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Full text of "Bulletins of American paleontology"



HARVARD UNIVERSITY 




LIBRARY 

OF THE 

Museum of Comparative Zoology 



BULLETINS 



OF 



AMERICAN 
PALEONTOLOGY 



VOL. XXXV 



1953-1955 




Paleontological Research Institution 

Ithaca, New York 

U. S. A. 



I I \\\\l\\\\ 



CONTENTS OF XOLUMK XXW 



Bulletin No. I'lales Pages 

14G. Meiuorial. <iilberl lU'iinisuii Hurriis 

By Katherine Van Winkle Palmer Frontispiece 1- 24 

147. ("riferia for the Hrcosjniticn of ( <'Hjiin Vs- 
sunu'd CiMiM'riiiid <«('ii»'ra 

By W. Storrs Cole 1- 3 25- 46 

14S. Ti>o Species of Larijer Koraniiiiifera from 
Paleoeene HtMls in (icdrtiia 
By W. Storrs Cole and Stephen M. Her- 
rick 4- 5 47- 62 

149. ('onfrihuiions to Kiio^vledg-e of the Itniziliaii 

I'aleozoie >'o. 1 6-13 63-146 

A. Introductory Survey of tlie Itrazilian 
('arlH>nifen»us 

By Kenneth E. Caster 63- 76 

H. \otes on 'oiue Hrachioitods from the 

itaituba Formation ( I'eunsvlvanian) of 

the Tajusjos Kiver. IJrazil 

By Hugh Dresser 77-146 

150. Karly Ordovician Cephalopod Fauna from 

XorthAvestern .Vustralia 

By Curt Teichert and Brian F. Glenister 14-23 147-258* 

151. Xew Californian Pleistocene Fulimidae 

By S. Stillman Berry 24[255-258*]-270 

152. Systems of the Voliitidae 

By Henry A. Pilsbry and Axel A. Olsson 25-28 271-306 

153. Five Xew Species and a New Subgenus in 

the Pelec.vpod Family Cardiidae 

By A. Myra Keen ...'. 29 307-330 

154. Upi>er Devonian Ostraccwla from the ("erro 

(iordo Fonnati«tn of Nuva 

By Lee B. Gibson 30-31 331-368 

Index 369-386 

■ 255-258 double pagination. 



«aY 3 1955 



BUI J F.TINS 

^ OF 

AMERICAN 
PAIFONI'OLOGY 




VOL. XXXV 








NUMBER 146 


mi. cr-'p. zeoL 

LiSSASY 

JAN 2 5 1954 
Hi\RVA!?9 



1953 



Paleontological Research Institution 

Ithaca, New York 

U. S. A. 



PALEONTOLOGICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTION 

1953 

President Kenneth E. Caster 

Vice-President W. Storks Cole 

Secretary-Treasurer Rebecca S. Harris 

Director Katherine V. W. Palmer 

Counsel Armand L. Adams 

Trustees 

Kenneth E. Caster (1949-54) Katherine V. W. Palmer (Life) 

W. Storrs Cole (1952-58) Ralph A. Liddle (1950-56) 

Rousseau H. Flower (1950-55) Axel A. Olsson (Life) 

Rebecca S. Harris (Life) Norman E. Weisbord (1951-57) 

Solomon C. Hollister (1953-59) 



BULLETINS OF AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY 

and 
PALAEONTOGRAPHICA AMERICANA 

Katherine V. W. Palmer, Editor 
Lempi H. Sincebaugh, Secretary 

Editorial Board 
Kenneth E. Caster G. Winston Sinclair 



Complete titles and price list of separate available numbers may be 
had on application. All volumes available except Vols. I and III of 
Bulletins and Vol. I of Palaeontographica Americana. 



Paleontological Research Institution 

109 Dearborn Place 

Ithaca, New York 

U.S.A. 



Vol. 35 



BULL. AMER. PALEONT. 



No. 146 



FRONTISPIECE 




Gilbert Dennison Harris 
(1864-1952) 



BULLETINS 

OF 

AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY 



Vol 35 



No. 146 



MEMORIAL 

(1864-1952) 

Gilbert Dennison Harris 



By 

Katharine Van Winkle Palmer 
Paleontological Research Institution 



November 23, 1953 



Paleontological Research Institution 

Ithaca, New York 

U.S.A. 



From the lessons of our own experiences, as well as from 
the lives of others, we are led irresistibly to the conclusion that 
the most natural way of acquiring a knowledge of the earth is 
to be associated in Nature's laboratory — the field — with some 
experienced person who is carrying on original investigations. 

— G. D. Harris, 1900. 



Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: GS5 3-280 



MUS. COMP. ZOOL 
LIBRARY 

JAN 2 5 1954| 

HARVARD 
I yKlVERSin 



MI'MORIAL 

GILBERT DENNISON HARRIS 
(1864-1952) 

By 

Katherine v. W. Palmer 

Gilbert Dennison Harris, founder of the Bulletins of American 
Paleontology, Palaeontographica Americana, and the Paleontolo^ical 
Research Institution, died at his home, 126 Kelvin Place, in Ithaca, New 
York, on December 4, 1952. 

Professor Harris was born on a farm near Jamestown, New York, 
October 2, 1864,* the fourth of six children of Francis E. and Lydia 
Helen (Crandall) Harris. Both parents, descendants of early New 
England settlers of English and Welsh ancestry, "went West" as young 
people to join pioneering relatives in northern Chautauqua County along 
the shore of Lake Erie. Their own home was later established in the 
southern part of the county. The first child, Cora E. Harris, died at 
88, and their mother was 86 at her death. The older son, Rollin Arthur 
Harris (1863-1918) was a brilliant mathematical student. He was the 
author of the monumental "Manual of Tides" and the mathematical 
designer of the then new and "most satisfactory tide predicting machine" 
and was associated with the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey 
at the time of his death. Florence B. Harris, the youngest and now the 
only surviving member of the family, lives in Falconer, New York, in 
the vicinity of the old homestead. 

The name of an aunt, Melinda Burton (Mrs. H. B.) who lived to 
be 106, is perpetuated in paleontological history by the "Burton Sponge." 
It was found on her farm near Ripley, Chautauqua County, New York. 
A restoration of it now stands in the New York State Museum. This 
gigantic fossil glass sponge,' a Ceratodictya, is estimated to be over 10 
feet in length, the largest Devonian (Chemung beds) glass sponge, yet 
discovered. 

Gilbert Harris's first schooling was in the one-room building known 
as "Peck Settlement school house" which stood on land adjoining his 
father's farm. Both Gilbert and his brother Rollin attended what was 
then known as the Jamestown Union School and Collegiate Institute, 



The author gratefully acknowledges the help of Rebecca S. Harris for the 
notes on the family history. 

Clarke, J. M.. New York State Mus.Bul]., Nos. 239, 240, 1922, p. 24, 17th 
Kept. Dir., 1920-21; Geol. Soc. America, v. 34, No. 1, p. 127, 1923; 18th 
Kept. Dir. New York State Mus., New York State Mus. Bull., No. 251, pp- 
121-122, 2 pis., 1924. 



4 Bulletin 146 4 

M'alkin^ four miles each way to do so. The distance may have helped 
to encourage them to complete this phase of their education in the fewest 
possible terms. Each boy was to win a scholarship and eventually go to 
Cornell University after an interlude of country-school teaching. This 
experience was a grim one for the younger brother trying to cope with 
Dry Brook District School problems by day and unable to find comfort 
at night in an attic room heated only by a kerosene lamp. 

In 1883, one year after his brother had entered, Gilbert came to 
Cornell taking a general course, and was graduated in 1886 with a 
Ph.B. During the graduation year at Cornell he roomed in White Hall 
with Seth D. Meek, who later became an authority on fish. 

In the same class with Harris were Robert T. Hill and David White. 
In answer to the questionnaire of the Class of '86 as to their "Future 
occupation", Hill wrote "man and science", White put down, "natur- 
alist", and Harris replied "undecided". It was the purchase of Dana's 
"Manual of Geology" in a book store in Ithaca which stimulated Harris 
to take graduate work in geology at Cornell and thereby determined his 
future career. 

Even had it not been for this chance purchase, the "undecided" 
student would most certainly have decided to pursue some one of the 
natural sciences — probably botany. His high school graduation essay 
entitled "Nature's Pleasures" reflects the interest in nature which he 
shared with his brother. Little homemade note books (the unprinted 
margins of newspapers often serving for pages) filled with their boyish 
records and drawings of plants and animals, not only observed but stud- 
ied, give further evidence of their keen delight in outdoor life and living. 
Both boys considered themselves fortunate to have been farm-born, 
although Gilbert was always to regret that because of this environment 
he did not have early opportunity for learning foreign languages. This 
was a lack which he continued to try to remedy from college days into 
his last years. At one time he even took a course in Sanskrit. He always 
advised his students to acquire as early and as wide a knowledge of 
modern languages as possible, with emphasis upon Spanish. 

After a year of work under Henry Shaler Williams at Cornell, with 
Charles S. Prosser as assistant, Harris joined the Arkansas Geological 
Survey in 1888. John C. Branner (botanist-geologist) was State Geol- 
ogist and Frederick W. Simonds, an assistant. Both had been trained 
under Charles F. Hartt, stimulating teacher and brilliant scientist, who 
initiated geological work at Cornell. The first assignment for Harris 
on the Arkansas Geological Survey was in connection with geological 



5 G. D. Harris Memorial: Palmer 5 

work in W.ishinijton County, assisting Simonds in the preparation of a 
map and report ot that county. The report was published in 1891 as 
volume IV of the Annual Report of 1H88 of the Arkansas Geological 
Survey by J. C. Branner. Chapter XVIII on "The Fayetteville-Hunts- 
ville Section" was by Harris. 

In 1889, Gilbert Harris joined the United States Geological Survey 
where he worked under the auspices of the Paleozoic Division.' Some 
of the detailed work of the first of his five papers on Paleozoic rocks 
was done during that interval. Later he was transferred to the Cenozoic 
Division where he was assistant to William H. Dall in the Smithsonian 
Institution. 

By means of cooperation between the United States Geological 
Survey and the Arkansas Geological Survey, Branner (Director) succeed- 
ed in obtaining the help of geologists regularly employed by the Federal 
Survey. Harris was delegated the task of delineating the areal distri- 
bution and subdivisions of the Tertiary of Arkansas. The winter of 
1891-1892 and the fall of 1892 were spent by him in Arkansas. •♦ The 
report of his work was published in 1894. The area examined in Arkan- 
sas was that south of the Arkansas River to the Louisiana line. The 
report reviewed the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, determined the stages 
of the Eocene present, described and illustrated many new species 
from the beds, and included a geologic map of "southern Arkansas and 
adjacent regions'. 

The chief new findings were the greater area of the Cretaceous to 
the northeast, beds which had been identified as Cretaceous were proven 
to be Eocene, the age of previously assigned Tertiary sediments was 
correctly referred to the Cretaceous, and the Midway (Paleocene) was 
found to be the oldest Tertiary in the state. Because of its "persistent 
nature, .... from Georgia to western Texas" (1894, p. 8) and its 
lithologic and paleontologic differences with the deposits of the follow- 
ing stage, Harris recommended that the Midway be given coordinate 
rank with the "Lignitic" [Wilcox (Sabine)]. According to Gardener 
("Midway group of Texas", 1933, p. 13) this was the first attempt to 
"recognize the significance and wide distribution" of the Midway. He 
noted the presence of Jackson Eocene fossils in the beds at White Bluff 
on the Arkansas River which he referred to "Upper Claiborne". In 
1902 he assigned the beds to the Jackson. Harris did not return to the 



3 Harris, G. D. Geology of southwestern New York. Amer. Geo!., vol. VII, 
No. 3, p. 173, 1891. 

4 Harris, G. D. The Tertiary Geology of Southern Arkansas. Ann. Rc-pt. Geol. 
Geol. Sur. Arkansas for 1892, vol. II, p. 6, 1894. 



6 Bulletin 146 6 

Arkansas Tertiary section until 1937, where on Crow Creek, near Forrest 
City, he discovered a vertebra of Basilosaurus cetoides (Owen), the only 
zeuglodont bone so far found in Arkansas.'' 

The rigors of the physical conditions under which the work of the 
early Arkansas Geological Survey was done had ill effects on Harris 
physically and left a lasting impression as to the care and conditions 
under which geologists should work. Some of the less hardy neophytes 
did not survive. 

On December 29, 1890, Gilbert Harris married Clara Stoneman of 
Chautauqua County, New York. 

While it was a school friend's joke that he was first attracted by the 
large stand of primeval pines on her family's acres rather than by their 
pretty daughter, the joke showed early recognition of his life-long fond- 
ness for trees. He was never to own a plot of ground which he did not 
straightway plant, often going to considerable trouble to do so. On 
occasion, even neighbors wakened to find on their premises a maple or 
a spruce which had not been there the night before, and as for those old 
Chautauqua pines which vanished long ago, they were replaced by hard- 
wood and softwood seedlings in what he envisioned as "The New 
Forest". The evergreens are now of Christmas tree size. 

But there was no opportunity for tree planting where the young 
couple made their first home in Washington, D. C. The "home" con- 
sisted of one room under the mansard roof of a house on l6th Street. 
The birth of a daughter (Rebecca Stoneman Harris) necessitated a move 
into larger quarters while her father was employed on the federal geolog- 
ical survey and during the following interval until 1894 when he joined 
the geological staff of Cornell University. 

The first of three Harris homes in Ithaca was on Eddy Street, where 
the then bachelor Adam Capen Gill (Mineralogy and Petrology) was 
a frequent visitor. Around the corner, on Seneca Street, the Ralph S. 
Tarrs (Physical Geography), also newly arrived, were near neighbors. 
The three men were to have their offices and hold their classes in "old 
McGraw" until the end of their teaching careers. Professor Tarr died 
in 1912. 

In 1911, the Harrises completed a large home (now 126 Kelvin 
Place) in what was at the time open field. Much of the work of building 
was that of his own hands, and most of the lumber used in construction 



Christmas Greetings, Paleontological Research Institution, 1938; Palmer, 
K. V. W.: Busilosaurus in Arkiinsas. Amer. Assoc. Pet. Geol., Bull., vol. 23, 
No. 8, pp. 1228-1229, 1939- 



7 Ci. I). Harris MLinorial: Palmer 7 

Lame trom the Stoneman larm woods. The choice ot location was chiefly 
made because Dr. and Mrs. Gill were already living in a similar three- 
story home on an opposite block. The two families enjoyed an intimate 
and cordial neighborliness until 193-, when on August l4th Professor 
Harris was deeply saddened by the loss of his beloved wife. She had 
been a close and wise companion and, although an invalid for several 
years, her going was a shock to the family. The sudden death of his 
best friend, Dr. Gill, which occurred in November of the same year, so 
sharpened his sense of loss that it might have proved overwhelming had 
it not been for his work and the new venture he was contemplating. 

While associated with the Smithsonian Institution working under 
Dall, Harris continued his career and acquired the fundamental know- 
ledge of the eastern and southern North American Cenozoic stratigraphy 
and paleontology. He gained first hand information through examin- 
ation of the Survey's collections and those in the Academy of Natural 
Sciences in Philadelphia. He familiarized himself with the rare and 
basic literature, particularly that of Timothy A. Conrad, in relation to 
sections and fossils. Under the auspices of the United States Geological 
Survey in April, 1891, and May and June, 1892, he examined and 
differentiated the zones along the Calvert Cliffs, Maryland. He was 
accompanied during the last period by Frank Burns of the Smithsonian 
Institution, a skilled and energetic fossil collector. The results were 
published (1893) as "The Tertiary Geology of the Calvert Cliflfs, Mary- 
land'". In 1914 Harris returned to the Chesapeake area by gasoline 
launch from Ithaca, New York, with seven of his students.*' A second 
trip with students was made in 1915 by the same means.' The collec- 
tions from these expeditions swelled the Cenozoic stores at Cornell. 
They were the source of extensive study of the Miocene fossils by Axel 
Olsson which resulted in three papers by him published in Bulletins of 
American Paleontology." From those trips Ernest R. Smith's interest 
in the Pliocene and Pleistocene was stimulated, an interest" which was 
carried on until his death (1952). Lois M. Schoonover (Mrs. Louis 
Kent) a "Harris scholar" at Cornell University in 1934-36, later did a 
"Stratigraphic Study of the Mollusks of the Calvert and Choptank 
formations of Southern Maryland" (1936-40) for partial fulfillment of 



6 L. G. Grinnell, V. E. Monnette, A. A. Olsson, K. P. Schmidt, E. R. Smith, 
H. R Sunbal, and P. Wong 

7 C. P. Alexander, A. A. Olsson, K. P. Schmidt, E. R. Smith, B. Taylor and 
T. Thompson. See Power Boating, May, 1916 List of names furnished by 
A. A. Olsson of the party. 

8 Bulletins 24, 27, and 28 of volume 5, 1914, 1916, 1917. 

9 See bibliography in Memorial by J. C. Maxwell, Geol. Soc. America, Proc. 
for 1952, pp. 139-141, 1953. 



8 Bulletin 146 8 

requirements for her doctor's degree at Bryn Mawr College, and it was 
appropriately published in the Bulletins of American Paleontology (vol. 
25, No. 94B, 1941). 

In 1890-91 Dall and Harris were assigned the preparation of a 
memoir on the Neocene of the United States by the Director of the 
United States Geological Survey, J. W. Powell, with G. K. Gilbert, 
geologist-in-charge. This was fifth of a series of "Correlation Papers" 
which had been published by the Survey on summarizing the existing 
knowledge. The "Carboniferous" and "Devonian" by H. S. Williams 
(U.S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 80), "Cambrian" by C D. Walcott (Bull. 81), 
"Cretaceous" by C. A. White (Bull. 82), and "Eocene" by W. B. Clark 
(Bull. 83) preceded the Neocene work (Bull. 84).'" Harris was 
responsible in the work of the Neocene paper for searching the literature, 
compiling the list of formations and the discussion of the Interior 
Region. All had been done by experts in the special formations and the 
reports embodied original as well as compiled research. 

In 1892, as Harris wrote in 1919,'' curtailment in the affairs of the 
federal survey necessitated employment elsewhere of the younger mem- 
bers of that organization. Through the recommendation of C. D. Wal- 
cott, then Chief Paleontologist, later secretary of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, Harris obtained appointment as Tertiary paleontologist to the 
Geological Survey of Texas during 1892 and 1893 under E. T. Dumble, 
State Geologist. Many Texas Tertiary fossils had been obtained and de- 
posited in the Museum at Austm, Texas. With the exception of mol- 
luscan species described by Heilprin and Gabb, the greater number 
remained unstudied. Harris spent the major portion of his time examin- 
ing the Texas material, comparing with types in Washington, D. C, and 
Philadelphia, and collecting en route at the classic localities of Claiborne 
Bluff, Black Bluff' and Midway in Alabama, Vicksburg and Jackson in 
Mississippi. The result was a monograph of about 400 pages and 34 
plates. The illustrations had been done by that master artist Dr. J. C. 
McConnell and a few by Harris. Lack of funds at the time prevented 
the publication of the manuscript. Descriptions of the new species, with 
a brief statement as to the Eocene stages in Texas, were published in 
1895 in the Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phil- 
adelphia. Stratigraphic points were included in an article by Dumble 
in the Journal of Geology (vol. 2, 1894, p. 549). Kennedy,!^ [^ a 



10 U. S. Geol. Surv., Bull. 84, 349 pp. 3 pis., 1892. 

11 Bull. Amer. Paleont., vol VI, No 31, p. 3, 1919. 

12 Kennedy, Wm.: The Eocene Tertiary of Texas east of the Brazos River, 
Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, Proc, pp. 89-160, 1895. 



9 G. D. Harris Mcmoii.il: l^ilnicr 9 

detailed stratigrapliic paper on the Eocene Tertiary east of the Brazos 
River, gave the Hsts of Harris's fossil determinations from the unpub- 
lished manuscript, including those which were later published and 
noniina ni/Ja. The printing of the latter was an example of poor practice 
for it allowed names with no status to be inserted into literature, a 
procedure which always causes confusion. 

An outline of what the Texas monograph consisted was published 
in Bulletins of American Paleontology, volume 1, Number 3, 1H95, with 
an indication as to what portions had been printed. The Bulletin was on 
the "Neocene Mollusca of Texas or Fossils from the Deep Well at 
Galveston", and was a condensation of Part 3 of the original manuscript. 
It contained notes on the fossils from the Galveston well including about 
20 new names. Up to that date "no other marine Neocene fossils" were 
"known from the Gulf west of Mississippi". Just previous (1891) to 
Harris's association with the Geological Survey of Texas, a deep well 
(3070 ft.) had been bored at Galveston, Texas. J. A. Singley, delegated 
by Dumble, had carefully obtained samples, fossils and information from 
the boring. Harris examined the fossils and reported on them in the 
Fourth Annual Report for 1892, of the Geological Survey of Texas, 
1893, as well as with Dumble in American Journal of Science, volume 
XLVI, 1893. The significance and possibilities of what deep boring 
would reveal in subsurface geology was appreciated by Dumble and 
Harris in 1893. Dumble wrote, "The results of the investigation add a 
most important chapter to our knowledge of the history of the formation 
of the Gulf coast, and furnish a section for reference and comparison 
which could have been obtained in no other way." (1893, ibid. p. 41.) 

Harris reiterated the same thoughts when in his Presidential address 
to the Paleontological Society of America December 30, 1936 (Bull. 
Geol. Soc. Amer., vol. 48, 1937) he stated, "I always feel that the sink- 
ing of the Galveston deep-water well in 1890 was of great moment in 
our coastal Tertiary studies. The method of rotary drilling had now 
shown its capability of penetrating soft beds to a depth of 3000 feet, 
at least, and by proper attention in collecting samples, could give a 
trustworthy record of the whole depth. Again, by this method of deep 
drilling the great thickness of our Gulf Coast Tertiary was demon- 
strated." 

In the winter term of 1926-27, Professor Harris returned to Texas 
as Visiting Professor of Paleontological Geology in the graduate school 
of the University of Texas, and as a colleague of a former student of 
his, Professor Francis L. Whitney of the Geology Department. 



10 Bulletin 146 10 

While working at the Smithsonian, Harris realized the handicap 
to serious Tertiary students caused by the lack of copies of original 
fundamental paleontologic works of the American Tertiary authors such 
as Conrad, Lea and Gabb. He wrote in 1893, "He who would become 
versed in the marine Tertiary geology and paleontology of this country 
must first of all have a thorough understanding of Conrad's Fossil 
Shells Of The Tertiary Formations O^ North America: it marks 
the beginning of systematic research into this period of our continent's 
history." 

To remedy such a serious lack, Harris compiled careful statistics 
from the existing copies of Conrad's edition as to original typography 
and exact dates of publication of the separate numbers of the 'Tossil 
Shells". In 1893 he republished 225 copies of the text and 200 copies 
of the plates of that important work. It was this reprint which made the 
descriptions and figures of Conrad's Eocene fossils available to the 
students of the twentieth century, and linked Harris's name with that of 
the Nestor of American Tertiary fossils. It was truly appropriate for 
H. E. Wheeler in 1935,'' when writing his historic account of Conrad, 
to dedicate the book to Gilbert Harris and to include his portrait. The 
same engraving is used as the frontispiece to this memorial. 

The success of that republication venture and the satisfaction de- 
rived from the project, stimulated Harris to found the paleontological 
series, Bulletins of American Paleontology. In that series he initiated 
the policy of reprinting a few rare and needed paleontological papers. 
As a result, the papers of Thomas Say (1819-1825) in 1896, of Robert 
John Lechmere Guppy (1865-1913) in 1921 and in 1929'-* Conrad's 
Jackson Eocene fossils (1854) were republished. 

Prior to 1895, Harris spent time in James D. Dana's office in New 
Haven, Connecticut, writing the "Marine Tertiary" for the Fourth 
Edition of Dana's "Manual of Geology". A number of the illustrations 
of Tertiary Mollusca were beautifully executed drawings of his own. He 
was the last, with the exception of T. W. Stanton (now 93) of the 
collaborators with Dana on that classic. 

After his return to Washington, D. C, from work on the Texas 
Geological Survey, and while working on his own fossils in the Smith- 
sonian, he was approached by Jacob Gould Schurman, President of 



13 Wheeler, H. E.: Timothy Abbott Conrad. Bull. Amer. Paleont., vol. XXIII, 
No. 77, 151 pp., 27 pis., 1935. 

14 Bull. Amer. Paleont., vol. I, No. 5, 1896 (Say); vol. VIII, No, 35, 1921 
(Guppy); vol. XXIV, No. 86, 1939 (Conrad). 



11 Ci. n. Hams Mcinon.il: l\ilmcr 11 

Cornell University, with a view to Harris joininu the faculty of that 
institution. In 1 S9 i he went as Assistant Professor of paleontolo^'y and 
stratiijraphic i^eoloi^y. He became Professor in 1909 and after 41 years 
of teaching there, retired as Emeritus on October 2, 19.vi, on his 7()th 
birthday. Before betjinnin^ his teachiny Harris went to France and 
England to familiarize himself with and make collections from the type 
Eocene localities of those regions. As a result of friendship with the 
French paleontologists and geologists, he was elected to membership in 
the Societe Geologique de France. His teaching thereafter was savored 
with the influence of that contact and he frequently proposed his mter- 
ested students as members to the French geological society. 

The need for a means of the publication of paleontological papers 
in 1895 was acute. The study of the southern Tertiaries was a fertile 
field for the delineation of new forms. Following the original work of 
T. A. Conrad (1832-1860) •' and the Leas, I. and H. C. (1833, 1848), 
T. H. Aldrich (1885-1932) and O. Meyer (1884-1887) carried the 
torch in behalf of the molluscan fossils of Alabama and Mississippi. 
Wm. Gabb (1860), A. Heilprin (1891), and Harris (1895) pioneered 
in Texas. W. H. Dall was writing his monumental Tertiary work in the 
Transactions of the Wagner Free Institute of Science (1890-1903), a 
comprehensive series of monographs presenting a galaxy of forms from 
the Pacific Coast through the West Indies. Dall particularly specialized 
in the later Tertiaries so that the wealth of new forms in the light of 
more refined stratigraphic observations of the Mississippi Embayment 
area was untouched. This was true in spite of the elaborate monograph 
(316 pp., 46 pis., quarto) of A. de Gregorio (1890) in Palermo of the 
fossils from a barrel of the Gosport sand or of the lesser tome of M. 
Cossmann (1893, 51 pp., 2 pis.) in Paris, on the fossils from the same 
formation. 

Harris, m 1895, was fresh from studies in the Eocene of the Paris 
and London basins. Because of accumulative experiences, he was the 
recognized authority on the Eocene of the eastern and southern states, 
and he had a wealth of new field and fossil data to present to the paleon- 
tological world. He had spent the time and labor of preparing one large 
manuscript. This was lost, as far as total publication was concerned, 
because of lack of funds, and he had made a success of one printing 
venture. These were the conditions which spurred him to strike out on 
a private enterprise of publishing the series which he titled Bulletins of 
American Paleontology. They were first printed on his own platen press 
in the Geology Department, McGraw Hall, at Cornell University. The 



13 Dates following the names refer to publications. 



12 Bulletin 146 12 

first number was appropriately written by himself on "Claiborne Fossils." 
The second number by T. H. Aldrich on "New or Little Known Tertiary 
Mollusca from Alabama and Texas" was equally suitable. Aldrich 
continued to publish at intervals in the Bulletins until 1921. Although 
the two authorities on the southern Eocene, Harris and Aldrich, carried 
on correspondence to their mutual help and interest, they never met. 
In 1919, Harris dedicated his treatise of the "Pelecypoda of the St. 
Maurice and Claiborne Stages" to his long-time friend and scientific 
colleague, "Hon. Truman H. Aldrich, who has continuously maintained 
that true Conradian love for our Eocene Mollusca from the last days of 
that forgetful dreamer on into the Twentieth Century this work is most 
respectfully dedicated — ". The word "affectionately" might well have 
been added. 

The first two numbers of the Bulletins were published under the 
auspices of Harris and Stoneman. The following numbers were by 
Harris Company until, in 1932, volume XX bore the emblem of the 
Paleontological Research Institution. Though Harris, as before, con- 
tinued the printing of the papers on his own presses, he conveyed in 
1932 the ownership of his publications to his newly founded organ- 
ization. 

In August, 1895 Harris rearranged and catalogued the Isaac Lea 
Tertiary [marine] Collection at the Academy of Natural Sciences. Due 
to the controversy over the priority of names of Conrad and Lea of 
Claiborne species this provided important information as to the original 
material available in connection with those names. 

Edward M. Kindle, young geologist from Indiana, received his 
Master's degree in 1896 after studying, during the second year of 
Harris's teaching at Cornell, the relation of the Ithaca group to the 
faunas of the Portage and Chemung Devonian. This work, based on 
exhaustive collections carefully tabulated in the sections of the Ithaca 
group, was published by "the Professor" in the still infant series of the 
Bulletins of American Paleontology (No. 6, vol. II, 1896). This paper 
marked the beginning of the practice by Professor Harris of printing 
these and other original papers of his students. Such ready publication 
made it possible for them to secure an early place on the roster of original 
investigators and gained for their publisher their lasting loyalty and 
cooperation. 

With financial help from the Trustees of Cornell University in 
1895 and in 1896, Harris and W. S. Hubbard were able to further in- 
vestigate Eocene sections, including collections of fossils, from western 
Tennessee to western Georgia. This material, together with collections 



13 G. D. Harris Memorial: Palmer 13 

made before and after, made possible the development of Harris's plan 
for thoroughly ilkistratin^t; the fossils of the southern Tertiary from the 
Paleocene (Midway), group by group, from older to younger horizons. 
This project was one of the major contributions he made to the science 
of paleontology. The first of the monographs, "Midway Stage," illus- 
trated by skilled drawings of 15 plates from his own pen, (Bull. Amer. 
Paleont., vol. I, No. 4, 165 pp., 17 pis., 1896) was a factor in breaking 
the ground for a clearer understanding of the true relation of the Midway 
and the Cretaceous. Besides noting the unconformity between the 
Cretaceous and the overlying Eocene [Paleocene] east of the Mississippi, 
the conclusions reached in the Midway monograph were summed up by 
Harris to H. S. Williams (Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. CLII, 4th ser., vol. II, 
p. 86) : 

"All of Gabb & Safford's 'Ripley Cretaceous' fossils from Harde- 
man Co., Tenn., are Eocene. 

"The uppermost 100 ft. of Smith & Johnson's 'Cretaceous' section 
at Prairie Bluff is Eocene, as proven by an abundant and typical Eocene 
fauna. 

"The beds at and to the south of Palmer's mill, Wilcox Co., Ala., 
referred to the "Cretaceous' by Smith & Johnson (Bull. 43, U.S.G.S.) 
are all Eocene. Here, as on the Alabama River, they have their contact 
line 100 or more feet too high. 

"Enclimatoceras /drichi, instead of being confined to one calcareous 
bed, a few feet in thickness, is now known to occur in every important 
bed of the Midway stage in western Alabama, from the contact (Cret.- 
Eoc.) below to and including the Matthews landing horizon. 

"The Chattahoochee River Midway limestones are the represen- 
tatives of the whole Midway stage to the west, and are not the outgrowth 
of an insignificant rock in western Alabama." 

The same general aim of completeness of description and illus- 
tration of the "Ligniiic" lower Eocene (Wilcox [Sabine]) stratigraphy 
and paleontology was carried out in two Bulletins on that stage (vol. II, 
No. 9, 1897 and vol. Ill, No. 11, 1899) . The illustrations of the fossils 
were drawn by Harris. 

Extra teaching activities, field investigations with the Louisiana 
Geological Survey, and services in regard to publication of his paleon- 
tological series delayed the research and writing of the moUuscan fauna 
of the mid-Eocene lower Claiborne and Gosport sand stages of the 
planned project until 1919. The "Pelecypoda of the St. Maurice and 



14 Bulletin 146 14 

Claiborne Stages," was published (Bull. Amer. Paleont., vol. VI) with 
only brief statement of the stages of the Gulf Eocene but with 59 plates 
of illustrations of the fossil Mollusca. The nomenclature of the species 
was not revised nor generic determinations differentiated in the light of 
modern or biologic usage, but he did depart from pen and ink sketches 
of fossils to photographic illustrations which are better, as he pointed 
out, to depict the real character of the specimens. 

Increased activities other than his favorite research on the southern 
Eocene fossils further retarded his study and illustration of the mid- 
Eocene gastropods. Harris in 1925 asked the present writer to take over 
the project which he saw he would not have time to do. That investi- 
gation was carried on and published as number 32 of Bulletins of Amer- 
ican Paleontology.^'' The work on the upper Eocene (Jackson) Mollusca 
was a joint project by Harris and Palmer. The study was based on 
material collected by Harris and A. C. Veatch on early expeditions to the 
various localities in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama, collections 
made by Harris, R. H. Flower, and K. V. W. Palmer in 1935, and by 
Harris and the Palmers (K. V. W. & E. L.) from Arkansas through 
Mississippi area to North Carolina in 1938 under the auspices of a 
Geological Society of America grant from the Penrose Fund, and by 
Harris alone in 1940. The combined work was published as Number 
117, Bulletins of American Paleontology. The investigations were con- 
tinued by those authors on the mollusks from the Ocala limestone, 
Jackson Eocene, of Florida. Part of the material was obtained during 
an extended collecting trip in 1946. The last paper which Harris 
published (1951) consisted of notes on Ocala bivalves. 

In 1898 until 1909 in addition to teaching at Cornell, Professor 
Harris served as geologist-in-charge to the Geological Survey of Louis- 
iana. By teaching in summer he was able to spend part of the winter 
period, mid-December to late March, in Louisiana, the remainder of the 
year at Cornell working up the reports for the survey. Arthur C. 
Veatch, able and enthusiastic student of Harris, was assistant on the 
Louisiana Geological Survey, as well as instructor at Cornell. In 1898, 
Veatch spent the greater portion of the year in Louisiana. Their com- 
bined work formed the "Preliminary Report on The Geology of Louis- 
iana" (1899). Besides the maps and discussion of general geology, the 
publication included special articles among which were a detailed report 
on the "Five Islands" by Veatch, the illustrated "Cretaceous and Lower 



16 Palmer, K. V. W. The Chiihorniun Sciiphopoda, Gastropoda and dibranchiate 
Cephalopoda of the southern United Stales. Bull. Amer. Paleont., vol. VII, 
No. 32, 730 pp., 90 pis. 



15 G. D. H.irns Mcinori.il: Palmer 15 

Eocene I-'aunas of Louisiana" by Harris anJ "TIic Establishment of 
Meridian Lines" by Harris. It was in the report of 1.S99 that Harris 
and Veatch first disproved the so-called Cretaceous "backbone of Louis- 
iana" (p. 62) and asserted the existence of dome structure in the state. 

In 1902 "The Report of the Geolo^'y of Louisiana" was the com- 
bined labor of Harris and his assistants A. C. Veatch and J. A. A. 
Pacheco during' 1900, 1901 and 1902. About three months of each year 
were spent in Louisiana. Besides the fundamental papers and maps on 
the "Geology of the Mississippi Embayment" by Harris and "Salines 
of North Louisiana" by Veatch, the report contained the ^'eology of those 
classic traverses by Veatch of the Sabine and Ouachita rivers. 

Capt. A. F. Lucas's gusher at Spindle Top, Texas, on January 10, 
1901, with its 3,593,113 barrels of oil, startled the petroleum world and 
as Harris (1908, p. 63) commented, it was the "Commencement of our 
education, regarding a new type of geological phenomena . . origin and 
method of development of dome structure". The impetus which this 
new development gave to geological work in the Louisiana-Texas area 
stimulated his writing of the Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Louis- 
iana on "Rock Salt" assisted by Carlotta J. Maury and Leopold Reinecke. 
This and his work in cooperation with the United States Geological 
Survey which was published as Bulletin 429 of that organization, were 
pronounced in 1926 (DeGolyer; Spooner) the most comprehensive 
reports on salt domes. His theory of salt domes at one time was widely 
accepted. 

In 1902 A. C. Veatch joined the United States Geological Survey, 
to prepare a report on the geology and underground water resources of 
Louisiana (Prof. Paper 46). Pacheco remained the able field man. 
L. Reinecke and F. L. Whitney, both students of Prof. Harris, became 
assistants on the Survey. John L. Rich, E. B. Hopkins, and students 
from Louisiana State University were part of the field investigators. In 
the late fall and early winter of 1908, Irving Perrine and Walter Hopper 
worked with Harris in the field on the oil and gas report (1909), the 
data of which were also incorporated in Bulletin 429 (U.S.G.S.) on oil 
and gas in Louisiana. The definition by Harris in 1907 (1908) and 
1910 of the Sabine Uplift of northwestern Louisiana and northeastern 
Texas revealed one of the major structural factors of the southern 
coastal plain. 

Besides the topographic and geologic mapping and the paleon- 
tologic studies combined in the work of the Geological Survey of Louisi- 
ana, special attention was paid to various phases of precise measurements 
as primal factors in structural deductions. His establishment, with the 



16 



Bulletin 146 



16 



cooperation of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, of magnetic 
stations, meridian lines, self-recording tide gage and bench marks repre- 
sents pioneer work and far-sighted planning as to the basic needs in the 
accumulation of geologic facts. His reports of 1905 (Bulletins 2 and 3) 
of the Louisiana Geological Survey contained the description of the 
method, stations and results of terrestrial magnetism and meridian line 
work and the same for his tide gage labor. 

While he and his assistants were making a reputation by their 
pioneer geologic mapping, stratigraphic and paleontologic endeavors in 
Louisiana, Harris at this period was training students in field geology 
in the summer. His methods left with the participants a lasting im- 
pression of the superior benefits of such contacts over mere text-book 
teaching and aroused their admiration and loyalty for the teacher who 
inspired the work. 

To expedite the problem of travel so that he could take his students 
far afield to observe geological features first hand. Professor Harris 
purchased, at intervals during the pre-automobile period, four gasoline 
launches. By their means, he conveyed summer students via the Erie 
Canal (1899-1909) to the Helderbergs and Lake Champlain, in 1914- 
1915 to Chesapeake Bay area, and up until 1920 historical geology 
classes on Cayuga Lake. 







Harris and students on tl:c l.iuthiiui. Cayuga Lake 
Ca. 1900 



17 G. D. Harris Mcnioiial; l^ilincr 17 

In 1899, five students, iiuliuliiii; II. F. Clclaiul aiiJ J. A. A. I^icheco 
composed the first ^colouical excursion w idi Harris to eastern New York 
via the Erie Canal, in the launch "lanthina". The following year fifteen 
members of the Cornell Summer School of Field Geology under his 
direction were transported by means of the "lanthina" and a second, 
faster boat, the "Orthoceras ' \ ia the Eric Canal to the region of Trenton 
Falls. Little Falls, and the Helderberg Mountains. Among the group 
were H. F. Cleland, P. E. Raymond, A. C Veatch, J. A. A. Pacheco, 
and L. B. Sage. Veatch and Cleiand were assistants. The following year 
Cleland, Veatch, Raymond and Miss Sage instructed in the work. That 
year, with headquarters in the Helderbergs, there were 27 students, 
five ot whom had been present the previous year. Fourteen of the group 
were women. The period was divided into two sections so that while 
one group worked in the Helderberg Mountains, the others made ex- 
cursions to the Lake Champlain region, Becraft Mountain, and Trenton 
Falls. They camped in tents or slept on the boats, they cooperated in the 
campkeeping and shared the work of geologizing with the fun of the 
campfire and comradery. From the mapping and the fossil collecting 
four original papers were published in Bulletins of American Paleon- 
tology. Two were by Cleland on the "Calciferous" (Beekmantown) 
formation of the Mohawk Valley (Bulls. 13 and 18) and two by Ray- 
mond, one on the "Crown Point Section" (Bull. 13) and one on faunas 
from the Trenton limestone (Bull. 17). 

The summer geological camp in the Helderbergs in 1904 included 
J. L. Rich, F. L. Whitney, L. Reinicke, and J. A. A. Pacheco who accom- 
panied the Professor on his boat from Ithaca. Particular attention at 
this time was paid to the study of the Silurian-Devonian contact from 
the Helderberg Mountains to Cayuga Lake. Harris and the same four 
assistants continued the geologic work in the vicinity of Union Springs, 
Cayuga Lake, which death had prevented C A. Tracy from completing. 
As a result of this research "The Helderberg Invasion of the Manlius" 
was published in Bulletins of American Paleontology (vol. IV, No. 19, 
1904) and "Guide to the Geology of Union Springs". The latter was 
the third and last number of an "Elementary Natural History Series" 
published by Professor Harris. 

Although Harris's major interest was not in the stratigraphy and 
paleontology of the Paleozoic rocks, he ever emphasized the ideal geo- 
logic setting of Cornell University, as well as that of the fine exposures 
and sequence of the Paleozoics m New York State, for teaching earth 
history. He was particularly anxious that some one of his students would 
carry on the investigation of the Mississippian-Devonian relationships of 



18 Bulletin 146 18 

northeastern Pennsylvania and southwestern New York. His wish was 
fulfilled in the interest and energetic studies which Kenneth E. Caster 
carried on producing important contributions to a complicated strati- 
graphic problem and to the paleontologic studies (Bull. Amer. Paleont., 
Nos. 58, 71, and 75 [with Flower]). 

By 1914-1915 Professor Harris had built at Ithaca a cabin launch, 
the "Ecphora". This was the boat which carried students to the Chesa- 
peake region, and until 1920, took the Cornell students in historic 
geology to the fossiliferous Devonian outcrops on the shores of Cayuga 
Lake. 

In 1920 Harris went to Trinidad on oil geology consultation. In 
1924 he made a trip to Venezuela in the same capacity and continued as 
consultant until the thirties. Not only did he make large personal col- 
lections of fossils in Trinidad and Venezuela, but he promoted his 
students into geologic work in South America and the Caribbean region. 
There resulted a long series of paleontologic and stratigraphic publica- 
tions in the Bulletins of American Paleontology and Palaeontographica 
Americana by Harris, C. J. Maury, Floyd and Helen Hodson, A. A. 
Olsson, N. E. Weisbord, R. A. Liddle, W. S. Cole, J. W. Wells, and 
K. V. W. Palmer. 

His last foreign trip in the summer of 1928 was to north Germany 
as geologic adviser. 

To provide a fire-proof building for the large and increasing col- 
lection of fossil invertebrate types, publication stock, and library and to 
insure the perpetuation of the two paleontological series he was foster- 
ing, Harris founded in 1932, the Paleontological Research Institution. 
This organization was chartered by the State of New York and governed 
by an elected Board of Trustees. To launch such an enterprise he trans- 
ferred to the Institution land from his home lot, a building, collections, 
library, equipment, stock of publications and printing equipment. After 
retirement from teaching duties in 1934, his interest was dominated by 
the development of this institution. His time was divided between 
activities there and the surveying and real estate matters pertaining to 
his old home and his wife's family farm in Chautauqua County. He 
continued to operate his presses and in 1949, in his 85th year, had 
printed through No. 134 of the Bulletins of American Paleontology. 
His failing eyesight was an increasing handicap but until his last illness 
he spent long hours in photographing and compiling data on his favor- 
ite family of gastropods, the Turridae. He saw the housing of the 
research and publishing organization which he founded grow from that 



19 



Ci. 1). H.iiris Mcmori.il; Palinci" 



19 



of a two-story, three-room depository, the "Cabina," to a building en- 
larged by two additions of three-story units to house the presses, photo- 
graphic equipment, research rooms and storage space. 




Photo E. L. Palmer 



Paleontological Research Institution — 1953 



Harris was a member of Phi Beta Kappa, Sigma Xi, Sigma Gamma 
Epsilon, Societe Geologique de France, the Societe Geologique Suisse, 
American Association for the Advancement of Science, a Fellow of the 
Geological Society of America and of the Paleontological Society of 
America, an Honorary member of the American Association of Petro- 
leum Geologists, and Corresponding member of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia. He was President of the Paleontological 
Society of America in 1936 and Vice--President of the Geological Society 
of America in 1937. He served as Life Trustee, Treasurer, 1932-1951, 
and Director, 1950-51, of the Paleontological Research Institution. One 
of the graduate fellowships given by Cornell University is named in his 
honor (1953). 

Professor Harris is survived by his daughter, Rebecca Stoneman 
Harris, who resides at the home. She is a Life Trustee and Secretary- 
Treasurer of the Paleontological Research Institution. 

Gilbert Dennison Harris was a tireless worker mentally and physi- 
cally. He was interested in politics and world affairs, but his alert mind 
was chiefly concerned m developing geologic science, particularly paleon- 
tology. His predominant scientific activities and interests were balanced 



20 Bulletin 146 20 

with a wholesome sense of humor. He continually thought to provide 
opportunities for his students' training. Although much thought and 
effort were given to the preparing of his lectures, they were not clearl) 
or appealingly delivered. But those students who were in direct contact, 
either in the field or laboratory, with his stimulating influence and train- 
ing, responded with a lasting loyalty, confidence and the inspiration to 
carry on. Each remembers some anecdote which illustrated his genial, 
whimsical and helpful nature. He was determined but kind. He had 
no interest for the indifferent student but for those who were capable and 
energetic, he provided opportunity and stimulation to encourage their 
interest in geological subjects. 

To honor Gilbert Dennison Harris for his basic efforts of original 
field studies and research, for his training of students who have also 
contributed to geologic investigations, for the establishment of the series 
of fundamental paleontological literature and for the founding of an 
institution for the preservation and dissemination of paleontological 
material, this thirty-fifth volume of the Bulletins of American Paleon- 
tology is dedicated to his memory by the members of the Paleontological 
Research Institution, who to this memorial affectionately subscribe. 



Katherine V. W. Palmer 



Paleontological Research Institution 
Ithaca, New York 
September 15, 1953. 



21 G. D. Harris Memorial: I'alnicr 21 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF GILBERT DENNISON HARRIS 

1590. 'ibt' ^tuiis Terebelli4tn in Aiiierican TerlLirics. Amer. Gcol., vol. 5, p. 313. 

1591. The FjyelUiille-Htiiitsi Hit' seclioii. Arkansas Geo!. Siirv., Ann. Re-pt. for 
1888, voL 4, pp. 149-154. 

Notes on the geology of southueslern New York. Amer. Geol., vol. 7, 
March, pp. 164-178, 3 pis. 

Oil the conjoiind'ing of Njssj tritiiutj Say und Ncissa perulla (Con. sp.) 
Amer. Geol., vol. 8, Sept., pp. 174-176. 

1892. Correlation papers: Neocene U. S. Geol. Siirv., Bull., No. 84, 349 pp., 
43 figs., 3 maps. With William Healey Dall. 

1893. Correlation of Tejon deposits with Eocene stages of the gulf slope. Science 
vol. 22, p. 97. 

The Tertiary geology of Call ert Cliffs. Maryland. Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. 
XLV, Jan., pp. 21-31,map. 

Remarks on Dall's collection [collation] of Conrad's works. Amer. Geol., 
vol. XI, April, pp. 279-280. 

Republication of Conrad's Fossil Shells of the Tertiary formations of 
North America. Washington, D. C, April, 121 pp., 20 pis. 

The Galveston deep ivell. Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. XLVI, July, pp. 39-42. 
With E. T. Dumble. 

Preliminary report on the organic remains obtained from the deep tiell at 
Galveston together with conclusions respecting the age of the various 
formations penetrated. Geo!. Surv., Texas, 4th Ann. Rept., 1892, (1893, 
June published), pp. 117-119. 

1894. On the geological position of the Eocene deposits of Aiaryland and V^ir- 
ginia. Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. XLVII, April, pp. 301-304, figs. 

The Tertiary geology of southern Arkansas. Ann. Rept. Geol. Surv. Arkan- 
sas for 1892, vol. II, 207 pp., 7 pis. 

1895. New and otherwise interesting Tertiary Mollusca from Texas. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Philadelphia, Proc, vol. 47, pp. 45-88, pis. MX. 

Manual of geology, by James D. Dana, 4th ed. Part on marine Tertiary. 

Claiborne fossils. Bull. Amer. Paleont., vol. I, No. 1, May, 52 pp., Ipl. 

Neocene Mollusca of Texas or fossils from the deep well at Galveston. 
Bull. Amer. Paleont., vol. I, No. 3, Dec, 32 pp. 4 pis. 

1896. The Midivay stage. Bull. Amer. Paleont., vol. I, No. 4, June, 156 pp., 
15 pis. 

Neil' and interesting Eocene Mollusca from the Gulf states. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Philadelphia, Proc, vol. 48, Sept., pp. 470-482, pis. XVIII-XXIII. 

A reprint of the paleontological ivritings of Thomas Say. 'with ai introduc- 
tion by G. D. Harris. Bull. Amer. Paleont., vol. I, No. 5, Dec, 84 pp., 
7 pis. with app. 

1897. The Lignitic stage, Part I. Stratigraphy and Paleontology (Pelecypoda) . 
Bull. Amer. Paleont., vol. II, No. 9, June, 102 pp., I4 pis. 

1897. The Lignitic stage: Part II. Scaphopoda, Gastropoda. Pteropoda and 
Cephalopoda. Bull. Amer. Paleont., vol. Ill, No. 11, May, 128 pp., 12 pis. 
Key to the Upper Devonian of southern New York. Elementary Nat. 
Hist. Ser., No. 2, I-IV, 26 pp., 13 pis., Harris Co., Ithaca, N. Y. 

The Natchitoches area. Louisiana St. Exp. Sta., pt. V, pp. 289-310, il. 
A Preliminary Report on the Geology of Louisiana. By G. D. Harris and 
A. C. Veatch, Louisiana Geology and Agriculture, pt. V, 354 pp., 62 pis. 

1901. Oil in Texas. Science, n. s., vol. 13, pp. 666-661. 



22 Bulletin 146 22 

1902. A report on the geolo^) of Louisiana. By G. D. Harris, A. C. Veatch 
and J. A A. Pacheco consisting of 8 special papers bound together, 
Louisiana Geology and Agriculture, pt. VI, 288 pp., 44 pis., 27 text figs. 
Eocene outcrops in Georgia. Bull. Amer. Paleont., vol. IV, No. 16, 7 pp. 

1904. Notes on elementary geologic mensuration. 61 pp. Harris Co., Ithaca, N.Y. 
The Helderberg invasion of the Manilus. Bull. Amer. Paleont., vol IV, 
No. 19, 27 pp., 9 pis. 

Underground waters of southern Louisiana. U. S. Geol. Surv., Water 
Supply Pap., No. 101, 98 pp., map. 

1905. Guide to the geology of Union Springs. Elementary Nat. Hist. Ser., No. 3, 
16 pp., 15 pis. Harris Co., Ithaca, N. Y. 

A report on the underground icaters of Louisiana. By G. D. Harris, A. C. 
Veatch, and others, Geol. Surv. Louisiana, No. 1, 164 pp., 10 pis. 

A report on terrestrial magnetism and meridian line irork in Louisiana. 
By G. D. Hams and others, Geol. Surv. Louisiana, No. 2, 62 pp., 6 pis. 

A report on the establishment of tide gage ii'ork in Louisiana. Geol. 
Surv. Louisiana, No. 3., 28 pp., 7 pis., 3 text figs. 

1907. Report of 1905. By G. D. Harris, A. C. Veatch and others. Geol. Surv. 
Louisiana, 1907, Nos. 1-4, 514 pp., 50 pis., 35 text figs. 

Notes on the geology of W^ inn field Sheet. Geol. Surv. Louisiana, 1907, 
No. 5, 26 pp., 9 pis., 5 text figs. 

Cartography of southwestern Louisiana with special reference to the 
J'.nnings sheet. Geol. Surv. Louisiana, No. 6, 24 pp., map. 

1908. Rock salt. Its origin, geological occurrences and economic importance in 
the State of Louisiana together with brief notes and references to all 
known salt deposits and industries of the world. By G. D. Harris and 
others, Geol. Surv. Louisiana, No. 7, 259 pp., 48 pis., 21 text figs. 

The salt domes of Louisiana and Texas. Abst., Science, n. s., vol. 27, 
pp. 347-348. 

Note on the "Lafayette" beds of Louisiana. Science, n. s., vol. 27, p. 351. 
Salt in Louisiana, with special reference to its geologic occurrence. Geol. 
Surv. Louisiana, Bull. No. 7, pp. 5-59. 

Domes, or, structural peculiarities of the salt-bearing localities of Louis- 
iana and southeast Texas. Geol. Surv. Louisianna, Bull. No. 7, pp. 59-83- 

1909. The geological occurrence of rock salt in Louisiana and east Texas. 
Economic Geol., vol. 4, pp. 12-34, map. 

Magnetic rocks (peridotite eruptives about A\urfreesboro. Ark.) Science, 
n. s., vol. 29, p. 384. 

Oil and gas in northwestern Louisiana with special reference to the Cadoo 
field. Geol. Surv. Louisiana, Bull. No. 8, 52 pp. With I. Perrine and 
W. E. Hopper. 

1910. Oil and gas in Louisiana ivith a brief summary of their occurrence in 
adjacent states. U. S. Geol. Surv., Bull. No. 429, 192 pp. 

The lower Tertiaries of Louisiana. Science, n. s., vol. 35, pp. 502. 

1912. Oil concentration about salt domes. Science, n. s., vol. 35, pp. 546-347. 
Dome theories as applied to gulf coast geology. Science, n. s., vol. 36, 
pp. 173-174. 

1913. Immense Kilt concretions. Popular Sci. Monthly, vol. 82, pp. 187-191. 

1914. Geologic Mensuration. 2d ed., 70 pp., 1 pi., 31 text figs., 12 tab. Harris 
Co., Ithaca, N. Y. 

1915. Discussion in "The origin of the Louisiana and east Texas salines", by 
H. G. Norton. Am. i. M. Eng., Bull. 97, pp. 93-102; Bull. No. 101, 
pp. 1120-1122; Trans. No. 51, 502-513. 



23 G. D. Harris Memorial: Palmer 23 

1916. Horizon of the Sh^irk R/tir (N. J.) Eocow deposits. Science, n. s., vol. 
43, No. 1111, April, pp. 532-534. 

Revieiv of C. 11". Cooke's "The Age of the Ocalu liniestotu'" . Science 
n. s., vol. 43, p. 72. 

1917. Review of "An introJuction to Historical geology with special reference 
to North Aniericj". by Wm. J. Miller, Science, n. s., vol. 45, No. 1157, 
March, pp. 218-220. 

191S. Age flow and ebb of the Eocene seas. Science, n. s., vol. 48, No. 1252, 
Dec, pp. 646-647. 

1919. Kew or otherwise interesting A\olluu\i species from the East Coast of 
Aweric.i. Bull. Amer. Paleont., vol. VIII, No. 33, March, 32 pp., 3 pis. 
With Kathenne Van Winkle. 

Pelecypoda of the St. Maurice and Claiborne stages. Bull. Amcr. Paleont., 
vol. VI, No. 31, June, 268 pp., 59 pis. 

1920. The genera Lutetia and Alveinus. especially as developed in America. 
Palaeontopraphica Americana, vol. I, No. 2, 14 pp., 1 pi. 

1921. A reprint of the more inaccessible paleontological writings of Robert John 
Lechmere Guppy. Bull. Amer. Paleont., vol. VIII, No. 35, March, 108 
pp., 10 pis. 

1922. The rudistids of Trinidad. Palaeontographica Americana, vol. 1, No. 3, 
pp. 119-162, pis. 18-28. With Floyd Hodson. 

1926. The geology of the island of Trinidad, B. 11". /., by Gerald A. Waring 
with notes on the paleontology by G. D. Harris, Johns Hopkins Univ., 
Studies Geol., No. 7, pp. 87-112, pis. XVII-XX (Harris part). 

1931. An Oligocene rudistid from Trinidad. Bull. Amer. Paleont., vol. XVI, 
No. 61, Nov., 9 pp., 2 pis. With Floyd Hodson. 

1932. Suggestions in stratigraphic nomenclature. Science, n. s., vol. 76, No. 
1978, Nov., p. 489. 

1933. Memorial of Adam Capen Gill (1863-1932); Geol. Soc. America, Bull, 
vol. 44, pt. 2, pp. 325-328. 

1934. A paleontological research institution at Ithaca, N. Y. Science, n. s., 
vol. 79, No. 2052, pp. 380, 381. 

1934. A low-price station indicator. Science, n. s., vol. 80, No. 2063, p. 38. 

1937. Our first century of Cenozoic invertebrate paleontology. Address as retir- 
ing Pres. Pal. Soc. America, Geol. Soc. America, Bull., vol. 48, pp. 
443-462. 

Turrid illustrations : mainly Claibornian. Palaeontographica Americana, 

Vol. II, No. 7, May, 144 pp., 14 pis. 

1940. The name Claiborne in geologic literature. Science, n. s., vol. 92, No. 2386 
Sept., pp. 257-258. 

1943. The Rio Cachira Section in the Sierra de Peri/a. Venezuela. Pi. 11. Brach- 
iopoda and Mollusca. Bull. Amer. Paleont., vol. XXVII, No. 108, April, 
pp. 55-82, pis. 4-9. [With R. A. Liddle and J. W. Wells] 

1947. The Mollusca of the Jackson Eocene of the Aiississippi Emba)ment 
(Sabine) River to Alabama River. Pt. I, 1946, Pt. II, 1947, 563 pp., 65 pis. 
Bull. Amer. Paleont., vol. XXX, No. 117. With Katherine V. W. Palmer. 

1951. Preliminary notes on Ocala bivalves. Bull. Amer. Paleont., vol. XXXIII, 
No. 138, 54 pp., 13 pis. 



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BULLETINS 

OF 

AMERICAN 
PALEONTOLOGY 



VOL. XXXV 



NUMBER 147 



1953 




Paleontological Research Institution 

Ithaca, New York 

U.S.A. 



PALEONTOLOGICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTION 

1953 

President Kenneth E. Caster 

Vice-President W. Storrs Cole 

Secretary-Treasurer Rebecca S. Harris 

Director Katherine V. W. Palmer 

Counsel Armand L. Adams 



Trustees 



Kenneth E. Caster (1949-54) 
W. Storrs Cole (1952-58) 
Rousseau H. Flower (1950-55) 
Rebecca S. Harris (Life) 



Solomon C. Hollister (1953-59) 



Katherine V. W. Palmer (Life) 
Ralph A. Liddle (1950-56) 
Axel A. Olsson (Life) 
Norman E. Weisbord (1951-57) 



BULLETINS OF AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY 

and 
PALAEONTOGRAPHICA AMERICANA 



Katherine V. W. Palmer, Editor 
Lempi H. Sincebaugh, Secretary 

Editorial Board 



Kenneth E. Caster 



G. Winston Sinclair 



Complete titles and price list of separate available numbers may be 
had on application. All volumes available except Vols. I and III of 
Bulletins and Vol. I of Palaeontographica Americana. 



Paleontological Research Institution 

109 Dearborn Place 

Ithaca, New York 

U.S.A. 



BULLETINS 

OF 

AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY 



Vol. 35 



No. 147 



CRITERIA FOR THE RECOGNITION OF CERTAIN ASSUMED 

CAMERINID GENERA 



By 

W. Storrs Cole 
Cornell University 



December 24, 1953 



Paleontological Research Institution 
Ithaca, New York, U. S. A. 



Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: GS 53-281 



MUS. COMP. ZOOL 
LIBRARY 

JAN 2 5 1954 

HARVARD 
UH!VERS!TY 



Printed in the United States of America 



CRITERIA FOR THE RECOGNITION OF CERTAIN 
ASSUMED CAMERINID GENERA^ 

\V. Stons Cole 
Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

ABSTRACT 

The genera Camerina, Miscrlloneti, Opcrculina, Opcrculinoides, and Prlla- 
lispirdla are discussed and typical specimens are illustrated. Pcllatispirclla is 
recognized as a valid genus and is transferred to the nonionids. Oprrcuimoides 
bermudezi ( D. K. Palmer) is reevaluated and new illustrations are given. 

INTRODUCTION 

The classification of the camerinids both at the generic and specific 
levels is not satisfactory. Recently, Grimsdale and Smout (1947, p. 15) 
stated that Opcrculinoides is a synonym of Camerina. Glaessner (1945, 
p. I 75) wrote "Some species of Opcrculinoides occurring in the Miocene 
are not easily distinguishable from the latest striate Camerina." Many 
other citations could be given to demonstrate the uncertainty between the 
two genera mentioned, as well as many of the other genera assigned to 
this family. 

In the study of a camerinid species found in certain wells in Georgia^ 
it was necessar\' to decide to what genus these specimens should be as- 
signed. Various authors have placed this species in the genera ]\Iisccl- 
lanea, Ranikothalia, znd Numinulites ( Opcrculinoides) . 

Moreover, confusion exists in current concepts of many of the 
species. Several specific names have been assigned to a well-known and 
thoroughly described Paleocene species which is widely distributed in the 
Caribbean region. This species has appeared in the literature as Opcr- 
culina bermudezi D. K. Palmer, Pcllatispirclla antillea Hanzawa, Cam- 
erina pellatispiroides Barker, Miscellanea antillea (Hanzawa), and Mis- 
cellanea toblcri Vaughan and Cole. 

Therefore, several of the most disputed genera are discussed and 
new information is presented on the species most commonly called Mis- 
cellanea antillea ( Hanzawa) . 

'This paper is a partial outgrowth of a general program of studies on the larger 
Foraminifera for the U. S. Geological Survey. 

^This species is described and illustrated in the following Bulletin, Bull. Amer. 
Paleont., vol. 35, No. 148, 1953. 



4 Bulletin 147 28 

KEY TO GENERA 

The genera discussed can be separated by means of the following 
key: 

A. Spiral sheet with numerous pillar-like structures or pectinations 

1. Without a marginal cord Pellatispirella 

2. With a modified marginal cord which appears 

as a large, nearly circular canal Miscellanea 

B. Spiral sheet entire or nearly so; marginal cord typical and well de- 
veloped 

1. Completely involute 

a. Chambers of the median section always showing a marked 
increase in height Operculinoides 

b. Chambers of the median section increasing gradually in 
height, never with a marked increase in height ....Camerina 

2. Evolute, normally compressed 

a. Chambers of the median section always showing a marked 
increase in height Operculina 

b. Chambers in the median section increasing gradually in 
height Assilina 

DESCRIPTION OF GENERA 

Genus PELLATISPIRELLA Hanzawa, 1937 
Plate 1, figures 1, 2 

Pellatispirella Hanzawa, type species Camerina mat ley i V^aughan, 
1929. 

This genus is characterized by possessing coarse vertical canals in the 
spiral sheet, not only in the axial region, but throughout, so that in trans- 
verse section the spiral sheet on its outer edge has a series of knoblike 
projections. The marginal cord is lacking. Apertures are a series of small, 
round openings at the base of the septal face. The embryonic apparatus 
consists of a single large, spherical chamber. 

The structure of the test is similar to that of Elphidium, and the 
two genera are closely related. 

Two American species are known : 
P. matleyi (Vaughan), 1929. 

nassauensis (Applin and Jordan), 1945. 



29 Camerinio criteria: Cole 5 

Remarks. — After Hanzawa (1937. p. i 1 4) dcscribctl the genus 
Pcllatispirella, Vaughan and Cole ( 1941, p. 32) reviewed this genus and 
stated "The essential structure of the type species of Miscellanea and 
Pcllatispirella is identical." Later, Vaughan (1945, p. 25) reiterated this 
view. 

Miss Caudri (1944, p. 21) retained the type species of Pellatis- 
pirclla, Camerina inatleyi Vaughan, in the genus Miscellanea, following 
Vaughan and Cole. Howxver, the second species which Hanzawa origi- 
nally described in the genus Pellatispirella, P. antillea, and which was 
placed by Vaughan and Cole in Miscellanea, was transferred to the genus 
Rojiikothalia (Caudri, 1944, p. 17), the type species of which was given 
as Nummulites nuitalli Davies. 

Cole (1947, p. 13) wrote "Although the writer agreed with 
Vaughan earlier in placing all the species assigned by Hanzawa (1937) 
to the genus Pellatispirella under Miscellanea, it would seem desirable 
from this study to reassign the species jnatleyi to Pellatispirella, but place 
the other species under Miscellanea. Moreover, Pellatispirella probably 
does not represent a genus of the family Camerinidae, but one of the fam- 
ily Xonionidae." 

IVlrs. de Cizancourt ( 1948a, p. 664) in a study of Nicaraguan speci- 
mens concluded that the type species of Pellatispirella and Miscellanea 
have the same structure. 

Although she (p. 667) gave a correct synonymy of Pellatispirella 
antillea Hanzawa, she referred this species to Nummulites {Nummuli- 
tes). At the same time she assigned Pellatispirella to the genus Miscel- 
lanea. However, below the synonymy of Miscellanea on page 667 she 
described a species as Miscellanea antillea (Hanzawa), the illustrations 
(pi. 23, figs. 4, 7, 12) of which demonstrate that it is Pellatispirella niat- 
leyi (Vaughan). In all probability Mrs. de Cizancourt meant to write 
matleyi for antillea and Vaughan for Hanzawa. If Miscellanea antillea 
Hanzawa is changed to Miscellanea matleyi (Vaughan) on page 667, 
668, and 674, the text, the figures and explanation of plates are consist- 
ent with one another. As they are written, they conflict. 

Unfortunately, Sigal in "Traite de Paleontologie" (1952) copied 
Mrs. de Cizancourt's (1948a, pi. 23, figs, i, 2, 4) figures of specimens 
which are undoubtedly Pellatispirella as examples of Miscellanea. More- 



Bulletin 147 30 



over, he showed as M. antillea (Hanzawa) the specimen of P. jnatleyi 
which Mrs. de Cizancourt incorrectly named M. antillea (Hanzawa). 

The two species described by Mrs. de Cizancourt (1948a) as il<f. 
hedbergi and M. nicaraguana are synonyms of P. rnatleyi (Vaughan) as 
there are no features which would serve to separate them from P. rnatleyi. 

Miscellanea nassauensis Applin and Jordan (1945, p. 139) has a 
spiral lamina which shows pectinations similar to those found in Pellatis- 
pirella ?natleyi. Reference should be made to the transverse sections of P. 
nassauensis figured by Cole ( 1947, pi. 4). A small segment of the spiral 
lamina of one of these specimens (Cole, pi. 4, fig. 5) is illustrated, 
greatly enlarged, as figure 2, Plate i of this article to show the details of 
the wall structure. 

Genus MISCELLANEA, Pfender, 1934 
Plate 1, figures 3, 4 

Miscellanea Pfender, type species Numinulites miscella d'Archiac 
and Haime, 1855. 

This genus is characterized by a granulated spiral sheet. These 
granules appear in transverse sections as pillar-like structures which are 
especially well developed over the embryonic apparatus and at the acute 
periphery of the test. A typical marginal cord, however, is not present. 
The granules appear prominently in the spiral wall in median sections, 
showing as small, round areas of clear shell material. 

Normally, a large canal shows in transverse sections in the area 
where the marginal cord should be developed. Vaughan (1945, p. 24) 
mentions the presence of this canal, but stated "I am not convinced of 
the taxonomic significance of this feature". 

Davies (1937, p. 41) showed the details of the structure of Alis- 
cellanea in a clear diagram. Miscellanea differs from Pellatispirella in its 
much larger size, in the possession of a bilocular embryonic apparatus, in 
the development of a less disintegrated spiral sheet and in the juncture 
of the chamber walls as they join the revolving wall. The chamber walls 
in Miscellanea as viewed in accurately centered median sections are sep- 
arated from the revolving wall by a marked opening (see Vaughan axid 
Cole, 1941, pi. 5, fig. 5). In Pellatispirella the chamber walls join the 
revolving wall so that a slitlike aperture cannot be present between the 



31 Camerinid criteria: Cole 7 

chambers (see Vaughan, 1929, pi. 39, fig. 5). Miscellanea, also, possesses 
a large circular canal which appears in the area of the marginal cord 
(PI. I, fig. 3) and represents a modification of the marginal cord. Pellat- 
ispirella is without any suggestion of a marginal cord (PI. i, fig. i ). 

Miscellanea is clearly a camerinid, whereas Pellatispirella shows af- 
finities with the nonionids, inasmuch as its wall structure and type of 
aperture are similar to those of Elphidiuni (see Cole, 1947, pi. 4, fig. 
13). 

No American species are known. 

Genus CAMEBINA» Bruguiere, 1792 
Plate 1, figure 13 ; plate 2, figures 7-10 

1792. Camerina Bruguiere, type species Camerina laevigata Bru- 
guiere. 

The features which characterize well-developed representatives of 
this genus are a strong, distinct marginal cord, numerous volutions and a 
slow increase in the height of the whorls, or gerontically a decrease in 
height of the final whorl. The aperture is a curved slit at the base of the 
last septal face. 

Small Camerina intergrade with Opcrculinoides, but the latter al- 
ways shows in median sections an increase in height of the chambers of 
the final whorl. 

There are few American representatives of this genus, all of which 
are confined to the upper Eocene. 

Certain typical species follow : 

Camerina striatoreticulata (L. Rutten)=C. petri M. G. Rutten; 
C. rutteni (Cizancourt) 

malbertii M. G. Rutten^C dorotheae (Cizancourt) 
macffillavryi M. G. Rutten 
vanderstoki (Rutten and Vermunt) 

Remarks. — Grimsdale and Smout (1947, p. 14) have questioned 
the traditional description of the aperture of Camerina as "aperture 

^This generic name is retained notwithstanding the recent substitution of Num- 
mulites for Camerina (see Opinion 192, International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature, 1945) as Nummulites is without question a junior synonym of 
Camerina. Vaughan (1945, p. 23), was of the same opinion when he wrote 
" — Camerina, of which Nummulites is a synonym."' In a letter to me dated 30 
September 1947 he restated this opinion in positive terms. 



Bulletin 147 32 



simple, at the base of the apertural face, median." From a study of 
Ca?nerina planata (Lamarck) and other species they conclude that the 
aperture is "a row of pore-like openings along the junction of the septum 
with the previous whorl." Glaessner (1945, p. 175) described the aper- 
ture of Camerina in these terms, "Aperture at the base of the septum, ex- 
ternally rarely clearly visible in complete test." 

Carpenter ( 1862, pi. 18, fig. 2) showed the aperture to be a simple, 
median, slitlike opening at the base of the apertural face. However, he 
showed large pores in the marginal cord just below the slitlike aperture. 

Although the specimens of Camerina available for this study were 
not sufficiently well preserved to demonstrate the apertural characteris- 
tics in entire specimens, it was possible to observe the features of the 
aperture in transverse section. Two transverse sections showing the aper- 
ture are illustrated as figures 8, lO, Plate 2. In both of these the aper- 
ture appears as illustrated by Carpenter. Therefore, it may be that 
Grimsdale and Smout observed the pores in the marginal cord which may 
be secondary apertures rather than the true, slitlike aperture at the base 
of the septal face. 

Genus OPERCULINOIDES Hanzawa, 1935 
Plate 1, figTjres 5-12 ; plate 2, figures 2-6 

1935- Operculinoides Hanzawa, type species Nummulites willcoxi 
Heilprin, 1882. 

1937. Pcllatisp'trcllu Hanzawa (part). 

1941. MisceUanra Vaughan and Cole, not Miscellanea Pfeiider, 1934. 

1944. Ranikothalia Caudri. 

1945. Miscellanea Vaughan, not Miscellanea Pfender, 1934. 

Hanzawa (1937, p. 114) proposed the genus Pellatispirella and 
placed in this genus two species, "Camerina" mat ley i Vaughan (1929, 
PP- 376, 377, pi. 39, figs. 2-7) and P. antillea, a new species. He desig- 
nated "C." Diatlcyi the type species. 

Vaughan and Cole (1941, p. 32) restudied these and other species, 
including specimens from the Kohat District, India, which represented 
the genus Miscellanea Pfender. They concluded that Pellatispirella was 
a synonym of Miscellanea. 

Later, Miss Caudri ( 1944, pp. 367-371 ) described the genus Rani- 
kothalia in which she placed all the American species previously assigned 



33 Camkrixih criteria: Cole 



by Vaughan and Cole to Miscellanea with the exception of " Cainerina" 
matlcyi which she retained in the genus Miscellanea. 

Vaughan ( 1945, p. 23) restudied the American species assigned to 
Pellatispirella, Miscellanea and Rnnikothalia and decided again that they 
should be included in Miscellanea. Davies ( 1940, p. 113), however, ac- 
cepted the classification proposed by Miss Caudri. 

Mrs. de Cizancourt ( 1948b, p. 1 1 ) concluded that the genus Rani- 
kothalia was superfluous on valid grounds. However, she would combine 
such genera as Operculina, Operculinoides, and O percuUnella with Cani- 
erina, giving them subgcneric rank. To this combination the writer does 
not agree. 

Operculina and Operculinoides are distinct genera. For example, 
Operculina with its compressed, evolute test is sufficiently distinct from 
Camerina with its lenticular, involute test to warrant generic separation. 
However, Operculinella is not a valid subgenus as its broadly flaring, 
complanate border is a gerontic development. Hanzawa ( 1939, p. 229) 
stated concerning Operculinella cumingii "This species is involute in 
young and later becomes evolute as is usual in Operculina, from which it 
is hardly distinguishable, except by having strongly curved septa in the 
last whorl." 

Curvature of the septa is a specific rather than a generic character. 
Median and transverse sections of O. cumingii cannot be distinguished 
from similar sections of various species assigned to Operculinoides. 

The genus Operculinoides was proposed by Hanzawa ( 1935, p. 18) 
for North, South and Central American specimens which "show pecul- 
iar characteristics intermediate between the typical Operculina and Cam- 
erina or Assilina." 

Operculinoides differs from Camerina in developing a marked in- 
crease in the height of the chambers as observed in the median section. 
This may be followed by a gerontic slight decrease in height of the final 
chambers. In typical Camerina this increase in height does not occur. 
Moreover, in transverse section Cajuerina is always lenticular or com- 
pressed lenticular, whereas in Operculinoides the test may be lenticular 
(figs. 2, 6, PI. 2), or it may be lenticular in the central portion beyond 
which occur compressed margins (fig, 5, pi. 2), Typical median sections 
of Operculinoides are shown by figures 11, 12, Plate i. 



lO Bulletin 147 34 



Most of the American species of camerinids belong to this genus. 

Remarks.— Amenca.n species which were assigned formerly to Mis- 
cellanea and which are considered here to be Operculinoides uniformly 
possess a coarse marginal cord. At the beginning of this study it was 
thought that this structure might be of generic significance. However, 
the degree of development of the marginal cord is extremely variable in 
various species assigned without question to Camerina. This is demon- 
strated by figures 8-10, Plate 2. 

Once this fact was appreciated, the marginal cords of a number of 
species which has been assigned previously to Operculinoides were ex- 
amined. It was discovered in these specimens that the strength of the 
marginal cord varies from species to species. This is demonstrated by 
figures 2, 5, 6, Plate 2. 

It is apparent, therefore, that the degree of coarseness and size of 
the marginal cord is a specific rather than a generic feature in both Ca- 
merina and Operculinoides. 

The American species assigned first to Miscellanea and later to 
Ranikothalia possess a canal system, a marginal cord and wall structure 
of the spiral lamina which is in every respect comparable to that of Oper- 
culinoides. Any minor differences, such as the coarseness of the marginal 
cord, is in degree rather than in kind or in development of a new struc- 
ture. 



Genus OPERCULINA d'Orbigny, 1826 
Plate 2, figure 1 

1826. Operculina d'Orbigny, type species Lenticulites complanata 
Def ranee, 1822. 

1918. Opcrculiiulla Yabe. 

The test is compressed, evolute with the chambers normally increas- 
ing markedly in height. This genus is too well known to warrant de- 
tailed analysis. Reference should be made to the statements given under 
Operculinoides. 

Few American species are known of which O. inariannensis 
Vaughan is the most typical. 



35 Camerinii) criteria: Cole ii 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 

Family Canierinidae 
Genus Opcrculinoides Hanzawa, 1935 

Operculinoides bermudezi (D. K. Palmer) PI. 1, figs 5-7; PI. 3, figs. 2-12 

1934. Opercidina brrmiuirzi D. K. Palmer, Mem. Soc. Cubana Hist. Nat., vol. 
8, pp. 238-240, pi. 12, figs. 3, 6-9. 

1937. Peltatispirella antillea Hanzawa, Jour. Paleont., vol. 11, p. 116, pi. 28, 
figs 8-10; pi. 21, fig. 1. 

1939. Camerina pellatispiroides Barker, U. S. Nat. Mus., Proc., vol. 86, No. 
3052, pp. 325, 326, pi. 20, fig. 10; pi. 22, fig. 4. 

1941. Miscellanea antillea (Hanzawa), Vaughan and Cole, Geol. Soc. Amer., 
Sp. Paper 30, pp. 33-35, pi. 4, figs. 1-4; pi. 6, figs. 3, 3a. 

1941. Miscellanea tobleri Vaughan and Cole, ibid, pp. 35, 36, pi. 4, figs. 5, 6, 
7;pl. 7, fig. 1. 

1944. Ranikothalia antillea (Hanzawa), Caudri, Bull. Amer. Paleont, vol. 28, 
No. 114, p. 22, pi. 1, figs. 4, 5; pi. 3, fig. 15; pi. 4, fig. 21; pi. 5, figs. 23, 25. 

1945. Miscellanea antillea (Hanzawa), Vaughan, Geol. Soc. Amer., Mem. 9, 
pp. 27-29, pi. 3; pi. 4, fig. 1. 

1947. Miscellanea antillea (Hanzawa), Cole and Bermudez, Bull. Amer. 
Paleont., vol. 31, No. 125, pp. 195-196, pi. 2, figs 10, 11. 

1950. Nummulites (Nummulites) caraibensis de Cizancourt in Thalmann, 
Contrib. Cushman Foundation Foram. Res., vol. 1, pts. 3, 4, p. 43. 

Through the kindness of the late Mrs. D. K. Palmer the author re- 
ceived a generous sample from the type locality of O. bermudezi. This 
sample came from the "cut on the Carretera Central under the railroad 
bridge at Central San Antonio 2 kilometers west of Madruga, Havana 
Province (Palmer Sta. 757)", Cuba (Palmer, 1934, p. 239). In addi- 
tion Mrs. Palmer sent several microspheric specimens from a second 
location, identified by her. One of these specimens was made into a trans- 
verse section and is illustrated as figure 10, Plate 3. 

The description and illustrations of O. bermudezi are based on the 
microspheric form. The megalospheric form is briefly mentioned but not 
adequately described, and no illustrations of it have been given. There- 
fore, topotype specimens were selected from the type sample for section- 
ing to compare this species with certain specimens from Georgia (see 
Bull. Amer. Paleont,, vol. 35, No. 148.) 



12 Bulletin 147 36 

Measurements made from the megalospheric form of these specimens follow: 

Median section of topotypes of Operculinoides bermiidezi 

Height (mm.) 

Width (mm.) 

Diameters of initial chamber (^) 

Diameters of second chamber {jx) 

Distance across both chambers {p.) 

Number of whorls (no.) 

Chambers in first volution (no.) 

Chambers in final volution (no.) 17 22 26 24 

Transverse sections of topotypes of Operculinoides bermudezi 



1.8 


2.63 


2.25 


2.48 


1. 71 


2.3 


2.1 


2.05 


1 60X 1 90 


100x130 


I 60x2 I 5 


1 40x2 1 


I oox 1 80 


looxi 10 


130x180 


1 20x1 go 


270 


220 


310 


290 


23^ 


2>4 


2% 


2>4 


9 


9 


9 


9 



Height (mm.) 


1.8 


1.7 


1.85 


2.3 


2.4 


2.12 


2.38 


Thickness (mm.) 


0.83 


0.7 


0.75 


0.92 


0.75 


1.08 


0.7 


Distance cross 
















both embr>'onic 
















chambers (/x) 


180 


170 


280 


360 


170 


320 


200 


Diameter of axial 

















plug (/a) 400 400 470 600 500 650 500 

Measurements made from the microspheric fomi of these specimens follow ; 

Median section of topotypes of Operculinoides bermudezi 

Height (mm.) 3.15 

Width (mm.) 2.8 

Number of whorls (no.) 5 
Chambers in final 

volution (no.) 23 
Height of final 

chambers (fi) 450 

Transverse sections of topotypes of Operculinoides bermudezi 



Height (mm.) 


3-62 


4.18 


Thickness (mm.) 


1.23 


1.6 


Diamter of axial plug (/x) 


700 


650 



?7 Camerinid criteria: Cole 13 

Rtriiarks. — It became apparetit as these specimens were studied and 
compared with similar species recorded in the literature that most of the 
species described by various authors under several specific names should 
be combined. In part, the confusion about O. bermudezi has arisen be- 
cause the megalospheric form was not described or illustrated. Also, O. 
bermudezi was assigned by Mrs. Palmer to the Upper Cretaceous al- 
though later she revised her opinion. In a personal letter to Miss Caudri 
( 1948, p. 475) Mrs. Palmer stated that she believed the type locality of 
O. bermudezi to be Eocene contaminated with reworked Cretaceous 
Foraminifera. Davies (1949), p. 1 14) also stated "the late Mrs. Palmer 
told me (letters of lOth March and 13th August, 1946) that R. ber- 
mudezi is not a Cretaceous fomi, as thought when she originally de- 
scribed it, but is a Paleocene one." 

In addition to the species listed in the synonymy of O. bermudezi, 
many of the new species proposed by Mrs. de Cizancourt ( 1948 b) from 
the Paleocene of Barbados appear to be O. bermudezi. However, speci- 
mens from Nicaragua assigned by Mrs. de Cizancourt (1948a, pi. 23, 
figs 4, 7, 12) to Miscellanea antillea are certainly Pellatispirella matleyi 
(Vaughan). 

Finally, it may be stated that Operculinoides catenula (Cushman 
and Jarvis) ( 1932, p. 42) is similar to O. bermudezi. The original illus- 
tration of O. catenula is a drawing. Therefore, the writer had the type 
photographed for comparison with O. bermudezi (PI. 3, fig. i). As the 
type is the only one available, thin sections could not be made. Unless 
more specimens are collected and thin sections made, it is impossible to do 
more than indicate the similarity between the two species. 

Operculinoides bermudezi can be distinguished from the other com- 
mon Paleocene species, O. georgianus Cole and Herrick, nom. nov. 
(Bull. Amer. Paleont., vol. 35, No. 148) {=Miscellanea soldadensis 
Vaughan and Cole, 1941, p. 36, not Operculinoides soldadensis Vaughan 
and Cole, 1941, p. 40) by its more lenticular test both in the megalos- 
pheric and microspheric generations and the thicker wall of its spiral 
lamina. 



14 Bulletin 147 38 



LITERATURE CITED 

Applin, £. B. and Jordan L. 

1945. Diagnostic Foraminifera from subsurface formations in Florida. 
Jour. Paleont., vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 129-148, pis. 18-21, 2 text figs. 

Carpenter, W. B. 

1862. Introduction to the study of the Foraminifera. Roy. Soc, p. 1-319,22 
pis., 47 text figs. 

Caudri, C. M. B. 

1944. The larger Foraminifera from San Juan de los Morros, State of 
Guarico, Venezuela. Bull. Amer. Paleont., vol. 28, No. 114, pp. 1-54, 5 
pis., 2 text figs. 

1948. Note on the stratigraphic distribution of Lepidorbitoides. Jour. 
Paleont., vol. 22, No. 4, pp. 473-481, pis. 73, 74. 

Cizancourt, M. de 

1947 a. Materiaux pour la paleontologie et la stratigraphie des regions 
Cardibes, Geol. Soc. France, Bull. 5th ser., vol. 18, pp. 663-674, pis. 23-24. 

1948. b. Nuinmulites de Vile de la Barbade. Geol. Soc. France, Mem. 57, 
vol. 27, n. ser. pp 1-40, 2 pi., 1 text fig. 

1951. Grands Foraminiferes du Paleocene, de I'Eocene inferieur et de 
I'Eocene moyen du Venezuela, Geol. Soc. France, Mem. 64, vol. 30, n. 
ser., pp. 1-68, 6 pis., 19 text figs. 

Cole, W. S. 

1947. Internal structures of some Floridian Foraminifera. Bull. Amer. 
Paleont., vol. 31, No. 126, pp. 1-30, 5 pis., 1 text fig. 

Cushman, J. A., and Jarvis P. W. 

1932. Upper Cretaceous Foraminifera from Trinidad. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
Proc, vol. 80, Art. 14, pp 1-60, 16 pis. 

Davies, L. M. 

1949. Ranikolhalia in East and West Indies. Geol. Mag., vol. 86, No. 2, 
pp. 113-116. 



and Pinfold, E. S. 



1937. The Eocene beds of the Punjab Salt Range. Geol. Survey India, 
Mem., vol. 24, Mem. 1, pp. 1-79, 7 pis., 4 text figs. 

Glaessner, M. F. 

1945. Principles of Micropalaeontology. Melbourne University Press, pp. 
1-296, 14 pis., 7 tables. 

Grlmsdale, T. F. and Sniout, A, H. 

1947. Note on the aperture in Nummulites Lamarck. Geol. Soc. London, 
Proc. (Abst), No. 1436, pp. 14, 15. 



39 CaMERIMI) CRITERIA : CoLR IS 



llanziiwa, S. 

193 5. Somr fossil Oprrculina and Miogypsina from Japan and their 
stratigraphical significance. Tohoku Imp. Univ., Sci. Reports, 2d ser. 
(geol). vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 1-29, 3 pis. 

1937. Soles on some interesting Cretaceous and Tertiary loraminifera 
from the West Indies. Jour. Paleont., vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 110-117, pis. 
20, 21. 

1939. Revision of "Nummulites" cumingii (Carpenter). Japanese Jour. 
Geol. Geog., vol. 16, pp. 225-232, pis. 15, 16. 

Palmer, D. K. 

1934. Some large fossil Foraminifera from Cuba. Soc. Cuhana Nat. Hist., 
Mem., vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 235-264, pis. 12-16, 19 text figs. 

Palmer, R. H. 

1948. List of Palmer Cuban fossil localities. Bull. Amer. Paleont., vol. 
XXXI, No. 128, 178 pp. 

Sigal, J. 

1952. in Traite de Paleontologie, edited by J. Piveteau, Masson et Cie., 
Paris, pp. 224-247, pis. 37, 38. 

Vaughan, T. W. 

1929. Additional neiv species of Tertiary larger Foraminifera from 
Jamaica. Jour. Paleont., vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 373-382, pis. 39-41. 

1945. American Paleocene and Eocene larger Foraminifera. Geol. Soc. 
Amer., Mem. 9, p. 1-67, 46 pis., 11 text figs. 



and Cole, W. S. 



1941. Preliminary report on the Cretaceous and Tertiary larger Foram- 
inifera of Trinidad, British West Indies. Geol. Soc. Amer., Sp. Pap«r 
30, pp. 1-131, 46 pis., 2 text figs. 



PLATES 



PLATE I (i) 



i8 Bulletin 147 42 

Explanation of Plate 1 (1) 

Figure Page 

1. Pellatispirella matleyi (Vauphan) 4 

Transverse section to show the pectinations of the spiral 
lamina. 

2. Pellatispirella nassauensis (Applin and Jordan) 4, 6 

Part of the spiral lamina to show the structure; the entire 
transverse section, of which this photomicrograph repre- 
sents the lower left side, is reproduced as fig. 5, pi. 4. Bull. 
Amer. Paleont., vol. 31, No. 126. 
3, 4. Miscellanea miscella (d'Archiac and Haime) 6 

3. Transverse section. 4. Part of the transverse section, 3, en- 
larged to show the details of the structure of the spiral 
lamina in comparison with that of Pellatispirella. 
5-7. Operculinoides bermudezi (D. K. Palnier) 8, 11 

Transverse sections of 3 megalospheric specimens. 
8-10. Operculinoides vvillcoxi (Heilprin) 8 

8. Transverse section of a microspheric specimen. 9. Part of 
the transverse section, fig. 8, by reflected light to show the 
structure of the spiral lamina and the marginal cord. 10. 
Part of a transverse section of a megalospheric specimen to 
show the structure of the spiral lamina and the marginal 
cord. 

11. Operculinoides vicksburgensis Vaughan and Cole 8, 9 

Median section of a megalospheric individual to show the 
increase in height of the chambers. 

12. Operculinoides willcoxi (Heilprin) 8 

Median section of a megalospheric individual with numerous 
coils and a marked increase in height of the chambers as 
they are added. 

13. Camerina fichteli (Michelotti) 7 

Median section of a megalospheric individual to show the 
addition of chambers to the coils with little or no increase 
in height. 

Fig. 1, of a specimen from roof of the entrance to Cararabie Cave, 
Trelawny, Jamaica, through the courtesy of Mr. H. R. Versey of the 
Jamaica Geological Survey; 2, of a specimen from the Milliard Turpen- 
tine Company well, about 4 miles northwest of Milliard, Nassau County, 
Florida, at a depth of 2015-2025 feet, through the courtesy of Mr. Merman 
Gunter ; 3, 4, of a specimen from the Kohat District, near Shinki, Wazar- 
istan, India, collected by L. M. Davies, donated by the late T. Wayland 
Vaughan ; 5-7, of specimens from the cut in the Carretera Central below 
the railroad bridge at Central San Antonio 2 kilometers west of Madruga, 
Mavana Province, Cuba (Palmer sta. 757) ; 8-10, of specimens from 4.5 
miles west of Williston, Levy County, Florida; 11, of a specimen from 
southern Miahuapam, Vera Cruz, Mexico, collection of E. Gevaerts, No. 
269, through the courtesy of R. Wright Barker; 12, same locality as 8; 13, 
of a specimen from Muara Djaing on the Tabalong River, southeastern 
Borneo, through the courtesy of the late T. Wayland Vaughan. 

Figures 1, 4, 9, 10, x 40; 2, x 230; 3, 5, 8, 11, x 20; 12, 13, x 12.5 

The expense of the plates has been defrayed by the William F. E. 
Gurley Foundation for Paleontology of Cornell University. 



Pi,. 1, Vol. 35 



Bull. Amkk. I'aijxjnt. 



No. 147, Pi.. 1 




PLATE 2 (2) 



20 Bulletin 147 44 



Explanation of Plate 2 (2) 

Figure Page 

1. Operculina mariannensis Vaughan 10 

Transverse section of a megalospheric specimen. 

2. Operculinoides willcoxi (Heilprin) 8, 9, 10 

Transverse section of a megalospheric specimen. 

3. Operculinoides georgianus Cole and Herrick, nom, nov 8 

Part of a transverse section to show the aperture, structure of 
the spiral lamina, and marginal cord. 

4. Operculinoides bermudezi (D. K. Palmer) 8 

Part of a transverse section of a megalospheric specimen to 
show the structure of the spiral lamina and the coarse de- 
velopment of the marginal cord. 

5. Operculinoides ocalanus (Cushman) 8, 9, 10 

Transverse section of a megalospheric specimen. 

6. Operculinoides vicksburgensis Vaughan and Cole 8, 9, 10 

Transverse section of a megalospheric specimen. 

7. Camerina fichteli (Michelotti) 7 

Transverse section of a megalospheric specimen. 

8. Camerina striatoreticulata (L. Rutten) 7 

Part of a transverse section of megalospheric specimen to 
show the marginal cord and apertural development. 

9. Camerina laevigata Bruguiere 7 

Part of a transverse section of a microspheric individual to 
show the marginal cord. 

10. Camerina variolaria (Lamarck) 7 

Part of a transverse section of a microspheric individual to 
show the marginal cord and apertural development. 

Fig. 1, of a specimen from the Chipola River, below the wagon 
bridge, east of Marianna, Florida; 2, of a specimen from 4.5 miles west of 
Williston, Levy County, Florida ; 3, of a specimen from the No. 1 Chehaw 
Park well, Georgia at a depth of 580-590 feet; 4, of a specimen from the 
cut on the Carretera Central under the railroad bridge at Central San An- 
tonio, 2 kilometers west of Madruga, Havana Province, Cuba (Palmer 
sta. 757) ; 5, same locality as 1 ; 6, of a specimen from southern Miahua- 
pam. Vera Cruz, Mexico, collection of E. Gevaerts, No. 269, donated by R. 
Wright Barker; 7, of a specimen from Muara Djaing on the Tabalong 
River, southeastern Borneo, donated by the late T. Wayland Vaughan ; 8 
of a specimen from the core hole SL-84, Gatun Lake area, 3.6 miles north- 
northwest of Frijoles on the divide between Quebrada Juan Gallegos and 
Quebrada La Chinilla, Panama Canal Zone; 9, Chaumont, Paris Basin 
France, donated by the late T. Wayland Vaughan; 10, of a specimen from 
Bracklesham, Sussex, England, donated by the late G. D. Harris. 

Figures 1, 3, 4, 6, 8-10, x 40 ; 2, 5, 7, x 20. 



Pl. 2, Vol. 35 



BuUi. Amer. Paleont. 



No. 147, Pl. 2 




PLATE 3 (3) 



22 Bulletin 147 46 



Explanation of Plate 3(3) 

Figure Page 

1. Operculinoides catenula (Cushman and Jarvis) 13 

Externa! view of the holotype introduced for comparison 
with Operculinoides bermudezi (D. K. Palmer). 

2-12. Operculinoides bermudezi (D. K. Palmer) 11 

2. External view of 4 megalospheric specimens. 3-6. Median 
sections of megalospheric specimens. 7-9. Transverse sec- 
tions of megalospheric specimen. 10-11. Transverse sec- 
tions of microspheric specimens. 12. Median section of a 
microspheric specimen. 11. Previously figured as fig. 11, pi. 
3, Bull. Amer. Paleont, vol. 31, No. 126. 

Figure 1, of a specimen from a pit at Lizard Springs near Guayagu- 
ayare, southeastern Trinidad, British West Indies; 2-9, 11, 12, of speci- 
mens from the cut on the Carretera Central under the railroad bridge at 
Central San Antonio, 2 kilometers west of Madruga, Havana Province, 
Cuba (Palmer sta. 757) ; 10, of a specimen 1 kilometer southwest of Mad- 
ruga (Palmer sta. 832). 

Figures 1, 2, x 10; 3-12, x 20. 



Pl. 3, Vol. 35 



Bull. Amer. Paleont. 



No. 147, Pl. 3 





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BULLETINS 

OF 

AMERICAN 
PALEONTOLOGY 



VOL. XXXV 



NUMBER 148 



1953 



MUS. DO&gP. 200L 
liSRARY 



u ^ * < * . vn 



Paleontological Research Institution 
Ithaca, New York 

U.S.A. 



PALEONTOLOGICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTION 

1953 

President Kenneth E. Caster 

Vice-President W. Storrs Cole 

Secretary-Treasurer Rebecca S. Harris 

Director Katherine V. W. Palmer 

Counsel Armand L. Adams 

Trustees 

Kenneth E. Caster (1949-54) Katherine V. W. Palmer (Life) 

W. Storrs Cole (1952-58) Ralph A. Liddle (1950-56) 

Rousseau H. Flower (1950-55) Axel A. Olsson (Life) 

Rebecca S. Harris (Life) Norman E. Weisbord (1951-57) 

Solomon C. Hollister (1953-59) 



BULLETINS OF AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY 

and 
PALAEONTOGRAPHICA AMERICANA 

Katherine V. W. Palmer, Editor 
Lempi H. Sincebaugh, Secretary 

Editorial Board 
Kenneth E. Caster G. Winston Sinclair 



Complete titles and price list of separate available numbers may be 
had on application. All volumes available except Vols. I and III of 
Bulletins and Vol. I of Palaeontogi-aphica Americana. 



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BULLETINS 

OF 

AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY 



VoL 35 



No. 148 



TWO SPECIES OF LABGEB F0BA3nNirEBA FBOM PALEOCENE 

BEDS IN GEOBOIA 



By 

W. Storrs Q)Ie 
Cornell University 

and 

Stephen M. Herrick 
U. S. Geological Survey, Atlanta, Ga. 



December 24, 1953 



Paleontological Research Institution 
Ithaca, New York, U. S. A. 



Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: GS 53-282 



MUS. COMP. 2001. 
LIBRARY 

JAN 2 5 ^''.5l 

HARVARD 

UNfVERSin 



Printed in the United States of America 



TWO SPECIES OF LARGER FORAMINIFERA FROM 
PALEOCENE REDS IN GEORGIA^ 

W. Storrs Cole 
Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

AND 

Stephen M. Herrick 
U. S. Geological Survey, Atlanta, Ga. 

ABSTRACT 

Two species of larger Foraminifera, Operculinoides georgianus Cole 
and Herrick and Pseudophragmina {Athecocyclina) stephensoni 
(Vaughan), from wells in Georgia are illustrated and described. The 
beds in which these species occur are correlated with the Porters Creek 
clay of the Midway group (Paleocene). As the species Miscellanea sol- 
dadcnsis Vaughan and Cole is transferred from the genus Miscellanea to 
Operculinoides a new specific name, Operculinoides georgianus Cole and 
Herrick, is proposed for Miscellanea soldadensis Vaughan and Cole 

(1941). 

INTRODUCTION 

In investigations of ground-water in Georgia in cooperation with 
the Georgia Department of Mines, Mineralogy and Geology two species 
of larger Foraminifera were discovered by Herrick in certain wells 
drilled to beds in Dougherty, Early, Lee, Calhoun, and Seminole coun- 
ties that appear to correlate with the Porters creek clay of the Midway 
group. These specimens are of sufficient interest to be illustrated and de- 
scribed because one of the species, Operculinoides georgianus Cole and 
Herrick, nom. nov. {=Miscellanea soldadensis Vaughan and Cole), has 
a wide geographic distribution in the Caribbean region (Trinidad, see 
Vaughan and Cole, 1941, p. 36; Barbados, see Vaughan, 1945, p. 30) 
and Venezuela (Caudri, 1944, p. 23) ; and the other, Pseudophragmina 
{Athecocyclina) stephensoni (Vaughan), is known only from Mexico 
(Vaughan, 1929, p. 16). The occurrence of these two species together in 

^Publication authorized by the Director, U.S. Geological Survey 



Bulletin 148 



50 



Georgia not only substantiates the Midway age of P. {A.) stephensoni 
but also allows a correlation to be made between Georgia and other local- 
ities in the Caribbean area where these species occur. 



LOCATION OF WELLS 

The location of the wells and the approximate depths of the larger 
foraminiferal beds follow: 

Approx. limits 
of larger for- 
aminiferal zone 



County Name of well 

Calhoun City of Leary 



No. I City of Morgan 



Dougherty No. i Reynolds 
Lumber Co. 



No. 10 City of Albany 



No. 1 1 City of Albany 
No. 13 City of Albany 



Early 



Lee 



No. I A. C Chandler 



No. 1 Chehaw Park 



Seminole No. i Emily Harlow 



Location 

East side of city, north of 
municipal water tank. 

Near city water tower, 
which is north of court- 
house. 

Half a mile north of Lock- 
et ts. 

South side of Roosevelt Av- 
enue, in second block west 
of Jefferson Street. 

Corner of Cleveland and 
Pine streets. 

Three-fourths block east of 
Jefferson Street, half a 
block south of Central of 
Georgia Railroad at wa- 
terworks plant. 

About six miles northwest of 
Saffold, Georgia. 

Half a mile west of main 
park entrance. 

A third of a mile northeast 
of the center of Iron City 
on Dry Creek. 



(feet) 

360 (One 
sample only) 

360-430 



520-610 
560-660 

568-660 
583-675 



615-970^ 

510-620 

1010-1020^ 



^The No. 1 Emily Harlow well and the No. 1 A. C. Chandler well arc the only 
wells that have P. (i^.) stephensoni. In the No. 1 Emily Harlow we'll P. {A.y 
stephensoni occurs at a depth of 1010 to 1020 feet. Other specimens of this species 
submitted from this well are apparently cavings. However, 0. georgianus occurs 
in the same sample. Therefore, these two species occur together. 



51 Georgia Paleocen'e Foraminifera: Cole & Herrick 



LITHOLOGY OF THE LARGER FORAMINIFERAL ZONE 

Vp-dip. — The upper portion of the zone of larger Foraminifera is 
composed of fine-grained, very glauconitic, calcareous, somewhat indur- 
ated fossiliferous sand with a few thin stringers of white, glauconitic ar- 
enaceous, fossiliferous limestone. Below this is dark-gray, lignitic, fissile, 
tough, fossiliferous clay. In some wells the clay appears to interfinger 
with thin stringers of sand. 

Down-dip. — The first appearance of the larger foraminiferal zone 
is marked by an arenaceous, glauconitic, fossiliferous limestone. Below 
this limestone occur fine-grained, glauconitic sand interbedded with 
tough, gray, lignitic, fissile, fossiliferous clay. 



ASSOCIATED SMALLER FORAMINIFERA 

Smaller Foraminifera are found with varying frequencies in associ- 
ation with the larger Foraminifera. A composite list of the most diagnos- 
tic species, identified by Herrick, follows: 

Anomalina midwayensis (Plummer) 

Boldia madrugaensis Cushman and Bermudez 

Bulimina cacumenata Cushman and Parker 

Cibicides newmnnae (Plummer) 

Discorbis midwayensis Cushman 

Discorhis midwayensis soldadoensis Cushman and Renz 

Eponides elevntus (Plummer) 

Globorotalia crassata aequa Cushman and Renz 

Giimbelina midwayensis Cushman 

Gyroidina subangulata (Plummer) 

Nodosaria latejugata Giimbel 

Polymorphina cushmani Plummer 

Robulus degolyeri (Plummer) 

Robulus wilcoxensis Cushman and Ponton 

Sigmomorphina soldadoensis Cushman and Renz 

Siphonina prima Plummer 

Valvulineria wilcoxensis Cushman and Ponton 



Bulletin 148 



52 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 

Family Camerinidae 

Genus Operculinoides Hanzawa, 19353 

Operculinoides georgianus Cole and Herrick, nom. nov. PI. 1, figs. 1-21 ; Pi. 2, 

figs. 1-3. 

1941. Miscellanea soldadensis Vaughan and Cole, Geo!. Soc. Amer., Sp. Paper 
30, p. 36, pi. 4, figs. 8, 9. Not Operculinoides soldadensis Vaughan and Cole, 
1941, idem, p. 40, 41, pi. 9, figs. 5-8; pi. 10, figs. 1, 2. 

1944. Ranikothalia soldadensis (Vaughan and Cole), Caudri, Bull. Amer. 
Paleont., vol. 28, No. 114, pp. 23, 24, pi. 4, fig. 19; pi. 5, figs. 24, 26. 

1945. Miscellanea soldadensis Vaughan and Cole, Vaughan, Geol. Soc. Amer., 
Mem. 9, pp. 30, 31, pi. 5, figs. 2-5. 

Megalospheric form. — ^Test small, compressed lenticular with a 
bluntly rounded, slightly thickened periphery. A distinct, elevated boss, 
0.3 mm. in diameter, from which radiate straight, slightly raised sutures, 
occurs in a subcentral position. 

Measurements of median thin sections follow : 



Median sections of Operculinoides georgianus 













No. 10 












City of Albany 




Chehaw 


Park well 


City of Leary well 


well 


Locality 


570-580' 


580-590' 


360' 




617-630' 


Height (mm.) 


2,0 


1.88 


1.19 


1.55 


2.56 


Width (mm.) 


1.9 


1.65 


I.O 


1.38 


1.96 


Diameters 












of initial 












chamber (/x) 


1 10x120 


130x160 


130x150 


150x160 


200x290 


Diameters 












of second 












chamber (/j,) 


70x110 


80x120 


100x140 


60x155 


150x250 


Distance 












across both 












chambers (/:/,) 


200 


220 


250 


210 


370 


Number of 












whorls (no.) 


■iy2 


254 


1/2 


21/8 


2 


Chambers in 












first 












volution (no.) 


7 


8 


9 


9 


TO 


Chambers in 












final 












volution (no.) 


21 


16 


13 


16 


21 



^An analysis of this genus is given in the previous Bull. Amer. Paleont., vol. 35, 

No. 147. 



53 Georgia Paleocene Foraminifera: Cof.e & Herrick 



The chamber walls are either straight or slightly recui-ved. The 
proximal ends of the chamber walls are slightly expanded and in accur- 
ately centered thin sections do not touch the revolving wall. Each cham- 
ber wall encloses a canal about lo jli in diameter. At the distal end this 
canal divides into a series of minor canals that radiate outward through 
the marginal cord. 

Each chamber cavity viewed in median section is bounded by the 
marginal cord of the revolving wall at the proximal side, by the side of 
the chamber wall along the radial portions, and by a continuation of 
these side walls along the distal edge. As these walls are denser in con- 
struction, the revolving wall is composed of two zones, an inner compact 
layer and an outer, porous one, except at the places where the radial canal 
joins the marginal cord. At these places the marginal cord is in contact 
with the central, radial canal of the chamber wall. 

Measurements of transverse sections follow: 



Transverse i 


sections 


of Operculinoides 


georgianus 




Locality 570 
Height (mm.) 1.8 
Thick- 


Cheh 
■580' 
1.58 


aw Park 
58 
1-3 


well 
0-590' 
1.6 


City of Leary 
well 

360' 

1. 15 1.7 


No. 10 
City of Albany well 

617-630' 
1.58 2.38 


ness (mm.) 0.57 


0.52 


0.57 


0.46 


0.46 


0.58 


0.75 


0.61 


Distance 
















across embry- 
















onic cham- 
















bers (fx) 150 
Diameter of 


170 


230 


180 . 


250 


150 


180 


300 


axial plug (/a) 400 


360 


340-400 400 


- 


390 


300- 


600350 



The marginal cord viewed in transverse sections is well developed, 
distinct, composed of radial canals about 5 ,u in diameter between wedge- 
shaped areas that have a surface diameter of 20 to 40 jx. Many specimens 
have a series of rounded pores, about 10 p. in diameter, developed on the 
base of the marginal cord. 

On each side of the test over the embryonic chambers there is a 
series of radiating canals that separate the axial plug into wedge-shaped 
pieces. These canals are better developed in some specimens than in oth- 
ers. The side walls of the test between the marginal cord and the axial 
plug appear to be perforated by fine transverse canals. 



8 Bulletin 148 54 



The aperture is a distinct, semicircular slit, 15 to 20 i^l high, over 
the marginal cord and at the base of the chamber. 

Microspheric form. — Test compressed lenticular, commonly with 
the two sides of the test nearly parallel. Periphery wide, bluntly round, 
thickened. There is a slightly raised, subcentral boss about 0.4 mm. in di- 
ameter from which radiate nearly straight, slightly elevated sutures. 

A specimen with a height of 3.0 mm. and a width of 2.65 mm. has 
4^ whorls with 25 chambers in the final volution. The height of the 
final chambers is about 400 p.. 

Measurements of transverse sections follow: 

Transverse sections of Operculinoides georgianus 

Locality No. 10 City of Albany well at 63o'-645' 

Height (mm.) 3-0 2.89 3.65 2.8 

Thickness (mm.) 0.55 0.54 0.52 0.55 

Diameter of axial plug (jLt) 250 310 300 200 

Discussion. — This species differs from O. bermudezi (D. K. Pal- 
mer), both in the megalospheric and in the microspheric generations, in 
having a more compressed test and less robust walls. 

Family Discocyclinidae 

Genus Pseudophragmina H. Douville, 1923 

Subgenus Athecocyclina Vaughan and Cole, 1940 

Pseudophragmina (Athecocyclina) stephensoni Vaughan. PI. 2, figs. 4-11 

1929. Discocyclina stephensoni Vaughan, U. S. Nat. Mus., Proc, vol 76, Art. 

3, p. 16, pi. 6, figs. 1-4. 
1945. Pseudophragmina {Athecocyclina) stephensoni (Vaughan), Vaughan 

Geol. Soc. Amer., Mem. 9, p. 101, pi. 45, figs 3, 4. 

Test small, flat, thin, fragile without a marked umbo. Small, slight- 
ly elevated papillae are distributed evenly over the surface. 
Measurements of three equatorial sections follow: 

Equatorial sections of P. {Athecocyclina) stephensoni 

Locality No. i Emily Harlow well at 1020-1030' 

Diameter (mm.) 

Diameter of initial chamber {jx) 

Diameter of second chamber (yu.) 

Distance across both chambers (/x) 

Thickness of outer wall (/t) 

Width of average annulus (/a) 

Thickness of annular walls (ju.) 



1 020- 1 030 


i030-i04( 


3 


1-4 


2.2 


2.85 


75 


75 


100 


60X 1 70 


80x160 


90x240 


145 


160 


190 


8 


10 


10 


15 


50 


60 


15 


10 


10 



55 Georgia Paleocene Foraiminifera: Cole & Herrick 



The initial chamber is nearly spherical, with the larger, reniform 
secoml chamber partially embracing it. In one specimen the first ring of 
periembryonic chambers completely envelopes the embryonic chambers. 
In another there is a small space about i(X) /,<, wide on the periphery of 
the initial chamber where this ring does not close. The periembryonic 
ring of the third specimen docs not show clearly. 

The annular walls are well preserved. They are wavy and in places 
join those of the next adjacent ring. There are in places thickenings of 
the annual rings, which may represent the stubs of radial chamber walls. 

Measurements of three vertical sections of specimens follow: 

Vertical sections of P. {Athecocyclina) stephensoni 
Locality No. i Emily Harlow well at 1050-1060' 

Diameter (mm.) 
Thickness (mm.) 
Embryonic chambers : 

Length (/.<,) 

Height (/.O 
Equatorial layer: 

Height at center {[x) 

Height at periphery (/x) 

Thickness of floors and roofs (/x) 
Lateral chambers : 

Number 

Length (/x) 

Height iix) 

Thickness of floors and roofs (/x) 
Diameter of pillars (^a) 

The cavities of the lateral chambers are low, but distinct. They are 
not in regular tiers, but overlap. The floors and roofs are thick. 

Small pillars are irregularly distributed throughout the length of 
the vertical sections. 

Discussion — Five species and one variety of Athecocyclina have been 
described from the Caribbean area. These species, the dates when they 
were described, the geologic age assigned to them, and their type localities 
follow : 



1 050- 1 060 


1 220- 1 230 




2.85+ 


2.9 + 


4.2 


0.59 


0.48 


0.49 


160 


190 


240 


100 


IIO 


90 


15 


10 


10 


30 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


9 


5 


6 


40-100 


50-90 


70-90 


10 


10 


5 


20 


20 


20 


40 


40-50 


30 



lO BULLETIX 148 56 

Middle Eocene 
P. {A.) jukes-brownei Vzughan, 1945, Barbados 

Lower Eocene 
cookei (Vaughan), 1936, Alabama 

Paleocene 
stephensoni (Vaughan), 1929, San Luis Potosi, Mexico 
soldadensis Vaughan and Cole, 1941, Soldado Rock, Trinidad 
soldadensis var, calebardensis Vaughan, 194.5, Barbados 
macglameriae Vaughan, 1945, Alabama 

In addition Miss Caudri (1944, p. 14) compared certain Venezuela 
specimens from the Paleocene with P. (J.) cookei. These specimens are 
P. (//.) stephensoni. Mrs. de Cizancourt (1951, p. 62) recorded with- 
out discussion or illustration iour species oi J thecocylina, P. (J.) cookei, 
P. {A.) macglameriae, P. (A.) soldadensis, and P. (A.) stephensoni 
from the Paleocene and lower Eocene of Venezuela. 

Although the features of the embryonic and periembryonic cham- 
bers may have some value in distinguishing the species, the major specific 
characters appear in the vertical sections. Unfortunately, the illustrations 
of the vertical sections of some of these species are unsatisfactory. 

As the specimens from Georgia seemed to have the features in verti- 
cal section ascribed to P. (A.) stephensoni, the senior author restudied 
the type sections. Lloyd G. Henbest, of the U. S. Geologcal Survey, 
kindly rephotographed the best vertical section and that photograph is 
reproduced as figure 8, Plate 2. From the structures observed in this and 
other vertical sections of the types, the specimens from Georgia are as- 
signed to this species. 



57 GliORClA P.M.EOCKXE FoRA.MINlI-ERA : CoLE & HeRRICK U 

LITERATURE CITED 



Caudri, C. M. B. 

1944. The larger Foraminifera from San Juan de los Morros, State of 
Guarico, Venezuela, Bull. Amer. Paleont., vol. 28, No. 114, pp. 1-54, 5 
pis., 2 text-figs. 

Cizancourt, M. de 

1951. Grands Foraminifercs du Paleocene, de I'Eocene inferieur et de 
I'Eoccne moyen du renczuela, Geol. Soc. France, Mem. 64, vol. 30, n. ser., 
pp. 1-68, 6 pis. 19 text-figs. 

Vaughan, T. W. 

1929. Descriptions of neiu species of Foraminifera of the genus Discocy- 
clina from the Eocene of Mexico, U. S. Nat. Mus., Proc, vol. 76, Art 3, 
pp. 1-18, 7 pis. 



1936. Ncii: species of orbitoidal Foraminifera of the genus Discocyclina 
from the loiuer Eocene of Alabama, Jour. Paleont., vol. 10, No. 4, 253- 
259, pis. 41-43. 



1945. American Paleocene and Eocene larger Foraminifera, Geol. Soc. 
Amer., Mem. 9, pp. 1-167, 46 pis., 11 text-figs. 

and Cole, W. S. 



1941. Preliminary Report on the Cretaceous and Tertiary larger Foram- 
inifera of Trinidad, British West Indies, Geol. Soc. Amer., Sp. Paper 30, 
pp. 1-131, 46 pis., 2 text-figs. 



PLATES 
PLATE I (4) 



14 Bulletin 148 60 



Explanation of Plate 1 (4) 

Figure Page 
1-21. Operculinoides georgianus Cole and Herrick, nom. nov 6 

1. External views of 4 megalospheric specimens. 2-6. Median 
sections of a megalospheric specimen. 7. Median section of 
a microspheric specimen. S, 9. Transverse sections of mi- 
crospheric specimens. 10-21. Transverse sections of megal- 
ospheric specimens. 

Figure 17 is an enlargement of 18; figure 21 is an enlargement of 15. 

Figs. 1, 2, 5, 10, 11, of specimens from the City of Leary well at a 
depth of 360 feet; 3, 4, 14, 17-20, of specimens from the No. 1 Chehaw 
Park well; 3, 17-19, at a depth of 580-590 feet; 4, 14, 20 at a depth of 570- 
580 feet; 6, 7, 12, 13, 15, 16, 21, of specimens from the No. 10 City of Al- 
bany well at a depth of 617-630 feet; 8, 9, of specimens from the No. 11 
City of Albany well at a depth of 630-645 feet. 

Figs. 1, X 10; 2-16, 18-20, x 20; 17, 21, x 40. 

The expense of the plates has been defrayed by the William F. E. 
Gurley Foundation for Paleontology of Cornell University. 



PL. 4, Vol. 35 



Bull. Amer. Paleont. 



No. 148, Pl. 1 




PLATE 2 (5) 



i6 Bulletin 148 62 



Explanation of Plate 2 (5) 

Figure Page 
1- 3. Operculinoides georgianus Cole and Herrick, nom. nov 6 

Transverse sections of microspheric individuals; 2 is an en- 
largement of the top part of 1 to show the structure of the 
marginal cord and the wall of the spiral lamina. 

4-11. Fseudophragmina (Athecocyclina) stephensoni (Vaughan) .... 8 

4-8. Vertical sections; 7 is an enlargemelnt of the central por- 
tion of 6 ; 8 is a new illustration of one of the syntjpes (see 
Vaughan, 1929, pi. 6, fig. 2). 9-11. Equatorial sections; 11 
is an enlargement of the central part of 10. 

Figs. 1-3, of specimens at a depth of 617-630 feet in the No. 11 City of 
Albany well; 4-7, 9-11, of specimens from the No. 1 Emily Harlow well; 
4, at a depth of 1050-1060 feet; 5-7, a depth of 1020-1030 feet; 9, at a 
depth of 1030-1040 feet; 10, 11, at a depth of 1230-1240 feet; 8, of a speci- 
men from loose boulders. No. 194, canyon, about 2 miles west of San Pedro, 
and No. 196, Guerrero road, about 3 kilometers east of Tanlajas, State of 
San Louis Potosi, Mexico, collected by L. W. Stephenson. 

Figs. 1, 3, 4, 6, 10, X 20; 2, 5, 7, 8, 9, 11, x 40. 



Pu 5, Vol. 35 



Bull. Amer. Paleont. 



No. 148, Pl. 2 



j^iffff. 




0. 



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BULLKIISS 




^ OF 




AMF.RICAN 




PALKON'l'OLOGY 

♦ 




VOL. XXXV 


m%. coMf . zosi. 

UBRARY 




\PR 2 1954 








NUMBER 149 





1954 



Paleontological Research Institution 

Ithaca, New York 

U.S.A. 



PALEONTOLOGICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTION 

1953-54 

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BULLETINS OF AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY 

and 
PALAEONTOGRAPHICA AMERICANA 



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Editorial Board 



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OF 

AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY 



Vol. 35 



No. 149 



tO^TRIBlTIOXS TO KNOWLEDGE OF THE BRAZILIAN 

PALEOZOIC : NO. 1 

A. INTRODUCTORY .SIRYEY OF THE BRAZILIAN CARBONIFEROUS 

By 
Kenneth E. Caster 

B. NOTES ON S03IE BRACHIOPODS FR03I THE ITAITUBA FORMA- 

TION (PENNSYLYANIAN) OF THE TAPAJOS RIYER, BRAZIL 



By 
Hugh Dresser 



March 31. 1954 



Paleontological Research Institution 
Ithaca, New York, U. S. A. 



Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: GS 54.-31 



Printed in the United States of America 



MiS. COMf . ZOOL 
UBRARY 

APR 2 1954 
RARV^D 



C O N T E N 1 S 

Page 

A. Introductory Swrvey of the Brazilian Carboniferous, by Kenneth E. 

Caster 5 

B. Notes on Some Brachiopods from the Itaituba Formation (Pennsyl- 

vanian) of the Tapajos River, Brazil, by Hugh Dresser 15 

Abstract IS 

Introduction and acknowledgments IS 

Preparation of material 16 

Paleontology 19 

Systematic description of fossils 20 

RhipiJotnclla pcnniana (Derby) 21 

Orthotichia morganiana (Derby) 23 

Strcptorliynclius hallianus Derbj- 27 

Dcrbyla corrranus (Derby) 30 

Genus Tapajotia Dresser, n. gen 32 

Tapa'jotia tapajotensis (Derby) 33 

Cleiothyridina casteri Dresser, n. sp 39 

Cleiothyridina drrbyi Dresser, n. sp 42 

Crurithyris granulans Dresser, n. sp 46 

Phricodothyris perplexa (McChesney) 49 

Spirifer rocky-rnontajius Marcou 53 

Spit if cr (Neospirifer) cameratus (Morton) 57 

: Spirifer (Neospirifer) cameratus (Morton) variant 61 

Punctospirifer transversus (McChesney) 62 

Bibliography 65 

Text figures 

1. Plastic etching tray 17 

2. Geologic and geographic distribution of critical brachio- 

pods in the Amazonian- Carb^aojferous 20' 

3. Cardinalia of the brachiopod Tapajotia tapajo- 

trrisis ( Derby) 35 

4. Pattern of median plications in Neospirifer cameratus 

(Morton) ^ 59 

Plates 1-8 69-84 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO KNOWLEDGE OF THE BRAZILIAN 

PALEOZOIC— NO. 1 

Kenneth E. Caster and llugh Dresser 

A. 1\ IRODUCTORV SURVEY OF THE BRAZILIAN 

CARBONIFEROUS 

Kenneth E. Caster 

Uni\ei>it\ of Cincinnati 



Mr. Dresser's study is the Hrst of a projected series of paleon- 
tologic works on the BraziUan Paleozoics. The materials employed in 
this and the succeeding works derived from my personal collections 
made during a three year stay in Brazil (1945-1948) plus materials 
furnished through the courtesy of the various geological agencies of 
the Brazilian Government (Divisao de Geologia e Mineralogia, Con- 
selho Nacional de Petroleo, and the Geology and Paleontology De- 
partment of the University of Sao Paulo). All of these agencies co- 
operated generously in making field studies and fossil collections pos- 
sible in most of the Paleozoic areas of Brazil. 

One or more further investigations of the Amazonian Carboni- 
ferous fauna is planned for the series; likewise a monographic re- 
evaluation of the Amazonian Devonian faunas. Collections are at 
hand for description of a new Devonian fauna from the southern 
border of the Maranhao-Piaui Basin, and likewise for a broad re- 
vision of the Devonian fauna of the Parana Basin. 

I'his paper is based on the first silicified material to be artifically 
etched from the Carboniferous limestones of Brazil. Since the initial 
discovery of the Amazonian Carboniferous (Coutinho, 1863, Agassiz, 
1869, Hartt, 1870) the extraordinarily fine, naturally etched nature 
of the material has been known. Specimens of exceptional delicacy 
and perfection have been recovered from residual soils and even from 
river sands ever since the discovery. However, it w^as felt that acid 
bath techniques might furnish further morphologic details, especially 



Bli.i.etin 149 68 



of the more fragile forms and also of earlier stages of growth. All de- 
pended on the nature of the silicification, and especially on the 
depth of penetration of the seemingly surficial phenomenon. A con- 
siderable store of promising limestone and shales was collected in 
the summer of 1948 during a survey trip into the Amazonian Paleo- 
zoic area under the sponsorship of the Brazilian Petroleum Council. 
Through the perseverence and ingenuity of Mr. Dresser the muddy 
bituminous limestone was made to yield a substantial body of ex- 
cellent silicified shell material. However, due to the great amount of 
time and labor spent in perfecting techniques and in tending the 
acid baths and garnering the fragile shells, Mr. Dresser could, in the 
time available, undertake the paleontologic study of only a small 
part of the fauna. The new facts on brachiopod morphology and new 
genera and species which his study has brought to light, coupled with 
his extra-Brazilian comparisons, make a worthwhile addition to 
knowledge of a subject inadequately known. Although a smgle com- 
prehensive restudy of the fauna is needed, rather than further piece- 
meal analyses, there seems to be no immediate prospect for such a 
work. 

The rich and beautiful fauna of these beds has been receiving 
only sporadic and piecemeal attention since it was first described by 
Derby (1874). Unfortunately that splendid publication is so rare 
and the illustrations so faded' that it is difficult to gain an adequate 
literature impression of the fauna now. Happily, not only the original 
specimens, mounted on boards as photographed in 1873 are still 
intact at Cornell University, but also the original glass negatives 



^It is interesting, in \ie\v of the unfortunate outcome, to read Hartt's belief 
(/// Derby, 1874, p. 63, footnote) that the new process of photographic plate 
reproduction, perfected in the photographic laboratory at Cornell, and printed 
on "plain paper," would prove permanent. Despite the fiasco of the method of 
reproduction, we could profit greatly from the process of photography em- 
ployed in that laiioratory if it were only known. Instead of the laborious and 
time-consuming technicjue of indi\idual specimen photography to-dav almost 
universally employed (with tinting or \vhitening of the specimens and subse- 
quent retouching of the prints), Derby's specimens were mounted in cement on 
boards in exactly the pose and position seen on the finished plates; apparently 
without further ado, the whole was photographed in bright (sun?) light on a 
wet plate. After opatjue was \vashed around the individual fossil negatives, 
the plate numbers ^vere scratched through and the plates were then printed "on 
|)lain paper" diiectly from this negati\e. 



69 Braziiiw CxRnoMi t R(H s: Cxster 



Ironi which the puhhshocl phites were printed. I hrou^h the kiiuhiess 
o{ Dr. W. Srorrs Cole, of Cornell l^niversitv, Mr. Dresser and I were 
furnished with excellent photographic prints from these negatives.- 

Several works on the Amazonian Carboniferous taiiii;i have ap- 
peared since Derby's original study. The largest single contribution 
was that of Katzer ( 190.>; 19.3.i ) in his Geology of the State of 
Para. He greatly extended the fossil list both by the identification of 
foreign species and a considerable body of new forms. The paleon- 
tological part of this work does not, however, match the general 
excellence ot the geological. In an attempt to compromise between 
the Carboniferous age assignment of Derby for the Itaituba terrane 
and the pronouncement of Waagen ( 1888) as to its Permian age, 
Katzer applied the "Permocarboniferous" label by which these beds 
are even to-day not uncommonly known, despite considerable evi- 
dence in many publications which supports Derby's original deter- 
mination. 

The history of the studies of the Amazonian terrane and the 
confusion in extra-Brazilian correlation to be found in these works is 
so well summarized in the little-known, but excellent, work of Fossa- 
Mancini (1944) that the following historical survey is a summary 
translation of his words: 

"Near Itaituba, the Tapajos River crosses extensive outcrops of 
limestone containing silicified brachiopod shells. They weather out 
abundantly along certain stretches of the river banks; being of such 
characteristic aspect and often of large size, they quite naturally 
attracted the attention of tlie first explorer to pass that wa^^ Thus 
Silva Coutinho (1863) returned with a collection of fossils from 
Itaituba. Marcou (1868) published a brief note on this collection, 
identifying them merely as of Paleozoic age. Agassiz (1869) also 



- While this manuscript was in the liands of the editor, the rnaj!;nificent 
tribute of the Brazilian Government to the memory of Orvilie \. Derby on the 
occasion of his centenar\- came to hand. In a special publication all of Derby's 
studies on the Paleontology of Brazil were reprinted, including a fine rendition 
of Derby's 1874 work on the Itaituba brachiopods, illustrated from the original 
fossil specimens at Cornell Uni\ersity. ("()r\ille A. Derby's Studies on the 
Paleontology of Brazil". Selection and coordination of some of this geologist's 
out of print and rare works by .Alpheu Diniz Gonsalves. Published under the 
direction of the Executive Commission for the 1st Centenary Commemorating 
the Birth of Orville A. Derby, and sponsored by the .American Embassy of 
Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, 1952 (1953), Brazil). 



Bulletin 1+9 70 



dutifully recorded the occurrence, but added nothing more. Like- 
wise Hartt (1870) in the account of his first expeditions in Brazil. 

"In 1870 and 1871 Hartt and some of his students, including 
Derby, extended their studies along the Amazon Valley to the Tapa- 
jos fossiliferous limestones. They found similar limes and fossils else- 
where in the general area. A collection of the fossils made by Brown 
in 1872 made possible the indisputable Carboniferous age determi- 
nation . . . 

"The preliminary reports of the Hartt 'Morgan Expedition' 
appeared in 1874 as the first number of the Bulletin of the Cornell 
University. In this, Hartt analyzed the Carboniferous limestones and 
proposed the name Itaituba series for them. In the same Bulletin 
Derby gave an excellent description of the Itaituba brachiopods and 
pointed up their affinities. 

"By 1872 Derby was already aware of the presence of Carboni- 
ferous beds on the Trombetas River, across the Amazon from the 
Tapajos. As a member of the Geological Commission of the Brazilian 
Empire he visited these outcrops and collected fossils from them in 
1876. Derby shortly studied this material and all other Carboni- 
ferous fossil materials from the Amazon Valley. By then the fauna 
numbered more than a hundred forms; more than half the species 
he found to be identical to 'Coal Measure' (Upper Carboniferous) 
species of the United States; six species occurred in both the United 
States and Bolivia. It was inevitable that the fossils of the Tapajos 
and Trombetas Rivers and elsewhere in the Amazon Valley should 
be judged of Upper Carboniferous age (Derby, 1877). 

"In his study of the fossils of the 'Productus limestone' in the 
Salt Range of the Punjab, Waagen made critical comparisons with 
Derby's Amazonian fauna. In 1882 he recognized Dielasma itaitu- 
bense Derby in the black limestones at the limit between the middle 
and upper part of the Productus limestone. Waagen was preoccupied 
with the idea that the Productus terrane must be Permian in age; 
hence also for him the fossiliferous limestones of the Tapajos, Trom- 
betas, etc., were Permian. Since the striking affinities of the latter 
to the upper part of the Coal Measures of the United States argued 
against such an assignment, Waagen (1882, 1889) fouiul himself 
obliged also to maintain that the upper section of the Coal Measures 



71 liK\/ni\\ C" \KI!(I\1I EKOUS: C \STIK 



was assignahlc to rlic Permian. Here then is the remote origin of that 
exaggerated downward extension of the Permian at the expense of 
the Carhoniferoiis in North America and Asia which has lead to such 
himentahle confusion in stratigraphic correlations even on other con- 
tinents. 

"Derhy restudicd the Amazonian fossils in 1894 and reaffirmed 
their equivalence to faunas ot the Upper Coal Measures of Missouri, 
Arkansas, Iowa and Illinois, and their Upper Carboniferous (rather 
than Permian) age. 

"Katzer carried on the Amazonian stratigraphic and paleon- 
tologic work so well begun by Derby. His first work on the subject 
appeared in 1897. Ihis was followed by his work on the Geology of 
the State of Para (1903). This work contains an extensive chapter 
on the Amazonian Carboniferous and its relation to the Anthra- 
colitic of other continents; an appendix carries descriptions of new 
and interesting species of Carboniferous fossils from the Amazon 
area . . . He breaks his fossil-lists down into the assemblages from 
six separate sites: 1, Tapajos River, between Barreirinha and Bra- 
zilia Legal; 2, confluence of the Pitinga and Jamunda Rivers; 3, 
Trombetas River, between Lake Jacare and the Great Lake of Ara- 
pecu; 4, Curua River near Praia Grande; 5, Lake Cojubim in the 
Maecuru valley; 6, Serra Itauajuri near Monte Alegre. The faunas 
of the Pitinga River and the Itauajuri Serra comprise many brachio- 
pods and few gastropods; in the faunas of the Trombetas and Curua 
Rivers and Lake Cojubim brachiopods predominate and pelecypods 
are also numerous, but gastropods are lacking; in the Tapajos fauna, 
which IS the richest, all three classes are well represented. Ihese 
differences indicate marked facies changes which add to the dif- 
ficulty of stratigraphic correlation. 

"Katzer's lists appear in a chapter entitled 'Carbon'; however at 
the end of his foregoing chapter, 'Perm,' he reports a 'fauna of 
Permian bearing (Einschlag)' in certain sandy lime beds which 
overlie the limestones of the Maecuru and Curua Valleys. However he 
chose to consider their age problematical out of deference to Derby's 
having identified many characteristically Carboniferous fossils from 
them. At the time when Katzer wrote, the erroneous ideas of Waagen 
and Noetling concerning the Permian age of the Productus lime- 



10 Bulletin 149 72 



stone had already been widely disseminated. Hence the existence of 
the species Productus semireticulatus Martin, P. cora d'Orbigny, P. 
lineatus Waagen, Cleiothyris roissyi (heveiWe) ,Dielasma itaitubense 
(DerbjO, in the Amazonian deposits and the Productus limestone 
seemed to be a forceful argument against Derby's correlation, and 
made Katzer reluctant to give up the possibility that at least the 
upper part of the Amazonian sequence might be of Permian age . . . 
In the conclusion of his discussion Katzer succinctly stated [the 
somewhat contradictory opinion] that at the end of the Carboni- 
ferous the sea retreated from the Lower Amazon region, never again 
to cover this vast area (p. 253). 

". . . Since the publication of Katzer's book, knowledge of the 
stratigraphy and paleontology of the Carboniferous of northern Bra- 
zil has grown considerably through the work of the Servigo Geologico 
e Mineralogico of Brazil. The geological reconnaissances of Albu- 
querque (1922), Carvalho (1926), Avelino de Oliveira (1926) and 
Moura ( 1934) have yielded new data on the geological conditions of 
different parts of the Amazon Valley. To Moura (1938) we are fur- 
ther indebted for a synthesis which was accompanied by a good geo- 
logic map of the area concerned (between parallels and 8° and 
meridians Sl°30'' and 60°30'). Cowper-Reed (1933) has studied 
the Carboniferous fossils from the Urupadi River; Duarte (1936, 
1938) those of the Parauari and Jatapii Rivers. The results of these 
investigations have fully confirmed the conclusions formulated by 
Derby in 1877, and moreover have demonstrated the enormous hori- 
zontal extent of the Carboniferous marine seduiients. 

"In some of these recent publications the marine fossiliferous 
strata of the Amazonian region are simply referred to the 'Upper 
Carboniferous,' while in others they are specifically referred to the 
Uralian; in none is the possibility suggested of their being in part 
Permian. These publications have stressed even more forcefully the 
affinities to the Upper Carboniferous faunas of Bolivia and the 
United States. Thus, in the list of Amazon Valley brachiopods given 
by Duarte (1936) the species in common with North America, Bo- 
livia, Russia and Belgium are 17, 14, 7 and 3, respectively; of the 
species in common with Russia, two come from the Artinskian; those 
in common \\ith Belgium come from the black marble of Dinant, 
which corresponds to the base of the Visean. Hence the arguments 



73 Brazhiw C VRHoNiKKRous: Caster 11 



in taxor ol an Ariinskian age arc no stronger than those for tlie 
X'isean. Moreover, Productus cora and Schizophoria resupinata of 
Duarte's hst are represented in both the Dinantian and the Artin- 
skian. 

" Ihere are reasons to suppose that ni the hitest |)art of the Car- 
boniferous the seas extended much further westward than the sites 
in the states of Para and Amazonas. An important indication of this 
is the high proportion of forms common to the Carboniferous faunas 
of Bolivia and the Amazon Valley; even more significant is a de- 
posit of brachiopod imprints in chert from the Moa River in the 
Territory of Acre, Brazil. . . . The Moa River is nearer to the fossili- 
ferous Upper Carboniferous outcrops of Huanta, Tarmo and Ambo 
in Peru than to those of the Tapajos and Trombetas Rivers, etc. 

"It is possible that during the latest Carboniferous the sea ex- 
tended uninterruptedly from the present Amazon Valley to the re- 
gion to-day occupied by the Parnahiba Valley in the State of Piaui, 
although Paiva and Miranda (1937) believe that the sedimentation 
there took place in a basin surrounded on all sides by land, save for 
three narrow interruptions, toward the East, the South, and the 
Southwest; this last they supposed to be the one which permitted 
connection with the 'Andean sea' of that time. Be this as it may, 
the presence of marine sediments which may belong to the Upper 
Carboniferous has been unexpectedly revealed by a well-core taken 
by the Servico Geologico e Mineralogico of Brazil near Terezina, on 
the Parnahiba River in the State of Piaui. Duarte (1936) referred 
the fossils extracted from the core to Protaster, Lingula, Luigulidis- 
cina, Orbiculoidea, Edmondia, Aviculopecten, and Nucida, but was 
unable to identify any of them positively with any known species. He 
said that these fossils indicate a Uralian age. While this conclusion 
may be correct, and certainly is suggestive, it does not seem to be 
founded on sufficiently secure data; the presence of forms comparable 
with Spirifer opimus, JAngulidiscina missouriensis and Lingula car- 
bonaria and of indeterminable forms of the other mentioned genera, 
may constitute an indication of age, but could hardly be adduced as 
exact proof of a Uralian age. In the excellent Geologia do Brasil of A. 
de Oliveira and O. Leonardos (1943) the fossiliferous strata of Piaui 
are considered the equivalents of those of Itaituba. 

"Both in the Piaui and the Itaituba series brachiopods and 



12 Bulletin 149 74 



pelecypods predominate. Correlations with the formations of the 
Northern Hemisphere would be less difficult if foraminifera of the 
family Fusulinidae should be encountered and identified in accord 
with modern criteria. 

"Derby (1894) and Katzer (1903) both mention a rare 'Fusu- 
lina which they had encountered in the Upper Carboniferous lime- 
stones of the Tapajos River. More recent authors have, however, 
contributed nothing further on the subject. It is possible that Derby 
and Katzer did not refer to Fusulina, s.s. Such a determination re- 
quires knowledge and techniques unknown when they worked. But 
we may be sure that the forms observed by Katzer were Fusulinidae 
of large size. If they had been globular they would have been re- 
ferred to the genus Schwagerina as was the practice prior to the 
revelations of Douville (1906) and Deprat (1903) as to the un- 
suspected complexity of the internal structure of the foraminifera of 
this family ... In view of the fact that the rare Fusulinidae noted 
by Katzer were associated with corals (such as Lophophyllum -pro- 
liferum and Rhombopora lepidodendroides), pelecypods (such as 
Pinna peracuta), and gasteropods (e.g., Bellerophon carbonarius), 
found by Meek (1872) in the light-colored limestones of Nebraska 
City, and with brachiopods (like Productus cora, Spirifer condor, 
Squamularia perplexa, Ambocoelia planoconvexa and Hustedia mor- 
Tnoni), common in the limestones of Yarbichambi, it seems probable 
to me that the Fusulinidae-bearing limes of the Tapajos correspond 
to the Gshelian, and that they contain some form of the genus Triti- 
cites, the external aspect of which is exactly that of a typical Fusu- 
lina. It would be convenient to have a microscopic examination of 
oriented sections of the Tapajos foraminifera . . . 

"Meanwhile, we can only express the opinion, which has pre- 
vailed among Brazilian geologists and paleontologists for several 
years, that the fossiliferous Anthracolitic sediments in north Brazil 
belong in their entirety to the Upper Carboniferous, and appear to 
correspond to the Uralian." 

Happily, what seems to be the most significant contribution to 
the problem of the age of the Amazonas Carboniferous deposits was 
recently published by Petri (1952) in which he reported the results 
of precisely the kind of restudy of the rare Tapajos fusulines that 
Fossa-Mancini urged. The results are not quite what most previous 



Hrazimw C" MUioMi hkous: C'xmir 13 



Students or commentators woiiUI ha\e expected: Petri shows the 
tonus ro belong not to 'rriticites as Fossa-Mancini guessed, hut to 
two primitive tusuhne genera, MiUcrcJIa and FusulineUa. As Petri 
points out, tlie former is a primitive genus of the Fusuhnidae, known 
from the llpper Mississippian to the Upper Pennsylvanian; the Mis- 
sissippian and Pennsylvanian species of the genus are readily dis- 
tinguished, aiul the Amazonian forms are allied to the later species 
complex. 1 he second genus appears m the Middle Pennsylvanian 
and became extinct in the middle Upper Pennsylvanian. Petri calls 
attention to the fact that specialists do not accept identifications of 
Fusulinelld from the Permian. 

It is Petri's apparently sound conclusion that at least the lower 
third of the Itaituba sequence, i.e., the part containing his fusulines, 
must be assigned to the Middle Pennsylvanian (Muscovian of Eu- 
rope; Desmoinesian of tlie United States). In view of the present 
evidence of essential unity of the Amazons "Anthracolitic" fauna, 
despite the absence so far of fusulines from the upper beds, the whole 
terrane may well be similarly correlated. Although Petri's age as- 
signment is much older than most previous ones, there have been 
recurrent suggestions of this outcome. In searching out world af- 
finities of the Glass Mountain faunas of Texas, King (1930) ques- 
tioned the more or less accepted correlation of the Amazonian 
sequence with the "Carboniferous" of the Bolivian altiplano. Where- 
as King spotted in the Bolivian terrane conspicious "Permian" 
affinities, the Amazonian fauna seemed to him to show closer affinity 
to the Lower Pennsylvanian of southwestern United States (e.g., the 
Naco limestone of the Galiuro Mts. in Arizona). Stoyanow (1936) 
has reinforced this view of the Amazonian relationships. Thompson 
( 1943 ) pointed up King's contention as to the bearing of the Bolivian 
faunas by recording Permian fusulines there. These were further 
elaborated by Dunbar and Newell ( 1945, 1946) who assigned the 
Bolivian Permian to the base of the system (Wolfcampian of the 
United States; Sakmarian of Russia)'. They also showed that the 

■' So long as the Permian-Pennsylvanian boundary continues to he drawn 
by a majority of \orth American stratigraphers at the base of the ^^'olfcam- 
pian, due in the main to the historical causes outlined in the material quoted 
from Fossa-Mancina, abov^e, such footnotes as this are a courtesy to foreign 
readers. Happily, it now appears that the north Brazilian section lias been 
definitely removed from this zone of contention. 



14 Bulletin 149 76 



lower third of the altiplano terrane in the Titicaca area is Pennsyl- 
vanian. Fusulinella -peruana (Meyer) in this lower third of the 
column suggests coevality, if not continuity, with Petri's fusuline 
fauna. 

Wilhelm Kegel (1951) has recently shown that the trilobites 
of the "Permo-Carboniferous" terrane of the Piaui-Maranhao Basin 
strongly bespeak close time equivalence with the Tapajos sequence 
and possess a morphology that pertains to the world Pennsylvanian 
fauna; he judges the containing beds to be not younger than West- 
phalian "C", the while leaning toward correlation with the older 
unit "B'' (= Muscovian). This is essentially the age assigned by 
Petri to the Tapajos beds on the basis of his fusulines. Thus two 
decisive blows have been struck at the unfortunate recrudesence of 
a tendency {e.g., Plummet, Price and Gomes, 1946; Campbell, 
Almeida and Oliveira Silva, 1949) to refer the Piaui sequence, and 
by implication the commonly correlated Amazonian terrane, to the 
"Permo-Carboniferous". 

Whether this term is applicable to any Brazilian terrane is still 
an open question; however, evidence mounts {e.g., Caster, 1952) 
for considering still more of the coal, glacial and limited marine 
beds of south Brazil as Pennsylvanian. Kegel and Texeira da Costa 
(1951) furnish data on the fasciculate-ribbed aviculopectinid pelecy- 
pods common to the Carboniferous fauna of the Maranhao Basin 
and the Itarare series from the inter-glacial beds of Taio, Santa 
Catarina in the Parana Basin. These fossils suggest not only coevality 
of these deposits of the two basins, but also correlation with Pennsyl- 
vanian faunas of North America. The flora of the post-glacial part of 
the "Permo-carboniferous" terrane m the Parana Basin bespeaks 
ever more strongly Permian age, however, as Mendes (1952) has 
pointed out in his restudy ot the unique, apparently autochthonous 
and non-correlatable pelecypod fauna of these beds. 

(See combined Bibliography at end of Dresser's paper.) 



B. NOTES ON SOME BRACIIIOPODS KROM HIE H AIIUBA 
FORMA'I'ION (PENNSYLVANL'XN) OF THE TAPAJ6S 

RTVKR, BRAZIL! 

Hugh Dresser 
Carter Oil Company 

ABSTRACT 

Twelve species and one variant of hiachiopods belonging to ten genera and 
one subgenus, are identified and described from the Carboniferous Itaituba 
formation of the Tapajos Ri\er, a tributary of the .Amazon River in Krazil. 
They represent about one-third of the brachiopods of the fauna and only a small 
portion of the entire fauna. One genus, three species, and one variant are new. 
Seven of the species occur in other parts of the world; they appear to indicate 
a Pennsylvanian age for the Itaituba formation. 

IXTRODUCTION AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The purpose of this paper is to examine some of the brachiopods 
of the Carboniferous Itaituba formation from the Rio Tapajos, a 
tributary of the Amazon, and to identify and redescribe them in the 
light of information which has been pubhshed since the first descrip- 
tion of the brachiopods of this fauna by Derby in 1874. It is hoped 
that the age determination of such of the brachiopods as are known 
outside the Amazon area will add a link to the chain of evidence 
concerning the still-debated age of the Itaituba formation. 

Twelve species and one variant of brachiopods belonging to ten 
genera and one subgenus have been studied. Of them, the variant, 
three species and one genus are new; six species have been placed 
in different genera from those assigned to them by Derby, and one 
has had its specific assignment changed. Only two species were left 
nomenclatorially as Derby described them. 

The writer is indebted to Dr. Kenneth E. Caster for his gen- 
erous aid and assistance on perplexmg problems which have arisen 
during the preparation of this paper; for his aid in the translation of 
pertinent French and Brazilian literature as the needs arose, and for 
giving the author this opportunity to "cut his paleontologic teeth." 
Dr. Caster has already expressed our joint appreciation to the many 

1 Based on a dissertation submitted to the Graduate Scliooi of Arts and 
Sciences of the University of Cincinnati in partial fulfillment of the retpiirements 
for the degree of Master of Science, 1951. 



16 Bulletin 149 78 



Brazilian sources of indebtedness and to Dr. W. Storrs Cole of Cor- 
nell University for making copies of the Derby illustrations of the 
l\apajns fauna. I he text figiues were prepared by Mrs. Elizabeth A. 
Dalve and part of the costs of the revision of the manuscript and 
printing of the plates was met by research funds from the Graduate 
School of .Arts and Sciences of the University of Cincinnati. 

PREPARATION OF MATERIAL 

In the summer of 1948 Dr. K. E. Caster collected naturally 
etched, silicified fossils, and mudd}" limestone blocks containing silici- 
fied fossils from the Tapajos limestone. This is the type area of the 
Itaituba formation ( Igarape Bom Jardim, a small tributary of the 
Tapajos River, two km. above Itaituba, in the state of Para, Brazil). 

More than nine months were spent etching the fossils from the 
limestone blocks and in perfecting equipment wherewith it could 
be done efficiently. About three-fourths of the material has been 
etched. This would have been a relatively simple and quick process 
but for the extremely bituminous and muddy nature of the lime- 
stone. To etch a limestone block completely is an almost impossible 
task, since all of the mud would have to be removed during etching. 
No completely satisfactory method has yet been devised for doing 
this. 

The limestone blocks themselves are light grey on fresh fracture, 
weathering to dark grey or brown. They contain about fifty per cent 
calcium carbonate, about twenty-five per cent black-brown petroli- 
ferous mud, and about twenty-five per cent sihcious material. The 
silicious material occurs mostly as chert nodules and lenses, but some 
of it occurs as microscopic quartz crystals disseminated through the 
rock. The calcium carbonate of the fossil shells appears to have been 
silicified by a crystal-for-crystal replacement. After etching, many 
of the fossils with thick shells reveal a network of quartz crystals 
on the interior. This is due to the incomplete silicification of the 
internal portions of the shell, the network effect being caused by the 
removal of calcium carbonate from between the quartz crystals dur- 
ing etching. The black-brown petroliferous mud is generally sticky, 
sometimes flaky. It is rather evenly distributed throughout the rock. 

As indicated by the fragmental nature of much of the fossil ma- 
terial, the en\ uonment ol deposition was evidently in a sea shallow 



79 



Brazilian- Pennsylvanian Hraciikii-ods: Dri;sser 



17 





PLASTIC 
SCREEN 



FIG. I— LUCITE ETCHING TRAY 



Fig. 1. Sketch of a plexiglass and plastic screen acid-resisting etching rack for 
treatment of small, differentially silicified blocks of limestone. 



18 Bulletin 149 80 



enough for the waves to wash the shells around and break them up. 
This type of environment is also indicated by the fact that while the 
shells generally lie flat, paralleling the bedding, they may occasion- 
ally stand at an angle to it, suggesting current action. 

The equipment for etching, which was developed by trial and 
error, is both economical and reasonabl}^ efficient. It consists of nine 
five-gallon stone "pickle jars," eight plastic trays for holding blocks 
and fossils, a plastic sorting pan, stone sink, fifteen feet of plastic 
tubing, and many carboys of muriatic acid. 

The five-gallon stone jars were lined with a quarter-inch coating 
of paraffin to prevent seepage through the pottery. The plastic trays 
designed to hold the fossils are constructed from plexiglass^ and 
ordinary commercial plastic window screening. The plexiglass sheets 
were sawed into the proper lengths and widths and then fused to- 
gether by the solvent ethylene chloride. The plastic screening was 
cemented to the plexiglass frame with ethylene chloride. The finished 
rack is shown in Fig. 1. 

The plexiglass pieces were soaked in the solvent for from three- 
quarters of a minute to a minute and a half, or the ethylene chloride 
was liberally applied with a brush. It has been found that a better 
bond is produced if some pulverized plexiglass is added to the ethy- 
lene chloride until it becomes a rather thick and viscous cement. It 
should be remembered in working with ethylene chloride that it is 
poisonous and quite volatile. Therefore, all work should be carried 
on in a well ventilated room, or under a chemical hood. 

The "Lucite" pieces were welded together by applying the ethy- 
lene chloride liberally to both surfaces and then holding them to- 
gether for two or three minutes, or until a temporary bond was 
produced. These joined parts were cemented to other parts until the 
whole tray was completed except for the cementing of the screen 
to the bottom. The whole tray was allowed to stand overnight for the 
joints to weld completely. The plastic screening was then cemented 
to the bottom of the tray, and allowed to dry for at least four hours 
before any strain was placed upon it. 

The jars were filled from one-half to two-thirds with water, and 
^Dupont "I.ucite," an acrylic resin. 



SI Brazimw Pi nnsyi V \m an Hr \i iikh'ods: Dresskr 19 



the trays bcariiiji the liiiKstonc blocks were placed in them. Acid was 
then siphoned to the vats imtil the limestone was vigorously effer- 
vescing. 

When the effervescence ceased, more acid was added until the 
limestone again effervesced. By the time this second effervescence 
ended, the mud usually had to be removed from the surfaces of the 
block before effervescence could again be induced. To remove the 
muddy residue from the blocks the plastic tray was lifted out and 
placed in a plastic pan with sides about two inches high. The loose 
mud was then hosed off and the limestone block lifted out with care 
lest partially liberated shells be damaged, and the loose fossils were 
removed from the screen. The fine residue, consisting largely of 
scraps, was washed into a beaker. Often the sticky mud on the lime- 
stone block had to be very carefully picked off with a probe or dis- 
secting needle, before the block could be returned to the acid bath 
and effervescence induced. 

This procedure may be repeated as often as desired. However, 
with the Tapajos material after the second time, more residue re- 
moval, work was required than the fossil returns seemed to justify. 
When there were still visible fossils in the rock, the vibro-tool or a 
hammer and chisel were used to chip them out for further cleaning. 
After several blocks had been treated there was usually so much 
mud in suspension in the acid that its slow settling onto specimens 
effectively stopped the etching. The mud was then allowed to settle 
for a day or so and the clear acid was siphoned off to be used again. 
The residue in the vat was washed into the plastic pan, and the mud 
decanted. The microfossils in the remaining material were then picked 
out and fragmental material was allowed to dry on paper toweling 
over night. This material was then sieved in water, and the various 
grade sizes examined for microfossils. 

PALEONTOLOGY 

The total Itaituba fauna reclaimed from the acid bath, plus the 
extensive collection of naturally etched material from the weathered 
outcrops, is large. Less than one-tenth of the whole is here con- 
sidered. 



20 



Bulletin 1+9 



82 



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Orthotichia morganiana 

Tapajotia tapajotensis 

Streptorhynchus hallianus 

Phricodothyris perplexa 

Punctospirifer transversa 

Spirifer( Brachythyris) 
rocky-montani 

Spirifer(Neospirifer) 
cameratus 



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S3 Hk\/iii\s I'l \\>m \ \\i w Hx nciiioi'oms: Orksskr 21 

S\S IKMAllC DKSCRIPTIOiNS 

Ordor PKOTKKMATA Reeclicr. 1891 

Suborder OIM'IKHIH; V Scluuhort and Cooper, 1932 

Family lill 1 1*1 IM)>I II.M l> V K Sdiiuhert. 1913 

Gomis IMIirilMMir.l.LV Oi'lilert, ISftO 

Type species. — Terebratula michelini Leveille, Soc. Geol. France, 
Mem., vol. 2, 1835, p. 34, pi. 2, figs. 14-17. 

As abstracted from Hall and Clarke (1892, p. 209, 210), the 
features ot this genus are as follows: shells subcircular in outline, 
biconvex and sublenticular; ornament consists of fine, roimded, sub- 
equal costellae which are hollow, often opening upon the surface. In 
the ventral valve there are large flabelliform, medially divided, di- 
ductor muscle scars. The adductors occupy a small central scar com- 
pletely enveloped by the great diductors. The muscular area is bor- 
dered by two strong teeth from the base of which a strongly defined 
curving ridge extends forward. The pedicle scar fills the entire ros- 
tral cavity. In the dorsal valve there are deep, narrow dental sockets 
and extremely prominent crural plates sometimes supporting short 
crura. The cardmal process is erect, strongly arched on its anterior 
face, and with a trilobed posterior face. The muscular area is quad- 
ruplicate, comparatively small and usually indistinct. A broad, low 
median ridge extends anteriorly about half the length of the valve 
from the base of the cardinal process. 

In addition, Schuchert and Cooper (1932, p. 135) demonstrated 
that Rhipidomella has a definite interarea between the two halves, 
as contrasted with Peritocardinia Schuchert and Cooper, 1932, which 
is similar, but has the interarea completely reduced. In Perditocar- 
dinia the ventral beak often overlaps the dorsal beak to such an 
extent as to produce a rostrate appearance, as in T erebratulina. 

The Tapajos specimens have a very definite interarea between 
the two valves, and agree closely with Hall and Clarke's analysis of 
Rhipidomella. They differ in having a strongly elevated notothyrial 
platform from which the cardinal process arises; the dorsal muscula- 
ture is also deeply impressed and well defined. 

Uliipidoiiiflla ]K'iiiiiaii}i (Derby) I'l 1, figs. 1-4, (5-7 

1874. Orthis Pcnniana Derby, Cornell Univ., Sci. Bull., vol. 1, No. 2. p. 23, 
pi. 5. figs. 13, 15, 17, 19-22; pi. 8, fig. 2. 



22 Bulletin 149 84 



1903. Rliipidomrlla pennlana (Derbj), Katzer, Grundzuge de Geologic des 
Unteien Amazonas Gebietes (des Staates Para in Brasilien), p. 172, pi. 6, 
fig. 9a-c; (Geologia do Estado do Para, 1933, p. 153, pi. 6, fig. 9). 

1914 (?). Rliipidomclla corn (d'Orbigny), Kozlowski, Annales de Paleon- 
tologie, vol. 9, p. 48, fig. 15, pi. figs. 35-60. 

1929 (?). Rhipidmnrlla corn (d'Orbignv), Steinmann, Geologic von Peru, p. 
49, fig. 45. 

1933. ( ?) Ort/iis ( RhipiJomcllaj ptnmana Derby, Reed, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 
vol. 11 (10), p. 527. 

1938. Rh'ipidomcUa pfnnunui (Derby), Duarte, Serv. Geol. Min. (Brazil), 
Bol. 84, p. 13, pi. 2, figs. 2. 3. 

The new Tapajos material examined agrees perfectly with 
Derby's description of this species. The important features of the 
species are: thick, heavy valves; subtrigonal outline, biconvex with 
the dorsal valve being the more convex; vertical delthyruim is nearly 
filled by the projecting cardinal process of the dorsal valve; notothy- 
rium about equal in size to the delthyrium, and lies at right angles 
to it (horizontally). It is completely filled by the cardinal process. 
The surface of the valves is marked by fme rounded costae and 
numerous lines of growth. Many of the large specimens develop a 
slight median sinus on each valve, one opposing the other, giving the 
shell a more or less heart-shaped appearance. The dorsal sinus is the 
more prominent. In the ventral valve large, widely divergent teeth 
enclose the pedicle muscle scar between them and the beak. The di- 
ductor muscle scars are elongated and flabelliform, completely en- 
closing a narrow, medially divided ridge upon which the adductors 
are situated. In the dorsal valve the cardinal process is situated upon 

Dimensions. — Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. Mus. Cat. No. 

Length (mm.) Width (mm.) Depth (mm.) 

25258 18 

25258 21 



25258 20. 

25258 19. 

25258 19. 

25258 18. 

25258 17. 

v.v. 25258 19. 

v.v. 25258 20. 

d.v. 25258 20. 

d.v. 25258 17. 



18 . . . 


. . 11 


19 . . . 


. . L^ 


19 . . . 


. . 12 


18.5 . . . 


. . 12.5 


19 . . . 


. . 9 


15 . . . 


. . 11 


U . . . 


. . 10 


17 . . . 


. . 5 


18 . . . 


. . 5 


20 . . . 


. . 8 


15 . . . 


. . S 



85 Hr\/iii\\ Pennsyi \'\\i w Hk vchioimids: Ori ssir 23 



a high notothyiial phittorm. Irs posterior face has a nilohcd appear- 
ance. The crura arise from the anterolateral margins of the noto- 
th\rial plattorni jiisr anterior to and mediae! of the sockets which 
are situated between the notothyrial platform and the posterior mar- 
gin of the shell. The four muscle scars are well impressed, the poste- 
rior set being impressed into the anterior portion of the notothyrial 
platform. A hroad median ridge, which divides the muscle scars, ex- 
tends almost to the middle of the valve. 

Comparison. — 1 his species differs from North American species 
o{ Rhipidomella in the following ways: R. penniana possesses a very 
high notothyrial platform from which the cardinal process arises. The 
muscle scars of the dorsal valve are deeply impressed, the posterior 
set being partially impressed into the anterior portion of the noto- 
thyrial platform. 

Kozfowski ( 1914, p. 48) has identified a Rhipidomella from the 
Carboniferous of Bolivia as D'Orbigny's R. cora. However, his text 
figures and his description of this form lead one to believe that it 
may be Derby's species, R. penniana. Since his text figures show only 
exteriors, they do not help much, and until the Bolivian fauna is 
restudied, the identification must remain doubtful. Steinmann is 
apparently following Koztow^ski in identifying the Peruvian Rhipi- 
domellas as R. cora. 

Reed (1933) reports that Haug had an apparently conspecific 
shell from the Pennsylvanian of the Sahara which Haug identified, 
however, as R. michelini Leveille. 

Number of Specitnens Studied. — About 850 specimens consisting 
mainly of dissociated dorsal and ventral valves were studied. 

Family SCHIZOrHOKIin.VK Schuchert, 1929 

Subfamily SCHIZOPHOKIINAE Schuchert, 1929 

Genus OKTHOTR'HIA Hall and Clarke, 1892 

Type species. — Orthis ( ?) morgariiatw Derby, Cornell Univ., 
Sci. Bull., vol. 1, No. 2, 1874, pp. 29-32, pi. 3, figs. 1-7, 9, 11, 34; pi. 4, 
figs. 6, 14, 15. Itaituba formation. Carboniferous of Brazil. 

As abstracted from Hall and Clarke (1892, p. 213), the char- 
acters of this genus are as follows: in the ventral valve there is a 
thin, elevated median septum dividing the muscular area. It has 



24 Bulletin 149 86 



prominent, vertical dental lamellae. The muscular area is but faintly 
impressed and faintly defined at its anterior border. In the dorsal 
valve there is a multipartite cardinal process. The muscle scars are 
in three pairs, arranged as in Schizophoria. 

Comparison. — E.\ternally this genus often resembles Schizo- 
phoria, but it can be distinguished from Srhizophoria if good interiors 
are available. Schizophoria does not have the well-developed ventral 
median septum of Orthotichia. 

The Tapajos material is of the type species of the genus. It 
agrees in every respect with the generic diagnosis given by Hall and 
Clarke. 

Orthotichia mor^aiiiaiia (Derby) PL 1, tigs. 8-11, 13 

1874. Ortliis ( ?) morgamana Derbv, Cornell Univ., Sci. Bull., vol. 1, No. 2, 

pp. 29-32, pi. 3, figs. 1-7, 9, 11, 34; pi. 4, figs. 6, 14, 15. 
1892. Orthotichia morganiana (Derbv), Hall and Clarke, Paleontologv of 

New York, vol. 8. pt. 1, p. 213, pi. 7. figs. 11-15. 
1894. Orthis morganiana Derby, Derby, Jour. Geo), vol. 2, p. 492. 
1903. Orthotichia morganiana (Derby), Katzer, Grundzuge de Geologic des 

Unteren Amazonas Gebietes (des Staates Para in Brazilien), p. 164, pi. 5, 

fig. 6a-f; (= Geologia do Estado do Para, 1933, p. 153, pi. 5, fig. 6.) 
1914. Orthotichia morgani (Derbv). Kozlowski, Annales de Paleontologie, 

vol. 9, p. 62, pi. 3, figs. 11-12. 
1927 (?). Orthotichia morqaniana (Derby), Chao, Geol. Soc. China, Bull., 

vol. 8, p. 99, pi. 1, fig. ll"; pi. 2, figs. 2, 3. 
1927 (?) Orthotichia morganiana Derbv inut. chihsiarnsis Chao, Geol. 

Soc. China, Bull., vol. 6, pi. 101, pi. 2, fig. 4. 
1930 (non). Orthotichia kozloiiskii King, Univ. Texas, Bull., No. 3042, pp. 36, 

45, pi. 1, figs. 14, 15. 
1938. Orthotichia morganiana (Derby), Duarte, Serv. Cyeol. Min. (Brazil), 

Bol. 85, p. 11, pi. 1, figs. 1, 2. 

This species is characterized by the following: its large size; the 
broad sinus in the ventral valve of old specimens; the non-alternate, 
regular character of the striae making up the ornament; the hinge 
line length equals about half the width of the shell; beaks of both 
valves are moderately to slightly incurved, not erect. 

Exterior. — Well-preserved, undistorted specimens are nearly cir- 
cular in outline, and are biconve.x with the dorsal valve slightly more 
inflated than the ventral. On old specimens there is a broad, shallow 
sinus developed in the ventral valve, near its anterior margin, which 
indents the dorsal valve. Thus, the shell is uniplicate. Derby (1874, 
p. 29) stated that there is a strong ventral sinus which indents 
deeply into the dorsal valve. None of the specimens studied show so 
prominent a sinus. 



S7 Urazm.iw I'ennsylvxmian Br vcmdr'oos: Drisshk 25 



I lu' hcak. ol tlic \ciuial \al\(.' is soiiKw liat nioilcratcly iiicuixlhI 
o\cr a clelthyrium which is ahout as high as it is wide. That of the 
dorsal valve is slightly incui\ed over a notothynum which is about 
half as high as it is wide. The length of the hinge line is about half 

rhr witith of thr shell. 

The ornament consists ot tine, radiating striae which multiply 
by bifurcation and which number about six per millimeter at the 
anterior margin. Sometimes these striae terminate abruptly as a 
small, round hole, the striation probably continuing out as a small, 
hollow spine. An occasional growth line is also often present. 

Interior. — Arising just in front of the beak in the ventral valve is 
a thin, elevated median septum which extends forward from one-third 
to one-half the length of the valve. Near its anterior extremity it 
rises to a sharp, elevated point. The small, divergent teeth are sup- 
ported by thin dental plates which extend forward, nearly parallel to 
the median septum, for about one-fourth the length of the valve. 
Laterally they delimit the faintly impressed, oblong muscle scars 
on cither side nf the median septum. 

In the dorsal valve there are three sets of muscle scars which 
are completely surrounded by the anterior extensions of the crural 
plates. The muscle area is further divided by a definite, low, median 
ridge having its origin under the beak and terminating where it 
joins the anterior extensions of the crural plates. It is considerablv 
more elevated anteriorly, near its termination, than it is posteriori}-. 
Two of the three pairs of muscle scars are oval in outline, and are 
located in the normal position in the posteromedian portion of the 
valve with the low, median ridge dividing them. The anterior pair is 
the better impressed of the two, the posterior pair having boundaries 
which are quite indistinct. The third pair of muscle scars is likewise 
oblong, and it lies laterad of the posterior pair just described. Each 
scar of this pair lies just under the crural plates at the place where 
thev change from plates into the ridges bordering the muscular area. 
In well-preserved specimens there is a suggestion of a callus dividing 
each scar of this pair into equal, lateral halves. 

The crural plates are wide and divergent, and they project 
ventrally, staying rather close to the beak, into toothlike processes, 
the crural processes. The cardinal process is multilobed and small, 



26 Bulletin 149 88 

Situated in the apex of the beak. Sometimes it appears to be unilobed 
due to the etching away of the other lobes. 

Dhnensions . — Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. Mus. Cat. No. 

Length (mm.) ^^'ldth (mm.) Depth (mm.) 

25259 4U .S5 26 distorted 

v.v. 25259 17 17 6 distorted 

d.v. 25259 :A 27 10 distorted 

Accurate measurements were difficult to obtam because all the 
large specimens were distorted. The shape of the small specimens is 
not diagnostic. 

Comparison. — Chao ( 1927, pp. 99-101) has described this species 
as occurring in the Permian of China. His descriptions and plates do 
not permit evaluation of his identification. He evidently did not have 
any good interiors of the valves, and, therefore, his generic deter- 
minations may be questioned. Perhaps this is an example of homeo- 
morphy between species of two genera. 

R. E. King (1930, p. 36, 45), in his study of the Permian of the 
Glass Mountains of Texas, believed that he had brachiopods con- 
specific with those from Bolivia which Kozlowski (1914, p. 62) had 
labeled Orthotichia morgoni (sic) Derby (= Orthotichia morgani- 
ana). However, King believed the Bolivian species was incorrectly 
identified by Kozlowski with the Amazon species. Hence, when he 
proposed the new specific name Orthotichia koziowski for his Texas 
Permian material, he placed Kozlowski's 0. "morgani" in synonymy 
with it. King's 0. koziowski from the Texas Permian is especially 
distinct from true O. morganicnui, since it possesses plates running 
transversely between the dental lamellae and the median septum at 
their anterior extremities, and O. morganiana Derby possesses no 
such structure. However, I believe King was in error in supposing 
that the material identified by Koziowski as 0. "morgani" is the same 
as his 0. koziozvskii. In the first place, Koziowski (1914, p. 62) stated 
that his material fits the type descriptions of 0. morganiana in every 
way. In the second place I believe that King placed Kozlowski's ma- 
terial in his species because it has a shallower sinus in the ventral 
valve than Derby ( 1874, pp. 29-32) stated that his type material pos- 
sessed. However, the topotypes of O. morganiana, which are here 



S9 Hkxzii.iw I'kwsvi.v \\i w Br At iiioi-ods: nRi-ssKR 27 



tk'scnhccl, i"i.'\cal no such deep sinus as Derby nulicates. Perhaps 
Derby was misled hy the distortion, so common in this species, 
which makes the sinus appear deeper than it really is. For these 
reasons it seems likel\ that the fossils identified by Koztowski as 0. 
^'morgam" Derby are specificall\- identical with Derby's species, (). 
morganiana, and not with King's 0. kozioivskii. 

Stoyanow (1926) reported 0. morganiana from the upper por- 
tion of the Pennsylvanian section in the Galiuro Mts. of Arizona. 
There is some doubt whether the horizon is Middle or Upper Penn- 
sylvanian. The Lower Pennsylvanian is, however, well developed 
below the 0. viorganiana horizon. Stoyanow also reported that 
Tschernyschew identified this species in the Upper Pennsylvanian 
Schwagerina limestone of the Urals. 

Nuviber of Specimens Studied. — About 120 specimens, mostly of 
dissociated dorsal and ventral valves, were studied. 

Superfainily .STROrHO.M KN ATE.V Schuchert, 1S96 

Family STHOPHOM KM l>.VE King, 1846 

Subfamily OKTHOTETIXAE Waagen, 1884 

Genus STKEI'TOHHVXCHUS King, 1850 

Type species. — Terebratula pelargonatus Schlotheim, Akad. 
Munich, vol. 6, 1816, pp. 2S, 29, pi. 8, figs. 21-24. The Shell limestone 
and breccia of Great Britain. 

The genus Streptorhynchus , as defined by King, includes those 
members of the Orthotetinae which lack a ventral medial septum and 
which have the dental plates but little developed. These dental 
plates are most strongly developed where the teeth join the palin- 
trope, and they become less and less prominent as they are traced 
downward toward the beak. 

In the Tapajos material the dental plates take more the form 
of a callus than of a plate or ridge. This is typical of the sqiall extent 
to which they are developed in this genus. 

.Streptorlijncluis hiillhiniis Derby PI. I. Hk. 5; i'l. s, tigs. 2,3,5,6 

1874. Strcpturliyni lius lialliatius Derby, Cornel! Univ., Sci. liuli., vol. 1, No. 

2, p. 35, pi. 5, figs. 1, 2. 5, S, 12, 14, 16, 18; pi. 8, fig. 3. 
1894. Strrptorliyiulius liaUianus Derby, Derby, Jour. CJeol., vol. 2, p. 492. 
19fi3. Stnl>toiliyri(hus /lallitinus Derby, Kat/er, Grundzuge de Geologie des 
Unteren Amazonas Gebietes (de.s Staates Para in Brasilien), p. 172, pi. 6, 

fig. 6a-l; (= Geologia do Estado do Para, 1933, p. 153, pi. 6, fig. 6.) 



28 BuiiETiN 149 90 



1938. Strrptorhynchus halliiuiiis Derby, Diiarte, Serv. Geol. Min. (Brazil), 
Bol. S4, p. 19, F'l- 5, figs. 3. 4; pi. 6, tig. 1. 

The material upon which the diagnosis of this species is based 
consists of the posterior portions of four dorsal valves and one com- 
plete and one nearly complete ventral valve. The diagnosis is as fol- 
lows: hinge line is about two-thirds as long as the shell is wide; ante- 
rior edge of the shell has radial plications bearing costae which num- 
ber from 10 to 12 per 5 mm. at that point. The plications do not ex- 
tend far posteriorly. The muscle scar of the ventral interior is bor- 
dered by an irregular, sometimes faint callous just anterior to which 
the internal surface of the valve is irregularly pitted. The muscle 
scars are not well separated, but there appears to be a faint trace of 
a narrow, medial scar for the attachment of the adductors. The teeth 
are strong, straight, and divergent. They are supported by a dental 
callus which becomes obsolescent before it reaches the beak. The 
cardinal process is a long, bifid structure with a deep groove running 
down the exterior face from the sinus between the lobes to the beak. 
Each lobe is again grooved at the tip, sometimes by more than one 
groove. The muscle scars of the dorsal valve are partially surrounded 
by the anterior extensions of the crural plates as a callus which term- 
inates somewhat posterior to the anterior edge of the muscle scars. 
They are divided by a low median ridge leaving each scar as an ovate 
impression without division into anterior and posterior sets. 

Dimensions. — Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. Mus. Cat. No. 

Length (mm.) Width (mm.) Depth (mm.) 
v.v. 25260 26 27 11 

Comparison. — The dorsal valves of this form look much like 
those of Derhyia correanus (Derby). However, they can be distin- 
guished since each lobe of the cardinal process of Streptorhynchus 
haUianus is grooved only at the tip, the grooves not extending as far 
toward the beak as in D. correonus. Sometimes there is more than 
one groove at the end of each lobe in S. halliamis. There is a low, 
prominent medial ridge dividing the dorsal muscle scars of S. Jtalli- 
anus. This ridge is weak or absent in D. correanus. The muscle scars 
of S". hallianus are much better impressed than those of D. correanus. 

As far as can be determined, D. correanus never has its anterior 



91 Hk\ziii\n Pennsyi.vamw Bk AfHidi'ODs: Dkksskk 29 



iiKiruin tluown iiilo plications. I his may hr a useful character in 
clistingtiisiiing hctween the exteriors ol the two forms. The diflFer- 
eiices between the ventral valves of the two species are obvious. The 
ventral \alves ot I), correoniis ha\e a \entral medial septimi; those 
of S. haUiunus do not. 

Stoyanow (1926) reports this species from the upper portion 

of the Pennsylvanian column of the Galiuro Mts. of Arizona; this 

mav be either Middle or Upper Pennsylvanian. He also reports that 

Pschernyscheu had identified the species from the "Cora" limestone 

( Upper Pennsylvanian) of the Urals. 

\ umber of Specimens Studied. — Six specimens were studied. 
I hey consisted of 4 incomplete dorsal valves ( the posterior por- 
tions); one complete \entral valve; and one incomplete ventral valve 
(the posterior portion). 

Genus DEHHVI V Waagen, 1884 

Genolectotype. — Derbyia regularis Waagen, Hall and Clarke, 
Paleontology of New York, vol. 8, Pt. 1, 1892, p. 262. Upper Pro- 
ductus limestone (Permian) of India. 

Waagen (1884, pp. 591-594) defined the genus Derbyia as in- 
cluding those forms with the following characteristics: the external 
appearance is the same as that of the genus Streptorhynchus . In the 
dorsal valve there is an extremely large and massive, bifid cardinal 
process. I he crural plates partially surround the muscular area. The 
impressions are always large and deep but not separated from each 
other by a median septum. In the ventral valve the strong median 
septum extends from the apex of the beak about halfway to the an- 
terior margin. Ihe hinge teeth are supported inside the area by 
prominent ridges which extend to the apex where they unite with 
the median septum. This group is known as the Septati. The hinge 
teeth may be supported inside the area by dental plates which unite 
with the posterior edge of the median septum throughout their 
length, "forming a little trigonal chamber under the vaulted pseudo- 
deltidium." This group is known as the Camerati. 

Thus, Waagen divided Derbyia mto two groups, the Camerati 
and the Septati. The Camerati are those with the "little trigonal 
chamber" formed by the union of the dental lamellae with the me- 
dian septum throughout their length, thus producing a spondylium. 



30 Bm.LETiN 149 92 



The Septati are those in which the dental lamellae have been reduced 
to mere columns confluent with the teeth and joining the median 
septum only at the apex of the ventral valve. 

Since the type species of Derbyia, Derhyia regularis Waagen, is 
a member of the Septati, Girty (1908, p. 190) has split the group 
Camerati from the genus Derbyia and made it synonomous with the 
genus Orthotetes. The early descriptions of Orthotetes by Fischer de 
Waldheim (1820, 1837, 1850) are indistinct, and it seems safe to 
assume that he had no clear idea of its structure. Girty believed that 
what Fischer de Waldheim was calling a dorsal valve with septa was 
actually a ventral valve. Waagen (1884, pp. 592, 607) in proposing 
the genus Derhyia, and in his analysis of Orthotetes, agreed with 
Fischer de Waldheim's interpretation of the forms, i.e., septa are 
present in the dorsal valve and none are present in the ventral valve. 
Girty's case appears best founded for the following reason: in Fischer 
de Waldheim's 1850 paper he figured a species closely related to the 
type species which clearly shows the presence of septa in the ventral 
valve. Therefore, Girty's definition of Orthotetes as being synono- 
mous with the Camerati of Waagen's Derbyia seems best. This re- 
stricts the genus Derbyia to the Septati of Waagen. Thus, the genus 
Orthotetes possesses a small spondylium, whereas the genus Derbyia 
possesses obsolete dental lamellae joined with the median septum 
only at the apex of the beak. 

The Tapajos specimens agree essentially with Waagen's origmal 
description of Derbyia as modified by Girty. However, the Tapajos 
material does differ in that the dorsal musculature of D. correanus is 
often divided by a faint median ridge, and it is not deeply impressed. 

I)<'rl)yia corn'iiinis (Derby) PI. 1. fis- 12; PI. 2, figs. 1-6 

1874. Styi'ptnrhytK hus rormmus Derhy, Cornell Univ., Sci., Bull., vol. 1, No. 

2, pp. 32-35, pi. 6, fig. 11; pi. 7, figs.' 1-4, 8, 10-14, 17. 
1894. Strfftorliynchus forrranus Derliy, Derby, Jour. Geol., vol. 2, p. 492. 
1938. Oriltntrtis (nrnanus (Derby), Duarte, Serv. Geol. e Min. (Brazil), Bel. 

84, p. 16, pi. 4. fig. 5. 

No specimens complete enough to permit an adequate descrip- 
tion of the exterior form of this species are available. However, this 
is not an insurmountable obstacle in identification, for as Dunbar 
and Condra (19.32, p. 77) have pointed out, there is an unusual 
amouiir of indixidual \ariation in the shape of the Upper Carboni- 



93 |}r\/iii\\ Fennsyi.vam \\ Hk vtiiKn-oD.s: Dkismr 31 



terous l^tih\ia.s. C'onci. i niiig the shape ot the I apaji'js material, only 
the k)ll()\\iiig can he said; the ventral heak \ aries from being high 
ajul chstorted to only about half as high as the hinge Hne is wide and 
iindistorted; the hinge line is about one-half to two-thirds the width 
ol the shell; the dorsal valves are generally (|uite regularly convex. 

I he oniaimiit consists of radiating costae interrupted at regular 
mter\als hy obscure to promment growth lines. When these growth 
lines are abundant and prominent, they give the shell a crenulated 
appearance, ihe costae multiply largely b\- intercalation, and they 
are a little narrower than the flat-bottomed spaces between them. 

1 he Ulterior of the ventral valve has two strong, diverging 
teeth, each of which is continued along the inside edge of the del- 
thyrium as a strong callus to unite with the median septum just 
above the apex of the beak. This septum continues anteriorly for 
about one-third the length of the valve. 

The internal face of the deltidium bears a weak median callus 
which fits into the groove between the lobes of the bifid cardinal pro- 
cess of the dorsal valve when the two valves are articulated. On well- 
preserved specimens two small depressions can be seen on either side 
<jf this callus at the apex of the deltidium where the teeth join the 
median septum. 1 hese depressions are undoubtedly for the reception 
of the ends of the lobes of the cardinal process. 

1 he muscle scars of the ventral valve are too obscure to de- 
scribe. 

In the dorsal \alve the oval muscle scars lie directly under the 
cardinal process and between the anterior extensions of the crural 
plates. In some specimens they are divided by a faint median ridge. 
1 here is no division into anterior and posterior pairs. 

1 he cardinal process is a long, bifid structure which bends pos- 
teriorly to various degrees depending upon the angle of the area of 
the corresponding ventral valve. The exterior of each lobe of the 
bifid cardinal process has a groove running from its tip almost to the 
beak of the valve. There is also another groove extending from the 
c'eft between the two lobes to the beak of the valve. Ihese grooves 
probably served for the attachment of the diductor muscles. On the 
interior of the cardinal process, just below the medan cleft between 
the two lobes, is a slight callus which sometimes extends complete!}' 
to the apex of the beak. Laterally the cardinal process gives rise to a 



32 Bulletin- 149 94 



pair of anteriorly diverging crural plates which partially surround 
the posterior portions of the muscle scars. Well-defined, deep sockets 
are located between the posterior portions of the crural plates and 
the hinge Ime. 

In his description of the species Derby ( 1874, p. 33 ) stated that 
the "strongly developed dental plates" are united with the median 
septum "zvithin the apex of the beak," forming a "small conical cav- 
ity .. . ivithin the beak." None of the Orthotetinae here studied have 
any suggestion of a spondyllum. In view of this, Derby has been 
interpreted as referring to the tiny depression formed where the 
ventral ends of the dental calluses join the posterior end of the me- 
dian septum, rhis depression is extremely small, and it could not be 
construed as a spondyllum. Furthermore, Derby's illustrations of his 
species do not show a spondyllum. 

Diagnosis. — This species is characterized by the following: the 
presence of a single groove extending down each lobe of the bifid car- 
dinal process almost to the beak; the poor definition and light im- 
pression of the muscle scars; the presence, in some specimens, of a 
faint median ridge dividing the muscle scar into equal, lateral 
halves; the joining of the ventral median septum to the obsolescent 
dental lamellae just above the apex of the beak, and not :cithin the 
apex of the beak. 

Approximate (restored) Dimensions. — 

Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. Mus. Cat. No. 

Length (mm.) Width (mm.) Depth (mm.) 

25261 50 55 17 

;l.v. 25261 50 58 17 

v.v. 25261 20 25 7 

v.v. 25261 28 30 4 

Comparison. — See discussion under the heading ot (U>)npiirison 
in the discussion of Streptorhynchus halliatius. 

Number of Specitnens Studied. — Twenty-one specimens of 
mostly dissociated, incomplete dorsal and ventral ^'alves were stud- 
ied. 



95 Brazilian Pennsyi.vani w Hr vciiioi-ons: Drksskr 33 



Genus TAr.V.MU'l A Dresser, n. Ren. 

Type species. — Streptorhynchus tapajotensis I)cii)\ , Conicll 
Univ., Sci. Bull., vol. 1, No. 2, 1874, p. .17, pi. 5, figs. 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10; 
pi. 8, fig. 9. 

The shells of this new genus are moderately to weaki}- resupi- 
nate. The hinge line is long. The cardinal area is low and the beak is 
not cemented. The ornament consists of radially arranged costae as 
in Derbyia and Streptorhynchus . 

The dental lamellae are reduced to mere calluses bordering the 
mterior edges of the delthynum. I he median septum is likewise re- 
duced to a small plate less than 1 mm. high and 5 mm. long in large 
specimens. 

In the dorsal valve the free edges of the crural plates are re- 
curved posteriorly to such an extent that their proximal portions are 
actually coalesced with the ventrolateral edges of the chilidium 
forming two tubes, one on each side, whose long axes project laterally 
and somewhat anteriorly. The distal portions of the crural plates 
continue nearly parallel with the hinge line, but they are not recurved 
as much as the proximal portions. They bound spoon-shaped sockets 
w Inch are the lateral continuations of the tubes formed by the prox- 
imal portions of the crural plates. They do not extend anteriorly 
around the muscle scars. The cardinal process is a short, bifid struc- 
ture with the two widely separated lobes which appear to rise inde- 
pendently from the medial portions of their respective crural plates. 

Discussion. — The dorsal cardinaha bear a strong resemblance to 
those of Derbyoides ( Dunbar and Condra, 1932, p. 114, pi. 14, figs. 
1-4). However, the crural plates of Tapajotia are more recurved pos- 
teriorly than those of Derbyoides. Also they more closely parallel 
the hinge line than those of Derbyoides, and the lobes of the cardinal 
process are much more widely separated than in Derbyoides. The 
ventral valves of the two genera are very different. Dunbar and Con- 
dra state that Derbyoides resembles Derbyia except in the structure 
of the dorsal cardinalia. This means that Derbyoides must possess a 
strong median septum. In Tapajotia the median septum is greatly 
reduced. 

It is evident that Tapajotia is closely related to Derbyoides. It 
may have evolved from Derbyoides by a reduction of the median 
septum and the dental lamellae and an accentuation and refinement 



34 Bulletin 1+9 96 



of the features of the dorsal cardinalia, as outhned above. Whether 
or not it evoked directly from Derbyoides is obscure. It may have, 
but in any case, it is a step beyond Derbyoides in evolution along 
the Derbyia-Orthotetes branch of the Orthotetinae subfamily tree, 
as outlined by Dunbar and Condra ( 1932, p. 73). 

The Tapajos species of thks genus has been assigned to two 
separate genera by previous workers. It was identified as Strepto- 
rhynchus by Derby (1874, p. 40) when he originally described the 
fauna, although he suggested that the nature of the dorsal cardinalia 
might eventually lead to the removal of the Amazon species from 
Streptorliynchus. This, I believe, showed remarkable foresight on 
Derby's part for his time. The other worker, Katzer (1903, p. 153), 
assigned his material to the genus Orthotetes apparently quite un- 
critically. 

Tapajotia tajiajotfiisis (Derby) PI. 3, figs. 1-6; PI. 4, figs. 8,9,11 

1874. Slrrptorliyin hits tdpajittciisis Derhv, Cornell Univ., Sci. Bull., vol.. No. 

2, p. 3 7, pi. 5, figs. 3, 6, 7, 9, 10; pi. 8, fig. 9. 
1894. Strcptorhynclius tapajoUnsis Derby, Derby, Jour. Geo]., vol. 2, p. 492. 
1903. Orthotrtcs tapajotrnsis (Derby), Katzer, Grundzuge de Geologle des 

Unteren Amazonas Gebietes (des Staates Para in Brasilien) (^ Geologia 

do Estado do Para, 1933, p. 153, pi. 6, fig. 5.) 
1938. (non) Dcrbya lapajotrnsis (Derbv), Diiarte, Serv. Geol. Min. (Brazil), 

Bol. 84, p. 17, pi. 4, figs. 2-4. 

This species is characterized as follows: the poor impression of 
the muscle scars in both valves; its semicircular shape with the 
widest portion of the shell being anterior to the transverse mid-line 
of the shell; the long, relatively narrow palintropes of both valves; 
the strongly convex deltidium and chilidium; the details of the dor- 
sal cardinalia; the lack of a median septum dividing the musculature 
in the dorsal valve. 

Exterior. — The shell is semicircular in outline, and varies from 
moderately to mildly resupinate. The long hinge line is a little less 
than the greatest width of the shell which is just anterior to its 
transverse mid-line. 

The ventral valve is slightly to moderately concave. The palin- 
trope is long and relatively narrow, being about seven or eight times 
as long as it is high. The delthyrium is about as high as wide, and is 
covered by a thick deltidium which is convex toward the exterior 
(posteriorly). The usually moderately distorted beak is, as a rule. 



97 Hi<\/iii\\ I'hnnsm.v AM \ V Mk \e hiopods: Dresser 35 



about twice as high as arc the hitcral portions ot the jiahntrojic im- 
mediately adjacent to the deltidium. 

The dorsal valve is regularly and moderately convex. Its palin- 
trope IS extremely narrow and elongated. The notothyrium, which is 
at least six times as wide as it is high, is tilled by a solid thickened 
chilidiimi which is strongly convex toward the exterior (posterior), 
its mesial portion extending considerably posterior to the apex of the 
inconspicious beak. 

The ornament consists of strong, radiating costae which increase 
in number by intercalation. "Phis intercalation produces an alternate 
ornament which usually has two or three weaker costae between the 
stronger ones. Sometimes a few moderate to weak growth lines are 
developed near the anterior margin of the shell. 

Interior. — The strong, short, widely diverging teeth of the ven- 
tral valve are supported by the greatly reduced dental plates which 
are represented by mere thickenings or calluses bordering the edges 
of the deltidium. These dental calluses do not reach the apex of the 
beak, becoming obsolete at one-half to two-thirds the distance. They 
are relatively larger in immature specimens, here sometimes extending 
almost to the beak. A greatly reduced median septum arises from the 
floor of the valve anterior to the beak. It is usually from 3 to 4 mm. 
long and 1 mm. or less in height on mature specimens. 

The anterior portions of the muscle scars are lightly impressed, 
and their form is extremely difficult to discern. The posterior por- 
tions of the adductors are well impressed on some specimens. They 
lie on either side of the median septum and arise about the same lati- 
tude as does the median septum. They are well impressed anteriorly 
for about two-thirds the length of the median septum. Anterior to 
this they are very poorly impressed, and their outline has been seen 
on only one specimen. Here, the lateral margin of each scar, on either 
side of the median septum, curves anteromesially to join the lateral 
margin of the other scar about 2 mm. in front of the end of the me- 
dian septum. Thus, the overall shape of the adductors is that of a 
lozenge with a pointed anterior end, a rounded posterior end, and 
divided by a septum in its posteromesial portion. \\\t shape and dis- 
tribution of the diductors cannot be determined. 

In the dorsal valve the cardinalia are quite complex ( fig. 3 ). The 
crural plates are nearly parallel with the hinge line. Their internal 



36 



Bulletin 149 



98 



or anterior surfaces join mesially under the bifid cardinal process to 
form an arc of about 60 degrees, which is concave toward the ante- 
rior. Ihe proximal one-third of the crural plate has its free margin 
recurved posteriorly to such an extreme degree that it coalesces with 
the ventro-lateral margin of the chilidium, thus forming a tube, the 
long axis of which extends laterally and a little anteriorly. The dis- 
tal portion of the crural plate does not have its free margin as re- 
curved as the proximal portion, and it forms the internal face of a 
spoon-shaped socket. The extreme distal end of the crural plate is 
slightly elevated into a sharp ridge, which probably served for at- 
tachment of the brachia. 




is> 



Fig. 3. Dorsal cardinalia of Tapajotia taptijotrnsis (Derby). A. Interior view 
B. Posterior view, c/i, chilidium, </>, cardinal process, dc, distal portion of the 
crural plates, niii, median node, rns, median septum, pc, proximal portion of 
the crural plate, t, tube formed by the coalescing proximal portion of the crural 
plate and the lateral edge of the chilidium. Drawing by Elizabeth A. Dalve. 

The cardinal process is a bifid structure lying between the crural 
plates with its base apparently continuous with them. The lobes of 
the bifid cardinal process are widely separated, short, strong struc- 
tures. Between them on the surface of the arc formed by the anterior 
surfaces of the crural plates is a small, antero-ventrally projecting 
node. Ihe postero-ventral side of this node is continuous with a plate 
standing halfway between the two lobes of the cardinal process and 
joining posteriorly with the internal surface of the chilidium. Thus, 
there is a median septum between the two lobes of the cardinal pro- 



99 Hka/iiiw Pennsyi.vanian Braciiioi'ods: Dresser 37 



cess. L iitdi tun.itcl\ oil most spccunciis ihis pialc has hcLii partially 
destroyed and all that remains is a low ridge where the septum once 
stooil. I he lieaN y chiluiium overarches the posterior faces of the 
lohes ot the cardinal process, its \ eiitKi-lareial margins on either 
side coalescing wuli the proximal jiortions ot the crural plates to 
form the tuhes referred to earlier. The posterior faces of the lohes of 
the cardinal process under the overarchmg chilidium are each 
grooved hy a gutter which is wider near the end of the cardinal pro- 
cess than It IS pro.ximally. It probably served toi the attachment of 
the diductor muscles. 

I he adductor muscle scars are poorK' impressed, their shape and 
distribution being indeterminable. 

Dimensions. — Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. IV'Ius. Cat. No. 

Length ( mm. ) Width ( lum. ) Depth ( mm. ) 

25262 .SI 36 (rest.) 

25262 20 22 2.5 

v.v. 25262 26 32 — 

d.v. 25262 10 14 1 

Co?7iparison .—Du'dne ( 1938, p. 17, pi. 4, figs. 2-4) described and 
figured a form which he called Derbyia tapajotensis. His form appears 
to be a Derbyia, but it is not this species. The cardinalia of his form 
are entirely different, and a strong median septum is present in his 
form which is not found in D. tapajotensis. Duarte's species is resup - 
nate, and it is apparently upon this feature that he based his assign- 
ment of It to D. tapajotensis. However, the exterior form of any ot the 
Orthotetinae is a most unreliable character to use for either generic 
or specific assignment, and since the interiors of the two forms differ 
so radically, it seems unwise to assign Duarte's material to this 
species. 

Davidson (1857, p. 124, pi. 26, figs. 5,6) described and figured 
specimens from the Carboniferous of the British Isles which are of 
the same genus as this species. He grouped these specimens, with 
many others which are obviously not species ot this genus, under the 
name Streptorhynchus crenistria Phillips. These specimens are 
specificall}- distinct from Tapajotia tapajotensis because they possess 
a much deeper impression of the muscle scars in both \ al\es. Da\id- 



38 Hui.i.htin 149 100 



son stated (ibid., p. 126) that he had examined specimens of Hall's 
Orthis keokuk and O. rohusta and found that they could not be 
specifically distinguished from British forms of S. crenistria. An ex- 
amination of Hall's plates [1858, pi. 19, fig. 5 (Orthis keokuk), pi. 
28, fig. 5 (Orthis robust a Jl sheds no light upon the validity of this 
concept. If what he said is valid, and if they are the same as those 
forms of S. crenistria belongmg to the genus Tapajotia, then 0. keo- 
kuk, 0. robusta, and S. crenistria will all be a single species under 
the genus Tapajotia but distinct from T. tapajotensis. 

Stoyanow ( 1926) reported Derbyia tapajotensis from the upper 
portion of the Pennsylvanian section in the Galiuro Mts. of Arizona 
(Middle or Upper Pennsylvanian?). He also cited Tschernyschew's 
identification of Derby's species from the Schzvagerina limestone 
(Upper Pennsylvanian) of the Urals. 

Number of Specimens Studied. — About 200 specimens consisting 
mainly of partially broken, dissociated dorsal and ventral valves were 
studied. 

Order TKI.OTIiEM ATA Beecher. 1891 

Superfamily SPIKIFKKAt'EA Waagen, 1883 

P^amily ATHVKIJ)AE Phillips, 1841 

Subfamily ATHYKIJVAE Waagen, 1883 

Genus ('F.EIOTHYKlI)IiVA Buckman, 190(; 

Type species. — Athyris royssii Davidson, British Fossil Brachio- 
poda, vol. 2, part 5, 1857, p. 84, pi .18 figs. 1-11. The Carboniferous 
limestone (Mississippian) of Great Britain. 

1841. (NoTi) Clriot/iyris Phillips, Paleozoic Fossils of Cornwall and Devon, 

p. 55. 

1850. CI riot hy lis Phillips, King, Paleontographical Soc. (The Permian Fossils 

of England) p. 137, pi. 10, figs. 1-10. 
1906. Clriot/iyriJiria Buckman, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, vol. 18, pp. 

323-24. 

In proposing this genus Buckman merely named it and des- 
ignated the type species. He gave no description and neither figured 
nor listed any supplementary species. He evidently intended King's 
misinterpretation of CJeiothyris Phillips to stand as a generic de- 
scription for Cleiothyridina. Weller (1914, p. 472) stated that this 
genus differed from Athyris in the form of its surface markings; 
Cleiothyridina ha\ing the concentric lamellae divided into flat spines 



Idl Hkaziiiw 1'i:n\syi.v.\\i \s I^k \i hidimids: Dki^skk 39 



l\\ ilcip incisions; Atliyris not liavinj; these spines. More recent 
iiuthors, such as Dunbar anti Conilra ( 1932, p. 359), and Cooper 
( m Shinu 1 ami Shiock, 1944, p. 3.v> ), apparently can find little more 
than this oiiuinalK tkfined difference between the two genera. The 
interior stnictmcs ol the two are very similar, and it seems that a 
restiid\' shduKI be undertaken to determine whether or not they 
actually merit distinct generic evaluation. 

As abstracted from Dunbar and Concha ( 19.32, p. .3.59), the 
internal characters of this genus are as follows: the hinge teeth have 
short but stout dental lamellae; the dorsal beak has a short hinge 
plate perforated by a roimd foramen just inside the beak; this plate 
IS bordered bv deep dental sockets, and its front gives rise to the 
crural plates which arch forward and ventrally; the primary lamel- 
lae of the spiralia are recurved abruptly at their origin from the tips 
of the crural plates. They run dorso-antenorly and then curve ven- 
trally to give rise to a pair of spiral cones whose apices are directed 
laterally; the jugum is a complex structure consisting of two limbs 
rising ventralh' to join a saddle-shaped structure, from which a pro- 
cess extends backward almost to the tips of the crural plates and 
then subdivides into two lamellae which recurve dorsally, closely 
parallel to the bases of the primary lamellae. 

1 he I apajos material appears to agree fully with the North 
American representations of the genius as diagnosed above, except 
that the jugum is not exhibited, and, therefore, one cannot be sure 
that it has the same structure as that described above. 

The Amazonian specimens have been attributed by previous 
authors to two separate genera and three North American and Eu- 
ropean species. These assignments now seem highly questionable. 
The Tapajos fauna yields what appears to be two new species, one of 
which has apparently never before been recorded in South American 
literature. In all probability the species ranges for Cleiothyridina 
are geographicalK far more circumscribed than older writers sup- 
posed. 



Cleioth.^ridiiia <-!ist»'ri Dresser, n. sp. PI. 4, figs. 1-7. 10 

1874. Athyris iuhlumcllosa Hall, Derbv, Cornell Univ., Sci. Hull. vol. 1, No. 

2, pp. 10-12, pi. 2, figs. 9-12, pi. 3, figs. 15, 21,29; pi. 6, fig. 16; pi. 9, figs. 

5. 6. 
1894. .Ilhyris sublamrllosa Hall, Derby, Jour. (Jeol., vol. 2, p. 419. 



40 Bulletin 149 102 



1903. Clciothyris royssii Leveille, Katzer, Grundzuge de Geologic des Unteren 

Amazonas Gebietes (des Staates Para in Brasilien), p. 164, pi. 5, fig. Sa-c; 

(= Geologia do Estado do Para, 1933, p. 154, pi. 5, fig. 5.) 
1933. Clrjothyridina nrhicularis (McChesnev), Reed, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 

vol. 11, (ser.) 10, p. 534. 
1938. Clriotliyr'uiina orbicularis (McChesnev), Duarte, Serv. Geol. Min. 

(Brazil), Bol. S4, p. 32, pi. 5, figs. 13-16; pi. 6, figs. 9-11. 

rhis species is characterized as follows: the valves are generally 
about equally convex; some specimens have a broad, anteriorly de- 
veloped, ventral, mesial sinus and a corresponding dorsal fold; the 
anterior margin of some specimens is thrown into concentric folds or 
plications paralleling the lamellae; the dental lamellae reach the 
floor of the ventral valve; the hinge plate of the dorsal valve is per- 
forated by a large foramen; the fringe of each lamella has about 25 
spines per mm., which are often cemented together laterally giving 
the aspect of larger flattened spines. These spines do not make an 
angle of over 20 degrees with the surface of the shell. 

Exterior. — The shell is circular to transversely oval in outline. 
The valves are biconvex, the relative degree of inflation of the two 
valves varying from specimen to specimen. In some specimens the 
anterior commissure line is broadly umplicate, i.e., a broad, anteriorly 
restricted median sinus is developed in the ventral valve along with 
a corresponding fold in the dorsal valve. .Also, many specimens de- 
velop concentric folds, largely restricted to the anterior region, and 
paralleling the lamellae. These folds are usually obscure on the ex- 
terior, being represented by the development of a more prominent 
lamella which has a higher anterior border than the others. Ihis pro- 
duces the overall external aspect of a grouping of the weaker lamellae 
between these less common stronger ones, giving an alternate effect 
to the rugosity. The folds are conspicuous and prominent on the in- 
side of the valve. 

The ventral beak is slightly incurved over the wide delthynal 
area which surrounds the dorsal beak when the two are articulated, 
the underside of the ventral beak resting on the umbone of the dorsal 
valve. Ihe large foramen of the ventral valve occupies the apex of 
the beak, the umbone ot the dorsal valve bounding its underside 
which is continuous with the open delthyrium of the \'entral valve. 

The beak of the dorsal \alve is less incurved than that of the 
ventral valve. In life it filled the open delthyrium of the ventral 
valve. No deltidial or notothyrial plates are evident. 



103 Hrvzii.ian I'iws^ I \ \\i \\ 15k \(. iiioi-ddv : Drisskr 41 



I lie oin.inuiu consists of inihncariiig l;inK-ll;ic which ;iic more 
crowded on rhe sides than middle. Near the middle of the valve the 
lamellae var\ ni trequency from 2 to 3 per mm. luich lamella is 
fringed by many minute spines, some of which are cemented together 
laterally to give rhe aspect of large, flattened spines. The minute 
spines number about 2.S per mm., and though generally flattened 
against the shell surface, they may occasionally make an angle of 
about 20 degrees with it. 

Interior. — The interior of the ventral valve possesses two short, 
stout teeth which are strongly recurved posteromesially. The teeth 
are supported by dental plates which descend almost vertically to the 
floor of the valve and reach somewhat posteriorly into the umbonal 
region. An indistinct thickening runs transversely across the floor of 
the umbonal cavity joining their posteroventral ends. 

Vague muscle scars are found to lie anterior to this thickening. 
Their shape is difficult to discern. In one old and large specimen they 
appear to be si.\ m number, and are of a curious shape and disposi- 
tion. These comprise, postero-centrally, two small, oval impressions 
having their posterior portions divided by a wide ridge, thus giving 
them a somewhat heartlike shape; they are flanked by a pair of cir- 
cular impressions from which they are separated by a definite ridge; 
anterior to these four scars, and vaguely separated from them, are 
two much larger, oval impressions the longer axes of which converge 
anteriorly toward the longitudinal mid-line of the valve. These last 
two scars are coalescent and undelimited from each other for about 
halt their total length; however, they are distinctly delimited ante- 
riorly and laterally by a thin, well-defined callus ridge and by dif- 
ferences in the shell texture. They do not extend anteriorly past the 
transverse mid-line of the valve. 

In the dorsal valve there is no cardinal process, as such. How- 
ever, there is a thickening in the middle of the hinge plate which may 
have served this function. The foramen of the hinge plate is situated 
at the beak, and it is about as long antero-posteriorly as the hinge 
plate is wide in the same direction. A projection of the thickened 
mesial portion of the hinge plate extends finger-like into the foramen, 
giving the foramen a heart shape with the apex of the heart pointing 
toward the beak. Laterally the hinge plate merges with the crural 
plates which bound the inner margins of the deep dental sockets. 



42 Bulletin 149 104 



Where the hinge plate and the crural plates unite, they give rise to 
crural processes which extend ventrally to give rise to the primary 
lamellae of the spiralia. Postero-laterally from each of the crural pro- 
cesses a trough is developed on the much widened upper (ventral) 
edge of the crural plate. This trough runs parallel with the crural 
process, and it is bounded on its postero-lateral side by the postero- 
lateral portion of the crural plate which is projected above the rest 
of the widened upper surface of the crural plate into a ridge recurv- 
ing slightly over the dental socket to the rear. 

Originating under the hinge plate on the floor of the valve, just 
anterior to the beak, is a low, sharp, median ridge. This ridge extends 
anteriorly about one-third the length of the valve, dividing the mus- 
cular impressions into two equal, lightly impressed ovate scars, 
which extend anteriorly about the same amount. 

Dimensions. — Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. Mus. Cat. No. 

n.) Depth (mm.) 

22 13 holotype 

.... 14 
.... 9 
.... 5 
.... 8 

.... 11 

.... 12 
.... 9 

.... 10 





Length (mm.) 


Width ( 


25263 


20 . . . 


. . 22 


25264 


20 . . . 


. . 22 


25264 


17 . . . 


. . 20 


25264 


8 . . . 


. . 8 


25264 


12 . . . 


. . U 


25264 


16 . . . 


. . 20 


25264 


18 . . . 


. . 22 


25264 


15 . . . 


. . 16 


25264 


13 . . . 


. . 14 



Comparison. — For comparison with the other species with which 
this species has in the past been identified, see the comparison chart 
below. 

Types. — Holotype, University of Cincinnati Geological Mu- 
seum, Cat. No. 25263; hypodigm: 195 paratypes. University of Cin- 
cinnati Geological Museum, Cat. No. 25264. 

('leiotlijridina derltyi Dresser, n. sp. PI. 5, figs. 1-6 

This species is characterized as follows: the outline is longi- 
tudinally ovate; the ventral beak is erect, not resting on the umbone 
of the dorsal valve; small size; relatively narrow, ventral delthyrium; 



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44 Bulletin 149 106 



the spines sometimes stand at an angle in excess of 30 degrees to the 
surface of the shell. 

Exterior. — The shell is small and longitudinally oval in out- 
hne. It is biconvex, either valve sometmies being the more convex. 

The ventral beak is erect, projecting considerablv posterior to 
the huige line and the dorsal beak. The dorsal beak projects into the 
open, relatively narrow delthyrium of the ventral valve, but the beak 
of the ventral valve does not rest on the umbone of the dorsal valve. 
Also, the umbone of the dorsal valve does not serve to delimit the 
underside of the pedicle opening which is continuous with the open 
delthyrium of the ventral valve. 

The ornament consists of concentric lamellae, the anterior edges 
of which are broken up into many minute spines. These spines num- 
ber about 30 per mm., and they are often cemented together later- 
ally to produce the aspect of larger, flattened spines. For this reason 
they are very difficult to count. They are usually flattened against 
the surface of the shell, but they may upon occasion make an angle 
in excess of 30 degrees with it. 

Interior. — The strong, short teeth are recurved posteromesially 
toward the longitudinal mid-line of the valve. They are supported by 
nearly vertical dental lamellae which reach somewhat posteriorly 
into the umbonal region. There is no apparent thickening running 
transversely between their posterior ends, across the floor of the 
umbonal cavity, as in Cleiothyridina casteri. 

The muscle scars are generally poorly defined. However, one old 
and large specimen shows them generally to resemble those of C. 
casteri in number and distribution. They consist of three pairs of im- 
pressions lying anterior to the dental lamellae. The posteromesial 
pair is not separated by a median ridge as in C. casteri. It appears as 
a single scar. It is interpreted to be two undifferentiated scars from 
analogy with the two posteromesial oval scars of C. casteri. Lateral 
to this undifferentiated scar lie a pair of kidney-shaped impressions 
corresponding to the lateral, circular impressions of C. casteri. They 
are separated from the undifferentiated posteromesial scar by a def- 
inite callus ridge. Anterior to these four posterior scars lies a large, 
subrounded scar which is separated mesially only at its anterior bor- 
der. Again, by analogy with C. casteri, this scar is made up of two, 
ovate, coalescent and undelimited scars. This scar is, however, very 



Hi7 Hkaziiiw Pennsvi.vam \\ Br ahiiopoiks: Dkisskr 45 



cItHiiitely si'i^aratcd Irom ilu iwo posterolateral kidney-sliapccl scars 
l)\ a thickciK'cl niliic ol callus material. 

The dorsal interior is the same as that of C. casteri, except that 
ilu nKclian ndiie is not so well dc\"elopcd as m C casteri. 

Dimensions. — Univ. of Cincinnati (leol. Miis. Cat. No. 

Length (mm.) Width (mm.) Dipth (mm). 

25265 3 2.5 1.5 holotype 

v.v. 25266 5 4 1.5 

v.v. 25266 9 6 3.5 

Comparison. — This species differs from C. casteri in the follow- 
mg characters: it has a longitudinally ovate outline, whereas that of 
C. casteri is circidar or transversely ovate; it has a relatively more 
narrow ventral delthyrium than C. casteri; its ventral heak is erect 
and does not rest on the umhone of the dorsal valve; the spines are 
more numerous per mm., and they stand at a higher angle to the sur- 
lace ot the shell than in C casteri; there is no apparent callous ridge 
running across the floor ot the umhonal cavity hetween the posterior 
ends ot the dental lamellae; the muscle scars have a slightly different 
shape. 

Types. — Holotype, University of Cincinnati Geological Mu- 
seum, Cat. No. 25265. Thirteen paratj^pes, University of Cincinnati 
Geological Museum, Cat. No. 25266. 

Family SPIKIFKHIDAK King, 1846 

Subfamily AMHOCOKLIIXAE George, 1931 

Genus (HrHITHVHIS George, 1931 

Type species. — Spirifer iirei Fleming, 1828, A History of British 
Animals, p. 376 (for the specimen figured hy Ure, 1793, p. 313 [)1. 14, 
fig. 12). The Avonian ( Mississippian ) ot Strathhaxen, Lanarkshire, 
Great Britain. 

Original Description (George, 1931, p. 42). — Hmge line rela- 
tively primitive, considerably less than the width of the shell. \'entral 
umbo markedly incurved. Surface ornament ( .' smooth to) spinose. 
Cardinal process sessile, elevated, triangular, tuberculate. Dorsal 
musculature normally situated, muscle scars elongate. 



+6 Bulletin 149 lOS 



Discussion. — It would seem that the nature of the cardinal 
process and the dorsal musculature is enough to establish the validity 
of this genus, and that the external form, as defined by George, is 
not diagnostic. The cotidition of the hinge line bemg shorter than 
the width of the shell is not restricted to this genus of the Ambocoe- 
liinae. For instance, Dunbar and Condra (1932, p. 346, pi. 62, figs. 
12-14) have shown upon the basis of internal structure and com- 
parison with the types, that Ambocoelia planoconvexa (Shumard) 
from the Pennsylvanian of Nebraska is an undoubted Ambocoelia, 
and yet, its hinge line is shorter than the width of its shell. 

The lapajos material agrees perfectly with the description of 
this genus, except in a few cases with respect to the width of the 
hinge line relative to the width of the shell. There are a few ventral 
valves of which the hinge line is the widest portion of the shell. How- 
ever, no dorsal valves were found which have the internal characters 
oi Ambocoelia. Perhaps these few ventral valves are a distinct species 
of Crurithyris, but until articulated specimens are found, the dorsal 
valves of which can be studied, the assignment of these valves will 
have to remain a problem. 

Cnirlthyris ^Tiiinilsiris Dresser, n. sp. PL 5, figs. 12-21 

1855. (Non) Spirifer planoconvexa Shumard, Geol. Rep. Missouri, p. 202; — 

Geinitz, 1866, Carbon iind Dyas in Nebraska, p. 42, pi. 3, fig. 10-18. 
1874. Spirifrr (Martinia) planoconvexa Shumard, Derby, Cornell Univ., 

Sci. Bull., vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 19-20, pi. figs. 12, 16, 18; pi. 9, fig. 7. 
1894. Spirifer (Martinia) planoconvexa Shumard, Derby, Jour. Geol., vol. 2. 

p. 491. 
1903. Amhoroclia planoconvexa (Shumard), Katzer, Cirundzuge de Geologic 

des Unteren Amazonas Gebietes (des Staates Para in Brasilien), p. 164; 
(— Geologia do Estado do Para, 1933, p. 154.) 
1914. Ambocoelia planocofivexa (Shumard), Kozlowski, Annales de Paleon- 

tologie; vol. 9, pp. 76-77, pi. 1, fig. 5; pi. 10, figs. 1-14. 
1914. A mhococlia planoconvexa (Shumard), Meyer, Neues Jahrb. f. Min., 

Geol., Paleo., Beil.-Bd. 37, p. 639. 

This species is characterized by the following: subcircular to 
transversely subovate outline; small size; lack of a sinus in either 
valve; the possession oi numerous, thickly set, small spines covering 
both valves. 

Exterior. — 1 he shajK- of the shell varies from subcircular to 
suboval. It is biconvex with the ventral valve having much the 
greater convexity. 1 be beaks of both valves are moderately incurved 
over their respective areas which are relatively narrow, and which 



Ill** Bk\/iii\n FKNNSYt.vwi an 11k \i. h i()I'(ii)> : Or i-ssi-r 47 



lia\c paiiiclfltiilial and |)aran()i()tli\ rial rKljj;es, rcspcctiN cly, borclcT- 
inji tluii fdjies. Pnraclelticlial ridges and paranototliN'rial ridges are 
ternis suggested by Dr. Caster for ridges touiul to border the del- 
tidiiini and ilu' notothyriuni respectix el\ . lii the \entral valve their 
origin IS obscure. In the dorsal \.il\e ihey are formed by the junc- 
iion ol the crural plates \Mth the upturned edges of the pahntrope 
bordernig the notothyriuni. 

1 he shell texture is granular. On unusuallv well-preserved speci- 
mens this granular texture is seen to be related to the many, tiny 
s[)ines scattered over the shell surface, the granules of the granular 
texture representing the spine bases. The spines are small and thickly 
set in obscurely concentric rows. A few growth lines are usually 
present. One of these usually circumscribes the shell about its middle. 
fhe others are located near the margins. Ihey are generally best de- 
veloped on the dorsal valves. 

Interior. — There are no dental plates or septa within the ven- 
tral \ alve. The recur\'ed teeth are supj^orted by a thickening along 
the mternal edge of the delthyrium. 

The mesially situated adductor muscle scars are long, narrow, 
troughlike depressions extending almost the full length of the valve. 
1 hey are divided by a faint median ridge. I he diductor muscle scars 
are generally faintly impressed lateral to these adductor scars. On 
exceptionally well-preserved specimens these are seen to be cre- 
scentic depressions originating near the adductor scars under the 
beak, and reaching their maximum lateral convexity near the middle 
of the v^alve. From here they again approach the longitudinal mid- 
line of the valve, but they die out before they reach it. They extend 
anteriorly for alxnit two-thirds the length of the valve. The ventral 
pedicle muscle scars have their origin in two small holes, one on each 
side, just lateral to the diductor muscle scars under the thickenings 
which support the teeth. 

In the dorsal valve the dental sockets are deep, conspicuous de- 
press ons l\ing under the dorsal pahntrope and bounded on their 
posterior sides by the pahntrope surface. On their anteromedial 
sides they are bounded by the crural plates which give rise to the 
crural processes. The crural processes are elongate, rodlike structures 
diverging slightly as they project anteriorly just above the floor of 
the valve. No jugum is present. The cardinal process lies between the 



48 Bui.i.ETiN 149 110 



crural plates at the mid-line. It is a small, ventrally projecting, sub- 
conical tubercle. 

The muscle scars are vaguely impressed, but they can be deter- 
mined on exceptionally well-preserved specimens. The posterior ad- 
ductor scars arise about the same latitude as do the crural processes, 
and they extend anteriorly about one-third the length of the valve. 
They are divided by a median ridge throughout their length. Lateral 
to these and beginnmg just posteriorly of their anterior ends is an- 
other, even less well-defined, groovelike pair of muscle scars, the 
anterior adductor scars. They extend anteriorly to the transverse 
mid-line of the shell. No dorsal pedicle muscle scars are visible. 

Dimensions. — Univ. of Cmcinnati Geol. Mus. Cat. No. 

Length (mm.) Width (mm.) Depth (mm.) 

25267 3 3 2 hnlotype 

25268 7 7 5 

25268 5 6 4.5 

25268 5 6 4 

25268 4 4 3 

d.v. 25268 6 7.5 2 

d.v. 25268 5 5.5 1 

v.v. 25268 5 5.5 3 

v.v. 25268 7 9 4 

Co-mparison. — Externally this species greatly resembles A'rnbo- 
coelia -piano convexa. However, it can be differentiated from it if well- 
preserved interiors are available. These show a small, triangular, ven- 
trally projecting cardinal process contrasted with the posteriorly pro- 
jecting, bifid cardinal process of Ambocoelia. Also, the muscle scars 
of this species are situated in a normal position, whde those of Am- 
bocoelia are situated in a medial or anterior position. This then is an 
example of a remarkable external homeomorphy between Crurithyris 
granularis and Ambocoelia planoconvexa (Shumard). 

C. granularis is distinguished from other species of the same 
genus by the lack of a medial sinus in either valve; its generally sub- 
circular outline; and the numerous, thickly set, small spines covering 
both valves. 



Ill Bk\zi[I\\ I'hnnsvia \m w M'< \i mkh'oi)-: Dkissir 49 



This spccK's ;ilsi) somt'w liat rcsfinhk's Phnroilotliyris pcrplexa 
(McChesney) in its general shape, i)iir it difFcrs from P. perplexa in 
nor lia\iiig (ioiihle-harrelecl spines, or as strongly developed con- 
centric ornannnr. In addition, P. perplexa is larger and has a thicker 
shell. Furthermore, the angle between the crural plates of tlic dorsal 
valve is greater than in (]. i^ramihris and the crural processes of P. 
perplexa are more flattened m a vertical (dorso-ventral) plane than 
those of C. groHularis. 

Types. — Holotype, University of Cincinnati Geological Mu- 
seum, Car. Xo. 25267. The paratype suite consists of about 660 
specnnens, mostly dissociated dorsal and ventral valves. Ihey are 
deposited in the Inixirsity ol Cincinnati (Geological Museum, Cat. 
No. 25268. 

Subfamily KKTK 11- AKIIXAK Waagen. 1883 

Genus PHI{|(OIM> THYNIS George. 1932 

( = ? S<iiuii)iiihiria Genimellaro, 1889) 

Type species. — Phricodothyris iucerna George, Quart. Jour. 
Geo!. Soc. London, vol. 88, 19.S2, pp. 516-575, pi. ?>?), fig. 2; pi. 34, fig. 
3; pi. 35, figs. 1-5. The Avonian series, ( Mississippian) of Great 
Britain. 

Original Description (George, 1932, pp. 524-525). — 

Brachvthyrid, relatively brephomoiphic, primitive in shell-form. Spiralia 
directed more or less laterally; jugum or jiigal processes apparently absent. Sur- 
face-ornament of biramous iiarbed spines. Shell structure fibrous impunctate. 
Internal plates usually absent, Init progressive, frequently attaining the pri- 
mary and si>ineiiine> the basilary stage, but ne\er the intermediate stage. 

The double-barreled spines are the distinguishing characteristic 
of this genus. Although George does not sa;;- in so many words that 
this genus is replacing Gemmellaro's genus Squa^tnidaria, this is in 
eflPect what it docs, for all reticulariid forms possessing double -bar- 
reled spines were previously assigned to it. Gemmellaro's descrip- 
tion o{ Squamidaria is inadecjuate by modern standards, and, among 
other critical omissions, fails to mention double-barrelled spines. 
The validity of Phricodothyris hinges upon a restudy of Gemmel- 
laro's types to determine if they possess double-barreled spines, but 
since by definition Phricodothyris does possess double-barreled 
spines, the Tapajos material has been tentatively assigned to it. 



50 Bulletin 149 112 



l*hrlco(l<»thjri!< ixrplexa (McChesney) PL 6, figs. 1-4. 6 

1860. ( ?) Spirifer pcrplexa McChesney, Descr. New Paleozoic Fossils, p. 43. 
1874. Spirifer a (Martinia) pcrplexa (McChesnev), Derbv, Cornell Univ., 

Sci. Bull., vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 16-18, pi. 3, figs. 27, 39. 40, 45', 50; pi. 8, fig. 13. 
1894. S/iriferu ( M (ulinui ) pcrplexa (McChesnev), Derbv, Jour. Geol., vol. 

2, p. 491. 
1903. Rcticularia pcrplexa (McChesney), Katzer, Grundzuge de Geologic 

des Unteren Amazonas Gebietes (des Staates Para in Brazilien) ; p. 172, 

pi. 6, fig. lla-b; (= Geologia do Estado do Para, 1933, p. 154, pi. 6. fig. 11). 
1903. Sfjuamularia pcrplexa (McChesnev), Girtv, U. S. Geol. Sur., Prof. 

Paper 16, p. 392, pi. 6, figs. 8-10 . 
1914. Rcticularia lincata Martin var. pcrplexa (McChesney), Kozlowski, 

Annales de Paleontologie vol. 9, pp. 73-76, pi. 1, figs. 3, 4; pi. 10, figs. 19-24; 

(noil) pi. 10, figs. 25-27. 
1914. Rcticularia pcrplexa (McChe^nev), Mever, Neues Jahrb. f. Min., Geol. 

Paleo., Beil.— Bd. 37, p. 640, pi. 14, figs. 43^ b. 

1929. Rcticularia lincata Martin var. pcrplexa (McChesney), Steinmann, 
Cieologie von Peru, p. 48, fig. 44. 

1930. Sfjuamularia pcrplexa (McChesnev), King, Univ. Texas, Bull. 3042, 
p; 119. 

1932. Squaniularia ? pcrplexa (McChesnev), Dunbar and Condra. Nebraska 

Geol. Sur., Bull. 5, ser. 2, pp. 313-316, pi. 62, figs. 5-8. 
193?. Sfjuamularia pcrplexa (McChesney), Duarte, Serv. Geol. Min., 

(Brazil), Boi. 84, pp. 31-32, pi. 5, figs. 10-12. 

This species is characterized as follows: subcircular shape; 
strongly developed growth lines; large double-barreled spines; pos- 
teriorly projecting ventral beak; thickness of the shell; dorso-ventral 
flattening of the crural processess. 

Exterior. — The shell is usually about 1 mm. wider than long, 
lending a subcircular aspect to it. It is biconvex with the ventral 
valve being the more convex. The ventral umbone is high and is 
produced posteriorly further than any other portion of the shell. The 
dorsal umbone is subdued, ending in a beak which projects a little 
past the hinge line. 

The delthyrium of the ventral valve is about as high as it is 
wide. It is about one-fourth to one-third as wide as the shell. The 
notothyrium of the dorsal valve is much less high than the delthy- 
rium of the ventral valves, but it still is about as high as it is wide. 
It is about one-fifth to one-sixth the width of the shell. Paradel- 
tidial and paranotothyrial ridges are present as in Crurithyris granu- 
laris. The ventral area is apsacline (the area is inclined ventro-pos- 
teriorly), and the dorsal area is orthocline (horizontal), the angle be- 
tween them being acute. 

The ornament of both valves consists of imbricating, concentric 
lamellae. Each lamella possesses a single concentric ro\\ of evenly 



113 Hr\/ii.ia\ I'liN n>^ i.\ am \\ Hk \i. iii(iii)i)>; Dki.s.m.k 51 



spaced cl(>ul)lf-l);in clfd spiiifs. W lun l)i(ikrii oH. i1h\ kaxf a tcar- 
(Inip slia|H'cl scar uiili its apix pdiiitinii anteriorly. Between each of 
these scais, and just anterior lo them, is a j;r(>ii|) ol three much 
smaller scars Irom which a set ol smaller s|imes arises. In mega- 
scopic view tlu comhined \ isual effect ot all ol these scars is one of 
an almost weakly reticulate ornament. This is a characteristic ap- 
pearance which can never be confused with any other once it has 
been observed. On well-preserved specimens the large spines are seen 
to stand at an angle of about 45 degrees to the surface of the shell. 
I he smaller spines stand at an angle of about 20 degrees to the sur- 
face. 

The shells are thick and heavy. 1 hose of the 1 apajt'is material 
show a fibrous structure wherever the external layer of the shell has 
been removed. This structure is probably due to the incomplete sili- 
cification of the prismatic calcite below the outer layer of the shell, 
rhis is rlun brought out by the process of etching wherein the acid 
attacks the calcite and leaves the silica behind as a network, look- 
ing not unlike the porous surface of a sponge. 

Inti'rior. — Due to the Hbrous, spongelike nature of the interiors 
of almost all of the shells, the muscle scars are not well shown. In 
those specimens in which they can be vaguely discerned, they are 
seen to be of about the same shape and distribution as those of 
Crurithyris already described. 

No dental lamellae, apertural plates, or median septa occur in 
the ventral ^'alve of this species. Ihe teeth are supported by a thick- 
ened ridge bordering the interior of the delthyrium. 

In the dorsal valve no card.iial process has been observed. Tt is 
not known if one was ever present. In every case the cardinal area 
uikKt the beak appears to have been eroded or etched out. I^erhaps 
this rough, rugose appearance is natural, the whole area under the 
beak serving for the attachment of the diductor muscles. I he deep 
dental sockets are bounded anteromedially by the crural plates, and 
their posterior portions are covered by the palintrope, just as in C. 
gramdciris. In the available material all of the crural processes giving 
rise to the primary lamellae of the spiralia have been broken off close 
to the cardinal area. All that can be observed about them is that they 
are dorso-\entrally flattened, at least at their proximal ends. 



52 Bui.i.ETiN 149 114 

Dimensions. — Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. Mus. Cat. No. 

Length {nim.j Width (mm.) Depth (mm.) 



25269 


15 


25269 


9 


v.v. 25269 


6 


v.v. 25269 


14 


d.v. 25269 


5 


d.v. 25269 


14 



16 . . . 


. . 12 


10 . . . 


. . 6.5 


6 . . . 


. . 2.5 


15 . . . 


. . 6 


6.5. . . 


. . 1.5 


15 . . . 


. . 4 



Comparison. — See the discussion under the headmg of Compari- 
son in the description of Crurithyris granidaris, n. sp. 

Num,ber of Speci^nens Studied. — Ahout 130 specimens consistmg 
mostly of dissociated dorsal and ventral valves were studied. 

Subfamily SPIKIFKKINAK Schuchert. 1913 
Genus SPIRIFKU Sowerby, 1816 

Type species. — Ano)uites striatus Martin, Petref. Derh., 1809, 
pi. 23. Lower Carboniferous (Mississippian), Great Britain. 

As abstracted from Dunbar and Condra (1932, p. 317) this genus 
is characterized by the following: spiriferoid outline; simple plica- 
tions on the fold and sinus as well as on the lateral slopes; dorsal 
palintrope narrower than ventral palintrope; ventral beak larger 
than the dorsal beak, and it more or less strongly overarches the 
palintrope; entire surface covered by fine and closely spaced con- 
centric lirae which are crossed by fine radial lirae, making a fine- 
textured grill; the dental plates are strong vertical septa n\ hich 
diverge more uv less; a calluslike thickening under the palintrope 
commonly more or less envelopes the dental lamellae; dental sockets 
in the dorsal valve are long and subconical; the crural plates are 
heavy and bound the inner sides of the sockets, curving inward and 
upward around the socket. They are united posteriorly under the 
beak to form a narrow, sloping hinge plate; further forward they are 
vertical and hang pendant and Hangelikc, not reaching the floor of 
the valve; the cardinal process is a low, broad boss marked by deep 
vertical striations. 

Discussion. — 1 he characteristic of having simple plications on 
the fold and sinus and on the lateral slopes apparcnth' cannot be 



115 Brazilian I'kn \svi.vanias Hk \c mkh-oik-.: Dri-ssir S3 



taken overserioiisly. Many species are includecl under the genus 
Spirijt'r m which one or more ot the plications bifurcates, especially 
on the fold and sinus. It appears that it should he interpreted to 
mean that most ot the plications are simple and do not bifurcate, 
and those which have arisen by bifurcation usually do not agaii> bi- 
furcate. For instance, in Spirijer rocky-montani Marcou, the first 
pair of plications on either side of the fold invariably join near the 
beak, i.e., are the result of bifurcation. Also, all of the plications on 
the fold and in the sinus arise by bifurcation. To carry it one step 
further, Neospirijer, a subgenus of Spirijer, is characterized by the 
fasciculation of the plications, which is produced by their repeated 
bifurcation. It agrees exactly with Spirijer in all other respects. 
Should it be given separate generic standing merely because the pli- 
cations bifurcate? The overwhelming mass of evidence from other 
brachiopod groups, and indeed, from other members of the Spiri- 
feridae, indicates that the internal characters form the best basis for 
generic classification. It is for this reason that Neospirifer is being 
considered as a subgenus under the genus Spirijer in this paper. 

SiH'ritVr roekj-iiic.utani Marcou PI. .5, figs. 7-10; PI. 6, fig. 5 

1858. ( ?) Spirifrr rocky-montani Marcou, Geology of North America, p. 50, 

pi 7, figs. 4c, d, e; \^non figs. 4, 4a, b]. 
1858. (Non) Spirifrr opitnus Hall, Geol. of Iowa, vol. 1, pi. 2, p. 711. pi. 28, 

figs, la, b. 
1874. Spirifrr opima Hall. Derbv, Cornell Univ., Sci. Bull., vol. 1, No. 2, p. 

1 5, pi. 1 , fig. 4 ; pi. 2, fig. 7 ; pi. 4, fig. 12. 
1894. Spirifrr rockymontanus Marcou, Derby, Jour. Geol., vol. 2, p. 491. 
1903. Spirifrr rockymontanus Marcou, Katzer, Grundzuge de Geologic des 

Unteren Amazonas Gebietes (des Staates Para in Brasilien), p. 158, pi. 

4; fig. 3; (= Geologia do Estado do Para, 1933, p. 154, pi. 4, fig. 3; pi. 5, 

fig. 2). 
1932. Spirifrr rockymontanus Marcou, Dunbar and Condra, Nebraska Geol. 

Sur., Bull. 5, ser. 2, p. 318, pi. 61, figs. 7-9. 
1938. Rrachythyris opimus (Hall), Duarte, Serv. Geol. Min. (Brazil), Bol. 

84 ,p. 29, pi. 1, fig. 16. 
1938. Rrachythyris rockymontanus (Marcou), Duarte, Serv. Geol. Min. 

(Brazil), Bol. 84, p. 30, pi. 6, figs. 5-8. 

This species is characterized by the following: presence of six 
plications in the fold and five in the sinus of the m'^ire specimens; 
its transversely suboval outline; nine to twelve la'-^ely simple plica- 
tions on each lateral slope; the joining of the first piir of plications 
on either lateral slope near the beak of the dorsal va!\ e. 

Exterior. — The shell is transversely subovare with the widest 



54 Bulletin 149 116 



portion of the shell being a httle posterior to the transverse mid-Hne. 
The hinge hne is only a little shorter than the greatest width, thus 
making the cardinal extremities slightly obtusely angular. It is bi- 
convex with both valves about equally inflated. 

The ventral sinus originates at the moderately Incurved beak as 
a simple furrow. Within one millimeter of the beak a median plica- 
tion develops in the sinus. Within three millimeters of the beak two 
more plications, one on either side of the median plication, have bi- 
furcated from the master plication bounding the sinus. There are 
now three plications in the sinus. The second pair (plications four 
and five) arise between ten and fifteen millimeters from the beak by 
bifurcation from the master plications bordering the sinus. This 
makes a total of five plications in the sinus consisting of two pair 
and a median one. This is the total number developed within the 
sinus. Lateral to these there are from ten to twelve plications on each 
lateral slope, when the master plication bounding one side of the 
sinus is included in the count. The first plication lateral to the master 
plication invariably arises from it by bifurcation near the beak. 

The dorsal fold arises at the slightly incurved beak as a single 
plication which bifurcates within one millimeter of the beak into two 
equal plications. Within three millimeters of the beak, a second pair 
arises by bifurcation, one from the lateral side of each of the two 
median plications. Thus, within three millimeters of the beak four 
plications have arisen. The third pair arises considerably further 
anteriorly by bifurcation from the lateral sides of the second pair. 
They usually arise between ten and fifteen millimeters from the beak. 
There are, then, in the adult, a total of six plications of the fold. 
Lateral to the fold on each lateral slope there are usually from nine 
to twelve plications of which the first pair on either lateral slope is 
invariably joined near the beak, i.e., bifurcates near the beak into 
two equal plications. 

All of the plications of both valves are subangular to rounded, 
moderately high, and separated by subangular to rounded furrows of 
width and depth equal to the plications. There is no fasciculation of 
the plications. 

On well-preserved specimens the palintrope is seen to be ver- 
tically striated. That of the dorsal valve is considerably narrower 
than that of the ventral valve, being about half as wide. The ventral 



117 Hr\71ii\\ 1'i\n>vi V \m w Hh \ciii<>i'oi)s: Drissi-r 55 



palintrope is quite markedly concave. There is a curious groove bor- 
dering the (lelthyriuin ot the ventral valve and extendmg a short 
distance onto the external (posterior) face of the tooth. There is no 
comparahle strucrure on the dorsal valve. 

On well-preserved material the surface is seen to he covered 
by Hue, radial striae distributed over furrow and plication alike. 

Interior. — The strong, short teeth are supported by dental plates 
which reach the floor of the valve only in the umbonal region. From 
the area immediately below the tooth, where they arise, their free 
margin extends anteromesially as a sort of platelike projection. They 
do not meet one another at the mid-line of the valve, but each one 
does form a surface bounding the interior of the delthynum and 
sloping ventro-mesially. Where their hxed edges attach to the mar- 
gins of the delthyrium, the groove along the external edge of the del- 
th\"nuni is developed. 

The overall aspect of the ventral muscle scars is that of a 
lozenge-shaped area wherein adductors probably occupied an 
elongate mesial depression which extends anteriorly for about half 
the length of the shell. The diductors lie on either side of the ad- 
ductor impression and are separated from it by the definite ridges 
which enclose the elongated adductor scar. The diductor scars are 
about two-thirds as long as the adductor scar. They are considerably 
wider posteriorly than anteriorly where they are reduced to mere 
grooves paralleling the adductor groove. The whole of the muscular 
area is raised above the general internal surface of the valve, and it 
is bordered by a callus extending anteriorly from the dental plates 
where they touch the floor of the valve in the umbonal region. 

In the dorsal valve the groovelike sockets are covered by a 
definite, independent plate extending from the beak almost to the 
anterior margin of the socket, where the tooth of the ventral valve 
is inserted. 1 his plate lies between the palintrope on the one side and 
the crural plate on the other. It is depressed between them, but it 
does not touch the floor of the socket. The crural plate, bounding the 
medial side of the socket, has its upper margin projected antero- 
ventrally into a blunt toothlike process which lies just anteromesially 
to the anterior end of the socket. The plate then extends dorsally 
and a httie medially to define the inner walls of the notothyrium. 
Its free dorsal end gives rise to a laterally flattened crural process 
which extends anteriorly to give rise to the primary lamellae of the 



56 Bulletin- 149 118 



spiralia. It is not known if the crural processess are laterally flattened 
throughout their length, because in all of the material studied they 
have been broken off near their proximal ends. Posteromesially the 
crural plates join to form a shallow, sloping hinge plate from which 
the cardinal process arises. It is a large, bosslike structure which has 
its posterior end cut by many grooves for muscle attachment. It re- 
sembles that oi Punctospirifer trarisversa ( McChesney ) except that 
it is not so large, and it is more flattened against the underside of 
the beak. 

The muscle scars are faint and not well defined. They appear to 
be essentially the same as those of P. transversa except that they ap- 
parently do not extend up onto the mesial face of the first pair of 
internal plications. There is an even more tenuous median septum 
dividing them than in P. transversa. 

Dimensions. — Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. Mus. Cat. No. 

Length (mm.) Width (mm.) Depth (mm.) 

25270 18 23 10 distorted 

d.v. 25270 18 25 7 

v.v. 25270 19 (rest.) . . 22 10 

Comparison. — This species very much resembles Spi'rifer opimus 
Hall. Accordmg to Dunbar and Condra it differs from S. opimus in 
the following ways: S. opimus has four plications on the fold and 
three in the sinus. S. rocky-montani has six plications on the fold 
and five in the sinus; S. opimus has a much higher palintrope on both 
valves, but especially on the ventral valve, than does S. rocky-mon- 
tani. The plications of S. opi^nus are larger, more angular, and fewer 
(8-10 on each lateral slope) than in S. rocky-montani. 

Stoyanow (1926) reported this species from the Galiuro Mts. 
of Arizona, where its Lower Pennsylvanian position conforms to the 
general range of the species in the mid-western United States (e.g., 
Dunbar and Condra, 1939, p. 319). 

Number of Specim,ens Studied. — Twenty-seven specimens which 
can definitely be assigned to this species were studied. In addition 
there are about 85 immature forms which cannot be distinguished 
from the immature forms of S. (Neospirifer) cameratus (Morton). 
1 he immature and the mature forms consist mostly of dissociated 
dorsal and ventral valves. 



119 Br\7iii\\ Pi vnsvi V \\i \\ I^k mukh-od- : Pkisskk 57 



fuL-^cnus MiOSI'IKIFKK Fiedt'iicks, 1919 

Type species. — Spirlfer jascinf^er Keyscrlinji, Reise nach Pet- 
scliara-land, 1846, p. 231, pi. S, fig. 3. Upper Carboniferous of Russia. 

1 his subgenus has the configuration and internal structures of 
the genus Spirifer. It differs Ironi Spinfcr only in having the plica- 
tions fasciculated. 

There is some question as to whether the species included 
under the name of Aeospirijer possesses sufficient structural differ- 
ence from the genus Spirifer to be regarded as representing a sepa- 
rate genus. It IS true that there are several species of Neospirijer, all 
possessing the characteristic fasciculation of the plications. However, 
the importance of this character has been questioned by others such 
as King (1930, p. 115), who assigned it subgeneric rank. Until 
evidence demonstrating that this character is of generic significance 
IS brought to light, Xeospirifer will be tentatively regarded as a sub- 
genus under the genus Spirifer. 

.Sj»irif<'r (N«'<>s]>irit'er) caineratiis {.Morton) PI. .5, fig. 11; PI. 7, figs. 7-11 

1836. (?) Spirifer camrratus Morton, Am. Jour. Sci., vol 29, p. 150, pi. 2, 

fig. 3. 
1874. Spirifna lamcrata Morton, Derln, Cornell Univ., Sci. Bull., \oi. 1. No. 

2, pp. 12-15, pi. 1, figs. 1, 3, 6, 9, 14; pi. 2, fig. 15; pi. 4, fig. 5; pi. 5, 

fig. 11. 
1894. Spirifer eamrratus Morton, Derby, Jour. Geol., vol. 2, p. 491. 
1903. Spirifer eameratus Morton, Katzer, Grundzuge de Geologie des 

Unteren Amazonas Gehietes (des Staates Para in Brasilien), p. 158, pi. 4, 

fig. 1; (= Geologia do Estado do Para, 1933, p. 154, pi. 4, fig. 1.) 

1914. Spirifer eameratus Morton, Koztowski, Annales de Paleontologie, vol. 9, 
p. 70, pi. 5, figs. 6-11. 

1932. Neospirifer eameratus (Morton), Dunbar and Condra, N'ebraska Geol. 
Surv., Bull. 5, ser. 2, pp. 334-336, pi. 39, figs. 4, 6-9b. 

This species is characterized as follows: generally weak develop- 
ment of the fasciculation of the plications; 10 plications on the dor- 
sal fold and 12 m the ventral sinus; about 20 plications on each lat- 
eral slope; generally suborbicular shape with the width usually a 
little greater than the length; relatively high delthyrium of the ven- 
tral valve when compared with S. rocky-montani, the ventral beak 
being moderately incurved over it. 

Exterior. — The shell is suborbicular with the width generally 
being a little greater than the length. It is biconvex with both valves 
about equally inflated. The cardinal extremities make an angle with 



58 Bulletin- 149 120 



the lateral margins of the shell of about 90 degrees. However, the 
widest portion of th'e shell may be either just posterior to the trans- 
verse mid-line of the shell or at the hinge line. 

The sinus of the ventral valve arises at the apex of the mod- 
erately incurved beak. K"re it is bounded by two strong plications. 
About three or four millim eters from the apex of the beak a plica- 
tion appears in the center oi the sinus. Simultaneously, at this same 
latitude, each of the large plic^rions bounding the sinus gives off a 
plication from its medial side. Th»s makes a total of five plications in 
the sinus. As the plications are traced anteriorly, it is seen that each 
of the first pair of plications to arise from the large bounding plica- 
tions (those which mimediately flank the median plication) bifur- 
cates into two equal plications. This occurs; about 17 to 20 mm. from 
the beak near the transverse mid-lme of the valve. At approximately 
this same latitude each of the large plications bounding the sinus 
gives off a plication from its inner side. This makes a total of nine 
plications in the sinus thus far. Still further anteriorly, about 30 
mm. from the beak, the second pair of plications to arise from the 
large bounding plications bifurcates into two equal plications. There 
are now eleven plications in the sinus. Close to the anterior margin 
of the shell the median plication of the sinus bifurcates into two 
equal plications, thus producting the twelfth and last plication in 
the sinus. In overall aspect the sinus is angular and well defined 
posteriorly, becoming flattened and ill-defined anteriorly. 

The fold of the dorsal valve arises at the apex of the slightly in- 
curved beak. Here it consists of a single, strong plication which bi- 
furcates into two equal plications within three or four millimeters of 
the apex of the beak. At the same latitude, where it splits into these 
two equal plications, it simultaneously gives off a lateral plication 
on each side. Each of these lateral plications is the same strength 
as the two median ones. Thus, this original, single plication has 
bifurcated into four equally sized plications within three to four 
millimeters of the apex of the beak. Within about six to seven milli- 
meters of the beak, each of the two lateralmost plications gives off a 
plication from its lateral side which is at first smaller than the parent 
plication, but which becomes equal to it in size anteriorly. This makes 
a total of six plications on the fold thus far. Further anteriorly, about 
twelve to fifteen millimeters from the apex of the beak, each of the 
two original median plications of the fold gives off a plication lat- 



121 



Hr\/.iii\n I'l \ nsyiv am an Hrachidi'ods: Drksser 



59 



erallv between itself ;iiui the orij»;inaI lateral plication. There are now 
eight plications on the told. At ;i]iproximately the same latitude as 
this bifurcation occurs each of the two lateralmost plications of the 
fold, i.e., those formed by the bifurcation of the original lateral pli- 
cations, gives oflF a lateral plication. This completes the compliment 
of plications possessed by the dorsal fold, making a total of ten. In 
overall aspect the fold is angular and well defined posteriorly becom- 
ing flattened and ill-defined anteriorly. The plan of plication is 
shown diagrammatically in text fig. 4, below. 




Master plication 



urrow 



Plication 




v-^ — Plication 



Furrow 



A B 

Fig. 4. Pattern of plications on the fold and sinus of Ncospirifer camrratus 
(Morton). \. Pattern on the ventral sinus. B. Pattern on the dorsal fold. 

The plications of the lateral slopes of both valves are of a non- 
simple, bifurcating type. There are generally about twenty on each 
slope. For any given individual the plications on the fold, and sinus, 
and on the lateral slopes have the same shape. They vary on dif- 
ferent individuals from being very low, broad and rounded to mod- 
erately high, well defined and subangular. On individuals having the 
former type the furrows between the plications are reduced to mere 
lines. This is true on the median portion of the shell only, for as the 
postero-lateral margins of the shell are approached the furrows in- 
crease in width until they are about twice as wide as the plications 
are there. They widen at the expense of the postero-lateral plica- 
tions which are reduced to mere low, rounded lines on this portion 
of the shell. Those individuals with moderately high, subangular pli- 
cations have furrows of about the same depth and width as the 
plications throughout the shell. It is in this latter group that the 
fasciculation of the plications is best shown. In the former type it is 
at best poorly expressed. The generally poor expression of the fasci- 
culation of the plications is a characteristic of this species. 



60 Bulletin 149 12: 



The palintrope of the ventral valve is high and concave along its 
longitudinal mid-line. The delthyrium is about as high as it is wide, 
and it is bounded laterally by grooves extending onto the teeth as in 
S. rocky-montani Marcou. 

The palintrope of the dorsal valve is much narrower than that 
of the ventral valve, and they are perpendicular to each other, the 
palintrope of the ventral valve being vertical, while that of the dorsal 
valve is horizontal. The notothyrium of the dorsal valve is from four 
to SIX times as wide as it is high. 

On well-preserved specimens the surface of the shell can be 
seen to be covered by fine radial striae distributed over furrow and 
plication alike. 

Interior. — The teeth and the dental plates have the same shape, 
configuration and relation to the ventral valve as those of S. rocky- 
montani. 

The muscle scars have the same general shape as those of S. 
rocky-montani, but they diflFer in detail. The diductors of this species 
extend as far anteriorly as the adductors, while in S. rocky-montani 
they extend only about two-thirds as far anteriorly as do the ad- 
ductors. In addition, the diductors are relatively wider; they extend 
further into the beak, and they are better impressed and defined 
than those of S. rocky-montani. They extend anteriorly for from one- 
third to one-half the length of the valve. In general the whole mus- 
cular area of this species is broader than that of S. rocky-montani. 
The muscle scars have more of a heartshape with the apex of the 
heart pointing anteriorly, rather than the lozenge shape of S. rocky- 
montani. 

The dorsal valve of this species has exactly the same structures 
in the same shapes and relations as does S. rocky-montani. The only 
noticeable difference between the two species is that the crural plates 
of this species are narrower than those of S. rocky-montani, i.e., 
they do not hang down into the valve as far as those of S. rocky- 
montani. 

Dimensions. — Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. Mus. Cat. No. 

Length (mm.) Width (mm.) Depth (mm.) 

25271 38 48 23* 

25271 43 65 20** flattened 



123 Brazilian rKWMiAAMW Hraihi()I'(h>s: Dkksskr 61 



25271 32 47 18* 

25271 31 43 17* 

25271 35 41 18* flattened 

* Greatest \vidtli just posterior to the transverse midline of the shell. 
•• Greatest width is at the hinfje line. 

C(>}npari.u>n. — This species differs trom other Spiriferidae of the 
Itaitiiba fauna in having fasciculated plications, in having more ph- 
cations on the fold and sinus and on the lateral slopes, and in attain- 
ing a larger size. Some specimens much resemble S. rocky-montani. 
However, such specimens can be distinguished from S. rocky-mon- 
tani by the fact that at least some of the plications on the lateral 
slopes bifurcate. On S. rocky-montani only the first pair on either 
slope immediately adjacent to the dorsal fold bifurcate, and they do 
so near the beak. The rest of the lateral slope plications are simple. 

Neospirifer cameratvs is a characteristic Lower Pennsylvanian 
index in midwestern United States, and has been found bv Stoyanow 
( 1926) in this part of his Galiuro Mt. section in Arizona, in associa- 
tion with several elements of the Amazonian Carboniferous fauna. 

Number of Specimens Studied. — About 150 specimens consist- 
ing mainly of dissociated dorsal and ventral valves were studied. 

Spirifcr (»osi»irif<'r) caiiieratiis (.Morton), variant 

PI. 5, fig. 11; PI. S, figs. 1, 4 

1874. Spirifrra camnata Morton, Derby, Cornell Univ., Sci. Hull., vol. 1, No. 
2, p. 14, pi. 2, Hg. 2. 

This variant has all of the characteristics of the species pre- 
vioush' described except that the hinge line is extremely drawn out, 
producing a strongly alate shape. The greatest length is along the 
hinge line with the result that the angle between the cardinal area 
and the lateral margin of the shell is about 45 to 50 degrees. 

In rhe Tapajos material there are all gradations between this 
form and the suborbicular form characteristic of the species. 

Dimensions. — Univ. of Cinclnati Geol. Mus. Cat. No. 

Length (mm.) Width (mm.) Deptii (mm.) 

25272 32 64 18 holotype 

25273 35 74 19 flattened 

v.v. 25273 32 76 15 length rest 



62 Bulletin 149 124 

Family SriKIFEKINIDAE Davidson, 1884 
Subfamily SPIRIFKRINIJiAE Schuchert, 1929 

Genus PUNCTOSPIKIFEK North. 1920 

Type species. — Punctospirijer scabricosta North, Quart. Jour. 
Geol. Soc. London, vol. 76, 1920, p. 213 [= Spiriferina laminosa 
(McCoy), Garwood, 1912]. Ashfell sandstone (Carboniferous) 
Great Britain. 

As abstracted from North's original description (1920, pp. 212- 
213), the genus possesses the following characters: shell spiriferoid, 
about twice as wide as long with the greatest width at or near the 
hinge line; cardinal extremities slightly rounded or subangular; area 
moderately high and concave; biconvex with a well-developed, dis- 
tinct mesial fold and sinus; lateral slopes evenly convex and orna- 
mented by round plications separated by equally wide rounded fur- 
rows; surface of both valves crossed by regularly disposed imbricat- 
ing lamellae, shell structure fibrous and strongly punctate; dental 
plates slightly divergent; ventral median septum well developed, 
about two-thirds as high as the ventral palintrope and about half 
as long as the shell; no marked apical callosity; a low median crest 
bisects the muscle area of the dorsal valve; spiral coils large with 
the apices directed laterally to a point a little anterior to the cardi- 
nal extremities; jugum is a slender V-shaped process with its apex 
directed postero-ventrally. 

Discussion. — According to Dunbar and Condra (1932, p. 351) 
Punctospirijer differs from Spiriferina as follows: fold and sinus are 
wider than the lateral plications and are flattened in Punctospirijer; 
the angular fold and sinus are not sharply differentiated from the 
costae in Spirijerina. The cardinal area is clearly separated from the 
lateral slopes by an abrupt angle in the shell in Punctospirijer. It is 
not separated from the lateral slopes by a sharp angle in the shell in 
Spirijerina. The surface is closely laniellose at all stages of growth in 
Punctospirijer. The surface is closely lamellose only at the anterior 
margin in Spirijerina. Punctospirijer possesses a \'-shaped jugum. 
Spirijerina possesses a simple, transverse jugum. 

The Tapajos material agrees in every respect with the genus 

Punctospirijer. 



125 Hrv/.ii.iw I'hv nsvi.v am w Hk vciiioi'tms: Dkksskr 63 



l*iinctos|»iril'«'r tniiisxTsa ( McChesney) IM. 7. figs. 1-6 

IS 59. (?) Spirifn ti ansfri sa McChesney, New Paleozoic Fossils, p. 42. 
1S74. Spiriftririti tiansvnsa (McChesney), Derliy, Cornell Univ., Sci. Bull., 
vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 21-23. pi. 2. figs. 4-6, 13; pi. s'. figs. 12-24, 17; pi. 5, fig. 4. 

1903. Spirifcrinn transvrrsd (McChesney). Katzer, Grundzuge de Geologie 
des Unteren Amazonas Oeliietes (des Staates Para in Brazilien), p. 158, 
pi. 4, fig. 2a-c; (= Geologia do Estado do Para, 1933, p. 154, pi. 4, fig. 
2:pl. 5,fig. 3) 

1914. Spir'ifrrina ttdtisi'iisa (McChesnev), Weller, Geol. Siir\-. of Illinois, 
.Mon. 1. pp. 297-299, pi. 35, filis. 41-49. ' 

This species is characterized by the following: a single shght 
groove and sHght phcation in the dorsal mesial fold and ventral 
mesial sinus respectively; eight to twelve plications on each lateral 
slope; width of the shell is about twice its length; biconvex nature 
of the shell with the ventral valve slightly more inflated than the 
dorsal; heavy, solid, posteriorly grooved cardinal process and ex- 
tension of the dorsal muscle scars onto the mesial face of the first 
pair of internal plications; and the presence of the thin, dorsal, mesial 
septum dividing the muscle scars. 

Exterior. — The shell is typically spiriferoid, about twice as wide 
as long with the greatest width at or near the hinge line. The cardi- 
nal margins are acutely angular in mature specimens and often 
rounded in immature specimens with the greatest width of the shell 
in these being just anterior to the hinge line. The shell is biconvex, 
the ventral valve often being slightly more inflated than the dorsal. 

The umbone of the ventral valve is only slightly inflated, and 
the beak is only slightly incurved over a delthynum which is about 
as wide as it is high. The umbone of the dorsal valve is even flatter 
than that of the ventral valve, and the beak is only slightly incurved 
over a notothyrium which is about one-fourth as high as it is wide. 
1 he palintropes of the two valves he at nearly a right angle to each 
other, that of the ventral valve being vertical and that of the dorsal 
valve being horizontal. 

The dorsal fold and the ventral mesial sinus are well developed. 
They are about as wide as two or three plications and their included 
furrows. On the dorsal fold a slight median groove often develops 
just anterior to the beak. There is a corresponding slight median fold 
in the sinus of the ventral valve. On mature specimens there are 
from eight to twelve simple plications on each lateral slope. Usually 
the first three or four of these take their origin from the beak. The 



64 Bulletin 149 126 



rest of them originate from the cardinal margin which is a sharp 
angle separating the lateral slopes from the palintrope area. 

The ornament other than the plications consists of regularly 
spaced inbricating growth lamellae which number from four to five 
per millimeter near the transverse midline of the valve. The shell 
structure is fibrous and coarsely punctate, the punctae tending to 
be arranged more or less concentrically parallel to the growth lamel- 
lae. 

Interior. — The strong, diverging teeth of the ventral valve are 
supported by dental plates whose medial sides are slightly convex. 
Their anterior edges are concave, and they diverge slightly anteriorly. 
They extend anteriorly for about one-fourth to one-fifth the length 
of the valve, and between them lies the thin median septum, the 
concave anterior margin of which rises to an apex just anterior to 
the space between the teeth. It extends anteriorly for about half the 
length of the valve. The muscle scars could not be delimited on the 
available material. 

In the dorsal valve the heavy crural plates are united mesially 
to form a hinge plate from which the large rounded cardinal process 
arises. The cardinal process fills the whole mesial portion of this 
plate. Its posterior end is divided by deep grooves into sometimes 
as many as nine, subequal, laterally flattened projections. The groov- 
ing of the posterior end of the cardinal process probably facilitated 
muscle attachment. The groove-shaped dental sockets lie lateral to 
the heavy crural plates which are projected into a blunt tooth just 
anteromesially of the anterior termination of the socket floor. No 
portion of the groove-shaped sockets is covered by a plate or by the 
palintrope. 

The hinge plate formed by the fusion of the mesial edges of the 
crural plates is supported underneath by the posteriorly joined ends 
of the first pair of internal plications. This first pair of internal pli- 
cations is stronger and is better developed than any other internal 
plications of the shell; these plicae are the internal reflections of the 
first pair of furrows which bound the medial fold. A thin, tenuous 
median septum originates where the posterior ends of this first pair 
of internal plications come together. It extends anterior for about 
two-thirds the length of the valve, dividing the muscle scars into 
equal lateral halves. 

These halves extend onto the median faces of this strongly de- 



127 Mr\/ii.i\n I'hwsvi.vam \n lin achioi-ods: I)rks,>kr 65 



veloped first pair of internal plications, causing their ventral edges 
to be flattened laterally and extended ventrally into a slight ridge 
which is higher than the rest of the jilication. This ridge extends 
anteriorly along the plication for about half the length of the shell. 
The muscle scars between the plications on either side of the tenuous 
median septum are poorly mipressed. 

Dimensions. — Unix', of Cincmnati Geol. Mus. Cat. No. 

Length (mm.) Width (mm.) Depth (mm!) 

25274 15 28 17 

25274 15 22 11 

25274 19 (rest.) . . 35 15 

d.v. 25274 15 26 6 

v.v. 25274 5.5 10 3 

Comparison. — This form differs from Punctospirifer kentucky- 
eytsis (Shumard), which it superfically somewhat resembles, in the 
following characters: P. kentiickyensis has five to six plications on 
each lateral slope. This species has eight to twelve plications on each 
lateral slope. In P. kentuckyensis the cardinal process is a minute, 
rounded nub. In this species it is a large, bosslike, posteriorly grooved 
structure. P. kentuckyensis has the hinge plate supported by the 
median septum. This species has it supported by the posteriorly 
joined ends of the first pair of internal plications (the internal re- 
flections of the first pair of furrows on either side of the dorsal fold). 

Punctospirifer transversa ranges low in the Carboniferous sec- 
tion of the midcontinental United States. Dunbar and Condra 
(1932), e.g., gives the range as Chesterian and Morrowian (Upper 
Mississippian and Lower Pennsylvanian). 

Number of Specimens Studied. — About 7S specimens consisting 
in large part, of dissociated dorsal and ventral valves were studied. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

.\U)H(jii<*r(jne, 0. K. 

1922. Rrconhfcimetitos geologicos no vale Jo Amazonas. Serv. Geol. Min. 
do Brasil, Bol. 3, S4 pp., ill. 
Keeoher, (". K. 

1891-2. Development of Brarhiopoda. Amer. Jour. Sci., 41 (3), pp. 324- 
257; 44 (3), pp. 135-155. 
Buckman, S. S. 

1906. Brachiopod nomenclature. Ann. Mag. \at. Hist., 18, (7 ser.) pp. 
323-327. 



66 Bulletin 149 128 



t'anipbell. I». F., de Almeida, L. A., and de Oliveira Silva, S. 

1949. Rclatorio prcliminar sbhre a geologia da Bacia do Maranhdo. Con- 
selho Nac. de Petroleo (Brazil), Bol., No. 1, 160 pp., ill. 
Carvallio, P. F. 

1926. laic do Rio Tapajos, in Reconhecimcntus geologicos c sondagems 
ria Bacia do Amazonas. Serv. Geol. Min. do Brasil, Bol. 16, pp. 33-88. 

Caster, K. V\. 

1952. Stratigraphic and palcontologic data rclc^<ant to the problem of 

Afro-American ligation during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic. Amer. Mus. 

Nat. Hist., Bull. 99, pp. 105-152. 
( hao, y. T. 

1927. Brachiopod fauna of the Chihsia limestone. Geol. Soc. China, Bull. 
6, pp. 83-121, 2 pis. 

Cooper, (il. A. 

1944. Brachiopoda in Shinier, H. W. and Shrock, R. R. Index Fossils of 
North America, pp. 277-365. New York. 

Davidson, K. 

1857-1862. British fossil Brachiopoda, 2, pt. 5: .7 monograph of British 

Carboniferous Brachiopoda, 280 pp., 55 pis. Paiaeontographical Society, 

London. 
Derby, 0. A. 

1874. On the Carboniferous brae hio pads of Itaituba, Rio Tapajos, Prov- 
ince of Para, Brazil. Cornell Univ. Sci. Bull., No. 2, pp., 8 pis. 

Reprinted, 1952 (53): Orville A. Derby's Studies on the Paleontology 

of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, pp. 23-95, 9 pis. 
1877. Contribuicoes para a geologia da regido do Baixo Amazonas. Mus. 

Nac. Rio de Janeiro, Arq., 2, pp. 77-104. 
1894. The Amazonian Upper Carboniferous fauna. Jour. Geol., 2, pp. 

408-501. 
Duajte, A. (i. 

1936. Fosseis da sondagem de Therezina, Estado de Piauhi. Div. Geol. 

Min. (Brazil), Notas Prelim, e Estudos, No. 2, 3 pp. 
1938. Braquiopodos do Rio Parauari. Div. Geol. Min. (Brazil), Bol. 84, 

34 pp., 5 pis. 
]>unbar, C. ()., and Condra, G. K. 

1932. Brachiopods of the Pennsylvanian system in Nebraska. Nebraska 

State Geol. Surv., Bull. 5 (2), 377 pp., 44 pis. 
Dunbar, C. 0., and Newell, N. E. 

1945. Early Permian rocks of southern Peru and Bolivia. Amer. Jour. 
Sci., 243, p. 21 S. 

1946. Marine early Permian of the central Andes and its fusuline-faunas, 
Amer. Jour. Sci., 244, pp. 377-402; 457-491, 12 pis. 

Fossa-Mancini, ¥j. 

1944. Las transe/resiones marinas del Antracolitico en la .-Jmrrica del 
Sur. Mus. de La Plata, Rev., 2 (n.s.), Geol., pp. 49-183. 
Fredericks, G. 

1919. Etude paleontologiyue: Les Spiriferidcs du Carbonifere Superieiir 
de I'Oural. Comm. Geol., [Russia] Bull. 38, No. 2. 
F'ischer de von Waldheini, («. 

1829. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, Bull. 1, p. 375. 

1830-37. Oryctologie. Ciouv. Moscou, p. 133, pi. 20, fig. 4a-c. 

1850. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, Bull. 23, p. 491, pi. 10, fig. 1-4. 
(■emmellaro, G. G. 

1889. Fauna calcari con Fusulina. Ease. 4, pt. 1. Palermo. 

Georjje, T. N. 

1931. Ambocoelia Hall and certain similar British Spiriferidae. Quart. 
Jour. Geol. Soc. London, 87, pp. 30-61 ; pis. 1-5. 

1932. The British Carboniferous reticulate Spiriferidae. Idem, 88, pp. 
616-677, pis. 31-35. 



129 Hk\/iii\\ I'hNNsM \'\\i w Hkachioi'ods: Drhsskr 67 



(.irt). («. H. 

19()S. The GuaJaluf>ii2n fauna. U.S. Geol. Survey, Prof. Paper, No. 58. 
Hiill. .lallH'^ 

1S5S. Kt'port (it tlu- Cu()l(i^;ical Survey of Iowa. 1, pt. 2. 

Hiill, .liiiiH's, and ( larke, .1. .M. 

IS92. ./// introduction to the study of the genera of Paleozoic bracliiopods. 

\'ul. 1. Nat. Mist. New York, Paleontology, 8, pt. 1. 
1S94. Idem. pt. 2. 
Harff. ( . F. 

1S7U. Geology atid physical geology of Brazil. Pp. 620, ill. Boston. 

1874. Preliminary report of the Morgan Expedition, 1870-71: Report of 

a reconnaissaui c of the loiver Tapajns. Cornell Univ., Sci. Bull., No. 1 

37 pp. 

KatziT, F. 

1897. Ueher das Carbon ^•on Itaituha am Tapajos-flusse in Brasilien. 

Neues Jahrb. Min. Geol. Pal. Beil.-Bd. 2, 218-220. 
1903. Grundznge de Geologic des Unteren Amazonas Gebietes (des 

Staates Parti in Brasilien). Pp. 296, ill. Leipzig. 

1933. Idem, Portuguese translation (Hugo Mense) : Geologia do Estado 
do Para (Brasil), with notes and revision by Avelino I. de Oliveira 
and Pedro de Moura. Museu Goeldi (Paraense), 9, 269 pp., 261 fig., 
1 map. Belein de Para, Brazil. 

Ketrol, >Vilheliii 

1951. Sobrc alguns trilobitas Carboniferas do Piaui e do Amazonas. Div. 
c;,eol. Min. (Brazil), Bol., No. 135, 38 pp., 1 pi. 

Kegel, Wilhelin, and Texeira da Costii, .Manoel. 

1951. Especies neopaleozoicos do Brazil da familia Aviculopectinidae, 
ornamentados com costelos fasciculados. Div. Geol. Min. (Brazil), Bol., 
No. 13 7, 48 pp., 6 pis. 

King, K. F. 

1931. The geology of the Glass Mountains, Texas; Pt. 2, Faunal sum- 
mary and correlation of the Permian formations, ivith descriptions of 
Brachiopoda. Univ. Texas, Bull., No. 3042, 245 pp., 44 pis. 

King, >Villiani 

1846. Remarks on certain genera belonging to the class Palliohranchiata. 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 18. 
1850. A monograph of the Permian fossils of England, 248 pp., 38 pis. 

Palaeontographical Society, London. 
KoztoMski, Hoinan 

1914. Les brachiopodes du Carbonifere Superieur de Bolivia. Annales de 

Paleontologie, 9, pp. 3-100, pis. 1-11. 

3Ieek, F. H. 

1872. Report on the paleontology of eastern Nebraska iiith remarks on 
the Carboniferous rocks of that district in Hayden, F. V., Final Rept. 
of the U. S. Geol. Survey of Nebraska, etc., pp. 84-239. Washington, 
D. C. 
Mendes. J. ('. 

1952. A formacdo Corumbatai na regicio do rio Corumbati (Estrati- 
grafia e descri(do dos lamelibrdnquios). Univ. Sao Paulo, Fac. Filos., 
Cien. Letras, Bol., Geol., No. 8, 114 pp., 4 pis. Sao Paulo, Brazil. 

31 ever. H. F. L. 

1914. Karbonfauna aus Bolivia und Peru. Neues Jahrb. Min., Geol. Pal., 
Beil.-Bd. 37, pp. 590-620. .pis. 13-14. 

.Moura, Pedro de 

1934. Reeonhecimentos geologicos no vale do Tapajos. Serv. Geol. Min. 
(Brazil), Bol., No. 67, 53 pp., ill., map. 

1938. Geologia do Baixo Amazonas. Idem, Bol., No. 91, 94 pp., ill, map. 



68 Bulletin 149 130 



North, F. J. 

1920. Syringothyris and Spiriferlna. Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. London, 76, 
pt. 2. pp. 208-214. 
Oehlert, I). K. 

1890. Jour, de Conch., 30 (3), p. 372. 
Oliveira, Ayellnoi I. de 

1926. Rio Parauary, in Rrcori/iecirnrritos gcologicos c sondagetns na Bacia 

do A mazonas. Serv. Geol. Min. (Brazil), Bol., No. 15, pp. 12-17. 
1926A. Rio urupadi. Idem^ pp. 22-26. 
Oliveira Aveliiio I. <le, and Leonardos, 0. H. 

1943. Gcoloyia do Brasil. 2d. Ed., Serv. de Informa<;ao Agricola, Serie 
Didatica, No. 2, 813 pp., ill., map. Rio de Janeiro. 
Paiva, («. de, and Miranda, Jose 

1937. Geologia c rccursos minerais do Meio Norte. Serv. Fom. Prod. 
Min. (Brazil), Bol., No. 15, 55 pp., ill, map. 
Petri, Setenibrino 

1952. Fusulinidae do Carbonifero do rio Tapajos, Estado do Paid. Soc. 
Brasil Geol., Bol., 1, pp. 30-45, pi. 1, 2. Sao Paulo, Brazil. 
Plumnier, F. B., Price, L. L, and Gomes, A. F. 

1948. Relatorio {19-1-6}, Conselho Nacional de Petroleo (Brazil), pp. 
87-1 34, ill. 
Keed, F. K. Cowper 

1933. Some Upper Carboniferous brachiopods from Brazil. Ann. Mag. 
Nat. Hist., 11, 10 ser., pp. 519-537. 
Sehnchert, (\ 

1896. Brachiopoda, in Zittel-Eastman, Textbook of Paleontology, 
1st. ed., pp. 355-420, New York, N. Y. 

1913. Idem, 2d. ed., vol. 1, pp. 369-420. 
Schuc'hert, ('., and ('(toper, («. A. 

1932. Brachiopod genera of the suborders Orthoidea and Pentameroidea. 
Peabody Mus. Nat. Hist.. Mem., 4, pt. 1, 270., 29 pis. 

Sehuchert, ('., and LeVene, ('. M. 

1929. Brachiopoda (generum ct genotyporum, index et bibliographia). Fos- 
silium Catalogus, 1: Animalia, Pars 42, 142 pp. Berlin. 

Stojanow, A. A. 

1926. Notes on recent stratigraphic ^vork in Arizona. Amer. Jour. Sci., 

12, 5 ser., pp. 311-324. 
1936. Correlation of Arizona Paleozoic formations. Geol. Soc. America, 

Bull. 47, pp. 459-540. 
Thompson, M. L. 

1943. Permian fusulinids from Peru. Jour. Paleont., 17, pp. 203-205. 

Waagen, >V. 

1882-1885. Salt Range fossils. Geol. Surv. India, Mem.: Palaeontologia 

Indica (13). Calcutta. 
1882. Salt Range fossils: I. Productus limestone fossils. Pt. 4. Brachiopoda, 

fasc. 1. Calcutta. 

1887. Idem. Preface. 

1888. Mitteilung eines Briefes von Herrn A. A. Derby ueber Spuren einer 
Carboneiszeit in Sud .-Imerika, etc. Neues Jahrb. Geol. Min., Pal., 
Beil. Bd. 2, pp. 172-176. 

1889. Salt Range fossils: IV. Geological results. Pt. 1. Geol. Surv. India, 
Mem., Palaeontologia Indica (13). Calcutta. Item. pt. 2, 1891. 

Waleott, (". D., and Schuehert, ('. 

1908. Classification and terminology of the Cambrian Brachiopoda. 
Smithsonian Misc. Coll., 53, pp. 136-185. 
Weller, Stuart 

1914. The Mississippian brachiopods of the Mississippi Valley basin. 
Illinois State Geol. Surv., Mon., No. 1. 



PLATES 
PLATE 1 (6) 



70 Bulletin 149 132 

Explanation of Plate 1 (6) 

Figure Page 

1-4.6,7. Rhipidoinella peiiuiaiia Derby 21 

1. Ventral interior showing the large flabelliform muscle 

scars. X 2. Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. .Mus., No. 25258. 

2. Dorsal interior showing the high notothyrial platform 

with its trilobed posterior face and the deep muscle 
scars. X 2. Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. Mus., No. 25258. 

3. Ventral interior showing the muscle scars and tlie punc- 

tae. X 2. Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. Mus., No. 25258. 

4. Laterial view showing a definite interarea between the 

valves. X 2. Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. Mus., No. 25258. 

6. Dorsal exterior. X 2. Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. Mus., No. 

25258. 

7. Posterior view of a dorsal valve showing the trilobed 

character of the posterior face of the cardinal process 
and the prominent crural plates. X 2. Univ. of Cincin- 
nati Geol. Mus.. No. 25258. 

5. Streptorhj nohiis halliaims Derby 27 

Ventral exterior showing the plicated anterior margin of 
shell. X 2. Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. Mus.. No. 25260. 

8-11,13. Orthotichia iiiorg-aniana (Derby) 24 

8. Posterior view of a slightly distorted specimen. X 2. 

Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. Mus., No. 25259. 

9. Ventral interior showing the short median septum and 

the dental plates. X 2. Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. .Mus., 
No. 25259. 

10. Posterior view of a dorsal valve showing the small car- 

dinal process and the prominent crural processes. X 2. 
Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. Mus.. No. 25259. 

11. Dorsal interior showing the diverging crural plates, the 

small cardinal process, and the median ridge. X 2. 
Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. Mus.. No. 25259. 

13. Ventral interior showing the median septum, dental 
lamellae and teeth. X 2. Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. iNIus., 
No. 25259. 

12. J)erl)yia correanus (Derby) 30 

Posterior view showing the cardinal process with the 
grooves for muscle attachment and the crural plates. 
X 2. Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. Mus., No. 25261. 



i'l.. 6, Vol. 35 



Bull. Amer. Paleont. 



No. 149, Pl. 1 




PLATE 2(7) 



72 Bulletin 149 134- 



Explanation of Plate 2 (7) 

Figure Page 
1-6. Derbjia oorreanus (Derby) 30 

1. Dorsal exterior. X 1^2. Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. Mus., 

No. 25231. 

2. Ventral interior showing the median septum, teeth, 

palintrope, and deltidium. X 1^- Univ. of Cincinnati 
Geol. Mus., No. 25261. 

3. Dorsal interior showing the weak ridge dividing the 

scars and the cardinal process. X2. Univ.of Cincin- 
nati Geol. Mus., No. 25261. 

4. Dorsal interior showing the dental socket and the silici- 

fied material filling the valve. X IK'- Univ. of Cincin- 
nati Geol. Mus., No. 25261. 

5. Dorsal exterior showing the alternate ornament. X IJ^. 

Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. Mus.. No. 25261. 

6. Ventral interior showing the median septum, interior of 

deltidium, and the dental calluses. Xl^. Univ. of 
Cincinnati Geol. Mus.. No. 25261. 



PL. 7, Vol. 35 



Bull. Amer. Paleont. 



No. 149, Pl. 2 




PLATE 3 (8) 



74 Bulletin 149 136 



Explanation of Plate 3 (8) 

Figure Page 
1-6. Tapajotia tapajotensis (Derby) 34 

1. Dorsal exterior showing the over-arching chilidium and 

the ornament. X 2. Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. Mus., No. 
25262. 

2. Posterior view showing the deltidium and the chilidium. 

X 2. Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. Mus., No. 25262. 

3. Dorsal interior showing the bifid cardinal process, the 

median node, and the dental sockets. X2. Univ. of 
Cincinnati Geol. Mus., No. 25262. 

4. Ventral interior showing the very reduced median septum 

and a portion of the muscle scars. X 2. Univ. of Cin- 
cinnati Geol. -Mus., No. 25262. 

5. Ventral exterior showing the slightly twisted beak and 

the ornament, x 2. Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. Mus., No. 
25262. 

6. Dorsal interior. X 2. Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. Mus., No. 

25262. 



Pl. 8, Vol. 35 



Bull. Amer. Paleont. 



No. 149, Pl. 3 




PLATE 4 (9) 



76 Bulletin 149 138 



Explanation of Plate 4 (9^ 



Figure Page 

1-7,10. t'leiftthjrJdina casteri Dresser, n. sp 39 

1. Ventral exterior showing the growth lamellae and the 

spines. X 4. Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. .Mus., No. 25264. 
Paratype. 

2. Lateral view showing the imbricating growth lamellae, 

the recurved ventral beak, and the spines. X4. Univ. 
of Cincinnati Geol. Mus., No. 25263. Holotype. 

3. Ventral view showing how the spines are often cement- 

ed to each other laterally. X 4. Univ. of Cincinnati 
Geol. Mus., No. 25263. Holotype. 

4. Ventral interior showing the anteriorly restricted con- 

centric plications and the posteriorly recurved teeth. 
X 4. Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. Mus., No. 25264. Paratype. 

5. Ventral interior showing the posteriorly recurved teeth. 

X 4. Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. Mus., No. 25264. Paratype. 

6. Dorsal interior showing the relatively large foramen in 

the hinge plate, the antero-laterally projecting grooves 
on the top edges of the crural plates, the dental sock- 
ets, and the median ridge. X4. Univ. of Cincinnati 
Geol. Mus., No. 25264. Paratype. 

7. Dorsal interior. X 4. Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. I\Ius., No. 

25264. Paratype. 

10. Dorsal interior. X 4. Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. Mus., No. 

25264. Paratype. 

8,9,11. Tapajotia tapajotensis (Derby) 34 

8. Dorsal interior showing the bilobed cardinal process, the 

median node, and the tubes formed by the recurved 
proximal portions of the crural plates. X 4. Univ. of 
Cincinnati Geol. Mus., No. 25262. 

9. Dorsal interior showing the tubes formed by the re- 

curved proximal portions of the crural plates. X 4. 
Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. Mus., No. 25262. 

11. Posterior view of the dorsal valve showing the partially 

broken, over-arching chilidiuni, the median septum be- 
tween the lobes of the cardinal process, and the 
grooves for muscle attachment on the posterior faces 
of the lobes of the cardinal process. X 4. Univ. of 
Cincinnati Geol. Mus., No. 25262. 



Pi,. 9, Vol. 35 



Bull. Ameu. Palkont. 



No. 149, Pl. 4 







PLATES (10) 



78 Bulletin- 149 140 

Explanation of Plate 5 (10) 
Figure Page 
1-6. Cleiothyridiiia derJjji Dresser, n. sp 42 

1. Ventral exterior showing the elongate shape and the 

growth lamellae. X 4. Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. Mus.. 
No. 25266. Paratype. 

2. Ventral interior showing the erect beak, the posteriorly 

recurved teeth, and suggestions of the muscle scars. 
X 4. Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. Mus., No. 25266. Paratype. 

3. Dorsal exterior showing the elongate shape, the imbricat- 

ing growth lamellae, and the spines. X4. Univ. of 
Cincinnati Geol. Mus., No. 25266. Paratype. 

4. Dorsal interior showing the relatively large foramen 

in the hinge plate and the antero-laterally directed 
grooves on the top edges of the crural plates, x 4. Univ. 
of Cincinnati Geol. Mus., No. 25266. Paratype. 

5. Dorsal view of an articulated specimen showing the erect 

ventral beak and the spines. X 4. Univ. of Cincinnati 
Geol. Mus., No. 25265. Holotype. 

6. Dorsal view of an articulated specimen showing the 

elongate shape and the growth lamellae. X4. Univ. 
of Cincinnati Geol. Mus., No. 25266. Paratype. 
7-10. Spirifer roeky-moiitaiii Marcou 53 

7. Dorsal interior showing the tenuous median septum, 

the posteriorly grooved cardinal process, vague muscle 
scar impressions, and the crural plates. x2. Univ. 
of Cincinnati Geol. Mus., No. 25270 

8. Ventral interior showing the muscle scars, the dental 

lamellae, and the teeth. x2. Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. 
Mus., No. 25270. 

9. Dorsal exterior showing the six plications on the fold, 

and the bifurcation, near the beak, of the first pair of 
plications on either side of the fold. X2. Univ. of Cin- 
cinnati Geol. Mus., No. 25270. 
10. Ventral exterior showing four of the five plications in 
the sinus. X 2. Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. ^lus.. No. 25270. 

11. Spirifer (Neosjn'rifor) caiiieratus (Morton), variant 61 

Dorsal exterior showing the acute angle between the car- 
dinal area and the lateral margins; and the vague 
fasciculation of the plications. X 2. Univ. of Cincinnati 
Geol. Mus.. No. 25273. Paratype. 
12-21. Crurithyris gTsuiiilaris Dresser, n. sp 46 

12. Dorsal exterior showing the general shape, and the few 

growth lamellae generally present. X4 . Univ. of Cin- 
cinnati Geol. Mus., No. 25268. Paratype. 

13. Ventral exterior showing the general shape. X 4. Univ. of 

Cincinnati Geol. Mus.. No. 25268. Paratype. 

14. Ventral interior showing the paradeltidial ridges on 

either side of the delthyrium. X 4. Univ. of Cincinnati 
Geol. Mus., No. 25268. Paratype. 

15. Lateral view showing the relative convexity of the valves. 

X4. Univ. of CMncinnati Geol. Mus., No. 25268. Paratype. 

16. Posterior view. X 4. Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. Mus., No. 

25268. Paratype. 

17. Dorsal view of an articulated specimen. X 4. Univ. of 

Cincinnati Geol. Mus.. No. 25268. Paratype. 

18. Dorsal interior showing the paranotothyrial ridges on 

either side of the notothyrium. X 4. Univ. of Cincinnati 
Geol. Mus., No. 25268. Paratype. 

19. Dorsal interior showing the small, ventrally pro.iecting 

cardinal process, the crural process and crural plates. 
X 4. Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. .Mus., No. 25268. Paratype. 

20. Ventral interior vaguely showing the muscle scars. X 4. 

Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. :\Ius., No. 25268. Paratype. 

21. Dorsal interior showing the cardinal process, the crural 

plates, and the crural processes. X4. Univ. of Cin- 
cinnati Geol. .Mus., No. 25268. Paratype. 



PL. 10, Vol. 35 



Bull. Amer. Paleont. 



No. 149, Pl. 5 




PLATE 6 (11) 



80 Bulletin 149 142 



Explanation of Plate 6 (11) 

Figure Page 

1,4,6. Phrioodothjris perplexa (McChesney) 50 

1. Dorsal exterior showing the growth lamellae and the 

double-barreled spines. X 4. Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. 
Mus., No. 25264. 

2. Dorsal interior showing the paranotothyrial ridges on 

either side of the notothj rium, the crural plates, and 
a vague suggestion of the muscle scars. X 4. Univ. of 
Cincinnati Geol. Mus., No. 25264. 

3. Ventral exterior showing the tear-drop shaped scars left 

behind where the double-barreled spines have broken 
off. X 4. Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. Mus., No. 25264. 

4. Ventral interior showing the paradelthyrial ridges on 

either side of the delthyrium. X 4. Univ. of Cincinnati 
Geol. -Mus., No. 25264. 

6. Dorsal interior showing the rugose cardinal process 
area, the crural plates, and the dental sockets. X4. 
Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. Mus., No. 25264. 

5. Spirlfer rockj -mojitani Marcou 53 

5. Dorsal interior showing the plates covering the groove- 

like dental sockets. X 4. Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. Mus., 
No. 25270. 



PL. 11, Vol. 35 



Bull. Ameb. Paleont. 



No. 149, Pl. 6 




PLATE? (12) 



82 Bulletin 149 144 



Explanation of Plate 7 (12) 

Figure Page 
1-6. Punctospirifer traiisyersa (McChesney) 63 

1. Dorsal interior showing the large cardinal process, the 

tenuous median septum, the muscle scar's encroach- 
ment onto the first pair of internal plications, the 
crural processes, and the punctae. X4. Univ. of Cin- 
cinnati Geol. Mus., No. 25274. 

2. Ventral interior showing the median septum. X 2. Univ. 

of Cincinnati Geol. Mus., No. 25274. 

3. Ventral interior showing the median septum and the 

punctae. X2. Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. Mus., No. 25274. 

4. Posterior view showing the wide palintrope of the ven- 

tral valve. X 2. Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. Mus., No. 

25274. 

5. Dorsal exterior showing the many growth lamellae, the 

punctae, the slight median groove on the fold. X2. 
Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. Mus., No. 25274. 

6. Dorsal interior showing the large, boss-like cardinal pro- 

cess, the tenuous median septum, and the punctae. 
X 2. Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. Mus., No. 25274. 

7-11. Spirlfer (Xeospirifer) eameratus (Morton) 57 

7. Ventral interior showing the teeth and the muscle scars. 

X 2. Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. Mus., No. 25271. 

8. Ventral exterior showing the vague fasciculation of the 

plications. X 2. Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. Mus., No. 

25271. 

9. Ventral interior showing the muscle scars. X 2. Univ. of 

Cincinnati Geol. Mus., No. 25271. 

10. Dorsal interior showing the crural processes. X 2. Univ. 

of Cincinnati Geol. Mus., No. 25271. 

11. Dorsal exterior showing the vague fasciculation of the 

plications. X 2. Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. Mus., No. 

25271. 



PL. 12, Vol. 35 



Bull. Amer. Paleont. 



No. 149, Pl. 7 




PLATES (13) 



84 Bulletin 149 146 



Explanation of Plate 8 (13) 



Figure Page 

1,4. Spirifer (Neospirifer) caineratiis (Morton), variant 61 

1. Dorsal view of an articulated specimen showing the acute 

angle between the palintrope and the lateral margin. 
X 1.5. Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. Mus., No. 25272. Holo- 
type. 

4. Ventral exterior of a very long specimen showing the 

acute angle between the palintrope and the lateral 
margin. X 1.5. Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. Mus., No. 25273. 
Paratype. 

2,3,5,6. Streptorhyiu'lius halliaiius Derby 27 

2. Ventral interior showing the anterior plications of the 

shell; the strongly developed muscular area, the teeth, 
and no median septum. X 2. Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. 
Mus., No. 25260. 

3. Dorsal interior showing the massive bifid cardinal pro- 

cess, and the strongly developed median ridge between 
the muscle scars. X 2. Univ. of Cincinnati Geol. Mus., 
No. 25260. 

5. Dorsal interior showing the same as P'ig. 3. X 2. Univ. 

of Cincinnati Geol. Mus., No. 25260. 

6. Postero-dorsal view showing the lobes of the cardinal 

process, one with two grooves. X 2. Univ. of Cincinnati 
Geol. ^[us., No. 25260. 



PL. 13, Vol. 35 



Bull. Amer. Paleont. 



No. 149, Pl. 8 




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Paleozoic Paleontology and Stratigraphy 



BULLETINS 

OF 

AMERICAN 
PALEONTOLOGY 



VOL. XXXV 



NUMBER 150 



1954 



MUS. CCMP. ZjJOL 
LIBRARY 

JUL 3 1954 

mum 



Paleontological Research Institution 

Ithaca, New York 

U. S. A. 



PALEONTOLOGICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTION 

1953-54 

President Kenneth E. Caster 

Vice-President W. Storrs Cole 

Secretary-Treasurer Rebecca S. Harris 

Director Katherine V. W. Palmer 

Counsel Armand L. Adams 

Trustees 

Kenneth E. Caster (1949-54) Katherine V. W. Palmer (Life) 

W. Storrs Cole (1952-58) Ralph A. Liddle (1950-56) 

Rousseau H. Flower (1950-55) Axel A. Olsson (Life) 

Rebecca S. Harris (Life) Norman E. Weisbord (1951-57) 

Solomon C. Hollister (1953-59) 



BULLETINS OF AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY 

and i 

PALAEONTOGRAPHICA AMERICANA 

Katherine V. W. Palmer, Editor 
Lempi H. Sincebaugh, Secretary 

Editorial Board 
Kenneth E. Caster G. Winston Sinclair 



Complete titles and price list of separate available numbers may be 
had on application. All volumes available except Vols. I and III of 
Bulletins and Vol. I of Palaeontographica Americana. 



Paleontological Research Institution 

109 Dearborn Place 

Ithaca, New York 

U.S.A. 



BULLETINS 

OF 

AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY 



Vol. 35 



No. 150 



EAKLY OKDOVICIAN CEPHALOPOD FAUJfA FROM 
JsOKTHWESTEKN AUSTRALIA 



By 

Curt Teichert and Brian F. Glenister 
University of Melbourne 



July 21, 1954 



Paleontological Research Institution 
Ithaca, New York, U.S.A. 



Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: OS 5i^^65 



Printed in the United States of America 



MUS. COMP. ZOOL 
LIBRARY 

JUL 3 1954 



L 



HARVARD 
UNiVERSlTY 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

Abstract 7 

Introduction 7 

Occurrence and history of discovery 8 

Stratigraphy 10 

Previous correlations and some corrections 11 

General aspects of the cephalopod fauna 13 

Faunal succession and correlations 16 

Relationships to other Australian cephalopod faunas 23 

Relationships and origin of Kimberley cephalopods 24 

Early evolution of the Endoceratida 29 

Terminology of septal necks 31 

Technique of studying opaque sections 35 

Systematic descriptions 37 

Family Ellesmeroceratidae Kobayashi 37 

Genus Loxochoanclla Teichert and Glenister, n. gen 37 

Loxochodtiflla nvarhurtoni Teichert and Glenister, n. sp 37 

Family Protocycloceratidae Kobayashi 40 

Genus Ectocycloccras Ulrich, Foerste, Miller, and Unklesbay 41 

Ectorycloccras inflatuin Teichert and Glenister, n. sp 41 

Genus Kyminoceras Teichert and Glenister, n. gen 42 

Kyminoceras forrrsti Teichert and Glenister, n. sp 43 

Genus Diastolocrras Teichert and Glenister, n. gen 44 

Diastnloccras perplcxum Teichert and Glenister, n. sp 45 

Family Baltoceratidae Kobayashi 46 

Genus Hcmichoanflla Teichert and Glenister, n. gen 46 

Hemichoanrlla canningi Teichert and Glenister, n. sp 47 

Family Eothinoceratidae Ulrich, Foerste, Miller, and Unklesbay 48 

Genus Eothinoccras Ulrich, Foerste, Miller, and Unklesbay 49 

Eothlnoccras maitlandi Teichert and Cilenister, n. fam 49 

Family Thylacoceratidae Teichert and Glenister, n. fam 51 

Genus Thylacoceras Teichert and Glenister 52 

Thylacoccras kimhcrlcyrnsr Teichert and Cjlenister 52 

Thylacoceras teretilobatum Teichert and Glenister, n. sp 53 

Genus Lcbetoceras Teichert and Glenister, n. gen 54 

Lebetoceras ocpikt Teichert and Glenister, n. sp 54 

Genus Notocycloccras Teichert and Glenister, n. gen 56 

Notocycloceras yurabiensc Teichert and Glenister, n. sp 56 



Genus Ventroloboceras Teichert and Glenister, n. gen 57 

Ventroloboceras furcillatiim Teichert and Glenister, n. sp 58 

Family Proterocameroceratidae Kobayashi 58 

Genus Protnocamcroceras Ruedemann 59 

Proterocameroceras contrarium Teichert and Glenister, n. sp 59 

Genus Anthoceras Teichert and Glenister, n. gen 62 

Anthoceras decorum Teichert and Glenister, n. sp 63 

Family Piloceratidae Miller 64 

Genus AUopiloceras Ulrich and Foerste 6+ 

AUnpiloccras calamus Teichert and Glenister, n. sp 64 

Family Endoceratidae Hyatt 65 

Genus Cyrtcndoceras Patrunky 65 

Cyrtendoccras carncgici Teichert and Glenister, n. sp 67 

Genus Lobendocct as Teichert and Glenister, n. gen 69 

Lobcndoccras cmanuclcnsr Teichert and Glenister, n. sp 69 

Genus Campcndoceras Teichert and Glenister, n. gen 70 

Campendoceras gracile Teichert and Glenister, n. sp 71 

Genus et sp. ind 71 

Family Bassleroceratidae Ulrich, Foerste, Miller and Unklesbay 74 

Genus Bassleroccras Ulrich and Foerste 74 

Bassleroccras annulatum Teichert and Glenister, n. sp 74 

Family Westonoceratidae Teichert 75 

Genus Apocrinoceras Teichert and Glenister, n. gen 75 

Apocr'inoccras talboti Teichert and Glenister, n. sp 76 

Family Tarphyceratidae Hyatt 77 

Genus Aphetoceras Hyatt 77 

Aphetoceras delcctans Teichert and Glenister, n. sp 77 

Aphetoceras desertorum Teichert and Glenister, n. sp SO 

Genus Aethocrras Teichert and Glenister, n. gen 81 

Aethoceras caurus Teichert and Glenister, n. sp 82 

Genus Estonioccras Noetling 83 

Estonioceras sp 83 

Genus Pycnoccras Hyatt 84 

Pycnoccras liratum Teichert and Glenister, n. sp 84 

Family Trocholitidae Chapman 86 

Genus Arkoceras Ulrich, Foerste, Miller and Furnish 86 

Arkoccras sp 86 

Genus Hardmanoceras Teichert and Glenister 87 

Hardmanoccras lobatum Teichert and Glenister 87 

Bibliography 88 



Text figures 

1. Geological sketcli map of tlie I'rice's Creek area witli index map of 
\\'estern Australia in lo\ver left hand corner. The undesignated creek 
whitli tra\erses the outcrop area of tlie Emanuel limestone is Emanuel 
Creek. (Map by courtesy of the Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geo- 
logy, and Geophysics, Canberra) 8 

2. nistrilniiion diagram of the more important longiconic cephalopod 
genera from the i'rice's Creek area 19 

3. Terminology of septal necks 32 

4. Illustration of ectosiphuncuiar suture, consisting of a diagram of the 
ventral surface of two camerae (shell removed) and four longitu- 
dinal sections of the ectosiphuncle 34 

5. Ectosiphuncle of Loxochoaiirlla iciiihiirtoni 38 

6. Ectosiphuncle of Kyminocrras forrcsti 44 

7. Ectosiphuncle of Diastoloccras pnplrxum 46 

8. Ectosiphuncle of H rmu lioaurlld canti'nidi 48 

9. Ectosiphuncle of Lcbctoccras oepiki 55 

10. Ectosiphuncle of Proln-ocamcroccras curitraiiurri 59 

11. Suture of Protrrocarnnoirras confrarium 60 

12. Anterior and posterior cross-sections of the holotype of Cyrtendoccras 
carnegici 67 

13. Cross-section of Aphctoccras delectans 78 

14. Cross-section of A phctoccras dcsertnrum 80 

15. Cross-section of Aethoccras cauriis 82 

16. Cross-section of Eston'ioccras sp 83 

17. Cross-section of Pyciocnas liratum „ 84 

18. Cross-section of Arkoccras sp 86 

Tables 

I. Stratigraphic units, faunal stages and time correlation of the Ordo- 
vician in Price's Creek area, ^^^A. (from Guppy and Opik, 1950) .... 12 

II. Distribution of the Price's Creek nautiloid fauna 18 

Plates 1-10 93-112 



EARLY ORDOVICIAN CEPHALOPOD FAUNA FROM 
NORTHWESTERN AUSTRALIA 

Curt Teichhrt and Brian F. Gi.enistkr* 
ABSTRACT 

A study of the rich Middle and Upper Canadian cephaiopod fauna of the 
Price's Creek area forms the basis of the paper. Preservation in limestone has 
permitted detailed microscopic study. The time span of the fauna coincides with 
a critical period of rapid diversification of the nautiloid stock. l"he 26 new 
species are distributed amonfjst 2+ genera (14 new) and 12 families (1 new). 
It is considered that the multiplicity of generic and familial categories in rela- 
tion to the number of species is a true reflection of the explosive evolution of 
the early Ordovician nautiloids. 

Ten of the genera are found only in North America and Australia, 2 gen- 
era are common to Europe and Australia, and 11 genera are indigenous. It is 
believed from these facts that there was an intermingling of littoral faunas be- 
tween North America and Western Australia by some route which by-passed 
eastern Asia. Guyots may have served as an ecological bridge across the 
Pacific. 

The terminology of the ectosiphuncle is revised. The terms orthochoanitic, 
suborthochoanitic, and holochoanitic are redefined, and the terms achoanitic, 
loxochoanitic, hemichoanitic, subholochoanitic, macrochoanitic, and ectosiphun- 
cular suture proposed. 

INTRODUCTION 

In 1950, Guppy and Opik published a brief note on the dis- 
covery of Ordovician rocks in the Kimberley Division of Western 
AustraHa. This announcement was momentous for two reasons. First, 
the new occurrence was geographically remote from any previously 
known outcrops of Ordovician rocks, the nearest being those of cen- 
tral Australia, 400 miles to the southeast. Secondly, the newly dis- 
covered section proved to be thick and fossiliferous and could be 
expected to provide important faunal hnks between the Ordovician 
of Australia and that of other parts of the world. The fossil collec- 
tions made by geologists of the Bureau of Mineral Resources, Ge- 
ology and Geophysics, contained many cephalopods which were sub- 
mitted to us for study and description. The present paper presents 
the first description of a major faunal unit from this new Ordovician 
area and since Guppy and Opik's publication is not easily accessible 
outside Australia, we have thought it advisable to quote extensively 
from its description of the locality and the section. 



* U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, Colorado, and Iowa State University, 
Iowa City, Iowa. Formerly University of Melbourne. 



Bulletin ISO 



154 



OCCURRENCE AND HISTORY OF DISCOVERY 

The Ordovician outcrops, which were discovered in 1949, cover 
approximately 12 square miles in what is known as the Price's Creek 
area of Christmas Creek Station (see Text Fig. 1). This locality is 
situated at 125°51' E. long, and 18°42' S. lat., about 180 miles east- 
south-east of Derby and 40 miles on a bearing of 145° from Fitzroy 
Crossing. It lies in the northeastern part of the Desert Basin, the 
largest sedimentary basin along the western margin of the Australian 
continent. Until 1949 it was generally believed that the oldest sedi- 
ments in the Desert Basin were of Middle Devonian age (Teichert 
1947a). Attention had been intermittently focused on this area by 
geological parties since 1919, when traces of mmeral oil were re- 
ported in a shallow water well. As a result of this discovery five 
bores ranging in depth from 90 to 1008 ft. were drilled during 1922 




Sca-le of AAiles 

O 1 

Qua-ternaru Soils & Alluvium 

Permia,n ^J ("Tint Formation (Pij) 

'yyy Mt Pierre Croup (Dup) 
n 
I s/\^ Pilla-ra/ Limestone (Dmp) 



Devonia.n 



Ordoviciin 



•</, Oa,p Creek Dolomite (Oo) 



I I I , n Ema-nuel Limestone (Oe) 
? ■ 

DiXlsr ^AusruALTA. 

, Perth 



Fig. 1. Geological sketch map of the Price's Creek area with index map of 
Western Australia in lower right hand corner. The undesignated creek which 
traverses the outcrop area of the Emanuel limestone is Emanuel Creek. (Map by 
courtesy of the Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology, and Geophysics, Can- 
berra). 



155 Australian Ordovician Cli-haloi-ods: lEicHtRX & Glenister 



and 192.V mineral oil was reported from lour ot the bores. The area 
had been included in a geological map by E. T. Hardman as early as 
18S7, when the rocks were shown as Carboniferous. In 1924, A. Wade 
reported on the same area, with a special view to the alleged oil 
occurrence, and he retained the notion of the Carboniferous age of 
the rocks concerned. Finally, a contour map of the Price's Creek 
area was provided with a more detailed geological report by Blatch- 
ford (1927) who, however, likewise failed to notice the presence of 
Ordovician fossils. From Blatchford's collections Prendergast (1935) 
described a plectambonitid brachiopod, Spanodonta hoskingiae, but 
gave its age as Devonian. 

Recognition of the widespread occurrence of Devonian rocks in 
the Kimberley Division was due to the researches of L. V. Hosking 
(1932) who worked on collections made by Blatchford and others 
and demonstrated that most of the limestones shown as Carboni- 
ferous on all previous geological maps were actually Devonian. This 
was the age given to the rocks of the Price's Creek area in a re- 
vised map and detailed geological report printed as a company 
report by Wade in 1936. Later visitors included field parties of 
Calte.x Australia Oil Development Pty. Ltd. in 1940, and of Vacuum 
Oil Pty. Ltd. in 1947. These parties likewise failed to find Ordovician 
fossils. For some years one of us (C. T.) suspected the presence of 
pre-Devonian rocks in the area from a number of Eccyliopterus- 
like gastropods in the Blatchford collections but failed to realize the 
importance of the occurrence of Spanodonta; he never had an op- 
portunity of visiting the area himself. Significant collections were 
first made by D. J. Guppy and A. W. Lindner, in August 1949, while 
engaged in a general survey of the Devonian rocks of the Kimberley 
Division. The party was later joined by A. A. Opik, who collected 
the bulk of the material which is now available. 

At the end of 1949 all cephalopod specimens from these col- 
lections were sent to the senior author who, assisted by J. M. Dick- 
ins, made a preliminary survey of the material during 1950. Since 
1951 the work has been carried on jointly by the authors of the 
present paper, and some preliminary results were incorporated in an 
earlier publication (Teichert and Glenister, 1952). In this paper the 
authors described two new genera, Thylacoceras and Hardmanoceras, 
and gave preliminary identifications of a number of other genera. 



10 Bulletin 150 156 



They determined the age of the bulk of the cephalopod material as 
Middle and Upper Canadian. A more detailed study of the fauna, 
based on a much larger number of thin sections, has led to a revision 
of some of the preliminary identifications. When the study of the 
initial collections had been all but completed, about 100 additional 
specimens were sent to us by O. P. Singleton, of the University of 
Western Australia, who visited the Price's Creek area in 1952. Al- 
though this material contained no new species, it contributed con- 
siderably to our knowledge of a number of forms. 

We are greatly indebted to all the individuals concerned, in- 
cluding the Director of the Australian Bureau of Mmeral Resources, 
Geology and Geophysics, for making this unique material available 
to us and for placing all relevant field data at our disposal. We also 
wish to record our thanks to Dr. R. H. Flower who has freely dis- 
cussed with us many problems in relation to this paper and who has 
read and criticized the entire manuscript. We are indebted to the 
University of Melbourne for a financial contribution towards the cost 
of plates. 

STRATIGRAPHY 

The Ordovician sediments of the Price's Creek area are 2450 
feet thick. They constitute the Price's Creek group (Guppy and 
Opik, 1950) and are divided into two formations. 

1. Emanuel limestone. This formation consists of 1670 ft. of 
light-grey limestone and calcareous shale. The lowest fossiliferous 
beds contain Obolus and hence are correlated by Guppy and Opik 
with the Tremadocian and Ozarkian. Higher in the sequence Xeno- 
stegium. appears, and still higher, limestones with a rich fauna of 
asaphid and pliomerid trilobites, gastropods, and nautiloids, with in- 
terbedded graptolite (dichograptid) horizons. The highest beds 
contain a genus of telephid trilobites which continues into the over- 
lying formation. 

2. Gap Creek dolomite. This formation consists of 780 feet of 
light-brown dolomite with narrow sandy bands. It contains an il- 
laenid trilobite (Bumastus?) and the plectambonitid brachiopod 
Spanodonta hoskingiae Prendergast. 

Based on a preliminary analysis of the fossil collections, Guppy 



157 AusTKAi.i.w Ordovui \\ C"i;i>n \i.(ii'0!),s; Teiciukt i'^- Ci.kmster 11 

aiul Opik (.listinguislicd rtve "faunal stages" in the Price's Creek 
Group as follows: 

See Table I, page 12. 

PRKVIOUS CORRELATIONS AND SOME CORRECTIONS 

Guppy and (")pik correlated Stages II and III of the Emanuel 
limestone with the Canadian, Stage IV with the Chazyan, and the 
Gap Creek dolomite with the lower Trenton. 1 he preliminary 
study of the cephalopods led us to suggest some changes (Teichert 
and Glcnister, 1952). We correlated Stages II, III, and IV with the 
Middle and Upper Canadian, and the Gap Creek dolomite with the 
Chazyan. Our more detaded present studies have confirmed beyond 
doubt the correlations of the Emanuel limestone above the Obolus 
beds with the Middle and Upper Canadian, whereas the correlation 
of Gap Creek dolomite has not been substantiated. 

B}^ 1952 we had noted the prevalence in our material of ortho- 
conic nautiloids "with straight marginal siphuncles which range from 
short orthochoanitic to full holochoanitic in structure and from eury- 
siphonate to stenosiphonate in size." It was stated that "most spe- 
cies can be assigned to such genera as Endoceras, Baltoceras, Pro- 
tobaltoceras, and Bactroceras." However, detailed microscopic study 
of the siphuncular structure of these forms has since revealed that 
the species to which reference was made are best accommodated in 
new genera, which are described in the present paper. 

Two additional genera which were wrongly identified and which 
also have to be removed from the faunal list of the Emanuel lime- 
stone are Cyptendoceras (erroneously spelled Cryptendoceras in our 
1952 paper) and Rudoljoceras. The species which were believed to 
represent these two genera have likewise turned out to belong to pre- 
viously unknown generic groups. 

Some of these taxonomic changes have helped to put the cor- 
relation of Stages III and IV of the Emanuel limestone with the 
Middle and Upper Canadian on a more secure basis, particularly the 
removal of such genera as Endoceras, Bactroceras, and Baltoceras 



12 



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159 AusTRAiiw Ordovician Ceph ai.opods : Teichert i^- GiENisTER n 



which outside Australia seem to be restricted to beds of post-Cana- 
dian age.^ 

The identification of an endoceroid from the Gap Creek dolo- 
mite as Meniscoceras has been abandoned and this nautiloid now 
affords no basis for an age determination oi that formation. 

GENERAL ASPECTS OF THE CEPHALOPOD FAUNA 

In this chapter some of the more interesting and significant fea- 
tures of the cephalopod fauna of the Price's Creek group are sum- 
marized. Subsequent chapters are devoted to the discussion of more 
speciahzed aspects. With the exception of one indeterminate spe- 
cies of Endoceratidae, all the cephalopods described in this paper 
came from the Emanuel limestone. This fauna is of singular interest, 
because no similar assemblage has been found anywhere else in Aus- 
tralia or on the neighboring continent of Asia. In fact, it is most 
nearly related to North American faunas, and these affinities will be 
discussed in more detail below. At first glance the collections did not 
appear promising, because many specimens were collected from 
river gravel and others are firmly embedded in hard limestone, from 
which they are difficult or impossible to free. However, preservation 
in limestone permitted detailed study of microscopic structures in 
thin sections, and it is possible that no single cephalopod fauna of 
the same age has previously been studied so thoroughly with regard 
to the structure of the septal necks and connecting rings. A wealth 
of new information can thus be presented. 

It was found that the span of this fauna coincides with a critical 
period in the evolution of the cephalopods, during which holocho- 
anitic septal necks developed from ellipochoanitic ones and eurysi- 
phonate forms from stenosiphonate genera. Our material contains, at 
first glance, a bewildering array of combinations of narrow and wide 
siphuncles, and septal necks which range from achoanitic to 
holochoanitic in structure. Variety is increased by the appearance 
of annulated forms in which these characteristics may also be com- 



^Removal of Bactroccras from the faunal list of the Emanuel limestone does 
not affect the occurrence of this genus in central Australia, where it is repre- 
sented by Bactroccras gossci (Etheridge) (see Teichert and Glenister, 1952). 
More recently, Glenister (1953) has recognized the genus in the Ordovician of 
New South Wales. 



14 Bulletin 150 160 



bined. Out of these observations arose the need for the more precise 
terminolog}' of septal necks which is described in a later chapter. 

Regardless of length of septal necks, endocones began to appear 
in forms in which the siphuncle had reached a certain critical size. If 
the presence of endocones is regarded as a criterion of the Endocera- 
tida, the Emanuel limestone contains the earliest known member of 
that order, a new genus here described as Anthoceras. 

Altogether the cephalopod fauna of the Emanuel limestone, as 
here described, consists of 26 species, 2 of which have not been for- 
mally named. All of the species are restricted to the Emanuel 
limestone, and none of them has as yet been recognized from other 
areas. These 26 species belong to 24 genera, 14 of which are new (in- 
cluding 2 genera described by us in 1952). The 24 genera in turn 
are apportioned among 12 families, one of which is new. 

The high proportion of generic and familial categories in rela- 
tion to species may shock some readers. Authors who assign 26 
species to 24 genera and 12 families must be prepared to face criti- 
cism for excessive "splitting." We have given much consideration 
to this aspect, and in every single case the decision to establish a new 
genus has been arrived at after mature deliberations and usually with 
a considerable degree of reluctance. We have had no preconceived 
ideas, observed facts have been our sole guide to interpretation, and 
we are convinced that the multiplicity of our generic and familial 
categories is an accurate expression of the evolutionary processes 
which dominated the expansion of the cephalopods in the early Or- 
dovician period. This aspect will be again taken up for treatment in 
a later chapter. 

In the following we propose to point out briefly the principal 
features of the Emanuel limestone fauna which make it so uniquely 
interesting to students of cephalopod evolution. 

Four large orders of cephalopods are represented, the EUesmero- 
ceratida, the Endoceratida, the Discosorida, and the Tarphyceratida. 
In addition we have a representative of the genus Bassleroceras 
which Flower and Kummel (1950) made the type genus of an in- 
dependent order, the Bassleroceratida. In our opinion the genera 
included in this order may well be regarded as primitive members 
of the Tarphyceratida. 



161 Australian Ordovician t"i i'h ai.opods: Teicmirt &: CiiiiNisiER 15 



In tlu' Kmainiel limestone the Kllesmeroceratida are represented 
1\\ the tollowing families: Ellesmeroceratidae, Eothinoceratidae, Pro- 
tocycloceratidae, Baltoceratidae, and possibly a new family Thyla- 
coceratidae. The Ellesmeroceratidae and Baltoceratidae are each 
represented by a new genus, Loxochoanella and Hemichoanella re- 
spectively. The Eothinoceratidae are represented by a typical species 
of Eothinoceras which has already been discussed by us in 1952. The 
Protocycloceratidae are in an unsatisfactory taxonomic state and the 
assignment of three genera from the Emanuel limestone to this group 
implies no more than general similarity to genera which have else- 
where been assigned to this family. The new family Thylacoceratidae 
has relationships both to the Ellesmeroceratidae and to the Endocer- 
atidae and will be discussed in more detail below. 

The Endoceratida are represented mostly by genera exhibiting 
primitive structures of this order. The Proterocameroceratidae (as 
defined by Flower, 1946) are represented by a form which we have 
referred to Proterocameroceras and which, even if it should be trans- 
ferred to another genus, will remain in that family. In this family we 
also place Anthoceras, an annulate form with hemichoanitic septal 
necks (see chapter on terminology of septal necks). The Pilocera- 
tidae are represented by the genus Allopiloceras, and the Endocera- 
tidae by the straight genus, Lobendoceras, and two curved ones, Cyr- 
tendoceras and Campendoceras. 

Of particular interest is, furthermore, the occurrence of one new 
genus which appears to represent an early form of the Discosorida. 
Until recently this order was known only from beds of Black River 
and younger age, and extended into the Silurian. However, in 1940 
Flower recognized Ruedemannoceras of the Chazyan as a primitive 
member of this group, and in 1952 we described a much larger and 
more advanced discosorid, Madiganella, from approximately Chaz- 
yan equivalents in central Australia. Pre-Chazyan discosorids may 
be expected to exhibit discosorid features in a more primitive state. 
Siphuncles should be smaller, and the connecting ring, though show- 
ing typical discosorid thickening, should be thinner than in later dis- 
cosorids. The new gem;-; Apocrinoceras possesses such features. It 
may represent a new family, but is, for the time being, regarded as 
an early westonoceratid. 



16 Bulletin 150 162 



Both families of the Tarphyceratida, the Tarphyceratidae as 
well as the Trocholitidae, are represented. In these families we have 
the genera Aphetoceras, Pycnoceras and Arkoceras, previously 
known from North America, as well as one European genus, Estoni- 
oceras, and two indigenous forms, Hardmanoceras, a trocholitid, and 
the tarphyceratid Aethoceras, the earliest known torticone ("tro- 
choceroid"). 

While all the species described in this report are indigenous to 
the Price's Creek area of Western Australia, an analysis of the 24 
genera reveals that 8 have not been recorded previously from outside 
North America. Of the 14 new genera described in this report. Dr. 
Flower reports that he has recognized two among material, as yet 
undescribed, from North America. This brings the total of genera 
common to the Ordovician of North America and Western Australia 
to 10. Twelve genera are thus far restricted to Western Australia, 
and only two have previously been known from Europe alone. These 
relationships will be considered in more detail below. 

FAUNAE SUCCESSION AND CORRELATIONS 

The present study was begun without detailed knowledge of 
field relationships and of vertical distribution of the species. Since a 
great many field numbers had been given to the specimens, it was 
assumed that specimens had been collected from narrow strati- 
graphical intervals. When we began to realize that the material might 
contain evolutionary series, particularly with regard to the develop- 
ment of septal necks and connecting rings, the exact succession of 
the species became of considerable importance. It was then that we 
learned with regret that owing to lack of time, sickness, and other 
unforeseen circumstances, only a rough stratigraphical grouping of 
the collections had been attempted in the field, and that loose speci- 
mens from the bed of Emanuel Creek had not been kept apart from 
material collected in situ. Since the Ordovician rocks in Emanuel 
Creek dip upstream there is thus a possibility of contamination of 
the collections downward in the section, but not vice versa. Atten- 
tion will be paid in the following discussion to this condition. 



163 Australian Ordoviciw C'i-.i'iiai.oi'ods: Teichkrt & Glenister 17 



A glance at Table 2 shows that collections from up to several 
hundred feet of strata have been mixed. Fortunately, the two most 
important and interestino; assemblages have been defined within 
more narrow limits. These are the assemblages numbered NL 17 
from beds 355 to 460 feet above the base of the Emanuel limestone 
and the one numbered NL 20E from the lower portion of that part 
of the section which lies between 1065 and 1170 feet. 

In the following we shall discuss the distribution of the cephalo- 
pods in more detail. For the convenience of the reader, family rela- 
tionships are given and repeated frequently in this discussion. 

The lower 355 feet of the Emanuel limestone do not appear to 
contain cephalopods. Most or probably all of this part of the section 
represents Guppy and Opik's "Stage I," which these authors cor- 
related with the "Ozarkian." 

From beds between 355 and 460 feet, which represent Guppy 
and Opik's "Stage II," the following species have been identified: 

Family Protocycloceratidae 

Kyminoccras forrcsti, n.gen., n.sp. 
Family Eothinoceratidae 

Eothinorcras maUlandi n.sp. 
Family Thylacoceratidae, n.fam. 

Lebetoccras oepiki, n.gen., n.sp. 
Family Proterocameroceratidae 

Anthoccras decorum, n.gen., n.sp. 
Family Trocholitidae 

Arkoceras sp. 

This IS an assemblage of extraordinary interest. There are five spe- 
cies representing five genera (three of them new) and five families 
(one of them new). Of these species, Kyminoceras forresti, Eothino- 
ceras viaitlandi, and Arkoceras sp. have not been found at higher 
stratigraphical levels and are, therefore, least likely to be contamina- 
tions from above. Eothinoceras maitlandi is considered to be the 
most important find, because it represents a genus which is so far 
known only from the Middle Canadian Rochdale limestone of New 
York State, where it is represented by Eothinoceras americanum 
Ulrich, Foerste, Miller and Unklesbay (1944). 



18 



Bulletin 150 



164 



Table 2. Distribution of the Price's Creek nautiloid fauna. Stages II-IV are in the Emanuel 
limestone, and Stage V^ represents the basal beds of the Gap Creek dolomite. A cross 
marks the stratigraphic position of the holotype of each species. 



Age 



Stages of Guppy & OpiK (1950) 



Universitv of W. A. loicalities 



Bureau Jlin. Resources localitiei 



Feet above base of section 



Loxochoanella warburtoni . . . . 

Ectocyloceras inflatum 

Kyminoceras forresti 

Diastoloceras perplexum 

Hemichoanella canning! 

Eothinoceras maitlandi 

Thylacoceras kimberleyense . . , 
Thylacoceras teretilobatum . . . 

Lebetoceras oepiki 

Notocycloceras yurabiense . . . 
Ventroloboceras furcillatum . . 
Proterocameroceras contrarium 

Anthoceras decorum 

Campendoceras gracile 

Allopiloceras calamus 

Cyrtendoceras carnegiei 

Lobendoceras emanuelense . . . . 
Endoceratidae gen. et sp. ind. 

Bassleroceras annulatum 

Apocrinoceras talboti 

Aphetoceras delectans 

Aphetoceras desertorum 

Aethoceras caurus 

Estonioceras sp 

Pycnoceras liratum 

Arkoceras sp 

Hardmanoceras lobatum 



M. 
Can. 



II 



El 



NL17 



355- 
460 



Upper 
(^anadian 



Chazyan 



III 



IV 



V 



ElO 



Ell 



NL20D 



460- 
1065 



NL20E I NH145 I NL20F 



1065-1170 



1245- 
1510 



-X- 

-X- 
-X- 



NH141 1 NH142 



1670-1840 



165 



Australian Drdovician C'ii'HAi.ofods: Teichkrt i^ Glenister 



19 



yen. md 




Fig. 2. Distribution diagram of the more important longiconic cephalopod 
genera from the Price's Creek area. 



20 Bulletin 150 \i 166 



According to unpublished observations by Dr. R. H. Flower, 
Kyminoceras occurs in the Upper Canadian part of the El Paso lime- 
stone of southern New Mexico. Dr. Flower also informed us that he 
recognized Anthoceras from as yet undescribed material from the 
Upper Canadian Luke Hill formation at Philipsburg, Quebec, and 
one of us has been able to verify this identification by studying one 
of the specimens identified by Dr. Flower. 

Arkoceras has, in North America, been reported from both Up- 
per and Middle Canadian rocks. Arkoceras exiguum Ulrich, Foerste, 
Miller and Furnish (1942) occurs m the Smithville formation of 
Arkansas, which these authors regard as Upper Canadian. An un- 
named form, Arkoceras sp., has been described from the Naylor 
Ledge limestone of southern Quebec, which Flower (oral communi- 
cation) believes may be as old as Middle Canadian. 

Thus, the assemblage from between 355 and 460 feet contains 
genera which in North America are either Middle Canadian (Eothin- 
oceras) or Upper Canadian (Kyminoceras, Anthoceras) or occur in 
both (Arkoceras). Lebetoceras has not yet been recognized outside 
Australia. Of these genera Anthoceras and Lebetoceras could be 
contaminations from higher beds. 

In the absence of more detailed information on the stratigraphic 
occurrence of the species in this particular interval, it may be as- 
sumed that we are here concerned with transition beds between the 
Middle and Upper Canadian. The scale is perhaps weighed slightly 
more heavily on the side of Middle Canadian because of the high 
value for correlation which is ascribed to the genus Eothinoceras. 

Above 460 ft. begins Guppy and Opik's "Stage IH" which is 
710 ft. thick. The lower 605 feet, from 460 to 1065 ft., are not yet 
particularly rich in cephalopods, although more species occur than in 
"Stage n." The following species have been identified from the 
stratigraphic interval between 460 and 1065 ft. 

Family Thylacoceratidae 

Lrhrtocrras orpiki, n.gen., n.sp. 

Notocycloccras yurabicnse, n.gen., n.sp. 

Thylacocfi as kimberleyense Teichert and Glenister 

Ventroloboceras furcillatum, n.gen., n.sp. 
Family Proterocameroceratidae 

Anthoceras decorum, n.gen., n.sp. 
Family Tarphyceratidae 

A phetoceras delectans, n.sp. 

Eston'ioceras sp. 



167 AusTRAiiw Oiuxiviciw Ci I'll \i opons: Ti-icm KT i^ Glenister 21 



Ani/ioceras decorum comes up from "Stage II," where its oc- 
currence may or may not be the result of downstream transportation. 
Aphetoccras delectans continues into the next higher group of 
beds, where it is associated with two additional species of the same 
genus. The occurrence at the 460 to 1065 ft. interval may, therefore, 
be due to downstream transportation, hut this is not certain. Outside 
Australia, Tarphyceratidae are most common in the Upper Cana- 
dian, and it seems possible that the lower part of "Stage III" be- 
longs to the early Upper Canadian, although a late Middle Canadian 
age would not appear impossible. The most important group in this 
assemblage seems to be the Thylacoceratidae. This family com- 
prises a group of genera with narrow marginal siphuncles and long 
septal necks and has affinities with both the Ellesmeroceratida and 
the Endoceratida. It is probably most closely related to the former, 
representmg a specialized branch which approaches the Endoceratida 
in certam characteristics. 

The most important assemblage of cephalopods is found in the 
beds just above 1065 ft. and probably not higher than 1100 to 1120 
ft. This comprises the following species: 

Family Protocycloceratidae 

Diastuloccras pcrplcxum, n.gen., n.sp. 

Ectocycloceras inflattim, n.sp. 
Family Ellesmeroceratidae 

Loxocfioaticlla icarhurtoni, n.gen., n.sp. 
Family Baltoceratidae 

Hrmichoanclla canniugi, n.gen., n.sp. 
Family Thylacoceratidae, n.fam. 

Notocycloccras ytirahicnsr, n.gen., n.sp. 

Thylacoccras kimbcrlrycnse Teichert and Glenister 

T. terctilobatum, n.sp. 
Family Proterocameroceratidae 

Protocameroccras contrarinm, n.sp. 
Family Piloceratidae 

Allopiloccras calamus, n.sp. 
Family Endoceratidae 

I.ohrndocrras emanuelcnsc, n.gen., n.sp, 

Camprndoccras gracilc, n.gen., n.sp. 
Family Bassleroceratidae 

Basslcrocrras anuulatum, n.sp. 
Family Westonoceratidae 

A pocrinocrras talboti, n.gen., n.sp. 
Family Tarphyceratidae 



22 Bulletin 150 168 



Aphrtoccras Jelcctans, n.sp. 
A. desertorum, n.sp. 
Aethoceras caurus, n.gen., n.sp. 
Pycnoceras lirattim, n.sp. 
Family Trocholitidae 

HarJmanoccras Inbatum Teichert and Glenister 

This is a varied and interesting fauna in which the Upper Canadian 
element is unmistakable, due to the presence of such genera as Pro- 
terocameroceras , Allopiloceras, Bassleroceras, Aphetoceras and Pyc- 
noceras, none of which has ever before been reported outside the Up- 
per Canadian of North America. - 

Since only two of the species listed above have been found in 
collections made from the upper part of the interval between 1065 
and 1170 ft., it is concluded that practically the entire assemblage 
occurs in situ at a level not far above 1065 ft. Particularly note- 
worthy in this Upper Canadian fauna is the appearance of the first 
truly holochoanitic endoceratid, Lobendoceras emanuelense. Of par- 
ticular interest are also the occurrences of typical ellesmeroceratids 
and baltoceratids, and the survival in strength of the Thylacocera- 
tidae. Not less interesting is the appearance of what seems to be the 
earliest known discosorid, Apocrinoceras. Among the Tarphycera- 
tidae, Aethoceras, the earliest known torticone is especially note- 
worthy. 

In short, this fauna combines, in the most interesting way, sur- 
vivors of more primitive ellesmeroceroid stocks with more modern 
endoceratids, tarphyceratids, trocholitids (Hardmanoceras), and 
forerunners of the still later discosorids. 

Towards the top of the 1065-1170 ft. interval, cephalopods be- 
come quite rare. Hemichoanella canningi and Notocycloceras yura- 
biense seem to continue from the lower beds, and the only new ar- 
rival is Cyrtendoceras carnegiei, a holochoanitic curved endoceratid 
of European affinities. Species which may be expected to occur, be- 
cause they have been found again above 1170 ft., are Lebetoceras 
oepiki and Hardmanoceras lobatuvi. The former species, however, is 
also absent from the rich horizons just above 1065 feet, and it is not 
impossible that its occurrence in the lower part of the section (be- 



-Poulsen (1952) has recently reported Protcrocameroceras from the Upper 
Canadian of East (Greenland and from the Durness limestone of Scotland. Both 
these occurrences are from within the North Atlantic Ordovician faunal 
province. 



169 AusTRAi IAN Ordovician Cephalopods: Teichert v't Glenister 23 



twccn .vt5 and 1065 ft.) is in river pebbles only. Both species occur 
in the interval between 1245-1510 ft., just below the top of the 
Emanuel limestone. This is part, or all, of Stage IV in the succession 
of Guppy and Opik, and indications are that this stage is still part 
of the Upper Canadian. Cyrtendoceras indicates a younger age, but 
the only available specimen of Cyrtendoceras carnegiei could have 
been transplanted downstream from higher beds. 

None of the species of the Emanuel limestone continue into the 
overlying Gap Creek dolomite (Stage V of Guppy and Opik) which 
has only yielded some unidentifiable fragments of an endoceratid 
and cannot, therefore, be dated on cephalopod evidence. 

Our conclusions are thus only slightly at variance with the 
preliminary findings of Guppy and Opik, who regarded Stage IV as 
Chazyan and the Gap Creek dolomite as Lower Trenton. If the latter 
correlation is confirmed, the possibility of a break in the sequence 
between the Emanuel limestone and the Gap Creek dolomite, repre- 
senting at least part of the Chazyan-Black River interval, should be 
investigated in the field. 

RELATIONSHIPS TO OTHER AUSTRALIAN 
CEPHALOPOD FAUNAS 

Among described cephalopod faunas from Australia, only the 
one from Adamsfield in Tasmania is definitely known to be of the 
same age as the Emanuel limestone fauna. 

It is peculiar that the two faunas have nothing in common 
(Teichert, 1947; Teichert and Glenister, 1952). At Adamsfield the 
east Asiatic element is characteristically represented by Manchuro- 
ceras and is associated with both American (Piloceras) and Euro- 
pean (Suecoceras) elen.ents. Piloceras must have come to Tasmania 
by the north Pacific route, by-passing east Asia. The fact that no 
element of the east Asiatic fauna reached Western Australia is dif- 
ficult to explain. The answer may be found in southeast Asia, where 
Ordovician faunas are poorly known. It is possible that contempo- 
raneous faunas also occur in Queensland, but these have not yet been 
described. 

All other Tasmanian cephalopod faunas seem to belong to 
younger divisions of the Ordovician and the Silurian (Teichert and 
Glenister, 1953). 



24 Bulletin 150 170 



There is insufficient stratigraphical information available re- 
garding the cephalopod faunas of central Australia to allow a corre- 
lation of faunas from different localities, and their generic composi- 
tion has only been briefly surveyed (Teichert and Glenister, 1952). 
On the whole the fauna is most similar to that of the Baltic Ortho- 
ceras limestone, as evidenced by the association of large species of 
Endoceras with Catoraphiceras, Baltoceras, Bactroceras, and the 
slightly older Bathmoceras. A younger element is suggested by the 
presence of Cyclendoceras and Armenoceras. The presence of an 
unidentifiable genus of the Tarphyceratidae may indicate an older 
fauna, possibly contemporaneous with the fauna from the upper 
part of the Emanuel limestone. However, no close faunal links are 
known between the cephalopods of central Australia and those of 
the Price's Creek area. 

From general considerations of the Ordovician palaeogeography 
of Australia it seems most likely that an Ordovician sea connected 
the general vicinity of the present Desert Basin, of which the Price's 
Creek occurrence forms part, with the area of deposition of the Lara- 
pintine formation in central Australia. Such a "Central Australian 
Geosyncline" was first postulated by Hills (1945) and has now 
been strongly confirmed. The clarification of the faunal relationships 
within this area of sedimentation must await more accurate strati- 
graphic collecting in all its parts. 

RELATIONSHIPS AND ORIGIN OF KIMBERLEY 

CEPHALOPODS 

It is intended in this chapter to consider in more detail the rela- 
tionships of the Klmberley cephalopods and to present some con- 
clusions as to their origin. As has been pointed out above, the fauna 
of the Emanuel limestone has no equivalent elsewhere in Australia. 
All its species are new, and none of them has, so far, been recog- 
nized in other areas. For the present, therefore, this fauna must be 
regarded as indigenous as far as species are concerned. 

Considering the generic composition, some of the most inter- 
esting facts have already been briefly mentioned, and this chapter 
will be devoted mainly to a more detailed analysis of the genera 
and their affinities. 



171 AUSTRAI.IW ORDOVICIW Cll'll AI.OI'OOS: TeICJIERT & Gl.EN'lSTER 25 



It will have been noted that, in the previous chapter, much em- 
phasis was placed, for purposes of correlation, on the occurrence of 
certain genera. As a rule this is not good practice, because it is a 
well-known tact that genera may persist for different time intervals 
in different areas, and any genus may survive in isolated localities 
long beyond the acme of its existence elsewhere. However, we will 
attempt to show that special consideration in this respect must be 
given to the early Ordovician cephalopods. 

The early Ordovician was a time of explosive or eruptive evolu- 
tion of the cephalopod stock when, presumably due to an accelerated 
mutation rate, a number of basically new structural types developed 
in rapid succession and within a short space of time. Variation in the 
following morphological features is marked: 

(1) Septal necks: Closely related forms exhibit wide variability 
in regard to the length of the septal necks. The range is from achoan- 
itic through orthochoanitic, loxochoanitic, hemichoanitic, subholo- 
choanitic and holochoanitic, to macrochoanitic (see chapter on 
terminology of septal necks). 

(2) Size of siphuncle: A general tendency towards increase 
in the diameter of the siphuncle in proportion to the diameter of the 
shell culminates with the appearance of endoceratid forms. 

(3) Connecting rings: The tendency is towards the thickening 
of the connecting rings and differentiation of it into layers. 

(4) Shell form: Annulate shells occur together with smooth 
ones, and curved shells occur together with straight ones. 

All these features are found in a considerable number of com- 
binations, and all of our straight or nearly straight genera differ 
from each other in differences of combination of the above-men- 
tioned characteristics. 

Thus variations in the length of septal necks, complicated by 
variable shell features and sutures, are found among stenosiphonate 
forms (Thylacoceratidae) as well as more eurysiphonate groups 
(Proterocameroceratidae, Endoceratidae). Complexity of the con- 
necting rings is not dependent on the length of septal necks, since 
complex rings may be present in subholochoanitic forms. 

Combination and recombination of such transient characters, 
each of which is itself only a step in a series of changing morphologi- 
cal trends, must result in the appearance of short-lived biological 



26 Bulletin 150 172 



forms which nevertheless are sharply distinguished and easily recog- 
nizable by means of well-defined morphological features. It is not 
likely that such types existed, as a rule, for long periods. It seems 
more likely that they would be extremely short-lived. Also, it is un- 
likely that such accidental combinations of rapidly developing mor- 
phological stages would be duplicated in different lineages in geo- 
graphically separated populations. If such types are found in areas 
which are now widely apart, it is to be assumed that they repre- 
sent derivatives from the same parent stock, even if differences on 
the specific level do exist. 

The Emanuel Creek fauna contains a number of cephalopod 
genera which possess such a combination of specialized characters 
and which have never previously been reported outside North 
America. In the following we shall discuss these genera in detail, 
because a thorough understanding of their structures will result in 
far-reaching palaeogeographical conclusions. The genera which we 
propose to discuss and which are common to Australia and North 
America and to no other region are: Eothinoceras, Kyminoceras, 
Anthoceras, Arkoceras, Ectocycloceras, Proterocameroceras , Allo-pil- 
oceras, Bassleroceras, Aphetoceras, and Pycnoceras. 

Eothinoceras ^naitlandi, which occurs in the lowest cephalopod- 
bearing beds, agrees so closely with Eothinoceras americanum that 
it has only been described as a new species because the American 
form is not well enough known for the likeness of all shell features 
to be confirmed. The unique feature of this genus is its internally 
thickened connecting ring, forming a ridge with a V-shaped cross- 
section. Among Canadian faunas the genus is unique and its connect- 
ing ring is not of a type one would expect to develop in homo- 
chronous homeomorphs. It is true that Cyrtocerina of the later 
Ordovician has connecting rings which closely resemble those of 
Eothinoceras. Whether Cyrtocerina is a descendant of Eothinoceras 
has yet to be determined, but it would strain the imagination less to 
make this assumption than to assume that such a structure could 
evolve again at another time. We believe, therefore, that the Ameri- 
can and the Australian species of Eothinoceras came from the same 
genetic stock. 

Anthoceras has recently been recognized by R. H. Flower in the 



173 AusTRAi.iw Ordovician Cki'Mai opods: Tkichfrt & Glenister 27 



Upper Canadian Luke llill formation at Philipsburg, Quebec. De- 
tailed comparisons cannot be made until this occurrence has been de- 
scribed. This genus presents the following unusual combination of 
features: annulate shell, hemichoanitic septal necks, and well-de- 
veloped endocones. Flower has furthermore recognized Kyminoceras 
low in the Upper Canadian portion of the El Paso limestone of 
southern New Mexico. Kyminoceras is a protocycloceratid with an- 
nulate she!], narrow marginal siphuncle, short septal necks, and sim- 
ple connecting rings. 

Proterocamcroceras combines short septal necks which bifurcate 
towards their edges, appearing pronged in cross-section, with com- 
plex connectmg rmgs, and endocones. The Australian species dif- 
fers in details of the suture but internally is identical with the 
American type species. Proterocamcroceras occurs in the Upper Ca- 
nadian of New York and has recently been reported by Poulsen 
(1952) from rocks of the same age in northeast Greenland and from 
the Durness limestone of Scotland. It is thus a genus which, outside 
Australia, is restricted to the Appalachian-North Atlantic province 
and is not found in the European-Baltic province. 

The case of Allopiloceras is an interesting one. This is a straight, 
or nearly straight, piloceroid with close affinities to the Manchuro- 
ceratidae. The latter are a prolific group in the Canadian of Man- 
churia and Korea but do not number Allopiloceras among them in 
that area. Allopiloceras is widely distributed in the Upper Canadian 
of North America, where it may represent a connecting link with the 
cyrtoconic Piloceratidae. It never seems to have reached eastern 
Asia and its occurrence in Western Australia is most unexpected. 

Bassleroceras is widely distributed in eastern and midwestern 
North America (Ulrich, Foerste, Miller and Unklesbay, 1944). It is 
characterized by a most unusual combination of features, namely 
exogastric condition and small marginal siphuncle, compressed cross- 
section, and broad lateral lobes in the sutures. Weak annulations 
characterize the Australian species as a regional variant of the Amer- 
ican stock, all the members of which have smooth shells. 

Arkoceras is the only genus of Trocholitidae with subcircular 
cross-section, lacking a dorsally impressed zone. The latter is also 
absent in W ic hit oc eras, but this genus has a strongly compressed 
whorl-section. The only two American occurrences of Arkoceras are 



28 Bulletin' 150 174 



from Upper Canadian rocks in Arkansas and Quebec. Perhaps the 
features of this genus are not so uniquely diagnostic, but its occur- 
rences are significant. 

Among the Tarphyceratidae, Aphetoceras and Pycnoceras 
represent somewhat intergrading forms. The former genus is set apart 
by its open coihng. In North America it occurs widely in the Upper 
Canadian, from Newfoundland to Arkansas. The Australian species 
agree in all respects, except that they are more strongly annulate. 
Pycnoceras is a more generalized form to which perhaps less weight 
should be attached. It has a weakly developed impressed dorsal zone. 
In conclusion, we can state that nearly one-half of the cephalo- 
pod species of the Emanuel limestone fauna belongs to more or less 
specialized genera which elsewhere are known only from the North 
American Ordovician province. Not a single purely eastern Asiatic 
genus occurs in the Emanuel limestone. 

The question of the relationships of the Western Australian and 
North American Ordovician faunas is, therefore, an exceedingly in- 
teresting one. It is clear that there must have been an exchange and 
intermingling of faunas between the two areas along a route which 
by-passed eastern Asia, and it is suggested that the only available 
route was across the Pacific Ocean. Since littoral faunas cannot cross 
a vast ocean barrier, it is necessary to assume a different palaeogeo- 
graphy of the Pacific in the Ordovician. Gregory (1930) assumed 
extensive vertical movements in the Pacific during the geological 
past, and the existence of large Pacific land masses during various 
times in the Paleozoic. Ruedemann (1929) earlier postulated the 
existence of a Pacific Ocean in Ordovician time, basing his conclu- 
sions on the presence in Australia and North America of certain 
specialized graptolite genera, such as Oncograptus and Cardiograp- 
tus. It is possible that both these authors were right. 

The obvious fact of an interchange of littoral faunas between 
Australia and North America, as discussed above, leads us to postu- 
late the existence of at least a sufficient number of stepping stones 
by which these faunas could have crossed over. Numbers of con- 
veniently spaced islands would serve this purpose. 

In this connection, it is possible to refer to Hess' original sug- 
gestion of a Precambrian age of the Pacific guyots (Hess, 1946). 



175 AusTRAiiw Orjiovioiw Ci i'H Moi'ons: TrifiiF.RT & Gi.i;n'istfr 29 



These submarine sea mounts, which arc iKMng discovered in increas- 
ing numbers, were at first thought to represent Precambrian vol- 
canoes which \\ ere eroded and later submerged in the early Paleozoic. 
As far as is known at present, the number and distribution of the 
guyots may be sufficient to account for a migration of littoral 
faunas across the North Pacific at any time at which they might 
have appeared as islands above sea level (see Teichert, 1953). 

More recently a younger age of the guyots has been favoured 
by Hamilton (1951, 1952) because Cretaceous and Tertiary fossils 
have been dredged from the platforms of some of them. However, it 
may be said that the occurrence of Cretaceous and Tertiary shallow 
water fossils on the sea mounts suggests nothing more than that they 
were then covered by less water than now. It does not give a clue of 
the age of the mounts themselves. The necessity to postulate an eco- 
logical bridge across the Pacific in Ordovician times may lead to re- 
newed consideration of Hess' original estimate of an older age of the 
guyots. 

EARLY EVOLUTION OF THE ENDOCERATIDA 

The order Endoceratida comprises cephalopods with shells 
which are generally straight and have large marginal siphuncles 
containing endocones. Advanced genera are holochoanitic, but early 
members have orthochoanitic or hemichoanitic septal necks. The 
first Endoceratida appear in the Middle Canadian, both in North 
America and in Western Australia. Their necks vary from achoanitic 
to subholochoanitic and they have straight shells which may be 
either smooth or annulate. To this group belong species of Antho- 
ceras, Clitendoceras, and Paraendoceras which are at present in- 
cluded in the Proterocameroceratidae. 

Endoceroids become more numerous in the Upper Canadian. 
Proterocameroceras is a specialized member of the order. It Is large, 
has split septal necks and complex connecting rings, and is on the 
whole not a typical representative of the family to which it gives its 
name. The family Endoceratidae is characterized by holochoanitic 
septal necks. Dr. Flower informs us that no representatives of this 
family are as yet known from the Upper Canadian of North America. 
In Western Australia, however, at least one holochoanitic form (Cyr- 
tendoceras) appears in an assemblage of Upper Canadian age, and 



30 Bulletin 150 176 



there are two subholochoanitlc genera associated with it, namely 
Lobendoceras and Campendoceras. All of these genera we include in 
the Endoceratidae, although Lobendoceras and Campendoceras are 
undoubtedly transitional between that family and the Proterocamer- 
oceratidae. 

It is reasonable to suppose that the Endoceratida developed 
from cephalopods with smaller marginal siphuncles in which no en- 
docones were developed. Endocones served the purpose of filling 
that space in the siphuncular lumen which was no longer occupied 
by the siphuncular organ. At the same time the added weight of the 
endocone deposits must have countered the buoyancy of the shell 
and thus helped to maintain the balance of the cephalopod animal. 
The formation of endocones is, thus, to a certain extent, a function 
of the size of the siphuncle. In the evolutionary history of the En- 
doceratida, endocones may be presumed to have appeared at a stage 
when the siphuncle had reached a certain critical size. The pre- 
endoceratids must have possessed straight shells, with marginal 
siphuncles which were smaller than those of typical endoceratids 
and which may also have had a tendency towards hemichoanitic and 
holochoanitic structure. 

Genera in which such features are combmed are found among 
two families, viz. the Baltoceratidae and the Thylacoceratidae. In 
both families the shells are straight or gently curved. The Balto- 
ceratidae generally have rather large marginal siphuncles with ortho- 
choanitic to hemichoanitic septal necks; the Thylacoceratidae have 
smaller marginal siphuncles with septal necks which tend to become 
holochoanitic. The taxonomic position of Baltoceras and its allies has 
been discussed. Holm (1897) and Schindewolf (1942) have main- 
tained the endoceratid affinities of the genus, whereas Flower (1947) 
has insisted on its ellesmeroceratid relationships. Since the Balto- 
ceratidae have wide siphuncles and yet no endocones, we agree with 
Flower and with Flower and Kummel (1950) that they should not 
be included in the Endoceratida. The Thylacoceratidae on the other 
hand have siphuncles of endoceratid appearance which are too small 
for endocones to have developed in them. When we first studied the 
type genus Thylacoceras (Teichert and Glenister, 1952) we included 
it in the Endoceratidae, but we now consider that this genus and the 
entire family Thylacoceratidae should not be included in the order 



177 Australian Urih)vicia\ CtrHALuroDs: rticiiHRT & Oi.ENisrtR 31 



related. We consider that the 1 hylacoceratidae of the Emanuel lime- 
stone represent a conservative stock from which the true endocera- 
tids branched off early in, or perhaps immediately prior to, the Mid- 
dle Canadian. The Thylacoceratidae may be regarded as an earlj, 
Canadian offshoot of the Ellesmeroceratida, specializing in the di- 
rection of marginal siphuncles and elongation of the septal necks. We 
regard them as more truly intermediate between the Ellesmerocera- 
tida and Endoceratida than the Baltoceratidae, because the latter, 
while specializing in marginal siphuncles, and partly also in increased 
size of siphuncles, did not develop the long septal necks which are a 
t3pically endoceratid feature. 

The Thylacoceratidae and early Proterocameroceratidae seem 
to appear together in the lower part of the Emanuel limestone. It is 
to be hoped that more accurate palaeontological zoning on the basis 
of more exact stratigraphic collecting will be possible in the future, 
and that more light will thereby be thrown on the relationships be- 
tween these two families. It is not impossible that the answer to the 
question as to the origin of the Endoceratida lies buried in the Eman- 
uel limestone of Western Australia. Also, future zoning should help 
to establish important trends within the Endoceratida. Hemichoani- 
tic Anthoceras is most probably the oldest genus. Subholochoanitic 
and holochoanitic Endoceratidae occur 600 to 700 feet higher in the 
section, but we have little knowledge of the intermediate faunas 
among which the Thylacoceratidae seem to dominate. While all 
these endoceroids have simple conical endocones with circular cross- 
section, more specialized forms with depressed endocones occur an- 
other 600 feet higher in the section. But again we have no knowl- 
edge of forms from the beds in between. 

TERMINOLOGY OF SEPTAL NECKS 

Several types of commonly occurring septal necks have long 
been known by the following terms: 

holochoanitic — extending from one septum to the preceding 
septum or beyond; 

orthochoanitic — short and straight, extending backward not 
more than a small fraction of the distance to the preceding septum; 

cyrtochoanitic — short and curved, with distinct brim. 



32 Bulletin 150 178 



The two last-named types are occasionally grouped together and 
termed ellipochoanitic. It was Hyatt who, in 1883, first recognized 
these distinctions, and on them established two orders of nautiloids 
which he called Holochoanoidea and Ellipochoanoidea. However, it 
seems that Ruedemann, in 1906, was the first to use the above-men- 
tioned terms in the adjectival form as part of the morphological 
terminology. More recently, Ulrich and Foerste (1933) added the 



6iC/706br?/t/c 
/oxoc/)Ooinit/c 

OPt/?ocho6br)it/c 
si/Jl?ort/?oc/?oa,r)/t/c 

c^rtocho&nitic 

/iem/'chocbn/t/c 
SiJd/)o/oc/>o&nitic 

/7o/oc/?06bn/t/c 

msbcrochoAn/t/c 




Fig. 3. Terminology of septal necks. 



179 Australian Ordovician- Cri'HAi.opoDs: Trichert & Gi.enister 33 



term aneuchoanitic for a condition in which the septal necks are 
either absent or vestigial. 1 he term seems useful, though we pro- 
pose to shorten it to achoanitic which has the same meaning. Fur- 
thermore in 1941, Flower used the term suborthochoanitic for 
"cephalopods in which the septal necks are straight or curved, pro- 
ducing slightly convex siphuncular segments." Dr. Flower has since 
defined the term more precisely, in correspondence with the authors, 
as referring to septal necks which are usually slightly mclined out- 
ward at their tips but have no measurable brim. 

During more recent investigations by Flower, and in the course 
of the present studies, additional types of septal necks have become 
known which are not covered by any of the existing terms. The 
following new terms are, therefore, proposed: 

loxochoatiitic — for septal necks which are short and straight 
and inclined inwards (in the direction of the central axis of the siph- 
uncle); 

hemichoanitic — for septal necks which are straight and extend 
from about one-half to three-fourths the distance to the preceding 
septum; 

subholochoanitic — for septal necks whose length is approxi- 
mately equal to the distance between two septa, but whose distal 
ends are deflected inward so that an appreciable gap exists between 
them and the proximal ends of the preceding septal necks. This gap 
is filled by a thick, often structurally complex, connecting ring. 

It was also found convenient to restrict the term holochoanitic 
to septal necks which extend backward to the preceding septum and 
whose distal ends are in contact with, or in close proximity to, the 
proximal ends of the preceding septal necks. Connecting rings in 
such forms are vestigial or absent. The term macrochoanitic is here 
proposed for septal necks which extend backwards beyond the pre- 
ceding septum. That is, in forms with necks of this type, successive 
necks are invaginated. 

The following is a synopsis of septal neck terminology as here 
proposed (Fig. 3). 

Achoanitic — septal necks absent or vestigial. 

Orthochoanitic — short and straight, directed backyard. 

Suborthochoanitic — short and straight, with slightly outwardly 



34 



Bulletin 150 



180 



inclined tips but with no measurable brim. 

Cyrtochoanitic — short and curved with well-defined brim. 

Loxochoanitic — short and straight, pointing obliquely toward 
the interior of the siphuncle. 

H emichoanitic — straight, extending one-half to three-fourths 
the distance to the preceding septum. 

Subholochoanitic — Approximately equal in length to the distance 
between two septa but deflected inward at their tips, thus leaving 
an appreciable gap between two successive septal necks. 

Holochoanitic — essentially straight, extending backward to the 
preceding septum. 

M acrochoanitic — essentially straight, reaching backward beyond 




Fig. 4. Illustration of ectosiphuncular suture, consisting of a diagrann of the 
ventral surface of two cainerae (shell removed) and four longitudinal sections 
of the ectosiphuncle. The septa are represented by thick black lines. The un- 
shaded area between the septa represents that area where the septal necks 
are flattened against the inner shell wall. An ectosiphuncular suture is present 
on either side of the mid-ventral line m each camera. They are the lines along 
which the gap between the septal necks and the inner shell wall becomes 
sufficiently wide for the introduction of matrix (dotted) between these two 
components of the conch. 



ISl Al'STR AI IAS ORDOVICIAN' CkI'H AI.OPODS : TEICHHRT & Gi.ENISTER 35 



tlie preceding septum, and inxaginated into the preceding septal 
neck. 

The siphuncle may be placed so close to the shell wall that the 
septal necks around part of the siphuncle are almost in contact with 
the inner surface of the shell. In several of the Price's Creek species, 
the space between the septal necks and the shell wall is such that 
the matrix which fills the remainder of the conch is not present in 
this area on the ventral side of the siphuncle. Preceding dorsally 
around the siphuncle from the mid-ventral line, the space between 
the septal necks and the shell gradually increases, until matrix is 
introduced between these two shell components. The term ecto- 
siphunciilar suture is hereby proposed for the line along which the 
septal necks become sufficiently separated from the shell wall for 
the introduction of matrix between these two components of the 
conch (Text Fig. 4). An ectosiphuncular suture is thus present in 
each camera on either side of the plane of symmetry of the conch. 

TECHNIQUE OF STUDYING OPAQUE SECTIONS 

Identifications of most early Palaeozoic cephalopods can gen- 
erally only be made when cross-sections, preferably in the dorso- 
ventral mid-plane, are available. It has long been customary to cut 
the specimens in such a way that the saw passes just to the side of 
the median line, so that one-half of the specimen presents a surface 
which is exactly in the median plane. This surface is then available 
for observation in reflected light by use of the binocular microscope. 
In order to increase the light penetration into the specimen and the 
clarity of surface observation, the surface was often polished. Other 
workers were satisfied with just wetting the surface or covering it 
with an oily or fatty substance. This generally proved to be unsatis- 
factory, since the fluids quickly evaporate and oily substances col- 
lect dirt. A large number of specimens were involved in the present 
investigations and the older techniques proved to be both time con- 
suming and to some extent unsatisfactory. The following technique 
was evolved for our studies and can be recommended for similar 
work : 

The specimen is first cut in a plane close to the surface in 
which the final section is required. A thin diamond saw is satistac- 



36 Bulletin 150 182 



tory for this purpose. The specimen is then ground down to the re- 
quired plane, first on a coarse carborundum lap and finishing it by 
hand on a glass plate with very fine carborundum powder. When the 
surface is thoroughly dried, it is painted with a clear varnish which 
in Australia is known commercially as "Dulux." Any other clear 
varnish with an acetone base should be satisfactory. Brush marks 
often crinkle the surface at this stage, and bubbles are frequently 
trapped. Both bubbles and brush marks may be removed by spray- 
ing the surface of the varnish immediately with ether or some other 
highly volatile fluid capable of dissolving the varnish used. The ether 
has the effect of rendering the surface of the varnish less viscous. 
The surface, therefore, runs out more smoothlj^ and on drying a 
surface of mirror-like gloss results. The varnish should be relatively 
quick drying and should not take more than two or three hours to 
harden. During this time the specimens should be kept under cover 
so as to prevent dust particles from settling on the glossy surface. 

The specimens are now ready for examination under the binocu- 
lar microscope. Here we find that the importance of a strong source of 
light cannot be overestimated. Ordinary desk lamps and microscope 
illuminators were found to be altogether too weak. We used a 
specially constructed illuminator consisting of a 50 Watt projector 
lamp mounted in front of a spherical mirror with a focal length of 
12 inches. This lamp could be so adjusted by means of a ball and 
socket joint that the focal point of the mirror rested on the speci- 
men under observation. We used a binocular microscope of the type 
which is mounted on a horizontal arm which swings around a vertical 
stem and the lamp was attached to the vertical stem. The intensity 
of the light beam is such that it penetrates some distance into the 
specimen. Surface features can be clearly observed under highest 
magnifications, and with certain types of preservation the structures 
of siphuncles and septal necks can be traced for a small distance 
below the surface of the section. The illuminator was constructed in 
the workshop of the Geology Department of the University of Mel- 
bourne by Mr. J. S. Mann to whom we are greatly indebted for a 
tool which has proved indispensable in our investigations. 

We have no doubt that other varnishes and sprays and d;flFer- 
ent arrangements for illumination will lead to similarly satisfactory 
results, as long as the combination of highest possible gloss with 



183 Australian Ordovician Ci phaiopods: Teichert & Glenister 37 



greatest possible intensity of illumination is achieved. 

For photography we still had to rely on thin sections. Attempts 
to photograph surfaces prepared in the manner described above 
have not been successful, but we believe that proper combination of 
lens, filter, developing technique, and paper will eventually be found 
to give satisfactory results. However, our improved method of 
opaque observation enabled us to observe almost all structural 
features of the cephalopod siphuncle and shell and thus decide ex- 
actly which specimen or part of a specimen should be thin-sectioned 
for photography, thus eliminating any waste. This was of particular 
importance in the case of species of which few specimens were avail- 
able. 

SYSTEMATIC DESCRIPTIONS 

Order ELLESMEKOC ERATIDA 

Family ELLE.SMEHOCEKATIDAE Kobayashi, 1934 

Genus LOXOCHOAXELLA Teichert and Glenister, n.gen. 

Type species. — Loxochoanella warburtoni Teichert and Glen- 
ister, n. sp. 

Description. — Slowly expanding longiconic orthocones with 
smooth shell, circular cross-section, and moderately large marginal 
siphuncle; suture transverse and straight, except for a shallow ven- 
tral lobe; septal necks loxochoanitic; connecting rings thick and 
structurally complex, divided into a thin dense inner layer and a 
thick outer layer. The outer layer has undergone structural differen- 
tiation into a dense outer component and a coarse-gramed inner 
component. 

Affinities. — The thick complex connecting rings of Loxochoanella 
place this genus among the Ellesmeroceratidae. Close affinities be- 
tween Loxochoanella and any other described genus do not exist. 

Loxochoanella >varl»urtoiii Teichert and Glenister, n.sp. PI. 2, figs. 1-4; 

text fig. 5 

Description of holotype (No. 34122, Department of Geology, 
University of Western Australia; PI. 2, figs. 1,3). — The holotype is 
an orthoconic phragmocone with circular cross-section. It has a 
length of 38.5 mm. and expands in diameter from 3.3 mm. at the 



38 



Bulletin ISO 



18+ 




Fig. 5. Ectosiphuncle of LoxocJioanella ivarburtoni. 



posterior end of the specimen to 8.2 mm. at the anterior end. The 
siphuncle Hes close to, but not in contact with, the ventral shell wall. 
Five and a half camerae together occupy a length equal to the shell 
diameter. Two camerae together occupy a length equal to the diam- 
eter of the siphuncle. 

The suture is transverse and straight, except for a shallow 
rounded lobe across the venter. The internal mould of the shell is 
smooth. 

A thin section of the anterior half of the specimen has been cut 
in the dorso-ventral mid-plane. The septal necks are straight and 
bent at an angle of 45° to the septa. This is the loxochoanitic type 
of septal neck, defined earlier in the paper. The siphuncular segments 
are concave. Two distinct components make up the connecting rings. 
The inner layer is thin and reaches backward from the tip of the 
septal neck to the tip of the neck which precedes it. The outer layer 
is much thicker. It originates on the outside of the septal neck, and 
reaches backward, covering almost the entire inner surface of the 
preceding septal neck. Where the shell has a diameter of 7.1 mm., the 
siphuncle has a diameter of 2.2 mm. and is situated .2 mm. from 
the ventral shell wall. 

Descnptio7i of paratype (No. 338, Bureau of Mineral Resources, 
Geology and Geophysics, Canberra; PI. 2, fig. 2). — This paratype is 



185 Australian Ordovician Cephalopods: Teichert & Glenister 39 



a slow!}' expanding longiconic orthocone with circular cross-section. 
It has a length of 35.5 mm., 4 mm. of which consists of body chamber. 
The diameter increases from 3.7 mm. at the posterior end of the 
specimen to 7.9 mm. at the anterior end. The siphuncle is marginal. 
It has a diameter of .9 mm. at the posterior end of the specimen. 
Six and a half camerae together occupy a length equal to the dia- 
meter of the shell. Two camerae together occupy a length equal to 
the diameter of the siphuncle. 

The sutures are straight and directly transverse. Ectosiphuncu- 
lar sutures are well developed where the shell is slightly worn. The 
shell is smooth. 

A thin section of the posterior third of the paratype shows the 
septal necks to be loxochoanitic. The connecting rings are thick 
and consist of two distinct layers. The inner layer is uniformly thin 
and reaches posteriorly from the tip of one septal neck to the tip 
of the preceding neck. It is uniform in composition and appears to 
be constructed of finely crystalline dense material. The thick outer 
layer originates on the outer side of the septal neck, near its proxi- 
mal end. It extends posteriorly and becomes adnate to the whole 
of the preceding septal neck and a small area of the septum ad- 
jacent to it. This outer layer exhibits structural differentiation, 
but the preservation is not sufficiently good for exact interpretation 
of the structures. However, it is clear that there is a concentration 
of dense fine-grained material on either side of the septal neck. 

Description of paratype (No. 339, Bureau of Mineral Resources, 
Geology and Geophysics, Canberra; PI. 2, fig. 4). — The paratype is 
part of a phragmocone with a length of 19 mm. Five camerae to- 
gether have a length equal to the shell diameter. 

The septal necks are loxochoanitic, and, as in the holotype, the 
connecting rings are thick and complex in structure. Two layers may 
be discerned, a thin inner layer, and a thick outer layer. The inner 
layer is composed of dense material. It is convex inwards and only 
touches the septal necks at their distal extremities. The outer layer 
originates on the outside of the septal neck, where it is adnate to 
the distal two-thirds of the neck. It extends posteriorly and is adnate 
to the whole of the inner surface of the preceding septal neck, to- 
gether with a small area of the septum adjacent to it. Structural dif- 
ferentiation of the outer layer is evident. A band of denser material 



40 Bulletin 150 186 



originates on the outside of the septal neck and extends posteriorly 
to cover the inside of the preceding neck. A layer of coarsely crystal- 
line material is left between this layer and the thin inner layer. Dense 
material is also concentrated at the posterior end of the connecting 
rings; that is, on the inside of each septal neck. 

This species is named in honour of P. E. Warburton, who in 
1873 was engaged in one of the first explorations of the Desert Basin. 

Occurrence. — The holotype came from locality E 11 and both 
paratypes from locality NL 20 E, Emanuel limestone, Emanuel 
Creek, Kimberley Division, Western Australia. 

Family PROTOCYCLOCEHATIDAE Kobayashi, 1935 

Kobayashi proposed this family for the two genera, Protocyclo- 
ceras Hyatt and Orygoceras Ruedemann, but his conception of the 
family was based on Hyatt's erroneous description of the type genus. 
Orygoceras was later found to be preoccupied, and the name was re- 
placed by Rudoljoceras Ulrich, Foerste, Miller, and Unklesbay 
(1944). In the same publication these authors erected the family 
Rudolfoceratidae for Rudoljoceras, Ectocycloceras, and Seelyoceras, 
whereas they included Protocycloceras in the family Spyroceratidae 
of Shimizu and Obata. However, as early as 1939 Flower had shown 
Spyroceras to be a member of the Pseudorthoceratidae. The genus is 
not closely related to Protocycloceras which, according to Flower's 
unpublished observations, has a fairly large siphuncle in subcentral 
to submarginal position, orthochoanitic septal necks, and complex 
connecting rings. Rudoljoceras is closely related, differing mainly in 
the possession of a more rapidly expanding, slightly exogastric conch. 
If the two genera are to remain in one famih', as originally pro- 
posed by Kobayashi, the name Protocycloceratidae takes precedence. 

Revision of the scope of this family would require detailed dis- 
cussion of a great number of early Ordovician genera, some of which 
are only poorly known. For the present we include here annulated 
conchs, either straight or only slightly curved, with marginal to sub- 
central siphuncles of moderate size, and vestigial to short ortho- 
choanitic septal necks. This definition also covers the Endocyclo- 
ceratidae of Ulrich, Foerste, Miller and Unklesbay (1944), which 
differ from the Rudolfoceratidae only in being endogastric. In our 
opinion, slight differences in curvature among early Ordovician 



187 Australian Ordovician Ckphai.oi'ods: Ieichert & Glenister 41 



genera do iidt afford a safe basis for taxonomic differentiation of 
families. Our observations have taught us to place main emphasis 
on the size of the siphuncle and the nature of the structures asso- 
ciated with it (septal necks, connecting rings, siphuncular deposits). 
Shell features such as curvature and annulation should be relegated 
to an unimportant place. 

In view of these conclusions, the grouping of the following three 
species with the Protocycloceratidae is far from satisfactory. Only 
Kyminoceras forresti is orthochoanitic, while both Ectocycloceras 
inf latum and Diastoloceras perplexum are achoanitic. All three 
species have small marginal siphuncles; the first two have annulate 
conchs, while Diastoloceras bears a remarkable series of transverse 
flanges. It is possible that these three species represent three different 
families, but too little about their affmities is known at present to 
make the erection of such new families advisable. 

Genus ECTOCTrLOCERAS Ulrich and Foerste, 1936 
Ectocyoloeeras inflatnm Teichert and Glenister. n.sp. PI. 1, figs. 5-C 

Description of holotype (No. 370, Bureau of Mineral Resources, 
Geology and Geophysics, Canberra). — The holotype is an exogastric 
cyrtocone with a length of 42.4 mm., 28 mm. of which is body cham- 
ber. The siphuncle has a maximum diameter of .65 mm. and is situ- 
ated .4 mm. from the ventral shell wall. At the posterior end of the 
specimen the dorso-ventral and lateral diameters are 7.7 mm. and 7 
mm. respectively, while the dorso-ventral diameter at the anterior 
end of the specimen is 11.2 mm. Ten camerae together have a length 
equal to the dorso-ventral shell diameter. 

The internal mould bears low rounded annulations and nu- 
merous fine lirae. Both the annulations and the lirae are directly 
transverse. The sutures are slightly sinuous and directly transverse. 

The septal necks are achoanitic, and the siphuncular segments 
inflated. In a segment with a length of 1.25 mm., the segments are 
inflated to a maximum diameter of .65 mm., and constricted at the 
septal foramen to a diameter of .30 mm. 

The species name refers to the inflated siphuncular segments. 
Comparisons. — Ectocycloceras inflatum agrees with Ectocyclo- 
ceras cataline (Billings), the type species of that genus, except that 



42 Bulletin ISO . 188 

it is much smaller and has inflated instead of constricted siphuncu- 
lar segments. 

Occurrence. — Locality NL 20 E, Emanuel limestone, Emanuel 
Creek, Kimberley Division, Western Australia. 

Genus KT3IIIV0CERAS Teichert and Glenister, n.gen. 

Type species. — Kyminoceras forresti Teichert and Glenister, 
n.sp. 

Description. — Prominently annulated slowly expanding ortho- 
cones with circular or subcircular cross-section; sutures sinuous and 
transverse; annulations transverse or sloping posteriorly from the 
dorsum to the venter, camerae low; siphuncle small and either mar- 
ginal or situated close to the shell wall; septal necks orthochoanitic; 
siphuncular segments gently concave, cylindrical, or gently inflated; 
connecting rings thin. 

The generic name is given in honour of Dr. B. Kummel. 

Affinities. — Kyminoceras is closely related to Protocycloceras 
Hyatt, a genus which was thought to be holochoanitic (Foerste, 
1921) but has recently been shown to be orthochoanitic with short 
septal necks (Flower 1947). Ulrich, Foerste, Miller and Unklesbay 
(1944) redefined Protocycloceras to include forms with either large 
or small, and marginal or submarginal siphuncles. They pointed out 
that it was somewhat doubtful if all the species included by them in 
the genus were congeneric and indicated that in the future it might 
be advisable to separate (1) those with large siphuncles from those 
with small siphuncles and (2) those with marginal siphuncles from 
those with submarginal siphuncles. Unfortunately, the structure of 
the ectoslphuncle of most of their species is unknown. Pending 
studies of their septal necks, six species included by Ulrich, Foerste, 
Miller and Unklesbay in the genus Protocycloceras are here grouped 
with the Western Australian species in the new genus Kyminoceras. 
They are Kyminoceras doniphonense (Ulrich et al.) K. furtivu-m 
(Billings), K. manitouense (Ulrich et al.), K. odenvillense (Ulrich 
et al.), K. repens (Billings) and K. sTnithvillense (Ulrich et al.). All 
have small marginal siphuncles and are of Canadian age. With the 
removal of those forms with small marginal siphuncles, the genus 
Protocycloceras is restricted to contain species with either large 



189 Australian Ori)(ivki\\ Cki'Iiaiopods: TticiiERT .'I- (ii.tNisxER 43 



siphuiiclcs or small sipluincles removed from the venter. Walcotto- 
ceras differs from Kyminoceras in having a strongly compressed 
eUiptical cross-section. 

All species included in Kyminoceras are of Canadian age, and 
where the ranges of the species are better known, they may be 
shown to be restricted to the Middle Canadian. Kyminoceras for- 
resti occurs at the same stratigraphical horizon as the Middle Ca- 
nadian species Eothinoceras tnaitlandi, 

Kyminoceras forresti Teichert and Glenister, n.sp. PI. 1, figs. 1-4; 

text fig. 6 

Description of holotype (No. 34120, Department of Geology, 
University of Western Australia; PI. 1, figs. 2-4). — The holotype is 
a slowly expandmg orthoconic phragmocone, 21 mm. long. It is cir- 
cular in cross-section and increases in diameter from 6.1 mm. at the 
posterior end of the specimen to 8.6 mm. at the anterior end. The 
siphuncle is small and marginal, increasing in diameter from 1.4 mm. 
at the posterior end to 1.6 mm. at the anterior end. Five camerae 
occupy a distance equal to the shell diameter. 

The internal mould bears rounded annulations, six occurring on 
the holotype. These annulations slope posteriorly from the dorsum to 
the venter. The sutures are directed transversely, intersecting the 
annulations at an angle of about 5 degrees. They are sinuous, with 
lateral saddles and shallow rounded dorsal and ventral lobes. 

The shell is slightly worn across the venter, thus giving a lateral 
section of the siphuncle. The septal necks are orthochoanitic. They 
are variable in length but have an average length equal to one-third 
the septal interval. The connecting rings are thin. 

Description of paratype (No. 34121, Department of Geology, 
University of Western Australia; PI. 1, fig. 1). — The paratype is a 
poorly preserved specimen which has been sectioned in the dorso- 
ventral mid-plane. The septal necks are variable in length. They are 
orthochoanitic and have an average length equal to one-third the 
septal interval. Most of the segments of the siphuncle are slightly 
inflated, but a few are cylindrical. 

This species is named in honour of Sir John Forrest, noted 
Western Australian explorer and statesman of the 19th century. 



4+ 



Bulletin 150 



190 




Fig. 6. Ectosiphuncle of Kyminoccras forresti. 



Cotnparisons. — Kyminoceras forresti may be readily differen- 
tiated from other species of this genus by the relatively low angle the 
annulations make with the axis of the conch. More detailed compari- 
sons cannot be made, since the exact structure of the siphuncle is un- 
known in all species of the genus except the type species. 

Occurrence. — The type material and all known specimens of the 
species came from locality E 1, Emanuel limestone, Emanuel Creek, 
Kimberley Division, Western Australia. 

Genus DIASTOLOCEKAS Teichert and Glenister, n.gen. 



Type species. — Diastoloceras perplexum Teichert and Glenister, 



n.sp. 



Description. — Slowly expanding gently cyrtoconic exogastric 
conchs with small, almost marginal, siphuncles; shell surface covered 
with well-developed transverse flanges; camerae short; siphuncular 
segments gently expanded, connecting rings thick, septal necks 
achoanitic. 



191 Australian- Ordovician- CiPHAi.opfMis: Teichert & Gi.enister 45 



The generic name refers to the remarkable flanges which traverse 
the shell. 

Affinities. — The affinities of Diastoloceras are extremely dif- 
ficult to determine. Comparable flanged forms are unknown in the 
Ordovician and arc extremely rare in the Silurian. Only in the De- 
vonian do rhey become common. The thickened connecting rings 
are similar to those of the Discosoroidea, but genera similar to Dia- 
stoloceras in other shell features are unknown among this order. 
Diastoloceras is included among the annulate Protocycloceratidae 
until closer affinities become apparent. 

Diastoloceras perplexum Teichert and Glenister, n.sp. PI. 1, figs. 

12-16; text fig. 7 

Description of holotype (No. 345, Bureau of Mineral Resources, 
Geology and Geophysics, Canberra). — The holotype and only known 
representative of this species, consists of a slowly expanding gently 
exogastric shell, 34.6 mm. long. The anterior 26 mm. are body cham- 
ber. The shell is circidar in cross-section, having a diameter of 12.6 
mm. at the posterior end of the specimen and 14.6 mm. at the an- 
terior end. A broad constriction at the base of the living chamber 
restricts the diameter to 12.3 mm. At the posterior end of the speci- 
men the siphuncle has a diameter of 1.5 mm. and is situated .5 mm. 
from the convex side. Eleven camerae together occupy a distance 
equal to the shell diameter. 

The shell bears a remarkable series of transverse flanges, seven 
occurring in a distance equal to the shell diameter. They are thin 
and may project as far as 1.5 mm. from the general shell surface. 
The grooves between successive flanges are up to eight times the 
thickness of the flanges. The anterior surface of most flanges lies 
normal to the longitudinal shell axis, while the posterior surface 
slopes gradually posteriorly from the distal extremity to the base of 
the flanges. Each flange thus appears to slope forwards. The suture 
is sinuous and transverse. A shallow lobe occurs across the anti- 
siphuncular surface and is flanked by a pair of low saddles, followed 
by a pair of shallow lobes across the flanks, and a low saddle across 
the siphuncular surface. 

The septal necks are achoanitic. Siphuncular segments are 



46 



Bulletin 150 



192 




Fig. 7. Ectosiphuncle of Diastoloccras perplexum. 



weakly inflated. The connecting rings are poorly preserved, but it 
seems probable that they were considerably thickened. 

Occurrence. — Locality NL 20 E, Emanuel limestone, Emanuel 
Creek, Kimberley Division, Western Australia. 

Family BALTOCERATIDAE Kobayashi, 1937 
Genus HEMICHOANELLA Teichert and Glenister, n.gen. 

Type species. — H emichoanella canningi Teichert and Glenister, 
n.sp. 

Description. — Orthoconic longicones with smooth shell, circular 
cross-section, and large marginal siphuncle; suture has deep narrow 
ventral lobe; camerae high; septal necks hemichoanitic, connecting 
rings thick and uniform in composition. 

The generic name refers to the hemichoanitic structure of the 
septal necks. 

Ajfinities. — H emichoanella has affinities with both the Baltocer- 
atidae and the Proterocameroceratidae. Under the system of classi- 
fication accepted at present (Flower and Kummel, 1950), the genus 



193 AusTRAi.i.w Ordoviciw Cfphai.opods: Teichfrt &■ Glenister 47 



cannot be considered as a member of the Endoceratida, since endo- 
cones have not been recorded. Neither can Hemichoanella be con- 
sidered as a typical ellesmeroceratid, since the septal necks have ad- 
vanced to the heniichoanitic stage. It thus seems advisable to con- 
sider Hemichoanella as a particularly advanced baltoceratid. Balto- 
ceras differs from H einichoanella in possessing orthochoanitlc septal 
necks and particularly high camerae. The holotype of Hemichoanella 
canningi was referred to Baltoceras in a summary report on the 
Price's Creek nautiloids (Teichert and Glenister, 1952). 

Heniichoaiiella eaiiiiiiigri Teichert and Glenister, n.sp. PI. 2, fig. 5; 

PI. 3. figs. 1-4; text fig. 8 

Description of holotype (No. 344, Bureau of Mineral Resources, 
Geology and Geophysics, Canberra.). — The holotype is a straight 
phragmocone, 37.8 mm. long. It is circular in cross-section and m- 
creases m diameter from 14.4 mm. at the posterior end of the spe- 
cimen to 21.7 mm. at the anterior end. The siphuncle is large, mar- 
ginal, and slightly depressed due to a ventral flattening. It increases 
in diameter from 4.9 mm. at the posterior end to 5.9 mm. at the an- 
terior end. Six camerae together have a length equal to the dorso- 
ventral diameter of the shell. 

The suture consists of a deep ventral lobe followed by a pair 
of low saddles across the flanks and a broad but deep lobe across the 
dorsum. The ventral lobe is U-shaped. It has a breadth equal to the 
diameter of the siphuncle and a depth equal to the height of one and 
a half camerae. The shell is smooth except for the presence of nu- 
merous transversely directed fine growth lines. 

The septal necks are hemichoanitic, having a length almost 
equal to half the length of a camera. The connecting rings are thick, 
and extend from the tip of the septal neck to the tip of the preced- 
ing neck. 

The species is named in honour of A. W. Canning, who in 1906- 
1908 explored the eastern part of the Desert Basin and who dis- 
covered and opened up the Canning Stock Route. 

Occurrence. — Emanuel Creek, Kimberley Division, Western 
Australia. 



48 



Bulletin 150 



194 




Fig. 8. Ectosiphuncle of Hcmichoanclla canningi. 



Family Eothinoceratidae Ulrich, Foerste, Miller and Unklesbay, 1944 

The family Eothinoceratidae was erected by Ulrich, Foerste, 
Miller and Unklesbay (1944) for the reception of a single new genus, 
Eothinoceras. The walls of the siphuncular segments of Eothinoceras 
were shown to be greatly thickened and V-shaped in longitudinal 
section, the apex of the V pointing inwards. Eothinoceras ameri- 
canum, the only species of the genus, was described from a few 
poorly preserved fragments which had been ground and polished in 
planes of random orientation. The only forms referable to the family 
appeared to have straight breviconic conchs, with short camerae, and 
a large ventral siphuncle. They all came from the Middle Canadian 
Rochdale limestone of New York. 

The family Cyrtocerinidae was established by Flower in 1946 
with Cyrtocerina Billings as the only genus. Flower was of the opin- 
ion that Eothinoceras agreed with Cyrtocerina and with no other 
genus in the structure of the siphuncle, having achoanitic septal 
necks and highly inflated connecting rings. In a later paper Flower 
and Kummel (1950) included Eothinoceras with Cyrtocerina in the 
family Cyrtocerinidae. They considered Eothinoceras to be endo- 
gastric, with compressed shell and vestigial septal necks. 

The structure of the connecting rings of the Australian species 
of Eothinoceras is almost identical with the connecting ring struc- 



195 Australian Oriioviciav Cephalopods: Teichert & Glenister 49 



tures of Eothinoceras americanum, so that little doubt remains that 
they belong to the same genus. On the new information gained from 
the Australian species, the family Eothinoceratidae may be defined 
as follows: 

Longiconic cyrtocones with a wide siphuncle close to the convex 
side of the conch. Septal necks short and orthochoanitic. Connecting 
rings greatly thickened and V-shaped in longitudinal section, the 
apex of the V pointing inwards. All known members of the family are 
probably confined to the Middle Canadian. 

Cyrtocerina includes endogastric breviconic cyrtocones with 
marginal achoanitic siphuncles and connecting rings which are 
strongly inflated within the siphuncle. The genus is confined to the 
Middle and Upper Ordovician. Although the connecting rings of 
Eothinoceras and Cyrtocerina are similar, the two genera may not be 
closely comparable. It may thus be advisable to retain both the fam.- 
ily Eothinoceratidae with its single genus Eothinoceras, and the fam- 
ily Cyrtocerinidae with the breviconic, endogastric Cyrtocerina as 
its only genus. 

Genus EOTHIXOCERAS Ulrich, Foerste, Miller and Unklesbay, 1944 

Type species. — Eothinoceras americanum Ulrich, Foerste, Mil- 
ler and Unklesbay, 1944. 

The genus Eothinoceras may be redefined on information gained 
from the Australian species. It includes exogastric cyrtoconic longi- 
cones with a moderately large marginal siphuncle. The septal necks 
are short and orthochoanitic and the siphuncular segments concave 
externally. The connecting rings are greatly inflated and V-shaped, 
with the apex of the V occurring at about the mid-height of the seg- 
ments, and pointing inwards. Eothinoceras is probably confined to 
rocks of Middle Canadian age. 

Eothinoceras iiiaitlsindi Teichert and Glenister, n.sp PI. 3, figs. 5-lS 

Description of holotype (No. 34123, Department of Geology, 
University of Western Australia; PI. 3, figs. 9, 11). — The holotype is 
a fragment of a longiconic phragmocone with a length of 30 mm. 
Much of the outer part of the conch is deeply weathered, but it is 
probable that the cross-section was circular. At the anterior end of 
the specimen, both the lateral and dorso-ventral diameters measure 



50 BuLLETiv 150 196 



18 mm. The siphuncle has a diameter of 5.5 mm. and is situated close 
to the ventral shell wall. Fifteen camerae together have a length 
equal to the diameter of the shell and five camerae have a length 
equal to the diameter of the siphuncle. 

The suture is not well seen, but it is probable that it was either 
straight or weakly sinuous. It slopes gently posteriori}^ from the dor- 
sal towards the ventral side of the conch. 

Weathering has exposed the siphuncle, giving a natural lateral 
section. The septal necks are orthochoanitic, with a length equal to 
about one-third of the septal interval. The connecting rings are ex- 
tremely thick, and V-shaped in longitudinal cross-section. The point 
of the V corresponds to the thickest part of the connecting ring and 
is directed towards the inside of the siphuncle. The exact direction 
in which the apex of the V points is largely controlled by the angle 
of the sections. In oblique sections the connecting rings tend to point 
antero-laterally, but in longitudinal sections they are more nearly 
symmetrical. Each connecting ring originates at the tip of the septal 
neck. It thickens rapidly, so that the inside of the anterior limb of 
the V is almost directly transverse. This thickening continues to the 
apex of the V which lies at about the mid-height of the siphuncular 
segments. The posterior limb of the V slopes gradually to the area 
where it is adnate to the whole inner surface of the preceding septal 
neck. The outer surface of the connecting ring is traversed by a deep 
V-shaped groove just below the mid-height of the siphuncular seg- 
ment. In a typical segment with a length of 1.2 mm., the length of 
the septal necks is .35 mm. and the greatest thickness of the con- 
necting ring equals .8 mm. A tubular canal is present in the siphuncle. 
It is situated halfway between the ventral surface and the centre of 
the siphuncle and has a diameter of 2.5 mm. 

Description of -paratype (No. 335, Bureau of Mineral Resources, 
Geology and Geophysics, Canberra; PI. 3, fig. 13). — This paratype is 
part of a slowly expanding conch with a length of 90 mm., 22 mm. 
of which is made up of body chamber. It is gently cyrtoconic, with 
the siphuncle lying close to the convex side. At the posterior end of 
the specimen the conch has a diameter of 7.4 mm., while at the ante- 
rior end the diameter has increased to 17.5 mm. Near the posterior 
end of the specimen the siphuncle has a maximum diameter of 2.3 



i 
I 



197 Australian Ordovician Cephalopods: Teichert & Glenister 51 



mm. and is situated .4 mm. from the ventral shell wall. Most of the 
siphuncle is missing, but the few fragments which remain show struc- 
tures which are identical with those in the holotype. 

Description oj paratype (No. 336, Bureau of Mineral Resources, 
Geology and Geophysics, Canberra; PI. 3, fig. 10). — This paratype 
is a fragment of a phragmocone. An oblique thin section has been 
made through the centre of the siphuncle. The septal necks are 
variable in length but have an average length equal to about one- 
third of the septal interval. As in the holotype the connecting rings 
are greatly thickened, and V-shaped in longitudinal cross-section. 
The siphuncular segments are slightly concave but not to the same 
extent as those of the holotype. 

The species is named in honour of the late A. Gibb Maitland, 
one of the pioneers of Western Australian geology. 

Comparisons. — Detailed comparisons of Eothinoceras '}naitlandi 
and Eothinoceras americanutn are difficult, since the American spe- 
cies is at present less well known. 

Occurrences. — Holotype, No. 34123 and hypotypes, Nos. 34124- 
34126 (PI. 3, figs. 6-8) came from locality E 1, and paratypes, Nos. 
335-336 together with hypotypes, Nos. 337-338A (PI. 3, figs. 5, 12) 
from locality NL17, Emanuel limestone, Emanuel Creek, Kimber- 
ley Division, Western Australia. 

Family THYLACOCERATIDAE Teichert and Glenister, n.fam. 

This famdy is here proposed for straight or slightly curved 
shells with small marginal siphuncle and subholochoanitic to macro- 
choanitic septal necks. As at present understood, it includes four 
Western Australian genera: 

Thylacoceras Teichert and Glenister (1952), a genus with 
smooth shell, a deep and narrow ventral lobe of the suture, and sub- 
holochoanitic septal necks; 

Ventroloboceras Teichert and Glenister, n.gen., with smooth 
shell, a broad and shallower ventral lobe of the suture, and holo- 
choanitic septal necks; 

Lebetoceras Teichert and Glenister, n.gen., with smooth shells, 
sutures running straight across the venter, and subholochoanitic 
septal necks; 



52 Bulletin- 150 198 



Notocycloceras Teichert and Glenlster, n.gen., with annulate 
shell and subholochoanitic septal necks. 

In 1952 we included Thylacoceros, which was then the only 
known genus of this group, in the Endoceratidae, but the discovery 
of closely associated genera which all lack endocones seems to make 
it advisable to combine them in the new family here proposed. 

It is possible that the family has representatives outside Aus- 
tralia and that some genera presently included in the Baltoceratidae 
and the Endoceratidae belong here, but lack of detailed information 
on the structures of the siphuncle and septal necks prevents useful 
discussion of most of them. Bactroceras Holm seems to be a closely 
related genus and provides a link with the Baltoceratidae. The rela- 
tionships between the Baltoceratidae and the Thylacoceratidae have 
already been discussed. 

Genus THYLACOCEKAS Teichert and Glenister, 1952 

Type species. — Thylacoceros kimberleyense Teichert and Glen- 
ister, 1952. 

Description. — Gently tapering, slightly endogastric shells, with 
depressed shell cross-section; suture sinuous with a deep U-shaped 
lobe across the venter; siphuncle of moderate size and marginal po- 
sition; septal necks subholochoanitic, connecting rings thick. 

Affinities. — The combination of small siphuncle, subholochoani- 
tic septal necks, smooth shell, and narrow U-shaped ventral lobe dis- 
tinguish Thylacoceras from all other adequately known genera. Pra- 
doceras kobayashi Sampelayo (1938) from the "ordoviciense medio" 
of Spain resembles Thylacoceras in possessing a small marginal 
siphuncle and deep U-shaped sutures across the venter. The camerae 
are, however, much deeper, and Sampelayo reported his genus as 
having a markedly constricted aperture. The siphuncular structures 
of Pradoceras are unknown. 

Thylacoceras kimberleyense Teichert and Glenister. 1952 PI. 6, figs. 2-5 

1952. Thylacoceras kimhrrlryrnsr Teichert and Glenister, Jour. Paleont., 
vol. 26, p. 738. 

New collections of fossil material have increased our knowledge 
of this species, and redescription is warranted. 

The conch expands slowly and is slightly curved endogastrically. 
It is depressed due to a flattening across the venter. The siphuncle is 
marginal in position and has a diameter equalling about one-fifth 



199 ,\i\>*TK \i 1 \\ Oruovkian Ci I'll ai.oi'ods: Teichert & Gi enister 53 



the dorso-ventral shell diameter. An average of eight camerae to- 
gether have a length equal to the dorso-ventral shell diameter. 

The sutures are conspicuously sinuous and transverse. A deep 
U-shaped lohe occurs across the venter. It has a depth equal to the 
length of one and a half camerae. The width of the lobe equals about 
two-thirds of its depth. The shell surface bears fine growth Hues. 

The septal necks have a length equal to more than two-thiids of 
the septal interval. Although typically somewhat shorter than most 
subholochoanitic necks, they may be described as subholochoanitic 
rather than hemichoanitic, since the general form of the ectosiphuncle 
is typical of subholochoanitic species. The septal necks are deflected 
inwards at their distal extremities. The connecting rings are thick 
and appear to be differentiated into a thin dense outer layer and a 
thicker and coarser-grained inner layer. The outer layer of the con- 
necting ring originates on the outside of the septal neck slightly ante- 
rior to the tip and reaches backwards where it is attached to the pre- 
ceding septal neck at its proximal extremity. 

Occurrence. — Hypotype, No. 348 is from locality NL 20 D, and 
hypotype, No. 349 from locality NL 20 E, Emanuel limestone, 
Emanuel Creek, Kimberley Division, Western Australia. Holotype 
No. 481 of Thylacoceras kimherleyense (Teichert and Glenister, 
1952) came from locality NL 20 E (Bureau of Mineral Resources, 
Geology and Geophysics, Canberra). 

Tlijiacocerns teretilohatum Teichert and Glenister. n.sp. PI. 7, figs. 5-7 

Description of holotype (No. 34127, Department of Geology, 
University of Western Australia). — The holotype is part of a slowly 
expanding phragmocone with slight endogastrlc curvature. It has a 
length of 72 mm. and is gently depressed in cross-section. The dorso- 
ventral and lateral diameters at the posterior end of the specimen, 
are 17.5 mm. and 18.2 mm. respectively, and the corresponding 
measurements at the anterior end of the specimen are 21.6 mm. and 
21.9 mm. The siphuncle is marginal in position, its diameter being 
3.4 mm. at the posterior end of the specimen and 3.7 mm. at the ante- 
rior end. Nine camerae together occupy a distance equal to the 
dorso-ventral shell diameter. 

The sutures are sinuous and transverse. A broad shallow lobe 
occurs across the venter, and in the middle of this broad lobe lies 



54 Bulletin- 150 200 



a deep but narrow U-shaped lobe. The ventral lobe has a depth equal 
to two-thirds the length of a camerae; the width is slightly less than 
the depth. Numerous fine longitudinal striations occur on the internal 
mould, adjacent to the siphuncle. The shell is smooth. 

The septal necks are subholochoanitic, having a length equal to 
the septal interval. They are deflected inwards at the distal ex- 
tremities, so that a gap is left between the tip of the septal neck and 
the proximal extremity of the succeeding neck. This gap is filled by 
a thick connecting ring. The posterior half of each connecting ring 
is occupied by denser material than the anterior half. There is no 
indication of differentiation of the connecting ring into an inner and 
outer layer. 

The species name refers to the delicate ventral lobe. 

Comparisons. — This species is readily separated from Thylaco- 
ceras kimberleyense by its much narrower and shallower ventral 
lobe. The siphuncle of Thylacoceras teretilobatum is smaller than 
that of Thylacoceras kimberleyense, and the longitudinal striations 
which appear to be characteristic of the former, are unknown in the 
latter. 

Occurrence. — Holotype No. 34127 is from locality Ell, Emanuel 
limestone, Emanuel Creek, Kimberley Division, Western Australia. 

Genus LEBETOCERAS Teichert and Glenister. n.gen. 

Type species. — Lebetoceras oepiki Teichert and Glenister, n.sp. 

Description. — Slowly expanding smooth orthocones with small 
marginal siphuncles. Septal necks subholochoanitic, connecting 
rings thick. Camerae low, sutures straight, and approximately trans- 
verse. 

The generic name is derived from the Greek word for "Basin," 
a reference to the Desert Basin of Western Australia. 

Affinities. — This genus is distinguished by the combination of 
small marginal siphuncle, subholochoanitic septal necks, and straight 
suture. Protobaltoceras Troedsson is superficially similar but has 
much shorter orthochoanitic septal necks. The type material of Lebe- 
toceras oepiki was referred to Protobaltoceras in a summary report 
on the Price's Creek nautiloids (Teichert and Glenister, 1952). 

Lebetoceras oepiki Teichert and Glenister, n.sp. PI. 5, figs. 1-5; text fig. 9 
Description of holotype (No. 340, Bureau of Mineral Resources, 



201 



AusTRAMAN DRnoviciAN Ceph ALoiHTUs : Tfichkrt &: Glenistkr 



55 



Geology and Geophysics, Canberra; PI. 5, figs. 1-2). — The holotype 
is a slowly expanding orthoconic longicone with a length of 60 mm. 
The conch is weathered across the dorsum, but it is almost certain 
that the cross-section was circular. The shell diameter is estimated to 
have been 16 mm. at the posterior end of the specimen and 21 mm. 
at the anterior end. The siphuncle is marginal and has a uniform di- 
ameter of 3.6 mm. Nine camerae together have a length equal to the 
shell diameter. 

The shell is smooth. Abrasion of the outer surface of the conch 
has rendered the accurate tracing of the suture line impossible, but 
the suture appears to be straight and to slope posteriorly from the 
venter to the dorsum. A ventral lobe is not developed. 

The whole specimen has been cut in the dorso-ventral mid- 
plane, and a thin section made of the posterior 16 mm. The septal 
necks are subholochoanitic, reaching slightly more than three-quar- 
ters of the distance to the preceding septal foramen. No textural dif- 
ferentiation has occurred in the thick connecting rings. 




Fig. 9. Ectosiphuncle of Lebetoceras oepiki. 



56 Bulletin 150 202 



Description of paratype (No. 341, Bureau of Mineral Resources, 
Geology and Geophysics, Canberra; pi. 5, figs. 3-5). — The paratype 
is a phragmocone of circular cross-section with a length of 34 mm. 
The shell diameter is 17 mm. at the posterior end of the specimen 
and 19 mm. at the anterior end, while the siphuncle is marginal and 
has a uniform diameter of 3.4 mm. Little information is available 
concerning the suture except that it is straight and approximately 
transverse across the venter and flanks. 

The ectosiphuncle is excellently preserved and consists of sub- 
holochoanitic septal necks joined by thick, homogeneous connecting 
rings. The septal necks reach slightly more than three-quarters of 
the distance to the preceding septal foramen and turn sharply in- 
wards at their distal extremities. 

This species is named in honour of Dr. A. A. Opik. 

Occurrence. — Locality NL 20 F (holotype) and locality NL 17 
(paratype), Emanuel limestone, Emanuel Creek, Kimberley Di- 
vision, Western Australia. 

Genus XOTOCYCLOCERAS Teichert and Glenister, n.gen. 
Type species. — Notocycloceras yurabiense Teichert and Glen- 
ister, n.sp. 

Description. — Orthoconic longicones with small marginal si- 
phuncle and well-developed annulations; shell cross-section slightly 
depressed, sutures straight; septal necks subholochoanitic; connect- 
ing rings thick and apparently homogeneous. 

Affinities. — Notocycloceras is superficially similar to Cyclendo- 
ceras, from which it differs in having a smaller siphuncle and sub- 
holochoanitic instead of holochoanitic septal necks, and in the ab- 
sence of endocones. Catoraphiceras differs in having a deep ventral 
lobe. 

Notoovoloceras yurabiense Teichert and Glenister, n.sp PI. 5. figs. 6-7; 

PI. 6, fig. 1 

Description of holotype (No. 350, Bureau of Mineral Resources, 
Geology and Geophysics, Canberra). — The holotype is part of a 
slowly expanding orthoconic phragmocone with a length of 43 mm. 
A thin section of the anterior 16 mm. of the conch has been cut 
in the dorso-ventral mid-plane. The shell is elliptical in cross-section 



Z03 AusTRMiw Okiioviciw Cki'HAi.oi'ods: Teichert & Glenistf.r 57 



hciiig slightly (leprcsscd. At the posterior end of the specimen the 
dorso-vcntral and lateral diameters are 11 mm. and 12 mm. re- 
spectively, while the corresponding measurement at a point 27 mm. 
from the posterior end are 12.8 mm. and 13.8 mm. The siphuncle is 
small and marginal in position. It has a diameter of 3.4 mm. where 
the dorso-ventral shell diameter equals 12.8 mm. Eight camerae to- 
gether have a length equal to the dorso-ventral shell diameter, and 
two camerae together have a length equal to the diameter of the si- 
phuncle. 

The sutures are practically straight and transverse. However, 
they slope posteriorly at a low angle from the dorsal to the ventral 
side of the shell. Ectosiphuncular sutures are well developed. The shell 
surface bears numerous well-developed annulations. They run par- 
allel to the sutures and thus slope posteriorly from the dorsum to 
the venter. Four annulations occur in a distance equal to the dorso- 
ventral shell diameter. Numerous fine striations parallel the annula- 
tions. 

The septal necks are subholochoanitic. They exhibit consider- 
able variation in length, some being shorter than the septal interval 
and others longer. Each neck is deflected inwards at its distal end, 
so that a wide gap is left between it and the proximal end of the pre- 
ceding septal neck. This gap is filled by a thick homogeneous con- 
necting ring which extends from the tip of one septal neck to the 
tip of the neck which precedes it. 

The species name is derived from Yurabi, the political division 
in which Price's Creek is situated. 

Occurrence. — Holotype, No. 350 came from locality NL 20 E, 
Emanuel limestone, Emanuel Creek, Kimberley Division, Western 
Australia. 

Genus TEXTROLOROCERAS Teichert and Glenister, n gen. 

Type species. — V entroloboceras jurcillatum Teichert and Glen- 
ister, n.sp. 

Description. — Slowly expanding orthocones with low camerae, 
and small siphuncle situated close to the ventral margin. Septal 
necks macrochoanitic, connecting rings thick. Broad but sharply 
rounded ventral lobe. 



58 Bulletin 150 204 



The generic name refers to the ventral lobe. 

Affinities. — Ventroloboceras is not readily comparable to any 
other genus and occupies a special place even among the Thylaco- 
ceratidae, mainly because of its long septal necks. In this family it 
represents a homeomorph to the endoceratid condition with regard 
to septal neck development. 

Ventroloboceras furcillatHin Teichort and Glenister, n.sp. PI. 7, figs. 1-4 

Description of holotype (No. 356, Bureau of Mineral Resources, 
Geology and Geophysics, Canberra). — The holotype is a slowly ex- 
panding orthoconic phragmocone 27.5 mm. long. At the posterior 
end of the specimen the dorso-ventral and lateral diameters are 12.0 
mm. and 12.2 mm. respectively, while the corresponding diameters 
at the anterior end of the phragmocone are 13.7 mm. and 14.0 mm. 
The siphuncle has a uniform diameter of 2.1 mm., and is situated .2 
mm. from the ventral shell wall. Six and a half camerae together oc- 
cupy a distance equal to the dorso-ventral shell diameter. 

The internal mould is free of ornamentation. The suture line is 
composed of a broad but narrowly rounded ventral lobe, flanked 
by a pair of saddles across the ventro-lateral areas and a gently 
rounded lobe across the flanks and venter. 

The septal necks are macrochoanitic, having a length which is 
slightly greater than the septal interval. Several of the better pre- 
served septal necks are forked at their distal extremities. The outer 
branch of these forks almost touch the proximal extremity of the 
preceding septal neck (for typical macrochoanitic septal necks see 
text fig. 3). The connecting rings are moderately thick. There is a 
concentration of finely crystalline dense material at the anterior end 
of each connecting ring. 

The species name refers to the forking of the septal necks at 
their distal extremities. 

Occurrence. — Locality NL 20 D, Emanuel limestone, Emanuel 
Creek, Kimberley Division, Western Australia. 

Order ENDOrERATTD.\ 
Family rR0TER0CA3IER0CEKATIDAE Kobayashi, 1937 
This group was established as a subfamily by Kobayashi in 



205 Ai^sTRAi.i A\ Ordovician Cli'HAi.oi'ods: Teichert i^ Glenister 59 



1937, Init its diagnosis was based on erroneous descriptions of the 
type genus, mainly by Ruedemann. Flower (1946) restudied Protero- 
cameroceras, showing that it was orthochoanitic and characterized 
by split septal necks and complex connecting rings. He established 
the family, Proterocameroceratidae. However, although it was 
Flower who first demonstrated the true structure of the type genus, 
the family name must be credited to Kobayashi. 

The grouping of genera in this family is not satisfactory. Flower 
and Kummel (1950) include forms with septal necks ranging in 
length from vestigial to nearly the length of the camera. Some of 
the genera included by them are known only from isolated siphuncles 
(Utoceras, Oderoceras) and the length of their septal necks is not 
known. We are placing here the new genus Anthoceras. It is an annu- 
late form, being the earliest annulate endoceratid so far known. The 
structures of the septal necks and connecting rings in Anthoceras are 
so different from those of Proterocameroceras that there is justifiable 
doubt of particularly close relationships between the two genera. 

Genus rKOTEKOCAJIEROCERAS Ruedemann, 1905 

Proterocameroceras coiitrarhim Teichert and Glenister, n.sp PI. 4, 

figs. 1-4; text figs. 10-11 




Fig. 10. Ectosiphuncle of Proterocameroceras contrarium. 



60 Bulletin 150 206 



Description of holotype (No. 366, Bureau of Mineral Resources, 
Geology and Geophysics, Canberra; PI. 4, figs. 1, 3-4). — The holo- 
type is an internal mould, having a length of 115 mm., of which 58 
mm. consists of phragmocone. It has been subjected to dorso-ventral 
crushing. The lateral diameters at the anterior and posterior ends 
of the specimen are 91 mm. and 77 mm. respectively. The dorso-ven- 
tral diameter at the posterior end of the specimen measures 39 mm., 
and the corresponding diameter at the anterior end 53 mm., but be- 
cause of the crushing, these figures are somewhat lower than the 
original diameters. 

The sutures are transverse and sinuous. A pronounced, but 
relatively narrow saddle occurs across the venter. It is followed by 
a broad shallow lobe, which gives place to a narrow ill-defined saddle 
on the ventro-lateral flank. The dorsal surface of the holotype has 
been crushed, and the sutures are not preserved along this part of the 
shell. 




Fig. 11. Suture of Protfrocamcroccras contrarium. 



At the posterior end of the specimen, the siphuncle has a diam- 
eter of 21.8 mm. and appears to have been almost in contact with 
the ventral wall of the conch. The septal necks and connecting rings 
are well preserved on the dorsal side but are missing on the ventral 
side. The septal necks on the dorsal side are excessively thick and 
short. In a typical siphuncular segment, with a height of 4.1 mm., 
the septal necks have a thickness of .5 mm. and a length of .45 mm. 
At their posterior extremities, the septal necks may generally be 
seen to bifurcate. The connecting rings are extremely thick and com- 



207 AusTRAi.iw Oroovician Cii'II \i df'ods: Teichert &■ Gi.enister 61 



posed of two distiller layers. The inner layer is tliiii, having a uniform 
thickness of .15 mm. It reaches hom the tip of one septal neck to 
the tip of the preceding septal neck. The outer layer is less regular 
and is progressively thickened towards the posterior end of the speci- 
men. In more mature parts of the specimen this outer layer forms 
a projection into the camerae, producing a narrow flange situated 
just ahove the mid-height of the siphuncular segments. It exists only 
as a swelling of the outer layer in immature segments. The external 
layer continues as a thin deposit for a short distance along both the 
anterior and posterior surfaces of the septa. A layer of translucent 
calcite developed atong the inside of the siphuncular wall doubtless 
represents recrystallized endocones. As would be expected, this re- 
crystallized layer increases in thickness posteriorly. 

Description of -paratype (No. 367, Bureau of Mineral Resources, 
Geology and Geophysics, Canberra; PI. 4, fig. 2). — ^This specimen 
is a fragment from the ventral side of a phragmocone. The sutures 
are well preserved. It shows a sharply curved ventral saddle, fol- 
lowed by a wide lobe and another sharply curved saddle across the 
ventro-iateral area. 

Description of paratype (No. 368, Bureau of Mineral Resources, 
Geology and Geophysics, Canberra). — This paratype is a portion of a 
much larger specimen than the holotype. It has a length of 145 mm., 
a maximum lateral diameter of 135 mm., and a siphuncle whose 
estimated diameter is 34 mm. The conch has been crushed, and an 
estimate of the dorso-ventral diameter is not possible. Numerous 
fine, transverse growth lines are seen on a well-preserved portion of 
the shell wall. On the dorsal surface, the suture consists of a broad, 
low, saddle. 

Description of paratype (No. 369, Bureau of Mineral Resources, 
Geology and Geophysics, Canberra). — The specimen has a length 
of 90 mm., 50 mm. consisting of phragmocone. It has been subjected 
to pressure in the dorso-ventral plane but is not greatly distorted. 
The dorso-ventral and lateral diameters measure 61 mm. and 77 
mm. respectively at the posterior end of the specimen, while the 
corresponding diameters at the anterior end are 80 mm. and 103 
mm. 

Comparisons. — The similarity of the siphuncular structures of 



62 Bulletin 150 208 



the Australian species of Proterocavieroceras and Proterocamero- 
ceras brainerdi, the type species of the genus, (see Flower, 1947) 
can leave little doubt as to the close affinities between the two spe- 
cies. In the Australian species, three outward projections of the 
outer layer of the connecting ring occur in each siphuncular segment, 
one along the posterior surface of the septum, one just above the 
mid-height of the siphuncular segment, and one along the anterior 
surface of the septum. The first two projections are unknown in 
Proterocameroceras brainerdi, and the latter is only weakly devel- 
oped. However, these projections are only developed in the mature 
part of our specimens, and the siphuncular deposits at the anterior 
end of the siphuncle are quite similar to those of the American spe- 
cies of Proterocameroceras. An unusally large, ventrally situated, 
and almost marginal siphuncle is common to both species. As far as 
can be determined from the crushed conchs of the Australian spe- 
cies, the conch proportions are similar to those of Proterocamero- 
ceras brainerdi. Important differences do occur in the details of the 
suture. The American species is described as having a directly trans- 
verse, somewhat sinuous suture, tending to form slight lateral saddles 
and similar dorsal and ventral lobes. The Australian species pos- 
sesses a dorsal and a ventral saddle. Next to the ventral saddle is a 
broad rounded lobe, followed by a similar saddle across the ventro- 
lateral area, and a broad lobe across the lateral and dorso-lateral 
area. 

Although significant differences in details of both suture and 
siphuncle occur between the Australian species and the type species 
of Proterocam,eroceras , these do not seem to afford a basis for generic 
separation. The species name refers to the occurrence of Protero- 
cameroceras on the opposite side of the earth to the type locality of 
the type species. 

Occurrence. — All the types came from locality NL 20 E, Eman- 
uel limestone, Emanuel Creek, Kimberley Division, Western Aus- 
tralia. 

Genus AXTHOCEKAS Teichert and Glenister, n.gen. 

Type species. — Anthoceras decorum Teichert and Glenister, n.sp. 

Description. — Prominently annulated orthoconic longicones 

with circular cross-section; suture probably straight and transverse; 



209 Australian Ordovician Cephalopods: Teichert & Glenister 63 



siphuncle moderately large and marginal, with constricted segments; 
septal necks subholochoanitic, connectmg rings thick; endocones 
slightly asymetric. 

The genus is named in honour of Dr. Rousseau H. Flower. 

Affinities. — Anthoceras is best placed amongst the Protero- 
cameroceratidae, although the septal necks are longer than those of 
typical members of this family. It differs from all other described 
genera in the combination of annulate shell, subholochoanitic septal 
necks, thick connecting rings, and complex endocones. 

Anthoceras rtoooruin Teichert and Glenister, n.sp PI. 8, fig. 1 

Descriptioyi of holotype (No. 34129, Department of Geology, 
University of Western Australia). — The holotype is part of an ortho- 
conic phragmocone with a length of 39.6 mm. Only one-half of the 
specimen is preserved, but it seems probable that the conch was cir- 
cular in cross-section. The diameter at the posterior end of the spe- 
cimen is estimated to have been 6.5 mm., and the corresponding di- 
ameter at the anterior end of the specimen 10 mm. The siphuncle 
maintains a uniform diameter of 2.8 mm. and is marginal. Six 
camerae together have a length equal to the shell diameter. 

The shell is traversed by well-developed annulations, four oc- 
curing in a distance equal to the shell diameter. The holotype does 
not show the suture clearly. 

The septal necks are subholochoanitic. They are variable in 
length, but most of them reach posteriorly almost to the preceding 
septal foramen. Unlike typical subholochoanitic septal necks, those 
of the holotype do not turn sharply inwards at their distal extrem- 
ities. The necks are gently convex inward throughout their entire 
length, with the result that the siphuncular segments are slightly con- 
stricted at their mid-height. An appreciable gap is left between suc- 
cessive septal necks, and this gap is filled by the anterior part of the 
thick connectmg rings. Numerous well-preserved asymetrical endo- 
cones fill the posterior half of the siphuncle. They are sinuous in 
cross-section. Many of them are deflected sharply outwards in the 
vicinity of the connecting ring, so that they meet it at right angles. 
A narrow endosiphuncular tube perforates the apices of the endo- 
cones. It is situated slightly nearer the ventral side than the dorsal 



6+ Bulletin 150 210 



side of the siphuncle and is crossed by several irregularl}^ spaced 
diaphragms. 

The species name refers to the beautifully preserved delicate 
structures of the siphuncle. 

Occurrence. — The holotype was found at locality E 10, Emanuel 
limestone, Emanuel Creek, Kimberley Division, Western Australia. 
Numerous specimens of this species are found at locality NH 143 
near the base of the Emanuel limestone. 

Family riLOrERATIDAE Miller, 1889 

Genus ALLOPILOCERAS Ulrich and Foerste, 1936 

Allopiloceras calamus Teichert and Glenister, n.sp. PI. 7, figs. 8-9 

Description of holotype (No. 355, Bureau of Mineral Resources, 
Geology and Geophysics, Canberra). — The species is known by the 
posterior portion of a single siphuncle. The holotype has a length of 
54.5 mm. and at the anterior end of the specimen attains a dorso- 
ventral diameter of 27.6 mm. and a lateral diameter of 24.7 mm. It 
is compressed throughout. The posterior third of the specimen ex- 
pands rapidly, but the rate of expansion decreases anteriorly. The 
dorsal profile is convex in the posterior half of the specimen but 
becomes flat in the anterior half. The ventral profile is convex in 
the posterior third of the specimen, becomes gently concave to a 
point just anterior of mid-length, and then becomes gently convex in 
the anterior half of the specimen. The curvature is thus reversed in 
the anterior part of the siphuncle. Transverse annulations do not 
occur, although the siphuncle does not appear to have suffered 
severe abrasion. A deep but narrow groove starts at the apex and 
traverses the ventro-lateral flank. Six mm. from the apex it bifur- 
cates to form two slightly sinuous grooves which traverse the whole 
length of the specimen. One of the grooves lies approximately in the 
mid-ventral plane, while the other traverses the ventro-lateral flank. 
Recrystallization has obliterated most of the finer internal structures, 
but both furrows appear to be continuous with irregular endosi- 
phuncular blades. Five other endosiphuncular blades occur, and in 
each case they leave some trace of a longitudinal furrow where they 
meet the external surface of the siphuncle. 

In cross-section the siphuncle is seen to be composed of a finely 



211 Australian Ordovician Cephalopods: Teichert & Glenister 65 



crystalline irregular outer layer, which probably represents recrys- 
tallized endocones, and seven unevenly spaced endosiphuncular 
blades which radiate from the central rod of dark-coloured calcite. 
This central rod may represent the endosiphuncular coleon and the 
endosiphuncular tube. The endosiphuncular coleon and the inner 
parts of the endosiphuncular blades are enclosed in coarsely crystal- 
line calcite. 

Comparisons. — The Australian species of Allo-piloceras is a typi- 
cal member of the genus. It has close affinities with Allo-piloceras se- 
vierense Ulrich, Foerste and Miller. Both species have siphuncles 
which expand uniformly near the posterior end, and in both the 
curvature is reversed at an early stage of development. The Aus- 
tralian species of AUopiloceras is the only representative of the genus 
from which endosiphuncular blades have been recorded. 

The species name refers to the endosiphuncular blades. 

Occurrence. — The holotype came from locality NL 20 E, Eman- 
uel limestone, Emanuel Creek, Kimberley Division, Western Aus- 
tralia. 

Family EXDOrERATIBAE Hyatt, 1883 
Genus CYKTEXDOCERAS Patrunky, 1926 

Type species. — Endoceras (Cyrtocerina) hircus Holm, 1895. 

The generic term Cyrtendoceras was first used by Remele in 
1886 when he exhibited a cephalopod at a scientific meeting, the re- 
port of which appeared in the same year (Remele, 1886). The name 
was proposed for a gently cyrtoconic shell with a large, marginal, 
endogastrically situated siphuncle, and holochoanitic septal necks. ^ 
Remele cannot be said to have validly established the genus Cyr- 
tendoceras, since he gave no specific name to the specimen. 

In 1892 Holm described two species, from the Ordovician of 
Sweden and Estonia respectively, as Endoceras (Cyrtocerina) hircus 
and Endoceras (Cyrtocerina) schmidti. He stated that they were 
congeneric with the undescribed species represented by the specimen 
on which Remele had based his genus Cyrtendoceras. Since, however, 
Holm rejected Cyrtendoceras, which he regarded as synonymous 
with Cyrtocerina Billings, it cannot be claimed that he gave validity 
to the generic name. 



^An English translation of Remele's brief article was given by Foerste, 1932. 



66 Bulletin 150 212 



In 1906 Ruedemann described a new species under the name of 
Cyrtendoceras? -priscum. This cannot affect the vaHdity of Cyrtendo- 
ceras, since his species was only doubtfully referred to that genus. 
As far as we have been able to ascertain, the first person to use 
Cyrtendoceras without reservation and in connection with a valid 
specific name was Patrunky. In a little known publication (1926), 
he recorded the presence of "Cyrtendoceras hircus Holm" in Ordo- 
vician limestones from the Pleistocene drift of northern Germany. 
Under this name he identified cyrtoconic endoceroids with large 
marginal siphuncles and endocones. He stated clearly that for such 
forms the name Cyrtendoceras, which he credited to Remele, was 
preferred. Patrunky thus gave validity to the genus, and since 
"Cyrtendoceras hircus Holm" is the only species mentioned, this 
becomes the type species by monotypy. 

Foerste (1932) was the first to restudy the specimen for which 
Remele coined the name Cyrtendoceras. He made this the type of a 
new species, C. remelei, but his proposal to regard this as the type 
species of Cyrtendoceras cannot be accepted. 

Fortunately, this confusion about authors and type species 
raises no major taxonomic problem, because all authors agree to re- 
gard C.hircus, C. schmidti, and C.remelei as congeneric. A fourth 
specimen, from the Kunda formation of Estonia, described in 
Foerste's publication (1932) under the name of C.estoniense, may 
belong to our new genus C amp endoc eras. 

The generic diagnosis of Cyrtendoceras, based on the type 
species, as as follows: 

Cyrtoconic, endogastric, slightly compressed conchs, with 
marked growth lines or wrinkles describing lateral saddles and ven- 
tral and dorsal lobes; siphuncle large, marginal; septal necks holo- 
choanitic; endocones present. 

Hyatt (1900, p. 515) proposed the family Cyrtendoceratidae 
for the single genus Cyrtendoceras. The family was later extended 
to include any type of endogastric curved conch with a large siph- 
uncle. Thus Foerste (1925) added Levisoceras, Clarkoceras, and 
Quebecoceras, and Kobayashi (1937) added Cyrtovaginoceras. In 
1943 Ulrich, Foerste and Miller discussed the family and the type 
genus at some length, but based their interpretation of the latter on 
the supposed type species, Cyrtendoceras remelei Foerste, the siph- 



213 Australian Ordovician Cephai.opods: Teichert & Glenister 67 



uncular structure of which is not known. In addition, 13 other genera 
were inchided in the family. However, almost all of these seem 
to have short septal necks and complex connecting rings and were 
correctly placed in the Ellesmeroceratidae by Flower and Kummel 
(1950). They are not closely related to Cyrtendoceras. As has been 
shown, the latter is a true endoceratid, and since we place little 
taxonomic value on the curvature of the conch, we do not propose 
to maintain the family Cyrtendoceratidae. In this we follow Flower 
and Kummel, who listed the genus among the Endoceratidae. 

Cyrtendoceras carnefjiei Teichert and Glenister, n. sp. PI. 8, figs. 6-9; 

text fig. 12 

Description of holotype (No. 351, Bureau of Mineral Resources, 
Geology and Geophysics, Canberra; PI. 8, figs. 7-9). — The holotype 
is part of the phragmocone of a rapidly expandmg, weakly curved, 
endogastric cyrtocone. It has a length of 34 mm. and is compressed 
m cross-section. At the posterior end of the specimen the dorso- 
ventral and lateral diameters are 28 mm. and 26 mm. respectively, 
while the corresponding diameters at the anterior end of the speci- 
men are 42 mm. and 39 mm. The siphuncle is large and marginal. 
It has a dorso-ventral diameter of 15 mm. at the posterior end of 
the specimen and a corresponding diameter of 16 mm. at the an- 




(^, 



Fig. 12. Anterior and posterior cross-sections of the holotype of Cyrtendoceras 
carnegiei. 



68 Bulletin ISO 214 



terior end. Ten camerae occupy a distance equal to the dorso- 
ventral shell diameter. 

The suture consists of a shallow but narrowly rounded lobe 
across the venter, followed by a rounded saddle across the flanks 
and a shallow lobe across dorsum. Ectosiphuncular sutures are 
well developed. 

The septal necks are holochoanitic, reaching posteriorly almost 
exactly to the preceding septum. They are straight and do not turn 
appreciably inwards at their distal ends. The connecting rings are 
composed of two layers, a thick outer layer and a regularly thin inner 
layer. There is a concentration of dense material near the anterior 
extremity of the thick outer layer. A thin endocone layer is present. 

A cylindrical tube, almost centrally situated, occurs in the pos- 
terior part of the siphuncle of the holotype. It is considered that this 
tube has been introduced during fossilization. 

Description of paratype (No. 352, Bureau of Mineral Re- 
souces. Geology and Geophysics, Canberra; PL 8, fig. 6). — The para- 
type is a much weathered specimen with a well-preserved siphuncle. 
The septal necks are holochoanitic. They are conical rather than 
tubular, so that a considerable lateral gap is left between the pos- 
terior tip of each septal neck and the anterior extremity of the neck 
which precedes it. The connecting rings consist of three components, 
arranged in two layers. The inner layer is thin and composed of 
dense material. It originates at the tip of the septal neck and ex- 
tends posteriorly, as a layer of uniform thickness, to the tip of the 
preceding septal neck. The outer layer is much thicker and consists 
of two components. The anterior component is finely crystalline and 
in some segments is finely laminated, while the larger posterior 
component is made up of coarsely crystalline material. Endocones 
are well developed. 

This species is named in honour of D. W. Carnegie, who in 
1896-1897 explored the eastern margin of the Desert Basin. 

Comparisons. — Cyrtendoceras carnegiei diflFers from Cyrtendo- 
ceras hircus Holm, the type species of the genus, in having straight 
septal necks and in the absence of wrinkles on the shell surface. The 
Western Australian species of Cyrtendoceras is the only one known 
to possess a dorsal and ventral lobe with intervening saddles across 
the flanks. Cyrtendoceras schmidti (Holm) and Cyrtendoceras 



21S AusTRAiiw Orpovician Cri'HAi.oi'ods: Teichert & Glenister 69 



remelei Foerste have siphuiiclcs wliich are slightly removed from the 
ventral wall. 

Occurrence. — All the type material came from locality NH 145, 
Emanuel limestone, Emanuel Creek, Kimberly Division, Western 
Australia. 

Genus Lobeiuloceras Teichert and Glenister, n.gen. 

Type species. — Lobe?idoceras emanuelense Teichert and Glenis- 
ter, n. sp. 

Description. — Orthoconic longicones with smooth shell, circular 
cross-section, and large marginal siphuncle; conchs moderately ex- 
panded anteriorly, camerae short. A broad deep lobe occurs in the 
ventral suture. Septal necks typically subholochoanitic but may 
become holochoanitic; connecting rings thick, endocones probably 
developed. 

Aiinities. — Lobendoceras is closely allied to Endoceras, from 
which it differs in the possession of a ventral lobe and subholocho- 
anitic rather than holochoanitic septal necks. Catoraphiceras differs 
in having well-developed annulations, and Thylacoceras has a much 
smaller siphuncle. 

Lobendoceras emanuelense Teichert and Glenister, n.sp. PI. 9, figs. 1-7 

Description of holotype (No. 346, Bureau of Mineral Resources, 
Geology and Geophysics, Canberra; PI. 9, figs. 1-4). — The holotype 
is part of a closely chambered orthoconic phragmocone with a length 
of 77.4 mm. It is circular in cross-section and expands from a dia- 
meter of 19.2 mm. at the posterior end of the specimen to 29.1 mm. 
at the anterior end. The siphuncle is large and marginal. It is de- 
pressed in cross-section due to a ventral flattening. The lateral dia- 
meter of the siphuncle is 9.2 mm. at the posterior end of the speci- 
men and 14.0 mm. at the anterior end. Thirty-eight mm. from the 
posterior end of the specimen the lateral and dorso-ventral diameters 
of the siphuncle are 10.9 and 9.6 mm. respectively. Ten camerae 
occupy a distance equal to the shell diameter, and the lateral dia- 
meter of the siphuncle is equal to the height of 4.5 camerae. 

A broadly rounded ventral lobe occurs in the suture. This lobe 
has a width slightly less than the lateral diameter of the siphuncle 
and a depth equal to the length of 1.5 camerae. The ventral lobe 



70 Bulletin 150 216 



is bordered by a pair of low saddles across the flanks and a shallow 
lobe across the dorsum. 

The septal necks are somewhat variable in length. Most of them 
are subholochoanitic, but several near the posterior end of the holo- 
type are holochoanitic. The distal ends of the septal necks are de- 
flected towards the centre of the siphuncle, so that even when the 
necks are holochoanitic there is a gap between the distal end of 
each neck and the proximal end of the preceding one. Connecting 
rings are thick and apparently uniform in composition. A thin recry- 
stallized interior lining of the posterior end of the siphuncle is inter- 
preted as representing recrystalhzed cndocones. A narrow tube is 
present in the posterior end of the siphuncle. Similar structures have 
not been reported from endoceroid siphuncles, and it is thought 
that the tube was introduced when the rest of the siphuncle was 
filled with matrix. 

Description of paratype (No. 347, Bureau of Mineral Resources, 
Geology and Geophysics, Canberra; PI. 9, figs. 5-7). — The paratype 
represents the ventral third of a well-preserved phragmocone. It 
has a length of 59.2 mm. A lateral section through the siphuncle 
shows subholochoanitic septal necks, thick connecting rings, and 
recrystalhzed endocones. The characteristic deep ventral lobe is well 
exposed. Most of the shell is preserved; it is smooth. 

The species takes its name from the Emanuel limestone. 

Occurrence. — Both the holotype and the paratype came from 
locality NL 20 E, Emanuel limestone, Emanuel Creek, Kimberley 
Division, Western Australia. 

Genus raiiipeiuloceras Teichert and Glenister, n.gen. 

Type species. — Campendoceras gracile Teichert and Glenister, 
n.sp. 

Description. — Slightly cyrtoconic, slender, endogastric, longi- 
cones with annulate shell, circular cross-section, and large marginal 
siphuncle; camerae long, sutures straight, septal necks subholocho- 
anitic; endocones present. The generic name is derived from a com- 
bination of Endoceras and the Greek word for bend. 

Affinities. — The only other curved genus of Endoceratidae is 
Cyrtendoceras which differs in being larger and more strongly curved 



217 Australian Ordovician Cephalopods: Teichert & Glenister 71 



and in liaviiio; a wrinkled rather than annulate shell. 

CiuniK'iKhK'eras praoile Teichert and Glenister, n.sp. PI. 1, figs. 10-11 

Description of holotype (No. 371, Bureau of Mineral Resources, 
Geology and Geophysics, Canberra). — ^This specimen is a gently 
curved endogastric longicone with a length of 41 mm. The cross- 
section of the conch is approximately circular, the diameter of the 
shell increasing from 2.5 mm. at the posterior end of the specimen to 
7.S mm. at the anterior end. The siphuncle is marginal in position 
and has a maximum diameter of 3.5 mm. at the anterior end. 

Numerous prominent annulations appear on the internal mould. 
They are directly transverse. Four occur in a distance equal to the 
shell diameter. The sutures are parallel to the annulations. Five cam- 
erae together have a length equal to the diameter of the shell. 

The septal necks are not well preserved but appear to be sub- 
holochoanitic. The interior of the siphuncle is filled with coarsely 
crystalline calcite which represents recrystallized endocones. Part 
of the conical space inside the last endocone is visible near the an- 
terior end of the siphuncle and is now filled with matrix. This last 
endocone is circular in cross-section and is situated near the middle 
of the siphuncle. 

Comparisons. — ^The only other known cyrtoconic, distinctly 
annulate endoceroid, is a species described by Foerste (1932) as 
Cyrtendoceras estoniense, from the Vaginatum limestone (Kunda 
formation, B3) of Estonia. This species is much larger than Cam- 
pendoceras gracile. In addition to distinct though weak annulations, 
it has fine transverse striae on the shell. Since the holotypes of the 
two species represent different portions of the phragmocone, it is 
difficult to compare them in detail. However, they appear to be 
closely related and seem to be of similar age. They are, therefore, 
most probably congeneric. 

Occurrence. — Locality NL 20 E, Emanuel limestone, Emanuel 
Creek, Kimberley Division, Western Australia. 

Eiidoceratidae, gen. et sp. ind. PI. 8, fig. 2-5 

1952. Cf. Mcniscoccras Teichert and Glenister, Jour. Paleont., vol. 26, 
p. 773. 

Two specifically identical fragmentary siphuncles do not seem to 



72 Bulletin 150 218 



belong to any previously described genus. The morphological in- 
formation they provide is far from complete, and their structures are 
not fully understood. However, both specimens are described below, 
since they may prove valuable in stratigraphic correlation. These 
specimens were previously compared with Meniscoceras in a brief 
survey of the Price's Creek fauna (Teichert and Glenister, 1952). 

Description of specimen No. 342 (Bureau of Mineral Resources, 
Geology and Geophysics, Canberra; PI. 8, figs. 2-3). — ^The specimen 
is a straight, depressed, slowly expanding fragment of a siphuncle, 
57.7 mm. in length. At the posterior end of the specimen the lateral 
diameter is 13.8 mm., while at the anterior end the lateral and dorso- 
ventral diameters are 17.0 mm. and 13.0 mm. respectively. The dor- 
sal surface is evenly rounded, while the ventral surface is almost flat, 
being gently convex. Weakly developed annulations are present in 
the anterior half of the specimen. They are interpreted as the lines 
at which holochoanitic septal necks joined their respective septa. The 
annulations slope anteriorly from the dorsum to the venter. The dis- 
tance between five successive annulations is equal to the lateral 
siphuncular diameter. 

The siphuncular deposits consist of three concentric organic 
layers surrounding a central tube which is filled with matrix. The 
central tube is crescent-shaped in cross-section. The outermost layer 
of the siphuncular deposits is fairly uniform in thickness but is 
thickened on the ventro-lateral flanks. At the anterior end of the 
specimen, the average thickness of this layer is 1 mm., but the thick- 
ness increases to 2 mm. ventro-laterally. Inside this outermost layer 
lies a more irregular deposit. Dorsally and laterally it has an average 
thickness of .5 mm. but is inflated ventrally to a thickness of over 
3 mm. A superficially similar, wedge-shaped structure occurring in 
Manchuroceras steanei was given the name of "endosiphowedge" by 
Teichert (1947), but "endosiphuncular wedge" is now preferred. 
Study of the holotype of Monchuroceras steanei shows that the two 
structures are not closely similar, since the endosiphuncular wedge 
of Manchuroceras is a discrete deposit formed inside the endocones 
and confined to the ventral side of the siphuncle. On the inside of 
this second layer lies a further organic layer with a uniform thickness 
of 1 mm. As a result of the ventral thickening of the middle layer, 



219 AUSTRAI IAN OrOOVICIAN CePHALOPODS: TeICHERT & Gi.ENISTER 73 



the inner layer is crescentic in cross-section, being convex dorsally 
and laterally and flatly concave ventrally. The endosiphuncular cone 
is also crescentic in cross-section. It is filled with matrix. The three 
layers are interpreted as three discrete series of recrystallized endo- 
cones. 

Description of specimen A'o. 343 (Bureau of Mineral Resourses, 
Geology and Geophysics, Canberra; PI. 8, figs. 4-5). — The ventral 
part of the shell wall and the septa, together with the siphuncle, 
are preserved in this specimen. Siphuncular structures are almost ob- 
literated by recrystallization. The ventral surface of the siphuncle 
appears to be in contact with the shell wall. The specimen has a 
length of 44 mm. At the posterior end the lateral and dorso-ventral 
siphuncular diameters are 7.0 mm. and 7.5 mm. respectively, while 
the corresponding diameters at the anterior end of the specimen are 
13.6 mm. and 11.0 mm. The siphuncle is oval in cross-section, the 
dorsal surface being rounded and the ventral surface almost flat. 
The shell diameter is estimated as 20 mm. Four and a half camerae 
occupy a distance equal to the lateral diameter of the siphuncle. 

Comparisons. — The specimens described above are superficially 
similar to species of Meniscoceras Flower (1941). They differ in hav- 
ing no trace of endosiphuncular blades and in the possession of three 
discrete endocone layers. 

Occurrence. — Specimen No. 342 is from locality NH 142, and 
specimen No. 343 from locality NH 141, Gap Creek dolomite, 
Emanuel Creek, Kimberley Division, Western Australia. 

Order BASSLEROCERATIBA 

This order was established by Flower (in Flower and Kummel, 
1950) for compressed exogastric cyrtocones with tubular ventral 
siphuncle. All genera referred to the Bassleroceratida are of Ordo- 
vician age. As proposed, it contained only two families, the Basslero- 
ceratidae and the Graciloceratidae. Flower and Kummel state the 
Bassleroceratidae gave rise to the coiled Tarphyceratida, and it 
seems to us that they could well be included in that order, represent- 
ing an early cyrtoconic stock from which the Tarphyceratidae arose 
through Aphetoceras or some similar openly coiled form. We are 



74 Bulletin 150 220 



maintaining the order, because its review would necessitate recon- 
sideration of the Graciloceratidae, a task for which we are not pre- 
pared. 

Family BASSLEROCEKATIDAE Ulrich, Foorste, Miller and Unklesbay, 

1944 

This family was proposed for slender exogastric longicones with 
compressed siphuncle, orthochoanitic septal necks, and constricted 
siphuncular segments. The suture consists of prominent dorsal and 
ventral saddles, separated by lateral lobes. In the same publication, 
the family Rudolfoceratidae was proposed, to include forms similar 
to the Bassleroceratidae but differing in the possession of annula- 
tions. 

The discovery of an annulate species of Bassleroceras, described 
below as Bassleroceras annulatum, confirms the present authors' 
belief that annulations are of subordinate taxonomic value. Some 
of the genera included by Ulrich, Foerste, Miller and Unklesbay 
in the Rudolfoceratidae may belong in the Bassleroceratidae. Others 
such as Ectoycycloceras probably belong in the Protocyclocera- 
tidae. 

Genus BASSLEROCERAS Ulrich and Foerste, 1936 
Bassleroceras annulatum Teichert and Glenister, n.sp. PI. 1, figs. 17-18 

Description of holotype (No. 353, Bureau of Mineral Re- 
sources, Geology and Geophysics, Canberra). — The holotype is a 
gently curved exogastric cyrtocone with a length of 32 mm. The 
body chamber has a length of 7 mm. The conch is compressed 
and slowly expanding. At the posterior end of the specimen the 
dorso-ventral and lateral diameters equal 1.6 mm. and 1.3 mm. re- 
spectively. At the base of the living chamber the lateral diameter 
is equal to 4.4 mm. and the dorso-ventral diameter is estimated 
as 5.3 mm. The apertural margin is straight and transverse and 
has a lateral diameter of 5.1 mm. 

The camerae are short, eight occupying a distance equal to the 
lateral diameter. The sutures form a pronounced saddle across the 
venter. It is separated by two deep, rounded, lateral lobes from 
a low saddle across the dorsum. 



221 Australian Ordovician Cephalopods: Teichert & Glenister 75 



The outside of the shell appears to be weakly annulate, 
but the annulations are merely external swellings of the shell. 
The inside of the shell (and, therefore, the surface of the internal 
mould) is smooth. The annulations are strongest across the flanks 
and slope anteriorly from the dorsal to the ventral side of the 
conch at an angle of about 80° to the long axis of the conch. Six 
evenly spaced annulations are present on the living chamber. 

The siphuncle is small and is situated close to, but not in 
contact with, the ventral wall of the conch. At the posterior end 
of the specimen, the siphuncle has a diameter of .2 mm. It is tubular 
in outline, and although not well preserved, it appears to consist 
of short orthochoanitic septal necks joined by thin connecting 
rings. The siphuncular segments expand slightly between successive 
septal foramina. 

Comparisons. — The Australian species of Bassleroceras is much 
smaller than Bassleroceras perseus (Billings), the type species of 
the genus. Bassleroceras annvlatum is also more cyrtoconic and is 
the only annulate species included in the genus. Bassleroceras acina- 
cellum (Whitfield) is, however, almost identical with the Australian 
species, in cross-section, suture, curvature, and rate of expansion. 

Occurrence. — Holotype, No. 353 came from locality NL 20 E, 
Emanuel limestone, Emanuel Creek, Kimberley Division, Western 
Australia, 

Order DISCOSORXDA 

Family WESTONOCEltATIDAE Teichert, 1933 

Genus APOCRINOCERAS Teichert and Glenister, n.gen. 

Type species. — Apocrinoceras talboti Teichert and Glenister, 
n.sp. 

Description. — Longiconic orthocones with circular cross-sec- 
tion and a small siphuncle situated close to the venter; septal necks 
cyrtochoanitic with short brims, connecting rings thick; sutures 
sinuous, camerae short; shell almost smooth. 

The generic name is derived from the Greek for "select." Selec- 
tion Homestead is the old name for Christmas Creek Homestead 



76 Bulletin 150 222 



which is situated near Emanuel Creek. 

Affinities. — Apocrinoceras is best considered as a primitive 
member of the Westonoceratidae*. The thickened connecting rings, 
typical of that group, are well developed in Apocrinoceras, although 
neither cinguli nor endocones appear in the siphuncle. It is reason- 
able to assume that this genus occurred at the base of the weston- 
oceratid stock, prior to the point where this group first began to 
develop cinguli and endocones. Apocrinoceras is the oldest known 
cephalopod with truly cyrtochoanitic septal necks. 

Apocrinoceras talboti Teichert and Glenister, n.sp. PI. 1, figs. 7-9 

Description of specimen No. 354 (Bureau of Mineral Resources, 
Geology and Geophysics, Canberra). — The holotype and only known 
specimen belonging to this species is a slowly expandmg orthocone 
27 mm. long. The cross-section is circular, and the specimen ex- 
pands from a diameter of 9 mm. at the posterior end to 12.5 mm. 
at the anterior end. Near the posterior end of the specimen, the 
siphuncle has a dorso-ventral diameter of 1.2 mm., a lateral dia- 
meter of .9 mm., and is situated .2 mm. from the ventral shell wall. 
Eleven camerae together occupy a distance equal to the shell dia- 
meter. 

The suture is sinuous and directly transverse. A low saddle 
occurs across the venter and is followed by a pair of shallow lobes 
across the ventro-lateral area, a pair of low saddles m the dorso- 
lateral area, and a shallow lobe across the dorsum. Both the shell 
and the septa are unusually thin. Low irregular annulations and 
numerous fine striations cover the shell. Both are weakly reflected 
in the internal cast. 

A thin section of 4 mm. of the phragmocone has been made in 
the dorso-ventral mid-plane. The septal necks are cyrtochoanitic 



' In 1952 (p. 744) we stated that the original spelling of the type genus 
of this family \vas fVrstcnoccras (Foerste 1924) and that the change in spelling 
to Wcstonucrras suggested by Foerste and Teichert (1930) was inadmissible. 
Dr. A. K. Miller has now called our attention to the fact that, in his original 
publication, Foerste (1924, p. 196) did in fact use the alternative spelling IV cs- 
tonoccras. Even though this appears only once, in the general introduction, it is 
possible that its use in print in the original publication makes this spelling avail- 
able, if desirable, in preference to IVcstcnocfras, which is the spelling used in 
the descriptive part of Foerste's paper. 



223 Australian Ordovician Ckphai.oi'Ods: Teichert & Glenister 77 



with short hrims, and the siphuncular segments are moderately in- 
flated. 1 he connectino; rings are thick and complex in structure. 
They are composed of a thin inner layer and an extremely thick 
outer layer. In a typical siphuncular segment with a length of 
1.05 mm. and a maximum dorso-ventral diameter of 1.3 mm., the 
siphuncle is constricted at the septal foramen to a diameter of 
.75 mm., and the connecting ring has a thickness of .2 mm. The 
septal necks have a length of .15 mm., and bear brims of .5 mm. 
length. 

This species is named in honour of H. W. B. Talbot who, in 
1906-1907 made the first geological reconnaissance of the Desert 
Basin along the Canning Stock Route. 

Occtirrences. — Locality NL 20 E, Emanuel limestone, Emanuel 
Creek, Kimberley Division, Western Australia. 

Order TARPHTCERATIDA 

Family TARPHYCERATIDAE Hyatt, 1894 

Genus APHETOrERAS Hyatt, 1894 

Aphetoceras deleftans Teichert and Glenister, n.sp. PL 10, figs. 1-7; 

text fig. 13 

Description of holotype (No. 359, Bureau of Mineral Resources, 
Geology and Geophysics, Canberra; PI. 10, figs. 1-2). — The holotype 
is a loosely coiled nautilicone with a maximum diameter of 41 mm. 
One side of the specimen is worn, but the other is well preserved. 
It appears that little, if any, of the posterior end of the specimen 
is missing. Slightly more than one and a half whorls are preserved. 
All but the anterior fifth of the last whorl is chambered. The whorls 
of the chambered portion of the shell appear to have been in contact, 
but the living chamber diverges from the rest of the shell. The 
living chamber has a length of 14 mm., measured along the concave 
dorsal side. 

The whorls are slightly compressed and more narrowly rounded 
across the venter than across the dorsum. The dorsum tends to be 
flattened but an impressed zone is not developed. Near the base of 
the living chamber the whorl has a height of 10.8 mm. and a width 
of 9.3 mm. The siphuncle has a height of 1.3 mm., a width of 1.0 
mm., and its ventral surface is situated 1.7 mm. from the ventral 
shell wall. 



78 Bulletin 150 22+ 




Fig. 13. Cross-section of Aphcioccras delectans, X 2J^. 

Numerous prominent ribs are present on the conch. They are 
directed transversely across the dorsum but swing posteriorly across 
the flanks to form a deep but narrow lobe across the venter. The 
ventral lobe formed by the ribs has a depth equal to the length of 
almost four camerae. The ribs are V-shaped and pointed in cross- 
section. They appear as low rounded elevations on the mould of 
the inside of the shell wall. 

Six and a half camerae together occupy a distance equal to 
the dorso-ventral shell diameter. The sutures are simple. A shallow 
rounded saddle occurs on both the dorsum and venter, and these 
are separated on either flank by a shallow rounded lobe. Calcitic 
deposits do occur in the camerae, but they appear to be of inorganic 
origin. 

The siphuncle does not alter appreciably in relative size or 
position during ontogenetic development. It occupies a position 
approximately one-third of the distance between the venter and 
the centre of the conch. The septal necks are short, straight, and 
considerably thicker than the septa. Siphuncular segments are 
slightly expanded. There is a suggestion that the connecting rings are 
composed of two layers. 

Description of •paratype (No. 360, Bureau of Mineral Resources, 
Geology and Geophysics, Canberra; PI. 10, figs. 3-4). — This para- 
type is a poorl}^ preserved specimen which has been ground and 
polished in the plane of the siphuncle. It consists of one and a half 
whorls, one-quarter of a whorl being represented by bod}^ chamber. 
The umbilicus is widely perforate. The last half-whorl diverges 
from the penultimate whorl, so that the anterior end of the living 



225 Australian Drdovician CtPHALOPODs: Teichert & Glenister 79 



chamber is separated by a distance of 8 mm. from the adjacent sur- 
face of the penultimate whorl. A runzelschicht is well developed. 
The connecting rings consist of two discrete components. The 
inner layer is the thinner of the two and reaches from the tip of 
one septal neck to the tip of the preceding neck. The outer layer 
traverses the entire length of the outer surface of the septal necks 
and reaches posteriorly to the preceding septum. In no case has this 
outer layer developed along either the anterior or the posterior sur- 
face of the septa, suggesting that it is a part of the connecting ring 
and not a cameral deposit. 

Description of paratype (No. 361, Bureau of Mineral Resources, 
Geology and Geophysics, Canberra; PI. 10, fig. 7). — This specimen 
is an external mould of an almost complete conch. Like the holotype, 
it consists of just over one and a half whorls. The anterior half-whorl 
diverges rapidly from the penultimate whorl, being separated from 
it by a distance of 14 mm. at the anterior end of the specimen. Well- 
developed ribs traverse the flanks transversely and swing sharply 
posteriorly across the venter. Eighteen ribs are present on the last 
half-whorl. 

Description of paratype (No. 362, Bureau of Mineral Resources, 
Geology and Geophysics, Canberra; PI. 10, figs. 5-6). — This speci- 
men is a fragment of a living chamber, with a length of 28 mm. It is 
compressed and oval in cross-section. The dorso-ventral and lateral 
diameters at the posterior end are 11.5 mm. and 8.5 mm. respectively, 
while the corresponding diameters at the anterior end are 12.5 mm. 
and 9.3 mm. The surface is weathered, but the course of the ribs 
well shown. They are transverse across the dorsum and dorso-lateral 
area but swing posteriorly across the ventro-lateral area to form deep 
V-shaped lobes across the venter. 

Comparisons. — The ribs of Aphetoceras delectans are more 
strongly developed than those of typical species of Aphetoceras. This 
suggests affinities with the Plectoceratidae, but the Australian spe- 
cies is unlike members of that group in both cross-section and mode 
of coiling. Aphetoceras delectans is easily distinguished from all other 
species of Aphetoceras by its well-developed ribs and double-layered 
connecting rings. 



80 Bulletin 150 226 



Occurrence. — Holotype, No. 359 and paratypes, Nos. 361-362 
are from locality NL 20 D, and paratype, No. 360 is from locality 
NL 20 E, Emanuel limestone, Emanuel Creek, Kimberley Division, 
Western Australia. 

Aphetoceras desertorum Teichert and Glenister, n.sp. PI. 10, fig. 8; 

text fig. 14 

Description of holotype (No. 363, Bureau of Mineral Resources, 
Geology and Geophysics, Canberra). — The holotype is part of a 
loosely coiled gyrocone with an estimated maximum diameter of 40 
mm. It has a length of approximately 37 mm. and represents about 
one-third of a whorl. Half the specimen is represented by living 
chamber. The posterior 11.9 mm. has been sectioned in the dorso- 
ventral mid-plane. The whorls expand rapidly, and it is estimated 
that little more than one complete volution could have developed 
in the original shell. 

The whorls are compressed and oval in cross-section, the dor- 
sum being slightly more narrowly rounded than the venter. The 




Fig. 14. Cross-section of Aphetoceras desertorum, X 4. 

dorso-ventral diameters at the posterior end of the specimen, near 
the base of the living chamber, and near the anterior end of the 
specimen are 5.6 mm., 10.1 mm.* and 10.8 mm. respectively; cor- 
responding maximum lateral diameters are 3.2 mm., 6.2 mm., and 
7.0 mm. 

The shell is smooth except for the presence of numerous growth 
lines. They are transversely directed across the dorsum and flanks, 
but there is some evidence of a sinus across the venter. 

Nine camerae together have a length equal to the dorso-ventral 



227 Australian Ordovician Cephalopods: Teichert & Gr.r\iSTER 81 



shell diameter. The sutures are simple. Shallow rounded saddles are 
present on the dorsum and the venter. They are separated hy shal- 
low rounded lobes across the flanks. The siphuncle is small, com- 
pressed, and situated close to the venter. Where the dorso-ventral 
diameter is 8.8 nini., the siphuncle has a maximum diameter of .8 
mm. and is situated .7 mm. from the venter. The siphuncular seg- 
ment. The length of the camera is 1.0 mm. Septal necks are variable 
in shape but are always short and orthochoanitic. The septal necks 
on the dorsal side are generally the longest, averaging about .2 mm. 
in length, while those on the ventral side are considerably shorter. 
The connecting rings are thin and structurally simple. 

Comparisons. — Aphetoceras desertorum is comparable with the 
group of Aphetoceras boreale Hyatt (1894). Both are compressed 
and oval, and both expand rather more rapidly than typical mem- 
bers of the genus. They probably represent transitional forms be- 
tween Aphetoceras and the rapidly expanding genus Deltoceras. The 
Australian species is distinct in having extremely short camerae and a 
highly compressed, oval, shell cross-section. 

Occurrence. — Locality NL 20 E, Emanuel limestone, Emanuel 
Creek, Kimberley Division, Western Australia. 

Genus AETHOCERAS Teichert and Glenister, n.gen. 

Type species: Aethoceras caurus Teichert and Glenister, n.sp. 

Description. — Small, slowly expanding torticonic^ shells with 
subcircular cross-section and dextral coiling; siphuncle small, situated 
close to venter; surface covered with closely spaced transverse aper- 
tural flanges. 

The generic name is derived from the Greek word for unusual. 

Affinities. — Because of its unusual combination of a torticonic 
shell and apertural flanges the genus is unique not only among Ca- 
nadian forms, but among early Paleozoic cephalopods generally. It 
is the oldest torticone known so far and the first coiled form of any 



■"' Nautiloid shells of this type have in the past often been described as 
"trochoceroid." They are coiled in a three-dimensional spiral like most gastro- 
pods. Among ammonoids this type of coiling is often known as helicoidal or 
"turriliticone.'' Long ago Hyatt (1900) used the term "torticone" which is sim- 
ply descriptive and applicable to all groups. There is no reason to perpetuate a 
multiple terminology for the same feature in one and the same phylum of in- 
vertebrates. 



82 Bulletin 150 228 

kind possessing flanges found in pre-Devonian rocks. Unfortunately, 
since only one specimen was available for study, it has not been pos- 
sible to elucidate the structure of the siphuncle. Judging from gen- 
eral shell morphology the genus can be supposed to belong either to 
the Tarphyceratidae or the Plectoceratidae. Since the former family 
is much more abundantly represented in Upper Canadian rocks than 
the latter, we believe that Aethoceras may eventually be found to 
belong to the Tarphyceratidae. 

Aethoceras caurns Teichert and Glenister, n.sp. PI. 9, figs. 8-10; 

text fig. 15 

Description of holotype (No. 364, Bureau of Mineral Resources, 
Geology and Geophysics, Canberra). — The holotype is an internal 
mould of a shell which consists of slightly more than one whorl of a 
loosely coiled torticone with a maximum diameter of 23 mm. The 
whorls are almost in contact, but a depressed zone is not developed. 
One quarter of the last whorl is represented by body chamber. The 
lateral diameter of the body chamber at its adapertural end is 10 
mm., its dorso-ventral diameter 7 to 8 mm. The shell has been re- 
moved from one side of the specimen but remains intact on the op- 
posite side. A consideration of the rate of expansion of the whorls 
indicates that the shell was widely perforate. At the beginning of the 
last preserved whorl the mid-ventral axis of that whorl lies about 4 
mm. off the plane of symmetry of the body chamber at its apertural 
end, thus affording a measure of the helicoidal coiling of the shell. 




Fig. 15. Cross-section of Aethoceras caurus, X 5. 

The whorls are slightly depressed and evenly rounded across the 
dorsum and venter. Where the lateral diameter is 6.3 mm, and the 



229 Australian Ordovician Cephalopods: Teichert & Glenister 83 



dorso-ventral diameter 5.4 mm., the siphuncle has a diameter of .45 
mm. and its ventral margin is situated .35 mm. from the venter. 

The ornamentation consists of a remarkable system of flanges. 
These flanges attain a length of up to 4 mm., although except near 
their bases they are rarely thicker than .15 mm. Their bases are 
directed transversely across the flanks but swing posteriorly across 
the venter to form a broad but deep lobe. The flanges are low across 
the dorsum, have a maximum length across the flanks, and are 
probably considerably shorter across the venter. The distal part of 
the flange is directed anteriorly, forming an angle of approximately 
60° with the shell surface. A runzelschicht is well developed. 

The suture is almost straight and transverse, but very shallow 
lobes form on the flanks, and a shallow saddle is formed across the 
dorsum and the venter. 

The species takes its name from the Latin word for northwest 
wind. 

Occurrence. — Locality NL 20 E, Emanuel limestone, Emanuel 
Creek, Kimberley Division, Western Australia. 

Genus ESTOXIOC'ERAS Noetling, 1SS3 
Estionioceras sp. PI. 10, fig. 9; text fig. 16 

Description of specimen No. 34130 (Department of Geology, 
University of Western Australia). — Only one specimen belonging to 
Estonioceras is known to the authors. It is a fragmentary specimen 
consisting of one and a half whorls, one-quarter of a whorl being rep- 
resented by body chamber. The maximum diameter attained is esti- 
mated at 30 mm. The umbilicus is widely perforated. Transverse 




Fig. 16. Cross-section of Estonioceras sp., X 2^4. 



84 Bulletin 150 230 



cross-sections show that the whorls are depressed, the venter being 
flatter than the dorsum. At the base of the body chamber, the dorso- 
ventral and lateral diameters measure 7.9 mm. and 8.9 mm. respec- 
tively. Where the dorso-ventral diameter is 4.1 mm., the lateral di- 
ameter measures 4.9 mm., while the siphuncle has a diameter of .4 
mm. and is situated .4 mm. from the ventral shell wall. An impressed 
zone is not developed on the dorsal surface, and the whorls are not 
in contact. The base of the body chamber is separated from the pen- 
ultimate whorls by a distance of 1.4 mm., while the anterior end is 
separated from that whorl by a distance of 2.S mm. 

The suture is transverse and only slightly sinuous. Irregularly 
spaced indistinct ribs occur. They are directed posteriorly across the 
flanks to form a shallow rounded lobe across the venter. 

Comparisons. — The Western Australian species of Estonioceras 
differs from typical members of this genus in being more loosely 
coiled and in possessing weaker ornamentation. Both features may, 
in part, be a function of weathering and distortion. The whorls are 
in contact, at least in the early growth stages, in typical members of 
the genus. It is possible that the whorls of Estonioceras sp. have 
been separated during distortion of the specimen. The strength of the 
ornamentation on Estonioceras sp. has been reduced by weathering. 

Occurrence. — Locality E 10, Emanuel limestone, Emanuel 
Creek, Kimberley Division, Western Australia. 

Genus PYCJVOCEKAS Hyatt, 1894 

Pycnoceras liratum Teichert and Glenister, n.sp. PI. 10, figs. 12-15; 

text fig. 17 

Description of holotype (No. 358, Bureau of Mineral Resources, 
Geology and Geophysics, Canberra). — The holotype and only known 
representative of the species consists of two-thirds of a well-preserved 




Fig. 17. Cross-section of Pycnoceras liratum, X 2J^. 



J31 Australian Orooviciw Cii-m mopods: Tf.ichirt & Gi.enister 85 



subdiscoidal nautilicone. Two and a lialf volutions are present, about 
one-sixth of a volution consisting of living chambers. The maximum 
whorl diameter is 41 mm. Ihe whorls expand slowly, and are in con- 
tact throughout, including the living chamber. It is probable that 
the conch was narrowly perforate. 

The living chamber is subquadrate in cross-section, the dorso- 
ventral and lateral diameters being almost identical. Earlier whorls 
are slightly compressed, with a flat dorsum showing a tendency to- 
wards development of a shallow impressed zone. The siphuncle is 
situated close to, but not in contact with, the ventral shell wall. 
\\ here the dorso-ventral diameter is 9.1 mm. and the lateral diameter 
7.9 mm., the siphuncle has a diameter of 1.1 mm. and has its ventral 
margin situated .8 mm. from the ventral shell wall. 

Ornamentation consists of numerous evenly spaced lirae, which 
are developed in all growth stages. These narrow, sharply crested 
ridges are directed transversely across the flanks, and swing back- 
wards to form a deep and narrowly rounded sinus across the venter. 
Twenty lirae are present in a distance of .9 mm., measured along the 
flanks of the living chamber. The runzelschicht, described in many 
Palaeozoic ammonoids and noted by the present authors (1952) in 
H ardmanoceras lobatuvt, and in several other species in this report, 
is well developed. The suture is essentially straight and transverse, 
but shallow lateral saddles, separated by dorsal and ventral lobes, 
are developed in earlier whorls. 

Siphuncular segments are gently expanded between successive 
foramina. The septal necks are short and orthochoanitic. In a typical 
siphuncular segment with a length of 1.6 mm. and a maximum di- 
ameter of 1.2 mm., the diameter of the septal foramen is 1.1 mm., 
and the septal neck has a length of .2 mm. 

Comparisons. — Pycnoceras liratiim is a typical member of the 
genus. It may, however, be readily separated from all other de- 
scribed species of Pycnoceras by the well-developed lirae. 

Occurrence. — The holotype came from locality NL 20 E, Eman- 
uel limestone, Emanuel Creek, Kimberley Division, Western Aus- 
tralia. 



I 



86 Bulletin ISO 232 

Family TKOCHOLITIDAE Chapman, 1857 
Genus ARKOtERAS Ulrich, Foerste, Miller and Furnish, 1942 
Arkooeras sp. PI. 10, figs. 10-11; text fig. 18 

A single fragment of a silicified phragmocone was available for 
study. It is too fragmentary to serve as the type of a new species. 

Description of specimen No. 357. — (Bureau of Mineral Re- 
sources, Geology and Geophysics, Canberra). The specimen is con- 
sidered to be part of a loosely coiled nautilicone, with an estimated 
maximum diameter of 15 mm. It is chambered throughout, has a 
length of 11 mm., and represents about one-third of a volution. 

The whorl is compressed and oval in cross-section, the dorsum 
being slightly more narrowly rounded than the venter. The dorso- 
ventral and lateral diameters at the posterior end of specimen meas- 
ure 2.7 mm. and 2.3 mm. respectively. The corresponding diameters 
at the anterior end are 4.4 mm. and 3.7 mm. The siphuncle is mod- 
erately large, compressed, and situated close to, but not in contact 
with, the dorsal shell wall. At the anterior end of the specimen the 
siphuncle has a dorso-ventral diameter of .7 mm., a lateral diameter 
of .5 mm., and its dorsal margin is situated .2 mm. from the dorsum. 

The sutures are simple and represent a direct reflection of the 
shell cross-section. A shallow dorsal saddle is separated by a pair 
of shallow rounded lateral lobes from a higher saddle across the 
venter. The shell is smooth. 

Comparisons. — Arkoceras, Cyclolituites, and Wichitoceras are 
the only members of the Trocholitidae which are not dorsally im- 
pressed. The specimen described above has affinities with both Arko- 




Fig. 18. Cross-section of Arkoceras sp., X 6J^. 



233 Australian Ordovician Cephalopods: Teichert & Glenister 87 



ceras and Wichitoceras, being intermediate in position between these 
closely allied genera. Arkoccras exiguum, the type species of Arko- 
ceras, is either round or slightly depressed in cross-section. Arkoceras 
sp., described above, is slightly compressed, and Wichitoceras com- 
pressuvt, the type species of Wichitoceras, is highly compressed. 
As a consequence of the cross-section, the sutures of Arkoceras exi- 
guum are straight and transverse, whereas Wichitoceras compressum 
exhibits dorsal and ventral saddles separated by lobes across the 
flanks. Here again Arkoceras sp. is intermediate between the two 
genera. The closer affinities as regards cross-section are, however, 
with Arkoceras. 

Occurrence. — Locality NL 17, Emanuel limestone, Emanuel 
Creek, Kimberley Division, Western Australia. 

Genus HARD3IA]V0rEKAS Teichert and Glenister, 1952 

HardiiiaiUK-eras lobatum Teichert and Glenister, 1952 PI. 7, figs. 10-11 

1952. Hardmanoccras lobatum Teichert and Glenister, Jour. Pal., vol. 26, pp. 
748-749. 

Hardmanoceras lobatum, the type species of that genus, is 
known from numerous excellently preserved conchs. A well-pre- 
served gerontic specimen which recently came mto the authors' col- 
lections adds considerably to our knowledge of this species. 

Description of hypotype (No. 34128, Department of Geology, 
University of Western Australia). — This specimen is a discoidal nau- 
tilicone consisting of five whorls, one and a quarter of which are body 
chamber. It has a maximum diameter of 50.5 mm. All the whorls are 
in contact except for the anterior quarter of a volution. This diverges 
from the remainder of the conch, so that at the anterior end of the 
body chamber its dorsal surface is separated by a distance of 2.5 
mm. from the penultimate whorl. The whorl cross-section is sub- 
rectangular, depressed, and impressed dorsally. No trace of the pro- 
toconch can be found, but from a consideration of the rate of size 
increase of the whorls, it seems probable that the umbilicus was nar- 
rowly perforate. 

Numerous prominent ribs occur on all whorls. They are directed 
transversely across the dorso-lateral area but swing posteriorly across 
the ventro-lateral area to form a deep V-shaped lobe across the 



88 Bulletin 150 234 



venter. They are regularly spaced and even in strength over all but 
the last half-whorl. There they become progressively weaker, less 
uniform, and more numerous, until near the aperture they occur only 
as irregular, ill-defined undulations. A prominent constriction occurs 
just behind the present aperture, its course paralleling that of the 
ribs. The present apertural margin is also parallel to the ribs, and a 
deep hyponomic sinus is thus formed. These features indicate that 
the anterior end of the shell represents the aperture at the time of 
death of the animal. 

The sutures consist of a shallow rounded lobe across the dorsum 
and the venter, separated by a low saddle on either flank. The 
length of the camerae is greatly reduced towards the anterior end of 
the phragmocone, so that the last ten camerae are only half as long 
as those situated half a whorl posteriorly from them. 

Discussion. — This specimen demonstrates that geronticism in 
the species is marked by divergence of the living chamber, reduction 
in strength of the ornamentation, and reduction in length of the 
chambers. 

Occurrence. — Holotype, No. 482 (17735) came from locality 
NL 20 E, paratype, No. 483 (17736) from locality NL 20 F, and 
hypotype. No. 34128 from locality Ell, Emanuel limestone, Eman- 
uel Creek, Kimberley Division, Western Australia. 



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?35 Australian Ordovician Cephalopods: Teichert & Glenister 89 



Floner. I{. 11. and Kiiiiiiiu'l, It. Jr. 

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# 



/ 



>37 Australian- ORnnviciAN- Cfphaiopods: Teichkrt & Gi-enister 91 



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1-69 + 1-12. 



PLATES 

PLATE 1 (14) 



94 Bulletin 150 240 



Explanation of Plate 1 (14) 



Figure Page 

1-4. KjTiiinoceras forresti Teichert and Glenister, n. gen., n. sp 43 

1. Thin section of paratype, No. 34121, X 9. 2-4. Holotype, No. 
34120, X 1. 2. Ventral. 3. Dorsal. 4. Posterior. 

5-6. Ectocycloceras inflatum Teichert and Glenister, n. sp 41 

Holotype ( No. 370. 5. Lateral, X 1. 6. Ventral; X 1. 

7-9. Apoorinoceras talboti Teichert and Glenister, n. gen., n. sp. 76 

7. Thin section of holotype. No. 354, X 10. 8,9. Holotype, 
No. 354. 8. Lateral, X 1. 9. Ventral, X 1. 

10-11. Canipendoceras gracile Teichert and Glenister, n. gen., n. sp. 71 
Holotype, No. 371. 10. Lateral, X 1. H. Ventral, X 1. 

12-16. Diastoloceras perplexum Teichert and Glenister, n. gen., n. sp. 45 

12-16. Holotype, No. 345, X 1. 12. Posterior. 13. Ventral. 14. 
Lateral. 15-16. Lateral casts of shell. 

17-18. Bassleroeeras annulatuin Teichert and Glenister, n. sp 74 

Holotype, No. 353, X 1. 17. Lateral. 18. Ventral. 



Pi,. 14, Vol. 35 



Bull. Amer. Paleont. 



No. 150, Pi.. 1 




^: 






■5, 



'Li 










• 




12 







14 




-fe 



15 



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10 




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18 



PLATE 2 (15) 



96 BuLLETiK 150 242 



Explanation of Plate 2 (15) 



Figure Page 

1-4. Loxochoanella warburtoni Teichert and Glenister, n. gen. 

n. sp 37 

Thin section of holotype, No. 34122, X 9. 2. Thin section of 
paratype, No. 338, X 9. 3. Holotype, No. 34122; ventral, 
X 1. 4. Thin section of paratype, No. 339, X 9. 

5. Hemichoanelia canning! Teichert and Glenister, n. gen., n. sp. 47 
Holotype, No. 334; dorsal, X 1. 



PL. 15, Vol. 35 



Bull. Amer. Paleont. 



No. 150, Pl. 2 






PLATE 3 (16) 



98 Bulletin 150 244 



Explanation of Plate 3 (16) 

Figure Page 

1-4. Hemiohoanelbi canning! Teichert and Glenister, n. gen., n .sp. 47 

Holotype, No. 344. 1. Ventral, X 1. 2. Lateral, X 1. 3. Dorso- 
ventral section, X 5. 4. Dorso-ventral section, X 1. 

5-13. Eothinoceras maitlandi Teichert and Glenister, n.sp 49 

5. Hypotype, No. 338A; ventral, X 1. 6. Hypotype, No. 34125; 
ventral, X 1. 7. Hypotype, No. 34126; ventral, X 1. 8. Hypo- 
type, No. 34124; ventral, X 1. 9. Holotype No. 34123; ven- 
tral, X 1. 10. Thin section of paratype. No. 336, x9. 11, 
holotype, No. 34123; anterior, X 1. 12. Dorso-ventral sec- 
tion of hypotype. No. 337, X 1. 13. Dorso-ventral section 
of paratype. No. 335, X 1. 



Pl. 16, Vol. 35 



Bull. Amer. Paleont. 



No. 150, Pl. .3 




PLATE 4 (17) 



100 Bulletin 150 246 



Explanation of Plate 4 (17) 
Figure * Page 

1-4 rroterocameroceras contrarium Teichert and Glenister n. sp. 59 

1. Holotype, No. 366; ventral, X 1. 2. Paratype, No. 367, dorso- 
ventral polished section, X 5. 3. Holotype, No. 366; dorso- 
ventral polished section, X 1. 4. Holotype, No. 366; ventral, 
X 1. 



PL. 17, Vol. 35 



BulIj. Amer. Paleont. 



No. 150, Pl. 4 



% 




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,. ( 



''I ' 





y' 

^^i*. 



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PLATE 5 (18) 



102 Bulletin 150 248 



Explanation of Plate 5 (18) 



Figure Page 

1-5. Lebetoceras oepiki Teicliert and Glenister, n. gen., n. sp 54 

1-2. Holotype, No. 340. 1. Dorso-ventral thin section, X 9. 
2. Dorso-ventral polished section, X 1. 3-5. Paratype, No. 
341. 3. Ventral, X 1. 4. Lateral, X 1. 5. Dorso-ventral thin 
section, X 9. 



6-7. Notocycloceras yurabiense Teichert and Glenister, n. gen., 

n. sp 56 

Holotype, No. 350, X 1. 6. Anterior. 7. Ventral. 



Fu. IS, Vol,. 35 



Bri.i.. AMKii. PaIvEunt. 



No. 150, Pl. 5 









m 



% 




^£ 




PLATE 6 (19) 



104 Bulletin 150 250 



Explanation of Plate 6 (19) 

Figure * Page 

1. Notocycloceras ynrabiense Teichert and Glenister, n. gen., 

n. sp 56 

Dorso-ventral thin section of holotype, No. 350, X 9. 

2-5. Thjlaeoceras kimberlej eiise Teichert and Glenister, 1952 .... 52 

2. Dorso-ventral thin section of hypotype, No. 349, X 9. 3-5. 
Hypotype, No. 348, X 1; 3. Ventral. 4. Dorsal. 5. Lateral. 



PL. 19, Vol. 35 



Bull. Amer. Paleont. 



No. 150, Pl. 6 




PLATE 7 (20) 



106 Bulletin 150 252 



Explanation of Plate 7 (20) 

Figure Page 

1-4. Tentroloboceras furclllatum Teichert and Glenister, n. gen. 

n. sp 58 

Holotype, No. 356. 1. Ventral, X 1. 2. Lateral, X 1. 3. Dorso- 
ventral thin section, X ^- 4. Posterior, X 1. 



5-7. Thjiacoceras teretilobatnni, Teichert and Glenister, n.sp 53 

Holotype, No. 34127, X 1. 5. Posterior. 6. Ventral. 7. Lateral. 

8-9. Alloplloceras calamus Teichert and Glenister, n. sp 64 

Holotype, No. 355, X 1. 8. Lateral; 9. Anterior. 

10-11. Hardmanoceras lobatum Teichert and Glenister, 1952 87 

Hypotype, No. 34128, X 1. 10. Left. 11. Right. 



PL. 20, Vol. 35 



Bull. Amer. Paleont. 



No. 150, Pl. 7 




v'.^PL 




^'V^ 








•'*'?-■"'-■ ■ '••'*"^^*-~ 




8 





10 



>^ 




PLATE 8 (21) 



108 Bulletin ISO 254 



Explanation of Plate 8 (21) 
Figure Page 

1. Anthooeras decorum Teichert and Glenister, n. gen., n. sp 63 

Thin section of holotype, No. 34128, X 9. 

2-5. Ilndoceratidae gen. et sp. ind 71 

2,3. Hypotype, No. 342, X 1. 2. Dorsal. 3. Anterior. 4,5. Hypo- 
type, No. 343, X 1. 4. Dorsal. 5. Anterior. 

6-9. Cjrtendoceras carnegiei Teichert and Glenister, n. sp 67 

6. Thin section of paratype, No. 352, X 9. 7-9. Holotype. No. 
351, X 1; 7. Anterior. 8. Dorso-ventral polished section. 
9. Lateral. 



Pl.lM, \'oi,. ;i5 



BiiJ-. Amkii. Paleont. 



No. 150, Pl. 8 




PLATE 9 (22) 



no Bulletin 150 256 



Explanation of Plate 9 (22) 

Figure Page 

1-7. Lobendooeras emanuelense Teichert and Glenister, n. gen., 

n. sp 69 

1-4. Holotype, No. 346, X 1. Ventral. 2. Dorsal. 3. Anterior. 4. 
Lateral. 5-7. Paratype, No. 347. 5. Lateral thin section, X 9. 
6. Lateral opaque section, X 1. 7. Ventral, X 1. 

8-10. Aethoceras caurus Teichert and Glenister, n. gen., n. sp 82 

Holotype, No. 364, X 1%. 8. Top view. 9. Oral view (the tor- 
sion of the shell is most apparent in this aspect). 10. Ven- 
tral (note the two flanges on left side). 



Pi,. -JL'. Vol. 35 



liii.i,. AMi;ii. Paleont. 



No. 150, Pl. 9 







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PLATE 10 (23) 



112 Bulletin 150 258 



Explanation of Plate 10 (23) 
Figure Page 

1-7. Aphetoceras delectans Teichert and Glenister, n. sp 77 

1-2. Holotype, No. 359, X 1. Left. 2. Right side of anterior third 
of last whorl. 3,4. Paratype, No. 360, X 1. 3. Left side of 
anterior third of last whorl. 4. Polished surface through 
siphuncle. 5,6. Paratype, No. 362, X 1. 5. Ventral, 6. Lateral, 
X 1. 7. Paratype, No. 361, X 1. 

8. Aphetoceras desertorum, Teichert and Glenister, n. sp 80 

Holotype, No. 363; lateral, X 1. 

9. Estonioceras sp 83 

Specimen, No. 34130; lateral, X 1. 

10-11. Arkoceras sp 86 

Specimen, No. 357, X 5; 11. Anterior. 12. Lateral. 

12-15. Pyciioceras liratiim Teichert and Glenister, n. sp 84 

Holotype, No. 358, X 1. 13. Left. 14. Natural section through 
centre of umbilicus. 15. Right. 16. Part of the body chamber 
showing the lirations. 



1.23, Vol. 35 



Buiii„ Amer. Paleont, 



No. 150, Pl. 10 




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BULLETINS 

*" OF 

AMERICAN 
PALEONTOLOGY 



VOL. XXXV 



NUMBER 151 



1954 



.:P. mi 

AUG 3 195^ 






Paleontological Research Institution 

Ithaca, New York 

U.S.A. 



PALEONTOLOGICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTION 

1953-54 

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Solomon C. Hollister (1953-59) 



BULLETINS OF AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY 

and 
PALAEONTOGRAPHICA AMERICANA 

Katherine V. W. Palmer, Editor 
Lempi H. Sincebaugh, Secretary 

Editorial Board 
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BULLETINS 

OF 

AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY 



Vol. 35 



No. 151 



NEW CALIFORNIAN PLEISTOCENE EULIMIDAE 



By 

S. Stillman Berry 
Redlands, California 



July 7, 1954 



Paleontological Research Institution 

Ithaca, New York 

U.S.A. 



Lihrary of Congress Catalog Card Number: GS 34-66 



LIBRARY 



AUG 3 195|4 
HARVARD 
UWmSITY 



Printed in the United States of America 



NEW" CAIJFORNIAN PLEISTOCENE EULIMIDAE 

by S. Stillman Berry 
Redlands, California 

INTRODUCTION 

Two exposures in the San Pedro area and immediately adjacent 
regions are particularly rich in species of the family Eulimidae. These 
are the Lomita formation formerly exposed at Hilltop Quarry, which for 
the present I tentatively refer to the extreme base of the Pleistocene, and 
the upper Pleistocene of Long Wharf Canyon, Santa Monica, which 
must lie well toward the top of the section. Both faunules seem repre- 
sentative of more austral conditions than prevail in our latitude at 
present, finding their nearest living parallels well down the coast of 
Lower California. Despite the possession of this common tendency 
their respective lists of Eulimidae are of quite different character. 

At Hilltop Quarry shells of this family are infrequent and incom- 
plete in occurrence in the coarse marl of the main deposit formerly 
exposed in the Quarry floor, only a single species being at all common 
there in good condition. Most of the fine-grained upper portion of the 
deposit is poor in macrofossils to ordinary examination, and it was not 
until I resorted to systematic screening with a fine mesh that the inter- 
esting and varied representation of Eulimidae in these upper beds began 
to be suspected. Subsequently the series so obtained was greatly enriched 
from si f tings of a peculiarly rich shelly pocket in these beds excavated 
by Mr. Emery P. Chace. The study of all this has led to the preparation 
of the present paper as its initial result. 

The material from Santa Monica was collected and given to me 
some years ago by the late Dr. F. C. Clark. It had already been partially 
worked up by me and is included here not only because of its intrinsic 
interest, but for the interesting comparisons thus made possible. 

Comparison is simplified if the species thus far segregated are 
listed in separate columns. 

Hilltop Quarry 

Baicis (Balcis) aff. m'lcans (Carpenter) 

" ( " ) d. rufila (Carpenter) 

" ( " ) aff. nttila (Carpenter) 
* '' ( " ) tersa, n.sp. 



Bulletin 151 258 



Balcis (Vitreoli)ia) thersites (Carpenter) 
"^ " ( " ) incdlida, n.sp. 

" ( " ) cf. prefalcata Bartsch 

( " ) obstipa, n.s.p. 

( ' ) ebriconus, n.sp. 






Long Wharf Canyon 

Balcis (Balcis) luicans (Carpenter) 
" ( " ) rutila (Carpenter) 

* " ( " ) monicensis (Bartsch) 
" ( " ) compacta (Carpenter) 

^ " ( " ) clavella, n.sp. 

" (Vitreolina) cf. thersites (Carpenter) 

" ( " ) sp. indet. 

" ( " ) sp. indet. 

" ( " ) cosmia (Bartsch) 

" ( " ) loleta (Jordan) 

* Eidima raymo)idi Rivers 
* Known only from horizon noted. 

It will be noted that not more than three species can be recog- 
nized as common to the two formations, Balcis n/icans, B. ruti/a, and 
B. thersites, and there appears to exist a possible question respecting each 
of these. Four members of the list from Hilltop Quarry and one from 
Long Wharf Canyon have not been recognized amongst any species 
hitherto named, either Recent or fossil, and are accordingly described 
herein as new. It is further of considerable interest to note that four 
species from Hilltop Quarry (all but one of those for which precise 
determination is ventured) and three of those from Long Wharf Canyon 
are as yet unknown in our collections save from their type localities. 
One species, providing that my identification of B. loleta is well-advised, 
is known elsewhere only from the Pleistocene of San Quintin Bay. I feel, 
however, that it is much too early to assume that any of these are now 
actually extinct, as it may well be that exploration of the offshore fauna 
at proper depths off the coast of Lower California will reveal that most 
or all of them are still living at appropriate latitudes. If the same forms 
are still extant then the more crucial difference between the two listed 
faunules may turn out to be not so much one of time, considerable 
though it be, as of bathymetry. 



259 California Pleistocene Eulimas: S. S. Briun' 



Current local usa^e of generic names in this family for the last 
cjLiarter century has been principally governed by the pronouncements of 
Bartsch (1917). However, Winckworth (1934: 12-13) has outlined 
grounds for quite a different arrangement, in the course of which he 
rejects Alelanella Bowdich, 1822, because of serious question as to the 
generic and familial affinities of its type-species. He shows that 
Stronibiformis da Costa 1778 is not susceptible to its interpretation by 
Iredale (1915:292-293; 1915a: 344) but must be defined in the light 
of the prior type designation by Harris in 1894 (Proc. Malac. Soc. I.ond., 
1:31), which designation entirely eliminates it from consideration as an 
eulimid. As Winckworth appears to ground his argument too strongly 
for successful assault from the bastion of evidence at present available, 
we can hardly refuse to follow him. This compels abandonment of 
Melanella and its replacement for the greater number of our commoner 
species by Balcis Leach, 1847, under which Winckworth suggests 
Vitreolina Monterosato as a tentative subgenus to cover the species with 
arcuate spires. One happy result of all this is the restoration of E/iUnia 
Risso, 1826, which replaces Strombijoni/is Iredale, 7Jon da Costa, in a 
conception only slightly at variance with classical usage, thus ipse facto 
restoring the old family name Eulimidae, whatever the fate of Melanella. 

I am naming as new at the present time no species of which I have 
less than five specimens. Several of those still undetermined and repre- 
sented by only a specimen or two may likewise eventually prove to be 
undescribed, or they may tie in with some named species among which 
there are several as yet not too well understood. 

I am deeply grateful to Dr. Paul Bartsch and the United States 
National Museum for a number of important specimens inclusive of 
several paratypes, which have been of inestimable value in crucial com- 
parisons, and to Mr. Emery P. Chace and the late Dr. F. C. Clark for 
the kind assistance already acknowledged. 

SYSTEMATIC DESCRIPTIONS 

Balcis (Balcis) clavella, new species. PI. 1, figs. 1, 2 

Description. — Shell fairly large for the group, solid, heavy, smooth, 
with a stout, evenly tapering, almost straight-sided spire. Whorls in 
excess of 10 (apical ones missing in all shells seen), almost flat to the 
body whorl, which is little produced and rounds out strongly to the base, 
its periphery subangulate in front of the lip, and this angulation likewise 



Bulletin 151 260 



evident on the penultimate whorl of some specimens just posterior to the 
distinct and narrowly impressed suture. Base obtusely rounded, little 
produced. Aperture less than 25% of the altitude of the shell, oblique, 
pyriform, acutely angled posteriorly, slightly produced in front; outer 
lip fairly thick, though thinning at the margin, moderately produced at 
the periphery, whence it recedes smoothly into the columella; parietal 
wall almost flat, forming an obtusely rounded angle with the short, 
heavy, slightly oblique, weakly arcuate columella, the whole covered by 
a rather thick layer of callus, sharply bounded in front and, though well 
reflected in the columellar region, not completely appressed, so that the 
abruptness of its margin produces in some specimens almost the effect 
of a narrow delimiting groove. Sculpture wanting, even the growth lines 
and the few and uncertain varical marks being demonstrable with 
difficulty. 

Measurements of holotype. — Alt. 8.88 + , max. diam. 2.81, alt. aper- 
ture 2.22, diam., aperture 1.48 mm. The largest paratype measures, alt. 
9.25 + , max. diam. 2.96, alt. aperture 2.22 + , diam. aperture 1.55 mm. 

Holotype. — Cat. No. 10908, Berry Collection. 

Paratypes. — Cat. No. 10909, Berry Collection; others to be de- 
posited in the collections of Stanford University, the United States 
National Museum, and the San Diego Natural History Museum. 

Type Locality. — Upper Pleistocene of Long Wharf Canyon, Santa 
Monica, California; 9 shells, collected by the late Dr. F. C. Clark. 

Keuiarks. — The shell of this distinct species is sufficiently like no 
other seen by me to require any detailed comparison. In a general way 
it somewhat recalls that of B. micans (Carpenter), but it is unique in 
its heavy, smoothly conical shell, with almost truncate base and exception- 
ally short restricted aperture. I know no Recent shell like it nor have I 
detected its presence in any Pleistocene horizon other than that exposed 
at Long Wharf Canyon. The shell surface in most specimens is variously 
roughened, pocked, or scarred, and this doubtless contributes to the more 
or less complete defacement of any sculpture initially present. 

The specific name proposed is a diminutive of the L, clava, club, 
and has reference to the shape and heaviness of the shell. 



261 California Pleistocene Eulimas: S. S. Berry 



Balcis (Balcis) tersa, new species. I'l. 1, tigs. 3, 4 

De.uriptio)!. — Shell small, solid, smooth, polished, with an elong- 
ate-conic, moderately attenuate, almost perfectly straight-sided spire, 
though a very slight forward torsion may be detected apically in some 
specimens. Whorls about 1 1, the first 2I/2 or 3 weakly convex with the 
suture distinctly indented ; next whorl less convex, and subsequent whorls 
quite flat, their suture still clean-cut and distinct, but hardly at all 
impressed ; periphery of last whorl subangulate. Base moderately long, 
weakly sinuate into the pillar. Aperture pyriform, acutely angulate 
posteriorly, rounded in front; outer lip nearly straight to the obtuse 
peripheral subangulation, moderately produced in front; parietal wall 
weakly convex, forming an obtuse angle with the nearly straight or 
slightly concave, moderately oblique columellar profile about midway of 
the aperture, the whole covered with a thin, sharply bounded callus; 
columellar portion of inner lip reflected over the base and closely ap- 
pressed to it until anteriorly it gradually comes away to pass imper- 
ceptibly into the free portion of the lip. Varical grooves three, with no 
evident inter-alignment, the last just behind and above the lip. 

Measurements of holotype. — Alt. 5.03, max. diam. 1.51, alt. aper- 
ture (suture to anterior edge) 1.48, diam. aperture (edge of callus to 
peripheral angle) 0.81 mm. 

Holotype. — Cat. No. 11199, Berry Collection. 

Paratypes. — Cat. No. 11204, Berry Collection; others to be de- 
posited in the collections of Stanford University, the United States 
National Museum, the San Diego Natural History Museum, the Paleon- 
tological Research Institution, and the private collection of Emery 
P. Chace. 

Type Locality. — Lower Pleistocene, pocket or lentil in upper sandy 
phase of Lomita formation at Hilltop Quarry, San Pedro, California; 
10 shells, mostly immature; S. S. Berry and E. P. Chace, 1936. 

Remarks. — This trim and neat little species in the formal outlines 
of its shell somewhat suggests four of the described western species. 
Of these it is clearly distinct from 1) the upper Pleistocene B. inonicensis 
(Bartsch) by that being a much larger species, with a wider body whorl 



8 Bulletin 151 262 



and a relatively lower spire; from 2) the Recent B. oldroydi (Bartsch) 
by that being much less attenuate and having a less distinctly angulate 
body whorl ; and from 3) the Recent B. linearis (Carpenter) of the Gulf 
of California, by that being scarcely half the size. The fourth species, 
necropolitana (Bartsch), is still not well known to Californian students, 
but the published measurements of the apparently incomplete holotype 
indicate a shell half again the size of my largest specimen of tersa, while 
the figure gives the impression of an appreciably narrower, more atten- 
uate shell with a correspondingly narrowed aperture. I regret that it has 
been impossible to accomplish a direct comparison of these two forms 
prior to publication, but since B. necropolitana was described from the 
Lower San Pedro which implies a definitely cooler fauna, the differences 
noted seem likely to be indicative of some taxonomic distinctness. 

From its several associated congeners in the Hilltop Quarry beds, 
the present species is readily separable by its straight and very slender 
form from all but B. rutila (Carpenter), a species with which its angulate 
periphery and less produced base should prevent any confusion by the 
discriminating student. As in the case of several other species which 
have been referred to Balcis the spire shows evidence of a slight torsion 
in certain aspects, so the position of the species is borderline. 

The specific name chosen is derived from the L., tersus, correct, 
nice, neat, — and refers to the trim form of the shell. 

Balcis (Vitreolina) obstipa, new species. PI. 1, hgs. 5, 6 

Description. — Shell of fair size for the genus and subgenus, solid, 
smooth, polished, with an apically attenuate, doubly flexed spire, the 
anterior portion moderately bent to the right, the acutely rounded apex 
tipped a little dorsad. Whorls about 13 or 14, the first three or four 
weakly convex with a slightly but distinctly impressed suture; sub- 
sequent whorls nearly flat, though a trifle more convex on the side 
opposite to the flexure, closely applied posteriorly against the distinct 
but slightly impressed suture; body whorl smoothly rounded with 
just a hint of peripheral angulation into the weakly convex contour of 
the somewhat eccentrically produced base. Sculpture absent except for 
the fine, nearly indistinguishable growth lines and the strong varical 
grooves, which are completely .iligned and form a continuous seamlike 
fold, first apparent at about the 6th or 7th whorl, thence running 



263 California Pleistocene Eulimas: S. S. Berry 



obliquely forward down the concave side of the spire to terminate in the 
suture just back of the Up, and becoming sweepingly crenatc in outHne 
by reason of the sHght convexity of each varix and the small angular 
projection by which it ties into the next succeeding varix at the suture; 
final whorl without a varix, although there is a slight down-bending of 
the upper part of the lip just back of the aperture, which adjoins the 
terminus of the fold and almost imperceptibly brings the latter into 
alignment with the forward sweep of the lip. Aperture about 27.8% 
of the altitude of the shell, elongate-pyriform, acutely pointed pos- 
teriorly, obtusely rounded in front ; parietal wall weakly convex, passing 
before reaching the median part of the aperture into the thickened, 
nearly straight, moderately oblique columella, the, whole covered with 
a thin sharply bounded callus, which is notably widest in the columellar 
region and is there closely reflexed and appressed against the base of the 
whorl; outer lip rather heavy, well produced peripherally, and thence 
rounding back into the columellar flare. 

Measuremeuts of holotype. — Alt. 9-32, max. diam. (estimated) 
3.03, alt. aperture (to suture) 2.59, diam. aperture (outer edge of re- 
flected columellar lip to outer edge of outer lip) 1.48 mm. 

Holotype. — Cat. No. 11196, Berry Collection. 

Paratypes. — Cat. No. 11205, Berry Collection; others to be de- 
posited in the collections of Stanford University, the United States 
National Museum, the San Diego Natural History Museum, the Paleon- 
tological Research Institution, and the private collection of Emery 
P. Chace. 

Type Locality. — Lower Pleistocene, pocket or lentil in upper sandy 
phase of Lomita formation at Hilltop Quarry, San Pedro, California; 
27 shells, partly immature or fragmentary; E. P. Chace and S. S. Berry, 
1935-40. 

Remarks. — This charming Balcis occurs in association with a some- 
what more abundant allied species which I have tentatively identified as 
probably B. prefalcata (Bartsch), but its shell is decidedly more robust 
than that of either the latter species or catalinensis (Bartsch), with a 
larger body whorl and shorter, much more rapidly tapering spire. It is 
possible that B. draconis (Bartsch) of the Dead Man's Island Pleistocene 
is a near affiliate, but the description and figure indicate it to have a 



10 Bulletin 151 264 



smaller, heavier shell with a decidedly stouter spire. I regret none the 
less that I am unable to institute a direct comparison of B. obstipa, 
either with this species or with the Recent B. grippi (Bartsch). The 
spire of the latter would seem to be flexed much too strongly for it to be 
the same thing despite Bartsch's description (1917:328) of a varical 
structure essentially similar to that which I have described in a little 
greater detail here. 

The specific name proposed is taken from the L. obstipus, bent to 
one side, and refers to the shape of the spire. 

Balcis (Vitreolina) incallida, new species. PI. 1, figs. 7-10 

Description. — Shell of medium size, heavy, robust, polished, with 
a stout, fairly acute spire which is moderately to strongly and quite un- 
evenly flexed dorsad, or less commonly ventrad. Whorls about 10 
(nearly all mature shells slightly decollate) ; extreme apex rounded, 
next two or three whorls convex, with suture well impressed ; subse- 
quent whorls weakly convex on the concave side of the spire and a little 
more so on the convex side; last whorl often attached quite obliquely 
to the penultimate whorl ; suture distinct, moderately impressed ; last 
whorl long, rounded smoothly and obliquely into the base. Sculpture 
absent except for the fine growth lines and the usually 5, distinct varices, 
which are more or less scattered, with only an imperfect tendency 
to aggregate themselves on the concave side of the spire. Aperture about 
28% of the length of the shell, pyriform, acutely pointed posteriorly, 
smoothly rounded in front, hardly produced; parietal wall passing 
smoothly without angulation into the heavy, weakly concave columella, 
the whole covered by a thick sharply bounded callus, which recurves 
rather widely over the columella, its parietal edge nearly straight, thence 
rounds into the columellar flare at a little more than a right angle; outer 
lip heavy, though thinning somewhat at the edge, and slightly produced 
in a low wide curve peripherally. 

Measurements of holotype.— Alt. 5.77 + , max. diam. 2.22, alt. 
aperture 1.63, diam. aperture 1.26 mm. 

Holotype. — Cat. No. 11197, Berry Collection. 

Paratypes. — Cat. No. 11207, Berry Collection; others to be de- 
posited in the collections of Stanford University, the United States 



265 California Pleistocene Eulimas: S. S. Berry 11 



National Museum, the San Diego Natural History Museum, the Paleon- 
tological Research Institution, and the private collection of Emery 
P. Chace. 

Type Locality. — Lower Pleistocene, Lomita formation ^f Hilltop 
Quarry, San Pedro, California; 26 shells taken from pit in cjuarry floor, 
S. S. Berry and R. K. Cross, 1934-37; 14 shells from pocket in fine upper 
marl, S. S. Berry and E. P. Chace, 1935-8. 

Remarks. — This species is obviously close to the living B. thersites 
(Carpenter) of the Californian coast', and was at first considered as a 
variant of it, but as material has accumulated, including an extensive 
series of the immature stages, persistent differences have been noted 
which it seems desirable to recognize even if later studies should show 
them to have been over-emphasized. The Hilltop species appears not 
only to be consistently smaller, but its shell is narrower, the spire is more 
slender and often with a more irregular torsion, the aperture is smaller 
and shorter, and the general outline of the last two whorls is markedly 
less convex, whether comparison be made with living shells or with the 
beautiful figures of Bartsch (1917:pl. 41, figs. 2-3). Side by side I 
have found the two quickly and readily separable by these characters 
down to quite juvenile stages. Furthermore, although Bartsch described 
the position of the varices of B. thersites as "scattered", I note in nearly 
all my Recent material of this species a quite persistent tendency for them 
to form on the right (usually concave) side of the spire, a tendency 
which I do not observe in nearly the same degree in B. incallida. The 
body whorl oft-times is eccentrically attached, appearing not only much 
awry but somewhat pulled down from the whorl above so as to suggest 
the slipping of a tight gown. The variability in form of shell is, how- 
ever, great, as is partially indicated in the figures. 

The specific name is the L. incallidns, awkward, ungainly. 

Balcis( Vitreolina) ebriconus, new species. PI. 1, figs. 13, 14 

Description. — Shell small, heavy, stout, polished, with a rapidly 

tapering, acutely conic, somewhat attenuate apex, which is mildly flexed 

the left in the two largest, to the right in two of the smaller shells. 

1 I have collected only a single badly decollate shell of what I take to be the 
genuine B. thersites at Hilltop Quarry (figs. 11-12). 



12 Bulletin 151 266 



Whorls more than eight (all shells somewhat decollate), weakly convex; 
suture distinct, scarcely impressed ; last whorl both high and wide, rather 
sharply rounded and not carinate at the periphery; basal slope convex. 
Sculpture absent except for the fine growth lines and about three low, 
scattered varices rendered distinct by the sharpness of the groove bound- 
ing them in front. Aperture a little less than 30% of the length of the 
shell, pyriform, acutely pointed posteriorly, moderately produced and 
somewhat narrowly rounded in front; parietal wall slightly convex, curv- 
ing obtusely into the strong, nearly vertical, weakly concave columella, 
the whole covered by a fairly thick, closely appressed callus, sharply 
bounded in front, which recurves widely over the columella and stands 
away from the base of the shell anteriorly where it passes into the free 
lip, its edge rounding back into the parietal edge at a wider than right 
angle; outer lip fairly heavy, thinning considerably at the margin, 
slightly produced mesially, and well everted basally in front of the 
columella. 

Measurements of holotype. — Alt. 3.7 + , max. diam. 1.70, alt. aper- 
ture 1.11, diam. aperture 0.96 mm. 

Holotype. — Cat. No. 11198, Berry Collection. 

Paratypes. — Cat. No. 11208, Berry Collection; others to be de- 
posited in the collections of Stanford University, the United States 
National Museum, the San Diego Natural History Museum, the Paleon- 
tological Research Institution, and the private collection of Emery 
P. Chace. 

Type Locality. — Lower Pleistocene, pocket or lentil in upper sandy 
phase of Lomita formation at Hilltop Quarry, San Pedro, California; 
16 shells, mostly immature, S. S. Berry and E. P. Chace, 1935-40. 

Remarks. — ^The shell of this species is most like those of B. thersites 
and B. incallida, but differs in the relatively slight degree of torsion, the 
much more symmetrical outlines, the more acute spire, and the relatively 
great width of the body- whorl, which approaches yet does not quite 
attain a peripheral angulation. The holotype is much the largest of the 
shells found, nevertheless the position of the last varix seems to indicate 
that even this example may not represent full maturity. Fortunately even 
the youngest stages seen are distinguishable by the characters noted. 



267 California Pleistocene Eulimas: S. S. Berry 13 



The specific name is from the L. ehr'ius, tipsy {nieton., abundantly 
filled) -\-co)itis, cone. In the first meaning given it recalls the shape of 
the spire, yet in its metonymic sense is no less neatly applicable to the 
fat body whorl. 

Balds (Vitreolina) loleta, (Jordan, 1926). Pi. 1, tigs. 15, 16 

1926. Melanella loleta Jordan, California Acad. Sci., Proc, .ser. 4, vol. 15, 
no. 7, pg. 245, 251, pi. 25, fig. 6. 

Attracted by their strange beauty, the peculiar natural history of 
many kinds, and the interesting degree of speciation developed within 
what would at first sight appear very unpromising limits, I have long 
been interested in the Eulimidae and have been putting by frequent 
random notes regarding them. I had written a description of the present 
form as new, but a careful check with Eric Jordan's account of his 
M. loleta has convinced me that lacking direct comparison of specimens 
I have no sound ground for regarding this shell from the Pleistocene of 
Long Wharf Canyon, Santa Monica, as distinct. It has the stockiest 
shell of any Balcis I have studied. It is near to B. ebriconus of Hilltop 
Quarry in its more manifest characters; indeed the two were first thought 
probably identical, but the robust, nearly straight-sided spire of B. loleta, 
with hardly a trace of torsion, is quite unlike the curved, more attenuately 
narrowed apex of the Hilltop species. The whorls are at the same time 
more distinctly convex. The lack of torsion would almost throw loleta 
into Balcis, s.s., but its affinities in other respects seem so definitely to lie 
with B. ebriconus and other stubbier members of the thersites-grouip 
that it seems misplaced away from it. 



14 Bulletin 151 268 



LITERATURE 

Arnold, R. 

1903. The paleontology and stratigraphy of the tnarine Pliocene and Pleistocene 

of San Pedro, California. California Acad. Sci. Mem. 3, pp. 1-420, pis. 
1-37, June 1903. 

Bartsch, P. 

1917. A monograph of ivest American melanellid mollusks. United States Nat. 
Mus., Proc, vol. 53, no. 2207, pp. 295-356, pis. 34-49, Aug. 1917. 

Grant, U.S., IV, and Gale, H. R. 

1931. Catalogue of the marine Pliocene and Pleistocene Mollusca of California 
and adjacent regions, etc. San Diego See. Nat. Hist., Mem., 1, pp. 11036, 
diag. A-D, tab. 1-3, text figs. 1-15, pis. 1-32, Nov. 1931. 

Iredale, T. 

1915. Some niore misused molluscan generic names. Malacol. Soc, London, 
Proc, vol. 11, pt. 5, pp. 291-306, June 1915. 

1915a. The nomenclature of British marine Mollusca. Jour. Conch., vol. 14, no. 
11, pp. 341-346, July 1915. 

Jordan, E. K. 

1926. Molluscan fauna of the Pleistocene of San Quintin Bay, Lower California. 
California Acad. Sci., Proc, ser. 4, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 241-255, text fig. 1, 
pi. 25, April 1926. 

Rivers, J. J. 

1904. Descriptions of some undescribtd fossil shells of Pleistocene and Pliocene 
formations of the Santa Monica Range. Bull. Southern California Acad. 
Sci., vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 69-72, figs. 1-4, May 1904. 

Vanatta, E. G. 

1899. West American Eulimidae. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, Proc, vol 51, 
pp. 254-257, pi. 11, July 1899. 

Winckworth, R. 

1934. Names of British Mollusca — //. Jour. Conch., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 9-15, 
text figs. 1-7, May 1934. 



PLATES 



Plate 1 (24) 



16 Bulletin 151 270 



Explanation of Plate 1 (24) 

Figure Page 

1, 2. Balds (Balds) davella, n.sp 5 

Camera lucida outlines of holotype. 

3, 4. Balds (Balds) tersa, n.sp 7 

Camera lucida outlines of holotype. 

5, 6. Balds (Vitreolina) obstipa, n.sp 8 

Camera ludda outlines of holotype. 

7, 8. Balds (Vitreolina) incallida, n.sp 10 

Camera lucida outlines of holotype. 

9, 10. Balcis (Vitreolina) incallida, n.sp 10 

Camera lucida outlines of somewhat immature paratype: 
same scale as preceding. 

11, 12. Balcis (Vitreolina) thersites (Carpenter) 11 

Camera lucida outlines of shell from Hilltop Quarry, Pleis- 
tocene; same scale. 

13, 14. Balcis (Vitreolina) ebriconus, n.sp 11 

Camera lucida outlines of holotype. 

15, 16. Balcis (Vitreolina) loleta (Jordan) 13 

Camera lucida outlines of shell from Santa Monica Pleis- 
tocene. Same scale as preceding 



PL. 24, Vol. 35 



Bull. Amek. Paleont. 



No. 151, Pl. I 




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I'-N-E> 



BULLETINS 

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AMERICAN 
PALEONTOLOGY 



^ 

VOL. XXXV 

4t ■ . 




M!iS. r^''^. i'^ri. 


NUMBER 152 


- ■ 2 1954 


1954 




Palcontological Research Institution 

Ithaca, New York 

U. S. A. 





PALEONTOLOGICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTION 

1953-54 

President Kenneth E, Caster 

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Solomon C. Hollister (1953-59) 



BULLETINS OF AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY 

and 
PALAEONTOGRAPHICA AMERICANA 

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Lempi H. Sincebaugh, Secretary 

Editorial Board 
Kenneth E. Caster G. Winston Sinclair 



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BULLETINS 

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VoL 35 



No. 152 



SYSTEMS OF THE VOLUTIDAE 

By 
Henry A. Pilsbry 

AND 

Axel A. Olsson 



September 7, 1954 



Paleontological Research Institution 

Ithaca, New York 

U. S. A. 



Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: GS 54-75 
Printed in the United States of America 



k~ 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



r 



""^ Page 

duction 5 

"^ owledgments 5 

ission 6 

dular patterns of Volutidae lo 

lutoid protoconchs lo 

\^^ 'lumellar plaits 12 

V sification 13 

j^ r^^~"^ '"''-'' Volutidae 13 

j*^ ^^ Subfamily Volutinae 14 

^ Volutilithinae (new) 14 

2 Athletinae (new) 15 

y Lyriinae (new) 15 

ON Fulgorarinae (new) 16 

Cymbiinae H. and A. Adams, 1853 16 

trl Alcithoinae (new) 17 

Scaphellinae H. and A. Adams, 1858 17 

^ w Calliotectinae (new) 19 

^ Adelomeloninae (new) 19 

0^' Volutoderminae (new) 19 

si Volutomitrinae H. and A. Adams, 1858 20 

rj f uncertain position 20 



D3 



JO 



P3 

00 



^ .eneral key to the subfamilies of the Volutidae 20 

to criptions of new genera and subgenera 21 

0^- renus Falsilyria, new genus 21 

^ ^S^ ff^oodsi'voluta. new genus 22 

5i r^ I'olutm'etus, new genus 22 

Sannalyria, new genus 23 

\ Enaeta H. and A. Adams, 1853 24 

f^ Festilyria, new genus 24 

Melo Sowerby, 1 847 24 

Subgenus Melocorona, new subgenus 24 

I'olutocorona, new genus 25 

Janeithoe, new genus 25 

ociected bibliography 25 

Plates 29 



Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: GS 54-75 
Printed in the United States of America 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

Introduction 5 

Acknowledgments 5 

Discussion 6 

Radular patterns of Volutidae 10 

Volutoid protoconchs 10 

Columellar plaits 12 

Classification 13 

Family Volutidae 13 

Subfamily Volutinae 14 

Volutilithinae (new) 14 

Athletinae (new) 15 

Lyriinae (new) 15 

Fulgorarinae (new) 16 

Cymbiinae H. and A. Adams, 1853 16 

Alcithoinae (new) 17 

Scaphellinae H. and A. Adams, 1858 17 

Calliotectinae (new) 19 

Adelomeloninae ( new ) 19 

Volutoderminae (new) 19 

Volutomitrinae H. and A. Adams, 1858 20 

Of uncertain position 20 

A general key to the subfamilies of the Volutidae 20 

Descriptions of new genera and subgenera 21 

Genus Fals'ilyria, new genus 21 

IFoodsi'voluta, new genus 22 

Voluto'vetus, new genus 22 

Sannalyria, new genus 23 

Enaeta H. and A. Adams, 1853 24 

Festilyria, new genus 24 

Melo Sowerby, 1847 24 

Subgenus Melocorona, new subgenus 24 

Volutocorona, new genus 25 

Janeithoe, new genus 25 

Selected bibliography 25 

Plates 29 



SYSTEMS OF THE VOLUTIDAE 
Hexry a. Pilsbry and Axel A. Olsson 

INTRODUCTION 

The volutes are the aristocrats of shell collections, prized because 
of their beauty and the extreme rarity of many species. Most deep 
water species are rare, some known only from the original or type 
from which the species was first described; others, formerly rare, have 
become more generally available to collectors through the increased 
activities of deep sea, commercial fisheries in many parts of the world. 
jVIost shallow water species are relatively common wherever they may 
occur. Thus, J'oluta musica is often found in some abundance along the 
beaches of northern South America from Colombia eastward. V'arious 
species of Pachycymbiola are common along the coast of Argentina 
southward to Patagonia, and specimens may often be seen in the 
markets of Buenos Aires. The coarse, dried, leathery foot of Cymbium 
is an article of native food along the west coast of Africa as long 
ago reported by Adanson. Perhaps commonest of all is the small 
AuiiciTui nivosa which is said to occur in great abundance at the 
mouths of certain rivers in Australia. Barrels of this small volute 
may be seen in the curio shops of Florida, the shells selling for a few 
cents each. 

A complete classification of the Volutidae is not yet possible 
since it should be based not only on shell characters but on the soft 
parts of the animal as well. Unfortunately, the anatomy of only a 
few species has been fully described, hence as noted by Woodward, "it 
is extremely probable that we are at present incorporating within the 
Volutidae, several forms derived from distinct stocks, or in other 
words, this is not a natural family." Thus the Volutidae, as the 
family is at present delimited, may well contain genera not directly 
related, but placed together because of a certain likeness of shell form 
and structure, 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We wish to express our appreciation to Dr. H. A. Rehder for 
the loan of critical radular material from the collections of the United 
States National Museum. To Dr. K. V. Palmer for the loan of 



yi^ i^'^t'f'y jrtpi 



- 2 1954 



Bulletin 152 276 



volute material in the collections of the Paleontological Research 
Institution ; to Dr. Jeanne Schwengel of Scarsdale, New York, for 
the loan of a specimen of Halia prianius figured in this paper ; and to 
Mr. Charles R. Locklin of St. Petersburg, Florida, for opportunity 
of studying various volutes in his collection. We are also specially 
indebted to Dr. Agustin Eduardo Riggi, Director of the Museo 
Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia" of Buenos 
Aires and to Dr. Susana W. de Berthold, Jefe Section Invertebrados 
of the same institution, for a series of excellently preserved Brazilian 
and Argentine volutes from which the radulae illustrated on Plate 4 
were obtained. 

DISCUSSION 

The classification outlined in this paper is the result of studies 
in connection with the proposed Treatise on Paleontology on which 
the junior author is engaged. It is at best but a tentative effort and 
various modifications of the present system can be expected with 
advancing knowledge of the anatomy and radula. Apparently, the first 
attempt at classification of the volutes, in the sense the family is 
understood today, was made by Lamarck in 181 1. He distributed the 
species among four so-called small families on basis of shell form. 
These were named: Les Gondolieres (Cymbiolae), shell ventricose, 
inflated. It contained such species as J oluta diadema, I . arinata, 
J . aethiopica; Les Muricines (Muricinae), shell oval, spiny or tuber- 
culose, and included such species as Foluta imperialis, J . pellis-ser- 
pentis, J\ vespertilio, . . .; Les Musicales ( Musicales) , shell oval, 
subtuberculose, with Valuta hebraea, J\ niusica, V. chlorosina, . . . ; 
and finally Les Fusoides (Fusoideae), the shell elongate, subfusiform 
and containing such species as J'olitta magnifica, V. ancilla, J\ junoriia. 

Fleming, 1822, should apparently be accepted as the author of the 
family name "Volutidae" although he used the spelling Volutadae, 
formed by adding "dae" to the generic name Voluta. The limits of 
the family were wide, as was customary in those days for generic and 
higher groups. He included FoIutOj Oliva, Cymbiitm, Marginella, 
Cancellaria, Jllitra, Ancilla, l^olvaria and Toruatella. The last genus 
contained Voluta tornatilis of British writers. He placed the family 
between "Ovuladae" and Buccinidae. 

Swainson, 1840, accepted the family name Volutidae, with the 



277 \"'()i.iTin.\i{ Systems: Pti.sBRV and Oi.sson 



convontional spelliiiiz used for faniil\ names tothu'. It was fj;ivcn wide 
limits and divided into five subfamilies so as to include the mitras, 
marginellas, oiiwis, and ancillarias as well as the true volutes. 

F'rom 185.^ to 1837, J- J" (ir<'^y contributed three papers on 
gastropod classification, two of which are of major importance. The 
first which appeared in 185.^ in the February number of the Annals 
and Magazine of Natural History with the title "On the Division 
of Ctenobranchous Gasteropodous Mollusca into larger Groups and 
Families," advanced a new classification including the introduction 
of several names for radular groups used with superfamily rank. 
The Rachiglossa contained the single family V'olutidae, with three 
subdivisions: a. \"olutina comprising the true volutes, b. Mitrina 
or the mitras, and c. Porcellanina or the marginellas. This classi- 
fication was considerably enlarged, modified, and some errors w'ere 
corrected in his final paper published in 1857 iri "The Guide to the 
Systematic Distribution of Mollusca in the British Museum, Pt. i." 
Thus, the mitras or Mitrana previously placed in the Volutidae 
were transferred to the family "Fasciolariadae," its radula, in the 
meantime, having become better known. Gray also contributed 
a special paper dealing with the Volutidae in 1855, prepared evi- 
dently as a criticism of the work of the Adams brothers in their 
first volume. Conservative in treatment of families and genera, but 
giving weight to all the characters of the shell and animal, Gray's 
work on the gastropods in the Guide must be regarded as a milepost 
in the taxonomy of mollusks. 

Contemporaneous with the work of Gray was the appearance 
of H. and A. Adams, "Genera of Recent Mollusca." The first vol- 
ume, issued in the years 1853 and 1854, treated the Volutidae, the 
authors placing stress on the extent of the mantle spread over the 
surface of the shell, a character which had been emphasized by D'Or- 
bigny. They divided the family into three subfamilies, the Cymbiinae, 
Zidoninae and Volutinae. In the appendix to their second volume 
published in 1858, a much revised version of the classification of the 
X'olutidae was presented, attributed to Gray. Keeping the family 
within the same limits as before, the volutes were distributed among 
three subfamilies, the radula now being given prime consideration. 
These subfamilies were the Volutinae, Scaphellinae and the Voluto- 
mitrinae, the earlier names of Cymbiinae and Zidoninae being dropped. 



8 Bulletin 152 278 



their genera transferred to the Volutinae. The subfamily name of 
Scaphellinae is based on Scaphella considered by them to be equivalent 
to Amoria of Australian waters, and not as typified by Scaphella 
ju'nonia (Shaw) of Florida. 

Dall's well-known classification of the Volutidae appeared in 
1890 and partly because of the eminence of its author gained immedi- 
ate and general acceptance. This arrangement was based principally 
on characters of the embryonic shell, whether it emerged from the egg 
capsule with a completely formed calcareous protoconch retained in 
the nucleus of the adult conch, or whether it was at first apparently 
membranous or chitinous. If the last condition it would be lost during 
the intracapsular development of the embryo, becoming replaced at 
the apex of the conch by a calcified thick plug formed at the base of 
the (membranous) protoconch. The irregular or distorted shape 
shows that this is not the original protoconch. On this basis, Dall 
divided the family into two groups which he first termed the volutoid 
series and the scaphelloid series, later raised to a subfamily rank. The 
name Scaphellinae he replaced by Caricellinae, a change thought 
necessary because of a different interpretation of the scope of the 
genus Scaphella. 

As yet but little information is available on the development of 
the volutid embryo within its egg capsule. A membranous or partly 
membranous form has actually been observed in but a single species, 
Pachycymbiola magellaiiica (Sowerby). Dall's arrangement based on 
a single shell character is not supported by structure of the radulae 
or other important characters. The strict application of his criterion 
would often lead to the separation of genera which otherwise appear 
closely related. Thus Cymbium which has a large, distorted, apical 
callus, which is clearly a protoconch of secondary origin, would be 
referred to the Scaphellinae, while Melo with an equally large but 
normally spiral, turbinate, calcareous protoconch would have to go in 
the Volutinae. 

Partly on these grounds, Cossmann in 1899 rejected Dall's 
arrangement and proposed a new classification. Cossmann's efifort, 
although it did not gain general acceptance, marked a distinct 
advance. It was based on all of the shell characters, those given 
primary consideration being the shape, position, and inclination of the 
columellar plaits; the presence or absence of a deep basal notch 



279 VOLUTIDAE SYSTEMS: PlI.SBRV ANU Ol.SSON 



(siphonal canal); and on the defiree of development of a basal 
fascicle (hourrelct) . Cossmann's work is, however, marred by the 
practice of giving irregularly formed compound names to some of 
his subfamily groups — names not derived from any of the component 
genera and. therefore, inadmissible. 

At this time, and lacking information on the anatomy of most 
of the volutoid genera, the best guide for relationship amongst the 
members of the family seem to be afforded by the radula. This is 
known, however, for only about 50 species. Fortunately, these are 
sufficiently well distributed among the principal genera to illustrate 
the general pattern. 

The normal rachiglossate radula (as redefined by Troschel and 
Fischer), with i-i-i teeth, is retained in only a few volutoid genera 
and species; it is evidently a more primitive condition than the O-i-O 
radula. Thus, J'olutocorbis amongst the Athletinae, whose geologic 
range extends back to the Cretaceous, has large, flat laterals in addi- 
tion to a small, tricuspid central tooth. A completely triserial radular 
ribbon, similar in pattern to lOlutocorbis, was figured by Schacko for 
Valuta (Psephaea) concinna Broderip. Until further checked, there 
is some doubt as to the correctness of Schacko's identification of his 
specimen or else it may be an abnormal ribbon, as later Japanese 
authors give only a single rachidian tooth of the usual volute pattern 
for the same species. Thiele mentioned small pointed lateral teeth, 
which were found floating loose in the caustic solution, for Neptune- 
opsis (jilchristi. As pointed out by Dall, the so-called lateral teeth 
reported by Poirier for Halia are apparently the pronglike ends or 
sides of a yoke-shaped rachidian tooth, broken and spread apart by 
the pressure of the cover glass in the process of mounting. True 
laterals are definitely present in Benthovoluta and Microvoluta, hut 
aside from these few examples, only the central or rachidian tooth is 
normally present. In most volutoid genera such as Melo, Cymbiurn, 
and Aulica, the rachidian tooth is tricuspid and the cusps are generally 
large and subequal. In roluta, the rachidian tooth is wide, multi- 
cuspid or comb-shaped, bearing about 12 sharp, toothlike cusps, of 
which the outer cusps are much enlarged. Thus I'oluta, the type 
genus of the family, has a radula markedly different from any other 
volutoid genus known. A somewhat different radular pattern is 
shown by the Scaphellinae. In these forms the base is usually deeply 



lo Bulletin 152 280 



biramose, often assuming the shape of a wishbone, with long, narrow, 
spreading arms, the central cusps generally large, slender or spadelike, 
with or without side cusps. In Halia the mesocone is short, 

RADULAR PATTERNS OF VOLUTIDAE 

We may distinguish the following general radular patterns, ar- 
ranged in form of a key: 

A. Radula triserial with a tricuspid rachidian tooth and strong 
laterals. Folutocorbis, Be/ithovoluta. 

AA. Radular ribbon normally uniserial, the laterals if present 
small and rudimentary. 

B. Rachidian tooth large, wide, multicuspid with the extreme 
outer cusps much enlarged. J'oluta. 

BB. Rachidian tooth smaller, narrower, tricuspid, the cusps large 
and more or less subequal. 

a. The cusps long, sometimes massive and swordlike, the 
base thickened, arched (sharktooth base), glassy or 
stained with brown or orange. Melo, AuUca, Arcto- 
melon, Enaeta. 

b. The cusps shorter and spaced far apart, the base usual- 
ly heavy and more deeply arched. Lyria, CaUiotectum, 
Terarnachia, Psephaea. 

c. The cusps slender, curved, fanglike, seated on a flat- 
tened base. Adelo7nelon, Miomelon. 

BBB. Rachidian tooth with a median mesocone, the side cusps some- 
times weak or absent. 

aa. Base deeply forked, biramose, with narrow arms. The 
radular ribbon often small, the teeth weak. Scaphella, 
Amoria, Aurina, Clenchina, Volutofusus, Halia, Volu- 
tornitra. 
bb. Base a flattened plate. Ericusa. 

VOLUTOID PROTOCONCHS 

A medium to large, often gigantic nucleus or protoconch is char- 
acteristic of many Recent genera of the Volutidae although many 
fossil forms have only small nuclei. The scaphelloid nucleus shows 
a truncated, corroded or calloused, pluglike protoconch, often extreme- 
ly irregular in form, and frequently tipped by a central elevated point 
or pimple called the calcarella by Dall, the remains of the original 



28l VOLUTIDAE SySTEMS: PlI,SRR^■ AND OlSSON II 



columella. This t\pc is believed to be of secondary orijiin, formed 
after an earlier, membranous test developed in the egg capsule had 
dropped off. Other genera such ;is Melo, J'oluta, and Amoria among 
Recent <renera and a larjie number of fossil forms {I olulopupa) have 
a simple, uniformly coiled, calcareous protoconch, showing sharp, dis- 
tinct sutures. Its form may be low turbinate, trochoid, to elevate 
pupiform, often narro\\ ly cylindrical, its surface smooth or roughly 
sculptured. In these coiled forms, the initial whorl is usually small, 
the succeeding coils increasing steadily in size until the protoconch 
stage is completed. Another form, exemplified by Alcithoe, has a rela- 
tively large nucleus, often high or elevated but composed of a few 
whorls, of which the initial one is already quite large. The alcithoid 
nucleus is perhaps a transitional form between the horn\ and cal- 
careous types. The principal difference between them is the absence 
of a marked calcarella. For this reason, Alcithoe has frequently been 
classed with the Scaphellinae, but a closely similar development is seen 
in J olitia alfaroi Dall (Plate 2, figure 2) and V. virescens Solander. 
A fourth type is illustrated by the Fulgorarinae in which the proto- 
conch has a rounded, bulbous shape of a few large whorls with asym- 
metrical or oi^-axis coil. In Mamillana the nucleus is gigantic in size 
and appears much like a monstrosity. That of Pterospira, first 
described from the Eocene, is nearly as large. With the possible 
exception of the large Melo nucleus, the others have long geologic 
ranges, extending back at least into the Eocene. Representative volu- 
toid protoconchs may be grouped roughly as follows. 

A. Calcareous protoconchs of primary origin, composed of several 
closely wound whorls, the apical one very small. 

1. J'olutospina. Small, smooth surfaced, its apex pointed. 

2. Volutopupa. A high pupiform coil of several whorls, its apex 
pointed. 

3. Voluta, typical. A medium-sized, low turbinate to trochoid 
coil, the initial whorl small, the others uniformly enlarging. Surface 
smooth. 

4. f'oluta, high pupiform. An elevated, narrowly cylindrical 
coil. 

5. Aulicina. Similar to typical I'oluta but with noded whorls. 

6. Melo. A large, low, turbinate nucleus of several whorls. 

7. Lyria. A small nucleus of about one whorl, its apex blunt. 



12 Bulletin 152 282 



8. I olutilithes. A medium-sized nucleus, its penult whorl larger 
than the succeeding whorl of the conch. Apex pointed. 

9. Fulgoraria. Small to large, bulbous nucleus, usually of a few 
whorls with an oblique or off-axis coil. 

B. Protoconchs of an irregular form, probably secondary to an 
original embryonic shell with a soft or membranous test, hence 
deciduous, the succeeding calcareous protoconch generally showing a 
truncated or stumplike shape, often with a pimpled or calloused 
surface and sometimes a central calcarella. 

10. Cynihiiiin. A large nucleus of irregular form and heavily 
calloused. 

11. Scaphella. A medium to large nucleus of irregular form, 
often subtruncate or bulbous and with a central calcarella. 

12. Caricella. Similar to Scaphella but more depressed and 
flattened. 

COLUMELLAR PLAITS 

Strong folds or plaits on the columellar wall are generally con- 
sidered a distinguishing character of the Volutidae although there 
are several genera within the family in which columellar plaits are 
lacking while in others they may be weakly developed only, restricted 
to the interior of the shell and not visible in the aperture. In most 
genera the anterior folds are generally the largest, a character by 
means of which the Volutidae may sometimes be distinguished from 
the Mitridae in which the posterior fold is generally the strongest. 
This rule is, however, not rigidly adhered to as in many volutid 
genera the folds are nearly equal, while in Amoria and Scaphella, 
the posterior fold is often the largest. The size, position, and regu- 
larity of the columellar plaits in the Volutidae is closely associated 
with the development of a strong basal fasciole which in turn depends 
upon the size of the siphonal canal notch. This relationship is well 
illustrated in the Cymbinae (see Plate i, fig. i). 

In Melo, the arrangement is as follows: 

I. The highest or posterior fold is placed opposite to the exten- 
sion of the ridge, keel or line marking the upper margin of the basal 
fasciole. This fold varies considerably in size and in some species of 
Cymbium is so small as to be hardly noticeable. 

2 and 3. Middle plaits. These are placed opposite the middle 



283 VoLUTiDAE Systems: Pilsbry and Olsson 13 



zone of the fasciole or at points of change in the direction of the 
growth h'nes. These folds are ahvays strong and the most persistent. 

4. The lowest or anterior fold follows along the edge of the 
pillar of which it may be only a thickening. 

In the F^ulgorarinae, Scaphellinae, and Athletinae which have no 
well-marked basal fasciole set off by a ridge, the columellar plaits if 
present are generally irregular in number and in spacing. Hence, 
the columellar plaits of Fulgoraria, although numerous, are bunched 
together along the middle of the pillar wall giving it an appearance of 
distortion. In Scaphella, Ilarpulina, and Amorena, the posterior fold 
is the largest and is placed well above the short, foldlike fasciole. This 
condition is also repeated in Valuta and f'olutolyria, where the colu- 
mellar plaits are succeeded by lirations on the parietal wall. 

CLASSIFICATION 

Family VOLUTIDAE Fleming, 1822 

The shells of the Volutidae show extreme range in size and form 
from narrowly fusiform with relatively slender spire and anterior 
canal to broadly strombiform with an angled or armed shoulder. In 
most genera, the body whorl is much larger than the other volutions 
and in a few forms constitutes the whole external surface. A charac- 
teristic feature of most genera is the presence of strong folds or plica- 
tions on the columellar pillar ; these are generally somewhat stronger 
anteriorly but this is not true of all species, and some genera have no 
columellar plaits whatsoever. In Foluta and Lyria the columellar 
plaits are transitional to mere lirations on the parietal wall. The 
siphonal canal may form a shallow or deep, notchlike cut whose 
growth trace may develop into a strong fasciole, often broad and 
cordlike which rotates upward into the aperture. Forms with a 
strong fasciole are usually provided with strong plaits on the columel- 
lar pillar. Lip is thin or thickened, usually smooth within. External 
sculpture is variable, from plain, smooth shells to others provided 
with strong axial ribbing and spirals, the coloration plain and dull, 
or highly polished and with intricate pattern. Surface in some f^rms 
may have a glazed or enamel coating, polished and smooth, and cover- 
ing the sutures and the nucleus, or if unglazed, the sutures visible, 
the surface sometimes roughened l)y films of secondary deposits. Perio- 



14 Bulletin 152 284 



stracum thin or thick, horn color to black. Operculum present or 
absent. 

The living animal has a widely expanded foot and a flattened 
head with small, narrow, flattened, obtuse tentacles, with the sessile 
ej'es placed at their outer base; siphonal tube with internal appendages; 
mantle in some forms voluminous, covering the entire shell and apex, 
leaving the surface beneath glazed and polished ; in the majority of 
forms, the mantle is narrow, not extensible far beyond the aperture; 
Radula in the primitive forms is triserial with narrow or flattened, 
three-cornered marginals and a small, tricuspid central tooth ; more 
often uniserial (o-i-o), the rachidian tooth sometimes wide, multi- 
cuspid and comb-shaped, more often tricuspid or unicuspid. 

Subfamilies 

1. SubfamUy VOLUTINAE Swainson, 1840 (d'Orbigny, 1841) 

Shell ovate or strombiform, solid, with a high or short spire ; 
nucleus turbinate, of several closely coiled whorls or high, cylindric ; 
sculpture consists principally of axial riblets often forming strong 
nodes or sharp spines on the shoulder, sometimes wholly smooth ; 
columellar folds usually strong, generally long and slender, and 
grading into lirations on the parietal wall; siphonal canal notch 
deep, producing a strong, basal, fasciolar fold; end of pillar appressed 
and recurved ; outer lip becoming thickened in the adult, curving 
upwards towards the suture and carrying a deep posterior sinus or 
groove. Radula in the living species is uniserial, the rachidian tooth 
wide, multicuspid. 

Recent genera. — Foluta Linne, 1758. 

Fossil genera. — J'olutolyria Crosse, 1877; Peruluta Olsson, 1928; 
Chiraluta Olsson, 1931. JVoodsiluta new; Falsilyria new. 

2. Subfamily VOLUTILITHINAE (new) 

Shell fusiform, shouldered, solid, with an elevated spire nearly 
equal to the length of the aperture; protoconch relatively large, 
bulbous or cylindrical, composed of one or more whorls, the apical 
one pointed; sculpture is formed by strong, axial riblets which become 
spiniform or nodose on the shoulder angle, the surface otherwise 
smooth or marked with fine spirals; columella bearing a single, 
large anterior fold, the pillar wall above it plain or with weak 
lirations; siphonal canal notch deep, recurved at the end, and forming 
a strong, basal fasciolar fold. Fossil only. 



285 VoLUTiDAE Systems: Pilsrry ano Oi.sson 15 



Fossil genera. — folutilithes Swainson, 1829; Lapparla Conrad, 
1835. 

3. Subfamily ATHLETINAE (new) 

Shell at first subfusiform with a high spire and strong cancellate 
sculpture, sometimes becoming Crt.f^/.v-like or strombiform in the adult, 
with or without a thick callous growth over the parietal wall and on 
the spire; protoconch small or medium-sized, of one or several whorls, 
and of an elevated, turbinate form with a sharp apex; body whorl 
with a rounded or angled shoulder, unarmed or bearing nodes or 
spines; sculpture more or less cancellate, at least in the young, the 
surface often becoming partly or wholly smooth in the adult; anterior 
canal straight, the siphonal canal notch shallow and usually not 
forming a basal fasciole; columellar plaits one or more, strong or 
weak ; the parietal callus is a thin or heavy glaze spreading a variable 
distance over the ventral surface of the shell, sometimes also extending 
upward over the spire to form a thick, enamel coating; radula of 
Recent species, triserial, complete with marginals and a small tricuspid 
rachidian tooth. 

Recent genera. — Volutocorbis Dall, 1890; Ternivoluta Martens, 

1897- 

Fossil genera. — Volutocorbis Dall, 1 890; Volutispina R. B. New- 
ton, 1906; Athleta Conrad, 1853; Neoatlileta Bellardi, 1890; Voluto- 
pupa Dall, i8go. J'olutocristata Gardner and Bowles, 1934; Pavora B. 
Clark, 1946; Retipirula Dall, 1907; TectipUca Wade, 1916; Parvi- 
voluta Wade, 1926; Liopeplum Dall, 1890; Wrilluta Wade, 19 16; 
?Paleopsepliaea Wade, 1926; Folutovetus, new; Voluticella Palmer, 

1953. 

4. Subfamily LYRIINAE (new) 

Shell small or medium-sized, solid, generally subovate with a 
short or high spire ; sutures distinct ; protoconch small or of medium 
size, composed of i to 1I/2 whorls; sculpture generally costate but 
sometimes quite smooth in the adult; aperture semilunate, the outer lip 
straight, thickened at maturity and either smooth or dentate within; 
columellar plaits two or three in number, seated on a short pillar, 
the parietal wall above smooth or lirate; color pattern plain with 
spiral bands; siphonal canal notch strong, slightly recurved at end, 



1 6 Bulletin 152 286 



and developing into a short, external fasciole ; radular ribbon uniserial, 
the rachidian tooth tricuspid. 

Recent genera. — Lyria Gray, 1847; Harpella H. and A. Adams, 
1858; Enaeta H. and A. Adams, 1853. 

Fossil genera. — Lyria Gray, 1847; ^otoplejona Marwick, 1926; 
Mitreola Swainson, 1833; Enaeta H. and A. Adams, 1853; Sannalyria 
new. 

5. Subfamily FULGORARINAE (new) 

Shell fusiform with an elevated spire and a narrow or greatly 
inflated body whorl ; protoconch small to large, bulbous, generally of 
a few whorls, asymmetrical or coiled with a strongly inclined axis; 
anterior canal generally long, straight or twisted, plain or with several 
coUumellar plaits, usually of irregular form and spacing; siphonal 
canal notch shallow and not forming a marked basal fasciole ; surface 
smooth sometimes glazed, or variously sculptured with axials and 
spirals ; radula uniserial, the rachidian tooth tricuspid. 

Recent genera. — Fulgoraria Schumacher, 1817; Pterospira G. 
Harris, 1897; Mamillana Crosse, 1871 ; Ericusa H. and A. Adams, 
1858; Mesericusa Iredale, 1929; Saotomea Tadashige Habe, 1943; 
Festilyria new; Iredalina Finlay, 1926. 

Fossil genera. — Lyrischapa Aldrich, 191 1; Pterospira G. Harris, 
1897; Sycospira Palmer, 1953; Eucymba Dall, 1890. 

6. Subfamily CYMBIINAE H. and A. Adams, 1853 

Shell medium or large, generally with a broadly subovate or 
bailer-shaped body whorl, the spire short, sometimes sunken or en- 
volute; nucleus large, forming an elevated to truncated, calloused 
plug (immersed in the adult) or turbinate-pupiform, composed of 
several evenly coiled whorls between distinct sutures; siphonal canal 
notch deep and developing externally into a strong fasciole ; outer lip 
straight, not thickened, smooth within; radular ribbon uniserial, the 
rachidian tooth with three strong, more or less equal cusps. 

Tribe CYMBITOES new 

Protoconch, a calloused, truncated plug; the animal ovoviviparous. 
Recent genera. — Cymbium Roding, 1798; Cymba Sowerby, 1826. 

Tribe MELOIDES new 

Protoconch a large, pupiform coil of several whorls and sharp 
sutures; animal oviparous. 



287 VoLUTiDAi- Systems: PlI,sBR^■ axd Oi.sson 17 



Recent (jeitera. — Melo So\vcrb\ , 1847; ^lelocorona new; Auiua 
Gray, 1847; ■tuUcina Rovereto, 1899; Cymbiolena Iredale, 1929; 
Cynibiola Swainson, 1831; Callipara Gray, 1847; lolutoconus Crosse, 
1871; Cynibiolacca Iredale, 1929; lolutocorona new. 

7. Subfamily ALCITHOINAE (new) 

Shell suhfusiform, the spire elevated; protoconch variable in 
shape, scaphelloid, of secondary origin, usually of a few smooth 
whorls with a large initial turn or with a more or less flattened sum- 
mit and central calcarella ; sculpture dominantly axial forming strong 
or weak riblets, sometimes reduced to nodes or spines on the shoulder 
angle. Body whorl usually ovate, sloping, without a marked basal 
contraction, the anterior canal itself short, straight, the columella 
carrying two or more strong folds; siphonal canal notch deep develop- 
ing a strong fasciole; radular ribbon uniserial, the rachidian tooth 
tricuspid. 

Tribe ALCITHOIDES 

Recent genera. — Alcithoe H. and A. Adams, 1853; Cottonia 
Iredale, 1934; Pachymelon Marwick, 1926; Carolluta Iredale, 1926; 
Gilvostia Iredale, 1937; HarpuUna Dall, igo6; Falomelon Finlay, 
1927. 

Fossil genera. — Waihaoia Marwick, 1926; Teremelon Marwick, 
1926; Pachymelon Marwick, 1926; Metamelon, Kjlb. 

Tribe PACHYCYMBIOLIDES (new) 

Recent genera. — Pachycynihifjla Ihering, 1907; Janeithoe, new; 
Arctomelon Dall, 1 91 5. 

Fossil genera. — Pachy cynibiola Ihering, 1907. 

Tribe ZIDONIDES H. and A. Adams, 1853 

Recent genus. — Zidona H. and A. Adams, 1853. 

8. SubfamUy SCAPHELLINAE H. and A. Adams, 1858 

Shells ovate-fusiform, with an elevated spire which is generally 
shorter than the aperture and the body whorl ovate to globose ; 
embryonic shell at first with a membranous test and transient (Scaph- 
ellides) followed by a secondary protoconch (scaphelloid) usually of 
an irregular form with a truncated, calloused summit, sometimes with 
a central calcarella; or fully calcified from the start, the protoconch 



1 8 Bulletin 152 288 



hence having a turbinate form and composed of closely coiled whorls 
from a small initial beginning (Amorides) ; columellar wall plain or 
with two or more plaits ; base of body whorl generally not contracted, 
the anterior canal itself short or lengthened and terminating in a 
deep or shallow siphonal notch, with or without a marked basal 
fasciole ; surface usually smooth in the adult, with or without a cover- 
ing of glaze, the earlier whorls usually axially ribbed or cancellate ; 
radular ribbon in Recent species is uniserial, the rachidian tooth with 
a single, narrow mesocone, the side cusps smaller or missing and 
seated on a deep, yoke-shaped base with narrow arms. This sub- 
family may be divided into three tribes as follows: 

Tribe SCAPHELLroES 

Embryonic shell membranous and transitory, followed by a 
secondary, scaphelloid protoconch, color white, yellow or pink, usually 
with spiral rows of brown spots. Atlantic. 

Recent genera. — Scaphella Swainson 1832; Aurinia H, and A. 
Adams, 1853; Volutifusus Conrad, 1863; Clenchina Pilsbry and 
Olsson, 1953. 

Fossil genera. — Scaphella Swainson, 1832; Jolutifusus Conrad, 
1863; Clenchina Pilsbry and Olsson, 1953; Caricella Conrad, 1835; 
Atraktus Gardner, 1937. 

Tribe AMORIDES 

Embryonic shell calcareous from the start and resulting in a well- 
coiled turbinate protoconch. Color plain, more often with longitudinal 
zigzag strips or closely variegated. Australian. 

Recent genera. — Amoria Gray, 1855; Amorena Iredale, 1929; 
Zebrarnoria Iredale, 1929; Relegamoria Iredale, 1936; Nannamoria 
Iredale 1929; Parviniitra Finlay, 1930. 

Fossil genera. — Amoria Gray, 1 855. 

Tribe HALffiES 

Embryonic shell calcareous forming a low, turbinate protoconch ; 
shell ovate, globose, thin-walled, its surface smooth and glossy, the 
columellar wall simple, deeply excavated ; color white or pink with 
spiral rows of small brown spots; mesocone of rachidian tooth short. 

Recent genus. — Ilalia Risso, 1826. 

Fossil genus. — Halia Risso, 1826. 



289 VoLUTiDAE Systems: Pilsbry and Olsson 19 



9. Subfamily CALLIOTECTINAE (new) 

Shells small to quite large, fusiform to elongate-turrctcd, the 
slender spire longer than the aperture; surface smooth or marked with 
small, protractively bowed axial riblets, stronger on the whorls of 
the spire and generally slightly beaded over a grooved or channeled 
suture; anterior canal of medium length, its pillar wall straight, plain 
or with weak folds developed in the interior and not showing in the 
aperture; operculum corneus, unguiculate to semilunate; radular 
ribbon uniserial, the rachidian tooth tricuspid (Plate 3, figure 16). 

Recent genera. — Callioteetuni Dall, 1890; Teramachia Kuroda, 
1931 {ProdalUa Bartsch, 1942) ; HowelUa Clench and Aguayo, 1941 ; 
Phenacoptygma Dall, 1918; Neptuneopsis Sowerby, 1898; Fusivoluta 
Martens, 1902. 

Fossil genera. — Callioteetuni Dall, 1890. 

10. Subfamily ADELOMELONINAE (new) 

Shell subovate with an elevated spire longer than the relatively 
short anterior canal ; pillar with few, slender plaits, the anterior one 
larger; surface smooth or with rather obscure axial ribbing and spiral 
striation, the surface covered by a delicate periostracum ; no oper- 
culum; radular ribbon uniserial, the rachidian tooth bearing three 
narrow, fanglike, curved cusps seated on a flattened plate. 

Recent genera. — Adelornelon Dall, 1906; Miomelon Dall, 1907 
{Proscaphella Ihering, 1907.) 

Fossil genera. — Miomelon Dall, 1907. 

11. Subfamily VOLUTODERMINAE (new) 

Shell elongate or broadly fusiform, the spire shorter than the 
aperture, the body whorl large, comprising most of the shell, its base 
not contracted but passing with gradual slope into the long, straight 
anterior canal; protoconch small, turbinate; siphonal notch deep but 
its growth trace not producing a basal fasciole; pillar wall straight, 
with one or more columellar plaits; sculpture strongly cancellate or 
Ficus-\\Vt, formed by the intersection of strong ribs and spirals; in 
some forms the spirals persisting to form strong cords in the adult 
stage. Cretaceous. 

Fossil genera. — Volutoderma Gabb, 1876 {Volutomorpha Gabb, 
1876); Ficulopsis Stoliczka, 1867; Rostellinda Dall, 1907; Rostellaca 
Dall, 1907; Rostellana Dall, 1907; Longoconcha Stephenson, 1941 ; 
Unvoluta Cox, 1931. 



20 Bulletin 152 290 



12. Subfamily VOLUTOMITRINAE H. and A. Adams, 1858 

Shell small, Mitra-like, with a small, calcareous nucleus; no 
operculum ; radula generally triserial, the rachidian tooth similar to 
that of Scaphella, the laterals small and narrow. 

Recent genera. — J'olutomitra (Gray) H. and A. Adams, 1853; 
iMicrovoluta Angas, 1877. 

Fossil genus. — Microvoluta Angas, 1877. 

Of Uncertain Position 

Guivillea B. Watson, 1886; Harpovoluta Thiele, 1912; Ptychoris 
Gabb, 1877. 

Gosavia Stoliczka, 1865, PhoUdotoma Cossmann, i8g6, and Beis- 
selia Holzapfel, 1889 may be turrids. 

A GENERAL KEY TO THE SUBFAMILIES 
OF THE VOLUTIDAE 

I. Radular ribbon uniserial, formula o-i-o 

A. Rachidian tooth wide, multicuspid, comblike (Plate 3, 

fig. 6). Volutinae 

AA. Rachidian tooth narrower, tricuspid, the cusps nearly equal 

in size. (Plate 3, figs. 4, 10, il, 12, 13, 16). 

B. Cusps relatively wide and massive, of a knife or 

swordlike shape, the base of the tooth similar to that 

of a shark's tooth, thickened, and generally arched; 

glassy or deeply stained. 

C. Protoconch bulbous, of but few whorls, with a 
strongly off-axis coil ; basal fasciole weak or ab- 
sent ; columellar plaits irregular in numbering and 
spacing. (Plate i, fig. 3). Fulgorarinae 

CC. Protoconch or apical whorls coiled in normal 
fashion around central axis. 

D. Nuclear whorls small; adult shell subovate, 
usually small ; columellar folds restricted to 
a short pillar or continuous with lirations 
on the parietal wall above; outer lip thick- 
ened and sometimes toothed. Liriinae 
DD. Nuclear whorls larger, subcylindrical to 
pupiform, generally of but few turns. 



291 VOLUTIDAE SYSTEMS: PiLSBRY AND OlSSON 21 



E. Basal fascicle strong. Columcllar plaits 
strong. Alcithoinae 

EE. No basal fascicle and no columcllar 
folds. Calliotectinae 

DDD. Nuclear whorls large and forming a cal- 
loused, truncated plug (Cymbiides), or a 
large, pupiform (Cerioti-Mke) protoconch of 
several whorls ( Meloides) . Basal fascicle 
strong, bounded by a sharp keel ; columellar 
folds strong and normally 4 in number. 
(Plate I, fig. i) Cymbiinae 

BE. Cusps very narrow and slender, fanglike, seated on a 
flattened, platelike base. (Plate 3, fig. 9). 

Adelomeloninae 
AAA. Rachidian tooth with a single, large mesocone, or if tri- 
cuspid the marginal cusps small. (Plate 3, figs. 5, 7, 14, 
15), Scaphellinae 

II. Radular ribbon triserial (i-i-i) 

A. Rachidian tooth relatively wide, tricuspid, the laterals wide, 

flat and subquadrate. (Plate 3, fig. 17). Athletinae 

AA. Rachidian tooth with a single, narrow cusp; lateral teeth 

small and narrow, (Plate 3, fig. 8). Shell mitroid, subfusi- 

form; columellar plaits present. Volutomitrinae 

III. Radula unknown. Fossil only. 

A. Nuclear whorls small; adult sculpture strongly cancellate. 

Volutoderminae 

AA. Nuclear whorl forming a relatively large, few-whorled 

protoconch with a pointed apex ; sculpture generally 

smoothish except for minute spirals; columellar folds 

typically i, anterior in position. Volutilithinae 

DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW GENERA AND SUBGENERA 

Subfamily VOLUTINAE 
Genus FALSILYRIA, new genus 
Plate 3, figure 1 
Type species. — Lyria pycnopleura Gardner, 1937- For figures of 



22 Bulletin 152 292 



this type species see: Gardner, 1937, U. S. Geol. Survey, Prof. Paper 
142-F, p. 404, pi. 48, figs. I, 2. 

Lower Miocene, Chipola River, Florida. 

Similar to Valuta Linne but with a narrower shell and higher 
spire; nucleus relatively small, consisting of but one rather loosely 
coiled whorl; sculpture formed by strong, smooth, nearly straight axial 
ribs, generally somewhat noded or coronated at the suture and with 
faint spirals showing around the base and on the canal ; aperture semi- 
elliptical, the outer lip thickened by the last rib, smooth within; 
plaits on the columellar and parietal wall are similar to those of 
Voluta; of these the four or five lower ones from large, strong, sharp 
folds which spiral deeply into the interior while above them the plaits 
on the parietal wall are small and weak; end of pillar appressed and 
turned sharply backwards to form a recurved beak forming a deep, 
siphonal notch ; siphonal fasciole short but strong. 

Species of this group have generally been referred to Lyria, but 
its relationship lies closer to the true volutes as shown by its columellar 
plaits intergrading with smaller lirations on the parietal wall, and 
by its strongly recurved beak and short siphonal fasciole. 

Genus WOODSIVOLUTA, new genus 

Type species. — Volutospina crassiusctila Woods, 1922. For figures 
of this species see: T. O. Bosworth, 1922, Geology of North-West 
Peru, p. 104, pi. 15, figs. 6, 7; pi. 16, figs. la, ib. 
Lower Eocene of Peru. 

Shell massive, subovate, globose, with a large, convex body whorl 
and a medium-length, conic spire; whorls not shouldered; spire whorls 
with axial sculpture, the later ones marked only by coarse lines of 
growth ; callous glaze thin or lacking ; outer lip more or less thickened 
and carrying a deep, posterior sinus; siphonal canal notch deep and 
developing a basal fasciole bordered by a keel ; columella with three 
strong, slightly oblique folds. 

Subfamily ATHLETINAE 

Genus VOLUTOVETUS, new genus 

Plate 2, figure 8 

Type species. — Voluta petrosa Conrad, 1833. For figures of this 
species see: Athleta petrosa (Conrad), Palmer, 1937, Bull. Amer. 
Paleont., vol. 7, No, 32, p. 372, pi. 58, figs. 1-4, 6, 8-14. 



29,^ VOLUTIDAE SYSTEMS: PiLSBRY AND OlSSON' 23 



Gulf Coast Eocene. 

Shell subfusiform to substrombiform with an elevated conic spire 
and a mediuin-sized body whorl; protoconch small, composed of three 
or four smooth whorls forming a hijjh, turbinate coil with a sharp 
apex, the passage to the first nepionic whorl shown by the assumption 
of bowed axials over a short area; whorls shouldered, the angle being 
generally spinose or nodose, the sculpture elsewhere more or less 
cancellate or becoming smooth, the base generally retaining strong 
spirals; columella with two or three plaits placed along the middle 
zone of the pillar; anterior canal straight, the siphonal canal notch 
shallow and resulting in no basal fasciole ; outer lip internally denti- 
culate in the adult or remaining smooth ; a callous growth may cover 
the parietal wall, often spreading upward over the spire to form an 
enamel coating, varying in degree of thickness. 

Well represented in the Eocene of the Gulf Coast by several 
species referred by authors to Jolutilithes, Plejona and Athleta. The 
genus is closely related to Volutospina Newton of the Paris Basin 
Eocene, differing by its stronger columellar plaits. Its relations with 
Athleta appear less direct. 

Subfamily LYRHNAE 

Genus LYRIA Gray, 1847 

Subgenus SANNALYRIA, new subgenus 

Plate 3, figtire 2 

Type species. — Lyria pulchella Sowerby, i8+9- For figures of 
this species see: Sowerby, 1849, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. London, vol. 
6, p. 46, pi. 9, fig. 4; Maury, 191 7, Bull. Amer. Paleont. vol. 5, No. 
29, P- 73. Pl- II, figs. 10, loa. 
Miocene of Santo Domingo. 

Shell ovate, globose, the body whorl large, not shouldered, the 
surface sculptured at first with strong axial ribbing, generally becoming 
smoother in the adult. The nucleus like that of Lyria, s. s. is small, 
blunt, composed of one or two smooth turns. Columellar folds like 
those of Lyria but with the parietal wall above strongly lirate 
throughout. 

Differs from Lyria, s. s. by its strongly lirate inner lip and from 
Harpella H. and A. Adams by its nonshouldered whorls. 



24 Bulletin 152 294 

Genus ENAETA H. and A. Adams, 1853 

Enaeta americana (Dall) PI- 3, fig. 3 

Strigilla americana Dall, 1915, U. S. Nat. Museum, Bull. 90, p. 61, pi. 9, 
fig. 2. 

Two species of Enaeta are known fossil in the American Tertiary. 
Enaeta americana (Dall), described as a Strigilla, occurs in the 
Chipola Miocene at Bailey's Ferry, Fla. Another species, also des- 
cribed as a Strigilla, is Enaeta perturhatrix (Maury) from the Mio- 
cene of Santo Domingo. 

Subfamily FULGORARINAE 
Genus FESTILYRIA, new genus 

Type species. — Valuta festiva Lamarck. For figures of this species 
see: Reeve, 1849, Conch. Icon., vol. 6, Valuta, pi. 12, figures 28 a-c. 
Recent. Africa, the exact locality unknown. 

The shell is broadly subfusiform, stout, with a spacious body 
whorl and an elevated subpyramidal spire ; nucleus bulbous, fulgora- 
roid, of one rounded whorl coiled around a tilted axis; whorls 
shouldered at maturity, the spire whorls sculptured with axials which 
become nodose on the shoulder of the last whorl; aperture subovate, 
with a deep commissural groove above ; no fasciole ; columellar plaits 
irregular, four, five or more in number. 

Reeve's excellent figure 0/ Valuta festiva resembles closely 
Pachycymbiala rnagellanica (Sowerby) with which it has sometimes 
been united, but it differs by its fulgoraroid nucleus, the absence of a 
fasciole, and by its more variable plaits. These characters suggest a 
place in the Fulgorarinae. Reeve considered J\ festiva to be related 
to Valuta hebraea, and H. and A. Adams placed it in Lyria (Appen- 
dix, p. 61 8). 

Subfamily CYMBIINAE 

Genus MELO Sowerby, 1847 

Subgenus MELOCORONA, new subgenus 

Plate 1, figure 1 

Type species. — Mela broderipii Gray. For figures of this species 
see: Reeve, i860. Conch. Icon., vol. 13, Cymbium, pi. 5, fig. 3a; pi. 6, 
figs. 3b, c, d. 

Recent, Philippines. 



295 VOLUTIDAH SYSTEMS: Pll.SBRY AND OlSSON 25 



In shape similar to Melo but the spire not becoming involute, the 
large, pupiform nucleus remaining prominently visible at all growth 
stages. Shoulder of the whorls armed with strong, elevated, furrowed 
spines. 

Genus VOLUTOCORONA, new genus 
Plate 2, figure 10 
Type species. — loliita imperialis Lamarck. For figures of this 
species see: Reeve, 1849, Conch. Icon., vol. 6, Valuta pi. 16, fig. 36. 
Recent, Philippines. 

Shell large, solid, the spire short, and with a large, ovate-conic 
body whorl ; nucleus large, Me-Zo-type, pupiform, generally colored 
dark-brown and forming a prominent apical knob; shoulder of whorls 
armed with large, sharp spines forming a crown ; a small but definite 
sutural or commissural notch is present ; siphonal notch deep, curved, 
and forming a strong, basal fasciole limited above by a sharp ridge; 
folds of the columella strong, four in number. 

Subfamily ALCITHOINAE 

Genus JANEITHOE, new genus 

Plate 1, figure 8; Plate 4, figure 5 

Type species. — Voluta beckii Hroderip, 1847. Recent, coast of 
Brazil. 

Shell medium to large in size, broadly subfusiform, the spire 
shorter than the aperture, the outer lip thin ; body whorl large, sub- 
ovate, plain or with short, spinose nodes on an angled shoulder; 
nucleus large, alcithoid, composed of about two smooth whorls with 
an erect, pointed calcarella at the tip; spire whorls with fine spiral 
sculpturing which tends to fade out on the later turns; columella with 
two strong plaits ; the parietal callus is a light wash which extends 
out only a short distance beyond the aperture ; siphonal canal notch 
deep and forms a flattened, basal fasciole not edged by a keel ; radular 
ribbon uniserial, the rachidian tooth flattened and triserial. 

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Adams, H. and A. 

1858. The genera of Recent Mollusca, vol. i, the family Volutidae. 
p. 157, 1853; vol. 2, appendix, p. 615. 

Clench, W. J. 

1846. The genera Bathyaurinia, Rehderia and Scaphella in the ivestern 
Atlantic. Johnsonia, vol. 2, No. 22. 



26 Bulletin 152 296 



Cooke, A. H. 

1922. The radtila of the Volutidae. Malacol. Soc. London, Proc, vol. XV, 
pt. I, pp. 6-12. 

Cossmann, M. 

1899. Essais de Paleoconchologic cnmparee. Vol. 3, pp. 99-148. 

Dall, W. H, 

1S90. Wagner Free Inst. Sci., Trans, vol. 3, pt. i, pp. 57-90. 

1898. On the genus Halia of Risso. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Proc., 

vol. 50, pp. 190-192. 
1907. A review of the American Folutidae. Smithsonian Miscellaneous 

Collections, vol. 48, No. 1663. 

Fischer, P. 

1867. Sur ranatomie des Lyria. Journ. de Conchyliol. vol. 15, pp. 349- 

356, pi. 13. 
1879. Note sur I'animal du I'oluta musica Linne. Op. cit., vol. 27, 

pp. 97-106, pi. 5. 

Fleming, J. 

1822. The philosophy of zoology. Vol. 2, p. 490. Edinburgh. 

Gray, J. E. 

1853. On the division of Ctenobranchous Gasteropodous Mollusca into 
larger groups and families. Annals Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, 
second series, p. 124. 

1855. Observations on the species of Folutes, Volutidae. Zool. Soc Lon- 
don, Proc, part 23, pp. 50-65. 

1857. Guide to the systematic distribution of Mollusca in the British 
Museum, pt. I. Volutidae. Pp. 31-36. 

Kuroda, T. 

1950. Illustrated catalogue of Japanese shells. No. 5. Volutidae. 

Ludbrook, N. H. 

1953. Systematic revision of the volutid genus Amoria. Malacol. Soc. 
London, Proc, vol. 30, pts. 4, 5, pp. 131-153, pis. 14-18. 

Lamarck, J. 

1811. Ann. du Museum d'Hist. nat., vol. 17, p. 54. 

Marwick, J. 

1926. Tertiary and Recent Volutidae of Ne=iv Zealand. New Zealand 
Institute, Trans. Proc, vol. 56, pp. 256-303. 
Pilsbry, H. A. and Olsson, A. A. 

1953. Materials for a revision of East Coast and Floridan Volutes. 
Nautilus, vol. 67, No. i, pp. 1-13. 

Poirier, J. 

1885. Recherches anatomiques sur rHalia priamus (Risso). Bull. Societe 
Malacologique de France, vol. 2, pp. 17-50. 

Schacko, G. in Von Martens 

1881-85. Conchologische Mittheilungen, vol. 2, p. 126, pi. 24, fig. 5. 



297 \"oi.L'TiDAK SvsTKMs: Pi I.Sim's AM) Olsson 27 



Swainson. W. 

1S40. ./ treatise on muliuology irr the natural classification of shells 
and shell-fish. I'olutidae. Pp. 316-324. 

Thiele, J. 

1912. Deutsche Siidpolar Expedition, 1901-03. 

1929. Ilandhuch der Systematischen H'eichtierkunde. Erster Teil, pp. 
344-3 5 1- 

Troschel, F. H. 

1866. Das Gehiss der Schnecken zur Begriindung einer naturlichen Classi- 
fication. Vol. 2. 

Wcnz, W. 

1943. Handbuch der Paldozoologie, Gastropoda. Teil 6, pp. 1311-1355. 



PLATES 

PLATE I (25) 



30 Bulletin 152 300 



Explanation of Plate i (25) 

Figure Page 

1. Melo (Melocorona) broderipii Gray 12, 24 

Pillar showing 4 strong plaits and their position with respect 
to the basal fascicle. Olsson Collection. 

2. Voluta musica Linne 13 

Showing the relations of the columellar plaits continuous 
with lirations on the parietal wall and the short, basal 
fasciole. Goajira Peninsula, Colombia. Olsson Collection. 

3. Fulgoraria rupestris (Gmelin) 13, 20 

Anterior canal to show the absence of a basal fasciole with 
the columellar plaits irregularly bunched together in the 
middle zone of the pillar. ANSP., 185830. 

4. Lapparia dumosa (Conrad) 15 

Spire whorls showing the large nucleus and ist nepionic 
whorl. Diameter of nucleus about 3.3 mm. Eocene, Gulf 
Coast. 

5. Scaphella jiinonia butleri Clench 12 

Spire whorls showing the scaphelloid nucleus, pluglike, cal- 
loused, with obscure sutures succeeded by the sculptured 
nepionic whorls. Diameter of nucleus about 5 mm. Speci- 
men from Mr. Charles R. Locklin. 

6. Amoria (Amoria) damoni Gray 11 

Large, trochoid nucleus grading into the nepionic whorls. 
Australia. ANSP., 186163. 

7. Fulgoraria rupestris (Gmelin) 12 

Spire whorls showing the bulbous nucleus with oblique coil. 
Diameter of nucleus about 5.7 mm. Same specimen as fig. 3. 

8. Janeithoe beckii (Broderip) 25 

Nuclear whorls. Greatest diameter of nucleus, 6.2 mm. Off 
Rio Janeiro. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. Charles R. 
Locklin. 

9. Scaphella floridana Heilprin 12 

Spire showing a shorter scaphelloid nucleus and highly sculp- 
tured nepionic whorls. Diameter of nucleus, 5.2 mm. Plio- 
cene, Clewiston, Florida. Olsson Collection. 

10. Caricella sp 12 

Caricelloid nucleus, diameter of nucleus about 3 mm. Eocene 
Claiborne, Alabama. 



Pi,. '2r->, Vol,. :\5 



Bii.L. Amer. P.vleoxt. 



No. 152, PL. 1 




PLATE 2 (26) 



32 Bulletin 152 302 



Explanation of Plate 2 (26) 

Figure Page 

1. Aulicina nivosa (Lamarck) 11 

Apical view showing noded nucleus. Diameter of nucleus, 
6.9 mm. Australia. Olsson Collection. 

2. Voluta alfaroi Dall 11 

Spire whorls showing the elevated, cylindric nucleus. Di- 
ameter, 2.6 mm. Miocene, Costa Rica. ANSP., 3152. 

3. Voluta musica Ldnne 11 

Apex showing the low, turbinate type of nucleus. Diameter, 
4.8 mm. Goajira Peninsula, Colombia. Olsson Collection. 

4. Aulicina vespertilio (Ldnne) 11 

Spire whorls. Indian Ocean. ANSP., 185832. 

5. Mesericusa fusiformis (Swatnson) 16 

Spire whorls. Diameter of nucleus about 6.4. Van Dieman's 
Land. ANSP., 186167. 

6. Halia priamus Meusch 10 

Apex showing low, turbinate nucleus gradational with the 
nepionic. Diameter of nucleus about 5 mm. Cadiz, Spain. 
Specimen in J. Schwengel Collection. 

6a. Halia priamus Meusch 10 

Complete shell, same specimen as figure 6. Note deeply exca- 
vated pillar and spiral rows of brown spots. Length of 
specimen, 40.5 mm. 

7. Volutilithes muricinus (Lamarck) 12 

Spire whorls with elevated nucleus and sculptured nepionic 
whorls. Diameter of nucleus about 17.8 mm. Eocene, Paris 
Basin. Pal. Res. Inst., No. 20818. 

8. Volutovetus petrosa (Conrad) 22 

Spire whorls showing small nucleus. Diameter of nucleus, 
3.1 mm. Eocene, Smithville, Texas. Pal. Res. Inst., No. 
20819. 

9. Melo indica (Gmelin) 12 

Apical view showing large nucleus. Diameter of nucleus, 
17.8 mm. Eastern Seas. ANSP., 35303. 

10. Volutocorona imperialis (Gmelin) 25 

Spire whorls. Diameter of nucleus about 14 mm. Philippines. 
ANSP. 186153. 

11. Volutopupa ventricosa (Defrance) 11 

Spire whorls. Diameter of nucleus, 2.7 mm. Eocene, Paris 
Basin. Pal. Res. Inst., No. 20820. 



Pi,. 2(1. Vol. 115 



Bii.i,. .\mi:i;. Pai.kun r. 



No. ir>L', I'r,. •_' 







y^ 



^f 



N 



PLATE 3 (27) 



34 Bulletin 152 304 



Explanation of Plate 3 (27) 

Figure Page 

1. Falsilyria pycnopleura (Gardner) 21 

Length, 51.8 mm. Lower Miocene, Chipola River, Florida. 
Collector, Charles R. Locklin. ANSP. 

2. Lyria (Sannalyria) pulchella Sowerby 23 

Length, 26.9 mm. Miocene. Rio Mao, Bluff la, Santo Domingo. 
Olsson Collection. 

3. Enaeta americana (Dall) 24 

Type, length, 28 mm. Lower Miocene, Chipola near Bailey's 
Ferry, Florida. Collector, C. W. Johnson. 

4. Arctomelon steamsi (Dall) 20 

A small portion of the radular ribbon. Width of each rachi- 
dian tooth, 0.78 mm. Shumagin Ids., Alaska. U. S. Nat. 
Museum, 22504. 

5. Aurinia kieneri ethelae Pilsbry and Olsson 21 

Rachidian tooth, width, 0.28 mm. See also figure 7. 

6. Voluta musica Linne 20 

A group of rachidian teeth in natural position. Width of each 
tooth, 0.98 mm. Bookoo Reef, Tobago Island. Collector, 
A. J. Ostheimer, 3d. 

7. Aurinia kieneri ethelae Pilsbiy and Olsson 21 

Portion of radular ribbon from type. See fig. 5. Off South Pass, 
Mississippi River in 220 fathoms. Collector, Mr. Thomas Dow. 
Type in collection of Mrs. Ethel L. Townsend, Cocoanut 
Grove, Florida. 

8. Microvoluta typica (Strebel) 21 

Rachidian tooth and lateral. Thiele, Handbuch der systema- 
tischen Weichtierkunde, ist pt. p. 351, fig. 421. 

9. Miomelon philippianus Dall 21 

A single rachidian tooth, width, 0.25 mm. From type. Off 
southwest coast of Chile. U. S. Nat. Museum, 97128. 

10. Enaeta sowerbyi Adams (V. cumingi Broderip) 20 

A single rachidian tooth, width, 0.20 mm. Magdalena Bay, 
Lower California. U. S. Nat. Museum, 102548. 

11. Neptuneopsis gilchristi (Sowerby) 20 

From Thiele, Der deutschen Tiefsee-Exp. 1898-99. Figure 68. 

12. Psephaea concinna (Broderip) 20 

A single rachidian tooth. Japanese Jour. MalacoL, vol. 13, 
No. 1-4, fig. 14. 

13. Melo nautica Lamarck 20 

From Troschel, Das Gebiss des Schnecken, vol. 2. 

14, 14a. Scaphella junonia (Shaw) 21 

Top and oblique side view of a rachidian tooth, width, .14 mm. 
Key West trawlers. 

15. Clenchina dohrni (Sowerby) 10,21 

Rachidian tooth, width, 0.0624 mm. Key West trawlers. 

16. Calliotectuin vernicosiun DaU 20 

A single rachidian tooth, width, 0.22 mm. Near Galapagos 
Islands. U. S. Nat. Museum, 96555. 

17. Volutocorbis abyssicola (Adams and Reeve) 21 

Rachidian and lateral tooth. From Thiele, Deutsche Tiefsee 
Exp., 1898-99. Handbuch, p. 344, fig. 411. 



Vl. 127. Vol.. ;:;■) 



I'.i'i.i.. .\\ii:k. I'ai.koxt. 



No. l.l-J, Pi,. 




. PLATE 4 (28) 



36 Bulletin 152 306 



Explanation of Plate 4 (28) 

Figure Page 

1. Zidona angulata (Swainson) 17 

Preserved animal, without liver. Length of foot, 83 mm. Museo 
Argentine de Ciencias Naturales, "Bernardino Rivadavia," 
No. 12901. 

2. Pachycymbiola brasiliana (Solander) 8, 17 

Preserved animal, without liver. Length of foot, 90 mm. "Bern- 
ardino Rivadavia," No. 9361. 

3. Pachycymbiola magellanica (Sowerby) 8 

Part of radula, width of individual tooth, 0.8 mm. "Bernardino 
Rivadavia," No. 12387. 

4. Zidona angulata (Swainson) 17 

Part of radula, width of individual tooth, 0.6 mm. "Bernardino 
Rivadavia," No. 12901. 

5. Janeithoe beckii (Broderip) 25 

Part of radula, width of individual tooth, 0.95 mm. "Bernardino 
Rivadavia," No. 13330. 

6. Adelomelon ancilla (Solander) 10 

Parts of radula, width of individual tooth, i.i mm. Fig. 6. Top 
view. 6a. Side view. 6b. Oblique view. "Bernardino Riva- 
davia," No. 21264. 



Ti,. -JS. Vol,. :{5 



Hi I.I,, .\mi.i;. i'.M.KONT. 



No. 1 ;")'_', I'l,. I 




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.3 



BULLETINS 

OF 

AMERICAN 
PALEONTOLOGY 



VOL. XXXV 



NUMBER 153 



1954 



UMARt 

JAN 1 195! 



Palcontological Research Institution 

Ithaca, New York 

U. S. A. 



PALEONTOLOGICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTION 

1954-55 

President Ralph A. Liddle 

Vice-President Solomon C. Hollister 

Secretary-Treasurer Rebecca S. Harris 

Director Katherine V. W. Palmfr 

Counsel Armand L. Adams 

Trustees 

Kenneth E. Caster (1954-1960) Katherine V. W. Palmer (Life) 

W. Storrs Cole (1952-58) Ralph A. Liddle (1950-56) 

Rousseau H. Flower (1950-55) Axel A. Olsson (Life) 

Rebecca S. Harris (Life) Norman E. Weisbord (1951-57) 

Solomon C. Hollister (1953-59) 



BULLETINS OF AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY 

and 
PALAEONTOGRAPHICA AMERICANA 

Katherine V. W. Palmer, Editor 
Lempi H. Sincebaugh, Secretary 

Editorial Board 
Kenneth E. Caster G. Winston Sinclair 



Complete titles and price list of separate available numbers may be 
had on application. All volumes available except Vols. I and III of 
Bulletins and Vol. I of Palaeontographica Americana. 



Paleontological Research Institution 

109 Dearborn Piace 

Ithaca, New York 

U.S.A. 



BULLETINS 

OF 

AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY 



Vol 35 



No. 153 



FIVE NEW SPECIES AND A NEW SUBGENUS IN THE PELECYPOD 

FAMILY CARDIIDAE 



By 

A. Myra Keen 
Stanford University, California 



December 20, 1954 



paleontolooical research institution 

Ithaca, New York 

U. S. A. 



««s. mp. mi 

IjAN ^ 1955 
WWftSfTY 



Library of Congress Catalog Card Nurnber: GS 54-l38 



Printed in the United States of America 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

Abstract 5 

Introduction 5 

Acknowledgments 6 

Systematic discussion . 6 

Genus Granocardium Gabb, 1869 6 

Subgenus Ethmocardium. White, 1880 6 

Ethmocardium pomeyroli Keen, n.sp 8 

Genus Nemocardium Meek, 1876 9 

Subgenus Nemocardium, s.s 10 

Subgenus Pratnlum Iredale, 1924 10 

Subgenus Keenaea Habe, 1951 11 

Subgenus Arctopratiilum Keen, n.subg 12 

Arctopratulum griphus Keen, n.sp 12 

Genus Cltnocardium Keen, 1936 14 

Clinncardium praeblandum Keen, n.sp 15 

Cltnocardium pristinum Keen, n.sp. . 16 

Clinocardium hannibali Keen, n.sp 18 

Key to the species of Clinocardium of western North America 20 

References cited 22 

Plate 23 



FIVE NEW SPECIES AND A NEW SUBGENUS 
IN THE PELECYPOD FAMILY CARDIIDAE 



A. AIvRA Keen 

Stanford University. California 



ABSTRACT 

New species described are: Granocardium (Ethmocardium) pomeyroli. Up- 
per Cretaceous, New Caledonia; Nemocardlum (Arctopratulum) grlphus, As- 
toria formation, middle Miocene, southwestern Washington ; Clinocardium 
praeblandum. Briones formation, upper Miocene, Contra Costa County, Cali- 
fornia; C. pristinum, Neroly formation, upper Miocene, Contra Costa County; 
and C. hannihali, Montesano formation, Mio-Pliocene, southwestern Washing- 
ton. Arctopratulum is proposed as a new subgenus of Nemocardium (type 
species, A^. (A.) griplius). Keys are included to subgenera of Nemocardium 
and to species of Clinocardium. 



INTRODUCTION 

The chance observation that the common West American heart 
cockle is prosogj'rate started me in 1935 on what has proved to be a 
long-range series of cardiid studies. Justifying the proposal of a new 
genus, Clinocardium, to contain this and several similar species, led to 
the accumulation of a card file of some 3,000 entries and to several pa- 
pers in revision and review of the family (Keen, 1936, 1937, 1950, 
1951). The ambitious statement in the first of these, that "detailed dis- 
cussion of the species included in the genus is withheld for a monographic 
study whose publication may be considerably delayed" remains unreal- 
ized, but the "two or three unnamed species," also mentioned, are here- 
in described, and some information on species to be assigned to Clino- 
cardium is offered as a partial fulfillment of the promise. 



BuLLiiTix 153 312 



ACKxNOWLEDGMENTS 

I wish to thank Siemon W. Muller for advice and encouragement 
in the preparation of this paper, and Ellen James Trumbull and Joseph 
J. Graham for assistance on problems relating to the Astoria forma- 
tion. I am grateful also to Frances Wagner for permission to cite some 
conclusions from her unpublished thesis and to Curt Dietz and Hubert 
G. Schenck for critical reading of the manuscript. 

SYSTEMATIC DISCUSSION 

Family CARDIIDAE 

Subfamily CARDIINAE 

Genus GRANOCARDIUM Gabb, 1869i 

Type species {subsequent desigiiation, Stewart, 1930). — Cardium 
carolinum d'Orbigny, 1844. Upper Cretaceous, France. 

Quadrate to elliptical, ribs smooth to spinose; intercostal spaces 
variousl}' ornamented exteriorly or interiorly; hinge straight or nearly 
so and relatively long. 

Granocardium may be divided into three subgenera: Gfanocar- 
dium, s. s., elliptical in outline, hinge slightly angulate, interspaces 
with two to three spinose intercalarj' ribs; Criocardiiim Conrad, 1870 
(tj'pe species, subsequent designation, Stoliczka, 1871, Cardium dumo- 
swm Conrad, 1870) which is quadrate, hinge straight, not more than 
one spinose intercalary between ribs (sometimes none) ; and Ethmo- 
cardium, in which the intercostal spaces of the interior are pitted. All 
are confined to the Cretaceous. 

Subgenus ETHMOCARDIUM White, 1880'-; 

Type species {original designation) . — Cardium speciosum Meek 
and Hayden, 1857 {non Adams and Reeve, 1850) ~C. whitei Dall, 
1900. 

Small, quadrate, hinge straight ; ribs without spines or heavy 
nodes; intercalary ribs not present; intercostal spaces of the interior 
apparently pitted or perforate. 

1 Paleont. California, vol. 2, p. 266. 

2 U. S. Nat. Mus., Proc, vol. 2, p. 292. Proposed as a subgenus of Car- 
dium. 



313 Pelecypoda — Family Cardiidak: Keen 



Kthmocardittm comprises only a few known species, as follows: 

Cardium {Ethtnocardium) tirsaniense Landes, 1940. Canada Geol. 
Surv., Mem. 221, p. 156, pi. 5, figs. 10-12. Palcowki formation, 
Alberta, Canada, Upper Cretaceous. 

C. (E.) zcelleri Stephenson, 1941. Univ. Texas Pub. 4101, p. 195, 
pi. 34, figs. 13-17. Nacatoch sand, Texas, Upper Cretaceous 
(Maestrichtian). 

C. zvhitei Dall, 1900. Wagner Free Inst. Sci., Trans., vol. 3, pt. 5, 
p. 1074. New name for C. speciosum Meek and Hayden, 1857 
(Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Proc. for 1856, vol. 8, p. 274), pre- 
occupied, from "bad lands of Judith River (Nebraska)," \_i.e.j 
Montana group, Montana, Upper Cretaceous]. 

E. zvoodsi Marwick, 1944. Roy. Soc. New Zealand, Trans., vol. 74, pt. 
3, p. 259, pi. 36, fig. 21. Piripauan, New Zealand, Upper Creta- 
ceous (Upper Senonian or Maestrichtian). 



A species from the Turonian of France, Cardium alternatum 
d'Orbigny, 1844 {non Sow^erby, 1841) ~C. subalternatum d'Orbigny, 
1850, has been assigned to Ethmocardium by Dall, but the original 
figure and description show it to be a Criocardium, with well-developed 
spines between the ribs. C. wenonah Weller, 1907, sometimes consid- 
ered an Ethrnocardiuyn, was a composite species based on material from 
New Jersey and Texas. Stephenson recognized this in 1941 and pro- 
posed a new name, C. welleri, for the Texas specimens. As the New 
Jersey specimens, at least in the original figures, do not show the in- 
ternal pits of Ethmocardium, the restricted C. luenonah must be allo- 
cated to Criocardium, together with several other species lacking inter- 
calary ornamentation, for which a new subgenus may eventually prove 
justifiable. 

To the above list of four species — three from the mid-continent 
of North America and one from New Zealand — now is added a 
fifth from an intermediate location, New Caledonia. 



8 



Bulletin 153 



314 



Granocardium (Ethmocardium) pomeyroli Keen, n. sp. 



PI. 1. figs. 2-4; 
text figs. 1,2 




Figs. I, 2. Granocardium (Ethmocardium) pomeyroli Keen, n. sp. Paratype, 
Stanford Univ. Paleo. Type Coll. No. 8290, camera lucida drawing of latex 
cast, slightly restored; X i- 



Shell large for the subgenus, ovate-quadrate, with about 25 ribs; 
ribs narrower than the interspaces, shallow, rounded on top, with ver- 
tical sides; intercostal spaces of the central 10 to 12 ribs internally 
bridged by thin bars of shell material which give the appearance of 
pits or pores when the thin outer layer is eroded away; hinge short 
(right valve longer than left), straight, cardinals 2a and 3b strong; 
anterior and posterior lateral teeth strong, the hinge plate hollowed out 
between laterals and cardinals; pallial line obscure, probably entire; 
anterior adductor muscle scars moderately large, remote from ventral 
margin ; posterior muscle scars inconspicuous but apparently also re- 
mote; shell margins crenulate, posteriorly digitate. 

Difnensions. — Holotype, height, 27 mm., length, 27, convexity (one 
valve), 11; 25 ribs. Paratype, height, 27 mm., length, 25.5, convexity 
(one valve), 10.5; 25 ribs. Paratype, height, — , length, 26 mm., con- 
vexity (one valve), 11. 

Type locality. — Coal-bearing beds in area of Momea tribe, New 
Caledonia. Upper Cretaceous. Collected by M. Rene Pomeyrol, 1951 ; 
30 specimens. 

Repositories. — Stanford Univ. Paleo. Type Coll., holotype, No. 
8287, paratypes Nos. 8288-8294; other paratypes to be deposited in 
the collections of California Academy of Sciences, U. S. National Mu- 
seum, British Museum (Natural History), Paleontological Research 
Institution, and the Sorbonne, Paris. 



315 l'i:i.ia> roDA — I-xmii/s- CARDiinAi-: Kr;EN 



Discussion. — Compared to other mcml^ers of the subgenus, this form 
is a giant. The New Zeahmd species C. (F.) woodsi, which has also 
25 ribs, measures only 12 mm. in height and length, 4 in convexity of a 
single valve. The North American species have many more ribs: G. (EJ 
ivhitei has 40 ribs and measures 12 mm. in height, 10 in length, 4 in 
convexitv of a single \alve; G. (K). ursaniense, also with 40 ribs, 
measures 17 by 15 1)\ 5; G. (E.) welleri, with 32 ribs, measures 14 
by 15 by 5.5. The ribs in G. (E.) pomeyroli are more widely spaced, 
thinner, shallower in outward expression, and the interspaces are much 
wider than in the other species. Preservation of the material, mainly 
as internal molds, leaves much to be desired, making selection of a 
holotype difficult. The specimen chosen shows a fragment of outer 
surface on the center of the disk in the right valve and also shows the 
relationship between the apparent pits of the intercostal spaces and 
the thin outer layer. One paratype. No. 8290, had the hinge sufficiently 
preserved that latex casts could be made for both valves. In a third 
parat^'pe, No. 8291, a partial external mold permitted recovery of 
surface sculpture b}- the use of latex, and it was in this that the true 
nature of the "pits" (actually matrix filling the spaces between thin 
shelly bridges across the interspaces) could be discerned. In the um- 
bonal area where slight erosion of the outer layer had taken place, 
the intercostal bridging came to resemble a honeycomb. A somewhat 
analogous sculpture is present exteriorly in various Tertiary cardiia 
stocks, but in no other group is the interior of the shell reduced to a 
thin mesh. 

Associated fossils include a few internal molds of an indeterminate 
gastropod, apparently one with several whorls and a siphonal canal. 

The species is named in honor of the collector, M. Rene Pomeyrol, 
of the Societe de Recherche et d'Exploitation de Petrole en Nouvelle- 
Caledonie, 

Subfamily PROTOCARDHNAE 

Genus NEMQCARDIUM Meek, 18763 _ 

. \ • I 

Type species {subsequent designation, Sacco, 1899). — Cardium semi- 
asperum Deshayes, 1858. Eocene, France. r-^- 

3 U. S. Geo!. Surv. Terr., Rept, vol. 9, p. 167. 



10 Bulletin- 153 316 



Ovate-quadrate, sculpture radial, posterior slope differentiated by 
coarser ribbing. 

As I ha\e shown (Keen, 1950), the genus Nemocardium originated 
during early Cretaceous time and has persisted to the present, though 
with sharp diminution in numbers of species and with restriction of 
range after its heyday in the Eocene of Europe. Today Nemocardium, 
s. s., occurs only in the Northwest Pacific and A^ (Pratulum) only 
in the southern Pacific. There were several species in North America 
during the Eocene. In the Oligocene only four have definitely been re- 
corded, though one so-called Laevicardium may qualify as a fifth. From 
Japan three species have been reported in the Oligocene and one in 
the Miocene. The new form here described is the first Nemocardium 
to be reported in the Miocene of North America. To ascertain its re- 
lationships, previous generic and subgeneric allocations of the various 
post-Eocene American and Japanese species have been carefully re- 
viewed, and a somewhat revised grouping is now proposed : 

Subgenus NEMOCARDIUM, s. s. 

Quadrate, ribbing of posterior slope much coarser than on re- 
mainder of shell, marginal crenulations changing abruptly in size at 
the boundary between posterior and central slopes; ribs of posterior 
slope usually with spines, remainder of shell nearly smooth; hinge 
long and arched, hinge teeth relatively large. 

The following is believed to be a complete list of post-Eocene 
species from the North American-northeast Asian area: 

N. (N.) bechei (Reeve), 1847. Recent, off Japan. 

diversum (Conrad), 1847. Middle Oligocene, Mississippi. 
ioriii (Nomura), 1933 [j/V] . Mio-Pliocene, Japan. 
waynense Mansfield, 1940. Middle Oligocene, Mississippi. 
weaveri (Anderson and Martin), 1914. Lower Oligo- 
cene, Oregon. 

Subgenus PRATULUM Iredale, 1924* 

Type species {original designation). — Cardium thetidis Hedley, 
1902. Recent, Australia. 

Quadrate, usually smaller than Nemocardium, s. s., with posterior 
slope set off by one or two narrower ribs but with only slight change 

4 Linn. Soc. New South Wales, Proc, vol. 49, p. 182. 



317 PELKc^ roDA - F.\Mll.^ I' vrdiidai; : Kken 11 



in size or in width of mart2;inal crenulations; fine wavy secondary con- 
centric sculpture present on entire disk. 

No species of this subgenus have heen detected in the North Am- 
erican or western Pacific Tertiary. There are two in luirope that seem 
to belong here and several in the New Zealand-Australian area. 

Subgenus KEENAEA Habe, 1951' 

Type species {ofiginal (lcsi{)uatioii) . — Cardium sanmrangae Maki- 
yama, 1934. Recent, Japan. 

Smaller than Xemocardium . s. s., with secondary concentric lamel- 
lae on posterior ribs; the latter not sharply differentiated. Differs from 
A'^. {Praiulum) by the presence of the concentric lamellae on ribs and 
a tendency toward fine beading on ribs of the central part of the disk. 
Included species are: 

A'^. (A'.) alaskense (Clark), 1932. Upper Oligocene, Alaska. [Ten- 
tative assignment, as the holotype, the only known speci- 
men, is decorticated and does not show posterior ribbing 
well.] 

centifilosum (Carpenter), 1866. Recent. California to 
Washington (also in the Pleistocene). 
iwakieuse (Makiyama), 1934. Upper Oligocene, Japan. 
lorenzanurn (Arnold), 1908. Upper Oligocene, Washing- 
ton and California. 
sanmrangae Makiyama, 1934. Recent, Japan. 

Subgenus ARCTOPRATULUM Keen, new subgenus 

Type species. — Nemocardium {Arctopratulum) griphus Keen, 
n. sp. 

Ovate-trigonal, hinge short, with relatively weak teeth ; ribs of 
posterior slope not markedly wider than on remainder of shell, smooth, 
with occasional secondary concentric laminae; ribs of remainder of 
shell often slightly beaded or with concentric threaded sculpture. 

Relationships to other subgenera may be shown best in a key: 

1 . Posterior ribs markedly wider and heavier than those of remainder 

of shell, usually with spines on the crest Nemocardium 

Posterior ribs not markedly wider 2 

5 Genera of Japanese Shells: Pelecypoda, No. 2, p. 152. 



12 



Bulletin 153 



318 



2. Outline ovate-quadrate, hinge relatively long and arched 3 

Outline ovate-trigonal, hinge relatively short .... Arctoprattilum 

3. Secondary lamellae on posterior slope only Keenaea 

Secondary sculpture not confined to posterior area .... Pratulum 

The name Arctopratulum (gender, neuter) is coined from Pratu- 
lum by addition of the Latin arcius, narrow, referring to the contracted 
dorsal margin of the shell. 

Species to be included in this new subgenus are: 

■ A^ {A.) ^zof/?.?^ Takeda, 1953'\ Upper Oligocene, Hokkaido, Japan. 
griphus Keen, n. sp. Miocene, Washington. 
tristiculum (Yokoyama), 1924". Upper Oligocene, Japan. 
yokoyamai Takeda, 1953*. Upper Oligocene, Sakhalin 
, ■ Island. 

Nemocardiutn (Arctopratulum) griphus Keen, n. sp. PI. 1, figs. 12, 14, 17; 

text figs. 3, 4 




Figs. 3, 4. Nemoc(trdium (Arctopratulum) griphus Keen, n. sp. 3. Paratype, 
Stanford Univ. Paleo. Type Coll., No. 8297; 4. Paratype, No. 8296. Camera lu- 
cida drawings of hinge; X i- 

Rounded-trigonal, with about 70 moderately fine evenly spaced 
ribs of which 18 are on the posterior slope and 52 on the central and 
anterior slopes of the disk. Ribs of posterior slope narrower, with wider 
interspaces than those of the remainder of the disk, slightly beaded; 
secondary concentric lamellae occasionally present but not so readily 
preserved as in other species of the subgenus. Ribs of central slope 
low, with lightly incised interspaces, crossed by threadlike concentric 

6 Takeda, 1953, p. 82, pi. 9, figs. 1-9; pi. 10, figs. 1-2; pi. 11, fig. i. (Hol- 
otvpe and one paratype here refigured ; an additional paratype lot in Stanford 
Univ. Paleo. Type Coll., No. 8304.) 

7 Jour. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo, vol. 45, art. 3, p. 16, pi. 3, figs. 5-7. 

8 Takeda, 1953, p. 84, pi. 9, figs. 10-12; pi. 11, fig. 4. 



M^ Pelecypoda — Family Cardiidaf:: Ki:i;n 13 



sculpture, su.G:p:esting a woven texture where well developed. Hinge re- 
latively short, arched, hinge plate narrow and teeth weak. Fragmentary 
hinges of available left valves show that 2a is stronger than 2b; in the 
right valve, 3a is weak, 3b strong; small anterior and posterior lateral 
teeth present in both valves. Pallial line long, entire; adductor muscle 
scars remote from the ventral margin, at ends of the short hinge plate. 

Dimensions. — Holotype, height, 31 mm., length, 32, convexity 
(both valves), 22; paratype (right valve), height, 34 mm., length, 36, 
convexity, 12; paratype (left valve), height, 33 mm., length, 33, con- 
vexity, 11.5. 

Repositories. — Holotype, Stanford Univ. Paleo. Type Coll., No. 
8295 ; paratypes, Nos. 8296, 8297. Other paratypes in collections of 
California Acad. Sci., Univ. California, U. S. National Museum, and 
Paleontological Research Institution. 

Tyt>e locality. — Stanford Univ. loc. NP-243, on middle fork of 
Wishkah River, 14 mi. N. of Aberdeen, Grays Harbor Co., Washing- 
ton, on line between sections 1-2, T. 19 N., R. 9W., collected by Har- 
old Hannibal, 1912. Astoria formation, middle Miocene. 

O'her localities. — Stanford Univ. loc. NP-244, west fork Wish- 
kah River, sec. 35, T. 20 N., R. 9W.; NP-248, Wishkah River, 10 mi. 
N. of Aberdeen; NP-249, Wynoochee River, sec. 8, T. 18 N., R. 8 W. ; 
NP-78, seacliffs about 1 mi. S. of Taholah, Grays Harbor Co., all col- 
lected by Harold Hannibal. Middle fork of Wishkah River near Ab- 
erdeen, Wash., collected by R. W. Berger. California Acad. Sci. loc. 
201, AV'ishkah River 2 mi. N. of Wishkah P. O. 

Stratigraphic horizon. — The type locality, NP-243, and NP-244 
are mapped by Weaver (Univ. Washington Publ. in Geol., vol. 4, pi. 
7A, 1937) as Astoria. Localities NP-248 and 249 and California Acad. 
Sci. loc. 201 fall in areas mapped as Montesano. However, the matrix 
in which all the specimens occur is a clay shale such as Weaver described 
for the upper Astoria, not a sandstone such as that of the superjacent 
Montesano. Hence, although published geologic maps would suggest a 
range in age, the uniform matrix, the associated fossils (including For- 
aminifera), and the field notes made by Harold Hannibal point to a 
limited range in the upper part of the Astoria formation, and thus to 
a middle Miocene age. 



14 Bulletin 153 320 



Discussion. — One would assume that this Nemocardium should be 
intermediate between one of the Oligocene forms — A'^. zveaveri or A^, 
lorenzanum — and the Recent N. centifilosum, but so simple and obvi- 
ous a line of descent seems not to have taken place. A^ weaveri, except 
for lacking spines on the posterior ribs, is a typical Nemocardium. N. lor- 
enzanum and A^. centifilosum maj'- be grouped together by their small 
size and secondary sculpture on the posterior slope, but A^ griphus, 
with its contracted dorsal margin, does not closely resemble them; 
rather, its nearest relatives seem to be three Japanese Oligocene species, 
two of which have only recently been described (Takeda, 1953). The 
type figures of one of these, N. ezoense, are here reprinted for compari- 
son (PI. 1, f^gs. 10, 13). 

The name griphus is a Latin noun — gender masculine — the pri- 
mary meaning of which is "fish-basket", descriptive of the textured 
surface of the ribs; a secondar)^ meaning of "puzzling problem or rid- 
dle" is not inappropriate. 

Subfamily LAEVICARDIINAE 
Genus CLINOCARDIUM Keen, 19369 

Type species {original designation) . — Cardimn nuttalli Conrad, 
1837. Ribs prominent except on posterior slope; beaks markedly proso- 
gyrate ; hinge long and arched, ligament long, low, narrow. 

The species of this genus have often been assigned to Cerastoderma, 
a group that I regard as restricted to the eastern Atlantic. Clinocardium 
differs in the inclined beaks, the more numerous ribs, the long low 
ligament, and the arched hinge line. There are more points in com- 
mon with Laez'icardium, but the latter has much less prominent ribs 
and a shorter, higher ligament. No other cardiid genus has the strongly 
prosogyrate beaks. The metropolis is in the north Pacific, ranging in 
time from Miocene to Recent, in Japan, Kamchatka, Alaska, and 
northwestern United States. One Recent species is distributed through 
the Aictic province to the north Atlantic. 

The morphologic relationships of the three new species here de- 
scribed to the others previously assigned to Clinocardium will be shown 
in the form of a key following the descriptions. 

9 San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist., Trans., vol. 8, No. 17, p. 119. 



321 Pni ECYPODA — FwiiiA Cardiidaf:: Keen IS 



Clinocardium pracblandum Keen, n. sp. PI. 1, figs. 1, 6; 

text figs. 5,6 

"Cardhim quaJrujenarhun Conrad," Clark, 1915, Univ. California Publ., 
Bull. Dept. C7eol., vol. 8, pi. 47, fig. 3. Univ. California loc. 307. (Not C. 
(jtttidraycnarium Conrad ) . 





Figs. 5,6. Clinocardium praehlandum Keen, n. sp. 5. Hypotype, Stanford Univ. 
Paleo. Type Coll. No. 8299; 6. Hypotype, No. 8300. Camera lucida drawings 
of hinge; from S.U. loc. C-162, Briones formation; X i- 

Trigonal, subequilateral, ventricose; dorsal margins joining ven- 
tral in a broad curve; ventral margin arcuate; umbones low, beaks 
slightly inturned ; sculpture of 35 to 40 smooth radial ribs (40 on holo- 
type), faintly defined on posterior slope; ribs in cross section arched, 
intersi)accs linear. 

Dimensions. — Holotype, height, 37 mm., length, 36, convexity (one 
valve) 16 mm.; paratype (No. 32916), height, 34 mm., length, 39, con- 
vexity (one valve), 13 mm.; paratype (No. 14835), height, 33 mm., 
length, l>i, convexity (one valve), 14 mm.; paratype (No. 32918), 
height, 34 mm., length, 35, convexity (one valve), 14 mm.; number of 
ribs 35. 

Repositories. — Univ. Calif. Mus. Paleont., holotype, No. 14836; 
paratypes, Nos. 32916, 14835, 32918. Hypotypes, Stanford Univ. 
Paleo. Type Coll., Nos. 8299-8300; cast of holotype, No. 8298. 

Type locality. — West end of Las Trampas Ridge near Walnut 
Creek, Concord Quad., Contra Costa Co., California, collected by 
Bruce L. Clark. 

Other localities. — Univ. California Iocs. 307 and 1947, near Shell 
Ridge, Contra Costa Co. Stanford Univ. Iocs. C-158, Cresta Blanca, 
Arroyo del Valle, near Livermore; C-160, Verona road cut; C-162 
(no exact loc.) ; C-168, Hayward Pass, all in Pleasanton Quad., Ala- 
meda Co.; S.U. loc. C-176, Alum Rock Canyon, San Jose Quad., San- 
ta Clara Co.; all in California. 



16 Bulletin 153 322 



Stratigraphic position. — Briones formation, lower upper Miocene, 
in a moderately well cemented buff sandstone. 

Remarks. — Because of the numerous ribs, this species and C. pris- 
finum Keen, n. sp. have been confused by authors with the Recent Tra- 
chycardiiim {Dallocardia) quadragenarium , a form that has well-de- 
\eloped spinose ribs on the posterior slope and a relatively short, 
straight hinge. In outline, number of ribs, and degree of ventricosity 
this new species agrees well with the Recent C. blandum (Gould) but 
differs in being considerably larger, an average C. blanduTu having a 
height of about 25 mm. It is one of the earliest, if not the earliest, spe- 
cies of Clinocardium. Another Briones form, tentatively assigned by 
Trask (Univ. Calif. Publ., Bull. Dept. Geol. Sci., vol. 13, p. 150, pi. 5, 
fig. 3, 1922) to "Cardium corbis (Martj^n), n. var.", is probably Tra- 
chycardium scliencki (Wiedey), 1928, as recognized by Wiedey in 1929 
in an unpublished Stanford University thesis but overlooked by Keen 
and Bentson in the "Check List of California Tertiary Marine Mol- 
lusca" (Geol. Soc. Amer., Spec. Paper 56, p. 33, 1944). 



Clinocardium pristinum Keen, n. sp. PI. 1, figs. 9, 15; 

text figs. 7, 8 

f Cardium (Cerastodcrma) cf. corbis (Martyn), Etherington, 1931, Univ. 
California Publ. Bull. Dept. Geol. Sci., vol. 20, p. 77, 5, fig. 11. Astoria 
formation, southwestern Washington, Miocene. 





Figs. 7,8. Clinocardium pristinum Keen, n. sp. 7. Holotype Univ. Calif. Mus. 
Paleo. No. 14838. 8. Parat}pe, U.C. No. 14837. Camera lucida drawings of 
hinges, slightly restored; X i- San Pablo group, Miocene, Contra Costa Co., 
Calif. 

Trigonal, inequilateral, ventricose; posterior dorsal margin 
straight, sloping downward at an angle of about 30°, meeting the trun- 
cate posterior margin at an angle of 140°; ventral and anterior margins 
broadly rounded ; beaks at the anterior third, moderately inturned be- 
low the prominent, strongly curved umbones; llgamental area long, 
escutcheon faintly outlined ; lunule absent ; sculpture of 42-48 radial 



Pelecni'ohv — I■"\Mll^ Cardiidai;: Keen 17 



rihs (46 on holotype) ; ribs on the posterior slope tending to be obso- 
lete; in cross section ribs flattened at the top, sloping at an angle of 
about 45° to the narrow interspaces; hinge as in C. uuttnlli (Conrad), 
with 2a and 3b strong, 2b and 3a weak. 

Dimensions. — Holotype, height, 50 mm., length, 53, convexity 
(one valve), 18; paratope, height, 40 mm., length, 44, convexity (one 
valve) 16, number of ribs 46. Four additional measured specimens (U. 
C, No. 32917) show the following for height, length, and convexity of 
one valve in mm., resp. : a. 30 x 29 x 10 ; b. 27 x 30 x 12 ; c. 25 x 30 x 12; 
d. 20 X 23 X 8. 

Repositories. — Holotype, Univ. California Mus. Paleo., No. 
14838; paratype, No. 14837; hypotypes, No. 32917, collected by Bruce 
L. Clark. Cast of holotype, Stanford Univ. Paleo. Type Coll., No. 
8301. 

Type locality. — Southwest part of Shell Ridge, near Walnut 
Creek, Concord Quad., Contra Costa Co., California. San Pablo 
group, probably Neroly formation, upper Miocene. 

Other localities. — California Acad. Sci. loc. 1811, Tassajero 
Creek, Mount Diablo Quad. ; Stanford Univ. loc. C-53, Kings Ranch, 
head of Walnut Creek ; Stanford Univ. loc. C-54, Lone Tree Point, 
San Pablo Bay; S. U. loc. 2242, Railroad tunnel west of Tormey; all 
in Contra Costa Co., California. 

Stratigraphic position. — Cierbo-Neroly formations, San Pablo 
group, middle upper to upper upper Miocene, in a coarse-grained buff 
to bluish sandstone often poorly cemented and chemically weathered. 

Rejuarks. — This species resembles C. nuttalli and C. meekianum 
in its obliquity and high umbones, but it has 10 to 15 more ribs and is 
relatively longer for its height. The specimen figured by Etherington 
from the Astoria of Washington is doubtfully referred here. Slodke- 
wich (1938, fasc. 19, p. 154) assimilated it to his Laevicardium (Ceras^ 
toderma) etheringtoni, but this species (which may be a Fulvia rather 
than a Clinocardiuni) is more nearly equilateral, with higher and nar- 
rower umbones. If the Astoria form is C. pristinum, it would extend 
the stratigraphic range, for the Astoria is at least in part middle ]Mio- 
cene. However, there is also a possibility that better preserved material 
will prove it to be an unnamed species or the ancestral stock of C. 
coosense. 



18 Bulletin 153 324 



The name pristinum is from a Latin adjective meaning early or 
ancient. 

Clinocardium hannibali Keen, n. sp. PI. 1, fig. 16; 

text fig. 9 




Fig. 9. Clinocardium hannihali Keen, n. sp. Paratype, Stanford Univ. Paleo. 
Type Coil. No. 8303. Camera lucida drawing of hinge; X2. Montesano forma- 
tion, Mio-Pliocene, Washington. 

Trigonal, inequilateral, with narrow umbones and moderately in- 
turned beaks; beaks near the anterior one-third; posterior dorsal mar- 
gin sloping obliquely downward, joining ventral margin in a broad 
curve; ligament and escutcheon not evident on type material; sculpture 
of about 37 ribs (range 35-40), ribs on posterior slope weak, remainder 
low, rounded, with narrow interspaces; hinge of right valve not seen; 
of left valve with one weak posterior lateral tooth, a weak posterior 
cardinal (2b), a stronger anterior cardinal (2a), and a slender an- 
terior lateral ; interior of shell not exposed. 

Dimensions. — Holotype, height, 23 mm., length, 23.5, convexity 
(one valve), 8; paratype, height, 21 mm., length, 22, convexity (one 
valve), 7. Average dimensions of 60 specimens: height, 24.3 mm., 
length, 24.5. Largest specimen : height, 42 mm., length, 42, convexity 
(one valve), 13. 

Repositories. — Holotype, Stanford Univ. Paleo. Type Coll., No. 
8302, paratype, No. 8303. Other paratypes, Univ. Calif. Mus. Paleo., 
No. 32913, from U.C. loc. 9011 (4 specimens); paratypes to be de- 
posited in California Acad. Sci., U.S. National Museum, Paleontologi- 
cal Research Institution, and British Museum (Nat. Hist.). 

Type locality. — Stanford Univ. loc. NP-235, Chehalis and Summit 
Sts., Aberdeen, Washington, collected by Harold Hannibal, 1912 (16 
specimens), Montesano formation, upper Miocene-lower Pliocene. 

Other localities. — Stanford Univ. Iocs. NP-221, between Satsop 
and Elma; NP-220, Sylvia Creek, near head; NP-236, sec. 33, T. 18 
N., R. 9 W.; NP-237, 3 mi. above mouth of Wishkah River; NP-240, 



^25 Pelecyi'Oda — F\mii.> C akuiid.m: : Ki;i:\ 10 



3 4 mi. E. of mouth of Wishkah River; NP-244, W. fork Wishkah 
River 15 mi. N. of Aberdeen; Univ. California loc. 9011, Wishkah 
River: all in Cjrays Harbor Co., Washington, Montesano formation. 

Matrix. — All specimens were in a ^ray, hard, poorly sorted, cal- 
cite-cemented sandstone. 

Remarks. — This is one of the smaller species of CUnocardiuni. It 
has been confused by authors with C. coosensc, from which it differs by 
its fewer ribs and greater obliquity. It resembles C. blandum of the 
Recent fauna but has a thicker, heavier shell. 

Species of Clinocardium 

In order to show better the relationships of the above-named new 
species of Clhiocardium to others of the genus, comparisons are made 
in the form of a key, with footnote references and notes on available 
illustrations and range. Two west American forms are not included in 
the key — a. Cardium decoratum Grewingk^" for which type material 
is unavailable and no subsequent records have been published (records 
under this name from Puget Sound are of C. comoxense Dall, a form 
now considered inseparable from C. ciliatian) ; and b. Cardium {Cera- 
stoderma) ciliatum brooksi MacNeil", homonym of Cardium {Papy- 
ridea) brooksi Clark, 1932, which is a Fulvia. Also not included in 
the key are the following species from northern Japan and Kamchatka: 

braunsi (Tokunaga), 1906. Pleistocene, Japan and Sakhalin I. 

biilowi (Rolle), 1896. Recent. Japan. 

fastosu/ii (Yokoyama), 1927. Pliocene, Japan. 

iivasiroense (Nomura), 1935. Miocene, Japan. 

pseudofastosu?n (Nomura), 1937. Pliocene, Japan. 

rhomboideum (Khomenko), 1934. L, Miocene, Sakhalin I. {fide 

Slodkewich, 1938) 
shinjiense (Yokoyama), 1923. Miocene, Japan, 
shiobarense (Yokoyama), 1926. Miocene, Japan. 

10 Grevvingk, C, 1850. Verh. Russisch-Kaiserlichen Mineral. Gesell. 
St. Petersburg, Jahr. 1848-9, p. 347, pi. 4, figs. 3 a-g. Aleutian Islands, "Jung- 
ste Tertiarzeit" [PPleistocene]. 

11 MacNeil, F. S., 1943. Jour. Paleont., vol. 17, p. 91. pl- 'S. fig- i4- Ple- 
istocene, near Nome, Alaska. Not a variant of C. ciliatum but probably a local 
form of C. californiense, which Dall, followed by MacNeil, confused with C. 
ciliatum. 



20 Bulletin 153 326 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF CLINOCARDIUM 
OF WESTERN xNORTH AMERICA 

1. Ribs of posterior area crowded and crumpled into an irregular 

channel calif orniense'^ ' 

Ribs of posterior area not forming an irregular channel 2 

2. Ribs of anterior slope more widely spaced than on remainder of 

shell, triangular in cross section 3 

Ribs of anterior slope not more widely spaced, rounded to rec- 
tangular in cross section 4 

3. Length of shell greater than height ciliatum^^ 

(Including C. comoxense)^* 
Length of shell less than height yakatagense'^^ 

4. Shell markedly inequilateral, oblique 5 

Shell subequilateral, not oblique 8 



12 Cardium calif orn'irTisc Deshayes, 1S39. Rev. Zool. Soc. Cuvierienne, 
vol. 2, p. 360; vol. 4, 1841, pi. 47. "Meis de Californie" [actually Kamtschat- 
ka]. Range: Neogene to Recent, Kamchatka; Recent, northern Japan to Alas- 
kan Peninsula. Well figured by Grant and Gale, San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist., 
Mem., vol. i, pi. 19, fig. 16 (not fig. 13, which is of C. fitcanum), 1931. 

13 Cardium ciliatum Fabricius, 17^0. "Fauna Gronlandiae", p. 410. 
Greenland. Range: Pleistocene of British Columbia and eastern Canada to Re- 
ent, Bering Sea, Arctic Oc?an, and North Atlantic. Well figured by Grant and 
Gale, op. (it., pi. 19, fig. 11. 

14 Cardium californirnse comoxense Dall, 1900. Wagner Free Inst. Sci., 
Trans., vol. 3, pt. 5, p. 1093. Pleistocene, Vancouver I., British Columbia. Fig- 
ured by Grant and Gale, op. cit., pi. 19, ng.12, as C. decoratum. Holotype now 
figured for the first time, PI. i, figs. 5, 7, 8. Not a variant of C. californiense 
but of C. ciliatum ; probably not distinguishable, according to statistical mea- 
surements summarized in an unpublished doctoral thesis (Frances Wagner, 
"Paleontology and Stratigraphy of the Marine Pleistocene Deposits of South- 
western British Columbia", Stanford University, 1954). 

15 Cardium (Cerastodcrma) yakatagensis Clark, 1932. Geol. Soc. Amer., 
Bull., vol. 43, p. 813, pi. 18, fig. 8. Yakataga formation, southern Alaska, "upper 
Oligocene" (probably Pliocene, judging by preservation of periostracum). 



327 Pelecypoda — Famiia Cardiidai: : Keen 21 



5. Usually large, ribs fewer than 35, noded 6 

Size small to medium, ribs more than 35, not noded 7 

6. Ribs 34 in number nuttalli^''' 

("C. corbis Martyn" auctt.) 
Ribs 28 meekianum^^ 

7. Ribs about 37 in number; height of shell equal to 

length hannibali 

Ribs about 44; length of shell greater than height .... pristinum 

8. Ribs 45 or more in number; height of shell not the same 

as length 9 

Ribs fewer than 45, usually about 40; height and length equal . . 10 

9. Ribs about 45; height of shell greater than length .... coosense^^ 
Ribs more than 45 ; height of shell less than length .... fucanum^^ 

10. Maximum size of adult shells about 37 mm praeblandum 

Maximum size of adult shells about 25 mm blandur/r^ 



i6 Carditim nuttallii Conrad, 1837. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Jour., 
vol. 7, p. 229, pi. 17, fig. 3. Near Columbia River. Oregon. Range: Upper Mio- 
cene to Recent, California west and north to Kamchatka. Well figured. Grant 
and Gale, op. dt., pi. 19, fig. 17. 

17 Carditim meekianum Gabb, 1866. Paleont. California, vol. 2, p. 27, 
pi. 7, fig. 46. Pliocene, Humboldt Co., Calif. Range: Upper Pliocene, California, 
Oregon, Washington, Kamchatka; Plio-Pleistocene, Alaska. Hinge figured, 
Schenck and Keen, "California Fossils for the Field Geologist," pi. 6, figs. 1-2, 
1940. 

18 Cardium (Cerastoderma) coosense Dall, 1909. U. S. Geo!. Survey, 
Prof. Paper 59, p. 118, pi. 13, figs. 3-4. Pliocene, Coos Bay, Oregon. Holotype re- 
figured, Weaver, Univ. Washington Publ. Geol., vol. 5, pi. 36, fig. 12, (1942) 
1943- 

19 Cardium fucanum Dall, 1907. Nautilus, vol. 20, p. 112. Puget Sound, 
Washington. Range: Pleistocene, S. California; Recent, Sitka, Alaska to Mon- 
terey, California. Holotype figured, Schenck and Keen, Mem. Soc. de Biogeo- 
graphie, 7, pi. 2, figs. 21-24, 1940; Schenck, Jour. Paleont., vol. 19, pi. 67, figs. 
22-25, 1945. 

20 Cardium blandum Gould, 1850. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., Proc, vol. 3, 
p. 276. Puget Sound, Washington. Range: Pleistocene, southern California; Re- 
cent, Puget Sound area. Holotype figured, Schenck and Keen, 1940, op. cit., pi. 
2, figs. 17-20; Schenck, op. cit., pi. 67, figs. 18-21. 



22 Bulletin 153 328 



REFERENCES CITED 

Keen, A. Myra. 

1936. A neiv pelecypod genus of the family Cardiidae. San Diego Soc. 
Nat Hist., Trans., vol. 8, No. 17, pp. 1 19-120. 

1937. Nomenclatural units of the pelecypod family Cardiidae, Mus. roy. 
d'Hist. nat. de Belgique, Bull., vol. 13, No. 7, 22 pp. 

1950. Notes on the history of Nemocardium (Family Cardiidae) Jour, 
de Conchyl., vol. 90, No. i, pp. 23-29. Jan., 1950. 

1951. Outline of a proposed classification of the pelecypod family Car- 
diidae. Minutes, Conch. Club of S. Calif., No. iii, pp. 6-8, July, 1951. 

Slodkewich, W, S. 

1938. Tertiary Pelecypoda from the Far East. Paleontology of U.S.S.R., 
vol. 10, pt. 3, fasc. 18-19, 508-I-275 pp., 106 pis. (Akademiia Nauk, 
SSSR). 

Takeda, H. 

1953. The Poronai formation (Oligocene Tertiary) of Hokkaido and 
South Sakhalin . . . Geol. Sec, Hokkaido Assoc. Coal Mining Tech- 
nologists, Studies on Coal Geol., No. 3, 103 pp., 18 pis., Sapporo, Dec, 
1953. 



PLATE 
Plate 1 (29) 



24 Bulletin 153 330 



Explanation of Plate i (29) 



Figure Page 

1,6. Clinocardium praeblandum Keen, n. sp 15 

1. Paratype, left valve, Univ. Calif., No. 14835, Xi- 
6. Holotype, right valve, U.C. No. 14836, Xi- 

Upper Miocene, Briones formation. Contra Costa Co., Calif. 

2-4. Granocardiuin (Ethmocardiiun) pomeyroli Keen, n. sp. 8 

2. Paratype, right valve, Stanford Univ. Paleo. Type Coll. 
No. 8289; latex cast, Xi- 3- Paratype, left valve, S.U. No. 
8288, latex cast, Xi- 4- Holotype, internal mold. S.U. No. 
8287, Xi. Upper Cretaceous, Momea area, New Caledonia. 

5, 7, 8. Clinocardium comoxense Dall, 1900 19 

U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 427772 ; photograph courtesy of Dr. H. A. 
Rehder. Xi- Pleistocene, Vancouver I. 

9, 15. Clinocardium pristinum Keen, n. sp. 16 

9. Paratype, right valve, U.C, No. 14837, Xi- 15- Holotype, 
left valve, U.C, No. 14838, Xi- Upper Miocene, Neroly 
formation, Contra Costa Co., Calif. 

10, 13. Nemocardium (Arctopratulum) ezoense Takeda, 1953 12 

10. Refigured paratype (Takeda, 1953, pi. 11, fig. 1). 13. Re- 
figured holotype {ibid., pi. 9, fig. 4) X i, photographs cour- 
tesy H. Takeda. Oligocene, Hokkaido I., Japan. 

11. Nemocardium (Nemocardium) semiasperum (Deshayes), 1858 9 

Reproduction of original figure (Anim. s. Vert. Bassin Paris, 
vol. I, pi. 55, fig. I [part]), for comparison with fig. 12. 

12,14,17. Nemocardium (Arctopratulum) griphus Keen, n.sp 12 

12. Paratype, right valve, S.U., No. 8296, Xi. 14- Holotype, 
S.U., No. 8295, Xi. 17. Detail of sculpture of holotype, X3. 
Middle Miocene, Astoria formation, Wash. 

16. Clinocardium hannibali Keen, n.sp 18 

Holotype, S.U., No. 8302, Xi- Mio-Pliocene, Montesano forma- 
tion. Wash. 



PL. 29, Vol. 35 



Bull. Ameb. Paleont. 



No. 153, PL. 1 




15 "Mj-(-Hi\v iV ,^'^ 



•^':.v-i>^'«*' 






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Paleozoic Paleontology and Tertiary Foramlniferu. 

XXIII. (Nos. 77-79). 251 pp.. 35 pis 7.00 

Corals. Cretaceous microfauna and biography of 
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Mainly Paleozoic faunas and Tertiary MoUusca. 

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Paleozoic fossils of Ontario, Oklahoma and Colombia, 
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XXVIIL (Nos. 109-114). 412 pp., 54 pis 9.50 

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XXIX. (Nos. 115-116). 738 pp., 52 pis 12.00 

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XXX. (No. 117). 563 pp., 65 pis 11.00 

Jackson Eocene mollusks. 

XXXL (Nos. 118-128). 458 pp., 27 pis 8.00 

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cene and Recent corals, Cuban and Ploridian 
forams, and Cuban fossil localities. 

XXXn. (Nos. 129-133). 294 pp., 39 pis 7.00 

Silurian cephalopods, crinoid studies, Tertiary forams, 
and Mvtilarca. 

XXXIIL (Nos. 134-139). 448 pp., 51 pis 10.00 

Devonian annelids. Tertiary mollusks, Ecuadoran 
stratigraphy and paleontology. 

XXXIV. (Nos. 140-145). 400 pp., 19 pis 7.50 

Trinidad Globigerinidae, Ordovician Enopleura, Tas- 
manian Ordovician cephalopods and Tennessee Or- 
dovician ostracods. and conularid bibliography. 
XXXV. (Nos. 146-153; No. 154 in press) 

G. D. Harris memorial, camerinid and Georgia Paleo- 
cene Foraminifera, South American Paleozoics, Aus- 
tralian Ordovician cephalopods, California Pleisto- 
cene Eulimidae, Volutidae, Cardiidae, and Devonian 
ostracods from Iowa. 
XXXVI. (No. 155- ) 

Globotruncana in Colombia 

Pal.aeontographica Americana 



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Monographs of Areas, Lutetia, rudistids and venerids. 
IL (Nos. 6-12). 531 pp., 37 pis 12.00 

Heliophyllum halli. Tertiary turrids. Neocene Spondyli, 
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III. (Nos. 13-25) 15.00 

Paleozoic cephalopod structure and phylogeny, Paleo- 
zoic siphonophores, Busycon, Devonian fish studies, 
gastropod studies. Carboniferous crinoids. Cretaceous 
jellyfish, Platystrophia, and Venericardia. 



Condensed Table of Contents of Bulletins op American 

Paleontology and Palaeontographica Americana 

bulletins of american paleontology 



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XV. (Nos. 55-58). 314 pp., 80 pis 9.00 

Mainly Ecuadoran, Peruvian and Mexican Tertiary 
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Venezuela and Trinidad Tertiary Mollusca. 

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Paleozoic Paleontology and Stratigraphy. 



BULLETINS 



OI^ 



AMERICAN 
PALEONTOLOGY 



VOL. XXXV 



NUMBER 154 



1955 



mus. cowp. zool 
lic::aaY 



Palcontological Research Institution 

Ithaca, New York 

IJ. S. A. 



PALEONTOLOGICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTION 

1954-55 

President Ralph A. Liddi.k 

Vice-President Solomon C. Holhster. 

Secretary-Treasurer Rebecca S. Harris 

Director Katherine V. W. Palmer 

Counsel ,..Armand L. Adams 

Trustrrs 

Kenneth E. Caster (1954-1960) Katherine V. W. Palmer (Life) 

W. Storrs Cole (1952-58) Ralph A. Liddle (1950-56) 

Rousseau H. Flower (1950-55) Axel A. Olsson (Life) 

Rebecca S. Harris (Life) Norman E. Weisboro (1951-57) 

Solomon C. Hollister (1953-59) 



BULLETINS OF AMERICAN PALEONTOLOC}Y 

and 
PALAEONTOGRAPHICA AMERICANA 

Katherine V. W. Palmer, Editor 
Lempi H. Sincebaugh, Secretary 

Editorial Board 
Kenneth E. Caster G. Winston Sinclair 



Complete titles and price list of separate available numbers may be had 
on application. All volumes available except Vols. I and HI of Bulletins and 
Vol. 1 of PalaeontoKiaphica Americana. 



Palronlological Research Instiiutioa 

109 Dearborn Place 

Ithaca, New York 

ri.s.A. 



BULLETINS 

OF 

AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY 



Vol. 35 



No. 154 



UPPER DETONIAJr OSTRAfODA FKO.H THK t'EKRO 
GORDO FORMATION OF IOWA 



By- 



Lee B. Gibson 
Creole Petroleum Corporation, Maracaibo. Venezuela 



April 14, 1955 



Paleontological Research Institution 
Ithaca. New York, U.S.A. 



Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: GS 55-18 



LlORAilY 
UlilVEF.SlTY 




Printed in the United States of America 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

Abstract 5 

Introduction „ 5 

Acknowledgments 6 

Locality 6 

Illustrations 6 

Systematic Descriptions 6 

Genus Macronotella I'lricli 6 

Macronotella punctulifcra Gibson, n.sp 7 

Genus Youngiclla Jones and Kirkbv 7 

Youngiella ? sp 7 

Genus Jojirsina Ulrich and Bassler ..." 8 

Joufsina hilnha Gibson, n.sp 8 

Joncsina ? sp 9 

Genus Kirkhyella Coryell and Booth , 9 

Kirkbyella devonica Gibson, n.sp 10 

Genus Amphlssites Girty 10 

Amphissitcs rarmatii ? Stewart and Hendrix 10 

Genus RounJyrlla Bradfield 11 

RounJyrlla fimbriamar(/inat<i Gibson, n.sp 11 

Genus Aechminrlla Harlton 12 

Aechminrlla fimhriata Gibson, n.sp 12 

Genus Monoceratina Roth 13 

Monocfraiina ? levinsoni Gibson, n.sp 13 

Genus BairJia McCoy 14 

Bairdia hypsoconcha Gibson, n.sp 14 

Bairdia notoconstricta Gibson, n.sp 15 

Bairdia subtilla Gibson, n.sp 16 

Bairdia extenda Gibson, n.sp 16 

Bairdia rockfordensis Gibson, n.sp 17 

Bairdia lancrlata Gibson, n.sp 18 



Page 

Genus Bekena Gibson, n.gen 18 

Bekena diaphrovalvis Gibson, n.sp 19 

Bekena ? sp 20 

Genus Beecherella Ulrich 21 

Beecherella trapezoides Gibson, n.sp 21 

Genus Morrisites Gibson, n.gen 21 

Morrlsltes gibbosus Gibson, n.sp 22 

Genus Euglyphella Warthin 22 

Euglyphella subquadrata Gibson, n.sp 23 

Genus Plagionephrodes Morey 24 

Plagionephrodes bicostalis Gibson, n.sp 24 

Plagionephrodes allotrlovalvis Gibson, n.sp 25 

Plagionephrodes shideleri Gibson, n.sp 27 

Plagionephrodes tverneri Gibson, n.sp 28 

Genus Quasillites Coryell and Malkin 29 

Quasilliles beaehi Gibson, n.sp 29 

Quasillites haekberryensis Gibson, n.sp 31 

Quasillites ellipticus Gibson, n.sp. 31 

Bibliography 32 

Plates _ 35 



UPPFR DKVONIAN OSTRACODA FROM IHK CKRRO 
(JORIX) FORMAriON OF lOWA^ 

Lee 1^ CnjsoN 

Creole Petroleum Corporation, Maracailio, Venezuela 

ABSTRACT 

Twenty-four species Iielonginn to fourteen diflFerent genera are descril)ed 
from the Cerro Ciordo formation of Iowa. Twenty-three species and two genera 
(Bi'krna and Morrisites) are descril>ed as new. The genus Plagionephrodrs is 
reported for the first time from the I^evonian. 

INTRODUCITON 

Few papers devoted to Upper Devonian Ostracoda of North 
America have appeared in the hterature. Papers mentioning single 
species have been published by Kindle (1919) and Burgess (1931). 
With the exception of Branson's (1944) inclusion of a single plate 
of figures taken from an unpublished thesis (Becker, 1940) and a 
short article by Cooper (1942) mentioning the available ostracoda 
fauna of the Cerro Gordo formation. Upper Devonian Ostracoda 
remain a neglected field of study. 

The Cerro Gordo formation as exposed in the collected area 
consists of a yellow, fairly calcareous clay with occasional discon- 
tinuous bands of shaly limestone. The basal portion of the forma- 
tion contains many iron-stained nodules and rests disconformably 
upon the uniform calcareous gray shale of the Independence forma- 
tion. The greater portion of the exposure consists of the Spirifer 
zone of Fenton ( 1924) which contains an abundant macrofauna of 
brachiopods, gasteropods, and bryozoans of the Cordilleran type. 
Along with the Ostracoda occur the foraminiferal species Endothyra 
gallowayi Thomas (1931) [Nanicella gallowayi Henbest (1951)] 
and the trochiliscid species of Peck ( 1934). 

It is significant that the ostracode fauna from the Cerro Gordo 
bears a Mississippian rather than a Devonian aspect. The absence 
of the forms which usually dominate the Middle Devonian is striking, 
i.e., Ulrichia, Bollia, Octonaria, and Ponderodictya. Four genera 

^ Based on a thesis presented to the graduate hoard of Washington University, 
St. Louis, Missouri, in partial fulfillment of the degree of Master of Arts. 



6 Bulletin 154 336 

present in the Cerro Gordo are also reported from the Middle 
Devonian with several species of Bairdia. Although Bairdias have 
been reported from earlier beds, those of the Cerro Gordo are more 
Carboniferous-like in form. The Cerro Gordo fauna also contains 
several Beecherellas and many Plagionephrodes. Plagionephrodes 
has previously been reported from the Mississippian only. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The author thanks Dr. W. H. Shideler for making available 
the described material from the collections of Miami University, 
Oxford, Ohio. Thanks are also extended to Dr. J. Wolford of Miami 
University, who collected the samples during 1939 at Rockford, 
Iowa, and who made available to the author his field notes, there- 
by facilitating a subsequent trip to the area by the author. The 
writer wishes to express his gratitude and thanks to Mrs. Betty 
Kellett Nadeau for her guidance in this work and to Mr. Robert 
Morris for his many helpful suggestions. 

LOCALITY 

All of the Ostracoda described in this paper were taken from 
the upper 20 feet (Spirifer zone) of the Cerro Gordo formation at 
a clay pit operated by the Rockford Brick and Tile Company of 
Rockford, Iowa. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

All illustrations are photographs of types which have been 
treated with ammonium chloride following the simple method out- 
lined by Teichert (1948). 

SYSTEMATIC DESCRIPTIONS 

Family APAIU'HITIDAE Ulrich and Bassler. 1923 

Genus MAC^KONOTELLA Ulrich, 1S94 
Macronotdla Ulrich, 1894, Geol. Minnesota, vol. 3, pt. 2, p. 684, figs. 30-34. 

Type species. — M acronotella scojieldi Ulrich by original desig- 
nation. Black River limestone (Ordovician), Cannon Falls, Minn- 
esota. 

Range. — Middle Ordovician to Upper Devonian. 



337 lowAv Ckrko CJorix) Ostkacdda : (Jihson 7 

MacntiiotcllH |>iiii<-tiilif<'ni Gibson, n.sp. IM. 2, fxp. 5 

Description. — Carapace subcirciilar in outline; both valves 
equal (apparent overlap in figure due to a shearing of the valves); 
carapace wirii ;i delinitc "anterior sv\uig"; anterior margin more 
broadly curved than posterior; margins meet cardinal angles 
shallowly; surface coarsely reticulate in an irregular pattern; un- 
ornamented centrodorsal spot present on both valves; hingement of 
the left valve unknown; hingement of the right valve consists of a 
sharp ridge extending the entire length of the hinge line; anteriorly 
this ridge develops a triangular toothlike elevation and posteriorly 
a keel-like elevation which extends slightly below the cardinal angle. 

Dimensions. — Holotype: whole carapace, length, 0.87 mm.; 
height, 0.57 mm.; width, 0.30 mm. 

Repository. — Holotype: United States National Museum, No. 
123108. 

Remarks. — Macronotella punctulijera differs from the type 
species in having a shorter hingeline, in being more circular in out- 
line, and in the anterior and posterior margins being more smoothly 
continuous with the dorsal margin. M. elongata Kay (1940, pi. 30, 
fig. 12) diflFers from the new species in having a more acuminate 
postventral margin. M . punctulijera resembles species of Schmidtella 
Ulrich in general outline but lacks the ventral overlap of that genus. 
The new species also resembles Bertillonella subcircularis Stewart 
and Hendrix (1945, pi. 11, fig. 1) in general outline bur lacks the 
concentric surface ornamentation. M. punctulijera is rare in the 
Cerro Gordo formation. 

Family YOl'XlilKFJJTKVK Kellett, 1933 

Genus YOrNlilELLA Jones and Kirkby. 1895 

Yountjia Jones and Kirkby, 1886, Oeol. Assoc. London, Proc, vol. 9, p. 515. 

Youngiflla Jones and Kirkby, 1895, -Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 6, vol. 16, 
p. 455, pi." 21, Hks. 5a, d. 

Type species. — Youngia rectidorsalis Jones and Kirkby ( 1886) 

by original designation. Carboniferous of England. 

Range. — Upper Devonian to .Middle Permian. 

YoiinfTiella I sp. PI 1. fiR- 12 

Description. — Carapace elongate and subrectangular in outline; 



8 Bulletin 154 338 

dorsal margin straight and parallel to the ventral margin; anterior 
and posterior margins broadly rounded; greatest length measured at 
midheight; surface of carapace smooth. 

Dimensions. — Hypotype: whole carapace, length, 0.60 mm.; 
height, 0.30 mm.; width, 0.15 mm. 

Repository. — Hypotype: United States National Museum, No. 
123132. 

ReTnarks. — Due to poor preservation and the few specimens 
found, more specific typing was not possible, and the specimens 
are questionably referred to the genus Youngiella. 

Superfamily KEYKICHIACE.V Ulrich and Bassler, 1923 

Family KLOEDEAELLIHAE Ulrich and Bassler. 1923 

Genus JONESI^A Ulrich and Bassler. 1908 

Beyrichia fastigata Jones and Kirkbv, 1865, Geo!. Soc. Glasgow, Tr., 2, p. 
219. 

Jonesina Ulrich and Bassler, 1908, U. S. Nat. Mus., Proc, vol. 3 5, p. 324. 

Jonesina Corvell and Booth, 1933, .\mer. Mid!. Nat., vol. 15, No. 3. p. 272, 
figs. 11-12. 

Jonesina Cooper, 1941, Illinois State Geol. Surv. Rept., Inves., No. 77, p. 
55, pi. 11, figs. 6-7, 15-16, 36-39. 

Type species. — Beyrichia jastigata Jones and Kirkby (1865) 

by subsequent designation. Carboniferous of England. 

Range. — Upper Devonian to Middle Permian. 

Jonesina biloha Gibson, n.sp. PI. 1. figs. 4a-c 

Description. — Carapace small and subelliptical in outline; hinge- 
line straight and interrupted anteriorly by a small steplike process; 
ventral margin broadly convex and inclined; anterior margin broadly 
rounded and higher than the posterior. The free margin is raised 
around the entire outline except along the dorsal margin. A promi- 
nent sulcus opens onto the dorsal margin at midlength. Two nodes 
are developed immediately below the hingeline and on either side 
of the median sulcus. An irregular swelling is located in the ventral 
half of each valve and extends from below the anterior cardinal 
angle to just below the posterior node. Greatest height and thick- 
ness in the anterior (juarter; surface of the valves appear minutely 
reticulate; valves equal; hingement unknown. 



339 loww Ckrro Gordo Ostracoda: CiIRSON 9 

Dimensions. — 1 lolotx pc: wholi- iMrapacf, Icnjitli, 0.51 mm.; 
height, 0.30 mm.; width, 0.21 mm. 

Repository. — Holotype: United States National .Museum, No, 
12.^098. 

Remarks. — Jonesina biloba differs from the type species in heing 
more elliptical in outline and possessing the steplike termination of 
the hingelme at the anterior cardinal angle. The new species appears 
to be more lobated than J. grahamensis Coryell and Booth ( 1933, 
pi. 272, fig 6). The Pennsylvanian forms described by Cooper 
( 1941 ) are more elliptical in dorsal outline and lack the discontin- 
uity of the dorsal margin. This species is rare in the Cerro Gordo 
formation. 

Jonesina ? sp. Pl. i, fig. 6 

Description. — Carapace subrectangular in outline; hingeline 
straight and paralleling the ventral margin; posterior and anterior 
margins broadly rounded; two prominent sulci are present, one 
approximately at midlength, and one in the anterior third of the 
carapace; both sulci deepen toward and open onto the dorsal margin. 
The areas immediately surrounding the sulci are conspicuously in- 
flated, the posterior swelling being more pronounced than the 
anterior. Greatest height measured along the ventral and dorsal 
margins; greatest length between maximum convexities of the 
anterior and posterior margins; greatest thickness in the posterior 
third; shell wall thin; surface of carapace minutely and irregularly 
punctate. 

Dimensions. — Hypotype: Single valve (damaged), length, 0.75 
mm.; height, 0.57 mm.; width, 0.21 mm. 

Repository. — Hypotype: United States National .Museum, No. 
123099. 

Remarks. — By nature of the condition of the single specimen 
found, more specific typing was not possible. Ihe presence of the 
sulci and the nodularlike swellings along the dorsal margin of the 
species seems to indicate an aflFinity with Jonesina. 

Family KIHKHYIW.VK Ulrith and Bassler. 1923 

Genus KIKKBVKLL.V Coryell and Booth, 1933 

Kirkbyella Coryell and Booth, 1933, Amer. Midi. Nat., vol. IS, No. 3, p. 
262, pl. 3, fig. 7. 



10 Bulletin 154 340 



Kirkbyella Coryell and Cusklev, 1934, Amer. Mus. Nov., No. 748, p. 2, 
figs. 1, 2. 

Kirkbyella Corvell and Malkin, 1936, Amer. Mus. Nov., No. 891, p. 2, fig. 
13. 

Kirkbyella Stewart and Hendrix, 1945, Jour. Paleont., vol. 19, No. 2, p. 90, 
pi. 10, figs. 12-14. 

Type species. — Kirkbyella typa Coryell and Booth by original 
designation. Wayland shale ( Pennsylvanian), Graham, Texas. 
Range. — Lower Devonian to Upper Pennsylvanian. 

KirkbjelUi deyonlca Gibson, n.sp. PI. 1, fig. 15 

Description. — Carapace long and subtriangular in outline; hinge- 
line straight and paralleling the ventral margin; anterior and post- 
erior margins broadly rounded, the anterior meeting the dorsal 
margin more abruptly than the posterior; free margins elevated 
along the anterior, ventral, and posterior margins. A prominent 
sulcus is located just posterior to midlength. A conspicuous longi- 
tudinal ridge begins gradually just below the midheight immediately 
anterior to midlength and extends posteriorly, becoming confluent 
with the posterior margin. Surface of the valve coarsely reticulate 
in an irregular pattern. 

Dimensions. — Holotype: right valve, length, 0.75 mm.; height, 
0.39 mm.; width, 0.15 mm. 

Repository. — Holotype: right valve, United States National 
Museum, No. 123104. Paratype: left valve. United States National 
Museum, No. 123105. 

Remarks. — Kirkbyella devonica differs from the type species 
in being more rectangular, in not possessing a sinuate dorsal margin, 
and in having a less abrupt termination posteriorly of the longitudinal 
ridge. Known Hamilton Kirkbyella differ from K. devonica in posses- 
sing abrupt spinelike terminations of the longitudinal ridge. This 
species is uncommon in the Cerro Gordo formation. 

Genus AMPHISSITES Girty, 1910 

Ainpliissites carmsini ? Stewart and Hendrix PI. 1, tigs. lOa-b 

Amphissites carmani Stewart and Hendrix, 1945, Jour. Paleont., vol. 19, 
No. 2, p. 106, pi. 1, figs. lOa-li. 

Description. — Carapace subrectangular in outline; dorsal margin 

slightly concave; ventral margin broadly rounded; anterior and 

posterior margins obtusely rounded. A small ridge or flange parallels 



3+1 lowAN Cerro Gordo Ostracoda: Gibson 11 

the ventral margin and extends along the anterior and posterior 
margins to the cardinal angles; an elongate node is located centro- 
dorsally m each valve; two prominent vertical ridges which extend 
to the dorsal margm are present in the anterior and posterior por- 
tions ot each valve. Greatest length measured in the dorsal half; 
greatest height in anterior half. Surface of the carapace is strongly 
reticulate. Hmgement ot the left valve consists of a groove into 
which fits the ridge ot the right valve; a slight flangelike projec- 
tion IS present at each cardinal angle. 

Dimensions. — Hypotype: left valve, length, 0.87 mm.; height, 
0.45 mm.; width, 0.12 mm. 

Repository. — Hypotype: left valve, United States National 
Museum, No. 123083. Hypotype: right valve, United States Na- 
tional Museum, No. 123082. 

Remarks. — The specimen figured by Stewart and Hendrix 
(1945) shows a marginal ridge slightly in from the edge. The 
specimens figured in this paper do not show this as they are younger 
molts. More mature forms, however, do show a submarginal flange 
but were not figured as they have been badly distorted due to 
crushing. This species is common m the Cerro Gordo formation. 

Genus KOUNDYELLA Bradfield. 1935 
Roundyella Bradfield, 1935, Bull. Amer. Paleont., vol. 22, No. 73, p. 66. 

Sansabi'lla ? cur'iosa Stewart and Hendrix, 1945, Jour. Paleont., vol. 19, No. 
2, p. 101, pi. 11, fins. 9-10. 

Roundyella Cooper, 1946, Illinois State Geol. Surv., Bull. 70, pp. 108-109, 

pi. 17, figs. 29-36. 

Type species. — Roundyella slmplicissitnus Bradfield (1935) by 
original designation. Stanton formation, Nebraska. 

Range. — Middle Devonian to Upper Permian. 

Kouiidyella tmibrianiar^iuata Gibson, ii.sp. PI. 2. fig. 2 

Description. — Carapace subelliptical m outline, small; dorsal 
margin straight; ventral margin straight and slightly inclined to 
the dorsum; anterior and posterior margins broadly rounded; 
greatest height in anterior quarter; greatest thickness along the 
ventral quarter. A short submarginal ridge extends along the free 
margins to the cardinal angles. Valves equal except along the center 



12 Bulletin 15+ 342 

where the left shghtly overlaps the right. Surface of the carapace 
finely reticulate. Hingement of the left valve consists of a sharp 
ridge extending the entire length of the dorsal margin, terminated 
at each cardinal angle by small depressions. Hingement of the right 
valve unknown. 

Dimensions. — Holotype: whole carapace, length, 0.63 mm.; 
height, 0.36 mm.; width, 0.27 mm. 

Repository. — Holotype: complete carapace, United States Na- 
tional Museum, No. 123131. Paratype: left valve, United States 
National Museum, No. 123130. 

Remarks. — The distinguishing features of Roundyella jimbria- 
marginata are the slight inclination of the ventral margin toward the 
dorsum and the submarginal ridge. These features serve to differen- 
tiate this species from previously described forms of Roundyella. 
This species is rare at Rockford, Iowa. 

Family AECH^UXIDAE Swartz, 1936 

Genus AECHMllVELLA Harlton, 1933 

Aechminella Harlton, 1933, Jour. Paleont., vol. 7, No. 1, p. 20, pi. 6, figs. 
9a-b, pi. 7, figs. la-b. 

Type species. — Aechminella trispinosa Harlton (1933) by 
original designation. Johns Valley shale (Pennsjdvanian), southern 
Oklahoma. 

Range. — Upper Devonian to Lower Pennsylvanian. 

Aechminella iiiiibriatjt Gibson, n.sp. PI. 1, fig. 2 

Description. — Carapace subquadrate in outline; hingeline long 
and straight and terminated with obtuse cardinal angles; ventral 
margin broadly rounded and smoothly continuous with the anterior 
and posterior margins; anterior margin more broadly rounded than 
the posterior; a thin marginal flange projects ventrolaterally along 
the entire ventral margin and vanishes dorsally along the anterior 
and posterior margins. Three large spines are present along the dorsal 
margin of the valve: a larger spine is located centrally along the 
hingeline and curves posteriorly, a smaller seems to be developed 
from the anterior basal portion of the median spine, and posteriorly 
a short spine is developed just beneath the cardinal angle. Greatest 
thickness and greatest height just anterior to midlength; surface 



343 lowAN Cerro Gordo Ostracoda: Gibson 13 

of the vaive finely reticulate. Hingemeiit of the rij;ht valve consists 
of a thin groove surmounted on a narrow ridge which extends the 
entire length of the dorsal margin; at the car(hnal angles two tear- 
shaped sockets are developed, the anterior being the larger. Hinge- 
ment of the left valve unknown. 

Dimensions. — Holotype: right valve, length, 0.51 mm.; height, 
0.33 mm.; widrh, 0.12 mm. 

Repository. — Holotype: right valve. United States National 
Museum, No. 123083. 

Remarks. — Aechminella fnnbriata differs from previously des- 
cribed Aech-rninella in having a weaker development of the spines 
and in possessing a ridge which extends along the ventral margin. 
The species is rare at Rockford, Iowa. 

Family .\("KONOTELTJI)AE Swartz, 1936 
Genus ^rOXOCEKATIN.V Roth. 1928 
Monocrratina Roth, 1928, Jour. Paleont., vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 16-19, fig. 1. 

Monoceratina Warthin, 1934, Contrib. Mus. Paleont., Univ. Michigan, vol. 
IV, No. 12, p. 207, pi. I. fig. 1. 

Type species. — Monoceratina ventrale Roth (1928) by original 
designation. Wapanucka limestone (Pennsylvanian), Pontotoc 
County, Oklahoma. 

Range. — Middle Devonian to Recent. 

Monoceratina J levinsoni Gibson, n.sp. PI. 2, figs. 9a-c 

Description. — Carapace small and semicircular in outline; 
hingeline straight, making over two-thirds of the carapace length; 
ventral margin broadly convex and inclined to the dorsum; anterior 
margin more broadly rounded and higher than the posterior; greatest 
height at midlength; greatest thickness produced by the spine 
located centroventrally. A prominent spine is developed at midlength 
along the ventral margin and projects posterolaterally. The post- 
cardinal angle is extended in a vertical spinelike projection slightly 
above the dorsal margin. Minute papillae are arranged concentri- 
cally along the anterior and posterior margins. Surface of the cara- 
pace smooth and broadly convex; hingement unknown. 

Dimensions. — Holotype: complete carapace, length, 0.78 mm.; 
height, 0.51 mm.; width, 0.39 mm. 



14 Bulletin 154 344 

Repository. — Holotype: complete carapace, United States Na- 
tional Museum, No. 123106. 

Remarks. — Monoceratina levinsoni differs from the type species 
in being more circular in outline and in possessing a postcardinal 
spine as well as anterior and posterior marginal papillae. It differs 
from previously described forms in being relatively higher and 
posteriorly less truncate. There have been no similar forms described 
from the Devonian or Lower Mississippian of North America. This 
species is rare in the Cerro Gordo formation. 

This species is named in honor of Dr. Stuart A. Levinson of the 
Humble Oil Company. 

Superfamily CYPRACEA Ulrich and Bassler, 1923 
Family BAIRDIIDAE Sars, 1887 

Genus BAIRDIA McCoy, 1844 

Bairdia McCoy, 1844, Synoptic Characters of Carboniferous Fossils of 
Ireland, p. 164, pi. 23, fig. 6. 

Bairdia Kellett, 1934, Jour. Paleont., vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 120-138, pis. 14-18. 

Bairdia Morey, 1935, Jour. Paleont.. vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 322-324, pi. 28, figs. 
12, 17, 20, 22. 

Bairdia Sylvester-Bradlev, 1950, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 12, vol. Ill, 
pp. 751-756. 

Type species. — Bairdia curta McCoy (1844) by origmal desig- 
nation. Mountain limestone, Mississippian, Ireland. 

Range. — Middle Silurian to Recent. 

Ttairdiii hypsoooiieha Gibson, n.sp. PI. 1, fig. 16 

Description. — Carapace stubby and subrhomboidal in outline; 
dorsal margin conspicuously convex; anterodorsal margin extends 
in a nearly straight line to a blunt beak located at midheight; post- 
dorsal margin extends in a broad arch to the sharp posterior beak 
at midheight; hingeline straight and slightly inclined posteriorly; 
ventral margin weakly convex, somewhat flattened at midlength 
where a liplike extension of the left valve overlaps the right; greatest 
height and thickness at midlength. The overlap of the left valve 
is conspicuous along the hingeline and the postdorsal margin, be- 
coming less pronounced along the anterodorsal margin. 



345 loWAN O.RRO (rORDO OSTTRACOOA: (^IRSON 15 

Dimensions. — Holotypt-: complete carapace, length, 0.96 mm.; 
height, 0.57 mm.; width, 0.45 mm. 

Repository. — Holotype: complete carapace, United States Na- 
tional Museum, No. 12.>085. 

Remarks. — Bairdia hypsoconcha — No species of Bairdia des- 
cribed from the Olentangy shale by Stewart and Hendrix (1945) or 
from the basal Mississippian by Morey (1935) were found similar 
to the new species. It is more closely related to the Permian species 
B. garrisonensis Upson (1935). However, B. hypsoconcha has a 
greater overlap along the postdorsal margin, a slightly longer hinge- 
line, and a sharper anterior beak. There is also a superficial resemb- 
lance to B. beedei JJlnch and Bassler (1906) but diflPers from it in 
bemg more stubby, in not possessing so great an overlap along the 
dorsal margin, and in having a shorter hingeline. This species occurs 
rarely. 

Itairdiu iiotooonstrlcta Gibson, n.sp. PI. 1, figs. 17a-b 

Description. — Carapace large and subdeltoid in outline. Hinge- 
line straight and slightly inclined posteriorly; anterodorsal margin 
extends briefly in a straight line to the smooth, blunt beak at mid- 
height; posterodorsal margm steeply inclined and shallowly concave 
to the sharp posterior beak located below midheight; ventral margin 
broadly convex, produced at the lower limit of the anterior margin 
into an abrupt greater convexity. Periphery of the left and right 
valves nearly equal along the anterior and posterior margins. A 
conspicuous shallow constriction of the valves appears at midlength 
immediately anterior to the area of greater thickness. Greatest 
height in the anterior third; greatest thickness in the posterior third. 

Dimensions. — Holotype: complete carapace, length, 1.17 mm.; 
height, 0.66 mm.; width, 0.45 mm. 

Repository. — Holotype: complete carapace. United States 
National Museum, No. 123087. 

Remarks. — Bairdia notoconstricta — There are no Bairdia pre- 
viously described from the Devonian or the Mississippian which 
are similar to B. notoconstricta. The middorsal constriction of the 
valves and the abrupt convexity of the anterior margin appears 



16 Bulletin 154 346 

singularly significant. The anterior ventral extension of the margin 
recalls a similar structure in the genus Bairdites and also, but in a 
more faint expression, m the genus Silinites. This is a common species 
in the Cerro Gordo formation. 

Itairdui suhtilhi Gibson, n.sp. PI. 1, figs. 14a-b 

Description. — Carapace elongate and subrhomboidal in outline; 
dorsal margin broadly arched with the hingeline slightly inclined 
posteriorly; anterodorsal margin weakly convex to a well-rounded 
anterior beak located at midheight; posterodorsal margin extends 
in a straight line to the sharp posterior beak just below midheight; 
ventral margin broadly arched and shallowly inclined to meet the 
posterior beak; greatest height in the anterior third; greatest thick- 
ness at midlength; inner marginal areas clear along the anterior, 
ventral, and posterior margins. 

Dvmensions. — Holotype: left valve, length, 1.05 mm.; height,. 
0.54 mm.; width, 0.12 mm.; Paratype: right valve, length, 0.96 mm.; 
height, 0.51 mm.; width, 0.09 mm. 

Repository. — Holotype: left valve, United States National 
Museum, No. 123089. Paratype: right valve. United States National 
Museum, No. 123090. 

Remarks. — Bairdia subtiUa differs from B. siihparallella Morey 
(1935) in being more elongate and in possessing a shorter hinge- 
line. The new species bears a close relationship to B. subtilla Cooper 
(1941, pi. 2, figs. 5-6). This species occurs rarely in the Cerro 
Gordo formation. 

lt;iirdiii exteiula Gibson, n.sp. PI. 1, fig. 18 

Description. — Carapace obtusely trapezoidal in outline; dorsal 
margin faintly convex and not inclined; anterodorsal margin faintly 
convex and shallowly inclined to the anterior margin which it meets 
sharply at midheight; postdorsal margin straight and steeply in- 
clined to the sharp posterior beak located in the ventral quarter; 
ventral margin sinuate with a pronounced convexity at midlength; 
anterior margin broadly convex to midheight (this area is damaged 
in the figured specimen); overlap slight, being more pronounced 



3+7 lowAN Chrro CJorim) Ostracoda: C)ibson 17 

along the hingeline, and to a lesser degree along the dorsal margin; 
greatest height measured from the anterior cardinal angle; greatest 
thickness midlength; dorsal outline elliptical. 

Dimt'Hsions. — Holotvpe: compkrc carapace, length, 1.41 mm.; 
height, 0.60 mm.; width, ()..^1 mm. 

Repository. — Holotvpe: complete specimen. United States Na- 
tional Museum. No. 123084. 

Remarks. — Bairdia extenda most closely resembles B. glenyiesis 
Kellett (1935) from which it diflFers in having a shorter hingeline, 
in being relatively less elongate, and in having a sharper posterior 
beak. The two species are similar in general outline, and it is prob- 
able that they are of common lineage. A single complete carapace 
from the Cerro Gordo formation. 

Ttairdiii roekfonleiisis Gibson, n.sp. PI. 1, fig. 8 

Description. — Carapace subreniform in outline, high, and rela- 
tively thick. Dorsal margin strongly arched; anterodorsal margin 
broadiv convex and continuing into the anterior margin broadly; 
posterodorsal margin straight and steeply inclined, meeting the 
posterior beak well below midheight; ventral margin concave mid- 
length; anterior margin broadly rounded (slightly damaged in the 
figured specimen); greatest height and thickness midlength. The 
left valve overlaps the right weakly along the entire outline except 
at the anterior and posterior beaks where the valves appear equal; 
a prominent liplike extension of the left overlaps the right along 
the ventral concavity. 

Dimensions. — Holotype: complete carapace, length, 1.32 mm.; 
height, 0.75 mm.; width, 0.48 mm. 

Repository. — Holotype: complete carapace United States Na- 
tional Museum, No. 123088. 

Remarks — There are no previously described Devonian species 
which are similar to B. roekfordensis, as also there have been no 
similar Mississippian forms described. A somewhat close resemblance 
to the new species is found in Bythocypris bosquetiana Brady, a 
Recent form, figured by Sars ( 1928. p. 64, pi. 29). B. roekfordensis 
is rare in the Cerro Gordo formation. 



18 Bulletin 15+ 348 

Itnirdin lancelata Gibson, n.sp. PI. 1, fig. 11 

Description. — Carapace elongate, subelllptical; hingeline 
straight and of moderate length; anterodorsal margin long and al- 
most straight, becoming rounded at midheight; posterodorsal margin 
straight and broadly angular; ventral margin almost straight 
(specimen illustrated slightly damaged posteriorly); greatest height 
and thickness in midquarter; dorsal outlme of carapace smoothly 
elliptical; overlap slight but greatest along the hingeline and dorsal 
slopes; liplike extension of the left valve overlaps the right along 
the ventral margin at midlength. 

Diinensions. — Holotype: whole carapace, length, 1.47 mm.; 
height, 0.54 mm.; width, 0.45 mm. 

Repository. — Holotype: complete carapace, United States 
National Museum, No. 123086. 

Remarks. — Bairdia lancelata bears no resemblance to any pre- 
viously described forms from the Devonian or Mississippian. In 
general the species is somewhat similar to Bairdia trojan^ Wilson 
(1933), but the new species is posteriorly less acuminate and anter- 
iorly more narrowly elliptical. This new species is rare in the Cerro 
Gordo formation. 

Genus BEKKXA Gibson, n.gen. 

Type species. — Here designated Bekena diaphroz'alvis Gibson, 
n.sp. Cerro Gordo formation (Upper Devonian), Rockford, Iowa. 

Diagnosis. — The genus Bekena is here established to include 
those bairdiocyprid and bythocyprid-like forms having distinctly 
flattened and depressed areas bordering the anterior and posterior 
margins. 

Description. — Carapace subtriangular to subreniform in out- 
line; dorsal margin strongly arched with the anterior and posterior 
slopes being nearly equal in length and in angle; ventral margin 
almost straight to convex; anterior margin broadly rounded with 
the posterior margin more sharply arched; greatest height at mid- 
length or slightly in front; left valve larger and overlaps the right 
strongly along the dorsal margin; overlap extends from the upper 
quarter of the anterior margin to well below midheight along the 



349 lovvAN t'HRKo CJdrim) Ostracoda: Gibson 19 

posterior border; a liplike extension of the left valve over the right 
may be \veakl\- or strongly developed along the ventral margin about 
midlength; right valves moderately to strongly compressed in areas 
bordering the anterior and posterior margins; surface of carapace 
smooth. 

Bairdiocypris morovica Kegel (1927) resembles closely the 
new species Bekena diaphrovalvis in possessing the anterior and 
posterior marginal depressions of the right valve and in general 
outline of the carapace. More pronounced overfoldmg of the dorsal 
margin of the later form serves to distmguish them. Both species 
are placed in Bekena as neither form resembles Bairdiocypris gerol- 
steinensis Kegel (1927), the type species of Bairdiocypris. The 
species lacks the marginal depressions of the right valve. Such a 
feature is uncommon in the family Bairdiidae. Bairdia pecki Morey 
( 1935), though lacking a pronounced overfoldmg of the dorsal mar- 
gin, is also placed in Bekena as it possesses the anterior and posterior 
marginal depressions of the right valve as found in B. diaphrovalvis. 

Range. — Upper Devonian to Lower Mississippian. 

This genus is named in honor of Mrs. Betty Kellett Nadeau. 

Bekena diaiihrovalvls Gibson, n.sp. PI. 1, figs. 9a-d 

Description. — Carapace large, subreniform in outline; dorsal 
margin strongly convex; ventral margin evenly and broadly convex; 
anterior margin more broadly rounded and higher than the posterior; 
greatest height slightly in front of midlength; greatest thickness 
slightly posterior of midlength; dorsal margin strongly overfolded in 
a continuous line extending from below midheight posteriorly to 
near midheight along the anterior margin; right valve smaller and 
subrectangular in outline; hingeline straight and occupying nearly 
the middle third of the valve; ventral margin concave immediately 
anterior of midlength; anterior margin broadly rounded and de- 
pressed immediately bordering the free edge; posterior margin de- 
pressed and narrowly rounded, postcardinal area angular; carapace 
smooth, thick and broadly convex except for the flattened areas 
along the anterior and posterior margins; hingement of the left valve 
unknown; right valve bears a sharp ridge extending the entire 



20 Bulletin 154 350 

length of the hingeline; ridge also bears a shallow and narrow groove 
extending along its entire length. 

Dhnensions. — Holotype: complete carapace, length, 1.59 mm.; 
height, 0.96 mm.; width, 0.63 mm. Paratype: left valve, length, 
1.50 mm.; height, 0.90 mm.; width, 0.45 mm. Paratype: right valve, 
length, 1.50 mm.; height, 0.74 mm.; width, 0.24 mm. 

Repository. — Holotype: complete carapace. United States Na- 
tional Museum, No. 123093. Paratype: left valve. United States 
National Museum, No. 123094. Paratype: right valve. United States 
National Museum, No. 123092. 

Remarks. — Bekena diaphrovalvis has been placed in the Bairdi- 
idae because of the wide valve overlap, the general outline of the 
carapace, and the hingement. In North America it can be compared 
only with Bairdia pecki Morey ( 1935) which has a similar anterior 
and posterior marginal structure but lacks the strong overfolding 
of the dorsal margin and the subtriangular outline of the new species. 
This species is common in the Cerro Gordo formation. 

Bekena % sp. PI. 1, fig. 13 

Description. — Carapace large and subelliptical in outline; dorsal 
margin strongly convex; ventral margin nearly straight; anterior and 
posterior margins broadly rounded; greatest height and thickness 
midlength; surface of the right valve narrowly impressed along the 
anterior and posterior margins; overlap more pronounced along the 
straight hingeline and less evident along the postdorsal margin; 
surface of carapace smooth. 

Dimensions. — Hypotype: damaged whole carapace, length, 1.32 
mm.; height, 0.81 mm.; width, 0.63 mm. 

Repository. — Hypotype: United States National Museum, No. 
123095. 

Remarks. — Only one damaged specimen was recovered from 
the Cerro Gordo formation. Therefore, the author has not attempted 
specific typing of the form. The specimen is probably closely allied 
to the new genus Bekena by virtue of the marginal depressions of 
the smaller right valve. 



351 lowAN Cerro CJorim) OsTRAtoDA : c;iiis<)N 21 

Family ItKKCIIKK KLM HA K Ulrich. ISJU 

(U-nus HKKCHKKKM.A ririth. 1891 

Rnihrrrlla Ulrich, 1S91, Arner. Ct-ol., vol. 8, p. 198; Miller, 1892, North 
Amer. Cieol. I'alcoiit., Xiipt-iulix I, p. 705; Ulrich, 1894, (Jeol. Minne- 
sota, vol. 3, pt. 2, p. 691; Ulrich and Bassier, 1923, Maryland Geol. 
Surv., Silurian, p. 318, text Hg. 24. 

Baiiiiia Icnt'iculata ( ?) Stewart, 1945, Jour. I'aleont., vol. 19, .No. 2, p. 110, 
pi. 12, fig. 11. 

Type species — Beecherella carinata Ulrich by original designa- 
tion. Helderbcrgian (New Scotland), Lower Devonian, Albany 
County, New York. 

Range. — Lower to Upper Devonian. 

Itoechercilsi trs«i»«*/oid<'s Gibson, n.sp. PI. 1, figs. 5a-b 

Description. — Carapace trapezoidal in outline; dorsal margm 
straight and makes two-thirds of the carapace length; ventral margin 
shallovvly convex; anterior and posterior cardinal areas obtuse; 
posterior and anterior extremities terminated by blunt points below 
midheight; greatest height immediately anterior of midlength; 
greatest thickness at midlength; dorsal overlap continuous until 
terminated at the anterior and posterior beaks; ventral overlap 
conspicuous at midlength where a liplike extension of the left valve 
overlaps the right; cross section subtriangular with convex sides. 

Dimensions. — Holotype: complete carapace, length, 0.84 mm.; 
height, 0.33 mm.; width, 0.30 mm. 

Repository. — Holotype: United States National Museum, No. 
12.309L 

Remarks. — The author has placed the new species Beecherella 
trapezoides in the Beecherellidae because of the anterior and posterior 
terminations of the carapace into spinelike extensions of the valves 
and because of the triangular cross section. The species is closely 
allied to Bairdia lenticulata Stewart and Hendrix (1945) in general 
outline (orientation the opposite of that given here). This species 
IS fairly common at Rockford, Iowa. 

Genus MOKKISITKS Gibson, n.gen. 

Type species. — Morrisites gibbosus Gibson, n.sp., here desig- 
nated. Cerro Gordo formation (Upper Devonian), Rockford, Iowa. 



22 Bulletin 154 352 

Description. — Carapace small with a straight hingeline and 
trapezoidal outline; ventral margin broadly convex or possibly 
straight; anterior and posterior terminations of the carapace pointed; 
posterior third of carapace inflated; anterior third flattened and com- 
pressed into a keel-shaped structure. Overlap probably left over right; 
surface of carapace smooth. 

This genus is named in honor of Robert W. Morris of the 
American-Arabian Oil Company. 

3Iorrisit€s ^ibbosiis Gibson, n.sp. PI. 1, figs. 7a-b 

Description. — Carapace small and trapezoidal in outline; hinge- 
line straight and more than three-quarters the carapace length; 
ventral margin broadly convex, with a deep posterior swing; anterior 
and posterior margins meet the hingeline dorsally at well rounded 
obtuse angles and ventrally meet the ventral margin below mid- 
height in sharp points; greatest height and greatest thickness just 
posterior to midlength; dorsal outline of carapace tear-shaped; hinge- 
ment unknown. 

Dimensions. — Holotype: complete carapace, length, 0.84 mm.; 
height, 0.33 mm.; width, 0.36 mm. 

Repository. — Holotype: United States National Museum, No. 
123107. 

Remarks. — Morrisites gibbosus — The single specimen recovered 
from the Cerro Gordo formation, though intact, has been somewhat 
distorted by what appears to be a secondary growth of calcite along 
the valve contacts; the thinner anterior portion of the valves has 
a slightly twisted aspect. The new species is tentatively placed in 
the Beecherellidae on the basis of the probable overlap and the 
general outline of the carapace. There have been no forms described 
from the geologic formations of North America to which the new 
species may be compared. 

Superfamily CYTHEKACEA Ulrich and Bassler. 192^ 

Family KOPOLONELLIIIAE Coryell and Malkin. 1936 

Genus EU(iLYFHELF;A Warthin, 1934 

Strepula Jones, 1890 (part), Geol. Soc. London Quart. Jour., vol. 46, pi. 
11, pi. 2, fig. 4. 

EuglyphcUa Warthin, 1934, Mus. Pal. Univ. Michigan, Contr. 4, No. 12, 

p. 220. 



353 low AN tHRRO OORDO OsTR ACODA : CilBSON 23 

Type species. — Strepula sigmoidalis Jones (1890) by subse- 
quent designation. Devonian of England. 

Range. — Middle to Upper Devonian. 

Kii^lyplu'lla siilMiiiadnita Gibson, nsp. PI. 2, figs. 8a-b 

Description. — Carapace subrectangular in outline; dorsal margin 
long and straight; ventral margin inclined dorsally and slightly con- 
cave at midlength; anterior margin broadly rounded; posterior 
margin more sharply rounded and not so high as the anterior; 
greatest height in anterior quarter; greatest thickness midlength; free 
margins and dorsum of carapace raised; each valve ornamented 
with high carinae, the larger forming an almost complete circle 
which becomes flattened anteriorly and which surrounds another 
smaller coil following the configuration of the larger; both sets 
of ridges seem to blend into a common area just anterior to and 
below the postcardinal angle near the ventral margin; the larger 
left valve overlaps the right along all margins; hingement of the 
left valve consists of a groove extending the entire length of the 
dorsal margin, with an elliptical ridgelike tooth at the antero- 
cardinal angle and a small socket beneath the posterocardinal angle; 
hingement of the right valve consists of a sharp ridge extending 
along the dorsal margin; anteriorly an elliptical socket develops 
at the cardinal angle and posteriorly an elongate but small tooth 
IS formed. 

Dimensions. — Holotype: left valve, length, 0.81 mm.; height, 
0.45 mm.; width, 0.18 mm. Paratype: complete carapace, length, 
0.87 mm.; height, 0.48 mm.; width, 0.30 mm. 

Repository. — Holotype: left valve, United States National 
Museum, No. 123096. Paratype: complete carapace, United States 
National Museum, No. 123097. 

Remarks. — Euglyphella subquadrata differs from the type 
species in that the posterior margin is more bluntly rounded and 
interrupted at the ventral margin by an obtuse angle. Another dif- 
ference lies in the displacement of the carinae. In the type species, 
the dorsal limb of the mam carinae nearly fuses with the dorsal 
margin slightly behind the anterior cardinal angle. In E. subquadrata 
the carinae are well within the limits of the valve outline and 



24 Bulletin 154 354 

closed postventrally. The new species differs from previously des- 
cribed forms in being less sharply triangular in outline and possessing 
a closed arrangement of the carmae. This species is common at 
Rockford, Iowa. 

Family THLIPSIKII>AE Ulrich. 1894 

Genus rLAGIOXEPHROnES Morey, 1935 

Plat/ionephrodrs Morev, 193 5, Jour. Paleont., vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 318-319, 
pi. 28, figs. 23, 16. 

Plagionephrodfs Becker, 1940, in Branson, Geology of Missouri, Univ. 
Missouri Studies, vol. 19, p. 149, pi. 24, figs. 36-40. 

Type species. — Plagionephrodes uninodosus Morey by original 
designation. Basal Mississippian sandstone, Williamsburg, Missouri. 

Description. — The close relationship which Plagionephrodes 
bears to Ropolonellus Van Pelt and Euglyphella Warthin has been 
recognized by Morey (1935, p. 318). There is also a similarity 
between the new species Plagionephrodes allot riovalvis and species 
of the genus Quasillites Coryell and Malkin ( 1936) figured in this 
report. Similarity lies in general outline, hingement, and surface 
reticulations; this relationship is more evident in the younger molts. 
The number of individuals of Plagionephrodes was large in the Cerro 
Gordo fauna, the amount being well over a hundred. The new species 
Plagionephrodes bicostalis and Plagionephrodes werneri seem closely 
allied to the species figured by Becker ( 1940) from the Snyder 
Creek formation of Missouri. 

Plagionephrodes bioostalis Gibson, n.sp. PI. 2, figs, la-c 

Description. — The valves vary in general outline, the left is 
subtriangular and the right is nearly oval; carapace subtriangular 
m outline; dorsal margin vveakU^ convex; ventral margin convex 
and inclined dorsally; anterior margin broadly rounded and raised 
in both valves to flangelike structures which originate at midheight 
and extend to the anterior cardinal angles; posterior margin short 
and obtusely rounded; greatest height in the anterior quarter; 
greatest thickness midlength. Two prominent ridges are present 
on each valve originating immediately below the hingeline and ex- 
tending to the ventral quarter. In both valves the shorter posterior 
ridge has an extremely abrupt dorsal termination. On the left 



355 loWAN ChRRO CJORIXJ OhTRACODA: CIlBSON 25 

valve a prominent toothlike spine is located along and slightly in 
from the edge of the postventral margin; another short, posteriorly 
directed spine is located at the dorsal margin. Both the right and 
left valves hear a short spine located along the ventral third of the 
posterior margin near the edge. Surfaces of hoth valves between 
flanges and ridges smooth. Hingeline impressed with the left over- 
lapping the right along the entire dorsal margin and less extensively 
along the anterior ventral and posterior margins. Articulation of the 
left valve consists of a groove extending the entire length of the 
dorsal margin; anteriorly this groove became obscured by an over- 
folding of the anterodorsal margin; posteriorly the groove is ex- 
tended into a broad depression at the posterocardinal angle. Hinge- 
ment of the right valve consists of a ridge extending along the dorsal 
margin and which is terminated anteriorly by a cleft and posteriorly 
by a broad swelling at the cardinal angle. 

Dimensions. — Holotype: complete specimen, length, 0.87 mm.; 
height, 0.54 mm.; width, 0.36 mm. Paratype: left valve, length, 0.93 
mm.; height, 0.57 mm.; width, 0.24 mm. Paratype: right valve, 
length, 0.84 mm.; height, 0.39 mm.; width, 0.18 mm. 

Repository. — Holotype: complete specimen. United States Na- 
tional Museum, No. 123109. Paratype: left valve, United States 
National Museum, No. 123111. Paratype: right valve, United States 
National Museum, No. 123110. 

Remarks. — The presence of the two prominent ridges on the 
right and left valves, and the broad toothlike spine along the post- 
ventral margin of the left valve serves to distinguish Plagionephrodes 
bicostalis from the type species and from other species of Plagione- 
phrodes in the Cerro Gordo fauna. It differs from the type species 
P. uninodosus Morey in being more triangular in outline, and al- 
though the positions of the ridges are approximately equivalent in 
both species, they are better developed in P. bicostalis. The species 
is rare at Rockford, Iowa. 

I'bijfionephrodes allotriovalvls Gibson, n.sp. PI. 2. ligs. 3a-e 

Description. — Valves differ in outline and in ornamentation; 
the left is obesely triangular and smooth while the right is nearly 



26 Bulletin 154 356 

oval and bears fine surface reticulation; carapace subrhomboidal 
in outline; dorsal margin weakly convex; ventral margin concave at 
midlength and shallowly inclined to the dorsum; anterior margin 
broadly rounded, becoming flattened at midheight by a flange which 
extends to the anterior cardinal angle in the left valve and to 
slightly above the midheight in the right valve; posterior margin 
more narrowly rounded. In both the right and left valves two pairs 
of posteriorly directed spines are developed in the posterior quarter; 
one pair is situated just above midheight, and the other is located 
just below midheight along the posterior margin slightly in from 
the edge. At the posterior cardinal angle of the left valve a small 
spine is developed. The female carapace is smaller, stubby, and 
triangular in outline. Hingement of the left valve consists of a 
dorsal marginal groove. The groove opens beneath the anterior 
cardinal angle into the interior of the valve, and posteriorly widens 
into a cleftlike depression at the level of the postcardinal spine. The 
hingement of the right valve is comprised of a dorsal marginal 
ridge which expands anteriorly into a keel-like structure. This keel- 
like structure is prolonged ventrally to a point immediately below 
the cardinal angle. Posteriorly the dorsal ridge is terminated by a 
toothlike elevation just below the cardinal angle. 

Dimensions. — Holotype: complete carapace, length, 0.90 mm.; 
height, 0.54 mm.; width, 0.30 mm. Paratype: left valve, length, 
0.90 mm.; height, 0.57 mm.; width, 0.18 mm. Paratype: right valve, 
length, 0.78 mm.; height, 0.42 mm.; width, 0.12 mm. Paratype: 
left valve, female, length, 0.72 mm.; height, 0.48 mm.; width, 0.15 
mm. 

Repository. — Holotype: complete carapace. United States Na- 
tional Museum, No. 123101. Paratype: left Valve, United States 
National Museum, No. 123102. Paratype: right valve, United States 
National Museum, No. 123103. Paratype: left valve, female, United 
States National Museum, No. 123100. 

Remarks. — The new species Plagionephrodes aUotriovalvis is 
differentiated from P. bicostalis by the absence of the two prominent 
vertical ridges and the broad toothlike spine along the ventral margin 
of the left valve. It closely resembles Senescella longaeva Stewart 



357 lowAN Cerro Gordo Ostracoda: Gibson 27 

and Hendrix (1945). Senescella may be a synonym of Phgioneph- 
rodes as both forms are similar in outline and in the positions oc- 
cupied by the spines. It is interesting to note that the new species 
is similar in hingement, surface reticulation, and in general outline 
of both right and left valves to species of the genus Quasillites. This 
species is abundant in the Cerro Gordo formation. 

Pl;urIoiiei>hrod«*s shi«1<>leri Gibson, n.sp. PI. 2, figs. 4a-d 

Description. — Carapace subrhomboidal in outline; individual 
valves differ in shape, the left is subrhomboidal and the right oval; 
dorsal margin weakly convex; ventral margin convex and inclined 
to the dorsum; anterior margin broadly rounded. In the left valve, 
the margm develops a flange at midheight which extends to the 
cardinal angle; the same flange in the right valv^e begms at midheight 
and ends abruptly in the dorsal quarter. Posterior margin narrowly 
rounded, meeting the dorsal margin obtusely. Greatest height in 
anterior quarter; greatest thickness midlength. Both the right and 
left valves possess spines in the posterior quarter just below the 
dorsal margin and along the ventral quarter of the posterior margin 
slightly m from one edge. A broad toothlike spine is located along 
the postventral margin of the left valve with a small posteriorly 
directed spine at the postcardinal angle. The left valve has a weak 
ridge m the anterior quarter. The surface of the right valve is deeply 
mipressed at the anterior quarter. Surface of carapace smooth 
between flanges and ridges. Hingement of the left valve consists of 
a groove extending along the dorsal margin. This groove becomes 
obscured anteriorly by an overfolding of the dorsal margin; it ends 
beneath the posterior cardinal angle in a semicircular depression. 
Hingement of the right valve consists of a ridge extending the 
entire length of the dorsal margin. This ridge becomes exaggerated 
into broadened hemicircular cusps at the anterior and posterior 
cardinal angles. 

Dimensions. — Holotype: complete carapace, length, 0.93 mm.; 
height, 0.51 mm.; width, 0.33 mm. Paratype: left valve, length, 0.84 
mm.; height, 0.54 mm.; width, 0.18 mm. Paratype: right valve, 
length, 0.75 mm.; height, 0.36 mm.; width, 0.18 mm. 

Repository. — Holotype: complete carapace, United States Na- 



28 Bulletin 15+ 358 

tional Museum, No. 123112. Paratype: left valve, United States 
National Museum, No. 123113. Paratype: right valve. United States 
National Museum, No. 123114. 

Re^narks. — Plagionephrodes shideleri is similar to P. bicostalis 
in outline, hingement, in possessing a broad toothlike spine along 
the postventral margm of the left valve and in the number and 
positions of the spines developed around the posterior margin. It 
differs from P. bicostalis by lacking the posterior ridge of the left 
valve and possessing but a famt expression of the anterior ridge of 
the same valve. This species is common in the Cerro Gordo forma- 
tion. 

This species is named in honor of Dr. W. H. Shideler, formerly 
of Miami University, Oxford, Ohio. 

Plag^Ionephrodes weriier! Gibson, n.sp. PI. 2, figs. 6a-d 

Description. — Valves differ radically in outline and in size, 
the left is large and wedge-shaped, the right is small and oval; cara- 
pace subtriangular in outline; dorsal margin nearly straight; ventral 
margin weakly convex at midlength and inclined to the dorsum; 
anterior margin broadly rounded and high; posterior margin brief 
and weakly arched. The anterior margin possesses a thick flange 
which originates at midheight and extends to the anterocardinal 
angle. The flange of the right valve begins at midheight and extends 
dorsally to the upper third of the valve. A short spine is developed 
dorsally just below the hingeline in the posterior third of both the 
right and left valves. This spine may be present as a short barlike 
process in the left valve. A second small and posteriorlv directed 
spine occurs along the posteroventral margin of both valves. Sur- 
face of the right valve minutely and irregularly punctate, surface of 
the left smooth. 

Dimensions. — Holotype: complete carapace, length, 0.87 mm.; 
height, 0.51 mm.; width, 0.33 mm. Paratype: left valve, length, 0.90 
mm.; height, 0.51 mm.; width, 0.18 mm. Paratype: right valve, 
length, 0.84 mm.; height, 0.42 mm.; width, 0.15 mm. 

Repository. — Holotype: complete carapace. United States Na- 
tional Museum, No. 123115. Paratype: left valve. United States 



359 lowAN Cerro CJordo Ostracoda : CJibson 29 

National Museum, No. 123116. Paratype: right valve, United 
States National Museum, No. 12.^117. 

Remarks. — Ihe new species Plagioncphrodes werneri diflPers 
from the species of this genus with which it occurs in heing more 
triangular in outline. It differs also from P. bicostalis and P. shideleri 
in the lack of a postmarginal spine of the left valve and in the hinge- 
ment. 1 here is, however, a similarity m the hingement of P. werneri 
and P. allot riovalvis. Both species possess shelflike teeth or flanges 
as components of the right hinge at both the anterior and posterior 
cardinal angles. In general outline, P. werneri also bears a somewhat 
close resemblance to Ropolonelhis dnhius Stewart and Hendrix 
(1945). This species is abundant in the Cerro Gordo formation. 

The species is named in honor of Dr. Courtney Werner of Wash- 
ington Univ^ersity, St. Louis, Missouri. 

Famly Ql'ASILLITIl>.VE Coryell and Malkin. 1936 

Genus QUASILLITES Coryell and Malkin, 1936 

Quasillitfs Corvell and Malkin, 1936, Amer. Mus. Nov., No. 891, pp. 17-19, 
figs. 36, 38'. 

QuasiUites Swartz and Oriel, 1948, Pennsylvania State Coll., Min. Exp. 
Sta., Tech. Pap., 1+2, pp. 55-56, pi. 79, figs. 18-21, pi. 80, figs. 1-18. 

Type species. — Qu-asillites obliquus Coryell and Malkin by orig- 
inal designation. Widder beds (Hamilton), Ontario, Canada. 

Range. — Middle to Upper Devonian. 

Qnasillites beachi Gibson, n.sp. PI. 2, figs. 7a-m 

Description. — Valves differ in outline, the left is larger and more 
triangular, and the right is smaller with an oval outline and arched 
dorsal margin; carapace subrectangular in outline; dorsal margin 
straight; ventral margin straight and inclined to the dorsum; an- 
terior margin higher and more broadly rounded than the posterior; 
greatest height in the anterior quarter; greatest thickness midlength; 
surface of the carapace beset with small reticulations partially and 
crudely arranged in a vertical series; a less ornamented and some- 
what depressed spot is present centrodorsally on each valve. The 
male carapace is more elongate and possesses a longer ventral mar- 
gin which nearly parallels the dorsum. Dorsally both male and female 



30 Bulletin 15+ 360 

are elliptical in outline and bear at the posterior cardinal angle a 
liplike extension of the left valve overlapping the right. The left 
hinge component includes an impressed ridge extending the length 
of the dorsal margin. At the cardinal angles this ridge ends at an 
elliptical socket anteriorly and posteriorly at a smaller socket. Hinge 
of the right valve consists of a fairly sharp ridge along the dorsal 
margin which also bears a groove along its entire length. Beneath 
both the anterior and posterior cardinal angles short elliptical flanges 
are developed. Left overlaps the right along all margins; overlap 
most conspicuous along the anterior and posterior margins. 

Dimensions. — Holotype: complete carapace, female, length, 0.75 
mm.; height, 0.48 mm.; width, 0.33 mm. Paratype: left valve, female, 
length, 0.78 mm.; height, 0.51 mm.; width, 0.24 mm. Paratype: right 
valve, female, length, 0.75 mm.; height, 0.45 mm.; width, 0.18 mm. 
Paratype: complete carapace, male, length, 0.81 mm.; height, 0.39 
mm.; width, 0.38 mm. Paratype: left valve, male, length, 0.78 mm.; 
height, 0.45 mm.; width, 0.21 mm. Paratype: right valve, male, 
length, 0.72 mm.; height, 0.39 mm.; width, 0.15 mm. 

Repository. — All types are in the United States National Mu- 
seum. Holotype: complete carapace, female. No. 123118. Paratype: 
left valve, female. No. 123119. Paratype: right valve, female, No. 
123123. Paratype: complete carapace, male. No. 123120. Paratype: 
left valve, male, No. 123121. Paratype: right valve, male, No. 
123122. 

Re^narks. — The author knows of no previously described forms 
from the Devonian or Mississippian which resemble the new species 
0. beachi. Though the species lacks the ventral spine along the post- 
ventral margin described in other species of Ouasillites and has sur- 
face reticulations instead of ridges, it agrees with the generic de- 
scription in general outline, hingement, and in the difference between 
the outlines of the individual valves according to Swartz and Oriel 
( 1948, p. 555). This species is abundant in the Cerro Gordo forma- 
tion. 

This species is named in honor of Paul R. Beach of Houston, 
Texas. 



361 loWAN C'ERRO CJORDO OSTRACODA : GiBSON 31 

Qiiusillltes lutrkherryeiisis Gibson, n.sp. PI. 1, figs, la-d 

Description. — \'alves differ in outline, the left is triangular and 
the right is oval with a strongly convex dorsum; carapace subtri- 
angular ui outline; dorsal margin of carapace weakly convex; ven- 
tral margin convex and inclined to the dorsum; anterior margin 
more rounded and higher than the posterior; greatest height in the 
anterior quarter; greatest thickness midlength; surface ornamented 
with fine ridges and grooves mostly vertically arranged; these ridges 
radiate from a less ornamented centrodorsal spot and become ver- 
tically arranged toward the lateral extremities of the carapace. Hinge 
elements as in the new species Q. beachi previously described. 

Dimensions. — Holotype: complete carapace, length, 0.72 mm.; 
height, 0.48 mm.; width, 0.39 mm. Paratype: left valve, length, 0.72 
mm.; height, 0.48 mm.; width, 0.24 mm. Paratype: right valve, 
length, 0.66 mm.; height, 0.36 mm.; width, 0.18 mm. 

Repository. — Holotype: complete carapace, United States Na- 
tional Museum, No. 123127. Paratype: left valve. United States 
National Museum, No. 123128. Paratype: right valve, United States 
National Museum, No. 123129. 

Remarks. — The new species Q. hackberryensis possesses the 
more typical ornamentation of the Quasillitidae but also lacks the 
postventral spine of the type species. It differs from previously de- 
scribed forms in lacking this spine. In general, the surface ornamen- 
tation found on the new species is much finer than that found on 
forms described from Lower Devonian sections. This species is abun- 
dant. 

(^iiasillites ellipticus Gibson, n.sp. PI. 1. fiss. 3a-(i 

Description. — Carapace long, ovoid in outline; dorsal margin 
broadly convex; ventral margin weakly rounded; anterior margin 
more arcuate than the posterior; greatest height and thickness mid- 
length; right valve somewhat more flattened along the dorsal margin 
than the left and smaller; surface ornamented with concentric finger- 
prmtlike ridges; a small less ornamented spot is located centrodor- 
sally. Hinge of the left valve consists of a depressed ridge extending 
the entire length of the dorsal margin. At the cardinal angles ellipti- 



32 Bulletin 154 362 

cal clefts are developed. The right hinge component includes a nar- 
row ridge extending along the dorsal margin, superimposed upon 
which is a shallow groove; at each cardinal angle there is an ellipti- 
cal tooth, the anterior being larger than the posterior. 

Dimensions. — Holotype: complete carapace, length, 0.75 mm.; 
height, 0.45 mm.; width, 0.39 mm. Paratype: left valve, length, 0.78 
mm.; height, 0.48 mm.; width, 0.24 mm. Paratype: right valve, 
length, 0.75 mm.; height, 0.42 mm.; width, 0.12 mm. 

Repository. — Holotype: complete carapace. United States Na- 
tional Museum, No. 123124. Paratype: left valve, United States Na- 
tional Museum, No. 123126. Paratype: right valve, United States 
National Museum, No. 123125. 

Remarks. — As with the other species of the genus QuasiUites 
described in this paper, the new species Q. ellipticus lacks the post- 
ventral spine of the type species. It differs from the other species here 
described in the elliptical outline of the carapace. The author agrees 
with Swartz and Oriel ( 1948, p. 555) that possible forms with ovate 
characters referred to as Spinovina by Coryell and Malkin (1936) 
should be included in the QiMsillites. This species is fairly common 
in the Cerro Gordo formation, Rockford, Iowa. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Bassler, K. S„ and Kellett, B. 

193+. Bihitographic index of Paleozoic Ostracoda. Geol. Soc. America, 
Special Papers I, 500 pp., 24 figs., 5 charts. 

Branson, E. B. 

1948. The geology of Missouri. Univ. Missouri Studies, vol. XIX, No. 3. 

Calvin, S. 

1878. Notes on the Devonian of loiva. Amer. Jour. Sci., 3d ser., vol. 15, 

pp. 460-462. 
1897. The Oiien substage of the Devonian of loiva. Iowa Geol. Surv., 

vol. 7, pp. 144, 163-164. 

("<»0|)er, ('. L. 

1941. Chester ostraeodes of Illinois. Illinois Geol. Surv. Rept. Investiga- 
tions, No. 77, 101 pp., 14 pis., 1 chart. 

1942. Correlation of the Devonian sedimentary formations of North 
.■Imerica. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., vol. 53, pp. 1792-1794, 1 pi., 1 fig. 

1946. Pennsylvanian ostraeodes of Illinois. Illinois State Geol. Surv., Bull. 
70, 177 pp., 21 pis., 31 figs. 

1947. Upper Kinkaid (Mississippian) mierofauna from Johnson County, 
Illinois. Jour. Paleont., vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 81-94, pis. 19-23. 



363 lowAN C'krro Gordo Ostracoda: Gibson 33 



Corji'll, H. \., aiiHl Ifooth. K. T. 

1933. Pi-nnsyUuinuin Dstt acoJa ; a continuation of thr Ostracoda from 
the H'aylanJ shale, Graham, Texas. Amer. Midi. Nat., vol. XIV, No. 
3, pp. 25S-27S. pis. Ill-V, 1 tig. 

rorjfU, H. >., and ('usklej, V. A. 

193+. Some ostracodes from the "H'hite Mound" section of the llaragan 
shale. Murray County, Oklahoma. Amer. Mus. Nov., No. 748, 12 pp., 
2 pis. 

Coryell, H. >\, and Malkln, I>. S. 

1936. Some Hamilton ostracodes from .Irkona, Ontario. Amer. Mus. 
Nov., No. 891, 20 pp., 2 pis, 

F«nt4)n, ('. L. 

1919. Upper De^'onian sediments of Iov:a. Amer. Jour. Sci., 4th ser., vol. 

48. pp. 355-376. 
1928. The Hackberry stage of the Upper Devonian. Contrih. Mus. Geol., 

Univ. Michigan, vol. I. Macmillan and Co. 

(iJels, H. L. 

1932. Some ostracodes from the Salem limestone, Mississippian, of In- 
diana. Jour. Paleont., vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 149-188, pis. 22-26. 

Hjirlt<»ii, R. H. 

1933. Micropaleontology of the Pennsylvanian Johns Valley shale, of the 
Ouachita Mountains, Oklahoma, and its relationship to the Mississip- 
pian Caney shale. Jour. Paleont., vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 3-29, pis. 1-7. 

Kay, (i. M. 

1940. Ordovician Mohaiikian Ostracoda: toiler Trenton Decorah fauna. 
Jour. Paleont., vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 234-269, pis. 29-34. 

1927. Beitrage zur Kenntnis palaozoischer Ostracoden: I. Ostracoden aus 
dem Oberen Mitteldevon von Mahren und der Eifel. Jhb. Preuss. Geol. 
Landesanst, vol. 48, pp. 653-661, Taf. 33. 

Kellett, B. 

1934. Ostracodes from the Upper Pennsylvanian and Loiuer Permian 
strata of Kansas: II. The genus Rairdia. Jour. Paleont., vol. 8, No. 2, 
pp. 120-138, pis. 14-19. 

193 5. Ostracodes of the Upper Pennsylvanian and Loiver Permian strata 
of Kansas: III. Bairdiidae (concluded), Cytherellidae, Cypridinidae, 
Entomoconchidae, Cytheridae, and Cypridae. Jour. Paleont., vol. 9, No. 
2, pp. 132-166, pis. 16-18. 

Levinson, S. A. 

1950. The hingement of Paleozoic Ostracoda and its bearing on orienta- 
tion. Jour. Paleont., vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 63-75, 16 figs. 
.>lo<»rt*, K. (". 

1935. Rept. 9th .Ann. Field Conf. Kansas Geol. Soc, fig. 1, p. 245. 
Morey, P. S. 

1935. Ostracoda from the basal Mississippian sandstone in central Mis- 
souri. Jour. Paleont., vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 316-326, pi. 28. 

193 5. Ostracoda from the .Imsden formation of Wyoming. Jour. Paleont., 
vol. 9, No. 6. pp. 474-482, pi. 54. 

1936. Ostracoda from the Chouteau formation of Missouri. Jour. Pale- 
ont., vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 114-122, pi. 17. 

Norton, >V. X. 

1897. Stratigraphy of northeastern loii-a. Iowa Geol. Surv., vol. 6, pp. 
138-151. 



34- Bulletin 154 364- 



Feck, K. K. 

193+. The North Irnrrican trocliiliscids, Paleozoic Chnrophyta. Jour, 
Paleont., vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 83-119, pi. 9-13. 

I'okornj, T. 

1950. Thf ostracodrs of the Middle Devonian Red Coral limestones of 
Celechoi'iee. Zvlastni Otisk ze Sborniqu Statniho Geol. Ustv. Cesko. 
Repub., Sv. XVII, Paleo., pp. 513-632, 4 tab., 21 Obr. 

Koth, R. 

1928. Monoceratina: a neiv genus of Ostracoda from the Pennsylvanian 
of Oklahoma. Jour. Paleont., vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 15-19, 1 fig. 

1929. Some ostracodes from the Haragan marl, Devonian, of Oklahoma. 
Jour. Paleont., vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 327-372, pis. 35-38. 

Staiiihrook, M. A. 

1935. "Devonian Stratigraphy" in: Rept. 7th Ann. Field Conf., Kansas 
Geol. Soc. 

1945. The stratigraphy of the Independence shale of loiva. Amer. Jour. 
Sci., vol. 243, pp. 66-83, 138-58. 

Stewart, H. A. 

1936. Ostracodes of the Silica shale, Middle Devonian, of Ohio. Jour. 
Paleont., vol. 10, No. 8, pp. 739-763, pis. 100-102. 

1950. Ostracoda from the Middle Devonian Bone Beds in central 
Ohio. Jour. Paleont., vol. 24, No. 6, pp. 652-666, pis. 85-86. 

Stewart, (i. A., and Hendrix, W. E. 

1945. Ostracoda of the Olentangy shale, Franklin and Delaivare counties, 
Ohio. Jour. Paleont., vol. 19. No. 2, pp. 96-115, pis. 11-12; Ostracoda 
of the Plum Brook shale, Erie County, Ohio: Op. cit., pp. 87-95, pi. 10. 

Swartz, F. M. 

1936. Revision of the Primitiidae and Beyrichiidae, ivith neiv Ostracoda 
from the Loiver Devonian of Pennsylvania. Jour. Paleont., vol. 10, No. 
7, pp. 541-586, pis. 78-89. 

Swartz, F. M^ and Oriel, S. S. 

1948. Ostracoda from .Middle Devonian ff'indom beds in iiestern Neiv 
York. Jour. Paleont., vol. 22, No. 5, pp. 541-566, pis. 79-81, 4 figs. 

Swartz, F. M., and Swain, F. M. 

1941. Ostracoda of the Middle Devonian beds of central Pennsylvania. 
Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., vol. 52. pp. 381-458. 8 pis., 2 figs. 

Teiehert, ( . 

1948. .•/ simple device for coating fossils icilh ammonium chloride. Jour. 
Paleont., vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 102-104, 1 fig. 

Wilson, ( . n. 

1933. Fauna of the Mc.-llester shale, Pennsylvanian, of Muskogee County, 
Oklahoma. Jour. Paleont., vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 412-422, pi. 50. 



PLATES 



PLATE 1 (30) 



36 Bulletin 154 ^ 366 



Explanation of Plate 1 (30) 
Figure Page 

1. (^uasillites hackberrjensis Gibson, n.sp 31 

a, b. Dorsal and lateral views of a complete carapace, 
about X .38. c, d. Lateral views of left and right valves, 
X 38, paratypes. 

2. Aeohinliiella fimbriata Gibson, n.sp 12 

Lateral view of a right valve, holotype, X 48. 

3. Quasillites elliptk'us Gibson, n.sp 31 

a, b. Dorsal and right lateral views of a complete speci- 
men, X 36, holotype. c, d. Lateral views of the left and 
right valves, X 35, paratypes. 

4. Jonesiiia blloha Gibson, n.sp 8 

a-c. Dorsal, right, and left views of a complete carapace, 
holotype. X 38. 

5. Be<*oherella trapezoides Gibson, n.sp 21 

a-b. Right lateral and dorsal views of a complete speci- 
men, holotype, X 34. 

6. Joiiesiiia I sp 9 

Lateral view of the right valve (damaged along the an- 
teroventral margin), the hypotype, X 38. 

7. Morrisites gibhosus Gibson, n.sp 22 

a-b. Right lateral and ventral views of the type species, 
X 36. 

8. I{aJrdia rockfordeiisls Gibson, n.sp 17 

Right lateral view of the holotype, X 33. 

9. Bekeiia diaphnnalvis Gibson, n.sp 19 

3a-b. Dorsal and right lateral views of the holotype, 
X 38. c-d. Lateral views of the left and right valves of 
paratypes, X 31. 

10. Amphissites oamiani I Stewart and Hendrix 10 

a-b. Lateral views of the left and right valves of the 
hypotype, X 22. 

11. Itairdia lancelata Gibson, n.sp 18 

Right and lateral views of a complete carapace, holotype, 
X 30. 

12. Youiiprielbi I sp 7 

Right lateral view of the hypotype, X 37. 

13. Itekeiia i sp 20 

Right lateral view of the hypotype, about X 32. 

14. Ilairdia Kubtilhi Gibson, n.sp 16 

a-b. Left and right lateral views of the holotype and 
paratype, about X 32. 

15. Kirkbyella devoiiica Gibson, n.sp 10 

Lateral view of a right valve, holotype, X 20. 

16. Uairdia hji>so(M>iiflia Gibson, n.sp 14 

Right lateral view of a complete specimen, holotype, 
about X 34. 

17. Hairdia iiototMHistricta Gibson, n.sp 15 

a-b. Right lateral and dorsal views of a complete speci- 
men, holotype, about X 34. 

18. Uairdia cxteiida Gibson, n.sp 16 

Right lateral view of a complete specimen, holotype, 
about X 36. 



I'L. 30,VOL. 35 



ni'IJ,. AmF.K. I'Al.KONT. 



No. ] 54, PL. 1 




PLATE 2 (31) 



38 Bulletin 154 368 



Explanation of Plate 2 (31) 

Figure Page 

1. Plagrioiiephrodes bicostalis Gibson, n.sp 24 

a. Lateral view of a right valve, X 38, paratype. 

b. Dorsal view of a left valve. X 20, paratype. 

c. Lateral view of a right valve, about X 39, paratype. 

2. Koniidyelhi limbriamarg-inata Gibson, n.sp 11 

Right lateral view of a whole specimen, holotype, about 
X35. 

3. Plas'loneiilintdes allotriovalvis Gibson, n.sp 25 

a. Dorsal view of a complete carapace, X 34, holotype. 

b. Lateral view of a left valve, X 33, paratype. 

c. Right lateral view of the holotype, X 34. 

d. Lateral view of a right valve, about X 31, paratype. 

e. Lateral view of a left valve, about X 36, female, para- 
type. 

4. riaf?ioiiei)lir(Mles sliideleri Gibson, n.sp 27 

a-b. Lateral views of left and right valves of paratypes, 
X 33. c-d. Dorsal and right lateral views of a complete 
specimen, X 30, holotype. 

5. Maeroiiofella luinctulifera Gibson, n.sp 7 

Right lateral view of a complete carapace, about X 39. 

6. riaffiinieplirodes uenieri Gibson, n.sp 28 

a-b. Dorsal and right lateral views of a whole carapace, 
about X 29, holotype. c-d. Lateral views of a right and 
left valve, about X 28, paratypes. 

7. <^iiasilli1es Itcaclii Gibson, n.sp 29 

a-g. Female carapaces, a-b. Dorsal and right lateral views 
of the holotype, X 33. c. Lateral view of a right valve, 
X 33, paratype. d-g. Successively younger molts of left 
valve, paratypes. h-i. Dorsal and right lateral views 
of a whole male carapace, about X 34. paratype. j. 
Lateral view of a male right valve, about X 33, para- 
type. k-m. Successively younger molts of male left 
valves. 

8. Eugl.vphella siibqiiadrata Gibson, n.sp 23 

a. Lateral view of a left valve, about X 38, holotype. 

b. Right lateral view of a complete carapace (slightly 
crushed), X 35, paratype. 

9. 3Ionoceratiiia ? leviiisoiii Gibson, n.sp 13 

a-c. Posterior, right lateral and ventral views of a com- 
plete carapace, holotype, X 37. 



ri,. r.l. Vol. 35 



Bull. Amer. Paleont. 



No. 154, PL. 2 




MAY 3 mS 



INDLX 



Note: riif Icfr IkukI hold faced figures refer m the plates. The right 
hand hght fiiiurcs refer to the pages. 



A 

Aberdeen. Washington 319,323-32.5 
Lb.ssieola. Voluto- 

corbis 27 291 

Academy of Natural 

Sciences 19 

achoanitic 153. 171, 178. 179 

acinacellum, Basslero- 

ceras 221 

Acre Territory, Brazil 73 

Acronotellidae 343 

Adams, H. and A 277 

Adainstield, Tasmania 169 

Adelomelon 280,289 

Adelomeloninae 289 

Aechminella 342 

Aechminidae 342 

aequa. Globorotalia .... 51 

aethiopica, Voluta 276 

Aethoceras 162, 164, 168. 

227-229 

Africa 275 

A gassiz. L 67,69 

Alameda County, Cali- 
fornia 321 

Alaska 317.320 

alaskense. Keenaea .. 317 

Nemocardiuai 317 

Albany County, New 

York 351 

Alberta. Canada 313 

AlbiKiuerque. 0. R 72 

Alcitline 281,287 

Alcithoides 287 

Alcithoinae 287. 295 

Aldrich, T. H 11 

alfaroi, Voluta 26 281 

Allopiloceras 161, 166. 167, 

172.210 
allotriovalvis. Plag- 

ionephrodes 31 355, 356, 359 

Almeida, L. A 76 

akernatum. Cardium 313 
.Mum Rock Canyon. 

California 321 



Amazon River 77 

Amazonas State, Bra- 
zil 73 

Ambo. Peru 73 

Ambocoelia 74, 108, 109 

Ambocoeliinae 107 

Auierican Association 
for the Advance- 
ment of Science .... 19 
American Association 
of Petroleum Geo- 
logists 19 

americana, Enaeta 27 294 

americanum, Eothino- 

ceras 163, 172, 195, 

197 

Amorena 283, 288 

Amoria 278, 280, 281, 

288 

Amorides 288 

Amphissites 340 

Ancilla 276 

ancilla, Voluta 276 

Andean Sea 73 

aneuchoanitic 179 

annulatum, Basslero- 

ceras 14 164,167,220, 

221 

Anomalina 51 

Anomites 114 

Anthocefas 160. 161. 163. 

165-167,172. 

175,205,208, 

209 

Anthracolitic .. 75 

antillea. Miscellanea 27. 35. 37 

Pellatispirella 27,29,32.35 

Ranikothalia 35 

Aparchitidae ...- 336 

Aphetoceras 162.164.166, 

168,172. 174. 
219,223-225 

Apocrinoceras 161, 164. 167. 

168,221. 222 

Arctomelon 280. 287 

Arctopratulum .-... 311.317.318 



369 



Index 



Argentina 275 

Arkansas 166, 174 

Arkansas Geological 

Survey ^ 

Arkoceras 162, 163, 16b, 

232 

Arkoceras sp 23 164, 232, 233 

armata, Voluta 276 

Armennceras I'^O 

Arroyo del Valle, 

California 321 

Artinskian ^2 

Ashfell sandstone 124 

Assilina 28, 33 

Astoria ^23 

Astoria formation ..-. 311, 319, 323 

Athecocyclina 49, 54 

Athleta 285,293 

Athletinae 285,292 

Athyrinae 100 

Athyris 100, 101 

Atraktus 288 

Aulica 279,280,287 

Aulicina 275,281,287 

Aurina (Aurinia) 280 

Aurinia 280, 288 

Australia 275, 316 

Aviculopecten 73 

Avonian 107. Ill 

B 

Eactroceras 157, 159, 170 

Bailey's Ferry, Fla -. 294 

Bairdia 336,344,345 

Bairdiidae 344 

Bairdiocypris 349 

Balcis 257-267 

Baltic 170 

Baltoceras 157, 170, 176, 

193 

Barbados 37, 49 

Barreirinha, Brazil .— 71 

Bartsch. P 259 

Basilosaurus 6 

Bassleroceras 160, 167. 168, 

172.220,221 

Bassleroceratida 160, 219 

Bathmoceras 170 

Beach, Paul R 360 

beachi, Quasillites 31 359 

beckii. Janeithoe 2->^S 295 

Voluta 295 

Beecherella 351 

Beecherellidae 351 



beedei, Bairdia 345 

Bc'isselia 290 

Bekena 335,348 

Bekena ? sp 30 350 

belchei, Nemocardium 316 

Bellerophon 74 

Benthovoluta 279, 280 

bermudezi, Operculina 35 
Operculinoides 1,2,3 27, 32. 35-37. 

54 

Bernardino Rivadavia. 

Buenos Aires 276 

Berry, S. S 261,263-266 

Berry, S. S. 

New Californian 
Pleistocene Euli- 
midae (double 

page) 255 

de Berthold, Susana 

W 276 

Birrtillonella 337 

Boyrichia 338 

Bevrichiacea 338 

bicostalis. Plagione- 

phrodes 31 354,355,356, 

358 

biloba, Jonesina .... 30 338 

Black River limestone 336 
Black River Ordo- 

vician 161,169 

Blatchford, T 155 

blandum. Cardium .... 327 

Clinocardium 322 

Boldia 51 

Bolivia 72. 75, 85 

Bollia 335 

boreale. Aphetoceras 347 

Bcsworth, T. 292 

bourrelet 279 

brainerdi, Protero- 

cameroceras 208 

Biunner, .John C 4 

bmunsi. Clinocardium 325 

Brazil 72,295 

Brazilia Legal, Brazil 71 

Briones formation .... 321 

British Columbia 326 

British Isles 99 

British Museum (Nat. 

Hist.) 324 

broderipii. Melo 294 

Melocorona 25 294 

Buccinidae 276 

Bu( nos Aires 275 

Bulimina 51 



370 



Indkx 



HAY 3 



y.iilhnins of American 

Paleontology 

biilowi, ("linocardiuni 

Buinastus? 

Bureau of Mineral Re- 
sources, Canberra, 

Australia 153, 

187, 
196, 
202, 
207, 



Burton, Mrs. H. 
Burton Sponge 
Bythocypris 



B. 



10, 12 




325 




156 


184, 


185, 


191, 


193. 


199, 


200, 


204. 


206, 


210, 


213, 




214 




3 




3 




347 



r 

cacumenata, Buliniina 51 
calamus, Allopilo- 

ceras 20 164,167,210, 

211 
calebardensis. Atheco- 

cyclina 56 

Pseudophragmina .. 56 
California Academy of 

Sciences 318, 324 

californiense, Clino- 

cardium 325, 326 

Calliotectinae 280, 289 

Calliotectum 289 

Callipora 287 

Caltex Australia 

Development Pty. 

Ltd 155 

Calvert Cliffs, Md 7 

Calvert formation 7 

camerata, Spirifer .... 123 

Camerati 91,92 

cameratus, Neo- 

spirifer 10,12 119-125 

Neospirifer 

variant 10,18 123 

Spirifer 10,12 116,119-125 

Spirifer 

variant 10,13 123 

Camerina 1,2 27.31 

Campbell. D. F 76 

Campendoceras 161, 165, 166, 

176,212,214 

Canadian 153, 156-159. 

163,164-169, 
172-175, 177 

Cancellaria 276 

Canning, A. W 193 



Canning Stock Route, 

Australia 193 

canningi, Heniicho- 

anella 15 164,167, 

192-194 

Cannon Falls, Minne- 
sota 336 

caraibensis, Nummu- 

lites 35 

carbonaria, Lingula .. 73 

carbonarius, Bellero- 

phon 74 

Carboniferous 123-127,155, 

337, 338 

Cardiograptus 174 

Caricella 282,288 

Caricella sp 25 282 

carinata, Beecherella 351 

carmani?, Am- 

phlssites 30 340 

carnegiei, Cyrtendo- 

ceras 21 164, 168. 169. 

213 
carolinum. Cardium .. 312 

Granocardium 312 

Carolluta 287 

Carpenter, W. B 32 

Carter Oil Co 77 

Carvalho, P. F 72 

Caster, K. E 18,76-78,109 

Caster. K. E. 

Introductory Survey 

of the Brazilian 

Carboniferous 63 

Caster, K. E., and 

Dresser. Hugh 

Contributions to 

Knowledge of the 

Brazilian Paleozoic: 

No. 1 63 

casteri. Cleiothy- 

ridina 9 101, 105-107 

cataline. Ectocyclo- 

ceras 187 

catalinensis, Balcis .... 263 

catenula. Operculin- 

oides 3 37 

Catoraphiceras 170. 215 

Caudri. C. M. B 29,32,37,56 

caurus, Aethoceras 22 164, 168, 227, 

228 

Cayuga Lake 16 

centifilosum. Keenaea 317 

Nemocardium 317. 320 

Central Australian 



371 



Index 



Geosyncline 170 

("erastoderma 320, 327 

Ceratodictya 3 

Cerro Gordo forma- 
tion 335,336,340, 

346,348, 350, 
352,355 

Chace, Emery P 257,259,261, 

263,265,266 

Chao, Y. T 88 

Chazyan 157,161,169 

Chesapeake Bay 16 

China 88 

Chipola River, Flor- 
ida 292 

Chiraluta 284 

chlorosina, Voluta .... 276 
Choptank formation .. 7 
Christmas Creek, Aus- 
tralia 154 

Christmas Creek 
Homestead, Aus- 
tralia 221 

Cibicides 51 

Cierbo-Neroly forma- 
tions 323 

ciliatum, Clinocar- 

dium 326 

de Cizancourt, M 29, 33, 37, 56 

Claiborne 13 

Claiborne Stages 12, 14 

Clark, Bruce L 321, 323 

Clark, F. C 257,259.260 

Clark. W. B 8 

Clarke, J. M 83 

Clarkoceras 212 

clavella, Balcis .... 24 

(double pages )258, 259 

Cleiothyridina 100, 104, 105 

Cleiothvris 100 

Cleland. H. F 17 

Clenchina 280,288 

Clinocardium 311.320,325, 

326 

Clitendoceras 175 

Cole, W. S 18. 29, 30, 

69,78 
Cole, W. S. 
Criteria for the Rec- 
ognition of certain 
Assumed Camerinid 

Genera 25 

Cole. W. S., and Her- 
rick, S. M. 
Two Species of 



Larger Foramini- 

fera from Paleocene 

Beds in Georgia .... 47 

Colombia 275 

Columbia River 326 

Columellar plaits 282 

comoxense, Cardium 326 

Clinocardium .... 29 325, 326 

compacta, Balcis 258 

complanata, Lenticu- 

lites 34 

Operculina 34 

compressum, Wichito- 

ceras 233 

concinna, Pse- 

phaea 27 279,290 

Voluta 279 

Concord Quad., Cali- 
fornia 321, 323 

condor. Spirifer 74 

Condra. G. E 92, 95, 101 

connecting rings 171 

Conrad. Timothy A. .. 7, 10. 11 

Conrad's Fossil Shells 10 
Contra Costa County, 

California 311. 321, 322. 

323 
contrarium. Protero- 

cameroceras 17 164, 167, 205 

Coos Bay 326 

cookei, Athecocyclina 56 

Pseudophragmina .. 56 

Cooper, C. L 335,339 

Cooper, G. A 83 

coosense, Cerasto- 

derma 327 

Clinocardium 323, 327 

"Cora" limestone 91 

cora. Productus 72, 73, 74 

Rhipidomella 84, 85 

corbis, Cardium 322, 327 

Cerastoderma 322 

Cornell University .... 4,11,14,27, 

68,69 

correanus, Derbyia 6,7 90, 92 

Orthotetes 92 

Streptorhynchus .... 92 

Correlation Papers .... 8 

cosmia, Balcis 258 

Vitreolina 258 

Cossmann. M 11,278 

Cottonia 287 

Coutinho. S 67, 69 

crassata. Globoro- 

talia 51 



372 



Index 



cTHssata aequa, Globo- 

rotalia 51 

crassiuscula. Voluto- 

spina 292 

rrenistria, Strepto- 

rhyiuhus 99. 100 

Creole Petroleum Cor- 
poration 335 

Cresta Blanca, Cali- 
fornia 321 

Cretaceous 311, 313 

Crioeardium 312,318 

Cross, R. K 265 

Crurithyris 107 

Cryptendoceras 157 

cuniingi. Voluta .. 27 290 
cumingii. Operculin- 

ella 33 

curiosa ?. Sansabella 341 

curta, Bairdia 344 

("urua River, Brazil 71 
fushniani, Polymor- 

phina 51 

Cvclendoceras 170 

Cyclolituites 232 

Cyniba 286 

Cymbiides 286 

Cj-nibiinae 286, 294 

Cymbiola 287 

Cymbiolacca 287 

Cymbiolae 276 

Cymbiolena 287 

Cymbium 275, 276, 278, 

282, 286,294 

Cypracea 344 

Cyptendoceras 157 

Cvrtendoceras 161, 164, 165, 

168, 169,175, 
211-213 

Cyrtocerina 172, 194, 211 

cyrtochoanitic 177, 178, 180 

Cyrtovaginoceras 212 

Cytheracea 352 

D 

da Costa, Texeira 76 

Dall, Wm. H 4,11, 278 

Dallocardia 322 

Dalve, Elizabeth 78 

damoni. Amoria .... 25 281 

Dana, .lames D 4, 10 

Davies, L. M 30,33,37 

Dead Man's Island, 

California 263 



Dead .Man's Island 

Pleistocene 263 

decoratum. Cardium .. 325 
decorum, Antho- 

ceras 21 163, 164, 166, 

167,208,209 

degolyeri, Robulus .... 51 
delectans, Apheto- 

ceras 23 164,166.167, 

223-225 

Deltoceras 227 

Derbv, Australia 154 

Derby, 68-74, 77, 84. 

88,89 

derbyi, Cleiothyri- 

dina 10 104, 105 

Derbyia 90,91,95 

Derbyoides 95 

Desert Basin, Aus- 
tralia 154,170,193, 

200 
desertorum, Apheto- 

ceras 23 168,226.227 

Desmoinesian 75 

Devonian 154,335,338, 

341,348 
devonica, Kirkby- 

ella 30 340 

diadema, Voluta 276 

diaphrovalvis, 

Bekena 30 348,349,350 

Diastoloceras 164, 167, 187, 

190 

Dickins, J. M 155 

Dielasma 70 

Dietz, C 312 

Dinant, Belgium 72 

Dinantian 73 

Discorbis 51 

Discosorida 160, 221 

diversum, Nemocar- 

dium 316 

dohrni. Clenchina 27 280, 291 
doniphonense, Ky- 

moniceras 188 

dorotheae, Camerina .. 31 

draconis, Balcis 263 

Dresser, Hugh 

Notes on Some 

Brachiopods from 

Itaituba Formation 

(Pennsylvanian) of 

the Tapajos River, 

Brazil 63,77 

Drilluta 285 



373 



Index 



Duarte, A. G 72,73,99 

dubius, Ropolonellus 359 

Dulux 182 

Durable, E. T .^ 8,9 

dumosa, Lapparia .25 285 

dumosum. ("ardium .... 312 

Dunbar, C 75,92.95,101 

Dunbar, C, and Con- 

dra. G. E 92,95,101.124 

Durness limestone .... 168, 173 

E 

ebriconus, Balcis 24 258, 265 

Vitreolina 24 258, 265 

Eccyliopterus 155 

Ecphora 18 

Ectocycloceras 164, 167, 172, 

186, 187, 220 

ectosiphuncle 153 

ectosiphuncular su- 
ture 153, 181 

Edmondia 73 

elevatus, Eponides .... 51 

Ellesmeroceratida 160, 161, 165, 

167,183 

ellipochoanltic 178 

elllpticus, Quasil- 

lites 30 361. 362 

elongata, Macrono- 

tella 337 

El Paso limestone 166, 173 

Elphidium 28, 31 

Emanuel Creek, Aus- 
tralia 154. 162, 193. 

199,202. 211. 

215,217 

Emanuel limestone .... 156, 159, 169, 

177,186. 188, 

199,202, 204. 

208, 211,215, 

217 

emanuelense, Loben- 

doceras 22 164,167,215 

Enaeta 286, 294 

Enclimatoceras 13 

Endoceras 157, 170 

Endoceratida 160, 167, 175 

Endoceratidae 165 

Endoceratidae, gen. 

et sp. ind 21 217 

endocones 175 

endosiphowedge 218 

endosiphuncular 

wedge 218 



Endothyra 335 

Eothinoceras 161, 163, 165, 

172,194,195 

Eponides 51 

Ericusa 280, 286 

Erie Canal 16 

Estonia 211 

estoniense. Cyrtendo- 

ceras 217 

Estionioceras (error 

for Estonioceras) .. 229 

Estonioceras 161,164,166, 

229, 230 

Estonioceras sp. 23 229, 230 
etheringtoni, Cerasto- 

derma 323 

Laevicardium 323 

Ethmocardium 312, 313, 315 

Eucymba 286 

Euglyphella 352,354 

Eulima 258,259 

Eulimidae 259.267 

exiguum, Arkoceras .. 166, 233 

extenda. Bairdia .. 30 346, 347 
ezoense, Arctopra- 

tulum 29 318 

Nemocardium .... 29 318, 320 

F 

Falsilyria 27 284. 291 

Fasciolariadae [sic] 277 

fastigata, Beyrichia .. 338 

Jonesina 338 

fastosum. Clinocar- 

dium 325 

Fentnn. (\ L 335 

Festilyria 286,294 

festiva, P'"estilyria 294 

fichteli. Camerina 1,2 31 

Ficulopsis 289 

fimbriata. Aechmin- 

ella 30 342 

timbriniarginata, 

Roundyella 31 341 

Fischer de Waldheim 92 
Fitzroy Crossing, Aus- 
tralia 154 

Five Islands 14 

F^leming, .1 276 

Florida 276 

tloridana, Sca- 

phella 25 282.300 

Flower, R. H 14, 18, 156, 

166,172, 175, 



374 



Index 



179,209 
Flower. K. H.. and 

Kumniel, B.. .Ir 160.176.192. 

219 

Foerste. A 212 

Forrest. Sir John 189 

forresti. Kyiiiino- 

ceras 14 163.164. 

187-190 

Fossa-Mancini. E 69 

France 312,315 

fucanum. Cardium .... 327 

Fulgoraria 282.283.286 

Fulgorarinae 286. 294 

Fulvia 323 

furcillatum. Ventro- 

loboceras 164, 166, 203 

furtivum. Kj-mino- 

ceras 188 

fusiformis, Meseri- 

cusa 28 286 

Fusivoluta 289 

Fusulina 74 

Fu.sulinella 75, 76 

Gabb. Wni 8, 11 

Galiuro Mts.. Arizona 75, 89, 91, 

100,118 

gallowayi. Endothyra 335 

Nanicella 335 

Galveston Well 9 

Gap Creek dolomite .. 156,157.164. 

169 

garrisonensis, Bairdia 345 

Gemmellaro, G. G Ill 

Geological Society of 

America 14, 19 

Geological Survey of 

Louisiana 14 

Geological Survey of 

Texas 8 

George. T. N 107. Ill 

Georgia 27,35.49 

georgianus. Opercu- 

linoides 2,4,5 32. 37, 49. 

52-54 

Germany 18 

gerolBteinensis, 

Bairdiocypris 349 

gibbosus, Morris- 
sites 30 351, 352 

Gibson. Lee B. 

Upper Devonian Os- 

tracoda from the 



Orro Gordo forma- 
tion of Iowa 331 

Gilbert, G. K 8 

gikhristi, Neptune- 

opsis 27 279,290 

Gill. Adam C 6 

Gilvostia 287 

Girty. G. H 92 

Glaessner. .M. F 27, 32 

Glass -Mountain. Texas 75, 88 

Glenister. B 147, 153, 159 

glennesis, Bairdia 347 

Globorotalia 51 

Gomes, A. F 76 

Gonsalves, A. D 69 

Gosavia 290 

Gosport sand 13 

gossei, Bactroceras .... 159 
gracile, ("ampendo- 

ceras 14 164, 167, 216. 

217 

Graham, J. J 312 

Graham, Texas 340 

grahamensis, Jones- 

ina 339 

Granocardium 311 312 

Grant, U. S., IV, and 

Gale. H 326 

granularis, Cruri- 

thyris 10 108-112. 114 

Gray, J. E 277 

Grays Harbor County, 

Washington 319, 325 

Great Britain 100,111,114, 

124 
Great Lake of Ara- 

pecij. Brazil 71 

Greenland I68, 173 

de Gregorio, A n 

Gregory, J. W 174 

Grimsdale, T. F., and 

Smout. A. H 27, 31 

griphus, Arctopratu- 

lum 29 311,317 

Nemocardium .. 29 311, 317 

Gshelian 74 

Guivillea 290 

Giimbelina 51 

Guppy. D. .1 155 

Guppy, D. J., and 

opik, A. A 153, 156. 157, 

163, 166, 168 

Guppy, Robert J. L. .. 10 

guyots 153. 174 

Gyroidina 51 



375 



Index 



hackberryensis, 

Quasillites 30 361 

Halia 276,279.280, 

288 

Halides 288 

Hall, J 83 

hallianus, Strepto- 

rhynchus M^ 89- 9'^ 

Hamilton Devonian .. 359 

Hamilton, E. L 175 

Hannibal, Harold 319, 324 

hannibali, Clinocar- 

dium 29 311,324,327 

Hanzawa, S 29, 32, 33 

Hardman, T. E 155 

Hardmanoceras 155,168,231, 

233 

Harpella 286,293 

Harpovoluta 290 

Harpulina 283, 287 

Harris Company 12 

Harris, Cora E 3 

Harris, Florence B. .. 3 

Harris, Francis E 3 

Harris, G 259 

Harris, G. D. 

Memorial frontispiece 1 

Bibliography 21 

Harris, Lydia Helen 

Crandall 3 

Harris, Rebecca S 3, 6, 19 

Harris, Rollin A 3 

Hartt, Chas. F 4, 67. 70 

Haug, E 85 

Hayward Pass, Cali- 
fornia ^21 

hebraea. Voluta 276,294 

hedbergi, Miscellanea 30 

Heilprin, A 8, 11 

Helderbergian 351 

Helderbergs 16 

helicoidal 227 

Hemichoanella 161, 165, 167, 

168,192,193, 
194 

hemichoanitic 153, 171, 

178-180 

Henbest, L. G 56 

Herrick, S. M. 

See Cole, W. S., and 

Herrick. S. M 47 

Hesb. H. H 174 

Hill. Robert T 4 



Hilltop Quarry, Cali- 
fornia 257, 258, 

261-267 

hircus, Cyrtendoceras 212, 214 

Cyrtocerina 211,212 

Endoceras 211 

Hodson, Helen 18 

Holm, G 176,211 

holochoanitic 153, 171, 177, 

178,180 

Hopkins, E. B 15 

Hopper, Walter 15 

Hosking, L. V 155 

hoskingiae, Spano- 

donta 155, 156 

Houston, Texas 360 

Howellia 289 

Huanta, Peru 73 

Hubbard, W. S 12 

Humble Oil Company 344 

Hustedia 74 

Hyatt, A 212 

hyppoconcha, 

Bairdia 30 344,345 

I 

lanthina 16 

Igarape Bom Jardim, 

Brazil 78 

imperialis, Voluta 276,295 

Volutocorona .... 2(> 295 
Incallida. Balcis .... 24 258, 264, 265 

Vitreolina 24 258,264,265 

India 91 

indica, Melo 26 282 

inflatum, Ectocylo- 

ceras 14 164,167,187 

? Involuta 289 

Iowa 335 

Iredale, T 259 

Iredalina 286 

Ireland 344 

Isaac Lea Tertiary 

Collection 12 

Itaituba, Brazil 69 

Itaituba formation .... 77, 78, 85 

itaitubense. Dielasma 70, 72 
iwakiense, Nemocar- 

dium 317 

iwasiroense. Clinocar- 

diuni 325 

J 

Jackson Eocene fos- 
sils 10 



376 



Index 



Jackson Eocene Mol- 
lusca 


287 
316, 

278,282 


14 


Janiunda River, Bra- 
zil ^ 

.Janeithoe 25,28 

Japan 


71 
295 
317 


Jatapi'i River. Brazil .. 
Johns Valley shale .... 
Jonesina 


72 
342 
338 


iunonia. Scaph- 

ella 25,27 

Voluta 


291 
?76 


junonia hutleri, 

Scaphella 25 


?,H?. 


Judith River, Neb- 
raska 

jukes-brownei, Athe- 
cocvclina 


313 
56 


Pseudophragmina 


56 



E 



Kamchatka 320. 327 

Katzer, F 69-74, 96 

Keen. A. Myra 311. 316 

Keen, A. Myra 

Five New Species 
and a New Sub- 
genus in the Pele- 
cypod Family Car- 

diidae 307 

Keen. A. Myra. and 

Bentson, H 322 

Keenaea 317, 318 

Kegel. W 76 

Kennedy, Wm 8 

Kent, Mrs. Louis 7 

keokuk. Orthis 100 

kieneri. Aurinia .. 27 291 
kieneri ethelae, Aur- 
inia 27 291 

Kimberley Division. 

Australia 153, 155. 186, 

188, 193, 

199-204, 

208,210, 211, 

215-223, 

226-234 

kimberleyense, Thy- 

lacoceras 19 164,166,167, 

198,199.200 

Kindle, E. M 12. 335 

King. R. E 75. 88 

Kirkbyella 339 



Kirkbyidae 339 

Kloedenellidae 338 

Kobayashi. T 186,212 

Kohat District, India 32 

Korea 173 

Kozlowski. R 85, 88 

kozlowskii, Ortho- 

tichia 88 

Kuinmel, B 160, 188 

Kunda formation 212 

Kyminoceras 163, 164, 165, 

172, 187, 188. 
189,190 

L 

Laevicardium 316, 323 

laevigata, (amerina 2 31 

Lake ("hamplain 16 

Lake Cojubim, Brazil 71 

Lake Jacare, Brazil .. 71 

Lamarck. J 276 

laminosa, Spiriferina 124 

Lanarkshire 107 

lancelata, Bairdia 30 348 

Lapparia 285 

Larapintine formation 170 
Las Trampas Ridge, 

California 321 

latejugata, Nodosaria 51 

Lea, H. C 11 

Lea, 1 11 

Lebetoceras 163, 164, 166, 

197 

lenticulata, Bairdia .... 351 

Leonardos. 73 

lepidodendroides, 

Rhombopora 74 

Les Gondolieres 276 

Les Muricines 276 

Les Musicales 276 

Levinson. S. A 344 

levinsoni, Monocera- 

tina ? 31 343,344 

Levisoceras 212 

Liddle, R. A 18 

Lignitic 13 

Lindner. A. W 155 

linearis. Balcis 262 

lineata. Reticularia .. 112 
lineata perplexa, 

Reticularia 112 

lineatus, Productus .. 72 

Lingula 73 

Lingulidiscina 73 



377 



Index 



Miranda, Jose ''^ 

miscella, Miscel- 
lanea 1 30 

Nummulites 30 

Miscellanea 1 27-34,49 

Mississippi 316 

Mississippian 75, 335, 336, 

344,345,348 

Mississippian-Dev- 

onian 17 

missouriensis, Lingu- 

lidiscina 73 

Mitra 276 

Mitreola 286 

Moa River. Brazil 73 

Momea tribe. New 

Caledonia 314 

monicensis. Balcis .... 258, 261 

Monoceratina 343 

Montana group 313 

Monte Alegre. Brazil 71 
Montesano formation 311, 319, 324, 

325 

moravicia, Bekena .-.. 349 

Morey, P. S 345 

Morgan Expedition .... 70 

morgani, Orthotichia 88 

morganiana. Orthis .. 85, 86 

Orthotichia 6 86 

mormoni, Hustedia .... 74 

Morris. R 336,352 

Morrisites 335, 351 

Mount Diablo, Califor- 
nia 323 

Mountain limestone .. 344 

Moura, Pedro de 72 

Muller, S. W 312 

muricinus, Voluti- 

lithes 26 282 

Muscovian 75 

musica, Voluta 25,26 275,276,282, 

285 



Nacatoch sand 

Naco limestone 

Nadeau. Betty Kellett 
Nanicplla 


313 

75 

336.349 

335 


Nannamoria 


288 


nassauensis, Miscel- 
lanea 


30 


Pellatispirella .... 1 

nautica, Melo 27 

Naylor Ledge forma- 
tion 


28,30 
290 

166 



Nebraska 341 

necropolitana, Balcis 262 

Nemocardium 311-318, 320 

Neoathleta 285 

Neocene Mollusca of 

Texas 9 

Neospirifer 116, 119 

Neptuneopsis 279, 289 

Neroly formation 323 

New Caledonia 311, 313 

New Jersey 313 

New Mexico 166, 173 

New York 163, 194 

New Scotland 351 

New South Wales 159 

New Zealand 313 

Newell, N. D 75 

Newfoundland 174 

newmanae, Cibicides 51 
nicaraguana. Miscel- 
lanea 30 

nivosa, Aulicina.... 26 275,281 

Nodosaria 51 

notoconstricta, 

Bairdia 30 345 

Notocycloceras 164, 165-168, 

197,202 

Notoplejona 286 

Nucula 73 

Nummulites 27. 29 

nuttalli, Cardium 320 

Clinocardium 320, 323, 327 

Nummulites 29 



obliquus, Quasillites .. 359 

Obolus 157 

obstipa. Balcis .... 24 258,262 

Vitreolina 24 258,262 

Ocala limestone 14 

ocalanus, Operculin- 

oides 2 32-34 

Octonaria 335 

Oderoceras 205 

oepiki. Lebetoceras 18 163, 164, 166, 

200, 201 

Oklahoma 342 

oldroydi. Balcis 262 

Olentangy shale 345 

Oliva 276 

Oliveira Silva, S 76 

de Oliveira. Avelino .. 72, 73 

Olsson. Axel 7,18.271 

Oncograptus 174 



378 



Index 



Liopepluni 285 

liraiuni, Pycno- 

i-eras 23 168,230.231 

Liverniore, California 321 
lobatum. Hardniano- 

ceras 20 164,168,231. 

233, 234 

Lobendoceras 161. 165, 1G7. 

168, 176,215 

Ixjcklin. C. R 276 

loleta. Bakis 24 258,267 

.Melanella 267 

Vitreolina 24 258, 267 

Ixjinita formation 261,263,265 

London Basin 11 

Long Wharf Canyon, 

California 257,258,260 

Longoconcha 289 

Lophophyllum 74 

lorenzanuni, Keenaea 317 

Nemocardium 317. 320 

Lower California 257. 258 

Loxochoanella 161, 164. 165. 

167, 183 

loxochoanitic 153, 171, 

178-180 

Lucas. Capt. A. F 15 

lucerna. Phricodothy- 

ris Ill 

Incite etching tray .... 79 

Luke Hill formation .. 166, 173 

Lyria 280. 281, 283, 

286, 293 

Lyriinae 285,294 

Lyrischapa 286 



M 

macgillavryi, Camer- 
ina 


153,171, 
336 

278, 


SI 


macglameriae, Athe- 
cocvclina 


56 


Pseudophragmina 
macrochoanitic 

Macronotella 

Madiganella 


56 

178, 

180 

,337 

161 


Madruga. Cuba 

madrugaensis, Boldia 
.Maecurii Valley, Bra- 
zil 

-Maestrichtian 


35 

51 

71 
313 


magellanica. Pachy- 

cjTtibiola 

magnifica, Voluta 


,294 
276 



iiiaitlandi, Eothino- 

ceras 16 163, 164, 195, 

197 

nialbertii, Canierina .. 31 

.Mamillana 281, 286 

Manchuria 173 

-Maiuhuroceras 169,218 

manitouense, Kymino- 

ceras 188 

Manlius 17 

-Mann, J. S 182 

•Manual of Geology .... 4, 10 
Maranhao Basin, Bra- 
zil 76 

Maranhao-Piaui Basin 67 

.Marginella 276 

niariannensis, Opercu- 

lina 2 34 

-Martinia 108 

matleyi, Camerina .... 28, 29, 32 

Pellatispirella 1 28, 30, 37 

Maury, C. J 15, 18, 293 

-McConnell, J. C 8 

-McGraw Hall 6, 11 

Meek, F. B ' 74 

Meek, Seth D 4 

meekianum, Clinocar- 

dium 323, 327 

Melanella 259 

Melo 278,280,281, 

282, 287 

Melocorona 25 287, 294 

.Meloides 286 

•Mendes, J. C 76 

Meniscoceras 157,217,219 

-Meridian Lines 15 

-Mesericus 286 

-Metamelon 287 

-Mexico 49 

-Meyer, O n 

-Miami University 358 

micans, Balcis 257, 258, 260 

michelini, Terebra- 

tula 83 

-Microvoluta 279, 290 

-Midway group 49 

Midway stage 13 

niidwayensis, Anomal- 

ina 51 

Discorbis 51 

Giimbelina 51 

niidwayensis soldado- 

cnsis, Discorbis 51 

-Millerella 75 

-Miomelon 289 



■<7<j 



Index 



Ontario, Canada 359 

Operculina 2 27,28,33,34 

Operculinella 34 

Operculinoides .... 1^ 27,28.31-37. 

49 

opik, A. A 153, 155. 202 

opima. Spirifer 115 

opimus, Spirifer 73,115 

orbicularis. Cleiothy- 

ridina 102. 105 

Orbiculoidea 73 

d'Orbigny. A 84.85,277 

Ordovician 153. 336 

Oregon 316, 327 

Orthis 83,100 

Orthoceras 170 

Orthoceras limestone 170 

orthochoanitic 153, 171, 

177-179 

Orthoidea 83 

Orthotetinae 89 

Orthotichia 85, 86 

Orygoceras 186 

Ostracoda 335.336 

Ovuladae [sic] 276 

Oxford. Ohio 358 

Ozarkian 156. 163 

P 

Pacheco, J. A. A 15, 17 

Pachycymbiola 275,278 

Pachycymbiolides 287 

Pachymelon 287 

Paiva. G. de 73 

Pakowki formation .... 313 
Paleontological Re- 
search Institution 

illus 18,19,261, 

263,264,319, 
324 
Paleontological So- 
ciety of America .... 19 

Paleopsephaea 285 

Palmer, D. K 35,37 

Palmer. K. V. W 14, 18, 275, 

292 

Harris Memorial .... 1 

Palomelon 287 

Para State, Brazil .... 73. 78 

Paraendoceras 175 

Parana Basin 67, 76 

Parauari River. Bra- 
zil 72 

Paris Basin 11 



Parnahiba River, Bra- 
zil 73 

Parnahiba Valley, 

Brazil 73 

Parvimitra 288 

Parvivoluta 285 

Patagonia 275 

Patrunky. H 212 

Pavora 285 

Peck. R 335 

pecki. Bairdia 349, 350 

pelargonatus, Tere- 

bratula 89 

Pelecypoda of the St. 
Maurice and Clai- 
borne Stages 12 

Pellatispirella 1 27-37 

pellatispiroides, Cam- 

erina 27, 35 

pellis-serpentis, Vol- 

uta 276 

penniana, Orthis 83 

Rhipidomella 6 83, 84 

Pennsylvanian 75, 339. 340, 

342.343 

peracuta. Pinna 74 

Peritocardinia 83 

Permian 75. 338. 341. 

345 
Permian-Pennsyl- 

vanian boundary .... 75 

perplexa. Martinia .... 112 

Phricodoythyris 11 111. 112 

Reticularia 112 

Spirifer 112 

Squamularia 74. 112 

perplexum. Diastolo- 

ceras 14 164. 167. 187, 

190-192 

Perrine, Irving 15 

perseus, Basslero- 

ceras 221 

perturbatrix. Enaeta 294 
Strigatella (Strig- 

illa in error) 294 

Peru 292 

peruana. Fusulinella .. 76 

Peruluta 284 

petri. Camerina 31 

Petri, S 74 

petrosa, Athleta 292 

Voluta 292 

Volutilithes 26 292 

Volutovetus 26 292 

Phenacoptygma 289 



380 



Index 



Phi Beta Kappa 19 

philippianus, Mio- 

melon 27 291 

Philippines 295 

Philipshurg, Quebec .. 166,173 

Pholidotonia 290 

Phricodothyris Ill 

Piaui Basin. Brazil .... 76 

Piaui State, Brazil .... 73 

Piloceras 169 

Pilsbry, H. A., and 01- 
sson. A. A. 
Systems of the 

Volutidae 271 

Pinna 74 

Piripauan 313 

Pitinga River. Brazil 71 

Plagionephrodes 335, 336, 

354-359 

planata. Camerina .... 32 
planoconvexa, Ambo- 

coelia 74,108,109 

Martinia 108 

Spirifer 108 

plastic screen 79 

Pleasanton Quad., 

California 321 

Pleistocene 212,257.258, 

260.261.326 

Plejona 293 

plexiglass screen 79 

Plummer. F. B 76 

Poirier. .1 279 

Polymorphina 51 

Pomeyrol, Rene 314. 315 

pomeyroli, Ethmocar- 

dium 29 311.314,315 

Granocardium .. 29 311,314,315 

Ponderodictya 335 

Pontotoc County, Ok- 
lahoma 343 

Porters Creek clay .... 49 

Poulsen. C 168, 173 

Powell, .1. W 8 

Pradoceras 198 

praeblandum, Clino- 

cardium 29 321 

Praia Grande, Brazil 71 

Pratulum 316,317 

cf. prefalcata. Balcis 258, 263 

Vitreolina 258 

Prendergast, K. L 155 

priamus, Halia 26 280 

Price, L. 1 76 

Price's Creek, Aus- 



tralia 153-159. 162. 

164. 165. 170, 
200 

prima, Siphonina 51 

priscum. Cyrtendo- 

ceras 212 

prisMnuni, Clinocar- 

dium 29 311.322.323. 

327 

Prodallia 289 

Productus 72 

Productus limestone 70 
proliferum. Lopho- 

phyllum 74 

Proscaphella 289 

Prosser. Chas. S 4 

Protaster 73 

Proterocameroceras .. 161. 164. 165, 

167,168,172, 
175,205 
Proterocamerocera- 

tidae 165 

Protobaltoceras 157, 200 

Protocycloceras 186, 188 

Protremata 83 

Psephaea 280 

pseudofastosum, 

Clinocardium 325 

Pseudophragmina .... 49, 54-56 

Pterospira 281,286 

Ptychoris 290 

pulchella, Lyria .... 27 293 

Sannalyria 27 293 

Punctospirifer 124 

punctulifera. Mac- 

ronotella 30 337 

Punjab, India 70 

Pycnoceras 162, 164. 168, 

172. 174, 230 
pycnopleura. Fal- 

silyria 27 291 

Lyria 291 

Q 

quadragenarium, Car- 

dium 321 

Dallocardia 322 

Trachycardium 322 

quadrigenarium, Car- 

dium 321 

Quasillites 354, 357, 

359-362 

Quasillitidae 359 

Quebecoceras 212 

Queensland 169 



381 



Index 



B 



Rachiglossa 277 

rachiglossate ^J9 

radula ' lA 

radular patterns 280 

Ranikothalia 27, 29, 32 

raymondi, Eulima 

(double pages) 258 

rectidorsalis, Youngia 337 

Youngiella 337 

Reed, F. R. Cowper .. 72 

Reeve. L 294,295 

regularis, Derbyia -.. 91. 92 

Rehder, H. A , 275 

Reinecke, L 15, 17 

Relegamoria 288 

Remele, A 211 

remelei, Cyrtendo- 

ceras 212,214,215 

repens, Kyminoceras 188 
resupinata, Schizo- 

phoria "^3 

Reticulariinae HI 

Retipirula 285 

Rhipidomella 83 

Rhipidomellidae 83 

rhomboideum, Clino- 

cardium 325 

Rhombopora 74 

Rich. J. L 15,17 

Riggi, A. E 276 

Robulus 51 

robusta, Orthis 100 

Rochdale limestone .. 163. 194 

Rock Salt 15 

Rockford. Iowa 342.348.354 

rockfordensis, 

Bairdia 30 347 

rocky-montani. Spiri- 

fer 10,11 115,118,122 

rockymontanus, Spiri- 

fer 115 

roissyi. Cleiothyris .... 72 

Ropolonellidae 352 

Ropolonellus 354 

Rostellaca 289 

Rostellana 289 

Rostellinda 289 

Roundyella 341,342 

royssii, Athyris 100 

Cleithyridina 105 

Cleiothyris 102 

Rudolfoceras 157, 186 

Ruedemann. R 174.212 



Ruedemannoceras .... 161 
rupestris. Fulgo- 

raria 25 283,290 

Russia 75 

rutila. Balcis 257, 258. 262 

rutteni, Camerina 31 

S 

Sabine stage 13 

Sabine Uplift 15 

St. Louis. Missouri .... 335, 359 

Sakhalin Island 325 

Sakmarian 75 

Salines of North 

Louisiana 15 

Salt Range. India 70 

samarangae, Cardium 317 
San Diego Natural 

History Museum .... 260, 263, 265, 

266 
San Jose Quad., Cali- 
fornia 321 

San Pablo group 323 

San Pedro, California 257, 261. 263. 

265,266 
San Quintin Bay, 

California 258 

Sannalyria 27 286, 293 

Sansabella 341 

Santa Clara County, 

California 321 

Santa .Monica, Cali- 
fornia 257,260 

Santo Domingo 293 

Saotomea 286 

Say. Thomas 10 

scabricosta. Puncto- 

spirifer 124 

Scaphella 278,282,283. 

288 

Scaphellides 288 

Scaphellinae 279.287 

Schenck, H. G 312,327 

Schenck. H. G., and 

Keen. A. M 327 

schencki, Trachycar- 

dium 322 

Schindewolf. O. H 176 

Schizophoria 73. 86 

Schizophoriidae 85 

Schmidtella 337 

schmidti. Cyrtocerina 211 

Cyrtendoceras 212, 214 

Endoceras 211 



382 



Index 



Sc'hoonover, Lois M. .. 7 

Schuchert. (' 83 

Schurman. J. G 10 

Schwagerina 74, 100 

Schwaperina lime- 
stone 89 

Schwengel. Jeanne S. 276 
scofieldi, Macrono- 

tella 336 

Scotland 168 

Selection Homestead 

Australia 221 

semiasperum, Car- 

dium 315 

Nen.ocardium .... 29 315 
semireticulatus, Pro- 

ductus 72 

Senescella 357 

Senonian 313 

septal necks 171, 177, 178 

Septati 91,92 

Serra Itauajuri, Bra- 
zil 71 

Serpigo Geologico e 

Mineralogico 72, 73 

sevierense, Allopilo- 

ceras 211 

shell form 171 

Shell Ridge. Califor- 
nia 321, 323 

Shideler. W. H 336,358 

shideleri, Plagione- 

phrodes 31 357-359 

Shimizu, S., and 

Obata. T 186 

shinjiense, Clinocar- 

dium 325 

shiobarense, Clinocar- 

dium 325 

Sigal, J 29 

Sigma Gamma Ep- 

silon 19 

Sigma Xi 19 

sigmoidalis. Strepula 353 

Sigmomorphina 51 

Silinites 346 

Silurian 344 

Simonds, Frederick 

W 4 

simplicissimus, 

Roundyella 341 

Singleton. O. P 156 

Singley, J. A 9 

siphonal canal 279 

Siphonina 51 



sipliuncU' 171 

Slodkewich. W. S 325 

Smith. Ernest R 7 

Smithsonian Institu- 
tion 7, 10 

Sinitliville formation 166 
smithvillense. Ky- 

minoceras 188 

Snyder Creek forma- 
tion 354 

Societe de Recherche 
et d'Exploitation de 
Petrole en Nou- 

velle-Caledonie 315 

Societe Geologique de 

France 11.19 

Societe Geologique 

Suisse 19 

soldadensis, Atheco- 

cyclina 56 

-Miscellanea 37,49.52 

Operculinoides 37 

Pseudophragmina .. 56 

Ranikothalia 52 

soldadensis calebard- 
ensis, Athecocy- 

clina 56 

Pseudophragnnna .. 56 
soldadoensis, Discor- 

bis 51 

Sigmomorphina 51 

Sowerby. G. B 293 

sowerbji, Enaeta 27 290 

Spanodonta 155 

speciosum, Cardium .. 312 

Ethmocardium 312 

Spindle Top, Texas .. 15 

Spinovina 362 

Spirifer 73. 74, 108. 

114 

Spiriferacea 100 

Spiriferidae 107 

Spiriferina 124 

Spiriferinae 114 

Spiriferinidae 124 

Spiriferininae 124 

Squamularia "4, 111 

Stanford University .. 261.263.264, 

266. 319.324 

Stanton formation ... 341 

Stanton, T. W 10 

steanei, .Manchuro- 

ceras 218 

stearnsi, Arcto- 

melon 27 290 



3S3 



Index 



Steinmann, G 85 

stephensoni, Atheco- 

cyclina 5 49, 54, 55 

Discocyclina 54 

Pseudophragmina 5 49, 54, 55 
Stewart. G. A., and 

Hendrix, W. E 341,345 

Stewart, R 312 

Stoliczka, F 312 

Stoneman, Clara 6 

Stoyanow, A. A 75, 89, 91, 

100, 118, 123 
Strathaven, Great 

Britain 107 

Streptorhynchus 89, 91 

Strepula 352 

striatoreticulata, 

Camerina 2 31 

striatus, Anomites ... 114 
Strigatella (Strigilla 

should read) 294 

Strigilla (error for 

Strigatella) 294 

Strombiformis 259 

Strophomenidae 89 

study opaque sections 181 
subalternatum, Car- 

dium 313 

subangulata, Gyroi- 

dina 51 

subcircularis, Bertil- 

lonella 337 

subfamilies Volutidae 

key 290 

subholochoanitic 153, 171. 

178-180 

sublamellosa, Athyris 101 

rieithyridina 105 

suborthochoanitic 153, 178, 179 

subparallella. Bairdia 346 
subquadrata, Eugly- 

phella 31 353 

subtilla, Bairdia .... 30 346 

Suecoceras 169 

Swainson. Wm 276 

Sweden 211 

Sycospira 286 

Sylvia Creek, Wash- 
ington 324 

T 

Taholah, Washington 319 

Taio 76 

talboti, Apocrino- 

ceras 14 164. 167. 221 



Tapajos Beds 78 

Tapajos limestone .... 78 

Tapajos River. Brazil 69, 77 

tapajotensis, Derbya 96 

Derbyia 99 

Orthotetes 96 

Streptorhynchus .... 95, 96 

Tapajotia 8,9 95, 98 

Tapajotia 95 

Tarmo, Peru 73 

Tarphyceratida 160, 162, 219. 

223 

Tarr, Ralph S 6 

Tasmania 169 

Tassajero Creek, Cali- 
fornia 323 

Tectiplica 285 

Teichert, C 157,154,169, 

175, 218 
Teichert, C. and Glen- 

ister. Brian 147, 155, 157, 

169,176 
Teichert. C, and 
Glenister. Brian. 
Early Ordovician 
Cephalopod Fauna 
from Northwestern 

Australia 147 

Telotremata 100 

Teramachia 280,289 

Terebratula 83, 89 

Teremelon 287 

teretilobatum. Thyla- 

coceras 20 164,167,199 

Terezina. Brazil 73 

Ternivoluta 285 

tersa. Balcis 24 257, 261 

Texas 313 

thersites. Balcis 258,265 

Vitreolina 258 

thetidis, Pratulum .... 316 

Thlipsuridae 354 

Thompson, M. L 75 

Thylacoceras 155. 164, 

165-167, 
176.197-199 

Thylacoceratidae 165, 167 

Titicaca 76 

tobleri. Miscellanea .. 27, 35 
toriii [sio]. Nemocar- 

dium 316 

Tormey. California .... 323 

Tornatella 276 

tornatilis. Voluta 276 

torticone 227 



384 



Index 



Trac'hvcardium 


322 


Tracy. T. A 


17 


Traite de Paleon- 




tologie 


29 


transversa, Puncto- 




spirifer 12 


125-127 


Spirifer 


125 


Spiriferina 


125 


trapezoides. Beecher- 




ella 30 


351 


Treniadocian 


156 


Trenton 


157, 169 


Triticites 


75 


Trinidad 


18.49 


trispinosa, Aechmin- 




ella 


342 


tristiculum. Arcto- 




pratulum 


318 


N'emocardium 


318 


trochoceroid 


227 


trojana, Bairdia 


348 


Trombetas River, 




Brazil 


70 


Troschel, F. H., and 




Hscher. P 


279 


Trumbull, E. J 


312 


Tschernyschew, Th. .. 


89,91,100 


Turonian 


313 


Turridae 


18 


turriliticone 


227 


typa. Kirkbyella 


340 


typica. Microvoluta 27 


291 



Tnited States Na- 
tional Museum . 



u 

Ulrich, E. O., Foerste, 

A. F., and Miller. 

A. K 212 

Ulrich. E. 0., Foerste, 

A. F., Miller, A. K., 

and Furnish. W. M. 166 

Ulrich. E. O.. Foerste, 

A. F.. Miller, A. K., 

and Unklesbay, 

A. G 163,173.186, 

194,220 
ulrichi. Enclimato- 

ceras 13 

Ulrichia 335 

uninodusus. Plagione- 

phrodes 354.355 

Union Springs, New 

York 17 

United States Geo- 
logical Survey 8 



... 260,261,263. 
264,266,275, 
319. 324,337. 
339-341, 
344-346 
University of Califor- 
nia 321,323,324 

University of Cincin- 
nati 77, 78 

University of Mel- 
bourne 156,182 

University of Wes- 
tern Australia 155, 183, 189. 

195,208 
Upper Productus 

limestone 91 

Uralian 73, 74 

Urals 89, 91, 100 

urei, Spirifer 107 

ursaniense, Cardium 313 

Ethmocardium 313, 315 

Granocardium 313, 315 

Urupadi River 72 

Utoceras 205 

T 

Vacuum Oil Pty. Ltd. 155 

Valvulineria 51 

Vancouver Island .... 326 

vanderstoki, Camerina 31 

variolaria, Cam- 
erina 2 31 

Vaughan, T. W 31,33 

Vaughan, T. W., 

and Cole, W. S 29, 30 

Veatch, A. C 14, 15 

Venezuela 49, 56 

ventrale, Monocera- 

tina 343 

ventricosa, Voluto- 

pupa 26 281 

Ventroloboceras 164, 165, 197, 

203 

vernicosum, Calliotec- 

tum 27 290 

vespertilio. Auli- 

cina 26 281 

Voluta 276 

vicksburgensis, Oper- 

culinoides 1^ 32,33,34 

Visean 72 

Vitreolina 258, 259. 

260-267 



385 



Index 



Voluta 275,276 

Volutadae [sic] 276 

Voluticella 285 

Volutifusus 288 

Volutilithes 282,285,293 

Volutilithinae 284 

Volutinae 284 

Volutoconus 287 

Volutocorbis 279, 280, 285 

Volutocorona 26 287,295 

Volutocristata 285 

Volutoderminae 289 

Volutofusus 280 

Volutolyria 283, 284 

Volutomitra 280. 290 

Volutomitrinae 290 

Volutomorpha 289 

Volutopupa 281, 285 

Volutospina 281, 285 

Volutovetus 26 285, 292 

Volvaria 276 

W 

Waagen, W 70,91,92 

Wade, E 155 

Wagner, F 326 

Waihaoia 287 

Walcott, C. D 8 

Walnut Creek, Cali- 
fornia 321,323 

Wapanucka limestone 343 
waj'burtoni, Loxocho- 

anella 15 164,167,183 

Washington 311,324.325 

Washington Univer- 
sity 335,359 

Wayland shale 340 

waynense, Nemocar- 

dium 316 

Weaver. Chas. E 319, 327 

weaveri, Nemocar- 

dium 316,320 

Weisbord, N. E 18 

welleri, Cardium 313 

Ethmocardium 312,313,315 

Granocardium 315 

Wells, J. W 18 

wenonah, Cardium .... 313 

Werner, C 359 

werneri, Plagione- 

phrodes 31 354,358,359 

Westenoceras 222 

Western Australia .... 154, 162, 173 

Westonoceras 222 



Wheeler, H. E 

White. C. A 

White. David 

whitei, (^ardium 

Ethmocardium 

Granocardium 

Whitney, Francis L. .. 
Wichitoceras 


10 

8 

4 

312,313 

313 

315 

9,15. 17 

173, 232 


Widder beds 

Wilcox stage 

wilcoxensis, Robulus 
Valvulineria 


359 
13 
51 
51 


willcoxi, Nummulites 
Operculinoides .. 1,2 

Williams. Henry S 

Williamsburg, Mis- 
souri 


32 

32 

4,8,13 

354 


Winckworth, R 

Wishkah River, Wash- 
ington 


259 
319,325 


Wolfcampian 


75 


Wolford. ,1 

woodsi, Cardium 

Ethmocardium 

Granocardium 

Woodsiluta 


336 

313 

313,315 

315 

284 


Woodsivoluta 

Wynoochee River, 
Washington 


292 
319 


X 




Xenostegium 


156 



Yakataga formation .. 326 
yakatagense, Clino- 

cardium 326 

yakatagensis, Cardium 326 

Yarbichambi 74 

Youngia 337 

Youngiella 337 

Youngiella ? sp 30 337 

Youngiellidae 337 

vurabiense, Notocy- 

cloceras 18,19 164. 166. 167, 

202 



Zebramoria 

Zidona 

Zidonides .. 



288 
287 
287 



386 



X\ll. (Nos. 7.*{-7«»). oTiO i)i)., ;il pis y.uo 

I'uleiizoif raleontolojuy and Tertiary Foraiiiinifera. 

XXIir. (N'os. 77.70). 251 pp., 35 pis 7.00 

Corals, Cretaceous inicrofauna and biography of Con- 
rad. 

XXIV. (Xos. S0.S7). 334 pp., 27 pis 9.00 

.Mainlv Paleozoic- faunas and Tertiary Mollusca. 

XXV. (N«»s. SS-JHB). 30(5 pp.. 30 pis 8.00 

Paleozoic fossils of Ontario, Oklahoma and Colombia, 
Mesozoic echinolds, California Pleistocene and Mary- 
land Miocene niollusks. 

XXVI. (X<»s. 9:>-l<)(l). 420 pp., 5S pis 10.00 

Florida Recent ma line shells, Texas Cretaceous fos- 
sils, Cuban and Peruvian Cretaceous, Peruvian Eo- 
gene corals, and geology and paleontology of Ecua- 
dor. 

XXVII. (Xos. 1(11-108). 376 pp., 36 pis ...„ 9.50 

Tertiary Mollusca, Paleozoic cephalopods, Devonian 
fish and Paleozoic geologv and fossils of Venezuela. 

XXVIII. (Xos. 109-114). 412 pp., 54 pis 9.75 

Paleozoic cephalopods, Devonian of Idaho, Cretaceous 
and Eocene mollusks, Cuban and Venezuelan forams. 

XXIX. (Xos. 115-116). 738 pp., 52 pis 12.00 

Bowden forams and Ordovician cephalopods. 

XXX. (Xo. 117). 563 pp., 65 pis ^..,.,..J. .^ 11.00 

Jackson Eocene mollusks. 

XXXI. (Xos. 118-128). 45S pp.. 27 pis 10.00 

Venezuelan and California mollusks, Chemung and 
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Silurian cephalopods, crinoid studies. Tertiary forams, 
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Devonian annelids. Tertiary mollusks, Ecuadoran 
stratigraphy and paleontology. 

XXXIV. (Xos. 140-14.")). 400 pp., 19 pis 9.00 

Trinidad Globigerinidae, Ordovician Enopleura. Tas- 
manian Ordovician cephalopods and Tennessee Or- 
dovician ostracods, and conularid bibliography. 

XXXY. (Xos. 14«-1.>4). 386 pp., 31 pis 9.80 

G. D. Harris memorial, camerinid and Georgia Paleo- 
cene Foraminifera, South American Paleozoics, Aus- 
tralian Ordovician cephalopods. California Pleisto- 
cene Eulimidae, Volutidae, <'ardiidae, and Devonian 
ostracods from Iowa. 
XXXYI. (Xo. 155-) 

Globotruncana in Colombia 

Pai.aeontographica Amfricana 

Volume I. (Xos. 1-5). 519 pp., 75 pis. 

Monographs of Areas, Lutetia, rudistids and venerids. 

II. (Xos. 6-12). .531 pp., 37 pis IS. 00 

Heliophyllum halli. Tertiary turrids. Neocene Spon- 
dyli. Paleozoic cephalopods. Tertiary Fasciolarias 
and Paleozoic and Recent He.xactinellida. 

III. (Xos. 13-25). 513 pp., 61 pis iD.oo 

Paleozoic cephalopod structure and phylogeny, Paleo- 
zoic siphonophores, Busycon, Devonian fish studies, 
gastropod studies. Carboniferous crinoids, Creta- 
cpotis iellyfish, Platystrophia, and Venericardia. 



('oNl;KNSEl) TaBLK of CONTENTS OF BULLETINS OF AMERICAN 

Paleontology and Palaeonto(;raphica Americana 

bulletins of AMERICAISI PALEONTOLOGY 



Volume I. 

II. 

III. 

IV. 

V. 

VI. 
VII. 

VIII. 

IX. 

X. 

XI. 

XII. 

XIII. 
XIV. 

XV. 

XVI. 

XVII. 

XVIII. 

XIX. 

XX. 

XXI. 



N'os. l-r>). 354 pp. 32 pis. 

Mainly Tertiary Alollusca. 
Xos. 6-10). 347 pp., 23 pis : $12.00 

Tertiary Mollusca and Foraminifera, Paleozoic faunas. 
Xos. 11-15). 402 pp., 29 pis. 

]\Iainly Tertiary Mollusca and Paleozoic sections and 
faunas. 
Xos. 16-21). 161 pp., 26 pis 7.00 

Mainly Tertiary Mollusca and Paleozoic sections and 
faunas. 
Xos. 22-30). 437 pp.. 68 pis 9.00 

Tertiary fossils mainly Santo Domingan, Mesozoic and 
Paleozoic fossils. 
Xo. 31). 268 pp.. 59 pis 10.00 

Claibornian Eocene pelecypods. 
No. 32). 730 pp., 99 pis 12.00 

Claibornian Eocene scaphopods, gastropods, and 

cephalopods. 
\os. 33-36). 357 pp.. 15 pis 7.00 

Mainlv Tertiary Mollusca. 
Xos. 37-39). 462 pp., 35 pis 7.00 

Tertiary Mollusca mainlv from Costa Rica. 
Nos. 40-12). 382 pp., 54 pis 9.00 

Tertiary forams and mollusks mainly from Trinidad 
and Paleozoic fossils. 
Xos. 43-46). 272 pp., 41 pis 9.00 

Tertiary, Mesozoic and Paleozoic fossils mainly from 
Venezuela. 
Nos. 47-48). 494 pp., 8 pis 7.00 

Venezuela and Trinidad forams and Mesozoic inverte- 
brate bibliography. 
Xos. 49-50). 264 pp., 47 pis 7.00 

Venezuelan Tertiary Mollusca and Tertiary Mammalia. 
Xos. 51-54). 306 pp.. 44 pis 10.00 

Mexican Tertiary forams and Tertiary mollusks of 
Peru and Colombia. 
\os. 55-58). 314 pp., 80 pis 10.00 

Mainly Ecuadoran, Peruvian and Mexican Tertiary 
forams and mollusks and Paleozoic fossils. 
Xos. 59-61). 140 pp.. 48 pis 5.00 

Venezuela and Trinidad Tertiary Mollusca. 
Xos. 62-63). 283 pp., 33 pis 8.00 

Peruvian Tertiary Mollusca. 
Nos. 64-67). 286 pp., 29 pis 8.00 

Mainly Tertiary Mollusca and Cretaceous corals. 
No. 68). 272 pp., 24 pis 8.00 

Tertiary Paleontology, Peru. 
Nos. 69-701.'). 266 pp., 26 pis 8.00 

Cretaceous and Tertiary Paleontology of Peru and 
Cuba. 
Nos. 71-72). 321 pp., 12 pis 8.50 

Paleozoic Paleontology and Stratigraphy. 



Date Due 



JUL 6 2004 



Harvard MCZ Library 

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