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Full text of "Bulletins of American paleontology"

ni^ 



HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



« 




LIBRARY 

OF THE 

Museum of Comparative Zoology 



1.,^ 



BULLETINS 

OF 

AMERICAN 
PALEONTOLOGY 



VOL. XXXVI 



1955-1956 



Paleontological Research Institution 

Ithaca, New York 

U. S. A. 



MDS. COMP. ZOOL 
UBfiRY 

OCT 19 1956 



i — ^ 



Conrnus of N'oliimc XXXVI 



Riilletin No. Plates Pages 

l:i5. The (■Mills (^lohotninciiiiii in \ortheaslerii 
Coloiiihiii 
Rolanrio Gandolfi 1-10 1-llS 

156. The Eocene Fishes of Aliibaina 

Enol I. White -11 119-152 

157. Xen Fossils from the Cnnadiaii-Chsi/ynii 

(()r<lo> ieiaii) Hiatus in 'I'ennessee 

Kenneth E. (aster and H. K. Brooks .... 12-23 153-195) 

15S. Janiaicun Largrer Foraminffera 

W. Storrs Cole '. 24-31 200-233 

159. The Genera Miscellanea and Pellatisni- 

relLi 
W. Storrs Cole 32-33 234-254 

160. The Foraniinifera of the YorktoAvn Forma- 

tion in the York-James Peninsula of 
Virginia, with notes <»n the Associ- 
ated .Hollusks 
James D. McLean, Jr 34-53 255-394 

Index 395-414 



(0P.ZOOt 
OCT 19 1356 



IWVERSITY 



BULLETINS 

^ OF 

AMERICAN 
PALEONTOLOGY 



VOL. XXXVI 



NUMBER 155 



1955 



MiJS. COJilP. ZOOL 

LIBRARY 
Jff 2 1955 

HARVARD 
Ui^lVERSlTY 



Paleontological Research Institution 

Ithaca, New York 

U. S. A. 



PALEONTOLOGIGAL RESEARCH INSTITUTION 

1954-55 

President Ralph A. Liddle 

Vice-President ..Solomon C. Hollister 

Secretary-Treasurer Rebecca S. Harris 

Director Katherine V. W. Palmer 

Counsel Armand L. Adams 

Trustees 

Kenneth E. Caster (1954-1960) Katherine V. W. Palmer (Life) 

W. Storrs Cole (1952-58) Ralph A. Liddle (1950-56) 

Rousseau H. Flower (1950-55) Axel A. Olsson (Life) 

Rebecca S. Harris (Life) Norman E. Weisboro (1951-57) 

Solomon C. Hollister (1953-59) 



BULLETINS OF AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY 

and 
PALAEONTOGRAPHICA AMERICANA 

Katherine V. W. Palmer, Editor 
Lempi H. Sincebaugh, Secretary 

Editorial Board 
Kenneth E. Caster G. Winston Sinclair 



Complete titles and price list of separate available numbers may be had 
on application. All volumes available except Vols. I and HI of Bulletins and 
Vol. I of Palaeontographica Americana. 



Paleontological Research Institution 

109 Dearborn Place 

Ithaca, New York 

U.S.A. 



BULLETINS 

OF 

AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY 



Vol. 36 



No. 155 



THE GENUS GLOKOTKUXCANA Df 
NORTHEASTEHX C0L03IBIA 

By 

Rolando Gandolfi 



September 13, 1955 



Paleontological Research Institution 
Ithaca, New York, U.S.A. 



Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: GS 55-99 



Printed in the United States of America 



"mos. comp. zool 

LIBRARY 

ISEP 2 19551 

HARVARD 

UNIVERSITY 



CONTENTS 



Page 



.\listract , 7 

Introduction 7 

Acknowledgment 8 

(jraphic and stratigraphic occurrences 8 

Description of species 13 

Globotruncana linnri group 16 

Lappaicnti branch 17 

Tricarinata branch ^ 20 

I'rntrirosa branch 22 

Comments on the phylogenetic development of the linnri group 23 

Globotruncana bulloidcs group 29 

M ar<jinata branch 29 

Bulloidcs branch 32 

Naussi branch 34 

Comments on the phylogenetic development of the bulloidcs group 36 

Globotruncana fornicata group 38 

Fornicata-plummcrac branches 40,42 

Cesar ctisis branch 45 

Calicifortnis branch 46 

Dijf or mis-inter mcdia-citac branches 48 

Contusa branch 53 

Comments on the phylogenetic development of the fornicata group 55 

Globotruncana thalmanni group 58 

Crctacea branch 60 

Area branch 62 

Stuarti-rosctta branches 64,66 

Gansscri-ivirdrnmaycri branches -... 69 

Comments on the phylogenetic development of tlie thalmanni group 74 

Comments — Genetical development of Globotruncana 77 

Lines of investigation 77 

Origin and early development of the genus „ 81 

Rotalipora subgenus 83 

Globotruncana subgenus 84 

The "gloliigerinization" of Globotruncana 87 

General rules on the development of Globotruncana 89 

Ecology and races 93 

General conclusions 93 

Stratigraphic considerations 95 

Key for the determination of Globotruncana ~. 98 

Bibliography 108 

Plates Ill 



Text Figures Page 

1. Index map of northeastern Colombia, siiowing location of sections 
and wells 10 

2. Columnar sections with stratigraphic distribution of Globotrun- 
cana 12 

3. Globotruncana lapparetiti longilocula, n. subsp., 60X. showing the 
rapid increase in size of the chambers. S. 9168. Manaure shale 
{Marginulina jonesi) 18 

4. Comparative view of Globotruncana of the linnet group 19 

la-b. Git. imbricata Mornod, 1949 (text fig. 5/1,11), Cenomanian, 

Suisses. 
2a-b. Git. canaliculata (Reuss, 18 54, pi. 26, fig. 4), Cenomanian ? — 

Coniacian, Austria. 
3a-b. Git. indica Jacob and Sastry, 1950 (fig. 2), Cenomanian, India. 
4a-b. Git. linnei (d'Orbigny, 1839, pi. 5, fig. 10-12), age ?, Cuba. 
5a-b. Git. linnei Gandolfi, 1942 (text fig. 16 2a-c), equivalent to Git. 

lapparenti coronata BoUi, Turonian, south Switzerland. 
6a-b. Git. linnei Gandolfi, 1942, (pi. 3, fig. 3)=Glt. lapparenti lap- 
parenti Bolli, Turonian, south Switzerland. 
7a-b. Git. lapparenti lapparenti Cita, 1948 (pi. 4, fig. 2), Turonian- 

Maestrichtian, Tignale, north Italy. 
8a-b. Git. lapparenti longilocula, n. subsp., Manaure shale {Marginulina 

jonesi), Colombia, S. A. 
9a-b. Git. canaliculata Cushman, 1946 (not Reuss), pi. 61, fig. 17a-c, 

Annona chalk, Texas. 
lOa-b. Git. mayaroensis Bolli, Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea zone, 

Colombia, S.A. 

5. 

la-c. Git. tricarinata colombiana, showing radial, depressed umbilical 
sutures in the early chambers of the last volution and slightly 
inflated roof of chambers. S. 5591. Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea 
zone; X60 21 

2a-c. Git. tricarinata colombiana ?; notice extreme development of last 
chambers. S. 5606, Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea zone; X60. 

6. Comparative view of Globotruncana of the tricarinata branch 23 
la-b. Git. tricarinata Cita, 1948 (pi. 4, fig. 4). Turonian-Maestrichtian, 

Tignale Nord, Italy. 
2a-b. Git. tricarinata Cushman, 1936, (Pi. 61, fig. IS), St. Johann, Bavaria, 

Germany. 
3a-h. Git. tricarinata Mornod, 1949 (fig. 12/2a-c) which is probably a 

Git. ventricosa ventricosa (White), Santonian, Prealpes Suisses. 
4a-b. Git. tricarinata colombiana. Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea zone, 

Colombia, S. A. 

7. Evolutive line Globotruncana marginata austinensis, n. subsp., 
(Rugoglobigerina) belJingi belJingi, n. sp., n. subsp. All specimens 
from the same level. S. 5587, 60X. Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea 
zone 30 



la-c. Git. miiri/iiiattt tiustutrnsis. n. Mih^j). ; notice small >i/e of the 
specimen which is faintly hut completely keeled. 

2a-c. Same as above, however, showing chambers more inflated. 

3a-c. (Ruyoi/lohu/frina) hflJiiuii subhrlJuK/i, n. sp., n. subsp., partially 
keeled in the earlv chambers of the last volution. 

4a-c. {Rugoijlohiynina) hclJingi brlJitu/i, n. sp., n. subsp., showinjj only 
faint rugosity at place where keels disappear. 

8. (Rugof/lohu/rrina) prtaloiJrti suhf>rtaloidra, n. sp., n. subsp.; 
showing faint keel and hantkeninoid spines in the early chambers 
of the last volution. 8. 5595. Colon shale, Pullcriia cretacea zone; 
X60 S3 

9. Drawings 1-4 show morphological line Git. fornicata manaurensis, 
n. subsp. Git. caliciformis caluiformis (de Lapparent). All figures 
X45 57 

la-c. Git. fornicata manaurensis, n. subsp. (from PI. 2, fig. 1). 

2a-c. Git. fornicata manaurensis, n. subsp. S. 9164. Manaurc shale 
(Marginulina jonrsi) ; showing intermediate characters. 

3a-c. Git. caliciformis caliciformis (de Lapparent). S. 9164. Manaure 
shale (Marginulina jonrsi); showing beaded sutures in early 
chambers but still subcircular periphery. 

4a-c. Git. caliciformis caliciformis (de Lapparent), from pi. 3, fig. 1, 
showing well-developed petaloid chambers. Notice nearly straight 
apertural lips in primitive forms, which become arched in more 
evolved types. 

5a-c. Git. intermedia intermedia (Belli). S. 5881. Bottom of Colon shale 
(Pullenia cretacea zone) ; showing raised umbilical sutures and 
intermediate characteristic with Git. fornicata manaurensis and 
Git. caliciformis caliciformis. 

10. Git. rosctta rosetia (Carsey) showing depressed umbilical sutures 
with "bourrelet sutural" partially disappearing. S. 5602. Colon 
shale, upper Pullenia cretacea zone; X60 67 

11. Comparative view of cleaned umiiilical sides of: 

a. Git. rosctta pettcrsi, n. subsp. S. 5587. Colon shale, Pullenia 
cretai ca zone 69 

b. Git. gansseri gansscri (Bolli). S. 5607. Colon shale, Pullenia 
cretacea zone 69 

c. (Rugogl.) rugosa rugosa (Plummer). S. 5607. Colon shale, 
Pullenia cretacea zone 69 

All drawings X60. 

12. Theoretic case of a dichotomic evolution. Species A is evolving 
toward species B and C. Dashed area indicates zone of mixed 
characteristics between A, B, and C; dark dotted areas, mixed 
zones between .\, B, and A, C; light dotted area, mixed zone be- 
tween B and C (no evolution between li and C) 79 



IK GKNUS GLOBOTRUNCANA IN NORTHEASTERN 
COLOMBIA 

Rolando Ganoolu* 



ABSTRACT 

This paper deals with the occurrence, distribution, and development of the 
genus Glohotnincana in northeastern Colombia. 

Thirty-eight species and subspecies of the genus Globutruricana are des- 
cribed and assigned to the subgenus Glohotruncana. Three species and twenty 
subspecies of them are new. Tw'enty-two species and subspecies of forms 
reminiscent of Glohigcrina with partially or not developed keels are described 
as closely related to Glohotruncana along many phylogenetic lines. Three species 
and eleven subspecies of them are new. These forms are included under Rugo- 
globu/rrina Bronnimann, 1952, which is used, however, in a broad sense with 
a slightly modified definition and considered as a subgenus of Glohotrun- 
cana, like Ticinclla, Thalmanninclla, and Rotalipora. 

INTRODUCTION 

This paper deals with the genus Globotruncana in northeastern 
Colombia, its occurrence, and stratigraphic distribution. The study 
is of particular interest, primarily since the genus Globotruncana 
is becoming more and more important due to its wide geographic 
distribution and its rapid tempo of evolution; secondly, there is a 
fair opportunity to check, by help of widely distributed pelagic 
genera, the local stratigraphy of Colombia, the Upper Cretaceous 
age of which is based on benthonic forms (Cushman and Hedberg, 
1941). 

Regarding the genus Globotruncayia, there is no previous record 
of its occurrence in Colombia, with the exception of Git. jornicata 
Plummer mentioned by Cushman and Hedberg, 1941. 

In Europe the genus was thoroughly investigated during recent 
years with the aim of obtaining finer stratigraphic subdivisions and 
recognizing, as far as possible, the morphologic and genetic rela- 
tionship between the steadily increasing number of new species. 
Brotzen, 1942, and Sigal, 1948, named respectively the genera Rotal- 
ipora and Thalmanninella. These were considered by Reichel, 1949, 
as subgenera of Globotruncana along with the new subgenus Tici- 
nella which he erected. The importance of Globotruncana, s.l. as a 
time marker and its interest as paleontologic evidence for evolution 
has been recognized over the world. 

♦Formerly with International Petroleum (Colombia) Ltd., Bogota, Colom- 
bia, S.A. At present consulting geologist in Italy. 



Bulletin 155 



In America the most notable advance in the study of distribu- 
tion and development of Glohotruncana is seen in the recent paper 
issued by Bolli, 1951, based on the Glohotruncana fauna of Trinidad. 

Thirty-eight species and subspecies of the genus Glohotruncana, 
twenty-three of which are new, are described in the paper and 
assigned to the subgenus Globotruncatia. Twenty-two species and 
subspecies of forms reminiscent of Globigerina, with partially or 
no developed keels, have also been described as closely related to 
Glohotruncana along many phylogenetic lines. Of these, three species 
and eleven subspecies are new. These forms are included under 
Rugoglohigerina Bronnimann, 1952, which, however, is used in a 
broad sense with a slightly modified defmition and considered as a 
subgenus of Glohotruncana, as are Thalmanninella, Ticinella, and 
Rotalipora. No complete systematic study of the abundant "Glohi- 
gerinai" population has been carried out, since it was thought to be 
beyond the scope of the paper. Therefore, the possibility exists that 
other similar forms may still be present in our material. 

These 38 forms were first arranged in groups based on certain 
morphological similarities. Each of them is believed to represent a 
unit with a common genetic development. 

The groups were in turn subdivided into branches, whenever 
branches were recognized or postulated. Each of the branches has, 
or is believed to have, generally the value of a direct line. Ob- 
viously, the scientific value of such subdivisions will be, for each 
case, carefully discussed and their paleontologic evidence verified. 

No attempt is made here to place a systematic value on the 
group or its branches; these divisions only represent forms which ap- 
pear to be related based on the study to date. 

The classification and delimitation of species and subspecies 
in the present material is felt to be more artificial than usual since 
frequently one form grades into another without any apparent sharp 
break in the morphologic line. Consequently, nomenclatural units 
were created only when a sufficient number of specimens with 
common characteristics allowed fixing, even if artificially, some 
limits of variability between the single species and/or subspecies. 



Globotruncana in Coi-omiua: (Ianuoi.m 



The study has been carried out withui the hunts of detail 
allowed by the routine work of practical paleontology. A systematic 
study of the apertures was, therefore, not attempted, although it 
would have been advisable in many cases. Nevertheless, the fair 
preservation of the material and the possibility of occasionally 
cleaning the imibilical cavity in some specimens provided for a 
fair amount of information. The holotypes of the new species and 
new subspecies described hereui have been deposited m the Paleonto- 
logical Research Institution cf Ithaca, New York; topotypes at 
the Museo Geologico of Bogota. Specmiens of species not described 
as new in the text are deposited with the collection of the Micropal- 
eontological Laboratory of the International Petroleum (Colombia), 
Limited. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

Acknowledgment is given to the directors of International 
Petroleum (Colombia), Ltd., who kindly authorized the publica- 
tion of the paper and gave financial help toward the cost of the 
plates. The writer feels greatly indebted to his friend, V. Petters, 
head of the Intercol's Paleontological Laboratory, for his interest 
and readiness to discuss some of the more important arguments of 
the study. Thanks are due also to Mr. H. BoUi, Paleontologist of 
Trinidad Leaseholds, Limited, for topotypc material of Trinidad; 
Mr. B. F. Ellis, head of the Micropaleontological Department of the 
American Museum of Natural History; Professor M. Reichel, head 
of the Paleontological Department of the Geological Institute of 
Basel, Switzerland; Professor A. Desio, head of the Geological In- 
stitute of Milan, Italy; Messrs. C. P^miliani of the Walker Museum 
of Chicago, and A. R. Loeblich, Jr., of the United States National 
Museum of Washington, D. C, who contributed comparative ma- 
terial to the writer. 



GEOGRAPHIC AND STRATIGRAPHIC OCCURRENCES 

I he material was derived entirely from the northeastern part of 
Colombia, where marine Upper Cretaceous sediments are well 
developed in open sea facies: the Rancheria and Cesar Valleys. 



10 



Bulletin 155 




INDEX MAP OF NORTHEASTERN COLOMBIA 

SHOWING LOCATION OF SECTIONS AND WELLS 
FIG. I 



Fig. 1. Index map of northeastern Colombia, showing location of sections and 



wells. 



Three surface sections and two wells have supplied the greatest 
quantity of the material. The sections are: 

1. Manaure Section: Cesar Valley, Rio Manaurc, 10() km. east- 
southeast of the town of La Paz: 60 m. of thin-hedded brown shale 
weathering gray (Manaure shale, occurrence of Marginulina jonesi). 



Globotruncana in Colombia: Gandolfi 11 



2. Molino Section: Cesar Valley, Rio Molino, 20() km. noitii- 
cast of the town of Villaiuieva; 70 m. of Manaure shale uiulerlyin^ 
5(X) m. of soft green silty shale (Colon formation: PuUenia cretacea 
and Siphogcncrinoides bramlettei zones). 

3. Km. 92 Section: Rancheria Valley, Fonseca — Rio Hacha 
road, 400 km. northeast of the town of Fonseca; a few meters of 
calcareous, siliceous shale (Manaure ?) underlymg 175 m. of Colon 
formation. 

The wells are: 

1. Papayal ^pl^ ^^^ ^^'TI- north-northeast Fonseca. 

2. Cerrejon #1, 200 km. east of Papayal 4^1. 

The best and most fossdiferous material was obtained from the 
Km. 92 section (Colon shale) and Papayal :^1 (Colon shale). 
In general, the occurrence of Globotruncana is more frequent to 
the north, and locally (wells Cerrejon ^1 and Papayal #1) from 
east to west in accordance with the facies change toward more open 
sea conditions. This is especially true of, and is limited to, the lower 
Colon shale {Ptdlenia cretacea zone), where the frequence of Globo- 
truncana follows and marks the ingression of the sea from the north. 
In the upper Colon shale, the population of Globotruncana decreases 
rapidly and disappears completely, corresponding to the progressive 
development of more brackish conditions at the end of the Creta- 
ceous. 

In the Manaure shale, the Globotruncana population is scarce 
and poorly preserved. In the underlying beds a uniform Globigerina- 
Guembelina-^?iA\o\-a.v\d assemblage is usually all that is present in 
Colombia. 

The study is confined, therefore, to the lower part of the Colon 
formation (PuUenia cretacea zone) and only a few observations 
were possible for the upper portion (Siplwgenerinoides bramlettei 
zone) for the underlying Manaure shale. 

The stratigraphic results are consequently considered as indi- 
cative. Regarding the local stratigraphic subdivision, it is to be 
noted that respectively the Manaure shale, the PuUenia cretacea 
zone, the Siphogenerinoides bramlettei zone are considered Conia- 
cian, Campanian, and Maestrichtian in age (Santonian has not been 



12 



Bulletin 155 



































12158 
12157 


I 1 


CALCAREOUS SHALE 




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1 ' 1 ' 




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< 








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— — — 








in 









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o 


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DISTRIBUTION OF 












— — 






GLOBOTRUNCANA 






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300 m 




:Pz^ 










o 

X 








'11 


12092 

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V 
\ 
\ 
\ 














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200 m 




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y—''—' 








< 








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_ 


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y_ — :__ 


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S 


MANAURE SECTION 


MOLINO SECTION 


KM 92 SECTION 












COLUMNAR SECTIONS 








w 


ITH STRATI6RAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF GLOBOTRUNCANA | 








FI6.2 





Fig. 2. Columnar sections with stratigraphic distribution of Glohotruncana. 



Gl.(1BOTRUNCANA IN COLOMBIA: CjANDOI.II 



13 



recognized locally). Stratigraphic boundaries cannot be definitely 
correlated, bowever, witb European time divisions; and overlaps 

probably exist, as will bo brougbt out when discussing tbe distri- 
bution of Globntruncana. 

DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 

Genus GLOIJOTHrNCAJfA Cushman, 1927 
Type species. — By original designation, Pulvinulina area Cush- 
man, 1926, Cont. Cushman Lab Foram. Res., vol. 2, p. 23, pi. 3, fig. 
1. Mendez shale, Upper Cretaceous, Mexico. 

The following species and subspecies are described in the paper: 

Plate Figure 

Globotruncana lapparenti longilocula, n.subsp. 1 1 

Globotruncana mayaroensis Bolli 1 2 

Globotruncana tricarinata colombiana, n.subsp. 1 3-4 

Globotruncana tricarinata desioi, n.subsp. pp. 27, 103 

Globotruncana ventricosa ventricosa (White) 1 5 

Globotruncana marginata austinensis, n.subsp. 1 6 

( Rugoglobigerina) beldingi beldingi, n.sp., n.subsp. 1 8 

( Rugoglobigerina) beldingi subbeldingi, n.subsp. 1 7 

Globotruncana bulloides bulloides (Vogler) 1 9 

Globotruncana bulloides globigerinoides (Brotzen) 1 10 

(Rugoglobigerina) hexacamerata hexacamerata 

(Bronnimann) 1 12 
(Rugoglobigerina) hexacamerata subhexacamerata, 

n. subsp. 1 11 

Globotruncana bulloides naussi, n. sp., n. subsp. 1 13 
Globotruncana mariai, n.n. pp. 33, 106 

(Rugoglobigerina) loetterli subloetterii, n. subsp. 1 14 

Globotruncana fornicata fornicata (Plummer) 2 2 

Globotruncana fornicata manaurensis, n. subsp. 2 1 

Globotruncana fornicata plummerae, n. subsp. 2 3-4 

Globotruncana fornicata ackermanni, n. subsp. 2 5-7 
(Rugoglobigerina) circumnodifer circumnodifer 

(Finlav) 2 9 



14 Bulletin 155 



Plate Figure 



(Rugoglobigerina) circumnodifer subcircumnodifer, 

n. subsp. 
Globotruncana fornicata cesarensis, n. subsp. 
(Rugoglobigerina) macrocephala macrocephala 

(Bronnimann) 
(Rugoglobigerina) macrocephala submacrocephala 

n. subsp. 
Globotruncana caliciformis caliciformis (de Lapparent) 3 
Globotruncana caliciformis tnnidadensis, n. subsp. 
Globotruncana caliciformis sarmientoi, n. subsp. 
Globotruncana intermedia difformis, n. subsp. 
(Rugoglobigerina) ornata ornata (Bronnimann) 
(Rugoglobigerina) ornata subornata, n. subsp. 
Globotruncana intermedia intermedia 

(Rugoglobigerina) glaessneri glassneri, n. sp., n. subsp. 3 
(Rugoglobigerina) glaessneri subglaessnen, n. sp., n. 

subsp. 
Globotruncana citae Bolli 

( Rugoglobigerina ) petaloidea petaloidea, n. sp., n. subsp 
(Rugoglobigerina) petaloidea subpetaloidea, n. sp., 

n. subsp. 
Globotruncana contusa contusa (Cushman) 
Globotruncana contusa scutilla, n. subsp. 
Globotruncana contusa patelliformis, n. subsp. 
Globotruncana thalmanni thalmanni, n.sp., n. subsp. 
Globotruncana thalmanni flexuosa (van der Sluis) 
Globotruncana aff. cretacea Cushman 
Globotruncana bollii, n. sp. 
Globotruncana area area Cushman 
Globotruncana area caribica, n. subsp. 
Globotruncana stuarti stuarti (de Lapparent) 
Globotruncana stuarti parva, n. subsp. 
Globotruncana stuarti conica (White) 
Globotruncana rosetta rosetta (Carsey) 
Globotruncana rosetta insignis, n. subsp. 
Globotruncana rosetta pettersi, n. subsp. 
Globotruncana gansseri gansseri Bolli 



2 


8 


2 


10 


2 


12 


2 


11 


3 


1 


3 


2 


3 


3 


3 


4-5 


3 


7 


3 


6 


3 


8 


3 


11 


3 


10 


3 


12 


3 


14 


3 


13 


4 


3 


4 


1 


4 


2 


4 


4-5 


4 


6 


4 


7 


5 


1 


5 


2-4 


5 


5 


5 


6 


5 


7 


5 


8 


6 


1 


6 


2 


6 


3-4 


6 


5-6-8 



Plate 


Figure 


6 


7 


7 


2 


7 


1 



Cl.OBOTRUNCANA IN Ccn.OMBIA: GaNDOLFI 15 



Globotruncana gansseri subgansscn, ii. suhsp. 
( Rugoglobigerina) rotundata rotundata (Bronnimann 
( Rugoglobigerina ) rotundata subrotundata, n. subsp. 
Globotruncana wiedenmayeri wiedenmayeri, n. sp. 

n. subsp. 7 4 

Globotruncana wiedenmayeri magdalenaensis, n.sp., 

n. subsp. 7 3 

(Rugoglobigerina) rugosa rugosa (Plummer) 7 6 

( Rugoglobigerina ) rugosa subrugosa, n. subsp. 7 5 

(Rugoglobigerina) pennyi pennyi (Bronnimann) 7 8 

(Rugoglobigerina) pennyi subpennyi, n. subsp. 7 7 

All species listed above are described as belonging to the genus 
Globotruncana with the exception of the forms which are geneti- 
cally related to Globotruncana but morphologically reminiscent of 
Globigerina. These last forms were included under Rugoglobigerina 
Bronnimann, 1952, under the following description, which is slightly 
modified from the original description of Bronnimann: 

Subgenus Rugoglobigerina Bronnimann, 1952. Type by original designation: 
Rugoglobigerina rugosa rugosa (Plummer 1926). Test Globigerina-Wkt, almost 
planispiral to trochoidal. Chambers of Globigerina type, rounded peripherally, 
truncated toward the umbilicus. Umbilical cavity generally large with umbilical 
apertures, protected bj' liplike projections. Test smooth, with partially de- 
veloped keels or rough with rich ornamentation, rugosities of various types, 
irregularly distributed or arranged in rows radiating from a central point of 
the surface towards the aperture (meridian pattern). The chambers may be 
occasionally pro\ided with hantkeninoid points, especially in the first stages of 
the last whorl. 

This subgenus fits into the Globotruncana genus according to 
the definition which was given by Reichel, 1949, (p. 600), as 
Thalmanninella, Ticinella, Rotalipora, and Globotruncana, s. str. 

In the description of the following species, several morphological 
terms are used. A few of them perhaps need some kind of explana- 
tion: 

"Bourrelet sutural" (from French authors): Raised sutures; 
continuous (pi. 1, fig. lb) or beaded (pi. 1, fig. 2b). 

"Bourrelet umbilical" (from French authors): Sutural thicken- 
ing limited to the area around the umbilicus (pi. 6, fig. 2b). 

Lapparenti type of ventral sutures: Sigmoidal and plunging 
back into the umbilicus (pi. 1, fig. lb). 



16 Bulletin 155 



Rosetta type of ventral sutures: Raised, curved, and generally 
attached to suture of previous chambers (pi. 6, fig. lb). 

Peripheral band: The portion of the test which is embraced by 
the keels of double-keeled forms (pi. 1, fig. Ic). 

Umbilical lips: Slightly arched (pi. 1, fig. lb), strongly arched 
with central projections (pi. 5, fig. 6b), nearly straight (pi. 4, fig. 
4b, 6b). 

Ventral side and dorsal side: In agreement with Reichel, 1949 
(p. 602, footnote 7) respectively umbilical and spiral side. 

GLOBOTRUNCANA LINNEI GROUP 

Description. — Flat or slightly convex forms, double-keeled, two 
being equally developed, peripheral band at right angle to the coil- 
ing plane, and symmetrical in the middle of the chamber; chambers 
generally flat with occasional protruding or inflated ventral side, 
elongated or short; thick, continuously raised or finely beaded 
sutures, margmal elevations partially disappearing when the sutures 
are radial and depressed in the umbilical side. 

The group, as will be discussed later, is in a broad sense 
intended to include primitive double-keeled species with short 
chambers and radial sutures {Git. imbricata Mornod, Git. inflata 
Bolli, Git. indica Jacob and Sastry, Git. canaliculata Reuss); Git. 
lapparenti forms with elongated chambers and curved sutures on the 
umbilical side; later evolved species with chambers becoming sec- 
ondarily short and sutures radial in the same umbilical side {Git. 
canaliculata Cushman, Git. mayaroensis) and finally forms with 
protruding, truncated umbilical side {Git. tricarijiata, Git. colom- 
biana, n. sp.. Git. ventricosa). Three main branches are here con- 
sidered: 

Lapparenti branch: Flat double-keeled forms. 

Tricarinata branch : Flat dorsal side, protruding truncated 
umbilical side. 

Ventricosa branch: Flat dorsal side, protruding umbilical side, 
chambers inflated on this side. 

Apertural system. — All Git. linnet types, regardless of belonging 
to the linnet, tricarinata, and ventricosa branches, are characterized 
by an umbilical cavity with the apertures of the chambers pro- 
tected by liplike borders which are tiiin init developed as a contin- 



Gldbotruncana in C\)H)mi!Ia: (Jandolu 17 



uous thin plate in the more primitive forms (Alornod, 1949, p. 581, 
fig. 2c, 3c), more strongly developed and split into single arched lips 
in the last chambers (Reichel, 1949, pi. 16, fig. 9) in Git. lapparenti. 
\\'ith more evolved species as Git. colomhiana (fair observa- 
tions were possible in the Colombian material. Pi. 1, fig. 3, 4), Git. 
ventricosa (PI. 1, fig. 5), the cover plates keep their arched shape, 
but they reduce agam to fine lips which tend to blend together as 
a continuous thin plate all around the umbilicus. 

The observations on Git. mayaroensis were poor, but apparently 
apertural cover plates still exist. 

LAPPARENTI BR.\NCH 

Globotrniioaiiii lai»]>iireiiti l<>Il^-iI<)oul;l, n. subsp. 

PI. 1, fig. 1, Text figs. 3,4 (8a-b) 

Description. — Flat or only slightl}' convex on both sides, peri- 
pheral band wide and perpendicular to the coiling plane, double- 
keeled; chambers short, slightly over-lapping each other in the early 
stages, becoming later in the adult stage (four-five in the last whorl) 
long, arched and strongly overlapping: (fornicata type); sutures con- 
tinuously raised, sigmoidal on the ventral side, running and plunging 
back into the umbilicus {lapparenti type). Test smooth, dextrally 
coiling in all counted specimens, umbilical apertures with slightly 
arched, moderately developed cover plates. 

Dimensions of holotype. — Width, 0.40 x 0.36 mm.; thickness, 
0.12 mm. 

Holotype. — No. 20826, Paleontological Research Institution. 

Occurrence. — Rare in the Manaure shale, Manaure and Km. 
92 sections. Holotype (PI. 1, fig. la-c) from the Manaure shale, 
Manaure section, S. 9168. 

Remarks. — It is the usual flat double-keeled form of the lap- 
parenti type. The chambers, however, are more elongated and 
arched, the sutures more finely raised than in Git. lapparenti lap- 
parenti. 

As can be seen in text figures 3 and 4, the tests of the Breggia 
material (south Switzerland) have chambers (five-six) in the last 
whorl which, however, overlap less on each other and increase less 
rapidly in size as added. In text figure 4 Git. lapparenti Cita appears 



18 Bulletin 155 

to be similar with chambers somewhat elongated. The few speci- 
mens of the present material show more pronounced elongated 
chambers. Git. tricarinata colombiana seems to bear an analogous 
relationship to Git. tricarinata tricarinata. 

Git. canaliculata Cushman (not Reuss) of the Annona chalk 
is a different, more evolved species, showing more oblique sutures 
on the dorsal side, which are clearly beaded and, on the ventral side, 
simply curved without any sigmoidal development; the test, especi- 
ally in the early chambers, is abundantly spinose. 





Fig. 3. Gldhotruncaua lapparcnt'i longilocula, n. subsp., 60 X, showing the rapid 
increase in size of the chambers. S. 9168. Manaure shale {Maryinulina jonrsi). 

Crlobotrimcana mayaroensis Bolli PL 1, fig. 2a-c, Text fig. 4(10a-b) 

Globotruncana mayaroensis Bolli, 1951, p. 198, pi. 35, figs. 10-12. 

Description. — Besides the double-keeled peripheral band, typi- 
cal characteristics are, according to Bolli, the oblique arrangement 
of the chambers with respect to each other and the radial sutures on 
the umbilical side. 

A close examination of our material, as well as of topotype 
material of Trinidad, shows further that the keels are not parallel or 
converging in the direction of the coiling, as generally occurs in 
Upper Cretaceous species, but are diverging, sometimes strongly 
and in such a way that the last chambers have a considerably wider 
peripheral band than the early ones. On the umbilical side the 
sutures are generally radial, but isolated specimens show the last 
chambers with curved, finely beaded sutures. The lines of beads are, 
in part, fringing the chambers and, in part, disappearing in the 
sutural depressions, while the sutures of the early chambers remain 
radial and depressed. 



CiI.dROTRlNCANA IN Coi-OMBIA: (lANDOI.FI 



19 



Occurrence. — Colon shale. Km. 92 section and Papayal ^\cll, 
appearing somewhat in the midtlle of the Pullenia cretacea zone. 
Rare. 




Fig. 4. Comparative view of Globotruncana of the linnci group, la-b. Git. tm- 
bricata Mornod, 1949 (Text fig. 5/1,2), Cenomanian, Prealpes Suisses. 2a-b. 
Git. canaluulata (Reiiss, 18 54, pi. 26, fig. 4), Cenomanian ?-Coniacian, .Austria. 
3a-b. Git. inJica Jacob and Sastrv, 1950 (fig. 2), Cenomanian, India. 4a-b. Git. 
linnrl (d'Orbign)', 1839, pi. 5, fig. 10-12), age ? Cuba. 5a-b. Git. lirtnri Gan- 
dolfi, 1942 (Text fig. 16, 2a-c), equivalent to Git. l/ippannti coronata Belli, 
Turonian, south Switzerland. 6a-b. Git. linriri CJandolfi, 1942 (pi. 3, fig. 3) = 
Git. lappunrtli lappurrriti Holli, Turonian, south Switzerland. 7a-b. Git. lappar- 
ent'i lappurrnti Cita, 1948 (pi. 4, fig. 2), Turonian-Maestrichtian, Tignale, north 
Italy. 8a-b. Git. lapparcnti longilocula, n.subsp., Manaure shale {.Mdrf/iriulina 
joncsi), Colombia, S. A. 9a-b. Git. canaliculata Cushman, 1946 (not Reuss), 
pi. 61, fig. 17a-c, Annona chalk, Texas. lOa-b. Git. mayarornsis Bolli, Colon 
shale, Pullenia cretacea zone, Colombia, S. A. 



20 Bulletin 155 

Remarks. — No intermediate forms were found with Git. inter- 
media intermedia as Bolli points out. From fig. 3, Git. m-ayaroensis 
occupies a singular position among all Globotruncana of the linnei 
group, bemg quite different from all Git. canaliculata, Git. linnei, 
and Git. lapparenti forms. A certain smiilarity is shown only with 
Git. canaliculata Cushman of the Annona chalk because of the 
arrangement and shape of chambers and the straight, oblique sut- 
ures. 

The position of Git. mayaroensis is, therefore, still uncertam. A 
genetic as well as a morphologic relationship with Git. intermedia 
is still possible as Bolli suggests and may be postulated by a slight 
dorsal convexity, which is occasionally shown in some specimens 
and by the slightly elongated chambers. It was, however, placed in 
the linnei group because of the wide, double-keeled peripheral band, 
which is perpendicular to the plane of coiling; the generally flat form 
with equally flat chambers, which are considered as common char- 
acters of the linnei group, and because of the similarity to Git. can- 
aliculata Cushman. 

TRICARIXATA BRANCH 

Globotriuitaiia tricariiiata colombiana, n. subsp. 

PI. 1, fig. 3a-c, 4a-c, Text figs. 5(la-c), 5(2a-c), 6(4a-b) 

Description. — The form is flat dorsally with protruding umbili- 
cal side, sidewall making a large angle with the roof of the chambers, 
as in Git. tricarinata tricarinata (Quereau, 1893) and Git. stuarti. 
The peripheral band is wide, perpendicular to the plane of coiling, 
with two well-developed, parallel keels. The chambers are generally 
arched, considerably overlapping, and rapidly increasing in size as 
added. The sutures are curved, generally thick, and continuously 
raised; on the ventral side the sutural elevations are running sig- 
moidal around the umbilicus (lapparenti type) thickening consid- 
erably around the same umbilicus ("bourrelet umbilical," Mornod, 
1949) which appears in side view or axial section as a third well- 
developed keel. The umbilicus is large and open. 

In some specimens (PI. 1, fig. 4, Text fig. 5 ( la-c) the early 
chambers ot the last coil are slightly inflated, gradually becoming 
flat in the more adult stage; the keels are finely beaded becoming 



Gl.(1B(1TRlNCANA IN CoiOMHIA: (lANDOI.I'I 



21 



increasingly raised in the adult stage; the test is spmose; on the 
umbilical side, the sutures are radial and depressed, -the chambers 
slightly inflated. Ihe forms arc quite similar to CIt. ventricosa 
(\\'hite), as described in detail by Mornod, 1949. The only remain- 
ing distinctive characteristic: the strongly developed umbilical thick- 
enmg. Git. ventricosa of Mornod (op. cit . fig. 85/3a-c) may belong 
to this type of transitional form, but due to the strong umbilical 
thickening should still belong to the Git. tricarinata type. 

Dimensions of holotype. — Width 0.44 x 0.32 mm.; thickness, 
0.16 mm. 

Holotype. — No. 20827, Paleontological Research Institution. 

Occurrence. — Manaure shale; frequent at the bottom of Colon 
shale {PuJlenia cretacea zone). Holotype (PI. 1, fig. 3a-c) from the 
Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea zone, Molmo section, S. 12141. 

Remarks. — The form shows a side view which is identical to 
Git. tricarinata ( (Juereau 1893, pi. 5, fig. 3). As is known, this form 
is named only from thin section. Later the authors made pictures of 
Git. tricarinata which show all the same typical axial sections, but 
the number, shape, and arrangement of chambers ( fig. 6) differ 
considerably. Therefore, the problem arises which of those forms, 
including ours, is to be identified with the original of Quereau. Since, 
however, it is here believed that many forms of "tricarinata type" 
are perhaps present m the original material, and since there is no 
possibilit\" for the writer to check it, the forms figured by Cushman. 





Fig. 5. la-c. Gil. trhaririatd culomhiana showing radial, depressed umliilical 
sutures in the early chambers of the last volution and slightly inflated roof of 
chambers. S. 5591. Colon shale, Pullmia crctacra zone, 2a-c. GU. tr'nurinatci 
colomhiana f; notice extreme development of last chambers. S. 5606. Colon 
shale, Pullmia crctacra zone. 60 X. 



22 Bulletin 155 



1936 (pi. 61, fig. 18a-c) are considered as holotype of Git. tricarinata 
tricarinata in spite of some apparently evolved characteristics. 

It is of particular phylogenetic interest to describe in detail a 
single specimen which was found high and isolated in the section and 
is shown in fig. 4 (2a-c). The side view shows the identical profile 
which is common to all tricarinata forms with the third keel well 
developed. Peculiar, however, is the extreme development of the last 
chamber, the spinose test, the radially depressed umbilical sutures in 
the early stages and the slight inflation of the chambers. In accord- 
ance with our procedure of not creating any new nomenclatural 
units without having a sufficient number of specimens, this specimen 
has been considered as a Git. tricarinata colombiana and was conse- 
quently not named. It is believed, however, that it may represent a 
stage of a well-defined line of. evolution and, accordingly, a new 
species or subspecies for the following reasons: 

1. It cannot be interpreted as an immature form of Git. colom- 
biana because of the extremely peculiar development of the 
last chambers. 

2. It was found isolated and high in the section where no Git. 
colombiana was found. 

A similar tendency toward such forms with few chambers in 
the last whorl is shown in other groups ( cf . Git. cesarensis, PI. 2, 
fig. lOa-c). 

VEXTRICOSA BRANCH 

(.lilobotruncaiia ventrlcosa veiitricosa (White) PI. 1, fig. 5a-c 

Git. vcntr'icosa White, Cushman 1946, p. 150, pi. 62, fig. 3a-c; Mornod. 1949, 
p. 590, fig. 121a-c; Cita 1948, p. 20, pi. 4, fig. 9. 

Description. — The early chambers tend to become short with 
radial sutures (general genetic development). The sutures are finely 
beaded. Four or five chambers are present in the last whorl with a 
more pronounced increase in size as in the references. In some speci- 
mens the first chambers of the last whorl show a slight inflation on 
the dorsal side ( cf. Git. tricarinata colo?nbiana, PI. 1, fig. 4a-c, Text 
fig. 5 (la-c). 

Higher in the section (Git. gansseri zone) the keels are slightly 
converging so that in the last chambers they are almost joined. 

Occurrence. — Colon shale. Rare. 



Globotruncana in Colombia: Ganuolii 



23 



Remarks. — By conipanng the tigurcs of Cushnian ( Cusliman, 
1936, pi. 62, fig. 3a-c), Cita (Cita, 1948, pi. 4, fig. 9a-c) and Mornod 
(Mornod, 1949, text fig. 12/la-c), there are practically no appreci- 
able differences. However, it can be seen that the specimen shown 
by Cita is slightly flatter than the other one; the specimen of Mor- 
nod has a more pronounced petaloid periphery. Our Colombian ma- 
terial, however, has increasingly larger chambers. 

Bolli suggests for this species a genetic derivation from Git. 
tricarinata which appears probable to the writer (see descriptif)n of 
Git. tricarinata colontbiana). It is noteworthy that the American 
records of the species do not agree, having different stratigraphic 
ranges in Texas, Mexico, and Trinidad. 






O^ 



Fig. 6. Comparative view of Globotruncana of the tricarinata branch, la-li. Git. 
tricarinata Cita, 1948 (pi. 4, fig. 4) Turonian-Maestrichtian, Tignale Nord 
Italy 2a-b. Git. tricarinata Ciishman, 1936 (pi. 61, fig. 18), St. Johann, 
Bavaria, Germany. 3a-b. Gtt. tricarinata Mornod, 1949 (fig. 12/2a-c) which is 
probably a Git. ^'cntricosa vcntricosa (White), Santonian, Prealpes, Suisses. 4a-b 
Git. tricarinata colombiana, Colon shale, Pullrnia crrtacra zone, Colombia, S. A. 



COM.MENTS OX THE PHVLfXiKNKTIf DI-A r.I.OI'MKNT OF THE LINNEI GROUP 

Although the Colombian material is poor in linnei forms and 
consequently is not favorable for phylogenetic investigation, some 
general considerations will be tentativch- discussed. 



24 Bulletin 155 



From the bibliographic references, it appears that all flat, 
double-keeled forms have been called Git. linnet in Europe and Git. 
canaliculata in America. The writer believes that there are many 
different species of flat two-keeled forms within what has been called 
Git. linnei in Europe and Git. canaliculata in America. The reason 
for this is that in many cases only thin sections were available 
(Renz, 1936). 

Brotzen (1936) recognized that the forms described by De Lap- 
parent as linnei were not identical to Git. linnei (d'Orb). Accord- 
ingly, the flat forms with elongated sigmoidal raised sutures on the 
umbilical side were later separated {Git. lapparenti Brotzen) from 
other forms which show depressed, radial sutures {Git. linnei, Git. 
canaliculata). Figure 4 shows a comparative view of some of the 
main flat, double-keeled forms. 

Flat forms with a sharp three-keeled profile were called Git. 
tricarinata from Git. tricarinata (Quereau) which is known only 
from thin sections. Git. tricarinata was often included in Git. can- 
aliculata (Cushman, 1936) or considered as a subspecies of Git. lap- 
parenti by other authors (Vogler, Cita, Bolh). Figure 6 shows a 
comparative view of "tricarinata" forms. 

Flat double-keeled forms with chambers more or less inflated 
on the ventral side were called Git. ventricosa (White). This species 
was first described as a "variety" of Git. canaliculata and later as a 
separate species closely related to Git. tricarinata (Mornod, 1949, 
BolH, 1951). 

From the above short review it appears that lin?iei (lapparen- 
ti), tricarinata, and ventricosa tests are considered genetically re- 
lated. The writer does not object to this view. The respective mor- 
phological relationship was pointed out also in the species descrip- 
tions and appears unquestionable. The only problem is to define 
when the splitting of the three main phylogenetic developments oc- 
curred. From our material it appears that the ventricosa branch 
diverged from the tricarinata branch last (Santonian ?), since forms 
which can be interpreted as transitional ones between ventricosa 
and tricarinata are still to be observed in Campanian (PI. 1, fig. 
4a-c, Text fig. 5/la-c). Link forms between tricarinata and linnei 
branches have not been found to date but, as far as can be judged 



Globotruncana in Coi.omiua: CJandoi i i 25 

from snatij^raphic records, a divergence between these branches 
shoidd have been not hiter than I iironian. 

Lapparcnti branch. — Following the view of Brot7XMi (1936) in 
respect to lapparcnti and linnci forms, later authors ( Bolh, Vogler) 
dexeioped the opinion that two groups of double-keeled, flat Globo- 
truncana may exist with a different, independent genetic develop- 
ment. Contrary to this view, all flat double-keeled forms herein 
studied have been considered as belonging to a single evolutionary 
system. In fact, from fig. 4 it appears that: 

Primitive double-keeled Globotruncana of Cenomanian and 
Turonian time (Text fig. 4(la-b), 4(2a-b), 4(3a-b), respectively 
Git. imbricata. Git. canaliculata? , Git. indica (as well as Git. steph- 
ani? Gandolfi, 1942, Git. aff. renzi Reichel, 1949, which are not con- 
sidered in the figure) have more or less beaded dorsal sutures, a 
regularly convex dorsal side, narrow umbilicus, radial depressed 
sutures on the umbdical side. 

Git. canaliculata is known and described from the Gosaumergel 
(Austria) which ranges from uppermost Cenomanian to Coniacian. 
The exact stratigraphical position of the specimen illustrated is un- 
fortunately not given but, from the figure, this species shows quite 
primitive characteristics, such as to place it close to Git. indica. 
(This species has only chambers which rapidly increase in size). 

Later forms have long continuously raised sigmoidal sutures 
on the umbilical side {lapfarenti type) like Git. linnei Gandolfi, 
1942, of southern Switzerland (^Glt. lapparenti Brotzen) and of 
Turonian age, or Git. lapparenti Cita, 1948, of north Italy and rang- 
ing, according to the author, from Turonian to Maestrichtian. 

The above mentioned form illustrated by Cita, 1948, is slightly 
different from the species illustrated by Gandolfi, 1942, in that it 
has more elongated chambers which increase rapidly in size, more 
or less like our Colombian forms do ( unfortunately the exact posi- 
tion of the specimen illustrated by Cita is not known). 

Later forms generally show more finely beaded, straight, and 
oblique sutures on the dorsal side, spinose test, and large umbilicus 
like Git. can-aliculata' Cushman, Annona chalk (Campanian), 
or Git. mayaroensis Bolli of Trinidad (late Campanian.'-Maestrich- 
tian ). 

Among these forms Git. coronata Bolli [fig. 4 (.V'l-b)] and Git. 



26 Bulletin 155 



linnei d'Orb. have also been illustrated [fig. 4 (4a-b)]. Git. cor- 
onata>, however, diverges from the average lapparenti type (five- 
six chambers) by developing an exceptionally greater number of 
chambers (seven and even eight) in the last whorl. Git. linnei 
(d'Orb.) is still a form of uncertain morphological characters, due 
to the insufficient original figure and description and even more un- 
certain stratigraphical position (beach sand of Cuba). It is here 
interpreted as a primitive form closely related to Git. canaliculata 
and Git. indica (the umbilicus is considerably larger) due to the 
apparent morphological similarity. 

The stratigraphic sequence above appears valid even though it 
cannot be checked in detail. Therefore, it seems probable that: 

Young primitive double-keeled Globotruncana with umbilical 
radial depressed sutures { stephani-canaliciil at a types) have develop- 
ed into Globotruncana with raised sigmoidal sutures {lapparenti 
types). 

The lapparenti type has evolved into forms with more and 
more elongated chambers (Coniacian) of jornicata type and later 
still ( Santonian-Campanian) into forms with shorter chambers, 
petaloid periphery, beaded sutures and radial depressed sutures 
on the umbilical side {Git. canaliculata Cushman, Git. mayaroensis). 

To support this opinion it may be seen that: 

The phylogenetic tendency from primitive forms with radial 
umbilical sutures to lapparenti types is evident by comparing primi- 
tive and lapparenti forms. The general derivation of the Git. lappar- 
enti type from a stephani form was also proved by ReicheFs ( 1949) 
study on the apertural system. 

The phylogenetic trend toward forms with more rapidly in- 
creasing chambers is to be observed in the tricarinata branch {Git. 
tricarinata colombiana) and is also suggested by Git. lapparenti 
longilocula in the lapparenti branch. 



1 Git. lapparenti coronata (Bolli) was considered synonymous with Git. linnei 
var. angusticarinata Gandolfi, 1942 by Sigal, 1948 (p. 14). The forms are, 
however, similar but not identical since Git. linnei "var." angusticarinata 
is a lapparenti form {Git. lapparenti angusticarinata) with pronounced dor- 
sal and ventral convexity. Git. lapparenti coronata is present in the Breggia 
material (C)andolfi, 1942) ; in fact, Hg. 46 shows typical Git. lapparenti 
lapparenti (la-c), Git. lapparenti coronata (2a-c), and Git. lapparenti 
angusticarinata (3a-c) together. 



(iI.OBOTRUNCANA IN Col.OMHI A : CJaNDOI.M 27 



Ihe ph\ logenetic treiul toward new forms with shorter cham- 
bers, radial umhihcal sutures and spinose tests appears from the 
detailed studies of the ventricosa branch, in the bulloides, fornicata, 
and thalmanni groups, as a general morphological trend. There is no 
reason to assume that the linnei branch should have behaved dif- 
ferently from the other branches or groups. 

Tricarinata branch. — In fig. 6, different types of Git. tricarinata 
are compared since they were illustrated by different authors. 

Taking as an average type the specimen of Cushman ( Sen- 
onian ?)- which has a normal number of chambers (five-six) in the 
last whorl, there are tests with an exceptionally large number of 
chambers (seven-eight) in the last whorl — Git. tricarinata Cita, 
1948— 'identical to Git. tricarinata, Noth, 1951 (pi. 8, fig. 18a-c), 
and tests with fewer chambers in the last whorl which are more 
elongated and increase more rapidly in size {Git. tricarinata colom- 
biana). Large and petaloid chambers (fig. 5 (la-c), 5(2a-c) with 
radial, depressed, umbilical sutures are suggested to have developed 
in uppermost Cretaceous time. Therefore, though the stratigraphic 
sequence cannot be entirely checked, the main evolutionary trend 
appears to be that primitive tricarinata forms with short chambers 
(Turonian) developed into tests with more elongated chambers 
during: Coniacian time {Git. tricarinata coloTubiana) and these 
again into forms with shorter chambers and depressed radial sut- 
ures in Santonian-Campanian time. High chambered tests diverge 
from this main evolutionary line in an analogous way as Git. lappar- 
enti coronata does within the lapparcnti branch. 



The specimen figured shows, however, some apparently more evolved charac- 
ters, like chambers increasing in size as added, sutures slightly obli(|ue and, 
which is perhaps of phylogenetic interest, early chambers being (juite 
elongated and arched {fornicata type). This, together with the age of the 
fossil (Senonian) indicates that the type figured may differ from a theo- 
retically postulated main type (chamber arrangement like Git. lapparrnti) 
as Git. lapparcnti lapparcnti Cita, 1948 or Git. lapparcnti longilocula dif- 
fer from the typical and earlier Git. lapparcnti lapparcnti. 

'■ Pending a more detailed study on tricarinata types, the form of Cita with such 
a large number of chambers should be considered at least as a subspecies 
of Git. tricarinata tricarinata and newly named Git. tricarinata dcsioi. The 
new subspecies name is proposed after Prof. A. Desio, Head of the Cieo- 
logical Institute of the Milan University, who sponsored the paleontological 
investigation of Cita. Ref. : Globolruncana lapparcnti tricarinata Cita (not 
Quereau) 1948, p. 15, pi. 4, fig. 4. 



28 Bulletin 155 



Another special phylogenetic line seems to be represented by 
forms with an extremely reduced number of chambers in the last 
whorl as suggested by the specimen in text fig. 5(2a-c). 

Ventricosa branch. — In regard to the evolution of this branch 
there is little evidence, since our specimens are almost identical with 
the species illustrated by Cushman and Mornod. However, some of 
the slight differences which were noticed in the various figures of 
Git. ventricosa take on some meaning from the point of view of 
evolution. The petaloid contour of Git. ventricosa Mornod is quite 
similar to that of Git. aegyptiaca Nakkady. Since the keels in our 
material have been observed to converge into a single one (late 
Campanian-Maestrichtian), a development toward forms with a 
more lobate periphery and less chambers in the last coil {Git. 
aegyptiaca Nakkady and its "variety" duwi) is suggested inasmuch 
as similar developments occur in other groups and seem to follow 
this general plan (cf. Git. jornicata cesarensis). 

Concluding remarks. — From a close comparison of our material 
with the available references, it appears that the linnei and tricar- 
inata branches evolved in a similar way. The lapparenti branch ap- 
pears to develop from primitive stephani-canaliculata forms with 
radial umbilical sutures to lapparenti types with raised sigmoidal 
sutures. These latter develop more elongated chambers which later 
change to large petaloid chambers leading eventually to mayaroensis 
forms which have radical depressed umbilical sutures due to 
secondary genetic process. The tricarinata branch, which appears 
later, develops from an average lapparenti form to ones with more 
elongated chambers and to forms with larger chambers, lobate peri- 
phery and radial umbilical sutures. The ventricosa forms, which ap- 
pear last, develop only from tests with raised umbilical sutures to 
lobate forms with radial, depressed, umbilical sutures. Lateral de- 
velopment toward tests with many chambers in the last whorl 
apparently takes place in both the tricarinata and lapparenti 
branches. Trends toward forms with extremely few chambers in the 
last whorl are probably present in the tricarinata (text fig. 5 (2a-c) 
and ventricosa branches {Git. aegyptiaca Nakkady var. duzvi Nak- 
kady?). 



(jLOBOTRLNCANA IN Coi.OMHIA: CjANOOI.FI 29 



GLOBOTRUNrANA BULLOIDES GROUP 
Description. — Hat "linnei types," double keel becoming faint 
and gradually disappearing, chambers inflated, developing toward 
a complete Ritgoglobigeriua test. 

It is divided into three branches: 

7nargifuita branch; bulloides branch; naussi branch 
Apertural system. — The observations are poor because of the 
hard, siliceous material filling the umbilical cavity. However, the 
apertural system belongs to the lapparenti type with wide umbilical 
cavity and reduced arched lips covering the apertures. In the 
Rugoglobigerina forms the lips tend to reduce to a thin continuous 
plate around the umbilicus. In some forms the aperture of the last 
chamber appears to extend slightly toward the periphery. 

MARGIXATA BRANCH 

Globotruiicaiia innrgiiiahi austinensis, n. subsp. PI. 1, fig. 6 

Globotruncana marginata (Reuss) Thalmann, Cushman, 1936, p. 150, pi. 62, 
fig. 2a-c. 

Description. — Flat form or slightly convex on both sides, 
double-keeled. Keels close to each other, chambers (five in the last 
whorl) inflated on both sides, slightly overlapping and rapidly 
increasing as added. Due to the increasing inflation of the chambers, 
the dorsal side of the test is depressed in the central part. The 
sutures are continuously raised in the last chambers, being finel\' 
beaded in the early ones. On the ventral side the sutures are gen- 
erally slightly curved and raised in the adult stages, radial and de- 
pressed in the early stages, with the sutural elevations disappear- 
ing in the umbilical sutural depressions (only an umbilical thick- 
ening remains). The test is rougher and somewhat spinose in the 
early stage, dextrally coiling. 

Dimensions of holotype. — Width 0.38 x 0.32 mm.; thickness, 
0.16 mm. 

Holotype. — No. 20828, Paleontological Research Institution. 

Occurrence. — Manaure shale and Colon shale {Pullenia cretacea 
zone) more frequent at the bottom of this formation. Holotype 
from the Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea zone, Km. 92 section, S. 
5604. 



30 



Bulletin 155 



Remarks. — The form is closely related to Git. tnarginata 
(Reuss) of the Planemergel (Cushman, 1946, pi. 62, fig. la-c) which 
has been considered by the author as identical to the Austin species. 
However, a comparision of both figures shows a difference in the 
shape and growth of the chambers, whereas in regard to other 
morphological characteristics the two are apparently identical. The 
difference cannot be interpreted as deriving from an eventual sexual 
dimorphism since both specimens illustrated by Cushman are ap- 
parently megalospheric forms. The variability of the species can- 
not be inferred because all our specimens are more or less related 
to the species of the Austin chalk, and none can be compared to 
the European species. 




Ic 





3c 




Fig. 7. Evolutive line Globotruiuaiia niarcjinala /lusti/n/isis, n.suhsp., [Rut/offlo- 
higrrina) hcLiingi bclJintji, n.sp., n.suhsp. All specimens from the same level. S. 
5587, 60 X. Colon shale, Pulleriia crrtacca zone. la-c. Git. marg'inata austincnsis, 
n.suhsp. ; notice small size of the specimen, \vhich is faintly hut completely keeled. 
2a-c. Same as above; however, showing chambers more inflated. 3a-c. (Rutjof/lo- 
bigerina) beldingi subbcldingi, n.sp., n.suhsp., partially keeled in the early cham- 
bers of the last volution. 4a-c. (Ri/goglobigrrirui) bcLiitu/i brlJitigi, n.sp., 
n.suhsp., showing only faint rugosit>' at place where keels disapjiear. 



Globotruncana in Colombia: (Jandoi.ki 31 



Genus KlCiOliLOHUiKKINA Bronniinann. 1952 

Type species by original designation, Rugoglobigerina riigosa 
rugosa (Plummer), 1926. Navarro clay, Walker Creek, Cameron, 
Milam Co., Texas. 

Glolnttniiicjiiia (IJiiffoelobis-orina) iM'Idiii^i holding:!, n.sp., n. subsp. 

PI. 1, fig. 8, Text fig. 7, (4a-c) 

Description. — ^Test nearly planisj^iral becoming somewhat in- 
volute on the dorsal side, since the last coil is slightly overlapping 
the early ones, chambers (five-six in the last whorl) inflated, 
slightly depressed and slightly overlapping each other in the early 
stages, increasing in height as added; with central depression as the 
previous Globotruncana species. A thin lip can be observed extend- 
ing into the umbilicus and covering the apertures of the last 
chambers. The test is smooth, somewhat rough in the early stages, 
dextrally coiling; tubercles, papillae are more frequent along the 
margin of the shell, where especially in the early chambers they 
appear in two approximately parallel lines. The last chamber is 
often subangular with a smooth triangular terminal face. 

Diynensions of holotype. — Width, 0.31 x 0.26 mm.; thickness, 
0.15 mm. 

Holotype. — No. 20830, Paleontological Research Institution. 

Occurrence. — Colon shale, (Pullenia cretacea zone, Siphogen- 
erinoides bramlettei zone). Holotype (PI. 1, fig. 8) from the Colon 
shale, Pullenia cretacea zone. Km. 92 section, S. 5587. 

Remarks. — Globigerina compressa Plummer of the Midway for- 
mation has some umbilical lips but the chambers are more flattened 
and the umbilicus is narrower. Globigerina voluta (White) differs 
because of its lobate periphery with outstanding four petaloid 
chambers, its smaller umbilicus and aperture which, according to 
the figure of White, is a lineate opening in the middle of the ter- 
minal face of the last chamber, whereas in our species it opens into 
the umbilicus and is covered by a thin lip. Globigerinella niessinae 
messinae Bronnimann shows a more pronounced four-chambered 
periphery and a marginal aperture provided with a liplike projec- 
tion extending into the umbilicus. This feature, as well as the simi- 
larity of the test, suggests that Globigerinella messinae messinae 
may derive from Rugoglobigerina beldingi beldingi. 



32 Bulletin 155 



The species was named after H. F. Belding of International 
Petroleum (Colombia), Limited, who collected part of the material 
studied in this paper. 

Gloliotniiicaiia (Kug-oglobigreriiia) beldiiig^i subbeldiiigi, n.sp., n. subsp. 

PL 1, fig. 7, Text fig. 7(3a-c) 

Description. — General shape similar to Git. marginata austin- 
ensis; size, however, smaller; a double keel faint and present, in a 
continuous manner only in the early stages; chambers less and less 
overlapping toward the adult stage, growing more inflated, central 
depression, therefore, more pronounced. The sutures on the ventral 
side are radial, only a slight thickening toward the umbilicus occas- 
ionally testifies the disappearance of th-e umbilical raised sutures. 
On the dorsal side the sutures are raised and finely beaded only 
in the early stages. The terminal face of the last chambers main- 
tains its triangular shape, being subangular along the once present 
sutural elevations. The test is smooth, somewhat rougher in the 
early stages, dextrally coiling. 

Dimensions of holotype. — Width 0.32 x 0.28 mm.; thickness, 
0.16 mm. 

Holotype. — No. 20829, Paleontological Research Institution. 

Occurrence. — Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea zone (more fre- 
quent in the uppermost part). Holotype (PL 1, fig. 7) from the 
Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea zone. Km. 92 section, S. 5587. 

BULLOIDES BRANCH 

Globotruiicana biilloides bulloirtes (Vogler) PL 1, fig. 9 

Rosalina lintici type 3 de Lapparent, 1918, p. 4, fig. 14, p. 5, fig. 2a. 
Globotruncana lapparenti bulloides Bolli, 1944, p. 231, pi. 9, fig. 12. 

Description. — Chambers inflated showing good variability in 
this regard; peripheral band large, the two keels are evident and 
thick {lapparenti type). The last chambers are occasionally flat. 
On the ventral side the early chambers tend as usual to become 
shorter with radial, depressed sutures, but the last chambers remain 
elongated with lappa renti-\\ke running marginal elevations. 

Occurrence. — Manaure shale, bottom of Colon shale. Rare. 

Remarks. — This form was known originally in thin sections 
(aforementioned types of the Lapparenti) and was considered later 
by Vogler as a subspecies of Git. lapparenti (Brotzen). Bolli, 1951, 



Globotruncana in Colombia: Gandoi ii 33 



put It in synonymy with Git. mar^mata (Reuss). 

Regarding its close relationship with Git. lapparenti the writer 
does not object to the above. The morphological characteristics are 
identical if we except the inflation of the chambers; however, it 
seems justifiable to raise it to the rank of a species, since it has 
apparently quite an independent development from Git. lapparenti, 
leading toward specific Rugoglobigerina forms. 

On the other hand the Git. "marginata tests, which have been 
illustrated by Cushman, 1946 (pi. 62, fig. la-c, 2a-c), are quite 
different such as to exclude any synonymy but having a narrower 
double-keeled peripheral band (this character is maintained in all 
transitional stages of this form toward Rugoglobigerina forms) and 
finely beaded keels. 

(ilobotriiiu'aiia luilloidfs sjlobisrerinoides (Brotzen) PL 1. fig. 10 

Globotruncana globigciinoidcs Brotzen, 1936, pi. 12, fig. 3a-c, pi. 13, fig. 3. 

Description. — Round Globigerina-Yike chambers, two faint, but 
generally evident, developed keels, parallel in the same direction of 
coiling, wide peripheral band. 

Dimensions. — Width 0.38 x 0.32 mm.; thickness, 0.16 mm. 

Occurrence. — Manaure shale, frequent in the lower Colon shale. 

Remarks. — Rosalinella globigerinoides Marie, 1941, Mus. Nat. 
Hist., mem., t. 12, fasc. 1, p. 239, is morphologically close but ap- 
parently not identical with Git. globigerinoides Brotzen. 

From the figure and original description (Marie, p. 239, pi. 36, 
fig. 338a-c), it may be seen that the form is more convex dorsally, 
chambers and keels are obliquely arranged with respect to the plane 
of coiling, and the keels are diverging. Rosalinella globigerinoides 
Marie 1941, should be considered, therefore, as an independent 
species separated from Git. globigerinoides Brotzen, 1936, and the 
name invalid. Git. mariai* is proposed as a new name. 

(Hii^oglobigerina) hexaoanierato he.xacainerata (Bronniiuann) PI. 1. fig. 12 

Rugoglobigerina rcichcli hcxacamrrata Bronnimann, 1952, p. 23, pi. 2, fig. 10-12 

Occurrence. — Colon shale {Pullenia cretacea zone, Siphogener- 

inoides bramlettei zone). 

*Typc locality: well drilled I'v the Service des I'onts et Chaussees a Mon- 
tereau, Seine-et-Marne, hassiii de i'aris, Upper Cretaceous, Campaniaii, craie 
a Bclemnitclla mucronata. 



34 Bulletin 155 



Remarks. — This form has the general shape of Git. bulloides 
globigerinoides, if we except the smaller size, the rough test, and 
the absence of keels. Morphologically it is closely related to Rugo- 
globigerina loetterli loetterli, but it differs in the more regular in- 
crease of chambers. From Rugoglobigerina circumnodifer circumnod- 
ifer, it differs because it has fewer chambers in the last whorl which 
are less closely spaced. As in most of these Rugoglobigerina forms, 
the full ornamentation appears m the completely evolved Rugoglo- 
bigerina tests ( without keels) and m the uppermost PuUenia creta- 
cea zone. 

Olobotruiicana (Rugrog'lobigeriiia) liexacamerata subhexacamerata, 

n. subsp. PI. 1, fig. 11 

Description. — Flat to slightly convex on the dorsal side, double- 
keeled in the early stages, keels finely beaded often not in a con- 
tinuous way, chambers (five-six in the last whorl) round, inflated, 
slightly overlapping especially in the early stages, truncated toward 
the umbilicus; sutures in the early stages curved, raised, finely 
beaded, becoming later radial and depressed; on the ventral s:de 
they are radial and depressed. The apertures are covered by thin 
plates. The lip projection of the last chamber appears sometimes 
as extending slightly from the umbilicus to the periphery. Test 
rough in the early stages, dextrally coiling. 

Dimensions of holotype. — Width 0.26 x 0.22 mm.; thickness, 
0.13 mm. 

Holotype. — No. 20831, Paleontological Research Institution. 

Occurrence. — Colon shale, PuUenia cretacea zone. Holotype 
(PI. 1, fig. lla-c) from the Colon shale, PuUenia cretacea zone. Well 
Papayal No. 1, 210-215'. 

Rem^arks. — As seen in Rugoglobigerina beldingi subbeldingi, 
the size is generally small, the Rugoglobigerina appearance evident. 
The wide peripheral band is maintained until the keels disappear. 

NAUSSI BRANCH 

Globotniiicaiui bulloides iiaiissi, n. subsp. PI. 1, fig. 13a-c 

Description. — Flat double-keeled form, tending to become 
loosely coiled; wide peripheral band, lobate periphery, chambers 
(six-seven in the last whorl) inflated on both sides, becoming con- 
siderably higher in the last coil and more loosely spaced, whereas 



Glohotrl'ncana in Colombia: (mndoi.i i 35 



in the younger stages they are normally overlapping. 1 he increase 
in size is irregular in the last coil so that the last chambers are gen- 
erally smaller or more flattened than the previous ones; senile 
chambers are frequent. I hin continuously raised sutures, finely 
beaded in the early stages, occur on the dorsal side. On the ventral 
side the sutures are radial and depressed, the thickening toward 
the umbilicus generally weak. Occasionally, one or two of the last 
chambers show a weak curved sutural elevation. The test is smooth, 
rougher in the early chambers. The apertural system, as far as 
could be seen in the last chambers, apparently belongs to the lap- 
parenti type with thin, slightly arched lip projections. 

Dimensions of holotype. — Width 0.38 x 0.34 mm.; thickness, 
0.15 mm. 

Holotype. — No. 20832, Paleontological Research Institution. 

Occurrence. — Rare in the Colon shale, middle of PuUenia cret- 
acea zone. Holotype (PI. 1, fig. 13a-c) from the Colon shale, PuUenia 
cretacea zone. Well Papayal No. 1, 210-215', 

Reviarks. — This species is close to Git. bulloides bulloides 
(Vogler) and Git. bulloides globigerinoides (Brotzen). The last 
coil, the petaloid chambers, and the irregular increase in size of 
the last chambers are quite distinctive, keeping on throughout the 
following mutations toward a Rugoglobigerina form. 

This subspecies was named after A. W. Nauss, who discovered 
and named Rugoglobigerina loetterli loetterli. 

Globotruneana (Kugog-loliifferina) loetterli loetterli (Nauss) 

PI. 1, fig. 15a-c 

Globiycrina locttnli Nauss, 1947, p. 336, pi. 49, fig. 11. 

Description. — The main distinctive characters of Git. bulloides 
naussi are to be observed unvaried in this species such as the last 
loose coil and smaller, generally more flattened, last chambers. The 
apertures in the adult stages are covered by reduced, slightly arched 
lips, with an apparent slight extension in the last chamber toward 
the peripher\-. 1 he test is especialK- rough along the margin of the 
shell. 

Dimensions. — Width 0.28 x 0.26 mm.; thickness, 0.14 mm. 

Occurrence. — Present in the Colon shale, more frequent in 
the uppermost PuUenia cretacea zone, Siphogenerinoides bramlettei 
zone. 



Bulletin 155 



tHobotrunoana (Kugogloliigeriiia) Ictettfrll subloetterli, n.sp. 

PI. 1, fig. 14a-c 

Description. — It is similar to Git. bulloides naussi. It differs, 
as usual in all these forms transitional to Rugoglobigerina, by its 
more rounded and inflated chambers of Globigerina t3pe, and by 
its keels which are weak and disappear in the last chambers. The 
test is rough especially in the early chambers, dextrally coiling. 

Dimensions of holotype. — Width 0.36 .\ 0.34 mm.; thickness, 
0.16 mm. 

Holotype. — No. 20833, Paleontological Research Institution. 

Occurrence. — Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea zone. Holotype 
from the Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea zone. Well Papayal No. 1, 
210-215'. 

Remarks. — Transitional stages present to Git. bulloides naussi 
and Rugogl. loetterli loetterli. 

COMMENTS ON THE PHYLOGENETIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE BULLOIDES GROUP 

The comparatively rich material for this group of forms has 
made it possible to follow the phylogenetic development of the 
single Globotruncana species much more closely than for the pre- 
viously described group. 

Linnei-Vike forms are here considered as belonging to the group, 
which have, however, inflated and more or less Globtgerina-hke 
chambers. Git. bulloides has been recognized by many authors as 
closely related to Git. lapparenti. Git. marginata (Reuss) was often 
put in synonymy with Git. globigerinoides Brotzen and or w'lth 
Git . ventricosa White. 

Git. bulloides naussi is a new species closely related to Git. 
bulloides and Git. globigerinoides. From their description, it is ob- 
vious these forms should be kept separated, since they have distinct 
morphological characteristics. They represent independent evolu- 
tionary stages toward Rugoglobigerina. 

The group is assumed to form a kind of evolutionar}- system de- 
veloping parallel and somewhat independently from the linnei one 
with probably repeated derivations from linnei forms, since a close 
morphological relationship to the linnei group is observed through 
their development. 



CiLDBOTRLlNCANA IN Col.OMBIA: (mNDOI.II 



Different hranclics lia\c been separated as was done tor the 
linnei grdiip: 

Marginata branch. — Flat forms, peripheral hand douhle-keeled, 
narrow. There is no apparent possibility of niterpreting these forms 
as intermediate stages between Git. bulloides bulloides, Git. bullo- 
ides globigerinoides, and (Ut. bulloides nausst. The narrow double 
keel was seen to persist iii the transitional stages to Rugoglobi- 
gerina, as a fixed conservative characteristic, (luite typical of the 
branch, the same as the wide peripheral band for the bulloides and 
nciussi branches. 

Bulloides branch. — Flat forms, wide peripheral band, regular 
development of chambers. 

Nanssi branch. — Wide peripheral band as the previous one, 
more irregular development of chambers. 

Schematic, in the light of our observations, the phylogenetic 
development of these forms is figured as follows: 



Git. bulloides n.mssl 



Riigoglol). iocttcrli Idcttcrii 



Git. hulloidcs bulloides 



Git. bulloides globigerinoides 
Git. marginata austinensis 



Rugogiob. hexacamerata hexacamerata 
>. Rugogiob. bcldingi bcldingi 



Git. marginata marginata 



/ 



-^ Rugoglobigcrina sp. ? 



Remarks oyi the Globotruncana-Rugoglobigerina mutations. — 
The most striking fact in all these phylogenetic developments is 
undoubtedly the explosive mutation of different Globotruncana into 
Rugoglobigerina. There is apparently no doubt in the observation. 
The phyla are represented with complete evidence of transitional 
stages; in some of them particular morphological characters jicrsist 
through the comparatively rapid evolution in a conservative way, 
so that in most of the cases no doubt can remain as to the deriva- 
tion of a specific Rugoglobigerina form troni a corresponding Globo- 
truncana. 



38 Bulletin 155 



Regarding the sense of development ( which can easily become 
a basis for discussion) the paleontological evidence appears con- 
vincing. The evolution of these Globotruncana forms occurred 
mostly in Campanian (or early in Santonian) since they are abun- 
dant in lower Colon shale {Pullenia cretacea zone) together with 
derived Rugoglobigerina forms. 

Upward they disappear completely at the appearance of Git. 
gansseri gansseri so that later only typical Rugoglobigerina spread 
out. 

Noteworthy is the gradual increase of ornamentation going 
hand in hand with the disappearance of keels. Generally the orna- 
mentation of most of these Rugoglobigerina forms appears as a 
secondary morphological development which finds its maximum in 
the full spread of these forms in Maestnchtian, since some tests 
which were found down-section in the Pullenia cretacea zone show 
only a slightly rough or even smooth test. Equally, the growing of 
hantkeninoid spines {Plummerita Brcnnimann, 1952) does not mean 
a different genetical derivation of these richly ornamented forms 
but enters into the general morphological change which on the other 
end can also be observed in Globotruncana, s. str. {Globotruncana 
calcarata, Globotruncana gansseri, Globotruncana wiedenmayeri, 
Globotruncana rugosa). 

The bulloides group is, within the limits of our study, the one 
which has a more evident and more prominent development toward 
Rugoglobigerina. It is not the only one since a similar development 
will be observed in other groups. 

GLOBOTRUNCANA FORNICATA GROUP 

Description. — Convex dorsal side, sometimes strongly so, two 
keels close together and usually parallel to each other, but some- 
times diverging along the direction of coiling; the second keel is 
weak, frequently shifted inside toward the umbilicus in more evolved 
species; chambers elongated, curved, arched, strongly overlapping 
each other; in some species longitudinally inflated, irregularly and 
obliquely arranged to the plane of coiling. 

In some branches {fornicata branch, cesarensis branch, contusa 
branch) the last chambers become large and petaloid, somewhat un- 



(jLOBOTRUNCANA in CoI-OMHIA: CiANDOl.H 39 



dulated, depressed in the middle and toward the inner side of the 
coil. In the species with inflated chambers, the inflation is growing 
around and outside this median inner-marginal depression, causing 
a squeezed appearance from the inside. This is quite a peculiar 
morphological characteristic which to date has been observed by 
the writer only in Globotrnncana of the foniicata group (afore- 
mentioned branches). It is apparently persistent and well defined, 
the same as the narrow, double keel in the marginata branch, the 
wide double keel in the bidloides and naussi branches. It continues 
through the several evolutionary stages such as may be observed 
sometimes in the derived Rugoglobigerina forms. This character 
disappears in the calicijorynis and int ermedia-difformis branches and 
appears again in the more evolved forms of the contusa branch. 

This group shows the most complex variability. The long arched 
chambers and the more convex dorsal side, however, are common 
to all types included in the group. 

The group was subdivided into the following branches: 

Fornicata branch: Chambers elongated and flat, becoming 
petaloid (last ones). 

Plumynerae branch: Chambers becoming inflated with pro- 
nounced median innermarginal depression. 

Cesarensis branch: Three-four chambers in the last whorl (ex- 
tremely rapid increase of size as added). 

Calicijormis branch: Strongly convex dorsal side, petaloid pe- 
riphery, second keel disappearing. 

Dijjormis-intermedia-citae branches: Extremely petaloid pe- 
riphery, margin becoming single-keeled or rounded (both keels disap- 
pearing). 

Contusa branch: Extreme conical forms, extreme elongated 
chambers, peripheral band almost horizontal, second keel weaken- 
ing and disappearing. 

Apertural system: The Globotruncana of this group have gen- 
erally a wide open umbilical cavity with straight or slightl}^ arched 
apertural lips {i.e., Git. fornicata brotzeni, Git. fornicata fornicata, 
Git. intermedia ackernianni, Git. fornicata cesarensis, primitive Git. 
calicijormis caltciformis). Elxtreme arched lips are developed in some 
of the more evolved species like Git. caliciformis sarmientoi and Git. 



40 Bulletin 155 



contusa contusa. These show an apertural system more or less of the 
rosettci-stuarti type ( Reichel, 1949, p. 613, pi. 16, {\g. 10). 

Little observation was possible of Git. iyiterynedia difformis, 
Git. intermedia intermedia. Rugogl. petaloidea, s.l., and Git. citae. 
Nevertheless, it appears that a thin plate fringes the umbilicus and 
extends sometimes slightly {Git. citae) from the umbilicus toward 
the peripher)'. 

FORNICATA BRANCH 

(ilobotniiicaiisi foniicjita foruicatn (Plummer) PI. 2, fig. 2a-c 

Globotruncana fornicata Plummer, 1931, p. 198, pi. 13, fig. +-6; Sandidge, 1932, 
p. 285, pi. 44, fig. 12-13; Cushman and Hedberg, 1941, p. 99, pi. 23, fig. 18; 
Cushman, 1946, p. 149, pi. 61, fig. 19. 

Description. — Test convex on the dorsal side, double-keeled, 
the second keel shifted to the inner of the shell, tending to weaken 
and disappear in the adult stages, peripheral band narrow, obli- 
que to the plane of coiling (sometimes it is strongly so) becoming 
almost horizontal ( cf. Git. contusa contusa). The chambers are long, 
arched, elongated, becoming large, flat, petaloid, and undulated 
especially in the adult stages. The sutural elevations are often 
beaded especially in the early stages. The umbilical cavity is nar- 
rower than in the previous form; arched lips cover the apertures. 
The test in the early stages is rough. 

The specimens investigated are dextrally coiling. 

Dimensions. — Width 0.41 x 0.38 mm.; thickness, 0.22 mm. 
(primitive); width 0.48 x 0.40 mm.; thickness, 0.28 (evolved). 

Occurrence. — Fairly frequent in the Manaure shale and bottom 
of the Colon shale (bottom of PuUenia cretacea zone), rarer upward 
in section. 

Remarks. — This is the form which most often has been identi- 
fied and figured by authors as Git. fornicata Plummer. 

It must be noted, however, that higher in section ( upper Pul- 
lenia cretacea zone ) the test shows a more pronounced dorsal con- 
vexity, a slight inflation of the chambers which extends into the 
early stages of the last coil with a more pronounced sutural depres- 
sion toward the inner coil (cf. the description of Plummer, 1931, 
and figure of Cushman and Hedberg, 1941). 

In the Manaure shale, transitional forms are present toward 
Git. fornicata manaurensis. Some tests with dorsal convexitv, 



Globotrlncana in Colombia: CjA.ndoi.ki 41 



slightly intlated clianibers, show completely mixed characters be- 
tween fornicata, calicifonnis, and intermedia tests. Git. convexa 
Sandidge, which according to Cita should be a Git. jornicata, is 
probably to be related to these forms. 

(ilolMitniiicaiiii f<»riilcjif;i inaiiaiirensis, n. subsp. 

PI. 2. fig. la-c. Text fig. 9(la-c), 9(2a-c) 
Globotrunrana fornicata Cita, 1948, p. 11, pi. 3, fig. 8. 

Description. — Test convex on the dorsal side, double-keeled, 
subcircular with a narrow peripheral band; the second keel only 
slightly shifted toward the umbilicus; chambers becoming long, 
arched, elongated in the adult stage, sutural elevations thinner than 
in Git. lapparenti lapparenti, but continuously raised on the imibili- 
cal side, running with sigmoidal development, but bending sharply 
back and tending to attach themselves to the previous ones. The 
last ones sometimes still plunge within the umbilical cavity. The 
test is generally smooth; the umbilical cavity is large with thin, 
long, nearly straight apertural lips. The specimens investigated 
are dextrally coiling. 

Dimensions of holotype. — Width 0.41 x 0.38 mm.; thickness 
0.22 mm. 

Holotype. — No. 20834, Paleontological Research Institution. 

Occurrence. — Apparently confined to tbe Manaure shale (Mar- 
ginulina jonesi) . Holotype (pi. 2, fig. la-c) from the Manaure shale, 
Manaure section, S. 9168. 

Remarks. — Of phylogenetic interest is the "lapparenti" ap- 
pearance of this primitive fornicata type. Though the material is 
not abundant, all intermediate stages are present and connect this 
form with Git. lapparenti longilocula on one side and with Git. for- 
nicata fornicata on the other side. 

Some tests show a more pronounced dorsal convexity with either 
extremely elongated chambers such as to be transitional toward 
Git. contusa scutilla or with larger final chambers and more lobated 
contour such as to be connected with Git. calicif or mis -inter media 
tests. 

The name is derived from the name of the Manaure shale, 
Cesar V^alley. 

In the Manaure shale and in the lower Colon formation all 



42 Bulletin 155 



degrees of intermediate stages were found connecting this form 
with Git. jornicata plumnierae. 

FLLMMFRAE BRANCH 

Globotriiiicaiia foiiiicata phiininerae,* n.subsp. PI. 2, fig. 3a-c, 4a-c 

? Globotruticatia furnicata Cushman and Deaderick, 194+, p. 340, pi. 153, 
fig. 28. 

Description. — Flat or sHghtly convex on the dorsal side, two 
keels equally developed, somewhat diverging, peripheral band only 
slightly oblique to the plane of coiling; four-five chambers in the 
last whorl long and arched as the previous species but longitudinally 
inflated with well-developed, median inner marginal depression in 
the last chambers. On the ventral side, the chambers are usually 
flat with long curved raised sutures, but the early ones are oc- 
casionally inflated, short with the marginal elevations disappearing 
in the radial sutural depressions. The test is dextrally coiling. 

Dimensions of holotype. — Width 0.38 x 0.28 mm.; thickness, 
0.22 mm. 

Holotype. — No. 20835, Paleontological Research Institution. 

The form is related to Git. jornicata jornicata Plummet, from 
which it differs by the pronounced inflation of the chambers in 
the same way as Git. bulloides bulloides differs from Git. lappa renti 
lapparenti. 

Occurrence. — Rare in the Manaure shale, where large forms 
with more flattened chambers are prevailing (transition to Git. 
jornicata plummerae)\ frequent and typical at the bottom of the 
Colon shale. Holotype (PI. 2, fig. 3a-c) from the Colon shale, Pid- 
lenia cretacea zone. Km. 92 section, S. 5578. 

Remarks. — This species is named after the late Helen Jeanne 
Plummet, who discovered and named Git. jornicata jornicata. 

Globotriiiicaiia foniicata ackeriiiaiini, n. subsp. PL 2, fig. 5a-c, 6a-c, 7a-c 
Description. — Similar to the previous one with more outstand- 
ing convexity on the .dorsal side, chambers short, strongly inflated 
especially on the ventral side, the last one occasionally more 
elongated and arched with well-developed median inner depression. 
Sutures on the ventral side radial, depressed, being somewhat raised 
only around the umbilical margin. Only the last chamber may still 

* Editor's note: Correction of spelling of subspecific name of plummrri to 
plummcrac was made after Plates 8 and 10 were engraved. The corrections 
should he made on the plates accordingly. 



Globotrlncana in Colombia: Gamjoli i 43 



show a more or less continuous raised suture. 1 he test is rougher 
than in Git. fornicata fornicata and Git. fornicata plummerae with 
spinose tubercles on the surface of the early chambers. Frequent 
tests are sinistrally coiled. 

Dimensions of holotype. — Width 0.36 x 0.30 mm.; thickness, 
0.29 mm. 

Holotype. — No. 20836, Paleontological Research Institution. 

Occurrence. — Colon shale, more typical and frequent upward 
in the section. Holotype (PI. 2, fig. 5a-c) from the Colon shale, 
Siphogenerinoides bnnnlettei zone. Km. 92 section, S. 5608. 

Remarks. — Morphologically this form is similar to Git. mar- 
ginata austinensis; however, the elongated, arched chambers (espec- 
ially the last ones), the median inner marginal depression, the dor- 
sal convexity are distinctive for the species. 

Rare tests appear in the uppermost PuUenia cretacea zone and 
Siphogenerinoides bramlettei zone (PI. 2, fig. 6a-c, 7a-c) with cham- 
bers and keels oblique to the plane of coiling but diverging along 
the direction of coiling. In one specimen a dichotomic keel was ob- 
served. 

Rosalinella globigerinoides Marie (see p. 33) shows a similar 
oblique arrangement of chambers and keels but differs in the less 
elongated last chambers which are symmetrically inflated on both 
sides and less increasing in size. An oblique arrangement ot the 
chambers, diverging keels are shown also by Git. mayaroensis, and 
Git. intermedia intermedia. A dichotomic keel was up to the present 
known onl}' to Git. imbricata Mornod, 1948, ( Turonian). 

The species was named after E. D. Ackerman, Exploration 
Manager of International Petroleum (Colombia), Limited. 

(■lobotniiuaiiii (Hug-ogloblgerina) ('ircuiiiiiodlfer circiiiiiiiodifcr (Finlay) 

PI. 2. fig. 9a-c 

Glohigrrina circumnodifcr Finlay, 1940, p. 469, pi. 65, tigs. 150-158. 

Description. — More lobate periphery than in Rugogl. circum- 
nodifer subcircumnodijer chambers; subangular, rapidly becoming 
loosely spaced, sutures almost radial in the adult stages, test some- 
what smooth, but in the early stages rougher with tubercles, as 
in these Rxigoglobigerina forms, especially along the margin of the 
early chambers. The terminal face of the last chamber is broadly 
triangular with a more or less pronounced edge at the position 



44 Bulletin 155 



when the ventral keel was formerly present In the subgenus Globo- 
truncana. 

Dimensions. — Width 0.28 x 0.26 mm.; thickness 0.18 mm. 

Holotype. — No. 20838, Paleontological Research Institution. 

Occurrence. — Colon shale (Pullenia cretacea zone, Siphogener- 
inoides bramlettei zone). 

Reynarks. — The form is morphologically related to Rugogl. 
hexacamerata hexacamerata, differs because of fewer, more elongate 
chambers in the last whorl, its more asymmetric umbilical infla- 
tion of the chambers. It differs from Rugogl. rugosa riigosa Plum- 
mer because of its smaller size, smaller test and less outstanding 
umbilical convexity of the chambers. 

(Tilol)otruncana (liug'og-lol)ig'erina) circiiiiniodifer siibcirouiiiiiodifer, 

n. subsp. PI. 2, fig. 8a-c 

Description. — The form is similar to Git. jornicata ackermanni, 
but the Rugoglobigerina habitus is more developed. The test is 
slightly convex, the chambers are inflated, subangular with the 
inflation more pronounced in the umbilical side, so that the 
faintly beaded double keel ( narrow peripheral band ) is not ex- 
actly in the middle of the chamber, but shifted more toward the 
dorsal side. The chambers, four-five in the last whorl, are slightly 
more elongated; the sutures become radial in the last chambers; 
the test is rough especially in the early stages and the umbilicus 
is narrower. The test is dextrally coiling. 

Dimensions of holotype. — Width 0.38 x 0.32 mm.; thickness, 
0.22 mm. 

Holotype. — No. 20837, Paleontological Research Institution. 

Occurrence. — Colon shale {Pullenia cretacea zone). Holotype 
(PI. 2, fig. 8a-c) from the Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea zone. Km. 
92 Section, S. 5579. 

Remarks. — Morphologically it is closely related to Rugogl. 
hexacamerata subhexacumerata, but the irregular growth of the 
chambers (more inflated toward the umbilical side), their narrower 
shape, the fewer chambers in the last whorl, the position and ar- 
rangement of the keels are distinctive characteristics. From Rugogl. 
rugosa subrugosa, it differs by having a smoother test (lack of rugose 
ridges) and less pronounced umbilical inflation of the chambers. 



Globotruncana in Colombia: (Iandoi.ii 45 

CF.SARKNSIS BRWcIl 

(»lol)()triiii(-itiia l'<»riiicjita crsareiisis, n. subsp. PI. 2, fig. lOa-c 

Description. — Form flat or slightly convex dorsalK , the chani- 
hers (three-four in the last whorl) are considerably inflated on 
both sides, more strongly so on the umbilical one. It is similar to 
Git. fornicata plumtnerae, with chambers, however, more rapidly in- 
creasing in size, the last one usually considerably elongated and 
occupying half of the test. It shows a narrow, well-defuied double 
keel, and a peripheral band which is nearly perpendicular to the 
plane of coiling. On the ventral side the sutures are radial and de- 
pressed; the last chamber is provided with more or less evident 
and Globotru7Jcana-hke terminal face; the test is rough especially 
in the early chambers and dextrally coiling. 

Dimensions of holotype. — Width 0.35 x 0.24 mm.; thickness, 
0.17 mm. 

Holotype. — No. 20838, Paleontological Research Institution. 

Occurrence. — Rare in the Colon shale, PuUcnia cretacea zone. 
Holotype (PI. 2, fig. lOa-c) from the Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea 
zone. Km. 92 section, S. 5587. 

Remarks. — This form apparently represents a final stage of 
evolution with respect to the reduction of the number of chambers 
in the last whorl ( cf. Git. tncarinata colombiana). The arched, 
elongated last chamber with median inner marginal depression re- 
mains a distinctive character. 

(lilobotruiu-ana (Rug'og'Iobigerina) inacroocithala iiiacnK-cpliala 

Bronnimann PI. 2, fig. 12a-c 

Rugoglohigrrina macroccphala mairincphala Bronnimann, 1952, p. 25, pi. 2, 
figs. 1-3. 

Description. — As in the following Globotruncana form, the 
chambers are rapidly increasing in size so that three, occasionally 
four, chambers form the last whorl. The inflation is more conspicuous 
and more rapidly developing toward the adult stages so that the 
inner spire is more depressed than in the previously described Globo- 
tuncana species. The subglobular chambers are still slightly arched 
and slightly overlapping each other. The last chamber maintains its 
subangular GlobotruncanaAW^e shape with triangular terminal face. 

Dimensions. — Width 0.18 x 0.24 mm.; thickness, 0.17 mm. 



46 Bulletin 155 



Occurrence. — Colon shale. Pidlenia cretacea zone. Siphogener- 
inoides bra^nlettei zone. Fully ornamented tests are more frequent 
in the uppermost part of the Pidlenia cretacea zone. 

Globotruncana (Kugog-lobig^erina) macrocepliala submacrocephala, 

n. subsp. PI. 2, fig. lla-c 

Description. — Similar to Git. fornicata cesarensis, but the test 
is rougher, the chambers are more uniformly rounded, and a faintly 
beaded double keel is present only in the early chambers, tending 
to weaken and completely disappear. The test is dextrally coiling. 

Dimensio7is of holotype. — Width 0.31 x 0.23 mm.; thickness, 
0.16 mm. 

Holotype. — No. 20839, Paleontological Research Institution. 

Occurrence. — Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea' zone. Holotype 
(PI. 2, fig. lla-c) from the Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea zone. Well 
Papayal No. 1, 210-215'. 

CALICIFORMIS BRANCH 

Globotruiicana caliciforinis oallcifonnis (de Lapparent) PI. 3, fig. la-c 

Git. caliciformis Cita, 1948, p. 7, pi. 3, fig. 7a-c, text fig. 7/3a-c, 4a-c; BoUi, 
1951, p. 194, pi. 34, fig. 4-6. 

Description. — The test is fairly convex on the dorsal side, the 
chambers are long, arched, and overlapping each other (fornicata 
type) with the exception of the last two or three chambers which 
are short and petaloid. 

On the dorsal side the sutures are beaded in the early stages 
and become continuously raised later. On the ventral side completely 
and continuously raised sutures run along the chambers. The umbili- 
cal cavity IS large; thin, slightly arched lips with apparently an 
irregularly cut margin cover the apertures. 

Occurrence. — Typical forms with petaloid periphery start to 
become abundant in the Colon shale, upper Pullenia cretacea zone. 

Rare early specimens with a less developed petaloid periphery, 
more arched chambers, transitional to Git. fornicata pliunmerae 
were found down section in the Manaure shale. 

Remarks. — The form was first described from isolated speci- 
mens by Cita, 1948, who referred it to the species of De Lapparent 
{Rosalina linnei mut. caliciformis de Lapparent, 1918, p. 8, fig. 
2i; pi. 1, fig. 2), which in turn was known only from thin section. 
Many species of such conical appearance are already known, and 



Globotruncana in Colombia: (iAndoi.fi 47 



it can be easily foreseen that others may he discovered. Therefore, 
the reference may be correct (the stratigraphic range apparently 
corresponds), but this cannot be entirely proved without cutting 
thin sections from isolated tests and comparing with the holotypc 
of De Lapparent. For this reason the form of Cita is here considered 
as holotypc. 

(•loliotruncaiin oaliciforinis triiiidadoiisis, n. subsp. PI. 3, fig. 2a-c 

Globotrutuanti (uliriformis BoUi, 1951, p. 194 (part). 

Description. — Fa'rly convex dorsally; lobate periphery, cham- 
bers of the last whorl petaloid as Git. calicijormis sarmientoi. The 
chambers, however, are more elongated and flattened on the ventral 
side, where the sutures are radial with sutural elevations generally 
absent, at least in the early stages. The umbilical cavity is smaller 
than in Git. calicijormis calicijorviis but larger than in typical Git. 
calicijormis sarmientoi. The form is single-keeled in the adult stages, 
double-keeled in the early stages, the test is considerably rougher, 
especially in the umbilical side of the early chambers. The apertural 
system takes a completely intermediate position as in general do all 
the morphological characteristics between Git. calicijormis and Git. 
calicijormis sarmientoi. The test is dextrally coiling. 

Dimensions oj holotype. — Width 0.44 x 0.37 mm.; thickness, 
0.15 mm. 

Holotype. — No. 20840, Paleontological Research Institution. 

Occurrence. — Limited to a short range immediately underlying 
the first appearance of typical Git. calicijormis sarmientoi. Holotype 
(PI. 3, fig. 2a-c) from the Colon shale, Pullcnia cretacea zone. Km. 
92 section, S. 5606. 

Remarks. — Bolli described such calicijormis forms with the keel 
disappearing in the adult stage in his Trinidad paper. In fact, this 
form is to be considered transitional between Git. calicijormis cali- 
cijormis and Git. calicijormis sarynientoi. 

tilobotnincana oaluifomiis sarmientoi, n. subsp. PI. 3. fig. 3a-c 

Description. — Dorsal convexit\' more outstanding than in the 
previous species, chambers on the last whorl (four-five) fairly 
petaloid, flat on the dorsal side, slightly inflated on the ventral 
side. The sutures on the dorsal side are continuously but irregularly 
raised in the adult stages, somewhat beaded in the early stages. 



48 Bulletin 155 



Ventrally the umbilicus is considerably narrow (as respect to Git. 
calicijormis caliciformis), with well-developed arched lips of rosetta 
type; the sutures are deeply depressed, radial with sutural eleva- 
tions completely absent or reduced to a slight thickening around 
the umbilicus. The form is single-keeled and the chambers are 
fringed by a kind of large umbilical peripheral limbation like many 
Globorotalia or Epistomina are. 

The lip of the last chamber is slightly crenate and extending 
somewhat toward the periphery. The test is dextrally coiling. 

Dimensions of holotype. — Width 0.46 x 0.39 mm.; thickness, 
0.18 mm. 

Holotype. — No. 20841, Paleontological Research Institution. 

Occurrence. — Colon shale, starting at the top of the Pullenia 
cretacea zone. Holotype (PI. 3, fig. 3a-c) from the Colon shale, 
Pullenia cretacea zone. Km. 92 section, S. 5606. 

Remarks. — This species is morphologically related to Globoro- 
talia pshadae Keller (Keller, 1946, p. 99, pi. 2, fig. 4-6). As well as 
can be judged from the poor figure, this form is a Globotrimcana, 
perhaps belonging to the caliciformis branch but does not appear to 
be identical to our species, showing a completely flat umbilical side 
and a narrower umbilicus. 

At any rate Git. calicifor-mis sarmientoi and Git. pshadae show 
that new conical lobate, single-keeled Globotruncana appear in 
Campanian-Maestrichtian time which are similar to rosetta forms 
but have a completely different genetical derivation. 

This species was named after R. Sarmiento, geologist of Inter- 
national Petroleum (Colombia), Limited. 

DIFFORMIS-IXTF.RMEDL.\-CITAE BRANCHES 

<Tlol)otniiK'aiia interiiHMlij! iiit<'niu'(Iia (Bolli) PI. 3, fig. 8a-c 

Globotruncana intermedia (Bolli), 1951, p. 197, pi. 35, figs. 7-9 

Description. — The material is scarce and generally badly pre- 
served. However, a comparison with topotype material of Trinidad 
allowed a complete identification of this species and some inter- 
esting observations. The form is generally convex on the dorsal 
side with curved, inflated, slightly overlapping chambers (four-five 
in the last whorl). The periphery is lobate as in Git. caliciformis 
caliciformis, and a narrow peripheral band is present along with 



Globotruncana in Colombia: Gandolfi 49 



two finely beaded keels, diverging along the direction of coiling. 
Chambers and keels are irregularly and obliquely arranged as to 
the plane of coiling but not so strongly as in Clt. intermedia diffor- 
inis. The sutures are radial and depressed on the umbilical side. 

Occurrence. — Upper Colon shale (upper PuUenia cretacea 
zone); rare. 

Remarks. — A fine umbilical lip was observed, as in the previous 
species, fringing the last chamber. A few badly preserved tests were 
found in the Manaure shale, with raised curved umbilical sutures 
and morphological characteristics, which are intermediate between 
Git. calicijormis caliciformis, Git. intermedia difjormis, and Git. 
jornicata manaurensis. Git. convexa Sandidge, which was interpreted 
as a Git. jornicata by Cita, may refer to these forms. 

(ilobotruiu'aiisi iiitennedia diflfonnis, n.sp. PI. 3, figs. 4a-c, 5a-c 

Description. — Test more convex on the dorsal side, chambers 
elongated, arched, tending to become petaloid and strongly oblique 
to the plane of coiling in the adult stage. They are rapidly inflated 
but irregularly increased so that the second chamber is considerably 
developed, often bigger than the last one. The sutural elevations are 
round and thick, being absent on the ventral side. A large, blunt, 
thick peripheral keel is present which splits somewhat into equally 
rounded blunt keels in the early stages. The test is rough and the 
umbilicus narrow. The presence of an umbilical lip could be observed 
through the hard matrix filling the umbilical cavity (fig. 5-b). 

Dimensions of holotype. — Width 0.44 x 0.35 mm.; thickness, 
0.25 mm. 

Holotype. — No. 20842, Paleontological Research Institution. 

Occurrence. — Rare in the Manaure shale. Holotype (PI. 3, fig. 
4a-c) from the Manaure shale, Manaure section, S. 9167B. 

Remarks. — The form is closely related to Git. intermedia inter- 
media Bolli which differs because of its more regular arrangement 
of chambers and its finely beaded, not so strongly diverging keels. 

(Ku§ro^lol)ij?erina) oniata oriiata ( Hnnmimainn PI. 3. fig. 7a-c 

Ruguglobigrrina macroccpliala ornata liroiinimaiin, 1952, p. 27, i)l. 2, figs. 4-6. 

Occurrence. — Colon shale, Pullcnia cretacea zone. Rare. 
Remarks. — The scarce material does not allow a complete check 
of its phylogenetic development. However, the typical protruding 



50 Bulletin 155 



second chamber, the disappearance of keels while the rugosity is 
increasing, seem to confirm the postulated bioseries Git. intermedia 
diffonnis-Rugoglobigerina ornata ornata. For this reason the form 
of Bronnimann was raised to the rank of species and separated from 
Rugoglobigerina Tnacrocephala macrocephala which appears to have 
a completely distinct genetical derivation. 

Globotruncana (Rugog-lobigeriiia) oniata subomata, n. subsp. 

PI. 3, fig. 6a-c 

Description. — Low trochoidal test with depressed inner whorl, 
four chambers in the last whorl rapidly and irregularly increasing 
in size so that the second one is frequently larger than the last 
one. The chambers are truncated toward the umbilicus; the sutures 
are curved in the early stages of the last volution, becoming straight 
later in completed adult development. Two finely beaded keels are 
distinctly visible and limit a narrow peripheral band in the early 
stages, though often being masked by well-developed rugosities. 
The test IS dextrally coiling. 

Dimensions of h oh type. — Width 0.40 x 0.31 mm.; thickness, 
0.28 mm. 

Holotype. — No. 20843, Paleontological Research Institution. 

Occurrence. — Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea zone. Rare. Holo- 
type (PI. 3, fig. 6a-c) from the Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea zone, 
Well Papayal No. 1, 210-215'. 

(Kug-og'lobig'eriiia) glaessiieri g-laessneri, n.sp., n. subsp. PI. 3, fig. lOa-c 

Description. — Test convex on the dorsal side, four to five sub- 
globular and laterally protruding chambers with a broadly triangular 
periphery, loosely arranged with deep radial sutures on both sides, 
umbilicus smaller than Rugoglobigerina glaessneri subglaessneri (um- 
bilical aperture or apertures with fine lips ?). The test is dextrally 
coiling, similar to that of Rugogl. glaessneri subglaessneri but with- 
out keels. 

Dimensions of holotype. — Width 0.27 x 0.24 mm.; thickness, 
0.17 mm. 

Holotype. — No. 20845, Paleontological Research Institution. 

Occurrence. — Colon shale, uppermost Pullenia cretacea^ zone, 
and Siphogenerinoides bra^nlettei zone. Rare. Holotype (PI. 3, fig. 
lOa-c) from the Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea zone, Well Papayal 
No. 1, 110-115'. 



Cl.OHOTRUNCANA IN CoIOMHIA: CaN'DOI.II 



This species was named after M. F. Glaessner for his contribii- 
rion to the knowledge of the Globotruncana of the Caucasus. 
(Kufrofrlohifrcriiia) grlaessiuTl sHbfjlaesMiori, n. subsp. PI. 3, f g. 9a-c 

Description. — Four to five chambers in the last coil, high, pro- 
truding, loosely arranged, broadly pointed and polygonal; periphery 
fairly petaloid; a finely beaded diverging double keel is discontinu- 
ously present. On the umbilical side the sutures are radial and de- 
pressed. The last chamber has a triangular terminal face, subant^ular 
along the once present marginal elevation. A slight thickening is 
generally present around the umbilical cavity. The test is rather 
smooth, being rougher in the early stages. The umbilical cavity is 
smaller than in Git. intermedia intermedia. As far as the matrix filling 
the cavity allowed observation, a fine umbilical lip is present, at 
least in the last chamber, extending somewhat toward the periphery. 
The test is dextrally coiling. 

Dimensions of ho/ntype. — Width 0.28 x 0.26 mm.; thickness, 
0.18 mm. 

Holotype. — No. 20844, Paleontological Research Institution. 

Occurrence. — Pullenia cretacea zone. Rare. Holotype ( PI. 3, 
fig. 9a-c) from the Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea zone, Well Papaval 
No. 1, 210-215'. 

Remarks. — The general morphological appearance of this form 
resembles Rotalipora beyiacensis Cita which is, however, single- 
keeled and has sutural apertures. 

Altht.ugh observation on the aperture cannot be considered as 
conclusive, the general appearance of the test seems to be close to 
Git. intermedia intermedia such as to suggest an intermediate gene- 
tic position toward Rugoglobigerina glaessneri glaessneri. 

Globotruncana citae Bolli PI. 3, fig. lla-c 

Globotruncana citae Bolli, 1951, p. 197, pi. 35, fig. 4a-c. 

Description. — The pronounced petaloid periphery is the main 
diagnostic characteristic. Topotype material from Trinidad allowed 
a close comparison. The early chambers are more globular, the last 
ones more flattened. 1 he development of the keel is variable, but 
here only the forms which have a well-developed keel all around 
the test are included. Specimens with extremely developed petaloid 
periphery are present, their test being smoother than in the topo- 
type. 



52 Bulletin 155 



A thin umbilical lip fringes the apertures of the chambers and 
extends somewhat toward the periphery. 

Occurrence. — Rare in the Colon shale. Pullenia cretacea zone. 

Remarks. — According to Bolli there are transitional stages 
toward Git. intermedia intermedia. 
Globotninoaua (Rug'oglobig'erina) petaloidea petaloidea, n.sp. 

PI. 3, ng. 13a-c 

Descriptio72. — Pronounced petaloid periphery as in Git. citae 
and Rugogl. petaloidea subpetaloidea, chambers subglobular, sutural 
elevations completely disappearing or marked sometimes by more 
frequent tubercles, especially along the margin of the early chambers. 
The terminal face is as usual more or less triangular with a faint 
edge toward the umbilical face. The test is dextrally coiling. 

Dimensions of holotype. — Width 0.29 x 0.27 mm.; thickness, 
0.18 mm. 

Holotype. — No. 20847, Paleontological Research Institution. 

Occurrence. — Rarely present and only in the higher Colon shale 
( uppermost Pullenia cretacea zone, Sipho generinoides bramlettei 
zone). Holotype (PI. 3, fig. 13a-c) from the Colon shale, Pullenia 
cretacea zone. Well Papayal No. 1, 70-75'. 

Remarks. — A fine umbilical lip appears to fringe the last 
chamber and extends somewhat toward the periphery. 
(ilobotruiKaiia (Ru^rog^lobigerina) petaloides subpetaloidea, n.sp., 

PL 3. fig. 12a-c 

Description. — Test slightly convex; five chambers in the last 
whorl, which are short, high, and protruding with only a partially 
developed marginal keel. The chambers are less flattened in Globo- 
truncana citae, the periphery is generally lobate in a more outstand- 
ing way. The test is dextrally coiling. 

Dimensions of holotype. — Width 0.31 x 0.26 mm.; thickness, 
0.18 mm. 

Holotype. — No. 20846, Paleontological Research Institution. 

Occurrence. — Colon shale, more frequent up section. Holotype 
(PI. 3, fig. 12a-c) from the Colon shale. Pullenia cretacea zone, Km. 
92 section, S. 5584. 

Remarks. — Figure 8 illustrates an isolated specimen of Rugogl. 
petaloidea subpetaloidea. The test of the earlv chambers is rougher 
and provided with hantkeninoid sp nes. A comparison of this form 



Gl.OHOTRL NCANA IN CoI.OMHIA: (JaNDOI.KI 



AMtli the figures of Plummcrita gi\en by Bronniniann, especially 
Plummcrita hantkeninoides inflata ( Bronnimann, 1952, pi. 3, figs. 
7-9) which appears more primitive, is suggestive of a genetical deri- 
vation of Plummerita from such forms. 





Fig. 8. Rugoglobigcrina prtaloidra suhpctaloidea, n.sp., n.subsp. ; showing faint 
keel and hantkeninoid spines in the early chambers of the last \olution. S. 5595. 
Colon shale, Pullcnia crctacea zone. 60 X- 

CONTUSA BRANCH 

Globotruncana contnsa ooutnsa (Cushman) PI. 4, fig. 3a-c 

Glohotruncana area var. contusa Cushman 1946, pp. 150-151, pi. 62, fig. 
6a-b. 

Description. — Chambers of the last coil with a sharply cut 
polygonal periphery conspicuously undulated, the second keel some- 
times completely disappearing. The chambers are occasionally 
slightly inflated, especially in the early stages. The umbilical lips 
are more arched and developed than in the previous species {rosetta 
type). 

Dimensions. — Width 0.64 x 0.53 mm.; thickness 0.41 mm. 

Figured specimen. — No. 20850, Paleontological Research Insti- 
tution. 

Occurrence. — Upper Colon shale (upper Pullenia cretacea and 
Siphogenerinoides bramlettei zones); more frequent in shallower 
environment. 

Remarks.— \s was noted by Cita, 1948 (p. 8), and BoUi, 1951 
(p. 196), Git. conica var. plicata White should be identical with this 
species. All transitional stages connect this form with Git. contusa 
patellijor^nis. Git. contusa contusa becomes more and more frecjuent 
higher in the section as compared with Git. contusa patelliformis. 

Cita, 1948, suggested that this form should be separated from 
Git. area, being somewhat closer to Git. calicijormis. Bolli, 1951, 
recognized its close relationship to Git. jornicata. Git. jornicata forni- 
cata and Git. calicijormis calicijormis are undoubtedly genetically 



54 Bulletin 155 



closely related species. Besides the transitional stages which connect 
this line of forms to primitive jornicata types, the reader will notice 
by comparing figs. 1, 2, and 3 of Plate 3, how the ontogenetic de- 
velopment of the chambers confirms this assumption. Except for 
the last irregularly lobate chambers, the early ones both of Git. 
contusa patelliformis and Git. contusa contusa are identical in all 
morphological details with those of Git. contusa sciitilla. Even the 
test in the early stage is regularly convex on the dorsal side as it 
is in this primitive form. On the other hand, the long arched cham- 
bers of Git. contusa scutilla and the general appearance of the test 
are close to Git. jornicata manaurensis. 

Globotruncana contusa scutilla, n. subsp. PI. 4, fig. la-c 

Description. — Fairly and regularly convex on the dorsal side, 
flat on the ventral side, double-keeled, the peripheral band almost 
horizontal and lying; in the same plane as the umbilical surface; 
periphery subcircular and slightly lobate, chambers narrow, long, 
arched, even the last ones. Sutural elevations generally thick, some- 
times thinner but always continuous and fringing the chambers on 
the dorsal as well as the ventral side. Umbilical cavity large with 
slightly arched lips as in Git. jornicata manaurensis. The test is dex- 
trally coiling. 

Dimensions oj holotype. — Width 0.38 x 0.36 mm.; thickness, 
0.23 mm. 

Holotype. — No. 20848, Paleontological Research Institution. 

Occurrence. — Manaure shale and bottom of the Colon shale 
(bottom of Pullenia cretacea zone). Holotype (fig. 4, la-c) from 
the Manaure shale, Manaure section, S. 9168. 

Remarks. — Transitional stages are present toward Git. contusa 
patellijormis, n. subsp. and toward jornicata forms. 

Globotruncana contusa patelliformis, n. subsp. PI. 4, fig. 2a-c 

GlobotruTicana contusa Bolli, 1951, p. 196, pi. 3+, figs. 7-9 

Description. — Form more convex on the dorsal side than Git. 
contusa scutilla, the convexity being more pronounced in the last 
stages; last chambers higher, petaloid and often undulated; sutural 
elevations thinner and frequently split in the dorsal side into lines 
of beads. The form is double-keeled, becoming often single-keeled 
in the more adult stages. The umbilical cavity is large, the um- 



Glohotruncana in CoLOMmA: Gandolii 55 



hilical lips arc thin and slightly more arched than in the previous 
forms. Ihe test is dextraily coiling. 

Dimensions of holotype. — Width 0.48 x 0.42 mm.; thickness, 
0.35 mm. 

Holotype. — No. 20849, Paleontological Research Institution. 

Occurrence. — Colon shale, Pidlenia cretacea, Siphogenerinoides 
bramlettei zones, more frequent in shallower environment. Holotype 
(Pi. 4, fig. 2a-c) from the Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea zone, Km. 
92 section, S. 5579. 

Re^narks. — The form is evidently closely related to Git. contusa 
contusa. Git. contusa was originally described by Cushman as a 
"variety" of Git. area from the Papagallos shale, but no figure was 
given. Later Cushman, 1946 (p. 50, pi. 62, fig. 6), presented a draw- 
ing of it, but the form differs from the present one in having a more 
prominent pyramidal shape. 

COMMENTS ON THE PHVl.OC.ENETIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE FORNICATA GROIP 

The close morphologic and genetic relationship between forni- 
cata, calicijonnis, and contusa forms have already been suggested by 
some authors (Cita, 1948, Bolli, 1951), as noticed in the detailed 
description of the single species. This is not only entirely confirmed 
by this study, but it can be noted that calicijormis, jornicata, contusa 
had, to date, a generic meaning indicating evolutionary lines or, at 
any rate, groups of closely related forms. This is also true of Git. 
linnei, Git. bullotdes, and Git. tricarinata, as noted previously. A 
close relationship between intermedia-citae forms and the other 
forms of the group can here only be suggested by rare, poorly pre- 
served, primitive forms which appear, however, transitional toward 
calicijormis and joryiicata types. New groups of forms have been 
found and inserted in the group, like the cesarensis branch. 

Some developments toward Rugoglobigerina forms were also 
found which occur in a similar way to those observ^ed and described 
in the bidloides group and with the same stratigraphic distribution. 
This has, however, some important significance since it proves that 
the Rugoglobigerina originate in repeated mutations of Globotrun- 
cana, s. str., perhaps not occurring contemporaneously (influence of 
full marine ecologic conditions.''). 

Origin of the group. — A few specimens which were classified 
as Git. jornicata ynanaurensis show some primitive characteristics 



56 Bulletin 155 



which are closely reminiscent of Git. lapparenti longilocula. 

This supports strongly the opinion that the fornicata group 
may have its ancestor in a lapparenti species {Git. lapparenti longilo- 
cula or closely related form). 

Fornicata branch. — Git. fornicata ranges high m the section, 
but unfortunately becomes rare upward so that it was not possible 
to check its morphological evolution closely as was done for other 
forms. Nevertheless, some morphological changes could be noted 
which appear to be of statigraphical interest. Upsection: 

The test becomes more convex. 

The chambers become more lobate, loose, petaloid, and more 
or less undulate in the more adult stages, somewhat inflated toward 
the inner margin of the spire especially in the early stages. 

The apertural lips start to be more arched and better developed. 

The margin becomes single-keeled in the adult stage. 

The sutural elevations change to thinner, beaded ones, especially 
in the early stages. 

Plummerae branch. — The evolutionary trend of Git. fornicata 
fornicata to Git. fornicata^ ackermanni through Git. fornicata plum- 
merae is documented by a full set of mtermediate stages. Genetically 
related Rugoglobigerina forms are apparently Rugoglobigerina cir- 
cumnodifer subcircumnodifer and Rugoglobigerina circumnodifer cir- 
cumnodifer. 

Cesarensis branch. — Git. fornicata cesarensis is interpreted as 
representing a lateral trend toward forms with fewer chambers in 
the last whorl in consequence of the extremely rapid development 
of the chambers as added. A similar evolution was accordingly 
suspected in the tricarinata and ventricosa branches. The phylum 
Git. fornicata. cesarensis-Rugogl. macrocephala m-acrocephala is 
fairly well documented by a complete set of transitional stages as 
well as by the typical few chambered tests. 

Well-documented transitional stages also show the close genetic 
relationship between fornicata, plummerae, and cesarensis forms. 

Caliciform,is branch. — This represents a well-defined trend 
toward convex tests, fairly well-developed petaloid chambers, finely 
beaded sutures, narrower umbilicus, radial depressed sutures on the 
umbilical side and a more complicated, roj-^^/c/-Iike, apertural system 
(PI. 3, figs. 1-3). 



Globotruncana in Colombia: Gandolm 



57 



It derives from jornicata-intennedia tests (fig. 7/1-4). 

Difformis-intermedia-citae branches. — Only a few specimens 
were recognized of Git. intermedia difformis. It appears to he closely 
related to G!t. intermedia intermedia (convex test, inflated petaloid 
chambers) aiul to G/t. calicijormis calicijormis (convex test, flat, 
petaloid chambers). 

The rounded margm suggests a lateral trend toward a Rugo- 
globigerina test, i.e., toward Rugoglobigerina ornata ornata, which 




Fig. 9. ])ra\vings 1-4 show morphological line Git. forn'uata maruiurcnsis, 
n.subsp. Git. raiuiformis calhiformis (de Lapparent). All figures 45 X. la-c. 
Git. fornifdla inuttaurrnsis , n.subsp. (from Fl. 2, fig. 1). 2a-c. Git. fornicdia, 
n.subsp. S. 9164. Manaure shale {Alart/inulina jonrsi) ; showing intermediate 
characters. 3 a-c. Git. caliciformis raiuiformis (de Lapparent). S. 9164. 
Manaure shale. (Marginttlina jonrsi); showing beaded sutures in early 
chambers, but still subcircular periphery. 4a-c. Git. raiuiformis raliriformis 
(de Lapparent), from PI. 3, fig. 1; showing well-developed petaloid chambers. 
Notice nearly straight apertural lips in primitive forms which liecome arched 
in more e\olved types. 5a-c. Git. intrrmrJia intrrmrdia (BoUi). S. 58S1. Bottom 
of Colon shale (Pullrnia rrrtarra zone) showing raised umbilical sutures and 
intermediate characteristics with Git. forriirata brotzrni and Git. raliriformis 
raliriformis. 



58 Bulletin 155 



shows a typical well-developed second last chamber. Git. intermedia 
intermedia is also rare, so that its relationship to the other forms 
of the group could not be completely analyzed, but the specimen of 
fig. 9(5a-c) shows characteristics which are quite similar to those 
of primitive caliciforTnis and jornicata tests. 

The phylum Git. intermedia-Glt. citae leads to extreme petaloid 
single-keeled species with transitional forms which have been also 
recorded by Bolli. However, both forms appear to split separately 
toward Rugoglobigerina tests. 

The phylogenetic development of the branch appears to the 
writer as follows: 



Git. fornicata fornicata 



Git. intermedia intermedia *■ ? Rugoglobigerina 

^^ Git. intermedia d.fformis ? ? Git. citae -*^ Rugoglobigerina 



Rugoglobigerina 

Contusa branch. — The evolutionary trend represented by this 
branch is remarkably similar and parallel to that of Git. fornicata 
fornicata with, however, an extreme development of certain parti- 
cular characteristics like the dorsal convexity, the irregular peri- 
phery, the undulated, and long polygonal chambers. Of some inter- 
est is that here the apertural system becomes, in the more evolved 
species, more complicated. 

GLOBOTRUNCANA THALMANNI GROUP 

Description. — Forms generally biconvex or flat dorsally with 
a strongly protruding convex, or conical, underside, generally 
single-keeled. A narrow double keel is sometimes present in the 
early stages {cretacea branch) or all around the shell {area branch, 
second keel shifted inside). The side wall of the chambers tends 
to make a large angle with the roof as in tricannata tests. The 
chambers, typically polygonal or petaloid in the adult stage are 
long, arched in the more primitive species, and keep their elongated 
shape in the early stages of the more evolved ones; the sutures are 
continuously raised in the more primitive form;, becoming sharp 
and thin or finely beaded in the more evolved species. 



Globotruncana in Ccjlombia: Gandolii 59 



Ihis group includes difFercnt branclK's: 

Cretacea branch. — Biconvex, with elongated, lornicata-Ukc 
chambers, a double keel sometimes present in the early stages, test 
trochoidal in the early stages and becoming later flattened. 

This is apparently the more primitive branch and can be con- 
sidered as a link between the jornicata and the thalmanni groups. 

Area branch. — Biconvex, double-keeled, the second one shifted 
toward the umbilicus, periphery subcircular to slightly lobate, 
chambers petaloid, sutures on the dorsal side gently curved. 

Stuarti branch. — Generally biconvex or conical, single-keeled, 
sutures straight, tending to bend sharply at the periphery, cham- 
bers more or less polygonal, elongated and imbricated on the ven- 
tral side with fine sutural elevations which tend to become attached 
to the previous ones at the margin of the umbilicus. 

Rosetta branch. — Flat or slightly convex side, single-keeled, 
sutures curved, raised or finely beaded, chambers normally increas- 
ing in size, becoming fairly petaloid; ventral side more or less pro- 
truding, with sutures tending to be attached to the previous ones. 

Wiedenmayeri-gansseri branches. — Flat on the dorsal side, 
strongly convex and protruding on the ventral one, test particu- 
larly rough with ornamentation, chambers slightly inflated dor- 
sally, strongly so on the ventral side; single or double-keeled with 
a narrow peripheral band, which is asymmetrically placed being 
closer to the roof of the chambers because of the strong umbilical 
convexity. 

The area, stuarti, and rosetta branches are closely related, show- 
ing an evident link in Git. bollii. The morphological similarity is 
becoming less evident higher in the section (Colon shale), follow- 
ing their progressively diverging evolution. 

The zviedenmayeri-gansseri branches are closely related to the 
rosetta branch and may represent, as will be seen later, complex 
trends of evolution. As far as could be understood, singlc-kceled 
forms appear to lead to spinose tests, with radial umbilical sutures 
and a narrow umbilicus as well as to Rugoglobigcrina; on the other 
hand, double-keeled forms seem to lead toward only Rugoglobigerina. 

Apertural system. — A wide umbilical cavity is to be observed 
with nearly straight, simple lips in the more primitive forms, as in 



60 Bulletin 155 



the primitive jornicata tests. In more evolved species and within 
the simple species hand in hand with their evolution, the aper- 
tural system becomes more and more complicated showing 
strongly developed arched lips. The lips grow and tend to open op- 
posite to the sense of coiling In the more evolved and well-developed 
rosetta and stuarti tests. The cretacea branch Is apparently forming 
a complicated apertural system with great expansion of lamellar 
plates ( Relchel, op. cit., p. 615). The apertural lips are still well de- 
veloped in Git. rosetta pettersi and Git. wiedenmayeri wiedenmayeri. 
They become thinner and reduced In Git. gansseri gansseri and 
Rugoglobigerina, maintaining, however, their tendency to open 
somewhat opposite to the direction of colling. 

CRETACEA BRANCH 

Globotruiieaiia thalinaiini thalmanni, n.sp. PI. 4, figs. 4a-c 

Description. — Biconvex, more strongly so on the ventral side, 
periphery subclrcular, one keel in the adult stage, two keels close 
together in the early chambers. The spiral coils trochoidal in the 
early stages, becoming flattened in the adult ones. The chambers 
are elongated, arched, and curved {jornicata type), becoming 
rapidly more convex and protruding on the umbilical side In the 
adult stages. The sutural elevations are generally thick and con- 
tinuous (lapparenti type), oblique and tending to bend sharply 
and typically when attaching to the previous coil. On the ventral 
side they are curved, well marked, tending to attach themselves 
to the previous ones around the umbilicus. The test Is rough and 
somewhat spinose in the early stages; the umbilical cavity Is large 
with thin, slightly arched or nearly straight lips. The lips are dextrally 
colling. 

Specimens with one keel — the second being reduced to an 
indistinct rough line In the early chambers — and with less elongated 
and arched chambers mark transitional stages toward Git. flexuosa 
van der Sluis. 

Dimensions of holotype. — Width 0.45 x 0.38 mm.; thickness, 
0.18 mm. 

Holotype. — No. 20851, Paleontologlcal Research Institution. 

Occurrence. — Rare in the Manaure shale. Holotype ( PI. 4, 
fig. 4 a-c) from the Manaure shale, Manaure section, S. 9167. 



Gl.OBOTRUNCANA IN COLOMBIA: GaNDOI.FI 61 



Remarks. — The most striking characteristics of this species 
are the long arched chambers of jornicata type and the overlapping 
manner of the chambers on the umbilical side which is of rosetta- 
stuarti type. Morphologically the species is related to Git. jornicata 
brotzeni on one side and on the other one to Git. thalmanni jlex- 
uosa (van der Sluis). It differs from the first species especially be- 
cause of its more protruding umbilical side, and from the other 
because of the more elongated and typically shaped chambers. 
Noteworthy is that the manner of growth of the spire in the early 
stages (more convex dorsal side, chambers more flattened on the 
ventral one) is identical to that of Git. jornicata brotzeni (the 
early part of the test of a Git. thalmanni thalntamni is a complete 
Git. jornicata manaurensis) . 

This species was named after H. Thalmann for his general 
contribution on micropaleontological studies. 

(ilobotruncana thalinaiiiii flexuosa (van der Sluis) PI. 4, fig. 6a-c 

Globotruncana flexuosa van der Sluis, 1950, p. 21, pi. 1, figs. 7a-c, 8a-c. 

Description. — As in Git. thalmanni thalm^anni, the second keel is 
occasionally present as an indistinct rugose ridge fringing the early 
chambers of the last whorl, being often somewhat masked by tuber- 
cles, which render particularly rough the test of the early cham- 
bers. The undulation of the chambers is fairly evident and in- 
creasing in the adult stages. The umbilical cavity is large, the lips 
are thin, slightly arched or nearly straight. 

Occurrence. — Manaure shale. 

Remarks. — The chambers increase more rapidly in size, as ap- 
pears in the reference. The scarce material does not permit one to 
ascertain what stratigraphic meaning this discrepancy may have 
( the holotype of this species is recorded in the Maestrichtian of the 
island of Ceram, Indonesia). 

The form differs from Git. thalm-anni thalmanni in its larger 
size, its more elongated periphery, its larger more petaloid and 
evidently undulated chambers, its oblique nearly straight sutures. 
On the other hand the species is closely related to Git. cretacea 
Cushman which has fewer, more lobate and petaloid chambers in 
the last whorl, sutures more conspicuously beaded and raised, test 
more spinose. 



62 Bulletin 155 



filobotruiu-ana aff. ('retiU'ea Cushman PI. 4, fig. 7a-c 

Description. — Nearly flat on the dorsal side, strongly convex on 
the ventral side, a double keel present in the early chambers, the 
second one becoming weak and disappearmg in the adult stage. Four 
to five chambers in the last whorl, short, slightly lobate; sutures 
conspicuously raised and spinose, oblique, becoming straight {stuarti 
type). On the ventral side the sutural elevations are of rosetta 
type, being curved and tending to be attached to the previous 
suture around the umbilicus. The umbilicus is comparatively nar- 
rower than in the previously described species and is provided with 
well-developed arched lips (rosetta type). 

Dimensions. — Width 0.38 x 0.35 mm.; thickness, 0.25 mm. 

Figured specimen. — No. 20852, Paleontological Research Insti- 
tution. 

Occurrence. — Rare in the Colon shale (uppermost Pullenia 
cretacea zone). 

Remarks. — The form differs from Git. cretacea by its outstand- 
ing ventral convexity and its more circular periphery. However, in 
the quoted reference, it is stated that on the ventral side, "the 
sides in the later chambers are often becoming more than 45°," 
which means that the convexity occasionally becomes more notice- 
able than appears in the illustration. 

ARCA BRANCH 

Globotruiicana bollii, n.sp. PL 5, fig. la-c 

Globotrunca7ia area Cushman, 1946, pi. 62, fig. 5a-c; Cushman, 1932, pi. 51, 
fig. 13a-c. 

Description. — Slightly convex on the dorsal side, more strongly 

so on the umbilical one with a narrow double keel fringing the 

early chambers, the second one often reduced to an indistinct rugose 

line, becoming single-keeled in the adult stages. The test coils in a 

more pronounced way in the early stages with long, arched chambers 

(cf. Git. thalmanni thalmanni, n.ssp.) which becomes larger and 

petaloid in later stages. The sutural elevations are thick and rugose 

in the early stages, later becoming; thin, well defined and smooth, 

with a somewhat straight, oblique development {stuarti type). On 

the umbilical side the sutural elevations are present, well defined 

and curved as in all area and rosetta tests. The umbilical cavity 

is large with thin, nearly straight or slightly arched lips. The test 

is dextrally coiling. 



Globotruncana in Colombia: Gandolfi 63 



Dimensions of holotype. — Widrh 0.51 x 0.48 mm.; thickness, 
0.22 mm. 

Holotype. — No. 20853, Paleontological Research Institution. 

Occurrence. — Frequent in the lowermost portion of the Colon 
shale (lowest PuIIenia cretacea zone). Holotype (PI. 5, fig. la-c) 
from the Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea zone, Molino section, S. 
12161. 

Remarks. — This species was interpreted from Cushman's figures 
as a Git. rosetta by Cita, 1948, and as Git. stuarti by Bolli, 1951. 
Actually, this species shows intermediate (undifferentiated) char- 
acteristics between Git. rosetta, Git. stuarti, and Git. area. The 
present material is poor. However, a sample of the Pecan Gap, which 
was available to the writer through the courtesy of Mr. F. B. Ellis, 
shows a complete set of transitional passages from Git. bollii, Git. 
area area, and stiuirti-rosetta forms. 

A point of phylogenetic interest is that, in the early stages, the 
test becomes more trochoidal with elongated chambers, similar 
to a complete test of Git. thalmanni thalmanni. 

Bolli, 1945, described and named Git. leupoldi only from thin 
sections, a species which apparently shows an internal double keel 
later becoming a single one. The thin sections were found later by 
Reichel, 1949, (p. 614) to be identical with thin sections of Git. 
area. It is probable, therefore, that Git. leupoldi may include both 
forms, Git. bollii and Git. area area, inasmuch as it ranges through 
the Campanian and Maestrichtian. Git. leupoldi is, at any rate, more 
convex on the dorsal side {Git. area area) than the present one. 

This species was named after H. Bolli, paleontologist of Trini- 
dad Leaseholds, Ltd., for his contribution to the knowledge of Globo- 
truncana. 

Olobotruiiciiiia area area (Cushman) PI. 5, figs. 2a-c, 3a-c. 4a-c 

Pulvinulina area Cushman, 1926, p. 23, pi. 3, fig. la-c. 
Globotruncana area Cushman, 1946, p. 15, pi. 62, fig. 4a-c. 

Description. — Typical forms are convex on both sides with a 
rather large, fairly oblique peripheral band, two well-developed keels 
which sometimes tend to converge in the direction of coiling, and 
six-seven quite petaloid chambers in the last whorl. The sutural 
elevations are generally continuously curved and well developed in 



64 Bulletin 155 



the ventral side, sometimes beaded on the early portion of the dor- 
sal side. The umbilical cavity is large. In more evolved forms the 
lips become more arched and overlap each other (rosetta type). 
Primitive forms (PI. 5, fig. 2a-c) show straight and oblique stuarti- 
like sutures on the dorsal side and a narrower double keel (transi- 
tion to Git. bollii). 

Occurrence. — Colon shale, more frequent upward in section. 

Globotriiiicaiisi area Ccaribica, n. subsp. PI. 5, fig. 5a-c 

Description. — Similar to Git. area but has fewer chambers (4-5) 
in the last whorl, increasing more rapidly in size with more finely 
beaded sutures. The test is dextrally coiling. 

Dimensions of holotype. — Width 0.38 x 0.36 mm.; thickness, 
0.25 mm. 

Holotype. — No. 20854, Paleontological Research Institution. 

Occurrence. — Colon shale, upper Pullenia cretacea zone, Sipho- 
generinoides hravilettei zone. Holotype ( PI. 5, fig. 5) from the Colon 
shale, Pullenia cretacea zone, Km. 92 section, S. 5592. 

Remarks. — The form is rare, but it appears more frequently 
higher in the section, probably representing a more evolved test 
and an evolutionary tendency toward forms with fewer chambers in 
the last whorl (cf. Git. fornicata cesarensis, Git. tricarinata colom- 
biana, and Git. ventricosa). 

Morphologically it may be related to Git. fornicata fornicata 
(evolved forms) because of the somewhat elongate chambers. The 
regular test without undulating chambers, the more convex and 
sharply angled sideview, the more protruding umbilical slide are 
distinctive characteristics. 

STUARTI BRANCH 

Globotruiicaiia stuarti stuarti (de Lapparent) PL 5, figs. 6a-c 

Rosalina stuarti de Lapparent, 1918, p. 11, fig. 4, 5a-c. 
Globotruncana stuarti Cita, 1948, p. 18, pi. 4, fig. 7a-c. 
Globulruncana conica Bolli, 1951?, pL 34, figs. 13-15. 

Description. — Biconvex with protruding umbilical side and 
typical sutures forming a sharp bend at the peripheral edge. The 
chambers increase slightly in size (six-seven in the last whorl). 
The apertural system is provided with strongly developed and arched 
lips (Reichel, 1949, p. 614). 

Dimensions. — Width 1.18 x 1.20 mm.; thickness, 0.47 mm. 



Globotruncana in Colombia: Gandoi.ii ()S 



Occurrence. — Colon shale, Pullcnia cretacea zone, Siplioi^ener- 
inoides brofnlettei zone. 

Remarks. — 1 he only American record of this species ( Bolli, 
1951, pi. 34, fig. 12) shows a smaller specimen with only four-five 
chambers in the last whorl (Git. stuarti parva), whereas the holo- 
type from the afore-qiioted De Lapparent reference has six-seven 
chambers in the last whorl. 

(iHol>otniiicaiia stuarti parva. n. subsp. PI. .5. fig. 7a-c 

Globotruncana stuarti Bolli, 1951, p. 196, pi. 34, figs. 10-12. 

Description. — Test considerably smaller than the previous one, 
chambers more rapidly increasing in size and becoming larger than 
in Git. stuarti stuarti (five in the last whorl). The sutures are, in 
the previous form, less sharply bent or more gently curved (rosetta 
tj^pe) in the last stages. 

Dimensions of holotype. — ^Width 0.72 x 0.70 mm.; thickness, 
0.37 mm. 

Holotype. — No. 20855, Paleontological Research Institution. 

Occurrence. — Colon shale, more frequent in upper part of sec- 
tion. Holotype (PI. 5, fig. 7) from the Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea 
zone, Km. 92 section, S. 5597. 

Remarks. — ^The observation of the umbilical cavity was poor, 
but nevertheless the lips are apparently less arched and developed 
than in the typical form. It is not possible from our material to 
judge which of the two forms may be more primitive. At any rate 
this subspecies appears to represent a special phylogenetic tend- 
ency of the species toward forms with fewer chambers in the last 
whorl, as seen in Git. tricarin-ata colombiana and Git. jornicata 
cesarensis. 

(;lol)otrnncaua stuarti ronica (White) PI 5. fig. 8a-c 

Globotruncana conica White, 1928, p. 285, pi. 38, figs. 7a-c; Cushman and 
Renz, 19+7, p. 50, pi. 12, fig. 12; Cita, 1948?, pp. 149-150, pi. 3, fig. 5a-c. 

Description. — ^Typical for the species are: the strong: dorsal con- 
vexity of the test, the flat, sometimes concave, umbilical side, the 
long narrow chambers (seven-eight in the last whorl) which be- 
come rectangular in consequence of the sharply bending sutures. 
Round arched lips are present in the umbilical side, opening in 



66 Bulletin 155 



a pronounced way opposite to the direction of coiling. The last 
chambers may become petaloid and the sutures gently curved 
{rosetta type). 

Occurrence. — Colon shale, upper Pidlenia cretacea zone, Sipho- 
generinoides bramlettei zone. 

Refnarks. — The close relationship of these three stuarti forms 
is documented by a full set of transitional stages. Sharply cut 
rectangular chambers are here typical, sometimes becoming later 
more gently curved as noted. Curved sutures and petaloid chambers 
are on the contrary shown in the original figure of White, as well as 
in Globotruncana conica Cita, Git. aflF. coiiica Reichel, 1949 (p. 614, 
fig. 7b) has also rosetta type chambers and a lobate periphery but 
has a more convex umbilical side. Git. conica Cushman and Renz 
(afore-quoted reference) is somewhat intermediate, having only 
the last chambers petaloid. There is, therefore, the possibility that 
the conical character, as well as the exceptionally high number of 
chambers, may develop independently (common morphological 
trend) in different branches such as the rosetta and stuarti branches 
(cf. also Git. caliciformis sarmientoi) giving way to similar but gen- 
etically diflFerent forms. 

ROSETTA BRANCH 

Ollobotruncana rosetta rosetta (Carsey) PI. 6, fig. la-c 

Globigcrina rosetta Carsey, 1926, p. 44, pi. 5, fig. 3a-b; Plummer 1926, p. 36, 
pi. 2, fig. 9a-c. 

Globotruncana rosetta Glaessner, 1936, pi. 1, fig. 12. 

Description. — Typical forms show a lobate periphery with 
petaloid chambers, curved sutures (a slight sharp bending toward 
the periphery is occasionally observed), protruding convexity on 
the ventral side, while the dorsal one is flat or only slightly convex. 
There are five or six chambers in the last coil. The apertural system 
has strongly arched lips. 

Occurrence. — Colon shale. 

Remarks. — The form described by Cita, 1948 (p. 16, pi. 4, fig. 
5a-c) has more stuarti-Vike chambers in the last whorl (six-eight). 
Perhaps the specimen illustrated can be identified with Git. bollii 
which includes the more primitive type with undifferentiated mor- 
phological characteristics. 



Glorotruncana in Coiomiua: Gandolfi 



67 



The specimen on text figure 10 shows a slightly different mor- 
phological character compared with the average rosetta type. The 
periphery is fairly lohate, the umbilical side of the chambers is 
slightly inflated, the sutures are here radial and depressed, the sut- 
ural elevations disappearing in the sutural depressions. Ihe test is 
also apparently rougher than in typical forms. The form is closely 
related to Git. seranensis van der Sluis, 1950, which differs only in 
a more developed spinose test and short inflated chambers on the 
umbilical side with radial, depressed sutures without any "bourrelet 
sutural" even around the umbilicus. 




Fig. 10. Git. rosetta rosrtta (Carsey) showing depressed iiiiihilical sutures with 
"bourrelet sutural" partialh disappearing. S. 5602. Colon shale, upper Pullrnia 
crctacea zone. 60 X- 



Globotnincaim rosetta iiisigrnis n. subsp. PI. 6, tig. 2a-c 

Description. — Usually seven-eight fairly lobate (especially the 
last one) chambers which become shorter in the adult stages. They 
are strongly protruding and slightly inflated on the ventral side, 
where the sutural elevations disappear here and there in the sutural 
depressions, however, with the "bourrelet umbilical" generally pre- 
sent. The sutures are more conspicuously beaded than in Git. rosetta. 
Fairly arched lips are present in the umbilical cavity. 

Dimensions of holotype. — Width 0.99 mm.; thickness 0.33 mm. 

Holotype. — No. 20856, Paleontological Research Institution. 

Occurrence. — Rare in the Colon shale (upper Pullenia cretacea 
zone, Siphogenerinoides bramlettei zone .^). Holotype (PI. 6, fig. 
2a-c) from the Colon shale, Pxdlenia cretacea zone. Km. 92 section, 
S. 5603. 



68 Bulletin 155 



Remarks. — Git. afF. conica Reichel, 1949 (p. 614, fig. 7b) is 
closely related, but differs by its more outstanding dorsal convexity 
and slightly conical umbilical side with fairly evident sutural eleva- 
tions. 

Rotalia elevata Brotzen also shows a strongly protruding um- 
bilical side, as well as many chambers in the last whorl (six-nine); 
the specimen illustrated has, however, only six chambers, its cham- 
bers are inflated on the ventral side with radial, depressed sutures, 
without any trace of raised sutures. Probably this form is a more 
evolved rosetta type somewhat related to Git. serane?isis. 

(ilobotninoana rosetta pettersi, n. siibsp. PL 6, figs. 3a-c, 4a-c, Text fig. 11a 

Description. — Test subcircular, flat dorsally, strongly convex 
on the ventral side, single-keeled; the chambers increase slightly 
in size, are curved and overlapping, as in Git. rosetta rosetta. They 
are strongly convex ventrally, flat and even concave dorsally. The 
sutural elevations are thin, well defined and sharpl}^ raised. The 
ventral convexity of the chambers can be so strong as to give in 
typical specimens a truncoconical profile ( side wall nearly at right 
angles with the roof of the chambers). 

The chambers overlap in the ventral side, with thin marginal 
elevations along the sutures which extend back to the previous ones. 
The umbilical cavity is open; the apertures are covered by well- 
developed arched lips (rosetta type), cf. fig. 11a. 

Dimensions of holotype. — Width 0.89 x 0.86 mm.; thickness, 
0.44 mm. 

Types. — No. 20857, holotype; No. 20858, paratype, Paleontolo- 
gical Research Institution. 

Occurrence. — Lower Colon shale, lower Pullenia cretacea zone, 
disappearing when the first Git. gansseri gansseri starts. Holotype 
(PI. 6, fig. 3a-c) from the Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea' zone, Km. 
section, S. 5589. 

There are tendencies both toward Git. rosetta rosetta (more 
flattened forms) on one side and Git. gansseri gansseri on the other 
one (PI. 6, figs. 4, 5, 6). 

Remarks. — It was named after Viktor Petters, Head of the Pal- 
eontological Laboratory of the International Petroleum (Colombia), 
Limited. 



Glokotrincana in Colombia: Gandoi.m 



69 



GANSSERI-WIEDENNLWERI BRANCHES 

Globotruiu'jiiia gwiisseri pinsseri (Bolli) PI. 6, fig. Sa-c, Text fig. lib 

Ghbotruiuami gansscii Bolli, 1951, p. 196, pi. 35, fig. 1-3. 

Description. — The chambers are slightly inflated on the dorsal 
side and strongly so on the ventral side, sometimes irregularly ar- 
ranged with the plane of coiling. Small senile chambers frequently 
are seen lying somewhat lower toward the umbilical side. The test 
is definitely rough with occasional horizontal and transverse rugose 
ridges in the early chambers. This feature is more pronounced in 
Riigoglobigerina rugosa rugosa (Plummer). 

The apertures open deep in the umbilical cavity and are 
covered by arched cover-plates, similar to but less developed than 
in Git. rosetta pettersi (text fig. lib). 

Occurrence. — Colon shale, uppermost PuUenia cretacea zone, 
Siphogenerinoides bramlettei zone. 

Remarks. — A comparison with topotype material from Trini- 
dad shows that our specmiens are identical but generallv bigger. 
Four to five chambers in the last whorl are common, but specimens 
with six chambers are present. Transitional stages with Git. rosetta 
pettersi are present, thus making it difficult to distinguish the last 
stages of Git. rosetta pettersi from the early ones of Git. gansseri 
gansseri. 

In some tests of Git. gansseri gansseri (PI. 6, fig. 8a-c) in which 
the keel marks the entire circumference, the inflation of the early 






Fig. 11. Comparative view of cleaned umbilical sides of: a. Git. rosetta pritcrsi, 
n.subsp. S. 5587. Colon shale, Pullenia crrtacca zone. b. GU. ijanssrri gansseri 
(Bolli). S. 5607. Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea zone. c. Rugogl. rugosa rugosa 
(Plummer). S. 5607. Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea zone. AH drawings 60 X- 



70 Bulletin 155 



chambers extends to the last coil and the chambers become narrower 
so that the test is reminiscent of Rugoglobigerina rotundata rotun- 
data, except for the last more flattened chambers. 

Git. helvetica Bolli is morphologically similar, being different, 
however, because of its sharp, well-defined keel, its more outstanding 
inner whorl, and its slightly concave dorsal side. 

CTJlobotniiU'ana g-ansseri siibg-aiisseri*, n. subsp. PI. 6, fig. 7a-c 

Description. — Test flat dorsally and considerably inflated ven- 
trally, six-seven chambers in the last volution, one finely beaded 
keel. The chambers increase more rapidly in size as in Git. gansseri 
gansseri and are more inflated even dorsally; the test is rougher. 
The inner volutions are not visible because of the fairly developed 
rugosity. 

Dimensions of holotype. — Width 0.58 x 0.54 mm.; thickness, 
0.38 mm. 

Holotype. — No. 20859, Paleontological Research Institution. 

Occurrence. — Uppermost Siphogenerinoides cretacea zone. 
Fairly rare. Holotype ( PI. 6, fig. 7a-c) from the Colon shale, Pullenia 
cretacea zone, Km. 92 section, S. 5605. 

Remarks. — It differs from the Git. gansseri gansseri because of 
the greater number of chambers in the last whorl, the smaller size, 
the less evident keel, the more inflated chambers. 

(Tlobotniiicaiia (Kug'og'l<)big'erina) rotundata rotundata (Bronnimann) 

PL 7, fig. 2 
RuffOfflobiffcrina rugosa rotundata Bronnimann, 1952, p. 34, pi. 4, figs. 7-9, 
Text figs. 15-16. 

Occurrence. — Rare in the uppermost Pullenia cretacea zone, 

Siphogenerinoides brarnlettei zone. 

Globotruncana (Hug-oglobig^erina) rotundata subrotundatii, n. subsp. 

PL 7, fig. la-c 

Description. — Large, subspherical test, with inflated umbilical 
side and inflated chambers which become more and more elongated 
in the axial direction. The surface is rough, particularly in the early 
chambers, but a distinct keel fringes the early chambers of the last 
volution in a discontinuous way. The umbilical cavity appears to 
be larger than in the original figure of Rugoglobigerina rugosa 
rotundata (Bronnimann) and is provided with umbilical lips. 

*Editor's note: On plate 8 this subspecies is listed as Git. gansseri lirxaca- 
mrrata. The correction to Git. gansseri subgansseri on the plate should be 
made accordingly. 



Globotruncana in Coi.omhia: Gandoi.ki 71 



Dimensions of holotype. — Width 0.88 x 0.85 mm.; thickness, 
0.56 mm. 

Holotype. — No. 20860, Paleontological Research Institution. 

Occurrence. — Colon shale, PuUenia cretacea zone. Rare. Holo- 
type ( PI. 7, fig. 1) from the Colon shale, PuUenia cretacea zone. Km. 
92 section, S. 5597. 

Remarks. — Plate 6, fig. 8, suggests that Git. gansseri gansseri 
undergoes a process of "globigerinization" like other Globotruncana 
forms. The fact that the few tests of Git. gansseri gansseri show a 
tendency toward a more trochoidal coiling and toward more elong- 
ated end-chambers supports the opinion that Rugoglobigerina rotun- 
data rotundata is an offshoot of Git. gansseri gansseri and appears 
genetically separated from Rugoglobigerina rugosa rugosa. 

Globotruncana wiedeninayeri wiedenniajeri, n.sp. PI. 7, fig. 4a-c 

Description. — Test flat on the dorsal side with slightly inflated 
chambers (generally six in the last whorl) convex on the ventral 
side with chambers strongly inflated and round, two finely raised 
keels close to the dorsal side and to each other, chambers short, 
petaloid; sutures, deep depressed, and radial on the ventral side 
with sutural elevations occasionally present m the last chambers. 
Test rough with spines, papillae, rugose ridges on the ventral side, 
developed arched lips {rosetta type) covering the umbilical aper- 
tures. 

Dimensions of holotype. — Width 0.78 x 0.89 mm.; thickness, 
0.32 mm. 

flolotype. — No. 20861, Paleontological Research Institution. 

Occurrence. — Colon shale, lower Pidlenia cretacea zone. Holo- 
type (PI. 7, fig. 4a-c) from the Colon shale, PuUenia cretacea zone, 
Km. 92 section, S. 5577. 

Remarks. — In general the form is similar to Git. gansseri gans- 
seri Bolli with the same rough test and ornamentation of early 
chambers. The only marked difference is the double keel and gener- 
ally greater number of chambers in the last whorl. 

The species was named after the late Dr. C. Wiedenmayer, Chief 
Geologist of Societa Petrolifera Italiana (Standard Oil Company 
of New Jersey). 



72 Bulletin 155 



Globotruiicana wiedeinnajeri magdalenaensis, n.sp., n. subsp. 

PI. 7, fig. 3a-c 

Description. — Flat dorsally; strongly convex and inflated on 
the ventral side like the previous form; double-keeled in the early 
stages of the last volution, it later becomes single-keeled or some- 
what subangular. The chambers are four-five in the last whorl, 
exceptionally six; the test is rough as is common in these forms with 
ridges and various types of rugosity especially in the early chambers. 

Dimensions of holotype. — Width 0.55 x 0.53 mm.; thickness, 
0.30 mm. 

Holotype. — No. 20862, Paleontological Research Institution. 

Occurrence. — Rare in the lower Colon shale. Holotype (PI. 7, 
fig. 3) from the Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea zone, Km. 92 section, 
S. 5577. 

Remarks. — The form is similar to Git. wiedenmayeri wieden- 
m^ayeri; it diflPers in that the double keel is fringing only in the early 
part of the shell and has generally fewer chambers in the last whorl. 
The test is smoother. 

Globotnuicana (Kugroglobigerina) rug-osa rug'osa (Plummer) 

PI. 7. fig. 6a-c. Text fig. lie 
Glohigcrina rugosa Plummer, 1926, p. 38, pi. 2, fig. 10. 

Rugoglohiger'ina rugosa nu/osa (Plummer), Bronnimann, 1952, p. 28, Text 
figs. 11, 12, 13. 

Description. — Small irregularly arranged senile chambers fre- 
quently appear. Transversal and horizontal rugose ridges are gen- 
erally well developed. The test is rough. The umbilical cavity is 
small as compared with that of Git. rosetta pettersi and Git. gans- 
seri, and the umbilical apertures are deep with thin, reduced cover 
plates, still opening opposite to the direction of coiling. The last 
aperture seems to extend slightly toward the periphery. 

Occurrence. — Colon shale, uppermost Pullenia cretacea zone, 
Siphogenerinoides hramlettei zone. Abundant. 

Globotruiicaim (Hiigoglobig'criiia) rugosa siibrugosa, n. subsp. 

PI. 7. fig. 5a-c 

Description. — Test low trochoidal; six chambers rapidly in- 
creasing in size, subglobular at the peripheral side and truncated 
at the umbilical side. Last chamber generally inclining toward the 
umbilicus. In the early stages of the last volution two keels fringe 



Globotruncana in Colombia: Gandoi.fi 73 



the shell, but they are somewhat masked by the other well-marked 
rugose ridges and rugosity in general. Because of this, the keels 
are not always apparent. 

Dimensions of holotype. — Width 0.53 x 0.51 mm.; thickness, 
0.31 mm. 

Holotype. — No. 20863, Paleontological Research Institution. 

Occurrence. — Lower Colon shale. Rare. Holotype (PI. 7, fig. 
5a-c) from the Colon shale, PuUenia cretacea zone, Km. section, S. 
5579. 

Remarks. — It is identical to Rugoglobigerina rugosa rugosa Wxth 
the only well-marked difference being the presence of a discontinu- 
ous beaded double keel. The rugosity is apparently increasing higher 
stratigraphically. 

Globotriiiieiina (Hiigrog-lobig-eriiia) peiinvi poiiiiyi (Bronnimann) 

PI. 7, fig. 8a-c 
Rugoglobigerina rugosa prntiyi Bronnimann, 1952, p. 34, pi. 4, figs. 1-3, Text 
fig. 16. 

Occurrence. — Colon shale. Rare. 

Remarks. — The similarity with Rugoglobigerina hexacamerata 
hexacamerata is noteworthy. It differs in size (larger) — intermediate 
to Rugogl. rugosa rugosa as Bronnmiann points out — the rougher 
ornamentation, the chambers becoming more inflated and protruding 
on the umbilical side, the large umbdicus. 

(•lobotruncaiiii (Kug'og'lobigeriiia) peniiji subpeiinji, n. subsp. 

PI. 7, fig. 7a-c 

Description. — The test is slightly smaller than in Git. zvieden- 
mayeri tviedenmayeri; six or seven chambers are present in the last 
volution which increase slightly in size but less than in Rugogl. 
rugosa rugosa. A discontinuous beaded double keel frmges the shell 
and becomes somewhat masked by rugosity m the early stages of 
the last volution. The umbilical cavity is quite large; no apertural 
lips could be observed through the hard matrix. 

Dimensions of holotype. — Width 0.80 x 0.78 mm.; thickness, 
0.48 mm. 

Holotype. — No. 20864, Paleontological Research Institution. 

Occurrence. — Colon shale. Extremely rare. Holotype (PI. 7, fig. 
7a-c) from the Colon shale, PuUenia cretacea zone, Km. 92 section, 
S. 5580. 



74 Bulletin 155 



COMMENTS ON THE PHYLOGENETIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE THALMANNI GROUl' 

There is no doubt that the rosetta and stuarti branches are 
closely related. This affinity is strikingly shown in the manner of 
growth. The general morphological characteristics (especially on 
the umbilical side), and the apertural system, suggest that stuarti 
forms are rosetta tests with a more convex dorsal side and sharply 
curved sutures. On the other hand rosetta tests occasionally show 
a tendency toward a sudden sharp curve in the sutures when ap- 
proaching the periphery. 

The area branch is also close to the rosetta and stuarti branches. 
Cushman, 1946, was justified in placing Git. area and Git. stuarti 
together, insofar as a full set of intermediate stages are present, so 
that a sharp separation of these species in the early stages of the 
development is difficult. Git. bollii, n.sp. represents the early natural 
hnk between the three branches. 

On the other hand, the cretacea branch occupies a peculiar, 
somewhat more isolated, position within the group, because no 
evident transition form was found between this and the other 
branches of the group. 

However, an ontogenetic investigation in the area, rosetta, and 
stuarti types show, especially in the more primitive, still undiffer- 
entiated forms (Git. bollii) that the early chambers have a dif- 
ferent, more arched, and elongated shape than the later ones. The 
sutures are also more broadly and continuously raised in the early 
stages, starting radially and bending sharply, as in Git. thalmanni 
thalmanni. This morphological feature is particularly evident in 
Git. bollii, the early stage of which practically corresponds to a 
complete test of Git. thalmanni thalmanni. In more evolved species 
or specimens this ontogenetic development is more or less masked 
by the sequence of the new appearing characteristics. Moreover, 
in Git. bollii, all other morphological details such as the profile of 
the test, the typical trochoidal growth of the earl}^ chambers be- 
coming later more flattened, and the apertural system confirm a 
close genetical relationship between the cretacea branch and the 
more evolved rosetta, stuarti, and area branches. On the other 
hand in Git. thalmanni thalmanni the long, elongated chambers of 



Gl.OBOTRUNCANA IN COLOMBIA: GaNDOI.FI 75 



jornicata type, the early more pronounced dorsal convexity (cf. Git. 
fornicata manaurensis) suggest an early derivation of this species 
from a primitive fornicata type or at least that hoth thalmanni 
and jornicata tests may have had a common origin (lapparenti 
form). 

In accordance with the above considerations, the cretacea 
branch occupies somehow a midposition between the jornicata group 
and the other branches of the same thahnanni group. 

At any rate, any relationship of the rosetta-stuarti forms to the 
tricarinata branch appears to be excluded, in spite of a certain 
morphological affinity (large angle between sidewall and roof), as 
well as, to the sigali forms (cf. Git. sigali Reichel). 

Cretacea branch. — It represents a well-defined phylogenetic 
development toward biconvex forms with first elongated, later 
shorter petaloid chambers. The second lower keel tends to disappear 
as in other branches of the group without, however, giving way to 
a completely single-keeled form. Noteworthy also is that the sutural 
elevations tend to split in lines of beads; the test becomes spinose 
and the apertural system more complicated in more evolved forms 
(these are general tendencies which will be discussed later). The 
more pronounced early trochoidal way of coiling (which gives a 
typical side view) is common to all forms of the group, although it 
becomes fainter and fainter in more evolved species (cf. Git. cretacea 
Cushman 1938, p. 67, pi. 11, fig. 6). 

Area branch. — The morphological development is also toward 
biconvex forms with an oblique double-keeled peripheral band, the 
second keel shifting more and more toward the umbilicus in more 
evolved species. A tendency toward fewer chambered forms in the 
last whorl is also to be observed [Git. area caribica) as in Git. tricar- 
inata colombiana and Git. tricarinata cesarensis. It is to be noted 
that the sutural elevations become beaded, the test spinose, the 
apertural system more complicated hand in hand with the evolution 
of these forms. 

Stuarti branch. — Different phylogenetic trends are to be ob- 
served, i.e., toward forms with comparatively few chambers in the 
last whorl (Git. stuarti parva) and toward conical forms (Git. 
stuarti conica). 



76 Bulletin 155 



Rosetta branch. — Forms with fewer chambers in the last whorl 
(Git. rosetta pettersi) or more chambers (Git. rosetta insignis) can 
also be distinguished from a normal average type. 

Extremely high tests are also to be noted (Git. rosetta -pettersi). 

Gansseri-zviedenmayeri branches. — Git. rosetta pettersi appears 
to evolve m a complicated way toward single and double-keeled tests 
with mflated sides (Git. gansseri gansseri and Git. zviedenmayeri 
wiedemnayeri). Rugoglobigerina tests originate also from the above 
development. 

The paleontological evidence of these developments shall be 
closely examined herewith: 

At the bottom of the Colon shale, together with normal rosetta 
types and Git. rosetta pettersi, specimens appear which are similar 
to Git. gansseri gansseri as to general form, growth and arrangement 
of chambers and rough test. However, they have a well-marked 
double keel which is sometimes present only in the early chambers 
and becomes a single one, often somewhat rounded in the adult 
stage. 

The aforementioned Git. rosetta pettersi later develops more 
inflated chambers on the umbilical side which becomes less and 
less overlapping with more spinose test. 

Intermediate, partially keeled, and weakly ornamented Rugog- 
lobigerina appear in the PuUenia cretacea zone (Rugoglobigerina 
rugosa snbrugosa, Rugoglobigerina pennyi subpennyi) together with 
other rare Rugoglobigerina forms without any keel and with rather 
smooth test. 

Typical Git. gansseri gansseri begin to appear after the disap- 
pearance of previously described forms, together with keeled and 
unkeeled Rugoglobigerina rotundata tests. 

In addition to the similarity of the general morphological ap- 
pearance, a close relationship between Rugoglobigerina rugosa, s.l. 
(including Rugoglobigerina rotundata rotundata), Globotruncana 
gansseri, and Git. zviedemnayeri is proved by the following morpho- 
logical details: 

Small senile chambers are frequent in these forms and are typi- 
cally inclined toward the umbilical side. 

The test is equally rough with the same kind of ornamentation 
which is more clearly developed in Rugoglobigerina types. 



Globotruncana in Colombia: Gandoi.ki 11 



The same type of apertures is to be observed in these forms. 
The lips progressively reduce from Git. rosetta pettersi and Git. 
wiedeyimayeri anedenvxayeri to Git. gansseri gansseri and Rugoglo- 
bigerina rugosa rugosa, as in fig. 11. Typical Globotruncana gansseri 
gansseri specmiens show occasionally (PI. 6, fig. 8a-c) obviously 
inflated, more elongated, Globigerina-\\Ve chambers in the early 
portions of the last coil, though having a completely keeled periphery 
(transition to Ritgoglobigerina- rotundata rotundata). 

Therefore, if the ev^olutionary pattern cannot be considered 
as completely understood, a double parallel development from a 
rosetta test {Git. rosetta pettersi) toward Git. gansseri gansseri- 
Rugoglobigerina on one side, and Git. zviedenniayeri wiedenmayeri- 
Rugoglobigerina on the other, appears to the writer for the moment 
as the more logical explanation, according to the following scheme: 



Git. rosetta rosetta 



I j^ Rugogl. rotundata rotundata 

Git. rosetta pettersi ^— •- Git. gansseri gansseri 

Git. nlcdenmayeri wiedenmayeri >■ Rugogl. rugosa rugosa 

■♦• Rugogl. pcniiyi petmyi 

The somewhat rounded chambers of Git. gansseri subgansseri 
suggest additional development toward Rugoglobigerina, or even 
toward Globorotalia-hke tests. 

COMMENTS— GENETICAL DEVELOPMENT OF GLOBOTRUNCANA 

LINES OF INVESTIG.ATION 

It was already observed that the material which is the object 
of the present study is unfortunately confined, with respect to its 
richest and best preserved fossiliferous content, to a comparatively 
limited section of the Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea zone, which is 
considered Campanian in age. Nevertheless, in spite of the limited 
section, the variability of the genus was greater than could be ex- 
pected. 

In order to avoid any unjustified splitting of the genus, due 
attention was paid to the securing of suflPicient numbers of speci- 
mens before differentiating any new nomenclatural unit. The event- 



78 Bulletin 155 



uality of a dimorphism also was considered before separatmg species 
and subspecies, although no special study of the initial chamber was 
made. 

It appeared, however, that A and B forms occurred indiffer- 
ently in species and subspecies which have been recorded and named. 
They have also for the most part a different stratigraphic range 
(note that, to the writer's knowledge, no marked sexual dimor- 
phism has been encountered to date in the Globotruncana genus). 

When a new species and/or subspecies were named, all efforts 
were made to understand its relative position within the genus. 

Though it is realized that in several cases this reciprocal rela- 
tionship could only be postulated, these efforts were considered, in 
this particular case, as absolutely necessary. In fact, few genera 
are able to offer, when studied in detail, such evidence of a com- 
plicated evolutionary pattern as does the genus Globotruncana. 
And science is, first of all, in need of understanding and order so 
that the study would not have been complete if there had been 
only a description of the observation made without also recording 
the application of imagination. 

Accordingly, during the course of the investigation, after the 
main trends and tendencies of evolution were outlined, it was pos- 
sible to apply some of these principles to most of the branches of 
the genus. Some transitional forms could be postulated before they 
were actually found. This was the case for many of the globigerini- 
formis Globotruncana which were expected to be found after some of 
the complicated pattern of evolution toward Git. gansseri gansseri 
and Rugo globigerina rugosa rugosa had been casually observed. This 
was the case also for a part of the jornicata forms, as well as for 
the primitive rosetta-stuarti-arca forms and for the cretacea 
branch. 

Particular care was taken not to adopt just any theory, but to 
use each as it might best serve the purpose, being always ready 
to modify and change it according to new observations. 

For instance in the particular case of the stuarti-rosetta forms, 
the first lines of thought lead to investigate a possible transition 
form between the rosetta-stuarti and the tricarinata or sigali tests 
suggested by a certain morphological similarity (large angle be- 
tween side wall and roof). Later, after Git. thalmanni thalmanni was 



Globotruncana in Colombia: Gandoi.i i 79 



loiiiuK tlic study on the ontogenetic development of the early cham- 
bers of all the rosctta-stuarti forms suggested a more probable 
phylogenetic derivation from an undifferentiated lapparenti-joruicata 
tonii excluding the afore postulated bioseries. 




Fig. 12. Theoretic case of a dichotomic evolution. Species A is evolving toward 
species B and C. Dashed area indicates zone of mixed characteristics between 
A, B, and C; dark dotted areas, mixed zones between A, B, and A, C; light 
dotted area, mixed zone between B and C (no evolution between B and C). 

As already mentioned, particular difficulty was encountered in 
establishing the limits of subspecies or species, since in many cases 
they were found grading into one another without any apparent 
morphological break. This difficulty is, of course, well known to 
all paleontologists who so often during their routine work observe 
that there is no biological concept of species when geological time 
is taken into consideration, but merely more or less artificial nomen- 
clatural units. This becomes even more a problem when an or- 
ganism evolves rapidly as happens with the genus Globotruncana. 

Thus theoretically there are two possibilities: (a) a form 
evolved in one direction, (b) a form evolved in two directions. 

a. When a genotype evolved along a well-defined trend, it is 
always possible to draw a sharp line of separation even if artificially 
between two or more species. These species have a certain number 
of common characteristics which do not change, together with other 
characteristics which, on the contrary, change continuously, but 
along a certain well-defined evolutionary trend ( cf. fig. 12 and con- 
sider the development trends A-B, A-C as independent ones). Be- 
tween A-B and/or A-C, the ideal case would be to find its geomet- 
rical solution, i.e., the chord common to the two circles. 



80 Bulletin 155 



However, since the dark dotted areas represent the area of 
occurrence of specimens with mixed characteristics between A-B 
and A-C, as a matter of diagnostic procedure the logical solution 
of the problem would be to give a new name (species and sub- 
species) to all the specimens falling in the areas considered (this was 
the procedure adopted in most of our transitional cases). 

b. Species A (fig. 12) evolved along two diverging lines of evolu- 
tion toward B and C, which may represent hypothetical final stages 
of this process. 

When the trends A-B and A-C are considered independently, it 
may be seen that it is always possible (a) to draw a sharp dividing 
line and to differentiate new species and/or subspecies as transi- 
tional ones (dark dotted areas). 

However, if the respective A-B and A-C trends are considered 
as they are postulated as belonging to a whole complex system, 
another dotted area may be observed (light dotted) which in- 
clude specimens with mixed characters between B and C. It is 
here theoretically impossible to separate B and C, and it would be 
biologically wrong to name a new species or subspecies for this mixed 
area, since this would include similar phenotypes with, however, 
completely different genotypes (cf. first rosetta-stuarti type, where 
the characteristic of the sharp gentle bending of the sutures is not 
differentiated). Quite different and more complicated is the case 
of the dashed area. Here fall specimens which have intermediate 
characters between the three forms. Theoretically, it is an 
impossibility to separate the specimens, and for the same reason 
previously postulated it would be biologically wrong to name new 
species or subspecies in such cases. 

However, in all these cases in which it is a theoretical impos- 
sibility to separate two or more species, a prevailing characteristic 
may intervene and help make a decision, which will still be an arbi- 
trary one since not all characteristics develop with the same speed 
in the same way and not all of them are considered as equally 
important; or else the form with mixed genotypes also may appear 
to be restricted within a certain limited stratigraphic range. In these 
cases, a new nomenclatural unit can be named, which is biologically 
wrong as expressed before (identical phenotypes with different geno- 



Globotruncana in Colombia: Gandoi.ii 



types) hiir palcontolo-iically ami stratigraphlcally useful (Git. 
boUii). It must not be forgotten that the form is not in any case a 
biological species. 

Plate 10 shows a tentative evolutionary chart of the genus 
Globotruncana and related genera which summarizes the writer's 
thinking on the subject, not only from personal experience but 
as it appears to him after reviewing the work of other authors, 
especially Reichel, Brotzen, Sigal, Mornod, Bolli, Cita. The writer 
has attempted here, as throughout the rest of the study, to keep facts 
sharply separate from theory and to discuss briefly the evidence 
on which each opinion is based. 

origin and early development of the genus 

1. The genus Globotruncana first appeared in uppermost Albian 
— lower Cenomanian time with a primitive Anom-alina-Pseudoval- 
vulijieriaAW^e form: Tholmanninella ticinensis (Gandolfi, 1942). 

2. 1 he genus Globotruncana developed quite rapidly from Thal- 
vianninella through Ticinella into Rotalipora subgen. (early Ceno- 
manian). The first studies of the writer, and excellent detail studies 
of Reichel, 1949, were made to prove this. The Thalmanninella, 
Ticinella, and Rotalipora line is well established and confirmed by 
the aforementioned detail studies on the apertural system. 

3. Early in the Cenomanian, and apparently in the uppermost 
Albian, doubtful Globotruncana occur which appear transitional 
toward Globigerina-\\ke forms (Git. stephani Gandolti, and Globoro- 
taliaf marginoaculeata Loeblich and Tappan). 

From the above, it appears that the genus Globotruncana prob- 
ably originated in a Pseudovalvulineria type {Pseudovalvulineria 
lorneyana,) cf. Gandolfi, 1942, Reichel, 1949, although more detail 
structural studies are needed to confirm it. To date, there is no 
evidence to support the possibility that the Globotruncana may have 
a plurigenetic origin, i.e., that they may derive at least from different 
types of Pseudovalvulineria, and that mutations may have occurred 
repeatedly during Albian. 

The subgenus Globotruncana developed in turn through Git. 
stephani directly from Thalmanninella {Thahnannuiella ticinensis 



82 Bulletin 155 



or perhaps another still undiscovered Thalmanninella type). An 
earher development of Git. stephani from another P s eudovalv ulineria 
type (Reichel, 1949, p. 615) enters in the realm of possibility, but 
to admit it would be the same as to accept a plurigenetic origin 
of Globotruncana and consequently consider Rotalipora and Globo- 
trimcana as completely separated genera with different derivation. 
A comparison between the apertures of Thahnanninella ticinensis 
and primitive Globotruncana (Git. stephani Reichel, 1949, pi. 16, 
figs. 1-6) does not show any fundamental differences but a striking 
similarity. In Th. ticinensis only the first chamber has an umbilical 
lip which does not extend over the apertures; in Git. stephani the 
umbilical lips extend clearly over the apertures of the last chambers 
only. The early chambers {Git. turbinata Mornod, 1949, fig. 11) 
open apparently into the umbilicus without covering lips like in 
Thalm a nnin ell a . 

It seems, therefore, that during the early stages of develop- 
ment the genus Globotruncana split into a two way evolution as 
regards the apertural system with: 

Migration of the apertures from the umbilical cavity toward 
the sutural depressions {Rotalipora). 

Maintaining of the apertures in the same umbilical cavity but 
progressive extension all over them of the umbilical lip which 
covers the interiomarginal-umbilical aperture of the last cham- 
ber of the more primitive forms (cf. Globotruncana, s. str., Tc. 
roberti, and Git. stephani). This two way evolution seems to 
the writer more appropriate inasmuch as all mutations appear 
to occur explosively and multiple, i.e., with more than one line 
of evolution. 

Accordingly, it seems highly probable that the first mutations 
from Globotruncana toward Globigerina-Wke forms started early 
with the first developments of Globotruncana. It also seems that 
no development occurred, as it is generally agreed by many, 
from Globigerina to Globotruncana. 

In this connection besides the arguments which Reichel, 1949 
presented for postulating what he called a "globigerinization des 
Globotruncana" (op. cit. p. 615), it can be noted: 

During his study of the Cenomanian ot Switzerland, the writer 



Gl.()Bt)TRL;NCANA IN CoI-OMHIA: (IaNDOI.II .S3 



found all riirouuh the Ccnonianian a population of partially 
keeled Globotruncana forms {Git. stcphani) without being 
able to reach a stratigraphic separation of these Globotruncana 
forms (Gandolfi, 1942, p. 137-143). 

Transitional Globigerina-Globotr\tncana forms are reported 
by Loeblich and Tappan in uppermost Albian (Globorotalia f 
margxnoaculeata-Globigerina ? multispira). 

Globotruncana-Globigerina forms have been recorded by many 
authors all through the Cretaceous. 

Several obvious Globotruncana-Rugoglobigerina Imes are re- 
ported in this study from the uppermost Cretaceous (Campan- 
ian). 

ROTALIPORA SUBGENUS 

4. Rotalipora evoluta Sigal (=Glt. apenninica a Gandolfi) and 
Rotalipora apenninica (Gandolfi) are primitive Rotalipora forms, 
derived from ThalmannineUa ticinensts (period of rapid evolution) 
as from 2. 

5. Rotalipora reicheli Mornod (= Git. appen^iinica a Gandolfi) 
on one side and Rtp. viontsalvensis, Rtp. benacensis, Rtp. turonica 
and Rtp. cushmani on the other, are more evolved species (later 
period of rapid evolution). 

Rotalipora reicheli represents probably a lateral development 
with a phylogenetic tendency toward extremely high tests and fairly 
well-developed petaloid periphery. On the other hand Rtp. viontsal- 
vensis and Rtp. benacensis have a somewhat more primitive appear- 
ance (chambers less inflated, less petaloid periphery) than the other 
two. They can be considered as intermediate forms between early 
Rotalipora and the later Rtp. turonica and Rtp. cushmani (see also 
Reichel, 1949, p. 604). 

The Rotalipora subgenus probably disappeared in late Turonian, 
or evolved to Cymbaloporetta as Brotzen believes, or even toward 
tests reminiscent of Globigerina. 

Mornod reported (Mornod, 1949, p. 586) the occurrence of 
two specimens of Rtp. montsalvensis in Senonian together with 
Git. ventricosa ventricosa. Ibis discovery warrants further investi- 
gation because, according to present information, the genus Rotali- 
pora seems to be confined to Cenomanian and Turonian. 



84 Bulletin 155 



RotaUpora-\\\i& forms were found by the writer during the 
present study {Git. citae, Rugogl. petaloidea subpetaloidea) in late 
Campanian. They are single or double-keeled with some evidence of 
Globotruncana-Vike umbilical apertures. 

In late Cenomanian-early Turonian the Rotalipora subgenus 
showed its biggest development with particular morphological char- 
acteristics suggesting senility or that the subgenus at this point 
was ready to split into new mutations or to become extinct. 

GLOBOTRUNCANA SUBGENUS 

6. The Globotruncana subgenus was derived from Git. stephani, 
which is to date the most primitive and earliest appearing form 
with a rudimentary system of Globotruncatta-Vike aperture. This is 
proved by the structural details of the apertural system. A thicken- 
ing and splitting of the single keel is already shown by Git. stephani 
(Mornod, 1949, p. 588; Reichel, 1949, p. 615). 

Accordingly, Git. stephani, species with primitive and undiffer- 
entiated characters, gives way to Git. turbinata Reichel, Git. imbri- 
cata Mornod and probably, to Rugoglobigerina tests (period of 
rapid evolution). 

Git. turbinata and Git. i^nbricata appear to represent lateral 
developments since they have already some specialized characters 
(extremely high conical test of the first one, dichotomic keel of the 
second one). 

At the end of Cenomanian Git. stephani gave way to the lap- 
parenti branch (main branch), to the helve tic a-sigali branches, and 
perhaps to new Rugoglobigerina phyla (new period of rapid evolu- 
tion). Git. alf. renzi Reichel is the evident intermediate form be- 
tween the primitive Git. stephani and the lapparenti forms. There 
is no doubt of its close relationship to Git . stephani. Git. renzi Gan- 
dolfi( not Thalmann) appears to the writer and Reichel as a more 
evolved species. Its narrow inner double keel, its tendency to an in- 
flated umbilical side suggest, in the light of the new observations, an 
intermediate position between the lapparenti branch and the sigali 
branch. In this connection the inflated umbilical side of Git. helve- 
tica and the thick somewhat double keel of the early chambers of 
Git. sigali (Reichel, 1949, fig. 6) are remarkable characteristics 
of phylogenetic interest. 



Gl.OBOTRl'NCANA IN Coi-OMBIA : GaNDOI.FI 85 



Another splitting seems to follow later (Turonian) with the ap- 
pearance of Git. tricarinoia tricarinata, Git. bulloides bulloides. Git. 
lapparenti coronata. 

These forms gave way to main evolutionary branches which 
developed, and diverged from the lapparenti branch. They were 
called: tricarinata branch and bulloides group. The coronata branch 
does not appear to evolve to any appreciable extent (slight lateral 
variation). 

ilie jornicata group is believed to have diverged later from 
a more evolved lapparenti form. 

The evolution within the main phyla lapparenti, tricarinata, 
bulloides occurs in a similar way with respect to certain character- 
istics. Evolved forms show a more rapid increase of the chambers 
which become more elongate (upper Turonian-Coniacian) and later, 
higher and petaloid with fewer chambers in the last whorl, sutural 
"bourrelets" becoming first thin and continuously raised, then 
finely beaded; sutures on the umbilical side becoming radial. This 
seems to be, ss will be seen later, a general evolutionary process of 
all Glob otrunc ana . 

9. A period of evolutionar}^ activity followed later in Coniacian 
(late Coniacian, Santonian ?) with the appearance of thalmanni, 
intermedia, and caJiciformis forms. Accordingly, the Upper Turonian 
(and lower Coniacian ?) are apparently periods of evolutionary 
quiescence. 

10. Another period of rapid evolution followed in early Cam- 
panian (Senonian) with the diflFerentiation of other side branches 
and the appearance of new forms: Git. bollii, Git. area area, Git. 
stuarti stuarti. Git. rosetta rosetta, Git. ventricosa ventricosa. 

It appears thereafter that: 

All these forms represent independent, separated phylogenetic 
tendencies which derive from more primitive main branches and 
diverge along their own lines. 

The Campanian is a period of continuous repeated develop- 
ments in all branches which subdivide in an increasingly more com- 
plicated way. Particular and extreme morphological trends toward 
three-chambered forms in the last coil are to be observed in many 
branches {Git. jornicata cesarensis, Git. tricarinata colo^nbiana, 
Git. ventricosa ventricosa). 



86 Bulletin 155 



The already mentioned morphological trends toward higher, 
petaloid chambers, radial depressed sutures on the umbdical side, 
beaded sutures developed completely (cf. Git. jornicata plummerae, 
Git. jornicata ackermanni, Git. jornicata jornicata) and can be ob- 
served even in the contusa forms. 

Aside from, but parallel to, the general phylogenetic trends 
of the genus, special tendencies become evident in the single branches 
of which we recall the main types: 

Flat forms with flat dorsal side, petaloid chambers: rosetta 
tests. One keeled biconvex forms with polygonal chambers: 
stuarti tests. Two keeled biconvex forms (second keel shifting): 
area tests. Two keeled slightly convex, arched, and inflated 
chambers: jornicata tests. Strongly convex with long and arched 
chambers: contusa tests. 

11. In the early Campanian an increased tendency toward the 
development of Globotruncana forms with inflated chambers (Git. 
buUoides bulloides. Git. buUoides naussi, Git. buUoides globigeri- 
noides, Git. Tnarginata austin-ensis. Git. jormccta plummerae, Git. 
jor7iicata cesarensis) which lead to Rugoglobigerina forms is ob- 
served also. This tendency is more or less represented in all mam 
branches. 

12. With the late Campanian, probably early Maestrichtian 
(uppermost Pullenia cretacea zone), there is another splitting: of 
new forms: Git. gamsseri gansseri, Git. calicijormis sarmientoi, Git. 
jornicata ackerma?ini, Git. stuarti conica. 

The tendency toward conical forms which started early in late 
Coniacian (primitive contusa and calicijormis-intermedia forms), 
continued during Campanian time with the evolved contusa tests 
and had its best development at the end of this period with the 
more or less contemporaneous appearance of conical species in dif- 
ferent groups (Git. stuarti conica, Git. calicijormis sarmientoi). 

In the late Maestrichtian there is to date no complete set of 
records, but by analogy it can be deducted from the developme-it 
of the previously described morphological trends th;it further evolu- 
tive activity may characterize this period toward Rugoglobigerina 
(Trinitella, Plummenta jorms) and toward forms with radial 
sutures, narrow Globorot(di(i-\\kv iinihi'iL-us, spinose test, beaded 



Globotruncana in Colombia: Gandoi.ii 87 



keels ( cf. Git. rosctta rosetta of fig. U), (ilt. aegyptiaca wirh its 
"variety" duzci. Git. rugosa. Git. serancnsis). 

THE "GLOBIGERINIZATIOX- OF GI.(M?OTRlNCANA 

It appears evident from the present observation that the pro- 
cess of "globigerinization" of Globotruncana which occurs in Camp- 
anian (Santonian ?) developed repeatedly from different Globo- 
truncana forms which are completely separated genetically. This 
process led to Rugoglobigerina tests, i.e., to forms with a Globigerina 
form but a Globotruncana-hke umbilicus. The ornamentation is 
probably a secondary genetic process which is observed also in the 
late appearing Globotruncana and does not infer a particular genetic 
derivation { hantkeninoid spines of Plummerita). 

In other words, this last morphological evolution seems to 
occur independently and separately from the true process of "globi- 
gerinization," which in turn appears to be strongly related to en- 
vironmental conditions (full pelagic life). If the ecologic condition 
may have acted in a selective way or have entirely influenced the 
evolutive process, this obviously cannot be deduced from the evi- 
dence we have at hand. 

In the light of these considerations, it appears fairly possible 
that other processes of "globigerinization" may have occurred since 
the early Cretaceous time so that, for instance, most forms reminis- 
cent of Globigerirta, including the new ones introduced by Bronni- 
mann, cf. Globigerina gautierensis, somewhat reminiscent of Rotali- 
pora evoluta in the arrangement of the chambers, Globigerina 
cretacea as illustrated by Bronnimann, 1952, Globigerinella messinae 
with its subspecies siibcarinata, may develop from Globotruncana, 
Rotalipora, or possibly Thahyianninella, Ticinella forms. In this con- 
nection Globigerinella escheri clavata suggests some relationship 
also with the Hasterigerinoides forms as described by Bronnimann. 
Trinitella scotti is somewhat morphologically reminiscent of Git. 
rugosa van der Sluis. 

If all these forms can be included under the subgenus Rugoglo- 
bigerina, as was done in this paper, or can justify an additional 
splitting into new different subgenera, further embryological studies 
on the transitional forms will show this. These transitional forms 
appear to have generally a limited range. 



Bulletin 155 



Regarding the process of "globigerinization" Itself there appears 
to follow certain general rules: 

a. When a Glohotruncana form mutated into a corresponding 
Rugoglobigerina the morphological characteristics changed in 
different ways, some early, others later. 

b. The shape of the chambers changed first, becoming inflated, 
later short, subglobular and finally Globigerina^Wke. 

c. The sutures on the ventral side became radial, depressed, the 
keel started to disappear, the test became rougher (other ornamen- 
tation started to appear) the umbilicus became narrower, and the 
apertural system reduced. 

d. The keels disappeared and the lips covermg the aperture 
tended to reduce and to blend into a continuous thin plate (cf. 
primitive Glohotruncana, i.e., Git. stephani, Git. turbinata). It is 
remarkable in this regard that the "globigerinization" of the test 
is almost completed, but the keels disappear completely later, 
being more and more masked by the increasing rugosity of the 
test. The apertural system changed even later, therefore, almost com- 
plete Globigerina-hke forms still showed keels and multiple umbilical 
apertures with lips. 

e. The terminal face of the last chambers still kept its tri- 
angular shape, as it was determined once by the two diverging 
and bending keels in fully developed Rugoglobigerina tests. 

f. The loss of the keels and the reduction of the umbilical lips 
followed somewhat an inverse process as can be observed in the 
early Glohotruncana. In fact, in the early Globotrtmcana the keel 
began in the early chambers, extending regularly without any ap- 
parent interruption so that the early chambers were already and 
completely keeled whereas the last ones were still globular or only 
slightly flattened. On the other hand, during the "globigerinization" 
of Glohotruncana, the adult chambers lost first, the keel, or keels, 
but the process was not regular. Traces of finely beaded keels 
remained here and there, whereas the sharp margin became more 
or less rounded. In a similar way a flood first invaded all low areas 
and advanced gradually toward higher ones. But when it retreated, 
scattered isolated spots of flooded areas remained here and there. 

At this point a logical suspicion arises as to whether the "Globi- 
gerinidae" really form a natural homogeneous system. Such suspicion 



Gl.OHOTRUNCANA IN C'olOM HI A : (IaNIX )I.I' I S9 



is justified in the light of the fact that as more and more frecjiient 
records of deep structural differences withni the Clohigerniidae 
( HronnuiKinn, 1952 ) appear, the greater is the need of differentiat- 
ing new geiKMa. This is further emphasized hy the general difference 
between most of the Cretaceous Glubigerina-Vike forms and the 
Tertiary ones. The Globigerina form appears to he nothing but 
a form of adaptation or preadaptation to the pelagic life which de- 
velops in species of quite different genetical relationship, as a pheno- 
menon of convergence (a Globigerina may differ from another as 
Cetacea differs frcm fish or a Plesiosaurus from an Archaeopteryx). 

GENERAL RILES 0.\ THE DEVELOPMENT OE GLOBOTRHNCANA 

On reviewing the general development of Globotruyicana (pi. 
10), two striking facts may be observed: 

a. The prevailing of certain morphological characteristics during 
certain geological periods in most of the forms of the genus. 

b. The presence of certain general morphological trends, which 
leads to analogous phylogenetic developments in widely related 
branches. 

Both facts are related to and dependent upon each other. 

In upper Albian-early Cenomanian, the early Globotruyicana 
subgenera (Ticinella, Thalmanninella, Globotruncana) are char- 
acterized by a narrow umbilicus, round, inflated chambers with 
radial and depressed umbilical sutures. They tend to become single- 
keeled; the keel is beaded; papillae and tubercles cover the early 
portion of these primitive tests. 

I he late Cenomanian is characterized by a conspicuous develop- 
ment of Rotalipora which are all single-keeled and provided with 
sutural apertures (other one-keeled forms of the subgenus Globo- 
truncana will develop later from Globotruncana tests with a dif- 
ferent morphology and through a different genetic process). At the 
time when the Rotalipora show more rapidly evolved characteristics 
like the development of the "bourrelet sutural" on the umbilical 
side, lobate periphery, the subgenus Globotruncana maintain primi- 
tive characteristics ( Anomalina-Wkit test, radial and depressed um- 
bilical sutures, ornamentation, and primitive type of apertures). 

In late Cenomanian-early Turonian, the Rotalipora show some 



90 Bulletin 155 



evidence of a complete maturity, like the irregular arrangement of 
the chambers, the strongly lobate periphery, the abnormally high 
tests, and the secondarily inflated chambers. 

In early Turonian the subgenus Globotruncana starts to develop 
the umbilical "bourrelet sutural" in smgle-keeled and two-keeled 
forms. 

In late Turonian and Cenomanian, forms prevail with elongated 
chambers (fewer chambers in the last whorl). This characteristic 
becomes more pronounced m late Coniacian. 

In the Santonian .?, Campanian forms appear again with char- 
acteristics similar to the prmiitive ones like short chambers, sutures 
becoming fmely beaded or sharply raised on the dorsal side, radial 
and depressed on the umbilical side, test spinose and rougher. 

Abnormal forms (extremely high or conical with petaloid 
periphery and/or well-developed ornamentation, frequence of senile 
chambers) spread at the top of Campanian (evidence of senility .''). 

From this short review it appears that all forms, regardless 
to which group they belong, show in a certain period certain com- 
mon morphological characteristics which finally become typical and 
diagnostic for this period. This indicates that certain evolutionary 
factors are active more or less in all species and all groups. These 
factors develop common morphological trends. They are sometimes 
weak, such as may be observed in a limited number of species, but 
sometimes behave as "strong ones," being observed to guide all 
forms of the genus and build up certain characteristics, which in 
some species may reach their full development and be typical for 
a species, a branch or a group, whereas in other ones may remain 
only rudimentary. For instance: 

The single-keeled morphological development spread all through 
the primitive Rotalipora and Globotruncana not, however, rea-ching 
Its full development in Git. stephaui. 

The formation of continuously raised umbilical sutures starts 
early with the more evolved Thalmanninella, spreads later in the 
subgenera Rotalipora and Globotruncana, but in many Rotalipora 
it remains rudimentary showing up only in the early stag-es. 

The attitude toward double-keeled tests starts in the late 
Cenomanian and Turonian Globotruncana, remaining rudimentary 
in Git. aff. renzi. 



Gl.OROTRUNCANA IN CoI.OMHIA: GaNDOI.M 91 



The inflation of the chanihers, as well as the petaloid periphery, 
is more or less developed in all later appearmg Rotalipora. 

The inflation of the chambers is widespread in all groups. In 
some species like Git. margincita, s.l., Git. buUoide.f, s.l., Git. fornicata 
ackermafxni, it becomes a typical characteristic; in others it remains 
only rudimentary {Git. tricarinata colombiana. Git. fornicata plum- 
vie rae. Git. con t us a contusa). 

The elongated chambers become a prominent characteristic 
in the jomicata, thalmanni. and contusa tests but can be more or 
less observed in many other species {Git. lapparenti longilocula, 
Git. tricarinata colovibiana, Git. niarginata O'ustinensis). 

The tendency toward radial, depressed umbilical sutures, short, 
petaloid chambers is well developed in Git. rnayaroensis, Git. citae, 
Git. intermedia, s.l.. Git. rugosa, Git. seranensis, but appears also in 
the more evolved rosetta, jomicata, area tests and even in the last 
adult chambers of Git. jomicata jomicata, and Git. co7itusa contusa. 

The tendency toward sharply bending sutures (polygonal 
chambers) which is quite typical for the stuarti forms is, to a lesser 
degree, also observed in rosetta, area tests as well as in Git. canali- 
culata Cushman of the Pecan Gap Marl, Git. Tnayaroensis. 

The tendency toward a diverging, sometimes dichotomic, keel 
which appears early in Git. imbricata, is also developed in various 
later appearing species like Git. jomicata ackermanni, Git. rnay- 
aroensis, Git. intermedia, s.l.. Git. globigerinoides Pierre Marie 
(not Brotzen)=G/f. nmriai, n.n., p. 33. 

The tendency toward conical forms finds its best development 
in the late Campanian and early Maestrichtian, spreading into 
forms which are genetically independent like Git. stuarti conica, 
Git. calicijormis sarmientoi. 

The tendency toward few and extremely well-developed cham- 
bers in the last volution is fairly evident in the jomicata group (Git. 
jomicata cesarensis), but some evidence suggests that it is present 
also in other groups ( cf. Git. rosetta pettersi in the rosetta branch, 
Git. stuarti parva in the stuarti branch, Cjlt. area caribica in the 
area branch ). On the other hand, phylogenetic trends toward forms 
with many chambers in the last whorl are observed in the tricarinata 
branch {Git. tricarinata Cita, 1948), in the rosetta branch {Git. 



92 Bulletin 155 



rosetta insignis), in the linnei group (Git. lapparenti coronata). 

Another striking fact of the evolution of Globotruncana is that 
some morphological characteristics start early in some forms and 
reappear later, and through a secondary genetic process, m new 
species without any apparent reason (cf. remarks on apertural 
system of rosetta type as compared with prmiitive TicineUa, Thal- 
Tnanninella , Reichel, 1949, p. 614). 

The inflation of the chambers, spinose test, radial umbilical 
sutures, and narrow umbilicus appear primarily as primitive char- 
acteristics in the early Globotruncana. They reappear later in more 
evolved species together with senile characteristics. 

The phylogenetic trend toward smgle-keeled forms develops 
early in Cenomanian with the Rotalipora subgenus; it appears 
again through a different secondary genetic process in Cenomanian 
and J uronian Globotruncana and later, as a dominating character- 
istic in all Campanian-Maestrichtian forms. 

The tendency toward extremely petaloid chambers, which is 
somewhat typical in evolved Rotalipora, is repeated by special 
evolved Globotruncana species {Git. citae, Git. intermedia, s.l.). 

Phylogenetic trends toward forms with stuarti-\'\ke sutures or 
with strong umbilical convexity and inflations develop early with 
respect to Git. sigali and Git. helvetica and reappear with rosetta, 
stuarti, and gansseri forms. 

The apertural system develops in some tests toward complicated 
types (evolved rosetta, area, and contusa tests); in others, it reverses 
again following an inverse process as compared to the primitive 
forms. 

Shows of senility. — In many cases when describing abnormally 
high or conical tests, extremely lobate outline, certain irregular 
arrangement of chambers, and hnally the occurrence of senile 
chambers, these were proposed as evidence of senility. 

In fact, the aforementioned morphological characters, and in 
general anything which differentiates strongly from a normal average 
type, were observed to appear whenever a species, a branch, or group 
showed an optimum of development. The species, branch, or group 
later becomes extinct or develops into new mutations. This is quite 
evident in all evolved Rotalipora of late Cenomanian and 1 uronian, 



Gl.OHOTRUNCANA IN Col.OM HIA : CJaNDOI.KI 93 



and again in all C/ohotrinianici of late Campanian and Macstncli- 
tian. 

ECOLOGY AND RACES 

It IS geiu'ialK agreed that Globotruncana are pelagic with .simi- 
lar ecological coiulitions to Glohorotalia and Globigerina. However, 
the fact that some species of the contusa branch (especially the 
more evolved ones like Git. contusa patellijormis and Git. contusa 
contusa) have been found to be particularly abundant in sediments 
deposited in shallower water where the frequence of the other 
forms strongly decreases, suggests that not all Globotruncana 
species are pelagic. In fact, it is possible that all extremely high or 
conical forms of the subgenus Globotruncana, as well as of the genus 
Rotalipora (Rotalipora reicheli), may be entirely benthonic. 

On the other hand, forms with round Globigcrina-Wke chambers 
probably represent the extreme pelagic adaptation of forms which 
in origin were undifferentiated with respect to their environment 
( Pseudovah'ulineria, Ticinella ) . 

\\ orld-wide detailed studies would be necessary to determine 
if some forms which are to date known as species and subspecies 
may ha\e a geographic significance ( race) in the sense of Thalmann. 

In our particular case, the forms which showed a more rapid 
and marked development of chambers, such as Git. tricarinata 
colombiana. Git. marginata austinensis, have been interpreted as 
more evolved ones as compared with forms which show chambers 
more normally increasing in size. This fact has the appearance 
of a general evolutionary trend in the later appearing Globotrun- 
cana. On the other hand, chambers more rapidly increasing in 
size apparently represent a primitive characteristic in primitive 
forms (Rtp. evoluta, Git. indica) compared to normal tests {Rtp. 
apenninica, Git. canaliculata). It cannot be denied, however, that 
this may also be related to a certain extent to the geographical dis- 
tribution, with possible ecological and geographic differentiation. 

GENERAL CONCLUSIONS 

In reviewing the complex evolutionary pattern of Globotrun- 
cana, some general observations may be made on evolution. 

Evolution does not occur in a continuous and uninterrupted 



94 Bulletin 155 



way but develops repeatedly in an explosive manner. In other 
words, short periods of rapid evolution follow longer periods of rela- 
tive quiet, in a similar way that short periods of orogenetic paroxysms 
follow long periods of quiet. The periods of evolutionary quiescence 
cannot be explained by the presence of stratigraphic gaps and 
consequently by lack of records, since some of them were observed 
in continuous and normal sections. 

Evolution follows in an abrupt manner with respect to geologic 
time, but the mutations follow gradually so as to pass through all 
intermediate stages. If a morphologic gap exists, it is only due 
to lack of paleontological records. 

When a genotype is ripe for evolution, it does not develop 
a single offshoot but generally two or more new mutations. 

All forms are sometimes completely replaced by new ones, i.e., 
they apparently become extinct after generating the new forms. In 
other cases, they keep on living along with their offshoots. 

When a new morphologic characteristic is ripe for its develop- 
ment It often appears not only in one species but in widely related 
species so that different genotypes apparently include the new gene. 
This, however, may develop completely in one species and remain 
more or less rudimentary in others. 

The phylogenetic law is true if taken and accepted in a general 
way. The ancestoral stages are repeated in the ontogenetic develop- 
ment of the new species, but sometimes many steps of the phylo- 
genetic development are reduced or completely by passed. (In Git. 
contusa scutilla and some Git. contiisa patellifor?nis, the fornicata 
stage is well recognizable after the nepionic stage, also in Git. bollii 
the thalmanni stage is still evident. These ancestral characteristics 
disappear, however, in the later appearing and more evolved contusa 
rosetta, stuarti, and area tests.) 

Certain phylogenetic developments occur without any apparent 
reasons (the formation of the keel, two keels, the number and shape 
of chambers, the building of ornamentation). Other developments 
are apparently related to the environment (adaptation ?, preadap- 
tation .?), like the globular chambers and Globigerina form of highl}^ 
pelagic types, or the strong conical shape, the flattened and hori- 
zontal peripheral band of probably benthonic types. 



Globotruncana in Coi.omhia: Gandoi.fi 95 



Some ni()rph()lo<iical rrcncls reappear without any apparent 
reason and give wav to sniiilar forms through different genetic 
processes. 

Whenever a hving organism reaches its maximum development, 
It IS generally close to its death or ripe for mutations. Particular 
morphologic characteristics are related to this moment of its life 
and are generally repeated whenever similar biological conditions 
occur. They are interpreted as evidence of senility. 

STRATIGRAPHIC CONSIDERATIONS 

In Plate 8 a range chart is given for the Globotruncana genus 
in northern Colombia, and in Plate 9, a compilation chart was pre- 
pared for the stratigraphic distribution of the whole genus as ob- 
served especially in Europe, Africa, and America. 

With respect to the time boundaries for North America, the 
correlation charts were adapted from the Geol. Soc. of America 
Bull. 1942, although the stratigraphic boundaries are rather un- 
certain and may overlap the European time divisions. 

Regarding the stratigraphic development of the genus, it is 
possible to reach some general criteria for a broad subdivision of 
the Cretaceous based on the morphologic trends as discussed pre- 
viously without entering into the painstaking work of recognizing 
each single species (PI. 10). 

The stratigraphic range of the single species is well known 
in the lower part of Upper Cretaceous from Cenomanian to Lower 
Turonian. There is a fair agreement among; the paleontological find- 
ings and detailed studies which have been carried out on the strati- 
graphy. 

From the Upper Turonian to Santonian a more uniform dis- 
tribution of species is shown l)v the authors without any apj-jarent 
sharp change, but as already mentioned this is probably due to 
a certain lack of paleontological evidence than to an astonishing 
quiet evolutionary period. This would be rather peculiar in view 
of the generally rich variability of Globotruncana. Here certain 
discrepancies also occur among the authors with respect to the 
stratigraphic ranges of the single species. 

Campanian and Maestnchtian species are better known and 
characterized, according to Glaessner, 1945, as the first appearance 



96 Bulletin 155 



of Git. area and the full development of stuarti and conica forms 
respectively. 

In view of these discrepancies, no definite stratigraphic con- 
clusions were drawn as to the age of the sedmients exammed, mas- 
much as most of the species and subspecies which were objects of 
this study are new or incompletely checked as to range. 

Manaure shale (Marginulina jonesi). — Git. lapparenti longilocula 
is rare. Fornicata tests are frequent and with evolved (Git. jornicata 
jornicata) and prmiitive tests. {Git. jornicata ma?iaurensis), which 
are transitional to Git. lapparenti lofigiloctda. Other rare species are 
to be noted such as Git. bulloides bulloides, Git. bulloides globiger- 
inoides, Git. thalmanni thalmanni, Git. thahnanni jlexuosa, Git. 
intermedia intermedia, Git. interm^edia diffor^tnis. 

Since Git. fornicata is shown by some authors (Cita, 1948) to 
begin in Santonian, this may suggest a possible Santonian age for 
this part of the section. 

Colon shale (Pullenia cretacea zone). — The lowermost Colon 
shale is well marked by the first appearance of Git. area area, Git. 
contusa patellijormis, Git. stuarti stuarti, Git. rosetta rosetta. Git. 
jornicata pluTnm^erae and, in general, forms with inflated chambers 
and more or less evident keels (transitional to Rugoglobigerina) are 
well developed. Some primitive species in the Manaure shale are 
rare and disappear upward like Git. contusa scutilla, Git. tricarinata 
colom-biana. Git. marginata austinensis. Git. bollii is present in our 
section only in the lower portion of the Molino shale. Git. zvieden- 
mayeri zviedenynayeri, Git. zviedenmayeri magdalenaensis, and Git. 
rosetta pettersi disappear at the first Git. gansseri gansseri. Stiuirti 
and area forms prevail together with their few chambered subspecies. 
Rare Rugoglobigerina are also present with generally only poorly 
developed ornamentation. 

Forms which in Trinidad appear later, such as Git. mayaroensis, 
Git. citae, Git. ventrieosa ventricosa, Git. contusa contusa. Git. area 
area, begin in the lower Pullenia cretacea zone (Campanian); forms 
With mixed characteristics between calicijormis and intermedia occur 
already in the Manaure shale. Git. stuarti conica White, Git. cali- 
cijormis (typical forms), Git. gansseri gansseri appear later more 
or less contemporaneously with the full spread of well-ornamented 



Gl.OBOTRUNCANA IN CoiOMHIA: GaNDOLFI 97 



Rugoglobigerina in the upper PuUcnin cretacea zone. This may 
suggest already a Maestnchtian age for this part of the zone, with 
a fairly evident ov^erlap between Globotruncana and Siphogenerin- 
oides zonations. The transitional forms between Globotruncana and 
Rugoglobigerina disappear completely. Git. calicijorniis sarmientoi 
appears somewhat at the contact of the Pullenia cretacea and 
Siphogenerinoides bramlettei zones. 

As seen, the discrepancies with Trinidad are remarkable, even 
if for Git. co7itusa contusa this can be explained by different facies 
conditions and for the others by the uncertain stratigraphic boun- 
daries of the Colombian local zonation. 

If, however, the correlation is tentatively extended to North 
America and Europe the discrepancies are considerable. It is 
sufficient to point out the more outstanding ones, the range chart 
shown in PI. 9 being sufficient explanation for the rest. Git. lappar- 
enti lapparenti is restricted to Turonian-Coniacian in the Apennines 
Alps, whereas in Frinidad it ranges into Campanian, and in Cauca- 
sus and Pyrenees even into Maestrichtian. Git. bulloides bulloides 
is restricted to Coniacian-uppermost Turonian by some authors, 
whereas elsewhere its range extends into Campanian. The same ob- 
servations can be made with respect to Git. tricarinata, Git. ventri- 
cosa, Git. fornicata. Some species could eventually have a different 
stratigraphic range in different areas. The writer feels, however, 
that this is not sufficient to account for all the aforementioned dis- 
crepancies. A more exact knowledge of the rapidly evolving forms 
is needed. The names Git. fornicata- Git. contusa, Git. tricarinata, 
as used by various authors, have been icvognized as including differ- 
ent species. Also the name Git. lapparenti lapparenti should prob- 
ablv be restricted to Turonian-Lower Coniacian ? forms; younger 
forms should be separated as other species or subspecies, for instance 
Git. lapparettti longilocula. Detailed studies are necessary to es- 
tablish subsequent fixed points in this continuous and rapid flow 
of evolutionary events and to express them also taxonomically. Their 
stratigraphic ranges may then be better checked in the different 
countries. 



98 Bulletin 155 



KEY FOR THE DETERMINATION OF GLOBOTRUNCANA 

Genus GLOBOTRUNCAIVA Cushman, 1927 
Calcareous trochoidal, perforated test; frequently ornamented 
with tubercles and keels; open umbilicus (at least from the second 
volution on), generally covered by lamellar expansions; interiomar- 
ginal-umbilical or only umbilical main aperture with additional 
umbilical apertures often present (diagnosis after Reichel, 1952, p. 
600): 

I. Test reminiscent of Anomalina, first traces of keel in the 
early chambers, mteromargmal-umbilical main aperture and 
additional apertures: subgenus Ticinella: 
A. One single species: T. roberti (Gandolfi, 1942). 

II. Test rotaliformis, entirely or partially keeled in the first 
stages of the last volution (single keel); interiomarginal- 
umbilical main aperture and umbilical additional apertures: 
subgenus Thalmanninella: 

A. Keel partially developed, eight to nine chambers in the 
last volution (radial depressed umbilical sutures): Th. 
ticinensis (Gandolfi). 

B. Keel entirely developed: 

1. Eight to nine chambers in the last volution as above: 
Tk. ticinensis typica Gandolfi. 

2. Seven to eight chambers in the last volution, more 
overlapping and rapidly increasing in size, "bourrelet 
sutural" developed around the umbilicus and dis- 
appearing; toward the periphery: Th. brotzeni Sigal. 

III. Test rotaliformis, entirely or partially keeled in the first 
stages of the last volution (single keel), interiomarginal- 
umbilical main aperture and sutural additional apertures: 
subgenus Rotalipora. 
A. Flat chambers, test entirely keeled: 

1. Flattened, somewhat elongated test, radial depressed 
umbilical sutures, "bourrelet umbilical" occasionally 
present: Rtp. evoluta Sigal (=Glt. appenninica a 
Gandolfi). 



Globotruncana in Colombia: Gandoi.fi 99 



2. Test biconvex, periphery subcircular: 

a. Partially raised umbilical sutures: Rtp. (ipenninica 
typica (Gandolfi). 

b. More completely raised unihilical sutures: Rtp. 
glohotruncanoides Sigal. 

3. High test with flat dorsal and protruding ventral 
side, lobate periphery (chambers irregularly de- 
veloping): Rtp. reicheli Alornod i^Glt. apennimca 
8 Gandolfi). 

B. Inflated chambers, test entirely or partially keeled: 

1. Chambers moderately inflated as above, four to five 
chambered, lobate periphery: Rtp. benacensis Cita. 

2. Chambers moderately inflated as above, four to five 
chambered lobate periphery, chambers extremely 
high and protruding: Rtp. tnontsalvensis Mornod. 

3. Strongly inflated chambers, five to seven in the last 
volution: Rtp. tiironica Brotzen. 

4. As above, but coiling more planispiral: Rtp. cush- 
mani (Morrow). 

IV. Test rotaliformis, single or double-keeled, umbilical apertures 
with arched lips: subgenus Globotruncana. 

A. Single keeled: 

1. Inflated chambers, keel sometimes only partially 
developed: 

a. More convex dorsal side: 

a'. Moderately convex dorsally, keel often only 
partially developed and limited to the early 
chambers of the last volution, subglobular 
chambers, apertural system limited to a 
single thin lamellar plate around the umbili- 
cus: Git. stephani Gandolfi. 

b'. Strongly convex dorsally, keel well developed, 
chambers more flattened, apertural system 
as above: Git. turbinata Mornod. 

b. Dorsal side nearly flat, inflated ventral side: 

a'. Strongly inflated side, rough test, rich orna- 



100 Bulletin 155 



mentation, four to six chambers in the last 

volution: Git. gansseri gansseri (Bolli). 
b'. As above, six more globular chambers in the 

last volution: Git. gansseri subgansseri 

n. subsp. 
c'. As above, test smoother, well developed and 

sharp keel, nearly concave dorsal side, mner 

coil somewhat protruding: Git. helvetica 

Bolli. 
d'. Moderately mflated ventral side, five to 

six chambers in the last volution; rough 

test: Git. seranensis (van der Sluis). 
e'. As above, four to five chambers in the last 

volution, test spinose: Git. rugosa (van der 

Sluis). 

c. Test flattened and thin: 

a'. Periphery highly lobate, chambers high and 
protruding: Git. citae Bolli. 

2. Flat chambers, keel generally well developed: 

a. Periphery subcircular, polygonal chambers in 
the last volution: 

a'. Biconvex, six to seven chambers in the last 
volution: Git. stuarti stiwrti (de Lapparent). 

b'. As above, four to five chambers in the last 
volution: Git. stuarti parva, n. subsp. 

c'. Convex dorsal side, flat or concave ventral 
side, seven to nine* chambers in the last 
volution: Git. stuarti conica (White). 

b. Lobate periphery, curved sutures, petaloid 
chambers in the last volution: 

a'. Flat dorsal side, ventral side moderately con- 
vex, test smooth, five to seven chambers in 
the last volution: Git. rosetta rosetta (Car- 
sey). 

b'. As above, four to five chambers in the last 
volution, ventral side strongl}^ conical: Git. 
rosetta pettersi, n.subsp. 



Cl.OBOTRUNCANA IN CoIOMHIA: GaNDOIII 101 



c'. As above, four to six chambers in the last 
volution, ventral side less protruding, test 
provided with hantkeninoid spines: Git. cal- 
carata Cushman. 

d'. Convex dorsal side, five chambers in the last 
volution, inflated on the ventral side, radial 
depressed umbilical sutures, umbdicus com- 
paratively narrow: Git. calicijormis sannien- 
toi. 

B. Single-keeled, double-keeled in the early chambers 
(double keel limited to a faint trace of it in the earliest 
chambers or extending to the first chambers of the last 
volution) : 

1. Test biconvex, six to seven chambers in the last 
volution, sutures oblique and curved (intermediate 
between stuarti and rosetta types), wide umbilicus, 
raised umbilical sutures of rosetta type: Git. bollii, 
n.sp. 

2. Test biconvex, five to seven chambers in the last 
volution, sutures oblique somewhat of stuarti type, 
narrow umbilicus with sigmoidal raised sutures, th'ck 
somewhat double-keeled in the early chambers: Git. 
sigali Reichel. 

3. Flat dorsal side, convex (inflated) ventral side: 

a. Pronounced four chambered petaloid periphery, 
radial umbilical sutures: Git. aegyptiaca Nak- 
kady. 

b. As above, but pronounced three chambered pe- 
riphery, chambers becoming more elongated as 
added: Git. aeyptiaca duzvi Nakkady. 

c. Flat (or slightly convex dorsally), slightly in- 
flated ventrally, lappa re nti-Wke raised umbilical 
sutures: Git. renzi GandoU\ (not Thalmann). 

d. Flat dorsal side, strongly inflated ventral side 
( double keel narrow and closer to the dorsal 
side, test rough): Git. zciedenmayeri magdalen- 
aensis, n.subsp. 



102 Bulletin 155 



Convex dorsal side (flat or concave ventral side): 

a. Chambers subglobular (radial depressed umbili- 
cal sutures): Git. aff. renzi Reichel. 

b. Flat chambers (raised umbilical sutures becoming 
later radial and depressed): 

a'. Chambers becoming first elongated, later in 
the last stages large and petaloid, peripheral 
band generally present at least in the early 
stages of the last volution and inclined to 
the plane of coiling; sutures beaded dorsally 
and becoming radial and depressed ventrally: 
Git. jornicMa jornicata (Plummer). 

b'. As above, but test convex dorsally, chambers 
becommg first extremely elongated, then 
more petaloid, peripheral band generally pre- 
sent at least in the early stages of the last 
volution and lying almost horizontal: Git. 
contusa patellifor7nis, n.subsp. 

c'. As above, but chambers becoming polygonal, 
test undulated in a more or less pronounced 
way: Git. contusa contusa (Cushman). 

d'. Test moderately convex four to six short, 
petaloid chambers in the last volution: Git. 
calicijormis trinidadensis, n.subsp. 

First convex and later flat dorsal coiling (ventral 
rapidly increasing convexity): 

a. Chambers elongated of jornicata type (four to 
five in the last volution): Git. thalmanni thal- 
manni, n.sp. 

b. As above, chambers becoming in the more adult 
stage larger and petaloid, test undulated; Git. 
thalmanni jlexuosa (van der Sluis). 

c. As above, test less flattened in the adult stages, 
spinose (beaded sutures): Git. cretacea Cush- 
man. 



Globotruncana in Colombia: Candoi.fi 103 



C. Entirely douhlc-keeled: 

1. Peripheral hand at right angle to the coiling plane, 
a. Test flat or slightly convex both on the dorsal 
and ventral side: 

a'. Radial and depressed umbilical sutures, wide 
peripheral band, keels, parallel, narrow um- 
bilicus: Git. canaliculata (Reuss). 
b'. As above, but wider umbilicus: Git. linnei 
(d'Orbigny). 

c'. As above, narrow umbilicus, dorsal side 
slightly convex, keels diverging and dichoto- 
mic: Git. imbricata Mornod. 

d'. As above, large umbilicus, sutures becoming 
more oblique and chambers more elongated: 
Git. mayaroensis Bolli. 

e'. Raised umbilical sutures, sigmoidal as from 
lapparenti type, wide peripheral band, five to 
six chambers in the last volution: Git. lap- 
parenti lapparenti Bolli. 

f . As above, but only four to five more rapidly 
elongated chambers in the last volution: Git. 
lapparenti longilocula, n.subsp. 

g'. As Git. lapparenti lapparenti, but peripheral 
band narrow, dorsal and ventral side slightly 
convex: Git. lapparenti augusticarinata Gan- 
dolfi. 

h'. As above, but test flat, eight to nine chambers 
in the last volution: Git. lapparenti coronata 
Bolli. 
b. Test protruding (truncoconical) on the umbilical 

side ("bourrelet umbilical" generally strongly de- 
veloped ) : 

a'. Raised umbilical sutures, six to seven cham- 
bers in the last volution: Git. tricarinata tri- 
carinata Cushman, 1936 (not Quereau). 

b'. As above, but eight to nine chambers in the 
last volution (test more flattened and large): 
Git. tricarinata desioi, n.subsp. (See page 27). 



104 Bulletin 155 



c'. Umbilical sutures becoming radial and de- 
pressed, four to five chambers in the last vo- 
lution: Gh. tricarinata colombiana, n.subsp. 

c. Test flat on both sides, but chambers inflated: 
a'. Wide peripheral band, six to seven chambers 

in the last volution, generally raised umbili- 
cal sutures: Git. buUoides biiUoides (Bolli). 

b'. As above, chambers shorter and subglobular, 
radial and depressed umbilical sutures: Git. 
bulloides globigerinoides (Brotzen). 

c'. As Git. bidloides bulloides, but chambers in 
the last volution more loosely arranged and 
irregularly developing: Git. bulloides naussi, 
n.subsp. 

d'. Narrow peripheral band, slightly biconvex, 
six to seven short chambers in the last volu- 
tion: Git. marginata marginata (Reuss). 

e'. As above, but four to five chambers in the 
last volution (increasing rapidly in size): Git. 
marginata austinensis , n.subsp. 

d. Test flat on the dorsal side, convex (inflated on 
the ventral one) : 

a.' Strongly inflated ventral side, narrow double 
keel, test rough with ornamentation, radial 
depressed umbilical sutures: Gh. wieden- 
mayeri, n.sp. 

b'. Moderately inflated ventral side, five to six 
chambers in the last volution, wider peripheral 
band than above, umbilical raised sutures 
tending to become radial and depressed: Git. 
ventricosa (White). 

Peripheral band inclined as to the plane of coiling: 
a. Test biconvex, flat chambers, peripheral band be- 
coming large (raised umbilical sutures): 
a'. Six to eight petaloid chambers in the last 
volution: Git. area area (Cushman). 



Gl-OBOTRUNCANA IN C'oi.OMHIA: GaNIK)I.II 1()5 



b'. As above, but four to five more elongated 
chambers in the last volution: Git. area cari- 
bica, n.subsp. 

b. As above, peripheral band becoming narrow: 

a'. Four to five elongated chambers in the last 
volution, raised and elongated sutures in the 
iimiiilical side: Git. jornicata tnanaurensis, 
n.subsp. 

c. Test convex dorsally, flat ventrally: 

a'. Strongly convex dorsally, four to five very 

elongated chambers in the last volution: Git. 

contusa sciitilla, n.sp. 
b'. Moderately convex dorsally, four to six short 

petaloid chambers in the last volution: Git. 

calicijormis calicijormis ( de Lapparent). 

d. Test flat or biconvex, inflated chambers (longi- 
tudinal inflation with more or less evident median 
inner marginal depression): 

a'. Four to five chambers in the last volution 
becoming rapidly elongated, partially raised 
umbilical sutures: Git. jornicata plummerae, 
n.subsp. 

b'. As above but chambers shorter and more 
inflated umbilical sutures becoming definitely 
radial and depressed: Git. jornicata acker- 
manni, n.subsp. 

c' As b', but chambers becoming extremely 
elongated, three chambers in the last volu- 
tion: Git. jornicata cesarensis, n.subsp. 

e. Test convex dorsall\, inflated chambers: 

a'. Chambers slightly inflated and regularly in- 
creasing, faint diverging double keel: Git. 
intermedia intermedia (Bolli). 

b'. Chambers slightly inflated and irregularly 
developing (the second last one generally 
bigger than the last one), rounded, double 
keel sometimes strongly ()blK]ue as to the 



106 Bulletin 155 



plane of coiling: Git. intermedia difformis, 
n.subsp. 
c'. Chambers shorter and subg.lobular, diverging 
keels and oblique to the plane of coiling: Git. 
mariai, ( See page 33, new name for Rosalinella 
globigerinoides Marie, 1941) 
V. Test remmiscent of Globigerino or Globigerinella , faint 
interrupted keels sometimes present, especially in the early 
stages, other ornamentation of various kind, tubercles, spines, 
rugose ridges, generally present; umbilical apertures with 
cover plates at least on the last chambers: subgenus Rugo- 
globigerina. 

A. Chambers regularly and moderately increasing in size 
and inflation: 

1. Six to seven chambers in last volution regularly ar- 
ranged: 

a. Without keels: Rugogl. hexacamerata hexaca- 
merata Bronnimann. 

b. With keels: Rugogl. hexacamerata subhexaca- 
fnerata, n.subsp. 

2. Six to seven chambers in last volution irregul. ? de- 
veloping (the last two generally smaller than the 
previous ones). 

a. Without keels: Rugogl. loetterli loetterli (Nauss). 
With keels: Rugogl. loetterli subloetterli, n.subsp. 

3. Four to five chambers in last volution, test nearly 
planispiral: 

a. Without keels: Rugogl. beldingi beldingi, n.sp., 
n.subsp. 

b. With keels: Rugogl. beldingi subbeldingi, n.subsp. 



Gi.dBoTRUNCANA IN Coi.omria: Gandomi 107 



4. Four to five elongated chambers in last volution: 

a. Without keels: Rugogl. circurnnodijer circum- 
nodijer (Finlay) 

b. With keels: Rugogl. circumnodifer subcircvtn- 
nodifer, n. subsp. 

5. Four to five petaloid and high chambers: 

a. Without keels: Rugogl. petaloidea petaloidea, 
n.sp. 

b. With keels: Rugogl. petaloidea subpetaloidea, 
n. subsp. 

6. As above, more inflated and narrower chamber: 

a. Without keels: Rugogl. glaessneri glciessneri, n.sp. 

b. With keels: Rugogl. glaessneri subglaessneri, 
n. subsp. 

B. Chambers increasing rapidly in size and inflation: 

1. Three to four chambers in the last volution, the 
last chamber half of the test: 

a. Without keels: Rugogl. macrocephala macro- 

cephala, n. subsp. 
h. With keels: Rugogl. macrocephala submacrr - 

cephala, n. subsp. 

2. Three to four chambers in the last volution, the 
second one strongly developed: 

a. Without keels: Rugogl. ornata ornata, n.sp. 

b. With keels: Rugogl. ornata subomata, n. subsp. 

3. Four to five chambers regularly increasing in size, 
strongly inflated ventral side and developed rugo- 
sity: 

a. Without keels: Rugogl. rugosa rugosa, n.sp. 

b. With keels: Rugogl. rugosa subrugosa, n. subsp. 

4. Five to six chambers less regularly increasing in size: 

a. Without keels: Rugogl. pennyi pennyi, n.sp. 

b. With keels: Rugogl. pennyi subpetinyi, n. subsp. 
5. Five to six elongated chambers more trochoidal test: 

a. Without keels: Rugogl. rotundata rotundata, n.sp. 

b. With keels: Rugogl. rotundata subrotundata, 
n. subsp. 



108 Bulletin 155 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Bandy, 0. L. 

1951. Upper Cretaceous Foraminifera from the Carlsbad area, San Diego 
County, California. Jour. Paleont., vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 448-513, pis. 72-75. 
Bolli, H. 

1944. Zur Stratigraphie der Oberen Krcide in den hoheren hrlvetischen 

Decken. Eel. Geol. Helv. 37: pp. 217-328. 
1951. The genus Globotruncana in Trinidad. Jour. Paleont., vol. 25, No. 
2, pp. 187-199, pis. 34-35. 
Broiiiiimanii, 1'. 

1951. Globigerinita napasimaensis nov. gen. nov. spec, from the Miocene 
of Trinidad, B.IV.I. Contr. Cushman Found. Foram. Res., vol. 2, Ft. 1, 
pp. 16-18. 

1952. Globigerinidae from the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian-Maes- 
trichtian) of Trinidad, B.IV.I. Bull. Amer. Paleont., vol. 34, No. 140, 
pp. 1-70, pis. 1-4. 

1952. Globigerininoite and Glohigerinitheka, neiv genera from the Ter- 
tiary of Trinidad, B.W.I. Contr. Cushman Found. Foram. Res., vol. 3, 
Pt. 1, pp. 25-28. 
Brotzen, F. 

1936. Foraminiferen aus dem Sch^L'edischen ujitersten Senon 'von Eriksdal 

in Schonen. Sveriges geol. undersokning Ser. C. No. 396, Arsbok 36. 

1942. Die Foraminiferengattung Gavelinella nov. gen und die Systematik 

der Rotaliformen. Sveriges geol. undersokning, ser. C, No. 451, Arsbok 

36. 

Church, C. C. 

1952. Cretaceous Foraminifera from the Franciscan Calera limestone of 
California. Contr. Cushman Found. Foram. Res., vol. 3, Pt. 2, pp. 68-70. 
Cita, >r. B. 

1948. Ricerche stratigrafiche e micro paleontologiche sul cretacico e sul 
I'Eocene di Tignale {Lago di Garda). Riv. It. di Pal. A. 54, Milano. 

Cushman, J. A. 

1932. The Foraminifera of the Annona Chalk. Jour. Paleont., vol. 6, pp. 

330-345, pi. 50-51. 
1944. The foraminiferal fauna of the type locality of the Pecan Gap 

chalk. Contr. Cushman Lab., vol. 2, Pt. 1, pi. 1-4. 
1946. Upper Cretaceous Foraminifera of the Gulf Coastal region of the 

United States and adjacent areas. U.S. Cieol. Survey Prof. Paper 206. 

1949. The foraminiferal fauna of the U pper Cretaceous Arkadelphia marl 
of Arkansas. U.S. (Jeol. Surv., Prof. Paper 221A. 

Cushman, J. A., and H. I(. Hedbcrfj 

1941. Upper Cretaceous Foraminifera from Santander del Norte, Colom- 
bia, S.A. Contr. Cushman Lab., vol. 17-19, No. 232. 
de Laitparcnt, J. 

1918. Etude lithologif/ue dcs terrains cretacees de la region d'Hendaye, 
Carte Geol. France Mem., pp. 1-153. 
Delga, M. 1)., and J. Sig-al 

1952. Stratigraphie du complexe mareaux "crcta.ec superieur" dans !e 
Nord-Constantinois (Algerie): Extr. C. R. Ac. Sc, t. 234, pp. 115-117, 
Paris. 
Finlaj, H. F. 

1940. Neiv Zealand Foraminifera ; key species in stratigraphy. Roy. Soc. 
New Zealand, Trans. Proc, Dunedin, New Zealand. 



Gl.OBOTRUNCANA IN COLOMBIA: GaNDOI.F! 109 



GaiuIolH, \{. 

1942. Ricfrclir mi< ropttlroiilolot/ic/ii' r stratitiraphuhf sullu sicujlta c sul 
tlys/i crfttiiiti Jri Jinlorrii Ji Ihilnrui. Ri\. It. di I'al. A. XLV'llI, Mem. 
4. 

Olaessiier, .M. F. 

1937. Flanktonforaminifrrni aus Jcr Krcidc unJ Jrrn Eozdn und Hire 
Stratigraphisvlic Bediutuug. Moscow Univ. Pal. Lab. Studies Microp., 
vol. 1, Pt. 1, Moscow. 

1945. Principlrs of Micro paleontology. Mellioiirne Univ. 

3rarlo, r. 

1936. Stir la Mirrofauna du cretacc moyrn ct superieur a faiies bathyal 
du nord Marocairi. C. R. S. Seances ,\c. Sc. t. 202, pp. 145, Paris. 

1938. Lrs Foramlnifcrcs de la Crai a Brlernnitcllr mucrotiata du bassin 
dc Paris. Mem. Mus. Nat. Hist., Fasc. 1, pp. 1-296, Paris. 

1949. Les Globorotalides du Cretacee superieur de Monsal-veris [Alpes 
frihourgeoises) . Eel. CJeol. Helv., vol. 42, No. 2, Basel. 

\jikkady, S. E. 

1950. A ne'w foraminiferal fauna from the Esna shales and Upper Cre- 
taceous chalk of Egypt. Jour. Paleont., vol. 24, No. 6., pp. 675-692, pis. 
89-90. 

Nauss, A. ». 

1947. Cretaceous microfossils of the Vermilian area, .Alberta. Jour. 
Paleont., vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 329-343, pis. 48, 49. 
\oth, K. 

1951. Foraminiferen aus Unter und Oberkreide dcs Osterreichischen .-Jn- 
teils an Flysch, It el-vetikum und I'orland-vorkornmen. Jahrh. CjcoI. Bund. 
Sonderhand 3. 

riumnier, H. J. 

1926. Foratninifera of the Midxvay formation in Texas. Univ. of Texas 
Bull. No. 2644, 206 pp., 15 pis. 
Kek'hel, 31. 

1947. Les Hankenides de la scac/lia et des couches rouges. Eel. Geol. Helv., 
vol. 40, No. 2, pp. 391-409, Basel. 

1949. Obser'vations sur les Globotruncana du gisement de la Breggia 
(Tessin). Eel. Geol. Helv., vol. 42, No. 2, Basel. 
Kenz, 0. 

1936. Stratigraphische und micropaleontologische Untersuchung der 
Scaglia (Obere Kreide-Tertiar) in Zentralen A pennin. Eel. Geol. Helv., 
vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 1-149, Basel. 
Saiididtre. .1. K. 

1932. Foraminifera of the Ripley formation of iiestern .Alabama. Jour. 
Paleont., vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 265-287. 
Sigal, J. 

1948. Precisions sur quelques Foraminiferes de la famille des Globoro- 
talidae. C. R. Somm. S. G. Fr. 

Thaliiiann, H. Y.. 

1942. Globotruncana in the Franciscan limestone, Santa Clara County, 

California. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., vol. 53, pp. 18-38. 
1947. Ueber Globotruncana rcnzi Thalmann 1942 und Gandolfi 1942. 

Eel. Geol. Helv., vol. 39, No. 2, pp. 311-312, Basel. 



Ill 



PLATES 



112 Bulletin 155 



Explanation of Plate 1 
(All figures X 60) 

Figure Page 
la-c. Ulol)otniiioaiia lapparenti loiigrilooula, n. subsp 17 

Holotype. Manaure section, S. 9168, Manaure shale {Marg'inulina 
joriesi) ; notice more elongated and more overlapping chambers 
than in Git. lapparenti lapparenti (Brotzen), Gandolfi 1942, pi. 
3, fig. 3a-c. 

2a-c. (Tilobotnincana inayaroeiisis Bolli 18 

Weil Papaya! #1, depth 110'-115', Colon shale, upper Pullenia 
crctacca zone; showing oblique arrangement of chambers, 
strongly diverging keels and sutures of "'lapparenti type" in the 
umbilical side of the second last chamber. 

3a-c. OlolMttruiicaiia tricarliiata coloiiibiaiia, n. subsp 20 

Holotype. Molino section, S. 12141, Colon shale, Pullenia cretacca 
zone; notice the slightly inflated early chambers. 

4a-c. Globotriiiicana tricarinata (•(►lombiana, n. subsp. 20 

S. 12141, Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea zone; showing more pro- 
nounced inflation in the early chambers and more spinose test. 

5a-c. (Tlobotniiicana vciitricosa ventru'osa (White) 22 

S. 5585, Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea zone; notice rapid increase 
in size of chambers and in general morphological characters 
close to those of Git. tricarinata colomhiana. 

6a-c. (Tilohotruncaiia iiiargriiiata austineiisis, n. subsp 29 

Holotype. Km. 92 section, S. 5604, Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea 
zone; showing chambers more rapidly increasing in size as com- 
pared with autotype material of Git. rnarginata (Reuss), of 
Cushman 1936, pi. 62, fig. la-c. 

7a-c. (Kug'og'loliig'erliia) beldiiig'i subbeldiiig'l, n. sp 32 

Holotype. Km. 92 section, S. 5587, Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea 
zone. 

8a-c. (Kug^ogrlobigerina) beldiiisfi bfldiiigi, n. sp. n. subsp 31 

Holotype. Km. 92 section, S. 5 587, Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea 
zone. 

9a-c. Globotriincana Imlloides bulloides (Vogler) 32 

S. 5604, Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea zone; showing large peri- 
pheral band, continuously raised double keel and chambers of 
lapparenti type in the umbilical side. 

lOa-c. Glohotruiu'aiia buUoidcs globig-eriiioides (Brotzen) 33 

S. 5579, Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea zone, 
lla-c. (Kug'Og'lobigrerfna) liexacaiiicrat i siibhexacainerata, n. subsp. 34 
Holotype. Well Papaya) #1. 210'-215', Colon shale, Pullenia 
cretacea zone. 
12a-c. (Rug-og-lobiffcriiia) hexacainerata liexacainerata (Bronnimann) 33 
Well Papaya! #1, depth 55'-60', Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea 
zone. 

13a-c. (TJlobotniiicaiia bulloides iiaiissi, n. subsp 34 

Holotype. Well Papaya! #1, depth 210'-215', Colon shale, Pullenia 
cretacea zone. 

14a-c. (Kug-og'lobig'eriiia) loetterli siiblootlerli, n. subsp 36 

Holotype. Well Papayal #1, depth 210'-215', Colon shale, Pullenia 
cretacea zone. 

15a-c. (Kiij?<>f?lobig'erliia) loetterli loetterli (Nauss) 35 

Wei! Papaya! #\, depth 70' -IS', Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea 
zone. 



Bull. Amek. Paleont. Vol. 36 



Plate 1 




Bull. Amer. Paleont. Vol. 36 



Plate 2 




Globotruncana in Colombia: Gandolfi 113 

Explanation of Plate 2 
(All figures X 60) 

Figure Page 

la-c. (ilobotrunoana fornioata manaureii ;is, n. subsp 41 

Holotype. Manaure section, Manaure shale {Marginulina jonesi) ; 
showing thick continuous keel, siibcircular periphery, less convex 
form as conipared with Clt. fvrtiuatd fornicaia. 

2a-c. Globotruncana fornicafa fornicata (Plunimer) 40 

S. 9168, Manaure shale (Marginulina jonesi) ; notice lobate peri- 
phery, irregular, slightly undulated chambers. 

3a-c. Cilobotninoana fomicata pluninierae, n. subsp 42 

Holotype. Km. 92 section, S. 5578, Colon shale, Pulltnia cretacea 
zone; notice inflated chambers in the dorsal side. 

4a-c. Globotruncana fomicata plummerae, n. subsp 42 

Transition to GU. fomicata ackcrmanni. S. 5579, Colon shale, 
Pullcnia cretacea zone; notice shorter, more inflated chambers 
as compared with typical tests. 

5a-c. Globotruncana fomicata ackennanni, n. subsp 42 

Holotype. Km. 92 section, S. 5608, Colon shale, Siphogenerinoides 
bramlettei zone; showing radial, depressed sutures on the ventral 

side. 

6a-c. Globotruncana fomicata ackernuinni, n. subsp 42 

S. 5608, Colon shale, Siphogenerinoides bramlettei zone; test show- 
ing dichotomic keel in early chambers. 

7a-c. Globotruncana fomicata ackemianni, n. subsp 42 

S. 5612; side view showing divergent keels; Colon shale, Sipho- 
generinoides bramlettei zone. 

8a-c. (Rugog-lobig-erina) circumnodifer subcircumnodifer, n. subsp. 44 
Holotype. Km. 92 section, S. 5579. Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea 
zone. 

9a-c. (Kugoglobigerina) circumnodifer circumnodifer (Finlay) .. 43 
Well Papayal #1, depth 195'-200'; Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea 
zone. 

lOa-c. Globotruncana fomicata cesarensis, n. subsp 45 

Holotype. Km. 92 section, S. 5587. Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea 
zone. 

Ua-c. (Kug'og'lobigrerina) macrocei»hala submacrocephala, n. subsp. 46 
Holotype. Well Papayal #1, depth 210'-215'. Colon shale Pullenia 
cretacea zone. 

12a-c. (Kugo^lobig-erina) macrocephala macroceplialu Bronnimann 45 
Well Papayal #1, depth 55'-60'. Colon shale. Upper Pullenia 
cretacea zone. 



114 Bulletin 155 

Explanation of Plate 3 
(All figures X 60) 

Figure Page 

la-c. Globotrniioaiia oalicifoniiis oaLicifonnis (de Lapparent) 46 

S. 5607. Colon shale, Uppermost Pullenia cretacea zone; showing 
large umbilical cavity, double keel, elongated chambers. 

2a-c. Olohotruncana caliolfomiis triiiidadeiisis, n. subsp 47 

Holotype. Km. 92 section, S. 5606. Colon shale, Uppermost Pullenia 
cretacea zone; notice the second keel disappearing, the slightly 
elongated chambers on the umbilical side, umbilicus becoming 
narrower and lips around apertures more arched. 

3a-c. (Tilobotruncaiia caliclfonnis sannientoi, n. subsp 47 

Holotype. Km. 92 section, S. 5606. Colon shale. Uppermost Pullenia 
cretacea zone; showing narrow single keel, shorter inflated 
chambers on umbilical side, Globorotalia-Vike narrow umbilicus, 
arched lips covering apertures. 

4a-c. tilobotruncana intermedia difforniis, n. subsp 49 

Holotype. Manaure section, S. 9167 B. Manaure shale {Marginulina 
jonesi) . 

5a-c. (ilobotruncana intermedia diffonnis, n. subsp 49 

S. 9167B. Manaure shale (Marcjinulina jonesi) ; showing more 
inflated Glohigerina-Wkc chambers than in the pre\ious form. 

6a-c. (Rugrog'lobig'erina) ornata snbornata, n. subsp. . .50 

Holotype. Well Papayal #1. depth 210'-215'. Colon shale, Pullenia 
cretacea zone. 

7a-c. (Rugog-lobigrerina) ornata ornata (Bronnimann) 49 

Well Papayal #1, depth 195'-200'. Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea 
zone. 

8a-c. (irlobotruneana intermedia intermedia (Bolli) 48 

S. 5590. Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea zone. 

9a-c. (Kug'og'loltigerina) g-laessneri sub^laessneri, n. subsp 51 

Holotype. Well Papayal #1, depth 210'-215'. Colon shale, Pullenia 
cretacea zone. 

lOa-c. (Rugog-lobig-erina) g:laessneri glaessneri, n. sp 50 

Holotype. Well Papayal #1, depth 110'-115'. Colon shale. Upper 
Pullenia cretacea zone. 

lla-c. (ilobotriineana oitae Bolli 51 

S. 5579. Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea zone. 

12a-c. (I?Hg:og'lob!f{'erina) petaloidea sultpet loide;;, n. sp.. n. subsp. 52 
Holotype. Km. 92 section, S. 5584. Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea 
zone. 

13a-c. KHfjo^-lobifjrerina petaloidea ju'taloidea, n. sp., n. subsp 52 

Well Papayal #1, depth 70'-75'. Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea 
zone. 



Bull. Amer. Paleont. Vol. 36 



Plate 3 




Bull. Amer. Paleont. Vol. 36 



Plate 4 




( !l ()1U)IKLINCANA I.N COl-OMBlA! GaNDOI.II 115 

Explanation of Plate 4 
(All figures X 60 1 

Figure Page 

la-c. (ilobotniiicanji coiitiisa soutilla, n. subsp 54 

Holotype. Maiiaure section, S. 9168. Manaure shale (Marginulina 
jurirsi) ; notice long arched chambers, thick keel, cf. G!t. forriictila 
plummcrae, n.subsp. (PI. 2, fig. 1-2). 

2a-c. (ih>l»ofruiK*aiia oontusa patelllfoniiis, n. subsp 54 

Hoh)type. Km. 92 section, S. 5579. Colon shale, Pull/ttia crrtacca 
zone; showing thick keel, long arched early chambers. 

3a-c. (ilobotriiiicana contusa contusa (Cushmani 53 

S. 5593. Colon shale, Pullcnia cretacca zone. 

4a-c. (ilobotruiicaua thalmaniii tlialiiiaiini, n. subap 60 

Holotype. Manaure section, S. 9167. Manaure shale [Marg'tnul'ina 
jonesi) . 

5a-c. (ilol)Otruiicaiia tlialjnaiiiii thalinaiiiii, n. sp., n. subsp 60 

S. 9167. Manaure shale (Marginulina jonrsi) ; showing more lobate 
periphery, larger chambers compared with typical form. The 
chambers are occasionally slightly undulated. 

6a-c. (ilobotriiiicaiia tliabnaniii flexiiosa (van der Sluis) 61 

S. 9167. Manaure shale {Marginulina jonrsi). 

7a-c. (■loitotriineaiia aff. cretacea (ushman 62 

S. 5608. Colon shale, Pullcnia crctacra zone. 



116 Bulletin 155 

Explanation of Plate 5 
(All figures X 60) 

Figure Page 
la-c. iTilobotriincaiui boUii, n. sp 62 

Holotype. Molino section, S. 12161. Colon shale, lowermost part of 
Pullenla cretacea zone. 

2a-c. Globotruncaiia area area (Cushman) 63 

Primitive test. S. 12141. Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea zone. 

3a-c. (Trlobotruncana area area (Cushman) 63 

S. 12141. Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea zone. 

4a-c. Globotriineana area area (Cushman) 63 

S. 5597. Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea zone. 

5a-c. Ulobotruneana area earibiea, n. subsp 64 

Holotype. Km. 92 section, S. 5592. Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea 
zone. 

6a-c. Citlobotaniiieana stiiarti stuarti (de Lapparent) 64 

S. 5597. Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea zone. 

7a-c. (wlobotnincana stuarti parva, n. subsp 65 

Holotype. Km. 92 section, S. 5597. Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea 
zone. 

8a-c. (jHobotnineaiia stuarti eonica (White) 65 

S. 5602. Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea zone. 

Notice in all "stuarti" forms the early elongated, arched chambers 

as common primitive character. 



Bill. Amek. 1'aleont. Vol. 36 



Flate 5 




Bull. Amek. Paleont. Vol. 36 
la 




Globotruncana in Colombia: Gandoi.m 117 

Explanation of Plate 6 
(All figures X 60) 

Figure Page 
la-c. (»lolM)truii<'ana rosetta roselta (Carsey) 66 

S. 5579. Colon shale, Pullrnia netacra zone. 

2a-c. (ilobotruiu-aiia rosetta iiislfjnis, n. subsp 67 

HolotN pe. Km. 92 section, S. 5603. Colon shale, Pullrnia crctacca 
zone; notice the shorter chambers which are slightly inflated 
on the ventral side, the depressed unihilical sutures. 

3a-c. (ilobotriiiicaiia rosethi i»ettersi, n. subsp 68 

Holotype. Km. 92 section, S. 5 589. Colon shale, Pullrnia crriacra 
zone. 

4a-c. filoljotniiicaiia rosetta nettersi, n. subsp 68 

S. 5 593. Colon shale, Pultcnia crrtacra zone; showing chambers 
which are slightly inflated on the ventral side, test somewhat 
rough with little ornamentation in early chambers. 

5a-c. (ilolMttriiiicaiia yaiisseri ^'aiisseri (Bolli) 69 

S. 5605. Colon shale, Pullrnia crriacra zone. 

6a-c. («l<>lM>triiiu'aiia ^'allssel•| gaiisseri (Bolli) 69 

S. 5605. Colon shale, Pullrnia crriacra zone; showing six chambers 
in the last volution with development of a small senile chamber. 

7a-c. <iIol)otniii4'aiia Kaiisseri siibuaiiSNeri, n. subsp 70 

Holotype. Km. 92 section, S. 5605. Colon shale, Pullrnia crctacca 
/one. 

8a-c. (ilolMttnuicaiia fiaiisser! K'smsser! (Bolli) 69 

S. 5597. Colon shale, upper Pullrnia rrriacra zone; notice the more 
conical test and inflated Glohif/rrina-Vike chambers. 



118 Bulletin 155 

Explanation of Plate 7 
(All figures x 60) 

Figure Page 
la-c. Hiig-og-lobig-erina lotniidata subrotuiulata, n. subsp 70 

Holotype. Km. 92 section, S. 5597. Colon shale, upper Piillcnia 
cretacea zone; showing gradual disappearance of keel, steadily 
more trochoidal coiling. 

2a-c. Kiigogiobigoriiia rotiiiuh!ta rotiindata (Bronnimann) 70 

S. 5608. Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea zone; notice the faint re- 
mainder of keel in the last chamber. 

3a-c. Ololxttnincaiia wiedenmaj eri uiagrdalenaeiisis, n. subsp 72 

Holotype. Km. 92 section, S. 5577. Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea 
zone; showing double early keel, developing later into a single 
one. 

4a-c. Globotrmicana wiedenmayeri wiedenmayeri, n. sp., n. subsp. 71 
Holotype. Km. 92 section, S. 5577. Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea 
zone. 

5a-c. (Kugogrlolu^eriiia) riigos i siibriiptsa, n. subsp 72 

Holotype. Km. 92 section, S. 5579. Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea 
zone. 

6a-c. (Hug-og-lobig-eriiia) nig-osa rug-osa. (Plummer) 72 

S. 5612. Colon shale, SiphngenerinoiJes hramlettei zone. 

7a-c. (KiigOfflobigeriiia) penny i pennyi (Bronnimann) 73 

Holotype. Km. 92 section, S. 5580. Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea 
zone. 

8a-c. (Hiig'og'lobig'erina) penny! penny! (Bronnimann) 73 

Well Papaya! #1, depth 130'-135'. Colon shale, Pullenia cretacea 
zone. 



Bull. Ameu. Paleont. Vol. oG 



Plate 7 




Bulletin Amkrican Palkontolocpy, No. 155, Pl. 8 



»^ New species and subspecies 

rare 1 


CONIACIAN 
SANTONIAN' 


CAM PANI AN ? 


MAESTRICHTIAN 


MANAURE SHALE 
(Margmulinajonesi) 


COLON S 


HALE 


PULLENIfl CRETACEA ZONE 


1 SiPHOOtMRiNOlOES 


Git (ornicata manaur 
Git lapparenti longilwula 


Git area area Git stuarli stuarti 
611 tncarinata colombiana Git rosetta pettersi 


6lt gaasseri ganjseri 
Git calic caiic 6lt cakcifcrms sarnientoi 


>* OlcDotruDcana lapparenti 


longiiocula n subsp 







H Gir fornicata 


manaurensis n subsp 






3lt fornicata 


fornicata (Plummer) 












x Gil tnalmanni 


tnalmanni n sp 







it Pulloides 


bulloides (vogier) 







Git thalmanni 


flex uosa (van derSluisJ 







oit bulloides 


_g[objgerinoideslBrotzen) 





— 


Gif intermedia 


intermedia CBolli) 





— _ _ — 


- _ _ 


M Gir intermedia 


difformis n subsp 







oiT :aliciformis 


caiiciformisideLapparent) 







>* 61t tncannafa 


colombiana n subsp 


-- 








H 6it ccntusa 


ScutiMa n subsp 







K 61: fornicata 


plummeri r subsp 


-- 




— - 




K Sir marjinato 


austinensis n suDsp 


- 








H Jit Bollll 


nsp. 










H Oil fornicaia 


cesarensis n subsp. 






— 




ji' area 


area (Custimanl 











■= • Stuart. 


s'uarti (de Lapparent) 











; rosetta 


rosetta (Carsey) 






K 6-' contusa 


patelliformls n subsp 




— _ — — 


»» 5. rosetta 


pettersi n subsp 






1 




01! citae 


Belli 




1 


H Gif fornicata 


acKermanni n subsp 






— — 1 




»* Sit wiedanmaaeri 


wiedenmanyeri asp n subsp 




— — — — 


H 5lt wieflenmjyeri 


magdalenensis n suosp 




— 


K Git bulloides 


naussi n subsp 




— — 


H R.Qoglobigenna ru^sa 


Subrugosa n subsp 










K ='j;ogl loelterli 


5ubloctterli n subsp 










K Sjgoql penngi 


subpennyi n subsp 










^ Rugogi circumnodifer 


SuDclrcumnodifer n subsp 




— 1 


K P-gcgi rie«3C3mer3fa 


sobhexacamerata n subsp 






- 




X Pi-gogi belflingi 


subbeldingi n subsp 






- 




»* "i-gogl beiomg 


Pe'dingi nsp n suDsp 








■^-•gogl circumnodifer 


circumnodifer(pinl3i|) 








Rogogl loelterli 


loetierli (Nauss) 








'?'jgogl hexacamerafa 


heic3camerata(Bronnirrann) 






H f.gcgl macrocepnjia 


submacrxephala nsubsp 




_— — ___ 


'^vjogl macrocepnaa 


macrocephal3(Bronnimanri 










•^ f^j^j^l ornata 


Subornala n subsps 




— — — 


1 


=.gcg' ornata 


ornata (Br onnimann) 










V 3 cno"i^r:an3 stuarti 


parva n subsp 






. — 




CI! contusa 


contusa (Coshman) 










Pogogl rugosa 


rugosa (Plummer) 








X li' area 


cariOica nsubsp 






_ _ _ _ 




3>' vcntncosa 


(White) 




_ _ - _ 




>* R',-?:; glassneri 


subqiassneri n subsp 






- - 




M fig;;! glassnen 


glassnen nspn subsp 




_ — _ — 1 


K Rugogi petaloidea 


subpetaloidea n subsp 




_ — _ 


— 


6! r^ajaroensis 


Boili 




— 


— 


Gt aftcretacea 


Custiman 




1 


H 61' peialOiJea 


petaloidea n spnsocsp 






— — 1 


K 61' ganssen 


hexacamerata n subsp 




— 


6! stuarti 


tonica (wtiite) 








Gif ganssen 


ganssen (Belli) 






X Pjjogl rotundata 


subroti-ndala n subsp 







_ 


H 0'» roseiia 


insignis n suPsp 




• — 


— 


K 3 1 caliciformis 


tnnidadensis n subsp 




— 


— — 


Rjiyigi penny! 


pennyi (Bronnimann) 










Rugogi rotundata 


rotundata (Bronnimann) 




_ 


XGIt caliCiformis 


sarmientoi n subsp 









DISTRIBUT 


P 

ON CHAF 
IN 


LATE 8 

{T OF GLOBOTRUNCANA 

COLOMBIA 



BuLLRTiN American Paleontology, No. 155, Pl. 9 





AL6IAN 


CENOMANIAN 


TURONIAN 


CONIACIAN 


SANTONIAN 


CAMPANIAN 


MAESTRICHTIAN 


REMARKS 


?Sv _ lornajjana tnocoidM^ Ga/XJolfl 
Ticinella robori. (Gardolfrt 
Gtoborotalia ? marginoaculcafa Lxbkli and Tappan 
"rialmabnalla tic.nensii o< (Gandolfi) 
n ».c™r.MS (Gandolfi 1 


— ^1. 







































- - 


— 


— 








• - — 

















Th manaurensis Sigal 

















- - 


Ro+ahpora «volufa Sigal (Rpt apanninrcaGancMfm 
Up apjnnmca (GandolW 

Btp ._ tnool!al.,j.s,s_n.rw. Mornod 

Rtp 3p«nn>nica lifpica GandatFil-Rtp^UutnincaraduSnijl 































— 








9 




"*• •s.s.'.'lussrs.lr' " 







R+p rsrchali Mornodf'Rtpapennimo YGsni^lfi 

















Rto Twntsalveriis Mornod 







_ 








- - 


Rtp banacencis (Ci+a) 
















_R*2__ turonica Brofr8n{-Qt3lpinaBolli) ,. 

,R+p cushmani Morrow 




— 







- . 






Glototroncana atepbani Gandolfi 







— 












at turbinata Mornod 







— 












&t aff r.nzi Rslchjl 




— 


— 












GB r«nzi Thalmsnn 




— 


— 












Git hslvatica BoNi 




— 













RlM'tia U a«urp«f ^th Kt, •»!<»«■, 


Git indica Jacob and 5astry 




?- 


9 










6lt imbritata (Wornodl 






, 




Git canaliculata (Rsusil 




7 


? 








~:ii:::: 


PI'^I™^ fG>™»SV met itrat rlnft 


6lt renri Gandolfi 
Git siqali Reichel 




? 







— 


— - 






? 









5lt inflata Bolli 
Sit laoparmtr lappartnti Bpotzan 
61+ bppartnti coronata Bolli 
Git tncarinata (Qu^r^aul 
CIt bulloides Voglir 




? 


=^ 


— -_=^_ 


=ZZ=^^ 


L^_^^^_ 




eit (llobiq«nno.dei Brotzen 
Cft rowtta Carsey 
Git cretaCBa Cushman 
Git fbrnicata Plummar 
5lt ventncjij IWhit.) 






1 


- — 


____^_ 




_ — - - 




Git area Cuihran 















— 1 — 


\zXX' ■""""■''" 


Git ^otgenr«,des (Pitrr* Marie) 














'"" 




Sit caliciformii (da Lappartnt) 
Git con,ca IWb,t.) 








- ■ — 




- zi: 




T,.,J.d U„„C.,.M,..I, 


Oit cofltuia Cushman 
at cita. M\, 








- 


-, . 


_-^ 


b-^.s^ 




eit fl.xoo>. ,and.r Jl„„ 
Git s»r«»n!u Can dir Slois) 
















_) 


. Git panssEr. Bolli 


















_6» ».ttnT»di« Bolli 


















. IJ" iriayaroonas BcJIi 
Elt awiBluoa Nakiiadu 
















TnrM Ui : 














9 — 7 




- Gl' aeouptiaca doy. Nakkadg 














9 9 





Range in Europe if>dudi"g partraly Caucasus and 



- Range m America indufji'^ parrel 



5uLi,ETiN American Pai,E()ntol(k;y, No. 155, Pl. 10 



^S> cGfc. 



Ot)^'^^)^ 







G 



e^ 






J ("TS-if^f 









C -5 o.'i 



-5J3^(f^ 






MR-is!;^ O 






.Q 









ALBIAN I CE NDMANIAN | TURONIAN | CONIACIAN | 5ANT D~N IAN | CAMPANIAN iMAESTRICHTIAN 

PLATE 10 
TENTATIVE EVOLUTION CHART OF Q L B T R U N C A N A 



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XXXVI. (No. 155-). 118 pp.. 10 pis. . 3.50 

Globotruncana in Colombia 

Palaeontographica Americana 

Volume I. (Xos. 1-5). 519 pp., 75 pis. 

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Condensed Table of Contents of Bulletins of American 
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bulletins of AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY 

'' . i^ 

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"V^PTI P711 p1 fi 

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Paleozoic Paleontology and Stratigraphv. 



-^ 



BULLETINS 

" OF 

AMERICAN 
PALEONTOLOGY 



VOL. XXXVI 



NUMBER 156 



"■-■-If 



■f B t f956 



1956 



Paleontological Research Institution 

Ithaca, New York 

U. S. A. 



PALEONTOLOGIGAL RESE1)\RCH INSTITUTION 

1954-55 

President Ralph A. Liddle 

Vice-President Solomon C. Hollister 

Secretary-Treasurer Rebecca S. Harris 

Director Katherine V. W. Palmer 

Counsel Armand L. Adams 

Trustees 

Kenneth E. Caster (1954-1960) Katherine V. W. Palmer (Life) 

W. Storrs Cole (1952-58) Ralph A. Liddle (1950-56) 

Winifred Goldring (1955-1961) ^ Axel A. Olsson (Life) ■ 

Rebecca S. Harris (Life) Norman E. Weisbord (1951- "7) 

Solomon C. Hollister (1953-59) 



BULLETINS OF AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY 

and 
PALAEONTOGRAPHIGA AMERICANA 

Katherine V, W. Palmer, Editor 
Lempi H. Sincebaugh, Secretary 

Editorial Board 
Kenneth E. Caster G. Winston Sinclair 



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U.S.A. 



BULLETINS 
OF 
AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY 



Vol. 36 

No. 156 

THE EOCEJfE FISHES OF ALABAMA 

By 

Errol I. White 
British Museum (Natural History) 



January 18, 1956 



Paleontological Research Institution 
Ithaca, New York. U.S.A. 



Library of Congress Catalog Card Nurnbrr: () S 55-174 



] 



f/iOS. COMP. ZOOL 
■EbW956 



milv'^'.Mili 



Printed in the United States of America 



CONTENIS 



Page 



Abstract 123 

Discussion 123 

A. The upper Eocene of Clarice County, Alabama 123 

Unrecorded materia! 128 

\i. The middle Eocene Gosport sand of Claiborne, Monroe County, 

Alabama 147 

References 149 

Plate 151 



THE EOCENE FISHES OF ALABAMA 

By 

Errol I. White 

Department of Geology, Britisli Mii>euii) (Natural History) 



ABSTRACT 

Two imperfectly known fish faunas from Eocene beds in the State of 
Alabama are described from old collections in the British Museum (Natural 
History), the larger from the Jackson formation of Clarke County, and a 
smaller series from the middle Eocene of Claiborne, Monroe County. While 
the former has a number of ne\v species peculiar to it, neither fauna contains 
any pre- or post-Eocene forms. Such as have been recorded are shown to have 
been due either to misidentification or, more largely, to the admixture of Euro- 
pean non-Eocene material in old collections. 

Leriche's contention that the Tertiary fish faunas of the Atlantic Coast 
of the United States do not show precocious development compared with those 
of Europe, as has been widely held, is fully supported. 

DISCUSSION 
With the pubhcation of Leriche's (1942) memoir on the Ter- 
tiary fish faunas of the United States Atlantic Coast, our knowledge 
of the comparable American forms has been extended. Even so not 
all the confusion that has so long existed concerning them has been 
straightened out. His material does not seem to have been so com- 
prehensive as was desirable, and faunas richly represented in the 
British Museum collections are omitted. The two most important 
of these are from the Eocene of Alabama. 

A. THE UPPER EOCENE OF CLARKE COUNTY, ALABAMA 
A large collection of teeth labelled "Eocene, Alabama", was 
presented by Professor J.W. Mallet^ in 1859, together with zeug- 
lodont teeth; and further specimens, identical in colour and matrix 
with the additional information "Clarke's County", came with the 
collections of Lord Ennisklllen and Sir Philip Grey-Egerton in 1882. 
Although no details are given it seems most likely that these came 
from the zeuglodont bed in the Jackson (upper Eocene) formation 
at "The Rocks", a famous early locality mentioned by Lyell (1846, 
p. 409; E.A. Smith, 1894, p. 639). 

1. J.W. Mallet F.R.S. (1832-1912), an Irishman, was at various times Chemist 
to the Alabama Geological Survev, and Professor of Chemistry at the Univer- 
sities of Alabama, Louisiana, and Virginia. 



124 Bulletin 156 



Leriche mentioned only one species from the Eocene of Clarke 
County, Alabama, Ginglymostoma obliqnum (T^idy), a correction 
of A.S. Woodward's record ( 1889, p. 348, pi. xvi, fig. 9) of G. serra; 
indeed the only other species from Alabama, all from the Jackson 
formation (upper E^ocene) of Cocoa. Choctaw County, are (pp. 45- 

51):^^ 

"Oxyrhina praeciirsor var. americana, var. nov. 
Carcharodon angustidens, praemut. cf. sokolowi 
Sphyrna gihnorei, sp.nov. 
Galeocerdo alabamensts, sp.nov. 
Cylindracanth us rectus ( Ag. ) ." 

It is difficult to understand why Leriche ignored the numerous 
records, apart from the Ginglymostoma, made by Woodward in the 
first part of his Catalogue, even if the war prevented his personal 
examination of them. But it is perhaps just as well for many of the 
teeth were wrongly identified, and others did not come from the 
Eocene or even from America. The Mallet Collection contained a 
number of Upper Cretaceous forms from the same state. While the 
more obvious species, such as Corax pristodontus and Ptychodus 
mortoni, are properly attributed to that formation, others have been 
misidentified as Tertiary species. They are, however, not difficult 
to separate from the latter. But more important still is that in the 
Enniskillen Collection a number of European forms have been 
labelled "Alabama", and these account for the supposed occurrence 
in the Eocene of that part of such typical Miocene species as Isurus 
hastalis and Carcharodon viegalodon. 

The full list of species attributed to the Eocene of Alabama by 
Woodward (1889) is as follows: — 

Page 348. Ginglymostotna serra (Leidy) P. 1216. Two teeth, one 
shown of the natural size in pi. xvi. fig. 9. Egerton Coll. 

Referred to G. obliquum (Leidy) by Leriche (1942, p. 52). 

Page 365. Odontaspis elegans (Ag.). No. 35611. Eight imperfect 
teeth. Mallet Coll. 

These belong to Scapanorhynchus texanus ( Roemer ) from the 
(Upper) Cretaceous of Alabama, and were originally so labelled. 
There are no specimens of 0. elegans (0. macrota) from these beds. 



Eocene Fishes of Alabama: White 125 



Page 371. fOdontaspis cuspidata (Ag.). No. 35611a. Eight speci- 
mens. Mallet Coll. P. 1247. Ten specimens, Egerton Coll. P. 5782. 
Three specimens. Knniskillen Coll. 

The Mallet specimens belong to Isiirus praecursor a^tnericana 
(Leriche), the others to Odontaspis hopei Ag. There are numerous 
other teeth of O.hopei in the collection (P.30262-91, P.30301-24), 
about 60 in all, many typical, similar to those figured from Europe 
by Leriche (1909, p. 238, pi. iv.). Others are smaller with worn 
denticles and resemble 0. terctidens White. 

Page 384. Oxy rhino desorii Ag. Nos. 35604-6, 35611-12. About 35 
teeth. Mallet Coll. P.1261, P.1262. Sixty teeth. Egerton Coll. P.2374. 
24 teeth. Enniskillen Coll. 

All belong to I sums praecursor americarui (Leriche), except 
for six of P.2374, which are from the Miocene of Malta, one be- 
longing to I.hastalis (Ag.), one to /. retojlexa (Ag), and four to 
J.benedeni (Leriche), re-registered as P. 30492-7. The American 
teeth vary greatly in size, up to 4 cm. and more in height, and some 
are quite massive. 

Page 387. Oxyrhina hast alts Ag. P. 1262a. Seven small teeth. Egerton 
Coll. P.2368. Three teeth. Enniskillen Coll. 

The Egerton teeth belong to Isurus praecursor americana (Le- 
riche), the others are European and belong to I.hastalis (Ag. ), two 
being from Antwerp and one from Malta. 

Page 390. Oxyrhina crassa Ag. P.2374. Anterior tooth. Enniskillen 
Coll. 

Correct but from the Miocene of Malta. 

Page 413. Carcharodon aiiriculatus (Blainv.). Nos. 35598-603, 
35612. Ten teeth. Mallet Coll. P.1200. Seven teeth. Egerton Coll. 
P.2386. Eighteen teeth. Enniskiller Coll. 

These are teeth of C.angustidens Ag. Leriche (1942, p. 46, pi. 
iii, figs. 1-5) referred his specimens to Cfl.praemut.? sokolozci ]ztkt\, 
hut they do not seem to show any likeness to the original specimens 
described as C.sokolozci. \n any case variation in form and coarse- 



126 Bulletin 156 



ness of denticulation is so great as to make subdivision of this species 
impracticable. Fowler (1911, fig. 26) figured a good series of these 
teeth from New Jersey as C. auric ulat us. Excellent wax casts of 
Morton's 'Squalus sp.' (1834, pi. xii, figs. 3, 4), which must be 
among the first fossil sharks' teeth from the United States to have 
been figured, came to the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) in the Man- 
tell Collection in 1839 (Nos. 7964-6; 10532-3). 

Page 418. Carcharodon megalodon Ag. P. 2388. Knniskdlen Coll. 

Correct but from the Miocene of Malta. 

Page 424. Corax pristodontus Ag. No. 35609. Nine teeth. Mallet 
Coll. P.2350. Three teeth. Enniskillen Coll. 

Correct but from the Upper Cretaceous of Alabama. 

Page 428. Corax afjinis Ag. P. 2350a. Tooth of this or closely allied 
species. Enniskillen Coll. 

This is the specimen noticed by Hay (1902, p. 309) and Le- 
riche (1942, p. 52 footnote). It is black and unlike any of the teeth 
from Alabama in the collections, either Cretaceous or Eocene. It 
seems nearest to C.kaiipi Ag. 

Page 438. Carcharias (Apriouodon) gibbesii A.S.W. P. 1220a. Eleven 
teeth. Egerton Coll. P.2338. Twenty teeth. Enniskillen Coll. 

Correct but not the typical form — see Negaprion gibbesi gU- 
tnorei (Leriche) below. 

Page 443. Galeocerdo contort us Gibbes. No. 35610. Five teeth. 
Mallet Coll. P.2349. Tooth. Enniskillen Coll. 

The Mallet teeth are either correctly identified or belong to 
G.alabaniensis Leriche, but all differ in appearance from the other 
Alabama fossils being black, worn, and are probably from phos- 
phate beds. The Enniskillen tooth is a specimen of G.aduncus Ag. 
from Malta; there are two specmiens registered under this number. 
Page 446. Galeocerdo aduncus Ag. No. 35610. Two small hinder 
teeth. Mallet Coll. P.1211. Five teeth. Egerton Coll. P.2344. Three 
broad teeth. Enniskillen Coll. No. 35610a. Eight teeth. Mallet Coll. 

Fhe eight teeth from the Mallet Collection (35610a) are similar 
to those in the same collection (35610) recorded under G.contortiis 
above. 



Eocene Fishes ok Alabama: White 127 



W 1211 and P. 2344 and one of the two small teeth (35610) are 
iNpical, pale-colouretl like the other specimens from the Clarke 
County KoceiK' and are referred to a new species, G.clarkensis. The 
second "small hinder tooth" appears to be a specimen of Physodon 
secundus (Winkler). 

Page 447. Galeoccrdo {?) minor Ag. P. 121 la. One tooth. Egerton 
Coll. 

Probably a corner tooth of ?Physodon secundus. 

Page 451. Hemipristis serra Ag. P. 1218a. Small tooth, doubtful of 
this species. Egerton Coll. 

Ihis specimen is referred to a new species, H .wyattdurhami 

( q.v. infra). 

Page 455. Carchariid vertebrae. No. 35611a. Eight small vertebra. 
Mallet Coll. 

In addition to the sharks, W^oodward recorded in his second 
volume of the catalogue ( p. 122) as probably Cylindracanthus orn^- 
tus Leidy "Several fragments" (P. 1769): this species is referred by 
Leriche to C. rectus (Ag. ). And finally in the fourth volume (p. 368) 
Woodward mentioned 45 teeth in the Egerton and Enniskillen col- 
lections from the upper Eocene, Clarke County, as resembling 
Sphyraena major Leidy. 

The corrected list of species from the upper Eocene of Clarke 
County, Alabama, derived from the Nolunies of A.S. Woodward's 
catalogue is as follows: — 

Ginglyyjiostoma obliquum (Leidy) 

I sums praecursor(l^er.) americana (Leriche) 

Odontaspis hopei Ag. 

Carcharodon angustidens Ag. 

Negaprion gibbesi (A.S.W.) gilmorei (Ler.). 

Galeocerdo clarkensis, n.sp. 

fPhysodon secundus (Winkler) = ?P.tertius{\\'mk\ex) 

Hemipristis wyattdurhami, n.sp. 

Cylindracanthus rectus (Ag. ). 

Sphyraena cf. major Leidy 

In addition to these there are many specimens that were 



128 Bulletin 156 



omitted from the Catalogue, and these add considerably to the 
fauna. 

UNRECORDED MATERIAL 
Pristis sp. 

A single fragment 2 cm. long from the tip of a rostral tooth 
shows a wide posterior sulcus (P. 1491. Egerton Coll.). 

^ryliobatis sp. 

A score of teeth of various sizes, mostly broken and isolated 
(P.30967-92. Mallet Coll.) and several imperfect tail spines (P. 
31041-52. Egerton Coll.). 

Heterodontiis cf. woodwardi easier. 

A single tooth (P. 30514) is almost identical with that figured 
as Cestracion dtiponti by Woodward (1891, p. 105, pi. 3, fig. 1) and 
subsequently referred by Casier to H. woodwardi (1946, p. 45). 

Scyliorlilnus eiiiiiskilleiii, n. sp. Text figs. 1-19; PI. 11, fig. 1 

There are about 35 large teeth of a dogfish in the Mallet and 
Enniskillen collections in various states of wear and repair. Their 
outstanding feature is their large size, the largest being no less than 
1.5 cm. high, which, if in the same proportion to the body as the 
teeth of the common dogfish, represent a fish not less than 250 cm. 
(8 ft.) long. 

On account of their unusual size these teeth could be easily 
mistaken for those of a Lamna or Odontaspis, especially the lateral 
teeth, were it not for the characteristic dead flat inner lower face 
of the roots divided by the clean-cut vertical groove. The front teeth 
are further distinguished by the shortness of the root-prongs. 

The crown, particularly in the anterior teeth, is tall and narrow, 
with the outer face slightly convex and smooth except occasionally 
for irregular puckermg at the base which is flush with the tooth. The 
inner face is rounded and largely ornamented with faint but char- 
acteristic, somewhat irregular vertical rugae. These naturally tend 
to disappear largely in worn specimens. 

The teeth are divisible into an upper and lower series, much 
in the form of the dentition of S.canicida. The upper symphyseal 



EOCFNK FiSHFS OK Al.ABAMA: WniTK 



129 



roeth (Text figs. 1, 2) have narrow crowns on almost sciuarc roots, 
with no denticles or only one. The anterior teeth (Text figs. 3, 4; 
pi. 11, fig 1) have taller, more suhstantial crowns with a single |)air 
of sharp, somewhat divergent lateral denticles and protuhcrant 




14 15 16 17 

Scyliorhinus rnniskillcni , n. sp. 

Figs. 1-9. Upper teeth. 1,3,6,9, from left side, remainder from right. Holotype, 
fig. 4. (P.30633, P.3053+, P.30614, P.30634, P.30611, P.30505. P.30576, P.3061S, 
P.30577). 10-19. Lower teeth. 10,13,15-17. From right side, remainder from 
left. (P.30637-9, P.30613, P.30575, P.30616, P.30631, P.30636, P. 30635, P.30632). 
1,6,13,15-18. Show inner face, la, 8a. Front view. All teeth from upper Eocene, 
Clarke County, Alabama. X 1 1/3. 



roots inwards. I he following teeth (Text figs. 5-9) become suc- 
cessively broader and shorter and more and more curved towards 
the corner of the mouth. At the same time the inward curvature 
of the tip of the crown decreases until the corner teeth are actually 
concave vertically and across the roots, while the inner face of the 
root becomes less and less protuberant. 

The anterior lower teeth (Text figs. 10, 11) have relatively low. 



130 Bulletin 156 



shallow roots but wide for the crown with the anterior prong the 
longer. 1 he r crowns are slightly curved inwards, tall, upright and 
narrower than those of any of the teeth except the upper 
symphyseals. They have a pair of denticles which are pointed and 
narrow. The succeeding teeth (Text figs. 12-19) which are upright, 
become shorter and more triangular, and lose the inward curve. 

Diagnosis. — A large species of Scyliorhinus with teeth up to 1.5 
cm. in height; crowns moderately robust except in the upper sym- 
physeals and lower anterior teeth, the former being extremely 
slender and having only one, or no lateral denticle; all other teeth 
with one sharply pointed pair; outer face of crown slightly convex 
and smooth except for occasional irregular puckering at base which 
does not overhang root; inner face convex with faint irregular ver- 
tical rugae; crowns upright except in upper lateral teeth which 
slope increasingly towards corner of mouth; inner face of root pro- 
tuberant in anterior teeth but becoming less prominent towards 
corner of month; lower (attachment) surface dead flat and divided 
vertically by deep and straight median canal. 

Holotype. — Right upper anterior tooth (P. 30634: Text fig. 4; 
PI. 11, fig.' 1) 

Odontospls malletlana, n.sp. Text figs. 20, 21; PI. 11, figs. 2, 3 

Two of Professor Mallet's specimens, P. 30242-3, are interesting 
as giving evidence of a new odontaspid shark. Neither tooth is per- 
fect, but both show characteristic features. Both teeth are upper 
laterals from the left side, one from the front of the series, the second 
more from the middle of the jaw. In general they resemble teeth 
of the European and African species 0. lerichei Casier {Larnno 
vincenti A.S.W. non Winkler, see Arambourg, 1952, Text fig. 19, p. 
85). The form is similar, with smooth enamel on both faces of the 
crown and two pairs of lateral denticles, a large and a small, both 
finely pointed. On the whole the crowns in the Alabama teeth are 
taller, but most easily they are distinguished by a marked fringe 
of short fme pleats at the base of the enamel all round the cr-^wn. 
Such puckerings are not infrequently developed to some extent on 
the outer face of Odontaspis teeth, but not in my experience on the 
convex oral face. 

Diagnosis. — A species of Odontaspis with teeth resembling those 



Eocene Fishes of Alabama: White 



131 



of O. Jerichei, but with taller crowns and a fringe of fine short pleats 
all round the base of the enamel. 

Holotype. — Anterior upper lateral tooth of left side (P. 30243; 
Text fig. 21; PI. 11, fig. 3). 




Fig. 20. Odontaspis mallctiaiia, n. >p. Imperfect left upper anterior lateral 
tooth. (P.30242). 21. Left upper lateral tooth. Holotype. (P.30243). 22,23,27. 
Nfffaprion gihhesi (A.S.Woodward) gilmorei (Leriche). Unusually large upper 
lateral teeth from right, left, and right sides respectively. (P.31438, P. 31437, 
P.31451). 24-26. Galfoicrdo clarkftisis, n. sp. Anterior, lateral, and posterior 
lateral teeth. Fig. 25 shows inner face. Fig. 24. Holotype. (P. 30501, P.30467, 
P.30502). All teeth from upper Eocene, Clarke County, Alabama. X 1 1/3. 



Odoiitnspis ? vertioaUs Ag. 

A single tooth, P. 30261, from the Mallet Collection closely 
resembles in form and size that from the Bruxellian figured by Le- 
riche (1906, pi. ix, fig. 27), except for a broken tip. There is, how- 
ever, some question as to its provenance since it is differently colour- 
ed from the other Eocene teeth collected by Mallet. The species has 
already been recorded from the United States, from the earlier 
Pamunkey beds of Maryland by Leriche (1942, p. 29, pi. ii, fig. 13), 
so that it is possible that this specimen did come from the .Alabama 
Eocene, if not from the same horizon or locality as the others. 



132 



Bulletin 156 



Alopias latideiis (Leriche) alabainensis, u.subsp. 

Text figs. 28-36; PI. 11, figs. 5, 6 

The Mallet collection includes 11 teeth attributable to a 
thresher or fox-shark, which in size and general form come near 
to Leriche's (1910, p. 286, pi. xix, figs. 14-25) Oligocene species from 
Belgium. In turn A.latidens approaches closely in its dental char- 
acters the living A.vulpinus (Bonn.). However, the Alabama teeth 




Alopias latidens (Leriche) alabamensis, n. subsp. 

Figs. 28-32. Right upper teeth (a) front view. 28. Holotype. (P.30853-7). 33-35. 
Left lower teeth. (P.30858-60). 36. Imperfect right lower posterior tooth. 
(P.30861). All teeth from upper Eocene, Clarke County, Alabama. X 1 1/3. 



do show constant, if minor, differences from the typical A.latidens. 
The roots are consistently smaller (or the crowns relatively larger), 
and the crowns, particularly of the more anterior teeth, appear more 
slender owing to the slightly sinuous anterior margin. I propose to 
distinguish the Alabama Eocene form as A. I. alabamensis. 

Among the syntypes oi Aprionodon gibbesi (q.v.infra) are three 
teeth from the South Carolina phosphate beds, nos. P.3 1661-2, 
P.5747c, (Text figs. 37-39; PI. 11, fig. 8) which belong to a related 
form of Alopias latidens. The first two are worn lower anterior teeth 
with broken roots and in their present condition do not differ sub- 
stantially from the corresponding tooth from Alabama. But the third 
specimen is an upper lateral tooth of an individual type and indicates 
that the South Carolina specimens belong to a second subspecies. 
Roots are fully as large as those in corresponding teeth of the 



Eocene Fishes of Alabama: White 



133 



typical European form, hut the crown, although hroad at the hase, 
narrows rapidly owing to the markedly sinuous front margin while 
the hinder margin is vertical and straight. For this small-crowned 
form I propose the name A.l.carolinensis. 

Diagnoses of subspecies. — A.l.alabamensis, n.subsp. A sub- 
species of Alopios latidens with relatively smaller roots than in the 
typical form, and the crowns, particularly of anterior teeth, with 
slightly sinuous anterior margin. 

Horizon and locality. — Upper Eocene, Clarke County, Alabama. 

Holotvfe.—[]ppQv anterior tooth, P.30853 (Text fig. 28; PI. 11, 
fig. 5). 

A.l.carolinensis, n.subsp. A subspecies of Alopias latidens with 
relatively larger roots than the typical form, the crown of lateral 
teeth narrowing rapidly, the anterior margin being markedly sin- 
uous and the hinder straight. 




37a 37 



Alopias latidens (Leriche) carolinensis, n. subsp. 

Figs. 37-38. Worn lower anterior teeth; (a) front view. (P.31661-2). 39. 
Upper lateral tooth. Holotype (P.5747f). All teeth from phosphates, South 
Carolina. X 1 1/3. 



Horizon and locality. — Phosphates of South Carolina. 
Holotype. — Upper lateral tooth, P.5747c (Text fig. 39; PI. 11, 
fig. 8). 

Hemipristis wyattdurhanii, n.sp. Text figs. 40-47; PI. 11. fig. 4 

A species of Hemipristis is represented by eight teeth coming 

from all three collections. Mallet, Egerton, and Enniskillen (P.1218a. 

P.305 17-23). 7 he first has been recorded under H.serra by Wood- 



134 Bulletin 156 



ward (1889, p. 451) as a 'small tooth, doubtfully of this species'. 
Half of them have damaged roots, but all are nevertheless char- 
aracteristic teeth. The enamel comes far down on to the roots on 
the outer face below the level of the top of the deep rounded notch 
that divides them, so that in fact only a narrow margin of root shows. 
On the inner surface the middle protuberant part of the root is 
pinched in and high, especially in the lower teeth, and the vertical 
canal is deep. When broken the internal cavity is seen to be large. 

The dentition so far as it is known follows closely that of the 
living H .elongata (see Leriche, 1938, p. 14, text figs. 3, 4) in the 
variation according to position, but the teeth are shorter and dum- 
pier with many fewer and far coars-er denticulations. 

There are no upper symphyseal or anterior teeth in the collec- 
tions. 

The upper lateral teeth (Text fig. 40-43; PI. 11, fig. 4) are more 
or less triangular in form with the crown bending increasingly to 
the rear in the more posterior files. The front margin is gently 
convex towards the tip and smooth or with only a few vestigial 
coarse denticles in the lower half. The posterior margin is embayed, 
the tip smooth with some half dozen or less coarse denticles along 
the lower two-thirds, diminishing in size from above downwards. A 
marked feature of these teeth, especially the foremost, is the twisting 
outward of the anterior lower part so that the front edge is sigmoid. 
The blunt wide roots are almost in line, the anterior somewhat the 
narrower and divided by a well-marked median notch. The inner 
face is protuberant in the middle with a deep median groove. 

The largest specimen is 1.0 cm. in height and 1.1 cm. across the 
base. 

The only representative of the lower anterior teeth — there is 
none of the small symphyseals — is a rootless crown (Text fig. 44). 
As in the corresponding teeth of the living shark the crown is stout 
and narrow, almost rounded, in section, but differs in that there are 
no denticles and the slight cutting edges reach down almost as far 
as the crown is preserved, about the level of the top of the de- 
pression dividing the roots. 

The two examples of the lateral teeth (Text figs. 45, 46) have 
narrow triangular outer faces to the crowns which slope only gently 
to the rear, the second slightly more so than the first, and are also 



Eocene Fishes of Alabama: White 



135 



gently sigmoidally curved. Each has two well-marked incurved 
lateral denticles and a vestige in front. 1 he anterior tooth has the 
same number behind but somewhat larger, while the second has 
three. The anterior tooth has lost the exposed extremities of its 
roots, but they were probably similar to those of the second, in 
which the anterior prong is the more slender and much the shorter. 
In neither are they widely separated, so that they are from the 
front part of the lateral dentition. 

The single lower posterior tooth (Text fig. 47), like the other 
three lower teeth, is from the right ramus. It is much curved 
towards the rear and has no anterior denticles but four or five 
graduated denticles behind, the largest being the highest. 




Hrmipristis ivyattJurhami, n.sp. 

Figs. 40-43. Upper lateral teeth. 40. Holotvpe, from right side, remainder from 
left. (P.30521-2, P.30519, P.30523). 44-47. Lower anterior (crown only), lateral 
and posterior lateral teeth. .Ml from right side. (P.30518, P.30517. P.1218a. 
P.30520). 41, 46. Show inner face. 40a, 46a. Front view. .Ml teeth from upper 
Eocene, Clarke County, Alabama. X 1 1/3. 



As seen m aboral view, it resembles the teeth of Ga/eus {Galeo- 
rhinus) and Galeocerdo, but shows its origm ui the pinched inner 
protuberant face. It is to all intents and purposes identical with 
corresponding teeth in the jaw of the living H.elongatiis in the 
British Museum (Nat. Hist.) collection. Incidentally the teeth of 
this last specimen differ from those in the type jaws figured by 
Leriche in that there are fewer rows, two on each side, of the small 



136 Bulletin 156 



symphyseal teeth, and that none of the lower teeth has more than 
a single denticle or a vestige in front of the lower teeth. 

Remarks. — These teeth closely resemble in general form those 
from the Fayum figured by Stromer ( 1905, p. 174, pi. xvi, figs. 1, 3) 
and there seems little doubt that they are conspecific, and indeed in 
the original description of the species, Dames (1883, pp. 140-1) 
mentioned that the Berlin Collection also contained specimens from 
Claiborne, Alabama. The difficulty lies in the specimens Dames 
originally figured and described in detail. These, if anything, are 
upper teeth, judging by their broadly triangular form; but they 
have strong denticulations in front as well as behind, increasing in 
size upwards, which is certainly not a characteristic of the upper 
teeth from Alabama, nor of those described by Stromer, in which 
anterior denticulations are vestigial or absent. But unlike Hemi- 
pristis in general (cf. H.serra and H .elongata as figured by Leriche 
1938, p. 14, fig. 3) is the sharp re-entrant angle between the smooth 
tip and the posterior denticles, and the depressed broad form of 
the tip except possibly in the more posterior teeth which these are 
obviously not, being too high. Moreover the mner face of the root 
lacks the median pmching-m so characteristic of the fossil Hemi- 
pristis teeth at least (the inner faces of the jaws of the living species 
cannot be seen in Leriche's figure, nor in a second specimen in the 
British Museum (Nat. Hist.), Dames' description does not square 
with the figures and his five specimens may have included true 
Hemipristis teeth (as subsequently figured by Stromer), but those 
figured do not seem to me to belong to this genus but rather to a 
Galeorhinus. Indeed, Arambourg (1952, p. 155) has already re- 
ferred them to G.minrjr, but the specific attribution seems rather 
doubtful. It is interesting to note in this connection that among the 
first sharks' teeth recorded from the Eocene (Lutetian) of Nigeria, 
were some referred to "Hemipristis curvatus" (A.S. Woodward, 
1922, p. 62). These were subsequently described as Eugaleus semile- 
vis. 

The name "curvatus" must go with the figured specimens of 
which I select the original of Dames' fig. 4a as the lectotype of the 
species Galeorhinus curvatus (Dames). The Alabama teeth, and 
with them, possibly Stromer's Egyptian specimens, I propose to 
designate Heviipristis ivyattdurhami, n.sp. 



KocENE Fishes of Alabama: White 137 

Duiguosis. — A species of Uemipristis with teeth of moderate 
si/e, not known to exceed 1 cm. in height with relatively low crowns. 
Anterior margin of principal upper teeth markedly sinuous, the hasal 
part ami the front prong ot the root heing much curved outwards; 
posterior denticulations of upper teeth few and coarse, reaching 
up two-thirds of crown; anterior denticulations vestigial or absent. 

Lower anterior teeth without denticles; lower anterior lateral 
teeth rather narrowly triangular, with two or three well-marked 
denticles only near the base behind, and two in front. 

Holotype. — Upper anterior lateral tooth. P. 30521 (Text fig. 40; 
PI. 11, fig. 4). 

Distribution. — The teeth in the collection are from Alabama, 
and from their colour and condition, all from the same area in Clarke 
County, although only the Egerton teeth are so marked. The for- 
mation is presumably Jackson (upper Eocene). 

The teeth recorded by Dames from Claiborne could have come 
from either the Lisbon formation, Gosport sand (middle Eocene) or 
the Ocala limestone (upper Eocene), since all are present (C.W. 
Cooke, 1926, pp. 268, 271), but there is none in the collection of 
Claiborne teeth collected by T. Harris, so that they may be of the 
same age as the Clarke County teeth. However, a range covering 
the middle and upper Eocene is possible. 

H>iM»i)rioii grrejeg-ertoiii, n.sp. Text figs. 48-56; PI. 11, fig. 7 

This species is represented by nine teeth, all from the Mallet 
Collection. Five are from the upper dentition, four from the lower, 
and the tallest is 1.2 cm. high. 

All have simple rather narrow crowns with sharp smooth cutting 
edges, flat or slightly convex outer (aboral) faces which are gently 
sigmoidal in profile, and convex inner faces. 

The wide but shallow basal extensions of the upper crowns are 
somewhat wavy or faintly crenulated, but there are no true denti- 
cles; those of the lower teeth are straight and smooth but for a 
distinct shoulder at each end. 

The roots are relatively massive and high in all teeth and are 
widely separated, almost in line with each other. The inner (oral) 
face is tumid, especially so in the most anterior teeth, with a deep, 
dead flat lower surface divided by a well-marked vertical canal into 
the top of which the nutritive foramen opens. 



138 



Bulletin 156 




Hypoprion greyegerioni, n.sp. 

Figs. 48-52, 55. Upper teeth. 50 and 52. Holotype, from right side, remainder 
from left and shows inner face. (P.30525-29, P.30532). 53,54,56. Lower teeth 
from left side. 56a. Side view (P.30530, P.30531, P.30533). All teeth from 
upper Eocene, Clarke County, Alabama. X 1 1/3. 



The upper crowns are all somewhat asymmetrical and inclined 
to the rear, this margin beingi straight and the other curved, while 
the tips of the crown particularly of the foremost is much twisted; 
but both inclination and twist disappear towards the middle of the 
series. There are no posterior upper teeth. 

The lower teeth have rather narrower and more upright crowns. 
The roots of the front teeth are short, but the length increases in 
the lateral teeth, and as it happens, so does the height of the 
crowns. 

Revfiarks. — The form of the upper teeth varies greatly according 
to the living species, as witness those of the type species H.tnacloti, 
H.hemiodon (see Miiller & Henle, 1841, pis. x, xix) and Il.signatvs 
(see Bigelow & Schroeder, 1948, text fig. 54), particularly in the 
size of the basal denticles. The only common factor in the various 
dentitions is that basal denticles are present in the upper teeth 
and not in the lower, all crowns being smooth. This denticular fea- 
ture has almost disappeared (or had not developed) in the new 
fossil species, but the crowns of individual teeth do much resemble 
certain of those of th<." more obviously denticulated Eocene species 
from Nigeria, H.overricus White (1928, p. 39, pi. ix, figs. 1-16). It 



Eocene Fishes of Alabama: White 139 



ilifters troni that species in the greater twisting of the upper crowns 
aiul 111 the rehitive narrowness and uprightness of the lower. It may 
also be significant that the single anterior lower tooth of H .grey- 
egertoni is smaller than the other teeth, as in H.macloti, whereas in 
the Nigerian species, the lower anterior teeth, of which nine speci- 
mens are known, are the tallest of all. 

Diagnosis. — A species of fiypoprion with rather tall and narrow 
teeth, up to 1.2 cm. iiigh, the upper teeth with only slight crenula- 
tions at base; the crowns gently inclined laterally, the tip twisted 
in the anterior teeth; crowns of lower teeth narrow and upright. 

//o/ory/)^'.— Upper lateral tooth. P.30529 (Text fig. 52; PI. 11, 
tig. 7) 

\eg-a]>rioii prHibesi (A. S. Woodward) 

Text figs. 22, 23. 27, 57-93; PI. 11, figs. 9, 10 

The history of this species is certainly curious. It was first des- 
cribed by Woodward (1889, p. 437) as Carchamis (A'prionodon) 
gibbesi without illustration, but with reference to three figures of 
sharks' teeth attributed by R.W.Gibbes (1849, p. 192, pi. xxv, figs. 
63-65) to Galeocerdo minor and with doubt to another identified 
by Gibbes (pi. xxvii, fig. 164) as Oxyrhina minuta. The former were 
from the "Eocene of South Carolina and from the Miocene of Mary- 
land", the latter from the "Eocene of South Carolina". 

By definition of the subgenus Aprionodon (pp. 435-6) and of 
the species itself ( p. 438) the characters of Aprionodon gibbesi given 
by Woodward were: "None of the teeth serrated. Teeth narrow^ on 
a broad base; the lower erect, the upper erect or only slightly 
oblique. A species of moderate size, the teeth comparatively robust 
and broad, the coronal margin often feebly crimped upon the basal 
extension." 

This makes an accurate and clear diagnosis of the species to 
which belongs the great majority of the 121 teeth referred to it by 
W^oodward, from the "Eocene, South Carolina and Alabama, 
U.S.A." 

While Gibbes' tooth of ''Oxyrhina viinuta" doubtfully referred 
to Woodward's species, is probably a lower tooth correctly so identi- 
fied, not one of Gibbes' three "Galeocerdo minor" teeth quoted by 
Smith Woodward are even congeneric, let alone conspecific with 



140 Bulletin 156 



Aprionodon gibbesi. According to both Gibbes' description and 
figures the crowns are fairly obvious teeth of Sphyrna prisca, pre- 
sumably Leriche's subspecies eastmam, a possibility which Leriche 
failed to recognize. These teeth of Gibbes are not the types of the 
species, as Leriche seemed to suggest, the syntypes being the series of 
specimens originally quoted by Smith Woodward (1889, p. 438). 

The great majority of these syntypes do belong to this one 
species, but not all. Of the 77 (not 75) teeth from the "Eocene", 
South Carolina (No. 28103),* six belong to a larger carcharinid, 
apparently Negaprion magnus (Cope), three resemble the teeth 
described as Sphyrna americana Leriche, two belong to Sphyrna 
laevissima (Cope), two to Alopias latidens (Leriche, supra); and 
the remaining 64 to 'Aprionodon' gibbesi A.S. Woodward. 

Both the teeth (] noted by Woodward under No. 47006, also 
from South Carolina, seem to be worn lower teeth of C.egertoni. 

The seven teeth, P. 5747, a-j are referable to no less than four 
different genera and five species: two to 'Aprionodon' gibbesi, one 
apparently to Lamna verticalis (Ag.), one to Alopias latidens, one 
to Carcharinus egertoni, and two to C. magnus. These South Caro- 
lina teeth, like the others quoted above from that state, are blue- 
black in colour and seem to come from the 'Phosphate Beds'. This 
chance assemblage of small teeth from these so-called "Eocene" beds 
clearly shows the mixed and derivative nature of these fossils, which 
Leriche (1942, pp. 54, 55) has already pointed out in respect of the 
whole fauna, the second species being an Eocene form, the third 
Oligocene and the last two Miocene. The age of this, the typical form 
of A. gibbesi is uncertain, since all the known specimens are from 
these phosphate beds and occur in varying stages of wear. 

The remaining three lots of syntypes quoted bv Woodward are 
all genuine teeth of A. gibbesi, six of them from South Carolina 
{P.1220) and the remaining 31 ( P.1220a, P.1338) from Clarke 
County, Alabama. These 37 teeth are from the Egerton and Ennis- 
killen collections, but the Mallet specimens, nearly 250 in number, 
nil from Alabama, were not mentioned b\- Woodward. In addition 



* These teeth are re-registered iiiuier the following separate luinihers; 
P.31675-80, P.31727-9, 1'. 31725-6, P.31661-2, I'.31417-36 and P. 3 1681-31724. 



Eocene Kishks ok Alaija.ma: Whitk 



141 



there are in the Museum collections a lurthcr 13 specimens from 
Alahama, believed also to be Egerton material from Clarke County 
( P. 30839-51 ), and five collected by G.F. Harris from Claiborne. 
Altogether then there are some 370 teeth of this species in the 
British Museum (Natural History). It is curious that when J>e- 
riche ( 1942, p. 47, pi. ix, fig. 1 ) wrote his memoir on the marine 
fish faunas of the eastern United States coastal plain he came across 
only one such specimen, which he described as ^^Sphyrna gilmorei". 
Ibis tooth, which came from the Jackson formation at Chocolate, 
Choctaw County, Alabama, is a typical specimen of the Alabama 




73a 



S cgapiion (/ibbrsi ( .\.S. Woodward ) (/ihiioni (l.eriche) 

Figs. 57-66. Upper teeth. .\ll from side except fiK^*- 60, 62, 65 wliicli are from 
left and show inner face. (P.31459, P.31441-2, P. 31462-6). 67-76. Lower teeth. 
All from left side except figs. 67,70,72 which are from right and show inner 
face. 73a. Front view. (P.31467-76). .All teeth from upper Eocene, Clarke 
County, Alabama. XI 1/3. 



142 Bulletin 156 



upper Eocene form of 'Aprionodon gibbesi, for undoubtedly these 
teeth can be distinguished from those of the South Carohna phos- 
phates when unworn. While in the Alabama upper teeth the basal 
extensions of the crown are feebly but coarsely crimped, m those 
from the phosphates, when fresh, the crimping is much more defin- 
ite and finer, and indeed in some teeth it amounts to clear denti- 
culation: it may even be seen to some extent in a few lower teeth, 
which in the Alabama series are almost without exception smooth 
along all the margins. Moreover, the South Carolina teeth have in 
general relatively smaller crowns (or larger roots) especially in the 
upper dentition. 

As no less than 74 out of 105 of Woodward's syntypes referable 
to this species come from the phosphates of South Carolina, I pro- 
pose to take this as the typical form (Text figs. 77-96; PI. 11, fig. 9), 
the Alabama series being treated as a subspecies for which Leriche's 
name ''gilmorei" is available (Text figs. 22, 23, 27, 57-76; PI. 11, 

fig. 10). 

Five rather small rootless crowns from the middle Eocene of 
Claiborne ( P. 30295-9) show the characteristic features of the other, 
later, Alabama teeth and so are referred to the subspecies ^' gilmorei" , 
making the known range middle-upper Eocene. 

Both individually and in range of variation the teeth of 'Apriono- 
don gibbesi so clearly resemble those of the Lemon Shark, Nega- 
prion brevirostris ( Poey ) as illustrated by Bigelow and Schroeder 
(1948, p. 310, text fig. 52) that there can be little doubt that the 
fossils must be referred to the same genus, Negaprion (seemingly 
one of the more successful erections of that uninhibited creator of 
synonyms, G.P. Whitley) rather than to Aprionodon in which the 
teeth of both jaws are narrow and erect, at any rate in the type 
species A.isodon (Miiller & Henle). The generic dental characters 
of Negaprion, as detailed by Bigelow & Schroeder seem to be: 

Teeth with flattish outer face, convex inner, and sharp cutting 
edges; upper teeth with rather narrow triangular cusps and broad 
bases, symmetrical and erect in anterior part of jaw but increasingly 
oblique with diminution in size towards corner of mouth; edges of 
cusps smooth, basal extensions faintly crenulated or finely serrated; 
symphyseal teeth small in both jaws; lower teeth with narrow 



Eocene Fishes of Alabama: White 



143 



crowns, erect except in corner teeth; basal extensions only excep- 
tionally crcnulated. 

In the fossil teeth the nutritive foramen is large, and the 
median vertical groove deep and narrow, and the crowns of the 
lateral teeth slightly incurved at the tip. 

1 he typical torni of the species Negaprion gihbesi (A.S. Wood- 
ward) may be defined as follows: 

A Negaprion with teeth up to 1.0 cm. in height and 1.2 cm. 




Figs. 77-86. Segapi ion yihhtsi {A.S.Woodward ) , typical form. Upper tet-th. 
All from left >(ide, except figs. 83, 84 which are from right side, and show- 
inner face. 79a. Shows front view. Lectotype, fig. 79. ( I'. 3 141 7-26 ). S7-96. 
Lower teeth. .Ml from right side except figs. 93, 96 which are from left and 
show inner face. (1^.31427-36). .All teeth from phosphates, South Carolina. 
X 1 1/3. 97. Galrurhinus rrctuonus (Winkler) ilaihornrnsis, n. suhsp. ? Upper 
anterior lateral tooth. Holotvpe. (P. 30294). Middle Eocene, Monroe County, 
Alabama. X 1 1/3. 



144 Bulletin 156 



across the root. Teeth compressed, with slight groove along the 
margins of the crown and a faint median depression at base of outer 
face of the upper teeth. Basal extensions of upper teeth finely denti- 
culated, the denticulations become fewer and less regular towards 
corner of mouth. 

Lectotype.—'^o. P.31419 (Text fig. 79; PI. 11, fig. 9). 

Distribution. — Phosphate beds of South Carolina. 

The diagnosis of Negaprion gibhesi gUmorei (Leriche) is as 
follows : 

A subspecies of N.gibbesi with teeth attaining a slightly larger 
size than the typical form, up to 1.2 cm. in height. Crowns, especially 
of upper teeth, relatively somewhat larger. Basal extensions of crown 
in upper teeth only faintly but coarsely crimped, in lower teeth 
smooth. 

Holotype. — Tooth in U.S. National Museum figured by Leriche 
(1942, p. 47, pi. iv, fig. 1). 

Distribution. — Upper Eocene (Jackson) of Choctaw County and 
Clarke County, Alabama. Middle Eocene (Gosport sand) of Mon- 
roe County, Alabama. 

riiysodon seciiiidus (Winkler) 

There are four teeth from the Alabama Eocene of the larger 
type of Physodon secundus, usually recorded as P.tertius. Of these, 
three from the Mallet Collection have the narrow tips of the lower 
dentition (P.30245-7), while from the Egerton Collection comes an 
upper lateral (P. 30650). In addition there is a long base without 
a crown, probably of this species, while the small tooth referred 
by Woodward (1889, p. 447, No. P.1211a) to Galeocerdo ? minor 
may well be a posterior lateral of P.secundus, as well as the second 
of the "two small hinder teeth" identified by the same author {ibid., 
p. 446, No. 35610) with G. aduncus. 

(ialeorhinus of. fnlcoiieri (White) 

There is one remarkably long corner tooth (Enniskillen Coll., 
P. 2344) that resembles the corresponding teeth of this Nigerian 
Lutetian species, although larger than any known. It is 1.6 cm. long, 
but only 0.7 cm. high. It has the typical uptilted tip to the crown 



Eocene Fishes of Alabama: White 145 



of tlu' lower tcotli of this genus, and this is also shghtly twisted out- 
wards. 

I he denticulations in front are fine but irreguhir and do not 
reach near the point which is smooth on both sides. The posterior 
denticulations on the base below the notch are coarse, the first 
behind subdivided. The inner face of the root has a flat lower sur- 
face divided by a well-marked vertical groove. 

(ijileooerdo clarkonsis, n.sp. Text figs. 24-26; PI. 11. figs. 12-14 

As noted above the various lots of Galeocerdo teeth recorded 
from the Alabama Eocene as either G. contortus or G. aduncus by 
Woodward ( 1889, pp. 443, 446) fall into two series, pale-coloured 
specimens exactly like the teeth of the other species from the upper 
Eocene of Clarke County, and dark-coloured teeth like those from 
the South Carolina phosphate beds. The latter are mostly frag- 
mentary and if they do come from Alabama, certainly do not come 
from the same beds as the pale series, for they seem to be a mixture 
of the Eocene G.alabamensis and the Miocene G.oduncus. All these 
are from Professor Mallet's collection. 

There are nine of the typical pale-coloured teeth, five from the 
Egerton Collection (P.1211*), three from the Enniskillen Collec- 
tion ( P.2344* ) and only one from Professor Mallet's collection 
(35610*). None of these belongs to G.alabamensis, Leriche's (1942, 
p. 48, pi. IV, fig. 2) upper Eocene species from Choctaw County, 
but to a different and apparently undescribed form. They are more 
compact than the other American teeth of this genus and m gen- 
eral have short, broad apices. The anterior denticulation are coarse, 
particularly in the middle of the well-arched anterior edge, but 
neither they, nor the finer denticulation above the posterior notch, 
reach the tip. Below the notch the denticulations are again coarse. 
The inner face is relatively flat. 

Ihe Miocene species Galeocerdo contortus Gibbes appears to 
be a good species and not just a race of G.aduncus Ag. as Leriche 
( 1942, p. 88) supposed. At any rate specimens from South Carolina 
(e.g., P.4098, P.5748) could not be confused with their fine and 
twisted points with specimens of G.adunrus from Malta (P. 1212, 

*.\1I re-registered separately as P.30500-4, P.30465-7, and P. 30535, respec- 
tively. 



146 Bulletin 156 



P.2349, P.13803, P.19264-6) or from Patagonia (P.9083-4). Certainly 
they are as good a species as Lerlche's G.alabaviensis, based on a 
single tooth from Choctaw County. There Is a series of 10 teeth from 
Farmlngdale, New Jersey, (P. 12754, P. 30441-9) which includes 
one identical with his type and allowing for the usual variations ac- 
cording to position, all ten appear to be conspecific. From these the 
species seem close to both G.aduncus and G.contortus, but the 
crowns are smaller and shorter than in either. In shape they also 
resemble the series of G.latidens figured by Leriche (1906, pi. xi, 
figs. 19-28) but without the coarse anterior dentlculations of that 
species. The teeth of G.clarkensis are readily distinguished from 
all these by their form. 

Diagnosis. — A species of Galeocerdo with compact teeth, rather 
flat on the inner face; anterior margin well arched, and apices rela- 
tively short and broad, not denticulated near tip; anterior denticu- 
lations and those below posterior notch coarse; those above notch 
fine. 

Holotype.— Anterior tooth (P.30501; Text fig. 24; PI. 11, fig. 
12). 

Teleosts 

There is a single worn irregularly shaped plate of Ostracion 
(P.30192), not specifically identifiable, in the Enniskillen Collec- 
tion, but the worn dental piles of a Diodon from the Egerton Col- 
lection, labelled "Eocene, Alabama" (P.1910) and "Eocene of Clarke 
County, Alabama" (P.1911), are not typical in their yellow colour 
and may be of European origin. 

The total list of fish remains from the Jackson formation (upper 
Eocene), of Clarke County, Alabama, compiled from Woodward's, 
Leriche's, and the new records is as follows: — 

Pristis sp. 

Myliobatis sp. 

Heterodontus cf. zvoodwardi Casier 

Ginglymostoma obliquunv (Leidy) 

Scyliorhiniis enniskilleni, n.sp. 

I sums praecursor (Leriche) americana (Leriche) 

Odontaspis hopei Agassiz 



Eocene Fishes of Alabama: White 147 



0. ? vcrticalis Aj^assiz 

0. vxalletiana, ii.sp. 

Carcharodon angustidens Agassiz 

Alopias latidens (Leriche) alabaviensis, n.subsp. 

H eniipristis zvyattdurhami, n.sp. 

Hypoprion greyegertoni, n.sp. 

Negaprion gibbesi (A. S. Woodward) gilvwrei (Leriche) 

Physodon secundus (Winkler) 

Galeorhiniis cf. jalconeri (White) 

Galeocerdo clarkensis, n.sp. 

Cylindracanthus rectus (Agassiz) 

Sphyraena cf. major (Leidy) 

Ostracion sp. 

Of the 13 forms definitely identified, no less than nine are 
peculiar to the region and do not throw any light on the age; but of 
the remaining four, Odontaspis hopei, Carcharodon angvstidens, 
Physodon secundus and Cylindracanthus rectus, all are Eocene 
species, but curiously enough of lower and middle Eocene age, rather 
than upper. But the important point is that there is no post-Eocene 
element anywhere and Leriche's contention that the supposed prec- 
ocious occurrence in America of middle Tertiary European forms 
is based on misidentification is clearly upheld. If anything the con- 
trary appears to be the case: they occurred a little later than in 
Europe. 

B. I HE MIDDLE EOCENE GOSPORT SAND OF CLAIBORNE, 
MONROE COUNTY, ALABAMA 

In 1892 G. F. Harris presented to the British Museum a small 
collection of fish remains, chiefly sharks' teeth, from the "Middle 
Eocene of Claiborne" ui a matrix of red sand. As no species seem to 
have been recorded from this formation and locality, the following 
notes are of interest. 

Odontaspis niacrota (Agassiz) 

Four typical teeth (P.30219-22). 

The species has already been recf)rded by Eeriche ( 1942, p. 
44). 



148 Bulletin 156 



Odontaspis cf. rutoti (Winkler) 

A single tooth (P. 30218) clearly denotes the presence of a 
second species of Odontaspis. This is a small upright tooth, 1 cm. 
high and the same across the roots. The enamel is smooth on both 
faces, except for fine puckering at the base of the outer face, where 
the base is straight and tends to overhang the root. The inner 
face of the root is strongly protuberant. It most resembles a lower 
posterior lateral of 0. rutoti but is not typical. 

Negaprion gibbesi (A. S. Woodward) gllinorel (Leriche) 

There are five small teeth with weathered roots (P.30295-9) 
p. 142 (Supra). 

Fhjsodon secundns (Winkler) 

A single tooth with the tip of the crown missing (P. 30292) 
compares readily with the upper posterior lateral teeth of the larger 
specimens of this species which are generally recorded as P.tertius 
(Winkler). 

(tiileorhinus recticonus (Winkler) cluiborneiisis, n.subsp 

A single perfect tooth (P.30294, Text fig. 97, PI. 11, fig. 11) 
much resembles the European form with its nearly upright and 
smooth crown and more or less symmetrically disposed denticles 
along the base. But the denticles are much smaller and more num- 
erous, seven in front and six behind. In the typical form three and 
four are the common number (see Leriche, 1905, pi. viii, figs. 44- 
53). It is an anterior lateral tooth, probably from the upper jaw. 

Diagnosis. — A subspecies of G. recticonus with smaller and more 
numerous denticles, seven in front and six behind. 

Holotype. — An : upper anterior lateral tooth (P.30294, 1 ext 
fig. 97, PI.' 11, fig. 11). 

(•aleorhiiiiis cf. falconer! (White) 

A single specimen with imperfect base (P. 30293) much re- 
sembles the Nigerian Lutetian form. It is 1.1 cm. long and has a 
smooth-edged, backwardly directed triangular crown. There are 
small incipient crenulations in front and two or more sharp, large 
triangular denticles behind. 



Eocene Fishes of Alabama: White 149 



l.iitii.nus iiifrniK'dius (Kokeiii. 

A single otolith (P.6827) belongs to Koken's species, O. 
{Sciaenidarum) intermedins which Mr. Stinton informs me belongs 
to a Lutianus. 

Summary. — 

Odontaspis macrota (Agassiz) 

O.cLrutoti (Winkler) 

Negaprion gibbesi (A. S. Woodward) gilmorei (Leriche) 

Physodon secundus (Winkler) 

Galeorhinus recticonus (Winkler) claibornensis, n.subsp. 

G.cLfalconeri (White) 

Lutianus intermedins (Koken) 

This is a typical Eocene assemblage. N egaprion gibbesi gil- 
morei is a Jackson form in Clarke County, and O.rutoti, if the 
identification is correct, is a lower Eocene species in Europe. The 
remainder are noncommittal. 

REFERENCES 
Aranilxturg:, ('. 

1952. Lis Irrtrbres fossilrs drs giscments de Phosphates. {Maroc-Algfrir- 
Tunisie). Notes et Mem. Div. Mines Geol., Serv. Geol. Maroc, vol. 92. 

Itigelon, H. II. and Sehroeder, W. ( ". 

1948. Fishes of the Western North Atlantic, Sears Foundation for 
Marine Research, Mem., No. 1, part 1, pp. 59-546. 

("asier, K. 

1946. La Faune ichthyulugujue Jc I'Y presien <//■ la Brlgique. Mus. roy. 
Hist. Nat. Belgifjiie, Mem., vol. 104. 

Cooke, ('. W. 

1926. The Cenozoic formations. In Adams, G.I., and others. Geology of 
Alabama, Special Report, No. 14, pp. 252-297. 

Dames, >V. 

1883. i'brr einr tertidre H'irbrlthierfauna von Jrr ivrstlichen InsrI des 
Birkrt-el-Qurun im Fajum (.Legypten). Sitzungsb. k. Preuss. Akad. 
Wiss., Berlin, 1883, part 6, pp. 129-153. 

Ka still a II, ('. K. 

\9QA. Pisces. Miocene. Maryland Oeol. Surv., pp. 71-93. 

Fowler, H. W. 

1911. .7 description of the Fossil fish remains of the Cretaceous, Eocene 
and Miocene formations of S' cu; Jersey. Geol. Surv. New Jersey, Bull., 
Tol. 4. 



150 Bulletin 156 



Gibbes, R, W. 

1849. Monograph of fossil Squalidae of the United States. Acad. Nat. Sci 
Philadelphia, Jour., pp. 139-147, 191-206. 

Hay, 0. P. 

1902. Bibliography and catalogue of the fossil Vertebrata of North 
America. U. S. Geol. Surv., Bull., vol. 179. 

Leriche, M. 

1905. Les Poissons eocenes de la Belgique. Mus. roy. Hist. Nat. Belgique, 
Mem., vol. 3. 

1906. Contributions a I'etudc des Poissons fossiles du Nord de la France 
et des Regions voisines. Soc. Geol. Nord. Lille, Mem., vol. 5. 

1909. Note sur des Poissons paleocenes et eocenes des Environs de Reims 
{Marne). Ann. Soc. Geol. Nord, vol. 37 (1908). 

1910. Les Poissons oligocenes de la Belgique. Mus. roy. Hist, Nat. Belgique, 
Mem., vol. 5. 

1938. Contributions a I '£tude des poissons fossiles des pays riverains 
de la Mediterranec americainc {Venezuela, Trinite, Antilles, Mexique). 
Soc. Paleont. Suisse, Mem., vol. 61. 

1942. Contributions a I 'Etude des Faunes ichthyologiques marines des 
Faunes tertiaires de la Plaine Cotierc Atlantique et du Centre des 
Etats-Unis. La Synchronismc des Formations tertiaires des deux cotes 
de I'Atlantique. Soc. Geol. France, Mem., N.S., vol. 45. 

Lyell, C. 

1846. On the neiver deposits of the southern states of North America. 
Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. London, vol. 2, pp. 405-410. 

Morton, S. G. 

1834. Synopsis of the organic remains of the Cretaceous group of the 
United States. Philadelphia. 

Miiller, J. and Henle, J. 

1841. Systematische Beschrcibung dcr Plagiostomcn. Berlin. 

Smith, E. A., and others 

1894. Report on the geology of the Coastal Plain of Alabama. Geol. Surv. 
Alabama. 

Stromer, E. 

1905. Die Fischreste des mittleren und obcren Eocans von Aegyften. 
Beitr. Paleont. u. Geol. Osterr.-Ungarns, vol. 18, pp. 163-192. 

White, E. I. 

1926. Eocene fishes from Nigeria. Geol. Surv. Nigeria, Bull., No, 10. 

Woodward, A. S. 

1889. Catalogue of the fossil fishes in the British Museum [Natural His- 
tory). Part I. Elasmobranchii. 

1891. Notes on some fish-remains from the loiver Tertiary and Upper 
Cretaceous of Belgium, collected by Monsieur A. Ilouzeau de Lchaie. 
Geol. Mag., (3), vol. 8, pp. 104-114. 

1899. Notes on the teeth of sharks and skates from the English Eocene 
formations. Proc. Geol. Assoc, vol. 16, pp. 1-14. 

1922. Note on fish remains. In R. C. Wilson, and others, Geol. Surv. 
Nigeria, Bull., No. 2, pp. 62-63. 



PLAir. 



152 ]3ULLKTIN 156 

I'isurc Page 

Explanation of Plate 11 

1. Scjiiorliimis enniskilleiii, n. sp 12S 

Right upper anterior tooth. Holotype (P. 3063). Upper Eocene, 

Clarice County, Alabama. 

2. Odontaspis inalletiana, n. sp 130 

Imperfect left upper anterior lateral tooth. (P. 30242). Upper 
Eocene, Clarke County, Alabama. 

3. Odontaspis inalletiana, n. sp 130 

Left upper lateral tooth. Holotype (P.30243). Upper Eocene, 

Clarke County, Alabama. 

4. Heniipristis wjattdurliami, n. sp 13S 

Right upper lateral tooth. Holotype (P.30521). Upper Eocene, 
Clarke County, Alabama. 

5. Vlopias latidens (Lerichej alabaniensis, n. subsp 132 

Right upper anterior tooth. Holotype {P.30853). Upper Eocene, 

Clarke County, Alabama. 

fi. Alopias latidens (Leriche) alabaniensis, n. subsp 132 

Left lower lateral tooth. (P.30860). Upper Eocene, Clarke County, 
Alabama. 

7. Hypoprion greyeg-ertoni, n. sp 137 

Right upper lateral tooth. Holotype (P. 30529). Upper Eocene, 

Clarke County, Alabama. 

8. Aloi>ias latidens (Leriche) earolinensis, n. subsp 133 

Upper lateral tooth. Holotype (P. 5747c). Phosphates, South Caro- 
lina. 

!». Negraprion g-ibUesi (A.S.Woodward) typical form 139 

Left upper lateral tooth. Lectotype (P. 31419). Phosphates, South 
Carolina. 

10. Neg-aprion g-ibl>esi (A.S.Woodward) g-ilniorei (Leriche) 13!) 

Exceptionally large right upper lateral tooth. (P.31439). Upper 

Eocene, Clarke County, Alabama. 

11. (lialeorhinus reoticonus (Winkler) elaibornensis, n. subsp MS 

Upper anterior lateral tooth. Holotype (P. 30294). Middle Eocene, 

Monroe County, Alabama. 

12. (ialeocerdo claikensis, n. sp \4^^ 

.\nterior tooth. Holotype (P. 30501). Upper Eocene, Claike County, 

Alabama. 

i:',. <ialeoeerdo claikensis, n. sp ll.'"> 

Lateral tooth, inner face. (P. 30467). Upper Eocene, Clarke County, 
Alabama. 

14. (Jaleocerdo clarkensis, n. sp 14n 

Posterior lateral tooth. (P. 30502). Upper Eocene, Clarke County, 
Alabama. 

.Mi liguies \2 



Bull. Amer. Paleont., Vol. 36 



Plate 11 






14 



XXII. (\os. 73-76). 356 pp., 31 pis :. 9.00 

Paleozoic Paleontology and Tertiary Foraminifera. 

XXIII. (Nos. 77-79). 251 pp., 35 pis 7.00 

Corals, Cretaceous microfauna and biography of Con- 
rad. 

XXIV. (Xos. 80-87). 334 pp., 27 pis 9.00 

Mainlv Paleozoic faunas and Tertiary Moilusca. 

XXV. (Nos. S.s.J)4H). 306 pp., 30 pis H.OO 

Paleozoic fossils of Ontario, Oklahoma and Colombia, 
Mesozoic echinoids, California Pleistocene and Mary- 
land Miocene niollusks. 

XXVI. (Nos. 95-100). 420 pp., 58 pis 10.00 

Florida Recent marine shells, Texas Cretaceous fos- 
sils, Cuban and Peruvian Cretaceous, Peruvian Eo- 
gene corals, and geology and paleontology of Ecua- 
dor. 

XXVII. (>os. 101-108). 376 pp., 36 pis 9.50 

Tertiary Moilusca, Paleozoic cephalopoda, Devonian 
fish and Paleozoic geology and fossils of Venezuela. 

XXTIII. (Nos. 109-114). 412 pp., 54 pis 9.75 

Paleozoic cephalopods, Devonian of Idaho, Cretaceous 
and Eocene mollusks, Cuban and Venezuelan forams. 

XXIX. (Nos. li:..116). 73S pp.. 52 pis 13.00 

Bowden forams and Ordovician cephalopods. 

XXX. (No. 117). .")63 pp.. 65 pis 12.00 

Jackson Eocene mollusks. 

XXXI. (Nos. 118-128). 458 pp.. 27 pis 10.00 

Venezuelan and California niollusks, Chemung and 
Pennsylvanian crinoids, Cypraeidae, Cretaceous, 
Miocene and Recent corals, Cuban and Floridian 
forams, and Cuban fossil localities. 

XXXII. (Nos. vi^.nn). 294 pp.. 39 pis x s.50 

Silurian cephalopods, crinoid studies. Tertiary forams, 
and Mytilarca. ^ , 

XXXIII. (Nos. l.'{4-ir>J)). 448 pi^., 51 pis. . lluo 

Devonian annelids, ^fertiary mollusks, Ecuadoran 
stratigraphy and paleontology. 

XXXIV. (Nos. 140.14o). 400 pp., 19 pis 9.00 

Trinidad Globigerinidae, Ordovician Enopleura, Tas- 
manian Ordovician cephalopods and Tennessee Or- 
dovician ostracods, and conularid bibliography. 

XXXV. (Nos. 14«.ir)4). 386 pp., 31 pis. 10. dO 

G. D. Harris memorial, camerinid and Georgia Paleo- 
cene Foraminifera, South American Paleozoics, Aus- 
tralian Ordovician cephalopods. California Pleisto- 
cene Eulimidae, Volutidae, Cardiidae, and Devrmian 
ostracods from Iowa. 
XXXTI. (Nos. l.V), 1,',6). 152 pp., 11 pis. 1 ; ' 

Globotruncana in Colombi;i. Eocene iisli 

Palaeontographica Americana 

Volnme I. (Nos. 1-5). 519 pp., 75 pis. 

Monographs of Areas, Lutetia, rudistids and venerids. 

II. (Nos. 0-12). 531 pp.. 37 pis 20. (Mi 

Heliophyllum halli, Tertiary turrids, Neocene Spon- 
dyli, Paleozoic cephalopods, Tertiary Fasciolarias 
and Paleozoic and Recent Hexactinelllda. 

III. (Nos. i:{.25). ,^)13 pp., 61 pl.s 20.00 

Paleozoic cephalopod structure and phylogeny. Paleo- 
zoic siphonophores, Busycon, Devonian fish studies, 
gastropod studies. Carboniferous crinoids. Creta- 
ceous jellyfish, Platystrophiq. and Venericardia. 



Condensed Table of Contents of BullAins of American 
Paleontology and Palaeontographica Americana 

bulletins of AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY 



Yolome I. 
II. 

III. 

IV. 

Y. 

YI. 

YIII. 

IX. 

X. 

XI. 

XII. 

XIII. 
XIY. 

XY. 

XYI. 

XYII. 

XYin. 

XIX. 

XX. 

XXI. 



>'os. 1-5). 354 pp. 32 pis. Mainly Tertiary Mollusca. 
Nos. 6-10). 347 pp., 23 pis. 

Tertiary Mollusca and Foraminifera, Paleozoic faunas. 
Nos. 11-15). 402 pp., 29 pis. 

Tertiary Mollusca and Paleozoic sections and faunas. 
Nos. 16-21). 161 pp., 26 pis 7.00 

Mainly Tertiary Mollusca and Paleozoic sections and 

faunas. 
Nos. 22-30). 437 pp., 68 pis 11.00 

Tertiary fossils mainly Santo Domingan, Mesozoic and 
Paleozoic fossils. 
No. 31). 268 pp., 59 pis ..-„,.-,.._ 10.00 

Claibornian Eocene pelecypods. * 
No. 32). 730 pp., 99 pis. 13.00 

Claibornian Eocene scaphopods, gastropods, and 

cephalopods. 
Nos. 33-36). 357 pp., 15 pis 9.00 

Mainly Tertiary Mollusca. 
Nos. 37-39). 462 pp., 35 pis 11.00 

Tertiary Mollusca mainly from Costa Rica. 
Nos. 40-42). 382 pp., 54 pis 11.00 

Tertiary forams and mollusks mainly from Trinidad 
and Paleozoic fossils. 
Nos. 43-46). 272 pp., 41 pis 9.00 

Tertiary, Mesozoic and Paleozoic fossils mainly from 

Venezuela. 
Nos. 47-48). 494 pp., 8 pis 10.00 

Venezuela and Trinidad forams and Mesozoic inverte- 
brate bibliography. 
Nos. 49-50). 264 pp., 47 pis 8.00 

Venezuelan Tertiary Mollusca and Tertiary Mammalia. 
Nos. 51-54). 306 pp., 44 pis 10.00 

Mexican Tertiary forams and Tertiary mollusks of 
Peru and Colombia. 
Nos. 55-58). 314 pp., 80 pis 10.00 

Mainly Ecuadoran, Peruvian and Mexican Tertiary 
forams and mollusks and Paleozoic fossils. 
Nos. 59-61). 140 pp., 48 pis 5.00 

Venezuela and Trinidad Tertiary Mollusca. 
Nos. 62-63). 283 pp., 33 pis 8.00 

Peruvian Tertiary Mollusca. 
Nos. 64-67). 286 pp., 29 pis. 8.00 

Mainly Tertiary Mollusca and Cretaceous corals. 
No. 68). 272 pp., 24 pis 8.00 

Tertiary Paleontology, Peru. 
Nos. 69-70C). 266 pp., 26 pis 8.00 

Cretaceous and Tertiary Paleontology of Peru and 
Cuba. 
Nos. 71-72). 321 pp., 12 pis 8.50 

Paleozoic Paleontology and Stratigraphy. 



-c 



BULLETINS 

OF 

AMERICAN 
PALEONTOLOGY 



VOL. XXXVI 



FEB "10 1956 



f Li(,, Kv.: 1 



NUMBER 157 



1956 



Paleontological Research Institution 

Ithaca, New York 

U. S. A. 



PALEONTOLOGIGAL RESEARCH INSTITUTION 

1954-55 

President Ralph A. Liddle 

Vice-President Solomon C. Hollister 

Secretary-Treasurer Rebecca S. Harris 

Director Katherine V. W. Palmer 

Counsel Armand L. Adams 

• 

Trustees 

Kenneth E. Caster (1954-1960) Katherine V. W. Palmer (Life) 

W. Storrs Cole (1952-58) Ralph A, Liddle (1950-56) 

Winifred Coloring (1955-1961) Axel A. Olsson (Life) 

Rebecca S. Harris (Life) Norman E. Weisbord (1951-57) 

Solomon C. Hollister (1953-59) 



BULLETINS OF AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY 

and 
PALAEONTOGRAPHICA AMERICANA 

Katherine V, W. Palmer, Editor 
Lempi H. Sincebaugh, Secretary 

Editorial Board 
Kenneth E. Caster G. Winston Sinclair 



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BULLETINS 
OF 
AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY 



Vol. 36 



No. 157 



NEW FOSSILS FROM THE CANADIAN-CHAZYAN 
(ORDOVICIAN) HIATUS IN TENNESSEE 

Kenneth E. Caster 

and 

H. K. Brooks 

University of Cincinnati 



January 25, 1956 



Paleontological Research Institution 
Ithaca, New York, U.S.A. 



Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: G S 56-300 




Printed in the United States of America 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Abstract 157 

Introduction 157 

Stratigraphy and origin of the deposit 159 

Preservation and paleoecology 163 

Biology 164 

Description of the merostome 164 

System a tics 171 

The merostome 171 

Chasmataspida, new order 174 

Chasmataspidae, new family 176 

Chasmataspis, new genus 176 

Chasmataspis laurrncii, new species 176 

Description of the crustacean 179 

Crustacean systematics 180 

Douglasocaridae, new family C. 181 

Douglasocaris, new genus 182 

Douylasoraris (ollinsr, new species 1S3 

Problematica 183 

Crstites mirahilis, new genus, new species 183 

References cited . J84 

P'ates J87 

Text figure A: Reconstructions of Chasmataspis laurrncii and 

Douglasocaris collinsi 2^7 

Text figure B: Examples of Xiphosura 275 



157 



NEW FOSSILS FROM THE CANADIAN-CHAZYAN 

(ORDOVICIAN) HIATUS IN TENNESSEE 

Kenneth E. Caster 

and 

H. K. Brooks 

University of Cincinnati 

ABSTRACT 

A new Lower Ordovician fauna from marine sediments deposited in a 
depression on the unconformity of the Canadian-Chazyan hiatus in Tennessee 
is described. Most abundant are the remains of Cltasmataspis Innrcncii, n. 
genus, n. species, a merostomaceous arachnomorph for which tlie new order 
Chasmataspida and new family Chasmataspidae are required; a ne\v bi\alved 
crustacean, Dout/lasnraris collinsi, n. genus, n. species, shows sufficient affini- 
ties to the Phyllocarida to be tentatively assigned to this order, however, a new 
family, Douglasocaridae is required to accomodate it. A trail, problematic 
castings and a new foliaceous ctenophoran-like organism, Crsfilis iii'irahilis, 
n. form-genus and n. species, complete the assemblage. 

INTRODUCTION 

An unusual acciunulation of sedunent, in part volcanic, was 
discovered in the excavation for the foundation of the southeast 
abutment of Douglas Dam on the French Broad River, Sevier 
County, Tennessee, hy the geologist of the Tennessee V^alley Au- 
thority in 1942. 

The organic remains of the deposit were at first interpreted by 
governmental specialists in Cambrian paleontology as pertaining to 
that period. The mistake is quite understandable for the overall 
aspect is highly reminiscent of certain elements of the famous Biu- 
gess shale deposit of the British Columbia Middle Cambrian. What 
seemed at first to be an aglaspid, a lunuiid buckler, and an on\ cho- 
phoran ( Aysheaia) proto-arthropod, materialized later as parts of 
a single organism of merostomaceous affmities but fundamentally 
new. The new crustacean bears a superficial resemblance to Biir- 
^^essia, a characteristic pseudocrustacean of the Burgess faima. 

Since the sediments were different from the country rock, and 
the fossils were apparently of Cambrian age, the logical conclusion 
was that the deposit had been faidted into its present position in the 
Ordovician sequence. Detailed field studies proved that these sedi- 
ments could not be of Cambrian age. They occur in a depression on 
the Cana(lian-Cha/\- unconformit\ and thus represent an interval 



158 Bulletin 157 



of time and volcanic activity not previously recorded. The fossil 
arthropods are new and unique and not closely related to the Cam- 
brian forms. Both the merostome and the crustacean belong to 
phyletic races hitherto unknown. 

In addition to his regular duties as resident geologist on the 
Douglas Dam project, Mr. Robert Laurence spent many hours 
studying and collecting from the newly discovered deposit. The 
information and specimens he acquired are invaluable since the dam 
now completely covers it. At the invitation of Mr. Laurence, Dr. 
R. Lee Collins visited the excavation soon after the significance of 
the rocks and fossils uncovered was recognized. Dr. Collins removed 
several hundred pounds of blocks of the fossiliferous zone. These 
blocks have subsequently yielded some of the most significant speci- 
mens discovered. After the untimely death of Dr. Collins, H. K. 
Brooks finished the search for fossils in the few remaining blocks 
and discovered the only completely articulated fossil merostome and 
a problematic specimen resembling a ctenophoran. 

In recent years, the authors have visited the locality, but only 
blocks excavated and used as fill and rip-rap are now accessible. 
Upon being exposed to the elements, the fossiliferous sediments 
weathered rapidly. Only a few scraps can now be collected above 
the dam when the lake is low. Blocks of rock from the unfossili- 
ferous zones are still common. 

Before the first articulated specimens were discovered, K. E. 
Caster had, with the assistance of Anneliese Caster, pieced 
together the fragments of the merostome into a creature which was 
unlike anything known. Subsequently, articulated specimens have 
proven their early restoration to be essentially correct. 

Dr. Leif St0rmer has contributed to the study through informa- 
tion and suggestions freely offered in correspondence concerning the 
nature of the new merostome, however, the taxonomy here pre- 
sented is the responsibility of the authors. Dr. John W. Wells kindly 
provided information and bibliographic reference on the only pre- 
viously reported ctenophoran. 

With the exception of six specimens belonging to the University 
of Cincinnati Museum, all of the type material has been placed in 
the collection of the United States National Museum. The collection 
was made available through the courtesy of Dr. G. Arthur Cooper, 



Tennessee Ordovician Fckssm.s: Castir & Brooks 159 



Curator of Invertebrate Paleontology and Paleobotany. 

Tbe cost of tbe original illustrations and plates bas been met 
bv tbe Faber Fund for Paleontologic Researcb at tbe University of 
Cincinnati Museum and research fund from tbe Graduate Scbool of 
Arts and Science of tbe University of Cincinnati. 

Rosann Brooks generously gave assistance with tbe chores in 
the preparation of this paper. Tbe authors especially acknowledge 
her contribution in tbe typing of prebnunary and final copies of tbe 
manuscript. 

STRATIGRAPHY AND ORIGIN OF DEPOSIT 

The general description of tbe occurrence and nature of the 
deposit presented below is based largely on tbe published field 
obser\'ations of Laurence (1944). Tbe original rock body is of 
limited extent. It is about 40 by 90 feet in plan and has a known 
thickness oi 120 feet. The upper unit of the Knox dolomite (Mascot 
of Canadian age) surrounds and underlies it. The superimposed 
Lenoir limestone (Chazyan) has been removed by recent erosion 
from immediately over tbe deposit. An unconformity, believed to 
represent a considerable hiatus, separates the Knox dolomite and 
the Lenoir limestone throughout this region.^ 

The lithology of the deposit contrasts with that of the sur- 
rounding dolomite with which it bas an irregular contact. Tbe 
lateral surface of contact is approximately at right angles to tbe 
bedding of the Knox. To distinguish it, Laurence bas termed these 
rocks the "33 formation" or the "33 beds" from tbe abutment exca- 
vation in which they were encountered. 

Laurence recognized three units of the "33 formation." The 
upper unit designated as Unit A consists of thin-bedded, slabby 
reworked volcanic ash and carbonates (40 to 60^' insolubles) with 



^ A detailed study of the Knox (Mascot) dolomite — Lenoir limestone con- 
tact along the \vest shore of Douglas Lake north of the dam was made by the 
late Josiah Bridge. In a pothumous paper, Bridge (1955) describes other 
sinklike depressions which are filled with a liasal niblile of dolomite and chert 
boulders and blocks o\erlain by a black, fine-grained, thin bedded dolomite 
which grades upward into the typical Lenoir. No volcanics are recognized. 
These basal sediments are termed the Douglas Lake member of the Lenoir 
formation. The dark, dolomitic upper unit of this member is correlated to the 
unit at the top of the accumulation exposed in the exca\ation for Douglas l^am 
which was designated as Unit A of the "33 formation" by Laurence. 



160 Bulletin 157 



green shale partings. This unit is variable in nature, but for the 
most part it is made up of beds 1/8 to 3/4 of an inch in thickness. 
The upper surfaces of some of the slabby layers are rippled and 
some of the surfaces have mud cracks and rill scour marks. The 
ripple marks are symmetrical with a distance between crests of from 
five to seven inches. Large, subrounded, erratic dolomite boulders 
are a curious feature of these beds. According to Laurence, this unit 
is at least 35 feet thick. 

Underlying is a sequence of laminated, massive deposits. Con- 
centrations of organic material at the top of varvelike graded beds 
emphasize the laminated appearance. There are 1 to 20 laminations 
per inch. This lithologic member, designated as Unit B, does not 
have shale partings. It is massive when fresh but weathers rapidly. 
The weathered material splits readily at the carbonaceous plane at 
the top of each "varve." 

Layers and lenses of conglomerate and breccia are recurrent 
throughout this unit. These beds and lenses, usually 1/8 to 2 inches 
in thickness, contain angular to subrounded pebbles up to 7.Vi 
inches in diameter. Most of the graded beds have a basal zone of 
angular pyroclastic granules. The breccia fragments are predomin- 
ately of volcanic origin whereas the subrounded pebbles are of a 
wide variety of lithologic types, some unknown in the vicinity. 

In many places the laminations of this unit have been con- 
torted by the soft rock deformational processes of sediment flowage 
and slumpmg. Laurence (1944, fig. 6A and 6B) figured contorted 
laminations between undisturbed beds and an angular unconformity 
within a sequence of conglomeratic beds. 

Unit C, stratigraphicall}' the lowest member, is composed of 
massive, blocky, fine-grained, pyroclastics without laminations. 
Evidences of reworking of these sediments by currents are absent. 
The upper 25 feet of this unit are composed of soft, gray and 
greenish-gray pyroclastics. Below is a hard, homogenous, white 
siliceous rock grading laterally into materials resembling the over- 
lying zone. The upper zone and the materials near the contact with 
the country rock may represent an alteration product. There is a 
clean contact with the Knox dolomite at the base and no accumula- 
tion of breccia or conglomerate. The total thickness of Unit C is 
about 65 feet. 



Tennessee Ordovician Fossils: Casikk &: Brooks 161 



LiiLirciKV ( 1944, p. 244) described the structure of the deposit 
as "svnchnal, with dips as high as 75° at the north and south 
boundaries . . . Ihe contact with the adjacent dolomite is nearly 
\ertical at the south and west borders. At the north and east this 
contact dips 70"^ toward the enclosed deposit in the upper part, but 
60 --85" away from it at the bottom . . . Drilling . . . has shown 
that the deposit has a definite bottom contact with about 8 feet of 
relief . . . with a local depression in this floor extending . . . (down- 
ward 13 feet) in the northeast end of the deposit." The country 
rocks are dipping about 20" to the southeast. 

The origin of this deposit stratigraphically between the Knox 
dolomite and the Lenoir limestone was interpreted by Laurence as 
an accumulation in a cenote-like sinkhole on a land surface now 
represented by the unconformity marking the Canadian-Chazyan 
hiatus (1944, p. 246-247). "During eruption of a volcano, probably 
at a moderate distance to the east, a shower of fine volcanic ash 
fell in this area, and much of it accumulated in the sink hole, form- 
ing the thick series of Unit C. As the hole filled and the supply of 
volcanic ash was reduced, some calcareous and argillaceous sedi- 
ments were also deposited. In this shallow water (within the sink 
hole) certain types of invertebrate life thrived, but fossils were 
preserved only in the fetid muds now represented by the carbon- 
aceous laminations. Conglomerate lenses were formed during times 
cf torrential runoff. 1 his period of deposition was followed by fur- 
ther erosion, during which all the beds of the same age as the '33 
formation' were removed, except the small portions protected in 
the deep depressions. This was followed by submergence and re- 
newed deposition of ordinary calcareous sediments." 

It is probable in Pre-Chazyan time a basin of deposition of 
considerable depth but of limited areal extent was produced by 
solution of the Knox dolomite. Whether subareal or submarine 
cannot be proven. It would appear to us that the primary sedimen- 
tary features of the upper two units and the lack of a basal rubble 
are not in conformity with the sink hole interpretation. 

The depression on the Canadian-Chazyan unconformity could 
represent the orifice of a large submarine spring fed by a channel 
or system of channels from the nearby land to the southeast. During 
the deposition of the Chazyan strata the sea is believed to have 



162 Bulletin 157 



transgressed to the southeast in this area. If disturbances accom- 
panying a volcanic eruption should stop such a spring from flowing, 
a clean-bottomed depression without the typical accumulation of 
sink hole rubble would exist for the reception of the volcanic sedi- 
ments. Comparable recent submarine springs occur at many places 
off the west coast of Florida. 

The primary features of deposition of the "33 formation" 
would seem to oppose the sink hole hypothesis. The uniformity of 
texture, thickness of the individual beds and "varves," and the 
absense of significant facies change toward the margins of the body 
are not the characteristics of sediments dumped into a hole by 
terrestrial surface wash. Not only is it inconceivable that ripple 
marks with lengths of from 5 to 7 inches from crest to crest could 
have formed within a cenote pool, but it is unlikely that scour rill 
marks could be formed under these conditions. 

Fine-grained sedimentary materials are subject to considerable 
compaction, sometimes up to 80° c, through reorientation of particles 
and expulsion of interstitial water. Slickensides at the contact of 
the "33 beds" with the Knox dolomite may be the result of differ- 
ential compaction. This contact also proves quite conclusively that 
the Knox dolomite was consolidated previous to the origin of the 
cavity and the pyroclastic deposit. The synclinal structure of the 
"33 beds" appears to be due to contemporaneous and subsequent 
movement resulting from differential compaction. For a discussion 
of the reasons why these bordering slickensides cannot be due to 
faulting, see Laurence's (1944) paper. 

The sedimentary environment of the "33 beds" would appear 
to have been on a wave-cut terrace in a sedimentary basin in open 
connection with the advancing Chazy episea. On this terrace erosion 
and sedimentary bypassing were dominant over deposition. Prob- 
ably unit C represents an accumulation of volcanic ash in the orifice 
of a spring, the flowage of which was disrupted by diastrophic 
movements accompanying the eruption. As these sediments were 
slowly compacted, volcanic ash and other sediments being reworked 
by waves, tides, and other currents on the terrace were carried into 
the slight depression on the sea floor thus formed. A considerable 
thickness of sediments representing accumulation in a depression 
slightly below the surrounding area could be deposited in this way. 



Tennessee Oruomcian Fossils: Caster & Brooks 163 



This interpretation is in accordance with the presence of hirge 
rijiple marks, scour marks, mutl cracks, the regiihinty ot the beddmg, 
and the hiteral uniformity of the beds. Slumping and sediment 
flowage would be expected to occur in the upper aqueous layers of 
a deposit sinking into a deep depression because of compaction of 
the underlying part of sedimentary body slumping, scour, and sub- 
sequent deposition would also account for the angular unconformity 
within a conglomeratic zone of Unit B. 



PRESERVATION AND PALEOECOLOGY 

The fossils of the "33 beds" comprise a merostome, a crus- 
tacean, and problematica. All were collected from the "varve beds" 
of Unit B and most were found in the upper eight feet of this unit. 
Most of the specimens are preserved as compressions on planes 
between graded beds or within the fine-graded, calcarous sediments 
at the top of each varve. The superimposed coarse sediments of the 
succeeding graded bed are usually in contact with the specimens. 

The arthropod fossils have retained some relief. The best speci- 
mens of the merostome are impressions of the details of the exoskele- 
tal parts. All specimens have been deformed by compaction of the 
matrix. Dorsal and ventral surfaces of some of the merostome re- 
mains are now in the same general plane. Differential movement 
within the sediments has resulted in considerable disfiguration of 
many of the fossils. 

No trace of sulphides of iron is present in the sediments, and 
it is, therefore, unlikely that the dark fossiliferous layers at the top 
of each graded bed represent deposition under fetid conditions as 
was suggested by Laurence. Ihc dark zones at the top of the graded 
beds of Unit B are composed of tine-grained carbonates and 
pyroclastics. Scraps and fragments of altered organic material 
are present in these zones in considerable abundance and impart 
the dark color. These organic remains seem to represent triturated 
chitinous skeletons of arthropods and fragments of plants winnowed 
nito the depression of accumulation between periods of sediment 
influx. 



164 Bulletin 157 



Most of the merostome fossils are sclerites of disarticulated 
individuals. The Crustacea are articulated, but details of the exo- 
skeleton are not well preserved. It is believed that these remains 
represent exuviae and the skeletons of cadavers carried by currents 
from the surrounding area into the depression. The remains were 
borne to the site during the quiescent intervals between periods of 
strong currents which transported the coarse elastics of the basal 
portions of the graded beds. 

The limited number of forms in the biota, i.e., vagrant meros- 
tomes and Crustacea, problematical plant (or ctenophoran), algae 
(or fecal castings of an animal) and a trail, together with the ab- 
sence of benthonic shell-bearers is probably due to the instability 
of the substratum of shifting volcanic ash on the broad, shallow 
wave eroded terrace. The bottom may even have been intermittent- 
ly exposed at low tide. Absence of a fauna of typical marine animals 
with calcareous shells should never be construed as proof of a non- 
marine environment of deposition. Positive evidence must be the 
basis of scientific reasoning. All things considered, it is believed the 
arthropods found in this deposit were marine animals. 

BIOLOGY 

DESCRIPTION OF THE MEROSTOME 

Material. — Terms employed in describing the merostome are 
those in common usage (St0rmer,1934A). The major body divisions, 
or tagmata, of merostomes are: prosoma (cephalothorax), preabdo- 
men, and postabdomen. A telson is born at the posterior extremit3^ 

This study is based on all of the known specimens. One poorly 
preserved individual was completely articulated (counterparts, Plate 
14, fig. 1 S; Plate 15, fig. 1 S); one \\ ell-preserved specimen lacks 
only the telson (counterparts, Plate 12, fig. 1 S; Plate 13, fig. IS); 
and one consists of the prosoma and a portion of the preabdomen 
(Plate 12, fig. 2 S). '1 his latter was the first specimen to be recov- 
ered which showed articulation at the tagmata, and in the absence 
of the postabdomen is very limuloid in appearance. Most of the 
specimens are pieces of disarticulated or partially articulated skele- 
tons. All of the specimens seem to belong to one species. 

Most of the counterparts have been separated, therefore, the 



Iknnksskk Ordon iciAN Kdssii.s: Casikr \ Brooks 165 

iuiihIhm- (if incoinplctc spcciniviis listed is onix ;in iipproxiiiiation. 
We have examined : 

11 dorsal shields of the prosoiiia 

3 specimens of appendages 

50 pieces of the dorsal shield of the preabdomen 

49 specimens of the ventral surface of the preabdomen 

12 isolated postabdommal sclcrites 

4 articidated postabdommal tagmata 
2 postabdomens with attached telson 
9 telsons 

'Morphology . — The remains of the exoskeleton are carbonized, 
and there is no trace of it having been calcareously impregnated 
during life. A chitinous exoskeleton armor covered the dorsal sur- 
face of the prosoma, both surfaces of the preabdomen and encased 
the metameres and telson of the postabdomcn. The ventral surface 
of the prosoma is unknown except for a narrow marginal doublour. 
The detached appendages are prosomal and were affixed no doubt 
arf)und the mouth. 1 he chitinous mtegument on the ventral surface 
of the preabdomen was thinner than that of the dorsal surface. 

The prosoma is approximatelv semicircular with the lateral 
angles developed into genal spmes. Because compression has spread 
the dorsal shields, the exact amount of origmal dorsal archmg is 
unknown. .Assuming that the amount of spreading is proportional 
to the amount of original vaulting and that the lateral edges of the 
genal spines were probably originally approximately parallel to the 
axis of the animal, then the present difference (between 8 and 18 ) 
IS due to greater spreading of the posterior portion ot the shield 
than at the anterior. If this can be used as a criterion, the dorsal 
shield was moderately arched with maximum vault at the posterior. 

No distinct rachus, i.e., medial raised axis, is present on the 
dorsal shield. .A portion of the inner ophthalmic area is devoid of 
tuberosity and may be designated as a glabella, i.e.. the e(iuivalent 
of the cardiac lobe of most .xiphosurans. 

A large node at the anterior apex of the glabellar area appears 
to have been the site of a pair of medial ocelli. This bilaterally 
symetncal node has its greatest development near the posterior and 
resembles a slightly pendant maiden's breast sans the nipple. 1 wo 



166 Bulletin 157 



symetrically located, small, elliptical areas, believed to have been 
the sites of ocelli, are present on either side of the posterior crest. 
The nonvisual surface is covered with small granules. 

A pair of lateral ocular nodes are subcentrally located on the 
dorsal shield slightly forward to the medial node. The visual sur- 
faces are on the precipitous antero-lateral surfaces of prominent 
palprebral-like nodes raised above the general contour of the pros- 
oma. The visual surfaces are not preserved but were no doubt com- 
pound. The nonvisual surfaces of the nodes are covered by closely 
spaced excresences which increase in size from granules to small 
tubercles near the base. 

Except for what may have been an occipital groove paralleling 
the posterior margin of the prosomal shield, there is no trace of 
prosomal segmentation. A slight groove which may represent the 
anterior limit of an occipital segment is present on the holotype 
(Plate 12, fig. IS) but is absent on isolated shields, some of which 
are otherwise in a better state of preservation (Plate 17, fig. IS). 
It is possible that this groove in the articulated holotype is due to 
the impression of the anterior margin of the articulating surfaces 
of either the dorsal or ventral preabdominal exoskeleton onto the 
underside of the dorsal prosomal shield. Because of its dubiousness 
the occipital groove has been omitted from the restoration (Text 
fig. A-1). 

A narrow marginal nm surrounds the prosoma. It is formed by 
a plait of the exoskeleton. 1 he dorsal layer is covered by papillae. 
They become crowded together into an irregular tuberosity at the 
anterior where they have their maximum development. Laterally 
the tubercles are less crowded and arranged in a general biserial 
plan. Evenly spaced tubercles at the margin of the rim cause the 
edge to be serrated. The rim is narrow and of equal width through- 
out. The ventral surface or doublour is lacking in ornament and 
is of the same width as the dorsal rim. 

The prosomal dorsal shield bears ornament ol tubercles and 
granules. With the exception of the tuberosit}' of the marginal rim, 
the tubercles are restricted to a field lateral and anterior to the 
glabellar area. The number and size of the tubercles decrease 
toward the margins of the shield and toward the glabella. The area 
immediately inside the marginal rim and the area of the glabella 



Tennessei: Ordovician Fossils: Caster .\ Hk..<,k 



Ks 167 




Text figure A-1 Composite reconstruction based upon observed dpfTiM* ^f tho 
morphology of C/,asrnataspis laurenai Caster and Brooks X 3 \Tv f i 
appendage of T laurmri; Y ? \ ^ o • "'^"°''*'' -^ ^- -\-- Prosomal 

C-aster and Brooks X 3 Reconstruction of />.«,//«... «,/. .«///„./ 



168 Bulletin 157 



are devoid of tubercles. However, minute nodes completely cover 
the surface of the shield and impart an appearance of granulation. 
A pair of large tubercles is situated on either side of the midline 
near the posterior margin of the shield in the area of the "occipital 
segment." 

Details of the ventral surface of the prosoma are not preserved 
on any of the specimens studied. This is probably due to the ven- 
tral integument bemg membranous. 

1 hree separate appendages were discovered which are of the 
type and size situated around the mouth of xiphosurus meros- 
tomes. One of the appendages is complete (Plate 13, figs. 3, 4) 
except for the dactylus of the chela and the terminal portion of the 
preepipodite. Two specimens consist of complete chelae and three 
additional joints (Plate 13, fig. 5). One is poorly preserved and 
not figured. The chelate ambulatory or inner ramus consists of a 
large basal joint and an ambulatory ramus of seven additional 
joints; the last two joints are modified as the palm and dactylus 
of a chela. Only the basal joint of the preepipodite is preserved. It 
arises from the lateral side of the large basal joint. The inner sur- 
face of th? basal joint is modified as a gnathobase. 

Two distinct types of preabdominal shields, or bucklers, are 
present m the collection. Both have the same outline and bear a 
series of 9 or 10 fixed stylets on the lateral margins. One of the 
bucklers is comprised of unanchylosed sclerites, and the other is a 
continuous integument. 

Most of the bucklers composed of sclerites have become dis- 
articulated into pieces of one or more of the component parts (Plate 
18). A medial series and paired lateral series of plates are bordered 
by a marginal girdle. Shoulders are formed at the anterior of the 
buckler by rounded constriction of the anteric-lateral portions of 
the first transverse sclerite. A smooth process (Plate 18, figs. 2, 3 S) 
extends anterior to the constriction. This process is separated from 
the main part of the sclerite by a shallow rounded groove. It con- 
stitutes a surface of articulation with the prosomal shield. Posterior 
to the groove, the first sclerite is ornamented with tubercles and 
granules. A second medical sclerite (Plate 20, fig. 4) is transversely 
rectangular, and it in turn is followed by a third rectangular trans- 
verse plate (Plate 18, fig. 4 S). 



Tennesshk Ordovician Fossils: Cas'ii:r & Brooks 169 



I he Literal series of sclentes are not aligned with the medial 
series. 1 he first lateral pair are unequally pentagonal and are situ- 
ated lateral to portions of the first and second transverse sclerites. 
A pair of triangidar sclerites border portions of the second and all 
( f the lateral edges of the third transverse sclerite. A pair of small 
nearly eciuilateral triangular plates are articulated with the lateral 
portions of the posterior edge of the third transverse sclerite. The 
lateral series of sclerites probably represent pairs of plates which 
originally corresponded to the three sclerites of the transverse 
medial series. It is believed that these sclerites imply that the pre- 
abdomen consists of three metameres. 

Posterior to the anterior shoulders, the buckler is bordered by 
a narrow girdle bearing fixed stylets. Nine and possibly ten stylets 
project m a posterior-lateral direction. 

The dorsal buckler is believed to have had an arched rachis m 
the central part of the three transverse sclerites. The specimen 
figured in Plates 12 and 13 (figs. 1 S) has a continuous medial 
ridge. This ridge has its greatest width on the first sclerite and 
narrows progressively on each of the two succeeding sclerites. It is 
here assumed that this reflects an original dorsal buckler trait. 
However, there is alwa\s the chance that it represents the imprint 
of an intra-buckler organ in life, otherwise unknown. The rachises 
on the sclentes ot the disarticulated bucklers are different in ap- 
jxarance (Plate 18). They occur as a medial transverse ridge at the 
rear of each sclerite ( Plate 18, figs. 2, 3, 4). The apparent difference 
may be due to compression. A pair of large tubercles is present on 
the rachis near the posterior of each sclerite. 

I he surface of the buckler is ornamented with tubercles and 
granules of unequal size. All the sclerites have a uniserial concen- 
tration of tubercles around their margins. Tubercles literally cover 
the marginal girdle und the fixed stylets. 

The second type of buckler ( Plate 17, fig. 3 S, 4, 5, 6; Plate 19. 
tigs. 2 S, 3 S) is composed of a thin chitinous integument not 
divided into sclerites. Tubercles and granules are more or less even- 
ly distributed over its surface. .A belt across the anterior fourth of 
the shield is more heavily chitinized. A narrow low keel extends 
back along the mid-central line from the anterior fortified zone. A 
pair of slits is situated just posterior to this chitinized zone a short 



170 Bulletin 157 



distance inward from the margins of the shield (Plate 19, fig. 2 S). 
The narrowness of the slits would seem better to conform to genital 
pores than to openings to respiratory chambers. Most of the speci- 
mens bear evidence of a pair of large lateral chambers underlying 
the integument. Outlines of these chambers are impressed on the 
tegument of most specimens. 

These two distinct type of preabdominal bucklers might apriori 
appear to belong to different species of animals, and as such they 
were first considered. There are other possibilities. They could be 
dimorphic forms of the same species, i.e., sexual dimorphism, or 
they could be dorsal and ventral surfaces of the same species. The 
similarity in outline of these two buckler types, the identity of the 
marginal girdle and fixed stylets on both, and the mutual reflection 
on both shields of the different morphological features are evidences 
that they are the dorsal and ventral preabdominal skeletons of the 
same species of merostome. Proof of this interpretation is demon- 
strated by one individual. The specimen figured on Plate 19, fig. 
4 S (also see Plate 17, figs. 5, 6). It is a ventral view of the exo- 
skeleton of a preabdomen in which both dorsal and ventral surfaces 
are still in their respective relations to each other. Portions of the 
ventral surface have been broken away so portions of the interiors 
of the dorsal sclerites are visible. (Note: The ornament of the ven- 
tral surface is in positive relief and its characteristic random distri- 
bution can be seen. The ornament of the dorsal surface as reflected 
on the interior of the sclerites is in negative relief. Outlines of the 
individual dorsal sclerites are indicated by tubercle rows). There 
is no doubt that the buckler of unanchylosed sclerites with an 
axial rachis is a dorsal preabdominal shield, and that the thinner 
chitinous shield with slitlike openings and impressions of paired 
chambers is the ventral surface of the same animal. 

Nine free segments and a telson make up the postabdominal 
tagma. The segments decrease slightly in size to the posterior. Each 
segment is enclosed by a ring formed by a dorsal tergite and a ven- 
tral sternite (Plate 15, fig. 4). A pair of pleural processes is develop- 
ed on each tergite (Plate 14, fig. 2 S, outlined by dashes). Due to 
a bulge at the anterior and posterior of each tergite, preservation 
has resulted in the abdominal segments of some of the specimens 
having the appearance of pseudosegmentation. The true nature of 



Tennksski^ Ordomcian Fossils: Castkr & Brooks 171 



the dorsal tergites is shown by the better preserved specimens 
(Plate 12, fig. 1 S; Plate 20, fig. 1 S; Plate 14, fig. 2 S). These 
specimens reveal that the tergite has a smooth anterior articulating 
surface which telescopes within the preceding skeletal ring, a broad 
anterior bulge bearing tubercles, a post-central slight constriction 
and a bulging posterior flange. A pair of prominent tubercles is 
present on the dorsal bulging surface of each tergite near the dorsal 
line of symmetry. 

The telson (Plate 20, fig. 5, 7) is broad at the base but nar- 
rows to a long, lanceolate distal portion. The surface of the telson, 
as with other surfaces of the exoskeleton, bears tubercles and gran- 
ules. Tubercles are concentrated at the base of the telson with only 
a few scattered on the blade. 

The telson of merostomes is believed to be a dorsal outgrowth 
of the last metamere and is, therefore, not usually counted as a 
body segment. 

Merostomes are generally believed to have a cephalothorax 
composed of an undetermined number of preoral vestigial segments 
fused with six appendiferous postoral segments. The merostome 
from the deposits at Douglas Dam undoubtedly had the standard 
number of prosomal appendages. No trace of appendages are pres- 
ent on the pre- and post-abdominal tagma. The preabdomen is 
comprised of three fused and the postabdomen is composed of nine 
free segments. 



SYSTEM.ATICS 

THE MEROSTOME 

General. — The basic body organization of the foregoing arthro- 
pod corresponds to that of the animals classified in the Class Mer- 
ostomata, the aquatic chelicerates. Two subclasses of merostomes 
are presently recognized ( Pychnogonida excluded, Hedgpeth, 1954, 
p. 211): Eurypterida and Xiphosura. 

Members of the Subclass Eurypterida (Ordovician to Per- 
mian) all have similar body organization. I he body is divided into 
three tagmata: a prosoma, a wide preabdomen of six free segments 



172 Bulletin 157 



and a narrow postabdomen of five'-' free segments; the last segment 
bears a telson. Imbricating scalelike tubercles characterize the 
chitinous exoskeleton. A pair of compound lateral eyes and a cen- 
trally located pair of ocelli are present on the dorsal shield of the 
prosoma. Six pairs of appendages are arranged around the mouth. 
The first pair are chelate, four pair are walking legs and the hind 
pair are differentiated usually as oarlike flippers. None of the mete- 
meres posterior to the prosoma are anchylosed. Each segment of 
the preabdomen has a separate dorsal and ventral sclerite whereas 
the dorsal and ventral sclerites of each segment of the postabdomen 
are fused into a continuous ring. The first two' sternites of the 
preabdomen are modified as a genital operculum. This structure 
bears a median structure which is usually interpreted as a pair of 
appendages modified for reproduction. The four succeeding sternites 
are movable plates which are attached near the anterior of each 
somite. These plates are believed to have had gills on the inner 
surface ( St0rmer, 1934a, p. 52). 

Members of the subclass Xiphosura have a greater diversity of 
body plan. Two orders are presently recognized. The Aglaspida 
(Text figs. B-4-6) (Cambrian-Ordovician) have a semicircular 
prosomal shield. Some genera have genal spines and a marginal rim 
on the prosoma. Lateral compound eyes are present on all forms. 
Median ocelli have never been detected on the fossils. Six pair of 
ventral appendages are allegedly present on a specimen described by 
Raasch (1939, p. 62). The first pair are chelate and the others are 
"walking legs." Posterior to the prosoma are 11 free somites and 
a telson. There is no abrupt change in size of the tergites and no 
other distinguishing features to justify a division into a pre- and 
postabdomen. The first six abdominal segments allegedly have pair- 
ed appendages (Raasch, 1939, p. 65-66). 

St0rmer (1952, p. 638) classified all of the limuloid merostomes 
in the order Xiphosurida and recognized two suborders, the Sub- 
order Synziphosurina, and the Suborder Limulina. The latter group 

-The Ordovician M fyaluyraptus Caster and Kjellesvif2;-WaerintJ;, possess 
six post-abdominal segments plus a telson and cereal blades. 

•' Although it is customary to postulate the fusion of two sternites to form 
the eurypterid operculum, an exceptionally well-preserved late Silurian speci- 
men Doluhoptfius Hall (Caster and Kjellesvig-Waering, Jan., 1956, jour. 
Pal.) demonstrates the presence of three. I'his may he the archaic condition. 



Tknnkssfk Ordovician Fossils: Castkr &: Brooks 173 



contains tlK- king crabs and tlicir close relatives of the Upper Pale- 
ozoic and need not be characterized here. (Text fig. B-1). 

Synziphosiira (Text fig. B-2 and B-.3 ) are a heterogeneous 
grouping of Silurian and Lower Devonian divergent pre-limuhds. 
According to Stormer ( 1934b, p. 10) "it is probable that the Synzi- 
phosura possessed 10 abdominal segments of which the sixth and 
seventh were often anchylosed." The last three poorly differentiated 
abdominal segments have been designated as a postabdomen. 

(UassiUcation of iir:v material. — Merostomes are characterized 
by a prosoma with a dorsal shield upon which are a pair of lateral 
compound eves and two median ocelli { lateral eyes are absent on 
some of the synziphosura and the ocelli have not been discovered 
on aglaspids), six pairs of appendages around the mouth and an 
abdomen composed of 12 or fewer metameres which may be free or 
anchylosed. Differentiation of the abdominal segments into tagmata 
is persistently different in each of the phyletic races. With the ex- 
ception of the synziphosura all previously known species possess 
some vestiges of pre-abdominal appendages. 

The fossil from Douglas Dam is unquestionably a merostome. 
However, it differs significantly from all presently known forms in 
the specialization of the 12 segments of the abdomen into a pre- 
abdominal tagma of three segments ( covered dorsally by a buckler 
composed of a trans\ersc medial series ot sclentes and a lateral 
series of paired sclentes and vcntrallv bN' a continous integument 
devoid of traces of segmentation and appendages) and a postabdo- 
men of nine ringhke free segments. Some terrestrial arachnids have 
the tergites of the abdomen divided into a lateral and medial series, 
i.e., Trigonitarlii ( Devonian of Scotland, Petrunkevitch, 1953, vol. 
2, p. 207. A ) and Dorothea (a Recent member of the Order Ricinu- 
lei, ibid. p. 2()7B). Twelve abdominal segments are presumed to be 
the iirimiti\e condition in the Subphylum Chelicerata. 1 hough 
having more abdominal segments than any of the merostomes 
presently classed in the subclass Xiphosura, i.e., 12 vs. 9 or 10 in 
the Synziphosura and 11 in the Aglaspida. the new merostome 
seems to be nvist closelv related to these forms. I he tagma nzation 
of Its abdomen differs .significaiuK' from that <>t the stereotyped 
eurypterids. 

In addition to the new generic and specific names, required by 



174 Bulletin 157 



the new Douglas Dam merostome, new family and ordinal names 
are also required by its morphology which contrasts with that of 
other merostomes. The classification employed herein is related to 
that of St0rmer (1952, p. 638) as follows: 

Class MEK0ST03IATA (Dana, 1852) Woodward, 1836 
Subclass El'HYPTKKIDV Burmeister, 1834 
Subclass XlPHOSriJA Latreille, 1802 
OrderA(iLASril)A Walcott, 1911 
Order XII'HOSrHin.V Latreille, 1802 

Suborder SV>'ZII'HOSri{INA Packard. 1886 
Suborder LIMl'FJXA R. and E. Richter, 1929 
Order CHAS:^! ATASI'IDA Caster and Brooks, new order 

The new order Chasmataspida is distinguished by possessing 
the primative chelicerate number of abdominal segments and b}^ 
the fusion of the first three segments into a preabdomen. 

The differentiation of the anterior abdomen into an expanded 
region is a recurrent phenomenon among the arachnomorphs and 
apparently corresponds to recurrent physiologic needs or advant- 
ages, mainly associated it would appear with the housing of expand- 
ed gill-books and generative organs. Among eurypterids it is first 
encountered in Megalograptus (Upper Ordovician) according to 
data in manuscript (Caster and Kjellesvig-Waering); Mixopterus 
and Carcinoso^na are the most familiar Silurian expressions of the 
preabdominal expansion. It is the basic scheme in the Scorpionida. 
Megalograptus expands the first six preabdominal segments; the 
other two eurypterids and scorpions the first seven. The Xiphosura 
show an analogous, recurrent tendency: in Bunodes and Limuloides 
(=He}niaspis) of the Silurian the preabdominal region contains the 
primitive six segments of Megalograptus. In the Silurian forms the 
postabdomen is reduced to three annular segments. Weinbergina 
of the German Dev^onian appears to have the first seven abdominal 
segments expanded, and the postabdominal region abbreviated to 
the customary three rings. The bunodomorph plan, jiliis more post- 
abdominal segments, is anticiiiatcd h\ undcscribcd forms from the 



I i:nm:ssi:i- ()ki)()\k IAN |-ossii.s: Casti;k ^S: I^kooks 175 




I e;:t figure B-1 to H-6 Examples of Xiphosura. B-1 Xro/'rlinuropsif rossicus 
Eller B-2 Bunodrs lunula Eichwald. B-3 I.imuloiJrs limuloldrs ( \\'ooci\vard) 
H-^ .-It/lasprlla eaioni (Whitfield). B-5 bfckiiitliia typa Resser. B-6 UiUi^pts 
ipmiUr Raasch. B-1 to B-3 Order Xiphosiirida. B-1 Suhorder Liiiuiliiia. B-2 
and B-3 Suborder Synziphosurina. B-4 to B-6 Order Agiaspida. Figs 1-5 from 
bt0rmer (1944, fig. 14). Fig. 6 traced from Raasch (1939, pi. 7 fig 1) 



176 Bulletin 157 



Upper Cambrian Hickory sandstone of Texas. It was not, however, 
until Permian time that any arthropod previously known developed 
a preabdominal buckler. Clearly, the phylogeny of the limulid 
buckler (St0rmer, 1953) is quite different from the analogue here 
so long before anticipated. 

The chasmataspid dorsal buckler appears, like the genital 
operculum of the eurypterus, Dolichopterus Hall (Silurian) (paper 
m press, Caster and Kjellesvig-Waering, 1956) to comprise an 
ankylosis of the first three abdominal sclerites. Conceivably the 
ventral homologue contams the sternites of the same three segments 
and thus may correspond directly to the genital operculum of Doli- 
chopterus as interpreted by Caster and Kjellesvig-Waering. How- 
ever Chasmataspis, like the bunodomorphs, shows no genital ap- 
pendage. 

Family CHASM ATISJM MAE Caster and Brooks, new family 

Until more is known about the evolution trends of this newly 
discovered phyletic line, family characteristics cannot be delimited. 
The characteristics of this family will encompass the morphological 
features of the new merostome described below. 

Genus CHAS.M ATASVIS Caster and Brooks, new genus 

The development of the genal spines, marginal rim, distribution 
of the tubercles, the shape of the prosoma, the relative develop- 
ment and position of the lateral and medial ocular nodes, the rela- 
tive development of the marginal girdle and fixed stylets, size and 
shape of the sclerites of the dorsal preabdominal buckler, and the 
development of the sclerites and pleural processes of the postabdo- 
men, as described in the general description, characterize this genus. 
The name of the genus is derived from the Greek words chasma 
(dam) and aspis (shield). C. laiirencii is the type species. 

( Iiasinat:is|us Iniiroiicii, Caster and Brooks, new species 

Plates 12-20. Text figs. A-1, A-2 

Since there are no kiKJwn close relatives ot C. hnirench, it is 
impossible to present a short specific analysis at this time. The 
species as luiderstood by the authors has all of the characteristics 



Tennesski-; Ordovician Fossils: Casti-r & Brooks 177 



of the fossils described above in the general description. Difference 
ill relative growth, size, and the development of minor features 
such as ornamentation are generally used as distinguishmg criteria 
for the recognition of species of merostomes. 

The following statistical information reflects the variation of 
the population as represented by the collection of fossils. Measure- 
ments were made only on specimens complete enough for accurate 
mensuration. Abbreviations have been employed for convenience 
of presentation: N=number of observations, Mo=r approximate 
mode, Me== arithmetic mean, rrr^standard deviation, Max=maxi- 
mum size. The minimum size (Min) is of no specific value as 
growth stages are present in the collection, but it has been given 
as information of general interest. 

Ihe length of the prosoma was measured in the sagittal plane. 
I he following data were obtained: Nr:r57, Mo=l.l cm., Me=0.9 
cm., (7^0.24 cm., Max=:1.3 cm., and Min=0.4 cm. The width of 
the prosoma was measured across the dorsal shield at the position 
of the posterior margin. The results are as follows: N=58, Mo=2.0 
cm., Me^l.9 cm., >t=:0.62 cm., Max^3.0 cm., and Min=0.6 cm. 
Distance between the lateral eyes was measured as the minimum 
distance between the visual surfaces. The data are as follows: 
N=44, Mo=0.75 cm., Me=:0.67 cm., <r=OAS cm., Max=0.97 cm., 
and Min=r0.23 cm. The medial eye node is situated slightly poster- 
ior to the two lateral nodes. The following data are based upon 
measurements from the anterior edge of the prosoma to the crest 
of the medial eye node: Nr=44, Mo=r0.65 cm., Me=0.55 cm., 
o-=0.13 cm., Max=0.72 cm., and Min=0.23 cm. When the kst 
measurements are calculated as a ratio to that of the length of the 
shields one gets the following results: N=44, Mo=0.57, Me=:0.57, 
fri=0.05. This means the crest of the median eye node is slightly 
posterior to the central position. 

Ratios of length to width of the prosomal shield were calculated 
and the ratios range from 0.38 to 0.77. These are specimens which 
have been extremely deformed. Most of the shields had a ratio 
of about 0.50, i.e., Mo=0.50, Me^O.50, fr=0.07. 

Accurate measurements were possible on only twenty ventral 
bucklers of the preabdomen. Length measured in the sagittal plane 
gave the following results: N=20, Mo=:l.l cm., Me=rl.0 cm., 



178 Bulletin 157 



a=0.32 cm., Max=1.35 cm., and Min=0.7 cm. The breadth im- 
mediately anterior to the first pair of fixed stylets is the greatest 
width. It is this measurement given: N=:20, Mo=1.9 cm., 
Me=2.2 cm., a=0.45 cm., Max=2.9 cm., and Min=1.6 cm. The 
length to width ratios of these shields were: Mo:=0.43, Me=:0.42, 
Max=0.52 and Min=0.35. 

The total length of the one complete specimen (Plate 14, fig. 
1 S; Plate 15, fig. 1 S) is approximately 5 cm. (Actually only 4.7 
cm. is preserved. The tip of the telson has been broken off). This 
specimen was smaller than most of the specimens of the population. 
The holotype (Plate 12, fig. 1 S; Plate 13, fig 1 S) which lacked 
only the telson was 6 cm. long. Judging from the proportions of the 
one complete specimen, the telson of the holotype must have been 
slightly over 2 cm. in length. Restored, the holotype is estimated 
to have been between 8 and 8.5 cm. in total length. The measure- 
ments of the holotype are as follows: length of prosoma is 1.3 cm., 
width of prosoma is 2.33 cm., distance between the eyes is 0.83 cm., 
distance back to medial eye node is 0.75 cm., buckler length is 1.2 
cm., buckler width is 2.2 cm., and the combined length of the nine 
segments of the postabdomen (minus the telson) is 3.5 cm. When 
these measurements are compared to the statistical data presented 
for the population, it is apparent that the holotype is one of the 
larger Individuals. 

When plotted graphically as frequency curves on arithmetic 
graph paper, all of the above measurements showed skewness 
toward the larger measurements. This skewness is characteristic of 
a natural population with immature individuals. It should be em- 
phasized that the above statistical data are based on raw measure- 
ments in which no effort has been made to correct for distortion. 
Distortion has been considerable in many of the specimens (Plate 
16) and accounts for the large standard deviations of the dimen- 
sions. 

Graphic presentation based on two measurements of each 
individual showed a straight line relationship between any two 
measurements. Since relative growth in this case is apparently 
constant during ontogeny, proportion between any two measure- 
ments are of more significance than the size frequencies. However, 
when the proportions were calculated, the ratio of one measurement 



Tennessek Ordovician Fossils: Casthr &: Brooks 179 



to another was in some cases considerable. Significant differences 
are obviously due to deformation. 

The conclusions of the empirical study and the statistical analy- 
sis of the fossil mercstome remains in the collection were that only 
one species was present and that the growth stages and deformation 
accounts for the considerable differences in size and proportions of 
the specimens. 

The species is named in honor of Mr. Robert Laurence, former 
geologist for the Tennessee Valley Authority and now Regional 
ReRpresentative of the U. S. Geological Survey, Knoxville, Tennes- 
see. 

Ty^^/.— Holotype, No. 125099; paratypes, Nos. 125123, 125101, 
U. S. National Museum. 

Horizon. — Sediments in a depression in the Canadian-Chazyan 
unconformity. 

Locality. — East abutment of Douglas Dam, Sevier County, 
Tennessee. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE CRUSTACEAN 

Material. — Four specimens of a small crustacean were dis- 
covered in the fauna of the Douglas Dam site. These fossils are 
preserved as impressions of compressions with slight relief. Thin 
films of carbonaceous residue are all that remain of the original thin 
chitinous exoskeleton. 

Morphology. — Tagmata of the body cannot be distinguished 
due to poor preservation of details. The anterior portion of the 
body was covered by a carapace developed as two large valves 
hmged dorsall3\ No nodes or other structures can be detected on 
its surface. The covered portion of the body undoubtedly represents 
the head and a portion of the thorax. Nine similar, tapering seg- 
ments exposed posterior to the carapace will be termed the abdo- 
men. The terminal segment of the abdomen is differentiated and 
bears a pair of long, annulate cercopods at the posterior-lateral 
corners. Three short body rings are exposed between the valves on 
one of the specimens (Plate 21, fig. 1 S). These may be thoracic 
segments. 

Traces of appendages are preserved and are believed to have 



180 Bulletin 157 



been biramous (Plate 21, fig. 2). These appendages are situated in 
a position that suggests they are thoracic. They appear to consist 
of a basipodite of two or three joints and two rami, an exopodite 
and an endopodite. The true nature of the rami cannot be de- 
termined. Only traces of one pair of short, annulate antennae are 
present. The nature and number of other appendages of the head 
remains in doubt. No trace of appendages are present on the abdo- 
men of any of the specimens. 

CRUSTACEAN SYSTEMATICS 

The general body organization is a curious combination of 
crustacean characteristics. 

Among the Pseudocrustacea from the Burgess shale of Middle 
Cambrian age, only Burgessia and Waptia bear any resemblance 
(Walcott, 1914, p. 177-182). The carapace of neither of these forms 
Is bivalved and their appendages are allegedly of the trilobite type 
(Raymond, 1935, p. 219). The abdomen of Burgessia is composed 
of many segments, is narrow and tapers. It Is terminated by a 
multisegmented telson without cercopods. Waptia, on the other 
hand, has an abdomen of six or more segments of which the term- 
inal segments bears a pair of spatulate, jointed cercopods. The 
nature of the bivalved carapace and the presence of biramous 
appendages with a basipodite are true crustacean characteristics 
and support the conclusion that the fossil from Douglas Dam Is not 
a crustacean homeomorph. 

Branchlopoda {i.e., Cladocera and Conchostraca), Ostracoda, 
:md the Superorder Leptostraca of the Subclass Malacostraca are 
the only crustaceans with bivalved shells. Without exception, all 
previously known bivalved Crustacea have a pair of cercopods 
developed as spikelike furcae. Only the Leptostraca do not have the 
abdomen reduced, aborted or modified so that the complete animal 
is enclosed by the valves of the carapace. 

Malacostraca have a fixed number of segments per tagma. The 
abdomen Is usually composed of six metameres though some primi- 
tive forms have seven. The abdomen of Nahecaris (Broill, 1928) 
allegedly has eight metameres. 

The new crustacean differs from known Paleozoic malacos- 
tracans ni having extra abdominal segments and In the annulatlon 



Tknm-sski: Ordomcian Fossils: Castj-.r <y Brooks 1X1 



ot rhi- ci rcdpiuls. Annulated ccrcopods arc a characteristic ot notos- 
tracan hranchiopods, i.e., Triops, (also tnlohitcs and primitive in- 
sects), but are unknown in other Crustacea. The ahdoniinal seg- 
ments appear to bear no appendages. 1 his also is a feature of the 
Notostraca; however, many of the Paleozoic Leptostraca of the 
Order Phyllocarida do not have paired appendages on all the ab- 
dominal segments. 

Ihis new crustacean from the deposit at Douglas Dam cannot 
be classified as a branchiopod due to the supposed nonfoliaceous 
nature of the thoracic appendages. Its condition, however, could 
be a primitive phyletic characteristic. Some authorities believe the 
phyllopodous appendage to be degenerate. If a branchiopod, it is 
either related to the Conchostraca or the Notostraca. It differs 
significantly from both. Conchostraca have a bivalved shell but the 
postcephalic segments ( 10-27) are undifferentiated and all bear a 
pair of phyllopodous appendages; the cercopods are not annulated. 
Notostraca do not have a bivalved shell. All known forms have a 
prominent pair of sessile compound eyes upon the carapace. 

It would be doing an injustice to the established classification 
of the Crustacea to assign this new type of crustacean to the Bran- 
chiopoda. The authors believe the inferred extra segments of the 
ab<l()iiKn, proxiding rlurc has been no error in distinguishmg the 
limits of the tagmata, represents a primitive phyletic divergence 
from the typical malacostracan body plan. Annulated cercopods are 
a primitive arthropod character and may not be ot any significance 
in indicating relationships. 

Possiblv a new order of either the Subclass Branchiopoda or 
of the Subclass Malacostraca should be established. Until more 
is known about these new Crustacea it is believed best tentatixely 
to assign them to the Order Ph\llocarida as follows: 

(lass ClU'STVrKV Pennant. 1777 

Subclass MAF.ACO.STK A("A Latreille. 1806 

Superorder l-KPTOSTKACA Clans. 1SS9 

Ordc:- l'HVLL()('AI{II>A Packard. ISTit, ins«Tl;i«- >«'(lis 

Family hOliil, ASOCA |{Ih \ T Caste:- and Brooks, new family 

Crustacea without e\es, muscle scars, nodes or other reflec- 



182 Bulletin 157 



tions of anatomical features upon a bivalved carapace; abdomen of 
nine (?) segments of which the first eight are similar. The last 
abdominal segment is differentiated and bears two annulate cerco- 
pods. 



Genus BOUGliASOCAKIS Caster and Brooks, new genus 

Crustacea with the characteristics of the new family described 
above. In addition, the following details of the bivalved carapace 
will probablv prove of value in distinguishing the genus. Carapace 
subovate, more or less reniform, greatest dorsal ventral dimensions 
near the posterior; hinge straight and slightly less than half the 
greatest length of the valves; anterior cardmal angle obtuse; pos- 
terior cardinal angle about 170 ; valves broadly rounded anteriorly 
and ventrally; curvature of the posterior is strongly convex with a 
radius of 2 mm. and passing through an arc of about 150 to 160 
degrees so that a portion of the free dorsal posterior margin is 
nearly parallel to the broad curvature of the ventral edge. The 
straight dorsal portion of the posterior margin extends forward. In 
the proximity of the posterior extremity of the hinge it turns 
abruptly dorsally thus eliminating the apex of the postcardinal 
angle. The valves are spread laterally and compressed. It is believed 
the greatest convexity was near the posterior. A distinct rim bor- 
ders each \ al\e. Margmal runs are a common feature of the chitin- 
ous carapaces ot fossd phyllocands. This feature is probablv due 
to compression of a double thickness of the chitinous carapace at its 
margins. 

The only fossil carapaces known which are comparable to that 
of Douglasocaris are some of the bivalved carapaces described as 
Conchostraca by L hich and Bassler (1931) from Cambrian strata. 
Of these, Indianites (pp. 68-84) is most similar in outline and sur- 
face features. The largest of these fossil bivalves are about the size 
of Douglasocaris but they are composed of "corneo-calcareous" 
materials instead ot pure chitin. 

The generic name Douglasocaris is a compound of the name 
ot the dam site and the Latin word caris, a crab. D. collinsi is the 
type species. 



Tennessek Ordomcian Fossii.s: Caspir &: Brooks IS.i 



IMMivrltlsocnris collin^i Caster and Brooks, new si)ecies 

Plates 21. 22. Text fig. A-3 

Cliaractcristics ol the species are those of the specimens des- 
cribed above. All specimens are approximately the same size. 1 he 
following measurements are typical: total length of the body is 1.8 
cm., total length of the carapace is 0.7 cm., maximum dorsal- 
ventral dimensions of each valve is 0.45 cm., length ot hmge line 
is 0..^ cm. When complete the cercopods are only slightly less in 
length than that of the body. One specimen ( Plate 22, fig. IS) had 
cercopods 1.7 cm. long. 

Ibis species is named ui honor ot the late Dr. Robert Lee 
Collins of Knoxvdle, Tennessee. 

ryp^,-._Holotype, No. 125096; paratypes, 125097, 125098, 
U. S. National Museum. 

Horizon. — Sedmients filmg a depression on the Canadian- 
Chazyan unconformity. 

Locality. — Douglas Dam, Se\ ler County, lennessee. 

PROBI.EMATICA 

Several problematical remains occur m association with (^has- 
)}Wtaspis laiircncii and Douglasocans collin.u. .All appear to have 
had an animal origin. Only one shows sufficient morphology to 
warrant a name. 

(ostites iniraltilis ("aster and Brooks, new .cienus, new speeies 

PL 23, fig. 5 

.\ single specimen of most unusual aspect is illustrated on 
Plate 23. The appearance is that of a fringed ribbon now reduced 
to a carbonaceous film, and the resemblance is most strikingly like 
one blade of the modern ctenophoran Venus's Girdle, Crstum 
veneris. Longitiuhnal lines are present, and may well contorm to 
the position of the meridional canals, pharyngean canals along one 
margin and subsaggital meridional canals on the opposite margin. 
The fringe on one side appears somewhat longer than on the other 
and may have been the tentacular row of the oral edge of the gir- 
dle, whereas the opposite fringe would correspond to the superim- 
posed aboral double comb-row. The absence of the central region, 
with Its transverse poKpidc structures, makes the identiticatioii of 
this problematicum as a cestui ctenophoran decidedK (juestionable. 



184 Bulletin 157 



Modern cestids are evanescent gelatinous bands of extraordin- 
ary length. Specimens 1.5 meters in length are not uncommon. 
Moreover, the transverse zone of the pol3^pide represents a line of 
weakness; hence one might expect fracture along this line. The 
genus is today limited to tropical seas, and if properly interpreted, 
the fossil ribbon may give a clue to the temperature of the early 
Ordovician episea in Tennessee. 

If this problematicum is a genume ctenophoran, it may well 
be the first bona fide occurrence m the geological record. Giirich's 
Pteridinium simplex (1930) from the Nama beds of South Africa 
(Proterozoic or early Paleozoic) now appears (new material furnish- 
ed by the Geological Survey of the Union of South Africa) to be 
more probably a conulariid (Scyphomedusa), rather than the 
ctenophoran he had suggested. 

Holotype and sole specimen. — United States National Museum, 
No. 125087. 

Organic scraps. — Specimens of compressed organic threads and 
narrow straps occur in some abundance on a few layers of the "33 
formation." Typical examples are illustrated on Plate 23, figs. 1-4. 
These may be algal, but more probably are fecal castings of a 
swimming organism. Similar castings have been observed streaming 
as threads from swimming Limidus in the laboratory, and these may 
well pertain to Chasmataspis. 

Spoor. — A definite bottom trail is shown on Plate 23, hg. 6. 1 his 
is a cast of a trail on the under surface of a bedding plane. It sug- 
gests the place where a swimming organism descended. As usual 
when confronted by such in cert ae sedis, a polychete worm first 
comes to mind. Many other invertebrates can of course make much 
the same trails, and a small Chasmataspis is by no means ruled out. 
It does seem more likely, however, that this merostome was a 
vagrant surface scavenger rather than a burrower or swimmer. 

RKFKRENCES CITKD 

Ih'Mtfc, .Josiah 

1955. hi.u (uijoirnily hrticrcn Loicrr (iiul MiJiilr ()i Jdvuiuti srrirs at 
Dotu/las Liikr, Trnnnsrc. CJeol. Soc. Am. Hull., \ol. 66, pji. 725-730. 
jiioiii, I . 

1928. lirohdc'iluiKjcii an N alircaiis. Bayer Akad. W'iss., Sit/ber. Math- 
Xatur. Aht., H. 1, pp. 1-lS, 1 iil., 2 text fig. 



Tennessee Ordovician Fossils: Caster &: Brooks 1X5 



(•iirich, («. 

1930. Die bistaug altfstiu Spureti von organismnn in SiiJafrika W Int. 
Geol. ConKi-.. C. R., vol. 2, pp. 670-680, 5 figs. 

Hedtfpeth, .1. ». 

1954. On the phylogrny of thr Pyr/inoc/oniJti. Acta Ztjologica 1954, ]}d. 
35, pp. 193-213. 
Laiirf'nce, H. A. 

1944. .'Jn early OrJoi'ician sinkhole deposits of i")l(anic ash and fossil i- 
ferous sediments in east Tennessee. Jour. Geol., vol. 52, pp. 23 5-249. 
IVtriink«*vftcIi, Alex. 

1953. Arachnida in Encyclopaedia Britannica, vol. 2, pp. 201-208, Chi- 
cago. 
liaiasch, G. 0. 

1939. Cambrian Merostomata. Geol. Soc. Am., Spec. Paper 19, 146 pp., 
21 pis. 
Ksijiiiond, P. E. 

193 5. Leanchoiita and other Mid-Cambrian Arthropoda. Mus. Comp. 
Zool. Bull., Harvard College, vol. 76, No. 6. pp. 205-230. 
St0niier, Leif 

1934a. Merostomata from the Doivntonian sandstone of Ringerike, Nor- 
ic'flj'. Norske Vid.-Akad. Oslo, Skr., Mat.-Naturv. Kl. (1933), No. 10, 
125 pp.. 12 pis. 
1934b. Doxvntonian Merostomata from Spitsbe) gen zvith remarks on the 
Suborder Synziphosura. Norske Vid.-Akad. Oslo, Skr., Mat.-Naturv. 
Kl., No. 3. 26 pp., 2 pis. 
1944. On the relationship and phylogeny of fossil and Recent Araehno- 
morpha. Norske Vid.-Akad. Oslo, Skr., Mat.-Naturv. Kl., No. 5, 158 pp. 
1952. Phylogeny and taxonomy of fossil horseshoe crabs. Jour. Paleont., 
vol. 26, pp. 630-639. 
I Irkh. E. (>., and K. S. Bassler 

1931. Cambrian bivalved Crustacea of the Order Conchostraca. U. S. 
\at. Mus., Proc, vol. 78, 130 pp., 10 pis. 

>VaU<»tt, ('. D. 

1914. Middle Cambrian Branchiopoda, Malaccstraca, Trilobita, and 
Merostomata. Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 57, pp. 145-237, pis. 25-34. 



PLATES 



188 Bulletin 157 



Explanation" of Plate 12 

Figure I^age 

1S-2S. Cliasiiiataspis laureiifii (aster and Brooks, n.gen., n.sp. 176 

IS. Holotvpe, dorsal view, complete except for telson, U. S. \. M., 
No. 125099, Mereo, X2. 

2S. Paratvpe dorsal surtace consisting of only portion^ of the pro- 
soma! shield and the dorsal preabdominal buckler, U. S. N. M., 
No. 125123, stereo, X3. 



Bull. Amkk. Paleont., Vol. 36 



Plate 12 




Bull. Amer. Paleont., Vol. 36 



Plate 13 
















Tennessee Okdovician Kossils: Castik \ Brooks 189 



EXIM.ANAI ll)\ <)I I'l.ATI- 13 

Figure Page 

lS-4. < liiiMnataN))is laurciicii (aster and Brooks, n.jreii., ii. sp ITd 

IS. Counterpart of holotvpe, impression of surface features of exo- 
skelton, U. S. N. M.,"No. 125099. stereo. X2. 

2S. Counterpart of II. S. N. M., No. 125123. paratype X3. 

3. Prosomal appendage lacking only the extremity of tlie preepo- 
dite and the dactylus of the chela, photographed without coating 
N'HiCIi to show carbonaceous residue of appendage, X 3 168 

4. Same as fig 3 but photographed with coating and oblique light- 
ing to emphasize relief. X 3 168 

5. ProsomaF appendage consisting of a terminal chela with dactvlus 
and three additional joints, X 3 168 



190 Bulletin 157 



Explanation' of Plate 14 

Figure Page 

1S-2S. C'liasinataspis lanrencii Caster and Brooks, n.gen., n.sp 176 

IS. Paratype, onlj' specimen with all dorsal skeletal elements arti- 
culated, U. S. N. M., No. 125101, stereo, X 3 164, 170 

2S. Right side of two postabdominal tergites bearing pleural pro- 
cesses (outlined by dashes), stereo, X 6 170 



Bull. Amer. Paleont., Vol. 36 



Plate 14 





Bull. Amer. Paleont., Vol. 36 



Plate 15 




^4>fL 




''^?^i0^^^^''!^^:}^^'^ii^£^^^^'^'- 



Tennksske Ordovician Kossii.s: Casti-r ijc Br(>()Ks 191 



Explanation oi I'imi: 15 

Figure Pa^e 

1S-2S. rhasiiiatasi>is laiireiu-ii ('aster and IJiooks, n.Ken.. ii..sp 176 

IS. Counterpart of paratype, U. S. \. M., \o. 125101, stereo, X 3. 

2S. Body ring of postabdorniiial >.e>^inent consisting of a dorsal 

tergite and a ventral sternite, X 5. 170 



192 Bulletin 157 



Explanation of Plate 16 

Figure Page 

1-6. ('liasinatJisj»is liMir<'ii<-ii faster and Brooks, ii.geii., n.sp 176 

Prosomal shields selected to show extremes of distortion, X 5, X 4, 
X 3, X 4, X 2, and X 3 respectively. 



Bl'll. Amer. Paleont., Vol. 36 



Plate 16 




Bull. Amer. Paleont., Vol. 36 



Plate 17 



























Tennessee Oroovician Fossils: Castkk ik Hkooks 193 



EXIM.ANATIOS OF I'l.ATK 17 

Figure Page 

lS-(i. ( li;iMii;if;isiMs liiiirriK-ii ('aster and P.iooks, n.K<'n., ii.sp., .. Kio-IGS 

IS. Rubber mold of a natural iinpiession of the dorsal prosomal 
shield, note: tuberosity developed on the marginal rim at the 
anterior (the posterior |)ortion of the rim has been broken away. 
The smooth surface of the rim is thus the ventral doublour), 
tubercle distribution pattern on the shield, "cardiac lobe" devoid 
of tubercles, median node believed to be the site of a pair of 
ocelli, a pair of lateral occular nodes, and absence of segmen- 
tion of the "cardiac lobe," stereo, X 3. 

2S. Portion of IS enlarged to show nature of the eye nodes, note 
pair of elliptical areas on medial node, stereo, X 3. 

3S. V^entral preabdominal buckler, note: anterior transverse "belt", 
slitlike pair of lateral openings, median keel, reflection of paired 
chambers (outlined by dashes), and the marginal stvlets, stereo, 
X 3 .' ' 169-170 

4. N'entral preabdominal buckler, X 3. 

5-6. Counterparts of a ventral prealidominal buckler, note that 
compression has impressed the outlines of the marginal series 
sclerites of the dorsal buckler upon this continuous shield, X 3. 



194 Bulletin 157 



ExPLANATIOr OF Pi, ATE 18 

Figure Plate 

1-7. t'hasniataspis laureiieii Caster and Brooks, n.gen., n.sp. sclerites 

of the dorsal preabdominal buckler 169 

1-3S. Two anterior sclerites of the medial transverse series bordered 
by the first lateral pair, X 3. 

4S. An isolated posterior sclerite of the medial transverse series 
with a small pair of triangular plates articulated to it on the 
posterior edge, stereo, X 3. 

5S. A portion of the third sclerite of the medial series articulated 
with the right sclerite of the second pair of lateral plates, stereo, 
X 3. 

6S. Portion of 4S enlarged to show the right plate of the posterior 
triangular pair, stereo, X 6. 

7. Portions of the second and third medial transverse sclerites 
articulated with the right sclerite of the second pair of plates of 
the lateral series, X 3. 



Bull. Amer. Paleont., Vol. 36 



Plate 18 



'^^■.^' 



'^^>^ 



^»:*i; 



^' 



^^^ 



-^^■'"^^w'a»i'-^i]hjih^Vii<aii^L»j";r --^■-^<to> ' • ' -' --^t,- - .k:-*ailf i-. . u?' '«'W£^' i 




st-% 
















f^^-^5ffS K'^^^- p^s®^?^! 




^iiy^;:, m<:Mi 






-mB. 









^ 



Bull. Amer. Paleont., Vol. 36 



Plate 19 







<i-fe£i^** 







'i-m:-^ 














■ '' ■ ' 1*.- EajK'' ^ '!} .-C'jiii 





1^148 



^^^.■<; 




Tennessee Ordovician Fossif.s: Castir &: Brooks 195 



Explanation of F'i \tf. 19 

Figure Page 

1S-4S Clisisinataspis liiiirciicii Taster and Brooks, n.gen.. n.sp 169-170 

IS. normal preahtiomiiial Inickler articulated with two of the post- 

ahdiiiiiial segments, stereo, X 3 170 

2S. Portion of a broken ventral prealidominal buckler showing one 

of the slit-shaped lateral openings, stereo, X 5 170 

3S. X'entral preabdomlnal buckler with a different expression of 

the paired chambers, stereo, X 3 169 

4S. Preabdomlnal bucklers in their respecti\e positions, ventral 
view, portions of the ventral buckler have been broken awaj' 
exposing the interior of the sclerites of the dorsal buckler, 
stereo, X 3 170 



196 Bulletin 157 



Exi'i. A. NATION OF Plate 20 

Figure Page 

lS-7. riijisinafiispis liiiirciicii (aster and Brooks, n.gen., n.sp 168-171 

IS. Postahdoiiiinal tagma with telson attaclied, stereo, X 5 171 

2. First transverse sclerite of dorsal preahdoininal buckler, X 5 168 

3. Postabdomen of immature individual poorly preserved, X 5. 

4. Isolated second transverse sclerite of dorsal preabdominal 
buckler, X 3 168 

5. Telson, X 5. 

6. V'entral preabdominal l)uckier with membrane of articulation, 

X 3 169 

7. Telson, X 5 171 



Bull. Amer. Paleont., Vol. 3G 



Plate 20 




f 4 



Bull. Amer. Paleont., Vol. 36 



Plate 21 







Tennessee Ordovician Fossils: Caster & Brooks 197 



Explanation of Piatk 21 

Figure Page 

lS-3. Douglasocaris collinsi Caster and Brooks, n.gen., n.sp 183 

IS. Holotvpe, dorsal view, coated with NHiCl.; stereo, U. S. N. M 
No. 125096, X 3 

2. Same as IS but photograpiied to show carbonaceous residue of 
exoskeleton and appendages, note antenna and appendages, X 5. 

3. Counterpart of holotype, note intestine, X S. 



198 Bulletin 157 



Explanation of Plate 22 

Figure Page 

1S-2S. Douglasocaris collinsi Caster and Brooks, n.gen., n.sp 183 

IS. Paratope, U. S. N. M., No. 125097, note long annulate pair of 
cercopods, X 3. 

2S. Paratype, U. S. N. M., No. 125098. X 2. 



Bull. Amer. Paleont., Vol. 36 



Plate 23 







Tennessee Ordovician Fossils: C'as'ii:r ;y Brooks 199 



Explanation ov Fi.atk 23 

Figure Page 

1-6. Probleinatioa 183 

1-4. Carbonaceous films believed to l)e pieces of algal threads or 
castings of some animal, X 3. 

5. Cestites iiiirabilis, n.gen., n.sp .. 183 

Holotype, U. S. N. M., No. 1250S7, believed to be a lobe of a 
fossil ctenophoran, X 3. 

6. Underside of a slal) with a trail chaiiging to a burrow. X 1. 



XXII. (Xos. 73-76). 356 pp., 31 pis 9.00 

Paleozoic Paleontology and Tertiary Foraminifera. 

XXIII. (Nos. 77-79). 251 pp., 35 pis 7.00 

Corals, Cretaceous microfauna and biography of Con- 
rad. 

XXK. (Nos. 80-87). 334 pp., 27 pis 9.00 

Mainly Paleozoic faunas and Tertiary Mollusca. 

XXV. (>us. SS.{)4I{). 306 pp.. ■^0 pis 9.00 

Paleozoic fossils of Ontario, Oklahoma and Colombia, 
Mesozoic echinoids, California Pleistocene and Mary- 
land Miocene mollusks. 

XXVI. (Nos. 95-100). 420 pp., 58 pis 10.00 

Florida Recent marine shells, Texas Cretaceous fos- 
sils, Cuban and Peruvian Cretaceous, Peruvian Eo- 
gene corals, and geology and paleontology of Ecua- 
dor. 

XXVII. (Nos. 10M08). 376 pp., 36 pis 9.50 

Tertiary Mollusca, Paleozoic cephalopods, Deyonian 
fish and Paleozoic geology and fossils of Venezuela. 

XXVIII. (Nos. 109-114). 412 pp., 54 pis 9.75 

Paleozoic cephalopods, Devonian of Idaho, Cretaceous 
and Eocene mollusks, Cuban and Venezuelan forams. 

XXIX. (Nos. 115.11«). 738 pp.. 52 pis 13.00 

Bowden forams and Ordovician cephalopods. 

XXX. (No. 117). 563 pp.. 65 pis 12.00 

Jackson Eocene mollusks. 

XXXI. (Nos. 118-128). 458 pp.. 27 pis 10.00 

Venezuelan and California mollusks, Chemung and 
Pennsylvanian crinoids, Cypraeidae, Cretaceous, 
Miocene and Recent corals, Cuban and Floridian 
forams, and Cuban fossil localities. 

XXXII. (Nos. 129.K53). 294 pp.. 39 pis s"." 

Silurian cephalopods, crinoid studies, Tertiary forams, 
and Mytilarca. 

XXXIII. (Nos. 134-i:;9). 448 pp.. 51 pis i ll.U" 

Devonian annelids. Tertiary mollusks, Ecuadoran 
stratigraphy and paleontology. 

XXXIV. (Nos. 140-145). 400 pp., 19 pis 9.00 

Trinidad Globigerinidae, Ordovician Enopleura. Tas- 
manian Ordovician cephalopods and Tennessee Or- 
dovician ostracods, and conularid bibliography. 

XXXV. (Nos. 146-154). 386 pp.. 31 pis 10.00 

G. D. Harris memorial, camerinid and Georgia Paleo- 
cene Foraminifera, South American Paleozoics, Aus- 
tralian Ordovician cephalopods. California Pleisto- 
cene Eulimidae, Volutidae, Cardiidae, and Devonian 
ostracods from Iowa. 

XXXVI. (Nos. 155, 156). 152 pp.. 11 pis l.t'i 

Globotruncana in Colombia, Eocene fish 

Palaeontographica Americana 

Volome I. (Nos. 1-5). 519 pp., 75 pis. 

Monographs of Areas, Lutetia, rudistids and venerids. 

IL (Nos. 6-12). 531 pp.. 37 pis 20 (^(i 

Heliophyllum halli, Tertiary turrids, Neocene Spon- 
dyli. Paleozoic cephalopods, Tertiary Fasciolarias 
and Paleozoic and Recent Hexactinellida. 

III. (Nos. 13-25). 513 pp.. 61 pis 20.00 

Paleozoic cephalopod structure and phylogeny. Paleo- 
zoic siphonophores, Busycon, Devonian fish studies, 
gastropod studies, Carboniferous crinoids. Creta- 
ceous jellyfish, Platystrophia. and Venericardia. 



Condensed Table of Contents of Bulletins of American 
Paleontology and Palaeontographica Americana 

bulletins of AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY 



Volume I. 
II. 

HI. 

IT. 

Y. 

VI. 
VIL 

VIII. 

IX. 

X. 

XI. 

XII. 

XIII. 
XIV. 

XV. 

XVI. 

XVII. 

XVIII. 

XIX. 

XX. 

XXI. 



jVos. 1-5). 354 pp. 32 pis. Mainly Tertiary Mollusca. 
Nos. 6-10). 347 pp., 23 pis. 

Tertiary Mollusca and Foraminifera, Paleozoic faunas. 
Nos. 11-15). 402 pp., 29 pis. 

Tertiary Mollusca and Paleozoic sections and faunas. 
Nos. 16-21). 161 pp., 26 pis .- 7.00 

Mainly Tertiary Mollusca and Paleozoic sections and 

faunas. 
iNos. 22-30). 437 pp., 68 pis 11.00 

Tertiary fossils mainly Santo Domingan, Mesozoic and 
Paleozoic fossils. 
No. 31). 268 pp., 59 pis 10.00 

Claibornian Eocene pelecypods. 
No. 32). 730 pp., 99 pis 13.00 

Claibornian Eocene scaphopods, gastropods, and 

cephalopods. 
Nos. 33-36). 357 pp., 15 pis 9.00 

Mainly Tertiary Mollusca. 
iVos. 37-39). 462 pp., 35 pis 11.00 

Tertiary Mollusca mainly from Costa Rica. 
Nos. 40-42). 382 pp., 54 pis 11.00 

Tertiary forams and mollusks mainly from Trinidad 
and Paleozoic fossils. 
Nos. 43-46). 272 pp., 41 pis 9.00 

Tertiary, Mesozoic and Paleozoic fossils mainly from 
Venezuela. 
Nos. 47-48). 494 pp., 8 pis 10.00 

Venezuela and Trinidad forams and Mesozoic inverte- 
brate bibliography. 
Nos. 49-50). 264 pp., 47 pis 8.00 

Venezuelan Tertiary Mollusca and Tertiary Mammalia. 
Nos. 51-54). 306 pp., 44 pis 10.00 

Mexican Tertiary forams and Tertiary mollusks of 
Peru and Colombia. 
Nos. 55^58). 314 pp., 80 pis 10.00 

Mainly Ecuadoran, Peruvian and Mexican Tertiary 
forams and mollusks and Paleozoic fossils. 
Nos. 59-61). 140 pp., 48 pis 5.00 

Venezuela and Trinidad Tertiary Mollusca. 
Nos. 62-63). 283 pp., 33 pis ..g,.J:...^....^ 8.00 

Peruvian Tertiary Mollusca. ' '' 
Nos. 64-67). 286 pp., 29 pis 8.00 

Mainly Tertiary Mollusca and Cretaceous corals. 
No. 68). 272 pp., 24 pis 8.00 

Tertiary Paleontology, Peru. 
Nos. 69-70C). 266 pp., 26 pis 8.00 

Cretaceous and Tertiary Paleontology of Peru and 
Cuba. 
Nos. 71-72). 321 pp., 12 pis 8.50 

Paleozoic Paleontology and Stratigraphy. 



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BULLETINS 

OF 

AMERICAN 
PALEONTOLOGY 



VOL. XXXVI 



\m. cc^p. zooL 

LIURARY 

m ^1956 

HARVARD 
yiilVERSlTY 



NUMBER 158 



1956 



Paleontological Research Institution 

Ithaca, New York 

U. S. A. 



PALEONTOLOGIGAL RESEARCH INSTITUTION 

1954-55 

President Ralph A. Liddle 

Vice-President „ Solomon C. Hollister 

Secretary-Treasurer Rebecca S. Harris 

Director Katherine V. W. Palmer 

Counsel Armand L. Adams 

Trustees 

Kenneth E. Caster (1954-1960) Katherine V. W. Palmer (Life) 

W. Storrs Cole (1952-58) Ralph A. Liddle (1950-56) 

Winifred Goldring (1955-1961) Axel A. Olsson (Life) 

Rebecca S. Harris (Life) Norman E. Weisbord (1951-57) 

Solomon C. Hollister (1953-59) 



BULLETINS OF AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY 

and 
PALAEONTOGRAPHICA AMERICANA 

Katherine V. W. Palmer, Editor 
Lempi H. Sincebaugh, Secretary 

Editorial Board 
Kenneth E. Caster G. Winston Sinclau 



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U.S.A. 



BULLETINS 
OF 
AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY 



Vol. 36 



No. 158 



JAMAICAN LAIU1IEK FOKAMINIFEKA 

By 

W. Storrs Cole 
Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 



May 8, 1956 



Paleontoiogical Research Institution 
Ithaca, New York. U.S.A. 



Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: GS56-301 



Printed in the United States of America 



m, COL^P. ZOOL 



JON VW56 
HARVARD 



CONTKNTS 

Abstract 205 

Introduction 205 

Analysis of the faunas 208 

Middle Eocene 208 

Upper Eocene 209 

Olisocene 212 

Miocene „ 212 

Description of species 214 

PsfuJochrysaliJina flondana Cole 215 

Coskinollna elongata Cole 21 5 

CoskinolinuiJcs jamaiccnsis Cole, n. sp 216 

D'lctyoconus amn'uanus (Cushman) 217 

Fabitlaria matlcyi ( Vaughan) 218 

Fabularia z-rrsryi Cole. n. sp 219 

Ofrrcuitnoidrs jrnny't Barker + 220 

Lrpidocyclina protriformis V^aughan 221 

Psfudolepidina triincni Barker and Grimsdale 222 

Pscudopliratimiita advciia (Ciishinan) 222 

Literature cited 223 

Plates 225 

) 

TABLES 

1. Middle Eocene ("Yellow Limestone") species identified liv Vaughan 206 

2. Upper Eocene species identified l\v \'aughan 207 

3. Oligocene species identified by Vaughan between 208-209 

4. Middle Eocene species and localities between 208-209 

5. Upper Eocene species and localities 210 

6. Oligocene species and localities 213 



JAMAICAN LARGER FORAMINIFERA^ 

W. Storrs Cole 
Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 

ABSTRACT 

The larger Foraminifera from 50 Jamaican localities are listed, many of 
them are illustrated, and a few are described in detail. Twenty localities arc 
middle Eocene, 19 are upper Eocene, 10 are Oligocene and 1 is Miocene. Cor- 
relation with other areas is suggested. The problem of species which appear to 
be common to the middle and upper Eocene is discussed. Two new species, 
CoskifiolinoiJes jarnaiccnsis and Fabularia vcrseyi, are described and illustrated. 

INTRODUCTION 

Through the courtesy of H. R. Versey of the Jamaican Geolog- 
ical Surv'ey samples from 50 localities in Jamaica, B.W.I., were sent 
to me for detailed study. Vaughan published the first detailed des- 
criptions of Jamaican larger Foraminifera in one extensive article 
(1928a) and two subsequent shorter articles (1928b; 1929). Han- 
zawa (1937) discussed several Jamaican species in a short article. 
Recently, Davies (1952) listed and discussed larger Foraminifera 
from the "white limestone" of the Kingston District, Jamaica. He 
did not describe or illustrate any of the species. 

The three tables which follow give the identifications of 
Vaughan, the names used for these same species in this article, and 
the designation of the localities at which Vaughan records these 
species. 

All of the species mentioned by Vaughan were found in the pres- 
ent collection with the exception of the upper Eocene species Disco- 
cyclina perkinsi Vaughan and the Oligocene species Lepidocyclina 
mirajlorensis Vaughan which may be a large specimen of L. camellei. 

Inasmuch as Davies did not illustrate or describe the species he 
recorded, it is difficult to know in certain cases the exact species 
he had. However, it is possible to recognize many of the species by 
the names which he used. For example, his Fabidaria afl. discolithes 
Defrance is without question the same as the one here designated 
FabuLaria versey i Cole, n. sp. 



'Published by permission of the Director of the Jamaican CJeoIogical 
Survey. The cost of the printed plates has been contributed by the William 
F. E. Gurley Fund for Paleontological Research at Cornell University. 



206 



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208 Bulletin 158 

The described specimens will be retained temporarily in the Cole 
collection but will be deposited eventually in the U. S. National 
Museum. 

ANALYSIS OF THE FAUNAS 

Middle Eocene. — Twenty localities with a total of 18 species are 
assigned to the middle Eocene. All of the species which have been 
described previously are known either in Jamaica or elsewhere to be 
middle Eocene in age. The distribution of these species is shown in 
Table 4. 

M-376. Great River Bridge, Ducketts, St. James. 

M-385. Spring Hill, St. James. 

M-404. Road Section between Maldon and Summer Hill, St 

James. 
M-409. Boghasey Spring, Summer Hill, St. James. 
M-412. Grandy Hole, Summer Hill, St. James. 
Z-172. Allsides Spring, Trelawny. 

Sandy River. One-half mile southwest of Sandy River, Clarendon 
V-224. Cutthroat Hill, St. James. 

Z-171. One quarter mile northeast of Allsides Great House, Tre- 
lawny. 
Z-217. Big Cave Spring, Tyre, Trelawny. 
Z-155. Roof of the entrance to Carambie Cave, Trelawny. 
V-294. Dutch Hill, Trelawny. 
Z-203. Wilson Run, Trelawny. 
V-192. Banana Spring, Mt. Zion, St. James. 
V-109. Marl Pit at the foot of Swanswick Hill, Trelawny. 
V-135. Hillside above the Hyde-Hampshire Road, Trelawny. 
M-4S4 and M-4S4a. Overhill Cave, Cutthroat, St. James. 
ZF-22. Negro River, X mile south of St. Ann's Bay, St. Ann. 
V-394. Lilyfield, St. Ann. 

Of the 18 middle Eocene species listed in Table 6 seven occur in 
the middle Eocene Loma Candela formation of Cuba. These species 
are designated by asterisks. Five species, designated by daggers, oc- 
cur in the Guayabal formation of Mexico and one species, Lepido- 



Tahle 3. Oligoccne spei 



identified by VauKha 



Vaughan's identification 


Ni 


imes used in this article 


1 


3 4 


20 


23 25 


Vaughan's locality numbers* 
26 29 43 46 55 56 58 68 


72 74 75 


80 84 


88 


Miogypsina bracuensis Vaughan 


Miogypsina 


aniillea (Cusliman) 










X 








Lepidocyclina (Up.) canellei Lem. & R. Douv. 


Lepidocyclina {Lep.) canellei Lem. & R. Douv. 










XXX X 








forresti Vaughan 




supera (Conrrd) 












X 






matleyi Vaughan 




canellei Lem. k R. Douv. 






X 












mirafhrensis Vaughan 
















X 






parmtla Cushman 




parvula Cushman 










X 








yurnagunensis Cushman 




yurnagunensis Cushman 




X 










X 




[Neph.) crassata Cushman 




(.Neph.) favosa Cushman 




X 




X 










undosa Cushman 




undosa Cushman 


X 


X X 




X 


XXX Xt X 


X X 


X X 


X 


gigas Cushman 




gigas Cushman 


X 


X X 






X X 


X 






var. 




gigas Cushman 


X 


X 








X 







' j and M omitted. 

^Mi^id>■^tificaIion: 



L. [Nrphruli-puini,,) (Imp.- 



Table 4. Middle Eo 



M M M M M Z Sandy VZZZVZ VVVMM 
376 3SS 40+ 409 412 172 River 224 171 217 155 294 203 192 109 135 454 454a 



/titerocycHna monticellcnsis Cole and Ponton* 












r 


penonnsis Cole and Gravell* 












r 


Camaiiueyia prrplexa Cole and Bermudez* r 


Coskinolina ehngala Cole 


a r 


a a 










CosHnoliriaiJrs jamaicrnsis Cole, n. sp. 


r r c c r 


r c 


r r 








Dicfyoroiius amerUanus (Cushman)* r r r r r 


Fahiana (ubensis (Cushman and Bermudez)* 






r c 




r r c a : 


1 c 


Faliularia matleyi (Vaughan) 




r 


r a 








llclicostcgina gyralis Barker and Grimsdale*t 


c 




a 




a 




Lrp'uiocyclina (Polylepidina) antilUa Cushman 






r 


c 


r 


a 


Lmderina jloriciana Cole r r 


Oprrculinfiictfs cushmani Colef 












c 


OprrcuIhwiJrs jcnnyi Barkert 










c 




PeUathpirclla malleyi (Vaughan) 






c c c 


c c 






PimdolrpiJina trimera Barker and Grimsdalef 










c a 




Picudophragmlna {Proporocylina) advena (Cushman) 












a 


iushmani ( Vaughan )'t r 


Yalferinella jamaicensis Vaughan 






a a 


a a 


c 





1 — abundant; c = common; r = rare. t Occurs also in the Guayabal formation of Mexico. 

'Occurs also in Loma Candela formation of Cuba 



[amaican Lak(.i k Kok \mi\ii I ka: COii; 209 



'syclina {Polylrpidina) antillea Cushman, is found in the Cook 
Mountain formation from Texas to Florida. The Loma Candela, 
(iua\alial, and Cook. Mountain formations are approxnnately tlie 
same atje and the locahties in Jamaiea at which these species occur 
are correlated with these formations. 

Linderina jloridana is associated in Plorichi with Ilelicostegina 
gyra/is, and Fabularia viatlcyi occurs \vit.h Asterocyclina vwnticel- 
/rnsis. Therefore, the localities in Jamaica at which these species 
occur may represent the equivalent of the Cook Mountain forma- 
tion. However, Coskinolina don gat a which occurs with Fabidaria 
matleyi in Jamaica appears in Florida to occur at a horizon below 
the Cook Mountain. 

Pseiidophragmina (Proporocyc/ina) advena is a marker for the 
Weches formation of Louisiana and Texas. It seems probable, there- 
fore, that this locality in Jamaica represents a lower horizon than 
does the major number of the localities. 

Upper Eocene. — The upper Eocene is represented by 19 
samples. 

I he (hstnbution of the species is shown m Table 5. 
Zl.^1. (jineppa Spring, Dromilly, Frelawny. 
Z- S5. Coxheath Old Well, Trelawny. 
V'L-78. Deep bend in Mannings Hill — Stirling Castle road, St. 

Andrew. 
VL-87. Swainspring — Stirling Castle road, St. Andrew. 
VL-92. Corner of Montgomery Road, Stony Hill, St. Andrew. 
\'-134c and V-134cx. Good Design, Trelawny. 
V-107. High cliff above the Kinloss-Duanvale Road, Trelawny. 
V-llla and V-lllb. Sections at roughly 1(X) yard intervals from 

south to north along the Swanswick-Vale Royal Road, 

Trelawny. 
\-127. Cliff aho\e the Reserve-Sherwood Road, Trelawny. 
Crab Hill Point near Port Antonio, Portland. 
M-448. Junction of Canaan-Gales Valley with Wemmys Road, St. 

James. 
\'-108. Hillside above the Kinloss-Clarks Town Road, Trelawny. 
\-122. Jackson Town — Arcadia Road, Trelawny. 
\ -134. Good Design, Trelawny. 

Z-10. Marl pit between Coxheath and Windsor, Trelawny. 
Z-79a. Mouth of Windsor Cave, Trelawny. 



210 



Bulletin 158 



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Jamaican Lar(;kr Koramimklra: Colk 211 



There are 18 species recorded from these Jamaican upper F.ocene 
localities of which five have been recorded in Florida (Cole, 1941, 
p. 20) as occurring only in the middle Eocene. These species are 
Coskinolina jloridana Cole, Dictyoconus amerkaniis (Cushman), 
D. cookei (Moberg), Fabiania cubensis (Cushman and Bermudez), 
and Pseudochrysalidina jloridana Cole. In addition, Pellatispirella 
matleyi (Vaughan) which occurs abundantly in the Jamaican mid- 
dle Eocene was found at a few localities which are assigned to the 
upper Eocene. 

Fabularia verseyi Cole, n. sp. occurs at four localities in associa- 
tion with Lepidocyclina (Pliolepidina) macdonaldi Cushman, a 
supposedly upper Eocene species, but at five localities this species 
of Fabularia is associated with species which have been assumed to 
be restricted to the middle Eocene. Similar admixtures of middle 
and upper Eocene have been reported previously (Cole, 1952, p. 5). 
Whether the ranges of such species must be extended or whether 
in many of these cases the introduction of these species into certain 
faunas is through reworking is still a question that cannot be set- 
tled without more evidence. The only sample which exhibited defi- 
nite evidence of reworking is V-107. In this sample the middle 
Eocene species are not only eroded but have a different type of 
preservation. 

The problem of the association of supposed middle Eocene 
species in association with assumed upper Eocene species has been 
troublesome in Cuba. Keijzer ( 1945, p. 44) stated "Little need be 
said about these samples except for the occurrence at loc. T. 1452 of 
lAtuonella injlata n. sp., Coskinolina cookei and Dictyoconus codon 
in the upper Eocene, because at the hand of these fossils only, one 
should have concluded very probably to a middle Eocene age." 
Inasmuch as Lituonella injlata Keijzer is without question a syn- 
onym of L. jloridana Cole, and Dictyoconus codon has been proven 
to be the same as D. americanus (Cushman ), Keijzer encountered in 
Cuba the same association which is troublesome in Jamaica. 

Woodring and Daviess ( 1944, p. 366) reported Coskinolina ( ] ) 
sp. and Dictyoconus cf. americanus from the Cobre volcanics of 
upper Eocene age of Cuba and Dictyoconus { .' ) cf. americanus from 
the lower part of the Charco Redondo limestone also of upper 
Eocene age. Bermudez (1950, p. 239, 246) placed the Cobre forma- 



212 Bulletin 158 



tion in the lower Eocene and the Charco Redondo formation in the 
middle Eocene. However, the lists of large Foraminifera given by 
Bermudez especially for the Charco Redondo formation indicate an 
upper, rather than a middle Eocene age. 

However, Bermudez (1950, p. 248) recorded Coskinolina flori- 
dana, Dictyoconus a-rnericanus, and Lituonella jloridana from the 
Jabaco formation which he assigned to the upper Eocene. Therefore, 
it is apparent that certain middle Eocene species do occur in the 
upper Eocene of Cuba. 

As 12 of the 18 species occurring in the samples assigned to the 
upper Eocene occur in the Gatuncillo formation of Panama, the 
upper Eocene of Jamaica is correlated with that formation. 

Oligocene. — Ten samples listed in Table 6 are from definite 
Oligocene localities. These localities correlate with the middle mem- 
ber of the upper Oligocene Caimito formation of the Gatun Lake 
area of Panama (Cole, 1952, p. 7). The species and association of 
species are the same in both areas. 

V-9S. Daniel Town, Trelawney. 

V-97. Hillside above Long Pond-Gibraltar Road, Trelawny. 
V-102. Exposure beside Hyde Hall-Stanford Road, Trelawny. 
V-121. Jackson Town-Arcadia Road, Trelawny. 
V-170. Between Dumfries and Content, St. James. 
V-296. Vale Royal-Hampshire Road, Trelawny. 
V-297. Carlton, St. James. 

J-68M. Rio Bueno Road, 0.75 miles north of Jackson Town, Tre- 
lawny. 
Z-3. Road section above the pond at Reserve, Trelawny. 

Z-5. About 27 chains above Water Boil, Potosi, Trelawny. 

Miocene. — One sample, V-32, from a cliff above road, Southfield 
Trelawny, contains rather numerous specimens of Operculinoides 
tamanensis Vaughan and Cole. This is the only sample representing 
the Miocene. 



Jamaican Lak(;i:r Foramimif-ra: Colk 



213 



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u 



o 



o 



.~2 
'•5. 



214 Bulletin 158 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 

The following species from Jamaica, B. W. I., which have been 
described completely elsewhere are illustrated and a reference partic- 
ularly to other good illustrations is given: 

Asterocyclina monticellensis Cole and Ponton (pi. 29, figs. 4, 5). 

See: Cole and Gravell, 1952, pi. 97, figs. 1-11. 
Asterocyclina penonensis Cole and Gravell (pi. 29, figs. 1-3). 

See: Cole and Gravell, 1952, pi. 98, figs. 1-8. 
Asterocyclina ^ninima (Cushman) (pi. 30, fig. 9). 

See: Cole, 1952, pi. 26. 
Coskinolina jloridana Cole (pi. 24, figs. 3-5). 

See: Cole, 1941, pi. 4, figs. 1-9. 
Dictyoconns cookei (Moberg) (pi. 25, figs. 6, 7). 

See: Cole, 1941, pi. 6, figs. 1-8. 
Lepidocyclina (Polylepidina) antillea Cushman (pi. 27, fig. 9; pi. 30, 

figs. 7, 8). 

See: Cole, 1944, pi. 10; pi. 11. 
Lepidocyclina (Pliolepidina) 'fn.acdonaldi Cushman (pi. 27, figs. 3-5, 

8; pi. 28, figs. 1-5). 

See: Cushman, 1918, pi. 40, figs. 1-6. 
Lepidocyclina (Pliolepidina) pustulosa H. Douville (pi. 27, figs. 1, 

2; pi. 28, fig. 6; pi. 30, figs. 1-3). 

See: Cole, 1952, pi. 13, figs. 1-20; pi. 14, figs. 1-10. 
Lepidocyclina [Pliolepidina) pustulosa tobleri H. Douville (pi. 28, 

fig. 11). 

See: Vaughan and Cole, 1941, pi. 24, figs. 1-10. 
Linderina floridana Cole (pi. 30, figs. 4-6). 

See: Cole, 1942, pi. 11, fig. 8; pi. 15, figs. 7-11. 
Miogypsina (Miolepidocyclina) panamensis (Cushman) (pi. 30, fig. 

10). 

See: Cole, 1952, pi. 25, figs. 1-8. 
Operculinoides cushnmni (Cole) (pi. 30, figs. 11-13; pi. 31, figs. 5, 

6). See Cole, 1927, pi. 2, fig. 13. 



JAMAICAN Lar(;fr Foram I m fkra : Coi.H 215 



1 aiiiily YVI,Vri,I.MI»AK 

Genus I'SKllMX HKYSALIIU^ A ( ole, 1941 
1945. Psiudoiiofsrlla Keijzer 

Pseiidochrysalidinn floridana ("ole PI. 24. figs. 1, 2; PI. 25, figs. 1-5 

1941. Psrudochrysaiuiina floriJana Cole, Florida Geol. Survey, Hull 19, p. 
36, pi. 1, figs. 10, 11 ; pi. 2, fig. 4. 

Several additional thin sections of topotypes were prepared 
for comparison with the Jamaican specimens. As there are no signif- 
icant differences in internal structure between these specimens and 
the Jamaican ones, they are considered to be this species. 

Genus COSKIXOLINA Stache, 1875 
Coskinolinu eloiigratii Cole PI. 24, figs. 6-11; PI. 31, figs. 1-2 

1942. Coskinolina dongata Cole, Florida Geol. Survey, Bull, 20, p. 20, 21, 
pi. 3, figs. 15-17; pi. 4, figs. 1-3; pl. 5, figs. 2-7; pi. 16, fig. 6. 

This species is characterized by coarse internal structure. 
Measurements of five Jamaican specimens follow: 



Specimen 1 2 

Height mm. 2.03 2.37 

Diameter mm. 2.13 2.03 

Marginal trough (near base) : 

Height M 130 100- 

130 

Width M 250 220- 

250 

Thickness of floors and roofs ....M 40-50 40-50 

Diameter of central shield mm. 1.5 1.4 



Discussion. — Although the typical Jamaican specimens are 
slightly larger and have a more extensive central shield, the other 
features are so similar that there can be no doubt that they should 
be referred to the lower middle Eocene species described from 

Florida. 



1.85 


1.2 


1.95 + 


1.5 


1.47 


1.65 


100- 


50- 


100 


120 


90 




250- 


170- 


250- 


280 


190 


290 


30 


40 


30 


0.93 


0.9 


1.0 



216 Bulletin 158 

Genus COSKINOLINOMH-IS Keijzer, 1942 
roskiiiollnoides janiaicensis Cole, n.sp. PI. 24, figs. 12-16; PI. 31, figs. 3, 4 

The test is small, conical, with the height generally about 
twice the diameter of the base. The wall of the cone is straight, and 
the basal part of the test is protuberant and rounded. The juncture 
of the conical wall and the base is not sharp. The test is encircled 
by rather evenly spaced concentric depressions which mark the 
position of the floors and roofs of the marginal troughs. Slightly 
abraided specimens show the vertical partitions of the marginal 
trough so that small rectangular areas cover the surface in these 
eroded places. The height and basal diameter of 15 specimens follow: 

Height (mm.) Diameter of base (mm.) 

1.20 0.80 

1.25 0.84 
1.50 1.00 

1.50 0.86 

1.51 0.86 
1.55 0.95 
1.62 0.86 
1.65 0.85 
1.70 0.85 
170 0.80 
1.75 1.35 
1.80 0.91 
2.00 0.90 
2.20 1.05 
2.51 1.30 

Average 1.68 0.94 



Jamaican Larcjkr Koraminmi-ra: Coi.e 217 

Measurements of certain critical internal structures follow: 

Specimen 12 3 4 

Marginal troiipli (near base of test) 

HeiKht /^ 90 100 100 90 

Width M 200 190 210 180 

Thickness of roofs and floors M 30 30 35 30 

Diameter of central shield /^ 350 400 400 390 



There are few perforations through the central shield, hut 
those that occur are relatively large with a diameter of about 50 /i. 
The central shield is separated from the marginal trough by a con- 
tinuous line of perforations on each side. Buttresses occur infre- 
quently on the central shield and are formed usually by a sharp 
downward flexure of the central shield. 

Transverse sections show the chambers of the marginal trough 
are subdivided by a single short vertical plate. 

Discussion. — This species is similar to Coskinnlinoides adkinsi 
Barker from clays of Walnut (Lower Cretaceous) age of Texas. 
C. adkinsi is much smaller and has the height of the test approxi- 
mately equal to the basal diameter. The base of the test of C. 
adkinsi is flat and the conical wall joins the base at a sharp angle. 

Genus DICTYOCONUS Blanckenhorn, 1900 
DIctjooonus ainericaiius (Cushman) PI. 25, li?s. 8-11 

1919. Conulitfs atnn'uaria Cushman, Carnegie Inst. Washington, I'niil. 291, 

p. 43, text-fig. 3. 
1928. Dittyoionus coAnn Woodring, Vaughan, four. Paleont., v. 1, p. 280, 

281, pi. 43, figs. l-5b. 
1928. Diftyoconns puithoiratunsis Woodring, X'aiigiian, iJrm, p. 2S1 pi 43 

fig. 6. 
1928. Cushmania amrricana (Cushman), \'aughan, iJrm, p. 2X1. 2S2. pi 44 

figs. 1, 2. 
1928. Cushmania fonlahrllrrisis Vaughan, iJrrn, p. 282, 2S3, pi. 44, fig. 3. 
1942. Diityo( onus arnn'u anus (Cushman), Cole, Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 

20, p. 21-24, pi. 3, figs. 12, 13; pi. 6, figs. 1-9; pi. 7, figs. 1-5; pi. 16, figs. 

14, 15 [additional references]. 
I 
In the original description of Ciis/i nuniia jontabellensis Vaughan 



218 Bulletin 158 



stated that the internal structure of this species is similar to that 
of Dictyoconus americanus, but the "short lamellae that project 
inward between the peripheral platforms is about seven for each 
interspace . . . ." He concluded that "There may in reality be only 
one species, but in the present stage of information different names 
are helpful." 

Vaughan reported that D. americanus and D. jontabellensis 
occur at the same locality. This association was found in the 
present collection. Moreover, D. america'mis is abundant and D. jont- 
abellensis rare. The specimens of D. jontabellensis are large and 
have more numerous short lamellae, but otherwise they are 
entirely similar to D. amencamis. 

It is apparent, therefore, that D. jontabellensis represents only 
well-developied or gerontic specimens of D. americanus. 

Family 3IILI0L11)AE 

Genus FAHULAHIA Defrance, 1820 
Fabnlaria matleyi (Vaughan) PI. 26. figs. 7-14 

1929. Borclis matleyi Vaughan, Jour. Paleont., v. 3, p. 377, 378, pi. 40, figs. 

2. 3, 3a. 
1929. Borclis jamaicensis Vaughan, idem, p. 378, 380, pi. 40, figs. 4-10. 
1929. Borclis jamaicensis truncata Vaughan, idem, p. 380, pi. 40, figs. 11, 12. 
1934. Fahularia vaughani Cole and Ponton, Amer. Midland Nat., v. 15, p. 

139-141, pi. 1, figs. 1-9. 
1937. Fahularia vaughani Cole and Ponton, Hanzawa, Jour. Paleont., v. 11, 

p. 111-113, pi. 20, figs. 1-4. 
1945. Fahularia vaughani Cole and Ponton, Cole, Florida Geo!. Survey, Bull. 

28, p. 98-101, pi. 15, fig. 6; pi. 16, figs. 1-10. 

All of Vaughan's (1929) illustrations of his "Borelis" are trans- 
verse sections with the exception of his figure 2 which is a tangential 
axial section. The axial sections of specimens from locality Z-171 
are associated with transverse sections which are identical to 
Vaughan's transverse sections and, therefore, demonstrate that his 
^^Borelis" is Fabularia. 

The specimens named F. vaughani from Florida have each 
chamber divided into a single row of chamberlets which are bounded 
by relatively thick walls. Vaughan's figure 7 shows identical features. 
Although certain specimens have much thinner walls bounding the 
chamberlets, this represents individual and not specific variation as 
all gradations can be noted in individuals from the same localitv. 



Jamaican I.arcik Foramimikka: Coi.e Il^J 



Fal)uliiria verse) i Cole. n.sp. 1*1. 2ti. ii^s. l-»; 

1937. Ftihularla (?) sp. .\, llaii/awa. Jour, i'alt-oiit., \. 11, p. 113, \A. 2ii, 

figs. 5, 6. 
1937. Fabularia sp., Uan/awa, IJrm. p. 113, pi. 21, fi^. 3. 

The tost is elongate, subcylindrical with gently rounded ends. 
Typical specimens have a length of 2.0 to 3.0 mm. and diameters 
from 1.0 to 1.56 mm. 

Many sections show only a single large embryonic chamber. A 
transverse section (PI. 26, fig. 6) with diameters of 0.9 by 1.1 mm. 
has a large embryonic chamber with diameters of 300 by 350 fx. 
There is a smaller chamber at one side of this chamber with diam- 
eters of 40 by 140 fjL. Another transverse section (PI. 26, fig. 5) with 
diameters of 1.0 by 1.56 mm. has a larger embryonic chamber with 
diameters of 380 by 420 /x which completely surrounds a smaller 
chamber with diameters of 170 by 190 /x. An axial section with a 
length of 2.05 mm. and a diameter of 1.1 mm. has a single embryonic 
chamber with diameters of 260 by 230 fi. 

Transverse sections show the bilocular arrangement of the 
chambers. These chambers have thick walls and are normally sub- 
divided into two rows of irregularly shaped chamberlets. 

Axial sections which are centered show two or more rows of 
small, irregular, but more or less rounded chamberlets, but in axial 
sections which are not centered the chamberlets appear as elongate, 
irregular and sometimes bifurcate openings. 

Discussion. — This species differs from F. matleyi in possessing 
two or more rows of chamberlets in each chamber. The chamberlet 
openings are small, irregular, and the bounding wall is thick, where- 
as the chamberlets in F. matleyi are normally square or rectangular 
in shape and regularly arranged. 

Hanzawa's (1929, p. 113) Fabularia ( .^ ) sp. B represents a 
transverse section of Y aberinella jamaicensis Vaughan. 

This species is without question the one identified by Davies 
(1952, p. 127) as Fabularia aff. discolithes Defrance. Ihere is re- 
semblance in certain sections (compare Cole and Ponton's (1934, 
pi. 1, fig. 10) figure with figure 1, Plate 26 of this article), but 
the transverse sections are diflFerent in that F. discolithes has nor- 
mally only a single row of chamberlets as shown by figure 15, 
Plate 26. 



220 Bulletin 15S 

Family ('A.MKKLMJ)AE 

Genus Ol'KKCULINOIDES Hanzawa, 1035 

Operciilinoides jennyi Barker PI. 31, figs. 7-9 

1939. Operculinoides jennyi Barker, U. S. Nat. Mus., Proc, v. 86, No. 3052, 

p. 315, 316. pi. 12, fig. 7; pi. 14, fig. 7; pi. 17, fig. 3; pi. 19, fig. 7; pi. 21, 
fig. 9. 

Measurements of three thin sections follow: 

Height mm. 2.95 3.7 3.5 

Width mm. 2.8 3.05 

Thickness mm. 1.0 

Diameters of initial chamber j" 160x180 180x200 

Diameter of second chamber M 120x150 140x200 

Distance across both chambers M 300 330 380 

Number of coils 3 3 

Number of chambers in first volution .... 8 9 

Number of chambers in final volution .... 20 22 



Discussion. — The types of this species came from Jenny's 
locaHty No. 1573 which Barker stated is "an outcrop 11 kilometers 
southeast of Sabaneta, Vera Cruz." At this same locality Barker 
and Grimsdale (1937, p. 172) recorded Pseudolepidina trimera, but 
stated "at Jenny station No. 1573, five kilometers E.S.E. from 
Sabaneta, State of Veracruz." This locality has in addition Helicoste- 
gina gyralis Barker and Grimsdale. The formation is given by 
Barker (1939, p. 316) as Guayabal. 

The Jamaican specimens are identical with the types. This 
species has large embryonic chambers. Although Barker does not 
give the dimensions of these chambers, his figure 7, plate 19 shows 
these chambers to be large with the distance across both chambers 
at least 300 /x. 

0. cushmani Cole has much smaller embryonic chambers and 
a much more fragile test. 



Jamaican I.ar(;kr K»)Ramimhra: Cole 221 

I aiuily OltltllOIDIlrVi: 

Genus LKI'MKK'VrLIN V riumbel, 1870 

Subgenus IMioIepidiiia H. Douville. 1917 

l.cpiiitM-.wliiia ( I'liolepidiiiii) proteiforiiiis Vaughan 

PI. 27. f'Ks. t^, 7; l'\. 2S. figs. 7-li> 

1924. Li-piJucydiria (PulylrpiJinii) protciforinls V'aughan, Geol. Soc. Amer. 

Hull., V. 35, p. 810-812, pi. 32, figs. 1-7. 
1929. Lcpuiocydtua [Polylcpidina) protriformis V'aughan, Nat. .\cad. Sci., 

Froc, V. 15, p. 291, fig. 8. 
1936. Polylcpidina protcifurmis Vaughan, Barker and Cirimsdale, Jour. 

Paleont., v. 10, p. 241, pi. 33, fig. 3 ; pi. 36, fig. 5. 
1938. LcpidocycHtid { Polylcpidina) protciformis Vaughan, Cole, Florida Geol. 

Survey, Bull. 16. p. 47, pi. 10, figs. 6-9. 

The equatorial section of L. (P.) ariana Cole and Ponton, L. 
(P.) macdonaldi Cushman, and L. (P.) gubernacula Cole are 
simihir to those of L. proteifortnis, a species long considered to be- 
long to the subgenus Polylepidina. Therefore, L. proteiformis is 
transferred to the subgenus Pliolepidina. 

During the restudy of topotypes of L. (P.) proteijormis from 
0.5 kilometers southwest of Palma Sola, Vera Cruz, Mexico, speci- 
mens of Triplalepidina veracruziana Vaughan and Cole (1938, p. 
167) were found in the same fragment of rock. Vaughan and Cole 
stated that this genus is found in the Tantoyuca formation of upper 
Eocene age. However, Barker and Grimsdale (1936, p. 244) placed 
L. (P.) proteijormis near the top of the upper middle Eocene. 

Two vertical and one equatorial section of topotypes of L. (P.) 
proteiformis are illustrated for comparison with the Jamaican speci- 
mens assigned to this species. 

The floors and roofs of the lateral chambers of L. (P.) protei- 
jorinis are relatively thm and straight and the cavities of the lateral 
chambers are open. L. (P.) riiacdonaldi has much thicker and 
curxed Hoc rs and roots of the lateral chanilHrs and the cavities of 
the chambers are more appressed. L. (P.) L^uhi'rtuuula has thin and 
straight floors and roofs of the lateral chambers, and the cavities of 
the chambers are large, rectangular, and oj^en. L. (P.) ariana has 
relatively thick but straight floors and roofs of the lateral chambers, 
and the chambers cavities are rather low. In addition there are 
slight differences between these species in the shape of the equa- 
torial chambers although all are the arcuate type. 



222 Bulletin 

Genus PSEUDOLEPIIUNA Barker and Grimsdale, 1937 
Psendolepidiiui triiiiersi Barker and Grimsdale PI. 31, figs. 10-16 

1937. Pscudolepidina trimcra Barker and Cirimsdale, Ann. and Mag. Nat. 
Hist., ser. 10, v. 19, p. 172, 173, pi. 5, figs. 1-3; pi. 8, figs. 1-5. 

The Jamaican specimens are identical with the types from 
Mexico. Barker and Grimsdale (1937, p. 169), however, stated that 
"a third chamber, which perhaps should be included as part of 
the nucleoconch, is large and partially embracing, and lies to one 
side of the equatorial plane . . ." This third chamber occurs in two 
of the vertical sections of the Jamaican specimens but does not show 
in the others. The position of this third chamber may be an indi- 
vidual character rather than a generic one as they imply. 

Discussion. — Although Pseudolepidina and Triplalepidina 
Vaughan and Cole ( 1938) are based on distinct species, the question 
may be raised whether these two genera should not be combined 
The distinctive structure in each is the doubhng of the equatorial 
layer near the periphery. It would seem that the middle Eocene 
Pseudolepidina trimera is the ancestor of the upper Eocene Trip- 
lalepidiyia veracruziana. Whether the two genera should oe com- 
bined or not cannot be decided, but the relationship these two 
genera have to each other should be stressed at this time. 

Family DISCOCYCLLNIDAF. 

Genus FSKUDOFHKAGMINA H. Douville, 1923 

Subgenus PROPOROCYCLmA Vaughan and Cole, 1940 

Psendophragininn (ProixMocjclina) advena (Cushman) PI. 29, figs. 6-10 

1921. Ortliophragmma ad-vena Cushman, U. S. Geol. Survey, Prof. Paper 
128-E, p. 139, pi. 22, figs. 1-5. 

1938. Discocyclina advena (Cushman), Gravel] and Hanna, Amer. Assoc. 
Petrol. Geol., Bull., v. 22, p. 1008-1010, pi. 6, fig. 8; pi. 7, figs. 4, 8. 

1952. Pseudophragmina (Proporocydina) advena (Cushman), Cole and 
Gravell, Jour. Paleont., v. 26, p. 721, pi. 100, figs. 4, 9. 

The vertical section (PI. 29, fig. 8) should be compared with 
the illustration (Cole and Gravell, 1952, pi. ICK), fig. 9) of a topo- 
type from the Cane River, Natchitoches, Louisiana. The structure 
of the vertical section of this species is much coarser than that ex- 



JAMAICAN LaRCKR KoRA.M I M I- IK A : Coi-K 



223 



hibited hy any of rhc other closely rclatecl species except P. (P.) 
teres Cole and (Jravell, \nn rh,s species has more appressed lateral 
chambers. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Harker, K. ». 

1939. Spr.irs oj the foraminifnal family Camerlnldae In the Tertiary and 
m'pk n-''22 "■ ^' ^' ^'''' ^'"'■' ^'°'- '■• ^^' -'^°- ^^^2. P 305- 

Harker. I{. »., and (iriiiisdale, T. F. 

1936. .^ contnhutwn to the phytogeny of the orbltouial Foramlnlfera iilth 

%. 10, No. 4, p. 231-247, pis. 30-38. 4 text figs 

1937. Studies of Mexican fossil Foramlnlfera. Ann. and Mag. Nat Hist 
ser. 10, V. 19, p. 161-178, pis. 5-9, 2 text figs. ' 

IJerinndez, P. J. 

1950. Contrlbuclon al estudlo del Cenozolco Cnhano. Soc. Cuhana Hist 
-Nat. Mem., v. 19, No. 3, p. 205-375. 

( ole, W. Storrs 

1927 A foramlnlferal fauna from the Guayahal formation In Mexleo. 
Kull. Amer. Paleont., v. 14, xNo. 51, p. 1-46, 5 pis 

1941. Stratigraphic and paleontologie studies \f ii-ells In Florida. Florida 
,0?. o ^".''"^>' ^""- 19, p. 1-91, pis. 1-18, 4 text figs. 

1942. Stratigraphic and paleontologie .studies of iiells In Florida— No 2 
Flonda Ceol. Survey, Bull. 20, p. 1-89, pis. 1-16, 4 text figs. " " 

1944. Stratigraphic and paleontologie studies of ^rlls In Florida— No 3 
i-lorida Geol. Survey, Bull. 26, p. 1-168, pis. 1-29, 3 text figs 

19 52 (1953). Eocene and Oligocene larger Foramlnlfera from the Panama 
Canal Zone and vicinity. U. S. Geol. Survev, Prof. Paper 244 n 1-41 
pis. 1-28, 2 text figs. ' , i- i ti. 

Cole, >V. Storrs, and J'onton, ii. M. 

1934. ^'•'v.- species of Fabularla. Asterocyclina and Lepldocycllna from 
the Honda Eocene. Amer. Midland Nat., v. 15, No. 2, p. 138-147, 2 pis. 
Cole, W. Storrs, and (iravell, I). >V. 

1952. .U /././/,• Eocene Foramlnlfera from Pehon Seep, Maianzas Province 
Luba. Journ. Paleont., v. 26, \o. 5, p. 708-727, pis. 9(1-103. 

Cn.shnian, J. A. 

1918. The larger fossil Foramlnlfera of the Panama Canal Zone U S 
Nat. Mus., Bull. 103, p. 89-102, pis. 34-45. 

Davies, L. M. 

1952. Foramlnlfera of the IFhlte Limestone of the Kingston District 
Jamaica. Edin. Geol. Soc. Trans., v. 15, p. 121-132. 1 text fig. 

Han/awa, S. 

1937. Notes on some Interesting Cretaceous and Tertiary Foramlnlfera 
from the H est Indies. Journ. Paleont.. v. 11, No. 2. p. 110-117, pis. 



224 Bulletin 158 



Keijzer, F. G. 

1945. Outline of the geology of the eastern part of the province of 
Orient e, Cuba (E of 76° WL) ivith notes on the geology of other parts 
of the island. Doctor's Diss. Utrecht, p. 1-216, pis. 1-11, 34 text figs. 

Vaiighan, T. \V. 

192'8a. Species of large arenaceous and orbitoidal Foraininifera from the 

Tertiary deposits of Jamaica. Journ. Paieont., v. 1, No. 4, p. 277-298, 

pis. 43-50. 
1928b. Yaberinella jamaicensis, a neic genus and species of arenaceous 

Foraminifera. Journ. Paieont., v. 2, No. 1, p. 7-12, pis. 4, 5. 
1929. Additional new species of Tertiary larger Foraminifera from 

Jamaica. Journ. Paieont., v. 3, No. 4, p. 373-382, pis. 39-41. 

Taughaii, T. W., and Cole, W. Storrs 

1938. Triplalepidina veracruziana, a neiv genus and species of orbitoidal 
Foraminifera from the Eocene of Mexico. Journ. Paieont., v. 12, No. 2, 
p. 167-169, pi. 27. 

1941. Preliminary report on the Cretaceous and Tertiary larger Fora- 
minifera of Trinidad, British West Indies. Geol. Soc. Amer., Sp. Paper 
30, p. 1-137, pis. 1-46. 2 text figs 

Woodriiig, W. P., and Daviess, S. N. 

1944. Geology and manganese deposits of Guisa-Los Negros area, Oriente 
Province, Cuba. U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 935-G, p. 357-385, 1 pi., 11 
text figs. 



PLATES 



226 Bulletin 158 



Explanation of Plate 24 

Figure Page 

1, 2. Psendochrysalidlna floridaiia Cole 215 

Transverse sections, X 20, to illustrate the triserial character 
of the test and labyrinthic central axis; 1, Topotype, from the 
Peninsular Oil and Refining Company's J. W. Cory well No. 
1 (W-445) near Pinecrest, Monroe County, Florida at a depth 
of 1500-1510 feet; 2, locality, VL 78. 

3-5. Coskliiolina floridana Cole 214 

3, 5, Axial sections, X 40 ; 4, Transverse section, X 40 ; 3, 4. 
Locality Z-85 ; 5, Locality, Z-79a. 

6-11. CoskJnolina elon^'ata Cole 215 

6, 11. Transverse sections, X 20; 7-9, 10. Axial sections, 7, 8, 
10, X 20; 9, X 40; locality, Sandy River. 

12-16. Coskinolinoides jamaicensis Cole, n. sp 216 

12, 13. Transverse sections, X 40; 14-16. Axial sections, X 40; 
14, holotype ; locality, Sandy River. 



Unless otherwise stated, the localities are from Jamaica, B.VV.I. 



Bull. Amer. Paleont., Vol. 36 



Plate 24 




Bull. Amer. Paleont., Vol. 36 



Plate 25 




JAMAICAN LaR(;ER FoRAMlM !• kra : CoLE 227 



Exiilanation of I'latf 25 

Figure Page 

l-f). 1's<>ii(l4K'hr.vsaIi(liii!i floridiiiia ("ole 215 

Axial sections, X 20; 1, 2. Locality VL92; 3-5, topotypes from the 
Peninsular Oil and Refining Company's J. W. Cory well .No. 
1 (\V-445) near Pinecrest Monroe Countv, Florida; 3, 5, at a 
depth of 1360-1370 feet; 4, at a depth of 1400-1410 feet. 

6-7. IHct.vocoiuis oookei (Moberg) 214 

Axial sections, X 40, to show the single horizontal plate in 
each marginal chamber; locality Crab Hill Point. 

8-11. l)i<*tjo(MHiiis ainoricaiiiis (Cushman) 217 

.\xiai sections; S, 11, X 20; 9, 10, X 40; 10. Enlarged part of 
figure 11; 9, 10. Specimen similar to those named D. jonta- 
hfllrnsis Vaughan ; 8. Locality, Z-155; 9. Locality Z-131; 10. 
11. Locality Z-8 5. 



228 Bulletin 158 



Explanation of Plate 26 

Figure Page 

1-6. Fabularia rerseji Tole. n. sp 219 

1-4. Axial sections, X 20; 1. Locality VL87; 2, locality, V-IOS; 

3, 4. Locality VL78. 
5, 6. Transverse sections, X 40 ; 6, holotype; localities VL78. 

7-14. Fabularia matleji (Vaughan) 218 

7, 8, 11, 12. Axial sections, X 20 ; 9, 10, 13, 14. Transverse sec- 
tions, 9, 10, 14, X 20; 13, X 40; 7-10. Locality, Z-171; 11-14, 
locality Sandy River. 

15. Fabularia discolithes Defiance 219 

Transverse section, X 40, introduced for comparison with the 
Jamaican specimens; Lutetien, Chaussy, France, presented to 
the writer by the late Joseph A. Cushman. 



Bi'LL. A.MER. Paleont., Vol. 36 



Plate 26 




Bull. Amer. Paleont., Vol. 36 



Plate 27 




Jamaican Lar(;i;r Foraminiikra: Cole 



Explanation of I'late 27 



Figure Page 

1, 2. Lepidocjclina (I'liolepidina) pustiilosu H. Douville 214 

Equatorial sections. 1, X 20; 2, X 40; 1. Locality, Crab Hill 
Point; 2. Locality, V-llla. 

3-5, 8. Lepidocjclina (Pllolepidina) inacdonaldi Cushman 214 

Equatorial sections, X 20; 3. Locality, V-134c; 4. Locality 
V-134cx; 5, 8. Locality, Crab Hill Point. 

6, 7. Lepidocjclina (Pliolepidina) i»roteifoiniis Vaughan 221 

6, Equatorial section, X 20; 7. Tangential equatorial section, 
X 20; 6. Topotype from 0.5 kilometers southwest of Palma 
Sola, Vera Cruz, Mexico; 7. Locality, Z-131. 

9. Lepidocjclina (Poljiepidina) antillea Cushman 214 

Ecjuatorial section, X 20; locality, V-394. 



230 Bulletin 158 



Explanation of Plate 2& 



Figure Page 

1-5. Lepirtoojclina (riiolepidina) niacdoiialdl Cushman 214 

Vertical sections, X20 ; L Locality, V-134cx; 2, 5. Locality, 
V-134c; 3, 4. Locality, Crab Hill Point. 

6. Lepidocyeliiia (I'liolepidina) piistulosa H. Douvill6 214 

Vertical section, X 20; locality, Z-85. 

7-10. Lepidocyeliiia (Pliolepidina) proteifoniiis Vaughan 221 

Vertical sections, X20 ; 7-9. Megalospheric individuals; 10, prob- 
ably a microspheric individual; 7, 8. Topotypes from 0.5 kilo- 
meters southwest of Palma Sola, Vera Cruz, Mexico; 9, 10. 
Locality, Z-131. 

11. Lepidocjclina (Pliolepidina) pustnlosa tobleri H. Douvill^. .. 214 
Vertical section, X40; locality, V-127. 



Bull. Amer. Paleont., Vol. 30 



Plate 28 







Wi- 



Bull. Amer. Paleont., Vol. 36 



Plate 29 




Iamaican Lar(;hr Ioramimhra: Cole 231 



Explanation of I'late 29 



Figure Page 

1-3. AstenK'jcllna penonensis Cole and Gravell 214 

1. Part of an equatorial section, X 40 ; 2, 3. V'ertical sections, 
2. X 20; 3, X 40; lotaiity, V-394. 

4, 5. AstercK'vclina m<mti»'olI«'iisis Cole and Ponton 214 

4, Vertical section, X 40; 5. Equatorial section, X 20; locality, 
V-394. 

6-10. rseiulophrji^niina (rroporocjcliiia) advena (Cushman) 222 

6-S. X'ertical sections, 6, 7, X20 ; 8, X40 ; 9. 10. Parts of ecjua- 
torial sections, 10, X40 ; 9, X20. localitv, ZF-92. 



232 Bulletin 158 



Explanation of Plate 30 



Figure Pagf 

1-3. Lepidocjcliiia (Pliolepidina) i)u>»tiil<>sa H. Douville 214 

Vertical sections, 1, 2, X20 ; 3, X40 ; 1, 2. Locality, Crab H.li 
Point; 3, locality, V-llla. 

4-6. Linderina floiidaiia Cole 214 

4, Equatorial section, X40 ; 5, 6. Vertical sections, 5, X20 ; 6, 
X40; 4, 6. Locality, V-135; 5. Locality, V-109. 

7, 8. Lepidocjcliiia (Poljiepidliia) aiitillea Cushman 214 

Vertical sections, X20 ; locality, V-394. 

9. Asterocjcliiia iiiiiiinia (Cushman) 214 

Vertical section, X40 ; locality, V-134c. 

10. Mlogjpsina (j>Iiolepidocjcliiia) |>aiiaiiieiisis (Cushman) 214 

Part of an equatorial section, X40, to show the embryonic and 
periembryonic chambers; locality, V-170. 

11-13. Operculinoides cushmani (Cole) 214 

11, 13, Median sections, X20 ; 12, transverse section, X20 ; 
locality, V-394. 



Bull. Amer. Paleokt., Vol. oG 



Plate 30 









■■■ ■ , / 



lO 










Bull. Amer. Paleont., Vol. 3G 



Plate 31 




Jamaican ].ar(;kr Fokamimiera: Cole 233 



Explanation of Plate 31 



Figure Page 

1, 2. ( oskinoliiia eloii^ata Cole 215 

1. Side view, X 10; 2. Apical view, X 10; locality, Sai.dy River. 

3, 4. Coskiiioliiioides jamaicoiisis lole, u. sp 216 

3. Side view, X 10, of a small specimen; 4. Side view, X 10, of 
a large specimen; locality, Sandy River. 

5, 6. Operciiliiioides ciishiiiaiii (Cole) 214 

5. External view, X 10, of a small topotype specimen from the 
type locality of the Guayahal formation introduced for com- 
parison with the Jamaican specimens; 6. External views, X 10, 
of two specimens ; locality, \' -394. 

7-9. Operciilinohles .teiniji Barker 220 

7, 8. Median sections, X 12.5, of specimens which demonstrate 
the large embryonic chambers; 9. Transverse section, X 20; 
locality, V-109.' 

10-16. rseiidolepidiiia triinera Barker and Grimsdale 222 

10-12. Equatorial sections, X 20; 13-16. Vertical sections, 13, 14, 
16, X 20. 15. An enlargement of a part of figure 13, X 40. to 
show the double layer of equatorial chambers in the peripheral 
zone; locality, V-109. 



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Venezuela and Trinidad Tertiary Mollusca. 

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Peruvian Tertiary Mollusca. 

XVin. (Nos. 64-67). 286 pp., 29 pis 8.00 

Mainly Tertiary Mollusca and Cretaceous corals. 

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Tertiary Paleontology. Peru. > 

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Cretaceous and Tertiary Paleontology of Peru and 
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Paleozoic Paleontology and Stratigraphy. 



L>f 



BULLETINS 

OF 

AMERICAN 
PALEONTOLOGY 



7 



VOL. XXXVI 



NUMBER 159 



1956 



KUS. COMP. ZOOL 
LIORAHY 

HARVARD 



:e::s;ty 



yU|yp:..M 



Paleontological Research Institution 

Ithaca, New York 

U. S. A. 



PALEONTOLOGIGAL RESEARCH INSTITUTION 

1954-55 

President „ Ralph A. Liddle 

Vice-President Solomon C. Hollister 

Secretary-Treasurer Rebecca S. Harris 

Director Katherine V. W. Palmer 

Counsel Armand L. Adams 

Trustees 

Kenneth E. Caster (1954-1960) Katherine V, W. Palmer (Life) 

W. Storrs Cole (1952-58) Ralph A. Liddle (1950-56) 

Winifred Goldring (1955-1961) Axel A. Olsson (Life) 

Rebecca S. Harris (Life) Norman E. Weisbord (1951-57) 

Solomon C. Hollister (1953-59) 



BULLETINS OF AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY 

and 
PALAEONTOGRAPHICA AMERICANA 

Katherine V. W. Palmer, Editor 
Lempi H. Sincebaugh, Secretary 

Editorial Board 
Kenneth E. Caster G. Winston Sinclair 



Complete titles and price list of separate available numbers may be had 
on application. All volumes available except Vols. I, II, and III of Bulletins and 
Vol. I of Palaeontographica Americana. 

Subscription may be entered at any time by volume or year, with average 
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deductible from income tax. 



Paleontological Research Institution 

109 Dearborn Place 

Ithaca, New York 

U.S.A. 



BULLETINS 
OF 
AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY 



Vol. 36 



No. 159 



THi: (;i:>i:ka miscellanea am) tellatisi'ikella 

By 

W. Storrs Cole 
Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 



May 15, 1956 



I'aleontological Research institution 
Ithaca, Xe'.v York. U.S.A. 



Library of Congress Catulotj Card Numhrr: GS 56-302 



Printed in the United States of Americn 



■Jl/M '(1956 



CONTENTS 

Page 
Abstract 239 

Introduction 239 

Description of species 240 

Miscellanea miscclla (d'Archiac and Haime) 240 

Prllatispirclla matlcyi ( Vaughan) 241 

Discussion 243 

Tabular comparison of Pillatispiiflla, M i.u rllanrtj, El phuiium , and 
Opfrculinoidcs 244 

Literature cited 249 

Plates 251 

FIGURES 

Fig. 1. Scatter diagrams to show the relationship of the species considered 

to represent Prllatispirrlla matlryi (N'aughan) 246 



THE GENERA MISCELLANEA AND PELLATISPIRELLA' 

W. Storrs Cole 

Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 



ABSTRACT 

The criteria for the recognition of the genera Miscrllanra and Prllati- 
spirrlla hv a re^tudy of the species M. misirlla (d'Archiac and Haime) and 
Prllatispirflla matlryi (Vaughan) are given and new illustrations of each 
species are presented. Certain species previously assigned to these genera are 
discussed. 



INTRODUCTION 

Recently, H. D. Versey of the Jamaican Geological Survey 
sent me a collection of specmiens from a bore hole drilled by 
Alumina Jamaica near Kendal in Manchester Parish, Jamaica, 
B. W. I. At depths of 1470 and 1558 feet there were numerous, 
well-preserved specimens of Pellatispirella matleyi (Vaughan), a 
species which Hanzawa (1937) made the type of this genus. 

As these specimens show the internal structures better than 
any specimens previously studied by me, they are described and 
illustrated in order to further clarify and establish the relation- 
ship of this genus and the structures which characterize it. 

Cole (1947, p. 13; 1953, p. 29, 31) earlier suggested that 
PellattspircUa was related to the nonionids rather than the cameri- 
nids and that this genus was distinct from Miscellanea Pfender, 
1935. Fortunatel\-, specimens of Elphidium (fig. 9, PI. 32; figs. 
11, 12, PI. 34) occur in the same samples from this well as does 
Pellatispirella. Moreover, these Elphidium have the same type 
of preservation, therefore, direct comparison is possible. In addi- 
tion, five specimens of Miscellanea miscella (d'Archiac and Haime) 
from the Kohat District, near Shinki, Wazaristan, India, collected 
by the late L. M. Davies, were available for study. 

Miss Ruth Todd of the U. S. Geological Survey kindly ex- 
amined the Elphidiinyi for me and tentatively identified them as 

'The expense of the plates and certain other costs have been defrayed 
by the William F. E. Gurlcy Foundation for Paleontology of Cornell Uni- 
versitv. 



240 Bulletin 159 



Elphidium lens Galloway and Heminway. As the exact determina- 
tion of the species was net important for this study, she was re- 
quested to give an opinion only concerning the probable specific 
name. I am grateful for the time and information she gave. 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 

Genus -MISCELLANEA Pfender, 1935 

Bliscellanea miscella (d'Archiac and Haime) 

PI. 32. fig. 10; PI. 33, figs. 2, 3, 10, 11; PI. 34, fi^;. 1. 3. 

1937. Miscellanea miscella (d'Archiac and Haime), Davits, Geol. Survey 

of India, Mem., n. s., v. 24, mem. 1, p. 43-45, pi. 6, fii^^s. 1-3, 5, 7, 8 

(references). 

1941. Miscellanea miscella (d'Archiac and Haime), Vaughan and Cole. 

Geol. Soc. Amer., Sp. Paper 30, p. 32, 33, pi. 5, figs. 1, 2. 

The test is inflated lenticular or has an inflated umbo with 
a slightly compressed peripheral area surrounding the inflated part. 
On the umbo there are numerous, raised, separated pustules. The 
major sutures are almost straight, radial, and raised. They are 
virtually continuous from the umbonal area to the periphery 
of the test, but occasionally they are broken by small pustules. 
Between each pair of major sutures there are radial rows of small 
pustules. 

The median section available for this study has a height of 
3.5 mm. and a width of 3.3 mm. The embryonic chambers are 
bilocular. The initial chamber has diameters of 280 by 340 /a, the 
second chamber has diameters of 140 by 350 fi, and the distance 
across both chambers is 430 /x. The wall of the embryonic apparatus 
encloses a canal which appears to encircle the embryonic chambers. 

This test is composed of 2 3/4 volutions with 8 chambers in 
the first whorl, 31 chambers in the final whorl and 55 chambers 
in all the volutions. 

The septal walls enclose a large canal and at their proximal 
ends expand into a looplike, hollow knob (fig. 3, PI. 34). The major 
aperture occurs between the end of this septal loop and the re- 
volving wall. 



iMlSei-LLAMiA AND Pl-l.l.ATISIMRKI.I.A : Coi.K 241 



The two transverse sections have the following measurements: 

Height mm. 2.75 3.0 

Tliickness mm. 1.7 1.+ 

Diameters across both embryonic chambers a- 450 x 350 370 x 480 

Umbonal plugs: 

Total diameter M- 650 700 

Diameters of individual plugs M- 100-240 100-150 

The wall of the spiral sheet is douhle (fig. 10, PI. 33), com- 
posed of a thick inner wall which is pierced by numerous coarse 
radial canals and a thin outer wall. Between the inner and the 
outer wall there are vacuoles. A few coarse pectinations project 
above the surface of the outer wall, and these are continued m- 
wardly into the inner wall. Most of the pectinations of the inner 
wall, how^ever, stop before they reach the outer wall. 

A semitriangular shaped canal (fig. 11, PI. 33) occurs in the 
area of the margmal cord. This canal is bounded by a distinct wall, 
at the outer margin of which are found minute pores. This struc- 
ture is interpreted as a modified marginal cord. 

Genus PELLATISI'IKELLA Hanzawa, 1937 

Pelliitispireiia inatloyi (Vaughan) 

Pi. 32. figs. 1-8; PI. 33, figs. 1, 4, 6, 8, 9; PI. 34. figs. 2. 4-10 

1929. Camerina rnatlryi Vaughan, (ourn. Paleont., v. 3, No. 4, p. 376, 377, 

pi. 39, figs. 2-7. 
1937. Pcllatispiiclla matleyi (Vaughan), Hanzawa, idem, v. 11, No. 2, p. 115, 

pi. 21, figs. 4-7. 
1941. Miscellanea matleyi (Vaughan), Vaughan and Cole, Geol. Soc. Amer. 

Sp. Paper 30, p. 32, 33, pi. 6, fig. 1. 
1944. Miscellanea matleyi (Vaughan), Caudi, Bull. Amer. Paleont., v. Zi, 

No. 114, p. 369-371. 

1947. Pellatispirella matleyi (Vaughan), Cole, idem, v. 31, No. 126, p. 228, 
229, 237. 

1948. Miscellanea antillea (Hanzawa), Cizancourt, Bull. Soc. Geol. France, 
ser. 5. V. 18, p. 667, 668, pi. 23, figs. 4, 7, 12, not Pellutispirela antillea 
Hanzawa, 1937. 

1948. Miscellanea hedhergi Cizancourt, idem, p. 669, pi. 23, figs. 1-3. 
1948. Miscellanea nicarayuana Cizancourt, idem, p. 669, pi. 23, figs. 5, 6, 8-11, 
13. 

1953. Pellatispirella matleyi (Vaughan), Cole, Bull. .\mer. Paleont., v. 3 5, 
No. 147, p. 28-30, pi. 1, fig. 1. 

1954. Miscellanea matleyi (Hanzawa), Cizancourt, Soc. Geol. France, C. R. 
for 3 March. 

The diameter of the test ranges from about 1 mm. to 2.4 mm. 
The cross-section is evenly lenticular to compressed. Well-preserved 



242 



Bulletin 159 



specimens have a smooth, finely perforate shell wall on which the 
sutures appear as slightly raised, gently recurved lines. On the 
umbos there is a small mass of clear shell material which repre- 
sents the surface of the umbonal plug. Many of the sutures bifur- 
cate a short distance beyond their proximal ends. Slightly weathered 
specimens have coarse pits over the central part and a zone of con- 
centric raised ridges in the peripheral area. More intensely weather- 
ed specimens have an expanded zone of concentric ridges which 
extends from the periphery almost to the center of the test. 

Measurements of five median sections from the well drilled by 
Alumina Jamaica near Kendal, Manchester Parish follow: 



Depth ft - 

Height mm.- 1.35 

Width mm.- 1.27 

Diameters of 

initial chamber M -200 x 240 

Whorls no- iVi 

Chambers: 

First volution no - 9 

Final volution no - 22 

All volutions no - 43 



1470 




1558 




1.95 


2.03 


2.4 




2.37 


1.9 


1.88 


2.27 




2.28 


Ox 190 


150 X 180 


170 X 190 


210 x240 


4 


3J4 


4^ 




5 


9 


8 


10 




13 


31 


29 


34 




41 


84 


71 


105 




140 



The initial chamber is large. This is followed by a smaller 
chamber which seems to be the first chamber of the initial whorl 
rather than the second chamber of the embryonic apparatus (fig. 
10, PI. 34). Thus, the unilocular embryonic apparatus of this species 
is similar to that found in certain species of Elphidium (fig. 12, 
PI. 34). 

The septal walls are solid without any evidence of a canal. In 
exactly centered median sections a siphonate major aperture 
appears (figs. 4, 7, PI. 32; fig. 2, PI. 34) near the proximal ends 
of septal walls. This siphonate aperture is a distinctive feature of 
this genus. 



Miscellanea ano Phllatisimrella: Cole 



243 



Measurements o{ six tr;uisverse sections from the same 
samples as those from which the median section were obtained 

tollow: 



Depth ft - 1470 

Height mm.- 1.25 1.7 2.32 

Thickness mm. - 0.76 0.55 1.1 

Diameters of 

initial chamber M- 150x160 85x90 220x230 

Surface diameter 

of umbonal plug M- 220 280 180 



1.85 
0.9 



270 



1558 
2.29 

0.85 



2.13 
1.05 



70x160 200x210 
270 300 



In transverse sections the test is compressed lenticular (fig. 6, 
PI. >?>) to inflated lenticular (fig. 9, PI. 33). Most specimens have 
a bluntly rounded periphery, but certain specimens (figs. 1, 4, Pi. 
33 ) have a narrow peripheral flange developed by the contraction 
of the walls of the spiral sheet in the peripheral area so that these 
walls are parallel. 

The major siphonate aperture appears in certain transverse 
sections (fig. 1, PI. 32; figs. 6, 8, 9, PI. 33) as an opening with a 
nearly flat proximal sid-e and a gently arched distal side. Small 
secondary pore apertures occur along the distal margins of the 
spiral sheet (fig. 2, PI. 32; fig. 8, PI. 33). The pore apertures are 
similar to those found in certain species of Elphidium (fig. 7, PI. 
33) except in that genus these apertures occur both on the distal 
and proximal margins of the spiral sheet. 

1 he wall of the spiral sheet is pectinate on the distal margin. 
Small transverse canals occur between each pectination. There is 
no marginal cord. The wall structure is similar to that of Elphidium 
(fig. 7, PI. 33\ fig. 11, PI. 34) except the pectinations are more 
prominent in Pellatispirella. 

DISCUSSION 

Generic comparisons. — The table which follows was prepared 
in order to demonstrate the similarities and differences betwe^i-n 
Pellatispirella, Miscellanea, Elphidium, and Oprrruliuoidcs, partic- 
ularly specimens of this latter genus which have been assigned 
variously to Pellatispirella [P. antillea Hanzawa, 1937], Miscellanea 
[M. antillea (Hanzawa) Vaughan and Cole, 1941], and Raniko- 
thalia [R. antillea (Hanzawa) Caudri, 1944], 



244 



Bulletin 159 



TABULAR COMPARISON OF PELLATISPIRELLA, 
MISCELLANEA, ELPHIDIUM, AND OPERCULINOIDES 



Maximum diameter 
Embryonic apparatus 
Marginal cord 
Septa 

Major aperture: 
Position 
Special features 



Secondary pore apertures 
Wall of spiral sheet: 
Pectinations 

Transverse canals 
Character of wall 



Pellatispirella 
2.4 mm. 
Unilocular 
Not present 
Without central 

canal 

Above base of septum 
Siphonate 



Present 

Completely developed 

Small, numerous 
Single 



Miscellanea 
8.7 mm. or more 
Bilocular 
Modified type 
With central canal 



At base of septum 
Looplike base of 

septum above 

aperture 
Present 

Irregularly 
developed 
Coarse, numerous 
Double 



Maximum diameter 
Embryonic apparatus 
Marginal cord 
Septa 

Major aperture: 

Position 

Special features 
Secondary pore apertures 
Wall of spiral sheet: 

Pectinations 

Transverse canals 
Character of wall 



Elphidium 
L8 mm. 
Unilocular 
Not present 
Without central 

canal 

Not observed 
Not observed 
Present 

Completely 

developed 
Small, numerous 
Single 



Operculinoides 
12 mm. or more 
Bilocular 
Present 
With central canal 



At base of septum 

Slitlike 

None observed 

Not present 

Coarse, infrequent 
Single 



The general structure of Pellatispirella. most nearly resembles 
that of Elphidium whereas that of Miscellafiea is similar in many 
respects to Operculinoides although there are greater differences 
between the latter genera than the former. 

Although the generic name Miscellanea had been applied to 
various American species by Vaughan and Cole (1941), Vaughan 
(1945), Cole (1947), and Cizancourt (1948), Caudri (1944) erected 
the generic name Ranikothalia for the species considered to be 
Miscellanea except the species inatleyi which she retained under 
Miscellanea. As this study proves that the structure of P. viatleyi 



MiSCELLANKA AND Pi- II.ATIS IMKK I.l.A : C'oi E 245 



is entirely ciiffercnt from that of Miscf/lanea nuscclla, there are no 
American species described to the present which are referrahle to 
Miscellanea. 

Cole (1953) considered that Ranikothalia is a synonym of 
OpercuUnoides inasmuch as the structures in the two genera are 
identical and differ only in degree. The American species referred 
to Ranikothalia by authors normally have a much coarser and larger 
marginal cord than do other specimens referred to Operculinoides. 
Although Cole (1953) demonstrated that the marginal cord was 
a variable feature in Camerina and also in Operculinoides, this 
variation was not so clearly shown for Opercidhm. An additional 
marginal cord from a specimen of Operctdina is illustrated (fig. 
5, PI. 33). This should be compared with illustrations given by 
Hofker (1927, pi. 32, fig. 6) and Cole (1953, pi. 2, fig. 1) which 
prove that the same variability occurs in the marginal cord of Oper- 
culina. Therefore, it would seem that the degree of development of 
the marginal cord in anv genus of the camerimds is a specific, not 
a generic, character and cannot be used to distinguish Ranikotha- 
lia from Operculinoides. 

Comparison of species of PeUatispirella. — Vaughan (1929, pi. 
39) illustrated four thin sections of Camerina ?natleyi of which three 
were sufficiently clear to furnish measurements. Hanzawa (1937, 
pi. 21) illustrated four specimens of PeUatispirella ynatleyi of which 
two could be used for measurements. Vaughan and Cole (1941, pi. 
6) supplied an additional transverse section of Miscellanea matleyi. 
Eleven thin sections were available from the material supplied by 
H. R. Versey from the well of Alumina Jamaica. All of these speci- 
mens are thought to represent typical PeUatispirella matleyi 
(Vaughan) regardless of the generic assignments given them in the 
previous publications. In addition numerous specimens were avail- 
able in the thin sections studied by Cole (1956) for the report on 
Jamaican larger Foraminifera. 

The measurements obtained from the illustrations cited above 
and the specimens from the well of Alumina Jamaica were plotted 
on the scatter diagram (fig. 1) in order to graphically show the 
relationship of these specimens to each other. To the diagram were 
added the species described by Mrs. de Cizancourt (1948) from 
Nicaragua. 



246 



Hui.i.i'tiN 159 



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Misci:i.i.ani;a and Pi i.i ausimki i i.a: C'oik 247 



Slu' (IcscrilH'd iiiuiri (In- nciu'iic name Mt.u rl/ancii the lollovviiiii;: 
Miui-//(inc(i (niti//r,i ( I l.m/.awa ), M. Iici/hrri^i, and M. nit (ird^^uana. 
In this artiiK- sht- ri'lt-md to spi-ciniciis uli'iit ilud h\ llan/.awa 
(1937, pi. 21, fij^s. 4-7) as Pcllntupirrlhi matlryi (Vaiij;haii) as 
Miscellanea antUlea (Hanzavva), and at the sanu- time she rek-ned 
to specimens identified l)\ llan/.awa (1937, jil. 20, figs. 8-10; pi. 21, 
fijf. 1) as Pelliitispirella antillea- as Summidites {Nummidites) 
antillea (llan/.awa). Thus, she used the specific name applied by 
Han/awa to one species lor two species. I herelore, llan/awa is 
credited with a s|)ecil!C name used in one case loi the species for 
which he intendeil to use it [Pellat isptretla antillea llanzawa, 1937 
:= N iimmulites (Nummidites) antillea (Han/awa) Ci/ancourt, 
1948] and m tiu' other ease lor a spi'Cies which he considered to 
he a tlillerent one [Pelhitis pirella matleyi ( Vauj;han ) Han/awa, 
1937 Miscellanea antillea (llan/awa) Ci/ancourt, 1948]. 

Later, I h.ihii.mii ( 1950, p. 43) wrote Mrs. de C'i/ancouit that 
Cushman (1919, p. S\) had used the name Nummidites antillea 
for specimens from St. Bartholomew. Therefore, he suggested that 
a new name he proposed for N ummulites ( N ummuiites) antillea 
(Han/awa) C'i/aiicourt 1948 := Pellatis pirella antillea Han/awa, 
1937. The name given was N ummulites ( N ummulites) caraihensis 
Ci/ancourt. Inasmuch as Cole (1953, p. S?>) showed that Pellati- 
spirelhi antilleu llan/awa, 1937, was a synonym of Operculinoides 
hermudezi ( D. K. Palmer), 1934, the specific name A'. (A'.) carai- 
hensis must he suppressed. 

I he name MiscelUinea antillci (llan/awa) Ci/ancoiirr (1948, 
p. 667). howcNcr, riinains iindist in bed l)\ these changes. Kven 
casual examination of ilic illustrations given ( Ci/ancourt, 1948, 
|)l. 23, figs. 4, 7, 12) ft! the specimens from Nicaragua which she 
ealii'd Miscellanea antillea (llan/awa) shows that these s|)(cimens 
belong to a different genus than does Pellatispirella antillea Han- 
/awa, 1937. Numerous illustrations have been given of this species, 
originally described by Han/awa, by Vaughan and Cole, 1941, 
\'aughan, 1945, and others. All of these specimens have an entirely 
different internal structure from that of the specimens from Nicara- 
gua. But, the structure of the wall of the spiral sheet of the speci- 
mens from Nicaragua is identical with that of the Jamaican sjieci- 



248 Bulletin 159 

mens (compare Cizancourt, 1948, pi. 23, fig. 4 with the Jamaican 
specimen illustrated in this article as figure 9, Plate 33 and with 
Vaughan's (1929) illustrations of the types). 

Detailed examination proves that the three species from Nic- 
aragua have the same internal structure and the same external 
appearance as do typical specimens of the type of the genus Pellati- 
spirella represented by P. matleyi (Vaughan). Moreover, when 
the measurements of these specimens were plotted on the scatter 
diagram (fig. 1) they fall within the limits of this species. Therefore, 
only one species can be recognized, namely, P. matleyi (Vaughan). 
This species occurs in the middle Eocene of Jamaica, Nicaragua, 
Cuba, and the Dominican Republic ( specimens identified by 
P. J. Bermudez and later sent to me). 

The philosophy concerning the erection of specific and sub- 
specific names for Foraminifera without a complete analysis of the 
variation which may occur in a single species was expressed ade- 
quately by Vaughan (1933, p. 7) when he wrote: "From the ac- 
counts given in this paper of variation in single lots of specimens 
of species of Lepidocyclina and from such work as that of Jennings, 
it is obvious that to attach a different specific name to every variant 
in a lot of specimens of Lepidocyclina is an absurdity". 

Other Avierican species resembling Miscellanea and Pellati- 
spirella. — Applin and Jordan ( 1945, p. 139) described a species 
under the name Miscellanea nassauensis from the lower Eocene of 
Florida. Cole (1947, p. 227) made thin sections of topotypes and 
concluded that these small specimens should not be referred to 
Miscellanea. He recognized similarity in the internal structure to 
the elphidids, and, therefore transferred this species to the genus 
Nonvin. Later, he (1953, p. 30) decided that this species "has a 
spiral lamina which shows pectinations similar to those found in 
Pellatispirella" and transferred this species to that genus. 

Although this species is related to Pellatispirella, the major 
aperture is different. Externally and internally this Floridian species 
most nearly resembles Fissoelphidium operculijerum Smout (1955, 
p. 209) described from the Maestrichtian of Dukham Oilfield, 
Qatar Peninsula of Arabia, and probably should be assigned to ths 
genus. With the data now at hand the Floridian species cannot be 
referred either to Miscellanea or Pellatispirella. 



MiSCFI.LANEA AND Pi- I.l.ATISIMRF- II.A : CoLE 249 



FamiJy relationships. — Smout (1955) presented recently a 
thought provoking reclassification of the Rotaliidea. In the family 
Miscellanidae lie placed Miscellanea and (luestionably Pellati- 
spirella together with other genera "in which the canal system is 
strongly developed with subsutural and intraseptal canals and either 
vertical canals or a system of fissures. There is no differentiated 
marginal cord". 

It would appear from the analysis of Miscellanea that this 
genus possesses a modified marginal cord, and that it represents a 
camerinid. The structure of the test of Pellatispirella more nearly 
resembles that of Elphidium and, therefore, this genus should be 
assigned either to the elphidids or a new family. So far as could be 
observed Pellatispirella does not possess an mtraseptal canal or 
a marginal cord. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Appliii. E. K.. siiid .lordsin, L. 

1945. Diagnostic Foraminifrra from subsurface formations in Florida. 
Jour. Paleont., vol. 19, No. 2, p. 129-148, jils. 18-21, 2 text figs. 

Caudri, ('. M. II. 

1944. The larger Foraminifcra from San Juan de los Morros, State of 
Guarico, I'enezuela. Bull. Amer. Paleont., vol. 28, No. 114, p. 1-54, 
5 pis., 2 text figs. 

Cizanconrt, M. de 

1948. Materiaux pour la paleontologie et la stratigraphie des regions 
Cara'ibes. Geol. Soc. France, Bull., 5th ser., vol. 18, p. 663-674, pis. 
23, 24. 

Cole. y\. Storrs 

1947. Interned structures of some Floridian Foraminifcra. Bull. Amer. 

Paleont, vol. 31, No. 126, p. 227-254, pis. 21-25, 1 text fig. 
1953. Criteria for the recognition of certain assumed camerinid genera. 

Bull. Amer. Paleont., voK 35, No. 147, p. 27-46, pis. 1-3. 
1956. Jamaican larger Foraminifcra. Bull. Amer. Paleont., vol. 36, No. 

158, pp. 201-233, pis. 24-31. 

Cnshman, J. A. 

1919. Fossil Foraminifcra from the tVest Indies. Carnegie Inst. Washing- 
ton, Pub. 291, p. 21-71, pis. 1-15, 8 text figs. 

Haiizanu, S. 

1937. \ofes on some interesting Cretaceous and Tertiary Foraminifcra 
from the fVesi Indies. Jour. Paleont., vol. 11, .\o. 2, p. 110-117, pis. 
20, 21. 

Hofker, J. 

1927. The Foraminifcra of the Siboga Expedition — Part 1. Siboga — Expe- 
ditie IV, E. J. Brill, Leiden, p. 1-78, 38 pis. 11 text figs. 



250 Bulletin 159 



Smont, A. H. 

1955. Reclassification of the Rotaliidca {Foraminifera) and ttxjo nev: 
Cretaceous forms resembling Elphidium. Jour. Washington Acad. Sci., 
vol. 4-5, No. 7, p. 201-210, 1 pi., 1 table. 

Tlialmann, H. E. 

1950. Ncvj names and homonyms in Foraminifera. Contrib. Cushman 
Found. Foram. Res., vol. 1, pis. 3, 4, p. H-45. 

Yaughan, T. W. 

1929. Additional nc=w species of Tertiary larger Foraminifera from 
Jamaica. Jour. Paleont., vol. 3, No. 4, p. 373-382, pis. 39-41. 

1933. Studies of American species of Foraminifera of the genus Lepido- 
cyclina. Smithsonian Miscell. Coll., vol. 89, No. 10, p. 1-53, pis. 1-32. 

1945. American Paleoccne and t'ocene larger Foraminifera. Geol. Soc. 
Amer., Mem. 9, p. 1-67, 46 p!s., 11 te^t figs. 

Yaug-haii, T. W., and Cole, W. Storrs 

1941. Preliminary report on the Cretaceous and Tertiary Foraminifera 
of Trinidad, British fVest Indies. Geol. Soc. Amer., Sp. Paper 30, p. 
1-131, 46 pis., 2 text figs. 



PLATES 



252 Bulletin 159 



Explanation of Plate 32 



Figure Page 

1-8. Pellatispirella matleyi (Vaughan) 241 

1, 2. Transverse sections of megalospheric specimens; 1, X 20; 
2, X 40 ; these specimens show the pectinate character of the %vall 
of the spiral sheet, the single large embr\onic chamber and the 
major apertures, two of which show clearly in the upper part of 
figure 1. 

3-8. Median sections; 3-5, 7, 8, X 20 ; 6, X 40 ; 3-7, megalospheric 
specimens; 8, probably a microspheric specimen; these specimens 
show the single embryonic chamber, the number and type of 
chambers and coils; 4, 7, show the siphonate major apertures; 
see figure 2, Plate 34 for enlargement of the siphonate major aper- 
tures which occur in the specimen represented by figure 7; see 
figure 10, Plate 34 for an enlargement of the embryonic chambers 
of the specimen represented by figure 3. 

9. Elphidium lens Galloway and Heminway 243 

Transverse section, X 40, introduced for comparison with those of 
Pellatispirella m atlcyi. 

10. 3Dscellanea iiiiscella (d'Archiac and Haime) 240 

Median section, X 20, which shows the bilocular embryonic chambers, 
the canal in the septal walls, and the granulations of the spiral 
sheet. 

1-9. From a well drilled by Alumina Jamaica near Kendal, Man- 
chester Parish, Jamaica, B.W.I. ; 1-3, 5, 6, 9, at a depth of 1470 
feet; 4, 7. 8, at a depth of 1558 feet. 

10. From the Kohat District, near Shinki, Wazaristan, India, col- 
lected by the late L. M. Davies. 



Bull. Amku. Pai.kont., Vol. ;iG 



Plate 32 




Bull. Amer. Paleont., Vol. 36 



Plate 33 




Mist I i.i..\m:.\ AM) I'l I.I. A risiMKi i.i.a: Coi.i- 253 



Explanation uf Plate 33 



Figure Pane 

1. 4, 6, S, 9. lVlliitis|)ir<>ll;i inatlcji (Vaughan) 241 

rran^MTM- sections; 1, 6, 8, 9, X 40; 4, X 20; 1, enlarge- 
ment of the upper portion of figure 4 to show the contrac- 
tion of the walls of the spiral sheet to form a flange; 6, 
a compressed specimen; S, a specimen which shows two 
major siphonate apertures and lUMiierous secondary pore 
apertures bordering the margin of the spiral sheet; 9. an 
inflated specimen. 

2, 3, 10, 11. .Misccllaiu'ji niiscella (d'Archiac and Haime) 240 

Transverse sections; 2, 3, X2() ; 10, 11, X 40; 10. an enlarge- 
ment of the upper part of figure 3; 11, an enlargement 
of the upper part of figure 2; these specimens show the 
large hilocular embryonic chambers, the semicircular canal 
of the marginal cord, the coarse vertical canals of the 
spiral sheet and the double wall of the spiral sheet be- 
tween which occur vacuoles which feature is shown clearly 
in figure 10. 

5. Onerciiliiia coiuitlanatii jaiioiiica Haiizawa 245 

Part of a transverse section, X 40, to show a iiroad, well- 
developed marginal cord. 

7. Klpliidiiiiii sp 243 

Transverse section, X 40, which shows the Avail structure 
and pore apertures, introduced for comparison with Prl- 
latispinlla. 

1. 4, S, 9. From a well drilled Iw Ahmiiua Jamaica near 
Kendal, Manchester Parish, Jamaica. H.W.I.; 1, 4, S, 9, 
at a depth of 1558 feet; 6, at a depth of 1470 feet. 

2. 3, 10, 11. From the Kohat District, near Shinki, \\'a/ari- 
stan, India, collected by the late I,. M. Davies. 

5. From sta. L 466, Oneata, I.au, Fiji. 

7. Beach sand, Rimini, Italy. 



254 Bulletin 159 



Explanation of Plate 34 

Figure Page 
1, 3. Miscellanea iiiiscella (d'Archiac and Haime) 240 

1. External view, X 10; 3, central part, X 40, of the specimen 
illustrated as figure 10, Plate 32, to show the einlir\onic cham- 
bers, major apertures and septal walls. 

2, 4-10. rellatlspiiella inatleji (Vaughan) 241 

2. Two siphonate major apertures, X 230, from the median section 
illustrated as figure 7, Plate 32; 4-9, external views, X 10, vo 
to show size differentiation and surface sculptures; 10, central 
part, X 40, of the specimen illustrated as figure 3. Plate 32, vo 
show the embryonic chamber and the initial volutions. 

11, 12. Elpliidiiiiii lens Galloway and Heminway 242, 243 

11. Transverse section, X 40, to show the single embryonic chain- 
ber, the wall structure of the spiral sheet and the umbonal 
plugs; 12, median section, X 40, to show the single embryonic 
chamber and the volutions. 

1, 3. From the Kohat District, near Shinki, \\'azaristan, India, 
collected by the late L. M. Davies. 

2, 4-12. From a well drilled by .\iumina Jamaica near Kendal, 
Manchester Parish, Jamaica, B.W.I. ; 2, at a depth of 15 5S feet; 
4-12, at a depth of 1470 feet. 



Hii.i-. Ami;i;. Pai-kont., X'di,. .".(i 



Plate 34 




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^3 



I 



-B 



JBULLETINS I 

' OF 

AMERICAN 
PALEONTOLOGY 



itttn 

OCT 1 1 )S5, 
■HKUI 

MffiBirr 



VOL. XXXVI 



NUMBER 160 



1956 



Paleontological Research Institution 

Ithaca, New York 

U. S. A. 



PALEONTOLOGIGAL RESEARCH INSTITUTION 

1955-56 

President Ralph A. Liddle 

Vice-President Solomon C. Hollister 

Secretary-Treasurer Rebecca S. Harris 

Director Katherine V. W. Palmer 

Counsel _ Armand L. Adams 

Trustees 

Kenneth E. Caster (1954-1960) Katherine V. W. Palmer (Life) 

W. Storrs Cole (1952-58) Ralph A. Liddle (1950-56) 

Winifred Goldring (1955-1961) Axel A. Olsson (Life) 

Rebecca S. Harris (Life) Norman E. Weisbord (1951-57) 

Solomon C. Hollister (1953-59) 



BULLETINS OF AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY 

and 
PALAEONTOGRAPHICA AMERICANA 

Katherine V. W. Palmer, Editor 
Lempi H. Sincebauch, Secretary 

Editorial Board 
Kenneth E. Caster G. Winston Sinclair 



Complete titles and price list of separate available numbers may be had 
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109 Dearborn Place 

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BULLETINS 

OF 

AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY 



Vol. 36 



No. 160 



THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE YORKTOWN FORMATION 

IN THE YORK-JAMES PENINSULA OF VIRGINIA, WITH 

NOTES ON THE ASSOCIATED MOLLUSKS 

James D. McLean, Jr. 



September 26, 1956 



PALEONTOLOGICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTION 

ITHACA, NEW YORK 

U. S. A. 



Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: GS 56-303 



zni 

OCT 111956 

IMVIUID 
MHQISnY 



Printed in the United States of America 



CONTENTS 

Abstract 261 

Scope of the study - 261 

Character of the collected sediments 262 

Conditions of the outcrops 262 

Condition of the inollusk and foraminiferai material 262 

Acknowledgments 263 

Deposition of specimens 265 

Resume and discussions of past work on the Vorktown formation 266 

The Yorktown formation 267 

Relation of Yorktown formation "zones" as outlined in 

Professional Paper 199A 269 

Correlations as outlined by Mansfield and Gardner 269 

Geologic section at Carter's Grove on James River, James City 

County 270 

Past work on Foraminifera and Ostracoda 274 

Foraminiferai species reported by Anderegg from "Blue, clay bed" 

between Yorktown and Naval Mine Depot in three locations 275 

Species of Foraminifera listed bv J. A. Cushman (U. S. G. S. 

Bull. 676, 1918) ' 275 

Check list of Yorktown formation Foraminifera from Cushman and 
Cahill (U. S. G. S. Prof. Paper 175A), York-James peninsular 
area only 276 

Check list of Foraminifera and Ostracoda 277 

Map showing area of Yorktown formation 278 

The Yorktown bridge borings 280 

General stratigraphic considerations 280 

7"he zones of Shattuck related to Virginia borings 280 

The York River bridge borings compared with the Maryland record .... 281 

Relationship of York River test borings to other York-James Peninsula 

wells 284 

Notes on relationship of samples of suspected Yorktown age from North 

Carolina and Virginia 289 

Foraminiferai species restricted to definite limits within the Yorktown 

formation 291 

Stratigraphic relationships of Yorktown Foraminifera 294 

Comparison with the Caloosahatchee (Pliocene) of Florida 295 

Comparison of Yorktown and Choptank faunas 295 

Comparison of Yorktown and Calvert faunas 295 

Comparison of Yorktown faunas with the Miocene of Florida 295 

Notes on ecologj- of Foraminifera from Yorktown formation 298 

Data other than depths of occurrence of living forms 298 

Conclusions 303 



The mollusk collections from the Yorktown formation 30+ 

Ecologic significance of mollusks 306 

Geologic significance of mollusks 306 

Mollusks at Carter's Grove 308 

Mollusks at Powell's Lake Spillway 308 

Notes on the description of species 309 

The genus Eponides 310 

Trimorphism and the buccellids 313 

Systematic descriptions 316 

Textularia articulata d'Orbigny 316 

Textularia badencnsis Lalicker 316 

Textularia cf. bocki Hoglund 317 

Textularia candeiana d'Orbigny 317 

Textularia eustisensis, n. sp 318 

Textularia gramen d'Orbigny 319 

Textularia mayori Cushman 320 

Textularia pseudobliqua, n. sp 320 

Textularia pseudobliqua aspera, n. subsp 320 

Textularioides (?) carteri, n. sp 321 

Quinqueloculina seminula (Linnaeus) 321 

Quinqueloeulina seminulangulata, n. sp 322 

Quinqueloculina triloculiniforma, n. sp 322 

Quinqueloculina sp 323 

Quinqueloculina ^heeldoni, n. sp 323 

Massilina mansfieldi Cushman and Cahill 324 

Massilina marylandica Cushman and Cahill 324 

Massilina quadrans carteri, n. subsp 325 

Sigmoilina ? sp 325 

Robulus pseudoiota, n. sp 325 

Robulus vaughani (Cushman) 326 

Robulus sp 327 

Dentalina bevani Cushman and Cederstrom 327 

Dentalina cf. intermedia Hantken 327 

Dentalina kaicherae, n. sp 328 

Dentalina cf. pyrula (d'Orbigny) 328 

Dentalina sp. A 328 

Dentalina sp. B 328 

Dentalina sp. C 329 

Nodosaria sp 329 

Nodosaria catesbyi d'Orbigny 329 

Saracenaria? sp 329 

Lagena {Entosolenia) carteri, n. sp 330 

Lagena (Entosolenia) carteri, n. sp. forma alpha 330 

Lagena dorseyae. n. sp 330 

Lagena globulofiispida, n. sp 331 

Lagena melo (d'Orbigny) 331 



Lagcna palmrrar, n. sp 332 

Lagcna Pseudosulcata, n. sp 332 

Laginu substiiata (Williamson) - 333 

Guttuima austriaca d'Orbigny 333 

Gultulina palmrrar, n. sp 333 

Guttuima psrudocostatula, n. sp. 334 

Guttulina sp. A 334 

Guttuima sp. B 335 

Psrudopolymorphma rutila (Cushman) 335 

Psrudopolymorphma cf. novangitae (Cushman) 335 

Psrudopolymorphma sp. A 336 

Psrudopolymorphma sp. B 336 

Sigmomorph'ma conrava Williamson 336 

Sigmomorphina nrvifera Clapp 336 

S'tgmomorphina prarcryi Cushman and Ozawa 337 

Sigmomorphina srmitrrta "var." trrqurmiana (Fornasini) 337 

Sigmomorphina ivilliamsoni (Terquem) 338 

N onion mrdiocostatus (Cushman) 339 

S onion pizarrrnsis (W. Berry) - 340 

Nonion cf. gratrloupi (d'Orbigny) 340 

Sonion ( ?) sp. A _ 341 

S onion (?) sp. B 341 

Sonionrlla auris (d'Orbigny) „ 341 

Elphidium advrna (Cushman) 341 

Elphidium inrrrtum (Williamson) „ 342 

Elphidium johnsionar, n. sp 343 

Elphidium kaichrrar, n. sp 343 

Buliminella cf. rlrgantissima (d'Orbigny) 344 

Bulimina gracilis Cushman _ 344 

Buiimina prracanthia, n. sp 345 

iirguima punctata d'Orbigny 346 

Bolivina lafayrttei, n. sp 346 

Bolivitia striatula Cushman _ 347 

Loxostomum icilsoni, n. sp 348 

Uvigcrina calvrrtrnsis Cushman 348 

Uvigrrina cf. carmrlornsis Cushman and Kleinpell 349 

Uvigcrina cf. trnuistriata Cushman _ 349 

Siphogrnrrina lamrllata Cushman 349 

Angulogrrina occidcntatis (Cushman) 350 

Angulogerina sp 351 

Planispirillina orbicularis (Bagg) 351 

Discorbis floridana Cushman 351 

Discorhis (?) sp _ 352 

Discorbis rrhdrri, n. sp 353 

Discorbis turrita Cushman 353 

I'alvulinrria ivashingtoni, n. sp 354 

Buccrlla anderseni, n. sp 354 

Buccrlla drprrssa Andersen 355 



BucccUa hanna'i (Phleger and Parker) 356 

BucccUa parkerac Andersen 356 

Rotalia limhatobcccarii, n. sp 357 

Porocponidrs latrralis (Terquem) 3 58 

Cancrii sagra (d'Orbigny) 359 

Amphisteg'ina sp 360 

Globigerina sp. form A 362 

Glohigrrina sp. form B 363 

Glohigfrina sp. form C 363 

Glohigernia sp. form D 364 

Globigerina sp. form E 364 

Glohigerinoidcs (?) sp. form F 364 

Globigerinoidcs sp. form G 365 

Orbulina cormvallisi, n. sp 365 

Globorotalia sp 365 

Planulina depressa (d'Orbigny) 366 

Cibicides cf. lobatulus (Cushman) 366 

Cibicidcs sublobus (Cushman) 367 

Hanzaivaia conccntrica (Cushman) 367 

Dyocibicides bisrrialis Cushman and Valentine 368 

Dyocthicides pcrforatus Cushman and Valentine 368 

Cibicidella variabilis (d'Orbigny) 369 

Rcctoribicidclla rnbertsi, n. sp '. 370 

Bibliography 371 

Plates 375 

Tables 

1. List of wells utilized in construction of cross section 273 

2. Table showing occurrences of Sipliogcncrina lamcUata and 

Bolii'ina floridana in Maryland and Virginia 287 

3. Species common to the Yorktown formation and the Florida Miocene .... 296 

Text figures 

1. Available well data on the Miocene interval of the York-James 

Peninsula 272 

2. Map showing area of Yorktown formation 279 

3. York River bridge test borings 282 

4. Well sites and outcrop localities in the York-James Peninsula 285 

5. Distribution of Foraminifera in the Yorktown formation 292-293 

6. Known depth ranges of living Foraminifera and mollusks from the 

Yorktown formation 305 

7. Table showing distribution of mollusks and other forms in the 

Yorktown formation 307 



THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE YORKTOWN FORMATION 
IN THE YORK-JAMES PENINSULA OF VIRGINIA, WITH 
NOTES ON THE ASSOCIATED MOLLUSKS 

James D. McLean, Jr. 



ABSTRACT 

Foraminifera from the Yorktown formation (upper Miocene) of the York- 
James Peninsula, Virginia, are described. Ecologically, the Yorktown faunas 
prove to be from the upper and middle neritic as defined by Ladd, Gunter, 
and Revelle. The mollusk zonations, principally established by Mansfield and 
Gardner, seem to have little or no validity from either the mollusk or fora- 
miniferal viewpoint. The age of the Yorktown formation appears to be top- 
most Miocene. Of lOS species of Foraminifera figured and described from the 
Yorktown, 29 forms are either new or require new names to set them off from 
forms erroneously identified with them in previous works. Taxonomic problems 
dealing with Epon'uics, Buccrlla, and the Globigerinidae are discussed. One 
new genus, Rcclocibicidrlla, is described. Some results of studies of the pre- 
Yorktownian Miocene of the peninsula are given, including the zonations 
revealed by Bolivina floridana and Siphogencrina lamrllata. Cross-sections 
are given, constructed from available subsurface data, and the extent of the 
formation is discussed. 



SCOPE OF THE STUDY 

Limits of time and financial support have forced the restriction 
of this report to the York-James Peninsula area geographically. A 
study of the entire Yorktown formation as delineated by others 
would require a greater time than at present available, not only 
because of the geographic extent of the formation, but also because 
the Foraminifera differ markedly from place to place as revealed 
by preliminary check of subsurface and surface samples. 

Foraminifera of the Yorktown formation in the York-James 
Peninsula, described m this paper, include those of the classic out- 
crop from which the formation received its name. It is felt by the 
writer that all "zones" discovered in the peninsular area have been 
adequately covered by collections, although it proved impossible 
to secure samples revealing so minute a subzonation of the forma- 
tion as has been reported by other workers. 

Mollusk collections were made at the various localities, but as 
the primary objective was to assemble foraminiferal material, the 
mollusk collections may appear to be somewhat meager. The col- 



262 Bulletin 160 



lected mollusks do, however, represent an attempt to obtain the 
entire fauna associated with the Foraminifera at the collection levels. 

CHARACTER OF THE COLLECTED SEDIMENTS 

From analysis of samples collected from well drillers and at 
outcrop, the Yorktown formation may be characterized as a fine 
sand and clay with considerable shell material which is more often 
fragmented than not. At two spots in the Carter's Grove outcrop, 
considerable gravel was found. 

CONDITION OF THE OUTCROPS 

Due to extensive bank conservation practices now common 
throughout the peninsula, most well-known collecting places have 
been obliterated; furthermore, at those spots still accessible, plant 
and debris coverage make it impossible either to observe or con- 
firm the various disconformities or stratifications reported in earlier 
works. 

Some areas, presumably still good collecting localities, are 
closed by private and governmental restrictions. 

Lastly, descriptions of outcrop localities in the literature leave 
much to be desired as far as actually locating them in the field is 
concerned. One locality, the King's Mill Wharf of Gardner and 
Mansfield, is now so situated that even the present natives of the 
area have never visited it, being unable to reach the locality because 
of the destruction of the access road and the wharf. 

CONDITION OF THE MOLLUSK AND FORAMINIFERAL 

MATERIAL 

Much mollusk material is fragmented and heavily leached. 
Excellent collections of well-preserved shells are obtainable, often 
with the valves of pelecypods still closed and articulated. Ostracod 
specimens also are commonly articulated. One crushed echinoid 
was recovered which appears to retain some of its original form. 

Foraminifera (and Ostracoda) are remarkably fresh and well 
preserved except for the miliolids and Poroeponides lateralis which 
appear to tend to be chalky and easily disintegrated. In no case 



YoRKTowN Miocene Foraminikkra: McLean 263 



is the concentration of Foraminifera and Ostracoda large — great 
quantities of sediment must be washed and the specimens concen- 
trated by flotation in order to obtain representative faunas. The best 
faunas of microscopic forms have been obtained from sediments en- 
closed in articulated pelecypods and from sediments protected from 
leaching by large pectens and heavy forms of venerids. Specimens 
encased in the clayey sediment at the base of the Moore House 
Beach seem also to be well preserved though not in large concentra- 
tions. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

Writing a report such as this one entails the assistance of many 
people, many of whom cannot be given full credit for their help 
in the space allotted to an acknowledgment. Those who are here- 
with acknowledged for their generous help are not responsible for 
the conclusions and errors in this paper, for these are the author's 
own. 

The National Science Foundation, through its assistance in 
the form of a research grant sponsored by the Paleontological Re- 
search Institution made possible the study of a problem which was 
first conceived in 1947 when collections of Foraminifera from the 
Yorktown formation were made by the author. Dr. H. K. Stephen- 
son, Director of Earth Sciences of the National Science Founda- 
tion, is the only individual in that organization with whom the 
author has had direct contact — his kindness in solving some of 
the problems of administration of project affairs and other matters 
has been both appreciated and will be long remembered. 

Dr. Katherine V. W. Palmer, Director of the Paleontological 
Research Institution, has not only administered the grant with 
every consideration for the author, but she was most helpful in the 
matter of submission of the project application. Through her interest 
and assistance, the Paleontological Research Institution agreed to 
act as sponsor of the project, and in her capacity as editor, she has 
guided the author in the final writing of this paper. 

Dr. Harald Rehder, Curator, Division of Mollusks of the 
U. S. National Museum, is owed a special debt of thanks for his 
interest in the author's studies and his readiness to help wherever 



264 Bulletin 160 



possible, often far beyond his duties as a representative of the 
National Museum. He has additionally contributed to this paper by 
assisting in the determination of mollusk ecology so far as it was 
possible to render aid in that difficult field. 

Dr. Julia Gardner, U. S. Geological Survey, Mr. Druid Wilson, 
also of the Survey, and Dr. Horace G. Richards of the Academy 
of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, all contributed identifications 
of the several collections of mollusks made by the author. Dr. 
Richards was responsible for the author's realization of the York- 
town problem, for it was while a student under him that the author 
first collected at the Yorktown outcrops. 

I am indebted to H. E. LeGrand and Philip Brown, U. S. Geo- 
logical Survey Ground Water Branch, Raleigh, N. C, for samples 
from North Carolina; to Dr. J. C. Troelsen of the Mineralogisk- 
Geologiske Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark, for European Miocene 
samples and to W. T. Parrott, Geologist, Virginia State Highway 
Commission, for samples from the test holes of the New Coleman 
Memorial Bridge across the York River. The Virginia Geological 
Survey and Mr. Paul Schweitzer of the Layne-Atlantic Company, 
Norfolk, furnished well samples from the York-James Peninsula; 
and the Virgmia Geological Survey also furnished out-of-print 
data from their publication files. 

The librarians of the National Museum, the University of 
Virginia, and George Washington University have all assisted by 
allowing the author to use their facilities, including microfilming 
and photostating of rare or otherwise unobtainable material. 

One of my constant inspirations during this work has been 
the unfailing interest and advice of Dr. Joseph Kent Roberts of 
the University of Virginia, whose own writings have served the 
author greatly in this task. 

Mrs. Archibald McCrea kindly allowed access to her estate. 
Carter's Grove, the banks of which contain the best single outcrop 
of the Yorktown formation now available. Mr. George Barclay of 
Newport News gave the author the benefit of his many years of ex- 
perience in collecting mollusks from the Yorktown formation. His 
systematic collection of mollusks is one of the most comprehensive 
made in American Tertiary material. 



YoRKTowN Miocene Foraminifera: McLean 265 



The author could not have completed this study without the 
cheerful aid giveu hy his parents, who have taken him over the out- 
crops, and assisted in the collecting and other aspects of the work. 
Their tolerance of the annoyances of an author at work has been 
a great comfort. 

Illustrations are the heart of a work such as this one. Mrs. 
Sally Kaicher, scientific illustrator, did a magnificent job of 
drawing the Foraminifera and also did most of the plate layout 
work. Mr. John A. Larsen, Instructor in Drawing at George Wash- 
ington High School, constructed the charts, cross-sections and maps 
in this paper. Typing of the manuscript was done by Mrs. Edna 
Dove. Only those who have had to deal with such work can appre- 
ciate the service she rendered in that thankless task. 

For their assistance in various phases of this work, the author 
thanks Mr. William McGill, Dr. D. J. Cederstrom, Mr. Allen 
Sinnott, Mr. G. Chase Tihbitts, Miss Ruth Todd, Dr. A. R. 
Loeblich, Jr., and Mr. Barth Conrath. 

DEPOSITION OF SPECIMENS 

Holotypes, paratypes, syntypes, and plesiotypes of Foramini- 
fera are deposited in the Paleontological Research Institution. The 
entire foraminiferal fauna is contained on slides numbered from 
P. R. I. No. 22,000 to and including 22,484, and the arrangement 
of the slides under these numbers is such that the specimens are 
in systematic order (Cushman classification) when the numbers 
are in consecutive order. The exception to this arrangement is 
Amphistegina sp. which is a late acquisition resulting from a field 
trip in which the author was accompanied by Dr. Denise Mongin 
of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique— Paris. This 
specimen is given the last number of the series. The collection at 
the Paleontological Research Institution not onl\ includes speci- 
mens of every species found, but also includes individuals of every 
species found at each locality and level examined. 

Such paratypes as could be spared without interrupting either 
the locality groups or the taxonomic variants of this foraminiferal 
collection have been deposited at the U. S. National Museum, and 



266 Bulletin 160 



these paratypes bear the numbers from P3104 to and including 
P3117 of that institution. 

The greater part of the mollusks Hsted in this paper are at 
the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, where they were 
deposited by the author some years before the inception of this 
research project. Mollusks collected during this project (and 
identified by Mr. Druid Wilson) are deposited at the Paleontolo- 
gical Research Institution. Mollusks collected by Dr. Denise Mon- 
gin, and identified by her, will be deposited at some institution 
selected by Dr. Mongin. Foraminifera isolated from her material 
(and identified by the author) are being held by the author pend- 
ing selection of a suitable European depository agreeable to Dr. 
Mongin. Dr. A. R. Loeblich, Jr., and Mrs. Helen Tappan Loeblich 
ably sum up my reasons for selection of a European depository 
(1955, p. 5) as follows: 

As students of Foraminifera are to be found in almost every area of the 
globe, it would seem better to increase the frequency of exchanges of speci- 
mens, so that those wishing to make generic revisions can see at first hand 
the species or genera they are studying, and not depend solely on the literature. 

While the scope of proposed generic revision envisaged by these 
two scientists is a matter with which I am not here concerned, I 
do believe it is important to give access to specimens in the manner 
suggested. If this should cause those close to the types of D'Orbigny 
and others to discover that my forms are not the same species as 
those to which they are referred, I count this as a desirable advance 
in the science which should be brought about. By such direct com- 
parison essential relationships of faunas can be established, and 
the relationships of global stratigraphy can be furthered. 

RESUME AND DISCUSSION OF PAST WORK ON THE 
YORKTOWN FORMATION 

The Yorktown formation and its well-known mollusk fauna 
have been the object of much collection and many papers. The liter- 
ature is too large to review fully, therefore, this discussion is limited 
to past development of stratigraphic knowledge of the area. 

Clark and Miller (pp. 19-20, 1906) first defined the York- 
town as a formation as follows: 



"VDrktown Miocene Foraminifera: McLean 267 



1 he Yorktown Formation 

The Yorktown formation, which receives its name from Yorktown, Vir- 
ginia, apparently overlies the St. Mary's formation conformably. The infre- 
quent exposure of the beds, due to the heavy cover of later sediments, renders 
it difficult to determine many of its characteristics and its entire area of 
outcrop. It does not appear at the surface in Maryland, although, perhaps, 
part of the great thickness of Miocene beds penetrated in the Crisfield well 
should be assigned to this formation. 

The deposits which consist of sands and clays are crowded with remains 
of calcareous shells, chiefly marine mollusca, and at Yorktown and on the 
James River afford the most highly fossiliferous beds in the Chesapeake Bay 
region. Thick beds almost entirely composed of broken shells, representing 
shallow-water deposition, form the most striking feature. The thickness of the 
formation is apparently in excess of 100 feet. The fossils show certain differ- 
ences \vhen compared with the underlying Miocene formations, and evidently 
represent a distinct faunal aggregate. 

The Calvert, Choptank, St. Mary's and Yorktown formations combined 
constitute the Chesapeake group. The deposits have many common characters, 
both physical and faunal. 

Later study (McLean, 1950) revealed the existence of a York- 
town interval at Crisfield which is about 74 feet thick. 

Clark and Miller were correct in calling attention to the 
shallow water character of the Yorktown formation. Even where 
there is no evidence such as their "thick beds almost entirely com- 
posed of broken shells" the fauna still shows a shallow water en- 
vironment. (See section on ecology of this paper.) 

In 1927 Wendell C. Mansfield completed a doctoral thesis^ on 
the Miocene stratigraphy of Virginia "Based upon the study of the 
Faunas". In this thesis he established what was to be the basis for 
Yorktownian stratigraphy. 

Mansfield divided the Yorktown into two zones: Zone I 
{Pecten clintonius zone) succeeded by Zone II (Turritella alticos- 
tata zone). He stated on page 134 (of typed copy) that Olsson's 
"Murfreesboro Stage" contained two horizons, one of which he 
assigned to Zone I (Pecten clintonius) and the other to Zone II 
{Turritella alticostata) of the Yorktown. 

Zone II (page 136 of typed copy) is said to "include all the 
Miocene sedimentary deposits in Virginia above the Pecten clinton- 
ius zone". The Turritella alticostata zone is further divided into 

^ Unfortunately, it is impossible to follow his entire study, since three 
copies of the thesis have disappeared from George Washington University, 
and a fourth copy at the National Museum is not to be found. .\11 that remains 
is a fragment typed from the National Museum copy and on file at the 
universitv. 



268 Bulletin 160 



three parts: "1. Lower part (beds below fragmental beds) 2. 
Middle part (fragmental beds) 3. Upper part (beds at and around 
Suffolk)" (page 138 of typed copy). 

It is not possible at this writing to know how Mansfield de- 
fined the term "Zone" and perhaps he had a different concept of 
the term than its present-day geological connotation. As the term 
is interpreted by this writer, it denotes a stratigraphically limited 
factor wherein the "guide species" denotes an entity which can be 
used for correlation. The faunal assemblage accompanying the 
zone species should be distinct and correlative; the guide form 
ought to be a species whose name is a convenient reference point 
for the zone. 

Some species from these two Yorktown "Zones" of Mans- 
field, as designated in U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 
199-A, also may be located in the Maryland Miocene, although they 
are called characteristic of beds within zones of the Yorktown by 
Mansfield. Authority for this statement is the Maryland Survey's 
Miocene volumes, published in 1904 and available to Mansfield 
at the time he wrote his thesis and the outline in U. S. Geological 
Survey Professional Paper 199-A. Indeed, he listed these volumes 
in the thesis under discussion. 

On page 10 of U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 
199-A, Mansfield diagrammed the "beds" which he discriminated 
for the area near Yorktown. The bottom bed is designated as 
"bed a" and the top bed is "f", with four beds intervening. Mans- 
field listed "the more common and more significant species" of 
fossils for beds a-b, beds c, e, and f. 

These beds are subdivisions of the Turritella alticostata zone 
(Zone II) as first defined by Mansfield in his thesis. Any attempt 
to utilize the fossil lists for correlation purposes soon shows the 
inapplicability of the lists to such use, and the "beds" would appear 
to be merely local facies which are discontinuous and are subject 
to disappearance upon extended bank erosion. 

On page 9 of this same paper, is a diagram showing "Bed V" 
in Zone I (Fecten clintonius zone), and beds W to Z in Zones II 
{Turritella alticostata zone) at a section near old Kings Mill Wharf. 



YoRKTowN Miocene Foraminifera: McLean 269 



RELATION OF YORKTOWN FORMATION "ZONES" AS OUTLINED 

IN PROFESSIONAL PAPER 199-A BY MANSFIELD AND GARDNER. 

(U.S.G.S., PROF. PAPER 199-A, 1943, TABLE 1) 

VIRGINIA NORTH CAROLINA 

}'orkto-u'n formation 

Zone 2 (Turritella alticostata) Zone 2 

Beds at Suffolk with beds Uppermost Yorktown with 

at Biggs farm at top bed at Mt. Gould at top 

Duplin marl 
Beds at Yorktown Equivalent to beds at York- 

town, Va. 
CAaww-bearing bed Chama-hezvmg bed 

{Chama congregata) 
Zone 1 (Pecten clintonius) Zone 1 

CORRELATIONS AS OUTLINED BY MANSFIELD AND GARDNER 
Yorktown formation = Sahelian of Europe = Upper Miocene of 
America 

Zone 2 = Pontian of Europe = Cancellaria zone & "aluminous 
clay" of Choctawhatchee formation of Fla. 

Zone 1 = Sarmatian of Europe = Ecphora zone of Choctaw- 
hatchee formation of Fla. ^ Raysor marl of South Carolina. 

NOTE: Tun itrlla ■variabilis var. alticostata Conrad is reported from the 
Choptank formation of Maryland (Md. C^eoi. Siirv., Miocene Vols., 190+, p. 237, 
pi. 57, fig. 2), but this form as figured by the Maryland survey seems dif- 
ferent from the Turritella alticostata of the Yorktown as figured by Gardner 
from North Carolina and as found by the author from the Virginia outcrops. 

Chama congregata is reported from the Maryland Miocene (which is 
supposedly older than the Yorktown formation), and it is recorded as still living. 
The presence of Chama congregata beds, therefore, has no stratigraphic sig- 
nificance for the Yorktown formation unless such occurrence is supplemented 
by other stratigraphic evidence. 

In 1932, Roberts published an excellent outline of the features 
of the Yorktown formation as it was then understood. The sections 
by Roberts (pp. 22-23, 1932) are of interest and have the merit 
that they can still be traced with fair success even with the present 
unsatisfactorv overgrowths and modifications of outcrops by man 
and nature. The section at Carter's Grove is of particular interest 



270 Bulletin 160 



to this present study in that it is the one section which the author 
has found which can be traced essentially as delineated, and Carter's 
Grove produced the most profitable foraminiferal faunas found. 

Again, as in the case of Mansfield and Gardner, it is necessary 
to consider the meaning of the term "Zone" is it is used by Roberts. 
To judge from the cited section, it would seem that the term is 
used by Roberts in the sense that Mansfield used the term "Beds". 

The "zones" of the Carter's Grove outcrop appear to be ecologic 
rather than "time" separations. There is a suggestion in the two 
Cha7na congregata "zones" separated by a Venus tridacnoides zone, 
that we are dealing with an exposure which shows a shift in environ- 
mental conditions which favors first one assemblage of forms and 
then another, only to revert at last to the first. 



GEOLOGIC SECTION AT CARTER'S GROVE, ON JAMES RIVER, 
JAMES CITY COUNTY 

From Roberts, 1932 p. 23: 

Quaternary Feet 

Soil, yellow-brown, sandy „ 1-2 

Sand, brown to yellow, mainly medium- to fine-grained, 

some coarse and well-rounded 8 

Terrace gravel, mostly of rounded quartz boulders em- 
bedded in sand similar to that above 1 !4 

Sand, yellow-brown, bedding less apparent, and texture 
finer than in top layer; vertical jointing; uneven 

bottom surface „ 14 

Miocene 

Yorktown formation: 

a. Chama congregata zone, containing a few other genera 

of fossils 7 

b. Venus tridacnoides zone, containing very large shells 
of a few other genera and smaller shells of numerous 
genera _ 1 

c. Chama congregata zone, main bed containing also 

many other genera 6 

d. Crassat el/it es zone with Venus, Glycimeris, Cardium, 

and other genera „ 1^/2 



YORKTOWN MlOCKNI- FoRAMlN 1 KKRA : McLeAN 271 



4 



e. Pectcn bed with several species and numerous other 
genera 

f. Venus zone, containing other species than V. tridac- 

noides and also other genera _ 1 



Richards (1950, pp. 22-28) outlined the history and present 
knowledge of the Yorktown formation in North Carolina. He noted 
that Pecten clintonius is not a good index species for Zone 1 in the 
state, because it occurs only in the extreme northern part. In my 
map, I have used the data from Richards to determine the extent 
of the Yorktownian of North Carolina; the map may be considered 
to delineate the Zone 1 phase, since Richards noted that Zone 2 
occurs only as "discontinuous patches across northeastern North 
Carolina". Ihe Yorktown is largely exposed at river and creek 
banks and in seme pits, being largely covered by thin Pleistocene 
beds. Richards' Table 3 is essentially the same as the one cited 
above from Mansfield and Gardner: The "Zone 2" at the base of 
the North Carolina column suggests a typographical error and 
should read "Zone 1" instead, and the column reading "Zone 2" 
on the left side should not extend to cover Zone 1. 

I was informed (personal communication) by Richards that 
the Yorktown formation correlation in his Table 10 on page 54 was 
the result of typographical error, and that in this table the North 
Carolina Yorktown should correlate with that of Virginia, not 
above it as printed in the table. With this correlation established, 
the correlations by Richards are as follows: 

Cohansey of ^=Vorkt()\vn =Vorkto\vn =Raysor of =PascagouIa 

New Jersey formation of formation of South Caro- af Gulf 

& Delaware Virginia North Carolina lina Region 

Apparently Richards correlated the Duplin marl with the Choc- 
tawhatchee of Florida and showed no Florida equivalent of the 
Yorktown, since the Duplin is listed above (or younger than) the 
Yorktown. 

Two other publications seem especially significant in the study 
of Yorktown stratigraphy. The first of these is a circular on wells 
drilled in the Virginia Coastal Plains area, compiled in 1945 by 
D. J. Cederstrom. The essential data from this circular are por- 



272 



Bulletin 160 



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YoRKTowN Miocene Foraminifera: McLean 273 



trayed in our sfcrioii (Figure 1) along with additional well data 
developed by the writer as part of this project. Since this was the 
bulk of subsurface data available, it had to suffice, however, as the 
logs show the data available left a great deal to be desired. The 
correlations of the wells are the work of the writer, not of Ceder- 
strom; the logs themselves are reduced to symbology as well as the 
published data permit, and may be called as good as conditions 
allow. Even so, there is little basis for correlation except for material 
developed by the writer. 

TABLE I 

LIST OF WELLS UTILIZED IN CONSTRUCTION OF 
CROSS SECTION 

(Note: well log numbers correspond to those given by Cederstrom 
in Virginia Geological Survey Circular 3, 1945.) 

Well No. 56. Norge, James City County, Roseland Farm. 

Well No. 58. Dunbar Farm, Eastern State Hospital, James City 
County, Williamsburg. 

Well No. 59. Williamsburg, York County, J. Levinson subdivision. 

Well No. 60. Williamsburg, York County, R. W. Mahone. 

Well No. 6L Williamsburg, York County, Waller Pond. 

Well No. 63. Camp Peary, York County, U. S. Navy (well D-1) 

Well No. 65. Yorktown Navy Mine Depot, York County. 

Well No. 66. Lee Hall (Skiffs Creek), Warwick County, New- 
port News Water Co. 

Well No. 67. Lee Hall (reservoir), Warwick County, Newport 
News Waterworks. 

Well No. 68. Lee Hall, Warwick County, Ft. Eustis (No. 2). 

Well No. 70. Lee Hall, Warwick County, Ft. Eustis (No. 4). 

Well No. 76. Big Bethel reservoir, '4 mile west of Harpersville, 
Elizabeth City County, U. S. Army. 

Well No. 79. Newport News, Warwick County, Gas Works. 

Well No. 8L Fort Monroe, Elizabeth City County, U. S. Army. 
Stephenson and MacNeil (1954, pp. 733-738) extended the 

Yorktown formation for some distance, even into Maryland out- 
crops. Unfortunately, their paper either does not detail important 

known data, or the work is based on highly inconclusive material. 



274 Bulletin 160 



As indicated above, Chama beds are indicative of Zone 2 of the 
Yorktown only when other more definitive evidence corroborates 
that assignation. The impressions referred to Halymenites major 
Lesquereux by Stephenson and MacNeil, and the presence of glau- 
conite may indicate shallow sea waters, but these are not necessarily 
indicative of a Yorktownian age. As a matter of fact, glauconite is 
not normally present in any great amounts in the Yorktown, and 
the mineral is more common in other age units, mcludmg the Pleisto- 
cene. The impressions of Halymenites major, as illustrated by 
Stephenson and MacNeil, could be almost anything, from con- 
cretions, to plant impressions, to animalian impressions. On page 
736, moreover, they stated: "An oxidized ferruginous zone about 60 
feet above the beach ( at half a mile south of Jones Point, north 
of the Middlesex county line) yielded imprints of Pecten- jejjersonius 
Say; Mansfield believed it represents the lower part (zone 1) of the 
Yorktown formation, . . . .". I much doubt that Pecten jejjersonius 
is capable of identification from an impression; further, it is not 
restricted to Zone 1 but occurs also in the Maryland Miocene. 

The elevations of these beds are not conclusive without more 
detailed geological study and reconnaisance in the region. To assign 
gravel beds near Falls Church, Virginia, and the District of 
Columbia, to the Yorktown requires considerably more data than 
are enumerated in the work of Stephenson and MacNeil. 

PAST WORKS ON FORAMINIFERA AND OSTRACODA 
Four papers represent the bulk of work written on the Foram- 
inifera and Ostracoda of the Yorktown formation as it is developed 
in the York-James peninsular area. Of these, one is an unpublished 
thesis on file at the University of Virginia, dealing with forms 
found on the York River side. The faunas are tabulated below. No 
attempt is made to bring these lists up to date in terminology, be- 
cause of the uncertainties involved in renaming Foraminifera with- 
out access to the actual specimens themselves, and it has not proved 
possible or feasible to review the specimens in their scattered 
condition. 

Sinnott and T^ibbitts (1954, p. 18) cited two U. S. Geological 
Survey Manuscript Reports as sources of data on the P^astern 
Shore of Virginia, and these reports presumably contain faunas 



YoRKTowN Miocene Foraminifera: McLean 



275 



ascribable to the \ Orktown formation. However, despite their cita- 
tion these reports are not available for reference, being at present 
classified as interdepartmental memoranda with a restricted designa- 
tion. The reports are entitled: 

Sohn, I. G., "Ostracodes from rotary drill cuttings from test holes 
in the Eastern Shore Peninsula, Virginia." 1954. 

Todd, Ruth, "Smaller Foraminifera from rotary drill cuttings from 
test holes in the Eastern Shore Peninsula, Virginia." 1954. 

No details were given by Sinnott and Tibbitts as to the content of 
these reports. 



FORAMIXIFERAL SPECIES REPORTED BY ANDEREGG (UNIV. VA. 
MASTER'S THESIS) FROM "BLUE CLAY BED" BETWEEN YORKTOWN 
AND THE NAVAL MINE DEPOT IN THREE LOCATIONS (STOPS) 



Nonion striatopunctata 
Nonion scapha 
Nonion bouena 
Nonion depressula 
Nonion extensa 
Eponides broeckhiana 
Eponides repandus 
Rotalia beccarii var. 
Rotalia soldanii 
Rotalia beccarii 
Discorbis rosacea 
Discorbis globularis 
Cibicides tenuimargo 
Cibicides tumidula 
Gaudryina rugosa 
Truncatulina iobatula 
Anomalina punctata 
Discorbis vilardeboana 



Truncatulina cf. alleni 
Epistomina bradyi 
Globotruncana concamerata 
Globorotalia tumida 
Bolivina spissa 
Bolivina marginata 
Globigerina bulloides 
Textularia agglutinans 
Epistonina partschiana 
Uvigerina canariensis 
Truncatulina Iobatula ornata 
Discorbis orbicularis 
Truncatulina elevata 
Discorbis isabelleana 
Discorbis sp., n. sp. 
PuK'inulina menardii (?) 
Textularia sagittula 
Buliminella elegantissima 



SPECIES OF FORAMINIFERA LISTED BY J. A. CUSHMAN FROM THE 
YORKTOWN FORMATION IN U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN 

NO. 676, 1918 



Textularia gramen 
Textularia abbreviata 
Textularia sagittula 
Globigerina bulloides 
Spirillina orbicularis 
Truncatulina Iobatula 

From Suffolk, Virginia: 

Textularia agglutinans 
Polymorphina regina 



Truncatulina variabilis 
Nonionina depressula 
Nonionina scapha 
Quin(|ueloculina seminulum 
Spiroloculina planulata 



Truncatulina Iobatula 
Truncatulina Iobatula var. 



276 



Bulletin 160 



Globigerina bulloides 
Globigerina apertura 
Globigerina sp. 
Discorbis vilardeboana 
Discorbis bertheloti 
Discorbis rosacea 
Discorbis turrita 



Truncatulina subloba 
Truncatulina americana 
Pulvinulina sagra 
Nonionina depressula 
Nonionina scapha 
Polystomella subnodosa 
Quinqueloculina seminulum 



From "Horizon Not Definitely Known — James River' 



Textularia gramen 
Textularia abbreviata 
Textularia subangulata 
Textularia sagittula 
Polymorphina compressa 



Globigerina bulloides 
Truncatulina lobatula 
Nonionina scapha 
Quinqueloculina seminulum 



CHECK LIST OF YORKTOWN FORMATION FORAMINIFERA FROM 
CUSHMAN AND CAHILL (PROFESSIONAL PAPER 175-A). YORK- 
JAMES PENINSULAR AREA ONLY 

Locality 1/188: York River 2 mi. below Yorktown, 1/8 mi. 
below Naval Fuel Sta., lowest Turritella bed. 



Textularia mayori 

Dentalina communis 

Lagena marginato-perforata 

Globulina inaequalis 

Nonionella auris 

Elphidium incertum 

Bolivina marginata multicostata 

Bolivina paula 



Uvigerina cf. pigmea 
Angulogerina occidentalis 
Discorbis floridana 
Discorbis consobrina 
Eponides lateralis 
Amphistegina lessoni 
Cibicides floridanus 
Cibicides concentricus 



Locality l/470a: Below Old Grove Wharf, 2 mi. below Camp 
Wallace, left bank of James River, lowest bed. 



Textularia agglutinans 
Guttulina austriaca 
Buliminella elegantissima 
Bulimina gracilis 
Discorbis consobrina 



Eponides mansfieldi 
Eponides lateralis 
Amphistegina lessoni 
Cassidulina laevigata carinata 
Cibicides floridanus 



Locality 1/193: 1% mi. below Yorktown, lowest bed fragmental 
series I/2 mi. below projecting point. 



Textularia mayori 
Quinqueloculina seminula 
Massilina mansfieldi 
Nonion pizarrense 
Elphidium incertum 
Buliminella elegantissima 
Bolivina paula 
Uvigerina cf. pigmea 



Discorbis floridana 
Discorbis consobrina 
Eponides lateralis 
Rotalia beccarii parkinsoniana 
Cassidulinoides bradyi 
Cibicides floridanus 
Cibicides americanus 



YoRKTowN Miocene Foramimfera: McLean 



277 



Note: Other localities for which Yorktown formation Foraniinifera 
are reported in U.S.G.S. Professional Paper 175-A are from areas 
outside of the York-James Peninsula, and some of them are possibly 
of St. Marys age rather than Yorktown age. 

CHECK LIST OF FORAMINIFERA AND OSTRACODA 

Malkin, Doris S., "Biostratigraphic Study of Miocene Ostracods 
of New Jerse}', Maryland and Virginia", Jour. Pal., vol. 27, No. 6, 
charts on pages 769-770, 1953. 

Foraminifera and Ostracoda restricted to the York River cliffs 
near Yorktown, Virginia 

Foraminifera 



Uvigerina sp. (costate) 
Buliminella curta 



Cytherura wardensis 
Cytherura elongata 
Paracytheridea mucra 
Paracvtheridea vandenboldi 



Elphidium cf. E. incertum 
Elphidium sp. (papillose) 
Nonion granosum 

Ostracoda 

Paracytheridea similis 
Cytherura forulata 
Cytheridea echolsae 
Loxoconcha siibrhomboidea 
Favella rugipunctata 

Foraminifera and Ostracoda common to both the Yorktown 
Cliffs and Carter's Grove 

Foraminifera 

Textularia mayor! 
Eponides repandus (?) 
Eponides mansfieldi 
Discorbis candeiana 
Discorbis consobrina 
Textularia articulata 
Cibicides concentricus 

Ostracoda 

Bairdia spp. 

Cytherideis rugipustulosa 
Cytherideis subaequalis ulrichi 
Eocytheropteron yorktownensis 
Hemicythere conradi 
Cytherideis agricola 
Clithrocytheridea virginiensis 
Anomocytheridea floridana 
Paracytheridea shattucki curta 
Leguminocythereis \vhitei 



Cibicides americanus 
Cibicides lobatulus 
Nonion pizarrense 
Eponides aff. E. mansfieldi 
Discorbis aff. D. assulata 
Rotalia bassleri 



Campylocythere laevissima 
Cytheretta burnsi 
Trachyleberis martini 
Loxoconcha reticularis 
Cytherideis ashermani 
Cytheromorpha warneri 
Campylocythere laeva 
Trachyleberis gomillionensis 
Hemicvthere schmidtae 



278 Bulletin 160 

Foraminifera and Ostracoda restricted to the Carter's Grove banks 

Foraminifera 

Quinqueloculina sp. Globulina gibba 

Nonion aff. N. pizarrense Nonion incisum 

Cibicides floridanus Planulina depressa 

Ostracoda 

Trachyleberis vaughani Pterygocythereis americana 

MAP SHOWING AREA OF YORKTOWN FORMATION 

In studying my map of the Yorktown formation, several things 
must be borne in mind. First, the area of outcrop is by no means 
as well defined as the line on the map might indicate; outcrops are 
actually quite sparse and are generally developed only where there 
are pits or river and streambank dissections of overlying strata. 

Second, the records of Mansfield may be questioned; it is 
doubtful that his Petersburg fauna is Yorktown in age. Some of the 
inner (western) margin of the North Carolina record by Richards 
may be better correlated with the Petersburg fauna. Older mappers 
have delineated St. Marys formation for much of the region which 
has been here mapped as Yorktownian, and there is some reason to 
believe the St. Marys outcrops close to Williamsburg and James- 
town, Virginia. 

Third, the records of Yorktown formation may be called 
highly tentative. Much of the North Carolina Yorktown subsurface 
needs further study and definition; the foraminiferal faunas leave 
much to be desired in such North Carolina wells as have been 
studied by the author, and these include the Hatteras Light No. 1 
Esso well and several wells at Cherry Point. A well at Franklin, 
Virginia, yielded little that could be called Yorktownian in nature. 

Last, the outcrop map does not discriminate "Zone I" from 
"Zone 11" of the Yorktown formation, for the reason that in the 
author's opinion, these zones cannot be distinguished with any 
certainty. The work of MacNeil and Stephenson was not considered 
in construction of this map for the reasons enumerated in the 
discussion of that paper. 



YoRKTowN Miocene Poraminikera: McLean 279 



(74 ft) 



®FORTRESS MONROE (j^S fT. >) 
FOLK 




BETH CITY (.'95 FT.) 



AKE LAWD1N& (lOO FT.) 



HATTERAS LIGHT NO. I 
ESSO WELL (265 FT ) 



/ATLANTIC (230 ft) 

OIWT ( I'+O FT ) 
n (ifoO PT^ 



MAP 5 H OWl NG AREA 

OF YORKTOVN FORMATION 



DATA FROM : 
RICHARDS - 1950 

mansfield thesis- 1927 
McLean - 1950 



FIGURE 2 



DARK PATCH IS AREA OF 
PRESENT STUDY. NUMBERS 
INDICATE THICKNESS OF 
FORMATION IN WELLS. 

20 30 «o 50 



280 Bulletin 160 



THE YORKTOWN BRIDGE BORINGS 
Careful microscopic analysis of sediments from the Yorktown 
bridge test borings was made by the writer, along with foram- 
iniferal and ostracodal studies. While these detailed studies do not 
belong in this paper, certain stratigraphic considerations based on 
them have significance in determining the base of the Yorktown 
formation. Furthermore, the data acquired allow us to draw some 
definite conclusions from the scanty records extant on the sub- 
surface of the York-James Peninsula. 

GENERAL STRATIGRAPHIC CONSIDERATIONS 
Taking the Miocene of Virginia and Maryland as a unit, I 
find that it is divisible into certain zones and formations. An un- 
broken section would comprise the following: 
Yorktown formation 
St. Marys formation 
Choptank formation 
Calvert formation 
The subsurface record of the York-James peninsular area should 
(and does) contain elements of all of these formations; the out- 
crops are variously interpreted and cannot be defined for the area 
as yet. Miocene outcrops of North Carolina and Virginia have had 
numerous interpretations, with the trend in late years being to 
extend the Yorktown at the expense of other formations, most 
particularly the St. Marys. 

The difficulty with interpreting outcrop (and subsurface) 
units is that past workers have failed to utilize techniques avail- 
able and failed to appreciate certain facts about the materials en- 
countered. In addition, we are not well advanced enough in geology 
to either understand or evaluate much data which are susceptible to 
ecological interpretation. 

THE ZONES OF SHATTUCK RELATED TO VIRGINIA BORINGS 
Miocene formations in Maryland were divided into a series of 
24 "zones" by Shattuck in the Maryland Miocene volumes of 1904. 
Subsequent workers have found some difficulty in tracing these so- 
called zones, and from their descriptions, the writer concludes that 
most of the "zones" are local beds whose content is due to local 
environmental shifts. 



YoRKTowN Miocene Foraminifera: McLean 281 



Zones 20 and 21 of Shattuck appear to have considerable 
stratigraphic use in Maryland and Virginia. Shattuck described these 
two as being apparently devoid of fossils and of chali and greenish 
colors. Both are composed of sands and clays. 

Zone 20 (the top of the Choptank), is about 15 feet of sand 
with some bands of clay, while zone 21 (the base of the St. Marys) 
is clay with some sand. Shattuck stated that the zones are con- 
formable with each other. 

Ann Dorsey Clapp, in Maryland Department of Geology, 
Mines, and Water Resources Bulletin 2 (1946, figure 28) recorded 
no Foraminifera for zones 20, 21 and 22. On figure 29, she re- 
corded Textularia gramen, Spiroplectammina exilis, and T extularia 
mayori present in these same zones, and from this we conclude 
that the faunas of these zones, if any, are at least scanty. In this 
same bulletin (figure 25) Cushman recorded no Foraminifera from 
the L. G. Hammond No. 1 well at depths from 510 to 560 feet. 
The mineral chart of the L. G. Hammond well (Figure 2) showed 
an absence of mica in the samples from 540 to 550 feet, and also 
showed a scarcity of pyrite. This nonmicaceous sample is located 
at the top of the Choptank according to the correlation marked 
on the same chart. Pyrite is common in the bed above this interval 
and frequent in the bed below it. 

THE YORK RIVER BRIDGE BORINGS COMPARED WITH THE 
MARYLAND RECORD 

Four test borings from the York River Bridge site were 
made available to the author by W. T. Parrott of the Virginia High- 
way Commission. The results of study of these borings are graphic- 
ally illustrated on Figure 3. Major sediment constituents are 
plotted within the log column in the percentage of total sediment 
of each constituent. Minor elements are noted by appropriate sym- 
bols beside each column for each sample. Without going into detail, 
it may be noted that the microfaunas of the samples are significant 
in separation of the formations as delineated in the figure. 

faking the formations in order, from the top down in the York 
River Bridge borings, the Pleistocene is represented by glauconitic, 
mainly coarser sands with gravels and clays. Small, nondescript 



282 



Bulletin 160 




> < "0 

- < 



O I- 7 

o cc z ^ 

- °- £ 3 

2 ^?: 

0^ u -I Q 



Z .i: 



z < < >. 



iiiDK 



YoRKTOwN Miocene Foraminifera: McLean 283 



Foraminifera are present in a few samjiles and plant debris in one 
part of the section attest to the brackish environment. The Pleisto- 
cene is unconformable with the underlying beds. 

The Yorktown seems to be largely eroded from this section, with 
the exception of a sample in Boring No. 3-N, which appears to 
have typical Yorktownian Foraminifera in it. Boring 3-N is the 
closest subsurface material to the type locality outcrop of the 
Yorktown formation and for this reason, the York River Bridge 
section is important in that it limits the downward extent of the 
outcrop. There is no evidence in this section to support a "Zone 1" 
underlying the "Zone 2" which the outcrops are supposed to repre- 
sent according to Mansfield and others. 

The single Yorktownian sample appears to be mixed with the 
underlying St. Marys formation, which is considerably finer in 
texture than the Pleistocene, and additionally, contains no glaucon- 
ite. The St. Marys is likewise distinctive in being extremely mica- 
ceous and in containing a definite foraminiferal and ostracodal 
fauna which agrees well with that listed by Ann Dorsey Clapp for 
the St. Marys fauna of her Maryland study (Chart of Foraminiferal 
distributions, fig. 28). In her opinion, the St. Marys represents a 
brackish water phase, and the York River faunas do not indicate 
otherwise. In several of the York River Borings, it is possible to note 
quite distinctly a beginning, climax, and decline of fauna that will 
bear more study. 

The St. Marys is underlain by a distinctive bed which appears 
to be slightly unconformable to it. This bed is especially note- 
worthy because of its complete lack of Foraminifera or Ostracoda 
except for slight redepositional elements noted for bormg 3-N, 
which seems rather uncharacteristic for the section. This bed has 
shell fragments in it, but these are sparse, indicating redeposition 
or contamination from upper samples by the drill. 1 he bed is of 
uniform thickness and is of a grey color in contrast to the brown 
coloration of beds above and below it. It is distinctive in an absence 
of micaceous elements and in absence of pyrite which characterizes 
the beds below it. It is predominantly a clay bed with varying 
proportions of sand and silt. The bed is correlated with Zones' 20 
and 21 of Shattuck and with the nonfossiliferous intervals of Clapp 



284 Bulletin 160 



and Cushman, as heretofore noted. On basis of this comparison, the 
bed is here called top Choptank. 

Under the "Choptank" top bed, is a brown, micaceous, pyritic 
bed which is fossiliferous and contains Foraminifera and Ostracoda. 
The pyrite takes the form of small flaky incrustations and also 
replaces partly or completely the tests of Foraminifera, which it 
fills. Robulus americanus spinosus is present in one sample and a 
small gastropod and a crab claw are also found in other samples 
at this level. The nature of this bed, plus the "top Choptank'' bed 
above it strongly suggest that a period of land-locked saline waters 
were succeeded by an interval of swampy or dry land conditions. 
The presence of pyritic incrustations and fillings are suggestive of a 
period in which a basin was fouled by waters containing hydrogen 
sulphides and their precipitants, fixed into pyrite after anaerobic 
bacterial activity. 

Below this interval, is a series of beds which are less distinctive 
and are assigned to the Calvert and the "pyritic zone". Since these 
beds were penetrated only by test boring 1-SE, I would be unjusti- 
fied in considering them in any detail. 

RELATIONSHIP OF YORK RIVER TEST BORINGS TO OTHER 
YORK-JAMES PENINSULA WELLS 

Unfortunately, well records from the rest of the peninsula 
are most remarkable for their lack of essential data. Certain features 
of these records are, however, significant in the light of the York 
River Test Borings. The suggestions of correlation are particularly 
tantalizing when one considers what careful study of the well 
samples would have accomplished, especially in delineation of the 
base of the Yorktown formation. 

The author was supplied by the Virginia Geological Survey with 
samples from Cederstrom's well No. 65, largely in the form of floated 
Foraminiferal material. Some samples from well 63 and adjacent 
wells were also made available for study. The faunal record beside 
Well 70 is not, however, from that well but from samples of a well 
at Fort Eustis furnished by the Layne-Atlantic Company of Nor- 
folk, through the kindness of Mr. Paul Schweitzer. Unfortunately, 



YoRKIOWN MiOCKNK FoRAM I NI !• KRA : McLkAN 



285 




WELL ilTES And 
OuTCBOP LOCALlTlEi 

In The York- James 
Peninsula 

■ outcrops 
• well Sites 
60 well numbers 

(.SEC CROh& StCTiONS) 
6S WELLi WITH FiUNAL tIATA 
® tny CENTEBl 



FIGURE 4 



286 Bulletin 160 



at the time the author was given the samples, he was only interested 
in extraction of the Foraminifera, and no sediment record exists on 
this well except a few rough notes which suggest a strong similarity 
to well 70 both in location and in sedimentary constituents. 

These records form the data available outside of the well 
records listed by Cederstrom in Circular 3 of the Virginia Survey 
(See Table 1). 

Well 65 contains most of the available correlation criteria, 
especially with reference to the York River Bridge Test Borings. The 
Pleistocene fauna is equivalent to the one found in the York River 
section. The Yorktown fauna is typical of that of the outcrops at 
the Moore House Beach but is much more limited in numbers 
of species. Nothing suggests a division of the fauna into two 
"zones" and the Carter's Grove fauna is absent or was not furnished 
with the samples given the author. The St. Marys fauna is like- 
wise sparse and unpromising. 

Somewhat below the St. Marys fauna is a grey clay at the 
level which will correlate with the barren Choptank bed of the 
York River section. No fossils were reported from this interval, 
and none were found in samples furnished from the well. The grey 
clay seems to be a persistent unit in the mid-part of the peninsula, 
and in the well which we have placed near well 70, there is a barren 
grey clay, which the describer of well 70 calls "blue clay" in that 
well. This top clay bed is apparently a stratigraphically significant 
unit, the records below it generally change from a "marl" to a clay 
facies. Inasmuch as we are here dealing with drdlers logs rather 
than with accurately determined sediment records, no great de- 
pendence can be placed on the differentiation between marl and clay. 
However, where the well records show "marl" there is also generally 
a reference to shell material, and the records of clay at and below the 
first "grey" or "blue" clays are generally devoid of mention of 
any shell material. 

The next unit in well 65 is a "brown marl" which contains an 
abundance of Uvigerinas and other small forms. This Uvigerina 
fauna requires further study and identification or description of the 
dominant species. Somewhat below this Uvigerina-m:ir\ is the first 
appearance of Bolivina floridcma which Ann Dorsey Clapp restricted 



YoRKTowN Miocene Foraminifera: McLean 



287 



to the base of the Choptank in Maryland, and which, from all 
present indications at least, seems to be an excellent marker for a 
stratigraphic horizon locally, and perhaps regionally as well, since 
all records assembled so far indicate that this species consistently 
occurs higher in the column than Siphogenerin^ lamellata, which is 
another species of wide geographic extent. The only case where the 
form Bolivina jloridana was found below Siphogenerina lamellata is 
at the new Crisfield well, where Bolivin-a jloridana occurs at 670- 
717 feet, and Siphogenerina lamellata is at 580-670 feet. Due to the 
known contamination of samples in this well (McLean, 1950) and 
the infrequent sampling, it is possible that this displacement in 
spatial relationships of these species is due to downward contami- 
nation from a bed not sampled. 

TABLE 2 

TABLE SHOWING OCCURRENCE* OF SIPHOGENERINA LAMELLATA 
AND BOLIVINA FLORIDANA IN MARYLAND AND VIRGINIA 



MARYLAND Bolivina jloridana 

Bottom Choptank 
Clapp's outcrop chart 780-790 feet 



Hammond Well 
Crisfield Well 

(McLean) 
VIRGINIA 
Naval Mine Depot, 
Yorktown well* 
(Well 65) 
Fort Eustis Well* 
Camp Peary Well 

D-1** 
( Well 63 ) 
Camp Pear}' Well 

D-2** 



670-717 feet 



310^320 feet 
absent 
240-270 feet 
260-285 feet 



Siphogenerina 
lamellata 
Upper Calvert 
1010-1020 feet 
580-670 feet 



340-350 feet 

215-240 feet 

270-290 feet 
Mioc. to 310 feet 
285-300 feet 
Mioc. to 300 feet 



Camp Peary Well 
D-6** 



absent at 290 feet 

Eoc. Forams 
(Cushman) 

•NOTE: The Naval Mine Depot well and the Fort Eustis Well reports are 
for jirst sample occurrences only, as the reported forms persist downward 
obviously as contaminations during drilling. **Cederstrom 1943. 



288 Bulletin 160 



Siphogenerina lamellata occurs in a "marl" bed of Well 65, and 
in a clay bed in well 63, directly below Bolivina jloridana. Well 63 
is Cederstrom's (1943) well No. D-1 from Camp Peary. Other 
adjacent wells in Camp Peary (see Table 2) confirm this relation- 
ship. These two faunas {Bolivina jloridana fauna and Siphogenerina 
lavtellata fauna) in well 63 are definitely separate. In Maryland, 
Ann Dorsey Clapp found Siphogenemia laviellata characteristically 
occurring at the top of the Calvert, and the author has found the 
species in beds containing distinctive Calvert Foraminifera. One 
notable exception is the presence of a specimen of Siphogenerina cf. 
lamellata in the Camp Wallace material. This occurrence is un- 
doubtedly redepositional, as the species, when it is present, occurs 
characteristically m large numbers and is a major portion of the 
fauna. 

Beds below the Calvert fauna are normally heavily glauconitic 
and contain an Eocene fauna which has been described by Cush- 
man and Cederstrom. The type well for the fauna of Eocene age as 
designated by Cushman and Cederstrom is Well 65 (Cushman and 
Cederstrom, 1945). 

From: Richards, Horace G., Jour. Paleont., vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 
23-27, Pis. 11-15, 1947, "Invertebrate Fossils from Deep Wells^ along 
the Atlantic Coastal Plain". 

Well at Old Point Comfort Hotel, Elizabeth City County, Va., ele- 
vation 10 ft.; (Pleistocene from 0-10 feet in well). 

Top Occurrences: 

at 50 feet. Dosinia acetabulum (Conrad) 

Pecten jeffersonius Say 

Phacoides trisulcatus (Conrad) 

Yoldia laevis (Say) 

Crepidula fornicata (Linne) 

Olivella mutica (Say) 

Polinices duplicata (Say) 

Turbonilla sp. 

Turritella variabilis Conrad 

Cadulus thallus (Conrad) 



YoRKTowN Miocene Foraminifera: McLean 



289 



at 80 feet: Drillia liniatula (Conrad) 
Polinices heros (Say) 

at 90 feet: Balanus concavus Bronn. 
Pecten madisonius Say 

at 100 feet: Cardium laqueatum Conrad 
Corbula inaequalis Say 
Leda acuta (Conrad) 
Phacoides crenulatus (Conrad) 
Venus mercenaria Lmne 

at 110 feet: Dentaliuni attenuatum Conrad 

at 120 feet: Astarte undulata Say 

atl70feet: Chione latilirata (Conrad) 
Nucula proxima Say 
Ostrea disparilis Conrad 
Venericardia granulata Say 
Ecphora tricostata Martin 

at 260 feet: Turritella alticostata Conrad 



NOTES ON RELATIONSHIP OF SAMPLES OF SUSPECTED 

YORKTOWN AGE FROM NORTH CAROLINA AND 

VIRGINIA 

Philip M. Brown and H. E. LeGrand of the U. S. Geological 
Survey, Ground Water Branch, Raleigh, North Carolina, kindly 
presented samples from that state for comparison with the type 
locality Yorktown beds. In addition, the writer received one sample 
from near Petersburg, Virginia, from Dr. H. G. Richards, and has 
collected well samples referred to below from various sources. 

Of the well samples from North Carolina (all east of the re- 
ported outcrop in the area of Yorktown strata) the Miocene in- 
tervals were studied. As might be expected, the Foraminifera from 
these wells (including the Esso Hatteras Light No. 1 and the 
Bogue and Atlantic wells) reveal a fauna considerably different from 
the typical Yorktownian. There is no doubt that these wells contain 
equivalent intervals to the Yorktownian; the problem is to determine 
which beds are equivalent. 

The subsurface Miocene of North Carolina, by lithology and 



290 Bulletin 160 



fauna, is from an ecologically different facies. Although some species 
such as Nodosaria catesbyi are found both in the Hatteras well and 
at the Yorktown outcrops, there are insufficient data for making 
precise correlations. This condition cannot be remedied with the 
limits of time and space imposed upon the present study. 

The case is much the same for surface samples, but there is 
a small amount of information which may throw light on correla- 
tion. Results are summarized below: 

1. Type locality of Duplin marl at Natural Well, Duplin County, 
North Carolina; "Equivalent of beds at Suffolk, Virginia." 
Sample from Brown and LeGrand: 

Foraminifera and Ostracoda are not sufficiently numerous or 
sufficiently similar to the Yorktown fauna to render opinion. 

2. Murfreesboro, North Carolina "zone C of Dr. Julia Gardner's 
Prof. Paper 199-A, p. 11. Equivalent of Chama bed (in part) in 
Yorktown area". Sample from Brown and LeGrand: 

This sample is Yorktown age, possibly equivalent to the 
Moore House Beach fauna of the Yorktown formation, although 
evidence is meager. 

3. Palmyra Landing on Roanoke River, Halifax County, North 
Carolina "Yorktown formation .... possibly the equivalent of 
Zone I of Yorktown formation" Brown and LeGrand sample: 

This sample of Yorktown age; zonation uncertain. Since 
Mansfield's classic zonation of the type Yorktown area is by no 
means as distinct or positive as one is led to believe, the un- 
certainity would exist despite a much better fauna than was 
obtained from this sample. 

4. On Fishing Creek, West bank 11 miles North of Tarboro in 
Edgecombe County, North Carolina "Yorktown formation." 
Sample from Brown and LeGrand: 

The presence in this sample of Trachyleberis clarkana and 
Cytheretta cf. -plebia, both of which are conspicuously absent 
from the Yorktown type locality and are reported by Malkin 
as being in the Calvert is rather suggestive that this is not 
Yorktownian. Elphidiurn cf. jalunicuyn ( Allix) reported no higher 
than the Helvetian of Europe is present. These facts together 



YoRKTowN Miocene Foraminiiera: McLean 291 



with the geographic location of the sample strongly suggest a 
Calvert age for this sample. In the course of the writer's in- 
vestigations of surface and subsurface material from the York 
Peninsula and the Crisfield Well, Trachylcheris clarkana appears 
to be restricted, as stated by Malkin, to the Calvertian level. 

5. Surface sample from near Petersburg, Virginia, from Dr. Horace 
G. Richards: 
This fauna is not Yorktownian in aspect. The general com- 

plection of this fauna seems to relate it to the Tarboro, Fishing 

Creek sample above, and the geographic position of this sample 

suggests that the material is Calvert (Helvetian). 

One well sample interval from "Well 4^4" at Franklin, Virginia, 

at a depth of 80 to 90 feet contains a fauna suggestive of the St. 

Marys fauna. 

FORAMINIFERAL SPECIES RESTRICTED TO DEFINITE 
LIMITS WITHIN THE YORKTOWN FORMATION 

In listing the following species, the author has accepted the 
definitions of Yorktownian zones I and II according to Mansfield 
(Thesis). In considering these ranges two points should be re- 
membered: 1. The ranges of new species are subject to change as 
the new forms become better know^n; 2. Many restrictions of range 
are the result of rarity of specimens (this is especially true of species 
herein designated by the term "sp."). 

Species restricted to Zone II of Mansfield and others 

Nonion cf. grateloupi Orbulina cornwalllsi 

Nonion sp. A Glohigerinoides form G 

Nonion sp. B Globorotalia sp. 

Elphidium kaicherae Quinfjueloculina seminulangulata 

Loxostoma wilsoni Dentalina sp. A 

Uvigerina cf. tenuistriata Dentalina sp. C 

Angulogerina sp. Dentalina kaicherae 

Planispirillina orbicularis Nodosaria sp. 

Discorbis sp. Lagena substriata var. 

Globigerina form B Guttulina sp. A 

Globigerina form C Guttulina sp. B 

Globigerina form D 

Species zvhose range is restricted to Z,one II and you7iger deposits 

Quinqueloculina wheeldoni Bollvina striatula 

Sigmomorphina concava Buccella hannai 

Sigmomorphina pearceyi Dyocibicides perforatus 



292 



Bulletin 160 



OlSTRieUTlOK OF FORAMINIFERA IN THE YORKTOWN FORMATION 
• Column P-arked by asterisk in the Carter's Grove 

a$ to the various beds in the outcrop 

The tietl at 6 feet up the bank in the n>iddle of 

Cha^a beds at the base of his Zone z! 


i 


1 

O 


EUBANK- 




EMBANKMENT AT 


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1 POWELL'S LAKE 




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FIGURE 5 



Y'ORKTOWN AllOCENK KoRAMINII- KRA : McLeAN 



293 



OlSTRIlUTlOll Of FO««MIKIf£«A III THE TOUKTOWN F0BM«T|0N 
(fallT II) 


z 

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EMBANK- 


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FIGURE 5 (PART li 



294 Bulletin 160 



Species restricted to Zone I of Mansfield and others 

Sigmoilina sp. Pseudopolymorphina sp. A 

Dentalina sp. B Amphistegina sp. 

Saracenaria ? sp. 

Species whose range is restricted to Zone I and older deposits 

Siphogenerina lamellata (redeposited) Robulus pseudoiota 

Uvigerina cf. carmeloensis Dentalina cf. pyrula 

Textularia badenensis Lagena carter! 

Textularia pseudoblicjua aspera Lagena carteri alpha 

Species whose range is apparently restricted to the Yorktown 

Formation 

Textularioides ? carter! Bulimina preacanthia 

Quinqueloculina triloculinlforma Bolivina lafayettei 

QuinquelocuHna sp. Discorbis turrita 

Massilina quadrans carteri Rotalia limbatobeccarii 

Lagena palmerae Globigerina form E 

Lagena pseudosulcata Cibicides subloba 

Guttiilina pseudocostatula Rectocibicidella robertsi 

Pseudopolymorphina sp. B Buccella parkerae 

Species whose range is throughout the Yorktown and older 

Elphidium johnstonae Textularia eustisensis 

Bulimina gracilis Massilina mansfieldi 

Uvigerina calvertensis Massilina marylandica 

Discorbis rehderi Robulus vaughani 

Buccella anderseni Guttulina palmerae 

Globigerina form A Pseudopolymorphina rutila 

Cibicides cf. lobatulus Sigmomorphina nevifera 

Species whose range is throughout the Yorktown and younger 

Textularia cf. bocki Buccella depressa 

Nodosaria catesbyi Poroeponides lateralis 

Lagena melo Dyocibicides biserialis 

Pseudopolymorphina cf, novangliae 

STRATIGRAPHIC RELATIONSHIPS OF YORKTOWN 
FORAMINIFERA 

Of 108 species of Foraminifera described in this study, 100 are 
from the Yorktown formation. Siphogenerina lamellata, which occurs 
as a single specimen in material from Camp Wallace, is considered 
to be a redeposited form. Valvulineria washingtoni, Nonion medio- 
costatus, Textularia pseudobliqua, Robulus sp., Dentalina cf. inter- 
m,edia, Dentalina bevani, Lagena dorseyae, are all redepositional 
elements, or are described from beds older than the Yorktown. 

Twenty-nine species from the Yorktown formation are still 
living; some of the species described as new here may prove to be 



YoRKTowN Miocene Foraminifera: McLean 295 



living forms upon further studies of living faunas. The author feels 
that these living forms, as far as they are known, should be distin- 
guished from fossil species in making stratigraphic comparisons, and 
this has been done below. 

COMPARISON WITH THE CALOOSAHATCHEE (PLIOCENE) 
OF FLORIDA 

Two figured species (still living) were reported by Cushman 
(1918) from the Caloosahatchee formation and are also found 
in the Yorktown formation: they are Quinqueloculina seminula 
and T extularia gra/men. Because of poor illustrations and descrip- 
tions of these species, their identity is doubtful. No other Pliocene 
unit is close enough to merit direct comparison with the Yorktown. 

COMPARISON OF THE ST. MARYS AND YORKTOWN FORMATIONS 

Eleven species are common to both the Yorktown and the St. 
Marys foraminiferal faunas. Seven are still living; Massilina mans- 
jieldi, Lagena dorseyae, Btdimina gracilis, and Nomonella auris ap- 
pear to be fossil, the last two forms appear lower in the column 
than St. Marys formation. 

COMPARISON OF YORKTOWN AND CHOPTANK FORMATION 

FAUNAS 

Of 13 species common to both the Yorktown and Choptank 

formations, 8 are living forms; Sigmomorphina nevijera, T extularia 

badenenis, Lagena globulohispida, Bu/imina gracilis, and Nonionella 

auris seem to be fossil forms. 

COMPARISON OF YORKTOWN AND CALVERT FAUNAS 
There are 12 forms common to the Yorktown and Calvert beds. 
Siphogenerina lamellata is redepositional into the Yorktown; the 
remaining species common to both formations which appear to be 
fossil are: Dentalina pyrula, Robulus vaiighani, Pseudopolymorphina 
rutila (.'), Bulimina gracilis, and Nonionella auris. P. rutila of 
Dorsey is possibly not the same as Yorktown species of this report. 
The remaining six species are still living. 

COMPARISON OF YORKTOWN FAUNAS WITH THE MIOCENE OF 

FLORIDA 

Thirty-one species are common to the Yorktown formation and 



296 



Bulletin 160 



the Miocene of Florida (from Puri, 1953). Twenty-one species are 
living. Study of the following table will show that the Yorktown 
correlates best with the Area and Cancellaria facies of the Choctaw- 
hatchee as described in Puri's lists. It is of interest to note that 
Puri regarded the Area and Cancellaria facies as contemporaneous; 
the Area facies existing in the updip section, the Cancellaria facies 
in the downdip area. 

In the opinion of the author, 10 fossil species, some of long 
stratigraphic range, would hardly be sufficient to establish a direct 
correlation between the Yorktown and the Choctawhatchee. Fora- 
minifera of the Duplin marl are insufficiently known to merit cor- 
relation study at this time, and the relationship of the Duplin to 
the Yorktown formation may be quite close, though of different 
facies and climate. It is the opinion of the author that the Yorktown 
formation is uppermost Miocene in age and as the Pontian and 
Sahelian of Europe are continental or nonmarine beds it is difficult 
to utilize these as Yorktownian equivalents. The Sarmatian For- 
aminifera of Europe constitute a different group of species from 
those of the Yorktown to judge from the samples at the disposal of 
the author. 



TABLE 3 

SPECIES COMMON TO THE YORKTOWN FORMATION 
AND THE FLORIDA MIOCENE (FLORIDA DATA FROM 

PURI 1953) 

PURI'S FACIES 
CHOCTAWHATCHEE FM. 



Textularia articulata 
T. candeiana 
T. gramen 
T. mayori 
Quinqueloculina seminula 







ll 












<u 


u 








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o 


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X 


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X 




X 






X 


X 


X 


X 


X 
X 



YoRKTowiN Miocene Kokamimkera: McLean 



297 



Robulus pseudoiota 
Dentalina cf. pyrula 
Robulus vaughani 
Nodosaria catesbyi 
Pseudcpolymorphina rutila 



o 


O 




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X 
X 


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X 



Guttulina austriaca 
Sigmomorphina pearceyi 
Buliminella elegantissima 
Bulimina gracilis 
Lagena carter! 



Virgulina punctata 
Siphogenerina lamellata 
Angulogerina occidentalis 
Discorbis floridana 
Poroeponides lateralis 



Cancris sagra 
Discorbis rehderi 
Hanzavvaia concentrica 
Cibicidella variabilis 
Dvocibicides biserialis 



Planulina depressa 
Nonion grateloupi 
Nonion pizarrense 
Nonionelia auris 
Elphidium advena 
Elphidium incertum 



X X 

X 

X X 



X 




X 


X 


X 


X 


X 






X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 
X 



298 Bulletin 160 



NOTES ON ECOLOGY OF FORAMINIFERA FROM 
YORKTOWN FORMATION 

There are two difficulties attending the consideration of ecology 
as it relates to Foraminifera, both have been abundantly referred 
to in the literature. The first difficulty is that foraminiferal genera 
are not good indicators of environmental occurrences, because 
certain species within given genera have widely different habits of 
occurrence. The second difficulty is that the identities of species cf 
Foraminifera used as depth or other types of indicators are by no 
means certain. 

However, even acknowledging these difficulties, it Is not impos- 
sible to draw certain conclusions based on the growing ecological 
data. These hazards only impose on the researcher the duty of dis- 
crimination of data and the added duty of not using fossil forms as 
definite indicators until more is known about their associations with 
living forms. Fortunately, a number of species being actively studied 
in continuing ecological researches also occur in the Yorktown forma- 
tion. 

In the following pages and the accompanying chart, I show the 
known relationships of living Foraminifera which were also found in 
the Yorktown formation. These relationships are materially aided by 
the data furnished by Dr. Harald Rehder, Curator, Division of Mol- 
lusks, U. S. National Museum, who has kindly undertaken to out- 
line the known depth and environmental significance of such mol- 
lusks as are still known to be living, and which occur in our York- 
town formation collections. 

I cannot stress too greatly the necessity for caution in inter- 
polation of the data into significant results for the determination 
of fossil species as indicators of environment. It would seem that 
the widest interpretation of depths and or other points would be 
best in depth determination of fossil species associated with known 
living forms. The association in the strata of certain faunal elements 
may not be their association in the living state. 

DATA OTHER THAN DEPTHS OF OCCURRENCE OF LIVING FORMS 

Bolivina striatula. — This species is found rarely in bays and in the 

open Gulf: it is reported as being more common in the open 



YoRKTOWN Miocene Koraminifkra: McLean 299 



Gulf than elsewhere, but is present in reef, inter-reef, polyhahne 
bays, bay, sound, beach, and also in the moat at Fort Jeffer- 
son in the Tortugas. ( Boltovskoy, 1954, Phleger, 1955, Cush- 
man, 1922, Phleger, 1954, Post, 1951, Parker, et al, 1953, Bandy, 
1954). 

Buccella depressa. — See chart. 

Bxiccella ha^inai. — Characteristic of depths down to about 65 meters; 
highest frequencies at 40 meters; rare in outer part of Breton 
Sound and into Gulf; common in open Gulf and rare in sound. 
(Phleger and Parker, 1951, Parker, 1954, Phleger, 1955, Phleg- 
er, 1954). 

Buliminella elegantissima. — Present in Narragansett Bay; rare below 
100 meters; more common in open Gulf, but also present in 
Texas Bays; rare in Breton Sound and open Gulf; present in 
open Gulf and a bit into Sound; rare in inter-reef facies, poly- 
haline bays, passes, open Gulf; present in Mason Inlet. (Said, 
1951, Parker, et al, 1953, Phleger, 1955, Phleger, 1954, Post, 
1951, Miller, 1953). 

Cancris sagra. — Most records from 1-53 fathoms, common at 1 
fathom, rare elsewhere; o to 5% concentration at 75 to 130 
feet deep. (Cushman, 1931, Bandy, 1954). 

Cibicides lobatidus. — Common to abundant at 21/2 to 52/4 fathoms 
(Cushman, 1931). The determination of this species is in doubt. 

Discorbis floridana. — Common at less than 100 meters, rare at lower 
depths; frequencies of less than 5% to 110 meters, less than 1% 
deeper, one occurrence of 15% at inner end of a traverse; in moat 
at Fort Jefferson, Tortugas; restricted to open Gulf; rare in 
open Gulf, beach, Matagorda Island marsh, and bays; char- 
acterizes depths from 40 feet deeper, 1-14% at 55-75 feet, 1-10% 
at 75-130 feet. (Parker and Phleger, 1951; Parker, 1954, Cush- 
man, 1922, Phleger, 1954, Parker, et al, 1953, Bandy, 1954). 

Dyocibicides biserialis. — Present at Mason Inlet at opening to sea 
in 1 to 2 fathoms; at 276 and 417 fathoms; from shallow waters 
of California Channel islands. (Miller, 1951, Cushman, 1931, 
Cushman and Valentine, 1930). 

Dyocibicides perforatus. — From shallow waters of California Chan- 
nel Islands. (Cushman and Valentme, 1930). 



300 Bulletin 160 



Elphidium spp. — This genus is generally regarded as a shallow water 
form which tolerates a brackish water environment. It has 
certain species that are inhabitants of saline waters and in 
fact range from waters of normal salinity into brackish waters. 
Bandy (1954) finds the genus in high percentages throughout 
his three zones (30 to 130 feet) but in somewhat higher numbers 
in the deeper parts. 

Elphidium advena. — Less than 115 meters; present in Narragansett 
Bay; rare in polyhaline bay of south Texas and widely distri- 
buted in warm waters of western Atlantic and Pacific; warm 
shallow waters; common in Gulf of Suez and in small numbers 
in coral reef areas of Red Sea; rare in open Gulf, beach, bays, 
and Matagorda Island marsh. (Parker, 1954, Said, 1951, Cush- 
man, 1930, Post, 1951, Said, 1949, Parker, et al, 1953). 

Elphidium incertum. — Present in inter-reef and polyhaline bay 
facies of south Texas, elsewhere known to be common in cold 
waters; Mason Inlet to 3 fathoms; Narragansett Bay, finer 
silty bottoms essential to development. (Post, 1951, Miller, 
1953, Said, 1951). 

Guttulina austriaca. — See chart. 

Hanzazvaia concentrica. — (I have incorporated Hanzawaia strattoni 
in my records as this form seems confused with those of similar 
range as H. coficentrica.) Common to abundant at 16 to 45 
fathoms; greatest numbers at less than 100 meters, living forms 
from 22-78 meters; in Mason Inlet at to 3 fathoms; greater 
than 20° o at less than 50 meters, greater than 5°o at less than 
100 meters, less than l°o at depths of 220 meters; Breton Sound 
and more especially the open Gulf; most common in open 
Gulf, a few in Sound; rare in inter-reef facies, reef facies, poly- 
haline bays, passes of south Texas Coast; more common in open 
Gulf and beach samples, but also found in bays and in Mata- 
gorda Island marsh; present in Narragansett Bay from southern 
outer bay facies, probably controlled by salinity; at 55 to 75 
feet in amounts from 10 to 45° o, at 75 to 130 feet in 10-40%; 
maximum development at 57 to 166 feet. (Cushman, 1931, 
Phleger and Parker, 1951, Miller, 1953, Parker, 1954, Phleger, 
1955, Phleger, 1954, Post, 1951, Parker, et al, 1953, Said, 1951, 
Bandy, 1954, Lowman, 1949). 



YoRKTowN Miocene Foramimfera: McLean 301 



Lagena vielo. — See chart. 

Nodosaria catesbyi. — See chart. 

Nonion gratcloupi. — See chart. 

Ostracod spp. — Phleger finds this group common to the open Gulf 
with a few into the Sound (1954). 

Planulina depressa. — Shallow waters of California Channel Islands 
(Cushman and Valentine, 1930). The genus Planulina seems to 
be another one in which individual species vary considerably 
in environmental adaptation; however, Planulina depressa as 
seen in present samples gives, by its demonstrated occurrence, 
an implication of deeper waters, as is most characteristic of the 
several species commonly referred to this form. 

Polyniorphina novangliae. — Rare in 1,395 and 1,917 fathoms; cold 
regions; present in Narragansett Bay. (Cushman, 1923, Cush- 
man and Ozawa, 1930, Said, 1951). 

Poroeponides lateralis. — (This form includes Eponides repandus of 
some authors). In Mason Inlet; in Narragansett Bay; 24 to 
400 meters Gulf of Suez and Red Sea; rare at 30 to 130 feet 
in Gulf. (Miller, 1953, Said, 1951, Said, 1949, Bandy, 1954). 

Quinqueloctdina spp. — Neville M. Curtis, Jr., (1955 pp. 269-70) 
said, ". . .Quinqueloculina is most abundant from the beach out 
to approximately 90 meters. The literature on Recent or living 
Foraminifera appears to indicate highest frequencies to about 30 
to 40 meters. This 30 to 40 meter depth interpretation is a 
general statement as Quinqueloculina does occur in much deeper 
water, but not abundantly". Some results seem to indicate that 
the genus is sensitive to salinity changes, being a distinctly 
salt water form; against this. Miller ( 1953) shows an occurrence 
of quinqueloculinids in subnormally saline waters of Mason 
Inlet. 

Quinqueloculina seminuluyn. — Most common at 15 to 90 meters; 
common to rare in passes and the open Gulf, widely present 
in oceans and especially common m shallow water along the 
Atlantic Coast; forms 1 mm. or more are indicative of colder 
waters; present in Mason Inlet to 3 fathoms; common in 
beach material, rarer in open Gulf and bays, rare in Matagorda 
Island marsh; present in Narragansett Bay where it is in a 



302 Bulletin 160 



zone that seems to be restricted by salinity controls. (Parker, 
1948, Post, 1951, Cushman, 1929, Miller, 1953, Parker, et al, 

1953, Said 1951). 

Quinqueloculina wheeldoni. — See chart and description in this paper. 

Rotalia beccarii group. — (The several varieties of Rotalia beccarii 
are treated as a single entity, as their ranges are similar). Abun- 
dant at less than 70 meters; less than l°o at depths exceeding 
70 meters, up to 34 /□ at inner (shoreward) ends of traverses; 
common in Mason Inlet to 3 fathoms; best development in 
Breton Sound and into open Gulf, but also in marsh; at 6 
to 12 inches in moat at Fort Jeffereson, Tortugas; R. beccarii 
and var. te-pida are found in following facies, bay head, inter- 
reef, reef, closed bays, polyhaline bays, passes, open Gulf of 
south Texas; smaller than typical specimens occur in Red Sea 
and Gulf of Suez; common and abundant in all facies of San 
Antonio region, including Guadalupe River; present in Nar- 
ragansett Bay; 40% of fauna at 30-55 feet, 20-30% at 55-75 
feet, 0-15% at 75-130 feet. (Phleger and Parker, 1951, Parker, 

1954, Miller, 1953, Phleger, 1955, Cushman, 1922, Phleger, 1954, 
Post, 1951, Said, 1949, Parker, et al, 1953, Said, 1951, Bandy, 
1954). 

Sigmomorphina concava. — See chart. 

Sigmomorphina pearceyi. — A few records from deep water samples 

of Red Sea, first records outside of North American Atlantic 

Coast (Said, 1949). 
Sigmomorphina semitecta terquemiana. — See chart. 

Sigm-omorphina williamsoni. — In depauperate fauna (Boltovskoy, 
1954). 

Textularia candeiana. — Characteristic of "prominences" at 60-130 
feet, one occurrence seems to correspond with maximum grain 
size ratio, but this does not hold true throughout area; found 
in large numbers in Gulf of Suez, Gulf of Aqaba and Red Sea 
proper at 60-90 meters; 90 to 300 meter facies off Atlantic Coast. 
(Bandy, 1954, Said, 1949, Parker, 1948). 

Textularia gramen. — Common in shallow water samples and par- 
ticularly in Gulf of Suez. (Said, 1949). 



YoRKTowN Miocene Foraminikkra: McLean 303 



Tcxtular'ui mayori. — Six percent up to 70 meters, scarce after 100 
meters; usually occurs in less than 100 meters; rare in open 
Gulf; most common in open Gulf and rare in bays; present in 
samples from 30 to 130 feet in Gulf. (Parker, 1954, Phleger 
and Parker, 1951; Phleger, 1954, Parker, et al, 1953, Bandy, 
1954). 

Virgul'ma punctata. — See chart and description in this paper; mainly 
at depths less than 1(X) fathoms. 

CONCLUSIONS 
Species ranging into Breton and other sounds according to 
notes above, seem to be invading of seaward faunas as salinity and 
other factors are favorable to the invasion of such forms. The entire 
group seems to be in the "Middle and upper Neritic facies" of Ladd 
et al (1951), or in the neritic of Lowman (1949). The significance 
of results based on living species of Foraminifera found in the York- 
town formation are several: 

1. The waters of York town seas were in the upper and middle 
neritic facies and were sometimes less than 25 meters deep. 

2. The Carter's Grove faunas were generally somewhat deeper 
than the others with certain exceptions which indicate a 
fluctuation of facies at about the level of the first abundant 
"Chama congregata beds". 

3. Yorktown waters were saline as opposed to brackish. 

4. Yorktown faunas suggest open waters rather than Sound 
facies. 

5. Some rather well-defined depth facies are suggested for 
certain localities, but in the opinion of the author, these 
finer distinctions should await further ecological studies and 
better understanding of factors involved. 

. 6. There is a slight suggestion of cold water facies in the case 
of some forms and warm water facies in others; in the 
opinion of the author, these suggestions do not warrant 
closer definition in the light of present knowledge. 
7. Many features of the Yorktown faunas which would pre- 
viously have passed for time-stratigraphic separations are 



304 Bulletin 160 



actually reflections of shifting environments which would be 
expected in shallow waters. Results obtained from considera- 
tion of ecological data now available indicate both the value 
and necessity of continued research into the ecology of 
modern foraminiferal facies as is exemplified by the excellent 
papers of Phleger and Parker, and others. 

8. The absence of purely bathyal genera on the one hand de- 
fines the neritic environment of the Yorktown faunas, and 
the presence of deeper water groups (as per Norton, 1930) in 
the Carter's Grove locality both serve to indicate the value 
of definition by generic facies groupings. On the other hand, 
it is clear that species within genera are often capable of 
adaptation to environments not favored by a given genus. It 
is thus necessary to resort to the species in the last analysis 
and to carefully discriminate species so as to insure accuracy 
of identification. 

9. At least as far as the Yorktown fauna is concerned, the 
depth of 100 meters seems to mark a definite boundary of 
some significance, thereby suggesting that this boundary 
may mark the bathyal neritic separation. 

THE MOLLUSK COLLECTIONS FROM THE YORKTOWN 

FORMATION 

The data on moUusks are tabulated in a chart (Figure 7) for 
comparison with the foraminiferal faunas from localities and from 
levels of collection within the beds of given outcrops. The absence 
of mollusks from the Yorktown Blufls and at six feet up the bank 
at the beach below the Moore House do not indicate anything 
except that these two collections were made without reference to 
mollusks. These two samples were from early trips in the area and 
only yielded Foraminifera, Ostracoda, and broken shell fragments. 

The Camp Wallace column represents three mollusk specimens 
found at Virgmia Military Institute, which were labelled as being 
from Camp Wallace: the sands from the interiors of these shells 
yielded significant Foraminifera and Ostracoda, and these were in- 
cluded in this study. 



YoRKTowN Miocene Foraminikera: McLean 305 



II 



illl 



306 Bulletin 160 



Bryozoa, echinoid spines and fragments, and fish bones are 
found in various samples but were not studied or collected. One 
specimen of Psammechinus philanthroptcs (Conrad) was identified 
by C. Wythe Cooke from the six foot level at Carter's Grove. There 
are, in addition, finds of various whale remains and even one report 
of a walrus (Berry and Gregory, 1906) from the Yorktown forma- 
tion, all attesting to the open sea nature of the sediments. 

ECOLOGIC SIGNIFICANCE OF MOLLUSKS 
According to Dr. Harald Rehder the ecology of Yorktown for- 
mation mollusks is little known and is a subject for fruitful study. 
Five species are recorded as to depth of habitat; these are in 
my ecologic chart showing the recorded depth of both Foramimfera 
and mollusks. Aside from these records, Dr. Rehder stated (personal 
communication) that the genera Nucula, Corbula, Glycymeris, Cal- 
liosto-ma, and (generally) Astarte, lived in deeper waters than did 
My a, Dosinia, and Crepidula, to judge from their present-day con- 
genera. The fauna as a whole mdicates a shallow to moderately deep 
habitat. These observations coincide with my findings on the ecol- 
ogy of the Foraminifera. The reader may adduce further ecological 
details from a study of my several charts, but I feel it is best not 
to refine the gathered data until more and better evidence is at hand. 

GEOLOGIC SIGNIFICANCE OF MOLLUSKS 
In this study, the writer had m mind to test and corroborate or 
deny the zonations originally defined for the Yorktown formation by 
Mansfield (see earlier parts of this paper). The more minute zona- 
tions by Mansfield and Gardner proved impossible to verify and 
most of their localities are now either so altered or so inaccess- 
able as to make a field comparison impossible. 

The gross zonations of Mansfield proved possible to distinguish 
— my mollusk collections did show a separation and the criteria 
stated by Mansfield as distinguishing the Zone I from Zone II were 
found, particularly at Carter's Grove. I have already discussed the 
foraminiferal separations assuming that Mansfield's criteria are 
valid. The only question, and it is a serious one, is whether or not 
there are not better and more valid separation criteria of "zones" 
in the Yorktown formation than those given bv Mansfield. 



YoRKTowN Miocene Foramimkera: McLean 



307 



T»Bl£ SHOWING OlSTfilBUTlO 


, 





^ 








1 


tMBA 


NKMtN 


T »T 










1 iPlLLWAY AT 1 


GCOIOOIC 1 




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I ME\iT 

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i HOOBt 11 
lo HOJiE 
.- BEAC» II 








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^'.-r^ 


B.Q.IA.U.5.8.5 6-B-O O.I-U-E.B £-0_B.e,S J.ti 

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5t| s 


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HOLLUSKS (Peiecnxxis) 




? 
































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K^uriiAi xcuta Ov*raa 

*rcJ "trytanaica Coorafl '. 








i: 


















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C-«tre« flisrarilis Conrad 




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B 


C*\rfA «ltaeforFis Conr9d 




























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Pecten et<xei/« Coorw 


























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B 


. 


Frcffl V. ram. anus Co«raa 

Pec ten jeffersonio? Say 






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5, 










u 










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Ppcten j^((erso«<us Moeco^Oensis Conrad 

Pectin rea.son.us Say 




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P-cten sfT ^ 




























AMirie concemr.cla Say 






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A^titfte tPiCTWSii Conrad 








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B 














































































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■;■ 




















Oo»tfi>a aceta&ulu" (Conrad) 

"Venus" tr.dacno.des (U«arch) 




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P. tar «rana (C«>rad). 

SciS^.ia contraga (Crwrao) 1 






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Corhjia (Carfocnrbuia) cp^radi Gardner 

Corowra conradi retuss Gardner 




■■ 


1 


:- 




























= 




- 


Cort>«la .naeowal.^ Say 

Kuorh/s CJla-os (H. C. L*«} 

MOLLUSKS <Gistropodi) 

C^iiiOsKM Ms.co" Call 

CaH.ostoM »«^tc^elll (Conrad) 

Callir>%tcM« r^llant^roou• Conrad 














:::!::: 


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:::: 








- 


- 




- 
















"" 


Twrntella allicostata Ccrad 














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" 


Lr*iAtina gran.fera (Sar) 

EcoAora ouidrtcOTlata Say 

EccNjra « 

Sir*r>«at,a deveia Conrad 

bu^rcon incili) (Conrad) — 





























FIGURE 7 



308 Bulletin 160 



I am not inclined to separate the Yorktown formation into 
new or definite "zones", nor even to admit the validity of the old 
zones until two important points are clarified: 1. The distinction 
of stratigraphic from ecologic criteria, and 2, the mappability or 
stratal continuity of such zonations. I do not feel that Mansfield's 
work gives sufficient separations to trace over long distances, nor 
am I satisfied that the Foraminifera or Ostracoda can do it either. 
Until more proof is possible, it is my own belief that the Yorktown 
formation is best considered as a single unit embracing several eco- 
logical habitats which can be mistaken for stratigraphic zones in 
the absence of knowledge of the effects of different environments on 
the fauna of a region and a specific age. Richards, as cited earlier 
in this paper, stated that Pecten clmtonius does not extend far 
enough into North Carolina to make it useful as a guide fossil for 
Zone 1 as it is discriminated in that state. I have already com- 
mented on the Chama congregata bed as an index for correlation. 
These difficulties plus the negative results of foraminiferal separa- 
tions based on Mansfield's zonations (there are no foraminiferal 
species capable of designation as guides for Zone 1 ) seem to me to 
be conclusive evidence of the futility of separating the Yorktown 
formation into two distinct "zones". 

There are, however, a number of foraminiferal species which 
are restricted to the Yorktown and sufficiently numerous so that 
one can expect to find a distinctive Yorktown fauna elsewhere. 

MOLLUSKS AT CARTER'S GROVE 
My charts show the presence of Pecten clintonius at Carter's 
Grove. At six feet above the base of the bank at this same locality 
is a Chama congregata bed which fits Mansfield's separation criteria, 
since he reported such beds as being basal to Zone 2. The charts 
will show other subsidiary criteria, including the generally older 
aspect of species below the six-foot level. 

MOLLUSKS AT POWELL'S LAKE SPILLWAY 

Not only are the foraminiferal faunas at Powell's Lake Spill- 
way negative in aspect to the normal Yorktown formation fauna, 
but the mollusks suggest a St. Marys age for this outcrop. On one 
hand, the mollusks do not include diagnostic Yorktown species, and 



YoRKTowN Miocene Foraminifera: McLean 309 



on the other hand, several of them are restricted to St. Marys or 
older formations. Dr. Denise Mongin identified species collected by 
her at Powell's Lake Spillway which are indicative of the St. Marys 
formation. Her collections will be listed and commented on in the 
paper to follow this one. 

If the Powell's Lake outcrop is St. Marys in age, this makes 
localities to the west of the area somewhat suspect, since the York- 
town formation is intimately related to the St. Marys in molluscan 
content, and inland outcrops can be one or the other. Foraminifera 
from an outcrop near Petersburg seem older than Yorktown species 
as reported earlier in this paper. As also reported earlier in this 
paper, the St. Marys has suffered from encroachment of the York- 
town as interpreted by some workers. Perhaps the earlier inter- 
pretations are somewhat more valid than they are now believed 
to be. 

NOTES ON THE DESCRIPTIONS OF SPECIES 

In the descriptive portion of this paper, two principles are 
followed: 1. the synonymy is not exhaustive but represents those 
references checked by the author for similarity to Yorktown forms. 
2. The description cited is the one most closely resembling the 
form found and is, therefore, not necessarily the original description 
for the species. 

There is an amount of error in synonymies and in descriptions 
of Foraminifera which makes it difficult to rely on published works. 
The older a named species is, the greater the error of subsequent 
assignment of forms to it. This margin of error is peculiarly em- 
phasized in the case of the Textulariidae. 

The genus Textularia has been the subject of fine discrimination 
as to species, if one is to judge from the literature. It is here that 
direct comparison with specimens of Textularia in the collections of 
the U. S. National Museum has been most instructive. For, while 
the literature distinction has been minute, assignments of species 
in the textulands as revealed by the actual specimens have been 
erratic. I his is not the work of one group or individual — the dif- 
ficulty is basic and widespread. 

In some cases, illustrations of certain textularids are too highly 
stylized tO' be of much use. Evidentlv, distrust of illustrations be- 



310 Bulletin 160 



cause of stylization has led to misinterpretation of certain forms 
which are, in fact, quite accurately delineated. Cushman's Tex- 
tviaria mayori from the Tortugas region seems to be such a case 
of misinterpretation. 

To partially eliminate the effect of misinterpretation, forms 
illustrated in this paper are figured both by artist's drawings and 
by photomicrographs. Both types of illustration are accurate. How- 
ever, to understand any given form it seems necessary to note the 
differences revealed by these two kinds of illustration. The artist 
sees the foraminiferal test in its structural form, and delineates 
features which are not quite so readily seen as the drawing would 
indicate. On the other hand, the photomicrograph tends to suppress 
detail, especially if it is below the surface of the test wall. The 
actual appearance of the form is somewhat between these two 
extremes. Additionally, the texture of the test wall is revealed better 
by photomicrograph than by drawing. This is not to say that 
either form of illustration is superior to the other. It seems better 
to employ both media for adequate delineation of form. 

In the case of the Globigerinidae and of the genus Buccella, 
the technique of photomicrography was insufficient to acquire an 
adequate picture of any specimen. These forms are thus illustrated 
by means of drawings alone. In other cases the photomicrograph 
was sufficient to render drawings unnecessary. Where these two 
different situations are encountered, comparisons of drawings to 
photomicrographs of forms illustrated both ways will enable the 
reader to make an accurate reconstruction of the form by a little 
study. 

THE GENUS EPONIDES 

In searching the literature concerning Poroeponides lateralis 
(Terquem) which is common to the Yorktown formation, it was 
found that the figure by H. B. Brady of "Eponides repandits" has 
a marked similarity to forms in the Yorktown material which are 
apparently only end-forms of a gradual series at the other end of 
which is Poroeponides lateralis, the type species of Poroeponides 
Cushman, 1944. Reference was made to the original Nautilus 
repandus as figured by Fichtel and Moll, the type species of 
Eponides. 



YoRKTOWN Miocene Foraminifera: McLean 311 



C. D. Redmond ( Mlcropaleontologist, vol. Ill, No. 4, pp. 18- 
21, 1949) has carefully gone into the basic question of whether 
Epo Hides, as we know it today, is valid. His conclusion, which seems 
inescapable, is that the selection of figures of repandus subsequent 
to those of Fichtel and Moll and Montfort (who erected the genus 
on N. repandus) has been a major source of error. As Redmond 
points out, the written description of the genus and of the original 
A'^. repandus supports the improbable figures themselves; so, the 
subsequent choice by Cushman and others of later figures for the 
genus, does violence to the generic description and its type species. 

Hofker's attempt to correct this discrepancy (Micropaleonto- 
logist, vol. IV, No. 1, pp. 15-16, 1950) unfortunately overlooked 
several important facts. First, he failed to specify what he meant by 
"Eponides repandus from the coast of Chile" which needs clarifica- 
tion and designation as a species before it can be used as a type 
species for anything — and it cannot, in any case, be the type 
species of Eponides, as Montfort's designation stands for the genus. 
Second, Eponides frigidus belongs to the genus Buccella and is 
characteristic of the genus as erected by Anderson, and in any 
event, E. frigidus cannot be a replacement for the same reason; 
Montfort's designation preoccupies this position. In justice to 
Hofker, the genus Buccella was erected subsequent to his sugges- 
tion, so that question would have been decided in his favor, had 
there not been a prior designation of the type species for the genus 
by Montfort, Cushman, and others. 

So far everyone concerned has failed to note an important point 
about the figures of Brady (and Jones, Parker and Brady). Refer- 
ence to their figures (reproduced by Redmond in his discussion) 
show that "Ptdvinulina repanda" is marked with definite basal 
pores, which is a generic characteristic of Poroeponides Cushman, 
1944. Hence these forms are not available for Eponides which has 
no basal pores on the final chamber's apertural face. Neither Cush- 
man, nor anyone else, has included apertural face pores in describ- 
ing Eponides. 

To further complicate matters, Asano and Uchio { in Stach, 
L. W., "Illustrated Catalogue of Japanese Tertiary smaller Fora- 
minifera" Part 14, Rotaliidac, p. 18, tfs. 134-135, 1951) described 



312 Bulletin 160 



Poroeponides cribrorepandus, which they said differed from Eponides 
repcmdus in having "the numerous scattered rounded openings typi- 
cal of Poroeponides" . Reference could have been made to Cush- 
man's reproduction of Brady's repandus in his Foraminifera text- 
book; the figure Cushman reproduced has apertural face pores also. 
D. N. Miller, Jr., (Contr. Cushman Found. Foram. Res., vol. IV, 
pt. 2, p. 59, 1953) described "Poroeponides repandus (Fichtel and 
Moll)" and put the descriptions of Montfort and of Fichtel and 
Moll in synonymy with it and on the same page he noted that the 
type species of Eponides is their form which he mcluded under 
Poroeponides repandus as a synonym. 

In the Yorktown material, I found specimens which grade from 
the typical Poroeponides lateralis (with open umbilicus, many aper- 
tural pores, and broad chambers) to forms with closed umbilicus, 
few pores, and pointed final chambers, quite typical of specimens 
figured by Brady. I am convinced that these forms are the same 
species, i.e., Poroeponides lateralis. Not only can the gradual changes 
be observed in a series of specimens, but all of them have a peculiar 
chalky test wall underlain by a glassy test. The forms most covered 
"with "chalk" also are the forms exhibiting a closed umbilicus and 
few apertural pores. 

Orville Bandy (U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 
254-F, p. 137, pi. 30, figs, la-c and 3a-c, 1954) figured two forms 
of Poroeponides; P. lateralis and P. sp., which he noted that he 
counted together in the frequency counts. These two forms repre- 
sent the two extreme end-forms of Poroeponides lateralis as found 
in the Yorktown formation. Between these end-forms are numerous 
individual variants indicating that the species has the ability to 
change markedly. 

Such cases of form plasticity should be expected. Eponides as 
a genus seems to be a case of mistaken assignment. Its usefulness is 
impared not only by the confusion now existing but by a changing 
concept of classification in which more species are withdrawn from 
it to be placed in newer genera. This is not to condone or praise 
the narrowing of generic divisions. In the case of Eponides the 
genus has been destroyed in validity by misinterpretation and in- 
correct establishment of types. There is, therefore, no choice but 



YoRKTowN Miocene Foraminifera: McLean 313 



to erect a new genus or several genera to take care of the forms 
hitherto assigned to Eponides. This has been partially accomplished 
with Poroeponides and Buccella; possibly one or several new genera 
need to be designated. 

TRIMORPHISM AND THE BUCCELLIDS 

The writer has approached the subject of trimorphism with 
some reservation, inasmuch as a general application of the principle 
must certainly confuse an already badly mixed nomenclature, and 
inasmuch as application of this principle raises serious problems on 
the generic level. 

Nevertheless, in studying and describing the forms from the 
genus Buccella which are present in the Yorktown formation, a 
series of forms presented themselves so as to provide an almost aca- 
demic demonstration of Hofker's basic principle called "trimor- 
phism". What is certainly worse from a standpoint of denying the 
principle, one cannot assign these forms to diflPerent genera — they 
are all in the genus Buccella. 

Buccella anderseni McLean, n.sp., occurs in three distinct 
forms, which are related; their diflFerences may be explained on the 
basis of Hofker's three basic forms. The microspheric form is 
typically developed — a small proloculum followed by comparatively 
numerous chambers. In the megalospheric form, however, there are 
two basic developments which I characterize as A^ and Ao after 
Hofker. 

In the A^ generation, the proloculum is the smaller of the two 
generations but is considerably larger than the microspheric prolo- 
culum of B. anderseni. The A, generation has a greater number 
of succeeding chambers than the A. form, though fewer than the 
microspheric test. In B. anderseni, the A, form is markedly thick, 
with a high spire. 

Generation A^ of B. anderseni has a larger proloculum, fewer 
coils and chambers, a spire similar to the microspheric form and is 
the larger of all three forms. 

What is important to note is that in all other details, these 
forms are similar — too much so to give any basis for species-separa- 
tion, or generic-separation. 



314 Bulletin 160 



Concerning trimorphism, Hofker's discussions (The Foramini- 
fera of the Siboga Expedition, Part II, 15-26, 1930) indicated that 
the two different megalospheric forms of a species are at least partly 
caused by seasonal conditions such as density of seawater. In this 
respect, the trimorphic development may be cut short by, say, a 
tropic environment, in which the A., generation is skipped. In the 
case of apogamy, the microspheric forms are absent, due to nonfor- 
mation of microspores, according to Hofker. 

Despite the questions involved in naming species of Foramini- 
fera, due to trimorphism, Hofker's findings do not erase the basic 
megalospheric-microspheric alternation of generations; where he 
has rendered a distinct service is to bring to our attention that 
certain structural features of the form are in fact due to environ- 
mental reaction of the individuals — not generic-differentiation, nor 
even specific-differentation. Perhaps in "trimorphism" we have a 
real reason to revive such names as "Cristellaria" in preference to 
the more restricted later genera which will not allow for these 
changes of shape within a single species. 

Hofker and other micropaleontologists may, incidentally, find 
much profit in reading Darwin's "Origin of Species", for in this work 
in Volume I (pp. 55-56, 6th edition, 1892, D. Appleton and Co.) 
Darwin drew attention to dimorphism and trimorphism in the case 
of Crustacea, Insecta, and plants; and on pages 29-34 of Volume II 
of this same edition he discussed the effects of this set of conditions 
on fertility of a mating between different dimorphic and trimorphic 
individuals. His remarks do little to assist in defining a species on 
the basis of sexual compatibility. 

As Cushman, (1950, p. 55) pointed out, the difficulty in apply- 
ing trimorphism is that it will be applied too widely. To properly 
qualify as one species, the three forms of a given series must have 
certain limiting qualifications. The first of these is that the forms 
to be combined must have the same locality and distribution. A 
second qualification, indicated, but not stressed by Cushman on 
page 53 of the same chapter, seems to me to be of even greater 
significance at least in the case of the Buccellidae. This is the agree- 
ment of ornamentation and chamber shape following the proloculum. 
To correctly apply trimorphism in naming a species, details of the 
entire test must be considered. 



"V\)RKr()\\N MiocHNH FoRAM iNii- HRA : McLean 315 



Reference to the figures of Buccclla andcrseni will illustrate 
my meaning. As can be seen, the three trimorphic forms differ in 
several respects; degree of spiral development, number of chambers 
following the proloculum, size of proloculum, and number of coils 
to the test. As shown by Hofker, the Aj form differs most from the 
microspheric form, and the A., form returns to some closer con- 
formity with the microspheric form, but differs in acceleration of 
early development. This is the case with BuccelUi anderseni. 

In angularity of periphery, in basic test structure, and in the 
degree of pustulation, Buccella anderseni is the same in all three 
forms, as is also the case with the degree of sutural limbation, 
inclination of sutures in the early coils on the dorsal side, and the 
chamber shape on the ventral side. 

On page 364 of the 1950 edition of Cushman's textbook is 
found the following statement: "Nephrolepidina and Eidepidina in- 
tergrade. This has been demonstrated particularly in /.. undosa 
Cushman. Eidepidina also intergrades with Trybliolepidina' . In 
justice to Cushman, this portion of the text it should be noted, was 
written by W. Storrs Cole and T. Wayland Vaughan, and subse- 
quently revised by Cole. The difficulty raised by the fact that L. 
undosa embraces two subgenera within one species is easily explain- 
able if the so-called "subgenera" are actually recognized as being 
different trimorphic (or polymorphic) forms of the same species, 
and hence the same genus. A species is supposedly the last separat- 
able zoological unit, and cannot, by definition, transgress units of 
a higher order. 

The basic difficulty is that too much emphasis has been placed 
on the embryonic apparatus (proloculum and immediately succeed- 
ing chambers) in foraminiferal classification and not enough atten- 
tion has been paid to the whole animal. Classifiers should have been 
forewarned by the accepted fact of microspheric and megalospheric 
generations in the Foraminifera and should have been aware of the 
plasticity of the embryonic apparatus. The adult animal embraces 
the entire "habit" or evolutional development of the form — to 
emphasize any one or any single group of characters at the expense 
of the rest, must lead us astray from what we call "natural" classi- 
fication. No classification is natural if the animal does not conform 
to it. 



316 Bulletin 160 



SYSTEMATIC DESCRIPTIONS 

The classification utilized in this paper is that of Cushman as 
revealed in his textbook (1950 edition). Such changes as are 
necessary to bring this classification up to date (such as inclusion 
of the genus Biiccella) have been made. 

FOKAMOIFERA 
Family TEXTULARIIDAE 

Genus TEXTULARIA Defrance, 1824 

Textnlaria articiilata d'Orbigny 

Fl. 35, figs. 1-2; PI. 36, figs. 4-6, 9. 11. 15-16 
Trxtularia articulata d'Orbigny, 1846, Foram. Foss. Bass. Tert. Vienna, p. 
250, pi. 15, figs. 16-18; Bagg, 1904, Maryland Geol. Surv., Miocene vol., 
p. 471, pi. 132, figs. 6-7; Cushman & Ponton, 1932, Florida Geol. Surv., 
Bull. 9, p. 40, pi. 1, figs, la-b; Cushman & CahiU, 1933, U. S. Geol. Surv., 
Prof. Paper 175-A, p. 8, pi. 1, figs. 12a-b; Lalicker & McCulloch, 1940, 
Allan Hancock Pac. Expedition, vol. 6, No. 2, p. 118, pi. 13, figs. 3a-d; 
Cushman & Ellisor, 1945, Jour. Pal., vol. 19, No. 6, p. 547, pi. 71, fig. 11. 

Test elongate, two or three times as long as broad, compressed, rather 
evenly tapering, with the greatest breadth toward the apertural end, periphery 
acute and slightly keeled ; chambers distinct, ten or more pairs in the adult, 
high and increasing in height toward the apertural end ; sutures distinct, some- 
what curved, extending strongly backward; wall distinctly arenaceous, with 
much cement, smoothly finished ; aperture fairly large, at the base of the inner 
margin of the chamber. Length 0.60-0.75 mm.; breadth 0.30-0.35 mm.; thickness 
0.18-0.20 mm.— (Cushman and Cahill, 1933.) 

Yorktown specimens agree well with the description by Cush- 
man and Cahdl except that the chambers are fewer than ten pairs. 
Specimens show some of the test wall variation discussed below 
under Textnlaria candeiana. 

Occurrence. — T. articulata is a common to frequent species in 
material from the Moore House Beach, Carter's Grove, Camp Wal- 
lace, and the base of the outcrop at Powell's Lake Spillway. 

Textnlaria badeiieiisis Lalicker PI. 35, figs. 3a-c 

Textnlaria partschii Czjzek (not Reuss), 1848, Haidinger's Naturw. Abh. 2, 

p. 148, pi. 13, figs. 22-24. 
Textnlaria badencnsis Lalicker, 1935, Contrib. Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., 

vol. 11, pt. 2, p. 44, pi. 7, figs. la-c. 
Textnlaria cf. badencnsis Clapp, Ann Dorsey, 1948, Maryland Dept. Geol. 

Mines, & Water Resources, Bull. 2, p. 276, pi. 27, figs. 8a-c. 

Test large, conical, tapering, slightly compressed in early portion, sub- 
circular in top view, periphery broadly rounded; chambers numerous, inflated, 
rapidly increasing in height as added; sutures distinct, depressed, except in 
early portion, nearly straight, somewhat oblique; wall rather coarsely aren- 
aceous with a large proportion of cement, smoothly finished in early portion, 



YoRKTowN Miocene Foramimfera: McLean 317 



hut otherwise rough; aperture a hroad. rather high arched opening at the 
inner margin of the last-formed chamber, and in a distinct reentrant. Length 
of hoiotvpe 1.20 mm.; greatest width 0.76 mm.; thickness 0.56 mm. (Lalicker 

1935.) r ^ r^ y r^ 

Occurrence. — A single specimen was found at Carter s Urove 

at the base of the hank, lower beach section. 

Textiilsiria cf. iMU-ki Hogiund PI- 36, figs. lOa-b 

Tfxtularia bocki Hoglund. 1947, Uppsala Univ. Bidrag. Bd. 26, p. 171, pi. 
12. figs. 5-7. 

Test free, of medium size, elongate, tapering, somewhat compressed, 
broadest at the oral end, apical end obtusely rounded in the megalospheric 
form, more acutely pointed in the microspheric; initial end occupied by the 
proloculum in the megalospheric form, immediately followed by a biserial 
arrangement of the chambers, in the microspheric form with a single whorl of 
three chambers before the biserial chambers follow; periphery sharpened, 
slightly carinate; chambers broader than high, in the apertural end slightly 
inflated, up to 23 in the microspheric form, up to 18 in the megalospheric; 
sutures fairly distinct, only slightly depressed; wall arenaceous, composed of 
scattered sand grains of medium size with much cement, exterior rather neatly 
finished, inner surface lined with chitin; aperture interio-marginal forming an 
oblong, narrow opening at the inner margin of the last chamber; colour greyish 
white. Length up to 1.12 mm. in the microspheric form; the megalospheric 
somewhat smaller in all respects; breadth Y^ to 2/3 of length; thickness Y^ of 
breadth. (Hoglund 1947.) 

The single specimen found at Carter's Grove is about 1.43 mm. 
long and has fewer chambers than Hoglund's form but is otherwise 
close to the megalospheric form of his species. 

Occurrence. — Single specimens were found at the bank base of 
both the Moore House Beach and the upper beach at Carter's Grove. 

Textularia candeiaiia d'Orbigny PI. 35, figs. 4, 6. 7, 10, 11 

Tixtularia canJriatia d'Orbigny 1839, in De La Sagra, Hist. Fisc. Pol. Nat. 
Cuba, "Foraminiferes" p. 143, pi. 1, figs. 25-27; Cushman, 1922, Carnegie 
Inst. Washington, pub. 311, p. 23, pi. 2, fig. 2; Cushman, 1922, U. S. Nat. 
Mus., Bull. 104, p. 8, pi. 1, figs. 1-3; Cushman & Ponton, 1932, Florida 
Geol. Surv., Bull. 9, p. 41, pi. 8, figs. 4a-b; Puri, 1953, Florida Geol. 
Surv., Bull. 36, p. 80, pi. 30, figs. 9-10. 

Test elongate, club-shaped, the early portion narrow, much compressed, 
the edges almost carinate, slightly tapering to the round-pointed apex, the later 
chambers enlarging rapidly, much inflated; chambers numerous; wall rather 
coarsely arenaceous; aperture in a broad but shallow sinus at the base of the 
inner margin of the chamber; color dark grev. Length about 1 mm. (Cushman, 
U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 104, 1922.) 

There are two or more descriptions of this species by Cushman, 
of which the one here cited seems to best describe Yorktown speci- 
mens. The Yorktown forms average 1.40 mm. in length and show 
considerable variation in the composition of the test wall. 



318 Bulletin 160 



Slama (Micropaleontologist, vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 33-4, 1954) 
reported an interesting experiment in which several species of 
Ammobaculites showed preference for particles of silicon carbide 
and larger sizes of material for inclusion in their test walls. Further 
experimentation seemed to show that availability of sediment con- 
stituents plus selectivity play an important part in the make-up of 
the arenaceous test of Ammobaculites . 

Specimens of T. candeiana (as here figured) show distinct 
differences in the coarseness of the test wall and also in selection of 
mineral grains, one highly evident choice being for large black 
mineral grains where they are available in the sediment. Fine sand 
makes up a large part of these tests, but where the sediment allows 
selection of both large white particles and dark ones, these elements 
show up in T. candeiana tests. Those tests that show little or no 
coarse material came from sediments largely lacking such material. 
The extreme difference in test wall constituents is the only difference 
to be noted between these forms. 

Occurrence. — Cushman records this form as rare in depths from 
79 to 104 fathoms of the present oceans. It is common to frequent in 
all samples from Carter's Grove, Moore House Beach, Camp Wallace, 
and in the base of the outcrop at Powell's Lake Spillway. 

Textularia eustiseiisis McLean, n.sp. PI. 35, figs. 5a-b 

Test elongate, about 2i/4 times as long as broad, slightly com- 
pressed, sides almost parallel; chambers distinct, somewhat globu- 
late, increasing gradually in size as added, 16 chambers visible in 
holotype; sutures distinct, depressed, straight to slightly curved, 
inclined downward slightly; wall rather smoothly arenaceous, with 
considerable cement; aperture an arched slit in a slight reentrant at 
the base of the final chamber. Length of holotype, 1.89 mm.; 
breadth, 0.68 mm. 

In the U. S. National Museum (Slide P2028) labelled as 
"Textularia gramen" are a number of typical specimens of this 
form as found in the St. Marys formation at Langley's Bluff, Mary- 
land. It is possible that this is the T. gramen cited in the chart 
by Cushman and Cahill (U. S. G. S. Prof. Paper 17S-A) for their 
Langley's Bluff locality. 



YoRKTowN Miocene Foraminifera: McLean 319 



Textularia eustisensis differs from the T. consecta of Clapp 
(Md. Dept. Geol. Mines & Water Res., Bull. 2, 1948 pp. 227-8) in 
its inclmation of sutures, larger size, and configuration of aperture. 
It differs from T. recta Cushman, T. midzvayana Lalicker, and 
T. plum?nerae Lalicker in having more inflated chambers, inclined 
sutures, and a more compressed test. 

Types.— Uolotype, P.R.L, No. 22,055; paratypes, P.R.L, Nos. 
22,051-22,054 and 22,056-22,059; U.S.N.M., No. P3104. 

Occurrence. — Texttdaria eustisensis is best developed in a well 
in Fort Eustis, Virginia, at a depth of 101 to 135 feet, from which 
sample the holotype was taken. It also is present at Langley Field, 
sporadically in samples from Carter's Grove, and at the base ol 
the Powells Lake Spillway outcrop. As noted above, it is present in 
the St. Marys of Maryland at Langley's Bluff. Its present range is 
from the St. Marys formation and the Carter's Grove facies of the 
Yorktown formation. 

Textularia gramen d'Orbigny PI. 36, figs. 7, 12-13 

Textularia gramen d'Orbigny, 1846, Foram. Foss. Bass. Tert. Vienne, p. 248, 
pi. 15, figs. 4-6; Cushman, 1918, U. S. Geol. Surv., Bull. 676, p. 8, pi. 9, 
figs. 4-5 (not figs. 2, 3, 6) ; Cushman, 1930, Florida Geol. Surv., Bull. 4, 
p. 17, pi. 1, figs. 5a-b; Purl, 1953, Florida Geol. Surv., Bull. 36, p. 81, pi. 
30, figs. 7-8. 

Test slightly longer than broad, compressed, periphery subacute, sides 
strongly divergent; chambers distinct, comparatively few, fairly high, the 
earlier ones strongly overlapping; sutures distinct, slightly depressed; wall 
finely arenaceous, smoothly finished; aperture elongate, in a definite groove 
at the base of the inner margin of the last-formed chamber. Length 0.60-0.75 
mm.; breadth 0.35-0.45 mm.; thickness 0.22-0.25 mm. (Cushman, 1930.) 

A feature of T. gramen, not described by Cushman, which 
seems to be a feature of D'Orbigny's original form, is the downward 
curve of the sutures, noted in Yorktown specimens. D'Orbigny is 
conceded to have been careful about such features, and there is no 
reason to think T. grameji, as he designated it, has straight sutures, 
as his figure shows them to be curved. Textularia gramen, to judge 
from the numerous forms assigned to it, has been so generally 
abused that it would probably be advisable to suppress the name. 

Occurrence. — In the Yorktown formation, T. gramen is spora- 
dically present in all outcrop localities except the Langley Field 
sample. 



320 Bulletin 160 



Taxtularia niayori Cushman PI. 36, figs. 1-3 

Textularia mayori Cushman, 1922, Carnegie Inst. Washington, publ. 311, p. 
23, pi. 2, fig. 3; Cushman, 1922, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 3, p. 7; 
Cushman, 1930, Florida Geol. Surv., Bull. 4, p. 17, pi. 1, figs. 6-8; Cush- 
man & Ponton, 1932, Florida Geol. Surv., Bull. 9, p. 40, pi. 1, figs. 2-3; 
Phleger & Parker, 1948, Geol. Soc. Amer., Memoir 46, pt. 2, p. 5, pi. 2, 
figs. 1-S; Puri, 1953, Florida Geol. Surv., Bull. 36, p. 82, pi. 20, figs. 7-8. 

Test compressed, increasing rapidly in breadth, initial end rounded, aper- 
tural end obliquely truncate; surface fairly smooth; chambers rather indis- 
tinct; sutures slightly depressed; periphery of each chamber with an elongate, 
conical, spinose projection, often broken at the tips, those of the early portion 
directed backward, the later ones extending straight outward; wall aren- 
aceous, of angular sand-grains with much fine cement; aperture very low, 
elongate, at the inner border of the last-formed chamber, in a reentrant of the 
border, with a thin lip above; color grey. Length up to 0.80 mm. (Cushman, 
Carnegie Inst. Publ. 311, 1922.) 

Yorktown specimens range from 0.75 to 0.95 mm. long and 
from 0.47 to 0.58 mm. wide, and are typical. 

Occurrence. — The form seems to be restricted to the Langley 
Field and Carter's Grove localities. 

Textularia pseudobliqua McLean, n.sp. PI. 35, figs. 8-9 ; PI. 36, figs. 17a-b 

Test triangulate, stubby, slightly compressed, periphery round- 
ed, test outhne somewhat lobate due to deeply depressed sutures; 
chambers generally distmct, broader than high, increasing gradually 
in size as added, final chambers quite high, nine visible chambers in 
holotype; sutures deeply depressed in later portion of test, in- 
distinct in early portion, slanted downward; wall coarsel}^ arena- 
ceous, with much cement; aperture a low arch within a distinct re- 
entrant at the base of the last formed chamber. Length of holotype, 
1.38 mm.; breadth, 0.78 mm. 

Textularia pseudobliqua differs from T. obliqua Clapp in the 
irregular juxtaposition of the chambers along the central axis, ir. its 
less slanted and more distinct sutures, and in its coarser test. 

Types.— WoXotypt, P.R.I. No. 22,078; paratype, P.R.I. No. 
22,069. 

Occurrence. — Base of the Powell's Lake Spillway outcrop and 
at depths of 101 to 135 feet in the Fort Eustis well. 

Textularia pseudobliqua aspera McLean, n.subsp. PI. 36, figs. 8, 14 

Subspecies diflFers from the typical form in having an extremely 
rough test which completely obscures the details of the form. 



^'ORKTOWN MlOCHNK FoRAM IN 1 FKKA : McLkAN 321 



7v;)r.f.— Holotype, P.R.I. , No. 22,081; paratype, P.R.I., No. 
22,080. 

Occurrei\ce. — Carter's Grove Beach, base of bank, lower part 
of beach; also in the Fort Eustis well at 101 to 135 feet. The form 
may be present in the York River Bridge test borings as a juvenile 
form, although these may be the preceding species. 

Genus TEXTULAKIOIDES Cushman, 1911 
Textularioides (?) carteri McLean, n.sp. PI. 35, figs. 12a-e 

Test apparently attached, one side flat, the other somewhat 
globular in chamber relief; outline of test triangulate; test consists 
of a rounded proloculum with a small whorl of supplementary 
chambers, then becoming biserial with nine large chambers in the 
biserial portion; sutures depressed, nearly straight on free side, 
but curved and only slightly depressed on flat attached side; wall 
smooth; aperture a small indistinct opening at the base of the last 
formed chamber. Length, 0.78 mm.; width, 0.42 mm. 

This species differs from Textularioides injlata Cushman m the 
triangular outline, smoothness of wall, and the less wedge-shaped 
chambers. 

Named in honor of Charles Carter, builder and original owner 
of Carter's Grove. 

Ty^^.— Holotype, P.R.I., No. 22,087. 

Occurrence. — The single, but distinctive specimen, was found 
at the base of the bank, lower portion of beach, at Carter's Grove. 

Family 3IILI0LTT>\E 

Genus QriNQrELOCl'LIXA d'Orbigny, 1826 
<^iihu{uel4MMilina seniinula (Linnaeus) PI. 37. figs. 12, 14 

Sii pula icminulutn Linnaeus, 1767, Svst. Nat. ed. 12, p. 1264. 

Miliolina irminiilum Williamson, 1858, Rec. Forams. Oreat Britain, p. 85, 

pi. 7, figs. 183-185; Heron-.Allen & Earland, 1932, Discovery Reports, vol. 

4, pp. 313-314, pi. 6, figs. 25-40. 
Quinqurlocuima sftninulum Cushman, 1929, U. S. Nat. Museum, Bull. 104, p. 

24, pi. 2, figs. 1-2; Boltovskoy, 1954, Revista Inst. Nacional Invest. Ciencias 

y Mus. Argentine Ciencias Nat. "Bernadino Rivadavia", Tomo 3, No. 4, p, 

258, pi. 20, figs. la-c. 
Quinr/urloculina srminula Cushman Jt Cole, W. S., 1930. Contrih. Cushman 

Lab. Foram. Res., vol. 6, pt. 4, p. 95, pi. 13, figs, la-c; Cushman, 1930, 

Florida Geol. Surv., Bull. 4, p. 19, pi. 2, figs, la-c (not 2). 

Test longer than wide, greatest width near the middle, chambers distinct, 
of nearly uniform diameter, periphery rounded; sutures distinct, very slightly 
depressed; wall smooth, polished; aperture large, with a simple tooth. Length 
up to 1 millimeter or more in larger cold-water specimens. (Cushman, 1929.) 



322 Bulletin 160 



It is difficult to see how this cosmopolitan form can be re- 
ferred to the drawing by Linnaeus of Serpula seminulum. This 
species is one of those in which numerous types of test form have 
been included, and the specimens present in the Yorktown formation 
seem to agree well with those pictured in papers here cited in syn- 
onymy (with the exception of Lmnaeus's description). Boltovskoy 
reports Q. seminuluiyi from a depauperate fauna of San Bias Bay 
at a depth of 5-25 meters. 

Occurrence. — This form is common to rare in most outcrops 
of the Yorktown formation. Its range is greater than Miocene, ex- 
tending upward to the present. 

Quiiiqiieloculina seminulangulata McLean, n.sp. PI. 37, figs. 8a-b 

Quinqueloculina venusta ? Cushman, 1918, U. S. Geol. Surv., Bull. 676, p. 70, 
pi. 29, figs. 3a-c. 

Test somewhat longer than broad, chambers distinct, sharply 
triangular in cross-section, angles pronounced but not carinate; 
chambers distinct, triangulate in end view; sutures distinct, depress- 
ed; wall smooth and polished; aperture an elongate, rather large 
oval opening with no lip, situated on a nonprojecting, truncate end 
of final chamber, with a long thin, simple, tooth. Length, LOO mm.; 
breadth, 0.65 mm.; thickness, 0.45 mm. 

Except for the angulation of the chambers and the nonpro- 
jecting apertural end, this form greatly resembles Quinqueloculma 
seminula (Linnaeus), and has probably often been confused with 
that species. Cushman figured the form from Jackson Bluff, Florida, 
and noted that it is found in the Miocene of Virginia. The single 
specimen is typical and I have described the form because of its 
demonstrated geographic range. 

Types.— WoXoty^t, P.R.I., No. 22,103; paratype, P.R.L, No. 
22,104. 

Occurrence. — Holotype from Langley Field house excavation; 
others from the well at Crisfield, Maryland. 

QuiiHliielociilina triloculiniforina McLean, n.sp. PI. 37, figs. 9-11 

Lest round, about 4/5 as broad as long; four chambers visible 
on one side and only two on the other ( sometimes a small part of 
a third chamber projects between the two chambers); chambers 



YoRKTowN Miocene Foraminifera: McLean 323 



distinct, rotund; periphery rounded; sutures distinct, depressed; 
wall smooth, white, chalky; aperture large with a hroad, simple 
tooth. Average length, 0.50 mm.; hreadth, 0.40 mm.; thickness, 
0.25 mm. or more. 

This form resembles 'rriloculina except for the small fourth 
chamber on one side and the occasional projection of a chamber on 
the opposite side between the two larger ones. It appears tO' be 
quite uniform as to size and arrangement. Superficially it resembles 
Q. seminiila on the four-chambered side but is more rotund and 
does not show the fifth chamber so well. 

Ty^^j.—Holotype, P.R.I., No. 22,111; Paratypes, P.R.I., Nos. 
22,107-22,110 and 22,112-22,113; U.S.N.M., No. P3109. 

Occurrence. — Langley Field house excavation; Moore House 
Beach 6 and 4 feet up the bank; Camp Wallace, and the base of 
the bank, lower part of beach Carter's Grove. 

(iiiiiKluelocHlina sp. PI. 37, figs. 7a-b 

Two specimens of this mterestmg little form were found; one 
at Camp Wallace, and the other at the Langley Field house excava- 
tion. The sparseness of the specimens, plus the fact that they could be 
assigned to a number of species, makes it best not to attempt to 
name or describe this form on the basis of present material. 

Quinqueloculinu Mlu'oldoni McLean, n.sp. PI. 37. figs. 13a-c 

Test large, about 1 Vi times as long as broad, test strongly 
quadrate in cross-section, sides depressed; five chambers visible on 
one side, four on the other, chambers irregular, slightly keeled; 
sutures distinct, depressed, curved irregularly according to develop- 
ment of chambers; wall white, chalky, with faint striations on sur- 
face of test, striations appear as faint, irregular, discontinuous 
scratches; aperture large, quadrate, with a long tooth which is 
slightly bifid in the tip of the holotype. Length of holotype, 1.75 
mm.; breadth, 1.15 mm.; thickness along largest chamber, 0.58 
mm. Paratypes are considerably smaller in all dimensions, but 
otherwise are similar. 

1 his species resembles TrilocuUna qiuidrilateralis d'Orbigny 
except for the chamber arrangement and the quadrate aperture. 



324 Bulletin 160 



Heron-Allen and Earland (Trans. Linnean Soc, 2nd Series — 
Zool. vol. XI, pt. 13, p. 214, pi. 40, figs. 1-9, 1916) figured as 
Miliolina jerussacii (d'Orbigny) a form which may be identical with 
O. wheeldoni. They report the species from dredging samples from 
the West of Scotland in waters ranging from "low water to 60 fms". 
Not only is their form different in the respects they note from 
D'Orbigny's species, but the apertures of the two forms differ 
significantly. 

Named in honor of Dr. Thomas Wheeldon of Richmond, 
Virginia, who kindly introduced the author to the owner of Carter's 
Grove. 

Ty^^j.— Holotype, P.R.I. , No. 22,114; paratype, P.R.I., No. 
22,115; U.S.N.M., No. P3112. 

Ocriirrence. — Carter's Grove, midbeach, 6 feet up the bank, 

rare. 

Genus MASSILIJfA Schlumberger, 1893 

Massilina niansfieldi Cushman and Cahill PI. 37, figs. 1, 4-5 

Massilina mansficldi Cushman and Cahill, 1933, U. S. Geol. Surv., Prof. 
Paper 17S-A, p. 11, pi. 2, figs, lla-c; Clapp, Ann Dorsey, 1948, Maryland 
Dept. Geol., Mines, and Water Resources, Bull. 2, p. 281, pi. 29, figs. 
4a-c, 5a-c. 

Test about twice as long as broad, much compressed, periphery broadly 
rounded; chambers distinct, nearly circular in transverse section; sutures dis- 
tinct but very slightly depressed; wall smooth and polished; aperture large 
with a very slight rounded border. Length 1.00-1.10 mm.; breadth 0.60-0.65 
mm.; thickness 0.18-0.20 mm, (Cushman and Cahill, 1933.) 

Some of the Yorktown formation specimens seem to deviate 

from the typical form and agree with those illustrated by Ann 
Dorsey Clapp. 

Occurrence. — Moore House Beach; Langley Field house excava- 
tion; Carter's Grove (doubtful). Also reported from the St. Marys 
formation of Maryland. 

Massilina inarjlandica Cushman and Cahill PI. 37, figs. 2a-c 

Massilina marylandica Cushman and Cahill, 1933, U. S. Geol. Surv., Prof. 
Paper 175-A, p. 10, pi. 2, figs. 9a-c. 

Test much compressed, periphery rounded; chambers distinct, especially 
the later ones, which gradually become developed on one plane; sutures dis- 
tinct, depressed; wall ornamented by numerous longitudinal costae, nearly 
parallel to the periphery of the chamber; aperture not projecting but with a 
distinct tooth, which projects beyond the outline of the aperture. Length 1.00 
mm.; breadth 0.70-0.75 mm.; thickness 0.15 mm. (Cushman and Cahill, 1933.) 



YoRKTOwN Miocene Foraminifera: McLean 325 



Occurrence. — Two specimens from the Langley Field house 
excavation are typical of the form described by Cushman and 
Cahill from the St. Marys formation of Maryland. 

Massilinu qiuulniiis cartori McLean, n.subsp. PI. 37, figs. 6a-c 

Test compressed, somewhat depressed in central part, about 
Wi times as long as broad, periphery truncate; slightly keeled on 
edges, cross-section quadrate; chambers numerous, about seven in 
the holotype; sutures distinct, marked by chamber ridges; wall 
smooth; aperture a long, rather quadrate opening with a long thin 
tooth. Length, 0.90 mm.; breadth, 0.55 mm.; thickness, 0.20 mm. 

DiflFers from M. quadra ns Cushman and Ponton in the central 
depression of test, ridged chamber edges, and the quadrate aperture. 

7y^^j.— Holotype, P.R.L, No. 22, 132; paratypes, P.R.L, Nos. 
22,129-22,131; U.S.N.M., No. P3108. 

Occurrence. — Carter's Grove Beach, abundantly at midbeach 
6 feet up the bank, rare at midbeach 4 feet up bank and at lower 
part of beach, bank base. 

Genus SIOMOILIXA Schlumberger, 1887 
.Sigmoilina ? sp. PI. 37, figs. 3a-b 

This single specimen seems close to Alassilina mansjieldi Cush- 
man and Cahill but differs from it in the sigmoid arrangement of 
chambers and in apertural details. It may be an aberrant form of 
M. mansjieldi. It was found at Carter's Grove, lower part of beach 
at bank base. The absence or questionable identity of M . mansjieldi 
at Carter's Grove suggests that this form is not present in typical 
form at the locality. 

Family LAGEXIPAE 
Genus KOBULU.S Montfort, 1808 
Uobulus psendoiota McLean, n.sp. PI. 38, figs. 2, 4 

Robulus iotus Cushman, 1930, Florida Geol. Surv., Bull. 4, p. 25, pi. 4, figs, 
la-b; Cushman and Ponton, 1932, Florida Geol. Surv., Hull. 9, p. 58; Cush- 
man and Cahill, 1933, U. S. Geol. Surv., Prof. Paper 175-A, p. 12, pi. 4, 
figs. la-b. 

Robulus iota Purl, 1953, Florida Geol. Surv., Bull. 36, p. 97, pi. 29, figs. 1--2. 

Test compressed, close-coiled, but final coil does not cover 



326 Bulletin 160 



earlier ones completely, periphery subangular with a small but dis- 
tinct keel; 10 or more chambers in final whorl, chambers fairly dis- 
tinct, not completely embracing, enlarging gradually in size as added; 
sutures somewhat limbate, flush with surface of test, fairly distinct; 
unbonal area smooth and glassy, with earlier chambers showing 
through; wall smooth, vitreous; aperture a well-developed radiate 
opening situated a bit below the peripheral angle, projecting, with 
a small robuline slit. Largest diameter of holotype, 0.75 mm.; thick- 
ness, 0.24 mm. 

Although only two specimens of this form were found m the 
Yorktown, its occurrence in the Choctawhatchee and Shoal River 
formations of Florida makes it advisable to formally name it. The 
species differs from Cristellaria iota Cushman in the exposure of 
earlier chambers and m not having a prominent keel. The holotype 
is smaller than the form figured as Robulus iotus from Florida and 
has fewer chambers but otherwise seems identical. 

ry^^j-.— Holotype, P.R.I., No. 22,134; paratype, P.R.I. No. 
22,135. 

Occurrence. — Holotype and paratype from Carter's Grove, 
lower portion of beach at the base of the bank; Florida Miocene 
occurrences are noted above. 

Robulus vaug-hani (Cushman) PI. 38, figs. 3, 5, 7-9 

Cristellaria vaughani Cushman, 1918, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 103, p. 61, pi. 

22, fig. 3. 
Robulus vaughani Cushman and Ponton, 1932, Florida Geol. Surv., Bull. 9, p. 

59, pi. 8, figs. 5-10; Puri, 1953, Florida Geol. Surv., Bull. 36, p. 98. 
Lrnticulina <vaughani Bermudez, 1949, Spec. Publ. No. 25, Cushman Lab. 

Foram. Res., p. 135, pi. 8, figs. 17-20. 

Test much compressed, with a slight tendency to uncoiling in the last- 
formed chambers, periphery slightly keeled, not lobulated, rounded, about nine 
chambers in the last-formed whorl, sutures slightly curved backward, extend- 
ing in to the umbilicus so that only the last-formed coil is visible from the 
exterior, surface smooth except for lines of beads along the sutures extending 
from the umbilicus to the periphery; apertural face truncated or even slightly 
concave, aperture radiate, peripheral with a short cylindrical neck. Diameter 
0.75 mm. (Cushman, 1914.) 

Except for generally having a triangulate rather than com- 
pressed cross-section, Yorktown specimens are close to this species; 
some indeed are even similar in compression of test, the graduation 
being gradual and within the realm of species variation. Yorktown 
forms are identical to the forms figured from the Florida Miocene. 



YoRKTowN Miocene Foraminikera: McLean 327 



In the U.S. National Museum collections there are a number 
of dissimilar forms assigned to this species, the agreement being that 
all specimens have beaded tests. Ann Dorsey Clapp (Maryland 
Dept. Geol., Mines, and Water Res., Bull. 2, p. 284, 1948) com- 
bined this species with a number of others in her synonymy for 
Flanularia vauglunii. Included in the synonymy was Bragg's Cristel- 
laria zvetherelli which decidedly does not belong either to this species 
or to C. zvetherelli, as specimens from the new Crisfield Well 
(McLean, 1950) show this form to be distinct. 

Occurrence. — Robulus vaughani is found only at Carter's Grove 
in our material from the Yorktown formation; other records (which 
are subject to some doubt because of the situation described above) 
are from the Oligocene and Miocene of Panama and the Dominican 
Republic, and the Miocene of Florida and Louisiana. 

Kobiiliis sp. PI. 38, fig. 1 

This form, represented by two specimens from the 37 to 160 
foot interval of the Fort Eustis well, does not seem distinctive 
enough to assign it definitely to any known species. 

Genus DEXTALmA d'Orbigny, 1826 

Dentalina bevani Cushman and Cederstrom PI. 38, figs. 10, 20 

Deritalina bevani Cushman and Cederstrom, 1949 (1945), Virginia Geol. 
Surv., Bull. 67, p. 15, pi. 2, figs. 15-18. 

This species and the following one are both from the 37 to 
101 foot interval in the Fort Eustis well. With Robulus sp. listed 
above, they may be either redepositional elements in the sample 
or may come from contamination of samples. In this connection, it 
should be pointed our that all operations carried out in the McLean 
laboratory are specifically guarded against any possible laboratory 
contamination. 

Dentalina cf. intermedia Hantken PI. 38, fig. 16 

Dentalina intermedia Cushman and Cederstrom, 1949 (1945), Virginia Geol. 
Surv., Bull. 67, p. 14, pi. 2, figs. 11-12. 

The single specimen from 37 to 101 feet in the Fort Eustis well 
seems to be equivalent to the form illustrated by Cushman and 
Cederstrom. It may be redepositional in the sample or contamina- 
tion as noted above. 



328 Bulletin 160 



Dentalina kaicherae McLean, n.sp. PI. 38, figs. 14-15, 18-19 

Test slender, arcuate, slightly compressed, with relatively large 
proloculum for the genus; six to seven chambers, chambers cylindri- 
cal and rather unevenly developed, slightly lobulate in final portion 
of test; sutures slightly or not at all depressed, slanted, showing 
as thin dark lines; wall smooth, white; aperture a rather large, 
radiate opening on a sloping summit of last chamber, situated 
toward the inner curved part of test. Length of holotype, 1.20 mm.; 
diameter of largest chamber, 0.20 mm. 

This species belongs to the large class of smooth unornamented 
dentalinids in which group there are many species within which 
convenience would permit assignment of our form. After thorough 
study and search, it was concluded that the nonpointed proloculum 
and the rather large aperture, plus the stable development of the 
form through several localities, sufficiently set the form aside for 
description as a new species. The uneven development of chambers 
is another constant feature of this species. 

Ty^^j.— Holotype, P.R.I., No. 22,145; paratypes, P.R.I., Nos. 
22,144 and 22,146-22,147; U.S.N.M., No. P3117. 

Occurrence. — Rare in all localities in which it is found, which 
are: Moore House Beach bank base, Carter's Grove Beach, 10 
feet up the bank at midbeach. 

Dentalina cf. pyrula (d'Orbigny) PI. 38, fig. 11 

A single specimen from Carter's Grove seems to belong to this 
species and seems identical to the fragment figured by Cushman 
and Ponton (Florida Geol. Surv., Bull 9, pi. 9, figs. 5, 6, 1932) and 
refigured by Puri in Florida Survey Bulletin 36. None of the frag- 
ments seem worthy of specific assignment. 

nentalina sp. A. PI. ss, fig. 13 

One broken fragment was found at the midbeach portion at 
Carter's Grove six feet up from the base of the bank. 

Dentalina sp. B. Fl. 35, fig. 17 

The figured specimen is from the base of the bank, lower parr 
of beach, at Carter's Grove. 



YoRKTowN Miocene Foraminifera: McLean 329 

Ueutaliiia sp. C. PI. 38, fig. 21 

This single specimen was from Carter's Grove, midbeach, six 
feet up the bank. 

Genus NODOSARIA Lamarck, 1812 
Nodosaria sp. PI. 38, fig. 12 

This is the only Nodosaria outside of N. catesbyi found at any 
outcrop locality from the Yorktown formation, and it is represented 
by only one specimen. Found at Carter's Grove, midbeach, 10 feet 
up bank. 

>'o(losaria catesbyi d'Orbigny PI. 39, figs. 1-4 

Nodosaria catesbyi d'Orbigny, 1839, in De La Sagra, Hist. Fisc. Politica y 
Natural de la Isla de Cuba, Foraminiferes, p. 16, pi. 11, figs. 8-10; Cush- 
nian, 1930, Florida Geol. Surv., Bull. 4, pp. 28-29, pi. 5, fig. 4; Cushman 
and CahiU, 1933, U. S. Geol. Surv., Prof. Paper 175-A, p. 14, pi. 5, fig. 5; 
Puri, 1953, Florida Geol. Surv., Bull. 36, p. 101, pi. 26, fig. 6. 

SoJosaria sp. ? Cushman, 1922, Carnegie Inst. Washington, vol. 17, No. 311, 
p. 32, pi. 4, fig. 2. 

Test composed of two chambers, the proloculum subglohular, with a short 
basal spine, the second chamber more pyriform apertural end somewhat pro- 
longed; suture distinct and depressed; wall ornamented with numerous very 
distinct co^tae, which extend the entire length of the two chambers to the aper- 
ture. Length 0.45 mm.; diameter 0.17 mm. (Cushman and Cahill.) 

Specimens from the Yorktown were found only at Carter's 
Grove and seem to be identical with the species as shown in syn- 
onymy and description cited, except that some of the Yorktown 
forms develop three chambers instead of two. The writer has found 
this species also in the Miocene secticm of the Esso Hatteras Light 
Well No. 1 in North Carolina. 

Occurrences. — Carter's Grove only, and rare. At midbeach, four 
feet up the bank, at six feet up bank, and at the base of the bank, 
lower beach. 

Genus SARACKXAUIA Defrance, 1824 
Saracenaria ? sp. PI. 38, figs. 6a-b 

These two interesting forms are triangular in cross-section. 
They occur only at Carter's Grove, at the base of the bank, lower 
beach portion, and the specimens are insufficient in numbers or 
morphological features to warrant description. They do not seem 
to match any known species. 



330 Bulletin 160 

Genus LAGENA Walker and Jacob, 1798 

Lag'eiia (Entosoleiiia?) carteri McLean, n.sp. PI. 39, figs. 13a-b 

Lagena of. marginato-perforata, Cushman, 1930, Florida Geol. Surv., Bull. 
4, p. 32, pi. 5, fig. 5; Cushman and Cahill, 1933, U. S. Geol. Surv., Prof. 
Paper 175-A, p. 17, pi. 5, figs. 15a-b. 

Test pear-shaped from side view, considerably compressed; 
apertural end almost transparent, showing a thick glassy develop- 
ment with a small channel leading to aperture; wall smooth and 
glassy, finely perforate all over; aperture a simple lens-shaped 
opening with a small lip. Length of holotype, 0.50 mm.; breadth, 
0.20 mm.; thickness, 0.12 mm. 

Species differ from L. marginato-perforata (Seguenza) in not 
having the broad peripheral border figured by Seguenza. 

Ty^^j.— Holotype, P.R.I., No. 22,157; paratypes, P.R.I., No. 
22,156 and U.S.N.M., No. P3115. 

Occurrence. — Carter's Grove, base of bank, lower part of beach. 
Reported by Cushman and Cahill from the Choctawhatchee, Oak 
Grove, and Shoal River formations of Florida, and the Yorktown 
formation of Virginia and North Carolina. 

Lag-ena (Eiitosolenial) carteri McLean, n. sp. forma alpha PI. 39, fig. 9 

Forma similar to the species except that the forma is coarsely 
perforate. Found only at Carter's Grove in association with L. 
carteri. 

Ty^^.— Holotype, P. R.I., No. 22,158. 

Lagena dorseyae McLean, n.sp. PI. 39, figs. 8a-b 

Lagena sp. D. Clapp, Ann Dorsey, 1948, Maryland Dept. Geol., Minees, and 
Water Res., Bull. 2, p. 291, pi. 30, figs. 19-21 (not 22 and 23). 

Test globular, ornamented with numerous fine striations, some 
discontinuous; neck long, ornamented with rings or spirals or close 
irregular rugosities. Length of holotype, 0.50 mm.; diameter, 0.25 
mm. 

Lagena dorseyae, reported by Clapp as being common in the 
Calvert formation of Maryland, is rare in the Yorktown. The 
specimen is typical, and the form differs from all recorded similar 
species in the neck ornamentation. 



YoRKTowN Miocene Foraminifera: McLean 331 



Naiiied in honor of Ann Dorsey Clapp who first encountered 
the form. 

r.vp^.— Holotype, P.R.I., No. 22,159. 

Occurreyice. — Fort Eustis well at 37 to 101 feet in the sub- 
surface; rare. 

Lageim grlobulohisplda McLean, n.sp. PI. 39, figs. 7a-b 

Lagena sp. E, Clapp. Ann Dorsey, 1948, Maryland Dept. Cieol., Mines, and 
Water Res., Bull. 2, p. 291, pi. 31, fig. 24. 

Test globular, flask-shaped, with a stout extended neck; entire 
wall covered with a sugary or frosty appearing fine hispidation. 
Length, 0.55 mm.; diameter, 0.35 mm. 

Reported by Clapp from the Choptank formation of Maryland, 
this species is rare in the Yorktown and seems to be unique in its 
degree of hispid ornamentation. 

7y^^.f._Holotype, P.R.L, No. 22,161; paratype, P.R.I., No. 
22,160. 

Occurrence. — Carter's Grove, upper portion of beach, base of 
bank; also at Camp Wallace. The Carter's Grove locality is in a 
gravel bed. Rare. 

Lagrena melo (d'Orbigny) Fl. 39, figs. 12a-b 

Ool'ma melo d'Orbigny, 1839, Voy. Amer. Meridionale; Foraminiferes, tome 
5, pt. 5, p. 20, pi. 5, fig. 9; Boltovskoy, 1954, Revista Inst. Nacional Invest. 
Ciencias Nat. y Mus. Argentine Ciencias Nat. "Bernadino Rivadavia", 
tomo 3, No. 4, pp. 268-9, pi. 23. fig. 3. 

Test ovate-globular in shape; aperture a small openmg in the 
center of a button of smooth test surface; wall completely covered 
with strongly developed longitudinal costae between which are cross- 
ridges almost as strongly developed, the total appearance being 
that of a test completely covered with square, rather deep pits. 
Length of plesiotype, 0.40 mm.; diameter, 0.25 mm. (emended 
diagnosis by McLean.) 

Lagena hexagona scalariformis as figured by Cushman and 
Cahill in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 175-A may pos- 
sibly be confused with L.melo. My form resembles D'Orbigny's 
figured species in those respects where it differs from L. scalariformis, 
i.e., in being more strongly costate, with more numerous longitudinal 
costae, and in the stronger development of the cross-ridges. The 



332 Bulletin 160 



aperture is much smaller than that of L. hexagona scalariformis. 
Boltovskoy reports the form from a depauperate fauna from San 
Bias Bay at a depth of 5-25 meters. 

Occurrence. — D'Orbigny reported the species from the Falkland 
Islands; Yorktown formation specimens occur rarely at the follow- 
ing places: Carter's Grove, midbeach, four and six feet up the bank 
and at the bank base, lower beach portion of same locality. 

Lagrena palnierae McLean, n.sp. PI. 39, figs. 5-6 

Test globular, flask-shaped, with a long extended neck; test 
wall smooth over large part of test; basal portion of test ornamented 
with fine, but well-developed costae which extend almost halfway 
up the test; neck fluted. Length of holotype, 0.62 mm.; diameter, 
0.35 mm. 

This mteresting form seems to have a tendency to develop 
a truncated base as is shown in the figured paratype. It belongs 
to a large group of basally costated forms but differs from all in 
having a fluted neck and in being more globe-shaped. 

Named m honor of Mrs. Katherine V. W. Palmer, Director of 
the Paleontological Research Institution. 

Ty^^j.— Holotype, P.R.I., No. 22,166; paratypes, P.R.I., Nos. 
22,165 and 22,168. 

Occurrence. — Carter's Grove, lower portion of beach, at bank 
base; midbeach six feet up the bank at same locality. 

Lag'eiia pseudosulcata McLean, n.sp. PI. 39, figs, lla-b 

Test globular to ovate, with the apertural end somewhat pro- 
duced and pointed; base of test has a small button of material from 
fusion of the costae, apertural end smooth and glassy, showing a 
small channel in the center of a thick-walled apertural process; 
channel leads to the simple apertural opening which is small; wall 
glassy, ornamented for the most part by heavy longitudinal costae 
which are occasionally interspersed with lesser, more discontinuous 
costae. Length of holotype, 0.50 mm.; diameter, 0.35 mm. 

This form, as with all similar species, is easily confused with 
Lagena sulcata (Walker and Jacob) to which dissimilar forms have 
been assigned. The thick nonproduced apertural portion and the 
basal button of fused shell material serve to set the species aside 
from L. sulcata. 



YoRKTOWN Miocene Foraminifera: McLean 333 



7'yp^.r._Holotype, P.R.I., No. 22,174; paratypes, P.R.I., Nos. 
22,168-22,173 and U.S.N.M., No. P3110. 

Occurrence. — This is the most common species from the entire 
family of the Lagenidae to be found in the Yorktown formation 
and is present at the Moore House Beach, Carter's Grove, Felgater's 
Creek, and Camp Wallace. 

Lagrena substrlata (Williamson) PI. 39. figs. lOa-b 

This single specimen agrees with Williamson's Lagena sub- 
striata as it is figured by Cushman and Cahill in U. S. Geological 
Survey Professional Paper 175-A, except that the Yorktown speci- 
men is costate along the extended neck which is not the case with 
the figured form of Cushman and Cahill. The specimen is 0.60 mm. 
long and has a diameter of 0.35 mm. It came from the base of the 
bank at the Moore House Beach. 

Family rOLTJIORPHINrDAE 

Genus GUTTULOA d'Orbigny, 1839 

Gnttulina austriaca d'Orbigny PI. 40, figs. 1-3 

Guttulina austriaca d'Orbigny, 1846, Foram. Foss. Bass. Tert. Vienne, p. 223, 
pi. 12, figs. 23-25; Cushman and Ozawa, 1930, U. S. Nat. Mus., Proc, vol. 
77, art. 6, pp. 29-30, pi. 4, figs. 3-5. 

Test fusiform to oblong, more or less rounded at the base, rather acute at 
the apertural end, often botryoidai, greatest breadth usually above the middle; 
chambers oval to clavate, slightly embracing, arranged in a clockwise, quin- 
queloculine series, each succeeding chamber removed much farther from the 
base; sutures depressed and very distinct; wall smooth, translucent; aperture 
produced, radiate. Length 0.60-1.15 mm.; breadth 0.40-0.55 mm.; thickness 
0.35-0.50 mm. (Cushman and Ozawa, 1930.) 

Yorktown formation specimens seem to be typical of this 

species, which is recorded from shore sands to 340 fathoms in 

Recent materials, and which is also recorded as far back as the 

Eocene. 

Occurrence. — Carter's Grove, Camp Wallace, and Powell's Lake 

Spillway. 

Gnttulina palmorae McLean, n.sp. FH. 40, figs. 4-7. 13 

Test fusiform, elongate, slender and a bit compressed; chambers added in 
quinqueloculine fashion with each succeeding chamber considerably larger than 
the preceding one and removed from the base, chambers elongate and raised 
from general test outline, giving an irregular appearance to the test; four 



334 Bulletin 160 



chambers visible to a side in holotype; wall smooth, glassy; aperture radiate, 
much produced at end of tapering final projection of the last chamber. Length 
of holotype, L30 mm.; breadth, 0.40 mm. 

This species is somewhat irregular and tends to develop 
chambers that protude quite markedly from the general test con- 
figuration. It differs from all Guttulinas studied in its elongate form 
and tapering apertural end. 

Named in honor of Mrs. Katherine V. W. Palmer, Director of 
the Paleontological Research Institution. 

Ty^^"/.— Holotype, P.R.I., No. 22,187; paratypes, P.R.I., Nos. 
22,181-22,186 and 22,188-22,189 and also U.S.N.M., No. P3111. 

Occurrence. — Carter's Grove and one broken specimen ques- 
tionably assigned to G. palmerae from Powell's Lake Spillway. 

Guttnliiia pseudocostatula McLean, n.sp. PI. 40, figs. 8, 10-11 

Test elongate, fusiform, acute at both ends; chambers inflated 
and somewhat elongate, not embracing, arranged in typical gut- 
tuhne fashion with each succeeding chamber removed from base; 
initial chamber ornamented with a short but generally distinct 
spine; sutures distinct, depressed; wall ornamented with fairly 
numerous costae which traverse the entire length of the test, 
costae are somewhat rounded rather than acute or bladelike and 
are low; aperture radiate and produced and large. Length of holo- 
type, 1.00 mm.; breadth, 0.40 mm. 

Guttulina pseudocostatula is close tO' G. costatula Galloway 
and Wissler but differs in having a stubby initial spine and in 
having uniform costae rather than having five of them more greatly 
developed than others as in the case of G. costatula. 

Types.— }\o\oty^&, P.R.I., No. 22,193; paratypes, P.R.I., Nos. 
22,190-22,192 and 22,194-22,196 and also U.S.N.M., No. P3114. 

Occurrence. — Moore House Beach, Langley Field, and Carter's 
Grove. 

(riiittuliiia sp.A PI. 40, fig. 9 

This single specimen seems to be close to Guttulina hayitkem 
Cushman and Ozawa, but more specimens are needed to establish 
the form. Guttulina hantkeni has hitherto been largely reported 
from Eocene deposits; the figured specimen is from Carter's Grove, 



YORKTOWN MlOCKNK KoRAMINIFKRA : McLeAN 335 



upper part ot the beach, at ten feet from the base of the bank. 

Guttulina sp. B PI. 40, fig. 12 

A single, finely striate specimen was found in the Langley Field 
material but was not noted elsewhere. Although it is a distmctive 
form, it seems best to reserve assignation of it to a known or new 
species until more material is available. 

Genus rSEUDOPOLTMORPHENA Cushman and Ozawa, 1928 
rseiidop(»ljni<>n»hina nitila (Cushman) PI. 41, figs. 6-9, 16-17 

Polymorphina regina var. rutila Cushman, 1923, U. S. Geol. Survey, Prof. 
Paper 133, p. 34, pi. 5, figs. 7-8. 

Pscudo polymorphina nitila Cushman and Ozawa, 1930, U. S. Nat. Mus., Proc. 
vol. 77, art. 6, p. 100, pi. 26, figs. 3a-b; Cushman, 1930, Florida Geol. 
Survey, Bull. 4, p. 36, pi. 5, fig. 20; Cushman and Ponton, 1932, Florida 
Gejl. Survey, Bull. 9, p. 67; Cushman and Cahill, 1933, U. S. Geol. Sur- 
vey, Prof. Paper 175-A, p. 19, pi. 6, fig. 11; Puri, 1953, Florida Geol. 
Survey, Bull. 36, pp. 105-106, pi. 21, fig. 18. 

Test compressed, elongate, fusiform, with a strong spine at the base; 
chambers more or less elongated, not much embracing, alternating; sutures 
more or less depressed, distinct; wall marked with a few strong longitudinal 
costae ; aperture radiate. Length 1.05 mm.; breadth 0.30 mm. (Cushman and 
Cahill, 1933.) 

Specimens from Carter's Grove are somewhat variable in 
their features and some are much elongated and slender, but all 
appear to belong to the species as it is described by Cushman and 
Cahill. The forms all bear the strong spine and all have elongated 
chambers, in which respects they differ from the P. rutila as 
figured by Ann Dorsey Clapp in the Maryland Bulletin of 1948. 
Because of Clapp's figures, I have not placed her form in the 
present synonymy. 

Occurrence. — All specimens from the Yorktown formation are 
from Carter's Grove; the form occurs in the lower Oligocene of 
Mississippi and the Choctawhatchee formation (Miocene) of 
Florida. 

Pseudopoljmorpliiiia cf. iiovaiifflia*' f('ushninn) PI. 40. fig. 14 

A single fistulose specimen from the base of the bank, lower 
part of the beach at Carter's Grove may be questionably referred 
to P. novangliae (Cushman), but additional nonfistulose specimens 
are needed to confirm this assignment. 



336 Bulletin 160 

Pseudopoljmorphina sp. A PI. 41, figs. 1-2 

These two irregular specimens may be individual monstrosities 
rather than distinctive species. Further material is needed to de- 
termine their position as species, and for this reason they are here 
figured for future reference. Both specimens are from the base 
of the bank, lower section of beach, at Carter's Grove. 

Pseu(lopolyinori)hina sp. B PI. 41, fig. lOa-b 

A single specimen, here figured, seems to be related to Pseudo- 
polymorphina rutila, but it differs markedly in test outline. It could 
be the microspheric form of rutila or a different species. It was 
found at the base of the bank, lower part of beach, at Carter's 
Grove. 

Genus SIGMOMORPHrNA Cushman and Ozawa, 1928 
SigTiiomorphina coneava (Williamson) PI. 41, figs. 14, 18 

Polymorphina lactea var. coneava Williamson, 1858, Recent Foram. Great 

Britain, p. 72, pi. 6, figs. 151-152. 
Sigmomorphina coneava Cushman and Ozawa, 1930, U. S. Nat. Mus., Proc, 

vol. 77, art. 6, p. 139, pi. 38, figs. 5-7. 

Excepting the last attached part, the test is oval and much compressed; 
chambers elongate, much embracing unequally on either side, each succeeding 
chamber extending down to the base, attached part (or chamber?) generally 
highly convex, leaving a large space between the test and the foreign object, 
but without visible aperture; sutures not depressed, distinct; wall smooth, 
rather thin and almost transparent; aperture radiate. (Cushman and Ozawa, 
1930.) 

This form is reported by Cushman and Ozawa from Pliocene 
beds of Monte Mario near Rome, and from England, the Belgian 
Coast, the Mediterranean, and from 10-14 fathoms off the island 
of Delos. The Yorktown formation specimens agree closely with 
the description cited here which seems more satisfactory than the 
one given by Williamson. 

Occurrence. — Base of bank and 10 feet up same bank, beach 
below the Moore House. 

Sig'nioinorphina nevifera ( lapp PI. 41. figs. 3-5, 11 

Pyrulina alhatross'i Cushman and Cahill, 1933, (not Cushman and Ozawa). 

U. S. Geol. Survey, Prof. Paper 175-A, p. 18, pi. 6, figs. Sa-b. 
Sigmomorphina nevifera Clapp, Ann Dorsey, 1948, Maryland Dept. Geol., 

Mines and Water Resources, Bull. 2, p. 298, pi. 34, figs. 6, 7a-b. 



YoRKTowN Miocene Foraminifera: McLean 337 



Test elongate, compressed, greatest breadth at the middle, apertural end 
acute, initial end subacute to rounded ; chambers elongate, compressed, not 
much embracing, arranged in a sigmoid series, each succeeding chamber re- 
moved farther from the base; wall rather thick, ornamented with very fine 
granules giving a frosted appearance; sutures indistinct, slightly depressed; 
aperture radiate. Length 0.80-2.00 mm.; breadth 0.40-0.55 mm.; thickness 0.30 
mm. (Clapp, 1948.) 

The form figured by Cushman in Florida Survey Bulletin 4 
and in Puri's Florida Bulletin 36 as Pyrulina albatrossi differs from 
Clapp's S. nevifera in wall structure and other details. Clapp did 
not mclude this form m her synonymy. The Pyrulina albatrossi of 
Cushman and Cahill they recorded from the Choptank and Calvert 
of Maryland, the Yorktown ( .f* ) of North Carolina, and the Chocta- 
whatchee of Florida. Clapp restricts S. nevifera to the Choptank of 
Maryland. 

Occurrence. — Langley Field excavation and Carter's Grove are 
the only Yorktown formation occurrences; the form is frequent at 
Carter's Grove. 

Si§nnoniori>hina pearceji Cushman and Ozawa PI. 41, figs. 13, 15 

Sigmomorphina pearceyi Cushman and Ozawa, 1930, U. S. Nat. Mus., Proc. 
vol. 77, art. 6, p. 132, pi. 35, figs. 2-3. 

Test elongate, clavate, the greatest breadth in the upper half, tapering 
toward the base, apertural end rounded; chambers more or less compressed, 
early ones elongated, later becoming rounded, generally the last one much 
inflated and large, arranged in a contraclockwise sigmoid series, each succeed- 
ing chamber, especially the last one or two, removed farther from the base; 
sutures depressed, distinct; wall smooth, thin, translucent; aperture near the 
center of the last chamber, with short entosolenian tube. Length of largest 
specimen 0.80 mm.; breadth 0.50 mm.; thickness 0.45 mm. (Cushman and 
Ozawa, 1930.) 

This species is reported from 18 and 30 fathoms in modern 
waters and from the Focene. Yorktown formation specimens seem 
to be typical. 

Occurrence. — Base of bank at beach below the Moore House. 

Sigmomorphina semltecta "var." terquemiana (Fornasini) 

PI. 41, figs. 12. 19-24 

Sigmomorphina srmitecta "var." trrqurmiana, Cushman and Ozawa, 1930, U. 

S. Nat. Mus., Proc. vol. 77, art. 6, pp. 129-130, pi. 33, figs. 4-5, pi. 34, figs. 

2-3, pi. 35, fig. 1. 

Variety differing from the typical in its more elongate lanceolate test 
consisting of elongated chambers and more acute initial end. (Cushman and 
Ozawa, 1930.) 



338 Bulletin 160 



The specimens from the Yorktown formation are closest to 
the ones figured by Cushman and Ozawa in plate 33 from the 
Pliocene of Italy and the Eocene of France. This "variety" is re- 
ported from 10-14 fathoms off the island of Delos. 

Occurrence. — Moore House Beach locality (common), also 
Yorktown Bluffs, Carter's Grove, Camp Wallace, and Powell's 
Lake Spillway. 

SigTnomori>hina williamsoni (Terquem) PI. 42, figs. 1-4 

Polymorphina lactea var. oblonga Williamson, 1858, Recent Foram. Great 
Britain, Ray Soc. London, p. 71, pi. 6, figs. 149-149a ; Millett, 1903, Jour. 
Roy. Micr. Soc, p. 262, pi. 5, fig. 5; Cushman, 1923, U. S. Nat. Mus., 
Bull. 104, pt. 4, p. 147, pi. 40, figs. 7 (?), 8a-b. 
Polymorphina iviUiamsoni Terquem, 1878, Mem. Soc. Geol. France, ser. 3, 
vol. 1, p. 37; Heron-Allen and Earland, 1932, Discovery Reports, vol. 4, 
pp. 393-394, pi. 12, figs. 26-28. 
Sigmomorphina ivilliamsoni Cushman and Ozawa, 1930, U. S. Nat. Mus., 
Proc. vol. 77, art. 6, p. 139, pi. 38, figs. 3a-b, 4a-b ; Boltovskoy, 1954, 
Revista Inst. Nacional Invest. Ciencias Nat. y Mus. Argentino Ciencias 
Nat. "Bernadino Rivadavia", tomo 3, No. 4, p. 272, pi. 24, figs. 2a-b. 
Shell oblong; ovate; of nearly equal diameter throughout its entire extent; 
rounded at each extremity; compressed; consisting of numerous, narrow, ob- 
long segments arranged in two opposed alternate series; each segment extend- 
ing nearly to the superior extremity of the shell ; not reaching the median line, 
but leaving uncovered nearly all the preceding convolutions. Septal orifice 
round; at the obtuse anterior extremity of each segment; surrounded by a 
large coronal of radiating grooves. Septal plane oblong, narrow, convex. Septal 
lines scarcely depressed, but distinct. Texture hyaline when young, becoming 
more opaque with age. Long, 1/35. (Williamson, 1858.) 

The form figured by Cushman as S. williamsoni in Florida 
Survey Bulletin 4 (plate 6, figure 4) does not correspond with 
Williamson's description. This error persists in U. S. Geological 
Survey Professional Paper 175-A and in Puri's Florida Survey 
Bulletin 36. Boltovskoy's report of the species is from a depth of 
5-25 meters in the San Bias Bay in a depauperate fauna. The form 
also is found in the Recent of Belgium and from the Naheola for- 
mation (Paleocene). The specimens have the entosolenian tube 
figured in some views of the species, but the aperture is an elongate 
radiate slit instead of the rounded orifice of Williamson. In other 
respects the agreement with his figures and description is striking, 
and I have placed this form here with confidence that it is the form 
of Williamson. 

Occurrence. — Beach below the Moore House at the base of the 
bank and at six feet higher up the bank. 



^'ORKTOWN MiOCHNK KoRAM IN IFKRA : McLkAN 339 

Family NONIOMDAE 
Genus NONION Montfort, 1808 
\<»ni<iii iiK'diocosfiitiis (( ushinan) PI. 42, figs. 5a-c. 7 

No/iionina tncdio-costata Cushman, 1926, Contr. Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., 
vol. 1, pt. 4, pp. 89-90, pi. 13, figs. la-c. 

Nonion medio-costatum Cushman, 1939, U. S. Geol. Survey, Prof. Paper 191, 
p. 15, pi. 4, figs. 7-8; Clapp, Ann Dorsey, 1948, Maryland Dept. Geol., 
Mines, and Water Res., Bull. 2, p. 300, pi. 35, figs. 4a-c. 

Test slightly longer than broad, periphery rounded to subacute, compressed, 
umbilical regions depressed, apertural face generally heart-shaped to oval; 
chambers distinct, numerous, 15 or more in the adult coil, very slightly if at all 
inflated, of rather uniform shape, increasing gradually in size in the last part 
of the adult coil; sutures distinct, slightly limbate, often slightly depressed, 
somewhat curved; wall with the areas between the sutures toward the um- 
bilical region raised, otherwise smooth; aperture a low, curved opening at 
the base of the apertural face. Length, 0.65 mm.; breadth 0.40 mm.; thickness 
0.20-0.25 mm. (Cushman, 1939.) 

This form recorded from the St. Marys formation into the 
Calvert m Maryland, is conspicuously absent in known Yorktown 
outcrop material but is present in the subsurface of the St. Marys 
mimediately preceding the Yorktown formation. It may prove to 
be a valuable guide for the separation of the St. Marys from the 
Yorktown, hence I am figuring and recording it here. The proximity 
to Yorktown beds of the form also suggests the possibility that 
the species may be found in basal Yorktown beds when and if they 
can be delineated. 

There is yet another reason for recording this species. The 
description that is here cited differs in details from the original 
description which is more restrictive. The figures of the original 
description likewise differ from those of U. S. Geological Survey 
Professional Paper 191 from which I cite the description. Further- 
more, Ann Dorsey Clapp's figures and specimen for N. mediocosta- 
tus likewise diflFer from the original and the figures of Professional 
Paper 191. In the opinion of the writer, Cushman's tw^o descriptions 
are worthy of comment. The description of Professional Paper 191 
is considerably broader in terminology than is that of the original 
description — so broad that Clapp's specimen can safely fall in the 
category of A', ynediocostatiis. Both the figure and written descrip- 
tion of Nonioriina mediocostata specify costae in the intersutural 
region near the umbilical region; the later description modifies this 



340 Bulletin 160 



to a mere raised portion. The original description states that the 
apertural face is "gently convex, definitely higher than broad", 
whereas Professional Paper 191 states it to be "generally heart- 
shaped to oval". Sutures in the original description are not noted 
as being limbate, whereas they are stated to be so' in Professional 
Paper 191. 

Cushman's later description not only does terminological 
violence to the one he originally gave, but in doing so the new 
description erases some of the points which can be used to separate 
A^. mediocostatus from similar forms. 

Nonion pizarrensis (W. Berry) PI. 42, figs. 6, 8, 10, 12 

Nonlon'tna boucana, Cushman, 1918, (not d'Orbigny), U. S. Geol. Survey, 

Bull. 676, p. 68, pi. 25, fig. 3. 
Nonion pizarrensis W. Berry, 1928, Jour. Pal., vol. 1, p. 269, Text figure I. 

figs. 1-3; Cushman, 1930, Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 37, pi. 6, figs. 

7-8; Cushman and Ponton, 1932, Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 9, p. 69; 

Cushman and Cahill, 1933, U. S. Geol. Survey, Prof. Paper 17S-A, p. 20, 

pi. 7, figs. 2a-b. 
Nonion pizarrensc Cushman, 1939, U. S. Geol. Survey, Prof. Paper 191, p. 

24, pi. 6, fig. 27; Clapp, Ann Dorsey, 1948, Maryland Dept. Geol., Mines, 

and Water Res., Bull. 2 p. 300, pi. 35, figs. 6a-c; Puri, 1953, Florida Geol. 

Survey, Bull. 36, p. 145. 

Test slightly longer than broad, nearly bilaterally symmetrical, periphery 
broadly rounded, umbilical regions depressed but not open; chambers distinct, 
twelve to fifteen in the adult coil, of uniform shape, increasing gradually in 
size, somewhat inflated; sutures distinct, somewhat depressed, gently curved; 
wall smooth, polished, except the umbilical region, which is often roughened, 
very finely perforate; aperture a low opening at the base of the apertural 
face, often tending to become slightly asymmetrical. Length up to 0.60 mm.; 
breadth 0.45-0.50 mm.; thickness 0.22-0.25 mm. (Cushman, 1939.) 

The species ranges from the Recent to the Calvert Miocene 
and is one of the commonest elements of the Yorktown foramini- 
feral faunas. 

Occurrence. — Common to abundant in all Yorktown formation 
samples. 

Nonion of. grateloupi (d'Orbigny) PL 43, figs. 7a-b 

One specimen, questionably assigned to D'Orbigny's species, 
comes from four feet up the bank at the beach below the Moore 
House. Cushman and Cahill reported some similarly dubious speci- 
mens from the Yorktown formation in U. S. Geological Survey 
Professional Paper 175-A. 



YoRKTowN Miocene Foraminifera: McLean 341 



Xonion (?) sp. A. PI. 44, figs. 1-2 

This single specimen is figured from the base of the bank, 
beach below the Moore House, Colonial Battlefield Monument, 
near Yorktown. 

Nonion (?) sp. B. . PI. 43, figs. 6a-b 

This small form is figured from Carter's Grove, where three 
specimens were found. In this species and the one previously listed 
above, the presence of the Elpliidium-\\ke aperture at the base of 
the apertural face, and also the slight sutural irregularities (retral 
processes ^) make generic placement of the forms doubtful, and 
additional material is needed to determine the exact place for these 
interestmg forms. 

Genus NOJflONELLA Cushman, 1926 
Xonumella aiiris (d'Orbigny) PI. 43, figs. 1, 4 

Vah'ulina auris d'Orbigny, 1839, Voyage dans I'Amerique meridionale. vol. 

5, pt. 5, Foraminiferes, p. 47, pi. 2, figs. 15-17. 
Nonionina auris Cushman, 1925, Contr. Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., vol. 1, 

pt. 2, p. 44, pi. 7, figs. 3a-c. 
Nonionclla auris Cushman, 1930, Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 38, pi. 7, 

figs, la-c; Cushman and Cahill, 1933, U. S. Geof. Survey, Prof. Paper 

175-A, p. 21, pi. 7, figs. 6a-b; Cushman, 1939. U. S. Geol. Survey, Prof. 

Paper 191, p. 33, pi. 9, fig. +; Clapp, Ann Dorsey, 1948, Maryland Dept. 

Geol., Mines and Water Res., Bull. 2, p. 301, pi. 35, figs. 3a-c. 

Test asymmetrical, slightly trochoid, the spire not raised, periphery in the 
adult broadly rounded; chambers nine to eleven in the adult, low and broad, 
very distinct, slightly inflated, in the adult with the last-formed chamber 
having an enlarged portion extending over the umbilicus on the ventral side; 
sutures distinct, depressed, gently curved; wall smooth, polished, very finely 
perforate; aperture at the last-formed chamber, extending from the periphery 
ventrally, low and broad. Length 0.35 mm.; breadth 0.25 mm.; thickness 0.10 
mm. (Cushman, 1939.) 

Nonionella auris is reported from the Recent to the Calvert 
formation and has world-wide distribution. Yorktown specimens 
seem typical. 

Occurrence. — Fort Eustis well at 37-101 feet and 135-160 feet; 
Carter's Grove, and beach below the Moore House. 

Genus ELmiDIUM Montfort, 1808 
Elphidinm adveiia (Cushnian) Fl. 43, figs. 5a-b 

Polystomella crispa, Cushman, 1918, U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. Glf pp. 69-70, 
pi. 27, figs. 5a-b. 



342 Bulletin 160 



Polystomella advena Cushman, 1922, Carnegie Inst. Washington, Publ. No. 
311, p. 56, pi. 9, figs. 11-12. 

Elphidium ad'venum Cushman, 1930, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 7, p. 25, 
pi. 10, figs. 1-2; Cushman, 1930, Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 40, pi. 7, 
figs. 7a-b; Cushman and Ponton, 1932, Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 9, p. 70, 
pi. 11, figs, la-b; Cushman and Cahill, 1933, U. S. Geol. Survey, Prof. 
Paper 175-A, p. 22, pi. 7, figs. lOa-b; Cushman, 1939, U. S. Geol. Survey, 
Prof. Paper 191, pp. 60-61, pi. 16, figs. 31-35; Puri, 1953, Florida Geol. 
Survey, Bull. 36, pp. 146-147. 

Test of medium size for the genus, strongly compressed, periphery acute, 
with a narrow carina, somewhat lobulate, sides nearly parallel in peripheral 
view, umbilical region depressed, often with a small central boss of clear shell 
material but in peripheral view not projecting beyond the contour of the test; 
chambers distinct, ten to fifteen in the last-formed coil, slightly inflated, 
especially in the last-formed portion; sutures depressed, marked by the retral 
processes which are short, about one-fourth the width of the chamber, twelve 
to fifteen in number; wall smooth, translucent, finely and distinctly perforate; 
aperture composed of a series of small rounded pores at the base of the aper- 
tural face. Diameter up to 0.50 mm.; thickness 0.15 mm. (Cushman, 1939.) 

This form is a warm water species, widely distributed in 
present waters and is recorded from the Oak Grove and Chocta- 
whatchee formations in Florida. 

Occurrence. — A single specimen came from the Langley Field 
sample. 

Elphidium incertum (Williamson) PI. 43, figs. 2-3 

Polystomella umbilicatula var. incerta Williamson, 1858, Recent Foram. 
Great Britain, p. 44, pi. 3, figs, 82, 82a. 

Elphidium incertum Cushman, 1930, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 7, p. 18, 
pi. 7, figs. 4-9; Cushman, 1930, Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 39, pi. 7, 
figs. 2a-b; Cushman and Cahill, 1933, U. S. Geol. Survey, Prof. Paper 
175-A, p. 21, pi. 7, fig. 8; Cushman, 1939, U. S. Geol. Survey, Prof. Paper 
191, p. 57, pi. 15, figs. 21-24. 

Test of small size for the genus, compressed, periphery broadly rounded, 
margin entire or with the last two or three chambers lobulate, umbilical regions 
slightly depressed, often with a slight knob or irregularly arranged slits at the 
base of the sutures; chambers few, usually less than ten in the last-formed 
whorl, slightly if at all inflated, distinct; sutures distinct, mainly marked by 
the openings, which are in a single row, retral processes very few, usually not 
more than five or seven, distinct, the inner ends of the sutures slitlike; wall 
thick, usually opaque; aperture composed of several small, rounded openings 
at the base of the apertural face. Diameter 0.50 mm.; thickness 0.23 mm. 
(Cushman, 1939.) 

Geologic range of this species is from the present to the Calvert 
Miocene; it inhabits the colder waters of the present oceans. Fairly 
typical specimens are foimd rarely in the Yorktown formation. 

Occurrence. — Felgater's Creek, Carter's Grove, and Powell's 
Lake Spillway. 



^'oRKTowN Mi()ci:ni-; Foraminikkra: McLkan 343 



Klpliidiiiiii johiistonae McLean, n.sp. PI. 42, figs. 9, IS; PI. 44, figs. 3-5, 7 

Test rather small for the genus, periphery lobulate, rounded, 
the test somewhat thick in transverse view, with a projecting 
umbilical boss area; eight to twelve chambers in final whorl, each 
chamber uniformly larger as added, distinct; sutures distinct, de- 
pressed, with indifferently developed and irregular retral processes 
or even sutural folds in some portions of test; wall smooth and 
coarsely perforate, umbilical area ornamented with irregularly de- 
veloped granulations or buttons which spread outward along the 
sutural processes in some specimens; aperture a row of small arches 
at the base of the apertural face of the final chamber. Length of 
holotype, 0.65 mm.; thickness, 0.27 mm.; lesser diameter about 
0.50 mm. 

The retral processes are weakly developed in this species, and 
the umbilical granulations are distinctive. In general appearance the 
form resembles Nonion ornatissimus Cushman from the Eocene of 
Kressenberg, Germany, but the presence of retral processes and 
the apertural features are not characteristic of the genus Nonion. 
In this connection, however, it may be noted that some forms 
figured by Cushman in U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 
191 as Nonions have multi-arched apertural processes. 

The species is named in honor of Mrs. Mary Johnston McCrea, 
nee Johnston, who has been most gracious in permitting the author 
to collect at her estate, Carter's Grove. 

ryp^j.— Holotype, P.R.I., No. 22,279; paratypes, P.R.I., Nos. 
22,275-22,278 and 22,280-22,281. 

Occurrence. — Moore House Beach, Carter's Grove, Powell's 
Lake Spillway. 

Elphidiuni kalcherae McLean, n.sp. PI. 42, figs. U, 13-17 

Test round, in cross-section the periphery is broadly rounded 
and the sides parallel and somewhat compressed; chambers 
numerous, 16 in the final whorl of the holotype, chambers thin, 
distmct but not inflated, not embracmg m final portion; sutures 
distinct, limbate, slightly curved, with numerous retral processes, 
the sutural pores rather large; wall glassy, finely perforate, rather 



344 Bulletin 160 



irregularly surfaced, with an irregular development of the umbilical 
plug; aperture a fine slit at base of final chamber if at all present. 
Diameter of holotype, 0.55 mm.; thickness, 0.24 mm. 

This species is structurally similar to E. {?) eUisi Weiss but 
diflPers in having prominent retral processes and a less conspicuous 
umbilical plug. 

Named in honor of Mrs. Sally Kaicher, illustrator of this 
paper. 

Ty^^j.— Holotype, P.R.I., No. 22,282; paratypes, P.R.I., Nos. 
22,283-22,284 and U.S.N.M. No. P3116. 

Occurrence. — Felgater's Creek and base of bank at beach below 
Moore House. 

Family BULIMIXIDAE 
Genus BULIMINELLA Cushman, 1911 
Biiliniinella cf. elegantissima (d'Orbigny) PI. 44, figs, lla-b 

A single specimen from the Yorktown Bluff (fragmental beds) 
at Yorktown, Virginia, seems to be identical with BuJiminellu ele- 
gantissima (d'Orbigny), but additional specimens would be 
necessary to confirm the identification due to an incrustation on 
the specimen which obscures the details. This species has, however, 
been reported from the Yorktown formation by others. It has also 
been recorded from the Wilcox Eocene to the present. 

Genus BULDUJfA d'Orbigny, 1826 

Buliinina gracilis Cushman PI. 44. figs. 6, 8-10 

Bulimina gracilis Cushman, 1930, Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 43, pi. 8, 
figs. 5a-b; Cushman and Ponton, 1932, Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 9, p. 76; 
Cushman and Cahill, 1933, U. S. Geol. Survey, Prof. Paper 175-A, p. 24, 
pi. 7, figs. 16a-b; Cushman, 1936, Geol. Soc. Amer., Bull. 47, p. 431, pi. 5, 
figs. 8a-b. 

Bulimina elongata, Cushman and Parker, 1937, (not d'Orbigny), Contr. 
Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., vol. 13, pt. 2, p. 49, pi. 7, figs, la-b, 3a-b, 
(not 2a-b) ; Cushman, 1946, (not d'Orbigny), U. S. Geol. Survey, Prof. 
Paper 210-D, pi. 25, figs. 16a-c (not others).; Clapp, Ann Dorsey, 1948, 
(not d'Orbigny), Maryland Dept. Geol., Mines and Water Res., Bull. 
2, p. 303, pi. 36, figs. 5-6. 

Test elongate, slender, of nearly uniform diameter for most of its length, 
about 3/4 times as long as wide in the adult; chambers generally triserial, 
inflated; sutures distinct, depressed; wall smooth, polished; aperture elongate, 
narrow. Length 0.60 mm.; diameter 0.18-0.20 mm. (Cushman, 1930.) 



YoRKTowN Miocene Foraminifera: McLean 345 



In transferring this form into synonymy with Bulimina 
elongata, Cushman stated (U. S. Geological Survey, Professional 
Paper 210-D, p. 109, 1946): "The specimens from the Miocene of 
Florida called B. gracilis Cushman are somewhat more slender and 
attenuated but identical ones may be found in the Vienna Basin 
material." He further noted that B. elongata may be recognized 
by its long narrow test with angled chambers that are not regu- 
larly arranged. 

John Haynes (Micropaleontologist, vol. 8, No. 3, p. 57, 1954) 
showed that the placement of specimens in classification with 
B. elongata has been confused by the fact that Fornasini figured 
a clavulinid as D'Orbigny's form, taking it from the "Planches 
inedites" of D'Orbigny. Reference to Cushman's plate 25 of Pro- 
fessional Paper 210-D shows that Cushman copied Fornasini's 
B. elongata (actually an arenaceous clavulinid according to 
Haynes) instead of the figure given by D'Orbigny in his 1846 
Vienna Basin paper, which, according to Haynes, is still the valid 
figure for B. elongata. 

D'Orbigny's description and figure of B. elongata do not reveal 
a form similar to B. gracilis. In the first place, the test is more 
pointed and is curved; secondly, the test is figured as being dis- 
tinctly perforate, which B. gracilis is not. The chambers of B. 
elongata are figured by D'Orbigny as being angulate, which B. 
gracilis is not. The accuracy of D'Orbigny's figure is attested by the 
figure of B. elongata found by P. Marks (Contr. Cushman Found. 
Foram. Res., vol. 2, pt. 2, pi. 7, fig. 12) and by Mark's description 
which specifically noted the perforate character of the test. 

For these reasons, I am restoring B. gracilis as a distinct 
species whose validity is upheld by the Yorktown formation oc- 
currences. 

Occurrence. — Carter's Grove; Moore House; Fort Eustis Well 
at 135-160 feet; Crisfield well (Maryland) at 248-287 feet; Calvert 
through St. Marys formation. 

ItuUniiiia prcacaiithia .McLean, n.sp. PI. 45. figs. 2-3, 7 

Test medium-sized for the genus, only slightly tapering, 

greatest diameter in upper portion of test; chambers distinct. 



346 Bulletin 160 



inflated, globular in later portion of test, rather irregularly ar- 
ranged but in a definite spiral whorl from initial end to aperture; 
sutures distinct, depressed; wall smooth; aperture a rather elongated 
comma-like opening extending from the basal portion of final 
chamber well up the side toward the apex. Length of holotype, 
0.85 mm.; diameter, 0.50 mm. 

This form resembles Btdimina acanthia Costa in general ar- 
rangement and appearance but differs from that species in having 
a simpler aperture and in lacking the basal spines on the chambers. 

Types.— HoXoty^e, P.R.I., No. 22,293; paratypes, P.R.I., Nos. 
22,292 and 22,294. 

Occurrence. — Carter's Grove at base of the bank, lower portion 

of beach; also at 10 feet up the bank, in the upper part of the 

beach. 

Genus YIRGULDfA d'Orbigny, 1826 

Virgulina punctata d'Orbigny PI. 44, figs. 12a-b; PI. 45, figs, la-c 

Virgulina punctata d'Orbigny, 1839, in De La Sagra, Hist. Politique et Nat. 
de I'ile de Cuba, Foraminiferes, p. 139, pi. 1, figs. 35-36.; Cushman, 
1922, Carnegie Inst. Washington, Publ. 311, p. 31, pi. 3, fig. 9.; Cushman, 
1930, Florida Geo!. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 44, pi. 8, figs. 7a-b; Cushman and 
Cahill, 1933, U. S. Geol. Survey, Prof. Paper 175-A, p. 25, pi. 8, figs. 
8a-b. ; Cushman, 1937, Spec. Publ. No. 9, Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., pp. 
23-24, pi. 3, figs. 25-27.; Puri, 1953, Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 36, pp. 
118-119, pi. 29, figs. 6-7.; Parker, 1954, Bull Mus. Comp. Zool, Harvard 
Univ., vol. 3, No. 10, p. 513, pi 7, fig. 11. 

Test elongate, about ZYz times as long as broad, tapering, somewhat fusi- 
form, greatest breadth toward the apertural end, compressed, periphery rounded, 
lobulate; chambers numerous, the early ones distinctly twisted, later becoming 
biserial, usually with only four to fix biserial chambers, the earlier ones some- 
what irregular; sutures distinct, depressed, particularly in the later portion, 
strongly oblique; wall smooth, finely perforate; aperture elongate, narrow, 
reaching to or nearly to the base of the last-formed chamber. Length up to 
0.75 mm.; breadth 0.20 mm.; thickness 0.10 mm. (Cushman, 1937.) 

This species ranges from the Oligocene to the present and 
is found from to more than 2000 meters deep, with the greatest 
numbers at less than 100 meters. 

Occurrence. — Carter's Grove, lower portion of beach, at base 
of the bank. 

Genus BOLIYINA d'Orbigny, 1839 
Bolivina bifajettei McLean, n.sp. PI. 45, figs. 6, 8 

Test small, slightly more than two times as long as broad, 
compressed, periphery rounded, somewhat irregular in outline, test 



^'ORKTOWN MlDCENE FoRAMlNlFIiRA : McLeAN 347 



tapering, broadest toward apcrtural end; chambers luinierous, 20 
visible in holotype, chambers irregular, broader than high, only 
slightly inflated; test marked by a series of ridges which are 
partially discontinuous and marked by downward-projecting 
chamber processes along the path of the ridges; sutures distinct, 
depressed, irregular; wall glassy, coarsely perforate; aperture 
bolivine and simple. Length of holotype, 0.40 mm.; breadth, 0.21 
mm.; thickness, 0.14 mm. 

This form differs from Bolivina pseudoplicata Heron-Allen and 
Earland in its simpler aperture and in a noticeably lesser develop- 
ment of ridges and chamber infolds. It is probably ancestral to 
B. pseudoplicata. Named in honor of General Lafayette who 
fought as a volunteer for the cause of American Liberty. 

ry/)^J.— Holotype, P.R.I., No. 22,299; paratype, P.R.L, No. 
22,298. 

Occurrence. — Carter's Grove and Moore House beaches, at 
base of the banks. 

Bolivina striatula Cushman PI. 45, figs. 4a-b 

Bolii'lna striatula Cushman, 1922, Carnegie Inst. Washington, Publ. 311, p. 27, 
pi. 3, fig. 10.; Cole, 1931, Florida CJeol. Survey, Bull. 6, p. 41, pi. 2, fig. 
9.; Cushman, 1937, Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., Spec. Publ. 9, pp. 154-155, 
pi. 18, figs. 30-31.; Post, 1951, Publ. Inst. Marine Science, vol. 2, No. 1, 
p. 174, pi. 1, fig. 19.; Boltovskoy, 1954, Revista del Inst. Nacional Invest. 
Ciencias Nat. y Mus. Argentino Ciencias Nat. "Bernadino Rivadavia," 
tomo 3, No. 4, p. 281, pi. 26, figs. 2a-b. 

Test elongate, about three times as long as broad, much compressed, 
microspheric form tapering throughout, megalospheric form often with the 
adult portion of the test with the sides nearly parallel, periphery rounded; 
chambers numerous, distinct, very slightly inflated, earlier ones much broader 
than high, relative height increasing toward the apertural end, where height 
and breadth are often about ecjual; sutures distinct, slightly limbate, obliquely 
curved, forming an angle of about 30-40° with the horizontal, slightly de- 
piessed in the adult portion; wall finely perforate, smooth, except for the 
early portion, which has numerous, fine, longitudinal costae, sometimes running 
up halfway of the length of the test; aperture elongate, narrow at the base, 
and somewhat expanded at the upper end. Length 0.35 mm.; breadth 0.10 mm.; 
thickness 0.03-0.04 mm. (Cushman, 1937.) 

1 his species is recorded from the Pleistocene to the Recent. 
It is said to occur in 93 fathoms off the British Isles, and in 0-25 
meters in the San Bias Bay. Our single specimen seems to be 
typical. 

Occurrence. — Base of the bank, Moore House Beach. 



348 Bulletin 160 

Genus LOXOSTOMUM Ehrenberg, 1854 
Loxostomum wilsoni McLean, n.sp. PI. 45, figs. 5a-b 

Test elongate, three times as long as broad, initial portion 
tapering, outline serrate; chambers fairly numerous, rapidly en- 
larging and increasing in height as added, the peripheral portion 
at base of each chamber developing as a small projection which 
gives test the serrate outline, sixteen chambers to holotype; sutures 
distinct, depressed, somewhat limbate in some specimens; wall 
smooth and quite coarsely perforate; aperture elongate, ellipsoidal, 
with a raised lip which extends as a small carina along apertural 
face, aperture terminal. Length of holotype, 0.65 mm.; breadth, 
0.25 mm.; thickness, 0.09 mm. 

Loxostomum wilsoni, n. sp. is close to Bijarina vie ks bur gen sis 
(Cushman), from which it diflFers in a lesser development of the 
uniserial portion, in having higher chambers in the last portion, 
and in being broader in relation to length. 

Named in honor of Mr. Druid Wilson, of the U. S. Geological 
Survey, who kindly identified the final collections of mollusks for 
reference in this paper. 

ry/)^j.— Holotype, P.R.I., No. 22,301; paratypes, P.R.I., No. 
22,300 and U.S.N.M., No. P3113. 

Occurrence. — Beach below the Moore House, at the base of 
the bank and at four feet up the bank. 

Genus UVKiEKIlVA d'Orbigny, 1826 
IJTigerina calrertensis Cushman PI. 46. figs. 2a-b 

U<vigerina calvertrnsis Cushman, 1948, Maryland Dept. Geol., Mines Water 

Res., Bull. 2, p. 22, pi. 15, figs. 9-10. 
Uvigcrina kernrnsis Clapp, Ann Dorsey, 1948, (not Barbat and Von Estorff). 

Maryland Dept. Geol., Mines Water Res., Bull. 2, p. 308, pi. 36, fig. 24. 

Test elongate, slender, fusiform, initial end pointed, tending to become 
biserial in the later portion, periphery lobulate; chambers large, distinct, 
inflated in the later portion; sutures distinct, deeply incised; wall thin, orna- 
mented by numerous high, thin costae, about twelve to fifeen on each chamber 
in the later portion, the costae usually appearing serrate, occasionally irregular 
in pattern and branching, those of each chamber independent, the greatest 
development of the costae on the initial part of the test, usually diminishing 
in strength on the last one or several chambers, often breaking down into 
aligned spines, occasional specimens being very finely hispid over the later 
half of tile test; aperture terminal, at the end of a short, cylindrical neck, 



YoRKTowN Miocene Foramimi-era: McLean 349 



surrounded by a narrow phialinc lip. Length, 0.45-0.70 mm.; diameter 0.17- 
0.23 mm. (Cushman, 194S.) 

A few specimens answering the above description are in the 
Yorktown formation. The form was described from a subsurface 
Calvert (?) formation bed. 

Occurrence. — Base of bank, beach below Moore House; Camp 
Wallace; Fort Fustis well at ?t7 to 101 feet deep. 

lvig:eriiia cf. caniieloeiiisis Cushman and Kleinpell PI. 46. fig. 1 

Ann Dorsey Clapp (Maryland Dept. Geol., Mines, and Water 
Resources, Bull. 2, p. 308, pi. 36, fig. 25, 1948) recorded a species 
from the Choptank formation as Uvigerina carmeloensis Cushman 
and Kleinpell. In the Moore House Beach material, there are two 
specimens which seem to be the same as Clapp's form. 

Uvigerina cf. teiiuistriata ("ushman (not Reuss) 

PI. 45, figs. 9a-b; PI. 46, figs. 3a-b 

Four specimens from Carter's Grove are close to the Uvigerina 
tenuistriata figured by Cushman in U. S. Geological Survey, Bulle- 
tin 676 (Plate 12, fig. 1, 1918). Evidently, from the number of 
different forms ascribed to it, Uvigerina tenuistriata Reuss is an- 
other species whose original meaning has been destroyed by assign- 
ment of different forms to the species. Cushman's U. tenuistriata 
(and the present specimens) do not seem to match Reuss's figures 
well and are probably a different species. 

Genus STPHOGEXEKIXA Schlumberger, 1883 

Slpliogenerina lamelbita (ushman PI. 46, fig. 4 

Siphogenerina lamrllata Cushman, 1918, U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 676 pp. 
55-56, pi. 12, figs. 3a-b. ; Cushman, 1930, Florida Geol. 'Survev Bull. 4, 
p. 49, pi. 9, fig. 10.; Cushman and Cahill, 1933, U. S. Geol. Survey. Prof. 
Paper 175-A, p 28, pi. 9, fig. 4.; Clapp Ann Dorsey, 1948, Maryland Dept. 
Geol., Mines and Water Res., Bull. 2, p. 309, pi. 36, figs. 13a-b. ; Ber- 
mudez, 1949, Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., Spec, Publ., No. 25, pp. 221-222, 
pi. 14, fig 9 (not 10).; Puri, 1953, Florida Cieol. Survey, Bull. 36, p. 125, 
pi. 16, fig. 8. 

Test elongate, tapering gradually from the initial end, broadly rounded at 
the apertural end, chambers comparatively few, indistinct, surface ornamenta- 
tion consisting of several equidistant, longitudinal lamellae extending from 
the initial end to the apertural end, where they fuse; aperture with a tubular 
neck and phialine lip. Length 1 millimeter. (Cushman, 1918.) 



350 Bulletin 160 



Except for a single specimen here figured, from the inner 
sand of a shell from Camp Wallace, this species is restricted to 
the Calvert formation of Virginia and Maryland. In its natural 
position (Calvert formation), the species is abundant and seems to 
represent a special environmental assemblage. Its occurrence m 
the Camp Wallace shell can only be explained as a redepositional 
element. Bermudez recorded the species in the upper Oligocene of 
the Dominican Republic; all other records are for the Miocene. The 
type figure by Cushman is highly stylized and unsatisfactory for 
comparison purposes, and this figure may have caused a different 
form to be also placed in Siphogenerina laviellata as in the possible 
case of Bermudez's Oligocene report. 

Occurrence. — A single specimen from Camp Wallace. 

Genus ANOULOGERINA Cushman, 1927 
Ang-ulog-eriiia <H*cidentalis (Cushman) Fl. 46, fig. 5 

Uvigcrina antjulosa, Cushman, 1922, (not Williamson), Carnegie Inst. 
Washington, Pub!. 311, p. 34, pi. 5, figs. 3-4. 

Uvigcrina occidcntalis Cushman, 1923, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 4. p. 169. 

Angulogcrina occidcntalis Cushman, 1930, Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, 
p. 50, pi. 9, figs. 8-9.; Cushman and Cahill, 1933, U. S. Geol. Survey, 
Prof. Paper 175-A, p. 28, pi. 9, figs. 8a-b. ; Bermudez, 1949, Cushman 
Lab. Foram. Res., Spec. Publ. No. 25, p. 218, pi. 13, fig. 57.; Puri, 1953, 
Florida Geol. Survey. Bull. 36, p. 125, pi. 22, figs. 7-8. 

Angulogcrina angulosa occidcntalis Boltovskoy, 1954, Revista del Inst. 
Nacional Invest. Ciencias Nat. y Mus. Argentine Ciencias Nat. "Berna- 
dino Rivadavia," tomo 3, No. 3, p. 197, pi. 11, figs, la-b, 2a-b. ; Boltov- 
skoy, 1954, idem, tomo 3, No. 4, p. 283, pi. 26, fig. 7. 

Test minute, elongate, triangular in transverse section, the periphery 
s(tmewhat lobulate; chambers distinct, those of the last-formed portion be- 
coming more distinct and remote ; sutures distinct and depressed ; wall orna- 
mented with longitudinal costae on all but the last-formed chambers in the 
adult; apertural end drawn out into a short, tubular neck and slight, phialine 
lip. Length usually less than 0.50 mm.; diameter 0.15-0.20 nun. (Cushman 
and Cahill, 1933.) 

Specimens from the Yorktown tormation vary but seem to fit 
the description, considering that the species seems to vary con- 
siderably as reported by others. It is recorded from the present 
to the lower Miocene. 

Occurrence. — Base of bank, lower part of beach at Carter's 
Grove. 



Y(1RKT()WN MiOCENF FoRAMINIKKRA : McLeAN 351 



An^iiloiferina sp. PI. 46. fij?. 6 

The single specimen is from the Moore House Beach, four 
feet up the bank. It is a large form for the genus with basal pro- 
jections on the chambers, and it bears no costae as \n the case of 
A. occidentalis. 

Family KOTALIIDAE 

Genus PLANISPIKILLINA Bermudez, 1952 

rianispirilliiia orbioubirls (Bagg) PI. 46, figs. 7-8 

Spirillina orbicularis Bagg, 1898, Bull. Amer. Paleont., vol. 2, No. 10, p. 

33, (327), pi. 2 (22). figs. 2a-c. ; Cushman, 1918, U. S. CJeol. Survey, 

Bull. 676, p. 58, pi. 14, fig. 1.; Cushman, 1930, Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 

4, p. 51, pi. 9, figs. 12a-b. ; Cushman and Cahill, 1933, U. S. Geol. Survey. 

Prof. Paper 175-A, p. 29, pi. 9, figs. lOa-b. 
Planispirilliria orbicularis Puri, 1953, Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 36, p. 

130, pi. 20, figs. 1-2. 

Test planispirally coiled, the coils increasing in diameter as added, peri- 
phery broadly rounded, ventral side with rows of beads more or less follow- 
ing the coils, dorsal side wih a row of pits along the sutures; aperture arched, 
comparatively narrow. Diameter about 0.50 mm. (Cushman and Cahill, 1933.) 

Bagg described this species from the Yorktown formation, and 
it has been found in the Duplin and Choctawhatchee formations. 
Present specimens seem to be typical. 

Occurrence. — Moore House Beach, at base of bank and six 
feet up the same bank. 

Genus DISCOKBIS Lamarck. 1804 
Discorbis floridaiia Cusliman PI. 46, figs. 9-12, l.o 

Discorbis rosacea Cushman 1930, (not D'Orbigny), Florida Geol. Survey, 
Bull. 4, p. 51, pi. 9, figs. 13a-c. 

Discorbis subaraucana Cushman, 1930, (not Cushman, 1922). Florida Geol. 
Survey, Bull. 4, p. 52, pi. 10, figs. la-c. 

Rosalina floridana Parker, 1954, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zoo!., Harvard Univ., vol. 
3, No. 10, pp. 524-525, pi. 8, figs. 19-20. 

Discorbis floridana Cushman, 1922, Carnegie Inst. Washington, Publ. 311, 
p. 39, pi. 5, figs. 11-12.; Cushman, 1931, U. S. Nat. Mus.. Bull. 104, 
pt. 8, p. 21, pi. 4, figs. 7-8.; Cushman and Ponton, 1932, Florida Geol. 
Survey, Bull. 9, p. 88, pi. 13, figs. 2a-c; Cushman and Cahill, 1933, 
U. S. Geol. Survev, Prof. Paper 175-A, p. 29, pi. 9, figs. 12-13.; Parker 
1948, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard Univ, Vol. 100, No. 2, pi. 5, iSgs. 



352 Bulletin 160 



23a-b. ; Bermudez, 1949, Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., Spec. Publ. 25, p. 
238, pi. 15, figs. 16-18.; Puri, 1953, Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 36, p. 131, 
pi. 24, figs. 7-9.; Phleger and Parker, 1954, Geol. Soc. Amer., Mem. 46, 
pt. 2, p. 20, pi. 10, figs. 4a-b 
Discorbis floridanus Bandy, 1954, U. S. Geol. Survey, Prof. Paper 254-F, p. 
136, pi. 31, figs. la-c. 

Test rotaliform, periphery slightly, if at all lobulated, dorsal side rounded, 
much convex, ventral side concave, somewhat umbilicate ; chambers com- 
paratively few, five or six in the last-formed coil, on the dorsal side coarsely 
punctate, on the ventral side punctate near the periphery, but on the inner 
concave portion smooth, with very fine punctate, if any; sutures in the younger 
portion slightly limbate, those of the later portion not limbate, rather indistinct, 
very slightly depressed; aperture an elongate, arched opening at the base of the 
last-formed chamber, opening on the umbilicate area, often with a slight, 
thin lip; color of the early whorls brown, of the last whorl white. Diameter 
not exceeding 0.4 mm. (Cushman, 1931.) 

This form is a shallow water species found in from 1 to 11 
fathoms in the Dry Tortugas; in 50-100 feet in the Gulf of Mexico 
(by Bandy); and in to 12 meters in the Gulf area by Phleger. It 
is a rare species even where reported most frequently, and if all 
references cited in synonymy above are correctly assigned to the 
species, the form is a variable one, as it seems tO' range from forms 
with an umbilical flap, to individuals with an open and excavated 
umbilicus. Yorktown specimens show just such variation. The 
species ranges from the present to the Calvert Miocene and despite 
records older than the Miocene, it seems not to extend beyond 
the Miocene. 

Occurrence. — Powell's Lake; Carter's Grove; Bluffs at York- 
town; and the Moore House Beach. Rare at all localities. 

Discorbis (?) sp. PI. 47. figs, la-e 

This peculiar form is represented by a single specimen from 
the middle part of the beach, six feet up the bank, at Carter's 
Grove. Dimensions are; diameter, 1.08 mm.; thickness about 0.22 
mm. The singular development of the last chamber and the pro- 
nounced umbilical depression seem to set this specimen aside from 
all forms known to the writer, and it may be necessary to erect 
a new genus to accommodate the form. It has certain features 
related to Discorbis, however, and I am placing it in that genus 
pending the finding of additional specimens upon which study can 
be made. 



"^'ORKTOW N MiOCKNK KoRAM I M KFRA : McLfAN 353 



IMscorliis rt'lideri .McLean, n.sp. PI. 4(5. figs. l.]-\4 

Discorbis rosacea Cushman, 1918, (not Rotalia rosacea d'Orhigny), U. S. 

Geol. Survey, Bull. 676, p. 59, pi. 14, figs. 4a-c. 
Rotorb'uirlla f rosacea Puri, 1953, Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 36, p. 136, pi. 

2+, figs. 1-3. 

Test planoconvex, dorsal side convex, ventral side flattened or slightly 
concave, chambers numerous, much elongated in those last formed; sutures 
very oblique, five chambers in the last-formed coil ; margins acute, carinate 
from below, umbilicate; aperture entirely ventral, umbilical cavitv distinct. 
Diameter 0.50 milimeter. (Cushman, 1918). 

By emending Cushman's description to include a perforate, 
thin wall and to note the definitely pointed dorsal spire, the descrip- 
tion of this species is complete. Diameter of holotype, 0.65 mm. 

D'Orbigny's original figure of Rotalia rosacea shows an umbili- 
cal plug and a different ventral chamber arrangement from the 
form Cushman named Discorbis rosacea from the Suffolk exposure 
of the Yorktown formation. Present specimens are identical to the 
Suffolk one and are better preserved. 

Named in honor of Dr. Harald Rehder, of the Mollusk Division, 
U. S. National Museum, Washington, D.C., who has given the 
author assistance and consideration during the studies attendant 
to the writing of this paper. 

Typ^/.— Holotype, P.R.I., No. 22,325; paratvpes, P.R.I., 
22,326-22,330. 

Occurrence. — Langley Field; Moore House Beach; Camp Wal- 
lace; and the Powell's Lake Spillway. 

Discorbis turrita ("ushman PI. 47, figs. 2a-d 

Discorbis turrita Cushman, 1918, U. S. Geol. Survev, Bull. 676, p. 59, pi. 
14, figs. 2a-c. ; Cushman and Cahill, 1933, U.S. Geol. Survev, Prof. Paper 
175-A, p. 30, pi. 10, figs. 6a-c. 

Test minute, the central portion closely coiled and conical, the later 
portion broader and more extended, ventral side nearly flat, five to six 
chambers in the last-formed coil, ventral peripheral margin with a definite 
keel, in side view subconical ; wall smooth, punctate; aperture extending 
from the ventral edge to the umbilicus, narrow, with a definite raised margin. 
Diameter 0.4 millimeter. (Cushman, 1918.) 

I have two specimens which can be ascribed to this species 
as they answer fully to the above description. The type described 
by Cushman came from the Suffolk, Virginia, exposures of the York- 
town formation. 



354 Bulletin 160 



Occurrences. — Rare, at the base of the bank at both the Moore 
House Beach and the lower part of the beach at Carter's Grove. 

Genus VALTITLIIVEKIA (^ushman, 1926 
Valvnlineria washingtoiii McLean, n.sp. Fl. 47, figs. 3-4 

Test biconvex, involute on ventral side, somewhat evolute on 
dorsal side, periphery angular and somewhat lobulate; chambers 
quite inflated, particularly on dorsal side, seven chambers in final 
whorl of holotype; sutures distinct, limbate, curved in early portion 
of dorsal side but straight in final portion, curved and less limbate 
on ventral side; wall glassy, coarsely perforate, thin; aperture a 
well-developed high arched opening extendmg from the ventral 
side of the periphery over into the dorsal coil. Diameter of holotype, 
0.55 mm.; thickness, 0.22 mm. 

This species is structurally similar to Valvnlineria jloridana 
Cushman but has hmbate sutures and a more pronounced aperture 
which extends over the peripheral angle. 

Named in honor of General George Washington, who won the 
American Revolution by accepting the surrender of the British 
forces in the historic York-James Peninsula. 

Ty^^j-.— Holotype, P-R.L, No. 22,335; paratypes, P.R.I., Nos. 
22,334 and 22,336-22,337 and also U.S.N.M., No. P3106. 

Occurrence. — Fort Eustis well at 37 to 101 feet deep, and at 
Powell's Lake Spillway- 
Genus BUCCELLA Andersen. 1952 
Buccella aiulerseni McLean, n.sp. Fl. 50. figs, la-c; PI. 51, figs. 1, 4 

Test medium to large size for the genus, unequally biconvex, 
dorsal side usually the highest one, periphery rounded to slightly 
angular, test distinctly trochoid with a relatively high spire; dorsal 
side hyaline and finely perforate, with somewhat limbate and 
oblique sutures; ventral side rather smooth, but largely coated with 
coarse pustules which cover a large part of the central portion 
of the test and extend outward along the sutural regions almost 
to the periphery, the ventral sutures are straight and radiating, 
deeply depressed and in a wide trough which is filled with pustules; 
eight to nine chambers to the final whorl, adult test contains 



YORKTOWN MiOCENK FoRAM I M I- 1- RA : McLkaN 355 



2^2 ^*^^ three coils. Diameter of microsphcnc holotype, 0.45 mm.; 
thickness about 0.21 mm. 

Megalospheric A' form is much thicker and more highly 
trochoid and has notably larger proloculum than the microspheric 
form; sutures of dorsal side are the same in early portion but more 
oblique in final coil. Diameter of figured paratype, 0.50 mm.; 
thickness, 0-32 mm. 

Megalospheric A- form is less thick than A' form and more 
closely resembles microspheric form in general outlmes; prolocu- 
lum is larger than that of A' form and there are only two coils 
rather than the usual three of the other forms. Diameter of figured 
paratype, 0.60 mm.; thickness about 0.24 mm. 

All apertures are concealed by pustulose material. 

Buccella anderseni is close to B. frigicla (Cushman) and B. 
depressa Andersen, but it differs from these in degree and coverage 
of pustules, m the straight ventral sutures, more pointed spire, and 
in maximum size and chamber numbers, these last two features 
being the least significant- 
Named in honor of Dr. Harold V. Andersen of Louisiana State 
University, who described the genus. 

Ty^^j.— Holotype, P.R.I., No. 22,343; paratypes, P.R.I., Nos. 
22,338-22,342 and 22,344-22,349. 

Occurrence. — PowelPs Lake Spillway; Carter's Grove; the 
bluffs at Yorktown, and 37-101 feet deep in the Fort Eustis well. 

Bnooella depressa Andersen PI. 50. figs. 2-4 

Eponidrs peruv'ianus Cushman and Parker, 1931, (not D'Orbigny), U. S. 

Nat. Mus., Proc, vol. 80, art. 3, p. 19 (not figured). 
Buccella depressa Andersen, 1952, Washington Acad. Sci., Jour. vol. 42, 

No. 5, pp. 145-146, tf. 7a-c, 8. 
Eponides pcru^•ianus campsi Boltovskoy, 19 54, Revista del Inst. National 

Invest. Ciencias Nat. y Mi"-. .Arge-'tino C'iencias Nat. "Be'-nndino Riv~- 

davia", tomo 3, No. 3, p. 204, pi. 17, figs. 6a-c, 7, 8.; Boltovskoy, 1954, 

idem, tomo 3, No. 4 p. 287 pi. 27, figs. 8a-b. 

Test of medium size; trochoid; dorsal and ventral sides equally biconvex. 
Dorsal side with surface smooth, finely perforate and hyaline (in well- 
preserved specimens) ; and with slightly curved sutures oriented oblique to 
the peripheral margin. Ventral side with surface more coarsely perforate 
than the dorsal surface, sutures greativ depressed, nearly radial, and partlv 
filled with opaque pustulose material; chambers inflated; and with de- 



356 Bulletin 160 



pressed umbilicus and basal margin of last-formed chambers bearing a mod- 
erate coating of pustulose material. Periphery broadly acute to rounded and 
lobulate. The number of chambers in the last-formed whorl ranges from 7 
to 9, the most common being 8. Adult tests have lYz to 3 coils. 

In well preserved specimens all apertures are concealed by pustulose 
material. Weathered specimens exhibit .... a low arched primary aperture 
at the basal margin of the last-formed chamber and slitlike supplementary 
apertures that extend along the outer postero-sutural margins of each cham- 
ber. (Andersen, 1952.) 

Dimensions cited are diameter, 0-46-0.49 mm.; thickness, 0.20- 
0.22 mm. 

Occurrences cited are from 4 to 10 fathoms or more, in present 
waters. 

Occurrence. — Base of the bank at Carter's Grove beach. 

Rnccella haniiai (Phleger and Pa.ker) PI. 51. figs. 3a-c 

Eponidrs hatuiai Phleger and Parker, 1951, Geol. Soc. Amer., Mem. 46, p. 

21, pi. 10, figs. 11-14. 
Buccella hannai Andersen, 1952, Washington Acad. Sci., Jour. vol. 42, No. 

5, p. 144, tf. 3a-c. 

Test small; trochoid; biconvex, ranging from specimens with equal con- 
vexity on dorsal and ventral sides to specimens that are extremely convex 
on the dorsal side and nearly flat on the ventral side. Dorsal side with 
surface smooth, finely perforate and hyaline (in well-preserved specimens) ; 
and with curved and limbate sutures that form the peripheral margin of 
each chamber. Ventral side with surface more coarsely perforate than the 
dorsal surface; sutures depressed and radial; chambers slightly inflated; 
and with umbilicus, sutures, and anterior basal margin of last-formed 
chamber bearing a coating of pustulose material. Periphery distinctly 
lobulate; typically acute and limbate although an occasional specimen (not 
necessarily all young specimens) has a very rounded periphery. The number 
of chambers in the last-formed whorl range from 7 to 9, the most common 
being 8. Adult tests have from 3 to 3^ coils. 

The only apertures are the supplementary apertures on the ventral side 
of the test. Each aperture is a low arched opening located at the postero- 
sutural margin of each chamber. In those specimens with an acute peri- 
phery, the supplementary apertures are in a slight depression at the outer 
margin of the suture near the periphery. In those specimens with a rounded 
periphery, the apertuies are located about midway between the periphery and 
the umbilicus. (Andersen, 1952.) 

Maximum diameter is 0.38 mm.; maximum thickness, 0.19 mm. 
according to Andersen. 

Occurrence. — Bluffs at Yorktown, and 37-101 feet deep in the 
Fort Eustis well. Reported at less than 100 meters deep in Gulf 
of Mexico and from a mudlump island off the Mississippi River. 

Buccella parkorae Andersen PI. 51, figs. 2a-c 

Epnnidcs mansficldi Cushman and Parker, 1931, (not Cushman, 1930). 
Contr. Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., vol. 7, pt. 1, pi. 2, fig. lOa-c. 



^'ORKPOWN MiOCKNK P'oRAM I N 1 KKRA : McLeAN 357 



BucctUa parki-rac Andersen, 1952, Washington Acad. Sci., Jour. vol. 42, 
No. 5, p. 149, tf. 9a--c. 

Test small; trochoid; biconvex, dorsal side nearly conoidal, ventral side 
with an uinhilical flattening. Dorsal side with surface coarsely perforate; 
and with sutures of variable intensity; in the early coils concealed by a 
thin exogenous covering of shell material, in the last coil distinct, limbate, 
and in some specimens slightly raised above the surface of the test. Ventral 
side with surface coarsely perforate; depressed sutures radial near the um- 
bilicus and abruptly curved backward at the peripheral margin; umbilicus 
depressed; and with umbilicus, sutures, and basal margin of the last-formed 
chamber bearing a coating of pustulose material, thickly deposited in the 
umbilicus, less denselv deposited in the outer portion of the sutures. Periphery 
acute, limbate and slightly lobulate. The number of chambers in the last- 
formed whorl range from 9 to 11, 11 being the most common. Adult tests 
with 2K' to 3 coils. 

The primary aperture is concealed by pustules. Supplementary apertures 
on the ventral side of the test are located in the slight depression at the 
outer margin of the suture near the periphery. Each aperture is a long, 
slitlike opening barely visible under high magnification. (Andersen, 1952.) 

Andersen reports dimensions as: diameter, 0.42 mm-; thickness, 
0.17 mm. 

The form came from the upper Temblor formation (Miocene) 
of San Joaquin Valley, California. 

Occurrence. — Camp Wallace; Carter's Grove; Moore House 
Beach; Powell's Lake Spillway, and the Crisfield (Maryland) well 
at 248 to 287 feet deep. Special note: In citing Andersen's descrip- 
tions, I have omitted his discussions of internal features because 
present specimens are not broken to show them and are too few 
to section. 

Genus KOTALIA Lamarck. 1804 
Kotjilia limbatolKM't'Jirii .McLean, n.sp. PI. 47. figs. 5-8 

Test round, distinctly trochoid, high, slightly lobulate to 
nonlobulate, periphery slightly angular to entirely rounded, three 
coils visible on dorsal side, only one or occasionally two coils visible 
on ventral side; 10 or more chambers to the final whorl, the usual 
number being II; sutures limbate, slightly to considerably raised 
above surface of test, usually glassy; wall smooth, glassy, thin; the 
sutures, the central parr of the dorsal side, and the umbilical area 
are mc»re or less heavily overlain with glassy shell material; the 
umbilicus either has one distinct plug (juite highly raised, or a set 
of irregular umbilical beads, or is depressed slightly but still filled 
with the glassv material; ventrallv, the chambers terminate in 



358 Bulletin 160 



definite lobed projections which stop short of the umbilical plug; 
these lobes are emphasized by heavy interchamber furrows which 
merge into the limbate raised sutures about halfway toward the 
periphery; aperture an elongate slit at the base of the apertural 
face of the final chamber extending from close to the periphery 
into the umbilical area, slightly if at all lipped. Diameter of largest 
syntype, 0-70 mm.; thickness, 0.32 mm. Other specimens are gener- 
ally somewhat smaller, the average being about 0.60 mm. or 
slightly larger. 

Designation of a holotype for this variable form is highly in- 
advisable; specimens can be selected from among the graded series 
which would seem to be different species if compared with a 
holotype, yet the gradation from heavily raised sutures to the op- 
posite form are too gradual to allow species separation of the forms. 
The species, in its extreme suturation resembles R. beccarii ornata 
Cushman dorsally but differs ventrally in the lobed chamber de- 
velopment and umbilical plugging. 

ry^^j.—Syntypes, P.R.I., Nos. 22,365-22,369; and U.S.N.M., 
No. P3105. 

Occurrence — Beach below the Moore House, mainly at the 
base of the bank, but also sparingly in the 4-foot elevation in the 
bank. 

Genus POROEPOJflDES Cushman, 1944 
Poroepoiiides lateralis (Terquem) PI. 47, figs. 9-11; PI. 48, figs. 1-2 

Rosalina lateralis Terquem, 1878, Soc. Geol. France, ser. 1, Mem. vol. 3, 

p. 25, pi. 2(7), figs., lla-c. 
Eponides lateralis Cushman, 1930, Florida Geol. Surv., Bull. 4, p. 55, pi. 

10, figs. 7a-c. ; Cushman and Ponton, 1932, Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 

9, p. 92, pi. 13, figs. 8a-c. ; Cushman and Cahill, 1933, U. S. Geol. "Survey, 

Prof. Paper 175-A, p. 31, pi. 11, figs. la-c. 
Eponides {?) lateralis Cushman, 1931, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 8, pp. 

47-48, pi. 10, figs. 5a-c. 
Pul<viiiulina repanda Brady, 1884, Kept. Challenger Expedition, Zool., vol. 

9, pp. 627, 684-685, pi. 104, figs. 18a-c. 
Poroeponides repandus Miller, 1953. Contr. Cushman Fd. Forain. Res., vol. 

4, pt. 2, p. 59, pi. 10, figs. la-c. 
Poroeponides lateralis Cushman, 1944, Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., Spec. 

Publ. 12, p. 34, pi. 4, fig.23.; Puri, 1953, Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 36, 

p. 134, pi. 24, figs. 10-12.; Bandy, 1954, U. S. Geol. Survey, Prof. Paper 

254-F, p. 137, pi. 30, figs, la-c, 3a-c. 
Poroeponides cribrorepandus Asano and Uchio, 1951, in Stach, L. W., 



^'drktow N MiocKNK KoRAMi Ni niRA : McLean 359 



"Illustrated Cat. Japanese Tert. Smaller Foram." I't. 14 Rotaliidae, p. 
18, tfs. 134-135. 

Test usually somewhat ovate, biconve.x, periphery subacute and keeled; 
chambers distinct, later ones rapidly enlarging and flaring, inflated some- 
what on the ventral side; sutures limliate dorsally, oblique, raised, ventrally 
depressed, nearly radial; wall smooth e.xcept for the raised sutures and on 
the ventral side the last-formed chamber with numerous large perforations; 
aperture at the base of the ventral edge of the chamber, low. Length up 
to 1.50 mm. (Cushman, 1930.) 

^'orktown specimens vary from typical forms to those with 
closed umbilicus and few apertural pores. Some specimens show 
an umbilical flap. The species ranges from the Yorktown forma- 
tion to the present and is a shallow water form. 

Occurrence. — Carter's Grove; Langley Field; Moore House 
Beach; Camp Wallace. 

Genus CANCRIS Montfort, 1808 
tanoris sagra (d'0:bigny) PI. 48, figs. 3-5. 7 

Rotalina sagra d'Orbigny, 1839, in Ue La Sagra, Hist. Physique, Politi<iue 

et Nat. de Tile de Cuba, Foraminiferes, p. 77, pi. 5, figs. 13-15. 
Pulvinulitia sagra Cushman, 1918, U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 676, p. 65, pi. 

22, fig. 3, pi. 23, fig. 1. 
Puk-inuliria srmipunctata Cushman, 1922, Carnegie Inst. Washington, Publ. 

311, p. 51, pi. 8, figs. 5-6. 
Cancris sagra Cushman, 1930, Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 56, pi. 11, 

figs. 4a-c.; Cushman, 1931, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 8, p. 74, pi. 

15, figs. 2a-c. ; Cushman and Ponton, 1932, Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 

9, p. 94, pi. 14, figs. 13a-c. ; Cushman and Cahill, 1933, U. S. Geol. Survey, 

Prof. Paper 175-A, p. 32, pi. 11, figs. 4-5. 

Test longer than broad, biconvex, the ventral side more strongly convex 
than the dorsal, periphery acute; chambers few, 6 to 7 in the adult whorl, 
increasing rapidly in size as added ; sutures slightly depressed on the dorsal 
side, strongly on the ventral, gently curved; \vall smooth; an elliptical area 
of clearer, thinner wall near the aperture, which is below a slight lip on the 
ventral side. Length up to 0.75 mm.; breadth 0.55-0.70 mm.; thickness 20- 
0.30 mm. (Cushman and Cahill, 1933.) 

The above description fails to note the distinctly perforate 
character of the test but is otherwise close to the forms from the 
Yorktown formation. The range of the species, as reflected in the 
above synonymy is from the present to the Oak Grove and Chipola 
Miocene of Florida. Many forms assigned to C. sagra are in error, 
although the species does exhibit some degree of variation and mav 
he subject to broad interpretation. 

Occurrence. — Carter's Grove; Langley Field, and the beach 
below the Moore House. All occurrences rare. 



360 BULLFTIN 160 

Family AMPHISTEGINIDAE 

Genus AHIPHISTEOINA d'Orbigny, 182t; 
Alll|)llist('^'illa sp. PL 49, figs. 15a-c 

A single specimen of this form was found at the base of the 
bank in material collected at Carter's Grove by Dr. Denise Mongin. 
A list of the Foraminifera and moUusks collected by Dr. Mongin 
will be included as part of the paper on Ostracoda to follow this 
one. Since Dr. Mongin's collections were made from different levels 
and one different locality than those of the author, it is thought 
best to report her material in a different section. The Carter's 
(jrove outcrop was much altered and at the time of Dr. Mongin's 
collection was more exposed than was the case when the material 
for this report was collected, due to a recent hurricane. 

The species may be the same as the Amphistegina lessoni of 
Cushman and Cahill, but I believe it is not A. lessoni. One broken 
specimen does not suffice to establish the identity of this form, 
which may be new. The presence of an amphisteginid in the York- 
town formation is of enough interest to record and figure it for 
future reference. 

Family GLOBIGERINIDAE 

In handling the forms referred to this family, it is necessary 
to depart from normal taxonomic procedure. The reason for such 
departure is that it is virtually impossible to ascertain what con- 
stitutes a globigerinid species in the confusion existing in the family. 
Reference to the original description of a given species is useless; 
early descriptions and figures are incredibly poor and lacking in 
essential points of comparison. 

Therefore, it is necessary to resort to a diflFercnt method of 
reference; in this paper, the author has had special drawings made 
of the globigerinids found in the Yorktown formation. Ihese draw- 
ings consist of a spiral view, an umbilical view, and an enlargement 
of the test wall. The drawings, plus accompanying notes will give 
a means of specimen comparison with Yorktown forms, and it is 
hoped that the results here noted will give some one the necessary 



^t)KK^()\vN MiociM-; 1' t)KAMiNni;KA: McLkan 361 



iinpctus to rc'\ ic'w and rrxisi' tins iiniiort.iiit l.imily so as to provulc* 
sonu' rcasoiiahlc nuthod ot reference. 

All of my forms (except Orbulina) are marked with a reticulate 
surface which differs in size of reficiilation, m amount of inter- 
reticiilate spaces, and \\\ relationshiji ot "pons" to the (Kpressed 
areas. It at first seemed that the si/e of the pores relate to the 
development of the larger ajiertures, and that the relationship was 
that the pores enlarge as the major a|Krriires decrease in si/e. This 
may still hold true in the case of Clohigcrind, hut in the case of 
two forms which I assign to G/ohigrrinoidrs pores seem to he lack- 
ing. 

At this stage of the stiid\', it is impossihle to know wh'thei 
the pore size and the relative reticulation of a given form is a 
function of species distinction or whether it reflects an environ- 
mental reaction of the individual, or even if the significance is 
to he found in the alternation of generations. I am not sure that 
the generation-alternation system of the glohigerimds has heen 
described or studied. Until this is known and can he discriminated 
on the basis of living material, it is unsafe to define species in fossil 
material. 

As it was originally described, with reference to a figure by 
Carpenter, there is nothing which can be used to define Clobigerina 
sacculifera of Brady. The suhsecpunt figures and description by 
Brady (published in 1X84) show a form (juite different from the 
figure cited by Brady from Carpenter's (j. hclicina which must be 
considered the type figure of C/. .uicculifera by original designation. 
The senescent, pointed, pouchlike final chamber appears to me 
to be a feature which would appear on more than one species, and 
yet special stress is laid on this feature in the original description 
by Brady. Brady's 1884 emended description with figures is quite 
specific, although lacking in description of the test wall; whether 
this new description can be taken as the definitive one is not 
certain. 

Carpenter's G. helicina figure (the designated type figure of 
G. sacculifera) shows a test whose only similarity to sid)se(iuently 
figured G. sacculifera specimens lies m the i)ointed senescent final 
chamber. I he large umbilical opening of Carjienter's form and the 



362 Bulletin 160 



quadrate chamber arrangement are unlike the later figures and 
bears close resemblance to the form I have designated below as 
form E (possibly Heron-Allen and Earland's G. conglomerata) . 

G. conglomerata Schwager, shows a similarity to Carpenter's 
form of G. helicina. Carpenter's G. helicina seems not to be that of 
D'Orbigny; with that I agree with Brady. I am not sure whether 
Schwager's form is the same as that of Heron-Allen and Earland's. 

However, it must be remembered that these questions are un- 
answerable until the type specimens are figured and fully described 
so as to show all features, including the character of the test wall. 
A single view of a given form plus the usually meager description 
accompanying it, is not sufficient to discriminate globigerinid 
species. If the type specimens are lost, I would favor suspension 
of all species not fully described in this family. 

Hofker (Micropaleontologist, vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 38-39, 1954) 
has been experimenting with the "pore-index" system as it relates 
to Candor bulma and Orbulina and has arrived at conclusions which 
my material cannot confirm or deny. He further stated that he 
has counted a number of speces which have been assigned in one 
species of Globigerina: I am inclined to agree that dissimilar forms 
have been too freely assigned to given species — it is for this reason 
that one cannot now define any given species with certainty. 

It appears to me that one additional thought is pertinent to 
the subject of the Globigerinidae. These forms are pelagic and are 
distributed freely by oceanic currents, thus offering no problem 
in world-wide distribution. By contrast, the benthonic forms are 
relatively restricted. It would seem to this writer that the concept 
that the globigerinids are the more primitive forms from which 
benthonic forms are descended, would allow one to solve two prob- 
lems; 1, that of distribution of benthonic populations (especiallv 
on Sea-mounts) and 2, the possibility that the globigerinids are 
the more plastic and variable forms which would allow a different 
approach to species diflFerentiation. 

Genus GLOKUJEKINA d'Orbigny, 1826 
Globif?erina sp. form A PI. 52, figs, la-c 

Test small, four chambers visible on either side, chambers 



YoRKTowN Miocene Koraminiiera: McLean 363 



much enlarging as added, globular, arranged in a suggestion of a 
trochoid spire; wall coarsely reticulate, with wide interreticular 
spaces, the depressions polygonal and noncrowded, each depression 
having a large pore in the center; aperture if present is at the base 
of the chamber on the umbilical side. Diameter, 0.40 mm. 

This form is rare and was found only at the base of the bank 
at the Moore House Beach. The Globigerina sp? of Cushman (U. S. 
Geo!. Survey, Bull. 676, p. S7, pi. 12, figs. 5, 7, 1918) is the same 
form and came from the Yorktown formation at SuflFolk, Va. 

(ilobljrerina sp. form B PI. 52, figs. 2a-c 

Test small, distinctly trochoid, seven chambers to spiral side, 
about four on umbilical side, early chambers enlarge gradually as 
added, but last three much accelerated in size as added; wall 
quite coarsely reticulate, with wide reticulae, depressions polygonal 
and not crowded, each depression containing a single, moderate- 
sized pore; aperture a large arched opening in the umbilical area 
at the base of the final chamber; additional supplementary aper- 
tures on the spiral coil. Diameter, 0.60 mm. 

This form is possibly the Globigerina saccidijera of Cushman 
(U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 676, p. 57, pi. 13, figs. 2a-c, 1918) and 
of others. I think it is not Brady's form. It is present at Carter's 
Grove at the base of the bank, lower part of beach. 

(wlobigrerliui sp. form C PI. 52, figs. 3a-c 

Test small, distinctly trochoid, 12 chambers to spiral side, 
four visible on umbilical side, early chambers enlarge gradually as 
added, the last three greatly accelerated in size as added, globular; 
wall with mcduHii reticulations, thin reticulae, depressions polygonal 
and quite crowded, each depression with a single moderate-sized 
pore; aperture a broad flat arch at base of final chamber at the 
umbilical area; additional, well-developed supplementary aper- 
tures at the chamber bases on the spire. Diameter, 0.55 mm. 

This form is also similar to those assigned to Glnhigerina 
sacculijera, but not as Brady originally figured the form. It is 
present at the base of the bank at the Moore House beach. 



364 Bulletin 160 



trlobigerina sp. form D PI. 52, figs. 4a-c 

Test small, with a high spire, about 11 chambers visible on 
spiral side, three on umbilical side, early chambers enlarge gradually 
as added, last three chambers greatly accelerated in size as added, 
but not as much as in previous forms listed above; wall with 
medium reticulation, thin reticulae, depressions subrounded to poly- 
gonal, quite crowded, with a mmute pore m some depressions but 
absent in others; aperture a rounded arch on umbilicus looking 
through a similar opening internally; supplemental apertures 
develop on later part of spire at base of final chamber. Diameter, 
0.36 mm. 

This may be a young form of form B above, but the wall struc- 
ture seems to separate it from form B, and in its accelerated final 
chambers this seems to be an adult form. Found at the base of the 
bank, Moore House Beach. 

Globig-eriiia sp. form E PI. 53, figs, la-c 

Test small, trochoid coil, but low, 12 chambers visible on 
spiral side, only four on umbilical side, chambers enlarge regularly 
and quite rapidly in size as added, globular; wall finely reticulate, 
granular in texture at low powers, higher power shows polygonal, 
often triangulate small depressions separated by wide reticulae or 
intradepressional areas, each depression contains a well-defined but 
small pore; aperture a large arch which opens into the large umbili- 
cus. Diameter, 0.55 mm. 

This form lacks the supplementary spiral apertures of the 
previous three forms and differs from them in the distinctive ap- 
pearance of four chambers of almost equal dimension on the um- 
bilical side. It is a common form in the Moore House Beach bank 
base and seems identical with forms figured as Globigerina conglo7n- 
erata by Heron-Allen and Earland (Discovery Rept., vol. IV, pi. 
13, figs. 6-8, 1932). 

Genus (^LOIJKiERINOIDKS Cushman, 1927 
Olobig-erinoldes (?) sp. form F PI. 53. figs. 4a-c 

Test small, in a rather disorganized trochoid coil, with rela- 



'^'ORKTOW N MiOCKNK KoRAMINlFHRA : McLkAN 365 



tively numerous chambers; wall with medium-sized reticulation, 
thm reticulae, depressions polygonal or subround, no pores visible; 
apertures arched, at bases of projecting chambers, about two 
visible on each side. Diameter, 0. 35 mm. 

This interesting form is represented by a single specimen from 
the Moore House Beach, four feet up the bank. 

(ilobigreriiioides sp. form G PI. 53, figs. 2a-c 

Test small, highly trochoid and with a high spire, 14 chambers 
visible on spiral side, five visible on umbilical side, chambers rather 
regularly enlarging in size as added, moderately globular; wall with 
medium reticulations, reticulae rather thick, depressions polygonal, 
not crowded, no pores visible in depressions; aperture probably 
obscured by foreign material, but none visible. Diameter, 0.30 mm. 
This peculiar form was found as a single specimen in the 37 
to 101 foot depth interval of the Fort Eustis well. 

Genus ORBULIIVA d'Orbigny, 1839 
Orbnlina oornwallisi McLean, n.sp. PI. 53, figs. 3a-b 

Test small, almost a sphere; wall thin, glassy, perforate; with 
a few megapores and numerous micropores, each pore surrounded 
with a whitened area beveled inward toward the pore. Diameter of 
holotype, 0.50 mm. 

This form differs from Orbulitui universa d'Orbigny in having 
no visible spinosity or "knobs" as reported for 0. universa. 

Named for General Cornwallis who surrendered at Yorktown 
to end the War of the Revolution. 

T-y^^j.—Holotype, P.R.I., No. 22,411; paratypes, P.R.I., No. 
22,412 and U.S.N.M., No. P3107. 

Occurrence. — The species occurs rarely at the base of the bank 
at the Moore House Beach. 

Family GLOBOKOTAMIDAK 

Genus GLOBOKOTALIA Cushman. 1927 

(wloborotalia sp. PI. 48, figs. 6a-b 

A single specimen of this genus which is here figured was 

found in the base of the bank at the Moore House Beach. Addi- 
tional material should be studied to determine the species of the 
form found. 



366 Bulletin 160 

Family AN03IALINII)AE 
Genus PLANULIJVA d'Orbigny, 1826 
Plannlina depressa (d'Orbigny) PI. 48, figs. 8-11 

Truncatul'tna depressa d'Orbigny, 1839, Voyage dans I'Amerique Meridionale, 

vol. 5, pt. 5, Foraminiferes, p. 39, pi. 6, figs. 4-6. 
Planulirta depressa Cushman, 1930, Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 60, pi. 

12, figs. 2a-c. ; Cusiiman and Cahill, 1933, U. S. Geol. Survey, Prof. Paper 

175-A, p. 34, pi. 12, figs. 6a-c. ; Puri, 1953, Florida Geol. Survey. Bull. 

36, pp. 141-142, pi. 27, figs. 1-3. 

Test much compressed, not completely involute in the adult, earlier 
chambers showing on both sides of the test, periphery subacute; chambers 
numerous, later ones often somewhat irregular, eight to ten chambers in the 
final whorl ; sutures distinct, somewhat limbate on the dorsal side, confluent 
with the keeled edge, on the ventral side depressed; wall very coarsely per- 
forate; aperture at the peripheral margin. Diameter 0.75-0.60 mm.; thickness 
0.10-0.15 mm. (Cushman and Cahill, 1933.) 

Diameters of Yorktown formation specimens range from 
0.80 mm. to 0.95 mm. 

This species is from the Choptank Miocene to the present 
oceans and is reported from the Duphn marl of North CaroHna 
and the Choctawhatchee formation of Florida. 

Occurrence. — This form is common in the Carter's Grove 
outcrop beds and is apparently restricted to it in the Peninsula. 

Genus CIBICIDES Montfort, 1808 
Ciblcirtes cf. lobatiilus (Cushman) PI. 48, figs. 12-13 

Trunratulina lohatula Cushman, 1918, U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 676, pp. 60- 

61, pi. 17, figs. 1-3. 
Cibicides lohulatulus Clapp, Ann Dorsev. 1948, Maryland Dept. Geol., Mines 

Water Res., Bull. 2, pp. 315-316, pi.' 39, figs. 5a-c. 

There are a number of irregular forms from the Yorktown 
formation which seem similar to the forms figured in the synonymy 
above. The specimens are thick and lobate with a tendency to coil 
inward over the dorsal side. The form is perforate but not coarsely 
so. 

Unfortunately, so many different forms have been ascribed to 
Walker and Jacobs' species that assigning the name lohatiilus to 
a Cibicides is tantamount to giving the form a status more truth- 
fully described by the term "iucertae sedis". The species should 
probably be suspended as being of no taxomic value — it was badly 



^'l^RKTOW N MlOCKNK KoRAMIM FKRA : McLkAN 367 



figured and inadequately described in the first place. 



("Ibicides sublobiis (C'ushman) PI. 49, figs. 1-3 

Truncatulina subloha Cushman, 1918, U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 676, p. 62, 
pi. 19, figs. la-c. 

Test planoconvex, dorsal side flattened, ventral side slightly convex; 
chambers comparatively few, six or seven in the last-formed coil, peripheral 
margin carinate, lobular in face view; sutures distinct, depressed, especially 
on the ventral side, with an anteriorly projecting lobe on the dorsal side ; 
wall coarsely punctate. Diameter, 0.6 millimeter. (Cushman, 1918.) 

Cushman stated that this species is alhed to T. lobatula; it is 
difficult to separate from Cibicidella variabilis, and it may be that 
species before it adds the distinctively irregular chambers. The 
species was first described from the Yorktown formation at Suf- 
folk, Virginia, and is common in the present material. 

Occurrence. — Langley Field, Carter's Grove Beach, beach below 
the Moore House, and Powell's Lake Spillway. 



Genus HAXZAWAI.V Asano, 1944 
Hanzaivaia coiicentrica (("ushman) Fl. 49. figs. 4-6 

Truncatulina concentrica Cushman, 1918, U. S. Cieol. Survev, Bull. 676, pp. 

64-65, pi. 21, figs. 3a-c. 
Cibicidcs concentrica Cushman, 1930, Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4 pp. 61-62, 

pi. 12, figs. 4a-c. ; Cushman, 1931, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 8, pp. 

120-121, pi. 21, figs. 4-5, pi. 22, figs. 1-2.; Parker, 1948, Bull. Mus. Comp. 

Zool., Harvard Univ., vol. 100, No. 2, pi. 1, figs. 16a-b. 
Cibicidcs concentricus Cushman and Cahill, 1933, U. S. Geol. Survey, Prof. 

Paper 175-A, p. 35, pi. 13, figs. 3a-c. ; Cushman, 1944, Cushman Lab. 

Foram. Res., Spec. Publ. No. 12, p. 37, pi. 4, figs. 29a-b. ; Clapp, Ann 

Dorsey, 1948, Maryland Dept. Geol., Mines Water Res., Bull. 2, p. 315, 

pi. 39, figs. 1-2.; Phleger and Parker, 1948, Geol. Soc. Amer., Mem. 46, 

pt. 2, p. 29, pi. 15, figs. 14-15.; Bermudez, 1949, Cushman Lab. Foram. 

Res., Spec. Publ. No. 25, p. 296, pi. 26, figs 7-12, 
Cibicidina concentricus Parker, 1954, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard Univ., 

vol. 3, No. 10, pi. 13, figs. 7, 10. 
UanzaiLaia concentrica Puri, 1953, Florida (Jeol. Survev, Bull. 36, p. 140, pi. 

12, figs. 7-9. 

Test nearly planoconvex, dorsal side nearly flat, ventral side convex, 
periphery subcarinate; chambers distinct, 7 to 9 in the adult whorl, the inner 
end of the dorsal side with a definite proximal portion, fusing with adjacent 
ones to form a concentric band about the middle, and more or less separated 
by a series of depressions; sutures deep on the ventral side, slightly limbate 
and flush on the dorsal side; wall smooth, finely perforate; aperture largely 
dorsal with a thin lip. Diameter up to 1.00 mm. (Cushman and Cahill, 1933.) 



368 Bulletin 160 



This species is considered a shallow water form and goes to a 
depth of 210 fathoms in present waters. Its geologic range is re- 
ported from the Oligocene to the present. The species is the most 
abundant single form found in the Yorktown formation, sometimes 
exceeding 60% of a given sample but is absent in the Powell's 
Lake Spillway locality. 

Occurrence. — At all localities except the Powell's Lake Spill- 
way. 

Genus DYOCIIJICIDES Cushman and Valentine, 1930 
iJjocibicides biserialis Cushman and Valentine PI. 49, figs. 7a-b 

Dyocibicides biscrialis Cushman and Valentine, 1930, Contr. Dept. Geol. 
Stanford Univ., vol. I, No. 1, p. 31, pi. 10, figs. 1, 2a-b. ; Cushman, 1931, 
U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull 104, pt. 8, p. 126, pi. 2+, fig. 2; Cushman and 
Parker, 1931, U. S. Nat. Mus., Proc, vol. 80, art. 3, p. 22, pi. 4, fig. 8. 
Cushman, 1930, Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 4, p. 62, pi. 12, figs. 6a-b. ; 
Cushman and Todd, 1945, Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., Spec. Publ. No. 15, 
p. 72, pi. 12, fig. 10.; Cushman and Gray, 1946, Cushman Lab. Foram. 
Res., Spec. Publ. No. 19, p. 46, pi. 8, figs. 18-19.; Boltovskoy, 1954, Revista 
Inst. National Invest. Ciencias Nat. y Mus. Argentine Ciencias Nat. 
"Bernardino Rivadavia," tomo 3, No. 4, p. 292, pi. 29, figs. 8a-b. 

Truncatuliria variabilis Heron-Allen and Earland, 1932, Discovery Repts., 
vol. 4, pt. 1, pp. 420-421, pi. 14, figs. 36-39. 

Test fairly large, the earlj' portion close coiled, later in a spreading, 
biserial series of plano-convex chambers, the dorsal, attached side, flattened; 
7-8 chambers in the last coil, chambers not inflated, but becoming much in- 
flated in the biserial portion and greatly enlarging; sutures in the early 
coiled part limbate and not depressed, in the biserial portion continuing the 
limbate character on the dorsal side but becoming deeply depressed ventrally ; 
wall coarsely perforate; aperture in the early coiled portion peripheral or 
slightly dorsal, in the uncoiled portion an elongate slit at the outer edge of 
the chamber at the line of attachment. Length of adult, 1.35 mm.; breadth, 
0.80 mm.; diameter of coiled portion, 0.35 mm. (Cushman and Valentine, 
1930.) 

The species is reported from the Miocene to the present, Heron- 
Allen and Earland contended that the genera Dyocibicides and 
Cibicidella are invalid, as the chamber arrangements upon which 
they were erected are due to the protoplasm seeking the lines of 
least resistance rather than being due to generic diflFerentation. 

Occurrence. — Rare at Camp Wallace and Carter's Grove. 

Dyocibicides pcrforatus Cushman and Valentine PI. 49, figs. 8a-c 

Dyocibicides perforata Cushman and Valentine, 1930, Contr. Dept. Geol. 
Stanford Univ., vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 31-32, pi. 10, figs. 3a-c. 



'WjRKroW N MlOCENK KoRAM INIKHRA : McLkAN 369 



Test very mucli comprfssecl tliroujihout, pt- riplierv subacute, the early 
portion close-coiled, trochoid, later chambers becoming biserial ; chambers very 
slightly inflated, distinct, 7-8 in the last whorl of the coiled portion; sutures 
very distinct, on the dorsal side of the coiled portion liml)ate and flush with 
the surface, others depressed, not iimbate as are all those of the ventral side; 
wall finely, evenly, and conspicuously perforate, otherwise smooth; aperture 
nearly peripheral in the early portion, becoming terminal in the biserial por- 
tion. Length, 0.90 mm.; breadth, 0.60 mm.; thickness 0.20 mm. (Cushman and 
Valentine, 1930.) 

There is one occurrence of this form in the Yorktown forma- 
tion, and it seems to answer the original description but diflFers 
from forms ascribed to the species in later works. 

Occurrence. — Carter's Grove, midpart of beach, 10 feet up the 
bank. 

Genus ('IBI('II)KLL.V Cushman, 1927 
CilMcidella variabilis (d'Orbigny) PI. 49, figs. 9-11, 14 

Truncatulina variabUls d'Orbigny, 1839, in Barker, Webb and Berthelot, 
Hist. Nat. lies Canaries, vol. 2, pt. 2, "Foraminiferes" p. 135, pi. 2, fig. 
29.; Bagg, 1912, U. S. Geol. Survev, Bull. 512, p. 84, pi. 24, figs. 1-4 (not 
pi. 25, figs 4-5). 

Cibicidclla variabilis Cushman, 1931, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 8, p. 
127, pi. 24, fig. 3.; Cushman and Ponton, 1932, Florida Geol. Survey, 
Bull. 9, p. 192, pi. 15, figs. 5-7.; Cushman and Todd, 1945, Cushman Lab. 
Foram. Res., Spec. Publ. No. 15, p. 72, pi. 12, fig. 11.; Clapp, Ann Dorsey, 
1948, Maryland Dept. Geol., Mines Water Res., Bull. 2, pp. 316-317, pi. 
39, figs. 8'a-b. ; Puri, 1953, Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. 36, p. 140-141, pi. 
8, figs. 4-6. 

Descriptions of this species are generalized but include these 
points: a Cibicides-\\\it early portion succeeded by irregular later 
chambers; the apertures are lipped and appear on the edges of later 
chambers; the form is perforate and has a flattened attached side, 
and a side showing some globulation with depressed sutures. 

It is possible as claimed by Heron-Allen and Earland that 
this form is merely an individual irregularity of a form which has 
been often referred to Cibicides lobatidus, and which I have in- 
cluded as Cibicides sublobus (Cushman), for the addition of a 
series of irregular chambers to these species would produce a form 
indistinguishable from Cibicidella. Undoubtedly more than one 
species has been referred to C. variabilis; as figured in the present 
collection this form appears to range from the Oligocene to the 
present. 



370 Bulletin 160 



Occurrence. — This species is common to all localities studied 
for this paper and is the most common form developed at Powell's 
Lake Spillway. 



Genus RECTOCIBiriDELLA McLean, new genus 

Test attached on flattened dorsal side, elongate, early cham- 
bers arranged as in Cibicides, later chambers uniserially or ir- 
regularly arranged in an elongate process from the early coiled 
portion; wall calcareous, coarsely perforate; aperture as in Cibicides 
in early portion, in the adult form the aperture is on the last 
chamber with a produced neck, sometimes secondary apertures are 
on the earlier chambers. Type species: Rectocibicidella robertsi 
McLean, n. sp. 

Rectocibicidella differs from Cibicidella m the elongate cham- 
ber processes and in the tubular projection of the aperture on 
the final chamber. 



Rectocibicidella robertsi McLean, n.sp. PI. 49, figs. 12-13 

Test elongate, early portion in a Cibicides-Yike coil, followed 
by an irregularly uniserial or irregularly developed elongate cham- 
ber series; the dorsal side flattened, attached, ventral side some- 
what more globose and with depressed sutures; wall calcareous, 
coarsely perforate; aperture in early stages as in Cibicides, in the 
adult a flattened opening on an elongate projection or tube from 
the final chamber, with secondary apertures appearing in earlier 
chambers as simple openmgs m the apertural face of the chambers. 
Length of holotype, 1.00 mm.; other dimensions variable. 

Named in honor of Dr. Joseph Kent Roberts, Professor of 
Paleontology, University of Virginia, who has long encouraged the 
author in this study, and who' has contributed much sound advice 
and information. 

Ty^^j.— Holotype, P.R.L, No. 22,482; paratype, P.R.I., No. 
22,483. 

Occurrence. — Carter's Grove, base of bank, lower part of beach. 



YORKTOWN MlClCKNK FoRAM I N 1 1- KRA : McLkAN 371 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Aiult'n^ij, l"r<Ml 

1930. The stratigraphy and paleontology of the Yorktoivn formation of 
rirginia. Univ. Virginia Master's Thesis, 107 pp., 7 figs. 10 pi. 
-Anderson, J. L^ et al 

1948. Cretaceous and Tertiary subsurface geology. Maryland Dept. Oeol., 
Mines, and Water Resources, Bull. No. 2. 

Itand.v, 0. J.. 

1954. Distribution of some s/iallo<w-ii'ater Foraminifcra in the Gulf of 
Mexico. U. S. Geol. Survey, Prof. Paper 254-F. 
Honniulez, 1*. J. 

1949. Tertiary smaller Foraminifcra of the Dominican Republic. Cush- 
man Lab. Foram. Res., Spec. Puhl., .\o. 25. 

IJerrj, K. >V., and (ireg^orj, >V. K., 

1906. Promarus .-lllcni, a neiv genus and species of tvalrus from the 
upper Miocene of Yorktoivn, f'irginia. Amer. Jour. Sci.. ser. 4, vol. 
21, pp. 444-450, pis. 1-4. 
Itoltovskoy, E. 

1954. Foraminiferos del Goifo San Jorge. Revista Inst. Nacional Invest. 
Ciencias Nat. y Mus. Argentino Ciencias Nat. "Bernardino Riva- 
davia", tomo 3, No. 3. 

1954. Foraminiferos de la Bahia San Bias. Revista Inst. Nacional Invest. 
Ciencias Nat. y Mus. Argentino Ciencias Nat. "Bernardino Riva- 
davia", tomo 3, No. 4. 

Cederstroni, I). .1. 

1943. Memorandum-concerning the ground-icalcr supply at Camp Peary, 
U. S. Navy, Williamsburg, la. Unpublished report in files of Virginia 
Geol. Surv. and the United States Geol. Surv. 
1945. Selected ivell logs in the f'irginia Coastal Plain north of James 
River. Virginia Geol. Surv., Circular 3. 
Clark, W. IJ., and :»Iiller, B. L. 

1906. .7 brief summary of the geology of the J'irginia Coastal Plain. 
Virginia Dept. Agric. & Immigr., Geol. Surv. Virginia Bd. Agric. & 
Immigr., Geol. Ser., Bull. 2, pp. 11-24. 
Clark, y\. B., Shattiick, (i. B. and Hall, W. H. 

1904. Miocene. Vol. 1, text, vol. 2, Plates. Maryland Geol. Surv. 

Curtis, >'. 31., Jr. 

1955. Paleoecology of the Fiesca member of the ff'eches formation at 
Smithvillc, Texas. Jour. Pal., vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 263-282. 

Cuslinian, J. A. 

1918. Some Pliocene and Miocene Foraminifcra of the Coastal Plain of 
the United States. United States Cieol. Surv., Bull. 676, 100 pp. 

1922. The Foraminifcra of the .Itlantic Ocean. U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 
104, pt. 3. 

1922. ShalloiL'-icatcr Foraminifcra of the Tortugas region. Carnegie 
Inst. Washington, Publ. 311, vol. 17. 

1923. The Foraminifcra of the .Atlantic Ocean. V. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 
104, pt. 4 

1926. Miocene species of S'onionina from California. Contr. Cushman 

Lab. Foram. Res., vol. 1, pt. 4, pp. 89-92. 
1929. The Foraminifcra of the Atlantic Ocean. U S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 

104, pt. 6. 



372 Bulletin 160 



1930. T/if Foraminifera of the Atlantic Ocean. U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 
104, pt. 7. 

1931. The Foraminifera of the Atlantic Ocean. U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 
104, pt. 8. 

1939. .4 monograph of the foraminiferal family Nonionidae. U. S. 

Geol. Survey, Prof. Paper 191. 
1950. Foraminifera; their classification and economic use. 4th Edition, 
Harvard Univ. Press. 
Ciishman, J. A., and Cahill, E. 1). 

1933. Miocene Foraminifera of the Coastal Plain of the eastern United 
States. United States Geol. Surv., Prof. Paper 175-A. 50 pp. 13 pis. 
charts. 
Ciishiiiaii, J. A., and Cederstroni, I). J. 

1945. An upper Eocene foraminiferal fauna from deep ivells in York 
County, Virginia. Virginia Geol. Survey, Bull. 67. 
Cnshmun, J. .V., and Ozawa, Y., 

1930. A monograph of the foraminiferal family Polymorphinidae Recent 
and fossil. U. S. Nat. Mus., Proc, vol. 77, art. 6, pp. 1-185. 
Cushman, J. A., and Tarker, F. L. 

1947. Bulimina and related foraminiferal genera. United States Geol. 
Survey, Prof. Paper 210-D. 

CuKhman, J. A., and ronton, («. 31. 

1932. The Foraminifera of the upper, middle and part of the loiver 
Miocene of Florida. Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. No. 9. 

Cuslinian, J. A., and Valentine, >V. W. 

1930. Shallow-ivater Foraminifera from the Channel Island of southern 
California. Contr. Dept. Geol., Stanford Univ., vol. 1, No. 1. 
Darwin, Charles 

1892. The origin of species. 6th edition, 2 volumes combined, D. .Apple- 
ton & Co., New York. 
Gardner, Jnlia A. 

1943. Mollusca from the Miocene and loiver Pliocene of Virginia and 
North Carolina. Part 1. Pelecypoda. With an Introduction by W. 
C. Mansfield. United States Geol. Survey, Prof. Paper 199-A. 

1948. Mollusca from the Miocene and loiver Pliocene of Virginia and 
North Carolina. Part 2. Scaphopoda and Gastropoda. United States 
Geol. Survey, Prof. Paper 199-B. 

Heron-Allen, E., and Earland, A. 

1916. The Foraminifera of the ivest of Scotland. Trans. Linnean Soc, 

2d series, Zool., vol. XI, pt. 13, pp. 197-299, pi. 39-43. 
1932. Foraminifera. Part 1. The ice-free area of the Falkland Islands 

and adjacent seas. Discovery Reports, vol. IV, pp. 291-460. 

Hofker, Jan. 

1930. The Foraminifera of the Sihoga Expedition, Part II, families 
.Istrorhizidae, Rhzamminidae, Reophacidae, A nomalinidae, Peneropli- 
dae. With an introduction on the Life-Cycle of the Foraminifera. E. 
J. Brill Ltd., Leiden, The Netherlands. ' 

1950. What is the genus Eponidesf Micropaleontologist, vol. 4, No. 1, 
pp. 15-16. 

1954. Candorhulina Univcrsa Jedlitschka and Orhulina uuiversa 
d'Orhic/ny. Micropaleontologist, vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 3S-39. 
Ladd, H. S., (iunler, (;., Lolunan, K. K., and Hevelle, K. 

1951. Report of the committee on a treatise on marine ecology and pal- 
eoecology, 1950-1951. Report No. 11, Div. CJeol. & CJeography, Nat. 
Research Council. 



Y()RKT(n\N MiOCKNK FoRAMI NIFERA : McLkAN 373 



l.oeblu-h, A. I{^ .Ir^ aiul T:ii»|>aii, ll<'l<>n 

1955. Rivision of somr Rrcttit forurninifiial ijcncra. Smithsonian Misc. 
Coll., vol. 12S, N'o. 5, pp. 1-37. 
Lu»inaii, S. >V. 

1949. Sedimentary fades in Gulf Coast. Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. 
Bull., vol. 33, No. 12, pp. 1939-1997. (Manuscript copy from Low- 
man.) 

llalkiii, ]>. 8. 

1953. Biostrati(jraphic study of Miocene Ostracoda of Aeiv Jersey, Mary- 
land, and I'ir^inia. Jour. Pal., vol. 27, No. 6, pp. 761-90. 
.Mansfield, W. t". 

1927. T/ie Miocene stratigraphy of Virginia, based upon the study of 
the faunas. Thesis (copied fragment) at the George Washington 
University. 
3It'Lean, J. I)., Jr. 

1950. Stratigraphic study of ivell at Crisfield, Somerset County, Mary- 
land. Bull. Amer. Assoc. Petroleum Geol., vol. 34, No. 1, pp. 133-138. 

.Uiller, 1). >., Jr. 

1953. Ecological study of the Foraminifera of Mason Inlet, North Caro- 
lina. Contr. Cushman Found. Foram. Res., vol. 4, pt. 2, pp. 41-63. 

Norton, R. 1). 

1930. Ecologic relations of some Foraminifera. Bull. Scripps Inst. Ocean- 
ography, Tech. series, vol. 2, No. 9, pp. 331-338. 
Parker, F. L. 

1948. Foraminifera of the Continental Shelf from the Gulf of Maine to 
Maryland. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard Univ., vol. 100, No. 2. 

1954. Distribution of the Foraminifera in the northeastern Gulf of 
Mexico. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard Univ., vol. 3, No. 10. 

Parker, F. L., Phleg-er, F. B, and Peirson, ,1. F. 

1953. Ecology of Foraminifera from San .-Jntonio Bay and environs, 
south'u-est Texas. Cushman Found. Foram. Res., Spec. Publ. No. 2. 

Phlegrer. F. B 

1954. Ecology of Foraminifera and associated micro-organisms from 
Mississippi Sound and environs. Bull. Amer. Assoc. Pet. Geol., vol. 
28, No. 4, pp. 584-647. 

1955. Ecology of Foraminifera in southeastern Mississippi Delta area. 
Bull. Amer. Assoc. Pet. Geol., vol. 39, No. 5, pp. 712-752. 

Phleg-er, F. H, and Parker. F. L. 

1951. Ecology of Foraminifera, northivcst Gulf of Mexico. Geol. Soc. 
.Amer., Memoir No. 46. 

Post, Hita J. 

1951. Foraminifera of the south Texas Coast. Pub. Inst. Mar. Sci., vol. 
2, No. 1, pp. 165-176. 
Pari, H. S. 

1953. Contribution to the study of the .Miocene of the Florida Panhandle. 
Florida Geol. Survey, Bull. N'o. 36. 
Hedniond, ('. J>. 

1949. K'hat is the genus Eponidesf \licropaleontologist, vol. 3, No. 4, 
pp. 18-21. 

Kichards, H. (;. 

1947. Invertebrate fossils from deep -wells along the .Atlantic Coastal 
Plain. Jour. Pal., vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 23-37. 

1950. Geology of the Coastal Plain of North Carolina. Trans. Amer. 
Phil. Soc, new series, vol. 40, pt. 1. 



374 Bulletin 160 



Koberts, J. K. 

1932. The Loiter York-James Peninsula. Virginia Geol. Surv., Bull. 37 
(Educational Series. No. 2). 

1942. Annotated geological bibliography of Virginia. Univ. of Virginia 
Bibliographical Series No. 2. Dietz Press, Richmond, Va. 
Said, K, 

1949. Foraminifera of the northern Red Sea. Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., 
Spec. Publ. No. 26. 

1951. Foraminifera of Narragansett Bay. Contr. Cushman Found. Foram. 
Res., vol. 2, pt. 1, pp. 75-86. 
Siiinott, A., and Tibbitts, fx. C, Jr. 

1954. Summary of geology and ground-ivater resources of the Eastern 
Shore Peninsula, Virginia. A Preliminary report. Mineral Res., Circu- 
lar No. 2, Virginia Div. Geol. 

Slama, D. C. 

1954. Arenaceous tests in Foraminifera — an experiment. Micropaleonto- 
logist, vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 33-34. 
Stach, L. W., et al 

1951. Illustrated catalogue of Japanese Tertiary smaller Foraminifera. 
Part 14. Rotaliidae. 
Stephenson, L. MV^ and MacNeil, F. S. 

1954. Extension of Yorktoivn formation (Miocene) of Virginia into 
Maryland. Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., vol. 65, pp. 733-738. 



PLATES 



376 Bulletin 160 



Explanaticn of Plate 35 

]"iguie Page 

1,2. Textiilaria JirtioHlala d'Orbigny 316 

F.R.I., No. 22,015; 2b = apertural view; rest are side 
views (SOX). 

3a-c. Textiilaria hadeiiensis Lalicker 316 

P.R.I., No. 22,027; 3b = ape.tural view; rest are side 
views (25X). 

4, 6, 7, 10, 11. Textiilaria camleiana d'Orbigny 317 

4, 6 = P.R.I., No. 22,043 (SOX) ; 7 = P.R.I., No. 22,038 
(SOX) ; 10 = P.R.I. , No. 22,047 (SOX) ; 11 = P.R.I., 
No. 22,031 (60X); 4b, 10a, lib = apertural views, 
rest are side views. Note the textural variations of 
test wall, showing selectivity of material (see 
text). 

5a-b. Textularia eustlsensis McLean, n. sp 318 

Holotype, P,R.I., No. 22,055; Sa — apertural view, 
5b = side view (2SX). 

8-9. Textularia pseudobliqua ]\lcLean, n. sp 320 

Paratypes, F.R.I., No. 22,079; side views (27X). 

12a-e. Textiilarioides ( I) carteri McLean, n. sp 321 

Holotype, P.R.I., No. 22,087 (25X) ; 12a = end view; 
12b, 12d = attached side; 12c, 12e = free side. 

NOTE: the following figures are drawings; the rest are photographs; 
2b, 3a, 3b, 4b, 4c, 5a, 10a, lib, lie, 12a, 12b, 12c. The photographs in 
the following plates have been retouched only to the extent that 
faint sutural lines have been strengthened where It was obvious that 
plate-making processes would fail to show such lines, which 
are in the photographs, but would be lost in reproduction of figures. 
Drawings have been used in two cases: 1. where depth of focus does 
not allow photographic rendition, and 2, where photographs will not 
show requisite structural or surface details. In creating these plates 
the author had only one thought in mind — to give an accurate rendi- 
tion of the species figured. It was found in a number of cases that 
photographs and drawings were needed for some specimens. It is 
believed that these plates will serve to correctly delineate the 
Foraminiferal species for direct comparison with other specimens. 
All magnifications listed on these plates are approximate. 



Bill. Amek. Paleont. Vol. oG 



Plate .'15 




Bull. Amer. Paleont. Vol. 36 



Plate 36 




\'()RKT<)\vN Miocene Foraminifkra: McLean 377 



Explanation of Plate 36 

I'i.eure Page 

1-3. Textiilaria iiiinori (uslmian 320 

1 = P.R.I.. No. 22,070 (GOX); 2, 3 = P.R.I., No. 22,074 
(SOX I : lb. 2 c = apertural views, rest are side views. 

4-6, 9. Textiilaria articulatii d'Orbigny 316 

11,15. 4, 5 = P.R.I., No. 22,019 (50X) ; 6 = P.P. I.. No. 22,023 

16. (33X for photo) ; 9 = P.R.I., No. 22.003 (megalospheric 

form) (47X) ; 11 = P.R.I., No. 22.014 (SOX) ; 15, 16 = 

P.R.I., No. 22,021 (20X); 4b, 6b, 9b = apertural views; 

rest are side views. 

7. 12, 13. Textiilarla fjranien d'Orbigny 319 

7 = P.R.I.. No. 22.064 (30X); 12, 13 = P.R.I., No. 22,063 
(46X) ; 13b =: apertural view; rest are side views. 

8, 14. Textularia pseiidobliqua aspera .McLean, n. subsp 320 

8 = paratype, P.R.I., No. 22,080 (SOX) ; 14 = holotype, 
P.R.I., No. 22,081 (SOX); Sb, 14b = apertural views; 
rest are side views. 

lOa-b. Textularia cf. bocki Hoglund 317 

P.R.I., No. 22,029 (28X) ; 10a = side view; lOb = aper- 
tural view. 

17a-b. Textularia liseiidobliqua .McLean, n. sp 320 

Holotype, P.R.I., No. 22,078 (25X) ; 17a = side view; 
17b = apertural view. 

NOTE: the following figures are drawings, the rest are photographs: lb, 
2b, 2c, 4b. 6a. 6b, 8b. 9b lOb. 13b, 14a. 14b. 17b. 



378 Bulletin 160 



Explanation of Plate 37 

Figure Page 

1,4-5. MasHJllna insinsfiehll (ushman and f!ahill 324 

1 = P.R.I., No. 22,116; 4 = P.R.I. , No. 22,126; 5 = P.R.I., 
No. 22,119; Ic, 4b, 5b = apertural views; rest are side 
views; (SOX). 

2a-c. MiisHilina marylaiulica Cushman and Cahill 324 

P.R.I. , No. 22,127 (34X); 2a, 2b = opposite sides of same 
specimen; 2c = apertural view. 

3a-b. Sl^-moiliiia ? sp 325 

P.R.I. , No. 22,153 (30X); 3a = side view; 3b = apertural 
view, showing also the sigmoidal coil. 

6a-c. Massilina ({iiadrans carton McLean, n. subsp 325 

Holotypo, P.R.I. , No. 22,132 (23X) ; 6a, 6b = opposite sides 
of same specimen; 6c = apertural view. 

7a-b. QiiliiqiH'lociiliiia sp 323 

P.R.I. , No. 22,106 f23X); 7a, 7b = opposite sides of same 
specimen. 

8a-b. (iuinqiiclociiliiia soininiilang-ulata McLean, n. sj) 322 

Holotype, P.R.I., No. 22,103 (25X) ; 8a = side view; 8b = 
apertural view. 

9-1 J. (iiiinqiiolociiliiia trilociilliiifonna McLean, n.sp 322 

9 = paratype, P.R.I. , No. 22,107; 10 = paratype, P.R.I., No. 
22,110; 11 = holotype, P.R.I. , No. 22,111; !tb, 10c = aper- 
tui-al vi(!ws; rest are side views; all 20X. 

12d-b. (iiiiiKiiH'lonilina seniiiiiila (Linn6) 321 

14a-b. 12 = P.R.I., No. 22,092 (25X) ; 14 = P.R.I. , No. 22,090 (25X) ; 
12b = apertural view; rest are side views. 

13a-c. (iiiiiiqii«lociilina wlu'cMoiiI McLean, n. sp 323 

Holotype, P.R.I. . No. 22,114 (25X) ; 13c = apertural view; 
13a, 13b = opposite sides of same specimen. 

.\()TIO: The f(illowing figures are drawings; the rest are photographs; 
Ic, 2c, 3a, 3b, 4b, Hb, 6a, (ib, 6(-, 7a, 7b, 8b, 9b, 10a, 10b, 10c, 12b. 
13a. 13b, 13c. 



r.ri.i,. Ami;i:. Talkont. Vot,. '.'(] 



\'\..\rK '.'.7 




Bull. Amer. Paleont. Vol. 36 



Plate 38 




YoRKTowN Miocene Foraminifera: McLean 379 



Explanation of Plate 38 

Figure Page 

1. Kohulns sp 327 

P.R.I., No. 22,136 (SOX). 

2 4. Kobulus pseudoiotsi McLean, n. sp 325 

2 = holotype, P.R.I.. No. 22,134 (44X) ; 4 = paratype. 
P.R.I., No. 22.135 (45X) ; 2c = apertural view; rest 
are side views. 

3,5,7-9. Hobiiliis vau^hani (Cushman) 326 

3, 5, 7 = P.R.I., No. 22,138 (44X) ; 8, 9 = P.R.I., No. 
22,141 (44X) ; 3b = apertural view; rest are side 
views. 

6a-b. Saraoenaria ? sp 329 

P.R.I., No. 22,155 (45X); 6a — side view; 6b = aper- 
tural view. 

10.20. Dentalina bevani Cushman and Cederstrom 327 

F.R.I. No. 22,142 (43X). 

11. Dentalina of. pyrula (d'Orbigny) 328 

P.R.I., No. 22,147 (47X). 

12. Xodosaria sp 329 

P.R.I., No. 22,154 (43X). 

13. Dentalina sp. A 328 

P.R.I., No. 22,148 (44X). 

14, 15, 18, 19. Dentiilina kaicherae McLean, n. sp 328 

14 = paratype, P.R.L, No. 22,144; 15 = paratype, 
P.R.I., No. 22,145; 18 = holotype, P.R.I., No. 
22,145; 19 = paratype, P.R.I., No. 22,146; speci- 
mens 15 and 18 on same slide; (all 43X). 

16. Dentalina cf. intermedia Hantken 327 

P.R.I., No. 22,143 (46X). 

17. Dentalina sp. B 328 

P.R.I. , No. 22,149 (44X). 

21. Dentalina sp. C 329 

P.R.I., No. 22,150 (44X). 

.NOTE: The following figures are drawings; the rest are photographs; 
2b. 2c, 3a, 3b, 6a, 6b. 



380 Bulletin 160 

Explanation of Plate 39 
All figures approximately 64X. 

Figure Page 

1-4. Nodosaria catesbji d'Orbigny 329 

P.R.I., No. 22,151. 

5-6. Lageiia palmerae McLean, n. sp 332 

5 = holotype, P.R.I., No. 22,166; 6 = paratype, P.R.I., No. 
22,165; 5a, 6b = apertural views; rest are side views. 

7a-b. Lageiia g-lobuloliispiila McLean, n. sp 331 

Holotype, P.R.I., No. 22,161; 7a = side view; 7b = apertural 
view. 

8a-b. Lageiia dorsejae McLean, n. sp 330 

Holotype, P.R.I., No. 22,159; 8a = side view; 8b = apertural 
view. 

9. Lagena (Entosolenia 1) carter! forma alpha INIcLean n. forma 330 
Holotype, F.R.I., No. 22,158. 

lOa-b. Lag-ena siibstriata (Williamson) 333 

P.R.I., No. 22,175; 10a = side view; lOb = apertural view. 

lla-b. Lagena pseudosulcata McLean, n. sp 332 

Holotype, P.R.I., No. 22,174; 11a = side view; lib = aper- 
tural view. 

12a-b. Lagena melo (d'Orbigny) 331 

P.R.L, No. 22,164; 12a = side view; 12b = apertural view. 

13a-b. Lagena (Entosolenia ?) carter! McLean, n. sp 330 

Holotype, P.R.L, No. 22.157; 13a = side view; 13b = aper- 
tural view. 

NOTE: All figures except 1-4 are drawings; 1-4 are photographs. 



Btll. Amer. Paleont. Vol. 36 



Pl.ATK 39 




Bull. Amer. Paleont, Vol. 36 



Plate 40 




YoRKTowN Miocene Foraminifera: McLean 381 



Explanation of Plate 40 

Figure Page 

1-3. (iiittullna austriaoa d'Orbigny 333 

1, 2 = F.R.I., No. 22.177 (55X) ; 3 = P.R.I., No. 22,180 
{55X). 

4-7. 13. (iuttiilina palinerae McLean, n. sp 333 

4, 5 = paratypes, P.R.I. , No. 22,181; 6 = paratype, P.R.I., 
No. 22,186; 7 = holotype, P.R.I. , No. 22,187; 13 = para- 
type, P.R.I., No. 22,188 (54X). 

8, 10-11. (inttuliiia pseudocostatula McLean, n. sp 334 

8 = paratype, P.R.I., No. 22,190; 10 = paratype, P.R.I., 
No. 22,192; 11 = holotype, P.R.I., No. 22,193 (55X). 

9. (<uttiilina sp. A 334 

P.R.I., No. 22,197 (52X). 

12. Guttuliiia sp. B 335 

P.R.I., No. 22,198 (49X). 

14. Pseodopolyniorphina cf. novaiigliae ((ushman) 335 

P.R.L, No. 22,199 (55X). 

NOTE: Figure 2 is a drawing; others are all photographs. 



382 Bulletin 160 



Explanation of Plate 41 

Figure Page 

1, 2. I'Keudopolymorphlna sp. A 336 

1 = P.R.I., No. 22,200; 2 = P.R.I., No. 22,201 (35X). 

3-5, 11. Sigmoiiiorphlna iievifera Clapp 336 

3 = P.R.I., No. 22,226 (34X) ; 4 = P.E.I., No. 22,218 
(37X) ; 5 = P.R.I., No. 22,222 (37X) ; 11 = P.R.I. , No. 
22,219 (35). 

6-9, 16-17. Pseudopolyinorphiiia rutila (Cushnian) 335 

6, 7 = P.R.I., No. 22,209 (38X) ; 8 — P.R.I. , No. 22,207 
(33X); 9 = P.R.I.. No. 22,208 (31X) ; 16 = P.R.I., 
No. 22,205 (39X); 17 = P.R.I., No. 22,204 (40X) ; 8b, 
9b = apertural views; rest are side views. 

lOa-b. Pseiidopolyinorphina sp. B 336 

P.R.I., No. 22,202 (73X) ; lOa = side view; 10b = 
apertural view. 

12, 19-24. Sigmomorpliiiia semiteota "var." terquemiana (Fornasini) 337 
12 = P.R.I., No. 22,234 (38X) ; 19 = P.R.I., No. 22,231 
{40X); 20, 21 = P.R.I., No. 22,233 (34X) ; 22, 23, 24 
= P.R.I., No. 22,235 (37X). 

13,15. Siginomorphina peareeyi Cushman and Ozawa 337 

P.R.I. , No. 22,228 (39X). 

14, 18. Signioiiiori>liiiia coiicava (Williamson) 336 

14 = P.R.I., No. 22,217; 18 = P.R.I., No. 22,216; (33X). 

NOTE: The following figures are drawings, the rest are photographs: 
8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b. 



Buij,. Amiok. Paleont. VoI;. ;U) 



Plate 41 




Bull. Amer. Paleont. Vol. 36 



Plate 42 




YORKTOWN MiOCF.NK KoRAMI N 1 1- KRA : McLeAN 383 



Explanation of Plate 42 

I'igure Page 

1-4. Siijruiomorphiiui willlainsoni (Terquem) 338 

la-c = P.R.I. , No. 22,239 (44X) ; 2-4 = P.R.I., No. 
22,240 (2SX) ; Ic = apertural view, rest are sides. 

5a-c, 7. >onion niodiocostatiis (Cushman) 339 

5 = P.R.I., No. 22,242 (SOX) ; 7 = P.R.I. , No. 22,243 
(48X) ; 5a = apertural view, rest are side views. 

6,8,10,12. Nonioii pizarreiisis (Berry) 340 

6 = P.R.I. , No. 22,244 (44X) ; 8, 12 = P.R.I., No. 22,252 

(41X); 10 = P.R.I., No. 22,261 (49X) ; 8a = aper- 
tural view, rest are side views. 

9a-c, 18a-b. PMphidiiim johiistoiiae McLean, n. sp 343 

9 = paratype, F.R.I., No. 22,276 (44X) ; 18 = holotype, 
P.R.I., No. 22,279 (45X) ; 9c, 18b = apertural views, 
rest are side views. 

11, 13-17. KIphidiuiii kalcherae .McLean, n. sp 343 

17 = holotype, P.R.I., No. 22,282 (44X); 11. 13, 16 = 
paratypes, P.R.I., No. 22,283 (44X); 14, 15 = para- 
types, P.R.I., No. 22,284 (44X) ; 13a, 15a = aper- 
tural views, rest are side views. 

NOTE: The following figures are drawings, all other figures 
on plate are photographs; lb. Ic, 5a, 5b, 8a, 9b, 9c, 13a. 
15a. 18a, 18b. 



384 Bulletin 160 



Explanation of Plate 43 

Figure Page 

la-b, 4a-b. Nonlonella auris (d'Orbigny) 341 

1 = P.R.I., No. 22,268; 4 = P.R.I. , No. 22,266; la = 
apertural view; lb, 4a == ventral views; 4b = dorsal 
view; (90X). 

2a-b, 3a-b. Elphidiiiin liicertum (Williamson) 342 

2= P.R.I. , No. 22,274 (86X) ; 3 = P.R.I. , No. 22,271 
(103X) ; 2a, 3b =^ side views; 2b, 3a = apertural 
views. 

5a-b. Elphidiuni advena (Cushman) 341 

P.R.I., No. 22,269 (90X) ; 5a = apertural view; 5b = 
side view. 

6a-b. Nonion? sp. B 341 

P.R.I., No. 22,264 (91X) ; 6a = apertural view; 6b = 
side view. 

7a-b. Nonion cf. gratelonpi (d'Orbigny) 340 

P.R.I. , No. 22,241 (89X); 7a = apertural view; 7b = 
side view. 

NOTE: All figures are drawings except lb, 4a, 4b, which are photographs. 



Bri.L. Amkk. Pai,f,ont. Vol. ?<6 



Plate 43 




Bull. Amer. Paleont. Vol. 36 



Plate 44 




^\)RK.T()\\ N MlOCHNK FoRAMINI KKRA : McLeAN 385 



Explanation of Plate 44 

l-lgure Page 

1-2. Nonioii I sp. A 341 

P.R.I.. No. 22.263 (90X): lb = apertural view, rest are 
side views. 

3-5, 7. KIphidiiini johnstonae McLean, n. sp 343 

:J— paratype, P.R.I., No. 22,275 (llOX); 4-5. 7— paratypes, 
P.R.I.. No. 22,280 (lOOX); 3b apertural view, rest are 
side views. 

6, S-10. Itiiliinina frracilis Cushman 344 

6. S = P.R.I., No. 22,287 (53X) ; 9 = P.R.I., No. 22.286; 
10 = P.R.I., No. 22,290. 

lla-b. Itulininella cf. eleg'aiitissinia (d'Orbigny) 344 

P.R.I.. No. 22,285; 11a := side view (95X) ; lib = apertural 
view (much enlarged) (190X). 

12a-b. Vir^ulina piiiU'tata d'Orbigny (Juv. form) 346 

P.R.I., No. 22,296 (Specimen was lost after it was figured) 
(90X) ; 12a = side view; 12b = apertural view. 

NOTE: The following figures are drawings, the rest are photographs: 
lb. Ic, 3a, 3b, 11a, lib, 12a, 12b. 



386 Bulletin 160 



Explanation of Plate 45 

Figure Page 

la-c. Tirgrulina punctata d'Orbigny 346 

P.R.I.. No. 22,295 (90X) ; la-b = side views; Ic = apertural 
view. 

2, 3, 7. Bulimina preacanthia McLean, n. sp 345 

2 =: paratype, P.R.I. , No. 22,294; 3 = holotype, F.R.I. , No. 
22,293; 7 = paratype. P.R.I. . No. 22,292; (92X). 

5a-b. Loxostomuiii wilsoni McLean, n. sp 348 

Holotype. P.R.I., No. 22,301; 5a = side view; 5b = apertural 
view; (95X). 

4a-b. Bolhina striatula Cushman 347 

P.R.I., No. 22,299 (91X) ; 4a = side view; 4b = apertural 
view. 

6a-b, Bolivina lafajettei McLean, n. sp 346 

8a-b. 6 = holotype, P.R.I. , No. 22,298; 8 = paratype, P.R.I., No. 
22,297; 6a. 8a = side views; 6b, 8b = apertural views; 

(85X). 

9a-b. Uvig-erina cf. tenuistriata Cushman 349 

P.R.I., No. 22,307; (93X). 

NOTE: The following figures are photographs, the rest are drawings: 
la, 2, 3, 7, 9b. 



Bri.ii. Amek. Paleont. Vol. 36 



Plate 45 




Bull. Amer. Paleont. Vol. 36 



Plate 46 




YoRKTOWN MiocENi-: KoRAMiNiFERA : McLean 387 



Explanation of Plate 46 

Figures Page 

1. I'vis'erlna cf. caniiehu'iisis Cushnian and Kleinpell ....349 
F.R.I.. No. 22,306 (63X). 

2a-b. I'viperliia t'alvertensis t'usliman 348 

P.R.I.. No. 22,304 (62X). 

3a-b. Ivifrerina cf. toimistriata Cushman 349 

P.R.I.. No. 22.308 (62X). 

4. SIphotrtMUMiiia laiiu'llata Cushnian 349 

P.R.I. . No. 22.309 (36X). 

5. Aniarulcg'e.ina cccidentalis (Cushnian) 350 

P.R.I. , No. 22.310 (62X). 

6. .\iig:ulo{?eriiia sp 351 

P.R.I., No. 22.311 (63X). 

7-8. I'laiiispjrilllna orbicularis (Bagg) 351 

7 = P.R.I.. No. 22,312; 8 = P.R.I., No. 22.313; 
(56X). 

9-10. 11-12. 15. IMscorbis floridan:i Cushman 351 

9-10 - F.R.I.. No. 22,320 (56X) ; lla-b = P.R.I., 
No. 22,314 (56X); 12a-b = P.R.I., No. 22,321 
(56X); 15 = P.R.I. , No. 22,316 (59X) ; 9, lib, 
12a = dorsal views; 10, 11a, 12b, 15 = ventral 
views. 

13, 14a-d. IHscorbls rehderi McLean, n. sp 353 

14 = holotype, P.R.I. , No. 22,325 (32X) ; 13 = 
paratype, P.R.I., No. 22,329 (60X) ; 13. 14a, 14c 
= dorsal views; 14b = ventral view; 14d = side 
view. 

NOTE: The following figures are drawings, the rest are photographs: 
1, 2a, 3b, 5, 6, 14b, 14c, 14d. 



388 Bulletin 160 



Explanation of Plate 47 

Figure Pagle 

la-e. Biscorbis (?) sp 352 

P.R.I., No. 22,311 (24X) ; la, Ic = dorsal views; lb, le = 
ventral views; Id =: side view. 

2a-d. IHscorbis liirrita Tushman 353 

P.R.I., No. 22,332 (43X) 2a, 2b = dorsal views; 2c = side 
view; 2d = ventral view. 

3_4. A'alvulineria washin^titiii McLean, n. sp 354 

Figs. 3a-b. P.R.I., No. 22,335, holotype; fig. 4. paratype, 
P.R.I., No. 22,336 (45X); 3a = side view; 3b = dorsal 
view; 4 = ventral view. 

5-8. Hotalia limbatobeoearii McLean, n. sp 357 

Figs. 5a-e, syntype P.R.I., No. 22,368; figs. 6a-b, syntype 
P.R.I., No. 22,366; figs. 7a-b, syntype P.R.I.. No. 22,369; 
figs. 8a-b, syntype P.R.I., No. 22,366 (all 43X) ; 5a. 5b, 6b, 
7b, 8b = dorsal views; 5b, 5c, 6a, 7a, 8a = ventral views; 
5d ^ side view. These four syntypes are figured to show 
the variations that this species is subject to. 

9-11. Poroeponides lateralis (Terquem) 358 

Figs. 9a-b, F.R.L. No. 22.374; figs. 10, P.R.L, No. 22,374; 
(30X) figs, lla-e, P.R.L, No. 22,380 (26X) ; 9a, lib = 
dorsal views; 9b, 10, 11a, lid = ventral views; lie = 
side view. 

NOTE: The following figures are drawings, all other figures are photo- 
graphs: Ic, Id, le, 2b. 2c, 2d, 3a, 5b, 5d, 5e, lib, lie, lid. 



Bull. Amer. Paleont. Vol. ?>G 



Plate 47 




Bull. Amer. Paleont. Vol. 36 



Plate 48 




YORKTOWN MiOCENK FoRAM INIFERA : McLeAN 389 



Explanation of Plate 48 

Figure Page 

1, 2. Toroeponides biteralls (Terquem) 358 

l-^g. 1. P.R.I. . No. 22,372 (23X); fig. 2, P.R.I. , No. 22,385 
(25X) : la. lb, 2a = ventral views; Ic, 2b = dorsal views; 
Id = side view. 

3-5,7. ("ancris sapra (d'Orbigny) 359 

Fig. 3, P.R.I., No. 22,394; fig. 4, P.R.I., No. 22.392; fig. 5, 
F.R.I.. No. 22,395; fig. 7, P.R.I.. No. 22,393 (all 44X); 3a. 
5a, 7a = dorsal views; 4, 3c, 5c. 7c = ventral views; 3b. 
5b. 7b = side views. 

6a-b. (iloborotalia sp 365 

P.R.I., No. 22.413 (46X) ; 6a = dorsal view; 6b = side view; 
6c = ventral view. 

8-11. Planulina dopressa (d'Orbigny) 366 

Figs. 8-10, P.R.I.. No. 22.416; fig. 11, P.R.I., No. 22.420 (all 
25X) 8b, 9a. 10b. 11a = dorsal views; 8a, 9b, 10a, lib = 
ventral views; lie = side view. 

12,13. Clblcides cf. lolmtiiliis 366 

Rgs. 12a-b, P.R.I., No. 22,424 (46X) ; Figs. 13a-b, P.R.I., No. 
22,428 (43X); 12a, 13a = dorsal views; 12b = ventral 
view; 13b = side view. 

NOTE: The following figures are drawings, all other figures are photo- 
graphs: lb, Ic, Id, 3a. 3b. 3c. 5a, 5b, 5c. 6a, 6b. 6c. 7a, 7b. 7c, 11a. 
lib, lie, 13b. 



390 Bulletin 160 



Explanation of Plate 49 

Figure Page 

1-3. (ibicides sublobus (Cushman) 367 

Figs. 1 and 2, P.R.I., No. 22,433; figs. 3a-d, P.R.I. , No. 
22,239 (all 25X) ; figs. 1, 3a, 3b = dorsal views; figs. 
2, 3c = ventral views; fig. 3d = side view. 

4-6. Hanzawaia concentrka (Cushman) 367 

Figs. 4 and 5, P.R.I., No. 22,456; fig. 6, P.R.I., No. 22,443 
(24X) ; figs. 4b, 5a, 6a = dorsal views; figs. 4a, 5b = 
ventral views; fig. 6b = side view. 

7a-b. Pyooibieides biserialis Cushman and Valentine 368 

P.R.I., No. 22,460 (28X) ; 7a = attached side; 7b = free 
side. 

8a-c. Dyocibicides perforatus Cushman and Valentine 368 

P.R.I., No. 22,464 (32X) ; 8a = free side; 8c = attached 
side; 8b ^ peripheral view. 

9-11, 14. Cibicidella variabilis (d'Orbigny) 369 

Figs. 9. 10, P.R.I., No. 22,469; (27X) ; figs. 11, 14, P.R.I. , 
No. 22,474 (22X) ; 9, 10b, 11 = views of free sides; 10a, 
10c, 14 ^= views of attached sides. 

12, 13. Rectocibicidella robertsi McLean, n. sp 370 

Fig. 12, paratype P.R.I., No. 22,483; figs. 13a-e, holotype, 
F.R.I. , No. 22,482 (all 45X) ; 12 — free side of paratype; 
13a, 13b ^= free side of holotype; 13c = attached side of 
holotype; 13d = peripheral view of holotype; 13e = 
top (apertural) view of holotype. 

15a-c. Aniphistegina sp 360 

P.R.I. , No. 22,484 (20X) ; 15a = dorsal view; 15b = 
ventral view; 15c = peripheral view. 

NOTE: The following figures are drawings, all other figures are photo- 
graphs: 3b, 3d, 6b, 8a, 8b, 8c, 10a, 10b, 13b, 13c. 13d, 13e, 15a, 15b, 15c. 



Bull. A^rEK. Paleont. Vol. ."6 



Plate 49 




Bull. Amer. Paleont. Vol. 36 



Plate 50 




\'()RKrc)\\N MiocKNii Koramimii-ka: McLkan 391 



Explanation of Plate 50 

All figures on this plate are magnified 94X. 
Figure Page 

la-c. itiicoella aiidfrseiii .McLean, n. sp 354 

Paratype, P.R.I.. No. 22,347; niegalosphaeric A., form: a) 
dorsal view; b) edge view; c) ventral view. 

2a-c. IJiiccoUa depressa Andersen 355 

P'.R.I., No. 22.350; microsphaeric form: a) dorsal view; b) 
edge view; c) ventral view. 

3a-c. Tliiccella depressa Andersen 355 

P.R.I.. No. 22,351; niegalosphaeric Ai form: a) dorsal view; 
b) edge view; c) ventral view. 

4. Huooella depressa Andersen 355 

P.R.I., No. 22,351; niegalosphaeric A^ form, dorsal view. 

NOTE: All figures on plates 16 to 19 are drawings. 



392 BULLTEIN 160 

Explanation of Plate 51 
All figures on this plate are magnified 94 X. 

Figure Page 

la-c. BiH'celln niidersoiii McLean, n. sp 354 

Holotype, P.R.I. , N'o. 22.343; microsphaeric form; a) ventral 
view: b) dorsal view; o> edge view. 

2a-c. Uiu't'ella parkorae Andersen 356 

P.R.I. , iNo. 22.3G1; a) ventral view; b) dorsal view; c) edge 
view. 

3a-c. Ituccolla liannai (Phleger and Parker) 356 

I'.K.l.. N'o. 22.353: a) dorsal view: b) edge view; c) ventral 
view. 

4a-c. Uiu'cella aiiderseiii McLean, n. sp 354 

Paratype, P.R.I., No. 22.339; megalosphaeric Ai form: a) 
ventral view; b) edge view; o) dorsal view. 



Bi'i.L. Amkk. Palkont. Voi,. .".0 



ri.ATK 51 




Bull. Amer. Paleont. Vol. 36 



Plate 52 




YoRKTowN Miocene Foraminifera: McLean 393 



Explanation of Plate 52 

Figure Page 

la-c. Globigerina sp. form A 362 

P.R.I. , No. 22,397; a) umbilical view 95X; b) detail on test 
wall 270X; c) spiral view 95X. 

2a-c. Globig'erinji sp. form B 363 

P.R.I., No. 22,402; a) umbilical view 95X; b) spiral view 
95X; c) detail of test wall 270X. 

3a-c. Globigrerina sp. form C 363 

F.R.I., No. 22,403; a) detail of test wall 270X; b) umbilical 
view 95X; c) spiral view 95X. 

4a-c. Globigerina sp. form D 364 

P.R.I. , No. 22,404; a) umbilical view 95X; b) detail of test 
wall 270X; c) spiral view 95X. 



394 Bulletin 160 



Explanation of Plate 53 

Figure Page 

la-c. Globigrerina sp. form E 364 

P.R.I. , No. 22,407; a) umbilical view 95X; b) detail of test 
wall 270X; c) spiral view 95X. 

2a-c. Globigerinoides sp. form G 365 

P.R.I. , No. 22,410; a) umbilical view 95X; b) detail of test 
wall 270X; c) spiral view 95X. 

3a-b. Orbnlina cornwallisi McLean, n. sp 365 

Holotype, P.R.I. , No. 22,412; a) general view 95X; b) detail 
of test wall showing pores 270X. 

4a-c. (ilobigerinoides (?) sp. form F 364 

P.R.I., No. 22,409; a) umbilical view 95X; b) detail of test 
wall 270X; c) spiral view 95X. 



Dri-i- Amku. Palkont. Voi,. .".G 



Pj,ate 5.'} 




indf:x volume xxxvi 



Note: The left hand bold face figures refer to the plates. The right 
hand light figures refer to the pages. 



A 

abbreviata, Textularia 275, 276 
Academy of Natural 

Sciences 264,266 

acetabulum, Dosinia.. 288 

Ackermann, E. D 43 

ackermanni, Globo- 

truncana 2 13, 39, 42, 

44, 56, 86, 
91,105 

acuta, Leda 289 

adkinsi, Coskino- 

linoides 217 

aduncus, Galeocerdo .. 145 

advena, Discocylina .. 222 

Elphidium 43 297, 300, 341 

Orthophragmina .... 222 

Polystomella 342 

Proporocyclina ....29 209, 222 

FseudophragTOina 29 209, 206 
aegyptiaca, Globo- 

truncana 28, 87,101 

aegyptiaca duwi, 

Globotruncana 28, 101 

affinis, Corax 126 

Aglaspella 175 

Aglaspida 172, 173. 174 

Aglaspis 175 

agglutinans, Textu- 
laria 275 

alpha, Lagena 294 

alticostata, Turritella 267, 268. 269, 

289 

Alabama 123.149 

alabamensis, Alop- 

ias 11 132 

Galeocerdo 124,126,145 

146 

albatrossi, Pyrulina .. 336, 331 

alleni, Truncatulina.... 275 

Alopias 132,140,147 

americana, Conulites 217 

Cushmania 207, 217 

Isurus 127 

Oxyrhina 124, 125 

Sphyrna 140 



Truncatulina 276 

americanus, Dictyo- 

conus 25 207,210,211, 

214,217,218 

Robulus 284 

americanus spinosus, 

Robulus 284 

Ammobaculites 318 

Amphistegina 276, 294 

Amphistegina sp 49 360 

Anderegg, F 275 

Andersen, Harold 355 

Annona chalk 18 

anderseni, Buccella 50, 51, 294, 

313,314,315. 

354 

Angulogerina 276, 350 

Angulogerina sp 46 291, 351 

angulosa, Uvigerina 350 
angulosa occidentalis, 

Angulogerina 350 

angusticarinata, Glo- 
botruncana 26 

angustidens, Car- 

charodon 125, 147 

Anomalina 81. 89, 98 

antillea, Heteroste- 

gina 213 

Lepidocyclina 27, 30,214 

Miogypsina 213 

Miscellanea 241.247 

Nummulites 247 

Pellatispirella 243. 247 

Polylepidina 27, 30,214 

Ranikothalia 243 

apenninica, Globo- 
truncana 83, 98, 99 

Rotalipora 99 

apenninica typica, 

Rotalipora 83, 98, 99 

apertura. Globigerina 276 

Aprionodon 132. 139. 140, 

142 

area, Globotruncana 5 14, 53 62, 

63. 74. 85, 

91, 96,104 

Pulvinulina 13, 63 



395 



Index 



Area branch 58, 62, 75 

area caribica, Glo- 

botruncana 5 14, 64, 75, 

91, 104 

Area facies 296, 297 

artana, Lepidoeyelina 221 

Pliolepidina 221 

articulata, Textularia 35, 36. 296, 

316 

Asano, K 311 

aspera, Textularia 36 294,320 

Astarte 289 

Asterocyclina 207,209,210, 

214 

Atlantic wells 289 

attenuatum, Dentalium 289 
augustiearinata, Globo- 

truncana 103 

auriculatus, Carcharo- 

don 125,126 

auris, Nonionella .... 276, 295. 297 
austinensis, Globo- 

truncana 1, 13, 29, 

91, 93, 96. 
104 
austriaca, Guttu- 

lina 40 297.300.333 

auris. Nonionella ....43 341 

Valvulina 341 

Aysheaia 157 

B 
badenensis, Tex- 
tularia 35,294,316 

Balanus 289 

Bandy, 312 

Barclay, G 264 

beccarii, Rotalia 275, 302 

Beckwithia 175 

beldingi, Globotrun- 

cana 1 13, 30. 31, 

32 
beldingi, Rugoglobig- 

erina 1 13, 31. 32, 

36,106 
beldingi subbeldingi. 

Globotruncana 1 13, 30, 32 

Belemnitella 33 

benacensis, Rotalipora 51, 83, 99 

benedeni. Isurus 125 

Bermudez, P 211,248,350 

bermudezi, Opereuli- 

noides 247 

bertheloti, Discorbis .. 276 

bevani, Dentalina .... 38. 294. 327 

Bifarina 348 

Biggs farm, Virginia 269 



bisei'ialis, Dyocibicides 49, 294,297, 
299,367,368 

bocki, Textularia 36, 294, 317 

Bogue well 289 

Bolivina 261,275,276, 

286,287,291, 
294,298,346 
bollii, Globotrun- 
cana 5 1, 14, 62, 

63, 74, 81, 
85,101 

Bolli, H 9, 18 

Boltovskoy, E 338 

Borelis 206,218 

boueana. Nonionina .. 340 

bouena, Nonion 275 

bradyi, Epistomina .... 275 

bramlettei, Siphogeneri- 

noides 11 31, 33, 35. 

43, 50, 53, 

55, 64, 67, 

69, 72 

Branchiopoda 180 

Breggia material, 

Switzerland 17 

Breton Sound • 299 

brevirostris, Nega- 

prion 142 

Bridge. Josiah 159 

British Isles 347 

British Museum 

(Natural History) .. 123, 126 

broeckhina, Eponides 275 

Brooks, H. K. 

See Caster. K. E 

Brooks. Rosann 158 

brotzeni, Globotruncana 39, 57 

Thalmanninella 98 

Brown, Philip M 264,289 

Bruxellian 131 

Bryozoa 305 

Buccella 261. 291, 294, 

299,310,311. 
313.314.315. 
316,354.355 

Buliminella 275.294,297, 

299.344,345. 

Bulloides branch 32, 37 

bulloides, Globiger- 

ina 275,276 

Globotruncana ...1 13, 27, 32, 

34, 35, 42, 

55, 85, 86, 

91, 96, 97, 

104 



396 



Index 



bulloides globigerin- 
oides, Globotrun- 
cana 1 


13, 
86. 


33, 
96, 


35, 
104. 


bulloides naussi, 
Globotruncana ....1 


13. 
36, 


34. 

86, 


35. 

104 


Bunodes 




174. 
157. 


175 


Burgess shale 


180 


Burgessia 






157 


c 








Cadulus 






288 


Cahill, E. D 




318, 
38, 


360 


calcarata, Globotrun- 
cana 


101 


Caliciformis branch .. 


56 


caliciformis, Globo- 
truncana 3 


14, 
47, 
66, 
97, 


39, 

53, 

86, 

101. 


46 




55, 
96, 

102. 

105 


caliciformis sarmientoi, 
Globotruncana ....3 


14, 
48, 
91, 


39, 

66, 

, 97, 


47, 

86. 

,101 



caliciformis trinidadenis, 
Globotruncana ...S 14 

California Channel 
Islands 

Calliostoma 

Caloosahatchee forma- 
tion 

calvertensis, Uvlger- 

ina 45, 



47,102 

299 
306 

295 



Calvert formation 



46,294. 
348,349 
267,333,339, 
340,341,342. 
350 

Calvert Miocene 284, 290 

Cambrian 157 

Camerina 206.207.210, 

245 

Campanian 11. 24, 33. 

77, 85, 86. 
90. 91, 92 

Campanian-Maestrich- 

tian 24, 48 



Camp Wallace, 

Virginia 287,304,316. 

323,330,333. 
338, 350, 357. 
368 
Canadian-Chazyan 

hiatus 157, 161 

canaliculata. Globotrun- 
cana 16, 18. 20. 

24. 26. 91, 

93,103 

canariensis. Uvigerina 275 

Cancellaria facies 296. 297 

Cancris 359 

candeiana. Textularia 35, 37. 296. 

297.299,302. 

316,317 

Candorbulina 362 

canellei, Lepidocy- 

clina 205,213 

Cane River formation 222 

canicula, Scyliorhinus 128 

caraibensis, Nummu- 

lites 247 

Carcharodon 124, 125. 147 

Carcharias 139 

Carcharinus 140 

Carcinosoma 174 

Cardium 270, 289 

caribica. Globotrun- 
cana 5 14. 64. 91. 

105 
cf. carmeloensis. 

Uvigerina 46 294.349 

carolinensis, 

Alopias 11 133 

Carpenter. W 361. 362 

carteri. Entosolenia 

39 330 

Lagena ^j) 294.297.330 

Massilina 37 324.325 

Textularioides ...35 294.321 

carteri alpha. Lagena 294 

carteri forma alpha 

Entosolenia 39 333 

carteri forma alpha. 

Lagena 39 330 

Carter's Grove. 

Virginia 264.2(39.270. 

286. .303. 306. 
308. 316. 330. 
333.338.341. 
342. 345. 352. 
357.363.367. 
368. 370 
Caster. Anneliese .... 158 



397 



Index 



Caster, K. E. and 

Brooks, H. K. New 

Fossils from the Can- 
adian (Ordovi- 

cian) Hiatus in 

Tennessee 153 

catesbyi, Nodosaria 39 290, 294, 297, 

301,329 

Caudri. C. M. B 244 

Cederstrom, D. J 265, 271 

Cederstrom well No. 65, 

Virginia 284,288 

Cenomanian 19, 81, 82, 

83, 84, 95 
Cenomanian ?-Conia- 

cian, Austria 19 

Centre National de la 

Recherche Scientif- 

ique 265 

Ceram, Indonesia 61 

Cerrejon well 11 

Cesarensis branch .... 38, 39, 45 
cesarensis, Globotrun- 

cana 2 14, 22, 28, 

45, 46, 55, 

56, 64, 65, 

85, 86, 91, 

105 

Cesar Valley, 

Colombia 9, 10, 11, 

41 

Cestites 157, 183 

Chama 269 

Chama bearing 

beds 269 

Chama congregata 

beds 303, 308 

chaperi, Lepidocy- 

clina 207,210 

Charco Redondo 

limestone 211 

Chasmataspida 157, 174 

Chasmataspis 157, 167, 176, 

184 

Chasmataspidae 176 

Chazyan 159 

Chelicerata 173 

Chesapeake Bay 267 

Chione 289 

Chipola formation .... 297, 359 

Choctaw County, 

Alabama 144,146 

Choctawhatchee 

formation 269. 271. 295, 

330,335.340, 
342,351,366 



Choptank formation .. 267, 366 

Choptank Miocene .... 284 

Cibicidella 297,368,369, 

370 

Cibicides 275,294,299, 

366, 369 

circumnodifer, 

Globotruncana 2 13, 43, 56 

Rugoglobigerina ..2 13 34, 43, 

circumnodifer subcir- 
cumnodifer, Globo- 
truncana 2 14, 44, 56 

circumnodifer subcir- 
cumnodifer, Rugo- 
globigerina 2 14, 44, 107 

citae, Globotrun- 
cana 3 14, 40, 51, 

83, 91, 92, 
96,100 

Cizancourt, M. de .... 244, 245 

Cladocera 180 

Claiborne, Alabama .. 136 

claibornensis, 

Galeorhinus 11 143,148,149 

Clapp, Ann Dorsey .. 283, 286, 324, 
334,335,339 

Clark, W. B., and 

Miller, B. L 266,267 

clarkana, Trachy- 

leberis 290, 291 

Clarke County, 

Alabama 123, 124, 127, 

131,132.138, 
140, 144, 149 

clarkensis, Galeo- 

cerdo 11 127.131,145, 

146.147,152 

clintonius, Pecten .... 267,268,271, 

308 

Cobre formation 211 

Cocoa, Alabama 124 

codon, Dictyoconus .. 211, 217 

Cohansey formation 271 

Cole, W. Storrs 245,247,315 

Jamaican Larger 

Foraminifera 201 

The Genera Mis- 
cellanea and 
Pellatispirella 235 

Collins. R. Lee 158 

collinsi, Douglaso- 

caris 21,22 157, 167, 183 

Colombia .., Bull. 155 

colombiana, Globotrun- 
cana 1 13, 16, 17. 

18, 20, 26, 
27, 64, 65, 75, 



398 



Index 



Colon formation 

Colon shale 11 



85, 91. 93, 
104 

11 

19, 21, 22, 

23, 29, 35, 

37, 40, 42. 

45, 46, 49, 

52, 55, 62. 

63, 65, 67, 

69. 71. 72. 

96 

communis. Dentalina 276 

complanata japonica. 

Operculina 33 245 

complanata, Opercu- 
lina 33 240 

compressa, Globig- 

erina 31 

Polyniorphina 276 

conoamerata. Globo- 

truncana 275 

concava, P'olymor- 

phina 336 

Slgmomorphina .... 41,291.302, 

336 
concavus. Balanus .-.. 289 

concentrica, Cibicides 367 

Hanzawaia 49 297. 300, 367 

Truncatulina 367 

Conchostraca 180, 181, 182 

Condon. Dictyoconus 206 

conglomerata, Globig- 

erina 362 

congregata, Chama .... 269. 270 

conica, Globotrun- 

cana 5 53, 65. 66, 

86. 91. 96. 

100 
conica plicata. Globo- 

truncana 53 

Coniacian 11 85. 90 

Conrath. Barth 265 

consecta. Textularia 319 

consobrina. Discorbis 276 

contortus, Galeocerdo 126. 145 

Contusa branch 38. 39, 53. 

57 
contusa, Globotrun- 

cana 4 14. 40. 53-55. 

91. 93, 94. 

96, 97.102, 

lOf 



contusa patelliformis. 
Globotruncana ...4 



14. 53. 54, 

93. 94. 96. 

102 



contusa scutilla. 

Globotruncana ....4 14, 41, 54, 
94, 96, 105 

Conulites 217 

Cook Mountain forma- 
tion 209 

Cooke, C. Wythe 137,305 

cookei, Dictyoconus 2.'> 210, 214 

Cooper, G. Arthur .... 158 

Corax 124, 126 

Corbula 289, 306 

Cornell University .... 205,239 
cornwallisi. Orbulina 

53 291,365 

coronata, Globotrun- 
cana 19, 25-27, 

85, 103 

Coskinolina 206 

Coskinolinoides 205,216 

costatula. Guttulina .. 334 

crassa. Discocyclina 207 

Oxyrhina 125 

Crassatellites 270 

crenulatus. Phacoides 289 

Crepidula 288. 306 

Cretacea branch 59, 75 

cretacea. Globotrun- 
cana 4 14, 61, 62, 

75, 87, 102 

Pullenia 11 

Cretaceous 8, 9, 13, 

18, 27, 83, 
89, 95 
cribrorepandus. Poroe- 

ponides 358 

Crisfield well, 

-Maryland 267,322,345 

crispa. Polystomella 341 

Cristellaria 314. 326 

Crustacea 181 

Cuba 208 

cubensis. Fabiania .... 210 

Curtis. Neville M 301 

curvatus, Galeorhinus 136 

Hemipristis 136 

Cushman. .1. A 275,314,318. 

360 
Cushman. .1. A., and 

Cahill. K. I).. 276 

cushmani. Operculin- 

oides 30, 31.214 

Rotalipora 83, 99 

Cushmania 207.217,218 

cuspidata. Odontaspis 125 

Cylindracanthus . 124.127.147 

Cymbaloporetta 83 



399 



Index 



Cytheretta 290 

D 

Dames, W 136 

Darwin, Chas 314 

Davies, L. M 205, 211 

Delos 336 

Dentalina 276, 327 

sp 291,292,294 

sp. A 38 328 

sp. B 38 328 

sp. C 38 329 

Dentalium 289 

depressa, Buccella 50 294, 299, 355 

Planulina 48 297,301,366 

Trucatulina 366 

depressula, Nonionina 275, 276 

Desio. A 9 

desioi, Globotrun- 

cana 13 27, 103 

desorii, Oxyrhina 125 

Devonian 173 

Dictyconus 206,207,217 

difformis, Globotrun- 

cana 3 14, 49, 96, 

106 
Difformis-intermedia- 

citae branches 39, 57 

Diodon 146 

Discocyclina 205,207 

discolithes, Fabularia 

26 205,219 

Discorbis 275,276,299, 

351,353 

Discorbis sp 35, 47,291, 

294,352 

disparilis, Ostrea 289 

District of Columbia.. 274 

Dolichopterus 172 

Dominican Republic .. 248, 327, 350 

Dorothea 173 

dorseyae, Lagena ....39 294, 295, 330 

Dosinia 288, 306 

Douglas Dam, 

Tennessee 157, 171, 173, 

179, 181, 183 
Douglas Lake, 

Tennessee 159 

Douglasocaridae 159 

Douglasocaris 157, 167, 182 

Dove, Mrs. Edna 265 

Drillia 289 

Dry Tortugas 352 

Dukham Oilfield, 

Arabia 248 

duplicata, Polinices .. 288 



Duplin marl 269, 271, 290, 

296,351,366 
duwi, Globotruncana 28, 87, 101 
Dyocibicides 297, 299, 368 

E 

Earland, A 323,364,369 

eatoni, Aglaspella .... 175 

Ecphora 289 

Ecphora facias 296, 297 

Ecphora zone 269 

Edgecombe County, 

North Carolina 290 

Egerton Collection .... 125, 126, 128, 

133,144 
egertoni, Carcharinus 140 

elegans, Odontaspis .. 124 

Cf. elegantissima, 

Buliminella M 275,297,299, 

344 

elevata, Rotalia 68 

elongata, Bulimina .... 344, 345 

Coskinolina ....24,31 206,209,215 

Hemipristis 134, 135, 136 

Ellis, B. F 9 

ellisi, Elphidium 344 

Elphidium 239-244,249, 

290,291,294, 

297,300,342- 

344 

sp 33 243 

England 336 

Enniskillen Collection 124,126,133 
Enniskillen, Lord .... 123 

enniskillen, Scylior- 

hinus 11 128, 129, 146 

Entosolenia 330 

Emiliani, C 9 

Eocene 205, 206, 207 

Epistomina 48, 275 

Eponides 261, 275, 310-312. 

355.356 
escheri, Globigerin- 

ella 87 

escheri clavata, Glo- 

bigerinella 87 

Esso Hatteras Light 

Well No. 1, North 

Carolina 289,329 

estensa, Nonion 275 

Eulepidina 213, 315 

Eurypterida 171,174 

eustisensis, Tex- 

tularia 35 294, 318,319 

evoluta, Rotalipora .. 83, 87, 93, 

98 



400 



INDKX 



exilis, Spiroplec- 
tanimina 

F 

Faber P^uid, University 

of Cincinnati 

Fabularia 205. 

210. 

falconeri. Galeorhinus 144 

Falkland Islands 

Falls ("hurch, 

Virginia 

falunicum, Elphidiuni 
Farmingdale, New 

Jersey 

?>lgater"s Creek. 

Virginia 333 

ferussacii. Miliolina 
Fishing Creek, North 

Carolina 

Fissoelphidium 

flexuosa, Globotrun- 

cana 4 14, 

Florida 

floridana. Bolivina .... 261 

Coskinolina 24 210, 

Discorbis 4« 276, 

Linderina 30 

Lituonella 

Pseudochrysali- 

dina 24, 2.> 

Rosalina 

Valvulineria 

Fonseca 

fontabellensis, 

Cushmania 207, 

Foraminifera 261- 

fornicata, Crepidula .. 
Globotruncana ...2 7. 
38 
53 
74. 
91. 



281 



158 
206. 209. 
211.218. 

219 
. 147-149 

332 

274 
290 

146 



fnrnicata ackermanni, 
Globotruncan-.i ... 2 



13, 



.342 


,344 




324 




290 




248 


61. 


96. 




102 


271 


.327 


.286 


,287 


.212 


,214 


297. 


299, 




351 


209, 


,214 


211, 


,212 


210, 


,215 




351 




354 




11 


217. 


218 


-263. 


274 




288 


13. 


27. 


;-42. 


46, 


;-56, 


64. 


75, 


85. 


96. 


97. 




102 


42. 


56. 


91. 


105 



fornicata brotzeni. 








Globotruncana ...2 


39. 


57. 


61 


fornicata cesarensis. 








Globotruncana ...2 


14. 


28. 


39. 




45. 


46. 


85. 






86. 


105 



fornicata manaurensis. 

Globotruncana ....2 13, 42, 40 
41, 54, 55, 
60, 75.105 
fornicata plummerae. 

Globotruncana 2 13.42.46, 

56,91. 10.5 
Fornicata branch .... 38, 39 

Fort Eustis well. 

Virginia 287,319,320, 

327,341,345, 
354,355 
Fort Jefferson, 

Tortugas 299 

Franklin. Virginia .... 291 

French Broad River. 

Tennessee 157 

frigida. Buccella 355 

frigidus. Eponides .... 311 

G 

Galeocerdo 124. 126, 135, 

145. 147 

Galeorhinus 144, 147 

Galeus 135 

Gandolfi, Rolando 

The Genus Globotrun- 
cana in Northeastern 

Colombia 1 

gansseri, Globotrun- 
cana () 14, 22. 38. 

60. 68. 69. 
71, 72. 76-78. 
86. 96. 100 
gansseri hexacamerata. 

Globotruncana 70 

gansseri subgansseri. 

Globotruncana ....(> 15. 70. 100 
gansseri- wieden- 

niayeri branch 69 

Gardner. Julia 264.269.306 

Gatuncillo formation 212 

Gatun. Panama 212 

gautierensis. Globo- 
truncana 87 

George Washing- 
ton University 264.267 

georgiana, Asterocy- 

clina 206.207,210 

Gibbes. R. W 139, 140 

gibbesi. Negaprion 11 127.131.139, 

141, 143.147. 

148 

Aprionodon 126,132.140, 

142 



401 



Index 



Carcharias 126 

gibbesi gilmorei, 

Negaprion 1 127, 131, 139 

141,148 
gigas, Lepidocyclina 213 

gilmorei, Sphyrna .... 124, 141 

Ginglymostoma 124, 127, 146 

Glaessner, M. F 51 

glaessneri, Globotrun-^ 

cana ^ 14, 49-51 

Rugoglobigerina ....3 14, 49-51 
glaessneri subglaess- 
neri, Globotrun- 

cana 3 14, 51 

glaessneri subglaess- 
neri, Rugoglo- 
bigerina 3 14, 50, 51, 

107 

Globigerina 7, 8, 15, 

31, 36, 89, 

275,276,360, 

364 

forms 291, 294 

sp. form A 52 362 

sp. form B 52 363 

sp. form C 52 363 

sp. form D 52 364 

sp. form E 53 364 

Globigerina-Guembelina- 
Radiolaria assembl- 
age 11 

Globigerinella 31 

Globigerinidae 360 

Globigerinoides 361, 364 

globigerinoides, Globo- 

truncana 1 13, 33, 35, 

36, 86, 91, 
96, 104 

Rosalinella 33,43,106 

? sp. form F 53 364 

sp. form G 52 53,291,365 

Globorotalia 48, 86, 365 

sp 48 291,365 

Globotruncana 35-118 

Globotruncana forn- 

icata group 38 

globularis, Dis- 

corbis 275 

globulohispida, 

Lagena 39 295, 331 

Glycimeris 270, 306 

Gosport sand 137, 144, 147 

gracilis, Bulimina ..44 294, 295, 297, 

344,345 



gramen, Textu- 

laria 36 275,276.281, 

295,296,318, 
319 

granulata, Vener- 

icardia 289 

graleloupi, Nonion 43 291, 297, 301, 

340 

Grey-Egerton, 

Sir Pa'iip 123 

greyegertoni, Hypo- 

prion 11 137, 138, 147 

Guadryina 275 

Guuyabal formation .. 208 

gubernacula, Lepidocy- 
clina 210, 221 

Pliolepidina 221 

Gulf of Aqaba 302 

Gulf of Mexico 356 

Gulf of Suez 300,302 

Gurley, William 

F. E. (Foundation) 205, 239 

Guttulina 297,300,333 

sp 291,294 

sp. A 40 334 

sp. B 40 335 

gyralis, Helicostegina 209 

H 

haddingtonensis, 

Lepidocyclina 207 

Halifax County, 

North Carolina 290 

Halymenites 274 

Hammond, L. G. 

well, Maryland 281 

hannai, Buccella ....51 291,299,356 

Eponides 356 

hantkeni, Guttulina .. 334 
hantKeninoides, 

riummerita 53 

hantkeninoides inflata, 

riummerita 53 

Hanzawa, S 239, 247 

Hanzawaia 297,300,367 

Harris, G. F 141,147 

Harris, T 137 

hastalis, Isurus 124, 125 

Hasterigerinoides 87 

Haynes, John 345 

hedbergi. Miscellanea 241, 247 

helicina, Globigerina 361, 362 

Helicostegina 209,210,213 

helvetica. Globo- 
truncana 70, 84, 92, 

100 



402 



Index 



Hemiaspis 174 

liemidon, Hypoprion 138 

Hemipiistis 127,133,135, 

136,147 

Heron-Allen. E 323,364,369 

heros, Polinices 289 

Heterodontus 128,146 

hexacamerata, Globo- 

truncana 1 13, 33, 70 

Rugoglobigerina -1 13, 33, 34, 

44, 106 
hexacamerata subhex- 
acamerata, Globo- 

truncana 1 13, 33 

hexacamerata subhexa- 
camerata, Rugoglo- 
bigerina 1 13, 33, 44 

hexagona, Lagena .... 331 

hexagona scalari- 

formis, Lagena 331 

Hickory sandstone .... 176 

Hofker, J 245,311,313 

hopei, Odontaspis .... 125, 127, 146. 

147 
Hypoprion 137,138,147 

I 

imbricata, Globo- 

truncana 16, 19, 24, 

43, 84, 91. 

103 

inaequalis, Corbula .. 289 

Globulina 276 

incertum, Elphidium 

43 276, 297, 300, 
342 

India 19 

Indianites 182 

indica, Globotrun- 

cana 16, 19, 24. 

26, 93 
iijflata, Globotrun- 

cana 16 

Lituonella 211 

Plummerita 53 

Textularioides 321 

insignis, Globo- 

truncana 6 14, 67 

cf. intermedia, 

Dentalina 38 327 

intermedia, Denta- 
lina 294 

Globotruncana 8 14, 20, 39-41, 
43, 48, 49, 
51, 57, 85, 



91, 92, 96, 

105 
ackermanni, Globo- 
truncana 39 

difforniis, Globo- 
truncana 3 39, 40. 49, 

57, 96, 106 
intermedius, Luti- 

anus 149 

Sciaenidarum 149 

International Petro- 
leum (Colombia) 7, 9 

iota, Cristellaria 326 

iotus. Robulus 325, 326 

isodon, Aprionodon .. 142 

Isurus 124, 146 

Italy 23 

J 

Jackson Bluff, 

Florida 322 

Jackson Eocene 123, 137, 144, 

149 

Jackson formation .... 146 

Jamaica, B. W. 1 205, 239 

Jamaica Geological 

5>urvey 205,239 

jamaicensis, Borelis .. 206,218 

C'oskinolinoides .... 24,31,206 

215.216 

truncata, Borelis .... 206.218 

Yaberinella 206,207,219 

James City County, 

Virginia 270 

Ji'mes River, 

^'ilginia 270 

jeffersonius, Pecten 274, 288 

jennyi. Operculinoides 

31 220 

Johnston, Mary 343 

johnstonae, Elphid- 
ium 42.44 294,342.343 

Jones Point, Virginia 274 

jonesi. Marginulina 10 18, 57, 96 

K 

Kaicher, Sally 265.344 

kaicherae, Denta- 
lina 3S 291,295,327. 

328 

Elphidium 42 291.343 

kaupi, Corax 126 

Keijzer. F. G 211 

Kendal, Jamaica. 

B. W. 1 239.242 

kernensis, Uvigerina 348 



403 



Index 



King's Mill Wharf, 

Virginia 262, 268 

Kingston, Jamaica, 

B. W. 1 205 

kinlossensis, Lepidocy- 

clina 207 

Pliolepidina 207 

Kjellesvig-Waering, E. 174, 176 

Knox dolomite 1^8, 162 

L 

lactea, Polymorphina 336, 338 

lactea oblonga, 

Polymorphina 338 

Ladd, H. S 303 

laevis, Yoldia 288 

laevissima, Sphyrna 140 

lafayettei, Bolivina 45, 294, 346 

Lagena 276.291.294. 

301.330,331, 
332 
lamellata, Sipho- 

generina 46 261,287.249, 

297 349 

Lamna 128, 13o', 140 

Langley's Bluff, 

Maryland 318-320,323, 

324,353 
Langley Field, 

Virginia 367 

Langley field excava- 
tion, Virginia 337 

Lapparenti branch .... 24, 25 

lapparenti, Globo- 

truncana 1 16, 17. 20, 

24, 25. 32. 

36, 41, 55. 

85. 91. 96, 

97.103 



lapparenti augusticari- 
nata, Globotruncana 

lapparenti bulloides, 
Globotruncana 

lapparenti coronata, 
Globotruncana 

lapparenti longilocula, 
Globotruncana ....1 



La Paz, Colombia .... 
laqueatum, Cardium 

Larsen, J. A 

lateralis, Eponides .... 
Poreponides ..47,48 



103 

32 

19. 27. 92. 
103,126 

13, 17. 18, 

27. 41. 91, 

96, 97,103 

10 

289 

265 

276 

262.294,297. 



301,310.312, 
358 

Rosalina 358 

latidens, Alopias ....11 132, 140, 147 
latidens alabamensis. 

Alopias 11 111,132,147 

latidens carolinensis, 

Alopias 133 

latilirata, Chione 289 

Laurence, Robert .... 158, 159, 160, 

161 
laurencii. Chas- 

mataspis 12,20 22, 157, 167. 

176,183 
Layne-Atlantic Co. .. 264,284 

Leda 289 

LeGrand, H. E 264.289 

Lenoir limestone 158, 161 

lens. Elphidium 32,34 240, 243 

Lepidocyclina 205.207.221, 

315 

Leptostraca 180. 181 

Leriche. M 123, 124. 131. 

140, 144 
lerichei, Odontaspis .. 130 

lessoni, Amphistegina 360 

limatula, Drillia .... 289 

limbatobeccarii, 

Rotalia 47 294, 357 

Limulina 172. 174 

Limuloides 174 

Linderina 209,214 

linnei, Globtruncana 16. 19, 20, 

24, 25. 26, 

55, 103 

linnei, Rosalina 46 

Linnei group, 

Globotruncana 19 

linnei angusticarinata, 

Globotruncana 26 

Lisbon formation 137 

Lituonella 206.211 

lobatula, Truncatu- 

lina 275.276.366 

lobatula ornata. Trunca- 

tulina 275 

cf. lobatulus. 

Cibicides 48 294,299,366. 

369 

Localites, middle 

Eocene, Jamaica, 

B. W. 1 208 

Localities Oligocene, 

Jamaica. B. W. I. 212 



404 



Im)i:.\ 



Localities upper 
Eocene, Jamaica, 

B. W. 1 209 

Loeblich, A. R., .Ir 9, 265. 266 

Loeblich, Helen 

Tappan 266 

loetteiii, Globigerina 35 

Globotruncana 1 35, 36 

Riigoglobigerina ■■■■1 34-36,106 

loetterli subloetterli, 

Globotruncana 1 13, 36 

loetterli subloetterli, 

Rugoglobigerina ..1 13, 36, 106 

Loma C'andela 

formation 208 

longilocula, Globo- 
truncana 1 13, 17, 18, 

27, 91, 97, 
103 

lorneyana, Pseudo- 

valvulineria 81 

Louisiana 209 

Lowman. S. W 303 

Loxostoma 291 

lunula, Bunodes 175 

Lutianus 149 

Lyell, Sir Chas 123 

31 

macdonaldi, Lepidocy- 

clina 27,28 207,210,211, 

214 

Pliolepidina 27,28 214 

macloti, Hypoprion .... 138 

MacNeil, F. Stearns 274 

macrocephala, Globo- 
truncana 2 



Rugoglobigerina 



14, 45, 46. 
49, 56 
14, 46 
49, 107 



macrocephala submac- 
rocephala, Globo- 
truncana 2 14, 46 

macrocephala submac- 
rocephala, Rugoglo- 
bigerina 2 14, 46.107 

macrota, Odontaspis .. 124, 147, 149 

madisonius, Pecten .... 289 

Maestrichtian 11, 86, 91. 

92, 95, 97 

magdalenaensis, Glo- 
botruncana 15, 72, 96, 

101 

magnus, C'archarinus, 140 

Negaprion 140 

major, Halymenites .. 274 

Sphyraena 127, 147 



Malacostraca 180, 181 

-Malkin, Doris 290.291 

.Mallet Collection .... 124-126, 128. 
131,133,144 

-Mallet, J. W 123 

nialletiana, Odontaspis 

11 130,131,147 

Malta 125, 126, 145 

Manaure section, 

Colombia 10, 17 

Alanaure shale, 

Colombia 10, 11 

17-19,21, 
41, 42, 49. 
54, 57, 60, 
96 
manaurensis, Globo- 
truncana 2 



Manchester Paris, 

Jamaica, B. W. I. 
Mansfield, W. C 

mansfieldi, Eponides 
Massilina 37 

marginata austinensis, 
Globotruncana ...1 



marginata multicostata, 

Bolivina 276 

324 

marginata. Bolivina 275, 276 

Globotruncana ....1 29, 30, 32, 

36. 86. 91. 

93, 96,104 

marginata branch 37 

marginato-perforata. 

Lagena 276,336 

marginoaculeata, 

Globorotalia 81, 83 

Marginulina 10, 57. 96 

mariai, Globotrun- 
cana 13 33, 91, 106 

Marks. P 34a 

.Maryland 131, 139, 2>>7 

marylandica, Massi- 
lina 37 294, 324 

-Mascot dolomite 158, 15) 

-Mason Inlet 299 

-Massilina 294,295,324 

Matagorda Island .... 299 

matleyi, Borelis 206, 21f> 

Camerina 206,241 



13, 


40, 


41, 


54, 


57, 


75. 
96 

242 


265. 


269, 


283 
303 
356 




294, 


,295 


29, 


30, 


32. 


86, 


91. 


93 




96 


,104 



405 



Index 



Fabularia 26 206, 209, 218, 

219 

Miscellanea 241 

Pellatispirella 32-45 206, 211, 239, 
241, 243, 24.' 

mayaroensis, Globo- 

truncana 1 13,16-20. 

25,28,43,91, 
96, 103 

mayori, Textularia 36 276, 281. 296, 
303, 310, 320 

McCrea, Mrs. Archi- 
bald 2G4 

McCrea, Mary John- 
ston 343 

McGill, William 265 

McLean, James D., Jr. 
The Foraminifera of 
the Yorktown Forma- 
tion in the York- 
James Peninsula of 
Virginia, with Notes 
on the Associated 
Mollusks 255 

medio-costata, 

Nonionina 339 

medio-costatum, 

Nonion 339 

mediocostatus, 

Nonion 42 294, 339 

megalodon, Carchar- 
odon ^ 124 

Megalograptus 172, 174 

melo, Lagena 39 301, 331, o80 

Oolina S.U 

menardii, Pulvinulina 275 

Mendez shale 13 

mercenaria, Venus .... 289 

Merostomata 171, 174 

messinae, Globig- 

erinella 31 

Globotruncana 87 

messinae subcarinata, 

Globotruncana 87 

Mexico 13, 23,208 

midwayana, Textu- 
laria 319 

Miliolina 3i;4 

Mineralogisk-Geo- 
logiske Institute, 
Copenhagen 264 

minima, Asterocy- 

clina 30 210,214 

minor, Galeocerdo .... 127,139 144 

minuta, Oxyrhina .... 139 

Miocene 20-5, 212 



Miogypsina 




213. 2:' 4 


Miolepidocyclina 


213. 214 


mirabilis, Cestites 23 




157, 183 


miraflorensis, Lepidocy- 




clina 




205 


miscella, Miscellanea 






32,34 




239, 210 


Miscellanea 


239, 


240 24:?. 
244,249 


Mississippi River .... 




3d'3 


Mixoptreus 




174 


Molino section, 






Colombia 




11, 21 


Mongin, Denise 


265, 


266, 309, 
260 


Monroe County, 






Alabama 


123 


, 143, 147 


Monte Mario, Italy 




336 


monticellensis. 






Asterocyclina 




29,214, 


montsalvensis. 






Rotalipora 




S3, 99 


Moore House Beach, 






Virginia 


^Sfi 


.290.304, 




317, 


318.323, 




324, 


328. 33?. 




338. 


340,341. 




315. 


352, 353, 




363 


■365, 367 


mortoni, Ptychodus .... 




124 


Mt. Gould, 






North Carolina 




269 


mucronata, Belemni- 






tella 




S3 


Murfreesboro, 






North Carolina 




290 


Murfreesboro stage 




267 


multispira, Globiger- 






ina ? 




83 


Museo Geologico of 






Bogota 




9 


mutica, Olivella 




288 


Mva 




?06 


Myliobatis 


128. 146 





Oak Grove formation 297,330.342. 

359 

obliqua. Textularia 320 
obliquum. Gingly- 

mostoma 124, 127, 146 

oblonga. Polymor- 

phina 338 

ocalana, Heteros- 

tegina 210 



406 



Index 



ocalanus, Operculin- 

oides 210 

occidentalis, Angulo?- 

erina 4« 276,297.350 

occidentalis, Uvigerina 350 

Odontaspis 124,125,128. 

130,146-149 

Oligocene 205 

Olivella 288 

Olsson. A. A 267 

Oolina 331 

Operculina 245 

operculiferum. 

Fissoelphldium 248 

Operculinoides 212, 21b 220. 

243-245 

orbicularis. Discorbis 275 

Planispirillina ....46 29.'., 351 

Spirillina 27). 3'»1 

d'Orbigny. A 319,331,340, 

345 353 

Orbulina 291, 36ll 365 

ornata. Globotrun- 

cana 3 49, 50 

Rugoglobigerina ..3 49, 50 57, 

J 07 
ornata subornata. 

Globotruncana ....3 14. 49, 50 
ornata subornata, 

Rugoglobigerina 3 14, 49, 50, 

107 

oruatissinius, Nonion 343 
ornatus, Cyliudra- 

canthus 12 12 T 

Ordovician 147, 171 

Origin of Species .... 314 

Ostracion 147 

Ostracoda 180,262,274 

Ostrea 289 

otolith 149 

overricus. Hypo- 

prion 138 

Oxyrhina 124 

Nahecaris 180 

Naheola formation .... 338 

Nania beds 184 

Narragansett Bay .... 299 300 
Natchitoches, 

Louisiana 223 

National Science 

Foundation 263 

Natural Well, North 

Carolina 290 



Nauss, A. W 3?» 

Naussi branch 34 37 

naussi. Globotrun- 
cana 13, 29, 35. 

b6, 104 

Nautilus 310 

Naval Mine Depot 

well, Virginia 287 

Negaprion 127, 131, 1 10-143. 

148 

Neobelinuropsis 175 

Nephrolepidina 315 

nevifera. Sigmomor- 

phina 41,294.336 

Nicaragua 245,248 

nicaraguana. Mis- 
cellanea 241 247 

Nigeria 138 144 

Nodosaria 290,291,30], 

329 

sp 38 328. H29 

Nonion 275,291,297. 

301,839,340, 
343 

? sp. A 44 341 

? sp. B 43 341 

Nonionella 295. 297. ;'.41 

Nonionina 275. 330 340 

North Carolina 2S9. 290 

Notostraca ISl 

novangliae, Poly- 

niorphina 301 

Pseudopolymor- 

phina 40 234.335 

Nucula 28) 306 

Nunimulites 247 

P 

Paleontological Re- 
search Institution .. 263.265 

Palma Sola. 

.Me.xico 221 

Palmer, Katherine 

V. W 263.332.334 

palmerae. Guttulina 40 294, 333 

Lagena 39 294,332.334 

Palmyra Landing, 

North Carolina 290 

Pamunkey beds 131 

Panama 327 

panamensis, Heteros- 

tegina 213 

Miogypsina 30 212 214 



407 



Index 



Miolepidocyclina 30 




213, 


214 


Papagallos shale 






55 


Papayal well, 








Colombia 


11. 


19, 


35, 




36, 


, 50, 


, 52 


parkerae, Buccella 51 




294, 


,356 


Parrott, W. T 




264, 


281 


partschiana, Epis- 








tonlna 






27.^ 


partschii, Tex- 








tularia 






316 


parva, Globotrun- 




cana 5 


14, 


65, 


75, 






91, 


100 


parvula, Lepidocy- 








clina 






213 


Pascagoula formation 






271 


Patagonia 






146 


patelliformis, Glo- 








botruncana 4 


14, 


53, 


54, 
102 


paula, Bolivina 






276 


pearceyi, Sigmomor- 








phina 41 


291, 


297 


302, 

337 

01 


Pecan Gap marl 






Pecten 


267, 


268. 


271, 




274, 


288, 


289, 
30f 


Pellatispirella 


206, 


239. 


240, 






244, 


,^49 


pennyi, Globotrun- 








cana 7 




lo, 


, 73 


Rugoglobigerina < 


15, 


73, 


7G, 
107 


pennyi subpennyi, Glo- 








botruncana 7 




15, 


. 73 


pennyi subpennyi, Rugo- 






globigerina 7 




15, 


,107 


penonensis, Asterocy- 








clina 29 






214 


perforatus, Dyocibi- 








cides 49 


291 


,299 


,367 
368 


perkinsi, Discocyclina 




205 


,207 


Proporocyclina 






207 


Pseudophragmina .. 






207 


Permian 




171 


176 


perundosa, Lepidocy- 




clina 






?,iy,' 


peruvianus, Eponides 


^55 


petaloidea, Globo- 








truncana 3 


14 


, 40 


. 52 


Rugoglobigerina 3 


14, 


f^O 


S4. 
107 



petaloidea subpeta- 



loidea, Globotrun- 

cana 3 14, 

petaloidea subpeta- 

loidea, Rugoglobig- 
erina 3 14, 52. 

84 
Petersburg, Virginia 289,291, 

Petters, Viktor 9, 

pettersi, Globotrun- 

cana 6 14, 60, 

72, 76, 77, 
96, 

Phacoides 

philanthropes, Psam- 

mechinus 

Phyllocarida 

Physodon 

pigmea, Uvigerina .... 
Pinecrest, Florida .... 226, 

pizarrensis, Nonion 42 297. 

planemergel 

Planispirillina 291, 

planulata, Spirolo- 

culina 

Planulina 297,301, 

plebia, Cytheretta .... 
plicata, Globotrun- 

cana 

Pliolepidina 207.211. 

Plummerae branch .... 39, 
plummerae, Globo- 

truncana 2 13, 42, 

46, 56, 

91, 96, 

Textularia 

Plummerita 38, 53, 

Polinices 288, 

Polylepidina 

Polymorphina 275, 301. 

Polystomella 341. 

Pontian 

Poroeponides 262, 301, 

312 
Powell's Lake Spill- 
way, Virginia 308, -309. 

318,310, 
333 338, 
352.353, 
367, ?68 
praecursor, Isurus .... 127 

Oxyrhina 124, 

praecursor americana, 

Isurus 127, 

praecursor americana. 



52 



53 

107 

209 

68 

6S, 
91, 
100 
288 

305 
181 
127 

276 
227 
340 
30 
351 

275 
366 
290 

53 

2i4, 

221 

56 

45, 
?6, 
1C5 
319 
86, 
87 

,289 
209 

,338 
342 
269 

310, 

316, 
320, 
342, 
357, 

370 
,146 

125 

146 



408 



Index 



Oxyrhina 124, 125 

preacanthia, Bulim- 

ina 45 1^94.345 

Prealpes suisses 19,23 

prisca, Sphyrna 140 

Pristis 128, 14U 

pristodontus, Corax .. '}2i,l'>A 

Problematica 183 

Proporocyclina 209 

proteiformis, Lepidocy- 

clina 27. 28,210 

221 

Pliolepidina 27, 28,221 

proxima, Nucula 289 

Psammechinus 305 

pseudiota. Robulus 38 294,297,325 
pseudobliqua, Textu- 

laria 35^36 294.320 

pseudobliqua aspera, 

Textularia 36 294, 320 

pseudocostatula, 

Guttulina 40 294, 334 

Pseudocrustacea 180 

Pseudolepidina 222 

Pseudophragniina .... 222 

Pseudopolymorphina 294. 297, 335 

sp 294, 295 

sp. A 41 336 

sp. B 41 336 

pseudosulcata, 

Lagena 39 294.332 

Pseudovalvulineria .... 81, 93 

pshadae, Globorotalia 48 

Pteridinium 184 

Ptychodus 124 

puilboreauensis, 

Dictyoconus 207,217 

Pullenia 11 

Pullenia cretacea 

zone, Colombia .... 19. 21, 23, 

36, 40, 42. 

45. 46, 49, 

52. 54, 55, 

71, 96 

Pulvinulina 13,275,359 

punctata. Anonialina 275 

Virgulina 44,45 297.303.346 

Puri. H. S 296,338 

pustulata, Discocy- 

clina 207 

pustulosa, Lepidocy- 

clina 27,2S 207.210,214 

Pliolepidina 27,28,30 207, 214 
pustulosa tobleri. 

Lepidocyclina ...28 210. 214 
pustulosa tobleri. 



Pliolepidina 28 

Pychnogonida 

pyrula, Dentalina 3H 



214 

171 

294,295,297. 

328 



Q 

Qatar Peninsula, 

Arabia 248 

quadrans. Massillina 

37 294, 325 
quadrans cateri, 

-Massilina 37 294,325 

quadrilateralis, 

Triloculina 323 

Quinqueloculina 275,291,294, 

302,321 

seminulangulata .... 291 

sp 37 323 

li 

Raasch. G. 172. 175 

Rancheria Valley. 

Colombia 9 11 

Ranikothalia 243.244.245 

Raysor marl 269.271 

recta. Textularia 319 

recticonus, Galerhinus 

11 143,148,149 

claibornensis, 

Galeorhinus 11 143,148,149 

Rectocibidella 261,370 

rectus, Cylindracan- 

thus 127,147 

Redmond, C. W 311 

Red Sea 300,302 

regina, Polymorphina 275. 335 

Rehder, Harald 263,298,306. 

353 

rehderi, Discorbis 46 294,297.353 

Reichel, .M 9. 15 

reicheli. Rotalipora 83. 93. 99 

Rugoglobigerina .... 33 
reicheli hexacamerata. 

Rugoglobigerina .... 33 
renzi, Globotrun- 

cana 24. 84. 90. 

101.102 

repanda, Pulvinulina 311,358 
repandus, Eponides ....275, 310, 312 

Nautilus 310.311 

Poroeponides 358 

retoflexa. Isurus 125 

retus, Cylindracan- 

thus 124 

Richards. H. G 264,271.289. 

291 



409 



Index 



Ricinulei 173 

Rio Hacha road 11 

Rio Manaure, 

Colombia 10 

Rio Molino, 

Colombia 11 

Roanoke River, 

North Carolina 290 

roberti, Ticinella 82, 98 

Roberts, Joseph Kent 264, 269, 370 
robertsi, Rectoci- 

bicidella 49 294, 370 

Robulus 284,294,295, 

325 

sp 38 327 

Rome, Italy 336 

rosacea, Discorbis .... 275, 276, 351, 

353 

Rotalia 353 

Rosalina 351 

Rosalinella 33, 43, 106 

Rosetta branch 58, 66, 76 

rosetta, Globotrun- 

cana 6 14, 63, 66, 

76, 77, 85. 
87, 91, 92. 
96,100, 101 
rosetta insignis, Glo- 

botruncana 6 14. 67, 92 

rosetta pettersi, Glo- 

botruncana 6 14, 60, 68, 

72. 91, 96. 
100 
rosetta-stuarti, Glo- 

botruncana 40 

rossicus, Neobelinurop- 

sis 175 

Rotalia 68,294.302. 

357 

Rotaliidae 248 

Rotalina 359 

Rotalipora 7 15, 51, 81, 

82, 84, 89, 
90, 92, 98 
rotundata, Globotrun- 

cana 7 15, 70 

Rugoglobigerina .7 15, 70. 71. 
76, 77,107 
rotundata subrotundata, 

Rugoglobigerina ....7 15. 70, 107 
rotundata subrotun- 
data, Globotruncana 7 15, 70 

Rugoglobigerina 7, 8, 14, 15. 

29-31, 34-36, 

55, 57. 60. 

96. 106 





275 




72 


15, 


38, 72, 


73. 


87, 91, 




100 


15, 


44, 69, 


70-73,76-78, 




107 




73 




70 




15, 72 


15, 


44, 107 


41. 


294,295. 




297,335 




148, 149 



rugosa, Guadryina .... 

Globigerina 

Globotruncana ....7 



Rugoglobigerina ..7 



rugosa pennyi, Rugoglo- 
bigerina 

rugosa rotundata, Rugo 
globigerina 

rugosa subrugosa, 
Globotruncana ....7 

rugosa subrugosa, 
Rugoglobigerina .... 

rutila, Pseudopoly- 
morphina 

rutoti, Odontaspis .... 
S 



sacculifera, Globiger- 
ina 361,363 

sagittula, Textularia.. 275, 276 

sagra. Cancris 48 247. 299. 359 

Pulvinulina 276,359 

Rotalina 359 

Sahelian 269 

San Bias Bay 332,338,347 

San Joaquin Valley, 

California 357 

Santonian '. 11, 23, 85, 

87, 90, 95 

Saracenaria 294,329 

? sp 38 329 

Sarniatian 296 

Sarmiento, R 48 

sarmientoi, Globotrun- 
cana 3 14, 47, 48, 

66, 86, 91, 

97, 101 

scalariformis, I^agena 331 

Scapanorhynchus 124 

scapha. Nonion 275 

Nonionina 275. 276 

Schweitzer, Paul 264, 284 

Sciaenidarum 149 

Scotland 173 

scotti, Trinitella 87 

scutilla. Globigerina 4 54 

Globotruncana ....4 14, 41, 54, 

94, 105 

Scvliorhinus 128, 130, 146 



410 



IVBS. CffATF. Z09L 

mm 

0CT1 PJQi^f;! 



-lo 



Index 



Scyphomedusa 184 

secundus, Physodon 

127. 144.147-14!t 
seniinula. Quinquelo- 

culina 37 295.296,321 

seminulangulata, Quin- 

queloculina '^7 322 

seminulum, Miliolina 321 

Quinqueloculina ..-. 275,276,301 

Serpula 321 

semipunctata, Pulvin- 

ulina 359 

semitecta, Signiomor- 

phina 41 302,337 

terqueniiana, Sigmo- 

morphina 41 302, 337 

seranensis, Globotrun- 

cana 67.68,87 

91, 100 
serra, Ginglymostoma 124 

Hemipristis 127, 133, 136 

Service des Fonts et 

Chaussees a Montereau, 

Seine-et-Marne 33 

Sevier County, 

Tennessee 157. 179, 183 

Shattuck "zones" 280 

sherwoodensis, 

Lepidocyclina 207 

Shinki, India 239 

Shoal River forma- 
tion 33,297 

Siboga Expedition .... 314 

sigali, Globotrun- 

cana 75, 84, 92. 

101 
Sigmoilina 325 

sp 37 294.325 

Sigmomorphina 291.294,295, 

302.336 
signatus. Hypoprion 138 

simplex, Pteridinium 184 

Sinnott, Allen 265 

Siphogenerina 261,287,294. 

349 

Siphogenerinoides 11 31. 33, 35. 

43, 50, 53. 

55. 64. 67. 

69, 72 



Siphogenerinoides — 
bramlettei zone ... 



Slama. D. C. 



31, 33. 35, 

43. 46, 50, 

53, 55, 64. 

67. 69 

318 



Smith. E. A 123 

Smith Woodward, A. 140. 142 

Sohn, 1 275 

soldanii. Rotalia 275 

sokolowi, Carcharodon 125 

South Africa 184 

South Carolina 133,139,142, 

144,269 

Sphyrna 124. 140, 141 

Sphyraena 127, 147 

spinifer, Aglaspis 175 

spinosus, Robulus .... 284 

Spirillina 275 

Spiroplectammina ..:... 281 

Spiroloculina 275 

spissa, Bolivina 275 

"Squalus" 126 

Stach, L. W 311 

St. Bartholomew 247 

St. Johann, Bavaria .. 23 

St. -Mary's formation 267. 295 306. 

308.309.318, 

319,324, 33J 

stephani ?, 

Globotruncana 24,26,81,82. 

84,86.90.99 

Stephenson. H. K 263, 273 

St0rmer, Leif 158. 172, 173 

striatopunctata, Nonion 275 

striatoreticulata, 

Camerina 207,210 

striatula, Bolivina 45 291. 298, 347 

Stromer, E 136 

Stuarti branch 58,75 

stuarti, 

Globotruncana .....> 14, 20, -63. 64. 
74.85.86,91, 
96,100,101 
stuarti conica, 

Globotruncana 5 14, 65, 75, 86, 

91.96,100 

stuarti parva. 

Globotruncana 5 14. 64. 65, 75, 

91,100 

subangulata. 

Textularia 276 

subaraucana, 

Discorbis 351 

subbeldingi. 

Globotruncana 1 13. 32 

Rugoglobigerina .... 13. 34 

subcarinata. 
Globotruncana 87 

subcircumnodifer. 



411 



Index 



Globotruncana - 14, 44, 56 

Rugoglobigerina .... 14, 107 

subgansseri, 

Globotruncana 6 15, 68, 100 

subglaessneri, 

Globotruncana ...3 14, 51 

Rugoglobigerina ....3 14, 50, 51, 107 

subhexacamerata, 

Globotruncana 13 

Rugoglobigerina ....1 13, 34, 106 

subloba, Cibicides .... 294 
subloba, 

Truncatulina .49 276, 367 

sublobus. Cibicides 49 367, 369 

subloetterli, 

Globotruncana 1 13. 30 

Rugoglobigerina ..1 13. 36, 106 

submacrocephala, 

Globotruncana 2 14, 46 

Rugoglobigerina .-2 14, 46 

subnodosa, 

Polystomella 276 

subornata, 

Globotruncana 3 14, 49 

Rugoglobigerina .... 14, 107 

subpennyi, 

Globotruncana 7 15. 73 

Rugoglobigerina ....7 15, 73, 76, 107 

subpetaloidea, 

Globotruncana 3 52 

Rugoglobigerina ..3 52, 53. 84, 107 

subrotundata, 

Globotruncana 7 15, 70 

Rugoglobigerina ..7 15, 70, 107 

subrugosa, 

Globotruncana 7 15, 72 

Rugoglobigerina ..7 15, 44, 72. 76. 

107 

substriata, Lagena 39 291. 333 

Suffolk, Virginia 269,353,363 

sulcata, Lagena 332 

supera, Lepidocyclina 213 

sutures, Lapparenti 

type 15 

sutures, Rosetta type 16 

Synziphosura 173 

Synziphosurina 174, 175 



T 

tamanensis, 

Operculinoides 

Tantoyuca formation 
Tarboro, 

North Carolina 



212 
221 

290,291 



Temblor formation .. 357 

Tennessee Valley .... 157 

tenuimargo, 

Cibicides 275 

cf. tenuistrata, 

Uvigerina 45,46 291, 349 

teres, Proporocyclina 223 

Pseudophragmina .. 223 

teretidens, 

Odontaspis 125 

terqueniiana, 

Sigmomorphina ..41 302, 337 

tertus, Physodon 144 

texanus, 

Scapanorhynchus .. 124 

Texas 23,176,217. 

300 

Textularia 218. 275, 276, 

294.302.303, 
316,320 

Textularioides 294,321 

thallus, Cadulus 288 

Thalmann, H 247 

thalmanni. 

Globotruncana ...4 14,27,54,58, 
61,62,74,77,85, 
96,102 
flexuosa, 

Globotruncana ....4 14. 61, 63. 96. 

102 

Thalmanninella 7, 8, 15, 81. 

87-89,92.98 
316,320 

"The Rocks" 123 

Tibbitts, G. C 265 

Ticinella 7,8,15,81. 

87-89, 92. 93. 98 
ticinensis. 

Thalmanninella 81, 83, 98 

typica, Thalmanninella 98 

tobleri, 

Lepidocyclina 210, 214 

Todd, Ruth 239,265 

Tortugas 352 

Trachyleberis 290,291 

trelawniensis, 

Yaberinella 207 

tricarinata, 

Globotruncana 1 16,20-24, 26. 

27,55,56,64, 
65,85,91,97, 
103 
tricarinata cesarensis 

Globotruncana 75 



412 



Indi x 



tricarinata Colombia na. 

Globntniiuana I 13,18,20-23, 

26.27,45.64. 
65,75.85,91. 
93, 104 
tricarinata desioi, 

Globotruiu-ana 13. 27, 103 

tricostata, Ecphora .... 289 

tridacnoides. Venus .. 270 

Trigonitarbi 173 

Triloculina 323 

trimera, 

Pseudolepidina 31, 222 

Triniorphism 313 

Trinidad 8.23 

tiinldadensis, 

Globotriincana 3 14, 47, 102 

trinitatis. Lepidocyclina 207 

Trinitella 86 

triloculiniforma, 

Quinqueloculina 37 294. 322 

Triops 181 

Triplalepidina 221,222 

trisulcatus. Phacoides 288 

Troelsen. J. C 264 

truncata. Borelis 206, 218 

Trybliolepidina 315 

tumida, Globorotalia 275 

tumidula, ("ibicides ... 275 

turbinata. 

Globotriincana 82, 84, 87. 99 

Turbonilla sp 288 

Turonian 19,83,90,95. 

97 
Turonian-Maestrlchtian, 

Tignale. Italy 19.23 

turonica. Rotalipora .. 83. 99 

turrita. Discorbis ...47 276,294,353 

Turritella 267-269,288. 

289 

typa. Beckwithia 175 

typica. 

Thalmanninella 98 

Rotalipora 99 

u 

Tchio. T 311 

iimbilicata, 

Polystoniella 342 

Iimbilicata incerta, 

Polystomella 342 

undosa, Eulepidina .... 213 

Lepidocyclina 213, 315 

undulata. A.starte .... 289 

universa. Orbulina 53 365 



University of 

Virginia 264 

r.S. National 

.Museum 144.263.265 

I'vigerina 275, 286, 291 

294.348-350 

V 

Valvulineria 294. 353 

variabilis. 

("ibicidella 4« 297.367,369 

Truncatulina 275,368 

Turritella 269,288 

Vaugban. T. W 205, 244, 247, 

247,315 

vaughani, 

Uristellaria 38 326 

Fabularia 218 

Lenticulina 38 326 

Planularia 327 

Robulus 38 294. 295. 297. 

326 

Venericardia 289 

ventricosa, 

Globotruncana I 13.16,17,22. 

23,28,36,56, 

64.83.85,96. 

97, 104 

Ventricosa brancb .... 22, 28 

Venus 270.271,289 

venusta. 

Quinqueloculina .... 322 

Vera Cruz. .Mexico .... 221 

veracuziana. 

Triplalepidina 221 

Versey, H. R 205, 239, 245 

verseyi. Fabularia ..26 205.219 

verticalis, Lamna 140 

Odontaspis ? 131 

Odontaspis 147 

vicksburgensis, 

Bifarina 348 

Operculinoides 213 

Vienna Basin 345 

vilardeboana, 

Discorbis 275,276 

Villanueva, Colombia 11 

vincenti. I.«imna 130 

Virginia 261 

Virginia Geological 

Survey 264 

Virginia State Higluvay 
Commission 264 

Virgulina 346 

voluta. Globigerina .... 31 

vulpinus. Alopias 132 



413 



vm. m?. zoo 



Index 



w 








Walcott. C 






180 


Walnut age 






?M 


Waptia 






180 


Washington. George 




3b4 


-Washington!, 








Valvulineria 


47 


294 


.354 


Wazaristan, India . 






239 


Weches formation . 






209 


Weinbergina 






174 


Wells in Virginia . 






273 


Wells, John W 






158 


wetherelli. 








Cristellaria 






327 


wheeldoni. 








Quinqueloculina 


87 


291,302, 


323. 



White, Errol 

Eocene P^ishes of 

Alabama 

Wiedenmayer, C 

wiedenmayeri, 

Globotruncana ....7 15,72.96, 
wiedenmayeri-gansseri 

branch 

wiedenmayeri magdalenaensis. 

Globotruncana 7 72, 96. 

Wilcox Eocene 

williamsoni, 

Folymorphina 

Sigmomorphina -..42 302. 337, 



324 

119 
71 

101 

59 

101 
104 
344 

338 

338 



Wilson, Druid 266,348 

wilsoni, Loxostonnim 

45 291,348 

Woodward. S. A 140, 142 

woodward! 128 

Heterodontus 146 

wyattdurhanii, 

Hemipristis 127. 133, 135, 

136. 147 

X 

Xiphosura 171-175 

Xii)hosurida 172 

Y 

Yaberinella 206,219 

Yellow limestone 206 

Yoldia 288 

facies 297 

York-James Peninsula 261.274 

Yorktown, Virginia 267 
Yorktown Bluff, 

Virginia 33S, 344 

Bridge borings .... 280,281.286 

formation 261,267,268. 

269,271.274 
yurnagunensis, 

Lepidocyclina 213 



414 



xxu. 
xxm. 

XXIV. 
XXV. 

XXVI. 

xxvn. 
xxvm. 

XXIX. 

XXX. 

XXXT. 

XXXIL 

xxxnL 

XXXIV. 
XXXV. 

XXXVI. 

Volnme L 

n. 
ra. 

IV. 



(Nos. 73-76). 356 pp., 31 pis 900 

Paleozoic Paleontology and Tertiary Foraminifera. 

(Nos. 77-79). 251 pp., 35 pis 7-00 

Corals, Cretaceous microfauna and biography of Con- 
rad. 

(Nos. 80-87). 334 pp.. 27 pis 9-00 

Mainly Paleozoic faunas and Tertiary Mollusca. 

(Nos. S8-94IJ). 306 pp.. 30 pis 9-00 

Paleozoic fossils of Ontario, Oklahoma and Colombia, 
Mesozoic echinoids, California Pleistocene and Mary- 
land Miocene moUusks. 

(Nos. 95-100). 420 pp.. 58 pis 10.00 

Florida Recent marine shells. Texas Cretaceous fos- 
sils. Cuban and Peruvian Cretaceous, Peruvian Eo- 
gene corals, and geology and paleontology of Ecua- 
dor. 

(Nos. 101-108). 376 pp.. 36 pis 9-50 

Tertiary Mollusca. Paleozoic cephalopods. Devonian 
fish and Paleozoic geology and fossils of Venezuela. 

(Nos. 109-114). 412 pp.. 54 pis 9-75 

Paleozoic cephalopods. Devonian of Idaho. Cretaceous 
and Eocene mollusks, Cuban and Venezuelan forams. 

(Nos. 115-110). 738 pp., 52 pis 13.00 

Bowden forams and Ordovician cephalopods. 

(No. 117). 563 pp., 65 pis 12.00 

Jackson Eocene mollusks. 

(Nos. 118-128). 458 pp., 27 pis 10.00 

Venezuelan and California mollusks. Chemung and 
Pennsylvanian crinoids, Cypraeidae, Cretaceous, 
Miocene and Recent corals, Cuban and Floridian 
forams, and Cuban fossil localities. 

(Nos. 129-133). 294 pp., 39 pis 8.50 

Silurian cephalopods, crinoid studies, Tertiary forams, 
and Mytilarca. 

(Nos. 134-1S9). 448 pp., 51 pis 11.00 

Devonian annelids, Tertiary mollusks, Ecuadoran 
stratigraphy and paleontology. 

(Nos. 140-145). 400 pp., 19 pis 9.00 

Trinidad Globigerinidae, Ordovician Enopleura, Tas- 
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(Nos. 146-154). 386 pp., 31 pis 10.00 

G. D. Harris memorial, camerinid and Georgia Paleo- 
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(Nos. 155-160). 412 pp., .^3 pis 13.50 

Globotruncana in Colombia, Eocene fish, Canadian- 
Chazyan fossils, foraminiferal studies. 

Palaeontographica Americana 

(Nos. 1-5). 519 pp., 75 pis. 
Monographs of Areas, Lutetia, rudistids and venerids. 

(Nos. 6-12). 531 pp., 37 pis 20.00 

Heliophyllum halli. Tertiary turrids, Neocene Spon- 
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(Nos. 13-25). 513 pp., 61 pis 20.00 

Paleozoic cephalopod structure and phylogeny. Paleo- 
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ceous jellyfish, Plafystrophia, and Venericardia. 
(Nos. 26, 27). 4S pp., 7 pis. . 2.50 



Condensed Table of Contents of Bulletins of American 

Paleontology and Palaeontographica Americana 

bulletins of american paleontology 

L (Nos. 1-5). 354 pp. 32 pis. Mainly Tertiary Mollusca. 
II. (NOS. 6-10). 347 pp., 23 pis. 

Tertiary Mollusca and Foraminifera, Paleozoic faunas. 

III. (Nos. 11-15). 402 pp.. 29 pis. 

Tertiary Mollusca and Paleozoic sections and faunas. 

IV, (Jfos. 16-21). 161 pp., 26 pis 9.00 

Mainly Tertiary Mollusca and Paleozoic sections and 
faunas. 
V. (Nos. 22-30). 437 pp., 68 pis. 

Tertiary fossils mainly Santo Domingan, Mesozoic and 
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YI. (No. 31). 268 pp., 59 pis. 

Claibornian Eocene pelecypods. 

yn. (No. 32). 730 pp., 99 pis 13.00 

Claibornian Eocene scaphopods, gastropods, and 
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Vin. (Nos. 33-36). 357 pp., 15 pis 10.50 

Mainly Tertiary Mollusca. 

IX. (Nos. 37-39). 462 pp., 35 pis 12.00 

Tertiary Mollusca mainly from Costa Rica. 

X. (Nos. 40-42). 382 pp., 54 pis 12.00 

Tertiary forams and mollusks mainly from Trinidad 
and Paleozoic fossils. 

XI. (Nos. 43-46). 272 pp., 41 pis 9.00 

Tertiary, Mesozoic and Paleozoic fossils mainly from 

Xn. (Nos. 47-48). '494 pp., 8 pis 11.00 

Venezuela and Trinidad forams and Mesozoic inverte- 
brate bibliography. 

XIII. (Nos. 49-50). 264 pp., 47 pis 9.00 

Venezuelan Tertiary Mollusca and Tertiary Mammalia. 

Xiy. (Nos. 51-54). 306 pp., 44 pis 11.00 

Mexican Tertiary forams and Tertiary mollusks of 
Peru and Colombia. 

XT. (Nos. 55-58). 314 pp., 80 pis 10.00 

Mainly Ecuadoran, Peruvian and Mexican Tertiary 
forams and mollusks and Paleozoic fossils. 

XVI. (Nos. 59-61). 140 pp., 48 pis. 5.00 

Venezuela and Trinidad Tertiary Mollusca. 

XVII. (Nos. 62-63). 283 pp., 33 pis 9.00 

Peruvian Tertiary Mollusca. 

XVni. (Nos. 64-67). 286 pp., 29 pis 8.00 

Mainly Tertiary Mollusca and Cretaceous corals. 

XIX. (No. 68). 272 pp., 24 pis .'. 8.00 

Tertiary Paleontology, Peru. ,t^ .' 

XX. (Nos. 69-70('). 266 pp., 26 pis '.:... .^...i..:J.. 10.00 

Cretaceous and Tertiary Paleontology of Peru and 
Cuba. 

XXI, (Nos. 71-72). 321 pp., 12 pis 8.50 

Paleozoic Paleontology and Stratigraphy. 



Harvard MC/ L ihrary 



3 2044 066 305 426 



Date Due 



HAY 24 1968 

FEB '^4 V^ 
ftPR 1 1 ^963 

9A« 2 7 -68 

-MAR — 
BS& KWf- 




■■M^