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Full text of "Bulletin of the State Normal School, Duluth, Minnesota"

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bulletin 



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State IRormal Scbool 

Dululb, flftinnesota 



Catalogue flumbet 



1906 



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Vol I flDai?» 1906 Ho. 1 



JSuIIetin 



ottbe 



state *flormal Scbool 



Dttlutb, flDinneeota 



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J^outtb Ennual Cataloaue 



witb Bnnottncement0 tot 
1906iit907 



THE NE^ ^0^^^ 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 

694698 

A8T0«, LENOX AND 
TlLDtN FOUNDATIONS 



Published Quarterly by the State Normal School at Dulnth. and devoted to the 

interests of Elementary Education in Minnesota. 

Subscription price, fifty cents a year. Single copies, fifteen cents. 



Application made for entry as second class mail matter at the postoffice, 

Dulnth, Minnesota. 



• • • 

• • . 



♦ »■ 

.« • 



• * . 



(SalraHar for iaOfi-1907* 



MM VnuL 

Bntrance ESxaminations and Enrolment of Students 

Tneeday, September 4, 1906 

Glass-work begins Wednesday morning, September 5, 1906 

Term ends Wednesday noon, "NoTember 28, 1906 

Wifnttr SfniL 

Enrolment of Students Tuesday, December 4, 1906 

Glas»-work begins Wednesday morning, December 6, 1906 

Holiday Tacatlon begins Friday noon, December 21, 1906 

ClasB-work resumed Tuesday morning, January 8, 1907 

Term ends Friday noon, March 8, 1907 

9|iftu0 Qunrttt* 

Enrolment of Students Tuesday morning, March 19, 1907 

Class-work begins Wednesday morning, March 20, 1907 

Term ends Wednesday, June 12, 1907 



wdxmb £Viifttnu?sfiiBriL 



HON. JOHN W. OLSEN, State Superintendent of Pnblic Instnictlbn 



HON. H. L. BUCK, Resident Director Winona 

HON. JOHN C. WISE, Resident Director Mankato 

HON. ALVAH EASTMAN, Resident Director St. Cloud 

HON. S. G. COMSTOCK, Resident Director Moorhead 

HON. J. L. WASHBURN, Resident Director Duluth 

HON. W. S. HAMMOND St. James 

HON. ELL TORRANCE Minneapolis 

HON. H. E. HOARD Montevideo 



(MBcfTB of tiff SosrilL 



HON. ALVAH EASTMAN President 

HON. JOHN W. OLSEN Secretary and Purchasing Agent 



(MBcfm td AitetbtlBtntfiQtL 



HON. J. L. WASHBURN, Resident Director. 
E. W. BOHANNON, President. 
^BERTHA S. PAINE, Secretary. 
CHARLOTTE M. BROOKS, Acting Secretary. 
KATHERINE W. ENSIGN, Librarian. 
^Absent on leave. 



JMflfffltjt, 



EUQENE W. BOHANNON, A. M., President. 

School Beonomy, Social Science. 
UNUS W. KLINE, Ph. D., 

Psychology and Pedagogy, Supervisor of Training School. 
HARRT C. STRONG, A. B., 

History and Civics. 
JESSE W. HUBBARD, A. M., 

Physics, Chemistry and Geography. 
DORA EATON, 

Domestic Science. 
♦HERBERT BLAIR, B. S., 

Biology. 
HELEN H. MASON, 

Mnsic. 
C. P. CURTIS RILEY, A. B.. 

Biology. 
ANNA N. CARET, A. B., 

English. 
KATHARINE D. POST, B. L., 

Latin. 
BEULAH I. SHOESMITH, B. S^ 

Mathematics. 
HELEN A. BAINBRIDGE, Ed. B., 

Drawing and Manual Training. 
OLIVE B. HORNE, 

Seventh and Eighth Tears, Training School. 
MARGARET QUILLIARD, 

Kindergarten. 
EDNA E. HETWOOD, Ph. B., 

Third and Fourth Tears, Training School. 
IRENE M. SINCLAIR, 

Fifth and Sixth Tears, Training School. 
FLORENCE V. ELT, 

First and Second Tears, Training School. 

^Absent on leave. 



(Sftiftal 9tatratftit. 



LeglBlatlve proviBion waa made for the State Nonnal Sdiool 
at Duluth In 1896, when it waa enacted that there should be 
established under the direction and superyision of the State 
Normal School Board, at the City of Duluth, in the County of SL 
Louis, a Normal School to be known as the State Normal School at 
Duluth; provided said city shall donate to the state a suitable tract 
of not less than six (6) acres of land, to be approved by the Normal 
School Board, for the location, use and benefit of said school, within 
twelve (12) months from the passage of this act; provided further 
that no money appropriated for the erection of buildings for said 
school flhall be expended prior to the year one thousand eight hun- 
dred and ninety-six." (1896. C. 184.) 

In 1897 an appropriation of |6,000 was made for the founda- 
tion, and in 1899 the legislature voted |76,000 for the erection of 
the building, making one-half the amount available in 1900, and 
the other half in 1901. The building thus provided for waa well 
along toward completion when.in February of 1901, it was destroyed 
by fire. Fortunately it was well protected by insurance and it was 
possible to rebuild without further aid from the State. The work 
of reconstruction was not completed until the middle of the follow- 
ing winter and for that reason the opening of the school was de- 
layed until the fall of 1902. 

The enrolment of students 'in the Normal Department during 
the first of the four years that the school has been in operation was 
one hundred twenty-seven, that for the second, not counting special 
students who carried work in Domestic Science only, was one hun- 
dred forty-nine, for the third one hundred sixty-one and for the 
present year two hundred two. If this rate of increase should pre- 
vail another year the enrolment of the first year will have been 
doubled at the end of the fifth year. A like increase in attendance 
has taken place in the grades of > the Model School. 

A Kindergarten and all of the grades from the first to the eighth 
are maintained. At the opening of the school four years ago it waa 
somewhat doubtful whether the number of children to attend would 
be sufficient to constitute a model school in any proper sense. Only 
three teachers were needed to take charge of the pupils at that time, 
while five are required now and the number of children aeelrtng ad- 
mission is greatly in excess of the limit fixed for the several grades. 



DULUTB, MINMB80TA. 7 

91|f VniUrttQ ani diuifiuvtit. 

The bnllding is thoroughly modem In oonstmctlon and eqnlp- 
ment. It is located in one of the moat attractiye parta of the city, 
OTorlooklng the watera of Lake Superior from a height of more than 
three hundred feet. 

The laboratories are large and well arranged. The furniture 
and apparatus are new and excellent in every way. The present 
equipment of the seyeral laboratories represents an expenditure of 
not lees than $7,500, and is entirely adequate for the needs of the 
school. 

A large and well-lighted room has been equipped for manual 
training. It is supplied with twenty benches of the most approved 
make and all of the necessary tools and instruments. 

At the annual meeting of the State Normal School Board in 
June, 1908, the establishment of a Department of Domestic 
Science in the State Normal School at Duluth was authorised. 
This action was taken in response to a proposal on the part of 
the women of the various clubs of Duluth to furnish the equip* 
ment for such department provided the School would employ a 
teacher. The offer was accepted, the equipment supplied and a 
teacher employed. The work of the department has been in progress 
since that time, and the results thus far achieved are highly gratify- 
ing, both to the School and the women whose interest and support 
made them possible. 

The library contains from three to four thousand well-selected 
volumes and is in charge of a well-trained librarian. 



JfwcpOBt anil pUm iif % fMpuiL 

The purpose of the school, as of the other four State Normal 
Schools, is to train teachers for the common schools of the state. 
Two departments are maintained: — ^the Normal Department proper, 
and the Training Department. The courses of study in the Normal 
Department are six in number, as follows: 

I. The Academic-Professional Courses: 

1. The Advanced English Course of five years. 

2. The Advanced Latin Course of five years. 

II. The Graduate Courses for hie^ school and college gradu- 
ates: 

1. The Elementary Graduate Course of one year. 

2. The Advanced Graduate Course of two years. 

3. The Kindergarten Training Course of two years. 

III. The Elementary Course of three years, displacing the 
Certificate Course. 



8 STATB NORMAL SCHOOL, 

The three advanced courees lead to an Advanced Diploma, 
which* hy endorsement after two years of successful teaching, 
becomes a life certificate of the first grade. The Elementary 
Graduate Course leads to an Elementary Diploma for High School 
Graduates, which, upon endorsement after two years of success- 
ful teaching, becomes a state certificate of the first grade good 
for five years, and is subject to renewal by re-endorsement The 
Elementary Course leads to an Elementary Diploma, which, after 
two years of successful teaching and upon endorsement, becomes 
a state certificate of the first grade, good for five years and subject 
to renewal by re-endorsement. 



OMp Araiirtttir-Pnif»BBimml (^mxtBtn. 

The amount of academic work required in these courses cor- 
responds quite closely to that ottered In the ordinary four-year 
high school course. There is, in addition, provision for special 
training in Psychology, the History and Philosophy of Education, 
Methods, Observation and Practice work in the Training Depart- 
ment. A detailed statement of the work offered in these courses 
will be found in the synopsis of the Courses of Study. 



These courses are arranged to meet the needs of college and 
high school graduates. The work is wholly professional and may 
be completed, as elsewhere indicated, in one and two years. The 
one year, or Elementary Graduate Course, is intended for those 
graduates of high schools who cannot spend more than a single 
year in their preparation for teaching, and its completion entitles 
the student to the Elementary Diploma. 

The two-year or Advanced Graduate Course is much 
richer in subject matter and its completion insures a more satis- 
factory training. Graduates from this course are in greater de- 
mand as teachers. School boards in many of the more important 
cities of the state, Duluth among others, refuse to employ gradu- 
ates of the Elementary Graduate Course. The advantages of the 
advanced courses are such that students should make sure of their 
inability to spend two years in the school before deciding on the 
Elementary Graduate Course. 

The Kindergarten Training Course is two years in length, 
and is practically a division of the Advanced Graduate Course. 
The outline of work will be found on pages 27 and %8. Only sud'a 
students as are qualified to enter one or the other of the graduate 
courses can undertake this course. 



DULOTH. MimiBSOTA. 9 

9i|r Slfinniterg <imtM. 

This course has been substituted for the Certificate Course, 
from which it differs in two chief respects. The order of ar- 
rangement of the different subjects in the course can be yaried 
in accordance with the needs of the seyeral schools, and the com- 
pletion of the work entitles the student to an Elementary 
Diploma, as has been elsewhere stated. The subject matter and 
the amount of time apportioned the seyeral subjects are prac- 
tically the same in the new Elementary Course as in the old Cer- 
tificate Course which it displaces. It is planned to meet the 
needs of those persons who haye not had the adyantages of a 
high school training and who expect to qualify for work in the 
rural schools. It is also expected that it will meet the needs of 
those already teaching in the rural schools who desire a more 
adequate training for their work. 



CfottMtliniB of A&ntiHflUnu 

I. To the Academic-Professional Oonrses. 

Persons holding State Teachers' Certificates of the Second 
Grade are admitted to the first year class without examination. 
Others are required to pass satisfactory examinations in Arith- 
metic, English Grammar, Geography, United States History and 
Physiology, or to present certificates from the State High School 
Board. 

Persons holding State Teachers' Certificates of the Pirst 
Grade, yalid at the time of presentation, are entitled to twelye 
credits on either of the fiye year courses or the Elementary 
Course; proyided (1) that the subjects to be credited shall be 
designated by the President in conference with the student, and 
(2) that the ayerage of the certificate be not less than 76 per 
cent, and (8) that subjects in which the standings are less than 
75 per cent be not credited and i^all reduce the number of credits 
allowed proportionately. 

Admission to adyanced standing in any of these courses will 
be determined by examination in the subjects completed by the 
class to which admission is sought, or by presentation of other 
satisfactory eyidence of the ability to do the work of the class. 

n. To the Elementary Course* 

The conditions for admission to this course are the same as 
those for the Academic-Professional courses. 



DULUTH, MIMNISOTA. 



13 





SECOND YEAR. 




Fall Term. 


Winter Term. 


Spring Term. 


Geometry 


Geometry 


Reviews in Arithmetic 


Zoology 


Zoology 


Physiology and 


Reading 


Literature 


Hygiene 


Beviews in Arithmetic 


Drawing 

TUIKD YEAR. 


Literature 
Music 


Physics 


Physics 


Physics 


Reviews in Qrammar 


Reviews in Qrammar 


Rhetoric 


Botony 


Civics 




Professional Work 


Professional Work 


Professional Work 



l%.ntMtttf#n lMffwnltiif# wKMUtrtt^. 




FIRST YEAR 




FallTbrm. 


Winter Term. 


Spring Term. 


PEQTchology 


Peychology 


Pl^dudogy 


Methods in Drawing 


Methods in Reading 


Elementary Science 


Reviews and Methods 


Reviews and Methods 


Reviews and Methods 


in Geography 


in Grammar 


in Grammar or 


Methods in Vocal 


Reviews and Methods 


Primary Methods 


Music 


in Arithmetic 
SECOND YEAR. 




Literary Interpretation 


Theme Writing 


School Eiconomy 


Reviews and Methods 


History and Philoso- 


History and Philoso- 


in History 


phy of Education 


phy of Education 


General Methods 


Manual Training 


Theme Writing 


Social Science 


Teaching 


Teaching 



Social »cieuco 
Piqrchology 



laterature 
General Method 
Teaching 



P&ychology 



FIFTH YEAR. 

Literature 

History and Philoso- 
phy of Education 
Teaching 



Astronomy 
Psychology 
SoUd Geometry 



Physiography or 
Special Methods 

History and Philoso- 
phy of Education 

Theme Writing 

School Economy 



12 



STATB NORMAL SCHOOL, 



Cattn <Sfitir«r. 



Fall Term. 
Latin LeasoDS 
Algebra 
Geography 
English Composition 



Caesar 

General History 
Reading 
Geometry 



Cicero 
Physics 

Botany or Zoology 
English Grammar 



FIRST YEAR. 

Winter Term. 
Latin Lessons 
Algebra 
Geography 
Drawing 

SECOND TEAR 

Caesar 

General History 
Manual Training 
Geometry 

THIRD TEAR. 

Cicero 

Physics 

Botany or Zoology 

Literature 



Spring Term. 
Latin Lessons 
Algebra 
Reading 
Drawing 



Caesar 
Rhetoric 
Manual Training 
Music 



Cicero 
Physics 
Physiology 
Literature 



High school graduates who shall have taken, as post-gradu- 
ate work, at least a half year's work in Normal subjects as offered 
in the^State High Sdiools may receive credit for subjects in which 
they shall have done a full semester's work, provided (1) that these 
credits shall apply only on the two years' graduate course, and (2) 
that the President reserves the right to test the quality of work 
for which credit is asked. 



IV. To the Kindergarten Training Course. 

The conditions governing admission to this course are 
identical with those applying in the case of the Advanced Gradu- 
ate Course. (See III above and pp. 27 and 28.) 



FaU Term. 
Algebra 

English History 
Reviews in Geography 
English Composition 



Elftttmtarg (Samw. 



FIRST TEAR. 

Winter Term. 
Algebra 
U. S. History 
Reviews in Geography 
English Composition 



Spring Term. 
Algebra 
U. S. History 
Music 
Reading 



DULUTB, MINMBSOTA. 



13 





SECOND YEAR. 




FallTftrm. 


Winter Tdrm. 


Spring Term. 


Geometry 


Geometry 


Reviews in Arithmetic 


Zoolo^ 


Zoology 


Physiology and 


RaadiDg 


Literature 


Hygiene 


BeviewB in Arithmetic 


Drawing 

THIRD TEAR 


Literature 
Music 


PhTBics 


Physics 


Physios 


BeyiewB in Grammar 


BeyiewB in Grammar 


Rhetoric 


Botany 


Civics 




Professional Work 


Professional Work 


Professional Work 



Atenmrrii tbnibuatt <bmtm. 



Fall Term. 
Paychidogy 
Methods in Drawing 
Reviews and Methods 

in Geography 
Methods in Vocal 

Music 



FIRST TEAR 

Winter Term. 
Psychology 
Methods in Reading 
Reviews and Methods 

in Grammar 
Reviews and Methods 

in Arithmetic 

SECOND ITEAR 



Ldterary Interpretation Theme Writing 

Reviews and Methods History and Philoso- 

in History phy of Education 

General Methods Manual Training 

Social Science Teaching 



Spring Term. 
Psydudogy 
Elemental^ Science 
Reviews and Methods 

in Grammar or 
Primary Methods 



School Economy 
History and Philoso- 
phy of Education 
Theme Writing 
Teaching 



tlf Htf wtii r II CHTHutuit^ Cuittysf • 



Fall Term. 
Professional Work 
Reviews and Methods 

in Drawing 
Reviews and Methods 

in Geography 
Reviews and Methods 

in Music 



Winter Term. 
Professional Work 
Reviews and Methods 

in Grammar 
Reviews and Methods 

in Arithmetic 
Reviews and Methods 

in Reading (half-term) 



Spring Term. 
Professional Work 
Elementary Science 



il»anritrttt» (9ittliii» nf % Xork in % 

iiSirmtt 0ttbfr(tB. 



VHttdudmiL 

Course I. Three termB in all AdTanoed Courses. Term I. 
The major part of the work of this term is experimental and 
demonstrative. It is introdnoed by a study of the nervous system. 
The material for this work consists of a number of brain models, 
brain preparations for gross sections, histological preparations 
from the spinal ganglia, cord and cortex, and a number of charts. 
The laboratory experiments, about sixty in number, are selected 
from Witmer's Analytical Psychology, from Munsterberg's Pseud- 
Optics, and from Sanford's and Titchner's texts in this field. The 
aim is to give the student an acquaintance with a few of the most 
important types of experimentation and to lay emphasis on the 
physiological conditions of mental activity. Incidental, but none 
the less important, ends are training in accuracy of observation and 
in interpretation of results. Besides, it is believed that ex- 
perimentation focuses the students' attention directly on the subject 
matter of psychology. 

Term II. This term is devoted to a more efficient training 
in the power of introspection and aims at a more general view 
of the problems of adult introspective psychology, particularly the 
synthetic nature of mental processes. It includes some further 
study of the phsrsiological conditions of mental activity, including 
brain localization. The genetic aspect of mind receives special 
emphasis throughout the course. Text-book: Titchner's Primer of 
Psychology or its equivalent. 

Term III. The work of this term consists of a more thorough- 
going treatment of the problem of genetic psychology as manifested 
in the growing child. A study is made of the development of the 
senses, of the growth in speech and in movements, and of nascent 
periods. As far as possible each member of the class is assigned a 
separate topic in child study for intensive study, the results of 
which are expressed in a formal paper. Text-book: Klrkpatrick's 
Fundamentals of Child Study. 

Course II. One term in the Blementary and Blementary Grad- 
uate courses. In this course, which represents the first of the three 
terms of "Professional Work" in the Blementary courses, those prob- 
lems of psychology most directly related to modem school practice 
are studied. The child as found in the school room furnishes the 



DULUTH, MIMMB80TA. 15 

text. Topics are assigned from time to time for reading and discus- 
sion. Likewise monographs and special papers bearing on ednca- 
tional psychology are reviewed and reported to the class by indiyid- 
ual members. Text-book: James' Talks to Teachers. 



This course (1) examines the principles, implications and 
inferences of psycology for the purpose of getting advice, sugges- 
tions, and even rules, for the many phases of school work; (2) esti- 
mates the relative value of the several school branches for training 
sense-perception, memory, imagination, attention, volition, etc.; 
(3) indicates the significance of growth in school practice; (4) at- 
tempts a brief survey of the more reputed methods of instruction, as 
story-building, Socratic method, Herbartian methods, monitorial and 
developing methods. 



Two terms in all Advanced Courses. The work in this subject 
consists for the most part of critical studies of the educational 
classics. The classics are read and discussed in class. In selecting 
translated editions for the students, attention is given to the fidelity 
of the translation and the technique of the book. Plato's Republic 
Aristotle's Politics, Locke's Thoughts on Education, Milton's Trac- 
tate, Rousseau's Emlle and Spencer's Education are read. A de- 
scriptive account is given of the Great Didactic, of the writings of 
Pestalozzi, of Froebel, Herbart and others. During the latter part 
of the second term an attempt is made to trace out the origin, the 
philosophical background, the growth and interrelation of the lead- 
ing ideals of education in the past, and to estimate their present In- 
fiuenoe on educational practice. 



fM^mA ^Uumgnttntt 

Six weeks In all courses. It Involves the consideration of a num- 
ber of topics upon which the success of the school and the real value 
of its work depend; such as the interrelations of the school, the 
family, society, church and state. A study is made of the dlfllerent 
types of school organization, of the classification of pupils, super- 
vision and school appliances. Special attention is given to school 
hygiene. The heating, ventilation and lighting of school buildings. 



16 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, 

the seating of pupils, the arrangement of the daily program, the dis- 
eases and the disorders which the school may cause, aggravate or 
propagate, are some of the topics. The course will he given chiefly 
by lectures though Dutton's School Management will be used as a 
text. 



This course is taken by the students during the term preceding 
the one in which they teach In the Training School. It extends 
through one term and occupies at least one period a day. The 
course furnishes the student an opportunity to observe model les- 
sons given by the critic teachers and to become pretty well acquaint- 
ed with the regular work of a graded school as seen in the Training 
School. They are required from time to time to' submit to the critic 
teachers a "lesson plan" developed from some one phase of a series 
of model lessons. These lesson plans are criticised by the teacher 
giving the model lessons and then returned to the student. The 
students are further required to present weekly reports of their ob- 
servation or discussion by the other members of the class, super-* 
vised by the director of the Training School. 



Sraittittg Mrool «A Vntifitt$. 

The Training School includes the eight grades below the high 
school, and a Kindergarten. A review class, or ninth grade, has 
been added to the grammar grades of this department. The work 
corresponds very closely to that done in the grades of the public 
schools of the state and will qualify those who complete it to enter 
the high schools; or, in case the student completes the work of the 
ninth grade, to enter the first year class of the Academic Profes- 
sional courses. The course of study for the Training School in- 
cludes Manual Training and Domestic Science. 

The teaching force consists of the Director, the principals of 
the several departments and the duly qualified members of the senior 
class. 

The purposes of the school are (1) to maintain, as far as pos- 
sible, ideal school conditions to serve as models for the prospective 
teacher, and (2) to furnish an opportunity for the pupil-teachers to 
demonstrate their natural and acquired qualifications for practical 
service in our public schools. 

The supervision consists in giving model lessons in the pres- 
ence of the pupil-teachers; in holding weekly conferences at which 



CORNER OP TH£ DRAWING ROOM. 



DULUTB, MINNBSOTA. 17 

tbe Bpedal work of the papll-teaclier Is sympathetically discussed 
and criticised; in citing literature bearing on her daily work, and in 
assisting in whatever way the needs of the hour may suggest. 



IffHtorg. tftartra asib ftirial Arirnrv. 

Snglish History. One term in the Advanced Latin, Advanced 
English and Elementary courses. The work in English History 
deals mainly with the life of the people and the development of the 
English Constitution. It is intended mainly to throw light on the 
establishment and development of the English in America. 

United States History. Two terms in the Advanced Latin 
Advanced English and Elementary courses. In so far as the time 
allowed for this subject will permit, thet»urse is a thorough study 
of United States history and not a superficial review of what is done 
in the grades. Some disputed questions of fact are assigned, and 
the students are required to search out grounds on which text-book 
writers base their statements. Enough work of this kind is done in 
the courses to give some idea of what it means to write history au- 
thoritatively. In using the text-book, care is taken to discriminate 
between statement of fact and the expression of opinion by the au- 
thor. One aim of the above work is to help the students in gaining 
ability to estimate the value of school text books on history. 

The circumstances and motives that led to the settlement of 
the various colonies are carefully studied. Special attention is given 
to the development of self-government in Virginia and Massachu- 
setts. Effort is made to bring out clearly the colonial and English 
points of view that led to the Revolution. After the formation of 
the constitution and the organization of the Federal government un- 
der it, special attention is given to secession, national develop- 
ment, territorial expansion and the progress toward the ideal of dem- 
ocracy set forth in the Declaration of Independence. 

Reviewing and Methods in History. One term in the Advanced 
Graduate course. This course is conducted in the belief that an 
adequate knowledge of the subject is the first requisite to good 
teaching; that one should learn something to teach before talking 
about how to teach it. Instead of a review in the sense of refresh- 
ing the memory of the student on the whole subject, special topics 
are studied from the sources and from the writings of accredited 
scholars. The topics are chosen so that the students get a list, and 
some knowledge of sources and good works on United States history 
from the discovery by the Northmen to the end of the Spanish war. 

General History. Three terms in the Advanced English and 
two terms in the Advanced Latin course. The work includes the 
Orient and Greece, Rome and Continental Europe. The object of 



18 STATB NORMAL SCHOOL, 

the course is to fix firmly in the minds of the students the most im- 
portant facts and at the same time to lay a general fouiidatlon for 
more extended study. 

GItIcs. One term in the Advanced Bngllsh, Advanced Iiatin 
and Elementary courses. Some time Is given in this course to dis- 
cussion of theories, but the main object is to have the students 
acquire accurate knowledge of the practical workings of the local, 
state and national governments. Attention Is given to the work of 
political parties in nominating and electing officers. 

Social Science. One term in the Advanced Latin, Advanced 
English and advanced Graduate courses. The work is necessarily 
very elementary in character and is limited to a consideration of the 
more obvious phases and practical problems of social life. The more 
important social questions, rather than the science of sociology, are 
studied from a practical point of view and with some reference to 
their bearing upon the work of the school. Special problems or 
questions will be assigned for individual study, the results of whidi 
will be summarized for the benefit of the class. The text used Is 
Wright's Practical Sociology. 



English Composition. Two terms in the Advanced English and 
Elementary courses and one term in the Advanced Latin Course. In 
this course almost dally practice is given In the simpler forms of 
composition. Students are required to depend chiefly upon person- 
al observation and experience for material, though the imagination 
plays an important part in the latter work. Webster's Elementary 
Composition is used. 

Rhetoric. One term in the Advanced English, Advanced Latin 
and Elementary courses. This course is a continuation of that in 
English composition. It includes, however, in addition to the purely 
original work, oral and written abstracts of magazine articles, ex- 
tended arguments, short biographies and book reviews. A constant 
efPort is made to lead students to criticise their own work intelli- 
gently. 

Grammar. Course I. Two terms in the Advanced English 
and Elementary courses and one in the Advanced Latin Course. The 
work In English Grammar is based upon the idea that language is 
an historic growth. Difficult constructions are studied in the light 
of their origin, and, so far as possible, compared with the idioms of 
other languages. Students are encouraged to do independent think- 
ing in the matter of syntax, but constant reference is made to such 



f 

I 

DULUTH, MI1INB80TA« 19 

anthoiitles as Maetmer, Mason, Metklejohn, West* Lounsbury, Whltp 
ney, ESmeraon and Marsh. 

GoBise IL Berlews and MeCliods. Two tenns in tbe Advanced 
Qradnate and one in the BlementaiT Graduate coarse. A careful 
study is made of constructions found in such idiomatic writings as 
those of Hawthorne. Each student is required to trace the historj 
of some peculiar word, such as but, that or as, and make a written 
report accounting for all its various uses. Skilful questioning by 
members of the class, on points in the day's lesson, preparing out- 
lines for lessons on special topics, correcting the compositions of 
children in the grades, and writing critical reviews of text-books on 
grammar, are also features of the work« 

English Uteratore. Four terms In the Advanced Bnglish 
and Advanced Liatin courses and two terms in the Elementary 
Course. 

I. An introductory course: 

(a) Characteristics of Celtic and early English literature 
and the influence of Christianity. 

(b) Influence of the Norman Conquest. Chaucer's Pro- 
logue to the Canterbury Tales; The Knights Tale; 
The Nonne Prestos Tale; Book I. Spencer's Faerie 

Queene. 

II. The Rise of the Drama: 

(a) Mystery plays; early historical plays; Marlowe, Ben 
Jonson. 
(b). Shakespeare; Julius Caesar; King Lear; As You Like It 

III. Essays and poems. It is the aim of this course to give 

students some acquaintance with all the chief essayista and 
poets from Bacon and Milton to Browning and Stevenson, and 
to lead to the intensive study of a few characteristic produc- 
tions. 

IV. The Novel. After tracing briefly the origin and development 

of the English novel, the class will make a study of the fol- 
lowing authors: Defoe, Johnson, Goldsmith, Jane Austen, 
Scott, Thackeray, George Eliot, Dickens. 

Literary Interpretation. One term in the Advanced Graduate 
Course. It is the purpose of this course to familiarize students with 
the great classic myths, both Greek and Teutonic, representative 
folklore and famous ballads, and to show how all these may be 
presented to children in the grades. 

Theme Writing. One term in the Advanced Graduate Course. 
The class meets every day for discussion and criticism. A large 
amount of reading is required, and students are frequently called 
upon to deliver brief addresses before the class. 



20 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, 

ReAdlng. Ooune I. Two terms in the Adyanoed English, Ad- 
vanced Latin and Elementary courses. The aim will be to Inter- 
pret literature and read It aloud Intelligently. Although nothing 
will be attempted in the way of formal "Elocution" some attention 
will be given to the manner of using the voice. Many short poems 
will be committed to memory and recited. Representative Ameri- 
can classics will be studied. In order to get a broad survey of the 
literature of our country, a considerable amount of outside reading 
will be required. It is hoped that this course will give a somewhat 
comprehensive knowledge of the development of our literature from 
Colonial times to the present day. Part of the second term will be 
given to the study of methods of teaching reading. 

Connie n. One term in the Advanced Graduate and one-half 
term in the Elementary Graduate course. This course will be de- 
voted largely to the study of methods of teaching reading. The 
work will be based upon American classics, and also, if time per- 
mits, upon some one of the following: She Stoops to Conquer, The 
Rivals, The Merchant of Venice and Macbeth. 



ZatiSL 

The study of Latin extends through a period of four years and 
meets the college entrance requirements: 

I. Latin Grammar. — ^Lowe & Butler's Bellum Helvetlcum. 

II. Caesar. — Books I-IV. of the Gallic Wars. 

III. Cicero. — Six Orations: Catiline's Conspiracy, the Citizen- 
ship of Archias and Pompey's Military Command. 

IV. Virgil. — Six Books of the Aeneid. 

In all classes the students are required to get the meaning as 
far as possible from the Latin and then express it in clear idiomatic 
English. This cannot be don.e without the knowledge of Latin 
Grammar. Daily work is given in Latin prose composition through- 
out the second and third years, and a thorough grammatical review 
in the fourth year aims to establish the grammatical principles of 
the language. In addition to translating the orations of Cicero, a 
study of them as orations and as argumentative literature is made. 
Each student is required to gain sufficient knowledege of their form 
and content to outline, them in Latin from memory. Not all classes 
can, within one school year, get over six orations in this thorough 
way, but by mastering a smaller number of the speeches by which 
the old Roman swayed his hearers, students gain knowledge and 
mental discipline which 91III be of value to them throughout life and 
have not simply been put to a few months of transitory torture, 
which is too often all that a study of the classics amounts to. Ef- 
fort is made to appreciate the Aeneid as one of the great pieces of 



LABORATORY. 



CHBMICAL l^BOKATOBY. 



DULUTB, unmmaoTA, 21 

Uteratiire. Sight readlns will be practiced thronghont the conne 
ae time permita. 



pilSBbal ftrintrra. 

FhjraiGa. Three terms in the Advanced Bngllsh, Advanced 
Latin and Elementary courses. Two afternoons each week are 
devoted to laboratory work in which each student performs a select- 
ed list of experiments, both qualitative and quantitative, to verify 
the laws of mechanics, heat, light, sound and electricity. The stu- 
dent is required to keep a permanent note book for recording the re- 
sults of the experiments and for making sketches of the apparatus 
used. The recitation periods in the forenoon are devoted to a dis- 
cussion of the laboratory work in connection with subjects treated 
in the text, and to practical problems and exercises involving the 
law studied. A number of different texts are placed upon the labo- 
ratory reference table. Special attention is directed to those parts 
of the subject which will help in the study or teaching of the com- 
mon branches, such as the simple mechanics in Physiology, the prop- 
erties of gases in their relation to the atmosphere, and the produc- 
tion and distribution of heat in evaporation, winds, rain and snow. 

Chemistry. Two terms in the Advanced English Course. The 
properties of the principal chemical elements are demonstrated by 
experiment. The student learns how new substances are formed by 
different combinations of the elements and how, by reason of their 
solubility or other properties, substances may be separated into their 
component parts. As in physics, the time is divided between the 
laboratory and class work. Notes on the results of experiments and 
sketches of apparatus are made in a note book which receives care- 
ful examination by the instructor. 

The recitation is devoted to a discussion of the experimental 
work, the solution of practical exercises and to a consideration of 
of the fundamental theories of the science. Particular attention 
is given to those parts of the work which have special significance in 
the study of the common branches. 



Conne I. Two terms in the Advanced English, Advanced 
Latin and Elementary courses. An effort is made to have the stu- 
dent attain the point of view that will enable him to understand and 
appreciate the most important principles of the science. The com- 
plete understanding of geography requires the study of other 
sciences. Type features of the earth are accordingly studied with 



22 STATB NORMAL SCHOOL, 

reference to their geological deyelopment. Local land forma are 
carefully observed. Freqaent out-door excursions are made in or- 
der that the student may hare direct contact with geographical 
phenomena. The elementary principles of meteorology are stu- 
died to explain the cause and effects of wind» clouds, rain, snow, 
temperature and atmospheric pressure. By careful obsenration and 
experiments the student gets a rational explanation of climatic con- 
ditions in different parts of the earth. For this work the depart- 
ment is provided with a standard mercurial barometer, maximum 
and minimum thermometers, psychrometer and rain gauge. 

It is further shown how the character of the earth's surface 
and the climate make possible particular kinds of animal and plant 
life which react upon man, producing different environments and 
hence different races, religions, and degrees of intelligence. 

Gonne n. Review and Methods. One term in the Elemen- 
tary and Advanced Graduate courses. This course presupposes a 
general knowledge of geography. The subject is carefully reviewed 
and studied with special reference to what is of moiit value in 
geography study and teaching. 



The primary object of the work of this department is to train 
the student in habits of close and accurate observation. A combina- 
tion of the text-book, laboratory and lecture methods furnishes va- 
riety and interest. Field trips are often substituted for the labora- 
tory work in order that the habits of animals and plants may be 
studied in their natural environment. 

The equipment of the department is new and of the latest pat- 
terns. 

Botany. Ck>iur8e I. Two terms are required in the Advanced 
English Course and offered as an elective in the Advanced Latin 
Course. 

The fall term is devoted mostly to work in ecology. Coulter's 
Plant Relations being used as a text The course involves numerous 
field trips and laboratory work on the material collected. 

The various plant societies are studied in their relation to 
light, temperature, moisture and soil conditions. Some of the 
plant movements are noted and an attempt nmde to determine ex- 
perimentally the cause of such movements. 

In the winter term many typical forms are taken up in order, 
showing the gradual evolution of plants from the algae to the seed 
bearing types. 

The seeds and seedlings of morning-glory, sunflower, pumpkin, 
pea, bean, lupine and corn are studied. A careful drawing is made 
each day of each seedling so that changes are noted and compared. 



DULUTH, MINMXSOTA. 23 

The latter portion of tbe term is deyoted to elementary prob- 
lems in plant physiology. 

Course n. One term in the Elementary Course. The work in 
this conrae is rather elementary in character, and consists of a study 
of those phases of plant life which are especially important to 
the teacher of nature study. 

Zoology. Txo terms are required in the Bnglish and Ble- 
mentary courses. In the Latin Course the same amount is ottered 
as an elective. 

As in Botany, the first part of the fall term is devoted to the 
ecological side of the subject. Some of the insects, as grasshoppers, 
bees and flies are compared in regard to their external appearance 
and their home life. Several of the life histories are worked out 
and illustrated by sketches from nature. The remainder of the 
term is devoted to a careful study of a few types of invertebrates. 
It is believed that a close study of a few animals will contribute 
more to the development of habits of accuracy and patience than a 
hasty survey of many forms. 

In the second term a few of the vertebrates are studied as 
types and as a basis for human anatomy and physiology. 

Physiology. One term in the Advanced English, Advanced 
Latin and Elementary courses. (Prerequisite, the two-term course in 
Zoology). The primary purpose is to prepare teachers to do efficient 
work in the subject in the schools of the state. Secondly, it is ex- 
pected that the students will gain sucA knowledge of the human body 
as will enable them to take better care of their own health and that 
of the pupils entrusted to their care. 

Much of the work is done in the laboratory in studying the 
various tissues of the body, the foods and their uses, the chem- 
istry of digestion and the anatomy of the digestive organs. Ex- 
periments are made illustrating the relations of certain mental and 
physiological processess, especially those connected with the special 



One term in the Advanced and Elementary Graduate courses. 
The Elementary Science work seeks primarily to arouse a love for 
nature and to alford some experience in scientific observation. 
A study is made of the common trees in the vicinity. Branches 
from difPerent trees are examined and their buds, leaf scars, 
year's growth and peculiarities are compared. The trees are then 
examined in the field and notes and sketches made of their winter 
condition. Later they are compared with reference to leaf and 
floxer. The kinds of trees valuable for lumber are noted and 



24 8TATB NORMAL SCHOOL, 

collections of the more common kinds of woods made. The spring 
flowers and other plants are studied and their beanty* nsefnlness 
or nozioas qualities are noted. Special attention is given to the 
relations of the flower to the fruit, the formation and distribu- 
tion of the seed, and reproduction of plants. The common birds 
are studied in the light of their relations to man. Suggestions 
are made for the attraction and protection of birds. The won- 
derful transformation of Insects is observed. Practice is given 
in collecting, mounting and preserving insects for study and ref- 
erence. The relation of insects to other animal and plant life 
is investigated. Plans for recording extended observations on 
birds, plants and the weather are discussed, and reference made 
to valuable sources of information. Some simple experiments 
with home apparatus are made to illustrate combustion, venti- 
lation, constitution of the air, with its pressure, temperature and 
other phenomena. 



sKstivittHtid* 

Arithmetic. Conne I. Two terms in the English, Latin and 
Elementary courses. The aims of this course are: (1) To give 
a good working knowledge of arithmetic; (2) to encourage clear 
and logical thought, exact and orderly expression; (3) to give 
the prospective teacher a grasp of the subject as a whole, together 
with practical suggestions as to modes of presentation in the 
grades. Among the features of the course are: practice in act- 
ual measurement, frequent oral drill in pure number, exercises in 
analysis, both oral and written, and the study of selected topics 
in the history of arithmetic. 

Oovne n. Reviews and Methods. One term in both the 
Graduate courses. In this course, which is too brief to include 
much drill and hence can be taken with proflt only by well pre- 
pared students, arithmetic is studied from the teacher's stand- 
point. The relations of the various topics to one another and 
the order in which these topics should be presented, are subjects 
of special study. Suggestions are made as to the correlation of 
arithmetic with other branches; an outline of grade work in arith- 
metic is given; selected texts are examined and criticised. As Ume 
allows, an attempt is made to have to have the student gain some 
familiarity with the history of the subject and with the literature 
which bears upon the present teaching of arithmetic. 

Algebra. Three terms are required in the English, lAtin and 
Elementary courses. The principles of the subject are thoroughly 
studied and frequently applied. Special pains are taken to dis- 
courage mechanical work and to lead the pupil into habits of dear 
and ^nnocted thinking. 



MANUAL TRAINING 



BIOLOGICAL LABOHATORY. 



DULUTH, IIIICNBSOTA. 26 

Geomedrj. Oonne I. Txo terma of Plane Geometry and one 
term of Solid Geometry are required In the Adyanced Bnglish 
Course. 

Oonne IL In the Latin and Blementary couraee two termi 
of Plane Geometry are required. 

Throughout the work in geometry accuracy and independ- 
ence of thought are emphasized. Students are required to glTO 
proofs other than those suggested in the text and to criticise and 
question the demonstrations offered in class. A number of original 
exercises are solved. From time to time, topics in the history of 
geometry are assigned. 



In this department neither the Swedish nor Bnsslan systems, 
as such» are followed hut both are studied and discussed. In the 
practice work a combination of the two is employed, the useful 
models being largely used as the more interesting and stimulating 
to the students, the exercise models iuYolYing principle only 
when a better understanding of a problem can be secured more 
quickly as a lack of time prevents any repetition of mere technique. 
While suggestions and certain refining and limiting conditions are 
given the student, the aim is to have all the models made in the 
work shop Individual and» as far as possible, original. The greatest 
amount of technical skill the time allowed permits is developed. In 
outline the course includes: 

I. The care and use of the common wood working tools. 

II. Principles of constructive and decorative design. 

1. The Yorm suited to its function, and the decoration 
in harmony with its form. 

2. Structural and artistic qualities to be considered are 
(a) strength, (b) durability, (c) proportion, (d) 

simplicity, (e) adaptation to purpose, (f) finish. 

III. Papers and class discussions on: 

1. The necessity for a manual training plan. 

(a). The adaptation of a plan to children of different 



(b). Basis for criticism of the child's product. 

(c). How to arrange work so that increasing motor power 

shall result. 
(d). The inter-relationship between hand work and the 

other school occupations. 



STATB NORMAL SCHOOL, 

2. Preparation of progranu of work for the dUEerent 
grades of the elementary school. 

3. The various methods of constructing and reading 
working drawings. 

4. A final paper on some selected phase of the subject. 

IV. Required reading. 

1. Current articles published in the magasines on the 
subject. 

2. The history of the movement 
8. The arts and crafts movement. 

Coarse I. Tyrjo terms in the Advanced English and Latin 
courses, as outlined. 

Course IL One term in the Advanced Graduate Course. This 
Course also includes a review of mechanical drawing and the 
making of a required number of working drawings. 



The work is planned with reference to the ability and needs 
of the students in the several courses. The aim of each course is to 
give students as much instruction in technique as the time allows, 
with historical background and an appreciative knowledge of beauty 
in form and color. 

Brief talks are given on the lives and works of masters, and 
their principal works studied and analyzed from a technical point 
of view. 

Students make collections of reproductions of famous works of 
art with descriptive notes. A daily sketch is required for general 
class criticism and occasional papers on related subjects from the 
pedagogical point of view. 

Course I. Two terms in the English and Latin courses and one 
in the Elementary. During the first term the emphasis is put upon 
head work rather than hand-work. The principles of perspective, 
of industrial drawing, of design and of light and shade are studied. 

The work of both terms includes pose-drawing; analysis and 
decorative use of natural forms; conventionalization of plant forms; 
practical application in initial letters; making of stencils, etc. A 
certain number of problems in Industrial drawing are given, and 
definitions and conventions used in working drawings taught. 

Course n. Reviews and methods in the Graduate courses. The 
aim of this course is to prepare students to teach drawing in the 
grades according to modem methods. 

The work of the term is so divided that a thorough review is 
given in perspective, model drawing, light and shade, cast and still 



DDLDTB, MIHNISOrA. 27 

lite diAwlng, both In eharooal and pencil* iketehlnc* and elemantanr 
work in water color. 

The prlndplea of design nnder the headlnga of Balance^ 
Rhythm, and Harmony are tenght, and applied dealgna esecuted. 



Atftr. 

Goime I. Two terms in the Advanced Bnglish and one term 
in the AdTanced Latin coarse. The work of the first term con- 
sisto of dally liassons in sight singing and ear training. All prob- 
lems of rhythm are studied, also key formation, chromatic scales 
and transposition. During the second term the dass studies three 
and four part singing, minor scales, the limitations and care of 
the child Toice, the selection and use of rote songs, and short 
biographies of the most noted composers. Methods of present- 
ing problems in melody and rhythm to diildren are given to the 
pupils. 

Course II. Reviews and Methods. One term in the Ad- 
vanced Graduate and Blementery Graduate courses. An outline 
for the study of vocal music in each grade forms the foundation 
for the study of music methods. Pupils are taught how to pre- 
sent rote songs, interval drill, each problem in rhythm and mel- 
ody, key formation, major, chromatic and minor scales, to the 
children. These subjecte having been presented to them, they 
are required to take charge of the class and illustrate the method 
of procedure with each. Bspecial attention is given to the selec- 
tion of songs sulteble for primary grades and to the care of 
children's voices. 

Ohoros Wortc Twenty minutes is given daily to the practice 
of part songs and choruses for the purpose of obtaining skill in 
reading and rendition and to develop a better musical taste. The 
best material sulteble for the chorus is rendered. 

Glee dab. An opportunity is given to those pupils who 
have special ability, to study more advanced music in the Glee 
Club, wliich meete once a week. 



ICtnlltfrgartni (Ciuirgir. 

A high school diploma or Ite equivalent is required for en- 
trance to this course, which covers a period of two years. Stud- 
ente who underteke this work are given the same general pro- 
fessional training as those who are preparing to teach in the 
primary or grammar grades. Special instruction in the theory 
and methods of the kindergarten and primary work, observaUon 



28 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, 

in both departments and practice in t|ie kindergarten will be added 
to this strictly professional training. The standard of scholarship 
la the same as that required of students in the other departments of 
the school. 

Following is an outline of the course of study: 

FIRST TEAR. 

Psychology and Child Study. 

Obseryation in the Kindergarten. 

Theory and Practice of Froebel's Gifts and Occupations. 

Elementary Science. 

Domestio Science. 

Drawing. 

Educational Reading. 

Songs and Games. 

Physical Exercises based upon Interpretation of Rhsrthm. 

SECOND TEAR. 

History and Philosophy of Education. 

Social Science. 

Domestic Science. 

Manual Training. 

Study of Froebel's "Mother Play." 

Advanced Gift Work. 

Stories — ^Practice in telling stories. 

Songs and Games. 

Primary Methods. 

Practice in Kindergarten. 

Educational Reading. 

Practice in Program Making. 



BomtMt Printer. 

This department, established in the fall of 1908, was made pos- 
sible by the yarious Women's Clubs of Duluth. Through their gen- 
erous efforts the school has been provided with a thoroughly 
equipped kitchen laboratory, dining room and sewing room. 

The work in domestic science extends throughout the Junior 
and senior years. Two courses in this work are offered to the 
students: one in the Selection and Preparation of Foods, covering 
one two-hour period a week, and one in Home Sanitation and 
Hygiene, covering a period of one hour a week. 

In the course in the Selection and Preparation of Foods, 
foods are studied with respect to their composition, nutritive 
value, relation to the needs of the body and comparative cost 
The work includes a study of the dietaries, and a balanced ration for 
a given time is made by the members of the class. 



DOMESTIC SCIENCE LABORATORY. 



DINING ROOU. 



DULDTH, MINNBflOTA. 29 

The lint half of each lemon la deroted to the claaaUloatloii 
and stndy of the food to he cookedt Its dlgeetlhllltj, nntrltlTe 
Talue, oomhlnatlon with other foods, the process employed In 
cooUng and the proper method of serrlng. In the second half 
of each period the food Is cooked and served. 

In the Home Sanitation classes, lectures and some labora- 
tory work are given on such practical snbjects pertaining to the 
home as drainage, plumbing, heating, ventilation, water supply, 
the chemistry of cleaning and laundry work. Hdnse irtans are 
made by the students and brought to class for discussion. 

The work in Hygiene includes both personal and public 
hygiene^ caoses and prevention of disease, home nursing and Invalid 
cookery. 



ftrottlQ* 

Two terms, one period daily, are given to the work In sew- 
ing. Most of the time is devoted to hand sewing, although in the 
second term machine work is undertaken. The important principles 
of plain sewing are taught by means of mod^ whldi* together 
with the instructions and notes, are put into books made for the 
purpose. Upon the completion of the course each girl will have 
made twenty of these models, also one under-garment or dainty 
apron sewed entirely by hand, and another garment combining both 
machine and hand sewing. 



ttnttral InfimttatimL 



Hontial Srlfoiil 9i|iliiiitu mb 9tatr Qbrtifiratefl. 

The leglBlatare of 1891 iMtssed an act which giyea to diplomas 
of the State Normal Schools yalidltr as certificates of qaaliflcatioii 
to teach in any of the common schools of the state, under the fol- 
lowing proTisions, vis. 

1. A diploma of any one of the State Normal Schools is made 
a temporary State certificate of the first grade for the two years of 
actual teaching senrioe required hy the student's pledge. 

2. After two years of service, the diploma may be counter- 
signed by the President of the school from which it was issued, and 
by the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, upon satisfactory 
evidence that such service has been successful and satisfactory to the 
supervising school authorities under whom it was rendered. Such 
endorsement will make the diploma of the Elementary Course a 
State certificate for five years, and the diploma of the Advanced 
Course a life certificate. 



QbntMttotiB at txHiotBtuuvtf 

1. While it is hoped that all graduates will earn the right to 
have their diplomas endorsed, great care will be taken in this mat- 
ter, and the diploma will not be so extended in any case in which the 
holder fails to render acceptable service during the test period, or 
in any way fails to show himself worthy of the marked professional 
recognition so bestowed. 

2. After the completion of two years of service, application 
for endorsement may be made to the respective Normal Schools. 
The applicant should see that complete reports of service have been 
made in accordance with the student's pledge, and that such reports 
bear the names and addresses of the supervising authorities to 
whom blank certificates of successful service may be sent. In order 
to maintain a uniform standard of requirements for endorsement, 
it has been agreed by the Normal School Presidents that they will 
endorse no diploma until each case has been approved by all of the 
Presidents acting as a Board of Review. 



4 SCENE IN GARFIELD PARK. 



ABRIAL BRIDGE A 



DULUTB, MIMinnOTA. 31 

«^9ttriwl0ii to thy vtetif jtuwynttii stv fftfHuyjifi 

Gradnates from the adTanced oonnes in the State Normal 
Schools of Minnesota are admitted without examination to the 
Sophomore year In the State University and the leading colleges of 
the SUte. 



Taltkm is free to all students who sign the pledge to teach. 
Those who do not sign the pledge are required to pay thirty dollars 
a year, as are also those who take the Kindergarten Course. 

Charges for tuition in the Training Department are flye dol- 
lars a term. 

All charges for tuition must be paid in adTance and no portion 
thereof will be refunded. 

SCndents* Home. The state legislature at its last session appro- 
priated forty thousand dollars to provide a home for students. The 
building is now being erected and will be ready for use at the open- 
ing of school in September of the present year. It is to be as nearly 
lire proof as possible and will be provided with all the conveniences 
and comforts of the modem home. It is to have a 
very complete system of ventilation and will be provided with bath 
and toilet rooms on each floor. It will supply about forty students 
:irith roomsp two in a room. Each of these rooms will have two 
closets, two beds and all necessary bedding, furniture and furnish- 
ings. The dining room will accommodate sixty to seventy-five stu- 
dents at one time. Bach student enjoying the privileges of the hall 
will be expected to take her turn in waiting on the tables and to 
take care of her own room. A large and well equipped laundry, to 
which any student living in the hall can have access, will be found 
in the basement. The general management of the hall will be in- 
trusted to a preceptress whose training and experience especially fit 
her for the position. It is expected that the cost of both board 
and room in the hall will be about three dollars and fifty cents a 
week and that the cost of board alone will be about three dollars a 
week. 

An approved list of boarding places and rooms are kept in the 
office and students who do not live at the hall will be required to 
select places from this approved list The cost of both board and 
room in the dty is from four to five dollars a week. 

Applications for rooms in the student's hall will be listed in the 
order in which they are made. 



32 STATB MOSMAL SCHOOL^ 

0fufanuL 

The daily Beaslon begins at 8:85 in the morning and ends at 
12:50 in the afternoon. It is divided Into four recitation periods 
and indndeB a period of twenty minntes tor chorus work, and one 
of twenty minutes for opening exercises. 



SriiBtmu JnllttrtirrB. 

The school is free from denominational or sectarian bias. At 
the same time it is expected that each student will be a regular at- 
tendant on the services of the church of his choice. The churches 
of the city extend a cordial welcome to all students. 



Vd Entfrbtg 0tiArnt0. 

Students expecting to enter on advanced standings from other 
schools must present records of all such standings. 

Applicants for admission will present themselves at the office 
of the President, where they will be referred to proper committees 
on examination or enrolment. 

The building is situated on East Fifth Street, between Twenty- 
second and Twenty-third Avenues, and one block from the Hunter's 
Park and Bast Fourth Street car line. Students who are not ac- 
quainted with the city should call at the President's office on ar- 
rival. 

Additional information will be supplied on application to 

E. W. BOHANNON. President, 

Duluth, Minn. 



NamrB of 6titiinita lEnroUA in H^ 
flioniifii flnSaTiitiniL 

1 005-1 soe. 



tfndlnatf CfhntrBftf. 



SENIOR GRADUATE CLASS. 

Name. i^oetoffloe. State. 

Hicken, Bstelle Dulnth Minn. 

Hopldna, Haiel Dulnth Minn. 

HoBkina, M. BtUe Hlbbing Minn. 

Ober, Mary L. Dnluth Minn. 

O'Keefe, Elizabeth K Duluth Minn. 

Robinson, Violet E Dulnth Minn. 

8treed» Anna M Flensbui^g Minn. 

Wright, Ethal Dnluth Minn. 

JUNIOR GRADUATE CLASS. 

Anne, Clara Duluth Minn. 

Braeutlgam, Margaret Duluth Minn. 

Brown, Gertrude R. Duluth Minn. 

Cashin, Florence R Dnluth Minn. 

CloTeland, Gertrude E Duluth Minn. 

Corbln, Ethel B Sparta Minn. 

Flynn, Nellie C Duluth Minn. 

Hinamann, Theresa B Duluth Minn. 

Holtorf, Ella M Mantorville Minn. 

lyes, Geneviere Dnluth Minn. 

Keller, Kathleen D Ashland, Wis. 

Krey, Elise Duluth Minn. 

Leland, Ray Lauder Duluth Minn. 

McLean, Isabel L Duluth Minn. 

Mintle, Effle C Minneapolis Minn. 

Mitchell, Marguerite F Duluth Minn. 

Olssen, Llllie V Duluth Minn. 

Owens, Hasel M Duluth Minn. 

PaaTola, Lissie S South Range Mich. 

Pepple, Laura G Worthington Iftinn. 

Phelps, Louana Duluth Minn. 

Ringsred, Clara B Duluth Minn. 



34 STATB NORMAL SCHOOL, 

Name. Pbstoffice. State. 

Robert, Etta Duluth IClnn. 

Sand, Alice B Ashland Wla. 

SliaTer, Helen M Duluth Minn. 

Shaw, Mildred A Duluth Minn. 

Snyder, Louise B Minneapolis Minn. 

Ulsrud, Lieonara J Duluth Minn. 

Wolfe, C. A. Margaret Duluth liinn. 

Yager, Margaret Duluth Minn. 

BLEMBNTARY GRADUATE CLASS. 

Name. Postoffice. State. 

Anderson, Anna L Hibbing Minn. 

Blackmarr, Mary Duluth Minn. 

Carlson, Olga C Crystal Falls Mich. 

Carlson, Rosabelle M Duluth Minn. 

Detert, Laura Faribault Minn. 

Dolan, Alice Duluth Minn. 

Doran, Ida Grand Rapids Minn. 

Gandsey, Elsie A Hlbblng Minn. 

Hughes, Charlotte M Duluth Minn. 

McAvoy, Gertrude Hastings Minn. 

Swanson, Stella Warren Minn. 

Talboys, Ella M Duluth Minn. 

Webster, Maude E Hibbing Minn. 



Ktnirrgarlrn (BottrBr. 

SENIOR CLASS. 

Name. Postoffice. State. 

Burbank, Nina Duluth Minn. 

Campbell, Jessie C Duluth Minn. 

Murray, Marietta Eveleth Minn. 

Rowe, Clara Elk Point S. Dak. 

Shannon, Harriet Duluth Minn. 

Tyler, Tannisse Fargo N. Dak. 

JUNIOR CLASS. 

Name. Postoffice. State. 

Growan, Lillian Duluth Minn. 

Magner, Frances Duluth Minn. 

McDonald, Mary Elizabeth Lancaster Wis. 

Ross, Josephine Duluth Minn. 



DDLUTB, MINNB80TA. 



35 



Name. 



AodlMttr-PnifiMviinial CbmnM. 

SBNIOR CLASa 

PoBtofflce. 

Marian R. Dalnth 

Carlson, Julia Dalnth 

Dolan, TesBie Dnluth 

Frost, Mildred J Dalnth 

Gonnan, Ada I Dnlnth 

Hanson, Anna T 



State. 

Minn. 

Minn. 

Minn. 

Minn. 

Minn. 

Duluth Minn. 



Hoyer, Kathryn A. Dolath 

Kennedy, Mary F Duluth 

Lavallee, Agnes B Dulath 

Marshall, May E Dalath 

Mendelson, Fanny Duluth 

Schalfer, Ck)ra D Duluth 

Shaw, Margaret Duluth 



Minn. 
Minn. 
Minn. 
Minn. 
Minn. 
Minn. 
Minn. 



JUNIOR CLASS. 

Name. Postofflce. State. 

Bartz, Mabel New Duluth Minn. 

Chisholm, Flora A. Duluth Minn. 

Jensen, Oina Duluth Minn. 

Keehan, Irene Duluth Minn. 

Paine, Frank I Duluth Minn. 

Taylor, Ell Rose Duluth Minn. 

Tnmbnll, Bessie L. Duluth Minn. 

WUtse, Opal Duluth Minn. 



THIRD TEAR. 

Name. Postofflce. 

Anderson, Elizabeth W. Duluth . . 

Burgher, Cora B Duluth . . 

Burton, Sadie Duluth . . 

Greenfield, Brelyn Duluth . . 

Haig, Helen M Duluth . . 

Hathaway, Eya M Duluth . . 

Hunter, Clara M. Tbwer 

Johnson, Elizabeth Duluth . . 

Johnson, LiUie Duluth . . 

Kristensen, Edith Duluth . . 

Lavallee, Melinda K Duluth . . 

Lilja, Julia E Duluth . . 

*Lnte8, Margaret Duluth . . 

McKay, Hazel D Duluth . . 

Nidiols, Nina L Buhl . . . 

Porter, Catherine M Duluth . . 

SchUck, Elfrieda G Duluth . . 

^Deceased, March 14, 1906. 



State. 
Minn. 
Minn. 
Minn. 
Minn. 
Minn. 
Minn. 
Minn. 
Minn. 
Minn. 
Minn. 
Minn. 
Biinn. 
Minn. 
Minn. 
Minn. 
Minn. 
Minn. 



36 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, 



Name. PbstoflBce. 

Schuls, Marie Bavaria . 

Shaver, Ina Maude Duluth . 

Smith, Mangna A Duluth . 

Swendson, Elsie , Duluth . 



State. 

Germany 
. . .Bfinn. 
. . .Minn. 
. . .Minn. 



Rupley, Anna B Duluth Minn. 

Watt, Clara Duluth Minn. 

Westaway, Nellie M Duluth Minn. 

Wilson, Mary G Stillwater Minn. 

8BG0ND TBAR. 

Name. Postofflce. State. 

Alkin» Grace Duluth Minn. 

Bartholdi, Bmma B Duluth Minn. 

Bassett, Pearl Minneapolis Minn. 

Beattie, Minnie M Carlton Minn. 

Bomier, Blisabeth T Barnum Minn. 

Clark, Annabelle Duluth Minn. 

Clarke, Florence K Duluth Minn. 

Dodge, Helen Duluth Minn. 

Driscoll, Marie B Willow River Minn. 



BUis, Louise 

Grogan, A. Maude . . . 
Grogan, Margaret M. . 

Hare, Wenona B 

Hart, Rose D 

Hermann, Adelaide D. 

Huhn, Bmilie J 

Krey. Olga Bdith 

Magner, Merlyn 

Martinson, Inga 

Mclntyre, Catherine . 
McKay, Florence .... 
Mecklenburg, Henry C. 

Merritt, Bmily H. 

Mosher, Blanche .... 
Pillsbury, Curtis D. . . 
Polasky, Stephania M. 

Porter, Albert H 

Sauby, Blma B 

Scott, Laila 

Sinclair, NelUe 

Skramstad, Matilda . . 
Swendson, Austa M. . . 
Tumquist, Ines M. . . . 
Wallace, Genevieve . . . 
West, Genevra 



Duluth Minn. 

Duluth Minn. 

Duluth Minn. 

Carlton Minn. 

Duluth Minn. 

Duluth Minn. 

Duluth Minn. 

Duluth Minn. 

Duluth Minn. 

Duluth Minn. 

Duluth Minn. 

Duluth Minn. 

Cedar Minn. 

Duluth Minn. 

Duluth Minn. 

Duluth Minn. 

Duluth Minn. 

Duluth Minn. 

Wrenshall Minn. 

Duluth Minn. 

Duluth Minn. 

Bveleth Minn. 

Duluth Minn. 

Duluth Minn. 

Perry N. Y. 

Duluth Minn. 



WiltM, MUdred Dnlnth 



DULUTB, MINNESOTA. 37 

FIRST YEAR. 

Name. Postofflce. State. 

Anderson, Bmma Dnlnth Minn. 

Bennison, Edna Doluth Minn. 

Berg, Elizabeth H Dnlnth Minn. 

Blnane, Marie Dnlnth Minn. 

Bnrgher, Alice C Dnlnth Minn. 

Cameron, Nina I Dnlnth Minn. 

Carlson, Anna V Arnold Minn. 

Craswell, Hasel R Dnlnth Minn. 

Decker Emma P Dnlnth Minn. 

Dunning, Annabelle Dnlnth Minn. 

Fix, Mabel Uaj Dnlnth Minn. 

Himebangh, Hazel Dnlnth Minn. 

Jensen, Ella E Dnlnth Minn. 

Lent, Orpha Dnlnth Minn. 

Lonegren, Carla J Dnlnth Minn. 

Maggard, Grace R Dnlnth Minn. 

IfarUn, TUlie A Dnlnth Minn. 

Mills, Percy Dnlnth Minn. 

Mueller, Mabel A Dnlnth Minn. 

Nelson, Hattie A. Duluth Minn. 

Olsen, Hilda Duluth Minn. 

OreckoTsky, Selma Duluth Minn. 

Ostergren, May L Duluth Minn. 

Quigley, Minnie E Duluth Minn. 

Raleigh, Margaret H Dnlnth Minn. 

Raleigh Ruth E Duluth Minn. 

Rust, Matilda B Duluth Minn. 

Signer, Rose E. Dnlnth Minn. 

Skoog, ElTera C Duluth Minn. 

Spaulding, Grace A. Bulfalo N. Y. 

Sullivan, Eva P Duluth Minn. 

Sullivan, Helen M Duluth Minn. 

Swanson, Florence Duluth Minn. 

Trask, Gertrude Duluth Minn. 

Vandergrift, Ellen E Duluth Minn. 

Ward, M. Gertrude Duluth Minn. 

Ward, Lena M Duluth Minn. 

Weiler, Mary Duluth Minn. 

Wintergerst, Katherine Culver Minn. 



38 



STATB MOmiAL SCHOOL, 



THIRD YEAR. 
Name. Postoffioe. 

Lind, Ellen H Bamam . 

Talboya, Maude A. Clilsliolm 

Peterson, Anna Wrenahall 

SECOND YEAR. 

Anderson, Freda J Duluth . . 

Bell, Edith E Duluth . . 

Clausen, Victoria C Twig 

Latture, Jennie R. Duluth . . 



State. 

Minn. 

Minn. 

Minn. 

Minn. 

Minn. 

Minn. 

Minn. 

Langford, Mary Kathleen Sandstone Minn. 



FIRST YEAR. 

Brazeau, Nora E Timme 

Fagerstrom, Annie L Spatten 

Haakenson, Ida M Independence 

Harris, Rose E Hunter 

Latture, Delia F Duluth 

Siegel, Mae Duluth 

Soderburg, Sophia West Sweden 

SPECIAL. 

Name. Postofflce. 

Broughton, Jane T Duluth 

Dayis, Reginald Duluth 

Flynn, Rose Beardsley . . . 

Loyejoy, Pearl Sandstone . . . . 

Ward, Grace Duluth 



. . .Wis, 
. Minn. 
. Minn. 
N. Dak. 
. Minn. 
. Minn. 
. . .Wis. 



State. 
Minn. 
Minn. 
Minn. 
.Minn 
Minn. 



Bertram, Herbert 
Blakeney, Deane 
Bowers, Josephine 
Fraser, Frances 

Barrows, Margaret 
Clark, Marie 
Dowse, Dorothy 
Final, Chelsie 
Hartman, Reginald 
Hawkes, Theron 
MacLeod, Elizabeth 



Sniitrtstg Sfpartwtftiti 

EIGHTH YEAR. 

Gamble, Telford 
Goffe, Cordelia 
Harbinson, Helen 
Heimbach, Carlisle 

SEVENTH YEAR. 

Magie, Gilbert 
Marshall, Carolyn 
Marshall, Wayne 
Moore, Wendell 
Moye, Berth 
Munger, Carolyn 



House, Dorothy 
MacGregor, Bennett 
Munger, Norrie 
Reichert, Eleanor 

Nichols, Caralisa 
Panton, Margaret 
Patrick, Barbara 
Smith, Helen 
Swendson, Herbert 
Washburn, Hope 



DULDTH, MINNUOTA. 



30 



Bergtold, Oeorgena 
IMght, Edith 
Drnmlng, Ralph 
Fltger, Marion 
Harrison, Harriet 
HarUey. Jndith 



Campbell, Bruce 
Christopher, Hilma 
Fitzsimmons, Edith 
Hammel, Rachel 



SIXTH YEAR. 

Hay, Mina MnUin, Edith 

Lang, Alice Louise Pearoe, Frank 
McClenaghan, MaJoriePillsbury, Burdette 
Merrill, Marie Pollock, Clilford 

Maxon, Vera M. Upham, Helen 



FIFTH YEAR 

McConaughy, Dwight Squier, Laurel 

Miles, Harold Van Vliet, Fred 

Panton, John M. Winton, Knox 
Smith, William 



Bishop, William 
Campbell, Frederick 
Craig, Margaret 
Dryer, Helen 
Ferreln, Myrtle 



FOURTH YEAR 

Finkenstaedt, Kimball Matheson, Robert 
Frick, Duncan Taylor, Ruth 

Hawkes, Rollin Turle, Penelope 

Keyes, Irene Wood, Elizabeth 

Marshall, Julia 



Alexander, Agnes 
Appleby, Hazel 
Dunning, Charlotte 
ElUott, Robert 
Final, Gertrude 



THIRD YEAR 

Frick, Louise Romieux, Charles 

Lutes, Marion Smith, Nora 

Lynam, John Webster, Harold 

Panton, Dorothea Winton, Frances 

Richardson, William Whitely, Wayne 



Alexander, Sue 
Dight, Marion 
Holahan, Richard 
Lutes, Katherine 
Matheson, James 
McGregor, Carol 



SECOND YEAR 

McNulty, Ned 
Merrill, Elizabeth 
Moore, Dorothy 
Sanford, Dwight 
Simonson, John 
Spongier, Beatrice 



Stark, Charlesa 
Stephenson, Elizabeth 
Upham, Niel 
Wilson, Charlotte 
Winton, Mary 



FIRST YEAR 

Barnes, Gertrude McGregor, Catherine Skinner, Edwin 

Dunning, Marion Nystrom, Paul. Wallace, Edna 

Finkenstaedt, Robert Palmer, Constance Wallace, Edward 
Fesler, John Powell, Raebum Washburn, John 

Matter, Katherine Powell, Margaret 



40 



STATB NORMAL SCHOOL, 



Abbott, Katherine 
Appleby, Howard 
Atwood, Jay 
Atwood,' Eva 
Baldwin, Claire E. 
Baldwin, Mary 
Bnell, Bradley B. 
Collins, Cordelia 
Crosby, Wilson 
Crosby, Thomas C. 
Douglas, Faith 
Dunlop, Barton E. 
Gray, Elizabeth 



Holahan, Jack 
Keyes, Eleanor 
KlUorln, John 
Lynam, Elizabeth 
McNulty, Horace 
Mattocks, Brewer 
Moye, Edward 
Murrey, Marian 
Prince, Georgle 
Prince, Gerald 
Taylor, Gertrude 
Quayle» Bradley 
Quayle, William 



ReiGhert, Stephen 
Sellwood, Richard 
Sellwood, Frances 
Smith, Marcus 
Spengler, Maxine 
Stephenson, William 
Steyenson, Gilbert 
Turle, Lovell 
Werner, Virginia 
Webster, Gordon 
Weiss, Mary 
Wood, Tom 



Nonttal 9r)mrliti»iit 

Cbwduato Ooni neo 

Senior Graduate Class 8 

Junior Graduate Class 30 

Elementary Graduate Class 13 

Kindergarten Training Course- 
Senior Class 6 

Junior Class 4 

Academic-Professional Courses- 
Senior Class IS 

Junior Class 8 

Third Year Class 25 

Second Tear Class 36 

First Tear Class 39 

Elementary Conrse— 

Third Tear Class 8 

Second Tear Class 6 

First Tear Class 7 

Special Students 5 



61 



10 



121 



IS 
5 



202 



STnttttittd Brtmrttttrtit 

Eighth Tear TT. .... 12 

Seventh Tear 19 

Sixth Tear 16 

Fifth Tear 11 

Fourth Tear 14 

Third Tear 15 

Second Tear 17 

First Tear 14 

Kindergarten 38 

"156 
Whole Number 358 



: \ 






>r7. 






JSuUetin 



ottlx 



^ State IPlormal Scbool 



Dulutfo, flMnnesota 



Commencement Wumber 



- K 



VoL I HU0U9tt 1906. Ufa. 2 



:&uUetin 



ottbe 



State IKlormal Scbool 

Dulutbt Atnnedota« 



Commencement Viumbet. 



Pnblished QoartcrlF hj the Stste Nonnal School at Dnlnth, and dcroted to the 

interettt of Elementaiy Education in Minnesota. 
Snhacription vice, fifty cents a year. Single copies, fifteen cents. 



Entered as secoBd-class matter, May 14, 1906, at the Post Office, Duloth, Min- 
nesota, nnder the act of Congress of Jnly 16, 1894. 



dhmtttiftttratftit fntfsunL 

Ig lev. V. % aUrbmH, ffautor JTirst llmiiglntatt dUpirclr. 



*'Wliosoeyer would become great among you diatl be jcmr 

aenrant'* Matt. 20:26. 

I Incur no riak In predicting of the Claaa of 1906 tbat 
its members desire* in a tme and genuine aenae, to achiere 
greatness. I can affirm this, firstly, because yon are 
Americans. Ton breathe an atmosphere charged with 
electric energy. Ton are heirs of a national heritage that 
spells achierement. To be an American means that yon 
are bom to opportunity, and that you are to be something. 
Ton belong to the 20th Century, to which all the ages hare 
contributed their store of gathered wealth; and your wait- 
ing hand must now fashion a life worthy of the age. Ton 
haTO had an object before you in the eunrleulum through 
which you have passed, and your life cannot therefore be 
aimless. Ton cannot haTO oyerlooked the fact that yon 
have but one life to liTc, one race to run, one career to 
finish. 

'*How sacred should this one life be. 
This narrow span." 

The CFown Jewels of the British Ruler are Jealously 
guarded in the Tower of London, but more Jealously will 
each of you guard that precious life, which once lost may 
?ieTer be regained. My concern for you is that you hare 
the right ideal. The Scripture motto I hare chosen gives 
it to you. The great Master of Souls intimates that 
hitherto the eminent of earth had blundered. They 
measured greatness by the place, the power, the possee- 
sions men had conferred upon them. Christ's measure of 
greatness is the' power, the pleasure, the possessions you 
may confer on men. Two of his disciples were asking for 
places and emoluments. James wvuld have first place 
and be Prime Minister. John would be next him and be 
first Lord Treasurer of the New Kingdom about to be set 
up. They thought high places fell to them by fiSTor or 
hereditary right, when in truth the real throne is won by 
the via doicrosa of self abnegation. 

High places are not to be conferred by favor won by 
the sword, or bought with money, but the princely men of 



4 STATB NORMAL ICHOOI., 

earth achieve greatness by self-renunciation and the service 
of mankind. We are in the world not to make a liveli- 
hood but a life, not to build a fortune but a soul. Christ's 
words sound startling and revolutionary. In the new divine 
commonwealth, rank means not birth but worth, not fa^or 
but merit, not honors received, but services rendered. The 
nobility of the past boasted that they had never occupied 
a servile position. The princes of the future are those 
who minister. Once a sovereign was a ruler, now he is 
a servant. Henceforth the highest place on earth is assumed 
by one who called himself the Servus S^rvorum — the 
servant of servants. The Prince of men, the King of kings, 
is he who spared not himself, but gave his life a ransom 
for many. 

I am sufficiently optimistic to believe that this ideal 
of Jesus Christ has already leavened the best thinking of 
mankind. The day of hereditary privilege is doomed and 
the crown now adorns the head of him ''who thinks the 
most, feels the noblest, acts the best." The time has come 
when the academic gown of true distinction is the girded 
towel of service; when wealth created obligation; when 
power and influence harness its possessor to the car of 
human progress and chain him to the chariot wheels of 
human well being. Emblazoned on the banner of Christen- 
dom is the inscription, "Noblesse oblige.*' The King of the 
Kingdom is the highest minister of the state. The first 
officer of the land is the prime servant of the people. The 
true knight is the Knecht, the word for slave, and on the 
coat of arms of the noblest family of Europe is inscribed 
Jth Dien, I serve. If some semblance of royalty survives 
beyond the sea, be it remembered that the homage which 
united Christendom heaped upon the late beloved Queen of 
Great Britain was by her first won, then worn; and the 
unstinted glory with which her name is wreathed as woman, 
wife, mother, patriot and philanthropist quite obscures her 
distinction as Queen. 



We uncover before Agassis because in his devotion to 
science for the benefit of the race, he "had no time to make 
money." The body of Livingston was borne across the Dark 
Continent on the shoulders of black men, through fevered 
swamps and amid hostile tribes, and was finally given im- 
mortal honor in Westminister Abbey by white men, because 
for thirty years bis life was spent in unwearied effort 
to evangelize the native races, to explore the undiscovered 
secrets and to abolish the desolating slave trade of Central 
Africa. In a word, this class of 1906 cannot have spent 



DULUTH, MIHNB90TA. 9 

years In studying the unity of this material univerae, the 
history of the race and the thread of God's plan for mak^ 
ing, without having learned that "we are not our own:" 
that, "no man liveth to himself/' and that he who has 
spared himself has lost himself and he who would spare 
his life harters it for a bauble and loses it. How then shall 
these young, buoyant, trained spirits best serve their gener- 
ation? They must have capacity. There must be a per- 
sistent use of their trained faculties in the noblest service. 
The age demands brains. 

Life's present task demands capacity, skill, tact and in- 
dustry. The conditions of life now require a sharp blade, 
not a dull bludgeon. The stone age is past, the keea iron 
age is here. Carlyle tells us: "The race of life is intense,, 
the runners are treading on each other's heels, and woe 
to the man who stoops to tie his shoe strings." 

I have no sympathy with the theory that present con- 
ditions are unfavorable to the young man or young woman 
Just starting out in life. The opportunities were never 
more or greater than now. 

The clearing has just been finished. The fields are 
awaiting the plow. True, these opportunities are not wait- 
ing for the stupid, the indolent, the pleasure loving, the 
immoral or the aimless. The stupid will be distanced; the 
immoral cannot be risked; the aimless no man will hire. 
We believe in Democracy, but a free Republic most of all 
must have the best leaders, — ^the Kings of thought, the 
Generals of action. We believe in a fair and equal wage, 
but a righteous age will not suffer one talent to be rewarded 
with ten, while it denies to a man of ten talents the wage 
that belongs to the man of only one. It is the unfit who 
do not survive, the unskilled who are distanced in the 
race. 

You cannot successfully encounter the latest heavy 
ordnance with your bare fists, or a Krupp gun with the 
weapons of savages. The lightning express has put the 
stage coach out of commission. Dear to us as is the Santa 
Maria or the Mayflower as a reminiscence, economy of time 
compels us to prefer the ocean Greyhound. Success or 
failure is largely a difference in brain power. When a bar 
of iron is worth five dollars, that same bar plus brain and 
skill is worth,* in horseshoes, twelve dollars, in needles, 
three hundred fifty dollars, in pen knives, three thousand 
dollars, in watch springs, two hundred fifty thousand dol- 
lars. Paper and ink that would make one hundred thousand 
books might be purchased for five thousand dollars; but when 
the genius of the nuthor of "David Harum" has spread a story 



6 STATE NORMAL 8CB00L, 

on that paper It comes to be worth one hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars. Millet could buy a piece of canvas for a 
franc, and oils and brushes for four francs more, but when 
his genius has spread the "Angelus" on that five franc canvas 
only a millionaire can buy it. 

A heap of sand not large enough for a child with pall 
and trowel to play In, when melted In the furnace .and 
polished by the Clarkes, has given you a lens that brings 
distant worlds to view that only an endowed college can 
purchase. Waterloo was lost, says Victor Hugo, because 
when a marshall of Napoleon reached the fork of a road 
he had not studied his geography sufficiently to know which 
road to take. Sherman knew how to march to the sea 
because when a young man visiting In Georgia he occupied 
his time In making a map while his companions were drink- 
ing and dancing and card playing. The artist explained 
how he succeeded above his fellows; "he mixed brains with 
nls paint." It Is studied perseverance that lifts a man from 
the "tow path to the white house;" faithful application 
that made a cabin boy a Commodore; diligent service that 
lifted an office clerk to the Presidency of the greatest steel 
Industry In the world. And when this clerk had reached 
suc(h an eminence and told the boys of America that a col- 
lege training was a hindrance to promotion, he was con- 
tradicted by another man, the largest benefactor of our 
time, who trained this very clerk to be chief, and who has 
proven his real greatness by expending his great wealth 
for the good of mankind, giving millions of dollars to 
endow colleges In his native Scotland, and millions more 
for libraries and colleges In America. 

There are unexplored fields In nature, unsolved 
problems In statesmanship, open opportunities In education, 
philosophy, sociology and religion. Glow with earnestness, 
bring conscience to the task of solving these problems for 
the glory of God and the well being of the race. But more 
than learning, more than wealth, is character Indispensable 
to a real and permanent service to mankind. Men idollae 
Intellect. For a time genius may seem to bring a higher 
price in the market than goodness, but tested by permanent 
and healthful results character carries a greater momentum 
than genius. Bacon and Byron, Bums and Goethe, Rous- 
seau and Shelley were brilliant, but the stains upon their 
lives Impaired their usefulness and left their influence 
questionable. Erasmus had a mind of crystalline clearness, 
but it was Luther's great heart that won the Reformation. 
Aaron Burr possessed more genius than Washington, but 
it was the character of Washington that built the Repnblle. 



DULUTB, MIMNSaOTA. 7 

JeflQs Christ atanda oat before yon as the one single mn- 
spproachable life that has Influenced and blessed mankind. 
Be was bom In an obscure Tillage, reared in a disreputable 
town, unschooled In the literature of Oreece or the states- 
manship of Rome, but he stands peerless In his spotless 
slnlessness. In absolute unselfishness, In limitless concern 
for all mankind. He has been the fixed star of hope, the 
constant gravitating influence that has led humanity upward 
and onward. All the sonnets ever sung, all the orations 
ever delivered, all the books ever written have been of no 
such value to the world as this one life. 

An esential part of a true education Is character build- 
ing; and character Is not character, unless Jesus Christ 
is part and parcel of It. Character is not what a man has, 
or what he does, or what he seems to be, but what he really 
is. What capital is to the merchant, character is to the 
man. Tou ask, 'what the man is worth/ and you mean, 
not what is his bank account, or his intellectual capacity, 
but what are the principles that lie at the foundation of his 
being; what is the force within him that keeps his conscience 
pure, his heart true and his hands clean. Character de- 
termines whether he rings hollow or whether the music 
of everlasting right thrills within him. "Character," says 
Emerson, "is moral order, seen in an individual nature, the 
likeness of Ood, the conscience of society." Character 
means a round, full-orbed man, with Divinity In him. We 
want not ghosts of men, susceptible men, but men all 
through. Men who can stand before a demagogue and 
damn his treacherous flatteries without winking. Tall 
men» sun crowned, who live above fog in public duty and in 
private thinking. Such character converts men into kings 
and rulers. It is said that Francis de Medici never spoke 
to Michael Angelo without uncovering, and that Julius III 
made him sit at his side while a dozen cardinals stood. 
One day when Titian dropped his brush Charles V stooped 
down and picked It up, adding, "Tou deserve to be served 
by an Bmperor.'* 

Three man in the ages past for pure genius stand 
preeminent above their fellows — Solomon, Alexander and 
Napoleon. But what is the verdict of history? In the 
famous fresco of the Resurrectton in the Campo Santo at 
Pisa, Solomon stands as the middle figure, but hesitating, 
not decided whether he belongs to heaven or hell. One 
debauch at Babylon closed the career of Alexander and 
leaves as a wavering epitaph "greater is he that ruleth his 
spirit than he that taketh a city." In the famous Wiera 
gallery at Brussels, Napoleon is painted in the Umbo of 



«i 
■ I 



8 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, 

Hades, surrounded by the widows and orphans, and by the 
stunted statures of Frenchmen, all so made to gratify a 
selfish and 'imperious ambition. But you cannot have 
character without a foundation. You might as well ask a 
common man to lead an army like Hannibal, to paint 
in oil like Rubens, to sing like a Milton, as to ask a man 
to possess character without the principles and inborn life 
of Jesus Christ. "For other foundation can no man lay 
than is laid, even Jesus Christ.'* 

Time and your patience will allow me only to mention 
that to character you must add Charity or Love for men. 
The higher our place in society, the deeper our obligation 
to our fellows. The ideal of Kingship is not the luxury 
of the Shah of Persia or the licentiousness of the Sultan 
of Turkey, but the King of Italy in the hospitals of Naples. 
Father Damien braving leprosy in the Isles of the Sea, 
and David Livingston dying on his knees in the Jungles of 
Africa for the dark continent. It was no mean praise 
that was offered by Salisbury to the philanthropist of the 
last century when he said, ''All the reforms of the age are 
due to Lord Shaftesbury, who devoted his life to reforming 
abuses in labor laws and customs, and gathering poor boys 
into homes whom he found seeking shelter ia the alleys 
and under the bridges of London. 

John Ruskin was born to one large inheritance and 
earned another fortune with his pen, but he consecrated 
all this wealth and a superlative genius to the welfare of 
mankind. The men who will live when the marble has 
crumble! and the bras^ has corroded are the men who will 
imbibe the spirit of the Man of Galilee, who never wrought 
a miracle for himself, but, day after day, healed the sick, 
cast out devils, taught the ignorant and finally gave his 
life a ransom for many. 

Last of all you will need oonfidence — faith in your- 
selves, in humanity, and most of all. in God. Acquire faith 
iu yourselves by knowing your task and your capabilities. 
Learn to believe in the possibilities of men. Above all, 
learn to believe in God who has made the largest and best 
provision for the children of men. Kepler died without 
a proper recognition of his contribution to the Science of 
the Universe, but he said, near the end, **If God could wait 
5000 years for an interpreter of the laws that govern the 
stars, I can afford to wait until justice is done to me." 
When Morrison was on his voyage to China he was chided 
by the captain of the vessel with the inquiry, "Do you 
believe you can convert the four hundred millions of China- 



DULUTH, MnmiSOTA. 

men?" HIb answer was, "No, bnt God can." If we are 
vo rank with Leonidas at Thermopylae, with HoratiuB at 
the bridge, with Lather at Worms, with Lincoln before the 
problem of liberty and anion, we mast hare a coarage and 
confidence bom of faith in God, 
"Since right is might, and God is God, the right the day 

will win; 
To doabt would be disloyalty, to falter would be sin." 

While we study the great men of the past, let us be- 
liere, 

" 'Tis as easy to be heroes, as to sit as idle alares 
Of a legendary rirtue, carred upon the fathers' grayes/* 

Set your mark high. Keep your heart true. Chase 
not the shadow of fame, but turn your face to duty and in- 
fallibly the shadow of fame will follow you. Be true to 
the ideal that we are not here to live for onrselyes; then 
fear God and work hard. Never strike sail to a fear. Come 
into port grandly or sail with God the seas. If great tasks 
confront you, attempt them boldly. If only small duties 
meet you, give to them the honor of a great purpose and 
.1 loving heart. Consecrate yourselves to God, then bum 
to the socket. Through all eternity, it will be honor enough 
to have been a follower of Him who came not to be 
ministered to but to minister, a^d who has today and ever 
a name high over all. 



Qfadpra iMpn in Naliimrl Xrfontt. 

Mtniu t0 tiyr tfnddsatttig iSbmB^ Jmit 7. 1806* bg 9ni- 

U»Mmr3fabnbk f^. Jmtriu Bran of ti)^ Bftnurtmrtit 

0f Engtnftrtsig* Xtttnrrst^ nf JllstisrttilH. 



•«f 



'The Teachers' Share in National Reform/* may seem 
an inappropriate topic on which to address a graduating 
class of young ladies, whose future work will be, presumably, 
in the school room rather than in the council chamber. It 
may even be asked whether those who have been engaged 
in preparing for this work of teaching have had either time 
or opportunity for an Intelligent investigation of those sub- 
jects which are now under discussion throughout the land, 
whether their energies should not be applied to the teaching 
of those things which are considered essential and funda- 
mental in education rather than to inquire into matters which 
may seem outside the curriculum of the schools and on which 
eyen the great specialists in sociology, law and politics are 
unable to agree. 

This all depends on what a real teacher is or ought to be 
and on what our ideals are regarding the important things 
in education. If those to whom we entrust the training of our 
children are satisfied to deal out their acquired knowledge 
in return for petty cash, if they do not look forward to any- 
thing more than the honest earning of a modest salary by 
teaching the subjects prescribed by the school board. If they 
are to be devoid of originality and indlyiduality, then higher 
aims and broader views should not be discussed. We have 
had many such teachers In the past. I do not intend to say 
that all have been of this kind or that there have not been 
many earnest, able and conscientious members of the pro- 
fession who have done noble work therein, but there have 
been and there are still, too many brain-brokers, taking a 
commission for their services as intellectual middle-men and 
doing nothing to give their pupils loftier conceptions of what 
life means or ought to mean to educated men and women. 

Some of us in this room can remember when such teach- 
ers as I have described constituted the majority of the whole 
profession and many of us doubtless received our early train- 
ing, either wholly or in part, from those who might fairly be 
listed in the class referred to. Familiarity with this type 



DULOTH. MIimnOTA. 11 

lias brouglit the prafeBslon Into dlar^iite and In the not 
distant past there preralled an opinion that any one not good 
enongh to do anytliing elae might noYerthelefla be aulte good 
enough to teach achool. A great many people atUl think 
the vocation of teaching a hnmble if not a humiliating one 
and not a few look upon the pedagogue with a pity which 
■ometlmes approaches contempt 



There is a sneering epigram going the rounds at the 
present time, which yon have doubtless heard and which runs 
Uke this— 'Those who can— do; those who can't—teach." 
I have always resented this bit of sarcasm as uncalled for 
and untrue, and I haTe a suspicion that it is a cynic's adap- 
tation wherein the word "teach" has been substituted for 
that which was in the original epigram. However, it does 
express the feeling with whidh some people reganf one of the 
most Important of aU the profession. 



There is a growing recognition of the highly honorable, 
all important and poorly paid profession of teaching. The 
best evidence of it is in the multiplication of special training 
schools and the establishment of thorou^^y equipped normal 
schools for the proper education of our teachers. Thinking 
people have come to realise the absolute necessity of careful 
preparation for this important work and to recognise the dig- 
nity of the calling. It is gratifying to note that Mr. Carnegie 
has recently given a fund of ten million dollars, and is said 
to be contemplating increasing it to fifteen million, the 
income of which is to be used to pension college teachera 
after a prescribed term of years of active service and it is 
to be observed that this is in no sense a charity. Mr. Car^ 
negie states that his primary object is not to provide for 
worn-out teachers but to so elevate and dignify the profes- 
sion as to render it more attractive to those who are needed 
in it, and to insure them a security and a respectability to 
which their serviee entitles them. The pension is then to 
be considered ss a salary, earned during the yeara of active 
lervice and paid npon retirement, in exactly the same way 
that our army offlcere are retired on three-quartera pay after 
reaching the age limit What Mr. Carnegie proposes to do 
for the college teachera, Germany and other European coun- 
tries have long done for all their teachera, and our own 
States can do nothing more important than follow their 
«Tampii> and make adequate provision for our teachera, as 
they do for our soldiera and sailors. This is a reform in 
which the teachera may well have a share. 



12 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, 

But it is not my IntenUon to uphold or defend the pro- 
f eaeion of the teacher, for that is unneoesBary. Knowing that 
I am speaking to those who put the proper estimate on the 
yalue of the teacher's services to the individual, to the com- 
munity and to the nation, and that you prospective additions 
to our ranks, are teachers by choice and training rather than 
hy accident or necessity, I ask your attention to the influence 
which you and others like you may exert upon th^ communi- 
ties in which you labor and the others like you may thus 
render in the great work of reform. 

The subject is not inappropriate for an address to a 
class of young ladies. Our schools are filled with women 
teachers and it is generally conceded that they do better work 
for less pay than the men. A better class of women enter 
the profession, partly because they find fewer occupations 
open to them, and for other reasons it seems evident that 
our children must be taught by the women and the women 
must aid in correcting those evils from which we suffer and 
which we (dl agree must be mitigated. Women ought to make 
good preachers as well as good teachers for they have in 
general higher ideals than men. The average woman has a 
higher standard of morality than the average man. She ca^ 
give utterance to a noble sentiment and have it taken in good 
faith. A man's expression of a similar sentiment is more 
likely to be thought bombastic and insincere. Many a good 
man finds his good words and deeds suspected of having a 
string to them. Joseph Ghoate, the great New York lawyer 
and Jurist, was discussing the Anti-Railroad Pass Bill with 
two friends. During the conversation, Mr. Choate said, "In 
all my career I have never yet ridden a mile on a pass and 
I never expect to do so." His friends were silent a moment 
and then one, a prominent railroad attorney and politician, 
said, "What a splendid record and how I wish I could say 
as much for myself!" After another brief interval of silence 
the other man remarked, thoughtfully, "Well, why don't you 
say it then? Choate did." But if Mr. Choate had been a 
woman, his statement would have been aocepted literally 
and passed without comment 

There are many reasons why women are valuable and 
effective teachers, and they train our children during at 
least one-half of their school and college courses. If the 
public school is the cradle of our national ideals, then must 
the teachers in these schools be recognized as a potent factor 
In nurturing and propagating those ideals which we all hope 
to see realized. No one will deny the splendid influence of the 
intelligent, earnest and honest teacher upon the children who 



an to be the future cItiaeBi :pf tlila republlo, ■Qoae of Uiem» 
ladoed, destined to be our ledflteton aad our repreeeotstiTee 
unong the law-makers and, unfortunately, among the law- 
breakers, in Congress. The teachers' influence upon the 
home and upon the country must never be forgotten. I know 
from personal experience some of the results of such in- 
fluence. In my own home there is a High School boy of 
fourteen and an Eighth Grade girl of twelve. For years they 
have brought to us firom school, some of the facts and theories 
gained from their various teachers, and I can trace certain 
changes in the ideas and the conduct of the parents in that 
home directly to the influence of the teachers of those two 
children. This might not be expedient tor me to emphasise 
at home, but I feel this morning Uiat I am far enough away 
to enable me to make an honest confession without fear of 
undermining my parental authority. Suppose that the same 
state of affairs exists in other homes, as does not seem un- 
reasonable. Suppose every one of this graduating class in- 
spires each one of say, fifty children, with some splendid 
aim or some noble principle, to be transmitted by them to as 
many fathers and mothers and thus to permeate society; 
these endless chains, starting in the simple school room, 
might extend even to the stately capitol. And there Is 
strength in union. A state convention of teachers which 
makes an intelligent demand for some thing pertaining to 
education is almost certain to secure it. A national gathering 
of those representing the interests of the various sections of 
the country is a powerful weapon of attack upon any recog- 
nised evil. For this reason it is most important that we 
should interest ours^ves in such organisations, attend such 
meetings, take part in the discussion and act in harmony with 
our fellow laborers in our efforts to attain a desired end. 
Other professions and vocations have their organisations and 
accomplish much. As an illustration, take yesterday's paper 
and note the following telegram:— 

"8,000 Messages in Rate Bill Protest. 

Railroad Employees Bombard Congress with Request for Pass 

Amendment." 

"Washington, June 5th. — ^The railroad brotherhoods seem 
determined to have the rate bill amended so as to pernUt tha 
Issue of passes to railway employees and members of their 
tanllles, and already their active campaign has had a good 
deal of effect upon m^nbers of both houses of Congres^i 
Their campaign has been well organised." 

Up to last night more than 8,000 messages had besm r»- 
oelv«d, addressed to msmhers of the liouss vsnd ssaale» 



14 STATE NOKMAL SCSOOL, 

Of their messages signed by a hundred men. In everj ease 
the signers of these telegrams are constituents of the mem- 
bers addressed. 

What the effect of It will be cannot be predicted with 
certainty, but if a guess were in order it would be that the 
rate bill would, be sent back to conference for the purpose 
of changing the anti-pass section to accord with the wishes 
of the railway employees. 

If the railway employees of the country can thus In- 
fluence national legislation and obtain a concession admitted- 
ly f6r their own personal interests, what effect would the 
persistent demands of an intelligent army of teachers have 
upon those in authority, especially if those demands are for 

things which are not selfish but rather for the benefit of the 
people as a whole. But great as would be the effect of a 

united effort on the part of the teachers of the common- 
wealth in matters of public interest, I believe the result of 
the work of the indiyidual teacher can be made still more 
Important. 

We all pretend to have great faith in education. We say 
it is the only salvation of the nation, and where is there a 
better place to start reform than at the bottom, among those 
of an impressionable age, the receptive, responsive youth of 
the public schools? "As the twig is bent, the tree is in- 
clined," and how many crooked saplings can be set straight 
to grow into the strong, straight-grained trees fit for timber 
out of which to build our Ship of State? There may be 
crooked sticks now and then which cannot be corrected, but 
these may be reduced in number and finally rejected for the 
clear, sound stock which was started in the nursery of the 
common schools. We may need such timber if the ship is to 
be kept in repair, for many think she is barely sea-worthy 
at the present time. One of our most prominent writers says 
In his last article on our sociological conditions: '1 cannot 
forecast the form of the future, but I am certain the future 
will mean little if it does not sweep away a thousand of our 
beloved shams and shames. For one thing there must be an 
order of society where it will be impossible for the few to 
get money without working while the many work without 
getting, an order where the wealth and beauty of the earth 
will not be based, as now, on poverties, robberies and sorrows 
but rather on the common fellowship and sjrmpathy and 
honor among devoted comrades. Some day there must be a 
civilisation where the workers will not spread the feast and 
get only the leavings. No longer will there be an awful 
opulence side by side with an awful destitution. In the great 



16 

daj of God tluit it oonteK w« diaU not «■• nMii to mako 
uam&jp Imt ohmll uo moii^jr to make men." Is tlilfl pletni^ 
ofordimwBT Is the writer too peMriiiiletle In his Tiews of 
prerallins oonditloiist Take a file of any dally paper and 
read the headllnee; glaaoe over any popular periodloal for 
a doien nnmbers and what do we find? The History of 
Standard Oil! Negro lynehlnss In the South! Amalgamated 
Gopper! The story of Frensled Finance! The Life Insurance 
OiHnpany Scandals! The Iniquity of our DiTorce Laws! 
Emhalmed Beef! The Cotd Strike! Municipal House^leanlng 
In St Louis! Philadelphia Boodlers! The Disgrace of Min- 
neapolis! liie Beef Trust InTSstlgatlon! Mr. Rogers defies 
the Supreme Court of Missouri! Anti-trust legislation! 
Secret rebates, tainted money, the western land frauds, the 
conviction of a United States senator, graft, the treason of 
the Senate, an^ more and still more of the same sort These 
are the topics on which our editorial writers and magaslne 
contributors are busy, and the avidity with which the great 
reading public devours their writings Is fair evidence that 
the masses of the people recognise the evils that exist that 
the nation's conscience Is awakening and that reforms are 
demanded and must come. 

It may be Impossible for us who are not specialists In 
these matters to make ourselves thoroughly familiar with all 
of the details of any of these evils which I have mentioned 
or, even If we could master them, to suggest appropriate and 
adequate remedies. We may not know all about boodle 
aldermen or railroad rebates or political graft; we may even 
believe that some of the trusts are useful, that some poli- 
ticians are statesmen and that some millionaires are honest; 
we may be unable to agree with the rabid radicals or with 
the complacent conservatives; but It certainly is our duty, as 
thinking men and women, and particularly as teachers, to 
take an intelligent interest In the momentous problems which 
confront us as a nation, to endeavor to form a rational 
opinion as to what is right and what is wrong, to have con- 
▼Ictions which we are not afraid to assert and to cherish 
Ideals which we may strive to attain. We may do all this 
without becoming specialists in these various matters. We 
may not know whether it is wise to place a limit on the 
amount of money which a single man may accumulate; we 
may not be able to define 'tainted money' or to say whether 
or not churches, colleges and missionary societies should 
accept or reject the money which is called 'tainted/ but what 
we may do Is to teach that there Is something worth more 
than money-grubbing and money-getting even though it be 



16 

'taneady getMrnd or l«?PvMly goMtn. Vf% mMj itaBply 
tlitt tlift ctarch iliouM aot coodcMM the orltte aitd Absolre 
'th« erlmlnal In order to obtain a Bubacrtntion of tainted 
money, that the college should not trade an "L. L. D." or a 
place on Its Board of Trustees In return for an endowment 
of Illegally accumulated cash. Reform does not mean that 
we hope to eradicate the desire for material prosperity or that 
we shall change all men who are dishonest or selfish. His- 
tory proves that such men have existed from the beginning. 
Long a:^o it was written, "Man walketh In a vain shadow 
knd disqufeteth himself In vain. He heapeth up riches and 
cannot tell who shall gather them." We may find that some 
men will continue In the vain shadow, but we can at least 
impress our pupils with the nobility of walking In the paths 
of righteousness, with the thought that material success 
Should not be an argument so persuasive as to justify the 
sordid, selfish spirit of the present day, that the men and 
women whose names will Hve forever have seldom been rich 
but have labored for society ratner than for self. The same 
idea was better expressed a few days since by a prominent 
member of Consrress, who said, In a speech on the Inter State 
Commerce Bill, **I would that we were reaching toward an 
era in this devoted land when men are to be Judged by what 
they think and how they act rather than by what they have; 
when intellect and not fortune, when conduct rather than 
birth shall be the measure of our esteem, when an honest 
fame shall be the goal toward which our ambitious youth 
shall be taught to toil and hope. I am one of those who 
believe that such a time may come. Of course I do not 
believe that the day of small fortunes and great contentment 
will ever come again to bless our land, but I do believe in 
the coming of a better day when a man who knows that he 
is just and honest will feel happier In his circumstances than 
the man whose riches have been corrupted through Injustice, 
when under the inspiration of higher Ideals and nobler 
aspirations, hate and envy will vanish from our minds, and 
f pray for the time to come when we shall have this new 
standard to guide our children, when we shall teach them 
that justice is better than power, and when we shall train 
them in the ennobling faith that truth shall conquer false- 
hood in every home where peace abides and In every land 
where men are free." If It is to be accomplished, we must 
accomplish it through the education of our children. 

The negro problem In the South remains unsolved 

notwithstanding the persistent efforts of forty years and 

^at laet we have decided thAt the oalj proper ecrtvtlon of 



DULUTR, MINNESOTA. 17 

It Is In the proper education of the negro himself. That 
alone promises to settle the great question, and the suc- 
cess of Tuskegee and similar institutions seems to justify 
the hope of fulfillment. SucH changes seldom come ex- 
cept by some gradual process, and how can we hope to ac- 
complish reforms in our political, social and financial in- i 
Btitutions except by taking the new generation of children, 
who are to be our future citizens, and training them to a 
higher standard of personal honor, to a more generous 
measure of altruistic endeavor and to more ennobling and 
exalted patriotism? 

President Hadley advocates social ostracism as a cure 
for the dangers to which we are subjected by dishonest 
accumulations of the rich who divert the lawful earnings 
of the lawful owners from the natural channels of distribu- 
tion. If w^e can create an honest disgust, if we can breed 
a genuine contempt, if the proposed ostracism is spon- 
taneous and sincere, it would cure the evil, and to create 
fcuch a sentiment we must begin with the children. Teach 
them that the true yard-stick of civilization is not the 
material prosperity of the individual or the nation, not 
even its literature or its scientific accomplishments, if 
there remains behind or boneath such superficial evidence 
01 progress, a low standard of personal honor, a perverted 
notion of political power and a degrading servility to social 
or pecuniary success. 

There are those who predict the decline of our nation 
because of the very evils of which we have been talking. j 

The pessimists point to other nations which history tells 
us have wrought their own destruction and predict that 
the red flag of socialism will fly above the stars and 
etripes. I cannot believe that such is the destiny of our 
land. Doubtless we are to blame for the present condi- 
tions. We have known that some of these abuses existed; 
that our national, state and municipal governments were 
corrupt; that the land frauds were being perpetrated; that 
the trusts were throttling the smaller competitors; that 
the railroads did discriminate in rates and give rebates; 
— I say we have known these things and many more and 
either through indifference or apathy we have failed to 
insist upon a correction of these abuses. We are not 
blameless, for if the farmer sees the gate is open and Is 
either too lazy, or possibly too ignorant to close it, what 
wonder If the pigs get into the corn, as is their hoggish 
nature? The farmer needs to study up on pigs and fencing 
and put his knowledge to practical use and we may be sure 
that he can then raise a corn crop. I do not believe we 



18 ITATI NORMAL SCHOOL, 

are on the road to ruin. I do not think that the good lenae 
of the American people can fail to find remedies for all 
the trouhlea that now exist. In a speech delivered in Min- 
neapolis not long ago, Mr. Bryan, chastened and iiphdued 
hy two defeats for the presidency and all the more effective 
and convincing for them, asserted most eloqnently that 
the people have a right to whatever they really want, and 
even if they want a gold standard they have a right to 
have it, and I believe I may add to Mr. Bryan's assertion 
that they will get what they have a right to have. If they 
want a railroad rate law, they will have it; In fact, they 
have already obtained it. If they want an honest Senate, 
a fair tariff and a square deal, they have a right to them 
and will get them. What needs to be done then is to 
teach the children to want these and other decent things. 
Educate them to demand what is right as their right and 
then the reform must come. 

A few days ago, while thinking over some of these 
things, I had a call from a former pupil, a graduate of 
the University, and now a teacher in one of our city high 
schools. It seemed a good chance to get an opinion from 
an actual worker, and so during the course of our convers- 
ation, I suggested some changes in our methods of instruc- 
tion, emphasizing the possibility of giving our shcool 
children a clearer notion of their duties as individuals and 
as citixens. He objected vigorously on the ground that 
sohool-boards and school principals would not countenance 
lb, and said that he had given up a position in a small town 
in southern Minnesota because the school-board disapproved 
of his expressing ideas to his classes other than those con- 
tained in the prescribed text books. I shall not repeat 
all of his tale of woe, but will only say that it is to be 
regretted that such a conditloa of affairs exists. Here was 
a throughly trained young man, mature, thoughtful, dig- 
nified, who might have been a power for real good in that 
community and who, refusing to sacrifice his convictions 
to the prejudices of one or two men accustomed to have 
their own notions prevail, gave up his place and held on 
to his principles. Instead of beginning our reform in the 
school-room then, it may be necessary to begin with the 
school-boards. If so, it proves that the sins of the fathers 
are descending upon the children and it suggests the 
propriety of retaliating by Visiting the education of the 
children upon the heads of the fathers. If necessary, let 
us teach both classes at once. Although I am interested 
primarily in science, pure and applied, I am oonvlnced of 
the greater importance of making clean, honest dtiiens 



DOLUTH, MIMHBSOTA. 19 

and tn caltlyatlng souls as well as minds. Our dtlseiis are 
too often ignorant of the fundamental principles of their 
duties as citizens. 

Not long ago one of our University professors sent 
out a set of examination questions to a number of colleges 
and universities throughout the United States. The ques- 
tions were of a simple character confined to the elements 
of Civil Government, the nature and Jurisdiction of state 
and federal courts, the methods of electing our congress- 
men and legislators, and questions on topics of a similar 
nature. Now, in order to be a really intelligent voter and 
to be competent to take part in the discussion of questions 
of public interest, a person ought to be able to answer a 
fair proportion of these questions, but the colossal ignorance 
displayed in the tabulated returns from a number of our 
best known colleges and universities convinced me of the 
desirability of paying more attention to these subjects in 
our public schools. I know the courses are already over- 
crowded and that there is not room for any new subject, 
but why not cut down and make room for that which must 
necessarily be of vital importance to our national welfare? 
Believing this to be necessary, we have advocated Civil 
Government in a broad sense as a requirement for admis- 
Blon to the State University, hoping to foster in the primary 
mid secondary schools that which will make for better 
standards of citizenship and a greater sense of responsibil- 
ity for municipal and national conduct. At present the 
majority of people who know Just what needs reform and 
Just how the machinery can be run to bring about such 
reform are the people who have studied up this subject for 
the benefit of the great corporations and trusts, their 
object being to prevent any legislation inimical to their 
own interests, but, as Mr. Sinclair said in his comment on 
the stock-yards investigation, "The source and fountain 
head of genuine reform in all such matters is an enRght- 
ened public opinion." Let us then give our pupils a found- 
ation at least on which to base such an opinion even though 
we may be obliged to curtail some of the subjects at 
present included in the curriculum. Is it absolutely neces- 
sary that we make the strides in practical and scientific 
natters that we are now making if our ideas of decency 
and law and order do not keep pace, or shall we lay great 
stress on those things which tend to increase the material 
prosperity of the few and neglect those which pertain to 
the comfort and happiness of the many? Shall we double 
tbe speed of the automobile without regard to how many 
sre nin down in the race? It is generally believed that 



20 8TATB NORMAL SCHOOL, 

we are living at too rapid a pace, that we are forgetting the 
simplicities of life, that we are sacrificing too much in our 
worship of the mammon of unrighteousness. Why not 
reform? Why not teach our children that which will bring 
them to a realization of the fact that a rational, unselfish 
and honest life is the only one really worth living? 

Interpret Lincoln's great peroration by explaining to them 
that the ''government of the people" means the govern- 
ment of all the people, of the unscrupulous* law-breaking, 
avaricious magnate as well as of the poorest laborer; that 
the "^vernment by the people" means that the vote of 
the humblest individual equals in its power that of the 
highest official in the land; that ''government for the 
people" ought to mean protection of the lowliest citisen 
against the injustice or aggression of any combination or 
corporation or conspiracy. 

What splendid material there is to work upon, — the 
keen, responsive American boy and girl. Inheriting the 
spirit which prompted the fathers to found this government 
as a refuge for the oppressed of every land, the patriotism 
which refused to let a civil war deter from preserving the 
Union, the humanity which forgot all else in the rescue 
of suffering Cuba. If we recall the past and are still 
pessimistic as to the future, then we are not fit to train 
to a higher sense of civic duty the youth entrusted to our 
care. Appeal to them for anything which touches their 
hearts and sympathies and what an immediate and ready 
response Is returned! Let a San Francisco be stricken 
and see the eagerness to extend the helping hand. What 
splendid stock to work upon! Stock in the rough it may 
be, but susceptible of acquiring any finish which the crafts- 
man's hand may choose to give it. Out of such material 
we may well hope to develop a generation of citisens who 
will want and who will have what is right. 

The teacher's share In this is too apparent to require 
further explanation. Let us go out then, strong in our 
conviction that our country's future is to be better and 
brighter than Its past, and in doing our routine work of 
the lecture room and the laboratory, let us teach those 
who are to be the citizens of tomorrow that with them reets 
tne power to determine the standards by which the nation 
shall be Judged. Imbue each one wih a sense of personal 
repponsibillty, cultivate In each one a keen sense of personal 
honor, inspire each one with a lofty patriotism, remind 
each one that the Intelligent thinkers and voters constitute 
the last and highest court of appeal, and then send them 
lorth, earnest, industrious, intelligent and honest, to prove 
to the world that this "government of the people, by the 
people and for the people," shall not perish from the land. 






Name. Postofflce. State. 

Bessie Emily Bowman Duluth Minn. 

Helen Bmlly Bowyer Minneapolis Minn. 

Amanda Ellefvon Duluth Minn. 

Agnes Rebecca Holt Duluth Minn. 

Esther Levy Minneapolis Minn. 

Wlllena Marshall Duluth Minn. 

Elizabeth Merritt Duluth Minn. 

(Blau 011904. 

Mary Sayles Bartlett Duluth Minn. 

Irene Buswell Winona Minn. 

Blanche May Coulter Duluth Minn. 

Ella Deetz Duluth Minn. 

Catherine Farrell Duluth Minn. 

Leora Pearl Fenton Duluth Minn. 

Ora Margaret Hathaway Duluth Minn. 

Mary Alphade Herrell Grand Rapids Minn. 

Anna C. Johnson Doran Minn. 

Kathryn Lou Joyce Duluth Minn. 

Minda Jullanna Knutson Duluth Minn. 

Alma Kruschke Duluth Minn. 

Dorothy Katherine Kuhns. . . .Bellingham Minn. 

Clara (Laughton) Kilpatrick Biwabik Minn. 

Fanny Beulah Lippitt Duluth Minn. 

Ella Vera Mason Duluth Minn. 

Florence McLean Duluth Minn. 

Jane Elizabeth Murray Duluth Minn. 

Jennie Marie Myers Virginia Minn. 

Ckrrie May Neff Duluth Minn. 

Frances Ida Maud Neff Duluth Minn. 

^ary Lucy O'Keefe Duluth Minn. 

Emma Laurentia Olson Duluth Minn. 

Clara Mildred Somerville Virginia Minn 

Florence May Swendby Duluth Minn. 

Grace Layinia Thompspon Virginia Minn. 

Hattle Yager Duluth Minn. 



22 STATB KOUfAL SCHOOL, 

Name. Postoffloe. State. 

Emma C. Anderson Svea Minn. 

OllTe Rnssell Colbrath Hlbblng Minn. 

Alice Hlx Cdnklln Duluth Minn. 

Ida Doran Hlbblng Minn. 

Bra Bell Dysslin Superior Wis. 

Adelaide M. Baton Hlbblng Minn. 

Nanna Elnarson Pnlnth Minn. 

Mrs. Bessie Glddlngs Dnluth Minn. 

Bsther Harris Superior Wis. 

Hilda J. Jorstad Dvlath Minn. 

Minnie Perttnla BI7 Minn. 

Irene Bmily Rean Dnlnth Minn. 

Gertrude M. Schiller Duluth Minn. 

Gladys Shaw Duluth Minn. 

Myrtle M. Stark Ely Minn. 

Era Blanche Steyenson Preston Minn. 

Bessie Ellen Sturges Buffalo Minn. 

aUam tt 190B. 

Marian R. Berry Duluth Minn. 

Nina Burbank Duluth Minn. 

Jessie C. Campbell Duluth Minn. 

Julia Carlson Duluth Minn. 

Olga Carlson Crystal Falls Minn. 

Rosabelle Carlson Duluth Minn. 

Laura Detert Faribault Minn. 

Mildred Frost Duluth Minn. 

Anna T. Hanson Duluth Minn. 

Bstelle Hicken Duluth Minn. 

Ettle M. Hoskins Hlbblng Minn. 

Rathryn A. Hoyer Duluth Minn. 

Charlotte M. Hughes Duluth Minn. 

Mary F. Kennedy Duluth Minn. 

Agnes E. Lavallee Duluth Minn. 

May E. Marshall Duluth Minn. 

Fanny Mendeleon Duluth Minn. 

Marietta Murray Bveleth Minn. 

Mary L. Ober Duluth Minn. 

Elisabeth K. O'Keefe Duluth Minn. 

Violet E. Robinson Duluth Minn. 

Clara Rowe Elk Point S. D. 

Anna M. Streed Flemsburg Minn. 

Cora D. Schaffer Duluth Minn. 



Naoie. Pottofflee. State. 

Kariaret Bbaw DQlvth Mliui. 

SMlm 9wwamm Warran Minn. 

Ifnnde A. Tnlboji Cblaliolm Minn. 

TumliM Trier Tbtwo N. D. 

Bthnl Wright Dnlnth Minn. 



CMncvn jC thy Afwiwimy n iff printlftn . 

Leora Paarl Fenton (1904) President 

Carrie Majr Neif. (1904) Treasurer 

Wlllena Marshall, (1903) SecreUry 



24 STAtB NOKICAL SCHOOL, 



lEbtntB of (Sotttmntrrmntt Vfttu 

Reception by Mr. and Mrs. J. L. Washburn, (or Qass of 
1 906 and members of the Faculty, Friday Evening, May 26. 

(Eotnittrttrritirnt dmiiag, Junr X 180S. 

Hymn ----- Dykes 

Re^wnsive Scripture Reading — Prayer Rev. Charies Fox Davis 
Chorus — "Prayer to The Virgin" - - Wagner 

Sermon - - - . Rev. T. H. Qdand 

Chourus — "The King of Love My Shepherd Is" Gounod 

Benediction. 



Alumnae Banquet, Tuesda}^ Evening, June 5. 

Qodng Chapd Ejcercises and Qass Farce, Wednesday 
Morning, June 7. 

(Eottitttf ttrrtttrtit Bag, OH|ttra&i^, Jitnr 7. 

Chorus — "Shepherd of Israel" - - Morrison 

Invocation - v. - ^ . R^v. J. C. Faries 

Chorus — "The Qoud" - - - Rubenstein 

Address — "The Teacher's Share in National Refonn" 

Professor S. F. Jones 

"Hush My Uttle One" - - - Berignani 

MISS MASON 

Presentation of Diplomas - - Hon. J. L. Washburn 

Chorus — "The Gypsies" - - - Schumann 

Benediction 



((bilfit&ar for 1906-1907^ 



Bntrance Examinations and Enrolment of Students... 

: Tudsday, September 4, X906 

Class-work begins. .Wednesday morning, September 6, 1906 
Term ends Wednesday noon. November 28, 1906 

Enrolment of Students. ..... ^ .Tuesday* Deeeiftber 4, 1906 

Glass-work begins. .Wednesday morning, December 5^ 1906 
Holiday vacation begins. . .Friday noqn, December 21, 1906 
Class-work resumed ... .Tuesday morning, January Z, 1907 

Term ends .Friday noon, MUrcb 8, 1907 

Enrolment of Students. .Tuesday morning, March 19, 1907 
Class-work begins. . . .Wednesday morning, Marcb 20, 1907 
Term ends Wednesday, June 12, 1907 



The new Students' Hall will be ready for use at 
the beginning c^ tfae fall term. It is fire proof and 
is provided with every possible convenience. There 
is no more attra<:tive or comfortable boarding hall ia 
the state. Rooms and meals will be supplied at cost, 
probably fonrteen to fifteen dollars a month. Appli- 
cation for rooms should be made at the earliest pos- 
sible time. 






%3 vi- 






Bulletin 



ottbe 



State IRormal Scbool 

©ulutb, flBlnncsota. 



Wm»L I. 



flovember, 1906. 



No. 3 



» •i 



l|o]url|iiUl &0tiiiiitirfi In Ginratioii. 



In the "good old days" of our great grandmothers the 
daughters of the household were carefully and systematically 
trained tci become efTlclent home makers. They were taught 
spinning and weaying and dyeing, and how to knit and sew 
and dam. The meat was salted down for the winter, the lard 
tided out and cider apple sauce by the barrel wss prepared at 
home. Every girl was taught to cook, to make butter and 
yeast. This training was considered an essential part of her 
education, no matter how meager the intellectual side might 
be. 

We speak of their life as simple and the life of today as 
complex. It was a simple life, but nevertheless a busy one in 
spite of the fact that women's clubs, bridge, and golf, recep- 
tions and afternoon teas, woman's sufFrage and municipal im- 
proTement committees were not even dreamed of. 

But with the growth of the community and city life and the 
Inyention of machinery many industries began to be taken 
sway from the home until now we find the mills and fac- 
tories and shops carrying on what was, at one time, the work 
of every household. Freedom from many duties and cares 
have thus come to the housewife and mother but new inter- 
ests and a wider intellectual and social life have taken their 
place bringing a new order of responsibilities. In conse- 
quence of changed social and industrial conditions and In- 
creased complexity In domestic life the old-fashioned home 
training has become a thing of the past. Other profound 
changes have been effected in our environment by the many 
scientific truths that have been discovered and applied within 
the last half century. The whole civilised world is feeeling 
the need of new training to meet these new conditions. 

The home has been especially aftected by this new order 
of things and but few women have found it possible to begin 
to keep pace with it Some are careless and indifterent, many 
are ignorant and see no necessity, others lack opportunities, 
while some, bound by tradition, are perfectly satisfied with the 
old order of affairs. Household work Is often done in the 
hardest way, sanitary laws are utterly ignored while nutrition 
as a science Is not understood. 

It is only a few years since home making, the natural life 
work of women, began to be recognized In education. For 



Z STATB NORMAL SCHOOL, 

all Other arts and professions specific training has long been 
provided and required, but for this, the most vitally important, 
the preparation has been more or less haphasard, determined 
chiefly by the conditions which happened to exist in each 
individual case. It is now about thirty years since simple 
cooking lessons were first introduced into a few of our public 
schools, and out of this small beginning has arisen a new 
science — domestic science, or to use a broader and more com- 
prehensive term, home economics. 

What is domestic science and art, or home economics? 
Here we have various household arts such as preparing food, 
keeping things clean, and making garments and household 
articles. We find that in cooking and cleaning we are dealing 
with forces outside of ourselves, that we are applsdng prin- 
ciples of chemistry, biology and physics, while in other pro- 
cesses, such as basket making, weaving and sewing, we are 
working with form and color and are applying the fine arts in 
the home. These processes then are forms of applied science 
and art. But home economics means more than the applica- 
tion of science and the fine arts merely that certain results 
may be correctly reached, or that certain articles may be 
artistically made, for we discover that science and art in the 
home are a combined cause through which the individual be- 
comes a more effective human being, material substances 
attain their highest usefulness, and the best results are pro- 
duced with the least expenditure of time, energy, material and 
money. This brings us to the study of the economics of home 
consumption. Household economics then, consists of certain 
household arts or activities, based on certain sciences and 
leading to a study of economics. 

The interest in home economics is growing rapidly, as 
evidenced by its introduction into a large number of our pub- 
lic schools, technical schools and into some of our colleges. 
Mothers and home makers are becoming its friends, and as a 
result we find correspondence classes, home economics de- 
partments in the women's clubs, and household columns in 
the magaeines and daily papers. But even among those most 
interested, superintendents, teachers, and parents, we find a 
lack of formulated opinion as to its value, a tendency to throw 
the responsibility upon the special teacher, resulting in a lack 
of vital connection with the general school work. 

From the very nature of household science there are un- 
usual opportunities for correlation, for I know of no subject 
more intimately related to almost every branch taught in our 
schools than this one. from the first handwork of the little 
people to the experiments in the physical and biological 
laboratories. 



DOLUTB, MiinrBaoTA. 3 

The natural order of teachina this sabjeet wonld be to 
begin with the arts, as the weaving of mats and mgs, the de- 
signing and making of simple baskets and household articles 
leading up to the sewing. Cooking brings us to the sciencOp 
although here there is an art side as well, and for some time 
after the cooking is begun, but little emphasis is laid upon 
the scientific side. As the pupil grows older and more mature, 
however, the reasons for the dlfEerent processes and the ex- 
pected results are emphasised, and lastly, the economic phase 
of the subject Is presented. This would be the Ideal order, 
possibly, in which to present the work but, in planning 
courses for our public schools we must consider how many 
children do. not go beyond the grades and we find that we 
must adapt our plans to meet these conditions. 

In the kindergarten and primary grades no distinction 
can be made between household arts and manual train- 
ing; it is all handwork based upon the activities and Interests 
centering about the home. It may be their own homes, It may 
be the home of primitive man or the Indian, or homes in other 
lands, but it all aims for the cultivation in the child of a sense 
of his relation to the home. As the subject broadens and 
develops he feels not only his relation to the home but his 
responsibilities. From the kindergarten through the fourth 
grade at least the same work should be given to both boys 
and girls. 

The building of a playhouse and the construction of Its 
furniture, the planting and care of gardens, making mats of 
reed and raffia, weaving small blankets and rugs on looms 
made by the children, the study of wool, its spinning and 
dyeing are suggestive of some of the handwork which may be 
a part of the kindergarten and primary course. Later, in con- 
nection with a study of the age of chivalry and the age of 
adventure, banners and tents for knights and sails for ships 
could be made. Bed spreads and table covers of canvas could 
be made for the playhouse — all this leading up to the sewing 
to begin in the fifth grade. Simple baskets might be made in 
the fourth grade to be used the next year for sewing material. 

Beginning with the little tots again, an interest in cook- 
ing can be given through the primary grades by allowing the 
children to make butter and cheese, to grind the com raised 
in their gardens from which with salt and water they can 
make a primitive com cake, or they might parch the com. 
Then let them cook the vegetables they have gathered and 
about which they are writing and talking. 

When the children have reached the fifth grade they are 



4 ITATB NOKMAL tCHOOL, 

ready for more speciflc training. Sewing dasBes are formed 
for the girls while the boys beg^ln shop work. The fanda- 
mental stitches, basting, running, stitching, hemming, over- 
casting and overhanding, are learned and applied upon bags, 
needle cases, doll's garments, small towels and a number of 
articles that will interest the girls and come within their ex- 
perience. The girls in the sixth grade are always interested 
in making an apron, cap and pair of sleeves to be worn the 
next year when they enter the cooking class. 

In these grades there is an opportunity in connection with 
their geography for the study of cotton, linen and silk, and 
for the discussion of proper clothing. A little elementary 
science also may be begun when the children can talk about 
water, pure and impure water, ice to be used in drinking 
water, water as a solvent, water as a cleaning agent, cleanli- 
ness of surroundings and care of the body. The consideration 
of pure air would be the next step, discussing proper ventilla- 
tion and the expansion of air by heat. Some physiology in a 
simple form may be Introduced in this connection. Animal 
heat and breathing and the eftect of both upon air could 
furnish a number of helpful and practical lessons. 

When we reach the seventh and eighth grades, where the 
girls begin cooking, the geography affords an excellent means 
for the study of wheat, the manufacture of flour, and the dis- 
tribution of food materials. In the eighth grade comes an 
opportunity for a little consideration of civic housekeeping 
which boys and girls both need. 

In the usual time allotted to cooking in the seventh and 
eighth grades— ninety minutes a week— -there is little oppor- 
tunity for more than the actual hand work. By the time the 
recipe has been discussed and copied, the directions given, the 
<20oking finished and the dishes washed the hour and a half 
is usually consumed and so I would suggest that if some work 
in physiology could be introduced in these grades the cooking 
lessons would be much more effective and practical. These 
lessons need not be technical or involve a knowledge of chem- 
istry and physics but should be simple talks and written les- 
sons on the formation and waste of animal tissue, the kinds 
of food needed — building foods, fuel foods — with examples of 
each, and their digestion. 

When the girls reach the High School we feel that more 
stress should be laid upon the scientific and economic side of 
the work than has been possible in the grades and we are 
confronted with the difficulty of applying scientific principles 
before a scientific basis has been laid by the study of chem- 



DULUTB, MINMSflOTA. 6 

tMtty, physics and physiology. Again, if we could hare our 
ideal arrangement we would have some preparatory work in 
chemistry, physics and biology as a prerequisite for our 
course in "Preparation of Foods" in the High School. This, 
of course, is seldom possible and domestic science teachers in 
our High Schools find it a very difficult problem to decide 
how much science they may introduce into their lessons in 
the preparaiton of foods. 

The work in Cooking should be done upon a scientific 
basis. A subject is only half taught if we are told in what 
way we are to do a given task but are not led to see why we 
choose that way rather than some other. Accuracy, definite* 
ness, and the relation of cause and effect should be empha- 
sised. There should be more or less experimenting, leading the 
girls to make original recipes. The pupils should learn that 
although cooking can not claim to be an exact science like 
chemistry, stiU there is no such thing as "luck" and that it is 
intelligence and care which bring about desired results. The 
stigma upon household work must be removed as it has 
been removed, to a large extent, from trade. The labor of the 
home must be put upon a higher basis and not considered 
menial. The girls should be led to realise that no work done 
by an intelligent mind and trained hand, which adds to the 
well being and happiness of a family is drudgery. I believe 
the ethical value of domestic science is often lost sight of. 
It should teach thoughtfulness, consideration, and co-opera- 
tion; it should dignify labor and raise household work to a 
higher plane. 

The Food Study in the High School should include a study 
of the composition of foods and the relation of foods to the 
body, the digestion of food materials, their function in nutri- 
tion, a study of dietaries, the cost of food and some practical 
marketing. 

An important branch of Home Economics is the study 
of the house both from the hygienic and artistic standi>oint, 
first considering location, drainage, plumbing, heating, ven- 
tilation, lighting, water supply, construction of kitchen, height 
of sink and modes of economizing labor, then the plan of the 
house and its furnishings, dwelling upon the thought of 
beauty, simplicity, comfort and fitness. When we see the 
many ugly home with their terrible combinations of color and 
the ornate and useless furniture does any one need to ask if the 
•tudy of the home from this second viewpoint is not an im- 
portant part of the training of young women? 

Personal and public hygiene is another practical and 



6 ITATB MOKMAL SCHOOL, 

esaential course In household science and In connection with 
this a number of lessons should be given in invalid cookery, 
as well as suggestions and remedies in emergencies. 

The amount of sewing to be taught in public schools is a 
disputed question. I believe that drafting of patterns, dress- 
making and millinery belong to the technical and trade 
schools, and that the province of sewing in the public 
schools should be to teach the fundamentid stitches needed 
in garment making with a practical application on under- 
garments, aprons, useful household articles and a shirtwaist 
cut from a pattern. Besides this they should learn to patch 
and dam neatly. The aim should be to teach the girls how to 
use the needle deftly and intelligently, to give them a high 
standard of sewing and a respect and appreciation of fine 
handwork. After they can sew well by hand they should 
learn to use the sewing machine with its appliances. The 
girls need to be taught how to use the bought paper patterns, 
but I would not teach them how to draft their own patterns 
for anything more difficult than a petticoat or simple under- 
garment. Textiles ought to be studied carefully while there 
should be frequent discussions of such subjects as appropri- 
ateness, economy, cleanliness, ready made clothing, sweat 
shops and Consumers' League. 

In only a limited number of colleges and universities do 
we find Home Economics as a distinct department, although 
each year new courses are added to the curriculum of many 
colleges bearing directly upon this subject, as, for instance, 
sanitary science, food and dietetics, chemistry of foods, bac- 
teriology, physiological chemistry, courses in textiles and de- 
sign, and house decoration. The University of Chicago has a 
department called Household Administration independent of 
the Home Economics department of the School of Education. 
There is a growing conviction, however, that as universities 
recognize the future activities of their men students by pro- 
viding courses leading to medicine, law and commerce, it Is 
time that a similar provision be made for their women stu* 
dents, training them for their probable activities. Columbia 
University, the University of Chicago, the University of nil* 
nols, the University of Wisconsin and others have depart- 
ments of Home Economics as well as a number of the agri- 
cultural colleges. Cornell University has, as yet. no depart- 
ment of Household Economics but the agricultural college of 
the university has what is called a "Reading Course for Farm- 
ers' Wives" under the supervision of Miss Martha Van Rens- 
selaer. Besides lectures and practical demonstrations given 
throughout the state, illustrated bulletins are issued treating 



DULUTB, MOritnOTA. 7 

tach topics 88 Practical Houaekeepingr Decoration of tlio 
Farm Home, Germ Life in the Farm Home, The Kitchen Qar- 
den. Saving Steps and Saving Strength. With each hoUetin 
l8 Indoaed a discussion paper and much thought and intere^ 
have heen awakened throughout the state by this course. 

Women's dubs and correspondence schools have done 
much for mothers and home makers who feel their lack of 
systematic and scientiflc training. In fact the denumd has 
been so much greater than the supply that popular magaslnes 
and especially the daily papers have instituted alleged depar^ 
ments of domestic science which are often anything but 
scientiflc 

I doubt if many persons realize the invaluable work for 
domestic science that the government is doing through the 
various branches of the agricultural department and the dif- 
ferent experiment stations. The results of investigations in 
the science of nutrition, the nutritive and economic value of 
foods, chemical composition of American food products, and 
dietary studies, not to mention a host of other lines as pub- 
lished in their bulletins is of inestimable aid to the student of 
household science. 

Perhaps in no place is there a greater need of household 
arts than in the country schools. The country girl does not 
need to train her hands but she does need to know how to use 
her brains. She needs to know how to keep well, which 
means a knowledge of proper food and clothing, clean and dry 
cellars and homes, good ventilation, pure drinking water, and 
care of waste, and when we recall her home, carpets, walls 
and furniture and her clothes we have a convincing proof of 
her need of instruction on the artistic side as well. She needs 
to know that the home ought to be put upon as scientiflc a 
basis as the farm. The feeding and housing of human beings 
are as important as the feeding and housing of cattle and 
sheep. Here we can have no special teacher and no equip- 
ment; the work must be done by the grade teacher and by no 
means as missionary work but in the form of science lessons, 
art lessons, nature study and hygiene. 

Bvery young woman then who expects to become a 
teacher should have enough of Home Economics as a part of 
her professional training to enable her to give to her pupils 
such help as will raise their standards of living, improve their 
environment, and make them better fltted for life. And one 
feature of this work in Normal Schools should be to empha- 
sise those points which their graduates, although not special 
teachers of domestic science, can apply in their general teach* 



8 tTATB NORlf AL aCHOOL, 

ing. As stated in tKe beginning of this paper there ia great 
need of mutual understanding and co-operation between the 
general teacher and the special teacher. 

Any subject which aspires to become a part of school 
work must have an educational value; there is also a grow- 
ing demand that it have a utilitarian one. To quote Dr. 
Nicholas Murray Butler: "The public education of a great 
democratic people has other aims to fulfil than the extension 
of scientific knowledge or the development of literary cul- 
ture. It must prepare for intelligent citisenshlp.' 



n 



Atttn ICf fptmi (Earrg. 



If one may Judge from the prominence given to the sab- 
Ject of phonetic spelling in the recent magazines, the Sim- 
plified Spelling Board has already accomplished something, 
for It has aroused public interest To he sure this interest 
has been frequently expressed in vituperation, rage, and 
ridicule, but even this promises in the near future a sober 
consideration of the subject. 

That there is need of any reform in our spelling many 
people are unwilling to admit, but almost all teachers realise 
that something is wrong either In the child, or the teaching, 
or the language itself. A child can learn everything but 
spelling. He regards most of his studies with a certain de- 
gree of enthusiasm, but seldom spelling. He hates that, for 
he cannot reason the matter out, and there are no safe rules 
to go by. He would reason that if s-u-n-g spells sung and 
r-u-n-g, rung, why does not t-u-n-g spell tongue? If t-h-o-u-g-h 
spells though, why are not so, sew, hoe and beau spelled like It? 
These are questions which the wisest teacher cannot answer. 
So there is no escape for the luckless child but to learn each 
separate word— Just about as abominable a method as that 
of the Chinese who have a different character for every word 
in the language. As a solution of the difficulty, one clever 
writer suggests that. Instead of resorting to phonetic spelling, 
we sound all the letters which are now silent, pronouncing 
programme programmy, for example. As for words with 
silent letters which it is impossible to pronounce, he would 
boycott them, substituting phrases. This may seem, at first 
thought, a simple and beautiful method, but it has its faults. 
We turn from it and continue to exact the same old memory 
work of our pupils, and they continue to be as vulgar as to 
misspell. 

One authority on the subject says that the present poor 
spelling is the natural result of our reformed methods of edu- 
cation; that children have such a range of work to accom- 
plish that they cannot give the time to details that some of us 
did In those days, when there were only Reading, Writing, 
Arithmetic and Spelling to master. The writer goes on to 
say that spelling is work which cannot be mastered without 
attention concentrated on details. Our modem method alms 
to make everything easy for the child, and really makes most 



10 STATB NORMAL 8CBOOL, 

things too easy. The result Is lack of eoneentratloii and lasj 
mental habits. There Is no way to make spelling easy, at- 
tractive, and at the same time accurate. Therefore we find 
few good spellers In our schools. 

This may be the correct theory for accounting f6r onr 
poor spelling, or we may lay the blame on Dr. Samuel John- 
son, who In the eighteenth century made a dictionary, and In 
It spelled words Just about as he pleased, In defiance of 
authority. Before his time there had been a tendency to 
spell phonetically — ^that Is the natural tendency of a lan- 
guage. For Instance In 1200 A. D. honor was spelled onur. 
Shakespeare spelled crossed c-r-o-s-t, and kissed k-l-s-t Bun- 
yan, MUton and Spenser spelled In a similar way. But Dr. 
Johnson was fond of the ancient classics. He was fond of big 
words, the harder the better. In his dictionary he pretended 
to spell according to derivation. He put Into many words 
letters which had for a long time been silent, although Dr. 
Johnson didn't himself make any effort to pronounce them. 
His influence over his contemporaries was great, so that he 
managed to defeat the phonetic tendency and made a wider 
breach than ever between the written and spoken language. 
His Influence has continued to the present day, although dux^ 
Ing the past few years there has been a new and growing 
Inclination to spell certain words phonetically. This Is due 
to the Influence of the N. E. A., which began tampering with 
our spelling in a small way. But no one considered the ten- 
dency alarming until a body of men called the Slmpllfled 
Spelling Board, financially backed by Carnegie, made out a list 
of three hundred words and begged the public to adopt them. 
Their efforts toward reform were treated as a huge joke until 
President Roosevelt Issued an edict At first everyone was 
dumb with astonishment The movement was too much Uke 
a revolution to suit conservative Americans. 

Now, this Simplified Spelling Board is a body of cul- 
tured men of various professions. There are about thirty 
members. Brander Matthews is chairman. I will mention 
only a few names, which may carry with them the weight of 
authority: President Jordan of Leland Stanford University; 
President Butler of Columbia; Melvll Dewey, lately director 
of the Albany library; the editor of the Standard Dictionary; 
the editor of the Century Dictionary; editors of The Century 
Magazine and of The Independent, and Prof. Lounsbury of 
Tale. Most of these men may be deemed qualified to lead 
such a movement 

A word should be said of the avowed aims of this Board, 
because they have certainly been misrepresented by the 



OOLOTB. MIMMBaOTA. 11 

,hiimorl8ta. In the first place it thould not be called the 
Phonetic bat the Simplified Spelling Board. A statement is 
made distinctly that the Board does not advocate phonetic 
reform. Brander Matthews says that such reform is imprac- 
ticable, for to accomplish it there would hare to be uniform- 
ity of pronunciation, or at least an absolute standard of 
pronunciation, which does not exist and never has existed. 
The aim of the Board is to simplify spelling by dropping 
silent letters, when there is authority for doing so. That is, 
in many cases it advocates discarding those silent letters 
which the classical Dr. Johnson, with such great pains, put 
into his dictionary. In this way it appears to be a restoration 
of many of the spellings discarded in the eighteenth century. 
For years there has been a natural tendency to go back to 
the earlier spelling. For instance the dictionaries have given 
a choice of two spellings, honour and the earlier honor. In 
these words we see that Dr. Johnson really obscured the 
derivation. By inserting the u he made them appear to come 
from the French instead of the Latin. As I said before there 
has been a natural tendency to go back to these simpler 
forms. The Simplified Spelling Board is "accelerating a nat- 
ural historical process." Now this dropping of silent letters 
is not arbitrary. That would be true phonetic spelling. All 
words which have silent letters are not in the list recom- 
mended and never will be. One. of the rules adopted by the 
Board is: If two spellings are given in the dictionary, choose 
the simpler; for example, program, honor, fantasm. There is 
nothing revolutionary in this. Most of us have adopted it 
already. Again, if an older spelling is simplex, restore it, as 
stept, and the Anglo Saxon tung for tongue, the Saxon Hand 
for island. Concerning such words as center, meter, theater, 
sepulcher, the Board takes the liberty of saying they must 
all end in er for the sake of regularity. The most conserva- 
tive person cannot object to this. Our spelling is very irreg- 
ular and in the words just named there is nothing gained by 
irregularity. At present is there any way for a child to 
know which words are spelled er and which re? It will be a 
great saving of a child's effort if he can know once and for 
all time that such words are always spelled er, and would 
such a rule not be the salvation of many an older sinner who 
halts between two opinions? 

I have given these details to show that there is nothing 
recommended thus far by the Board that may be regarded as 
a revolution. It aims at "reformation by regulation." A cer- 
tain dictionary spells omelet in only one way; it offers a 
choice of epaulet or epaulette, and gives no choice whatever 



12 tTATB NOKMAL 8CBOOL, 

but etiquette. Why this difference? Isn't It a line thing to 
haye some one step in and say, "Hereafter spell all such 
words without the final te"? One can see from omelet what 
the natural tendency is. It seems to prove that the Board is 
simply accelerating a natural historical process. Its methods 
thus far are conservaUve. It is worthy of notice that epolet 
was not recommened for epaulet Nothing in the nature of 
innovation la 

While the recommendations of the Board have been 
adopted by some schools, a few newspapers and magazines, 
they are opposed by the press in general, and some scholars 
like President Eliot of Harvard. The English, on the whole, 
regard the movement with disfavor, although the editors of 
the principal dictionaries published in England favor it For 
its unpopularity in this country the Jokers are chiefly to 
blame. They have conveyed the idea that volcanic changee 
are to take place in the spelling book; that every word in 
the language is to be spelled phonetically. They have written 
whole articles in such spelling, and have shocked and 
amused us considerably. Americans have some sentiment, as 
well as the English, and they don't take kindly to having the 
old, familiar words assume the unfamiliar and grotesque ap- 
pearance promised by the humorists. They have been led to 
expect the most extreme type of phonetic spelling, and this 
is their chief reason for objecting to the change. 

The reasons for reform are clearly stated in a pamphlet 
which was issued by the Board last March. It reads: 

"All whose mother-tongue is English believe that, if it is 
not unfairly handicapped, it will become the dominant and 
international language of the world. For this destiny it is 
fitted by its use as the medium of the widest commerce and 
the most progressive civilization, by its cosmopolitan vocab- 
ulary, and by its grammatical simplicity. No other existing 
speech, and none of the proposed artificial international lan- 
guages, has the same adapability to such a use. There is, 
however, a wide-spread and well-grounded conviction, that in 
its progress toward this goal our language is handicapped by 
one thing and one only — its intricate and disordered spelling, 
which makes it a puzzle to the stranger within our gates and 
a mystery to the stranger beyond the seas. English is easy, 
adaptable, and capable of a many-sided development: its 
spelling is difficult and cumbersome. 

"Apart from its relation to the foreigner, our intricate and 
disordered spelling also places a direct burden upon every 
native user of English. It wastes a large part of the time and 



DOLOTB, MIMIfltOTA. 18 

•ftort given to the Instractloii of our cliUdren, keeping them, 
for example, from one to two years behind the school-children 
ci Germany, and condemning many of them to alleged "illit- 
eracy" all their days. Moreover, the printing, typewriting, 
and handwriting of the useless letters which our spelling pre- 
scribes, and lipon which its difHculty chiefly rests, waste 
every year millions of dollars, and time and efCort worth mil- 
lions more. If then, as is certain, the reasonable and gradual 
slmpliflcation of our spelling will aid the spread of English, 
with the attendant advancement of commerce, of democratic 
ideals, and of intellectual and political freedom; will econ- 
omise the time of our school-children and make their work 
more efficient; and will aid greatly in the cheapening of 
printing, is it not a matter which appeals to common sense, 
to patriotism, and to philanthropy?" 

It is admitted by etymologists that the revised spelling 
will not obscure the derivation of words. This has been an 
objection offered by many who would like to see our spelling 
made simpler. The objection would be well founded if a 
purely phonetic spelling were adopted, but the new spelling is 
to be based on derivation and authority — at least that is what 
the Board tells us. For instance, kist and tung are nearer the 
Anglo Saxon cyste, and tunge than our modem kissed and 
tongue. Such spellings as curst and dropt we are familiar 
with in poetry from the time of Shakespeare to that of Ten- 
nyson. If these shorter forms may be used in poetry, why 
not in prose? 

It is interesting to examine the list of three hundred 
words. Their spelling is regulated by twenty simple rules 
formulated by the Board. Many people would be astonished, 
if they would only glance at the list, to find that they have 
been using many of these so called new spellings — probably 
one-third of the list — for a long time. 

Some of the arguments urged against the movement have 
already been mentioned. In addition to these it is sometimes 
urged that libraries would have to be reset in the new spell- 
^g in order to be intelligible to future generations. In reply to 
this the editor of the Century dictionary says, "The new 
spelling will probably differ from our present spelling less 
than one-third as much as this differs from the spelling of 
Shakespeare." 

There is still another objection. While the movement 
has met with some few sympathizers in England, most of the 
English, who are very conservative, do not favor it. It can- 
not be hoped that the new spelling will be adopted in Bug- 



14 ITATB MORMAL SCBOOL, 

land. ThlB would at the outset defeat the primary purpose 
of the reform, as English would hardly become the uniyersal 
language If the spelling of America were very different from 
that of England. It would make a wide gulf between the 
literatures of the two countries. From a publisher's point of 
Tiew it would be disastrous. The president of the BCacmlllan 
company says, "To adopt the new spelling would ruin our ex* 
port trade in American literature." Two sets of plates would 
have to be made, one especially for English custouL And in 
case Mr. Carnegie's hope of simplifying the whole language, 
word by word, is fulfilled, in a few decades, Americans whose 
eyes have become accustomed to the new spelling, would be 
unable to read, without some difficulty, publications from 
across the water. Even in this country unless President 
Roosevelt's order is universally followed, the official publica- 
tions will differ from the common language. So unless the 
simplified spelling is adopted by all English speaking people, 
the result will be confusion. 

Is the new spelling practicable? We don't know, of 
course, exactly what the Board is going to do, nor how far it 
really means to carry the reform. If we knew we mie^t de- 
termine its practicability. If no more radical changes are 
made in the forthcoming lists than have been made in this 
one, we may hope to survive the confusion and live to see 
better days— confusion there will be certainly under the most 
favorable conditions. If only we could give the new spelling 
a trial of a few months or a year, we should not hesitate as 
much, but in this case, if we begin we must continue. But 
can the most hopeful expect that popular prejudice will ever 
be overcome so as to make a beginning worth while? Mark 
Twain answers yes. In his characteristic style he points to 
the introduction of the hoop-skirt which fifty years ago 
caused such consternation. He says thac a few years later 
people began to regard it as beautiful, and he adds that the 
eye that could become accustomed to a hay-stack hoop-skirt 
and consider it a thing of beauty, can become reconciiCd to 
anything. He reminds us that once upon a time we were 
horrified to hear of women riding bicycles. He thinks that 
if prejudice prevents our adopting the new spelling, that 
could be overcome if only the change were sudden enough, 
so that the whole thing were over in a year or two. "But 
I'm afraid it won't happen," he adds, "and I'm as sorry as a 
dog, for I do love revolutions and violence." 

Granted that prejudice could be overcome at last, is the 
reform worth while? There has been for years an outcry 
against our spelling. Foreigners think it an abomination, and 



DULUTH. MINNBSOTA. 16 

most of UB think so ourselves. Wlien we were strnggUng 
with spelling in the grades, we shed tears of despair. In the 
high school and in college our spelling caused us hitter humil- 
iation. Since leaving school, we laugh at the past and spell 
everyone in his own way. We have said hundreds of times, 
"Something ought to be done! Why don't somebody do it?" 
But now that certain men have actually undertaken a reform, 
and mean business, we hesitate to follow their leading. We 
admit that they are scholars who know more about the 
structure of the language than we do, yet we cannot get over 
the feeling that somehow, even if they themselves are con- 
fident of success, they will meet with dismal failure, and 
leave us in a condition of hopeless confusion. If something 
is really wrong with our spelling — as every sane person 
admits — and if anything is ever to be done to improve it, why 
not begin the reform at once, instead of allowing a bad mat- 
ter to grow worse? Is anything gained by postponing the 
reform? 



BULLETIN OF THE STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 

DULUTH MINNESOTA. 

Published Quarterly by llje State Normal School at Dttkith. 



Entered ' as. ftccond-ciaM matter. May 14. 1906. at the Poat Oftoe. 
Duluth. MinaesoCa, under the act of Congreai of July 16, 1094. 



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I do not profess to know all about the methods used in 
teaching Geography in Germany, and what little I think I 
know may be full of errors. This latter point was impressed 
upon me very strongly at a German dinner party to which my 
wife and I were invited. After several courses had been 
served and the dinner was about over, a young woman took a 
teaspoon of water and flipped it across the table at a young 
man opposite her, the table-cloth getting the most of the 
water. The young man, not to be outdone, took a teaspoon 
full of water and threw it across at the girl, the tablecloth 
again showing the effect We had been long enough among 
strangers so that we thought we could control our faces no 
matter what happened, but evidently I failed here, for our 
hostess turned and asked, "Why, don't you do that at dinner 
parties in America?" I told her there were a few dinner 
parti«ss given each year in America that I could not find time 
to attend, so I was not absolutely certain whether they 
threw spoonfuls of water at each other at American dinner 
parties or not, but I had never seen it done. "Well," she 
said, "that's odd. Miss Blank, from Ck>lumbia University, 
who was studying at the University here last winter, said that 
people always threw water at each other at all the swell 
dinner parties In America, but that some Americans weren't 
very proud of it and might deny that there was any truth In 
the story, but it was always done." Our hostess fairly took 
our breath away by her concluding statement that she did not 
like the custom herself and they were only doing it to make 
us feel at home! 

In order to avoid drawing conclusions from one recitation 
or a single conversation, I attempted to visit the same grade 
in several school buildings in each city I visited and talk with 
every teacher who was kind enough to listen to my faulty 
German. I used each conversation and recitation as a check 
on all the others and, visiting schools all over the Empire, I 
received a fair idea of the methods they use in teaching 
Geography in their graded schools. 

The nature study, history and geography taught in the 
first three grades came under the one head "Heimatskunde," 
and they study this home loce from these three points of view. 



2 STATB NORMAL SCHOOL. 

Perhaps I can show by a summary of some of the recitations 
I heard better than in any other way how this work is taken 
up. 

In Nordhausen I spent several days watching a teacher 
develop the comprehension of a map in a class of sixty second 
grade little girls, each recitation period being fifty minutes 
long. The teacher, a man of about thirty-five, began by ask- 
ing which was North, Bast, South, West. Then very rapidly 
he went through the following questions, which the different 
pupils answered with a rapidity that showed they had been 
over the ground many times before. "How many windows 
on the east side of the school room? How many windows on 
the north side of the school room? How many rows of 
benches in this room? Which direction do they face? In 
what comer is the blackboard? On which side is the master's 
desk? On which side is the door?" Then he picked up a 
meter stick and asked, "What have I in my hand?" The 
little girl pointed at arose, curtsied and said, "You have a 
meter-stick in your hand." "How many times will this meter- 
stick go in the north side of this room? How many times 
will it go in the east side of this room?" He then drew on 
the blackboard a rough diagram of the floor plan of the room, 
one-tenth actual size, and located on this the desk, stove, 
rows of benches, windows, etc. He then asked the same 
questions about the diagram on the board that he had asked 
about the school room. This seemed to be new ground and 
only a few of the little grirls could answer when called upon, 
and, since each girl felt it her duty to weep when she could not 
recite, a large proportion of them were weeping most of the 
time. The rule, so far as I could judge by results, seemed to 
be to continue to weep until asked a question they could 
answer and then to smile until they failed again. After each 
one had a sunny countenance, which was not until she could 
answer all the questions about the diagram on the board as 
rapidly as the questions about the room, the teacher asked: 
"This room is how many times as long as the picture on the 
board? How many times as wide? A distance of one meter 
on the picture on the board is the same as how many meters 
on the school room floor?" Half the room was in tears 
before this was answered correctly. And when he put the 
question the other way, "One meter along this north wall is 
the same as how many meters on the north side of this pic- 
ture?" only one girl came through smiling all the way. 

The next step was to draw the floor plan of the building 
on a scale of 1:100. Then when this seemed to be clear he 
hung up a large gaily colored map of the city. The scale of 



DULUTB, MIMNBSOTA. 3 

this map was 1:1000. Now Nordhausen is over one thousand 
years old and, to a foreigner, it seems as though those early 
settlers located their houses anywhere they pleased and put 
the streets in afterwards. These streets were narrow, crooked 
and so vile smelling that we were reminded of Ck)lerldge'8 
description of Cologne, as a city where he counted two and 
seventy stenches all well defined. How those children ever 
found their way to and from school was a puzzle to me, and 
to see them trace on this large map the way to Kaiser Strasse 
or Wilhelm Strasse or Friedrich Strasse developed in me a 
reverence for their method of teaching map reading. 

I have used considerable space in describing the work 
of this particular teacher, because it expresses the idea that 
runs all through the teaching of geography everywhere in 
Germany. The main thing in teaching geography is to develop 
the power to read a map correctly. 

The nature study side of the Heimatskunde was interest- 
ing to me because of the unevenness of the teaching. The 
geography teaching proper that I saw was almost uniformly 
good, but the nature study is not so well developed and the 
older teachers especially had lots of trouble with it and 
seemed simply to try to fill up the time. 

In one class I visited they were talking about the garden 
vegetables and the teacher's questions, so far as I could 
translate them, ran something after this order. "What is the 
finest vegetable that grows in our garden?" Now that ques- 
tion might have several answers, depending upon individual 
tastes, but the pupil whose turn it was to recite got up and 
unhesitatingly declared, "The finest vegetable that grows is 
the potato." The teacher admitted that the potato was a fine 
vegetable, a very important vegetable, but not the finest 
vegetable that grows. The next boy got up and informed us 
that the finest vegetable that grows is the cabbage. The 
teacher seemed more pleased with this answer than with the 
other, but thought that even the cabbage, fine as it was, 
wasn't the finest vegetable that grows. The third boy saw 
that the second answer had been "warm" so he confidently 
said, "The finest vegetable that grows is the onion." Every- 
body knew he was correct by the smile that covered the 
teacher's face and it did not need the teacher's "Tes, indeed, 
the onion is the finest vegetable that grows." "Then," said 
the teacher, "to whom should we give thanks for the bounte- 
ous gift of the onion?" Every one knew the answer to this 
and they fairly shouted, "Our Heavenly Father!" "Then let 
us give thanks to Our Heavenly Father for his bounteous gift 



4 stATfe moriiaL seaooL, 

of the onion/' and they all recited in concert a little poem- 
prayer of thanks. 

My wife and I had onions in the hotels in all the sonps, 
all the salads, all the meats and some of the desserts, and 
were almost ready to pat up a prayer of protest to Onr 
Heavenly Father, as all of our protests to the waiters went 
for nanght 

The historical side of their Heimatskunde teaching was 
based mainly on the early history of certain towers, churches 
and particular places, as goose market, horse market street, 
com market and other ancient landmarks. 

The teaching of geography as a science began in the 
fourth grade and was finished in the eighth, giving five years, 
besides the three of preliminary work, to the subject The 
following outline is a translation of the one used in Frankfort 
a Main, and practically the same outline was in use in every 
school I visited. 

Fourth Grade. 

I. Teaching Material. 

A. The surroundings of Frankfort B. The district of 
Wiesbaden. C. The Province of Hessen-Nassau. D. Mathe- 
matical Geography. 

II. Method of Procedure. 

A. The Surroundings of Frankfort 

1. The principal walks to points of interest 2. The 
valley of the Main as far as it can be seen. 8. The moun- 
tains in the neighborhood. 4. The village which can be seen 
from various points of view. 6. The importance of the 
watch towers. 6. History and legends about the city and 
surrounding villages. 

B. The district of Wiesbaden. 

1. Consideration and mapping of the main points in the 
district 2. The government of Wiesbaden district. 

C. The province Hessen-Nassau. 

1. History of the former electorate Hessen and dukedom 
Nassau. 2. The provincial government 

D. Mathematical Geography. 

1. The phenomena of the heavens; the seasons; observar 
Uons of the weather; warmth, cold (thermometer), wind, 
wind direction (weather cock), compass, conditions of the 



DULUTB, 1IINNB80TA. 6 

air, (barometer) dew, hoar frost, mist, clouds, rain, snow, liall, 
thunder storms. 

Fifth Grade. 

I. Teaching Material. 

A. The German Bmplre. B. Mathematical Geography. 

II. Method of Procedure. 

A. The German Empire. 

1. Consideration of the fatherland according to the 
natural dlYlsions. 2. The surface. 3. The cultiration and 
use of the surface. (Under 3 consider: soil and minerals, in- 
dustries, commerce and intercourse, intellectual culture.) 4. 
The territories and states of southern Gtormany; 6. The terri- 
tories and states of central Germany (the Rhine region, po- 
litical glimpse.) 6. The territories and states of North Ctor- 
many. 7. The German empire as a band of states. 

B. Mathematical Geography. 

1. Apparent movements of the sun, moon and stars; 2. 
The moon's phases and phjrsical states. 

Sixth Grade. 
I. Teaching Material. 

A. Other European Lands. B. Mathematical (Geography, 
n. Method of Procedure. 

A. Other European Lands. 

1. Middle Europe, (about two months.) 

a. Alps, the Swiss Alps and their foreland, Switser- 
land, Carpathian lands and the Hungarian Plain, 
Austria-Hungary. 

2. West and Northwest Europe, (about two months.) 

a. West Alps and Rhine territory, Pyrenees, French 
Central mountains, the hilly lands of Brittany, 
Paris Basin, France, mouth of the Rhine, the dry 
land, marsh land and North Sea coast, Holland 
and Belgium. 
8. Northern Ihirope, (about two months.) 

a. Great Britain, Scandinavia and Denmark. 

4. Eastern Europe, (three weeks.) 

a. The great lowlands of Europe. 

5. Southern ESurope, (three months.) 

a. Balkan peninsula, Apennine peninsula, Pyrenees 
peninsula. 

B. Mathematical Geography, (one month.) 

1. Form and movement of the earth. 2. Day time and 



Seventh Grade. 
I. Teaching Material. 

A. The I\>relgn Lands with particular reference to the 

Ctorman colonies. 



6 STATB NORMAL SCHOOL, 

B. Mathematical Geography. 
II. Method of Procedure. 

The geographical treatment should hare first a glimpse 
of the history of the exploration of that part of the world wtth 
a consideration of the natural territories and economical con- 
ditions of the districts. Their trade with the German Kingdom 
should be thoroughly discussed. 

A. The Foreign Lands. 

1. America. 

a. South America (about three weeks.) 
(1) The Andes, (2) Lowlands of the Great 
Streams, (3) Bast highlands, (4) Northern and 
Northeastern highlands, (6) The highlands of 
Patagonia, (6) The provinces and European col- 
onies. 
In a similar manner consider: b. Central America and 
West Indies, c. North America, (about a month.) 

2. Africa, (over two months.) 

a. The Nile lands, b. Bast African sea plain, c. 
South African tableland, d. Congo plain and lower 
Guinea, e. Sudan and upper Guinea, f. Sahara, g. 
Atlas lands. 

3. Asia, (two months.) 

Compare according to physical conditions as abOTs. 

4. Australia and its Islands, (about a month.) 

B. Mathematical Geography, (one month.) 

1. Degrees: Longitude and latitude, horixon, tropics, 
cones, darkness of sun and moon. 

Eighth Grade. 
I. Teaching Material. 

A. Frankfort a Main. B. The province of Hessen-Nas- 
sau. C. The German Kingdom. D. Mathematical (Seography. 
n. Method of Procedure. 

In this year the home city and home province should be 
discussed in their economical and historical importance The 
economical conditions of the Gterman kingdom and its place 
in international commerce should be given repeated and thor- 
ough consideration. 

A. Frankfort 

1. Description of the city, trades and industries, com- 
mercial intercourse, population, instruction and educational 
facilities, government, history. 

B. The province of Hessen Nassau. 

1. Consideration of the province with particular reference 
to the economic conditions from the following view points: 
Soil cultivation, cattle breeding, industries, home trade, Im- 



DULUTB. MINMBSOTA. 7 

porta and exports, commercial Intercourse, colonisation and 
popnlation, political affairs, government, agencies for cultare, 
history. 

C. German Kingdom. 

1. Connected consideration of the physical divisions and 
state divisions. 

2. The Influence the physical features of Germany have 
had on Its development 

a. Influence of situation, of earth form, and climate 
on the historical development, on trade and com- 
merce and on earth civilisation. 

b. The soil situation and its importance to the people. 

c. Industries and their imjK>rtance In the economic 
life. 

d. Trade and commerce (trans-Atlantic commerce, 
duties, taxes, and commercial treaties) and their 
Influence on the economic life. 

e. The colonising of the German klngdooL 

f. Education and character of the people. 

g. Political and economical world position of Ger^ 
many. Army, Navy and merchant fleet 

h. Constitution. 

D. Mathematical Geography. 

1. Heavenly bodies: Sun, moon, earth. 

2. Solar system. 

3. Universe. 

"Germany, Germany Above All" this should be the theme 
of every recitation in Geography. 

I think the most noticeable thing shown by the outline is 
the amount of time given to their own country. The pupils 
learn a great deal about their own villa«e or city in the first 
three grades, but the fourth year Is also spent in studying 
their home surroundings. Many field trips are made, each of 
which is traced out on the map before they start and again 
after they return, and different pupils point out on the map 
where a certain flower was found or a particular bridge, tree, 
rivulet or stone wall. Everything possible was done to 
develop their power of reading a map and a map scale. 

The fifth year is spent on the Empire as a whole, con- 
stantly comparing each new district or city studied with their 
own, with which they are familiar. The sixth year is given 
to a study of the remainder of Europe, using Germany as a 
standard of comparison. All areas are given in terms of the 
area of Germany, never in square kilometers. The population, 
industries, imports, exports, government, in fact everything 



8 STATB NORMAL SCHOOL, 

aboat each coiintry, is compared with the population, indna- 
triea, imports, exports and goyemment of Qermany. 

During the seventh year, and one year only, they study 
the rest of the world, but here again only as compared to 
Germany and with particular reference to the German colonies. 
Tou will also note by the outline that it is the trade of these 
countries with the German Empire that interests them the 
most Because of this they devote twice as much time to 
Africa as to North America. And very little of the month, 
given to North America is spent on the United States. In 
one geography I picked up, dated 1906, most of the page and 
a half given to the United States was taken up with a de- 
scription of pig killing in the Chicago packing establishments, 
and I was glad to learn that the farmers in the Mississippi 
valley, by means of block houses, are gradually overcoming 
the encroachments of the Indians. I do not think that the 
authors of this text believed this about the United States, but 
they want the children of the common people to believe it 

In the eighth year they again come back to Germany and 
teach the commercial development of the Bmpire. Tou will 
note the motto that closes the outline, "Deutschland, Deutsch- 
land, uber AUes." I asked one of the most progressive teach- 
ers I met why it was that they taught so little about other 
countries and so much about their own country. He replied 
that he knew it left the children ignorant and egotistical, but 
said that was what they wanted. "Twenty-five years ago," 
he continued, "Germany was the servant nation of the world 
and received servant's wages. Times were very hard, wages 
low, money scarce, and every one who could left the country. 
Today migration has practically stopped and the country has 
greatly increased in wealth and is rapidly getting wealthier. 
The boys that stop at the end of the eighth grade become the 
men that supply the army and navy, pay taxes and keep up 
the country and we want them to think Germany is the only 
country in the world." 

I should now like to describe somewhat fully a few typical 
lessons beginning with the fifth grade, as the fourth grade 
work is very much like that already described. 

The fifth year, except the month given to mathematical 
geography, is devoted to the study of Germany and I was 
curious to discover Just how much subject matter they at- 
tempted to teach. I think every geography teacher realises 
that we cover entirely too much ground in our geography 
teaching and hence our average pupil has a very hasy idea 
of the entire subject The following is a brief summary of a 



OULUTB. HIMMBSOTA. 9 

recitation I heard In Lelpsig and shows, it seems to me, a 
striking difference between their methods and ours. 
"Name the principal cities of Germany." 

"The principal cities of Germany are Berlin, Lelpsig, Ham- 
burg, Bremen and Dresden." This answer satisfied the 
teacher. It was evidently what he had taught them to give in 
answer to that particular question. I have heard teachers 
(in this country) who. In teaching Germany, would not have 
been satisfied unless Cologne and Frankfort had been men- 
tioned, and I have heard very few teachers who would have 
considered the naming of five cities as a complete answer to 
the question, "What are the principal cities of the United 
States?" 

The next boy was asked to give the location, size and 
population of these five cities, and the third boy told why 
they were the principal cities. The latter used the large map 
in explaining the physical features of the country and the 
transportation systems in answering his question. His reci- 
tation was almost two minutes long and he did it all without 
any prompting questions on the part of the teacher. 

Then the teacher took up the kingdoms of (Germany In the 
same manner, and in describing these the answers were also 
ocMuplete, but touched only the main points. Neither in this 
recitation, nor in any of the others I heard on Germany, was 
there much taught that we would not attempt to teach in 
studying Germany. The difference was that each pupil re- 
membered all the points that were taken up instead of having 
very hazy ideas of the country. 

After seeing their outline and noticing in their geographies 
how little they gave about America, I was eager to know how 
much they taught and the school principal at Dresden kindly 
directed me to a class of seventh grade boys who were then 
taking up North America. 

The boys were sitting two in a seat, one having his atlas 
open at the map of Ehirope, which they had studied the 
previous year, and the other having his open at the map of 
North America. The teacher first had them compare the 
surface of North America with that of Europe as they dis- 
cussed the mountains, drainage, soil, coasts and harbors. 
Then they compared the temperature of the two countries 
and next the rain-fall for the different months of the year. 
Then, after they had the surface, drainage, temperature and 
rain-fall of North America clearly fixed in their minds, he 
began to question them as to the probable products, minerals, 
manufacturing industries, forests, occupations, etc. The ac* 



10 8TATB NORMAL SCHOOL, 

curacy and compIeteneaB of their deductions were wonde^toL 
Knowing their own country thoroughly and Burope almost as 
well, by simply a series of comparisons they discovered most 
of the important facts about America. I visited this class 
shortly after the earthquake in San Francisco and the teacher 
gave them a short account of this disaster. I found every- 
where I visited a general tendency to teach current-events- 
geography. One Dresden principal told me that the geography 
of their entire eighth year was based upon current events, he 
himself assigning to the teachers the topics from week to 
week that the pupils should look up. 

Mathematical geography has, I think, always proved more 
or less of a stumbling block to the grade teacher. Most 
teachers believe that some of it should be taught in the grades, 
but there are many different opinions as to how much and In 
what grade it should be taught. I had the great good fortune 
to hear a most excellent teacher endeavor to instill a clear 
conception of the seasons in the minds of an eighth grade 
class of boys. The principal told me that this teacher was a 
Normal School graduate, had taken his doctor's degree at 
Leipsig University, and was considered the best eighth grade 
teacher in the city of Frankfort 

There was one red-headed boy in the room and naturally 
that boy was called forward to represent the sun. The lesson 
was a series of mirth-provoking directions addressed to the 
"sun." "Now, my 'sun,' shine more brightly, as it is summer," 
and, "Children, notice how much brighter the 'sun' is shining 
now," or when it was winter he was representing, it became, 
"Do you feel as much warmth from the 'sun' now as you did 
before?" The boys enjoyed the recitation, the visitors en- 
Joyed it, the teacher enjoyed it and the "sun" smiled sheep- 
ishly as though some favor had been conferred upon him. 

After the recitation was over the teacher came up and 
talked about his work. He said that he had been teaching 
mathematical geography for many years, but had been unable 
to devise a method of presenting the subject of the seasons 
so that it could be comprehended by all of his pupils. Only 
a few of them could grasp it and he endeavored to amuse the 
rest. We listened to a woman teacher trying to make a sixth 
grade class of girls understand the reason for day and ni^t, 
but their answers to her questions showed that their ideas 
were very vague. 

I have been asked many times in what way, if any, my 
observations of the Germans' methods of teaching geography 
have changed my own methods of teaching that subject. It 



DULUTR, MINNISOTA. 11 

is not a queation that is very easy to answer, as it has 
changed my teaching In many litle ways. I think, though, the 
main difference is that I am trying more and more to make it 
intenslye rather than extensive. In preparing my lesson he- 
fore class, I hare qnit committing again to memory the pop- 
ulation and industries of each village and hamlet in the state 
or country that we have under consideration at that particular 
time. That is, I no longer attempt to have my pupils learn 
what I, a geography teacher, have forgotten. So, since my 
memory is not very good, we omit considerahle matter that I 
formerly attempted to teach. 

Then, I never realized before how much children could 
read out of a map when that, instead of a text, is used as the 
source of their information. From the second grade, where 
they begin to teach maps and the scale, up to the 
eighth grade where they study the commercial devel- 
opment of their own country, the German school boy 
depends mainly upon a map, either physical or political for 
his information. Many of our grade teachers have told me 
that children so young cannot comprehend a map, but I fully 
believe the German child does, and should like very much to 
see map reading consistently attempted here. 

I noticed in every geography recitation I visited that the 
last ten minutes of the period were used by the pupils for 
writing in a small note book what they had learned during 
that recitation. Two or three of the pupils would read aloud 
to the teacher what they had written, and he would make any 
corrections he thought necessary. These notes were then 
learned at home and were recited to the teacher at the next 
geography period. These note books were kept during all 
their study of geography and many of the pupils in the eighth 
grade could repeat verbatim everything that was in his series 
of note books. Although they had learned a very little each 
day, yet at the end of five years it amounted to a very com- 
plete knowledge of the subject. 



0ii0grBtiiinjB an IflBtiirg in life ttrahrB. 

1|. C Mrmm. 



That something or several things are the matter with 
history In the grades seems to be generally admitted; and we 
make so slow progress in mending the ills because we read 
and hear too much of small, shallow, bigoted opinion, and 
think too little on the utterances of minds ripened by keen 
observation, wide experience, and deep study. I shall there- 
fore, courteous reader, take advantage of the present oppor- 
tunity to lay before you a few thoughts gathered from different 
sources, and ask you to think patiently on them and to test 
them in your own experience. 

"It needs but little reflection to see that no study is in 
itself — apart from treatment — ^so interesting as history. For 
what is it that most interests every child? Human beings. 
What is history? The record of human beings, that is all. 
Even the bear and the raccoon are not personally more in- 
teresting to the country boy than to hear the endless tales 
of the men who have trapped the one and shot the other. 
The boy by the seaside would rather listen to the sailors' 
yams than go fishing. Human beings form the theme which 
is of all things most congenial to the child's mind. If the 
subject loses all its charms by our handling, the fault is ours, 
and we should not blame the child." (a) 

"Tou may be sure that on the increasing depth and ful- 
ness and freshness of your own knowledge will depend in 
large measure the interest and progress of your pupils, that 
is, the power and success of your instruction, and accordingly 
your own satisfaction in your work." (b) 

"Just in proportion as a teacher is poorly equipped with 
knowledge he tends to become a mere exactor of work and 
takes time telling pupils what to do and testing to see if they 
have done it. But this is not teaching, but a device of 
ignorance, laziness, or physical weakness, or all combined. 
The teacher teaches and reduces recitation to a minimum. 
Whoever has visited the best continental schools or studied 



(a) Thomas Wentworth Higglnson: Why Do Children 
Dislike History? In Methods of Teaching History; edited by 
G. Stanley Hall, D. C. Heath & Co. 

(b) W. C. Collar: Advice to Inexperienced Teachers of 
History. In volume noted above. 



DULOTM, MtNflBSOtA. 13 

comparatively such national educational expositions as tbose 
at St. Louis must have been acutely impressed with the tact 
tliat we exhibit what the pupil does, Burope what the teacher 
does. Here he says, 'Go, do this, and prove to me that you 
uaye done if There he says, 'Come, let us study together; 
I know and will inform, interest and inspire you to go on.' 
A little more pedagogic insight would make us ashamed of 
our wretched deyices to conceal, excuse or dignify our ignor- 
ance or save ourselves work. We say let the pupil find the 
facts for himself and then he will remember and prise them 
and incidentally learn to investigate. No, we should have 
investigated and learned to impart The teacher should 
teach." (c) 

From the fact that history has become well established 
in the graded school course, the conclusion that it ought to be 
there does not as a matter of course follow. In many school 
rooms it is hard to escape the conviction that the teacher is 
hearing recitations in history simply because it is one of the 
studies in the programme, and that she has no aim other 
than to wade through the book prescribed by those in author- 
ity over her. Now "the method must be determined in the 
main by the object aimed at." (d) Without further apology, 
I venture a few somewhat disconnected statements on the 
value of history as a school study. 

"The mere memorizing of dry facts and assertions affords 
no intellectual nourishment, while it is almost sure to create 
a distaste for historical study, and, perhaps, will even alienate 
the taste of the scholar forever. The first of all endeavors, 
therefore, should be to put life and action into what, as it 
stands, is a mere bundle of bones." (e) "History which is 
scientific in its exactness, but in nothing else, is a middle 
thing between science and literature, and will attain the ends 
of neither; it will be only dull literature and abortive science. 
The admiration of great men, the elevating contemplation of 
noble examples, is the reward most of us expect to receive 



(c) Q. Stanley Hall: The Pedagogy of History; In the 
Pedagogical Seminary, Sept., 1905. 

(d) Mr. Collar gives some discussion of this in the 
article noted above. See also C. K. Adams: On Methods of 
Teaching History, in the same volume; and W. H. Woodward, 
Alms of the Teaching of History in Schools, in Essays on the 
Teaching of History, by F. W. Maitland and others. I am 
especially noting this point because many grade teachers 
give too little heed to it. 

(e) C. K. Adams: In article noted above. 



14 STATS NORMAL 8CBOOL. 

for the trouble we bestow upon history." (f)) In the German 
gymnasia, — ^"where history has been taught with greater suc- 
cess than anywhere else in the world — ^the course is almost 
exclusively biographical. Indeed, it is little more than a suc- 
cession of stories told with the especial aim of making a deep 
impression upon the mind of the child concerning some of the 
most important of the great characters of history." (g) "For 
school purposes, as for Carlyle, history should be to teach 
the infinite difference between good and bad, to set forth, 
even if in loud colors, the law of right and wrong. Justice and 
injustice. Just at that point when the cause of aesthetics and 
ethics are not quite differentiated, youth enjoys nothing like 
an unpointed moral, a cycle of events grouped about a great 
ethical problem. With this stimulus his memory. Judgment 
and reason work best Anything that shows righteousness 
rewarded and vice punished arouses interest as does nothing 
else. Let scholars investigate and colligate the facts; the 
great teacher has the yet higher task of Biblifying them — so 
that we can guide life by them, economize its forces, and get 
most out of it Our problem is not, I ween, primarily to teach 
what has been, but to save moral powers from going to 
waste." (h) 

Shading off from the moral aim a little perhaps, but not 
much, and none if we understand "moral" as something more 
than conventional conduct, is the following: 

"Perhaps we may say that a subject makes its strongest 
claims to a place in a school course, when it not only in- 
creases knowledge and exercises mental faculty, but when it 
stimulates interest in larger views of life and action, and 
provides the continuance of that interest when the initiative 
of the teacher is withdrawn. History does all this. It has 
the merit that applications of its lessons are always ready to 
hand; unlike Chemistry, it needs no laboratory, unlike Geom- 
etry, its interest is never merely technical. It shares with 



(f) J. R. Seeley: The Teaching of History: In volume 
noted in (a). 

(g) C. K. Adams, in article noted above. 

(h) G. Stanley Hall: The Pedagogy of History. Noted 
above. 

I should say that Dr. Hall in pleading that the moral 
aim of teaching history to young people should predominate, 
not that it should exclude all others; also that his lecture was 
addressed to high school teachers. His fluent and convincing 
discussion of virtue as distinguished from conventional con- 
duct should be read in connection with what I hav'e quoted. 



DULTUM, MIMMB80TA. 16 

Literature and Philosophy the highest intellectual and moral 
attractlTeness, in dealing with subject-matter of perennial 
concern to human life and motive." (1) 

That history can be made to serve the turn of training the 
memory for dates and such facts as history text-books con- 
tain, of developing a certain kind of reasoning power, of 
fostering patriotism in the sense of fulsome praise of one's 
own country and ridiculously false charges against others, or 
in the higher sense of just pride on the one hand and on the 
other of righteous indignation at any departure from high 
ideals, and in this correct sense not differing essentially from 
the moral aim, that history may be used to develop one kind 
of Judgment; that children may be made to commit to memory 
and say by rote, at least, some facts that when understood 
by mature minds explain the origin of modem political in- 
stitutions, — all these things are so self evident and have been 
80 much talked about as to be trite and tiresome even to 
mention. But there is one other aim, ably discussed by Mr. 
Woodward in his article already referred to, which I shall 
notice somewhat because of Its importance in three particular 
respects — ^In giving interest and pleasure to the study, in 
aiding powerfully the giving of an uplift to character from the 
contemplation of great thoughts and deeds, and in supplying 
that asset the possession of which has hurried so many 
human beings on to careers worth while and the absence of 
which has doomed so many to mediocrity. That is construc- 
tive imagination. 

"In the earliest stage of History teaching the aim is Just 
this: to arouse the class to realize in mental picture the 
action, scene and character presented by the subject chosen; 
Just as, in a much later stage, the same capacity for realizing 
the emotions called into play by the great formative ideas of 
social organization is essential to comprehending their force. 
The difference between a lesson that becomes knowledge, and 
one that does not, lies partly, at any rate, in the vividness of 
imagination which has been brought into activity in the 
coarse of it." (J) 

A simple example in a recent experience of my own may 
help on this point. From the text-book the pupils had learned 
that the site of the settlement at Jamestown was unhealthful 
and that starvation and disease more than once threatened 



(1) W. H. Woodward, Principal of the University Train* 
Ing College, Liverpool, in essay noted in (d) 
(J) W. H. Woodward, in article noted above. 



16 STATB NORMAL 8CBOOL» 

to break up the aettlement No one In the class seemed par- 
ticolarly interested but when extracts from the contemparary 
accounts of Captain John Smith and Wlngfleld were read, for 
instance, that at one time only six men in the town were able 
to be about, some questions and suggestions were made by 
members of the class. The statement, however, that the day's 
allowance of victuals got down to eight ounces of meal and 
half a pint of peas to the man, attracted no attention; but 
when the ounces of meal and dry measure of peas had been 
converted into biscuits and slices of bread, and into table 
spoons and "side dishes/' things of which the class had from 
their daily experience a definite mental picture, the case waa 
different One pupil wanted to know if that was really all 
they had to eat 

The treason or cowardice or incompetence of Charles 
Lee at the battle of Monmouth and Washington's pushing 
Lee aside and turning a disgraceful retreat into a 
substantial victory affords an excellent incident from 
which boys especially may draw some saving inspiration. 
Yet the moral value of the lesson will be Just in proportion 
to the vividness and correctness of the mental picture of the 
scene which the boy creates for himself in his mind. But the 
details necessary for the picture must be supplied by the 
teacher, for our text-books now tend to leave them out in 
order to discuss learnedly on the evidence fbr and against 
the alleged treason of Lee, or to make room for the "check and 
balance" feature of our constitution. 

To say of a man that "he is all imagination" is Justly 
regarded as a reproach but it is coming to be recognized as 
implying almost as great a degree of deficiency to say that 
"he has no imagination." Now there is not one really great 
achievement in all this world that has not rested on an act 
of constructive imagination. How many thousands of mero 
matter of fact persons had seen steam issue from a teakettle 
before a man of imaginative power conceived the steam so 
controlled in its issuing forth that it could be made to turn 
the factory wheels? How many persons crossed the Atlantic 
ocean after the invention of telegraphy before one man saw 
in his mind a cable resting on the bottom of that ocean and 
transmitting messages from one continent to another? 

Of the suggestions set forth above, throe, it seems to me, 
should have special emphasis: (1) that a broad knowledge 
of the subject is requisite to good teaching; (2) that the 
chief lesson which history has for children is inspiration to 
lofty Ideals; (3) that on the side of mental discipline, history 
is best fitted to develop constructive imagination. 



VOL U MAY, 1907 NO. 1 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



State Normal School 



DULUTH. MINNESOTA 



FIFTH ANNUAL CATALOGUE 



with Announcemeots (or 
1907.1906 



Published Quarterly by the State Normal School at Duluth, and demoted 

to the Interests of Elementary Education in Minnesota. 
Subscription price, fifty cents a year. Single copies, fifteen cents. 



Entered as second-class mail matter May 14, 1906, at the postofQce at 
Duluth, Minnesota, under the Act of Congress of July 16, 1894. 



Calendar for 1907-1908. 



Smnincr I cnn. 

Enrolment of Students Tuesday, June 18, 1907 

Class-work begins Wednesday, June 19, 1907 

Term ends .Friday, September 6, 1907 

Fall Term. 

Enrolment of Students Tuesday, September 24, 1907 

Class-work begins Wednesday, September 25, 1907 

Term ends Friday, December 20, 1907 

Winter Term. 

Enrolment of Students Tuesday, January 7, 1908 

Class-work begins Wednesday. January 8, 1908 

Term ends Wednesday, March 26, 1908 

Spring Term. 

Enrolment of Students Tuesday, March 81, 1908 

Class-work begins Thursday, April 2, 1908 

Term ends Friday, June 12 1908 



State Normal Board 



HON. JOHN W. OLSBN, State Superintendent of Public Instractlon 



HON. H. L. BUCK, Resident Director Winona 

HON. JOHN C. WISE, Resident Director Mankato 

HON. ALVAH EASTMAN, Resident Director St Cloud 

HON. C. E. NYE, Resident Director Moorhead 

HON. J. L. WASHBURN, Resident Director Duluth 

HON. M. C. TIFPT St James 

HON. ELL TORRANCE Minneapolis 

HON. H. E. HOARD Montevideo 



Officers of the Board. 



HON. ALVAH EASTMAN President 

HON. JOHN W. OLSEN Secretary and Purchasing Agent 



Officers of AdmmistratioD. 



HON J. L. WASHBURN, Resident Director. 
E. W. BOHANNON, President. 
CLARA M. MURRAY, Secretary. 
KATHERD^B W. ENSIGN, Librarian. 



Faculty. 



EUGENE W. BOHANNON, A. M., President 

School Economy, Social Science. 
LINUS W. KUNE, Ph. D., 

Psychology and Pedagogy, Supervisor of Training SchooL 
HARRY C. STRONG, A. B., 

History and Civics. 
JESSE W. HUBBARD, A. M., 

Physics, Chemistry and Geography. 
DORA EATON, 

Domestic Science. 
HERBERT BLAHl, B. S., 

Biology. 
HELEN H. MASON, 

Music. 
ANNA N. CAREY, A. B., 

English. 
KATHARINE D. POST, B. L., 

Latin. 
BEULAH I. SHOESMITH, B. S., 

Mathematics. 
HELEN A. BAINBRHXJE, Ed. B., 

Drawing and Manual Training. 
OLTVE B. HORNE, 

Seventh and Eighth Years, Training School. 
BfARGARET QUUJJARD, 

Kindergarten. 
EDNA E. HEYWOOD, Ph. B., 

Third and Fourth Years, Training SchooL 
IRENE M. SINCLAIR, 

Fifth and Sixth Years, Training SchooL 
FLORENCE V. ELY, 

First and Second Years, Training SchooL 



General Statement. 



Legislative proYlsion was made for the State Normal School at 
Duluth in 1895, when it was enacted that there should be established 

"under the direction and Buperrision of the State Normal School Board, 
at the City of Duluth, in the County of St. Louis, a Normal School to be 
known as the State Normal School at Duluth; provided said city shall 
donate to the state a suitable tract of not less than six (6) acres of 
land, to be approved by the Normal School Board, for the location, use 
and benefit of said school, within twelve (12) months from the passage 
of this act; provided further that no money appropriated for the ereo- 
tlon of buildings for said school shall be expended prior to the year one 
thousand eight hundred and ninety-six." (1896. C. 184.) 

In 1897 an appropriation of $6,000 was made for the foundation* and 
in 1899 the legislature voted $76,000 for the erection of the building, 
making one-half the amount available in 1900, and the other half In 
1901. The building thus provided for was well along toward completion 
when, in February of 1901, it was destroyed by fire. Fortunately it was 
well protected by insurance and it was possible to rebuild without fox^ 
ther aid from the State. The work of reconstruction was not completed 
until the middle of the following winter and for that reason the open- 
ing of the school was delayed until the fall of 1902. 

All of the Courses of Study approved by the State Normal Board 
and offered in the other four schools are offered here. The courses 
include, in addition, two years work in household economics and is re- 
quired of all students in the Junior and Senior years. A model schodU 
including all the grades from the first to the eighth, and a kindergaiten, 
is maintained. 



Summer Sessions. 



The session of the State Legislature, which adjourned in April, 
enacted a law establishing summer sessions of twelve weeks in each of 
the five Normal Schools of the State. This act carries an appropriation 
of $30,000 for the support of such sessions during the next two yean, 
and plans have already been made for the first session, which is to 
begin June the 18th of the coming summer. As provided by the law, 
these summer sessions are to "be a part of, and in all respects be the 



DULUTH, MINNESOTA 7 

same as, the sessions now provided by law. The proYlslons for attend- 
ance at these summer sessions shall be the same as those now In force 
and the arrangement of the terms In the school year shall be anch as 
to most folly conserve the welfare of the rural schools." 

Summer sessions of this kind were held nine and ten years ago in 
the Normal Schools at Winona and Mankato, but since that time no 
proYlsion has been made for them imtil now. During the past four 
years, summer sessions of six weeks have been held in the several 
Normal Schools of the State. These were provided for out of the 
State Summer School Fund and the present sentiment in favor of the 
continuous session is due in large measure to the Interest and support 
of the State Superintendent, Hon. John W. Olsen. The present pro- 
vision for sunmier sessions, and especially the longer term thereby in- 
sured, will make it possible to accomplish a great deal more than has 
hitherto been possible. 

Since many thousands of Minnesota teachers attend school during 
the summer months, it seems especially desirable to utilise the supe- 
rior equipment and other advantages afforded by the State Normal 
Schools in their training. The school library and laboratories will be 
at the disposal of all students, subject only to such conditions as exist 
in any other term. These are ample in every way and afford every 
facility and convenience necessary to the work of a student in a Nor- 
mal School. The library contains about five thousand new and well 
selected volumes and .the laboratories are new and very complete, rep- 
resenting an expenditure of not less than $16,000. 

This summer term is intended primarily to meet the needs of rural 
and other teachers who feel that they cannot afford to attend school 
when they can teach. The work will be organised and carried on as 
largely as possible for their benefit At the same time, it is the reg- 
ular work of the school that is to be carried on. Certain grades of the 
Model School will be in session and open to students for purposes of 
observation. Opportunity for conference with the teacher in charge 
will be provided. 

Generally speaking, the conditions of admission to work for this 
term will be the same as those for any other term. For the coming 
summer, however, as in former summer sessions, review or non-credit 
courses of six weeks will be offered in second grade subjects, 
especially Reading, Bnglish Grammar, Geography, Arithmetic and 
United States History. No examination will be necessary for admis- 
sion to this non-credit work, but the faculty of the school will admit 
such students as desire to take it and seem qualified by maturity and 
previous training to pursue it successfully. All other work will be 
credit work and not more than one period daily in a subject will be 
offered. 

Further information concerning the summer session can be had 
by addressing the President's office. 



8 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL^ 

The Bdldmg and Equ^xnent 

The building is thoroughly modem in construction and eQUipmait. 
It is located in one of the most attractive parts of the cit7» oTerlooklnc 
the waters of Lake Superior from a height of more than three hun- 
dred feet 

The laboratories are large and well arranged. The furniture and 
apparatus are new and excellent in every way. The present equip- 
ment of the several laboratories represents an expenditure of not less 
than |10»000 and is entirely adequate for the needs of the schooL 

A large and well-lighted room has been equipped for manual train- 
ing. It is supplied with twenty benches of the most approved make 
and all of the necessary tools and instruments. 

At the annual meeting of the State Normal School Board in June, 
1903, the establishment of a Department of Domestic Science in the 
State Normal School at Duluth was authorised. This action was taken 
in resi>onse to a proposal on the part of the women of the various 
dubs of Duluth to furnish' the equipment for such department pro- 
vided the Schoql would employ a teacher. The offer was accepted, the 
equipment supplied and a teacher employed. The work of the departp 
ment has been in progress since that time, and the results thus tar 
achieved are highly gratifjring, both to the School and the women 
whose interest and support made them possible. 

The library contains from three to four thousand well-selected 
volumes and is in charge of a well-trained librarian. 



Pufpote and Plan of the School. 

The purpose of the school, as of the other four State Normal 
Schools is to train teachers for the common schools of the state. Two 
departments are maintained: — ^the Normal Department proper, and the 
Training Department The courses of study in the Normal Departr 
ment are six in number, as follows: 

I. The Academic-Professional Courses: 

1. The Advanced English Course of five years. 

2. The Advanced Latin Course of five years. 

n. The Graduate Courses for high school and college gradutee: 

1. The Elementary Graduate Course of one year. 

2. The Advanced Graduate Course of two years. 

3. The Kindergarten Training Course of two years. 

m. The Elementary Course of three years, displacing the Cer- 
tificate Course. 

The three advanced courses lead to an Advanced Diploma, which, 
by endorsement after two years of successful teaching, becomes a life 
certificate of the first grada The Elementary Graduate Course leads 



14 ENTRANCE. 



MAIN STAIRWAY- 



DULUTH, MINNESOTA 9 

to an Elementary Diploma for High School graduates, wUch, npon 
endorsement after two years of successfal teacUng, becomes a state 
certificate of the first grade good for five years, and Is subject to re- 
newal by re-endorsement The Blementary Course leads to an Ele- 
mentary Diploma, which, after two years of successful teaching and 
upon endorsement, becomes a state certificate of the first grade, good 
for five years and subject to renewal by re^ndorsement. 



The Academx>Profes8ional Courses. 

The amount of academic work required In these courses corree- 
ponds quite closely to that offered in the ordinary four-year hig^ 
school course. There is, in addition, provision for special training In 
Psychology, the History and Philosophy of Education, Methods, Obser- 
Tation and Practice work in the Training Department A detailed 
statement of the work offered in these courses will be found In the 
Synopsis of the Courses of Study. 



The Graduate Courses. 

These oonrses are arranged to meet the needs of college and high 
school graduates. The work is wholly professional and may be com- 
pleted, as elsewhere indicated, in one and two years. The one year, or 
Elementary Graduate Course, is intended for those graduates of hig^ 
schools who cannot spend more than a single year in preparation for 
teaching, and its completion entitles the student to the Blementary 
Diploma. 

The two-year or Advanced Graduate Course is much richer in sub- 
ject matter and its completion insures a more satisfactory training. 
Graduates from this course are in greater demand as teachers. School 
boards in many of the more Important cities of the state, Dulnth 
among others, refuse to employ graduates of the Elementary Graduate 
Course. The advantages of the advanced courses are such that stu- 
dents should make sure of their inability to spend two years In the 
school before deciding on the Elementary Graduate Course. 

The Kindergarten Training Course is two years in length, and is 
practically a division of the Advanced Graduate Course. The outline 
of work will be found on pages 27 and 28. Only such students as are 
qualified to enter on one or the other of the graduate courses oaa 
undertake this course. 



The Elementary CouTBe. 

This course has been substituted for the Certificate Course, from 
which it differs in two chief respects. The order of arrangement of 



10 STATE NOKMAL SCHOOL* 

the different subjects In the course can be varied in accordance with 
the needs of the several schools, and the completion of the work eiitl* 
ties the student to an Elementary Diploma, as has been elsewhere 
stated. The subject matter and the amount of time apportioned the 
several subjects are practically the same in the new Elementary 
Course as in the old Certificate Course which it displaces. It is planned 
to meet the needs of those persons who have not had the advantages 
of a high school training and who expect to qualify for work in the 
rural schools. It is also expected that it will meet the needs of those 
already teaching in the rural schools who desire a more adequate train- 
ing for their work. 



C>n<litions of Admission. 



I. To the Academic-Professional Courses. 

Persons holding State Teachers' Certificates of the Second Grade 
are admitted to the first year class without examination. Others are 
required to pass satisfactory examinations in Arithmetic, BngUah 
Grammar, Geography, United States History and Physiology, or to pre- 
sent certificates from the State High School Board. 

Persons holding State Teachers' Certificates of the First Grade, 
valid at the time of presentation, are entitled to twelve credits on 
either of the five year courses or the Elementary Coarse; provided (1) 
that the subjects to be credited shall be credited by the President in 
conference with the student, and (2) that the average of the certificate 
be not less than 75 per cent, and (3) that subjects in which the stand- 
ings are less than 75 per cent be not credited and shall reduce the 
number of credits allowed proportionately. 

Admission to advanced standing in any of these courses will be 
determined by examination in the subjects completed by the class to 
which admission is sought, or by the presentation of other satlsfactCMry 
evidence of the ability to do the work of the dass. 

II. To the Elementaiy Course. 

The conditions for admission to this course are the same as those 
for the Academic-Professional courses. 

III. To the Graduate Course. 

Graduates of approved high schools having a four years' ooorse 
who present credits representing fifteen units of work done therein (a 



DULUTH, MINNBSOTA 11 

unit being daily work for a year of at least nine monthB) will be ad« 
mitted to tbe Advanced Graduate Gourae without examination or other 
condition, and to the Blementary Graduate Courae in like manner pro- 
vided they present satisfactory records in Civics, United States His- 
tory, one Biological Science (Botany or Zoology), and one Physical 
Science (Physics or Chemistry). If these subjects have not been pur- 
sued in high school, standings in them must be obtained in the Normal 
School. The record in Physics must represent not less than one full 
year's work. While Physiology is a required subject either high school 
or grammar school records will be accepted. 

Students who have not completed the work of a high school courae 
will be admitted conditionally and required to make up the work. 

Students from high schools having a three years' course of study 
will be admitted to either of the Graduate Courses, but will be re- 
quired to remain in school at least four terms if admitted to the Bl^ 
mentary Graduate Course. If the preparatory work does not fill the 
requirements above mentioned the deficiencies must be made good by 
additional work. 

High school graduates who shall have taken, as post-graduate 
work, at least a half year's work In Normal subjects as offered in the 
State High Schools may receive credit for subjects in which they have 
done a full semester's work, provided (1) that these credits shall apply 
only on the two years' graduate course, and (2) that the President re- 
serves the right to test the quality of work for which credit is asked. 

IV. To the Kmdergarten Training Course. 

The conditions governing admission to this course are identical 
with those applying in the case of the Advanced Graduate (Sourse. 
(See m above and pp. 27 and 28.) 

V. To Special Work. 

Persons holding teachers' certificates of the second grade and 
having taught in any public school in this state with ability and suc- 
cess for a term of six months, will be admitted to the school for the 
purpose of doing special work. Such applicants for admission must 
satisfy the President of the School that they are prepared to do the 
work with the regular classes in the subjects they may choose. Any 
selection of work is to be subject to the approval of the President. 
They must also present certificates from the superintendents under 
whom they have taught, testifying to their success and fitness for the 
work of teaching. 



Courses of Study for the State Normal Schools 

of Minnesota. 

Reyised and adopted by the State Normal Board, Feb., 1907. 



GRADUATE COURSES. 



Advanced Graduate Coune. 



Flret Yecu'. 

Psychology 2 terms 

PedajBTOgy 1 term 

Drawlnff 1 term 

.Ajrlthonette 2 terms 

Geoirraphy 2 terms 

Music 1 term 

Engrllsh Grammar 1 term 

Nature Study 2 terms 



Second Year. 

History and Civics 2 

Literature and Th-emes. . .1 

Socioloflry 1 

Reading 1 

Manual Training 1 

History of Education ... .2 
Observation and Teach- 

Ingr 2 

School Manag-em-ent — 1-8 



terms 

term 

term 

term 

term 

terms 

terms 
term 



Elementaiy Graduate Course. 



(One 
Educational Psychology- ^l term 

Peaagrogry 1 term 

Geoigraphy 1 term 

Drawing 1 term 

Music 1 term 

English Grammar 1 term 



.) 

Arithmetic 1 term 

Reading 1 term 

Nature Study .1 term 

Observation and Teach- 
ing 2 terms 

School Management... .1-2 term 



Academic-Professional Course. 



English Geovse. 

First Tear. 

Algebra 2 terms 

Geography 2 terms 

English Composition 2 terms 

Reading 2 terms 

Drawing 2 terms 

Music 1 term 

Second Year. 

General History 8 terms 

Plane Geometry 2 terms 

Solid Geometry 1 term 

Music 1 term 

Zoology 2 terms 

Manual Training 2 terms 

Rhetoric 1 term 



Latin 

First 

Algebra t terms 

Geography 2 terms 

Enn^ish Composition.....! term 

Reading 1 term 

Drawing 2 terms 

liatln Jjessons 8 terms 

Second Year. 

GteneraJ History 2 terms 

Plane Geometry 2 terms 

Music 1 term 

Rhetoric 1 term 

Reading 1 term 

Manual Training 2 terms 

Caesar 2 terms 



DULUTH, BONNESOTA 



13 



Third Ytfiar. 

Physics S temui 

BnffUsh. and Aonerioan 

History 8 terms 

Arithmetic 2 terms 

Botajiy 2 terms 

Literature 2 terms 

Fourtlh Year. 

Psychology 2 terms 

Pedasocry 1 term 

English Grammsr 2 terms 

Chemistry 2 terms 

Physioloflry 1 term 

Civics -Advanced 1 term 

Physiography 1 term 

Arithsnetlc 1 term 

Amorloan History 1 term 

Fifth Tear. 

Ldterature 2 terms 

Theme Writing 1 term 

Sociology 1 term 

History of Eiducatlon .... 2 terms 
Observation and Teach- 

iag 2 terms 

School Management . . . .1-8 term 



Third Yeiar. 

Physics 8 terms 

Botany or Zoology 2 terms 

Physiology 1 term 

EhiglliOi Grammar 1 term 

Litersfture 2 terms 

Cicero 8 terms 

B\>urth Ysax. 

Psychology 2 terms 

Pedagogy 1 term 

Ebgllsh and American 

History 8 terms 

Arithmetic 8 terms 

Physiography 1 term 

Virgil 2 terms 

Fifth Year. 

Literature 1 term 

Theme Writing 1 term 

Sociology 1 term 

Civics-Advanced 1 term 

American History 1 term 

History of SMuoatlon. . . .2 terms 
Observation and Tesudh- 

Ing 2 terms 

School Management. . . .1-8 term 



Elementazy Course. 



First 

Algebra 8 terms 

Sngllsh and American 

History 8 terms 

Geography 2 terms 

English CompositlCD 2 terms 

Music 1 term 

Reading 1 term 



Second Year. 

Geometry 2 terms 

Zoology 2 terms 

Arithmetic 2 terms 

Literature 2 terms 

Music 1 term 

Reading 1 term 

Drawing 2 terms 



Third Year. 



Physics 2 terms 

English Grammar 2 terms 

Botany 1 term 

Physiology 1 term 



Professional Work 4 terms 

Rhetoric 1 term 

Civics-Elementary 1 term 



Descriptive Outline of the Work in the Different 

G>urses. 



Ptychology. 
Course I. Two terms in all Advanced Courses. 

Term 1. The major part of the work of this term is an obsemir 
tional and descriptive account of the neural basis of conscioosneas. 
The material ccmsists of a number of brain models, brain preparations 
for gross sections, histological preparations from the spinal g«"g1^i^ 
cord, cerebellum and cortex, and of a number of charts. The sense 
organs are studied from Auzous's models, from charts and from Utar- 
ature. The laws and theories of nerre-action are studied (1) by lab- 
oratory experimentation, (2) from the literature of oomparatlTa psy* 
chology and (3) from the experiences of common life. The connec- 
tions between physical stimuli, nerve-action and mental states are 
studied by performing the standard experiments in this field. Bxperl- 
ments are selected from the texts of Sanford, Witmer and Titchenw. 

Term n. This term comprises an analytic and synthetic study of 
consciousness. Its component processes, their genesis, their nature, 
their function and interrelation are surveyed and interpreted from the 
biological point of view. Text-book: Angell's Psychology. 

Course II. Educational Psychology. This subject is given in the 
Elementary Graduate Course and as the first term of Professional 
Work in the Elementary Course. The work is largely descriptive of 
the connections between sense organ activity and mental states, be- 
tween mental states themselves, and between mental state and actions. 
The reflex act as a type of action is expanded to include the functions 
of the cortex, that is. Its associational, inhibiting and volitional activ- 
ities. The latter half of the term is devoted to a consideration of the 
principles of growth and development of child life and the ways In 
which they relate to school life. 

Reference books: Kirkpatrick's Fundamentals of Child-Study; 
Thomdike's Elements of Psychology. 



Pedagogy. 

This work is given in the Advanced and Elementary Oradnate 
courses and for the second term of Professional Work in the Blemen- 



DULUTH, MINNBSOTA 15 

• 

tary Conrae. The object of the work is to enable the stadent to oqq- 
stract a coherent body of principles for guidance In the business of 
teaching. For this purpose the results of the preceding courses are 
freely drawn upon, particularly those relating to learned and unlearned 
actlTlties and to mental connections. Three aims are kept in Tiew (1) 
to see that the principles rest upon the yerifiable facts of psychology, 
(2) that they are arranged in a logical manner, (3) that they have a 
close and rational bearing on the art of teaching. 

Text: Principles of Teaching by Thomdike. 



History of EducatioQ. 

Term I. History of Education. The work in this subject ccmaists 
for the most part of an intensive study of the educational classics. 
The classics used are: Plato's Republic, Locke's Thoughts on Bducsr 
tion, and Rousseau's Emile. A descriptive account is given of the 
Great Didactic and of the schools of the middle ages. 

Books of Reference: Monroe's History of Education* Cknnparye's 
History of Pedagogy, Painter's Pedagogical Essays from Plato to 
Spencer. 

Term n. This course is in part a continuation of the preceding. 
Pestaloszi's Leonard and Oertrude and Spencer's Education are read 
and discussed in class. The latter part of the course is devoted to the 
ethical, social and psychological ideals as found in the works of 
Locke, Rousseau, Pestaloszi, Spencer and Herbart. These two courses 
are planned to support and supplement the principles evolved in 
Psychology and Pedagogy. 



School Management 

One-third of a Term. School Management is required in all the 
courses. It considers the different types of school organization, the 
classification of pupils, supervision and school appliances. Special at- 
tention is given to school hygiene, including the diseases and dis- 
orders which the school may cause or aggravate. Heating, ventilation, 
lis^ting and decoration of school buildings, seating of pupils, arrange- 
ments of the daily program and of courses of study and the state 
school laws are studied. 



Observation. 



This course is taken by all students during the term preceding 
the one in which they teach in the Training School. It extends through 
(me term and occupies at least one period a day. The course furnishes 



16 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL^ 

the Student an opportunity to obsenre model leMons glYon by the 
critic teachers and to become pretty well acquainted with the regular 
work of a graded school as seen In the Training School. They are re- 
quired from time to time to submit to the critic teachers a "lesson 
plan" developed from some one phase of a series of model lessons. 
These lesson plans are criticised by the teacher giving the model les- 
sons, and then returned to the student The students are further re- 
quired to present weekly reports of their observation or discussion by 
the other members of the class, supervised by the director of the 
Training School. 



Traimng School and Teaching. 

The Training School Includes the eight grades below the high 
school, and a Kindergartoi. A review class, or ninth grade, has been 
added to the grammar grades of this department The work corree- 
ponds very closely to that done in the grades of the public schools of 
the state and wlU qualify those who complete it to enter the high 
schools; or, in case the student completes the work of the ninth grade, 
to enter the first year class of the Academic Professional courses. 
The course of study for the Training School Includes Manual Training 
and Domestic Science. 

The teaching force consists of the supervisor, the principals <tf the 
several departments and the duly qualified members of the senior 
class. 

The purposes of the school are (1) to maintain, as far as possible, 
ideal school conditions to serve as models for the prospective teacher, 
and (2) to furnish an opportunity for the pupil-teachers to demonstrate 
their natural and acquired qualifications for practical service in our 
public schools. 

The supervision consists in giving model lessons in the preaenoe 
of the pupil-teachers; in holding weekly conferences at which the spe- 
cial work of the pupil-teacher is sympathetically discussed and criti- 
cised; in citing literature bearing on her dally work, and in nffwlsttng 
in whatever way the needs of the hour may suggest 



History, Civics and Social Science. 

General History. Three terms in the Advanced English and two 
terms in the Advanced Latin Course. The work includes the Orient 
and Greece, Rome, and Continental Europe to the fftll of Napoleon. 
The object of the course is to fix firmly in the minds of the students 



,A BORA TORY. 



PHYSICAL LABORATORY. 



DULUTH, MINNBSOTA 17 

tbe moBt Important facts and at the same time to lay a general foun« 
datlon for more extended study. 

English and American History. Three terms in the Advanoed 
Latin, AdTBnced Bnglish and Elementary courses. By teaching Bn^- 
lish and American history as one subject it is possible to bring out 
clearly the relations between the two from the reign of Blisabeth to 
the end of the American Reyolutlon. The text book used is Channing's 
Student's History of the United States. The work in Bngllsh history 
is given by lectures and assigned reading in the library, and is made 
wholly to subserve a clear understanding of the development of the 
United States by subjects of the English government. Throughout 
the course students are encouraged to collect and preserve material 
that will be of value to them later in teaching in the grade schools. 

History and Civics. Two terms in the Advanced Graduate course. 
This work takes the place of, and is in addition to, that heretofore 
known as Reviews and Methods In History. It is conducted on the 
theory that knowledge of the subject is the ilrst requisite to good 
teaching. Special topics in United States history are studied from the 
sources and from the writings of accredited scholars. The work in 
history is made to include that of "civics" and civil government For 
instance, town government in New Ehigland and county government in 
the southern colonies; alliances and international relations at points 
where they arise; the relations between state and federal power dur- 
ing the revolutionary war, under the articles of confederation, under 
the constitution at the time it was formed, and at the time of the Civil 
War. 

Elementary Civics. One term in the Elementary Course. The 
work is confined to a simple outline of the United States government, 
the government of the state of Minnesota, of a county, and of a city. 
Particular attention is paid to the method of nominating and electing 
public officers and to the duties of citizens in a republic. 

Advanced Civics. One term In the Advanced Latin and Advanced 
English courses. The work is much the same as that of the Elementary 
Course but includes a wider range of discussion and some considera- 
tion of the theory of government. 

Social Science. One term In the Advanced Latin, Advanced Eng- 
lish and Advanced Graduate courses. The work is necessarily very 
elementary in character and is limited to a consideration of the more 
obvious phases and practical problems of social life. The more im- 
portant social questions rather than the science of sociology, are 
studied from a practical point of view and with some reference to 
their bearing upon the work of the school. Special problems or ques- 
tions will be assigned for individual study, the results of which will 
be summarised for the benefit of the class. The text used is Wright's 
Practical Sociology. 



18 STATE NOBMAL SCHOOL^ 

English. 

English Composition. Two terme in the AdYanoed WnglUh and 
Blementary courseB and one term In the Advanced Latin Ooorae. In 
thla coarse almost dally practice is glTen in the simpler forms of oomr 
position. Students are required to depend chiefly upon personal 
observation and experience for material, though the Imagination plajni 
an important part in the latter work. Webster's Blementary Gomposl- 
tion is used. 

Rhetoric. One term in the Advanced English, Advanced Latin and 
Blementary courses. This course is a continuation of composition. 
It includes, however, in addition to the purely original work, oral and 
written abstracts of magazine articles, extended arguments, short biof- 
raphies and book reviews. A constant effort is made to lead students 
to criticise their own work intelligently. The text used is Spauldin^s 
Principles of Rhetoric. In addition to this work, a little time will be 
given to the study of the most important classic myths. 

Qrammar. Two terms in the Advanced Graduate, Advanced Bng>- 
lish, and Elementary courses, and one in the Advanced Latin and mo- 
mentary Graduate courses. Longmans' English Grammar is used as a 
text, but constant reference is made to such authorities as Mason, 
Whitney, and Lounsbury. A portion of the time is given to the discus- 
sion of those problems which arise in teaching language in the grades. 

English Literature. Four terms in the Advanced English and 
Advanced Latin courses and two terms in the Blementary Course. 

I. An introductory course: 

(a) Charactertistics of Celtic and early English literature 
and the influence of Christianity. A translation of 
Beowulf is studied. 

(b) Influence of the Norman Conquest. Chaucer's Prologue 
to the Canterbury Tales; The Knight's Tale; Book L 
Spenser's Faerie Queene. 

n. The Rise of the Drama: 

(a) Mystery plays; early historical plays; Marlowe, Ben 
Jonson. 

(b) Shakespeare; Julius Caesar; King Lear; As Ton Like It 

m Essays and poems. It is the aim of this course to give 
students some acquaintance with all the chief essayists and 
poets from Bacon and Milton to Browning and Stevenson, 
and to lead to the intensive study of a few characteristio 
productions. 

rv. The Novel. After tracing briefly the origin and development 
of the English novel, the class will make a study of the fbl* 
lowing authors: Defoe, Johnson, Goldsmith, Jane Austen, 
Scott, Thackeray, George Eliot, Dickens. 



DULUTH» MINNBBOTA 19 

Literature and Themee. One term In the Advanced Graduate 
Coarse. It is the pnrpose of this course to familiarise students with 
the great classic myths, both Greek and Teutonic, representatiye folk- 
lore and famous ballads, and to show how all these may be presented 
to children in the grades. In connection with the foregoing much 
theme work will be required. 

Theme Writing. One term in the Advanced English and Latin 
courses. The class meets every day for discussion and orltioisnL A 
large amount of reading is required, and students are frequently called 
upon to deliver brief addresses before the class. 

Reading. Course I. Two terms in the Advanced Bnglish, Ad- 
vanced Liatin and Elementary courses. The aim will be to interpret 
literature and read it aloud intelligently. Although nothing will be 
attempted in the way of formal "Elocution" some attention will be 
given to the manner of using the voice. Many short poems will be 
committed to memory and recited. Representative American classics 
will be studied. In order to get a broad survey of the literature of our 
country, a considerable amount of outside reading will be required. 
It is hoped that this course will give a somewhat comprehensive 
knowledge of the development of our literature from Colonial times to 
the present day. Part of the second term will be given to the study 
of methods of teaching reading. 

Course il. One term in the Advanced Graduate and one-half term 
in the Elementary Graduate course. This course will be devoted in 
part to the study of methods of teaching reading. The work will be 
based upon American classics, and also, if time permits, upon some 
one of the following: She Stoops to Conquer, The Rivals, The Mer* 
chant of Venice and Macbeth. 



Latin. 

The study of Latin extends through a period of four years and 
meets the college entrance requirements: 

I. Latin Grammar. 

n. Caesar. — ^Books I-IV. of the Gallic Wars, 
m. Cicero. — Six Orations: Catiline's Conspiracy, the Citizenship 
of Archias and Pompey's Military Command. 
IV. Virgil. — ^Pour Books of the Aeneld. 

In all classes the students are required to get the meaning as far 
as possible from the Latin and then express it in clear idiomatio 
English. This cannot be done without a knowledge of Latin Gram- 
mar. Daily work is given in Latin prose composition throughout the 
second and third years and a thorough grammatical review in the 



I 
i 
20 8TATB NORMAi BCMOOL, 

fourth year alma to establiah the grammatical principles of th« 
language. In addition to translating the orations of Cicero, a stndj 
of them as orations and as argumentatiye literature is made. Effort 
is also made to appreciate the Aeneid as one of the great pieces of 
literature. Sight reading will be practiced throughout the course as 
time permits. 



Physical Sciences. 

Physics. Three terms in the Advanced English and Advanced Latin 
and one in the Elementary Ck>urse. Two afternoons each week are de- 
voted to laboratory work in which each student performs a selected list 
of experiments, both qualitative and quantitative, to verify the laws of 
mechanics, heat, light, sound and electricity. The student is required 
to keep a permanent note book for recording the results of the ex- 
periments and for making sketches of the apparatus used. The recita- 
tion periods in the forenoon are devoted to a discussion of the labora- 
tory work in connection with subjects treated in the text, and to prac- 
tical problems and exercises involving the law studied. A number of 
different texts are placed upon the laboratory reference table. Special 
attention is directed to those parts of the subject which will help in 
the study or teaching of the common branches, such as the simple 
mechanics in Physiology, the properties of gases in their relatioii to 
the atmosphere, and the production and distribution of heat in evapor- 
ation, winds, rain and snow. 

Chemistry. Two terms in the Advanced English Course. The 
properties of the principal chemical elements are demonstrated by 
experiment. The student learns how new substances are f6rmed by 
different combinations of the elements and how, by reas<m of their 
solubility or other properties, substances may be separated into their 
component parts. As in physics, the time is divided between the 
laboratory and class work. Notes on the results of experiments and 
sketches of apparatus are made in a note book which receives care- 
ful examination by the instructor. 

The recitation is devoted to a discussion of the experimental work, 
the solution of practical exercises and to a consideration of the 
fundamental theories of the science. Particular attention Is given to 
those parts of the work which have special significance in the study 
of the common branches. 



Geography. 

Course I. Two terms in the Advanced English, Advanced Latin 
and Elementary courses. An effort is made to have the student attain 
the point of view that will enable him to understand and appreciate 



BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY. 



Duunn* inNNBSOTA 21 

the most important principles of the science. The complete under- 
standing of geograpliy requires the study of other sciences. Type 
features of the earth are accordingly studied with reference to their 
geological development. Local land forms are carefully obseryed. 
Frequent out-door excursions are made in order that the student may 
have direct contact with geographical phenomena. The elementary 
principles of meteorology are studied to explain the cause and effects 
of wind, clouds, rain, snow, temperature and atmospheric pressure. 
By careful observation and experiments the student gets a rational 
explanation of climatic conditions in different parts of the earth. For 
this work the department is provided with a standard mercurial bar- 
ometer, maximum and minimum thermometers, psychrometer and rain 
gauge. 

It is further shown how the character of the earth's surface and 
the climate make possible particular kinds of animal and plant life 
which react upon man, producing different environments and hence 
different races, religions, and degrees of intelligence. 

Course II. Two terms In the Advanced and one in the EHementary 
Graduate course. The earlier part of the course deals with the ele- 
ments of physical and mathematical geography necessary as a foun- 
dation for the study of life geography. Special attention is given to 
the study of climate. A detailed study of the topography, climate and 
natural resources of Minnesota and the study of the other states using 
Minnesota as a basis of comparison completes the work of the first 
term. The rest of the world is studied during the second term using 
Minnesota as a basis of comparison as in studying the United States. 

In order to develop the ability to read maps accurately and rapidly 
a great many outline maps (over a hundred throughout the course) 
are filled in illustrating each lesson. Advantage is taken of the large 
shipping and manufacturing industries of Duluth and afternoon field 
trips are made to the ore docks, blast furnace, match factory, grain 
elevators, flour mills, ship yard, saw mills, furniture factory, weather 
bureau, fish hatchery, etc. 

Physiography. One term in the Advanced English and Latin 
courses. The fundamentals of this subject having been included in 
Ck>urse I., the work of this term is devoted to a study of political 
geography. The principles of physiography already studied are used 
to interpret commercial, Industrial and other geographical conditions. 



Biological Sciences. 



The object of the work in this department is to train the student 
in habits of close and accurate observation and fit him for teaching 
nature study in the grades. A combination of the text book, labora- 



22 8TATB NORMAL 8CH0OU 

tory and lecture methods famishes variety and interest Field trips 
are often substituted for the laboratory work in order that the habits 
of animals and plants may be studied In their natural enylronment. 

The equipment of the department is new and of the latest pat* 
terns. 

Botany. Course I. Two terms are required in the Advanced HSns- 
lish Course and offered as an elective in the Advanced Latin Course. 

The fall term Is devoted mostly to work in ecology, Coulter's Plant 
Relations being us^d as a text The course involves numerous field 
trips and laboratory work on the material collected. 

The various plant societies are studied in their relation to light* 
temperature, moisture and soil conditions. Some of the plant move- 
ments are noted and an attempt made to determine experimentally the 
cause of such movements. 

The winter term is given to a careful study of seeds and seedlings 
and the elementary problems in plant physiology that illustrate some 
of the chemical changes in the composition of the seed. 

Course II. One term in the Elementary Course. The work in this 
course is rather elementary In character, and consists of a study of 
thoee phases of plant life which are especially important to the 
teacher of nature study. 

Zoology. Two terms, given in the fall and spring, are required In 
the English and Elementary courses. In the Latin Course the same 
amount is offered as an elective. As in Botany the ecological side of 
the subject is chiefly developed. Each student is expected to collect 
a number of insects for laboratory study — if possible two ft*om each of 
the orders. By using insect cages in the laboratory the life histories 
are worked out and careful sketches are made of the several stages. 

The second term's work is given in the spring and much of the 
time is given to studying birds in the field. By giving a term to in- 
sect study and another to bird study it is •thought that the students 
will be better fitted to teach nature study than they would be if more 
subjects were studied. 

Physiology. One term in the Advanced English, Advanced Latin 
and Elementary courses. (Prerequisite, the two-term course in 
Zoology). The primary purpose is to prepare teachers to do efficient 
work in the subject in the schools of the state. Secondly, It is ex- 
pected that the students will gain such knowledge of the human body 
as will enable them to take better care of their own health and that of 
the pupils entrusted to their care. 

Much of the work is done in the laboratory in studying the various 
tissues of the body, the foods and their uses, the chemistry of digestion 
and the anatomy of the digestive organs. Experiments are made illus- 
trating the relations of certain mental and physiological processes, 
especially those connected with the special senses. 



DULUTB, 1CINNE80TA 23 

Nature Study. 

One term In the Advanced and Elementary Graduate courses. The 
Nature Study work seeks primarily to arouse a love for nature 
and to afford some experience in scientific observatioii. A study is 
made of the common trees in the vicinity. Branches from different 
trees are examined and their buds, leaf scars, year's growth and pecul- 
iarities are compared. The trees are then examined in the field and 
notes and sketches made of their winter condition. Later they are 
compared with reference to leaf and flower. The. kinds of trees val- 
uable for lumber are noted and collections of the more common kinds 
of woods made. The spring flowers and other plants are studied and 
their beauty, usefulness or noxious qualities are noted. Special atten- 
tion is given to the relations of the flower to the fruit, the formation 
and distribution of the seed, and reproduction of plants. The common 
birds are studied in the light of their relations to man. Suggestions 
are made for the attraction and protection of birds. Practice is given 
in collecting, mounting and preserving insects for study and reference. 
The relation of insects to other animal and plant life is investigated. 
Plans for recording extended observations on birds, plants and the 
weather are discussed, and reference made to valuable sources of in- 
formation. Some simple experiments with home apparatus are made 
to illustrate combustion, ventilation, constitution of the air, with its 
pressure, temperature and other phenomena. 



Mathematics. 

Arithmetic. Course I. Two terms in the English, Latin and Ele- 
mentary courses. The aims of this course are: (1) To give a good 
working knowledge of arithmetic; (2) to encourage clear and logical 
thought, exact and orderly expression; (3) to give the prospective 
teacher a grasp of the subject as a whole, together with practical sug- 
gestions as to modes of presentation in the grades. Among the features 
of the course are: practice in actual measurement, frequent oral drill 
in pure number, exercises in analysis, both oral and written, and the 
study of selected topics In the history of arithmetic. 

Course II. One term in both the Graduate courses. In this course, 
which Is too brief to include much drill and hence can be taken with 
profit only by well prepared students, arithmetic is studied from the 
teacher's standpoint The relations of the various topics to one an- 
other and the order in which these topics should be presented, are sub- 
jects of special study. Suggestions are made as to the correlation of 
arithmetic with other brailches; an outline of grade work in arith- 
metic is given; selected texts are examined and criticised. As time 
allows, an attempt is made to have the student gain some familiarity 



24 STATE NOKMAL 8CH00U 

With the history of the Bubject and with the literatare which bean 
upon tfe'present teaching of arithmetic. 

Algebra. Three terms are required in the Bnglish, Latin and Ble> 
mentary courses. The principles of the subject are thoroushly studied 
and frequently applied. Special pains are taken to discourage mechan- 
ical work and to lead the pupil into habits of clear and connected 
thinking. 

Geometry. Course I. Two -terms of Plane (Geometry and one temi 
of Solid Geometry are required in the Advanced English Course. 

Course II. In the Latin and Elementary courses two terms of 
Plane Geometry are required. 

Throughout the work in geometry accuracy and independence of 
thought are emphasized. Students are required to give proofb other 
than those suggested in the text and to criticise and question the dem- 
onstrations offered in class. A number of original exercises are solyed. 
From time to time, topics in the history of geometry are assigned. 



Drawing. 

The work is planned with reference to the ability and needs of tbe 
students in the several courses. The aim of each course is to give 
students as much instruction in technique as the time allows, with 
historical background and an appreciative knowledge of beauty in form 
and color. 

Brief talks are given on the lives and works of masters, and their 
principal works studied and analyzed from a technical point of view. 

Students make collections of reproductions of famous works of art 
with descriptive notes. A daily sketch is required for general class 
criticism and occasional papers on related subjects from the pedsgog- 
ical point of view. 

Course I. Two terms in the English and Latin courses and one in 
the Elementary. During the first term the emphasis is put upon head 
work rather than hand-work. The principles of perspective, of indus- 
trial drawing, of design and of light and shade are studied. 

The work of both terms includes pose-drawing; analysis and deco- 
rative use of natural forms; conventionalization of plant forms; prac- 
tical applicatiou in initial letters; making of stencils, etc. A certain 
number of problems in industrial drawing are given, and definitions 
and conventions used in working drawings taught 

Course II. One term in the Graduate courses. The aim of this 
course is to prepare students to teach drawing in the grrades according 
to modem methods. 



DOMESTIC SCIENCE LABORATORY. 



DINING ROOM. 



DULDTH, MINMISOTA 25 

The work of the term is bo dlTlded that a thorough roTlew la glren 
in perapectiTe, model drawing, Ught and ahade, caat and atill life draw- 
ing, both in charcoal and pencil* sketching, and elementary work in 
water color. 

The principles of design under the headings of Balance, Rhythnit 
and Harmony are taught, and applied designs executed. 



Manual Training. 

In this department neither the Swedish nor Russian systems, as 
such, are followed but both are studied and discussed. In the practice 
work a combination of the two is employed, the useful models being 
largely used as the more interesting and stimulating to the students, 
the exercise models inyolving principle only when a better understand- 
ing of a problem can be secured more quickly as a lack of time pre- 
Tents any repetition of mere technique. While suggestions and certain 
refining and limiting conditions are given the student, the aim is to 
have all the models made in the work shop indiyldual and, as far as 
possible, original. The greatest amount of technical skill the time 
allowed permits is developed. In outline the course includes: 

L The care and use of the common wood working tools, 
n. Principles of constructive and decorative design. 

1. The form suited to its function, and the decoration in hai^ 
mony with its form. 

2. Structural and artistic qualities to be considered are (a) 
strength, (b) durability, (c) proportion, (d) simplicity, (e) 
adaptation to purpose, (f) finish. 

in. Papers and class discussion: 

1. The necessity for a manual training plan. 

(a). The adaptation of a plan to children of different ages. 

(b). Basis for criticism of the child's product 

(c). How to arrange work so that increasing motor power 

shall result 
(d). The inter-relationship between hand work and the other 

school occupations. 

2. Preparation of programs of work for the different grades 
of the elementary school. 

S. The various methods of constructing and reading working 

drawings. 
4. A final paper on some selected phase of the subject 

IV. Required reading. 

1. Current articles published in the magasines on the subject 

2. The history of the movement 
8. The arts and crafts movement 



26 STATE NOKMAL 8CH00L» 

Course I. Two terms in the Advanced Bnglish and Latin ooonei^ 
as outlined. 

Course II. One term in the Advanced Graduate Ckmrse. This 
course also includes a review of mechanical drawing and the mafcing 
of a required number of working drawings. 



Music. 

Course i. Two terms in the Advanced English and one term in the 
Advanced Latin course. The work of the first term consists of dally 
lessons in sight singing and ear training. All problems of rhythm are 
studied, also key formation* chromatic scales and transposition. Dur- 
ing the second term the class studies three and four part singing, 
minor scales, the limitations and care of the child voice, the selection 
and use of rote songs, and short biographies of the most noted com- 
posers. Methods of presenting problems in melody and rhythm to 
children are given to the pupils. 

Course II. One term in the Advanced Graduate and Elementary 
Graduate courses. An outline for the study of vocal music In each 
grade forms the foundation for the study of music methods. Pupils are 
taught how to present rote songs, interval drill, each problem In 
rhythm and melody, key formation, major, chromatic and minor scales, 
to the children. These subjects having been presented to them, they 
aie required to take charge of the class and illustrate the method of 
procedure with each. Especial attention is given to the selection of 
songs suitable for primary grades and to the care of children's volcee. 

Chorus Work. Twenty minutes is given dally to the practice of 
part songs and choruses for the purpose of obtaining skill in reading 
and rendition and to develop a better musical taste. The best material 
suitable for the chorus Is rendered. 

Glee Club. An opportunity is given to those pupils who have spe- 
cial ability, to study more advanced music in the Glee Club, which 
meets once a week. 



Domestic Science. 

This department, established in the fall of 1903, was made possible 
by the various women's clubs of Duluth. Through their generous ef- 
forts the school has been provided with a thoroughly equipped kitchen 
laboratory, dining iroom and sewing room. 

The work in domestic science extends throughout the junior and 
senior years. Two courses in this work are offered to the students: 



DULDTH, MINNESOTA 27 

one in the Selection and Preparation of Foods, corerlng one two4ionr 
period a week, and one in Home Sanitation and Hygiene, coyering a 
period of one bonr a week. 

In the course in the Selection and Preparation of Foods, foods are 
studied with respect to their composition, nutriUye valne, relation to 
the needs of the body and comparatiye cost The work includes a 
study of the dietaries, and a balanced ration for a given time is made 
by the members of the class. 

The first half of each lesson is devoted to the classification and 
study of the food to be cooked, its digestibility, nutritive value, com- 
bination with other foods, the process employed in cooking and the 
proper method of serving. In the second hatC of each period the food 
is cooked and served. 

In the Home Sanitation classes, lectures and some laboratory work 
are given on such practical subjects pertaining to the home as drain- 
age, plumbing, heating, ventilation, water supply, the chemistry of 
cleaning and laundry work. House plans are made by the students 
and brought to class for discussion. 

The work in Hygiene includes both personal and public hygiene, 
causes and prevention of disease, home nursing and invalid cookery. 



Two terms, one period daily, are given to the work in sewing. Most 
of the time is devoted to hand sewing, although in the second term 
machine work is undertaken. The Important principles of plain sewing 
are taught by means of models which, together with the instructions 
and notes, are put into books made for the purpose. Upon the comple- 
tion of the course each girl will have made twenty of these models, also 
one under-garment or dainty apron sewed entirely by hand, and another 
garment combining both machine and hand sewing. 



Kindergarten Training Course. 

A high school diploma or its equivalent is required for admission 
to this course, which covers a period of two years. A pleasing voice, 
some skill in singing and piano playing, and a desirable attitude to- 
ward young children are essentials in this work. Students who take 
this course are given the same general professional training as those 
who are preparing to teach in the primary or grammar grades. Special 
instruction in the theory and methods of Kindergarten and Primary 
work and observation and teaching in both departments In the Model 



28 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 

School, will be added to this strictly professional training. The 
standard of scholarship is the same as that required of the students 
in the other departments of the school. Following is the coarse of 
study: 



Coune. 
Junior Year. 

m 

Psychology and Pedagogy. 

Observation in the Kindergarten. 

A study of Kindergarten Technics. 

Nature Study. 

Domestic Science. 

Drawing. 

Manual Training. 

Educational Reading. 

Songs and Games. 

Physical Exercises based upon Interpretation of Rhythm. 

Senior Year. 

History of Education. 
Sociology. 
Domestic Science. 

A Study of Froebel's Educational Theories as shown by his 
Mother Play Book," "Education of Man" and commentaries on the 
same by Susan E. Blow, Elizabeth Harrison, James L. Hughes aad 
others. 

Literature for small children, including a study of old folk lore 
suitable for use in Kindergarten and Primary grades, and praotloe ia 
story telling. 

Primary Methods. 

Observation and teaching in Kindergarten and Primary grades. 

Educational Readings. 

The Theory and Practice of Program Making. 



«r 



LESTER PARK SCENES. 



A SCENE IN CARFIET-D PAFK. 



General Information. 



Nonnal School DqJomas and State Certificates. 

The legislature of 1891 passed an act which glyes to diplomas 
of the State Normal Schools yalidity as certificates of qualification 
to teach in any of the common schools of the state, under the fol* 
lowing provisions, vis. 

1. A diploma of any one of the State Normal Schools is made 
a temporary State certificate of the first grade for the two years of 
actual teaching service required by the student's pledge. 

2. After two years of service, the diploma may be countersigned 
by the President of the school from which it was issued, and by the 
State Superintendent of Public Instruction, upon satisfactory evidence 
that such service has been successful and satisfactory to the super- 
vising school authorities under whom it was rendered. Such endorse- 
ment will make the diploma of the Elementary Ck>urse a State cer- 
tificate for five years, and the diploma of the Advanced Ck)nrBe a life 
certificate. 



Gmditions of Endoncment 

1. While it is hoped that all graduates will earn the right to 
have their diplomas endorsed, great care will be taken in this matter, 
and the diploma will not be so extended in any case in which the 
holder fails to render acceptable service during the test period, or in 
any way fails to show himself worthy of the marked professional 
recognition so bestowed. 

2. After the completion of two years of service, application for 
endorsement may be made to the respective Normal Schools. The 
applicant should see that complete reports of service have been made 
in accordance with the student's pledge, and that such reports bear the 
names and addresses of the supervising authorities to whom blank 
certificates of successful service may be sent. In order to Tw^faH<« a 
uniform standard of requirements for endorsement, it has been agreed 
by the Normal School Presidents that they will endorse no diploma 
untU each case has been approved by all of the Presidents acting as a 
Board of Review. 



30 8TATB NORMAL SCHOOL* 

AdmissioD to the State Umvenity and G>Dege8. 

Graduates from the advanced courses In the State Normal Schools 
of Minnesota are admitted without examination to the Sophomore year 
in the State University and the leading colleges of the State. 



Tuition is free to all students who sign the pledge to teach. 
Those who do not sign the pledge are required to pay thirty dollars 
a year, as are also those who take the Kindergarten Course. 

Charges for tuition in the Training Department are five dollars 
a term. 

All charges for tuition must be paid in advance and no portion 
thereof will be refunded. 

Washburn Hall is a new, beautifully designed and exceedingly 
well-constructed home for students. It was supplied by the State and 
is controlled and operated by the School for the benefit of stodents 
who may be under the necessity of arranging for board and rooming 
places. It is situated on the campus adjoining the main building. It 
is a two story building with a well lighted basement and is of fire 
proof construction throughout. It is heated by low pressure steam, 
has a very complete system of ventilation, is supplied with both gaa 
and electric light, has toilet and bath rooms on all floors, with a large 
and well-furnished laundry in the basement, to which all students 
have free access. The kitchen, pantries and dining room are exceed- 
ingly well equipped and sufficient for the accommodation of fifty to 
seventy-five persons. It is expected that the attic floor will be finished 
and furnished for the use of students at the beginning of the school 
year in the coming September. These will be unusually cosy and wM 
lighted rooms and will add considerably to the rooming capacity of 
the Hall, which has been well filled since its opening in September of 
1906. Each living room has two closets, two beds and all necessary 
bedding, an attractive solid oak dresser, a heavy solid oak study 
table, rocking chairs and study chairs, wash stand and rugs. All rooms 
have gas light with Welsbach burners for use in studying. Students 
are required to take care of their own rooms and each one will need 
to take her turn in waiting on the table. It is expected that the cost 
of both board and room another year will not exceed $15 a month. 
It may be somewhat less. Applications for rooms should be made as 
early as possible. All such applications will be listed in the order In 
which they are made. 



DULUTH, MINNESOTA 31 

Studenli* Loan Fund. 

The IntereBt and generosity of a friend of the school has resulted 
in the establishment of a loan Fond of |5000 for the assistance of 
worthy students who may find it necessary to borrow money in order 
to continue the work of the school. It is the desire of the committee 
in charge of the Fund, as well as of the donor, that the entire amount 
be, as nearly as possible, all the while in use. Information concerning 
the conditlcms under which loans may be made can be had upon inquiry 
of the President of the School. 



ons. 



The dally session begins at 8:35 in the morning and ends at 12:86 
in the afternoon. It is divided into four recitation periods and includes 
a period of twenty minutes for chorus work, and one of twenty minutes 
for opening exercises. 



Rdigious Influences. 



The school is free from denominational or sectarian bias. At the 
same time it is expected that each student will be a regular attendant 
on the services of the church of his choice. The churches of the city 
extend a cordial welcome to all students. 



To Elntering Students 

Students expecting to enter on advanced standings from other 
schools must present records of all such standings. 

Applicants for admission will present themselves at the office of 
the President, where they will be referred to proper committees on 
examination or enrolment. 

The building is situated on East Fifth street, between Twenty- 
second and Twenty-third avenues, and one block from the Hunter's 
Park and East Fourth street car line. Students who are not ao- 
quainted with the city should call at the President's office on arrival. 

Additional information will be supplied on application to Presi- 
dent's office. State Normal School, Duluth, Minn. 



Names of Students ElnroUed in 

the Normal Department. 

1906-1907. 



Graduate Courses. 



SBNIOR GRADUATE CLASS. 

Aune, Clara Duluth Minn. 

Braeutigan, Margaret Dulutb Minn. 

Brown, Gertrude R. Dulutb Minn. 

Flynn, Nellie C Duluth Minn. 

Hinsmann, Theresa B Duluth Minn. 

Holtorf, BUa M Mantoryille BCinn. 

Ives Genevleye Duluth Minn. 

Kelley, Kathleen D Duluth Minn. 

Krey, Elsie Duluth IClnn. 

Leland, Ray L Duluth Minn. 

McLean, Isabel L. Duluth Minn. 

Mitchell, Marguerite F Hunter's Park Minn. 

Nerval, Jane Duluth Minn. 

O'Brien, Lydia H Crookston Minn. 

Olssen, Lillie V. Duluth Minn. 

Owens, Hasel M Hunter's Park Minn. 

Pepple, Laura G Worthlngton Iftlnn. 

Phelps, Louana Duluth Minn. 

Robert, Etta Duluth Minn. 

Sand, Alice E Ashland Wis. 

Shaver, Helen M Lakeview Minn. 

Ulsrud, Leonora J Duluth Minn. 

Wolfe, C. A. Margaret Cloquet Minn. 

Tager, Margaret Duluth Minn. 

JUNIOR GRADUATE CLASS. 

Anderson, Nellie Duluth Minn. 

Brett, Kathryn Mahtowa Minn. 

Brotherton, Eunice M Duluth Minn. 

Burrell, Vivian Gertrude Duluth liinn. 



mjumu mNMnoTA 



33 



Esse, Nora Duluth Iflnn. 

Harris, Ruby May Duluth Minn. 

Hendy, Bertha Virginia Minn. 

Johnson, Bleanor Duluth Minn. 

Klnkele, Agnes Walker Minn. 

Undgren, Mary H BIy Minn. 

Loranger, Nell Duluth Minn. 

Mallory, Blanche M Duluth Minn. 

Marsh, Opha W. K BImer Minn. 

Martin, Ina Tower Minn. 

Nelson, Florence Duluth Minn. 

Ross, Georglna H Duluth Minn. 

Shlmmln, Caroline B McKlnley MUm. 

Smythe, Myrtle Duluth Minn. 

Stevens, Sadie Duluth Minn. 

Sw art w o nt, Bthel A Detroit Minn. 

Wakelln, Mary Duluth Minn. 

Western, Bmma J Ely Mtnn 

Wetzler, Irene M Milwaukee "^s. 

Wldell, Bllsabeth Minneapolis Minn. 

BLBMBNTART ORADUATB GLASS. 



Anderson, Anna L. Hlbblng BOnn. 

Blackmarr, Mary Lakeylew Minn. 

Brown, May Ely Minn. 

Carpenter, Flora Mcintosh Minn. 

Dosey, Anna C Pine City Minn. 

Forbes, Amy Mae Worthlngton Minn. 

Gandsey, Elsie Hlbblng Minn. 

Johnson, Tena B Austin Minn. 

Knapp, Gertrude A Chlsholm Minn. 

Korthe, Llllle Wlllmar Minn. 



Pennington, Sadie 
Quayle, Mae .... 
Shane, Millie R. . . 

StochI, Mamie 

Sulllyan, Claire .. 
Talboys, Ella M... 
Thomas, Sophia . . 
Tyndall, Martha . . 



Pine City Minn. 

Aurora Minn. 

Chlsholm Minn. 

Pine City Minn. 

Two Harbors Minn. 

Duluth Minn. 

McKlnley Minn. 

Fosston Minn. 



34 8TATB NORMAL SCHOOL^ 

Kindergarten Course. 

SENIOR CLASS. 

Gtowan, Linian Duluth Minn. 

McDonald, BliEabeth Lancaster WIb. 

Monroe, Mary Leone Dalutb Minn. 

Shannon, Harriet Dulntb Minn. 

JUNIOR CLASS. 

Carroll, Mary Chippewa Falls Wis. 

Cox, Claudia Alice Duluth Iflnn. 

Lamhert, Catherine Alice Duluth Minn. 

Magner, Frances Lakeview Minn. 

Ray, Bmily Fosston Minn. 

Segelbaun, Rose B Minneapolis Minn. 



Academic-Professional Courses. 

SENIOR CLASS. 

Chlsholm, Flora A Lakeview Minn. 

Dolan, Tessie Cloquet Minn. 

Keehan, Irene Duluth Minn. 

Mendelson, Fanny Duluth Minn. 

Taylor, Ell Rose Duluth Minn. 

TumbuU, Bessie L Hunter's Park Minn. 

JUNIOR CLASS. 

Burffher, Cora E Duluth Minn. 

Burton, Sadie Duluth Minn. 

Hathaway, Eva M Hunter's Park Minn. 

Johnson, Alice B Duluth Minn. 

Kristensen, Edith Duluth Minn. 

Layallee, Mellnda K Duluth Minn. 

Lilja. Julia E Duluth Minn. 

McKay, Hasel D Duluth Minn. 

Nichols. Nina L Buhl Minn. 

Porter, Catherine M Duluth Minn. 

Wiltse, Opal Hunter's Park Minn. 

THIRD year: 

Aikin, Grace Duluth Minn. 

Anderson, Irene S Buhl Mlnn« 

Clarke, Florence K Duluth Iffinn. 

Davis. Charlotte Duluth Minn. 



DULOTH, MINNBBOTA 35 

Dodge, Helen M Lakeview Minn. 

Grogan, A. Maud Dulnth Minn. 

Hormann, Adelaide D Duluth Minn. 

Hutin, Bmilie J Duluth , Minn. 

Janzlg, ISda Duluth Minn. 

Jensen, Oina Duluth Minn. 

Krey, Olga B Duluth Minn. 

McKay, Florence B Duluth Minn. 

Mclntsrre, Catherine Duluth Minn. 

Magner, Merlyn Duluth Minn. 

Martinson, Inga Duluth Minn. 

Merritt, Bmily H Duluth Minn. 

Sauby, Blma B Wrenshall Minn. 

Tumquist, Inei M Duluth Minn. 

WUtse, Mildred Hunter's Park Minn. 

SECOND TR\R 

Anderson, Emma Duluth Minn. 

Bennison, Edna Duluth Minn. 

Berg, Elisabeth H Duluth Minn. 

Bomier, Elisabeth T Bamum Minn. 

Burgher, Alice C Duluth Minn. 

Cameron, Nina I Duluth Minn. 

Coutn, Alice R Duluth Minn. 

Craswell, Hasel R Duluth Minn. 

Dunning, Annabelle Duluth Minn. 

Fix, Mabel M Duluth Minn. 

Orogan, Margaret M Duluth Minn. 

Hackett, Feme I Bloomer Wis. 

Hanson, Clara HI Duluth Minn. 

Himebaugh, Hasel Duluth Minn. 

Jensen, Ella E Duluth Minn. 

Lyngstad, Anna Independence Minn. 

Maggard, Grace R Duluth Minn. 

Mueller, Mabel A Duluth Minn. 

Nelson, Hattie A Duluth Minn. 

NUsen, Gina P Moose Lake Minn. 

Olson, Hilda Duluth Minn. 

OreckoYSky, Selma Duluth . % Minn. 

PiUsbury, Curtis D Duluth Minn. 

Polasky, Stephania M Duluth Minn. 

Porter, Albert Duluth Minn. 

Raleigh, Margaret H Duluth Minn. 

Raleigh, Ruth E Duluth Minn. 

Rust, MatUda B Duluth Minn. 

Signer, Rose E Duluth Minn. 

Skramstad, Matilda Eveleth Minn. 

Swanson, Florence M Duluth Minn. 

Vincent, Anna Duluth Minn. 



36 STATE NOBIIAL BCB0OL» 

FIRST TBAR. 

Carroll, Bdna Duluth Minn. 

Ck)hen, Sarah Duluth Mtam. 

Correll, Winifred Q Big Falls Mliiii. 

Daeda, Blale A Duluth Mlim. 

Dodge, iBadore H Lakeview Minn. 

Brickflon, Caroline Duluth MimL 

Gaines, Mae B Duluth Minn. 

Gibson, Flora Hunter's Park Mhuk* 

Hawkins, Josephine H Duluth Minn. 

Hollister, Theodora Duluth Minn. 

Jeffrey, Mildred Duluth Minn. 

Keith, Bdna Tower Minn. 

Kris, Lena Duluth Minn. 

LundQUist, Alma Duluth Minn. 

Lynott, Agnes Duluth Minn. 

McBeth, Katie Duluth lUnn. 

McLaughlin, Anne Duluth Minn. 

McLaughlin, Florence M Grand View Wis. 

McLeUan, Margaret K Hunter's Park Minn. 

Mitchell, Laudra D Hunter's Park Minn. 

Nelson, Bra M Duluth Minn. 

Olsen, Gladys G Duluth Minn. 

Peterson, Bmma C Wrenshall Minn. 

Somers, Molly Duluth Minn. 

Strandmark, . Mabel B Duluth Minn. 

Stubbs, Cecil J Duluth Minn. 

Sullivan, Helen M Duluth Minn. 

Swenson, Florence Duluth Minn. 

Wright, Brie A Duluth Minn. 

Toung, Margaret L Chicago Ills. 

Zimmerman, Bmma H Duluth Minn. 



EHementary Course. 

THIRD YBAR. 

Beatie, Minnie M Carlton Minn. 

Brett, Sarah B Scanlon Minn. 

Hare, Wenona B Carlton Minn. 

Heimark, Bessie M Frazee Minn. 

Peterson, Anna C Wrenshall Minn. 

Powell, Amelia Staples Idnn. 

Remfry, Blisa Carlton Bfinn. 



mjum, imiiiaoTA' 



37 



SBCOND TEAR. 

Aldrin, AlYllda Warroad Minn. 

Harris, Rose Ella Harris Minn. 

McCnrdy, CaUierine B Proctor Knott Minn. 

Nllsen, Anna P Moose Lake Minn. 

Soderbnrg, Sophie West Sweden Wis. 

SulliTan, Rosella Duluth Minn. 



FIRST TEAR. 

Carlson, Annie E Moose Lake 

Carlson, Ella A Moose Lake 

Pearson, Bertlia Rush City 

Pearson, Jennie Rush City 



Minn. 
MtauL 
Minn. 
Minn. 



South, Blanche 



Melfort, Sask Canada 



Special. 



Bright, Sarah Brooke Duluth 

Comer, Nell 8 Atkinson 

Bllef son, Amanda Duluth 

Johnson, Ebha H Duluth 

Merritt, Alta Duluth 

Mollne, Selma Mountain Iron, 

Murray, Daniel Duluth 

Neal, Marion P Duluth 

Nelson, Ida Balaton 

Schmltz, Christina Belgrade 

Schulz, Marie . i Bavaria 

Trolln, Hllma Aitkin 



, .. Minn. 
. .. Minn. 

, . . Minn, 

. . Minn. 
. . Minn. 
.. Minn. 
. . Minn. 
, . . Minn. 
.. Minn. 
. . BClnn. 
Germany 
.. Minn. 



Barrows, Margaret 
Carpenter, Mary 
Clarke, Marie 
Final, Chelsle 
Hawkes, Theron 
MacLeod, Elizabeth 
Marshall, Caroline 
Marshall, Wayne 



Training Department 

EIGHTH YEAR. 

Moore, Wendell 
Munger, Caroljm 
Person, Esther 
Panton, Margaret 
Reynolds, Gladys 
Smith, Helen 
Toung, Margaret 



38 



STATE NOBMAL SCHOOL 



SBVENTH TBAR. 



BroBYlk, DaTld 
Bush, Margaret 
Carpenter, Chauncey 
Dight, Bdlth 
Dowse, Dorothy 
Fltger, Marion 
Harrison, Harriet 
Hay, Mlna 
Knapp, Norman 



Lang, Alice 
McKindley, Margaret 
McAdams, Lonis 
McAlplne, Dale 
Magle, Gilbert 
Parker, Orace 
Rice, Margaret 
Silvey, MelTiUe 
Upham, Helen 



SIXTH TB2AR. 



Bellamy, Elsie 
Bnrrell, ZdUa 
Campbell, Brace 
Christopher, Hilma 
Fitzslmmons, Bdlth 
Hammel, Rachel 
Hartley, Jndith 



McConanghy, Dwight 
Miles, Harold 
Panton, John 
Van Vliet, Pred 
Winton, Knox 
Wood, Gertrude 



FIFTH YBAR. 



Bishop, William 
Brown, Muriel 
Campbell, Frederick 
Craig, Margaret 
Farrell, Myrtle 
Finkenstaedt, Kimball 
Frick, Duncan 
Hall, Louise 
Hawkee, Rollin 
Keyes, Irene 



Kirby, Frank 
Lounsberry, E2sther 
Marshall, Julia 
Stepnes, Edgar 
Turle, Penelope 
Taylor, Ruth 
Weston, Edith 
Willard, Marjorie 
Wood, Elisabeth 
Wood, Ethel 



FOURTH TEAR. 



Alexander, Agnes G. 
Appleby, Hasel 
Dunning, Charlotte 
Elliott, Robert 
Final, (Gertrude 
Frick, Louise 
Lutes, Maricm 



Lynam, John 
Panton, Dorothea 
Richardson, William 
Romleux, Charles J. 
Whitely, Wayne 
Winton, Frances 



DULUTH, 1IINNE80TA 



39 



Alexander, Sasan 
Ban&ea, Gertrude 
Buell, George 
Crosby* Margaret 
Dight, Marlon 
Holahan, Richard 
Lutes, Katherine 
MacGregor, Carol 
Moore, Dorothy 

Dunning, Marion 
Eyster, Theresa 
Finkenstaedt, Robert 
Matter, Katherlne 

Abbott, Katherlne 
Appleby, Howard 
Atwood, Jay 
Baldwin, Mary 
Holahan, Jack 
Killorln, John 
Knowlton, Ralph 
Lynam, Bllzabeth 
Nystrom, Paul 
Owens, Harvey 
Quayle, Bradley 
Reichert, Stephen 



THIRD YBAR. 

Sanford, Dwlght 
Stark, Charlesa 
Stephenson, Elisabeth 
Slmonson, John 
Upham, Nell 
Webster, Harold 
Welbanks, Jeanette 
Winton, Mary K. 

SECOND YEAR. 

MacGregor, Catherine 
Merrill, Betty 
Skinner, Edwin 
Spengler, Beatrice 

FIRST TEAR. 

Romleux, Herre 
Sellwood, Frances 
Steams, Benton 
Stephenson, William 
Smith, Marcus 
Turle, Lovell 
Taylor, Gertrude 
Wallace, Edna 
Wallace, Edward 
Warner, Virginia 
Webster, Gordon 
Wood, Tom 

KINDERGARTEN. 



Adams, Chester 

Atwood, Eva 

Baldwin, Clara Elizabeth 

Brltta, Ruby 

Black, David 

Black, Allen 

Bowden, Richard 
Broughton, William Gandsey 
Buell, Bradley 
Crosby, Thomas 
Crosby, William 
Douglas, Faith 
Dowse, Robert 
Dunlap, Burton 
Ferris, Ruth 
Hickman, Geneyleve 
Lyder, Caroline 
Mattocks, Brewer 



Murray, Marion 
Moye, Edward 
McGregor, Donald 
Prince, William 
Prince, Gerald 
Prince, George 
Powell, Hickman 
Quayle, William 
Sellwood, Gerald 
Sellwood, Richard 
Spengler, Mazlne 
Stems, Ruby 
Stephenson, John 
Strong, Harry 
Towne, Mary 
Upham, William 
Whitely, McCleUand 



40 STATB nOBUML 8CBD0L, 

Nonnal Dq>aitnient 

Graduate Courae»— 

Senior Graduate Class 24 

Junior Graduate Class 24 

Elementary Graduate Class 18 

66 
Kindergarten Training Cour s e 

Senior Class 4 

Junior Class 6 

10 
Academic-Professional Courses — 

Senior Class 6 

Junior Class 11 

Third Year Class 10 

Second Year Class S2 

First Year Class 31 

90 
Elementary Course — 

Third Year Class 7 

Second Year Class 6 

First Year Class 6 

18 
Special Students IS 

206 



Training D^Mirtment 

Eighth Year 15 

Seventh Year . .: 17 

Sixth Year 18 

Fifth Year 20 

Fourth Year 13 

Third Year 17 

Second Year 8 

First Year 24 

Kindergarten 86 



162 



Whole Number 867 



^ .1 



A9U 



VOL. U AUGUST. 1 907 NO. 2 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



State Normal School 



DULUTH. MINNESOTA 



COMMENCEMENT NUMBER 



PnblUlied Qoarterlr by the State Normal School at Dahith, and devoted to the 

interetts of Bfementary Edacatioii in Minnesota. 
Snbtcriiytion price, fifty cents a year. Single copies, fifteen cents. 



Entered as second-class matter, ICay 14, 1906. at the Post Office, Dulnth. Min- 
nesota, under the act of Congress of July 16, 1894. 






Sunday Afternoon, June 9, 1907. 

2 Timothy 2:15. "GiYO diligence to present thyself 
approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to be 
ashamed, handling aright. the word of truth.' 



•» 



"There are but few men who do their work really 
well." Such, in substance, was the remark made in con- 
versation a few days ago by a gentleman whose name is 
a synonym of honor in his personal relations and of effi- 
ciency and reliability in the performance of his profes- 
sional duties. It was called out by an allusion to the 
necessity of watching a body of workmen to make sure 
that they performed the task required of them. The 
application of the remark was not limited to those who 
are known as workingmen, but was intended to describe 
men in all ranks and walks of life. The speaker was 
not a pessimist, although most would describe his atti- 
tude as pessimistic. A certain amount of pessimism in 
regard to the motives and reliability of men is an inevit- 
able result of observation and experience and is essential 
to a successful dealing with men. The average workman 
is the better for being watched. He will do more and 
better work under the eye of the foreman than when left 
to his own superintendence. There are but few in any 
rank or situation who approach what may be called the 
realization of the ideal of their place or work. Out of a 
large body of university students but a small number have 
ever really learned the habits or caught the spirit of the 
genuine scholar. A great number are content Just to get 
through. Out of the grand army of any profession only 
the minority really attain to anything like mastery of its 
principles. The large majority never arise above the line 
of mediocrity. 

Part of this springs doubtless from sheer lack of 
ability. There are people but poorly endowed with brawn 
and brain. They are handicapped by physical weakness 
or by intellectual limitations. When they do their level 
best, they sUll fall short. High attainment in any line is 
impossible to them. This, however, I believe to be true 
of but a small proportion. The great cause of failure is 



4 STATE NORlfAL SCHOOL* 

something akin to what is ordinarily called laziness. He 
was a shrewd man who said. "There will always be room 
at the top as long as there is so much dross at the bot- 
tom." Men do not strive. They do not work hard 
enough. They are too fond of ease. They will not sac- 
rifice their comfort or happiness. They have no vision of 
the possibilities of their work, or if they have such, they 
are disobedient unto it. They cherish no ideal of their 
place and task in life. They do not give diligence to pre- 
sent themselves approved unto God, workmen that need 
not be ashamed. 

The older I grow the more I am persuaded that the 
important differences between people are not so much in 
original endowment as in the use and direction of their 
gifts. Vision and effort, sight of the ideal and strenuous 
labor for its attainment are the characteristics of the men 
who win in any station or occupation. The wider my 
experience becomes, the more I realize that the essential 
principles of work and success are the same everywhere. 
The application that will make a man a good farmer, will, 
if applied in a different sphere, make him a strong lawyer, 
a skilful physician or an eminent minister. I do not mean 
that every successful farmer might have attained success 
in any other line. Original endowment, natural bent, 
must be recognized. What I mean is that the principles 
or methods of successful work are everywhere essentially 
the same. One principle is the use of brains. What the 
head does not do the heels have to do. All work involves 
the use of the brain. This is true even of the commonest 
and least skilled of employments. It needs brains to learn 
how to handle a pickaxe and shovel. Brains are needed 
in digging a trench as it ought to be dug. It was my 
good fortune as a boy to work for and wiUi a man who 
was the best workman I ever saw. I am confident that he 
was the master workman in his craft in the whole country, 
and very likely in all the world. It was a work that by 
many would scarcely be reckoned skilled labor. It was the 
making of paving stones for the street out of granite. 
This man's work was skilled. To watch him and to work 
with him was a first class education in the use of brains 
and muscles. He planned his work so that the minimum 
expenditure of strength would produce the maximum of 
result. He never struck two blows where one would do. 
He always arranged that a stone should have to be turned 
the smallest possible number of times, and he always 



DULUTH, MINNESOTA. 5 

worked hard. His planning was not to get rid of work, 
but to make kls work tell. He worked like a man bound 
by a strenuous conscience to the realisation of the loftiest 
ideal in his particular task. It was an education to work 
with him. When the circumstances of my life changed so 
that I found myself in an academic atmosphere, in a great 
.uniTersity, dealing with books, learning to read the 
Hebrew Bible, pouring over the Greek Testament, strug- 
gling with philosophical problems, striving to grasp doc- 
trines and systems of theology I found it profitable to 
apply the principles and methods of work I had learned 
in a granite quarry and in a paving cutter's banker. To 
use the brain, to plan so as to economise strength and 
time, to work hard, to deal honestly— ^hese are the prin- 
ciples of all labor worthy of praise. 

Because all work is essentially the same in its prin- 
ciples and methods the counsel and charge of Paul to 
Timothy comes home to every one of us. "Give diligence 
to present thyself approved unto God, a workman that 
needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing or handling 
aright the word of truth." These are the words of an old 
minister to his younger friend and fellow laborer. That 
he should use his finest strength in the wisest and strong- 
est way to the glory of God and the helping of his fellow- 
men was the ideal held up to him. It was a noble charge, 
growing out of a lofty ideal, in all his work as a minister, 
preacher, pastor, teacher, friend, example, Timothy was to 
cherish this ideal and remember this charge that he might 
be a workman that needeth not to be ashamed. 

I am persuaded not only that all work essentially is 
the same in its principles and methods, but also that all 
good work is equal in honor and dignity, provided always 
that it be honest and honorable work. Burglary and 
piracy and all other occupations that prey upon men are of 
necessity excepted. Work is honorable, work is sacred, 
and the work of a minister of the word of God may be no 
more sacred than the work of a quarryman or a brick- 
layer, or a merchant, or a teacher. It is perhaps inevit- 
able that distinctions should be made. We confer more 
abundant honor upon that labor which deals with the mind 
and with the soul than upon that which ministers to the 
body. But where were the mind without the body? And 
where were our souls without the homes we live in, the 
food we eat and the clothes we wear? To build a home, 
to fashion a garment, to cook a meal — ^these are all esen- 



6 STATE NORMAL 9CH00L» 

tlal to the cultiyation of the mind and to the training of 
the soul. The carpenter and the mason, the tailor and 
the cook do a work essential to the soul. It is necessary; 
as necessary, it is honorable; if honorable, it may be 
sacred, and each one of these and other occnpations may 
take to heart words like those of Paul. "Qive diligence to 
present thyself approved unto God, a workman that need- 
eth not to be ashamed." 

If it be true that all work is the same in its essential 
principles, that it is all equally honorable and may be 
equally sacred, it is probably true that the chief reason for 
failure to do good work is the same everywhere. If the 
remark with whldi we began be true, that "there are but 
few men who do their work really well," there must be 
some general, all-pervading cause for tiie ftdlure. What 
is the cause? 

There are in general two ways of regarding any occu- 
pation or employment. It may be looked upon merely as 
a means of gaining a livelihood, or it may be viewed from 
an ideal standpoint as an opportunity for service. Accord- 
ing to the one, work is necessary to the making of a 
living; according to the other, work is the thing essential 
in making a life. From one point of view. It is an evil to 
be escaped as much as possible; from the other, it is a 
good and a means of good. To one, work is a curse; to 
the other, a living fountain of blessing. No occupation or 
work but is susceptible of being regarded in these two 
ways. The very noblest employment, the most sacred task, 
may be treated simply as a means of making a living. A 
priest of God's temple may be as low In his thought of his 
work and as slack and as careless in its performance as 
the most shiftless and unreliable of laborers. Coleridge 
quoted a remrak by Archbishop Leighton, "Under the law 
those who were squint eyed were incapable of the priest- 
hood; truly this squinting toward our own Interests, the 
looking aside to that in God's affairs especially so de- 
forms the face of the soul that it makes it altogether 
unworthy the hand of this spiritual priesthood." If such 
may be said about squinting at personal and base profit, 
what shall be said of the full open eyed set of the coun- 
tenance upon worldly advantage? What is this but the 
abomination of desolation standing where it ought not in 
the holy place? As the highest of employments, accord- 
ing to our human standards may be degraded into a 
means of Uvelihood, so what we ordinarily esteem the 



DULUTH, MINNESOTA. 7 

lowest of occupations may be exalted and dignified by 
accepting it as a divinely appointed opportunity and 
sphere for science. The laborer who wrought in digging 
the foundation or the mason by whose skill the walls of 
Ood's house were builded may feel that his work Is as 
noble as that of the priest who ministers at the altar. 

There is an ideal standpoint from which every honor- 
able employment may be viewed. As such it may be 
regarded as a task divinely provided, an opportunity in 
using which the very noblest service may be rendered. 
The earth is largely as the light by which we see it and 
our life is gloomy or resplendent according to that which 
is the master light of all our seeing. There is a light 
that transfigures our earthly life. It is the light of the 
ideal in which we enter into the spirit of our work and 
comprehend something of its relation to the past, and 
catch the vision of the issues which shall spring from it 
in the future. The thought of duty introduces us to a 
portion of this nobler meaning. To regard life as a 
duty, every part of it under the law of duty, is to trans- 
form the common into the sacred. Duty also goes far to 
change the ugly into the beautiful, not the beautiful of 
the dilettante's dream, but the beautiful of the poet's and 
prophet's vision. Remember Wordsworth's lines in praise 
of duty, that stem duty of the voice of God: 

"Stern Lawgiver! Yet thou dost wear 

The Godhead's most benignant grace. 
Nor know we anything so fair 

As is the smile upon thy face." 
Wrought for duty's sake, the humblest employment 
has an aureole of glory — 

"A servant with this clause 

Makes drudgery divine. 
Who sweeps a room as for thy laws 

Makes that and the action fine." 

When duty is viewed not simply as the mandate of 
an impersonal law but as the revealed will of the holy 
and eternal God, Father and Keeper and Judge of men, 
it wears indeed "a most benignant grace." To feel that 
God has given me my task, that he has laid upon me my 
work, that he has given the end and will point out the 
way, is to catch sight of life's profoundest secret; it is to 
walk in the light that transfigures, not the light of nature, 
but the light of the true supernatural, the light that never 
was on sea or land. 

The Christian church of the earliest age was made up 



8 8TATB NORMAL 8CH00L» 

for the moBt part of very humble folk. Some of them 
were slaves. Not many rich, not many wise, not many 
mighty were called, but the poor and base and despised 
were in the holy brotherhood of those who had heard and 
heeded God's voice in Christ. To such Paul wrote that 
they should serve their earthly masters in "singleness of 
heart as unto Christ," not in the way of eye service as 
men please, but as servants of Christ doing the will of 
God from the heart; with good will doing service as unto 
the Lord, and not unto men, knowing that whatsoever 
good thing each one doeth, the same shall he receive 
again from the Lord, whether he be bond or free. Bph. 
6:5-8. Thus did their religion transform and glorify their 
daily lives. The drudgery of their daily toil became a 
service of worship unto God and a benediction unto men. 
The common tasks were made radiant with a heavenly 
light. 

There is not an honorable task in life which may not 
be transfigured in the illumination of faith and in the 
colors of memory and imagination. The Rev. Dr. George 
Adam Smith has a suggestive sermon in the song of the 
well. His text is the little fragment of Hebrew poetry — 

"Spring up, O Well! 
Sing ye back to it. 
The well which the princes digged. 
Which nobles of the people delved 
With the sceptre and with their staves." 

He began by showing that there is in the East no 
drudgery worse than that of drawing water. Hewers of 
wood and drawers of water is the Bible's name for slaves 
of the lowest class. The woman whom Jesus met by the 
well at Sychar was a drudge whose first prayer was, "Sir, 
give me this water, that I thirst not, neither come all the 
way hither to draw." This little song out of the ancient 
Scripture shows how some glorified the drudgery by en- 
listing memory and imagination. The well had been dug 
by great men, princes and nobles. That which now meant 
drudgery was in its origin Invention, zeal, self-sacrifice, 
loyal brotherhood. In the long weary tramp to and from 
the well, in the long heavy pull of the laden bucket from 
the deep pool, they remembered that princes and nobles 
had dug the pit and built the walls, opening a fountain 
of refreshment for countless generations. 

It is a richly suggestive lesson the noted Interpreter 
brings forth. Let me quote the gist of it. "There is not 



DULUTH, MINNESOTA. 9 

a bit of routine, however cheap our unthinking minds 
may count it, but it was started by genius. The funda- 
mental facilities of life, the things we use as carelessly 
as we tread the pavement, the fire we light, the alphabet 
we use, our dally bread, the coins we handle, the wheels 
that- carry us along, the glass through which we see 
heaven, each of them represents some early venture of 
man's spirit even greater in its influence upon the race 
than those inventions and discoveries which we count the 
crowning glories of our crowning century. The very Ian- 
gauge that we use — Chaucer's, Shakespeare's, Milton's, 
were the mouths that forged it. We can hardly utter a 
great word or a variation of its meaning, without mould- 
ing our lips to the accent and emphasis of some original 
spirit. There is not a crank the miller turns, not an 
engine or brake upon our railways, not a boat that sails 
our seas, but required character and, in many cases, 
genius for its invention and employment in the service of 
humanity. The manual toll, in commerce, in education, 
in healing, and in public service, not a bit of routine rolls 
on Its way but the saints and heroes were at the start of 
it. Princes dug this well, yea, "the nobles of the people 
delved it with the sceptre and with their staves." 

The particular service to which the cnraduates of this 
school expect to devote some portion of their lives is one 
to which this suggestive thought is especially applicable. 
The work of a teacher deals with man's nobler part. The 
teacher addresses the mind, seeks to train the understand- 
ing, to store the memory, to direct the powers of Judg- 
ment, and thus inevitably to fashion the will and to mould 
the character. All work is honorable and has dignity, but 
if any work is pre-eminent in honor and dignity, it is 
surely that of the teacher. To the teacher is committed 
the imparting of knowledge and the communication of 
that influence by which the work of civilization is pre- 
served and forwarded. The teacher is In a noble succes- 
sion. The masters of thought and speech, the heroes of 
exploration and investigation, the poets and prophets of 
hunnanity, were members of that line. Dr. Smith alluded 
to language and its fashioners. To teach boys and girls 
the rules and proprieties of correct and beautiful speech, 
to open their minds to the treasures of thought and ex- 
pression is a great labor, and means sometimes the most 
trying drudgery. Is it not worth while? Is it not a great 
privilege and a splendid opportunity to lead young minds 
to the knowledge of the rich resources of our Bnglish 



10 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 

speech, to bring them in contact with the great ideas it 
enshrines and with the noble spirit of Justice and free- 
dom of which it has been so often the expression? 
"We must be free or die, who speak the tongue that 
Shakespeare spake. 

The faith and morals hold that Milton held." 

Regard your life and work from the standpoint of 
the ideal. Strive to catch a yislon of its possibilities. Let 
memory and Imagination play over its history, its place 
and power in civiliKation. Ck>unt it an honor and a privi- 
lege to be engaged in it. Accept it as a gift and oppor- 
tunity from God. The toil will be lightened, the drudgery 
transfigured. The curse will be destroyed and the foun- 
tain of blessing opened. 

It is a wise saying that "to him who knows not to 
what port he is bound, no wind can be favorable." It is 
largely because they do not understand what they are 
doing or where they are going that there are so few men 
who do their work really well. They are driven to it 
under the lash of necessity. They slight it at every 
opportunity and they escape from it as soon as circum- 
stances permit. When Oliver Cromwell was enlisting his 
famous Ironsides, he winnowed and sifted the levies and 
volunteers again and again, choosing those who had the 
fear of God. When blamed for his unusual rigor in re- 
cruiting, he replied, "I had rather have a plain, russet- 
coated captain that knows what he fights for and loves 
what he knows than what you call a 'Gentleman' and is 
nothing else." What an admirable definition of a soldier! 
"Who knows what he fights for and loves what he knows." 
Similar would be the description of a good workman* 
"Who knows what he works for and loves what he 
knows." Such is the workman who does his work really 
well. 

That you may be such in the task and line yon have 
chosen Is the hope of your teachers and I trust the pas- 
sion of your own hearts. Ton are to occupy this exalted 
station, to have a part in this most important transmis- 
sion of knowledge and influence. In the natural course 
of human events it is not to be expected that you will be 
teachers all your days. The work of teaching has become 
with us in the lower branches almost the monopoly of 
women. If we accept the services of women for teachers, 
we ought not to be surprised that there will be constant 
necessity for replenishing the force. To expect otherwise 



DULDTH, mNNnOTA. 11 

would be to aBsnme that men are blind and Indifferent to 
tbe charm of a cultiyated mind and of an attraetiye per- 
sonality. Many an honored and beknred mistress of 
manse begui her career and won her first Tictorles in the 
school room and ministers are not the only men who have 
eyes and hearts. Merchants and engineers, lawyers and 
physicians, have robbed the school room to enrich the 
home. We find no fault with them. It is Ood's law deep 
planted in the hearts of men and women. Great as is the 
school room, greater still is the home, and high as are 
the place and work of the teacher, the posiitlon and func- 
tion of the mother are still higher. The good Liord defend 
humanity from the creature miscalled a woman whose 
nature giTOs no response to the call of a strong man's loye 
and whose heart has no deep fountain of tenderness rea^y 
to flow at the touch of a baby's hand. We want such 
neither in the school room nor anywhere else. Because she 
'is potentially wife and mother, woman is pre-eminent as 
a teacher and a moral influence over the young. 

Society has no right to expect that women will deny 
their natures or resist forever the persuasions of other 
women's sons and brothers. Society has the right to ex- 
pect of women and all others that, while they are teach- 
ers, they will own no divided allegiance, but will do their 
very best; that they will know what they work for and 
love what they know; that they will count it an honor and 
a privilege to teach; that they will not be "disobedient 
unto the heavenly vision." Vision and consecration are 
the chief factors of strongest, noblest living and working. 
You cannot teach if your heart is elsewhere. In Dr. 
Nansen's book, "Farthest North," there is *:he nairatlve 
of a singular experience. In the Kara Sea the Fram got 
into what is called "dead water." The melting of ice- 
bergs results in a layer of fresh water resting upon the 
salt water of the sea, and this fresh water is carried along 
with the ship, gliding on the heavier sea beneath as on a 
fixed foundation. They had drinking water on the sur- 
face, while the water in the bottom cock of the engiue 
room was far too salt for the boiler. They drove the 
engines at full power until the bow was within a few 
fathoms of the ice and they hardly felt the shock when 
she touched. They made loops in their course and tried 
all sorts of antics to get clear. The speed was about one- 
fifth of what it would otherwise have been. It took all 
night to steam twenty miles. At last they got among 



12 STATE NOBMAL SCHOOL* 

thin Ice which scraped the dead water off and the Fram 
sprang on her course. That "dead water" in the Kara 
Sea is the illustration and symbol of the peril and weak- 
ness of a divided allegiance. Work when the heart is 
noit In it Is toilsome drudgery. 

"Why labor at the dull mechanic oar 
When the fresh breeze is blowing. 
And the strong current flowing 
Right onward to the eternal shore." 

Lift up your eyes to the heayenly vision of your 
work. LfOt memory and imagination speak to your heart 
of its past achievements and splendid possibilities. Be- 
lieve that you are in a succession truly royal. Put con- 
science Into your daily work. Seek and depend upon 
divine help and guidance. The Master of all good work- 
men will not fail you. Tours shall be His praise, "Well 
done, good and faithful servant;" yours the satisfaction 
of the "workman that needeth not to be ashamed." 



(0)i)uiirttitti^« 



An AMirf jOfl to thf tf ndttiatitui CfUttu. Vrihttsbatt Himrtttii 



It is my purpose this morning to discuag the laws of 
Opportunity, illustrating the same by historic characters 
and Incidents. In using historic ciharacterB for illustration 
it is not tfiiat we may, or expect to be. Napoleons or Lin> 
coins, but the laws under which a Nopoleon failed or a Lin- 
coln succeeded appJy with the same aibeolute force to the 
humblest individual and to every walk of life. 

It is needless to say that opportunity oonsista of two 
things. There must be the individual and there must be 
the occasion; each Is the complement of the other. The 
successful man is the one who sees the occasion, is able to 
improve it and by improving it, creates another condition, 
and to this extent makes or enlarges opportunity. 

Wlhile it may occasion eome surprise to you, the first 
law of opportunity which I shall discuss la the subject of 
limitation. It la the part of wisdom that we study the lim- 
itations intherent in ourselves and those limitations which 
come from our environment. It is not meant by tills that 
we should look for difficulties, but that we sOiould recog- 
nize that there are conditions which cannot be surmounted 
but may be overcome by recognizing their exicrtehce and 
directing our efforts accordingly. 

No dharacter in history illustrates this law with such 
force as that of Napoleon Bonaparte. When at the height 
of his power a courtier said him, "Sire, circumstances seem 
to favor you," he haughtily replied, "Circumstances! Why, 
I make circumstances!" But you turn to that lonely isle 
in mid-ocean, where he spent his declining years and you 
listen in vain for a repetition of tbis assertion. In its place 
comes the refrain, "Star of Destiny." 

It did seem in his early career as thous^ ihe made cir- 
cumstances and <by his ability to meet conditions which he 
did not make, which came from forces — ^many operating 
long anterior to his advent — he did enlarge opportunities 
and, to that extent, make circumstances. Had he recog- 
nized two conditions inseparably connected witfli his very 
existence, ihe need not have died in exile. 

One of these conditions was inherent and the other the 
condition of environment. When the Republic in France 
gathered her energies and rolled back the tide of invasion 



14 tTATB NOKMAL SCHOOL^ 

that had poured over her borders. It was inevitable ttiat a 
republican epirit should follow the victories of republican 
armies, and republics be created. 

When Napoleon dreamed of an empire he should have 
realised that in the transformation of France from a re- 
publican to an imperial government, the same result would 
follow to the republics whioh had been created under the 
inspiration of the French republican spirit, and that while 
France might be reconciled to the change, afterward people 
who had caught a glimpse of free government would not be 
BO reconciled and would hold France — and hold Napoleon — 
responsible for Khe result; and that he would thus, not only 
have the hostility of sovereigns and princes, but what would 
be a far more potential factor, the hostility and hatred of 
people who had tasted of liberty only to see the cup 
snatched from their lips by his hand. 

The condition inOierent in Napoleon which made it pos- 
sible for ihim to successfully establiah an empire, was the 
condition of his birth and, strangely enough, the same oon- 
dition made It absolutely impossible for him maintain an 
empire. 

The man who was to erect a throne upon the ruins of 
the French Revolution bad to be one who was not born 
beneath a palace roof. No man of royal blood could have 
secured the confidence of the French people to an extent 
which would have enabled him to re-establish a throne. 
The man who was to lull France to sleep witfli dreams of 
glory, while he rivetted the chains about her, had. to be 
one not of royal blood. Napoleon answered this condition, 
but when he came to establish his throne that throne was 
a menace to royalty Itself. While he had all the instincts 
of the despot, the royalty of Burope could not permit the 
assumption of royal power by one who was the outgrowth 
of the Revolution, that, in its frenzy, had beheaded a king, — 
not so much because he was the king as because he was 
a king. In this the French Revolution differed so essentially 
from the Bnglish Revolution. Tbe result was that no human 
genius was sufficient to reconcile Napoleon's assumption of 
imperial power with this oondition. In vain his victories, 
for there ever arose before him the undying purpose of the 
reigning houses of Europe to crush the man who had as- 
sumed royal prerogatives under these circumstances. 

Had Napoleon Bonaparte recognized this law of limita- 
tion and devoted his ability and genius to the establishment 
of the republic, surrounded by a bulwark of republics, sup- 
ported not only by the French people but having the sym- 
pathy of the other peoples who had looked to France as the 
source of what liberty llhey had enjoyed, his life might have 



DULOTV^ MsmnmnJu 15 

been crowned with suocees instead of terminating in dia- 
aaters. 

The next law of opportunity which I shall discuss is the 
law of time, — occasion. Men who have made a success of 
life have been those who have come upon the scene when 
conditions were ripening, or who in their own minor affairs 
have been able to discern when the time was ripe for 
action. No character in history illustrates this law with 
such force as tfhat of Abraham Lincoln. When Lincoln was 
a young man lie made a trip to New Orleans and there wit- 
nessed men and women sold as chattels and it is said that 
he declared with an oath that some day he would strike 
slavery and strike it hard. Tears rolled on. Lincoln was 
elected to Congress and in 1847 made a speech upon the 
Fugitive Slave Law in which he said that wlhile he was 
opposed to the then existing Fugitive Slave Law, he was In 
favor of some form of Congressional fugitive slave law. It 
is hard today to realise that that utterance ever fell from 
the lips of Abraham Lincoln. 

Time passed on and he and Douglas entered upon their 
memorable debate. A State Convention had nominated Lin- 
coln for the Senate, the first instance, I think, of the kind 
in the history of our country although now a matter of 
common occurrence. The election therefore directly involved 
the senatorshlp, and at one of the debates Lincoln expressed 
himself with unusual fervor. His friends declared to him 
that the speech (had cost him his election to the Senate. 
He is said to have replied: "I know that, but it will make 
me President." He was nominated for the Presidency and 
when the nomination was announced, it is said that Wendell 
Phillips, referring to Lincoln's speech in '47, exclaimed, 
"What! Is the slave hound of Illinois nominated for the 
Presidency?" He was elected and then was witnessed one 
of those strange inconsistencies which so often occur in the 
display of human nature. The avowed enemies of slavery, 
who ahould have been his truest friends and loyal support- 
ers, turned against him with a bitterness hard indeed to 
understand. Because he would not move rapidly enough 
to suit them, it was charged that he had betrayed the 
cause of liberty, and of all the burdens that Lincoln had to 
bear, prcfbably none so weighed down his soul as this accu- 
sation. But Lincoln recognised the law of time. Lincoln 
realized that in that vast host that had sprung to arms to 
save the Union there were those wflio were ready to lay down 
their lives for the Union, but not to sacrifice their lives to 
free slaves. He realized that in the great border states 
there were those who loved the Union, but who viewed with 



16 tTATI NOBMAL SCHOOL 

consternation the destruction of their property In the abo- 
lition of slavery, and so Lrincoln waited, — waited until the 
North-land, kneeling by the sraves of her slaughtered sons, 
arose in her power and might and decreed that treason 
should perish and, as an incrtrument, slavery should perish. 
Then, and not until then, he issued his Bmancipation Pro- 
clamation. 

There is little to be gained in speculating upon what 
has not happened and what might have happened, but every 
student of American history will admit that the effect of 
that proclamation, had it been issued earlier, might (have 
been far different, and Lincoln's Judgment in waiting is 
today universally endorsed and yet, no one today questions 
but tihsit during all that time the great heart that beat 
beneath the rugged breast of Abraham Lincoln kept as 
absolute time to the entemal rythm of human Itberty as 
the heart of Wendell Phillips. 

The next law of opportunity involves the value, the 
real importance of that which we do. Many a man has 
wasted liis lifetime with its opportunities, has exhausted hia 
energies in doing things which, after all, did not amount 
to anyrthing. This law is aptly lillustrated in the life of 
Charles Sumner. 

Wben a young man dumner sought Webster one day to 
induce him to preside at an anti-slavery meeting to be held 
in Boston. Webster, with that pompous air for which he 
was so famous, declined the invitation wiith the remark, 
"I have no time for boy's play." 

It is doubtful if there are a dozen people in this audi- 
ence, and, to avoid any suggestion of invidious comparison, 
you are at liberty to count me among the non-competents, 
who could state today either what Webster was then engaged 
upon or the outcome of his efforts. But, there is not a man, 
woman or child, while liberty is yet even a dream, who does 
not know the outcome of Charles Sumner's "boy's play". 

Another incident in his life illustrates this same law. 
When he entered the Senate he was met by the veteran 
Benton with the remark, and with a patronising way: 
"Toung man, you have come too late. The great questions 
are settled. The great men are passing away." 

To one who, like Benton, (had been a central figure in 
that long and bitter struggle which preceded the war, it 
did seem as though the great issues were settled and the 
great men born in that struggle were passing away. 

But here I want to digress long enough to emphasise 
another truth, and that is that no principle ever was or 
ever can be settled until it Is settled right. Mere abstract 



DULUTH, MUfmSSOTA. 17 

questions can be settled 'by agreement and compromise but 
tSiere is a force, call it what you may, ceaseless and irresist- 
ibde, that works upon a principle untU that principle is 
settled right. The vain efforts to compromise the issues of 
that day illustrate this truth, and eleven years from that 
day the name and fame of Benton was almost lost to the 
American people in the din of civil strife. 

);VfhiIe additional illustration of (this particular law is 
not necessary, it may be of interest to refer to an Incident 
whidh occurred in Congress upon the eve of Lincoln's in- 
auguration. A bill had passed the lower House of Congress 
to su'bmit an amendment to the Constitution which, had it 
been adopted, would have tended to make slavery perpetual 
in the United States. The biU came to the Senate in the 
closing days of Buchanan's administration. Tlie Senate 
entered on the defbate of the bill and by the evening of the 
3rd of March the excitement had become intense. It is 
doubtful if ever In the history of that city it was equalled. 
The Capitol was one masd of excited, surging humanity, and 
so intense was the excitement that it became necessary to 
clear the galleries, — ^I think the only time in the history 
of our country except for executive session. 

Buchanan waited in an adjoining room ready to sign 
the bin, when it passed. As the hours of the night wore 
away, a vote was reached, and when it was seen that the 
bill would pass, gray-Sialred senators sat there with tears 
coursing down their cheeks, firmly believing that the pas- 
sage of that bill was to seal the fate of their country. 

The bill passed and received Buchanan's signature, 
being, if I remember correctly, his last offlciail act. But 
while this scene was being enacted in the Senate the Amer- 
ican people were slumbering, otblivious to the scene and its 
attendant exctttement; waiting with calmness and with faith; 
knowing that the next day at twelve o'clock there would 
appear upon the eastern portico of the Capitol the tall, 
gaunt form of Abraham Lincoln, fxom whose lips should 
fall the keynote of a people's action, in the hour of a people's 
crisis, and it may be of interest to add, that only one State 
acted upon this amendment, and rejected it, and thus closed 
wliat was probably the most dramatic chapter in the history 
of the American Congress. 

The next law of opportunity which I shall treat In- 
volves the matter of preparation, and prdba/bly the best 
possible preparation is the earnest and faithful dlsdharge 
of such duties as come In our way. Of course, if one 
contemplates a grlven calling, preparation involves a special 
relation to such calling, but one ooold stand here by the 



IS 8TATB NORMAL MBOOL» 

hour and Illustrate in tbe characters of those whose history 
is familiar to us all, that suocees in life is oftener achieved 
along lines whlcOi are not anticipated than otherwise. Cir- 
cumstances over which we have no control, — of which we 
may at the time have no knowledge, come 'later to bear 
upon our own careers. 

It is sometimes asked, "How higih should we aim?" If 
by aiming high it is meant that at the outset we ifliould 
fix our gaze upon some certain goal, we are liable to make 
a mistake. In fixing our attention so earnestly upon some 
distant goal, we are apt to overlook the smaller oppor- 
tunities which, if properly embraced, may contribute to 
our success. In gazing at the stars we may stum1E)le upon 
the rocks adong the way. 

A few evenings since I observed a class motto, "To the 
stars through difficulties". Without any reflection upon 
those iK^o framed the sentiment, it seemed to me it would 
better emphazlse the real thought had it read "Through 
difficulties to the stars". I find some difficulty in stating 
this, to bring out my thought, — that it may not be under- 
stood too biDadly. The stars are there. The stars will 
keep. Instead of contemplating them, we should bend oui 
energies to overcome such difficulties as we encounter. 

If by aiming high it is meant that we shouild hold a 
high standard, — lofty ideals and keen sense of duty, we 
cannot aim too high. I know of no character in history 
which (illustrates this thought better than that of UlsnBses 
S. Grant, who, perhaps, in his career illustrates all the laws 
of opportunity as but few characters do. 

The exercise of observation is essential to success and 
this is illustrated in an incident in Grant's boyhood. He 
was anxious to go to West Point A neighbor's son had 
been designated for examination. One evening, hastily 
entering the neighbor's house, young Grant saw that the 
famdly were reading a letter and, in confusion, ceased read- 
ing. He saw that it was something that involved humilia- 
tion to them and he was quick to reach the conclusion that 
that was the cause of their failure to tell him of their 
trou<ble. Instinctively he knew that it related to their son, 
who had evidently failed in his examination. Returning 
home he asked his father to apply to their Ck>ngres8man 
for his appointment, which he did and to which the Con- 
gressman repiU<ed that he had already nominated this nelgh- 
bor'a son, but if for any reason he failed, he would nom- 
inate young Grant. This was all Grant wanted. He went 
to West Point, graduated and served in the Mexican War 
and then retired to private life to meet with indifferent 



DULOTH, MINNB80TA, 19 

snocess, his future career illustrating the truth that a man 
may be fitted for one calling and entirely unfitted for an- 
other. 

When the Civlil War broke out, (he took command of 
a regiment which was assigned to service in the West. 
The proximity of the Federal and Confederate capitols clear- 
ly foreshadowed that while there might be severe fighting 
in the West, interest would center upon those in command 
of tho forces in the East. At this time Grant could not have 
dreamed of ever being in command of the Northern Army, 
because he never could have been in that position had it 
not been for a series of Incidents over which he not only 
had no control, but which no one could anticipate. 

In discussing these incidents I must not be understood 
as saying so in any spirit of criticism, but simply as dealing 
with historic facts. 

First came the disaster at Bull Run which resulted in 
McClellan, who had achieved some distinction in the moun- 
tains of what is now West Virginia, being called to the 
command of the Army of the Potomac. A splendid army 
was organised and the movement on Richmond inaugurated. 
The failure of the expedition has been attributed to the 
failure of McDowell's cooperation. Be that as it may, its 
relation to Grant's career is unaltered. A bhange of base 
was projected and in carrying it out McQedlan reached 
Malvern Hill. It sometimes seems as though fame threw 
wide her arms to embrace and transport men to immortal 
achievement and if ever she beckoned to man she beckoned 
to McClellan that night at Malvern Hill. His army strongly 
posted, Lee for some unaccountable reason, hurled his 
forces against him until, shattered and torn, they were re- 
called. It is said that from Malvern Hill the spires of the 
churches of Richmond could be seen. At his feet lay an 
army crushed by fruitless assault. Old Philip Kearney pro- 
tested, Martindale shed tears of shame at the thought of 
retreat, but McClellan abandoned the position without strik- 
ing his shattered foe, and in a little time was removed from 
command. Grant could not have dreamed of Malvern Hill. 

Then came Pope, with his famous order dated "Head- 
quarters in the Saddle". Then came Manassas. Pope's 
friends have always claimed that had he been supported 
at Manassas the result would have been difterent. Be that 
as it may, it, again, does not alter the relation of Manassas 
to Grant's career. 

McClellan was restored to command and then came 
Antietam. Far be it from me to criticizing the judgment 
of McClellan at Antietam, but the country criticised it and 



20 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 

again he was removed from command. Then came Burn- 
side and that awful slaughter at Fredericksburg, — so ter- 
rible and disastrous that an English gentlmnan within the 
Confederate lines, writing home to an BnglisSi journal, said 
'*The historian of the decline and fall of the American Re- 
public will date its fall from this day." Grant coudd not 
have dreamed of Fredericksburg. 

Then came Hooker, fresh with the laurels he had won 
in the West and then came ChancellorsviUe. Grant could 
not have dreamed of Chancelhorsville, especially in view of 
Hooker's splendid record. 

Then came Meade and Gettysburg. Again we must dis- 
claim any spirit of criticism in speaking of Meade and his 
failure to pursue Lee at Gettysburg, but the coimtry critt- 
cised him and felt that a mistake had been made, and then 
came an opportunity for some man. Again let us emphasize 
the thought that Grant could never have dreamed of these 
incidents which paved the way for some one being called 
to take command of the army. I will tell you what Grant 
was doing. He was, day by day, to the fullest measure, 
taking advantage of the opportunities w<hich came and, as 
I shall show later, by doing this he not only came Into 
greater opportunity but was able to enlarge that opportunity 
itself. He saw the advantage of taking Paducah and he 
saw the advantage of taking forts Henry and Donelson. He 
could not get an order for this; all he could get was per- 
mission. In conjunction with Foote, Ft. Henry was taken 
and General Halleck sent Grant a consignment of spades 
that he mig^t strengthen the fortifications at Ft. Henry, 
but before the spades reached Grant he had captured Ft. 
Donelson. 

Then came Pitti^Uirg Landing. Grant's critics and 
enemies have always claimed that he came very near being 
defeated at Pittsburg Landing. Be that as it may. The 
difference between failure and success consists not in being 
nearly defeated. Here I want to emphasize another fact 
illustrated in Grant's career. Twice he was practically 
superseded, although upon one of the occasions nominally 
retained in command. Instead of sulking or resigning, he 
continued to do his duty. There are times when we must 
resent, when we must fight, but thei'e Is never a time when 
we can afford to sulk. The world has no use for the man 
that sulks. 

Following Pittsburg Landing the movement was in- 
augurated down the river and Vicksburg was invested. Here 
Grant illustrates another essential element of success. There 
is nothing heroic in absolutely fruitless effort, nor, on the 



DULUTH, 1IINNB80TA. 21 

Other hand, aihould we ever lose sight of the ultimate abject. 

Grant promptly abandoned one effort after another as 
he found them to 'be fruitless, but never tor a moment 
lost aiglht of the ultimate fact of the capture of Vicksburg. 
Passing down the river and taking Grand Gulf as his base, 
he started on that memorable campaign of which history 
presents but few parallels. Throwing his army, like an 
iron wedge between Johnston and Pemberton, he drove one 
westward and the other eastward. For once he felt he 
was 8d far from interference that he could not be over- 
taken, but after a series of brilliant engagements, includ- 
ing the battle of Champion Hill, he had reached the Big 
Black, where Halleck overtook him with an order to abandon 
the expedition, return to Grand Gulf, proceed up the Red 
River and cooperate with General Banks. 

In poetry there is what we call "poetic license" and in 
history there is a sort of historic license where the historian 
heightens the color and gives dramatic effect and, in the 
indulgence of historic license, it has been asserted that 
Grant tore up the order, with the remark: "If Halleck were 
here I do not think he would be giving any such orders." 
While it is safe to assume that Grant may have thought 
that, it is not at all likely that he treated the order with 
any such discourtesy. He simply disobeyed it, continued his 
operations and in. a little time Vickburg fell. Returning 
North he untangled the web which had been woven about 
our army at Chattanooga and then was called ESast. 

Now the greater opportunity came to Grant and in his 
preparation, — ^preparation that came not from anticipating 
this larger opportunity but from the faithful and earnest 
discharge of the duties which had come to him, he stood 
master of the situation. 

I have suggested that man may sometimes enlarge his 
opportunity. Grant's career illustrates this. His critics 
have always insisted that one reason why he succeeded 
when he had command of the army in the East was that 
he was free from that meddlesome interference on the part 
of the Government at Washington which had so hampered 
hi<s predecessors. This was undoubtedly true. None of 
them had that absolute authority, that freedom from inter- 
ference on the part of the officials at Washington which 
was accorded to Grant and it is, no doubt, true that this 
rendered his task far easier. But, it must be remembered 
that Grant, in the discharge of those duties which had 
come to him, had shown the country — had ahown the 
Administration, that it was wise to give him discretion, 
wise to invest authority in him. Thus did he enlarge and, 
in fact, make opportunity. To this extent — in man's ability 
to grasp an opportunity, in the preparation and in the 
disciharge of duty, does he become the architect of his own 
opportunity. 



(SImb of 1803. 

Name. Poetoffice. State. 

Bessie Emily (Bowman) Jones . Daluth Minn. 

Helen Bmlly Bowyer Minneapolis Minn. 

Amanda BUefson Duluth Minn. 

Agnes Rebecca Holt I>ulnth Minn. 

Bsther Levy Minneapolis Minn. 

WiUena Marshall Duluth Minn. 

Elizabeth Merritt Columbia University. .N. Y. 

aUau of 1004* 

Mary Sayles (Bartlett) Rumsey, Duluth Minn. 

Irene Buswell Winona Minn. 

Blancihe May Coulter Duluth Minn. 

Ella (Deetz) Palmer Duluth Minn. 

Catherine Farrell Duluth Minn. 

Leora Pearl (Penton) Smith. .Grand Rapids Minn. 

Ora Margaret Hathaway Deceased July. 1907 

Mary Alphade Herrell Grand Rapids Minn. 

Anna C. Johnson Doran Minn. 

Kathryn Lou Joyce Duluth Minn. 

Minda Juliana Knutson Duluth Minn 

Alma Kruschke Duluth Minn 

Dorothy Katherine Kuhns Bellingham Wash. 

Clara (Laughton) Kilpatrick. . Biwabik Minn. 

Fanny Beulah Lippitt Duluth Minn. 

Ella Vera Mason Duluth Minn. 

Florence McLean Duluth Minn. 

Jane Elizabeth Murray Duluth Minn. 

Jennie Marie Myers Virginia Minn. 

Carrie May Neff Duluth Minn. 

Frances Ida Maud Neff Duluth Minn. 

Mary Lucy O'Keefe Dulutih Minn. 

Emma Laurentia Olson Duluth Minn. 

Clara Mildred Somerville Virginia Minn. 

Florence May Swendby Duluth Minn. 

Grace Lavinia Thompson Virgfinia Minn. 

Hattie Yager Duluth Minn. 

(SbuM of lans. 

Emma C. Anderson Duluth Minn. 

Olive Russell Colfbrath Hibblng Minn. 

Alice Hix Conklin Duluth Minn. 

Ida Doran Hibbing Minn. 



DULUTH, MINNESOTA. 23 

Name. Postofflce. State. 

Bva Bell Dysslin Seattle Wash. 

Adelaide M. Eaton Hlbbing Minn. 

Nanna Binarson Duluth Minn. 

Mrs. Bessie Giddlngs Adolpb Minn. 

ESstDier Harris Superior Wis. 

Hilda J. Jorstad Duluth Minn. 

Minnie Perttula Bly Minn. 

Irene Emily Reau Duluth Minn. 

Gertrude M. Schiller Dulutih Minn. 

Gladys Shaw Dulutih Minn. 

MyrUe M. Stark Ely .Minn. 

Elva Blanche Stevenson Preston Minn. 

Bessie Ellen Sturges Maple Lake Minn. 

(SIbbb of laOB. 

Marian R. Berry CJoleralne Minn. 

Nina Burbank Miles City Mont. 

Jessie C. Campbell Duluth Minn. 

JuHa Carlson Duluth Minn. 

Olga Carlson Crystal Falls Mich. 

Rosabele M. Carlson Grand Rapids Minn. 

Laura Detert Red Lake Falls Minn. 

Mildred Frost Portland Ore. 

Anna T. Hanson Carlton Minn. 

Bstelle Hicken Duluth Minn, 

Hrttie M. Hoskins Buhl Minn. 

Kathryn A. Hoyer Ely Minn. 

Charlotte M. Hughes Culver Minn. 

Mary B. Kennedy Duluth Minn. 

Agnes E. Lavallee Duluth Minn. 

May E. Marshall Jacksonville Fla. 

Fanny Mendelson Duluth Minn. 

Marietta Murray Eveleth Minn. 

Mary L. Ober Duluth Minn. 

Elizabeth K. O'Keef e Portland Ore. 

Violet E. Robinson Cloquet Minn. 

Clara Rowe Elk Point S. D. 

Anna M. Streed Ely Minn. 

Cora D. Schaffer Duluth Minn. 

Margaret Shaw Duluth Minn. 

Stella Swaneon Thief River Falls. . . .Minn. 

Maude A. Talboys Chisholm Minn. 

Tannisse Tyler Havana Cuba. 

Ethal Wright Duluth Minn. 



24 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 

dilwu of 1807. 

Name Postoffice. State. 

Mary Blackmarr Duluth Minn. 

Margaret Braeutlgan Duluth ..Minn. 

Gertrude Brown Duluth Minn. 

May Brown Ely Minn. 

Flora Carpenter Mcintosh Minn. 

Flora ChiisAiolm Lakeview P. O Minn. 

Tessie Dolan Cloquet Minn. 

Nellie Flynn Duluth Minn. 

Amy M. Forbes Worthington Minn. 

Elsie Gandsey Hi'bbing Minn. 

Tlheresa B. Hinsmann Duluth Minn. 

Ella Holtorf MantorviUe Minn. 

Hazel Hopkins Proctor Minn. 

Genevieve Ives Duluth Minn. 

Irene Keehan Ashland Wis. 

Kathleen D'Arcy Kelly Duluth Minn 

Lillie Korthe Willmar Minn. 

Elsie Krey Katalla Alaska 

Ray L. Leland Duluth Minn. 

Elizabeth McDonald Lancaster Wis. 

Isabel McLean Duluth Minn. 

Marguerite Mitchell Hunters Park Minn. 

Jane Norval Duluth Minn. 

Sadie Pennington Pine City Minn. 

Laura G. Pepple Worthington Minn. 

Lillie V. Olssen Duluth Minn. 

Hazel M. Owens Lakeview P. O Minn. 

Anna C. Peterson Soudan Minn. 

Louana Phelpe Duluth Minn. 

Eliza Remfry Carlton Minn. 

Etta Robert Duluth Minn. 

Alice E. Sand Ashland Wis. 

Millie R. Shane Chicftiolm Minn. 

Helen M. Shaver Lakeview P. O Minn. 

Mamie Stochl Pine City Minn. 

Claire Sullivan Two Hax^rs Minn 

Ell Rose Taylor Duluth Minn. 

Sophie Thomas McKinley Minn. 

Bessie L. Turnbull Hunters Park Minn. 

Leonora J. Ulsrud Duluth Minn. 

C. A. Margaret Wolfe Ctoquet Minn. 

CMfomi of Hft Altntttm^ AEBoriatiotL 

Violet B. Robinson (1906) President 

Hazel M. Owens (1907) Secretary 

Lillie V. Olssen (1907) Treasurer 



QtnttB and lEx^rtimB of H^ JFiftl; Attmial 

(EntttttmttFmntt* 



Reception hj Mr. and Mrs. J. L. Washburn tor the cUm 
of 1007 and members of the Facnltj, Satnrdajr oTenlng, 
Jnne 1. 

Alnmnae Banquet, at Washburn Hall, Saturday erenhig, 
Jnne 8. 

Commencement Sunday, 

June 9, at three-thirty o'clocik. 

Fatherland Psalm Grieg 

ReeponslTe Scripture Reading The Ninety-third Psalm 

Response — Learn Te To Suffer Handel 

In Dreams I Heard The Seraphs Fair Faure 

Sermon — The Light That Transfigures 

Rev. Alexander Milne 

To Eartli May Winds Are Bringing Schumann 

Closhig Chapel Exercises and Claan Farce, Tuesday 
morning, June 11. 

Class Play. 

Scene from "The Rivals." 

June 10 and 11. 

Dramatis Personae. 

Sir Anthony Absolute Nellie Flynn 

Captain Jack Absolute, his son Mildred Sbane 

Sir Lucius O'Trigger Kathleen Kelly 

Fag, Jack's servant, in love with Lucy Ella Holtorf 

Miss Lydia Languish, an heiress EllRose Taylor 

Mrs. Malaprop, Lydia's aunt Flora Ghisholm 

Lucy, Lydia's maid, who accepts bribes. . . .Claire Sullivan 

Commencement Day, June 12, at ten o'clock. 

Rest Thee On This Mossy Pillow Smart 

Responsive Scripture Reading The First Psalm 

Response — Learn Ye To Suffer Handel 

Spring Song R. Kleeerling, Jr. 

Address — Opportunity Senator Moses E. Clapp 

Flower Songs Beach 

Presentation of Diplomas Hon. H. E. Hoard 

Join In Pleasure Jakobowski 



aiendar for 1907-1908. 



Summer i crm. 

Enrolment of Stadenta Tuesday, June 18,1907 

Class-work b^ns Wednesday, June 19, 19Q7 

Term ends Ftiday, Septembers, 1907 

Fall Tenn. 

Enrolment of Students Tuesday, September 24, 1907 

Class-work begins Wednesday, September 25, 1907 

Term ends Friday, December 20, 1907 

Winter Tenn. 

Enrolment of Students Tuesday, January 7, 1906 

Class-work begins Wednesday, January 8^ 1908 

Term ends Wednesday, March 25, 1908 

Spring Tenn« 

Enrolment of Students Tuesday, March 31, 1908 

Class-work begins Thursday, April 2, 1908 

Term ends Friday, June 12, 1908 



VOL. U NOVEMBER, 1907 NO. 3 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



State Normal School 



DULUTH, MINNESOTA. 



PobUahcd Qnarterlr by the State Noxmal School at Dnluth, and deroted to the 

interests of Elementary Education in Minnesota, 
Sabscription price, fifty cents a year. Single copies, fifteen cents. 



Bnteied as secend-dass matter. May 14. 1906. at the Post (MBee. Dnhith. Min- 
sota. under the act of Congress of July 16* 1904. 



4 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, 

Individual work because the groups must be larger which 
always means, in addition to other minor difficulties, more 
or less of a problem in the adjustment of the individual 
responsibility. 

The equipment s(Hnetimes creates problems; that of the 
group primarily where a department is not equipped with 
enough individual utensils. Here the ingenuity of the teacher 
has a wide field for display and it really becomes quite 
interesting to discover the new uses that old utensils can be 
put to, and the amount of substituting and improvising that 
can be done successfully. Where new, elaborate and expen- 
sive utensils are furnished to the exclusion of such utensils 
as the students have in their homes or can afford to procure 
for home use, we have also the problem of the home work. 
In fitting up a Domestic Science department the aim should 
be to have the equipment as good, durable, convenient, com- 
plete and beautiful as the money will admit, but we should 
keep in mind the fact that there are a great many simple 
utensils and devices that fill all these requirements where 
showy ones fail utterly. There is, where money is plentiful, 
great danger of making a domestic science equipment too 
luxurious for its purpose. This point really needs a great 
deal more consideration than it is at present receiving. 

Amount of Time for Work. Bvery lesson, to my mind, 
should be a practical one. That is, some cooking or cleaning 
should be done. Two hours are needed in order that there 
shall be time for review of last week's points; study of the 
food to be cooked in today's lesson; preparation and cooking 
of the food, serving the food, a discussion of the cost, digest- 
ibility, food value and food combinations of the article pre- 
pared, and then washing of the dishes and cleaning of the 
kitchen. If two hours cannot be used for this purpose, then 
something must be omitted or cut down, or a lesson on one 
topic be made to extend over two weeks, taking the theory, 
directions, discussion, etc., for one lesson, and the prepara- 
tion, cooking, etc., the practical part, for the next lesson. 
Where time Is insufficient for a complete domestic science 
lesson, and where dividing the lesson to make it extend over 
two meetings, does not prove satisfactory, as it very often 
does not, then make the lessons cooking lessons, leaving oat 
theory rather than practice, for in ninety-nine out of a 
hundred cases the need is for the actual doing of something; 
accomplishing some piece of work by using both hands and 
brains. Seeing the concrete result of one's own power to do, 
has as much inspiration in it, as much educational value as 
the successful reasoning out of some problem, and, in addi- 



DULUTH, MINNBSOTA. 5 

tion, througfa it 1b gained that sense of power, and ability 
and capability that is only possible where the knowledge is 
gained by the actual doing of things, not simply knowing 
themi 

Allowance for Supplies. There are several ways of meet- 
ing this problem of lack of funds for carrying out freely 
one's own ideas of the materials needed for domestic 
science. The group can always be made larger. This is 
the simplest way, even though It involyes other problems; 
and sometimes it is the best way, but not always. If it 
seems best to have large groups, some of the disadvantages 
can be overcome by dividing the work of each group in such a 
way as to have some of the group cook, some serve and wash 
dishes, and some observe carefully and write down, to be 
read later, any criticisms or suggestions about the work 
they may have observed. 

If this can be accomplished in the right spirit, a good 
deal of thoughtfulness is the result. Often a fine suggestion 
is made, for there Is always something new to learn about 
the practical carrying out of the complex and complicated 
art we designate as home-keeping. 

As soon as a pupil can be led to think definitely of ways 
and means, in the accomplishment of manual work of any 
kind, he will work intelligently; and intelligent work Is sure 
to be better work, as well as pleasanter and more Inter- 
esting work. 

Another way out of our difficulty is to always select the 
most Inexpensive form of the food principle we are studying; 
use eggs at the season when they are cheapest even if it 
does disturb the sequence of lessons a little. All the funda- 
mental principles of cooking can be learned by using com- 
paratively Inexpensive materials. It is far harder to plan 
for such a course, and naturally It is less varied than a more 
liberal one, but the interest, although partly of a different 
kind, may certainly be as great. 

If neither of these ways, the larger group, or the more 
inexpensive materials, is adequate, try selling the food 
cooked. Sometimes it can be sold to the students in the 
school for luncheon, or often the pupils themselves will buy 
and take home what they have cooked. There are undoubt- 
edly other and better ways, but no other have come under 
my observation. 

Now we come to the working out of the plan or course 
which, it seems to me, is responsible for more problems than 
all the other conditions put together. 



6 8TATB NOKMAL SCHOOL* 

Just what is the vital point in an outline or plan for 
domestic science work? Does not this hinge, really, upon the 
amount of theory or scientific work that is put into the 
course? Not all eighth grades, nor all high school classes 
are ready for the same training. We have an average to 
deal with, and an average type of interest, but we may not 
have pupils of the same previous training. We have very 
different home conditions. We have different types and 
classes of children. All of this detail must be considered 
carefully and determined upon by the individual teacher 
before she can work out successfully a given plan or course. 
It is necessary in public school work, but always more or less 
limiting, to suggest a detailed course in any kind of work 
where individual initiative is emphasized as it should be in 
the manual arts. But under the most varying conditions 
there are certain broad aspects upon which all of us must 
work, and I believe that a discussion of them therefore will 
be of the greater value to us. 

First of all, we must never lose sight of the fact that a 
domestic science course for the grades and High Schools 
is not a training course for teachers; but neither is it a 
"cooking school" pure and simple. The plan and scope of 
the work and the methods by which they are worked out 
should be such as will make people realize that the cook- 
ing taught is the art of scientific, practical cookery, not 
theoretical fancywork! Then, what we are aiming to do 
through domestic science will be more generally understood. 

Let us decide before going any farther Just what is 
meant by a practical art. To be practical it must be so 
taught as to be adapted to everyday uses and requirements. 
To be an art, it must be so taught or studied, that special 
effort and thought are required for its accomplishment, and 
wider scope offered for individual skill. To be scientific, the 
fundamental principles of cookery must always be the basis 
on which the practical work rests. 

"The doing of something presupposes some knowledge," 
says Sully. We put some potatoes into a pan of water to 
boil. We may never have cooked potatoes before, but we 
know that they will get done if we leave them on the fire 
long enough. Our knowledge is empirical. We once saw 
some potatoes being cooked that way; we were told to cook 
them so; or we know from experience, that other things 
may be cooked that way in boiling water. This is the cus- 
tomary, the natural way, of getting our unclassified, unscien- 
tific knowledge, and is, applied to domestic science in the 
schools, also the best way for the pupils to start Sdenee 



DULUTH, mNNBOTA. 7 

then steps In to supplement, Interpret or correct, this first 
experimental work, and to make it over into classified 
knowledge. For instance, to return to the potatoes, science 
can show us that they are better if put into boiling water; 
that they will not get done any sooner in furiously boiling 
water than if we keep the water boiling gently; why they get 
white and mealy; why their nutritive value is greater when 
they are cooked in the skin; why we can bake potatoes and 
cannot cook rice in that way. 

As the scientific knowledge naturally follows the 
empirical, so should it also follow, and be used to explain the 
facts arising from the practical or art side of domestic 
science. In public school work the art side should always 
lead. It should be the prominent, the important part, and 
science, apparently Incidental, should be used to make pro- 
cesses intelligent and reasonable, and to emphasize and 
clinch the facts gained; thus coming up, as it were, to meet 
the art side, but never leading. No matter what the age of 
the pupil, or the kind of manual art, it is the result, pri- 
marily, that appeals to him; so that interest in the process, 
skill in the manipulation and desire for knowledge of the 
materials must be created or awakened as necessary means 
to a desired end, before they will assume much interest for 
themselves. But with a concrete result as the end in view, 
the knowledge of the means can be as scientifically worked 
out as will fix it most permanently and practically in the 
mind of the pupil; for, to again emphasize our point of 
view, cooking is essentially a practical art 

Working out the reason for every process with the pupils 
during the development of the cooking lesson will give a 
firmer foundation of practical knowledge in cookery, than 
much abstract study or experiment along purely scientific 
lines. We "learn to 4o by doing," and if we learn why, at 
the same time that we learn how, we have not only gained 
knowledge, but we have knit together theory and practice 
in the only way, the psychologist tells us, by which we can 
truly remember and apply. 

In arranging a domestic science course for a grade or 
High School three important principles should be kept in 
mind: 

(1) That to make good, scientific cooks is not the whole 
object of putting domestic science into our public schools. 
When our teachers of domestic science keep this principle in 
mind, many of their problems will disappear. 

(2) That the broad, general educational value of 
domestic science is a most important factor, since it toucne* 



8 8TATB NORMAL 8CBOOL» 

upon, or correlates with, more subjects than any other of 
the manual arts. 

(3) That the type of Interest through which the pupils 
of this age can be appealed to, must be determined upon. 

The first and seccmd principles are applicable as they 
stand to any grade; the third, obviously, must be worked out 
to correspond to the age of the pupils. 

But let me again urge that the practical applications ot 
the science and art, mean more and teach more than the 
experiments, and are needed more in domestic science 
courses. I believe that some problems met with in domestic 
science work are due to the mistaken idea held by many 
of our teachers that they must apply to their pupils wno 
should receive only a student's training, the special training 
which they received in a teacher's course. This is as true 
of sewing aa of cooking. 

Let us then, through facts and relations with which our 
pupils are made familiar by practice, make generalisations 
and build up fundamental principles, using only so much 
scientific work as is necessary to show and explain, clearly 
and definitely, the truth of these principles. 

James Russell Lowell formulated many years ago the 
principle which we are trying to work out educationally to- 
day, that, 

"Practical application is the only mordant which will set 
things in the memofy. Study without it is gymnasltcs and 
not work, which alone will get intellectual bread.' 



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An Interesting fact revealed by a compariacm of this 
years' enrolment with that of former years is the steadily 
increasing gravitation of students toward the shorter 
courses, the one year course for High School graduates and 
the three year course for others. Beginning five years ago 
with almost none in these shorter courses and almost no 
sentiment on the part of entering students or others in their 
favor, we have come to a point where almost half the enter- 
ing High School students refuse to consider any other than 
the one year and others show a decided tendency to change 
from the five year courses to the three year Elementary 
course. This fall several of the strongest students on the 
five year courses have changed their courses in this way. 
But for the graduates coming to us from the Duluth High 
School and the fact that the Board of Education for the city 
will not employ graduates of the Elementary courses, I am 
convinced that seventy-five per cent of all High School grad- 
uates would elect the one year course. These observations, 
together with others of like character in the other four 
schools, supply conclusive evidence of a sentiment which 
favors a low standard of preparation and regards the diploma 
rather than the work as the object, and is willing to be satis- 
fied with the least effort incident to the attainment of a 
diploma. Fully seventy-five per cent of the graduates from 
the five schools within the past year are holders of the 
Elementary diploma, most of these holders of the diploma for 
the Elementary Graduate course. 

Thus it happens that most of our graduates are students 
who remain in the school less than nine months. It must 
follow that the schools can scarcely hope to escape a very 
damaging reaction in respect not only to public opinion but in 
respect also to the opinion which the schools must have of 
their own merits. We cannot, as conditions now are, continue 
to offer the short courses and reward those who finish them 
with diplomas having practically the same value as diplomas 



10 8TATB NORMAL SCHOOL* 

given on other courses without doing serious and lasting 
harm. A teacher whose standard of preparation is low, who 
will voluntarily follow the shortest cut to obtain legal ex- 
emption from the necessity of proving her fitness for a 
position, may be, as is often urged, better than others now 
teaching, but she is not good enough to merit the approval 
implied in the case of those holding a diploma which is 
virtually a State certificate of the first grade for life. The 
best arguments that can be urged in behalf of the present 
arrangement are those of expediency, policy and temporary 
advantage, and these cannot begin to compensate for the loss 
involved in the fact that more than half the diplomas now 
being granted are placed in the hands of students who spend 
only nine months in earning them. 

I believe there is a place for the short course in the 
Normal Schools and that we should have two such courses; 
one for those who now take the three years course and one 
for those who now take the one year course, but I would not 
reward those who complete them with a diploma. At most 
they should receive a certificate showing the amount and 
character of work done and entitling them to a State cer 
tificate of the first grade good for not more than two years. 
Such recognition would be ample reward in return for the 
time spent in preparation and would enable the student who 
might need to do so, to earn sufficient money to enable her 
to complete the longer course leading to the diploma. It 
would also aid very materially in placing more trained teach- 
ers in the rural schools, the very thing which we now hear it 
said we are not doing and at the same time hear it said that 
we would be severely criticized for not doing if we should 
discontinue the granting of the Elementary diploma. 

The harm being done in connection with the Elementary 
courses is not due so much to the fact that they are short, 
but rather to the fact that those who complete them receive 
too much recognition. We cannot afford to attach a reward 
to low standards and to advertise to those who are looking 
for the lowest standard of requirements between them and 
legal qualification for positions, that we have what they want, 
that, in fact, we discriminate in favor of those who choose 
the low standards. We ought either to abolish the Ele- 
mentary courses or to discontinue the practice of rewarding 
those who complete them with diplomas. As I have already 
said, more than seventy-five per cent of our graduates are 
now from the Elementary courses and so long as less than 
half of them are from the Advanced courses our standards 
are essentially those of the Elementary courses. Any stand- 



DULUTH, lONNISOTA. 11 

ard or any course of study which demands so little In the 
way of scholarship and the careful training involved in the 
attainment thereof is fundamentally wrong. The gravest 
charge that has heen made against the teaching profession, or 
that can now be made, is that the members too often lack 
that knowledge and culture which must be had if the calling 
is to be regarded as a profession. Most people who now take 
up the work of teaching regard it as a makeshift or a tem- 
porary affair. With women, as most of our teachers are, the 
expectation in most instances is that it will be abandoned 
within a few years and it goes without saying that they will 
not spend more time in preparing for it than we say is 
legally necessary to qualify for the positions they desire to 
obtain. 



Sfno Mewbtn tt teft JFantl^ 



Mi88 Ethel Mae Long of Overbrook, Kansas, Is a valoable 
addition to the English department. Miss Long is a grad- 
uate of the Cumnock School of Oratory at Northwestern 
University. Since her graduation she has done post-grad- 
uate work in the same school, and has taught In Cornell 
College, Iowa. In our Normal School she will teach Reading 
and Literary Interpretation, and will have charge of class 
plays. For a long time our English department has been 
too large for one teacher to manage. During the past two 
years certain classes in English have been taught by teach- 
ers of other departments. Hereafter Miss Long will have 
charge of that part of the English work which is concerned 
chiefly with oral expression. She is herself a most accom- 
plished reader. In addition to the work already mentioned, 
she will give instruction In Physical Culture. 

Miss Ida Esther Van Stone is the new Supervisor of 
Music. She has graduated from Missouri Valley College, 
from the Normal Training School of Music in Detroit, and 
from the New School of Methods in Chicago. She has 
taught music for several years in the public so(>>ols of Lead- 
ville, Colorado, and of Baraboo, Wisconsin. 

The Supervisor of Drawing and Manual Training is Miss 
Elizabeth Robertson of Chicago. Miss Robertson graduated 
from the University of Chicago in 1905, and from the School 
of Education in 1906. She taught last year in the Chicago 
Latin School. 

Miss Florence Pettengill takes Miss Eaton's place as 
teacher of Domestic Science and preceptress at Washburn 
Hall. She comes to us from the Normal School at Superior, 
where she taught last year. 

Miss Ruth Ely is the librarian. She is a sister of Miss 
Florence Ely, and has been for several years in charge of 
the Juvenile department of the public library. 

Mrs. Evelyn Richards Lyons is in charge of the Pri- 
mary Department. She comes from the Normal School at 
River Falls, Wisconsin, where she taught last year. 

Miss Cecil Palmer is critic teacher in the Third and 
Fourth Grades. She is a graduate of Chicago University. 



DULUTH, MINNBSOTA. 13 

She has taught in the Model School of the Training Depart- 
ment at Oshkosh, Wisconsin, and in the Shortridge High 
School in Indianapolis. 

Miss Alice E. Doell is in the Fifth and Sixth Grades. 
Miss Doell is a graduate of the Winona Normal School. She 
has taught several years with great success in the puhlic 
schools of Duluth. She was last employed in the Lincoln 
School. 



<9Ul SbmbttB of ttft VantUff. 



All the men of the faculty taught during the summer 
session. After the close of the tenn each departed for a- 
brief vacation. President Bohannon went to Mr. Washburn's 
summer home at Wright, Minn. 

Dr. Kline visited the Jamestown Exposition and his old 
home in Virginia. 

Mr. Hubbard went to California. 

Mr. Strong went to Pennsylvania and Indiana. 

Mr. Blair went down the Mississippi River. 

Miss Shoesmith spent a delightful summer abroad. 

Miss Quilliard spent most of the summer in New York 
City. Part of the time she studied in the Teachers' College 
of Columbia University. 

Bfiss Home was at her home in Ohio. 

Miss Post was at a boys' summer camp on the Manitowish 
Waters, south of Ashland, Wisconsin. 

Miss Murray visited in Madison, Wisconsin. 

Miss Carey spent several weeks at the Muskoka Lakes 
in Ontario, Canada. The remainder of the summer she was 
in Cleveland, Ohio. 



(Sotiivnting Jlontifr Mnobtn vt tlf^ jrandtg. 



Miss Eaton is very pleasantly located as head of the 
Domestic Science Training Department of Mills College, Oak- 
land, Cal. Among the students in this college are daughters 
of clergymen, diplomats, and American and English business 
men of the Sandwich Islands, Japan, and even China. The 
Domestic Science Department is housed in two cottages, one 



14 8TATB NOKIIAL SCHOOL, 

of which has been fitted up by the department as a model 
cottage, and Is occupied by Miss Eaton herself. 

Miss Balnbridge is Dean of Household Science, and 
Assistant Professor of Household Science in Macdonald Col- 
lege, Quebec. 

Mrs. Quy W. C. Ross (nee Mason) has returned from a 
delightful wedding tour through England, Scotland, France, 
Germany and The Netherlands. She is at present keeping 
house in the rose-colored cottage on Fifth street, Just west of 
the Normal. 

Miss Hesrwood is not teaching this year, but is staying 
at her home in Topeka, Kansas. 

Mrs. Sinclair is living in Chicaga 

Mrs. Edwin Hawley (nee Ely) after an eztensiye wed- 
ding trip through Yellowstone Park, Utah, and Colorado, and 
later to Washington, D. C, New York and Boston, is now at 
home at 5407 Woodlawn Ave., Chicago. 

Mrs. Warren Greene (nee Ehisign) spent her honeymoon 
on an Island In Lake Superior. She and her husband were 
the only inhabitants of this isle of the blessed, yet seem to 
have had a fairly good time. They are now building a house 
on Jefferson street. It will be finished about the holidays, 
when Mrs. Greene will begin to exercise the knowledge of 
housekeeping she acquired last year in our Domestic Science 
Department 



DULUTH, MINNESOTA. 15 

6tt(r Alitttttinr. 

(Rff <El«n iif 1907. 

The following members of the class of 1907 are teaching 
In miluth: Misses Roberts, Mitchell, Oertrade Brown, 
Leland, Flynn, Tumbull, McLean, Olssen, Owens, Phelps, 
Shaver, Hinsman, Mendelson, Kelly. 

Miss Keehan is at Thomson; Misses Dolan, Talboys and 
Sullivan at Proctor; Miss Chisholm at Brickton; Miss Stoehl, 
Mountain Iron; Miss Pennington, Basin, Montana; Miss 
Shayne, Chisholm; Miss May Brown, Aurora; Miss Thomas, 
Tower; Miss Carpenter, Virginia; Misses Pepple, Holtorf 
and tJlsrud, Sandstone; Miss Nerval, Rush City; Miss Remfiry, 
Carlton; Miss Peterson, Soudan; Miss Shannon, Ely; Miss 
McDonald, Coleraine; Miss Korthe, Wilmar; Miss Sand, Ash- 
land; Miss Wolfe is at Tampa, Idaho; Miss Braentigan, in 
Colorado; Miss Blackmarr is not teaching; Miss Forbes is 
teaching near her home in Woodstock. Miss Taylor is study- 
ing Domestic Science in Simmons College, Boston; MiBs Krey 
has returned from Alaska and expects to teach this winter; 
Miss Gandsey is at Eveleth; Miss Annie Anderson at Sparta. 

Miss Ora Hathaway, *04, died in July at St. Paul. 

Miss Lucy O'Keefe, '04, has joined the order of Bene- 
dictine nuns, and is known as Sister Mary Ambrose. 

Miss Elizabeth Merritt, *03, expects to graduate this year 
from Teachers' College of Columbia University. 

Miss Helen Bowyer, '04, after teaching two years, took 
up social settlement work in Minneapolis. She is now in the 
University of Wisconsin studying Sociology in preparation for 
her future work. 

Miss Mary Ober, '06, is studying in the University of 
Minnesota. 

Miss Tannisse Hyler spent last year with her brother in 
Cuba. After a severe attack of typhoid fever she returned to 
Duluth this summer for a short visit She is now with her 
brother in Washington, D. C. 



August 14, Miss Bessie Bowman, '03, to Mr. Lorin Hamlin 
Jones. At home in Duluth. 

June 18, Miss Mary Bartlett, '04, to Mr. Spencer Smith 
Rumsey. At home in Duluth. 

Miss Leora Fenton, '04, to Mr. Philip Smith. At home in 
Grand Rapids, Minn. 

Miss Elenore Deetz, '04, to Mr. Palmer. 

Miss Clara Rowe, '06, to Mr. Leif Swennumsen. At home 
in Rugby, N. D. 



^Ifosi tSttotL 



MlBB Olga Krey has retumed from Alaska, and will con* 
tinue her course at the Normal School. 

Mr. Hubhard has been very 111 and out of school for many 
weeks, and Is still unable to return. 

Miss Fannie Magner Is attending Miss Wheelock's Kin- 
dergarten School In Boston. 

Miss Ethel Swartwout Is attending the Normal School at 
Tpsllantl, Mich. 

Miss Gertrude Knapp Is teaching In Chlsholm. 

Miss Quayle's address Is Touner, N. D. 

The third floor of Washburn Hall has been finished and 
furnished. The hall will now accommodate fifty girls. Forty- 
eight are at present living there. 

Saturday evening, October 19, the faculty gave a very 
Informal party at Washburn Hall for all the students. After 
the customary reception by the faculty — a reception which on 
this occasion became little more than a good old-fashioned 
handshaking — ^there was a short program, followed by games 
and refreshments. Miss Van Stone sang several songs; Miss 
Long read; and Miss Elizabeth Maddox, of Washburn Hall, 
played the violin. 

The evening of October 11, the young* people of the 
Endlon Methodist church gave a reception for the Normal 
students and teachers. A large number attended and had a 
delightful time. 

Mrs. Kline will have charge of Mr. Hubbard's classes in 
Physics and Chemistry until he is able to return. 

On account of the illness and death of her sister Miss 
Doell has been absent from school for several weeks. Miss 
Elsie Krey is substituting during her absence. 

Mr. Washburn visited chapel exercises recently to bid 
the faculty and students farewell until next spring. He goes 
very soon, on account of his health, to spend the winter in 
the Southland. 

Miss Irene Anderson, after the death of her mother, 
withdrew from school to keep house for her father. 

The car line on Twenty-fourth avenue between Fonrth 



DULUTH, MINNBSOTA. 17 

street and Superior street has been completed. This proves 
a great convenience for students from Lakeside. 

The ground behind the school building and behind Wash- 
bum Hall has been carefully graded and made Into terraces. 
In front of the building the terraces have been extended on 
the west side to the edge of the ravine. 

Fire escapes have been erected at both ends of the 
building. 

The Seniors entertained the Faculty on the evening of 
October 26. Several days beforehand each member of the 
Faculty received a little roll of birch bark which looked very 
much like a tiny diploma, tied with red ribbon. Within was 
Inscribed a request that each guest wear "something old or 
quaint or queer." In consequence, many colonial dames 
attended the party. Six of the Seniors presented an Interest- 
ing farce called "Six Cups of Chocolate," so that, with singing 
and dancing, the evening proved a merry one. 

Our school this year boasts of one boy, a Freshman. 
Visitors who address us at chapel Invariably begin their 
remarks with: "Ladles and — ah — oh, yes — ^ladles and gentle- 
man." 

The Glee Club has been reorganized under the director- 
ship of Miss Van Stone. There are twenty-four members. 
Miss Grace Maggard Is president, and Miss Elizabeth Maddox, 
vice-president. The club made Its first apearance before the 
Range Teachers' Association which met In Duluth In Novem- 
ber. 

On Friday afternoon, November 8, Miss Shoesmlth gave 
a party In the drawing room for the class of 1910, for which 
she has been Counselor for the past three years. It was a 
limerick party, for the Invitations were In the form of 
Umerlcks, the place cards at table bore limericks, and each 
guest brought to the party one of her own composition. 
Prizes were awarded, and each of the competitors won at 
least one prize. So much we know of the party, but as mem- 
bers of other classes were not allowed to profane the drawing 
room with their presence, nobody knows exactly what hap- 
pened Inside the sanctum. The laughter which echoed down 
the hall all afternoon leads us to Infer that the Muse was a 
frisky entertainer. 

Mr. Washburn, our Resident Director, has recently In- 
creased his munificence by purchasing for the school all the 
land between the ravine and Colorado avenue (the street laid 
out east of the dormitory) to within one short block of the 
Boulevard. Garden street, which formerly ran behind our 



18 gTATB NORMAL 8C&00U 

grounds, will now be closed and included in the grounds. We 
shall have plenty of room now for the erection of new build- 
ings when they are needed. We feel, as General Torrance 
remarked in chapel one morning, that no school in the state 
has ever had or ever will have so staunch a friend as ours 
has in Mr. Washburn. 

The Summer Session was in a high degree satisfactory. 
This was not the usual Summer School but a session of reg- 
ular work, provided for by recent action of the Legislature. 
Such a session is, of course, intended especially for the 
needs of teachers who wish to continue studying, but are 
obliged to teach during the greater part of the year. In the 
Summer School heretofore the work has consisted largely of 
reviews of the common branches, but of the one hundred and 
twenty-eight students enrolled this summer, a large propor- 
tion took the regular credit courses. The Faculty consisted 
of President Bohannon, Dr. Kline, Mr. Strong, Mr. Hubbard, 
Mr. Blair, Supt. B. A. Freeman of Grand Rapids, Mrs. C. S. 
Mitchell, of Duluth, Miss Eleonore Thomson, Mrs. Lyons, Miss 
Pettengill, and Mrs. Bhnogene Lectra. Supt. Freeman taught 
Mathematics in a very acceptable manner; Mrs. Mitchell 
proved an enthusiastic instructor in Music and Phjrsical 
Culture; Miss Pettengill taught Physiology; Mrs. Lyons had 
charge of the Model School; Miss Thomson taught English 
for the first six weeks, and Mrs. Lectra taught the re- 
mainder of the term. On account of the delightfully cool 
weather in Duluth during the summer months, both faculty 
and students found the Summer Session as well adapted for 
work as any other term. 

November 4 the Board of Normal School Directors and 
the presidents of the five schools met In Duluth. The chief 
subject under discussion at this meeting was the proposed 
change in the courses of study, but no decision was made. 
In regard to the granting of diplomas, it seems to be the 
opinion of the Board that those students who complete the 
Elementary Graduate CSourse are not entitled to the same 
credentials as those who complete the Advanced Graduate 
Course. The latter receive a diploma which is a life certifi- 
cate, while the former receive one which by indorsement 
becomes equivalent to a life certificate. A suggestion has 
been made that Elementary Graduates receive, instead of a 
diploma, a certificate to be valid as a state certificate of the 
first grade for a limited number of years only. 

As all our former students know, it has long been our 
ambition to have a gymnasium. While our ambition is not yet 
realized, we feel encouraged in our hope, because this year 



DULDTB, immisoTA. 19 

we are having regular InBtmction In Physical Culture three 
mornings each week. The work Is done in the Assembly 
room under the direction of Miss Long. 

Some of our graduates will be interested to know of the 
regulations recently made by the School Boards of St. Paul 
and Minneapolis in regard to Normal graduates who desire 
to teach in these cities. 

Minneapolis will hereafter without examination consider 
the application of any teacher who has completed an Ad- 
vanced CoursCp and who has taught with success for one year 
In a school of not less than fifteen teachers under competent 
supervision. 

In St Paul anyone who has completed an Advanced 
Course, and who has had three years of successful 
experience, is eligible to appointment without examination. 
Any Advanced Graduate with any experience is eligible to 
appointment upon taking an examination. 

That the demand for grade teachers is much greater 
than the supply is proved by the fact that the President is 
constantly receiving from School Boards requests for teachers, 
and he is unable to meet the demand because all of our 
graduates are already teaching. 

The Northeastern Minnesota Teachers' Association met 
in I>uluth on November 16 and 16. The general subject of 
discussion was Industrial Education. Several members of our 
faculty were on the program. President Bohannon gave an 
Interesting address on "Preparation of Teachers for Indus- 
trial Education;" Miss Pettengill read a paper on "Problems 
Met in Adapting Domestic Science to Public School Work." 
Mr. Blair in a sectional meeting discussed "The Use of the 
Map in Geography Teaching." Miss Long read sevenil 
selections. 

President Bohannon was elected president of the Asso* 
tiation for the coming year. 

During their visit to Duluth the Board of Directors visited 
chapel exercises. Several of their number, General BU Tor- 
rance, Pres. C. H. Cooper of Mankato, Judge H. L. Buck, the 
Resident Director of Winona, and State Superintendent Olsen 
gave very entertaining and instructive talks. 

Miss Long's delightful readings have already won for her 
many ardent admirers. Her interpretation is always artistic 
and appreciative, and her manenr unaffected. On the even- 



20 STATE NOKMAL SCHOOL, 

iBg of November 8, she gave the following program in the 
First Baptist church: 

A Story by Mary Stewart Cutting 

The Absent Guest Roy Rolfe Gilson 

The Chariot Race from "Ben Hur" Lew Wallace 

Plantation Eksho Thomas Nelson Page 

Sally Anne's Experience Eliza Calvert Hall 

Miss Long's services have also been in request out of the 
city. A few weeks ago she gave a reading before the Teach- 
ers' Institute which met at Willow River, and at a similar 
meeting she read at Brainerd. 

The Seniors in Literary Interpretation are studying "Ham- 
let" with a view to presenting it before the school some even- 
ing before the close of the term. The parts have already 
been assigned. All Alunmae in the city are cordially Invited 
to be present. 

Among the new activities at the Normal School is the 
Craft Club, which has been organized among the members of 
the classes in drawing and design. As there is no manual 
training offered this term and as Christmas is rapidly 
approaching the desire for some sort of class in which design 
might be practically applied was felt by all In the drawing 
classes. Knowing this desire Miss Robertson organized the 
Craft Club for those who wished to apply their designs to 
some material. The membership in this club is distinctly 
voluntary, as there is no class credit given. There are no 
dues in this organization and the only qualification for mem- 
bership is the desire to put to some practical use the designs 
made in the drawing class. At the first meeting it was de- 
cided that the membership be limited to fifteen people from 
the Junior Graduate classes in drawing. However, several 
members of the Elementary Graduate class also desired 
admittance as well as a few members of the faculty and the 
idea of a limited membership was abandoned. 

At present the Craft Club members have been stenciling 
their designs upon linen, unbleached cotton, silk, crash, and 
monkscloth for table throws, curtains, scarfs, bags and pil- 
lows. Some very good effects have been obtained by the use 
of oil paint as a medium. After the designs have been sten- 
ciled upon the fabric the pattern is outlined with a heavy 
thread of harmonious color. Besides the stenciling of fabrics, 
the members of the club are applying their designs to leather. 
Calf skin is the material they have been using and they tool 
or cut the patterns. Various sorts of belts, purses, card cases 



DULUTH, MINNESOTA. 21 

and bags have been made from the leather. 

If the present enthusiasm continues throughout the win- 
ter, other materials wUl be used as a basis for the application 
of original design. Work will be done in wood for block 
printing, sheet metal for trays and candle shades, clay for 
pottery and reeds and raffia for basketry. 

The purpose of the Craft Club is the practical applica- 
tion of design. But the result of the club will be more than 
a collection of pillows, bags and what not, because the mem- 
bers will see beauty in simple things, develop good fellow- 
ship with their classmates and experience the pure joy which 
comes from the making of something worth while. 



Sr«ptt^. 



Dull leaden skieB and rastUng leaves their tale 
Of earth's arrested life, doth yearly bring; 

We strain the eye to watch the last bird's fUi^t, 
Or catch the last gleam of his sllyery wing. 



The pomp that erst has decked the forest 
Crimson and gold from Nature's lavish hand^ 

Falling like rain beneath the Storm King's blast, 
Ldes like a shroud upon the naked land. 

Qone are the harvest days of lusty cheer. 
The Indian summer, with its haunting dream 

Of days when man and beast were brothers twain. 
And Pan came piping over hill and stream. 

Dead are the blossoms gay, beside the brook; 

— Oh heart! is't Death that robs the woods of life? 
Must we each year the lesson learn, so dire, 

Of grim mortality, tfce end of strife? 

A broken twig within my hand, revealed 
A perfect bud benesth protecting bark. 

Awaiting perfect bloom, when in the sky 
Of coming days, its God shall set His mariL 

Then fear not. Heart, thy life's dull wintry days; 

Old Earth her time for rest must yearly take; 
So thou, if full fruition thou woulds't see, 

Must respite have, e'en for fruition's sake. 

So bend thy will, and let the blast fall fast; 

'Tis but to strengthen thee for Joy divine. 
Hold fast thy faith, and rest in perfect peace. 

And lift thine eyes to Heaven for Qod, his sign. 

K.D. P. 



(Rrr QUawrB. 



The Seniors this year number forty. If we were to quote 
the opinion expressed by one of them, we shoald say they are 
a "truly wonderful class, graceful in bearing, and exemplary 
in behavior." There is foundation in fact for this statement 
Moreover, they have an air of knowing much. They spend 
hours studying "sources" and "government reports." They 
can tell you the aims of teaching history, or the number of 
German emigrants in St. Louis, or discuss "Interest as an end 
and as a means." They are greatly interested in the indus- 
trial arts of cooking and manual training, but they are so 
well balanced mentally that they may be heard to recite 
"Hamlet" while stirring up a custard. They find it some- 
what difficult, however, to comprehend just what President 
Bohannon means by "attitude," but hope to set an example 
to the under-classmen in that respect as soon as they are 
able to understand the meaning of the word themselves. 

The Junior ciass is composed of forty-five bright good* 
natured girls. They are good students. Many of the best 
singers in the Glee Club belong to this class. But they boast 
of nothing so much as their parties, which, they say, are the 
most successful ever given here at school. 

Third Year Class. Nineteen girls have run the gauntlet 
of Composition and History, Geometry and Caesar, and remain 
to uphold the standards of the class of 1910. They take great 
satisfaction in their numbers, for the third year class is 
usually very small, since many students drop out in the first 
and second years of the course and the reinforcements from 
High School do not come in until the fourth and fifth years. 

These nineteen glrsl are devoting themselves almost 
exclusively to laboratory work this year, and such is their 
devotion to Physics that they do research work along the 
line of climbing steep hills on Friday afternoons and calculat- 
ing the amount of energy expended. Occasional hours of rec- 
reation spent in light reading, such as Cicero's orations and 
Longman's Grammar, give them the needed respite from work. 
Some few members of the class are considering the advis- 
ability of Joining the spelling and penmanship classes in order 



24 8TATB NOUiAL SCHOOL, 

to break the monotony of the regular school work. Such Is 
the spirit of the Class of 1910. 

Boom a laka! Boom a laka! 

T! T! T! 
Hobble gobble! Raszle dazzle! 

Hoky, poky, bah! 
Normal Third Years! 

Rah! Rah! Rah! 

Fourth Year Class. The brief chronicles of the class of 
1911 bear a fleeting resemblance to the song of "The Ten 
Little Indians/* though unlike the song, there are still a 
doughty "baker's dozen" to show that quality, not quantity, 
ensures the suryival of the fittest class. And who will say 
that he is less a hero who has passed through the fiery fur- 
nace of recitation p test and examination than he who returned 
from Balaklava to win a victor's wreath? So the little band 
of earnest, faithful workers, "all that was left" from doable 
the number, stronger in S3rmpathy perhaps, because each can 
say "hie et quorum pars magna fui," is forging slowly but 
surely ahead and as dresses go down and hair goes up, we 
see other evidences of aims crystallized and responsibilities 
assumed, in general demanor and cooperatlcm with the spirit 
of the school. Here's to the class of 1911 as she lives out her 
motto "Semper Fideles." 

» 

Fifth Year Class. The class of 1912 is not mighty In 
numbers, but they show considerable promise. We hope to 
be able "to raise" them all, as only a few are mentally puny. 
They are alert and ambitions, having already selected their 
class colors and drawn up a constitution ten pages long. 



VOL II FEBRUARY, 1908 NO. 4 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



State Normal School 



DULUTH. MINNESOTA 



Published Quarterly hj the State Normal School at Daluth. and deroted to the 

interests of Elementazy Education in Minnesota. 
Subscription price, fifty cents a year. Single copies, fifteen cents. 



Entered as aeeond-class matter. May 14, 1906, at the Post Office, Dnluth, Minne- 
sota, under the act of Congress of Jnly 16, 19M. 



Calendar for 1 908 



Wmlcr Tcnn 

Enrolment of Students Tuesday, January 8, 1908 

Class-work begins Wednesday, January 9, 1908 

Term closes Friday, March 27, 1908 

SpiingTerm 

Enrolment of Students Tuesday, March 31, 1908 

Class-work begins Wednesday, April 1, 1908 

Term closes Thursday, June 11, 1908 

Summer Term 

EInrolment of Students Tuesday, June 16, 1908 

Class- work begins Wednesday, June 17, 1908 

First six weeks close Friday, July 24, 1908 

Second six weeks close Thursday, September 3, 1908 

Fall Tenn 

EInrolment of Students Tuesday, September 8, 1908 

Class- work begins ^ Wednesday, September 9, 1908 

Term closes Wednesday, November 26, 1908 



Faculty 



EUGENE W. BOHANNON. A. M.. President. 

School Economy, Social Science. 
UNUS W. KLINE. Ph. D., 

Psychology and Pedagogy, Supervisor of the Train- 
ing School. 

HARRY C. STRONG, A. B., 

History and Civics. 
JESSE W. HUBBARD. A. M., 

Physics, Chemistry and Geography. 
HERBERT BLAIR, B. S., 

Biology and Geography. 
ANNA N. CAREY, A. B., 

English Literature, English Grammar and Composi- 
tion. 
KATHERINE D. POST, B. L.. 

Latin. 
BEULAH I. SHOESMITH. B. S., 

Arithmetic, Algebra and Geometry. 
ETHEL MAE LONG, 

Reading and Expression. 
IDA E. VAN STONE, 

Music. 
FLORENCE D. PETTENGILL, 

Domestic Science and Preceptress of Washburn Hall. 
ELIZABETH WELLES ROBERTSON. 

Drawing and Manual Training. 
OLIVE B. HORNE, 

Seventh and Eighth Years, Training School. 
MARY A. DOELL, 

Fifth and Sixth Years, Training School. 
CECIL M. BALMER, 

Third and Fourth Years, Training School. 
EVELYN R. LYONS, 

First and Second Years, Training School. 
MARGARET J. QUILLIARD, 

Kindergarten. 
RUTH ELY, 

Librarian. 

CLARA M. MURRAY, 

Secretary to the President and Text-book Librarian. 

Assisting In the Summer Term of 1907. 

E. A. FREEMAN. 

Mathematics. 

ELEANOR M. THOMSON, 
English. 

RIZPAH de L. MITCHELL. 
Music. 



The Problems of Industrial Education in the 

ELlementary School 



£• W. Bohannon 



If there Is a real need for industrial work In our public 
schools, that need is greatest in the elementary schools. It 
is greatest there for the reason that only a small percentage 
of all school children ever go beyond the elementary school, 
and therefore can never hope to receive such instruction un- 
less it is to be offered in the elementary school. 

Again, this need is greatest in relation to the elementary 
school because the children who never enter the high school 
are the ones who have the most urgent and immediate need 
for such training. They will put in most of their time in 
later life doUig the work of the laborer and the laborerni 
wife. They are the ones who will become "hewers of wood 
and drawers of water." It follows, therefore, that the great- 
est demand for teachers who can intelligently direct such 
work should come, even if it does not, from the elementary 
school. I understand this to be the need your committee had 
in mind and the demand it hopes to see developed and prop- 
erly met. It is a need that should arouse a very general in- 
terest and a demand that should be developed far beyond its 
present limits, and wisely met. 

We have often heard it said, and with some justice, that 
our schools are not sufficiently practical. I do not know all 
that is implied in the criticism, but I understand an impor- 
tant part of this meaning to be that the children who need 
most to learn, in the shortest possible time, the things they 
need most to know in relation to the necessity, soon to con- 
front them, of earning a living, do not have the opportunity 
to accomplish any considerable part of this very desirable 
object in the public Elementary school. Most of the indus- 
trial work now offered in public schools is offered in the 
secondary schools and higher institutions of learning. The 
value of the industrial work from an educational point of 
view, and perhaps from every other point of view is just as 
great in the case of children who may not need to avail them- 



^ STATE NORMAL SCHOOL. 

selves of its advantages in earning a livelihood. This need, 
however, appears to be greatest in the case of the children 
who must go from the school room into some of the lower 
grades of indsutrial work with only a limited amount of prep- 
aration therefor. 

While it is true, as above stated, that most of the existing 
provisions for industrial work are in the schools of the 
secondary grade, it is true that not anything like adequate 
provision has been made for the work there. It is gratifying 
to be able to note that there is an increasing tendency to 
supply the opportunities for work of this kind in all high 
school systems. In view of the fact that only a very limited 
number of young people who enter the high school ever go to 
the college or university, it is highly desirable that the work 
offered in the secondary schools should be, as largely as pos- 
sible, preparatory for the life work of these students. That 
being the case, a corresponding statement can be made with 
greater force relative to the elementary school. The per- 
centage of children who pass from the elementary school to 
any higher grade of work is very smalL The only opportunity 
the school has to share in the work of preparing almost all of 
the children who enter it for the lives they are to lead is the 
one supplied by the elementary school. If it is at all worth 
while to do industrial work in the public schools, then it is 
most worth while to do it, in so far as that may be possible, in 
the elementary school. 

One sometimes hears it said that the best work now 
being done in the way of preparing young people to meet the 
problems of later life is done in the schools for the Indians, 
the Negroes and for the mentally, morally and physically 
defective and delinquent children. It would not be too much 
to say, I think, that if the character of work now offered in 
some of the schools for truants and the morally defective and 
delinquent children were offered in the public schools instead 
of, or by way of supplementing, the work already being done in 
the ordinary public school, there would be less need for truant 
schools. There is some Justification for saying that the pres- 
ent problem as to industrial education is, "How can we pro- 
vide for the normal white child in the elementary grades of 
our public schools the opportunities now enjoyed by those of 
the more primitive races and the defective and delinquent 
child?" 

One of tbe greatest difficulties in the way of organizing 
the work of our public school system in such a way as to meet 
the needs of the greatest number of children in any given 



DULUTH, MINNESOTA 7 

Stage is due to the fact that the courses of study generally 
offered are based upon the assumption that the work called 
for in each stage is not only anticipatory of, but preparatory 
for, the next, so that the ultimate object, as well as the con- 
trolling motive, in determining the curriculum is that the 
child may be prepared to take the last step; that he may, in 
other words, enter the university. The courses of study are 
dominated by that idea and the demand from the university, 
which is generally omnipotent in such matters, is that its 
standard shall be met largely, if not wholly, by adjustment on 
the part of the secondary school. To meet these demands, 
the high school must make demands upon the grades, and so 
it happens that the elementary school begins to shape its 
course in such a way as to play into the hands of the sec* 
ondary schools in order that ihe latter may the more efFect- 
ively bridge the chasm between the grades and the college or 
university. 

The courses of these successive stages are dovetailed very 
effectively and the adjustment mainly from beiow upwards 
in response to a demand from the institutions of higher 
education. I am not unmindful of the fact that a statement 
of this sort should be made with moderation for the reason 
that there are certain provisions, such as that for electives, 
which operate to produce a certain measure of relief. I 
contend, nevertheless, that the college and university stand- 
ards and interests are largely responsible for the fact that the 
work now offered in both the elementary and secondary 
schools is not nearly so much what it should be, as it is what 
the heads of the several departments in the college and 
university require it to be. We are familiar with the com- 
plaint that is so often made by the heads of departments in 
the college and university that their students are not pre« 
pared to take up their work on coming to them, that the pre- 
paratory schools are weak and not doing good work. If the 
high schools are weak and not doing good work, no one is 
more to blame than the university, for high schools have cer- 
tainly been trying to do what the universities have required. 

It has always seemed to me that a course of study should 
be based upon the idea that it is best to do the best thing for 
the child while he is in school, to do the thing that is best 
for him in the kindergarten, to do the thing that is best for 
him in the first year, in the second, the third, the fourth, the 
fifth, and so on, so long as he may remain in the school. The 
best course of study in the high school is the one which pro- 
vides the best work for the boy or girl while he is in the high 



8 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 

school. In short, that course of study is best which is built 
up from below in response to the growing needs and possi- 
bilities of the child as he moves from the earlier to the later 
years. If there is any difference between the fundamental 
needs and requirements of those who attend the public 
schools, such as calls for a distinction in the organization of 
the courses of study, the greatest concession and adjustment 
should be made in the interest of the ninety to ninety-five per 
cent who are not only less able to provide for themselves, but 
who are certain to remain in the schools a very short time. 
As it is, the elementary school prepares for the high school 
and the high school prepares for the college or universitly. 
The fact that we speak of the secondary school as a prepara- 
tory school or fitting school indicates the situation. If every 
child who enters the grades were going to the high school 
and thence to the university, the arrangement would be less 
objectionable, but even so it would be unjustifiable. As it is, 
the needs of the larger number are given small consideration 
and the few who are less in need of the encouragement and 
opportunity supplied by the public are the beneficiaries. The 
road from the kindergarten leads only to the university. It 
has no branches. 

There is in this country a somewhat widely prevalent 
impression that operates to magnify the Importance and 
worth of mere learning. Its existence, I suppose, is due to 
some of the traditions brought down by the universities from 
the middle ages. It belongs to the age of classicism and rests 
upon the assumption that "knowledge is power," that educa- 
tion and culture depend upon leisure and, therefore, that 
education should be in large measure a preparation for a life 
of leisure in the sense that one is to be free from the neces- 
sity of doing things for himself, at least of doing them with 
his hands. It seems strange that so many parents who have 
led busy and strenuous lives in the world of material things, 
should be ambitious to have their children educated with the 
idea in mind that they are to be free from the necessity of 
anything in the way of direct contact with the material things 
of life. Most of us are familiar with the father and mother 
who have made slaves and drudges of themselves In order 
that their sons and daughters may be saved what they have 
chosen to regard as the hardships of their own lives, meaning, 
of course, that they may be fitted to lead lives in which there 
will be no occasion to do things with one's hands. 

The problem of the second generation in this country is by 
no means an unimportant one. There are a great many young 



DULUTH. MINNESOTA 9 

people Of the second generation in the colleges and universi- 
ties, as well as in the lower grades of the public schools, whose 
ambiUon seems to be to destroy any traces or suggestions of 
the fact that they are descended from a generation which was 
not ashamed of being the architect of its own fortune. There 
is, in other words, something of a feeling that one acquires 
caste on account of being unable to do the things which must 
be done in order that the industrial life may go on as it 
should. I do not know Just how general this sentiment is, but 
I believe that it is quite general and that a very large number 
of young people suffer as a consequence and early come to 
assume a wrong attitude toward life. It seems to me that 
many of the very great social and economic evils from which 
we are suffering most today are due to the fact that so many 
people do not have a right appreciation of values and the 
creation of values. The individual who has not through his 
own efforts, through the use of his own muscles, discovered 
in a general way what man's possibilities are in the way of 
creating values, is very unlikely to have a proper appreciation 
of his own rights in the matter of acquiring wealth. If all of 
the people engaged in commercial enterprises were people 
who had had experience in creating values with the help of 
the soil and climatic conditions, or in any of the manifold 
ways in which values can be created In the industrial world, 
they would be less liable, I think, to engage in enterprises or 
undertakings which would result in the confiscation of the 
fruits of other people's labors. It is not otherwise possible for 
such people to know the real joy of creating something that is 
worth while, to have made something with one's own hands, 
to have put one's own thought into the things that can be 
seen and handled. It is out of such experience that a proper 
appreciation of one's relations to, and attitude towards, his 
fellow men must grow. Such experience supplies the best 
possible basis for the development of the highest and sanest 
moral, social and economic ideals, and the loss to society as 
a consequence of our failure to utilize the opportunities sug- 
gested is incalculable. Any scheme or system of education 
should be appreciated in large measure in accordance with 
the extent to, and the skill with, which it recognizes and pro- 
vides as early as possible in the life of young people for the 
most fundamental and thoroughgoing preparation for the 
development of these same standards and ideals. 

It is perhaps well enough to proceed upon the assumption 
that the ultimate end is properly enough, to a certain extent, 
the culture and refinement which is generally found in the 
lives of those who have known a certain amount of leisure. 



10 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 



but it Is necessary to bear in mind that these are only highly 
developed and differentiated expressions of more general and 
fundamental qualities. The greater part of human elfort 
always has been and must always be exerted in one form or 
another, sometimes on a very low plane and at others on a 
very high plane, in the endeavor to supply food, clothing and 
shelter. I mean to assert this as true of no particolar class of 
human beings, but of society generally, for it is true that 
practically every form of human endeavor that can be sug- 
gested is either directly or indirectly related to these same 
fundamental and primitive needs. 

I have referred thus at length to the province and function 
of industrial training not for the sake of justifying the demand 
for increased recognition for it, but rather for the purpose of 
indicating the character and extent of the preparation desir- 
able on the part of teachers. I am not disposed to think that 
the need can be met, at least in so far as the elementary 
schools are concerned, by supplying special teachers, even if 
that were possible, as it is not. I am inclined to think that 
the teacher whose preparation is general rather than special 
can do far more effective work in the elementary schools 
along the lines of industrial education. The teacher who is to 
do this work should not be one whose knowledge is mainly 
theoretical. Of course, I am referring to a more or less ideal 
condition of affairs and am assuming that, were it possible to 
have what we should like to have in the way of a teacher for 
this work in the public schools, we should want one who not 
only knows but has a practical knowledge of elementary agri- 
culture, horticulture and household economics, including cook- 
ing and sewing, together with much of the work now offered 
as manual training. At the same time I appreciate the fact 
that most teachers now employed could not begin to meet 
these requirements. I also appreciate the fact that most of 
the teachers now being trained in schools that train teachers 
will not receive the instruction which would enable them to 
meet these requirements. In our own school we are offering 
two years of work in household economics which does not 
include, as a general thing, any work in sewing. We offer also 
short courses in drawing and manual training. The work of 
this kind now done by students in normal schools is not done 
with the idea of fitting them to teach industrial work so much 
as it is for the personal benefit of the student himself. 

In order that the best results may be had in any endeavor 
to carry on industrial work in the public schools there must 
be a rearrangement of the courses of study. A new basis of 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL. 11 

determining the arrangement must be supplied and until that 
shall have been accomplished it will not be possible to meet 
the need, even though teachers were all trained in the several 
aspects of industrial work. The need is not that industrial 
work should be added to the work now being done, but rather 
that it should be a very important, if not the fundamental, 
part of the whole structure. I am inclined to think that the 
group of interests and activities which are suggested by the 
expression ''industrial education" should be the center about 
which all of the work offered in the elementary and secondary 
schools should be arranged. 

Until some such re-arrangement of the courses to be 
offered in the elementary schools can be effected, it is not to 
be expected that training schools for teachers will do very 
much in preparing teachers to meet the demand which such a 
rc-arrangement would create. It is possible, however, even in 
the case of those who have already had their professional 
work, but have not had such work, to do a very great deaL 
I need only suggest the possibilities in the line of agriculture 
and horticulture. Then again, most teachers possess some 
knowledge of household economics which could be utilized 
with great benefit in most schools. Even in this very ele- 
mentary way the opportunity for cooperation between the 
home and the school would be greatly increased. I am thor- 
oughly convinced that most of the complaints on the part of 
teachers relative to the failure of parents to cooperate with 
them in their work 'with their children are due In large meas- 
ure to the fact that so many of the parents do not find that 
they have very much in common with the teachers. The in- 
dustrial work would supply many points of contact between 
the home and school which could be utilized with great 
benefit to both. 

If adequate provision were made for instruction along 
industrial lines, the problem of training teachers to do 
such work in the public schools would be easily solved. Under 
such circumstances the intending teacher would carry with 
her to the training school a knowledge of industrial work 
which would need, perhaps, to be added to and perfected in 
certain respects, but in the main the only problem of the 
training school would be such as is now generally met in pre- 
paring teachers to teach any other line of work. The problem 
of the training school, in short, would be largely a profes- 
sional one. The student's general knowledge of physiology, 
neurology, psychology, chemistry and hygiene, as well as that 
of botany, zoology and other less important lines of work, 
would be drawn upon constantly. Perhaps that portion of 



12 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, 

psychology which would have the most meaning under such 
circumstances is ^hat which relates to the motor elements of 
consciousness. It hardly needs to be said that the teacher of 
industrial work, as well as any teacher, should be well ac- 
quainted with the fundamental facts of physical growth and 
control. We can best appreciate the nature of mental growth 
atfer having come to an appreciation of the fundamental facts 
of physical growth. 

Anything like a suggestive statement of the interesting and 
pertinent facts relative to the motor side of consciousness, 
from the point of view of their significance in any considera- 
tion of industrial work, would require no small amount of time 
and cannot be attempted now. I do wish, however, to direct 
attention to the importance attached to the expression side 
of consciousness by Professor James. Tou will think at once 
of the reflex arc and recall the fact that it is he who has said it 
is, or should be, the destiny of every impression or afferent pro- 
cess to issue finally in the form of an expressive or efferent 
process. The knowledge of the nervous system supplied by 
neurologists shows how the arrangement of the great asso- 
ciative tracts of the nervous system are adapted to meet that 
very need. Between the impression or afferent process on the 
one hand and the active expression or the efferent process 
on the other, are the associative processes. The relations 
which exist between these several association centers thein- 
selves and the centers for the sensory — ^motor areas, which 
latter are the same in the main, are supposed to supply the 
proper neurological basis for whatever degree of unity the 
human mind possesses. There is at all times tminterrupted and 
ready communication between any one of these centers and 
all others, in the normal mind, and we are warranted in say- 
ing that such a mind is well unified, that there is self-control, 
power of adaptation and adjustment, in short, that there is 
that degree of unity and control which we otherwise desig- 
nate as will-power. Now if there is a proper basis of fact 
here for assuming the existence of such relations between 
the will and the association centers, it goes without saying 
that one of the most effective ways to develop and perfect 
this unity is to make certain that, as James has said should 
be the case, every impression shall eventually be trans- 
formed into some act of expression. The most effective way 
of accomplishing this is through some form of motor training 
and much of the best work to be accomplished in that direc- 
tion is implied in the expression "industrial education." and 
I regard the contribution of industrial work in that direction 
as one of its most important. 



DULUTH. MINNESOTA 13 



Are Our Public Schools Weakening the Race? 

By H. C. Strong 



Affirmative answers in an ever increasing number seem 
to be given to the question raised by the venerable hymn, 
"Must I be carried to the skies on flowery beds of ease." The 
desire of men to make a fortune by sleight of hand instead of 
by patient toil and economy, the prevalent notion that it is 
desirable for a young man to have an inherited estate that 
will relieve him from the necessity of earning a living for 
himself, the abhorrence among women of housework and the 
active care of their children, make it pertinent to ask 
whether we as a people are not getting tired and preparing 
to give way to the yellow man who has had so many cen- 
turies of rest. Tet no lack exists of young men who will sit 
in comfortable easy chairs and formulate superficial plans for 
perfect self-working systems of government, society and re- 
ligion; or of young women who gladly meet together and 
chatter about Bernard Shaw's plays, Browning's poetry, or the 
problems of home life, while the work of the home is being 
done by hired, and often incompetent servants. The practical 
consequences of this condition are the difficulty of getting 
able young men to stay long enough at the bottom of a busi- 
ness to become capable of managing its more intricate de- 
partments and a sad decline in the health of women and in 
their efficiency as the conservators, through biological neces- 
sity, of the race. 

The extent to which this state of affairs exists cannot be 
accurately ascertained but a little observation will force the 
admission that enough individual cases are known, to war- 
rant a discussion based on the assumption that the condition 
U general. Now however great the preponderance of home 
influences in the development of children, it cannot relieve 
the public schools from assuming their share of the responsi 
bility and if the present generation is avoiding everything that 
can be stigmatized as routine or drudgery to such an extent 
as to weaken rather than to strengthen the life of the nation 
and to memice the stability and progress of society, we in 
charge of the public schools must enquire whether we have 
contributed to that result. 



^^ STATE NORMAL SCHOOL. 

The idea is of ancient origin that mental labor (being a 
school teacher, doctor, lawyer, poet, novelist) is higher, 
nobler, more respectable, than manual labor (being a car- 
penter, brick-layer, stone-mason); Just now there is a ten- 
dency in many quarters to reverse this view, and we hear 
much talk that amounts to saying the laboring man is nobler 
and more worthy of consideration than the man who works 
with his brain. I have for a long time been unable to dis- 
cover any valid reason for either of these views. Suppose 
that for a certain purpose there must be that kind of a wheel 
which is made of hub, spokes, and rim. It is then the most 
idle sophistry to argue that the hub is the most important; 
for it cannot perform its function in the wheel without the 
other two essential parts and it is the completed whole alone 
that will serve the purpose: and since in any conceivable 
condition of human society both mental labor and manual 
labor are essential, the adjectives higher and lower, noble and 
ignoble, unworthy of respect and worthy of respect, become 
impertinent and fail entirely to describe the difference be- 
tween the two kinds of activity. 

Tet it can hardly be denied that the public schools have 
fostered this false classification. A career that involves a 
maximum of mental work and a minimum of the other has 
been persistently, by insinuation if not explicitly, held out as 
being of the higher kind. As a part of this notion or along- 
side of it is the idea that mental pursuits afford an easier 
method of earning a living and that brains command a higher 
market price than brawn. The effect of such ideas on girls 
is to make them expensive luxuries from the point of view of 
a young man willing or maybe anxious to have a wife and a 
home. We seem to be rapidly reaching a condition among 
our "educated classes" in which a man in order to have a 
wife and a home must be able financially to support two 
women, one to attend teas, card parties, study classes (his 
wife) ; the other to do the cooking, sweeping and other house- 
work (the servant) . I believe this goes far to explain why the 
so-called educated class fails to perpetuate itself. Statistics 
show that if our colleges and universities had to recruit them- 
selves from the children of their graduates, they would In a 
surprisingly short time become extinct from lack of students. 

One instance of a young man inspired with the high ideal 
of mental work and the currently superficial conception and 
misunderstanding of the value of brains over nuscle, I will 
give, admitting most Joyfully that it is extreme, but respect- 
fully asking whether it does not sound a note of warning. He 



DULUTH, MINNESOTA 15 

entered a business house in what he deemed the intellectual 
department, that of book-keeping — ^where he was free from the 
grime of the stock room. He showed good ability in many 
ways and eventually his employers wished to promote him 
to a responsible position. It would be necessary however for 
him first to go through some of the "drudgery" that he had 
been seeking to escape. That he refused to do, and being 
denied the promotion without it, left the firm. I believe he 
has ever since been employed but he has clung to his notion 
of respectability and is no farther along in the world than 
when he resigned except in one respect. He has solved 
through his persistent thinking the problem of living by his 
biains and avoiding drudgery: and when he has won over 
enough voters to his plan, they will confiscate all private 
property and divide it up among the population share and 
share alike. 

The desire to escape routine or drudgery (these terms 
have come to be synonymous with what should be regarded 
as real work) is accentuated by the way in which achievement 
is dwelt on in the public schools almost to the exclusion of 
considering the means by which men achieve. A biography 
so brief as to be no biography is hurried over and then the 
children begin a "study" of his finished product. If a recent 
work I read is accurate, Oliver Qoldsmith toiled on a crust 
in a garret for twenty years before he succeeded in writing 
anything that gave him a place in the world of letters. We 
read "She Stoops to Conquer," analyse it, go to the theatre 
to see it acted, and say we are getting hold of Goldsmith's 
achievement, and maybe we are but pray what name shall we 
give to those twenty years of ignominious work. Last sum- 
mer I talked with a young man who has been pursuing a liter- 
ary career for two years and seemed on the point of abandon- 
nig it because only three of his compositions had been 
accepted for publication and after so much hard work (two 
years surroimded by all the comforts of life including a trip 
to Europe, as against Goldsmith's twenty years amid priva- 
tion), he remains comparatively unknown. 

I wish now to raise the question whether a large amoimt 
of time spent by pupils in graded schools on manual training 
and domestic science would not go far toward checking the 
development of a race of hot-house plants when what the 
world needs is men and women with stamina to endure and a 
healthy relish for long hard work whether mental or physical. 



16 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL. 

Summer Session 

In accordance with the provisions of an act of the last 
legislature, establishing continuous sessions in the five Normal 
Schools of the state, a term of twelve weeks was held during 
the summer of 1907. The second such term will be held the 
comin:; summer, beginning, as indicated in the calendar else- 
where printed, June 16th and ending September 3d. This 
year, as last, double credit courses will be offered in a limited 
number of subjects during the first six weeks and in others 
during the latter half of the term. Review courses will also 
be offered during the first six weeks in the more important 
subjects required for the second grade certificate, but it haft 
been agreed that in none of the schools will any student be 
permitted to carry more than two such subjects. A more 
detailed statement will appear in a separate announcement 
to be issued later. In the meantime additional information 
can be had by addressing inquiries to the President's office. 



News of the School 

We had a vacation of eighteen days at Christmas time. 
There was a general exodus from Washburn Hall, only four 
girls remaining. Most of the members of the faculty who do 
not live in town went away to their homes. We do not 
happen to know of anybody who really rested. That is not 
what vacation is for, of course. Everybody came back nearly 
devoid of intellect, but displaying all the evidences of having 
had a good time. In fact Intellectual degeneration is one of 
these very evidences. Unloading one's mental lumber is not 
a bad way to begin the new year, however, for it makes room 
for fresh stock. 

Mr. Hubbard, after a serious illness of several months, is 
able to return to school. Everyone is glad to see him back. 

Miss Robertson of the faculty had a festive time in Chi- 
cago during the first part of her vacation. Her friends killed 
the fatted calf in honor of her home-coming. The calf, the 
vigils, and the giddy whirl were too much for one used to 
the steady pace of our dignified faculty. (There is a moral 
to this tale.) When school opened, the supervisor of manual 
training was represented by a "doctor's certificate." She re- 



DULUTH, MINNESOTA 17 

turned on the 21st of January, greatly emaciated from the 
grip, but stoutly asserting that she had had a good time. 

Miss Murray has obtained, on account of illness, a leave 
of absence for several months. 

Mr. Curtis Riley, formerly our instructor in biology, 
visited Duluth recently. They say he called on none of his 
old friends, not even Miss Shoesmith. We dont know what 
to make of this, for he gave Miss Shoesmith a rose once 
before her assembled class! 

Perhaps the best piece of news is that Miss Post has 
Joined the rank of housekeepers. After the holidays she weni 
to live in a tiny cottage at Hunter's Park. There she is 
demonstrating that she can 

"Roste and sethe and broille and frye, 
Maken mortreuz and wel bake a pye." 

She has succeeded so well, indeed, that she has already 
been seen distributing pies around the neighborhood, as sam- 
ples of her culinary skill. The name of the fortunate one with 
whom she is sharing the Joys and sorrows of domestic life 
is — Margaret Raleigh. "Our good wishes go with the young 
couple," as the newspapers would say, "and may their united 
path be strewn with primroses." The kitchen fire went out 
three times during the first week. May it never go out again. 

Miss Elizabeth Maddox has withdrawn from school in 
order to devote her entire time to the study of violin and 
vocal music. 

Miss Bessie Hendy, who was obliged to go home for sev- 
eral weeks on account of illness, has returned to school. 

Miss Marguerite Mitchell, *07, has gone to live in New 
York City. 

Miss Kayla Ketcham has Joined the Junior Graduate class. 
She has studied two years in the University of Minnesota. 

Someone met Miss Flora Carpenter on the street during 
the holidays. She exclaimed, "Oh say! I've got a man! 



i >* 



On Friday, January 31st, the Seniors gave a "bartering" 
party to the Juniors. 

Just before school closed in December the Senior class, 
under the direction of Miss Long, gave a performance ol 
Hamlet. They had been studying this play in Literary Inter- 



18 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL. 

pretation, and decided to give it before the school. This was 
the cast: 

Hamlet Miss Loranger 

Ophelia Miss Ruby Harris 

The King Miss Ina Martin 

The Queen Miss Brotherton 

Polonlus Miss Nellie Anderson 

Laertes Miss Burrell 

Horatio Miss Mallory 

Obost Miss Wakelln 

Pi*anclsco Miss Hendy 

Bernardo Miss McCabe 

Marcellus Miss Nelson 

Osric Miss Burgher 

Considering the very limited time that the girls could give 
to the preparation of this play, the performance was a credit 
to the class. It showed that the Seniors have considerable 
dramatic talent. Miss Loranger's voice, appearance and 
temperament seemed well suited to the role of Hamlet The 
costumes which were the best available, did not add greatly to 
the good effect, but seemed rather to embarrass the actors. 
When Ophelia appeared in the mad scene, some of the Fresh- 
men, who were unfamiliar with the play, mistook the scene 
for a comic one, and gleefully giggled. One or two really 
funny things did happen. For instance, as the queen, after 
drinking the poisoned draught, fell over dead, her Jeweled 
crown tumbled off. The queen Instantly came to life and, 
with a grin, snatched up her crown, placed it firmly on her 
head, and fell over dead again, with a satisfied smile on her 
face. 

It Is to be hoped that the Seniors will give another play 
this term. 

Classes in Spelling and Penmanship have bQen organized. 
It was felt by the faculty that these two Important subjects 
had been sadly neglected for others considered more Import 
ant, and that the only way to create a wholesome respect 
for them was to make them required studies for all students 
who need such work. 

On account of the illness of her little son, Mrs. Lyons is 
obliged to be out of school for a short time. 

The Department of Mathematics has secured some inter- 
esting stereoptlcon slides on the history and development of 
Arithmetic. These will be used in connection with the ele- 
mentary and advanced graduate courses In Arithmetic. 



DULUTH, MINNESOTA 19 

January let the following program was given in chapel 
in honor of the one hundred forty-ninth anniversary of Robert 
Bums' birthday* 

1. Song Auld Lang Syne 

Glee Club. 

2. Sketch of Bums' Life — 

Miss Nichols. 

3 Song O Wert Thou in the Cauld Blast 

Qlee Club. 

4. Readings from Bums' Poems — 

Miss Robertson. 

6. Quartette Flow Gently, Sweet Afton 

Miss Guerin. King, Merritt, Hopkins. 

6. Solo Te Banks and Braes o' Bonnie Doon 

Miss Reynolds. 

7. Solo — (a) John Anderson My Jo. 

(b) A Bonnie Lass. 

Miss Van Stone. 

8. My Heart's in the Highlands — 

Glee Club. 



VOL. in MAY, 1908 NO. I 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 



DULUTH, MINNESOTA 



HFTH ANNUAL CATALOGUE 

With AmuMmcMneBtt For 
1908-1909 



State Normal Board. 



HON. JOHN W. OLfSEN, State Superintendent of Public Inatructlon. 



HON. H. L. BUCK, Resident Director Winona 

HON. JOHN €. WISB, Resident Director Mankato 

HON. ALVAH BASTMAN, Resident Director St Cloud 

HON. C. B. NYB, Resident Director Moorbesd 

HON. J. "L. WASHBURN, Resident Director Dulnth 

HON CARL BEMAN St. Anthony Park 

HON. mJL TORRANCB Minneapolis 

HON. H. B. HOARD Monteyideo 



Offic«n ol Ike Board. 



HON. BLL TORRANCB President 

HON. JOHN W. OLSBN Secretary and Purchasing Agent 



Officers ol Admiiiistratioii. 



HON. J. L. WASHBURN, Resident Director. 
B. W. BOHANNON, President 
CLARA M. MURRAY, Secretary. 
RUTH BLY, Ubrarian. 



Faculty. 



BUGENE W. BOHANNON, A. M., President. 
Scliool EiConomy, Social Science. 

LINUS W. KLINE. Hi. D. 

Peycholosy and Pedagogy, SupervlBor of the Training School. 

HARRT C. STRONG, A. B. 
Hlstxny and ClvloB. 

JESSE W. HUBBARD, A. M. 

Physics, Chemistry and iieography. 

HERBERT BLAIR, B. S. 

Biology and Geography. 

ANNA N. CAREY, A. B. 

English Literature, English Grammar and Composition. 

KATHBKINE D. POST, B. L. 
Latin. 

BBULAH I. SHOESMITH, B. 8. 

Arithmetic, Algebra and Geometry. 

ETHEL MAE LONG, 

Reading and EiXpression. 

IDA E. VAN STONE, 
Music. 

FLORENCE D. PETTENGILL, 

Domestic Science and Preceptress of Washburn Hall. 

ELIZABETH WELLES ROBERTSON, Ph. B., Ed. B.. 
Drawing and Manual Training. 

OLIVE B. HORNE, 

Seventh and Eighth Tears, Training School. 

MARY A. DOELL, 

Kifth and Sixth Years, Training School. 

CECIL M. PALMER, A. B., 

Third and Fourth Years, Training School. 

EVELYN R. LYONS, 

First and Second Years, Training School. 

MARGARET J. QUILLIARD, 
Kindergarten. 

RUTH ELY, 

Librarian. 



in the Summer Term of 1907. 



B. A. FREEMAN, 

Mathematics. 
ELEANOR M. THOMSON, 

English. 
EMOGENE LECTRA, 

English. 

RIZPAH deL. MITCHELL. 
Music. 



General Statement 



LeglslatlTe provifllon was made for tlie State Normal School at 
Dultt'tti in 1895, when it was enacted that there should be estah- 
llfdied "under the direction and supenrlsion of the State Normal 
School Board, at the City of Duluth, in the County of St. Louis, 
a Normal Scbool to be known as the State Normal School at Du- 
luth; provided said city shall donate to the state a suitable tract 
of not leM than six (6) acres of land, to be approved by the 
Normal School Board, for the location, use and benefit of said 
school, within twelve (12) months from the passage of this act; 
provided further that no money appropriated for the erection of 
buildin^i for said school Aall be expended prior to the year one 
thousand eight hundred and ninety-six." (1895. C. 184.) 

In 1897 an &roroprlation of |5»000 was made for the founda- 
tion, and in 1899 the legislature voted $75,000 for the erection 
of the building, making one-half the amount available in 1900, and 
the other haH in 1901. The building thus provided for was well 
along toward completion when, in February of 1901, it was de- 
stroyed by fire. Fortunately it was well protected by insurance 
and it was possible to rebuild without further aid from the 
State. The work of reconstruction was not completed until the 
middle of the following winter and for that reason the opening of 
the school was delayed until the fall of 1902. 

All of the Courses of Study approved by the State Normal 
Board and offered in the other four schools are offered here. The 
oouiaes include, in addition, two years work in household econ- 
omics which is required of all students in the Junior and Senior 
years. A model school, including all the grades from the first to 
the eiiphth and a kindergarten, is maintained. 



The State Legislature of 1907, enacted a law establishing 
summer sessions of twelve weeks in each of the five Normal 
Schools of the State. This act carried an appropriation of $20,000 
for the support of such sessions during the next two years, and the 
first such session was held last summer. As provided by the law, 
these summer sessions are to "be a part of, and in all respects be 



DULUTH, MINNBSOTA 7 

the «ame as, the seeslona now provided by law. The proTlBlona for 
attendance at these summer sessions shall be the same as those 
now In force and the arrangement of the terms In the school year 
shall be such as to most fully conserve the welfare of the rural 
schools." 

Since many thousands of Minnesota teachers attend school dur- 
ing the summer months, It seems especially desirable to utilize the 
superior equipment and other advantages afforded by the State 
Normal Schools In their training. The school library and labora- 
tories win be at the disposal of all students, subject only to suoh 
conditions as exist in any other term. These are ample in every 
way and afford every facility and convenience necessary to the 
work of a student in a Normal Scho4)l. 

This summer term is intended primarily to meet the needs of 
rural and other teachers who feel that they cannot afford to attend 
school when they can teach. The work will be organised and car- 
ried on as largely as possible for their benefit. At the same tlme» 
it is the regular work of the school that is to be carried on. Cer- 
tain grades of the Model Sdiool may be in session and open to 
students for purposes of observation. 

Generally speaking, the oonditions of admission to work for this 
term will be the same as those for any other term. For the com- 
ing summer, however, as in former sessions, review or non-credit 
courses of six weeks will be offered in second grade suibjects, espec- 
ially Reading, Bnglish Grammar, Geography, Arithmetic and United 
States History. No examination will be necessary for admission to 
Uiis non-credit work, but the faculty of the school will admit such 
students as desire to take it and seem quilfied by maturity and 
previous training to pursue it successfully, 'but no student will be 
permitted to carry more than two such review courses. All other 
work will be credit work and double credit courses will be offered 
in some of the common branches during each of tiie six-we^ 
periods. 

Further information concerning the summer session can be had 
by addressing the President's Office. 



The BoiMing mad EqutpniABt. 

The building is thoroughly modem in construction and equip- 
ment. It is located in one of the most attractive parts of the dty, 
overlooking the waters of Lake Superior from a height of more 
than three hundred feet. 

The laboratories are large and well arranged. The furniture 
and apparatus are new and excellent in every way. The present 



8 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 

equipment of the several laboratories represents an ezpenditnre of 
not less than $15,000 and is entirely adequate for the needs of 
the school. 

A large and well-lighted room has been equipped for manual 
training. It is supplied with twenty benches of the most approred 
make and all Oif the necessary tools and instruments. 

At the annual meeting of the State Normal Board in 
June, 1903, the establishment of a Department of Domestic Science 
in the State Normal School at Duluth was authorised. This action 
was taken in response to a proposal on the part of the women of 
the various clubs of Duluth to furnish the equipment for such de- 
partment provided the School would employ a teacher. The ofTer 
was accepted, the equipment supplied and a teacher employed. The 
work of the department has been in progress since that time, and 
the results thus far achieved are highly gratifsring, both to the 
School and the women whose interest and support made them pos- 
sible. 

The library contains more than four thousand well-aelected 
volumes. 



Purpose and Plan of the SchooL 

The purpose of the school, as of the other four State Normal 
Schools is to train teachers for the common schools of the state. 
Two departments are maintained: — the Normal Department proper, 
and the Training Department. The courses of study in the Normal 
Department are six in number, as follows: 

I. The Academic-Professional Courses: 

1. The Advanced English Course of five years. 

2. The advanced Latin Course of five years. 

II. The Graduate Courses for high school and college grad- 
uates: 

1. The Advanced Graduate Course of two years. 

2. The Kindergarten Training Course of two years. 

3. The Elementary Graduate Course of one year. 

III. The Elementary Course of three years. 

The three advanced courses lead to an Advanced Diploma, 
which by endorsement after two years of successful teaching, be- 
comes a life certificate of the first grade. The Elementary Grad- 
uate Course leads to an Elementary Diploma for high school gmd- 
uates, which, upon endorsement after two years of successful teach- 
ing, becomes a state certificate of the first grade good for five 
years, and is subject to renewal by re-endorsement. The Elemen- 
tary Course leads to an Elementary Diploma, which, after two 



DULUTH, MINNESOTA 9 

years of successful teaching and upon endorsement, becomes a 
state certificate of the first grade, good for five years and subject 
to renewal by re-endorsement. 



The Academic-ProleMaoiuJ Coursei. 

The amount of academic work required in these courses cor- 
responds quite closely to that offered in the ordinary four-year 
high school course. There Is, in addition, provision for special 
training in Psychology, the History and Philosophy of Bducatioin, 
Methods, Obseryatlon and Practice work in the Training Departr 
ment. A detailed statement of the work offered In these ooursee 
will be found in the Synopsis of the Courses of Study. 



The Graduate Courses. 

These courses are arranged to meet the needs of college and 
high school graduates. The work is largely professional and may 
be completed, as elsewhere indicated, in one and two years. The 
one year, or Elementary Graduate Course, is Intended for those 
graduates of high schools who cannot spend more than a single 
year in preparation for teaching. 

The two-year or Advanced Graduate Course is mudi richer 
in subject matter and Its completion insures a more satisfactory 
training. Graduates from this course are in greater demand as 
teachers. School boards in many of the more important cities 
of the state, Duluth among others, refuse to employ graduates of 
the Elementary Graduate Course. The advantages of the advanc- 
ed courses are such that students should make sure of their in- 
ability to spend two years in the school before deciding on the 
Elementary Graduate Course. 

The Kingerdarten Training Course is two years in length, and 
is practically a division of the Advanced Graduate Course. The 
outline of work will be found on page 29. Only such students 
as are qualified to enter on one or the other cf the graduate 
courses can undertake this course. 



The Elementary Course. 

It Is planned to meet the needs of those persons who have 
not had the advantages of a high school training and 
who expect to qualify for work in the rural schools. It is 
also expected that it will meet the needs of those already teach- 
ing in the rural schools who desire a more adequate training for 
their work. 



10 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 

Conditions of Admission. 



I. To the Acadenic-Profetsioiud Counat. 

Persons holding a State Teachers' Certificate of the Second 
Grade are admitted to the first year dsss without examination. 
Others are required to imum satisfactory examina^ons In Arith- 
meti<c, English Qrammar, Oeography, United States History and 
Physiology* or to present certificates from the State Hi^h Sdiool 
Board. 

Persons holding State Teachers' Certificates of the First 
Grade, valid at the time of presentation, are entitled to twelve 
credits on either of the five year courses or the Blementary 
Course; provided (1) that the subjects to be credited ehali be 
credited by ^e President in conference with the student, and (2) 
that the average of the certificate be not less han 76 per cent, and 
(3) that subjects in which the standings are less than 76 per 
cent shall not be credited and shall reduce the number of credits 
allowed proportionately. 

Admission to advanced standing in any of these courses will 
be determined by examination in the subjects completed by the 
class to which admission is sought, or by the presentation of other 
satisfactory evidence of the ability to do the. work of the dsss, 

II. To the Elementary Ceime. 

The conditions for admission to this course are the same as 
those for the Academle-Professional courses, except that only older 
and more mature students will be permitted to enter on it. 

III. To the Gnudnate Coonet. 

Graduates of approved high schools having a four years' 
course who present credits representing fifteen units of work done 
therein (a unit being daily work for a year of at least nine 
months) will be admitted to the Advanced Graduate Course with- 
out examination or other condition, and to the Blementary Grad- 
uate Course in like manner provided they present satisfactory rec- 
ords in Civics, United States History, one Biological Science (Bot- 
any or Zoology), and one Physical Science (Physics or Chemistry). 
If these subjects have not been pursued in high school, standings 
in them must be obtained In the Normal School. The record in 
Physics must represent not less than one full year's work. While 
Physiology is a required subject either high school or granunar 
school records will be accepted. 

Students who have not completed the work of a high school 



DULITTH, IflNNBSOTA 11 

course will be admitted conditionally and required to make up the 
work. 

Students from high schools having a three years' course of 
study will be admitted to either of the Graduate Courses, but will 
be required to remain in school at least four terms if admitted 
to the Blementary Graduate Course. If the preparatory work does 
not meet the requirements above mentioned the deficiencies must 
be made good by additional work. 

HiKh school graduates who shall have taken, as poet-graduate 
work, at least a half year's work In Normal subjects as offered in 
the State High Schools may receiye credit for subjects in which 
they have done a full semester's work, provided (1) that tiiese 
credits shall apply only on the two year graduate course and (2) 
that the President reeerres the right to test the quality of work 
for which credit is asked. 

IV. To the Kinderguten Tndntiig Course. 

The conditions goyeming admission to this course are identi- 
cal with t^ose applying in the case of the Advanced Graduate 
Course. (See III above and page 29. 

The demand for kindergarten teachers is far in excess of the 
supply. The number of requests that have come to the school for 
such teachers during the past few years have been many times 
more numerous than the number graduated from the course. This 
fact together with the general value of the work done make this 
course an unusually attractive one. 

V. To Spwaal Woric 

Persons holding a teacher's certificate of the second grade and 
having taught in any public school in this state with ability and 
success for a term of six months, will be admitted to the school 
for the purpose of doing special work. Such applicants for ad- 
mission must satisfy the President of the School that they are 
prepared to do Ihe work with the regular classes in the eubjeots 
they may choose. Any selection of work is to be subject to the 
approval of the President. They must ahK> present certificates 
from the superintendents under whom they have taught, testifying 
to their success and fitness for the work of teaching. 



Courses of Study for the State Normal Schools 

of Minnesota. 

Revieed and adopted by the State Normal Board. Feb. 1907. 



GRADUATE COURSES. 

ADVANCED GRADUATE COURSE. 



Fall 

Psychology 
Drawling. 
(Geography. 
Muste. 

Literature and 

Themes. 
History. 
Social Science. 



First Ymut. 
Winter Term. 

Psychology. 
Arithmetic 
Geography. 
English Grammar. 

Second Year. 

History and Phil- 
osophy of Educa- 
tion. 

History and CItIcb. 

Manual Training. 



Spring Term. 
Pedagogy. 
Reading. 
Nature Study. 
English Grammar. 

History and Phil- 
osophy of Bdaca- 
tion. 

Teaching. 

School Management. 



ELEMENTARY GRADUATE COURSE. 



Fall Term. Winter Term. 

Educational Psycho- Pedagogy. 

logy. English Grammar. 

Arithmetic. Music. 

Drawing. Reading. 



Spring Term. 

Observation and 

Teaching. 
Geography. 
Nature Study. 
School Management 



ACADEMICPROFESSIONAL COURSES. 



Fall Term. 

Latin Lessons. 

Algebra. 

Geography. 

English Composition. 

Caesar. 

General History. 
Plane Geometry. 
Reading. 



LATIN COURSE. 

First Year. 

Winter Term. 

Latin Lessons. 
Algebra. 
Geography. 
Drawing. 

Second Year. 

Caesar. 

General History. 
Plane Geometry. 
Manual Training 



Spring Term. 

Latin Lessons. 
Algebra. 
Reading. 
Drawing. 

Caesar. 
Rhetoric. 

Music. ^ 

Manual Training! 



Duurra, mNNssoTA 



13 



Cicero. 



Botany or Zoology. 
Bnglisli Grammar. 



VlrgU. 

EngliiA and Ameri- 
can History. 
Peyohology. 
Arithmetic. 



Literature. 

Social Science. 
American History. 
Teaching. 



Third Y 
Cicero. 
Physics. 
Physiology. 
Llteratare. 

Foaitfa Year. 

Virgil. 

American History. 

Pedagogy. 

Arithmetic. 



Fifth Y< 
History and Phil- 
osophy of Bducation 
Teaching. 



Cicero. 

Physics. 

Botany or Zoology. 

LRerature. 



Physiography. 
American History. 
Psychology. 
Arithmetic. 



History and Phil- 
osophy of BdncatlOQ. 
Theme Writing. 
Civics. 
School Bconomy, 1-8. 



ENGLISH COURSE. 





First Year. 




Fall Term. 


Winter Term. 


Spring lenn. 


Algebra. 


Algebra. 


Algebra. 


Geography. 


Geography. 


Drawing. 


Reading. 


Drawing. 


Music. 


English Composition. 


English Composition. 
Second Year. 


Reading. 


General History. 


General History. 


General History. 


Plane Geometry. 


Plane Geometry. 


Solid Geometry. 


Music. 


Manual Training. 


Manual Training. 


Zoology. 


Zoology. 

Third Year. 


Rhetoric. 


Physics. 


Fbysics. 


Physics. 


English and Ameri- 


American History. 


American History. 


can History. 


Arithmetic. 


Botany. 


Arithmetic. 


Literature. 


Literature. 


Botany. 


Fourth Year. 




Psychology. 


Psychology. 


Pedagogy. 


English Grammar. 


English Grammar. 


ClYlCS. 


Chemistry. 


Chemistry. 


Physiography. 


American History. 


Physiology. 


Arithmetlo. 



14 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 



Llteratare. 
Bodal Science. 
Teaching. 
Literature. 



Fiftb Y< 

Hietory and Phlloe- 
ophy of Bdncatlon. 
Teaching. 
Theme Writing. 



History and FhUoe- 
ophy of Shlacitlon. 

School BSconomy. 



ELEMENTARY COURSE. 



Fall 

Algebra. 

Bngllah and Amer- 
ican History. 

Geography. 

BngllBh Composition. 

Qeometry. 
Zoology. 
Reading. 
Arithmetic. 

Physics. 

English Grammar. 

Botany. 

Professional Work. 



First Ymut. 

Winter Term. 

Algebra. t 

American History. 
Geography. 



Spring T^ 
Algebra. 

American History. 
Music. 



BSngllsh Ck>mposltlon. Reading. 



Second Year. 
Geometry. 
Music. 
Literature. 
Drawing. 



Physics. 

Bngllsh Grammar. 

Ciylcs. 

Professional Work. 



Zoology. 
Drawing. 
Literature. 
Arithmetic. 

Physiology. 
Rhetoric. 
Professional Work. 



Descriptive Outline of the Woric in the Different 

Courses. 



Psychology. 

Ck>ii»e I. Two terms in all Advanced coanea. 

Term I. Tbe major part of the work of this term ie an ob- 
serrational and descriptive account of the neural haslB of con- 
sciousness. The material consists of a number of brain models, 
brain preparations for gross sections, histological preparations from 
the spinal ganglia, cord, cerebellum and cortex, and of a number 
of charts. The sense organs are studied from Ausous's models, 
from charts and from literature. The laws and theories of nerve- 
action are studied (1) by laboratory experimentation, (2) from 
the literature of comparative psychology and (8) from the ex- 
periences of common life. The connections between physical 
stimuli, nerve-action and mental states are studied by performing 
the standard experiments in this field. H3xperlments are selected 
from the texts of Sanford, Witmer and Tltchener. 

Term 11. This term comprises an analytic and synthetic 
study of consciousness. Its comiK)nent processes, their genesis, 
their nature, their function and interrelation are surveyed and 
Interpreted from the biological point of view. Text-book: An- 
geirs Psychology. 

Course n. Educational Psychology. This subject Is given in 
the Elementary Graduate Course and as the first term of Pro- 
fessional Work in the Elementary Course. The work is largely 
descriptive of the connections between sense organ activity and 
mental states, between mental states themselves, and between 
mental state and actions. The reflex act as a type of action te ex- 
panded to include the functions of the cortex, that is, its associa- 
tlonal, inhibiting and volitional activtles. The latter half of the 
term is devoted to a consideration of the principles of growth and 
development of child life and the ways in which they relate to 
school life. 

Reference books: Klrkpatrlck's Fundamentals of Child- 
Study; Thomdlke's Elements of Psychology. 



Pedagogy. 

This work Is given in the Advanced and Elementary Graduate 
courses and for the second term of Professional Work in the 



16 STATS NOUfAL SCHOOL 

Elementary Course. The object of the work is to enable Uie stu- 
dent to construct a coherent body of principles for guidance in 
the business of teaching. For thie purpose the results of the pre- 
ceding courses are freely drawn upon, particularly those relating 
to learned and unlearned aetiyities and to mental connections. 
Three ahns are kept in yiew (1) to see that the principles rest 
upon the yerif iable facts of psychology, ( 2 ) that they are arranged 
in a logical manner. (3) that they haye a close and rational bear- 
ing on the art of teaching. 

Text: Principles of Teaching by Thorndike. 



Hutory of Edncatioii. 

Term I. History of Education. The work in this subject 
consists for the most part of an intensiye study of the educational 
classics. The classics used are: Plato's Republic, Locke's Thoughts 
on Education, and Rousseau's Emile. A descrlptiye account is 
giyen of the Great Didactic and of the schools of the middle ages. 

Books of Reference: Monroe's History of Education, Ck>m- 
parye'a History of Pedagogy, Painter's Pedagogical Essays from 
Plato to Spencer. 

Term II. This course is in part a continuation of the pre- 
ceding. Pestalossi's Leonard and Gertrude and Spencer's ESduca- 
tion are read and discussed in class. The latter part of the course 
is deyoted to the ethical, social and psychological ideals as found 
in the works of Locke, Rousseau, Pestaloszi, Spencer and Herbart. 
These two courses are planned to support and supplement the 
principles eyolyed in Psychology and Pedagogy. 



School Managoment. 

One-third of a Term. School Management is required in all 
the courses. It considers the different types of school organiza- 
tion, the classification of pupils, superylsion and school appliances. 
Special attention is glyen to school hygiene, includng the diseases 
and disorders which the school may cause or aggrayate. Heating, 
yentilation, lighting and decoration of school buildings, seating of 
pupils, arrangements of the daily program and of courses of study, 
and the state school laws are studied. 



Observation. 



This course is taken by all students during the term preced- 
ing the one in which they teach in the Training School. It ex- 
tends through one term and occupies at least one period of a day. 
The course furnishes the student an opportunity to obserye model 



DUUTTH, MINNESOTA 17 

lesBons given by the critic teachers and to become pretty well ao- 
qnalnted with the regular work of a graded school as seen in the 
Training School. They are required from time to time to submit 
to the critic teachers a ''lesson plan" developed from some one 
phase of a series of model lessons. These lesson plans are criti- 
cised by the teacher giving the model lessons, and then returned 
to the student. The students are further required to present week- 
ly reports of their observation or discussion by the other members 
of the class, supervised by the director of the Training School. 



Tnuning School and Temt 

The Training School includes the eight grades below the high 
school, and a Kindergarten. A review class, or ninth grade, has 
been added to the grammar grades of this department. The work 
corresponds very closely to that done in the grades of the public 
schools of the state and will qualify those who complete it to enter 
the high schools; or, in case the student completes the work of 
the ninth grade, to enter the first year class of the Academic Pro- 
fessional courses. Tlie course of study for the Training School in- 
cludes Manual Training and Domestic Science. 

The teaching force consists of the supervisor, the principals 
of the several departments and the duly qualified members of the 
senior class. 

The purposes of the school are (l)'to maintain, as far as 
possible, ideal school conditions to serve as models for the pros- 
pective teacher, and (2) to furnish an opportunity for the pupil- 
teachers to demonstrate their natural and acquired qualifications 
for practical service in our public schools. 

The supervision consists in giving model lessons in the pres- 
ence of the pupil-teachers; in holding weekly conferences at which 
the special work of the pupil-teacher is sympathetically discussed 
and criticised; in citing literature bearing on her daily work, and 
in assisting in whatever way the needs of the hour may suggest. 



History, Civics and Social Scienco. 

General History. Three terms in the Advanced Bnglish and 
two terms in the Advanced Latin course. The work includes the 
Orient and Oreece, Rome, and Continental Europe to the fall of 
Napoleon. The object of the course is to fix firmly in the minds 
of the students the most important facts and at the same time to 
lay a general foundation for more extended study. 

Ei^lish and Amertcan History. Tihree terms in the Advanced 
Liatln, Advanced English and Elementary courses. By teaching 
English and American History as one subject it is possible to bring 



18 ffTATB NORMAL SCHOOL 

out Clearly the relations between the two from the reign of Blisa- 
beth to the end of the American Revolntion. The text book used 
is Ghanning'8 Student's History of the United States. The work iii^ 
English history is glyen by lectures and assigned reading in the 
library, and is made wholly to subserve a clear understanding of 
the development of the United States by cubjects of the Bngllsh 
government. Throughout the course students are encouraged to 
collect and preserve material that will be of value to them later 
in teaching In the graded schools. 

History and Civics. Two terms in the Advanced Qraduate 
Course. This work takes the place of, and is In addition to, that 
heretofore known as Reviews and Methods in History. It is con- 
ducted on the theory that knowledge of the subject is the first 
requfeite to good teaching. Special topics in United States history 
are studied from the sources and from the writings of accredited 
scholars. The work in history is made to Include that of "civics" 
and civil government. For Instance, town government in New 
England and county government In the southern colonies; alliances 
and International relations at points where they arise; the relations 
between state and federal power during the revolutionary war, 
under the articles of confederation, under the constitution at the 
time it was formed, and at the time of the Civil War. 

Elementary Civics. One term in the Elementary Course. The 
work is confined to a simple outline of the United States govern- 
ment, the government of « the state of Minnesota, of a county, and 
of a city. Particular attention is paid to the method of nomina- 
ing and electing public officers and to the duties of citizens in a 
republic. 

Advanced Civics. One term in the Advanced Latin and Ad- 
vanced English courses. The work to much the same as that of 
the Elementary Course but includes a wider range of discussion 
and some consideration of the theory of government. 

Social Science. One term In the Advanced Latin, Advanced 
English and Advanced Qraduate courses. The work is necessarily 
very elementary in character and is limited to a consideration of 
the more obvious phases and practical problems of social life. The 
more Important social questions rather than the science of socio- 
logy, are studied from a practical point of view and with some 
reference to their bearing upon the work of the school. Special 
problems or questions will be assigned for individual study, the 
results of which will be summarised for the benefit of the class. 
The text used is Wright's Practical Sociology. 



English, 
fingllflh Composition. Two terms in the Advanced English 



DULUTH, MINNESOTA 19 

and Elementary courses and one term in the Advanced Latin 
Course. In this course almost daily practice is given in the sim- 
pler forme of composition. Students are required to depend chief- 
ly upon personal observation and experience for material, though 
the imagination plays an important part in the latter work. 
Webster's Elementary Ck>mpo8ition is used. 

Blietoric. One term in the Advanced English, Advanced Latin 
and Elementary courses. This course is a continuation of com- 
position. It includes, however, in addition to the purely original 
work, oral and written abstracts of magazine articles, extended 
arguments, short biographies and book reviews. A constant effort 
is made to lead students to criticise their own work intelligently. 
The text used is Spaulding's Principles of Rhetoric. In addition 
to this work, a little time will be given to the study of the most 
Important classic myths. 

Grammar. Two terms in the Advanced Graduate, Advanced 
English and Elementary courses, and one in the Advanced Latin 
and Elementary Graduate courses. Longmans' English Grammar 
is used as a text, but constant reference is made to such authori- 
ties as Mason, Whitney, and Lounsbury. A portion of the time is 
given to the discussion of those problems which arise in teaching 
language in the grades. 

English Literature. Four terms in the Advanced English and 
Advanced Latin courses and two terms in the Elementary Course. 

I. An introductory course: 

(a) Characteristics of Celtic and early English literature 
and the influence of Christianity. A translation of 
Beowulf is studied. 

(b) Influence of the Norman Conquest. Chaucer's Prologue 
to the Canterbury Tales; The Knight's Tale; Book I. 
Spenser's Faerie Queene. 

II. The Rise of the Drama: 

(a) Mystery plays; early historical plays; Marlowe, Ben 
Jonson. 

(b) Shakespeare; Julius Caesar; King Lear; As you Like It 

III. Essays and poems. It is the aim of this course to give 
students some acquaintance with all the chief essayists 
and poets from Bacon and Milton to Browning and Stev- 
enson, and to lead to the intensive study of a few char- 
acteristic productions. 

IV. The Novel. After tracing briefly the origin and develop- 
ment of the English novel, the class will make a study 
of the following authors: Defoe, Johnson, Goldsmith, 
Jane Austen, Scott, Thackeray, George Eliot, Dickens. 



20 STATB NORMAL SCHOOL 

liitemtore and Themes. One term In the Adranced GradDAte 
Course. It ie the purpose of this conrae to familiarise etudents 
with the great classic myths, both Q-reek and Teutonic, representa- 
tive folklore and famous ballads, and to show how all these maj 
be presented to children In the grades. In connection with the 
foregoing much theme work will be required. 

Theme Writing. One term in the Advanced English and Latin 
courses. The class meets every day for discussion and criticism. 
A large amount of reading is required, and students are frequently 
called upon to deliver brief addresses before the ckuw. 

Reading. Course I. Two terms in the Advanced English, Ad- 
vanced Latin and Elementary courses. The aim will be to inter- 
pret literature and read it aloud intelligently. Although nothing 
will be attempted in the way of formal "Elocution" some attention 
will be given to the manner of using the voice. Many abort poems 
will be committed to memory and recited. Representative Amer- 
ican classics will be studied. In order to get a broad survey of 
the literature of our country, a considerable amount of outside 
reading will be required. It is hoped that this course will give a 
somewhat comprehensive knowledge of the development of o.ur 
literature from Colonial times to the present day. Part of the 
second term will be given to the study of methods of teaching read- 
ing. 

Course n. One term in the Advanced Graduate and the Ele- 
mentary Graduate courses. This course will be devoted in part to 
the study of methods of teaching reading. The T(ork will be based 
upon American classics, and also, if time perm'.ts, upon some one 
of the following: She Stoops to Oonquer, The Rivals. The Mer- 
chant of Venice and Macbeth. 



Latiii. 

The study of Latin extends through a period of four years and 
meets the college entrance requirements: 

I. Latin Grammar. 

II. Caesar. — Books I-IV. of the Gallic Wars. 

in. Cicero. — Six Orations: Cataline's Conspiracy, the Citi- 
zenship of Archias and Pompey's Military Command. 

IV. Virgil — ^Four Books of the Aeneld. 

In all classes the students are required to get the meaning as 
far as possible from the Latin and then express it in clear Idio- 
matic English. This cannot be done without a knowledge of Latin 
Grammar. Dally work is given in Latin prose composition 
throughout the second and third years and a thorough grammatical 



DULUTH, MINNBSOTA 21 

review in the fourth year alms to establish the graizunatieal prin- 
ciplee of the language. In addition to translating the orations 
of Cicero, a study of them as oratioiis and as argumentatiye litera- 
ture is made. Effort is also made to appreciate the Aeneid as one 
of the great pieces of literature. Sight reading will be practiced 
throughout the course as time permits. 



Physical Sciences. 

Physics. Three terms in the Advanced English and Advanced 
Latin and one in the Elementary Course. Two afternoons each 
week are devoted to laboratory work in which each student per- 
forms a selected list of experiments, both qualitative and quan- 
titative, to verify the laws of mechanics, heat, light, sound and 
electricity. The student is required to keep a permanent note 
book for recording the results of the experiments and for making 
sketches of the apparatus used. The recitation periods in the 
forenoon are devoted to a discussion of the laboratory work in 
connection with subjects treated in the text, and to practical 
problems and exercises involving the law studied. A number of 
different texts are placed upon the laboratory reference table. 
Special attention is directed to those parts of the subject which 
will help in the study or teaching of the common branches, su<di 
as the simple mechanics in Physiology, the properties of gases in 
their relation to the atmosphere, and the production and distribu- 
tion of heat in evaporation, winds, rain and snow. 

Chemistry. Two terms in the Advanced English Course. The 
properties of the principal chemical elements are demonstrated by 
experiment. The student learns how new substances are formed 
by different combinations of the elements and how, by reason of 
their solubility or other properties, substances may be separated 
into their component parts. As in physics, the time Is divided be- 
tween the laboratory and class work. Notes on the results of ex- 
periments and sketches of apparatus are made in a note book 
which receives careful examination by the instructor. 

The recitation is devoted to a discussion of the experimental 
work, the solution of practical exercises and to a consideration of 
the fundamental theories of the science. Particular attention ia 
given to those parts of the work which have special significance 
in the study of the common branches. 



Geography. 

Coarse I. Two terms in the Advanced English, Advanced 
Latin and Elementary courses. An effort is made to have the 
student attain the point of view that will enable him to under- 



22 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 

• 

stand and appreciate the most important principles of the science. 
The complete understanding of geography requires the study of 
other sciences. Type features of the earth are accordingly studied 
with reference to their geological development. Local land forms 
are carefully observed. Frequent out-door excursions are made in 
order that the student may have direct contact with geographical 
phenomena. The elementary principles of meteorology are studied 
to explain the cause and effects of wind, clouds, rain, snow, tem- 
perature and atmospheric pressure. By careful dbserration and 
experiments the student gets a rational explanation of climatic 
conditions in different parts of the earth. For this work the de- 
partment is provided with a standard mercurial barometer, maxi- 
mum and minimum thermometers, psycrometer and rain gauge. 

It is further shown how the character of the earth's surface 
and the climate make possible particular kinds of animal and plant 
life which react upon man, producing different environments and 
hence different races, religions and degrees of intelligence. 

Course II. Two terms in the Advanced and one in the Ele- 
mentary Graduate course. The earlier part of the course deals 
with the elements of physical and mathematical geography neces- 
sary as a foundation for the study of life geography. Special at- 
tention is given to the study of climate. A detailed study of the 
topography, climate and natural resources of Minnesota and the 
study of the other states using Minnesota as a basis of compari- 
son completes the work of the first term. The rest of the world 
is studied during the second term using Minnesota as a basia of 
comparison as in studying the United States. 

In order to develop the ability to read maps accurately and 
rapidly a great many outline maps (over a hundred throughout 
the course) are filled in illustrating each lesson. Advantage is 
taken of the large shipping and manufacturing industries of Duluth 
and afternoon field trips are made to the ore docks, blast furnace, 
match factory, grain elevators, flour mills, ship yard, saw mills, 
furniture factory, weather bureau, fish hatchery, etc. 

Physiography. One term in the Advanced Bnglish and Latin 
courses. The fundamentals of this subject having been included in 
Course I., the work of this term is devoted to a study of political 
geography. The principles of physiography already studied are 
used to Interpret commercial, industrial and other geographical 
conditions. 



Biological Sciencet. 

The object of the work in this department is to train the 
student in habits of close and accurate observation and fit him for 



DULUTH, MINNESOTA 23 

teaching nature study in the grades. A combination of the text 
book, laboratory and lecture methods furnishes yariety and inter- 
est. Field trips are often substituted for the laboratory work in 
order that the habits of animals and plants may be studied in their 
natural environment. 

The equipment of the department is new and of the latest 
patterns. 

Botany. Conrse I. Two terms are required in the Advanced 
Ihiglish Course and offered as an elective in the Advanced Latin 
Course. 

The fall term is devoted mostly to work in ecology. Coulter's 
Plant Relations being used as a text. The course involves numer- 
ous field trips and laboratory work on the material collected. 

The various plant societies are studied in their relation to 
light, temperature, moisture and soil conditions. Some of the plant 
movements are noted and an attempt made to determine experi- 
mentally the cause of such movements. 

The winter term is given to a careful study of seeds and 
seedlings and the elementary probleme in plant physiology that Il- 
lustrate some of the chemical changes in the composition of the 
seeu. 

Oonrse TL One term in the Elementary Coarse. The work in 
this course is rather elementary in character, and consists of a 
study of those phases of plant life which are especially important 
to the teacher of nature study. 

Zoology. Two terms, given in the fall and spring, are re- 
quired in the English and Elementary courses. In the Latin 
Coarse the same amount is offered as an elective. As in Botany 
the ecological side of the subject is chiefly developed. Bach stu- 
dent is expected to collect a number of insects for laboratory study 
— if possible two from each of the orders. By using Insect cages 
in the laboratory the life histories are worked out and careful 
sketches are made of the several stages. 

The second term's work is given in the spring and much of 
the time is given to studying birds in the field. By giving a term 
to insect study and another to bird study it is thought that the 
students will be better fitted to teach nature study than they 
would be if more eubjects were studied. 

Physiology. One term in the Advanced English, Advanced 
Latin and Elementary courses. (Prerequisite, the two-term course 
in Zoology). The primary purpose is to prepare teachers to do 
efficient work in the subject in the schools of the state. Secondly* 
it is expected that the students will gain such knowledge of the 
human body as will enable them to take better care of their own 
health and that of the pupils entrusted to their care. 



24 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 

Much of the work is done in the laboratory in studying the 
various tissues of tlie body, the foods and their usee, the chemistry 
of digestion and anatomy of the digestive organs. Experiments 
are made illustralng the relations of certain mental and physiologi- 
cal processes, especially those connected with the special senses. 



Natim Study. 

One term in the Advanced and Elementary Graduate courses. 
The Nature Study work seeks primarily to arouse a love for nature 
and to afford some experience In scientific observation. A study 
is made of the common trees in the vicinity. Branches from dif- 
ferent trees are examined and their buds, leaf ecars, year's growth 
and peculiarities are compared. The trees are then examined in 
the field and notes and eketclhes made of their winter conditioo.. 
Later they are compared with reference to leaf and flower. The 
kinds of trees valuable for lumber are noted and collections of the 
more common kinds of woods made. The spring florwers and other 
plants are studied and their beauty, usefulness or noxious quali- 
ties are noted. Special attention is given to the relations of the 
flower to the fruit, the formation and distribution of the seed, 
and reproduction of plants. The common birds are studied in 
the light of their relations to man. Suggestions are made for the 
attraction and protection of birds. Practice Is given in collecting, 
mounting and preserving Insects for study and reference. The re- 
lation of Insects to other animal and plant life is investigated. 
Plans for recording extended observations on birds, plants and the 
weather are discussed, and reference made to valuable sources of 
Information. Some simple experiments with home apparatus are 
made to Illustrate combustion, ventilation, constitution of the air, 
with Its pressure, temperature and other phenomena. 



Mathematics. 

Arithmetic. Course I. Two terms In the English, Latin and 
Elementary courses. The alms of this course are: (1) To give a 
good working knowledge of arithmetic; (2) to encourage clear and 
logical thought, exact and orderly expression; (3) to give the pros- 
pective teacher a grasp of the subject as a whole, together with 
practical suggestions as to modes of presentation In the grades. 
Among the features of the course are: practice in actual measure- 
ment, frequent oral drill In pure number, exercises In analysis, both 
oral and written, and the study of selected topics In the history of 
arithmetic. 

Coarse II. One term In both the Graduate courses. In this 
course, which is too brief to Include much drill and hence can be 



DULUTB, MINNIEBOTA 25 

taken with profit only by well preimred students, arithmetic to 
etttdled from the teacher's standpoint. The relations of the Tarious 
topics to one another and the order in which these topics should 
be presented, are subjects of special study. Suggestions are made 
as to the correlation of arithmetic with other branches; an outline 
of grade work in arithmetic is given; selected texts are examined 
and criticised. As time allows, an attempt to made to hare the 
student gain some familiarity with the history of the subject and 
with the literature which bears upon the present teaching of 
arithmetic. 

Algebra. Three terms are required in the Bhigllsh, Latin and 
Blementary courses. The principles of the subject are thoroughly 
studied and frequently applied. Special pains are taken to dis- 
courage mechanical work and to lead the pupil into habits of clear 
and connected thinking. 

Geometry. Gourse 1. Two terms of Plane Geometry and one 
term of Solid Geometry are required in the Advanced English 
Course. 

Course II. In the Latin and Elementary courses two terms of 
Plane Geometry are required. 

Throughout the work In geometry accuracy and independence 
of thought are emphasized. Students are required to give proofs 
other than those suggested in the text and to criticise and question 
the demonstrations oftered in class. A number of original exer- 
cises are solved. From time to time, topics in the history of geo- 
metry are assigned. 



Drawing. 

The work is planned with reference to the ability and needs 
of the students in the several courses. The aim of each course is 
to give students as much instruction in technique as the time al- 
lows, with historical background and an appreciative knowledge of 
beauty in form and color. 

Brief talks are given on the lives and works of masters, and 
their principal works studied and analyzed from a technical point 
of view. 

Students make collections of reproductions of famous works of 
art with descriptive notes. A daily sketch is required for general 
class criticism and occasional papers on related subjects from the 
pedagogical point of view. 

Course I. Two terms in the English and Latin courses and 
one in the Blementary. During the first term the emphasis to put 
upon head work rather than hand-work. The principles of per- 



26 STATE NOBMAL SCHOOL 

speotlye, of industrial drawing, of design and of light and shade 
are studied. 

The work of both terms includes pose-drawing; analysis and 
decorative use of natural forms; conventionalisation of plant forms; 
practical application in initial letters; making of stencils, etc. A 
certain number of problems in Industrial drawing are given, and 
definitions and conventions used in working drawings taught. 

Course n. One term in the Graduate courses. The aim of 
this course is to prepare students to teach drawing in the gpnades 
according to modem methods. 

The work of the term is so divided that a thorough review is 
given in persi ectlve, model drawing, light and shade, cast and still 
life drawing, both in charcoal and pencil, sketdiing, and elemen- 
tary work in water color. 

The principles of design under the headings of. Balance, 
Rhythm, and Harmony are taught, and applied designs executed. 



Manual Training. 

In this department neither the Swedish nor Russian systems, 
as such, are followed but botti are studied and discussed. In the 
practice work a combination of the two is employed, the useful 
models being largely used as the more interesting and stimulating 
to the students, the exercise models involving principle only when 
a better understanding of a problem can be secured more quickly 
as a lack of time prevents any repetition of mere technique. While 
suggestions and certain refining and limiting conditions are given 
the student, the aim is to have all the models made in the work 
shop individual and, as far as possible, original. Tlie greatest 
amount of technical skill the time allowed permits is developed. 
In outline the course includes: 

I. The care and use of the common wood working tools. 

II. Principles of constructive and decorative design. 

1. The form suited to its function, and the decoration in 
harmony with its form. 

2. Structural and artistic qualities to be considered are (a) 
strength, (b) durability, (c) proportion, (d) simplicltT, 
(e) adaptation to purpose, (f) finish. 

III. Papers and class discussion: 

1. The necessity for a manual training plan, 
(a). The adaptation of a plan to children of different ages, 
(b). Basis for criticism of the child's piroduct. 
(c). How to arrange work so that increasing motor power 
shall result. 



DULUTH, MINNESOTA 27 

(d). The inter-relatloDflldp between hand work and the oth- 
er school oocnpationB. 

2. Preparation of programs of work for the different 
grades of the elementary school. 

3. The various methods of constructing and reading work- 
ing drawings. 

4. A final paper on some selected phase of the subject. 
IV. Required reading. 

1. Current articles published In the magaslnes on the sub- 
ject. 

2. The history of the morement. # 

3. The arts and crafts imoyement. 

Course L Two terms In the Advanced Bngllsh and Latin 
courses, as outlined. 

Coone n. One term In the Advanced Graduate Course. This 
course also Includes a review of mechanical drawing and the 
making of a required number of working drawings. 



Music. 

Course I. Two terms In the Advanced English and one term 
In the Advanced Latin course. The work of the first term con- 
sists of dally lessons In sl^t singing and ear training. All prob- 
lems of rhythm are studied, also key formation, chromatic scales 
and transposition. During the second term the class studies three 
and four part singing, minor scales, the limitations and care of 
the child voice, the selection and use of rote songs, and sAiort 
biographies of the most noted composers. Methods of presenting 
problems In melody and rhythm to children are given to the pupils. 

Course n. One term In the Advanced Graduate and Elementary 
Graduate courses. An outline for the study of vocal music In each 
grade forms the foundation of the study of music methods. 
Pupils are taught how to present rote songs, Interval drill, each 
problem In rhythm and melody, key formation, major, chromatic 
and minor scales, to the children. These subjects having been 
presented to them, they are required to take charge of the class 
and Illustrate the method of procedure with each. Especial at- 
tention Is given to the selection of songs suitable for primary 
grades and to the care of children's voices. 

Chorus Work. Twenty minutes Is given dally to the practice 
of part songs and choruses for the purpose of obtaining skill in 
reading and rendition and to develop a better musical taste. The 
best material suitable for the chorus Is rendered. 

Glee Club. An opportunity Is given to those pupils who have 



28 8TATB NORMAL 8CH0OL» 

epeelal ability, to study more adyanced music in the Olee Club, 
whteh meete once a week. 



Domestic Science. 



This department, establisbed in tbe fall of 1903, was made 
possible by the various women's clubs of Duluth. Through their 
generous efforts the school has been proTided with a tho(roughly 
equipped kitchen laboratory, dining room and sewing room. 

The work in domestic science extends throughout the Junior 
and senior years. Two courses in this work are offered to the 
students: one in the Selection and Preparation of Foods, covering 
one two-hour period a week» and one in Home Sanitation and 
Hygiene, covering a period of one hour a week. 

In the course of Selection and Preparation of Foods, foods 
are studied with respect to their composition, nutritive value, re- 
lation to the needs of the body and comparative cost. The work 
includes a study of the dietaries, and a balanced ration for a given 
time is made by the members of the class. 

The first half of the lesson is devoted to the classification 
and study of the food to be cooked, its digestibility, nutritive 
value, combination with other foods, the process employed in 
cooking and the proper method of serving. In the second half of 
each period the food is cooked and served. 

In the Home Sanitation classes, lectures and some laboratory 
work are given on such practical subjects pertaining to the home 
as drainage, plumbing, heating, ventilation, water supply, the 
chemistry of cleaning and laundry work. House plans are made 
by the students and brought to class for discussion. 

The work in Hygiene Includes both personal and public 
hygiene, causes and prevention of disease, home nursing and in- 
valid cookery. 



Sewing. 

Two terms, one period daily, are given to the work of sewing. 
Most of the time is devoted to hand sewing, although in the second 
term machine work Is undertaken. The important principles of 
plain sewing are taught by means of models which, together witii 
the instructions and notes, are put Into books for the purpose. 
Upon the completion of the course each girl will have made twenty 
of these models, also one under-garment or dainty apron sewed 
entirely by hand, and another garment combining both machine 
and hand sewing. 



DULUTH, mNNESOTA 29 

Kindcrfarten Trainiiif Course. 

A high school diploma or its equiyalent is required for ad- 
miflsion to this coursep which covers a period of two years. A 
pleasing Toice, some skill in singing and piano playing, and a 
desirable attitute toward young children are. essentials in this 
work. Students who take this course are given the same general 
'professional training as those who are preparing to teach in the 
primary or grammar grades. Special instruction in the theory and 
methods of Kindergarten and Primary work and observation and 
teaching in both departments in the Model School, will be added to 
this strictly professional training. The standard of scholarship is 
the same as that required of the student in the other departments 
of the school. Following is the course of study. 



Kindergaiten Course. 

Junior Year. 

Psycftiol'^gy and Pedagogy. 

Observation In the Kindergarten. 

A study of Kindergarten Technics. 

Nature Study. 

Domestic Science. 

Drawing. 

Manual Training. 

Educational Reading. 

Songs and Games. 

Physical Bxercises based upon Interpretation of Rhythm. 

Senior Year. 

History of Education. 

Sociology. 

Domestic Science. 

A Study of Froebel's Educational Theories as shown by hie 
"Mother Play Book," "Education of Man" and commentaries on 
the same by Susan E. Blow, Elizabeth Harrison, James L. Hughes 
and others. 

Literature for small children, including a study of old folk 
lore suitable for use in Kindergarten and Primary grades, and 
practice in story telling. 

Primary Methods. 

Observation and teaching in Kindergarten and Primary grades. 

Educational Readings. 

The Theory and Practice of Program Making. 



30 STATE NOBIIAL SCHOOL 



General Information. 



Normal School Diplomas and State Certificates. 

The legislature of 1891 passed an cust which gives to diplomas 
of the State Normal Schools yalidlty as certificates of Qiialiflcation 
to teach in any of the common schools of the state, under the 
following proTisloins, yiz. 

1. A diploma of any of the State Normal Schools Is made 
a temporary State certificate of the first grade for the two years 
of actual -teaching service required by the student's pledge. 

2. After two years of service, the diploma may be counter- 
signed by the President of the school from which it Is issued, and 
by the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, upon satisfac- 
tory evidence that such service has been successful and satisfactory 
to the supervising school authorities under whom it was rendered. 
Such endorsement will make the diploma of an Elementary Course 
a State certificate for five years, and the diploma of an Advanced 
Course a life certificate. 



Conditions of Endorsement 

1. While it is hoped that all graduates will earn the right 
to have their diplomas endorsed, great care will be taken in this 
matter, and the diploma will not be so extended In any case in 
which the holder fails to render acceptable service during the test 
period, or in any way fails to show himself worthy of the marked 
professional recognition eo bestowed. 

2. After the completion of two years of service, application 
for endorsement may be made to the respective Normal Schools. 
The applicant should see that complete reports of service have been 
made in accordance with the student's pledge, and that such re- 
ports bear the names and addresses of the supervising authorities 
to whom blank certificates of succesful service may be sent. In 
order to maintain a uniform standard of requirements for endorse- 
ment, it has been agreed by the Normal School presidents that 
they will endorse no diploma until each case has been approved 
by all the presidents acting as a Board of Review. 



WASHBURN HALL 



• f " 



DULUTH, MINNISOTA 31 

AdmisMon to the State UniTersitj and Colleges. 

Gradaistes from the adyaneed courses lb the State Normal 
Schools of Minnesota are admitted without examination to the 
Sophomore year In the State Unlyerslty and the leading colleges 
of the State. 



Tuition is free to all students who sign the pledge to teach 
Those who do not sign the pledge are required to pay thirty dol- 
lars a year, as are also those who take the Kindergarten Course. 

Oharges for tuition in the Training Department are flye dol- 
lars a term. 

All charges for tuition must be paid in adyance and no por- 
tion thereof will ba refunded. 

Washburn Hall is a new, beautifully designed and exceedingly 
well-constructed home for students. It was supplied by the State 
and is controlled and operated by the School for the benefit of 
students who may be under the necessity of arranging for board 
and rooming places. It is situated on the campus adjoining the 
main building. It is a two story building with a well lighted base- 
ment and is of fire proof construction throughout. It is heated by 
low pressure steam, has a yery complete system of yentilatlon, is 
supplied with both gas and electric light, has toilet and bath rooms 
on all floors, with a large and well-furnished laundry in the base- 
ment, to which all students haye free access. The kitchen, pantries 
and dining room are exceedingly well equipped and sufFlcient for 
the accommodation of fifty to seyenty-flye persons. B3ach Hying 
room has two closets, two beds and all necessary bedding, an at- 
tractiye solid oak dresser, a heayy solid oak study table, rocking 
chairs and study chairs, wash stand and rugs. All rooms haye gas 
light with Welsbach burners for use in studying. Students are 
required to take care of their own rooms and each one will need 
to take her turn in waiting on the table. The cost of both board 
and rooim this year has been $15 a month. Applications for rooms 
should be made as early as possible. All such applications will be 
listed in the order in which they are made. 



Student's Loen Fund. 

The Interest and generosity of a friend of the school has re- 
sulted in the establishment of a loan Fund of $6000 for the assist- 
ance of worthy students who may find it necessary to borrow money 
In order to continue the work of the school. It Is the desire of 



32 STATS NORMAL SCHOOL 

the oommlttee in charge of the Fund, as well as of the donor, 
that the entire amount he, as nearly as possfble, all the while In 
use. Information concerning the oooditions under which loans may 
he made can he had upon inquiry of the president of the school. 



The daily session begins at 8:35 in the morning and ends at 
12:35 in the afternoon. It is divided into four recitation periods 
and includes a period of twenty minutes for chorus work, and one 
of twenty minutes for opening exercises. 



To Enfftring Stadentt. 

Students expecting to enter on advanced standings from other 
schools must present records of all such standings. 

Applicants for admission will present themselves at the office 
of the president, where they will he referred to proper committees 
on examination or enrolment. 

The building is situated on East Fifth street, between Twenty- 
second and Twenty-third avenues, and one block from the Hunter's 
Park and East Fourth street car line. Students who are not ac- 
quainted with the city should call at the president's office on 
arrival. 

Additional information will be supplied on application to Presi- 
dent's Office, State Normal School, Duluth, Minn. 



Aeiul Bridge Ora Ship Caul 



* •k 



Aeiul Bndge Ova Ship Canal 



DULUTH, MINNBMTA 33 



Names of Sudents Enroled in 
V the Normal Department 
1907-1908. 



GRADUATE OOUB8E8. 



Senior Gndoale 01m». 

Anderson, Nellie J)uluth Minn. 

▲une, 01am Duluth Minn. 

BroUierton, Eunice Duluth Minn. 

Bnrrell, YlTlan Duluth Minn. 

Harrlfl, Ruby M Duluth Minn. 

Hendy, Bertha Virginia Minn. 

Kelley. iCatherlne D Duluth Minn. 

Loranger, Nell Duluth Minn. 

McCabe, Margaret St. Peter Minn. 

Mallory, Blanche Duluth Minn. 

Martin, Ina Soudan Minn. 

Nelson, Florence Duluth Minn. 

O'Brien, Lydia Ektst Grand Forks Minn. 

Sand, Alice B Ashland Wla. 

Snyder, Looiee Minneapolis Minn. 

Wakelln, Mary Duluth Minn. 

Watschke, John F New Ulm Minn. 

Wetzler, Irene Duluth Minn. 

Wiseman, Lucy Pine Olty Minn. 

Yager, Margaret Duluth Minn. 

Jmlor Graduate Clasa 

Botten, Ina Superior Wis. 

Brown, Florence Duluth Minn. 

Oampbell, Esther M St. Paul Minn. 

Oole, Fern Biay puluth Minn. 

Durbrow, Olara Madison Wia. 

Fleblger, Theresa Duluth Minn. 

Fltsgerald, Angela Duluth Minn. 



34 8TATB NOKHAL 8CB00L 

Fitzgerald, Helen Duluth Minn. 

Ouerln, Alice A St. Paul Minn. 

Guthrie, Katherlne B Duluth Minn. 

Haugeten, Martha Two Harbors Minn. 

Hector, Pearl Duluth Minn. 

Hendy, Besale Virginia Minn. 

Hopldna, ESdlth E Duluth Minn. 

Ketdiam, Kayla M, Herman Minn. 

King, Myrtle R Virginia Minn. 

Lewis, Bthelenda Hawley Minn. 

MagnuBon, Amy Duluth Minn. 

Menitt, Alta Duluth Minn. 

Miller, Laura Duluth r Minn. 

Montgomery, Dale Duluth Minn. 

Nelson, Mabel Cloquet Minn. 

O'Keefe, Agnes 9t Paul Minn. 

Peterson, Agnes M Duluth Minn. 

Renstrom, Helen Smithyllle Minn. 

Stenberg, Petronella Duluth Minn. 

Strand, Agnes O Duluth Minn.* 

Todd, Jessie Lakevlew P. O Minn. 

Todd, Myma Lakeylew P. O Minn. 

Tager, Ghartotte B Duluth Minn. 

Senior Kindergarten. 

Gowan, Lillian Duluth Minn. 

Ray, Bmlly Fosston Minn. 

Junior Kindergarten. 

Bury, Nellie Two Harbors Minn. 

Cook, Muriel Fay Cloquet Minn. 

Hlggins, Bmellne Manistee Mic&. 

Maddoz, Elizabeth B Duluth Minn. 

Schlf f man, Eulalle St. Paul Minn. 

Shaver, Clare Lakeriew P. O Minn. 

Stapleton, Eugenia Cloquet Minn. 

Elementary Gmdnate CHass. 

Adams, Maude L Hibbing Minn. 

Blight, Janie Hibbing Minn. 

Brown, May Ely Minn. 

Burque, Rena Cloquet Minn. 

Burthwlck, Bessie Duluth Minn. 

Callaway, OUye Ely Minn. 



DUUJTH, lONliXaOTA 35 

Oarlaon, Adena Biickton Minn. 

Carlson. May P Soudan Minn. 

Carpenter, Flora Mdntodb Minn. 

Cashman, LncOle Eden Valley Minn. 

Cauley, Katharine Haatlnga Minn. 

Chase, Ella M Bear River Minn. 

Cunningham, Fannie Bralnerd Minn. 

Dosey, Anna C Pine City Minn. 

Fngelsetii, Blenora Fertile Minn. 

Fngelseth, BlTlra Fefrtlle Minn. 

Goodwin, Theollne ESsmond N. Dak. 

(Jovett, Laura Duluth Minn. 

Hartley, Helen Duluth Minn. 

Hoar, Danelda M Hlbblng Minn. 

J<4in8on, Tena B Austin Minn. 

Kaiser, Zelma Duluth Minn. 

Klbler, Marie « Aneta N. Dak. 

Elnapp, Gertrude Duluth Minn. 

Kuns, Clara Pine City Minn. 

Lawler, Gertrude Duluth Minn. 

Levy. Florence Minneapolis Minn. 

Liockerhy, Bessie Duluth Minn. 

Lockerby, Bthel Duluth Minn. 

Lundmark, Clara Virginia Minn. 

MoKenzle, Ina Duluth Minn. 

Melby, Thora Duluth Minn. 

Miller, Carmen Bly Minn. 

OX3onnor, Bthel Two Harbors Minn. 

Peterson, Carrie Bralnerd Minn. 

Peterson, Lydla Cloquet Minn. 

Potter, H. Marcia Aitkin Minn. 

Roberts, Hasel Duluth Minn. 

Robinson, Millicent Grand Rapids Minn. 

Sdhaefer, Grace A Bly Minn. 

Segelbaum, Rose Minneapolis Minn. 

Smythe, Myrtle Duluth Minn. 

Stahlbusch, Hedwig Duluth Minn. 

Thompson, Amelia V Mt. Iron Minn. 

Wasley, Grace B Duluth Minn. 

Webb. Gladys Montevideo Minn. 

Wivell, Minie Nashwauk Minn. 



36 8TATB NOBMAL SCHOOL 

ACABBMIOLFROFBSSIONAIi OOURBBB. 

Senior dan. 

BQrgber, Com Duluth Minn. 

Barton, fiadle Duluth Minn. 

Hethaway, Bra M Hunter's Park Minn. 

Johnson, Bllsabeth A Duluth Minn. 

Layallee, Mellnda Duluth Minn. 

Lllja, Jnlla B Duluth Minn. 

McKay, Qasel Duluth Minn. 

Nldhola, Nina L Buhl Minn. 

Porter, Catherine Duluth Minn. 

TumbuU, Bessie Hunter's Park Minn. 

WUtse, Opal Hunter's Park Minn. 

JTunlor GUws. 

Alkln, Grace Duluth Minn. 

Anderson, Irene S Buhl Minn. 

Berg, Bllsatbeth Duluth Minn. 

Orogan, AUee M Duluth Minn. 

Hanson, Clara Duluth Minn. 

Herman, Adelaide Duluth Minn. 

Blrey, Olga Duluth Minn. 

Martinson, Inga Duluth Minn. 

Merrltt, Bmlly H Duluth Minn. 

Sauby, Blma B Wrenshall Minn. 

Tumqulst, Inei Duluth Minn. 

Hilfd Year. 

Anderson, Bmma Duluth Minn. 

Botten, Busle Superior "VHs. 

Burgher, Alice Duluth Minn. 

Clarke, Florence Duluth Minn. 

Coutu, Alice R Duluth Minn. 

Dunning, Annabelle Duluth Minn. 

Fix, Mabel Duluth Minn. 

Orogan, Margaret Puluth Minn. 

Hlmebaugh, Basel Duluth Minn. 

Jensen, Blla Duluth Minn. 

Jensen, Olna Duluth Minn. 

Mclntyre, Katharine Duluth Minn. 

McS:ay, Florence Duluth Minn. 

Maggard, Orace Duluth Minn. 

Mondschlne, Rosalie Carlton Minn. 

Moore, Frances Lakevlew P. O Minn. 

Mueller, Iftabel Dulut^ Minn. 

Nelson, Hattie Duluth Minn. 



DULUTH, MINNnOTA 37 

Olaon, HUdA Dnlnth Minn. 

Polaaky, Stephuila Dnluth Minn. 

Halelgh, Margaret J)uluth Minn. 

Raleigh, Rath Dnlnth Minn. 

Signer, Rose E Dnluth Minn. 

Stickles, Helen Lakevlew P. O Minn. 

Swanson, Florence Dnlnth Minn. 

WiUcntts, Virginia Holyoke Minn. 

Wiltse, Mildred Hnnter's Park Minn. 

Second Tear. 

Boehne, Clara Deer Greek Minn. 

Brown, Mattie Dnlnth Minn. 

Canlkins, Grace Dnlnth Minn. 

Carroll, Bdna Hnnter's Park Minn. 

Dodge, Helen Lakeview P. O Minn. 

Dodge, Isadora Lakeview P. O Minn. 

Driscoll, Marie Willow River Minn. 

BlUott, Kathleen Dnlnth Minn. 

Brickson, Caroline Dnlnth Minn. 

Hawkins, Josephine Dnlnth Minn. 

Gibson, Flora Hunter's Park Minn. 

McLanghUn, Anne Dnluth Minn. 

Martin, TiUie Dnluth Minn. 

Mitchell, Landra Hunter's Park Minn. 

Ostenson, Bdlth Dnluth Minn. 

Peterson, Bmma C Dnluth Minn. 

Wetsler, Helen Dnlnth Minn. 

Wilkinson, Florence Dnluth Minn. 

Wrigbt, Brie Dnluth Minn. 

Fin* Year. 

Bemel, Annie M Proctor Minn. 

BJorge, Ruth Underwood Minn. 

Bradley, Idella Tenstrike Minn. 

Brotherton, Agnes Dnluth Minn. 

Dahl, Katie Thief River Falls Minn. 

Dahlhy, OliYla Mnnger Minn. 

Danlelson, Mamie West Duluth Minn. 

Free, Anna C Duluth Minn. 

Gaines, Mae Dnluth Minn. 

Hegdahl, May Grand Rapids Minn. 

HewHt, Lonla 'M Duluth Minn. 

Kris, Lena Dnluth Minn. 

Lynott, Agnes Duluth Minn. 

Nelson, Florence Holyoke Minn. 

Pennie, Alma Brainerd Minn. 



38 STATS NOUCAL 8CB00L 

Rliiikln» Helen C Dulath Minn. 

Reid, Edna Ashawa lOnn. 

Reynoldfl, Gladys Dnlntli Bfinn. 

Rice, Margaret Dnluth ^ . . . Minn. 

Rodger, Gtoorgina Duluth Minn. 

Skoog, BlYira Lakeview P. O Minn. 

Somers, Bmma Dulntli Minn. 

Somers, Molly Duluth Minn. 

Stahbrodt, Bdna Duluth Minn. 

Stickles, Qeorge Lakeview P. O Minn. 

Stickles, Leila Lakeyiew P. O Minn. 

Stubbs, Cecil Duluth Minn. 

Thomas, Marie Duluth Minn. 

Wright, Lottie Cromwell Minn. 



ESLERfENTABY C017B8B. 
Third Year. 



Beattie, Minnie May Cloquet Minn. 

Fageretrom, Anna Solway Minn. 

Hare, Wenona Carlton Minn. 

Harris, Rose Ella Harris Minn. 

Holmberg, Magdeline Woonsocket Minn. 

Messelt, Belinda G Mentor Minn. 

Nilsen, Anna P Moose Lake Minn. 

Turner, Ruth E Aitkin Iftinn. 

Second Year. 

Anderson, Josephine Willow River Minn. 

Ballon, Edna M Barnum Minn. 

Carlson, Annie E Moose Lake Minn. 

Carlson, Ella Moose Lake Minn. 

Lyngstad, Anna Independence Minn. 

McLellan, Margaret Hunter's Park Minn. 

Soderburg, Sophia West Sweden Wis. 

First Yesf. 

Ballou, Lorene Barnum Minn. 

Brett, Mary E Mahtowa Minn. 

Carlson, Anna V Arnold Minn. 

Cheska, Miladi Bowdle S. D. 

Hillman, Minnie Duluth Minn. 

Isaacson, Hilda Cromwell Minn. 

Johnson, Anna E Atkinson Minn. 

Johnson, Gina Wrensliall Minn. 



DUUnH, mNNnOTA 



39 



JoihxiBon, HuMah Moose Lake Minn. 

Lee* Mayme Barnum Minn. 

Lorntson, Mary Beaver Bay Minn. 

MoCormic, Marie Grand Rapids Minn. 

Mattaon, Hilma : . .Duluth Minn. 

Moline, Selma Mt. Iron Minn. 

Nelson, Tliea ahevlin Minn. 

Nesbitt, AUce N Cloquet Minn. 

Ness, Trena Atkinson Minn. 

Ostlund, Ida Cloquet Minn. 

Pelta, Lempie Beaver Bay Minn. 

Roerlg, Margaret Sauk Centre Minn. 

Rye, Mary J Barnum Minn. 

Sauby, Wilfred Wrenisdiall Minn. 

Schade, Ella Atkinson Minn. 

Schellin, Alma Bralnerd Minn. 



Scott, Dorothy Mahtowa 



'Minn. 



Smart, Bllaabetli Duluth Minn. 



Stransky, Helen Munger . . 

Subby, Bdlth Albert Lea 

Swanson, Sarah Klmberley 

Trostad, SojAla Wrenshall 



Minn. 
Minn. 
Minn. 
Minn. 



SPSSGIAIi. 



Carroll, Edith M Colbyrllle 

Clemene, Irma C ^Lakeview P. O. 

Dadie, Alice ....Bemidjl 

Heenan, Mary Litchfield 

Hibblng, Marie Duluth 

Mahon, Wlnnlfred Duluth 

Person, Jennie Rush City . . . . 

Toothaker, Dora Barnum 

Toothaker, John Barnum 

Washburn, Susan J>uluth 

WUdes, May V Hibblng 



Minn. 
Minn. 
Minn. 
Minn. 
Minn. 
Minn, 
liinn. 
Minn. 
Minn. 
Minn. 
Minn. 



Dight, Edith 
Dowse, Dorothy 
Ferguson, Marjory 
Fitger, Marlon 
Harrison, Harriet 
Knapp, Norman 



Training Department. 

Eighth Year. 

McKindley, Margaret 
Moore, Carolyn 
Rice, Margaret 
Silyey, Melville 
Thwing,. Dorothy 
Upham, Helen 



40 



8TATB NORMAL SCHOOL 



Bellamy, Blsle 
Burrell, Zella 
Campbell, Brooe 
Carpenter, Chauneey, 
Christopher, Hllma 
Driellg, Ullan 
Fltzsimmons, Ikllth 
Flynn, John 
Hammel, Rachel 
Harttey, JudiUi 



Seventh Tear. 

Hay, Mina 
McAlpine, Helen 
Miles, Harold 
Nelmeyer, Mabel 
Nichols, Victor 
Panton, John 
Parker, Grace 
Van Vleit, Fred 
Wall, Helen 
Wlnton, Knox 



Sixth T( 



Bishop, William 
Campbell, Fredrick 
Craig, Margaret 
Farrell, Myrtle 
Ferguson, Willis 
Finkenstaedt, Kimlball 
Frick, Duncan 
Hairkes, Rollln 
Keyes, Irene 



Lounsberry, Esther 
Marshall, Julia 
Stepnes, Edgar 
Taylor, Ruth 
Turle, Penelope 
Weston, Edith 
Willard, Marjorie 
Wood, Elisabeth 



Fifth 



Duncan, Russell 
Elliott, Robert 
Final, Gertrude 
Frick, Ixraise 
Le Richeux, Eugenia 
Lutes, Marlon 
Lynam, John 



Moore, Virginia 
Moore, Warren 
Panton, Dorothea 
Richardson, William 
Romieux. Charles 
Whitely, Wayne 
Wlnton, Frances 



Fourth Year. 



Alexfuider, Agnes 
Alexander, Sue 
Barnes, Gertrude 
Buell, George 
Dlght, Marion 
Holohan, Richard 
Le Richeux, Charles 
Lutes, Katherine 
Lyons, Raymond 



Moore, Dorothy 
Sanford, Dwight 
Simonson, John 
Stark, Charlesa 
Stevenson, Elisabeth 
Warner, Phillip 
Welbanks, Jeanette 
Wlnton, Mary K. 
Upham, Neil 



DULDTH, MINNESOTA 



41 



Third Year. 



Baldwin, Blary 
Flnkenstaedt, Robert 
Kelly, Edith 
Killorin, John 
MacGregor, Catherine 



MitcAiell, Elinor 
Palmer, Constance 
Skinner, Edwin 
Spongier, Beatrice 



Second Year. 



Abbott, Katherine 
Ai^leby, Howard 
Baldwin, Clara E. 
Black, David 
Black, Allen 
Cotton, Josephine 
Crosby, Thomas 
Gleason, Grace 
Holahan, Jack 



Knowlton, Ralph 
Lyman, Elizabeth 
Smith, Marcus 
Stearns. Benton 
Stephenson, William 
Taylor, Gertrude 
Turle, Lovell 
Warner, Virginia 
Wood, Tom 



First Year. 



Crosby, Wilson 
Douglas, Faith 
Keyes, Eleanor 
Knowlton, Marjorie 
Lyder, Caroline 
McGregor, Donald 
Prince, Gerald 



Relchart, Stephen 
Romieuz, Herve 
Sellwood, Richard 
Spongier, Mazine 
Thorton, Conan 
Upham, William 



KlBdergarten. 



Adams, Chester 
Bellamy, Lucius 
Black, Newton 
Bohannon, George 
Bowden, Richard 
Broughton, William 
Clarey, Elizabeth 
Dowse, Robert 
Dunning, Mildred 
Ferris, Ruth 
Final, William 
Fitch, Graham 
Hickman, Genevieye 
Holahan, Victor 
Lounsberry, Harlow 



Mitchell, Merry 
Patton, Frederic 
Prince, William 
Sellwood, Gerald 
Schlaman, Frances 
Sterns, Ruby 
Stilson, Helen 
Stephenson, John 
Strong, Harry 
Spring, Edward 
■Howne, Mary 
Warner, Charlotte 
Walker, Margaret 
Whiteley, McClelland 



42 STATE NORMAL 8CH00U 

NORMAIi DEPARTMENT. 

Graduate Courses — 

Senior Graduate Class 20 

Junior Graduate Class 30 

Elementary Graduate Class 48 



Kindergarten Training Course — 

Senior Class 2 

Junior Class 7 



Academic-Professional Courses — 

Senior Class 11 

Junior Class 11 

Third Year Class 27 

Second Year Class . ., 19 

First Year Class 29 



TRAINING DEPARTMENT. 

Eighth Year 12 

Seventh Year 20 

Sixth Year 17 

Fifth Year 14 

Fourth Year 18 

Third Year 9 

Second Year 18 

First Year 13 

Kindergarten 29 



» 



98 



9 



97 



Elementary Course — 

Third Year Class 8 

Second Year Class 7 

First Year Class 30 

46 
Special Students 12 



261 



160 



Whole Numher 411 



VOL. UL AUGUST, 1908. No. 2 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 



DULUTH, MINNESOTA 



Pttbttshcd Quxtcrly bj the State Noimal School at Dolnth; and deroted to the iatetetts of 

Elementary Edooatioa in If iaaetota. 
Sahicriptioii price, fifty eeats a year. Single oopiei. fifteen oente. 



Entered at ■econd-dast mail matter May U. 1906. at the pott office at Dolvh, Minneiota 

under the Act of Concrete of Jnly 16. 10M. 



Calendar for 1908-1909. 



Fall Teim 

Enrolment of Students Tuesday, September 8, 1906 

Class-work begins... Wednesday* September 9» 1908 

Term Closes -. Wednesday, November 25, 1908 

Winter Term 

Enrolment of Students Tuesday, December 1, 1908 

Class-work begins ...Wednesday, December 2, 1908 

Christmas Holidays begin Wednesday, December 23^ 1908 

Class-work resumes Tuesday, January 5, 1909 

Term Closes Thursday, Siarch 11, 1909 

Spring Term 

Enrolment of Students Tuesday, March 23, 1909 

Class-work begins Wednesday, March 24, 1909 

Term Closes Thursday, June 10, 1909 



Graded List of Books for the School Library 

RUTH ELY, 
Libniiui Slate Nonnal School H Dulndi. 



Mjrthology, Fairy Tales, Fables and Legends. 

FIRST GRADE. 

Beckwith, M. M. — (In MTthland. v. 1 and v. 2. .Educ. Pu*b. Co., 30c 
(Greek myths retold for little children, in simple language.) 

• 

Haaren, J. H. — iRhymes and Fables. (Golden-rod books.) 

University Pnb. Co., 25c 

McMurry, Mrs. .L. B. — Classic stories for the .little ones; 

adapted from Anderson, Grimm and others 

Public School Publiahing Co., 30c 

Smythe, E. L. — Old-time Stories Retold Warner, 30c 

(Norse stories retold in simple style for little children.) 

Wiltse, Sarah — 'Folk Stories and Proverbs; gathered and par- 
aphrased for little children Ginn, 30c 

SECOND GRADE. 

Baldwin, James — 'Fairy Stories and Fables. (Eclectic Read- 
ings.) American Book Co., 35c 

(Includes such favorites as, The Three Bears, Little RednRlding 
Hood, Tom Thumb, Jack and the Beanstalk, Cinderella. Illus- 
trated; somewhat simpler than Scudder's.) 

brooks, Dorothy — Stories of the Red Children. .Educ. Pub. Co., 30c 

(What the Red Children believe about the wind, stars, rain and ' 
other natural phenomena. The type is large and Ihe language 
simple.) 

Judd, M. C. — Classic Stories Rand, 40c 

O'Shea, M. V. — Old Wonder Stories Heath, 36c 

Wilson— Myths of the Red Children Ghin, 40c 

THIRD GRADE. 

Aesop.^^ables of Aesop; edited by Jacobs MoMlllan, $1.00 

Baldwin, James. — Old Greek Stories Amer. Book Co., 45c 

(Greek myths told in simple language and as hero-stories, not 
as stories of gods and with no attempt at analysis and explanation. 
Both Greek and Latin names are given in the stories. Oregon 
List.) 



4 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 

Firth. — Stories of Old Oreece Heath, 40c 

Grimm. — ^Fairy Tales. (Riyerside Edition^ Houghton 40c 

Norton, C. E., ed. — ^Heart of Oak Books, Book 2 Heath, 35c 

Pratt. — 'Legends of Norseland Ed. Pub. Co., 35c 

Swift. — Gulliver's Travels; edited by Edwin Chapman, Books 

1 and 2 Educational Publishing Co., 40c 

Beckwith, M. M.-^In Mythland, v. 1 and 2. . .Ekluc. Pub. Co., 30c 

Wilson — (Myths of the Red Children Ginn, 40c 

Aesop. — *Fables of Aesop; edited by Jacobs Macmillan, 11.00 

Both -Greek and Latin names are given in the stories. Oregon 
List.) 

FOURTH GRADE. 

Anderson. — Stories; edited by Horace Scudder (Riverside Edition.) 

Houghton, 40c 

(These are unattractive in their school editions, but they are 
well edited, with the ibest selections from each writer.) 

Blumenthal, Z. X. K. — -Fairy Tales from the Russian ... Rand 40c 

FranciUon.— Oods and Heroes Ginn, 60c 

Holbrook, Florence. — 'Round the year in myth and song. 

Amer. Book Co., 40c 

Johnston, Clifton. — Oak Tree Fairy Book Little, |1.75 

(This is an ezpenslve book because it is hoavy and not well 
bound; but it contains such excellent versions of the best stand- 
ard fairy tales that it can be bought with profit.) 

FIFTH GRADE. 

Arabian Nights. — (Riverside Literature Series) ... .Houghton, 40c 

Grimm.— ^Fairy Tales; edited by Weedon Dutton, |2.00 

Hawthorne, N.— 'Wonder Book (Riverside Edition) .Houghton, 40c 

Ji^wthome, N.— ^anglewood Tales (Riverside Edition.) 

Houghton, 40c 

Peal>ody. — Old Stories Told Anew (Riverside Edition.) 

Houghton, 40c 

(This book serves as a complement to the two volumes by 
Hawthorne and the Hiree books contain all of the best known of 
the Greek myths.) 

Keary.— ^Heroes of Aegard (fiCaomillan Pocket Classics.) 

Macmillan, 25c 

Lang, Andrew. — ^Blue Fairy Book Burt, 76c 

(This edition of tho Blue Fairy Book is less elaborate than the 



DULUTH, MINNESOTA 5 

Longman Edition, but it will wear better and serve eyery purpose 
of the more costly edition.) 

Stockton* Frank. — Fanciful Tales (Scribner School Reading.) 

Scrfbner, 40c 

(Marked by the best of Stockton's qualities; delicacy of fancy; 
gentle but extremely amusing humor and interest of story. Pren- 
Uoe.) 

Scudder, 'Horace. — Book of Legends Houghton, 26c 

(Contains St. Gteorge and the Dragon; Legend of St. Oiristo- 
pher; Flying Dutchman, Seven Sleepers of Bphesus; William Tell; 
and a dozen others.) 

SIXTH GRADB. 

Baldwin. James. — Story of Siegfried Scribner, |1.50 

Barber, G. E. — -Wagner Opera Stories. .Public School Pu'b. Ck>. 50c 

Klngsley, Charles. — Greek Heroes Ginn, 30c 

Mabie, H. W. — ^Norse Stories Rand, 40c 

Norton, C. E., Ed. — Heart of Oak Books, Book 4 Heath, 50c 

Lang, Andrew.—^Book of Romance Longmans' $1.50 

(Stories of the Round Table and Robin Hood.) 

Wiggin, K. D. — ^Magic Casements McClure, $1.50 

(Contains many fairy stories not found in other collections.) 



Classics Retold. 



Cervantes, Saavedra Miguel de. Don Quixote; retold by Judge 

Parry; Illustrated by Walter Crane Lane, $1.50 

Frost, W. H. — ^Knights of the Round Table Scribner, $1.60 

Kelman, Janet. — Stories from the Faerie Queen (Told to the 

Children Series) Dutton, $1.50 

Lamb, Charles and Mary. — Tales from Shakespeare. .. .Burt, 50c 

Malory, Sir.— ^King Arthur, (Riverside Series) Houghton, 50c 

Scott, Sir Walter. — Red Cap Tales; retold by Crockett 

Macmillan, 50c 

(Stories admira'bly told of Waverly, Guy Mannering, Rob Roy 
and the Antiquary. An excellent introduction to Scott.) 

Pyle, Howard. — Some Merry Adventures of Robin Hood (Scrib- 
ner School Reading) Scribner, 50c 

Wilson. — Story of the Cid Lee, $1.25 



• 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 

Poetry, 



FIRST ORADB. 



Caldecott, Richard. — ^Hey-Diddle-Diddle Picture Book.Warne, $1.25 

(Tbe action and coloring, combined with the Motiier Goose 
rhymes, mak^e these ideal picture books for the children.) 

Crane, Walter. — Mother Hubbard's Picture Book Lane, $1.25 

(Buy at least one of the Crane Picture books. Crane's delight 
in the "historic ornament" pervades even his illnstrations for 
children, but in this volume there is less of the elaborate decor- 
ation, and his Mother Hubbard is an altogether satisfactory like- 
ness oi the Mother Ooose character, j 

Greenaway, Kate. — Under the Window Warne, $1.25 

(Valuable especially for the dainty colored pictures of quaint 
English children. Hedge rows, thatched cottages and hi^ stone 
walls all suggest "Sunny England.") 

Field, Eugene. — ^Eugene Field Book; verses; stories and let- 
ters for school reading. (Scribner School Reading.) 

Scrlbner, 50c 

Norton, Charles E. — Heart of Oak Books, Book 1.... Heath, 30c 

(Chosen from the masterpieces of English literature with spe- 
cial reference to the development of a taste for good reading.) 

Stevenson, K. L.— <}hild's Garden of Verse, illustrated by 

Mars and Squire Rand, 50c 

(An attractive edition in colors.) 

SBCOND AND THIRD GRADES. 

Alexander and Blake. — Graded Poetry, Book 1-2 and 3 

Maynard, Merrill, 20c 

Hosard. — Three Tears with the Poets Houghton, 75c 

Morrison, M. J. — Songs and Rhymes for the Little Ones.... 

Page, $1.00 

MoMurry and Cook. — Songs of the Tree^tops and Meadows 

Public School Publishing Co. 40c 

Sherman. — Little Folks Lyrics Houghton, $1.25 

Waterman, S. D.~^raded Memory Selections. .ESduc. Pub. Co., 25c 

Wiggin, K. D. — Comp. Pinafore Palace MoClure, $1.50 

FOURTH AND FIFTH GRADES. 

Blake and Alexander.-— Oraded Poetry, Book 4 and 5 

Maynard Merrill, 20c 



DULUTH, MINNESOTA 7 

Dodge, M. M. — ^When Life is Young Century, $1.25 

LoYejoy. — 'Nature in Verse; a Poetry Reader Silyer, $1.60 

(Good selections for primary gradee.) 

Matttiews. — Songs of American Patriotism (Scribner School 

Reading) Scribner, 50c 

SIXTH GRADE. 

Bellamy and Goodwin.— Open Sesame, Book 1 Ginn, 75c 

Blake and Alexander. — Graded Poetry, Book 5 iMaynard . Merril, 30c 

Burt, M. B., Gomp. — ^Poems Every Child Should Know 

Boubleday, $1.50 

(Selections of the best poems for all times for young people.) 

LeRow, C. B.—iPieces for Byery Occasion Hinds, $1.26 

Riley, J. W. — Rhymes of Childhood iBobbs, Merrill, $1.25 

Shute, B. — ^Land of Song, Vol. 2 Silver, 40c 

Van Dyke, H. — ^Van Dyke Book; ed. by Burt, (Scribner 

School Reading.^ Scribner, 50c 

Wiggin ^nd Smith.— ^Posy Ring McClure, $2.00 

SEVENTH AND EIGHTH GRADES. 

Bellamy and Goodwin.— Open Sesame, Book 2 and 8.. Ginn. 75c 

Page, Curtis Hidden. — Chief American Poets .... Houghton, $1.75 
(Contains the best poems of the great American iK>ets.) 

Stedman, B. €.— American Anthology Houghton, $2.00 

(A collection of the beet of the many writers of poetry in 
America.) 

Stevenson, B and B. — Days and Deeds Baker, $1.50 

(A collectloA of the poems from American and British poets for 
special days.) 

Wiggin, K. D. — Gblden Numbers McClure, $2.00 



Story Books. 



r 

FIRST GRADE. 



Arnold, S. L. and Gilbert, C. B. — Stepping Stones to Litera- 
ture; a first reader Silver, 60c 

(A very attractive IHtle reader; the literature is of the best.) 
Adelborg, Ottilia.— <;iean Peter of Grubby lea .... Liongmans, $1.00 

(A large volume of the picture-book type in colors. It is a 
nonsense tale in verse and has for its theme, cleanliness.) 



8 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 

Blalsdell, E. A. and Blaisdell, H. F. — Child Life Readers; 

First reader Macmlllaii, 25c 

(Based on tbe child's Interests. Suggestions for seat-work and 
phonetic drills. Poems and tales of real value as literature.) 
Oregon list. 

Baldwin, James. — ^Fairy Reader (Eclectic readings.) 

American Book Oo., ZOc 

(The ten famous stories in this 'book have been adapted from 
Grimm and Andersen for school work and are expressed in such a 
simple manner that they can be easily understood by the youngest 
pupils.) Oregon Ust. 

Burgess, Qelett.— <k>ops and how to be them; a manual of 
manners for i>oiite infants, Inculcating many Juyenile 
Ylrtues both by precept and example 8tokes, $1.50 

Grover, B. O. — Art Literature; a Primer Atkinson, 80c 

Grorer, E. O. — ^Art Literature, Book 1 Atkinson, 30c 

(Uncommonly successful children's readers; each contains about 
forty excellent reproductions of paintings. The easy text, original 
or selected fits the pictures.) N. Y. 

Grover, E. O.— iFolk lore Readers; a Primer Atkinson, 30c 

(Will rank among the few good primers. (Journal of Pedagogy.) 
Based on the Mother Croose stories.) 

Grover, E. O. — Sunbonnet Babies Primer Rand, 40c 

(Illustrated with the original "Sunbonnet Babies" in colors.) 

Holbrook, Florence.^Hlawatha Primer Houghton, 40c 

Mother Groose Nursery Rhymes; selected by Louise Ohl^olm. 

(Told to the children series.) Dutton, 50c 

(This little book is characteristically a child's book, being of 
small size with large type and pretty colored Illustrations. It will 
prove more satisfactory than the more elaborate editions published 
by the same house.) 

Potter, Beatrix. — ^Peter Rabbit * Wame, 50c 

(There are about eight of these tiny books in the series. All 
are great favorites with the children with their simple narrative 
style of story and a bright colored picture to face each page of 
text. The binding of the books does not wear well. Peter Rabbit 
is published by the Altemus people in a stronger binding but this 
edition suffers through the reproduction of the pictures which are 
inferior to the Warre edition.) 

Williams, Sherman.— Choice Literature for Primary Grades; 

Book one Amer. Book Co., 25c 

(Intended to foster a taste for good literature. Contains classics 
only.) Oregon List. 

SECOND GRADE. 

Arnold, Sarah and Gilbert, C. B. — Stepping Stones to Litera- 
ture; a Second Reader Silver, 40< 



DULUTH, MINNESOTA 9 

Blalfldell, E. A. and Blalsdell, M. F. — Child Life in Tale and 

Fable; Book 2; Second Reader Macmillan, 35c 

Bingham, Madge. — Mother Goose Vllage Rand, 45c 

(This book is published in two sizes; the smaller one, indi- 
cated here, is the more satisfactory one for children's use and 
has all the charm of color that the larger one possesses. The 
Mother Goose characters are here woven into short etories.) 

Fletcher, Robert. — ^Marjorie and Her Papa Century, -ILOO 

(Marjorle and Her Papa are great comrades and what they do 
to amuse themselyes is well told in diary form by the little girl 
and illustrated by Reginald Birch. The simple narrative style of 
the story makes it readable for little folks.) 

Grover, E. C— 'Art Literature Readers; Book 2 (by E. O. 

Glover and F. E. Cutter) Atkinson, 40c 

May, Sophie. — -Little Prudy Lee, 20c 

(These books, of which this is but the first of the series, are a 
harmless sort of literature, but better not buy more than the one 
as there is such a sameness in them all.) 

Swett, iSophie. — Littlest One of the Browns Estes, 60c 

(The story of how eight-year-old Beatrice took care of the 
baby.) 

THIRD GRADE. 

Abbott, Jacob. — Boy on a Farm Amer. Book Co., 45c 

(Edited from the larger works of the same author, "Rollo at 
work" and "Rollo at play." The anthor is an old time writer 
for children whose books have taught industry, honesty and all 
the manly virtues to three generations of children.) Prentice. 

Arnold, S. L. and Gilbert, C. B. — Stepping Stones to Litera- 
ture; a third reader Silver, 50c 

Asplnwall, Alicia. — Short Stories for Short People, Dutton, $1.50 

(Humorously fantastic tales; the best of this class of modern 
fairy stories.) 

Baldwin, James. — Fifty Famous Stories Retold Amer. Book Co. 35c 

(One of the few indispensable books in a children's library. 
Most of the stories have for their subject certain romantic episodes 
in the lives of well known heroes and famous men or in the his- 
tory of a people.) Prentice. 

Cox, Palmer. — The Brownie Book Century, $1.50 

(Buy at least one of these famous books. It Is to be regretted 
that they are not more strongly bound as their popularity among 
the children gives them a severe test.) 

Coolidge, Susan. — ^^Mlschief's Thanksgiving Little, $1.25 

(The nine stories are all good. "Mammy's Substitute," is a 
good Civil War story for girls; ''How the umbrella ran away with 
Effle," is for Christmas and "The girls of the Far North," pic- 
tures Sweden, Lapland and Finland.) Oregon List. 



10 8TATB NORMAL SCHOOL 

Defoe, Daniel. — ^Roblneon Crusoe (Standard Literature Series) 

University Publidiing Co., 5(k; 
(An abridged and simplified edition of this classic.) 

Headland, I. T. — Our Little Chinese Cousin Page, 60c 

Lindsay, Maud. — ^Mother Stories Milton, Bradley, 11.00 

(Stories embodying some of the truths of the Mother Play.) 

Mulock, Dlna Craik. — ^Little Lame Prince Heath. 30c 

(The story of Prince Dolor of Nomansland who floated out of 
Hopeless Tower on the wonderful trayeling cloak of Imagination. 
An allegorical tale teaching patience and kingship.) Prentice. 

Peary, Josephine.— -Snow Baby Stokes, $1.20 

(A true story of the Arctic explorer's little girl, who was bom 
among the icebergs. The book is illustrated from photographs 
which makes it especially instructive and interesting.) Pinentice. 

Richards, L. E. — ^Tive Minute Stories Estes, $1.25 

(Especially useful for the "story hour time" in the school 
room, dontalns splendid material for "special day programs.") 

Scudder, Horace. — Verse and Prose for Beginners in Reading. 

Houghton, 2&c 

Williams, dherman.—^hoice Literature, Book 2. Amer. Book Co. 25c 

(Contains some of Grimm's stories, five of Andersen's stories, 
Ruskin's "King of the (3olden River," and cm excellent collection 
of poems.) 

FOURTH GRADE. 

Brown.— Lonesomest Doll Houghton, 85c 

(A fanciful story of a lonely little queen, her lonelier, splendid 
doll, her porter's happy little daughter and the remarkable adven- 
tures of the three.) Prentice. 

Diaz, A. M. — ^William Henry Letters Lothrop, |1.00 

(Freckles, red hair and a quick temper are William Henry's 
failings, (but they weigh little against honesty, truthfulness and 
loyalty. The former make his heart sore many times, but the 
latter win the love of his schoolmates and make glad Uie home 
to which his letters go. Prentice.) 

Dodgson, Rev. Chas. — (Lewis C!arrol Pseud.) Alice in Won- 
derland (Canterbury Classics) Rand, 30c 

(This edition is well edited and illustrated; more elaborate 
editions are published by Macmillan.) 
Gladden, Washington. — Santa Claus on a Lark Century, |1.25 

(A collection of splendid stories, full of the true Christmas 
spirit.) 

Harris, Joel C. — ^Uncle Remus; his songs and his sayings 

Appleton, $2.00 

(Stories told to the children by the old negro Uncle Remus, of 
the sly tricks Brer Rabbit, Brer Fox cmd the other animals played 
upon each other.) 



DULUTH, MINNESOTA 11 

Otis, James. — ^Taby Tyler Harper, 60c 

(The story of a little boy with a circus company; his dislUus- 
sions and escape.) Baker. 

Page, T. N. — ^The Page Story Book (School Reading) 

Scribner, bOc 

(iStorles selected .from the author's yarlous works and adapted 
for school use. The book includes "Two LltUo Confederates;" "A 
Little Confederate Hero;" "Jack and Jake;" and "The Christmas 
Peace.") 

Sewell, Anna. — iBlack Beauty (Standard Literature Series) . . 

University Pub. Co., 50c 

Smith, U. P. W.-^olly Qood Times Little, $1.25 

(A wholesome story of child-life on a farm.) 

Stoddard, W. O. — Two Arrows Harper, 60c 

(One of the few really good Indian stories and one that makes 
a strong plea for the education of the Indian.) Prentice. 

Segur, S. R. — Story of a Donkey; abridged from the French 
by Charles Welsh. Similar to Black Beauty. (Home and 
School Classics.) Heath, 20c 

Wyss, Rev. J. D. Ed. — Swiss Family Robinson Ginn, 45c 

FIFTH GRADE. 

Alcott. — ^Eight Cousins Little, |1.50 

(The story of a little orphan girl and her numerous boy cousins 
and of their companionship. Full of interest and benefit to any 
boy or girl who is old enough to read it.) 

Aloott.--^Little Men Little, f 1.50 

(Little Men, It is safe to say, has done as much to make boys 
and girls good as any story that ever was written.) Prentice. 

Baylor, F. C. — Juan and Juanlta Houghton, $1.50 

(The story of the capture of two llttlo Mexican children by the 
Indians, their escape and journey back to their own people. A 
good picture of Indian and Mexican life is incidentally ^Iven.) 

Brooks, E. S. — Master of the Strong Hearts Dutton, $1.50 

(Thrilling tale of Custer's last rally in the valley of the Little 
Big Horn, and his defeat by Sitting Bull, the medicine chief of 
the Sioux and crafty master of the Strong Hearts.) Pittsburgh. 

Brooks, Noah. — (Boy (Emigrants Scribner, $1.25 

(Adventures of some boys who started from Illinois to cross the 
plains shortly after the breaking out of the "gold fever" in 
California.) Hardy. 

Burnett, F. H. — Sara Crewe Scribner, $1.00 

(The happenings of this story are quite unreal and Sara is, to 
say the least, a very unusual little girl; but the ideals of the srtory 
are those of gentle breeding and courage and the story is intensely 
interesting.) Prentice. 



12 STATS NORMAL SCHOOL 

Drummond, Henry. — ^Monkey That Would Not Kill. (Library 

Binding.) Dodd. $1.00 

(Pranks and hairbreadth escapes af a mischievous monkey who 
"won't hang, won't drown, won't shoot.") Pittsburgh. 

Jamison, Mrs. C. V. — ^Lady Jane Century, $1.60 

(The experiences of a little Southern girl, made an orphan by 
her mother's death and left to the care of strangers in the French 
quarter of New Orleans.) 

Stoddard, W. O.— Dab Kinser Scribner, $1.50 

(The "story of a growing boy." The book is written in the 
author's usual style of energy and good cheer.) 

Thurston, A. C. — ^The Bishop's Shadow Revell, $1.00 

(The story of the unconscious Influence of Bishop Phillips 
Brooks in reshaping the character of a street waif. The book con- 
tains all the adventure of an Alger book, but hcu9 a much higher 
tone and contains none of the improbabilities so characteristi<; 
of the Alger 'books.) 

Wiggin, K. D. — Birds' Christmas Carol Houghton, 50c 

(A story of mixed pathos and fun; the pathos in the life of an 
invalid girl; the fun in the amusing performances of a large family 
of poor children whom she befriends. A. L. A.) 

8IXTH GRADE. 

Abbott, A. B. — ^A Frigate's Namesake Century, $1.00 

(Essex Thurston, aged twelve, born with a real love for the 
sea, keeps her enthusiasm through her school days and we last 
see her aboard the Wineegan as it speeds down the ways into the 
sea beyond. This book has proved of value in interesting girls 
in naval history.) Prentice. 

Alcott, L. M. — Jack and Jill Little, $1.00 

(Jack is a rich little boy, Jill is a poor little girl and they are 
friends. In a coasting accident both are injured. They have a 
long, trying time of sickness before they regain health and the 
story shows how the love and thoughtfulness of their friends 
helped them through this period. The story shows also the possi- 
bility of hearty, sensible boy-and-girl friendship.) Prentice. 

Alcott, L. M. — Old-fashioned Thanksgiving Little, $1.00 

(Short stories.) 

Alcott, L. M. — Under the Lilacs Little, $1.00 

Alcott L. M. — Lulu's Library 3 Vols each, $1.00 

(A collection of "life-lesson" stories without obtrusion of the 
moral.) 

Dodge, M. M. — ^Hans Brinker Scribner, $1.50 

(Dutch patience, loyalty and steadfastness are here exemplified 
in Hans and his brave mother.) 



DULUTH, MINNESOTA 13 

Ruskln, John. — King of the Qolden Rirer and Ottier Wonder 

Stories Houghton, 25c 

(In the name-fitory, "The inheritance which was lost by cruelty 
was regained by love." Besides Ruskin, BJornson, Andersen, 
Qrimm and Scudder are represented in this little book.) Frentice. 

Seawoll. M. B. — ^Little Jarvis Appleton, $1.00 

(The pathetic story of a little midshipman, gay and careless, yet 
ready to answer with his life at honor's oall. Prentice.) 

Stuart, R. McE. — Solomon Crow's Christmas Pockets and Oth- 
er Tales Harper, $1.25 

(Stories of Southern child-life.) 

Taggart, M. A.— ^Little Grey House MoClure, $1.25 

(The story of three true-hearted, attractive young girls, who 
make light of family misfortunes and thus tide over evil days.) 

Thompson, D. P. — Oreen Mountain Boys Burt, $1.00 

(An old romance of the settlement of Vermont, embodying hero 
tales of Vermont, and stirring episodes like the Capture of Ticon- 
deroga.) Baker. 

Tomlinson, T. T.— 'Washington's Young Aids Wilde, $1.50 

True, J. P. — Scouting for Washington Little, ^i.OO 

(A story of the days ol Sumter and Tarleton.) 
Wade, W. H.— Our Little Russian Cousin Page, 60c 

Ward. — Gypsy Breynton Dodd, $1.50 

(The story of a tom-boy girl, whose kindness and cheer make 
her a desirable companion for young people.) 

Wilkins, M. E. — 'Toung Lucretia and Other Stories. .Harper, $1.25 

(The sturdlness and frugality of New England child-life of forty 
years ago, as depicted in these stories, form a riiarp contrast to 
child-^llfe of today. The comparison is not without profit to our 
modem young people.) 

Wiggin, K. D. — Polly Oliver's Problem; A Story for Girls. 

(Riverside School Library) Houghton, 60c 

(Lively story of a bright girl's solution of the question of self- 
support.) N. IT. 

Wiggin, K. D. — iRefbeoca of Sunnybrook Farm. . . .Houghton, $1.25 

Wiggin, K. D.-^Summer in a Canon Houghton, $1.2<6 

(A California story of camip^life undertaken by a party of girls 
and iboya.) 

SEVENTH GRADE. 

Alcott, L. hL, — (Little Women Little, $1.00 

AlcoU, L. M. — Old-fashioned Girl Little, $1.00 

Andrews, iMra. M. R. S. — ^The Perfect Triibune Scribner, 50c 

(An incident connected with Lincoln's (Gettysburg speech furn- 
ishes the subject for this fine short story. Oregon List.) 



14 STATB NORMAL SCHOOL 

Boyesen, H. H. — ^Boyhood in Norway Scrlbner, $1.25 

(iShoirt stories of boy-life in Norway by a true son of the Vik- 
ings. Prentice.) 

Clemens, S. L. — (Mark Twain pseud.) Prince and the Pauper. 

Harper, $1.75 

(Through a misadventure, the boy, afterwards Bdward VI. of 
England, changes place with a street waif.) N. Y. 

Channing, B. M.— «Winifred West Wilde, $1.00 

(Wholesome story of a young girl violinist.) 

Cooper, J. F. — lYie Deerslayer, illus. by H. M. Brock. (Illus- 
trated pocket classics.) Macmillan, 80c 

Cooper, J. F. — liast of the Mcii leans (Riverside School Lib- 
rary) Houghton, 70c 

(A good school edition of this classic.) 

Deland, B. D. — Oakleigh Harper, $1.25 

(Unaffected story, with sentiment but no sentimentality, for 
girls just entering the novel-reading period.) Ptttsbnrgh. 

Dodge, M. M. — 'Donald and 'Dorothy Century, $1.50 

(Entertaining every day doings of a merry boy and girl, about 
whom an interesting mystery lingers.) N. Y. 

Dickens, Charles. — 'Little Nell; edited by E. E. Hale (Standard 

Literature Series) University Pub. Co., 60c 

Dickens, Charles. — ^Paul Dombey; ed. by E. E. Hale (Standard 

Literature Series) University Pub. Co., 50c 

Dickens, Charles. — ^David Copperfield; ed. by E. E. Hale. 

(Standard Literature Series.) University Pub. Co., 50c 

Dickens, Charles. — Christmas Stories; ed. by E. E. Hale. 

(Standard Literature Series) University Pub. Co., 50c 

(These are abridged editions of Dickens' more popular books, 
and will serve as a very good introduction to Dickens.) 

Gtoss, W. L. — ^Tom Clifton (Young People Series) Crowell, $1.50 
(Western boys in Grant's and Sherman's armies '61-'65.) 

King, Capt. Charles. — Cadet Days Harper, $1.25 

(A story of life at West Point, both interesting and instruotive.) 

Kipling, Rudyard. — Jungle Book Century, $1.50 

(Mowgli, the hero of the most of the stories, is a man-child 
reared among the wolf-^pack and to whom the fierce law ot the 
Jungle is an open book. Tlie Jungle Book is a book to be felt, 
not described.) Prentice. 

Scott, Sir Walter. — ^Ivanhoe ('Riverside School Library) 

Houghton, 70c 

Scott, Sir Walter. — ^Kenil worth; Abridged (Electlc Readings) 

American Book Co., 50c 



DULUTH, MINNESOTA 15 

Stevenson, R. L. — ^Treasure Island (Canterbury Classics) 

Rand, 60c 

(A good edition of this exciting story of the search for hidden 
treasure.) 

Trowbridge, J. T. — Tinkham Brothers Tide-Mill Lee, $1.25 

(Mr. Trowbridge may not >be a great writer, bat he goes directly 
to the boyish heart Prentice.) 

Warner, C. D. — Being a Boy Houghton, $1.00 

(A fine picture of New Bngland life of the better type, as seen 
by the boy and remembered by the man. Baker.) 

Zollinger. — ^Widow O'Callihan's Boys MoClurg, |1.25 

SIGHTH GRADE. 

Alcott, L. M. — My Boys Little, $1.00 

Alcott, L. M. — Spinning-wheel Stories Little, $1.26 

Aldrich, T. B. — Story of a Bad Boy (Riyerside School Library) 

Houghton, 70c 

(Story of a mischleyous, but truly good, natural New Ehigland 
boy. Puritanism is characterized. N. Y.) 

Barbour. — 'Behind the Line Appleton, $1.20 

(A story of college life, and foot ball.) 

Coffin, C. C. — iWlnning His Way Estes, |1.25 

(How a plucky boy not only won his way through poverty and 
trials, but did brave deeds as a soldier in the Union Army. Pltts- 
tmrgh.) 

Davis, R. H. — Storiee for Boys Scribner, |1.00 

(Well written stories for the older boys.) 

Gates, Eleanor. — Biography of a Prairie Girl Century, $1.50 

(A very graphic account of chlld-Ufe — ^its hardships and plain 
living on a Northwest prairie twenty-five years ago.) 
Hughes, Rupert. — ^Lakerim Athletic Club Century, $1.60 

Jackson, Mrs. H. H. — iRamona Little, |i.50 

(Written to expose the injustice of the United States Govern- 
ment's policy towards the Indians. The scenes are laid in South- 
em California and the hero is a mission Indian. The book gives 
a splendid picture of oM^fashioned life on the Spanish rancho, the 
household, the pastoral occupations and the religious observances. 
Baker.) 

Kipling, Rudyard. — ^Kim Doubleday, $1.50 

(A child will get more or the true Indian from the book that he 
can gather from volumes of travel.) 

Kingsley. — -Westward Ho! (Standard Literature Series) 

(Selected portions of this book.) ... .University Pub. Co., 50c 



16 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 

Smit!i» F. H.— Colonel Carter of CarteraviUe. . . .Houghton, $1.25 
(A splendid character sketch of an old Southern gentleman.) 

Wiggln, K. D. — •Penelope's Progress Houghton, $1.25 

(The experiences of three bright young women in their travels 
through Scotland. Their keen appreciation of the humorous and 
the avidity with which they seek out Scottish history makes the 
book both highly entertaining and instructiye.) 



Natural Science. 

FIRST AND SECOND GRADES. 

Bass, Florence. — ^Nature Stories for Toung Readers; Book 1, 

Animal Life; Book 2, Plant Life Heath, eadi 35c 

Burt, M. E., Ed. — ^Nature Studies from Burroughs; Volumes 

1 and 2 Ginn, each, 25c 

Chambers, Robert. — Out-door Land Harper, $1.00 

(An attractive book of the story book type with colored Illus- 
trations and Just enough of the nature study in its text to make 
it more than a mere story ibook.) 

Chase. — Stories from Birdland, 2 Vols Educ. Pub. Co., 50c 

Parker and Helm.— ^Play-time and Seed-time Appleton, 35c 

Pierson, Mrs. C. D. — ^Among the Farm-Tard People. .Dutton, $1.00 

(Kindergarten stories pleasant to read and hear and not with- 
out their moral lesson. Will awaken kind feeling for farm ani- 
mals.) Oregon List. 

Pierson, Mrs. C. D. — Among the Meadow People. . . .Button, $1.00 

(Stories to read aloud to little children; told with some humor 
and muoh imagin«itlon. About the birds, insects and other small 
animals.) 

Wright, J. McN. — Seaside and Wayside No. 1 Heath, 35c 

(The first in a series of Nature Readers "Describes crabs, 
waeps, apiders, bees and some univalve mollusks.") 

THIRD GRADE. 

Brown, E. V. — Stories of the Woods and Fields Globe, 45c 

Brown, K. L.— ^Alice and Tom Heath, 40c 

(Nature study as undertaking by two little children in a simpU 
form.) 

Dopp, Katherine. — ^Tree dwellers Hand, 45c 

(The aim of these books is to give a view of the main steps in 
the early progress of the race. The language la simple, lllustra- 
tiona ample and "things to think about after each lesson wiU 
stimulate thought and action.") 



DULUTH, MINNESOTA 17 

Holbrook, Florence. — -Book of Nature Myths Houghton, 45t! 

(A reader of the folk-lore of primitive races.) 

ICorley, Margaret. — Seed Babies Oinn, 25c 

(Treats of beane, melons, peas, nuts and eggs.) 

Noel, M.— Buz Holt, $1.00 

(The life of a honey bee told in a simple form.) 

Parker and Helm. — On the farm Appleton, 40c 

Wright, J. McN. — Seaside and Wayside, No. 2 Heath, 35c 

FOURTH GRADB. 

Andrews, Jane. — Stories Mother Nature told her Children. . 

Ginn, 50c 

Bailey, L. H. — iFirat Lessons with Plants Macmillan, 40c 

(An abridgment of the author's "Lessons on Plants." One of 
the best simple books on botany.) 

Craik, G. M. — So-^fat and Mew^mew; edited by Lucy Wheelock 

(Home and School Classics) Heath, 20c 

(Story of a family dog and cat. "The deyelopment of amiable 
traits of character from most disagreeable ones is told in so 
skillful a fashion as to hold up a mirror to many fretful and dis- 
contented children.") Oregon Iiist. 

Dana, Mrs. W. S.-— Plants and their Children Amer. Book Co., 65c 

Dopp, Katherine. — >Early Cave-'Men Rand, 45c 

Eddy, S. J. — ^Friends and Helpers Ginn, 60c 

(Well chosen stories and poems about animals.) 

Kelly, Bftre. A. B. — Short Stories of our Shy Neighbors. (Eclectic 
Readings.) Amer. Book Co., 50c 

Stwin. — Eyes Right Lothrop, $1.25 

(The story of how Johnny and Fred found out things by keeping 
their "eyes rtght.") 

Walker, M. C. — Our Birds and their Nestlings Amer. Book Co. 50c 

FIFTH GRADE. 

Burroughs, John. — Squirrels and other Fur-Searers. (River- 

side School Library.) Houghton, 50c 

« 

Dopp, Katherine. — Later Cave^Men 'Rand, 45c 

(The series in which this book is third is designed to present iu 
narrative form "a generalized view of the main points in the early 
progress of the race." The book has to do with the age of the 
chase. It tells about the migration of the game; why the cave- 
men made changes in their implements and how they made them; 
about the conquest and use of fire and other things which illus- 
trate man's development and increasing mastery. A. L. A.) 



18 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 

Miller, Olive T. — Second Book of Birds Houghton, |1.50 

(Treats of the bird as an indiyidual. Talks about its clothes, 
schooling, food, how it >behayes and how to study it. Colored 
plates.) 

Seton. — iLobo Rag and Vixen (Scribner School Reading) 

Scrlbner, 50c 

Wright, J. McN. — Seaside and Wayside Series No. 3. .Heath, 45c 

SIXTH GRADE. 

Buckley. — iFairyland of Science Appleton, f 1.50 

Comstock, A. B. — ^Ways of the Six-Footed Oinn, 40c 

Dana, Mrs. W. S. — ^How to Know the Wild Flowers. .Scribner, $1.75 

Meadoworoft. — ^A. B. O. oif Electricity Educ. Pub. Co., 50c 

(Endorsed by Bkiison.) 

Needham, J. C. — Out-door Studies Amer. Book Co., 40c 

Porter, J. — Stars in Song and Legend Oinn, 60c 

Seton.— Wild Animals I have Known Scrlbner, |1.50 

Miller, Oliye T. — Second Book of Birds Houghton, |1.50 

SEVENTH AND EIGHTH GRADES. 

Blanchan, N. — -How to Attract the Birds Doubleday, |1.25 

CJhapman. — ^Bird Life Appleton, $2.00 

Roberts, C. G. — Kindred of the Wild Page, |2.00 

St. John. — Things a Boy Should Know About Electricity 

St. John, $1.00 



Occupation and 



Beard, Dan C. — New Ideas for Out-of-Doors; the field and 

forest book Scribner, $2.00 

(Tells how to make kites, herbariums, fire-engines, boats, bridges 
log-house, sleds, etc., and how to camp, pack a horse and do other 
things useful in an out-door life. Oregon.) 

Hale, E. E. — Stories of Invention; told by inventors and their 
friends; (Accounts of the works of inventors in time past; 
the story of the Bessemer steel being of special interest to 
the children of this iron region.) 



DULUTH, MINNESOTA 19 

Htll, C. F. — ^Fighting a Fire Century, $1.50 

(Accounts of the work, organisation, methods, dangers and 
heroism of the New i^ork firemen.) 

Moffat, Cleveland.— Careers of Danger and Daring. .Century, $1.50 

Lane. — Triumphs of Science Oinn, 25c 

Howry, W. A. and Mowry, A. M. — ^American Inventors and In- 

▼entions Silver, 65c 

(Considers in a simple direct way, important topics connected 
with the growth and development of our country; grouping them 
under the headings, heat; light; food; clothing; and letters. Buf- 
falo Library List.) 

Sloane. — ^Electric Toy-Making Henly, $1.00 

Wheeler, C. C. — ^Woodworking for Beginners Putnam, $2.50 

(A book for the older boys who really wish to make things suc- 
cessfully and like a workman." It contains a great variety of 
designs, with detailed directions for their execution. Tells how to 
make toys, houses for animals and furniture. Gives simple direc- 
tions for beginners for house-building and boat-building.) Oregon 
List. 



Geography and Travel. 



FIRST AND SECOND GRADES. 

Carroll, S. W. — ^Around the World; (Geographical Reader, Vol. I. 

Silver, 30c 

(Introduces the Eskimos, North American Indians, Arabs, Dutch, 
Chinese and Japanese. Large clear type; many good pictures. 
Prentice.) 

Dutton, H. B. — In Field and Pasture (World at Work Series) 

Amer. Book Co., 35c 

(Stories about the Pueblo Indians, the Egyptians, the Navajo 
Indians, the Tibetans, the Cubans and other agri<:ultural peoples. 
Oregon IAbL) 

Mott, S. M. and Dutton, M. B. — Fishing and Hunting (World 

at Work Series) Amer. Book Co., 30c 

(Child-life among the present day peoples of the Phillppins 
Islands, Alaska and the Arctics.) 

Smith, M. E. E. — Eskimo Stories Rand, 40c 

(A reader for younger children. To be read by those who have 
heard the Peary stories. Oregon List.) 

THIRU AND FOURTH GRADES. 

Andrews, Jane. — Each and All; The Seven Little Sisters prove 

their sisterhood Ginn, 50c 



20 8TATB NORMAL SCHOOL 

Andrews, Jane.^^Seven little Sisters Who Live on the Round 

Ball that Floats in the Air Oinn, 50c 

(The stories give a vivid picture of child-life in the different 
countries.) 

Carroll, S. W.— Around the World; Geographical Reader, Vol. 2. 

Silver, 45c 

(iSome useful information aiboot Alaska, Mexico, Norway, Sweden 
Switzerland, Cuba, Porto Rico, the Philippines and Hawaii. Pren- 
tice.) 

Schwarts, J. A. — ^Pive Little Strangers and How Tliey Came to 

Live in America Amer. Book Co., 40c 

(Stories of the Pilgrim child — the Indian in America — the 
Chinese lad in San Francisco— the Filipino.) 

Soandlin, C. — 'Hans, the Bsklmo; A Story of Arctic Adventure. 

Silver, 42c 

Shaw, B. R. — 'Big People and Little People of Otiier Lands 

(Eclectic Readings) Amer. Book Co., 30c 

FIFTH AND SIXTH GRADES. 

Badlam, A. B. — Views in Africa (World and Its People) . . . 

'Silver, 72<j 

Coe. F. E. — Modern Europe (World and Its People) Silver, 60c 

Coe, F. E. — Our American Neighbors (World and Its People) 

Silver, 60c 
(Geography of Canada, Mexico, Central and South America.) 

C!arpenter, F. G. — ^Africa (Geographical Readers) 

Amer. Book Co., 60c 

Carpenter, F. G. — -Asia ((Geographical Readers) 

Amer. Book Co., 60c 

Carpenter, F. G. — ^Australasia, Our Colonies and Other Islands 

of the Sea. (Geographical Reader) ... .Amer. Book Ck>., 60c 

Carpenter, F. G.— ^Europe (Geographical Reader) 

Amer. Book Co., 7 Of 

Carpenter, F. G. — South America (Geographical Reader) .... 

Amer. Book Co., 60c 

Carpenter, F. G. — North America (Geographical Reader) .... 

Amer. Book Co., 

(Just the information which intelligent boys and girls want in 
regard to countries; their cities, people, products and marvels af 
natural scenery. Prentice.) 

Chamberlain, J. F.^How We Are Fed; A Gtoog^raphlcal Reader 

Macmillan, 40c 

Chamberlain, J. F. — -How We Are Clothed; A Geographical 

Reader Macmillan, 40c 



DULUTH, MINNESOTA 21 

Chamberlain, J. F. — ^How We Are Sheltered; A Geographical 

Reader Macmillan, 40c 

Campbell, H. L.— Story of Little Jan, the Dutch Boy (Child- 
ren of the World Series.) Bduc. Puh. Co., 26c 

Campbell, H. L. — Story of Little Komrad, the Swiss Boy.... 

Educ. Pub. Co., 25c 

Dodge, M. M. — The Land of Pluck; Stories and Sketches for 

Toung Folk Century, |1.60 

(Bits of travel and history, with some stories of Dutch life. 
Oregvm List.) 

George, M. M., Ed. — ^Little Journey to England (Library of 

Travel) Flanagan, 50c 

(Part I. London and Liverpool. Part II. England and Wales.) 

George, M. M., Ed.— Little Journeys to Balkans, European . 
Turkey and Greece (Library of Travel) Flanagan, 50c 

George, M. M., Ed. — Little Journey to France and dwitzerland 

(Library of Travel) Flanagan, 50c 

George, M. iM., Ed.— 'Little Journey to Germany (Library of 

Travel) Flanagan, 50c 

George, M. M., Ed. — 'Little Journey to Russia and Austria- 
Hungary (Library of Travel) Flanagan, 50c 

George, (M. M., Ed. — ^Little Journey to Cuba (Library of 

Travel) Flanagan, 50c 

(Bound with her "A Little Journey to Porto Rico.") 

George, M. M., Ed. — ^Little Journey to Holland, Belgium and 

Denmark (Library of Travel) Flanagan, 50c 

George, M. M., Ed. — Little Journey to Mexico (Library of 

Travel) Flanagan, 40c 

Hale, E. E. — 'Historic Boston (Home Reading Books) 

Appleton, 50c 

Lane, Mrs. M. A. L., Ed. — ^Toward the Rising Sun; Sketches 
of Life in Eastern Lands. (Youths' Companion Series) 

(Mnn, 25c 

(Life in India, China, Japan, Korea and the East Indies.) 

MoClintock, Samuel. — The Philippines; A Geographical Read- 
er Amer. Book Co., 40c 

(Attractive and accurate.) 

Schwatka, Frederick. — Children of the Cold. New Edition. 

jiJduc. Pu!b. Co., $1.25 

SEVENTH AND EIGHTH GRADES. 

Brassey, A. A.-^Baroness. Voyage in the Sunbeam .. Longmans, 75c 

(From England, via Madeira, Cape de Verde, Rio Janeiro, Straits 
of Bfagellan, South Sea and Sandwich Islands, Japan, China, Ceylon 
and Mediterranean. N. Y.) 



22 STATE NOKMAL SCHOOL 

Ballen, E. T. — Cruise of the Oactialot; Around the World After 

Sperm Whales Crowell, 60c 

(lEnglish sailor's cruise in a New Bedford whaler. Spirited, 
graphic pictures of methods, dangers and delights. N. Y.) 

Dana, R. H. — Two Tears before the Mast (RiTendde School 

Library) Houghton, 70c 

Du Ohaillu, P. B. — ^Land of the Long Night Scribner, |2.00 

(Winter journey by reindeer, sledge and on skiis to northern 
Scandinavia. Describes adventures with wolves and bears, life 
with the queer little Lapps, etc. N. Y.) 

Lane, Mrs. M. A. L. — ^Northern Europe (Youths' Convpanion 

Series) Oinn, 25c 

Lane, Mrs. M. A. L. — -Under Sunny Skies (Youths' ComiMuiion 

Series) Ginn, 26c 

Lummis, C. F. — ^A Tramp Across a Continent. . . .Scribner, $1.25 
(Full of adventure and lively description of the southern route 
from Ohio to California.) 

Lummis, C. F. — Strange Lands Near Home (Youths' Com- 
panion Series) Oinn, 26c 

(Chiefly about Mexico and South America). 

Straubenmuller, Oustave— Home Qeography of New York 

City Ginn, 60c 



Biography. 



FIRST AND SECOND OBADE8. 

Chase, Annie. — tBayhood of Famous Americans (American 

Biographical Series) Educ. Pub. Co., 40c 

Rame, L. — Child of Urbino Educ. Pu:b. Co., 60c 

Stories of American Pioneers Amer. Pub. Co., 60c 

(Stories of Boone, Clark, Fremont and Carson.) 

Stories of Great Men (American Biographical Series.) (Co- 
lumbus, Washington, Penn and Putnam.) .Educ. Pub. Co., 60c 

Shaw, E. S.— ^Discoverers and Explorers (Eclectic Readings.) 

Amer. Book Co., 40c 

THIRD GRADE. 

Baldwin, James — ^Flfty Famous Stories Retold Amer. Book Co., 4(lc 

Cravens, Francis. — Story of Lincoln Pub. Sch. Pub. Co., 36c 

(A short biography told for little children.) 



DULUTH, MINNB80TA 23 

Egffleston, E. — Stories of Great Americans for little Amer- 

oans Amer. Book Co., 40c 

Honie and Scobey.— 8torles of Great Artiste Amer. Book Co., 40c 

Home and fioobey. — Stories of Great Musicians 

Amer. Book Co., 40c 

Kupfer, G. H. — ^Llyes and stories worth remembering (Ekslec- 

tic Readings) Amer. Book Co., 45c 

(Tales from real life and from masterpieces of poetry and 
prose. Among the blogrophles are sketches of Steyenson Night- 
ingale, Socrates, Charles and Mary Lamb, Goldsmith, Palissy the 
potter and Elizabeth Fry.) Prentice. 

FOURTH GRADE. 

Tappan, E. M. — Alfred the Great. In the Days of King Alfred 

Lothrop, 11.00 

Baldwin, James.^Abraham Lincoln Amer. Book Co., 60c 

Baldwin, James. — George Washington Amer. Book Co., 60c 

Brooks, E. S. — ^True Story of Lincoln .Lothrop, $1.60 

Brooks, E. S. — True Story of Franklin Lothrop, $1.60 

Brooks, E. S. — True Story of Washington Lothrop, $1.60 

Brooks, E. S. — True Story of Columbus Lothrop, $1.60 

Brooks, E. S. — True Story of U. S. Grant Lothrop, $1.60 

Foe, Eugenie. — Boy Life of Napoleon Lothrop, $1.60 

(A pleasing introduction to the life of Napoleon; translated 
and adapted from the French of Mme. Foa by E. S. Brooks.) 

Haaren, J. H. and Poland A. B. — ^Famous Men of Rome 

University Pub. Ca, 60c 

Haaren, J. H. and Poland A. B. — Famous Men of Greece 

Umyersity Pub. Co., 60c 

(Presents stories of braye 'deeds. The tales are both legendary 
and historic.) Oregon List. 

Hunter, M. Van B. — Stories of Famous Children Ormsby, $1.00 

Nansen, F. — Bull, J. B. Fridtjof Nansen Heatfti, 80c 

(The story briefly told of Nansen's youth; early youth, man- 
hood and his adyentures In the Arctic regions. About twenty 
pictures, showing Nansen and his ship in Arctic regions add to the 
attractlyeness of the book.) 

Marco Polo. — Travels of Marco Polo; abridged (School Read- 
ing) Appleton, 60c 

Rooseyelt, T. — The Roosevelt Book (Scrlbner School Read- 
ing) Scrlbner, 40c 

(The Introduction contains a very good sketch of President 



24 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 

Rooeevelt by Robert Bridges and among the selections by the 
president himself, are sketches of Grant, Boone and some of the 
Rough Riders.) 

FIFTH GRADB. 

Andrews, Jane. — Ten Boys Who Lived on the Road from 

Lfong Ago to Now Olnn, 50c 

Baldwin, James. — Thirty More Famous Stories Retold 

Amer. Book Ck)., 50c 

Tappan, E. M. — ^Elizabeth, Queen of England. In the Days 

of Queen Elizabeth Lothrop, $1.00 

Franklin, Benjamin. — 'Autobiography of Franklin's Life from 
the point where the biography ends; drawn chiefly from 
his letters; with notes. (Rlyerslde Literature Series.) 

Houghton, 40c 

(Not only one of the most widely read and readable books in 
our language but has had the distinction of enriching the litera- 
ture of nearly every other. Blgelow.) 

Lincoln, A. — Schurz, Carl; Abraham Lincoln. (Riveraide 

Literature Series.) Houghton, 40c 

Joan of Arc. — ^Andrew Lang. The Story of Joan of Arc. 

(Children's Heroes Series) Dutton, 50c 

Kelly, M. D. — Raleigh, Sir Walter. Story of Walter Raleigh. 

(Ohlldren Heroes Series) Dutton, 50c 

Scudder, H. E. — ^Washington. George Washington; an histor^ 

leal biography. (Riverside Literature Series) .. Houghton, 40c 

(One of the best lives of Washington for young readers and 
among the best of the one volume lives of Washington for read- 
ers of any age. Larned.) 

Tappan, E. M. — William the Oonqnerer. In the Days of 

William the Conqueror Lotiirop, $1.00- 

SEVENTH AND EIGHTH GRADES. 

Alcott, L. M. — Life and Letters of Louisa May Alcott; edited 

by E. D. Cheney Little, $1.50 

(Home life of the author of Little Women; her experiences as 
an army nurse, struggles as an author, etc. N. Y.) 

Barnes, Jas. — ^Hero of Erie Appleton, $1.00 

(The story of Commodore Perry's Victory.) 

Custer, Elizabeth. — Boy General. (Scribner School Reading.) 

(The Life of Major George Custer.) Scribner, 50c 

Abbott, J. S. C. — Crockett. David Crockett Dodd, 75c 

Ck>ldsmlth. — Irving Washington. Oliver Goldsmith; ed. by 

H. E. Coblentz. (Heath's English Classics) Heath, 50c 



DULUTH, MINNESOTA 25 

Mabie, H. W. — Heroes Every Child Should Know . Doubleday, |1.50 

Muhlbach, Louise. — Marie Antoinette and Her Son. . Applaton, $1.00 

Napoleon.— 'Hathaway, E. V. Napoleon, the Little Oorsican. 

(Little Lives of Great Men.) Rand, 50c 

Wright, «. C. — Children's Stories In American Literature. 

(Scribner School Reading) 2 Vols Scribner, ea. 50c 

Riis, Jacob. — 'Making of an American. (Macmillan's Stand- 
ard Library) Grosset. 50c 

(An attractive autobiography of a very Interesting life. Child- 
ren will become greatly interested in the book if it is read aloud 
to them.) 



History. 



SECOND GRADE. 

Davis. — Stories of the United States Educ. Pub. Co., 40c 

(Colonial life. Well illustrated.) 
Dawee.— nStories of Our Country; Vol. 1 and 2 Educ. Pub. Co. 40c 

Dodge, N. S. — Stories of American History Lee, 30c 

(Stories of Colonial and Revolutionary times, very straightfor- 
wardly told.) 

Welsh. — (Colonial days Educ. Pub. Co., 40c 

(Written in a very simple 9tyle. Illustrated by Olive M. Long.) 

THIRD AND FOURTH GRADES. 

Bass, Florence. — Stories of Pioneer Life For Young Readers. 

Heath, 5uc 

(Coming of the white man — ^Marquette, Hunters, Daniel Boone, 
Flat boats. Block houses and forts, Down the Ohio, Frances Slo- 
cum, Lincoln.) Ore^n. 

Eggleston, Edward. — First Book in American History 

Amer. Book Co., 60c 

(Exceptionally good introduction to American history. Dwells 
on the important periods as represented in the lives of great 
men.) Lamed. 

Eggleston, Edward. — Stories of American Life and Adventure. 

(Eclectic Reading) Amer. Book Co., 50c 

Gordy, W. F. — American Leaders and Heroes; a prelimin- 
ary text-book in United States History Scribner, 60c 

(An historical reader which makes prominent the personal traits 
of the leaders.) Oregon. 



26 STATE NOKMAL SCHOOL 

Hosted, tM. H. — Stories of Indian Children 

Public School Pub. Co., 40c 

Pratt, Mara L.— ^Stories of Colonial Children Educ. Pub. Co., 40€ 

Sneddon, O. S.— ^Docas; the Indian Boy of Santa Clara. . . . 

Heath, 46c 



Stone, G. L. and Fickett, M. G. — ^Brery Day Life in the 

Colonies Heath, 40c 

(Early customs described in simple form.) 

FIFTH GRADE. 

Carver and Pratt. — Our Fatherland Educ. Pub. Co., 50c 

Dutton, M. B. — ^Little Stories of France. (Eclectic Read- 
ings) Amer. Book Co., 40c 

(Useful supplement to geographical work. T^is Tolume is de- 
voted chiefly to stories of the makers of French history.) Oregon 
list. 

Dutton, M. B. — (Little stories of Germany (Eclectic Readings) 

Amer. Book Ck>., 40c 

(Separate stories arranged eo as to form a connected account 
of the history of Ctormany, 'beginning with the mythological heroes 
and extending to Kaiser Wilhelm. There are stories of the great 
masters of music and i»ainting as well as of kings and warriors, 
of the Invention of printing, as well as of the conquest of land.) 

FIFTH AND SIXTH GRADES. 

Blaisdell and Ball. — Short Stories from American History. 

Ginn, 40c 

Blaisdell and Ball. — Stories from English History. .. .Ginn, 60c 

Blsdsdell and Ball.— <Hero Stories from American History. 

Ginn, 60c 

Hart, A. 6. — Camps and Firesides of the Revoution 

(Source Reader No. 2) MacmiUan, 60c 

Hart, A. B.— iHow Our Grandfathers Lived Macmillan, 60c 

(Source Reader No. 3.) 

Humphrey, F. A. — ^How New England Was Made. .Lothrop, $1.26 

Jenks, A. E. — Childhood of Ji-Shib, the O J lb wa. .. .Atkinson, 60c 

Johnonnot, James. — Stories of Our (Country. .Amer. Book Co., 40c 

(The stories are of various periods, from that of colonization 
through the war of 1812. They still remain standard literature 
for children.) 

Lovering. — Stories of New York Educ. Pub. Co., 60c 

Lodge and IRoosevelt.-^Hero Tales from American History. 

Century, $1.60 



DULUTH» lONNBSOTA 27 

McMurry.— Pioneer Stories of the MisBissippi Valley 

Public School Pub. €o., 50c 

St. Nicholas. — ^Indian Stories; retold from St. Nicholas 

Century, 65c 

St. Nicholas. — Oolondal Stories; retold from St. Nicholas 

Century, 65c 

St. Nicholfus. — Ciyil War Stories; retold from St. Nicholas. . 

Century. 65c 

St. Nicholas. — Revolutionary Stories; retold from St. Nicholas 

Century, 65c 

Tairpan, B. »M. — Our Country's Story Houghton, 65c 

Wright, H. M. — Children's Stories of American Progress. 

(Scribner School reading) Scribner, 50c 

(The deyelopment of the country in resources, territorial ex- 
tension, etc.) 

SBVENTH AND EIOHTH GRADES. 

Arnold, E. J. — Stories of Ancient People. . . .Amer. Book Co., 50c 

(Brief sketches, with salient points in the national characters 
of the Egyptians, Assyrians, Phoenicians, Hebrews, Medes and 
Persians.) Oregon. 

Author anon.— (Famous adventures and prison escapes in the 

Civil War Century, $1.50 

Clarke, Michael. — Story of (Caesar. (Eclectic Readigs) .... 

Amer. Book Co., 45c 

(A readable sketch of Roman history in Caesar's time with em- 
phasis on his character and victories.) Oregon. 

Eastman, Charles. — 'Indian Boyhood McClure, $1.50 

(Dr. EJastman is at the same time a cultured fi;entleman and a 
Sioux Indian. Until at the a^e of about fifteen, he lived the life 
of the "wild Sioux" in the Northwest, and he tells the story of 
this life, vigorously and with much feeling. It is the inside view 
of the education, sports, «ames, worship, hardships and pleasures 
of Indian boyhood of thirty or forty years ago.) Prentice. 

Harris, Joel C. — Stories of Oeorgia Amer. Book Co., 40c 

Hart, A. B. — Romance of the Civil War (Source Book No. 4) 

•Macmillan, 60c 

Johnson, Rossiter. — iWar of 1812 iDodd, Mead, $1.50 

Kieffer, H. M. — ^Recollections of a Drummer Boy. .Houghton, $1.50 

Scott, Sir Walter. — Tales of a Grandfather. (Standard Lit- 
erature Series) University Pub. Co., 30c 

Starr, Frederic. — American Indians. (Ethno-Oeograpbical 

reader) Heath, 46c 



28 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 

Some Reference Books Useful for the Teacher* 



Bryant, Sarah Gone. — Stories to tell to Children. .Houghton, $1.50 

(The author, herself a very successful story teller, here gives a 
few practical suggestions for the telling of the story. The iKKik 
includes a num<ber of stories adapted by the author for use in the 
school room.) 

Clodd, Edward — Story of Primitive Man. (Library of Useful 

Stories.) Appleton, 35c 

(Useful for the teacher who may be called upon to supplement 
the knowledge gained from the books for children. Oregon.) 

Emery, M. S. — *H<xw to Enjoy Pictures; with a special chapter 

on pictures in the school room by Stella Skinner, Prang, |1.50 

(A modest ;book addressed to readers without special art train- 
ing. It seeks to show, through suggestive comments on a number 
of typical examples, how to get pleasure and profit from pictures. 
Useful for the teachers of all grades.) Plttstmrgh. 

Fairbanks, H. W. — >Home Geography for Primary Grades. 

Educ. Pub. Co., 60c 

(Suggestive for the teacher as an introduction to geography.) 

H'ickson, S. J. — Story of Life in the Seas. (Library of useful 

Stories.) Appleton, 35c 

(Compact, clear, interesting information.) 

Harper, C. A. — One hundred fifty gymnastic games; compiled 
by members of the Boston Normal School of Gymnastics. 
Boston Normal School of Gymnastics $1.50 

(A splendid book for country schools and for all echools in 
which gymnastic work is given, or superviMon extended over the 
play ground. Directions for playing indoor and out door games 
useful as gymnastic exercises. Simple and practical. Oregcm.) 

Holton, M. A. and Kimball, Eugenia. — Games, seat work and 

sense training exercises Flanagan, 40c 

(A variety of educative exercises to cultivate attention and 
concentration. Gktmes lor the school room and seat work along 
Industrial lines. Oregon.) 

Hodge, C. F.— Nature Study and Life (Mnn, $1.50 

(A splendid book for the teacher as an aid to the introduction 
of nature study into the elementary and secondary schools. It is 
for the teacher of younger classes not for pupils. It is a guide to 
nature study in its best sense and is free from the effeminizatlon 
which is BO often apparent in nature study books. Wyer.) 

Sage, 'Elizabeth and Cooley, A. M. — Occupations for Little 

Fingers Scriibner, $1.00 

(Raffia work, sewing, paper cutting and folding, modeling, 
weaving, beadwork, crocheting and knitting, etc. A manual for 
grade teachers.) 

Salisbury, Grace and Beckwith.-— Index to Short Stories .. Row, 50c 

(Arranged under such headings as a teacher is likely to need 
in seeking material for story telling.) 



DULUTH, MINNESOTA 29 



Directory of Publishers of Books Listed in 

This Catalogue. 



AtUnson.— ^Atkinson, Mentzer ft Qrover, 223-225 Washington St., 
Chicago. 

Appletoii.-HD. Appleton ft Co., 29-35 West 32 nd St., New 
York City. 

Amer. Book Co.— 'American Book Co., 100 Washington Square, 
New York City. 

Baker.— 'Baker, Taylor Co., 33-37 East 17th St., New York City. 

Bobbs, M. — ^Bobbs, Merrill Co., 9-11 West Washington St., In- 
dianapolis Ind. 

Bradley. — ^Milton Bradley Co.. 49 Willow St., Springfield, Mass. 

Burt. — A. L. Burt ft Co., 52 Duane St., New York City. 

Ceiitiiry.^-<;entury Co., Union Square, New York City. 

Cft>well. — ^T. Y. Crowell, 426-428 West Broadway, New York City. 

Be Wolfe. — De Wolfe, Fiske ft Co., 361 Washington St., Boston. 

l>odd.**Dodd, Mead ft Co., 372 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

Donbleday.— .Doubleday, Page ft Co., 133-137 £2ast 16th St., New 
York City. 

Dnttoa. — »E. P. Dutton ft Co., 31 West 23rd St., New York City. 

Ednc. Pnb. Ck>., — ^Educational Publishing Co., 18 East 18th St., 
New York. 

Estes. — Dana, Estes ft Co., 208-218 Summer St., Boston. 

Flanagan. — ^A. Flanagan, 266-268 Wabash Ave., Chicago. 

Glnn.— Oinn ft Co., 29 Beacon St., Boston, Mass. 

Globe.— "Globe bchool Book €o., 315 Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Harper. — ^Harper ft Brothers, Franklin Square, New York City. 

Heath.— <D. C. Heath ft Co., 278-388 Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Henley. — ^Noman Henley ft Co., 132 Nassau St., New York. 

Hcrft. — ^Henry Holt ft Co., 34 E. West 33 St., New York City. 

Hoiifi:htoii.»-Houghton, Mifflin ft Co., 4 Park St., Boston, Mass. 

Lane.— John Lane Co., 110-114 West 23rd St., New York City. 

Lothrop. — LfOthrop, Lee ft Shepard Co., 93 Federal St., Boston. 

LitUe. — ^Little, Brown ft Co., 254 Washington St., Boston, Mass. 



30 8TATB NORMAL SCHOOL 

Lonciiiaiis.— Longmans, Qreen ft Co., 91-93 Fifth Ave,, New York. 

Mcdnre. — McClure ft Co., 44-60 East 23rd St., New York City. 

Modnrg. — ^A. C. McClarg ft Co., 215-231 Wabash Ave., Chicago. 

Macmillan.— The Maomlllan Co., 66 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

Peny. — Perry, Biason ft Co., Boston, Mass. 

Merrill.^^;. E. Merrill Co., 44-60 East 23rd St., New York City. 

Morse.*^rhe Morse Co., 31 Union Square, New York City. 

Ormsby. — ^Frank, Earl, Ormsby ft Co., 358 Dearborn St., Chicago. 

Page.— ^L. C. Page ft Co., 200 Summer St., Boston, Mass. 

Prang.— 'Prang Educational Pub. Co., 113 Uniyerslty Place, New 
York City. 

Pab. Sch. Pub. Co^— Public School Publishing Co., Bloomlngton, 

Illinois. 

Pntauun. — G. P. Putnam ft Sons, 27-29 West 23rd St., New York. 

Rand.— Rand, McNally ft Co., 160-174 Adams St., Chicago, 111. 

Scribner.— CJharles Scrlbner's Sons, 153-157 Fiftn Ave., New York 

SUver. — Silver, Burdett ft Co., 85 Fifth Aye., New York City. 

Small.— Small, Maynard ft Co., 15 Beacon St., Boston, Mass. 

Stokes.— hF. a. Stokes ft Co., 333-341 4th Ave., New York City. 

Univ. Pnb. — University Publishing Co., 27-29 West 23rd St., New 
York City. 

Univ. of Chi. Press.— University of Chicago Press, 58 th St. and 
Ellis Ave., Chicago. 

Wame. — Frederick Warne ft Co., 3^ East 22nd St., New York. 

Wilde.— >W. A. Wilde, 192 Michigan St., Chicago. 

Most of the volumes listed herein appear in the list of the 
Public School Library Commission and can be obtained from the 
St. Paul Book and Stationery Company at the reduced prices in- 
dicated in the Library Commission's catalogue. 



DULUTH, MINNESOTA 31 



Commencement Items 



The annual Oommencement exercises opened witli the Bacca- 
laureate sermon deliyered Sunday afternoon, June seventh, iby the 
Rt. Reverend James McGolrlck, Bishop of Duluth. The suhject 
"Education and Morality" was especially appropriate and was 
treated with the characteristic sincerity and learned thoughtfulness 
so familiar to all who know the good Bishop. The school is grate- 
ful indeed to him for his kindly service. 

A delightful and most successful feature of commencement 
week, was the dramatization of Tennyson's "The Falcon," and 
several scenes from McCarthy's "If I Were King." In the latter, 
Miss Vivian Burrell interpreted a most convincing and fascinating 
Francois Villon, Miss Ruby Harris, a fair Lady Catherine, in- 
deed, while Miss Nellie Anderson well earned the generous ap- 
plause accorded her. All the participants deserve great praise 
for the excellent work done, which they attribute in large measure 
to the valuable coaching of Miss Long of tiie English department, 
under whose direction the double number was staged. Three 
performances were given, one on Monday afternoon, June 8th, for 
the Seniors of the local High School, who were guests of the 
class, the other two, Monday and Tuesday evenings, when relatives 
and friends were entertained. 

The Commencement address was delivered Thursday morning, 
June 11th, by Dr. Edward Alsworth Ross, Professor of Sociology 
in the University of Wisconsin, on the theme "A Citizen of Zion." 
The breadth of view and keen insight into sociological conditions 
that characterize all the published work of Dr. Ross, together with 
his simple directness and charm of manner, made the occasion a 
rare treat to those who were so fortunate as to hear him. Through 
the increasing complexity of ethical and moral conditions incident 
to the industrial and social development of nations, he traced the 
abstraction of motive and end of motive from the personal and 
specific to the class and general public. 

Simple was the task for the citizen of Zion in days of old to 
guard against the harm his own hand or word might do his neigh- 
bor, com<pared with the motives that must govern him today, In 
the corporate, far-reaching and complicated mechanism of society, 
of which he is a part and for whose stewardship he must give an 



32 STATE NOKMAL SCHOOL 

account. The clear and masterly way In whicb Dr. Roes handled 
the abtruse theme and the logical and reasonable deductions he 
left with his hearers* were beyond any tribute save that of deep- 
felt appreciation, hearty admiration and an honest resolution for 
more thoughtful living. 

The most deUghtful event of the Commencemeot season and 
of the entire year, was, as it has been in preceding years, the 
annual reception to the Senior Class and Faculty by Mr. and Mrs. 
Washburn. It is an occasion which every member of the Senior 
Class and Faculty anticipates and rememhers with peculiar pleas- 
ure. On Friday evening, June 5, between eight and eleven o'clock 
their beautiful home at Hunter's Park was the radiating center 
of a hospitality and good cheer such as is to be erperienced no 
where else. With music and delightfully informal excursions 
about the house, the evening passed all too soon and another red 
letter day was numbered with the past. 

The Annual Alumnae Bantiuet was held at Washburn Hall on 
li'riday evening, June 8th. The largest number that has ever at- 
tended one of these banquets was present and it is also safe to 
assert that none has been more enjoyable. Miss Violet E. Robin- 
son, '06, as president of the association, was toast mistress, a posi- 
tion which she filled in a very charming manner. Toasts were 
responded to by Mr. Washburn, President Bohannon and Miss 
Nichols, President of the iSenior Class. 

Officers of the Alumnae Association for the next year are: 
Helen Shaver, President, Nina Nichols, Secretary, and Flora Chis- 
holm, Treasurer. 

The school was very glad to contribute somewhat to the 
pleasure and convenience of the County Superintendents of the 
State who held a two-days' session in the city on June 9th and 
10th. Their forenoon session on June 10th was held at the 
Normal School and gave them an opportunity to attend the class 
day exercises of the Senior Class. In the evening they were the 
guests of the school at a banquet at Washburn Hall, when a num- 
ber of interesting talks were given by BisAiop McOolrick, Mr. 
Washburn, Hon. C. B. Miller, Supt. Julius Boraas of Qoodhue 
County, and Charlotte M. Knudson of Otter Tail County. The 
school hopes that tne visiting Superintendents enjoyed their all too 
brief stay in the city and wishes to assure them of its own 
pleasure in being able to extend to them its hospitality. 



DULUTH, MINNESOTA 33 

Vacation Notes 



Vacation breezes, as usual, have scattered Faculty and pupils 
to all points of the compass, in search of rest and recreation. Miss 
Palmer with her mother Is spending the summer in Europe. Miss 
Carey also is enjoying a summer tour through England, Germany 
and i^rance, under direction of the University Bureau of Foreign 
Travel. A card from her descriibes the charm of quaint old Heidel- 
burg and her own enjoyment of the picturesque Rhine. Miss 
Home, Miss Shoesmith and Miss Long are passing the summer at 
their respective homes in Ohio, Illinois and Kansas. Miss Robert- 
son is enjoying a western trip and climbing the Rockies In Ck)lo- 
rado. Mr. Strong with his family, occupied a cottage at Deerwood 
for a part of July, but he is now back for the second eix weeks 
of work in the summer session. 

Summer is so delightful in Duluth that many people prefer 
her familiar charms rather than fly to others that they know 
not of, so we find Dr. Kline raiding the finest garden truck in the 
country, and Miss Quilliard extending delightful hospitality at her 
charmdng home In Lakeside. Mrs. Lyons, also, after conducting 
the Model School in connection with the first six weeks of the 
summer session, will spend the remainder of the vacation In the 
city. On account of the continuous session Miss Pettingill will 
remain at Washburn Hall throughout the summer. 



Other New8 



There is to be but one change in the membership of the 
Faculty for the year 1908-1909. Miss Doell, who has had charge 
of the fourth and fifth years of the Model School, has resigned to 
take charge of the Art work in the City schools and is to be suc- 
ceeded by Mifls Anna Belswenger, a graduate of the University 
of Chicago and more recently a teacher in Miss Mittleberger'e 
school at Cleveland. 

The first six weeks of the regular summer term have ended 
and the work of the second half has begun. The registration for 
the first half was one hundred sixty while that for the remaining 
six weeks Is but little more than fifty. The total enrolment for 
the term is considerably greater than that of former summer 
sessions and the general average of ability and application of 
students superior to tliat of any other year. It is probable that 



34 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 

the. attendance of the second half of the term would have heen 
greater If the work had not been offered on a six weeks basis. 

It is especially gratifying to observe that the demand for 
review courses has almost entirely disappeared. This summer no 
student has devoted himself entirely to review work and only one 
class was organized for such work and that with a menibershlp 
of only four. It is to be hoped that the call for sueh work will 
never again be made. 

Miss Post, Miss Van Stone and Mr. Blair are teaching through- 
out the entire year. Miss Post having oharge of work in English 
during the summer term, Miss Van Stone the classes in 
Algebra, Music and Drawing and Mr. Blair Geography, Physiology 
and Nature iStudy. 

Mr. Hubbard has returned for the latter half of the summer 
sessio^n, having spent the preceding six weeks with his family 
visiting relatives in Indiana. 

Supt. E. A. Freeman, of Grand Rapids, has charge of the class 
in Physics during Mr. Hubbard's absence and of those in Arith-. 
metic and Geometry. The work in History and Civics during the 
first half of the summer session has been conducted by Supt. T. 
B. Hartley of Brainerd, who is now relieved by Mr. Strong for the 
latter half of the term. 

Altogether this has <been the most satisfactory summer ses- 
sion the school has held both in the character of the work done 
and the enjoyment evident in that work. One feature of the 
session that added greatly to its inspirations and enjoyment was a 
course of six lectures delivered in an interim of the morning ses- 
sion by Mr. €has. W. Seymour upon the subjects: Marie Antoin- 
ette, Frederick the Great, Benjamin Franklin, Queen Elizabeth, 
the Marquis de Lafayette and William of Orange. Mr. Seymour's 
dramatic word pictures proved a delightful change from the rou- 
tine of daily recitation and added a zest to the interest along his- 
torical and biographical lines. 

Miss Dora Eaton who was for four years teacher of House- 
hold Economy, and during her last year here preceptress of Wash- 
burn Hall, has recently been elected head of the New Woman's 
Hall of the State University of Ohio. During the year Just ending 
she has had charge of the departments of Household HSconomics at 
Mill's College, Oakland, California. 

Miss Elizabeth Merritt, class 1903, was graduated from Teach- 
er's College in June of this year and has been elected critic teacher 
of the primary department in the State Normal School at Aber- 
deen, S. D., for the coming year. 



DULUTH, MINNESOTA 35 

Cupid seems to be fairly busy among the Alumnae. The 
number of his yictories is alarmingly large and shows no signs of 
being lessened. Within the la&t few months we have receiyed an- 
nouncements ot the marriage of Miss Bessie 9turgis, '05 to Mr. 
Roberts; of Miss Ethel Wright '06, to Mr. Charles Dodd; of Miss 
Florence McLean '05 to Mr. -Charles R. Wright, and of Miss Flor- 
ence Swendby '05 to Mr. Geo. Brown; Miss Clara Rowe '06 to Mr. 
Leif Swemummsen; Miss Jessie Campbell '06 to Mr. F. E. Church. 

Other rumors, also, more or less vague, convince us that the 
little god is not so blind as not to know merit, though he is 
ruthless in robbing the profession of some of its most promising 
teachers. 



36 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 

Commencement Sunday, June 7, 1908, at 8:30 P. M. 



Hymn — ^Awake My Soul Handel 

Responsive Reading 'nie Ninety-Flret Psalm 

Response — Crossing the Bar Barnby 

Twilight Abt 

Sextette 

Sermon — Education and Morality 

Rt. Rev. James McOolrick, Bishop of Dulutb 

Solo and Chorus — ^As Pants the Hart. .From Spohr's "Crucifixion'* 

Evening Song to Virgin Sextette 

Misses Guerin, King, Todd, Merritt, Hopkins, Aiken. 

Accompanist, Miss Fix, 



Class Play. 



THE FALCON 
Alfred Iiord Tennyson 

CAST. 

The Count Degli Alberighi Neil Lioranger 

Filippo, Count's Foster Brother Melinda Lavallee 

The Lady Giovanna Ruby Harris 

Elizaibetta, The Count's Nurse Lucy Wiseman 

SYNOPSIS. 

Previous to the opening of the story Ser Federigo was a 
suitor for the hand of Lady Giovanna, but family prejudice re- 
quired her to marry his Rival. 

Ser Federigo, after lavishing his fortune upon Lady Giovanna. 
lived in poverty and seclusion, taking for his constant companion a 
falcon, of rare worth. 

After the deatli of her husband Lady Giovanna returns to her 
castle which Is within view of Ser Federigo's cottage. 

"Annie Laurie" Arranged 

Sextette. 



DULUTH, MINNESOTA 37 

SCENES FROM *'IF I WERE KINO** 

McGarthy 



OAST. 

LfOuis XI Nellie Anderson 

Francois Villon " . . Vivian Burrell 

Lady Katherine Ruby Harris 

Herald of Duke of Burgundy Nina Nichols 

Tristan Mamie Wakelln 

Attendants 

Opal Wiltse, Ina Martin, Eva Hathaway, Emily Ray, Florence 

Nelson. 

Scene I — Fircone Tavern, France. 

Scene II — King's Garden 

Scene III — The same. 

SYNOPSIS. 
Louis XL, in order that he might know the spirit of his people, 
made a practice of frequenting in disguise the .dens and hy-ways of 
Paris. In Scene 1 he meets Francois Villon, a leading spirit 
among the habitues of the place, who has fallen a victim to the 
beauty of Lady Katherine. 

Because of a duel with the Grand Constable, Villon is im- 
prisoned, drugged and carried to court where he is made Grand 
Constable. To further satisfy this spirit of malign sport, the 
King bids Lady Katherine take her appeal for the life of Villon 
to the new Grand Constable. 



Commencement Day Exercises. 



PROGRAM. 



Chorus — O Lord Most Merciful Concone 

Responsive Reading The Thirty-Fourth Psalm 

Response From Morning Invitation 

Chorus — ^Wiegenlied J. S. Jfrank 

Address — A Citizen of Zion Professor E. A. Ross 

Chorus — 'Fairyland Waltz Veazle 

Presentation of Diplomas Hon. J. C. Wise 

Sextette. 

(a) All Through the Night Welsh Melody 

(b) Good Night Abt 



38 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 



Graduates 



ciAM of looa. 

Noane. Postofflce. State. 

Bessie Emily (Bowman) Jones. .Duluth Minn. 

Helen Emily Bowyer Minneapolis Minn. 

Amanda Sllefson Duluth . . .- Minn. 

Agnes Rebecca Holt Duluth Minn. 

Bather Levy Minneapolis Minn. 

WiUena Marahall Duluth Minn. 

Elisabeth Merritt Aberdeen 8. D. 

Glass of 1904. 

Mary Sayles (Bartlett) Rumsey Duluth Minn. 

Irene Buswell Winona Minn. 

Blanche May Coulter Duluth Minn. 

Ella (Deetz) Palmer Duluth Minn. 

Catherine Farrell Duluth Minn. 

L'eora Pearl (Fenton) Smith. . . . Grand Rapids Minn. 

Ora Margaret Hathaway Deceased July, 1907 

Mary Alphade Herrell Grand Raipids Minn. 

Anna O. Johnson Doran Minn. 

Kathryn Lou Joyce Duluth Minn. 

Minda Juliana Knutson Duluth Minn. 

Alma Kruschke Duluth Minn. 

Dorothy Katherine Kuhns Bellingham Wash. 

Clara (Laughton) Kilpatrick Biwabik Minn. 

Fanny Beulah Lippitt Duluth Minn. 

Ella Vera Mason .Duluth Minn. 

Florence (McLean) Wright Fergus Falls Minn. 

Jane Elizabeth Murray Duluth Minn. 

Jennie Marie Myers Virginia Minn. 

Carrie May Neff Duluth Minn. 

Frances Ida Maud Neff Duluth Minn. 

Mary Lucy O'Keefe Duluth Minn. 

Emma Laurentia Olson Duluth Minn. 

Clara Mildred Somerville Virginia Minn. 

Florence May (Swendby) Brown Hibbing Minn. 

Grace Lavlnla Thompson Virginia Minn. 

Hattie Tager . , Duluth Minn. 



OULUTH, MINNKSOTA 39 

Class of 1005. 

Emma C. Anderson Litchfield Minn. 

Olive Russell Colbrath Hn)bing Minn. 

Alice Hix Conklin Duluth Minn. 

Ida Doran Hibblng Minn. 

Eva Bell Dysslin Seattle Wash. 

Adelaide M. Eaton Hlbhlng Minn. 

Nanna Einarson Duluth Minn. 

Mrs. Bessie Giddings Adolph Minn. 

Esther Harris Superior Wis. 

Hilda J. Jorstad Duluth Minn. 

Minnie Perttula Ely Minn. 

Irene Emily I^eau Duluth Minn. 

Gertrude M. Schiller Duluth Minn. 

Gladys Shaw Duluth Minn. 

Myrtle M. Stark Two Harbors Minn. 

Eva Blanche Stevenson Clark S. D. 

Bessie Ellen (Sturgis) Roberts. . . Royal ton Minn. 

Class of 1906 

Marian R. Berry Coleraine Minn. 

Nina Burbank Miles City Mont. 

Jessie Cecelia (Campbell) Church Duluth . , Minn. 

Julia P. Carlson Duluth Minn. 

Olga C. Carlson Crystal Falls Mich. 

Rosabelle M. Carlson Bovey Minn. 

Laura Detert Red Lake Palls Minn. 

Mildred Proet Portland Ore. 

Anna T. Hanson Duluth Minn. 

Esteile Hicken Duluth Minn. 

Ettie M. Hosklns ' Buhl Minn. 

Kathryn A. Hoyer Duluth Minn. 

Charlotte M. Hughes Duluth Minn. 

Mary E. Kennedy Duluth Minn. 

Agnes E. Lavallee Duluth Minn. 

May E. Marshall Jacksonville Fla. 

Fanny Mendelson Duluth Minn. 

Marietta Murray Eveleth Minn. 

Mary L. Ober Duluth Minn. 

Elizabeth K. O'Keefe Portland Ore. 

Violet E. Robinson Duluth Minn. 

Clara (Rowe) Swennumsen Rugby N. D. 

Anna M. iStreed Alexandria Minn. 

Cora ueU Schaffer Duluth Minn. 

Margaret E. Shaw Duluth Minn. 



40 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 

Stella Swaneon Thief River Falls Minn. 

Maude A. Talboys Chisholm Minn. 

Tannisse Tyler Washington D. C. 

Ethal (Wright) Dodd Superior Wis. 

Class of 1007. 

Name. Postoffice. .State. 

Mary Blackmarr Duluth Minn. 

Margaret Braeutigan Goeur de Alene Idaho 

Gertrude Brown Duluth Minn. 

May Brown Soudan Minn. 

Flora Ohisholm Brickton Minn. 

Tessle Dolan Proctor Minn. 

Nellie C. Flynn DulutJi Minn. 

Amy M. Forbes Worthington Minn. 

Elsie Gandsey Eveleth Minn. 

Theresa B. Hinsmann Duluth Minn. 

Ella Holtorf Sandstone Minn. 

Hazel Hopkins Proctor Minn. 

Genevieve Ives Duluth Minn. 

Irene Keehan Thompson Minn. 

Kathleen D'Arcy Kelly Duluth Minn. 

L411ie Korthe Fergus Falls ^ . Minn. 

Elsie Krey Duluth Minn. 

Ray L. Leland Duluth Minn. 

Elizabeth McDonald Coleraine Minn. 

Isabel McLean Duluth Minn. 

Marguerite Mitchell New York N. Y. 

Jane Norval Rush City Minn. 

Laura G. Pepple Sandstone Minn. 

Sadie Pennington Basin Mont. 

LiUle V. Olssen Duluth Minn. 

Hazel M. Owens Lakeview P. O Minn. 

Anna C. Peterson Soudan Minn. 

Louana Phelps Duluth Minn. 

Eliza J. Remfry Carlton Minn. 

Etta Robert Duluth Minn. 

Alice B. iSand Ashland Wis. 

Millie R. Shane Chisholm Minn. 

Helen M. Shaver Lakeview P. O Minn. 

Mamie Stochl Mountain Iron Minn. 

Claire Sullivan Proctor Minn. 

Ell Rose Taylor Duluth Minn. 

Sophie Thomas McKinley Minn. 

Bessie L. Turnbull Hunter's Park Minn. 

Leonora J. Ulsrud Sandstone Minn. 

C. A. Margaret Wolfe Nampa Idaho 



DULUTH, MINNESOTA 41 

Class of 1908 

Nellie Anderaon Duluth Minn. 

Clara Aune Duluth Minn. 

Eunice Brotherton Duluth Minn. 

Vivian Burrell Duluth Minn. 

May F. Carlson Soudan Minn. 

Ella M. Chase Bear River Minn. 

Elvira Fuglseth Fertile Minn. 

Lillian Gowan Duluth Minn. 

Ruby M. Harris Duluth Minn. 

Eva M. HttthAway Duluth Minn. 

Bertha Hendy Virginia ' Minn. 

Danelda M. Hoar Hibbing Minn« 

Magdalene Holmberg Fertile Minn. 

Florence Levy Minneapolis Minn. 

Julia E. Lilja Duluth Minn. 

Nell Loranger Duluth Minn. 

Blanche M. Mallory Duluth Minn. 

Ina Martin Soudan Minn. 

Carmen Miller Ely Minn. 

Florence Nelson Duluth Minn. 

Nina L. Nichols Buhl Minn. 

Anna P. Nilsen Moose Lake BUnn. 

Ethel O'Connor Two Harbors Minn. 

Marcia H. Potter Altlrin Minn. 

Emily Ray Fosston Minn. 

Rose B. Segelbaum Minneapolis Minn. 

Hedwig Stahlbusch Duluth Minn. 

Mary Wakelin Duluth Minn. 

Grace B. Wasley ». . . Duluth Minn. 

Irene Wetzler Duluth Minn. , 

Opal Wiltse Hunter's Park Minn. 

Lucy Wiseman Pine City Minn. 

OFFICERS OF THE ALUMNAE ASSOCIATION. 

Helen M. Shaver (1907) President 

Nina L. Nichols (1908) Secretary 

Flora Chisholm (1907) Treasurer 



VoL ni. NOVEMBER, 1908. No. 3. 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 



DULUTH, MINNESOTA 



PnbKtlMd Qaazterly by th« State Normal School at Duluth, and devoted to the intcrcstt of 

Elementary Edacation in Minnesota. 
Snbecriiytlon price, fifty cents a year. Sinffle copiea, fifteen cents. 

Entered as second-class mail matter May 14. 1906, at the pott office at Dnlnth, Minnesota 

under the Act of Consress of Jnly 16, 1891. 



Calendar for 1908-1909. 



Enrolment of Students Tuesday, December 1« 1906 

Class-work begins Wednesday, December 2» 1908 

Cbristmas Holidajrs begin Wednesday, December 23^ 1906 

Class-work resumes Tuesday, January 5, 1909 

Term Closes _ Thursday, March 11, 1909 

Spring T«fiii 

Enrolment of Students Tuesday, Biarch 23, 1909 

Class-work begins Wednesday, BCarch 24, 1909 

Term Closes Thursday, June 10, 1909 



The Enthusiastic StudenL 

L. W. iOJNE. 



The efficient student is the honor student; the enthus- 
iastic student may or may not be. This seems true in 
both school and life. Enthusiasm always precedes an ef- 
ficient life and would doubtless continue with it did we 
but know more of the fine art of living. Dr. Garfield in 
his recent inaugural address at Williams College divided 
students into three classes: "Men of earnest purpose with 
native powers with unusual character and promise; (2) 
men of earnest purpose without unusual native powers, 
and (3) men who may or may not be endowed by nature 
with special gifts, but whose most striking characteristic 
is lack of earnest purpose." Students of the first type 
need only a liberal atmosphere and opportunities; they 
know the worth of time and appreciate the value of sub- 
stance nor will they ever become a care and a charge to 
the faculty. "Men in the second class must be thoroughly 
cared for, because they represent the large majority of 
citizenship. They will not become scholars, but it will be 
possible to cultivate their scholarly tastes and to teach 
them to appreciate the best in every department." "Those 
of the third class ought not to be In college — they are 
often 'good fellows,' but If they are 'loafers' the doors of 
the college ought to be promptly and effectually closed 
against them." Prof. Shaler, Dean of the Lawrence Scien- 
tific School, told me some twelve years ago that nearly 
two-thirds of the men in that department were in the 
wrong place, ^at a craft or a trade of the coarser arts 
would have been more suitable to their capacities and tem- 
peraments. Far from being enthusiastic over their school 
work, they were positively bored by the costly facilities 
and generous opportunities arranged at infinite pains and 
sacrifice for the sake of learning. But in the enthusiastic 
student faculties, equipments and foundations find their 
end and realization. In fact through tiiem the spirit of 
tho school is kept true to its purposes. As an instance of 
how enthusiasm attracts the best talent to its aid, I re- 
call an offer made by Prof. Gildersleeve's most worthy suc- 
cessor, Col. Peters, of the chair of Latin in the University 



4 8TATB NOKMAL 8CB00L 

of Virginia, to our freshman claee: "Toung gentlemen! 
To thdse of you who earnestly desire to become proficient 
In the Latin (the Colonel always referred to Latin as the 
Latin), command me at any time. I will mioet cheerfully 
get up at any hour of the night to aid such a young man 
in his studies." I now know that Col. Peters meant every 
word, for he was a rare man and a great teacher. Bnthus- 
lasm, like humility, is a passport to large patrimony. "E<z- 
cept ye turn and become as little children ye shall in no 
wise enter into the kingdom of heaven." And just as 
surely does child-like enthusiasm bring the student into 
his own. 

He may not be a cynosure in the eyes of the severely 
mannered, but he is a comfort and an inspiration to his 
fellow students and teachers. 

The conditions that form enthusiasm, like those of 
genius, are not well understood. Biography is perhaps 
the most reliable source of information. A personality as 
a member of the family, or a relative, or a friend, or a 
teacher may Incite a student to enthusiastic earnestness in 
his work. One recalls such a service rendered by Frau 
Herbart to her son, John Herbart; Mrs. Huxley to her son, 
Thomas H. Huxley; Rev. Thomas Somerville to his neice, 
Mary Somerville; S. T. Oolerldge to Charles Lamb; Thomas 
Arnold to the Rugby boys, and Agassis to every biologist 
of repute in America. 

Enforced economy both In time and money is a per^ 
slstent recruiting officer to the ranks of enthusiastic 
scholarship. Reasons here are patent enough. I have 
known students whose appetite for knowledge was whet- 
ted by necessary absence from school for service in busi- 
ness or at home. This homely and wholesome service 
gives time in which to "think things over." 

A few good books, particularly of biography, have been 
the leaven In some cases. Henry IV of France, says of 
Plutarch's Lives: "It has been to me as my conscience, 
and has whispered in my ear many virtuous suggestions 
for excellent maxims for my own conduct and for the man- 
agement of my affairs." The enthusiastic student Is not 
discouraged by a slow rate of progress nor puffed up by 
unusual successes. His interest in the merits of his 
studies deprives the conventional signs of progress of 
thetr usual influence. He is loyal to his friends and his 
school, is not easily provoked and does no^ question 
school policies and expediencies. The enthusiastic student 



DULUTH, MINNESOTA 5 

is young in' his dnteresta, tastes and attitudes. He is con- 
tinually searching for meanings which may often lead him 
to ask unusual and even queer questions. This trait may 
be a menace to the comfort of the teacher whose lectures 
need revising, and whose ideas, though naked, are not 
ashamed. 

Perhaps more enthusiasts fail than succeed, and yet we 
are bound to credit the notable achievements of science 
to this class of students. Science does not move at a 
uniform rate, but by leaps and bounds. This mode of 
progress is related to the behavior of enthusiasm as a 
dominant force in the makers of science. Count Rumford 
wept like a child when he discovered the facts that un- 
derlie the modern theory of heat. When Newton saw 
the proof of his law of gravitation nearing completion he 
was so mightily stirred that he could not control himself 
sufficiently to finish the mathematical calculation and had 
to call in a friend. It was an enthusiastic American in- 
ventor that made the rapid navigation of the high seas a 
possibility, and all signs indicate that we shall soon give 
credit to the same source for the rapid navigation of the 
air. 



STATE NOKMAL SCHOOL 



The New Course of Study and Proposed 

Changes Widi Reference to the 

Value of Diplomas. 



At Its last annnal meetiiig, on July 23rd, the Normal 
Board adopted this resolution: "Resolved, That the Presi- 
dents of the Normal Schools be requested to present to 
this Board at its next meeting a reyision of the courses of 
study, and provide a course, or courses, containing such 
subjects and quantity of work as are now offered In the 
best normal schools of the country, or as will strengthen 
the course of study; and that the Presidents present, at 
that meeting, if they deem it wise, a plan for recognising 
the completion of a given portion, or portions, of the 
Standard Course of Study, other than by granting a di- 
ploma, looking towards, or qualifying teachers for, tiie 
rural schools, and that the Presidents Include In this re- 
port such recommendations for legislative action as they 
may desire to suggest." 

In accordance with the requirements of the foregoing 
resolution, the Presidents of the five Normal Schools held 
a meeting at St. Paul during the latter part of August 
and adopted the following series of resolutions, to be laid 
before the Normal Board. 

RESOLUTIONS: 

That a Standard Course of Study with provisions for 
electives be recommended. 

That the maximum requirement for graduation be 
sixty term units of work. 

That the Standard Course of Study be the union of the 
present courses of study. 

That the Advanced Diploma be granted, as at present, 
to persons who complete the full course of study of sixty 
term units of work, as outlined in the Standard Course of 
Study, in one of the State Normal Schools. Thirty-«ix 
units of work shall be credited to Minnesota State High 
School graduates or graduates of other schools from 
courses of equivalent rank. 

That an Blementary Diploma be granted to persons 
who complete twelve specified term units of work in the 



DULUTB, MINNESOTA 7 

Standard Coarse of Study, provided that such persons 
shall he graduates of a four years' course of study, meet- 
ing the requirements of admission to the State Normal 
Sclvools, in a State High School, or in a school of equal 
rank; and that the said Blementary Diploma shall he 
valid as a teachers' State certificate of the first grade for 
a period of three years, and shall not be renewable. 

That an Elementary Diploma 'be granted to persons 
who complete thirtyniiz specified term units of work in 
the Standard Course of Study, and that the said Blement- 
ary Diploma shall be valid as a teachers' State certificate 
of ihe first grade for a period of three years; that the said 
Blementary Diploma shall not be renewable, until the 
bolder thereof shall have completed twelve additional 
term units of work in a Minnesota State Normal School, 
when the said Blementary Diploma may be renewed for a 
period of three additkmal years. 

That the State Superintendent of Public Instruction 
shall be authorized to issue a teachers' State certificate of 
the second grade to any person who shall have completed 
twenty-four specified term units of work in the Standard 
Course of Study in a Minnesota State Normal School. 

The meeting of the Normal Board for the consider- 
ation of these resolutions was held at St. Paul on Septem- 
ber 18th. The recommendations were given very careful 
consideration and adopted. At the same time, a commit- 
tee of the Board was appointed to aid in securing the leg- 
islation needed to change the value of the diplomas in 
accordance with the recommendations of the Board. 

Following is a list of the electives agreed upon: 

Terms. 

Agriculture 2 

Astronomy 1 

Children's Literature 1 

Drawing Supervision 2 

Economics 1 

English 2 

Higher Mathematics 2 

History, Md. Europe 2 

Home Economics 3 

Latin 2 

Library Science 1 

Man. Training Supervision 2 

Physics, Advanced 1 

Physical Culture 1 



8 STATS NOBMAL SCHOOL 

Primary Methods 2 

Public Speaking 1 

Special Methods 2 

WrHlng and Spelling ^ 

This action of the State Normal Board, when supple- 
mented by the necessary legislation, as it no doubt will 
be, will embrace four important requirements: 

First: The issuance of diplomas in harmony with the 
value of the work done. 

Second: A Standard Course of Study for all students. 

Third: A list of electlves to be employed in adapting 

the work to the individual needs and capacity of students. 

Fourth: A somewhat higher standard of graduation. 

As already indicated, the action of the Normal Board 
with reference to the changes in the value of the diplomas 
will not be effective until it is embodied in an act of the 
State Legislature. These modifications are generally con- 
ceded to be desirable and there is no reason to doubt that 
the LfCgislature will authorize them. The other recom- 
mendations of the Board do not require legislative action 
and will become effective at the opening of another school 
year. 

Every one acquainted with Normal School affairs in this 
State knows that there has been for some time much dis- 
satisfaction with the existing courses of study and es- 
pecially with reference to the fact that the several courses, 
differing so widely in value, lead to diplomas having prac- 
tically the same value. The existing six courses of study 
have been established, one after another, in response to the 
development of new conditions and needs, very much as 
houses are sometimes built onto for the accommodation 
of a growing family. This has resulted in the necessity 
of carrying on several more or less distinct lines of work 
at a very considerable sacrifice of time and energy and has 
rendered it quite impossible to offer any optional subjects 
and thereby make the programs of the students sufficient- 
ly elastic to meet special needs. It was, in practice, an at- 
tempt to meet the needs of several classes of students by 
establishing so many separate and distinct courses of 
study, with the result that it has been impossible to ad- 
minister them in such a way as to harmonize and econo- 
mize effort or to render the better courses sufficiently at- 
tractive to the students who ought to elect them. The 
shorter courses have grown in popularity and have, there- 



DULUTH, mimBSOTA ^ 

fore, predominated in tikie minds of students in fixing the 
standard of graduation. The changes which the Board has 
recommended will undoubtedly prove effective. By reason 
of them the Normal Schools should, and no doubt will, 
be able to render more efficient service to all the schools 
of the State. The recommendation for the issuance, 
through the State Superintendent's office, of a State cer- 
tificate of the second grade to those who complete two 
years of work is in the interest of the rural schools. It 
should very materially increase the number of teachers 
with Normal School training in rural school service. 



10 



8TATB NOKMAL 8CH00L 



The Fono¥fiiig List of Words is One Which ETerj 

Student Who Shows Any Deficiency in Spdling 

WiU be Required to Master. 





It bM bMB pnptt«d hw 




MISS ANNA N. 


CAREY. 


abbreyiation 


adyertisins 


analyse 


abdomen 


adyice 


anecdote 


ability 


adyise 


angel 


abolish 


aerial 


angle 


abscess 


affect 


animal 


absence 


affectionate 


ankle 


abundant 


against 


anniyersary 


academy 


aghast 


annoyance 


accelerate 


agitate 


annually 


accented 


agreeable 


annulled 


accept 


albumen 


Antarctic 


accident 


alcohol 


antecedent 


accommodate 


alert 


antiquity 


accumulate 


alien 


anxiety 


accurate 


alkali 


anxious 


accuse 


alley 


apology 


accustom 


allowed 


appall 


ache 


ally 


apparatus 


achieve 


almanac 


apparent 


acid 


almost 


appearance 


acknowledgment 


alms 


appetite 


acme 


aloud 


application 


acquaintance 


alphabet 


applicant 


acquire 


already 


appreciate 


acquittal 


altar 


approach 


acre 


alter 


appropriate 


across 


although 


approved 


acute 


altitude 


approximate 


address 


always 


architecture 


adjacent 


amateur 


area 


admirable 


ambiguous 


arrangement 


admission 


ambitious 


arrival 


admitted 


ammunition 


arsenal 


adyantacreous 


analysis 


artificial 



DULUTH, MINNESOTA 



11 



SBcent 


bicycle 


celebrate 


SBcertain 


biography 


celery 


assent 


birth 


cemetery 


asBlgnment 


biscuit 


censure 


assistanoe 


bi-weekly 


ceremony 


aaslBtaiit 


blizzard 


certain 


asflociate 


boundary 


certificate 


athletics 


bowl 


cessation 


atmosphere 


breadth 


chalk 


attendance 


breath 


challenge 


attendant 


breathe 


changeable 


attention 


brethren 


characterize 


attorney 


brevity 


chemistry 


auburn 


bridal 


chief 


audible 


brief 


chimney 


auditor 


brilliancy 


chocolate 


authentic 


Britain 


choice 


autumn 


BriUsh 


choir 


auxiliary 


bullettai 


choose 


avalanche 


bureau 


choosing 


average 


burglar 


chord 


avoirdupois 


busily 


chose 


awful 


business 


chosen 


awhile 


busy 


cinder 


awkward 


button 


cipher 


bachelor 


calculate 


circle 


bade 


calendar 


circumference 


balance 


callous 


cistern 


balloon 


campaign 


citizen 


banish 


camphor 


classical 


banquet 


canceled 


cleanse 


bass 


cannon 


clemency 


before 


capable 


cloth 


beginner 


capacity 


clothe 


beginning 


capital 


coarse 


beguile 


capltol 


cohesive 


behavior 


captor 


collar 


belief 


capture 


college 


believe 


carol 


collision 


beneficial 


carriage 


colloquial 


benefit 


carried 


colonel 


bereave 


carrot 


column 


berth 


carrying 


comely 


between 


cautious 


comic 


beverage 


celling 


coming 



12 



STATE NOKMAL SCHOOL 



commemorate 


convergence 


deficient 


commerce 


"cosiest 


deficit 


committee 


costume 


definite 


communication 


council 


definition 


companion 


counsel 


deign 


comparable 


counsellor 


delicious 


comparison 


counterfeit 


dense 


competent 


country 


dependant 


competition 


couple 


dependence 


complement 


courage 


dependent 


completed 


courageous 


depict 


compliment 


course 


deposit 


concealment 


courtesy 


descend 


concede 


cousin 


descendant 


conceit 


creature 


describe 


conceiye 


crescent 


description 


concession 


crises 


desert 


condemn 


crisis 


desirous 


condense 


criticise 


despair 


confectionery 


criticism 


desperate 


confidence 


crowd 


despise 


confidential 


cruel 


dessert 


congenial 


curiosity 


destructible 


congratulate 


curious 


detain 


conjugate 


currant 


develop 


Connecticut 


current 


diagram 


connection 


curtain 


dia.mond 


conscience 


cushion 


diary 


conscientious 


customs 


dictionary 


conscious 


cyclone 


died 


consequence 


cylinder 


difference 


considerable 


czar 


different 


considerate 


daily 


difficulty 


consonant 


daisies 


digit 


conspicuous 


daughter 


dilemma 


conspiracy 


deaf 


diligent 


constitution 


deafen 


dimensions 


contagious 


decease 


director 


contention 


deceit 


disagreeable 


contestant 


deceive 


disappear 


continuing 


decorate 


disappearance 


control 


defendant 


disappointment 


controversy 


deference 


disapprove 


convenience 


defiance 


disastrous 


convenient 


deflci^icy 


discern 



DULUTH, 1IINNE80TA 



13 



disciple 


embarrass 


existence 


discipline 


emissary 


expect 


discoarai^e 


employment 


expel 


discreet 


enamel 


experience 


discrepancT 


encore 


extinct 


discussion 


encouragement 


facilities 


disease 


encyclopedia 


faculty 


disinfectant 


endeavor 


fair 


dissatisfied 


endurance 


familiarity 


dissect 


enemy 


family 


dissipation 


engineer 


famine 


dissolve 


engross 


famous 


distinguish 


enmity 


fare 


dividend 


enough 


fascinate 


divine 


enthusiasm 


fashion 


divisible 


enthusiastic 


feast 


document 


envelop 


feather 


donkey 


envelope 


feature 


double 


epitaph 


February 


doubt 


epithet 


feminine 


dough 


epoch 


fertilizer 


dried 


equaled 


fictitious 


drowned 


equation 


fierce 


dungeon 


equator 


fiftieth 


dyed 


equilibrium 


filing 


dygiiig 


equipped 


filling 


dying 


equivalent 


finally 


eager 


error 


financial 


early 


especially 


finely 


earnest 


essential 


fissure 


eccentric 


etiquette 


flourish 


echo 


eulogy 


foliage 


economy 


evidence 


forcible 


edible 


exaggerate 


forecast 


effect 


examining 


forehead 


efficiency 


exceed 


foreigner 


efficient 


excel 


foretell 


eighth 


excelled 


forfeit 


elegy 


excellence 


forgotten 


elementary 


excellent 


formally 


eleventh 


except 


formerly 


eligible 


excite 


formula 


ellipse 


excusable 


fortify 


elm 


exercise 


forty 


else 


exhibit 


fossil 



14 


STATE NOKMAL SCHOOL 

1 


fourteen 


hesiUte 


J 

^ interpret 


fourth 


hoping 


intimate 


franchifle 


honey 


Introduction 


freezing 


honor 


invalid 


freight 


horizon 


invariable 


friend 


humiUty 


investigation 


frontier 


hygiene 


invincible 


fulfill 


icicle 


invite 


fullness 


idiot 


iron 


fundamental 


ignite 


isle 


furlough 


ignorant 


ivory 


furnace 


illicit 


jealousy 


gas 


illustrious 


Jewelry 


gathered 


imaginary 


Journey 


gauze 


immediately 


Jovial 


geography 


immense 


Judgment 


gesture 


impel 


Juicy 


giant 


imperative 


Jurisdiction 


gist 


impertinent 


Justifiable 


glimpse 


implements 


kernel 


goal 


Improvement 


kitchen 


gore 


Incense 


knack 


gorgeous 


indefinitely 


knead 


government 


indelible 


knife 


governor 


independent 


knowledge 


graduation 


indict 


laboratory 


grammar 


inevitable 


labyrinth 


grateful 


infantry 


laid 


grieve 


infectious 


language 


grievous 


infinitely 


later 


grotesque 


inflammation 


latitude 


guarantee 


influence 


latter 


guard 


informal 


laughter 


guess 


innocent 


lawyer 


habit 


inseparable 


leaden 


handkerchief 


insignificant 


leading 


harass 


instead 


led 


haughty 


instructor 


legacy 


heavy 


integer 


legible 


height 


intellect 


leisure 


heinous 


intelligence 


lettuce 


heir 


intelligent 


library 


heirloom 


intelUgible 


license 


herb 


interest 


lichen 


heresy 


interesting 


lightning 



DULUTH, MINNESOTA 



15 



llqa<»' 


miniature 


oblique 


literal 


minority 


occasionally 


literary 


minute 


occurred 


literature 


miracle 


occurrence 


loathe 


mirror 


ocean 


looomotiTe 


miscellaneous 


o'clock 


logical 


mischievous 


offensive 


loose 


misjudge 


often 


lose 


missile 


<Hnitted 


loser 


misspelled 


onion 


lovable 


model 


opening 


luscious 


molasses 


operation 


luxuriant 


monarch 


opinion 


luxury 


monastery 


opportunity 


lying 


mosquito 


opposite 


lynch 


motion 


orally 


lyric 


mountainous 


orchestra 


machinery 


muscle 


ordinance 


magazine 


muscular 


ordinary 


maintain 


museum 


organise 


majesty 


musical 


origin 


malicious 


musician 


orphan 


management 


mutual 


owner 


maneuver 


mysterious 


oxygen 


manual 


mystery 


oyster 


manufacture 


mythology 


pacify 


manuscript 


narration 


pagan 


mariner 


necessary 


palace 


marshal 


necessity 


paradise 


martial 


negative 


paragraph 


marvelous 


negotiable 


paralyze 


massacre 


negroes 


parent 


mathematics 


neighbor 


parenthesis 


meager 


neutral 


parliament 


meant 


nickel 


partial 


measure 


niece 


participate 


mediaeval 


nineteen 


participle 


medicine 


ninety 


particular 


mercantile 


ninth 


partisan 


meridian 


noisy 


partition 


memorable 


normal 


passed 


mention 


noticeable 


past 


messenger 


noun 


patience 


metaphor 


obeyed 


patient 


millinery 


obliged 


patronage 



16 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 



patronise 


plain 


€ purpose 


peace 


planed 


pursue 


peaceable 


planned 


pursuit 


peasant 


pleasant 


quadruple 


pedagogical 


pleasure 


quality 


pedagogy 


pneumonia 


quantity 


pencil 


poem 


quarantine 


people 


poetical 


quartz 


perceive 


poisonous 


queue 


perception 


police 


quiet 


perform 


position 


quite 


perhaps 


positive 


quotient 


perilous 


possession 


radiant 


peripheral 


possible 


radish 


permanent 


poultry 


rain 


permission 


practice 


rarity 


permitted 


practise 


rascal 


perpendicular 


' prairie 


ready 


perpetrate 


praise 


readiness 


perpetuate 


pray 


realization 


perpetual 


precede 


reasonable 


persecute 


precinct 


rebellion 


persevere 


precious 


recede 


persistence 


precise 


receipt 


personal 


preference 


receive 


perspiration 


preferred 


receptacle 


persuade 


prejudice 


recipe 


phase 


preliminary 


recitation 


phenomenon 


preparation 


recognition 


philosophy 


prevalence 


recognize 


physical 


previous 


recommend 


physician 


prey 


recompense 


physics 


principal 


reconcile 


physiology 


principle 


reconsider 


physiography 


privilege 


reference 


pianist 


process 


referred 


picnic 


professor 


regretted 


picture 


promissory 


reign 


piece 


prophecy 


rein 


pier 


propose 


release 


pierce 


protestant 


relieve 


pillar 


psalm 


religious 


pillow 


psychology 


reluctant 


pitcher 


pumpkin 


remedy 


pivot 


punctuate 


reminiscence 



DULUTH, MINNESOTA 



17 



remittanoe 


scientific 


society 


remnant 


scissors 


solemn 


renounce 


scourge 


solicit 


represent 


scratch 


solo 


rescue 


scythe 


sophomore 


reservoir 


search 


soprano 


respectfully 


secede 


southern 


responsible 


secession 


souvenir 


restaurant 


seise 


sovereign 


retaU 


seminary 


speak 


retain 


senses 


special 


retaliate 


sensible 


species 


retrieve 


sentence 


specimen 


revere 


sentimental 


spectacle 


review 


separate 


speculate 


revise 


serenade 


speech 


rhetoric 


serial 


spherical 


rheumatism 


series 


spooniul 


rhyme 


serious 


squalor 


rhythm 


servant 


standard 


ridiculous 


service 


stationary 


righteousneM 


several 


stationery 


roughness 


sewer 


statistics 


rudiments 


shepherd 


statue 


sachet 


sherift 


statute 


sacrifice 


shield 


stayed 


sagacious 


should 


steadfast 


salad 


shoulder 


steamer 


salary 


shovel 


steward 


sandals 


shrewd 


stomach 


sarcastic 


shriek 


stooped 


satisfaction 


significant 


stopped 


satisfactory 


siege 


strike 


satisfy 


sieve 


student 


saturated 


similar 


studious 


Saturday 


simplify . 


studying 


saucy 


simultaneous 


style 


scandal 


sincerely 


submerge 


scansion 


sinew 


submitted 


scarcely 


skein 


subtle 


scareid. 


skeleton 


succeed 


scarred 

• 


skillful 


success 


scenery 


slaughter 


sudden 


scholar 


sleigh 


sufficient 


■denoe 


soak 


Buidde 



18 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 



sulphur 


tomb 


vertical 


superintendent 


tongue 


vessel 


superior 


tonsUltls 


vicious 


supersede 


total 


victuals 


supenrlsor 


touch 


view 


supremacy 


tough 


village 


supreme 


traffic 


villahi 


sure 


traveler 


vinegar 


surgeon 


traveling 


vocabulary 


surprise 


traverse 


volunteer 


suspense 


treachery 


voyage 


suspicion 


treason 


wagon 


syllable 


tressury 


waist 


syntax 


tried 


waltz 


system 


truly 


wander 


tactics 


Tuesday 


warrior 


tailor 


tulUon 


waste 


Ulkatlve 


twelfth 


wealthy 


Urlff 


tyranny 


weary 


technical 


tjrrant 


weather 


telescope 


umbrella 


Wednesday 


temperance 


unchangeable 


weigh 


temperature 


uncle 


wharf 


tenacity 


unconscious 


whether 


tendency 


union 


whlcJi 


tennis 


unit 


whlstie 


tenor 


university 


whiteness 


tense 


until 


whole 


Teutim 


urchin 


wholesome 


theater 


urgency 


wholly 


their 


urgent 


whose 


theorem 


using 


willful 

1 


theoretical 


usually 


witch 


theory 


utensil 


woman 


there 


vacancy ^ 


women 


therefore 


vaccinate 


wonder 


thesis 


vacuum 


woolly 


thief 


vain 


worship 


thoroui^ 


valiant 


wound 


though 


variegated 


wreath 


thought 


vegetable 


wrestle 


throne* 


vehicle 


writer 


through 


veil 


writing 


thrown 


vein 


written 


thumb 


ventilation 


yield 


tobacco 


verbal 


soology 


together 


verdict 




toilet 


verge 





-^*''- C-- 




»^^ 






^^ -- — <>c— 



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Qv-^-jUL 




VoL UL FEBRUARY. 1909. No. 4. 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 



DUUJTH, MINNESOTA 



Piiblithcd Quarterly by the State Normal School at Dnluth, and deroted to the intercita of 

Elementary Education in Minnesota. 
Subicription prke, fifty cents a year. Single copies, fifteen cents 



Entered as second-class mail matter May 14. 1906, at the post ofiiee at Dnlnthi Minnesota 

under the Act of Congress of July 16, 1891. 



Some Experimental Evidence on the Doctrine 

of Formal Discipline. 

Class of 1907, Reported by L. W. Kline. 



The problem of this inveBti^atiitxn was suggested by 
"experiment" 16 pp. 253-254 of Thorndike's Principles of 
Teaching. Briefly stated the problem seeks to detenmlne 
the effect that acquired skill in striking ont e's and t's 
may have upon the accuracy and rate of observing and 
striking out the parts of speech. Stated In a general way: 
the problem is to learn the effect that observing Dorm has 
upon ithe atppreclation of meaning. Striking out the let- 
ters merely involved the observation of two well known 
forms. Dealing with the words, on the other hand, re- 
quired an appreciation of their function In the sentence. 

The material consisted of pages cut from U. S. Gov- 
ernment rei>ort8 of the navy and interior departments. 
Pages of uniform type and about equal in amount of sub- 
ject matter were sheeted. The work was done during the 
session of 190 6-' 07 by seventeen members of the senior 
class and the writer in connection with the work In peda- 
gogy at the Dulnth State Normal School. The class was 
composed of fifteen high school graduates in their second 
year at the normal and two English and Latin students in 
their fourth year. Two groups, each composed of nine 
members, were formed and were designated practice group 
and control group. The latter of course struck out no let- 
ters. (At the tbeginning of the experiment both groups 
worked together for two days, f^rty-flve minutes a day, 
striking out Hie parts of speech. Monitors were appointed 
to give starting signals, give the time for each individual 
in striking out a part of speech on two pages, to collect 
and taibulate the results. 

Tlie (practise group then spent (fourteen days from 
thirty to forty-five minutes per day In striking out e's 
and t's. On the eighteenth day from the beginning of 
the experiment the two groups reassembled and spent two 
days in striking out parts of speech under condltJons 
similar to that of the fir«t. We will designate the times 
devoted to tihe parts of speech as the first and second 
periods. 



4 STATE NOKMAL SCHOOL 

The results for all the work are embodied In the four 
tables that follow. They call for a ibrlef comment. Table 
III. shows the skill obtained in the matter of the letters. 
As each student gave practically the same amount of time 
to practice, the wide variations in their attainments might 
likely 1)0 considered an expression of their individual dif- 
ferences. Mo doubt irt is such with reference to this task. 
My knowledige of their progress in their school work 
justifies the results in .part. There are two exceptions. 
E. K. was an honor student and attains the highest rate 
In striking out parts of speeoh, but her 'progress in strik- 
ing out e's and t's was only fair. T. H., a substantial 
student, ranks sixth from E. K. in striking out the parts 
of speech, but she attains the maximum rate for letters. 

Both groups iftM>w decided gains at the second period. 
See Tables I. and II. Three items; the average rate per 
minute for stnlking out words, a quantitative measure, 
the average number of wrong words and of omitted wtords, 
qualitative measures, are considered in estimating the 
amount of progress. I use averages since we are dealing 
with groups rather than individuals and the numbers are 
thereby kept smaller. The comparative Table IV., parts 
(a), (b), (c) and (d) is composed of averages of the 
three items specified. Pant (a) shows the averages f6r 
the practise group for the first and second period. The 
rate of progress for the parts of speech in this case is 
2.46, the average of the algebraic sum of the differences. 
It means that the nine students, working together, struck 
out for any part of speedh 2.46 more words per mimute 
t&e second period than the first. In the items of wrong 
and omitted words the algebraic sum of the differences 
between the first and second periods is the measure of 
their progress. In this case it is 16.6 units. It means 
that each student of the gnoup hod 15.6 less wrong and 
omitted words checked against her the second period. 
Part ((b) shows the rate of progress of the control group 
in the matter of parts of speech to be 4.6 and for the 
wrong and omitted words to be 28.2 units. The progress 
of the control group exceeds that of the practice for parts 
of speech by 53%% and for the wrong and omitted words 
53%. The relative standing of the two groups Is shown 
in part (c). The practice group befioire practice excels 
the control group at the rate of 3.82 words per minute 
and for the wrong and omitted words 12.2. According to 
part (d) after practice the excess rate of the practice 
group is reduced to 1.82 words per minute, and Dor wrong 



DULUTH, MINNESOTA 5 

by .4 words. The practice group, then, measured by the 
control group, has lost 66.5% of Hs efficiency for strik- 
ing out parts of speech and is excelled by 40% for omitted 
and wrong words. Another mode of comparison is to 
reckon omiitted and wrong words and parts of speech 
under ithe heading of possible vantage points. While this 
is more striking, it is less accurate. In this case each 
column stands as a possible scoring point. Referring 
again to> Taible IV. part (c) it shows that the practice 
group excelled in 12 out of the 15 possible points, or 
80%. Part (d) shows that the same group after their 
practice excelled in only 10 points out of the 15, or 
66%%. And further inspection shows that seven out of 
the ten vantage points have their score materially re- 
duced e. g., in the me^tter of verbs and prepositions the 
score stands 5.1 and 9.3 respectively in favor of the prsjC- 
tice group and after practice they are reduced to 3.6 
and 1.4. 

The facts may be summarized as follows: ( 1 ) The prac- 
tice group excels the control group in quantity and largely 
in quality of work during the first period. (2) The quan- 
tity and quality of the work of the control group during 
the second period excels in rate of progress that of the 
practice group. (3) The work of the second period of 
the practice group shows absolute losses in quantity and 
quality. (4) The work of the contnol group in the 
second period shows absolute loss in quality of work only. 

The superior work of the practice group in the first 
period was due perhaps to a high state of interest, or 
better emotional dynamics. Compared with the control 
group they felt that more was expected of them, that 
they were "Gideon's band," so to speak, and that their 
efDorts would be more closely inspected. The control 
group had no such Incentives. They regarded their part 
as routine class work. One remarked to me that she 
never felt that she was in the experiment. 

The meaning of the relatively inferior work of the 
practice group in the second period is best made out from 
the reports of the members of the group. One says: 
(1) "In crossing out parts of speech one always had to 
think what part of speech the word was." (2) "The 
crossing out of the letters became a habit and instead of 
crossing out words one wanted to cross out e's and t's. 
These seemed to be seen so much more clearly than the 
parts of speech." Another writes, "The practice with 
e's and t's hindered me in dealing with the parts of 



6 8TATB NORICAL SCHOOL 

■peeoh. I think it was because I became accustomed to 
looking tor e's and t's and the tendency was to cross 
out 'those letters ra/ther than the parts of speech." A 
third says, 'There was, however, a tendency to cross out 
words containing e's and t's rather than the required part 
of speech." My own experience tallies with that of the 
students. The e's and t's got the attention even in irrele- 
vant words. In the ri^ht word these letters, if present, 
were often the only part crossed — this was contrary to 
our rules of work, a word required a horizontal stroke, 
letters an oblique stroke. They at times appeared larger 
and blacker than the other letters. This illusion persisted 
for six months afterwards. In dealing with the letters 
our attention was given to mere fbrm and when working 
with words it was directed to their use or function in a 
sentence. The letter-habit interfered with the word- 
marking process and ithereby incapacitated it for that 
manner of work. These results find confirmation in our 
common life. "One who has learned to concentrate alto- 
gether on the meaning of the printed page — finds it ex- 
tremely difficult, if not impossible, to read proof accurate- 
ly. And conversely a fiirst class proof reader is likely to 
be a slow reader." 

What contributions do these considerations make to 
the doctrine of formal discipline? They show that ac- 
quired skill of a very special sort does influence other 
activities. This influence may be negative or positive; in 
the present instance it was decidedly negative 1. e., it 
hindered achievement in another 'mode of a somewhat 
related activity. This experiment is one of several made 
within recent years that tend to place the doctrine of 
formal discipline back in its old historical position but 
with a new meaning. Special training and study have a 
general significance on our mental life. It is as if our 
whole mental estate levies a tax for general purposes upon 
every mental process. I conjecture that further investi- 
gations will show that the manner ludd application of the 
levy are made through the gateway of attention. The 
direction of the transfer of special training, the nature 
of its influence and the mental pnocesses affected thereby 
are some of the questions in this field requiring further 
investigation. 



DULUTH, MINNnOTA 



1 

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I.I. 

ftjft, 



STATE NOKMAL » 









■a ." 

3 S 

■I I 
I 



ii 



DULUTH, MIllNnOTA 



Table III. Practice Group, showing resalts attained by 

14 days practice in striking oat e's and f s. 



Nambs 



Av. Rate 
per If in. 



PeKentase 

of 

IncreaBe 



No. of 
Letters 
Omitted 



T.H... 
T. K... 
L.K. .. 
E. K... 
E. McD 
I. McL. 
N.N... 
H. 0... 
H.S... 



73.7 
94.6 
68.0 
77.0 
88.0 
73.0 
76.6 
75.0 
84.5 



3156 

54^ 

64^ 

16851 

1205& 

121J& 

87% 

885& 



40 
79 
76 
131 
105 
159 
241 
234 
268* 



10 



STATB NORMAL 8C80OL 



TabU IV. Comparing the ATenges of the fint and second periods of the practice gpoap, of the 

control groups and of the two groaps with each other. 



PRACTICE GROUP. 



Pabt (a) 




^ 


1 


1 


Wrong 
Words 


1 


m 

|l 

280 
28.9 


Wrong 
Words 


1 


m 

a 

1 


Wrong 
Words 


1 


1 


Wrong 
Words 


1 
1 


After Pnctlce. 
Bcf on Pnctioe 


34.0 
28.6 


1.6 
4.6 


12.6 
17.3 


11.4 
0.8 


5.0 
6.8 


6.0 
4.0 


0.5 
3.0 


7.2 
8.2 


8.5 
6.0 


2.3 
4.4 


6.3 
8.0 


3.5 
6.6 


0.6 
1.7 


6.3 
9.3 


DiffCfVBOM .... 


7.4 


3.0 


4.7 


1.6 


1.5 


-2.0 


2.1 


2.5 


1.0 


2.5 


2.1 


-1.3 


-3.1 


1.1 


3.0 


PAST(b) 


- sign indicates loss niter practice. 

CONTRi 


DL GROUP. 






Second Period. 
Ffret Period.... 


30.4 
23.8 


1.4 
8.1 


10.3 
17.0 


11.3 
8.7 


6.0 
7.0 


7.0 
8.0 


26.6 
16.6 


1.7 
2.6 


9.3 
10.8 


5.0 
4.6 


0.6 
0.3 


4.0 
13.7 


5.5 

4.4 


0.7 
2.0 


7.0 
13.0 




6.9 


3.7 


6.7 


2.6 


1.0 


-2.0 


10.0 


0.9 


1.2 


0.4 


1 

-0.3 


9.7 


1.1 


1.3 


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BEFORE 


PRACTICE 






PnctieeOronp 

Control Group 
ATorages 


28.6 
23.8 


4.6 
8.1 


17.3 
17.0 


9.8 
8.7 


6.5 
7.0 


4.0 
8.0 


25.9 
16.6 

9.3 


3.0 
2.6 


8.2 
10.8 


6.0 
4.6 


4.4 
0.3 


5.0 
13.7 


6.6 
4.4 


1.7 
2.0 


9.3 
13.0 


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5.1 


0.5 


10.3 


1.1 


0.5 


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2.3 


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0.3 


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ATcrages 

Control Group 
ATerages 


34.0 
30.4 


1.6 
1.4 


12.6 
10.3 


11.4 
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6.0 
7.0 


28.0 
26.6 


0.5 
1.7 


7.2 
9.3 


8.5 
8.0 


2.3 
0.6 


6.3 
4.0 


3.5 
8.8 


0.6 
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6.3 
7.9 




3.6 


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t sign indicates the Tantage peinto of the Control Group orer the Practice Group before and 
practice of the latter. 



after the 



DULUTH, MINNESOTA 11 



School News. 



Since the beginning of the fall term an Athletic Club 
haa been organized under the direction of Miss Long. 
The club met during the fall twice a week at three o'clock. 
While the weather permitted the girls did their Indian 
club swinging out of doors. Later on a very interesting 
part of the work tor some of the members was tha/t of 
learning to dance. Miss Van Stone taught the girls not 
only the common waltz and two-etep, but many fancy 
dances. There has been much enthusiasm In the club. 
Until the present time athletics has received little atten- 
tion in this school, although we have always felt that 
regular physical exercise should be a part of the curricu- 
lum. During the winter term the Athletic Club plans to 
go snow-shoeing once a week. 

On the last Friday OTenlng before tiie Ohrlstmas vaca- 
tion the Athletic Club presented a play called "The Three 
Chauffeurs." It was an entertaining, bright little farce. 
The girls not only looked pretty, but performed their 
parts admirably. The ^proceeds went toward buying cer- 
tain necessary furnishings for the Rest Room. The pro- 
gram and cast are given below: 

"THE THREE CHAUFFEURS." 
A Comedy by Willowdean Chatterson. 



Thne — ^The present. 

Place — A house party near Duluth, at the home of 
Krs. Lary Spencer. 

CAST: 
Kitty Kennedy. . . f i«tie 1 • .Margaret McLellan 

Lary Spencer i Three I- Florence Ryan 

Marion Hunter. . . t Chauffeurs J . .Hazel Hlmebafugh 

Mrs. Lary Spencer Jean Stapleton 

Gertrude Castleton Margaret Raleigh 

Betty Marshall Grace Aiken 

Lois Drummond Fannie jStevenson 

Jane Armstrong Jessie Todd 

Lucile Beverley Katherine Guthrie 

Minta Morris Ruth Raleigh 

Eugenia Allen Clara Randall 

Mary Smith Clairabelle Durbrow 



12 8TATB NORMAL SCHOOL 

Patience Primroee Myrtle Klii« 

Mre. Spencer (Mother-in-law) Ethel Lewis 

Lieutenant Churchill Clara Hanaon 

Nora, the Cook Soidiia Soderburg 

Annie, the maid Margaret Grogan 

MUSIC: 

My Lady Chk) — ^by Claigh Leighten The Glee Club 

Fleeting Days — ^by Bailey The Glee Club 

Fopget Me Not — ^by Giese Washburn Hall Quartette 

This term we are trying the experiment of haying two 
sessions daily instead of one. School closes at three o'clock. 
It semed advisable to try this plan because heretofiore 
there have been frequent and unavoidable conflicts in the 
program, and insufficient time for laboratory work. 

On account of the two sessions many girls who for- 
merly went home fior luncheon are obliged tx> bring lunch 
to school. Therefore the president has ordered the two 
rooms at the west end of the building, one on the second 
flooor and one on the third, to be fitted up for lunch 
rooms. Each room will be furnished with several tables 
with white table linen, and equipped with a small gas 
stove for heating chocolate or tea. 

There is a new Kranich and Bach grand piano in the 
assembly hall. 

During the fall term several of the Board of Normal 
School Directors paid this school a visit. It was a pleas- 
ure to hear these gentlemen speak in chapel. While they 
were here, we seized the opportunity of stating to them, 
aided by the persuasive eloquence of Mr. Washburn, what 
we consider onr pressing needs. We greatly need an 
assembly room imuch larger than the present one, with 
an adequate stage and scenery for plays. Our assembly 
room is now so small that it will accommodate hardly 
more than the students. When we have public entertain- 
ments, such as a class play or commencement exercises, it 
is impossible to seat all the guests. On this acoount it 
has been necessary for (the past two years to repeat the 
Senior class play a second night. Our stage is small. 
We have no stage scenery whatever, so our ingenuity is 
taxed to the utmost to arrange for outdoor scenes. In 
addition to a new assembly hall, we asked the Board for 
a gymnasium, and for another iboarding hall, inasmuch as 
Washburn Hall cannot accommodate all the girls who 
apply for places. 

Two literary societies have >been organized, one under 



DULUTH, lONNSSOTA 13 

the direction of Mi€» Lone; the other, Ml88 Poet. They 
meet onee in two weeks on Friday afternoons, with open 
meeting once a month. Jioet of the students have Joined 
one or the other of these societies, and show considerable 
enthusiasm for the work. The following are the latest 
programs of the two societies as posted on the bulletin 
board: 

Miss Long's DlTlslon. 

1. Piano Solo lone Stock 

2. The Lincoln Centennial Stephinia Polasky 

3. Vocal Solo Ethel Eckert 

4. Reading Hazel Helnubach 

6. Three Minute Speeches 

1. The Value of Literary Training for the Teacher. 

2. The Value of Dramatic Training -for the Student. 
N. B. Any member may expect to be called upon. 

6. Trio — "Twilight" Misses Merritt. King and Hopkins 

Greysolon Society. 

Business Meeting — 

Piano Solo Mabel Fix 

6«ssay, "Voyagers and Hudson Bay" Maud Grogan 

Reading Fanny Stephenson 

Song .Octette 

Essay, ""Elarly History of Duluth" Ruby McMinn 

Biographical Sketch of Jean de L'hut Ella Carlson 

Poem, "A Legend of Duluth" by Rev. Wurtele. . . . 

Ruth Raleigh 

Piano iDuet Laura Hamblin and Jessie Todd 

Last year the Supervisor of Drawing secured from a 
Japanese importer a large number of Japanese prints, 
among them some rare old originals. These were placed 
on exhibition in the Drawing Room for several days. A 
large number of visitors came to see these prints. Almost 
the entire collection was sold to visitors, faculty and 
students. Just before Christmas this year the Supervisor 
arranged for another and even more beautiful exhibit, 
similar to the one last year. Appreciation of Japanese 
art often has to be cultivated. It not infrequently hap- 
pens that a picture which impresses one at first cui gro- 
tesque and incomprehensible, after a little study fascinates 
one by its beauty of coloring, sweep of line, and unique 
composition. The students in the Art and Manual Train- 
ing Department have been particularly Interested in the 
unusual combination of delicate colors found in these 



14 STATE NORMAL 8CB00L 

prints, and have employed many of the color sohemes in 
their stenciling. 

One of the critic teachers told a little boy in her room 
to ask his mother to come over that afternoon to see the 
prints exhibited in the Drawing Room. He deliyered the 

message thus: "Miss A says there is a Japanese 

prince at school, and wants you to come orer to see him." 

The party given laat term by the Seniors for the 
Juniors and Faculty was very uni<iue. The invitation 
looked like railroad announcements of a homeseekers* ex- 
cursion. iE3very guest was asked to oome in costume, suit- 
able to such a trip. The long lower hall of the school 
building was arranged to represent the interior of a train 
of cars. There was a baggage car, several immigrant 
cars, parlor and dining cars. There were the usual offi- 
cials and colored porters. All sorts of interesting people 
were found to be on this train: foreign immigrants who 
could speak no English, women sufPragists, farmers, chorus 
girls, cowboys and society belles. It was a delightful 
party. As everybody had a role to play, everyone had a 
good time. 

Fy)r the Friday before Christmas the children of the 
Model School issued invitations to their parents and to 
the entire Faculty tor a Christmas party. The day before 
the party all the boys started out with their little hatchets 
and sleds to gather greens in the woods. They came back 
with sleds piled high. The lower half of the building next 
day was gay with decorations of evergreen and paper 
poinsettia. It was a pleasant sight to watch the children 
going through the intricacies of tiie grand march, and 
playing many a merry game. One of the recitation rooms 
had been transformed into a refreshment room. In the 
center stood a table decorated with poinsettia and a circle 
of ten tall white candles. 

Miss Quilliard has recently been giving a series of lec- 
tures for parents and Normal students. 

The corner of Twenty-third avenue and Fifth street, 
opposite the Normal, has been entirely transformed by 
the erection of three new houses. We feared that they 
might obstruct our beautiful view of Lake Superior, but 
fortunately the Normal stands on such high ground that 
other buildings cannot in the least interfere with the view. 

A skating rink has been made on Twenty-fifth avenue 
Bast and Fi^th street, about two blocks from the Normal. 
A large part of the fund for making this rink was con- 



DULUTH, MINNS80TA IS 

trirbated upon condition that the prlyileges of the rink 
should be free to the students boarding at Washburn Hall. 

Becaaise of the lai^ge nuniiber of students taking the 
work in Domestic Science, it has become necessary this 
year to change the requirement from a two to a one year 
course. 

The following Christmas program was giyen Just before 
the holidays instead oif the regular chapel exercise. 

Hymn, "Hark the Herald Angels Sing.'" 

Psalm 

Response 

Chorus, "The Heavens Are Telling" Haydn 

Recitation, "The Angel and the Shepherds". ....... 

Sadie Sterene 

Eseay, "Carol Singing in England" Hattie Nelson 

Old Engllsb Carol Miss Van Stone and eight girls 

Recitation, "Jest 'Fore Christmas" Ruth Hamblin 

Recitation, "There's a Song in the Air" Ellen Vandergrift 

Solo, "The Birthday of a Kin«," Neidlinger 

Miss Van Stone 

A personal Experience on New Year's Eve in Lon- 
don Dorothy Bateman 

Recitation, "Ring Out, Wild Bells" Margaret McLellan 

Chorus, "Naaareth." 

Personals. 

It is gratifying to all connected with this school that 
Mr. Washburn has decided to accept his reappointment as 
resident director for the next four years. 

Miss Olive Home, the eighth-grade critic, has obtained 
a leave of absence for the winter term. She and her 
mother are spending the winter in California. 

Mrs. Kline is acting as substitute in Miss Home's 
absence. 

Miss Dora Eaton, formerly head of the Domestic 
Science Department, after teaching for a year in Mills 
College, California, is at present preceptress of a girl's 
dormitory connected with Ohio State University at Colum- 
bus, Ohio. 

Miss Helen Bainbridge, formerly fiapervisor of Manual 
Training in this school, is now following the profession of 
house decorator in New York City. 

Miss Ellen Vandergrift, after an absence of two 
years, has returned to continue her course. 



16 8TATI NOBMAL 8CSOOL 

Mias Sadie SteTens, wte wb uottble to be in sdiool 
teet year on acooont of her ibealth, lias returned to floMi 
her ^rark with tlie Senior elaaiL 

Ml88 Mildred WUtae, '10, la teaching in Langford. 
South Dakota. 

Miss Van Stone entertained the Olee Club recently. 



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