston Soc. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 31, p. 270, 1871; $9 desc. (Cor- 

dulia). 
HAGEN, Proc. Boston Soc, 15, p. 271, 1873; on type & identity. 
CALVERT, Trans. Ent. Soc., 20, p. 252, 1893; desc. (Tetragoneuria) , 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 89, 1899; desc. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 311, 1900; desc— Ent. News, 16, p. 

255, 1905; ethol. notes; oviposition. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 493, 1901; ethol. notes; 

dist.— Proc U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, p. 724, 1903 ; t. f. 19, wings. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 17, p. 41, 1907; desc; t. f. 54, $ app. 
WALKER, Ottawa Nat., 22, p. 57, 1908; brief diag.; pi. 2, ff. 11, 12, 

3 app. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 104, 1908; desc 
Syn. lateralis BURMEISTER, Handb. Ent, 2, p. 847, 1849; ^, {Epoph- 

thalmia), type M. C. Z. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 139, 1861; ^9, {Cordulia).— 

[Hagen 1873.) 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 25, p. 58, 1898; on Burm. type. 
Nymph. CABOT, Mem. M. C. Z., 17, p. 28, 1890; desc 



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126 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Corduliini 

NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 492, 1901; dcsc; t. f. 
20, abdomen. 
Distr. Alleghanian to Austroriparian ; Me. & N. Dak. to Fla. & La. 

Subsp.basH^utUtA SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg.. (2) 31, p. 271, 1871; ^ 9, 
Coll. Selys. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 17, p. 42, 1907; desc. 
Distr, Florida, Boston. 

Subsp,compUmatA (RAMBUR), Ins. Neur., p. 145, 1842; (Cordulia), $ 9 
Coll. Selys. 

SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 31, p. 273, 1871 ; desc. 

MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 17. p. 42, 1907; desc. (Tetragoneuria), 
Distr. Austroriparian; Florida, N. C. 

Subsp.costaOs SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 31, p. 273, 1871; 9, type 
British Mus.— L. c, (2) 37. p. 20, 1874, 6 9 . 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 17, p. 43, 1907; desc 
Distr, Austroriparian; Georgia. 

indistincta MORSE, Psyche, 7, p. 210, 1895; 9, type M. C Z. 

MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 17, p. 45, 1907; desc. 
Distr, Alleghanian?, Mass. 

semlaquaea (BURMEISTER), Handb. Ent, 2, p. 858, 1839; 9, {Libellula), 
holotype M. C. Z. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 140, 1861; 9 ^, (Tetragoneuria) .-^ 

Proc. Boston Soc., 16, p. 360, 1874; notes (Cordulia). 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 31, p. 272, 1871; desc. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 252, 1893; desc (Tetra- 

goneuria). — L. c, 25, p. 88, 1908; on Burm. type. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 493, 1901; dist. 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902 ; pi. 43, f . 1 ; ^ adult. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 17, p. 42, 1907; desc (race of cynosura). 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 104, 1908; desc 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, 1. c, p. 493, 1901 ; dist. 
Distr. Transition, to Austroriparian; B. C. & Me. to Fla, 

spitiigera SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 31, p. 269, 1871; $, type Coll. 

Selys.— L. c, (2) 37, p. 20, 1874; 9, British Museum. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 311, 1900; desc 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 493, 1901; dist., ethol. 

notes. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 127 

Corduliini 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 17. p. 45, 1907; desc; t. f. 57, $ app. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 104, 1908; desc 

Nymph. NEEDHAM, 1. c, p. 493, 1901 ; dist. 

Distr. Transition to Upper Austral ; B. C. & Wash, to Wis. & Ga. 

spioosa (HAGEN), Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 45, p. 188, 1878; S 9, {Cordulia), 
types: S Coll. Selys, 9 British Museum. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 495, 1901; dist. {Tetra- 

goneuria) ; pi. 22, f. 2, $ adult. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 17, p. 44, 1907; desc; t. f. 56, ^ app. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc. (2) 6, p. 104, 1908; dist. 
Syn. spinigera SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 37, p. 20, 1874; 9 only. 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, 1. c, p. 495, 1901 ; dist. 
Distr. Carolinian, N. Y. & Wis. to Ga. 

DOROCORDULIA NEEDHAM. 

Ty^— libera (SELYS). Distribution— Nearctic & Neotropic (?)* 
Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., pp. 485, 504, 1901.— Ann. Ent Soc Am., 

1, p. 280, 1908. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 17, pp. 10, 35, 1907; char. & spp. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 103, 1908. 

lepida (HAGEN), Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 31, p. 264, 1871; $ 9 {Cordulia), 
types Coll. Uhler & M. C. Z.— Proc. Boston Soc, 15, p. 270, 1873; 
note on distr. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 506, 1901; ethol. notes; 

t. f. 28, x-s, $ 9 app. (Dorocordulia). 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 17, p. 35, 1907 ; desc. ; t. f. 40, ^ app. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 103, 1908; dist. 
Distr. Alleghanian, into Carolinian ; New England States, N. Y. to N. J. 

Ubera (SELYS), Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 31, p. 263. 1871; $ 9 (Cordulia), 

types M. C. Z. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 314, 1900; desc (Somatochlora) . 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 505, 1901; ethol. notes; 

t. f. 28, a-c, $ 9 app.; (Dorocordulia). 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 17, p. 35, 1907; dist; t. f. 39, wings; f. 
40, $ app. 

•NOTE.— See Calvert, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 225, 1909: Dorocordulia errans 
CALVERT; pi. 7. f. 131, ^ app. I join with Calvert in the opinion that the label of 
Chapada was probably placed on the pin by mistake. Since the description is based on 
a single specimen, we must wait for further captures for correction or verification. 



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128 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

CorduUini 

WALKER, Ottawa Nat, 22, p. 59, 1908; desc. notes; pi. 2, f. 17, 
$ app. 

MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 103, 1908; desc. 
Nymph, NEEDHAM, 1. c, p. 505, 1901; desc. 
Distr. Alleghanian; Me. & Wis. to Ind. & N. Y. 

lintneri (HAGEN), Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 45, p. 187, 1878; $ 9 (Cordulic), 
types Mus. Albany.— Psyche, 5, p. 272, 1890; desc; pi. 1, ff. 10, 
11, 16, 17, 3 9 char. ; wg. det. 
EMMONS, Agr. Rept. N. Y., 5, pi. 15, f. 1, S adult col., 1854; no 

name. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 17, p. 36, 1907; desc; t. f. 42, $ app.; 

(Dorocordulia) . 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 103, 1908; dist. 
Distr. Transition; N. Y., Saskatchewan, Lake Winnipeg. 



CORDULIA LEACH. 

Type — aetiea (LINNE). Distribution — Holarctic 
Edinb. Encycl, 9, p. 137, 1815. 
STEPHENS, 111. Brit. Ent., 6, p. 88, 1836. 
SELYS, Mon. Lib. Eur., p. 61, 1840.— Rev. Odon., p. 68, 1830.— Bull. 

Acad. Belg., (2) 31, p. 258, 1871.— L. c, (2) 45, p. 208, 1878.— 

C. R. Soc. Ent. Belg., 14, p. 5, 187a 
RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 144, 1842. 
BRAUER, Verh. Ges. Wien., 18, p. 370, 1868. 
ROSTOCK, Ver. Zwickau, p. 27, 1888. 
WALLENGREN, Ent. Tidsk., 15, p. 216, 1894. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 485, 1901.— Ann. Ent. Soc. 

Am., 1, p. 280, 1908. 
SJOSTEDT, Ent. Tidsk., 23, p. 7, 1902. 
FROHLICH, Ver. Aschaff., p. 22, 1903. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 17, pp. 10, 37, 1907. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 100, 1908. 
Syn. Chlorosoma CHARPENTIER, Lib. Eur., p. 12, 1840.— [Selys, 1850.] 

shurtleffi SCUDDER, Proc Boston Soc, 10, p. 217, 1866; ^, type Mus. 

Boston Soc. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 31, p. 265, 1871 ; ^ 9 desc 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 502, 1901; ethol. notes. 
MARTIN. Cat. Coll. Selys, 17, p. 37, 1907; desc; t. f. 43, wings; f. 

44, 5 app. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATAU)GUE ODONATA OF N. A. 129 

Corduliini 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 103, 1908; dist. 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, 1. c, p. 503, 1901; desc. 
Disir, Hudsonian & Canadian; N. H. & N. F. to Alaska & B. C. 

SOMATOCHLORA SELYS. 

Type— metallica (VANDERLINDEN). Distribution Cosmopolitan. 

Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 31, p. 279, 1871.— L. c, (2) 46, p. 204, 1878. 

WALLENGREN, Ent. Tidsk., 15, p. 247, 1894. 

CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 20, p. 223, 1893. 

KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 85, 1899. 

WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 249, 1900.— Ent. News, 17, pp. 137- 

140, 1906, 2 pis.; N. Am. spp. discussed. — L. c, 20, pp. 77-79, 

1909; corrections. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., pp. 484, 504, 1901.— Proc. 

U. S Nat. Mus., 26, p. 741, 1908.— Ann. Ent. Soc. Am., 1, p. 

280, 1908. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 17, pp. 10, 19, 1907. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 100, 1908. 
Syn. Chlorosoma CHARPENTIER., Lib. Eur., p. 23, 1840.— [Selys 1871.] 

aMdncta (BURMEISTER), Handb. Ent., 2, p. 847, 1839; $, iEpoph- 
thalmia), type M. C. Z. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 138, 1861; $ 9 {Cordulia). 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 31, p. 58, 1871; desc. (Epitheca). 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 25, p. 58, 1898; on Burm. type. 
CURRIE, Proc. Wash. Acad., 3, p. 220, 1901; desc. notes (Somato- 

chlora). 
WILLIAMSON, Ent. News, 17, p. 138, 1907; dist.; pi. 6, ff. 18-20, 

$ 9 char. 
MARTIN, Cat Coll. Selys, 17, p. 28, 1907; desc; t. f. 29, $ app. 
Syn. eremita SCUDDER, Proc. Boston Soc., 10, p. 215, 1866; ^9, types 
Mus. Boston Soc.; {Cordulia). — L. c, 11, p. 300, 1867; 
(= albicincta f). 
Disir. Hudsonian, into Canadian; Labr. to N. H. ; Alaska. 

cbanidraea WILLIAMSON, Ent. News, 18, p. 5, 1907; ^, holotype Coll. 

Williamson; t. ff. 1, 2, $ app. 
Distr, Transition; Jefferson Co., Colo. 

dofulato (SELYS), Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 31, p. 302, 1871; 9 (Epitheca), 
type Coll. Selys.— L. c, (2) 37, p. 20, 1874; notes.— L. c, (2) 
45, p. 195, 1878; ^9, type $ Coll. MacLachlan.— Ent. M. Mag., 
11, p. 241, 1875; $ desc. 



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130 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Corduliini 

WILLIAMSON, EiU. News, 17, p. 138, 1906; dist. (Somatochiora). 

MARTIN, Cat. Coll. S«lys, 17, p. 23, 1907; desc. 
Distr, Hudsonian into Canadian; Labrador to N. H., Mass. 

elongate (SCUDDER), Proc. Boston Soc., 10, p. 218, 1866; $ $, types Mus. 
Boston Soc. (Cord.). 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 31, p. 292, 1871; desc. (Epiiheca). 
WALKER, Can. Ent, 39, p. 74, 1907; dist.; pi. 2, ff. 2, a, 6 char. 

(Somatochiora) . 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 17, p. 23, 1907 ; desc. ; t. f. 21, ^ app. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 102, 1908; desc. 
Distr, Alleghanian; Me. & N. Y. to Wis. 

ensigera MARTIN, Cat. Coil. Selys, 17, p. 29, 1907; 9, holotype Coll. 

Selys; t. f. 31, $ app.; pi. 1, f. 5, 9 adult col. 
Distr. Transition ?; Montana. 

ftlosa (HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 136, 1861; ^, type M. C. Z. 
(Cordulia). 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 31, p. 287, 1871; ^ 9 desc. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 253, 1893; desc. (Somato- 
chiora). 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 313, 1900; desc. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 500, 1901; noted; t. f. 24, 

S 9 app. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 17, p. 22, 1907; desc; t. ff. 19, 20, $ 9 
app. 
Syn, tenebrosa WALSH, Proc Acad. Phila.. p. 399, 1862; 9, type lost; 

(Cordulia). -—[Stlys 1871]. 
Distr, Carolinian to Gulf Strip; N. J. & Md. to Fla. 

forcipata (SCUDDER), Proc Boston Soc. 10, p. 216, 1866; S, (Cordulia), 
type Bost. Soc. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 31, p. 295, 1871; S 9, (Epitheca) .— 

L. c, (2) 45, p. 194, 1878; additions. 
WILLIAMSON, Ent. News, 17, p. 136, 1906; notes (Somatochiora) ; 

pi. 6, ff. 9-11, $ char. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 17, p. 25, 1907 ; desc. ; t. ff. 24, 25, B 9 
app. 
Distr. Canadian; Hudson's Bay, N. R, N. Scot., Ont, N. H. 

franklinil (SELYS), Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 45, p. 195, 1878; 9, very brief 
diagnosis; type Coll. Selys; (Epitheca). 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 131 

Corduliini 

MARTIN, Cat. Cbfll Sdiys. 17, p. 25, 1907; 9 only; (Somatochlora) . 

Syn. septentrionalis SELYS, Bull. AcadL Bclg., (2) 31, p. 298, 1871; S only. 

WILLIAMSON, Ent. News, 17, p. 138; 1906; desc; pi. 5, f. 1, 3 

app.— [Williamson 1909.] 

Distr. Canadian; Me., Hudson's Bay, Saskatchewan? 

hudsonlcA (HAGEN), Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 31, p. 301, 1871; ^ 9, (Epi- 

theca)t types M. C. Z. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 17, p. 27, 1907; desc; t. f. 28, ^ app.; 

{Somatochlora). 
Distr. Canadian; Hudson's Bay; Newfoundland. 

Uaemris (HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 137, 1861; ^ 9, (Cordulia); 
types : ^ M. C. Z., 9 Coll. Uhler.— Proc. Boston Soc., 16, p. 360, 
1874; (Epilheca), notes. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 31, p. 286, 1871; desc.— L. c, (8) 

45, p. 193, 1878. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 20, p. 253, 1893; desc {Somato- 
chlora) . 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 313, 1900; desc— Ent. News, 16, p. 

5, 1905; dist. — L. c, 18, p. 2, 1907; dist.; t. f. 2, S app. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 501, 1901; noted; t. f. 

25, $ 9 app. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 17, p. 21, 1907; desc; t. ff. 17, 18, S 9 
app. 
Syn, procera SELYS, 1. c, (2) 31, p. 285, 1871; 9 $, {Cordulia), types: S 

British Mus., 9 Coll. Selys.— [Selys 1878.] 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, 1. c, p. 269, 1903; desc {Somatochlora j^.)— Ent. 

News, 16, p. 6, 1905. 
Distr. Carolinian; Pa. to 111. & Mo. 

macrotona WILLIAMSON, Ent. News, 20, p. 78, 1909; 5 9, types 111. 

State Lab. 
Distr. Alleghanian ?, Duluth, Minn. 

minor CALVERT, Ent. News, 9, p. 87, 1898; in note (subsp. of elongata) ; 
5, t3rpe Coll. Calvert. 
WILLIAMSON, Ent. News, 11, p. 457, 1900; desc notes; pi. 9, ff. 

11, a, S app. 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902 ; pi. 42, f . 6 ; ^ adult. 
WALKER, Can. Ent., 39, p. 72, 1907; dist; pi. 2, ff. 3, a, $ app. 
Distr. Transition; N. H., Me., Ont., Wyo. 



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132 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Corduliini 

lUMlls (SELYS), Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 37, p. 32, 1874; 9, (Epitheca), 
type Brit. Mus. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 17, p. 28. 1907; brief desc. 
Distr, N. Am. (no specific locality cited). 

provocans CALVERT, Ent. News, 14, p. 39, 1903; ^, types Coll. Daecke, 
Calvert; pi. 3, ff. 7, 8, 6 char. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 17, p. 29, 1907; ^ desc.; t. f. 30, 3 app. 
Distr. Carolinian; N. J., Pa. 

SMiicirciilaiis (SELYS), Bull. Acad. Belg.. (2) 31, p. 295, 1871; 6, (Epi- 
theca), M. C Z.— L. c, (2) 45, p. 194, 1878; 6 9 ; 9 type Coll. 
Selys. 
HAGEN, U. S. Surv. Terr. Colo. (1873), p. 590, 1874; S 9 desc. 
WILLIAMSON, Ent. News, 17, p. 136, 1907; desc. notes; pi. 5, ff. 

2-5; pi. 7, f. 21, $ 9 char.; (Somatochlora) . 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys. 17, p. 26, 1907; desc; t f. 26, $ app. 
Distr, Canadian ; Me. to B. C, Utah, Colo. 

MpteDtriooalls (HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am,, p. 139, 1861; 9, {Cordulia), 
type M. C. Z. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 31, p. 298, 1871; 9 only; (Epitheca). 

L. c, (2) 45, p. 195, 1878; desc 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 17, p. 25, 1907; dist. 
Syn. hudsonica WILLIAMSON, Ent. News, 17, p. 138, 1906; notes; pi. 6, ff. 
14-17, S 9 char.— [Williamson 1909.] 
ffranklinii MARTIN, Cat. Coil. Selys, 17, p. 25, 1907; $ only.— [Will- 
iamson 1909.] 
Distr. Hudsonian; Labr., Hudson Bay. 

teaebrosa (SAY), Jn. Acad. Phila., 8, p. 18, 1839; ^, (Libellula), type lost. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 137, 1861; (Cordulia), desc. after 

Say. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 31, p. 289, 1871; $9, (Epitheca), 

Coll. Selys. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 314, 1900; desc. (Somatochlora). 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 502, 1901; noted; t. f. 

27, $ 9 aw). 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 17, p. 24, 1907; desc; t. ff. 22, 23, $ 9 

app. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 101, 1908; $ app. 

desc. 
Distr. Alleghanian, into Carolinian; N. Y. & N. J. to 111. 



^ 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 133 

Libellulinae 
wabUi (SCUDDER), Proc. Boston Soc., 10, p. 217, 1866; $, (Cordulia) ; 
Mus. Boston Soc. 
SELYS, Bull. Acad. Belg., (2) 31, p. 293. 1871; $, (Epitheca). 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 17, p. 33, 1890; $ desc. {Somato- 

chlora), 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 591, 1901 ; noted ; t. f . 26, 

^ app. 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 40, f. 10; 5 ad. col. 
MARTIN, Cat. Coll. Selys, 17, p. 26, 1907 ; $ desc. ; t. f. 27, $ app. 
Distr. Alleghanian; N. H., Me. 

winiammiri WALKER, Can. Ent, 39, p. 70, 1907; $ 9, types Coll. Walker; 

pi. 2, flF. 1, a-f, $ 9 char. 
Syn. elongata NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 499, 1901; noted; 

t. f. 23, $ app.; pi. 21, f. 1, adult. 
WALKER, Can. Ent., 38, p. 151, 1906; noted.— JWalker 1907.] 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, 1. c, p. 500, 1901; desc. as {S. elongata). 
Distr. Alleghanian; N. Y. to Ontario. 



SUBFAMILY LIBELLULINAE SELYS. 

Rev. Odon., p. 1, 1850; as tribus. 

BRAUER, Verb. Ges. Wien, 18, pp. 364-370, 712-730, 1868; review 

of genera. 
KIRBY, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, 12, pp. 249-348, 1889; pis. 51-57; 

revision of the subfamily; desc. of n. genera and n. spp. 
KARSCH, Beri. Ent. Zeitschr., 33, pp. 347-392, 1889; Beitrage zur 

Kenntniss der Arten u. Gattungen der Libellulinen. — Abh. 

Senckb. Ver., 25, pp. 216-230, 1900; new system proposed. 
CALVERT, Ent. News, 12, 325, 1901; classification, after Karsch.— 

Biol. C. Am., pp. 198-205, 1905; synopsis of N. Am. genera. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., pp. 506-508, 1901 ; table of 

N. Y. genera. 
KRUEGER, Stett. Ent. Zeit, 63, p. 71, 1902; on classification. 
FOERSTER, Jb. Ver. Mannheim, 71 & 72, pp. 3-17, 1906 ; new sys- 
tem proposed.— Jb. Ver. Nassau, 59, pp. 305-343, 1906; additions 

& corrections. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 105, 1908; table 

of Wis. genera, after Needham. 
RIS, Mitth. Schweiz. Ent. Ges., 10, pp. 436-446, 1903; on parallelism 

of European & N. Am. genera. — In Schultz: Forschungsreise, p. 

328, 1908; notes on present systems; a prospective system noted. 



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134 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Libellulinae 

—Cat. Coll. Selys, 9, pp. 1-120, 1909; pi. 1, t. ff. 89; part one of 
monograph of the Libellulinae; pp. 18-38, a new system of classi- 
fication explained. 

LADONA NEEDHAM.* 

Type— exusta (SAY). Distribution^Nearctic. 
Can. Ent., 29, p. 146, 1897.— Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 507, 1901. 
FOERSTER, Mitth. Bad. Zool. Ver., 15, p. 5, 1902. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 105, 1908. 

exiista (SAY), Jn. Acad. Phila., 8, p. 29, 1839; $, type Mus. Boston Soc; 
(Libeilula). 
HAGEN, Proc. Boston Soc., 15, p. 265, 1875; on Say's type. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 20, p. 259, 1893; desc. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 99, 1899; desc. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 331, 1900; desc 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 529, 1901; identity; t. f. 

31, S gen.; (Ladona). 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 41, ff. 5, 6; $9 ads.; {Libeilula). 
WALKER, Ottawa Nat., 22, p. 62, 1908; dist; {Ladona), 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 116, 1908; desc 
Syn. Julia UHLER, Proc Acad. Phila., p. 88, 1857; ^, {Libeilula), type 
Coll. Uhler.— [Hagen 1873.] 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 153. 1861; ^.— Stett. Ent. Zeit., 28, 

p. 92, 1867 ; 6 $ desc 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 116, 1908; desc 
{Ladona), 
Nymph, NEEDHAM, 1. c, p. 530, 1901; desc. 
Distr. Transition & Upper Austral ; Mass. & B. C. to Fla. 

Subsp,dtp\9aiBUL (RAMBUR), Ins. Neur., p. 75, 1842; ^9, Coll. Selys; 
{Libeilula). 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 154, 1861; $ 9. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 258, 1893; identity 

{=^exusta), 
NEEDHAM, Can. Ent., 29, p. 144, 1897; {Ladona). 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, 1. c, 29, p. 144, 1897; desc. (Larfowa).— Bull. 47 N. Y. 

State Mus., p. 529, 1901; desc. 
Distr. Austroriparian ; Pa. to Fla. 

•NOTE.— Ri«, in litteris, July 23. 1900: "I do not accept Platctrum, Plathemis, 
Ladona, Lcptctrum, Belonia, etc." Needham, in litt., March 3, 1909: "• * • the 

frenus Ladona, I still think it valid. I have been trying to get nymphs from the close- 
y allied European L. fulva • • • • but have not, as yet, succeeded. Such nymphs 
as I have seen are distinct enough, but I would like to see whether there are any inter- 
gradient characters to be found among the nymphs of exotic species." See alto tabula- 
tions by Calvert in Biol. C. Am., p. 206, 1905. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 135 

Libellulinae 
LIBELLULA LINNE.* 

Type — dcpressa LINNE. Distribution— Cosmopolitan. 
Syst. Nat., 1, p. 543, 1758; genus established for all Odonata. 
LATREILLE, Hist Nat. Crust., Ins., 3, p. 286, 1882; limited. 
RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 26, 1842; divisions pointed out. 
SELYS, Rev. Odon., p. 3, 1850; type designated and divisions. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 151, 1861; characters. 
BRAUER, Verb. Ges. Wien, 18, p. 366, 730, 1868; limited. 
ROSTOCK, Ver. Zwickau, p. 125, 1888; cbar. 
KIRBY, Trans. London Zool. Soc, 12, pp. 260, 284, 1889; restricted 

to 1 sp. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent Soc., 20, p. 225, 1893 ; used in Brauer*s 

sense. — Biol. C. Am., pp. 198, 206, 1906 ; char. & C. Am. spp. 
WALLENGREN, Ent. Tisdk., 15, p. 241, 1894. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 92, 1899. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 252, 1900. 
NEDHAM. Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 508, 1901; char.; p. 530, 

table of N. Y. spp. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 117, 1908; table, 

after Needham. 
RIS, Cat. Coll. Selys, 9, p. 22, 1909; includes Ladona & Plathemis, 
Syn. Belonia KIRBY, Trans. London Zool. Soc., 12, pp. 260, 288, 1889. 
KARSCH, Berl. Ent. Zcitschr., 33, p. 361, 1890. 
Holotania KIRBY. 1. c, 12, pp. 261, 288, 1889. 
Leptetrum NEWMAN, Ent. Mag., 1, p. 511, note, 1833. 

KIRBY, 1. c, 12, pp. 200, 286, 1889. 
Platetrum NEWMAN, 1. c, 1, p. 511, note, 1833. 
KIRBY, I. c, 12, pp. 260, 286, 1889. 
WALLENGREN, Ent. Tidsk., 15, p. 283, 1894. 
Pigiphila BUCHECKER, Syst. Ent, p. 11, 18T8. 

aiirlpeanis BURMEISTER, Handb. Ent., 2, p. 861, 1839; ^, type M. C. Z. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 155, 1861 ; ^ $ desc. 
SCUDDER, Proc. Boston Soc, 10, p. 191, 1866; notes. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent Soc, 20, p. 256, 1893; desc— L. c, 25, 

p. 93, 1898; on Burm. type.— Biol. C. Am., p. 208, 1906; comp. 

desc. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 97, 1899; desc 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 329, 1900; desc 

•NOTE.— The N. Am. genera of Ris* group II are Libcllula, Orthemts, and 

Cannaphila; to these I have added Ladona and Plathemis, which Ris does not rec- 

Of[nize. Group I is not represented in the American fauna. Group I and II form what 
Ris calls his "Libelluli-form" Libellulinae. 



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136 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Libellulinae 

NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus. p. 533, 1901; dist. 

HOWARD, Insect Book, 1902; pi. 45, f. 6, 3 adult. 

MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 117. 1908; dist. 
Syn. costalis RAMBUR, Ins. Ncur., p. 59, 1842; 5 $ Coll. Sclys. 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, 1. c, p. 533, 1901 ; desc. 

Distr, Austroriparian & Tropic; (Calvert z. 2-3), Atl. Coast, Mass. & Ohio 
to Fla. & Tex.; Mexico; Cuba, Isle of Pines. 

axUlena WEST WOOD, Edit. Drury. 2, 1837; pi. 47, f. 1.— Duncan: Intr. 
Ent. p. 292, 1840; pi. 29, f. 1. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 156, 1861 ; desc— Proc. Boston Soc., 

16, p. 361, 1874; identity. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 20, p. 257, 1893; desc. 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 43, ff. 5, 6; ^9 ads. 
Syn. leda SAY, Jn. Acad. Phila., 8, p. 22, 1839; very brief diagnosis. — [Hagen 
1861.] 
lydia DRURY, 111. Exot. Ent, 2, pi. 47, f. 1, 1773.— [Hagen 1861.] 
RAMBUR, Ins. Neur.. p. 55, 1842; desc. 
Nymph. ?NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. State Mus., p. 273, 1903; desc. 
Distr. Austroriparian; Pa. to Fla. & La. 

basalis SAY, syn. ad luctuosa. 



CALVERT, Ent. News.. 18, p. 201, 1907; dist; new name for 

navida HAGEN.— Biol. C. Am., p. 401, 1907 ; ^ $ dist 
Syn. i=zhomonymn) Aavida HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 156, 1861; ^, 

type M. C. Z.— U. S. Surv. Terr. Colo. (1872), p. 728, 1873.— 

L. c. (1873). p. 587, 1874; desc. 
Distr. Upper Sonoran, (Calvert z. 4), Mont., Wyo. to Tex. & Mex., Calif. 

composita HAGEN, U. S. Surv. TeiT. Colo. (1872), p. 728, 1873; $, Meso- 
themis), type M. C. Z. — L. c. (1873), p. 587, 1874; correction; 
(Libellula). 
Distr. Transition, Yellowstone. 

croc«lpeiiiii8 SELYS, subsp. sub. saturata. 

cyanea FABRICIUS, Syst. Ent, p. 424, 1775. 

RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 70, 1842; desc. 

CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 20, p. 256, 1893 ; desc— Ent News, 

18, p. 201, 1901; identity discussed, tabulation of differences. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 97, 1899; desc 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 137 

Libellulinae 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 330, 1900; desc. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 534, 1901; dist. 
HOWARD, Ins. BcK)k, 1902; pi. 44, ff. 2, 3; ^9 ads. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 117, 1901; dist. 
Syn. bisHgma UHLER, Proc. Acad. Phila., p. 87, 1857.— [Hagen 1861.] 

quadruph SAY, Jn. Acad. Phila., 8, p. 23, 1839; ^ $, types Mus. Boston 
Soc. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 157, 1861; desc— [Hagcn 1867.] 
Nymph, NEEDHAM, 1. c, p. 534, 1901 ; desc. 
Distr. Carolinian ; N. H. & Ind. to Ga. 

flavida RAM BUR, Ins. Neur., p. 58, 1842; $, type Coll. Selys. 

CALVERT, Ent. News, 18, p. 201, 1907; identity, diflferenccs tabu- 
lated. 

MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 117. 1908; dist. 
Syn. plumbea UHLER, Proc. Acad. Phila., p. 87, 1857. 

HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 157, 1861; 6 9. —[Calvert 1907.] 

CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 534, 1893; desc. 

NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 534, 1901 ; dist. 

HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902 ; pi. 40, f. 13 ; S ad. col. 
Distr. Austroriparian ; Atl. coast, Pa. & N. J. to IHa. 

foHata (KIRBY), Trans. Zool. Soc. London, 12, p. 333, 1889; 9 only, 
{Belonia), type British Museum; pi. 54, f. 4, 9 ad. colored. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 208, 1906; 3 9 comp. desc (Libellula). 
Distr. Lower Sonoran, (Calvert z. 4), Mex., Guatemala, Costa Rica. 



HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 154, 1861; 3, type Mus. Berlin.— 
U. S. Surv. Terr. Colo. (1873), p. 585, 1874; ^9, types M. C. Z. 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 27, p. 706, 1904; desc 
Distr. Upper Sonoran; B. C. to Calif., Mont, to Ariz. 

horculea KARSCH, Ent. Nachr., 15, p. 235, 1889 ; 5 9 , t>-pes Mus. Berlin.- 
Berl. Ent. Zeitsch.. 33, p. 361, 1890; extract from Brauer's letter; 
(= Belonia). 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 209, 1906; comp. desc. 
Syn. longipennis KIRBY, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, 12, p. 334, 1889; 9, 
{Belonia), type British Museum. — [Calvert 1906.] 
foliata KIRBY, 1. c, p. 333, 1889 ; $ only, type Brit. Mus.— [Calvert 1906.] 
Distr. Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-4), Mexico to Paraguay. 

ioceata HAGEN. Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 155. 1861; ^, type M. C. Z.— 
Psyche, 5, p. 384, 1890; $. 



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138 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Libellulinae 

CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 17, p. 34, 1890; 9 desc— L. c, 
20, p. 257, 1893; desc. 

KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 99, 1899; desc. 

WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 330, 1900; desc. 

NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 531, 1901; dist. 

HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 43, f. 3; ^ adult. 

WALKER, Ottawa Nat., 22, p. 62, 1908; dist. 

MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 118, 1908; desc. 
Distr. Alleghanian & Carolinian ; Me. & Wis. to Mo. & N. C. 

longlpeiiiiis (KIRBY), syn. ad herculea, 

luctuOM BURMEISTER, Handb. Ent., 2, p. 861, 1839; types Mus. Vienna. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 152, 1861; desc. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 25, p. 93, 1898 ; on Burm. types.— 

Ent. News, 17, p. 30, 1906; priority discussed. 
WALKER, Ottawa Nat., 22, p. 62, 1908; dist. 
Syn, basalis SAY, Jn. Acad. Phila., 8, p. 23, 1839; 5, type lost.— [Calvert 
1907.] 
HAGEN, Proc. Boston Soc., 18, p. 70, 1875 ; priority. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 265, 1893 ; desc. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 96, 1899; desc 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 329, 1900; desc. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 532, 1901 ; dist. 
HOWARD, Insect Book, 1901 ; pi. 43, ff. 2, 6, S 9 adults 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 118, 1908; desc 
odiosa HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 152, 1861; $ 9, types M. C. Z. 
[Calvert 1907.] 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, I. c, p. 532, 1901; desc as (odiosa). 
Distr. Alleghanian to Austroriparian ; Me. & N. Dak. to New Mex. & Fla., 
Mexico. 

merida SELYS, syn. ad Cannaphila vihcx. 

nodisticta HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 151, 1861; 5, type M. C. Z.— 
U. S. Surv. Terr. Colo. (1873), p. 583, 1874; ^ 9. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 213, 1906; comp. desc 

Distr. Upper Sonoran, (Calvert z. 4-5), Mont. & Wash, to Calif. & Nev.; 
Mex. to Venez. 

odiosa HAGEN, syn. ad luctuosa. 
plumbea UHLER, syn. ad Havida. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 139 

Libellulinae 
pnkheila DRURY, 111. Exot. Ent., l, pi. 48, f. 5, 1773. 
RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 54, 1842; desc. 
HAGEN, Syn, Neur. N. Am., p. 153, 1861; desc. 
CALVERT, Ent. News, 2, p. 36, 1891; abnormal wing.— Trans. Am. 

Ent. Soc., 20, p. 259, 1893. 
NEEDHAM, Outdoor Studies, p. 56, f. 55, 1898; adult.— Bull. 47 
N. Y. State Mus., p. 536, 1901; dist.; pi. 23, f. 2, adult— Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, 1903 ; pi. 48, f. 3, wings. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 101, 1900; desc. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 332, 1900; desc. 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 40, f. 7; ^ ad. col. 
WALKER, Ottawa Nat., 22, p. 62, 1908; dist. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 119, 1908; desc. 
Syn. bifasciata FABRICIUS, Syst. Ent., p. 421, 1775.— [Rambus 1842.] 
BURMEISTER, Handb. Ent, 2, p. 862, 1839. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 25, p. 93, 1898 ; on Burm. desc. 
confusa UHLER, Proc. Acad. Phila., p. 87, 1857.— [Hagen 1867.] 
versicolor FABRICIUS, Syst Ent, p. 423, 1775.— [Burmeister 1839]. 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 536, 1901 ; desc— Proc. 

U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, p. 712, 1903 ; t f. 6, tracheation. 
Disir. Alleghanian to Austroriparian ; Me. & N. Dak. to Tex. & Fla. 

qaadrimaculata LINNE, Syst. Nat, 1, p. 543, 1758.— Faun. Suec, p. 371, 

1761. 
CHARPENTIER, Lib. Eur., p. 63, 1840 ; desc ; pi. 3, ^ $ adults 

colored. 
SELYS, Mon, Lib. Eur., p. 32, 1840 ; desc. ; pi. 3, f. 1, ^ app.— Rev. 

Odon., p. 7, 1850. 
RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 50, 1842; desc 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 150, 1861; desc 
PACKARD, Amer. Nat., 1, p. 310, 1867; pi. 9, f. 2, adult 
RIS, Faun. Helv., p. 10, 1885; desc. 
ROSTOCK, Ver. Zwickau, p. 125, 1888; desc 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 258, 1893 ; desc 
WALLENGREN, Ent. Tidsk., 15, p. 237, 1894 ; brief diagnosis. 
GARBINI, Bull. Soc Ent. It, 27, p. 115, 1895; desc 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 100, 1899; desc 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 331, 1900; desc 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 534, 1901; dist. 
SJOSTEDT, Ent. Tidsk., 23, p. 8, 1902 ; desc ; t. f. 1, adult. 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 40, f. 3; 5 ad. col. 
FROHLICH, Ver. Aschaff., p. 12, 1903; desc 
WALKER, Ottawa Nat., 22, p. 63, 1908; dist. 



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140 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Libellulinae 

MUTTKOWSKI. Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 119. 1908; dcsc. 
Syn. maculaia HARRIS, Expos. Engl. Ins., pi. 46, f. 1, 1782. 
praenubila NEWMAN, Ent. Mag., 1, p. 420, 1833; 
STEPHENS, 111. Brit. Ent., 6, p. 92. 1836. 
EVANS, Brit. Lib., p. 26, 1839; pi. 17, f. 2. 
quadripunctata FABRICIUS, Spec. Ins., p. 520, 1781. 
temaria SAY, Jn. Acad. Phila., 8, p. 21, 1839; ^. Mus. Boston Soc.— 
[Hagen 1861.] 
Nymph, NEEDHAM, 1. c, p. 534, 1901; desc 

Distr. Holarctic ; Europe, Asia, N. America ; Canadian to Carolinian ; Canada, 
N. F. to Alaska; U. S., Me. & Wash, to Ark. & N. C. 

saturate UHLER, Proc. Acad. Phila., p. 88, 1857 ; 6 . type M. C. Z. 

HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 152, 1861; ^$.— Stett Ent. Zeit, 
28, p. 92, 1867; on Uhler type.— U. S. Siirv. Terr. Colo. (1873) 
p. 585, 1874; desc 
CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 516, 1895; desc notes; pi. 
16, ff. 70-73, <J char.— Biol. C. Am., p. 210, 1906; comp. desc; 
p. 401, 1907; notes. 

Nymph, NEEDHAM, Proc U. S. Nat. Mus.. 27, p. 705, 1904; desc; pi. 42, 
f. 1, adult. 

Distr. Upper & Lower Sonoran, Mont. & N. M. to Baja Calif. & Mex. (Cal- 
vert z. 3-4). 

^M^j/^.croceipeiiiiis SELYS, C. R. Soc. Ent. Belg., 11, p. 67, 1868. 
HAGEN, U. S. Surv. Terr. Colo. (1873), p. 586. 1874; desc. 
CALVERT, Biol. C Am. p. 212, 1906; comp. desc; differences 
tabulated. 
Syn. saturata HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 152, 1861; in part; $ 9 from 
Mex.— [C:alvert 1906.] 
CALVERT, Proc Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 615, 1895; in part. 
uniformis KIRBY, Trans. Zool. Soc London, 12. p. 333, 1889; 9, {Be- 
Ionia), t>'pe British Museum. — [Calvert 1906.] 
KARSCH, Ent. Nachr., 15, p. 342, 1889; affinities. 
Distr. Lower Sonoran, (Calvert z. 3-4), Tex., to Mex. to Costa Rica, 

5'f^j/>. aliafllgiiate n.n. 

Syn. (= hom.) uniformis NEEDHAM, Proc U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, 1903; pi. 
8, f. 2, wings. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 212, 1906; identity. 
saturata CALVERT, Proc. C:al. Acad., (2) 4, p. 516, 1895; in part— 
[Calvert 1906.] 
Distr. Lower Sonoran; Texas, Mexico, B. Calif. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 141 

Libellulinae 
semlfasdsta BURMEISTER, Handb. Ent., 2, p. 862, 1839; 9, holotypc Mus. 
Halle. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 151, 1861; ^ $, M. C. Z.— Proc 

Boston Soc. 15, p. 264, 1873; synonymy. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 20, p. 235, 1893; desc— L. c, 25, 

p. 93, 1898; on Burm. type. 
NEEDHAM, Outdoor Studies, p. 55, 1898; t f. 54, adult.— Bull. 47 

N. Y. State Mus., p. 535, 1901 ; dist. ; pi. 23, f. 1, adult. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 100, 1899; desc. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 332, 1900; desc. 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 45, f. 5, 3 adult. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 119, 1908; desc. 
Syn, maculata RAMBUR, Ins. Ncur., p. 55, 1842.— [Hagen 1861.] 

hersilia BLANCHARD, in d'Orbigny, Diet. d'Hist Nat., Atlas, 2.— Ins. 

Neur., pi. 1, f. 2, 1861. 
ternaria SAY, Jn. Acad. Phila., 8, p. 21, 1839; 9 only, type Mus. Boston 
Soc.— fHagen 1861, 1873.] 
Distr. Alleghanian & Carolinian; Me. & Minn, to Mo. & Tenn. 

vibex HAGEN, vide Cannaphila, postea. 

vibrans FABRICIUS, Ent Syst., 2, p. 380, 1793. 

CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 2 p. 257, 1893; desc. as (form? of 
axilUfM). 

KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 98, 1899; desc. 

WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 330, 1900; desc 

NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 531, 1901 ; dist. 

HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 40, f. 11; $ ad. col. 

MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 118, 1908; desc 
Syn. leda SAY, Jn. Acad. Phila., 8, p. 22, 1S39; brief diagnosis.— [Hagen 1861.] 
lydia, var. A, SAY, 1. c, p. 22, 1839; brief desc. 

HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 155. 1861 ; desc 

RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 55, 1842 ; in part. 
Distr. Carolinian; Mass. & Me. to Mo. & N. C. 

PLATHEMIS HAGEN. 

Typt— lydia (DRURY). Distribution— Nearctic 
Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 149. 1861. 

KIRBY, Trans. Zool. Soc London. 12. pp. 260, 287, 1889. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 225, 1893.— Biol. C. Am., 

p. 205, 1906. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 92, 1899. 



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142 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Libellulinae 

WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 251, 1900. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 508, 1901. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 105, 1908. 

lydla (DRURY), 111. Exot. Ent, 1, pi. 47, f. 4, 1773; (Libellula), 

EMMONS, Rep. Agr. N. Y., 5, pi. 15, ff. 4, 5, 1854; S 9, adults, no 

name given. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 333, 1900; desc. (Plathemis) ,—Et\t. 

News, 17, p. 351, 1906; dist; t. f., showing tubercle on 1st abd. 

segment. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 537, 1901 ; dist. 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 40, if. 1, 5; ^9 ads. col. 
WALKER, Ottawa Nat, 22, p. 63, 1908; dist. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 120, 1908; desc. 
Syn. trimaculata DEGEER, Mem. Ins., 3, p. 556, 1773; pi. 26, f. 2; ad.; 

iLibelluIa). 
FABRICIUS, Ent. Syst., Suppl., 2, p. 374, 1793. 
RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 52, 1842; ^ $. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 149, 1861; {Plathemis), 
PACKARD, Amer. Nat., 1, p. 310, 1867; pi. 9, f. 1, adult; (Libellula), 
RILEY, Ins. Mo., 5, p. 14, 1873; t. f., adult. 

CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 259, 1893; desc (Plathemis). 
NEEDHAM, Outdoor Studies, pp. 57, 65, 1898; ff. 56, 66, ^ 9 adults. 

(Libellula). 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 102, 1899; desc (Plathemis). 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 537, 1901; desc; t. f. 33, 

adult. 
Distr. Transition to Upper Austral; N. F. & B. C. to Ark. & N. C. 

subomaU HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 149, 1861 ; ^ 9 , types M. C. Z. 
WILLIAMSON, Ent. News, 17, p. 351, 1906; identity; t. f., abd. 

tubercle. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 205, 1906; comp. desc 
Nymph. NEEDHAM & COCKERELL, Psyche, 10, p. 139, 1903; desc & 

ethol. notes. 
Distr. Lower Sonoran, Kans. & Utah to Tex. & Mex. 

ORTHEMIS HAGEN. 

Typer—ferruginea (FABRICIUS). Distribution— Neotropic, into Nearctic 
Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 160, 1861. 

BRAUER, Verb. Ges. Wien, 18, pp. 367, 729, 1867 ; char.— SB. Acad. 
Wiss. Wien, 87, p. 91, 1883 ; char. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 143 

Libellulinae 
KIRBY, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, 12, pp. 263, 286, 1889. 
CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 472, 1895; char.—Ann. Mus. 

Buen. Aires, 7, p. 34, 1902; table of spp.— Biol. C. Am., p. 201, 

1906; char.; p. 232, table. 
RIS, Cat. Coll. Selys, 9, p. 22, 1909; char. 

discolor (BURMEISTER), syn. ad fcrruginea. 

ferragioea (FABRICIUS;, Syst. Ent, p. 423, 1775; (Libellula). 

KIRBY, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, 12, 286, 1889; noted; pi. 57, ff. 
3, a-c, venation, leg, $ app— Ann. Nat. Hist., (7) 3, p. 364, 1899; 
S 9 {Orthcmis). 
CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 520, 1895; desc notes; pi. 
16, fF. 67-69, $ char.—Ann. Mus. Buen. Aires, 7, p. 34, 1902 ; dist 
— Biol C. Am., p. 234, 1906 ; comp. desc. ; pi. 9, f . 34, thorax. 
NEEDHAM, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, 1903 ; pi. 48, f . 1, wings. 
RIS, Magelhaenreise, p. 42, 1904; noted. 
Syn, discolor (BURMEISTER), Handb. Ent., 2, p. 856, 1839; ^ 9, {Libel- 
lula), Mus. Halle. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 160, 1861; desc— Stett. Ent Zeit, 
29, p. 279, 1868; detailed desc; identity with ferruginea sug- 
gested. 
UHLER, Proc Boston Soc, 11, p. 297, 1868; noted. 
KOLBE, Arch. f. Naturg., 54, p. 168, 1888; noted. 
KARSCH, Ent. Nachr., 15, p. 236, 1889. 

CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 25, p. 57, 1898; on Burm. type. 
macrostigma RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 57, 1842; ^9, ^Libellula) .— 
[Hagen 1861.] 
Nmph. NEEDHAM, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 27, p. 702, 1904; desc, t. f. 2, 

labium. 
Distr. Lower Sonoran to Tropic; Fla., Tex. to Chili; W. Indies; Ariz., New 
Mex. 

levte CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 238, 1906; $ 9, types U. S. Nat. Mus.; 

pi. 9, ff. 38, 39, S char. 
Distr. Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-3), Mexico to Venezuela. 

CANNAPHILA KIRBY. 

Type— insularis KIRBY. Distribution— Neotropical. 
Trans. Zool. Soc. London, 12, pp. 259, 305, 1889. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 200, 1906 ; char. ; p. 239, spp. 
RIS, Cat. Coll. Selys, 9, p. 23, 1909; char. 



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144 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Libellulinae 

aiifiistipeiiiiis (RAMBUR), Ins. Neur., p. 63, 1842; 9, (Libellula), Coll. 
Selys. 
SELYS in Sagra, Hist. Cuba, Ins. p. 446, 1851. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 159, 1861; ^ 9. 
SCUDDER, Proc. Boston Soc, 10, p. 192, 1866; desc. 
KARSCH, Berl. Ent Zeitschr., 33, p. 380, 1890; dist.; (= Canna- 

phila). 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 241, 1906; comp. desc. 
Syn. funerea CARPENTER, Proc. Dublin Soc., 8, p. 434, 1897; ^, type 
Dublin Mus. ; pi. 6, fF. 5-9, venation, ^ char. — [Calvert 1906, with 
a doubt.] 
Distr. Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-4), Mex. to C. Am.; Greater Antilles. 

Subsp.insoABxiB KIRBY, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, 12, p. 341, 1889; ^ 9, 
British Museum.— Ann. Nat. Hist., (6) 4, p. 233, 1889; dist. 
KARSCH, Berl. Ent Zeitschr., 33, p. 380, 1890; dist. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 242, 1906 ; comp. desc. 
FOERSTER, Ent. Wochenbl., 24, p. 5, 1907; affinities. 
Syn. angustipennis UHLER, Proc. Boston Soc., 11, p. 297, 1867; brief note; 

{Libellula). 
Distr. Tropic, (Calvert z. 2), Greater Antilles; Honduras to Brazil. 

vibex (HAGEN). Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 159, 1861; ^, (Libellula), type 

M. C. Z. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 243, 1906; i 9, (Cannaphila) ; pi. 8, 

f. 35, wings. 
Syn. merida SELYS, C R. Soc. Ent. Belg., 11, p. 67, 1868.— [Calvert 1906.] 
Distr. Lower Sonoran, (Calvert z. 3-4), Mexico to Brazil. 

PERITHEMIS HAGEN.* 

Type — domitia (DRURY). Distribution — Nearctic & Neotropic. 
Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 185, 1861. 
BRAUER, Verb. Ges. Wien, 18, pp. 36.5, 718, 1868. 
KIRBY, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, 12, pp. 259, 273. 1889. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 224, 1893.— Biol. C. Am., pp. 

204, 310-315, 1905; char. & revision of genus.* 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 92, 1899. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 250, 1900. 

•NOTE (i).— Pcrithcmis is the only N. Am. genus represented in group III of Ris* 
classification. 

•NOTE (a). — The references and synonymy, as here cited, arc taken in their en- 
tirety from Calvert in the Biologia C. Am. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATAUXSUE ODONATA OF N. A. 145 

Libellulinae 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 506, 1901.— Proc. U. S. 

Nat Mus., 26, p. 718, 1903. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 105, 1908. 
RIS, Cat. Coll. Selys, 9, p. 24, 1909. 

cattfornica MARTIN, syn. ad intensa, 

domltia (DRURY). 
bibliographica generalia. 

DRURY, 111. Nat. Hist., 2, pi. 45, f. 4, 1773;; ^ ad col. {Libelluh). 

WESTWOOD, Edit. Drury, 2, p. 83, 1837; pi. 45, f. 4. 

HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 185, 1861; desc. (Perithemis). 

CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (3) 1, p. 402, 1899. 

RIS, Magclhaenrcise, p. 30, 1904. 

MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 106, 1908. 
bibliographica specifica. 

KIRBY, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, 12, p. 325, 1889.— Ann. Nat. Hist, 
(6) 4, p. 232, 1889. 

FSCUDDER, Proc. Boston Soc., 10, p. 198, 1866. 

PBURMEISTER, Handb. Ent, 2, p. 85.5, 1839; (Libellula). 

CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 25, p. 75, 1898 ; on Burm. types.— 
Biol. C. Am., p. 312, 1906; careful diagnosis of subsp. 
Syn. metclla SELYS in Sagra: Hist Cuba, Ins., p. 451, 1857; {Lihelluld). 
Distr. Tropic; Greater Antilles: Cuba, Jamaica; Florida. 

Suhsp.hkiftnstL KIRBY, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, 12, pp. 326, 1889; ^, type 
British Museum; pi. 51, f. 6, ^ adult col. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 310, 1906 ; $ $ desc. ; pi. 6, ff. 10-18, 
wings, showing color variation; p. 408, 1908; notes on venation. 
Syn. calif ornica MARTIN, Bull. Mus. Paris, p. 104, 1900; desc as (var. of 
intensa). • 

domiiia CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (3), p. 402, 1899; Tepic specimens. 
ficteroptera SELYS, in Sagra: Hist Cuba, Ins., p. 451, 1857; {Libellula), 
Distr. Lower Sonoran, (Calvert z. 2-4) ; Ariz., B. Calif., Mexico. 

Suhsp.lfiB HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 185, 1861; ^ 9, types M. C Z. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 313, 1906; desc; p. 408, 1908; venation. 
Syn.fdomitia KIRBY, Ann. Mag. N. Hist, (7) 3, p. 363, 1899. 
Distr. Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-3), B. Calif., Mex. to Brazil; Cuba. 

Suhsp.mxiomtL KIRBY, Ann. Mag. N. Hist., (6) 4, p. 233, 1889; $, type 
Dublin Mus. 



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146 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Libellulinae 

CALVERT, Biol. C Am., p. 314, 1906 ; ^ 9 ; pi. 6, ff. 19-27, wings, 
colored, to illustrate variation of markings. 
Distr. Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-4) ; La.; Mex. to Argentine; Jamaica. 

Subsp, pocahontas KIRBY, Ann. Mag. N. Hist., (6) 5, p. 232, 1890; $, type 

Dublin Museum. 
Distr, Tropic; Jamaica. 

Subsp. aenAnoic CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 314, 1906; 9, type Coll. Calvert. 
Distr, Austroriparian ?; Florida, New Jersey. 

Subsp.tencra (SAY), Jn. Acad. Phila., 8, p. 31, 1839; 9, type lost; 
(Libellula), 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 316, 1906; ^ 9, {Perithemis), neotypes 
Coll. Calvert; p. 408, 1908; on venation. 
Syn. tenuicincta SAY, Jn, Acad. Phila., 8, p. 31, 1839; $, (= teneraf) ; 
(Libellula). 
chlora RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 125, 1842; ^, (Libellula), 
domitia HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 185, 1861; (Perithemis) ; var. 1 
only.— Stett. Ent. Zeit., 24, p. 375, 1863. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 20, p. 264, 1893. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 112, 1899. 

NEEDHAM, Outdoor Studies, flf. 58, 59, 1898; ^9 adults.— Bull. 
47 N. Y. Sute Mus., p. 512, 1901; ethol. notes; pi. 24, ff. 3, 4, 
$ 9 adults.— Proc U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, 1903 ; pi. 43, f. 3, wings. 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 40, ff. 2, 4, 6, ^ 9 adults. 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, 1. c, p. 513, 1901; desc; pi. 19, f. s, tgg\ p. 433, t. f. 
8c, str. dets.; (domitia), 
BUTLER, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 30, p. 124, 1904; pi. 6, f. 5, labium. 
Distr. Carolinian to Gulf Strip; Mass. & Wis. to Fla. & Tex., Mex., Brazil, 
Ecuador. 

NANNOTHEMIS BRAUER.* 

Type — bella (UHLER). Distribution — Cosmopolitan. 
Verh. (ks. Wien, 18, pp. 369, 726, 1868. 
KIRBY, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, 12, pp. 259, 312, 1889. 
KARSCH, Ent. Nachr., 16, p. 255, 1889. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 20, p. 224, 1893. 

•NOTE.— Nannothcmis and the two following genera Anatya and Micrathyria 
Ris places in group V. Group IV is not represented in the American fauna« while 
group V deals exclusively with American genera. Of these groups Ris speaks as fol- 
lows: In litt, July 23, 1909: "Groups IV and V are parallel inter se, being the Old 
World and American series of a somewhat lower and more archaic type which culmi- 
nates in the more specialized genera of group VI." 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 147 

Libellulinae 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 251, 1900. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. Sute Mus., p. 506, 1901. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 105, 1908. 
RIS, Cat. Coll. Selys, 9, p. 26, 1909. 
Syn, Nannophya HAGEN, Syn. Neur., N. Am., p. 186, 1861.— [Brauer 1868.] 

bella (UHLER), Proc. Acad. Phila.. p. 87, 1857; $, {Nannophya), type 
Coll. Uhler. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 186, 1861; desc. after Uhler.— Stctt 

Ent. Zeit., 28, p. 90, 1867 ; $ desc. ; M. C. Z. 
PACKARD, Amer. Nat., 1, p. 311, 1867; pi. 9, f. 6. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 20, p. 260, 1893; desc. (Nanno- 

Ihemis), 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 327, 1900; desc 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 509 ,1901 ; ethol. notes.— 

Proc U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, 1903; pi. 43, f. 2, wings. 
WEITH, Can. Ent, 33, pp. 252-255, 1901; ethol. notes. 
Syn. unicohr HAGEN, Stett. Ent. Zeit, 28, p. 90, 1867; ^, M. C. Z.— [Hagen 

1867.] 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, Can. Ent, 33, p. 254, 1901; desc.; t f. 8, adult & str. 
dets.— Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 511, 1901; desc; t f. 29, ad. 
& str. dets. 
Distr. Alleghanian & Carolinian ; Me. & Ga. to Ind. & Ont 



(HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 187, 1861; ^, (Nannophya), 
type M. C. Z. 
NEEDHAM, Proc U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, p. 722, 1903; (Nannothemis) ; 
t f. 17: 7, loop. 
Distr. Carolinian ?; Georgia. 

ANATYA KIRBY. 

Type— <inof»a/a (=guttala) KIRBY. Distribution— Neotropical. 
Trans. Zool. Soc. London, 12, pp. 263, 293, 1889. 
KARSCH, Berl. Ent. Zeitschr., 33, p. 373, 1890; affinities. 
NEEDHAM, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, p. 718, 1903; venation. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 200, 1906; char.; p. 244, table of spp. 
RIS, Cat Coll. Selys, 9, p. 27, 1909; char. 

gutUU (ERICHSON), Schomb. Reis. Br. Guiana, 3, p. 584, 1848; (Libel- 
lula). 
KARSCH, Ent. Nachr., 15, p. 248, 1890; venation, position (= Dy- 
themis.) 



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148 BULLETIN, PUBUC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Libellulinae 

NEEDHAM, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 26. 1903; pi. 44, £. 1, wings; 

(Anatya), 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 245, 1906; S 9 dcsc. 
Syn, anomala KIRBY, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, 12, p. 338, 1889; $, type 
Brit. Mus.; pi. 53, f. 9, S adult; pi. 57, f. 7, ^ app.— (Cavlcrt 
1906.] 
diMcilis SELYS, Ann. Mus. Gcnov., 14, p. 301, 1879; $ 9, (Agrionop- 
/era).— (Calvert 1906.] 
Distr. Tropic, (Calvert z. 3), Mex. to Brazil. 

DOmialis CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (3) 1, p. 300, 1899; $, type Cal. 

Acad. ; pi. 25, flf. 9, 13, $ char.— Biol. C. Am., p. 245, 1906 ; comp. 

desc. 
Syn, theresiae SELYS, Barl. Ent. Zeitschr., 45, p. 260, 1900; $, type ?; t. f. 

3, profile of body; pi. 3, f. 4, 9 adult.— [Calvert 1906.] 
Distr. Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-3), Mex. to Paraguay. 

MICRATHYRIA KIRBY. 

Type — didyma (SELYS). Distribution — Neotropic, into Nearctic. 

Trans. Zool. Soc. London, 12, pp. 264, 303, 1889; char. 

KARSCH, Berl. Ent. Zeitschr., 33, p. 371, 1890; affinities. 

CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 472, 1895; char.— Trans. Am. 
Ent Soc., 20, p. 224, 1893.— Biol. C. Am., p. 200, 1900; char.; p. 
220, table of spp.— Ann. Carnegie Museum, 6, p. 229, 1909; neo- 
tropic spp. 

NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 507, 1901; char. 

KRUEGER, Stett. Ent. Zeit., 14, p. 218, 1903; affinities. 

RIS, Ent. News, 14, p. 218, 1903; affinities.— Cat. Coll. Selys, 9, p. 
27, 1909. 

aequalis (HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 167, 1861; $ 9, {Dyihemis), Xy^s 

M. C. Z. 
CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 543, 1895; desc. (Mkra- 

thyria) ; pi. 17, ff. 107-109, $ 9 gen.— Biol. C. Am., p. 229, 1906; 

comp. desc. 
Syn, septima SELYS, Berl. Ent. Zeitschr., 45, p. 265, 1900; ^ 9, Mus. Vienna; 

pi. 3, f. 6, $ adult.— [Calvert 1906.] 
Distr. Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-4), Mexico to Ecuador; Greater Antilles. 

atra (MARTIN), Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 66, p. 590, 1897; (Dythemis). 

CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 225, 1906; S 9, (Micrathyria) ; pi. 9, 
ff. 13-15, S char. 
Distr. Tropic, Mexico to Brazil. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 149 

Libellutinae 
bereoice (DRURY), vide Erythrodiplax, postea. 

debiils (HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 168, 1861; ^, (Dythemis), type 

M. C. Z. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 229, 1906; desc. {Micrathyria) ; pi. 9, ff. 

25-27, ^ char. 
Distr. Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-4), Mexico, Guatemala, Cuba. 

4idyiiui (SELYS), in Sagra: Hist. Cuba, Ins., p. 453, 1857; (Libellula). 

CALVERT, Proc Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 539, 1895; ^ $, (Micra^ 
thyria) ; pi. 17, ff. 98-102, S 9 char.— Biol. C. Am., p. 223, 1906; 
comp. desc; pi. 9, f. 2, wings. 
RIS, Magelhaenreise, p. 35, 1904; dist., ethol. notes. 
Syn. phyme RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 121, 1842; $ $, (L»&W/tt/a).— [Hagen 
1875.] 
dkrota HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 166, 1861; ^, (Dythemis), type 

M. C. Z.— (Kirby 1889.] 
poeyi SCUDDER, Proc. Boston Soc., 10, p. 194, 1866; ^, (Mesothemis), 
holotype Mus. Boston Soc. — L. c, 11, p. 300, 1868; (= Dythemis 
dkrota) . 
HAGEN, Stett. Ent. Zeit, 28, p. 98, 1867; syn.— Proc. Boston Soc., 
11, p. 292, 1868; synonym noted. 
Distr. Tropic (Calvert z. 2-4) Mex. to Ecuador; Greater Antilles. 

disaodaiis CALVERT, Biol. C Am., p. 226, 1906 ; $ , type ? ; pi. 9, ff. 19-21, 

S char. 
Distr. Tropic (Calvert z. 3), Atoyac in Mexico; Puerto Rico. 

hagenii KIRBY, Syn. Cat, p. 41, 1890; new name for {didyma HAGEN).— 
Ann. Mag. N. Hist., (7) 3, p. 368, 1899; $ desc. 
CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 541, 1895; desc; pi. 17, ff. 
95-97, $ 9 gen.— Biol. C. Am., p. 225, 1906 ; comp. desc. ; pi. 9, ff. 
16-18, $ char., thorax. 

Horn, didyma HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 165, 1861; $ 9, (Dythemis), 
types M. C. Z. 

Syn. dicrota HAGEN, Proc. Boston Soc, 18, p. 75, 1875; new name {Dy- 
themis) for didyma. 

Distr. Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-3), Mex. to C. Rica; Greater Antilles; Texas. 

ocellaU MAi^TIN, Ann. Soc. Ent France, 66, p. 589, 1898; ^ 9, types Coll. 
Martin. 



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150 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Libdlulinae 

CALVERT, Biol. C Am., p. 226, 1906 ; comp. desc. ; pi. 9, ff. 22, 23, S 
app., thorax. 
Distr, Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-3), Mex. to Ecuador. 

pertiiiax (HAGEN), vide Brechmorhoga, postea. 

schmnamii CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 227, 1906; ^ 9, types $ Coll. Schu- 
mami, $ Coll. Williamson ; pi. 8, ff. 39, 40, $ char. ; pi. 9, f . 24, 
S app. 

Distr. Lower Sonoran, (Calvert z. 2-4), Pacific Coast, Mex. to C. Rica. 

septima SELYS, syn. ad aequalis. 

ERYTHRODIPLAX BRAUER.* - 

Type— fusca (RAMBUR). Distribution— Neotropic, into Nearctic. 
Verh. Ges. Wien, 18, pp. 368, 722, 1868. 
KIRBY, Trans. Zool. Soc. Londop, 12, pp. 264, 278, 1889. 
RIS, Magelhaenreise, p. 35, 1904; affinities to Trithemis, — (Tat Coll. 

Selys, 9, p. 28, 1909; char. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 201, 1906; synopsis of spp. 

abJecU (RAMBUR), form Cii of connata, 

ambusta (HAGEN), syn. ad justiniana, sub connata Ei. 

bereniGe (DRURY), 111. Exot. Ent., 1, pi. 48, f. 3, 1773; $ ad. col. (Li- 

hellula). 
SAY, Jn. Acad. Phila., 8, p. 25, 1839; $ desc; Mus. Boston Soc. 
RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 88, 1842 ; desc. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 178, 1861; desc (Diplax). 
PACKARD, Amer. Nat., 1, p. 311, 1867 ; pi. 9, flf. 3, 4, adults.— Guide 

Ins., p. 605, 1869; desc notes; t. f. 589, 590; adults. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am Ent. Soc, 20, p. 260, 1893; desc. (Micra- 

thyria) in part. — Ent. News, 17, p. 99, 1906; on venation. — Biol. 

C. Am., p. 269, 1906; desc. (Erythrodiplax) . 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 628, 1901 ; dist. 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 41, flf. 1-3, S 9 adults. 
RIS, Ent. News, 14, p. 218, 1903; on venation. 

•NOTE.— This genus belongs to group VI of Ris* classification. Other North 
American genera of this group are Pseudoleon, Erythemis, Lepthemis, Sympet- 
rum, Pachydiplax. Ris classes these genera and those of group Vll (see note under 
Lencorrhinia) with the *'Sympetri-fonn*^ LibelltUinae. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUB ODONATA OF N. A. 151 

Libellulinae 

MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 115, 1908; dist. 

Syn, histrio BURMEISTER, Handb. Ent, 2, p. 849, 1839; 9, (Libellnh), 

M. C Z.— [Hagen 1861.] 

CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 25, p. 63, 1898; on Biirm. type. 

Nymph. CALVERT, Ent. News, 15, p. 174, 1904; desc. (Micrathyria). 

BUTLER, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 30, 1904; pi. 7, f. 3, labium. 
Distr, Carolinian & Austroriparian ; Mass. & Pa. to N. C. & Tex., Mex. 

Subsp.nmtya (HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 167, 1861; $ $, (Dythemis), 

types M. C Z.— Proc. Boston Soc, 11, p. 293, 1867; identity. 
CALVERT, Ent. News, 11, p. 99, 1906; notes {Erythrodiplax) .— 

Biol. C. Am., p. 270, 1906 ; desc. 
Syn, berenice CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 261, 1893; in part, 

{Micrathyria) , 
Distr, Gulf Strip & Tropic, (Calvert z. 2), Fla., Bahamas, Gr. Antilles, 

Panama. 



coooaU (BURMEISTER) .♦ 

Form Ai 

fratema (HAGEN), Proc. Boston Soc, 15, p. 375, 1873; new name for ab- 
jecta Saidder; (Diplax). — L. c, 18, p. 71, 1875; noted. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 253, 1906; comp. desc; (Erythrodiplax) , 
Syn, dbjecta et ochracea SCUDDER, Proc Boston Soc, 10, pp. 196, 197, 
1866; $9, (Diplax) types Mus. Boston Soc— [Hagen 1873.] 
abjecta HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 184, 1861; ^ 9, (Diplax), types 
M. C Z. 
Distr, Lower Sonoran & Tropic, Mex., Brazil; Greater Antilles. 

FormB 

CALVERT, Biol. C Am., p. 260, 1906; $ 9 desc 
RIS, Deutsch. Ent. Zeitschr., p. 530, 1908; ^ 9 desc 

Distr. Honduras, Guatemala. 

Form Bi 

CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 264, 1906; S 9 desc 
Distr, Tropic, Mex., Bolivia, Brazil. 

FormC 

CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 260, 1906; ^ 9 desc 
Distr. Tropic, Atl. Coast of Mex., C. Am.; Bolivia. 

*NOTE.— Pending a further revision of this greatly variable species, I cite the 
references in the order of forms as given by Dr. Calvert -in the Biol. C. Am., pp. 253- 
267, 1906. 



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152 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Libellulinae 
Form CI 

conoaU (BURMEISTER), Handb. Ent, 2, p. 855, 1839; $, (LibeUiila), 
type M. C. Z. 
RIS, Magelhaenreise, p. 39, 1904; noted, (Erythrodiplax) , 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 25, p. 77, 1898; desc. of Burni. 
type.— Biol. C. Am., p. 264, 1906 ; S 9 desc. 
Syn, communis RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 93, 1842; $ ? (Libellula) , type 
Mus. Paris. 
leontina BRAUER, Reise d. Novara, p. 93, 1866; S, {Libellula) .— 
[Ris 1904.] 
Distr. Chili. 



Formal 

abJecU (RAMBUR), Ins. Neur., p. 83, 1842; 3, (Libellula), type Coll. 
Selys. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 184, 1861; desc. ( Dip lax) ; in part. 

Stett. Ent. Zeit., 30, p. 263, 1869. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am, p. 265, 1906; desc. 
Distr, Lower Sonoran, Mex. to Brazil. 

FormD 

CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 260, 1906; S $ desc. 
Distr, Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-4), Mexico to Brazil. 

Form Dl 

baslfiuca CALVERT, Proc. Acad. CaU (2) 4, p. 536, 1895; S9, (Tri- 
themis)y types Cal. Acad. pi. 16, ff. 58-61, $ $ char.— L. c, (3) 
1, p. 396, 1899; noted.— -Biol. C. Am., p. 261, 1906; desc. (Erythro- 
diplax), 

Distr, Lower Sonoran, (Calvert z. 3-4), B. Calif., Mex. to Paraguay. 

FormB 

fusca (RAMBUR), Ins. Neur., p. 78, 1842; ^, (LibclltOa), type Coll. Selys. 
RIS, Magelhaenreise, p. 38, 1904; noted. 

CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 260, 1906; $ $ desc {Erythrodiplax) , 
Syn, famula ERICHSON, Schomb. Reis. Br. Guiana, 3, p. 584, 1848; (Libel- 
/mAj).— [Calvert 1006, with a doubt] 
pulla KIRBY, Ann. Mag. N. Hist., (7) 3, p. 363, 1899; {Trithemis) .— 
[Calvert, 1906, with a doubt] 
Distr, Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-3), Mexico to Argentine. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 153 

Libellulinae 
Form El 
Jittttalaii«(SELYS), in Sagra: Hist Cuba, Ins., p. 450, 1857; (Libellula). 

HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 181, 1861; S 9, (Z)t>/ajtr).— Proc 

Boston Soc, 15, p. 375, 1873; identity. 
SCUDDER, Proc. Boston Soc., 10, p. 197, 1866; (ksc 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 260, 1906; 3 9, {Erythrodiplax) , 
Syn, ambusta HAGEN, Proc. Boston Soc., 11, p. 293, 1867; new name for 

iiusHniana Hagen, 1861).— (Calvert 1906.) 
Distr. Tropic, Greater and Lesser Antilles. 



distiosueoda (RAMBUR), syn ad ochracea, 
fratema (HAGEN), form Ai sub connata. 



(HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 158, 1861; ^, (Libellula), type 
M. C. Z. 
CALVERT,. Proc. Cal. Acad., (3) 1, p. 398, 1899; notes; ^, {Tri- 
thetnis). —Biol C. Am., p. 248, 1906; $ $, (Erythrodiplax) , 
Syn, tyleri KIRBY, Ann. Nat. Hist., (7) 3, p. 364, 1899; $, (Trithemis), 

type British Museum; pi. 15, f. 1, i adult.— [Calvert 1906.] 
Distr. Lower Sonoran, (Culvert z. 2-4), Calif., Mex., C. Am. 

fusca (RAMBUR), form E sub connata, 

Justiiilaiia (SELYS), form Ei sub connata. 
leoiitliia(BRAUER), syn. ad connata, form Ci. 

miouscula (RAMBUR), Ins. Neur., p. 115, 1842; $9, (Libellula), types 

CcJl. Selys. 
HAGEN, Syn. 'Neur. N. Am., p. 183, 1861; desc. (Diplax) .—Froc. 

Boston Soc., 15, p. 268, 1873; identity. 
KIRBY, Ann. Mag. Hist., (7) 3, p. 368, 1899; $ desc; (Diplacodes) . 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 325, 1900; desc. (Sympetrum) . 
NEEDHAM, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 27, 1904; pi. 44, f. 3, wings 

(Trithemis). 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 267, 1906; comp. desc; (Erythrodiplax). 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 108, 1908; dist.; 

(Sympetrum). 



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154 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Libellulinae 

Nymph. NEEDHAM, 1. c, 27, p. 709, 1904; desc; pi. 41, f. 10, adult. 

Distr. Gulf Strip & Tropic, Ky. & N. C. to Fla. & Tex., Mex. to Argentine. 

montezuma CALVERT, syn. ad umbrata. 

naeva (HAGEN), subsp. sub berenice. 

ochracea (BURMEISTER), Handb. Ent., 2, p. 854, 1839; S, {Lihellula), 
types M. C. Z. 
HAGEN, Syn, Neur. N. Am., p. 181, 1861; 9 only, (Diplax). 
KIRBY, Ann. Nat. Hist., (6) 14, p. 263, 1894; identity & syn.; 

(Trithemis), 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 25, p. 71, 1898; desc of Burm. 
types; reply to (Kirby 1894).— Biol. C. Am., p. 255, 1906; desc; 
pi. 9, f. 40, $ gen. 
Syn, distinguenda RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 81, 1842; ^9, (Libeltula).— 
[Calvert 1906.] 
fervida ERICHSON, Schomb. Reis. Br. Guiana, 3, p. 584, 1848; (Li- 

W/M/a).— [Hagen 1875.] 
incompta RAMBUR, 1. c, p. 119, 1842; 9, type Coll. Selys. 
jusUniana SELYS, in Sagra: Hist. Cuba, Ins., p. 450, 1857; part. — 
(Hagen 1861.] 
Distr, Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-4), Mex. to Brazil; Greater Antilles. 

tyleri (KIRBY), syn. ad funerea, 

umbrata (LINNE), Syst. Nat., 1, p. 545, 1758; {Libellula), 
FABRICIUS, Spec Ins., 1, p. 522, 1781. 
BURMEISTER, Handb. Ent., 2, p. 856, 1839; desc 
RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 73, 1842 ; <J 9 desc. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 158, 1861; desc— Stett. Ent. Zeit, 

29, p. 274, 1868; identity & synonymy. 
SELYS, in Sagra: Hist. Cuba, Ins., p. 448, 1857. 
KOLBE, Arch. f. Naturg., 54, p. 167, 1888; noted, (Libella). 
CALVERT, Biol. C Am., p. 251, 1906; comp. desc. (Erythrodiplax), 
Syn. fallax BURMEISTER, Handb. Ent, 2, p. 855, 1839; 9, {Libcllula), 
Mus. Vienna. — [Rambur 1842.] 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 25, p. 78, 1898; on Burm. type. 
navicans RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 87, 1842; $ 9, Coll. Selys.— [Hagen 

1861.] 
fuscofasciaia BLANCH ARD, Voy. d'Orbigny, 6, p. 217, 1837-1843; pi. 
28, f. 5, 5 ad. col. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 165 

Libellulinae 
monte2uma CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (3) 1, p. 397, 1899; 9, (Tri- 

//lemw).— [Calvert 1906.] 
ruralis BURMEISTER, 1. c, 2, p. 856, 1839; 9, (Libellula), M. C. Z.— 
[Hagen 1861.] 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 25, p. 78, 1898 ; on Burm. types. 
subfasciata BURMEISTER, 1. c, 2, p. 855, 1839; ^, Mus. Vienna.— 
[Rambur 1842.] 
CALVERT, 1. c, 25, p. 78, 1898; on Burm. type. 
tripartita BURMEISTER, 1. c, 2, p. 856, 1839; ^, tj-pe M. C Z.— 
[Hagen 1861.] 
CALVERT, I. c, 25, p. 78, 1898 ; on Burm. type. 
unifasciata DEGEER, Mem. Ins., 3, p. 557, 1773; pi. 26, f. 4.— [Rambur 
1842.] 
Distr. Tropic & Gulf Strip; Ga. & Fla. to Tex.; W. Indies; Mex. to Argen- 
tine. 

PSEUDOLEON KIRBY. 

Type—superbus (HAGEN). Distribution— Nearctic. 
Trans. Zool. Soc. London, 12, pp. 261, 274, 1889. 
CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 472, 1895.— Biol. C. Am., p. 

198, 1905. 
RIS, Cat. Coll. Selys, 9, p. 28, 1909. 

superbus (HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 148, 1861; ^ $, (Celithemis), 
types M. C. Z. 
KIRBY, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, 12, p. 274, 1889; (Pseudoleon) ; 

pi. 53, f. 7, $ ad. 
CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 518, 1895; desc; pi. 16, ff. 
62-66, S 9 char.— Biol. C. Am., pp. 214-216, 1906 ; detailed desc. 
Distr, Lower Sonoran, (Calvert z. 2-5), Ariz., Cal., C. Cal., Mex., Guat. 

ERYTHEMIS HAGEN. 

Type — peruviana (RAMBUR). Distribution — Nearctic & Neotropic. 
Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 168, 1861. 

BRAUER, Verb. Ges. Wien., 18, pp. 368, 723, 1868 ; char. 
KIRBY, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, 12, pp. 264, 304, 1889 ; char. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 204, 1906; char.; p. 328, 1907, table of 
of C. Am. spp. 
Syn. Mesothemis HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 170, 1861.— [Calvert 1906.] 
BRAUER, Verb. Ges. Wien, 18, pp. 369, 721, 1868. 
KIRBY, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, 12, pp. 264, 303, 1889. 



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156 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Libellulinae 

CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent Soc., 20, p. 225. 1893.— Proc. Cal. Acad., 

(2) 4, p. 472, 1895. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 92, 1899. 
WILLIAMSON, E>rag. Ind., p. 250, 1900. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 507, 1901.— Proc. U. S. 

Nat. Mus., 26, p. 718, 1903. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) «, p. 105, 1908. 

attala (SELYS), in Sagra: Hist Cuba, Ins., p. 445, 1857; (Libellula), 

HAGEN, Syn. Ncur. N. Am., p. 172, 1861; desc. after Selys; (Mesa- 

themis). 
CALVERT, BioL C. Am., p. 335, 1907;; S 9, comp. desc; (£ry- 
themis) . 
Syn, annulata RAMBUR, Ins. Ncur., p. 78. 1842; (Libellula) ; in part— 
[Hagen 1861.] 
MARTIN, Bull. Mus. Torino, 11, no. 240, p. 1, 1896; (Meso themis), 
noted. 
annulosa et inithra SELYS, in Sagra: Hist. Cuba, Ins., p. 446, 1857; 

(Libellula). 
mithra HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 172, 1861; {M e so themis) ) desc. 
after Selys. 
Distr, Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-4), Mex. to Brazil; W. Indies; Cuba, Martinique. 

coOocaU (HAGEN), subsp. sub simplicicollis. 

credula (HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 184, 1861; $ $, (Diplax), types 
M. C. Z. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 339, 1907; comp. desc; (Erythemis). 
Distr, Tropic West Indies: St. Thomas; Brazil. 

haematogastra (BURMEISTER), Handb. Ent., 2, p. 857, 1839; S, (Li- 
bellula), type Mus. Vienna. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 161, 1861; desc from type; (Lep- 

themis). 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent Soc, 25, pp. 82, 94, 1898; on Burm. 
type. — Biol. C. Am., p. 338, 1907; $ $ comp. desc; (Erythemis), 
— ^Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 263, 1909 ; noted ; pi. 9, f. 154, ad. col. 
Distr, (Georgia; Jamaica; Panama to Paraguay. 

mithroides (BRAUER), Berl. Ent Zeitschr.. 45. p. 266, 1900; S, type Mus. 
Vienna? ; t. f. 1, body; pi. 3, f. 5, S adult colored; (Meso- 
themis). 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 157 

libellulinae 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 334, 1907; ^9 comp. desc; {Ery- 
themis). 
Syn, bicolor HAGEN, Syn. Ncur. N. Am., p. 169, 1861; Chaco 9 only; M. 

C Z.— [Calvert 1907.] 
Distr Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-3) ; Mex. to Paraguay. 

penivlaiMi (RAMBUR), Ins. Neur., p. 81, 1842; ^, type ?; (Libellula). 

KIRBY, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, 12, 1889; pi. 55, f. 3, wings; 

(Erythemis) . 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 333, 1907 ; S 9 comp. desc 
Syn. bicolor ERICHSON, Schomb. Reisen in Br. Guiana, 3, p. 583, 1848; 
(Libellula). 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 169, 1861; ^ $, (Erythemis). 
frubriventris BLANCHARD, Voy. d'Orb. Ins., p. 217, 1845; pi. 8, f. 4, 
S adult; (L»M/M/a).— [Calvert 1907, with a doubt] 
Distr. Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-3), Mex. to Argentine; Jamaica. 

rubrlveiitris BLANCHARD, syn. ad peruviana. 

sfanpUcicollis (SAY), Jn. Acad. Phila., 8, p. 28, 1839; $, (Libellula), type 
Mus. Boston Soc. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 170, 1861; $ $, (Mesothemis). 
KIRBY, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, 12, 1889 ; pi. 57, ff. 4, a, wing & 

leg. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 265, 1893; desc— Ent. 

News, 17, p. 30, 1906; generic position (= Erythemis). — Biol. 

C. Am., p. 331, 1907 ; comp. desc 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 113, 1899; desc; (Mcsothemis). 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 325, 1900; desc 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 527, 1901; dist.— Proc. 

U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, 1903; pi. 45, f. 3, wings. 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1901 ; pi. 41, ff. 8, 9, $9 adults. 
HANDLIRSCH, Foss. Ins., 1906 ; pi. 4, f. 19, wings, after Needham. 
WALKER, Ottawa Nat, 22, p. 61, 1908; dist.; (Erythemis). 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc. (2) 6, p. 115, 1908; desc 

(Mesoihemis). 
Syn. caerulans et maculiventris RAMBUR, Ins. Neur.. pp. 64, 87, 1842; $ $, 

(Libellula), types Coll. Selys.— [Hagen 1861.] 
gundlachii SCUDDER, Proc Boston Soc, 10, p. 195, 1866; ^, (Meso- 

themis), type Mus. Boston Soc— L. c, 11, p. 299, 1868; (=.jfm- 

plicicollis) . 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 527, 1901; desc. 



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158 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Libellulinae 

BUTLER, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 30, p. 125, 1904; pi. 6, f. 5^, labium. 
Disir. Austral to Tropic; U. S., Ont. to B. C; W. Indies. 

5'm5^/>. collocaU (HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 171, 1861; ^, (Meso- 
themis), type M. C. Z.— U. S. Surv. Terr. Colo. 1873), p. 587, 
1874; desc. 
CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 552, 1895; desc; pi. 17, ff. 
103-106, $ 9 char.— Biol. C. Am., p. 332, 1907 ; comp desc ; 
(Erythetnis) . 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 115, 1908; dist. 
Nymph. ?NEEDHAM & COCKERELL, Psyche, 10, p. 139, 1903 ; desc 
Distr. Transition to Upper Sonoran; B. C. to Calif.; Mont, to Tex., Mex. 

verbenata (HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 162, 1861; $ $, (Lepthemis) , 
types M. C. Z. 
CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (3) 1, p. 406, 1899; comp. desc— Biol. 

C. Am., p. 336, 1907; comp. desc; (Eryihemis). 
KIRBY, Ann. Nat. Hist, (7) 3, p. 366, 1899; notes, aftinities; pi. 15, 
f. 2, adult; (Mcsoihemis). 
Distr. Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-4), Texas; Mexico to Paraguay; Greater An- 
tilles. 

LEPTHEMIS HAGEN. 

Type vesiculosa (F^ABRICIUS). Distribution— Neotropical. 
Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 160, 1861. 
BRAUER, Verh. Ges. Wien, 18, pp. 368, 723, 1868. 
KIRBY, Trans. Zopl. Soc. London, 12, pp. 264, 302, 1889. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 204, 1906; p. 339, 1907. 
RIS, Cat. Coll. Selys, 9, p. 30, 1909. 

gravida CALVERT, vide Cannacria, postea, 

haematosastra (BURMEISTER), vide Erythemis, antca^ 

plebeja (BURMEISTER), verbenaU (BURMEISTER), vide Erythemis, 
antea. 

vesiculosa (FABRICIUS), Syst. Ent, p. 421, 1775; (Libellula). 
RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 50, 1842; desc 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 161, 1861; desc (Lepthemis). 
KOLBE, Arch. f. Naturg., 54, p. 168, 1888; noted. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 169 

Libellulinae 
KIRBY, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, 12, 1889; pi. 57. f. 1, wings.— Ann. 

Nat. Hist., (7) 3, p. 366, 1899; $ desc. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 339, 1907 ; comp. desc. 
Syn. acuta SAY, Jn. Acad. Phila.. 8, p. 24, 1839; 9, (Libellula), type lost— 

[Hagen 1861.] 
Distr. Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-4), Florida Keys, Antilles, Tex., Mex., C. Am. to 
Paraguay. 

SYMPETRUM NEWMAN. 

Type— vulgatum (LINNE). Distribution— Holarctic. 
Ent. Mag., 1, p. 511, 1833; insufficient diagnosis. 
HAGEN, Ent. Amer., 4, p. 31, 1888; on validity & applicability. 
ROSTOCK, Ver. Zwickau, p. 123, 1888; char. 
KIRBY, Trans. Zool Soc. London, 12, pp. 263, 276, 1889; char. 
WALLENGREN, Ent. Tidsk., 15, p. 245, 1894; char. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 250, 1900; char. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 507, 1901; Ublc of N. Y. 

spp.— Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, p. 720, note, 1903; flight; p. 

742, venation. 
NAVAS, Bol. Soc. Espan., 2, p. 132, 1902; char. 
SJOSTEDT, Ent. Tidsk., 23, p. 7, 1902; char. 
FOERSTER, JB. Ver. Mannheim, 71 & 72, p. 10, 1905; char. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 204, 1906; char. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 108, 1908; table of 

Northern spp. 
RIS, in Schultze : Forschungsreise, p. 339, 1908 ; on distr. — Cat. Coll. 

Selys, 9, p. 30, 1909; char. 
Syn. Diplax CHARPENTIER, Lib. Eur., p. 12, 1840. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 173, 1861. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 20, p. 224, 1893.— Proc Cal. Acad.. 

(2) 4, p. 439, 1895. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 92, 1899. 
GARBINI, Bull. Soc. Ent. lUl., 27, p. Ill, 1895; (to include Leu- 

corrhinia), 
RIS, Mitth. Schweiz. Ges., 10, p. 439, 1903. 
Philonomon FOERSTER, Jb. Ver. Nassau, 59, p. 308, 1906.— JB. Ver. 

Mannheim, 71 & 72, p. 10, 1905.— [Ris 1908. Considers the genus 

valid in Cat. Coll. Selys, 1909.] 



alMfroos (CHARPENTIER, homonymn, ad ambigua; (Leucorrhinia (Li- 
bellula) albifrons (BURMEISTER) 1839). 



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160 BULLETIN^ PUBUC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Libellulinae 

ambisua (RAMBUR), Ins. Neur., p. 106, 1842; 9, (Libellula), type Coll. 
Selys. 
SELYS, Rev. Odon., p. 325, 1850.~[Hagen 1867. to albifrons.\ 
Syn, alhifrons (CHARPENTIER), Lib. Eur., p. 81, 1840; ^, type M. C. Z., 
(Libellula) ; pi 11, f. 3, ad. col. 
RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 110, 1842; dcsc. 

HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 177, 1861 ; S 9 desc. ; Charp. cor- 
rected; (Diplax). 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 323, 1900; desc. (Sympetrum). —Froc. 

Acad. Ind., p. 177, 1900; desc notes. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 525, 1901 ; notes ; t. f. 30, 

^ 9 char. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 109, 1908; dist. 
Distr. Carolinian & Austroriparian ; Mass. & 111. to Mo., Tex. & Ga. 



assfanlUitiiiii (UHLER), Proc. Acad. Phila,, p. 88. 1857; (Libellula), types 

Coll. Uhler. 
HAGEN, Stett. Ent. Zeit., 28, p. 93. 1867; S 9 desc— Syn. Neur. N. 

Am., p. 174, 1861; (Diplax), 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 263, 1893; desc. (var. of 

rubicundulum) . 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 109, 1899; desc 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 524, 1901; dist.; t. f. 30, 

^9 char.; (Sympetrum) . 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 107, 1908; desc. 
Distr, Alleghanian ; N. Y. to B. Columbia & Nebr. 



stripes (HAGEN), U. S. Surv. Terr. Colo. (1873), p. 588, 1873; ^9 
(Diplax), types M. C. Z. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 109, 1908; dist. 
(Sympetrum). 
Distr. Canadian; Yellowstone. 

chry8optcra( SELYS), Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., 27, p. 9.5, 1883; (Diplax). 
Distr. Washington (State). 

corniptuiii( HAGEN), Sjti. Neur. N. Am., p. 171. 1861; $ 9, (Mesothemis), 
types M. C Z.— U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr. Colo. (1872), p. 728, 
1873.— L. c, (1873), p. 587, 1874.— L. c, (1874), p. 919, 1875. 
SELYS, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., 28, p. 43, 1884; (Diplax). 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATAIjOGUE ODONATA OF N. A, 161 

libellulinae 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent Soc, 20, p. 264, 1893; dcsc— Proc. 
Acad. Cal., (2) 4, p. 545, 1895; desc; pi. 17, flf. 120-123, B9 
char.— Biol. C. Am., p. 323, 1906; comp. desc (Sympetrum). 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. Ill, 1899; desc (Diplax). 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 324, 1900; desc (Sympetrum). 
NEEDHAM, BuU. 47 N. Y. Stetc Mus., p. 621, 1901; dist 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 42, f. 5, $ adult 
OSBURN, Ent News, 16, p. 195, 1906; desc notes. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 109, 1908; desc 
Nymph, NEEDHAM, Bull. 68 N. Y. Stetc Mus., p. 271, 1903; desc; t flf. 

16, 17, str. dets. 
Distr. Transition & Upper Austral ; N. Y. to Tenn. & La. ; Tex. to Honduras, 
north to B. Columbia; Asia; Sea of Ocholsk. 

cottlfonuB (HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 174, 1861; ^ $, (Diplax), 
type M. C. Z. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. Stetc Mus., p. 523, 1901; desc notes; 

(Sympetrum) ; t f. 30, S 9 char. 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 44, flF. 8, 9; ^ 9 ads. 
WALKER, Ottewa Nat, 22, p. 60, 1908; desc notes. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. Ill, 1908; desc 
notes. 
Syn. scoHcum MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. Ill, 1908; 

dist 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, 1. c, p. 520, 1901; dist 
Distr. Transition & Upper Austral ; Me. & N. Y. to Kans. & B. C 

decteviB (HAGEN), syn. ad obtrusum. 

fUivicostam (HAGEN), syn. ad madidum. 

SHvum (SELYS), subsp. sub Ulotum. 



(HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 172, 1861; ^, (Mesothemis), 

type M. C. Z.— U. S. Surv. Terr. Colo. (1873), p. 587, 1874. 
SELYS, Ann. Soc Ent Belg., 28, p. 43, 1884; (Diplax T) 
CALVERT, Proc Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 545, 1895; identity; pi. 17, 

ff. 114-119, ^ char.— Biol. C. Am., p. 320, 1906; $ $, comp. 

desc. (Sympetrum). 
OSBURN, Ent News. 16, p. 195, 1905; ethol. notes. 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, Outdoor Studies, 1897; ff. 68-70; adult.— Bull. 47 N. 

Y. Stetc Mus., 1901; p. 429, t f. 6, head; pi. 25, f. 1, adult— L. c, 

68, p. 272, 1903; notes. 



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162 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Libellulinae 

Distr, Transition & Upper Sonoran, (Calvert z. 3-5), Pac Coast, B. C. to 
Calif.; Nev. 

Subsp, gUvuin (SELYS), Ann. Soc Ent Belg., 28, p. 43, 1884; desc. (D»- 

plax /). 

CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 322, 1906; $ 9, (Sympetrum) . 

Syn. illotum MARTIN, Boll. Mus. Torino, 11, no. 240, p. 2, 1896.— [Calvert 
1906.] 

Distr. Lower Sonoran, (Calvert r. 3-4), B. Calif, to Venez; Calif. 

Subsp. vlrgiiliiiii ; (SELYS), Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., 28, p. 44, 1884; desc (D»- 

plaxh' 
CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (3) 1, p. 401, 1899; noted.— Biol. C. 
Am., p. 321, 1907; ^ $ ; (Sympeirum) . 
Distr, Lower Sonoran, ((divert z. 3-5), B. Calif., Mcx. to Peru. 

imtatmii (SAY), Jn. Acad. Phila., 8, p. 32, 1839; ^ 9, (Libellula), types 
not extant. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 185, 1861; after Say, {Diplax). 
Distr. Carolinian; Maryland, New York. 

madidiiiii (HAGEN), Syn. Ncur. N. Am., p. 174, 1861; $, type M. C Z. 
(D»^^).— Psyche, 5, p. 385, 1890; ^ $ desc. 
OSBORN, Ent News, 16, p. 195, 1905; dist.; t. ff. 1, 2, $ genitalia, 
WILLIAMSON, Ent News, 1900; pi. 9, f. 13, ^ gea 
Syn. navicostum (HAGEN), Psyche, 5, p. 386, 1890; ^ $, {Diplax), types 

M. C. Z.; identity with madidum suggested. — [Calvert 1907.] 
Nymph. PNEEDHAM, Proc U. S. Nat. Mus., 27, p. 707, 1904; desc 
Distr. Upper Sonoran; B. C. to C^lif.; Mont, Wyo., Colo. 

0l>tni8iiin (HAGEN), Stett Ent Zeit, 28, p. 95, 1867; new name for 
rubidundula, var. (Diplax). 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent Soc., 20, p. 264, 1893; desc 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 109, 1899; desc; f. 27, $ gen. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 323, 1900; desc (Sympetrum) . 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 525, 1901; dist t f. 30, 

^ $ char. 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 40, f. 16; $ ad. col. 
WALKER, Ottawa Nat, 22, p. 61, 1908; notes; pi. 2, f. 26, $ gen. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 110, 1908; desc 
Syn. decisum HAGEN, U. S. Surv. Terr. Colo. (1873), p. 588, 1874; $ $, 
(Diplax), types M. C. Z. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 163 

Libellulinae 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 109, 1908; dist. 

(Symp.)-'lOshum 1905.] 
HAGEN, Proc. Boston Soc., 18, p. 79, 1875; identity with obtrusum 
suggested. 
Disir, Transition into Upper Austral ; Mass. & Del. to B. C. & Colo. 

pallipcs (HAGEN), U. S. Surv. Terr. Colo. (1873), p. 589, 1874; ^, (Di- 
plax), type M. C. Z. 
OSBURN, Ent. News, 16, p. 194, 1905; dist.; t. ff. 3, 4, $ gen.; 

(Sympetrum) , 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 108, 1908; dist. 
Distr, Canadian; B. C to Colo. 

rubkaiidttliini (SAY), Jn. Acad. Phila., 8, p. 26, 1839; ^, (Lihellula), type 

lost. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 176, 1861; $ $, (Diplax), neotypes 

M. C. Z.— Psyche, 5, p. 385, 1890; desc 
SCJUDDER, Proc. Boston Soc., 10, p. 219, 1866; comp. notes, 

identity. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 20, p. 262, 1893; desc 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 109, 1899; desc; f. 24, $ gen. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 322, 1900; desc {Sympetrum) . 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 524, 1901; dist.; t f. 30, 

^ 9 char. 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 42, flf. 8, 9; ^ $ ads. 
WALKER, Ottewa Nat., 22, p. 60, 1908; dist; pi. 2, ff. 23-25, $ 9 

char. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 110, 1908; desc 
Distr, AUej^anian into Carolinian; Me. & Pa. to N. Dak. & Wyo. 

scaticmii (DONOVAN), Brit. Ins., 15, p. 523, 1811; (Libellula), 
STEPHENS, 111. Brit. Ent., 6, p. 94, 1835. 
NEWMAN, Ent. Mag., 1, p. 511, 1835. 
SELYS, Mon. Lib. Eur., p. 53, 1840; $ $ desc— Rev. Odon., p. 48, 

1850; desc. 
EVANS, Brit Lib., p. 27, 1845; pi. 27, ff. 1, 2; (Diplax), 
RIS, Fauna Helv., p. 9, 1885; brief diagnosis; (Libellula). 
ROSTOCK, Ver. Zwickau, p. 124, 1888; desc 
WALLENGREN, Ent Tidsk., 15, p. 246, 1894; desc (Sympetrum). 
GARBINI, Bull. Soc. Ent It, 27, p. 114, 1895; desc (Diplax), 
WILLIAMSON, Ent News, 11, p. 457. 1900; desc (Sympetrum); 

pi. 9, f. 12, thorax; f. 14, B gen. 



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164 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Libellulinae 

SJOSTEDT, Ent Tidsk., 23, p. 11, 1902; desc 
FROHLICH, Ver. Aschaff., p. 15, 1903; desc. 
Syn. cancellata MULLER, Faun. Fridr., p. 61, 17W; (Ltfr^Wnte).— [Hagen 
1867.] 
Haveohta LINNE, Faun. Succ, p. 372, 1761; {Lib,); $ only— [Sdys 

1850.] 
nigra CHARPENTIER, Lib. Eur., p. 83, 1840; $ $, (Lib.) ; pi. 12, $ 9 

ad. col— [Selys 1850.] 
nigricula EVERSMANN, Bull. Mosc, 9, p. 240, 1836; S pi. 1, flf. 1, 2, 

ad. coL— [SeL 1850.] 
pallidistigma STEPHENS, III Brit Ent., 6, p. 94, 1835; (Lib.).— [Sdys 
1850.] 
EVANS, Brit Lib., p. 27, 1845; desc; pl. 20, f. 1, adult; (Lf6.). 
parvula MULLER, Zool. Dans. Prodr., p. 141, 1776. 

triedra MULLER, Nova AcU Acad. Leop.— Carol., 3, p. 129, 1776. 
Distr, Holarctic; Europe, Asia, America; N. H. to B. C. 

•emldiictiiiii (SAY), Jn. Acad. Phila., p. 27, 1839; ^, (Libellula), type lost 

HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 176, 1861; $, (Diplax), neotypes 
M. C. Z. 

CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 20, p. 263, 1893; desc 

KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 110, 1899; desc; f. 25, $ gen. 

WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 324, 1900; desc {Sympetrum). 

NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 523, 1901; dist; t f. 30, 
$ $ tthar. 

HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pl. 43, flF. 7, 9; ^ $ ads. 

WALKER, Ottawa Nat., 22, p. 60, 1908; dist 

MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 110, 1908; desc 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, 1. c, p. 524, 1901; desc; pl. 25, f. 2, adult 
Distr. Alleghanian into Carolinian; Me. & Pa. to B. C. 

vkimim (HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 175, 1861; ^ $, (Diplax), types 
M. C. Z. 

CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 264, 1893; desc 

KELLICOTT, Odon, Ohio, p. 110, 1899; desc; f. 25, $ gen. 

WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 323, 1900; desc (Sympetrum). 

NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 522, 1901; dist; t. f. 30, 
$ 9 char. 

WALKER, Ottawa Nat, 22, p. 60, 1908; dist.; pi. 2, f. 22, $ app. 

MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. Ill, 1908; desc 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, 1. c, p. 523, 1901 ; desc 
Distr, Transition, into Upper Austral; Me. & N. C. to B. C. 

vlrgalum (SELYS), subsp. sub illotum. 



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MUTTKOWSKI^ CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 165 

libellulinae 



PACHYDIPLAX BRAUER. 

Type— longipennis (BURMEISTER). Distribution— Ncarctic. 
Verb. Ges. Wien, 18, pp. 368, 728, 1868. 
KIRBY, Trans. Zool. Soc London, 12, pp. 263. 305, 1889. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 20, p. 225, 1893.— Biol. C. Am., p. 

204, 1906. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 92, 1899. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 250, 1900. 
NEEDHAM, BuU. 47 N. Y. Sute Mus., p. 507, 1901.— Proc U. S. 

Nat. Mus., 26, pp. 714, 726, 1903. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 114, 1908. 
RIS, Cat Coll. Selys, 9, p. 30, 1909. 

longipeiiiils (BURMEISTER), Handb. Ent, 2, p. 850, 1839; $, (Libelluh), 
Mus. Halle. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 172, 1861; $ $, (Mesothemis), 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent Soc, 20, p. 265, 1893; desc. (Pachy- 
diplax),—!^ c, 25, p. 66, 1898; on Bunn. type.— Biol. C. Am., p. 
341, 1906; comp. desc 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 114, 1899; desc 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 326, 1900; desc 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 526, 1901 ; desc 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 45, f. 7; pi. 40, £.9, ^ $ ads. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 114, 1908; desc 
Syn. socio et truncatula RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., pp. 95, 96, 1842; S $, Coil 

Selys.- [Hagen 1861.] 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, 1. c, p. 527, 1901; desc 
Distr. Austral to Gulf Strip; entire U. S.; B. Cal., Mex.; Bermudas. 

LEUCORRHINIA BRITTINGER * 

Type— albifrons (BURMEISTER). Distribution— Holarctic 
SB. Acad. Wien, 1, p. 333, 1850; defined 
BRAUER, Verb. Ges. Wien, 18, pp. 368, 719, 1868; char. 
KIRBY, Trans. Zool. Soc London, 12, pp. 262, 275, 1889; char. 
ROSTOCK, Ver. Zwickau, p. 121, 1888; char. & teble of German spp. 
HAGEN, Trans. Am. Ent Soc, 17, pp. 229-245, 1890; pi. 10; mono- 
graph of genus. 

*NOTE.~Except for the genus Auitrothemit, ffroup VII of Rit' classification 
Is indigenous to America and consists of Leucorrhima, Celithemis, Planiplax, and 
Brachymesia. (See note under Eiythrodiplax.) 



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166 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Libellulinae 

CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 20, p. 224, 1893; char. 

WALLENGREN, Ent. Tidsk., 15, p. 243, 1894; char. 

KELLICOTT, Odoa Ohio, p. 92, 1899; char. 

WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 250, 1900; char. 

NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. Sute Mus., p. 507, 1901; char. 

SJOSTEDT, Ent. Tidsk., 23, p. 7, 1902; char. 

FROHLICH, Vcr. Aschaff., p. 18, 1903; char. 

MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. Ill, 1908; char. & 
table of N. Am. spp. 

RIS, Cat Coll. Selys, p. 31, 1909; char. 
Syn. Coenotiata BUCHECKER, Syst. Ent, p. 10, 1878; in part 

boreaUt HAGEN, Trans. Am. Ent Soc., 17, p. 232, 1890; desc; types 
M. C. Z.; pi. 10, ff. 10, 21, ^ 9 gen. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 113, 1908; dist 
Distr, Hudsonian; Hudson's Bay. 

frigida HAGEN, Trans. Am. Ent Soc* 17, p. 231, 1890; $ $, types M. C. 
Z.; pi. 10, flF. 2, 7, 17, 20; B 9 char.; base of wing. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 112, 1908; $9 
dist. 
Disir, Canadian, into Transition; Mass., Ont., Dak. to B. C. 

glaclall# HAGEN, Tr^s. Am. Ent Soc, 17, p. 234, 1890; $, type M. C. Z.; 
pi. 10, ff. 3, 14, S 9 char. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. Stete Mus., p. 518, 1901; 9 desc; pi. 

10, ff. 3-5, $ 9 ads. colored ; t. f . 18, wings. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 113, 1908; desc 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, 1. c, p. 519, 1901; desc; pi. 10, ff. 1, 2, adults. 
Disir. Transition; N. Y. to Wis. to Nev. 

budsonka (SELYS), Rev. Odon., p. 53, 1850; $9, (Libellula), ^ Coll. 
Selys. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 180, 1861; desc after Selys; (Di- 
plax). — Trans. Am. Ent Soc, 17, p. 233, 1890; desc; {Leu- 
corrhinia) ; pi. 10, ff. 13, 18, B 9 gen. 
CURRIE, Proc Wash. Acad., 3, p. 221, 1901; desc notes. 
WALKER, Ottawa Nat, 22, p. 59, 1908; dist.; pi. 2, ff. 18, 19, B 9 

app. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 112, 1908; desc 
Syn. hageni CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent Soc, 17, p. 38, 1890; desc; pi. 5, 

ff. 2, 3, 10, ^ 9 char. 
Distr. Boreal; Hudson's Bay & N. Bruns. to Alaska & B. C, Wis. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATAIjOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 167 

Libellulinae 

intacU HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 179, 1861; $ $, (Diplax), types 

M. C. Z.— Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 17, p. 235, 1890; desc (Leu- 

corrhinia) ; pi. 10, flF. 6, 8, 16, 23, $ $ char. 

CALVERT, Tnms. Am. Ent Soc., 17, p. 38, 1890; desc; pi. 5, flF. 

7-9, ^ 9 char.— L. c, 20. p. 262, 1893; desc. 
KELLICOTT, Odoti, Ohio, p. 106, 1899; desc. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 321, 1900; desc. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 517, 1901; desc 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 44, if. 5, 6; ^ $ ads. 
WALKER, Ottawa Nat. 22, p. 59, 1908; dist.; pi. 2, ff. 20, 21, $ $ 

char. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 113, 1908; desc 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, 1. c, p. 517, 1901; desc 
Distr, Transition into Upper Austral ; Me. & Pa. to Wash. & B. C. 

proxima CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 17, p. 38, 1890; $ $ types ColL 
Calvert; pi. 5, flf. 5, 6, $ app.— Ent. News, 9, p. 87, 1898; notes 
to Harvey. 
HAGEN, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 17, p. 232 ,1890; desc; pi. 10, flf. 4, 

9, 22, $ $ char. 
HARVEY, Ent. News, 9, p. 87, 1898; on variation. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 113, 3908; desc 
DisVr, Canadian; Me. to B. C. 

CELITHEMIS HAGEN. 

Ty^e—eponina (DRURY). Distribution— Nearctic 
Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 147, 186L 
BRAUER, Verh. Ges. Wien, 18, pp. 367, 718, 1868. 
KIRBY, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, 12, pp. 261, 274, 1889. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 224, 1893. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 92, 1899. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 250, 1900. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 507, 1901.— Proc U. S. 

Nat. Mus., 26, p. 742, 1903. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 106, 1908. 
RIS, Cat. Coll. Selys, 9, p. 31, 1909. 

amanda (HAGEN), syn. ad omata, 

ellsa (HAGEN J, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 182, 1861; ^ $, (Diplax), types 
M. C. Z. 
WALSH, Proc. Acad. Phila., p. 400, 1862; noted, (Celithctnis) . 



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168 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Libellulinae 

PACKARD, Amer. Nat, 1, p. 311, 1867; pL 9, £. 5, adult 

CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent Soc., 20, p. 261, 1893; desc. 

KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 104, 1899; desc 

WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 315, 1900; desc, ethol. notes. 

NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 515, 1901; desc notes. 

HOWARD, Ins. Bopk, 1902; pi. 40, f. 14, $ ad. col. 

MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 106, 1908; desc 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, 1. c, p. 515, 1901; desc 
Distr. Alleghanian & Carolinian; Me. & Wis. to N. C. & Mo. 

epoolna (DRURY), 111. Exot Ent, 2, pi. 47, f. 2, 1773; (Libellula). 
FABRICIUS, Ent Syst, 2, p. 382, 1793. 
COQUEBERT, Icones, p. 45, 1804. 
SAY, Jn. Acad. Phila., 8, p. 24, 1839; desc 
RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 46, 1842; desc 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 147, 1861; desc (Celithemis) ,^ 

Stett Ent Zeit, 28, p. 231, 1867; desc notes. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent Soc, 20, p. 261, 1893; desc 
NEEDHAM, Outdoor Studies, p. 60, 1898; desc— Bull. 47 N. Y. 

State Mus., p. 514, 1901 ; desc notes ; pi. 24, f. 2, adult. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 103, 1899; desc 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 318, 1900; desc 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 43, f. 4, $ adult 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 107, 1908; desc 
Syn. Camilla RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 46, 1842; ^ $, types Coll. Selys; 
(Libellula). 
lucilla RAMBUR, 1. c, p. 46, 1842; desc from Fabr. text & Coqt fig., 
(Libellula), --[Uzgen 1861.] 
Nymph. NEEDHAM, 1. c, p. 515, 1901; desc 
Distr, Alleghanian to Gulf Strip; Mass. & N. Dak. to Tex., Fla.; Cuba. 



KIRBY, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, 12, p. 326, 1889; $, types British 

Museum; pi. 52, f. 2, ^ adult coL 
HINE, Ent News, 10, p. 1, 1899; 9 desc; t ff. showing col. patt. 

of wgs. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 104, 1899; desc 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 320, 1900; desc 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 108, 1908; desc 
Distr, Carolinian to Gulf Strip; N. J. & Wis. to Fla. 

omaU RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 96, 1842; 3 9, types Coll. Selys; (Li- 
bellula). 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 169 

Libellulinae 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 182, 1861; S desc; (Diplax). 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent Soc., 20, p. 271, 1893; desc. (Cell- 

themis). 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. Sute Mus., p. 51«, 1901; desc notes. 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 42, ff. 2, 3, $9 adults. 
Syn. amanda HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 183, 18«1; {Diplax), type M. 
C Z.— [Hagen 1890.] 
pulchelh BURMEISTER, Handb. Ent., 2, p. 849, 1839; $ (Libellula) ; 

type M. C Z. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent Soc., 25, p. 61, 1898; on Burm. type.— 
[Hagen 1890.] 
Distr, Alleghanian to Austroriparian ; Atl. Coast, Me. to Fla. 



PLANIPLAX n.n. 

Type — eryihropyga KARSCH. Distribution— Neotropical. 
Syn, i^homonymn) Platyplax KARSCH, Ent. Nachr., 17, p. 268, 1891.— 
[Preoccupied for Hemiptera — Fieb. 1861.] 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 204, 1906; char.. I.e., p. 327, 1907; spp. 
RIS, Cat. Coll. Selys, 9, p. 31, 1909. 

Mnguinlventrls CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 327, 1907; ^, type Coll. Cal- 
vert; pi. 9, f. 55, wings; ff. 56-58, $ 9 char. 
Distr, Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-3), Mexico. 

BRACHYMESIA KIRBY. 

Type— (anjfra/w KIRBY) = furcata (HAGEN). Distribution— Neo- 
tropical, (Sydney for autralis = ?) 
Trans. Zool. Soc London, 12, pp. 262, 280, 1889. 
RIS, Cat Coll. Selys, 9, p. 31, 1909. 
Syn. Cannacria KIRBY, Trans. Zool. Soc, London, 12, pp. 262, 300, 1889. 

CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 472, 1895.— Biol. C. Am., p. 
204, 1906; p. 324, 1907; tables of C. Am. spp.— [Ris, in litteris, 
June 23, 1909.] 

MWtralis KIRBY, syn. ad furcata. 

batasii (KIRBY), Trans. Zool. Soc. London, 12, p. 341, 1889; ^, type 
British Mus.; pi. 53, f. 1, $ ad. col.; pi. 57, f. 9, S app.; (Can- 
nacria). 



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170 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Libellulinae 

CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 547, 1895; desc; BioL C 

Am., p. 326, 1907; $ $. 
Syn, fumipennis CURRIE, Proc Wash, Acad., 3, p. 387, 1901; ^, {Can- 

nacria), type U. S. N. Mus.; t if. 31-34, i char.— [Calvert 1907.] 
Distr, Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-3), Mex. to Brazil; Cuba* Haiti, Barbados. 

famlpeimU (CURRIE), syn. ad batesU. 

farcaU (HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 1«9, 1861; ^ $, {Erythemis), 
types M. C. Z. 
KARSCH, Bed. Ent. Zeitschr., 33, pp. 348, 373, 1890; venation, 

(Cannacria), 
CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 548, 1895; desc; pi. 17, flF. 
110-113, S 9 char.— L. c, (3) 1, p. 410, 1899; brief comp.— Biol. 
C. Am., p. 325, 1907; desc. 
Syn. australis KIRBY, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, 12, p. 330, 1889; (Brachy- 
mesia), type British Museum; listed from Sydney, probably in- 
correctly labeled. — [Ris, in litteris, June 23, 1909.] 
smithii KIRBY, Ann. Mag. N. Hist, (6) 14, p. 266, 1894; ^ $, (Can- 
nacria), types British Museum. — [Calvert 1907.] 
CARPENTER, Jn. Inst. Jamaica, 2, p. 260, 1896; noted 
Distr. Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-4), Fla. & Baja C:alif. to Brazil; Bahamas; 
Antilles. 

gravida (CALVERT), Trans. Am, Ent. Soc., 17, p. 35, 1890; S $, (Lep- 
themis), types Coll. Calvert.— Proc Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 547, 
1895; desc. {Cannacria). — Ent. News, 5, p. 193, 1894; position 
(= Ca»«ocWo).— Biol. C. Am., p. 327, 1907. 

Distr, Austroriparian ; Md. to Fla. & Tex. 

•mithll (KIRBY), syn. ad furcata. 



DYTHEMIS HAGEN.* 

Type— rtt/fn^mj (BURMEISTER). Distribution— Nearctic & Neotropic 
Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 162, 1861. 
BRAUER, Verh. Ges. Wien, 18, pp. 368, 733, 1868. 
KIRBY, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, 12, pp. 264, 298, 1889. 

*NOT£.— Dythemis, Scapanea, Paltothemis, Brechmorhoga, MacrothemiB, 
and Gynothemis. all from America, constitute Ris ffroup IX. Group VIII is not rep- 
resented in the American fauna. Ris calls groups IX and X the "Corduli-form" 
Libellulinae. (In litt., July 23, 1909.) 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 171 

Libellulinae 
CALVERT, Proc Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 472, 1895.— Proc. Boston 
Soc., 28, pp. 301-309, 1908; affinities of genus, tables of spp. — 
Biol. C. Am., p. 201, 1906; char.; p. 272, table of C. Am. spp. 
RIS, Cat Coll. Selys, 9, p. 34, 1909. 

•tra (MARTIN), vide Micrathyria, antea. 

broadwayl KIRBY, syn. ad velox. 

fufax HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 163, 1861; $, type M. C. Z. 

CALVERT, Proc Boston Soc, 28, p. 309, 1898; brief diagnosis; pi. 
1, flf. 6, 7, leg. 
Nymph. NEEDHAM & COCKERELL, Psyche, 10, p. 139, 1903; with a 
doubt. 
NEEDHAM, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 27, p. 700, 1904; desc. notes; 
t f. 2, str. dets. 
Distr. Lower Sonoran; Texas, New Mexico. 

nuiya CALVERT, Biol. C Am., p. 272, 1906; $ $, types $ Coll. Calvert, 9 

Coll. Chanq)ion ; pi. 8, f . 45, $ gen.— L. c, p. 405, 1908, notes. 
Distr, Lower Sonoran, (Calvert z. 3-4), Mexico, Guatemala. 

mnltlpiiiictata KIRBY, Ann. Mag., N. Hist, (6) 14, p. 265, 1894; ^ $, types 

British Museum. 
Distr, Tropic; W. Indies, Granada. 

naeva (HAGEN), vide Erythrodiplax, antea. 

nigra MARTIN, syn. ad vclox, 

nlgrescens CALVERT, syn. ad velox, 

rufinervls (BURMEISTER), Handb. Ent, 2, p. 850, 1839; type Mus. 
Vienna, sex ?; (Libellula). 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 162, 1861; $ $, (Dythemis), 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 25, p. 67, 1898; on Burm. type.-— 
Proc. Boston Soc., 28, p. 316, 1898; notes; pi. 1, f. 4, tarsal nails. 
Syn. conjuncta RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 91, 1842; $, (Libellula), Mus. 
Paris.— [Hagen 1875.] 
SELYS, In Sagra : Hist. Cuba, Ins., p. 444, 1857. 
vinosa SCUDDER, Proc. Boston Soc., 10, p. 192, 1866; $ $, (Libellula), 
types Mus. Boston Soc.— [Hagen 1867.] 
Distr, Tropic; Greater Antilles, Cuba, Haiti, etc 



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172 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Libellulinae 

CALVERT, syn. ad Paltothemis lineatipes, postca. 



sterOis HAGEN, syn. ad velox. 

v©lox HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 163, 1861; ^, type M. C Z. 

CALVERT, Proc Boston Soc, 28, p. 309, 1898; desc; varr.— Biol. 
C. Am., p. 272, 1906; comp. desc. & entire synonymy. 
Syn. hroadwayi KIRBY, Ann. Mag. N. Hist, (6) 16, p. 227, 1894; ^ 9, types 
British Mus.— L. c (7) 3, p. 365, 1899; identity maintanied. 
nigra MARTIN, Ann. Soc Ent. France, 66, p. 590, 1898; $, type Coll. 

Martin. 
nigrescens CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (3) 1, p. 390, 1899; $ $, types 

Cal. Acad. 
sterilis CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 523, 1895; desc notes; 
pi. 16, fF. 52-55, $ 9 char.— Proc. Boston Soc, 28, p. 310, 1898 ; 
noted as variety. 
tabida CALVERT, 1. c, 28, p. 310, 1898; S 9, types M. C Z. 
tessellata RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 89, 1842; $ 9, (Libellula). 
Nymph, NEEDHAM & COCKERELL, Psyche, 10, p. 139. 1903; desc, with 
a doubt. 
PNEEDHAM, Proc. U. S. Nat Mus., 27, p. 699, 1904; desc; pi. 42, 
f. 2, ad. 
Distr, Lower Sonoran to Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-4), Tex., N. M., Calif., Mex. 
to Arg. 



SCAPANEA KIRBY. 

Typt^frontalis (BURMEISTER). Distribution— Neotropical. 
Trans. Zool. Soc London, 12, pp. 264, 298, 1889. 
KARSCH, Berl. Ent Zeitschr., 33, p. 362, 1890; aflinities. 
CALVERT, Proc. Boston Soc, 28, pp. 301-309, 1898; affinities. 
RIS, Cat Coll. Selys, 9, p. 34, 1909. 

frontallB (BURMEISTER), Handb. Ent, 2, p. 857, 1839; $, (Libellula), 
Mus. Vienna. 
SELYS, in Sagra: Hist Cuba, Ins., p. 453, 1857. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 154, 1861; desc. from Burm. type, 

iDythemis) , 
SCUDDER, Proc. Boston Soc, 10, p. 193, 1866; i 9 desc 
RIS, Cat Coll. Selys, 9, p. 16, 1909; t f. 3, wings; (Scapanea), 
Distr. Tropic; Greater Antilles, Cuba, Isle of Pines, Jamaica, Haiti. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 173 

Libellulinae 

PALTOTHEMIS KARSCH. 

Typ^-^Hneatipes KARSCH. Distribution— Nearctic & Neotropic. 
Berl. Ent Zeitschr., 33, p. 362, 1890. 
CALVERT, Proc. Boston Soc, 28, p. 312, 1908; discussion of aflb- 

ities.— Biol. C. Am., p. 202, 1906. 
RIS, Cat Coll. Selys, 9, p. 34, 1909. 

Ilnetttipes KARSCH, Berl. Ent Zeitschr., 33, p. 362, 1890; ^, types Mus.. 
Berlin. 
CALVERT, Proc. Boston Soc, 28, p. 312, 1899; noted; pi. 1, flF. 1, 

8, 9, tarsus & femora.— Biol. C. Am., p. 292, 1906 ; ^ $ . 
NEEDHAM, Proc U. S. Nat Mus., 26, 1903; pi. 47, f. 3, wings. 
Syn. russata CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 526, 1895; desc; {Dy- 

themis) ; pi. 16, ff. 46-49, $ 9 char.— [Calvert 1899.] 
Nymph, NEEDHAM, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 27, p. 699, 1904; desc; pi. 39, 

f. 1, adult 
Distr. Lower Sonoran, (Calvert z. 3-5), SW. States, Tex., Mex. to Brazil. 

BRECHMORHOGA KIRBY. 

Type^grenadensis KIRBY. Distributionr— Neotropic, into Nearctic 
Ann. Mag. N. Hist, (6) 14, p. 265, 1894. 
CALVERT, Proc. Boston Soc, 28, pp. 301-309, 1898; disc, of char., 

synopsis of spp. — Biol. C. Am., p. 201, 1906; char.; p. 278, 1907; 

table of spp. 
RIS, Cat Coll. Selys, 9, p. 34, 1909; char. 

columlNi CALVERT, Proc. Boston Soc, 28, p. 315, 1898; $, type M. C. Z.; 

(=praecoxf). 
Distr, Lower Sonoran ?; Cuemavaca, Mex.; Appun, Venez. 

grenadensis KIRBY, Ann. Mag. N. Hist, (6) 14, p. 265, 1894; $, type Br, 
Mus. 
?CALVERT, Proc Boston Soc, 28, p. 315, 1898; in part. 
Distr. W. Indies; Grenada. 

inequhingids CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 533, 1895; S9p 
(Macrothemis), type Cal. Acad.; pi. 16, ff. 34, 40-45, $ 9 char. — 
L. c, (3) 1, p. 394, 1899; brief diagnosis. — Proc Boston Soc, 
28, p. 317, 1898; notes; pi. 1, f. 2, tars. nail. — Biol. C. Am., p. 236, 
1906; comp. desc; (Brechmorhoga), 



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174 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Libellulinae 

Syn, vulgipes CALVERT, Proc. Boston Soc., 28, p. 320, 1898; 9, (Macro- 
thetnis), types M. C. Z.— [Calvert 1906.] 
PKIRBY, Ann. Mag. N. Hist, (7) 3, p. 365, 1899; 9, with a doubt. 
Distr. Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-3), B. CaL, Mexico to Brazil. 

meadax (HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 164, 1861; $, (Dythemis), type 

M. C Z. 
CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 529, 1895; ^ 9 ; pl. 16, ff. 

56,57, $ char.— L.C., (3) 1, p. 391, 1899; notes.— Proc. Boston 

Soc., 28, p. 313, 1898; desc (Brechmorhoga) ; pi. 1, f. 5, tars. 

nail; pi. 2, ff. 23, 30, 9 char.— Biol. C. Am., p. 283, 1906; comp. 

desc 
Distr. Tropic, (Calvert z. 3), Texas, B. Calif.; Tepic in Mexico. 

nubecula (RAMBUR), Ins. Neur., p. 122, 1842; 9, (Libellula), holotype 
Mus. Paris. 
CALVERT, Proc. Boston Soc, 28, p. 314, 1898; brief diag.; {Brech- 
morhoga) ; pi. 1, f. 18, ^ gen. ; pi. 2, f. 22, col. patt — ^Biol. C. 
Am., p. 285, 1906; desc 
Syn, catharina KARSCH, Berl. Ent Zeitschr., 33, p. 366, 1890; ^ 9, {Macro- 
thetnis), types Mus. Berlin. — [(divert 1898.] 
grenadensis CALVERT, Proc Boston Soc, 28, p. 315, 1898; Chiriqui $ 
only. 
Distr. Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-3), Mexico to Paraguay. 

pertinax (HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 166, 1861; $ (Dythemis), type 

Mus. Vienna. 
CALVERT, Proc Boston Soc, 28, p. 316, 1898; brief diag.; pi. 1, 

f. 20, $ gen.; pi. 2. f. 21, coJ. patt.— Biol. C. Am., p. 283, 1906; 

comp. desc; pi. 8, f. 38, wings. 
Syn. fsallaei SELYS, C. R. Soc Ent Belg., 11, p. 67, 1868; (Dythemis) .-- 

[Calvert 1906.] 
Distr. Lower Sonoran, (Calvert z. 2-4), Mexico to C. Am. 

postlobata CALVERT, Proc. Boston Soc, 28, p. 314, 1898; brief diag.; pi. 
1, f. 13, $ gen.; pi. 2, f. 26, col. pattern.— Proc Cal. Acad., (3) 
1, p. 393, 1899; ^, type Cal- Acad.; pi. 25, f. 12, ^ gen.— Biol. 
C. Am., p. 283, 1906; comp. desc 

Distr. Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-3), Guerrero, Tepic, Mexico. 

praecox (HAGEN). Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 166, 1861; $, (Dythemis), type 
M. C. Z. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 1 75 

Libellulinae 

CALVERT, Proc CaL Acad., (2) 4, p. 530, 1895; desc notes.— Proc. 

Boston Soc, 28, p. 315, 1898; type $ only; {Brechmorhoga) ; pi. 

2, f. 25, col. pattern; f. 29, 9 gen.— Biol. C. Am., p. 281, 1906; 

^ $ ; pi. 8, f. 49, $ gen. 

Distr. Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-4), Mcx. to Colombia. 

sallael (SELYS), syn. ad pertinax, 

tepeaca CALVERT, Biol. C Am., p. 406, 1908; ^ 9, types ^ Coll. Barrett, 

$ Coll. Calvert, Adams, Smith ; pi. 10, ft. 55, 56, ^ 9 gen. 
Dittr, Lower Sonoran, (Calvert z. 3-4), Vera Cruz, Cuemavaca, Mexico. 

vfvax CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 280, 1906; ^ 9, type ^ Coll. Champion; 

pi. 8, ff. 46-48, ^ gen. 
Syn, praecox CALVERT, Proc Boston Soc., 28, p. 315, 1898; Bkistebu ^ 

only.— [Calvert 1906.] 
Distr, Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-4), Mexico to Panama. 



MACROTHEMIS HAGEN. 

Typt—celaeno (SELYS). Distribution— Neotropical. 
Stett. Ent. Zeit., 29, p. 281, 1868. 
BRAUER, Verb. (ks. Wien, 18, p. 734, 1868. 
KIRBY, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, 12, pp. 262, 297, 1889. 
KARSCH, Berl. Ent. Zeitschr., 33, p. 362, 1890. 
CALVERT, Proc Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 472, 1895.— Proc Boston Soc, 

28, pp. 301-309, 1898 ; affinities ; p. 317, table of spp.— Biol. C. Am., 

p. 202, 1906 ; char. ; p. 288, 1907 ; table of spp. 
NEEDHAM, Proc. U. S. Nat Mus., 26, p. 718, 742, 1903; venation. 
RIS, Cat. Cx>ll. Selys, 9, p. 34, 1909; char. 

cathariiui KARSCH, syn. ad Brechmorhoga nubecula, antea. 

celaeoo (SELYS), in Sagra: Hist. Cuba, Ins., p. 454, 1837; (Libellula), 

HAGEN, Stett. Ent Zeit, 29, p. 281, 1868; ^9, (Macrothemis) ; 

identity. 
CALVERT, Proc. Boston Soc, 28, p. 325, 1899; comp. notes; pi. 1, 

f. 3, tars, nails. 
NEEDHAM, Proc U. S. Nat Mus., 26, 1903 ; pi. 46, f. 1, wings. 
Diitr. Tropic; Greater Antilles; Cuba, Haiti, St Thomas, Isle of Pines. 

debMls (HAGEN), vide Micrathyria, antea. 



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176 BULLETIN, PUBUC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Libellulinae 

hemidilora (BURMEISTER, Handb. Ent, 2, p. 849, 1839; 9, (LibeUula), 
type M. C. Z. 
KIRBY, Trans. Zool. Soc London, 12, 1889; (Macrothemis) ; pi. 

54, f. 3; pi. 57, f. 11, $ ad., tars. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent Soc, 25, p. 61, 1898; on Burm, type.— 
Proc. Boston Soc., 28, p. 328, 1899; ^ $ ; pi. 2, f. 27, i app.; 
f. 32, thorax.— Biol. C Am., p. 290, 1906; comp. desc 
Distr, Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-3), Mex. to Brazil. 

Inacuta CALVERT, Proc Boston Soc, 28, p. 328, 1899; brief diagnosis.— 
Proc Cal. Acad., (3) 1, p. 396, 1899; ^9, types $ Cal. Acad., 
^9 M. C. Z.; pi. 25, flf. 7, 10, S 9 gen.— Biol. C. Am., p. 288, 
1906; comp. desc 

Disir, Tropic, Calvert z. 2-4, Mexico to Panama. 

inequiunguis CALVERT, vide Brechmorhoga, antea. 
naeva (HAGEN), vide Erythrodiplax, antea. 

pseudimltaiis CALVERT, Proc. Boston Soc, 28, p. 329, 1898; brief diag- 
nosis; pi. 2, f. 35, thor. col. patt. — Proc. Cal. Acad., (3) 1, p. 
393, 1899; brief desc — Biol. C. Am., p. 290, 1906; comp. desc 

Syn. imitans CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 531, 1895; $ 9, types 
Cal. Acad.; pi. 16, flF. 33, 35-39, $ 9 char.— [Calvert 1898.] 

Distr. Tropic, (Calvert z. 1-4), Mex., B. Calif, to Ecuador & Venez. 

vulglpes CALVERT, syn. ad Brechmorhoga inequiunguis, antea. 



THOLYMIS HAGEN.* 

Ty^t—tillarga (FABRICIUS). Distribution— Equatorial. 
Stett. Ent. Zeit., 28, p. 221, 1867. 
BRAUER, Verb. Ges. Wien, 18, pp. 365, 712, 1868. 
KIRBY, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, 12, pp. 258, 265, 1889. 
KRUEGER, Stett. Ent. Zeit., 63, p. 75, 1902. 

•NOTE.— Tholymis, Pantala, Tramca. Tauriphila, Miathjrria. Ephidatia, 
Macrodiplax and Antidythemis are the American representatives of Ris' group X. 
Ris. in litt., July », 1909: *'Group X, the Tramea-group, might be called, together 
with IX, the Corduli-form Libellulinae. • • • There is no reason why to separate 
the series (certainly nearly connected inter se) Zyxomma - Tholymis - Pantala from 
the Tramea nucleus. The position of Antidythemis (which might have Libellula - 
Orthemis affinities) and Camacinia (which has analogies with Thermorthemis) is 
doubtful." Comparing the genera of group X with the system of other authors, this 
group forms a parallel of Gruppe Divergcntes FOERStER (Jb. Ver. Mannheim, 71, 
pp. 4-7, 1005) and a fusi«n of the groups Zyxommini and Pantalini KARS(^H (Abh. 
Senckb. Ces., 25, p. 211, 1900). 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE C»)ONATA OF N. A. 177 

Libellulinae 
CALVERT, Biol. C Am., p. 200, 1906. 
RIS, Cat Coll. Selys, 9, p. 35, 1909. 

dtfliia HAGEN, Stett. Ent Zeit, 28, p. 218, 1867; & 9, types M. C Z. 

SELYS, Ann. Mus. Genov., (2) 10, p. 440, 1891; noted. 

CALVERT, Bid. C Am., p. 220, 1906; desc; pL 9, ff. 9, 10, i .diar.; 
f. 11, wings. 
Distr. Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-3), Mexico to Brazil; Cuba. 

PANTALA HAGEN.* 

Typt-^Aavescens (FABRICIUS). Distribution— Cosmopolitan. 
Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 141, 1861. 
BRAUER, Verb. Ges. Wien, 18, pp. 364, 713, 1868. 
KIRBY, Trans. ZooL Soc London, 12, pp. 258, 265, 1889. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 20, p. 223, 1893.— Proc Cal Acad., 

(2) 4, p. 471, 1895.— Biol. C. Am., p. 203, 1906. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 92, 1899. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 250, 1900. 
NEEDHAM, Bull 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 508, 1901.— Proc U. S. 

Nat Mus., 26, p. 721, 1903. 
FOERSTER, Jb. Ver. Mannheim, 71 & 72^ p. 4, 1905. 
MUTTKOWSKI, BuU. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 105, 1908. 
RIS, Cat Coll. Selys, 9, p. 35, 1909. 

flaveflceiis(FABRICIUS), Ent Syst, Suppl., p. 285, 1798; (Libellula). 

HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 142, 1861; desc (Pantola) .—Stett 

Ent Zeit, 28, p. 215, 1867; desc 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent Soc, 20, p. 254, 1893; desc— Proc Cal. 

Acad., (2) 4, p. 512, 1893; noted; pi. 17, ff. 92-94, ^ $ char.— 

Biol. C. Am., p. 307, 1906 ; comp. desc ; p. 406, 1908 ; notes. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 93, 1899; desc. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 315, 1900; desc 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 539, 1901; dist— Proc 

U. S. Nat Mus., 26, 1903; pi. 50, f. 3, wings. 
HOWARD, Ins. Book, 1902; pi. 42, f. 1, adult 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 122, 1908; desc 
RIS, in Schultze: Forschungreise, p. 342, 1908; dist, ethol. notes. 
Syn. analis BURMEISTER, Handb. Ent, 2, p. 852, 1839; S, (Libellula), 

types Mus. Halle, & M. C Z.— [Hagen 1861.] 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 25, p. 69, 1898 ; on Burm. type. 

*NOTE.— See note under If acrodlplax balteata, postea. 



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178 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Libellulinae 

sporshallii CURTIS, Guide, p. 162, 1829; ( Lid W/wte).— [Calvert 1895.] 
DALE, Naturalist, London, 2, p. 333, 1847; note. 
SELYS, Mon. Lib. Eur., p. 36, 1840.— Rev. Odon., p. 322, 1850; 
(= viridula). 
terminalis BURMEISTER, Handb. Ent., 2, p. 852, 1839; (Libellula), 
Mus. Vienna. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent Soc., 25, p. 69, 1898; on Burm. types.— 
[Hagen 1861.] 
vkidula BEAUVAIS, Ins. Afr. Amer., p. 69, 1805; pi. 3, f. 4. adult; 
(Libellula). 
RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 38, 1842; desc— [Hagen 1861.] 
Nymph, CABOT, Mem. M C Z., 3, p. 43, 1890; desc pi. 6, f. 5, adult 

NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 539, 1901; desc— Proc. U. 
S. Nat Mus., 27, p. 712, 1904; desc; pi. 40, f. 5, adult 
Distr, Cosmopolitan (circumequatorial) ; all continents, except Europe 
(Italy?); N. Am.: Alleghanian to Tropic; Me. & N. Dak. to 
Calif. & Fla.; W. Indies; Mex., C. Am. 

bymenes (SAY), Jn. Acad. Phila., 8, p. 19, 1839; $, (Libellula), type lost 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. Am., p. 142, 1861; $9, (Pantala), neotypes 

M. C Z.— Stett Ent. Zeit, 28, p. 217, 1867; desc 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent Soc, 20, p. 254, 1893; desc— Proc Cal. 

Acad., (2) 4, p. 512, 1895; noted; pi. 17, ff. 90, 91, ^ 9 char.— 

Biol. C. Am., p. 309, 1906. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 93, 1899; desc 
WILLIAMSON. Drag. Ind., p. 315, 1900; desc 
HOWARD, Insect Book, 1902; pi. 42, f. 4, adult 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 540, 1901; dist 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 123, 1908; desc 
Nymph, ?MA(XACHLAN, Proc Zool. Soc London, pp. 84-87, 1877; t f., 

adult 
Distr, C:arolinian to Tropic, Pa. & Wis. to Fla. & N. M.; Cuba, Mex. to 

Argentine. 

TRAMEA HAGEN. 

Type — Carolina (LINNE). Distribution— Cosmopolitan. 
Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 143, 1861. 
BRAUER, Verb. Cks. Wicn., 18, pp. 364, 713, 1868. 
KIRBY, Trans. Zool. Soc London. 12, pp. 258, 268, 1889. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent Soc, 20. p. 223, 1893.— Proc Cal. Acad., 
(2) 4, p. 471, 1895.— Biol. C. Am., p. 303, 1906; char.; p. 300, 1907, 
table of C. Am. spp. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 179 

Libellulinae 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 92, 1899. 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 250, 1900. 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 608, 1901; char.— Proc. 

U. S. Nat Mus., 26, pp. 728, 742, 1903; venation. 
KRUEGER, Stett Ent Zeit, 63, p. 83, 1902. 
FOERSTER, JB. Mannheim, 71 & 72, p. 4, 1905. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 105, 1908. 
RIS, Cat. Coll. Selys, 9, p. 36, 1909. 

abdominalls (RAMBUR), Ins. Neur., p. 37, 1842; ^ $, (Libellula), types 
Coll. Selys. 
HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 145, 1861; desc (Tramea).— Stett. 

Ent. Zeit, 28, p. 223, 1867 ; noted. 
CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 615, 1895; desc. notes.— Biol. 

C. Am., p. 304, 1906; comp. desc. 
KIRBY, Ann. Mag. N. Hist, (6) 14, p. 292, 1894; dist 
Syn. basalts SELYS, in Sagra: Hist Cuba, Ins., p. 441, 1857; (Libellula) .--- 
[Hagen 1861.] 
insularis SCUDDER, Proc. Boston Soc, 10, p. 191, 1866; $, (Tramea), 
type Mus. Boston Soc — L. c, 11, p. 299, 1867; (= abdominalis) . 
Nympk CABOT, Mem. M. C. Z., 3, p. 46, 1890; desc. 
Distr. Gulf Strip to Tropic, Tenn. to Fla., Cuba. 

hmtHs (BURMEISTER), syn. ad cophysa. 

calvertl n.n. 

Syn. longicauda var. CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 514, 1895; desc; 

pi. 17, flF. 88, 89, i 9 char.— L. c, (3) 1, p. 408, 1899, identity.— 

Biol. C. Am., p. 303, 1906; comp. desc. 
Distr. Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-4), B. Calif., Mex., Guat, B. Hond. 

caroUmi (LINNE), Cent Ins., p. 28, 1863.— Syst Nat, 2, p. 904, 1867; 
(Libellula). 
DRURY, 111. Exot. Ent, 1, pi. 47, f. 6, 1773. 
RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 32, 1842; desc 

HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 143, 1861; desc $ $, (Tratnea). 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent Soc, 20, p. 255, 1893; desc 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 95, 1899; desc 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 316, 1900; desc 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 538, 1901; desc. notes. 
HOWARD, Insect Book, 1902; pi. 43, f. 8; adult 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 122, 1908; desc 



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180 BULLETIN, PUBUC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Libellulinae 

Nymph. CABOT, Mem. M. C Z^ 3, p. 46, 1890; dcsc; pL 6, f. 2, adult 

NEEDHAM, L c, p. 538, 1901; desc 
Distr, Carolinian to Tropic; Mass. to La. & Fla. Antflles. 

cophysa HAGEN, Stett Ent Zeit, 28, p. 226, 1867. 

FCALVERT, Proc Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 515, 1895; desc notes.— 

Biol. C. Am., p. 301, 1906; comp. desc.— Ann Carnegie Mus., 6, 

p. 259, 1909; dist 

Syn. basalts BURMEISTER, Handb. Ent., 2, p. 852, 1839; (Libellula), type 

Mus. Vienna. 

CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent Soc, 25, pp. 70, 94, 1898; on Burm. 

type. 
KIRBY, Ann. Nat Hist, (6) 19, p. 599, 1897; (Tramea), noted.— 
[Calvert 1906.] 
darwini KIRBY, Trans. Zool Soc London, 12, p. 315, 1889; 9, type 
British Museum ; pi. 51, f . 1, $ adult col. 
CURRIE, Proc Wash. Acad., 3, p. 386. 1901; i $.— [Calvert 1906.] 
incerta RAMBUR, Ins. Neur., p. 34, 1842; i, (LtfrW/nia). —[Calvert 
1906, with a doubt] 
Disir, Tropic (Calvert z. 2-4), C Am. to Brazil; West Indies. 

darwiiil KIRBY, syn. ad cophysa. 

Incerta (RAMBUR), syn. ad cophysa. 

Insularis HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 146, 1861; i 9, types M. C Z.— 
Stett Ent Zeit, 28, p. 224, 1867; on Scudder's $ (= abdom- 
inalis). 
SCUDDER, Proc. Bost Soc, 10, 191, 1866; ^ only.— L. c, 11, p. 299, 

1867; syn. 
UHLER, Proc Boston Soc, 11, p. 296, 1867; desc 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am., p. 303, 1906; comp. desc 
Distr. Tropic (Calvert z. 2-4), Fla. Keys, Bahamas, Greater Antilles, Mex., 
C. Am. 

lacerata HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 145, 1861; S 9, types M. C Z. 
CALVERT, Trans. Am. Ent Soc, 20, p. 255, 1893; desc 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 94, 1899; desc 
WILLIAMSON, Drag. Ind., p. 316, 1900; desc 
NEEDHAM, Bull. 47 N. Y. State Mus., p. 539, 1901; dist 
HOWARD, Insect Book, 1901; pi. 40, f. 8, S ad. col. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 121, 1908; desc 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 181 

Libellulinae 
Nymph. CABOT, Mem. M. C. Z., 3, p. 46, 1890; desc; pi. 0, f. 1, adult. 

NEEDHAM, 1. c, p. 539, 1901; desc 
Distr, Carolinian to Austroripartan ; N. Y. & S. Dak. to Calif. & Fla., Mexico. 

looflcauilavar. CALVERT, syn. ad caherti. 

OBOsta HAGEN, Syn. Ncur. N. Am., p. 144, 1861; i 9. types M. C. Z.— 
Stett Ent Zeit., 28, p. 222, 1867. 

CALVERT, Proc Cal. Acad., (2) 4, p. 513, 1895; desc notes; pi. 17, 
flF. 85-87, i 9 char.— Biol. C. Am., p. 305, 1905; comp. desc 

KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 95, 1899; desc 

WILLL^^ISON, Drag. Ind., p. 346, 1900; desc. 

NEEDHAM, Proc U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, 1903; pi. 49, f. 3, wings. 

MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, p. 122, 1908; dist. 
Syn. Carolina SELYS, in Sagra: Hist Cuba, Ins., p. 440, 1857; (Libellula). 
Distr. Carolinian to Tropic, Ohio & 111. to Cal. & Fla., Mex., C. Am., Cuba, 

vlrgliiia (RAMBUR), Ins. Neur., p. 33, 1842; ^, {Libellula), Coll. Selys. 
Syn. chinensis HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 144, 1861; ^, (Tramea) ; in 

part; Mus. ^enna. 
Distr. Austroriparian ; Carolma, Virginia. 



TAURIPHILA KIRBY. 

Type— af«fra/jj (HAGEN). Distribution— Neotropical. 
Trans. Zool. Soc London, 12, pp. 258, 268, 1889. 
KARSCH, Berl. Ent Zeitschr., 33, p. 351, 1890; char. 
CALVERT, Biol. C Am., p. 203, 1906. 
RIS, Cat Coll Selys, 9, p. 37, 1909. 

anttraUs (HAGEN), Stett Ent. Zeit., 28, p. 229, 1867; 9, (Tramea) types 
M. C Z. 
CALVERT, Biol. C. Am, p. 297, 1906; i 9, (Tauriphiia). 
Syn. iphigenia HAGEN, Stett Ent Zeit, 28, p. 230, 1867; ^, (Tramea), 
type M. C Z.— L. c, 29, p. 262, 1869; priority. 
NEEDHAM. Proc U. S. Nat Mus., 26, 1903; pi. 49, f. 2, wings. 
RIS, Magelhaenreise, p. 33, 1904; identity, (= australis). 
Distr. Tropic, (Calvert z. 2), Mexico to Brazil; Cuba. 

axteca CALVERT, Biol. C. Am, p. 298, 1907; ^ 9, types Coll. Schumann. 
Distr. Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-4), Mexico, AtL Coast 



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182 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Libellulinae 

MIATHYRIA KIRBY. 

Type— %sim/>/^x (RAMBUR). Distributionr— Neotrc^ic. 
Trans. Zool. Soc. Londcm, 12, pp. 258, 269, 1889. 
CALVERT, Proc. U, S. Nat. Mus., 16, p. 124, 1893; char.— Biol. C. 

Am., p. 203, 1906. 
RIS, Cat. Coll. Selys, 9, p. 37, 1909. 

balteata (HAGEN), vide Macrodiplax, postea. 

marcella (SELYS), in Sagra: Hist. Cuba, Ins., p. 452, 1857; (Libelluh), 
HAGEN, Stett. Ent. Zeit, 28, p. 227, 1867; noted, (Tramed), 
KIRBY, Ann. Mag. N. Hist., (7) 3, p. 262, 1899; ^, (Miathyria), 
CALVERT, Proc Cal. Acad, (3) 1, p. 388, 1899; desc notes.— Biol. 

C. Am., p. 294, 1906.— 
NEEDHAM, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 26, p. 709, 1903; t. f. 4q, stigma. 
RIS, Magelhacnreise, p. 34, 1904; noted. 

Syn, simplex HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 146, 1861; $ 9, (Tramea) ; 
identity with marcella suggested. 

Distr, Trc^ic, (Calvert z. 2-4), Mexico to Argentine; Greater Antilles. 

pttsilla KIRBY, syn. ad simplex. 

simplex (RAMBUR), Ins. Neur., p. 121, 1842; ^ $, (Libellula), types 
Coll. Selys. 
SELYS, in Sagra: Hist Cuba, Ins., p. 452, 1857. 
HAGEN, Stett. Ent. Zeit., 28, p. 228, 1867; noted, (Tramea), 
CALVERT, Proc Cal. Acad., (3) 1, p. 389, 1899; dist, {Miathyria). 
— Biol. C. Am., p. 296, 1906; comp. desc. 
Syn. pusilla KIRBY, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, 12, p. 318, 1889; ^, type 
British Museum; pi. 52, f. 3, $ ad col. — Ann. Mag. N. Hist, 
(6) 19, p. 600, 1897; identity with simplex suggested. 
CALVERT, Proc. Cal. Acad., (3) 1, p. 389, 1899; dist 
Distr. Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-3), Mexico to Brazil; Cuba. 

EPHIDATIA KIRBY. 

Type-'longipes (HAGEN). Distribution — Neotrc^ical. 
Trans. Zool. Soc. London, 12, pp. 262, 283, 1889. 
NEEDHAM, Proc. U. S. Nat Mus., 26, p. 718, 1903; venation. 
CALVERT, Biol. C Am., pp. 199, 216, 1906; char. 
RIS, Cat Coll. Selys, 9, p. 37, 1909. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 183 

Libellulinae 
longipes cubensU (SCUDDER), Proc. Boston Soc, 10, p. 190, 1866; 9, 
{Macromia), type Mus. Boston Soc. 
CALVERT, Biol. C Am., p. 216, 1906; $ $, (Ephidatia) ; pi. 9, flF. 
1-5, $ $ char. 
Syn, amazonica KIRBY, Trans. Zool. Soc London, 12, p. 331, 1889; i, 
British Museum.— [Calvert 1906.] 
longipes HAGEN, Syn. Neur. N. Anj., p. 169, 1861; in part; (Erythemis). 
specularis HAGEN, Stett. Ent. Zeit, 28, p. 98, 1867; (Erythemis), 
Distr, Tropic, (Calvert z. 2-3), Mex. to Peru; Greater Antilles. 



MACRODIPLAX BRAUER. 

Type — cora BRAUER. Distribution — Circumequatorial. 
Verh. Ges. Wien, 18, pp. 366, 737, 1868. 
KIRBY, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, 12, pp. 261, 282, 1889. 
SELYS, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., 41, p. 72, 1897. 
RIS, Cat Coll. Selys, 9, p. 37, 1909. 

balteate (HAGEN), Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 140, 1861; $, (Tetragoneuriaf), 
type M. C Z. 
CALVERT, Proc Cal. Acad., (3) 1, p. 389, 1899; position ("no 

Miathyria, location doubtful"). 
RIS, in litteris, June 23, 1909; position and distr. (= Macrodiplax) ,* 
Distr, GuM Strip, Texas, Florida Keys, Cuba. 

*N0TE.~Ri8, in litteris, June 23, 1009: "Macrodiplax (Brauer) will be an 

American ^^enus. I have examined a male of Balteata Hagen, kindly lent me from 
Philadelphia. After having confronted exactly the specimen with If. oora (the only 
other species of the fl[enus, all the other names are synonyms). I am certain, that bai- 
teata is congeneric with Macrodiplax M. balteau seems to have a rather restricted 
habitat (Texas. Cuba, Florida— my specimen was from Key West), whereas the area of 
cor» is exceedingly large and mostly insular, from Samoa, Queensland and Formosa to 
that of Pantala flavescens and hymenea I have the idea, that both species of 
Socotra and Mauritius. The case of the two species is, on a smaJler scale, analogous to 
Maerodlplaz might inhabit salt water." 



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184 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Fossilia 



PART II. FOSSILIA. 

ORDER ODONATA FABRICIUS. 

SCUDDER, Proc Boston Soc, 10, pp. 173-192, 1867; pi. 6; first ac- 
count of N. Am. fossil Neuroptera.— Bull. U. S. Surv. Terr., 4 
no. 2, pp. 519-543, 1878; (Dysagrion) .^L, c, pp. 747-776, 1878; 
(Podagrion). -^Ann. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv., 12, pp. 271-293, 
1883; map; account of Tertiary lake-basin at Florissant, G)lo.— 
Proc Boston Soc., 21, pp. 407-409, 1883; fossils of Green River, 
Wyo. and Florissant, Cc^o. — ^Fossil Insects of N. Am.: Vol. 1, 
Pretertiary Insects, pp. 455, pis. 35; Vol. 2, Tertiary Insects, pp. 
663, pis. 28; New York, 1890.— Bull. 93 U. S. Geol. Surv., 25 
pp„ 3 pis., 1892; Florissant fossils. 

HANDLIRSCH, Die Fossilen Insection, 6 & 1430 & 40 pp., 51 pis., 
1906-1908; Odonata: pp. 35, 463, 579, 600, 667, 896, 1151, 1161- 
1166, 1171, 1176, 1185, 1189, 1190, 1198, 1203, 1207, 1211-1217, 
1221, 1229, 1230, 1291, 1297, 1298, 1339, 1342, 1343; characters of 
order, desc of fossils, catalogue of fossils, chronology of classi- 
fication systems, phylogeny, evoluti(Mi, founding of new system; 
figures on pis. 4, 9, 31, 32, 37, 42, 47. 

SELLARDS, Am. Jn. Sci., 22, pp. 249-258, 1906; ncrvuration of Per- 
mian Odonata, phylogeny of fossil and recent forms. 

COCKERELL, Bull. Am. Mus., 23, pp. 133-139, 1907; {Lithaeschnd) , 
fossil and recent forms. — ^Am. Nat., 42, i^. 569-583, 1908; {Pften- 
acolestes),'-Buil Am. Mus., 24, pp. 69-69, 1908; fossil and re- 
cent fopns characterized. Ent. News, 19, p. 456, 1908; char, of 
fossil genera. 

SUBORDER PROTODONATA brogniart. 

Type isaaHy^Proiagrionidae HANDLIRSCH. Distribution— Carbon & 

Permian. 
Bull. Soc. Rouen, p. 65, 1885 ; as family for Protagrion, 
HANDLIRSCH, Foss. Ins., p. 305, 1906; raised to ordinal rank, full 

char. 
SELLARDS, Am. Jn. Sci., 22, pp. 257-258, 1906; emended, suborder. 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 185 

Fossilia 



FAMILY PARALOGIDAE HANDLIRSCH. 

Type gtnu^^Parahgus SCUDDER. Distribution— (Upper Carbon), N. Am. 
Foss. Ins.» p. 310, 1906; defined. 



PARALOGUS SCUDDER. 

Typt-^eschnoides SCUDDER. Distribution— (Upper Carbon), N. Am. 
Bull. U. S. (koL Surv., 101, p. 21, 1893. 

aesclmoldes SCUDDER, Bull. U. S. (kol. Surv., 101, p. 21, 1893; from 
wing; pL 1, ff. ajb, wing. 
BROGNIART, Faune Ent Terr. Prim., p. 521, 1893; fig. 
HANDLIRSCH, Proc. U. S. Nat Mus., 29, p. 690, 1906; noted.— 
Foss. Ins., p. 310, 1906; noted; pi. 31, f. 39, wing, after Scudder. 
Distr, Rhode Island (Upper Carbon). 

FAMILY TUPIDAE. 
Type gexm&—Tupus SELLARDS. Distribution— (Permian & Carbon) N.Am. 

PALAEOTHERATES HANDLIRSCH. 

Type^ensihanicus HANDLIRSCH. Distribution— (Upper C^irbon) Penn. 
Foss. Ins., p. 311, 1906. 

pensilvaniciis HANDLIRSCH, Foss. Ins.. p. 311, 1906; desc; pi. 32, f. 5, 

fragment of apical third of wing. 
Distr, Pittston, Pa. (Upper Carbon). 

TUPUS SELLARDS. 

Typt^ermianus SELLARDS. Distribution— (Permian) Kansas. 
Am. Jn. Scl, 22, p. 249-258, 1906. 



SELLARDS, Am. Jn. Sd., 22, pp. 249-258, 1906; desc; t f. 1, 
four wings, fragments of head and leg; t ff. 2-7, wing details. 
Distr. Kansas (Permian). 



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186 BULLETIN, PUBUC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Fossilia 

SUBORDER ZYGOPTERA selys. 

FAMILY GOENAGRIONIDAE KIRBY. 

SUBFAMILY GOENAGRIONINAE KIRBY 

MELANAGRION COCKERELL. 
Type— wmfrro/um (SCUDDER). Distribution— (Tertiary) Colo. 

aiferrlmnm COCKERELL> Am. Jn. Sci., 26, p. 69, 1908; desc. of wing. 
Distr. Florissant, Colo. (Tertiary). 

umbratmn (SCUDDER), Tert. Ins. N. Am., 1890; pi. 13, ff. 12, 14, wing; 
(Lithagrion) , 
COCKERELL, Am. Jn. Sci., 26, p. 70, 1908; dist (Melangrion). 
Distr. Florissant, Colo. (Tertiary). 

LITHAGRION SCUDDER. 

Type^hyalinum SCUDDER. Distribution— (Tertiary) Colo. 
U. S. Surv. Terr., 6, p. 293, 1882.— Ann. Rep. U. S. CJeol. Surv., 12, 
p. 284, 1883.— Proc Boston Soc, 21, p. 409, 1883. 

hyattnum SCUDDER, Tert Ins. N. Am., 1890; pi. 13, f. 4, wing. 

COCKERELL, Bull. Am. Mus., 23, p. 133, 1907; desc; t f. 2, wing. 
Am. Jn. Sci., 26, p. 29, 1908; desc; t. f. 1, wing. 
Distr, Florissant, Colo. (Tertiary). 

COELICCIA KIRBY. 

alieiui SCUDDER, Bull. 93 U. S. Geol. Surv., p. 12, 1892; desc {Tricho- 
cnemis) ; pi. 1, f. 2, wing. 
COCKERELL, Am. Jn. Sci., 26, p. 72, 1908; desc; t. f. 3, wing. 
DistK Florissant, Colo. (Tertiary). 

HESPERAGRION CALVERT. 

praevolaiis COCKERELL, Bull. Am. Mus., 23, p. 138, 1907; desc; t. f. 3, 

wing. — Am. Jn. Sci., 26, p. 72, 1908; dist. 
Distr. Florissant, Colo. (Tertiary). 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALCXSUE ODONATA OF N. A, 187 

Fossilia 

COENAGRION KIRBY. 

exsnlarls SCUDDER, Tert Ins. N. Am., 1890; pi. 13, f. 5, wing; (Agrion). 

COCKERELL, Am. Jn. Sci., 26, p. 72, 1908; dist 
Distr, Florissant, Colo. (Tertiary). 



SCUDDER, Tert. Ins. N. Am., 1890; pi. 13, ff. 8, 9, wing; 
(Agrion). 
COCKERELL, Am. Jn. Sci., 26, p. 72, 1908; dist. 
Distr. Florissant, Colo, (Tertiary). 

teHuris SCUDDER, Tert. Ins. N. Am., 1890; pi. 13, f. 10, nymph; (Agricn). 
COCKERELL* Bull. Am. Mus., 24, p. 60, 1908; desc; pL 6, f. 10, 
nymph. 
Distr. Florissant, Colo. (Tertiary). 

ENALLAGMA CHARPENTIER. 

florissanteUa COCKERELL, Am. Jn. Sci., 26, p. 70, 1908; desc; t. f. 2, 

wing. 
Distr. Florissant, Colo. (Tertiary). 

mortnella COCXERELL, Entomologist, 42, p. 172, 1909; complete inscet. 
Distr. Florissant, Colo. (Miocene). 

MEGAPODAGRION SELYS. 

abortlvuin SCUDDER, Bull. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr., 4, p. 775, 1878; wing. 

— Tert. Ins. N. Am., 1890; desc; pi. 5, ff. 7, 8, wing; (Poda- 

grion). 
Distr. Green River, Wyo. (Eocene). 

SUBFAMILY DYSAGRIONINAE COCKERELL. 

Type genus— i^y^fl^rtofi SCUDDER. Distribution — (Tertiary, Eocene), 

C>>lo., Wyo. 
Bull. Am. Mus., 24, p. 60, 1908; defined. 

PHENACOLESTES COCKERELL. 

Type—mirandus COCKERELL. Distribution— (Tertiary) Cola 
Bull. Am. Mus., 24, p. 61, 3908. 



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188 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Fossilia 

mirandiu COCKERELL, Bull. Am. Mus., 24, p. 61, 1908; desc. pi 5, f. 13, 

wing. 
Distr, Florissant, Colo. (Tertiary). 

INU'sUelus COCKERELL, Bull. Am. Mus., 24, p. 61, 1908; desc.; apical 
half of wing.— Am. Nat, 42, p. 574, 1908; t f . 4, entire adult- 
Am. Jn. ScL, 26, p. 75, 1908; dist 

Distr. Florissant, Colo. (Tertiary). 

DYSAGRION SCUDDER. 

Typt^frederici SCUDDER. Distribution— (Eocene) Wyo. 
Bull. U. S. Surv. Terr., 4, p. 534, 1878. 

frederid SCUDDER, Bull. U. S. Surv. Terr., 4, p. 526, 1878; wing.— Tert 
Ins. N. Am., 1890; pi. 6, ff. 2, 5, 6, 9, 10, 14, 17, wings and de- 
tails, fragments of adult 

Distr, Green River, Wyo. (Eocene). 

lakesii SCUDDER, Tert Ins. N. Am., p. 132, 1890; wing. 
Distr. Ch-een River, Wyo. (Eocene). 

packardl SCUDDER, in Zittel, Handbuch d. Palacont, 1 (2), p. 776, 1886; 

adult and fragment; f. 979.— Tert Ins. N. Am., p. 132, 1890; 

desc pi. 6, ff. 1, 3, 11, adult 
Distr. Green River, Wyo. (Eocene). 

Agrionid inceriae sedis. 

N. g., n. sp. NEEDHAM, Proc U. S. Nat Mus., 26, p. 716, 1903; t f. 9, 

wing. 
Distr. Not stated, fossil in M. C. Z. 

SUBORDER ANISOPTERA selys. 

FAMILY AESHNIDAE SELYS. 
SUBFAMILY AESHNINAE RAMBUR. 

OPLONAESCHNA SELYS. 

seiNinits (SC:UDDER), Tert. Ins. N. Am., p. 144, 1890; desc; pi. 13, f. 5, 
wing; (Aeshna).— Bull U. S. (3eol. Surv. Terr., 6, p. 293, 1881; 
(Aeshna sp.). 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 189 

Fossilia 
NEEDHAM, Proc U. S. Nat. Mus., 226, p. 761, 1903; iHoplonae- 

schna). 
COCKERELL, Am. Jn. Sci., 26, p. 74, 1908; desc. 
Distr, Florissant, Colo. (Tertiary). 

LITHAESCHNA COCKERELL. 

Type— needhami COCKERELL. Distribution— (Miocene) Colo. 
Bull. Am. Mus., 23, p. 133, 1907. 

needhaml COCKEREL!^ Bull. Am Mus., 23, p. 133, 1907; t. f. 1, hind 

wing; tables, details of venation. 
Distr. Florissant, Colo. (Miocene). 

AESHNA FABRICIUS. 

larvata SCUDDER, Tert. Ins. N. Am., p. 115, 1890; pi. 13, f. 11, larva. 
Distr. Florissant, Colo. (Miocene), 

sollda SCUDDER, Tert Ins. N. Am., p. 146, 1890; desc; pi. 13, f. 1, wing. 

COCKERELL, Ent News, 19, p. 456, 1908; desc 
Distr, Florissant, Colo. (Miocene). 



FAMILY LIBEIXULIDAE RAMBUR. 
SUBFAMILY CORDULIINAE RAMBUR. 
STENOGOMPHUS SCUDDER. 

Type— rar/r/ofii SCUDDER. Distribution— (Tertiary) Colo. 
Bull. U. S. (5eoL Surv. Terr. no. 93, p. 14, 1892. 

carletonl SCUDDER, Bull. U. S. Surv. Terr. no. 93, p. 14, 1892; pi. 1, f. 1, 

fore wing. 
RIS, in litteris, April 12, 1910; "... The specimen is not a Gom- 

phine; it is a Corduline, more especially something between 

Neurocordulia and Platycordulia on one side, Aeschnosoma on 

the other side."* 
Distr. Roan Mt, Colo. (Tertiary). 

NOTB.—ThA argnmentt oo which Dr» Rlt' Cordnllfie BvppoaJtion is based, wlQ probably 
be printed eliewhert. 



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190 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Fossilia 

SUBFAMILY LIBEIXULINAE SELYS. 
SYMPETRUM NEWMAN. 

Diplax? 8p. SCUDDER, Rep. Progr. Geol. Surv. Canada (1874-1875), p. 

280, 1877; desc. of larva. 
Distr, Quesnel, Brit. Columbia (Oligoccnc). 

LIBELLULA LINNE. 

(LibelliiU) SCUDDER, Bull. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr., 4, p. 775, 1878.— 

Tert. Ins. N. Am., p. 146, 1890; pi. 6, ff. 4, 16, larva. 
Distr, Green River, Wyo. (Oligoccne). 



{LibeJlulM emrbonatiM SCUDDERzzstracbnid (Grmeopbonta emrbon»ritui).—iScvidder, 
1890.1 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 191 



PART Ill.-ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS/ 



p. 53 To Ozjagrlon add 

FOERSTER, JB. Ver. Nassau, 62, p. 230, 1909; dist from Amphia^ 
grion. 

p. 56 To BnaUsginmcanincaUitiini add 

Distr, California. 

p. 66 To Amphlagrion add 

FOERSTER, JB. Vcr. Nassau, 62, p. 230, 1909; notes on distr.; 
A, audinum <J 9 n. sp.— S. Am. 

p. 76 To CordulegaAterdUwUtopjadd 

Nymph, TILL YARD, Proc. Linn. Soc N. S. Wales, 34, p. 705, 1910; 
t f. 1, labium. 

p. 83 Tp Ophlof omphiu carollnos add 

Distr. Wiscorsin (Transition). 

p. 90 From Oomphus borealis strike 

5^1. spicatus HAGEN and refer same to spicatus proper. [See 
Calvert, Occ Papers Boston Soc N. H., 7, p. 20, 1905 ; note under 
spicatus. See also Muttkowski, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 
88, 1908; note under spicatus.} 

p. 97 To Qooipliiu splcatiis HAGEN add 

HAGEN, Mon. Gomph., pi. 9, f. 2, 1858; i $ char. 

p. 106 Under Aiiax WAlstofhaail read 

Nymph. CABOT, M. C. Z., noted (nee desc). 

p. 126 From Tetragoneuria splnisora MUTTKOWSKI strike 

Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, pi. 5, 1908; wings only; and refer to 
Libellula quadrimaculata (p. 139) ; the description is valid. — 
[Ris, in litteris, Jan. 16, 1910.] 

*NOTB.— 'The number of additions receWcd and correctiont noted till the date of 
this writing it not lar^, vet br no meant unimportant, at will be teen from the con- 
text. I preferred attembling them under a tpeciai head to iatertt which miaiit eatUy 
become detached and lott.— R. A. liuTTKOwtKi, Public Mntenm, Milwatikee, May 
14th, 1910. 



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192 BULLETIN, PUBUC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

p. 133 To UbelluUaae add 

RIS, Cat. Coll. Sclys, 10, pp. 121-244, 1910; pL 2, t ff. 90-152; part 
two of monograph. 

p. 139 To LibeDutti quadrlnuicalata add 

Syn, spinigera MUTTKOWSKI, BuU. Wis. N. H. Soc, (2) 6, pi. 5; 
wings only (Tetragoneuria), — [Ris in litteris, Jan. 16, 1910.] 

p. 147 From Nannotheoiis remove 

maculosa HAGEN and refer same to Erythrodiplax, — [Teste Ris, in 
litt, Jan. 16, 1910.] 

p. 152 After Brythrodlptax l«ontliui insert 

maculosa Hagen, Syn. Neur. N. Am., p. 187, 1861; i (Nannophya), 
typ# Mus. Zurich.— NEEDHAM, Proc. U. S". N. Mus., 26, p. 722, 
1903 ; (Nannothemis) ; loop.— RIS, in litteris, Jan. 16, 1910 ; 
(= Erythrodiplax), near minuscula, 
Distr, Carolinian ?, Georgia. 

p. 168 Cross all references of Celltheaiia fasdata and read as follows : 
Celtthemis fasdata KIRBY, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, 12, p. 326, 
1889 ; $ , types in British Museum ; pi. 52, f . 2, ^ adult. 
WILLIAMSON, Ohio Naturalist, 10, p. 156, 1910; ^ $ desc.; pL 6, 
7, flF. 1-4, wings. 
Distr, Austroriparian & Gulf Strip; Ohio & N. C. to Fla. & La. 

Celfthemia monomelaeiia WILLIAMSON, Ohio Naturalist, 10, p. 155, 

1910; ^ 9, types Coll. Williamson; pi. 7, 8, flF. 5-9, wings. 
Syn, fasciata HINE, Ent. News, 10, p. 1, 1899; $ desc; t ff. showing col. 
patt. of wings. 
WILLIAMSON, Ent. News, 10, p. 42, 1899; ethol.— Drag. Ind., p. 

360, 1900; desc. 
KELLICOTT, Odon. Ohio, p. 104, 1899; desc. 
MUTTKOWSKI, Bull. Wis. N. H. Soc., (2) 6, p. 108, 1908; desc. 
Distr. Carolinian, Canada & Wis. to 111. & N. J. 

p. 186 Coallcda (Trlchocnemls) allena 

"is probably an Argia or AmphiagriotC' —RIS, in litt, April 12, 1910. 
—[Upon comparison to Hespcragrion and Argia Scudder's figure 
seems an intermediate between these two genera, as it combmes 
characters of both, but also differs from each genus in several 
important points.— R. A. M.] 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A, 



193 



PART IV.- INDEX. 



NAMES. — Genus, family and subfamily names, and captions of 
the introduction are in LARGE CAPITALS ; species names in small 
letters. Roman type indicates valid names, italic the synonymns. 
The genus accompanies each species; if several generic names are 
quot^ for one species, the first indicates the present position of the 
species; the others are genera under which the species has passed. 

PAGE NUMBERS. — ^When several page numbers are cited, the 
FIRST points out the page on which the biblic^raphy is quoted. 
Parentheses enclosing numbers denote fossils. 



aaroni (Neoncura) 72 

abboti (Aeshna) 115 

abbotti (Ortholestcs) 35 

ABBREVIATIONS, EXPLANA- 
TORY 11 

abbreviatum (I^rrhosoina, 

Agrion) 66 

abbreviatus (Gomphus) 89, 99 

abdominalis (Tramea, Libellula) 179 

aberrans (Pseudostigma) 41 

abjecta (Diplax) 151 

abjecta (Erythrodiplax).151, 152,150 
abort ivum (Megapodagrion, Poda- 

grion) (187) 

ACANTHAGINA 107 

accedens (Pseudostigma. ) 41 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 17 

acuta (Libellula) 159 

adelphus (Gomphus) 89, 99 

adnexa (Coryphaeschna) 115, 109 

aduncum (Agrion, Enallagma) ... 53 

aenea (Cordulia) 128 

aequabile (Agrion) 27 

aequalis (Micrathyria, Dythemis) 148 
AESHNA 108, 17, 22, (189) 



AESHNA 89 

AESHNIDAE 74, 20, 22, (188) 

AESHNINAE....101, 20, 22, (188) 

aeschnoides (Paralogus) (185) 

agrioides (Argia) 45 

AGRION 26, 14, 15, 17, 21, 42 

AGRION 65, 14, 15, 26, 42 

AGRIONIDAE 26, 20, 21 

A GRIO NIDAE 34 

AGRIONINAE 26, 20, 21 

AGRION vs. CALOPTERYX.14,17 

alacer (Lestes) 36 

albicincta (Somatochlora, Cordulia 

Epitheca, Epc^hthalmia) 129 

albifrons (Leucorrhinia) 165 

albifrons (Sympctrum, Diplax, Li- 
bellula) 160, 159 

albistylus (Lanthus, Gomphus) ... 88 

aliasignata (Libellula) 140 

aliena (Coeliccia, Trichocnemis) 

(186) 192 

alleghaniensis (Macromia) 120 

ALLOPETALIA 74 

allopterum (Anisagrion) 53 

ALLOTYPE 10 

amanda (Celithemis, Diplax) 169, 167 
amatum (Agrion, Calopteryx) 28 



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194 



BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 



amazili (Anax, Aeshna) 105 

amasonica ( Ephidatia) 183 

ambigua (Negomphoides, Gom- 

phoides) 81 

ambigua (Sympetnim, Libellula) 

160, 159 

ambusta (Diplax) 150 

amelia (Neoneura) 72 

americana (Hetaerina, Calopteryx) 

30, 31 

amnicola (Gomphus) 89, 99 

AMPHIAGRION 66, 21, 191 

amphion (Amphiagrion) 66 

analis (Libellula) 177 

ANAPATES 36 

ANATYA 147, 24, 146 

ANAX 105, 22 

angustipenne (Agrion, Caloptenrx, 

Sylphis) 28 

angustipennis (Cannaphila, Libel- 
lula) 144 

angustipennis (Libellula) 144 

ANISAGRION 53, 21 

ANISOPTERA 74, 7, 20, (188) 

ANISOZYGOPTERA 7, 20 

anna (Enallagma) 54 

annexum (Enallagma, Agrion) 57, 54 
annulata (Libellula, Mesothe- 

mis) 156 

annulata (Macromia) 120 

annulatus (Cordulegaster) 75 

annulosa (Libellula) 156 

anomala (Anatya) 148, 147 

ANOMALAGRION 71, 21 

anomalum (Agrion) 71 

anomalus (Ophiogomphus) 83 

antennatum (Enallagma, Agrion, 

Protoneura) 54, 15 

ANTIDYTHEMIS 176 

antilope ((jomphaeschna, Aeshna) 104 

APHYLLA 79, 22 

apicale (Agrion Calopteryx) . . .29, 28 
apicalis (Argia, Agrion) 45 



ARCHILESTES 35, 21 

ARGIA 44, 21, 42 

ARGIALLAGMA 52, 21 

ARGIOCNEMIS 43 

ARIGOMPHUS 99 

armata (Oplonaeschna, Hoplonae- 

schna, Aeschna) 104 

armatus (Dromogomphus, CJom- 

phus) 100 

arundinacea (Aeshna) 109 

aspersum (Enallagma, Agrion) 55,62 

aspersus (Ophiogomphus) 83 

assimilatum (Sympetrum, Diplax, 

Libellula) 160 

asticta (Hetaerina) 31 

atra (Micrathyria, Dythemis) ... .148 

atripes (Sympetrum, Diplax) 160 

atrodorsum (Leptobasis) 64 

attala (Erythemis, Mesothemis, 

Libellula) 156 

auripennis (Libellula) 135 

australensis (Macromia) 120 

australis (Brachymesia) 170, 169 

australis (Cromphus) 90, 99 

australis (Tauriphila, Tramea).. .181 

AUSTROTHEMIS 165 

axillena (Libellula) 136 

azteca (Tauriphila) 181 

B 

balteata (Macrodiplax, Miathyria, 

Tetragoneuria) 183, 182 

barberi (Ischnura) 68 

barretti (Argia) 45 

basalis (Hetaerina, Agrion) 31 

basalis (Lestes) 31 

basalis (Libellula) 138, 136 

basalis (Libellula) 179 

basalis (Tramea, Libellula) 180 

BASIAESCHNA 103, 22 

basidens (Enallagma) 55 

basifusca (Erythrodiplax, Trithc- 
mis) 152 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 



195 



basiguttata (Tetragoneuria) 126 

batesii (Cannacria) 169 

bella (Nannothemis, Libellula, 

Nannophya) 147, 146 

BELONIA 135, 134 

berenice (Erythrodiplax, Micra- 

thyria) 150, 149 

berenice (Micrathyria) 151 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 16 

hicolor (Libellula, Erythemis). ...157 

hicolor ( Mesothemis) 157 

bifasciata (Libellula) 139 

bifida (Gynacantha) 107 

bilinearis (Neoneura) 72 

binotata (Argia, Agrion) 51, 45 

bipartita (Hetaerina) 33, 31 

bipunctulata (Argia, Agrion) 45 

bipustulata (Argia) 46 

bison (Ophiogomphus) 83 

bistigma (Libellula) 137 

boa (Erpetogomphus) 86 

boa (Elrpetogomphus) 86 

boa (Erpetogomphus) 87 

boreale (Enallagma, Aenallagma) 55 
borealis (Gomphoides, Progom- 

phus) 79 

borealis ((jomphus) 90, 99, 191 

borealis (Leucorrhinia) 166 

borealis ( Progomphus) 79 

boucardi (Tclebasis) 63 

BOYERIA 101, 22 

BRACHYMESIA 169, 165, 24 

BRECHMORHOGA 173, 24, 170 

brevipes ( Aphylla) 79 

brevis (Gomphus) 90, 99 

brevistylus (Hagenius) 82, 13 

brodiei (Gomphus) (78) 

broadwayi (Dythemis) 172 

brunnea (Agrion) 58 

c 

CAENONEURA 72 

caerulans (Libellula) 157 



CALEPTERYX 26 

calida (Argia, Agrion) 46 

calidum (Agrion) 46 

califomica ( Aeshna) 109 

californica ( Archilestes) 35 

calif ornica (Calopteryx) 31 

californica ( Perithemis) 145 

caligata (Microneura) 73 

CALLEPTERYX 27 

CALOPTERYGIDAE 35 

CALOPTERYGINAE 26 

CALOPTERYX 27, 15 

CALOPTERYX vs. AGRION. 14, 17 

calverti (Enallagma) 55 

calverti (Tramea) 179 

CAMACINIA 176 

Camilla (Libellula) 168 

canadense (Agrion) 56 

canadensis (Aeshna) 109 

cancellata (Libellula) 164 

canis (Tetragoneuria) 125 

CANNACRIA 169, 24 

CANNAPHILA 143, 135, 24 

capillaris (Protoneura, Agrion).. 73 

capreola (Ceratura, Agrion) 72 

caraiba (Aphylla, (jomphoides) . . 80 

carbonaria (Libellula) (190) 

cardenium (Enallagma) 56 

carletoni (Stenogomphus) (189) 

camatica ( Neoneura) 72 

camifex (Hetaerina) 33 

Carolina (Libellula) 181 

Carolina (Tramea, Libellula) . 179, 178 
carolinus (Ophiogomphus) 84,83,191 

carolus (Ophiogomphus) 83 

carunculatum (Enallagma). ..56, 191 

catharina ( Macrothcmis) 174 

caucasica (Aeshna) 112 

cavillaris (Gomphus) 90, 99 

celaeno (Macrothemis, Libellula) 175 

CELITHEMIS 167, 24, 165 

CERATURA 72, 21 

cervula (Ischnura) 68 



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196 



BULLETIN, PUBUC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 



charadraca (Somatochlora) 129 

charpentieri (Agrion) ... - 58 

chlora (Libellula) 146 

chinensis (Tramea) 181 

CHLOROGOMPHINAE 20 

CHLOROSOMA 128, 129 

CHROMAGRION 67, 21 

chrysoptera (Symp€truin,Diplax) 160 

citrina (Tholymis) 177 

cingulata ( Macromia) 119 

cingulata (Somatochlora, Epi- 

theca) 129 

cinnomomea (Epophthalmia) 119 

civile (Enallagma, Agrion) 56 

clara (Ortholestes) 35 

CLASSIFICATION 6, 20 

clausum (Enallagma) 56 

clepsydra ( Aeshna) 109 

clepsydra (Aeshna) 109 

coecum (Enallagma) 56 

coecum (Enallagma) 57 

COELICCIA (186), 192 

COEN AGRION. .65, 14, 15, 17, 21, 

26, 42, (187) 
COENAGRIONID AE . . 34, 20, 21, 

(186) 
COENAGRIONINAE. .42, 7, 10, 

13, 20, 21, (186) 

COENOTIATA 166 

cognata (Calopteryx) 28 

collocata (Erythemis, Mesothe- 

mis) 158, 156 

colubrinus (Ophiogomphus) 84 

columba (Brechmorhoga) 173 

Comanche (Libellula) 136 

communis (Libellula) 152 

complanata (Tetragoneuria) . 126, 125 
composita (Libellula, Mesothe- 

mis) 136 

compositus (Erpetogomphus) 86 

concinnum ( Argia) 44 

concinnum (Coenagrion) 66 

concolor ( Anax) 105 



conditum (Chromagrion, Eryth- 

romma) 67 

confraternus (Gomphus) 90, 99 

confusa (Libellula) 139 

congener (Lestes) 37 

conjuncta (Libellula) 171 

connata (Erythrodiplax) 151, 152 

consanguis (Gromphus) 91, 99 

consobrinus (Gomphus) 92 

constricta (Aeshna) 109 

constricta (Aeshna) 113 

constricta (Aeshna) 114 

cophias (Erpetogomphus, Gom- 
phus) 86 

cophysa (Tramea) 180 

cora (Macrodiplax) 183 

CORDULEGASTER 75, 22 

CORDULEGASTERINAE 

75, 20, 22 

CORDULIA 128, 23, 122 

C0RDULINAE.117, 17, 20, 23, (189) 

CORDULIINI 122, 20, 23 

cornigera (Aeshna) 110 

comutus (Gonphus) 91, 99 

corruptum (Sympetrum, Diplax, 

Mesothemis) 160, 9 

CORYPHAESCHNA 115, 22 

costalis (Libellula) 136 

costalis (Tetragoneuria) 126, 125 

costiferum (Sympetrum, Diplax) 161 

crassus (Gromphus) 91, 99 

credula (Erythemis, Diplax) 156 

credula (Ischnura) 70, 68 

crenata (Aeshna) 110, 109 

croceipennis (Libellula) 140, 136 

crotalinus (Erpetogomphus, Gk>m- 

I^us, Ophiogomphus) 86 

cruentata (Hetaerina, Calop- 
teryx) 32, 31 

cubensis (Ephidatia, Macromia). .183 

cultellatum (Enallagma) 57 

cuprea (Argia), Agrion) 46 

cupraea (Argia) 50 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 



197 



cyanca (Libellula) 136 

CYANOGOMPHUS 87, 22 

cyathigenim (Enallagma, Agrion) 

57, 54 

CYCLOPH YLLA 80, 22 

cynosura (Tctragoneuria, G>rdu- 

lia, Libellula) 125 

CYRTOSOMA 105 

D 

daeckii (Telagrion) 64 

damula (Ischnura) 68 

darwini (Tramca, Libellula) 180 

deami (Argia) 46 

debilis (Micrathyria, Dythemis) 149 
decisum (Sympetrum, Diplax) . . . 162 

deiixa (Ischnura) 69, 68 

deAxa (Ischnura) 70, 68 

demorsa (Ischnura, Agrion) 68 

denticollis (Ischnura, Agrion, Ne- 

halennia) 68, 64 

dentiferum (Agrion) 62 

deplanata (Ladona, Libellula).... 134 

depressa (Libellula) 135 

descriptus ((^omphus) 91, 99 

designatus (Erpetogompbus, Gofttk- 

phus) 86 

diadema (Cordulegaster) 76 

diadophis (Erpetogomphus) 87 

DIASTATOMMA 83 

diastatops (Cordulegaster, Theca- 

phora) 76, 191 

dicrota (Dythemis) 149 

didyma (Micrathyria, Libel- 
lula) 149, 148 

DIDYMOPS 118, 23 

diMciiis ( Agrionoptera) 148 

dilatatus ((^omphus) 91, 99 

dimidiata (Calopteryx) 30 

dimidiatum (Agrion, Calopteryx) 28 

DIPLACODES 16 

DIPLAX 159, 16 

DIPTERA 7 



discolor (Agrion) 71 

discolor (Agrion) 67 

discolor (Orthemis, Libellula)... .143 

disjunctus (Lestes) 37 

dissocians (Micrathyria) 149 

distinguenda (Libellula) 154, 153 

DISTRIBUTION 8 

divagans (Enallagma) 58 

divagans (Enallagma) 60 

DIVERGENTES ..., m 

dominiciana (Telebasis, Agrion, 

Erythragrion) 62 

domitia (Perithemis, Libellula) 145 ) 
domitia (Perithemis, Libel- 
lula) 145, 144 

domitia (Perithemis) 145, 146 

DOROCORDULIA 127, 23 

dorsalis (Cordulegaster) 76 

doubledayi (Enallagma, Agrion.. . 58 

DROMOGOMPHUS 100, 22 

dugesii (Aeshna) 110 

durum (Enallagma, Agrion) 58 

DYSAGRION (188) 

DYSAGRIONINAE (187) 

DYTHEMIS 170, 24 



ebrium (Enallagma, Agrion) 59 

eiseni (Enallagma) 59 

elaps (Erpetogomphus) 87 

elegans (Sylphis) 28 

elisa (Celithemis, Diplax) 167 

elongata (Cyclophylla, (Jom- 

phoides) 80 

elongata (Somatochlora, Epith- 

eca) 130 

elongata (Somatochlora) 133 

elongatus (Gromphus) 96 

EMBIARIA 7 

ENALLAGMA 53, 12, 21, (187) 

ensigera (Somatochlora) 130 

EPALLAGINAE 20 

EPHEMEROIDEA 7 



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198 



BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 



EPHIDATIA 182, 24, 176 

EPIAESCHNA 116, 22 

EPICORDULIA 122, 23 

EPIOPHLEBIIDAE 20 

EPIOPHLEBIINAE 20 

eponina (Celithemis, Libellula). ..168 

ercmita ( Aeshna) 110, 109 

eremita (Cordulia) 129 

ERPETOGOMPHUS 85, 22 

errans (Dorocqrdulia) 127 

erratica (Ischnura) 69 

erroneus (Cordulegastcr) 76 

ERYTHEMIS 155, 24, 150 

ERYTHRAGRION 62, 15 

ERYTHRODIPLAX 150, 16, 24 

crythropyga (Planiplax, Platy- 

plax) 169 

EUPHAEA 27 

eurinus (Lcstcs) 37 

excisa (Aeshna) 112 

exclamationis (G>enagrion, 

Agrion) 65 

exilis (GonH)hus) 92, 99 

exstriata (Ischnura) 68 

exsulans (Enallagma, Agrion)... 59 
exsularis (Coenagrion, Agrion).. 187 

exteraus (Gomphus) 92, 13, 99 

extemus (Gomphus) 91 

extranea ( Argia, Agrion) 46 

exusta (Ladona, Libellula) 134 

F 

fallax (Libellula) 154 

famula (Libellula) 152 

fasciata (Celithemis) 192, 168 

fasciatus (Cordulegaster) 77 

ferruginea (Orthemis, Libel- 
lula) 143, 142 

fervida (Libellula) 154 

filiola (Telebasis, Agrion, Ery- 

thragrion) 63 

filosa (Somatochlora, (Tordulia) . . 130 
Ascheri (Enallagma) 55, 59 



fissa (Argia) 46 

fhveolata (Libellula) 164 

flBvescens (Amphiagrion, 

Agrion) 53, 66 

flavescens (Pantala, Libellula) ... 177 

Havicans (Libellula) 154 

Havicostum (Sympetrum, Di- 

plax) 162, 161 

flavida (Libellula) 137 

fiavida (Libellula) 136 

Havipennis (Macromia) 121, 120 

Aorida (Aeshna) 112, 111 

florissantella ( Enallagma) (187) 

Huvialis (Gomphus) 95 

foliata (Belonia) 137 

foliata (Libellula, Belonia) 137 

FONSCOLOMBIA 102 

fontium Agrion) 51 

forcipata (Lestes) 40 

forcipata (Somatochlora, Cordu- 
lia, Epitheca) 130 

forcipatus (Lestes) 37 

forensis (Libellula) 137 

forficula (Lestes) 38 

franklinii (Somatochlora, Epith- 
eca) 130 

franklinii ( Somatochlora) 132 

fratemus (Gk>mphus, Aeshna)... 

92, 12, 99 

fratemus ((Gomphus) 92 

faternus walshii ((jomphus) 91 

frederici (Dysagrion) (188) 

frequentula (Argia) 47 

f rigida (Leucorrhinia) 166 

frontalis (Scapanea, Dythemis, 

Libellula) 172 

fugax (Dythemis) 171 

fulva (Libellula) 134 

fumipennis (Argia) 47, 44 

fumipennis {Cannacria) 170 

funcki (Hyponeura) 43 

funerea (Cannj^hila) 144 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 



199 



funerea (Erythrodiplax, Trithemis, 

Libellula) 153 

furcata (Brachymesia, Cannacria, 

Erythemis) 170, 169 

furcifera (Aeshna) 113, 111 

furcifer (Gompbus) 93, 99 

f urcillata (Gomphaeschna) 104 

fusca (Erythrodiplax). ..162, 150, 153 
fuscofasciata (Libellula) 154 

G 

geminatum (Enallagma) 59 

GENERIC NAMES, QUOTED.. 9 
georgina (Macromia, Epophtbal- 

mia) 120 

gilvum (Sympctrum, Di- 

plax) 162, 161 

godmani (Cordulegaster) 77 

GOMPHAESCHNA 103, 22 

GOMPHINAE 78, 13, 20, 22 

GOMPHOIDES 78, 22 

GOMPHOIDES 81, 22 

(X)MPHURUS 99 

GOMPHUS 89, 13, 17, 22 

GOMPHUS (subgenus) 99 

gracilis (Aeshna) 108 

gracilis (Nehalennia) 64 

grafiana (Boyeria) 102 

grandis (Archilestes, Lestes)..36, 35 

graslinellus (Gromphus) 93, 99 

gravida (Brachymesia, Cannae- 

ria, Lepthemis) 170 

gravida (Cannacria, Lepthemis) . . 

158, 170 

grenadensis (Brechmorhoga) 173 

grenadensis (Macrothemis) 174 

gundlachii (Mesothemis) 157 

guttata (Anatya, Dythemis, Li- 
bellula) 147 

GYNACANTHA 107, 22 

GYNOTHEMIS 170 



H 

haematogastra (Erythemis, Lep- 
themis, Libellula) 156 

hageni (Enallagma, Agrion) 60 

hagenii (Micrathyria) 149 

hageni (Leucorrhinia) 166 

hageni (Tachopter3rx) 74 

HAGENIUS 82, 13, 22 

hamata (Lestes) 39, 40 

hatnatus (Lestes) 38 

harknessi (Argia) 47 

hastatum(Anomalagr ion, Agrion) 71 

hastulatum (Agrion) 58 

HELOCORDULIA 124, 23 

hemichlora (Macrothemis, Li- 
bellula) 176 

HEMIPHLEBIA 43 

herberti (Argia) 47 

herculea (Libellula, Belonia) . . . .137 

heros (Epiaeschna) 116 

heros (Epiaeschna, Aeshna) 117 

HERPETOGOMPHUS 86 

hersUia (Libellula) 141 

HESPER AGRION 53, 21, (186) 

HETAERINA 30, 21 

heterodoxum (Hesperagrion, 

Agrion, Amphiagrion) 53 

heterosticta (Hetaerina) 32 

histrio (Libellula) 151 

holosericea (Calopteryx) 30 

HOLOTANIA 135 

HOPLONAESCHNA 104 

hudsonica (Aeshna) 110, 111 

hudsonica (Leucorrhinia) 166 

hudsonica (Somatochlora) 132 

hudsonica (Somatochlora, Epi- 

theca) 131 

hudsonicum (Agrion, C^opteryx) 27 

hyalina (Paraphlebia) 43 

hyalinum (Lithagrion) (186) 

hybridus ((^omphus) 93, 99 



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200 



BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 



HYLAESCHNA 120 

hymenea (Pantala, Libellula) 178 

HYPONEURA 43, 21 

I 

icteroptera (Libellula) 145 

illinoknsis (Macromia) 120 

illotum (Sympetrum, Diplax, 

Mesothemis) 161 

illotum ( S3rmpetrum) 162 

imbutum (Sympetrum, Diplax, 

Libellula) 162 

imitans ( Macrothemis) 176 

immunda (Argia, Agrion) 47 

imperator (Anax) 105 

impura (Argia) 48 

inacuta (Macrothemis) 176 

iuaequalis (Lestes) 38 

incerta (Libellula) 180 

incesta (Libellula) 137 

incompta (Libellula) 154 

indistincta (Tetragoneuria) 126 

inequiunguis (Brechmorhoga, 

Macrothemis) 173 

iners (Agrion) 70 

infecta (Hetaerina) 31 

infumata (Negcnnphoides, Crom- 

phoides) 81 

ingens (Coryphaeschna) 115, 111 

insularis (Cannaphila) 144, 143 

insularis (Tramea) 179 

insularis (Tramea) 180 

intacta (Leucorrhinia, Diplax). ..167 
Integra ((jomphoides, Progom- 

phus) 79 

interna (Aeshna) 11 

interrogatum (Coenagrion, 

Agrion) 66 

interrupta (Aeshna) Ill 

intricata (Aeshna) ill 

intricatus (Gomphus) 94, 99 

iphigenia (Tramea) 181 

Irene (Boyeria) 101 



irene (Nchalennia, Agrion) 65 

iris (Perithemis) 145 

ISCHNOSOMA 68 

ISCHNUR A 67, 10, 21 

J 

jalapensis (Aeshna) Ill 

jamaskarensis ( Neuroco.rdulia ) ... 123 

j anata ( Basiaeschna, Aeshna) 103 

johannus (Ophiogomphus) 84 

Julia (Ladona, Libellula) 134 

juncea (Aeshna, Libellula). .111, 108 
Junius (Anax, Aeshna, Libellula) 105 
justiniana (Erythrodiplax, Diplax, 

Libellula) 153 

justiniana (Libellula) 154 

K 

kellicotti (Ischnura) 69, 10 

krugii (Enallagma) 60 

kurilis (Argia) 44 

L 

lacerata (Tramea) 180 

lacrymans (Argia, Agrion) 48 

LADONA 134, 24, 135 

lais (Anisagrion, Nehalennia) 54, 65 

lakesii (Dysagrion) (188) 

LANTHUS 88,22 

larvata (Aeshna) (189) 

laterale (Enallagma) 60 

lateralis (Cordulegaster) 76 

lateralis (Epophthalmia, Cordulia) 125 

leda (Libellula) 136 

leda (Libellula) 141 

lentulus ((jomphus) 94, 99 

leontina (Libellula) 152 

lepida (Dorocordulia, Cordulia).. 127 

LEPIDOPTERA 7 

LEPTETRUM 135, 134 

LEPTHEMIS 158, 24, 150 

LEPTOBASIS 64, 21 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 



201 



LESTES 36, 21, 42 

LESTINAE 35, 20. 21 

LEUCORRHINIA 165, 24, 150 

levis (Orthemis) 143 

LIBELLULA 135, 16, 24, (189) 

LIBELLULIDAE. .117, 20, 23, 24, 

25, (189) 
LIBELLULINAE..133, 7, 17, 20, 

23, 24, (189), 192 

LIBELLULOIDEA 7, 20 

libera (Dorocordulia, Cordulia, 

Somatochlora) 127 

limbata (Hetaerina) 34, 31 

linearis (Somatochlora, Cordulia, 

E4)itheca) 131 

lineata ( Aeshna) 112, 111 

lineatipes ( Paltothemis) 173 

lintneri (Dorocordulia, Cordulia) 128 

LITHAESCHNA (189) 

LITHAGRION (186) 

lividus (Cjomphus) 94, 99 

longicauda, var. (Tramea) 179 

longipennis (Belonia) 138, 137 

longipennis (Pachydiplax, Meso- 

themis, Libellula) 165 

longipes (Anax) 106 

longipes cubensis (Ephidatia)... .183 

longipes (Erythemis) 183 

longum (Telagrion) 64 

lucilla (Libellula) 168 

lucretia (Medstogaster) 41 

luctuosa (Libellula) 138 

luctuosus (Mecistogaster) 42 

lugens (Hyponeura, Argia) 44 

luteipennis (Aeshna) 112 

luteola (Hetaerina, Calopteryx). 32 

lydia (Libellula) 136 

lydia (Plathemis, Libellula). .142, 141 
lydia, var, A (Libellula) 141 

M 

MACRODIPLAX 183, 24, 176 

macrogastra (Telebasis) 63, 15 



MACROMIA 119, 23 

macromia (Aeshna) 115, 113 

MACROMIINI 118, 20, 23 

macropus (Hetaerina) 32 

macrostigma (Libellula) 143 

MACROTHEMIS 175, 24, 170 

macrotona ( Somatochlora) 131 

maculata (Agrion, Calopteryx) .. . 29 

maculata (Libellula) 140 

maculata (Libellula) 141 

tnaculaius (Anax) 105 

maculiventris (Libellula) 157 

maculosa (Erythrodiplax, Nan- 

nothemis, Nannophya).. ..147, 192 
madidum (Sympetrum, Diplax)..162 

magnifica (Macromia) 121 

mainensis (Ophiogomphus) 84 

marcella (Miathyria, Tramea, Li- 
bellula) 182 

maria (NecMieura, Agrion) 72 

mascescens (Coenagrion, 

Agrion) (187) 

matema (Calopteryx) 29 

maxima (Aeshna) 109, 113 

maya (Dythemis) 171 

MECISTOGASTER 41, 21 

MEGALOPTERA 7 

MEGAPODAGRION (187) 

MELANAGRION (186) 

mendax (Brechmorhoga, Dythe- 
mis) 174 

merida (Cannaphila, Libellula) . . 

144, 138 

MESOTHEMIS 155 

metallica ( Somatochlora) 129 

metella (Libellula) 145 

METHOD 8 

mexicana (Gynacantha) 107 

MIATHYRIA 182, 24, 176 

MICRATHYRIA 148, 24, 146 

MICRONEURA 73, 21 

MICRONYMPHA 68 

militaris (CJomphus) 94, 99 



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202 



BULLETIN, PUBUC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 



minor ( Aeshna) 103 

minor (Somatochlora) 131 

minuscula (Erythrodiplax, Dipla- 
codes, Diplax, Libellula, Sym- 

petrum 153, 16, 192 

minusculum (Enallagma) 60 

minutum (Argiallagma, Trichoc- 

nemis) 52, 60 

minutus (Gomphus) 94, 99 

minuius (Gomphus) 94 

mirandus (Phenacolestes) (187, 188) 

mithra (Libellula) 156 

mithra ( Mesothemis) 156 

mithroides (Erythcmis, Mesothe- 
mis) 156 

modestus (Mecistogaster) 42 

moesta (Argia, Agrion) 48 

molesta (Cordulia) 123 

monomelaena (Celithemis) 192 

montanus (Ophiogomphus) 84 

montezuma (Trithemis) 155, 154 

mooma (Pertithcmis) 145 

MORPHOTYPE 10 

morrisoni (Ophiogomphus) 84 

mortuella (Enallagma) (187) 

multicincta (Aeshna) 117 

multicolor (Aeshna) 113 

multipunctata (Dythemis) 171 

munda (Argia) 52, 49 

mutata (Aeshna) 113 

N 

naeva (Erythrodiplax, Dythemis) 151 

naevius (Gomphus) 89, 95 

nahuana (Argia) 45, 49 

NANNOPHYA 147 

NANNOTHEMIS 192, 146, 24 

nasalis (Somatochlora, Epitheca) 132 

NASIAESCHNA 116, 22 

needhami (Gynacantha, Triacan- 

thagyna) 107 

needhami ( Lithaeschna) ( 189) 

NEGOMPHOIDES 81, 22 

NEHALENNIA 64, 21 



NEONEURA 72,21 

nervosa (Gynacantha) 107 

NEUROCORDULIA 122, 23 

NEUROPTERA 6. 7 

NEUROPTEROIDEA 7 

nevadensis (Aeshna) Ill, 113 

nigerrimum (Melanagrion) — (186) 

nigra (Dythemis) 171, 172 

nigra (Libellula) 164 

nigrescens (Dythemis) 171, 172 

nigricula (Libellula) 164 

nodisticta (Libellula) 138 

NOMENCLATURE 14 

normalis ( Anatya) 148 

NORMOSTIGMATINA 35 

NORMOSTIGMATINAE 43 

notatus (CJomphus) 95, 99 

notatus ((jomphus) 96 

novae-hispaniae (Enallagma) 57, 60 
nubecula (Brechmorhoga, Libel- 
lula) 174 

NYMPH 8 

nympha (Lestes) 36 

o 

obliqua var. A (Aeshna) 78 

obliquus (Cordulegaster, Aeshna) 77 
obliquus (Cordulegaster, Taenio- 

gaster) 77 

obscura (Argia) 47 

obscura ((jomphoides, Progomphus, 

Diastatomma) 78 

obscurus ( Progomphus) 79 

obsoleta (Neurocordulia, Didy- 

mops, Epitheca, Libellula) 123 

obtrusum (Sympetrum, Di- 

plax) 162, 13 

occidentis (Ophiogomphus) 84 

occisa (Hetaerina) 32 

ocellata (Aeshna) 112 

ocellata (Micrathyria) 149 

ochracea (Diplax) 151 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 



203 



ochracea (Erythrodiplax, Diplax, 

Libellula, Trithemis) 154 

OCTOGOMPHUS 101, 22 

oculata (Argia) 49 

.odiosa (Libelhila) 138 

ODONATA. .25, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 

12, 13, 15, 19, 20, (184) 

oenca (Argia) 49 

olivaceus ((jomphus) 95, 99 

olivaceus ((Jomphus) 90 

onusta (Tramea) 181 

opaca (C:alopteryx) 39 

ophibolus (Erpetogomphus) 87 

OPHIOGOMPHUS 82, 22 

OPLONAESCHNA...104,22, (188) 

optata (Argia) 44 

ORCUS 99 

ornata (Celithemis, Diplax, Libel- 
lula) 168 

ornatus (Mecistogaster) 42 

ORTHEMIS 142, 24, 135 

ORTHOLESTES 35, 21 

OX YAGRION 53, 21, 191 

P 

PACHYDIPLAX 165, 24 

pacifica (Macromia) 121 

pacifica (Negomphoides, Gom- 

phoides) 81 

packardi (Dysagrion) (188) 

PALAEOTHERATES (185) 

pallens (Argia) 52, 49 

paUidisHgtna (Libellula) 164 

pallidus ((jomphus, Arigora- 

phus) 95, 99 

pallidus (Gomphus) 97 

pallipes (Sympetrum, Diplax). ...163 

palmata (Aeshna) 113, 110 

PALTOTHEMIS 173, 24, 170 

palustris (Agrion) 72 

PANORPATAE 7 

PANORPIDAE 7 

PANTALA 177, 24, 176 



PANTALINI 176 

papilionaria ((3alopteryx) 30 

parallelus (Phenacolestes (188) 

PARALOGIDAE (185) 

PARALOGUS (185) 

PARANEUROPTERA 25 

PARAPHLEBIA 21, 43 

parvula (Libellula) 164 

parvulus ' (Lanthus, Gomphus)... 88 
pensilvanicus (Palaeotherates) (185) 
penthacantha (Nasiaeschna, 

Aeshna) 116 

percellulata (Argia) 49 

perHda (Gomphoides) 81 

PERITHEMIS 144, 24 

PERLOIDEA 7 

permianus (Tupus) (185) 

perparva (Ischnura) 69 

pertinax (Brechmorhoga, Dythe- 

mis, Micrathyria) 174, 150 

peruviana (Erythemis, Mesothe- 

mis, Libellula) 157, 155 

PETALIA 74 

PETALINAE 74, 20 

PETALURA 74, 22 

PETALURINAE 74, 20, 22 

phaleratus (Ophiogomphus) 85 

PHENACOLESTES (187) 

PHILONOMON 159 

PHRYGANEIDAE 7 

phyme (Libellula) 149 

picta (Aeshna) 112 

pictum (Enallagma) 60 

pictus (Herpetogomphus) 85 

PIGIPHILA 135 

pilipes (Gomphus) 95 

piscinarium (Enallagma) 61 

plagiatus ((jomphus) 95, 99 

plana (Argia) 52, 45 

PLANIPLAX 169, 24, 165 

PLATETRUM 135, 134 

PLATHEMIS 141, 24, 134, 135 

PLATYCNEMIS 42 



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204 



BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 



PLATYCORDULIA 124, 23 

PLATYPLAX 169, 24 

plumbea (Libellula) 137, 138 

pocahontas ( Perithemis ) 146 

PODAGRION 42 

pocyi (Mesothemis) 149 

pollutum (Enallagma, Agrion)... 61 

polysticta (Libellula) 123 

posita (Ischnura, Agrion, Neha- 

lennia) 65, 69 

postlobata (Brechmorhoga) 174 

praecox (Brechmorhoga, Dythe- 

mis) 174 

praecox ( Brechmorhoga) 175 

praenuhiia (Libellula) 140 

praevarum (Enallagma, Agrion). 61 

praevolans ( Hesperagrion) ( 186 ) 

princeps (Epicordulia, Epitheca) 122 

procera (Cordulia) 131 

producta (Aphylla, Gomphoides) 80 
prognatha (Ischnura, Agrion).... 69 

PROGOMPHUS 78, 22 

propinqua (Aeshna) 114, 112 

PROTAGRION (184) 

PROTAGRIONIDAE (184) 

PROTODONATA (184) 

PROTONEURA 73, 21, 42 

protracta (Cyclophylla, (jom- 

phoides) 80 

provocans ( Somatochlora) 132 

proxima (Leucorrhinia) 167 

pryeri (Tachopteryx 74 

pseudamericana (Calopteryx) 31 

pseudimitans ( Macrothemis ) 176 

PSEUDOGOMPHUS 120 

PSEUDOLEON 155, 24, 150 

PSEUDOSTIGMA 42, 21, 41 

PSEUDOSTIGMATINAE 

41, 20, 21 

PTERYGOGENEA 20 

PUELLA 36 

puella (Cocnagrion) 65 

pulchella (Libellula) 139 



pulchella (Libellula) 169 

pulchrum (Agrion) 58 

pulla (Argia) 49 

pulla (Trithemis) 152 

pumilio (Ischnura) 67 

punctata (Aeshna) 113 

pusilla (Miathyria) 182 

putrida (Argia, Agrion) 48, 50 

Q 

quadricolor ((jomphus) 96, 99 

quadriUda (Gynacantha) 104 

quadriguttata (Aeshna) 102 

quadrimaculata (Libellula). .139, 192 

quadripunctata (Libellula) 140 

quadrupla (Libellula) 137 

R 

ramburii (Agrion) 71 

ramburii (Ischnura, Agrion) .... 70 

ramburii ( Ischnura) 70 

RAPHIDOIDEA 7 

rectangularis (Lestes) 38 

REFERENCES 8 

regina (CORDULIA) 122 

resolutum (Coenagrion, Agrion). 66 

rhoadsi (Argia) 50 

robustum (Enallagma) 61 

rubicundula, var, (Diplax) 162 

rubicundulum (Sympetrum, Di- 
plax, Libellula) 163 

rubidum (Oxyagrion) 53 

rubriuentris (Libellula) 157 

rufinervis (Dythemis, Libel- 
lula) 171, 170 

rufulum (Oxyagrion, AgricMi) ... 53 

rupamnensis (Hetaerina) 34 

rupinsulensis ( Hetaerina) 84 

rupinsulensis (Ophiogomphus, 

Erpetogomphus) 85 

rupinsulensis (Ophiogomphus) ... 84 

ruralis (Libellula) 155 

russata (Dythemis) 173, 172 

rustica (Aeshna) 112 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 



205 



S 

sallaei (Dythemis) 174 

salva (Telcbasis, Agrion, Erythr- 

agrion) 63 

sanguiniventris (Planiplax, Platy- 

plax) 169 

saturata (Libellula) 140 

saturata (Libellula) 140 

saucium (Amphiagrion, Agrion). 66 
sayi (Cordulegastcr, Aeschna)... 78 

sayi (Cordulegastcr) 76 

scalaris (Lestes) 39 

SCAPANEA 172, 24, 170 

schumanni ( Micrathyria) 150 

SCOPE 6 

scoticum (Sympetrum) 161 

scoticum ( Sympetrum, Diplax ) ... 163 

scudderi (CSomphus) 96, 99 

sedula ( Argia, Argion) 50 

segregans (Gomphus) 97, 96 

selysii (Helocordulia, Cordulia)..124 
semiaquaea (Tetragoneuria, Cor- 

dulia, Libellula) 126 

semicinctum (Sympetrum, Diplax, 

Libellula) 164 

semicirculare (Enallagma) 61 

semicircularis (Somatochlora, 

Epitheca) 132 

semif asciata (Libellula) 141 

Seminole ( Perithemis) 146 

sempronia (Hetaerina) 32 

senegalense (Agrion) 70 

separata (Oplonaeschna) (188) 

septentrionalis ( Aeshna) 113 

septentrionalis (Hetaerina) 33 

septentrionalis (Somatochlora, 

Cordulia, Epitheca) 132 

septentrionalis (Somatochlora) . . . 131 
septima (Gynacantha, Triacantha- 

gyna) 108 

septima (Micrathyria) 148, 150 

serpentinus (Ophiogomphus) 82 

servillei (Didymops) 119, 118 



severus (Ophiogomphus, Herpeto- 

gomphus) 85 

shurtleffi (Cordulia) 128 

sigma (Lestes) 39 

signata (Cyclophylla) 80 

signatum (Enallagma, Agrion).. 61 

simplex (Lestes) 39 

simplex (Miathyria, Libellula, 

Tramea) 182 

simplex (Tramea) 182 

simplicicollis (Erythemis, Meso- 

themis) 157 

sipedon (Erpetogomphus) 87 

sitchensis (Aeshna) 114 

smithii ( Cannacria) 170 

soda (Libellula) 165 

solida (Aeshna) (189) 

sparshallii (Libellula) 178 

speciosa (Nehalennia) 64 

specularis (Erythemis) 183 

spoliatus (Dromogomphus, (jom- 

phus) 100 

sobrinus (Cxomphus) 96, 99 

SOMATOCHLORA 129, 23 

sordidus (Gomphus) 94, 97 

specularis (Octogomphus, Neo- 

gomphus) 101 

spicatus ((jomphus) 97, 99, 191 

spicatus ((k>mphus) 90, 191 

spiniceps (Gomphus, Macrogom- 

phus) 97, 99 

spiniferus ( Anax) 106 

spinigera (Tetragoneuria). ..126, 192 

spinigera (Tetragoneuria) 127 

spinosa (Tetragoneuria, Cordulia) 127 
spinosus (Dromogomphus, Gom- 
phus) 100 

sponsa (Lestes) 36 

spumarius (Lestes) 39 

STENOGOMPHUS ( 189) 

sterilis (Dythemis^ 172 

stigmata (Negomphoides, (k>m- 
phoides, Progomphus, Aeshna) 81 



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206 



BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 



stultus (Lestes) 39 

STYLURUS 99 

suasa (Negamphoides, Gom- 

phoides) 81 

subarctica (Aeshna) 114 

subfasciata ( Libellula) 155 

sublimbata (Hetaerina) 33, 32 

suboraata ( Libellula) 142 

superbus (Pseudoleon, Celithe- 

mis) 155 

SYLPHIS 27 

SYMPETRUM..159, 9, 16, 124, 

(190) 
syriaca (Calopteryx) 28 

T 

tabida (Dythemis) 172 

TACHOPTERYX 74, 22 

TAENIOGASTER 76 

taeniolata (Macromia, Epoph- 

thalmia) 121 

tarascana ( Argia) 50 

TAURIPHILA 181, 24, 176 

TELAGRION 64, 21 

TELEBASIS 62, 15, 21, 43 

telluris (Coenagrion, Agrion) (187) 

tenebrosa (Cordulia) 130 

tenebrosa (Somatochlora, Cordu- 
lia, Epitheca, Libellula) 132 

tenera (Perithemis, Libellula) . . .146 

tenuatus (Lestes) 39 

tenuicincta (Libellula) 146 

tepeaca (Brechmorhoga) 175 

terminalis ( Libellula) 178 

ternaria (Libellula) 141 

tessellata (Libellula) 172 

TETRAGONEURA 125 

TETRAGONEURIA 124, 23 

texana (Calopteryx) 32 

tezpi (Argia) 50 

THAUMATONEURA 41 

THECAPHORA 75 

theresiae (Anatya) 148 



THERMORTHEMIS 176 

THOLYMIS 176, 24 

thoreyi (Tachopteryx, Petalura, 

Uropetala) 75 

thoreyi (Uropetala) 88 

THORINAE 20 

tibialis (Argia, Playcnemis, Tri- 

chocnemis) 50 

tibiata (Gynacantha) 108 

tillarga (Tholymis) 176 

titia (Hetaerina, Calopteryx, Li- 
bellula) 33 

tolteca (Hetaerina) 33 

tonto (Argia) 51 

TRAMEA 178, 24, 176 

translata (Argia) 51 

transversa (Didyroops, Libellula, 

Macromia) 118 

traviatum (Enallagma) 62, 55 

TRIACANTHAGYNA 107 

tricolor (Hetaerina) 33, 34 

triedra (Libellula) 164 

trifida (Gynacantha, Triacantha- 

gyna) 108 

trimacuhta (Plathemis, Libellula) 142 

tripartita (Libellula) 155 

truncatula (Libellula) 165 

tuberculatum (Agrion) 70 

tuberculifera (Aeshna) 114 

tumens (Cyanogomphus) 88 

TUPIDAE (185) 

TUPUS (185) 

tyleri (Trithemis) 153 

TYPES, CUSTODY OF 9 

u 

uhleri (Helocordulia, Cordulia) .. 124 

ulmeca (Argia) 51 

umbrata (Erythrodiplax, Libellula, 

Libella) 154 

umbratum ( Melanagrion ) (186) 

umbratus (Gomphus) 94 

umbrosa (Aeshna) 114, 110 



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MUTTKOWSKI, CATALOGUE ODONATA OF N. A. 



207 



uncatus (Lestes) 39 

unguiculatus (Lestes) 40 

unicolor (Nannophya) 147 

unifasciata (Libellula) 155 

unifortnis (Libellula) 140 

V 

vacillans (Leptobasis) 64 

validus (Anax) 106 

variabilis ( Argia) 46 

vastus (Cxomphus) 96, 99 

velox (Dythemis) 172 

veneriotata (Agrion) 71 

ventricosus ((jomphus ...).... 98, 99 
verbenata (Erythemis, Mesothe- 

mis, Lepthemis) 158 

versicolor (Libellula) 139 

verticalis ( Aeshna) 114 

verticalis (Ischnura, Agrion) .... 70 
vesiculosa (Lepthemis, Libellula) 158 

VESTALINAE.. 26 

vibex (Cannaphila, Libel- 
lula) 144. 141 

vibrans (Libellula) 141 

vicinum (Sympetrum, Diplax) . . . 164 

vidua (Lestes) 40 

vigilax (Lestes) 40 

villosipes (GonH>hus) 98, 99 

vinosa (Boyeria, Fonscolombia, 

Aeshna, Neuraeschna) 102 

vinosa (Libellula) 171 

violacea (Argia, Agrion) 51 

viperinus (Erpetogomphus) 87 

viperin us ( Herpetogomphus ) 86 

virens (Corypheaschna, Aeshna) 115 

Virginia (Tramea, Libellula) 181 

virgo (Agrion) 26 

virgo (gamma) (Libellula) 29 

virginiana (Calopteryx) 27 



virginica (Agrion, Calopteryx). .. 29 

virginica (Calopteryx) 27 

virgulum (Sympetrum, Di- 
plax) 162, 164 

viridifrons (Gomphus) 98, 99 

viridula (Libellula) 178 

vivax ( Brechmorhoga) 175 

vivida (Argia) 52 

vivida (Argia) 48 

vulgatissimus (Gomphus) 89 

vulgatum (Sympetrum) 159 

vulgipes (Macrothemis) 174 

vulnerata (Hetaerina) 34 

vulnerata (Telebasis, Agrion, Ery- 
thragrion) 63 

w 

wabashensis (Macromia) 121 

walshii (Gomphus) 91 

walshii (Somatochlora, Cordulia, 

Epitheca) 133 

walsinghami (Anax) 106, 192 

waltheri (Cyanojgomphus) 87 

williamsoniana (Aeshna) 115 

williamsoni (Gomphus) 98, 99 

williamsoni (Somatochlora) 133 



xanthosoma ( Platycordulia) 124 

Y 

yakima (Agrion, Calopteryx). .27, 30 
yamaskarensis (Neurocordulia, 
Aeshna, Epitheca) 123 



zoe (Paraphlebia) 43 

ZORAENA 76 

ZY(K)PTERA 25, 7, 20, (186) 

ZYXOMMINI 176 



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Lolo Objects in the Public Museum, Milwaukee. 



BY FREDERICK STARR 



In his Languages of China before the Chinese, Terrien de La- 
couperie mentions and discusses fifty-five aboriginal peoples, who 
occupied China before the flood of imniigrants from the West poured 
into that country. Some of these have disappeared and are unknown 
in present populations ; of others, fragments of greater or less sig- 
nificance remain. Conspicuous among these latter are the Lolos who 
live in the provinces of Sechuen and Yunnan, in extreme south- 
western China, on the borders of Tibet. Some 3,000,000 people liv- 
ing in that district still speak the Lolo language. They live upon an 
area of considerable extent, mountainous, and of difficult access. 
In 1907, the great sinologue, Henri Cordier, brought together the 
existing data regarding this interesting people in a monograph en- 
titled Les Lolos; etat actuel de la question. His summary is so de- 
finite and complete that it leaves nothing to be desired and, as it is 
easily to be obtained, it must be the foundation for all future study. 
Since his work, however, there have been several contributions to 
knowledge of the Lolos. Among these may be mentioned the studies 
of Torii and Vial. The Japanese Torii, in his expedition into south- 
western China had occasion to measure twelve male subjects. The 
French missionary, Father Vial, who has worked among Lolos for 
many years and who had already made important contributions re- 
garding them has just published a great work upon them, which we 
have not yet seen; it should be the most important source for in- 
formation. 

The Lolos are commonly divided into the subjugated and the 
independent Lolos. The subjugated Lolos recognize Chinese 
sovereignty and Lolo chiefs hold petty offices under the imperial 
direction. The independent Lolos recognize no outside control and 
over their mountain fastnesses the Chinese make no pretense of rule. 
i\ot only is this so, but Lolo bands make occasional excursions or 
plundering raids against the Chinese, robbing and pillaging and tak- 
ing prisoners as slaves or to be held in their villages for ransom. 

It is not our intention to here attempt a monograph of this in- 
teresting people, but simply to introduce some material regarding 
them which has been brought to this country. Shortly after my re- 
turn from Japan, where in 1904 I visited the Ainu of Yezo, I had a 
call from Mr. Owen L. Stratton of Chicago, who wished to tell me 



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210 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

of his personal experiences with Lolos of Sechuen. He was deeply 
impressed by their unlikeness to the Chinese and never wearied of 
emphasizing their attractive traits. He had some photographs of 
them, as also various objects of IxAo manufacture and an interest- 
ing manuscript. We planned together to prepare a careful state- 
ment based upon his notes and recollections, but failed to do so. 
Eventually, Mr. Stratton returned to China, where he died late in 
the summer of 1908, of cholera. Before leaving he presented me the 
photographs and the Lolo manuscript and sold his objects of Lolo 
workmanship to the Public Museum at Milwaukee. So far as we 
know these are the only Lolo objects in the United States and it has 
seemed worth while to describe them. When he turned them over 
to the Museum, Mr. Stratton made a hurried memorandum with 
reference to his experience from which we condense and summarize 
the following statement : 

"My home for the last three years has been Kiang-ting-fu, Sechuen, West 
China, or the provincial capital, Chen-tu, 2,000 miles from the sea. One 
summer, I had spent a number of weeks in a Chinese city, 11,000 ft. above 
the sea, upon the Thibetan border, in the northwestern part of the province; 
here we saw large numbers of the aborigines who came from the mountains 
in different directions and from different tribes to work in the grain fields for 
the Chinese. They were most interesting and greatly attracted us. We could 
scarcely believe our eyes as we looked upon the graceful, pretty young wo- 
men, passing us on the way, with hollyhocks in the long braids of their hair, 
or listening to them as they stood upon the hillsides yodling with sweet voices. 
These people were subject to a greater or less degree to Chinese authority. 

♦ ♦ * In November, 1899, I made my second journey from Kia-ting-fu. up 
to the garrison town on the Lolo border. My earlier trip having been made 
soon after my arrival in western China, I was now much better equipped for 
observation. * ♦ * Our destination was four days distant, southwest, into 
the mountains. * * * The next morning after my arrival at Opien-ting 

♦ * (where four days were spent) * ♦ I was suddenly discovered by a 
group of passing Lolos, who had come down to town for trade. In they 
came like a flock of sheep and crowded around me so closely that it was 
impossible for me to sit up straight. They examined my clothing (Chinese 
dress which I had worn for three years) ; they looked up my sleeve at my 
foreign underwear ; they saw my watch, pencils, etc., and I took pains to show 
them every foreign thing I had, also my books, tracts, etc. I told them, speak- 
ing in Chinese, of course, and with the help of my servant and others, about 
us foreigners and of the country from which we came. Among other things 
I said : 'In my country we do not have temples everywhere filled with idols 
of wood and clay, but we worship the heavenly ruler; to which they all ex- 
citedly responded, 'he also is a tribesman.* They treated me in the friendliest 
manner and I felt that I was in the presence of my own race. They were 



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FREDERICK STARR, LOLO OBJECTS 211 

soon gone as suddenly as they came. During my stay I constantly had Lolo 
callers. Several were especially friendly. Two fine young fellows, hostages 
from the Yamen (the Chinese official residence and office) called whenever 
they were allowed. They, and others like them, were the finest specimens of 
men I have ever seen. They averaged nearly the American stature, were per- 
fectly built, of great strength and suppleness, quick as lightning, had no 
disease (an eye might be gone or a scar seen as the result of battle, but no 
weakness). Their faces were full of expression; they had beautiful brown 
eyes and perfect teeth. The running conversation was accompanied by a 
natural and charming smile and in talking they would get almost as close to 
you as possible and look fully into your face and eyes. (All this is in strik- 
ing contrast to the Chinese.) * * Buddhism, bom in India, swept over 
Asia, mountain and valley, conquering everywhere; but in these mountain 
fastnesses it has not one devotee. These people have held the passes and 
successfully combatted every Chinese effort to subdue them during the pass- 
ing centuries. * ♦ ♦ A remarkable trait is the high respect in which they 
hold their women ; a woman may even rise to the headship of a tribe. * * ♦ 
After several years in China and having become accustomed to the conditions 
that hedge in and seclude women, it was delightful to see these graceful, 
natural, matrons and girls with their long vari-colored skirts hanging to the 
ground, handsomely embroidered and appliqued jackets, over which they wore 
a long felt cape ; on their heads they wore a loose, baggy, cloth bonnet. Most 
of them had a handsome necklace, after the fashion of a dog collar and they 
also wore large and fantastic silver ear-rings. The men shave the head, 
except in front; the hair left is twisted up inside of a piece of cloth, giving 
the appearance of a horn; the head is then bound up with the rest of the 
cloth, turban fashion, and the horn is tucked in at the side. Men also wear 
the handsome jackets and roomy felt capes; their trousers are long and of 
several colors. Both men and women go barefoot. They raise grains, vege- 
tables, cattle, sheep and poultry. It has been said that there are 3,000,000 of 
them. The Chinese hate them and fear them. A Chinese official calling on 
us one day at Kia-ting-fu said, *One Lolo can put ten Chinese to flight, equally 
armed ; and one Lolo with a stone in his hand can do more damage than one 
Chinaman with a gim.' The Lolos frequently raid Chinese border towns and 
destruction lies in their wake. * ♦ * After considerable difficulty, with 
the aid of my excellent servant, I was able to secure a few Lolo belongings ; 
first a little musical instrument attached to the button of a bright young 
Lolo's coat; then another; then a cape; other musical instruments; a pipe; 
other clothing; and, finally, some implements of warfare. Much explanation 
was necessary. No one had ever purchased such things before." 

So far Mr. Stratton's notes. We have given the statement al- 
most in his ovm words. The objects now in the Public Museum at 
Milwaukee are as follows : 



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212 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

1. Cape or Cloak. (Plate I, 3.) This is the most characteristic article 
of Lolo dress and is worn by both sexes. It is of black or dark brown 
wool beaten into thick and well matted felt There is a remarkable 
pleating around the upper border, which passes over a free, heavy 
cord of many strands of black cotton-like thread. One end of this 
cord is tied upon itsdf into a loop; the other, free, end is drawn 
through this and tightened after the garment has been adjusted. 
Notwithstanding that the border passes over the cord, the felt is 
everjrwhere single thickness and shows no sign of doubling or sewing; 
it appears to have been beaten around the cord. Length, 42 inches. 

2. Skirt. (Plate II, 7.) For woman. Composed of bands of cotton 
stuff of different colors, sewed together. The narrow upper border 
is light green; the next band is light blue and consists of four pieces 
of stuff sewed end to end; the next is darker blue, then red, then 
indigo blue; the next one is red and pleated; the next, last, one is 

bluish-green and heavily pleated. The total width of these six 
horizontal bands is somewhat over 40 inches. 

3. Jacket. (Plate I, 1.) For man. In general form, overlap, button 

arrangement, button-loops, etc.. it is not unlike the Chinese. The 
narrow, decorative neck-bordering, only a half-inch wide, is indigo- 
blue in color, with a chain-stitching of pink, green, and red. The 
garment itself is of coarse blue cotton; the overlap flap is bordered 
with a blue band and chain-stitching in pink and then with red ap- 
plique upon which is white with black stitching— the whole being 
about an inch and a quarter wide. The sleeves are bordered with 
indigo stuff upon which is a red flannel band applique, with bits of 
gray or white stuff applique and with fancy stitching and indigo-blue 
applique patterns on the red ground ; the total width of this decorative 
bordering is eight inches. The buttons are small, cast, metal buttons 
of foreign origin and bear as design a bird on a branch. Total length, 
about' 25 inches. 

4. Trousers. (Plate I, 2.) For man. Of dull or dirty green cotton. 
The upper border is meant to flap over and is lined with gray stuff; 

so are the trousers in general. The overflap border is 5 inches wide; 
from its lower edge the green stuff forming the body of the trousers 
is about 26 inches wide; below it come 3 inches of orange, then 2J4 
inches of dark indigo, then 4J^ inches of red. This garment is ample 
and voluminous throughout. Total length, 5 -)- 36 inches. 



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FREDERICK STARR, LOLO OBJECTS 213 

Cap or head-sack. (Plate II, 6.) Material, an almost-black-indigo 
cotton. The border is bound with indigo-blue stuff, which ends in 
narrow tapes for tying; the bottom of the sack consists of gores, 
which converge under an applique red flannel disk ; at the sides where 
the edges of the material of the sack are sewed together, arc strips of 
red stuff appliqu^, stitched with olive-yellow; the border band is 
left open at the ends and the cleft thus formed is bordered with light 
blue. The depth of this cap or head-sack from border to decorative 
disk is 19-20 inches. Caps of this form are not confined to the Lolos ; 
Rockhill* says: "In Li' tang the men wear in summer a circular 
piece of white cotton cloth ornamented on top with a blue^^loth disk, 
the center of which is red. A drawing-string fixed in the lining 
enables them to fasten it on their heads." 

Ornamental Neckband. (Plate II, 5.) For woman. Of black 
cloth, bound and strengthened on the inner margin ; it is almost cov- 
ered with small hemispherical metal shells attached like buttons and 
arranged in a band with dentate margin; at the ends are five metal 
catches and eyes, side by side, for fastening it about the neck. Fully 
extended, this neckband is ISJ/^ inches long (including the locking de- 
vice) and 2J4 inches wide. 

Ring. Crudely made by filing from a block or lump of brass ; viewed 
from the side it is stirrup-shaped, with a little squared projection on 
tlie upper (inner) side which is pierced with a minute hole; the 
lower (outer) side is developed into an irregularly round disk, upon 
which are scooped out six small pits, arranged unevenly spaced in a 
circle around a seventh central pit. The ring is small and badly 
shaped; antero-posterior diameter, 13/16 inch; transverse diameter, 
H inch. 

Carry-net. (Plate II, 1.) An open, square-meshed net of well- 
made, heavy, strong cord of a brownish color; the cords interpene- 
trate, being original work not netting made from already twisted 
cords; the cords are about 1/16 of an inch thick and the meshes are 
about VA inches square. The lower margin is made of three heavy 
cords, laid side by side ; these are much thicker than the mesh cords, 
being about % of an inch in diameter and the three making a band 
about ^ of an inch wide. A rope for closing the sack and carrying it 
runs through the meshes of the free and open margin and ends at both 
sides in a double cord to the ends of the base-band. This closing 
cord is doubled in the marginal loops and so knotted as to close the 
sack, when pulled from both sides at once. Depth, when closed, about 
24 inches. 



♦Rockhill, W. W. Notes on the Ethnology of Tibet. 



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214 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

9. Tobacco pipe. Plain ; the bowl is cut from a grayish-green, compact 
material resembling soapstone; the workmanship is poor, but th« 
surface is polished ; the bowl presents a square horizontal section and 
is largest at top, tapering downward; it is pierced through for the 
passage of a slender stem of cane, which projects in front beyond 
the bowl; the cane of this stem was originally interrupted by three 
septa, which have been pierced ; within the bowl the stem is cut away 
along its upper side to permit of air draught. Stem slender and 
about 15 inches long; bowl, 1 inch in diameter at top, yi inch in 
diameter at bottom; bowl-hole, H inch in diameter at top; height, 
2}i inches. 

10. Bow. (Plate III, 1.) A plain and simple stick of fine-grained, heavy, 
rather light-colored wood; it tapers quite evenly toward both ends; 
the inner face is almost flat, slightly rounded at the sides; the upper 
(outer) surface is quite convex, rounded at the sides and tapering 
toward the ends. With the exception of about six inches of the mid- 
dle part of the inner surface, it is heavily covered with a black var- 
nish; this has flowed and to some degree dried in longitudinal 
wrinkles. At two places equidistant from the center and separated 
by about fifteen inches, the bow appears to be wound with narrow 
strips of some vegetable fibre, but this wrapping cannot be examined 
as it is covered with the black varnish; similar bindings are found 
at two other points distant from these— one five-and-a-half inches, the 
other six-and-a-half inches. The bowstring was strung upon simple 
notches on the inner face, about one inch distant from the tips; the 
cord is lacking. Length, about 48 inches; greatest width, about 1 
inch. 

11. Arrows; two in number. (Plate III, 4, 5.) (a) Slender cane shaft; 
deeply, cleanly, and squarely notched in the base ; wrapped with sinew 
for seven-eighths of an inch. Point, of steel, long, slender, thick, 
rather heavy, barbed; shaped by filing; it is inserted in the shaft, 
for which it is really too heavy. Total length a little more than 15 
inches, of which 2 inches is exposed point; width of point at barbs, 
about H inch, (b) Slender, dark, cane shaft; notched as preceding; 
smeared at joints and for some distance beyond with black varnish; 
it is perhaps wrapped at the butt with vegetable fibre (or sinew), 
but if so the wrapping is concealed under the varnish; it is wrapped 
at the tip to prevent splitting by the inserted point. The point is of 
filed sted, in general like the preceding, but the barbs are unevenly 
developed and below them the shank is awkwardly flattened inta a 
lozenge-shaped expansion; the resulting form is ugly and inconven- 
ient. Total length, about 16 inches, of which 4}i inches is exposed 
point; width at barbs, about }i of an inch. 



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FREDERICK STARR, LOLO OBJECTS 215 

12. Quiver. (Plate III, 6.) Curious form; the material resembles 
leather, but is wood and basketry, heavily covered with black varnish; 
form and construction are alike difficult of description. The some- 
what cylindrical body is internally of basketry; the hooding upper 
end is of wood; the whole outer surface, which is ribbed, is black 
varnished. The exterior is decorated with lines of white disks (of 
material like porcelain, or shell) embedded in the black varnish. The 
lower end is decorated with a large central disk around which are 
circles of smaller ones. The quiver is supplied with ears for a 
carrying-cord. Total length, 195/2 inches; diameter at bottom, about 
5 inches; diameter across opening, 2^ inches. 

13. Bowstring Wrist-guard. (Plate III, 7.) Made of hard leather, 
bent and dried; upper margin slightly flared; lower (wrist) margin 
narrower and pierced with two holes for tie thong; black varnished 
and painted ; border orange, followed by a narrow lemon-yellow line ; 
upon the black ground within are decorative designs in orange and 
lemon-yellow, composed of triangles, curves, quadrants, cross-lines, 
etc Greatest width, 4J^ inches. 

14. SwoRD. (Plate III, 3.) Blade straight and heavy; thick at back 
margin and thinning to the cutting edge ; this is not quite parallel to 
the back margin, the blade being widest at the upper (handle) end; 
at the tip it ends abruptly by an oblique line at about 45'' to the cut- 
ting edge. There is a slight convex elevation on the blade close to 
the handle, which appears to be part of the blade itself, but this is 
uncertain as the upper part, for about four and three-quarters inches, 
is heavily coated with black varnish. The wooden handle is four 
and three- fourths inches long. At the end of the handle is a disk of 
wood, separate and somewhat loose, which is varnished ; it is copper 
covered and is held in place by a nail. Length of blade, 29J/2 inches ; 
maximum width, IJ^ inches; thickness at back margin, 3/16 of an 
inch. 

15. Scabbard. (Plate III, 2.) Of wood, coated with brownish-black 
varnish; it is apparently covered with shagreen, closely fitted, (the 
edge of this overlapping along an irregular line) ; this overlapped 
wrapping has been wound around near the ends with narrow strips 
of vegetable fibre and with cord, the bindings being afterward var- 
nished over; the space covered by this wrapping near the lower end 
is about four inches and a half, but the actual tip is exposed; the 
space thus wrapped toward the upper end is about one and three- 
fourths inches, and again the wrapping ceases before the end. The 
inner (under) surface of this scabbard is almost flat; the outer 



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216 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

(upper) surface is crested with a low longitudinal ridge; the sheath 
is composed of two pieces of wood, united along their edges, and the 
space for the sword-rest is made at the expense of both. At six 
and one-fourth inches from the upper end is a wooden loop or ear 
about one and a half inches long, for the passage of a carry-cord; a 
second one, about seven and a half inches from it, has been broken 
away. A strap loop, curiously bound around this and made of thick 
leather, now serves for carrier; it is three-fourths of an inch wide 
and decorated with color and incised work; much too large to pass 
through the ears it is kept from slipping, partly by a thong through 
the perfect ear, partly by a wrapping of cord and thong. Length, 
about 30 inches; width, 1^ inches; height, when laid flat, 1 inch. 

16. Cuirass. (Plate III, 8.) Composed of heavy, moulded plates of 
thick leather, black varnished and decorated in red and yellow; the 
shoulders are protected by two projecting wings; the upper part of 
the body is composed of large, rectangular plates, adjacent and over- 
lapped in such fashion as to present a firm resistance to blows ; ap- 
parently rectangular black scales with red center, some of these actu- 
ally consist of a pair of scales, the lower black, larger, the upper, red, 
smaller; the lashing, with neat thongs of leather and pads and strips 
of red flannel and unbleached cotton is complicated and neatly done. 
From this firm body of large scales hangs an apron of seven hori- 
zontal rows of scales; each row overlaps the one above it and the 
scales in each row overlap; these scales are small, and are black 
at the outside edges, yellow in the middle; the lower ones are bent 
to almost a right angle at the lower margin, forming a neat hori- 
zontal finish line which is painted red; these scales are so neatly 
lashed by narrow thongs as to give a distinctly decorative effect 
Height, about 81 inches. 

17, 18. Jews-hakps. (Plate II, 8, 9 ) Made of sheet brass. A pair, deli- 

cately piercfed at the upper end, are hung from a single cord ; the bit 
of brass is wider below than above and in this wider part a slender, 
vibratile tongue is cut out, which remains attached at its upper end. 
The cord from which the two instruments hang passes up through a 
little tube case of cane or wood, which is brilliantly colored in black, 
yellow and red. The cord passes through a small hole at the upper 
end of this case and is knotted above. The instruments are drawn 
up by it into the case. Case length, 3 7/16 inches; diameter, H inch; 
instruments, 2^ inches long. 

This jews-harp is comparable with a larger and coarser one made 
of bambu, which is common throughout southeastern Asia and parts 
of Malaysia. Rockhill mentions it as used by Lissus and other nop* 



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FREDERICK STARR, LOLO OBJECTS 217 

Tibetan tribes in southeastern Tibet, where it is carried in bambu 
cases. A similar instrument is a favorite with women in eastern 
Tibet, who regularly carr>' it at their girdle. 

19, 20, 21. Musical pipes. Pipes and whistles appear to be in constant 
use, and Mr. Stratton brought three specimens, quite different from 
each other, (a) Bambu or cane; it is plugged at the larger end, 
and the smaller end is situated just above a natural septum; near 
the larger end, the epidermis is scraped away and the space is 
wrapped with sinew or fine fibre; just here it is pierced with a burnt, 
uneven, oval or elliptical blow-hole, ^ by ^ of an inch in diameter, 
(outer surface measure) ; almost in line with it, near a septum, are 
two round holes, one and one-fourth indies apart, and about 3/16 of 
an inch in diameter ; on the opposite side is a line of nine holes, sim- 
ilar to these and unevenly spaced; at intermediate (quarter) spaces, 
are two pairs of holes, like the first two in relation and size. There 
are, thus, a blow-hole and fifteen smaller note-holes. In line with 
one of these latter pairs, beyond a septum — where it is absolutely 
useless, is a final solitary hole. Length, 17^ inches; diameter 13/16 
inches, (b) Cane, open throughout; one end cut squarely, the 
other, bevel-trimmed; near the square-cut end is a small opening; 
about a quarter around the circumference from it is a line of six 
rather unevenly spaced holes. Length, 13 inches; diameter, ^2 inch; 
small single hole, H of an inch from the end; first of the line of 
holes, 1^ inches from the end; diameter of the larger holes, 3/16 
of an inch, (c) Slender cane, open through. At one end is an in- 
serted bit of cane, which is pierced through a septum with a minute 
puncture and has a small, lifted, vibratile lip or reed in its upper 
surface; at the other end are six holes in line. Length, 11 inches; 
inserted bit. 2 inches ; diameter 5/16 of an inch ; external diameter of 
holes, % of an inch— as the edge slopes, the actual opening is less. 

Just before his return to China, Mr. Stratton presented me a 
dozen or more photographs of Lolos. Unfortunately these are not 
accompanied by exact data. Some were made by Mr. Stratton him- 
self, but others were made by missionary friends. It is safe to as- 
sume that all were made in the district visited by Mr. Stratton, and 
that they represent Lolos from the reeion behind Opien-ting. We 
have seen no better pictures of Lolos than some of these. We have 
selected the best of them for reproduction and they are here pre- 
sented as Plates IV-VIII. The cost of making these half-tones has 
been supplied by Mr. Nelson C. Field of Columbia, Missouri. The 
pictures deserve careful study. In them we see the wearing of the 
great capes of dark felt, and the use of such skirts, jackets and 



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218 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

trousers as are described above ; we also see that both sexes are in 
the habit of going barefoot; the curious and characteristic dressing 
of the hair into **horns" wrapped about with doth, a custom men- 
tioned by every traveler, is well shown. The pictures are of suffi- 
cient size, too, to give considerable detail of features, so that it is 
possible to test the common claim that the Ldos present a non- 
Mongolian type. 

One of the most interesting points connected with the Lolos is 
their possession of a peculiar written character. The best known and 
fullest account in English of Lolo writing is that of Baber.* Those 
who have read his book all remember with what diligence he sought 
for samples of this writing and with what joy he finally secured 
some data. Later he received a beautiful manuscript, of which Terrien 
de Lacouperie wrote an interesting analysis. Since Baber's time 
various travelers have brought out Lolo books and today at the 
School of Living Languages, Paris, Henri Cordier, by prodigious 
effort, has brought together a veritable little library of them. Con- 
siderable study has been made of the Lolo writing, but the results 
are yet far from satisfactory. Even such questions as the direction 
of writing, whether the characters are ideographic or phonetic, how 
many different characters are used, are badly answered and the ques- 
tion of their origin has barely more than been propounded. Father 
Vial seems confident of his ability to read them, but one may read 
his writings and still doubt. Terrien de Lacouperie compared the 
characters with various early Asian forms ; he showed really striking 
similarities between them and those upon an ancient seal from 
Harappa, India ; he seems to have decided that it was derived irom 
an early and simple form of Chinese writing, with a final origin in 
the alphabet of Asoka or one closely related to it. But much re- 
mains to do, before his suggestion will carry conviction. So far as 
the Lolos themselves are concerned, most of them make no pretence 
of being able to read their books, which seem to have been written 
chiefly for and by the sorcerer or conjuror. They appear to deal 
with legends and magical practices and the key to their precise sig- 
nificance is probably lost even to the conjurors who ignorantly guard 
them and copy them often with little understanding. Mr. Strat- 
ton had one of these manuscripts, secured from an American mis- 
sionary. This he gave me as a parting gift. Mr. Moses F. Ritten- 
house of Chicago, has borne the expense of making fifty facsimile 
copies of this in zinc-etching. These copies are for distribution to 
students who know the Lolo language or who come into actual con- 
tact with Lolos. They have been made in the hope of getting a con- 
sensus of opinion as to the contents and significance of the manu- 
script. The reproduction is a careful one as to size and number of 

♦Babcr, E. C. Travels and Researches in the Interior of China, 



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FREDERICK STARR, LOLO OBJECTS 219 

pages, their arrangement, the characters and pictures and it approxi- 
mates to texture and color of the paper. The manuscript consists 
of twenty written pages measuring about loj by 8 inches ; these are 
fastened together along the upper edge. The characters, which give 
the impression of simplified Chinese characters, appear to run in 
horizontal lines from right to left. One of the twenty pages is com- 
pletely occupied by pictures and a part of two other pages is taken 
up by illustrations. These are badly drawn animals and human be- 
ings (?), figures like crossed dumb-bells, etc., etc. In art value and 
general character they are comparable with the rude scrawls of little 
children among ourselves. 

That there is much of interest to the ethnographer and geogra- 
pher in the high mountain land of the independent Lolos is evident 
from what we have said. There is a population of millions almost 
unknown, an area of mountains quite unexplored. A thorough in- 
vestigation of that region would yield an important contribution to 
geography and general ethnography. But two questions beyond all 
others have especial, almost romantic, interest, i. Who are these 
hardy mountaineers, these aborigines preceding the Chinese? Are 
they representatives of the great yellow race — Homo Mongolicusf 
or are they, as so many travelers suggest, our kindred, members of 
the white race, Homo Caticasicus? If the latter, where in the family 
tree do they belong? Who are their nearest kin? 2. What is their 
written system? Can it be read? Whence did it come? What do 
these curious manuscripts contain ? Does Father Vial know ? 

A long journey within and through and through the country of 
the independent Lolos is an attractive proposition. It would be 
dangerous, but it can probably be done. These Lolos live in tribes 
with definite territories and settled chieftains. A traveler ere enter- 
ing the country must have the confidence of those chieftains living 
nearest Chinese settlements. Trusting himself to them he might be 
passed from one to another across the country. He ought to tarry 
long enough with each to make genuine investigations of significance. 
But he must have wisdom, gentleness and firmness if he would come 
out alive. Last year one man made such an effort and lost his life 
in the attempt. The story is told in The North China Herald of 
April 17, 1909, as follows : 

"Mr. Ferguson, of the British and Foreign Bible Society, Chentu, passed 
through this city a few days ago. He was returning from a trip to the Lolo 
country, where he had successfully negotiated for the recovery of the body 
of the late Mr. Brooks, who was murdered there about three months ago. 
It will be remembered that Mr. Brooks, who, with a friend, Mr. Myers, had 
been traveling through the province for some time making a specialty of ex- 
ploring the old caves which abound here, left Ningyuanfu unaccompanied by 
any foreigner, leaving word that he would probably return in a few days. 



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220 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

The Lolo country is not far from this city, and Mr. Brooks first visited some 
of the border tribes. Finding them friendly he was induced to try to make 
his way across the country, a feat which it is doubtful if any foreigner has 
yet accomplished. By gifts of money he secured guarantee of safe passage 
and was handed on from tribe to tribe. He succeeded in making his way 
almost across the country, having passed through some ten or twelve tribes, 
when the guide supplied by the last tribe he had visited suddenly deserted 
him. Mr. Brooks had no official escort with him for he had gone without 
the knowledge of the Chinese officials, but had in his employ some seven 
Chinese, one of whom acted as interpreteh Thus deserted, they traveled on 
as best they could until they fell in with some tribes-people, who, finding 
strangers in the heart of their .country, were naturally somewhat suspicious 
and hostile. Explanations were given and money offered for a safe escort to 
the next tribe. Mr. Brooks, perhaps not satisfied with his interpreter's efforts, 
took the Lolo leader by the arm and tried by gesticulations to make plain his 
meaning. The Lolo, however, suddenly drew his sword and aimed such a 
blow at Mr. Brooks* head as would have proved fatal had it hit him as in- 
tended. By a quick movement Mr. Brooks escaped the force of the blow, 
receiving it on the arm instead of the head. Thinking, as was in all prob- 
ability the case, that his life was in immediate danger, he drew his revolver 
and shot the man. Then firing several shots into the air he called upon his 
men to run and they escaped across a river to another tribe. Here they 
explained their position and Mr. Brooks promised a large reward for a safe 
escort out of the country. They were assured that the tribe they had just 
left were bitter enemies and would not dare to cross the river. However, 
before the Lolos would consent to escort them out of the country they de- 
manded that Mr. Brooks give up his rifle. This he at last consented to do. 
No sooner had they received the rifle than they raised their war cry. The 
other tribe rushed across the river, for the two tribes were friends, not en- 
emies. Surrounded by about two hundred enraged tribesmen, there was no 
hope for the little company. In a few moments all was over. Marvellous to 
say, from under the pile of stones that was heaped upon them there crawled, 
some hours later, two of the Chinese. These, though terribly beaten and 
wounded, had not been actually killed. They were captured and sold as slaves. 
It was from these, who have since been redeemed, that the above probably 
true account of the matter was obtained. Much credit is due to Mr. Ferguson 
for the able way in which he has sifted the affair and seaired the remains 
of Mr. Brooks. 

This incident is indeed a sad and regrettable one, and yet, to those know- 
ing the character of the Lolos, not one to be wondered at. The Chinese 
officials are much opposed to foreigners entering the Lolo comitry, in fact 
practically forbid it. It is only by avoiding them that one can enter. He who 
enters, however worthy his motive, should first count the cost." 



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PLATE IV. 



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PLATE VI. 



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S. GRAENICHER, BEES OF NORTHWESTERN WISCONSIN 221 

BEES OF NORTHWESTERN 
WISCONSIN 

By S. Graenicher. 

Up to the present time nothing has been published on the bee 
fauna of this part of Wisconsin.f The bees which form the subject 
of this paper were obtained on two collecting expeditions of the 
Milwaukee Public Museum. On the first of these the members of 
the party proceeded in boats down the St. Croix River, from its 
headwaters at the Upper St. Croix Lake in Douglas Co. on to Hud- 
son in St. Croix Co., about 20 miles above the juncture of the St. 
Croix and Mississippi Rivers. The time spent was from July 7 to 
August 14, 1909, and collections were made at the following localities 
and on the following dates : 

Solon Springs (Upper St. Croix Lake), Douglas Co., July 7-15. 

Gordon, Douglas Co., July 16. 

St. Croix Dam, Douglas Co., July 17-22. 

Coppermine Dam, Douglas Co., July 23. 

Fishtrap, Burnett Co., July 24. 

Mouth of Nemakagon River, Burnett Co., July 25-26. 

Swiss, Burnett Co., July 27. 

Mouth of Yellow River, Burnett Co., July 28-August 2. 

Kettle River Rapids,* Burnett Co., August 4. 

Randall, Burnett Co., August 5-7. 

Never's Dam, Polk Co., August 9. 

Farmington, Polk Co., August 11-12. 

Hudson, St. Croix Co., August 13-14. 

The expedition of 1910 selected Hudson, the terminal of the St. 
Croix expedition, as the starting point, remaining there from July 
6-12. Five more weeks were spent at the following points along the 
Mississippi River : 



fAfter this paper had gone to the printer, the author received throtiflrh the kindness 
of Mr. Chas. W. Metz the latter's "Revision of the Genus Prosopis in North America" 
(Trans. Am. Ent. Soc XXXVII. No. 2, pp. 8^-156, plates II-IX), in which two species 
are reported from Wisconsin. Tne exact locality is not mentioned, but judging from 
the shaded area on the accompanying map they were collected in some part of north- 
western Wisconsin. 



*Rapids of the St. Croix River above the mouth of the Kettle River. 



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BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Prescott, Pierce Co., July 13-26. 

Maiden Rock, Pierce Co., July 27-August 10. 

Fountain City, BuflFalo Co., August 11-17. 

Altogether 166 species of bees are dealt with in this paper, 7 of 
which are new (Colletes zncinalis, Sphecodes solonis, Halictus nigra- 
viridis, Andrena nivaloides, Notnada 7visconsinensis, Nomada 
cocker elli, Triepeolus obliteratiis), and descriptions of which will be 
found further on ; 3 additional new species from the St. Croix region 
(Perdita pallidipennis, Perdita citrinella and Anthidium chippe- 
waense) were described in the Canadian Entomologist, Vol. XLII 
(1910), pp. 101-104 and 157-160. 

A BEE OF NOCTURNAL HABITS. 
At Prescott, Pierce Co., Wis., Sphecodogastra texana Cr. was 
observed carrying on its work during the hours of the night, collect- 
ing pollen and nectar from the flowers of an evening primrose: 
Oenothera rhombipetala Nutt. This plant grows in patches along the 
sandy bluffs at Prescott, and it occurs also in great numbers at sev- 
eral places in the sandy river bottoms between Prescott and Maiden 
Rock. The females of Sphecodogastra texofia begin to arrive at the 
flowers some time after sunset. On July 14th the first one made its 
appearance at 7 minutes past 8 o'clock, on the following evening a 
few minutes earlier. They were observed on several evenings, and 
on July isth the flowers were inspected as late as 10 p.m. and a 
number of the bees found in activity. They were never seen on these 
flowers in the daytime, not even in the early morning after sunrise, 
when the flowers were still open. Nor were they met with on any 
other flowers of that region. 

Specimens of Sphecodogastra texofia found in New Mexico (re- 
ported by Prof. T. D. A. Cockerell in Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, Vol. 
XXV, p. 185, December, 1898) seem to diflfer somewhat in their 
habits from those of the Wisconsin region. They were captured in 
the daytime on the following flowers : 

1. A ^ and a 9 on Senecio douglassii at Las Cruces, Oct 

17 (E. A. Wooton). 

2. A 9 on pear blossoms at MesiUa, April 13, 1895 (Jessie 

Casad). 



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S. GRAENICHER, BEES OF NORTHWESTERN WISCONSIN 

Prof. Cockerell has kindly re-examined these specimens, and in- 
formed me that the B has large ocelli, the same as the 9, and that 
neither one of the 9 9 carries any pollen. I am also indebted to 
Prof. Cockerell for having compared a specimen of the bees from 
Prescott with his New Mexico material, and having found them to 
be conspecific. 

The extraordinary size of the ocelli distinguishes this bee from 
any other species of our region. This character represents an adapta- 
tion to nocturnal habits, and it is present in the South American 
genus Megalopta F. Smith, the habits of some of the species of which 
have been made known by Ducke* in Para (Brazil). According to 
this author the bees were found during the day in dense woods, but 
rarely on the wing, while in the evening females loaded with pollen 
were captured, mostly flying around the lamp. Ducke further states 
that Megalopta is not a Panurgine bee, as considered by Smith, but 
that it comes closest to Halictus, In this respect it agrees with the 
N. Am. genus Sphecodogastra, which is simply an Halictus adapted 
to nocturnal life. Described in 1872 by Cresson (Hymenopt. texana, 
Tr. Am. Ent. Soc. IV, 249) as Sphecodes texafia from specimens 
collected in Texas, it was referred by Prof. Cockerell (loc. cit.) to 
Halictus in 1898, and Ashmead created in 1899 (Classification of the 
bees, or the superfamily Apoidea. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. Vol. XXVI, 
pp. 49-100) the genus Sphecodogastra, based on the size of the 
ocelli. 

Prof. Cockerell has called my attention to Bingham's statements 
(Brit. Ind. Hymenopt., i, p. 534), according to which the bee 
Xylocopa rufescens Smith is "crepuscular, on fine moonlight nights 
its loud buzzing can often be heard all night long." From Prof. 
Cockerell I have the following information : "I possess a male of 
Xylocopa rufescens, and observe that it has very large ocelli (trans- 
verse diameter of middle ocellus 1020 /i)." 

Some species of Megacilissa are known to be nocturnal. In New 
Mexico Prof. C. H. T. Townsend captured specimens of Megacilissa 
yarrowi Cr. at the flowers of Datura meteloides and Lippia Wrighii 



(i). Neue Beob. ueber d. Bienen d. Amazonatlaender. Zeits. f. wissens. Iniek- 
tenbiol. Vol. II, pp. 51-60 (1906). 



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224 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

in the early morning before sunrise during the first week in Sep- 
tember (reported by T. D. A. Cockerell and Willmatte Porter, Contr. 
New Mex. Biol. St., Observ. on bees, with descr. of new genera and 
species, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. Vol. IV, series 7, pp. 403-421, 
December, 1899). From observations on Megacilissa matutina and 
M, eximia, two South American species, Schrottky concludes that 
**on warm nights the Megacilissae are flying all night long." (C. 
Schrottky, A contr. to the knowl. of some S. Am.- Hymen., chiefly 
from Paraguay. Smiths. Miscell. coll.. Vol. XLVHI, p. 259, Feb. 
4, 1907-) 

The social wasps of South America of the genus Apoica fly dur- 
ing the night, and some of our solitary wasps belonging to the family 
Mntillidae {Photopsis and Brachycistis) are likewise nocturnal in 
their habits. The males of the latter have large ocelli, while in 
Apoica both sexes are supplied with them. In the Mutillidae the 
females are wingless and crawl over the ground ; the males possess 
wings, and fly around in search of the females. The enlargement of 
the ocelli in one sex, while in the opposite sex no such enlargement is 
noticeable, may be explained by the difference in habits. In Apoica 
both sexes are winged and both supplied with large ocelli. 

In Sphecodogastra texana we are dealing with a typical nocturnal 
species, and this view is strengthened by the fact, that the two 
females taken on flowers in the daytime in New Mexico had not col- 
lected any pollen from the flowers. It will be noted that one of these 
females was obtained in April, and the other in October, and this 
leads us to conclude that S, texana produces at least two broods a 
year, as is the case with most, if not all, of the species of Halictus, 

In 1903 Prof. T. D. A. Cockerell (Can. Ent. Vol. XXXVI, p. 
342, 1903) described a bee Halictus galpinsiae which he observed in 
New Mexico on the flowers of Gaura coccinea and Galpinsia fendlerii 
(an evening primrose) after sunset, and this has the ocelli larger in 
proportion than those of the ordinary species of Halictus, but, as 
Prof. Cockerell informs me, *'not larger than those of the closely re- 
lated H, aberrans Crawf., which is diurnal." At any rate either of 
these species is far behind S. texana as regards the size of the ocelli. 



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S. GRAENICHER, BEES OF NORTHWESTERN WISCONSIN 225 

The flowers of the evening primrose, Oenothera rhombipetala, be- 
gin to open late in the afternoon, and remain open until about half 
past 9 o'clock in the forenoon. Early in the forenoon and towards even- 
ing they are visited by several other species of bees, as also by some 
other insects, and by the humming bird. Some bees are in the habit 
of forcing their way into these flowers when closed, and of Oenothera 
biennis we have been informed by Robertson* that a diurnal bee 
Anthedon (Melissodes) compta collects its pollen exclusively from 
the flowers of that species. In these flowers the pollen grains are 
large and cling together, being connected by cobweb-like threads, 
and accordingly the bee Anthedon compta has the pollen-collecting 
brushes on the hind legs (scopae) loose, and thinly plumose as 
pointed out by Robertson. A comparison of our species of Halictus 
with Sphecodogastra texana shows that in the latter the scopae are 
looser than in the former. 

OLIGOTROPIC BEES. 

Most of our bees visit a large variety of flowers, and have, for 
this reason been called polytropic by Loew.* For bees limiting their 
visits to a few species of flowers only, this author introduced the 
term oligotropic. Robertson* restricted the use of this latter term 
to such bees as collect their pollen from the flowers of a single 
species, or from several more or less closely related species (belong- 
ing to the same genus, or at least to the same family). 

The occurrence of such an oligotropic bee in a g^ven region is 
dependent on the presence of the particular plant or plants which 
furnish the pollen. Of the bees considered in this paper the follow- 
ing 30 species represent oligotropic species in Robertson's sense : 

Species of Bee. * Plants Furnishing Pollen. 

Prosopis illinoiensis Rob. Umbelliferae (Robertson). 

Colletes eulophi Rob. Compositae " 

armatus Patton. 



(2). Chas. Robertson. Flower visits of oliogotropic bees. Bot. Gar. XXXII (1901), 
p. 367. 



(3). E. Locw. Blumenb. v. Insekt., etc Jahrb. bot Gart. Berlin. Ill (1SS4). 



(4). Chas. Robertson. Flowers and insects XIX. Bot Gaz. XXVIII (1899^ P- ^. 



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226 



BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 



CoUetes latitarsis Rob. 
aberrans Ckll. 
Halictus nelumbonis Rob. 
Andrena peckhami Ckll. 
" clypeonitens Ckll. 
" nubecula Sm. 
" asteris Rob. 
" aliciae Rob. 
" rudbeckiae Rob. 

helianthi Rob. 
'* solidaginis Rob. 
Panurginus asteris Rob. 

" rudbeckiae Rob. 

Halicioides marginatus Cr. 
Macropis cUiata Patton. 

" morsei Rob. 
Perdita maura Ckll. 
" citrinella Graen. 
" pallidipennis Graen. 
MegachUe pugnata Say. 

" campanulae Rob. 
Melissodes cnici Rob. 
" d^i/w Cress. 

" trinodis Rob. 

" vemoniae Rob. 

Xenoglossa strenua Cress. 
Anthophora walshii Cress. 



Physalis — species (Robertson). 
P^a/o^/^mi*m-species(Cockcrell) 
Nymphaeaceae (Robertson). 
Cotnpositae. 



(Robertson). 



//^/kw*/Att^— species. 
Steironema — ^species. 

Physalis — species (Cockerell). 

Petalosiemum villosum, 

Compositae: 

(Robertson). 

Campanula americana 

Cirsium — species 

Compositae 
it 

Vemonia — species 
Cucurbitaceae (Cockerell). 
Cassia Chamaecrista(R€btTts(Xi) 



The plant families are represented as follows : 

Nymphaeaceae i species of oligotropic bees. 



Umbelliferae i ' 




Leguminosae 3 * 




Solanaceae 2 * 




Campanulaceae i ' 




Cucurbitaceae i ' 




Primulaceae 2 ' 




Compositae 19 ' 


1 €€ U 



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S. GRAENICHER, BEES OF NORTHWESTERN WISCONSIN 227 

More than one half of the oligotropic bees of this list depend for 
their pollen on the Compositae. Riidbeckia hirta, R. laciniata, 
Heliopsis scobra, Lepachys pinnata, species of Aster, Solidago, 
Helianthus, Liatris, EupcUorium, Cirsiutn, Vernonia fasciculata, and 
Boltonia asteroides are the most important species of the region in 
this respect. Among the plants belonging to some other family 
Physaiis pubescens may be mentioned ; this species, which is rather 
ccHiimon throughout our region, is visited by Perdita maura and 
Colletes latitarsis. Two species of oligotropic bees pay their atten- 
tion to Petalostemum i*illos\im, a plant inhabiting the dry sandy 
slopes at Randall, Burnett Co., North Hudson, St. Croix Co., and 
Prescott, Pierce Co. The flowers of this plant furnish pollen to 
Colletes aberrans and Perdita citrinella. 

LIST OF BEES COLLECTED IN THE REGION. 
Hrosopis Fabricius. 

1. P. basalit Sm. A boreal species (type locality Hudson Bay). 
Rather common at Solon Springs (Douglas Co.), and found also in 
Burnett and St. Croix Cos. (Hudson). 

2. P. modcsta Say. This and the following species are extreme- 
ly variable. The S $ of the two differ in the absence (illinoiensis), 
or presence {tnodesta) of punctures on the first abdominal segment 
The 9 9 are not as easily separated. Specimens from Douglas, Bur- 
nett, St. Croix and Pierce Cos. 

3. P. illinoiensis Rob. Douglas, Burnett, Pdk and Pierce Cos. 
Taken on the flowers of Cicuta maculata and Stum cicutae folium. 

4. P. zlziae Rob. Specimens from the mouth of the Yellow 
River in Burnett Co., Prescott and Maiden Rock in Pierce Co. 

5. P. varifrons Cress. The light markings on clypeus, scape 
and tegulae are quite variable in both sexes. Collected at Solon 
Springs in Douglas Co., the mouth of the Nemakagon River in Bur- 
nett Co. and Maiden Rock in Pierce Co. 

6. P. vcrticaiis Cress. Dougflas, Burnett, and Pierce Cos. 

7. P. pygmaca Cress. A very common species throughout the 
region. Specimens from Douglas, Burnett and Pierce Cos. 



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228 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

8. P. saniculae Rob. Maiden Rock in Pierce G>. and Fountain 
City in BuflFalo Co. The specimens from this region are more 
slender and decidedly smaller than those from eastern Wisconsin 
(Milwaukee and Washington Cos.). 

Colletes Latreille. 

9. C. aberrans Ckll. Found only on Petalostemum vUlosum at 
Randall, Burnett Co., Hudson, St. Croix Co., and Prescott, Pierce 
Co. 

10. C. eulophi Rob. A visitor of the Compositae, Taken at 
Gordon, Douglas Co., and from there on along the St. Croix and 
Mississippi rivers at various points in Burnett, St. Croix and Pierce 
Cos. 

11. C. armatus Patton. This too is an oligotropic visitor of the 
Compositae. Mouth of the Yellow River, Kettle River Rapids, and 
Randall in Burnett Co. 

12. C. brevicornis Rob. i 9 from Hudson in St. Croix Co. 

13. C. nudus Rob. Mouth of the Yellow River and Randall in 
Burnett Co., and Prescott, Pierce Co. 

14. C.latitarsis Rob. Not found on any other plant than 
Physalis pubescens at Hudson, St. Croix Co., Prescott and Maiden 
Rock, Pierce Co. 

15. C.vicinalis n. sp. 

$ . This belongs to the group with dark hairs on the thorax above, and 
it runs in Swenk's^ table to distinctus, a southern species, but it has the two 
basal abdominal segments slightly punctate, and the antennal joint 3 longer 
than 4. Length about 10 mm. Qypeus shining, convex and somewhat sul- 
cate, with distinct striate punctures. Mandibles black, piceous at the apex. 
Malar space at least half as long as wide. Supracl3rpeal area shining, more 
closely and finely punctured than the dypeus. Sides of the face dull, with 
feeble shallow punctures. Vertex, occiput and cheeks shining, finely and 
very closely punctured, especially the cheeks. Head clothed with a dirty- 
white pubescence, which is long and copious on the upper portion of ^e face 
and on the cheeks below. Antennae black, all of the joints from the fourth 
on as long as wide. Mesonotum shining, with distinct punctures, which are 

<5). Myron Harmon Swenk. Specific characters of the bee genus Colletes. Con- 
trib. Dept. Ent. Univ. Nebr. July. 1908. 



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S. GRAENICHER, BEES OF NORTHWESTERN WISCONSIN 229 

dose anteriorly, and become scattered towards the scutellum. The latter is 
shining and punctured the same as the adjoining portion of the mesonotum. 
Superior face of metathorax formed by a series of narrow, moderately deep 
pits. Pubescence of the thorax of the same color as that of the head, except 
in the region of the scutellum where dark hairs are intermixed with the 
whitish ones. Tegulae black. Wings slightly dusky, with dark brown ner- 
vures and stigma. Legs black, clothed with whitish pubescence. No spines 
on anterior, coxae. Dimensions of the tarsal joints about the same as in 
distinctus. Abdomen broad, shining, with apical bands of white pubescence 
on segments 1 to 5, and a basal band on segment 2. The latter band, as also 
the apical one on segment 1 is thin and widely interrupted. Punctures very 
small on all of the segments, barely noticeable on 1 and 2. Segments de- 
pressed Really about one-fifth. 

Type : Solon Springs, Douglas Co., Wis., taken between July 7 
and 15, 1909 (No. 28449). 

Two paratypes from the same locality taken together with the 
type (Nos. 28450 and 28451). Type and paratypes in the collection 
of the Publ. Museum of Milwaukee. In one of the paratypes 
(28450) the apical hair bands have nearly disappeared through 
rubbing. 

Sphecodes Latreille 

16. S. arvcnsis Patton. A common species in Burnett, Polk, 
St. Croix and Pierce Cos. 

17. S.davisii Rob. One $ from Prescott, Pierce Co. 

18. S. prosphorus Lov. and Ckll. Type locality : Waldoboro, 
Maine. Through the kindness of Mr. John H. Lovell I have had the 
loan of a ^ and a 9 from the type locality. 2 $ $ from Solon 
Springs, Douglas Co., and 1 9 from Maiden Rock, Pierce Co., agree 
with the Maine specimens. 

19. S. cressonii Rob. i 9 . mouth of the Yellow River, and 1 9 , 
Randall, both localities in Burnett Co. 

20. S. solonis n. sp. 

$. Length about 7 mm. Head and thorax black; the first three seg- 
ments of abdomen red, fourth and fifth intensely black, the sixth dark, tinged 
with red. Head broad, shining, especially so on vertex and clypeus. Punc- 
tures of the face finer and closer than those of vertex and clypeus. Face 
barely covered with short and sparse white pubescence. Mandibles distinctly 
notched, black at base, otherwise red, with dark apices. Antennae black, 



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230 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

somewhat brownish towards the tips. Joint 3 a little longer than 4; 2 and 4 
subequaL Mesonotum very shiny, with small shallow punctures, which are 
not close. Median sulcus and parapsidal grooves poorly develc^ed. Disk of 
metathorax not distinctly defined, with numerous raised lines. Truncation 
of metathorax enclosed by a circular rim, and divided by a prominent median 
vertical ridge. The enclosed surface contains shallow reticulations. Meso- 
thoradc and metathoracic pleurae roughened, the latter more finely so than 
the former. Abdomen broad, slightly narrowed towards the base; surface 
shining, with hardly a trace of punctures, except some very minute ones on 
the bases of segments 3 to 5. On the venter the distribution of red and 
black is the same as on the upper side. Tegulae black, somewhat testaceous 
exteriorly. Wings hyaline with a dark-brown stigma, and black nervures. 
Second suteiarginal cell about half as long as third, narrowed one-third 
towards the marginal. First recurrent nervure joining the second sub- 
marginal cell beyond its middle. Legfs black; knees, front tibiae anteriorly, 
middle and hind tibiae apically, and all the tarsi reddish-testaceous. 

^. Length nearly 6 mm. Body slender, shining and black, except a 
broad apical band on segment 1 of abdomen, a narrowed apical band on seg- 
ment 2, and a still narrower subapical band on segment 3 which are testace- 
ous. On the venter the coloration of the segments is the same as above. In 
the testaceous markings of the legs the male agrees with the female, and the 
antennae are testaceous beneath from about the 4th joint on to the tips. 
Antennal joint 4 about equal to 2 plus 3 ; joint 3 a trifle shorter than 2. Face 
below and especially the clypeus densely covered with short white pubescence, 
whereby the surface is hidden from view. Punctation of the head and thorax 
finer and closer than in the female. Tegulae darker throughout than in the 
other sex. On the disk of the metathorax the radiating lines are more nu- 
merous and better developed, and the whole area is more clearly defined than 
in the female. There is no rim around the metathoracic truncation, and the 
reticulations of its surface are closer than in the female. 

Types: Solon Springs, Douglas Co., Wis., taken between July 
7 and 15, 1909. (Nos. 32833 and 28399.) In the coll. of the Publ. 
Museum of Milwaukee. 

This is a Sphecodes sens, strict, as understood by Robertson. The 
9 runs to minor in Robertson's table, but that species has the abdo- 
men entirely red, the mesonotum not sulcate, etc. Among other 
characters the shiny surfaces of the body and the testaceous colora- 
tion of the tarsi and other parts of the legs may serve to distinguish 
5*. solonis from some other closely related species. 



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S. GRAENICHER, BEES OF NORTHWESTERN WISCONSIN 231 

Hallctus Latreille. 

21. H. lerouxll Lep. A species of wide distribution. Common 
throughout the Wisconsin region. Specimens taken at various 
points along the St. Croix and Mississippi Rivers, from Solon 
Springs in Douglas Co. to Maiden Rock in Pierce Co. 

22. H. parallelus Say. Rather common at Prescott and Maiden 
Rock in Pierce Co. and Fountain City in Buffalo Co. 

23. H. provancherl D. T. This is, to all appearances, the most 
common Halictus of our entire region. Taken at many places be- 
tween Solon Springs in Douglas Co. and Fountain City in Buffalo 
Co. 

24. H. coriaceus Sm. Specimens from Douglas, Burnett, Polk, 
St. Croix and Pierce Cos. 

25. H. llsratus Say. Frequents mostly flowers of the Com- 
positae. Prescott and Maiden Rock in Pierce Co., and Fountain 
City in Buffalo Co. 

26. H. nelumbonis Rob. An oligotropic visitor of the Nym- 
phaeaceae, 2 9 9 taken at Maiden Rock in Pierce Co. 

27. H. truncatus Rob. A number of ^ and 9 specimens from 
Douglas, Burnett, Polk and St. Croix cos. 

28. H. arcuatus Rob. Mouth of the Yellow River in Burnett 
Co., Prescott and Maiden Rock in Pierce Co. 

29. H. quadrimaculatus Rob. 2 9 9 takes at Prescott in 
Pierce Co. 

30. H. foxll Rob. I 9 from the St. Croix Dam in Douglas 
Co., I 9 from Hudson in St. Croix Co. and i «5 from Maiden Rock 
in Pierce Co. 

31. H. pectoralis Sm. Specimens from the mouth of the Yel- 
low River and the Kettle River Rapids in Burnett Co., Farmington 
in Polk Co., Hudson in St. Croix Co., Prescott and Maiden Rock in 
Pierce Co. This species is very variable in size, especially in the ^ 
sex. 

32. H. nymphalis Sm. 4 specimens from Prescott and Maiden 
Rock in Pierce Co. represent undoubtedly the true nymphalis. Com- 
pared with a specimen of H, mesillensis Ckll. received from Prof. 
Cockerell it is found to be distinctly more brassy than mesillensis. 



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232 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

33. H.vlereckl Crawf. An inhabitant of dry localities, found 
especially in sandy regions at the mouth of the Yellow River and at 
Randall in Burnett Co., Hudson in St. Croix Co., and Prescott in 
Pierce Co. 

34. H. tesrularis Rob. Numerous specimens from Hudson in 
St. Croix Co., Prescott and Maiden Rock in Pierce Co. 

35. H. cressonll Rob. Solon Springs and Gordon in Douglas 
Co., Farmington in Polk Co., Hudson in St. Croix Co. and Maiden 
Rock in Pierce Co. 

36. H. albipennls Rob. 2 9 9 from Farmington in Polk Co., 2 
9 9 from Hudson in St. Croix Co. and i 9 from Prescott in Pierce 
Co. The latter specimen is more finely and sparsely punctured on 
the mesonotum than those from the other localities, but in all other 
points it agrees with them. 

37. H. zephyrus Sm. This is a very common species in eastern 
Wisconsin, but it seems to be rather rare in the northwestern part of 
the state. It was met with at Hudson in St. Croix Co., Maiden 
Rock in Pierce Co. and Fountain City in BuflFalo Co. 

38. H. pilosus Sm. Mouth of the Yellow River and Randall in 
Burnett Co., Hudson in St. Croix Co., Prescott and Maiden Rock in 
Pierce Co. 

39. H. sparsus Rob. Solon Springs in Douglas Co., Prescott 
and Maiden Rock in Pierce Co. and Fountain City in BuflFalo Co. 

40. H. pruinosus Rob. i 9 from Prescott in Pierce Co. 

41. H.connexus Cr. Yellow River in Burnett Co., Never's 
Dam and Farmington in Polk Co., Hudson in St. Croix Co., Prescott 
and Maiden Rock in Pierce Co. and Fountain City in BuflFalo Co. 

42. H. hortensis Lov. Specimens from Hudson in St. Croix 
Co., Prescott and Maiden Rock in Pierce Co. agree with specimens 
from the t)rpe locality (Waldoboro, Maine). I am greatly indebted 
to Mr. John H. Lovell for specimens of this, as also of the three fol- 
lowing species which were described by him. 

43. H. virldatus Lov. 2 9 9 from Hudson in St. Croix Co., i 
i and 799 from Prescott, 299 from Maiden Rock in Pierce Co. 
The mesonotum in these Wisconsin specimens is more brassy and 
more strongly punctured than in the Maine specimens. 



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S. GRAENICHER, BEES OF NORTHWESTERN WISCONSIN 233 

44. H. versans Lov. Solon Springs in Douglas Co., Hudson in 
St. Croix Co., Prescott and Maiden Rock in Pierce Co. 

45. H. oblonsrus? Lov. Numerous specimens from Solon 
Springs and Coppermine Dam in Douglas Co., the mouth of the 
Nemakagon River, Swiss and Randall in Burnett Co., Farmington 
in Polk Co., Hudson in St. Croix Co., Prescott and Maiden Rock in 
Pierce Co. and Fountain City in Buffalo Co. 

46. H. versatusr Rob. Solon Springs in Douglas Co., mouth of 
the Nemakagon River in Burnett Co. and Farmington in Polk Co. 

47. H. nli^ro-vlridis n. sp. 

9. Length nearly 7 mm. Head and thorax dark green, abdomen black. 
Face as broad as long, vrith distinct close punctures, those on the vertex be- 
ing extremely close. Qypeus with a purplish hue and with coarser and 
fewer punctures. Cheeks broad, shining, finely punctured. Antennae black, 
slightly lighter udemeath towards the apex. Mesonotum shining, with sparse 
small and shallow punctures. Median sulcus very distinct, parapsidal grooves 
poorly developed. Base of metathorax surrounded by a semi-circular low 
rink Enclosure with raised lines; of these the median one and about six 
on each side reach as far as the rim. Metathorax with a distinct truncation, 
the surface of which is finely roughened and is divided in the middle by a 
low vertical ridge. Wings smoky ; stigma, nervures and tegulae dark testace- 
ous, the latter blackish in front. Third submarginal cell about one and one- 
half times as long as the second, narrowed considerably towards the mar- 
ginal. Legs dark, with the tarsi somewhat ferruginous. Inner spur of hind 
tibia with 5 teeth, those near the base rather long. Body clothed with ochre- 
ous pubescence, which is conspicuous on the legs, lower surface of abdomen 
and in the vicinity of the anal rima, but otherwise very short and sparse. 
Abdomen oval, smooth, shining and impunctate. When viewed from the 
side purplish tints are noticeable on the black ground color. 

Type: Swiss, Burnett Co., July 27, 1909 (No. 32837). In the 
coll. of the Public Museum of Milwaukee. It is dose to 
H. (CMoralictus) atriveniris Crawf. (type locality: Coldstream, 
B. C.) but this has the head and thorax of a dark blue color, the 
apical margins of the abdominal segments testaceous, characters that 
separate it from H. nigro-viridis. 

Sphecodoi^astra Ashmead. 

48. S. texana Cr. Numerous 9 9 at Prescott in Pierce Co. on 
the flowers of Oenothera rhomhipetala. The nocturnal habits of this 
species have been discussed at the beginning of this paper. 



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234 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Auffochlora Smith. 

49. A.pura Say. Common in Douglas Co. at Solon Springs, 
St. Croix Dam and Coppermine Dam. Not as frequent farther 
south. Specimens were obtained in Burnett, Polk and Pierce Cos. 

50. A. fcrvlda Sm. Not found in the northern parts; speci- 
mens were collected at Maiden Rock in Pierce Co. only. 

51. A. virldula Sm. Mouth of the Nemakagon River, mouth of 
the Yellow River, Kettle River Rapids and Randall in Burnett Co., 
Prescott and Maiden Rock in Pierce Co. 

52. A.confusa Rob. Solon Springs, Douglas Co., mouth of 
the Nemakagon River, mouth of the Yellow River and Randall in 
Burnett Co., Farmington in Polk Co., Maiden Rock in Pierce Co., 
and Fountain City in Buffalo Co. 

53. A. simllis Rob. Prescott, Pierce Co. 

Asrapostemon Smith 

54. A. radiatus Say. Collected at the mouth of the Yellow 
River, and at Randall in Burnett Co.. Hudson, St. Croix Co., Pres- 
cott and Maiden Rock, Pierce Co., Fountain City, Buffalo Co. 

55. A.viridulus Fab. Farmington, Polk Co.; Hudson, St. 
Croix Co. ; Prescott and Maiden Rock, Pierce Co. 

56. A. splendens Lep, Solon Springs and St. Croix Dam in 
Douglas Co. ; Randall in Burnett Co. ; Hudson in St. Croix Co. ; 
Maiden Rock in Pierce Co. 

57. A.texanus subtilior Ckll. Specimens from Hudson in St. 
Croix Co., and Prescott in Pierce Co. 

Eunomia Cresson. 

58. E. heteropoda Say. Occurs in sandy spots at Hudson, St. 
Croix Co., Prescott and Maiden Rock, Pierce Co. 

Andrena Fabricius. 

59. A. nivalis- Sm. Solon Springs and Gordon in Douglas Co. 



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S. GRAENICHER, BEES OF NORTHWESTERN WISCONSIN 235 

60. A. nivaloldes n. sp. 

$. Length about 9 mm. Black, with light ochreous pubescence. Head 
as broad as long. Qypeus smooth and shining, with distinct and close punc- 
tures on the sides; a narrow median stripe is impunctate. Process of labrum 
rounded. Mandibles black. Short thin pubescence on the sides of the face, 
around the antennae and on the lower side of the cheeks. Facial fovea more 
than half as wide as the distance between the eye and the lateral ocellus. From 
above, the facial fovea appears light ochreous ; it is separated from the eye by 
a shining narrow line and extends below the antennal line. Antennae black, 
joint 3 as long as 4 plus 5. Cheeks not broad, slightly shining, with extremely 
fine reticulations. Mesonotum dullish anteriorly, shining posteriorly, min- 
utely and sparsely punctured; there are delicate reticulations between the 
punctures. Scutellum with punctures larger and closer than on the mesono- 
tum. Metathoradc area not sharply defined, its surface much rougher than 
that on the sides. Mesopleurae nearly bare, hardly shining. Tegulae dark 
testaceous, piceous in front. Wings dusky, nervures and stigma dark testa- 
ceous. Third submarginal cell nearly twice as long as second, narrowed one- 
half towards the marginal. Legs black, clothed with light ochreous pube- 
scence. Tibial scopa formed by dense and moderately long, simple hairs. 
Hind metatarsus a little over half as broad as tibia at its greatest breadth. 
Abdomen shining, impunctate. Segment 2 depressed less than one-half, but 
more than one-third. Sparse light pubescence on dorsum of segment 1, thin 
interrupted apical hair-bands on segments 2 to 4. Anal fimbria dark brown. 
Apical hair-bands on ventral segments 2 to 5. 

Type : Solon Springs, Douglas Co., Wis., taken between July 7 
to IS, 1909 (No. 28433). 

Paratypes: 2 99 from the type locality (Nos. 28410) and 
28412) and I 9 from the mouth of the Yellow River in Burnett Co., 
Wis., taken either Aug. i or Aug. 2, 1909 (No. 29634). 

Types and paratypes in the coll. of the PuW. Museum of Mil- 
waukee. 

This species runs in Viereck's table for the females of the Con- 
necticut Andrenae (Ent. News, Vol. XVIII, pp. 280-288, 1907) to 
nivalis and placida, both of which occur in Wisconsin. In color it 
resembles nivalis, but that is a much larger bee of heavier build, with 
the pubescence more ochreous, the cl)rpeus more evenly punctured 
and less shining, the metathoracic area smoother, etc. Placida 
agrees in size with nivaloides, but the pubescence of head and thorax 
is whiter, the clypeus duller; above all the finger-shaped process of 
the labrum serves to distinguish placida from any other bee known 
to me from the Wisconsin region. On account of the shining clypeus, 



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236 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

with its smooth median impunctate area nivaloides might be con- 
founded with clypeonitens CklL, but the latter has distinct uninter- 
rupted abdominal hairbands and sooty anal fimbria. 

6i. A. whcclcri Graen. i 9, Solon Springs, Douglas Co. 

62. A. crataesri Rob. Specimens from Solon Springs and Gor- 
don in Douglas Co. 

63. A.allesrhanlensis Vier. 3 $$ from Solon Springs in 
Douglas Co. run to this species in Viereck's tables of Connecticut 
Andrenae (Ent. News, Vol. XVIII, pp. 280-288, 1907). 

64. A. vicina Sm. Solon Springs in Douglas Co., and mouth ^ 
of the Yellow River in Burnett Co. 

65. A. frasrtlts Sm. Prescott in Pierce Co. 

66. A.pcckhaml Ckll. An oligotropic bee, collecting its pollen 
from some of the Compositae, mostly from sunflowers. Taken at 
the mouth of the Nemakagon River and the mouth of the Yellow 
River in Burnett Co. ; Farmington in Polk Co. ; Hudson in St. Croix 
Co. ; Prescott and Maiden Rock in Pierce Co., and Fountain City in 
Buffalo Co. 

67. A. clypeonitens Ckll. Mouth of the Nemakagon River in 
Burnett Co.; Prescott and Maiden Rock in Pierce Co. This, too, 
like the foregoing, is an oligotropic visitor of the Compositae. 

68. A. nubecula Sm. Maiden Rock in Pierce Co. on flowers of 
the Compositae. 

69. A. asteris Rob. Maiden Rock in Pierce Co., visiting the 
flowers of Aster-specieSy but also taken on other composite flowers. 

70. A.aliciae Rob. Never's Dam and Farmington in Polk 
Co. ; Maiden Rock in Pierce Co., and Fountain City in Buffalo Co. 
On Helianthus and Rudbeckia, 

71. A. rudbecklae Rob. As the name implies, this species 
visits mostly flowers of some species of Rudbeckia. It is found most 
frequently on those of R, hirta, but at Prescott in Pierce Co. it was 
observed collecting pollen from the flowers of Lepachys pinnatty 
Taken also at Maiden Rock in Pierce Co. 

72. A. helianthl Rob. Farmington in Polk Co. ; Maiden Rock 
in Pierce Co., and Fountain City in Buffalo Co. 



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S. GRAENICHER, BEES OF NORTHWESTERN WISCONSIN 237 

73. A. solldai^nls Rob. Specimens from the mouth of the 
Yellow River in Burnett Co. ; Maiden Rock in Pierce Co., and Foun- 
tain City in Buffalo Co. 

74. A. robertsonil D. T. Solon Springs and Gordon in Doug- 
las Co. ; Swiss in Burnett Co., and Hudson in St. Croix Co. 

75. A.forbesli Rob. Solon Springs in Douglas Co. 

76. A. multlpllcata Ckll. Taken at Solon Springs, Gordon, 
and St. Croix Dam in Douglas Co. ; Fishtrap, mouth of the Nemaka* 
gon River, Swiss and mouth of the Yellow River in Burnett Co. 

Tj, A. obscura Rob. Mouth of the Nemakagon River, mouth 
of the Yellow River, and Randall in Burnett Co.; Hudson in St. 
Croix Co., and Prescott in Pierce Co. 

Macropis Panzer. 

78. M. morsel Rob. This species visits the flowers of Steirone- 
ma ciliatum. Taken at Solon Springs, Gordon and St. Croix Dam in 
Douglas Co.; mouth of the Nemakagon River, and mouth of the 
Yellow River in Burnett Co., and Hudson in St. Croix Co. 

79. M. ciliata Patton. Visits the same flowers as the foregoing. 
Prescott and Maiden Rock in Pierce Co. 

Halictoides Nylander. 

80. H. novae-ani^liae Rob. Mouth of the Nemakagon River, 
mouth of the Yellow River and Randall in Burnett Co. ; Farmington 
in Polk Co. ; Hudson in St. Croix Co. ; Prescott and Maiden Rock in 
Pierce Co. 

81. H. mari^lnatus Cr. i $ Farmington, Polk Co. A visitor 
of sunflowers. 

Panursrinus Nylander. 

82. P. asteris Rob. On flowers of the Compositae at the mouth 
of the Yellow River in Burnett Co. ; Farmington in Polk Co. ; Pres- 
cott and Maiden Rock in Pierce Co. 

83. P. rudbeckiae Rob. Also an oligotropic visitor of the 
Compositae, Specimens from the mouth of the Yellow River, Kettle 
River Rapids and Randall in Burnett Co. ; Farmington in Polk Co. ; 
Hudson in St. Croix Co., and Prescott in Pierce Co. 



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238 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Calliopsis Smith. 

84. C. andrcnlformls Sm. An extremely common species. 
Specimens from Solon Springs, Douglas Co. ; mouth of the Yellow 
River and Randall in Burnett Co. ; Hudson, St. Croix Co. ; Prescott, 
Pierce Co., and Fountain City, Buffalo Co. 

85. C. verbenae nebraskensis Crawf . Prescott and Maiden 
Rock in Pierce Co. Taken on the flowers of Verbena hastata. 

PerdlU Smith 

86. P. maura Ckll. Taken at Hudson in St. Croix Co. and 
Prescott in Pierce Co. on the flowers of Physalis pubescens. 

87. P.brancri Ckll. One male taken at the Kettle River 
Rapids on the flowers of Rudbeckia hiria. 

88. P.cltrlnclla Graen. This species was described from 
specimens taken at Hudson, St. Croix Co. on the flowers of 
Peialostemum villosum, A specimen frcmi Prescott in Pierce Co., 
also a 9 , like the t)rpe, agrees in general with the latter. 

89. P. pallldlpennis Graen. The specimens from which this 
species was described, were taken in 1909 along the St. Croix River, 
at the mouth of the Yellow River, the Kettle River Rapids, and Ran- 
dall in Burnett Co. In 1910 specimens were collected at Prescott in 
Pierce Co. on the flowers of Lepachys pinnata. This species favors 
the flowers of several species of Composiiae, 

Nomada Fabricius. 

90. N. florllei^a Lovell and Cockerell. Specimens from Solon 
Springs in Douglas Co., and the mouth of the Yellow River in Bur- 
nett Co. agree with the description. 

91. N. cressonil Rob. Mouth of the Yellow River, Burnett 
Co. 

92. N. artlculata Sm. Farmington in Polk Co., and Maiden 
Rock in Pierce Co. 

93. N. srraenicheri Ckll. (Can. Ent. Vol. XXXVH, p. 189, $.) 

The 9 9 show the following variations : The yellow spots on 
labrum, clypeus and supraclypeal area are either indistinct, or entire- 



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S. GRAENICHER, BEES OF NORTHWESTERN WISCONSIN 239 

ly absent. Middle coxae also marked with yellow. Posterior tibiae 
blackened in front, and behind. Only the first 2 joints of the 
antennae red. 

B, First joint of antennae (scape) robust. Yellow bands on 
abdominal segments i to 6. Segment 7 very slightly notched, the 
notch in some of the specimens hardly noticeable. Otherwise the 
male resembles the female rather closely. 

II ^ ^ and 7 9 9 taken at the following localities: i ^ at the 
mouth of the Yellow River, Burnett Co., between July 28 and 31, 
1909; I 9 at Hudson, St. Croix Co., August 13, 1909; 10 ^ ^ and 
6 9 9 at Maiden Rock, Pierce Co., between August 4 and 10, 1910. 

94. N. wisconslnensis n. sp. 

9. Length about 9 mm. Pubescence light, extremely sparse and short, 
hardly noticeable. Punctures of the head close and strong on the vertex, 
becoming shallower and more scattered on the lower sides of the face, and 
on the clypeus. Cheeks narrow. Joint 3 of antennae longer than 4. An- 
tennae reddish at base, gradually becoming darker towards the apex. A 
sharp ridge between the base of the antennae. Yellow lateral facemarks 
reaching up as high as the lower ocellus, broadening out below, and gradu- 
ally assuming the dark ferruginous color of the lower region of the face and 
clypeus. A slight yellow mark behind the summit of the eye. Labrum and 
mandibles of a lighter ferruginous color, the mandibles with a yellow line at 
base. Mandibles simple. Mesothorax very coarsely punctured. A broad 
line on collar, tubercles, saitellum, postsaitellum, a spot on pleura beneath 
the base of the hind wing, and a small linear mark in front of this (beneath 
the tubercle) lemon-yellow. On one side these two pleural marks are sep- 
arate, on the other slightly connected. Scutellum with two distinct lobes. 
Metathorax rather smoothish, with indistinct punctures. Abdomen shining, 
closely and finely punctured. Segment 1 has the punctures shallower and 
farther apart than the remaining segments. Yellow markings on the ab- 
domen as follows: a very narrow subapical band on segment 1, a broader 
one, narrowed medially on segment 2, two widely separated cuneate yellow 
marks, pointed mesad on segment 3, a slightly interrupted band on segment 
4, and a broad band narrowed medially and hardly interrupted on segment 5. 
Venter entirely black. Wings dusky. Stigma testaceous, nervures fuscous. 
Tegulae and base of costal nervure yellow. Basal nervure interstitial with 
the transverse medial nervure. Legs reddish. Front coxae simple. Middle 
and posterior coxae each with a yellow spot along the external margin. A 
faint dark line on anterior surface of hind femur, and a yellow spot near the 
apex of hind tibia exteriorly. 

S. Length about 10 mm. Gypeus, supraclypeal mark, lateral face- 
marks, labrum, and mandibles entirely yellow, the tips of the latter with a 



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240 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

slight reddish tinge. Antennae dark above, reddish below, except at extreme 
tip. The two pleural marks are united on both sides. Abdominal bands on 
segments 1 to 6 narrowed medially, interrupted on 6 only. Segment 7 strong- 
ly notched. Hind femora black on basal two-thirds. 

Types : Randall, Burnett Co., August 5-7, 1909 (Nos. 29751 and 
29752). 

Paratypes: i $, mouth of the Yellow River, Burnett Co., be- 
tween July 28 and 31, 1909; 2 S B, Prescott, Pierce Co., between 
July 13 and 19, 1910; i $, Maiden Rock, Pierce Co., between August 
4 and 10, 1910; 2 $ $, Fountain City, Buffalo Co., between August 
12 and 17, 1910. These males are very variable in size, the smallest 
one (Maiden Rock) being only 7 mm. long. 

Types and paratypes in the coll. of the Public Museum of Mil- 
waukee. 

In its general appearance this species resembles Nomada 
(Cephen) texana Cress, rather closely, but the spine on the front 
coxa is entirely lacking. 

95. N. cockerelli n. sp. 

^. Length 8 mm. Black with cream-colored markings. Head and 
thorax thinly clothed with short white pubescence, longest on the under sides. 
Mandibles simple, cream-colored with ferruginous tips. Labrum, broad apical 
margin of clypeus, and a narrow facial mark on each side below (adjoining 
the clypeal mark) creamy. Face slightly shining, finely and closely punc- 
tured. Punctures of the vertex coarser, but not as close. Antennae dark 
above, reddish beneath along their entire length. Joint 3 somewhat longer 
than 4. No spine on front coxae. Thorax dull with close punctures. A line 
on collar, tubercles, and two spots on scutellum creamy white. Scutellum 
produced, slightly bilobcd. Metathorax smoother and with a much finer 
punctation than the other regions of the thorax. Wings dusky, especially so 
in the apical region. Nervures and stigma fuscous. Basal nervure ending 
a trifle basad of transverse medial nervure. Outer half of tegulae 3rellowish, 
inner half rufo-piceous. Abdomen shining, with dense minute punctures. 
Cream-colored markings as follows: slightly interrupted bands, narrowed to- 
wards the middle on segments 2 to 4, broadest on 2 ; narrow entire bands on 
segments 5 and 6. The band on segment 5 is emarginate on each side ante- 
riorly. Bands of the same color on ventral segments 2 to 5. Segment 7 
entire. Coxae and trochanters black. Anterior and middle femora black on 
posterior surface, reddish-yellow at tip, and along the anterior surface. Pos- 
terior femora black with reddish-yellow tips. Anterior and middle tibiae 
reddish-yellow in front, black behind. Posterior tibiae black, with a yellow 



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S. GRAENICHER, BEES OF NORTHWESTERN WISCONSIN 241 

ring at base and a yellow blotch at apex exteriorly, these two markings being 
connected by a narrow yellow line along the outer margin of the tibia. Tarsi 
reddish-yellow, those of the hind legs darkened on the outer surface. 

Type: Hudson, St. Croix Co., between July 6 and 12, 1910 
(No. 37769). 

Paratype : Mouth of the Yellow River, Burnett Co., between July 
28 and 31, 1909. A specimen belonging to this same species, taken 
in Milwaukee Co., was sent to Prof. T. D. A. Cockcrell some time 
ago, and Prof. Cockerell kindly suggested that it might be new. In 
Robertson's tables it runs to placida, but that has yellow markings, 
and differs otherwise. T)rpes and parat)rpes in the coll. of the Publ. 
Museum of Milwaukee. 

Viereckella Swenk. 

96. V. pilosula Cress. This is the Nomada pilosula described 
by Cresson, as stated by Mr. H. L. Viereck, who had the kindness to 
compare a specimen frcmi Milwaukee with the type. Prof. Cockerell, 
to whom also a specimen was sent, places it in Viereckella. It is not 
rare in Wisconsin, and in the region considered in this paper speci- 
mens were obtained at Solon Springs and St. Croix Dam in Douglas 
Co., mouth of the Yellow River, Kettle River Rapids and Randall in 
Burnett Co., Hudson in St. Croix Co., Prescott and Maiden Rock 
in Pierce Co. 

Epeolus Latreille. 

97. E. bit ajclatus Cress. Specimens from Randall, Burnett 
Co., Farmington, Polk Co., and Hudson, St. Croix Co. 

98. E. pusillus Cress, i ^ from Maiden Rock in Pierce Co. 
This specimen has the antennae entirely black. 

99. E.lectoldes Rob. 2 ^ ^, i 9 from the mouth of the Yel- 
low River in Burnett Co., i 9 from Hudson in St. Croix Co. and i 
^ from Prescott in Pierce Co. All of these agree in detail with the 
description. 

100. E» Scutellaria Say. 6 specimens which are referred to this 
species were taken in the following localities: i 9, Kettle River 
Rapids ; i $ and i 9 at Randall in Burnett Co. ; i ^ and 2 9 $ at 
Prescott in Pierce Co. They show a great deal of variation in the 



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BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

distribution of red. In one 9 the entire clypeus, the pleurae to a 
considerable extent and the vertex wholly red, in the other speci- 
mens these parts red to a slight extent only. 

Ariryroselenis Robertson. 

loi. A» minima Rob. St. Croix Dam in Douglas Co.; the 
mouth of the Yellow River and Kettle River Rapids in Burnett Co. ; 
Hudson in St. Croix Co. ; Prescott and Maiden Rock in Pierce Co. 
In three of the 9 9 the bands on abdominal segments i and 2, as also 
that on 3 interrupted. In the ^ the labrum and the first three joints 
of the antennae mostly black. 

Triepeoius Robertson. 

102. T. simplex Rob. Prescott and Maiden Rock in Pierce 
Co. and Fountain City in Buffalo Co. In all of these specimens the 
first 3 antennal joints are tinged with red, not only in the ^ ^ , but in 
the 9 9 also. 

103. T.concavus Cr. 2 9 9 from Maiden Rock in Pierce Co. 

104. T. cressonii Rob. This species was rather ccnnmon at 
Maiden Rock in Pierce Co. on the flowers of Verbena hastata and 
Vernonia fasciculata. It was taken besides at the mouth of the Yel- 
low River, Kettle River Rapids and Randall in Burnett Co., and 
Fountain City in Buffalo Co. 

105. T. donatus Sm. Randall in Burnett Co. ; Farmington in 
Polk Co., and Maiden Rock in Pierce Co. 

106. T. lunatus Say 7 $ $, Prescott, and 1 9 , Maiden Rock 
in Pierce Co. 

107. T. concolor Rob. 2 S $, Prescott, and i 9 , Maiden Rock 
in Pierce Co. 

108. T. obliteratus n. sp. 

9. Length 9 mm. Black, with cinereous markings. Face densely cov- 
ered with silvery pubescence, hiding the close and fine punctures from view. 
There is also a covering of glittering pile on cheeks and occiput. These 
parts are finely punctured. Vertex shining, more coarsely punctured. An- 
tennae black, with the apex of the scape ferruginous. Mandibles black with 
ferruginous tips; the labrum ferruginous along the lateral borders. Meso- 
notum finely punctured, with 2 distinct cinereous lines which do not reach 



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S. GRAENICHER, BEES OF NORTHWESTERN WISCONSIN 243 

the transverse line in front. Pleurae broadly covered with cinereous pube- 
scence above, shining, closely and coarsely punctured below. Scutel bilobed, 
slightly prominent ; lateral teeth black, sharp, conical, much shorter than the 
lobes. Wings dusky along the margin. Nervures and stigma black, tegulae 
reddish-testaceous. In each wing the second transverse-cubital nervure is in- 
completely developed, only one-half of it (adjoining the cubital) being pres- 
ent. Femora and tibiae basally and apically, front and middle tibiae ante- 
riorly, and all the tarsi red. Legs otherwise black, with a short glittering 
pile. Tibial spurs black. Qnereous border of abdominal segment 1 not 
broader on the sides; the uncovered black transverse patch long and narrow. 
Apical bands on segments 1 to 4 uninterrupted. The patch along each side of 
segment 2 (proceeding from the apical band) is broad, pointed and bent to- 
wards the middle, forming a comma-shaped marking. A triangular cinere- 
ous patch on each side of the dorsum of segment 5 ; middle of the segment 
slightly shining, finely punctate, with concave apex. Apex of pygidium trun- 
cate. Broad apical bands on ventral segments 2 to 4. Ventral segment 5 
straight, sparsely covered with glittering pile near the apex. 

$, Agrees in general with the $, but is a trifle smaller. More ferru- 
ginous on the labrum than in the $, and first 3 joints of antennae black, 
mixed with ferruginous. The 2 longitudinal lines on the mesonotum longer, 
and reaching the anterior transverse band. Tegulae more reddish than in 
the other sex, and tubercles also red. There is only an extremely short 
stump of a second transverse^cubital nervure on the cubital nervure in cadi 
wing; the latter has practically only 2 submarginal cells. Legs red with very 
little black on femora and tibiae. Abdomen with 6 apical hair-bands, the 
1st interrupted; the 6th whiter than the others. 

Types : 9 taken at the mouth of the Yellow River in Burnett 
Co., Wis., between July 28 and 31, 1909 (No. 29595). $ from Pres- 
cott in Pierce Co., Wis., taken between July 13 and 19, 1910 (No. 
39317). Types in the coll. of the Publ. Museum of Milwaukee. 

This species looks like a T. donatus with red kgs (black in 
donatus) ; the cinereous pubescence has a more yellowish tint than in 
donatus. Both of the specimens have the second transverse cubital 
nervure more or less obliterated in both wings. 

rielecta Latreille. 

109. M. interrupta Cr. A S specimen from Maiden Rock in 
Pierce Co. 

Coelioxys Latreille. 

1 10. C. texana Cr. Solon Springs in Douglas Co. ; mouth of 
the Nemakagon River, Swiss, mouth of the Yellow River and Kettle 
River Rapids in Burnett Co., and Prescott in Pierce Co. 



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244 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

III. C.moesta Cr. Solon Springs and Coppermine Dam in 
Douglas Co. ; mouth of the Yellow River and Randall in Burnett Co. 

1X2. C. ribis Ckll. Specimens from Douglas Co. (Solon 
Springs) and Burnett Co. (mouth of the Yellow River) agree quite 
closely with a specimen received frc«n Prof. Cockerell. 

113. C. lucrosa Cr. Solon Springs in Douglas Co. 

114. C. modesta Cr. St. Croix Dam in Douglas Co. and Pres- 
cott in Pierce Co. 

115. C. rufitarsis Snu This is one of our most common species 
of Coelioxys. Taken at Solon SjMings and Gordon in Douglas Co. ; 
the mouth of the Yellow River in Burnett Co. ; Farmington in Polk 
Co. ; Hudson in St. Croix Co., and Prescott in Pierce Co. 

116. C. octodenUU Say. Randall in Burnett Co. 

Stella Panzer. 

117. S. subemari^lnata Cress. Solon Springs in Douglas Co. 

1 18. S. nitlda Cress. Solon Springs in Douglas Co. 

Dlanthldium Cockerell. 

119. D. simile Cress. Specimens from Swiss and the mouth of 
the Yellow River in Burnett Co. ; Hudson in St. Croix Co., and Pres- 
cott in Pierce Co. 

120. D. Jusratorlum Say. Numerous specimens from the 
mouth of the Nemakagon River, Swiss, the mouth of the Yellow 
River and Randall in Burnett Co. ; Prescott and Maiden Rock in 
Pierce Co. 

Anthldlum Fabricius. 

121. A. chlppewaense Graen. Types from Pine Co. in Minne- 
sota, paratypes from the mouth of the Yellow River in Burnett Co. 
in Wisconsin. This is extremely close to A. cockerelli Titus, and 
may be considered an eastern representative of that species. Titus 
described his species as a Protanthidium, Prof. T. D. A. Cockerell, to 
whom a specimen of A. chlppewaense was sent, kindly informed me 
that the latter is a "Heteranthidium, related to occidentale and 
sebratum," Protanthidium is an Asiatic genus. 



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S. GRAENICHER, BEES OF NORTHWESTERN WISCONSIN 245 

Osmia Panzer. 

122. O. atiiventris Cress. Solon Springs in Douglas Co. ; 
Fishtrap, mouth of the Nemakagon River, and mouth of the Yellow 
River in Burnett Co. 

123. O. simillima Sm. Solon Springs and St. Croix Dam in 
Douglas Co. ; Pansy and mouth of the Yellow River in Burnett Co., 
and Hudson in St. Croix Co. 

124. O. canadensis Cress. A 9 taken at Gordon in Douglas 
Co. 

125. O. bucephala Cress. This and the foregoing species are 
rarely met with in Wisconsin. One 9 of bucephala irom Solon 
Springs in Douglas Co. 

Monumetha Cress. 

126. M. borealis Cress. Not uncommon at Solon Springs in 
Douglas Co. 

Alcidamea Cresson. 

127. A. simplex Cress. Occurs throughout our region. Speci- 
mens from Solon Springs in Douglas Co. ; Randall in Burnett Co., 
Hudson in St. Croix Co. ; Prescott and Maiden Rock in Pierce Co. 

128. A. tnincata Cress. Much rarer than the preceding 
species. Gordon in Douglas Co., and mouth of the Yellow River in 
Burnett Co. 

Andronicus Cresson. 

129. A. cylindricus Cress. Solon Springs in Douglas Co. ; 
mouth of the Yellow River in Burnett Co. ; Hudson in St. Croix Co. ; 
Prescott and Maiden Rock in Pierce Co. 

Aslimeadiella Cockerell. 

130. A. denticulata Cress. Specimens from Swiss, the mouth 
of the Yellow River and Randall in Burnett Co. 

Heriades Spinola. 

131. H. carinatus Cress. A widely distributed species, com- 
mon in Wisconsin. Taken at Solon Springs, Gordon and St. Croix 



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246 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Dam in Douglas Co. ; the mouth of the Yellow River, Kettle River 
Rapids and Randall in Burnett Co. ; Never's Dam in Polk Co. ; Hud- 
son in St. Croix Co. ; Prescott and Maiden Rock in Pierce Co. 
Mesrachile Latreille. 

132. M. puirnata Say. This is an oligotropic visitor of the 
Compositae. Specimens from Solon Springs, Gordon and St. Croix 
Dam in Douglas Co. ; Fishtrap, the mouth of the Nemakagon River, 
Swiss and the mouth of the Yellow River in Burnett Co. ; Hudson 
in St. Croix Co. 

133. ^* infr«jrili5 Cress. Solon Springs, St. Croix Dam and 
Coppermine Dam in Douglas Co. ; Nemakagon River, mouth of the 
Yellow River and Kettle River Rapids in Burnett Co. 

134. M. sexdentata Rob. A S from Prescott in Pierce Co. 

135. M, montivasa Cress. Specimens from Solon Springs 
and St. Croix Dam in Douglas Co. ; the mouth of the Nemakagon 
River, Swiss, the mouth of the Yellow River and Randall in Burnett 
Co. 

136. M. wootoni Ckll. Determined by Prof. Cockerell. Com- 
mon at Solon Springs in Douglas Co. 

137. M. brevis Say. Solon Springs in Douglas Co. ; Hudson 
in St. Croix Co. ; Prescott in Pierce Co., and Fountain City in Buffalo 
Co. 

138. M. fortis Cress. One ^ of this western species was taken 
at Maiden Rock in Pierce Co. 

139. M. latimanus Say. This species is met with everywhere 
in our state. Specimens from Sdon Springs in Douglas Co.; the 
mouth of the Yellow River and Randall in Burnett Co. ; Farmington 
in Polk Co. ; Hudson in St. Croix Co. ; Prescott and Maiden Rock in 
Pierce Co., and Fountain City in Buffalo Co. 

140. M. vidua Sm. Solon Springs in Douglas Co. ; mouth of 
the Nemakagon River and mouth of the Yellow River in Burnett 
Co. ; Hudson in St. Croix Co., and Fountain City in Buffalo Co. 

141. M. mendica Cress. Taken at Solon Springs in Douglas 
Co. ; Randall in Burnett Co. ; Hudson in St. Croix Co., and Fountain 
City in Buffalo Co. 



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S. GRAENICHER, BEES OF NORTHWESTERN WISCONSIN 247 

142. n. camimnulae Rob. The 9 cdkcts its pollen from the 
flowers of Campanula americana. Specimens from Solon Springs in 
Douglas Co., and Randall in Burnett Co. 

143- ^* pruin« Sm. Randall in Burnett Co. 
Hellssode^ Latreille. 

144. n. «f ills Say. Very common. Taken at the mouth of 
the Yellow River and Randall in Burnett Co. ; Farmington in Polk 
Co. ; Hudson in St. Croix Co. ; Prescott and Maiden Rock in Pierce 
Co. Like the fdlowing this bee obtains its pollen from various 
species of Compositae, 

145. n. trinodis Rob. ( ?penasylv«nic« Lep.). Mouth of the 
Yellow River and Randall in Burnett Co. ; Farmington in Polk Co. ; 
Hudson in St. Croix Co. 

146. n. nistica Say. St. Croix Dam in Douglas Co. ; mouth of 
the Nemakagon River, Swiss, mouth of the Yellow River and Ran- 
dall in Burnett Co. ; Farmington in Polk Co. ; Hudson in St. Croix 
Co., and Maiden Rock in Pierce Co. 

147. n. veraoniae Rob. Taken on the flowers of Vernonia 
fasciculata at Hudson in St. Croix Co., Prescott and Maiden Rock 
in Pierce Co. 

148. n. cnlcl Rob. (Pdcsponsa Sm.). The 9 9 collect their 
pollen from the flowers of thistles. Specimens from Randall in Bur- 
nett Co. ; Never's Dam and Farmington in Pdk Co. ; Hudson in St. 
Croix Co. ; Prescott and Maiden Rock in Pierce Co. 

149. n. bimaculata Lep. Prescott and Maiden Rock in Pierce 
Co. 

150. n. obliqua Say. Collecting pollen mostly from the 
flowers of Lepachys pinnata, but also from those of Rudbeckia hirta 
and R. laciniata. Taken at Hudson in St. Croix Co. ; Prescott and 
Maiden Rock in Pierce Co. 

Xenoflossa Smith. 

151. X, strenua Cress. Two S S and one 9 were collected at 
Hudson in St. Croix Co. on the flowers of Cirsium arvense, sucking. 
The 9 9 of this genus collect pollen from the flowers of Cucur- 
bitaceae. 



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248 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE 

Anthophora Latreille. 

152. A, bomboides Kirby. A boreal species. Taken at Solon 
Springs in Douglas Co. on the flowers of Apocynum androsaemi- 
folium. 

153. A. walshil Cress. One ^ taken at the mouth of the Yel- 
low River in Burnett Co. on the flowers of Rudbeckia hirta. The 9 
gets her pollen, according to Robertson, from the flowers of Cassia 
Chamaecrista, a plant frequently met with along the St. Croix and 
Mississippi Rivers. In the region considered in this paper this bee 
seems to be rather scarce, and the S referred to above is the only 
specimen I have seen. 

Clisodon Patton. 

154. C, terminalls Cress. This bee is not uncommon in Wis- 
consin. Specimens from Solon Springs and Gordon in Douglas Co. ; 
the mouth of the Nemakagon River, Swiss, the mouth of the Yellow 
River, Kettle River Rapids and Randall in Burnett Co.; Maiden 
Rock in Pierce Co., and Fountain City in Buffalo Co. 

Ceratina Latreille. 

155. C, dupla Say. One of the most conmion bees throughout 
the state. Taken at Solon Springs in Douglas Co. ; the mouth of the 
Yellow River and Randall in Burnett Co. ; Never's Dam in Polk Co. ; 
Hudson in St. Croix Co. ; Prescott and Maiden Rock in Pierce Co. ; 
Fountain City in Buffalo Co. 

Psithyrus Lepeletier. 

156. P, variabilis Cress. Taken at Solon Springs and Copper- 
mine Dam in Douglas Co. ; the mouth of the Nemakagon River and 
the mouth of the Yellow River in Burnett Co. 

157. P. laboriosus Fab. Maiden Rock in Pierce Co. 

Bom bus Latreille. 

158. B, huntll Greene=ternarius Say. This and the following 
two species were the dominant bumblebees in Douglas Co., especially 
at Solon Springs. Taken besides at Fishtrap, mouth of the Nemaka- 
gon River and the mouth of the Yellow River in Burnett Co., and 
Never's Dam in Polk Co. 



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S. GRAENICHER, BEES OF NORTHWESTERN WISCONSIN 249 

159. B. terrlcola Kirby. Solon Springs and St. Croix Dam in 
Douglas Co.; Fishtrap, mouth of the Nemakagon River, mouth of 
the Yellow River and Randall in Burnett Co. 

160. B. consimllls Cress. Solon Springs, Gordon, St. Croix 
Dam and Coppermine Dam in Douglas Co. ; mouth of the Nemaka- 
gon River, Swiss and mouth of the Yellow River in Burnett Co.; 
Farmington in Polk Co. ; Maiden Rock in Pierce Co., and Fountain 
City in Buffalo Co. 

161. B. pennsylvanicus Deg.=fcrvldus Fab. Specimens from 
the mouth of the Yellow River in Burnett Co. ; Never's Dam in Polk 
Co., and Maiden Rock in Pierce Co. 

162. B. Impatiens Harr.=vlrjrinlcus Oliv. Hudson in St. 
Croix Co. ; Prescott and Maiden Rock in Pierce Co., and Fountain 
City in Buffalo Co. 

163. B. americanorum Fab. This seems to be more common 
in the southern parts of the state than in the northern. Taken at the 
mouth of the Yellow River in Burnett Co. ; Hudson in St. Croix Co. ; 
Prescott and Maiden Rock in Pierce Co., and Fountain City in 
Buffalo Co. 

164. B. borealls Kirby. Specimens from Gordon in Douglas 
Co. ; the mouth of the Nemakagon River, Swiss and the mouth of the 
Yellow River in Burnett Co. This species belongs to the boreal 
region, and occurs probably throughout the northern parts of our 
state. There is a 9 in the collection of the Public Museum of Mil- 
waukee from Divide in Vilas Co., and one from Jacksonport in Door 
Co. 

Bombias Robertson. 

165. B. separatus Cress. Rather common in some parts of the 
state. Taken at Solon Springs in Douglas Co.; the mouth of the 
Yellow River and Randall in Burnett Co. ; Hudson in St. Croix Co. ; 
Prescott and Maiden Rock in Pierce Co., and Fountain City in 
Buffalo Co. 

166. B. aurlcomus Rob. This species does not seem to be 
represented in the northern counties. Specimens from Hudson in 
St. Croix Co., and Prescott in Pierce Co. 



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BULLETIN 



OF THE 



PUBLIC MUSEUM OF THE 
CITY OF MILWAUKEE 



VOL. I ARTICLE IV 



THE DREAM DANCE OF THE CHIPPEWA 

AND MENOMINEE INDIANS OF 

NORTHERN WISCONSIN 

BY S . A. BARRETT 



MILWAUKEE. WIS., U. S. A. 

Pablithed by order of the Tnietec* 

November, 191 1 



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252 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vd. I. 



THE DREAM DANCE OF THE CHIPPEWA 

AND MENOMINEE INDIANS OF 

NORTHERN WISCONSIN. 



CONTENTS, 

Introduction 253 

The Dream Dance 256 

Dancing Ground 257 

Drum 261 

Calumet 268 

Participants in the Ceremony 276 

Music 280 

Dancing 282 

Orations 284 

Feasts 287 

The Evening Ceremony 291 

Comparison of the Chippewa and Menominee Ceremonies 291 

Comparison of the Dream Dance with the Ghost Dance 293 

The Dream Dance Held at Whitefish, July 2 to 10, 1910 301 

First day 302 

Second day 302 

Third day 312 

Fourth day 321 

Fifth day 326 

Revelations 327 

Sixth day 333 

Seventh day 336. 

Eighth day 343 

Ninth day 348 

Other Ceremonies 351 

Pipes 353 

Smoking Materials 357 

Smoking Custcmis 360 

Conclusion 368 



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1911] BARRETl', DR£AM DANCE. 253 



INTRODUCTION. 

As a part of the work of the Department of Anthropology of the 
Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee, the author had occasion 
to spend the months of July and August and part of September of 
1910 in the northern part of Wisconsin in ethnological work among 
the Indians there. The object particularly in view upon this oc- 
casion was the collecting of ethnological material for the museum, 
together with all possible data concerning the life and culture of 
the peoples visited. Fortunately, during this time opportunity came 
to witness the so-called dream dance among both the Chippewa and 
the Menominee. Furthermore, various individuals were encoimtered 
from whom information concerning this interesting ceremony was 
obtained, even though no ceremony was being held at that particular 
time. 

Also much information was obtained concerning other phases 
of the ceremonial life of these people, embracing the medicine lodge, 
the ceremonial games, the ceremonial feasts and the smoking cus- 
toms. Time will permit at present only a short mention of most of 
these various interesting features of the culture of these two tribes. 

The Chippewa or, as they originally called themselves, the 
Ojibwa, formed at the time of the arrival of the whites in this 
region one of the largest of the tribes of North America. They ap- 
pear to have originally occupied the region embracing both shores 
of Lakes Superior and Huron. During early historic times there 
were within the United States considerable movements of the Chip- 
pewa accompanied by wars with certain of the surrounding peoples, 
and resulting in their pushing southeastward in the peninsula be- 
tween Lake Huron and Lake Erie, and southward to some extent 
in Wisconsin. Their greatest movement appears to have been west- 
ward out through Minnesota and North Dakota. Nothing like ac- 
curate data are obtainable concerning the numbers of the Chippewa 



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254 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

in former times. At present they number scmiewhere about thirty 
thousand, of which about three thousand six hundred are located 
upon the three Chippewa reservations in northern Wisconsin. These 
reservations are : Lac Court Oreilles, in Sawyer county, La Pointe, 
or as it is sometimes called the Odanah reservation, in Ashland and 
Iron counties on the immediate shore of Lake Superior, and Lac du 
Flambeau, in Vilas and Iron counties. 

The relations existing between the Chippewa and certain other 
tribes belonging to the great Algonquin linguistic stock appear to 
have always been very cordial. With the Ottawa and Potawatomi 
especially th^ir relations were intimate, apparently by virtue of the 
fact that these three tribes all sprang originally irom the same 
source, as nearly as can be gathered. At present also especially 
friendly relations are maintained between the Wisconsin Chippewa 
and the small number of Potawatomi still residing in the state. 
More or less friendly relations appear to have existed from time 
immemorial between the Chippewa and the Menominee who are also 
an Algonquin people, though these relations were not so intimate 
as those of the Chippewa with the Ottawa and the Potawatomi. At 
the present time the relations between the Chippewa and the 
Menominee are very cordial. 

The Menominee appear to have been at all times a comparatively 
small tribe whose numbers probably never varied greatly from that 
of the present day, which is about i,6oo. When first encountered 
by whites they resided in the vicinity of the Menwninee river which 
forms part of the boundary between Wisconsin and Michigan. They 
laid claim to the western shore of Lake Michigan from the mouth of 
Green bay to the mouth of the Milwaukee river, and inland to em- 
brace the whole drainage basins of the Menominee and the Fox 
rivers. They at present reside on what is known as the Menominee 
reservation, on the upper course of the Wolf river, in Shawano and 
Oconto counties. 

The Chippewa and the Menominee are, as above noted, closely 
related linguisticly and the various features of their culture are very 
similar. Both are typical woodland peoples. Two characteristic 
features of their material culture are especially striking : the use of 
birch bark in making houses, canoes, basketry and a variety of other 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 255 

objects, and the use of the wild rice as a food. In fact the Menomi- 
nee derive their tribal name from the wild rice. The term Menomi- 
nee is really an abbreviated form of the full name, minomine'wuk 
in&'niuwuk, by which these people call themselves. The first of these 
terms is derived from muno'ma, signif3ring wild rice, which may be 
resolved into mino', meaning good or benefident, and min, meaning 
seed. The second term comes from inH'nlu, meaning human being 
or people. The i^ural ending, wuk, appears in both these terms. 
The full signification of this name is, therefore, the people of the 
benefident seed. 

At the present time both tribes live under very artificial con- 
ditions, being as they are under reservation management and com- 
ing constantly into contact with the whites from whom they are 
continually absorbing more and more of so-called dvilization. They 
have in fact lived under these conditions for many years past and 
this long assodation with the whites has yielded the inevitable re- 
sult: the whole mode of life of the people has been very greatly 
altered. Many of their old pursuits have been g^ven up, and all of 
the sources of supi^y of their native products have been greatly 
diminished, while many have been very largely diminated. They 
have consequently taken over the dress, the customs and the mode 
of life of the whites to a very large extent. This applies to all the 
individuals of both tribes. 

Further, missionaries have been among them for many years, 
which fact has resulted in the conversion of a large number, especial- 
ly of the younger generation, to a new faith and has caused the 
aboriginal religious practices of the people at large to become a less 
conspicuous feature of their culture. There still remains, however, 
a very considerable number of individuals in both tribes who adhere 
very devoutly to the aboriginal creeds and who keep up in a large 
measure of purity the old time religious practices. It is, of course, 
with this portion of the pec^le that the present discussion is particu- 
larly concerned. 

Both tribes celebrate the following four dasses of ceremonies: 
the dream dance, the medidne dance, ceremonial games, and certain 
spedal ceremonial feasts. Of these the first mentioned is from cer- 
tain points of view the most important and it is with it that we have 
here espedally to deal. 



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256 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

THE DREAM DANCE. 

The dream dance may be regarded as one form of the messiah 
cult and, though it is in reality a ceremony of modem origin, has 
spread over a wide area and is now practiced by many tribes. As 
explained by the Chippewa and Menominee it is said to have had its 
origin in the following circumstances : 

ScOTiewhere in the Sioux country at a time between twenty and 
thirty years ago (the Chippewa and Menominee are certain of 
neither the place nor the exact date) a band of Sioux was attacked 
by a detachment of United States troops. The majority of the 
Indians made good their escape, but their camp, which was located 
near a small lake, was immediately occupied by the troops. Among - 
the Indians was a girl whose age is variously stated at from ten 
to sixteen years, who was unable to get away as the soldiers ap- 
proached. She swam out into the lake and hid among some pond 
lillies. Here she remained in the hope that the soldiers would soon 
leave and that she would then be able to make her way back to 
shore. Instead of departing, however, the soldiers established their 
camp here and remained for quite a number of days. 

After an interval of ten days, during all of which time the girl 
had been here in the water and without food, she heard a voice up 
in the sky and upon looking up saw a dark cloud approaching the 
lake. It settled down over the lake and in it she found the Great 
Spirit, who had come to rescue her. He took her up into the cloud 
and carried her away to a place of safety, commending her very 
greatly for her fortitude and complimenting her upon the virtue 
of her long fast. He then gave her full instructions concerning the 
dream dance, including the songs to be used in the dance, and told 
her to return to her people and teach them the ceremony. 

Upon relating her experiences to the head men of her tribe, the 
whole episode was immediately set down as a direct revelation and 
command from the Great Spirit, and the ceremony was immediately 
made in accordance with her directions, and from that time on the 
dream dance cult spread from tribe to tribe and has superseded 
almost completely the older ceremonies of a somewhat similar nature. 
The details of the ceremony as practiced among the different tribes 
may differ slightly, certain features being absent in one locality 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. ^57 

which are present in another, but in all its essential elements the 
ceremony is the same wherever encountered. This dance appears 
to have no absolutely fixed period of recurrence, and there is no fixed 
season in which it must be held. In practice it is a summer cere- 
mony and there is usually one large general dance in each com- 
munity somewhere about the first of July, though other minor 
dances may be celebrated upon various occasions during the year, 
especially during the summer, for the dream dance is primarily an 
open air ceremony. 

It will perhaps be well to first consider the essential aboriginal 
features of this important ceremony, and to later take up a con- 
sideration of the differences which exist between the characteristic 
features of the ceremony as now practiced by the Chippewa and by 
the Menominee, then to compare this ceremony with the famous 
ghost dance and the religion which attaches to it, and finally to dis- 
cuss certain interesting extraneous ideas which have been intro- 
duced among the Chippewa within the past few years. The essential 
aboriginal features of the dream dance are as follows : 



THE DANCING GROUND. 

A special dancing ground from fifty to eighty feet in diameter 
is prepared and is marked off by a circle of logs or a low earth em- 
bankment, or is enclosed by a low fence. In some instances it is 
made in the form of a figure with four or more sides, as in the one 
shown on plate IX, fig. 2, but these forms are due to structural con- 
siderations, the original intent being that the enclosure should be 
circular, such as that represented in plate IX, fig. i. In every case 
this circle is provided with an opening toward the west (fig. 2), and 
among the Chippewa with one also toward the east (fig. i). Such 
openings serve as doors and no matter how low the enclosure may 
be, it is, while the ceremony is being performed, absolutely necessary 
for every one to enter and leave by way of these opening^. 

Ordinarily the circle of logs, or the embankment, which delineates 
the boundaries of this dancing ground, is not over a foot high, as 
is the case in the circle shown in plate IX, fig. i, and the dancers 
could easily step over it if they chose. In fact at any time other than 



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d68 



BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 



that at which the ceremony is actually being performed, they do 
step over the enclosure and cross the ground at will, but during the 
ceremony such action would be, as above stated, directly contrary 
to all law and order, and anyone committing such an offense would 
be severely penalized. With such a low enclosure as this tfiere is 

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nothing except the vigilance of the participants in the ceremony to 
prevent dogs from entering. This, also, is strictly against the rules. 



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1911] 



BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 



259 



and in former times any dog who was so unfortunate as to get with- 
in one of these dancing circles was immediately killed. At the pres- 
ent time, however, more leniency is shown, and the dog is simply 
driven out and, if possible, whipped in order to prevent his return. 
These low enclosures are still used in all cases by the Menomi- 




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nee, but among the Chippewa they appear to have everjnvhere gfiven 
place to a fence. The tendency of these enclosures is toward round- 



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260 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

ness, with the result that they usually have eight or more sides. In 
one instance noted, plate IX, fig. 2, such a dancing ground had but 
four sides. This was the ground on which the dance at Whitefidi, 
near the village of Reserve, was held in July. It was stated by the 
Indians, however, that up to four or five years ago this dancing 
ground had been a hundred and fifty yards or thereabouts toward 
the west from its present location, and that when there it was ap- 
proximately a circle, though enclosed by a fence as at the present 
time. Upon moving to this new location and building a new fence, 
it was deemed easier to build a square than a hexagonal or a nearly 
circular enclosure. Such a fence is not usually over six feet or 
thereabouts in height, and may be built of almost any material avail- 
able. The particular enclosure above mentioned is simply a frame 
work of lumber, upon which is stretched the ordinary large-meshed 
wire chicken fencing. The dancing enclosure at Lac du Flambeau 
is, on the other hand, made of solid lumber, is about six feet in 
height, and is hexagonal in form. Another enclosure of similar 
material is located at what is known as Round Lake, near the ex- 
treme northern end of the Lac Court Oreilles reservation. 

As above stated, among the Menominee the low enclosure about 
one of these dancing grounds is usually provided with but a single 
door (fig. 2), which faces toward the west, but among the Chippewa 
there is usually a second door (fig. i), this being diametrically op- 
posite the one on the west. This western door is recognized as the 
more important of the two, and is the regular door of entry into the 
dancing area. Among both the Menominee and the Chippewa there 
is at the present time less strictness than formerly in respect to enter- 
ing and leaving the enclosure during the ceremony. At the present 
time any one is privileged to go and come about as he pleases, so 
long as he passes through the proper opening and conducts himself 
in an orderly and respectful manner. It is said, however, that 
formerly such was not the case, but that when once within the en- 
closure it was incumbent upon a participant to remain there through- 
out the ceremony, except in case of some especially urgent cause 
for leaving. At certain times during the ceremonies of to-day the 
gates are closed. That is to say, a guard is stationed at each of the 
gates and no one may leave the enclosure without permissicm of the 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 261 

chief dancer, under whose direction the ceremony is being per- 
formed. Furthermore, such a person, even though he has this per- 
mission, is required to pay a small fine in the form of tobacco or 
some other commodity. These fines are devoted to the good of the 
drum which is commonly spoken of as the g^randfather of the partici- 
pants in the ceremony and through the agency of which the invoca- 
tions of these participants are carried up to the Great Spirit. 



THE DRUM. 

The objects about which this whole ceremony centers are a large 
drum and a special calumet. The former is elaborately decorated 
with strips of fur, beadwork and cloth, and with pendants of bead- 
work, coins, and various other objects. Its two heads are painted in 
a special symbolic manner. Inside of one of these dance circles 
there may be several of these drums, but there is always at least 
one. If but one drum is present, it is usually placed at or near the 
center of the circle, as is the case in fig. 2. If more than one drum 
is present all are arranged upon the dancing area so as to be as 
symmetricly placed as possible. In fig. i is shown an arrangement 
in which two drums were present. During the regular day-time 
ceremony the drum is hung, by means of loops, upon four elaborately 
decorated stakes, as is shown in plate X, fig. i, and to even better 
advantage in plate XI, fig. i. 

The drum itself is constructed as follows : A large wooden wash 
tub is procured and the bottom is removed. Over the two ends are 
stretched rawhide heads, which are drawn very tightly by means of 
lacings of thongs. This, of course, is done when the rawhide is wet, 
and upon drying the heads become very tight and resonant. Before 
these heads are put onto the drum a thong is stretched across the 
inside and from this is suspended a small bell which jingles very 
pleasantly as the drum is being carried about. It also produces a 
constant jingle as the drum is beaten in the ceremony. It was 
claimed by some of the Chippewa of the Lac Court Oreilles reserva- 
tion that the bell is not used except by themselves. Drums provided 
with these bells have, however, been found in other sections, though 
of course these may have been made by these particular Chippewa, 



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262 



BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vd. I. 



and may have found their way into these localities as gifts from 
them, this being a very prevalent custom in this region. 

The above constniction of what may be termed its body results 
ordinarily in a drum, the upper head of which is ai^roximately two 

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feet in diameter. One such drum measured had an upper head of 
twenty-five inches, a lower head of twenty-three inches, and a depth 
of twelve inches. These dimensions are quite typical of such drums. 
The larger head is always used as the top, and about its edge is 
fastened a fur, or nowadays more frequently a velvet band, varying 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 263 

in width upon different drums. Usually this band forms a sort of 
skirt and reaches from this upper edge of the drum down to perhaps 
an inch or two below its lower head, thus covering its sides com- 
I^etely. It hangs loosely from this upper edge, and is not attached 
at any point along the sides of the drum, or at the edge of the lower 
head. About this upper edge is a broad band, usually of beadwork, 
but sometimes of fur. Here also are invariably the four special 
beaded pieces, which form the most important feature of the decora- 
tion of the drum. Below this beaded band and attached to the 
"skirt" above mentioned are fastened pendants of various kinds, 
some made of beadwork, others of coins, and still others of various 
other metal objects. In fact, almost anything may be used whidi 
will produce a pleasing jingle and add to the good appearance of 
the drum. Frequently, also, the bottom of this skirt ends in a fringe 
made of buckskin strings provided with small conical metal objects : 
such as coins, thimbles, and in fact almost any object which will 
jingle as the drum is being beaten. Fig. i of plate XI shows a 
fairly near view, looking from the northwest, of one of these drums. 
At the time this photograph was taken the drum was not being 
played, though dancers are shown in the background. At this cere- 
mony two drums were present, and they, as is customary in such 
ceremonies, took turn about in providing the music The second 
of these drums is well shown in plate X, fig. i. This one is shown 
in use though only two dancers are included in this photograph. 

The most important feature of the decoration of the drum is the 
four beaded pieces which hang at the four quarters of its upper edge 
and equidistant fnxn adjacent stakes upon which the drum is sup- 
ported. Two of these beaded pieces depict a head, or a bust, and 
each of the other two depicts a hand. The view of the drum shown 
in plate XI, fig. i, was taken from such a quarter that the former 
is shown, while the drums in plate X, fig. i, and in plate XIV, fig. 2, 
show the latter. The first pair of these beaded pieces are attached 
to the drum at the northwest and southeast quarters, while the hands 
appear at the northeast and the southwest quarters. The positions 
of these beaded pieces are shown in fig. 3 which represents one of 
these drums with its essential features of decoration. In this illus- 
tration T T represent the two busts and H H the two hands. These 



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264 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

represent the head, or the head and body, and the hands of the Great 
Spirit who gave this ceremony to the people, and to whcmi the 
invocations during the ceremony are made. The same color sym- 
bolism observed in painting the drum heads, shortly to be described, 
is found here. Thus the pieces attached to the northwest and the 
northeast quarters are blue, while those at the southwest and the 
southeast quarters are red. Very frequently these special beaded 
pieces are also provided with jingling fringes, such as that on the 
lower edge of the skirt of the drum. Plate XI, fig. i, shows one of 
these beaded pieces the sides and lower border of which are pro- 
vided with the jingling fringe. 

The heads of the drum are painted in red, blue and yellow (fig. 
3) symbolicly and are exactly alike. Through the center runs a 
yellow band from an inch to an inch and a half in width, which is 
said to represent the path of the sun. To the south is a red stripe 
about half an inch in width. Next to this is a blue stripe of about 
the same width, and finally the remainder of this half of the drum 
head is painted red. This is said to symbolize the brightness of the 
sun and light toward the south. To the north of the yellow medial 
line the same kind of painting is found, except that the colors are 
exactly reversed, there being first a narrow blue stripe, then a nar- 
row red stripe, and finally a blue area. The blue symbolizes the 
darker sky toward the north. The four leather loops which support 
the drum upon the stakes are very exactly placed in relation to the 
painting on the heads of the dnmi. One loop appears exactly at 
each end of this yellow medial line, the other two loops appearing at 
the ends of the opposite diameter. 

In preparing for the ceremony it is necessary to make holes in 
the ground to receive the points of the stakes which support the 
drum, and this is done with the greatest of care to see that they are 
so placed that the symbolic coloring will be correct, and that the 
yellow medial line will exactly delineate the path of the sun at what- 
ever time of year the ceremony is being held. In fig. 3 these stakes 
are indicated by the four heavy projections from the circumference 
of the circle at the four cardinal points. 

These stakes are on an average about a yard in length. The 
lower two thirds of such a stake is plain and tapers gradually to a 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 265 

sharp point. It is usually made of some hardwood and at its largest 
cross section measures about three quarters of an inch by two 
inches. This largest dimension is at the point where the notch 
which holds the loop which supports the dnun is situated. This 
notch is usually from two to perhaps six inches in depth, and is 
made by simply cutting away the wood down the center of the stake 
for a space about half an inch wide. That is to say, starting with 
the stake three feet in length, its upper third is parted by means of 
a slot half an inch in width. One of the resultant projections is 
then cut off thus leaving two projections of about equal cross sec- 
tion dimensions but of unequal lengths. One measures from two 
to six inches or thereabouts in length, while the other is a foot or 
more in length. The longer projection is then more or less rounded, 
is bent to a greater or less degree, and is ornamented with buckskin, 
with beadwork, or with painting, or sometimes with all three. At 
the extremity of this curve, or what may be called the horn of the 
stake, are usually tied various pendant objects, such as ribbons and 
short beadwork strips, and always one or more eagle feathers. 
These stakes are so placed that this curved horn projects outward 
from watever side of the drum the stake stands. 

On the inner surface of the short inner projection which forms 
the notch for the loop upon which the drum rests, is placed some 
kind of a mark designating the particular position which this stake 
is to occupy when the drum is set. This is often done by means of 
brass tacks, a single tack indicating one of the cardinal points, two 
tacks indicating another, and so on. In setting up the stakes for 
this drum it is essential that they should be very carefully placed 
according to these marks. The ornamentations of the stakes, other 
than the above mentioned special markings to show the positicHi 
which the stake must occupy, do not appear to differ in any sys- 
tematic way in any given set of four stakes, though as a matter of 
fact in almost all cases no two stakes are exactly alike. So far as 
could be learned, however, these differences have no special signifi- 
cance. A very considerable variety is found in the different sets of 
stakes, each set being evidently made and ornamented according to 
the personal preference of the particular makers of the dnun to which 
the stakes belong. The same applies to the decorations upon the 



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266 BULLETIN, PUBUC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vd. I. 

sides of fhe drum itself, and very omsiderable differences in orna- 
mentation are found in different drums. The drum beads are, of 
course, always painted the same, their decoration having a definite 
symbolic significance and being therefore prescribed. 

Between ceremonies these stakes are kept, together with the 
drum, by the drum's special guardian. They are usually enclosed 
in a special bag made for the purpose and hung or otherwise placed 
near the drum. Their sde use is to support the drum during the 
daytime ceremony. Those ceremonies held at night do not require 
that the drum be elevated from the ground, and at such times the 
stakes are not brought out to the dancing area. 

The greatest of reverence is paid to this drum, and it receives 
the very best of care. A special keeper is appointed for it, and it 
is never left alone at any time. Offerings of tobacco are kept with 
it at all times, and between ceremonies it is the duty of its keeper, 
as also of any one who is visiting at his house, to snn^e to tiie drum 
in order to invoke the patronage of the Great Spirit for the benefit 
of the tribe and especially for the benefit of those persons concerned 
with the dream dance cult. 

The making of one of these drums and of the accessories whidi 
accompany it is the occasion of very elaborate and solemn cere- 
monies, and requires a considerable length of time for preparation 
and several days for the actual execution of the work itself. Such 
a drum is not made except for some very special reason, such as the 
loss through breakage of an dd drum, or such as the desu-e to pre- 
sent one of these drums to a friendly neighboring commtmity. When 
it is agreed by the various members of a given community who arc 
interested in this cult that such a drum should be made, die actual 
work is placed in the hands of certain peojde especially s^pointed 
for the task. The materials are assembled and minor ceremonies 
are held over the production of each of the important parts, such as 
the making of the beaded band about the upper head of the drum, 
and such as the painting of the drum heads. A considerable amount 
of money and goods is required to enable the members interested in 
the cult to produce one of these drums, since each person who has 
in hand the production of some particular feature of the drum must 
be paid an amount commensurate with the importance of tfie part 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 267 

which he is producing, and also commensurate with the amount of 
work entailed. Also the materials must be the best obtainable, and 
tfic large pipe and other accessories must be provided. 

Having completed such a drum it is then necessary to hold a 
ceremony for its dedication. It may then be used by the people of 
Ae ccMiununity where it is made, if it is for that purpose, or it may 
then be sent to the community for which it is intended as a present. 
Upon such an occasion notice is given to the community destined 
to receive the drum some weeks, or even some months, before it is 
sent, and when it finally goes as many as possible of the members of 
the community who are making the gift accompany the drum, and 
an elaborate ceremony, a so-called "friendship" dance, is held. The 
drum is presented by the head man of the visitors to the head man 
of the hosts with appropriate speeches relative to the importance of 
the ceremony, the significance of the gift, and the friendly relations 
which exist between the two communities. Upon such an occasion 
the members of the community receiving the dnmi make to the 
members of the community giving it very substantial presents; not 
in payment for the drum, but as a sign of good will and friendship. 
In fact it is a very prevalent custcwn among many aboriginal peoples 
to make a return gift at the time of, or very soon after, receiving a 
gift from anyone, though this is in no way considered by them in 
Ae light of a purchase. To the Indian it is a mere matter of both 
duty and privilege to show his good will to a friend by making a 
return present of approximately equal value. The presentation of a 
drum is a very important occasion among the Chippewa and Me- 
ncHninee and the presents given are commensurate with this im- 
portance. In fact it frequently happens that the visitors who have 
come upon such a mission, return to their hcmies with a number of 
ponies and a variety of other chattels which, if they were to be 
bought in the open market, would cost a good many dollars. 

The giving of a dnun by one community to another is certainly 
very significant when that part of the creed of this cult which pre- 
scribes the establishment of universal peace is taken into considera- 
tion. It is not at all unusual to hear the uninitiated white-man speak 
of one of these dream dances as an "Indian War Dance." Nothing 
could be farther frwn the truth, since every phase of this whole cere- 



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268 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

mony, and every feature of the creed with which it is concerned 
deals with peace instead of war, with friendship instead of hatred, 
and exemplifies to a striking degree what we are pleased to term the 
golden rule. Furthermore, it must be remarked very much to the 
credit of the Indian that he not only preaches his creed, but practices 
it, a condition which unfortunately does not always exist among the 
whites. Still further, it should be noted that he is no hypocrite and 
that he does not simply preach and practice his creed at times of 
these ceremonies, but that he lives up to these doctrines in his daily 
life. This, of course, applies to those individuals in these tribes who 
are devout believers in this dream dance cult There are others who 
have no special affiliation with the members of this faith. 

THE CALUMET 

The second object of reverence about which the ceremony 
centers is the special calumet with its elaborately ornamented stem. 
The catlinite bowl of the calumet is in reality a sacrificial altar, or 
censer, the office of which is the burning of sacred tobacco, in order 
that its incense may be carried to the particular diety in whose honor 
the offering is made. It is used in making offerings to almost any 
of the many dieties of the Indian polytheon, but especially is it cm- 
ployed in making offerings to the Great Spirit, to the thunder birds, 
and to certain others of the more important dieties worshiped by 
these people. The only illustration available of a pipe which was 
actually used in the dream dance is that shown in plate XII, fig. 2. 
A close inspection of this illustration will show that the bowl of this 
pipe has very elaborate metal inlaying which is, however, quite un- 
usual for pipes used in this ceremony. Its long stem is elaborately 
carved as is customary in these pipes. Of calumets used for other 
purposes several illustrations are shown in plates XXI, XXII and 
XXIII. Some of these, such as those shown in plate XXI, figs. 2-4, 
and in plate XXIII, figs, i and 2 were used especially for smoking 
for the benefit of the thunder birds and before objects sacred to 
them. 

Those shown m figures i and 2 of plate XXII were especially 
devoted to smoking for the benefit of the medicine bags of their 
owners. The large black stone pipe shown in plate XXI, fig. i, was 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 269 

a "chiefs'' pipe and had no special ceremonial significance. Those 
pipes shown in figs. 3-12 of plate XXIII were used for ordinary 
smoking and therefore do not belcHig to the class of calumets, in 
the strict sense of that term. 

The bowl of the dream dance calumet varies considerably in size, 
and more or less also in form. As is shown in those illustrated in 
plate XXI, figs. 2-4, and in plate XXIII, figs, i and 2, the bowl of 
the t3rpical caltmiet consists of a cylindrical base from four to about 
nine inches in length, from near the middle of the top of which 
rises at right angles the bowl proper, which extends to a height equal 
to from a third to a half the length of the base. In many cases the 
cross section of one of these bases is not a perfect circle, but is 
flattened very decidedly on the bottom of the pipe. It is often suffi- 
ciently flat to allow the pipe to stand erect as it rests upon this sur- 
face. The upright bowl proper is perforated, this perforation being 
on an average from a half to three-quarters of an inch in diameter. 
The perforation of the upright bowl proper meets a second opening 
which runs in from the rear end of the base of the pipe, and which 
is usually somewhat smaller than the perforation in the bowl itself. 
Into this perforation in the base is inserted one end of the wooden 
stem. 

From a third to a half of the length of this cylindrical base pro- 
jects out in front of the upright bowl proper. Whatever the origin 
of this particular form of pipe may have been, this projection serves 
two purposes. As one of these caltunets passes about in a circle in 
which the participants sit at some distance one from another it is 
customary for the pipe tender to pass it to each individual 
separately, and in doing so he almost invariably holds it by this 
projection. He thus presents it, stem first, to one of the participants 
who smokes from one to several puflFs, and who then returns it 
directly to the pipe tender who again grasps this projection with one 
hand and carries it on to the next smoker. When the pipe is passed 
about in a circle, like that of the drummers, in which its members 
sit close together, it is passed directly by one member to his neigh- 
bor next to the left. In such a case the projection on the pipe bowl 
is not used. When such a pipe has passed around the circle of 
participants in either of these manners, there remains a certain 



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270 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

amount of tobaccx) in the bowl which must then be smoked out. 
This is done either by the pipe tender himself, or by one of the im- 
pcMtant participants in the ceremony to whotn the pipe tender finally 
presents the pipe for this purpose. In any case it is customary for 
the man who does this final smoking out of the pipe to rest this pro- 
jecting point on the ground, he himself leaning over sufficiently to 
be able to reach the stem of the pipe in that position. In plate XII, 
fig. 2, this is well shown. In this case, one of the most imp<Mtant 
participants in the dance, a man who was especially looked up to as 
an orator, and who was at the same time the representative and 
spokesman of one of the chiefs of the tribe, is smoking out the pipe 
after it has gone the rounds in the regular way. 

In most cases, those calumets which are intended for the highest 
form of ceremonial use, such as that in the dream dance, are, as 
above mentioned, very plain. Now and then those intended for 
other uses, such for instance as more or less ordinary daily smok- 
ing, are less exact in general form, but are much more highly orna- 
mented, being inlaid with lead, pewter, and even silver in bands and 
variously shaped figures. Examples of such pipes are shown in 
figs. I and 4 of plate XXI, and in figs, i and 5 of plate XXIII. 
Others have carved bands and various other linear designs in high 
relief as in the pipe shown in fig. 3 of plate XXI. In a large meas- 
ure, however, the typical calumet especially that used in the dream 
dance, is very plain. 

The ceremonial caltmiet used by the Chippewa and the Menomi- 
nee at the present time is almost invariably made of catlinite, two 
kinds of which are easily recognizable. The one is a fairly light red 
and is apparently a little finer in grain than the other. This ccxnes 
frcwn west of the Mississippi and pipes made from it are obtained 
by the Wisconsin Chippewa and by the Menominee exclusively 
through trade with the Minnesota Chippewa and other tribes farther 
to the west. The second kind of catlinite is a much darker red, 
bordering in fact upon the brick red, and appears to be of a slightly 
coarser grain. This is said to be found exclusively east of the 
Mississippi, and is still mined and used to some extent by the Wis- 
consin peoples, particularly by the Chippewa of the Lac Court 
Oreilles reservation. Two sources of supply were mentioned by 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 271 

these people. One is located on fhe small stream known as 
Pipe-stone creek, and at a point four or five miles southwest of the 
Indian village of Post, which is located on the Chippewa river and 
in the northeastern part of the reservation. It is said that Pipe-stone 
creek cuts through a deposit of catlinite several feet in thickness, 
but that comparatively little use is made by the Indians of stone from 
this deposit since the point at which it is located is rather difficult of 
access. The second locality mentioned by them is near the eastern 
border of Barron county, and directly east of the town of Rice Lake. 
Mention was made of this deposit many years ago in some of the 
surveys of the region, and it was visited in the summer of 1909 by 
Mr. Geo. A. West, of Milwaukee, who found evidences that the 
deposit is being worked by the Indians at the present time. Mr. 
West spoke upon the subject of this quarry at a meeting of the Wis- 
consin Archeological Society in Milwaukee, in 1910, and at that 
time presented to the Museum a specimen of the native catlinite 
which he had brought out from the quarry. This specimen is shown 
in plate XXV, fig. 6. 

In reality the most important part of one of these calumets is its 
long stem, which is often elaborately decorated with painting, and 
sometimes with various pendant objects such as feathers, strips of 
fur and ribbons. Some are very elaborately carved and scMne are 
even nicely inlaid with metal in various designs. The forms of 
these stems vary to a considerable extent. Some are circular in 
cross-section, others square, and still others have diamond shapes 
of various proportions. Those most highly prized and the ones 
which are very frequently used in the dance are the long stems 
which are twisted, in whole or in part. As a matter of fact this 
twisting is only in effect, and is not actual, but they are so carved 
that they appear as if a flat stem had been twisted about after the 
manner of a corkscrew. Furthermore, some of these stems are 
excised, that is to say, cut out so as to produce an c^nwork effect. 
Several examples of elaborate pipe stems are shown in plates XXI 
to XXIII. None of the stems here shown were used in the dream 
dance and these are all less elaborate than the stems ordinarily em- 
ployed in this ceremony. 



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272 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vci. I. 

The long stem of the ceremonial pipe is, as above stated, in reality 
the most important part of the pipe, and is the portion which carries 
in a large measure its ceremonial significance. The importance of 
this stem as compared with that of the bowl is ^own by the follow- 
ing three facts : 

1. It is smoked only during the most elaborate and extremely 
formal parts of a ceremony. The bowl on the other hand is used at 
various other times in connection with a shorter and plainer stem. 

2. There are certain special tunes which are played for the 
benefit of the dnun's pipe, and to these the pipe tender must dance. 
In this dance he carries with him this long pipe stem, but it is 
significant that he does not carry at the same time the bowl. This 
may be partly due to the weight of the bowl and to its fragility, but 
it seems probable that it is more largely due to purely ceremonial 
considerations and to the greater importance of the stem. 

3. When going away to another locality to attend a ceremony 
it is the privilege and duty of the pipe tender to take with him this 
long stem, and to dance with it during the ceremony. He does not, 
however, take the bowl which belongs to this stem. When possess- 
ing the stem at one of these ceremonies he is accredited as the repre- 
sentative of the drum to which this pipe stem belongs, and represents 
also the people themselves who are concerned with this particular 
drum. 

As above stated, the bowl of one of these ceremonial pipes may 
be used without the long and elaborately decorated stem. For this 
purpose there is provided a second stem something like those shown 
in plate XXI, figs. 2a and 3a, which is shorter and which has com- 
paratively little decoration. When it is desired, therefore to smoke 
the bowl of this pipe at a time when its full ceremonial significance 
and power are not required, this short stem is employed. It is always 
used during the evening dance when the drum is not suspended upon 
its stakes, and when the whole ceremony is less elaborate, and there- 
fore requires less strictly ceremonial conduct. It is also used by the 
drum's keeper in smoking before the drum between ceremonies, as 
also by anyone who chances to visit at his house, and who wishes 
to smoke before the drum, which is a common practice among these 
people. 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 273 

In addition to this special ceremonial pipe used in the dream 
^nce, there are several other forms. Mention has already been 
aiade of certain other ceremonial pipes and of the large black stone 
"chief's" pipe. These, together with the "Micmac" and other small 
fipes employed in every day smoking, will be treated more in detail 
ki another section of this paper. 

Of all these various forms the pipe which is at present of the 
greatest importance among the Chippewa and the Menominee is the 
particular calumet which is used in connecticm with the dream dance. 
This special pipe, together with both its stems, always acoxnpanies 
the drum and is placed, when the drum is in use in the dance, at the 
foot of the western stake which supports it (fig. 2, B). With the 
pipe is also a special tobacco tray in which the tobacco to be smoked 
in this pipe is prepared. Such a tray is usually of wood and may 
be of any one of several forms. In plate XXIV, figs. 4, 5 and 8, 
are shown three trays of this type. 

As used here the term tobacco embraces not only tobacco proper, 
that is to say, the leaf of some species or other of Nicotiana, but also 
the dried barks of certain shrubs which are smoked. These barks 
are collectively called by the Chippewa pdkuzigun. The term kinni- 
kinnick is also loosely applied to them as a means of distinction from 
true tobacco, though kinnikinnick is in its more strict sense applic- 
able only to the mixture of these barks with tobacco proper, and 
this is the form in which it. is usually smoked. The unmixed bark 
is, however, sometimes used, particularly when no tobacco is at 
hand. A special discussion of smoking is taken up in another sec- 
tion of this paper and this matter is more fully treated there. Suffice 
it to say here that the material ordinarily smoked in the dream dance 
pipes is tobacco mixed with a small percentage of one or another 
of these barks thus producing true kinnikinnick in the strictest sense 
of that term. 

For this calumet also there is a special pouch, which is attached 
to the loop of the drum which suspends it from its western stake. 
This is an elaborately decorated pouch, and in it is kept the stock 
of the particular tobacco which is to be smoked in the drum's pipe. 
In this pouch also are kept all donations of money which are made 
for the benefit of the drtun. 



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274 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

This pipe has a special keeper, whose duty it is to see that it is 
properly cared for, that it is filled, lighted and passed about in its 
particular circle at the prescribed four times during each day's cere- 
mony, and that it is properly emptied of its ashes and returned to 
its place after passing about in this manner. 

Four times during each day's ceremony the pipe tender goes 
over to the place near the foot of the western stake where the calu- 
met is kept (fig. 2, B) and, after carefully fitting the bowl and the 
long stem together, fills the bowl from the prepared tobacco in the 
tray above mentioned. He then, if the ceremony is among the 
Menominee, lights a small piece of punk, such as that shown in 
plate XXIV, fig. I, and places it upon the tobacco in the bowl. He 
then faces toward the drum, and hence toward the east, and turns the 
pipe around four times above his head. The pipe is held so that the 
stem is horizontal and is somewhat in front of the tender. As he 
turns it about in this position the stem passes over his head. After 
these four turns he presents the stem to one of the drummers who 
draws upon it and ignites the tobacco. In most instances the punk 
stays on the bowl without any difficulty, but now and then it drops 
oflf. It is not, however, an essential part of the ceremony to have it 
cm the pipe as it turns about in this manner. This is clearly shown 
from the fact that among the Chippewa the punk is not used at all. 
The pipe is simply turned around the required number of times and 
is then lighted by holding a match to it while one of the drummers 
draws upon the stem. 

The other two ceremonial pipes used by the Menominee, namely, 
that used by the dancers and that used by the impersonator of the 
Great Spirit, are lighted in a similar manner. Each person who 
turns a pipe around over his head in this manner always faces 
toward the drum no matter upon what side of it he may stand. 

In turning the pipe in this ceremonial manner during the dream 
dance four turns are sufficient and no special notice is accorded the 
cardinal points. However, upon some other occasions the cardinal 
points are carefully taken into account. For instance one of the 
chiefs of the Menominee was recently at the Museum and it was 
proposed that a friendly pipe be smoked all around by those present. 
The large chief's pipe, shown in plate XXI, fig. i, together with 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 276 

some tobacco, was accordingly taken from the exhibition case for 
this purpose. The old man filled it and then, facing toward the east, 
turned it four times around above his head as just described, after 
which he presented its stem toward the east. After four more turns 
he presented its stem toward the south, and thus the cycles of four 
turns of the pipe and the presentation of its stem continued until 
he had completed the presentation to the west, the north, up toward 
the zenith, and finally down toward the earth, making six points in 
aU. 

Among the Menominee the drum's pipe is used exclusively by 
the circle of drummers except upon very rare occasions when it may 
be passed out of this circle to a chief, or to some man of high im- 
portance in the ceremony. Among the Menominee there is always, 
in one of these ceremonies, a second calumet also, which is in all 
essentials the same as that above described, but which is used ex- 
clusively by the dancers and is kept by another special pipe tender, 
whose position is at C (fig. 2), just to the north of the door. This 
particular official, though a very important one among the Menomi- 
nee, appears to be quite absent among the Chippewa where there is 
only one pipe for each drum. This pipe serves both the drummers 
and the dancers, a fact which may possibly be due to the intrusion 
of recent ideas and the consequent modification of the ceremony, all 
of which will be taken up in detail later. Among the Menominee 
this particular pipe tender receives practically all the donations of 
tobacco made by each person participating in the ceremony as he or 
she enters the door. A person may if he chooses give tobacco 
directly to the drum's pipe, but he always gives some to this particu- 
lar pipe tender in every case, and usually he gives all his tobacco 
directly to this man. This tobacco is later apportioned, the larger 
part going to the drum. 

At one Menominee ceremony witnessed there was even a third 
calumet which was kept by the impersonator of the Great Spirit and 
smoked by him almost exclusively. He did upon certain occasions 
pass this pipe around among certain of the more important officials 
in both the dancers' and the drummers' circles. At another cere- 
mony in this same tribe, however, no such impersonator was seen 
and there were but two calumets present. This was a ceremony 



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276 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vcl, I, 

held during the week of the tribal council which met at Keshena 
during the latter part of August and the first days of September, 
1910. It is possible that, owing to the very public nature of the 
occasion, this feature of the ceremony was onitted. 

In case a particularly large donation of tobacco is made by some 
individual, a special speech is made by one of the head men over it 
before it is given to the drum. These speeches call particular atten- 
tion to the donor of this tobacco and commend him to the special 
consideration of the participants in the ceremony and ask that he be 
regarded as the friend of all present. Particular mention is made 
of the virtue of such a gift from the stand-point of its religious 
significance, and such a speech always includes an invocation to 
the Great Spirit that the tobacco so given shall be received by him 
and considered as a votive offering, and that in return the welfare 
of the individual giving the tobacco, as also the welfare of the re- 
mainder of the people assembled, shall be promoted in every way. 
In case a large donation of tobacco is made by a stranger, that is 
to say some one not belonging to the particular conomunity in which 
the dance is being held, extra care is taken by the head men to see 
that an appropriate speech is made over it and that special com- 
mendation is given for the act, and that a special invocation to the 
Great Spirit is made. Such donations of tobacco are received by 
all present in the most friendly and fraternal spirit, and one making 
such a donation is looked upon with favor even though he is not a 
devout believer in the dream dance cult. His sincerity is never 
questioned regardless of who he is or whence he comes. 

Furthermore, the tobacco donated by the women who participate 
in the ceremony is usually kept apart from that donated by the men, 
and this as a whole is the cause of a special speech by the chief or 
some head man. He expresses the gratitude of the men for the 
participation of the women in the ceremony and for their kindness 
in preparing the feasts, and he invokes the special benefaction of 
the Great Spirit upon them. 

PARTICIPANTS IN THE CEREMONY. 

The participants in the dance may be divided into two general 
classes. The first of these may be termed the musicians, and corn- 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 217 

prises (i) the drummers, who are also the male singers, and (2) the 
women, who assist in the singing. The second of these general 
classes comprises the dancers, all of whom are men. 

The drummers, who may number as many as fifteen or there- 
abouts, kneel immediately around the drum, as indicated by the 
circles of crosses in figures i and 2. Each beats the drum with a 
•tender drum stick about two feet long and three-eighths of an inch 
ki diameter. The head end of such a drum stick is wrapped with 
cloth or buckskin. As they drum they all sing, following the lead 
of the person who starts the particular song which is being used. 
Any one of the drummers is privileged to start a song, and they 
usually take turns in this leading. 

In a larger circle, that indicated by the triangles in figures i and 
J, directly outside that of the drummers are seated the women, who 
intone a nasal accompaniment to the song of the men. In this sing- 
ing the wcMnen never open their mouths, and very frequently each 
holds her nose partly shut with one hand so that it is a high-keyed 
humming that is produced. This blends in a rather pleasing manner 
with the louder song of the men. There is no restriction as to the 
number of women who may join in the singing. In seating them- 
selves these women never form a closed circle around the drum. It 
is necessary that such a circle should be open at the west where the 
drum's pipe is kept. In case more wish to participate in the sing^g 
than can get into a single circle, a second circle is formed outside 
the first. In the case of the drummers on the other hand, the circle 
is completely closed if necessary to accomodate a large number of 
drummers. Obviously no second circle of drummers is possible. 

The dancers who are, as above stated, all men usually appear at- 
tired in the ordinary clothing used by the whites, though in the 
majority of cases there are certain additions to this attire in the way 
of beadwork, feathers, and now and then paint. In a large measure, 
however, the spectacular dress of former years has given place to 
the more simple dress imposed upon the every day life of the Indian 
by the influences of civilization. A glance at the plates of illustra- 
tions will show the commonplaceness of the average dress of both 
the men and the women participating in this ceremony. As a rule 
the dancers dress more elaborately than do the drummers or the 



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278 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

women who assist in the singing. For such occasions there are made 
special beaded shirts, such as those shown in plate XIII, fig. i, also 
bead sashes and knee bands of beadwork and bright colored yams. 
Frequently, also, large elaborately beaded bags, supported by broad 
beaded bands passing over the shoulders, are worn by dancers. 
These are in every case primarily decorative and have in most in- 
stances no pouch in which an)rthing can be carried. 

Now and then a man is found who is attired in a more primitive 
costume. For instance the speaker who is shown in plate XVII, 
fig. 2, in the act of delivering an oration wears a pair of leggings 
and a breech clout each made of black velvet and ornamented with 
variously colored ribbons. These velvet garments are, of course, 
merely substitutes for the older type of buckskin garments which 
were in everyday use in aboriginal times among these peoples. 

At the present time every one attending one of these ceremonies 
is completely dressed, that is to say, all parts of the body, except the 
hands and face, are covered. This is quite a different condition 
from that which obtained in more primitive times when a much 
more abbreviated costume was worn, thus permitting the application 
of paint to all of the upper parts, at least, of the body. At the 
present time, however, it is considered highly improper for a par- 
ticipant in this ceremony to appear in a costume which is in the least 
abbreviated. This is clearly shown in the treatment accorded the 
young man who appeared in a half nude condition during the cere- 
mony at Whitefish, the details of which are given in the section of 
this paper which deals with that particular ceremony. This young 
man was naked to the waist line and had the upper part of his body 
painted with dots and short lines. 

Under ordinary circumstances paints are at the present day 
almost entirely absent from these ceremonies, but now and then 
some old man is found who paints his face to a slight extent. He 
sometimes uses a simple coat of red with which he covers all or the 
greater part of his face, and sometimes he dots or streaks it with 
red, blue or yellow, or perhaps he uses all three colors at once. The 
use of these three pigments in connection with this ceremony ap- 
pears to be more or less symbolic since they are the three colors 
which appear upon the drum, the yellow being the median line repre- 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 279 

senting the path of the sun, the red representing the southern half 
of the sky, and the blue representing the sky to the north of this 
sun path. 

Each of the three classes of participants: the drummers, the 
women and the dancers, has its special duty, and no member of any 
dass participates in the duties of the other two classes, except upon 
certain very special occasions. This applies very strictly to the 
women, who never do an3rthing but sing in their particular manner. 
They also never smoke the calumet as it passes about, though they 
all chew tobacco incessantly during the whole ceremony. The 
drummers almost never dance except upon the occasion of some 
error in their drumming or singing. For instance, if one of the 
drummers strikes the drum out of time with the rest, or if he makes 
some slight mistake in the time, no attention is paid to the error 
until after the particular round of the dance then in progress is 
finished. After a pause of a few seconds at the end of this round, 
the drum starts again and plays for perhaps a minute, during which 
time the man who made the error must rise and dance a few steps 
where he stands. This is said to be by way of acknowledging his 
error, and signifying that no intentional slight to the drum has been 
committed. In plate XI, fig. 2, is shown at the extreme left one of 
the drummers dancing oflf such an error. Also, upon rare occasions, 
the chief drummer may present to the chief dancer his own drum 
stick. In such a case this dancer takes the place of the chief drum- 
mer and all play a special tune to which the chief drummer dances. 

What appears on the surface to be an exception to this rule of 
the absolute division of duties among these three classes is the fact 
that among the Menominee it was observed that certain young men 
at times joined the drummers' circle and drummed in the regular 
manner, while at other times they joined the dancers' circle and 
participated in the dancing. As a matter of fact these were mem- 
bers of the drummers' circle of another drum and were therefore 
visitors at this ceremony. Hence they were privileged to dance to 
the music of this drum and were also allowed to participate in the 
drumming if they chose. A similar condition was observed in the 
ceremony at Whitefish where two drums were present. Only one 
of these drums was played at a time, and, as a rule, when one drum 



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280 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

was silent its drummers remained seated, though its dancers almost 
always danced to the music of either drum indifferently. Oc- 
casionally, however, one or more of the drummers of the silent drum 
would dance to the music of the one which was then being played. 

There are, as above indicated, certain special personages con- 
nected with such a ceremony. These are, on the one hand, the chief 
drummer, the drum keeper, and the drum's pipe tender ; and on the 
other hand, the chief dancer, the dancers' pipe tender and certain 
special directors of the ceremony. Both the chief dancer and the 
dancers' pipe tender are, among the Menominee, usually seated im- 
mediately north of the entrance to the dancing area which is always 
on the western side of the circle. The chief dancer may or may not 
be the chief of the tribe, since this religion has nothing whatever to 
do directly with governmental affairs. The directors of the cere- 
mony are usually old men who are thoroughly familiar with every 
feature of the dance and their office is to indicate the times of start- 
ing and stopping the ceremony each day, to prescribe the proper 
order of procedure, and to pass upon matters of propriety connected 
with the dance. Among the Chippewa these directors number four 
and under ordinary circumstances agree very well one with another 
upon the procedure of the dance. Now and then however their 
opinions may differ, as was the case in the dance at Whitefish, which 
will be described later. Among the dancers there is also a special 
class of men known as the **braves." The visitors from distant 
points always have particular positions in the circle and are given 
special attention by their hosts. 

MUSIC. 

A great variety of tunes are played and sung in one of these 
ceremonies. There are, in addition to the general tunes to which 
every one is privileged to dance without any particular leader, special 
tunes for the chief drummer, the drum keeper, the chief dancer, the 
chief of the tribe, and each one of the pipe keepers; also for the 
class of braves, for other special personages who may be present, and 
for visitors from a distance. These tunes are always accompanied 
by the drum, which is, as a matter of fact, from the ceremonial 
standpoint, the most essential feature of the music since it is the 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 281 

beating of the drum which, together with the smoke from the cere- 
monial pipes, is supposed to carry the invocations of the participants 
up to the Great Spirit. The beating of the dnun is to all intents 
and purposes, so far at least as the ear can detect, the same through- 
out, which gives a similar rhythm to all the songs. The words used 
in these songs differ very considerably according to the song, but 
wcie said by informants to be largely archaic or, in some cases, to 
be comprised of unintelligible syllables. The intonation likewise 
appears to differ with each song, and these differences of intonation 
are even greater than are those of the words used. These songs 
are characterized by much repetition, and have to all appearances 
no absolutely fixed duration. Under normal conditions, when a few 
men only are dancing, a song lasts from five to ten minutes, but if a 
lively interest is evinced in a particular song, or if for some other 
reason a considerable number of men are dancing the song may be 
prolonged to perhaps fifteen minutes. Of especially great duration 
are those songs which are played for certain particular purposes, 
as for instance the song played during the consecration of the foods 
for a feast. The duration of this song depends entirely upon the 
length of time consumed by the consecrator in performing the cere- 
mony over the food, and this ceremony differs very considerably 
under different circumstances. 

As above stated each of these songs is accompanied by dnun- 
ming, which is in its general nature the same for all songs. The 
strokes are in pairs, which gives the general impression of a differ- 
ence in the interval of time between the two strokes of a pair and 
that between the final stroke of one pair and the initial stroke of the 
next. These intervals are doubtless of practically equal duration, 
this effect being produced by a difference in force rather than a 
difference in time. The first stroke of such a pair is comparatively 
heavy and is followed immediately by a lighter one. The drumming 
also is led by the particular man who leads the song then being 
used. Any singer is thus privileged to start a song and to lead it 
throughout. The singing continues until such time as this leader 
gives the signal to stop, which is indicated by a particularly heavy 
stroke of his drum stick: a few bars before the song is to be ended. 



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282 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

Under the existing conditions it was impossible to attempt any- 
thing in the way of recording songs or to attempt an analysis of this 
music. It is, however, highly probable that the songs here used are 
in a large measure similar to, and in many cases identical to those 
used by the Minnesota Chippewa, who were emirfoyed by Miss 
Densmore as a source of the material from which she has written 
her comprehensive paper upon "Chippewa Music" 



. m 



DANCING. 

Upon playing any one of the special tunes above referred to the 
particular person, or class of persons for whom it is intended, must 
lead in the dance. It would seem that in most cases the rules of the 
dance permit any one else to participate, but that in certain cases 
the tune is intended for this particular person or class of persons and 
for him alone. 

In this dancing a person may dance in place, that is to say, may 
go through the necessary motions with the feet, without moving 
from the position in which he is standing, or he may dance one cm" 
more times around the circle. Very f requentiy the dancers take at 
first a complete turn around the circle and come back to the vicinity 
of their seats and here dance until the tune is finished. In taking a 
turn around the circle in this manner the movement is usually some- 
what of the skipping step. Perfect time is, however, kept to the 
music no matter what movement may be employed. Upon coming 
back to the point at which he intends to dance in place the dancer 
ordinarily stands in one position and keeps time by moving his heels 
up and down. This is done in a manner similar to that of the drum- 
ming, namely, the movements of the heels are in pairs. Two mo- 
tions up and down are first made with one heel and then two mo- 
tions with the other, these being in unison with the double stroke of 
the drum sticks. The position assumed in dancing in this manner 
is a perfectiy erect one, the weight of the body being rapidly shifted 
from one foot to the other as the dancing proceeds. Another form of 
dancing in place requires a slightly bent posture. The weight of the 
body is thrown onto one leg while the opposite foot is raised slightly 
from the ground. The foot is kept in a position which is nearly 
horizontal and is moved back and forth in time to the music, the toe 
just touching the ground at each stroke of the drum. The move- 



>Bnll. 45, Bar. Amer. Etbn. 191a 

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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 283 

ment back and forth is not more than perhaps from two to four or 
five inches and continues for as many as eight or ten of these double 
strokes of the drum sticks. At the end of such a series the dancer, 
without losing a stroke, changes his position, throwing the weight 
of his body onto the foot which has just been used in dancing and 
using the opposite foot for the motion of the dance as above 
described. 

Any man present whether he is a member of the particular group 
of people to which the drum belongs, a member of a similar group 
elsewhere, or a member of no group at all, is privileged to dance at 
one of these ceremonies, except of course that he is not supposed 
to dance to special tunes played for certain particular individuals 
or classes of individuals to which he does not belong. In fact per- 
sons, such as whites, who are definitely known not to have any 
affliation with the sect of the dream dance are welcomed in the 
ceremony provided their conduct is proper and in conformity to 
that prescribed by the rules of the dance. On the other hand partici- 
pation in the dance is entirely voluntary and a person may sit in the 
circle day after day if he chooses without once dancing or other- 
wise participating even though he may be invited repeatedly to do 
so. In the speeches made by the leading men frequent mention is 
made by them of their desire to see all participate and invitations are 
extended to all present to join in the dancing or to otherwise enter 
into the ceremony. 

These invitations to dance are not confined to words alone, but 
a person by his actions may invite another to dance. This is seen 
especially among the regular dancers. If, for instance, some reg^ar 
dancer is seated with the evident intention of skipping a round of 
the dancing another may dance up immediately in front of him and 
execute a few especially vigorous steps or may hold before him a 
pipe, a beaded wand or any other object he happens to be carrying, 
or he may simply hold a hand before him, any of which actions 
serves as a special invitation to the one seated to rise and join in the 
dance. No offense is taken if he does not join in such a case, but 
etiquette rather requires him to do so. 



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284 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

ORATIONS. 

Many speeches are made during the course of the day. Almost 
any man who is participating in the ceremony is privileged to speak. 
It is only necessary for him to rise after any particular round of 
the dance has been finished and the music has stopped, or to remain 
standing if he has been dancing during the round. This calls at- 
tention to the fact that he has something to say and he is then 
privileged to speak upon whatever subject he chooses, and the sub- 
jects vary greatly. In practice, of course, this speaking is largely 
confined to the more important men connected with the ceremony, 
such as the chief dancer, the chief drummer, and others. As above 
mentioned, in the case of a large donation of tobacco, or in the case 
of a donation of a considerable quantity of food, special announce- 
ment is made and a special speech is given by one of these head men 
in which the people are notified of this action of their benefactor, 
and a special invocation to the Great Spirit for the welfare of this 
particular individual is made. Other speeches deal with the desire 
of the participants for the assistance and benefactions of the Great 
Spirit to help them in matters of health and general prosperity. Still 
others are exhortations to the people for a better ethical standard, 
while others are chastisements of certain individuals or classes of 
individuals who are found to be negligent or malicious in scMne 
particular or other. 

Still other orations recount the story of the divine origin of the 
ceremony and outline its creed, which, as was above mentioned, may 
be very concisely stated as a most perfect conception of the golden 
rule and the promotion of universal peace. This creed is all embrac- 
ing and demands for the stranger the same consideration as is ac- 
corded the tribesman and blood relative. Frequently an old man 
rises after a round of dancing and delivers a lengthy and eloquent 
dissertation upon the ethical principles involved in the creed of the 
dream dance, stating that he, himself, cannot expect to live much 
longer to see the creed flourish and to assist in the propagation of 
the welfare of the people at large, and that he wishes to impress up- 
on the younger generation the desirability of at all times honoring 
the faith, doing homage to the Great Spirit, and above all assisting 
in the propagation of the principles of universal peace and brother- 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 285 

hood. Frequently he recounts during such an oration some instance 
showing the direct benefit which has been derived by some individual 
or by some community as a result of their strict observance of the 
rules governing the faith and their endeavor to at all times observe 
the mandates of the Great Spirit. 

Now and then some person is guilty of an act in the dancing 
circle or immediately adjacent thereto that merits the direct con- 
demnation of some of the head men connected with the ceremony. 
Upon such occasions one or more of these head men will speak upon 
this subject, outlining the undesirability of the action of the particu- 
lar individual in question and showing the people wherein a direct 
transgression of established principles has been committed. An 
instance of this was shown upon one occasion at a dance upon the 
Menominee reservation. The rules governing this ceremony ab- 
solutely prohibit the use of intoxicating liquors in the vicinity of the 
dancing circle. They are even so strict that they prohibit the pres- 
ence of anyone at the dance who has recently taken liquor. One 
day two young men who had been drinking slightly came to the 
dance. They had not been guilty of drinking the liquor in the im- 
mediate vicinity of the dancing ground and their state of insobriety 
was such that it was quite unnoticeable unless one's attention was 
called to it. It was. however, quickly detected by the chief drum- 
mer, who immediately arose and delivered a most scathing rebuke 
to these young men for this flagrant misconduct. He spoke at con- 
siderable length upon the viciousness of such conduct and recom- 
mended that these young men be requested to leave the premises 
upon which the dancing ground was located, and said that he hoped 
that this action would serve as an example to others against the use 
of intoxicating liquors during the dance. This speech was followed 
by another from one of the chief men connected with the dance, and 
almost immediately these two young men left the premises and did 
not return until the following day. Such wilful violations of the 
principles involved in this dance are spoken of in terms which leave 
no room for doubt as to the displeasure of the speaker, and which 
might be considered by some as inconsiderate of the feelings of those 
against whom the speeches are directed. It must, however, be re- 
membered that the offenders are in no way ignorant of these prin- 



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286 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

ciples, that these violations are directly wilful and that they there- 
fore in reality merit no other treatment than that which they re- 
ceive. 

In cases, on the other hand, where there is a violation of some 
principle of the creed, which violation appears to be due to ignor- 
ance rather than to malicious intent, the action of those in authority 
is always very mild and considerate. This is shown in the case of 
the young man who appeared in a half nude condition at the dance 
at Whitefish. Several men spoke against his action, but aU these 
speeches were couched in conciliatory terms. It was pointed out 
that he was a young man and that he was probably unaware of the 
strict rules governing such matters. Allowances must therefore be 
made for him on this score of ignorance, and harsh judgment must 
be suspended. It was outlined, however, by each of the several 
speakers that it was his duty to point out that such conduct was not 
permissible and that this young man must be asked not to again 
appear in such attire. Furthermore, these same speakers each pre- 
sented him with some article of clothing. 

These speeches outlining the creed and setting forth the rules and 
regulations governing the conduct of the dance are almost invariably 
made by members of the home circle, that is to say residents of the 
place at which the dance is held. Speeches are also frequently made 
by participants from a distance who have come as visitors to this 
community, but the tenor of such speeches is usually that of grati- 
tude and appreciation for the reception accorded the visitors, and ex- 
pressing joy at the excellent spirit shown in the ceremony. One 
visitor at the dance at Whitefish, for instance, recounted how he had 
traveled over a great part of the middle west and had danced in 
many different localities and with many different tribes, and how he 
had found in all these localities this same ceremony, how its prin- 
ciples were the same wherever he had encountered it, and what a 
great benefit it was proving to the communities in which its devotees 
resided. He took occasion to mention especially the importance of 
Whitefish as a center of this creed, and delighted the people of 
Whitefish by recounting the fact that he had danced at a point far 
toward the west, in the Sioux country, to the music of a drum which 
had been made by the Whitefish peo^rfe and which had been pre- 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 287 

sented by them ta another community toward the west and which 
had eventually found its way to this comparatively remote region. 
He also told how the story of this particular drimi's origin was still 
kept by its present owners, and how they always spoke with great 
respect concerning the people of Whitefish. 

FEASTS. 

Under ordinary circumstances, one of these dances begins at 
about eleven o'clock in the morning and lasts until between four and 
five in the evening. The dancing is almost continuous with but very 
short intermissions, except during the feast of the day, which is 
usually served at about one o'clock. The foods intended for this 
feast are brought into the dancing circle and a special ceremony is 
performed over them, after which they are apportioned to all those 
present. In one of the Menominee ceremonies witnessed during the 
summer, there was a special person who did not at any time appear 
in the Chippewa ceremony. He impersonated the Great Spirit, and 
at this dance it was he who performed over the foods the ceremony 
of consecration. His position in the circle was at the point marked 
D in the accompanying figure 2. He wore in addition to the ordi- 
nary dress of the dance, a large eagle feather cape. This was tied 
by a cord passing about under his arm pits, and reached nearly to 
the ground. It consisted of a cloth foundation to which was at- 
tached the tail feathers of the golden eagle in such a manner as to 
make a complete covering over this cloth backing. Each feather was 
specially ornamented with small bits of the white pelts of weasels, 
which were glued directly to the quill of the feather out toward its tip. 
Near the center of the top of this cape were two eagle wing feathers, 
which were so arranged that when the cape was worn they projected 
directly out from the back like a pair of horns. Between dances this 
impersonator sat upon a stool, over which was thrown a blanket 
which extended for some distance toward the east, and the office of 
which was to keep the feather cape from touching the ground. In 
taking his seat after a dance the impersonator was very careful to 
see that the cape lay properly upon this blanket, and in no case was 
it allowed to touch the ground, or to become soiled in any way. 
AcccMnpanying this cape was a beaded wand about eighteen or twenty 



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288 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

inches in length, this being a sort of badge of office, as it were, and 
serving the impersonator in the same manner as does the pipe stem 
of the drum's calumet in the case of the special pipe tender. While 
inside the ring the impersonator always wore this cape and always 
carried the beaded wand. In case he had occasion to leave the circle, 
however, the cape was very carefully placed upon the stool and the 
wand put in such a position back of the two eagle wing feathers 
that they would stand erect, thus leaving the cape and wand to im- 
personate the chief diety during his absence. Great reverence was 
paid to this impersonator while present in the ring and participating 
in the ceremony as the representative of the Great Spirit, though 
when divested of his special insignia and outside the ring this old 
gentleman was looked upon in every way the same as anyone else. 

The Menominee name of this impersonator was given as tea' 
manitu, a fact which it was difficult at first to reconcile with the 
Menominee name for the Great Spirit, which is ma'tc awatuk. It 
seems probable, however, that the name comes in reality from the 
Chippewa gi'tci manitu, and that it has been corrupted into the pres- 
ent form tea manitu. This whole ceremony came from the west, 
and so far as can be learned was introduced among the Menominee 
from the Chippewa, or perhaps from the Potawatomi. In view of 
this fact, therefore, it seems not at all unlikely that the present form 
of the name of this impersonator comes from the Chippewa gi'tci 
manitu, which is their name for the Great Spirit. It is claimed that 
this impersonator has no direct connection with the thunder bird, 
which is such an important factor in the mythological concepts of 
the Menominee and the Chippewa, and this seems probable when it 
is remembered that the Menominee name for the thunder bird is 
na'ma'kiu. The function of this impersonator is, according to the 
Indians, to represent the Great Spirit, and the ceremony is in a large 
measure directed as an invocation to him in this representative 
capacity. His seat in the dancing circle is so placed that he faces the 
drum at all times, and there are played special songs to which he 
alone may dance. 

Perhaps his most important office is that of consecrating the 
foods to be used in the feasts, which form one of the most character- 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 289 

istic features of the dream dance. The ceremony of consecration 
as performed by him was as follows : 

At one o'clock or thereabouts, the dishes containing the feast 
were brought in and placed at a point near the eastern border of the 
dancing area (fig. 2, E). In this particular case the feast was pro- 
vided almost entirely by the impersonator himself, who was also the 
keeper of the drum and the owner of the house near which the dance 
was held. He personally brought in the vessels containing the foods 
and placed them in their proper position. Then, going over to his 
stool, which was at D, he again put on his feather cloak and took 
up his beaded wand. This was a signal for the drummers to play 
and sing the particular air connected with the consecration of the 
food. To the accompaniment of this music, which continued con- 
stantly throughout this part of the ceremony, the impersonator per- 
formed the following rite before the food was served. 

He first danced with a skipping step completely around the ring 
in a clockwise direction, and then completely around the point, E, 
at which the foods had been placed. He then danced slowly back 
and forth four different times along the eastern side of the ring. 
He next danced in a circle around the foods, finally coming to a 
position immediately to the north of them. At this juncture he 
placed his beaded wand in his belt and there it remained until this 
part of the ceremony was completed. Here he danced in place for 
a few minutes, after which he bent over as if to pick up some of the 
food and while in this bent posture, he danced a complete circle 
and a quarter in a clockwise direction about the foods, thus bringing 
himself to a position immediately to the east of the foods. He then 
faced toward the east and made a motion with both hands upward 
and outward, signifying that he was throwing or offering these 
foods toward the eastern sky. Having thrown the foods in this 
ceremonial manner toward the east, he faced about toward the west 
thus again facing the foods, and danced in place for several minutes. 
He then bent in the same manner as above over the foods and danced 
another complete clockwise circle and a quarter about them, thus 
bringing him to the south of them. He then faced toward the south 
and threw or offered the foods in this ceremonial manner upward 
toward the southern sky. Facing the foods again he danced in place 



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290 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [VdL. I. 

for some minutes more, after which he performed the same kind of 
a dance, and ceremonial picking up of the foods and threw them 
toward the western sky, being, of course, in this case on the western 
side of the foods. A similar cycle brought him again to the north 
from which position he threw the foods toward the northern sky, 
thus completing four of the six cardinal points. In this position he 
danced for some minutes, after which he made a motion as if pick- 
ing up the foods, but omitted the dance about them. These he threw 
up toward the zenith in the same manner as he had thrown the others 
toward the foregoing four cardinal points. In this case he remained 
facing toward the foods, not turning his back on them as he had 
done in the four cases above mentioned. Finally for the sixth and 
last time, he danced in place and made motions as if picking up the 
foods, this time throwing them toward the earth and completing the 
ceremonial offering of these foods toward the six cardinal points 
recognized by the Menominee. 

This ceremony having been completed a couple of men came up 
and began the serving of the foods to the participants in the cere- 
mony. Each participant is supposed upon such an occasion to pro- 
vide his own dish, which is taken by one of these waiters, filled and 
returned to him. He then places it by his side or in any convenient 
place until all have been served. When everyone is thus ready, one 
of these waiters goes over to the impersonator of the Great Spirit 
and feeds him a spoonful of food, and not until then is anyone else 
at liberty to eat. This feeding of the Great Spirit is done with the 
idea that as this impersonator in the ceremony partakes of the food 
in this way so the Great Spirit himself partakes of its essence and 
thus signifies that the feast is acceptable to him and that he looks 
with favor upon the givers of the feast and the participants in the 
ceremony. After this everyone is at liberty to eat his portion of 
food. 

The foods used in any of these feasts must be consecrated, but 
the mode of procedure differs to a certain extent in different locali- 
ties as is shown in the consecration ceremony as it exists among the 
Chippewa where this impersonator does not exist. This consecra- 
tion is described in detail in recounting the dream dance held at 
Whitefish, July second to tenth, 1910. 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 291 

During the whole ceremony for the consecration of food, the 
drummers play and sing continuously, but immediately the cere- 
mony is over the music ceases. It is resumed immediately the feast 
is finished, and the remainder of the day is spent in dancing in the 
same manner as before the feast. 

THE EVENING CEREMONY. 

The ceremony proper ends, as above stated, at between four and 
six o'clock, but during the evening there is always held a short, 
though less elaborate, ceremony. This differs only in certain features 
from the regular ceremony of the day. The drum is not hung on its 
four stakes ; in fact, these stakes are not brought out to the circle at 
all. Furthermore, the whole ceremony need not necessarily be held 
in the dancing enclosure, but may be held almost anywhere else, as 
is shown in speaking of the Whitefish ceremony. Wherever this 
evening ceremony is held a blanket or other piece of cloth is placed 
on the ground in order to protect the drum from direct contact with 
the earth. However in placing the drum upon this cloth it is oriented 
as carefully as if it were being hung on the stakes. The long, 
elaborately decorated stem used with the drum's calumet is brought 
out and placed in its proper position at the west of the drum, but is 
not used in smoking. All smoking during the evening ceremony is 
done with the same bowl as is used during the day, but with its short 
stem. Furthermore, there is no ceremonial lighting and passing of 
the pipe. A few speeches similar to those heard in the daytime are 
made during the evening, but the whole evening ceremony is much 
less elaborate than that held during the day and it rarely lasts more 
than an hour and a half or two hours. 

COMPARISON OF THE CHIPPEWA AND 
MENOMINEE CEREMONIES. 

In the foregoing pages the attempt has been to give a complete 
general idea of the typical dream dance and to describe more or less 
in detail certain features, such as pipes, which are intimately related 
to the ceremony. In doing this it has been necessary to call atten- 
tion to differences existing in certain features of the ceremony as it 



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292 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

is performed by the Chippewa and by the Menominee. It may now 
be well to take up more in detail a consideration of these points of 
difference. 

One of the most striking of these differences in the ceremony, as 
performed in these two localities, is the presence among the Menomi- 
nee of two and sometimes three calumets, and the presence among 
the Chippewa of but one calumet for each drum. As has already 
been pointed out, the drum's calumet is the most important among 
the Menominee, notwithstanding the fact that there is always one, 
and sometimes two, other pipes present. Further, attention has 
been called to the fact that one of these extra pipes is kept for the 
special use of the dancers, and another for the use of the imperson- 
ator of the Great Spirit whenever he is present. Among the Me- 
nominee the drum's calumet is never smoked outside the drummers' 
circle, while among the Chippewa it is smoked by both drummers 
and dancers. Furthermore, among the Menominee the pipe is al- 
ways lighted by means of punk, while among the Chippewa it is 
lighted directly with a match. 

Among the Chippewa the donations of tobacco are given, under 
ordinary circumstances, directly to the drum or to whatever person 
or object they are intended for, while among the Menominee tobacco 
is almost invariably given to the keeper of the dancers' calumet, 
whose position is directly north of the entrance to the dancing circle, 
and it is by him given to the drum's pipe and to the impersonator 
of the Great Spirit, as also to certain other individuals for whom it 
is intended. It is also permissable, though not customary, among 
the Menominee to give tobacco directly to the drum or to any person 
or object for whom it is intended. By virtue of this fact the dancers' 
pipe tender becomes in this tribe a much more important official 
than he would otherwise be. 

The dancing circle is, among the Chippewa, provided with two 
doors, while among the Menominee there is but one. There are also 
some cases among the Chippewa where but a single door is present, 
but custom appears to favor two openings. Furthermore, the en- 
closure of the Chippewa tends to angularity and is usually quite 
high, while that of the Menominee is more nearly, if not quite, 
circular and is very low. 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 293 

Two striking and important features stand out in contrast to one 
another in the ceremony performed at Whitefish and in that per- 
formed on the Menominee reservation. As will be pointed out more 
fully later on in this paper there has arisen at Whitefish what may 
be termed a special version of this dream dance cult which embraces 
certain modem, introduced ideas. Particularly is this noticeable in 
the presence of a large cross in the center of the dancing area. There 
is, on the other hand, no impersonator of the Great Spirit at this 
point, whereas among the Menominee this official is a very promi- 
nent character and one of high importance in the ceremony. 



COMPARISON OF THE DREAM DANCE WITH 
THE GHOST DANCE. 

In view of the fact that all, or at least most religious creeds 
wherever found have certain fundamental principles, which are 
very similar, it is quite natural that the dream dance faith should 
possess certain features which appear in various other religions. 
Perhaps its nearest parallel is the ghost dance religion, which for 
many years formed a very important factor in the life of the In- 
dians of a large part of the western United States. On the other 
hand, the two faiths are dissimilar in many of their details, and it 
may be worth while to make a short comparison of the two. 

Mr. James Mooney's excellent and exhausive paper entitled 
"The Ghost-Dance Religion"^ gives a full discussion of the origin, 
the rise and fall, and the details of this important religion. It ap- 
pears that this faith in its first tangible form had its origin with a 
Delaware prophet whose first vision of importance came to him in 
1762, and was the direct expression in this religfious manner of the 
ever increasing discontent which naturally arose among the Indians 
with the encroachments of the whites upon their territory and the 
imposition of the customs and artificial conditions of the new comers 
upon them. In fact one of the chief tenets of this prophet was the 
requirement that the adherents of the new faith should use not only 
their influence, but the violence of war in ridding the country of the 
white-man, whose presence was the greatest calamity which had 
ever befallen the Indians. The doctrine as promulgated by this 
prophet had, therefore, as one of its chief features the direct com- 



'Ann. Rep. Bur. Amer. Ethn. XIV, part a, 1896^ 



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294 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

mand of the Great Spirit that war should be made upon the whites. 
In this respect it differed very materially frcrni the more recent teach- 
ings of this religion, which prescribed the very opposite conduct, as 
will be shown later. 

In various other respects the creed of the Delaware prophet was 
a good one. It prescribed, so far as inter-tribal relations were con- 
cerned, a reign of brotherhood, and a cessation of inter-tribal wars. 
It prescribed also a state of most perfect intra-tribal felicity which 
included a doctrine similar to that of the golden rule, and which pre- 
scribed the abandonment of the use of intoxicating liquors which 
had by that time become a great curse among most of the tribes. 
Finally, it prescribed the supplanting of the old faiths, especially 
those concerned with the medicine ceremonies, by the new religfion. 

After some years of this supposedly divine guidance through the 
agency of this prophet a large number of the tribes, many of which 
had formerly been the bitterest of enemies, were united under the 
leadership of Pontiac for a determined eflfort looking toward the 
overthrow of the British Colonies, for it was against them that the 
feelings of the Indians were directed, while the French, on the 
other hand, were considered their friends. The progress and out- 
come of this war are matters of history. It ended with the complete 
defeat of the Indian forces, and with the final killing, through 
treacherous means, of Pontiac himself. 

As is the case with all such Messiah movements, first one time 
and then another, was set for the final coming of the millenium and 
the establishment by supernatural means of a great and universal 
Indian paradise. These prophesies having failed and the war of 
Pontiac, which was a direct outgrowth of this religion, having ended 
disastrously the faith received a very sever blow from which it did 
not recover for many years, though it still survived in a more or 
less latent state. 

In fact it was not until over forty years later that any important 
agitation along these lines again arose. This came through the 
revelations and teachings of Tenskwatawa, the Shawano prophet, 
who in 1805 announced his revelations, which were in most respects 
quite like those of his predecessor above mentioned. In his visions 
in which he was supposed to journey to the spirit world, and to 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 295 

communicate directly with the Great Spirit he received instructions 
concerning the ghost dance religion and concerning the conduct of 
himself and of his followers. His teachings were a denunciation of 
all forms of the then existing witchcraft and medicine practices, a 
denunciation of drinking and of the use of the white-man's dress 
and implements, as also of the practice of the inter-marriage be- 
tween the white-men and Indian women. He prescribed that his 
followers should return to the old mode of life where all property 
was in common, and where buckskin clothing and the fire-stick 
should replace the white-man's dress and his flint and steel. 

The naturally religious nature of the Indians caused them to 
quickly take up the teachings of this new prophet, and to herald 
him as the direct mouthpiece of the Great Spirit, with the result that 
delegations came from many tribes both near and far to visit him 
and receive his teachings, which they in turn transmitted to the 
members of their respective tribes. Tenskwatawa was the brother 
of Tecumseh, who was a level headed and astute chieftain, and who 
was quick to see in the teachings of his brother which brought all 
these delegations to their village the opportunity for the organiza- 
tion of a great political movement, which would, he believed, enable 
his race to form a confederation which would be powerful enough to 
stop the further invasion of their territory by the whites, who had 
already driven the Indians from the whole Atlantic seaboard and 
the region as far west as the Ohio valley. He had for years insisted 
that the region west of the Ohio should be unmolested by the whites 
and left as the domain of the Indians, and he saw in the conditions 
now before him the opportunity to organize the various tribes against 
this common enemy and eflFectually stem the tide of white immigra- 
tion which was pressing farther and farther westward and becom- 
ing more and more insistent in its demands for greater territory. 
Acting upon this idea he succeeded in forming one of the greatest 
confederations known in American history. Its power was finally 
broken through a strategetic move by General Harrison in 1811, 
but Tecumseh and many of his followers participated on the side of 
the British in the war of 18 12. 

The hopes of the Indians for victory through supernatural means 
had been great and their expectations of an ideal paradisial con- 



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296 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

dition had been high, but their realization of these hopes and ex- 
pectations had received a severe shock with the result that their faith 
was in most cases completely shaken and their prophet was re- 
pudiated. Thus, for the second time the teachings of the ghost 
dance religion had proven false and the prophesies of its leaders had 
not come true, with the result that most of its followers repudiated 
it and returned to their former faiths. 

During the following years up to the latter part of the 19th 
century various lesser prophets and leaders sprang up, but with no 
very great success until in 1889 Wovoka, a Paiute, residing in the 
Mason valley, Nevada, received revelations which caused him to 
proclaim himself the Messiah and which gave him great prestige and 
gave the ghost dance religion a new life and an entirely new mean- 
ing. 

Whereas the element of opposition to the existing order of things 
had been an important factor in the teachings of the two principal 
prophets above mentioned, Wovoka taught that all men, regardless 
of race, were under the patronage of the Great Spirit and that so 
long as the Indians were in association with other races they must 
treat them as brothers and in every way obey the precepts laid down 
in the doctrine of brotherly love and tolerance. He was grossly 
misrepresented in many instances, it being stated that the ultimate 
object of his doctrine was the same as were those of the former 
prophets, and that there would eventually be an uprising for the 
massacre of the whites. His teachings were, however, so far as this 
point was concerned, directly the opposite. They prescribed that 
the Indians must live at peace with the whites and that they must 
treat them in every way in a fraternal manner. Furthermore, they 
expressly prescribed that the Indians must put away all the old 
practices which in any manner savored of war. That blood was 
shed at this time and on account of this religion cannot be denied 
especially when the battle of Wounded Knee is recalled, but this 
fact is not directly chargeable against the precepts of the faith itself. 
Together with these special precepts and ethical principles certain 
ritualistic observances in the former of the ceremony, itself, of the 
ghost dance were prescribed. 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 297 

The dance with its creed, prescribing honesty, good will and 
peace, spread very rapidly and pilgrimages were now made from 
great distances to meet the Messiah, as had been done in the case 
of the Shawano prophet. In this way the ghost dance in the form 
then given to the people by Wovoka spread rapidly over a large area 
of the plains and the, western plateau regions, but it seems not to 
have gone to any extent into the regions east of the lower course of 
the Missouri river, and hence did not come to the Minnesota and 
Wisconsin peoples. It is an interesting fact, however, that the dream 
dance appears to have come at about this same time from the Minne- 
sota tribes to the Chippewa and Menominee of Wisconsin, and that 
while these two ceremonies are by no means the same there appear 
to be certain features common to the two which point to a possible 
connection between them. 

The essential features of the ghost dance religion as they ap- 
peared in their most recent form, that taught by Wovoka, when 
compared with those underlying the dream dance show certain in- 
teresting similarities and diflferences as follows : 

1. Both faiths have their origin in revelations, which come to 
individuals who are supposed to be especially endowed with occult 
powers, and who are given in these visions the creed of the faith 
and the ritualistic procedure of the ceremony with instructions to 
transmit them to their people. 

2. The creed in each religion embodies certain ethical principles 
which call for a reign of peace, good will and justice, and for the 
equality of races and individuals. 

3. The object sought by the worship in each case is the future, 
and secondarily the present, betterment of the individual partici- 
pants and the race at large. This in the case of the ghost dance 
takes the form of an idea that a regeneration of the earth will short- 
ly be in order at which time the Indians are to be given back their 
former life and are, together with their resurrected relatives and 
friends, to live upon the earth in a state of perpetual youth and 
under ideal conditions. This state of aflfairs is to come with the ap- 
pearance of a Messiah upon the earth and will be heralded by signs. 
Various definite dates have been prophesied for its arrival and it is 
the failure of these prophesies which has caused the apparent aban- 



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298 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

donment from time to time of the faith, though the naturally relig- 
ious feelings of the people quickly respond to new prophesies and 
new revelations of a similar kind. With the dream dance, on the 
other hand, it appears that, while a similar idea is the underlying 
principle, it has taken no such tangible form. The devotees are 
content to pin their faith to a promised new order of things, which 
shall be ushered in at an indefinite future date. The most important 
part of this faith is the hope of the devotees for reward in the 
ordinary spirit world in return for good deeds and upright living in 
the present world. 

4. The desire of the devotees of each of these religions are ex- 
pressed by means of invocations to the Great Spirit and by means of 
definite and fixed ritualistic ceremonies. 

The important features of these ritualistic observances, as com- 
pared one with another, are as follows : 

A. The ghost dance is held in an unenclosed area, the g^und 
being, however, usually consecrated by the priests before the be- 
ginning of the ceremony. The dream dance, on the other hand, is 
held within an enclosure definitely set apart for the purpose, and 
which must be entered by one, or scmietimes two, fixed openings. 

B. There are certain sacred objects connected with each of these 
ceremonies. In the ghost dance these are, the sacred crow, certain 
feathers, maces, arrows and game sticks, and especially a large tree 
or pole which is placed in the center of the dancing area and about 
which the dancers circle. In the dream dance, on the other hand, 
there are two objects of special sacredness, the large drum and the 
calumet. The only thing found in the dream dance which would 
be in any way analogous to the tree or pole of the ghost dance is 
the large cross which is kept in the center of the dancing area at 
Whitefish. This is, however, not present in any other locality so 
far as known, and does not even here form a central point about 
which to dance. Furthermore, it is a very recent introduction as 
will be shown later. 

C. No musical instruments are used in the ghost dance, where- 
as a large drum is the central figure and one of the most important 
features of the dream dance. 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 299 

D. In the ghost dance there is no priesthood other than the 
seven leaders of the dance, and there are no other special officials. 
Further, the participants are not divided into definite classes. In 
the dream dance there are certain definite officials, such as the four 
directors, the pipe tenders, the "chief priest," and the chief drum- 
mer. Furthermore, in this ceremony the participants are very exact- 
ly divided into the three classes: the drummers, the women who 
assist in the singing, and the dancers. 

E. In the ghost dance men, women and children are all per- 
mitted to participate in the dancing, whereas in the dream dance 
only certain definite men are permitted to dance, while others drum, 
and the women are never permitted to do either, but confine their 
activities to assisting in the singing. Girls likewise may assist in 
the singing, and boys are early taught to dance or drum. 

F. In the ghost dance the participants are very exactly painted 
with symbolic designs, whereas in the dream dance painting is not 
at all an essential feature, and is rarely used. 

G. In the ghost dance all the participants form a circle, each 
person grasping the hand of his adjacent neighbor, and all moving 
sidewise with a dragging, shuflfling step in time to the songs which 
provide the music. In the dream dance, on the other hand, each 
man who participates dances entirely independently of every other 
dancer and the movement is always forward, and in no case side- 
wise, as above mentioned. 

H. In both these dances dogs are very strictly excluded from 
the dancing area. 

I. After the completion of the ghost dance the participants 
bathe as a purification ceremony, while no such practice appears to 
exist in connection with the dream dance. 

J. The ghost dance is usually a night ceremony, beginning late 
in the afternoon or in the early evening, though it may sometimes 
begin in the morning. The dream dance, on the other hand, always 
begins in the forenoon and usually rather late in the forenoon, and 
the ceremony proper ends late in the afternoon. While there is a 
ceremony in the evening it is of much less importance and is quite 
secondary to the real ceremony of the day. 

K. In most regions no fires are used in connection with the 
ghost dance, but among the northern Cheyenne four large fires are 



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300 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

buUt in a particular manner at the four cardinal points. In the 
dream dance fire does not figure except as the calumet may be con- 
sidered a sacrificial altar. 

L. The ghost dance has for one of its chief objects the com- 
munication of the participants with the spirits of departed relatives 
and friends, this being accomplished by hypnotic trances induced 
through the agency of the medicine man. The chief object of the 
dream dance, on the other hand, is to communicate with the Great 
Spirit and invoke his aid for various purposes, but no special com- 
munication with the future world is undertaken, and nothing re- 
lated either to trances or to hypnosis plays any part in it. 

M. One of the important features connected with the various 
prophets of the ghost dance religion has been the belief in their 
ability to cure the sick and even raise the dead. No such idea ap- 
pears to exist among those who embrace the dream dance religion, 
not even at Whitefish where Mr. Steve Grover holds a position 
which is quite comparable to that of a prophet in the ghost dance. 

It will thus be apparent that these two ceremonies have various 
features which are analogous or in some cases even identical. This, 
together with the facts that it came to these people from the west 
and that it may have arisen at about the same time at which the last 
important wave of the messiah cult and ghost dance religion were 
spreading so rapidly over the western plateaus and plains, might 
perhaps be taken as an indication of a connection between the dream 
dance and this latest version of the ghost dance. 

That this connection is doubtful, however, and that the dream 
dance, as such, arose quite independently of the later form of the 
ghost dance seems much more probable. It seems in fact quite prob- 
able that the Sioux girl's vision which gave birth to the dream dance 
came to her at a time prior to the last wave of the ghost dance re- 
ligion, which started in 1889; or, if it came later, that she belonged 
to a division of the Sioux not yet reached by this wave. Had she 
and her people been familiar with this new version of the creed and 
had they been active devotees of it her revelations would have un- 
doubtedly been much more influenced by its precepts. Also there is 
a certain amount of weight to be attached to the indefinite state- 
ment of Chippewa and Menominee informants that her vision came 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 301 

to her some time between twenty and thirty years ago. If nearer the 
latter than the former date her revelations antedate those of 
Wovoka by several years. 

On the other hand, there are a sufficient number of similar de- 
tails in these two ceremonies so that it seems very probable that her 
vision was more or less influenced by beliefs derived from the older 
versions of the g^ost dance which originated from the teaching^ of 
the earliest prophets, various of which beliefs must have been held 
over in the minds of her people from these earlier days even though 
the cult had fallen into disrepute and the prophets had been re- 
pudiated. 

THE DREAM DANCE HELD AT WHITEFISH, 
JULY 2nd to loth, 1910. 

From the foregoing comparisons of this ceremony as it exists 
among these two tribes it is obvious that the Menominee ceremony 
is somewhat the more aboriginal of the two. Furthermore, a very 
interesting special feature of the dream dance is that which was 
found at the point known as Whitefish about three miles west of the 
village of Reserve on the Lac G>urt Oreilles reservation. In this 
special feature is shown also an interesting instance of the manner 
in which a ceremony that is well established, and which extends 
over a wide range of territory, may be at any time altered in some 
particular locality. The dream dance had been for many years 
practiced, in the same manner as that above described, by the In- 
dians of the vicinity of Whitefish, and bore no particular features 
other than the ones above mentioned. However, from the visions of 
a little girl, which happened to be accompanied by certain cor- 
roborative circumstances, there were created certain entirely new 
features in this ceremony, which have rendered Whitefish more or 
less of a Mecca for those who embrace the dream dance faith. In 
fact it not infrequently happens that Indians come from various 
other localities, even as far distant as Oklahoma, to attend one of 
these ceremonies. By virtue of the fact that a good opportunity was 
presented to attend and to make a detailed study of the nine da3rs 
dream dance, called in Chippewa bwoni-nfmitiwin, held at White- 
fish, July 2nd to loth, 1910, it may be of interest to consider the 



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302 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

parts of this ceremony in detail as they passed day by day, omitting 
for the sake of brevity descriptions of the drum and such other 
matters as have already been considered in the fore part of this 
paper and which are in a large measure alike in all of these cere- 
monies wherever found. 



FIRST DAY, JULY 2nd, 1910. 

Unfortunately it was impossible to arrive at the dancing ground 
before the latter part of the afternoon of this first day. Practically 
nothing of importance was missed, however, since only eight or ten 
people had as yet assembled, and since during the following days 
all the important features of the ceremony were repeated. The 
ceremony of this first day ended completely in the latter part of the 
afternoon, there being upon this occasion no evening ceremony such 
as that held on the following days. 

SECOND DAY, JULY 3rd, 1910. 

This particular dream dance had been scheduled for the fourth 
of July especially, and it was no great wonder that there were few 
in attendance on Saturday, July 2nd. On the following day, how- 
ever, many more arrived, for, in as much as this date fell on Sun- 
day, it made a convenient stopping place in work, and many of the 
people came from various parts of the reservation, and most of them 
remained during the following days. 

The drums, dewe'gun (plural dewe'gunun), of which there were 
two used in this ceremony, were set in the dancing area at about 
eight-thirty a.m. During the night they had been kept in a neigh- 
boring house, and before being set out in the dancing area in the 
morning everything was prepared for the dance, which was to oc- 
cupy the greater part of the day. Each drum was very carefully 
set, the four stakes, called wagnu'tkibitciguniin, which supported it 
being placed in the holes in the ground which had been prepared for 
them on the previous day. The holes were made by driving a crow 
bar down at the four cardinal points about each drum. Much care 
is necessary in making these holes, since the stakes must extend 
down onto the ground just far enough so that when the drum is 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 303 

hung by means of its loops upon them^ it will clear the ground by 
from one to two inches. Once these holes are made they serve 
throughout the whole ceremony, since the drum is always replaced 
each day in the same position in the dancing area. In this particular 
case the two drums occupied the southern half of the area, their 
positions being shown at A and B in fig. i. Had there been more 
drums they would have been placed in convenient locations in other 
parts of the dancing area, and in such a way as to bring them more 
or less equidistant from the center of the area, which was in this 
particular case occupied by a large red cross, fig. i, C. The drums 
were placed without any particular ceremony, they simply being 
taken in, each by its respective tender, called obigiSige'-winini* 
(plural obigijige'-winini-wug), and hung upon the stakes and ad- 
justed in the proper manner. These drum tenders are supposed to 
care for the drum during the ceremony, to heat its heads and keep 
them tight, to place the drum in position for the dance and to remove 
it after the day's dance is over, and in every way to see that it is 
properly handled. The particular tenders in this case were for the 
westernmost drum, fig. i. A, adjidja'k and nike^s; and for the 
easternmost drum, fig. i, B, tig^'mic. A careful distinction should be 
made between these tenders and the drum warden, called 
we-dewe'gun-it, whose office is to keep and care for the drum during 
the intervals between ceremonies. For the drum A above men- 
tioned the wardens were John Grover and Mike Taylor. The name 
of the warden of the drum situated at B was not learned. As soon 
as this placing of the drums had been finished the music began. 

In some instances there were but one or two dnmimers at each 
drum at the start, but, as soon as the music had been going for a 
short time, other drummers came in and joined the drummers' 
circle. The only one of the drummers who has a special designation 
among the Chippewa is the head drummer who is called 
bagaa'kokwan-genawindufig. The first part of this term is derived 
from the name of the special beaded ceremonial wand or drum stick 
which is called bagaa'kdkwan and which serves this head drummer 
as a kind of badge of office. The only time when it is ever used to 
beat the drum is during the ceremony of dedication of the latter. 
The drum is struck once only with it at that time. The rank and 



* J^ haf a loand fimilar to g in tsare. 



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804 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

file of the drummers, as also of the dancers are called simply 
nimiwe'-winini-wug, literally dancing men. Immediately about the 
drum were placed mats and rugs, upon which the drummers knelt, 
or sat, throughout the whole dance of the day. 

During the preliminary drumming, as also later in the day when 
the dance was in progress, the drums took turn about in providing 
the music. One drum would be played for from one to several tunes 
during which time the drunmiers of the other drum would rest, after 
which this other drum would provide the music while those -of the 
first drum rested. This preliminary drumming went on until about 
nine-fifteen a.m. By this time a very considerable number of people 
had assembled within the enclosure, which in this particular case 
was, as above mentioned, a square fence, around the full length of 
which there ran a bench upon which the spectators and dancers sat. 
An exterior view of this enclosure is shown in plate IX, fig. 2, while 
plates X to XIX show various views taken within this same enclosure. 
By about nine-fifteen most of the women who were to participate in 
the singing had joined the women's circles, represented by the circles 
of triangles about the drums in figs, i and 2, these being just out- 
side the dnunmers' circles, represented by the circles of crosses. 
Most of the dancers and spectators also had assembled by this time. 

The rank and file of the dancers are called nimiwe'-wmini-wug, 
which signifies literally dancing men, but there are connected with 
each drum separately certain special personages among the dancers 
who have special designations and who are supposed to occupy posi- 
tions about the dancers' circle in the order of their rank. These are 
(i) the head dancers or "chief priests," called o'gima (plural 
o'gimag), (2) the four directors or masters of ceremony, called 
ogitcida-ogima (plural ogitcidag-ogimag) or niga'nu-dgitcida (plural 
niga'nu-ogitcidag), and (3) the two messengers called skabe'wis 
(plural skabewisug). After these comes the rank and file of the 
dancers above mentioned. 

It was then not until about nine-fifteen that the dance itself be- 
gan. There was no visible signal given for the commencement of 
the dance, and it was claimed by the Indians that no special tune 
was played to begin it. Several men simply arose and commenced to 
dance at this time, and from then on until about six forty-five p.m. 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 306 

the dance proceeded round after round with very short intermissions, 
except when speeches were being made, and during the time when 
the feast was being served. On this day the maximum number of 
dancers assembled was seventeen, and the number of drummers at 
each drum varied from two to nine. 

During the forenoon various of the men made speeches. Among 
those who spc^e were two or three of the old men, who reside in the 
vicinity of Whitefish. They discoursed upon various subjects, and 
one old man called particular attention to the object of the ceremony, 
declaring that the whole ceremony was the religion of his people, 
and that it must be considered to be as sacred as the religion of the 
white-man, and that it must be at all times kept and fostered, with 
due reverence to its precepts and fidelity to its creed. He declared 
that the drum was a direct gift from the Great Spirit, or ma'nltu, 
and that they should upon this occasion show their appreciation of 
the beneficence of the ma'nitu by joining most heartily in the cere- 
mony and having an enthusiastic and successful gathering. He 
exhorted the people not to be bashful in the presence of the whites, 
and said that they should never feel ashamed of their religion since 
it was in every way equal, from their standpoint, to the religion of 
the whites. 

Another man said, among other things, that he rejoiced to see 
several strangers who had come from considerable distances to at- 
tend the ceremony. This and other similar declarations were made 
as a kind of speech of welcome to the visitors who were present. 
In return two of these visitors spoke. In fact they made several 
speeches during the course of this second day. One of them, a Chip- 
pewa from Minnesota, who is shown in plate XIII, fig. 2, in the act 
of speaking, said that he had come over to Whitefish especially to 
attend this dance, and that he rejoiced in the welcome which he was 
receiving, and assured his hosts of the great pleasure it was giving 
him to participate in the ceremony. It is an interesting fact that 
here at Whitefish there has sprung up a special variant of the dream 
dance cult, the details of which will be fully described later, and 
that by virtue of this fact the ceremonies held at this particular place 
are heralded to considerable distances as of great importance. In 
fact almost every summer when this dance is held Indians are to be 



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306 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

found here from various parts of the region immediately to the west, 
and even from as far away as Oklahoma. Notices are sent out by 
mail sometime before it is intended to hold one of these ceremonies 
and usually quite a number come from distant points to attend it 
That few came upon this occasion is due to the fact that a report of 
a smallpox epidemic in this section had spread about and had dis- 
suaded the Indians from a distance from coming. These few people, 
however, had come from Minnesota, and later in the ceremony a 
considerable delegation from the St. Croix region in Wisconsin 
arrived. 

The speeches made at these ceremonies are not always of an ultra 
serious nature, in fact it is not at all necessary to look and act ex- 
tremely serious in order to participate in one of these dream dances. 
Frequently dancers purposely do various things to create a laugh, 
and now and then a speaker purposely makes some remark which 
causes a great outburst of applause or laughter. For instance, the 
particular speaker from Minnesota above mentioned, remarked dur- 
ing his speech, after having dilated upon the royal reception which 
was being accorded him by his hosts, that he was a bachelor and 
that he saw about him such a great number of good looking women 
that he was greatly pleased, and that he was not at all sure but that 
he might find some one of them who would be willing to become his 
wife. This was regarded as a very facetious suggestion upon his 
part and provoked a round of laughter, but still greater mirth was 
caused when, upon taking his seat, this same speaker asked one of 
the messengers to bring him a drink of water, whereupon another 
one of the messengers remarked that from that sign his chance of 
obtaining a wife in that community was very poor, since he had ob- 
served that the women at this reservation were very much aversed to 
waiting on their husbands. This was but one of the many instances 
where the solemnity of the occasion was relieved and where matters 
were enlivened very considerably by these little pleasantries and 
jokes at the expense of some individual or group of individuals. It 
must be observed, however, that throughout all this pleasantry there 
was in no case the slightest manifestation of a spirit of facetiousness 
in connection with the drum, or the other sacred objects connected 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 307 

with the ceremony. In speaking of and in handling these objects 
the most solemn and profound respect was always paid them. 

Another one of the visitors who spoke on this first day said that 
he had occasion to travel about a great deal, that he was very fond 
of the dream dance, and never missed an opportunity of attending 
one of these ceremonies. In his travels he had had occasion to 
journey far to the westward, and that he wished to tell the people 
assembled that he had encountered in this extreme western region 
(probably in the Sioux country) a drum which had been made by 
the people of Whitefish. It had been presented to some people 
toward the west and had finally found its way to the community in 
which he had encountered it. He said, furthermore, that the people 
of Whitefish were always very well spoken of by all the tribes 
with whom he had come into contact, because of their hospitality and 
on account of their care in celebrating the dream dance. 

Upon entering the dancing area, each participant in the cere- 
mony presented whatever amount of tobacco he or she wished to 
give for the benefit of the ceremony. This was given in most cases 
directly to one or the other of the two drums, the particular one 
selected being the drum to which this individual logically owed his 
allegiance, for each drum represents a separate community or a 
separate group of individuals in a community and a person is sup- 
posed to take up his station in connection with the drum to which 
he logically belongs. In many instances tobacco was given not only 
to the drum but also to the cross which was in the center of the 
area, and in some instances a third donation was made to the prin- 
ciple instigator of this ceremony, or as he might be termed the 
"chief priest." The Chippewa term applied to this official is o'gima 
(plural 6'gimag), which is the same as the term for chief of the tribe. 
By virtue of certain special revelations which will be given later, 
Mr. Steve Grover holds this high office here at Whitefish. There 
were in this ceremony also two other men to whom, by virtue of 
their leadership, this term o'gima was applied. These were Billy 
Boy and djicrb-dlnigun. The amount of tobacco given by each in- 
dividual is entirely a personal matter and concerns himself alone, 
but it is considered very bad form to enter the area without making 
at least a small donation, and the larger the donation the more it is 



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308 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

appreciated both by the other participants in the ceremony and by 
the Great Spirit, or ma'nitu, who presides over the ceremony. 

At about noon, the special messengers, or attendants as they may 
be called, at the ceremony, brought in onto the dancing area the 
foods which were to be used in the feasts. These messengers, called 
skabe'wis (plural skabe'wisug), are men whose duty it is to attend 
to the serving of the feasts, to bring water and to do all kinds of 
errands for the head men connected with the dance. There are 
usually two such messengers connected with each drum. In the 
present instance the drum A, fig. i, had two, but the drum B had 
but one. For drum A there were wa'biSec, or wa'ciman and Alec 
Rousseau, and for B there was gibitwe'we. These foods were placed 
directly west of the cross, and at a point, fig. i, D, about half way 
between it and the western or main entrance to the enclosure. When 
all was in readiness a special tune was played and sung and a man 
particularly appointed by the head men of the dance for this service 
performed a special ceremony, a kind of ceremony of consecration 
over these foods. This consisted of dancing about the foods in a 
particular manner and making certain ritulistic motions over them. 
It was impossible on this first occasion to observe in detail the exact 
sequence of these motions, and all the various parts of this dance, 
though it was observed more fully at a later time, and will be de- 
scribed in speaking of that occasion. 

This ceremony having been finished, the music stopped and the 
messengers or waiters proceeded to distribute the foods among all 
those present. Each person who attended the ceremony had a cup 
or other dish of his own, and this was taken by the messengers and 
filled. In plate XV, fig. 2, the messengers are shown serving the 
foods for the feast. When everyone had been served, and not until 
then, it was considered proper to partake of the feast. This feast 
lasted perhaps three-quarters of an hour, after which the dancing 
was resumed and continued throughout the rest of the afternoon 
until about 6 45, as above mentioned. 

During the course of the day the calumet was smoked the regu- 
lation four times, as has been already outlined in speaking of this 
subject in the early part of this paper. In this case there was but 
one pipe connected with each drum. This was smoked not only by 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 309 

the dnimmers themselves, but also by the dancers and spectators 
connected with that particular drum. So far as observed, however, 
there was no case in which the calumet belonging to one drum was 
passed about among those people who were connected with the other 
drum. As elsewhere noted, such a pipe is kept by a special pipe 
tender called pwo'gun-i-winini, literally pipe man. In this ceremony 
the pipe tender of the drum at A was puckwudaiya'ma, while that of 
the drum at B was weweclga'bok. 

During the early part of the afternoon one of the messengers 
went about with a bag of tobacco, presenting each person present 
with a pinch, except a very few of the old men, who, so far as could 
be learned, received no tobacco for the reason that the matter in 
hand was one which concerned them, and concerning which they 
were already fully informed. This tobacco was given by an old 
man, one of the important men of the ceremony, and its purpose was 
that of an announcement that he intended to do some particular 
thing, and that he wished the presence, when the time came, of 
everyone to whom the tobacco was given. After the passing of the 
tobacco this old man arose and announced that on the following day 
he would recount in the circle a wonderful vision which had come to 
another man, a young man who did not consider himself a proper 
person to announce such a dream, and who had therefore asked this 
old man, who was more familiar with such supernatural matters to 
announce it for him in order that action might be taken upon it. 
The vision had appeared to this young man upwards of a year be- 
fore, but he was not then in a position such that he wished to relate 
it. The old man said that, at the time of making the announce- 
ment, he did not himself know what the vision was. He said that 
the young man was not then present but would arrive on the follow- 
ing morning, and would then relate to the old man his vision which 
he in turn would recount when the proper time came in the cere- 
mony. 

This announcement was received with signs of satisfaction by 
the participants, and was followed immediately by a round of danc- 
ing, after which the same old man announced that the superintend- 
ent of the Indian school at Hayward had sent word that he wished 
to donate a beef for the feast of the following day. The old man 



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310 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

also said that certain men were about to start to bring this meat, and 
that the particular people whose duty it was to attend to such mat- 
ters should be on hand early the next morning to prepare the meat 
and attend to the making of the feast for the following day. 

It has been mentioned in the earlier part of this paper that the 
speeches now and then partake of the nature of verbal chastisments 
of those persons who have conducted themselves improperly. Some 
of them also are in the nature of warnings against improper con- 
duct. After the above announcement concerning the feasts of the 
next day another round of dancing was held, in which nearly every- 
one present joined, this being a sign of the appreciation of the people 
for the donation which had just been announced. Immediately 
following this dance, John Quarters, one of the prominent men of 
this vicinity, made a long speech, in which he said that he had under- 
stood that certain unscrupulous white-men were planning to come 
to this dance for the purpose of selling liquor to the Indians. He 
urged the Indians to use every effort to prevent this and declared 
that he, as a representative of his township, which lays immediately 
adjacent to the reservation, for he as a matter of fact lives just off 
the reservation proper, would pledge himself to see that no liquor 
was sold within the jurisdiction of his township. He said that he 
had spoken to ask their co-operation to see that none was sold on 
the reservation, and especially did he urge upon them that none 
should be used during the ceremony, recalling to their minds the 
sacredness of the dream dance and the great displeasure which it 
would give the Great Spirit if any of them were guilty of drinking, 
or any of the other forbidden practices. His speech was favorably 
received, as was manifested by the participation of nearly all those 
present in the rounds of dancing which immediately followed it. 

A little later, the author's interpreter, Mr. Ira Isham, discussed 
with Mr. Quarters the author's presence at the ceremony, the ob- 
jects in view and the motives underlying his visit, after which Mr. 
Quarters made another long speech, in which he recounted to the 
people what had been told him by the interpreter, and urged that 
the stranger be received in a friendly and courteous manner. His 
speech was throughout punctuated with expressions of assent from 
his auditors, and the round of dancing which immediately followed 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 311 

was participated in by nearly all present, thus giving further proof 
of their good-will and of the spirit of approbation in which the 
speech was received. Shortly after this one of the principle men of 
the ceremony came over to state that on the following day if the 
author would bring his dish, as did the other participants in the cere- 
mony, they would take care to see that it was kept well filled. He 
was greatly pleased to receive the assurance from the author that 
this would be done. This illustrates the kindly manner in which 
everyone, regardless of race, creed or station is received at one of 
these ceremonies, providing of course he attends the ceremony in 
the proper spirit and conducts himself in a fitting manner. The rest 
of the afternoon was taken up with dancing and with speeches upon 
various subjects, all the speeches being quite similar to those which 
have already been mentioned. 

Finally an old man, one of the four directors, ogi'tcidag-ogimag, 
arose and announced that two more tunes would be played by each 
drum, and that at the conclusion of these the ceremony for the day 
would be ended. This was a sign for everyone to participate, for 
although a man may remain seated during the rest of the day, he 
almost invariably, unless physically disabled, dances these last rounds 
of the day. It should be noted here that under ordinary circtim- 
stances there are four of these directors or masters of ceremony for 
each drum, but in the present case the one set of directors served for 
both drums. These four old men were bwegijik, zimaka"*', pwo'gun 
and bidu'k. 

Whereas, during all this time the drummers had kept very strict- 
ly each to his own drum, they now all assembled at one drum, and 
all played most heartily while everyone danced. The first of these 
two tunes was not different in its general character from others 
which had been played during the day, but the second was marked 
by a division into four parts. These parts were separated by short 
periods of drumming by striking on the edge of the drum. That is 
to say, the handle end of the drum stick was lowered so that instead 
of the head of the stick striking the drum head itself, the edge of 
the drum was struck with the handle. This made a gentle tapping 
which kept time with the song, which was itself correspondingly 
lowered by the singers dropping their voices. After each of these 



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312 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

intermissions in the drumming the drum sticks were ag^in raised 
so that they struck the head of the drum and the tune then pro- 
ceeded in the regular manner with its full force. Thus, by means 
of this tapping on the edge of the drum, the tune was divided into 
four parts. At the conclusion of this tune the loops of the drum 
were taken off the stakes and the drum was let down onto the 
ground. This signified that, so far as this particular drum was con- 
cerned, the ceremony was at an end. 

All the drummers then went over to the other drum and joined 
in the two tunes which were due from it. These were more or less 
dissimilar to those which had just been played upon the other drum. 
During the playing of these last tunes all the dancers present formed 
in a circle around the particular drum which was being played and 
danced most energetically. Finally, after this drum had also been 
let down from its stakes onto the ground, the whole day's ceremony 
was completed and the drums and their accessories were immediate- 
ly taken away and placed in their proper positions in the house 
adjacent, there to remain during the night. 

From nine o'clock to ten thirty in the evening a short informal 
dance was held in the house in which the drums were being kept 
One of the drums was placed on a blanket in order to protect it 
from direct contact with the floor, and a series of tunes similar to 
those during the day was played upon it, and to these the few 
dancers who were present danced. These evening ceremonies are, 
as has already been explained, much less elaborate than are those 
held in the daytime. They are not considered to be as potent as the 
daytime ceremonies, and do not have the effect upon the welfare of 
the people that is produced by the latter. They are held, however, 
with the same object in view, namely ; to please the Great Spirit and 
to invoke his good offices in behalf of the participants in particular 
and the community in general. 

THIRD DAY, JULY 4th, 1910. 

This was the first of the more important days of the dance. In 
fact it was perhaps the most important of the nine days occupied 
by this ceremony. The dance had been originally scheduled for 
July 4th, but had begun, as a matter of fact, on July 2nd. It was 
therefore not until the 4th that most of the people arrived and that 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 313 

the ceremony in its full force began. Announcement had been made 
on the previous day concerning a donation of a considerable amount 
of beef by the superintendent of the Indian school at Hayward, and 
a messenger had been sent to bring it. Everything was therefore in 
readiness for a good substantial feast, and the whole day's program 
was somewhat more elaborate than were those of the preceding days. 

The drums were placed in the circle at about nine a.m. though no 
singing was done before twelve. Some of the men began at about 
nine o'clock to carve and cook the meat, the women, meanwhile, at- 
tending to such matters as bread baking, tea making, etc. By eleven- 
thirty the whole feast was prepared and the kettles of meat and the 
pans of bread and other foods were placed on the table which was 
kept for this special purpose just outside the dancing circle and im- 
mediately south of the western entrance to it. 

At about twelve o'clock the drumming and singing began in the 
circle and the people assembled for the ceremony of the day. For 
about an hour they danced in the usual manner after which a man 
elaborately dressed in beadwork, much after the manner of one of 
the men shown in both figures of plate XV, borrowed a bell anklet 
from one of the dancers and placed it, in a north and south direc- 
tion, upon the ground at the position marked E in fig. i. This man 
acted in the capacity of consecrator of the foods of the feast. The 
consecrator is a definitely recognized official of the dream dance, 
being called by the Chippewa ugwase'kwe-winini, and in this par- 
ticular case performed an elaborate ceremony before the feast was 
served. One of the messengers had, just prior to this time, brought 
in a large kettle of meat which he placed at the position marked D 
in this same figure. The consecrator then performed a ceremony 
over the kettle of meat which served as a ceremony of consecration 
for the whole feast and included the meats and other foods which 
remained outside the circle as well as the one kettle of meat which 
was actually present in the circle and over which the ceremony was 
actually performed. 

This ceremony consisted of four parts, and proceeded as fol- 
lows: This consecrator, accompanied by two messengers, knelt at 
the position marked F in fig. i, facing the bell anklet at E, the kettle 
of meat at D and the cross which stood at C in the center of the 



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314 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

circle. A special tune was played throughout this entire ceremony 
of consecration and while he was in this kneeling position he swayed 
his body from side to side in time to this music. After a minute or 
two of this swaying he extended his arms horizontally to their full 
length and then raised them slowly upward, with the palms of his 
hands downward, swaying them also in time to the music. When 
his arms had reached a position which brought them at an angle of 
45 degrees with the perpendicular they being, of course, extended to 
their full length, he presented his palms upward and outward towards 
the east, after which he allowed his arms to drop to his sides. Still 
in this kneeling position he swayed his body in time to the music for 
a space of perhaps two or three minutes more after which the pre- 
senting of his palms toward the east was repeated in exactly the 
same manner as above described. This cycle was repeated four 
times in all.* 

The second division of the ceremony of consecration proceeded 
as follows: The consecrator, still accompanied by the two mes- 
sengers, arose from his kneeling position and danced in place for 
perhaps a couple of minutes. He then advanced towards the bell 
anklet and made a motion as if to pick it up. At this time, of course, 
his position was on the west of the anklet and the kettle of meat. 
He next danced a complete circle around both these objects and 
approached them from the north, again making the motion as if to 
pick up the anklet. Next, after dancing in place for a minute or so, 
he repeated his dance in a circle about the objects and approached 
them from the east with the same motion as if to pick up the anklet. 
Finally he repeated the same cycle, approaching the anklet frc«n the 
south, after which he picked it up and tied it about his waist. 

The third division of the ceremony was performed over the kettle 
of meat alone. After picking up the anklet, as above described, he 
danced in place for a short time and then performed a dance in a 
circle about the kettle, approaching it from the west and making a 



In almost every case the ritulistic observances were in cycles of four, though some 
instances were noted in which three appeared to be the number used among the Chip- 
pewa. Among the Menominee, however, no case of the use of three as a sacred num- 
oer was noted, and its use among the Chippewa was such as to make it impossible to 
determine definitelv whether it was connected with certain special observances or 
whether it was perhaps due to some error of the performer or to an error of observation. 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 815 

motion as if to strike it with a special beaded wand which he carried. 
He repeated this dancing in a circle about the kettle until he had 
approached it and had made the same motion of striking it from the 
north, from the east, and from the south, thus completing tl.e re- 
quired four times, and ending his part of the ceremony of con- 
secration. During all this time he had been followed and imitated in 
every motion by the two attendants or messengers, but they now 
continued to dance alone and to perform the fourth part of the cere- 
mony. 

This final portion of the ceremony consisted of the dancing by 
the two messengers of a complete cycle of four, such as has just been 
described in speaking of the third part of the ceremony. As they 
approached the kettle from each of the four cardinal points they 
made motions as if to strike or count coup upon the contents of the 
kettle, after which in each case they made motions as if picking up 
a part of the contents of the kettle and presenting it upward and 
outward towards the opposite cardinal point from that on which 
they then stood. All these as well as all of the foregoing motions 
of presentation toward the cardinal point opposite to that on which 
the performer stands, are said to be intended to symbolize the oflfer- 
ing of the food, or whatever is supposed to be contained in the hand 
of the performer, to the Great Spirit and to other deities which pre- 
side over the fortunes of the people and which are concerned with 
the particular cardinal points toward which these motions and offer- 
ings are made. Having counted their final coup upon this particular 
kettle over which the ceremony was being performed, the remainder 
of the kettles and dishes of food were then brought into the circle 
and the feast was ready to serve. These messengers, together with 
two or three other men, took the individual dishes consisting of 
cups, small tin plates and various other receptacles, each individual 
having brought to the dance his own dish and spoon, and filled these 
from the kettles, returning each dish to its pr(q)er owner. When 
all had been served, and not until then, every one was privileged to 
partake of the feast. 

Throughout the whole ceremony of consecration, just described, 
the drummers of one drum had played a special tune, which is de- 
voted to this particular purpose. The other drum had meantime 



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316 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

been silent. With the counting of the last coup by the messengers 
upon the kettle of meat the drumming ceased and throughout the 
serving of the food and partaking of the feast no music was heard. 
Immediately upon the conclusion of the feast, however, the music 
and dancing were resumed. 

The dancing continued in the ordinary manner for about half an 
hour, after which the calumets, a particular one of which belonged to 
each of the drums, were lighted. Each pipe was filled and handled 
by its special pipe tender called pwo'gun-i-winini (plural 
pwo'gun-i-winini-wug). Each pipe was filled with tobacco which 
was taken from the special tobacco tray, called sema'-winag^n, 
at the foot of the western stake of the drum to which the pipe be- 
longed, this tobacco having been taken in part, at least, from the 
special tobacco pouch, called ckibida'gun, fastened to the loop, which 
supports the drum on its western stake. The pipe tender in each 
case filled the pipe while standing on the western side of the drum 
and while facing the drtun. This therefore brought him facing 
toward the east. Having filled the pipe he held it above his head 
and somewhat in front of him, the long pipe stem extending toward 
the east. After holding it in this position for some seconds he slow- 
ly revolved it, the stem still being held in its horizontal position. 
The pipe was thus turned around over his head four times, after 
which it was lowered and the stem presented to one of the drum- 
mers, who drew upon the pipe while the pipe tender lighted a match 
and held it to the tobacco in the bowl. In this manner the pipe was 
finally lighted. It was then passed around the circle of drummers, 
each dnunmer taking from one to half a dozen puffs from it. After 
the circle of drummers had smoked from it, the pipe was then passed 
to the dancers who were particularly connected with the drum to 
which this pipe belonged, and each dancer was permitted to take a 
few puffs from it. In passing the pipe among the drummers it was 
generally handed by one drummer to the next. But as it passed 
about among the dancers it was always returned by a smoker to 
the pipe tender who received it and passed it on to the next smoker. 
In handling the pipe he always grasped it by the protruding point 
which projects out beyond the upright bowl itself. 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 317 

Finally after the pipe had passed around both these circles, that 
of the drummers and then that of the dancers, it was received by 
the pipe tender who sat down and himself smoked out the remainder 
of the tobacco in the bowl. It is an interesting fact that in this final 
smoking out of the pipe this protruding point of the bowl served 
another purpose. The pipe was not held up as in the ordinary man- 
ner, but was rested with this protruding point upon the ground, the 
smoker leaning over suflBciently to reach the stem. Plate XII, fig. 2, 
shows the smoking out of one of these pipes in this manner. The 
calumet as a whole is comparatively long and heavy, a fact which 
may account in part at least for the custom of resting this protrud- 
ing point on the ground or on a man's foot while he smokes. 

Finally, having finished this smoking out, the pipe tender de- 
tached the bowl from the stem, carefully knocked the ashes fr(Hn 
the bowl and replaced both the bowl and the stem at the foot of the 
western stake of the particular drum to which the pipe belonged, 
and here the pipe remained until the time for the next ceremonial 
smoke. Ordinarily such a pipe is smoked four times during the 
course of the day. 

During the early part of the afternoon a number of men made 
speeches expressing their satisfaction at the larg^ attendance at the 
dance and their pleasure at the good spirit which prevailed through- 
out the ceremony. None of these speeches were out of the ordinary, 
but were in a way testimonials from these various individuals signi- 
fying their own personal pleasure and satisfaction. 

As above stated, during the ceremony of the day before an old 
man had distributed tobacco and had then announced that he would 
to-day tell a vision which a certain young man not then present had 
had. Pursuant to this announcement therefore a blanket was spread 
during the middle of the afternoon at a point a little north of the 
cross in the center of the dancing area. Immediately various per- 
sons brought gifts of blankets, quilts, clothing, tobacco and other 
objects, and placed them on this blanket. A yotmg man was next 
led out and seated upon the blanket, and shortly thereafter a yotmg 
woman, with her two children, was seated near him. The old man 
then arose and took a position out near the center of the dancing 
area. Here he recounted the vision of this young man in which 



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318 BXn-LETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

a Spirit had appeared to him and given him a direct command from 
the Great Spirit that he should take as his wife this young woman, 
who was a widow whose husband had died upwards of two years 
before. He was commanded by the Great Spirit to marry this 
widow and to care for her and her two children, and to be to the 
children as their own father. Furthermore, the Great Spirit com- 
manded him to join the dance and to thereafter participate regulariy 
in the ceremonies. Up to this time he had, as a matter of fact, not 
been a member of the dream dance and had not participated to any 
extent. Still further, the Great Spirit had even told him what his 
part in the ceremony should be by commanding him to join one of 
the circles of drummers. At the conclusion of the old man's re- 
marks the young man was led over to one of the drums and seated 
in its drummers* circle, and from then on he participated in the 
drumming in the regular manner. 

The gifts, which had been placed on the blanket, were frcMn the 
relatives of the widow, and from those of her deceased husband. 
They were g^ven in recognition of the good service which this young 
man was about to perform in taking the widow as his wife and pro- 
viding for her and her children. These presents did not as a matter 
of fact profit this young man directly, for about an hour after he 
had been seated at the drum he arose and distributed among the 
people present all these gifts; giving a blanket to one, a quilt to 
another, a shirt to another, and so on until everything had been dis- 
tributed. So far as could be learned no special order or special con- 
sideration was used in making this distribution, and no patricular 
return of presents to this young man was required or expected. 

The yotmg man's vision was by this means only partly fulfilled. 
It was prescribed that, in the fall, or as it is expressed by the Chip- 
pewa when the leaves have fallen, it would be necessary for the 
young man to call a dance in order to fulfill to the last degree the 
command of the Great Spirit. 

During the latter part of the afternoon an old man arose and 
spoke in behalf of a young man who had been ill and unable to work 
for some months. He discussed the merits of the case and the 
desirability of obtaining governmental or other aid for the young 
man whose family was even at that time considerably in need. He 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 319 

then suggested that the 'Town Board" should vote an appropria- 
tion to assist the young man. 

It should here be explained that, while the Chippewa residing on 
this reservation are wards of the government to a very larg^ extent, 
they are given a considerable amount of independence so far as their 
local governmental affairs are concerned. They have a regularly 
organized township government, with a "Town Board," a town 
clerk and various other officials, and they have regular meetings at 
which they administer the affairs of their ccmimunity. Especially 
such matters as road work and the expenditure of town ftmds for 
the communal welfare are in the hands of this "Town Board." This 
old man's speech was followed by a round of dancing, after which 
a member of the "Town Board" itself rose and spoke on the sub- 
ject suggested by the old man. He showed that to vote an appro- 
priation for this young man, no matter how needy he might be, was 
an impossibility at that time since the town was already considerably 
in debt and had recently found it necessary to negotiate a loan of 
fourteen hundred dollars for road work. He suggested that the 
matter be taken up with the officials of the reservation and that 
another attempt be made to secure from that source the necessary 
aid. His speech was followed by another round of dancing, after 
which another old man spoke on this subject and offered the sugges- 
tion that a collection should immediately be taken up for the benefit 
of the young man. This old man's speech was translated by special 
request to the white people present, of whom there were a con- 
siderable number outside the ring. The result of this collection was 
the sum of five dollars and sixty cents, which was given directly to 
a merchant, who was himself an Indian and who had the full con- 
fidence of the people, with instructions that he should give to the 
young man and his family the value of this sum in merchandise, but 
that under no circumstances should he give the young man any 
money. By this means it was hoped to preclude the possibility of 
the use of any part of this sum for the purchase of liquor and to 
make it absolutely sure that the destitute family would receive the 
full benefit of the donation. This is a very excellent example of the 
attitude of the participants in the dream dance and of the people 
who believe so devoutly in its creed. They are at all times helpful 



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320 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

one to another and never let pass an opportunity to do an act of 
brotherly kindness, regardless of whether the recipient of this 
benefaction is a member of their own cult or not In fact it is even 
immaterial whether he is a member of their own race. Their creed 
demands that they shall at all times be helpful to anyone in need 
and that they shall promote the precepts of the golden rule to their 
fullest extent. 

From five o'clock to about six-fifteen the dancing was especially 
energetic and nearly all the dancers participated almost continu- 
ously. Finally one of the directors of the dance arose and an- 
nounced that the day's dance would end with the playing of two 
tunes by each drum. This was done in the same manner as has al- 
ready been described in speaking of the dance of July third. The 
drums were then removed to the house in which they were kept 
over night and the da/s ceremony was at an end 

When the director arose to make this announcement concerning 
the ending of the dance the two messengers of the westernmost 
drum started immediately to haul down the flags which were run 
up upon the poles at the gates about sunrise each day and which 
were always removed promptly upon the announcement of the con- 
clusion of the dance for the day. 

During the evening one of the usual, more informal dances was 
held in this house, and proceeded in about the same manner as was 
described in speaking of the dance of the previous evening. 

During the afternoon and during a considerable part of the night 
a white-man's dance was held by the younger people in an old school 
house, a short distance from the dream dance enclosure. During 
the day a small organ had been brought out from Reserve, and this, 
together with a violin, provided the music for the occasion. The 
dances were in almost every case the old fashioned square dances. 
Some of the older people came in during the evening and looked on, 
but few of them participated, the dancing being confined almost ex- 
clusively to the younger generation. 

There were certain features in the conduct of some of the partici- 
pants in these dances which contrasted very greatly indeed with 
the conduct of the participants in the dream dance. This, of course, 
is not at all strange when it is remembered that the dream dance is 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 321 

entirely a religious ceremony, whereas the dance of the whites is 
merely a pastime. As has already been mentioned intoxication, or 
even the slightest evidence of drinking, is met in the dream dance 
with the greatest of disapproval if not in fact upon scxne occasions 
with bodily violence. Unfortunately, however, the same rules as 
are so strictly enforced in the dream dance do not prevail at these 
white dances. The contrast, therefore, which was presented at this 
time was striking to say the least, for the reason that quite a nimiber 
of the young men had obtained liquor and had not only imbided, but 
had become boisterously drunk and deported themselves in a most 
ungentlemanly and disgusting fashion. There were in fact s<xne 
cases in which fisticuflfs and other forms of violent amusement were 
indulged in, and in one or two instances women were roughly 
handled by their drunken husbands. On the other hand many of 
the young men behaved in a perfectly proper manner and the dance 
in so far as they and the young women were concerned, was a very 
decorous and genteel affair. 

It is largely due to this improper conduct upon the part of certain 
undesirable individuals who attend that cause these white dances to 
be so much looked down upon by many of the members of the dream 
dance cult, though there is at the same time a certain inherent dis- 
like for them owing to the complete differences of the motives under- 
lying the two. 



FOURTH DAY, JULY sth, 1910. 

As usual the drums were placed at about nine o'clock, and a large 
part of the morning was occupied in the preparation of the foods 
for the feast. The dancing began at about eleven-thirty and pro- 
ceeded without any special incident until about twelve-thirty when a 
delegation of visitors from the region of Qam lake in Burnett county 
arrived and entered the enclosure, taking their seats along the 
northern border of the dancing area. They numbered about twenty- 
five all told and there were among them eight dancers. The chief, 
a lame man, was of course unable to participate in the dancing and 
sat throughout this day and the following days, smoking his long 
black chief's pipe a large part of the time. At about one o'clock one 



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BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSBUM, MILWAUK£E [Vol. I. 

of the head men of the dance announced that the ceremony of con- 
secration of food, which had been performed on the preceding day, 
was stifficient also for the food of the present day and that it would 
therefore be tmnecessary to perform another ceremony before Ae 
feast. The foods were then immediately brought in and served. 

After the feast the dancing was restmied and continued for a few 
minutes when a new phase of the ceremony appeared. Near the 
cross a large blanket was spread and upon this many of the people, 
residents of Whitefish and vicinity and therefore the hosts upon this 
occasion, brought and deposited all sorts of gifts : blankets, quilts, 
clothing, tobacco, foods, etcetera. In fact anything anyone wished to 
give on this occasion was acceptable. These were gifts for the 
visitors. And as soon as the entire lot of presents had been assem- 
bled they were divided into two bundles, one was taken over and 
presented to the chief of the Qam Jake people and the other pre- 
sented to a representative of another division of the Chippewa who 
resides further to the west and who, as above mentioned in speaking 
of the ceremonies of the day before, had spoken at some length con- 
cerning the esteem in which the people of Whitefish were held by 
other tribes which he had had occasion to visit. These were g^ven 
to him for the people whom he represented, but who were not able 
to be present at the time. A speaker of the Whitefish people then 
arose and announced that these presents were given by the hosts to 
their visitors as an indication of their friendship and esteem. He 
said that the presents had not been distributed to each separate 
visitor, but that this had been left for the chief of the Qam lake 
people to do as he deemed proper. 

This speech was followed by dancing, in which all of the dancers 
present participated. A little while later the speaker, gagigido'- 
winini, of the chief of the Clam lake people delivered a lengthy dis- 
course in which he assured the hosts of the great pleasure it was 
giving him and his people to attend this ceremony and assuring them 
of the gratitude of the visitors for the gifts which they had received, 
and giving all possible evidence in his speech of the friendly rela- 
tions existing between the two divisions of the people and in every 
way speaking to promote the good will and friendly feeling of every- 
one present. He then distributed among his own people the pres^ 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 323 

ents contained in the bundle. This was of course done for and at the 
direct instigation of the chief. It should be here mentioned that the 
chiefs rarely speak for themselves and rarely do anything such as 
distributing presents and the like among their people. These matters 
are attended to for them by their representatives who are commonly 
called speakers or orators. Such a man is chosen for this office, at 
least to a certain extent, by virtue of his ability as an orator, although 
other factors may enter into his selection. 

Shortly after this speech by the orator of the Clam lake chief the 
representative of the other division of the Chippewa also spoke, and 
told how there had been other members of his community who had 
planned to attend the ceremony, but for one cause or other they 
had been unable to do so, how they held the Whitefish people in high 
esteem and how they all regretted very much their inability to be 
present at this ceremony. He declared that he intended to take the 
bundle of gifts, which had been presented to him, just as it was then 
tied up and take it home to his people and there distribute the pres- 
ents in the same manner as if they were actually on hand to receive 
them in the dancing circle. 

Each of these speeches were followed by dancing, as were also 
each of the various speeches made later on in the afternoon. There 
followed directly after the speech by this last representative of the 
visitors other speeches by some of the prominent men among the 
Whitefish people, in which they expressed their gratitude to the 
Great Spirit for the good weather, for the excellent attendance at 
Ae ceremony, for the feasts and in general expressed their entire 
satisfaction at the progress of affairs. 

Toward the latter part of the afternoon a little unpleasant dr- 
sumstance arose. The duties of the four masters of ceremony above 
mentioned are especially to see that everything connected with the 
ceremony progresses in proper sequence and that the whole dance is 
conducted in the manner outlined by the original giver of the cere- 
mony. One of these masters of ceremony arose and spoke at some 
length censuring the people for not having conducted the ceremony 
strictly according to the rules laid down by the Sioux girl to whom 
the ceremony was originally given by the Great Spirit. He claimed 
that certain songs had been omitted and that certain parts of the 



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324 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. L 

ceremony should have been performed before the time at which he 
was speaking, and that their omission was a flagrant violation of the 
rules governing the ceremony. In particular he mentioned that they 
had omitted to set apart a special day for the principal man, or 
"chief priest," concerned with this ceremcxiy, Mr. Steve Grover. 
He claimed also that there should have been set apart a special day 
for each of the two drums and another special day for the Great 
Spirit, upon each of which days the ceremony performed should be 
particularly concerned with the subject to which the day was de- 
voted. He even went so far as to demand that the ceremony must 
be performed properly and to say that if the people present wished 
to do so they might remove him from his c^ce as director and ap- 
point another. He said, however, that he did not think that they 
would do so since he had been duly appointed to his office. He 
declared that he was simply discharging his duty as he saw it and 
that he expected the errors to be corrected. In view of his correct 
position he deemed it proper that he should be retained in office. 

Another of the four directors then spoke. He opened his ad- 
dress with the statement that he wished good feeling to prevail on 
every hand and that he did not want to offend anyone, but that he 
felt it his duty to call attention to the fact that he was one of the 
four directors, and, furthermore, that he was one of those to whom 
the details of the ceremony had been originally recounted when the 
ceremony was brought from the west to their community. He then 
declared that the ceremony had been conducted entirely in accord- 
ance with the instructions given and the rules laid down by the 
original giver of the ceremony. He also stated that everything had 
been done as prescribed and furthermore that he did not deem it 
within the province of any of the directors present to dictate to the 
drummers what tunes they should play. He said that he, therefore, 
felt it his duty to take issue with the former speaker and to say that 
he considered that the ceremony was progressing in the regular and 
prescribed manner. 

In answer to this speech the director who had first spoken arose 
and again called attention to the fact that he also was one of those 
to whom instructions concerning the ceremony had been originally 
given. He declared that he was a man who never forgot anything 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 325 

and that he still felt positive that he was correct and that he would 
not give up the contention that certain special days should be set 
apart as above indicated, and that certain parts of the ceremony and 
certain songs had been omitted. 

No reply was made to this speech, but a strong feeling of tense- 
ness and suspension was in the air, and from the looks on the faces 
of the participants there was certainly a question as to what the out- 
come of this controversy might lead to. It was, of course, not a per- 
sonal matter among the directors, but a matter which concerned the 
whole people and their religion and might therefore lead to grave 
misunderstandings in the whole community. The situation was, 
however, greatly relieved after a few minutes by the fact that one 
of the drummers started a tune. He was immediately joined by 
the rest of the drummers, with the result that all the dancers joined 
heartily in the dance which followed. This was said to be a silent 
expression of good will, the purpose of which was to smooth over 
the recent unpleasantness. 

FncMn this time on the dancing was very animated and everyone 
participated. There was a comparatively small amount of 
speech-making during the remainder of the afternoon. The special 
speaker of the Whitefish people made, however, a lengthy speech 
outlining to the participants the author's object in attending the 
ceremony and recommending that he be well received and shown 
every courtesy by the people. 

Finally at about six o'clock one of the directors made the usual 
announcements regarding the final dances of the day, the flags were 
hauled down, and the usual two songs by each drum were played, 
all of the dancers joining in the dance in every case. Thus all was 
ended, so far as the daytime ceremony was concerned, by six-fifteen. 

There was during the evening the usual drumming and a small 
amount of dancing in the house in which the drums were kept. This 
was not of more than an hour's duration all told. 

During the evening also there was held in the school house ad- 
jacent to the dancing circle a white-man's dance similar to the one 
mentioned as having been held on the previous evening. 



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326 BULLETIN, PUBUC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [VoL I. 

FIFTH DAY, JULY 6th, 1910. 

The drums were placed in the dancing area at about nine o'clock 
as usual and the dance itself began at about eleven o'clock. Very 
shortly after the beginning of the dance a large collection of goods 
of one kind and another was placed near the cross in the center of 
the dancing area. This was an offering by the home pec^le, that is 
to say, those of the immediate vicinity, for the benefit of thp chil- 
dren. It was g^ven in order that the children might prosper in 
health and otherwise and especially that they might learn and per- 
petuate the faith of their fathers. Furtherm<M'e, these g^ts also 
carried with them a special invocation to the Great Spirit for tiie 
health, prosperity and protection of the women. It was said that as 
a matter of fact this collection of goods should have been taken up 
on the first day of the ceremony, but that it had through some in- 
advertence been overlooked. Later in the morning these gifts were 
distributed among the visiting people from a distance, and this dis- 
tribution was followed by speeches of gratitude frcMn representatives 
of the visitors. 

At about half past twelve one bucket of food was brought in and 
placed at the usual point (fig. i, D) in the dancing area and a short 
ceremony was performed over it. This ceremony was much less 
elaborate than the one above described. One man attired in ordi- 
nary costume performed this ceremony which consisted of dancing 
around the food three times, then dancing in place for perhaps a 
minute while on the west of the receptacle containing the food, then 
approaching the receptacle three times, dancing up to it and then 
backward away from it for a few feet, and finally in making a mo- 
tion as if to pick up some of the food and present it with the usual 
upward and outward motion, which has already been described in 
detail, to the opposite cardinal point. He then danced a similar 
cycle and performed a similar set of motions from the north, then 
from the east and finally from the south, after which he gave a jump 
towards the food and made a motion as if to spear it, thus counting 
coup upon it. It was then immediately served and Ae feast was 
begun. During all this ceremony one of the drums played as usual 
a special tune connected with this consecration ceremony. 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 327 

REVELATIONS. 

During the first day or two of the ceremony the auth<M' had been 
informed that there existed a book in which had been recorded cer- 
tain special visions which were directly concerned with the cere- 
mony as it is performed at Whitefish, which is, as has already been 
stated, a variant of the original dream dance as it was handed down 
by the Sioux girl and which exhibits certain very special features. 
Further inquiry had been made concerning this hock and interest 
had been expressed in it. To the author's surprise and pleasure 
Mr. Steve Grover, the "chief priest" of the ceremony, arose im- 
mediately after this feast was finished and spoke at some length to the 
people recounting to them the above mentioned circumstances and 
finally telling them that it was his intention to allow the author to 
read this book. With characteristic fair-mindedness he continued and 
said that he wished to in no way keep frcxn the rest of the people 
any action of his and that he had therefore deemed it best to tell 
them one and all what he intended to do, and that he had brought 
with him the book (as a matter of fact he at that moment had the 
book in his hand), and that he wished it read in the dancing en- 
closure and in the presence of all those concerned with the cere- 
mony. His action was approved by the participants in the ceremony 
and the book was immediately handed to the author who read this 
record of the visions, or as they might mwe property be termed, 
revelations, in the presence of them all. 

Before recounting the essential features of these revelations it 
will be well to mention the circumstances under which they oc- 
curred. About eight or ten years ago. Miss Maggie Quarters, 
daughter of Mr. John Quarters above mentioned, had the series of 
visions which are recorded in this book, and which are carefully 
kept as a record in connection with this ceremony. She was at that 
time about eight or ten years of age and had been for some time in 
ill health. At a time about a year or perhaps a little more before 
the first of her visions Mr. Steve Grover had had a vision in which 
he had seen substantially the same things which later were revealed 
to the little girl and in which he was told by the Great Spirit sub- 
stantially the same things as were repeated to her later. He had 



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328 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

up to that time not been especially devout concerning the dream 
dance, but when this vision appeared to him his attitude was very 
greatly changed. Upon the occasion of the next dance he spoke 
to the people and told them of the things he had seen and what he 
had been told, but he was received, as is very often the case in such 
matters, with derision. It is believed, therefore, that having been 
unsuccessful in presenting through this adult his desires and in- 
structions, the Great Spirit had decided to use a child as his means 
and had appeared to this girl, who was of such tender years that no 
question could be raised as to her motives or as to the sincerity of 
her story, as had been done in the case of the adult. 

The revelations which had been sent through her were recounted 
at the dance by her mother, to whom she told them, and were ac- 
cepted by the people as direct messages from the Great Spirit and 
as commands to them which must thereafter govern their actions. 
These revelations were as follows : 

I. 

One day, as this little girl was out of doors, she saw a cloUd of 
globose form standing directly over the dream dance enclosure, 
which was, as a matter of fact, directly in front of her father's house 
and not more than four hundred yards from it. In this cloud she 
saw the Great Spirit seated. He pointed out to her some men near 
by who were playing cards and told her that people must not gamble 
and must not drink. He and the cloud then disappeared. 

II. 
About a month later she started to school one morning. The 
school house was perhaps a quarter of a mile frcxn her father's 
house. She was suddenly taken up and transported immediately to 
heaven. She was taken directly to the abode of the Great Spirit 
himself, which she found to be a large palace of many rooms, some 
filled with tobacco, some with clothing and somt with foods. 
Furthermore, the good, clean clothing was separated from the bad 
and the well prepared foods were separated from the pooriy pre- 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 329 

pared foods. All these were objects which had been used in the 
ceremony in times past. These same oflferings had gone in spirit 
directly to the abode of the Great Spirit and had been accepted by 
him, together with the invocations which had accompanied them. 
He then, through this little girl, commanded the people to respect 
the cross, offer tobacco and other commodities regularly to it and 
to observe strictly the regulations of the dance. He also spoke 
bitterly of the disbelief of the people and complained that the people 
refused to believe him when he sent his messages through adults 
and said that he had decided to try talking through a baby, meaning 
of course this little girl. He further declared that if the people did 
not heed him when this message was sent in this manner he would 
next try a dog as messenger. After this she was returned to the 
earth as miraculously as she had been carried away. 

in. 

-Some time after this second revelation the little girl begged her 
mother to go to a dance some distance from home, this was for 
some reason or other impossible, and that evening while they were 
sitting in the house she asked her mother if she did not hear 
sounds. The mother replied that she did not and thought no more 
of the matter. The next morning, however, the little girl told her 
mother what had happened to her. Two angels came and took her 
by the hand. As they went along the leader of the two asked her if 
she knew the signification of certain red and black marks which ap- 
peared on a scroll which was carried by the angels. She was then 
told that they indicated the duration of the earth under present con- 
ditions and further that if the people would only believe in the mess- 
ages sent to them by the Great Spirit and mend their unrighteous 
ways three lines more could be added to those already on the scroll 
and that much more grace given before the end of the world. The 
leader then said, "I am going to show you how the earth will be 
washed by and by." She then threw a bucket of water on the 
ground and the whole earth was flooded. 

The Great Spirit then appeared and told the little girl to look 
westward, she did so and saw the evil spirit and all the bad people 



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330 BULXJETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

who had (dayed cards, drunk liquor and done various other things 
which had been directly forbidden by the Great Spirit With the 
Great Spirit, on the other hand, were all the people who had fol- 
lowed his instructions and who were devout believers in the dream 
dance. 

The leader of the angels then told her to look down upon the 
earth, there she saw Steve Grover's house and it was as if trans- 
parent. She could see everything within it, she saw in particular a 
large cross in one part of the house. Presently she was told to 
look again and she beheld the house as before, but in place of the 
cross Steve Grover himself was standing at the point which the 
cross had formerly occupied. 

She was then told by the Great Spirit that after the destruction 
of the world by a flood that there would be a re-creation of animal 
life. After this the angels again took her and again showed her the 
scroll and instructed her to believe everything she had seen and to 
recount her experiences to her people. They said also in parting 
that ten days warning would be given before the destruction of the 
world by the forthcoming flood. She was then returned to the earth. 

IV. 

Some time after the above vision this little girl was hungry one 
day and went to the house for some food, she found the doors and 
windows all open, but her parents and all others about the house 
were gone. She looked eastward and saw a road leading toward the 
place from which the sun rises. Thinking that her parents must 
have gone in that direction she started out to search for them. She 
had not gone far when she heard a sound and presently she distin- 
guished a voice and heard some one say, "No, I must not touch the 
ground or I will not win out." The voice then asked her where she 
was going. When she replied that she sought her parents, the voice 
then told her, "You are going in the wrong direction, catch hold of 
my hand and we will And them." She did as she was bidden and 
found that it was the Great Spirit who was speaking to her. He 
took her up in a cloud and they sped through space for some dis- 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 331 

tance and finally they went straight up into the center of the sky and 
to his mansion. 

Here she saw her father and her mother seated upon beautiful 
chairs and, upon still further looking about, she saw many other 
people, including her sisters and brothers, also seated upon elegant 
chairs. The Great Spirit then told her that this was what happened 
to those who believed in his teachings and who belonged to the good 
old fashioned dance which is his institution. He exhorted her to 
believe and to teach the people, and said that if they would not be- 
lieve in his teachings and embrace the true faith this time he would 
next resort to sending his messages by means of a shell like that 
used in the medicine dance or by means of a stump. He told her 
further that shortly before the end of the world was due fie was 
going to cause mammals, stones, birds, fire and other speechless 
objects in nature to talk as human beings now do. 

Finally he informed her that he was presently going to send her 
back to the earth, and that this was the last message he was going 
to transmit through her and that when she had delivered this mess- 
age to the people she must say no more about the matter and must 
not thereafter discuss her revelations. She was straightway re- 
turned to the earth where she recounted this last vision to her 
mother as she had those which preceded it. She has never since had 
a vision of any kind pertaining to any such matters. 

This girl has since grown to young womanhood, being now about 
i8 or 20 years of age. She is apparently in every respect a normal 
person of good intellect and exhibits no particular points, either 
mentally or physically, which would serve to differentiate her from 
anyone else of normal attainments. She has since having these 
visions Deen asked many questions concerning them, but has stead- 
fastly refused to say anything further about the matter, thus fol- 
lowing to the letter the mandates of the Great Spirit received in her 
fourth and last revelation. 

When these revelations were recounted upon the occasion of the 
next dance after they were given to this girl the people were much 
Impressed and their religious spirit, which is by nature profound, 
was moved to much greater activity. They hailed Mr. Grover as 
one especially under the patronage of the Great Spirit and as one 



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332 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

to whom they owed great respect and reverence, not so much for 
himself personally as for his connection with the Great Spirit. He 
is now recognized as the leader, or as he has been termed in the 
foregoing pages, the "chief priest," of the dream dance in the 
vicinity of Whitefish where, by virtue of these revelations, a special 
cult has arisen which makes Whitefish of special significance to the 
Indians of this region and even to those at considerable distances. 
In fact it is regarded almost in the nature of a Mecca, so that In- 
dians from very distant points come here to celebrate this dance, 
which is usually held sometime about the 4th of July. They some- 
times come, as above stated, from points even as remote as Okla- 
homa, and very frequently they come from various points in Minne- 
sota and elsewhere toward the west. 

Mr. Grover is a very modest and unassuming man who has 
usually not much to say, but who lives up to the doctrines of his 
faith to the last letter. At the dances he occupies the position 
marked H in fig. i, but is in no way distinguished from the others 
present except that he wears embroidered in silk on his vest a small 
red cross, this being emblematic of the relation in which he stands 
to the large cross which is always kept in the center of the dancing 
area at times of ceremonies, and which occupies a comer of the 
principal room in his own dwelling between ceremonies. 

During the remainder of the afternoon the dance proceeded as 
usual, but there were comparatively few speeches. One man, how- 
ever, distributed tobacco and announced that there was outside the 
dancing enclosure a man whose son had died five days before and 
who had not come into the dance. He said that on the following 
day he wished to have performed for this man the ceremony for the 
removal of mourning and that he wished the man brought into the 
circle for that purpose. 

As was stated in the beginning, this whole day's ceremony was 
especially for the children and the very young people, and had for 
its object the assurance that they should learn and perpetuate the 
ceremony. It ended as usual with the regulation number of tunes 
played by the drums at the end of the day. 

During the evening there was a short session of dancing in the 
house in which the drums were kept. 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 333 

SIXTH DAY, JULY 7th, 1910. 

The drums were as usual placed at about nine o'clock and the 
dance began somewhere between eleven and eleven-thirty. The 
dancing progressed without special incident until about one-thirty 
at which time the feast was served. 

Directly after the feast certain speeches were made by some of 
the leading men relative to the attendance at the ceremony of cer- 
tain whites. Other than this comparatively little of importance 
happened until about three p.m. when two young men from Round 
lake arrived and entered the dancing area prepared to participate in 
the ceremony. One of these men was naked above the waist and 
had his body more or less elaborately painted. The two danced the 
next round after their entry, this being one of the ordinary dances 
and in no way especially sacred. This young man had, however, 
by appearing in this half nude attire transgressed one of the many 
strict rules governing the ceremony and, although in olden times 
dancing in this sort of attire was considered proper, such action 
under the rules of the drum and in connection with the present day 
religious ideas was decidedly culpable. 

Immediately following this round a "brave dance" was danced in 
which, of course, as the rules prescribe, only those men who be- 
longed to the division known as "the braves" participated. Im- 
mediately following this dance one of the old men who was a mem- 
ber of "the braves" arose and spoke upon the impropriety of the 
participation of a person in such scanty attire in the dances held in 
the presence of the drum and in its honor. He went at considerable 
length into an explanation of the rules and regulations which govern 
such matters and was careful to state that it was in no way his de- 
sire to offer offense to this young man or to anyone else, but that he 
felt it his duty to remonstrate with the young man and to call his 
attention to what he was charitable enough to consider a lack of 
education upon the young man's part rather than a wilful violation 
by him of any of the precepts of the faith. In concluding he out- 
lined very positively that it was, according to the rules of the drum, 
absolutely necessary that the young man should be properly and 
completely attired and finally ended his discourse by walking over 



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334 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

and presenting him with a shirt His example was immediately 
followed by two others of the braves who had participated in the 
foregoing dance. These two men made no speeches since the first 
brave had voiced their sentiments and had spoken at sufficient length 
concerning the matter. Each simply walked over and made the 
young man a present. One gave him a shirt and the other a coat 

He was not obliged to immediately put on any of these garments 
which were presented to him for, as the above mentioned speaker 
said, the young man had come to the dance and had danced once in 
this half nude condition and he should therefore be permitted to 
continue throughout the remainder of the afternoon. He pointed 
out, however, that it must be distinctly understood that thereafter 
he was not to appear so attired in the ring. 

Immediately following this were a few more rounds of dancing 
after which one of the more important men spoke further upon the 
same subject, saying that he felt sure that this young man had in- 
tended no oflfense and that his action was due solely to the fact that 
he was unaware that it was contrary to the rules of the cult to dance 
in the presence of the grandfather (meaning the drum) in such at- 
tire. He said that he deprecated very greatly any ill-feeling which 
might possibly arise from this little incident and that he hoped that 
all present would look upon the matter with due forbearance, and 
that the young man himself would not consider that he was being 
unduly upbraided. He then oflfered on his own behalf the materials 
for a feast, which action was hailed with much show of good will 
and appreciation by all present. 

It should be noted that the young man from Round lake who had 
transgressed the rules of the drum by dancing as above described 
did not participate in any of the dances during the remainder 
of the day. In fact he did not participate again thereafter, but he 
and his companion left that evening or the following day, supposed- 
ly for their home. 

After some more dancing a speech was made by an old man on 
behalf of a young man who was seated at the wrong drum. He had, 
as a matter of fact, been playing there for some time whidi is quite 
contrary to the rules and regulations governing such matters. A 
considerable amount of tobacco was distributed among the dancers 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 335 

and others assembled on behalf of this young man, and he was 
properly placed at the drum to which he rightfully belonged. 

Then followed a series of special dances. These were in order, 
as follows : a dance for the head chiefs, one for the sub-chiefs, one 
for the braves, one for the warriors and one for the drummers. 
Finally the head brave danced alone a special dance for the "brave" 
women. This dance is especially for the women of the brave class, 
but is never danced by themselves since the women never under 
any consideration dance in the ring. It is always danced by the 
head brave and during the time he is so occupied the brave women 
are making presents to the assembled guests. * 

Late in the afternoon of the previous day, as has already been 
noted, an old man distributed tobacco and made a speech concern- 
ing one of the drummers whose son had died five days before. The 
drummer had as usual under such circumstances not come to the 
dance. That is to say, he had not come inside the circle, though he 
had been seen outside. Having finished the speech the old man sent 
out by a messenger a package of tobacco to this drummer request- 
ing that on the following day he should attend. 

The result of this request was seen to-day, for in the late after- 
noon this drummer put in an appearance. A blanket was spread in 
front of the cross, and the drummer, a middle-aged man, was seated 
upon it. His face and hands were then bathed and he was dressed 
in a new shirt and scmie beadwork and a blue and red streak was 
painted diagonally across his face from the center of his forehead 
down across his right cheek. This ceremony was for the removal 
of the signs of mourning from this bereaved parent and was pre- 
ceded and also followed by a short speech from the old man who 
was particularly concerned with the performance of the ceremony. 
This speaker was immediately followed by another who delivered 
a lengthy discourse, after which he placed an eagle feather in the 
hat of the mourner. This speech was earnestly and eloquently de- 
livered, but it was impossible to learn its exact import, since the 
author's interpreter was specially requested not to translate the 
speech, it being said that it was a speech of censure delivered against 
some one, though whether this was the real reason for their desire 
to keep it secret could not be determined absolutely. 



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336 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

At the end of this speech the mourner was led over and seated at 
one of the drums after which two other men made speeches of con- 
dolence to him. Thereafter throughout the ceremony he attended 
regularly and participated in the drumming as did the others. 

Very late in the afternoon the author's interpreter, after going 
at considerable length into a discussion with two or three of the 
head men concerned with this ceremony, made for him a speech to 
the peojAt assembled. The interpreter was introduced by Mr. Steve 
Grover, the principal leader of the ceremony, and the interpreetr's 
announcement that, if acceptable to all present, the author wished 
on the following day to give a feast to the participants in the cere- 
mony was warmly received. This was shown not only by the verbal 
acclamations which it called forth, but also it was attested by the 
energy of the participants in the round of dancing which immediate- 
ly followed, it being a universal custom among these people to dance 
most energeticly to show their approbation of a speech or act 
which has immediately preceded the particular round of dancing in 
question. 

After another short interval of dancing the usual announcement 
of the regular set number of final tunes for each drum was made, 
and this was immediately followed by the final dancing of the day. 
As the announcer arose to speak concerning this final dancing the 
two messengers as usual hauled down the flags at the entrances to 
the dancing area. 

As usual a short, informal dance was held during the evening in 
the small log house immediately adjacent to the dancing area, 
though this dance was without special incident. 

SE\TENTH DAY, JULY 8th, 1910. 

The drums were as usual placed in the dancing circle at about 
nine o'clock in the morning and the dancing began in the course of 
an hour and a half thereafter. 

At about one o'clock the regular feast was served, this feast 
being the one which had been announced on the previous day to 
be given by the author. The foods were brought in to the usual 
place at the point marked D in fig. i, and here the messenger of the 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 337 

"braves" performed an elaborate ceremony of consecration which 
was practically the same as that already described in detail. He was 
attired in a nicely beaded shirt and wore two of the large ceremonial 
beaded bags. He is shown in plate XV, fig. 2, where he, in com- 
pany with two other messengers, is just apportioning the foods of 
this feast to the participants. Also in fig. i of this same plate he 
is shown leading one of the braves to the special braves' feast. 

Inasmuch as a beef had been provided for this occasion it was 
deemed proper to hold a special braves' feast, such as was in olden 
times held in connection with a feast of buffalo or other large game. 
The head of this beef was placed at a point a short distance north- 
west of the center of the ring, its position being indicated in fig. i 
by the letter G. To the accompaniment of a special braves' song 
the braves' messenger danced about the circle several times, taking 
at each turn one of the braves whom he led by the hand over to the 
position G where he seated him for this special feast. In fig. i of 
plate XV this scene is shown. Upon the ground is the dish con- 
taining the beef's head. Seated near it is one of the braves, and 
standing close by is another whom the messenger has just brought 
to this point. The old man with the eagle feather in his hat who is 
advancing in the foreground is also one of the braves who had been 
led over by the messenger, but who was obliged to return to his 
seat at the edge of the circle in order to procure his knife. It was 
necessary before he could take his seat at this feast that he be led 
to it by the special messenger, but being once seated he could then 
move about as he pleased and was therefore privileged to return 
for his knife and needed no guidance by the messenger for this pur- 
pose. In addition to the members of the "brave class" this mes- 
senger also led over to this feast a young man whose office was that 
of a representative of the drums. 

While this elaborate seating of the braves was going on the other 
messengers were filling the dishes of all the participants in the gen- 
eral feast so that by the time all the braves were seated in this cere- 
monial manner every one had been served, and immediately this 
seating was completed all were privileged to eat. 

At the conclusion of this feast the ordinary procedure would 
have been for all the braves, or at least for the head brave, to speak. 



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338 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

each recounting some of the deeds of bravery which were placed to 
his credit and by virtue of which he was a member of the brave 
class. For some reason or other this feature of the ceremony was 
omitted upon this occasion. 

In the early part of the afternoon, an old man belonging to the 
brave class arose and made a speech in which he announced the 
bringing in of an old man and an old woman whose grandson had 
recently died. They were to be brought into the circle in order 
that the ceremony of the removal of the signs of mourning might be 
performed for them. The woman was the mother of the man for 
whom a similar, though much less elaborate ceremony, was per- 
formed on the previous day, he also being in mourning for the same 
deceased boy. Up to this time this couple had remained outside of 
the enclosure, but immediately after the old man's announcement 
they came inside. 

The old man carried with him a large btmdle, which he placed on 
the seat beside him, propping it up in an erect position as is shown 
in plate XVI, fig. i, where it is shown just to the old man's left. 
This was the death bundle representing the deceased. It was care- 
fully wrapped in a blanket and a shawl and was shown every atten- 
tion that might have been accorded a small child. Such a bundle 
represents the person of the deceased and is kept for a year after 
his death. It is taken about and cared for the same as the deceased 
would have been if alive. Food is placed before it whenever the 
remaining members of the family dine, it is given water at regular 
intervals, and is in every way treated and handled as if it were an 
actual living being. Such a bundle consists in reality of clothing 
and all kinds of goods bound up into a more or less cylindrical 
package. At its upper end there is placed a more or less elaborate 
piece of bead or quillwork surmounted by feathers or other orna- 
ments. This whole decoration represents the head of the bundle 
and was in this particular case made of quillwork. 

At a point just west of the cross, which stands in the center of 
the circle a large blanket was spread and upcm this the man and 
woman were seated, each being led to it by the hand. Water was 
next brought and the hands and faces of the two were carefully 
bathed (plate XVII, fig. i). This and the subsequent dressing and 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 339 

painting of the two were performed in a largfe measure by four per- 
sons, two old men caring for the man and two old women for the 
woman. These persons were members of a special society, the 
particular objects of which are to attend the sick and to minister to 
the needy. The male and female members are called tci-ogi'tcida 
and tci-ogi'tcida-kwe respectively. Various participants in the dance 
brought over clothing, which they gave to the two mourners, and 
from this certain articles were selected by the attendants who re- 
moved the outer garments of both and placed these new outer gar- 
ments on them instead. Part of this re-dressing is shown in plate 
XVI, fig. 2. This was immediately followed by the painting of the 
faces of the two mourners. An old man produced some blue, some 
yellow and some red pigments and painted a streak of each of these 
colors diagonally across the face of each mourner. Beginning at the 
center of the forehead these narrow streaks ran down in front of the 
right eye, across the right cheek and down under the jaw. The 
colors were arranged as they are upon the drum heads, the yellow 
appearing in the middle between the other two. This painting is 
shown in plate XVIII where, in fig. i, the paint is being prepared, 
and in fig. 2, is being applied. The illustration in fig. 2 shows, upon 
the right cheek of the man mourner, a short white line which is in 
reality the yellow streak of paint above mentioned. 

Having been thus washed, newly dressed and painted, and hav- 
ing thereby their signs of mourning removed, speeches were made 
to the mourners and for their special benefit by certain of the prin- 
cipal men. The burden of these speeches was an exhortation to the 
mourners that they should be cheerful and join in the dance and 
worship the Great Spirit just as they would have done had their 
gfrandson not died. They were told that it was their privilege and 
duty to worship the Great Spirit even though they were obliged to 
mourn the loss of the departed at the same time, and that, although 
in mourning, they must attempt to temporarily forget their sorrow 
and participate in the ceremony in a normal manner. The old man 
was told that he was welcome to the circle just as if he were not in 
mourning and that all the privileges and rights of the "braves" were 
granted him in this dance. In plate XVII, fig. 2, Billy Boy, one of 
the principal men connected with the ceremony is shown speaking 



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340 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

to the two mourners and exhorting them to remember the creed of ' 
their grandfather, the drum, and to at all times worship the Great 
Spirit and to join in this ceremony for the sake of the drum and their 
faith. After each of the several speeches made by these head men 
a round of dancing followed in which all the dancers participated, 
including the man in mourning. He simply arose and danced in 
place where he had been seated during the ceremony just described. 
Plate XIX shows two views of this dancing between speeches. 

Finally, after these principal men had finished their speeches the 
brave who led the old man over to his seat in the center of the danc- 
ing area again took him by the hand and led him back to this seat 
among the dancers at the side of the ring. 

One of the women who had participated in the removal of 
mourning took the woman mourner by the hand and led her over to 
a seat in the circle of women singing about the particular drum to 
which she logically belonged. This was followed by another round 
of dancing, after which the old man in mourning arose and made a 
lengthy speech in which he dwelt particularly upon the death of his 
grandson and the mourning of himself and his wife over it He 
declared that, although he had already buried two wives and several 
children, never had he so mourned the loss of any one of them as 
he did that of this grandchild, whose death had occurred just as he 
was about to reach maturity, and in whom the old man had foreseen 
a great comfort in his extreme old age. The boy was an only grand- 
child, and with his death went all of the hope of the old man for his 
declining years. He spoke also at length upon the kindness of the 
participants in the dance and especially of their goodness in bring- 
ing himself and his wife into the circle and performing this cere- 
mony for them in order that they might join in the worship of the 
Great Spirit whom all revered. With this speech the whole cere- 
mony for the removal of mourning for these two old people was 
completed, and they participated in the dance until its close two days 
later. 

Later in the afternoon a lunch was given in the dancing area, 
this being provided by the two old people for whom this ceremony 
had just been performed, and by the younger man for whom a 
similar ceremony had been performed the day before. The object 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 341 

of this feast was to celebrate the reception of these three into the 
ceremony, and to signify their gratitude for being thus permitted to 
participate. 

Later on in the afternoon one man, a visitor from a distance, 
arose after one of the rounds of dancing and made a considerable 
number of presents of beadwork and other articles to various pec^le 
about the circle. At the same time he made a speech in which he 
said that it often happened that visitors were accused of attending 
one of these ceremonies solely for the purpose of acquiring wealth 
by means of the many presents which were given away by their 
hosts on such occasions. He said that he wished to disprove this 
and that he was therefore now giving away upon his own account 
much more property than he had received, that he might prove to 
those assembled that he had come for the truly virtuous purpose of 
worshipping the Great Spirit by participating in this dance, and that 
he had no desire to take back with him to his home more goods that 
he had brought away. As a matter of actual fact he had already 
received from his hosts a considerable quantity of blankets, bead- 
work and other goods, but these were not for himself personally, 
but for the people of the community in which he lived, and it was 
his duty upon returning to distribute these among the members of 
his community. On the other hand, the presents which he was now 
making were made by him personally, and furthermore they did 
actually exceed in value the gifts which he had received from his 
hosts for the other people in his community. He therefore by his 
action most thoroughly discredited any accusation that he had come 
to this ceremony for the purpose of acquiring wealth. 

During the afternoon a visitor from the St. Croix region spoke 
upon the subject of a visit which he had made to some Sioux farther 
to the west. He had found them without a drum. They had 
formerly possessed one, but had given it away, and at the time he 
was speaking were without one. He suggested the desirability of 
the people of Whitefish making a new drum and presenting it to 
these Sioux. His speech was immediately followed by one from 
Mr. Steve Grover, who has, by virtue of his office, a special right 
to speak upon such matters. He said that he fully appreciated the 
desirability of providing these people with a drum in order that they 



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342 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

might worship in the regulation manner, but that hasty action would 
in his opinion be very undesirable in such a matter as this, and he 
recommended that in view of the importance of the making of such 
a drum the matter should be* thoroughly considered before any 
definite move was made. With this the whole matter rested. His 
speech, as was each of the others also, was followed by a round of 
dancing. 

During the latter part of the afternoon a little boy, in running 
across the dancing area, stubbed his toe and fell. This was con- 
sidered a sign of very bad luck, and in order to overcome the effect 
of this unpropitious omen the child's father immeditaely proceeded 
to give away a number of articles to people about the circle after 
which he made a speech asking that all present should wish that the 
boy's luck might return to him and that no misfortune should be- 
fall him. 

During the course of the afternoon one of the older drummers 
took the sacred beaded drumstick, called in Chippewa bagaa'kokwan, 
and made a speech for the benefit of a newly seated drummer, who 
was a young man. He charged this young drummer that this 
beaded stick was a very sacred object and that it must be treated 
with the greatest of respect and that he was going to give it to him, 
that he must honor it and dance with it, but that it must never be 
used to beat the drum, but always held in reverence as an object 
given directly to the people by the Great Spirit. 

During the latter part of the afternoon one old brave made a 
lengthy speech concerning the action of the author who, he said, had 
shown his good will toward the Indians by giving considerable 
quantities of tobacco, and by providing a feast. He spoke in compli- 
mentary terms concerning the whole matter and finally ended his 
speech by presenting the author with two necklaces of beadwork. 
His action was followed by that of another of the head men of the 
ceremony, who spoke in a similar commendatory manner, and later 
on by that of a third man who presented an elaborately beaded belt. 
These were worn by their recipient throughout the rest of the cere- 
mony greatly to the satisfaction of all of the participants who con- 
sidered this a most friendlv act. 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 343 

Finally, at between five and six o'clock, one old brave spoke and 
announced that the following day would probably be the last day of 
the ceremony, and asked that everyone join most heartily in it, and 
that all be on hand in order to make an early start for the day. He 
ended his speech by the announcement that it would be immediately 
followed by three tunes by each drum, which would finish the cere- 
mony for that day. He also announced that on the following day 
there would be played four tunes by each dnmi in this final dancing. 

His speech was accordingly followed by the three tunes to each 
drum and the letting down and final removal of the drums from the 
circle after which the daytime ceremony for this day was at an end. 

As is usual a short, less elaborate ceremony was held during the 
evening. One of the drums being placed, as on previous evening, on 
the floor of the small log cabin adjacent to the dancing enclosure, 
and being played for an hour or an hour and a half without any 
special incident. 

EIGHTH DAY, JULY 9th, 1910. 

During the early part of the forenoon there was a light rainfall 
which prevented an early start of the ceremony. It was therefore 
about twelve o'clock before the drums were placed in the circle, and 
it was nearly one o'clock before the dancing actually began. After 
the dancing had proceeded about an hour, and after the easternmost 
of the two drums, that at B, fig. i, had been played twice, its upper 
head suddenly broke. This was considered a very serious and im- 
portant matter. Many of the men inspected the drum and finally 
an old man spoke at some length upon the subject, saying that he 
considered this a direct manifestation from the Great Spirit that 
there had been something irregular in connection with the cere- 
mony. He deemed it probable that the Great Spirit was displeased 
on account of the fact that many of the participants in the ceremony 
remained outside the circle for a considerable time after the drums 
had been placed and after everything was in readiness for the danc- 
ing. He said that they should have come in and conmienced the 
dancing at once and that their failure to do so was manifestly dis- 
pleasing to the Great Spirit. 



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344 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

Everyone about the whole dancing circle appeared very deeply 
affected by the breaking of this drum head and considered it an ex- 
tremely ill omen. Mr. Steve Grover, whose position as "chief priest" 
of the cult at Whitefish gave his opinion great weight, next spoke, 
saying that he was deeply moved by this manifestation of the dis- 
pleasure of the Great Spirit and that he deemed it necessary that all 
present should make proper atonement for it. He then told of a 
vision he had had some time before which ran as follows : 

"I saw a pure white eagle, without a dark spot on him, flying 
from the west toward me. As 1 watched the eagle approach I saw 
also two men coming toward me and directly behind the eagle. As 
the first of these men neared me he shot an arrow which fell directly 
in front of me and immediately at my feet. When the eagle reached 
me and came directly over my head he suddenly turned and flew 
westward again. 

"The first of the two men then came to me and talked to me 
about the drum. He said that we must keep this drum very sacred, 
that we must give tobacco in honor of the Great Spirit and that by 
so doing we would secure health and prosperity. He gave me full 
instructions concerning the care and the use of the drum and con- 
cerning the offering of tobacco to it. Finally, having finished his 
speech, he rose straight up in the sky and started westward whence 
he came. As he arose I thought I heard the sound of jingling bells 
and upon again looking in the direction in which he had gone I saw, 
not a man, but a drum such as we have before us." 

The speaker then recounted again the story of the origin of the 
dream dance, which was substantially the same as that given in the 
foregoing pages, and he spoke especially upon the instructions given 
by the Sioux girl to the people after she had acquired this ceremony 
directly from the Great Spirit with instructions to transmit it to her 
people. His discourse ended with an exhortation to the people to 
use great care and to follow implicitly the instructions given with 
the drum for their guidance. 

This speech was followed by still another from one of the old 
men who spoke at considerable leng^ concerning the necessity of 
following these instructions and the need of honoring the Great 
Spirit in every way. 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 345 

His Speech was followed by the distribution of tobacco. This 
was done by an c4d man on behalf of the women participating in the 
ceremony. This distribution of tobacco was followed by a speech 
from the old man, he acting, of course, as spokesman for the women 
who are not privileged to speak for themselves. He said that the 
women wished it known that they respected and honored the drum 
and all the precepts connected with it, that they most deeply re- 
gretted the breaking of this drum and the incidents which con- 
tributed to the displeasure of the Great Spirit who had caused its 
breaking. They further wished to call attention to the fact that 
they were powerless to act independently in the matter since it was 
their understanding that the rules and regulations governing the 
dnmi and the conduct of the participants in the ceremony did not 
permit the women to enter the dancing area until after the men had 
come in and taken their positions. They had therefore kept out of 
the area until after the men had entered and they wished now to 
express their deep regret that they had not been able to avert this 
catastrophe. They said that they desired to emphasize the fact that 
they wished to show all due respect to the Great Spirit and honor to 
the drum and had meant no harm in their conduct 

Next a large blanket was spread near the cross in the center of 
the dancing area and everyone belonging to the group owning the 
broken drum placed some kind of a gift on the blanket, this being 
by way of atonement for their misconduct in connection with this 
matter. 

This action was immediately followed by a speech from one of 
the head men of the group of the broken drum who said that the 
original instructions given by the Sioux girl when the dream dance 
religion was transmitted by her to the people was that in case one 
of these drums was broken it must not be discarded, but must be 
used until a new one was made to take its place. He said that there- 
fore they must carry out these instructions and continue to play the 
broken drum until the new one was made, and he exhorted all to 
remember while using this drum the chastisement which was then 
being visited upon them by its breaking. This then ended the special 
ceremony connected with the breaking of the drum and from this 
time on the dance proceeded as if nothing had happened to mar its 



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346 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

regular course. In fact the dancing was especially lively during this 
day, more people participating than formerly, and a more lively in- 
terest being manifested by all parties concerned. 

The feast of the day was given by a man in honor of the drums 
and of the Great Spirit. This was for the saving of his child who 
had recovered after having been treated through the agency of the 
drum. Four years previously this child had been ill for a long time, 
had been treated by the medicine men and had shown no improve- 
ment. Its life was almost dispaired of when the father had a vision 
in which a spirit appeared and condoled with him and told him that 
there was yet one hope for the child's recovery. This lay in the 
drum. He consequently gave presents at the next dream dance 
which was held within a few days thereafter and asked the partici- 
pants to invoke the aid of the Great Spirit for the recovery of the 
child. Within a short time a marked improvement was seen in the 
child's condition. Its recovery from then on was rapid and OMn- 
plete, and now, four years later, it is well and happy. The father, 
therefore, gave this feast in honor of the dnmis and of the Great 
Spirit and in commemoration of the saving of his child's life. 

There were brought within the enclosure on this day two of the 
death bundles already described. These were brought by their 
keepers to the feast and provided with food as above stated and in 
every way treated as living human beings would have been. 

During the afternoon of this day there was an unusual amount 
of presenting, this being the particular day of the ceremony allotted 
for the making of presents. The presenting was done in a most 
promiscuous manner, and the presents consisted of all manner of 
objects : blankets, shawls, clothing of all sorts, bead work, guns, etc 
One of the most notable features of this presenting occurred when 
the wife of one of the head men of the Whitefish settlement went 
over and handed one of the visitors a small green twig. By this 
means she signified that she presented him with a horse. This method 
is used in presenting horses by virtue of the fact that they are 
obviously too unwieldly to bring into the circle, and also that they 
would not be permitted there on account of the restrictions concern- 
ing such matters. The recipient of the branch is privileged to call 
upon the giver at any time and receive the pony which this branch 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 347 

represents. Later the husband of the woman spoke at some length 
upon the subject, described the pony and assured the recipient of 
the g^ft that he wished his own good will also to accompany the 
pony when it left him. Later the recipient of this gift made a short 
speech in which he complimented the people of Whitefish upon their 
generosity and spoke warmly of the friendship existing between the 
people here and those of his own community. 

As was above stated, at all times during the afternoon there was 
a g^eat deal of giving and taking by both men and women, but at 
one time there was a particular song played for the benefit of the 
women during which they were especially privileged to make pre- 
sents to their friends. During this song the men made no presents 
at all, this activity being confined strictly to the women who, how- 
ever, gave to men, women and children alike. 

Following this special gift song for the women there was a 
special tune, that played for the benefit of any man who wishes to 
divorce his wife. One old man danced this, and afterwards spoke 
upon the subject saying that, as every one must know, he had not 
danced because he really wished to divorce his wife, but because he 
deemed it best not to allow the tune to be played entirely through 
without someone to dance to it since this might prove displeasing 
to the Great Spirit. The idea involved in this dance is that the man 
who wishes to divorce his wife and who feels sufficiently sure of his 
ground to do so may dance to this tune and thus signify his inten- 
tion. If he is well received when dancing all goes smoothly. If, on 
the other hand, this public declaring of his intention in this matter 
is not received with favor by the people he may be the object of a 
great deal of ridicule, and it is necessary that he be a very strong 
willed and an influential man to withstand it and keep his prestige 
in the community. If the wife in such a case is of the proper metal 
she will have some man rise immediately after this dance and speak 
for her. He will announce her entire satisfaction in the matter and 
state that life with this man had become unbearable, and that she 
has been simply awaiting an opportunity to get rid of him. This is 
likely to be considered a joke at his expense and is likely to provoke 
a great deal of ridicule. Especially is this the case if she goes on to 
enimierate his many and various faults. 



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348 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vci, I. 

This dance was followed by a special pipe or calumet dance, 
which was danced alone by the keeper of the calumet connected 
with the westernmost drum. During this round of dancing he 
carried the large ceremonial pipe stem. 

During the remainder of the afternoon the dancing proceeded 
after the usual manner, and various speeches were made. One of 
these was made by an old brave who announced that it had been the 
intention to adhere to the old custom of closing the gates of the en- 
closure upon this day. That is to say, guards were to have been 
stationed at these gates, their duty being to permit no one to leave 
the area without the permission of the chief dancer, and then only 
upon payment of a small fine, this fine being devoted to the benefit 
of the drum. He said that it had, however, finally been decided to 
abandon this idea and forego this part of the ceremony. 

At last it was announced that inasmuch as more visitors had 
been daily expected at the dance, and inasmuch as they might yet 
arrive it was deemed advisable to suspend rather than close the 
dance on this day, so that in case these visitors should arrive during 
the night or on the following day the dance could be continued. 
This announcement was followed by the usual announcement of the 
ending of the dance for the day by the playing of a given number of 
tunes by each of the drums. In this case, however, the number was 
four instead of three as on the previous day. Four tunes were then 
played by each of the drums and the ceremony was ended for the 
day. 

As upon the previous days a short session of drtunming and 
dancing was held during the evening in the log cabin immediately 
adjacent to the dancing area. 

NINTH DAY, JULY loth, 1910. 

This ninth day's ceremony was more or less of a hold-over from 
that of the day before, and lacked the enthusiasm and elaborateness 
of those of the previous days. There was but a small amount of 
dancing, though the feast was held about as usual. 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 349 

This feast was spread near noon, and showed one special feature 
of much interest. A piece of canvas was placed just east of the cross 
in the center of the ring, the longest dimension of the canvass ex- 
tending east and west. The day's feast was spread upon this, and 
at its eastern extremity was placed the broken drum described above. 
A speech was then made stating that this feast was being given by 
the young man whose dream had been related several days before 
and who had, pursuant to a direct command from the Great Spirit, 
signified his intention of marrying a young widow and providing 
for her and her two children. He had been commanded at the same 
time to give this feast, and it had been stated by the Great Spirit 
that if he neglected this last matter the children would die before 
the leaves fell in the fall of the year. In reality therefore this feast 
was given for two purposes. One of these was the welfare of these 
two children. The other and primary one, however, was the benefit 
of the broken drum and those connected with it. A small portion 
of the food of the feast was placed directly before the drum and 
this was eaten by certain of the head men. The remainder of the 
food was distributed in the usual manner among the rank and file 
of the participants in the ceremony. All this food was supposed to 
be eaten in company with the Great Spirit and the whole feast was 
accompanied by invocations for the safe conduct of the broken dnun 
to its home, and for the good luck of those connected with it. 

During the early part of this last day a moccasin game was 
started. It lasted until late in the afternoon with an intermission 
only for the feast. Such a game would not be considered good form 
during the days of the regular ceremony, but on this ninth day it 
was permissible by virtue of the fact that the real ceremony was at 
an end the night before, which left the participants free in such 
matters. 

After this feast the dancing continued without special incident 
until about four o'clock or perhaps four-thirty, at which time the 
whole nine days' ceremony was ended by the final playing of the 
regular number of tunes by each drum, and by the hauling down for 
the last time of the flags. 

The large red cross which had been brought from Mr. Grover's 
house at the beginning of the dance and which had remained con- 



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350 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

stantiy as the central figure in the circle was now returned by Mr. 
Grover to its place of safe keeping in his house, where it always re- 
mains during the intermissions between one ceremony and the next. 

Upon the top of this cross was placed during each day a tablet 
covered with blue cloth and provided with loops of the same material 
which extended from comer to comer along its four edges. It was said 
to symbolize the heavens, and is shown in several of the accompany- 
ing illustrations, especially in that of plate XVI, fig. 2. This object 
was removed every evening, wrapped in a large silk handkerchief 
and carefully kept over night, being retumed to its place on top of 
the cross on the following moming. Thus the cross itself was the 
only sacred object which was allowed to remain in the dancing en- 
closure over night. The dmms, their stakes, the pipes, the flag^ and 
all other sacred objects were removed from the enclosure every 
night. 

At the conclusion of the ceremony on this last day the^dmms, to- 
gether with the objects which regularly accompany them, were taken, 
each to the house of its respective warden, and there kept until time 
for the next ceremony. The care with which these objects are kept 
and the reverence paid them during the intervals between the cere- 
monies have already been mentioned in the foregoing part of this 
paper. 

At the conclusion of the feast above mentioned an announce- 
ment was made that there would be celebrated during the late after- 
noon, a so-called squaw dance (kwe'-nimitiwin), this being a non- 
religious dance in which the women are permitted to participate. It 
is customary to have one of these squaw-dances at the end of such 
a ceremony for the special benefit of the women who are never per- 
mitted to participate in the dancing at the ceremony itself. A special 
drum is provided for this purpose and the dancing is done outside 
of the sacred dream dance ring. This is made an occasion of much 
mirth and contrasts very greatly with the solemnity and ceremon- 
iousness of the dream dance itself. Whereas in the dream dance 
men only participate in the dancing and every man dances alone and 
according to his own notion, the squaw dance is characterized by the 
dancing of couples and by the invitation of one person to another to 
participate. Any person is privileged to invite another to dance. 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 351 

The inviting simply consists in making a present of g^reater or less 
value to the person invited. Not a word is spoken. The object pre- 
sented is simply brought and placed before or handed to the person 
invited who is then supposed to follow the person who has tendered 
the invitation over to the rifig aroung the drum where the dancers 
are assembled. There are furthermore, no restrictions as to sex in 
these invitations. A person may invite another of his or her own 
sex or of the opposite sex. The dance itself consists of a sidewise 
shuffling step, each dancer closely foHowing the others around the 
circle in a clockwise direction until the leader suddenly reverses the 
direction of movement of the line. Then all proceed in a contra- 
clockwise direction for a distance equal to about half of the peri- 
meter of the circle. The dance is then at an end and each partici- 
pant is privileged to go his way. 

Custom demands that a person who has received such a present 
and invitation must at a later time return a present of equal or ap- 
proximately equal value. In doing so he tenders of course an in- 
vitation to participate in another round of dancing. It does not, 
however, require that this return present shall be made to the per- 
son who tendered the invitation in the first place, but such an in- 
vitation may be tendered to anyone present and this serves as a re- 
turn invitation the same as if it had been tendered to the particular 
individual who made the first advances. The squaw dance held 
toward the close of this particular day lasted about two hours and 
is shown in the two illustrations on plate XX. 

With the conclusion of this squaw dance the whole nine days 
activities here at Whitefish on this occasion were at an end, and the 
visitors started that evening and during the following forenoon on 
their return journeys and everything about the community settied 
down to the usual routine of everyday life. 

OTHER CEREMONIES. 

In passing, mention should be made of the fact that among 
both the Chippewa and the Menominee there are several other cere- 
monies of greater or less importance all of which are celebrated by 
these people with the most profound reverence and sincerity. 

The most important and elaborate of these is the "medicine 
dance," or as it may be better termed the "ceremony of the medicine 



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352 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

lodge," which is a much older and more strictly aboriginal ceremony 
than the dream dance. The "Medicine Society" which celebrates 
this meremony is strictly esoteric and everything connected with 
the ceremony is very carefully kept by the members of the 
society. Detailed descriptions of this ceremony as witnessed by 
Dr. W. J. Hoffman among the members of both these tribes are 
given in his two papers entitled "The Midewiwin or 'Grand Medi- 
cine Society' of the Ojibwa" and "The Menomini Indians" published 
in the seventh and the fourteenth Annual Reports respectively of the 
Bureau of American Ethnology, 1891 and 1896. 

Miss Frances Densmore also has recently contributed* very valu- 
able data concerning this ceremony, especially in reference to its 
music among the Chippewa. 

Of great importance among these people also are certain feasts 
and certain games, all of strictly ceremonial significance and all con- 
ducted with the utmost reverence for the Great Spirit and the other 
deities in whose honor they are celebrated. The most important of 
these feasts are those lor the medicine bags and those for the war 
bundles. 

There are three games in particular which are played from pure- 
ly religious considerations and from which the element of pastime 
is strictly lacking. These are the lacrosse game, played by the men, 
the special game of double-ball, played by the wcnnen, and a special 
dice game played by the women. 

Furthermore, there are various other ceremonies of lesser im- 
portance which are largely individual matters, but throughout which 
this same reverential spirit runs and which form quite important 
factors in the culture of these tribes. Among these may be men- 
tioned ceremonies for good luck in hunting and other like pursuits, 
ceremonies connected with the supernatural healing of the sick, and 
the propitiatory ceremony performed upon arriving at the rice fields 
in the late summer. 

Throughout all these ceremonies, from the dream dance and the 
ceremony of the medicine lodge, both of which are of communal im- 
portance, on the one hand, down to the smallest and least important 
individual ceremony on the other, there is one prominent character- 
istic feature which is perhaps the most prominent phase of the 



4 Op. cit 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 353 

elaborate religious life of these two tribes. This is the use of 
tobacco. So far as it is concerned with the dream dance itself this 
has been quite fully considered in the foregoing pages, but it may 
be well in concluding this paper to take up a more detailed con- 
sideration of pipes in general and of the smoking customs con- 
cerned with these other phases of the ceremonial and daily life of 
these people. 

PIPES. 

It has already been pointed out that the pipes of the Chippewa 
and the Menominee may be divided according to use into two 
classes: those reserved strictly for important ceremonial use and 
those which are used for more common daily smoking. Some of 
the latter class may be at times used also for smoking of a slightly 
ceremonial nature. Strictly speaking the first class is occupied al- 
most exclusively by the true calumet ; that is to say, by the pipe with 
the catlinite bowl of some form similar to one of those shown in 
plate XXI, figs. 2-4, and plate XXIII, figs, i, 2, 5 and 6. The bowl 
of such a pipe may vary greatly in size, but its general form is 
usually quite constant. It may be more or less ornamented by means 
of lines or other figures in relief, (plate XXI, fig. 3), by means of 
ordinary incised, decorations, by means of ridges and projections 
carved out of the material itself (plate XXIII, figs, i and 2) or with 
inlayings of metal (plate XXI, fig. 4, and plate XXIII, figs, i and 
5). Usually, however, it is very plain. In this same class of strictly 
ceremonial pipes should be included also certain of the tomahawk- 
shaped pipes, though these are of a less aboriginal type. For in- 
stance, the two elaborately beaded pipes shown in figs, i and 2 of 
plate XXII were used for ceremonial smoking in connection with 
sacred medicine bags. One of these is of catlinite and the other of 
brass. The latter is of trade manufacture and the former is made in 
imitation of these trade articles. 

Pipes of certain forms may be used both for ceremonial and for 
common smoking, as is shown by the fact that whereas the two 
tomahawk-shaped pipes above mentioned were used very strictly for 
ceremonial smoking, the two of similar form shown in figs. 3 and 4 



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354 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

of this same plate were employed in ordinary everyday smoking. 
There are, on the other hand, certain pipes which are never used 
ceremonially. For instance, those of what has been termed the 
"Micmac" type (plate XXIII, figs. 8 and 9), and such other forms 
as those shown in fig^. 4, 7, 10, 11 and 12 of this same plate are 
used strictly for daily smoking. Such common pipes are usually 
made of limestone or sandstone, but sometimes of catlinite. Their 
stems are ordinarily very plain and the bowls are usually un- 
decorated. Exceptions to this rule are shown in the stem shown in 
fig. 4a and the bowls in figs. 11 and 12. In no case, however, is 
such decoration elaborate. 

In making one of these pipe bowls, even at the present day, the 
general shaping and working of the outer surfaces is done largely 
by a process of rubbing. For making the holes in the pipe, regard- 
less of the material of which it is made, there is employed an in- 
teresting type of bow drill the shaft of which is shown in plate XXV, 
fig. 2. The bow used is an ordinary himting bow, a turn of the bow 
string being taken around the wooden part of the shaft. A slight 
depression is made in a block of wood, in the floor, or in any suit- 
able surface and the rounded point of the wooden part of the shaft 
is rested in this. This brings the fairly slender iron drill point up- 
ward. The roughly shaped pipe bowl is held down upon this point 
and the drill is rotated by means of the bow. The iron point of the 
drill has sometimes a double devel much after the fashion of the 
drills used by mechanics for drilling metals. In other instances this 
extreme point is simply sharpened without beveling, but in such a 
case the sides of the shaft farther up the drill are roughened by strik- 
ing it with some sharp edged tool. Either type of drill is quite 
eflfective and will bore out the holes in such a pipe very evenly. 
Fig. 3 of plate XXV shows a partly bored sandstone pipe bowl 
which was destined to be made into a pipe of the "Micmac" type. 
The positions of the drill and the partly finished pipe shown in this 
plate are the reverse of those in which they are actually used. 

There are four classes of stone materials used by these tribes in 
pipe making. The most important of these is catlinite, a fine grained 
reddish material which is usually dug from some distance below the 
surface and is quite soft when first brought up. It is usually worked 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 355 

as far as possible into the desired forms soon after its removal from 
the ground since it becomes very hard upon exposure to the air. It 
is the most highly prized material used by the Indians for pipe mak- 
ing. A piece of this material which was obtained by Mr. Geo. A. 
West from the Barron county quarry is shown in plate XXV, fig. 6. 

The next in importance of these materials is the fine gained 
black stone used in making such pipes as that shown in plate XXI, 
fig. I. This is said by the Indians to be a very rare stone in the 
region and to be obtainable only under the water in certain lakes. 
Pipes made of this stone may be used for various purposes, but are 
said to have been in aboriginal times used abnost exclusively as 
chief's pipes. 

The fact that both this black stone and the catlinite are quite 
difficult to obtain has given rise to an interesting practice of repair- 
ing broken pipes. This is done by cutting into the stone in such a 
manner as to cross the line of fracture and then hammering metal, 
usually lead, into these incisions. Sometimes this mending is done 
with no evident regard for the appearance of the mended portion, 
as is the case in the pipe shown in plate XXIII, fig. 2, but more 
frequently it is done in such a manner as to produce a definite de- 
sign and thus really add to the aesthetic quality of the pipe as a 
whole. Such is the case in the mending of the pipe shown in fig. 5. 
The upright bowl proper of this pipe was broken off, but has been 
securely fastened in place by the vertical line of metal which ap- 
pears on either side of it at this point. These lines are extended far 
beyond the limit of necessity and made to form part of the general 
scheme of ornamentation of the pipe as a whole. 

An interesting piece of mending is found in the pipe shown in 
fig. I of this same plate. This specimen, like that shown in fig. 5, 
had at one time a short projection in front of the upright portion 
of the bowl. When this was broken off its place was supplied by a 
very neatly fashioned short point of metal. This is quite an unusual 
method of handling such a case, since under ordinary circumstances 
the original stone projection would have been fastened back into 
place, especially if it happened to be a very long projection like that 
shown in fig. 2. 



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356 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [V<J. !• 

The more ordinary pipes for daily smoking are, as above stated, 
made of either limestone (plate XXIII, figs. 8, 9) or sandstone 
(plate XXIII, figs. 10-12). It is an interesting fact that these sand- 
stone pipes are sometimes put to a use other than that of smoking, 
the particular specimen shown in fig. 12 has been used to a very 
considerable extent upon both its faces as a whetstone. Now and 
then one of these common pipes is made of catlinite as is shown in 
fig. 7 of this same plate. 

Metal pipes are in most cases a product of white manufacture. 
The idea is entirely due to modem influence, but there are certain 
cases where lead pipes are whittled out by the Indians themselves. 
These are very small pipes of the type shown in plate XXIII, fig. 3. 
All the metal tomahawk-shaped pipes encountered by the author 
among the Indians were of brass, though iron pipes do occur, and 
mention was made of the occurrence of copper ones. The pipes of 
this type are, so far as could be learned, the direct product of white 
manufacture though cases do undoubtedly occur in which they are 
made by Indians who have learned this form of metal-working from 
the whites, which of course amounts to the same thing so far as the 
aboriginality of this type of pipe is concerned. 

In speaking, in the early part of this paper, of the calumet used 
in connection with the dream dance mention was made of the high 
importance of its stem and of the diversity of forms which it takes. 
The stems used with other ceremonial pipes are of much less im- 
portant significance, though they are scarcely less diverse in form. 
The elaborateness of the large stem represented in plate XXI, fig. 
I a, is worthy of note. This stem is diamond-shaped in cross-section 
and on top is very elaborately decorated with nickeled metal and 
near the rear end with copper. On the lower surface are three metal 
loops for the attachment of feathers or other pendant objects. An 
eagle feather is at present attached to one of these. Such an elabo- 
rate stem is always designed for some special use, the one here 
shown being the stem of a chief's pipe. 

Other examples of stems of greater or less elaborateness and 
which are of a special ceremonial significance are shown in plate 
XXI, figs. 2a, 3a and 4a, and in plate XXII, figs, i and 2. 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 357 

Among the more common pipes there is no such an element of 
great ceremonial significance connected with the stem. It, how- 
ever, takes a considerable variety of forms, from that of a simple, 
cylindrical, natural stem to a more or less elaborately carved one. 
Examples of the latter are shown in plate XXIII, figs. la and 4a, 
while examples of the former are shown in figs. 2a, 3 and 5-12 of 
this same plate. These simpler stems are usually made of a natural 
twig or branch from which the pith has been removed, and they 
may even have the bark left on them, as is the case in the one shown 
in fig. 7. Ordinarily, however, the bark is removed and usually the 
wood is blackened by holding it over a fire until it arrives at the 
point of charring. All pipe stems, whether for ceremonial or for 
common pipes, are made of wood. 

SMOKING MATERIALS. 

The materials used at the present day in these various pipes are 
tobacco proper, that is to say the product of the leaf of some species 
or other of NicoHana, and the inner barics of certain shrubs. The 
mixture of these latter with tobacco makes kinnikinnick, which is 
the form in which both these materials are frequently prepared and 
most used. In practice the term tobacco is loosely applied to all 
kinds of smoking materials and it has been from time to time used 
in that way in the foregoing pages, but it should always be remem- 
bered that this is a more or less colloquial use of the term and that 
among these Indians the smoking material most used is really the 
mixture of these barks, which are the aboriginal smoking material, 
with true tobacco. It is maintained by the Chippewa and Menominee 
that until the coming of the white-man true tobacco was unknown 
to them, and that no species of Nicotiana was found in their repon. 
In fact it is well known to botanists that no NicoHana is indigenous 
to Wisconsin. The tobacco used by them at the present time is a 
very cheap grade of smdcing tobacco, with which they usually mix 
a small amount of finely cut plug tobacco. It may be used directly 
in this form, but is, as above stated, more frequently mixed with 
varying per cents, of the inner barks of certain shrubs, all of which 
are called by the Chippewa pa'kuzigun (plural pa'kuzigiinun). 



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358 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

They recognize three different shrubs as producers of good smok- 
ing materials. These are gega'daganagegok, wol>anuyak and 
mu^u'mic. They are said by informants to have flavors which are 
quite different one from another and are here named in the order of 
their desirability. Unfortunately circtunstances were not favorable 
to the securing of perfect botanical specimens of each of these three 
shrubs. A specimen of wo'banuyak was, however, obtained and has 
been identified by Dr. S. Graenicher, acting curator of botany of 
the Museum, as the silky dog^vood, Comus amotnum. From other 
material and data collected it seems probable that the most desirable 
species, that called gega'daganagegok, is the red ozier, Comus 
stolonifera and that the third and poorest species, that called 
mujii'mic is the panicled dogwood, Comus paniculata. 

All these three are low shrubs and are fairly plentiful in many 
localities throughout the forests of northern Wisconsin. The stems 
of these are gathered and are usually brought intact, often with the 
leaves still on them, to the house or camp. Here they are trimmed of 
branches and twigs and the dark outer bark is carefully scraped 
from them. This leaves the white inner bark which is then scraped 
off in ribbons and placed on a drier. In plate XXV, fig. i, is shown 
a bundle of the stems before the dark outer bark has been removed, 
while in fig. 7 of the same plate is shown a bundle after both the 
outer and the inner barks have been scraped off. Fig. 4 of the same 
plate shows one of the wickerwork, fan-shaped driers. Such a drier 
is in reality nothing but a stick with its one end split into from three 
to six pieces which serve as vertical elements upon which are placed 
a considerable number of horizontal ones is a simple, wickerwork 
technic. The freshly scraped strips of inner bark from the dogwood 
stems are placed upon this fan, its opposite end is stuck into the 
ground in such a position as to bring the fan about a foot above a 
small bed of coals which have been hauled out to one side of the 
camp fire. In about twenty minutes the bark is thoroughly dried 
and ready for storage and for use. It is customary to prepare only 
a comparatively small amount of this at any one time, probably 
owing to the fact that it grows so accessibly that it is deemed un- 
necessary to prepare more at one time. Fig. 5 of plate XXV shows 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 359 

one of these driers with the bark on it just as it was being dried by 
the Indians. 

Smoking materials are usually stored in a buckskin bag, though 
in more recent times cloth bags and various other receptacles are 
used. Mention has already been made of the special, highly decorated 
bag attached to the loop which supports the dnmi at its western 
stake. Tobacco intended for very special and highly ceremonial 
uses usually has some especially elaborate storage receptacle like 
this. For every day use many men have more simple buckskin 
pouches such as that shown in plate XXIV, fig. 2, which they carry 
about with them. A young man usually carries such a pouch in his 
pocket, but an old man very frequently hangs it at his belt. This he 
does by passing the top end of the bag under his belt and then tak- 
ing a turn around the belt with it so that it passes completely around 
the belt itself and passes twice between the belt and the wearer's 
body. The friction holds it firmly in place. This custom of fasten- 
ing the pouch at the belt appears to be a survival of the older days 
before trousers with pockets had replaced leggings and the breech 
clout, upon the string of which the tobacco pouch was then worn in 
this same manner. 

For use about the house a small amount of properly mixed 
tobacco is usually kept in some sort of an open tray. These trays 
are frequently of wood and take a variety of forms. Three of these 
are shown in plate XXIV, figs. 4, 5 and 8. Frequently small shallow 
birch bark baskets, such as that shown in fig. 7 of this same plate, 
are employed for this purpose, and now and then the carapace of a 
turtle is so used. One of these is shown in fig. 6 of this plate. 

The ordinary snuff of commerce is used to a certain extent by 
these people, more frequently as a dip than in the nose. It is ordi- 
narily kept in the small tin cans in which it is purchased, but small 
birch bark snuff boxes are also made. These, one of which is shown 
in plate XXIV, fig. 3, are elliptical in cross-section and are made 
by wrapping a long strip of bark several times around small wooden 
blocks which serve as base and top respectively. This is done in 
such a manner as to secure very tight fitting joints which prevent the 
fine powder from sifting out. The top is removable and provides in 
this way a cover for the box. 



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360 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

SMOKING CUSTOMS. 

Having considered more or less in detail in the foregoing 
pages the instruments and the materials used in smoking, as well as 
the occasions upon which tobacco is used, it may now be desirable to 
consider more particularly the customs concerned with its use. It 
should be observed at the outset that tobacco plays a very unim- 
portant roll as a satisfier of an animal craving, and as a pastime 
among the Indians. To be sure the Indians do smoke a great deal 
of tobacco, and do chew a reasonable amount of it in their regular 
daily routine. This is often done in such a manner that, to the casual 
observer, it might appear that its use was in every way the same as 
is that by the average white-man, who uses it as a matter of habit 
and for his own personal pleasure. No doubt among the younger 
Indians, and those who have been converted to the Christian re- 
ligion, tobacco has lost much, and in some cases perhaps all, of its 
religious significance. To the Indian of the old school, on the other 
hand, the one who is still a devout believer in the dream and medicine 
dances, and who sees the hand of the supernatural in many phases 
of his daily life, tobacco may be said to be used, even at the present 
day, in a strictly religious manner. It is with this older and more 
aboriginal type of Indian that we wish here to deal and it is very 
doubtful if he ever takes even a pinch of tobacco for any purpose 
whatever without an intuitive feeling of reverence for it and for the 
supernatural beings which his mind associates with it. It may, 
therefore, be said that so far as our consideration is concerned the 
use of tobacco, by these two tribes at least, is strictly ceremonial. 

These modes of use of tobacco may be divided into two distinct 
groups, one of which may be called passive and the other active. 
In the former case the tobacco is placed with various objects, or in 
certain special localities, as offerinors to the particular spirits con- 
cerned with those objects and those localities. The tobacco is not 
actually consumed, but is simply placed with these objects, or in 
these localities, the idea being that the spirit to which it is offered 
partakes of the essence, or what might be termed the spiritual ele- 
ment of the tobacco. It is, therefore, in reality, passive under 
such circumstances. It may remain for almost any required length 



■Since this paper was written there has appeared Mr. Geo. A. West's comprehensive 
discussion of the "Uses of Tobacco and the Calumet by Wisconsin Indians/' in which 
he treats this subject in detail from the earliest times up to the present day. The Wia- 
consin Archeologist, vol. xo, no. i, pp. 5-64, 191 1. 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 361 

of time with such an object or in such a locality, during which time 
it has performed no active function. Its mere presence and the fact 
that the spirit to which it is offered is able to consume its spiritual 
essence is quite sufficient for the purpose in hand. In a large 
measure these uses are confined to the keeping of spirits in a passi- 
fied state. That is to say, it causes them to remain in good humor, 
and it rarely happens that tobacco is used in this manner for pro- 
pitiating an enraged spirit, or as an offering to invoke the immediate 
and active aid of a spirit. 

For the purposes of propitiation and acceleration, on the other 
hand, the active uses of tobacco are necessary. Here the direct 
object sought is one of two, either to propitiate a spirit which has 
shown by one means or another its displeasure with the person mak- 
ing the offering, or to invoke the active aid of a spirit which is now 
entirely iniactive, or is at least insufficiently active. Ordinarily 
tobacco used in this manner is consumed by the person or persons 
making the offering, and its consumption is accompanied by an 
invocation to the particular spirit or spirits in question for the 
particular end sought by these suppliants. 

The chief passive uses of tobacco found among the Chippewa 
and the Menominee are the following : 

When any one of a variety of ceremonial objects, such as war 
bundles, medicine bags, dream bundles, thunder stones, thunder 
emblems, mnemonic records and spirit stones, are put away for safe- 
keeping it is always necessary to put with it a small amount of 
tobacco in order to please its spirit and to insure that it will not be- 
come dissatisfied with its lot and make trouble for the owner of the 
object with which it is connected. 

Furthermore, it is necessary to renew this tobacco from time to 
time, since the spirit of this particular object consumes the spiritual 
essence of the tobacco and a new supply of actual tobacco must be 
added in order to provide the spirit with a constant source for its 
own needs, for these spirits are very fond of tobacco and consume 
a great deal of its essence in this way. In most cases it is only 
necessary to place with such an object a fair sized cut of plug 
tobacco or a small handful of smoking tobacco, and to replace this 
several times during the year with a fresh supply, but at no special 



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362 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

Stated intervals. In case such an object is taken out from its place 
of keeping and handled, or used, it is then necessary to renew the 
tobacco when it is again put away, but in case the object is left in its 
place of keeping continuously it is only necessary to renew the 
tobacco at fairly infrequent intervals. With certain objects, such as 
a thunder stone, however, there are regular prescribed times at 
which the tobacco must be renewed. A thunder stone is one of the 
round black stones which occur in various sizes and which are sup- 
posed to be the actual missiles hurled by the thunder birds. 
It is this missile that causes the destniction which is ascribed by the 
whites to a stroke of lightning. It is esteemed by its owner as a 
very powerful object of medicine and must be treated with great 
respect and care in order that the thunder birds, who in reality own 
and control the stone, and who by special favor permit a human 
being to retain it for a time, shall not be offended. The possessor 
of such a stone is required to renew the tobacco with it four times 
during the course of a year. This must be done upon the occasion 
of the first peal of thunder in the spring, again about the middle of 
the summer, a third time at about the time the thunder storms cease 
in the fall, and a fourth time during mid-winter. The particular 
tobacco prescribed in this case was said by one informant to be a 
ten cent cut of ordinary plug tobacco. If the possessor of the stone 
is a single man, one of these cuts is sufficient. If, however, he is a 
man of family he must add another cut for each member of his 
family. In the latter case, upon the renewal of the tobacco, the old 
tobacco may be removed and used by the possessor of the stone, or 
by his friends. In the case of the single man, however, the cuts of 
tobacco must be left until four have accumulated, after which, upon 
placing the fifth cut, these four old pieces are removed and used, and 
another cycle of four is accumulated. 

Should the possessor of any one of these sacred objects be neg- 
ligent in his duties in these respects, the spirit which controls the 
object is very likely to exhibit its displeasure in some unpleasant 
manner, by causing illness to the owner or some member of his 
family, by bringing a drouth and destroying crops, or by some other 
exhibition of its power and its control over the destinies of the 
offender. In case any such displeasure is manifested, the possessor 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 363 

of this sacred object notes at once that through some inadvertence 
he has offended this spirit, it is then incumbent upon him to make 
reparation as quickly as possible. This may be done in any one of 
several ways. In case his offense is not very great, he may appease 
the wrath of the offended spirit by placing tobacco with the object, 
and by invoking the beneficence of the spirit. In case the offense is 
of a more grave nature, it may be necessary for him to give a feast, 
or to play one of the sacred games, or to hold some special ceremony, 
at which time he openly and frankly acknowledges to the people as- 
sembled his guilt and negligence, and makes open amends to the 
spirit for them. 

Of special interest in this connection is the war bundle, which 
is, as are all matters pertaining to war, directly under the control of 
the thunder birds. The thunder birds, are immense m)rthical creat- 
ures, living at the western extremity of the world, and are by some 
said to inhabit a large rocky island some distance from the shore 
out in the great western ocean which bounds the world in this 
quarter. These are perhaps the most important of the m)rthological 
beings among both the Menominee and the Chippewa. They control 
absolutely the fortunes of war, and in many ways play a very im- 
portant part especially with those who are directly under their 
particular protection. Perhaps the most important function of these 
war bundles, so far at least as the every day life of the people is 
concerned, is their control of the weather. In this particular matter 
their power is absolute, and it is the duty of every man who pos- 
sesses a war bundle to so conduct himself toward it and toward the 
thunder birds that no misfortunes will befall, not only himself, but 
also the community at large, through bad weather conditions of any 
kind. For instance, if a very severe thunder storm comes up, it is 
the duty of every man possessing one of these bundles to go to it 
and place there a handful of fresh tobacco. The use of tobacco in 
an active manner is, however, more important in connection with 
the war bundle. For instance a man should not only place tobacco 
before his bundle in this case so that it may partake of the spiritual 
essence of it. but he should also smoke before it. In every instance 
he must invoke the good offices of the thunder birds and endeavor 
in every way to appease their wrath. Should he be at some distance 



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364 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

from his war bundle when the storm comes up he must come out of 
doors and throw a handful of tobacco upward and toward the 
west, that is, toward the abode of the thunder birds, asking at the 
same time a cessation of the storm. 

In the case of a drouth, on the other hand, it is customary for 
all the men in any given locality who possess war bundles to be 
called together at some stated time and place and to celebrate a cere- 
mony over these bundles. The trouble in this case is just the op- 
posite of that which arises from a violent storm. In that case the 
thunder birds are too active and beligerent. In this case they are 
not sufficiently active. During this ceremony the bundles are hung 
on a long pole in the center of the area used and much tobacco is 
offered and smoked on their behalf. The object, therefore, of such 
a ceremony is to appease the wrath of the thunder birds who are re- 
maining at their home in the west and withholding the rain, and to 
induce them to come forth and bring a much needed storm with 
them. 

One more instance of this passive use of tobacco will be suffi- 
cient to embrace all the typical cases found among these two tribes. 
There are certain localities such, for instance, as certain lakes, pools 
and rivers, and especially certain stones, in which dwell certain 
special, local spirits and where tobacco is always placed by passers- 
by. It is considered that these localities and stones are the actual 
abodes of these spirits, which have the power to do much good, or 
much harm, according as they are propitiated or offended by the 
people at large, and especially by those who have occasion to pass 
directly by their abodes. By making a small offering of tobacco in 
passing one of these spirit stones, for instance, a person acquires the 
good will of the spirit inhabiting it, and so long as it is provided 
with an abundance of tobacco it is pacific and will cause no trouble. 
On the other hand, should it be neglected for a time, and especially 
should a person pass the stone without taking any notice of it and 
without leaving at least a small pinch of tobacco, it is very likely to 
become offended and to visit upon such a person some illness or 
other afrliction. 

What have been termed the active uses of tobacco are in some 
respects much more important than are the passive uses, for while 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 365 

in a large measure the passive uses serve to keep an already inactive 
spirit quiet and to thereby prevent it from doing harm, the active 
uses of tobacco serve to pacify an already maliciously active spirit, 
or to arouse to benevolent action a now passive spirit. Mention has 
just been made of the active use of tobacco in connection with the 
war bundle for the regulation of weather conditions. In this same 
way tobacco is used at games, at feasts, and at dances, all of which 
are, among the Menominee and Chippewa, in the strictest sense 
ceremonial observances. 

The most important of the games of these people is lacrosse. It 
is not, as is supposed by many, played as a pastime, but is strictly 
ceremonial, and is not played except at the direct command of some 
supernatural guardian spirit to some individual. The spirit appears 
to this individual in a waking vision, or in a dream, and instructs 
him to get together the necessary prizes for a lacrosse game, and to 
call a game in the near future. The object of such a command is 
that the person may make amends for some infringements which 
have been committed by him upon some rules and restrictions con- 
cerned with some religious observance, or in order that he may ob- 
tain some desired supernatural favor, such as a return to health. 
As soon as arrangements are properly made, he sends out one or 
more messengers with a quantity of tobacco. These messengers go 
from place to place, and from house to house presenting to each man 
whom the giver of the game has designated a small amount of 
tobacco. This tobacco serves as an invitation to him to attend and 
participate in the game at a certain given time and given place which 
are stated to him by the messenger. The acceptance of this gift of 
tobacco is the acceptance of the invitation to attend the game. In 
case the one invited cannot attend he declines the proffered tobacco 
and sends by the messenger an explanation as to why he cannot 
participate. At the game the giver has a considerable quantity of 
tobacco placed together with the prizes for which the game is to be 
played, and this is used freely by the participants in the game. Dur- 
ing the game they can only chew the tobacco, since they are too 
busily engaged to smoke, for one of these games is a very active oc- 
cupation. The tobacco which remains after the game is finished is, 
however, divided amonsr the participants and much of it is smoked. 



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366 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

Among the women there are two games which may be played as 
a result of a vision, and in both of which tobacco plays an important 
part. These are the women's shinney game, a type of double-ball 
game, and the special women's dice game. 

There are certain special feasts which may be given by the in- 
dividual upon certain occasions, in all of which tobacco plays a very 
important part, being placed with the particular objects with which 
the feast is concerned, and being smoked during the ceremony. One 
of these feasts is that given by an individual for his medicine bag, 
and is quite a different matter from the regular medicine dance or 
ceremony of the medicine lodge. In such a case a man invites cer- 
tain of his friends to partake of this special feast with him, and the 
actual feasting is done in the presence of his medicine bag, and is 
preceded by ceremonial smoking. Similarly a special feast and cere- 
mony may be given by an individual for the honor of his war bundle, 
and it not infrequently happens that one of these special feasts is 
given as the result of a vision in which some guardian spirit ap- 
pears to a man and gives him certain supernatural powers. 

In the case of the medicine bag, as also of the war bundle and 
certain other ceremonial objects, it is customary to keep certain 
special calumets to be smoked upon the occasion of a ceremony with 
which it is concerned, and for smoking upon special occasions when 
some favor, such as a change of weather, is asked of the spirits which 
control such sacred objects. Examples of pipes devoted to such 
special uses are shown in plate XXII, figs, i and 2, in which are 
shown two tomahawk-shaped pipes used especially in connection with 
medicine bags. In plate XXI, figs. 4 and 4a, appear the bowl and 
stem of a calumet especially devoted to smoking for the thunder 
birds. Its possessor was especially under the patronage of the 
thunder birds and used it particularly in connection with a large 
thunder stone and a thunder bird emblem which he had obtained 
from his guardian spirits through direct communications in visions. 

As has been already mentioned in speaking of that subject each 
drum used in the dream dance has a special calumet, and among the 
Menominee, are also one, and sometimes two, other special calumets. 
The object of this special calumet, its form, manufacture, uses, and 
its high importance in the dream dance have already been discussed 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 367 

in detail in the foregoing pages, so that it need be only menti(»ied 
here that it is used as a sacrificial altar devoted to special smoking 
in connection with this particular ceremony, and that the use of 
tobacco in it is strictly what has been here designated as an active 
one. The smoke and the incense which arise from this particular 
ceremonial calumet are supposed to ascend to the abode of the Great 
Spirit and to be pleasing to him. Accompanying them are, of course, 
the invocations of the participants in the ceremony, and these are 
supposed to be received with favor when accompanied by the smoke 
and aroma from these ceremonial pipes. Especially effecacious is 
the smoke from the drum's own pipe, since this as a pipe is of special 
importance, and since the tobacco which is smoked in it comes from 
the special pouch which is fastened to the loop which supports the 
drum on its western stake, and which is therefore especially potent. 

One or two minor custwns connected with the use of the pipe 
may also be mentioned in this connection. Almost all the pipes of 
fair size, which are intended for daily use, are provided with two 
or three stems, which may be all of the same length, or the lengths 
of which may vary. Likewise they may all be of the same appear- 
ance, or one may be much more elaborately decorated than another. 
These stems are used indifferently by the smoker and apparently 
without any particular sequence. 

Upon finishing his smoke he detaches the stem from the bowl, 
carefully removes the ashes, and puts the two stems and the bowl 
away together. In no case is the bowl of such a pipe left attached 
to the stem. This does not ordinarily apply to very small pipes, 
such as those of the *'Micmac" type and others which are used more 
as pocket pieces, and which are usually carried about in the tobacco 
pouch. Among the Chippewa the "Micmac" type of pipe is very prev- 
alent among the old men, though the common wooden pipe of com- 
merce is used to a large extent by the younger generation. Among 
the Menominee, on the other hand, the commercial pipe has almost 
completely supplanted the old time common pipe. 

In smoking it is almost invariably the custom to tamp the 
tobacco down into the bowl of the pipe with the first finger after a 
few puffs have been taken and it is certain that the tobacco has 
thoroughly ignited. Among the Menominee there is a saying that 



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368 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

a Menominee always tamps the tobacco down in his pipe, and he has 
for this reason a delicious and sweet odored smoke, whereas among 
the Potawatomi the tobacco is never tamped down, and the odor 
from their pipes is very foul as a result. In the case of the dream 
dance calumet this tamping down of the tobacco is done in this same 
manner by the pipe tender, but in no case was a special tamping 
stick, such as is often used by certain tribes farther to the west, en- 
countered among any of the members of either of these tribe§. 

CONCLUSION. 

In considering the foregoing discussion certain important facts 
stand out prominently. 

Firstly: The Chippewa and the Menominee are an extremely 
devout and sincerely religious people, worshipping a polytheon which 
centers about a chief deity designated as the Great Spirit, which 
term is a literal rendition of the names by which he is known in the 
respective language of these two tribes. While this chief deity is 
the central figure in this polytheon, great importance also attaches 
to certain lesser deities or spirits, and much power is ascribed to 
them, each being credited with special connection with certain ob- 
jects, localities or forces of nature and being looked upon as the 
potential guardian spirit of some individual or other. These deities 
may exert great influence for good or evil according as they are 
pleased or displeased with the actions of individuals. They mani- 
fest their pleasure by giving propitious conditions to the people, and 
their displeasure by causing storms, drouths, illness, and other un- 
favorable conditions. 

Second: The most important factor in dealing with all these 
spirits is tobacco, which is used in what have been here termed a 
passive and an active manner, the design of the former being chiefly 
to keep in an inactive condition and satisfied spirits which might be- 
come dangerous if displeased by inattention or otherwise, and the 
design of the latter being to propitiate malevolently active spirits, 
and to arouse inactive spirits to benevolent action. 

These active uses of tobacco are the more important of the two 
classes and are employed in several ways : by individuals in their 



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1911] BARRETT, DREAM DANCE. 369 

daily life, in connection with special feasts and games, and especially 
in connection with ceremonies of which the medicine dance and the 
dream dance are the most important. In these cases it is smoked 
in calumets which are devoted exclusively to the particular purpose 
in hand. Of these the drum's pipe, which is used in connection with 
the dream dance is the most important and shows the most highly 
ceremonial use. It is in fact one of the most important objects con- 
nected with this elaborate ceremony. 

Third : The dream dance, while a ceremony of modem origin, 
ranks in importance equally with the more aboriginal and strictly 
esoteric medicine dance. Its motives are the worship of the Great 
Spirit and the propagation of a doctrine of universal peace and 
brotherhood, and its devotees practice these teachings with the 
utmost sincerity and consistency. 

The objects of special reverence are the drum, which is called 
the grandfather of the devotees, and the drum's calumet, which 
serves as a sacrificial altar. Through the combined agencies of these 
two the invocations of the devotees are carried up to the Great 
Spirit. 

Elaborate ritualistic ceremonies are held at certain special times, 
but a great respect is paid the drum at all times and offerings are 
frequently made by individuals to it during the intervals between 
these ceremonies. The ceremony itself is very thoroughly or- 
ganized and its conduct is directed by certain special individuals, and 
those who participate in it are divided into certain special classes, 
each with its own particular duty. The whole ceremony is 
strictly non-esoteric and any person, regardless of race or creed is 
welcome to participate in it. 

The origin of this special cult is due to the vision of a Sioux 
girl which occurred within fairly recent times. The ceremony has 
spread over a wide range of territory, and has become more or less 
modified in different localities. Perhaps the most interesting feature, 
however, of the ceremony as it now appears among these people is 
its alteration and the intrusion of new ideas due to the visions of a 
little girl a few years ago. These were taken as direct revelations 
from the Great Spirit and have caused the place known as White- 
fish, on the Lac Court Oreilles reservation, to become a veritable 
Mecca for devotees of the dream dance religion, even from great 
distances. 

Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 
May 75, iQii. 



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370 BULLETIN, PUBLIC MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE [Vol. I. 

TABLE SHOWING 

Museum numbers and lengths of specimens used as 
illustrations in plates XXI to XXV. 





PLATE XXI. 










Length 


Fig. No. 


Catalog Number 


Inches 


Centimeters 


I 


4444 


5-9 


15- 


la 


4444 


30.1 


764 


2 


5153 


7-5 


19- 


aa 


5153 


14.6 


37-2 


3 


5149 


9- 


23- 


3a 


S149 


14-5 


36.9 


4 


4443 


4.6 


11.7 


4a 


4442 


25.7 


655 




PLATE XXII. 










Length 


Fig. No. 


Catalog Number 


Inches 


' Centimeters 


I 


4446 


233 


59-3 


3 


4445 


19.7 


50.2 


3 


5146 


19- 


483 


4 


5147 


21.1 


53-7 




PLATE XXIII. 










Length 


Fig. No. 


Catalog Number 


Inches 


Centimeters 


I 


4439 


5- 


12.5 


la 


4439 


9.6 


244 


2 


5148 


5-7 


14-5 


2a 


5148 


14-7 


37-4 


3 


4438 


15.2 


38.5 


4 


4447 


1-9 


5- 


4a 


4447 


14.9 


37.8 


5 


5797 


9.6 


243 


6 


5151 


71 


18. 

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BARRETl', DREAM DANC^E. 



371 



7 


5159 


4-2 


10.8 


8 


5170 


6.2 


15-9 


9 


5157 


9-3 


23.6 


lO 


5166 


5-7 


14.6 


II 


5690 


7- 


17.9 


13 


516s 


5-9 


15- 




PLATE XXIV. 










Length 


Fig. No. 


Catalog Number 


Inches 


Centimeters 


I 


4521 


3.3 


8.5 


2 


4450 


9- 


22.7 


3 


5401 


3- 


7-5 


4 


5183 


5-7 


14.6 


5 


4177 


16. 


40.7 


6 


5399 


6.6 


16.7 


7 


4797 


9- 


23. 


8 


5181 


20.5 


52. 




PLATE XXV. 










Length 


Fig. No. 


Catalc^ Number 


Inches 


Centimeters 


I 


5193 


30. 


76. 


3 


5179 


16.1 


41- 


3 


5171 


1-9 


5- 


4 


5199 


29- 


73-8 


5 


5191 


24.7 


63. 


6 


12132 


9. 


23. 


7 


5194 


28. 


71- 



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EXPLANATION OF PLATE IX. 

Figure i. Circular dream dance enclosure located at the Zoar settle- 
ment on the Menominee reservation. This enclosure 
is formed by an earth embankment about a foot high. 
Neg. no. 1-182. 

Figure 2. The dancing ground at Whitefish on the Lac Court 
Oreilles reservation showing a square enclosure formed 
by a high fence, and showing the flag poles at the four 
points of the compass. Neg. no. 1-50. 



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VOL I., PL IX 





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EXPLANATION OF PLATE X. 

Figure i. The dream dance at Whitefish showing the two cere- 
monial drums, one of which is being played. Neg. 
no. 1-72. 

Figure 2. The dream dance showing a large number of men danc- 
ing about one of the drums. Neg. no. 1-55. 



376 



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MILW. 






VOL. L, PL. X. 


• 

V 












1 


4 


If/ 

^E* 








M 






^ 






HI 


Ev C^ 


1 . 






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EXPLANATION OF PLATE XL 

Figure i. A near view of one of the dream dance drums showing 
the stakes upon which it is supported and showing the 
symbolic decoration in bead work. Neg. no, 1-58. 

Figure 2. A near view of the circle of drummers about one of the 
drums showing them playing for the benefit of one of 
their niunber who made a mistake in drumming in the 
preceding tune, and who is shown at the left of the 
figure dancing in atonement for his error. Neg. no. 
1-60. 



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BULL.. PUBL. MUS.. MILW. 



VOL L. PL. XI. 





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EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIL 

Figure i. The dream dance at Whitefish showing the cross in the 
center of the dancing area, and showing one of the 
drums with its circles of drummers and singers, and 
also showing a number of men dancing. Neg. no. i- 
54. 

Figure 2. The smoking out of the calumet by one of the chief men 
connected with the ceremony after it has passed 
around among the other participants. Neg. no. 1-62. 



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VOL. L, PL. XII. 





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EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIIL 

Figure i. One of the orators (Mr. John Quarters) of Whitefish 
speaking to the people concerning matters connected 
with the dream dance. In the foregroimd is shown 
one of the drums with its circles of drummers and 
singers. Neg. no. 1-65. 

Figure 2. A visitor speaking at the dream dance at Whitefish. 
Neg. No. 1-64. 



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EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIV. 

Figure i. A scene in the dancing area at the dream dance showing 
the participants listening attentively to an oration. 
Neg. no. 1-71. 

Figure 2. A scene showing the daily feast at the dream dance at 
Whitefish. Neg. no. 1-69. 



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VOL. L. PL. XIV. 





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EXPLANATION OF PLATE XV. 

Figure i. TKe feast of the "Braves" held during the dream dance. 
In this scene the messenger of the "Braves" is just 
leading a member of the "Braves" up to participate in 
this feast. Neg. no. 1-76. 

Figure 2. Messengers preparing the food of the feast for distribu- 
tion after it has been properly consecrated by a special 
ceremony for that purpose. Neg. no. 1-68. 



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VOL. I., PL. XV. 





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EXPLANATION OF PLATE XVL 

Figure i. A scene at the dream dance at Whitefish showing par- 
ticularly a death bundle. Neg. no. 1-91. 

Figure 2. Newly clothing two mourners as part of the ceremony 
of the removal of mourning. Neg. no. 1-85. 



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VOL. L, PL. XVI. 





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EXPLANATION OF PLATE XVIL 

Figure i. Bathing and newly clothing two mourners as part of the 
ceremony for the removal of mourning. Neg. no. 1-84. 

Figure 2. An orator speaking to the two mourners who have just 
passed through the ceremony for the removal of 
mourning. Neg. no. 1-88. 



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VOL I., PL XVII. 





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EXPLANATION OF PLATE XVIIL 

Figure i. Preparing to paint the faces of two mourenrs as the last 
stage in the ceremony of the removal of mourning. 
Neg. no. 1-86. 

Figure 2. Painting the faces of the two mourners in completion of 
the ceremony for the removal of mourning. The 
streak of yellow paint can be seen on the cheek of the 
man mourner. Neg. no. 1-87. 



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EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIX. 

Figure i. The man mourner joining in the dance for the benefit of 
himself and wife directly after the completion of the 
ceremony for the removal of mouring. Neg. no. i- 

89. 

Figure 2. Another view of the same dance as that shown in Fig. i, 
but taken so as to include the remaining dancers and 
the drum. Neg. no. 1-90. 



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VOL L PL XIX 




^^^^^a^^^^^i 








~ ' J T\ 





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EXPLANATION OF PLATE XX. 

Figure i. The so-called squaw dance as seen from a distance. Neg. 
no. 1-93. 

Figure 2. The squaw dance with a larger circle of dancers par- 
ticipating. Neg. no. 1-96. 



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VOL. 1., PL. XX, 





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EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXL 

Figures i 
and I a. Chief's pipe with black stone bowl inlaid with metal and 
with long and very elaborately decorated stem. 

Figures 2 
and 2a. Calumet with typical plain bowl of catlinite and with 
elaborately excised stem. 

Figures 3 
and 3a. Calumet with large bowl of catlinite showing simple 
decoration in raised lines. 

Figures 4 
and 4a. Calumet with small bowl of catlinite elaborately inlaid 
with metal and with long painted stem with fur band. 
Neg. no. 1-204. 



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EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXIL 

TOMAHAWK-SHAPED PIPES. 

Figure i. Tomahawk-shaped pipe, the bowl of which is of catlinite, 
and the stem of which is elaborately ornamented with 
beadwork and fur. 

Figure 2. Tomahawk-shaped pipe, the bowl of which is of brass, 
and the stem of which is elaborately decorated with 
beadwork, fur and tassels. 

Figure 3. Tomahawk-shaped pipe with brass bowl of elaborately 
excised design and with stem ornamented with 
pendants of large beads, thimbles and ribbons. 

Figure 4. Tomahawk-shaped pipe with bowl of brass and with 
plain stem. 

Neg. no. 1-205. 



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EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXIIL 

Figures i 
and I a. Pipe with bowl of catlinite ornamented with in- 
laid metal and with a prominent ridge on the upper 
side of its base, and with a short protruding point of 
metal. The stem of this pipe shows decoration by ex- 
cision and by means of incised lines. 

Figures 2 
and 2a. Pipe with bowl of catlinite showing a very promi- 
nent scalloped and perforated ridge on the upper side 
of its base and showing mending with metale. The 
stem of this pipe is perfectly plain. 

Figure 3. Small lead pipe showing a prominent ridge on the 
upper part of its bowl and a prominent sharp point, 
and with a perfectly plain stem. 

Figures 4 
and 4a. Black pipe of standstone and of unusual form. The 
stem of this pipe shows rough carving on its edges 
and a slight amount of decoration by incision. 

Figure 5. Small catlinite pipe, the bowl of which has been 
mended in such a manner as to make the metal used in 
mending serve a decorative purpose. 

Figure 6. Small pipe of catlinite decorated with incised dots about 
the upright bowl proper. 

Figure 7. Small square pipe of catlinite with stem showing 
the use of a twig with the bark on it for this purpose. 

Figure 8. Limestone pipe of the "Micmac" type. 
Figure 9. Limestone pipe of the "Micmac" type showing a 
slightly different form from that in figure 8. 

Figure 10. Sandstone pipe of very unusual form. 

Figure II. Small discoidal pipe showing decoration with incised 
lines. 

Figure 12. "Heel-shaped pipe of standstone, showing decoration 

with incised dots. This pipe also shows where it has 

been used as a whetstone. 

Neg. no. 1-206. 



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BULL, PUBL MUS., MILW. 



VUL. I.. PL XXIII. 




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EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXIV. 

Figure i. Punk used in lighting the ceremonial pipe. 
Figure 2. Buckskin tobacco pouch, such as is employed in every- 
day use. 

Figure 3. Snuff box made of birch bark. 

Figure 4. Elliptical shallow wooden tobacco tray used in mixing 
tobacco with dogwood bark in making kinnikinnick. 

Figure 5. Long narrow wooden tobacco tray used in preparing 
kinnikinnick for smoking. 

Figure 6. Carapace of a turtle used as a tobacco tray. 
Figure 7. Birch bark tobacco tray. 

Figure 8. Large wooden tobacco tray provided with handle. 

Neg. no. 1-207. 



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BULL.. PUBL. MUS., MILW. 



VOL. L, PL. XXIV. 








(I 








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EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXV. 

Figure i. Stems of one of the species of dogwood from which one 
of the smoking materials is made. This illustration 
shows these stems before the outer bark has been re- 
moved. 

Figure 2. Drill with wooden handle and iron point used in making 
perforations in pipes. 

Figure 3. Partly finished sandstone pipe of the "Micmac" type. 

Figure 4. Plain wickerwork kinnikinnick dryer. 

Figure 5. Kinnikinnick dr\-er with dogwood bark upon it. This 
shows the manner in which the narrow ribbons of the 
inner bark of the dogwood are dried for smoking. 

Figure 6. Piece of catlinite from a quarry in Barron County. 

Figure 7. Stems of the dogwood after the inner bark has been re- 
moved for drying into smoking material, which when 
Mixed with tobacco forms kinnikinnick. 
Neg. no. 1-208. 



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BULL., PUBL. MUS., MILW. 



VOL L, PL XXV. 





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INDEX.* 



aboriginal creeds, 255. 
Agapostemon, 234, 

radiatus, 234. 

splendens, 234. 

texanus subtilior, 234. 

viridulus, 234. 
Ainu of YezOi 209. 
Alcidamea, 245. 

simplex, 245. 

truncata, 245. 
Algonquin, 254. 
^ndrma^ 234. 

aliciae, 226, 236. 

alleghaniensis, 236. 

asteris, 226, 236. 

clypeonitens, 226, 236. 

cratae^i, 236. 

forbesti, 237. 

frazilis, 236. 

heltanthi, 226, 236. 

multil>licata, 237. 

nwalts, 234. 

niualoides, new species, 222, 

235. 

nubecula, 226, 236. 

obscura, 237. 

peckhami, 226. 236. 

robertsonii, 237. 

rudbeckiae, 226, 236. 

solidaginis, 226, 237. 

virtna 236. 

uw^Att, 226. 248. 
Anihophora, 248. 

bomboides, 248. 

vualsshii, 226. 248. 
Andronicus, 245. 
Andronicus cylindricus, 245. 
Anthedon (Afelissodes) compta, 

225. 
Anthidium, 244. 

chippewaense, 222, 224. 
Apoica, 224. 
Apoidea, 223. 
Argyroselenis, 242. 

mifftifta, 242. 
Ashmead, 223. 
Ashmeadiella, 245. 

denticulala, 245. 
Asia, 211. 
Asoka, 218. 



/1j/^, 227. 
Augochlora, 234. 

confusa, 234. 

fervida, 234. 

^Mra, 234. 

similis, 234. 

viridula, 234. 
bad luck. 342. 
bagaa'kokwan. 303, 342. 
bagaa'kdwan-genawinduiig, 303. 
Barron Co. quarry, 355. 
beaded ceremonial wand, 287, 289, 

303. 
beadwork. 335, 338. 
bees, list of, 227. 

oligotro^ic, 225, 226, 227. 



polytropic, 225. 
lu\ 311. 



bidu'l 

Billy toy. 339. 

Bingham^ 223. 

birchbark, 254. 

body painting, 278. 

Boltonia asteroides, 227. 

Bombias, 249. 

auricomus, 249. 

separatus, 249. 
Bombus, 248. 

americanorum, 249. 

borealis, 249. 

con^'m»7ij, 249. 

fervidus, 249. 

Aii»/it, 248. 

impatUns, 249. 

pennsylvanicus, 249. 

temarius, 248. 

terricola, 249. 

virginicus, 249. 
bowdrill, 354. 
Brachycisiis, 224. 
brave dance, 333. 
brave, head, 337. 
brave women, 335. 
braves. 280, 333. 335, 337, 339, 348. 
twravcs^ feast. 337. 
braves' song, 337. 
breech dou^ 359. 
British, 295. 
British colonies, 294. 
bw^gi'sik, 811. 
bwoni-nfmitiwin, 301. 



*Ball.. Pabl.. Mas., If ilw.. Vol. I. 



407 



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Index, 



calumet. 261, 268, 273, 292, 300, 
308, 316. 353, 366, 369; bowl, 
268, 269, 316, 317; care of, 
274; dance, 348; dancers', 292; 
decoration of, 270; forms of, 
270; lighting of, 291; material, 
270; smoking out of, 317; 
stem of, 268, 271, 288, 291, 356. 

calumet stem, forms of, 271; im- 
portance of, 272; ornamenta- 
tion of. 271. 

Calliopsis, 238. 

andreniformis, 238. 
verhenae nebraskensis, 238. 

Campanulaceae, 226. 
Campanula americana, 226. 
cardinal points, 274, 290, 300, 315. 
Cassia Chamaecrista, 226. 
catlinite, 353, 354. 
catlinite mines in Wisconsin. 270. 
Ceratina, 248. 
dupla, 248. 

ceremonial feasts, 255 ; games, 255. 

ceremonies, 351; classes of, 255. 

Chen-tu. 210. 

Cheyenne, northern. 299. 

chief, 321. 323. 335; dancer. 261, 
280, 284, 348; drummer, 280, 
284, 299; priest, 299, 304, 307, 
324. 327, 332, 344. 

chiefs pipe, 269, 274, 321, 355, 356. 

Chippewa, 253, 288; Minnesota, 
270; music, 282; reservations. 
254; river, 271. 

Chippewa and Menominee cere- 
monies, comparison of, 291. 

Cirsium — species. 226, 227. 

ckibida'gun, 316. 

Gam lake, 321. 

Clisodon, 248. 

terminalis, 248. 

Cockerell, Prof. T. D. A., 222. 223, 
224. 

color sjrmbolism, 264. 
Colletes, 228. 

aberrans, 226, 227. 228. 

armatus, 225, 228. 

brevicomis, 228. 

eulophi, 228. 

latitarsis, 226. 227, 228. 

nudus, 228. 

vicinalis, new species, 222, 228. 



Coelioxys, 243. 
lucrosa, 244. 
modesta, 244. 
moesta, 244. 
octodentata, 244. 
ribis, 244. 
ruHtarsis, 244. 
texana, 243. 

Composiiae, 225, 226, 227. 
consecration, 287, 326. 
contact with whites, 255. 
Coppermine Dam, Douglas Co., 

221. 
Cbrdier, Henri, 209, 218. 
Comus amomum, 358. 

paniculata, 358. 

stolonifera, 358. 
coup, 315, 326. 
Cresson, 223. 
Cucurbitaceat, 226. 
Customs, 255. 
Dakota, North, 253. 
dancers, 277, 299, 304; circle, 304. 
dances. 335. 
dancing. 282, 289; area, 280; drcic, 

292. 

Datura meteloides, 223. 
death bundle, 338, 346. 
decorations, symbolic. 278. 
Delaware prophet, 293. 
Densmore, Miss Frances. 282. 352. 
destruction of the world, 330. 
dewc'gun. 302. 
Dianthidium, 244. 

jugatorium, 244. 

simile, 244. 

dice game, 352. 

women's, 366. 
directors of ceremony, 299. 304, 

311. 320, 323, 324. 

duties of, 280. 

divorce, 347. 

dogwood, panicled, 358; silky, 358. 
donations, 284; of money, 273. 
double ball game, 352, 366. 
dragon-flies, see special index of 

odonata pp. 193-207. 
dream, 309. 365 ; bundles, 361. 



408 



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Index, 



dream dance, 255, 291, 203, 301, 
352, 366« 369. 
aboriginal features of, 257. 
calumet, 273. 

creed of, 267, 284. 320, 333, 
369. 

cult, 256. 266. 
drum, 261. 

duties of participants in, 279. 
evening ceremony, 291, 312. 
extraneous ideas introduced, 
257. 

origin of, 256, 284. 
participants in, 276. 
period of recurrence. 257. 
sacred objects, 298. 
step of, 299. 

and ghost dance, comparison 
of, 297. 

dress, 255, 277, 287, 295. 333; 

aboriginal, 278. 
drier, 358. 
drum, 280. 291, 302, 311, 315, 324, 

333, 340, 344, 366, 369. 

breaking of, 266. 

broken, 349. 

ceremonies concerned with 

making; 266. 

construction of, 261. 

decorations of, 262. 

dedication of, 267, 303. 

guardian of. 266. 

medical powers of, 346. 

orientation of, 264. 291. 

placing of, 264. 

presentation of, 266. 267, 285. 

341. 

representative of, 337. 

return presents, 267. 

smoking before, 272. 

stakes, 261. 264, 302. 

stick, 281, 303, 311. 341. 

tenders, 303. 

warden, 303. 

drumhead, breaking of, 343. 
drum keeper, 272, 280. 
drummer, head, 303. 
drummers. 277, 299, 303, 311, 315, 

324, 335. 
drummers' circle, 303, 304, 316. 

318. 
drumming, 281, 304, 311; errors 

in, 279. 



drum's calumet, 369. 
IXicke, 223. 
eagle feathers, 287. 
Epeolus, 241. 

bifasciatus, 241. 

lectoides, 241. 

pusillus, 241. 

scutellaris, 341. 

Erie, Lake, 253. 

ethical principles, 284. 297. 

Eunotnia, 234. 

heteropoda, 234. 
Eupatorium, 227. 

Farmington, Polk Co., 221. 

feast, 287, 305, 308, 313, 334, 336, 
349, 352, 363, 369; consecra- 
tion of, 288, 308, 313; serving 
of, 290. 

Hres, ceremonial, 299. 

Fishtrap, Burnett Co.. 221. 

flags, 320. 

flood, 330. 

Fountain City, Buffalo Co.. 222. 

foods, see feasts, 

Fox river, 254. 

French, 294. 

friendship dance. 267. 

gagfgfdo'winini, 322. 

Galpinsia fendlerii, 224. 

games, 352, 369; of women, 366; 
sacred, 363. 

gates, closing of, 348. 

Gaura coccinea, 224. 

ggga'daganagegok, 357. 

ghost dance, 293, 296; creed of, 
297; sacred objects, 298; step 
of, 299. 

gifts. 317, 322, 323. 326. 345. 351; 
distribution of, 318. 

Gordon. Douglas Co.. 221. 

good luck. 352. 

Graenichcr. Dr. S., 358. 

Grand Medicine Society of the 
Ojibwa, 352. 

Great Spirit. 256, 261. 264. 266, 
268, 276, 281. 281, 285, 295, 
296, 300. 305, 308, 310. 318, 323, 
327, 339. 368; impersoqator 
of, 274, 275, 287, 292; 293; in- 
vocation to* 298. 

Green Bay, 254. 

Grover, Mr. Steve, 300, 324, 327, 
341, 344. 



409 



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Index. 



guardian spirit, 365. 366. 

Halictoides, 237. 

marginatus^ 226, 237. 

novae-angliae, 237. 
Halictus, 221, 231. 

aberrans, 22A. 

albipennis, 232. 

connexus, 232. 

coriaceus, 231. 

cressonii, 232. 

foxii, 231. 

galpinsiae, 224, 

hortensis, 232. 

ItrouxH, 231. 

ligatus, 231. 

nelumbonis, 226, 231. 

nigro-viridis, new specks, 222» 

283. 

nymphalis, 231. 

oblongus, 233. 

paralUlus, 231. 

pectoralis, 231. 

pilosus, 232w 

provanchtri, 281. 

pruinosus, 232. 

^iMkfrtmacM/o^Mf. 281. 

sparsus, 232. 

Ugularis, 282. 

irMficafftf, 281. 

versans, 238. 

vrrja/uj, 233. 

vierecki, 282. 

viridatus, 232. 

Miphyrus, 232. 
Harappa, India, 218. 
Harrison, Gen., 295. 
Hayward. 809. 
head dancer, 304. 
healing, supernatural, 352. 
HelianthuS'Species, 226. 227. 
Heliopsis scabra, 227. 
Heriades, 245. 

carinatus, 245. 
Hoffman, Dr. W. J., 852. 
horse, presentation of, 346. 
Hudson; St Croix Co., 221. 
Huron, Lake, 258. 
ini'niu, 255. 
incense, 367. 
India, 211. 

Indian village of Post, 271. 
inlayinjS, metal, 270, 271. 
invitations, 351 ; to dance, 283 ; by 

tobacco, 309. 



invocations. 326, 367, 369. 
journey, supernatural, 329. 
Keshena. 276. 

Kettle River Rapids, Burnett Co., 
221. 

Kiang-tingfu, 210. 

kinnikinnick. 273; drier, 358; cf. 
tobacco. 

kwe'-nlmitiwin, 350. 

Lac Court Oreilles, sec reserva- 
tions. 

Lac du Flambeau, see reterva- 
tions. 

lacrosse game. 852, 365. 
La Pointe, see reservations. 
Las Cruces, 222. 
Leguminosae, 226. 
leggings, 859. 
Lepachys pinnata, 287. 
Uatris, 227, 
limestone, 854. 
IMpes, 402. 
linguistic affinities, 254. 
Lippia fVHghti, 228. 
Loew, E., 225. 

Lolo. 209. 

armor, 216. 
characteristics, 210. 
clothing, 211, 212. 
literature, 218. 
musical instruments, 216. 
religions and bdiefs, 211. 
weapons, 214. 
writing, 818. 
women, 211. 

Macropis, 287. 

ciliaia, 226. 237. 
mofsei, 226, 237. 

Maiden Rock, Pierce Co., 228. 
ma'nitu, 305. 308. 
Mason valley, Nevada, 896. 
master of ceremony, see directors 

of ceremony, 
material culture, characteristic 

features of, 854. 
mil'tc awituk. 288. 
medicine bags, 852, 358, 861, 366 ; 

ceremonies, 294; dance, 855, 

351, 366, 369; lodge, 358, 366; 

man, 800, 346; practices, 895; 

society, 352. 



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Index, 



Megachile, 246. 
brevis, 246. 
campanulae, 226, 247. 
fortis, 246. 
infragilis, 246. 
latimanus, 246. 
mendica, 246. 
montwaga, 246. 
pruina, 247. 
pugnata, 226, 246. 
sexdentata, 246. 
vuftMJ^ 246. 
UHfOtoni, 246. 

Megacilissa, 223. 
exitnia, 224. 
matutina^ 224. 
yarroxvi, 223. 

Megalopta, 223. 
M electa, 248. 

interrupta, 243. 

Melissodes, 247. 

a^t/w, 226, 247. 

bimaculata, 247. 

nnrt, 226, 247. 

f desponsa, 247. 

obliqua, 247. 

? pennsyJvanka, 247. 

rusHca, 247. 

trinodis, 226, 247. 

vernoniae, 226. 247. 
Menominee, 255, 288. 
Menprninee reservation, sec reser- 
vations. 
Menominee river, 254. 
Mesilla, 222. 

Messengers, 304, 313, 315, 337. 
messiah, 294, 296, 297, 300; cult, 

256. 
meUl, inlaying, 270, 271, 363. 

pipes, 356. 
Michigan, Lake, 254. 
''Micmac," see pipes. 
Midewiwin, 352. 
Milwaukee river, 254. 
min, 255. 

Minnesota, 253, 332. 
Minnesota Chippewa, 270, 282. 
min5, 255. 

mindmine'wuk-in^uwuk, 255. 
missionaries, 255. 
Mississippi river, 221, 270. 
Missouri river, 297. 
mnemonic records, 361. 
moccasin game, 349. 



Monumetha, 245. 
borealis, 245. 

mourners, 339, 340. 

mourning, removal of the signs of, 
332, 335, 338. 

muno'ma, 255. 

music, 280, 308, 314, 315. 343. 347, 
352. 

musical instruments, 298. 

musicians, 276. 

MuHllidae, 224. 

muju'mic, 357. 

na'ma'kiu, 288. 

Nemakagon River, mouth of, Bur- 
nett Ca. 221. 

Never's Dam. Polk Co., 221. 
New Mexico, 222, 223, 224. 
Nicotiana, 273, 357. 
niga'nu-ogitcida, 304. 
nimiwe'-wlnini-wug, 304. 
Ningyuanfu, 219. 
nocturnal habits, bee of, 222. 
Nomada, 238. 

articulaia, 238. 

cockerelli, new spedes, 222. 

cressonii, 238. 

Horilega, 238. 

graenicheri, 238. 

zviscofisinensis,, new species, 

222, 239. 
North Hudson, St. Croix Co., 227. 
northwestern Wisconsin, bees of, 

221. 
Nymphaeaceae, 226. 
6bIgJ5ige'-wIninI, 303. 
Odonata, see special index pp. 193- 
207. 
Oenothera biennis, 225. 

rhombipetala, 222, 225. 
offering, 326. 
5'gfma, 304. 307. 
ogi'tclda-ogfma, 304, 311. 
Ohio Valley, 296. 
Ojibwa, 253. 

Oklahoma, 301. 306, 332. 
omens, 343. 
Opien-ting, 210. 
orations, 284, 291. 310, 317, 323, 

333, 335, 338, 340. 341, 348; of 

visitors, 285; over donations 

of tobacco, 276. 



411 



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Index. 



orators, 323. 
ornamentation, 338. 

of pipe stems, 271. 
Osmia, 245. 

atriventris, 245. 

bucephala^ 245. 

canadensis, 245. 

simillima, 245. 
Ottawa, 254. 
Ozier, red, 358. 
painting, 333, 335. 

face, 339. 

symbolic 299. 
Paiute, 296. 
pa'kuzigun, 273, 357. 
Panurginus, 237. 

asteris, 226. 237. 

rudbeckiae, 226. 237. 
Para' (Brazil), 223. 
pear blossoms, 222. 
penalties for neglect of offerings, 

362. 
Perdita, 238. 
Perdita bruneri, 238. 

dtrinella, 222, 226, 227, 238. 

maura, 226, 227, 238. 

pallidipennis, 222, 226, 238. 
PetahstemuiH'Spedes, 226. 

vUlosutn, 226, 227. 
Photopsis, 224. 
Physalis pubescens, 227. 

-species, 226. 
pipe bowls, 354 ; methods of manu- 
facture of, 354. 
pipe keepers, 274. 280. 
pipe lighter, 274. 
pipe materials, 353, 354. 
pipe repairing, 355. 
pipe tender, 272, 274, 275, 288. 292, 

299, 309, 316, 317, 368, 

dancers*, 280. 
pipes (see also calumet), 291, 308, 

353. 

brass, 356. 

ceremonial, 273, 356. 

common, 273. 

copper, 356. 

discoidal, 402. 

heel-shaped, 402. 

iron, 366. 

lead, 356. 

"Micmac," 354, 367. 

ornamentation o|, 353. 

tomahawk-shaped, 353, 356, 

366, 400. 



pipe-stem^ ceremonial significance 

of, 357. 
pipe-stems, 271. 272, 288, 316, 348, 

354, 367. 

forms of, 271. 
pipe-stone, see catlinite. 
Pipe-stone creek, 271. 

used as whetstones, 356. 

drum's, 280. 
plural, 255. 
polytheoa, 368. 
Pontiac, 294. 
population, 254. 
Porter, Wilmatte, 224. 
Potawatomi. 254, 288, 368. 
Prescott, Pierce Co., 222. 227. 
presents, 341, 346. 
priesthood, 298. 
Primulaceae, 226. 
prophet, 300. 

propitiatory ceremony, 352. 
Prosopis, 227. 

basalis, 227. 

illinoiensis, 225. 227. 

modesta, 227. 

pygmaea, 227. 

saniculae, 228. 

varifrons, 227. 

verticalis, 227. 

sisiae, 227. 
Psithyrus, 248. 

laboriosus, 248. 

variabilis, 248. 
punk, 274. 292. 
purification ceremony. 299. 
pwo'gun, 311. 

pwo'gun-I-winini, 309, 316. 
Quarters, Miss Maggie, 327; Mr. 

John, 327. 
quillwork, 338. 

Randall, Burnett Co., 221, 227. 
res[eneration of the earth. 297. 
reUgious practices, 255. 

observances. 365. 
reservations, Lac Court Ordlles, 

254, 260, 261. 270. 301. 

Lac du Flambeau, 254, 260. 

La Pointe, 254. 

Menominee, 254. 
Reserve, 260, 301. 
revelations. 256. 297, 327, 344. 
Rittenhouse, Moses R, 218. 
rhythm, 28L 
Rice lake, 271. 



412 



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Index. 



ritualistic observances, 206, 298, 

314, 326, 369. 
Robertson, Chas., 225. 
Round lake, 260, 333. 
Rudbeckia hirta, 227. 

hciniata, 227. 
sacred number, 289, 314, 316, 326. 
sacrifice, 289. 

sacrificial altar, 300, 367, 369. 
sandstone, 354. 
Schrottky. C. 224. 
Sechuen, 209. 
sema'-winagun, 316. 
Senecio douglassii, 222. 
Shawano prophet, 294, 297. 
singers, 277. 
Sioux, 256. 323. 

Sioux girl, instruction of, 345. 
Sioux girl's vision, 300, 369. 
skabe'wis. 304, 308. 
smoking, ceremonial, 366. 

customs, 266, 274, 316, '353, 

360. 

materials, 273, 857. 
snuff, 359. 

snuflF-boxes, birch bark, 359. 
Solanaceae, 226. 
Solidago, 227. 

Solon Springs, Douglas Co., 221. 
songs, 281. 

origin of, 256. 
South America, social wasps of. 

224. 
speakers, 322, 323. ' 

spectators, 304. 
speeches, see orations. 
Sphecodes, 229. 

arvensis, 229. 

cressonU, 229. 

davisii, 229. 

prosphorus, 229. 

solonis, new species, 222, 227. 
Sphecodogastra, 223, 233. 

texana, 222, 224, 233. 
spirits, abode of. 364. 
spirit stones, 361. 
squaw dance, 350. 
stakes, 291. 
Steironemchsptdts, 226. 

ciliatum, 237. 
Stelis, 244. 

nitida, 244. 

subemarginata, 244. 
St. Croix Dam^ Douglas Co., 221. 
St. Croix Lake, Upper. 221. 
St Croix River, 221. 



St. Croix region, 306, 341. 
Stratton, Mr. Owen L., 209. 
Superior, Lake. 263. 
supernatural powers, 366. 
Swiss> Burnett 'Co., 221. 
Sjrmbolic designs, 299. 
symbc^ic painting. 261, 278, 339. 
symbolism, 263, 350. 
tamping stick, 368. 
tci-Sgi'tdda, 339. 
tci-ogi'tdda-kwe, 339. 
Tecumseh, 295. 
Tenskwatawa, 294. 
Terrien de Lacouperie, 209, 218. 
Texas, 223. 
thunder, 362. 
thunder bird, 288. 362; abode of, 

363; powers of, 363. 
thunder emblems, 361, 366. 
thunder stones, 361, 366. 
Tibet, 209. 
tigu'mic, 303. 
tobacco, 261, 268, 273, '274, 307, 316, 

328, 332, 334, 335, 342, 344, 

345, 353, 357. 368. 

active uses of, 360. 

ceremonial uses of, 360. 

chewing of, 279. 

donated by women, 276. 

donations of, 275, 276, 284, 

292. 

offerings of, 361. 

passive uses of, 360. 

pouches, 273, 309, 316, 359, 

367. 

tanking of, 367. 

trays, 273« 316, 359. 

usiid as invitation, 309, 317, 

365. 
tomahawk-sbaped pipes, see pipes. 
Torii, 209. 
"Town Board," 319. 
Townsend, Prof. C. H. T.. 223. 
trances, 300. 
tribal name, 255. 
Triepeolus, 242. 

concavus^ 242. 

concolor, 242. 

cressonii^ 242. 

donotus, 242. 

lunatus, 242. 

oblUeratus, new spceies, 222, 

242. 

simplex, 242. 



413 



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Index, 



ugrwase'kwe-winini, 313, 
UmbelHferae, '226. 226. 
Vernonia fasciculata, 227. 

'Species, 226. 
Vial, 209. 
Viereckella, 241. 

pilosula, 241. 
violations of creed, 285. 
visions, 309, 317, 318, 327. 344, 346, 

349, 365, 366. 
visitors, 280, 301 ; positions of, 280. 
wagnu'tldbitciguniin, 302. 
waiters, 308. 
war, 293, 296. 

war bundles, 352, 361, 363, 366. 
war of 1812, 295. 
warriors, 335. 
we-dcwe'gun-it, 303. 
West, Mr. Geo. A., 271, 355, 360. 
whetstone. 356. 
Whitefish, 260. '279, 298, 301, 307, 

369. 



wild rice, 255, 352. 

M^tchcraft, 295. 

wo'banujrak, 357. 

Wolf river, 254. 

women, presents l^ 347. 

women, privileges ot 345. 

women's circles, 304; dice game, 

366. shinney game, 366. 
woodland peoples, 254. 
Wounded Knee, 296. 
Wovoka, 296. 297. 
wuk, 255. 
Xenoglossa, 247. 

strenua, 226. 247. 
Xylocopa rufescens, 223. 
Yellow River, mouth of, Burnett 

Co.. 221. 
Yezo. Ainu of, 209. 
Yunnan, 209. 
Zimakan, 311. 



ERRATA. 



Page 


3, 


line 37. 


Page 


25, 


line 12. 


Page 


31, 


lines 31 


Page 


33, 


line 24. 


Page 


34, 


lines 13 


Page 


35, 


line 1. 


Page 


35, 


line 6. 


Page 


36. 


line 25. 


Page 


38, 


line 17. 


Page 


39, 


line 12. 


Page 


45, 


line 7. 


Page 


46, 


lines 18 


Page 


49, 


line 31. 


Page 


50, 


lines 24 


Page 


51, 


lines 31 


Page 


52, 


lines 12 


Page 


52, 


line 27. 


Page 


55, 


lines 21 


Page 


56, 


Une 20. 


Page 


57, 


line 3. 



For "cities" read "cites." 

For "pp. 26-416" read "pp. 16-420;" also add "pp. V-XXX" 
and 32. For "H. H. Smith and Schumann" read "Godman." 

For "Trujillo" read "Godman." 
and 14. Strike out reference to Calvert. 

For "Needham" read "Calvert." 

For "p. 40" read "p. 45." Also add "Ent. Mo. Mag.. (2) 
13, p. 32, 1902." 

For "pp. 45-47" read "pp. 45. 47." 

For "p. 48" read "pp. 48, 50." 

To "9 type" add ^Mus. « Brooklyn Inst" 

For "Calvert, MacLachlan, Adams, etc.," read "Calvert." 
and 19. For "Adams, Deam" read "Adams." 

Strike out "s." 
and -25. For "Godman, MacLachlan, Calvert and Calif. 

Acad." read "Calif. Acad." 
and 32. For "Godman, Calvert" read "Godman." 
and 13. For "Godman, Adams, Deam" read "Godman, 
Adams." 

For "types M.C.Z." read "3 coll. Godman." 
and 22. For "types 3 9 Acad. Phila., $ OAl Banks. 
9 Coll. Calvert" read "types ^ ' 9 Acad. Phila." 

For "p. 389" read "p. 380." 

For "Lower Sonoran^ (Calvert z. 2-3). B. Cal., Mex. to 
C. Rica, West Indies" read "West Indies." 

414 



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Errata 



Page 57, 
Page 57, 



line 
line 



5. 
8. 



Page 61, lines 



Page 64, 

Page 71, 

Page 72, 

Page 74, 

Page 86. 

Page 87, 
Page 87, 
Page 88, 
Page 104, 
Page 105 
Page 108, 

Page 115, 

Page 133, 
Page 137, 
Page 138, 
Page 144, 
Page 144, 
Page 145, 
Page 146, 
Page 149, 
Page 150, 

Page 150, 
Page 151, 
Page 152, 
Page 153, 
Page 153, 
Page 159, 
Page 170, 
Page 171, 
Page 171, 
Page 172, 
Page 173, 
Page 175, 
Page 175, 
Page 178, 
Page 180, 
Page 181, 
Page 181 
Page 183, 
Page 296, 



Add "types coll. Godman." 

For "As above for coecum, except W. Ind.; Colombia" 

read "Lower Sonoran, (Calvert z. 2-3), B. Cal, 

Mex. to Brazil and Venez., W. Indies." 
1 and 2. For "^ $, types in Coll. Wills." read "3, holo- 

type in M.C.Z." 
Add "types coll. Godman." 
For "veneriotata** read "venerinotaia." 
For "S Coll. Champion" read "^ Coll. Godman." 
For "1858" read "1854." 
Insert to follow line 16, "Calvert, Biol. C. Am., p. 166, 1905; 

comp. desc; pi. 7, ff. 29, 38, 3 9 char." 
For "Smith" read "Godman." 
For "Schumann" read "Godman." 
For "Smith" read "Godman." 
For "M.C.Z." read "apparently not in M.C.Z." 
Strike out reference to Calvert. 
Add "Calvert, Biol. C. Am., p. 179, 1905 ; char, and table 

of C. Am. spp." 
Add "Calvert, Biol. C Am., p. 187, 1905; comp. desc. 

(Aeschna)" 
For "N. Am," read "C. Am." 
For "Coll. Selys" read "Oxford Univ." 
Add "Biol. C. Am., p. 213, 1906; p. 401,1907." 
lines 21 and 22. For "type M.C.Z." read "type ?" 
line 33. For "pp. 204. 310-315" read "pp. 203, 309-318." 
For "types M.C.Z." read "types ?" 
For "p. 314" read "p. 316." 
For "type ?" read "type coll. Godman." 
and 6. For "S Coll. Schumann, 9 Coll. Williamson" 

read "^9 coll. Godman." ' 

Insert "p. 246" before "synopsis of spp." 
For "p. 253" read "p. 263." 



line 23. 

line 35. 

line 23. 

line 2. 



line 18. 

line 22. 

line 1. 

line 31. 

line 26. 

line 37. 

line 23. 

line 28. 

line 11. 

line 14 



line 32. 
line 7. 
line 22. 
lines 5 



line 16. 
line 20. 
line 25. 
line 1. 
line 6. 
line 22. 
line 23. 
line 9. 
line 15. 
line 27. 
line 34. 
line 7. 
line 10. 
line 39. 
line 32. 
line 27 
line 33 



For "p. 261" read "p. 266." 
For ••El" read "Ff" 

For "p. 260" read "p. 266." 

For "p. 204" read "pp. 204, 320." 

For "Coll. Calvert" read "Acad. Phila." 

Add "Biol. C. Am., p. 272, 1906 ; comp. desc" 

For "$ coll. Calvert" read "^ Coll. Godman.'' 

Add "Biol. C Am., p. 201, 1905." 

For "p. 236" read "p. 286." 

For "coll. Barrett" read "coll. Calvert." 

For "Champion" read "Godman." 

For "p. 303" read "p. 203." 



Add "Biol. C. Am., p. 305, 1906." 

Add "pi. 9, ff. 46, 47, $ app." 

For "coll. Schuman" read "col. Godman." 

footnote. Transpose 8th and 9th lines. 

line 35. For '"former" read "form." 



416 



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RECEIVED 

BULLETINaBOCY IviUSZUM 



OF THE 

PUBLIC MUSEUM OF THE 
CITY OF MILWAUKEE 



VOL. I ARTICLE I 



CATALOGUE OF THE ODONATA OF 
NORTH AMERICA 

BY RICHARD A. MUTTKOWSKI 



MILWAUKEE, WIS., U. S. A. 

Published by order of the Trustees 
May, 1910 



Date of issue June 37 '10 

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VOL. I PART II 



LOLO OBJECTS IN THE PUBLIC MUSEUM 
MILWAUKEE 

BY FREDERICK STARR 



BEES OF NORTHERN WISCONSIN ' 

BY S. GRAENICHER 

THE DREAM DANCE OF THE CHIPPEWA AND 

MENOMINEE INDIANS OF NORTHERN 

WISCONSIN 

BY S.A.BARRETT 



MILWAUKEE. WIS., U. S. A. 

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