(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Bulletin"

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 



at |http : //books . google . com/ 



"'^■rf'. ; 



^> 



nV^'^H^i^-^^ 



^ ».v ^ 



.>? ..il^' •^• 






^X" * 



\ ' '■i' 









• t 



;a 



* V -x 



% /* 



>'rhi^ 



. ^ > 4. .;^ 






\ . 



' - n*' 



! 6 1 'O 



HARVARD UNIVERSITY. 




LIBRARY 

OP THE 

MUSEUM OP COMPARATIVE ZOOLOOY. 




A-yvA 



a-^,v\\^. 




Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



i 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Vo^^^ 



SiVflTHSOTSriAN INSTITUTION. 

UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



BULLETIN 



OP THE 



TJ^STITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

No. 50. 



THE BIRDS 

OF 

]SrORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 

BY 
CURATOR. DIVI8I0N OP BIRDS. 



Part VI. 




WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 
1914. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 

X7NITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



2SI^o. 50. 



Part VI. 




WASHINGTON: 

OOTEBMHEirr FBINmNO OFFICE. 

1914. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 






:^ 



<^- 



X 



BULLETIN OP THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM, 
IssuBD April 8, 1914. 



Tl 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE BIEDS 



OF 



NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA: 



A DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE 

OF THE 

HIGHER GROUPS, GENERA, SPECIES, AND SUBSPECIES OF BIRDS 

KNOWN TO OCCUR IN NORTH AMERICA, FROM THE 

ARCnC LANDS TO THE ISTHMUS OF PANAMA 

THE WEST INDIES AND. OTHER ISLANDS 

OP THE CARIBBEAN SEA, AND THE 

GALAPAGOS ARCHIPELAGO 

BY 
CURATOR, DIVISION OF BIRDS. 



Part YI. 



hmatj FHUD A— The Woodpaekan. 
hmif OAFITOHIDii— Tb« Barbels. 
hmijRiMFBASnDM — ^The ToneuiB. 
hniy BOOOOMWM — Thb Puff-Birds. 
hnlfBALBXnJDM — ^Tbe Jaeamin. 
hmij JLUXDISIDM — The fingfishsn. 



Family TODID A— The TodieSi 
ranulj MOMOnDA-The Motmete. 
ftmij OAFRIMULfilD A— The Goalsaokers. 
Family NTOTIHIID A— The Fotoos. 
Fkmily TTTOHIO A— The Bam Owls. 
Family BUBOSID A— The lared Owls. 



WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PBINTING OFFICE, 
1914. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



PREFACE. 



More than one-third of the present volume (pp. 1-309, inclusive) 
was printed in 1911, having been intended for Part V; but, as stated 
in the Preface to that volmne, could not be included therein without 
unduly increasing the bulk. The matter has, however, been revised, 
and to a large extent reset, in order to bring the subject up to date. 
A Gonular fate has befallen two large groups intended for the present 
volume, namely, the Coccygiformes (Cuckoo-Uke Birds) and Psitta- 
dfoimea (Parrots); the former having been left out at the last 
moment (for the same reason as were the Woodpeckers from Part V), 
after having been entirely put in type,* the latter in large part com- 
pleted in manuscript. 

The Families of birds included in the present and preceding vol- 
umes are as follows: 

Part I, issued October 24, 1901, included the FringillidsB (Finches) 
alone. 

Part n, issued October 16, 1902, included the Tanagridffi(Tanagers), 
Icterids (Treupials), OerebidaB (Honey Creepers), and MniotiltidsB 
(Wood Warblers). 

Part in, issued December 31, 1904, included the Motacillido ( Wag- 
taik and Pipits), Hirundinidse (Swallows), Ampelidsd (Waxwings), 
-Ptilogonatid» (Silky Flycatchers), Dulidaa (Palm Chats), VireonidcB 
(Vireos), Laniidse (Shrikes), Corvid© (Crows and Jays), Paridsd (Tit- 
mice) » Sittid» (Nuthatches), CerthiidaB (Creepers), Troglodytidae 
(Wrens), C!inchd» (Dippers), Chamsoido (Wren-Tits), and Sylviidae 
(Warblers). 

Part rV, issued July 1, 1907, contained the remaining groups of 
Oscines, namely, the TurdidaB (Thrushes), Zeledoniidaa (Wren- 
Thrushes), Mimid» (Mockingbirds), StumidaB (StarUngs), Ploceidsa 
(Weaverbirds), and Alaudidsa (Larks), together with the Haploo- 
phone or Oligomyodian Mesomyodi, comprising Oxyruncidse (Sharp- 
bills), Tyrannid» (Tyrant Flycatchers), Pipridsd (Manakins), and 
Cotingidao (Chatterers). 

Part V, issued November 29, 1911, includes the Tracheophone 
Mesomyodi, represented by the Pteroptochid» (Tapaculos), Formi- 
cariidae (An thirds), Fumariidae (Ovenbirds), and Dendrocolaptidae 

1 This matter, comprising 101 printed pac«, wfll appeer in Part vn. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



VI PREFACE. 

( Woodhewers) ; the Macrochires^ containing the Trochilid® (Hum- 
ming Birds) and Micropodid® (Swifts), and the Heterodactyte, repre- 
sented only by the Trogonidae (Trogons). 

Part VI (the present volume) contains the Picariffi, comprising the 
families Picidse (Woodpeckers), Capitonid» (Barbets), Ramphastidae 
(Toucans), Bucconid» (Puff Birds), and 6albulid» (Jacamars); the 
Anisodactyke, with families Alcedinidaa (Kingfishers), Todidse 
(Todies), and Momotid® (Motmots); the Nycticoracise, with families 
Caprimulgidsd (Goatsuckers) and Nyctibiid» (Potoos), and the 
Striges, consisting of families Tytonid» (Bam Owls) and Bubonidse 
(Eared Owls). 

In these six volumes are treated, in detail (that is, with full synony- 
mies and descriptions), besides the Families above mentioned and 
the higher groups to which they, respectively, belong, 520 genera, 
2111 species and subspecies, besides 155 extralimital genera and 478 
extraUmital species and subspecies whose diagnostic characters are 
given in the "keys", and their principal synonymy (full synonymy 
in case of the genera) given in footnotes. 

Acknowledgments are due to the same individuals and institu- 
tions as those mentioned in previous volumes for the loan of speci- 
mens needed in the preparation of the present one; also to Dr. 
Jonathan Dwight, jr., of New York CXty; Dr. L. C. Sanford, of New 
Haven, Connecticut; Mr. Harry S. Swarth, of Los Angeles, California; 
Mr. A. B. Howell, of Covina, California, and the Museimi of Verte- 
brate Zoology (University of Calif omia), the latter through Mr. 
Joseph Grinnell, Director. 

To Dr. (Carles W. Richmond, Acting Curator of the Division of 
Birds, U. S. National Museum, the author is indebted for the privilege 
of free access to his unique and extremely valuable card-catalogue 
collection of references to the first publication of generic, specific, and 
subspecific names, for information concerning puzzling questions of 
nomenclature, and invaluable help in reading proof sheets; and to 
Mr. J. H. Riley, Aid in the Division of Birds, for assistance in various 
ways, especially the measuring of several thousands of specimens. 

The original drawings of the outline figures illustrating generic 
details (Pis. I-XXXVI), except those previously published, were 
made by Miss Ruth G. CoUette, of Washington, D. C. 

Robert Ridgwat. 
Febbuabt 4, 1914. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



SUBOBDBX PlCABLS. PlOASIAN BiBDS 1 

Key to the Superfamiliee of Picarue 2 

SUPERFAMILT PiCI. WoODPBOKBBS and WrTNECKS 2 

Key to the Families of Fici 4 

Familt Tkwm. The Woodpbokbrs 4 

Key to the Oenera of Fields « 

GentMl. Oc^ptee Vigora * 12 

Key to the Speciee and Subspecies of Colaptes 13 

1. Colaptes aiuatus aiuatus (linneus) 14 

2. Colaptes auratns luteus Bangs. 18 

3. Colaptes auratus borealis Ridgway 20 

4. Colaptes auratus luteus X cafer collaris 21 

5. Colaptes chrysocaulosus chrysocaulosus Gundlach 23 

6. Colaptes chrysocaulosus gundlachi (Cory) 25 

7. Colaptes chrysoides chrysoides (Malherbe) 26 

8. Colaptes chrysoides brunnescens Anthony 27 

9. Colaptes chrysoides meamsi Eidgway 28 

10. Colaptes cafer cafer (Gmelin) 29 

11. Colaptes cafer collaris (Vigors) 33 

12. Colaptes cafer satuntior (Ridgway) 36 

13. Colaptes cafer rufipileus (Ridgway) 37 

14. Colaptes mexicanoides Lafresnaye 37 

Genus 2. Neaoceleus Sclater and Salvin 39 

15. Nesoceleus femandin» (Vigors) 40 

Genus 3. Metlanerpes Swainson 41 

Key to the Species of Melanorpes .^ 42 

16. Melstnerpes erythrocephalus (linnsus) 42 

17. Melanerpes portoricensis (Daudin) 47 

Genufl4. Centurus Swainson 48 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Centurus 50 

18. Centurus carolinus (Linnseus) 55 

19. Centurus superciliaris superciliaris (Temminck) 59 

20. Centurus superciliaris murceus Bangs 01 

21 . Centurus blakei blakei Ridgway 61 

22. Centurus blakei bahamensis (Cory)..... 63 

23. Centurus nyeanus Ridgway 63 

24. Centurus caymanensis Cory 65 

25. Centurus did>ius dubius (Cabot) 66 

26. Centurus dubius versecrucis (Nelson) 68 

27. Centurus dubius leei (Ridgway) 69 

28. Centurus dubius canescens (Salvin) 70 

29. Centurus rubriventfis rubriventris Swainson 70 

30. Centurus rubriventris pygnueus Ridgway 72 

81. Centurus subelegans wagleri (Salvin and Godman) 73 

82. Centurus seductus (Bangs) 75 

vn 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Vm TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Key to the Spedee and Subspecies of Centurus— Continued. Page. 

33. Centurua hoffmanni Cabanis 76 

34. Centurus polygiammuB polygrammuB Cabanis 78 

36. Centurus polygmmmus frontalis (Nelson) 80 

36. Centurus auiifrons (Wagler) 81 

37. Centurus santacruzi santacruzi Bonaparte 84 

38. Centiurus santacruzi gcateloupensis (Lesson) 87 

• 39. Centurus santacruzi pauper Ridgway 88 

40. Centurus chrysogenys chrysogenys (Vigors) 89 

41. Centurus chrysogenys flavinuchus Bidgway 91 

42. Centurus hypopolius (Wagler) 92 

43. Centurus luopygialis luopygialis Baird 93 

44. Centurus uropygialis biewsteri Bidgway 96 

45. Centurus radiolatus (Wagler). 97 

46. Centurus striatus (Miiller) 98 

C^nus 5. Balanosphyra Ridgway 100 

E^y to the Species and Subspecies of Balanosphyra 101 

47. Balanosphyra formicivora formicivora (Swainson) 102 

48. Balanosphyra formicivora aculeata (Meams) 105 

49. Balanosphyra formicivora bairdi (Ridgway) 107 

50. Balanosphyra fonnidvora angustifrons (Baird) 108 

51. Balanosphyra fonnidvora albeola (Todd) 109 

5^. Balanosphyra fonnidvora striatipectus (Ridgway) 110 

53. Balanosphyra xanthokrynx (Rddienbach) Ill 

Qenus6. linneopicus Malherbe , 112 

54. Linneopicus henninieri (Lesson) 113 

Genus 7. Asyndesmus Coues 113 

55. Asyndesmus lewisi Riley 114 

Qenu88. Tripsurus Swainson 117 

Key to the Spedes and Subq[>ede8 of Tripsurus 119 

56. Tripsurus pucherani pucherani (Malherbe) 119 

57. Tripsurus pucherani perileucus (Todd) 122 

58. Tripsurus chrysauchen (Salvin) 123 

Genus 9. Chloronerpes Swainson 124 

Key to the Spedes and Subq[>edee of Chloronerpes 125 

59. Chloronerpes auricularis Salvin and Godman 128 

60. Chloronerpes seruginosus (Malherbe) 129 

61. Chloronerpes rubiginosus yucatanensis (Cabot) 131 

62. Chloronerpes rubiginosus uropygialis (Cabanis) 133 

63. Chloronerpes chrysochlorus aurosus Nelson 134 

64. Chloronerpes callopterus Lawrence 136 

65. Chloronerpes simplex simplex Salvin 136 

66. Chloronerpes simplex allophyeus Bangs. 138 

Genus 10. CeleusBoie 138 

Key to the Spedes and Subspedes of Cdeus 140 

67. Celeus immaculatus Berlepsch 141 

68. Celeus castaneus (Wagler) 141 

69. Celeus loricatus loricatus (Rdchenbach) 143 

70. Celeus loricatus diversus Ridgway 145 

Genus 11. Ceophloeus Cabanis 146 

Key to the Subspedes of Ceophloeus lineatus 147 

71. Ceophloeus lineatus mesorhynchus (Cabanis and Heine) 148 

72. Ceophloeus lineatus simiUs (Lesson) 150 

73. Ceophloeus lineatus scapularis (Vigors) 152 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. DC 



Geni]8l2. FhlcBotomua Gabanis 153 

Key to the Subepedee of FhloeotomuB pileatuB 155 

74. FhlcBotomiiB pileatus pileatus (Liniueiis) 155 

75. PhloBotDimis pileatus floridaniiB Ridgway 159 

76. FliloeotointLS pfleatufl abieticola (Bangs) 160 

77. Fhloeotomus pileatus pidnus Bangs 162 

Genus 13. Campephilus Gray 164 

Key to the Species of Campephilus 166 

78. Campephilus imperialis Gould 166 

79. Campephilus prindpalis (Lmnceus) 167 

80. Cunpephilus bairdii Cassin 169 

Genua 14. Scapaneus Cabanis and Heine 170 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Scapaneus 172 

8L Scapaneus malherbii (Giay) 172 

82. Scapaneus guatemalensis guatemalensis (Hartlaub) 174 

83. Scapaneus guatemalensis nelsoni Bidgway 178 

84. Scapaneus guatemalensis r^us (Reichenbach) 178 

GenuslS. Cniparchus Cabanis and Heine 180 

85. Cniparchus hsematogaster splendens (Haigitt) 181 

Genus 16. Slphidiopicus Bonaparte 182 

Key to the Subspedesof Xiphidiopicus percussos 183 

86. Xiphidiopicus percussus percussus (Temminck) 183 

87. Xiphidiopicus percussus insul»-pinorum Bangs 185 

Genus 17. Voiiliomis Bonaparte 185 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Yeniliomis 187 

88. Yeniliomis oleaginus oleaginus (Lichtenstein) 188 

89. Yeniliomis oleaginus sanguinolentus (Sclater) 190 

90. Yeniliomis kirkii darienensis Bidgway 192 

91. Yeniliomis kirkii neglectus (Bangs) 193 

Genus 18. Dryobates Boie 194 

Key to tiie Species and Subspecies of Dryobates 196 

92. Dryobates villosus villosus (Linnaeus) 201 

93. Dryobates villosus audubonii (Swainson) 206 

94. Dryobates villosus maynardi Bidgway 208 

95. Dryobates villosus piger G. M. Allen 209 

96. Dryobates villosus septentrionalis (Nuttall) 210 

97. Dryobates villosus terrsenovse Batdielder 211 

98. Dryobates villosus monticola Anthony 212 

99. Dryobates villosus leucothorectis Oberholser 214 

100. Dryobates villosus orius Oberholser 215 

101. Dryobates villosus hyloscopus (Cabanis) 217 

102. Dryobates villosus hairisii (Audubon) 218 

103. Dryobates villosus sitkensis Swarth 220 

104. Dryobates villosus picoideus (Osgood) 220 

105. Dryobates villosus icastus Oberholser 221 

106. Dryobates villosus intermedins Nelson 222 

107. Dryobates villosus jardinii (Malherbe) 223 

108. Dryobates villosus sanctorum (Nelson) 226 

109. Dryobates villosus fumeus Oberholser 226 

110. Dryobates villosus extimus Bangs 226 

111. Dryobates pubescens pubescens (Limueus) 228 

112. Dryobates pubescens medianus (Swainson) 233 

113. Dryobates pubescens nelsoni Oberholser 235 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



X TABLB OF CONTENTS. 

Key to the Species and Subflpecies of Dryobates— Continued page. 

114. Dryobates pubescens homorus (Cabanis and Heine) 236 

115. Dryobates pubescens glacialis Grinnell 239 

116. Dryobates pubeecens turati (Malherbe) 239 

117. Dryobates pubeecens gairdnerii (Audubon) 241 

118. Dryobates nuttallii (Gambel) 242 

119. Dryobates scalaris scalaris (Wagler) 245 

120. Dryobates scalaris ridgway i Oberholser 247 

121. Dryobates scalaris percus Oberholser 248 

122. Dryobates scalaris parvus (Cabot) 248 

123. Dryobates scalaris leucoptilurus Oberholser 249 

124. Dryobates scalaris sinaloensis Ridgway 250 

125. Dryobates scalaris graysoni (Baird) 250 

126. Dryobates scalaris azelus Oberholser 251 

127. Dryobates scalaris agnus Oberholser 252 

128. Dryobates scalaris lucasanus (Xantus) 252 

129. Dryobates scalaris eremicus Oberholser 253 

130. Dryobates scalaris cactophilus Oberiiolser 254 

131. Dryobates scalaris centrophilus Oberholser 256 

132. Dryobates scalaris symplectus Oberholser 257 

133. Dryobates scalaris bairdi (Malherbe) 258 

134. Dryobates stricklandi (Malherbe) 259 

135. Dryobates arizon® arizonse (Hargitt) 261 

136. Dryobates arizonse fraterculus Ridgway 263 

Genus 19. Xenopicus Baird 264 

137. Xenopicus albolarvatus albolarvatus (Cassin) 265 

138. Xenopicus albolarvatus gravirostris (Grinnell) 267 

Genus 20. Phrenopicus Bonaparte 268 

139. Phrenopicus borealis (Vieillot) 269 

Genus 21. Sphyrapicus Baird 272 

Key to the Species and Subspecies(?) of Sphyrapicus 273 

140. Sphyrapicus varius varius (Linnaus) 274 

141. Sphyrapicus varius nuchalis Baird 279 

142. Sphyrapicus ruber ruber (Gmelin) 282 

143. Sphyrapicus ruber notkensis (Suckow) 284 

144. Sphyrapicus thyroideus (Cassin) 286 

Genus 22 . Rcoides Lac^pMe 289 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Picoides 290 

145. Picoides americanus americanus Brehm 291 

146. Picoides americanus fasciatus Baird 295 

147. Rcoides americanus dorsalis (Baird) 297 

148. Picoides arcticus (Swainson) 298 

Genus23. Rcumnus Temndnck 302 

Key to the Subspecies of Picumnus olivaceus 303 

149. Picumnus olivaceus panamensis Ridgway 304 

150. Rcumnus olivaceus flavotinctus (Ridgway) 306 

151. Rcumnus olivaceus dimotus (Bangs) 307 

Genus 24. Nesoctites Hargitt 307 

152. Nesoctites micromegas (Sundevall) 308 

SUPBRTAMILT CaPTTONES. ThB BaRBETS AND HONET GuiDES 310 

Key to the Families of Capitones 310 

Faiolt Capitonid^. Thb Barbbts 311 

Key to the American Genera of Capitonidse 313 

Genus 1. Eubucco Bonaparte 314 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



TABLB OP CONTENTS. XI 

Pate. 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Eubucco 315 

1. Eubucco boTircieri aalyiid (Shelley) 317 

Genua 2. Oapito Vieillot 819 

Key to tiie Species of Capito 320 

2. Oapito maculicoroDatuB maculicoronatus Lawrence 323 

3. Capito macnlicoronatas piirensis Nelson 324 

GenusS. DichrorhynchtUB Cairiker 324 

4. DichrorhynchuB frantsii (Sclater) 325 

SUTSHPAMILT lUUFHAanDBS 327 

FaMILT BAMPHABTEDiB. ThB ToUGANS 328 

ley to the Genera of Ramphastid» 329 

Genusl. RamphaBtoe linnseus 330 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Bamphastos 332 

1. Bamphafltos piscivorus piscivorus linnsus 332 

2. Ramphafltofl piscivorus brevicarinatus (Gould) 334 

3. Ramphastoe swainsonii Crould 336 

4. Bamphastos ambiguus Swainson 339 

GeDii8 2. PterpglosBUB Uliger 340 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Pteroglossus 341 

5. PtetQgloflBiis torquatus tcnquatus (Gmelin). 342 

6. Pteroglossus torquatus erythrozonus Bidgway 345 

7. Ptero^osBUs frantzii Cabanis 345 

3. PterpgloggQs sangirineua Gould 347 

G«nis3. Selenidera Gould 348 

9. Selenidera spectabilis Cassia 349 

Geini04. Aulac<»hynchu8 Gould 351 

Key to the Species of Aulacorhynchus 353 

10. Aulacorhynchus wagleri (Sturm) 354 

U. Aulacorhynchus jnasinus jnasinua (Gould) 355 

12. Au]acOTh3mchus piasinus virescens Bidgway 357 

13. AulacothynchuB cseruleogularis cseruleogularis (Gould) 357 

14. Aulacorhynchus cseruleogularis cognatus (Nelson) 359 

SUFBRPAMILY GaLBUUB. JaCAMABS AND PuFF BiRDS 359 

Key to the Families of Galbul» 359 

Paxilt Galbulid^. ThbJacamabs 360 

Key to the Genera of GalbulidiB 360 

Genusl. Jacamerops Oken 862 

1. Jacamerops auiea (MUller) 362 

Gams 2. Galbula Briason 365 

2. Galbula melanogenia Sclater 366 

Geausd. Brachygalba Bonaparte 869 

3. Brachygalba sahnoni Sclater and Salvin 369 

Familt BuccoNiDA. The Puff BiBDS 370 

Key to the Genera of Bucconid® 871 

Genus 1. Notharchus Cabanis and Heine — 1 873 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Notharchus 875 

1. Notharchus hyi)errhynchus d3rBoni (Sclater) 876 

2. Notharchus pectoralis (Gray) 879 

3. Notharchus tectus subtectus (Sclater) , 879 

Genu82. H3rpnelua Cabanis and Heine 880 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Hypnelus 882 

4. Hypnelus ruficollisruficollis(Wagler) 882 

Genus 3. Ecchaunomia Bidgway 884 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Xn TABI.B OF OONTBNTS. 

Pagou 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Ecchaunomis 385 

5. Ecchaunoniifl radiatus fulvidus (Salvin and Godrnan) 385 

Genus 4. Malacoptila Gray 387 

Key to the Central American Subspecies of Malacoptila panamensis 388 

6. Malacoptila panamensis panamensis Lafresnaye 388 

7. Malacoptila panamensis inomata (Du Bus) 390 

Genus 5 . Monasa Vieillot 392 

Key to the Species of Monasa 393 

8. Monasa grandior Sclater and Salvin 395 

9. Monasa fidelis Nelson 397 

10. Monasa pallescens Cassin 397 

11. Monasa minor (Nelson) 398 

12. Monasa similis Nelson 399 

Genus 6. Nonnula Sclater 399 

Key to the Brown-headed Species of Nonnula 400 

13. Nonnula frontalis (Sclater) 401 

SuBORDEB Anisodacttl*. Anisodacttls Coraciiformes 402 

Key to the Superfamilies of Anisodactylse 403 

SuPBBFAMiLY Halctonbs. Thb Kinghshebs 403 

Family Alcbdinidjs. The True Kingpishebs 405 

Key to the American (and related Old World) Genera of Alcedinidse 406 

Genus 1. Streptoceryle Bonaparte 407 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Streptoceryle 408 

1. Streptoceryle torquata torquata (linnaus) 409 

2. Streptoceryle torquata stictipennis (Lawrence) 414 

3. Streptoceryle alcyon alcyon (linnaeus) 415 

4. Streptoceryle alcyon caurina (Grinnell) 420 

Genus 2. Chloroceryle Kaup 421 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Chloroceryle 422 

5. Chloroceryle amazona (Latham) 424 

6. Chloroceryle americana isthmica (Goldman) 428 

7. Chloroceryle americana septentrionalis (Sharpe) 431 

8 Chloroceryle inda (Linneeus) 434 

9. Chloroceryle aenea 8Bnea (Pallas) 437 

10. Chloroceryle senea stictoptera (Ridgway) 440 

SUPBRFAHILT TODI. ThB ToDIBS 441 

Family Todidjb. Thb Todies 441 

Crenus 1. Todus Liniueus 442 

Key to the Species of Todus... 443 

1. Todus multicolor Gould 443 

2. Todus pulcherrimus Sharpe 445 

3. Todus angustirostris Lafresnaye 445 

4. Todus subulatus Gray 447 

5. Todus todus (Linnaeus) 448 

6. Todus mexicanus Lesson 449 

SUPBBFAMILY MoMOn. ThB MoTMOTS 450 

Family MoMOTiDJS. ThbMotmots 450 

Key to the Genera of Momotidse 462 

Genus 1. Momotus Brisson 453 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Momotus 454 

1. Momotus coeruliceps (Gould) 455 

2. Momotus lessonii lessonii Lesson 457 

3. Momotus lessonii exiguus Ridgway 460 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



TABLE OF OONTBNTR. XHI 

Key to the Spedes and SubspedeB of Momotos — Contmued. Page. 

4. Momptus leesomi goldmani Nelson 460 

5. MomotuB Bubrufescens conexus (Thayer and Bangs) 461 

6. MomotiB Bubrufescens reconditus (Nelson) 463 

7. Momotus mexicanus mexicanus Swainson 463 

8. Momotus mexicanus satuiatus Nelson 465 

9. Momotus castaneicepe Gould 466 

Genus 2. Urospatha Salvadori 467 

Key to the Subspecies of XJioBpatha martii 468 

10. Uioepatha martii semiru& (Sclater) 468 

Genus 3. Election Gistel 470 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Electron 471 

11. Election platyrhynchus minor (Hartert) 472 

12. Election platyrhynchus suboles Nelson 474 

13. Electron carinatus carinatus (Dubus) 474 

14. Electron carinatus viiidis (Eidgway) 476 

Genus 4. Eumomota Sclater 476 

Key to the Subspecies of Eumomota supercilioea 477 

15. Eumomota superdliosa (Sandbach) 478 

16. Eumomota supercilioea bipartita Ridgway 480 

17. Eumomota supercilioea australis (Bangs) 481 

GennsS. Aspatha Sharpe 482 

18. Aspatha gularis (Lafresnaye) 483 

Genus 6. Hylomanes Lichtenstein 484 

Key to the Subspecies of Hylomanes momotula 485 

19. Hylomanes momotula momotula Lichtenstein 485 

20. Hylomanes momotula obscurus Nelson 487 

SlTBOBDEH NYCnCORACLB. NOCTUBNAL CoRACLfi 487 

Key to the 6ui>er{amilies of Nycticoraciae 488 

SvFEBFAMiLT Oaprixxtloi. Thb Goatsuckbrs 489 

Key to the Families of Caprimulgi 490 

Faiolt Capbimuloida. Ths Goatsuckbrs 490 

Key to the Genera of Caprimulgidse 491 

Genus 1. SipbonOThis Sclater 495 

1. Siphonorbis americana (Unnfieus) 495 

Genus 2. Stenopsis Cassin 497 

Key to the Subspecies of Stenopsis cayennensis 498 

2. Steoopeia cayennensis insularis Bichmond 499 

3. Stenopsis cayennensis albicauda (Lawrence) 502 

GenusS. Antrostomus Bonaparte 503 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Antrostomus 504 

4. Antrostomus carolinensis (Gmelin) 506 

5. Antrostomus rufuB rufuB (Boddaert) 510 

6. Antrostomus rufuB otiosus Bangs 513 

7. Antrostomus cubanensiB Lawrence 513 

8. Antrostomus vociferus vodferus (Wilson) 515 

9. Antrostomus vociferus macromystax (Wagler) 520 

10. Antrostomus (vociferus?) chiapensis Nelson 522 

U. Antrostomus oaxacse Nelson 523 

12. Antrostomus salvini (Hartert) 525 

13. Antrostomus nelson! Bidgway 527 

14. Antrostomus badius Bangs and Peck 529 

15. Antrostomus ridgwayi Nelson 531 

16. Antrostomus goldnumi Nelscm 532 

17. AntrortomnflsaturatusSalvin 534 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



XIV TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Genus 4. NyctidromuB Gotdd 635 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Nyctidromus 536 

18. Nyctidromus albicollis albicoUis (Gmelin) 537 

19. Nyctidromus albicollis yucatanensis Nelson 543 

20. Nyctidromus albicollis sumichrasti Bidgway 543 

21. Nyctidromus albicollis nelsoni Ridgway 544 

22. Nyctidromus albicollis insularis Nelson 545 

23. Nyctidromus albicollis merrilli Sennett 546 

Genus 5. Phakenoptilus Ridgway 547 

24. Pbalsenoptilus nuttallii nuttallii (Audubon) 548 

25. Phabenoptilus nuttallii califomicus Ridgway 552 

Genus 6. Otophanes Brewster 553 

26. Otophanes mcleodii Brewster 554 

Genus 7 . Nyctagreus Nelson 556 

27. Nyctagreus yucatanensis (Hartert) 557 

GenusS. Ohordeiles Swainson 559 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Ohordeiles 560 

28. Ohordeiles viiginianus virginianus (Gmelin) 562 

29. Ohordeiles virginianus hesperis Grinnell 567 

30. Ohordeiles viiginianus sennetti (Ooues) 568 

31. Ohordeiles virginianus howelli Oberholser 570 

32. Ohordeiles virginianus henryi (Oassin) 572 

33. Ohordeiles virginianus aserriensis Oherrie 573 

34. Ohordeiles virginianus chapman! (Ooues) 574 

35. Ohordeiles viiginianus vicinus Riley !... 575 

36. Ohordeiles viiginianus minor (Oabanis) 576 

37. Ohordeiles acutipennis micromeris Oberholser 577 

38. Ohordeiles acutipennis inferior Oberholser 580 

39. Ohordeiles acutipennis texensis (Lawrence) 581 

Family NYCTiBiiDiB. Thb Poroos 583 

Genus 1. Nyctibius Vieillot ! . 584 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Nyctibius 586 

1. Nyctibius grandis (Gmelin) 587 

2. Nyctibius griseus jamaicensis (Gmelin) 589 

3. Nyctibius griseus mexicanus (Nelson) 592 

4. Nyctibius griseus costaricensis Ridgway 593 

5. Nyctibius griseus panamensis Ridgway 593 

Suborder Strioes. Owls 594 

Key to the Families of Striges 598 

Family Tytonid^. The Barn Owls 598 

Genus 1. TytoBillbeig 600 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Ty to 601 

1. Tyto perlata furcata (Temminck) 602 

2. Tyto perlata lucayana Riley 604 

3. Tyto perlata pratincola (Bonaparte) 605 

4. Tyto perlata guatemalse (Ridgway) 610 

6. Tyto baigei (Hartert) 611 

6. Tyto glaucops (Kaup) 612 

7. Tyto insularis insularis (Pelzeln) 613 

8. Tyto insularis nigrescens (Lawrence) 615 

9. Tyto punctatissima (Gray) 616 

Family BuBONiDiB. The Eared Owls 617 

Key to the American Genera of Bubonidse 619 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. XV 

pm«> 

GeniiBl. Cryptoglaux Richmond 622 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Cryptoglaux 623 

1. Cryptoglaux tengmalmi richardsoni (Bonaparte) 624 

2. Cryptoglaux acadica (Gmdin) 627 

3. Cni>tQglaux ridgwayi Alfuo 633 

Genufl2. Scotiaptex Swainson 634 

Key to the Subspecies of Scotiaptex nebulosa 635 

4. Scotiaptex nebulosa nebuksa (Fcnster) 635 

GexniflS. Strix linnsus 639 

Key to the Spedes and Subspecies of Strix 641 

5. Strix varia varia (Barton) 641 

6. Strix varia alleni (Ridgway) 644 

7. Strix varia albogilva Bangs 646 

8. Stnx varia sartorii (Ridgway) 646 

9. Strix fulvescens(8clatOT and Salvin) 647 

10. Strix occidentalis occidentalis (Xantus) 648 

11. Strix occidentalis caurina (Merriam) 660 

12. Strix occidentalis huachuca (Swarth) 651 

13. Strix occidentalis hidda (Nelson) 652 

G«n]s4. Aaio Briason 652 

Key to &e Species of Asio 654 

14. Asio wilsonianus (LesK)n) 654 

15. AmoBtygius(Wagler) 658 

16. Asio flanuneus (Pontoppidan) 661 

17. Asio portoricensis Ridgway 667 

18. Ado galapagoensis (Gould) 668 

Gcmis 5. Bhinoptynx Eaup 670 

19. Bhinoptynx damator ( Vieillot) 671 

Genua 6. PBendoecops Eaup 674 

20. PKudoscops grammicus (Gosse) 674 

Genns?. Gymnaaio Bonaparte 676 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Gymnaaio 676 

21. Gymnasio nudipes nudipes (Daudin) 677 

22. Gymnasio nudipes newtoni (Lawrence) 679 

23. Gymnasio lawrencii (Sclater and Salvin) 679 

GexmaS. Otus Pennant 681 

Key to Ae Species and Subspecies of Otua 684 

24. Otus asio asio (Linnaeus) 687 

25. Otus asio naevius (Gmelin) 690 

26. Otus asio mccallii (Caasin) 693 

27. Gtus asio haabroucki Ridgway (New subapeciea) 694 

28. Gtus asio aikeni (Brewster) 695 

29. Gtus asio maxwelliae (Ridgway) 696 

30. Gtus asio macfarlanei (Brewster) 697 

3L Otus asio kennicottii (Elliot) 698 

32. Gtus asio brewsteri Ridgway (New subspecies) 700 

33. Otus aaio boidirei (Brewster) 701 

34. Otus asio cineraceus (Ridgway) 702 

85. Gtus asio xantusi (Brewster) 703 

36. Otus trichopsis (Wagler) 704 

37. Otus pinosus (Nelson and Palmer) 708 

38. Gtus vinaceus (Brewster) 708 

39. Gtus coopeti (Ridgway) ,..,,, ,.,, 710 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



XVI TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Key to the Spedee and Subspecies of Otus— Oontinued. PacB. 

40. Otiischoliba(Viemot) 711 

41. Otus g^uatemals (Sharpe) 715 

42. Otus hastatus hastatus (Bidgway) 718 

43. Otus hastatus thompsoni (Cole) 719 

44. Otus cassini (Ridgway) 720 

46. Otus barbanis (Sclater and Salvin) 723 

46. Otus venniculatus (Ridgway) 724 

47. Otusnudipes(Vieillot) 727 

48. Otus flammeolus (Eaup) 728 

Genus 9. Lophostrix Lesson 732 

Key to the Species of Lophostrix 733 

49. Lophostrix stricklandi Sclater and Salvin 733 

Genus 10. BuboDum^ril 736 

Key to the Subspecies of Bubo vliginianus 738 

50. Bubo viiginianus viiginianus (Gmelin) 739 

51. Bubo viiginianus pallescens (Stone) 742 

52. Bubo viiginianus occidentalis Stone 743 

53. Bubo viiginianus pacificus Cassin 745 

54. Bubo viiginianus elachistus Brewster 746 

55. Bubo viiginianus icelus (Oberholser) 746 

56. Bubo viiginianus lagophonus (Oberholser) 747 

57. Bubo viiginianus saturatus Bidgway 748 

58. Bubo viiginianus heterocnemis (Oberholser) 750 

59. Bubo viiginianus algistus (Oberholser) 750 

60. Bubo viiginianus wapacuthu (Gmelin) 751 

61. Bubo viiginianus melancerus (Oberholser) 753 

62. Bubo viiginianus mayensis Nelson 753 

63. Bubo viiginianus mesembiinus (Obeiholser) 754 

Genus 11. Pulsatrix Kaup 754 

64. Pulsatrix perspicillata peispicillata (Latham) 756 

65. Pulsatrix perspicillata saturata Bidgway (New subspecies) 758 

Genus 12. dccaba Wagler 759 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Ciccaba 760 

66. Ciccaba nigrolineata nigrolineata Sclater 760 

67. Ciccaba virgata viigata (Cassin) 763 

68. Ciccaba viigata squamulata (Bonaparte) 766 

69. Ciccaba viigata tamauHpensis (Phillips) 767 

Crenus 13. Nyctea Stephens 767 

70. Nyctea nyctea (linnseus) 768 

(jenus 14. Sumia Dum^ril 772 

Key to the Subspecies of Sumia ulula 773 

71. Surnia ulula caparoch (MtlUer) 774 

Crenus 15. Glaucidium Boie 779 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Glaucidium 780 

72. Glaucidium jardinii (Bonaparte) .• 782 

73. Glaucidium gnoma gnoma Wagler 785 

74. Glaucidium gnoma hoskinsii Brewster 788 

75. Glaucidium gnoma pinicola Nelson 789 

76. Glaucidium gnoma califomicum (Sclater) 790 

77. Glaucidium gnoma grinnelli Bidgway 791 

78. Glaucidium gnoma swarthi Grinnell 793 

79. Glaucidium palmarum Nelson 793 

80. Glaucidium pumilum griseiceps (Shaipe) 795 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



TABLE OP CONTENTS. XVn 

Key to the Speciee and Subspecies of Glaucidium — Continued. Page. 

81. Glaucidium fisheri Nelson and Ealmer 797 

82. Glaucidium brasilianum ridgwayi (Sharpe) 798 

83. Glaucidium siju siju (D'Orbigny) 804 

84. Glaucidium siju vittatum Ridgway 805 

Genus 16. Miczopallas Coues 806 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Micropallas 807 

85. Micropallas whitneyi whitneyi (Cooper) 807 

86. llicropallas whitneyi sanfordi Ridgway (New subspecies) 809 

87. Micropallas whitneyi idoneus Ridgway (New subspecies) 810 

88. Micropallas grasrsoid (Ridgway) 810 

Genus 17. Si)eot3rto Gkiger 812 

Key to the Spedee and Subspecies of Speotyto 813 

89. Speotyto cunicularia hypogaea (Bonaparte) 814 

90. Speotyto cunicularia roetrata (Townsend) 820 

91. Speotyto floridana floridana (Ridgway) 820 

92. Speotyto floridana dominioensis (Cory) 823 

93. Speotyto guadeloupensisguadeloupensis (Ridgway) 824 

94. Speotyto guadeloupensis amaura (Lawrence) 825 

5622^— Bull. 50, pt6— 14 n 



' 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



LIST OF FIGURES ILLUSTRATING GENERIC DETAILS. 



Genus. 



Plate. 


Fiforei 


PM«of 
tazt. 


I 




It 


I 




It 


II 




41 


n 




48 


ni 




1« 


m 




lit 


IV 




m 


IV 




117 


V 




IM 


V 




188 


V 




1» 


VI 




148 


vn 




188 


vn 




181 


vni 




184 


vm 




988 


IX 




170 


IX 




284 


X 




188 


X 




194 


X 




108 


XI 




873 


XI 




388 


XI 




807 


xu 




814 


xn 




818 


xn 




834 


xni 




838 


XIV 




840 


XV 




848 


XVI 




8U 


xvn 




388 


xvn 




388 


xvn 




443 


xvm 




886 


xvm 




387 


XIX 




878 


XX 




880 


XX 




384 


XXI 




883 


XXI 




808 


xxn 




407 


xxu 




431 


xxn 




484 


xxra 




458 


xxm 




487 


XXIV 




478 



Col^rteaVigon 

NenciieoB Sdatar and Sy vin . 



BataDOtpbyitt Bidgway.. 
UnneopicxM Ifalbsbe. . . 

AqriMtaDioi CoiMf 

Tri|Miru8 8waliifloo 



Vcnilionite BoDttiMrte. 

CtieniBoie 

CeophkBOi CMMoaii 



X^lildlopicai Baaparto. 
GMBptphiliM Gray 



flcapMum Cabanii and Htine. . 

Xwopkna Baird 

Cbipardioi Cabanis and Heine. 
DryobateaBole 

Pi^ f inii ^ Tf"' "**'*^^ 

Spliry^kicaa Baird 

PfoiridflS Lao^>Me 

NcMctiUaHarailtt 

Bnbncco Boo ap ai f 

OqiitoVkaiot 

DIchwMJiy lid i ua Caniker 



». Ptarodoana IlUger 

lOiSclaiidflraOaukl 

IL Anlaeodiyndraa Ooold 

31. Jacamsopa Okn 

31. BradiTfBlbB Bon^iMrte 

M. Todna Limurai 

SS.OaIbii]aBriBBon 

38l MalaoopCflaOiaj 

17. Nothardini Cabania and HeiDe. 
M. HypDdoa Gabania and Heine. . . 

I8l Efffhaanonria Bidfway 

4C MoMaVkaiot 

a. Meanolaeciater 

H OtmitoeM j la Bflpaparte 

4L Chloioevyla Kaop 

44. HyloaMneaLIditenMein 

46.]|flaaotaaBriMm 

48.Uraapatha8alTadorl 

47. EamooMUBelater 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



XX 



FIGUBES ILLUSTEATING GENEKIC DETAILS. 



Genus. 



Plate. ! Figure.] ^*|**>' 



48. 
49. 
60. 
61. 
62. 
63. 
64. 
66. 
66. 
67. 
68. 
69. 

6a 

61. 
62. 
63. 
64. 
66. 
66. 
67. 
6B. 
69. 
70. 
71. 
72. 
73. 
74. 
76. 



Electron Qislel 

Aipattift Sbarpe 

NyotidromiMi Qoold 

Antrostomns BoDi^arte. 

Stenopiis GaMin 

PhalsnoptiliM Ridgway . 

SipboiiortiJB Sclster 

Nytagreos Netoom 

ChordeOflS Swainaon 

Speotyto Qloger 

NyctlbiusVleillot 

Olanoidium Boie 

TytoBfllberg 

Cryptoglaux Rktunond . . 

AaioBriMm 

Rhinoptyxix Kaap 

Lophostrix Lewm 

ClooabaWafl^ 

Paeadosoopa Kaap 

Gymnaaio Bonaparte 

Strix Linnaua 

Sootiaptoz Swainaon 

BaboDam6rfl 

Otm Pennant 

Micropallaa Cooes 

Nyotea Stephens 

Somia Dumdril 

Pulsatrix Kaup 



XXIV 
XXV 
XXV 

XXVI 
XXVII 

xxvm 
xxvin 

XXIX , 
XXIX I 

XXIX I 

XXX ! 

XXX I 

XXXI I 

XXXI ; 

XXXII \ 
XXXXI , 

xxxni 
xxxm 

XXXIII 

xxxui 
xxxiv 

XXXIV 
XXXV 
XXXV 
XXXV 

XXXVI 
XXXVI 
XXXVI 



2 

1 

2 

1>2 

1 
1 

2 

2 
3 

1 
2 
I 
2 
1,2 



470 
482 
636 

603 

407 
547 
495 
556 
550 
S12 
5S4 
779 
600 
622 
652 



3 


670 


1 


732 


2 


750 


3 


674 




676 




639 




634 




736 




681 




806 




767 




772 


3 


754 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE BIRDS 



OF 



NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 



By BOBERT filDGWAT, 
Curator, DwUion qfBirde. 



Part VI. 

Suborder PICARI^ 
PIOABIAV BIBBS. 

^Piemm Nitzsch, Syot. Pterylog., 1840, 132 (0apitonidfiB+BuccoiiidfiB4- 

Bamphaetidse+PicicUe). 
^WkkeodrominK A. Milnb-Edwabds, Ois. Foss., ii, 1867-1871. 
>Pieariss (not of Nitzsch, 1820, except in small part only) Gabbod, Pioc. Zool. 

8oc. Lond.y 1874, 117 (Picidse+Eamphastidse+Oapitonidse). 
>Coeeyges zygodactyly Sclltbr and Salyin, Nom. Ay. Neotr., 1873, 104 (Gal- 

bnlidse+Bucconidse+I^sunphastidse). 
>Zygodaayl» (not Zygodactyli VieiUot, 1816} Sclatbr, Ibis, 1880, 402 (excludes 

Pici). 
^Scanwre^ (not of Illiger, 1811) Seebohm, Glassif . Birds, 1890, pp. vii, xi, 6. 
>8can90T€» Shabfe, Bev. Glassif. Birds, 1891, 83 (excludes Galbulse and Pici). 
>PiafoTme9 Shabpe, Bev. Glassif. Birds, 1891, 84 (excludes Gapitones and 

Bamphastides). 
^PicoideaR Stejkboeb, Stand. Nat. Hist., iv, 1885, 412. 
^Pixme Scanaorei Seebohm, Glassif. Birds, 1890, 6 (excludes Galbulse). 
'^Pid (not of Meyer and Wolf, 1810) Fuebbrinoeb, Unters. Morph. Syst. V5g., 

1888, 1567 (excludes Galbulse). 
—Pia Gadow, in Bronn's Thier-Beich, Vfig., ii, 1893, 259, 301; Glassif. Vertebr., 

1898y pp. xv, 37.— Bbddabd, Struct, and Glassif. Birds, 1898, 183.— Enowl- 

TOK, Birds of the World, 1909, 50. 

Antiopelmous and zygodactylous Coraciiform birds with myo- 
logical formula AXY or AX, flexor tendons of type VI (in this 
respect unique), hypotarsus complex, and spina interna absent. 

Palate saurognathous or schizo-sBgithognathous (Pici), sBgithognsr 
thous or s^tho-desmognathous (Capitones) or desmognathous 
(Galbulse and Ramphastides) ; basipterygoid processes absent; 
vomer present or absent; coracoids separated; cervical vertebree 
14; metastemum 4-notched or with 4 foramina; spina externa 
present, forked (CJalbtdaB, Pici) or simple (Capitones, Bamphastides) ; 
syrinx tracheo-bronchial; two carotid arteries (Galbulae) or only one 
3622*— BuU. 50, pt 6—14 1 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



2 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

(other superf amilies) ; csBca absent (except in Galbulse); flexor 
tendons of type YI; the tendon of the flexor hallucis sendmg a 
strong vinculum to that of the flexor perforans digitorum, the tendon 
of which goes to the third toe only; intestinal convolutions (so far 
as known) of type YII; semitendinosus muscle present; accessory 
femoro-caudal muscle absent; dorsal pteryla not forked between 
shoulders; adult downs absent; aftershaft present (but sometimes 
rudimentary); oil-gland tufted (Pici, CapitoneS; Bamphastides) or 
naked (Galbulse) ; secondaries quinto-cubital; young gymnopsBdic and 
nidicolous. 

KBT TO THE SUPERFAMnjBS OF PICABIA. 

a. Temporal fossse very deep; thoracic hsemapophyBes without lateral ventral enlarge- 
ments; furcida without hypocleideum; ectepicondyloid process of humerus pres- 
ent; only one carotid artery (the left); caeca ahsent; oil-gland tufted; wing-coverts 
osdnine (a row of proximally overlapping middle coverts present). 
b. Palate saiurognathous or segitho-echizognathous; lateral halves of vomer separated; 
processus angularis mandibule present (short); clavicles united to form a 
furculum; manubrial rostrum bifurcate; myological formula AX; tongue ex- 
tensile Picl(p.2). 

bb. Palate desmognathous or segithognathous; lateral halves of vomer coalesced; 
processus angularis mandibulse absent; clavicles separated; manubrial ros- 
trum pointed; myological formida AXY; tongue not extensile, 
c. Aftershaft present; palate usually segithognathous (sometimes desmognathous); 
vomer bifurcate ; spina externa long, somewhat forked ; bill not highly special- 
ized, little if any longer than head (usually shorter), broad basally, the cul- 
men neither strongly decurved nor uncinate terminally.. .Capitones (p. 310). 
oe. Aftershaft wanting or rudimentary; palate desmognathous; vomer truncate; 
spina externa long, not paired; bill highly specialized, much longer than 
head, compressed throughout, the culmen strongly decurved terminally, 

and distinctly uncinate Bamphastides (p. 327) . 

aa. Temporal foss® shallow or moderately deep; thoracic hsemapophyses with lateral 
ventral enlargements; furcida with hypocleideum; ectepicondyloid process of 
humerus absent; two carotid arteries; cseca present; oil-gland nude; wing-coverts 
nonoscinine (the proximally overlapping middle covert row wanting or im- 
perfectly developed) Ckdbuln (p. 359). 

Superfhzxiily I>ICI. 

WOODPEOKBBS AHD WBTHBOKS. 

m^SagiUiKngtus Illiger, Prodromus Om., 1811, 205. 

^[Zygodactyli] Macroglosn Vibillot, Analyse, 1816, 26. 

^Pici (not of Meyer and Wolf, 1810) Wagler, Nat. Syst. Amphib. mit Vorang. 
Saugth. und V5g., 1830, 81.— Carus, Handb. Zool., 1, 1868-75, 242.— Sundb- 
VALL, Met. Nat. A v. Disp. Tent., i, 1872, 72.— Sclater, Ibis, 1880, 350.— 
Sharpe, Rev. Glassif. Birds, 1891, 84; Hand-list, ii, 1900, 200. 

^Piddx Bonaparte, Saggio dist. An. Vert., 1831, 40; Gonsp. Av., i, 1850, 
112. — CABAins and Heine, Mus. Hein., iv, 1863, 1. — Fuerbringer, 
Unters. Morph. Syst. VeJg., ii, 1888, 1392.— Lilueborg, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lend., 1866, 16, 19. 

^Celeomorphx Huxley, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, 467. 

^PidformeB Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 476. 

^^SaurognaOim Parker, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond.— Oopb, Am. Nat., xxiii, Oct., 
1889, 872. 

^Piecidd Cope, Am. Nat., xxiii, Oct., 1889, 872, 873. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD6 OF NOBTH AND MIDDLE AMEBIOA. 8 

Sttuognathous (or aBgitho-schizognathous) zygodactyle Coracii- 
fonn birds with the processus angularis mandibuIsB present, lateral 
halves of the Tomer separate, ectepicondyloid process of humerus 
presenty manubrial rostrum bifurcate, myological formula AX, and 
toigue extensile. 

Baapteiygoid processes absent; maxdUo-palatines small, not 
coalesced; vomer slender, pointed, split (the lateral halves separated) ; 
manubrial rostrum of sternum bifurcate; no interclavicle; only one 
carotid artery (the left); caBca absent or rudimentary; oil-gland 
tufted; femoro-caudal and semitendinosus muscles present; ambiens 
and accessory femoro-caudal muscles absent; spinal pteryla well- 
defined on neck, forked on lower (not upper) back; sides of breast 
with two distinct pterylsB, united at shoulders; primaries 10, the 
tenth (outermost) much reduced; rectrices 12, but outer pair greatly 
reduced or rudimentary (concealed by coverts) ; adult downs absent; 
yoong mdicolous and gymnop»dic. 

Tbt Pid are a numerous but sharply circumscribed group of birds, 
whose nearest relatives are undoubtedly the Capitones (Barbets). 
They differ from all other birds in the structure of the tongue and 
(though to a less extent) the bill, together vntii related parts, which 
are hi^ily specialized for adaptation to their peculiar mode of obtain- 
ing their food. The bill is a combined hammer and chisel, and serves 
admirably for the puncturing and excavation of trees, both for the 
purpose of readiing insects which are hidden in the wood and pre- 
paring a cavity for nesting purposes. The tongue is a more or less 
extensile barbed lance or spear, with which they are able to explore 
the burrow of a grub, transfix it, and draw it within the mouth; and 
its fleshy portion is covered vnth a viscid secretion which entraps 
insects with which it comes in contact. 

Their young are, as in the case of other Coraciiformes (except 
Nyeticorade and Striges) gjrmnopsddic, and though nidicolous, are 
able to leave the nest and climb about the tree in which they were 
reared for some time before they are capable of flight. 

According to Mr. Brewster,^ ''the young of most, if not all, of the 
Woodpeckers regularly moult the wing and tail feathers with the rest 
of ihe first plumage. No exceptions of this rule occur among large 
80166 of the conmiop North American species examined, and it may 
probably be found to hold good among all excepting, perhaps, some 
highty specialized groups. Another pecuUar feature in the early 
development of the species most thoroughly investigated, and one 
winch 18 perh^>s conmion to all the members of this family, is the fact 
that a certain portion of the females in first plumage possess to a 
greftter or less degree the adornments which in more advanced stages 

oBuU. Nutt. Cm. Club, iii, 1878, 179, footnote. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



4 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

are peculiar to the males alone, and which are lost with the first moult. 
Marked examples of this are afforded by young females of CoJaptes 
a/wratua, Dryohates puhescens, and others, of which detailed descrip- 
tions are given in the text." 

KEY TO THE FAMILIES OP PICI. 

a. Inner front toe much longer, its claw reaching to or beyond base of claw of outer 
front toe, united to outer toe by at least entire length of basal phalanx of the 
latter; planta tarsi taxaspidean except in Picumninse (holaspidean); claws rela- 
tively very large and strongly curved; tenth (outermost) primary one-fourth to 
two-thirds as long as ninth, the latter always shorter than seventh; tail much less 
than three-fourths as long as wing or else rectrices rigid and acuminate; rectrices 
rigid and acuminate or else (Hcumninse); tenth primary more than one-third as 
long as ninth, the latter much shorter than secondaries; culmen nearly as long to 
much longer than tarsus; nostrib lateral (not nearer to culmen than to tomia), 
not bordered beneath' by membrane or else with a narrow membrane all roimd; 
mesorhinium broad; gonys longer than mandibular rami (often twice, sometimes 

nearly four times as long; coloration not Ga^^cimulgine Pioids (p. 4). 

aa. Inneic front toe much shorter, its claw falling considerably short of base of claw of 
outer toe, united to outer toe by much less than whole length of basal phalanx 
of the latter; planta tarsi holaspidean; claws relatively small and slightly 
curved; tenth (outer) primary minute, only one-sixth as long as ninth, the 
latter as long as seventh; tail three-fourths as long as wing, the rectrices soft, 
broadly rounded terminally; culmen much shorter than tarsus; nostrils close 
to culmen, opening vertically, bordered below by a very broad membrane occu- 
pying greater part of the relatively very laige nasal forsse, the mesorhinium 
extremely narrow; gonys shorter than mandibular rami; coloration Capri- 
mulgine Jyngids (extralimital).* 

Family PICIDiE. 

THE WOODPBOKBBS. 

^Dendrocolaptss Mbbbbm, Tent. Syst. Av., 1813. 

t^Picidae Cabanis, in Wiegmann's Archiv ffir Natuig., 1847, pt. i, 347. — Stbj- 
NEOER, Stand. Nat. Hist., iv, 1885, 412, 423.— Sharpe, Hand-list, ii, 
1900.200. 

<Piciete Cabus, Handb. ZooL, i, 1868-75, 245 (excludes Picumnidae). 

m^Picinae verae NrrzscH, Syst. Pterylpg., 1840, 136. 

«Pict genuini Sukdbvall, Met. Nat. Av. Di^. Tent., i, 1872, 72 (English trans- 
lation, 1889, 143). 

^Pidnae Gadow, in Bronn's Thier-Reich, VOg., ii, 1891, 269. 

BPictnt LnjjEBORo, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, 19. 

a^Tunginx Bonaparte, Prodr. Syst. Om., 1840, 17; Consp. Av., i, 1850, 112; 
Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 79; Baiid, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. 
N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, AQl.'^Iyngidx Gams, Handb. ZooL, i, 1868, 245; Dubois, M6m. 
Soc. Zool. France, iv, 1891, 116, ^lunginae Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., iv, th. ii, 
1863, l.^IynginB Sundevall, Met. Nat. Av. Disp. Tent., ii, 1873, 74 (English transla- 
tion, 1889, 146); Hargitt, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 559; Gadow, Bronn's 
Thier-Reichs, V5g., ii, 1893, 269; Sharps, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 236.= Ttmgini Lilljeborg, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, 19.>Pict improprii Sundevall, Met. Nat. Av. Disp. 
Tent., ii, 1873, 74 (includes Picumnus/). 

An exclusively Old World (western Palsearctic and Ethiopian) family, represented 
by a single genus (Jynx LinnsBus) of four species. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



6IBD6 OF NOBTH AND MIDDLE AMEBICA. 5 

SauTognatlious (or segitlio-schizognathous), zygodactylous Cor&- 
difonnes (Pici) with tongue more or less (usually greatly) extensile, 
cylindrical, but with tip homy and barbed; rectrices twelve, but the 
lateral pair rudimentary or greatly reduced in size. 

Vomer split (the lateral halves separated) ; basipterygoid processes 
absent; maxiUo-palatines small, not coalesced; manubrial process of 
sternum bifurcate ; f emoro-caudal and semitendenosus muscles present, 
ambiens and accessory f emoro-caudal muscles absent; caeca absent 
or mdimentary; left carotid artery, only, present; spinal pteryla 
well-defined on neck, without interscapular fork, but enclosing a 
dorsd apteriiun; sides of breast with two distinct pterylie, united at 
shoulders; oil-gland tufted; outermost (tenth) primary small, and 
wings otherwise essentially Oscinine. 

In addition to the above-mentioned characters it may be stated 
Uiat the tongue itself is qtiite small, flat, and short, acute and homy, 
ugoaUy armed along the edges with recurved hooks. The horns of 
the hyoid apparatus are generally very long, and curve round the 
back of the skull, frequently to the base of the bill, playing in a 
dieath, when the tongue is thrown forward out of the mouth to 
transfix an insect or withdraw it from a cavity which can not be 
otherwise penetrated.^ 

There are twelve rectrices, of which the outer is, however, veiy 
small and rudimentary Oying concealed between the outer and 
adjacent feathers), so that only ten are usually counted. The tail 
is nearly even, or cimeate, never forked, the shafts very rigid in the 
tme Woodpeckers (Picinse) ; soft in PicumninaB. The outer primary 
is generally very short, or spurious, but not wanting. The bill is 
dusel or wedge shaped, with sharp angles and ridges and usually 
straight culmen; sometimes the culmen is a Uttle curved, in which 
case it is smoother or without distinct ridges or grooves. The tarsus 
is scnteUate anteriorly, at least in part, the posterior side with much 
smaller, usually more or less polygonal, scales in Subfamily PicinsB or 
with a single row of quadrate scutella (in Subfamily Picmnninae). 
The toes are paired (two directed forward and two backward, the 
outer, or fourth toe, being permanently reversed), or else there is 
only one posterior toe (the outer), the first toe, or hallux being 
wanting. The claws are compressed, broad (vertically), strongly 
conred, very strong, and acute. 

As impUed by the vernacular name of the group, the Woodpeckers 
are preeminently distinguished for their habit of pecking the bark 
and decayed wood of trees, in their search for grubs and other insects, 
and for excavating deep cavities in the trunks or branches of trees 
in which to deposit their eggs. While by no means peculiar to the 

A For fnrtilier detaOs concerning the structure of the tongue, see Stejneger, Stand- 
aid Natural History, iv, 1885, 424, 425. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



6 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

group, these habits are nevertheless more highly developed and more 
universal in the Woodpeckers than in any other birds. The tru6 
Woodpeckers (Picinse) are all truly scansorial, and in clinging to the 
side of a tree or branch or ascending the same support theihselvea to 
a great extent by iising the rigid tail as a prop. Although to a great 
extent insectivorous the Woodpeckers also feed to a great extent on 
fruits (both large and small), or even grain, especially when in the 
soft or unripe stage. The species of one genus (Sphyrapicua) subsist 
largely on the soft inner bark or cambium and sugary sap of certain 
trees and often do considerable damage, especially to fruit trees. 
All other kinds, however, are decidedly beneficial, through their 
destruction of wood-destroying beetles and their larvad, grasshoppers, 
and other predaceous insects. 

The eggs of Woodpeckers are, like those of other Picarian birds, 
invariably immaculate white, usually with a very glossy or polished 
surface, and are deposited on the chips at the bottom of the excava- 
tion, no attempt at constructing a true nest being made. In very 
thinly wooded or treeless countries the few species of Woodpeckers 
which occxur there are, from necessity, more or less terrestrial, making 
their excavations in banks of earth or even depositing their eggs in 
cavities abready existing, as the brain-cavity of the skull of a large 
mammal, as a horse or ox. 

Woodpeckers are foimd in all wooded portions of the world except 
the island of Madagascar and the entire Australian Region.^ The 
group is nearly equally represented in the two hemispheres, the 
Western claiming about twenty-two genera and two hundred and 
twenty-five species (including subspecies), the Eastern twenty-seven 
genera and a little more than two himdred species and subspecies. 
Three genera are of circumpolar range, with sixty-three American 
(mostly Nearctic) and twenty-nine Palsarctic forms. 

KBT TO THX QSNBBA OV VlCtDM. 

a. Planta tarsi taxaspidean; rectrices rigid, with Btrong and elastic Bhafts, more or leaa 
contracted or acuminate terminally. (Pieinm,) 
b. Outer hind toe not longer than outer front toe. 
c. Maxilla without any distinct lateral ridge or groove; tip of bill pointed (not 
chisel-shaped); tarsus nearly as long as longest toe with claw, the toes rela- 
tively more slender and claws weaker. (Colaptex.) 
d. Nostrils more or less covered by small antrorae prefrontal feathers. 
e. Bill little if any longer than head, the gonys not longer (usually shorter) 
than mandibular rami; tail not less than two-thirds as long as wing. 
/. Bill more slender, appreciably decurved terminally, the gonys not 
ascending terminally nor prominent basally; a large black jugular 
patch; basal half, at least, of under side of tail yellow, orange, or red. 

Colaptes (p. 12). 

<^ Woodpeckers occur, however, in Celebes and Flores, outijring islands of the 
Australian Region, ''which are situated so ckee to the Indo-Malayan islands that it 
is safe to conclude that their woodpeckers are comparadvely recent immigrants from 
the latter." (St^n^er, Standard Nat. Hist., iv, 425.) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD6 OF NOBTH AND MI0DLB AMEBICA. 7 

/. Bin stouter, not decurved terminally, the gonys ascending terminally 
and prominent basally; no black jug:alar patch; und^ side of tail 
iHiolly black (except whitish ban or spots on lateral rectrices). 

Sondes (extralimital) a 

ee. Bill decidedly to much longer than head, the gonys decidedly to much 

longer than mandibular rami; tail less than two-thirds as long as wing. 

Pituipioni (extralimital).^ 
dSi. Nostrils wholly exposed (no antrorse prefrontal plumes). 

Heaooelens (p. 39). 
te, MaziUa with a more or less distinct lateral supra-nasal ridge or pre-nasal groove; 
tip of bill more or less chisel-shaped (sharply c(»npresBed laterally and 
trancate or sub-tTuncate vertically); tarsus decidedly sh<»rter than longest 
toe with claw, the toes relatively stouter and claws stronger. 
d. Lateral ridge or groove of maxilla less distinct (usually obvious only on 
basal half or less); bill relatively narrower, its width at middle of nostrils 
not much if at all greater than its depth at same point. (Melanerpem.) 
e. Oibits less extensively and not c(»npletely naked or else (CerUurus, part) 
upper parts conspicuously barred with black and white. 
/. Plumage of und^ parts not hair-like (except, sometimes, on throat and 
chest or on abdomen alone). 
g. Out^most (tenth) primary little more (usually much less) than one- 
third as long as ninth, narrower, stiaighter, usually more or less 
pointed; plumage not wholly blackish. 
h. Postnasal and premalar plumes much less developed; feathers of 
breast not broad and imbricated or else ( IVtpturta, part) feathers 
of abdomen hair-like, red. 
t. Plumage of throat hair-like, red; back and wings uniform glossy 
bluish or greenish black (the secondaries sometimes white); 

ninth ^Nrimary much longer than fourth Xelanerpet (p. 41). 

u. Plumage of throat normal (soft and blended), not red; back, 
wing-coverts, and secondaries regularly and conspicuously 
bazred with black and white; ninth primary usually much 

diorter than fourth Centonu (p. 48). 

hh. Postnasal and premalar plumes developed into dense tufts; feathers 
of breast broad and imbricated, those of abdomen soft, blended 

white Balanosphyra (p. 100). 

gg. Outermost (tenth) primary much more than one-third as long as 
ninth, broad, rounded at tip, distinctly bowed; plimiage wholly 

black (tinged with red on under parts) Linneopiouf (p. 112). 

ff. Plumage of under parts (except under tail-coverts) hair-like. 

Asyndesmus (p. 113). 
dd. Orbits completely and extensively naked. 
e. Head and under parts not white; abdomen red; adult male with red on 
crown (sometimes on nape also); smaller (wing less than 125 mm.). 

Trlpsuruf (p. 117). 

^SoropUx Gloger, Hand- und Hilfebuch der Naturg., 1842, 198. (Type, Pieut 
eaaifotm \ieiUot.}—Oeopieo8 Malherbe, U6m, Acad. Metz, xxx, 1849, 357. (Type, 
Fiau eampettrii Vieillot.) — Malherbipicus Bonaparte, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 126. 
(Type, Pieus campettrii Vieillot.) — Theiopicus Malherbe, Mon. Picld., Introd., 1861, 
p* M. (Tjrpe, Pietu eampestris Vieillot.) — Pediopipo Sundevall, Consp. Av. Picin., 
1866, 116 (to replace Malherbipicus, on grounds of purism). Eastern Bracil to s. Argen- 
tina, Bolhda, and Peru; five species. 

^ Pituipieus Bonaparte, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 126. (Type, Picus chUensia Gamot 
ad LesBonaP. piHua Molina.) Chile; monotypic 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



8 BULLETIN 60y UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

ee. Head and under parts white; abdomen light yellow; adult male without 
red on crown, but with a nuchal band of light yellow; larger (wing 

more than 150 mm.) Lenoonezpet (extralimital).^ 

ec. Lateral ridge or groove of maxilla more distinct, obvious for greater part of 

length of maxilla; bill relatively broader, its width at middle of nostrils 

decidedly greater than its depth at same point. 

d. Smaller (wing less than 170 mm.); back not black. 

e. Nostrils more or less covered by antrone bristly prefrontal feathers; bill 

more compressed anteriorly; pUeum at least partly red, not crested; 

back plain yellowiah olive-greenish; under parts barred with olive and 

yellowish Chlonmezpet (p. 124). 

ee. Nostrils wholly exposed (no trace of antrone prefrontal feathers); bill 
less compressed anteriorly; pileum without red, usually crested; back 
rufous or chestnut (with or without black bars), plain yellowiah buff, 
or barred with black and yellow or olive-brown and buff. {(kUm.) 
/. Posterior outer toe decidedly shorter than anterior outer toe; culxnen 
slightly convex to nearly straight, and not sharply (though very 
distinctly) ridged; back and imder parts not plain buff-yellow. 
g. Bill much shorter (decidedly shorter than head) and stouter. 

Cdeus (p. 138). 
gg. Bill much longer (about as long as head) and more slender. 

Cerohneipioiis (extralimital).^ 

ff. Posterior outer toe nearly as long as anterior outer toe; culmen strongly 

convex, compressed into a sharp (almost knife-like) ridge; back and 

under parts plain buff-yellow GrocomoiphiLS (extralimital). c 

dd, Laiger (wing 180-250 mm.); back black (sometimes with a white stripe 

along each side). (Pices.) 

e. Bill less depressed, its width at middle of nostrils not greater than its 

depth at base of exi>osed culmen; antrone prefrontal plumes small, 

not covering nostrils; plumage of neck shorter, more scant, the feathers 

of harsher texture; under parts of body (except chest) pale brownish 

or dull yellowish barred or spotted with dusky Ceophloeus (p. 146). 

ee. Bill more depressed, its width at middle of nostrils much greater than its 

depth at base of exposed culmen; antrorse prefrontal plumes large, 

completely covering nostrils; plumage of neck longer, softer, blended; 

under parts uniform blackish. 

/. Conspicuously crested; outeimost primary normal; two stripes on side 

of head, a stripe along side of neck, under wing-coverts, and proxinAl 

portion of inner web of remiges, white or yellowiah white. 

PUoeotomus (p. 153). 

aZeuomerpee Swainson, Glassif. Birds, ii, 1837, 310. (Type, PieuM candidu* 
Otto).— CoZom5ptcue Malherbe, Nouv. Classif. Picin^, etc., July, 1850, 45. (Type, 
Pieus dominicenns Vieillot^P. candiduB Oi^.)—Phiymatohlepharui BeichenlMch, 
Handb. Scansores, Picins, 1854, 379. (Type, PicuB Candidas Otto.) — Ookmbpieui 
(emendation) Strickland, Jardine's Contr. Cm., no. 1, for 1851 [pub. Feb., or later, 
1851], 18, in text; Malherbe, Mon. Picid., Introd., 1861, pp. xlviii, liii. Southern 
Bradl, Argentina, etc.; monotypic. (Placed in Melanerpa by Haigitt, Oat. Birds 
Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 140, 148, but obviously not belonging there.) 

^ Cerckneipicus Bonaparte, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 123. (Type, as fixed by 
Gray, 1855, Picas Hnnuneului Vfag\er,)^Cerehneopipo (emendation) Sundevall, 
Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 116. (kuanas to Ptosguay and upper Amazon Valley; 
three species. 

^ Croeomarphus Haigitt, Gat. Birds Brit Mus., xviii, 1890, 439. (Type, Pieut 
flams MQller.) Amaaon Valley, Guianas, Venesuela, and Trinidad; two species. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF KOBTH AKD MIDDLE AMEBICA. 9 

/. Not crested, oatennost primary sub&Jcate; plumage wholly black 

except red portion of head (no white) Fiona (extralimital).<> 

U. Outer hind toe longer than outer front toe. 
e. Two posterior toes; bill not excessively depresMd. 
d. Four middle rectrices much narrower than the rest, with webs strongly 
deflected, their shafts very large and broadly and deeply grooved on 
under side. ( CdmpepkUete. ) 
e. Gtmys neaily four times as long as mandibular rami, its base covered by 
the long, closely appressed, antrotse feathers of chin; bill broad and 
much depressed, much broader than deep at anterior end of nostrils, 
abruptly contracted (in vertical profile) teiminally; tenth (outermost) 
primary less than half as long as ninth, very narrow (one-tenth as wide 
as long); outer webs of secondaries mostly white; larger (wing 230-856 

mm.) Campephllus (p. 164). 

ee, Gtmys much less than four (often less than three) times long as mandi- 
bular rami, its base not covered by feathers of chin, the latter not dis- 
tinctly antrorse or else much shorter; bill much less broad and depressed, 
its width at anterior end of nostrils little if any greater than its depth 
at same point, or else (CniparckuSf part) gradually tapering to the 
tip (in vertical profile); ten^ (outermost) primary more than half as 
long as ninth, broader (one-eighth to one-sixth as wide as long); outer 
webs of secondaries black; smaUer (wing not more, usually much less, 
than 220 mm.). 
/. Gonys more than three times as long as mandibular rami; longer pri- 
maries narrow, straight, the tenth (outeimost) but little more than 
half as long as ninth, falcate; tail nearly three-fourths as long as 
wing; crest 2>ointed, recurved; inner web of inner secondaries white. 

Ipocrantor (extralimital).^ 
ff. Gonys less (usually much less) than three times as long as mandibular 
rami; longer primaries broad, more or less incurved terminally, the 
tenth (outermost) much more than half as long as ninth, broad (more 
than one-sixth as wide as long), not ideate; tail less than two-thirds 
as long as wing; crest not pointed, or else not recurved (usually 
"bushy"); inner webs of inner secondaries black. 
g. Wing longer and more 2>ointed, the longer primaries exceeding sec- 
ondaries by more than one-fifth the length of wing; tenth (outer- 
most) primary relatively narrower, at least terminally; rump black; 
inner webs of remiges with proximal portion immaculate white or 
yellow, or else proximal p<^on of primaries (only) cinnamon-tawny. 

Scapanens (p. 170). 
ffff. Wing shorter and more rounded, the longer primaries exceeding sec- 
ondaries by less than one-fifth the length of wing; tenth (outer- 
most) primary relatively broader; rump red or buff (sometimes 
banded with black); inner webs of remiges broadly banded with 
white or buff. 

« Pieui Linnaeus, Syst Nat., ed. 10, i, 1768, 112. (Type, as fixed by Gray, 1865, 
Picia martius Linnaeus.) — Dryocopui Boie, Isis, 1826, 997. (Type, Picus mcarHus 
linMBUB.)— C5(ir6onarn« Kaup, Naturl. Syst., 1829, 131. (Type, Picus marHus 
limuras.)— Dryopicof Malherbe, M^m. Acad. Metz, xxx, 1849, 320. (Type, Pieui 
maim Linnieus.) — Dryotomus Swainson, Fauna Bor.-Am., ii, 1831, 301, 304. (Type, 
by orig. designation, Pieu* martius Linnaeus.) Palaearctic Region. (Monotypic.) 

^ Ipocrantor Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., iv, heft ii, July, 1863, 99. (Type, 
PtcuimageQanieus King. ('* Von ?^ (Holzwurm) und tcpia/Twp (Henscher);'' Cabanis 
nd Hdne.) Chfle; monotypic. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



10 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

A. Tarsus slightly longer than outer hind toe without claw; bill shorter, 
the exposed culmen decidedly shorter than outer hind toe with 
claw; crest pointed; interscapulars immaculate buff (like rump 
and upper tail-coverts); inner web of remiges cinnamon, banded 
with black; no white on neck; chest barred with black and buff, 

like other under parts PUoeooeaatet (eztralimital).o 

hh. Tarsus decidedly longer than outer hind toe without claw; bill 
longer, the exposed culmen decidedly longer than outer hind toe 
with claw; crest rounded (''bushy"); interscapulars black 
(sometimes with a white stripe along each side); inner web of 
remiges black, with broad bands or spotB of white; chest black 

or crimson Cniparohns (p. 180). 

dd. Middle rectrices normal (not narrow, webs not deflected, shafts not deeply 
grooved beneath). (Dryohatex,) 
e. Tail about three-fourths as long as wing, the rectrices very broad; outer- 
most (tenth) primary nearly half as long aa ninth; upper parts mostly 

green Xiphldiopioiis (p. 182). 

ee. Tail much lees than three-fourths (usually less than two-thirds) as long as 
wing, the rectrices only moderately broad; outermost primary much 
less than half as long as ninth. 
/. Wing-tip shorter, the longest primaries exceeding distal secondaries by 
decidedly less than one-third the length of wing; tenth (outermost) 
primary larger, more than one-fourth as long as ninth; tarsus shorter 
than outer hind toe with claw. 
g. Longest primaries exceeding distal secondaries by less than one-fourth 
the length of wing. 
h. Tenth (outermost) primary less than one-third as long as ninth; 
inner hind toe relatively shorter, the digit and claw together not 
more than half as long as outer hind toe without claw; back plain 
olive, orange-russet, or red; outer web6of primaries without white 
spots; under parts usually barred with whitish and olive or dusky, 
or, if plain whitish, the upper parts mostly red. 

VenUiomiB (p. 185). 
Kk, Tenth (outermost) primary more than one-third as long as ninth; 
inner hind toe relatively laig^, the digit and claw together more 
than Iialf as long as outer hind toe without claw; back spotted, 
barred, or striped with black and white; rectrices broadly barred 
with white; outer webs of primaries (idso secondaries and wing- 
coverts) spotted or barred with white; under parts dull white, 
usually sti'eaked with black. 
1. Bill stouter, with supranasal ridge and prenasal groove running to 
tomial edge less than one-third the distance from tip; under 
parts immaculate (except under tail-coverts); back widi ^dute 
markings longitudinal; no white supra^auricular streak; throat 
yellow; adult male with a longitudinal mark or streak of red in 
middle of occiput Trlchopions (eztralimital). ^ 

f^PKLoeoceoiUi Oabanis, Joum. ftir Om., 1862, 176. (Type, Picu* ro6t««M«Vieillot.) 
{^*0Xa(6c, Baumrinde u. ici^a;, zerspalten;" Cabanis and Heine.) 

b Trichopicui Bonaparte, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 123. (Type, as fixed by Gray, 
1855, Picu8 cactorum Lafresnaye and D'Orbigny.) — Ccuiocraugus Cabanis and Heine, 
Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, June, 1863, 72. (Type, Picus cactorum Lafresnaye and 
D'Orbigny.) Southern Peru to Uruguay, Argentina, etc.; monotypic. 

Tlus genus was merged with Melanerpes by Haigitt (Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 
1890, 139), but obviously is much more cloeely allied to the groups near which it is 
here placed. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BUtDS OF KOBOTH AKD MIDDLB aMBBIOA. 11 

ti. Bill more Blender, with supranasal ridge and prontwil groove 
running to tomial edge at one-third, or more, the diitance from 
tip of maxilla; under parts conspicuously streaked, the throat 
not yellow; back with white markings transverse; a white 
supra-auricular stripe; adult males with a red nuchal band or 
a red streak oloDg each side of occiput. 

Dyotiopioas (extralimital).<B 
gg. Lcoigest primaries exceeding distal secondaries by more than one- 
fourth the length of wing. 
h. Gonys at least twice as long as mandibular rami; under parts white 
or pale brownish (with or without markings); head broadly 
striped with white and black; lateral rectricee white (with or 

without black spots or bare) Dryobatet (p. 194). 

hh, Gonys decidedly less than twice as long as mandibular rami; under 
(as well as upper) parts uniform black, the head, foreneck, and 
part of primaries white; adult male with a red nuchal band. 

Xenoploas (p. 264). 
/. Wing-tip longer (longest primaries exceeding distal secondaries by one- 
third, or more, the length of wing); tenth (outermost) primary not 
more than one-fourth as long as ninth; tarsus as long as or longer than 
outer hind toe with claw. 
g. Gonys less than twice (about one and a half times) as long as mandibu- 
lar rami; supranasal ridge higher, running out to edge of maxilla at 
a point about one-third the distance from tip; tarsus not longer 
than outer hind toe with claw; longest primaries exceeding distal 
secondaries by more than one-third the length of wing; middle 
rectrices broadly acuminate; tongue distinctly extensile. 

Phrenopions (p. 268). 
gg. Gonys two and a half to three times as long as mandibular rami; supra- 
nasal ridge lower, running out to edge of maxilla at or posterior to 
middle; tarsus longer thioi outer hind toe with claw; longest pri- 
maries exceeding secondaries by not more than one-third the 
length of wing; middle rectrices narrowly and more abruptly 

acuminate;, tongue scarcely extensile Sphyrapious (p. 272). 

ce. Only one (the outer) posterior toe; inner anterior toe nearly as long as the outer 

one; bill extremely depressed. (Picoidess) Piooidet (p. 289). 

80. Planta tarsi holaspidean; rectrices soft, with slender (normal) shaft and broadly 

rounded tip. (Picumninx.)^ 

h. Nostril nearer to commissure than to culmen; culmen and commissure nearly 

straight; gonys much longer than mandibular rami; outermost (tenth) primary 

less than half as long as ninth; smaller (wing less than 60 mm.); inner web of 

middle pair of rectrices white or pale yellow. 

e. Culmen longer than outer hind toe (without claw), the bill more slender; no 

whitish nor dusky stripes on side of head Pioumnnf (p. 302). 

ce. Culmen not l<mger than outer hind toe without claw, the bill thicker and 
more conical; two whitish and two dusky stripes on side of head. 

ViTla (extralimital).<^ 

<^Dfdiopieu$ Bonaparte, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 123. (Type, as fixed by Gray, 
1855, Pieus licolar Gmelin=aP. mixtus Boddaert.)— IKciyoptpo (emendation) Cabanis 
aad Heine, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, July 1, 1863, 74. Southern Brazil and Paraguay 
to Chile and Peru; three species. 

^PicumnidaeCBiua, Handb. Zool., i, 1868-75,245. 

^Vwia Hodgson, Joum. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, vi, pt. i, 1837, 107. (Type, V. nipalerma 
Eadgna^Pieumntu inTUxmnatus Burton.) — Pipiscua Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., 
iv, heft ii, April, 1863, 9. (Type, Picymntu innominatus Burton.) Indo-Malayan 
fifigion; two species. (Very close to Picumnus, but I think should be separated. I 
bave not seen V. chineTma Haigitt, however.) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



12 bullbhk 50, united btatbs katiokal museum. 

hb, Noetril much nearer to culmen than to commiflsure; cuhnen and conuniflBuie 
sli^tly but distinctly decurved; gonys but little longer than mandibular 
rami; outermost primary more than half as long as ninth; laiger (wing 70 
nun.); no white or pale yellow on middle rectrices Hesootltet (p. 307). 

Genus COLAPTES Vigors. 

Coktptet ViooBS, Trans. linn. Soc., Lond., xiv, pt. iii, 1825, 457. footnote. (TjriWi 

by original designation, Cuadtu aurattu Linnffius.) 
Cucupicus Lesson, Man. d'Om., ii, 1828, 116. (Type, Cucului auratui LinnAus.) 
Craugu$<i Billbbrg, Synop. Faunae Scand., i, part 2, 1828, tab. A. (Type, 

Cueulut aurattu LinnAUS.) 

Rather large Picid» (wing 127-178 nun.) without any distinct 
lateral ridge or groove on maxilla, tip of bill pointed (not chisel- 
shaped), tarsus nearly as long as outer hind toe with claw, toes 
relatively slender and claws weak, shafts of remiges and rectrices 
bright yellow, orange, or red, back brown barred with black, imder 
parts whitish spotted with black and with a conspicuous jugular 
crescentic patch of black, the adult males with a broad malar stripe 
of black or red.^ 

Bill about as long as head, rather slender, slightly but distinctly 
decurved terminally, rather broad and depressed basaUy, its tip 
obtusely pointed (not wedge-shaped); culmen forming a distinct 
ridge; gonys not longer (sometimes decidedly shorter) than mandib- 
ular rami, straight or sometimes faintly concave, distinctly ridged, 
its base sometimes slightly prominent; sides of maxilla without any 
distinct ridge or groove. Nostril broadly oval or roimdish, rather 
large, concealed by a flattened tuft of small, bristle-like, antrorse 
prefrontal feathers; no distinct rictal, prefrontal, premalar, nor 
mental bristles. Orbits feathered, except a narrow space beneath 
lower eyelid and immediately in front of eye. Wing rather long, 
with longest primaries exceeding secondaries by about one-fourth the 
length of wing; fifth or sixth primaries longest, the ninth shorter 
than fourth (sometimes shorter than second), the tenth (outermost) 
more than one-third as long as ninth. Tail about two-thirds as long 
as wing, slightly graduated, the rectrices broad but abruptly acumi- 
nate terminally. Tarsus equal to or longer than outer hind toe mth 
claw, but shorter than outer front toe with claw; the toes relatively 
rather slender and claws rather weak. 

Coloration. — Shafts of remiges and of at least basal half of rectrices 
bright yellow, orange, or red; back, wing-coverts, and secondaries 
brownish barred with black; rump white (sometimes spotted with 
black); pileum plain gray, brown, or rufescent; throat plain gray or 

<B Kpaujr^c, a woodpecker. 

^ Hiis diagnosis and the generic description ^diich follows is based entirely on the 
Nearctic species, the half dozen South American species ^diich are usually referred 
to ColapUt, being almost certainly distinct generically. (See p. 7.) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD8 OF KOBTH AHD MIDDLB AMEBIOA. 1ft 

TiiiAceoiis; under parte of body whitish, light pinkish, or pale yinace- 
oas, spotted with black, the chest with a conspicuous crescentic 
patch of black; adult males with a broad malar stripe of black or 
bright red. 

Range. — ^The whole of North America (except treeless Arctic dis- 
tricts), south to northern Nicaragua; Cuba; island of Grand Cayman, 
south of Cuba. (Five species.) 

KBT TO THB SPBCUBS AND SXrBSPBCIBS OV COLAPTB8. 

0. Shafts of remiges and rectrices and under sur&ce of tail (except distal portion) 
yellow; inner webs of remiges with proximal 2>ortion (extensively) yeUow. 
(. A red nuchal crescent or band; throat and foreneck vinaceous; under surface of 
rectrices narrowly (sometimes only partly) black distally; adult males with 
malar stripe black, 
e. Center of rump inunaculate idiite; pileum brownish gray. (ColapUi awrattu.) 
d Smaller (wing averaging about 150 nun.). (Southeastern United States, 
north to southeastern Viiginia?, southwestern Indiana, southeastern Mis- 
souri, etc.) Colaptet auzatoi auxatoi (p. 14). 

di. Larger (wing averaging 155 nun. or more). 
e. Smaller (wing averaging 156.3 in male, 155 in female). (Eastern United 
States, except ''Austroriparian" district, Minnesota, North Dakota, 

etc.) Golaptet auxatoi luteus (p. 18). 

ee, Lazger (wing averaging more than 163 mm.). (Northern North America, 
east of Rocky Mts., from North Dakota, Minnesota, northern Ontario, 
etc., to Ungava and coast of Bering Sea in Alaska.) 

Colaptet auzatoi borealls (p. 20). 
K, Center of rump spotted with black; pileum clear bluish gray. {Colapta 
€kry9oea!uloiU8.) 
d. Laiger (wing 133-146.5, culmen 32.5-36.5); adult male with black malar 
patch larger and broader. (Cuba.) 

Colaptet ohxyaooauloaiu ohzyaooauloaiu (p. 23). 

di Smaller (wing 127-132.5, culmen 29-33); adtdt male with black malar 

patch smaller and narrower. (Island of Grand Cayman, south of Cuba.) 

Colaptet ohzyaooaulosus gimdlaohi (p. 25). 

66. No red on nape; throat and foreneck gray; under surtace of rectrices broadly 

black distally; adult male with malar stripe red. (Colaptes chrysoida,) 

t. Smaller (wing averaging less than 144 in male, less than 142 in female; culmen 

averaging less than 36); coloration darker, with pUeum less cinnamomeous 

or else the latter darker or more rufescent. 

d. Coloration lighter, more grayish brown above, with pileum less rufescent; 

immaculate white area of rump larger, the center of rump never spotted. 

(Southern Lower California.) Colaptet ohrysoidea ohrysoides (p. 25). 

dd. Coloration darker, less grayish brown above, with pOeum more rufescent; 
immaculate white area of rump more restricted, the center of rump 
sometimes spotted. (Northern Pacific coast district of Lower California.) 

Colaptet ohrysoides bnumesoens (p. 27). 
cc Laiger (wing averaging 148.2 in male, 146.9 in female; culmen averaging 
37.8 in male, 36.6 in female); coloration x>aler, with pileum more cinna- 
momeous. (Arizona and southeastern California to southern Sonora.) 

Ck>lapteg chzytoides meamgl (p. 28). 
00. Shafts of remiges and rectrices and under side of tail (except distal portion) 
Qiange-red or reddish orange; inner ijrebe of remiges (except distal portion) 
pink or aalmon color. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



14 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

h. Pileum giayiflh brown, becoming more nifescent on forehead, passing into gray 

or brownish gray on hindneck; wing-coverts brownish gray or grayish brown 

barred with black; feathers of red malar stripe in adult male without any 

black bar. {Colaptes arfer,) 

c. Smaller (wing averaging 157.4 in male, 156 in female; culmen averaging 35.1 

in male, 34 in female). (Coloration dark, like C, e. saturaHor and C c 

rvfipiieus). (Central and southern Mexico.) Colaptet oafer oafer (p. 29). 

ee. Larger (wing averaging more than 160, or else culmen averaging more than 
38 in male, more than 36 in female). 
d. Wing longer (averaging more than 160); pileum less rufescent; black ter- 
minal band on under surface of tail narrower. 
e. Upper parts pal^ and grayer; smaller (wing averaging 165.8 in male, 
163.2 in female; culmen averaging 37.9 in male, 36.9 in female). 
(Western United States, except northwest coast district; interior of 

British Columbia; northern Mexico.) Golaptet oafer oollazls (p. 33). 

ee. Upper parts darker and browner; laiger (wing averaging 169.9 in male, 
167.1 in female; culmen averaging 39.8 in male, 37.7 in female)* 
(Northwest coast district, from northern California to southern Alaska.) 

Colaptet oafer satnxmtlor (p. 36). 
dd. Wing shmter (averaging 150 in male, 152.5 in female); pileum more nifee- 
cent, becoming deep cinnamon-rufous on forehead, etc.; black terminal 
band on under surface of tail broader. (Guadalupe Island, Lower Cali- 
fornia.) Colaptet oafer milpileiis (p. 37), 

hb. PUeimi and hindneck uniform deep cinnamon-rufous or rufous-chestnut; wing- 
coverts black barred with pale brown; feathers of red malar stripe in adult 
male with a black bar on middle portion. (State of Chiapas, southern Mexico, 
and Guatemala.) Colaptef mezicanoides (p. 37). 

COLAPTBS AURATUS AURATUS (Linnms). 

FUOSS&. 

AduU male, — ^PQeum and hindneck plain gray (nearly no. 6), 
interrupted by a nuchal crescentic band of bright scarlet, the fore- 
head usually more brownish; back, scapulars, wing-coverts, and 
secondaries grayish brown (drab to olive-drab) ,<* sharply barred with 
black, the black bars much narrower than the brown interspaces 
(except, sometimes, on secondaries) and pointed at the extremities, 
except on secondaries, where much broader than elsewhere; prima- 
ries dull black, more or less spotted, at least on middle portion, with 
light grayish brown or dull pale yellowish (these spots usually 
rather indistinct), their shafts bright clear cadmium yellow; rump 
white, mostly immaculate but laterally broken by broad brace- 
shaped or reniform bars of black; upper tail-coverts white, very 
variously marked (usually more or less transversely)^ with black; 
tail black, the middle pair of rectrices duller or more olivaceous 
basally, usually edged, narrowly, with dull whitish, the inner web 
often notched or spotted along edge with the same; shafts of rectrices 

a The color deeper, and usually more olivaceous, in winter, lighter and more giayidi 
in summer. 
h See Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., iii, 1891, 311-314. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD6 OF NOBTH AND MIDDLE AMEBIOA. 



16 



(except middle pair) bright pure cadmium yellow^ with distal por- 
tion black; loral and superciliary r^ons deep vinaceous-cimiamon, 
the suborbital and auricular r^onS; together with chin, throat, 
foreneck, and upper chest, uniform grayish vinaceous-cinnamon or 
dun vinaceous; malar r^on black, forming a conspicuous elongated 
patch or "mustache;" lower chest black, forming a conspicuous sub- 
crescentic patch; rest of under parts pale vinaceous-cinnamon or 
dull buff-pinkish laterally fading into white or pale yellowish medially 
and on under tail-coverts, conspicuously spotted with black, the 
spots mostly roundish or subcordate, larger and subtriangular, some- 
times V-shaped, on under tail-coverts; under wing-coverts pale 
cadmium or buff yellow, paler along edge of wing, where more or 
less spotted with black; inner webs of remiges olivaceous (changing 
to deep yeUow in certain lights), the basal portion of outer primaries 
and greater part of other remiges broadly edged with buff-yellow, 
tiie distal portion broadly barred or transversely spotted with the 
same; under surface of tail saffron yellow or dull cadmium yellow, 
broadly and abruptly tipped with black, the lateral pair of rectrices 
with a terminal spot or edging of whitish, the outer web usually 
narrowly edged or notched with the same, or with blackish alternat- 
ing with whitish; bill black in summer, more brownish or dus^ 
horn color (especially on basal half of mandible) in winter; iris dark 
leddbh brown or brownish red; l^s and feet grayish or horn color 
in dried skins, bluish gray or gray in life; length (skins), 244-290 
(282.4); wing, 144-154 (149.9); tail, 92-115 (100.7); culmen, 32-36 
(34,1); tarsus, 26-29 (27.5); outer anterior toe, 20-22.5 (21.3).« 

Mult female. — Similar to the adult male, but without the black 
malar patch or "mustache,'' this replaced by the color of throat, etc. 
(sometimes tinged with dull grayish); length (skins), 248-280 (260); 
wing, 137-155 (150.5); taU, 88.5-104.5 (99.3); cuhnen, 28-36 (32.7); 
tarsus, 25.5-28.5 (26.9); outer anterior toe, 20-23.5 (21.5).« 

» Twenty-two specimens. 



LocaUty. 


Wing. 


Tail. 


Cul- 
men. 


Tarsus. 


Outer 
ante- 
rior toe. 


TBtdaitBnlM(C a. nmtfiM) from Florida 


147.6 
16a 2 
149 
16a 6 
164 
161 
160.2 
140.6 

1616 


08.1 
103.8 
103.6 

106.6 
116 

06.6 

08 

108.8 


84.6 

3&6 

82 

82.6 

86 

86 

81.7 

82.6 

86 


27.2 

28.6 

26 

28.6 

27.6 

27.6 

28.2 

27.6 

27.0 


21.1 


Two Mlalt]iHlM(C. a. ottfoAM) from Georgia 


21.8 


Oat adott mle < a 0. aufvAM) from southern SoothCaroUna. . 
0» adatt male ( a a. MiraftM) from Ml88i88lFpl (September)... 

Oat adolt male ( a a. attrafiw) from Louisiana (January) 

Owadott male (C.a.Mir«ftM) from western Tennessee 

Two adult males (Co. «mi«M) firom southwestern Indiana.... 

Two adult males ( a a. MtrsftM) from southeastern Missouri.... 

fmo adult males ( a 0. imnif) from northern South Carolina 

(BMhwrCo.) 


2a6 

22 

22 

2L6 

22.2 

2a6 

2L9 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



16 



BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



Young male. — Similar to the adult male, but vinaceous portions of 
head and neck more or less tinged with gray (especially on foreneck), 
malar patch usually duller black, pileum (forehead, at least) usually 



Foot note— Contliioed. 



Locality. 


Wing. 


TaiL 


Col- 
men. 


Tarns. 


Ooter 
ante- 
rior toe. 


MALBs— oontlnned. 
OiM Adnlt thaIa ( a. n. huttntS from noithftm Alfthftina 


168.5 
16B.8 
164 

166 

166.8 

165 

156 

16&8 

15&0 

164.0 

160 

16L4 

168.6 
168.8 

144.7 

151 

152 

148 

160 

162 

160.7 

151 

149.6 

152.5 

168.7 

154.6 

154.6 
15&6 
154 
155 

15D.4 

164 
168 


100.5 
106.8 
106.5 

106.5 
105.5 

101.5 

100.8 

106.2 

104.0 
104.8 
106.7 

106.7 
106.6 

07.6 

06 
103 
102.5 
101 
100 

ioa5 

09.5 
95.5 

ioa3 

105.2 

108.8 

102 
105.2 
07 
105.5 

105.8 

lO&O 
104.8 


86 
86 
85 

81 

82.2 

88.5 

82.5 

84.2 

846 

847 
8&6 
86.1 

86 
86.0 

88 

86 

84 

20 

28 

82.5 

84 

8a5 

83.5 

82 

31.5 

85 

38 
848 
83.5 
82.5 

35.1 

35.8 
86.2 


28 

27.7 

27.5 

27 

27.8 
20 

28 

2&6 

27.0 

2&8 
28.8 
28.8 

28.0 
20.8 

26.5 

28.5 

26 

28 

26 

28.5 

26.6 

27.5 

28 

27.7 

27.2 

27.6 

27.8 
28.1 
28 
27 

28.5 

20.1 
28.8 


21 


Thne adolt males ( C, a, UOetu) from eastern Temiessee 

One adolt male ( C, a. ItUefu) from LooJsiana (January) 

One adolt male (Co. hUeua) from northwestern Texas (Lipe- 
oomb Co., Jane) .......t,...t ,, 


21.8 
22 

22 


Three adolt males ( C, a. ltUeu$) from eastern Kansas (May).... 
One adolt male (a a. ItUetu) from eastern Nebraska (May).... 
One adolt male (a 0. Ivteut) from soothwestem Indiana (Oc- 
tober) 


2L5 
22 

22 


Five adolt males {C.a,hUeu8) from northern Indiana (1), 

twwfchAm THInniM rAV And WlMonirin H^ 


20.0 


Six adolt males ( a 0. Ittlnw) from Maryland (4) and Pennsyl- 

yMl|ft(2).... 


2L8 


Seven adolt males (C. a. ItUeua) from New York (1), Rhode 
Island (1), Maasaohosetts (8), New Hampshfr^ (1), and Yeiw 
numtm 


2L6 


Twn adnit malMi ( C. a. ftorMZit^ frvnn Ontario 


22.8 


Fire adolt males (a a. boreoZit) from Mhmesota (ApiH) 

T«n adult males ( C, a. boreaUa) from Athabasoa (8), Mackenzie 

(4), Yokon (1), northern British Colombia (1), and Alberta (1) 

Ton adolt males ( a a.&orAiU») from Alaska 


21.8 

22L8 
28 


rSMALBS. 

Tmn adult females (C. a. auratiu^ from Florida 


20lO 


One adult female ( C. a. auratiM) frvm Geonda 


22 


One adult female ( C. a. auratut) from southern South Carolina. 

Oneadult female ((7. a. a«nK««) from coast North Carolina 

One adult female ( C. a. aurahu) from Mississippi (May 27) 

One adult female ( C. a, aumtut) from Louisiana (April 27) 

Two adult females ( C. a. aurahu) from southern Texas 

One adolt female ( C a. ffiifaftt#> from ArkMums 


21 

2a6 

2L6 

22 

2a2 

20.5 


One adult female ( (7. a. awohu) from southwestern Indiana. . . 
Three adult females (Co. aurahttt) from southeastern Illinois. 


21 

21.8 

2L5 


Seren adult females (Co. IvUut) from northern South Carolina 
(K^re!)ftw f-o ) 


2L0 


Six adult females ( C, a. Uueut) finom New Jersey (1), Pennsyl- 
vania (1), Maryland (1), and District of Columbia (3) 

Nine adult females ( C a. IvitutS from Massachnsettff 


21.7 
2L6 


One adult female ( <7. a. hut^wi) from New Hami>sbire 


22 


Two adult fomales ( C. a, hUeat) Aran New York 


20.7 


Six adult females (C. a. hwealit) from Mhmesota (2), North 
Dakota (2), and Sooth Dakota (2) 


2L8 


NtaM adult females ( C. a. bmealU) finom Athabasoa (1), Macken- 
de (6). and Yukon Terr. (2) 


22.2 


Thiee adolt females (C. a. boTMUi) from Alaska 


22.5 







Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD6 OF NOBTH AKD MIDDLE AMEBICA. 17 

more or lees siifFused with red, and black spots on under parts aver- 
aging larger. 

Ycung female. — Similar to the young male, but black malar patch 
wanting or much less distinct. 

Austroriparian f aunal area of United States, from Florida and the 
Golf coast north to coast district of North Carolina (probably to 
southeastern Virginia), southwestern Indiana and southeastern 
IDinois Gower Wabash Valley), and southeastern Missouri. 

[(hiadiu\ auratus LnfNiBUS, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, i, 1758, 112 (Carolina; founded on 
Pieui major, dlis awreii Oatesby, Gar., i, p. 18, 1. 18). 

\Pieui] auratui LiNNiBUS, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, i, 1766, 174.-^msun, Syst. Nat., i, 
pt. 1, 1788, 430.— Latham, Index Om., i, 1790, 242. 

Pienff ourotitf VisnxoT, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., xxvi, 1818, 70 C'Biasil''), 100, 
part; Ois. Am. Sept., ii, 1807, 66, pi. 123, part.— TsmnNOK, Oat. Syst., 1807, 
64.— LsssoN, Traits d'Om., 1831, 228.— WttBON, Am. Om., i, 1810, 46, pi. 3, 
fig. 1, part.— BoNAPABTB, Ann. Lye. N. Y., ii, pt. i, 1826, 44, part.— Audu- 
bon, Om. Biog., i, 1832, 191, part, pi. 87; v, 1839, 540, part; Synopos, 
1839, 184, part; Birds Am., oct. ed., iv, 1842, 282, part, pi. 273.— Nuttall, 
Man. Om. XT. S. and Can., i, 1832, 561, part.— Sundevall, Consp. Pic, 1866, 
71, part. 

P(tn»] aurahu Bonapabtb, Jonm. Ac. Nat. Sci Fhila., iii, pt. ii, 1824, 368 
parts; Obs. Wils. Am. Om., 1826, [29], part. 

CckfUt auratus Swainson, Fauna Bor.-Am., ii, 1831, pp. xxvi, 314, part; Classif . 
Birds, 1837, 310, part.— Bonapabtb, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 40, part.— 
Nuttall, Man. Om. IT. S. and Can., Land Birds, 2d ed., 1840, 663, part.— 
Baibd, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 118, part; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 
1859, no. 97, part.— Dbbsseb, Ibis, 1865, 470 (San Antonio, Texas, 1 spec., 
June).— OouBS, Check List, 1873, no. 312, part; 2d ed., 1882, no. 457, 
part; Birds Ncvth-West, 1874, 292, part (in synonymy).— Baibd, 
Bbbwxb, and Ridowat, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 575, part, 
pi. 55, figs. 1, 2.— Mebbiam, Am. Nat., viii, 1874, 88 (St. Johns R., etc., 
itoida; crit.).— (?)Rbid, Bull. IT. S. Nat. Mus., no. 25, 1884, 213 (Bermuda, 
are straggler).— Rn>o way, Ptoc. XJ. S. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 190, part; Nom. 
N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 378, part; BuU. Nutt. Om. Club, vi, 1881, 121 (Mt. 
Cumel, Illinois; crit.); Om. Illinois, i, 1889, 387, part. — Inobbsoll, Bull. 
Nutt. Om. Club, vi, 1881, 184, part (vernacular synonymy).— Nbhblxno, 
Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, vii, 1882, 171 (s. e. Texas, breeding, but chiefly in win- 
ter).— Ambbican OBNTTHOLoaiSTs' Union, Chock List, 1886 (and 2d ed., 1895), 
no. 412, part; Auk, xvi, 1899, 111.— (?)Hasbbouck, Auk, vi, 1889, 239 (East- 
land Co., Texas, conunon).— Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., iii, 1891, 311- 
313, part (variation of color-pattem upper tail-coverts), 323 (Corpus Christi, 
Texas, 1 spec., March 26).— (?)Habqitt, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xvii, 1890, 12, 
part. — ^Bbndibe, life Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 129, part. — (?)Cabboll, 
Auk, xvii, 1900, 344 (Refugio Co., Texas, 1 spec., March).— Bubns, Wilson 
Bull., no. 31, 1900, 1-82, part (monogr.).— Stockabd, Auk, xxi, 1904, 467, 
468 (Mississippi; breeding habits).— Fisheb (0. C.)» Wilson Bull., no. 71, 
1910, 127 (a Florida vernacular name).— Howbll, Auk, xxvii, 1910, 383 (St. 
Francis River and Cushion Lake, s. e. Missouri).— Bbal, Bull. 37, U. S. 
BioL Surv., 1911, 52, part, pi. 6 (food). 

8622<*— Bull. 50, pt 6—14 2 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



18 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

[ColapUi] awratut Bonapabtb, Oonsp. Av., i, 1850, 113, part.— Orat, Hand-list, 

ii, 1870, 202, no. 8822, part.— Coubs, Key N. Am. Birda, 1872, 197, part.— 

Shabpb, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 201. 
Clolaptes] awratus Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 493, part.— RmowAT, 

Ann. Lye. N. Y., x, 1874, 378, part (Illinois); Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 

295, part. 
[Colaptea auratus] var. auratug Baikd, Brbwbr, and Ridowat, Hist. N. Am. 

Birds, ii, 1874, 575, part. 
Colaptes auratui auratus Obbrholsbr, Notes on Mam. and Sum. Birds W. N. Car., 

1905, 14 (s. portion up to 4,000 ft.). — ^American Ornithologists* Union, 

Check List, 3d ed., 1910, 194. 
Oeopicoa auratus Malhbrbe, M6m. Acad. MetE, zxx, 1849, 359, part. 
Oeopieus auratus Malhbrbe, Mon. Picid., ii, 1862, 255, part; iv, pi. 109, figs. 

5, 6, 7. 
(^)Oolapte9 awratus luteus (not of Bangs?) Fbrrt, Auk, xxiv, 1907, 284 (Cairo, 

Illinois, Feb.), 433 (Cairo, Aug.).— Woodruff, Auk, xxv, 1908, 200 (Shan- 
non Co., Missouri, March). 

COLAPTES AURATUS LUTBUS Bangs. 

VOBTHBBV FLI02SH. 

Similar in coloration to C. a. auratus,^ but larger. 

Adult maie.—Lejigth (skins), 250-293 (265); wing, 154-166 (166.3); 
taU, 96.5-112 (105.9); culmen, 31-40 (34.6); tarsus, 26.5-31 (28.1); 
outer anterior toe, 20-23 (21.4).^ 

AdvU femals.—L&Dgth (skins), 248-292 (259); wing, 149.6-169.6 
(155); taU, 97-116 (103.9); culmen, 31-38.5 (33.8); tarsus, 26.6-29.6 
(27.8); outer anterior toe, 20-23.5 (21. 7). « 

Northern and central United States, east of Rocky Mountains, 
except North Dakota, Minnesota, etc.; south to Virginia, western 
Norti Carolina, northern South Carolina (at least in winter), north- 
em Alabama, eastern Tennessee and Kentucky, southern Indiana and 
Illinois (except extreme southern portions), Missouri (except south- 
eastern part), Kansas, etc.; in winter to Gulf coast and southern 
Texas. 

PicuM auratus (not Cucuius auratus lAjmasOB) VisnxoT, Ois. Am. Sept., ii, 1807, 
66, part, pi. 123; Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., xxvi, 1818, 100.— Lesson, Traits 
d'Om., 1831, 228, part.— Woson, Am. Om., i, 1810, 45, part, pi. 3, kg. 1.— 
BoNAPABTE, Ann. Lye. N. Y., ii, pt. i, 1826, 44, part.— Aitoitbon, Om. 
Biog., i, 1832, 191, ps^, pi. 37; v, 1839, 640, part; Synopsis, 1839, 184, part; 
Birds Am., oct. ed., iv, 1842, 282, part, pi. 273.— Nuttall, Man. Om. U. S. 
and Can., Land Birds, 1832, 561, part.— Sundeyall, Gonsp. Fie., 1866, 
71, part. 

P[xcu8] auratus Bonapabtb, Jonm. Ae. Nat. Sd. Phila., iii, pt. ii, 1824, 368, part; 
Obs. Wils. Am. Om., 1826, [29], part. 

a Aftor very careful comparison of a large series of specimens I am not able to verify 
a single one of the alleged color-differenees mentioned by Mr. Bangs; indeed, even 
speeimens from northwestem Alaska (C. a. bcrealU) are quite as dark as Florida ex- 
amples, and, BO far as I can see, in every respect identical in coloration with th^n. 

6 Thirty-three specimens, 

c Thirty specimone. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD6 OF NOBTH AND MIDDLE AMEBIOA. 19 

(kiapUB awratiu Swainbon, Fauna Bor.-Am., ii, 1831, pp. xxvi, 314, part; daasif . 
Birds, ii, 1837, 310.— Bonapastb, Gepg. and Gomp. List, 1838, 40, part. — 
NuTTALL, Man. Om. U. S. and Can., Land Birds, 2d ed., 1840, 663. 
Baibd, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 118, part; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 
1859, no. 97, part.— Mabsh, Zoologist, 1859, 6327 (accidental in England).— 
ScLATKR, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 344, part (Eastern North America).— 
(?)Drb88BB, Ibis, 1865, 470 (San Antonio, Texas, 1 spec.).- Lawbenob, 
Ann. Lye. N. Y., viii, 1866, 291 (vicinity of New York City).— Allbn, Bull. 
Mas. Comp. Zool., iii, 1872, 143 (Saline R., n. w. Kansas, winter).— Coubs, 
Check List, 1873, no. 312, part; 2d ed., 1882, no. 467, part; Birds North-West, 
1874, 292, part.— Baibd, Brbwbr, and RmowAT, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 
1874, 675, part, pi. 66, figs. 1, 2.— Brbwstbr, Ann. Lye. N. Y., xi, 1875, 
144 (Ritdiie Co., West Virginia); Bull. Nutt. Om. Gub, iii, 1878, 181 (descr. 
fiiBt plumage), Auk, x, 1893, 231-236 (feeding of young).— Scott, Bull. Nutt. 
Om. dub, V, 1880, 66 (nesting in natural cavity).— (?)Daloleibh, Bull. 
Nutt Om. aub, V, 1880, 74 (accidental in England).— Hardt, Bull. Nutt. 
Om. Club, V, 1880, 241 (unusual nesting sites). — ^Ridowat, Nom. N. Am. 
Birds, 1881, no. 378, part.— Ogilvt, Sd. Proc. Roy. Dublin Soc., iii, 1882, 
59 (Navarro Co., Texas, winter; habits).— Bxoknbll, Auk, ii, 1885, 259 
(notes). — ^Ambbican OBmrHOLOOiSTs' Union, Check list, 1886 (and 2d ed., 
1895), no. 412, part.— Lloyd, Auk, iv, 1887, 191 (Tom Green and Concho 
counties, Texas, winter).— Phillips, Auk, iv, 1887, 346 (laid 71 eggs in 73 
days!).— CooKB, Bird Migr. Miss. Val., 1888, 133, part (San Angelo, s. w. 
Texas; Bonham, Texas; etc.).— Bbokham, I^. TJ. S. Nat. Mus., x, 1888, 
665 (San Antonio, Texas, 1 spec., March 2).— Attwateb, Auk, ix, 1892, 236 
(San Antonio, Tesas, winter).— Sinolbt, Rep. Geol. Surv. Texas, 1894, 350 
(Lee Co., Texas, winter resident).— Bbndibb, Life Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 
1895, 129, part.— MnxBB (G. S.), Auk, xiv, 1897, 275 (spec, with spotted 
rump). — BuBxs, Wilson Bull., no. 31, 1900, 1-82, part (monogr.); no. 70, 
1910, 55 (a Pennsylvania vernacular name).— Bbal, Bull. 37, U. S. Biol. 
Surv., 1911, 52, part (food). 

[Go2(ip<a] ourotta BoNAPABTB, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 113, part; Ateneo Italiano, ii, 
1864, 126.— Gbay, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 202, no. 8822, part.— Coubs, Key N. 
Am. Birds, 1872, 197, part. 

C[<ilaptM\ aurattu Rbichbnbach, Handb. Scans., Picin«e, 1854, 412, pi. 666, fig. 
4419-20, part.— Maximilian, Joum. fOr Om., 1858, 420 (New Harmony, 
Indiana, winter).— Coubs, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 493, part.— 
EiDOWAT, Ann. Lye. N. Y., x, 1874, 378, part (Illinois); Man. N. Am. Birds, 
1887, 295, part. 

[Cokipta aurcUui] var. auratus Baibd, Bbbwbb, and Ridowat, Hist. N. Am. 
Birds, ii, 1874, 575, part. 

Geopieoi auraiui Malhbbbb, M6m. Acad. Metz, xxx, 1849, 359, part. 

Geopieus aunUus Malhbbbb, Mon. Fidd., ii, 1862, 255, part; iv, pi. 109, figs. 
5,6,7. 

Colaptes QuraJhu luUus Bangs, Auk, xv, April, 1898, 177 (Watertown, Massa- 
chusetts; coll. E. A. and 0. Bangs).- Ambbican Obnitholooists' Union 
CoMMirrBB, Auk, xvi, 1899, 111, part (check list no. 412a).— Blakb, Auk, xix, 
1902, 199 (Berkshire Co., MasaEtchustetts, Dec., 1 spec.).— Labsbn, Wilson 
Bull., no. 60, 1907, 114 (Lyman Co., South Dakota, com. sum. res.).— Howbll, 
Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxi, 1908, 121 (n. Louisiana, winter); Auk, xxvii, 
mo, 296 (Midway, Barbourville, etc., Kentucky), 302 (High Cliff, etc., e. 
Tennessee). — ^Embodt, Auk, xxvii, 1910, 172 (Hanover Co., Virginia, resi- 
dent).— Ambbican Obnttholooists' Union, Check list, 3d ed., 1910, 194, 
part 

[Cokptei aurahu luteus] Shbbman (Althea R.), Wilson Bull., xxii, 1910, 135-171, 
^., 5 pis. (nesting habits, etc.). 

[Coli^] luUu9 Shabpb, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 201, part. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



20 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

COLAPTES AURATUS BOREALIS Ridtfway. 

BOSBAL FLIOKBB. 

Simflar to C. a. auratua and C. a. luteua in coloration, but larger 
than the latter, much lai^r than the former.' 

AdvUmdle.—Lejigth (skins), 270-314 (292); wing, 166-170 (162.9); 
tail, 102.6-116 (107); cuhnen, 34.5-40 (36.4); tarsus, 27-31.6 (29); 
outer anterior toe, 21-24.6 (22.6).^ 

AdvU female.— Length (skins), 270-310 (287); wing, 156-171 
(162.3); tail, 99-115 (105.5); culmen, 32.6-38.6 (35.6); tarsus, 
27.6-30.6 (28.8); outer anterior toe, 21-23.6 (22.2).« 

Northern North America, east of Rocky Mountains, from Labrador, 
Quebec, northern Ontario, Minnesota, North Dakota, eastern Mon- 
tana, eastern Wyoming, etc., north to the limit of tree growth (north- 
em Ungava, Mackenzie, etc.), northwestward through Alaska to the 
shores of Bering Sea and to valley of the Kowak River; accidental 
on Pribilof Islands and in Greenland; occasional in winter along or 
near Pacific coast through British Columbia (including Vancouver 
Island) to California, and along Rocky Mountains to Colorado. 

[Picus] aturatus (not of Linnseus) Fobstbr, Fhilos. TianB., Ixii, 1772, 383, 387 

(Albany Fort). 
Colaptes auratus Rbinhardt, Ibis, 1861, 8 (accidental in Greenland).— Bulk- 
I8T0N, Ibis, 1862, 3 (Hudson Bay). — ^Dall and Bannistbb, Trans. Ghicago 
Ac. Sd., i, 1869, 276 (near Ft. Yukon and Nulato, Alaska) .—Allen, Plroc. 
Bost Soc. N. H., xvii, 1874, 63 (Ft. Rice, North Dakota, and west of Mussel- 
shell B.).— OouBS, Check List, 1873, no. 312, part; 2d ed., 1882, no. 457, 
part; Birds Northwest, 1874, 292, part; Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. 
Terr., iv, 1878, 617 (Pembina, Mouse R., Turtle Mt, etc.. North Dakota; 
ait.).— Nbwton, Man. Nat Hist. Greenland, 1875, 97 (Greenland, 1 
spec., 1862).— Gbinnbll (G. B.), in Ludlow's Rep. Recon., 1876, 81 (Mis- 
^ souri R. as far as Ft. Buford).— McChxsnbt, BuU. IT. S. Geol. and Geog. 
' Surv. Terr., v. 1879, 82 (Ft. Sisseton, North Dakota, resident) .—Rido- 
WAY, Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 378, part.— Nklson, Cruise 'Corwin,' 
1881 (1883), 74 (head of Norton Sound, Eotzebue Sound, and Bering Strait, 
Alaska); Rep. Nat. Hist. Ck)ll. Alaska, 1887, 160 (Sitka, etc., Alaska; lower 
Anderson R., Mackenzie).— McLxnbgan, Cruise 'Corwin,' 1884, 117 (upper 
Kowak R., Alaska).— Stbakns, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vi, 1884, 118 
(L'Anse Claire, Labrador).— Tubnbb, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, 1885, 242 
(nearApotok I., Hudson Strait; Nortibiwest R., Ungava); Contr. Nat. Hist. 
Alaska, 1886, 166 (Ft. Yukon).— <?)Ball, Auk, ii, 1885, 383 (San Bernardino 
Co., California, 3 specs.).— Amebican Ornitholooists' Union, Check List, 
1886 (and 2d ed., 1896), no. 412, part.— (?)Coopbr, Auk, iv, 1887, 91 
(West Grove, Ventura Qo., (}alifomia, 1 spec., Nov.).— {?)Thornb, Auk, 
iv, 1887, 364 (Colorado).— <?)Cookb, Bull. Col. Agric. Coll., no. 37, 1897, 
85 (Ft. Lyons, Loveland, and South Platte, Colorado, autunm and wint^); 
no. 44, 1898, 162 (Arkansas Valley, e. Colorado).— Thompson, Proc. IT. S. Nat. 
Mus., xiii, 1890, 551 (Manitoba, resident; habits).— Palmbb (W.), Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., xiii, 1890, 262 (St. Johns, Newfoundland).— Clabkb (W. E.), 
Auk, vii, 1890, 322 (Ft. Churchill, Hudson Bay).— Habgitt, Cat. Birds 

a See remarks on p. 15, footnote, 
ft Twenty-seven specimens. 
6 Eighteen specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF KOETH AKD MIDDLE AMEBIOA. 21 

Brit Hub., zviii, 1890, 12, part (Ft York, Hudflon Bay; Ft Dufferin).— 
Macfablane, Proc. U. S. Nat Hub., xiv, 1891, 438 (Valley of Anderson B., 
Mackenzie).— Fannin, Check List Birdfl Brit. Col., 1891, 29 (Vancouver I. 
and mainland, rare).~^BHOAi>s, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sd. Phila., 1893, 43 (Victoria, 
Brit. Colmnbia; 2 specs.).— Bbndirb, Life Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1896, 129, 
part— <?)Grinnsll (J.), Pub. 2, Pasadena Ac. Sd., 1898, 26 (Alhambra, 
Los Angeles Co., California, 1 spec., Feb. 7).— Coubeaux, Ottawa Nat, 
1900, 28 (s. Saskatchewan, summer res.). — Bubns, Wilson Bull., no. 31, 
1900, 1-82, part (monogr.).— Pobtbb, Auk, xvii, 1900, 72 (Newfoundland).— 
(?)Fbloeb, Auk, xxii, 1906, 421 (Hall Valley, Park Co., Colorado, 1 spec., 
Oct 24).— Camebon, Auk, zxiv, 1907, 270 (Custer and Davenport counties, 
Montana). 
[Ooioptei] auratus Couss, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 197, part 
C[olapUs\ awraiuB Coxnss, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 493, part— RmawAT, 

Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 296, part. 
Colttptes auraJhis luUus (not of Bangs) American OnNrrHOLOoisrs' Union Com- 
MnTBB, Auk, xvi, 1899, 111, part.— Bishop, North Am. Fauna, no. 19, 
1900, 78 (Yukon Valley, Glader, etc., Alaska; crit.).— Flxiono, Auk, 
xviii, 1901, 39 (Parry Sound and Muskoka, n. Ontario). — Cart, Auk, 
rviii, 1901, 234 (Black Hills, Wyoming, breeding).— Preble, North Ain. 
Fkuna, no. 22, 1902, 112 (between Lake Winnipeg and Hudson Bay; Albany 
Fort, Ft. Churchill, etc.); no. 27, 1908, 386 (north to limit of trees, west to 
base of Rocky Mts.). — (?)Grinnell (J.), Pacific Coast Avifauna, no. 3, 
1902, 39 (California range).— Larsen, Wilson Bull., no. 60, 1907, 114 (Lyman 
Co., South Dakota, summer res.).— Townsend and Allen, Proc. Bost. Soc. 
N. H., xxxiii, 1907, 377 (s. Labrador to Hudson Strait).— Bent, Auk, xxv, 

1908, 26 (s. w. Saskatchewan, common).— Seton, Auk, xxv, 1908, 71 (north 
to 20 m. n. e. of Pt. Reliance, abundant).— Dawson, Auk, xxv, 1908, 484 
(Orcas I., Washington, 1 spec, Oct. 15). — Ksrmode, Prov. Mus. Brit. 
Col., 1909, 50 (Vancouver I., etc.).— Visher, Auk, xxvi, 1909, 148 (w. 
South Dakota, common); xxviii, 1911, 12 (Harding Co., w. South Dakota, 
mostly east of Little Missouri R. , breeding).— To wnsend (C. W.), Auk, xxvi, 

1909, 201 (Sandwich Bay, Washington, Aug., 1908).— (?)Cooke, Auk, xxvi, 
1909, 413 (Yuma and Park counties, Colorado, 8,000 ft., 2 specs., Oct.).— 
Osgood, North Am. Fauna, no. 30, 1909, 39 (Yukon R., between Circle 
and Eagle, and Seward Creek, Alaska), 89 (upper Russell Creek, Yukon 
Terr.). — ^Towsekd and Bent, Auk, xxvii, 1910, 14 (Mingan and near Isles 
dee Comeilles, Labrador). — Ferry, Auk, xxvii, 1910, 199 (Saskatchewan, 
common).— Clark (A. H.), Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xxxviii, 1910, 60 (St. George 
L, PribilofilB, 1 spec., Oct., 1904).— Saunders, Auk, xxviii, 1911, 38 (Gallatin 
Co., Montana).— Rathbun (S. F.), Auk, xxviii, 1911, 486 (Orcas I., San 
Juan Co., Washington, Oct. 15, 1907).— (?)Arnold, Auk, xxix, 1912, 76 
(Newfoundland, breeding). 

[ColttpUsl '^^^^^ Sharpe, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 201, part. 

CohpUB auratua horealis Ridgway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxiv, Feb. 24, 1911, 
81 (Nulato, lower Yukon R., Alaska; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.). 

COLAPTBS AURATUS LUTEUS X CAFER COLLARIS. 
KTBBID FLICKBB. 

Intermediate in coloration and size between C. a/artitus luUuB or 
0. a. hcreoLia and C. cafer coBaris, the characters of the two being 
mixed or blended, in various degrees in different specimens, the 
more frequent combinations being as follows: — 

(a) ^lafts, etc., orange or orange-yellow, intermediate in hue 
betwe^ th^ yellow of (mratus aud the orange-red of cafer. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



22 BULLETIN 50, UinTED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

(&) With pure yellow shafts, etc., of wwrataa combmed with red 
malar stripe of eafer. 

(c) Similar to C. cafer coUaris, but having either the red nuchal 
mark or yinaceous throat, or both, of C. muraiua. 

((2) Similar to C. cafer coUaris, but having black feathers in the 
red malar stripe. 

(e) Similar to C. auratus luteua or C. a. borealis, but having more 
or less red in the black malar stripe. 

(f) Similar to C. auratus luteua or C. a. horealis, but with red or 
orange colored feathers mixed with the yellow ones in wing and tail. 

(g) Similar to C. cafer coUaris, but with yellow feathers mixed 
with the red ones in wing and tail. 

Besides the above styles, every possible combination or mixture 
of the color characters of the two species is represented in other 
individuals. 

As a rule, these hybrid specimens have a paler coloration than 
those of either of the parent forms.^ 

Western portion of the Great Plains, from southwestern Saskatch- 
ewan to western Texas, or the area of overlapping of the respective 
ranges of C. auratus horealis or C. a. luteus and C. cafer coUaris; 
casual, or of irregular occiurence, in British Columbia, Or^on 
(Camp Harney), California * (San Francisco; Stockton; Cosumnes 
River; Calaveras County; Marysville; etc.), Nevada (Washoe Valley; 
West Humboldt Moimtains), Arizona (Fort Whipple), eastern 
Kansas (Topeka"; Lawrence), Illinois (Warsaw; Mount Carmel); 
New York (Orange County; Fort Hamilton), Louisiana (Plaquemine 
Parish), etc. 

Picus ayretii Auditbon, Birds Am., oct. ed., vii, 1844, 348, pi. 494 (near Ft. 
Union, upper MisBouri R.; type now in coU. U. S. Nat. Mus.). 

Colaptes oyresi Bonapabte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 113.— Habgitt, Cat. Birds Brit. 
Mns., xviii, 1890, 22 (Brit. Columbia; Stockton and San Francisco, California; 
Pueblo, Colorado). 

\Colapie8\ ayresi Bonapabte, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 126. — Shahpe, Hand- 
list, ii, 1900, 201. 

Picva ayresi Db Kay, Nat. Hist. N. Y., ii, 1844, 194. 

C[olapie8\ ayrmi Rbichenbach, Handb. Scans.-Picine, 1854, 413, pi. 666, 
fig. 4421. 

Colapta ayrmi Baibd, Rep. Stansbury's Surv. Gt. Salt Lake, 1852, 333 (Ft. 
Union). — ^Heebmann, Joium. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., ii, 1852, 270 (mts. near 
Cosumnes R., California, 2 specs.). — Gbay, List Birds Brit. Mus., Capit. 
and Pidd., 1868, 120. 

a For special discussion of this hybrid series see the following: Baird, Rep. Pacific 
R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 122-124.— Coues, Birds of the North-West, 1874, 293, 294.— 
Ridgway and Belding, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., i, 1879, 430-432.— Allen, Bull. Am. 
Mus. N. H., i, 1892, 21-44.— Rhoads, Science, xx, 1892, 325-327. 

& Some Califomia specimens are doubtless hybrids of C. auratus bareaUa and C 
cafer saturatioTf whose respective ranges adjoin in northern British Columbia and 
southern Alaska. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD6 OT KOETH AKD MiDDUfi AMEBIOA. 2d 

Oeopkui offretH Malhbbbb, Mon. Pidd., ii, 1862» 260. 

ColapUt hybridus Bai&d, Rep. P&cific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 122 (valleyB of upper 
MiflBouri and Yellowstone rivers); Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 98a. — 
8now, Birds Kansas, 1873, 3 (Topeka and Lawrence, Kansas). — ^Baibd, 
Brbwks, and Ridowat, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 582, pi. 54, fig. 3.— 
BiDOWAY, Field and Forest, 1877, 209 (Colorado); Cm. 40th Parallel, 1877, 
556 (Washoe Valley, Nevada, 1 spec., Jan.); Om. Illinois, i, 1889, 387.^ 
Bbkders, Ptoc. Bost. Soc. N. H., six, 1877, 130 (Camp Harney, Oregon, 
Ispec.). 

Colaptes "hybridtu** Coots, Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. Terr., iv, 1878, 
618 (upper Missouri, Milk R., and Yellowstone R.). 

Coiaplea auratus, var. kyhridua RmowAT, Bull. Essex Inst., vii, Jan., 1875, 38 
(Nevada). 

Cok^pU$ awratuSf y. kybridus RmawAT, Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, iii, Apr., 1878, 
68 (Calaveras Co., Califomia; crit.).— Bbldino and Ridgwat, Ptoc. XJ. 8. 
Nat. Mus., i, 1879, 430 (Marysville, Califomia, Jan., Feb.; crit.). 

ColapUB atarattu hyhridua Ridoway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, Aug. 24, 1880, 
190; Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 378a.— Brown (N. C), Bull. Nutt. Om. 
Club, vii, 1882, 40 (Boeme, KendaU Co., w. Texas). 

Piau kybridus (mraUMnexicarvus Sundevall, Consp. Pidnarium, 1866, 72. 

CoktpUs auraius+mexicanua Coubs, Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, vi, July, 1881, 183, 
in text (Ft. Whipple, Arizona, 1 spec., Feb. 20). 

Cokptes auratju+C. mexioanits Bekibr, Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, vi, Oct., 1881, 
247 (Orange Co. and Ft. Hamilton, New York; Mt. Carmel, Illinois). 

CoiapUt aunUuB-\-cafeT Burns, Wilson Bull., no. 18, 1898, 4 (Chester Co., Penn- 
sylvania, 1 spec., Oct. 3, 1898). 

(?)Cb2aptes auralus? Ridgwat, Om. 40th Parallel, 1877, 557 (West Humboldt 
MtB., Nevada, 1 spec., Oct.). 

ColapUa auraiui (not Cwsuhu auratui Linnceus) Allbn, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
iii, 1872, 139 (Ft. Hays, w. Kansas).— Bbribr, Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, v, 
1880, 47 (Ft. Hamilton, New York, 1 spec., Oct. 4, 1879). 

(1)Colapte8 fkryMoides RmowAT, Bull. Essex Inst., vii, 1875, 19, 38 (West Hum- 
boldt Mts., Nevada).— Beyer, Allison, and Kopman, Auk, xxv, 1908, 448 
(Deer Range Plantation, Plaquemine Parish, Louisiana, 1 spec., Dec., 1863). 

COLAPTBS CHRTSOCAULOSUS CHRTSOCAULOSUS GundUch. 

OUBAir FLIOKBB. 

Similar to C, aumtua, but rump thickly spotted with black, gray of 
pileum lighter and clearer, and under parts more heavily spotted. 

MvU trude. — ^Pileiun, together with lower and lateral portions of 
hindneck, uniform clear gray (about no. 6), interrupted by a large 
crescentic nuchal patch of bright poppy red; back, scapulars, wing- 
oorerts, and secondaries grayish brown (oUvaceous broccoli brown 
to neariy Isabella color) sharply barred with black, the bars broader 
(but still narrower than the grayish brown interspaces) on secondaries; 
primary coverts and primaries black, the former narrowly edged ter- 
minally with dull whitish or pale yellowish, the inner (proximal) 
primaries more or less spotted or barred on middle portion of outer 
web with the same or pale grayish brown; shafts of remiges bright 
dttome or deep-chrome yellow; rump and upper tail-coverts white, 
the former thickly marked with mostly cordate spots of black, the 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



24 BULLETIN 60, UNITED 8TATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

latter broadly barred or transversely spotted with black; tail black, 
the rectrices narrowly edged with dull whitish or with narrow bars 
of the same along edge, the outermost one with distinct bars for 
most of its length; shafts of rectrices bright chrome yellow basally; 
under side of tail saffron yellow, extensively tipped with black; loral, 
orbital, and auricular regions, chin, throat, and foreneck, imiform 
grayish vinaceous or deep vinaceous-cinnamon; malar region deep 
black; a large semilunar or transversely ovoid patch of deep black 
on chest; rest of under parts pale maize or naples yellow medially, 
passing into pale buffy brown or pale cinnamon laterally, each feather 
with a large subterminal or roundish spot of black; under wing- 
coverts light buff-yellow, those along edge of wing much paler and 
irregularly barred with black; inner webs of remiges pale bu£F-yellow 
for basal half (more or less), oUve-dusky distally, strongly glossed 
(except along edge) with light chrome yellow; bill dusky (in dried 
skins); legs and feet dusky grayish or horn color (in dried skins); 
length (skins), 257-290 (274) ; wing, 136.5-146.6 (142.3) ; taU, 96.5-1 11 
(105.4); culmen, 32.5-36.6 (34); tarsus, 26.5-28 (27.1); outer anterior 
toe, 20.6-23.6 (22.2) .« 

AduU female. — Similar to the adult male, but black malar patch 
replaced by the general vinaceous-cinnamon color of throat, etc.; 
length (skms), 260-280 (268); wmg, 133-146 (141.1); taU, 100-108 
(104.2); culmen, 32.6-36.6 (33.3); tarsus, 26-28.6 (26.8); outer ante- 
rior toe, 21-23 (21.9).« 

Island of Cuba ((>uam&; El Quam&; Rem^dios; San Diego de los 
Bafios; Trinidid). 

Colapta ataratus (not Cuculus auratus LinnttUB) VxooRS, ZooL Joum., iii, 1828, 
444 (Cuba).— D'Obbigny, in La Sagra's Hist. Fis. Pol. y Nat. Cuba, Aves, 
1839, 110; French ed., p. 144.— Denny, Proc. Zool. See. Lond., 1847, 39.— 
Lbmbbyb, Aves de la Isla de Cuba, 1850, 131. — Cabanib, Joum. fOr Om., 
1856, 103 (habits).- Bbbwbb, Proc. Best. See. N. H., vii, 1860, 307.— 
GuNDLAOH, Joum. fOr Om., 1861, 415 (crit.). 

P[ieu$] auratut Waolbb, Isis, 1829, 516 (Cuba). 

(hlapUi (iiry9ocauloiu» Gxtndlach, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., vi, 1858, 273 

( , Cuba); Joum. fOr Om., 1874, 153 (habits); Contr. Om. Cubana, 

1876, 274; Om. Cubana, ed. 1895, 142.— Albbbcht, Joum. fflr Om., 1861, 
210.— OoBT, Auk, iii, 1886, 330 (synonymy; descr.); Birds West Ind., 1889, 
175; Oat. West Ind. Birds, 1892, 12, 104, 128.— Habgitt, Cat. Birds Brit. 
Mu8., xviii, 1890, 15.— Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., iv, 1892, 301 (near 
Trinidad, s. Cuba). 

[ColapUs] ckryioeauUmu Gundlach, Joum. fOr Om., 1861, 334; Repert. Fidco- 
Nat. Cuba, i, 1866, 294.— Bbbwbb, Proc. Best. Soc. N. H., vii, 1860, 307.— 
80LATBB and SALvm, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 101.— Oobt, List Birds West 
Ind., 1885, 20.— Shabpb, Hand-list, u, 1900, 201. 

C[olaptes] chrydocauloaus RmowAY, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 295. 

[ColapUi awratiu] var. dtrytocaulosus Baibd, Bbbwbb, and Rn>owAT, Hist. N. 
Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 575. 

FTfcus] ehrytooaulotut Lawbbnob, Ann. Lye. N. Y., vi, -1858, 276 (crit.). 

o Ten specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD6 OF KOETH AND MIDDLB AMBftlOA. 25 

COLAPTB8 CHRTSOCAULOSUS GUHDLACHI (Corj). 

QBAVB OATMAV IXXOl 



Similar to O. c. chryaocavlosus, but decidedly smaller and black 
Dudar patch of male averaging smaUer and narrower.^ 

Adult male.— Length, (skins), 225-235 (232); wing, 127-132.5; tail, 
75-90.5 (86.2); culmen, 30-33 (31.3); tarsus, 23-25 (23.8); outer 
anterior toe, 20-20.5 (20.2).* 

AduU /mafc.— Length (skins), 240-260 (250); wing, 127-131 
(129.5); tail, 86.6-91.6 (88.1); cuhnen, 29-32.5 (30.6); tarsus, 24-25 
(24.5); outer anterior toe, 19.6-20.6 (20). « 

Island of Grand Cayman, south of Cuba. 

ColoffUi guwBadd Gobt, Auk, ill, Oct., 1886, 498, 602 (Grand Cayman, W. I.; 
coU. C. B. Cory); Birds West Ind., 1889, 175; Gat. West Ind. Birds, 1892, 
12, 104, 129, 143.— HABorrr, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 16.— Nicoll, 
Ibis, 1904, 584 (crit.).— LowB, Ibis, 1909, 341; 1911, 150. 

[Ookpta] gtmdlaM Shabpb, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 201. 

COLAPTES CHRTSOIDES CHRTSOIDES (Malherbe). 

COLDSO FLIOKBB. 

AdvU male. — ^Pileimi, together with loral and superciliary regions, 
dull Tinaceous-cinnamon or vinaceous-fawn color, passing into 
Tinaoeous-drab on hindneck; back, scapulars, wing-coverts, and sec- 
ondaries deep 6cru-drab, rather narrowly barred with black (the black 
bars always less than half as wide as the drab interspaces) except on 
secondaries (where much broader) ; rump white, mostly inmiaculate, 
but laterally transversely spotted with black; upper tail-coverts 
white, broadly barred with black, sometimes with U- or V-shaped 
markings instead of bars, or with both; tail black, the basal half or 
more of inner web of middle pair of rectrices notched or barred along 
edge with pale brownish gray, the outer web of one or two middle 
pairs narrowly edged basally with dull whitish, the outermost (devel- 
oped) pair with a terminal spot and (usually) several spots along edge 
(rf distal portion of outer web, of dull whitish or pale brownish, the 
shafts of all the rectrices (except middle pair, which are dull yellowish 
or brownish basally) bright yellow basally (sometimes for nearly 
basal half) ; primaries dull black with bright cadmium or chrome 
yeQow shafts, the outer web usually with more or less distinct spots 
of pale yellowish drab or dull yellowish on proximal or middle portion 
(or both), at least on proximal quills; rictal, suborbital, and auricular 
regions, sides of neck, chin, throat, and foreneck uniform gray 
(nearest no. 7, or between this and smoke gray), passing posteriorly 

The alleged color-characteis mentioned in the original description are not appar- 
ent in the series examined by me. 
5 ^re spedmens. 
< Four specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



26 



BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



(more or less distinctly) into much paler and more pinkish gray or 
vinaceous-whitish along anterior margin of the large black, broadly 
remiform; jugular patch; malar region (except anterior point) bright 
vermilion red, the feathers grayish basally; rest of under parts 
vinaceous-white, the vinaceous tinge more obvious laterally, thickly 
spotted with black, the spots mostly circular or subcordate, more 
transverse on flanks and under tail-coverts; under wing-coverts pale 
buffy yellow or pale straw yellow, still paler (yellowish white) along 
edge of wing, where narrowly barred with blackish; inner webs of 
remiges dusky olive (changing or passing into dull golden yellowish 
toward shaft) on distal portion (extensively on outer primaries), 
broadly edged proximally with light creamy yellow (nearest maize 
yellow), the distal portion of secondaries with broad spots or large 
roundi^ indentations of the same; under surface of tail, abruptly, 
dull yellow (nearly wax yellow) for basal half (approximately), the 
shafts of same portion dear bright yellow; bill dull black or brownish 
black; feet grayish or olive-grayish (in dried skins); length (skins), 
246-285 (264); wing, 138.5-148.6 (143.9); tail, 87-98.5 (93.3); cul- 
men, 33-37 (34.9); tarsus, 26-27.5 (26.5); outer anterior toe, 19.5-23 
(21).« 

AdvU female. — Similar to the adult male, but red malar stripe 
replaced by gray (like throat, etc.); length (skins), 243-270 (263); 
wing, 139.5-146 (141.6); tail, 85-91.5 (88.7); cuhnen, 31-36 (34-1)- 
tarsus, 25.5-29 (26.8); outer anterior toe, 19-20.5 (19.9).^ 



a Ten specimenB. 



h Eight specimens 



Locality. 



Wing. 



TalL 



Ex- 
posed 
oulmeQ. 



Tufos. 



Outer 
ante- 
rior toe. 



Ten adolt males ( C e, ehriftoUet) from Cape San Looai distriot. 
Flye adult males (C. e, brunneteeni) from northern Lower 

Calltomla 

Three adult males ( C, e, fneamit) from Ooasmias, southwestern 

Sonera. 

One adult male (C. c. tMomti) from Camoa, southeastern 

Sonora. 

Ten adult males ( C e. meanui) from northern Sonora (6) and 

Aitaona(6) 



14S.9 
142.8 
14&8 



9S.8 
80.8 
96.8 



84.9 
8&4 

88.7 



a&6 
a&7 

27.7 



21 

ZLl 

8LS 



FIMALI8. 

SeTen adult females (C e. ckrfmMet) from Cape San Looas 

distriot. 

Seven adult females ( C, e, bmnne9cem) from northern Lower 

California 

One adult female ( C c meanui) trom Ouaymas, southwestern 

Sonora 

Ten adult females ( C e. meanui) from northern Sonora (6) and 

Arlsona(6) 



148.2 

146 
14L4 
141 
140.9 



9S.8 

9a8 
88.6 
96.6 
92.6 



87.8 

88.2 
34.6 
34.6 
86.6 



27.7 

20.8 
27 
27 
27 



19l0 
22 

aa? 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD6 OF NOBTH AND MIDDLE AMEBIOA. 27 

Tcung male. — Similar to the adult male, but forehead usually 
tinged with red, red malar stripe less intense (often less uniform, more 
or less barred), feathers of occiput and hindneck (sometimes of crown 
also) indistinctly tipped with paler, gray of throat, etc., paler and 
(usually) less bluish, black spots on under parts smaller and less 
sharply defined, and yellow of wings and tail paler. 

Yowngfemde. — Similar to the young male, but malar stripe light 
Tinaceous brown or pale fawn color. 

Southern Lower California (Cape San Lucas; San Jos^ del C!abo; 
Santiago; SanIgn6cio; Santa Ana; Santa Anita; Triunfo; La Paz; 
Todos Santos; Ubai; 20 miles south of Calmalli). 

6topieu» (Colaptes . . .) ckrytcAdes Malherbe, Rev. et Mag. de Zool., iv, Dec., 
1852, 553 ("America;" type locality fixed by Anthony, Auk, xii, 1895, 347, 
as Cape San Lucas, Lower California). 

Otopieus chrysfndes Malherbb, Mon. Picid., iv, 1862, 261, pi. 109, figs. 1, 4. 

C[olapla\ ekrysoidu Reichxnbach, Handb. Scansores, Ficinse, 1854, 413.---€onB8, 
Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 493, part.— Ru)Owat, Man. N. Am. Birds, 
1887, 295, part. 

[Coiaptesi darysoides Bonaparte, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 126.— Orat, Hand- 
list, ii, 1870, 202, no. 8834, part.— Cottbs, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 198, part.— 
Shabpe, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 201, part. 

ColapUi ehrysoides Baird, FToc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Fhila., 1859, 302 (Cape San Lucas); 
Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 99, part.— Sclatsr, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 344 
(C^pe San Lucas).— Gray, List Birds Brit. Mus., Picidse, 1868, 120 (Mexico).— 
EiuoT, New and Unfig. Birds N. Am., i, 1869, pi. 26 and text, part. — Coues, 
Check List, 1873, no. 313, part; 2d ed., 1882, no. 458, part.— Baird, Brewer, 
and BmowAT, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 583, part, pi. 54, fig. 2 (not fig. 
1).— RmowAT, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 190, part; Nom. N. Am. 
Birds, 1881, no. 379, part.— Belding, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., v, 1883, 543 
(La Paz, Lower California), 349 (Victoria Mts., Lower California). — AuiiOr 
CAN Ornitholooistb* Union, Check List, 1886 (and 2d ed., 1895), no. 414, 
part; 3d ed., 1910, 195, part.— Bryant, Proc. Calif. Ac. Sci., ser. 2, 1889, 
287, part (Cape district; Santa Maigarita I.). — Hargitt, Cat. Birds Brit. 
Mus., xviii, 1890, 16, part (La Paz, Triunfo, Todos Santos, San Jos^, and 
Cape San Lucas, Lower California).— Salyin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., 
Aves, ii, 1895, 405, part.— Bendire, Life Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 138, 
part.— Brewster, BuU. Mus. Comp. Zool., xli, 1902, 108 (Cape San Lucas 
district; crit., etc.). 

Colaptet ckary9oide9 ehrytaidet Grinnell (J.), Pacific Coast Avifauna, no. 3, June 25, 
1902, 78, part.— RiDOWAT, Proc. Biol. See. Wash., xxiv, 1911, 32 (range).— 
Amsrigak Ornithologibts^ Union Committee, Auk, xxix, 1912, 383. 

Fiau duryscHdes Sundbyall, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 72, part. 

COLAPTBS CHRTSOIDES BRUNNESCENS Anthony. 

^ SAV TEMMAMDO FLIOKBB. 

Similar to O. c. ehryaoides, but coloration decidedly darker and 
howner, color of pileum more rufescent (russet, or between russet 
and mars brown, in tjrpical specimens), immaculate area of rump 
more restricted (sometimes whole rump spotted with black), wing 
and tail averaging shorter, and bill longer. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



28 bullehk 50, xrinTED states katiokal museum. 

AdvU male.— Length (skins), 245-265 (259); wing, 135-147 (142^); 
tail, 84-94.5 (89.8); culmen, 32.5-37.5 (35.4); tarsus, 26-27 (26.7); 
outer anterior toe, 20.5-22 (21.1).« 

AduU femde.— Length (skins), 243-248 (246); wing, 139.5-142 
(140.6); tail, 87.5-91.5 (89.1); culmen, 33-36 (34.3); tarsus, 25.5-28 
(26.6); outer anterior toe, lft-20.5 (19.8).« 

Pacific coast district of northern Lower California (San Fernando; 
45 miles south of San Quintin; between San Fernando and El 
Ros&rio; 45 miles east of Sandunttin). 

ColapUi chry9oide$ (not Oeopicus dtrysoidei Ifalherbe) Anthony, Auk, xii, 1S95, 
139 (San Fernando, n. w. Lower California; crit.).— Ahbrican OaNiTHOLO- 
GI8T8* Union, Check List, 3d ed., 1910, 195, part.— Bryant, Proc. Calif. 
Ac. Sci., 2d ser., 1889, 287, part (El Rosdrio, Lower California). 

Colaptes chrytoides hrunnescens Anthony, Auk, xi, Oct., 1895, 347 (San Fer- 
nando, n. w. Lower California; coll. A. W. Anthony ft).— American Orni- 
thologists' Union ComnrrEE, Auk, ziv, 1897, 120 (Check List, no. 414a); 
TTJT, 1912, 383.— Thayer and Bangs, Condor, iz, 1907, 136 (Rosdrio, Santa 
Ana, San Javi^, and San Rosarito, Lower California; crit.). — ^Ridqway, 
Froc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxiv, 1911,32 (range). 

[ColapUs] hrunnesctM Sharpe, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 201, part. 

COLAPTES CHRTSOIDBS MEARKSI Rideway. 

MXABVS'B QILDSO FLIOKBB. 

Similar to C. e. chrysoides, but larger and paler, with pileum more 
strongly cinnamomeous^ black bars on back, etc., narrower, spots on 
outer webs of primaries more conspicuous (primary coverts also 
sometimes spotted), gray of throat, etc., lighter, and black spots on 
under parts usually smaller. 

AduU Tnofe.— Length (skms), 261-275 (269); wing, 141-163 
(148.2); tail, 85.5-100.6 (93.8); cuhnen, 36.6-40.5 (37.8); tarsus, 
25-29 (27.7); outer anterior toe, 21.5-24 (22.5).<^ 

AduU female.— Length (skins), 246-283 (266); wing, 143-153 
(146.9); tail, 86-100 (92.6); culmen, 34-39.5 (36.6); tarsus, 27-29 
(27.6); outer anterior toe, 20-23 (21.7).*' 

Southeastern California^ and southern Arizona (Lowell; Quito- 
vaquita; Phoenix; Pichaca Station, Pin&l County; Fort Mojave; Big 
Bug Creek and Antelope Station, Yavapai County; Temple; Desert 
Station, Maricopa County; mouth of New River; Big Sandy River; 
San Pedro Valley; Santa Catalina Mountains) and southward through 
Sonora (Pozo de Luis; Senoyta; Opodepe; Col6nia Lerdo; Camoa; 
Quaymas; Magdalena; Ysleta; Hermosillo; La Cobriza; Cedros) tp 
Sinaloa (Culiac&n). 

o Five specimens. « Ten specimens. 

b Now in coll. Carnegie Museum. <> A. 0. U. Check List, 8d ed., 1910, 195. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 29 

Oohpie$ ekrytoiida (not Geopicm (hry$oide8 Malherbe) Baikd, Rep. Pacific R. R. 
Sorv.y ix, 1858, 125 (Mexican boundary line); Rep. U. S. and Mex. Bound. 
Surv., ii, pt. 2, 1869, 6; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 99, part.—CooPBR, 
Proc. Calif. Ac. Sd., 1861, 122 (Pt. Mojave, Arizona); Om. Calif., 1870, 
410, part (Ft. Mojave) .—Coites, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, 66 (Ft. 
Mojave); Check List, 1873, no. 313, part; 2d ed., 1882, no. 468, part.— 
Elliot, New and IJnfig. Birds N. Am., i, 1869, pi. 26 and text, part.— 
Baisd, Bbbwbr, and Ridowat, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 583, part» 
pi. 54, fig. 1 (not fig. 2).— RiDGWAT, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 190, 
part; Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 379, part.— Bbbwstbr, Bull. Nutt. 
Om. aub, vi, 1881, 73 (Tucson, Arizona); viii, 1883, 24 (Big Sandy R., 
TuGs6n, and Camp Lowell, Arizona; deecr. young; crit.).— Bbldiko, Ptoc. 
U. 8. Nat. Mus., vi, 1883, 344 (Guaymas, Sonora).— Ambbican Obnitholg- 
eiSTs' Union, Check List, 1886 (and 2d ed., 1895) no. 414, part; 3d ed., 1910, 
195, part.— Scott, Auk, iii, 1886, 429 (Tuc86n, San Pedro Valley, and Santa 
Oatalina Mts., Arizona).- Habgitt, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 16, part 
(Tnc86n, etc., Arizona; Ysleta and Hermosillo, Sonora). — Rhoadb, Proc* 
Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1892, 116 (s. Arizona, in valle3rs).— Salvin and Godman, 
Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 405, part (Guaymas, Hermosillo, La Cobriza, 
Cedzoe, and Ysleta, Sonom).— Bsndibb, Life Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 
138, part— Lantz, Trans. Kansas Ac. Sci. for 1896-97 (1899), 220 (Culiadln, 
Sinaloa). — ^Thatbb and Bangs, Pxoc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xix, 1906, 18 
(Opodepe, Sonora). 

[OokpUt] €hry$aide$ Gbat, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 202, no. 8834, part.— Couss, 
Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 198, part.— Shabpe, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 201, part. 

(^olapU$] chrytoides Couss, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 493, part.— Rido- 
wat, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 295, part. 

Coktpies chrysoidea ehrydoidei Gbinnbll (J.), Pacific Coast Avifaima, no. 3, 1902, 
78, part. 

Fiau chrymndea Sundbvall, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 72, part. 

CoiBfUt fkryundu meamH Ridowat, Proc Biol. Soc. Wash., xxiv, Feb. 24, 
1911, 32 (Quitovaquita, Arizona; coll. IT. S. Nat Mus.).»-Amebioan Obni- 
tholooibts' Union Ck>MMiTTBX, Auk, xxix, 1912, 384. 

COLAPTES CAFBR CAFBR (OmeUn). 

ZOAV BBI><«BArrSX> FLIOKBB. 



AduU male. — ^PUeum grajrish brown (nearly broccoli brown to 
npia) passing anteriorly into cinnamon-brown or russet on forehead 
(sometimes crown also cinnamomeous), this into clearer cinnamon 
or russet on lonJ and superciliary regions, the hindneck more grayish 
brown or brownish gray; back, scapulars, wing-coverts, and seconda- 
ries lnx)wn or grajrish brown (drab or brownish drab),« barred, more 
or less broadly, with black, the black bars always much less than 
half as wide as the brown interspaces, except on secondaries, where 
nrach broader, those on the distal secondaries about as wide as the 
htown ones, here reduced to deep marginal indentations; rump white, 

* As a rule, the color is lighter and grayer in specimens taken in late gyring and 
r, darker and browner in those which have recently molted. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



80 BULLEHK 60, imiTED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

immaculate (or nearly so) centrally, broadly barred or transversely 
spotted with black laterally; tipper tail-coverts white, broadly barred 
with black, the black bars about as wide as the white interspaces, 
sometimes wider; upper surface of tail black, the inner web of middle 
pair of rectrices narrowly edged with pale brownish, or sometimes 
slightly spotted or indented along edge with the same, the shafts 
bright, orange-red (flame scarlet) basally, the shafts of other rectrices 
clearer flame scarlet for most of their length; primaries brownish 
black or blackish brown, margined at tip (except in worn plumage) 
with whitish and sometimes with middle portion spotted or indented 
with pale brownish, their shafts bright, clear flame scarlet; rictal and 
auricular regions, sides of neck, chin, throat, and foreneck plain gray 
(nearest mouse gray) ; malar region bright red (between poppy red 
and carmine) ; a large, broadly reniform, patch of uniform black on 
chest, this margined anteriorly (next to gray of foreneck) by a more 
or less distinct narrow band of pale vinaceous-pinkish; rest of under 
parts pale vinaceous-pink or vinaceous-white, passing into white on 
lower abdomen, anal region, and under tail-coverts, thickly spotted 
with black, these spots very sharply defined, mostly roundish or sub- 
cordate, larger on flanks, still larger and more transverse on under 
tail-coverts; under wing-coverts pale salmon-pink or flesh color, those 
along edge of wing still paler (pinkish white) and barred or flecked, 
more or less, with dusky ; inner webs of remiges mostly deeper salmon- 
pink or flesh color (in closed wing) , the outermost and longer primaries 
darker orange-reddish, passing into dusky on edge, but proximally 
broadly edged with the general salmon-pink color, the secondaries 
with distal half or more broadly barred with dusky, the pinkish inter- 
spaces forming broad spots along edge of inner web; under surface of 
tail dull orange-red (between coral red and orange chrome, but 
nearer the former) for the greater part but broadly and abruptly 
black terminally, the shafts within the red portion brighter and 
purer red (flame scarlet or orange chrome), the lateral rectrices 
usually with a small terminal spot of dull whitish or pale brownish 
and the outer web blackish exteriorly, with or without dull whitish 
or pale brownish bars or indentations; bill dull black or slate- 
blackish; iris reddish brown to dark brownish red; legs and feet 
dull grayish (grayish blue or bluish gray in life); length (skins), 
252-290 (274); wing, 153-162 (157.4); tail, 97-116.5 (106.6); 
cuhnen, 32.5-37.5 (35.1); tarsus, 26-29 (27.5); outer anterior toe, 
19-23 (21.1).« 

AduU female. — Similar to the adult male, but' malar region gray, 
like throat, etc. (usually light brownish anteriorly); length (skins), 

^ Twenty specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDB OF NOBTH AND MIDDLE AMBBIOA. 



31 



243-290 (271); wing, 151-169 (166); tail, 96-108.6 (104.1); culmen, 
33-36 (34); tarsus, 26.6-28.6 (27.6); outer anterior toe, 19-22 (20.7) .« 
Y<ning male. — Similar to the adult male, but coloration duller, 
gray of throat, etc., duller, more brownish, black jugular patch 
amaDer and less sharply defined, black spots on under parts less 
diiip]^ defined, less rounded, feathers of pileum indistinctly tipped 

> Seventeen specimens. 



LooaUty. 



wing. 



TaU. 



Ex- 
posed 



Tanas. 



Outer 
ante- 
rior toe. 



Tmadnltmalssframsoiitlieastoni Mezloo (Vera Cms, Morelos, 

andMflzloo) 

Tm adolt males from soathwestern Mezloo (Ooenero, Michoa- 

eai,flidJaIlaDo) 

Ttei adult males (Ce.e^To'O from Durango 

Two adolt males ( a e-e^^crf) from Chihoaliaa 

five adult males ( C. e. coOarU) from Arizona (8), New Mezloo 

(I)BdweBteniTezas(l) 

Tea adult males (CcoelZarit) from CaUlomia 

Sbtdolt males (CcooSorif) from Oregon 

Twoidolt males ( Ce. eoOortf) from northern Lower Callfomla.. 
T«o adolt males (a c ecOarlt) from Santo Crux Island, Call- 

fanrila.... 

Ftos adolt males ( a ceoOsrlf) from Utah 

Tm adolt males ( a ceoOofit) from Colorado 

Oieidaltfliale(C.c.eollarit) from Wyoming 

lew adott males ( C c coOorit ) from Montana 

Itaadnit males ( C. e. gaturatior) from Washington and British 

Coiainbla. 

I (dcni^fpfleiw) bom Ouadalnpe Island 

fucalss. 

1 adolt fBoaalea ( C, e. offer) from southern Mezioo 

Ihe adolt females (C7.e.e4r«r) from northern Mezloo 

levn adrit iemales ( a e. eoOorit) from Arlsona (3), New 

Meodoo (3) and weiteim Tezas (1) 

IteadnttfemalesC a ceoIZsrit) from California.! 

nvi adott females (CceoOsHs) from Oregon 

On adolt lamalaC a ceoOsrif) from Utah 

Two adolt females ( C c eoOsrif) from Colorado 

Tbrn adolt females (C.ceoOsrit) from Wyoming 

tom adolt females (Cc.eoa8r<9)frYmi Montana , 

Oaeadidt female (Ce-coOorb) from South Dakoto 

Tn adolt females ( a e. mturatkfr) from Washhigton and 

BriOriiColambia 

hvai adolt females (C e. rufipOeut) from Guadalupe Island. 



IS8.4 

lfi6.4 
161.6 
lfiO.7 

168.6 
166 
166.6 
161 

167 

166.6 

166.4 

167.6 

16&6 

160.9 
160 



166 
167.1 

168.6 
162.1 
163.9 
160.6 
167.2 
163.5 
161.9 
169.6 

167.1 
162.5 



108.1 

102.8 
106.7 
104.2 

111.1 
113.2 
116 
106.7 

102.6 

112.8 

112 

107 

114.2 

11&7 
UO 



104.1 
101.7 

106.5 

109.8 

110.7 

109 

113 

108.6 

iiao 

118.5 
117 

iia4 



8&6 

84.7 
37.5 
86.7 

86.6 
88 

87.7 
40.2 

86 

87.8 

88.4 

87 
87.8 

89.8 
88.9 



84 
34.8 

87 " 
8&5 
87.6 
8&5 
38.7 
36.8 
85.2 
36 

37.7 
39 



27.8 

27.4 

28 

28.2 



29.7 
29.5 
29.2 

29 

29.6 

99.8 

82 

29.6 

80 
27.8 



27.6 
27.9 

28.8 
27.4 

3ai 

29 

28.2 

28.7 

29.1 

80 

28.7 
28 



2L1 

21 

2L7 

22 

2L9 
22.4 
22.6 
22.5 

24 

22.5 

22.2 

28.5 

22.4 

28.9 
22.2 



2a7 
2L6 

22.1 

22.1 

22.1 

21 

21 

21.8 

21.9 

22.5 

22.7 
2L7 



Specimens from the States of Guanajuato, Durango, Nuevo Leon, and Chihuahua, 
viiiOe fmall like those from the more southern parts of Mexico are decidedly paler 
nd grayer in odoration, in this respect being imdistiuguishable from examples of 
C. e. eoUaria bom the interior districts of the United States. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



82 BULLETIN 50, XJNITBD STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

with paler, and red malar stripes less bright, less imiform, and black 
terminal area on under side of tail not sharply defined. 

Young female. — Similar to the young male, but malar region dull 
grayish brown or brownish gray instead of red. 

Central and southern Mexico, in States of Tamaulipas (Ciud6d 
Victoria, in southern part), Vera Cruz (Las Vigas; Orizaba; Mirad6r; 
Jalapa; Suapim; Monte Alto; Cofre de Perote), Puebla (base of 
Orizaba; San Martin Texmelucin; Huejotzingo; Totimehuacin; San 
Miguel Molino), Mexico (Volcan de Popocatepetl; Volcan de Ixtacci- 
huatl; Ixtapalapa; Tetelco; Xochindlco; Chimalapa; Tacubaya; 
Huipulco, Tlalp&m; Temisciltepec; near City of Mexico), Hidalgo 
(Re^ del Monte), Morelos (HuitzilAc; Tetela del Volcan), San Luis 
Potosf (Sierra de San Luis Potosi), Aguas Calientes (Sierra de Xeres; 
Sierra de Calvillo), Jalisco (Volcan de Nieve; Volcan de Colima; Los 
Masos; Tonila; La Pisagua; Sierra de Bolafios; Sierra Madre de 
Nayarit; Zapotl&n), Michoacin (Patzcuaro), Tepic (Sierra de Nayailt; 
Sierra Madre), Guerrero (Omilteme; Sierra Madre del Sur), and 
Oaxaca (mountains near Ozoc6topec; La Parada; Tot6ntepec; 
Tonagula; Villa Alta). 

[Picuil cafer Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, pt. i, 1788, 431 (Cape of Good Hope; error). — 
Latham, Index Om., i, 1700, 242. 

Piciu cafer Vibolot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hiet. Nat., xxvi, 1818, 102. 

C[olaptes\ eafer Stejnbgbr, Stand. Nat. Hist., iv, 1885, 428, in text, part. — 
RmowAT, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 296, part. 

Colaptes eqfer American Obnttholooisls' Union, Check list, 1886, no. 413, 
part.— Stone, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sd. Phila., 1890, 214 (base of Volcan de 
Orizaba, Puebla; Volcan de Ixtaccihuatl and V. de Popocatepetl, 11,000- 
12,000 ft.).— Bendire, life Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 134, part.— Chap- 
MAN, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., x, 1898, 43 (Las Vigas, Vera Cruz, 8,000 ft., 
breeding). 

ColapteM eqfer eqfer American Ornitholooists' Union, Check list, 3d ed.» 
1910, 196. 

P[icu8] UUhami Wagler, Syst. Av., 1827, Picus, sp. 85 (new name for Picus 
c(tfer Gmelin). 

Colaptes mexioanus Swainson, Philos. Mag., n. s., i, 1827, 440 (Real del Monte, 
Hidalgo, Mexico; coll. Bullock); Fauna Bor.-Am., ii, 1831, pp. xxvi, 315; 
Classif. Birds, ii, 1837, 3.— Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lend., 1856, 307 (Sua- 
pam. Vera Cruz); 1858, 305 (La Parada, Oaxaca); 1859, 367 (Jalapa, Vera 
Cruz); 1864, 177 (near City of Mexico); Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 344, part 
(Mexico). — Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 120, part (in synony- 
my).— Gray, list Birds Brit. Mus., Piddre, 1868, 121, part (Mexico). — 
SuMiCHRAST, Mem. Boet. Soc. N. H., i, 1869, 562 (alpine reg. Vera Cruz). — 
Baird, Brewer, and Ridowat, lEQst. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 578, part 
(Oaxaca; Vera Cruz).— Ferrari-Perez, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., ix, 1886, 
160 (San Martin Texmelucan, and Totimehuacan, Puebla).— Hargitt, 
Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 17, part (localities in Zacatecas?, San 
Luis Potosf, Jalisco, Tepic, Guerrero, Oaxaca, and Vera Cruz), 568 (Sierra 
Bolafios, Jaliscfb). — Salyin and Godmak, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 
402, part (Sierra Bolafios, Volcan de Colima, and Zapotlan, Jalisco; ffietra 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF NOBTH AND BODDLB ABCEBICA« 33 

de Xeresy and Sierra de Galvillo, Aguas Galientos; Sierra de San Luis Potosf ; 
Siena de Nayarit and Sierra Madre, TefHc; Guanajuato; Tetelco, Chimalpa, 
Ixtapalapa, and Temiscaltepec, Mexico; Real del Monte, Hidalgo; Popo- 
catepetl, Iztacdhuatl, San Ifiguel Molino, Tezmelucan, and Totimehua- 
can, Puebla; Las Vigas, Suapam, Jalapa, Orisaba, Monte Alto, and Cofre 
de Perote, Vera Cruz; La Parada, Totont^>ec, Tonaguia, and T^llaAlta, 
Oazaca; Omilteme, Guerrero). 

ICohpies] fnexkxmui Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 202, no. 8890, part— Ooubs, 
Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 198, part.— Sclatbb and Salyin, Ncmu. Av. Neotr., 
1873, 101, part.— Shabpb, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 201. 

C[oiapte8] meruxmui Coubs, key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 493, part. 

QeojleuM mexiamut Malhbbbb, Mon. Pidd., ii, 1862, 262, part, pi. 110, figs. 4, 5. 

Pieutmadeantu Sundbyall, Consp. Av. Pidn., 1866, 72, part. 

P\iem] nMeaiuM Waolbb, Isis, 1829, 516 (Mexico; coll. Berlin Mus.). 

Colapta rubfieaius Bonapastb, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1837, 109 (Mexico); 
NuoY. 8c. Nat. Bol., ii, 1839, 403 (Mexico).— Bollb, Joum. fOr Om., 1868» 
319, part (Mexico; habits). 

[Cohptei] rubncatui Bonapastb, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 114. 

COLAPTBS CAFBR COLLARIS (Vigors). 
BZD-8SAVTSD rUOl 



Similar to G. e. eafer, but decidedly larger, and ayeraging decidedly 
paler and more grayish (or less brownish) in coloration. 

AiuU wiofe.— Length (skins), 257-320 (280); wing, 156-174 
(165.8); taa, 101-121 (112.6); cuhnen, 33.6-40 (37.9); tarsus, 27-32 
(29.8); outer anterior toe, 20.5-24 (22.4) .« 

AdvU female.— hength (skins), 265-311 (282); wing, 152-173 
(163.2); tail, 99.5-120 (109.8) ; cuhnen, 34-41.6 (36.9) ; tarsus, 27-31.6 
(28.7); outer anterior toe, 20-23 (21.8).* 

Western United States and southwestern British Provinces (except 
coast district from northern California northward) and northern 
Mexico; north to British Coliunbia (east of Coast Range), central 
Alberta and southwestern Saskatchewan, east to western portion of 
the Great Plains (where interbreeding extensively with 0. mratua 
horedie and O. auratus luteue), occasionally or accidentally to 
western Iowa (frequent), eastern Kansas (in winter), Oklahoma 
(Caddo), etc.; south over northern Mexico, in States of Tamauhpas 
(northern portion), Nuevo Le6n,^ Coahuila (Agua Nueva), Guana- 
jnato,^ C!hihuahua^ (Chupadero; San Jos6; Concepci6n; Chihuahua 
City; Temosachic; Colonia Garcia; Colonia Diaz; Pacheco; Chui- 
ehupa), Sonora (Hermosillo), Zacatecas (Sierra de Jerez), northwest- 
emDurango^ (Bosario; Ciud&d; Rancho Santuario; La Boquilla; Las 

< Forty-fiye specimeiis. 

^ Thirty-€ix spedmeDs. 

« As already stated on p. 31, specimens from Guanajuato, Durango, Nuevo Leon, 
etc., while small, like C. c. arfer^ have the paler, grayer coloration of C. e. coUaris, 
being thus intermediate between the two forms. Chi the whole, they seem beet 
lefened to the latter. / 

3822<>— BuU. 50, pt ^-14 3 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



34 BULLETIN SOj UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Bocas; Cian^a de las Vacas; Rio Sestin; Anx)yo del Bu6y), and 
northern Lower Calif omia (Nachiguero Valley; San Pedro Martir 
Mountains, 7,000-10,000 feet; Santa Ulalia; 45 miles east of San 
Quintln). 

Colaptei eoUaria Vigors, Zool. Jonm., iv, 1829, 354 (Monterey, Oalifrania); Zod. 
Voy. "Bloeeom," 1839, 24, pi. 9.--Gambbl, Joum. Ac. Nat. Sd. Phila., i, 
1847, 56 (New Mexico to Califomia).— McCall, Fh)C. Ac. Nat. Sd. Fhila., 
1851, 220 (New Mexico) .—Bonapabte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 114.— Baird, in 
Rep. Stansbury's Exp. Gt. Salt Lake, 1852, 333 (Monterey). 

ClolapU$] coUaria Rbiohenbach, Handb. Bcansoree, Picinae, 1854, 414, pi. 667, 
fig. 4421. 

[Colaptes] coUarit Sharps, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 201. 

ClolapUs] cafer coUariB Ridowat, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 296, footnote, in text 
(crit.). 

Colaptei eafer coUaria Nelson, Auk, xvii, 1900, 123 (crit.).— Aherican Ormi- 
THOLOGisTs' Union COMMITTEE, Auk, xviil, 1901, 301 ; Check List, 3d ed. , 1910, 
195.— Grinnell, Padfic Coast Avifeiuna, no. 3, 1902, 39 (California range).— 
Stone, Ptoc. Ac. Nat. Sd. Phila., 1904, 581 (Mt. Sanhedrin, Mendodno Co., 
n. California; crit.).— Miller (W. DeW.), Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., xxii, 1906, 
165 (Roeario, Rancho Santuario, La Boquilla, Las Bocas, etc., n. w. Durango, 
breeding; crit.).— Larsen, Wilson Bull., no. 60, 1907, 114 (Lyman Co., South 
Dakota, summer res.).— Cameron, Auk, xxiv, 1907, 270 (Custer and Daven- 
port counties, Montana, common, breeding; crit.; mostly ''with auratut 
blood").— Anderson, Ptoc. Davenport Ac. Sd., xi, 1907, 279 (w. Iowa, 
frequent).— Bent, Auk, xxv, 1908, 26 (s. w. Saskatchewan, common, breeding; 
interbreeding with C, auratus ftoreoZw).— Seton, Auk, xxv, 1908, 453 (Winni- 
peg, 1 spec., Sept. 30, 1904).— Preble, North Am. Fauna, no. 27, 1908, 388 
(w. Alberta; Ft. Chippewyan, 1 spec.).— Linton, Condor, x, 1908, 84 (San 
Clemente I., California), 127 (Santa Cruz I., California).— Kermode, Ftov. 
Mus. Brit. Columbia, 1909, 50 (east of Cascade range).— Yishbr, Auk, xxvi, 
1909, 148 (w. South Dakota, abundant).— Be al, Bull. no. 34, U. S. Bid. 
Surv., 1910, 25 (food).— Ferrt, Auk, xxvii, 1910, 199 (Saskatchewan, com- 
mon).— Visher, Auk, xxviii, 1911, 12 (Harding Co., w. South Dakota, 
mostly west of Little Missouri R., breeding).— Beal, Bull. 37, U. S. Biol. 
Surv., 1911, 59 (food).— Iselt, Auk, xxix, 1912,36 (Sedgewick Co., Kansas, 
Dec., Feb.).— Howell (A. B.), Condor, xiv, 1912, 190 (Todoe Santos IsIandB, 
Lower California; straggler). 

Colaptei mexicanua (not of Swainson, 1827) SwAmsoN, Fauna Bor.-Am., ii, I83I9 
pp. xxvi, 315, part.— Jardine, ed. TOlson's Am. Om., i, 1832, 43, 44, footr 
note.— Nuttall, Man. Om. U. S. and Can., Land Birds, 2d ed., 1840, 
667.— ScLATER, Ph)c. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1857, 127 (San Jos^ Valley, Califor- 
nia); Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 344, part (synonymy only).— Baird, Rep. Padfic 
R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 120, part; Rep. U. S. and Mex. Bound. Surv., ii, pt. 2, 
1859, 6 (Saltillo and Agua Nueva, Coahuila; San Elizario, Texas); Cat. 
N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 98, part.— Blakibton, Ibis, 1862, 3 (int. British 
America).— Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 470 (San Antonio, Nueces R., and Piedras 
Negras, Texas, in winter).— Gray, list Birds Brit. Mus., Pidda, 1868, 121, 
part (San Francisco).— Cooper, Om. Calif., 1870, 408.— Holden, Proc. Bost. 
Soc. N. H., XV, 1872, 207 (Sherman, Wyoming; habits).— Coues, Check 
list, 1873, no. 314, part; 2d ed., 1882, no. 459, part; Birds Northwest, 1874, 
294.— Snow, Birds Kansas, 1873, 3 (Lawrence, e. Kansas, in winter).— Baird, 
Brewer, and Ridowat, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 578, pi. 55, figs. 3,4. — 
Henshaw, Ann. Lye. N. Y., xi. 1874, 79 (Utah).— Ridowat, Om. 40th 
Parallel, 1877, 555 (localities in Nevada and Utah).— HARonr, Cat. Biids 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD6 OP NOBTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 85 

Brit. MuB., xviii, 1890, 17, part (localities in w. United States; Chihuahua; 
Duiango). — Salvin and Godman, Bid. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 402, part 
(Hermosillo, Sonora; Chupadero, San Jos6, Concepcion, Chihuahua City, 
and Temosachic, Chihuahua; Ciudad Durango, Durango). 

ColapteB "mexkamu** Allbn, Proc. Best. Soc. N. H., xvii, 1874, 63 (Great Porcu- 
pine Creek, Fort Rice, Yellowstone R., Muflselshell R., etc., North Dakota 
and Montana; crit.; includes hybrid series). 

[OoiapUs] mexieanuB Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 202, no. 8830, part.— Sclatbb and 
Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 101, part.— ^oues. Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 
198, part. 

C[plapia\ mmoanui Maximilian, Joum. f tkr Om., 1858, 421 (Fort Union}.— Coubs, 
Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 493, part. 

Piattmmamus Audubon, Om. Biog., v, 1839, 174, pi. 416, fig. 5; Synopsis, 1839, 
185; Birds Am., oct. ed., iv, 1842, 290, pi. 274.— Sundbyall, Consp. Av. 
Pidn., 1866, 72, part. 

Pieitf {ColapUa) mexicamus Nuttaix, Man. Om. U. S. and Can., Water Birds, 
1834,603. 

Qtopiau nuxiecoiUB Malhbbbb, Mon. Pidd., ii, 1862, 262, part. 

CokpUa auntu$f var. tnexieanua Ridowat, Bull. Essex Inst., v, Nov., 1873, 185 
(Cdoeado).— Hbnshaw, Rep. Om. Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 48 (Utah), 67 
(Platte R.). 

Colaptet awratuM mexieanua Ridqway, Bull. Essex Inst., vi, Oct., 1874, 171 (Sac- 
ramento, Califomia); vti, 1875, 13 (Carson, Nevada), 19 (West Humboldt 
Hts., Nevada), 21 (Ruby Mts., Nevada), 34 (Parleys Park, Utah); Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mu8., iii, 1880, 7, 190, part; Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no.378&, part.— 
Mbabns, Bull. Nutt. Om. Oub, iv, 1879, 195 (Ft. Klamath, Oregon).— 
Hbnshaw, Auk, iii, 1886, 79 (upper Pecos R., New Mexico). 

Coiapim aunOuMf var. mexicantu Ridowat, Bull. Essex Inst., vii, Jan., 1875, 38 
(Nevada). 

[Co2ap(es auratutJl Var. mexieanus Jobdan, Man. Vertebr. E. U. S., 4th ed., 
1884,105. 

CoUtpUi awratus^ p, mexieantu Ridoway, Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, iii, April, 1878, 
67 ((Calaveras Co., California) .--Bblding, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., i, 1879, 430 
(Marysville, Stockton, etc., California). 

Colapta T%ibnoaiu$ (not Picu$ rubieaius Wagler) Bonapabtb, Geog. and Comp. 
list, 1838, 40.^BoLLB, Joum. tHr Om., 1858, 319, part (habits). 

Coiapies ec/er (not Pieus eafer Gmelin) Ambbican Obntthologibtb' Union, Check 
list, 1886 (and 2d ed., 1895), no. 413, part (mostly).— Scott, Auk, iii, 1886, 428 
(Santa CatalinaMts., Arizona, mostly above 6,000 ft.).~LLOTD, Auk, iv, 1887, 
191 (Tom Green, Concho, and Uvalde counties, w. Texas, in winter). — 
CooKB, Bird M^. Miss. Val., 1888, 134 (Manhattan, Kansas; Caddo, Okla- 
homa; San Angelo, Texas; in winter). — Beckham, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
X, 1888, 665 (San Antonio, Texas).— Bbyant (W. E.), Proc. Calif. Ac. Sci., 
ser. 2, 1889, 287 (San Rafael, San Pedro Martir Mts., Lower California, 7,000- 
10,000 ft.).— Hasbbouck, Auk, vi, 1889, 239 (Eastland Co., Texas, common).— 
Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., iii, 1890, 139 (Ashcroft, int. Brit. Colum- 
bia).— Fannin, Check list Birds Brit. Col., 1891, 29 (e. of Cascade range).— 
Attwatbb, Auk, ix, 1892, 235 (San Antonio, Texas, in migration).— Singlet, 
Rep. Geol. Surv. Texas, 1894, 350 (Lee Co., Texas, rare winter visitant).— Ben> 
IHBE, life Hist. Birds N. Am., ii, 1895, 134, part.— Gbinnell (J.), Auk, xv, 
1898, 234 (SaiLtaCatalina I., OOifomia).— Caby, Auk, xviii, 1901, 234 (Black 
Hills, Wyoming). 

Colapia nuxieanoide$ (not of Lafresnaye) Baibd, in Rep. Stansbury's Expl. 
Great f^t Lake, 1852, 333 (California).- Woodhousb, in Rep. Sitgreaves' 
Expl. Zufii and Ck>l. R., 1853, 91 (Rio Grande, Texas). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



86 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

COLAPTBS CAFER SATURATIOR (Rid^way). 

V0RTHWX8TS&V WLIOKEM. 

Similar to C, e. coUaris but larger and darker (darker even than 
C. c. cafer), the upper parts browner, the under parts of body more 
strongly vinaceous. 

AdvU mofc.— Length (skins), 297-312 (306); wing, 164.5-177.5 
(169.9); tail, 113-124 (118.7); culmen, 37-42.5 (39.8); tarsus, 29-31 
(30); outer anterior toe, 22,5-25 (23.9).« 

AdvU female.— Length (skins), 285-313 (297); wing, 163.6-171 
(167.1); tail, 110-123.5 (117); cuhnen, 36-40 (37.7); tarsus, 26-30.5 
(28.7); outer anterior toe, 21-24 (22.7).*» 

Northwest coast district, from northern California (Humboldt 
Bay, etc.) to southern Alaska (Sitka; Taku River; Kupreanoff, 
Dall, Gravina, Revillagigedo, and Etolin islands). 

ColapUB mexkanuB (not of SwainBon) Nuitall, Man. Om. U. S. and Can., Land 
Birds, 2d ed., 1840, 667, part.— Sclateb, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1859, 236 
(Vancouver I.).— Coopbb and Sucklby, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., zii, 
pt. ii, 1860, 163 (Washington and Oregon west of Cascade Mts.). — ^Lord, 
Proc. Roy. Artil. Inst. Woolw., iv, 1864, 112 (Brit. Columbia).— Brown, 
Ibis, 1868, 419 (Vancouver I.).— Dall and Bannistbb, Trans. Chicago 
Ac. Sci., i, 1869, 276 (Sitka, Alaska).— Coopbb, Om. Calif., 1870, 408, part.— 
CouBS, Check List, 1873, no. 314, part; 2d ed., 1882, no. 459, part; Birds 
N. W., 1874, 294, part.— fiALvm, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, 425 (Esqui- 
mault, Vancouver I.).— Habgitt, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 17, 
part (Vancouver, San Juan, and Orcas islands, and Esquimault, Brit. Colum- 
bia; Whitby Island, Washington; Albany, Oregon). 

[Colaptes] mmcanuB Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 198, part. 

C[olapU9\ mexicamis Coubs, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed.« 1884, 493, part. 

ColapUB auratua mexicantu RroowAY, Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 3786, part 

ColapUB mexioanuB Baturatior Ridgwat, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., ii, April 10, 
1884, 90 (Neah Bay, Washington; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.). 

ColapUB cafer Batwratior Ambbican OBNrrHOLOomrs' Union, Check List, 1886 
(and 2d ed., 1895), no. 413a; 3d ed., 1910, 195.— Nblson, Rep. Nat. Hist 
Coll. Alaska, 1887, 161 (Sitka).— To wnsbnd (C. H.), Proc. U. S. Nat Mus., x, 
1887, 206 ("Redwood region" and Red Bluff, California).— Chapman, Bull. 
Am. Mus. N. H., iii, 1890, 139 (Westminster, Brit. Columbia).— Fannin, 
Check List Birds Brit. Col., 1891, 29 (west of Cascade Mts.).— Palmbb (T. S.), 
Auk, ix, 1892, 309 (Grays Harbor, Washington).— Bbndibb, Life Hist. N. 
Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 137.— Gbinnbll (J.), Auk, xv, 1898, 127 (Sitka); Pacific 
Coast Avifauna, no. 3, 1902, 39 (California range).— EobbA, Auk, xvii, 1900, 
352 (Cape Disappointment, Washington, resident).— Osgood, North Am. 
Fauna, no. 21, 1901, 45 (Cumshewa Inlet and Massett, Queen Chariotte 
Islands).— Rathbun, Auk, xix, 1902, 135 (Seattle, Washington, resident).^ 
Andbbson and Gbinnbll, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1903, 9 (Siskiyou Mts., 
n. California; crit.).- Bowlbs, Auk, xxiii, 1906, 144 (Tacoma, Washington, 
resident).— Edson, Auk, xxv, 1908, 434 (Bellingham, Washington, resi- 
dent).— Clabk, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xxxviii, 1910, 60 (Dockton, Wadi- 
ington; Union Bay, Vancouver I.).— Swabth, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., vii, 
1911, 70 (Eupreanof, Dall, Gravina, Revillagigedo, and Etolin islands, and 
Taku R., Alaska; crit.; habits); Rep. Birds and Mam. Vane. I., 1912, 39 
(crit). 

a Ten specimens. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF lifOBTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. S7 

Cloktpte$] arfer mOwratior Ridowat, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 296. 
[ColapUs] Mturatior Shabpb, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 201. 

Colaptet ctrfer (not Pictu ca/er Gmelin) Law&xncb (R. H.}, Auk, ix, 1892, 44 
(Giays Harbor, Washington). 

COLAPTSS CAFSR RUFIPILBUS (Rid^way). 

OTJADALVPS WLIOKEM. 

Smilar in coloration to C. c. saiuratioTy but pileum much more 
rofescent (the forehead and superciliary r^on and upper portion 
(floral region deep cinnamon-rufous), black terminal band on under 
surface of tail broader, and smaller, with relatively longer bill. 

AdvU male— Length (skins), 284-301 (290); wing, 149-162 (150); 
tail, 104-113 (110); cuhnen, 37-41.5 (38.9); tarsus, 26.5-28 (27.3); 
outer anterior toe, 21-23 (22.2).« 

Adtdt female.— Ijength (skins), 283-314 (296); wing, 148.5-158 
(152.5); taU, 102.5-114 (110.4); cuhnen, 37-43 (39); tarsus, 26.5-29 
(28); outer anterior toe, 20.5-23 (21.7).* 
Guadalupe Island, off Pacific coast of Lower California. 
Colapies mexicanus rufipHeuM Ridowat, Boll. XJ. 8. Geol. and Geog. Surv. Terr., 
ii, no. 2, April 1, 1876, 191 (Guadalape Island, Lower California; col. U. 8. 
Nat. Mus.). 
OolapUt n^pOetu Ridoway, Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, ii, July, 1877, 60, 61; Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., ill, 1880, 190, 219, 229; Norn. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 
380.— Ambbican Ornitholooists* Union, Check List, 1886 (and 2d ed., 
1896), no. 415, 3d ed., 1910, 195.— Bryant (W. E.), BuU. Calif. Ac. Sci., ii, 
1887, 285 (habits; descr. eggs; crit.); Proc. Calif. Ac. Sci., ser. 2, 1889, 
287.— BBNDmB, Life Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 140.— Thaybb and Bangs, 
Condor, x, 1908, 104. 
C[olapt€$] rufipiUui Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 296. 
[Colapta^ rufipiUus Shabpb, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 201. 

ColapU$ mexicantu (not of Swainson) HABGirr, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 
1890, 17, part. 

COLAPTES MEXICANOIDES Lafresnaye. 

OTJATSKALAir FLIOXBS. 

AdvU male. — ^Pileum and hindneck uniform deep cinnamon-rufous 
or rufous-chestnut; back; scapulars, wing-coverts, and secondaries 
broadly barred with black and light brown (nearly wood brown to 
slightly vinaceous cinnamon), the black and brown bars of nearly 
equal width, except on wings, where the former are broader, the 
pale brown bars on the secondaries (except proximal ones, or "ter- 
tials") interrupted by a broad median extension of the black; rump 
and upper taU-coverts white, the former with a few cordate or 
V-shaped spots of black, the latter broadly barred, or transversely 
spotted, with black; primaries and rectrices black, with shafts (also 
Uiose of secondaries) bright orange or satum red, except for terminal 
portion of rectrices and shafts of middle pair of rectrices, which are 
black; inner web of middle pair of rectrices and terminal portion of 

a Six specimens. ^ Seven specimens. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



88 



BULLETIK 60y UNITBD STATBS NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



outer web of lateral rectrix usually with a few irregular bars of pale 
grayish brown near edge, the outer web of middle rectrices some- 
times narrowly edged, or indistinctly barred along edge, with the 
same; loral, suborbital, and auricular regions, chin, throat, foreneck, 
and sides of neck uniform gray (about no. 6^ or between that and 
smoke gray) ; malar region bright poppy red, the feathers first black 
then gray beneath surface; a large crescentic or semilunar patch of 
black on chest; rest of under parts dull white medially, shading into 
very pale pinkish gray or ecru drab laterally, each feather with a 
subterminal cordate or roundish spot of black, these markings more 
transverse or bar-like on flanks and under tail-coverts; under wing- 
coverts pale grayish pink, those along margin of wing narrowly and 
irregularly barred with black; inner webs of remiges (except outer- 
most) pale buff-pink or salmon-pink for basal half (approximately) 
the terminal portion dusky, strongly glossed or suffused with orange- 
pink or salmon-pink, except along edges; under side of tail rufous- 
orange broadly tipped with black, the lateral rectrices with a small 
terminal spot of dull whitish or pale dull orange and sometimes with 
a few narrow bars of the same alternating with much wider inter- 
spaces of blackish along edge; bill dusky horn color (in dried skins); 
legs and feet dusky grayish or horn color (in dried skins); length 
(skins), 259-329 (276); wmg, 163-163 (167.9); tail, 96.5-115 (111.7); 
cuhnen, 36-40.5 (38.2); tarsus, 28-30 (28.8); outer anterior toe, 
22-24 (22.7).* 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male but red malar stripe 
replaced by a similar area of cinnamon; length (skins), 265-300 
(288); wing, 151-163 (154.7); tail, 104.5-113.5 (110.6); cuhnen, 
34.5-38.5 (35.6); tarsus, 25-29 (27.7); outer anterior toe, 21-24 
(21.8).« 

Highlands of Chiapas (San C!rist6bal) and Guatemala (Cob&n to 
Chis6c; Tactic; Cob&n; Hacienda C!hanc61; Todos Santos; Volcan de 
Santa Maria; Cialderas and Paj&l Grande, Volcan de Fuego; Barranca 
de los Chocoyas; Lake Atitl&n; near Tecp&m, 5,000-9,500 feet; 

a Ridgway's ''Nomenclature of Colon/' plate 2. 
b Sixteen specimens. 
c Eight specimens. 



LooaUty. 


Wing. 


TaU. 




Taaoa 


Outer 

anto- 

rlortoe. 


Nlsff fidnlt mulftt frrmn GnatwnalA 


157 

in.i 

153.5 
163 


lias 

112.0 

uas 

112 


87.9 
38.2 

3&e 

84.5 


2&8 
28.0 

27.7 
27.5 


22.7 


SftYsn sdult nutles frorp '^tepfts (Ban Cristobal) ^ ^ ^ 


22.8 


riMALBS. ' 

Ravmi A^nlt fInmAlAi frvim OruitcnTiftlA ... ..... 


21 7 


One adult famale from QUapas (San Cristobal) 


22 







Digitized by VjOOQIC 



ttBba OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. Sd 

Barranca Honda; El Riiio6n, San Marcos; Ciupach6; plains of Que- 
zaltenango; ridge above Totonicap&m). Northern Nicaragua (Mata- 
galpa).« 

P[ietit] ruhioaiuM Waolbb, Ibib, 1829, 516, pait (female). 

C[oiapte8] Tubricatia Gray, Gen. Biida, ii, 1846, 446. 

Colapta T%ibnetau8 Gray, G^. Birds, ii, 1846, pi. 111. 

Geopieus rubrieatus Malhbrbe, Mod. Picid., ii, 1862, 265, pi. 110, figs. 1, 2. 

Coi[aptes] meoncanoides Lafresnate, Rev. Zool., vii, Feb., 1844, 42 (^'Mexico;'' 
coll. Lairesnaye). 

CoiapUs mexieanoidei Sclatbr and Saltin, Ibis, 1859, 137 (Coban and Los Cho- 
coyas, Guatemala; crit.).— Sclatbr, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 344 (Coban).— 
Gray, List Birds Brit. Mtis., Picidse, 1868, 121. — Salvin and Godman, Ibis, 
1892, 327 (Matagalpa, Nicaragua); Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 404 (locali- 
ties in Guatemala; Matagalpa).— Dearborn, Pub. 125, Field Mus. N. H., 1907, 
94 (Lake Atitlan and near Tecpam, Guatemala, 5,000-9,500 ft.; descr. nest; 
crit.). 

[Colaptes] maieanoide$ Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 202, no. 8831.— Sclater and 
Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 101. 

C[olaptes] mexicanoides Baird, Brewer, and Ridoway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 
1874, 574.— RiDGWAY, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 296.— Allen, Bull. Am. 
Mus. N. H., iv, 1892, 25, 37 (crit.). 

GeopieoM mexicancndes Malherbe, M^m. Ac. Mets, ttt, 1849, 359. 

Colaptes collarU (not of Vigors) Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 114. 

[ColapUa] eoUan$ Bonaparte, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 126. 

PieuB 9ubmexiainu8 Sundevall, Consp. A v. Picin., 1866, 72 (new name for C 
mexicaTurides; the latter rejected on grounds of purism). 

Colaptet ttibmexicanus Hargitt, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 21 (Barranca 
Hondo, Tactic, Coban, and Volcan de Fuego, Guatemala). 

[Coiaptes] 9ub-mexieanus Sharps, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 201. 

Genus NESOCELEUS Sclater and Salvin. 

Neioeeleus Sclater and Salvin, Nom. A v. Neotr., 1873, 101, 155. (Type, by 
original designation, Colapta femandinx Vigors.) 

Bather large Picid© (wing 144-157 mm.) similar to Colaptes, but 
with nostrils whoUy exposed (no trace of antrorse prefrontal pliunes), 
no black jugular patch, no white on nunp, and with whole of body, 
wings, and tail barred with black and brownish yeUow. 

Bill about as long as head, rather slender, very slightly decurved 
terminally, its tip pointed (not at all chisel-shaped), its width at 
posterior end of nostrils decidedly greater than its depth at same 
point; ridge of culmen indistinct basally, distinct terminally; an 
mdistinct supranasal ridge, running parallel with culmen for about 
basal half of maxilla; gonys about as long as mandibular rami, 
straight or very faintly concave terminally, slightly prominent 
basally, rather distinctly ridged; commissure nearly straight to near 
base, where slightly deflected. Nostril wholly exposed, rather large, 
roundish. Feathers of frontal anti© small, short, and erect (not 

^ I have not seen a specimen from Nicaragua, and doubt whether specimens from 
^t country are subspecifically identical with those from Guatemala. They should 
be carefuUy compared. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



40 BULLETIN 50, UIHTED STATES NATIONAL MXJSEXTM. 

antrorse); no obvious bristly tips to feathers of rictus, malar apex, 
nor chin. Wing moderately long, the longest primaries exceeding 
secondaries by much less than length of exposed culmen; sixth to 
eighth primaries longest, ninth about equal to second, the tenth 
(outermost) a little more than half as long as ninth. Tail more than 
two-thirds as long as wing, the rectrices rather narrow, gradually 
acuminate. Tarsus longer than outer hind toe with claw, but shorter 
than outer front toe with claw, rather slender; toes rather slender 
and claws rather weak. 

Coloration. — Whole body, wings, and tail barred with black and 
brownish yellow or bufh^; shafts of remiges and rectrices on under 
side (only) light yellow; pileiun and sides of head cinnamon, the 
former narrowly streaked with black; adult male with a broad black 
malar stripe. 

Range. — Island of Cuba; monotypic. 

NESOCELBUS FBRNANBINA (Vigors). 

RBVAHDIHA'B FLIOXUL 

Adult nude. — Pileum and hindneck light wood brown or cinnamon, 
narrowly streaked with black; loral, orbital, rictal, and auricular 
regions immaculate light wood brown, usually somewhat paler on 
suborbital and rictal regions; rest of upper parts dull black, sharply 
and very r^ularly barred with pale dull yellow (the bars on dorsum 
and tail sometimes deeper yellow), the bars much narrower on rec- 
trices (where extending entirely across both webs), much broader on 
primaries; malar region black; chin and throat thickly streaked with 
black and white or yellowish white, the black streaks broader than 
the whitish ones; rest of under parts light buffy yellowish (dull pale 
maize yellow to nearly ocher yellow), sharply and very r^ularly 
barred with black, the black bars broadest on chest and flanks; under 
wing-coverts light creamy yellow (naples yellow), more or less barred 
or flecked with blackish, at least along edge of wing; inner webs of 
remiges dusky grayish olive (changing to yellowish in certain lights), 
spotted along edge (except on distal portion of outer primaries) witJi 
%ht creamy yellow, their shafts clear naples yellow; under surface 
of tail olive, changing to dull golden yellow, narrowly barred with 
dull yellow (naples or maize yellow), the shafts of rectrices clear 
naples or maize yellow; bill dull black; legs and feet dusky grayish 
or horn color (in dried skins); length (skins), 297-312 (304.5); wing, 
146.5-157 (151.6); tail, 112.5-123 (118.5); cuhnen, 39-42.5 (41.1); 
tarsus, 28-31 (30.3); outer anterior toe, 23-24 (23.6).« 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male, but malar region streaked 
with black and white, like chin and throat; length (skins), 307-320 
313); wing, 144-155.5 (148.6); tail, 102-126 (113.7); cuhnen, 36.5-40 
(38.4); tarsus, 28.5-31.5 (30); outer anterior toe, 21-24 (22.3).« 

Five spedmens. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OP KOBTH AKD HllDDtS AMEBIC A« 41 

Island of Cuba (near Havana; San Di^o de los Bafios; Holqufn). 

ColapUBfemandiiue Vigors, Zool. Joum., iii, Dec., 1827, 445 (near Havana, Cuba; 
coll. Zool. See.).— D'Obbiont, in La Sagra'sHist. Fis. Nat. Cuba, Aves, 1839, 
112, pi. 24; French ed., 148.— Waonbb, Wiegmann's Archiv ftlr Naturg., 
1841, 100.— Dbnnt, Ppoc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1847, 39.— Bonapabte, CJonsp. 
Av., i, 1850, 114.— Lbmbbtb, Aves de la Ida de Cuba, 1850, 131.— Cabanis, 
Joum. fflr Om., 1856, 104 (habits).— Bbewbb, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., vii, 
1880, 307.— GuNDLACH, Repert. Fisico-Nat. Cuba, i, 1866, 295; Joum. fttr 
Om., 1874, 155 (habits).— Gray, List Biids Brit. Mus., Piddse, 1868, 122. 

[ColapUs] femandinae Lichtbnstbin, Nom. Av. Mub. Berol., 1854, 77.— Bona- 
pabte, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 126. — Gundlach, Joum. fflr Om., 1861, 
334.— Gbat, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 202, no. 8833. 

C[oUipUs] ferrumdinae Rbighbnbach, Handb. Scansores, Picinse, 1854, 415, 
pi. 667, fig. 4427. 

I\ieus]/ernandinae Waolxb, IsiB, 1829, 517. 

Geapieoifernandinx Malhbbbb, M6m. Acad. Metz, xxx, 1849, 359. 

Gwpiau fenuxndinx Malhbbbb, Mon. Picid., ii, 1862, 273; iv, 1862, pi. 113, 
figs. 4, 5. 

lNe»oeeUus\femandinm Sclatbb and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 101. — Cobt, 
List Birds West Ind., 1885, 20.— Shabpb, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 226. 

Nesoeeleuifemandinse Coby, Auk, iii, 1886, 380; Birds West Ind., 1889, 176; Cat. 
West Ind. Birds, 1892, 12, 104, 128.— Habgitt, Cat. Birds Brit Mus., xviii, 
1890,419. 

Naodaufenumdinae Gundlach, Om. Cubana, ed. 1895, 144. 

Piaufemandi Sundbvall, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 78. 

Genus MELANERPES Swainson. 

Mdaturpci Swaoibon, Fauna Bor.-Am., ii, 1831, 316. (Type, by orig. design.,' 
Pieus erytknxephaliu Idnnsus.) 

Mdamp%eo9 Malhbbbb, M6m. Acad. Metz, xxx, 1849, 363. (Type, as fixed by 
Strickland, 1850, and Gray, 1855, Pieiu erythroeephdlus Linnseus.) 

Mdanopieo8 (emmidation) Mai^bbb, Nouv. Classif. Pidn., 1850, 46; see Strick- 
land, in Jardine's Contr. Om., 1850, 19. 

MdampieuM (emendation) Malhbbbb, Mon. Picid., ii, 1862, 192. 

Medimn-edzed FicidsB (wing 112-150 mm.), with outer hind toe 
shorter than anterior front toe, supranasal ridge distinct only on 
bftsal half of maxilla, plumage of throat and chest hair-like, crimson, 
that of breast either hair-like and crimson or else blended and white, 
tad back glossy bluish or greenish black. 

Bill about as long as head, rather stout, a little wider than deep at 
antmor end of nostrils (or about as wide in M. eryOirocepludtLa)', cul- 
men slightly but distinctly convex, distinctly ridged; gonys nearly 
twice as long as mandibular rami (M, eryOirocepTialua) or about one 
and a half times as long (Jf. poricfieensis)^ convex and prominent 
btsally, straight and ascending terminally, distinctly ridged (at least 
tenninally ) ; supranasal ridge distinct for basal half or less of maxiUa. 
NoBtifl partly covered by small antrorse bristly prefrontal plumes, 
rather large, broadly oval, situated about midway between culmen 
and tomhim. Feathers of malar apex bristly, antrorse, those of 
chin with bristly semiantrorse tips. Wing rather long, the longest 
pcimaries exceeding secondaries by more than length of exposed cul- 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



42 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUltf. 

men; sixth and seventh, or sixth, seventh, and eighth, {nimahes 
longest, ninth shorter than sixth (if. poriaricensis) or seventh (if. 
eryOirocephalua), the tentii (outermost) more than one-third as long 
as ninth (if. poriorieenaia) or less than one-third as long (if. erythro- 
cephalv^). Tail slightly more than half as long as wing (in if. erythr 
rocepJudus) to about three-fifths as long (if. portoricensis), the middle 
rectrices strongly acuminate terminally. Tarsus shorter than either 
outer toe witii claw, rather slender; outer hind toe about as long as 
outer front toe, or very slightly shorter. 

Coloration, — ^Adults with plumage of throat and chest hair-like, 
crimson; back, wing-coverts, primaries (secondaries also in if. porUh 
ricensis), and tail black; rump and upper tail-coverts white (second- 
aries and under parts of body, except chest, also white in if. 
eryffirocepTialus) . 

Range. — ^United States and southern Canada east of Rocky Moun- 
tains; one species pecuUar to Porto Eico and St. Thomas, Greater 
Antilles. (Two species.) 

KEY TO THE 8PECIBS OF MELA.NBRPE8. 

a. Secondaries and under parts mostly white; lateral rectrices tipped with white. 
6. Head, neck, and chest uniform crimson; back uniform glossy blue-black; under 
parts of body immaculate white (sometimes tinged with red on abdomen) 
inner secondaries without black spots. (United States and southern Canada 

east of Rocky Mountains.) Xelanerpes eryfhrooephalus, adults (p. 42), 

bb. Head, neck, and chest brownish giay or grayish brown stzeaked or spotted with 
dud^; back barred or squamated with grayish brown or brownish gray; 
imder parts of body dull white streaked latnally with dusky; inner second 
aries with a laige subterminal spot of black. 

Xelaneipes erythxocephaliu, young (p. 44). 
aa. Secondaries wholly black (inner ones sometimes edged with white on distal por- 
tion); lateral rectrices not tipped with white. 
b. Malar region, chin, throat, and median portion of remaining under parts crimson 

(Porto Rico.) Xelanerpes portorioensis, adult male <^ (p. 47). 

bb. Malar region, chin, and throat grayish brown; red on under parts of body more 
or less interrupted. 

Xelaneipes portorioensis, adult female and young (p. 47). 

MELANBRPES SRTTHROCSPHALUS (Limueus). 

BBD-HSADSD WOODPXCKS&. 

AdvUs (sexes alike ^). — ^Head, neck, and upper chest uniform 
bright crimson, margined posteriorly by a more or less distinct 
(usually more or less concealed) semicircular band of black across 
chest; back and scapulars uniform glossy blue-black, the wing- 

a Some adult females also. 

b After carefully examining a very large number of sexed specimens I have been 
unable to find any average (much less ccmstant) difference of coloration between 
the sexes. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF NOBTH AND MIDDLE AMEBIGA« 



.48 



eoyerts black margined with glossy blue-black; primary coverts, 
primaries, and tail uniform black, the latter (except two to four 
middle rectrices) tipped with white, the lateral pair sometimes 
edged with white; rump, upper tail-coyerts, secondiuies, and under 
wing-coverts (except along margin of wing) uniform pure white, the 
secondaries with shafts and basal portion (mostly concealed) black; 
luutor parts, posterior to upper chest, white, the abdomen more or 
less tinged with dull yellowish or salmon color, sometimes with 
hnghi red; bill grayish horn color, darker terminally, in dried skins, 
Uuish white basally, passing into bluish gray or lead cdor terminally 
in life; iiis deep brown or reddish brown; legs and feet dusky in dried 
skins, light greenish gray in life. 

AduU mofe.— Length (skins), 194-235 (221); wing, 128-149.6 
(139.5); tail, 70-81 (75.3); cuhnen, 25-29 (27.3); tarsus, 21.5-24.6 
(23); outer anterior toe, 16-19 (17.6).« 

MvU female.— Length (skins), 202-223 (213); wing, 127.5-144 
(136.5); tail, 66-84.5 (74.1); cuhnen, 25-30 (26.6); tarsus, 20.5-24 
&1.9); outer witerior toe, 16.5-19 (17.5).* 



« Thirty-two specimens. 



* Twenty-one specimens. 



Locality. 



Wing. 



TaU. 



Ez- 

poaed 

oulmon. 



Tanas. 



Outar 
ante- 
rior toe. 



Ttt adoU males from east of AJlegbanyliountaittfl 

Ttotdnltmalesfroni MIsBlaBippi Valley (east of Mlasouri River) 

Ten adult males from west of Miasoorl River 

Tvoadnlt males from Florida 

mi 

Ihi adult females firom east of AQe^benylioimtains 

Bg^adoKfiBmales from Mlaslasippi VaUey (east crfMlasoori 

Btfer) 

SxadoH females from west of Missouri River 

One adolt female Ikom Miaslastppi 

One adnltfemAlefirom Florida. 



138 
130 
145.6 
134 



135.6 

134.6 
142.6 
131 
125 



73.2 

75.9 
77.1 

74 



74.6 

73.7 
76.1 
71 
67 



26.8 
28.8 
27.3 
26 



25.4 

26.4 
27.8 
27.6 
26 



22.6 
23 
23.6 
23 



21.7 

21.6 
22.2 
21 
23 



17.4 
17.2 
18.2 
16.8 



17.4 

16.0 
18.4 
16.6 
18 



Were it not for the fact that specimens from the Mississippi Valley agree with 
them in coloraticoi but average even smaller than those from tiie Atlantic States, the 
Bpecimens of this species from the region of the Great Plains and Bocky Mountains 
could easily be separated as a well-defined subspecies on account of their decidedly 
greater uze and frequency of red on the abdomen. As already stated, however, 
Maiflsippi Valley specimens also usually have the abdomen more or less strongly 
tinged with red (a feature wanting in every one of the Atlantic coast specimens 
eunined) but average even smaller (though very slightly so) than extreme eastern 
specimens. Florida examples are small, but the only two males examined from that 
State botb exceed in length of wing an adult male from Richland County, Illinois, 
thew measuring 133 and 135 mm., respectively, in the two Florida males, and 128, 
134, and 134 in three adult males from Richland County, another from Knox 
Goonty, Indiana, having the wing 134.5. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



44 BULLETIK 60, UNITED STATES NATIOKAL MUSEUM. 

Ycmng. — ^Very different from adults: Head, neck, and upper chest 
brownish gray to grayish brown, more or less dark, streaked or spotted 
with black, sometimes suffused or intermixed with red on hindneck 
or on sides of head; back, scapulars, and wing-coverts black, the 
feathers more or less broadly margined with pale gray or brownish 
gray; secondaries white with one or two broad bands of black 
(sometimes more or less interrupted) on distal portion; imder parts, 
posterior to chest, dull white to very pale brownish gray or grayish 
brown, the sides and flanks (especially the latter), sometimes also 
the breast, more or less distinctly streaked with dusky; otherwise 
much as in adults. 

Transition and austral zones from southeastern British Columbia, 
Wyoming, Colorado, and Texas, east to the Atlantic coast; 
north, r^idarly, to northern New York (breeding in Adirondack 
region), Ontario (as far as Muskoka and Parry Sound), Mani- 
toba (Big Plain; Red River Valley; Fort Dufferin; Winnipeg, acci- 
dental), central Alberta, and southwestern Saskatchewan (rare), 
south to southern Florida and Gulf coast to Refugio and Bee 
counties, Texas; rare and local east of the Hudson River, where 
breeding, however, north to Vermont (Rutland); casual in Nova 
Scotia (Ketch Harbor), New Brunswick, Utah (near Salt Lake City), 
New Mexico, and Arizona; irr^ularly migratory in northern parts 
of its range. 

[Picas\ erythrocephaltu LmNJEUS, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, i, 1758, 113 (based on Red- 
headed Woodpecker Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, i, 20, pi. 20; Le Pic h tiU 
rouge de Virginie Brisson, Om., iv, 53, pi. 3, fig. 3); ed. 12, i, 1766, 174.— 
Gmbun, Syet. Nat., i, pt. i, 1788, 429.— Latham, Index Om., i, 1790, 227. 

Picua erythrocephalue TsMicmcx, Cat. Syet., 1807, 62.— VisaLOT, Oie. Am. Sept., 
ii, 1807, 60, plfl. 112, 113; Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., xxvi, 1818, 85.— Wobon, 
Ajn. Chn., i, 1808, 142, pi. 9, fig. 1.— Bonnatbbbb and YisnxoT, Enc. 
M6th., iii, 1823, 1317.— Valbncibnnbs, Diet. Sd. Nat., xl, 1826, 181.— 
Drapibz, Diet. Claa9., xiii, 1828, 496.— Bonapabtb, Ann. Lye. N. Y., ii, pt. i, 
1826, 45.— Lesson, Trait6 d*Om., 1831, 227.— Audubon, Om. Biog., i, 1831, 
141, pi. 27; V, 1839, 536; Synopsis, 1839, 184; Birds Am., oet. ed., iv, 1842, 
274, pi. 271.— NuTTALL, Man. Om. U. S. and Can., Land Birds, 1832, 569, 
2d ed., 1840, 674.— Hahn and KtJsTEB, Om. Atlas, 1834, pi. 2.— Putnam, 
Proe. Eesex Inst., i, 1856, 214 (Massaehusetts).— Sundbyall, Consp. Av. 
Piein., 1866, 50.— Tbhtb, Proe. Essex Inst., vi, 1871, 118 (Minnesota). 

P[icue\ erythrocejihalue Bonapabtb, Joum. Ae. Nat. Sei. Phila., iii, pt. ii, 1824, 
369; Obs. Wils. Am. Om., 1826,[29].— Waglbb, Syst. Av., 1827, Picus, sp. 
14; Isis, 1829, 518.— MAZDnuAN, Joum. fOr Om., 1858, 419. 

MeJanerpes eryihrocephalus SwAmsoN, Fauna Bor.-Am., ii, 1831, pp. xxvi, 316; 
Classif . Birds, ii, 1837, 310.— Bonapabtb, Comp. and Geog. list, 1838, 39.— 
Gambbl, Joum. Ac. Nat. Sei. Phila., i, 1847, 55 (Mission San Gabriel, Cali- 
fomia, "numbers ").—Baibd, Rep. Pacifie R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 113; Oat. 
N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 94; in Cooper, Om. Calif., 1870, 402 (as to alleged 
reeord by Gambel for San Gabriel, California).— Hbnby, Proe. Ae. Nat. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD6 OF NOBTH AND UlDDhE AMEBIOA« 46 

Sd. Fhila., 1850, 106 (Rio Grukde, New Mexico, 1 epec., Jiily).-'VBSRiLi^ 
Proc. Essex Inst., iii, 1862, 145 (Oxford Co., Maine, rare summer resident).— 
SciATBB, Gat. Am. Birds, 1862, 840 (e. North America).— Dbbssbb, Ibis, 
1865, 469 (Nueces, Quadalupe, Colcmulo, Brasos, and Medina rivers, Texas). — 
HclLWHArrH, Proc. Essex Inst., v, 1866, 83 (Hamiltcm, Ontario).— La wrbnos, 
Ann. Lye. N. Y., viii, 1866, 291 (vicinity of New York City).— Gray, Ust 
Birds Brit. Mus., Pidde, 1868, 115.— Coopbr, Om. Calif., 1870, 402.— Allbn, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., iii, 1872, 129 (Leavenworth and Topeka, Kansas), 
189 (Ft. Hays, Kansas), 151 (Denver and Plum Creek, Colcmulo), 158 (South 
F^ric, Colorado); Proc. Best. Soc. N. H., xvii, 1874, 63 (Missoari R. to Mussel- 
shell R., abundant); Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., i, 1886, 247 (Massadiusetts, rare 
summer re8ident).—HoLDBN, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., xv, 1872, 207 (near Sher- 
man, Wyoming).— Tbippe, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., xv, 1872, 233 (Decatur 
and Mahaska counties, Iowa, breeding). — Ridoway, Bull. Essex Inst., v, 
1873, 173 (Salt Lake aty, Utah, 1 spec.. May), 177, 185 (Colmdo); vu, 1875, 
31 (Salt Lake aty); field and Forest, i, 1877, 209 (ColorMlo); Om. 40th 
Parallel, 1877, 554 (Salt Lake City; Laramie, Wycuning); Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., iii, 1880, 189; Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 375; Bull. Nutt. Om. 
dub, vi, 1881, 120 (unusual migration in s. Illinois in fall of 1879); Om. 
Blinois, i, 1889, 383.— Couss, Check List, 1873, no. 309; 2d ed., 1882, no. 
453; Birds Northwest, 1874, 290 (Nehama R.; Yellowstone R.; Platte R.; 
Ft. Lookout; Bitter Cottonwood and La Bonte creeks, Colorado, etc.); Bull. 
U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. Terr., iv, 1878, 617 (Pembina R., North Dakota, 
to Rocky Mts.). — ^Baisd, Brxwxb, and Ridowat, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 
1874, 564, pi. 54, ^. 4; special ed., 1875, plate facing p. 564.— Fxbnald, 
Am. Nat., viii, 1874, 437 (Orono, Maine, accidental).— Hbnshaw, Rep. Om. 
Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 1874, 90 (South Park and Huerfano R., Colorado); 
Zod. Exp. W. 100th Merid., 1875, 398 (South Park, Pueblo, Twin Lakes, 
and El Paso County, Colorado).— <5bntbt, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1874, 
109 (habits).— Brbwstbe, Ann. Lye. N. Y., xi, 1875, 144 (Ritchie Co., West 
Viiginia).— Qrinnbll(G. 6.), in Ludlow's Rep. Recon., 1876, 81 (Mon- 
tana).— MoCaulxt, Rep. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. Terr., iii, 1877, 679 
(Red R. Valley, Texas; crit.).- Bailbt (H. B.), Bull. Nutt. Om. Gub, iii, 
1878, 97 (Vermilion, South Dakota; habits).— Matnabd, Birds Florida, 1878, 
229.— MxBBiAM, Bull. Nutt. Om. Gub, iii, 1878, 123 (Lewis Co., New York, 
resident; habits); vi, 1881, 232 (Adirondack region, breeding).— Rathbun 
(F. R.), Rev. list Birds Centr. New York, 1879, 25 (resident).— Coues 
(G. H.), Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, iv, 1879, 31 (Brooklyn, New York, summer 
resident).— Roberts, 8th An. Rep. Geol. and Nat. Hist. Surv. Minn., 
1880, 163 (Duluth, 1 spec., July 11, 1877); in Wilcox's Hist. Becker Co., Minn., 
1907, 176 (common).— Agbbsbobo, Bull. Nutt. Om. Gub, vi, 1881, 120 (Ver- 
milion, South Dakota; peculiar nesting site) .—Bbown (N. C), Proc. Portland 
Soc. N.H., 1882, (19) (Portland, Maine, rareand irregular). —Ooilby, Sci. Proc. 
Roy. Dublin Soc., iii, 1882, 59 (Navarro Co., Texas, uncooimon in summer).— 
PuBDiB, Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, vii, 1882, 57 (near Boston, Massachusetts, 
Sept., Oct., and Nov., 1881).— Williams, Bull. Nutt. Om. Gub, vii, 1882, 
63 (Belt Mts., Montana, 1 spec.).— Enowlton, Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, vii, 
1882, 63 (Omrell, Brandon, Rutland, etc., Vermont, common). — ^Nehbunq, 
Bull. Nutt. Om. Club., vii, 1882, 171 (Houston, etc., s. e. Texas, breeding).— 
Allen and Bbbwsteb, Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, viii, 1883, 196 (Colorado 
Sinings, Colorado).— Dbbw, Auk, ii, 1885, 17 (Colorado, breeding from 
jMoB up to 10,000 ft.).— Beckham, Auk, ii, 1885, 143 (Pueblo, Colorado); 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



46 BULLETIN 50, UlfOTED STATES KATIONAL MXJSET7M. 

Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., x, 1888, 664 (San Antonio, Texas, Jan., Feb.)-— 
BicKNBLL, Auk, ii, 1885, 259 (notes).— Ambbican Oknitholoouts' IJkion, 
Check List, 1886 (and 2d ed., 1895), no. 406; 3d ed., 1910, 192.--Sbion, Auk, 
iii, 1886, 156 (Big Plain and Bed R. Valley, w. Manitoba, summer resident). — 
Lloyd, Auk, iv, 1887, 191 (Kickappo Co., w. Texas).— Scott, Auk, vi, 1889, 
251 (7 miles n. <^ Tarpon Springs, Florida).— Hasbbouck, Auk, vi, 1889, 238 
(Eastland Co., etc., Texas, abundant).— HABorrr, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 
xviii, 1890, 145 (Ft. Dufferin, Manitoba; Pembina, North Dakota; Miami, 
Florida; Papalote, Bee Co., Texas; "Mexico;" etc.).— Thompson, Ppoc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., xiii, 1890, 551 (Winnipeg, etc., Manitoba, rare in summer). — 
Ralph and Baoo, Auk, vii, 1890, 231 (Bemsen, Oneida Co., New York, 
Dec.).— Gbunbtyig, Trans. Mich. Ac. Sd., etc., 1894, 114 (Shiocton, Wis- 
consin, breeding).— SmoLBT, Rep. Geol. Surv. Texas, 1894, 350 (Lee Co., 
Texas, resident).— Bbnbibb, life Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 107.— Thorkb, 
Auk, xii, 1895, 215 (Ft. Eeog^, Montana, breeding).— Piebs, Trans. Nova 
Scotia Inst. Sd., 2d ser., i, 1895, 405 (Ketch Harbor, Nova Scotia, 1 spec.). — 
Bbaokbtt, Auk, xiii, 1896, 258 (Boston, Massadiusetts, March, May). — 
Holstbin, Auk, xvi, 1899, 353 (drumming habit).— Faxon and Hoffmank, 
Birds Berkshire Co., Mass., 1900, 36 (rare summer resident). — Bbteb, Ptdc. 
Louisiana Soc. Nat. for 1897-99 (1900), 103 (Louisiana, resident).— Carroll, 
Auk, xvii, 1900, 344 (Refugio Co., Texas, 1 spec., Nov.).— Fleming, Auk, 
xviii, 1901, 39 (Parry Sound and Muskoka, n. Ontario, rare).— Caby, Auk, 
xviii, 1901, 234 (Black Hills, Wyoming).— Tobbby, Auk, xviii, 1901% 894 
(near Boston, Massachusetts, breeding).— Hows, Contr. Am. Om., ii, 1902, 
15 (Vermont; rare straggler, but said to breed at Rutland).— Cubbibr, Auk, 
xxi, 1904, 36 (Leech Lake, Minnesota, rare).— Swales, Auk, xxii, 1905, 80 
(Detroit, Michigan, wintering in large numbers).— Jones, Wilson Bull., no. 
57, 1906, 116 (Cleveland, Ohio, com. sum. res.).— Hall, Wilson Bull., no. 
57, 1906, 125 (w. Adirondacks, rare).— Shbbman, Wilson Bull., no. 59, 1907, 
72 (proiddent habits).- Tavebneb and Swalbs, Wilson Bull., no. 61, 1907, 
133 (Point Pelee. Ontario^ com. in May).— Woodbufs. Bull, vi, (Mcago 
Ac. Sd., 1907, 111 (Chicago area, common summer reddent). — ^Wabrbn 
(E. R.), Condor, x, 1908, 21 (Grand Co., n. w. Colorado, 1 spec., June); xii, 
1910, 32 (Glendale, Pueblo, and Fountain Creek, Colorado).- Bent, Auk, 
XXV, 1908, 26 (s. w. Saskatchewan, rare).— Hbbsby and Rockwell, Condor, 
xi, 1909, 118 (Bear Lake district, Colorado, common summer resident).— 
Hendbbson, Univ. Colo. Stud. Zool., vi, 1909, 231 (plains and lower mts., 
Colorado, common simmier resident).— Crane y, Auk, xxvii, 1910, 274 
(Mason Co., Michigan; a few pairs).- Beal, Bull. 37, U. S. Biol. Surv., 1911, 
35, pi. 3 (food).— TowNSBND (C. W.), Auk, xxix, 1912, 20 (Beaverdam, 
York Co., New Brunswick, June 1, 1911). 

[MeUmerpealerythrocephaluB Bonapabtb, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 115; Ateneo Italiano, 
ii, 1854, 125.— Gbay, Hand-Hst, ii, 1870, 201, no. 8814.— Coues, Key N. Am. 
Birds, 1872, 196.— Shabpe, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 209. 

Mlelanerpm] erythrocephalua Gbay, Cton. Birds, ii, 1846, 444.— Reicrbnbach, 
Handb. Scansores, Picinffi, 1854, 381, pi. 642, figs. 4284-4286.— RmowAY, 
Ann. Lye. N. Y., x, 1874, 378 (HlinoiB).— Nelson, Bull. Essex Inst., viii, 
1876, 116, 153 (n. e. Illinois, resident).— Coubs, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed. 
1884, 489.— RmowAY, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 290. 

Melampioos erythrocephalut Malhbbbb, M6m. Ac. Metz, xxx, 1849, 365. 

Melampicus erythroeephalua Malhbbbb, Mon. Pidd., ii, 1862, 209; iv, 1862, pi. 
97, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

Melanerpa arythrooephaltu Woodhouse, in Rep. Sitgreaves' Expl. ZuAi and Col. 
R., 1853, 91 (Indian Territory; Texas). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIRDS OF NOBTH AND MIDDLE AMEBIGA. 47 

^Maurpet giyUir oe BphdUms Nash, Vertebr. Ontario, 11H)8, Birds, p. 51 (iuinmer 

resident). 
[P»ac»] 6b9evru» Gmbun, Syst. Nat., i, pt. i, 1788, 429 (Long Island, New York; 

baaed on WkUe^nanped Wooipedter Latham, Synopsis, i, pt. 2, 663).— 

Latham, Index Cm., i, 1790, 228. 

MELANERPES PORTORICSNSIS (Dandin.) 

POSTO BXOAV WOODPXOXBB. 

Adidi male. — ^Forehead and lores dull white; rump and upper tail- 
ooyerts pure white; rest of upper parts uniform glossy blue-black, 
the tail and remiges less bluish; malar region, throat and median 
portion of lower surface back to anal r^on glossy crimson, more or 
less interrupted on foreneck, where the red of the throat is some- 
times quite separated from that of the chest by a band (more or 
less broad) of glossy blu&-black; sides, flanks, and under tail-coverts 
light grayish brown (nearly broccoU brown), the last usually paler 
(sometimes almost dull whitish); imder wing-coverts white, those 
along edge of wing (broadly) uniform glossy blue-black; inner webs 
of remiges uniform black; under surface of tail grayish black; bill 
blsck; legs and feet dusky (in dried skins); length (skins), 19ft-230 
(213); wmg, 119-128.5 (123.4); tail, 71-80.5 (76.4); culmen, 27-29 
(27.9); tarsus, 21-24 (22.4); outer anterior toe, 17.5-20 (18.8).« 

AduU female. — Similar to the adult male and not always distin- 
guishable, but usually with chin and throat light grayish brown or 
brownish gray (sometimes tinged or intermixed with red), red on 
under parts of body rather less extensive, white of lores nearly 
suntKDDiding eyes, and secondaries (at least the inner ones) edg^ 
distafly with white; length (skins), 185-213 (195); wing, 112-119 
(116.4); taU, 66-74 (71.3); cuhnen, 21-24 (22.6); tarsus, 19-20.6 
(19.8); outer anterior toe, 17-18.5 (17.4).*» 

Young male. — ^Essentially like adult male but red of under parts 
duller, less extensive, gray of sides and flanks darker, and textiure 
of plumage much softer. (Sometimes with feathers of crown tipped 
with dull red.) 

Young female. — Similar to the adult female, but under parts with 
the gray darker, the red duller and more restricted, and texture of 
plumage softer. 

Islands of Porto Rico (El Ytinque; Caguas; Utuado; Mayagu^z; 
Aguadilla; Catfinia; Lares; Huacares), Vieques, and St. Thomas.^ 

Pints jfortoricermB Daxtdw, Ann. Mus. d'HiBt. Nat., ii, 1803, 286, pi. 51.— Sun- 
DBVALL, Consp. Av. Pidba., 1866, 50; (Efv. K. Vet. Akad. F6rh., 1869, 599.— 
Bryant, Proc. iBost. Soc. N. H., x, 1866, 256; Joum. fttr Om., 1866, 190. 

Mdmerpes partarieenm VALBNcnsNNEfl, Diet. Sci. Nat., xl, 1826, 172.— Drapiez, 
Diet. Claas., xiii, 1828, 506.— Newton (A. and E.), Ibis, 1859, 377.— Cassw, 

^ Ten specimens from Porto Rico. 

^ I have not been able to compare specimens from St. Thomas with those from 
Porto Rico. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



48 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Proc. Ac. Nat. Sd. Phila., 1860, 377 (St. Thonuus).— Sclatbr, Gat. Am. 

Birds, 1862, 341 (Vieques I., near Torto Bico).— Tatlob, Ibifl, 1864, 170.— 

Gbat, List Birds Brit. Mus., Piddle, 1868, 115.— Ounblach, Joum. fCir Oni.» 

1874, 312; 1878, 160, 183 (habits; deecr. nest and eggs); Anal. Soc. Esp. 

Hist. Nat., vii, 1878, 227.— Goby, Auk, iii, 1886, 377; Birds West Ind., 

1889, 172; Cat. W. I. Birds, 1892, 12, 104, 132.— HABonr, Cat. Birds Brit. 

Mus., xviii, 1890, 159 (Porto Rico and Vieques I.).— Bowdish, Auk, tit, 

1902, 365 (habits); xx, 1903, 194 (food). 
[Melanerpes] portoriceruia Gbat, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 201» no. 8819.— Sclatbb 

and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 100. — Cobt, list. Birds West Ind., 

1885, 20.— Shabpe, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 210. 
Mekmpicu8 porUHricensis Malhbbbe, Mon. Pidd., ii, 1862, 205; iv, 1862, pi. 97, 

fig. 5. 
Picus rtihidicollis Vieillot, Ois. Am. Sept., ii, 1807, 63, pi. 117; Nouv. Diet. 

d'Hist. Nat., xxvi, 1818, 75.— Shaw, Gen. Zool., ix, 1815, 156. 
P[icu8] ntbidicollis Bonnatbbbb and Vibillot, Enc. M6th., iii, 1823, 1321. — 

Waolbb, Syst. Av., 1827, Picus, sp. 62. — ^Dbapibz, Diet. Class., xiii, 

1828, 499. 
Mlelanerpes] mbidicoUia Gbat, Gen. Birds, ii, 1846, 444.— Rbichbnbach, Handb. 

Scans. Picinse, 1854, 383, pi. 643, figs. 4289-90. 
[Melanerpes] mbidicollis Bonapabtb, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 115; Ateneo Italiano, 

ii, 1854, 125.— LiCHTENSTEiN, Nom. Av. Mus. Berol., 1854, 76. 
PieuB carolinuB (not of Linnseus) Lesson, Traits d'Om., i, 1831, 227. 

Genus CENTURUS Swainson. 

Cmiinxrut Swainson, Classif. Birds, ii, 1837, 310. (Type, by monotypy, PicuB 

eoarolinuB Linnaeus.) 
Zebrapicus Malhbbbb, M4m. Acad. Metz., zxx, 1849, 360. (Type, Pieug carolinu9 

Linnseus.) 

Rather large to small Picid» (wing 95-158 mm.) resembling 
Mdanerpea in form but with relatively longer tail (about two-thirds 
as long as wing instead of half to three-fifths as long), plumage of 
throat and chest always soft and blended and never red, and with 
back and wings (except primaries), sometimes rump, upper tail- 
coverts and tail also, conspicuously barred with white and black. 

Bill slightly shorter to decidedly longer than head, its length 
from nostril usually about as long as tarsus (decidedly greater only 
in C. superciliaris and related species and C. radiolatus), usually 
more slender than in Melanerpes; culmen very faintly to rather dis- 
tinctly convex, distinctly though not sharply ridged; gonys much 
longer than mandibular rami, nearly straight, ascending terminally, 
more or less prominent basally, not distinctly ridged (except, some- 
times, terminally); supranascJ ridge sometimes distinct for basal 
half (more or less) of maxilla, sometimes nearly obsolete. Nostril 
broadly oval, situated about midway between culmen and tomium, 
more or less covered by smaU, antrorse, prefrontal plmnes; feathers 
of malar apex antrorse, bristly-tipped, those of chin with semiantrorse 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF NOBTH Ain> MIDDLE AMERIOA. 49 

bristlj tips. Orbital region more or less naked (extensively and 
completely so in (7. chrysogenys, much less so in 0. carolirms, 0. 
aunfrons, C. aarUacrmi, 0. dubms, 0. pcHygrammuSy C. Tioffmanni, 
very little so in (7. uropygldlis and C. hypopdliua). Wing rather 
long, the longest primaries exceeding secondaries by about one- 
fourth the length of wing, except in C. radidatua, 0. striatua, and 0. 
Arysogenya, in which the difference equals about one-fifth the length 
of wing; sixth and seventh or sixth, seventh, and eighth primaries 
loDgest (fifth, sixth, and seventh longest in C. striataa), ninth usually 
shorter than fourth (nearly or quite equal to fifth in 0. hypopdiua, 
about equal to third in C. chrysogenys, G. radiolcUus, and C. 
tiriaius), the tenth more than one-third as long as ninth in 0. super- 
dliaris and allied forms, C. uropygialis, 0. chryaogenys, C. radidaMis, 
and C. atriati£8. Tail usually a little less than two-thirds as long as 
wing, quite two-thirds as long in C. aupercUiaria and allied forms, 
0. ehryaogenySj and (7. atridtaa, much less than two-thirds (scarcely 
half) as long in (7. iPogUri, the middle rectrices narrowly and rather 
abruptly acuminate terminally (except in 0. atricUua). Tarsus 
usually shorter than hind toe with claw (about as long in C. atriatua, 
C. chryaogenys, C. uropygialia, and C. Jiypopolvua); outer hind toe 
slightly but distinctly shorter than outer anterior toe, except in 
C, atriatua, C. urapygiaUa, and (7. Tvypopoliua. 

Cdloratian. — Upper parts conspicuously .barred with black and 
white or black and yellowish; imder parts plain grayish, brownish, 
or yeQowish, usually more or less barred posteriorly, the abdomen 
UBoaDy reddish or yellowish; adult males with more or less of red 
on pileum (whole pileum and hindneck sometimes red) ; no red on 
throat nor cheet. 

Range. — Continental Tropical America, south to the Guianas, 
Veoezuela, Tobago, Trinid&d, and Colombia, southern portion of 
Nearctic Rc^on, and Greater Antilles (Bahamas, Cuba, Grand 
Cayman, Haiti, and Jamaica). (About twenty-five species and 
subspecies.") 

*The ideal claaaificatioii would probably require a subdivision of this genus, in 
vbich (as here considered) there are considerable structiual differences in the several 
species. For example, in addition to variations of the wing-formula, relative length 
of wing and tail, relative length of toes, etc., there are other characters which, care- 
foOy Btodied, may result in a satisfactory definition of additional groups. The feet 
tie rdatively very large and strong in C. supercilicarU and C, radiolatusj as compared 
wtdi the rektively small and weak, or slender, ones of C itropygialia and C. hypo- 
poim: but the bict that imquestionably close relatives of the former, the several 
Bihunan fcvms, have the feet intermediate in this respect invalidates this character 
M a basis for subdivision. 

3622**— BuU. 50, pt 6—14 i 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



50 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

KBT TO THB 8PBCIB8 AND 8UBBPSCIBS OF CBNTURUS. 

a. Rump and upper tail-coverts without red. 
b. Rump and upper tail-coverts white, with or without black bars or other marfringH. 
c. Hindneck red, orange, or yellow. 
d. Abdomen red or. pink. 
€. Prefrontal region red or pink; laiger (wing 122-157.5 mm.). 
/. Middle rectrices with much white; inner webs of primaries with large 
spots or blotches of white on proximal half. 
g. Forehead light red (male) or gray (female); upper tail-coverts not dis- 
tinctly, if at all, barred; abdomen pale red. (Eastern United States.) 

Centoms caroliniu (p. 55). 
gg. Forehead white, or, sometimes, pale brownish gray (both sexes); 
upper tail-coverts conspicuously barred with black. 
A. A conspicuous superciliary spot of black (females with black on 
occiput also). 
i. Black superciliary spot laiger; under parts mwe yellowish; axe 
laiger (wing averaging more than 138, tail more than 94, culmen 
more than 38 in males, wing averaging more than 135, tail more 
than 92, culmen more than 34, in females). (Centunu 
superciUaria.) 
j. Larger (averaging: wing 147.3, tail 99.5, culmen 39.8, tarsus 
25.9, outer anterior toe 22.6, in male; 144.5, 98.7, 35.5, 25.1, 
21.7 in female); general color of under parts darker and more 
yellowish. (Cuba, except Isle of Pines.) 

Centoras superciliazis superciliazlB (p. 59). 

jj. Smaller (averaging: wing 138.4, tail 94.5, culmen 38.2, tarsus 

24.4, outer anterior toe 20.8, in male; 135.5, 92.5, 34.5, 24.5, 

19.8 in female); general color of under parte paler and less 

yellowish. (Isle of Pines, Cuba.) 

Centoms supeicUlailg muiceus (p. 61). 

u. Black superciliary spot smaller; under parts more grayish; 

smaller (wing averaging less than 134, tail less than 92, culmen 

less than 33, in males; wing averaging less than 130, tail less 

than 92, culmen less than 29, in females). (Centurus blakei.) 

j. White bars of dorsal r^on and general color of under parts less 

strongly tinged with yellowish; forehead more purely white 

in male, dull white in female. (Island of Abaco, Bahamas.) 

Centunu blakei blakei (p. 61). 

jj. White bars on dorsal region and general color of imder parts 

more strongly tinged with yellowish; forehead duller white 

in male, pale smoky brownish in female. (Great Bahama 

Island, Bahamas.) Centoms blakei bahamensis (p. 63). 

hh. No superciliary spot ef black; females with little if any black on 
occiput, 
i. Black bars on upper parts much broader, the white areas leas 
strongly tinged with yellowish, this mostly on back; a few 
small streaks of black on supra-postocular region; adult male 
averaging: wing 129.5, tail 88.9, culmen 32.9, taisus 23.1, outer 
anterior toe 20; adult female averaging: wing 129.3, tail 91.3, 
culmen 28.2, taisus 21.7, outer anterior toe 18.2. (Watling 
Island, Bahamas.) Centoms nyeanns (p. 63). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD6 OF KOBTH AND MIDDLE AMEBICA. 51 

n. Black b«n on upper partB much narrows, the lighter areas 
mostly buff-3rellowiah; no trace of black Btreaka on eupra- 
postocular region; adult male averaging: wing 127.8, tail 87, 
culmen 33.6, tarsus 23.5, outer anterior toe 20.2; adult female 
averaging: wing 123.8, tail 85.8/ culmen 30.4, tarsus 22.3, outer 
anterior toe 19.2. (Island of Grand Cayman, south of Cuba.) 

OentoroB oaymanentis (p. 65). 
ff. Middle rectrices with little (mostly concealed) white or none; inner web 
of primaries regulariy barred with white basally. (Centuna dubius.) 
g. White bars on back, etc., much narrower than black interq)aces; outer 
webs of primaries without distinct if any white markings on basal 
portion; smaller (adult female with wing averaging less than 
128 mm.). 
&. Coloration much lighter, the general color of under parts pale yel- 
lowish gray (dull whitish in faded specimens), the rump and 
upper tail-coverts immaculate white, the adult male with white 
frontal band broader. 
i. Averaging slightly larger (wing averaging 133.3 in adult male, 
127u{ in adult female); white bars on back, etc., narrower (or 
black bars relatively broader), general col<v of under parts paler 
and less yellowish, red of abdomen deeper and more extended, 
and middle rectrices alwa}^ (7) wholly black. (Yucatan, Cam- 
peche, and British Honduras.) 

Oentums dubius dubtus (p. 66). 
ti. Averaging sli^tly smaUer (wing averaging 126.9 in adult male, 
124.7 in adult female); white bars on back, etc., wider (or black 
bars relatively narrower); general color of under parts darker 
and more yellowish; red of abdomen paler and more restricted 
(frequently tinged with orange), and adult female sometimes 
with inner web of middle rectrices marked with white on basal 
pcHTtion. (Vera Cruz, eastern Oaxaca, Tabasco, Chiapas, and 

Guatemala.^) Centoros dubius yer»oniois (p. 68). 

hh. Coloration much darker, the general color of under parts yellowidi 
broccoli brown (in un^ed specimens), the rump and upper 
tail-coverts more or less (often heavily) barred with black, the 
adult male with white frontal band narrower (sometimes obso- 
lete). (Island of Cosumel, Yucatan.) 

Centums dubius leei (p. 69). 

gg. White bars on back, etc., nearly as wide as the black interspaces; 

outer webs of primaries (except three outermost) spotted or barred 

with white on basal portion; larger (adult female with wing 

averaging 130.3 mm.). (Island of Ruatan, Honduras.) 

Oentums dubius canesoens (p. 70). 
ee. Prefrontal region yellow; smaller (wing 95-119.5). 
/. Back, etc., more narrowly barred (white bars about 1-1.5 mm. wide); 
lateral rectrices without whitish bars; tail longer (57.5-69 mm.). 
{Centwrui rubriventris.) 
g. Larger and paler, and with less white on middle rectrices; adult 
male usually with red of crown more extensive and broadly con- 
fluent with that on nape; adult male averaging: wing 107, tail 63, 
culmen 21.6; adult female averaging: wing 105.5, tail 62.3, culmen 
19.1. (Yucatan.) Oentnrus rubciTentils rubiiyentils (p. 70). 

<> Typical specimens from Vera Cruz and Oaxaca only. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



52 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

gg. Smaller and darker, with more white on middle rectricee; adult 
male with red of crown usually more restricted and separated 
from that of nape by a more or lees complete band of olive-giay; 
adult male averaging: wing 98, tail 60.3, culmen 21; adult female 
averaging: wing 96.7, tail 58.8, culmen 19.5. (Island of Oozumel, 

Yucatan.) Oentoms mbxlTeiitili pygmaraa (p. 72). 

ff. Back, etc., more broadly barred (white bars about 2 mm. wide); lateral 
rectrices with broad whitish bars on distal p(»tion; tail shorter 
(44.5-56.5 nun.). (Centwrua stLbelegam.) 
g. Black bars on back, etc., averaging broader; adult male usually with 
red of crown separated from that of nape by a more or lees com- 
plete occipital band of huffy grayish or li^t yellowish olive. 
(British Guiana, Venezuela, Trinidad, and Tobago.) 

CentnniB subelegans subelegani (6xtralimital).o 

gg. Black bars on back, etc., averaging narrower; adult male with red 

of crown usually broadly confluent with that of nape (except in 

C. a. neglecttisf). 

A. Under parts paler; averaging smaller (adult female ^ averaging: 

Wing, 102; tail, 47; culmen, 19; tarsus, 16.8; outer anterior toe, 

14.5). (Bogota district, central Colombia.) 

Centuros subelegans negleotiui (eztra]imital).<: 

hh. Under parts darker; averaging larger (adult females averaging: 

wing more than 102, tail more than 48, culmen more than 20, 

tarsus more than 17.5, outer anterior toe more than 16). 

i. Black bars on back, etc., as well as those on middle rectrices 

narrower; prefrontal region distinctly yellow; general color of 

under parts more yellowish; red of abdomen more restricted; 

wing longer, bill shorter. 

a Centurua stihelegans Bonaparte, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1837, 109 (''Mexico/' 
i. e., Venezuela; see Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 119, and Richmond, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., xviii, 1896, 66^).—Melanerpes tubeUgam Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., xviii, Aug. 12, 1896, 666 (Margarita I., Venezuela; crit.). — Melanerpea tricolor 
(ex Picus tricolor Wagler, 1829, not of Gmelin, 1788) Hargitt, Oat. Birds Brit. Mus., 
xviii, 1890, 174, part. — Mekmerpa wagleri Salvin and Godman, Biol. Gentr.-Am., 
Aves, ii, 1895, 416, part (Venezuela). 

I am not able to satis^torily diRtinguish specimens from Trinidad and Tobago 
from Venezuelan examples. One of the latter (from M^rida) has the red of the head 
broadly continuous from crown to nape, and is very little different in this and other 
characters from Santa Marta specimens (Melanerpes wagleri aanctm-Tnartx Bangs). 

Specimens with barred rump and upper tail-coverts ('^Centuru$ terricolor Ber- 
lepech) have not been seen by me. 

^ I have seen only one adult male of this form, its measurements being as follows: 
Wing, 109; tail, 49.5; culmen, 22; tarsus, 17.5; outer anterior toe, 15.5, thus agree- 
ing, except in length of wing, in small size with females from Bogota. This single 
male, however, has an imperfect grayish occipital band, as in most specimens of C,$. 
suJbelegans from Venezuela, etc. 

c Melanerpea suJbelegaTis neglecttu Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xviii, no. 1093, 
Aug. 12, 1896, 668 (Bogota, Colombia; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.). 

Of this form, whose status is somewhat doubtful, I have seen only one adult male 
and three adult females. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF NOBTH AND MIDDLB AMEBIOA. 58 

j. Black ban or spots on inner web of middle rectrices smaller, 
usually not touching shaft (sometimes reduced to small 
irregular spots). (Santa Marta district, northeastern Colom- 
bia.) Oentunis tabelegans tanctA-martse (extralimital).<> 

jj. Black spots or bars on inner web of middle rectrices larger, 
nsually touching shaft. (Pftnama and Costa Rica.) 

Oenturos subelegana waglezi (p. 73), 

ft. Black bars on back, etc., also those on middle rectrices, broader; 

prefrontal region orange-pinkish; general color of under parts 

more vinaceous; red oi abdomen more extensive; wing 

shorter, bill laiger. (San ^iiguel Island, Bay of Panama.) 

Centoras aednotas (p. 75). 
dd. Abdomen yellow or orange-yellow. 
0. No black on side of head. 
/. Tail shorter (53-61.5 mm.); wing 112-125.5 mm. (Nicaragua and Costa 

Rica.) Centums hoifmannli (p. 76). 

y. Tail longer (63-85 mm.); wing 117.5-144 mm. 
g. Middle rectrices with much white on inner web, the outer web also 
with more or less white. (Centunu polygrammus.) 
h. Larger (averaging wing 138.9, tail 80.5, culmen 31 in male, wing 
133.1, tail 76.1, culmen 27.2, in female); white bars on back, 
etc., narrower (averaging about 1.5 mm. wide); rump and upper 
tail-coverts usually immaculate white; yellow of abdomen 
deeper and more extended; adult male widi red crown-spot fre- 
quently confluent with orange-red of nape. (Oaxaca and adja- 
cent portion of Chiapas.) 

Centoras poljgiammiu polypunmiu (p. 78). 
hk. Smaller (averaging wing 133.6, tail 74.4, culmen 29.2, in male, 
wing 130.6, tail 72.6, culmen 26.1, in female); white bars on 
back, etc., broader (averaging about 2 mm. wide); rump and 
upper tail-coverts always conspicuously barred with black, 
yellow of abdomen psAer and more restricted; adult male with 
red crown-spot always (?) separated from orange or orange-yellow 
nuchal area by an occipital band of gray. (Southeastern 

Chiapas.) Centuros polygrammui frontalis (p. 80). 

gg. Middle rectrices with little if any white (the outer web with none). 
h. Back broadly barred with white (the bars averaging about 2 mm. 
wide); primaries with much white on basal portion; under wing- 
coverts mostly white; under parts much paler (pale buffy gray- 
ish), the yellow of abdomen paler; middle rectriices always 
wholly black; nape yellow to orange, the adult male with red 
crown-patch usually separated from color of nape by a gray 
occipital band. (Texas and northern and middle Mexico, south 
to States of Tamaulipas, Hidalgo, Guanajuato, Michoac&n, and 
Jalisco.) Centuros auilfrons (p. 81). 

^ (t)CeiUuru$ rubrieapillu$ Cabanis, Joum. fOr Om., x, Sept., 1862, 328 (Barran- 
V'^ Colombia; coll. Heine Mus.). — Melanerpes wagleri sanctx-martss Bangs, Proc. 
BioL 8oc. Wash., zii, June 3, 1898, 134 (Santa Marta, Colombia; coll. E. A. and 

Co m p ari son of a fine series of this form with an equally good one of M, a. wagleri 
froa Pnami and Costa Rica, fails to verify other charactera given in the ori^^Lnal 
^noiption. (See measurements on p. 74.) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



54 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

hh. Back narrowly barred with white (the bars averaging lees, usually 
much less, than 2 mm. wide); primaries with little if any white 
on basal portion of outer web; under parts darker (deep olive- 
drab or yellowish drab) with yellow of abdomen deeper (saffron 
yellow or orange-yellow); middle rectrices sometimes with white 
on basal portion of inner web; nape orange-red, in adult male 
usually confluent with red crown-patch. {Centitrus Bantamm.) 
i. Laiger (averaging wing more than 131, tail more than 72, culmen 
more than 29 in male, wing more than 129, tail more than 72, 
culmen more than 26, in female). 
j. Under parts averaging darker, wliite bars on back, etc., narrowert 
and forehead less p\urely white. (Chiapas and Guatemala 
throu^ Salvador to northern Nicaragua.) 

Centnnu gantaonui gantaonizi (p. 84). 
jj. Under parts averaging paler, forehead more purely white, and 
white bars on back, etc., broader. (Southern Tamaulipas, 
Puebla, Vera Cruz, and northeastern Oaxaca.) 

Centuros gantaonizi gzateloupengU (p. 87). 
u. Smaller (averaging wing 123.7, tail 69.2, culmen 27.4 in male, 
wing 119.5, tail 66.9, culmen 25.8 in female); in coloration 
averaging darker than C, a. BontacruH. (Honduras.) 

CentnniB santaomzi pauper (p. 88). 
ee, A large superciliary patch of black; outer (as well as inner) web of middle 
rectrices broadly barred with white; lateral rectrices barred to base. 
(Centurua ehrysogenya,) 
/. Nape reddish orange or orange-red. (Sinaloa and Topic.) 

Centuros ehiysogeiijrB ohzytogenys (p. 89). 
ff. Nape orange-yellow (in adult male abruptly contrasted with red of 
occiput and crown). (Jalisco, Michoacan, Colima, and Guenrero.) 

Centuros dhxyaocenys fla?inochns (p. 91). 
ce. Hindneck grayish brown or drab. 
d. Orbital region partly black; lateral rectrices barred only on distal portion; 
rump and upper tail-coverts streaked with black; abdomen white. South- 
em Mexico, in States of Puebla, Oaxaca, Morelos, and Guerrero.) 

CentoroB hypopoUos (p. 92). 

dd. Orbital region without any black; lateral rectrices barred to base; rump 

and upper tail-coverts barred with black; abdomen yellow. (CerUuruM 

uropygialis.) 

e, Laiger, with relatively smaller bill; bars on back, etc., averaging broader 

(white ones about 2-2.5 mm. wide), and bars on rump, upper tail-coverts, 

and lateral rectrices averaging broader; adult male averaging: wing 

131.1, tail 81, culmen 30.3, tarsus 22.8, outer anterior toe 19.1; adult 

female, wing 128, tail 73, culmen 26.4, tarsus 26.4, outer anterior toe 18. 

(Southeastern California, northern Lower California, Arizona, and west. 

em Mexico south to Diuango and Jalisco.) 

CentoroB oropyfialli oiopygialis (p. 93). 
0e. Smaller, with relatively laiger bill; bars on back, etc., averaging narrower 
(white ones about 1.5-2 mm. wide), black bars on rump and upper tail- 
coverts averaging narrower and more numerous, and bars on tail nar- 
rower; adult male averaging: wing 127.8, tail 77.9, culmen 29.9, tannia 
22.6, outer anterior toe 17.7; adult female, wing 123, tail 73.2, culmen 
24.9, tarsus 21, outer anterior toe 16.6. (Cape San Lucas district of 

Lower California.) Centoros luopygialla brewiteii (p. 96). 

hh. Rump and upper tail-coverts black, narrowly barred with white. (Jamaica.) 

Centorog zadiolatas (p. 97). 
(M. Lower rump and upper tail-coverts red. (Haiti.) Centorog gtriatos (p. 98). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDB OF NORTH AND BHDDLE AMERICA. 55 

CBNTURUS CAROUNUS (Limums). 

BXD-BXLZJBD WOODPSOSSR. 

Adidt male. — Forehead and nasal tufts light red, the latter usually 
paler (sometimes dull whitish) anteriorly; crown, occiput, nape, and 
hindneck bright poppy red, lighter or more scarlet on hindneck; back 
and scapulars regularly and sharply barred with black and white, 
the white bars usually rather narrower than the black interspaces, the 
wing-coverts similarly barred but the white bars relatively narrower, 
the secondaries also with broad white bars changing to spots on the 
distal quills; primaries and primary coverts black, the former 
blotched with white subbasally, the longer quills (except outermost) 
narrowly edged with white distally (except in worn plumage), the 
others tipped or broadly margined at tip with white; upper rump 
barred with black and white, but bars lees sharply defined than on 
back; lower rump white, usually barred, spotted, or broadly streaked 
with black (rarely immaculate or nearly so); upper tail-coverts 
white, often immaculate, but (usually) with a narrow shaft-streak 
of black, at least basally; tail black, the inner web of middle pair of 
rectrices white with bars or transverse spots of black (exceedingly 
variable as to number, size, etc.); the outer web usually with a wedge- 
8luq)ed longitudinal streak of white on basal half, at least, the lateral 
rectrices tipped with white and with broad (usually interrupted) bars 
of white on distal portion; loral, superciliary, auricular, suborbital, 
and malar regions pale to very pale buffy grayish, usually more or less 
tinged with pale red (sometimes wholly pale red, like frontal region); 
chin and upper throat similar but paler dull grayish buffy white (some- 
times pale red or more or less tinged with the same), passing poste- 
riorly into pale yellowish smoke grayish on chest, breast, and sides 
(^ yellowish tinge, however, sometimes absent); abdomen pale red 
or radish pink, this color sometimes tinging, more or less strongly, 
die breast, etc.; flanks and under tail-coverts white, barred or 
streaked with black or with V-ehaped markings of the same, the white 
ground color usually tinged, more or less, with dull yellowish; bill 
Uackish or slate-blackish, the basal portion of gonys sometimes light 
grayish; iris varying from ferruginous to scarlet; legs and feet 
rfivaceous, or grayish olive-green; length (skins), 200-237 (221.9); 
wing, 123.5-139 (131); tail, 72.5-86 (77.7); cuhnen, 28-33 (29.8); 
tarsus, 20-23 (21.9); outer anterior toe, 16.5-20 (17.9).« 

AdiiU female, — Similar to the adult male, but whole crown and 
occiput gray (paler anteriorly, the occiput frequently intermixed, 
more or less, with black), and red of abdomen usually much paler as 
well as more restricted; length (skins), 196-238 (215); wmg, 122-133 

^ Forty-one specimeDs. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



56 



BIILLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSBtTM. 



(128.3); tail, 68-«3.6 (77,1); culmen, 26.5-30 (27.6); tarsus, 20-22 
(21); outer anterior toe, 16.5-18 (17.2).« 

Young male. — ^Essentially like the adult female, but coloration 
much duller, the barring of back, etc., less sharply defined, abdomen 
without red tinge (in first plumage), chest with indistinct shaft- 
streaks of dusky, and without any distinct red on head, the hindnock 
faintly tinged with pink, the crown (usually at least) tinged with 
deeper reddish on a dusky or dingy grayish ground color, the forehead 
lighter dingy grayish, the nasal tufts still paler grayish or brownish. 

Younff female. — Similar to the young male, but pileum darker gray- 
ish or dusky. 

« Forty specimeDB. 



LooaUty. 



Wing. 



TfOl, 



Ex. 

posed 

culmen. 



Tanas. 



Outer 

ante* 

riortoe. 



Ten adult males from Atlantic States (New York to Virginia). . 
Ten adult males from nUnois (8), Kentucky (1)> end Missouri (1) . 

One adult male from Oklahoma 

Eight adult males from Texas 

One adult male frt>m Louisiana 

One adult male from Mississippi 

Ten adult males from Florida 

PXMALIS. 

Ten adult females lh>m Atlantic States 

Ten adult females from niinois (6), Indiana (1), and Ken- 
tucky (8), 

One adult female frt>m Oklahoma 

Eight adult feoDiales from Texas 

O ne adult female from Louisiana 

Nine adult females from Fk>rida 

One adult female from South Carolina 



133 

183.3 

181 

130.4 

129 

128.5 

127.9 



128.6 

130.8 

130 

128.6 

128 

125.6 

126 



78.8 
79.4 
75w6 
76.9 
78 



76 

76 

79.1 

80 

76.1 

78.5 

76.9 

80 



30.3 

80.6 

96.6 

29.7 

80.5 

80 

29 



99.6 

28.6 

28 

27.9 

28 

26w8 

26 



21.9 

21.6 

28 

28 

22.5 

21.5 

23.1 



22 

21.3 

21 

21.1 

21 

20.6 

20 



18 

17.8 

18 

17.9 

18.5 

18.5 

17.8 



17 

17.5 
17.5 
17.8 
17.5 
16.8 
17 



The individual variation in this species is very considerable, especially in respect to 
the amount of red tinge to the under parts and sides of the head in adult males. As a 
general rule, specimens from the Mississippi Valley and Texas are much more strongly 
tinged with red than those from east of the Allegheny Mountains; but occasional 
specimens from the Atlantic coast district are similarly colored, while many of those 
from the interior are not at all different from eastern examples. Specimens from 
Florida, Georgia, and lower South Carolina, besides averaging smaller, are slightly 
darker in color, especially the under parts, which rarely if ever have the yellowish cast 
BO often observable in those from other sections. This greater darkness and dullness 
of the under parts is, however, to a certain extent due to the soiling of the plumage by 
contact with charred wood. The white bars on the back, too, as a rule, are relatively 
somewhat narrower than in specimens from northern and western localities, the oppo- 
site extreme being observable in some of the Texan examples. 

While the differences noted would, if reasonably constant, be quite sufficient for 
the definition of three geographic forms or subspecies, according to my present views 
they are not sufficiently correlated with geographic area to justify subdivision of the 
species. . 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF KOBTH AND MIDDLE AMEBIC A. 57 

Upper and Lower Austral zones of eastern United States; north, 
r^ularly, to Delaware, central and western New York, southwestern 
Ontario, southern Michigan, southern Wisconsin, and southeastern 
Minnesota, irregularly or casually to northern New York Qjewis 
County), Connecticut, and Massachusetts; west to southeastern 
South Dakota, eastern Nebraska, eastern Kansas, Oklahoma (Mount 
Scott), west central Texas, etc., casually to Colorado (Boulder County; 
Yuma; Greeley; Limon); south to southern Florida and along Gulf 
coast to central Texas (south to Bee and Concho counties) ; accidental 
in Arizona (Fort Grant). 

[Fieiu] earolinm LiNNiSUS, Syat. Nat., ed. 10, i, 1768, 113 (baaed on The Red- 
hdHed Woodpecker, Picus ventre rubro, Cateeby, Nat. Hiat. Car., i, 19, pi. 19, 
fig. 2); ed. 12, i, 1766, 174, part (ezcl. eyn. Ficue variue mediue Sloane, Picas 
tonus jamaicenne BriaBon, and Picus jamaicensis Edwarda).^— <jHblin, Syat. 
Nat., i, pt. i, 1788, 431.— Latham, Index Om., i, 1790, 231. 
Picus caroHnius Wilbon, Am. Om,, i, 1808, 113, pi. 7, ^, 2.— Vieillot, Nouv. 
Diet d'Hiat. Nat., xxiv, 1818, 93.— Bonapabtb, Ann. Lye. N. Y., ii, pt. i, 
1826, 45.— VALSNCiByNBS, Diet. Sci. Nat., xl, 1826, 181.— Dbambz, Diet. 
Claaa., xiii, 1828, 496.— Nuttall, Man. Om. XJ. S. and Can., Land Birds, 
1832, 672; 2d ed., 1840, 677.— Audubon, Om. Biog., v, 1839, 169, pi. 415, 
fig. 3; pi. 416, ^. 4; Synopaia, 1839, 183; Birda Am., oet. ed., iv, 1842, 270, 
pi. 270.— Ma Tnmj an, Joum. fOr Om., 1858, 418.— Sundbvall, Oonap. Av. 
Ficin., 1866, 53. 
Pfieus] earolinus Lichtbnstbin, Vera. Doubl., 1823, 10.— Bonapabtb, Joum. Ae. 

Nat. ScL Phila., iii, pt. ii, 1824, 370; Oba. Wila. Am. Om., 1826, [31]. 
CenturuM earolinus Bonapabtb, Comp. and Geog. liat, 1838, 40.— Sclatbb, Cat. 
Am. Biida, 1862, 342 (e. North Ameriea).— Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., 
ix, 1858, 109; Cat N. Am. Birda, 1859, no. 91.— Cabanis, Joum. ftir Om., 
1862, 824 (crit.).— Tatlob, Ibia, 1862, 128 (Florida).— Allbn, Proe. Eaaex 
Inat, iv, 1864, 53 (Maaaachuaetta, accidental); Bull. Mua. Comp. Zool., ii, 
1871, 306 (Florida); iii, 1872, 180 (Kanaaa); BuU. Nutt. Om. Gub, vi, 1881, 
183 (Maeaachuaetts).— Dbbssbb, Ibia, 1865, 469 (San Antonio, etc., Texaa, 
coomion reaident).— Lawbbncb, Ann. Lye. N. Y., viii, 1866, 291 (vicinity 
New York City).— Gbay, Liat Birda Brit. Mua., Picida, 1868, 99.— Tbippb, 
Proc. Boat. Soc. N. H., xv, 1872, 233 (Decatur and Mahaaka countiea, Iowa, 
breeding).— Allbn, Bull. Mua. Comp. Zool., iii, 1872, 129 (Leavenworth and 
Topeka, Kanaaa; crit.).— Snow, Birda Eanaaa, 1873, 3.— Coues, Check Liat, 
1873, no. 306; 2d ed., 1882, no. 450; Birda Northweat, 1874, 289.— Baibd, 
Bbbwbb, and Ridqwat, Hiat. N. Am. Birda, ii, 1874, 554, pi. 52, figa. 1, 4.— 
RiDOWAT, Bull. Eaaex Inat., v, 1873, 177, 185 (Colorado); Field and Foreat, 
i, 1877, 209 (Boulder Co., Colorado); Proc. U. S. Nat. Mua., iii, 1880, 189; 
iv, 1881, 99 (monogr.); Nom. N. Am. Birda, 1881, no. 372.— Bbewstbb, Ann. 
Lye. N. Y., xi, 1875, 144 (Ritchie Co., Weat Virginia; habita); Bull. Nutt. 
Cm. Club, iii, 1878, 181 (deacr. young female).— Mebbiam, Trana. Conn. 
Ac. Sd., iv, 1877, 65 (accidental in Connecticut); Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, iv, 
1879, 6 (Lewis Co., New Ywk, 1 apec., winter).— Meabns, Bull. Nutt, Om. 
Club, iii, 1878, 146 (Cornwall, 1 apec., Sept., 1870).— Rathbun (F. R.), Rev. 
Liat Birds Centr. New York, 1879, 25 (resident).— Plummbb, Bull. Nutt. Om. 
Club, vi, 1881, 120 (Newtcm, Maaaachuaetta, 1 apec., Nov. 25, 1880).— Bbown, 
(N. C), Bull. Nutt. Om. Gub, vii, 1882, 40 (Boeme, Kendall Co., a. w. 

<» »C. radiolatus (Wagler). 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



58 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Texas, rare).-— Nbhrung, Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, vii, 1882, 171 (s. e. Texas, 
breeding) .—Oqilbt, Sd. Proc. Roy, Dublin Soc., iii, 1882, 59 (Navarro Co., 
Texas, abundant resident; habits).— Agebsbobg, Auk, ii, 1885, 283 (s. e. 
South Dakota).— American ORKrrHOLoaiSTs' Union Commiiteb, Auk, xx, 
1903, 342; Check list, 3rd ed., 1910, 193.— Hess, Auk, xxvii, 1904, 24 (Cham- 
paign Co., centr. Illinois, breeding).— Stock aed, Auk, xxi, 1904, 466-467 
(breeding habits in Mississippi).- Wilson, Wilson Bull., no. 54, 1906, 4 
(Scott Co., Iowa, resident). — ^Henningbr, Wilson BuU., n. s., xiii, 1906, 53 
(Seneca Co., Ohio, May 10-Nov. 26).— Fowleb, Auk, xxiii, 1906, 399 (Boca 
Chica, Big Pine, Knight, and Grassy Keys, Florida). — ^Fleming, Auk, xxiv, 

1907, 76 (Toronto, Ontario, 4 records).— Woodbupp, Bull, vi, Chicago Ac. 
Sci., 1907, 112 (Chicago area, rare migrant).— Anderson, Proc. Davenport 
Ac. Sci., xi, 1907, 277 (s. and centr. Iowa, resident).- Nash, Vertebr. Ontario, 

1908, Birds, p. 51 (s. w. Ontario, rare summer resident). — Cooke, Auk, xxvi, 

1909, 413 (Yuma, Colorado, Oct.).— Sherman, Wilson Bull., xxi, 1909, 156 
(Steuben, Wisconsin, Ispec., April 16, 1909).— McKbchneb, Auk, xxvi, 1909, 
199 (Hull, Massachusetts, 1 spec., 1882).— Wood and Tinker, Auk, xxvii, 

1910, 132 (Michigan records).— Be al, Bull. 37, U. S. Bid. Surv., 1911, 47 
(food). 

[Centurus] carolinus Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1860, 119.— Gray, Hand-list, i, 
1869, 197, no. 8758.— Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 196. 

C[enturus] carolinus Nelson, Bull. Essex Inst., viii, 1876, 116, 153 (n. e. Illinois, 
rare summer resident). — Ridoway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iv, 1881, 97 
(diagnosis).— CouES, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 488. 

[Centurus carolinus] var. carolinvs Baird, Brewer, and Ridoway, Hist. N. Am. 
Birds, ii, 1874, 554. 

Zebrapicus carolinus Malhbrbe, M^m. Acad. Metz, xxx, 1849, 361; Mon. Picid., 
u, 1862, 234; iv, 1862, pi. 103, figs. 7, 8. 

Mlelanerpes] carolinus Ridoway, Ann. Lye. N. Y., x, Jan., 1874, 378 (Illinois); 
Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 293. 

Mekmerpes ccarolinus American ORNirHOLOoisrs' Union, Check list, 1886 (and 
2d ed., 1895), no. 409.— Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., i, 1886, 247 (Massa- 
chusetts, rare straggler; records).— Lloyd, Auk, iv, 1887, 191 (main Concho 
R., w. Texas, winter resident).— Becxsam, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., x, 1888, 664 
(San Antonio, Texas, common; Corpus Christi). — Keyes and Wiluams, Proc. 
Davenport Ac. Sd., v, 1888, (21) (Dee Moines, Iowa City, etc., common 
resident).— Hasbrouce, Auk, vi, 1889, 238 (Eastland Co., Texas; crit.).— 
Scott, Auk, vi, 1889, 251 (Tarpon Springs, Punta Rassa, and Key West, 
Florida). — Ridoway, Om. Illinois, i, 1889, 384.— Bergtold, list Birds 
Buffalo, New York, 1889, 12 (straggler).- Lewis, Auk, vii, 1890, 206 (New- 
ton, n. w. New Jersey, 1 spec., Nov. 16).— Mortimer, Auk, vii, 1890, 339 
(Orange Co., Florida; habits).— Haroitt, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 
170 ("Canada;" Locust Grove, New York; Evanston, n. e. Illinois; Cedar 
Keys, Bluffton, Hawk, Hawkinsville, Volusia, and Okahumkee, Florida; 
Texas; "Mexico;" etc.).— Sihth (R. W.), Joum. Gnc. Soc. N. H., 1891, 117 
(Warren Co., Ohio, resident).— Miller (G. S.), Auk, ix, 1892, 201 (Madison 
Co., New York, 1 spec., Dec.). — Cook, Bull. 54, Mich. Agric. Exp. Sta., 
1893, 90 (Albion, St. Joseph, Port Sainlac, Niles, etc., s. Michigan, breed- 
ing). — ^Dutchsr, Auk, X, 1893, 275 (Long Island records).— Jacobs, Summer 
Birds Green Co., Pennsylvania, 1893, 7 (common).— Grundtvig, Trans. 
Wise. Ac. Sd., etc., 1894, 114 (Shiocton, Wisconsin, Sept., Nov., Dec., 
Feb., April).— SmoLET, Rep. Geol. Surv. Tex., 1894, 350 (Lee Co., Texas, 
resident).— Bendirb, life Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 121.— Savage, Auk, 
xii, 1895, 313 (Erie Co., Pennsylvania, 1 spec., Oct.).— Ulret and Wallace, 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD6 OF NOBTH AKD MIDDLE AMEBICA. 59 

IVoc. Ind. Ac. Sd., 1895, 152 (Wabash, Indiana, abundant resident).— 
Lawrbncb (R. B.), Auk, xiii, 1896, 82 (Flushing, Babylon, and Raynor 
South, Long Island; 3 specs.).— Oberholsbb, Bull. Ohio Agric. Exp. Sta., 
tech. ser., i, 1896, 290 (Wayne Co., n. e. Ohio, common resident).— Hadley, 
Phxj. Ind. Ac. Sci., 1897, 187 (Richmond, Wayne Co., Indiana, resident).— 
Cooke, Bull. Col. Agric. Coll., no. 37, 1897, 84 (Greeley, etc., Colorado; very 
rare); no. 56, 1900, 208 (Limon, Colorado, 1 spec., May, 1899).— Jones, 
Wilson Bull., no. 16, 1897, 61 (Oberlin, Ohio; increasing); no. 22, 1898, 62 
(Lorain Co., Ohio; increasing).— Be yeb, Proc. Louis. Soc. Nat. for 1897-99 
(1900), 103 (Louisiana, resident).— Fishbb (W. H.), Auk, xx, 1903, 305 
(Harford Co., Maryland, breeding). 

[He&merpet] carolinus Shabpb, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 211. 

C[erUuru8] earoHnenm Swainbon, Classif. Birds, ii, 1837, 310. 

CeiUuna caroKnemU Abbott, Am. Nat., iv, 1870, 538 (New Jersey).— Beck- 
ham^ Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, vii, 1882, 164 (Bayou Sara, Louisiana). — Sbton, 
Auk, ii, 1885, 335 (Toronto, Ontario). 

Picas zebra Boddaebt, Tabl. PI. Enl., 1783, 43 (based on Fpeiche ou Pic rayi de 
la Louitiane Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 692). 

PieuM caroUnus var. x- Latham, Index Om., i, 1790, 231. 

Piaa griseu8 Yibillot, Ois. Am. Sept., ii, 1807, 62, pi. 116 (Pennsylvania, New 
Jersey, etc.). — Bonnatebbb and Yibillot, Enc. M^th., iii, 1823, 1308. 

P[ieuB] erythraudten Wagleb, Syst. Av., 1827, Picus, sp. 38 (new name for Pictu 
earolinus Linnseus); Isis, 1829, 513. 

Piaa guendtu (not of Wilson) Hatmond, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1856, 293 
(s. e. Indiana). 

CEIITURUS SirPBRCILIARIS SUPERCH^IARIS (Temminck). 
8XJPXB0IUA&Y W00DPE0BX&. 

AdvU male. — Crowii; occiput, nape, and hindneck bright crimson 
or caimine, rather lighter on the hindneck; back and scapulars 
boadiy barred with black and pale buffy yellowish, the bars of the 
latter rather narrower than the black interspaces; rump and upper 
tail-coyerts white, barred with black, the black markings more spot- 
like, more or less cordate, on rump, usually V- or U-shaped on longer 
upper tail-coverts; tail black, the middle pair of rectrices broadly 
barred with white (white bars sometimes broader than the white 
interspaces), the lateral rectrices more narrowly barred with white, 
at least on outer web and terminal portion of inner web; wings black, 
the coYerts and secondaries broadly barred with white (the white bars 
sometimes exceeding the black interspaces in width, either on coverts 
or secondaries), the basal portion of primaries spotted or otherwise 
marked with white; forehead and anterior portion of superciliary 
region dull grayish white or brownish white, the latero-frontal or 
post-^iasal region red; a large, elongated supra-auricular spot or patch 
of black, extending anteriorly around upper portion of eye to the 
anterior angle of the latter; loral and suborbital regions white, passing 
into duller white or very pale grayish buffy on aiiricular and malar 
regions, the chin and upper throat sitnilar but slightly darker; under 
parts mostly plain light buffy grayish brown to dull brownish buffy. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 
J 



60 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

more or less tinged or suffused with safifron yellowish posteriorly, the 
abdomen (more or less extensively) bright poppy red; flanks broadly 
but irregularly barred with dusky (the bars sometimes more or less 
V-shaped); under tail-coverts similarly, but more distinctly, barred, 
the ground color paler and more or less tinged with red; imder wing- 
coverts white, irregularly and rather sparsely barred with black, 
sometimes nearly immaculate; inner webs of remiges extensively 
white basally, more or less barred with dusky; bill dull black; legs 
and feet greenish dusky in dried skins (greenish gray or grayish green 
m life?); length (skins), 259-300 (278); wing, 142.6-167.6 (147.3); 
tail, 86.5-111 (99.6); cubnen, 37,5-42.5 (39.8); tarsus, 25-27 (25.9); 
outer anterior toe, 21.5-24 (22.6) .« 

AduU female. — Similar to the adult male, but crown pale brownish 
gray, passing gradually into the dull whitish of forehead, and the 
black supra-auricular areas connected by a broad band across occiput; 
length (skins), 245-285 (261); wing, 137-150 (144.6); tail, 85-105 
(98.7); culmen, 32.5-39.5 (35.5); tarsus, 23-27 (26.1); outer anterior 
toe, 20-23 (21.7).« 

Young male. — Similar to the adult male, but red of frontlet less 
extensive, paler; anterior portion of crown much duller red, the 
remainder of crown and occiput black washed with red; back, scapu- 
lars, chest, and breast tinged with red; posterior imder parts less 
distinctly barred. 

Young female. — Similar to the yoimg male, but anterior portion of 
crown pale buffy grayish, tinged with red. 

Island of Cuba (Rem6dios; Fermina; Quam&; El Guam6; Hol- 
quin; Guant&namo Bay; Trinid&d; Camagu6y; Yateras; Santiago 
deCuba; San Diego delosBafios; Santa F6; Tuab6que). 

Pieui 9upereUian$ TsMMmox, PL Col., 736 livr., 1827, pi. 433 and text (Cuba; 

coll. Mu8. Pay8-Ba0).~LB88ON, lian. d'Om., 1828, 112; Traits d'Om., i, 1831, 

227; Compl. Buffon, ix, 1837, 324.~CnyiBR, R^e Anim., 2 ed., 1829, 451.— 

Thbinbman, Joum. fOr Om., 1857, 153.— Sundbvall, Consp. Av. Pidn., 

1866,55. 
P[icu8] superciliarU Waglbb, Ids, 1829, 515. 
Colapte$ tupercUiarU Yioobs, Zool. Joum., iii, 1828, 445. — ^Waonbb, Wiegmann's 

Aichiv fOr Natuig., 1841, 100.— D'Obbioky, in La Sagra's Hist. Nat. Cuba, 

Aves, 1839, 111, pi. 23 (albino); French ed., p. 146.— Lbmbxtb, Avea de la 

IsU de Cuba, 1850, 131. 
Zebrapicus supercUiarii Malhbbbb, M6m. Acad. Mets, zzx, 1849, 361; Man. Pidd., 

ii, 1862, 223; iv, 1862, pi. 102, figs. 1, 2, 3. 
[Centumu] mpercUiar%$ Bonapabtb, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 118; Ateneo Italiano, M, 

1854, 126.— OuNDLACH, Joum. fOr Om., 1861, 334; Report. Fisico-Nat. 

Cuba, i, 1866, 294.— Sclatbb and Salvin, Norn. Av. Neotr., 1873, 101.— 

CoBY, List Birds West Ind., 1885, 20. 

<> Ten specimens. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BIBD6 OF NOBTH AND BHDDLE AMEBIOA. 61 

CeniuruM tupercUiaris Cabanis, Joum. f Or Om., 1856, 103 (habits; crit).— Oukd- 
LACH, Joum. for Om., 1874, 152 (habits); Om. Gubana, ed. 1805, 141.— 
Bbxwbb, Ptoc. BoBt Soc. N. H., vii, 1860, 307.— Sclatbb, Cat. Am. Birds, 
1862, 342.— RiDGWAT, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iv, 1881, 115 (monogr.).— Oobt, 
Ank, iii, 1886, 379; Birds West Ind., 1889, 174.— Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. 
N. H., iv, 1892, 301 (near Trinidad, s. Cuba). 

Clentynu] tupercUktrii Rbichsnbach, Handb. Scansores, Pidnae, 1854, 408, 
pL 662, 6giB, 4400-4401.— RiDOWAY, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iv, 1881, 98 
(diagnosis). 

(HerUunu] tupereUiaris mpereiliarii Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxiii, Dec. 29, 
1910. 173, in text. 

Mli^anerpes] tupereUiaria Ridoway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 292. 

Mekaurpe$ mpereUiaris Habqitt, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 167.— Coby, 
Cat West Ind. Birds, 1892, 12, 104, 128.— Mbnbgauz, Rev. Franp. d'Om., 
no. 2, 1909, 23 (Guantanamo, e. Cuba). 

[MdoMrpe*] tuperdUcaiB Shabpe, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 210. 

C{olapUi] tupercUionu Gbay, Gen. Birds, ii, 1846, 446. 

**Pieu$ iubocukaii Lb88[on], Deecr. d'Ois. r6c. d^couv., 1847, p. 205, no. 33, 
lemfile"(Ma]herbe). 

CBIITURUS SUPBRCEJARIS MURCBUS Banfs. 
uoM or Fons wooDPsossm. 

Similar to 0. 8. superciliaris but decidedly smaller, and imder parts 
of body paler and decidedly less yellowish. 

AduU nude.— Length (skins), 246-264 (255,6); wing, 135.5-143 
(138.4); tail, 92-97 (94.5); culmen, 36-40.5 (38.2); tarsus, 23-25.5 
(24.4); outer anterior toe, 20-21.5 (20.8). « 

AduU female.— Length (pkins), 242-259 (250); wing, 131.5-139.5 
(135.5); tail, 85.5-99 (92.3); culmen, 34-35 (34.5); tarsus, 24-25 
(24.5); outer anterior toe, 19-20.5 (19.8).* 

Isle of Pines, Cuba (Nueva Gerona; Santa F6; San Juan; Jticaro; 
Almacigos). 

Mektnerpes 9upercUiari$ (not Picas mpereiliaris Temminck) Bangs and Zappet, 

Am. Nat., xxxix, 1905, 206 (Isle of Pines; crit.). 
Centuna tuparcUxan$ murceus Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxiii, Dec. 29, 1910, 

173 (San Juan, Isle of Pines; coll. Mus. Comp. Zool.). 

CBNTURUS BIAKBI BLAKEI Ridgway. 

BLASX'S WOODPBOSSm. 

Similar to O. aupercUiaria but much smaller; black superciliary 
area much smaller; postnasal region (frontal antisB) much paler red; 
rectricee with much less white; red of abdomen lighter and more 
restricted, and color of breast, etc., more grayish Gess yellowish). 
Smilar also to O. Tiyearvaa but postnasal spots smaller and much 
less deeply red, forehead less purely white, white bars on upper parts 

o Six specimens. ^ Two specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



62 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

averaging narrower, and posterior under parts more heavily or dis- 
tinctly barred; the adult male with a conspicuous superciliary spot 
of black, the adult female with posterior half of crown mostly black 
(instead of wholly pale gray). 

Advit nude. — ^Postnasal region (frontal anti») pale dull red; fore- 
head (broadly), loral region, and adjacent parts of orbital region, 
dull white; a conspicuous superciliary area of black, originating 
above anterior extremity of the naked orbital area and extending 
backward as far as middle of auricular region (at least); crown, 
occiput, and hindneck bright poppy red, somewhat lighter or more 
scarlet posteriorly; back, scapulars, and wing-coverts sharply and 
regularly barred (broadly) with black and white, the white bare 
averaging rather narrower ' than the black ones, the secondaries 
similarly barred but the black interspaces much wider and (except 
on inner secondaries) the white bars also much wider; rump and 
upper tail-coverts white, rather distantly barred with black, the 
bars on longer upper tail-coverts less regular, sometimes more or less 
U- or V-shaped; primaries black, their outer webs blotched or spotted 
with white on sub-basal portion, the inner quiUs tipped or terminally 
margined with white; tail black, the inner web of middle rectrices 
with broad obUque bars or transverse quadrate spots of white, the 
outer web sometimes with spots, or a wedge-shaped streak, of white, 
the outermost pair with several broad white transverse spots, or 
interrupted bars, on distal portion; auricular region very pale buflfy 
smoke grayish, fading into dull buffy grayish white on malar region, 
chin, and upper throat, this gradually deepening into pale smoke 
gray on foreneck and chest, this gradually passing into a more yel- 
lo^i^dsh light smoke grayish on breast, upper abdomen, and sides; 
lower abdomen, superficially, bright red, but beneath surface pale 
dull yellowish and grayish, rather indistinctly barred with dusky; 
flanks and under tail-coverts dull white, tinged with pale ocher- 
yellow, broadly barred with black, the black bars more V-shaped on 
under tail-coverts; bill slate-blackish; legs and feet dusky grayish 
(in dried skins); length (skins), 224-256 (245); wing, 129-137 
(133.3); tail, 85.5-91 (88.9); cuhnen, 31.5-33 (32); tarsus, 22-24 
(22.8); outer anterior toe, 18-19.5 (19).*» 

AduU female. — Similar to the adult male, but crown dull bufiy 
grayish white (like forehead) anteriorly passing, through pale smoke 
grayish on middle portion, into black posteriorly, the black feathers 
tipped, more or less broadly, with pale smoke gray, this black area 
confluent laterally with the black superciliary spots; length (skins), 
220-250 (232); wing, 123.5-132 (129.6); tafl, 85.6-91 (88.1); cul- 

<^ Ten specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDB OF NOBTH AND MIDDLE AMEBIGA. 63 

men, 27-30.5 (28.4); tarsus, 21-22.6 (21.7); outer anterior toe, 
17.6-19 (18.4).« 
Island of Abaco, Bahamas. 

CenturuB blakei Ridowat, Auk, iii, July, 1886, 337 (Abaco Island, Bahamas; 

coU. U. S. Nat. Mufl.); viii, 1891, 334 (Abaco I.).— Cobt, Birds West Ind., 

1889, 296; Auk, v, 1888, 169; viii, 1890, 350.— Allbn (G. M.), Auk, xxu, 

1905, 126 (Great Abaco). 
Mlelanerpes] hlaiei RmowAT, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 292. 
Mehrurpes hlaiei Ck)RY, Cat. West Ind. Birds, 1892, 12, 104, 126, 127, 142. 
[ifelan^rpes] hlakei Sharps, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 210. 

Ceniurui supercHiarU hlahei Rilet, Auk, xxii, Oct., 1905, 855, in text (crit.). 
Melanerpea biaJtei Hargitt, Gat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 168. 
CentuTus nyeamu hUikei Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., vii, Oct., 1911, 422 (Abaco I.; 

measurements; crit.). — Worthinoton, Ann. Carnegie Mus., vii, 1911, 454 

(Abaco). 

CBirruRns blakei bahambnsis (Cotj). 

BAHAMA WGODPBCl 



Similar to C h. hlaJcei, but dorsal region and under parts more 
strongly tinged with yellowish, forehead slightly duller whitish, 
postnasal region deeper red, and with red of abdomen paler and rather 
more restricted. 

Adidt fudfe.— Length (skins), 223-228 (226.6); wing, 131-131.6 
(131.2); tail, 91-92.6 (91.8); cuhnen, 30-31 (30.6); tareus, 22.6-23 
(22.8); outer anterior toe, 18-18.6 (18.3).^ 

AduU female. — ^Length (skin), 206; wing, 128.6; tail, 86.6; culmen, 
28.5; tarsus, 22; outer anterior toe, 18.^ 

Great Bahama Island, Bahamas. 

CeiUuruM hakcementU Cort, Auk, ix, Oct., 1892, 270 (Great Bahama I., Bahamas; 

coU. C. B. Cory); Oat. West Ind. Birds, 1892, 12, 104, 126, 127, 143. 
[Mdanerpea] baJumenait Sharps, Hand-Ust, ii, 1900, 211. 
C[enturus] nyeanus hahamentis Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., vii, Oct., 1911, 423, 

in text. 

CBNTURUS mfEANUS Ridtfway. 
mrx's wooDPsoxBa. 

Similar to C. hlakei hahamensis but without a distinct (if any) 
black superciliary spot, postnasal region (frontal antiae) much more 
deeply red, forehead more purely white, white bars on back, etc., 
relatively wider, under parts of body more strongly tinged with 
yeflowish, posterior under parts less distinctly barred, and adult 
female without black on posterior crown or occiput. 

AdvU male. — Frontal anti» poppy red (paler anteriorly) ; forehead 
(broadly), together with loral and orbital regions and anterior portion 

<^ Nine specimens. ^ Two specimens. c One specimen. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



64 bulleths- 50, uioted states national museum. 

of malar region, dull white or buffy white, passing into very pale 
grayish buffy or dull buffy grayish white on auricular region and 
posterior portion of malar region; crown (except lateral-anterior por- 
tion), occiput, and hindneck bri^t poppy red, somewhat lighter or 
more scarlet posteriorly; back, scapulars, and wing-coverts broadly 
and regularly barred with black and white, or yellowish white, the 
black bars averaging rather narrower than the white interspaces; the 
secondaries similarly but (except on inner or proximal ones) much 
more broadly barred; primaries black, heavily blotched with white 
on sub-basal portion of outer web, the inner quills broadly maigined 
at tip with white; rump. and upper tail-coverts white, rather distantly 
barred with black; tail black, the inner web of middle pair of rectrices 
with several broad oblique bars, or transverse quadrate spots, of 
white, the outer web with a longitudinal, wedge-shaped streak of 
white on proximal portion (usually concealed, or mostly so, by upper 
coverts), the outer pair with several broad bars or transverse spots 
on distal portion; chin and upper throat (sometimes whole throat) 
very pale ocherous gray or dull huSy grayish white, gradually deep- 
ening into a more decided bu£^ grayii^ hue on foreneck, chest, 
breast, sides, and upp^ abdomen, the under parts of body tinged or 
stained with light ocher-yellow or dull gallstone yellow, especially on 
upper abdomen; lower abdomen bright red superficially; flanks and 
under tail-coverts dull white strongly tinged or washed with light 
gallstone yellow (the under tail-coverts frequently tinged slightly 
with red), broadly but not very sharply barred with blackish, the 
bars more or less inclining to Vnshaped form, especially on under 
tail-coverts; bill slate-blackish, usually somewhat paler along gonys, 
at least basally; iris red or reddish brown; legs and feet dusky gray- 
ish in dried skins, pale olive in life; length (skins), 232-248 (236); 
wing, 127.6-132.6 (129.6); tail, 84.6-92 (88.9); cuhnen, 32-33.5 (32.9); 
tarsus, 22.5-24 (23.1); outer anterior toe, 19.6-20.5 (20).« 

AdvU female. — Similar to the adult male but crown dull white 
(like forehead) anteriorly, shading gradually into light smoke gray 
posteriorly; length (skins), 223-236 (224); wing, 128-131.6 (129.3); 
tail, 89-93 (91.3); cuhnen, 28-28.6 (28.2); tarsus, 21-22 (21.7); 
outer anterior toe, 18-18.6 (18.2).* 

Watling Island, Bahamas. 

Centurtu nyeanuB Ridqway, Auk, iii, July, 1886, 336 (Watling I., Bahamas; coll. 

U. S. Nat. Mu8.).--CoBY, Birds West Ind., 1889, 295; Auk, v, 1888, 159; 

viii, 1891, 337.— Ntb, Auk, xvi, 1899, 273 (supposed to be extinct— error) .— 

RiLBT, Auk, XX, 1903, 434 (second specimen; crit.). 
Mdanerpes nyeanua Habqitt, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 169. — Oobt, 

Cat. West Ind. Birds, 1892, 12, 104, 126, 127, 142. 

<* Seven specimens. & Three specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD6 OF KOBTH AND MIDDLE AMEBIOA. 66 

MUianerpn] nyeomit Rxdowat, Man. N. Am. Birda, 1887, 292. 
[Melanerp€9] nyeamu Shabpb, Hand-liat, ii, 1900» 211. 
CaUuruM tupereUicarU nyeonut Rubt, Auk, xxii, Oct., 1905, 355 (crit.). 
Ctniwrus n^eanui nyeanua Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mua., vii, Oct., 1911, 421 (crit).— 
WoBTHiNOTON, Ann. Carnegie Mua., yii, 1911, 454 (babita. etc.). 

CBNTURUS CATMAUBNSIS Cory. 

OATMAV WOODPSCXSX. 

Somewhat like C. superciliaria but smaller; no trace of black 
superciliary spot; back, etc., more narrowly barred with black; post- 
nasal red spot nearly obsolete and under parts paler and less yel- 
lowish; adult female without a black occipital area. 

Adidt male. — ^Forehead and superciliary region dull brownish white, 
the former tinged with red on the latero-frontal antise; crown, occi- 
put, and hindneck bright poppy red, the first rather deeper, more 
camiine; back, scapulars, and rump barred with black on a pale buffy 
yellowiah ground, the black bars much narrower than the interspaces; 
upper tail-coverts dull white, more or less tinged with buffy yeUowish, 
nanowly and distantly barred, or otherwise marked, with black; tail 
black, die middle pair of rectrices with broad, oblique bars of white 
or yeUowish white on inner web, and quadrate spots or a narrowly 
wedge-shaped streak of the same on outer web, the lateral rec- 
triees broadly barred terminally and on outer web of the outermost 
with the same; wing-coverts barred with black and brownish white 
(X buffy white, the black bars much narrower than the whitish inter- 
faces; secondaries broadly barred with black and white or dull yel- 
lowish white, the bars of the two colors about equal in width, the 
black hem broadly confluent along the median (concealed) portion 
of eadi quill; primaries dull slate-blackish, their outer webs more or 
less spotted or otherwise varied with white basally and edged ter- 
Hunally with white, the inner primaries also tipped, more or less, 
with white; primary coverts and alulae black, the latter sometimes 
narrowly edged with white; sides of head and neck and most of lower 
parts plain pale buffy grayish (much more buffy or yellowish than 
drab-gray), becoming gradually but decidedly paler on upper throat, 
dUn, and malar and suborbital regions, the upper abdomen sometimes 
rather strongly tinged with yellowish; lower abdomen, superficially, 
Ixight, rather light, red; flanks and under tail-coverts dull whitish, 
strongly suffused with pale buff-yellowish, and barred (rather dis- 
tantly) with dusky, the bars on under tail-coverts more or less 
V-ahaped; under wing-coverts dull white with a few irregular and 
rather indistinct bars of dusky; inner webs of primaries with large 
Uotches or irregular areas of white on basal portion, the inner webs of 
seeondarieB very broadly barred with white; bill dull black, paler on 
3622<*— BuU. 50, pt 6—14 5 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



66 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

lower basal portion of mandible; legs and feet grayish dusky (bluish 
gray or greenish gray in life?); length (skins), 206-263 (232); wing, 
123-131.6 (127.8); tail, 80-94 (87); cuhnen, 31-37 (33.6); tarsus, 
22.6-24 (23.6); outer anterior toe, 19-21 (20.2).<» 

AduU female. — Similar to the adult male, but crown and occiput 
pale buffy gray (deeper posteriorly), the upper part of occiput, or 
hind part of crown, irregularly barred or spotted with black; length 
(skins), 212-245 (227); wing, 116-128 (123.8); tail, 80.6-91.6 (85.8); 
culmen, 29-33.6 (30.4); tarsus, 21-23.5 (22.3); outer anterior toe, 
19-20 (19.2).* 

Grand Cayman Island, south of C!!uba. 

Centwrus caymanemis Cory, Auk, iii, Oct., 1886, 499, 502 (Grand CJayman, W, I.; 

coU. C. B. Cory); v, 1888, 158; Birds West Ind., 1889, 295.— Ridowat, Proc. 

U. S. Nat. Mus., X, 1888, 574 (Grand Cayman).— Lowb, Ibis, 1909, 341 (Grand 

Cayman). 
Melanerpe8 eaymcmensia HABorrr, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 169.— Cobt, 

Cat. West Ind. Birds, 1892, 12, 104, 129, 142.— Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, 584 (Grand 

Cayman; crit.).— Lowb, Ibis, 1911, 150. 
[Melanerpei] caymanerms Shabpb, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 211. 

CBNTURUS DUBIUS DUBIUS (Cabot). 
UXXlL WOODPBCnB&. 

AdvU male. — ^Pileum and hindneck bright poppy red, interrupted 
by a frontal band of dull white, the latero-frontal (post-nasal) region 
slightly paler red, usually narrowly margined anteriorly and below 
by whitish; back, scapulars, and upper rump black, narrowly barred 
with white or dull yellowish white; lower rump and upper tail- 
coverts immaculate white; tail black, the laterd rectrices with a 
few narrow bars on terminal portion, their imder surface more grayish 
or hoary; wings black, the coverts and proximal secondaries (tertials) 
narrowly barred with white, the distal secondaries more broadly 
barred or transversely spotted with the same; primaries narrowly 
edged with whitish or grayish for terminal half (approximately), the 
shorter (innermost) ones margined terminally with white; sides of 
head (including a broad superciliary stripe), chin, and throat, dull 
grayish white or very pale buffy grayish, gradually deepening in 
color on foreneck, sides of neck, chest, breast, and sides into very 
pale yellowish gray; abdomen (superficially) bright poppy red; 
flanks and imder tail-coverts white, more or less suffused with red, 
rather broadly barred with black, the bars on imder tail-coverts 
more or less V- or U-shaped; imder wing-coverts white, barred with 
blacldsh; inner webs of primaries rather broadly barred with white 
for basal half (approximately), the inner webs of secondaries more 

<* Ten specimens. ^ Nine specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF KOBTH AND MIDDLE AMEBIGA. 



67 



narrowly barred, along edge, for entire length; bill dull black, more 
brownish on lower basal portion of mandible; legs and feet grayish 
dusky (bluish gray or greenish gray in life ?); length (skins), 228-241 
(233); wing, 130-137 (133.3); tail, 77-83.5 (79.6); cuhnen, 30.5-34 
(32.2); tarsus, 22-26 (23.5); outer anterior toe, 19-22 (20).* 

AduUfemdU. — Similar to the adult male, but crown dull white, 
like forehead, passing into light buffy gray on occiput; length (skins), 
206-238 (221); wmg, 123-132 (127.2); tail, 71-80 (76.7); cuhnen, 
25-32 (28.3); tarsus, 21-22.6 (21.8); outer anterior toe, 17.5-19.6 
(18.5).^ 

Young rrude. — Similar to the adult male, but prefrontal region 
much paler and duller red, red of crown lighter and duller and more 
or less intermixed with blackish, general color of imder parts grayer, 
red of abdomen paler, and white bars on back, etc., less sharply 
defined. 

Young female. — Similar to the yoimg male, but crown and occiput 
light hnSy brownish gray. 

Southeastern Mexico, in States of Campeche (Campeche; Canasa- 
yit), and Yucatan (Uxm&l; Izam&l; Temax; Tunkas; Tekanto; 
Tabi; Peto; Buctzotz; Shkolak; Labna; Chichen-Itza; La Vega; 
Puerto Morelos; Rio Lagartos), British Honduras (near Manatee 
Lagoon; Manatee River; Cayo; Rio Mopan; San FeUpe; Belize), and 
adjacent lowlands of Guatemala. 

Piati dubiua Cabot, Ftoc. Best. See. N. H., i, 1844, 164 (Uzm^, Yucatan; coll. 

Dr. 8. Cabot); Joum. Boat. Soc. N. H., v, 1846, 91. 
[Centunu aurifrons] y, dubiui Ridowat, Ptoc. U. S. Nat. Mub., iy, July 18, 1881, 

97 (diagnosiB). 
Ceniurus aurifrons dubius Bidowat, Proc. U. S. Nat. Hub., iv, July 18, 1881, 

108 (monogr.). 
CenturuM dubius Boucabd, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, 452 (Buctzotz, Temax, 

Izamal, and Peto, Yucatan; habits). — Stone, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sd. Phila., 

1890, 206 (Tunkas, Shkolak, Tekanto, and Labna, Yucatan). 
Mldanerpes] dubius Ridqwat, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 293. 



o Fourteen specimens. 



^ Fifteen specimens. 



Looftlity. 



I wing. 



Tail. 



Ex- 
posed 
oulmeo. 



Tarsus. 



Outer 
ante- 
rior toe. 



Vnr adult matea from Britldi Honduras. 
TaiataU mates from Yucatan 

VSMALES. 

T«a adult females from British Honduras 

Tib adult females from Yucatan. 

Tta» adult femaica from Campeche 



134.2 
132.9 



127 

127.1 

127.3 



80 
79.6 



77.8 
76.8 
75.3 



32.9 
31.9 



30.3 
28.6 
26.2 



23.9 
23.3 



21.5 
21.7 
22.2 



20.9 
19.7 



19.3 
18.4 
18.5 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



68 BULLBTIir 50, UIOTBD STATBS NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

MeUmerpa dubiiuM Haroitt, Oat. BirdB Brit. M110., xviii, 1B90, 173, part (Buctzots, 
Temax, Peto, and Tabi, Yucatan; Cayo, San Felipe, Rio Mopan, and Belize, 
Brit. Hondurafl).— Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Avee, ii, 18^, 
422, part.—CHAPMAN, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., viii, 1896, 285 (Chichen-Itza, 
Yucatan).— Cole, Bull. Mus. Comp. 25ool., 1, 1906, 130 (Chichen-Itza). 

[Melanerpes] dtMus Sharpe, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 211, part. 

Pieus carolinensia (not Pirns carolinui Linnaeus) Cabot, App. Stephens' Trav. 
Yucatan, ii, 1848, 475 (Uzmal, Yucatan). 

[CerUtarua] erytkrophthdlmiu Lichtenstein, Nom. Mus. BeroL, 1854, 76 (nomen 
nudum; coll. Berlin Mus.). 

Clentunu] erythrophthalmus Rbichenbach, Hand. Scansores, Picime, 1854, 409, 
pi. 664, figs. 4396, 4397. 

Zebrajdcua erytJirophthdlmua Malherbb, Mon. Pidd., ii, 1862; 243; iy, 1864, 
pi. 105, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

CerUwrus iontacnm (not of Bonaparte) Sclatbb and Salyin, Ibis, 1859, 136, part. 
(Yucatan). 

Cen^jorus dlbtfronB (not PicuB dlb^rons Swainson) Gray, List Birds Brit. Mus., 
PicidflB, 1868, 102.— Cabanis, Joum. fttr Om., 1862, 324 (crit.).— Nehb- 
XOBN, Joum. ftbr Om., 1861, 69 (Yucatan; deecr. eggs).— Lawbencb, Ann. 
Lye. N. Y., ix, 1869, 205 (M6rida, Yucatan; crit.).— Saltin, Gat. Strick- 
land Coll., 1882, 399 (Guatemala). 

[Centwrus] atb^rons Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 198, no. 8768.— Sglater and 
Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 100. 

Pieu8 albtfmna (not d Swainson) Suhdbyall, Consp. Ay. Picin., 1866, 52, part 
("Mexico"). 

CBlTTURnS DUBIUS VBRiBCRUCIS (Nelson). 

VXBA O&ITX WOOBPXOnBB. 

Similar to C. d. dubius, but slightly smaUer, white bars on back, 
etc., slightly broader (or black bars narrower), under parts slightly 
darker and more strongly tinged with yellowish (especially on sides 
and upper abdomen) and red of abdomen more restricted, paler, and 
frequently inclining to orange-red;* adult female frequently with 
white markings on inner web of middle rectrices.* 

Adult mofe.— Length (skins), 209-241 (224); wing, 122-133 
(126.9); tail, 64-82 (74.4); cuhnen, 24.5-33.5 (29.9); tarsus, 21-24 
(22.2); outer anterior toe, 18-20 (19.2).* 

o These characters show, clearly, '^intergradation" with C. tanJbarenjai gratek>upen8i$t 
as does also an occasional tendency in adult males to an interruption of the red pileum 
by an invasion of the supra-auricular gray on each side of the occiput, one specimeii 
(no. 106,235, coll. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., from Rio Givfcia, Oaxaca) having a com- 
plete, though narrow, occipital band of gray; but I am disposed to consider the inter- 
mediates, which constitute a small minority of the specimens examined, as hybrids, 
as otherwise it would be very difficult to account for the existence of two conspedfic 
forms, so different as are C. d versecrucis and C. «. graUhupensu in their typical 
state, in the same districts. 

6 Nineteen specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD8 OF KOBTH AND MIDDLE AMEBIGA. 



69 



AduU female.— Length (skins), 203-231 (213); wing, 118^134.6 
(124.7); tail, 66-83.5 (72); culmen, 25-28.5 (26.6); tarsus, 19.5-23.6 
(21.3); outer anterior toe, 17-19 (18.1).« 

Southeastern Mexico, in States of Vera Cruz (Coatzocoalcos; Pasa 
Nueva; TlalcotaIp6m; Playa Vicente; Sochiapa; San Juan; Orizaba), 
Oaxaca (Rio Givicia; Guichicovi; Ttixtepec), Tabasco (Frontera; 
Atasta; Montecristo; San Juan Bautista), and Chiapas (Tila), and 
adjacent parts of Guatemala. 

Pieus aOnfront (not of Swaiiuon) Sundbvall, Ck)iisp. Av. Picin., 1866, 52, part 

(Vent (km). 
Mdanerpea dubius versecnicU Nblson, Auk, xvii, no. 3, July, 1900, 259 (Coatzo- 

coalcoB, Vera Cruz; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.). 
Melanerpei mmtacruzi (not CejUvrat aantaarun Bonaparte) Salvin and Godman, 

Biol. Centr.-Am., Avee, ii, 1895, 420, part (Playa Vicente and Sochiapa, 

Vefa Cruz; crit. on p. 421). 
[Mdanerpet] dubiut Shabpb, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 211, part. 

CENTURUS DUBIUS LE£I (Rid^way). 

LBS*S WOODPIC] 



Similar to C d. diibius, but under parts much darker (yellowish 
broccoli brown in unfaded specimens), rump and upper tadl-coverts 
Qsoally more or less (often heavily) barred with black, the adult 
male with whitish frontal band much narrower, sometimes obsolete; 
bin and feet averaging larger. 

A Fourteen apecimens. 



LooaUty. 



MALES. 

Ttetadnlt males from Onatemala 

Ozadnlt males from Tabasoo 

Tteeadnlt males from Oaxaca 

SevB adoH mates from VeiB CroK 

rEMALIS. 

One adult fenals tnm Ooatemala (locality not given) 

OatidaltlHiiala from Chiapas (Tila) 

TkneadoltiBDialsB from Tabasco 

Tint adult iBDialsB from Oaacaoa 

Hxadolt females from Veca Cruz 



Wing. 



126 
135.6 
128 
128 



124 

134 

120 

136.3 

127 



TaU. 



Ex- 
posed 
oalimeii, 



76.6 
75.3 
72.8 
73.8 



76.6 
73.5 
87.7 
68.7 
76 



31.3 
29.0 
28.7 
20.9 



26.6 
28.5 
26.6 
26.2 
26.6 



TaiBOS, 



22.3 
22.2 
22.7 
22 



21 

30.5 

30.7 

31.8 

31.6 



Outer 

aDte- 

rtortoe. 



19 

18.9 
19.5 
10.4 



18.5 

18 

18.3 

18 

18 



As ini^t be expected, q>ecimens from Tabasco, (Chiapas, and Guatemala are not 
typical. Tliey are intermediate in coloration between the birds from Vera Cruz 
Mid Oaiaca and those from Yucatan and Campeche, some of them nearer the latter; 
te they sie even smaller than Vera Cruz and Oaxaca specimens, and therefore can 
notproperiy be referred to C. d. duMus. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



70 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

AduUmdU.—'Uj^h (skins), 228-257 (246); wing, 129-133 (130.8); 
tail, 78-84 (82.1); culmen, 33.5-35.6 (34.4); tarsus, 23.5-26 (24.1); 
outer anterior toe, 19-21 (20.2).<» 

AduU /emaZe.— Length (skins), 218-240 (231); wing, 124.6^131 
(127.7); tail, 76.5-84.5 (80.3); cfulmen, 30-32 (31.2); tarsus, 22.5- 
24.6 (23.2); outer anterior toe, 18.5-20.5 (19.6).* 

Cozum^l Island and Meco Island, Yucatan; Mugeres Island! 

Centurus Uei RmowAY, Proc. BioL Soc. Waah., iii, Feb. 26, 1885, 22 (p. 8 of 

reprint) (Cozumel Island, Yucatan; coll. U. S. Nat. Mub.). 
Centuma duhius Uei RmowAT, Proc. U. S. Nat. Miw., viii, no. 36, Oct. 17, 1885, 

561, 676 (deecr.; crit.). 
Mldanerpei] led Rn>owAT, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 293. 
Centurus dubius (not Picas duhiua Cabot) Salvin, Ibis, 1885, 186, 192 (Coeumel 

I.; crit.); 1889, 369, part (Ooznmel and Meco islands; crit.). 
Mdanerpei duMus Hargitt, Oat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 172, part (Goznmel 

I.).— Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 422, part. 
[Melanerpes] diibitu Sharpe, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 211, part (Gozumel I.). 

CENTURUS DUBroS CANBSCEN S (Salvin). 

BTTATlH WOODPBCl 



Similar to C. d. dubvaSf but upper parts more broadly barred with 
white (the white bars about as wide as the black interspaces), outer 
webs of primaries (except three outermost) spotted or barred with 
white, and size slightly larger. 

AdvU female.^— Length (skms), 234-239 (236.5); wing, 127-136 
(130.3); tail, 76-79.5 (77.8); cuhnen, 30-31 (30.5); tarsus, 21-23 
(22.2); outer anterior toe, 18.5-19 (18.8).*' 

Ruat&n Island, Honduras. 

CenturuM duMusf (not Pieu$ dubius Cabot) Ridowat, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., x, 
Aug. 6, 1888, 579 (Ruatan I., Honduras). 

Centurva canesoens SALvm, Ibis, July, 1889, 370 (Ruatan I., Honduras; coll. Sal- 
vin and (jodman. 

Melanerpes canucens Haboitt, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 174 (Ruatan).— 
Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1896, 423. 

[Melanerpes] canescens Shabpb, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 211. 

CENTURUS RUBRIVBNTRIS RUBRIVBNTRIS Swainaon. 

swAnrsovs woodpicsbb. 

AdvU male. — ^Postnasal region (frontlet), usually also loral region, 
anterior portion of malar region, chin, and extreme upper portion of 
throat, chrome yellow to deep cadmium yellow or orange; forehead 
and anterior portion of superciliary region duU white; crown, occiput, 

o Nineteen specimens. c I have not seen the adult male of this form. 

b Twenty specimens. ^ Three specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF KOBTH AKD MIDDLE AMEBIOA. 71 

and hindneck bright red (between poppy red and carmine); back, 
Bcapulars, and upper rump narrowly barred with black and white, 
the white bars decidedly narrower than the black interspaces; lower 
romp and upper tail-coverts immaculate white, the longer of the 
latter sometimes with shaft partly black; tail black, the middle pair 
of rectrices with basal portion variously marked with white (mostly, 
sometimes wholly, concealed), the outermost pair usually narrowly 
maipned terminally with white or with outer web narrowly barred 
or indented with the same and with the under surface more or less 
grayish or hoary; wings black, the coverts and secondaries narrowly 
baned with white, the basal portion of primaries spotted or blotched 
with white; sides of head (except anterior portion), including posterior 
portion of superciliary region, sides of neck, throat, and foreneck, 
plain pale bu^ grayish, passing into deeper buffy grajrish, or pale 
hoffy grayish olive, on chest, breast, and sides; abdomen (super- 
ficially) bright poppy red; flanks and under tail-coverts dull white, 
more or less tinged with yellowish (sometimes with red also), barred 
with slate-blackish or dusky, the bars more or less V-shaped, espe- 
ciaDy on under tail-coverts; under wing-coverts white, barred or 
traDsversely spotted with black; inner webs of remiges (except ter- 
minal half, approximately, of primaries) broadly barred with white; 
bill dull black, more brownish on lower basal portion of mandible; 
legs and feet grayish dusky (bluish gray or greenish gray in life ?) ; 
length (skins), 176-187 (181); wing, 103.6-110 (107); tail, 58.5-69 
(63); cuhnen, 20.6-23 (21.6); tarsus, 17.6-20 (18.5); outer anterior 
toe, 14.5-16 (16.2).<» 

AduU female. — Similar to the adult male, but crown dull smoky 
whitish, like forehead, passing into light buffy gray on occiput, the 
red of hindneck lighter and more orange-red or scarlet; length (skins), 
165-182 (173); wing, 103.6-108 (105.6); tail, 68-66 (62.3); cuhnen, 
1&-20.5 (19.1); tarsus, 17-19 (17.9); outer anterior toe, 14-16.6 
(14.8).« 

Yucatan (M^rida; Tem&x; Xbac; Peto; Chichen-Itza; La Vega; 
Poerto Morelos; San Felipe; Rio Lagarto). Bonaca Island, coast of 
Honduras? ^ 

Piau aurifroTU (not of Wagler) Bonapabte, Proc. Zool. Soc. Ixmd., 1837, 116. 

[Ceatunu] aurifrons Bonapabte, Consp. Av., i, 1860, 119; Ateneo Italiaiio, ii, 
1854,126. 

Ceniunu ruhriventrii SwAmsoN, Anim. in Menag., 1838, 354 (no locality men- 
tioned). — Gbay, List Birda Brit. Mns., Pidda, 1868, 100.— Lawbsnob, Ann. 
Lye. N. Y., ix, 1869, 206 (M^rida, Yucatan; crit.); Ann. N. Y. Ac. Sci., ii, 

' Ten ipedmens. 

^ I have not seen specimena from Bonaca Island. These should be different from 
the Yucatan bird. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



72 BULLETIK 50, UKITfiD STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

1882, 247 (M^rida, Yucatan; crit.; descr. adult female).— RmewAT, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mufl., iv, 1881, 102 (monogr.).— Bouoabd, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1883, 452 (M^da, Yucatan).— Salvin, Ibis, 1889, 369, part (Yucatan; Bonaca 
I., Honduras?; crit.); 1890, 88 (Bonaca I.). 

C[enturu$] ruhfiventru Gray, Gen. Birds, ii, 1846, 442. — Ridowat, Proc. U. 8. 
Nat. Mus., iv, 1881, 97 (diagnosis). 

Zetrapieui rubrivenirii Ualbmbbm, Mon. Picid., ii, 1862, 248; iv, 1862, pi. 107, 
fig.l. 

2ilelanerpet] ruhriventrU Ridowat, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 293. 

Melanerpet mbriventru Haboitt, Gat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 176, part 
(M^da and Peto, Yucatan). — Salyik and (Jodman, Biol. Gentr.-Am., Aves, 
ii, 1895, 417, part.— Gbafman, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., viii, 1896, 285 (Ghichoi- 
Itza, Yucatan). 

[MiUmerpet] ruhfiventru Sharps, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 211, part (Yucatan; Bo- 
naca I.?). 

MeUnwrpei nibriventrit Cols, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 1, 1906, 130 (Chichen-Itza). 

CerUttrus trteolor (not Pieui trkohr Wagler) Oabanis, Joum. fOr Chm., 1862, 327, 
part (in synonymy). 

Pieui trioolar (not il Wagler) Sundbyall, Consp. Av. Pidn., 1866, 54, part. 

CBNTURUS RUBRIVBNTRIS PYGMJBUS Ridtfway. 



Similar to C. r. rubriverUris but decidedly smaller; color of mider 
parts and sides of head darker; red of pileum usually more restricted, 
often interrupted by a light sooty grayish band across occiput; white 
on basal portion of middle rectrices more extensive; and white bars 
on back, etc., usually decidedly narrower. 

^dt^ moZ^.— Length (skins), 166-181 (172); wing, 96.5-101 (98); 
tail, 68-62.5 (60.3); cuhnen, 20-22 (21); tarsus, 17-20 (18.6); outer 
anterior toe, 14.5-16 (16.3).* 

^dttft/mofe.— Length (skins), 165-178 (171); wing, 96-99.5 (96.7); 
tail, 67.6-61 (68.8); cuhnen, 18-20.6 (19.6); tarsus, 17.6-19 (18.3); 
outer anterior toe, 14-15.6 (14.9).^ 

Cozum^l Island, Yucatan. 

Centurus ruMvmtrU (not of Swainson) Balyik, Ibis, 1885, 186, 192 (Cosumel I., 

Yucatan; crit.; habits); 1889, 368, part (Gosumel I.; crit.). 
Melanerpes rvbriverUrii HABorrr, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 176, part 

(Cozumel I.).— Salyd^ and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 417, 

part. 
[MeUmerpei] ruMventrii Shabpb, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 211, part (Coiumel I.). 
Centwrui rubriverUrit pygmteui Rtogwat, Ftoc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, sig. 36, 

Oct. 17, 1885, 576 (Gozumel Island, Yucatan; coU. U. S. Nat. Mus.). 
Mlelanerpes] pygmxui Rn>owAT, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 293. 

o Ten specimens. & Nine specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS 09 NOBTH AND MIDDLE AMBBIOA. 73 

CBRTURUS SUBELBGANS WAGIBRI (Sdvin and Oodauui). 



Similar to C. 8. subelegans^ but red of pileum more extensiye, 
neYer(f) interrupted on occiput, and white bars on back, etc., aver- 
aging slightly broader. 

AduU male. — Forehead and anterior portion of superciliary region 
dun brownish white, the latero-frontal anti» more or less strongly 
tiDged with yellow; crown and occiput bright poppy red, changing 
gradually to more orange-red on Undneck; back, scapulars, and 
upper rump rather broadly barred with black and white or yellowish 
white, the black bars slightly wider than the white ones; lower rump 
and upper tail-coverts white, usually immaculate, rarely with a few 
irregular narrow bars of blackish; tail black, the inner web of middle 
reclrices very broadly barred or transversely spotted with white, the 
outer web with transverse spots or a longitudinal streak of white; 
wing-coverts and secondaries black, broadly barred with white, the 
distal secondaries with the bars shortened into spots along the edge; 
primaries black (the outer and longer ones fading into dull slaty 
beyond their sinuated portion), spotted or otherwise marked basally 
with white, and narrowly tipped or terminally margined with the 
same; primary coverts and alulsB black, the outermost feathers of the 
latter edged or indented with white; sides of head (including broad 
superciliary stripe), sides and fore part of neck and lower throat 
l^t bu^ grayish, gradually fading into paler (but not approaching 
white) on suborbital and malar r^ons, chin, and upper throat, 
gradually deepening into light huffy oUve-grayish on chest, breast, 
sides, and upper abdomen; lower abdomen (superficially) bright 
poppy red; flanks and under tail-coverts dull yellowish white or very 
pale dingy yellowish broadly barred with black, the bars more or less 
V-shaped, at least on longer imder tail-coverts; imder wing-coverts 
white, irregularly barred with blackish; inner webs of remiges very 
Ivoadly barred or transversely spotted with white, the terminal half 
or more of primaries uniform dark slate color; bill dull black, paler on 
under side of mandible, at least basally; legs and feet grayish dusky 
(greenish gray or bluish gray in life!); length (skins), 153-185 (167); 
wing, 106.5-119.6 (111.6); tail, 47.5-68 (52.8); cuhnen, 21.5-25.6 
(23.7); tarsus, 18-20 (18.9); outer anterior toe, 16.5-18.6 (16.9).* 

AduJt fenude. — Similar to the adult male, but crown and occiput 
I^t buffy gray or hair brown, and red of hindneck paler and duller 
(usually more orange red); length (skins), 147-175 (151); wing, 

A See page 52. " ^ Twenty spedmeiis. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



74 



BULLBHK SO, Ul^ttfiD STAtfiS KAtlOlTAL MtTSSUM. 



102-112 (106.9); taU, 44.6-66 (49.8); culmen, 18.5-22.6 (21); tarsus, 
17-19.6 (18.2); outer anterior toe, 16.6-17 (16.4).« 

Young male. — Similar to the adult male, but prefrontal region 
dull light yellowish or dull yellowish white, red of crown duller 
or less uniform, red of nape paler (frequently more orange-red), 
bars on back, etc., less sharply defined, the white ones tinged, 
more or less, with buflFy, red of abdomen usually paler and more 
restricted, and chest sometimes narrowly and indistinctly streaked 
with dusky. 

Young female. — Similar to the young male, but fore part of crown 
dull buffy whitish, shading into l^ht buffy grayish on occiput, nape 
paler red, and red of abdomen still paler and more restricted. 

Panam& (Col6n, lion Hill, Frijole, Paraiso, Panam&, Sabana de 
Panam&, Punta de Sabana, Rio Grande, and Obispo, eastern Panam&; 
El Banco, David, Castillo, Boquete, Divala, Chitra, Calov6vora, Cor- 
dillera de Tol6, Santa Fe de Ver&gua, and Boquer6n, western PananUi) 
and southwestern Costa Rica (Palmfir; Legarto; Boruca; Paso 
Re&l; Pozo del Rio Grande; Pozo Azdl de Pirris; Rio Grande de 
T6rraba; Buenos Aires) ; Caribbean coast of Colombia (Cartagena) ? 



o Twenty specimens. 



LooaUty. 



Wing. 


TaU. 


Ex- 
posed 
oulmen. 


Tmnus. 

• 


112.8 


68.0 


34 


18.8 


m.2 


66.1 


34.4 


18.0 


100.8 


60.0 


38.3 


10 


104.3 


40.1 


36 


10.1 


108.8 


61.7 


34.6 


18.9 


100 


40.6 


33 


17.5 


108.5 


68 


34.8 


18.4 


108.8 


67.4 


35 


18.9 


111 


67 


25.6 


20 


107.8 


66.8 


36.8 


10.8 


108.9 


61.8 


33.4 


18.4 


107.0 


6a7 


31.1 


18.2 


106.4 


48.8 


30.8 


18.1 


108.1 


48.8 


38.4 


17.0 


108.4 


47.0 


31.4 


18 


103 


47 


10 


1&8 


104 


48.8 


21.4 


17.8 


106 


68.6 


23.6 


18.8 


104.8 


62.6 


21.8 


18 


104 


68 


28.6 


18 



Ootar 

ante- 
rior toe. 



Six adult males from eastern Panama. 

Four adult males from western Panama 

Ten adult males frt)m Costa Rloa 

Ten adult males (C. nduaut) ttom San Miguel Island , 

Ten adult males CCl t. tametm-martm) from Santa Marta, Colom- 
bia 

One adult male ( C. t. negltehu) ttom Bogota, Colombia 

Ten adult males ( C t. tuhdegant) from Venetuela 

Four adult males ( C. b. mibdegam) ttom. Margarita Island 

One adult male (C«.ttt6eie9an«) from Trinidad , 

Two adult males ( C, 9. wbelegaw) from Tobago 

rBMALBS. 

Five adult females ttom eastern Panama 

Five adult females ttom western Panama 

Ten adult females fh)m Costa Rica. 

Eight adult females ( C ttduehu) from San Miguel Island 

Ten adult females ( C t. ionam'mttrtm) from Santa Marta, Co- 
lombia 

Three adult females ( CL t. negleenu) from Bogota, Colombia ... 

Five adult females ( (7. t. iubeUffam) trom Venexuela 

Two adult females ( C. t. wbeUffttfu) ttom Margari'ta Island 

Two adult females {d. tubeUpant) ttom Tobago 

One adult female ( a t.«ii5e{<9aiu) from British Guiana 



17 
17.1 
Uw8 
17.6 

1&6 
15.6 
1&8 
17.8 
16.5 
16.8 



16.5 
16.6 
1&8 
16.5 

16 

14.5 

1&4 

16.8 

16 

16 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF NOBTH AKD MIDDLE AMEBIOA. 76 

P[ieu$] trusolor (not of Gmelin) Waolsb, Ibib, 1829, 512 ("Mexico/' i. e., Ovta- 
gena, Colombia; see Cabanis, Journ. fOr Om., 1862, 327). 

Centunu trieolar Cabanis, Journ. fOr Om., 1862, 327, part (Cartagena, Colombia; 
crit).— ScLATEB and Salvin, Proc. 2ool. Soc. Lond., 1864, 367 (Panama; 
crit).— Salyin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, 157 (Santa F6 de Veragua and 
Cordillera de Tol6, w. Panama); 1870, 213 (Calovevora, Castillo, and Chitra, 
w. Panama).— Chbrrie, Expl. Zool. Merid. CosU Rica, 1893, 47 (PalmAr, 
Legarto, and Boruca, s. w. Costa Rica). — Bangs, Auk, zziv, 1907, 287, in 
text (Rio Grande de T^rraba, s. w. Costa Rica). 

[GnUuna] tricolor Solatxb and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 100, part 
(Panama). 

Clenhcrus] trieolar Rn>GWAY, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iv, 1881, 97, part (Veragua, 
w. Panama). 

Melanerpe$ trieolor HABorrr, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1891, 174, part (Veragua, 
Panama, and Paraiso Station, Ptmama; "Central America"). 

[CeiUurus caroUmu] var. trieolor Baibd, Bbbwbb, and Ridowat, Hist. N. Am. 
Birds, ii, 1874, 554, part ("Central America"). 

Cenharus tybeUgans (not of Bonaparte) Sglatbb, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1856, 143 
(David, Chiriqui, w. P^mama). 

OntwruM rubriveniria (not of Swainscm) Lawbbhob, Ann. Lye. N. Y., vii, 1862, 
299 (Lion Hill, Pimama). 

{'?)Centurus rubncapillu$ ^ Cabanib, Journ. fOr Om., x. Sept, 1862, 828, in 
text (Baranquilla, Colombia; coll. Heine Mus.). 

Melanerpe$ wagleri Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, sig. 52, 
Jan., 1895, 416 (Lion Hill Station, Panama Railway; coll. Salvin and God- 
man).— Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Club, ii, 1900, 18 (Lion Hill; crit.); 
iii, 1902, 33 (Boquete, w. Panama, 4,000 ft.); Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xix, 
1907, 107 (Pozo Azul de Pirns, s. w. Costa Rica); Auk, xxiv, 1907, 292 
(Boruca, Paso Real, and Pozo del Rio Grande, Costa Rica). 

[Melanerpei] vxxglm Shabpb, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 211, part (Panama). 

MtUmerpeM toagUri wagleri Thatbb and Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., xlvi, 
1906, 216 (Sabana de Panama).— Cabbikbb, Ann. Carnegie Mus., vi, 1910, 
587 (Costa Rica). 

MeUmerpes ttibelegaru vxtgleri Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xviii, Aug. 12, 
1896, 668 (Chiriqui; Panama; coast of Colombia). 

Ceniurua wagleri Salvadori and Fbsta, Boll. Mus. Zool., etc., Torino, xiv, 
1899, no. 339, 8 (Punta de Sabana, Panama). 

CENTURUS SEDUCTUS (Bangs). 
8AV MlQTJtL WOODPSOSBB. 

Similar to C. suhdegans waglerif but smaller, except bill, which is 
relatively larger and stouter; white bars or spots on inner webs of 
remiges narrower; postnasal feathers tinted with pale red instead 
of yellowish, and general color of under parts more ochraceous or 
vinaceous, sometimes tinged with red. 

Adult male.— Length (skins), 161-179 (168);wmg, 103-106 (104.2); 
tail, 46-53 (49.1); cuhnen, 22-26.5 (25); tarsus, 18.5-19.5 (19.1); 
outer anterior toe, 17-18 (17.5).* 

a It is important that the types be caref uUy examined, for the name has priority over 
both Melanerpet wagleri and C. 8. 8anct»-martse, 
b Ten specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



76 BTTLLBTm GO, TTNTTED STATES NATIONAL MtTSEUM. 

AduU /emafe.— Length (skins), 146-171 (156); wing, 100-104.6 
(102.1); taU, 46-51.6 (48.3); culmen, 21.5-23 (22.4); tarsus, 17-18.6 
(17.9); outer anterior toe, 16-17 (16.6).« 

San Miguel Island, Bay of Panam&. 

Mdlanerpea Beductus Bangs, Auk, xviii, Jan., 1901, 26 (San ^figuel Island, Bay 

of P^umma; coll. E. A. and O. Bangs). 
Melanerpet ieductus Thatbr and Baitos, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., xlvi, 1905, 

150 (San Miguel Island; crit.). 

CBN TURUS HOFFMANNI Cabanis. 

HOFTMAra'S WOODPBOnB&. 

Most like C. pollygrammus frontalis but much smaller, with tail 
relatively shorter; under parts decidedly darker and more yellowish 
gray, yellow of abdomen much deeper and much more extended, 
sub-basal portion of outer web of primaries much less heavily marked 
with white, lower rump and upper tail-coverts usually immaculate 
white, less white on middle rectrices, and adult male with red crown- 
patch larger and frequently confluent with the yellow or orange 
of nape. 

AduU male. — ^Postnasal region pale cadmium or chrome yellow; 
forehead and anterior portion of superciliary region dull white, pass- 
ing into light yellowish mouse gray or light drab-gray on supra- 
auricular region; crown bright poppy red, usually margined pos- 
teriorly by a more or less broad and distinct occipital band of li^t 
yellowish gray (confluent with the similar color of the supra-auricular 
region) but sometimes in contact with, or merging into, the bright 
cadmium yellow or orange (more rarely chrome yellow) of nape; 
back, scapulars, and upper rump regularly and sharply barred with 
black and white, the white bars averaging about 1.6-2 mm. in 
width and slightly narrower than the black ones; lower rump and 
upper tail-coverts white, usually immacidate; wings black, the 
coverts and secondaries conspicuously barred with white (the black 
interspaces broader than on back, etc.), the primaries spotted with 
white on sub-basal portion and (except outer quills) margined ter- 
minally with white; tail black, the middle pair of rectrices with 
inner web broadly barred or indented with white, the outer web 
with a longitudinal, usually wedgenahaped, streak of white on basal 
half (more or less), the two lateral pairs narrowly tipped or termi- 
naUy margined with white, the outermost with distal portion of 
outer web barred or indented with white; auricular region, sides of 
neck, foreneck, chest, breast, and sides plain yellowish drab-graj 
fading into dull grayish, bufiy white, or yellowish white on throat, 
chin, and malar region, and passing into bright saffron, indiaa, or 
cadmium yellow on abdomen; flanks and imder tail-cov^rts dull 

a Eig^t specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD6 OF KOBTH AND MIDDLB AMEBIOA. 



77 



yeUowkh white broadly barred with black, the bare more or leee 
V-fihaped on under tfJl-ooverts; under wing-coverts white, rather 
narrowly barred with blackish; inner webs of remiges dull slate color 
or dus^, the greater part of secondaries and proximal portion of 
primaries with broad transverse spots of white; bill slate-black; 
feet dusky (olive-greenish in life); length (skins), 176-198 (186); 
wing, 116.5-125 (120); tail, 63-61.5 (57); cuhnen, 24-28 (26.3); 
taraus, 20-21 (20.5); outer anterior toe, 17-19.5 (18.3).* 

AdvU female. — Similar to the adult male, but pileum without any 
red, the anterior portion of crown dull white, like forehead, passing 
into light smoke gray or drab gray on occiput, and nape usually 
lighter yellow (chrome yeUow, more rarely cadmium yellow) ; length 
(skins), 170-190 (179); wing, 112-125.5 (117.8); tail, 50-60.5 (54.9); 
euhnen, 22-26 (23.7); tmmis, 19-21 (19.6); outer anterior toe, 
16.5-19 (17.6).* 

Ycung male. — Similar to the adult male, but nape paler and duller 
jellow, prefrontal region dull pale yellow or dull whitish, bars on 
back, etc., less sharply defined, general color of under parts duller, 
cheat (usually, at least) more or less streaked or flecked with dusky, 
and yellow of abdomen duller and more restricted. 

Costa Rica (San Jos^; Cartago; Or6cia; San Mateo; San Pedro; 
Santo Domingo de San Mateo; Pigres; La Palma de Nicoya; Punta 
Arenas; Ten6rio; Bolsdn; Cerro Santa Maria; Volcan de Miravalles; 
Bebedero; Alajuela; Escazti; OrosI; Carrillo; Gu&piles; Guayab&l; 
Guayabo; Bonilla; Juan Vifias) and Nicaragua (Grenada; Le6n; 
Tres Granadas; Ometepe; Sucuy&; San Juan del Sur; San Ger6nimo; 
Volcan de Chinandega; Virgen). 

CmJtums hoffmanam Caainis, Joum. ftkr Om., z, Sept., 1862, 322 (Ooata Bica; 
coll. Berlin Mus.?).— <7BAT, list Birdfl Brit. Mub., Piddfie, 1868, 100. 

CentwuB hoffmanm Lawebngs, Ann. Lye. N. Y., ix, 1868, 131 (San Joe^ and 
Giecia, Ck»ta Rica).— FftAi^Tzius, Joum. fOr Om., 1869, 364 (Ooeta Rica).— 
BoiTGARD, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, 49 (San Job6, Cartago, and Punta 
Arenas, Costa Rica).— ZslbimSn, Cat. Aves de Costa Rica, 1882, 23; Anal. 
Mas. Nac. Costa Rica, i, 1887, 124 (San Jos^; Cartago; Alajuela) .—Chxbbib, 



a Thirteen specimens. 



h Eighteen specimens. 



Locality. 



Wlog. 



TaU. 



Ex- 

po6ed 

euhnen. 



Tanas. 



Onter 
ante- 
rior toe. 



Tmadott mates from Oosto Rka. . . 
Ttesadntt maks from Mkangoa. . 

miAlBS. 

Tea adnll females from Coeta Bloa» 
BjhtaiHilt Irmalwfrom Nicaragua 



iao.2 

119.2 



110 
110.8 



M.2 
50.7 



65.4 
54.3 



2S.1 
20.7 



23.8 
28.0 



20.4 
20.5 



19.0 
19.0 



1S.S 
18.8 



17.8 
17.0 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



78 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Auk, ix, 1892, 327 (Costa Rica, both coasts and up to 6,500 ft.; deecr. nesi 
and eggs).— Fbbrt, Pub. 146, Field Mus. N. H., om. ser., i, no. 6, 1910, 
267 (Guayabo, Costa Rica). 

[CerUwrus aurifmna] var. hoffmanni Baibd, Brewer, and Ridgwat, Hist. N. 
Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 654. 

[Centwrua awrifront] d, hoffmanni Ridowat, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iv, July 18, 
1881, 97 (diagnosis). 

CentwruB awrifront hoffmanni Ridoway, Ptt)c. U. S. Nat. Mus., iv, July 18, 1881, 
110 (monogr.); v, 1882, 501 (San Jos^).— Nutting, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
V, 1882, 399 (La Palma de Nicoya, Costa Rica); vi, 1883, 375, 387, 394 (San 
Juan del Sur, Sucuyd, and Omotepe, Nicaragua). — Zeled6n, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., viii, 1885, 111 (Costa Rica). 

[CenbmiM] hoffmanni Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 197, no. 8760.— Sciater and 
Salvin, Norn. Av. Neotr., 1873, 100. 

Picua hoffmanni Sundevall, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 54. 

Mdanerpes hoffmanni HARorrr, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 181 (San 
Jos^; Punta Arenas). — Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 
1895, 419 (Leon, etc., Nicaragua; Costa Rican localities).— Underwood, 
Ibis, 1896, 443 (Volcan de Miravalles, Costa Rica).— Carrtttbr, Ann. Oar- 
negie Mus., vi, 1910, 587 (syn.; range in Costa Rica; habits). 

[Melanerpea] hoffmanni Sharpe, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 211. 

Melanerpes awrifrona hoffmanni Lantz, Trans. Kansas Ac. Sci. for 1896-97 (1899), 
220 (Grenada, Nicaragua). 

CBNTURUS POLTGRAMMUS POLTGRAMMUS Cabanis. 

OAXAOA WOODPSOKXm. 

Similar to C. awrUacrud gratdoupensis, but white bars on back, 
etc., averaging decidedly broader (or black bars narrower), inner 
web of middle rectrices with much more white, general color of under 
parts paler and grayer fless yellowish or fulvescent), the adult male 
usually with a broad gray occipital band, separating the red crown- 
patch from the yellow or orange-yellow nuchal area, as in (7. auri- 
frans; differing from C. cmrifrons in large amoimt of white (instead 
of none) on middle rectrices; back, etc., much more narrowly barred, 
color of chest, breast, etc., darker, and wing and tail averaging 
decidedly longer, the adult female usually with the nape more orange. 

AduU male. — ^Prefrontal region cadmium yellow (more or less deep) ; 
forehead and anterior portion of superciliary region dull white, passing 
into light buffy smoke gray or light yellowish drab-gray on supra- 
auricular r^on, the latter color usually passing across occiput as a 
more or less well-defined band; center of crown bright poppy red, 
forming a roundish or ovoid patch, sometimes, however, continued 
over occiput where merging into the chrome or cadmium yellow, 
orange, or orange-red of nape, but usually separated from the yellow, 
orange, or orange-red nuchal area by an occipital band (more or less 
distinct) of light gray; back, scaptdars, and upper rump narrowly, 
regularly, and very sharply barred with black and white, the white 
bars averaging about 1.5 mm. in width and very slightly narrower 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDB OF KOBTH AND BODDLB AMBBIOA« 



79 



than the black interspaces; lower rump and upper tail-coverts white, 
usually immaculate but sometimes with a greater or less number of 
naiTow sagittate markings of black, the longer upper tail-coverts 
more often with a narrow shaft-streak of black; wings black, the 
coverts narrowly barred with white, the secondaries more broadly- 
barred with the same; the primaries blotched on sub-basal portion 
with white, the inner quills margined terminally with the same; tail 
black, the inner web of middle pair of rectrices largely (usually 
mostly) white, with a greater or less number of broad bars or trans- 
verse spots of black, the outer web with a wedge-shaped streak of 
white on proximal portion, next to shaft; auricular region, sides of 
neck, chest, breast, and sides, plain light yellowish drab-grayish,' 
fading into paler (sometimes dull whitish) on upper throat, chin, 
and malar r^on and passing into saffron yellow on center of abdo- 
men; flanks and under tail-coverts white, stained or washed, more 
or less, with yellowish, and rather broadly barred with black, the bars 
more or lees V-shaped on imder tail-coverts; bill dull black or slate- 
black; iris reddish;^ legs and feet greenish gray ^ in life; length (skins), 
218-250 (233); wing, 132-144 (138.9); tail, 74-85 (80.5); cubnen, 28.5- 
33 (31); tarsus, 22.5-25 (23.8); outer anterior toe, 20.5-22.5 (21.2).« 

AduU female. — Similar to the adult male, but without any red on 
crown, which shades from dull buffy white (like forehead) anteriorly 
to smoke gray on occiput, the nape chrome yellow to cadmium orange, 
and yellow of abdomen paler and more restricted; length (skins), 
206-237 (223); wing, 129-138 (133.1); tail, 72.5-80 (76.5); cuhnen, 
25-31 (27.2); tarsus, 21-23.5 (22.3); outer anterior toe, 18-20.5 
(19.4).* 

Southern Mexico, in State of Oaxaca (San Bartolom6; Tehu&nte- 
pec; San Ger6nimo; Santa Efig6nia; Chicapa; Chimalapa; Chihuit&n; 
Hiiil6tepec; Juchit&n; Santo Domingo; Sierra de Santo Domingo) 
and western Chiapas (TonalA). 

• The ccdor ia paler (li^t buffy grayiah) in Bummer or worn plumage, darker (deep 
yeUowiah drab-^y to yellowish broccoli brown) in freeh plumage. 
I SomichiaBt, manuacript. 
« Twelve Bpedmena. 
i Ten apecimenB. 



Locality. 



Tto adult maki from Oaxaca 

Tvi adnll males, wegtem Chiapas (TonalA). 

FEMALES. 

Kine adult fenalM from Oazaca 

One adidi fcooile from western Chiapas 



Wing. 



139.4 
136.7 



132.0 
136 



TaiL 



Ex- 
posed 
culmen, 



8L8 
80.6 



76.6 
78 



3L1 
80.5 



27.8 
26.6 



Tarsus. 



24 
22.7 



22.6 
21 



Outer 
ante- 
rior toe. 



21.2 
21 



19.6 
18 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



80 BULLETIN do, UIOTBD STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

CerUwrui polygrammnu Cabanis, Joum. ftir Om., Sept., 1862, 326 (Saa BartokoKH 

Tehuantepec, Oaxaca; colL Berlin Mus.); 1872, 157 (deecr. adult male).— 

Gbat, List Birds Brit. Mus., Picids, 1868, 103. 
[Ceniurus] polygrammtu Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 198, no. 8773. 
M[elanerpe$] polygrammuB Nelson, Auk, xvii, July, 1900, 259, in text. 
(?)Centuru8 My^ons (not Pteu$ cdb^rons Swainson) Cabanib, Joum. ftlr Om., 

1862, 324 (crit.).~ScLATEB and Salyin, Ptoc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1860, S64 

(near City of Mexico). 
[Centurus] alb\fron» Sclatbr and Salyin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 100, part. 
Centurvs aur^frouM (not Pieiu (mrifroM Wagler) Lawrbncb, Bull. U. S. Nat 

Mus., no. 4, 1876, 35 (Chihuitan, Juchitan, and Santa Efigenia, Oaxaca). 
{CenlturuB imnfnnB\ p, tantaeruxi Bidowat, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iv, 1881, 

97, part. 
Centurus aurifron$ Mnta-cruzi Rn>owAT, Proc. U. S. Nat Mus., iv, 1881, 106, 

part (Chihuitan and Santa Efigenia, Oaxaca). 
M[elanerpe8] santacnm Ridowat, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 294, part. 
[Melanerpes awryroru] Subsp. a. lielanerpei soTUacnm Habgiit, Cat. Birds Brit 

Mus., xviii, 1890, 179, part (TonalA, Chiapas). 
Mdanerpes wnlacnm Salyin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., AYes, ii, 1895, 420, 

part (Juchitan, Santa Efigenia, Chihuitan, Chimalapa, and Sieixa de Saato 

Domingo, Oaxaca). 
[MeUxMrpeBl $antacnm Shabpe, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 211, part. 

CBNTURUS POLTORAMMUS FRONTALIS (Nelson). 

OHIAPAB WOODPBOSXm. 

Similar to C. p. polygrammus, but smaller; bars on back, etc., 
broader (the white bars averaging about 2 mm. wide), rump and 
upper tail-coverts always conspicuously marked with black V-diaped 
or limulate bars, and yellow of abdomen much paler and much more 
restricted; adult male with red cro^wn-patch averaging decidedly 
smaller and always (?) separated from the orange-yeUow to orange 
nuchal area by a distinct and continuous occipital band of light gray, 
the adult female with nape averaging lighter yellow (cadmium yellow 
or slightly paler). Similar also to C. 1u>jffmcmm, but much laiger, 
with tail relatively longer, under parts paler and much grayer Qbbs 
yellowish), yellow of abdomen very much paler (naples yellow or 
maize yellow instead of saffron, Indian, or cadimium yellow) and much 
more restricted, sub-basal portion of outer webs of primaries much 
more heavily blotched with white, lower rump and upper tail-coverts 
always more or less barred or otherwise marked with black, and with 
much more white on middle rectrices. 

AduU male.— Length (skins), 203-226 (218); wing, 131-136 (133.6); 
tail, 71-^0 (74.4); cuhnen, 28-31 (29.2); tarsus, 21.6-23.6 (22.4); 
outer anterior toe, 18-22 (19.7) .« 

AdvU fe7n4de.— Length (skins), 200-224 (213); wing, 124.6-136 
(130.6); tail, 66.5-81 (72.6); cuhnen, 23.5-29.6 (26.1); tarsus, l»-22 
(21.3); outer anterior toe, 18-20 (18.7).« 

o Ten specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIXDS OF KOBTH AKB MIDDLB AMEBIOA* 81 

State* of Chiapas (San Vicente; Chiapa; San Bartolom6; JuncanA; 
Tuxtla Gutierrez; Petapa; Comit&n; Canj6b), southern Mexico. 

Jfelonerpef yWmtoKv NsiisON, Auk, xvii, July, 1900, 257 (San Vicente, Chiapas; 
coll. U. 8. Nat. Hub.). 

GBHTURUS AURIFROH8 (Wafkr). 

eOLDXV-nOVTXD WOODPXOKXm. 

AduU male. — ^Postnasal region and anterior portion of forehead 
cadinium yellow, the former paler anteriorly; posterior portion of 
forehead and anterior portion of superciliary region dull buSy grayish 
white, passing into gray (neatly mouse gray) on supraauricular region 
and occiput, this enclosing a crown-patch of bright poppy red; hind- 
neck biijght cadmium orange (sometimes tinged with orange-red) 
anteriorly, passing into yellow or yellowish orange posterioriy ; back, 
scf^ulars, and upper rump regularly and sharply barred with black 
and white (the black bars averaging about 2.5-3 mm. in width, the 
white bars slightly narrower), the wing-coverts and secondaries simi- 
kriy barred, but the white bars relatively narrower; primary coverts 
and piimariee black, the latter with a white sub-basal patch and, 
except outermost quills, tipped with white; lower rump and upper 
tail-coverts immaculate white; tail black, the lateral rectrices tipped 
with white, the outermost pair with several white spots or indentar- 
tioDs along edge of distal portion of outer web, sometimes with one or 
more similar spots or bars on subterminal portion of inner web; 
auricular region, sides of neck, chest, breast, and sides plain pale buffy 
grayish or very pale buffy drab-gray, fading into paler (sometime 
dull whitish) on chin, anterior portion of malar region, and on loral 
npxm, and passing into light yellow (pale cadmium or maize yellow) 
(A abdomen; flanks and imder tail-coverts white, spotted or barred 
with black, the markings usually of more or less V-shaped form; bill 
dull black or slate-black, usually paler on basal portion of gonys; 
legB and feet dusky grayish or oUve (olive-greenish in life?) ; length 
Wans), 210-255 (234); wing, 129-143.5 (136.2); tail, 73-85 (79.8); 
cuhnen, 30-35 (33); tarsus, 22-25 (23.5); outer anterior toe, 17-20.5 
(19.1).« 

AdvU female. — Similar to the adult male, but without any red on 
bead, the occiput and whole crown gray, the color fading from rather 
deep gray (neariy mouse gray or between mouse gray and gray no. 6) 
on oedput to pale buffy grayish or dull whitish on forehead, the yel- 
bw of hindneck rather paler than in male and, usually at least, with- 
out orange tinge, and yellow of abdomen paler, as well as more 
WBtricted; length (skins), 215-241 (225); wing, 127-134.5 (131.9); 

o Forty specimens. 
3«22*— BuU. 60, pt 6—14 6 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



82 



BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



tail, 70.6-82 (76.9); culmen, 27-32.5 (30.4); tarsus, 21-25 (22.8); 
outer anterior toe, 18-20 (18.9) .« 

Young male. — Similar to the adult male, but much duller in colora- 
tion, the red crown-patch smaller and much less uniform in color, 
forehead and sides of pileum more or less barred with blackish, hind- 
neck paler and duller yellow, post-nasal region dull grayish buffy 
indistinctly barred with dusky (rarely somewhat yellowish), barring 
of back, etc., less sharply defined, and chest usually more or less 
streaked with dusky. 

Young female. — Similar to the young male, but without any red on 
crown and with yellow of hindneck still paler and duller. 

Northern and central Mexico, in States of Tamaulipas (Mata- 
moras; Mi6r; Linares; Forl6n; Victoria; Xicotenc&tl; Alta Mira; 
San Fernando; Rio de la Cruz; Tampico, May; Santa Fe de 
Fres&l; Camai^o; Nuevo Laredo; Soto la Marina; Sierra Madre), 
Nuevo Le6n (Monterey; Rodriguez; Rio de Ramos; Monte- 
morelos; Boque Negro; Ceralva; Hacienda de las Escobas; San 
Augustin), Coahuila (Rio Sabinas; Monclovia), eastern Chihu&hua 
(Julines), Aguas Calientes (Chicalote; Calvillo), Guanajuato (Silao; 
Tup&taro), San Luis Potosi (Jesus Maria; Hacienda Angostura; 
Soled&d; Ahualulco; Vallfe), Hidalgo (Ismiquilip&m; Tula), Mexico 
(near (Sty of Mexico), Durango (Rio Sestin, 7,500 feet; Rancho 
Baill6n, 7,800 feet; Las Bocas, 6,800 feet; Ros6rio, 7,500 feet; La 
Boquilla, 7,000 feet; Santufirio, 7,000 feet; (Senega de las Vacas), 
Jalisco (Guadalajara; Ocotl&n; Lagos), andMichoac&n (CJuerendero ; 

« Thirty-two specimens. 



LocaUty. 



MALES. 

Ten adolt males firom Texas 

Ten adult males from TamaoUpas (8), Coahuila (1), and Hi- 
dalgo (1) 

Eight adult males from Duiango 

Two adult males fcxrai Jalisco 

Four adult males lh>m Michoaoan 

One adult male from Aguas Calientes 

Two adult males from G uans^uato 

Three adult males from San Luis Potosi 

FEMALES. 

Ten adult females from Texas 

Nine adult females from Tamaulipas (6), Nuero Leon (2), and 

Hidalgo (2) 

Nine adult females from Durango 

One adult female from Jalisco 

One adult female fh>m Aguas CaUentes 

Two adult females Ihim San Luis PotosL 



Wing. 



134 

134.3 

139.4 

140 

134.5 

137 

141.7 

136.7 



130.7 

181 

134.6 

183 

131 

139.7 



TaiL 



79.6 

78.9 

81.5 

83.5 

79 

81 

80 

77.7 



76.2 

76.9 

78.1 

79.5 

74 

72.2 



Ex- 
posed 
culmen. 



32.6 

33.3 

33.1 

83 

33.1 

83.5 

83.2 

32.2 



80.2 

29.4 
81.3 
82.5 
29.5 
80.5 



Tarsus. 



24.2 

23.1 

23.2 

23.5 

24 

23.5 

23.7 

28.5 



23.5 

22.6 

22.3 

23 

23.5 

22.5 



Outer 
ante- 
rior toe. 



19.1 

19.2 

19.6 

19 

1B.4 

19.5 

18.7 

18.5 



19 

18 8 

19.1 

18.5 

18 

19 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND BODDLE AMERICA* 83 

Patzcuaro; Morelia), and northward over greater part of Texas 
(north to Eastland County, west to Kendall, Tom Green, and Concho 
Coimties). 

F[iau] aurifiroiu Waolbr, Ins, 1829, 512 (Mexico; i. e. Ismiquilpdm, Hidalgo a; 
coll. Berlin Mus.; ex lichtenBtein, manuscript). 

Pieus aurtfnTU LiCHTBNSTBm, Pteis-Verz. Mex. V6g., 1830, 1; Joum. fOr Om., 
1863, 55 (reprint). — Sundevall, Gonsp. Av. Pidn., 1866, 53, part. 

[dfUwruM] aur\fron$ Bonapartb, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 119. — ^Lichtxnstein, Nom. 
Av. Mus. Berol., 1854, 76.— Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 198, no. 8770.--€oue8, 
Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 196.— Sclatbr and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 
1873,100. 

C[entunii] aurifirong Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 488. 

Centunu aurifrons Sclatsr, Oat. Am. Birds, 1862, 343 (n. Mexico). — Gabanis, 
Joom. f Or Qm., 1863, 323 (crit.).— <}rat. List Birds Brit. Mus., Picid«, 1868, 
103. — DuG^, La Naturaleza, i, 1873, 139 (Guanajuato).— €oopsr, Om. 
Calif., 1870, 399 (Texas, etc.).— Coues, Check List, 1873, no. 307; 2d ed., 
1882, no. 451. — ^Baibd, Brewer, and Ridowat, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 
557, pL 52, figs. 3, 6.— Sennett, Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. Terr., iv, 
1878, 39 (Hidalgo and Brownsville, Texas); v, 1879, 416 (Lomita Ranch, 
Ttoxas).- Merrill (J. C), Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., i, 1878, 151 (Ft. Brown, 
Texas; habits; descr. eggs).- Raosdale, Science News, i, no. 20, 1879, 320 
(local distr. in Texas).— Rn>o way, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 189; iv, 
1881, 104 (monogr.); N<Mn. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 373.— Brown (N. C), 
BulL Nutt. Om. Gub, vii, 1882, 40 (Boeme, Kendall Co., w. Texas, resi- 
d^t). — ^American Ornitholooists' Union Comiottee, Auk, xx, 1903, 
342; Check List, 3d ed., 1910, 194.— Miller (W. De W.), BuU. Am. Mus. 
N. H., xxii, 1906, 165 (Rosario, etc., n. w. Durango, breeding; crit.). — Lacet, 
Auk, xxviii, 1911, 209 (Keiryille, Texas, resident). 

[Centunu awrtfroru] var. aurifroM Baird, Brewer, and Ridowat, Hist. N. Am. 
Biids, ii, 1874, 554. 

[CaiJtwruM awrifr(mB\ a. aurifrom Ridoway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iv, July 18, 
1881, 97 (diagnosis). 

Ztbnpicui ttwr\frons Malherbe, Mon. Picid., ii, 1862, 240; iv, 1862, pi. 104, 
figs. 1, 2, 3, 4. 

Ifetowrpct aur(^ww RiDG WAY, Proc.U. S.Nat. Mus.,viii,no. 23, Sept. 2,1885,355.— 
American ORNrrnoLOQisrs' Union, Check List, 1886 (and 2d'ed., 1895), no. 
410.— Lloyd, Auk, iv, 1887, 191 (w. in Texas to Castle Mts., Tom Green Co., and 
n. to Texas and Pacific R. R.).— Hancock, Bull. Ridgw. Om. Club, no. 2, 1887, 
16 (Corpus Christi, Texas).— Cooke, Bird Migr. Miss. Val., 1888, 132 (Tom 
Green, Concho, and Kendall Counties, Texas). — Beckham, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., X, 1888, 665 (San Antonio, Leon Springs, Corpus Christi, and Beeville, 
Texas).— Habbrouck, Auk, vi, 1889, 238 (Eastland Co., Texas; notes, etc.).— 
Raosdale, Auk, vii, 1890, 401 (Comal Co. w. to Medina R., n. e. to Colorado 
R. in San Saba Co., Texas; also, Brazos R. 40 m. from Red R.).— HARorrr, 
Oat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 177 (Hidalgo, Corpus Christi, Laredo, and 
San Antonio, Texas; Nuevo Laredo, Nuevo Leon; Soto la Marina and Siena 
M»6ie near Victoria, Tamaulipas; Silao, Guanajuato; Morelia, Michoacan; 
Gty of Mexico; near Guadalajara, Jalisco).— Jouy, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
xvi, 1893, 785 (Ahualulco, Soledad, and Hacienda Angostura, San Luis 
Potoai, Oct.-Dec.).— Rhoads, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1892, 106 (Corpus 

a See Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 418. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



84 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Chrigti).— Attwatbr, Auk, ix, 1892, 235 (San Antonio, resident). — SALTiir 
and GoDMAN, Biol. Centr.-Am., Avee, ii, 1895, 418 (Julines, Chihuahua; 
Ceralva, Hacienda de las Eecobas, San Augustin, etc., Nuevo Leon; Aguaa 
GalientesandCalvillo, AguasOalientee; Silao, Guanajuato; etc.). — ^Bendibe, 
Life Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 124.— Phillips, Auk, xxviii, 1911, 75 (Mata^ 
moras, San Fernando, Alta Mira, and Rio de la CniZy Tamaulipas). 

Mldanerpes] aurifnms Ridowat, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 294. 

[UdaneTp€9\ owrifrofM Shabpb, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 211. 

CerUunLsflaviverUris (not Picusflamventris Vieillot)« Swainson, Anim. in Menag., 
1837, 354 (no locality given).— Woodhouse, in Rep. Sitgreaves's Expl. 
Zufii and Col. R., 1853, 91 (San Antonio, Texas).— Baibd, in Rep. Stana- 
bury's Surv. Great Salt Lake, 1852, 333 (Texas); Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., 
ix, 1858, 110; ed. 1860 (Birds N. Am.), atlas, pi. 42, figs. 1, 2; Rep. U. S. 
and Mex. Bound. Surv., ii, pt. ii, 1859, 5, pi. 4 (Eagle Pass and Ringgold 
Barracks, Texas; Matamoias, Tamaulipas); Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 
92. — ^Heermann, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., x, no. 1, 1859, 18 (San Antonio). — 
Dresseb, Ibis, 1865, 469 (n. e. to Guadalupe R., Texas). 

C[entunui\ JUtviventns Sclatbk, Ptoc. 2kx)l. Soc. Lond., 1857, 8, in text (Texas). 

C[enturu8] subeUgans (not of Bonaparte, 1837) Gray, Gen. Birds, ii, 1846, 442. 

[Centiartu] suhelegans Bonapabte, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 126 (Gonsp. Ycducr. 
Zygod., 1854, 11), part (excl. syn.); Notes Om. Coll. DdattP6, 1854, 85. 

Picas atibelegans Lesson, Compl. (Euv. Bufion (L6v6que), xx, 1847, 206. 

Picus amatus Lesson, Rev. Zool., March, 1839, 102 (Mexico; coll. AbeilI6.) 

C[entunjuil omatus Reichenbach, Handb. Scansores, Pidnse, 1854, 410, pi. 064, 
figs. 4409, 4410. 

Centwrtu degans (not Picas elegans Swainson) Lawrence, Ann. Lye. N. Y., v, 
1852, 116 (Texas).- Baird, in Rep. Stansbury's Surv. Great Salt Lake, 1852, 
333 (Rio Grande, Texas). 

Centurus sant€HTuzi (not of Bonaparte) Lawrence, Ann. Lye. N. Y., v, 1852, 
123 (w. Texas). 

CerUurus santacmzii Baird, in Rep. Stansbury's Surv. Great Salt Lake, 1862, 
333 (w. Texas). 

P[icu8] santa crazi Sundevall, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 53, part (Texas). 

CENTURUS SANTACRUZI SANTACRUZI Bonaparte. 

VELASQUEZ'S WOODPBOXB&. 

AduU male. — ^Postnasal region cadmium yellow to cadmium 
orange, usually paler anteriorly; forehead and anterior portion of 
superciliary region dull white or buffy grayish white, passing into 
ydlowish mouse gray or drab-gray on supra^auricular region; crown, 
occiput, and nape bright poppy red, passing into a more orange-red 
hue on hindneck, the posterior margin usually tinged or intermixed 
with orange-yellow; back, scapulars, and upper rump narrowly and 
very sharply barred with black and white, the white bars much 
narrower than the black interspaces, and averaging about 1-1.5 mm. 
in width; lower rump and upper tail-coverts white, usually immacu- 
late but sometimes with shaft-streaks or irregular markings of 
black; wings black, the coverts and secondaries with narrow and 

» '=Sphyrapicus ru^. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF NORTH AKB MIDDLE AMEBIOA. 



85 



distinct and (except on proximal secondaries) mostly interrupted 
bais of white, the primaries sometimes with a few small spots or 
DTegular markings of white on sub-basal portion of outer web, the 
proxiinal quills usually margined terminally with white; tail black, 
the inner web of middle rectrices sometimes with a greater or less 
number of rather narrow bars or irr^ular markings of white (which 
do not extend to the shaft), the outer pair with a few narrow bars of 
white on terminal portion, mostly on outer web; auricular region, 
sides of neck, and foreneck plain ydlowish smoke gray or drab-gray, 
fading into paler on upper throat, chin, and malar region, deepening 
posterioriy into deeper yellowish drab-gray or yellowish broccoli 
brown on chest, breast, and sides, this passing into saffron yellow 
or indian yellow on abdomen; flanks and under tail-coverts dull 
white, more or less tinged with yellowish, rather broadly barred 
with blackish, the bars on under tail-coverts more or less V-shaped; 
under wing-coverts broadly barred with white and slate-black, the 
bars of neariy equal width, but the blackish ones averaghig rather 
broader than the white ones; inner webs of remiges blackish slate or 
duskj, the proximal portion with large transverse spots of white 
akmg edge; bill slate-black; iris orange to crimson; legs and feet 
oUve-greenish in life; length (skins), 210-236 (225); wing, 124.5-142 
(13U); tail, 69-79 (72.5); cuhnen, 29-31.5 (30.1); tarsus, 21-23.6 
(22.3); outer anterior toe, 18.5-21 (19.6).« 

AdnU female. — Similar to the adult male, but whole crown dull 
white or very pale yellowish mouse gray, like forehead, deepening 
into mouse gray on occiput; length (skins), 212-220 (216); wing, 
122.5-141.5 (130.2); tail, 68-81 (72.3) ; cuhnen, 26-30 (27.8); tarsus, 
21-23 (21.8); outer anterior toe, 17-20 (18.8).^ 



« Twelve specimens. 


^ Ten specimens. 






Locality. 


Wing. 


Tafl. 


Ex. 

posed 

oulmen. 


Tarsus. 


Outer 
ante- 
rior toe. 


MALES. 

Snm tdalt males ( C #* msAktikO from Ooatemala 


182.4 
130 
132.9 
123.7 

136.6 

132.2 
122.5 
129.1 
119.5 


72.6 
71.9 
78.2 
60.2 

78.6 

72.8 
68.6 
76.9 
66.9 


80.1 
80.4 
29.8 
27.4 

20.6 

27.9 
27 
26.9 
25.8 


22.2 
22.4 
23.4 
21.2 

22 

21.9 
21.5 
21.8 
20.9 


19.8 


Fh« idolt males ( C. t. MftfATMcO from Chiapas (Huehnettfn) . . 
TenidQlt males (C #. pimpef^ frtmi Hoodnras 


19.4 

20 

18.7 


Ownbilt male (a s. mntaoMzt) from northern Nlcaragiia 
(M^«) 


20 


rKMALIS. 

KlMf^jnit fBmalH (C, «. taftfs«ntfl> from Guatemala 


18.8 


One tdnlt female (OL 9. tantaenuO from Chiapas (Hnehnetan).. 

Sefcoadnlt lniiaks(a «. fratehupewU) tmm Vera Cms 

Ta adolt females (C. t. tMK90r)ltom Hondmas 


19 

18.9 

18.1 







Digitized by VjOOQIC 



86 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Young male. — Similar to the adult male, but barring of back, 
etc., less sharply defined, and that of flanks and under tail-coverts 
much less distinct, post-nasal region dull buffy whitish (instead of 
cadmium yellow or orange), red of pileum and nape less bright, less 
uniform, and yellow of abdomen much less distinct. 

Young female. — Similar to the young male, but crown and occiput 
pale buffy grayish, the former more or less mottled or barred with 
dusky. 

State of Chiapas (Huehuet&n), southeastern Mexico, through Guate- 
mala (Rio Managua; Cob&n to Cliis^; Palin; Goyab&j, Quitch^; 
El Rancho, Zacapa; Patultil, S0I0I6; Salam&; Gual&n; ElRancho, 
Lake Amatitlan; Lake Atitl&n; Los Amates, Yzab&l; Iguana; 
Duefias; San Jos6; San Ger6nimo; Naranjo; Retalhuleu; Santa Maria 
de Quezaltenango; Escuintla; El Baoul; Tolim&n; Fanajach&l), and 
Salvaddr (San Salvad6r; El Libert&d; Volcan de San MiguA) to 
northern Nicaragua (Jalapa). 

Centurus tanta cnm Bonapabtb, Ptoc. 2kx>L Soc. Lond., 1837, 116 (Guatemala; 

coll. Velasquez); Nuov. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bologna, ii, 1839, 343. 
Centwrtu tantarcnm Bonaparte, Onsp. Av., i, 1850, 119 ("Mexico")- — ^Dkab- 

BORN, Pub. 125, Field Mus. N. H., 1907, 93 (El Rancho, on Lake Amatitlan, 

and Patulul, Solola, Guatemala; crit.). 
[CerUuTus] sarUacnm Bonapartb, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 126 (Consp. Volucr. 

Zygod., 1854, 11) (excl. syn. dubms Cabot). 
CerUuTus Bontacruzi Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1859, 136, part (Duefias and 

Salami, Guatemala; Yucatan?).— Sclatbr, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 343, part 

(Salami, Guatemala). 
CerUtarui santaaruzix Owbn, Ibis, 1861, 61 (San Geionimo, Guatemala; deacr. 

eggs). 
Centurus santcruzi Lantz, Trans. Kansas Ac. Sci. for 1896-97 (1899), 220 (Palin 

and Naranjo, Guatemala). 
CerUvrtu aurifrons santorcnm Ridgwat, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iv, July 18, 

1881, 106, part (Guatemala; monogr.). 
[Centwrus aur^rons] p, santacruzi Ridowat, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iv, July 18, 

1881, 97, part (Guatemala; diagnosis). 
P[tcu«] santa mm Sundbvall, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 53, part (Guatemala). 
Mlelanerpes] sanUKruH Ridgwat, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 294, part (Guate- 
mala). 
[MeUmerpes aurtfrons.] Subsp. a. Melanerpes $antacruzi Haroitt, Cat. Birds 

Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 179, part (Duefias, Retalhuleu, and Raoul, 

Guatemala). 
Melanerpes santacruzi Salvin and (jOdman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 420, 

part (Santa Maria de Quezaltenango, Salamd, San Ger6nimo, Retalhuleu, 

Escuintla, El Baoul, Duefias, Tollman, and Panajachel, Guatemala; Vokan 

San Miguel and La Libertad, Salvador.) 
[Melanerpes] santacruzi Sharpe, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 211, part (Guatemala). 
Centurus santa-cruzi pauper (not of Ridgway) Dbarbobk, Pub. 125, Ficdd Mus. 

N. H., 1907, 93 (Los Amates, Yzabal, Guatemala; crit.). 
Melanerpes santacruzi fumosus Nblson, Auk, xvii, July, 1900, 258 (Huehuetan, 

Chiapas; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.). 
Centurus santa-cruzi fumosus Dbabborn, Pub. 125, Field Mus. N. H., Nov., 1907, 

94 (San J066, Guatemala; crit.). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD6 OF NOBTH AND MIDDLE AMEBICA. 87 

CBNTURUS SANTACRUZI GRATBLOUFBNSIS (Lmmmi). 

LX880V8 WOODPBOXEX. 

Similar to (7. «. santacnusi, but general color of underparts and 
sides of head averaging paler, forehead averaging more purely white, 
and white bars on upper parts usually relatively broader. [Some- 
what like 0. aurifrons, but back, etc., much more narrowly barred, 
no gray band across occiput, hindneck bright orange-red (confluent 
with red of crown), postnasal region deep orange to orange-red, 
general color of underparts much darker and more olive or brownish, 
jeDow of abdomen more saffron, white markings on subbasal portion 
of primaries much more restricted, and inner web of middle rectrices 
witii more or less of white.] 

AdvU male.— Length (skins), 220-240 (230); wing, 129-136.5 
(132.9); tail, 75-80 (78.2); cuhnen, 27-33 (29.8); tarsus, 22-25.5 
(23.4); outer anterior toe, 19-21.5 (20).« 

Adult /moZ^.— Length (skins), 210-234 (218)*; wing, 124-134.6 
(129.1); tail, 72.5-81 (75.9); cuhnen, 25.5-28 (26.9); tarsus, 21-23 
(21.8); outer anterior toje, 18.5-19.5 (18.9). '^ 

Eastern Mexico, in States of Tamaulipas (Alta Mira; Tampico), 
Vera Cruz (Las Yigas; Jalapa; Co&tepec; Misantla; Cuesta de 
Misantla; Vega de Casadero; Atoy&c; C6rdova; Jomotla; Rio Santa 
Ana; Plan del Kio; Huatusco; Cuichapa; Zentla; Rio Rancho Nuevo; 
Hacienda Tortugas; Vera Cruz; Orizaba; Mirad6r; Sochiapa; Playa 
Vicente; Antigua; Papantla; Medellln; Motzorongo; Tlalcotalp&m), 
Puebla (Metlaltoyuca), and Oaxaca (Rinc6n Antonio; Santo 
Domingo). 

Picus gratdoupenns Lbsson, Rev. Zool., 1839, 41 (Mexico).— Waonbb, Wieg- 

znann's Archiv f Or Natuig., 1841, 100. 
[Centunu] grateloupenns Bonapabtb, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 126 (Conap. 

Volucr. Zygod., 1864, 11) (excl. syn.). 
Centunu santaeruzl (not of Bonaparte) Scxatbr, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1856, 307 

(Cordova, Vera Cruz; crit.); 1859, 367 (Jalapa, Vera Cruz); 1864, 177 (near 

City of Mexico); Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 343, part (s. Mexico). 
[CerOurus] satUa cruzi Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 198, no. 8769 (excl. syn. part). 
Centurui fOTUacruni Bairo, in Rep. Stansbury's Surv. Gt. Salt Lake, 1852, 

333 (western Texas). 
[CentwruM aurifrom] p. iontacruzi Ridowat, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iv, 1881, 97, 

part (s. Mexico). 
Centunis awrifrona santa-cnm Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iv, 1881, 106, 

part (s. Mexico). 
Zdfopicus wntorcruzi Malhebbb, Mon. Picid., ii, 1862, 241, part; iv, 1862, pi. 

105, figs. 4, 5. 
}i[danerpes\ Monta-cnm Ridoway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 294, part (Jalapa 

and Mirador, Vera Cruz). 
[MdanerpeM avrifrxyns^ Subsp. a, Melanerpes tantacnm Hargitt, Cat. Birds Brit. 

Mus., xviii, 1890, 179, jMurt (Tampico, s. Tamaulipas; San Juan del Rio, Vera 

Cruz, Atoyac, Misantla, Jomotla, Rio Santa Ana and Plan del Rio near 

Jalapa, Huatusco, Cuichapa near Cordova, and Coatepec, Vera Cruz). 

<> Ten specimens. ^ Seven specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



88 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Mekmerpes MOTUaenui Salydt and Godman, BioL Centr.-Am., Avee, ii, 1895, 420, 
part (Tampico, 8. Tamaulipas; Las Vigas, Jalapa, Coatei>ec, Miaaptla, Guesta 
de Misantla, Vega del Caaadero, Atoyac, Cordova, Jomotla, Santana, Plan 
del Rio, Huatufico, Cuichapa?, Zentla, Rio Rancho Nuevo, Hacienda Tor- 
tugas. Vera Cruz, Orizaba, Sochiapa, and Playa Vicente, Vera Cruz). 

C[entyrus] erythrophihalmtu Reichenbach, Handb. Scansores, Pidnse, 1854, 409, 
pi. 664, figs. 4407, 4408 (Santuario and Jalapa, Vera Cruz; coll. Beriin Mus.; 
ex. LichtenBtein, manuBcript). 

Centwrus flaviventris (not of Swainson) Sclateb, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1860, 
252 (Vera Cruz). 

Centunu albtfrons (not of Swainson) Sclateb, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1869, 364 
(near City of Mexico; crit.). 

P[icus] santa eruzi Sundevall, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 53, part (a. Mexico). 

[Melanerpes] $anUuruzi Sharpe, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 211, part (s. Mexico). 

Centunu awr^rons (not Picus awr^frons Wagler) Sijmichrast, La Naturaleza, v, 
1882, 240 (Orizaba, etc., Vera Cruz). 

CBNTURUS SAlfTACRUZI PAUPER Ridgway. 

TBITXnXO WOODPXOKXm. 

Similar to C. 8. sarUacruzi, but smaller, and with white bars on 
back, etc., usually still narrower. 

AdvU w^.— Length (skins), 195-218 (209); wing, 117.5-131 
(123.7); tail, 63-77 (69.2); cuhnen, 25-30 (27.4); tarsus, 20-23.5 
(21.2); outer anterior toe, 17-20 (18.7).* 

AdvU femde.— Length (skins), 195-218 (207); wing, 115.5-123 
(119.5); tail, 62-71.5 (66.9); culmen, 24-27 (25.8); tarsus, 20-22 
(20.9); outer anterior toe, 17-19 (18.1).* 

Caribbean slope of Honduras (Truxillo; San Pedro; San Pedro 
Sula; C6iba; Omoa; Chaloma; Comayigua). British Honduras 
(Belize)? 

Centurui santamm (not of Bonaparte) Sglatbb, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1858, 

359 (Comayagua, Honduras).— Solatbb and SALvm, Ibis, 1850, 136, part 

(Comayagua); 1870, 837 (Julian and San Pedro, HondunMs).— Moobb, Proc. 

Zool. Soc. Lond., 1859, 60 (Omoa, Honduras).— Taylor, Ibis, 1860, 119 

(Honduras; habits). 
[CenluTM awrifrom\ p. $antacruei RnwwAT, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iv, 1881, 97, 

part (Honduras). 
Cmturus aurifrom 9anta-cnm Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iv, 1881, 106, 

part (Hondiuas; monogr.). 
M[elanerp€s] tanta-cnm Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 294, part (Hon- 

diuas). 
[I£elanerpe$ atayroru,] Subsp. a, Melanerpes tantacruti Habgiit, Cat. Birds 

Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 179, part (Julian and San Pedro, Honduras). 
Melanerpes Bontacrxm Salvin and Godman, Biol. C^tr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 

420, part (Julian, San Pedro, Truxillo, Omoa, and Comayagua, Honduras). 
[Mekmerpes] santacruH Shabpe, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 211, part (Honduras). 
Centwrus santamm pauper Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., z, sig. 37, Aug. 6, 

1888, 582 (TruxiUo, Honduras; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.), 

A Ten specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD6 OF KOBTH AND MIDDLB AMBBICA« 89 

(T)CbUuntt mmiorcnm pauper Dbarborn, Pub. 125, Field Mm. N. H., 1907, 93, 

part (Belize, Brit. Honduras; crit.). 
CetUurut sarUaenm paupera Lantz, TraiiB. Kansas Ac. Sci. for 1896-97 (1899), 

220 (Chaloma, Hondimis). 
MdanerpeM mmtaeruzi pauper Bangs, Bull. Mus. Gomp. ZooL. zxxix, 1903, 146 
(Ceiba, Honduras). 

CENTURUS CHRTSOGBNTS CHRTSOGBNTS (Vigors). 
QOLDXV-OBSSXID WOODPSOKSB. 

AdvU male. — Forehead (narrowly) pale buffy brown or pale wood 
brown; crown and occiput bright red (between poppy red and 
cannine); hindneck bright chrome or cadmium, passing into a more 
orange-red hue on nape, the latter into orange or orange-yellow on 
lower portion or along posterior edge; a large superciliary patch of 
black, this sometimes entirely encircling the bare orbital space, but 
much broader above and behind; prefrontal region rather dull cad- 
mium yellow or orange, or sometimes nearly concolor with forehead; 
back, scapulars, and upper rump barred with black and white, the 
two colors about equal in width; lower rump and upper tail-coverts 
white, barred with black; wing black, the coverts more narrowly, 
the secondaries more broadly barred with white, the primaries ex- 
tensively blotched with white sub-basally and tipped or terminally 
margined with the same; tail black, the middle pair of rectrices 
broadly barred with white, the outer pair more narrowly barred, 
the terminal half (more or less) of the next similarly barred, the 
other rectrices with iimer webs usually barred or spotted along the 
edge with white; malar and auricular regions (sometimes chin also) 
cadmium or chrome yellow (more or less deep); throat, foreneck, 
ades of neck, chest, breast, and sides plain deep drab-gray or hair 
blown; abdomen (superficially) saffron yellow (more or less deep); 
flanks and imder tail-coverts dull white barred with black, the bars 
more or less V-shaped; \mder wing-coverts white, rather narrowly 
biired with black; inner webs of primaries extensively blotched 
with white sub-basally, the inner webs of secondaries broadly barred 
or transversely spotted with white; bill dull black, more brownish 
on lower basal portion of mandible; legs and feet grayish dusky 
(greenish gray or olive in life?); length (skins), 204-223 (210); wing, 
118-124.5 (121.3); taU, 71.5-77 (74.1); culmen, 25-28 (26.6); tarsus, 
20.5-23 (21.6); outer anterior toe, 17.5-19.5 (18.9).« 

AdvU female. — Similar to the adult male, but crown and occiput 
'''^'vnish gray (more brownish or buffy anteriorly), the occiput some- 
times intermixed with black, rarely nearly uniform black, the nape 
vuymg from orange to orange-red ; length (skins), 194-21 1 (202) ; wing 

« Ten specimens (seven from Sinaloa, three from Tepic). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



90 



BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



114-123.6 (119.4); tail, 67-77.5 (72.8); culmen, 23.6-25.5 (24.7); 
tarsus, 20-21.5 (20.7); outer anterior toe, 17-19 (18.1).* 

Young male. — Similar to the adult male, but texture of plumage 
more lax, abdomen but faintly, if at all, tinged with yellow, and red 
of crown usually duller. 

Young female. — Similar to the young male, but without red on 
crown. 

Western Mexico, in States of Sinaloa (Mazatl&n; t^uimiches; 
Ros&rio; Quotla; Escuinapa; Los Pieles, 3,000-3,500 feet; Rio Juana 
Gromez, 50 feet) and Sonora (southern portion) and Territory of 
Teplc (San Bias; Santiago). 

Zebrapicus elegam (not Picas elegcms MQller, 1776, nor Swainson, 1827) Mal- 

HERBE, Mon. Picid., ii, 1862, 225, part, pi. 102, fig. 6 (female). 
Piais elegans Finsch, Abh. Nat. ver. Brem., 1871, 356 (Mazatlan, Sinaloa). 
CentuTus elegans Lawbbnce, Mem. Boet. Soc. N. H., ii, 1874, 294 (Mazatlan; 

Tepic; Sonora; habits; descr. nest and eggs). — Ridowat, Proc. U. S. Nat. 

Mus., iv, 1881, 114, part (Mazatlan; monogr.).— Milleb (W. de W.), Bull. 

Am. Mus. N. H., xxi, 1905, 352 (Escuinapa, etc., s. Sinaloa; crit.).— Bah^t 

(H. H.), Auk, xxiii, 1906, 388 (San Bias, Tepic). 
lileUmerpes] elegans Ridowat, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 292, part. 
Melanerpes elegans HABorrr, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 184, part (SonorA; 

Mazatlan; San Bias, Tepic). 
[Melanerpes] elegans Suabpe, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 212. 
Picus darysogenys Viooes, Zool Beechey's Voy., 1839, 24 (no locality given, 

but without doubt Mazatlan, Sinaloa, or San Bias or Tepic, Tepic ^). 
Centunis chrysogenys chrysogenya Ridowat, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxiv, Feb. 

24, 1911, 32, footnote. 

o Ten specimens (nine from Sinaloa, one from Tepic). 



Locality. 



Ten adult males (C. c. (kr^iogenyt) firom Sinaloa (9) and 

Teplcd) 

Eight adult males from Guerrero ( C. c flatlnuchu*) 

Six adult males from CoUma ( C. c. fUninuchwi) 

One adult male from Michoaoan ( C c /togfattcfcm) 

One adult male frxim Jalisco ( C c /Zovlnucktw) 

niLlLES. 

Ten adult femalea {,0, e. chryngefi^t) from Sinaloa (7) and 

Tepic (3) '. 

Four adult femalea from Guerrero ( C. c. /Iav<itttdliM) 

Six adult females l^m CoUma ( C. c /lodftttcAiM) 

Three adult females fh>m liichoaoan ( C c >Ia9<iMicJktit) 



Wing. 



121.3 
126.3 

iao.7 

122 
126.5 



119.4 
121.6 
120.5 
120 



TaiL 



Ex. 

posed 

oulmen. 



74.1 

71.7 

67.2 

68 

68 



72.8 
70.2 
68.4 
66.6 



26.6 
27.6 
27.6 
27.5 



24.7 
26.4 
24.5 
26.8 



I Outer 
Tarsus, ante- 
rior toe. 



21.6 

21.4 

21.6 

21 

22 



20.7 
20.8 
20.1 
20.7 



18.0 

10.8 

10.3 

19 

90 



18.1 
18.3 
17.9 
10 



&The only Mexican localities visited by the naturalists of the ''Blossom" are 
Acapulco, Guerrero; Mazatlan, Sinaloa; and San Bias and Tepic, in the Territory 
of Tepic. The bird found at Acapulco is C. cflavinuchus, hence the type locality of 
C. c. ckryhogenys must be either Mazatlan or one of the two Tepic localitiee. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIRDS OF NOBTH AND MIDDLE AMEBIOA. 91 

CBHTURUS CHRTSOGBNTS FLAVmUCHUS Rid^wiy. 
A0AFUZ.00 WOODPBCKBm. 

Similar to C. c. chrysogenys, but adult male with nape bright 
orange-yellow (cadmium yellow to orange), strongly (often abruptly) 
contrasted with red of occiput and crown, frontfd area averaging 
broader and paler, yellow of malar region, etc., averaging much paler, 
the adult female with nape orange-yellow instead of reddish orange 
or orange-red; wing and tail averaging longer, tail shorter. 

Midi mafc.— Length (skins), 184-233 (210); wing, 118-128.5 
(123.5); tail, 61.5-76.5 (69.5); cuhnen, 26.5-30.5 (27.6); tarsus, 
20.5-22 (21.5); outer anterior toe, 18-20.5 (19.5).» 

MuU female.— Lengih (skins), 186-213 (203); wing, 118-125.5 
(120.7); tail, 65-73 (68.6); culmen, 23.5-30 (25.6); tarsus, 19-22 
(20.4); outer anterior toe, 17.5-20 (18.3). '^ 

South-central and southwestern Mexico, in States of Puebla (Izucdr 
deMatamoras; Epatl6n), Morelos (Pimta de Ixtla), Jalisco (Hacienda 
San Marcos; Beltr&n; Tuxp&n; Las Camas; Volcan de Nieve), 
iDchoacto (near Ahuacana; LaSalada; La Play a, Volcan de Jorrulla), 
Colima (Hacienda Nogueres; Plains of Colima; Manzanillo; Rio de 
la Coahuyana; Colima), Guerrero (El Lim6n; Acapulco; Iguala; 
Dos Arroyos), and western Oaxaca (Putla). 

Fieu» elegant {not of MtUler, 1776 c) Swad^son, Philoe. Mag., n. s., i, no. 6, June, 
1827, 439 ("Maritime land" [of Mexico]) = adult male).— Lesson, Compl. 
Buff., ix, 1837, 318.— SuNDEVALL, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 65 ("Mexico"). 

P[ieus] elegans Waoler, IsiB, 1829, 514. 

ClerUvnui] elegans Gray, Gen. Birds, ii, 1846, 442.— Rbichbnbach, Handb. Scan- 
Bores, Picinse, 1854, 411. 

[Ceniiirus] elegans Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 119; Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 
126 (Conap. Volucr. Zygod., 1854, 11).— Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 197, no. 
8763.— ScLATBR and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 101. 

CentmuM elegans Baird, in Stansbury's Rep. Gt. Salt Lake, 1852, 333 (Mexico); 
Ibis, 1863, 476 (Colima).— Cabanis, Joum. fttr Qm., 1862, 327 (Acapulco, 
Guerrero; crit.).— <?)Sclater, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 342 ("Mexico").— 
(?)Gray, List Birds Brit. Mus., Capit. and Picid., 1868, 101 ("Mexico").— 
Salvin, Cat. Strickland Coll., 1882, 399; Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, 426 
(Acapulco).— Ferrari-Perez, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., ix, 1886, 160 (Izucar de 
Matamoras, Puebla).— Stone, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1890, 218 (La Playa, 
Volcan de Jorulla, Michoacan). 

Zebrapicus elegans Malherbe, Mon. Picid., ii, 1862, 225; iv, 1862, pi. 102, fig. 5 
(nude). 

M[elan£rpes] elegans RmowAY, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 292, part. 

Mekmerpes elegans HARorrr, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, .1890, 184, part (Putla, 
Oaxaca; Beltran and Hacienda San Marcos, Jalisco; Plains of Colima; Aca- 
pulco and Dos Arroyos, Guerrero; Epatlan, Puebla). — Salvin and Godman, 
Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 424, part (Beltran, etc., Jalisco; Plains of 
Colima; La Playa, Michoacan; Acapulco, etc., Guerrero; Izucar de Mata- 
mofoe, etc., Puebla). . 

[Mekmerpes] elegans Sharps, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 212. 

Centwrus ckrysogenys JUmnuchus Ridoway, Proc, Biol. Soc. Wash., xxiv, Feb. 
24, 1911, 32 (Acapulco, Guerrero; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.). 

o Sixteen specimens. & Thirteen specimens. c^Celeus elegans i}ILiS\iei). 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



92 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

CSNTURUS HTPOPOUUS (Wagler). 

OBAT-BBXA8TXD WOODPSOKXE. 

Aduli mdU. — Forehead varying from dtill white, more or less tinged 
with pale smoke-gray, to pale drab or drab-gray; anterior and middle 
portions of crown bright poppy red, this sometimes restricted to a cen- 
tral spot; a rather ill-defined orbital ring of bluish black, broader 
above eye, this sometimes inclosing a narrow line of white on lower eye- 
lid and posterior portion of upper eyeUd; lateral and posterior parts 
of crown, occiput, hindneck, and sides of neck plain drab to deep 
purplish drab or deep grayish hair brown, the auricular region similar 
but rather paler, the lower portion more or less distinctly tinged with 
red; chin, throat, chest, breast, abdomen, and sides plain drab-gray 
(more or less deep) ; flanks, thighs, lower abdomen, anal region, and 
imder tail-coverts white (sometimes tinged with pale yellowish ante- 
riorly) broken by broad V-shaped bars or marks of slate-blackish; 
back and scapulars barred with black and whitish, the bars of the 
latter rather narrower than the black ones and more or less tinged 
with duU yellowish or pale drab; wing-coverts and secondaries black, 
barred with white, the white bars broader on greater wing-coverts and 
secondaries, especially that on tips of the latter; primaries black, 
spotted or blotched subbasally (except on the four outermost) and 
narrowly tipped with white; rump and upper tail-coverts white, 
broken by more or less distinct mesial or central streaks or spots 
(usually cimeate or sagittate) of black; tail black, the middle pair of 
rectrices with basal half, or more, mostly white, transversely spotted 
or otherwise variegated with black, the two lateral pairs margined 
terminally and serrated along edge of outer web with white; biU 
dusky, the maxilla more blackish, the mandible more horn colored; 
iris brown; legs and feet dusky grayish (bluish gray in life ?) ; length 
(skins), 19^214 (207); wing, 116.5-131 (124.1); tail, 74-83.5 (80); 
culmen, 23-26 (24.2); tarsus, 18-22 (20.5); outer anterior toe, 15-17.6 
(16.6).* 

Aduli female. — Similar to the adult male, but without any red on 
crown; length (skins), 203-209 (206); wing, 118.5-125.5 (122.8); 
tail, 80-86.5 (83.4); cuhnen, 23-25.5 (24); tarsus, 18.5-20.5 (19.4); 
outer anterior toe, 14.5-16.5 (15.3).^ 

Southern Mexico, in States of Puebla (TehuacAn; Tecuapto; Hue- 
huet&n; Chapulco; Izuc6r de Matamoras; Chietla; San Mgutil 
Molino; San Bart61o; Epatl&n), Mexico (Valley of Mexico), Morelos 
(Cuemavaca), Guerrero (Sierra Madre del Sur), and Oaxaca (Oaxaca 
City; Cuicatlto). 

a Seven specimens. ^ Four Bpecimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BSDS OF KOBTH AND MIDDLE AMEBICA. 98 

Pfieus] h^popoUxu Waolbr, Ins, 1829, 614 ("Mexico;"^ coll. Berlin Mus.). 

PieoM hjfjtopoUui Sundevall, Coiusp. Av. Hcin., 1866, 55. 

Zdfrapieus hypopolius Malhbrbe, M^. Acad. Metz, xxx, 1849, 361; Mon. Picid., 
ii, 1862, 228; iv, 1862, pi. 103, figs. 4, 5. 

[Centwrus] hypopoluu Bonapartb, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 126 (Consp. Volucr. 
Zygod., 1854, 11). — ^Reichbnbach, Handb. Scansoree, Picinie, 1854, 410, pi. 
665, figs. 4413, 4414.— LiCHTBNSTBiN, Norn. Av. Mus. Berol., 1854, 76.— Sola- 
TBR and Saltin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 100. 

Centurut hypopoliuB Gabanis, Joum. fOr Om., 1862, 329 (crit.). — Sclater, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, 176 (in text).— Lawrbncb, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mnfl., no. 4, 1876, 35 (Chapulco, Puebla).— Sxtmichrast, La Natuialeza, v, 
1881, 240 (Chapulco and Tehuacan, Puebla).— Ridoway, Proc. U. 8. Nat. 
Mufl., iv, 1881, 113 (monogr.). — Fbrbari-Pbrbz, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., ix, 
1886, 160 (Huehuetan and Izucar de Matamoru, Puebla). 

C[erUuru£\ hypopoKus Ridoway, Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., iv, 1881, 98 (diagnosis). 

Mlekmerpes] hppopoUus Ridoway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 292. 

Mekmerpea hypopolius HARorrr, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 186 (Valley of 
Mexico; Chietla, San Bartolo, Izucar, and San Miguel Molino, Puebla; Sierra 
Madre del Sur). — Salvin and Qodman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 425 
(T^nacan, Tecuapan, Huehuetlan, Izucar de Matamoros, San Miguel 
Molino, Chietla, San Bartolo, Epatlan, and Chapulco, Puebla; Sierra Madre 
del Sur, Guerrero). 

[Mekmerpti] kypopoliuB Shabpb, Hand-list, ii; 1900, 212. 

CBNTURUS UROPTOIALIS UROPTOIAIIS Baird. 

eXLA WOODPXOSXB. 

AduU male. — Head, neck, and most of under parts plain drab, 
grayish drab or buffy drab,^ darkest on hindneck, palest on chin, 
fordiead, and nasal tufts; crown with a broad median patch of bright 
poppy red or scarlet vermilion; back, scapulars, and upper rump 
regularly, sharply, and rather broadly barred with black and white, 
the white bars, which are usually tinged with pale brownish buffy, 
ayeraging about 2-2.5 mm. wide and, usually, slightly narrower than 
the black ones; lower rump and upper tail-covers white, barred 
(sometimes narrowly) with black, those on upper tail-coverts usually 
more or less V- or brace-shaped; tail black, the inner web of middle 
pair of rectrices white (except terminally) broadly barred with black, 
Uie outer web with a wedge-shaped streak of white, extending for 
proximal half or more, the outermost pair crossed for most of their 
length by broad, interrupted, bars of white, the next pair with 
similar markings on distal portion; wings black, the coverts and 
secondaries barred with pure white (the bars narrower on coverts, 
much broader on secondaries), the primaries with a large, more or 
less broken, patch of white on subbasal portion of outer webs, the 
nmer (proximal) quills with a terminal spot or terminal edging of 

A According to Cabanis (Joum. fOr Om., 1862, 329), Wagler's specimens were from 
Tehuacan and Tecuapan, Puebla. 
^ The color deeper and more drab in fresh plumage, paler and more buffy in worn 
r plumage. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



94 



BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



white; abdomen light saffron yellow; flanks and under tail-coverts 
dull white or yellowish white, barred with blaqk, the bars usually 
somewhat V-shaped, at least on coverts; bill dull black or slate-black; 
legs and feet dusky greenish (olive-green or grayish green in life?); 
length (skins), 207-251 (225); wing, 125-140 (131.1); tail, 72.5-88 
(81); culmen, 28-35 (30.3); tarsus, 22-25 (22.8); outer anterior toe, 
18-20.5 (19.1).« 

AduU female, — Similar to the adult male but no red spot on crown, 
which is wholly Ught drab (like general color of head, neck, and 
under parts), and yellow of abdomen paler and more restricted; 
length (skins), 195-224 (214); wing, 120.5-134 (128); tail, 62-83 
(73); culmen, 24.5-29 (26.4); tarsus, 20.5-23 (21.6); outer anterior 
toe, 17-19 (18).* 

Y(mng male. — Similar to the adult male but general color of head, 
neck, and under parts rather paler and more grayish, red crown-spot 
smaller and much duller red, and back more or less tinged or washed 
with pale buffy grayish brown, the bars also less sharply defined than 
in adults. 

Young fem/jUe. — Similar to the young male but crown without any 
red. 

Northwestern Mexico, in States of Sonora (Fronteras; Hermosillo; 
Alamos; Batamot&l; Camoa; Colonia Lerda; Guaymas; Senoyta; Rio 
Santa Qmz] Pozo de Luis; Bacadehuachy; Sierra Blanca; Ysleta; 
Rio Negro; Rio Mayo; Moctezuma; Altata; Nurl; Cedros), Chihu4hua 
(Bat6pilas; Caj6n Bonita Creek), Sinaloa (Mazatl&n; Presidio de 



a Thirty-three specimenfl. 



ft Twenty-one specimens. 



Looality. 



Wing. 


Tafl. 


Ez- 


Taisas. 


132.5 


81.1 


30.4 


23.8 


129.9 


79.5 


29.6 


22.9 


131.8 


83.2 


30.8 


22.8 


128.5 


78 


30.8 


22.3 


127.5 


80 


30 


22 


127.8 


77.9 


29.9 


22.6 


129.7 


79.1 


26.4 


21.8 


122.1 


76.4 


25 


20.2 


126.7 


76.9 


26.7 


21.4 


125.5 


74.8 


25.5 


21.3 


128 


78.2 


24.9 


21 



Outer 

anto- 

riortoe. 



MALES. 

Ten adult males from Arizona 

Ten adult males from Sonora 

Ten adult males from Sinaloa (9) and Tepic (1) 

Two adult males from Jalisco 

One adult male from Durango — 

Ten adult males ( C. u. brewtteri) from Cape district. Lower 
California 

FEMALES. 

Ten adult females Itom Arizona (9) and New Mexioo (1) 

Seven adult females Itom Sonora , 

Ten adult females fh>m Sinaloa (8) and Tepio (2) 

Two adult females from Jalisco 

Ten adult females (C II. &retMt«H) from Cape district 



19.1 
18w7 
19.2 
19.S 

17.7 



17.8 
17.4 
18.2 
17.8 
16.6 



While specimens from Sinaloa, Durango, Jalisco, etc., average smaller than those 
from Arizona, some of them being quite as small in one measurement or another as 
those from the Cape San Lucas district, their coloration is, however, like that d 
northern examples. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD6 OF KOBTH AND MIDDLE AMBBIGA. 96 

Mazatl&n; Culiac&n; Escuinapa; Rio Juana Gomez), Jalisco (Bolafios; 
Sierra de Bolafios; Barranca Ibarra; Guadalajara; Santa Ana and 
Barranca de Portilla, near Guadalajara), Durango (Chacal&), Zacate- 
cas, Aguas Calientes (Calvillo), and Territory of Tepic (San Bias; 
IxtlAn, Hacienda de San Ram6n; Hacienda de Ambas Aguas; Rancho 
de San Pablo, in Sierra Alica; Ojo de Agua; Rio Ameca and Palo 
Amarillo, near Amatl&n de Cafias; Amatlan de Cafias; Sierra de 
Nayarft; Tepic), and northward over greater part of Arizona to 
southeastern California (Yuma; Needles; etc.)> northern Lower Cali- 
foniia (Hardie River; Gardeners Lagoon; C6copah Major Mountains; 
San Fernando) to southeastern Nevada and southwestern New 
Mexico (Gila; Pueblo Viejo; Redrock). 

CerUuru$ hypapoUtu (not Picu$ hypopolius Wagler) Puchbran, Rev. et Mag. de 

ZooL, 1863, 163. 
Centurut tavpygiaUs Baird, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., vii, June, 1854, 120 (Bill 
WilliamB R., Arizona; coll. U. 8. Nat. Mub.); Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 
1868, 111; ed. 1860 (Birds N. Am.), Ill, pi. 36; Rep. U. S. and Mex. Bound. 
Surv., ii, pt. ii, 1859, 6 (Gila R., Arizona); Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 93.-- 
Kennbrlt, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., iv, pt. vi, 1856, 12, 16 (Bill Williams R., 
etc., Arizona); X, 6, 1859, 22, pi. 36.~Hbbrmann, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., x,Cy 
1859, 17 (Gila R. and Tucson, Arizona); x, pt. iv, no. 2, 1859, 58 (Cobrado R., 
California). — Cabanis, Joum. fttr Cm., 1862, 330 (Zacatecas; crit.).— Coubs, 
Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Pbila., 1866, 54 (Ft. Whipple, Arizona, rare); Check list, 
1873, no. 308, part; 2d ed., 1882, no. 452, part.— Coopbr, Cm. Cal., 1870, 
899 (Ft. Mojave, California). — ^Baibd, Brbwbb, and Ridoway, Hist. N. Am. 
Birds, ii, 1874, 658, part, pi. 52, figs. 2, 5; iii, 1874, 521 (Tucson; breeding 
habits; descr. eggs). — Lawbbncb, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., ii, 1874, 294 
(Mazatlan, Sinaloa; Tepic; Guadalajara, Jalisco). — ^Hbnshaw, Rep. Om. 
Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 1874, 133 (Valley of Gila R. and southward, Ari- 
zona).— Ridoway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 189; iv, 1881, 112, part 
(monogr.); Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 374, part.— Bbbwstbr, Bull. Nutt. 
Om. Club, vi, 1881, 73 (Tucson); viii, 1883, 24 (Camp Lowell and near 
Tombstone, Arizona; descr. young).— Bbldino, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vi, 
1883, 344 (Guaymas, Sonora). — ^Ambbican Obnitholooists' Union Com- 
MUTEE, Auk, XX, 1903, 342, part; Check list, 3d ed., 1910, 194, part.— 
MiLLBB (W. De W.), Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., xxi, 1905, 352 (Escuinapa and 
Rio Juana Gomez, s. Sinaloa; crit.).^HoLU8TBB, Auk, xxv, 1908, 468 
(Needlefl, California and 10 m. north; common). 

[Centwrus] uropyffialii Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 196, part. 

C[entwrus] uropygiaLU Sclatbb, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1857, 8 (''New Mexico," 
i. e., Arizona).— Ridoway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iv, 1881, 98 (diagnosis).— 
CouBS, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 488, part. 

C[enJtwrus\ v{ropygial\B\ uropygialU Ridoway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxiv, 
Feb. 24, 1911, 32, in text. 

Pieus wropygialtM SimDEVALL, Consp. Picin., 1866, 54. 

Mdanerpes vropyffialis Ridoway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, no. 23, Sept. 2, 1885, 
356, part. — ^Ambrican Obnitholooists' Union, Check List, 1886 (and2ded., 
1896), no. 411, part.— Soott, Auk, iii, 1886, 428 (Tucson, Florence, Riverside, 
etc., Arizona; habits).— Mobgom, Bull. Ridgway Om. Club, no. 2, 1887, 42 
(Yuma,Califomia, breeding).— Haboitt, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 182, 
part (Yaleta, Rio Negro, Moctezmna, and Hermosillo, Sonora; Presidio de 
Mazatlan, Sinaloa; San Bias, Tepic; SantaAna, near Guadalajara, Jalisco; Cal- 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



96 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Yillo, Agoas GaHentee; etc.).— Bhqabs, Floe. Ac Nat ScL FfaOA., 1802, 116 (s. 
Arizona in giant cactus districts).— Jour, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, 1893, 
785 (Baiianca Ibana, Jalisco).— Fishbb (A. K.), North Am. Fauna, no. 7, 
1893, 50 (near Mojave, Arizona, 1 spec., March) .^Akthont, Auk, xii, 1895, 
138 (San Fernando, Lower CaUfomia; crit.)* — ^Bendirb, life Hist. N. Am . 
Birds, ii, 1895, 127, part. — Salyin and Godman, BioL Genlr. -Am., A-ves, ii, 
1895, 423, part (s. to mts. of Jalisco and Aguas Galientes). — ^Lakts, Trans. 
Eiins. Ac. Sci. for 1896-97 (1899), 220 (Altata, Sinaloa). 

Mlelanerpes] uropygialii Ridoway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 294, part. 

[Melanerpes] vropygialis Sharps, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 212, part. 

C[entuni8] sulfunventer Bbichekbach, Handb. Scansores, Picinse, Oct., 1854, 
410, pi. 664, figs. 4411, 4412 (Mexico). 

Zebrapieut haupiia Malhbrbb, Mon. Pidd., ii, 1862, 245 (''Bolivia"; coll. A. 
Malherbe); iv, 1862, pi. 106, figs. 4, 5. 

Centunu haupii Qray, List Piddse Brit. Mus., 1868, 100. 

[Centunui] haupii Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 197, no. 8759. 

CENTURUS UROPTOIALIS BRBWSTERI Ridffway. 

BBXWBTXK'8 WOODPXOKEB. 

Similar to 0. u. vropygialis but smaller, with relatively (often 
absolutely) larger biU, bars on back, etc., averaging decidedly nar- 
rower (the white ones about 1.5-2 mm. wide), black bars on lower 
rump and upper tail-coverts narrower or more numerous, and white 
bars on lateral rectrices as well as black ones on inner web of middle 
rectrices narrower, 

AdvU TnaZ^.— Length (skins), 202-234 (219); wing, 12&-131 
(127.8); tail, 73-81.6 (77.9); cuhnen, 29-31.6 (29.9); tarsus, 21.6-24 
(22.6); outer anterior toe, 17-19 (17.7).* 

^dutt /emafe.— Length (skms), 192-219 (206); wing, 120-126.5 
(123); tail, 66.6-79.5 (73.2); cuhnen, 23.6-26.6 (24.9); tarsus, 20,6-22 
(21); outer anterior toe, 16.5-17.6 (16.6).* 

Southern Lower California, from Cape San Lucas northward to 
San Ign&cio (Cape San Lucas; San Jos£ del Cabo; Triunfo; La Paz; 
Santa Anita; Todos Santos and 30 miles northward; Santiago; 
Cahnallf ; El Cajoncito; Santa Margarita Island). 

CentwruB uropygialis (not of Baird, 1854) Baird, Fhx:. Ac. Nat. Sd. Fbila., 1860, 
302 (Cape San Lucas, Lower California). — ^Baibd, Brbwbb, and Ridowat, 
Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 558, part (Cape San Lucas). — ^Ridowat, Fh)c. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 189, part; iv, 1881, 112, part (Cape San Lucas; 
monogr.).— Bbldino, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., y, 1882, 543 (San Jos^ del Oabo, 
Lower California); vi, 1883, 345 (Pacific coast of Lower California, n. to 30 
m. n. of Todos Santos).— ^Amebican Obntthologists' Union CoMMrmB, 
Auk, XX, 1903, 342, part; Check List, 3d ed., 1910, 194, part. 

a Malherbe claims (Mon. Pic, ii, p. 245, footnote) 1853 as the date of his specific 
name ^'haupiif^' on the ground that Bonaparte instituted the name ''en eSet** by 
dedicating it, in the Revue et Magazin de Zoohgie to that year, to ''au savant directeor 
de Mus^ de Darmstadt." Inasmuch, however, as not even Dr. Kaup's name was 
given in the passage quoted as evidence, it will readily appear that Professor Baird 's 
specific term uropygialie was really the first proposed. 

fr Ten specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIRDS OP NOBTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 97 

[CerUunu] tavpygialia Goubs, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 196, part (Cape San 
Lucas). 

Clenturus] uropygidlis Ridoway, Ptoc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., iv, 1881, 98, part. — 
CoYTBs, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 488, part (Cape San Lucas). 

Mekmerpes uropygialia Ridowat, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, no. 23, Sept. 2, 
1885, 356, part.— American Orkitholooists' Union, Check list, 1886, 
no. 411, part (Lower Oalifomia).— -Bryant (W. E.), Ftoc. Csl, Ac. Sci., 
Ber. 2, 1889, 287 (Cape district and Santa Margarita I., Lower California).— 
TowNSSND (C. H.), Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xiii, 1890, 137 (Cape San Lucas; La 
Pto).— Haroitt, Cat. BirdsBrit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 182, part (La Paz, San Joe6 
del Cabo, and Cape San Lucas, Lower California).— -Salvin and Godmak, 
Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 423, part (Lower California).— Brewster, 
Bull. Mus. (^mp. Zool., xli, 1902, 107 (Cape San Lucas district; description). 

Mldanerpes] uropygidlU Ridoway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 294, part. 

[MeUmerpes] uropygudis Sharpe, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 212, part. 

CerUuruB uropygialU brewsteH Ridoway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxiv, Feb. 24, 
1911, 32 (Santiago, s. Lower California; .coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.). 

CENTURUS RADIOLATUS (Wagler). 
JAMAIOAX WOODPXOl 



AdnU male. — Crown, occiput, nape, and hindneck bright crimson 
or carmine; back, scapulars, rump, upper tail-coverts, tail, and wings 
black, the back, scapulars, and wings (except primaries) very nar- 
rowly barred with white or whitish, the lower rump and upper tail- 
covcrts more broadly barred with white, the inner web of middle 
pair of rectrices also with a few narrow bars of the same; forehead 
and lores pale buffy brownish or dull buflfy whitish, passing into 
wbite on posterior portion of loral region, superciUary region (except 
posteriorly), suborbital and malar regions, chin, and throat; upper 
posterior portion of superciUary region, post-axiricular region, and 
foreneck light grayish brown (nearly broccoli brown), this passing 
into deep yellowish olive on chest, breast, and sides; abdomen and 
flanks barred with dusky and pale yellowish oUve, the first strongly 
suffused with saffron yellow to vermiUon or poppy red, or nearly 
uniformly yellow or red; thighs, under tail-coverts, and under wing- 
coverts black, barred with white; biU dull black; legs and feet dusky 
Cm dried skins); length (skins), 250-278 (261); wing, 126-140 
(134.4); tail, 81-94 (87.7); cuhnen, 32.5-38.6 (35.5); tarsus, 23.5- 
26.5 (25.2); outer anterior toe, 21.5-24 (22.9).« 

AdvU female. — Similar to the adult male, but red of head con- 
fined to nape and hindneck, the crown and occiput plain brownish 
gray (smoke gray anteriorly deepening into mouse gray posteriorly) ; 
length Cskins), 240-260 (251); wing, 127.5-137 (131.7); tail, 78-90.5 
(85.3); cuhnen, 31-36 (33.3); tarsus, 23-26.5 (24.2); outer anterior 
toe, 20.5-23 (22).« 

a Ten specimens. 
3822'--BulL 50, pt 6—14 7 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



98 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Yov/ng femoHel — Similar to the adult female, but median portion 
of crown and occiput red (more or less extensively), and abdomen 
less strongly suffused with red. 

Island of Jamaica (Spanishtown; Moneague; Mansfield, neai Bath; 
Windsor; Priestmans River; Westmoreland; Kingston; St. Catherine; 
Port Henderson). 

[PteiM] carolinuB (not of limueus, 1758) LmNJsus, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, i, 1766, 
175, part (Jamaica). — Ombun, Syst. Nat., i, pt. i, 1788, 431, part (Jamaica). 

P\ycuB\ radiolatus Waqler, Syst. Av., 1827, Picus, sp. 39 (Jamaica); Isis, 1829, 
512. 

Picu9 radiolatus Sundbvall, Ckmsp. Av. Pidn., 1866, 52. 

C[entwru8] radiolatus Gray, Gren. Birds, ii, 1846, 442.— Nbwton (A. and E.), 
Handb. Jamaica, 1881, 109.— Ridgwat, Fhx:. U. S. Nat. Mus., iv, 1881, 98 
(diagnosis). 

Centurus radiolatus Gossb, Birds Jamaica, 1847, 271.— Sclatbr, Fhx:. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1861, 79; Cat. Am: Birds, 1862, 343.— Albrbcht, Joum. fOr Om., 
1862, 203.— March, Ptoc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, 284.— Ridowat, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., iv, 1881, 111 (monogr.).— fiALvn^, Cat. Strickland Coll., 
1882, 399.— Cory, Auk, iii, 1886, 378; Birds West Ind., 1889, 173.— Soorr, 
Auk, ix, 1892, 275.— Fibld, Auk, xi, 1894, 124 (Port Henderson, Jamaica; 
habits, etc.). 

[Centurus] radiolatus Bonapartb, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 118; Ateneo Italiano, ii, 

1854, 126 (Consp. Volucr. Zygod., 1854, 11.)— Sclatbr and Salvin, Nom. Av. 

Neotr., 1873, 100.— Cory, List Birds West Ind., 1885, 20. 

Zebrapicus radiolatus Malhbrbe, Mon. Pidd., ii, 1862, 237; iv, 1862, pi. 104, 
figs. 5, 6. 

Melanerpes radiolatus Harofit, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 166 (Moneague 
and Spanishtown, Jamaica).— Cory, Cat. West Ind. Birds, 1892, 12, 104, 130. 

[MdoMrpes] radiolatus Sharpb, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 210. 

l7)Picus aUnfrons SwAmeoN,** Philos. Mag., n. s., i, June, 1827, 439 ("table- 
land'' of Mexico— error?; coll. Bullock). — ^Lbssok, Compl. Buffon, ix, 
1837, 318. 

P[icus] albijrons Waolbr, Isis, 1829, 514. 

Pieus larvatus Tbmminck, PI. Col., iv,livr. 73, 1827, in text to P. supereiliaris. 

CENTURUS SnOATUS (Mliller). 
HAITXAV WOODPXOSXB. 

Adult male. — Crown, occiput, nape, post-auricular region, and 
hindneck bright crimson or dark poppy red, the feathers slate-grayish 
beneath the surface; forehead and superciliary r^ion (broadly) light 
smoke gray, the loral, suborbital, auricular, and malar regions, chin, 
and upper throat darker or more brownish gray (between pale hair 
brown and drab-gray); a white line down side of neck, with a black 
line between it and the red of post-auricular region; back and scapu- 
lars black, sharply and regularly barred with light wax yellow or ohve- 
yellow, sometimes ocher yellow (rarely orange-ochraceous), the rump 

a The full description is as follows: 

''Above blacldsh, transversely marked with white lines, beneath olivaceous; front, 
chin, and sides of the head red; crown and neck red. 
''Tableland: rare. 
"Total length, 10} [inches]; bill 1^; wings, 6; taU, 4." 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMBBIOA. 99 

similar, but black interspaces narrower (about as wide as the yellow- 
ish bars); upper tail-coverts bright crimson, with concealed portion 
blackish; t^ uniform black; wings black, broadly barred with light 
ydlow (of varying hue), the bars brighter or clearer yellow (nearly 
saffron) on secondaries, paler (sometimes yellowish white) on wing- 
coverts and primaries; foreneck and upper chest plain usually light 
smoky brown (nearly isabella color), but varying in color from oUva- 
ceous isabeUa color to nearly russet, anteriorly passing gradually into 
gray of throat, posteriorly passing into light yellowish olive-green, 
stioDgly tinged with olive-yellow or wax yellow, on flanks, abdomen, 
aad anal region, the under tail-coverts pale grayish olive margined 
with pale yellow and with more or less distinct narrow shaft-streaks 
of darker; under surface of tail pale glaucous olive or yellowish gray; 
under wing-coverts and axillars pale brownish gray or grayish brown, 
tiDged with pale yellowish; inner webs of remiges dusky, with large 
spots of yellowish white, except on distal half (more or less) of longer 
and greater part of outermost primaries; bill dull blackish, the man- 
dible paler (grayish in life?); l^s and feet dusky in dried skins; 
length (skins), 214-251 (228); wing, 115.5-130 (120.2); tail, 76-87 
(81.9); culmen, 32-39 (33.6); tarsus, 23-25 (23.9); outer anterior 
toe, 18.&-21 (20.1).« 

AdvUfemdU. — Similar to the adult male, but red on head and neck 
confined to nape, hindneck, and post-auricular r^on, the crown and 
occiput uniform black; length (skins), 200-240 (216); wing, 108-123 
(117.9); tail, 76.5-94.6 (85); cuhnen, 25-28 (26.2); tarsus, 21-23.5 
(22.2); outer anterior toe, 17-19 (18.1).'* 

Young male. — Similar to the adult female (the crown black, with- 
out red in first plumage), bars on back, etc., less sharply defined, and 
under parts much more grayish. 

Young female. — Similar to the young male, but black of crown 
more or less suffused with red, sometimes with minute mesial streaks 
of white. 

Island of Haiti (Le Coup and Port au Prince, Haiti; San Francisco 
Mountains, Aguacate, Honduras, Santo Domingo City, Puerta Plata, 
Citare, Calia Honda, El Valle, Sanchez, Mani^l, Saman4, and La 
(^ta, Santo Domingo). 

Picas ariatuB Mt^LLER, Vollst. Natureyst. Suppl., 1776, 91 (Santo Domingo; based 
on Le Pic Rayi, Picas dominicensis striatus, Brisson, Om., iv, 65, pi. 4, fig. 1; 
Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 281). 

[Pieus] siriatus Boddakbt, Tabl. PI. Enl., 1783, 17 (based on PL Enl., 281).— 
Gmblin, Syrt. Nat., i, pt. i, 1788, 427.— Latham, Index Om., i, 1790, 238. 

Pieus sbitUus ViBnxor, Ois.-Am. Sept., ii, 1807, 61, pi. 114; Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. 
Nat., xxvi,1818, 90.— Valenciennes, Diet. Sci. Nat., xl, 1826, 173.— Drapiez, 
Diet. ClaflB., xiii, 1828, 505.— Cuvieb, Rdgne Anim., i, 1829, 451.— Lesson, 
Traits d'Orn., 1831, 227; Compl. Buffon, ix, 1837, 324.— Bryant, Proc. Soc. 
N. H., xi, 1867, 96.— SuNDBVALL, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 62. 

(» Ten specimens. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



100 BULLETIN 50, XTNITBD STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

P[icu9] 8triatu$ BoNNATBRRB and ViBiLLOT, Enc. M^th., iii, 1823, 1316.— Waolbb, 

Syst. Av., 1827, Picus, sp. 40.— Rbichbnbagh, Handb., Scansores, Pidiue, 

1854, 409, pi. 663, figs. 4404, 4405. 
C[enturu8] striatus Gray, Gen. Birds, ii, 1846, 442. — ^Ridowat, Ttoc. U. S. Nat 

Mus., iv, 1881, 98 (diagnosis). 
CerUwrus striatut Sall£, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1857, 234 (Santo Domingo).— 

Gray, list Birds Brit. Mus., Capit. and Picid., 1868, 102.— Ridoway, Proc. 

U. S. Nat. Mus., iv, 1881, 117 (monogr.).— Cory, Bull. Nutt. Om. aub, vi, 

1881, 154 (mts. of Haiti); Birds Haiti and San Dom., 1884, 111, pi. 23, figs. 

1, 2; Auk, iii, 1886, 378; Birds West Ind., 1889, 173.— Tristram, Ibis, 1884, 

168.— Christy, Ibis, 1897, 333 (habits; descr. nest and eggs). 
[Centyrus] striattu Bonapartb, Consp. Ay., i, 1850, 119; Ateneo Italiano, ii, 

1854, 126 (Consp. Volucr. Zygod., 1854, 11).— Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 197, 

no. 8766.— Sclatbr and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 100.— Cory, list 

Birds West Ind., 1885, 20. 
Zebrapicus striatus Malhbrbb, Mon. Picid., ii, 1862, 231; ii, 1862, pi. 107, figs. 3, 4. 
Chhrrmerpes striaius HARorrr, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 89. — Cory, Cat. 

West Ind. Birds, 1892, 12, 104, 131.— Chbrrib, Contr. Om. San Dom., 1896, 

21 (habits). 
[Chloronerpes] striatus Sharpb, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 205. 
Melanerpes striatus Verrill (A. E. and A. H.), Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1909, 

360 (Santo Domingo; habits). 

Genus BALANOSPHYRA Rldgway. 

BalanospJtyra a Ridoway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxiv, Feb. 24, 1911, 34. (Type, 
Picus formicivorus Swainson.) 

Medium-sized Picid© (wing about 130-151 mm.) similar to Mdar 
nerpes, but with antrorse prefrontal feathers developed into conspicu- 
ous dense tufts, feathers of breast broad and imbricated, eighth, 
seventh and eighth, or sixth, seventh, and eighth primaries longest, 
ninth primary nearly as long as fifth, and tenth (outermost) relatively 
much smaller (about onerfourth as long as ninth), narrower, and more 
acuminate. 

Bill about as long as head or shorter, stout, cuneate in vertical pro- 
file, slightly broader than deep at nostrils; culmen slightly but dis- 
tinctly convex, distinctly but not sharply ridged; gonys usually twice 
as long as mandibular rami, nearly straight, ascending terminally, very 
slightly (if at all) prominent basally; supranasal ridge distinct for 
basal half or more of maxiUa. Nostril longitudinally oval, rather 
large, situated about midway between culmen and tomimn, covered 
by a very conspicuous prefrontal tuft, the feathers comprising which 
are antrorse anteriorly, dense and semierect posteriorly; malar apex 
with distinct bristle-like antrorse feathers, and feathers of chin with 
distinct though relatively short semiantrorse bristly tips. Margin of 
eyelid densely clothed with short and minute feathers, with a naked 
crescentic space immediately above and below. Wing long, pointed, 
the longest primaries exceeding secondaries by one-third the length of 
wing; eighth, seventh and eighth, or sixth, seventh, and eighth pri- 

a p^Xaa^t an acorn; a4>0pa, a hammer. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD8 OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMEBIOA. 101 

maries longest, the ninth nearly as long as fifth, the tenth (outennost) 
about one-fourth as long as ninth, narrow and pointed. Tail a little 
more than half as long as wing, the middle rectrices abruptly acu- 
minate terminally. Tarsus shorter than either outer toe with claw, 
the upper third (approximately) feathered in front; outer hind toe, 
without claw, about as long as outer front toe with claw, or very 
slightly shorter, 

Ootoratum. — (General color black (glossed with blue or green on side 
of head and neck, back, scapulars, and chest), the rump, upper tail- 
coverts, and under parts (posterior to chest) white; lower chest or 
upper breast (sometimes whole chest) streaked with black and white; 
forehead and foreneck (connected by a stripe across loral and malar 
regions) yellowish white or light yellow; a white patch at base of pri- 
maries; adult male with crown, occiput, and nape (or nape only in 
one species) bright red, adult female with crown black. Young simi- 
lar to adults. 

Range, — ^Pacific coast and southwestern border of United States to 
(Colombia. (Three species ?) 

KBT TO THE 8PBCIS8 AND STTBSPEaSS OP BALAN08PHTBA. 

t. Anzicnkr and orbital r^ons, chm, and upper throat black; chest uniform black 
or heavily streaked with black. 
h. Adult males with crown, occiput, and nape red; adult females with crown black, 
occiput and nape red. {Bahnospkifmfonnicivora.) 
c Chest mostly uniform black, 
d Larger (wing averaging more than 143, culmen averaging 29.8 in male, 28.3 
in female). (Northern Lower California to Oregon.) 

Balanosphyra formloivora balrdi (p. 107). 

dd. Smaller (wing averaging 140.5 in male, 138.9 in female; culmen averaging 

26.1 in male, 24.4 in female); posterior portion of chest more extensively 

streaked. (Arizona, New Mexico, and western Texas, and States of 

Sonora, Chihuahua, and Durango, northwestern Mexico.) 

Balanosphyra formloivora aculeata (p. 105). 
ec Chest mostly streaked, at least op median portion. 
d. Frontal patch broader, white; adult female with black band across crown 
much broader; laiger (wing averaging more than 138). 
€. Lower throat paler yellow; sides of upper chest mostly uniform black; 
back, etc., with gloss more greenish. 
/. Darker, with lower throat more strongly tinged with yellow, the sides 
and flanks more broadly streaked with black. (South-central Texas 
through eastern and southern Mexico to Guatenuda. 

Balanosphyra formloivora formloivora (p. 102). 
/. Lower throat leas strongly tinged with yellow, often nearly white; sides 
and flanks less broadly streaked with black, the streaks sometimes 
nearly obsolete. (British Honduras.) 

Balanosphyra formloivora albeola (p. 109). 

ee. Lower throat deeper yellow; sides of upper chest mostly streaked with 

white; back, etc., with j^oss more bluish. (Southern Honduras to 

western Fkmama.) Balanosphyra formloivora strlatlpeotiis (p. 110). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



102 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

dd. Frontal band narrower, yellow or yellowish white; adult female with black 
band across crown much narrower; smaller (wing averaging 135.7 in male, 
134.8 in female). (Southern Lower California.) 

Balanoaphyra formicivora angustifkrona (p. 108). 
hh. Adult male with crown and occiput glossy black, only the nape red; adult 
female without any red. (Central Colombia.) 

Balanoaphyxa flavigula (extraliinital).<> 

aa. Auricular and orbital r^ons white; chin and whole throat light yellow; chest 

white, streaked with black. (Mexico?). . .Balanosphyza zantholarynz (p. 111). 

BALAlfOSPHTRA FORMICIVORA FORMICIVORA (Swainwm). 
AVT-xATnra woodpiosxb. 

AduU male. — Nasal tufts, anterior portion of malar region, chin, 
and upper throat, black; forehead and rather narrow band across 
anterior portion of lores to middle or posterior portion of malar 
region white, passing into pale sulphur or primrose yellow or yellowish 
white on lower throat and foreneck; crown, occiput, and nape, bright 
poppy red; orbital and auricular regions, sides of neck, upper chest, 
lower hindneck, b.ack and scapulars, plain glossy greenish blue-black; 
wings black or brownirii black, the coverts margined with glossy 
greenish blue-black, the primaries (except three or four outermost) 
with a basal patch of white, occupying both webs (but interrupted 
by the black shaft), this white area broader on inner quills; rump 
and upper tail-coverts immaculate white; tail entirely black; lower 
chest and sides of upper breast glossy greenish blue-black, more or 
less broadly streaked with white (the upper chest also sometimes 
more or less streaked, at least on median portion), the remaining 
under parts white, the lower breast (except medially), sides, and 
flanks streaked with black, the under tail-coverts with narrow shaft- 
streaks of the same; bill black; iris variable in color (pinkish, white, 
bluish, brownish, or yellowish) ; legs and feet dusky grayish (greenish 
gray in Ufe?); length (skins), 191-236 (213); wing, 131.5-151 (141.1); 
tail, 69-83.5 (76.6); cuhnen, 23-28.5 (26.9); tarsus, 20-23.5 (22.4); 
outer anterior toe, 15.5-19 (17.4).* 

AdvU female. — Similar to the adult male, but crown glossy greenish 
bhie-black, the anterior margin of the transverse occipito-nuchal area 
much posterior to posterior angle of eye (about middle of auricular 
region); length (skins), 190-233 (206); wing, 130.5-148 (136.3); tail, 

a Mektmpicos flavigula Malherbe, Rev. et Mag. de ZooL, Nov., 1849, 542 (Colom- 
bia).— ife{amptcu«/at;t^u2a lialherbe, Mon. Pidd., ii, 1862, 202; iv, 1862, pi. 99, figs. 
6, 6. — M[danerpe$\ flavigula Reichenbach, Handb. Scansores, Piciii», 1854, 384, pi. 
643, figs. ^m7-4299,'-Melanerpe» flavigula Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lend., 1855, 161; 
Haigitt, Gat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 154. — MekmerpesformicivonUf \Bi,flavigtda 
Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, b6l.—MeIanerpe$ flavigu- 
laris Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1856, 2(n,-\MeUmerpe8\flavigtdan$ Sclater and 
Salvin, Norn. Ay. Neotr., 1873, 100; Shaipe, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 210.— Botonotp^byro 
flavigula Ridgway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., zxiv, Feb. 24, 1911, 35. 

b Forty-one spedmenB. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIRDS OF KOBTH AND MIDDLE AMEBICA. 



108 



6&-82.5 (76.6); culmen, 22-27.6 (26.1); tarsus, 19.6-23 (21); outer 
anterior toe, 16.5-18 (IG.O).** 

Young male. — Similar to the adult male, but black of nasal tufts, 
chin, etc., duller (more sooty), that of the chest dull (not glossy), 
streaks on breast, etc., less sharply defined, lower throat with less 
pronounced yellow tinge, and texture of plumage softer. 

Eastern and southern Mexico, in States of TamauUpas (Victoria; 
Sierra Madro above Victoria; Yerba Buena; Galindo; Guiaves; 
Realito), Nuevo Le6n (BoquiUo; Boque Negro; Cerro de la Silla; 
Monterey), San Luis Potosf (Sierra de San Luis Potosf), Guanajuato, 
Puebla (Tochimulco; Chachapa; Rio Frio, Lttaccihudtl), Vera Cruz 
(Orizaba; Jalapa; C6rdova; Potrero and San Lorenzo, near C6rdova; 
lGrad6r; Huatusco, near Mirad6r; Co&tepec; Las Vigas; Misantla; 
San Bart61o; iSentla; Chachapa), Mexico (Temiscdltepec; near City 
of Mexico; Chimalapa; Mexicalcingo), Hidalgo (Re6l del Monte; El 
Chico), Morelos (T^tela del Volcan), Zacatecas (Sierra de Valparaiso; 
Sierra de Jerez), Jalisco (Tonila; Zapotl&n; Sierra de BolafLos; Mesa 
la (Senega; Jacal&; La Pisagua; San Sebasti&n; Volcan de Nieve; La 
Laja, 9,000 feet), Sinaloa (Plomosas), Tepic (Sierra Madre), Michoa- 
c4n (Patzcuaro; Nahuatzin), Guerrero (Omilteme; mountains near 

A Forty-four specimens. 



Locality. 



W\ng. 


Tafl. 


Ex- 

pond 

culmen. 


Tanas. 


Outer 
ante- 
rior toe. 


144 


82 


27 


21 


17 


148.6 


78.4 


26.2 


21.6 


17.1 


151 


79 


26.5 


22.5 


17.5 


139.7 


77.8 


25 


21 


16.5 


142.1 


77.1 


27.3 


22.4 


18.8 


137.7 


74.6 


27.8 


21.6 


17.1 


136.7 


72.1 


28.8 


21.6 


16.7 


136.5 


75.2 


26.8 


21.5 


17.2 


144.8 


77.5 


25.8 


21.7 


18.2 


141.8 


79.6 


26.5 


22.4 


18 


189.7 


79.6 


25 


20 


16.5 


189.4 


78.7 


24 


20.6 


16.4 


142.8 


78.8 


24.8 


21.2 


16.7 


141 


82 


22 


20.5 


17 


139 


76 


24 


21 


17.5 


189.4 


75.9 


25.6 


21.1 


17.6 


130.1 


74.2 


25.8 


20.9 


16.6 


132.5 


70.5 


25.9 


20.5 


16.2 


188 


78.7 


27.2 


21.2 


17 


138.6 


76.1 


25 


21.6 


17.6 


189.4 


76.6 


24.8 


21.5 


17.8 



One adult male from Boothem Sinaloa (Plomosas) 

Sevco adult males ftomJalisoo 

Out adult male from MIchoacan 

TlMfe adult males from Qoeneio 

Nloe adult males from Vera Gnu 

Sercn adult males from TamaoUpas 

8lx adult males from Nuevo Leon 

Tbne adult males from Kerr County (2) and Chlsos ICountabis 

0), Texas 

Tine adult males from Chiapas , 

FtaraduK males from Guatemala 



Tkne adult females from Zacatecas 

fosr adult females from Jallsoo 

Time adnK females from Micboacan , 

One adult female from ICorelos 

Oat adoK female from Hidalgo 

Seven adult females from Vera Cms 

K^ adult females from TamauUpas 

Six adult females from Nuevo Leon 

Tvo adult females from Kerr County and Chlsos Mountains, 
Tens 



live adult females from Chiapas. . . 
8b idnit females from Guatemala. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



104 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Chilpancingo; Xautipa; Sierra Madre del Sur), Oaxaca (La Parada; 
Guichicovi; Sola; Juchatingo; Tehutotepec), Chiapas (Sau Crist6bal; 
Pinabete; Palenque; Gmeta Mountains); and Guatemala (Calderas, 
Volcan de Puego; Chilasco; Babin&l; ridge above Totonicapim; 
Volcan de Agua; A16tepeque; Tolim&n; between Lake Atitldn and 
Tecpdm, 7,000 feet; Hacienda Chanc61; Tactic, Vera Paz), and north- 
ward into south-central Texas (Harris Lake and Kerrville, Kerr 
County; Chisos Mountains). 

Picua formicivonu SwAmsoN, Philos. Mag., i, 1827, 439 (Temiacaltepec, Mexico; 
type now in Cambridge Mus.). 

Melanerpes f<nnmcivoru9 Bonaparte, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond.j 1837, 109 (Mexico); 
Consp. Av., i, 1850, 115, part (Mexico).— Sclateb, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond.» 
1856, 307 (Cordova, Vera Cruz; crit.); 1858, 305 (La Parada, Oaxaca); 1859, 
367 (Jalapa, Vera Cruz); 1864, 177 (near City of Mexico); Cat. Am. BiixlB, 
1862, 341, part (s. Mexico).— Baibd, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 114, 
part (Nuevo Leon). — Sclateb and Salvin, Ibis, 1859, 137 (Volcan de Fu^o, 
Guatemala).— Lawbence, Mem. Best. Soc. N. H., ii, 1874, 294 (Tonila, 
Jalisco); Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1876, 35 (Guichicovi, Oaxaca; Gineta Mts., 
Chiapas).— Febbabi-Pebbz, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., ix, 1886, 159 (Chachapa, 
Puebla; Jalapa, Vera Cruz). — Habgitt, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 
149, part (Sierra Madre above Victoria, Tamaulipas; Coatepec, Jalapa, and 
San Lorenzo near Cordova, Vera Cruz; Omilteme, Xautipa, and Sierra 
Madre del Sur, Guerrero; Oaxaca). — Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.- 
Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 412, part (Real del Monte, Hidalgo; Chimalpa and 
Mexicalcingo, Mexico; Rio Frio de Ixtaccihuatl, Puebla; Cordova, Jalapa, 
Las Vigas, Coatepec, Misantia, Huatusco, San Lorenzo, San Bartolo, Zentla, 
and Chachapa, Vera Cruz; La Parada, Sola, Juchatengo, and Guichicovi, 
Oaxaca; Gineta Mts., Chiapas; Chilasco, Rabinal, ridge above Totonicapam, 
Calderas, Volcan de Fuego, Volcan de Agua, Alotepeque, and Toliman, 
Guatemala; etc.).— Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., x, 1898, 34 (Jalapa). — 
Lantz, Trans. Kansas Ac. Sci. for 1896-97 (1899), 220, part (Coatepec, Vera 
Cruz).— Deabbobn, Pub. 125, Field Mus. N. H., 1907, 92 (between Lake 
Atitlan and Tecpam, Guatemala, 7,000 ft.).— Lacey, Auk, xxviii, 1911, 209 
(Kerrville, Texas, resident). 

[Melanerpes] formicivonis Sclateb and Salvin, Nom. A v. Neotr., 1873, 100, 
part.— Shabpe, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 209, part. 

Mlelanerpeslformicivoriis Ridgwat, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 291, part (Tehuan- 
tepee, Oaxaca; Jalapa and Cordova, Vera Cruz). 

Melanerpes formidvoruSf var. formieivorus Baibd, Bbbweb, and RmowAT, 
Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 566, part. 

Melanerpes formidvonaformicivorua Phillips, Auk, xxviii, Jan., 1911, 75 (Yerba 
Buena, Galindo, Guiavee, and Realito, Tamaulipas). 

Melampicus formieivorus Malhebbe, Mon. Picid., ii, 1862, 199; iv, 1862, pi. 99, 
figs. 1, 2, 3. 

Balanosphyra formidvora formicivora Ridgway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxiv, 
Feb. 24, 1911, 35. 

Picus melanopogon Temminck, Planches Col., iv, livr. 76, March, 1828, pi. 451 
and text (Mexico; coll. Berlin Mus.; ex Lichtenstein, manuscript). — 
Lesson, Compl. Buffon, ix, 1837, 319. — Sundevall, Consp. Av. Picin., 
1866, 51, part. 

P[uyu8] Tnelanopogon Waoleb, Isis, 1829, 515. 

[Melanerpes] melanopogon Heine and Rbighenow, Nom. Mus. Hein. Om., 1890, 
223, part (Jalapa). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIRDS OP 170BTH Ain> MIDDLE AMBBIOA. 



105 



MdaanpieuM meUmopogon Malhbrbe, M^m. Acad. MeU, xxx, 1849, 336; Rev. et 
Mag. de ZooL, i, 1849, 542. 

[Mdanerpes] melanopo^on Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 115 ("Bradl"); 
Ateneo Italino, ii, 1854, 125 (Ck)n8p. Volucr. Zygod., 1854, 10). 

[Mekaurpa farmieivcrus.] Subsp. a. Melanerpes melanopogon Haroitt, Cat. 
Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 151, part (Sierra Jerez and Sierra de Valpa- 
raiso, Zacatecas; Zapotlan, Jalisco; Sieira Madre, Topic; Sierra San Luis 
Potoef; Chimalpa, Mexico; Sola and Juchatengo, Oaxaca). 

Mdanerpes melanopogon Haroitt, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 569 (Sierra 
de Bolafios, Jalisco). 

Pieus nukanpogon Lichtbnstxin, Preis-Verz. Mex. V^., 1830, 1; Joum. ftlr 
Om., 1863, 55 (reprint). 

[Picut] melampogon Lichtenstsin, Nom. Av. Mus. Berol., 1854, 76. 

Mdanerpes formieivortis, var. striatipectuif part, Ridowat, in Baird, Brewer, 
and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 561 (Orizaba and Mirador, Vera 
Cruz). 

Mdanerpet formieifxjrtu . . . striattpechu Boucard, Liste Ois. r^ol. Guat., 
1878, 78 (Guatemala). 

BALANOSPHYRA FORMICIVORA ACULEATA (Meams). 
XSA&VS' WOODPICSXB. 

Sinular to B. f. formidvoraj but averaging smaller, especially the 
biD, and with the chest much more extensively uniform black. 

AduU male.— Length (skins), 196-227 (210); wing, 135-146.6 
(140.5); tail, 70-83 (76.8); cuhnen, 23.6-29.5 (26.1); tarsus, 20-22.5 
(21.3); outer anterior toe, 15.5-18.5 (17).<» 

Adidt ferrUde.— Length (skms), 191-220 (207); wing, 132.6-144 
(138.9); tail, 67.5-82 (76); cuhnen, 22-26.5 (24.4); tarsus- 19-22 
(20.4); outer anterior toe, 15-18 (16.1). «» 

Arizona, New Mexico, and western Texas (Davis Mts.; Fort 
Davis, in oak belt), southward over northwestern Mexico, in States 
ofSonora(San Jos6Mts.; LaChumata; Rio de Santa Cruz; Oposura; 
Nogales; Cerro Blanco; Cachute; El Pinita; Santa Rosa; Yecaora), 



« Thirty-two specimens. 



& Thirty-three specimens. 



LooaUty. 



wing. 


Tall. 


Cul- 
men. 


Tarsus. 


140.2 


76.2 


25.4 


21.4 


141.3 


78.8 


24.7 


21.3 


130 


77.2 


25.6 


20.9 


142.2 


70.2 


27.1 


21.6 


MO. 3 


74.8 


26.7 


21.2 


189.3 


78.4 


23.8 


20.6 


137.8 


76.6 


25.5 


21 


137.8 


80.2 


26 


20.7 


139.9 


74.5 


24.7 


20.8 


137.2 


71 


23.6 


19.8 


139.5 


75.4 


24.4 


20.3 



Outer 
ante- 
rior toe. 



NlDc adolt males from Aiteona 

Thfee adnlt msJes from New Mexico 

FooridultmaJeafromChihuabua 

BtxidoltmalcaitomSonora. 

TcB adnlt males from Dorango 

TZMALE3, 

Tmadnltfemales from Arizona 

TtoctadnH females from New Mexico 

Three adnlt females from western Texas (Davis Mountains) 

8U adnlt ^"im tff from ChOmahna 

Poor adult females from Sonora 

Berco adult females from Durango 



16.6 
16.5 
17.5 
17.5 
17 



16.1 

16.2 

16.8 

16.2 

16 

15.8 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



106 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Chihu&hua (Carmen; San Luis Mts. ; Bravo ; Pacheco ; Colonia G&rcia; 
Bostillos; 30 miles west of Mifiaca; Casas Grandes; PifLos Altos; 
Reftigio; San Jos6; Tomochic; Jestis Maria); and Durango (Cienega 
de las Vacas; Arroyo del Buey; El Salto; Bio Sestin; Chacal&; Los 
Coyotes; Ciuddd). 

Mekmerpes formidvoru$ (not Piciu formicivonLB Swainson) Baibd, Rep. Pacific 
R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 114, part (Lob Nogales, Sonoia; Copper Mines and 
Ft. Thom, New Mexico); Rep. U. S. and Mex. Bound. Surv., ii, pt. ii, 1859, 
6, part (Lob Nogales; Oopper Mines; Ft. Thom); Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, 
no. 95, part.— CouES, Ibis, 1865, 162, in text (Ft. Whipple, Arizona); Proc. 
Ac. Nat. Sci. Fhila., 1866, 55 (Ft. Whipple; variations in color of iris, etc.); 
Check List, 1873, no. 310, part; 2d ed., 1882, no. 310, part.— Cooper, Om! 
Calif., 1870, 403, part (Arizona).— Hbnshaw, Rep. Om. Coll. Wheeler's 
Surv., 1874, 134 (Oak Orchard and Apache, Arizona; habits); Zool. Exp. 
W. 100th Merid., 1875, 399 (Camp Aimche, Oak Orchard, and Chiricahua 
Mts., Arizona).— SALvm and Godhan, Biol. Centr.-Am., Avee, ii, 1895, 
412, part (Santa Rosa and Yecaera, Sonora; Pifios Altos, Refugio, San Jos^, 
Tomochic, and Jesus Maria, Chihuahua; Ciudad Durango, Durango; Ari- 
zona).— Amebican ORNrrHOLOoisTs' Union CoMMrrrEB, Auk, xiv, 1897, 
120 (check list no. 407), part.— Hunn, Auk, xxiii, 1906, 421 (Pifioe Altos, 
Grant Co., New Mexico). — ^Wetmore, Kansas Univ. Sci. Bull., iv, no. 19, 
1908, 379 (Bill Williams Mt., Arizona). 

[Mekmerpes formicivonui\ var. formieivcTue Baird, Brewer, and Ridqwat, 
Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 561, part (n. w. Mexico). 

Melarierpes formieivorui, \Kt, formicivanu Baird, Brewer, and Ridowat, Hist. 
N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 566, part. 

MelanerpesformidvoriLB/ormieivo^ Mn.LKR (W. De W.), Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., 
xxii, 1906, 165 (Cienega de las Vacas, Arroyo del Buey, Rio Sestin, etc., 
n. w. Durango).— American Ornitholoqists' Union, Check List, 3d ed., 
1910, 192, part (Arizona; New Mexico). — ^Bergtold, Auk, xxix, 1912, 332 
(Gila R., New Mexico). 

Melanerpes formicivonia hairdi Ridoway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 21, 1881, 
35 (no. 377), 85, part (w. Mexico).— Coues, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 
454, part. — ^Brewster, Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, viii, 1883, 24 (Chiricahua 
Mts., Arizona).— Scott, Auk, ii, 1885, 174, 356 (Santa Catalina Mts., Arizona); 
iii, 1886, 427 (Pinal and Santa Catalina Mts., resident down to 4,000 ft.).— 
Henshaw, Auk, iii, 1886, 79 (upper Pecos R., New Mexico, August).— 
American ORNrrHOLOOisrs' Union, Check List, 1886 (and 2d ed., 1895), no. 
407, part.— Shufeldt, Auk, iv, 1887, 345 (Ft. Wingate, New Mexico).— 
Mearns, Auk, vii, 1890, 48 (n. e. Arizona).— Mbrriam, North Am. Fauna, 
no. 3, 1890, 39, 92 (Grand Canyon of Colorado, n. Arizona).— Rhoaos, 
Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1892, 116 (Santa Catalina Mts., Arizona, oak 
belt up to 9,000 ft.).— Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., v, 1893, 36 (n. e. 
Sonora and n. w. Chihuahua). 

JilelanerpeslfarmicivoniB bairdi Redo way, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 291, part. 

if[«2an^pe9]/[ormtctt;ont«] bairdi Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 489, 
part 

Melanerpes formicivarui acuUaJtus Mearns, Auk, vii, no. 3, July, 1890, 249 (Squaw 
Peak, central Arizona; coll. £. A. Mearns), 253 (mts. of Arizona, througjiout 
pine belt; habits).- Ridowat, Man. N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1896, 597.— 
SwARTH, Pacific Coast Airfauna, no. 4, 1904, 13 (Huachuca Mts., Arizona, 
chiefly below 6,000 ft.; crit.); Candor, vii, 1905, 78 (Santa Rita Mts., 
Arizona). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIRDS OF NOBTH AND MIDDLE AMEBICA. 



107 



Boknotpkymfrnvnidvora aeukata Ridgwat, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxiv, Feb. 

24, 1911, 36. 
[Melanerpesformiciwrus.] Subep. er. Melanerpe$ melanopogon Harottt, Cat. Birds 

Brit. Mas., xviii, 1890, 151, part (localities in Arizona and New Mexico; 

8on<»a; Jesus Maria, San Jos^, Refugio, Tomochic, Pifios Altos, and Sonora, 

Qiihuahua; CSudad Duiango, Durango). 
Mdaarurpes formieivarus melanopogon Thatbr and Bakos, Proc. Boston Soc. 

N. H., six, Feb. 26, 1906, 19 (La Chumata, n. e. Sonora, bleeding; crit.). 
[MelanerpeB] melanopogon Shabpb, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 209, part. 

BALANOSPHTRA FORMICIVORA BAIRDI (Ridgway). 
CAUTOBinA WOODPBOSXB. 

Similar to B. f. aeuleata, but decidedly larger, uniform black of 
chest Btill more extended, and lower throat more strongly yellow. 

AdvUmdU.— Length (skins), 210-245 (225); wing, 137-149 (143.2); 
tail, 73-88 (79.5); cuhnen, 26-31.5 (29.8); tarsus, 20.5-24.5 (22.4); 
outer anterior toe, 17-19 (18.2).« 

AdvU female.— Length (skins), 215-244 (227); wing, 135-149 
(143.4); tail, 69.5-85.5 (80.7); culmen, 26-33 (28.3) ; tarsus, 20.5-24 
(21.8); outer anterior toe, 16.5-19.5 (18.4).** 

Pacific coast district of United States, from northern Lower Cali- 
fornia (Santo Tomas, July; Tecate Valley, Jxme; Nachiguero Valley, 
June; Burro Cafion, Jime; Hansen's Banch; Ensenada; San Pedro 
Martir Mountains) to northwestern Oregon; straggler to south- 
eoitral Oregon (Fort Klamath). 

Piau fon mciv onii (not of Swainaon) Lbsson, Oompl. Buffon, iz, 1837, 318. — 
YiooBB, Zool. Voy. "BlosBom," 1839, 23 (Monterey, California).— Nuttall, 
Man. Om. U. S. and Can., Land Birds, 2d ed., 1840, 682 (mts. near Santa 
Barbara, Califomia). 

Ml€lanerpe$]fonnieivoru$ Gray, Gen. Birds, ii, 1846, 444. 

Mdanerpes /onMCWorus Gambel, Joum. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1847, 66 (Califor- 
nia). — Cassin, lUuBtr. Birds Calif., Tex., etc., 1856, 7, part, pi. 2 (Califomia; 
habitB).— ScLATBB, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lend., 1857, 127 (San Joe6 Valley, Cali- 
fomia). — ^Newberry, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., vi, 1857, .90 (Sacramento 
Valley, Califomia to Columbia R.; habits). — Baibd, in Rep. Stansbury's 
Snrv. Great Salt Lake, 1852, 333 (Santa Barbara); Rep. Pacific R. R. 

• Twenty specimens. 



LooOity. 



wing. 


TaU. 


£x- 
ouImoiL 


Tanus. 


142.4 


80.8 


28.6 


22.4 


144 


78.2 


29.8 


22.4 


143.7 


80.3 


29.4 


22 


143 


81.1 


27.2 


21.6 



Outer 
ante- 
rior toe. 



tm adnlt makt from eentral and northem CaUfomJa (0) and 

vli^OO I 

Ta adnlt make from San Diego County, eontbem CaUibmia 
CQ and northem Lower OaUfimila (2) 

WtMJkJLSa, 

^tdnlt JHnatee from central and northern CaBtbrnla 

ta adnlt femalea from Ban Diego County 



18.6 
17.8 



18.6 
17.9 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



108 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Surv., ix, 1858, 114, part; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1869, no. 96, part.— Bollb, 
Joiim. fflr Om., 1858, 321 (habits).— Heermann, Kep. Pacific R. R. Surv., 
X, iv, no. 2, 1859, 58 (California; habits).— Cooper, Om. Cal., 1870, 403, 

* part.— Coues, Check List, 1873, no. 310, part.— Baibd, Breweb, and Rmc- 
WAY, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, pL 53, figs. 1, 2.— Ridoway, Om. 40th 
Parallel, 1877, 553 (Sacramento, California); Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 
189; Norn. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 377.— BELDma, Ptoc. U. S. Nat. Mus., i, 
1878, 390, 391, 393, 430 (Big Trees and Murphy's, Calaveras Co., and Marys- 
ville, CaHfomia). 

[Melanerpe3]formicivoni8 Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 201, no. 8816, part. — Coubs, 
Key N. Ajn. Birds, 1872, 197, part. 

Melanerpes formicivoruBf \zi. formicivortu Baird, Brewer, and Ridoway, Hist. 
N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 566, part, pi. 53, figs. 1, 2. 

MelanerpesformicivontB bairdi Ridoway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. no. 21, Jan., 1881, 
34 (no. 377), 85 (Petaluma, Sonoma Co., California; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.).— 
Coues, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 454. — ^American Ornitholooists' 
Union, Check List, 1886 (and 2d ed., 1895), no. 407, part; 3d ed., 1910, 193.— 
EvERMANN, Auk, iii, 1886, 94 (Ventimi Co., California).— Townsend (C. H.), 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., x, 1887, 206 (Shasta Co., California).— Bendire, Auk, 
V, 1888, 240 (Ft. Klamath, e. Or^on, straggler); Life Hist. N. Am. Birds, 
ii, 1895, 112.— Bryant (W. E.), Proc. Calif. Ac. Sci., ser. 2, 1889, 287 (Han- 
sens and Ensenada, Lower California). — ^Anthony, Zo§, iv, 1893, 236 (San 
Pedro Martir Mts., Lower California). — Merriam (Florence A.), Auk, xiii, 
1896, 117 (San Diego Co., California; habits).- Bbal, Bull. 34, U. S. Biol. 
Surv., 1910, 22 (food); BuU. 37, 1911, 43, pi. 4 (food). 

I£[elanerpe8] formicivorus bairdi Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 489. — 
Ridoway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 291. 

M[elanerpe9]f[ormicivoru8] bairdi Fisher (W. K.), Condor, viii, 1906, 107 (acorn 
storehouse; illustrations). 

Balanosphyraformicivora bairdi Ridoway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxiv, Feb. 24, 
1911, 35. 

Picus melanopogon (not of Temminck) Sundbvall, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, $1, 
part (California). 

[Melanerpes] melanopogon Heine and Reichenow, Nom. Mus. Hein. Om., 1890, 
223, part (California).— Shahpe, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 209, part (California). 

[Melanerpes formicivorus] Subsp. or. Melanerpes melanopogon Haroitt, Cat. Birds 
Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 151, part (California localities). 

BALANOSPYHRA FORMICIVORA ANGUSTIFRONS (Baird). 

XrAB&OW-F&OVTBD WOODPECKXB. 

Similar to B. f. formicivoray but wing averaging much shorter, bill 
relatively larger, white frontal band decidedly narrower, lower throat 
usually much more strongly yellow, white area on proximal portion of 
remiges smaller, the adult female with black area on crown much 
narrower. 

AduU mofe.— Length (skins), 198-222 (213); wing, 131-139.6 
(135.7); tail, 72-79 (76.3); cuhnen, 26-30 (27.6); tarsus, 20-22.6 
(21.1); outer anterior toe, 16.5-18 (17.2).« 

AduU ferruOe.— Length (skins), 193-224 (210); wmg, 130-138 
(134.8); tail, 64.5-80 (75.5); cuhnen, 25-27 (25.7); tarsus, 19-22 
(20.5); outer anterior toe, 15-17 (16.3).« 

a Ten specimens. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD6 OF NOBTH AND MIDDLB AMEBIOA. 109 

Cape San Lucas district of Lower Calif omia (Cape San Lucas; San 
Jo86 del Bancho; San Nicol&s; El Sadz; La Laguna; Sierra de la 
Laguna; Sierra de Victoria; Calabasas; Triimfo). 

Mdan^rpet f<mnicivortts, vta, angtutyrons Baibd, in Cooper's Om. Cal., i, 1870, 
405 (Cape San Lucas, Lower California; coU. U. S. Nat. Mus.). — Baibd, 
Bbeweb, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 573. — Coues, Check 
List, 1873, no. 310a. 

lMelan£rpesformidvoru$,] Var. angvstifroiu Couss, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 197. 

Mdanerpes formidvonu cmguttifixms Kidgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, Aug. 
24, 1880, 190, 219; Norn. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 377a.— Bbldino, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., y, 1882, 549 (Miraflores, Lower California); vi, 1883, 349 (Victoria 
MtB., Lower Cal.). — Coues, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 455.— Amekican 
OBNiTHOLOdiSTs' Union, Chock List, 1886 (and 2d ed., 1895), no. 407a; 3d 
ed., 1910, 193.— Bryant (W. E.), Proc. Calif. Ac. Sci., ser. 2, 1889, 287 
(Miraflores and Victoria Mts., Lower California). — Bendibe, Life Hist. N. 
Am. Birdc, ii, 1895, 117. 

Udanerpes angustifranB Baibd, Bbewer, and Kidoway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 
1874, pi. 53, figs. 3, 4.— Bbewsteb, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., xli, 1902, 105 
(crit.; habits). 

[Mekmerpes] angustifrtms Shabpe, Hand-Ust, ii, 1900, 209. 

M[€lamerpe$]f[ormicivoms] angiutifroiu Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 
490. 

M[elanerpe$]formicivoru$ angustifrons Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 291. 

[Mdanerpes Jbrmicivorus.] Subsp. fi, Melanerpes (mgu8t\fir(m$ HABorrr, Cat. Birds 
Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 153 (Sierra de Laguna and Triimfo, Lower California). 

Bakmosphyra f<mnicivora angtuHfrons Bn>owAY, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., zxiv, 
Feb. 24, 1911, 35. 

BALAN OSPHTRA FORMICIVORA ALBEOLA (Todd). 
BBLIZB WOODPBCKE&. 

Similar to B.f.formicivora, but under parts more extensively white 
(the sides and flanks much more narrowly streaked and the white 
streaks on breast and chest broader) and the lower throat less strongly 
tinged with yellow. 

AduU «wfo.— Length (skins), [225]; wing, 137-139 (138); tail, 
82-83.5 (82.7); cuhnen, 26.5-27.5 (27); tarsus, 21.5-22.5 (21.8); 
outer anterior toe, 18.5-19.5 (19).<» 

Midi female.— Leiigth (skins), 205-207 (206); wing, 135-142.5 
(138.8); tail, 76-76.5 (76.3); cuhnen, 24.&-25.5 (25); tarsus, 21.&-22 
(21.8); outer anterior toe, 17.&-18 (17.8).^ 

British Honduras (near Manatee Lagoon; Belize). 

MeUmerpesformieivortAB {not Picas formicivcriu Swainson) Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lend., 1859, 60, part (near Belize, Brit. Honduras).— Habgitt, Cat. Birds 
Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 149, part (Cayo and Southern Pine Ridge, Brit. Hon- 
duras). — Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 412, part 
(pine ridge of Belize, Brit. Honduras). 

Mdanapa formidvoTUS albeohis Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxiii, Dec. 6, 
1910, 153 (near Manatee, British Honduras; coU. Carnegie Mus.). 

Balan(>tphyraformiciv<)ra dlbeola BmowAT, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxiv, Feb. 24, 
1911, 35. 

o Three specimens. 

fr Two specimens; one of these, said to be from Belize, 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



110 



BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



BALANOSPHTRA FORMICIVORA STRUTIPBCTUS (Ridtfwiy). 

8TBZAXBD-CHX8TZD WOODPBOSUt. 

Similar to B. f, formidvora, but with whole chest streaked with 
white or else with only a narrow band of uniform black across anterior 
margin^ white area on proximal portion of remiges smaller, lower 
throat much more decidedly yellow, color of back, etc., more bluish 
(less greenish) black, and upper tail-coverts usually mailed tei^ 
minally with black. 

AdvU male.— Leiigth (skins), 193-238 (212); wmg, 134-147 (141.1); 
taU, 69-84.5 (77.1); cuhnen, 2&-29 (26.7); tarsus, 21-25 (22.6); outer 
anterior toe, 17-20 (18.6).« 

AdvU femaie.—Leiigth (skins), 193-230 (209); whig, 132.6-147 
(139.6); tail, 74-86 (78.6); cuhnen, 23-27 (26.3); tarsus, 20.5-23 
(22); outer anterior toe, 17-19.5 (18.1).* 

Southeastern Honduras (Rio Seg6yia), through Nicaragua (Mata- 
galpa; San Rafa61 del Norte; Ocot&l; Rio Orande) and Oosta Rica 
(Birrfs, Azah&r, La Estrella, Naranjo, and Cartago, de Cartago; 
Yolcan de Irazti; San Joq6; La Palma de San Jos6; Escazti; El Zarcero 
de Alajuela; Gr6cia; Monte Redondo; Barranca; Coliblanco; Cer- 
vantes; Santa Maria, Lagu&ria, and Cop6y, de Dota), and western 
Panamd (Volcan de ChiriquI, Boquete, and David, de ChiriquI). 

Melanerpes fornidvorv* (not Pieus formiicwonu SwainBon) Sclater, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Ixmd., 1856, 143 (David, Chiriqui, w. Panama).— (?)Moobb, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1859, 60, part ("Chilomo," i. e. Chaloma, Honduras).— Cabanib, 
Joum. fiir Om., 1862, 322 (Coeta Rica; crit.).— Lawrence, Ann. Lye. N. Y., 
ix, 1868, 131 (San Joe6, Barranca, Dota, and Birria, Coeta Rka). — ^Franteius, 
Joum. fflf Om., 1869, 364 (Coeta Rica).— Salvdi, Proc. ZooL Soc. Lond., 
1870, 213 (Volcan de Chiriqui, w. Panama). — Boucard, Proc. ZooL Soc. 
Lond., 1878, 49 (Yolcan de Irazti and Naranjo de Cartago, Coeta Rica). — 
RiDGWAT, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mua., v, 1883, 497 (Volcan de Irazti); x, 1888, 591 
(Rio Segovia, e. Honduras).— Zelei>6n, Cat. Aves de Coeta Rica, 1882, 23; 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, 1885, 111 (Coeto Rica); Anal. Mus. Nac. CoBto 
Rica, i, 1887, 124 (Cartago, Monte Redondo, Barranca, Zarcero de Alajuela, 



o Twenty-eix specimens. 



b Twenty-four specimens. 



Locality. 



Wing. 



TaU. 



Ex- 

posed 

culmen. 



Tanas. 



Oater 



MALES. 

Three adalt males from soatbeni Honduras (Rio Segovia) 

Three adult males from northern NIcaiagoa 

Ten adult males from Costa Rica 

Ten adult males from western Panama 

mcALis. 

Six adult females from northern Nicaragua 

Ten adult females from Coeta Rica 

Eight aduH females from western Panama. 



14S.S 
142. S 
141.2 
139.0 



142.7 
138.1 
139.2 



76.7 
79.6 
76.6 
78.4 



82.4 
77.3 
77.1 



28.2 
27 
28.6 
20.4 



26.6 
24.9 
26.3 



23.8 
22.7 
22.8 
2L9 



21.9 
22.2 
22 



10.8 
10.8 
18.8 
18.3 



18.6 
17.8 
18.1 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF NOBTH AND MIDDLE AMEBICA. Ill 

and L* Palma de San Joe^, Costa Rica).— Habotit, Cat. Biida Brit. Mm., 

xviii, 1890, 149, part (Dota, San Joe6, and Volcan de Irazd, Costa Rica; 

Volcan de Chiriqui, Panama).— Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., 

Ayes, ii, 1895, 412, part (Rio Segovia, Honduras; Matagalpa and San Rafael 

del Norte, Nicaragua; Greda, Potrero, Cervantes, etc., Costa Rica; David 

and Yokan de Chiriqui, w. Panama).--^?) Lantz, Trans. Kansas Ac. Sci. 

for 1896-97 (1899), 220. part (Chaloma, Honduras). 
[MdoMrpes] formicivoriu Sglatxb and Salvin, Norn. Av. Neotr., 1873, 100, 

part.— Shabpb, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 209, part. 
Mletanerpei^/oTTnicivoriu Rioowat, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 291, part (Costa 

Rica). 
Mdanerpet fmmcivoruSf tbi, fofrniciwrui Baisd, Bbbwsr, and Ridowat, Hist. 

N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 566, part (Costa Rica; Honduras?). 
[MehnerpeB farmiciwrut] var. tbrioHpechu Ridqway, in Baird, Brewer, and 

Ridgway's Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, Jan., 1874, 661 (locality not given, but 

type fircHn Birds, Costa Rica; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.). 
Mdanerpes fonnieiwrui, var. striaHpechu Ridowat, in Baird, Brewer, and 

Ridgway's Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 561, footnote (crit.). 
Mdanerpea fcrmicivoruB tbriatipectus Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Club, iii, 

Jan. 30, 1902, 33 (Boquete, Chiriqui, w. Panama, 4,000-4,500 ft.).— Carbi- 

Ksn, Ann. Carnegie Mus., vi, 1910, 585 (Costa Rica; habits). 
Melanerpet sbiaHpechu ZsLSDdN, Cat. Aves de Costa Rica, 1882, 23. 
BaIano9pkym foriMcivora 8triaHpeetu$ Ridowat, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxiv, 

Feb. 24, 1911, 35. 
[Mdamrpes] mdcmopogon (not P%cu$ mdanopogon Temminck) Heins and 

Reichsnow, N(Hn. Mus. Hein. Om., 1890, 223, part (Costa Rica). 

BALAHOSPHTRA XAITTHOLARTlfX (Reichenbach). 

TXZXOW-THBOATZD WOOI>PBOXB&. 

Similar to B. /(n'micivora but differing in entire absence of black 
on Bides of head (except a malar stripe)^ the whole of the auricular 
and orbital regions, together with sides of neck being white, the 
last, however, with a few small black spots; in entire absence of 
black on throat and chin, which are wholly yellow, and in having 
the chest white, sparsely streaked with black, the median, as well as 
lateral, under parts apparently also streaked with black.^ 

Mexico t (Locality of type specimen, still unique, unknown.) 

« The <^iginal description is as follows: * * Stim fahlweisslich, von da bis zum Crenick 
hocfaroth, Streif vom Mundwinkel das Auge einschliessend seitlich am Halse zur 
Brust herabsteigend wemi ZQgel sckwarzl Kehle einfarhig ochergelh^ Mantel, FlOgel 
imd Schwanz schwarz, Rtlcken iind Schultem grtlnlich schillemd, grosser Mittel- 
fieck anf den Vordeischwingen und Bflrzel reinweiss, Unterseite dCisterweiss, 
echwarzbraun schaftstreifig, Innenrfinder der Hinterschwingen weiss.— Ich messe 
r r^ Schnabelfiiste lr'^ -spalte V 2f'\ -h6he 4^^^ Mundbreite 1Y'', Fittig ^' ^'' 
Schwanz S'' 5^'^, Lauf 11^'^, Jlussere Vorderzehe 8^^^ Nagel 4J^^^ innere Vorderzehe 
r', Kagel 4f'', iussere Hinter25ehe 8f ^^ Nagel 4^^^ innere Hinterzehe A^', Nagel 
2f ^^.— Diurch die in der Diagnose cuzsiv gedruckten Eennzeichen sehr ausgezeich- 
Bde Art und die einzige der Gattung mit ZOgeln. — Ich erhielt das Exemplar von 
einem Naturalienhandler ohne bestimmte Angabe des Yaterlandes und mOchte die 
Art zu weiterer Beobachtung empfehlen.— Mexico? " 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



112 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Mlelanerpes] xantholarynx Reighenbaoh, Handb. Scans., Picine, 1854, 384, 

no. 887, pL 643, figs. 4293-94 (Mexico?). 
Mehmrpes xanihoUarynx Gray, List Birds Brit. Mus., Picidse, 1868, 116.— Hargitt, 

Gat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 155 (Mexico?).—- Salyin and Ctodman, 

Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 426. 
[MeUmerpea] xantholarynx Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 201, no. 8817. — Sharps, 

Hand-list, ii, 1900, 210. 
Mdampicus xantholarynx Malherbb, Mon. Picid., ii, 1862, 204; iv, 1862, pi. 100, 

fig. 6. 
Picua xantholarynx Sundevall, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 51. 
BalanoBphyra xantholarynx RiDOWAy, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxiv, Feb. 24, 

1911, 35. 

Genus LINNEOPICUS Malherbe. 

LinneopkuB Malherbe, ''M6m. Acad. Metz, 1848-49"; Nouv. Claasif. Picin., 

July, 1850, 52. (Type, Picva herminieri Lesson.) 
Linnanpicus (emendation) Bonaparte, Ann. Sci. Nat. (Zool.), 4 s6r., i, 1854, 

129; Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 126 ((3onsp. Volucr. Zygod., 1854, 11). 
lAnnoeipicui (emendation) Malherbe, Mon. Picid., i, 1861, p. xlviii. 
Linneipicus (emendation) Malherbe, Mon. Picid., i, 1861, p. liii. 

Medium-sized Picid» (wing 125-138 mm.) resembling Mdanerpes 
but differing in relatively longer tail (more than two-thirds as long 
as wing), with more narrowly but less abruptly acuminate rectrices, 
shorter and more rounded wing with very large and broad outer- 
most (tenth) primary (nearly half as long as ninth), feathered orbital 
region, and uniform black coloration. 

Bill about as long as head, rather slender, the culmen faintly 
convex toward base, straight terminally, distinctly but not sharply 
ridged; gonys much longer than mandibular rami, straight or nearly 
so, ascending terminally rather prominent basally, distinctly ridged 
terminally; supranasal ridge very indistinct, quite obsolete on anterior 
half of maxilla. Nostril rather large, broadly oval, situated about 
midway between culmen and tomium, partly covered by small 
antrorse bristly prefrontal feathers; feathers of malar apex bristle- 
like, antrorse, the feathers of chin with long, semiantrorse bristly 
tips. Orbital region almost completely feathered. Wing moderately 
long, the longest primaries exceeding secondaries by only one-fifth 
the length of wing, much rounded, the fifth, sixth, and seventh 
primaries longest, ninth shorter than fourth, the tenth nearly half as 
long as ninth, distinctly bowed or arched, about one-sixth as wide 
as long. Tail more than two-thirds as long as wing, graduated for 
one-third its length, or more, the rectrices gradually narrowed ter- 
minally, the middle ones with tip narrowly cuneate. Tarsus nearly 
as long as outer hind toe with claw, rather slender; outer hind toe 
distinctly shorter than outer front toe. 

Coloration, — Uniform glossy greenish black, the under parts duller 
black washed on chest and breast with dark crimson or maroon. 

Range. — Island of Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles. (Monotypic.) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIED6 OF KOBTH AKD MIDDLE AMEBIGA. 113 

LINllBOPICnS HBRMmiERI (Leswm). 

GVADXL0I7FB WOODFSOSUt. 

Actulis (sexes alike). — ^Above uniform glossy blue-black, the pQeum 
less glossy, less bluish; under parts slightly glossy bluish or greenish 
black; the chest and median portion of breast and upper abdomen 
more or less strongly suffused or tinged with dusky red or maroon; 
bill black; legs and feet dusky (in dried skins). 

Advli wiafc.— Length (skins), 228-263 (243); wing, 131.6-138 
(135); tail, 80-99.5 (88); culmen, 32.5-39.5 (33.4); tarsus, 26-28 
(27.1); outer anterior toe, 21-24 (22.9).« 

Adult female.— Length (skins), 224-242 (234); wing, 125.6-132.5 
(128.6); tail, 77-93 (87.5); cuhnen, 26-28 (27.1); tarsus, 23-24.5 
^3.7); outer anterior toe, 19-20.5 (19.8).* 

Island of Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles. 

Pkus hermmuri Lesson, Traits d'Om., 1831, 228 (Quadeloape, Lener Antilles; 

coU. Paris Mus.). — ^Dbs Murs, Icon. Om., livr. 7, Dec., 1846, tab. contents, 

pi. 38. — SuNDEVALL, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 51. 
]ielampico8 hermxnieri Malherbe, Mto. AceuI. Mets, zzx, 1849, 365. 
MtUmpicus herminien Malherbe, Mon. Picid., ii, 1862, 198; iv, 1862, pi. 100, 

fig.l. 
[Mdanerpes] hermnUri Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 115.— Gray, Hand- 
list, ii, 1870, 201, no. 8822.-- Sharps, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 210. 
Mlelanerpes] harminierii Reichenbagh, Handb. Scansores, Picidse, 1854, 381, 

pi. 643, figs. 4280-4281. 
Mdanerpes heminieri Gray, List Birds Brit. Mas., Picidae, 1868, 117.— Har- 

onr. Cat Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 163.— Cort, Cat. West Ind. Birds, 1892, 

12,133. 
[Mdarierpes] VhernwnUn Sglater and Saltin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 100.— 

CoRT, list Birds West Ind., 1885, 20. 
Mdanerpes Vharminieri Lawrence, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mas., i, 1878, 459, 487.— 

CoRT, Auk, iii, 1886, 377; viii, 1891, 48; Birds West Ind., 1889, 172; Cat. 

West Ind. Birds, 1892, 104. 
iMmeopicuM herminieri Malherbe, Nouv. Classif. Pic., 1850, 53. 
[LinnwipkuB] herminieri Bonaparte, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 126 (Consp. Volucr. 
Zygod., 1854, 10). 

Genus ASYNDESMUS Coues. 

AMyndeamns Coues, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, 55. (Type, by original desig- 
nation. Picas tarquatus WUaicm^AMifndesmus lewiii Biley.) 

Rather large PicidsB (wing 162-180 mm.), resembling Mdanerpes, 
but with relatively longer wing, more slender and less distinctly 
ridged bill, and with plumage of under parts and hindneck peculiar 
(coarse and haiivlike). 

Bill about as long as head, rather slender, about as deep as broad at 
nostrils, more compressed terminally; culmen slightly but distinctly 
conyex, not sharply ridged; gonys more than twice as long as man- 
dibular rami, nearly straight, not prominent basally, rather distinctly 

a Ten specimens. ^ Five specimens. 

3022O— BuU. 50, pt 6—14 8 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



114 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

ridged terminally; suprariiasal ridge distinct for basal third, or more, 
of maxilla. Nostril longitudinally elliptical, situated about midway 
between culmen and tomium (or rather nearer to former), covered by 
small antrorse latero-f rontal feathers ; feathers of malar apex antrorse, 
with distinct bristle-like tips, those of chin also with long antrorse or 
semi-antrorse bristly tips. Orbital region naked for a rather narrow 
space both above and below eye, but margin of eyelids clothed with 
short feathers. Wing long (about five times as long as culmen), the 
longest primaries exceeding secondaries by nearly one-third the length 
of wing; sixth, seventh, and eighth primaries longest, the ninth about 
equal to fourth, the tenth (outermost) less than one-third as long as 
ninth. Tail less than two-thirds as long as wing, the rectrices rather 
broad, abruptly acuminate. Tarsus shorter than either outer toe 
with claw, but longer than either digit alone; outer hind toe slightly 
shorter than outer front toe. 

Coloration. — ^Adults uniform dark metallic bronzy greenish or 
glossy bronzy greenish black above, a ring aroimd neck (widening on 
chest) hoary gray; abdomen, sides, and flanks pinkish red; loral, 
orbital, and malar regions and chin dark crimson; sexes alike. 

Range. — ^Western North America (northern Mexico to British 
Columbia). 

ASTNDESMUS LBWISI Riley. 

LSWIS'S WOODPBCKXB. 

AdvU male. — Forehead, lores, orbital region, anterior half of auricu- 
lar region, malar region, chin, and upper throat dark crimson or bright 
burnt-carmine; rest of head (except lower throat), nape, and upper 
parts generally, together with posterior flanks and under tail-coverts, 
plain glossy greenish black, the back and scapulars more bronzy; 
lower throat dull black, the feathers (except on upper portion) tipped, 
more or less, with pale gray or grayish white, the foreneck similar, 
but with much broader pale gray tips; chest and a broad, sharply- 
defined collar around hindneck, light silvery gray; breast, abdomen, 
sides, and greater part of flanks light crimson or pinkish red, inter- 
mixed (in fine longitudinal lines or streaks) with pale silvery gray or 
white, especially on breast, where the reddish color is paler and less 
strongly contrasted with the pale gray of the chest; under surface of 
wings and tail uniform black, faintly glossed with bronzy greenish, at 
least on under wing-coverts; bill dull black or dusky; iris brown; 
legs and feet dusky (gray or bluish gray in life) ; length (skins), 240- 
272 (252); wing, 162-180 (173.6); tail, 87.5-102 (97.3); culmen, 
28-33 (29.7); tarsus, 24-26.5 (25.5); outer anterior toe, 19.5-21 
(20.4) .« 

<^ Sixteen specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BntDS OF NORTH AKI> MIDDLE AMEBIGA. 



115 



AduUfemale. — Similar to the adult male and apparently not always 
distinguishable^ but usually with the gray of chest more broken by 
exposure of the dusky on imderlying portion of the feathers; length 
(skins), 238-265 (254); wing, 164-175 (169.3); tail, 86-96.5 (92); 
cuhnen, 25.5-33 (28.6); tarsus, 23-26 (24.6); outer anterior toe, 
18-21 (19.6).« 

Young (both sexes). — Red of head replaced (except in transition 
plumage) by black or dusky, collar obsolete or wholly wanting, under 
parts mostly dull pale gray or dull grayish white and dusky (suffused, 
or intermixed in places with red), the feathers of softer and more 
blended texture; inner secondaries sometimes tipped with whitish; 
otherwise like adults. 

Transition Zone of western North America, from southern British 
Columbia (chiefly east of Cascade Mountains, but occasional on Van- 
couTer Island) and southern Alberta (Bow River, eastern base of 
"Rocky Mountains, latitude 51°), south to southern Arizona (Santa 
Catalina and Huachuca Mountains, Tucson, etc.) and New Mexico 
(Cliama; Mora, breeding; Long Canyon; Piflos Altos, Grant County) 
and western Texas (San Angelo; Spring Creek; Concho River), west 
to interior vaUeys and coast ranges of California, east (regularly) to 
Black Hills of South Dakota, western Nebraska, western Kansas 
(Ellis and Finney Counties) , eastern Colorado, etc., casually to eastern 
Kansas (8 miles southeast of Lawrence, November) and Indian 
Territoiy. 

Pieui torquatus (not of Boddaert, 1783 &) Wil80N, Am. Om., iii, 1811, 31, pi. 20, 
fig. 3 (Montana, about lat. 46** N.; coll. Peale's Mus.c)— Vieillot, Nouv. 
Diet. d'Hist. Nat., xxvi, 1818, 80.— Bonapakte, Ann. Lye. N. Y., ii, pt. i, 
1826, 46; Synop. Birds U. S., 1828, 46.— -Valbncibnne8, Diet. Sei. Nat., xl, 
1826, 177.— Drapiez, Diet. Claaa., xiii, 1828, 497.— Nxtttall, Man. Om. U. S. 

A Fourteen specimens. 



Locality. 



wing. 



TaU. 



Ex- 
posed 
culmen, 



Tanus. 



Oatar 
ante- 
rior toe. 



Ten adnlt males from California (7), Oregon (1), and western 
Nevada (2) 

9tK. adolt males frvm Rocky Mountain district (Colorado to 
NevKexioo and Arizona) 

axadoltfemalesfromCaUiomia (5) and Oregon (1) 

9^ adnlt females from Rocky Mountain district (Idaho and 
Mootaaa to Texas and Arizona) 



172.9 
174.5 

167.4 
170.8 



06.1 
97.8 

90.6 
92.9 



29.6 
29.8 

28.2 
28.9 



25.5 
25.5 

24.2 
24.9 



20.3 
20.0 

19.0 
19.6 



^^Cer^meipieus torqtuUu$ (Boddaert). 
(Specimen no. 2020. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



116 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

and Can., Land Birds, 1832, 577; 2d ed., 1840, 679.— Audubon, Om. Biog., 
V, 1839, 176, pL 416; Synopsis, 1839, 184; Birds Am., oct. ed., iv, 1842, 280, 
pL 272.— Baird, in Stansbury's Bep. Gt. Salt Lake, 1852, 319 (Great Salt 
Lake Valley). — Sundeyall, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 51. 

Plicus] torquatus Bonnatbrrb and YibilIiOT, Enc. M6th., iii, 1823, 1310. — ^Bona- 
PABTB, Joum. Ac. Nat. Sci Phila., iii, pt. ii, 1824, 370; Obs. VfilB. Abl 
Om., 1826, [31].— Waglbb, Syst. Av., 1827, Picus, sp. 82. 

lidanerpes torquatus Jabdine, ed. Wilson's Am. Om., i, 1832, 321, pi. 20, ^. 3.— 
SwAiNSON, Classif. Birds, ii, 1837, 310.— Bonapabtb, Geog. and Comp. List, 
1838, 40.— Gambbl, Joum. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1847, 56.— Hbbbmann, Joum. 
Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1853, 270; Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., x, pt. vi, 1859, 58 
(Tej6n Pass, etc., California).— Nbwbbbbt, Rep. Ftunfic R. R. Surv., vi, 
pt. iv, 1855, 90 (Lassens Butte, California; Cascade Mts., Oregon; habits).— 
ScLATBB, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1858, 2 (Scott's Valley, California).— Baibd, 
Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 115; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 96.— 
Cassin, Om. Wilkes' Expl. Exped., 1858, 242 (Oregon); Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1863, 327 (Ft. Tejon, California; crit.).— Coopbb and Sucklbt, Rep. 
Pacific R. R. Surv., xii, pt. ii, 1860, 161 (Washington and Oregon; habits).— 
Blakiston, Ibis, 1862, 3 (Bow R., east base of Rocky Mts., lat. 51''); 1863, 
53 (Bow R.).— LoBD, Proc. Roy. Artil. Inst. Woolw., iv, 1864, 112 (Brit. 
Columbia; nesting habits) .—CouBS, Ibis, 1865, 162 (Ft. Whipple, Arizona).— 
Coopbb, Om. Calif., 1870, 406.— Aizbn, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1872, 207 
(Colorado).— Stbvbnson, Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr., i, 1870, 463 (Snake 
R., Yellowstone R., Wind River Mts., and Bighom Mts.).— Allbn, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., iii, 1872, 151 (Monument Park and Plum Creek, Colorado); 
Auk, iii, 1886, 428 (deecr. }roung).— Baibd, Bbeweb and Ridowat, Hist. 
N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 561, pi. 54, Bg, 5.— Hbnshaw, Ann. Lye. N. Y., xi, 
1874, 9 (Utah); Zool. Exp. W. 100th Merid., 1875, 397 (localities in Utah, 
Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona).— Bbndibb, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 
xix, 1877, 130 (Camp Harney, e. Oregon; descr. eggs); Life Hist. N. Am. 
Birds, ii, 1895, 117.— Ridqwat, Om. 40th Parallel, 1877, 553 (Sacramento, 
California; Carson City and upper Humboldt Valley, Nevada); Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 189; Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 376.— Bbldino, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., i, 1879, 430 (Marysville and Stockton, California, Feb.- 
April).— Allbn and Bbbwstbb, Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, viii, 1883, 196 
(Colorado Springs, etc., Colorado, breeding).— Dbbw, Auk, ii, 1885, 17 
(Colorado, 5,000-8,000 ft. in summer, 4,000-7,000 ft. in winter).— Bbokhax, 
Auk, ii, 1885, 143 (Pueblo, Colorado).— Scott, Auk, iii, 1886, 427 (Santa 
Catalina Mts. and near Tucsdn, Arizona, migratory).- Ambbicax Obnttrol- 
ooiSTs' Union, Check List, 1886 (and 2d ed., 1895), no. 408.— Evbbmann, 
Auk, iii, 1886, 94 (Ventura Co., California, Nov.).— Anthony, Auk, iii, 1886, 
165 (Washington Co., Oregon, common redd.).- Lloyd, Auk, iv, 1887, 191 
(Spring Creek, Concho R., etc., w. Texas, winter).— Cookb, Bird Migr. Miss. 
Yal., 1888, 132 (Ellis, Kansas; Black Hills, South Dakota; San Angelo and 
Spring Creek, w. Texas); Bull. Col. Agric. Coll., no. 44, 1898, 162 (Rouse 
Junction, s. Colorado, breeding).— Mbbbill, Auk, v, 1888, 255 (Ft. Klamath, 
Oregon, siunmer redd.).— Shufbldt, Auk, v, 1888, 319 (Ft. Wingate, New 
Mexico, Spring).— Mbabns, Auk, vii, 1890, 254 (Mogollon Mts., etc., Arizona; 
habits).— Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., iii, 1890, 139 (int. Brit. Colum- 
bia).— Mebbiah, North Am. Fauna, no. 3, 1890, 92 (San Francisco Mt., Ari- 
zona, breeding); no. 5, 1891, 97 (Henry Fork of Snake R. and Ft. Lapwai, 
Idaho, breeding).— Fannin, Check List Birds Brit. Col., 1891, 29 (e. side 
Cascade Mts.; Vancouver I., rare).— Lawbbncb (R. H.), Auk, ix, 1892, 355 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF NOBTH AND MIDDLE AMEBIC A. 117 

(OiayB Harbor, Waahington, Jan.)* — Bmoadb, Proc. Ac. Nat. ScL Fhila., 
1893, 43 (Brit. Columbia east of Cascade Mts.).— Kellooq, Auk, xi, 1894, 260 
(Finney Co., Kansas, Apr. 23, 1893).— Bbbwbtkb, Auk, xvi, 1898, 188 (habit 
of storing acorns).— EoBBi, Auk, xvii, 1900, 352 (Cape Disappointment, 
Washington, 1 spec., Apr. 30).— Caby, Auk, 1901, 234 (Black Hills, Wyoming). 

[2iid(merpe$] torquatus Bonapabtb, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 115; Ateneo Italiano, ii, 
1854, 125, (Consp. Vol. Zygod., 1854, 10).— Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 201, 
no. 8818. 

Mlekmerpes] torquahu Gray, Qen, Birds, ii, 1846, 444. — Ridoway, Man. N. Am. 
BirdjB, 1887, 291. 

CeleuM tarquatuM Woodhousb, in Rep. Sitgreaves' Expl. Zufii and Col. R., 1853, 
90 (Indian Territory; New Mexico). 

Mekanpicos iarquatus Malhbrbb, M^m. Acad. Metz, xxx, 1849, 365. 

lUlampicui torquatus Malhbrbb, Mon. Picid., ii, 1862, 214; iv, 1862, pi. 114, 
fig. 3, pi. 116, figs. 1-5. 

Agjffidesmui torquatus CouES, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, 56 (Ft. Whipple, 
Arizona, resident; descr. young); Check List, 1873, no. 311; 2d ed., 1882, 
no. 456; Birds Northwest, 1874, 291 (Snake R., Yellowstone R., Wind 
River Mts., and Bighorn Mts.; synonymy; habits); Bull. U. S. Geol. 
and Geog. Surv. Terr., iv, 1878, 617 (headwaters Saskatchewan R., 1 
spec.). — Ragsdale, Science News, i, 1879, 208 (middle Texas).— HABonr, 
Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 137.— Scott, Auk, ii, 1885, 356 (Santa 
Catalina Mts., Arizona, April).— Bbown (H.), Auk, xix, 1902, 80-83 (near 
Tucadn, Arizona, ab't in fall of 1884; habits).- Ahebican Obnitholooists' 
Union Committbb, Auk, xx, 1903, 341.— Swabth, Pacific Coast Avifauna, 
no. 4, 1904, 14 (Huachuca Mts., s. Arizona, March-May, rare).— Hunn, Auk, 
xxiii, 1906, 421 (Pifios Altos, Grant Co., New Mexico).— Kebmodb, Prov. 
Mus. Brit. Col., 1909, 50 (Vancouver 1. and interior Brit. Columbia). 

[ijyTufefiniM] torquatuM CouES, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 197.— Shabfb, Hand-list, 
ii, 1900, 209. 

Alt^ndamm] torquatui Coubs, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 490. 

AiirndetmuM Uwiai Riley, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xviii, Oct. 17, 1905, 225, in text 
(ex "PictM lewU Drap[iez]'' Gray, Gen. Birds, iii, 1849, App., p. 22; new 
name for Pieua torquatus Wilson, preoccupied). — Jewett, Auk, xxvi, 1909, 
6 (Baker Co., n. e. Oregon, conmion).— Vishbb, Auk, xxvi, 1909, 148 (w. South 
Dakota, especially Black Hills).— Wbtmobe, Condor, xi, 1909, 208 (8 m. s. e. 
id Lawrence, Kansas, 1 spec., Nov. 7). — ^Amebican OBNrrHOLOoisrs' UiaoN, 
Check List, 3d ed., 1910, 193.— Bbal, Bull. 37, U. S. Biol. Surv., 1911, 45, 
pi. 5 (food). 

Mdanerpes lewisi Mabsden, Condor, ix, 1907, 27 (feeding habits).— Wabben 
(£. R.)) Condor, xii, 1910, 32 (Mosca and Madenas creeks, etc., Colorado). 

Genus TRIPSURUS S'walnson. 

Trijmurus Swainson, Classif. Birds, ii, 1837, 311. (Type, as fixed by Gray, 

1840, Picusjlav^ms Vieillot.) 
Thripturus (emendation) Sundbvall, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 115. 
ZdfripieuM (not Zebrapicus Malherbe) Bonapabtb, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 126 

(Conq). Volucr. Zygod., 1864, 11). (Type, by monotypy, Zebrapicus puche- 

rani Malberbe.) 
Merapieus Malhbbbb, Mon. Pidd., Introd., 1861, p. liii. (Type, Picus cram- 

(atia Boddaert.) 

Medium-sized or rather small Picid» (wing about 100-120 mm.) 
resembling Mdanerpes but differing in having the orbital region 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



118 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

more extensively and completely naked, tail relatively shorter Qess 
than half as long as wing), except in T. jlavifronSf^ sides, flanks, 
under tail-coverts, and inner web of remiges conspicuously banded 
with black or dusky and white, and plumage of throat and chest 
not hair-like. 

Bill about as long as head, moderately stout to rather slender, its 
width at middle of nostrils slightly greater than its depth at same 
point; culmen straight terminally, more or less convex subbasally 
or in middle portion, distinctly but not sharply ridged; gonys less 
than twice (about one and a half times) as long as mandibular rami, 
not distinctly ridged, except (sometimes) terminally; tip of bill 
narrowly chisel-shaped; supranasal ridge distinct for about basal 
half of maxiUa. Nostril rather small, longitudinally oval or ovate, 
situated about midway between culmen and tomium, more or less 
covered by small antrorse, bristly-tipped, prefrontal feathers. Malar 
apex with antrorse bristle-like feathers minute, the feathers of chin 
without obvious bristly tips or else these very minute. Orbital r^on 
extensively and completely naked. Wing rather long, with longest 
primaries exceeding secondaries by more than length of culmen, the 
seventh and eighth, or sixth, seventh, and eighth, primaries longest, 
the ninth shorter than sixth (sometimes slightly shorter than fifth), 
the tenth (outermost) about one-fourth as long as ninth. Tail less 
than half as long as wing (except in T.jlavifrons^ in which it is slightly 
more. than half as long), the rectrices very rigid, the middle ones 
short-acuminate Gess so in T.jlavifrona). Tarsus shorter than outer 
hind toe with claw, rather stout; outer hind toe (without claw) 
slightly but distinctly shorter than outer front toe (without claw). 

Coloration. — Plumage compact, that of back (that of chest and 
breast also in T. rnhifroris and T. cruerUatus) imbricated, that of 
abdomen coarse and hair-like; above mostly black or blue-black, 
the rump and upper tail-coverts white, the back sometimes with 
white bars or streaked along median line with the same; abdomen 
bright red; sides, flanks, and under tail-coverts conspicuously barred 
or banded with black and palo yellowish or whitish; adult males with 
red on crown (sometimes whole pileum and nape red), sometimes 
with yellow on forehead or nape (or both). 

Range. — Southeastern Mexico to southern Brazil, Paraguay, 
BoUvia, and Peru. (Seven species. &) 

o In T. fiavifroM the tail is but little more than half (decidedly leas than three- 
fifths) as long as wing, about the same as in Mdanerpes erythrocephaluM. 

& I have not seen T. hargitU Dubois ([MeUmerpes] hargiUi Dubois, Synop. Av., i, 
1899, 68, pi. 2, fig. 2, of unknown locality), which, however, is aaid to be very 
similar to T, cmentatui. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF NOBTH AND MIDDLE AMEBIOA. 119 

KEY TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OP TBIP8URU8. 

a. Back baired with white; nape red. (Tripsurus pucheranu) 
b. Back more narrowly barred; white spots or bars on wing-coverts smaller (some- 
times obsolete); white transverse spots or bars on secondaries narrower; 
av^aging lazger. (Southern Hondm^s to western £cuad6r.) 

Tripsoms pQoherani puoherani (p. 119). 
56. Back more broadly barred; white spots or bars on wing-coverts larger (never 
obsolete); white transverse spots or bars on secondaries broader; averaging 
smaller. (Vera Cmz to northern Honduras.) 

Tilpsiinis paohexani perlleuotis (p. 122). 

as. Back with a median stripe of white (not barred); nape yellow. (Westsm 

Panama and southwestern Costa Rica.) Trlpsnras ohryaanohen (p. 123). 

TRIPSURUS PUCHERANI PUCHERANI (Malherbe). 
PTTCHXBJUrS WOODPXCKE&. 

AdvU male. — Forehead yellow (light chrome to cadmium) ; rest of 
pileum, together with hindneck, bright red G>etween poppy red and 
cannine); back, scapulars, wings, and tail black, the first two barred 
(more or less broadly) with white, as are also, usually, the greater 
wing-coverts and secondaries, the middle coverts sometimes (but 
rarely) more or less marked with white; rump and upper tail-coverts 
white, usually immaculate, or mostly so, sometimes more or less 
marked with black; inner web of middle pair of rectrices sometimes 
with transverse spots or bars of white, but sometimes wholly black; 
orbital and auricular regions black, inclosing a white postocular 
spot, the black of auricular region confluent with a black area on 
sides of neck, the latter confluent with black of back; loral and 
rictal regions, usually also anterior portion of malar region, chin, 
and upper throat, dull brownish white (this color sometimes occupy- 
ing nearly whole of throat and malar region), passrog into plain 
yellowish olive or yellowish drab ^ on foreneck, chest, and upper 
breast; lower breast, sides, flanks, and imder tail-coverts light dull 
wax yellowish rather broadly barred with black, the bars on under 
tail-coverts more U- or V-shaped; abdomen bright red; under wing- 
covets white, barred with black, those near edge of wing more 
heavily so (sometimes mostly black); inner webs of remiges dusky 
with broad bars or transverse spots of white; bill dull black or slate- 
black, usually somewhat paler at basal portion of gonys; legs and 
feet dusky grayish (in dried skins); length (skins), 174-200 (184.2); 
wing, 107.6-120 (114.3); tail, 63.5-63 (68.6); culmen, 22.6-28 (23.9); 
tarsus, 18.5-21 (19.6); outer anterior toe, 16-19 (17.4).6 

a Nothing doaely approximating this color is shown in the author's ''Nomenclature 
of Cokra" (edition of 1886). 
^ Thirty specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



120 



BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



AduU female. — Similar to the adult male, but red of head restricted 
to nape and hindneck, the crown and occiput mostly black, but the 
former with anterior and median portions dull whitish or pale smoke 
grayish; length (skins), 170-202 (173); wing, 106-117 (112.4); tail, 
65-61 (67.5); cuhnen, 22.5-26.5 (24.2); tarsus, 17.6-20 (19.1); outer 
anterior toe, 16-19 (17.2).« 

Young male. — Similar to the adult male, but prefrontal r^on 
much duller yellow, pileum and nape duller red, flanks and under 
tail-coverts less distinctly barred, and chest frequently more or less 
distinctly barred with dusky. 

Young female. — Similar to the young male, but occiput and sides 
of crown black, the antero-median portion of crown and posterior 
part of forehead pale grayish buffy barred or spotted with dusky. 

Southeastern Honduras (Rio Seg6via), through Nicaragua (Grey- 
town; Bluefields; Rio Escondido; Los S&balos; Rio San Juan; Pefia 
Blanca; San Rafa61 del Norte; Sucuy&; Matagalpa; Rama; La Liber- 
t&d; Chontales; Rio Grande; Timia), Gosta Rica (San Jos6; Rancho 
Redondo; Cartago; Naranjo de Cartago; OrosI; Turrialba; Rio 
Reventaz6n; Guayabo; Bonilla; Jimenez; Carrillo; Guipiles; Cu&bre; 

^ Fifteen specimeiiB. 

Ez- Outer 

Locality. Wing. Tail, posed Tarsus. anta> 

—* rior toe. 



\ 



One adult male from western Ecuador (Ouayaquil) 

One adult male from Colombia ( Los Tambos) 

Ten adult males from eastern Panama 

Ten adult males from Costa Rica 

Seven adult males frtmi Nicaragua 

Three adult males from southern Honduras (Rio Segovia) 

Five adult males from northern Honduras ( T. p. perileucut) . . . 

Six adult males ( T. p. perUeucus) from British Honduras 

Four adult males (T. p. perUeucut) from Guatemala (3) and 

Chiapas (1) , 

Two adult males (T. p. perileucut) from Tabasco (1) and Vera 

Cru»(l) 

niCALES. 

Three adult females from eastern Panama , 

Ten adult females from Costa Rlea , 

One adult female from Nicaragua 

One adult female from southern Honduras (Rio Segovia) 

Three adult females ( T, p. perileuctu) from northern Honduras . 
One adult female ( T, p» perileucut) from British Honduras. . . , 

Four adult females ( T. p, perileucut) from Guatemala 

Three adult females ( T, p. perileucut) fh>m Tabasco (1), Oaxaca 
(1) and Vera Cms (1) 



Wing. 


TaU. 


Ex- 
posed 
culmen. 


Tarsus. 


U7.fi 


67 


26 


10 


liafi 


62 


24.5 


18 


112L5 


68.5 


2&4 


122 


113.6 


fia2 


2&0 


127 


11&7 


fiO 


2&6 


124 


117 


5&5 


266 


127 


112L9 


67.7 


25^9 


124 


112.4 


fi&4 


23.6 


19 


llLl 


fi&6 


23 


124 


11L6 


fiS 


22.8 


12 6 


11L3 


67.3 


2316 


126 


112 4 


6a8 


24.2 


121 


liafi 


65 


22.5 


18 


117 


67.5 


26.5 


126 


ill 


67.7 


24.6 


18.8 


108 


62 


23.6 


18 


lias 


6&7 


223 


18.4 


ioa7 


6&2 


23.8 


1&6 



n 

17. s 
17.6 
17.6 
17.8 
17.3 
17 

ltt.8 

17.8 



la? 

17.4 
16 
17 
16 

las 

1&6 
16.5 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIRDS OF NOBTH AKD MIDDLE AMERICA. 121 

Ou&cimo; San Carlos; El Hog&r; Pacuarito; Talamaoca; Rio Sfcsola; 
La VijAgua), PanamA (Lion Hill; Fiijole; Verigua) and Colombia 
(Los Tambos) to western and central Ecuad6r ^ (Guayaquil; Baba^ 
hoyo; Esmeraldas; Yaguachi; Santa Bita; Quito). 

(!7)[Piciu earoHnus] d. Latham, Index Om., i, 1790, 231 (based on PieuM variua 
indieus Gorini, Om., ii, 48, pi. 171). 

Picut aunfrvnt (not of Wagler) Lbsson, Rev. ZooL, 1839, 102 ("Sumatra'').— 
Wagner, Wiegmann's Archiv f Or Natui^g., 1841, 100. 

Zebrapiau jmeherani Malhebbs, Rev. et Mag. de ZooL, i, Nov., 1849, 542 (''To- 
bago"; coU. Brit. Mu8.7); Mon. Picid., ii, 1862, 227, part (Santa Marta, 
Colombia; "Tobago"); iv, 1862, pi. 103, figs. 1, 2. 

[ZdHpiau] pucherani Bonaparte, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 126 (Consp. Yolucr. 
Zygod., 1854, 11). 

[Centwrus] pudierani Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 120 ("America mer[idio- 
nalis]"). — ScLATEB and Salvdy, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 101, part. 

ClaUunu] pucherani Reichsnbagh, Handb. Scansores, Picinte, 1854, 411 ("Ta- 
bago"). 

Centunu pudiarani Sclater, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 342, part (Babahoyo, w. 
Ecuador).— Lawrence, Ann. Lye. N. Y., vii, 1862, 299 (Panama); viii, 1867, 
183 (Gresrtown, Nicaragua).— Cabanw, Joum. fOr Om., 1862, 328 (Ecuador; 
Centxal America; crit.). — Sclater and Salvin, Ptoc. ZooL Soc. Lend., 1867, 
280 (Bluefields, Nicaragua).— Salvin, Ibis, 1872, 320 (Chontales, Nicara- 
gua). — ^BoucARD, Proc. ZooL Soc. Lond., 1878, 49 (San Carlos and Naranjo, 
Costa Rica).— RiDGWAT, Proc. IT. S. Nat. Mus., x, 1887, 591 (Rio Segovia, 
Honduras). 

Centunu pueherann Sclater, Proc. ZooL Soc. Lond., 1860, 286 (Babahoyo, w. 
Ecuador; crit.), 297 (Esmeraldas, w. Ecuador). — Salvin and Sclater, Ibis, 
1860, 43 (Coban and Yzabal, Guatemala).— Sclater and Salvin, Proc. ZooL 
Soc. Lond., 1864, 367 (Panama).— Ferry, Pub. 146, Field Mus. N. H., Om. 
Ser., i, 1910, 276 (Guayabo and Lim6n, Costa Rica). 

Mdanerpes pudierard Ridqway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iv, June 2, 1881, 95, 118, 
in text. — Berlepsch and Taczanowski, Proc. ZooL Soc. Lond., 1883, 571 
(Taguachi, w. Ecuador; crit.).— Nuttino, Ph)c. U. S. Nat. Mus., vi, 1883, 
406 (Los Sdbalop, Nicaragua).— Taczanowski and Berlepsch, Proc. ZooL 
Soc. Lond., 1885, 107 (Yaguachi, w. Ecuador). — Zelei>6n, Anal. Mus. Nac. 
Costa Rica, i, 1887, 124 (Cartago, Jimenez, Rancho Redondo, and Talamanca, 
Costa Rica).— HARorrr, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 164, part (Chon- 
tales, Nicaragua; San Jos^ and Tiuxialba, Costa Rica; Panama; Babahoyo 
and Santa Rita, w. Ecuador).— Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, 1893, 
519 (Rio Escondido, Nicaragua). — Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., 
Aves, ii, 1895, 415, part (Rio Segovia, Honduras; Bluefields, Los Sdbalos, 
Chontales, La Libertad, Rama, Rio Escondido, and Greytown, Nicaragua; 
Rio Frio, San Jos^, San Carlos, Naranjo, Turrialba, Cartago, Jimenez, Rancho 
Redondo, and Talamanca, Costa Rica; Lion HiU, Panama; Colombia; w. 
Ecuador).— Bangs, Proc. New Engl. ZooL Club, ii, 1900, 19 (Loma del 
Le(Hi, Panama); Bull. Mus. (3omp. ZooL, xxxix, 1903, 146 (Yamca, Hon- 
duras).— ^Men eg auz. Bull. Soc. Philom., 1908, 4 (Quito, Ecuador). — Car- 
RiXER, Ann. Carnegie Mus., vi, 1910, 586 (Caribbean slope, Costa Rica; 
habits). 

* I have seen only one specimen from Ecuad6r, an example from Guayaquil in the 
U. 8. National Museum collection. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



122 BULLETIK 60, tTNlTBD STATBd NATIOlTAL MUSEUM. 

lilekmerpes] pueherani Rioowat, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 291, part. 
[Melanerpes] pudierani Shabpb, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 210, part. 
Tripsurus puchmmi Salvadobi, Atti Soc. Torino, iv, 1868, 18} (Costa Rica). 
(?)Pici« gerinii Temminck, Planches Col., iv, livr. 73, July, 1827, in text to P. 

tupercUiaris (based on Picus varius indieus Gerini, Om., ii, 48, pi. 171; Pteus 

earoKnuM var. d, Latham, Index Om., i, 231). 
(7)Zebrapicu8 gerinii Malhbbbe, Mon. Picid., ii, 1862, 231. 
Picua gerini Sundevall, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 55, part (Colombia; Ecuador). 
Ceniwrus gerini Lawrence, Ann. Lye. N. Y., ix, 1868, 131 (San Jos^, Costa 

Rica).~FsANTzru8, Joum. fOr Om., 1869, 364 (Costa Rica). 

TRIPSURUS PUCHBRANI PBRILBUCU8 (Todd). 
WMITE-BAIITIET) WOODPBCl 



Similar to T. p. pueherani, but back, scapulars, and wings more 
broadly barred with white, the middle coverts usually distinctly 
barred, spotted, or terminally margined with white, and more fre- 
quently with white markings on inner web of middle rectrices; aver- 
aging slightly smaller. 

AdtOt male.— Leiigth (skins), 17Q-188 (179); wing, lOft-118 (112.1); 
tail, 53-61 (66.8); cuhnen, 20.6-28 (24); tarsus, 18.6-20 (19.2); outer 
anterior toe, 15.5-17.5 (16.9) .« 

Adult female.— length (skins), 166-193 (176); wing, 107.6-116 
(110); tail, 62-59 (66.1); cuhnen, 21-26 (23.3); tarsus, 17.5-19 
(18.6); outer anterior toe, 15-17.6 (16.6).* 

Southeastern Mexico, in States of Vera Cruz (Santecomap&m; 
Orizaba; Uvero; Buena Vista), Puebla (Huehuet&n; Chapulco; 
Tehuacto), Oaxaca (Cuicuitl&n; Oaxaca City; moimtains near Santo 
Domingo), Tabasco (Teapa) and Chiapas (Palenque) and southward 
through Guatemala (Cob&n; Chis^; C!hoct(im; Yzab&l; sources of 
Rio de la Pasi6n) to British Honduras (Toledo District; Manatee 
Biver; near Manatee Lagoon) and northern Honduras (Truxillo; 
Yaruca; Omoa; San Pedro). 

Zebrapicui pueherani Malhebbb, Mon. Picid., ii, 1862, 227, part (Mexico; Guate- 
mala). 

Cenhartu pueherani Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1857, 229 (Santecomapam, 
Vera Cruz); Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 342, part (Orizaba, Vera Cruz).— Moohe, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1859, 60 (Omoa, Honduras).— Sclateb and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, 837 (San Pedro, Honduras).— Boucard, Liate 
Ois. r^ol. Guat., 1878, 27.— Ridgwat, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mub., x, 1887, 683 
(Truxillo, Honduras). 

CerOwrut pudieranii Sclatbr and Salvin, Ibis, 1859, 136 (Omoa, HonduiaB). — 
Salvin and Sclater, Ibis, 1860, 43 (Coban and Yzabal, Guatemala). 

MeUmerpea pueherani HARorrr, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 164, part 
(Orizaba, Vera Cruz; Vera Paz, sources of Rio de la Pasion, Chlsec, and 
Yzabal, Guatemala; Brit. Honduras; Honduras).— Salvin and Godicak, 

a Seventeen specimens. & Eleven specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBBB OP KOBTH AND MIDDLB AMSBtCA« 123 

Biol. Centr.-Ain., Avee, ii, 1895, 415, part (Orizaba, Santecomapam, and 
Uvero, Vera Cruz; Brit Hondorafl; Goban, Choctum, Chioec, and Yzabal, 
Guatemala; Omoa, San Pedro, and Truzillo, Honduras). 

Mlelanerpes] pucheram Ridowat, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 291, part. 

[MeJanerpes] pucherani Sharps, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 210, part. 

Pieui gerini (not P. gerimi TemminckT) Sundsvall, Coosp. Av. Picin.,' 1866, 
55, part (Guatemala). 

tCenttrtu gerimi Gray, List Birds Brit Mus., Oapit and Pidd., 1868, 101 (Hon- 
duras?). 

llCenturus] gervnU Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 197, no. 8765. 

Mekaurpet pucherani periUucui Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxiii, Dec. 6, 
1910, 153 (near Muiatee, Brit. Honduras; coll. Carnegie Mus.). 

TRIPSURUS CHRTSAUCHEN (Salfin). 
OOLDSV-VAPXO WOODPBCKBR. 

MvU male. — ^Forehead and hindneck bright yellow (chrome or pale 
dirome, the forehead sometimes cadmiimi yellow) ; crown and occiput 
bright poppy red or scaiiet-yermilion; back, scapulars, and wing- 
coTerts deep black, faintly glossed with bluish, the median line of 
back broadly streaked with white; rump and upper tail-coverts white, 
the former sometimes barred with black on upper lateral portion; 
ta3 brownish black; remiges and primary coverts brownish black, the 
inner secondaries usually margined terminally and more or less 
spotted on edges with white; supra- and post-ocular regions, auricular 
region, and sides of neck; uniform deep, slightly glossy, black, the 
postocular region usually with a more or less distinct elongated patch 
oretreak of white; malar region, chin, and throat plain light yellowish 
gray, the suborbital r^on more whitish; foreneck, chest, breast, and 
sides of upper abdomen deeper yellowish gray, strongly washed or 
tinged widi wax yellow or saffron yellow; lower abdomen and median 
portion of upper abdomen bright scarlet-vermilion or scarlet; sides, 
flanks, and under tail-coverts broadly and irregularly barred with 
black and whitish; under wing-coverts similarly marked, but black 
predominating along edge of wing; inner webs of remiges with large 
quadrate spots of white (in transverse series), except on distal portion 
of outer and longer primaries; bill blackish, paler on lower basal 
portion of mandible; legs and feet dusky (in dried skins); length 
(skins), 162-181 (174); wing, 108-116 (112.2); tail, 61-60.6 (66); 
culmen, 23.5-27.6 (26.7); tarsus, 19-20.6 (19.6); outer anterior toe, 
16.5-19 (17.8).» 

AduU female. — Similar to the adult male, but without any red on 
head, the duller yellow of pileum interrupted by a more or less 
broad, crescentic band of black across crown; length (skins), 162-186 

« Fifteen specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



124 



BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



(168); wing, 105-116 (110); tail, 48.5-60 (53.5); culmen, 21.6-26 
(23.3); tarsus, 18-19.5 (18.8) ; middle toe, 16-18 (17.1).« 

Ycmng female. — Similar to the adult female, but frontal area 
yellowish olive, color of chest, etc., lighter and more olivaceous, 
more grayish posteriorly, and faintly spotted or mottled with darker 
(the upper chest with a few small spots or short streaks of blackish), 
and blackish bars of flanks, etc., much less distinct and less regular. 

Western Panam& (Bugaba and Divala, Chiriqul) and southwestern 
Costa Eica (Tfirraba; Boruca; Lagarto; Paso Ee6l; Pozo Azfil de 
Pirrls; Pozo del Eio Grrande; El Gener&l). 

Melanerpes ckrywuchen Salvin, Proc. ZooL Soc. Lond., 1870, 213 (Bugaba, 
Chiriqui, Panama; coll. Salvin and Godman). — Ridowat, Proc. IT. S. Nat. 
Mufl., iv, 1881, 96, in text.—HABGiTT, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 160 
(Bugaba, Chiriqui).— Cherrib, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xiv, 1891, 537 (Pozo 
Azul, 8. w. Costa Rica); Expl. Ttool. Mend. Costa Rica, 1893, 46 (Lagarto and 
T^rraba, s. w. Costa Rica). — Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, 
ii, 1895, 414, pi. 60.— Bangs, Auk, xxiv, 1907, 292 (Boruca, Paso Real, and 
Pozo del Rio Grande, e. w. Costa Rica). — Cabrikeb, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 
vi, 1910, 586 (s. w. Costa Rica; habits). 

[Melanerpes] ckrysauchen Sclatbb and Salvin, Nom. A v. Neotr., 1873, 100. — 
Shabpe, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 210. 

[Picus] ckrysauchen Giebel, Thes. Om., iii, 1876, 150. 

Genus CHLORONERPES Swainson. 

Chloronerpes Swainson, Classil. Birds, ii, 1837, 307. (Type, P%cu$ rvbiginosui 

Swainson.) 
Lampropicus Malherbb, Mon. Picid., Introd., 1861, p. liii. (Type, Picu$ 

aurulentus Temminck.) 
CraugamiSj^ part, Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, Oct. 9, 1863, 157. 

(New name for Chrysopicus Bonaparte (not ChrysopiooB Malherbe) and Zom- 

propicu4 Malherbe, on grounds of purism.) 

Medium-sized Picid» (wing 98-137 mm.) closely similar in struc- 
tural characters to Tripsurus, CerUurus, etc., but differing con- 
spicuously in coloration, the upper parts mostly plain olive-greenish, 
under parts barred with olive, or dusky, and yellowish, and inner 

o Eleven specimens. 



LocaUty. 


Wing. 


Tafl. 


Ex- 
posed 
oolmen. 


Taraos. 


Outar 
ante- 
rior toe. 


MALES. 

Ten adult males firom southwestern Costa Rica 


U2.1 
112.4 

110.2 
106 


516 
86.7 

58.0 
60.5 


26 
25 

28.8 
22.5 


UL6 
18.4 

18.8 
18.5 


17.9 




17.4 


FBMALKS. 


17.1 


One adult teniaiB trom western Panama 


16.5 







6 * * Von Kpalrfoaoc ( =^icpaur6c, Specht) . ' ' (Cabanis and Heine. ) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD6 OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA* 125 

webs of remiges broadly edged or spotted with yinaceous-cinnamon 
or yellow, the sides of head or the throat sometimes bright yellow. 

Bill shorter than Head, rather broad and depressed basally (de- 
cidedly broader than deep at anterior end of nostrils), regularly 
wedge-shaped in vertical profile; culmen straight or, sometimes, very 
faintiy convex, distinctly (usually sharply) ridged; gonys slightly to 
decidedly longer than mandibular rami, faintly concave anteriorly, 
family convex and slightly prominent basally; supranasal ridge very 
distinet, extending for basal half or more of maxilla, much nearer 
to culmen than to tomium (except anteriorly). Nostril rather small, 
longitudinally oval or elliptical, situated rather nearer to tomium 
flian to culmen, at least partly covered by small bristle-like antrorse 
prefrontal feathers. Feathers of malar apex smiall, bristle-like, 
antrorse, or semiantrorse, those of chin with small bristle-like, semi- 
antrorse tips. Orbital region naked, including margin of eyelids 
except posterior portion of the lower, which sometimes has a few 
minute feathers. Wing rather long and pointed, the longest pri- 
maries exceeding secondaries by about one-fourth the length of 
wing; sixth and seventh or sixth, seventh, and eighth primaries 
longest, the ninth equal to or longer than third, the tenth (outer- 
most) one-third to one-half as long as ninth. Tail slightly to de- 
cidedly more than half as long as wing, the middle rectrices grad- 
ually acuminate. Tarsus decidedly longer than either outer toe 
without claw, the outer hind toe decidedly shorter than the outer 
front toe; tarsi and toes rather slender, but claws large and strongly 
curved. 

ColcrtUion. — ^Upper parts mostly plain olive-green or oil-green; 
under parts conspicuously barred with olive, or dusky, and yellowish; 
inner webs of remiges broadly edged, or banded, with vinaceous- 
cinnamon or more narrowly edged with yellow; sides of head or 
throat sometimes bright yellow; adult maJes with more or less of 
the pileum and a broad malar stripe (sometimes throat also) bright 
red, adult females with red only on nape or part of pileum or with 
none at all. 

Range. — Middle Mexico to southern Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia, and 
Pera. (About twenty species and subspecies.) 

KEY TO THE SPECIES AND STTBSPEGnSS OF CHLORONERPE8. 

0. Under wing-covertB and edges of inner webs of remiges light yellow; remiges not 
barred, and with yellow shafts. 
h. Chin and throat whitish, streaked or barred with blackish or grayish; adults 
with only part, or none, of pileom crimson; adult females with malar r^on 
whitish streaked with grayish or dusky, 
c. Pileum and nape uniform slate-gray (without red in either sex). (South- 
western Mexico) Ohloronerpes anziovlaris (p. 128) 

ce, Pileum crimson laterally (at least posteriorly); nape wholly crimson. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



126 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

d, Gheet and breaet irregularly barred or squamated; laiger (wing avemgiDg 
more than 130, tail more than 85). (Eastern Mexico.) 

Chloroneipes leniclnoiiis (p. 129) 
dd, Gheet and breast regularly barred; smaller (wing averaging less than ISO, 
tail less than 80). 
e. Whole under parts barred. (Chloronerpe$ rubiginotus,) 
f. Laiger (wing 114-133.5, averaging much more than 115); lateral rectrices 
usually not distinctly, if at all, barred; adult males with red on sides 
of pileum broader, never interrupted above eye. 
g. Chest more narrowly barred with yellow, the yellow bahi usually 
less than half as broad as the olivaceous interspaces. 
h. Posterior imder parts less distinctly barred; bill stouter, 
t. Color of back, etc., averaging more greenish or yellowish olive; 
olivaceous bars on chest less dark, less, or not at all, tinged 
with orange. (Southeastern Mexico to Nicaragua.) 

Chloronezpes niblglnosas ynoatanentli (p. 131). 
n. Color of back, etc., averaging more golden or orange olive; 
olivaceous bars on chest darker, more or less strongly tinged 
with orange. (Costa Rica and Panama.) 

Ohloronerpes niblginosiis vropyfialls (p. 133). 
hh. Posterior under parts more strongly barred; bill mcn« dender. 
(Andes of Mdrida, Venezuela.) 

Chloronezpes mbii^osas merldensis (extralimital).o 
gg. Chest more broadly barred with yellow, the yellow bars more tlttn 
half as wide as the very dark olive interspaces. (Sierra Nevada 
de Santa Marta, Colombia.) 

Ohloronerpes rabifinofus alleni (extndimital).^ 
ff. Smaller (wing 98-115, averaging less than 112); lateral rectrices dis- 
tinctly barred, at least on outer web; adult nudes with red on sides 
of pileum narrower, frequently interrupted above eye. 
g. Back, etc., yellowish olive; chest barred with pale yellowish or 
yellowish white and dull blackish, the yellowish bars broads. 
(Arid coast district of Venezuela.) 

Chloroneipes mbifinosas mbiginosas (extralimital).<: 
gg. Back, etc., bright tawny-olive; chest barred with light yellowish 
and dark olive, the yellowish bars narrower. 
h. Smaller (wing 98-106, tail 55-62, culmen 20-23.5, tarsus 18.5-20.5). 
(Island of Trinidad.) 

Chloroneipes rabiginosas trinitatis (extndimitad).^ 

o Chlownerpes rubiginosus meridenm Ridgway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxiv, Feb. 24, 
1911, 33 (Merida, Venezuela; coll. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.). 

f> Ohloronerpes yucatanentis alleni Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Club, iii, March 
31, 1902, 83 (San Sebastian, Santa Marta, Colombia; coll. E. A. and 0. Bangs). 

c Picu8 rubiginonu Swainson, Zool. Illustr., ser. 1, i, no. 3, Dec., 1820, pi. 14 and 
text (''Spanish Main"; type locality subsequently fixed by Hartert as Cumana, 
Venezuela; coll. E. Fallmer); Sundevall, Consp. Picin., 1866, 69. — Chloronerpa 
ruhigino9U8 Swainson, Classif. Birds, ii, 1837, 308; Hargitt, Cat. Birds Brit. Mas., 
xviii, 1890, 86, pent,— Ohloronerpes ruhiginosus nibiginosus Hellmayr, Novit. Zool., 
xiii, 1906, 38, part (Los Palmales and Cumani, Venezuela; crit.). 

d Ohloronerpes ruhiginosus ruhiginosus Hellmayr, Novit. Zool., xiii, 1906, 88, part 
(Caparo, Valencia, Seelet, and CSiaguanas, Trinidad; crit.).— Ohloronerpes rubiginotut 
trinitaHs Ridgway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxiv, Feb. 24, 1911, 32 (FrinceBtown, 
Trinidad; coll. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF NOBTH AND MIDDLE AMEBIOiu 127 

hk. Larger (wing 106-115, tul 61-67.5, culmen 22-25, tanras 19.5-21). 
(Idand of Tobago.) 

Chloronezpes rabiginoms tobagemis (extralimital).<> 
ee. Poeteiiw half of under parts immaculate yellow or with sides and flanks 
very indistinctly barred. (Central Peru.) 

Ohloroneipet ohiysogaiter (extralimital).^ 

hb. Chin and throat black spotted with white (sometimes uniform black in young); 

adults with whole pileum crimson; adult female with malar region black 

speckled with whitish. (State of Antioquia, central Colombia, to western 

Ecuador.) Chloronezpes golazis (extralimital).^ 

aa. Under wing-coverts and greater part <^ remiges light cinnamon-rufous, the latter 
sometimes with spots or broad bars of dusky (mostly concealed) on distal portion, 
their shafts whitish or light cinnamon and dusky. 
h. Outer webs of remiges plain golden olive or deep citrine ; chin and throat inmiacu- 
kite dull light orange-yellow or antimony yellow; chest regularly barred with 
dull light orange-yellow and dusky olive. (CMoronerpes dtrysochlona.) 
e. Auricular r^on dusky olive; distal portion of primaries lees extensively dusky. 
(Southern Brazil; Paraguay.) 

Chloronerpes chryaoolilonia ohzysodilonis (extralimital).<> 
oe. Auricular region lighter olive; distal portion of primaries more extensively 

dusky. (Eastern Panama.) Cliloronezpet ohzyaoohloroa auioaus (p . 134). 

hb. Outer webs of remiges spotted with cinnamon-rufous; chin and throat imiform 

sooty or grayish brown or spotted or streaked with sooty brownish and dull 

whitish; chest olive spotted with dull whitish. 

e. A broad suborbital stripe, together with chin and upper throat (or streaks on 

same), dull buffy whitish. (Panama.) Chloronezpes caUopteras (p. 135). 

^ Ckloronerpe8 rvhiffmonu tobagemit Ridgway, Froc. Biol. Soc. Waah., xziv, Feb. 24, 
1911, 33 (Tobago; coU. U. S. Nat. Mus.). 

h Chloixmerpes chryBogaster Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., vol. 2, 
pt. 1, Oct., 1902, 32 (Garita del Sol and La Gloria, central Peru; coll. Branicki Mus.). 

Of this very strongly characterized form, the U. S. National Museum possesses a 
fine adult male from Vitoc, Garita del Sol. If not a distinct species it certainly is 
the most distinct of all the forms of C rubiginotus. 

« Chlortmerpes gularU Haigitt, Ibis, sixth ser., i, no. 2, April, 1889, 230 (Santa Elena, 
Antioquia, Colombia); Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, S6. --(7) CMoronerpes rtLbri- 
piZnttSalvadoriandFesta, Boll. Mus. Zool., etc., Torino, xv, no. 368, Feb. 19, 1900,14 
(Foreste del Rio Peripa, w. Ecuador; coll. Turin Mus.). 

The U. 8. National Museum possesses an adult male of a Chloronerpes from Guajra- 
quO, western Ecuador, which seems to be C, ntbripUeus of Salvadori and Feeta. It 
has the entire pileum crimson, the malar patches crimson, and the throat spotted with 
bhck and white. It is evidently closely related to C. guUxris Hargitt, but the sped- 
men in question is in badly abraded plumage, and therefore a satisfactory comparison 
can not be made, especially since the only examples examined of C. gularis are two 
females, one ai them a young bird. 

^Piaa (hrytoMoTut Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., xxvi, 1818, 98 (Paraguay; 
based on Carpintero verde dorado Azaia, Apunt. Parag., ii, 317). — C[raug%8cus] chryso" 
ddorua Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., iv, 1863, 159 (Brazil). — Chloronerpes chryio- 
cWonw Gray, List Birds Brit. Mus., Picid», 1868, 106; Hargitt, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 
xviii, 1890, 72. —CMoropicus chrysodilorus Malherbe, Mon. Pic, ii, 1862, 141, pi. 84, 
figs. 1, 2.—Piau maerocephalua Spix, Av. Bras. , i, 1824, 60, pi. 53, fig. 2.— [Chloronerpes] 
vtBeroeephaltM Swainson, Claasif . Birds, ii, 1837, 30S,—CHloronerpes] brasiliensis (not 
Picus branHenns Swainson) Reichenbach, Scansores, Pidnse, 1854, 351, pi. 622, figs. 
4148, HSB.'-'Chhropieus brasiliensis Malherbe, Mon. Picid., ii, 1862, pi. 85, figs. 1, 2. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



128 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

cc. Suborbital and auricular regions, chin, and throat light brown or olive, the first 
sometimee partly crimson. (Chloronerpea simplex.) 
d. Spots on chest smaller; yellowish of posterior under parts pal^ , bill laiger 
(culmen in adult male 19-21.5). (Costa Rica and Nicaragua.) 

Chloroneipes simplex sim^ez (p. 136). 

dd. Spots on chest lai^r, more transverse; yellowish of posterior under parts 

deeper, more buffy; bill smaller (culmen in adult male, 18). (Northern 

Honduras.) Chloroneipes simplex aUophyens (p. 138). 

CHLORONERPES AURICULARIS Salyin and Godxnan. 

GODMAVS WOODPBCBX&. 

AduU male. — ^Pileum and hindneck uniform light gray (between 
no. 6 and no. 7) ; back and scapulars plain light olive-green more or 
less tinged or intermixed with gray, the rump and upper tail-coverts 
similar but narrowly barred with pale yellow or yellowish white; 
wings similar in color to back, etc., but rather brighter olive-green, 
the terminal portion of inner webs of remiges dull grayish brown; 
tail light yellowish olive-green, the middle rectrices dusky terminally 
and with dusky shafts, the lateral rectrices sometimes with broad 
indistinct bars or transverse spots of darker; loral, orbital, and auricu- 
lar regions dull pale brownish buff or brownish white (sometimes 
approaching dull broccoli brown), the auricular region (at least pos- 
terior portion) sometimes indistinctly barred with grayish; malar 
region bright crimson; chin and upper throat dull whitish clouded or 
irregularly flecked with dull grayish, the lower throat more regularly 
barred with the same; foreneck and chest oUve, rather irregularly 
but sharply barred with yellowish white or pale yellowish (the bars 
of the latter color sometimes nearly as wide as the olive interspaces, 
sometimes much narrower), the remaining under parts more broadly 
barred with olive and pale yellowish; under wing-coverts pale yellow 
(between straw and primrose, sometimes tinged with canary), some- 
times sparsely barred (narrowly), at least near edge of wing, with 
dusky; inner webs of remiges yellowish gray distally, broadly edged 
basaUy with pale creamy yellow, their shafts clear sulphur or light 
canary yellow; under surface of lateral rectrices light olive-yellowish, 
the shafts pale yellow; bill grayish black, the mandible paler (more 
horn color) basally; feet dusky grayish (in dried okins); length 
(skins), 202-222 (210); wing, 116.5-122 (120.2); taU, 67-72 (69.3); 
culmen, 25-26 (25.5); tarsus, 19.6-21 (20.3); outer anterior toe, 
16.5-18.5 (17.7).« 

Young male. — Similar to the adult male but red of malar region 
duller (the gray at base of feathers considerably exposed), and sides of 
hindneck very slightly tinged or intermixed with red. 

AduUfemale. — Similar to the adult male, but malar region streaked 
with dull gray and whitish; length (skins), 206-212 (209); wing, 

« Three specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD6 OF irOBTH AND MIDDLB AMBBIOA. 129 

119-121.6 (120); tafl, 67.5-72 (70); culmen, 23-24.6 (23.7); tareus, 
19-20.6 (19.8); outer anterior toe, 16.6-18 (17.2).« 

Southwestern Mexico, in States of Querrero (Xautipa, in Sierra 
Madre del Sur), Jalisco (Hacienda San Marcos, 6,200 feet; Sal se 
Poerdes; Hacienda Santa Oertrudis; Miner&l de San Sebasti&n), and 
southern Sinaloa (Plomosas; Mount Juan Lisiarraga, 6,600 feet). 

CUonmerpes aurieulans Salybt and Godman, Ibis, July, 1889, 381 (Xaudpa, 
Siena liadre del Sur, Guerrero, Mexico; coll. Salvin and Godman); Biol. 
Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 406, pi. 59a, fig. 3.— Haboiit, Gat. Birds Brit. 
MuB., xviii, 1890, 83. 

[Chlanmerpes] aurieuktris Shabpb, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 205. 

Chloixmerpei godmani Habout, Gat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 83 (Hacienda 
Sanliaicoe, Jalisco, Mexico, alt. 5,200 ft.; coll. Brit. Mu8.).~SALym and God- 
MAK, Biol. Gentr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 409, pi. 59a, figs. 1, 2 (Hacienda San 
Maicos, H. de Sta. Gertrudis, and Mineral de San Sebastian, Jalisco).— 
MZU.BB (W. De W.), Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., xxi, 1905, 352 (Juan Lisiarraga, 
s. Sinaloa). 

lChloronerpe$l godmawi Shabpb, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 205. 

CHLOROIIBRPBS JOtUOINOSUS (Xilherbe). 

LXOHTXVBTZnrS WOODPBOSSB. 

AdvU male. — ^Pileum plain slate-gray; hindneck bright crimson, 
this color extending forward laterally, on each side of occiput and 
crown, to or beyond posterior angle of eye; back and scapulars plain 
oliye-green (varying from a more grayish to a more "golden" hue,* 
the romp and upper tail-coverts siniilar but usually more or less 
barred, narrowly, with pale yellowish; wings plain golden brown 
(more yellowish than tawny-olive), duller on primaries, especially on 
terminal portion of inner webs, the shafts of remiges yellowish dis- 
lally; under wing-coverts light creamy yellow (maize yellow), those 
near edge of wing barred with blackish; inner webs of remiges mostly 
yeDowish olive, but proximal portion (nearly all on secondaries) 
bioadly edged with light creamy yellow, the shafts clear canary 
ydlow; tail olive or olive-brownish basally, blackish distally except 
the lateral rectrices, the shafts of middle rectrices black or blackish 
brown; under surface of lateral pair of rectrices olive or yellowish 
dive, the inner portion of inner web, more or less broadly, dusky; 
loral region dull buff or cream-buff, the suborbital region and super- 
ciliary region (narrowly) similar but paler; auricular region grayish 
white, narrowly streaked with dusky grayish; malar region crimson, 
the anterior end, more or less extensively, grayish; chin and throat 
grayish white (sometimes tinged with pale yellow), rather broadly 
striked with blackish or dusky grayish; foreneck and chest olive, 
irregolariy barred with pale olive-yeUow, this pattern passing grad- 

^ Three specimens. & As if washed with wax yellow. 

aa22*— Bull 60, pt 0—14 — e 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



130 BULLBTIK 60, UOTTBD STATES NATIOKAL MUSEUM. 

ually on more posterior under parts to pale citron yellow, broadly 
and rather regularly barred with olive, the under tail-coverts, bow- 
ever, with the yellowish bars much narrower than the olive inter- 
spaces; bill grayish black; iris brown; « feet dusky grayish (bluish 
ash in life); « length (skins), 221-261 (240); wing, 130.5-137 (133.6); 
tail, 81.6-90 (86.3); cuhnen, 25-29 (26.6); tarsus, 23-25 (23.7); 
outer anterior toe, 20-21 (20.4).^ 

Yowag male. — Similar to the adult male, but imder parts of body 
much less distinctly barred (sometimes whole abdomen and flanks 
nearly immaculate) and much duller yellowish; chest and foreneck 
regularly barred, but the bars less strongly contrasted; and red of 
nape extending forward, along sides of crown and forehead, to base 
ofbiU. 

Advli female. — Similar to the adult male, but malar r^on pale 
gray or grayish white, narrowly streaked with blackish, and red of 
nape not extending laterally to eye; length (skins), 217-250 (226); 
wing, 127.5-135.5 (130.9) ; tail, 78-89 (85.5) ; cuhnen, 23-25.5 (24.2); 
tarsus, 22-23.5 (22.6); outer anterior toe, 18-19.5 (18.7).* 

Eastern Mexico, in States of Vera Cruz (C6rdova; Jalapa; Orizaba; 
Mirad6r; Co&tepec; Papantla), Puebla (Metlaltoyuca), San Luis 
PotosI (Jilitla), Nueva Le6n (Cerro de la Silla; Boquillo), and 
Tamaulipas (Vict6ria; Sierra Madre, above Vict6ria; Tampico; Alta 
Mira; Rio Pil6n; Rampahuila; Rio Santa; Rio de la Cruz; Santa 
Leonora; Guiaves; Galindo; Potrero; Rio Martinez). 

(?)Ptcia poliocephalua Lichtenstbin, Prei»-Verz. Mex. Vflg., 1830, 1 (Mexico); 
Joum. for Om., 1863, 65 (reprint). 

C[hlar(merpei] ruhiginotu* (not of SwainBon) Gray, Gen. Birds, ii, 1846, 443. 

Chloranerpes rubiginonu Gray, Gen. Birds, ii, 1846, pi. 110. 

C[hior<merpe»] Kniginotu* Gray, Gen. Birds, iii, 1849, App., p. 22 (ex Lichten- 
stein manuscript); nomen nudumi 

Chloronerpea mruginomi Gray, List Picida Brit. Mus., 1868, 104 (Cordova, Vera 
Cruz).— ScLATEB, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 339 (Jalapa, Vera Cruz).— Suin- 
CHBA8T, La Naturaleza, v, 1882, 240, part (Orizaba, Vera Cruz).— Haroiit, 
Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 81 (Tampico, and Sierra Madre above 
Victoria, Tamaulipas; Cordova, Jalapa, Orizaba, and Coatepec, Vera Oruz; 
Atoyac, Mexico). — Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 
406.— Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xviii, 1896, 629 (Alta Mira, Tamau- 
lipas).— PmLurs, Auk, xxviii, 1911, 75 (Rampahuila, Rio Santa, Rio de la 
Cruz, Rio Martinez, Santa Leonora, Guiaves, Galindo, and Potrero, Tamauli- 
pas). 

[Chloronerpes] aeruginotuB Liohtbnotxin, Nom. Mus. Berol., 1854, 76. 

[Chloronarpes] tmiginoiui Bonaparte, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 124 (Oonsp. 
Volucr. Zygod., 1854, 9).— Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 198, no. 8775.— Scla- 
TER and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 100. — Sharpe, Hand-list, ii, 
1900,205. 

CpUoronerpei] aeruginonu Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 161 
(Jalapa). 

o According to Sumichrast. ^ Ten specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD6 OF KOBTH AND lODDLB AMEBIOA. 181 

Cfhloronerpes] xrugmonu Scultbb, Froc. Zool. 8oc. Loud., 1864, 177 (near City 

of Mexico). 
Pieus xruginonu Sundsvall, ConBp. Av. Picin., 1866, 70. 
Chry9opieu» Kruginomu Malhbrbe, Mon. Picid., ii, 1862, 171; iv, 1862, pi. 90, 

figs. 1, 2. 
CMoronerpes yucataneruit (not Pictia ytLcatanentu Cabot) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., 1856, 307 (G<»rdova, Vera Cruz; diagnoeis; crit); 1859, 367 (Jalapa).— 

Cabanis, Joum. fOr Om., 1862, 321 (diagnoeis; Mexico). 
Chloronerpes ytuxUerms Cabanis, Jonm. fOr Om., 1862, 321 (Mexico; crit.). 

CHLORONSRPBS RUBI6IN0SUS TUCATAIIBNSIS (Cabot). 

TUOATAH WOODPSOnUL 

MuU male. — ^Pileum bright crimson laterally and (more or lees) 
anteriorly, this confluent posteriorly with a crimson area covering 
whole of nape, the red enclosing a large central area of slate-gray 
coTering greater part of forehead, crown, and occiput; back and 
scapulars plain yellowish olive-green to nearly orange-olive or deep 
yellowish olive tinged with orange; wings plain orange-brown or 
yellowish tawny-olive, passing into dull brown or grayish brown on 
alula, primary coverts, and terminal portion of primaries; rump and 
upper tail-coverts olive-yellow or citron yellow, broadly barred with 
light olive; tail light brownish olive, the middle rectrices blackish 
distally; loral, orbital, and auricular regions pale buffy brownish or 
pale broccoli brown, the posterior portion of the last usually indis- 
tinctly barred with darker, the post-auricular region dull whitish, dis- 
tinctly barred with dusky; malar region (broadly) bright crimson; 
chin and throat dull white or grayish white, streaked and barred (pos- 
terioriy) with dusky, the chin sometimes uniform dusky; foreneck 
and chest dark yellowish olive, narrowly and sharply barred with pale 
yellow or yellowish white, the remaining under parts similar but the 
yellow bars much broader and the bars less sharply defined, especially 
on abdomen, anal region, and flanks; under wing-coverts buffy 
ydlow (maize yellow to buff-yellow), those along edge of wing usually 
narrowly and indistinctly barred with dusky; inner webs of remiges 
light ydlowish olive, broadly edged (except distally) with pale buffy 
yellow, their shafts clear light yellow; under surface of lateral reo- 
trices light yellowish olive or dull wax yellow, their shafts clear light 
ydlow; bill dull blackish, sometimes more brownish or horn color on 
basal portion of mandible; iris dark brown ^; feet dusky grayish (dark 
gray m life«); length (skins), 180-230 (211); wing, 118.5-132.6 
(126.4); tail, 65-79.5 (72.2); cuhnen, 22.5-27 (25.4); tarsus, 20.5- 
23.5(21.6); outer anterior toe, 17.5-20.5 (19.1).^ 

Young male. — Similar to the adult male but posterior under parts 
nearly immaculate light olive-yellowish, the rump and upper tail- 

o According to Morton £. Peck. ^ Eighteen specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



182 



BULLETIN 50, UKITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



coverts also nearly immaculate (the darker bars indistinct or 
obsolete). 

AdvUfemaU. — Similar to the adult male but malar region streaked 
or spotted with dull white or duskj, like throat; length (skins) , 171- 
225 (205); wing, 116-133.5 (124.7); taU, 62-77.5 (70.6); culmen, 
22-27.5 (24.1); tarsus, 20.5-23 (21.3); outer anterior toe, 17.6-19.5 
(18.3).« 

Southeastern Mexico, in States of Vera Cruz (Playa Vicente; Ori- 
zaba; Pasa Nueva; Buena Vista), Oaxaca (Chimalapa; Guichicovi; 
Com&ltepec; Tapana; mountains near Santo Domingo; nearTot6n- 
tepee; Teotalcingo), Tabasco (Teapa; Frontera), Yucatan (Tizimfn; 
Izam&l; Peto) and Chiapas (Gineta Mountains; Canj6b; mountains 
near Tonal&), and southward through Guatemala (San Ger6iiimo; 
Tactic; Cob&n; DuefLas; Chis6c; Tolim&n; Retalhuleu; Telim&n; 
Barranca Honda; Savana Grande; Volcan de Agua) and Salyad6r 
(La libert&d; Volcan de San Miguel) and Honduras^ to Nicaragua 

^ Twenty-four specimens. 



Locality. 



Wing. 



TaU. 



Ex- 
posed 
culmen. 



Tanua. 



Onter 

aota- 

rior toa. 



MALES. 

Five adult males from Vera Crus (3), Oaxaca (1) and Ta- 
basoo(l) 

flevn adult males from Chiapas (2) and Qnatmnala (S) 

Two adult males from British Honduras 

Four adult males from Nicaragua 

Ten adult males (C. f . iiro pfyfaWt ) from Costa Rloa 

Ten adult males (C. r. uropffMit) from Panama 

Six adult males (C. r. oOeiiO from Colombia (Santa Marta dis- 
trict) 

One adult male (C. r . MUmif) fromoential Colombia (Bogota). 

Two adult males (C, r. mtridentU) from moontalns of Vens- 
snelaClferida) 

Three adult males {C. r, nMglmtui) from coast of Venesuela 
(San Antonio and El Ouadearo) 

Seven adult males (C f. lo&sfiiMit) from Tobago 

Five adult males (C.f.frMtatfff) from Tilnldad 

mcALis. 

8lz adult females from Vera Crus (3) and Oaxaca (3) 

Ten adult females from Chiapas (2) and Guatemala (3) 

EU^t adult females from Nicaragua 

Ten adult females (C f. wr o ppt h Ui ) from Costa Rica 

Four adult females (C f. uropiviaUt) from Panama. 

Five adult females (C r . oOenO f^om Colombia (Santa Marta). . 
Two adult females (C, r, meHdentk) from mountains of Vene- 
suela (Merida) 

Three adult females (C f. fo&sfiiMit) from Tobago 

Three adult females (C.f.frMtatfff) from Trinidad 

One adult iBaiale(C.f.ostilpaeiw) from BoUvla 



121. « 

128 

125 

13a 1 

11&4 

118L2 

123.4 
126 

123 

lia5 

HI 

10&4 



121.7 
12&1 
12S.4 
U&O 
ll&l 
1210 

1218 

iia3 

100 
127 



Tao 

0Ql3 
7a8 
0&6 
87.1 

7a6 
70 

7t8 

8&5 
83L8 
8a7 



87.7 
7a8 
711 
8&1 
87.6 
7913 

7aL6 
8&6 
87.8 

74 



X7 
2&3 
20.3 
20.1 
X6 
X8 

20L5 
216 

X6 

28.6 
XI 
210 



23L8 
21.4 
217 
XI 
XI 
X6 

22.8 
218 
2L8 
X6 



2L6 
2L8 
216 
2L4 
2L1 
21.3 

2L8 
23 

21 

TflZ 
914 
20 



2L8 
2L4 
2LS 
213 
210 
216 

218 
116 
118 
216 



111 
1&8 
116 
114 
1&6 
114 

113 
19 

18 

118 
17.8 
1« 



1&2 
118 
118 
n.6 
111 
10 

17.8 
17 

1&8 
It 



( No Honduras specimen seen by me. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD6 OF NOBTH AKD MIDDLB AMSBIOA. 188 

(Le6n; Matagalpa; Chinandega; San Ger6nimo, Chinandega; Volcan 
deGhmandega; Rio Grande; Rio Coco; San Carlos; San Rafael del 
Norte). 

Pieui yueaUmtimM Cabot, Proc. Boat. Soc. N. H.» i, May, 1844, 164 (Yucatan; 
coll. Dr. S. Cabot, jr.); Joum. Bost. Soc. N. H., v, pt. i, 1845, 92 (road from 
Chemax to Yalabao, Yucatan). 

Ckionmerpes yuoaUmenm Sglatsb, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1859, 60 (Honduras; 
crit.); Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 339 (Coban, Guatemala).— Sglatbr and Salyin, 
n>]8, 1850, 136 (Duefias, Guatemala; Yucatan).— Moorb, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
IxMid., 1850, 60 (Hondmas; crit.).— Salyin and Sglatbr, Ibis, 1860, 144 
(Coban; crit.).— Gray, List Birds Brit. Mus., Capit. and Picid., 1868, 104, 
part (Mexico).— Salyin, Cat. Strickland Coll., 1882, 396 (Guatemala).— 
BoucARD, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, 452 (Tizimin, Yucatan). — HARorrr, 
Cat Birds Brit. Mus., XYiii, 1890, 84, part (Teapa, Tabasco; Peto, Yucatan; 
Ortnge Walk and Southern Pine Ridge, Brit. Honduras; Duefias, Coban, 
Chisec, Tactic, Banranca Honda, SaYana Grande, and Volcan de Agua, 
Guatemala).— Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xyI, 1893, 518 (San Carlos, 
Nicaragua). — Salyin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., AVes, ii, 1895, 407, 
part (Playa Vicente, Vera Cruz; Teapa, Tabasco; Chimalapa, Tapana, and 
GuichicoYi, Gazaca; Gineta Mts., Chiapas; Tizimin, Izamal, and Peto, 
Yucatan; Orange Walk, British Honduras; San (}er6nimo, Toliman, Retal- 
huleu, etc., Guatemala; La Libertad and Volcan de San Miguel, SalYador; 
Ledn, Chinandega, Matagalpa, San Ra&iel del Norte, etc., Nicaragua). 

ClUoroficrpet] yueaUmtntii Cabanis and Hbine, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 161, 
part (Mexico). 

[CSUor(m«rpet]yuoaton«nnt Gray, Hand-list, i, 1869, 198, no. 8777, part.— Sclatbb 
and Salvin, Nom. Ay. Neotr., 1873, 100, part. — Sharpe, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 
205, part. 

Pytau yucatanerma Sundbyall, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 70, part (Mexico). — 
Gibbbl, Thes. Cm., iii, 1876, 186. 

P[m»] tfueataeenm Gray, Gen. Birds, iii, 1849, App., p. 21. 

[Chlormerpef] canipileiu Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 198, no. 8776, part. 

CftrinopictM rubiginotiu (not Pious rubigmonu Swainson) Malhbrbb, Mon. 
Pidd., ii, 1862, 174, part. 

{f)C^hr(m€rpe$ mruginomi (not of Malherbe?) Soi^tbr, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1859, 388 (Teotalcingo, Gaxaca). 

CUoixmerpeM mruginasm (not of Malherbe) Lawrbnob, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
no. 4, 1876, 35 (Tapana and GuichicoYi, Gaxaca; Gineta Mts., Chiapas). — 
BoucARD, Liste Ois. r^ol. Guat., 1878, 27 (Guatemala). 

CHLOROIIBRFBS RUBIOINOSUS UROPYGIALIS (Cabanis). 

COSTA SICAN WOODPSOSX&. 

Similar to C. r. yucatajienais, but more richly colored; the foreneck 
tod cheet washed with golden brown and with yellow bars averaging 
QtrrowOT, color of upper parts averaging more golden brownish 
(less greenish), and rump frequently less distinctly barred (often 
onifonn or nearly so);^ wing, tail, and bill averaging shorter. 

* OrrMJontl specimois, both from Pkuiama and Costa Rica, have the rump quite 
V pUn coloied as C r. rubiginonu. One adult male from Sarchf , Costa Rica (no. 
HI1920) has the cnnmcfa malar patches united posteriorly by a broad band across 
^ Wer throat, the foreneck washed with crimson, and touches of the same color 
flw whole back, scapulars, rump, and upper tail-coverts. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



134 BULLETIN 50, UKITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

AduU nude— Length (skins), 187-213 (200); wing, 114-123 (118.8); 
taU, 64-71.5 (66.8); culmen, 22.5-27 (24.6); tarsus, 20-22.5 (21.2); 
outer anterior toe, 17.5-20 (18.4).« 

AduU female.— Lexigth (skins), 187-211 (198); wing, 115.6-122.6 
(118.7); taU, 64-71 (66.5); culmen, 22-26 (24.1); tarsus, 19.5-21 
(20.4); outer anterior toe, 17-18.5 (17.7).* 

Costa Rica (Cerro de la Candel&iia; Cerro Santa Maria; Sarchf de 
Alajuela; Cariblanco de Sarapiqui; Naranjo and Azah&r de Cartago; 
Guayabo; BoniUa; Juan Vifias; Tumalba; Carrillo; La Hondura; 
Barranca; Lagu&ria; Santa Maria de Dota; Atirro; Bio Sdcio) and 
western Panama (Boquete, 4,000-5,600 feet; Boquer6n; Cordillera 
del Chucu; Volcdn de Chiriquf). 

ChloronerpeB vropygialU Cabanis, Joum. fOr Om., z, Sept., 1862, 321, 322 (Cerro 

de la Candel£U!ia, Ooeta Rica; coll. Berlin Mus.). 
CMoronerpes yucatanensis vropygialU (not of Bangs, 1899) c Bangs, Proc. New 
Engl. Zool. Club, ill, Jan. 30, 1902, 33 (Boquete, Panama, 4,000-5,000 ft.).— 
Cabbikeb, Ann. Carnegie Mus., vi, 1910, 584 (Costa Rica; habits). 
CMoronerpa ytuxUanerma (not Picus yucatanentis €!abot) Lawrbncs, Ann. Lye. 
N. Y., ix, 1868, 131 (Turrialba and Barranca, Coeta Rica).~FRANTznT8, 
Joum. fOr Cm., 1869, 364 (Costa Rica).~ZELBD5N, Cat. Aves de Costa Rica, 
1882, 23; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, 1885, 111 (Costa Rica); Anal. Mus. 
Nac. Costa Rica, i, 1887, 124 (Rio Sucio, Sarchf de Alajuela, and Naranjo 
de Cartago, Costa Rica).— Fbrrt, Pub. 146, Field Mus. N. H., Om. Ser., 
i, 1910, 267 (Guayabo, Costa Rica). 
CpUaronerpes] yucatanenni Cabanis and Hsmx, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 

161, part. 
[(Mjronerpes] yucataneruii Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 198, no. 8777, part.— 

Sharps, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 205, part. 
Picus yucatanensia Sundevall, Consp. Picin., 1866, 70, part (Costa Rica). 
Chloronerpea canipilem (not Picus carUpileus D'Orbigny) Salyin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lend., 1870, 212 (Cordillera del Chucu and Yolcan de Chiriqui, Panama; 
crit.). ^ 

[Chhronerpes] canipUeus Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 198, no. 8776, part. — Sclatbr 
and Salvik, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 100, part. 

CHLORONBRPBS CHRTSOCHLORUS AUROSUS Nelson. 

GOLDMAVB WOODPBOKBS. 

Similar to C. c. chrysocTilonis, of southern Brazil and Paraguay, 
but auricular region paler olive and distal portion of primaries more 
extensively dusky .^ 

AdvU male. — Pileum and hindneck bright deep poppy red or clear 
carmine red; the feathers grayish beneath surface; rest of upper parts 

o Twenty specimens. 

^ Fourteen specimens. 

For comparative measurements of Panama and Costa Rican specimens see p. 132. 

c ^Chhronerpes yucatanensis aUeni Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Club, iii, March 
31, 1902, 83 (San Sebastian, Siena Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia, 6,600 ft.; 
coll. £. A. and 0. Bangs). 

d I doubt, however, whether these characters would prove constant in a larger 
series of the supposed two forms. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OP NORTH AND MIDDLE AMEMCA. 135 

]dam deep citrine or between this and medal bronze,^ duller on 
outer webs of primaries; the rectrices dusky terminally and medially 
(next to shafts) ; loral, suborbital, and auricular regions deep citrine 
or light brownish olive (Saccardo's olive); a rictal stripe (originating 
on lower edge of frontal antiae) of dull orange-yellow (antimony 
jdlow), passing into buflf-yellow or pinard yellow posteriorly (on 
sobauricular portion) ; a broad malar patch of carmine red, succeeded 
by a broad stripe of imif orm brownish olive or olive-brown on sides 
of neck (beneath the yellow subauricular stripe); chin and throat 
immaculate light cinnamon-buff; rest of imder parts light cinnamon- 
buff or dull light orange-yellow (deepest on chest; much paler on 
under taQ-coverts) everywhere regularly and rather narrowly barred 
with dusky olive-brown; axillars and imder wing-coverts immaculate 
pinkish cinnamon or light vinaceous-cinnamon; imder surface of 
lemiges light cinnamon-rufous, with distal portion abruptly dusky; 
bin dark horn color, with terminal portion of maxilla darker and 
basal portion of mandible slightly paler; legs and feet dusky horn 
cotor (in dried skins); length (skins), 204.5; wing, 124.5; tail, 67; 
exposed culmen, 23; tarsus, 20.5; outer anterior toe, 19.* 
Eastern Panama (Marraganti). 

Chknxyrurpes ckrysoMorus awronu Nelson, Smithson, Misc. Coll., vol. 60, no. 3 
(pub. 2143), Sept. 27, 1912, 3 (Marraganti, 150 miles east of Canal Zone, 
eastern Panama; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.). 

CHLOROlffBRPBS CAIXOPTBRUS Lawrence. 

PAHAMl WOODPBOl 



AduU male. — ^Pileum and hindneck carmine red, more or less broken 
on forehead and crown by slate-grayish, only the tips of these 
feathers being red; hsiJtk, scapularS; wing-covertS; and secondaries 
plain bright orange-brown (nearest raw-umber but more orange- 
yellowish or greenish) , the outer webs of secondaries with inner portion 
(next to shaft and concealed; except terminally, in closed wing) light 
dnnamon-ruf ouS; rather distantly barred or spotted (except sometimes 
on proximal feathers) with black; primaries clear cinnamon-rufous 
rather distantly spotted with blackish, their distal portion uniform 
brownish dusky or sepia brown; under wing-coverts deep pinkish buff, 
or dnnamon-buff ; inner webs of remiges light cinnamon-rufous with 
distal portion, abruptly, dusky (extensively on longer primaries), 
the distal portion of cinnamomeous area on secondaries showing a 
greater or less number of bars or transverse spots of dusky next to 
shaft; primary coverts olive-brown, the innermost ones spotted with 
lig^t cmnamon-rufous; rump and upper tail-coverts light olive or 
yellowish olive, the former transversely spotted or broadly barred 

« Of the author's "Color Standards," pi. iv, colors 211 and 19m. 
b One specimen (the type). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



186 BULLBTIK 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

laterally with pale bufiy yellowish, the latter with more or less dis- 
tinct (sometimes large) mesial streaks or central spots of pale yellow- 
ish or buffy; tail olive passing into dusky terminally, the two 
outer developed rectrices on each side sometimes with a median streak 
of pale dnnamon-rufous, the under surface of lateral rectrices dull 
light olive-grayish; a broad subloral and suborbital stripe of dull 
olive-whitish, originating immediately behind nostril^ on lower- 
anterior portion of loral region, this stripe passing into into grayish 
olive on auricular region; a broad malar stripe, chin and throat dull 
yellowish, or brownish, white, irregularly streaked, spotted, or flecked 
with olive; chest and lower foreneck oUve, broken by guttate streaks 
(anteriorly) and spots (posteriorly) of pale dull buffy yellowish; rest 
of under parts pale dull yellowish (nearly straw yellow) barred with 
dusky olive, the under tail-coverts sometimes more buffy and partly 
immaculate; bill, in dried skins, dusky horn color, paler (sometimes 
dull whitish) on basal half of mandible; feet dull grayish brown (in 
dried skins); length (skins), 167-176 (171); wing, 106-108.6 (107); 
tail, 66.6-69 (68); culmen, 21; tarsus, 17-18 (17.3); outer anterior 
toe, 16-16.6 (16.7).» 

AduU female. — Similar to the adult male, but pileum dull slaty 
olive, only the lower occiput and hindneck being red; the malar 
region similar but rather lighter grayish olive; length (skins), 
166-169.6 (167); wing, 106-108.6 (107.6); tail, 66.6-68 (66.7); 
exposed culmen, 20-21.6 (20.7); tarsus, 17-18.6 (17.7); outer ante- 
rior toe, 16-16 (16.6).* 

Panam& (Lion HiQ; Ver&gua; Cana; Cerro Brujo). 

Chioronerpa eaUopterus Lawrbncb, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., vii, 18^2, 476 
(Lion Hill, Panama; coll. G. N. Lawrence). — Gray, List Birds Brit. Mub., 
Capit. and Pidd., 1868, 106.— Salvdt, Ibis, 1874, 317 (Veragua; crit).— 
HABorrr, Oat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 80 (Veragua).— SALvm and God- 
man, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 409, pL 59, fig. 1 (Veragua; Lion Hill). 

[Cklorcnerpes] eaUoptenu Gba.t, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 199, no. 8785. — Shabpb, 
Hand-list, ii, 1900, 205. 

C[raugasiui\ calloptenu Cabakis and HsmE, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 159. 

Chry%opicuB callopterut Gasbin, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, 326. 

Picus caUoptenu Sundevall, Gonsp. Av. Picin., 1866, 12. 

CHLORONERPBS SIMPLBZ SIMPLEZ SaMn. 

BirOABA W00DPB0SS&. 

Similar to 0. cdUopteras but with suborbital and subauricular 
regions, chin, and throat Ught brown, concolor, or nearly so, with 
adjacent parts of head. 

AduU male. — ^Pileum (including superciliary region), hindneck, 
malar region, and more or less of suborbital r^on, bright, rather 
dark, poppy red, the feathers dusky grayish or dull slate color 
beneath surface; upper parts mostly plain yellowish olive-green, or 

a Three specimens from Panama. ^ Three specimens. 

Digitized'by VjOOQIC 



BIBDB OF KOBTH AKD MIDDLE AMEBIOA. 



187 



between oliYe-green and raw umber; the outer webs of distal 
primaries more or less distinctly spotted with dull cinnamon-rufous, 
the inner webs of proximal secondaries (except first two) showing 
more or less of the same along margin, the upper tail-coverts 
sometimes tipped or terminally margined with wax yellowish; tail 
dull black terminaUy, passing into dull oUve-greenish basally; 
aoiicular region, chin, and throat plain olive or brown (between 
broccoli brown and raw-umber); foreneck and chest greenish olive 
to ochreous olive, the latter more or less conspicuously spotted 
with pale buffy yellowish, the breast similar but with the yellowish 
spots more transverse (bar-like); rest of under parts rather broadly 
barred with deep or dark olive on a yellowish buff or pale buff- 
ydlowish ground, the darker bars narrower, and yellowish interspaces 
correspondingly wider, on under tail-coverts; under wing-coverts 
yinaceous-cinnamon or light cinnamon-rufous, the carpo-metacarpal 
region more or less spotted or barred with dusky; inner webs of 
remiges light cinnamon-rufous, tipped with dus^ (extensively so 
on outermost and longer primaries), with transverse spots or broad 
bars of dusky on inner half (approximately), these concealed in the 
closed wing; iinder surface of tail light glaucous-olive; bill dull black, 
the mandible with basal half or more pale horn color or whitish; 
legs and feet dusky (olive-green in life); length (skins), 172-182 
(177); wing, 108-118.6 (113); taU, 58.6-66.6 (61.9); cuhnen, 1&-21.5 
(20); tarsus, 17-19 (17.7) ; outer anterior toe, 16-16.5 (16.8).« 

AdvU female. — Similar to the adult male, but only the nape and 
hindneck bright red, the pileum dull olive, and malar region lighter, 
more yellowish, olive; loral, superciliary, and suborbital region tinged 
with dark red; length (skms), 170-186 (178); wing, 112-116 (113); 
tafl, 67.5-65.6 (62.4) ; cuhnen, 19.6-21.6 (20.7) ; tarsus, 17-18.6 (17.8); 
outer anterior toe, 16-16.6 (16.8).* 

Young female.— SinnlBi to the adult female, but general color of 
under parts more buffy, the chest broadly barred with buff, and 
foreneck spotted with the same. 

Western Panam& (Bugaba, Chiriqui), through Costa Rica (Tala- 
manca; Rio Sfcsola; Quayabo; Carrillo; El Hog&r; Cachf; Bonilla; 



A Nine specimens. 



& Five specimens. 



LocaUty. 



Wfng. 



TaU. 



Ex- 

posed 
Qulmen. 



TUBOS. 



Outer 
ante- 
rior toe. 



MALCS. 

I flrem Ooata Rica 

TvD adult males from Nicaragua 

Oae adnlt male (type of C. t. aUopkpeiu) ftom Honduras, 

IXMALia. 

iftomCoatoRloa 



U2.3 
116.5 
112 



118 



61.8 
62.5 
61.5 



68.4 



20.1 
19.8 
18 



20.7 



17.6 
17.8 
17 



17.8 



15.0 
15.5 

15.5 



15.8 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



138 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

El Pozo de T6rraba; Pozo Aztil de Pirrls; La Yij&gua) to Nicaragua 
(Pefta Blanca; Rio Grande; La Libert&d, Chontales). 

Chloronerpea nmplex Salvin, Proc. ZooL Soc. Lond., Aug. 1, 1870, 212 (Bugaba, 
Gluriqui, w. Panama; coll. Salvia and Godman;«adult female); IbiB, 1874, 
315, 317 (Ohiriqui; Talamanca, Costa Rica; descr. adult male).— ZblbikSn, 
Oat. Aves de Costa Rica, 1882, 23; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, 1885, 111 
(Costa Rica); Anal. Mus. Nat. 0. R., i, 1887, 124 (Costa Rica).— HAaGrrr, 
Oat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 81 (Bugaba, Panama; Veiagua).— 
Chebbie, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., ziv, 1891, 536 (Pozo Azul de Pirris, s. w. 
Costa Rica). — Salyin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 410, 
pi. 59, fig. 2 (La Libertad, Chontales, Nicaragua; etc.).— Fbrbt, Pub. 146, 
Field Mus. N. H., om. ser., i, 1910, 267 (Guayabo, Costa Rica). 

[Chloronerpes] simplex Sclater and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 99. — Sharpe, 
Hand-list, ii, 1900, 205. 

Cfhloronerpes] timplex nmplex Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., xxxix, 1903, 145, 
in text. 

Chhronerpes simplex simplex Cabbiker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., vi, 1910, 584 (Costa 
Rica; habits). 

CHLOROIIERPES SIMPLBX ALLOPHYBUS Bangs. 
YABXrOA WOODPSOEBB. 

Similar to 0. 8. simplex, of Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and western 
Panama, but bill slightly smaller, chest broadly barred with pale 
yellowish buff, general color of under parts of body pale buff-yellow 
or dull maize yellow, and outer web of two lateral rectrices (on each 
side) spotted with pale cinnamon-rufous. 

AdtJi male, — ^Length (skin), 167; wing, 112; tail, 61.6; cuhnen, 
18; tarsus, 17; outer anterior toe, 15.6.* 

Northern Honduras (Yaruca, 1,000 feet altitude). 
Chloronerpes simplex allophyeus Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. ZooL, xxxix, July, 
1903, 145 (Yaruca, Honduras, 1,000 ft.; coll. E. A. and O. Bangs). 

Genus CELEUS Bole. 

Celeus BoiE, Isis, 1831, 542. (Type, as fixed by Gray, 1841, Picus flavescens 

Gmelin.) 
Celeopicos Malhbbbe, M^m. Acad. Metz, xxx, 1849, 332. (Type, Picus fiavetoenM 

Gmelin.) 
Xardhopicus Malherbe, Mon. Picid., Introd., 1861, p. liii. (Type, PicuM 

flavescens Gmelin.) 
Malacolophus Swad^son, Fauna Bor.-Am., ii, 1831, 300. (Type, according to 

Gray, 1855, Picus flavescens Gmelin.) 
Malacolaphus (emendation?) Swainson, Anim. in Menag., 1838, 229, in text. 

f^ One specimen (the type). 

I am somewhat doubtful whether this supposed form will prove really separable 
when a larger series of specimens has been examined. Examination of additional 
specimens of true C. simplex from Nicaragua requires the elimination of some of the 
characters given in the original description; for example, as to measurements, while 
Mr. Bangs says it is ''considerably smaller,'' all the measurements, except culmen 
(which really is less) and tarsus (which is exactly the same) are in reality decidedly 
greater than the Tninimimi of the same measurements of a series of nine adult males 
of C. s, simplex. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD6 OF KOBTH AND MIDDLB AMBBICA. 189 

Medium-dzed to rather lai^e Picid» (wing about 109-170 nun.) 
with nostrils wholly exposed; no antrorse bristly feathers near 
nostril, on malar apex, nor on chin; bill rather stout with chisel- 
shaped tip and distinct supranasal ridge, and with upper parts 
mostly chestnut or cinnamon-rufous (with or without black bars), 
or barred with black and buflf-yellow or brown and yellowish; usually 
conspicuously crested, the pileum always without red; ^ adult males 
with a broad malar patch of red. 

Bin^ shorter than head, stout, broad and rather depressed at 
base (width at anterior end of nostrils decidedly greater than its 
depth at same point), its tip distinctly though narrowly chisel- 
shaped; culmen distinctly ridged, faintly to rather strongly convex 
(nearly straight in C. loricatus); gonys slightly to decidedly longer 
than mandibular rami, obviously (usually distinctly) ridged, straight 
or faintly concave terminally, more or less copvex and prominent 
basally; supranasal ridge very distinct, much nearer to culmen than 
to toxnium, extending for at least basal half of maxiUa. Nostril 
wholly exposed, small, roundish or oval, sometimes nearer to culmen 
than to tomiiun^ sometimes the reverse. Prefrontal feathers shorty 
erect, without bristle-like tips, the feathers of malar apex and chin 
also short and without bristly tips. Orbital r^on naked, including 
margin or edge of eyelids, except posterior portion of lower lid. 
Wing moderate, rounded; longest primaries exceeding secondaries 
by one-seventh to one-fourth {0. loricaius) the length of wing; fifth 
and sixth, sixth, or sixth and seventh primaries longest, the ninth 
sometimes shorter than first {0. Jlavescens, C. luffubrist^), interme- 
diate between first and second ((7. castaneus), or intermediate between 
second and third {C. loricatus), the tenth (outermost) slightly less 
than half ((7. castarieus, C. loricatus) as long as ninth to decidedly 
more than half as long (<7. Jlavescens, C. luguhrisf*'). Tail about 
three-fifths as long as wing to nearly half as long, the middle rectrices 
gradually narrowing terminally and (except in C. castaneus and 
C. loficatas) with shafts somewhat expanded subterminally. Tarsus 
nearly as long as outer hind toe with claw ((7. castaneus, C. loricatus, 

Sometimee, in adult males, there are touches of red on the forehead or super- 
ciliary region, but there is never a definite area of this color, and the crest is invariably 
buff-yeUow, olive-buff, cinnamon-rufous, or some analogous color. 

^ C. rufiu (Gmelin) is excluded from the species upon which this generic descrip- 
tion is based, as I am by no means satisfied that it belongs here. The single speci- 
men examined has the bill very different from that of any species of Celeus proper, 
being relatively smaller and more pointed (not at all wedge-shaped at tip), the culmen 
rounded (inst€^ of distinctly ridged) and distinctly convex or arched in middle 
portion, the nasal fossae relatively much larger and less feathered, and tJie nostril 
apparently different. 

^ In the specimen examined of C, luguhria the ninth primary is not fully grown. 
The specimen of C, jumana examined in this connection also has the primaries 
imperfect. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



140 BULLETIN 60^ UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

G. lugubria, O. jumana) to decidedly longer (O.Jlavescens) ; outer hind 
toe decidedly shorter than outer front toe; tarsi and toes very stout 
(less so in (7. loricatua), the claws very lai^e and strongly curved. 

Coloration. — General color of upper parts cinnamon-rufous or 
chestnut (with or without black bars), brown barred with yellowish 
or buffy, or black barred with buflf-yellow; under parts plain brown, 
cinnamon-rufous, ochraceous, or tawny with black spots, bars or 
lunules, chestnut with buff flank-patch, or plain black; crest plain 
buff-yellow, ochraceous, olive-buff, or chestnut; adult male with a 
broad malar patch of bright red but without any red area on pileum. 
Texture of plumage pectdiar, the feathers of head distinctly outlined 
(not blended), those of sides and flanks (beneath wings) soft and 
downy. 

Range. — Southeastern Mexico to southeastern Brazil, Paraguay, 
Bolivia, and Peru. (About fifteen species, mostly South American.) 

KBT TO TBM 8PBCIX8 OF 0SLBU8. 

a. Head conspicuously crested; tail and outer webs ol lemiges not barred; rump 
immaculate. 
h. Under parts, back^ and wing-coverts immaculate; middle rectrices wholly 
black (except basal poiion of shaft), 
c. Inner webs of remiges broadly barred with dusky. (Venesuela, Trinidad, and 

northern Brazil.) Celeiu elegtni (extralimital).a 

ce. Inner webs of remiges immaculate yellow. (Planama.) 

CeleuB immaoulatos (p. 141). 

hh. Under parts, back, and wing-coverts barred or transvenely spotted with black; 

middle rectrices with basal half or more chestnut. (Sou&em Mexico to 

Costa Rica.) Celeui otftaneus (p. 141). 

aa. Head not crested; tail and outer webs of remiges barred; rump barred with black. 
(Celeui loricatus,) 
6. Under parts of body light dull vinaceous-dnnamon, conspicuously paler than 
color of throat or foreneck; upper parta with black markings smaller and less 
nimierous, sometimes nearly absent; smaller (male with wing averaging 119, 
tail 64.8, culmen 21.8, tarsus 20, female with wing averaging 120.2, tail 65.7, 
culmen 21.5, tarsus 19.5.) (Eastern Panama to northwestern Peru.) 

Celens loiieatus loiioatos (p. 143). 
hb. Under parts of body deep cinnamon, nearly concolor with color of foreneck or 
(in female) throat; upper parts with black markings laiger, more numerous; 
laiger (male with wing averaging 123.9, tail 68.4, culmen 21.5, taisus 20.5; fe- 
male with wing averaging 124.2, tail 68.2, culmen 23.1, taisus 20.5). (Costa 
Rica; western Panama?) Celens loiloatat dlversus (p. 145). 

a Picu9 eUgans MOller, Syst. Nat. Suppl., 1776, 92 (Cayenne; based on PL Enl., 
pi. 624),—Celeu8 elegaru Gray, List Birds Brit. Mus., Capit. and Picid., 1868, 87; 
Hargitt, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 42e,'-Picu$ JtMso-Julvui Boddaert, TabL 
PI. Enl., 1783, 30 (Cayenne; based on PI. Enl., pi. 524) .--[Picut] cinnamomeut 
Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, pt. i, 1788, 428 (Cayenne; based on PI. Enl., pi. 524; etc.).— 
Celeus cinnoTnomeui Boie, Isis, 1831, 542. — Celeopicui cinnamomeus Malherbe, Mon. 
Picid., ii, 1862, 32, pi. 56, figs. 1, 2. The Trinidad bird has, however, been separated 
as Celeus elegant leotaudi by Hellmayr, Novit. ZooL, xiii, Feb., 1906, 39, 40 (Valencia, 
Trinidad; coll. Tring Mus.). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD6 OF NORTH AND lODDLB AMEBIOA. 141 

CBLBUS IMMACULATUS Bedaptch. 

IMMAOULATM WOODPXOXBE. 

Similar to C. degans (MtUler),^ but inner webs of reiniges without 
dusky bars (plain yellow). 
Panam& (Agua Dulce) t 

Cdeut immaeulahu Bbblbfsch, Ibis, 4th aer., iv, no. 1, Jan., 1880, 113 (Agua 
Dolce, Panama?; coll. Count vcm Bcfflepech). — Rxighsnow and Schalow, 
Joum. ftir Om., 1880, 314 (reprint of orig. deecr.).— Haboitt, Gat. Birda 
Brit. Mu8., zviii, 1890, 426.~SALYm and Godmak, Biol. Centr.-Am., Avea, 
ii, 1895, 443. 

[dUui] immaculatui Shabpb, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 226. 

CBLBUS CASTAHBUS (Wagler). 

iimSTJ UT-OOT/OTT> WOODVSOSUL 

AdvU male. — ^Malar and suborbital r^ons, together with part of 
lond and postocular regions, dull carmine or dark poppy red; rest of 
head, together with upper neck, all round, plain dull ochraceous or 
day color to tawny, the pileum, especially the elongated occipital 
erest, sometimes noticeably paler; body and wings chestnut or rufous- 
diestnut, the feathers of rump paler, often light yellow (straw yellow 
to maize yeUow), beneath surface, the back, scapulars, lesser and mid- 
dle (sometimes also greater and primary) wing-coverts rather sparsely 
barred or transversely spotted with diiU black, the under parts with 
broader cordate, U-ediaped or V-shaped bars or spots of the same; 
tominal portion (extensively) of primaries plain dusky; tail chestnut 
basally, dull black or dusky terminally; axillars, under wing-coverts, 
and outer portion of sides and flanks plain sulphur yellow or straw 
yellow to pale yellowish buff or cream color; inner webs of remiges 
plain dull cinnamon-rufous or vinaceous-dnnamon, the terminal por- 
tion (extensively on outer primaries) abruptly plain dusky; bill pale 
ydlowiah, sometimes light grayish horn color basally; iris brown; 
legs and feet horn color or olive (in dried skins) ; length (skins), 200- 
237 (212.5); wing, 121.6-134.6 (129.1); taU, 73.5-90 (82.4); cuhnen, 
23.5-27 (25.4); tarsus, 21-24 (22.7); middle toe, 20-22 (21.2).^ 

• See p. 140. For the more satufiictory identification of this fonn, which I have 
not aeeOy the following deecriplion of C, elegans is given: 

AduU wuile. — General color plain deep dnnamon-rufoaa, the pileum (including 
ocdintal crest) decidedly paler; rump, upper tail-coverts, flanks, and under wing- 
covertB, immaculate dull naples yellow (the first two tinged with olive-yellow); 
iBMr webfl <d remiges pale buff basally passing into pale dnnamon-rufous terminally, 
bnadly baned or spotted with dusky; tail dull black, with shafts of rectrices pale 
dull yellow basally, the rudimentary lateral rectrices plain cinnamon-rufous with 
ytXkm shaft; malar region bright red; bill duU brownish white (in dried skin); length 
(akin), 204 mm.; wing, 128; tail, SO; culmen, 27; tarsus, 24; outer anterior toe, 22. 

(No. 109769, coll. U. 8. Nat. Mus.; Orinoco district, Venezuela; trade skin.) 

^Thirty-one specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



142 



BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



AdvU female. — Similar to the adult mal6| but without any red on 
the head; length (skins), 200-248 (220.5); wing, 121.5-132.6 (126.7); 
tail, 72-87 (80.5); culmen, 23-26.5 (24.6); tarsus, 21.5-23.5 (22.5); 
middle toe, 19-22.5 (20.8) .« 

Southeastern Mexico, in States of Vera C!ruz (Santecomap&m; 
Atoy&c; CTuesalapa; Omealca; Uvero; Motzorongo; Orizaba; Mina- 
titlftn; Pasa Nueva; Buena Vista; Tolosa; Play a Vicente), Oaxaca 
(Tfixtepec; Chimalapa; mountains near Santo Domingo), Tabasco 
(Teapa), and Yucatan (Tizimin), and southward through Guatemala 
(Chocttim; Telem&n; Gual&n; Chapulco; Los Amates, Ysab&l), 
Salvad6r (La Libertdd), Britifit Honduras (Orange Walk; Toledo 
District; near Manatee Lagoon), Honduras (Chaloma; Chamdic6n; 
Santa Ana; San Pedro; San Pedro Sula; San Pedro MontafLa; 
Omoa; PotreriUos; Juli&n), Nicaragua (Greytown; Rio San Juan; 
Bio Grande; Chontales; Lavala and Uluce, Matagalpa; Quilili; 
PefLa Blanca), to Costa Rica (Siptirio, Talamanca; Rio Sfcsola; 
Lim6n; Pacuare; Turrialba; Guayabo,; Angostura; Gu&cimo; La 
Vij&gua). 

P[%cub\ ca$taneu8 Waoler, lais, 1829, 515 (ex lichtensteiii, manuscript; coll. 

Berlin Mus. ; no locality mentioned, but cites **Pic roitx rayS de Cayenne Hoi- 

lAndie Abreg6 d'hist. nat. 3, p. 4046")- 
Picus castaneue Sundevall, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 86 (Mexico to Surinam). 

a Thirty-nine specimens. 



Locality. 



Wing. 



Tafl. 



Ex- 
posed 
culmea. 



Taraus. 



Outer 
ante- 
rior toe. 



Seven adult males from Vera Crux, Mexico 

One adult male from Guatemala 

Four adult males from British Honduras , 

Nine adult males from Honduras (3) and Nloaragna (6), 
Ten adult males from Costa Rica 

niCALBS. 

Seven adult females from Vera Cms , 

Five adult females from Oaxaca 

Three adult females from British Honduras , 

Seven adult females from Guatemala 

Nine adult females from Honduras (3) and Nicaragua... 
Eight adult females from Costa Rica , 



127.2 
133 
12a 8 
12&1 
12gi6 



125.4 
128.3 
12&3 
12QL6 
126.6 
128L9 



83L3 

84 

83L2 

sas 

83L8 



79 

80 

8L6 

82L8 

7a3 

82 



219 
2&6 
216 
2&3 
26L1 



24.3 
24.6 
215 
219 
217 
216 



22L2 



2ao 



23L1 
22.9 
22.6 



22L4 
22.9 
222 
212 
22.4 
218 



2L8 
2L4 
2L1 



2a9 
3L2 
2L6 

aas 
aas 
2a8 



Specimens examined from Mexico and Guatemala have, as a rule, the color of the 
head and crest appreciably darker than those from Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa 
Rica, but examples from British Honduras are variable in this respect, some agreeing 
with the more northern, others with the more southern, specimens. On the whole, 
the difference does not seem to be sufficiently marked or constant to justify the recog- 
nition oi two forms, and probably is, to a certain extent at least, seasonal. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF KOBTH AND MIDDLE AMBBIOA. 148 

[Cekui] eoMtaneuM Lichtenstbin, Nom. Av. Mus. BeroL, 1854, 77.— Grat, Hand- 
list, ii, 1870, 194, no. 8716.— Sclateb and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 
101.— Shabpe, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 227. 

Cdeus cattaneui Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1858, 359 (Potrerillos, Honduras); 
1859, 60, 388 (Playa Vicente, Vera Cruz); Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 336 (Hondu- 
las; "Central America'').— Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1859, 60 (Omoa, 
Honduras; habits). — Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1859, 137 (Atla^jtic slope 
Honduras); Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, 837 (Julian and San Pedro, Hon- 
duras).— Tatlor, Ibis, 1860, 119 (Potrerillos, Honduras).— Gray, List Birds 
Brit. Mus., Capit. and Picid«, 1868, 88.— Lawrence, Ann. Lye. N. Y., viii, 
1867, 183 (Greytown, Nicaragua); ix, 1868, 130 (Turrialba and Angostura, 
Costa Rica).— Frantous, Joum. ftUr Om., 1869, 364 (CoeU Rica).— Sum- 
0HRA8T, Mem. Boet. Soc. N. H., i, 1869, 560 (tierra caliente Vera Cruz); La 
Natuialeza, v, 1882, 240 (Omealca and Uvero, Vera Cruz).— Salvin, Ibis, 
1872, 320 (Chontales, Nicaragua).— ZelsikSn, C^t. Aves de Costa Rica, 1882, 
23; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, 1885, 111; Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, i, 
1887, 123 (Turrialba and Pacuare, Costa Rica).— Boucard, Liste Gis. r6col. 
Guat., 1878, 27; Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, 452 (Tizimin, Yucatan; hab- 
its).— HARorrr, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., zviii, 1890, 433 (Atoyac and Orizaba, 
Vera Cruz; Tizimin, Yucatan; Orange Walk, Brit. Honduras; Teleman and 
Qioctum, Guatemala; etc.).— Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, 1893, 
518 (Greytown, Nicaragua). — Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, 
ii, 1895, 441 (Chimalapa, Oaxaca; La Ubertad, Salvador; etc.). — Lantz, 
Trans. Kansas Ac. Sci. for 1896-97 (1899), 220 (Chaloma, Honduras).— Dear^ 
BORN, Pub. 125, Field Mus. N. H., 1907, 91 (Los Amates, Guatemala; crit.).— 
Carrixer, Ann. (Carnegie Mus., vi, 1910, 591 (Costa Rica; habits). 

Itleiglyptes] ca»taneu8 Reichenbach, Handb. Scansores, Picinse, 1854, 405, pi. 659, 
fig. 4372 (adult female). 

Cdeopietju coMtaneta Malhbrbe, Mon. Picid., ii, 1862, 25; iii, 1862, pi. 50, figs. 1, 2. 

Picui hadioide$ Lesson, Cent. Zool., livr. ii, Sept., 1830, 56, pi. 14 (Mexico 
^female). 

qdeus] badioides Rons, Isis, 1831, ^2.— Grat, Gen. Birds, ii, 1846, 440. 

[Celeus] badioides Bonaparte, (3onsp. Av., i, 1850, 130; Ateneo Italiano, ii, 
1854, 123) Consp. Volucr. Zygod., 1854, 8). 

CeleuM hadioideB Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1857, 229 (Cuesalapa and Sante- 
comapam. Vera Cruz). 

CdeopiooM hadioidet Malherbe, U€m, Acad. Metz, zzx, 1849, 334. 

CBLSUS LORICATUS LORICATUS (Reichenbach). 

F&ABRB'S WOODPSOEBB. 

Adult male. — ^Above deep cinnamon-rufous, or rufous-chestnut, the 
feathers of forehead, or (usually) forehead and crown, black or dusky 
centrally (forming a broadly streaked or squamate effect), the back 
(upper part, at least) , scapulars, and wings with a greater or less number 
of more or less distinct narrow black bars; rump and upper tail-coverts 
paler (light cinnamon to cinnamon-buff), more or less heavily marked 
with cordate spots or V-shaped broad bars of black, the upper tail- 
coverts sometimes immaculate superficiaUy; tail broadly and sharply 
barred with cinnamon-rufous or cinnamon-buff and black, the elon- 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



144 BULLETIK 50, XJKITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

gated terminal portion of middle rectrices uniform black; termintd 
portion of longer primaries mostly uniform blackish; under surface 
of wings light cinnamon-rufous, the distal portion of remiges broadly 
barred with dusky, the proximal portion also similarly barred, but 
the dusky bars shorter and narrower, quite concealed in the dosed 
wing; loral, suborbital, and auricular regions plain cinnamon-rufous; 
malar region, chin, and upper and middle portions of throat bright 
red (deep poppy red to nearly crimson), the throat usually more or 
less spotted, transversely, with black, the feathers grayish basally; 
lower throat and upper chest light cinnamon-rufous, the throat 
sometimes immaculate, but sometimes spotted with black, like chest; 
rest of under parts still paler and more buf^ (pale cinnamon to pale 
cinnaman-buff), the lower chest and breast heavily marked with broad 
U- or V-shaped markings of black, the remaining portions similarly 
but less heavily marked, the markings more lunulate or transverse, 
smaller (sometimes nearly wanting) on middle of abdomen; bill light 
horn color to dull whitish in dried skins, in life the maxilla horn 
color, the mandible dull greenish or olivaceous white; iris reddish 
brown to carmine; feet horn color to bluish; length (skins), 184-199 
(193); wing, 116-120 (119); tail, 61-67.6 (64.8); culmen, 21-22.6 
(21.8); tarsus, 19.6-20.6 (20); middle toe, 18.6-19.6 (18.9).« 

AdvU female. — Similar to the adult male, but red of malar region, 
chin, and throat replaced by uniform light cinnamon-rufous; length 
(skins), 194-197 (196); wmg, 118-123 (120.2); tail, 64-69 (65.7); cul- 
men, 20-22.6 (21.6); tarsus, 19-20 (19.6); middle toe, 18-19 (18.5).* 



^ Five specimezui. 



^ Four specimens. 



Locality. 



Wing. 


Tafl. 


Ez- 

P«Bd 
nnltiiAn. 


Tamu. 


116 


61 


22.5 


2a5 


lift? 


0&7 


2L6 


Ul9 


123.9 


«a4 


2L5 


2a5 


12L5 




20 


1A5 


110.8 


•5.7 


22.2 


lfi.5 


1M.3 


6&2 


23.2 


2a5 



Outer 
ante- 
rior toe. 



One adult male from Colombia (Rio Atrato: Type of Cdeut 

mmtalfff Caasln) 

Three adult malee from eastern Panama 

Five adult males from Costa Rica (C. I, divertua) 

niCALBS. 

One adult female from Colombia (Turbo) 

Three adult females from eastern Panama 

Four adult females from Costa Rloa 



1&5 

19 

1A5 



18 

18.7 

1A2 



Although I have not seen specimens of this species from either Ecuadw or Peru, 
I very much doubt whether they are subspecifically the same, for the reason that 
the Costa Eican specimens are clearly different from those of Panama and nc^them 
Colombia. It will doubtless prove necessary to distinguish the form from Colombia 
and Panama as Celeui lorioatui mentalis (Cassin) . 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD6 OV KOBTH A3fD, MniDLB AMEBIOA. 146 

Panama (VarAguat; Laguna del Pita; Loma del Le6n; Marraganti; 
Cana), and Colombia (Rio Atrato; Turbo; Rem^dios and Nedii, 
Andoqula) to western Ecuad6r (Babahoyo) and northwestern 
Pern. 

Mfeigfyptes] lorieatus Rbichbnbach, Haadb. Scansores, Picinse, 1854, 405, pi. 
681, figB. 4495, 4496 (n. Peru). 

fieut kfiaUuM SirnDBYAix, Gansp. Av. Pidn., 1866, 87 (Babahoyo, w. Ecuador; 
Central America). 

Cdeiu lorieatu9 Gray, List Birds Brit. Mus., Picids, 1868, 90.— Sclateb and 
Salyin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, 533, 549 (Remedies and Nechi, Antio- 
qoia, Colombia).— Taczakowski and Bbblbpsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1885, 118, 123 (Babahoyo, w. Ecuador).— Haboitt, Oat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 
1890, 432 (Veragua, w. Pimama; Remedies and Nechi, Colombia; Babahoyo, 
w. Ecuador).— Salyin and €k>DMAN, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 442, 
part (LioQ Hill, Pknama; Turbo, n. Colombia; etc.). — Salyadori and Fbsta, 
BoU. Mus. Zool., etc., Torino, ziv, no. 839, 1899, 8 (Laguna del Pita, 
Ptoama). 

[OtUui] Umeatui Gbat, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 105, no. 8728.— Sglatbb and Salyin, 
Nom. Ay. Neotr., 1873, 101.— Shabpb, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 226 (Costa Rica 
to. n. Peru). 

Cthu undatui (not P%eu9 undatuB Linneeus) Sclatbr, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1860, 286 (Babahoyo, w. Ecuadw). 

Cdeut mentatii CAssm, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., ziii, April, 18to, 137 
(Turbo and Rio Atrato, n. Colombia; coll. V. S. Nat. Mus.); 1863, 324; Joum. 
Ac. Nat. Sci. PhOa., v, 1863, 461, pi. 52, figs. 2, 3.— Sclatbr and Salyw, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, 367 (Panama; crit.).— Oray, List Bh*ds Brit. 
Mus., Capit. and Picid«, 1868, 91 (Panama). 

[CeUiui] merUaUi Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 195, no. 8729. 

OkofieuMfraun Malhbbbe, Mon. Picid., ii, 1862, 16; iii, 1862, pi. 43 frit, fig. 5 
(Babahoyo, w. Ecuador; coll. P. L. Sclater). 

Cdaufnueri Sclatbb, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 335 (Babahoyo). 

CUms m[wamatuM Lawrbncb, Ibis, 1st ser., v, no. 2, April, 1863, 184 (Lion Hill, 
Panama; coU. G. N. Lawrence ;»adult female); Ann. Lye. N. Y., Yiii, 1867, 
11 (Lion Hill).— Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zod. Club, ii, 1900, 18 (Loma del 
Xeon, Panama; crit.). 

?kui pholidotui Sundbyall, Consp. Ay. Picin., 1866, 87 (new name foe Celeui 
mentaUM Csssin and C tquamatus Lawrence). o 

CSLBUS LORICATUS DIVBRSUS Ridfwaj. 

TAULXAVOA WOODPBOEBB. 

Similar to C. I. laricahis (of eastern Panama and northern Colom- 
bia), but romp and under parts of body decidedly darker (cinnamon) , 
nearly, sometimes quite, ooncolor with foreneck and (in female) 
throat, blackish bars averaging larger and more numerous (espe- 
ciaUy on upper parts), and averaging decidedly larger. 

• Cn the ground that Cdeui not being recognized as a genus by him, the fonner 
i»pteocc a i n ed by Pieus mmtdlu Temminck, the latter by P. iquamatus Vigorsl 

8022*— Bun. 50, pt 6—14 ^10 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



146 BULLETIN 60^ UNITED QTATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

AdvU mofo.— Length (skins), 188-199 (192); wing, 121.6-125 
(123.9) ; tail, 66.6-71 (68.4) ; exposed culmen, 20.5-22.5 (21.5) ; tarsus, 
20-21 (20.5); outer anterior toe, 19-20 (19.5) .« 

AdvU female.— JjQJigth (skins), 190-198 (193); wing, 121.5-126.5 
(124.2); tail, 67-71 (68.2); exposed culmen, 23-23.5 (23.2); tarsus, 
20-21 (20.5); outer anterior toe, 19-19.5 (19.2).^ 

Caribbean lowlands of Costa Bica (Siptirio and Bio Sfcsola, Tala- 
manca; Carrillo; El Hog&r; Gu&cimo) ; Jim6nez. 

Celeu$ merUdlii (not of Caaein) Zblbd6k, Oat. Avee de Costa Rica, 1882, 283. 

Celeus loricatus (not Meiglyptes loricatus Eeichenbach) Zblbd6n, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mu8., viii, 1885, 111 (Ck)sta Rica); Anal. Mub. Nac. Costa Rica, i, 1887, 
124 (Talamanca and Jimenez, Costa Rica). — SALvm and Godman, Biol. 
Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 442, part (Talamanca and Jimenez, Costa Rica). — 
Cabrikbb, Ann. Carnegie Mus., vi, 1910, 590 (Rio Sicsola, Carrillo, and 
Guadmo, Costa Rica; crit.). 

[Celeus] loricatus Shabfb, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 226, part (Costa Rica). 

Genus CEOPHLCEUS Cabanis. 

Ceophloeus c Cabanis, Joum. ftir Cm., May, 1862, 176. (Type, Pieus lineatui 
Linnseus.) 

Lai^e Picidsd (wing about 160-190 mm.) with conspicuously 
crested head, slender, short-feathered neck, outer hind toe shorter 
than outer front toe, bill nearly as d^p as wide at nostrils, and 
under parts of body (posterior to chest) pale brownish or dull yel- 
lowish barred or spotted with dusky. 

Bill about as long as head or slightly shorter, stout, distinctly 
chisel-shaped at tip, regularly wedge-shaped in vertical profile, its 
width at base of maxillary tomia equal to about two-fifths the length 
of culmen, its depth at anterior end of nostrils a little less than its 
width at same point; culmen slightly convex subbasally, sharply 
ridged; gonys distinctly ridged, decidedly longer than mandibular 
rami, nearly straight, ascending terminally, slightly convex and 
prominent basally; supranasal ridge very distinct, extending for 
two-thirds or more the length of maxilla, parallel with culmen; 
mandibular rami with a more or less distinct oblique ridge and 
groove. Nostril longitudinally elliptical, situated about midway 
between culmen and tomiiun, partly covered by small antrorse hair- 
like prefrontal feathers. Feathers of malar region and chin small 
and short, not antrorse, and without bristle-like tips. Orbital region 
naked, including margin of eyelids. Wing relatively large; longest 
primaries exceeding secondaries by about one-foiu*th the length of 
wing; fifth, sixth, and seventh primaries longest, the ninth about 
equal to or a Uttle shorter than third, the tenth (outermost) more 

a Five specimens. 
b Four specimens, 
c "Von t(h), spalten, und 4>^6c, Rinde." (Cabanis.) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIRDS OP NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 147 

than two-fifths as long as ninth. Tail nearly two-thirds as long as 
wing, the rectrices broad but the middle ones tapering terminally 
into long cuneate points. Tarsus about as long as outer hind 
toe with claw, the latter decidedly shorter than the anterior 
one. 

Coloration. — General color plain sooty black, relieved by a broad 
white stripe down side of neck and along each edge of interscapular 
area; under parts of body (posterior to chest) pale brownish, dull 
buffy, or dull whitish barred or spotted with black or dusky; imder 
wing-coverts and proximal portion of inner webs of remiges immacu- 
late pale yellow or yellowish white ; adult males with entire pileum, in- 
cluding conspicuous occipital crest, and a broad malar patch bright 
red, adult females with only the crest red. Plumage compact and 
finn, that of neck very short, that on sides of head (especially auricu- 
lar region) very closely appressed. 

Range. — Southern Mexico to southeastern Brazil, Paraguay, Argen- 
tina, Bolivia, and Peru. (About six species and subspecies.) 

KEY TO THB SUBSPSODBS OF OSOPHLCBUS LmSATUS. 

a. Bill blackish or dusky. 

6. Lazger (wing averaging mcM^ than 185 mm.); under parts white or nearly so, 

regularly barred with black. (Central Colombia to the Guianas, Trinidad, 

flouthem Brazil, Bolivia, etc.) — CeopUoeus llneatus llneatus (extralimital).a 

hb. Smaller (wing averaging much leas than 185 mm.); under parts more brownish, 

sometimes decidedly pale brownish or brownish buffy, irregularly barred or 

spotted with dusky. (Santa Marta district of Colombia to Costa Bica.) 

Ceophloens lineatos mesozbynohus (p. 148). 
oa. Bill pale horn color or duU yellowish white. 
6. Larger (wing averaging more than 175 mm., culmen averaging more than 35 
mm.); suborbital and subauricular white stripe distinct, continuous; throat 
more extensively white. (Northern Costa Rica to eastern Mexico.) 

Ceophlorat llneatus slmilit (p. 160). 

^ [Picus] lineatui Idnnseus, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, i, 1766, 174 (based on Pic runr hupS 
de Cayenne Brisson, Om., iv, 31, pi. 1, fig. 2).— Picus Uneatus Boddaert, Tabl. PL 
Enl., 1783, 45 (ex PI. Enl., pi. 717).— Dryocopus Uneatus Hartlaub, Index Azara's 
Apunt., 1847, 16; Sclater, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 832 .—Dryowojww liruatus AUen, 
Bull. Am. MuB. N. H., ii, 1889, 101 (Bolivia).— [jDryotomt^^] liruatuB Swainson, Classif. 
Birds, ii, 1837, 308. — C[ampejMlus] lineatus Reichenbach, Handb. Scansores, Pidnae, 
1854, 391, pi. 647, figs. 4321, AZ22.—Megapicos lineatus Des Murs, in Castelnau's 
Voy. Am. Sud., C>is., 1855, 17 ,—Dryopicus lineatua Malherbe, Mon. Picid., i, 1861, 
39, iii, 1862, pi. 12, figs. 4, 5, 6, 7 .—C[eophloeu8] lineatuB Cabanis, Joum. ftlr Om., 
18fi2, 178.— CtopWoMrt UneatUB Hargitt, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 508, part; 
HeUmayr, Abh. K. B. Afcad. Wiss., ii kl., xxii Bd., iii Abth., 1906, 603 (crit.). 

Besides the characters mentioned above, the throat Is usually much less streaked 
with dusky, the black areas are less sooty, and the under side of the wing less pro- 
nouncedly yellow. 

The species undoubtedly requires further subdivision, but the series of South 
American specimens at present available is much too small to justify an attempt to 
define more than one form from South America. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



148 BULLBTIK 50, UNITED STATES KATIOKAL MUSEUM. 

66. Smaller (wing averaging lees than 170 mm.; culmen averaging leas than S4 
/ mm.): white suborbital and subauricular stripe indistinct (often obsolete); 
throat with less white. (Western and southwestern Mexico.) 

Ceophloens Uneatas soapnlaris (p. 152). 

GBOPHIXBUS LINEATUS MBSORHTNCHUS (Cabanis and Heine). 

PAVAXA FILSATSD WOODPSOSER. 

Similar to (7. I. lineaius^ but decidedly smaller; under parts of 
body much darker brownish bufiy with the blackish bars much lees 
regular, often in form of spots rather than bars; throat usually 
much more broadly streaked with blackish, black areas more sooty 
(especially remiges), and imder side of wing more decidedly yellowish 
(usually distinctly buflf-yellow instead of yellowish white). 

Adult male. — ^Pilemn and nape (including conspicuous occipital 
crest) bright poppy red; rest of upper parts plain black, becoming 
more sooty, or dark grayish brown, on primaries and distal sec- 
ondaries, the longer primaries indistinctly tipped with paler (except in 
worn plumage) ; outermost scapulars with outer web and tip of inner 
web white, forming a broad white stripe along each side of back; 
a broad stripe of white along side of neck, contracted in width at 
upper end and thence continued, as a narrow stripe, beneath 
auricular and orbital regions to nostrils, the post-nasal and loral 
portions, however, dull yellowish (buflf to nearly tawny) instead of 
white; auricular and suborbital r^ons and posterior portion of 
loral region plain brownish slate or slate-gray; malar region crimson; 
chin and throat streaked with white and blackish in variable rela- 
tive proportion, but usually in approximately equal amount; fore- 
neck, chest, and upper breast plain sooty black or very dark sooty 
brown, usually with a fairly definite posterior margin but some- 
times merging insensibly into the paler coloration of more posterior 
parts; ground color of remaining imder parts pale brownish buff to 
clay color, more or less distinctly barred or spotted with sooty black 
or dusky; imder wing-coverts and basal half (approximately) of 
inner webs of remiges immaculate buff-yellow (fading into paler, or 
yellowish white, in old feathers or very old skins); bill dark horn 
color or dusky, the mandible paler basaUy ; iris light yellow to white; 
legs and feet dark horn color or dusky (in dried skins), li^t bluish 
gray in life; length (skins), 281-328 (312); wing, 176-189.5 (182.9); 
tail, 108-122 (114.3); cuhnen, 36.5-40 (37.9); tarsus, 27-30 (28.2); 
outer anterior toe, 22-27.5 (24.8).* 

AduUfemcHe. — Similar to the adult male but forehead and anterior 
portion of crown black, and malar region blackish slate or slate- 
black; length (skins), 300-321 (312); wmg, 176.5-188 (182.1); tail, 

<> See p. 147. * ^ Thirteen spedmens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIRDS OP KOBTH AND MIN>LB AHBBIOA. 



149 



106-122 (112.6); culmen, 33-57 (35.5); taraus, 27-29 (28); outer 
anterior toe, 22-27.5 (24.6).« 

Young male. — Similar to the adult male but coloration duller, the 
m&lar region dusky exteriorly^ dull red centrally, the under parts of 
body light sooty grayish brown, the feathers indistinctly tipped with 
paler and with an indistinct spot of dusky. 

Central and southern (])osta Rica (Boruca; Pozo del Rio Qrande; 
El Pozo de T6rraba; Paso Re&l; El Qener&l; Pigres; Barranca de 
Panta Arenas; SanJos6; (juayabo; Bonilla; mouth of Rio Matina) 
and Panam& (Panama ; Lion Hill; (]lhepo; Sailta Fe de Yer&gua). 
Santa Marta district of Colombia (Swta Marta; Bonda; Minca; 
Valparaiso; San Ant6nio; La Concepci6n) ? 

2)ryocopu««capuZaru(notPieta«oapuZaru Vigon) Lawksnob, Ann. Lye. N. Y., 

vii, 1862, 333 (Panama). 
C{€opbloeui\ metorhynchm Gabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 86 

(Goeta Rica; coll. Berlin Mus.). 
Jkyocopu* me9orhynchu8 Gray, List Birds Brit. Mus., Capit. and Picidee, 1868, 60 

("Oaraccas," i. e., Cartago?, CJoeta Rica). 
IPryocojnu} maorhyn6hu9 Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 189, no. 8641. 
[Pieiu lineaiui.l Var. ocddenlaJM Sundbvall, CcHup. Ay. Picin., 1866, 8 (new 

name for CeopMoeui mw)rhynchu» Gabanis and Heine). 
Diyoeopus Uneahu (not Pieus lineatui LinnsBus) Sclatbr and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 

Soc. Land., 1864, 366 (Lion Hill, Panama). 

> Eleven specimens. 



LocaUty. 



Wln«. 



Tall. 



Ex- 
posed 
oohoeo. 



Tanoa. 



Outer 

aote- 

rlortoe. 



Ttttduttmalet from Costa Rica 

Two adult males from Panama , 

Tm adult mates (intermediates) from Santa Marta district, 

OolooLbia. 

Two adott males (C. 2. fiaeatiiff) from oentnlCotonbia 

Two adott males (C. I. KiMatiMf) from Venesoela 

Two idiilt males (C. 2. IteM^twf) from Trinidad 

Btxidult males (CI. 2lii«aliw)frtmitbeQTilana8 

Bfacidi]ltma]es(C I. ttn«8fiu) from Brazil 

OoeedQltmate(C.2.liii€0«tttf)frtmiBoUTia 



rSMALBS. 

Tm adult fomales from Costa Rica. 

0» adult fmato from Panama 

Tte adult femalea (intennedlates) from Santa Marta district. 



One adolt female (C 2. ttRAiftwf) from central Colombia 

Tkne adult females (C. 2. ttiMoAuf) from Venesoela 

Two idi]Ufmiales(C. I. IfoMliuf) from Trinidad 

Two adolt females (C. 2. liiMSMif) from Surinam 

Time idolt females (C, L Unmtiu) from southwestern BiaiU 

(Chapada) 

Time adult fnnales(<7. 2. ZiMsMif) from Bolivia 



isas 

180 

1813 

108 

186 

193L8 

10&3 

isgis 

VNXS 

182.2 
181 

18L6 

20L6 

188 

1813 

108 

180^2 
18BL8 



1U8 
116 

U7.8 

126 

111 5 

117.8 

lia6 

12L5 

122 

U16 
112L5 

120 

126 

123 

11&5 

126.8 

110 
122.5 



sai 

87.3 

sas 

87.8 

88 

8013 

37.8 

80l8 

80 

36.4 

87.2 



2a2 

2&2 

2a6 

20 

2a8 

30 

2a7 

2&6 



210 
217 

216 
216 
218 
2&8 
215 
24 



8615 
87.5 
86 

87.3 
815 



27.0 
20 

27.7 

20 

28 

28 

28 

27.5 
27.7 



216 
24 

2a2 

215 

24 

218 

218 

215 
28L2 



Partly owing to lack o! sufficient material I have not attempted any leviedon of 
the South American representatives of this species, which undoubtedly include 
two or more forma. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



150 



BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



Geaphlmu lineahis HABGrrr, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 508, part (Santa 
Fi de Veragua and Chepo, Panama). — Salvin and Godiian, BioL Gentr.- 
Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 451, excl. syn. part (Santa Fe de Veragua, Chiriqui, Lion 
Hill, and Chepo, Panama).— Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Club, ii, 1900, 19 
Lomadel Leon, Panama); Auk, xxiv, 1907, 293 (Boruca, Pozo del Rio Grande, 
and Barranca de Punta Arenas, w. Coeta Eica). 

CeopMoeus lineatua lineatus Cabbiker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., vi, 1910, 592 (low- 
lands of 8. w. Costa Eica; crit.). 

Dryocojmafuscipennia (not of Sclater, 1860) Sclateb and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1864, 366 (crit.). 

CEOPHLIBnS UNSATUS SIMILIS (Lesson). 
WitlTJt-BTTiTiEI> FILSATSD WOODPBOXBE. 

Similar to C. I. mesorhynchuSj but bill pale horn color or dull yel- 
lowish white, and average measurements slightly smaller. 

AdvU 7)iaZe.— Length (skins), 264-350 (313); wing, 166-192.5 
(179.7); tail, 103-127 (113.9); cuhnen, 34-39 (36.3); tarsus, 24-29 
(26.7); outer anterior toe, 22.5-26 (24.4).« 

AdvU /eTmiZe.— Length (skins), 270-325 (315); wing, 161-186 
(176.6); tail, 102-125 (110.6); cuhnen, 32.5-37 (35.1); tarsus, 
25-27.5 (26.1); outer anterior toe, 22-25.5 (24).* 



a Twenty-nine specimens. 



b Twenty-seven specimens. 



Looallty. 



Whig. 



Tan. 



Ex- 
posed 
oulmcD. 



TaxBOs. 



Oater 
ante- 
rior toe. 



Ten adnlt males tram Tamaullpas (7) and Vera Cnu (3) , 

Four adnlt males from Oazaca 

Four adult males from Yucatan 

Four adult males from Guatemala 

One adult male from Honduras , 

Four adult males from Nicaragua 

Two adult males from Costa Rica 

Ten adult males (C. I. MoptOaHt) from Guerrero (3), Collma (1), 
Sinaloa(«) 

niCALES. 

Ten adult females from Tamaullpas (2) and Vera Crux (8) 

One adult female from Oaxaca 

Four adult females from Yucatan 

Two adult females from Guatemala , 

Four adult females from British Honduras 

Three adult females from Honduras 

One adult female from Nicaragua 

Two adult Cemales from Costa Rica 

Nine adult females (C. I. teapularis) from Guerrero (4), Teplc 
(2),andSlnaloa(3) 



1B&3 

174.6 

17&0 

17&3 

178 

178 

18a5 

1601 4 

179.8 

168 

17a 4 

180 

178.6 

173 

173.5 

18a8 

166 



117.6 
112.8 

iia8 
iia6 

113 

11L9 

114.6 

106^8 
114.3 

lias 

lO&l 

IOOlS 

107 

10&6 

10&6 

118 

lO&l 



36 

3&5 

37.6 

36 

8015 

35.6 

88.8 

3a3 

34.6 

33 

8&5 

3&5 

3&8 

3&5 

33.5 

3&8 

3a4 



27.3 

a&3 

2&0 
2S.8 
2&5 
25u9 
37.8 

24.9 
26.3 



216 

2a8 

24.4 

25 

26 

2SL8 

23.5 

23L7 
23L5 



25.8 
2Qi5 
2Qi6 
26.3 
26L5 
28.8 

24.7 



23L8 

25 

23.6 

215 

25 

24 

22.2 



Notwithstanding the larger average size of specimens from Vera Cruz and Tamauli- 
pas, I am not disposed to separate them, there being no color differences that I am 
able to discern. 

Of the five Costa Rican specimens examined all are clearly intermediates between 
this form and C. L mesorhynchus, and would be referable to the latter except for the 
paler bill. It was possibly on a specimen of this character that Cabanis and Heine 
based .their supposed species. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLB AMERICA. 151 

Eastern Mexico, in States of Nuevo Le6n (Hacienda de la Cniz; 
Villa Grande), Tamaulipas (Vict6ria; Sierra Madre above Vict6ria; 
Jim&iez; Xicotenc&tl; Rio Pil6n; Tampico; Alta Mira; Aldama; 
Soto la Marina; Santa Engracia; Rio Santa; Santa Leonora; CafLon 
deOmaves), San Luis Potosf (Valles; Rio Juan Martin), Vera Cruz 
(Jalapa; Orizaba; Mirad6r; Potrero near C6rdoba; Uvero; Pasa 
Nueva; Zentla near Huatusco; Atoy&c; Antigua; Tlalcotalp&m; 
Chichicaxtla; Otatitl&n; Motzorongo), Oaxaca (Tehutotepec City; 
Santa Efig^nia; Chimalapa; Chihuit&n; Cacoprieto), Yucatan 
(M6rida; Izam^; Tem&x; La Vega*; Buctzotz; Tunkas; Chichen- 
Itza; San Felipe), and Ciiiapas (Tonal&), and southward through 
Guatemala (Duefias; San Qer6nimo; Retalhuleu; Sequanquin; 
Savana Grande; Rio Grande; Los Amates), British Honduras 
(Belize; near Manatee Lagoon), Honduras (Tigre Island; Omoa; 
San Pedro; Yaruca; C6iba; Truxillo), Salvaddr (Lalibertdd; San 
Carlos), Nicaragua (San Ger6nimo, Chinandega; San Rafa61 del 
Norte; RioEscondido; Momotombo; SucuyA; Le6n) to Costa Rica 
(Bolsdn; Barranca dePunta Arenas; Aguacate Mountains; Cerro de 
laCandel&ria; Pozo AztU dePirris; Rio Reyentaz6n).^ 

Dryoeoput ieapularis (not Picas KaptUaris Yigon) Sclatbr, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1856, 306 (Cordova, Vera Cruz); 1858, 359 (Tigre I., Honduras); 1859, 
367 (Jalapa, Vera Cruz); Cat. Am. Birdfl, 1862, 333 ("Mexico").— Taylor, 
Ibis, 1860, 119 (Tigre I.).— Moobb, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1859, 60 (Omoa).— 
SciATBB and Salyin, Ibis, 1859, 135 (Vera Paz, Guatemala; Honduras); 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, 837 (San Pedro, Honduras).— (?) Gray, List 
Birds Brit. Mus., Capit. and Picid., 1868, 61 ("Mexico").— Lawbbncb, Ann. 
Lye. N. Y., ix, 1868, 130 (Costa Rica); ix, 1869, 205 (M^da, Yucatan); BuU. 
T7. S. Nat. Mus., no. 4, 1876, 24 (Chihuitan and Santa Efigenia, Oaxaca).— 
SuincHHAST, La Naturaleza, v, 1882, 240 (Cacoprieto, Oaxaca; Mirador and 
Uvero, Vera Cruz).— ZblbixSn, Cat. Aves de Costa Rica, 1882, 23. 

Drtfopieus acapularU Malhbbbe, Mon. Picid., i, 1861, 44; iii, 1862, pi. 10, figs. 
1,2,3. 

CeophUeus seapularis Cabanis, Joum. fOr Om., 1862, 176 (Costa Rica; crit.). 

Cfeophkeus] 9capulan$ Cabanis and Hbine, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 85 
(Jalapa). 

[Ceophlonu] scapuJaris Hbinb and Rbichbnow, Nom. Mus. Hein. Om., 1890, 215 
(Jalapa). 

CeojMxiu gcapukais Zelbd6n, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, 1885, 111 (Costa Rica); 
Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, i, 1887, 130 (Cerro de la Candelaria, Costa Rica).— 
RiDowAT, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, 1885, 582 (Tnixillo, Honduras).— 
Haboitt, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xvi, 1890, 510, part (Nuevo Leon; Aldama, 
Tampico, and Siena Madre above Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas; Valles, San 
Luis Potosi; Rio Juan Martin, S^tla near Huatusco, Atoyac, and Jalapa, 
Vera Cruz; Buctzotz, Yucatan; Belize, Brit. Honduras; Vera Paz, Rio 
Grande, San Crerdnimo, Duefias, and Retalhuleu, Guatemala; Costa Rica).— 
Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, 1893, 518 (Rio Escondido, Nicaragua); 
xviii, 1896, 629 (Alta Mira, Tamaulipas).— Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.- 

^ The specimen from the Rio Reventazdn h in reality an intermediate between this 
form and C. I, muorhjfnehus. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



152 BULLETIN 50, UNITBD STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Am.y Av«i, ii, 1895, 450 (Hacienda de la Gnu and Villa Qiande, Nuevo Lean; 
localities in Tamaulipas; Hacienda Toitugaa, Omealca, San Loreneo, Alva- 
rado, Plan del Rio, Zentla, Ck>rdova, Miiador, Vega del Gagadero, Playa 
Vicente, etc., Vera Cruz; Tehuantepec, etc., Oazaca; TonaU, ChiaiMUi; 
Izamal, etc., Yucatan; Savana Qrande, etc., Chiatemala; La Libertad, Sal- 
vador; localities in Honduras; Leon, Momotombo, Sucuyi, etc., Nicaragua; 
Aguacate Mts., and Candelaria, Costa Rica).— Ohapman, Bull. Am. Hub. 
N. H., viii, 1896, 285 (Chichen-Itza, Yucatan).— Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zod., zzxix, 1903, 146 (Geiba and Yaruca, Honduras); Auk, zxiv, 1907, 293 
(Barranca de Punta Arenas, w. Gosta Rica; crit.). — Golb, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 1, 1906, 131 (Ghichen-Itza).— Dbabbobn, Pub. 125, Field Mus. N. H., 
1907, 92 (Los Amates, e. Guatemala). 

C[€ophl(gu$] acapularis Ridowat, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 290, part. 

[Ceophkeu$] 9capulan$ Shabpb, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 232, part. 

CeophkBus lintatui seapulans Garrikeb, Ann. (Carnegie Mus., vi, 1910, 593 (<3osta 
Rica; crit.).— Phillips, Auk, xxviii, 1911, 76 (Alta Mira, Rio Santa, Santa 
Leonora, and Gafion de Guiaves, Tamaulipas). 

Eylotomus $capularis (not of Ridgway, 1880) NtrrnNO, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
vii, 1884, 387 (Sucuyi, Nicaragua). 

PieuM tinUlis Lesson, (3ompl. (Euvr. Buffon, xz, April, 1847 (''Descr. Mamm. 
et d'Gis.''), 204 (San Carlos, ''r^publique du Centre- Am^rique," i, e., Sal> 
vador?). 

('?)[CampepkUu$ lineatus] Var.7 C. leuoopteryha Reichenbach, Handb., Scan- 
soros, Picin«, 1854, 392, pi. 647, figs. 4319, 4320 C'Mexiko"). 

C[ampepk%lu8] kuoorhamphus Reichenbach, Handb., Scans(»w, Pidnse, 1854, 
893, pi. 648, figs. 4327, 4328 (''Meziko''; coll. Beriin Mus.). 

[Dryoeopui] leucorhamphui Licbtbnstbin, Nom. Mus. Berol., 1854, 75. 

l7)Pieu» lineatus (not of liniudua?) Axtdxtbon,^ Om. Biog., v, 1839, 315 ("Colum- 
bia River"); Synopsis, 1839, 176 (''Columbia River"); Birds Am., oct. «d., 
iv, 1842, 233 ("near Fort Vancouver," Washington). 

(7)DryoUmu8 delatrH Bonapabtb, Notes Om. Coll. Delattre, 1854, 85 ("CaH- 
fomie"). 

Dryooopua eryikrops (not Pieua ery(krop$ Valenciennes) SoLATia, Proc. Zool. See. 
Lond., 1856, 306 (Cordova, Vera G^uz). 

CBOPHKBUS LINEATUS SCAPULARIS (Vigors). 

TZG0&8' PZXJULTSD WOODPIOSXB. 

Similar to G. I. simUis, but smaller, with the whitish suborbital 
and subauricular stripe indistinct, frequently obsolete except for loral 
portion, and throat with much less white. 

AduU male.— length (skins), 267-310 (292); wing, 166-173 (169.4); 
taU, 103.6-111.6 (105.8); cuhnen, 32-36 (33.3) ; tarsus, 23.6-27 (24.9); 
outer anterior toe, 21-24 (22.7).^ 

a Without examination of the specimen described by Audubon, erroneously sup- 
posed to have been obtained near Fort Vancouver, Washington, it is quite impoasiblo 
to determine to which form of the genus it belongs. Judging from Audubon's descrip- 
tion, however, which indicates absence of the white stripes on back, it seems more 
likely to belong to C. eryihrops (Valenciennes) than to any of the fonns of C. lineatus. 

h Ten specimenfl. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD6 OV KOBTH AND MIDDLE AMSBIOA. 158 

AdvU female.— hBBgOx (skhm), 260-303 (284); wing, 162.5-169 
(166); tail, 101-111 (106.1); culmen, 2fr-32.5 (30.4); tarsus, 23.5-26 
(24.7); outer anterior toe, 21-23.5 (22.2).« 

Western Mexico, in States of Sonora (Sierra de Alamos), Sinaloa 
(Mazatlftn; BoeArio; Culiac4n; Eseuinapa; Bio Juana Gomez), Jalisco 
(Plains of Colima), Colima (Rio Tupila), Guerrero (Acapulco; Aca- 
huitsotla; Sihuatenejo; Papaya; La Lagunilla) and western Oaxaca 
(PuUa), and Territory of Tepfc (San Bias). 

Pieus $eapulm$ Yioobs, Zool. Joum., iv, 1829, 854 (San Bias, Tepic, w. Mexico; 
eolL ZooL Soc.); Zool. Voy. 'Blowom,' 1839, 23 (San Bias).— Baikd, in Rep. 
Stanabury'sSurv. Gt. Salt Lake, 1852, 333.— Sukbxvall, Oonsp. Ay. Picin., 
1866, 8, part. 

P[iau] 9capulan» Waolsb, Isis, 1829, 509. 

T)[TyoeopuM\ dcapularu Gray, Gen. Birds, ii, 1845, 436. 

[DryoeoptK] $eapularu Bonapabtb, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 133, part. — Gray, Hand- 
lift, ii, 1870, 118, no. 8638.— Sclatxk and Saltdt, Norn. Av. Neotr., 1873, 
99, part. 

DryocopuB Bcapuiaria LAwasNOB, Mem. Beet. Soc. N. H., ii, 1874, 293 (Mazatlan, 
Sinaloa; Plains of Ck>lima and Rio Tupila, Ck)linia). 

C[ampepkihui] $eapulari$ Rsichxnbach, Handb., Scansores, Picins, 1854, 394 
(San Bias). 

\finopiaui\ scapularii Bonafabtx, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 122 (Consp. Yducr. 
Zygod., 1854, 8). 

CwjhkmM $eapulari$ Haboiit, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xvi, 1890, 510, part (Sierra 
de Alamos, Sonora; Mazatlan; San Bias; Putla, w. Oaxaca) — Saltin and 
GoDMAN, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 450, part (Sierra de Alamos; 
Mazatlan; San Bias; Plains of Colima; Rio Tupila; Putla; Acapulco, Guer- 
ftfo).— MnxBB (W. De W.), Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., xxi, 1905, 352 (Eseuinapa 
and Rio Juana Gomez, a. Sinaloa).— Bailst (H. H.), Auk, xxiii, 1906, 388 
(San Bias, Topic). 

Cleophknu] $capulani Ribgwat, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 290, part. 

[Ceaphknui] teapularii Shabpb, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 232, part. 

Genus PHL(£OTOMUS Cabania and Heine. 

Driopieu* (not Dryopico$ Malherbe, 1849, nor DryopicuB Malherbe, 1850) Bona- 
PAJBTB, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 122 (Consp. Volucr. Zygod., 1854, 8). (Tyi)e, 
Ficui pUeatui Linn»us; see Stejneger, Auk, ii, 1885, 52.) 

Bylatomtu (not Hylatoma Latreille, 1804) Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 
1858, 107. (Type, by oiig. desig., Picu$ pUeatui Linn^us.) 

HyloUnnus (emendation) Cabanis, Joum. f Or Om., 1862, 176. 

Phloeoiamm h Cabanis and Hxinb, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, July, 1863, 102. 
(Type, by monotypy, Picu9 pileatus Linn«eus.) 

Very large Picid» (wing about 210-266 mm.) resembling Ceopldaus, 
but differing in much more depressed bill with atraighter cuhnen and 
relatively longer gonjrs (nearly to quite twice as long as mandibular 
rami), greater development of postnasal (prefrontal) antrorse plumes, 

• Nine specimens. 

^ "Aus ^loeSc (Rinde) und tiimj (schneiden) zusammengesetzt.'' (Cabanis and 
Hfline.) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



154 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

softer and more blended plumage (especially that of neck), relatively 
smaller and narrower tenth primary, and relatively much longer 
wing and tail (the former more than five times, the latter nearly 
three and a half times, as long as culmen),^ and under parts of body 
uniform black; also resembling and perhaps more nearly related to 
Picas, ^ but conspicuously crested, tenth primary lees pointed at tip, 
and with white stripes on head and neck and much white on under 
side of wings/ 

Bill about as long as head or decidedly shorter, depressed, broad 
basally (its width at anterior end of nostrils very much greater than 
its depth at same point), regularly wedge-shaped in vertical profile 
or, sometimes, rather abruptly contracted terminally to the distinctly 
chisel-shaped tip; culmen straight, very slightly convex, very dis- 
tinctly ridged; gonys more than one and a half times as long as 
mandibular rami, very distinctly ridged, nearly if not quite straight, 
ascending terminally; supranasal ridge very distinct, parallel with 
culmen, running to edge of maxilla at about one-fourth the distance 
from tip to base of tomium. Nostril longitudinally elliptical^ rather 
small, situated about midway between culmen and gonys, covered 
by a well-developed prefrontal tuft of antrorse hair-like feathers. 
Feathers of malar apex antrorse and hair-like but small, those of 
chin with inconspicuous semiantrorse bristle-like tips. Orbital region 
naked, including margin of eyelids (except a few minute feathers on 
posterior portion of lower lid). Wing relatively large; longest pri- 
maries exceeding secondaries by about one-fourth the length of wing; 
sixth, or fifth, sixth, and seventh primaries longest, the ninth about 
equal to second, the tenth (outermost) much less than half (a little 
more than two-fifths) as long as ninth, slightly contracted terminally, 
but tip rounded. Tail about two-thirds as long as wing, the rectricee 
very broad, the middle pair contracted and distinctly decurved ter- 
minally. Tarsus nearly as long as outer hind toe with claw, this 
decidedly shorter than the anterior one; tarsi and toes relatively 
rather slender, but claws (except that of hallux) very large and 
strongly curved. 

Coloration. — General color uniform sooty or slaty black, relieved 
by a broad white stripe along side of neck and thence (narrowing 
anteriorly) along side of head to nostrils, a narrow white postocular 
stripe, and a white (or partly white) gular area; axillars, imder 

o In CeophUjBW the wing ia only about four and a half, the tail only three times, as 
long as culmen. 

^ See p. 9. PMaotomua is intermediate in both structural and color characters 
between Picas and Ceophkeus, agreeing best in structure (except possession of a 
crest, which is absent in Picas) with the ionm&r and in coloration better with the 
latter. 

c In Picas there is no white at all, the plumage being unifcvm black, with red 
pileum in male, red occiput in female. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF KOBTH AKD MIDDLB AM£RIOA« 155 

wisg-coyerts, and proximal portion of inner webs of remiges immacu- 
late white or very pale yellow; adult male with entire pileum (includ- 
ing the conspicuous, pointed, occipital crest) and a broad malar 
stripe bright red, the adult female with only the crest red, the fore- 
head, crown, and malar region being grayish brown or olive. 
Range. — North America, (Monotypic ?) ** 

KEY TO THE SUBSPECIES OF PHLCBOTOMXJS PILEATUS. 

a. Sm&Uer (wing averagiiig leas than 230, culmen averaging lees than 50). 
h. SmaUer (wing averagiog 226.1 in male, 220.8 in female; culmen averaging 46.6 
in male, 43.8 in female); coloration blacker or less slaty. (Middle and south- 
em Florida.) Phloeotomus plleatns floridanus (p. 159). 

bb. Larger (wing averaging 228.4 in male, 221.6 in female; culmen averaging 49.7 
in male, 44.9 in female); coloration mcve slaty blackish. (Southeastern 
United States, including northern Florida, north to Maryland, southern 
Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri, etc.) 

Phloeotomus plleatns pUeatns (p. 155). 

00. Laiger (wing averaging more than 280, culmen averaging more than 50). 

6. Laiger (wing averaging 243.3 in male, 236.7 in female; culmen averaging 58 in 

male, 52 in female; coloration more slaty (more so than in P. p. pUeatus); 

whitish tips to longer primaries always well-developed. (Northern United' 

States, east of Rocky Mountains, north to New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, 

Kewatin, Mackenzie, etc Phloeotomus pileatus abletlcola (p. 160). 

hb. Smaller (wing averaging 237 in male, 228.1 in female; culmen averaging 54.4 
in male, 48.7 in female); coloration blacker or more sooty; whitish tips to 
longer primaries usually much reduced in size, sometimes obsolete. (North- 
west coast district, from British Columbia to northern California, east to 
Idaho and northwestern Montana, and south to southern Sierra Nevada.) 

Phloeotomus pileatus pidnus (p. 162). 

PHLCEOTOMUS PILEATUS PILEATUS (Linnms). 

PILSATBD WOODFXOKBK. 

Adult male. — ^Pileum, including conspicuous occipital crest, bright 
poppy red, somewhat darker (approaching crimson) on forehead; a 
ra^er narrow postocular stripe of yellowish white, and beneath 
tills a broad ituricidar stripe of slate color or brownish slate, inyolving 
also suborbital region (narrowly) and posterior portion of loral 
r^on; upper portion of nasal tufts grayish with terminal portion 
of bristle-like feathers blacldsh, this connected with the slate color 
of orbital region by a narrow line of dusky; lower portion of nasal 
tufts dull pale yellowish; a sharply defined stripe along lower por- 
tion of lores dull yellow (buff-yellow, maize yellow or naples yellow), 
passing gradually into yellowish white or pale primrose yellow 
posteriorly, where forming a broad band beneath the slaty aiuicu- 

a A South American (Argentine) species, Phloeotomus achulziC&hsLDia (CampephUus 
mkuM Sclater and Hudson, CampepkUua pUeaius var. schulzi Frenzel, Dryotomus 
mkubi Hazgitt, Gat. Birds Brit. Mus., zviii, 1890, 517) has been referred to this genus. 
I have not seen a specimen, but on geographical grounds alone strongly doubt that 
it is congeneric with P. piUatus, 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



156 



BULLETIN 50, UKITBD STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



lar area, thence extending downward along side of neck to axillars 
and under wing-<50vert8, which, together with basal half (approxi- 
mately) of inner webs of remiges, are yellowish white or primrose 
yellow; malar region crimson for greater part, the posterior portion 
dark slate color or blackish slate; chin and throat white or yellowish 
white, sometimes more or less streaked or suffused posteriorly or 
medially with grayish; rest of plumage plain sooty slate-black or 
blackish slate," the imder parts slightly but not distinctly lighter; 
feathers of sides and flanks margined terminally with whitish; basal 
portion of outer webs of remiges white or yellowish white, that on 
secondaries usually concealed by greater coverts, that on primaries 
showing as a small but distinct area beyond tip of primary coverts; 
maxilla slate color or slate-gray, darker terminally; mandible bluish 
white basally, shading through pale grayish blue or bluish gray 
into slate color or slate-gray at tip; iris cream yellow, naples yellow, 
or buff-yellow; naked orbital skin grayish olive; legs and feet with 
scutella black, the interspaces pale gray or whitish; length (skins), 
391-437 (410); wing, 220-235 (228.4); taU, 144-161 (152.9); culmen, 
46-52.5 (49.7); tarsus, 33-35 (34.1); outer anterior toe, 26-28.6 
(27.3).* 

AduUfemdle. — Similar to the adult male, but forehead and antericn* 
half (more or less) of crown grayish brown or olive and malar region 
slate color; length (skins), 365-410 (390); wing, 214-233 (221.6); 
tail, 140-158.5 (149.4); cuhnen, 41.5-49 (44.9); tarsus, 31-34.6 
(32.5); outer anterior toe, 24-27.5 (25.5).*^ 

^ The color is more slaty in more recently killed specimens or those in fresh plum- 
age, more sooty or brownish in older plumage or older skins. 
^ Eighteen specimens, 
c Twenty-two specimens. 



Locality. 



Wing. 



Tall. 



Ex- 

posed 
culmeo. 



Tanut. 



Ootar 

ant^ 

rior toe. 



MALES. 

Tea adult males (P. p. floHdantu) from central and southern 
Florida 

Two adult males tnm northern Florida 

One adult male tnm Mississippi 

Three adult males Ihnn Tennessee 

One adult male from Arkansas 

FiTe adult males from Texas 

Two adult males ftom southern Illinois 

One adult male (Intermediate between P. p. pUaUui and P. p. 
odtetooto) from West Virginia 

Two adult males Ihnn Maryland (1) and District of Colum- 
bia (1) 

One adult male (intermediate) ftom sootheestem Pennsyi- 
▼anla (Carlisle) 

Four adult males (P. p. aW rtfc oto) from western Pennsyiyanla. 

Four adult males (P. p. <Metkola) from Wlsooosln (1), Mln- 
1(2), and Manitoba (1) 



22«l1 

227.5 

224 

228 

227 

226.8 

233 

285 

22&5 



242 
244 



15a 7 

153.5 

152 

155.7 

140 

14a 4 

150 

150 

15L7 

182 
18L7 

1811 



4&5 

47.5 

4flL5 

4a3 

50 

50 

5a7 

55 

5a7 

82.5 
•7.7 

5ai 



S3L8 
13.5 
85 
33.8 



2flL0 
27.7 
26 
27.5 



84.8 
33.5 



38 
84.2 



84.5 

84.1 



84.0 



27.0 
27.2 



2&5 
26.2 



28 
27.8 



26L6 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF NOBTH AND lODDLB AHIKIOA. 



157 



Taung male. — Similar to the adult male, but red of head paler 
tnd duller, that of forehead, fore part of crown, and malar region 
much less uniform, the red being restricted to the tips of the feathers, 



FootiK)te— Contooed. 



LocaUty. 



Win«. 



Tsfl. 



Ex- 

posed 



Tamil. 



Outer 
ante- 
rior toe. 



MALX9— oootinued. 

nme adolt males (P. p. oNetfeota) tiom Kewattn (1) and 

]fMkaule(3) 

El^ adult males (P. p. pic^MW) from BittiBliOotambIa 

Iht adolt males (P. p. jtkinut) from Orefon 

Two tdult males (P. p. pfefoiif) from California 

One adult male (P. p. pkkmt) from Idaho 

riMALBS. 

Tn adnlt females (P. p. jter tf a mn ) from central and sootliem 
Ffcjiida 

Ow adult female from Oeocgla 

Two adult females from Alabama. 

Two adult females from T-in*ff*f"i^ 

Tvo adult females from Tennessee 

Two adolt females from Indian Territory (1) and Oklahoma (1) . 

Tbte adolt females from Texas 

Two adolt females from southern Illinois 

Two adolt females from North CaroUna. 

SIz adott females from Virginia (4), District of Cohmibia (1), 
adHsrylanda) 

One adolt female (type of P. p. aMeMeols) from Maine 

Obb adolt female (P. p. sdiettote) from Wiaooitfin 

Om adolt female (P. p. sMUieols) from Minnesota 

Time adolt females (P. p. fkimu) from British Oolambla. . . 

One adolt female (P. p. fkimu) from Washiiifton 

One adult female (P. p. pkhiut) from Oregon 

Thiee adolt females (P. p. pfeimw) from CaUfoniia 



M17 

387.7 

236 

338 

3«0 



23a8 
3» 

2a 

317.6 

21S 

316 

23&7 

326 

23a6 

32216 
333 

3«8 

3S6 

83a7 

227 

22S 

227.7 



16&8 
15&1 
167.8 
162.6 
16&6 



14&6 

143 

1418 

16a7 

14a3 

14&3 

16&7 

1417 

147.6 

16L8 
1026 

iea6 

1616 

16L7 

16a6 

160 

14a7 



6&8 
6&8 

68 

616 

616 



43.8 
416 

416 

48 

413 

46 

45 

47.6 

416 

4&6 
616 
68 

6a6 
4a8 

60 
46 
48 



8&3 
819 
83L8 
83L8 



817 
81.6 
813 
88 
81.8 
815 
83L6 
83 
(82) 

812 

816 

84 

8&6 

84 

84 

84 

83L7 



27.8 
3&6 
3&4 
30.8 
36 



36.8 
24 
36.7 
36 
24 
317 
318 
37 
(24) 

36.3 

35 

36.6 

37 

36.8 

36 

36 

36 



I have found it very difficult to decide as to the propriety of aeparatiDg a form of 
this species from central and southern Florida, but after having several times laid 
out and carefully compared the entire series of specimens from more southern locali- 
ties, have come to the conclusion that to do so will, apparently, best express the 
bcti of the case. Going by size alone, there is little difference between specimens 
from southern and central Florida and those frcmi localities as far northward as Mary- 
land (lowlands), southern Illinois, and Missouri; in fact some of these more northern 
apedmens are quite as small as Florida ones. But the series from central and soulh- 
«n Florida are uniformly decidedly blacker than the rest, the few examples (two 
from Alabama and one or two from Texas) of the latter that approach the Fl(^da 
specimens proving, on close comparison, to be of an appreciably more slaty or sooty 
hoe. Indeed, all the specimens examined from northern Florida (Grainesville, 
Mayport, and Pilot Town) are distinctly lighter in color than those from more southern 
localitiee in that State. Some of the more northern examples are quite as slaty as 
the extreme northern form (P. p. ahieUcola) but they are distinctly smaller. In 
other words, I have restricted the name pileatus to an intermediate form, character- 
ized by the small size of P. p, fiaridanui combined with an appreciably lighter 
(more slaty or sooty) cdaration, often approaching closely the lightness of hue of 
P. p. abiekcola. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



158 BULLETIN 60, UNITBD STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

which are otherwise brownish slate or slate-grayish, and the general 
color of body, wings, etc., lighter and more sooty. 

YouTig female. — Similar to the yomig male, but forehead and 
most of crown grayish brown, the latter with a paler terminal spot 
on each feather, and malar region dark grayish brown or sooty 
slate color. 

Lower Austral zone and southern portion of Upper Austral zone of 
eastern United States, from northern Florida (Pilot Town; May- 
port; Qainesville) west to southern and central Texas (Cleveland; 
near Alvin; Sour Lake; Matagorda; Jefferson; Velasco; San Antonio 
River; Victoria County; Liberty; Santa Maria; Navarro County; Lee 
County; Colorado and Brazos Rivers), Arkansas (Clinton), Indian 
Territory (Red Fork; Dougherty; Hartshome), Oklahoma (Mount 
Scott), and southwestern Missouri (Lidependence) ; north to coast and 
midland districts of Maryland, southeastern Pennsylvania (Carlisle), 
southern Indiana, southern Illinois, etc.^ 

[Picua] pUeatus LiNNiSUS, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, i, 1758, 113 (Soutii Carolina; based on 
The larger red-crested Woodpecker Gatesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, i, 17, pi. 17); 
ed. 12, i, 1766, 173.— Gmblin, Syst. Nat., i, pt. i, 1788, 425.— Latblam, Index 
Om., i, 1790, 225; Gen. Hist. Birds, iii, 1822, 370. 

Picu8 piletUua Vibillot, Ois, Am. Sept., ii, 1807, 58, pi. 110; Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. 
Nat., xxvi, 1818, 84.— Wilson, Am. Om., iv, 1811, 27, pi. 29, ^, 1 (error 
^, 2 on plate).— Stephens, Shaw's Gen. Zool., ix, 1815, 158, pi. 32. — 
BoNNATERRB and ViEiLLOT, Enc. M^th., iii, 1823, 1313. — ^Valencibnnbs, 
Diet. Sei. Nat., xl, 1826, 177.— Bonaparte, Ann. Lye. N. Y., ii, pt. i, 1826 
(Synop. Birds U. S.), 44, part.— Deapibz, Diet. Class. d'Hist. Nat., xiii, 
1828, 500.— Lesson, Traits d'Om., 1831, 229.— Nuttall, Man. Om. U. S. 
and Can., Land Birds, 1832, 567, part; 2d ed., 1840, 671, part.— Audu- 
bon, Om. Biog., ii, 1834, 74, part, pi. Ill; v, 1839, 533, part; Synopsis, 1839, 
176, part; Birds Am., oet. ed., iv, 1842, 226, part, pi. 257. — Sundbvall 
Consp. Av. Piein., 1866, 8, part. 

P[icu8] pileatua Bonaparte, Joum. Ac. Nat. Sd. Phila., iii, pt. ii, 1824, 368, 
part; Obs. Wilson's Am. Om., 1826 [28], part.— Maximilian, Jonm. fOr 
Om., 1858, 352 (near New Hannony, s. w. Indiana). 

[Dryocopu$] pileatus Boib, Isis, 1828, 326.— Bonapartb, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 
132. — ^LiCHTBNSTBiN, Nomencl. Mus. Berol., 1854, 75.— Gray, Hand-list, ii, 
1870, 188, no. 8635, part. 

D[ryocopu$] pileatu$ Gray, Gen. Birds, ii, 1845, 436.— Ridqway, Ann. Lye. 
N. Y., X, 1874, 377, part (s. Illinois). 

Dryocopui pileatus Woodhouse, Rep. Sitgreaves' Expl. Zu£d and Col. R., 1853, 
90 (Indian Territ(»ry; Texas; New Mexico?). — Sclater, Cat. Am. Birds, 
1862, 322. 

Dryotomua pUeatue Swainson, Fauna Bor.-Am., ii, 1831, p. xxvi; Classif. Birds, 
ii, 1837, 308, part.— Bonaparte, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 39. — Haroitt, 
Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 515, part (Distriet Columbia; s. Missouri; 
Union Co., Illinois; San Patrieio, Texas). 

FicuB (Dryotamtu) pileatus Swainson, Fauna Bor.-Am., ii, 1831, 304, part. 

[Dryotomus] pileatus Sharpe, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 232, part. 

a Specimens representing the more northern localities mentioned are not quite 
typical, but are deeidedly nearer, in size at least, to speeimens from Georgia and 
nokhero Florida, etc., thsA to P. p. abietioola. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF NOBTH AKD MIDDLE AMBBIOA« 159 

DryopieuM pUeatui Bonapabtb, Notes Om. Coll. Delattare, 1854, 85.— Malhbbbs, 

Mon. Picid., i, 1861, 34, part; iii, pi. 11, figs. 5, 6. 
D[riopicu8\ piUatus Bonapabte, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 122 (Consp. Volucr. 

Zygorf.,1854,8). 
C[ampephUus} piUatus Rrichbnbach, Handb. ScaoBores, Piciiue, 1854, 391, pi. 

647, figs. 4317, 4318. 
^laUmus pUeaius Baibd, Rep. Pacific R. R. Siirv., ix, 1858, 107, part; Cat. 

N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 90, part.— Drbssbb, Ibis, 1865, 469 (Colorado and 

Brazos rivers, Texas).— Matnard, Birds E. N. Am., 1879, 234, part. 
ISjflotomus] pileatua Coubs, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 192, part. 
JE^lakmxis piUatus Couss, Check List, 1873, no. 294, part; 2d ed., 1882, no. 432, 

part; Birds North West, 1874, 278, part. — ^Baird, Brewbb, and Ridowat, 

Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 551, part.— Merrill (J. C), Proc. U. S. Nat. 

Mus., i, 1878, 151 (Santa Maria, s. Texas).— Ridowat, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.. 

iii, 1880, 189, part; Norn. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 371, part.— Ogilbt, Sci. 

Proc. Roy. Dublin Soc., iii, 1882, 58 (Navarro Co., Texas).— Nbhrling, Bull. 

Nutt. Om. Club, vii, 1882, 170 (s. e. Texas; habits; descr. nest and eggs). 
Etlfhiomus] pUeatus Coves, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1882, 480, part. 
PpUoeotomusl piUatus Cabanis and Hbine, Mus. Hein., iv, heft ii, 1863, 102 

("Nord-Amerika''). 

[Phheotomus] pileatus Hbinb and Reichbnow, Nom. Mus. Hein. Om., 1890, 216 
(Greoigia). 

PhlasoUmmB piUatus Ambbican Orntthologists' Union CoiaarrEB, Auk, xxv, 
1908, 374, part.— Wayne, Birds South Carolina, 1910, 91 (habits; descr. nest 
and eggs). — (?)Howell, Auk, xxvii, 1910, 301 (Walden Ridge and Cross Mt., 
e. Tennessee).— Beal, Bull. 37, U. S. Biol. Surv., 1911, 33 (food). 

PhltEOtomus piUatus piXeatus American Ornitholooists' Union, Check List, 3d 
ed., 1910, 192, part.— Ridgwat, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxiv, 1911, 33 (geog. 
nmge). 

Cleophloetuil piUatus CABAms, Joum. ftlr Om., 1862, 176. 

Ceophheus pileatus Stbjneger, Auk, ii, 1885, 52. 

Ceophlosus pileatus American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886 (and 
2d ed., 1895), no. 405, part.— Ridgwat, Om. Illinois, i, 1889, 382", part 
(s. Illinois). — ^Hasbroucb, Auk, vi, 1889, 238 (centr. and w. Texas). — 
Singlet, Rep. Geol. Surv. Tex., 1894, 350 (Lee Co., Texas).— Bendibe, 
life Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 102, part. — ^Bbtbr, Proc. Louisiana Soc. 
Nat. lot 1897-99 (1900), 102 (Louisiana).— Stockard, Auk, xxi, 1904, 463- 
466 (breeding habits in Mississippi). 

Cleaphloeus] piUatus Ridgwat, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 289, part. 

CeophUsus jiUatus abietieola (not of Bang?) Ferrt, Auk, xxiv, 1907, 432 (Cairo, 
Illinois, Aug.). 

PUoeotomus piUcOus abietioola Woodruff, Auk, xxv, 1908, 200 (Shannon Co., 
Missouri, breeding).— Phiupp, Auk, xxvii, 1910, 318 (Lake Ellis, e. North 
OEtfoliDa).— Baldwin, Auk, xxviii, 1911, 491 (Franklin Co., Missouri, July). 

FBLCBOTOMUS PILEATUS FLORIDANUS Ridgway. 

VLOBIDA PZLBATXD WOODPEOSBK. 

Similar to P. p. pUeatus, but decidedly blacker (that is, the general 
black color less slaty or sooty), and average size less, with bill usually 
relatiyely shorter and broader. 

AduUmdle.— Length (skins), 393-430 (412) ; wing, 222-236 (226.1) ; 
tail, 142.5-166.5 (160.7); cuhnen, 46-49 (46.6); tarsus, 32-36 (33.6); 
crater anterior toe, 26-28 (26.9).* 

^ Ten specimens. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



160 BULLETIN 50, XJKITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

AdvU /e??iafe.— Length (skins), 403-416 (409); wing, 210-222 
(220.8); taO, 136-151.5 (145.5); culmen, 41.5-45.6 (43.8); tarsus, 
31-34.5 (32.7); outer anterior toe, 23-27 (25.3).« 

Central and southern Florida (St. Johns River f; Blue Cypress 
Lake; Shell Hammock; Orange Hammock; Fort Gardner; Lake 
Arbuckle; Fort Thompson; Fort Bassinger; Fort Myers; Lake 
Harney; LakeTrafford; PuntaRassa; Kissimmee; Tarpon Springs; 
Avon Park; Miami River; Osceola County; Polk County; Hernando 
County; Orange County). 

PicM piUattu (not of LinnffiUB) Attdubon, Om. Biog., ii» 1834, 74, part; v, 1839, 

533, part; Synopeis, 1839, 176, part; Birds Am., oct. ed., iv, 1842, 226, part. 
HylaUmus piUatu» Baibd, Rep. Pacific R. R. Siirv., ix, 1858, 107, part (St. Johns 

R., Florida); Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 90, part.— Taylor, Ibis, 1862, 128 

(Florida).— Matnard, Birds E. N. Am., 1879, 234, part (Florida). 
[Hylotomua] piUatus Goubs^ Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 192, part (Florida). 
EyloUymuM piUatua Allen, BuU. Mns. Gomp. Zool., ii, 1871, 302 (e. Florida; 

crit.).— OouBS, Check List, 1873, no. 294, part; 2d ed., 1882, no. 432, part; 

Birdis North West, 1874, 278, part.— Baibd, Brbweb, and Rn)OWAY, Hist. 

N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 550, part (Florida).— Rtoqwat, Ptoc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 

iii, 1880, 189, part; Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 371, part. 
BJyloUymui] piUatus Cottes, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 480, part 
CeopMoeua piUaUu American Ornitholooists' Union, Check List, 1886 (and 2d 

ed. , 1895), no. 405, part.— Scott, Auk, vi, 1889, 251 (Tarpon Springs and Punta 

Rossa, Florida).— MoRTMER, Auk, vii, 1890, 339 (Orange Co., Florida; 

habits).— Bbndirb, Life Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 102, part, pi. 1, ^, 5 

(Florida). 
C\eophlQBv£\ piUatuB Ridowat, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 289, part. 
CeopMoeus piUatus piUatus Bangs, Auk, xv, April, 1898, 176, in text (Ft. ICyen, 

Florida). 
Dryotomtu pileatm Haroitt, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 515, part (Her- 

nado Co. and Tarpon Springs, Florida). 
[Dryotomtu] piUatm Sharps, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 232, part. 
Phlosokmwa piUatus American Ornitholooists' Union CoMMmsB, Auk, xxv, 

1908, 374, part. 
PMceotomus piUatta piUaJbu American Ornttholooists' Union, Check List, 

3d ed., 1910, 192, part. 
PhUBOiomuB piUatus floridanus Ridowat, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxiv, Feb. 24, 

1911, 33 (Frevatt's Camp, 24 miles s. w. of Kissimmee, Florida; coll. U. 8. 

Nat. Mus.). 

PHLIBOTOMUS PILBATUS ABIBTICOLA (Bangs). 

VOBTHXUr PXLXATZD WOODPXOnOL 

Similar to P. p. pUeaiua, but much larger, bill relatively longer, and 
general coloration lighter (more slaty). 

^dt^maZe.— Length (skins), 402-452 (429); wing, 237-253 (243.3); 
tail, 151-174 (161.8); cuhnen, 55.5-60 (58); tarsus, 33-36 (34.7); 
outer anterior toe, 24-28 (27.2).* 

a Ten spedmens. b Eleven spedmens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD8 OF NORTH AND MIDDLB AMBBIOA. 161 

iWiift/mofe.— Length (skins), 436 ,•• wing, 232-243 (236.7); tail, 
154.&-162.5 (169.2); culmen, 60.5-63 (52); tarsus, 33.5-36.5 (34.3); 
outer anterior toe, 25-27 (25.8).* 

Northern Upper Austral, Transition, and Canadian zone forests of 
eastern North* America, from West Virginia (Rocco), western Penn- 
sylyania (Erie; Lake Pleasant; Clinton County), New York, New 
England, "V^sconsin (Menomonie), Minnesota (St. Cloud; Moores 
Lake), etc., north to New Brunswick (Great Falls; Fort Fairfield), 
Nova Scotia, Eeewatin (Sturgeon Lake; Nelson River), Mackenzie 
(Big Island, Great Slave Lake; Fort liard), etc.; probably south 
through southern Alleghenies and over northern Ohio, Lidiana, Illi- 
Dois, etc., and west to base of Rocky Mountains. 

Picua pUeaiuM (not of liimseus) Wn^soN, Am. Om., iv, 1811, 27, part, pi. 29, fig. 1 
(by error ^, 2 on plate).— Bonapabtb, Ann. Lye. N. Y., ii, pt. i, 1826 
(Synop. Birds U. S.), 44, part— Nuttall, Man. Om. U. S. and Can., Land 
Birds, 1832, 567, part; 2d ed., 1840, 671, part.— Audubon, Om. Biog., ii, 
1834, 74, pejrt; v, 1839, 533, part; SynopsiB, 1839, 176, part; Birds Am., oct. 
ed., iv, 1842, 226, part.— Wnjjs, An. Rep. Smithson. Inst, for 1858 (1859), 
284 (Nova Scotia).— Sundbvall, Gonsp. Av. Pidn., 1866, 8, part. 

Flieus] pileatu$ Bonapabtb, Joum. Ac. Nat Sci. Fhila., iii, pt. ii, 1824, 368, 
part; Obs. Wilson's Am. Om., 1826, [28], part. 

PicuB (DryoUmm) pikatus Swadibon, Fauna Bor.-Am., ii, 1831, 304. 

Dryoeoptu pUeatus Babrt, Proc. Best. 8oc. N. H., 1854, 8 (Wisconsin). 

Dlryocopui] jnleaius BmowAY Ann. Lye. N. Y., x, 1874, 377, part (Illinois). 

HylaUmm piUatus Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 107, part; Oat. 
N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 90, part.— Blakiston, Ibis, 1862, 3 (n. branch of 
Saskatchewan R.).— Vbrrhx, Proc. Essex Inst., 1862, 144 (Oxford Oo., 
Maine).— Mbbbiam, Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, iv, 1879, 6 (Lewis Co., n. e. New 
York).— Matmabd, Birds £. N. Am., 1879, 234, part, pi. 19, figs. 1-4. 

BjfloUmus piUatus Blakiston, Ibis, 1863, 52 (Stuigeon Lake, Eeewatin).— 
McIlwraith, Bun. Essex Inst., 1866, 83 (Hamilton, Ontario).— La wbbncb, 
Ann. Lye. N. Y., viii, 1866, 291 (Hoboken, New Jer8ey).--CouE8, Check 
List, 1873, no. 294, part; 2d ed., 1882, no. 432, part; Birds North West, 1874, 
278, part.— Baibd, Bbbweb, and Ridgwat, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 
551, part, pi. 56, figs. 4, 5.— Bbbwotbb, Ann. Lye. N. Y., xi, 1875, 144 
(Ritchie Co., West ^^rgina).— Ridqwat, Proc. U. S. Nat Mus., iii, 1880, 
189, part; Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 371, part.— Enowi;ton, Bull. Nutt 
Om. Club, vii, 1882, 63 (Brandon, Vermont).- Batchbldbb, Bull. Nutt. Om. 
aub, vii, 1882, 150 (Grand Falls and Ft. Fairfield, New Brunswick; Houlton, 
Maine).— Mbbbiam, Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, vii, 1882, 236 (Point de Monts. 
Quebec).— Bbacxbtt, Quart. Joum. Bost. Zool. Soc., iii, 1884, 17 (near Bos- 
ton, Massachusetts).- Aobbsbobo, Auk, ii, 1885, 283 (s. e. South Dakota). 

[HyloUmus] piUatuB Coubs, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 192, part. 

EfyhtomuM] piUatua Coxtbb, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 480, part. 

CeophUeuM piUatus Ambbican Obnitholooists' Union, Check List, 1886 (and 
2d ed., 1895), no. 405, part.— Nobton, Auk, v, 1888, 111 (Franklin Co., 
Massachusetts).— Bbbwstbb, Auk, v, 1888, 390 (Winchendon, Massachu- 
setts, resident).— Ridgwat, Om. Illinois, i, 1889, 382, part.— Thompson, 
Proc. U. S. Nat Mus., xiii, 1890, 550 (Manitoba, resident).— Saob, Auk., 

<^ One specimen. & Three specimens. 

3622'— Bun. 60, pt 6—14 ^11 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



162 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

xii, 1895, 311 (Gianby, Connecticut, winter ci 1894-95).— Pisbs, Trans. 
Nova Scotia Inst. 8ci., aer. 2, i, 1895, 404 (Nova Scotia, rare resident).— 
(?)GooKE, Bull. Col. Agric. Coll., no. 37, 1897, 84 (Colorado; resident, 
rare).— Flbmino, Auk, xviii, 1901, 39 (Parry Sound and Muskoka, n. w. 
Ontario).— Hows, Contr. Am. Om., ii, 1902, 15 (Vermont).— Cox, Auk, 
xix, 1902, 288 (Minnesota; habits, etc.). 

C[eophkgu$] piUatuB Ridowat, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 289, part. 

Dryotomm piUatus HAmonr, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 515, part (Maine; 
Herkimer Co., Big Otter Lake, Big Moose Lake, and Watson, New York; 
West Virginia). 

CeopMcBUS piUatui abuHoola Bangs, Auk, xv, April, 1898, 176 (Greenville, Maine; 
coll. E. A. and O. Bangs).- Ambrioan Obnithologists' Union CoMMir- 
TBB, Auk, xvi, 1899, 110.— Howbll, Auk, xviii, 1901, 340 (hit. Mansfield, 
Vermont).— Bridob, Auk, xxi, 1905, 414 (Qcaylock Mt, MawachusettB).— 
Tavbrnbb and Swalbs, Wilson Bull., no. 61, 1907, 134 (Point Pelee, Onta- 
rio; extirpated some 30 years previously I) —Robekts, in Wilcox's Eist 
Becker Co., Minn., 1907, 176 (common). 

Phkeotomui pileatus abietioola American Obnithologists' Union ComciTnBB, 
Auk, XXV, July, 1908, 374, part; Check List, 3d ed., 1910, 192, part.— Pbbble, 
Nortli Am. Fauna, no. 27, 1908, 385 (Athabasca and Slave rivers and along 
Rocky Mts. at least to Liards River).— Ridg way, Proc. Biol. Soc. Waeh., 
xxiv, 1911, 33 (geog. range).— Thayer, Auk, xxviii, 1911, 266 (Harvard, 
Massachusetts, Oct. 15, 1910). 

[Dryotomui] abietieola Shabpb, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 232, part. 

PHLOtOTOMUS PILBATUS PlCmUS Bangs. 

WB8TXXV PZLBATBD WOODPEOSUL 

Similar to P. p. oMeticola, but averaging slightly smaller, and 
general coloration decidedly darker Gess slaty) ; white tips to longer 
primaries usually less distinct, often obsolete or sometimes altogether 
wanting; throat usually streaked or suffused with gray, sometimes 
with a broad, median, uniform stripe of this color; white on basal 
portion of remiges more restricted. (Much larger than P. p. pUeatus 
or P. p.Jlaridanug, and with the black more sooty than in the latter.) 

^(?u» mofe.— Length (skins), 400-450 (426); wing, 230-247 (237); 
tail, 147-163 (167.2); culmen, 62-58.6 (54.4); tarsus, 32.5-36 (34.4); 
outer anterior toe, 25-28 (26.5) .« 

AduU /emafc.— Length (skins), 390-434 (407); wing, 226-235 
(228.1); tail, 146-158 (161.7); cuhnen, 47-50.6 (48.7); tarsus, 32.5-35 
(33.9); outer anterior toe, 23.5-27 (26.6).* 

Forests of the humid northwest coast district from British Colum- 
bia (Victoria; Comox; Port Moody; near Babine; Departure Bay; 
Sicamous; Beecher Bay; Sumas; Esquimault; Mount Lehman) and 
gouthward through Washington, Oregon, and CaUfomia to Men- 
docino County on coast and southern Sierra Nevada in the interior 
(Sequoia National Park; Kings River Canyon; Merced River, etc.); 

o Sixteen Bpecimens. ^ Eight Bpecimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDB OF NOBTH AVD MIDDLB AMBBICA. 168 

east to Idaho (Sawtooth and Sahnon River Mountains) and western 
Montana (Powell Co.; Flathead Lake). 

Pieu» pUeatus (not of Lidiiwiib) Audubon, Otd. Biog., ii, 1834, 74, part (Columbia 
R.); V, 1839, 533, part (Colombia R.); Synopsis, 1839, 176, part (Columbia 
R.); Birds Am., oct. ed., iv, 1842, 226, part (Columbia R.)— Sundbvall, 
Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 8, part. 

Dryocopus piUiUus BanKSBS, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1858, 2 (Scotts Mts., Trinity 
Co., and Siena Nevada, 4,000 ft., Oalilcnnia). 

H^laUmus pileatu$ Baibd, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 107, part (Columbia 
R.; Ft. Steilacoom, Washington); Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 90, part.— 
GooPBB and Sucklbt, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., xii, pt. ii, 1860, 161 
(Whi^y I., Ft Steilacoom, etc., Washington).— Lobd, Proc. Roy. Artil. 
Inst. Woolwich, iv, 1864, 212 (Brit. Columbia).— Bbown, Ibis, 1868, 419 
(Vancouver I.). 

H^loiomuM piUiUus Sclatbb, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1859, 236 (Vancouver I.).— 
CooPBR, Om. Calif., 1870, 396.— Coubs, Check List, 1873, no. 294, part; 
2d ed., 1882, no. 432, part; Birds North West, 1874, 278, part.— Baird, 
Bbewbb, and Rn>owAT, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 551, part. — ^Hbn- 
8HAW, Rep. Om. Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 1876, 26 (Sierra Nevada, s. to 
lat. 37**).— Bbnbikb, Proc. Best. Soc. N. H., xix, 1877, 130 (Camp Hamey, 
s. e. Oregon).— Bblding, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., i, 1879, 429 (Big Trees, 
Calaveras Co., California).— Ridowat, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 189, 
part; Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 371, part.— Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1883, 425 (Esquimault, Brit. Columbia). 

l^JoUmus] piietUuM Coubs, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 192, part. 

Hfylotomm] pileatui Henshaw, Ann. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. W. 100th Merid., 
1879, 312 (Cascades of the Columbia R.).— Coubs, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 
1884, 480, part. 

Ceophknis pUeatus Ambrican OBNrrHOLOoisrs' Union, Check List, 1886 (and 
2d ed., 1895), no. 405, part.— Anthony, Auk, iii, 1886, 165 (Washington 
Co., Or^on).- TowNSBND (C. H.), Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., x, 1887, 206 
(McCloud R., base of Mt. Shasta, and coast redwoods, California).— 
Bbndibb, Auk, V, 1888, 240 (Ft. Klamath, Oregon, breeding); Life Hist. 
N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 102, part.— Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., iii, 
1890, 139 (Westminster, Mt. Lehman, and Vancouver I., Brit. Columbia; 
crit.).— Fannin, Check List Birds Brit. Col., 1891, 28 (common, especially 
near coast).— Mbbbiam, North Am. Fauna, no. 5, 1891, 97 (Salmon R. Mts. 
and Mt. Idaho, Idaho).— Lawbbncb (R. H.), Auk, ix, 1892, 355 (Grays 
Haibor, Washington).— Fuhbb (A. E.), North Am. Fauna, no. 7, 1893, 49 
(Mariposa Grove, Merced R., Sequoia National Park, and Kings R. Canyon, 
California).- Rhoads, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1893, 43 (Brit. Columbia).— 
Dawson, Auk, xiv, 1897, 175 (Okanogan Co., Washington). — Silloway, 
Bull. Univ. Mont., no. 8, 1901, 51 (Flathead Lake, etc., Montana; habits). 

C[»phktu$] pileaiu$ Ridowat, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 289, part. 

Dryotamus pUeaiui Haboitt, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., zviii, 1890, 515, part (Esqui- 
mault, Brit. Columbia; Hollisters and Nevada, California). 

CeojMoBUi piUatui dbiOieola (not of Bangs) Mbbbiam, North Am. Fauna, no. 16, 
1899, 116 (Mt. Shasta, California).— (?)Cookb, Bull. 56, Col. Agric. Exp. 
Sta., 1900, 207 (Colorado).— Obinnbll, Pacific Coast Avifauna, no. 3, 1902, 
38 (California range).— Andbbson and Gbinnbll, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1903, 8 (Siskiyou Mts., n. California; measurementB).— Stone, Proc. Ac. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



164 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Nat. Sci. Fhila., 1904, 681 (Mt. Sanhedrin, Mendocino Co., Califoniia; meas- 
urements; crit.). — ^Bowles, Auk, xxiii, 1906, 144 (Tacoma, Washington, 
breeding). 

Phkeotomui pileatus ahieticola American Ornitholooists' Union Committee, 
Auk, XXV, July, 1908, 374, part; Check List, 3d ed., 1910, 192, part.— Kel- 
logg, Condor, xiii, 1911, 119 (Trinity Co., California).— Obinnell (J.), 
Pacific Coast Avifauna, no. 8, 1912, 15.— -Saundees, Condor, xiv, 1912, 26 
(Powell Co., B. w. Montana).— SwARTH, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., x, 1912, 
38 (Parksville, Errington, French Creek, Little Qualicum R., Albemi, and 
Central Lake, Vancouver I.; crit.).— Jewett, Condor, xiv, 1912, 192 (Saw- 
tooth Mts., Idaho). 

[Dryotomua] aMeticola Sharpe, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 232, part. 

PhUxotomus piUalus picinus Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Soc., iv, April 2, 1910, 
79 (Sumas, British Columbia; coll. Mus. Comp. Zool.). — ^RmowAY, Proc. 
Biol. Soc. Wash., xxiv, 1911, 34 (geog. range). 

Genus CAMPEPHILUS Gray. 

CampepkUui Gray, List Gen. Birds, 1840, 64. (Type, by original designation. 

Picas prindpaUa Linnseus.) 
Campophilua (emendation) Cabanis and Hbinb, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, July, 

1863, 100. 
Megapicoa (not of Malherbe, Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Moselle, 6* cahier, 184^1849, 

17) Malherbe, M6m. Acad. Metz, xxx, 1849, 317. (Type, PicuB impenalu 

Gould?) « 
MegapicuB (emendation) Bonaparte, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1864, 122 (Consp. 

Volucr. Zygod., 1854, 7). 

Very large Picidae* (wing 230-320 mm.) with outer hind toe much 
longer than outer front toe, bill longer than head, with gonys nearly 
four times as long as mandibular rami, head with a very conspicuous 
occipito-nuchal, more or less recurved, crest (bright red in males, 
glossy black and more strongly recurved in females), the general 
color uniform glossy blue-black reUeved by white secondaries and 
under wing-coverts, and a white stripe along each side of inter- 
scapular area (a white stripe down side of neck in two species), the 
bill ivory white or yellowish. 

Bill longer than head, broadly chisel-shaped at tip, much broader 
than deep at anterior end of nostrils, abruptly contracted terminally 
in vertical profile; cuhnen very strongly ridged, straight or very 
faintly convex; gonys strongly ridged, nearly four times as long as 
mandibular rami, straight terminally, very faintly convex basally; 
supranasal ridge and prenasal groove very distinct, parallel with 
culmen, running to (or near to) edge of maxilla at a point about 

a The species mentioned are, in the sequence given: 1. M. imperialU (Gould); 2. 
M. prindpalU (Linnseus); 3. M. malherbii (Gray); 4. M. albirottris (VieiUot) »Picu« 
melmoleucus Gmelin, and 5. M, validus (Temminck)^ ChrysocolopUs validus. Of 
these only nos. 1 and 2 belong to Campephilu8\ nos. 3 and 4 belonging to the genus 
Scapaneus, 

^ This genus contains much the largest of known woodpeckers. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIHD8 OF KOBTH AND MIDDLE AMEBIOA« 166 

one-fifth the distance from tip to base of tomium. Nostril longi- 
tudinally elliptical^ situated about midway between culmen and 
tomiuib, covered by a distinct tuft of antrorse prefrontal hair-like 
feathers. Feathers of malar apex antrorse, forming a conspicuous, 
closely appressed, pointed tuft, those of the chin also antrorse, form- 
ing a broad flattened tuft covering lower base of mandible. Orbits 
partly naked, but margin of eyelids feathered, especially posterior 
portion of the lower. Wing moderate, with relatively short second- 
aries, the longest primaries exceeding distal secondaries by about one- 
third the length of wing; sixth, seventh, and eighth primaries longest, 
the ninth intermediate between third and fourth, the tenth (outer- 
most) nearly half as long as ninth, very narrow, subfalcate. Tail 
about three-fifths as long as wing; four middle rectrices subequal 
(the middle pair slightly longer than the next), very narrow their 
entire length, with both webs of middle pair and inner web of next 
pair strongly deflected (folded downward), except terminally, the 
shaft very large and strong, broadly and deeply grooved along imder 
side, bent upward near middle portion, then bent downward (de- 
curved) terminally. Tarsus longer than outer hind toe without daw, 
the latter much longer than outer anterior toe with daw; all the 
claws extremely large and strongly curved, that of the hallux, how- 
ever, distinctly smaller than the rest. 

Oofom^ion.— General color glossy blue-black, the secondaries, tip 
of inner (proximal) primaries, under wing-coverts, and stripe along 
eadi side of interscapular area (in two species also a broad white 
stripe along side of neck, and the postnasal tufts) white; adult male 
with the very conspicuous, compressed, pointed, and slightly recurved 
occipito-nuchal crest bright red, adult females with the crest glossy 
bhie-black and more distinctly (sometimes conspicuously) recurved; 
Un ivory white or yellowish. 

Bange. — Southeastern United States, Cuba, and north-central 
Mexico. (Three species.) 

KSY TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OF CAHPEPHILUS. 

e. Nasal tufts black; no white stripe on head or neck; laiger (wing 202-320, cnlmen 

72.5-85.5). (North-central Mexico.) Campephiliis impezlalls (p. 166). 

oa. Nasal tufts and a stripe along side of head and neck white; smaller (wing 236-263, 
cnlmen 58-72.5). 
h, Laiger (wing 240-263, culmen 61-72.5); white stripe on side of head not extend- 
ing to near rictus; nasal tufts much laiger. (Southeastern United States; for- 
merly to southern Virginia, lower Ohio Valley, southeastern Missouri, etc., 
now extirpated over by iai the greater portion of its fonner range.) 

Campephilus principalis (p. 167). 
(6. Smaller (wing 236-255, culmen 58-61); white stripe on side of head continued 
neariy if not quite to rictus; nasal tufts smaller. (Cuba.) 

CampephUns bairdil (p. 169). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



166 BULLBTIK 50, TTinTBD STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

CAMPBPHILUS IMPERIALIS (Gould). 

HmSXAL WOODPSOZUL 

AduU male. — Qeneral color glossy blue-black, the tail and primaries 
(except terminal portion of five or six innermost) dull black or 
brownish black; outer margin of interscapular r^on white, forming 
a conspicuous V-shaped mark; secondaries (except basal portion, 
mostly concealed), terminal portion (extensively) of primaries (ex- 
cept five outer ones), under wing-coverts, and axillars, white; crest, 
except on crown, bright red (poppy red to scarlet-vermilion), this 
red color extending forward laterally to above posterior angle or 
even middle of eye; bill pale grayish yellow or dull ivory white; iris 
bright yellow; legs and feet dusl^ grayish horn color in dried skins 
(more bluish gray in life?); length (skins), 635-580 (563); wing, 
303-320 (310.9); tail, 184-202 (194.5) ; cuhnen, 79-85.5 (82.9); tarsus, 
48-51 (49.2); outer anterior toe, 36-37.5 (36.9). « 

AduU female. — Similar to the adult male, but crest wholly glossy 
blue-black and much more strongly reciu*ved; length (skins), 560-570 
(564); wing, 292-320 (307.4); tail, 183-210.5 (194.6); cuhnen, 72.5- 
81.5 (77.8); tarsus, 45.5-60.5 (47.7); outer anterior toe, 36-37.5 
(36.7).« 

Northwestern Mexico, in States of Sonora (Rio Bavispe; Sierra 
Madre; 50 miles south of Arizona boimdary), Chihu&hua (Pacheco; 
Colonia Garcia; Mound Valley; Babicora; Bancheria de los Apaches; 
Chuhuichupa; 50 miles west of Terrazas), Durango (El Salto; Los 
Ooyotes; Gud&d Durango), Zacatecas, Jalisco (near Bolafios; Sierra 
de Valparaiso; Sierra de Juanacatl&n), and Michoac&n (Nahuatzin; 
Patzcuaro). 

Picus imperious Qoxjld^ Proc. Zool. 8oc. Lond., ii, 1832, 140 (''OalifomuL/' i. e., 
near Bolafios, Jalisco, Mexico; & coll. J. (^uld). — ^Lbsson, Gompl. Bufion, 
ix, 1837, 317.— Audubon, Om. Biog., v, 1839, 313; Synopeifl, 1839, 176; Biida 
Am., oct. ed., iv, 1842, 212.— Nuttall, Man. Om. U. S. and Gan., Land 
Birds, 2d ed., 1840, 667.— Sundbvall, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 4. 

C[ampepkUu»] imperialis Gray, Gen. Birds, ii, 1845, 436.— Rbichxnbach, Handb. 
Scansores, Picime, 1854, 390, pi. 646, kg. 4314.— BAntn, Brbwbr, and Rn>o- 
WAY, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 495, in text, 496.— Ridoway, Man. N. 
Am. Birds, 1887, 281. 

o Ten specimens. 

^ The types were supposed to have come ''from that little explored district of Cali- 
fornia which borders the territory of Mexico;'' but according to Salvin and Godman 
(Biol. Oentr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 445) they were probably collected by "the mining 
engineer Floresi, who formed a considerable collection of humming-birds, and also 
preserved skins of a few other species, all of which passed into Grould's possession," 
in the neighborhood of Bolafios, in the Siena Madre of Jalisco, where the species is 
known to occur, and where Floresi was for a time stationed. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD6 OF KOBTH AND MIDDLE AMBBIGA. 167 

OampepkOm trnperiaUa Baibd, Bep. Ptdfic R. R. Burr., ix, 1858, n>- gondii 82 
(Mexico); Oat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 73.— GaA.T, List Bixde Brit. Mus., 
Capit. and Picid., 1868, 53.— Ridgwat, Proc. U. S. Nat.Mufl., iii, 1880, 236; 
Ank, iv, 1887, 161 (n. Sonora, 50 m. from Arizona boundary).— Allen, Bull. 
Am. Mus. N. H., v, 1893, 35 (Chuhuichupa and Rancheria de lo8 Apaches, n. 
w. Chihuahua; Bavispe R., n. e. Sonora).— Nelson, Auk, xv, 1898, 217, pi. 3 
(near Patscuaro, Michoacan; Jalisco; Zacatecas; Duningo; biography). — 
SmrH (A. P.), Condor, x, 1908, 91 (w.-centr. CSiihuahua, 50 m. w. of Ter- 
mzas). 

[OimpepkUtu] imperial^ Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 187, no. 8621.— Sglatxs and 
Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 98. 

C[ampophilua] imperialis Cabanis and Hbinb, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 101. 

CkmpopMhis imperialis Haboitt, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 465 (Ciudad 
Durango, Durango).— Salyin and Godkan, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 
444 (Sierra Madre, Sonora; Ciudad Durango; Sierra de Valparaiso and Sierra 
de Juanacatlan, Jalisco). 

[OampopkUus] imperialis Heine and Reichbnow, Nom. Mus. Hein. Om., 1890, 
216.— Shabpb, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 228. 

{Dryocopra] imperialis Bonafabtb, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 132. 

DruoUmus imperialis Cassin, lUustr. Birds Calif., Tex., etc., 1855, 285, pi. 49. 

[Megapicus] imperioHs Bonafabtb, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 122 (Consp. Volucr. 
Zygod., 1854, 7). 

Megapicus imperialis Malsbbbb, Mon. Picid., i, 1861, 2; iii, 1862, pi. 1, figs. 1, 
2,3. 

CAMPEPHn.nS PRINCIPALIS (Linnma). 

IVOBY-BZLLXD WOODPEOSX&. 

Similar to 0. imperialia but much smaller and with nasal tufts and 
a stripe from suborbital region down side of neck white. 

Adult male. — General color glossy blue-black; the primaries and 
taU duller black, or with bluish gloss less distinct; nasal plumes, 
anterior portion of lores, stripe on sides of head and neck (conmiencing 
usually beneath middle of eye and much narrower on this anterior 
portion) white, these stripes continued posteriorly along each edge of 
interscapular region; secondaries (except basal portion), terminal 
portion of primaries (extensively), except five or six outermost, and 
ander wing-coverts, white; sometimes a few feathers on flanks and 
anal region tipped with white; occipital crest bright red; bill ivory 
white in life, deepening in very old skins to brownish yellow or 
odiraceous-buff ; iris clear lemon yellow; legs and feet (in life) light 
gray, the larger scutella paler and somewhat yellowish gray, the 
daws horn gray or pale horn color; lengths (skins), 420-493 (454); 
wing, 240-263 (266.8); tail, 147-160.6 (154.4); cuhnen, 63-72.5 
(68.2); tarsus, 42.6-46 (44.2); outer anterior toe, 30-34 (32.1) .« 

AduU female. — Similar in coloration to the adult male, but crest 
wholly glossy blue-black; length (skins), 452-488 (471); wing, 240- 

o Fifteen spedmens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



168 



BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



262 (256.4); taU, 151-166 (169.5); culmen, 61-67.5 (64.3); tarsus, 
40.5-44 (42.6); outer anterior toe, 30-33.5 (31.7).* 

Formeriy Lower Austral zone of eastern United States, north to 
coast district of North Carolina and in the Mississippi Valley to 
southern Indiana (Franklin County, up to 1826), southern Illinois 
(White County, up to about 1857), Missouri (Kansas City; Fayette), 
Oklahoma, Indian Territory (Caddo), western Kentucky (Fulton 
County, 1884), Arkansas (Newport), etc., west to Texas (Brazos and 
Trinity rivers; Tarldngton; Harris County; Montgomery County), 
south to the Gulf coast, and in Florida to the Big Cypress district 
south of Caloosahatchie River. Now extirpated over much the 
greater portion of its former range and existing only in scattered or 
isolated locaUties in the lower Mississippi Valley and Gulf States, 
chiefly (?) in Florida. 

[Ptcus] principalis LmNAUS, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, i, 1758, 113 (based on The Largm 
WkUe-bUled Woodpecker Cateeby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, i, 16); ed. 12, i, 1766, 
173.— Gmeun, Syst Nat., 1, pt i, 1788, 425.— Latham, Index Om., i, 1790, 225. 

Pieue principalis Boddabrt, Tabl. PI. EnL, 1783, 43.— TEMMmcK, Cat. Syst., 1807, 
61.— ViEiLLOT, Ois. Am., Sept., ii, 1807, 56, pi. 109; Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., 
xxvi, 1818, 76.— Wilson, Am. Om., iv, 1811, 20, pi. 29, ^. 1.— Stefhsms, 
Shaw*8 Gen. Zool., ix, 1815, 150, pi. 30.— Valenciennes, Diet. Sci. Nat., xl, 
1826, 177.— Bonaparte, Ann. Lye. N. Y., ii, pt. i, (Synop. Birds U. 8.), 1826, 
44.— Drapiez, Diet. Class., xiii, 1828, 495.— Lesson, Traits d'Om., i, 1831, 
229.— SwAiNSON, Faima Bor.-Am., ii, 1831, 301; Claseif. Birds, ii, 1837, 306.— 
Audubon, Om. Biog., i, 1831, 341, pi. 66; v, 1839, 635; Synopsis, 1839, 175; 
Birds Am., oct. ed., iv, 1842, 214, pi. 256.— Nuttall, Man. Om. U. S. and Can., 
Land Birds,1832, 564; 2d ed., 1840, 668.— SuNDBVALL^Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 4. 

P[icus] prvMxpalis Bonnaterre and Yieillot, Enc. M^th., iii, 1823, 1307. — 
Bonaparte, Joum. Ac. Sci. Phila., iii, pt. ii, 1824, 367; Obs. Wilson's Am. 
Om., 1826, [28].— Wagleb, Syst. Av., 1827, Picus, sp. 1. 

[Dryoeopus'\ principalis Boie, Isis, 1828, 326.— ^Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 
1850, 132. 

Dendrocopus principalis Bonaparte, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 39. 

Clampephilus] principalis Gray, List Gen. Birds, 1840, 54; ed. 1841, 70; Gen. 
Biids, ii, 1845, 436.— Reichenbach, Handb. Scansores, Piciaae, 1854, 390, 
pi. 646, figs. 4315, 4316.— RiDOWAY, Ann. Lye. N. Y., x, 1874, 377 (s. e. lUi- 
nois, about 1857); Bull. Illinois State Labr. N. H., no. 4, 1881, 185 (s. Illinois, 
formerly); Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 281.— Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d 
ed., 1884, 479. 

a Eleven specimens. 



Locality. 


Wing. 


TaiL 


Ex- 

posed 
outanen. 


Tarsus. 


Outer 
ante- 
rior toe. 




26&6 
250.2 

25&6 
204 


152L0 
107.2 

loas 
la&o 


oa2 

0&2 

043 
040 


44 

442 

420 
42 


32.1 


nye adult males from Louisiana (2), Arkanaaa (1), and Texas (2) 

FEMALES. 

Ten adult females tirrm Florida 


311 

8L7 


One adult female Arom liOuisiana 


31 







Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBBS OF KOBTH AND MIDDLE AMEBICA. 169 

OampejihiluM prindpaiU Gray, List Birds Brit. Mus., Picide, 1868, 53.— Wood- 
HousB, in Rep. Sitgreaves' Exp. Zufli and €k)l. R., 1853, 90 (Arkansas R.; 
e. Texas).— Baibd, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 81; Cat. N. Am. 
Birds, 1859, no. 72.— Taylor, Ibis, 1862, 128 (Florida).— Drbbseb, Ibis, 
1865, 468 (Brazos and Trinity rivers, Texas).- Allen, Bull. Mus. €k)mp. 
Zool., ii, 1871, 301 (Volusia, Enterprise, and Hawkinsville, e. Florida).— 
Gonxs, Check List, 1873, no. 293; 2d ed., 1882, no. 431.— Baird, Brbwbr, 
and RiDQWAY, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 496, pi. 49, figs. 1, 2.— Mbrriam, 
Am. Nat, viii, 1874, 88 (St. John and Ocklawaha rivers, e. Florida).— Rido- 
WAY, Proc.IJ. S. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 188; Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 359; 
Qm. Illinois, i, 1889, 374 (White Co., Illinois, formerly).- Hay, Bull. Nutt. 
Om. Club, vii, 1882, 92 (near Vicksbuig and Jackson, Mississippi). — ^Nbhr- 
UNO, Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, vii, 1882, 170 (Harris and Montgomery Cotm- 
ties, Texas).— Bailby (H. B.), Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, viii, 1883, 40 (Alta- 
maha Swamp, Georgia; descr. nest and oggs).— Ambrican ORNrrHOLOoisrs' 
Union. Check List, 1886 (and 2d ed., 1895), no. 392; 3d ed., 1910, 185.— 
Butler, Bull. Brookville Soc. N. H., no. 2, 1886, 25 (Franklin Co., Indiana, 
up to about 1826); Birds Indiana, 1897, 829.— Oookb, Bird Migr. Miss. Val., 
1888, 127 (Kansas City and Fayette, Missouri; Newj^rt, n. e. Arkansas; 
Caddo, Oklahoma).— Scott, Auk, v, 1888, 186 (Tarpon Springs, Florida; 
descr. nest); vi, 1889, 251 (Punta Rassa, Florida); ix, 1892, 212, 218 (Caloo- 
sahatchie R., Florida).— Pindar, Auk, vi, 1889, 313 (Fulton Co., Kentucky, 
about 1884).— Hasbroucs, Auk, viii, 1891, 174-186, with map (geog. 
range). — Bendirb, Life Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 42.—- Bbybr, Auk, 
xvii, 1900, 97-99 (Franklin Parish, Louisiana; habits, etc.); Proc. Louisiana 
Soc. Nat. for 1897-99 (1900), 102 (Louisiana, rare).— Wayne, Auk, xxii, 
1905, 414 (Jefferson Co., Florida; descr. spec, with white-tipped primaries); 
Birds South Car., 1910, 87 (near Beldoc, Bamwell Co., as late as 1898; prob- 
ably still existing in swamps of Pedee, Santee, and Savannah rivers). — Hott, 
Warbler, ser. 2, i, 1905, 52-55, pi. (3) (Lake Co., Florida; breeding habits, 
etc.).— Beter, Aluson, and Kopman, Auk, xxv, 1908, 445 (n. Louisiana, 
commrai).- Beal, BuU. 37, U. S. Biol. Surv., 1911, 62 (food). 

[Campephiltu] principalis Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 187, no. 8620.— Coubs, Key 
N. Am. Birds, 1872, 192. 

Clampopkilus] principalis Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, *100. 

ICampopkihts] principalis Heine and Reichenow, Nom. Mus. Hein. Om., 1890, 
216.— Sharps, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 228. 

CkanpopkHus principalis HARom, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 463 (DeSoto 
Co., Aigo, and Tarpon Springs, Florida), 572 (descr. female nestling). 

[Campephilus principalis] var. principalis Baird, Brewer, and Ridowat, Hist. 
N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 496. 

Megapieos principalis Malherbb, M^. Acad. Metz, xxx, 1849, 318. 

[Megapicus] principalis Bonaparte, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 122 (Consp. Yolucr. 
Zygod., 1854, 7). 

Megapicus principalis Malherbb, Mon. Picid., i, 1861, 4; iii, 1862, pi. 1, figs. 4, 5. 

CAMPBPHILnS BAIRDn Cassin. 

OTTBAV IVO&Y-BILLBD WOOOPSCKBB. 

Shnilar to C. principalis, but slightly smaller, the bill decidedly 
9o; nasal tufts much smaller, and white stripe on side of head con- 
tinued nearly to the rictus. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



170 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

AduU moZe.— Length (skins), 410-451 (430.5); wing, 236-250 
(243); tail, 137-154 (145.2); culmen, 59-61 (60); tarsus, 40-42 (41); 
outer anterior toe, 31.5-33.5 (32.5).* 

AduU female,— Ijengtli (skins), 422; wing, 240-255 (247.5); tail, 
159.5-165.5 (162.5); culmen, 58-60 (59); tarsus, 41; outer anterior 
toe, 30.5-31.5 (31).« 

Island of Cuba (Monte Verde). 

Picas prineipaUa (not ol lAmmm) D'Orbiont, in La Sagia's Hist. Fia., etc., 

Cuba, Aves, 1839, 107; French ed., p. 140.— Lbmbbts, Aves de la Ma de 

Cuba, 1850, 131. 
CampephUus principdlis (not of Gray) Cabakib, Joum. ftir Om., 1856, 102. — 

Bbbwxr, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., vii, 1860, 307.— Gundlaoh, Joum. fOr 

Om., 1861, 415 (crit.). 
[Campephilus] principalis Gunblagh, Joum. fUr Om., 1861, 334. 
CampephUus bairdii CASsm, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., xv, 1863, 322 (Cuba; 

coll. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.).— Gundlach, Report. Fisico-Nat. Cuba, 

i, 1866, 293; Joum. fOr Om., 1866, 352; 1871, 293; 1874, 148 (habits); Contr. 

Om. Cuba, 1876, 113, 273; Om. Cubana, ed. 1895, 137.— Gray, List Birds 

Brit. MuB., Picidse, 1868, 53. 
[Campephilus] bairdii Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 187, no. 8622. 
[CampephUus principalis] var. bairdi Baoid, Brewer, and RmowAT, Hist. 

N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 496. 
[CampephUus] principalis bairdi Cort, list Birds West Ind., 1885, 19. 
Campephilus principalis bairdi Cort, Auk, iii, 1886, 373; Birds West Ind., 1889, 

168; Cat. West Ind. Birds, 1892, 12, 104, 128. 
C[ampephUus] principalis bairdi RmowAT, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 281. 
OcanpophHus bairdi HARonr, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., zviii, 1890, 465. 
[CampophUus] bairdi Sharps, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 228. 
CampephUus bairdi Matnard, Cat. Birds W. I., 1903, 12 (Cuba). 
[Picas] bairdi (not of Malherbe, 1861) Giebel, Thes. Om., iii, 1876, 144, part. 
[Picas principalis] 2 C. Varietas t. stirps insularis Sundevall, Consp. Av. Picin., 

1866,5. 

Genus. SCAPANEUS Cabanis and Heine. 

Scapanetu b Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, July 6, 1863, 90. 
(Type, Picas melanoleucas Gmelin.) 

Large Picid» (wing about 165-209 mm.) resembling CampephUus 
but differing in relatively much shorter and less depressed bill, with 
shorter gonys (\eaa than three instead of nearly four times as long 
as mandibular rami); much longer and broader and non-falcate, tenth 
primary (decidedly more than half to nearly two-thirds as long as 
ninth and one-seventh; or more, as broad as long); much less develop- 
ment of feathers on chiu; much more extensively (and completely) 
naked orbital r^on, and barred (instead of uniform black) under 
parts. 

a Two specimena. & ^^axaxaueOc (Pionier) entlehnt.'' (Cabanis and Heine.) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBBS OF KOBTH AND MIDDLE AMEBIC A. 171 

BOI about as long as head, stout, regularly wedge-shaped m 
vertical profile, not depressed, its width at anterior end of nostrils 
but slightly if at all exceeding its depth at same point; culmen 
straight or but very slightly convex in middle portion, very strongly 
ridged; gonys less than three times as long as mandibular rami, 
stara^t, ascending terminally, slightly prominent and convex 
bssaUy, distinctly but not sharply ridged; supranasal ridge very 
distinct, running out to (or toward) tomium at a point anterior to 
one-third the distance from tip of maxilla to base. Nostril longi- 
todinaUy oval or ovate, situated much nearer to tomium than to 
culmen, partly covered by the small antrorse prefrontal feathers, 
these forming a small but distinct tuft, except in 8. gtuUenudensis, 
m which the feathering surroimding base of bill is shorter, coarser, 
and more erect; feathers of malar apex and chin (especially the 
fonner) antrorse, but without distinct, if any, bristle-like tips. Orbits 
completely and extensively naked; feathers of occiput developed into 
& conspicuous obtusely pointed, but not recurved, crest. Wing 
moderately long, the longer primaries exceeding secondaries by a 
little more than one-fifth the length of wing; sixth and seventh, or 
fifth, sixth, and seventh, primaries longest, the ninth equal to second 
or third, the tenth (outermost) decidedly more than half to nearly 
two-thirds as long as tenth, at least one-seventh as wide as long, 
distmctly incurved. Tail a little more than half to about three- 
fifths as long as wing. Tarsus slightly though decidedly longer than 
outer hind toe without claw, stout, the planta tarsi covered with 
small hexagonal scutella Gess distinct on inner side) ; outer hind toe 
exceeding outer front toe by more than half the length of its terminal 
phalanx; claws exceedingly large and strongly curved, that of the 
inner hind toe conspicuously smaller than the rest. 

CcloraHan. — ^Upper parts and chest (whole imder parts in 8. 
Uueopogon) black, the interscapular r^ion with a white stripe along 
each side (continuous with a white strix>e along side of neck) or Qn 
8, leucopogcn) interscapulars immaculate buff; under parts posterior 
to chest (except in 8. Uacopogon) barred with black and buff, pale 
tawny, or white; inner webs of remiges with proximal portion im- 
maculate white or yellow, or (in 8. leucopogon) with proximal por- 
tion of primaries (only) cinnamon-tawny; greater part (sometimes 
^M>le) of head red in adult males, partly black in females. 

Range. — Southern Mexico to southeastern Brazil, Uruguay, Bolivia, 
and Peru. (Several species.^) 

' I have not had the opportunity of eTamining in this connection ^^CampepkUxis** 
nMcoUiM (Boddaert) or C. irachelopynu (Malherbe); but C. guayaquiUnsis and 
C. melanoleueus I would refer to Scapaneus. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



172 BULLETIlSr 60, UNITED STATES NATIOKAL MUSEUM. 

XBT TO THB SPBCIBS AND SUBaPBCIES OF 80APANBU8. 

a. Bill deep horn color or dusky; nasal plumes and anterior portion of malar region 
white or dull yellowish; adult male with chin and throat black, adult female 
with a broad white malar stripe, confluent posteriorly with white stripe on aide 

of neck. (Panami and Colombia.) Soapaneui malherbil (p. 172). 

aa. Bill homy yellowish or dull ivory yellowish; nasal plumes and anterior portion 
of malar region red; adult male with chin and throat red (like rest ol head), 
adult female without any white malar stripe (the whole head red, except 
throat, forehead, and median part of crovm, which are black). (Soajxmeua 
guatemalenM,) 
b. Black portions of plumage more sooty, the chest less extensively black; stripes 
along sides of back more yellowish; paler bars on under parts deeper brownish 
buffy and broader; yellow on under side of wings deeper; slightly to much 
laiger. 
c. SmaUer (wing averaging less than 190, culmen averaging less than 48 mm.); 
black portions of plumage deeper. (Oaxaca, Tabasco, Campeche, and 
Yucatan to Costa Rica.) . .Scapanens gnatenialensis gnatemalenais (p. 174). 
ee. Laiger (wing averaging more than 194, culmen averaging 49 in femide, 51.8 
in male); black portions of plumage duller. (Eastern Mexico.) 

Scapaneus goatenialensis regius (p. 178). 
bh. Black portions of plumage deep black (that of foreneck glossy, slightly bluish), 
the chest more extensively black; stripes on back purer white (less yellow- 
ish); paler bars on under parts narrower, paler; yellow on under side of 
wings paler; decidedly smaller. (Western and southwestern Mexico.) 

Scapaneus gnatenialensis nelsoni (p. 178). 

SCAPAmUS MALHRRBn (Gray). 

XALHEKBrS WOODPSCl 



AduU male. — Nasal tufts and adjacent portion of lores, and large 
spot on anterior portion of malar region, pale straw color or dull 
yellowish white; an elongated white spot on lower portion of auricular 
region, with a black one immediately above it; rest of head, except 
chin and throat, bright poppy red or vermilion; chin, throat, and 
chest, hindneck, back, scapulars, and wing-coverts, imiform black; 
rump, upper taU-coverts, tail, and inner secondaries (tertials) rather 
duller black; primaries sooty black, or very dark sooty brown, their 
outer webs more brownish, those of the longer quills usually tipped 
with paler (sometimes whitish); a conspicuous white stripe com- 
mencing at upper extremity of neck, on each side, and extending 
thence downward and backward to posterior extremity of inter- 
scapular region, along each side of the latter; imder parts of body, 
together with imder tail-coverts, pale tawny, cinnamon-buff, or clay- 
color, broadly barred with black, the bars of the two colors nearly- 
equal in width; imder wing-coverts and basal half (approximately) 
of inner webs of remiges yellowish white or pale primrose yellow; 
bill blackish horn color or dusky; iris yellow; legs and feet (in dried 
skins) grayish dusky, in life bluish green or olive, soles yellowish; 
length (skins), 312-344 (333); wing, 179.5-195 (187.3); tail, 101.5-120 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF NOBTH AND MIDDLE AMBBICA. 



173 



(110.2) ; ciilmen, 41.5-51.6 (46.1) ; tarsus, 32-36 (34.1) ; outer anterior 
toe, 23.6-27 (24.6) .« 

Adult ferruile. — Similar to the adult male but whole forehead and 
median upper portion of crest black, and the white neck-stripe con- 
tinued across entire length of head, occupying the whole of malar 
region, where tinged, more or less, with yellowish anteriorly; length 
(skins), 315-350 (332); wing, 171-200 (186.9); tail, 100-121 (112.1); 
exposed culmen, 38.5-48 (44.1); tarsus, 30-34.5 (32.9); outer anterior 
toe, 21-26.5 (23.8).* 

Panam& (Santa Fe de Verigua; Cordillera de Tol6; Calovfivora; 
Panam&; Punta de Sabana; Col6n), (Colombia (Concordia and Reme- 
dies, Antioquia;At&nques, 4,000 feet, Sierra Nevada, 4,000 feet, Val- 
paraiso, ElLibano, Bonda, CSiirua, Santa Marta, and LaConcepci6n, 
Santa Marta; near Honda, Tolima; Bogot&; C&uca; Naranjo; Carta- 
gena; Turbo), and Venezuela (M6rida; La Paz; San Est6ban; Encon- 
trados, Zulia; San Juli&n). 

CampephUus mdlherbii Gr£lY, Gen. Birds, ii, Sept., 1845, pi. 108; List Birds Brit. 
MuB., Picidfle, 1868, 54.— Sclatbb, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 331 (Bogotd, Colom- 
bia).— ficLATSR and Salyin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Ixmd., 1864, 366 (Lion HiU, 
Panama); 1868, 629 (San Esteban, Venezuela); 1875, 235 (M6rida, Venezuela); 
1879, 532 (Cauca, Concordia, and Remedies, Ck)lombia).— Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lend., 1867, 157 (Santiago de Veragua and Cordillera de Tol6, w. 
Panama); 1870, 212 (CJalovevora, w. Panama).— Salyin and Godman, Ibis, 
1879, 205 (Atanques, Santa Marta, (Colombia, 4,000 ft.).— Bangs, Proc. Biol. 



^ Nineteen specimens. 



6 Sixteen specimens. 



Locality. 



Wing. 



Tail. 



Ex. 

posed 

culmen. 



Tanas. 



Outer 
ante- 
rior toe. 



B adult 

Tin adult males tram Santa Marta district, Colombia....*. 

Four adult males tnm central Colombia (BogotA, 3, near 

Hooda,!) 

Two adnlt males fnnn Venezuela 

FKMAI 

Two adult females iram Panama 

Sem adult females fnnn Santa Marta distriot, Colombia 

Three adult females tnm central Colombia (Bogota, 2, near 

Hooda,!) 

fioar adult females fnnn Venezuela 



184.2 
18&4 



192L3 
19L5 



187.3 
18&5 



184.3 
180L4 



11L5 

loas 



114 
100 



lias 

11L3 



113.5 

lias 



48 
4&7 



4&4 

48 



41 
4&3 



44.7 
43.6 



83L5 
34.1 



3&5 
88 



83L8 
33L6 



83.3 
3L0 



26 
213 



217 
2&3 



2&8 
214 



2aL5 
22L5 



Notwithstanding the considerably smaller average size of specimens from eastern 
Ftoama and northeastern Colombia, there is so much individual variation in this 
respect from all localities that I am not disposed to subdivide the species on the 
ba^ of measurements. The series examined from Panama is very sinall, however, 
and a laiger number of specimens may render a separation desirable. The type 
locality of the species being unknown, an examination of the type specimen will be 
r in <»der to deteimine to which form the name maUierbU should be restricted. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



174 BULLBTOr 60, UNITBD STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

8oc. Wash., xii, 1898, 134 (Santa Marta, Colombia).— Allbn, Bull. Am. Mus. 
N. H., xiii, 1900, 137 (Bonda» Valparaiso, and El Libano, Santa iiiarta).— Rob- 
inson and Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xziv, 1901, 171 (San Julian, 
Venezuela). 

C[ampepkUu8] malherbii Gray, Gen. Birds, ii, Sept., 1845, 436. — Rbichenbach, 
Handb. Scansores, Picins, 1854, 392, pi. 648, figs. 4323, 4324. 

[OampephUus] malherfni Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 187, no. 8623.~6clatbr and 
Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 98. 

Campej^lua malherbi Wtatt, Ibis, 1871, 380 (Naranjo, €k)lomBia; habits). 

OoanpophUuB malherbii Hargitt, Gat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 472 (Gcmt- 
diUera de Tol6, Santiago de Veragua, and Lion Hill, Panama; Cartagena, 
Bogota, Cauca, and Atanques, Colombia).— Salvin and Godman, Biol. 
Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1896, 448. 

Campopkiltu maiiarbei Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool., etc., Torino, 
xiv, 1899, no. 339, 8 (Punta de Sabana, Panama). 

[Campopkilus] malherbei Sharps, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 229. 

Megapicos mtUherbii Malhbrbb, M6m. Acad. Metz, xxx, 1849, 319. 

Megapicus malherbii Malhbrbb, Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Metz, 1849, 17; Mon. 
. Picid., i, 1861, 15; iii, 1862, pi. 6, figs. 1, 2, 4. 

[Dryotomus] Tnalherbi Bonapabtb, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 122 (Consp. Volucr. 
Zygod., 1854, 7). 

8[capaneu$] malherbei Cabanis and Hbinb, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 93 
(Colombia). 

[Scapaneus] malherbei Hbinb and Rbichbnow, Nom. Mus. Hein. Cm., 1890, 215 
(Colombia). 

Dryocopm malherbii Cassin, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1860, 137 (Turbo, Colom- 
bia).— La wrbncb, Ann. Lye. N. Y., vii, 1862, 299 (Lion Hill, Panama). 

Picnu malherbei Sundevall, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 5. 

PicuB anais Lbsson, Deecr. Mam. et Ois., 1847, 203. 

[Dryooopus] pollens (not Picus pollens Bonaparte, 1845) Bonapabtb, Consp. Av., 
i, 1850, 133, part (Bogota). 

Dryotomus verreatuci Bonaparte, Notes Om. Coll. Delattre, 1854, 85, footnote 
(Santa Marta, Colombia). 

SCAPAIVBUS GUATEMALENSIS GUATBMALENSIS (Harflaiib). 

GirATB1ffAT.A1f XVOftY-BUXED WOOOPSOXSm. 

AduU male. — Head, all round (including occipital crest) , entirely 
bright red (poppy red to crimson), except a small and sometimes 
indistinct auricular spot (directly over auricular orifice) of grayish 
brown or olive; upper parts plain sooty black passing into sooty 
brown on remiges, the outer webs of primaries much lighter grayish 
brown, the inner (proximal) primaries indistinctly tipped with dull 
whitish; a stripe of yellowish white or buffy white originating near 
upper end of side of neck, extending along side of neck and thence 
along edge of interscapular region, the two of opposite sides con- 
verging on lower back; foreneck and upper chest plain sooty black, 
more sooty posteriorly; rest of imder parts light buff or cream-buflf, 
broadly and very regularly barred with sooty black; axillars, under 
wing-coverts, and basal half (approximately) of inner webs of remiges 
immaculate buff-yellow or maize yellow; imder siuiace of lateral 
rectrices yellowish olive; bill dull yellowish white or horn white; 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD6 OF KOBTH AND MIDDLB AMBBICA. 



176 



iris G^t yellow; legs and feet grayish; length (skins), 305-345 (323); 
wing, 177-201 (189.6); tail, 95-112.5 (103.7); cuhnen, 44r-60.5 (47.5); 
toreus, 31-36 (33.3); outer anterior toe, 22-28.5 (24.2). • 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male, but forehead, crown, and 
upper median portion of crest, together with chin and throat, uniform 
black (instead of red, like rest of head) ; length (skins), 280-340 (312) ; 
wing, 173-203 (186.7); tail, 90-113.5 (102.4); exposed culmen, 38.5- 
49 (45); tarsus, 31-36.5 (34.6); outer anterior toe, 21.5-26.5 (24.2).* 

Young male. — Similar to the adult female, but forehead and median 
p(»tion of crown duller black or sooty black, chin and throat dark 
sooty slate or dark grayish brown, nasal tufts, chin, lores, and malar 



o Thirty-four specimenB. 



6 Twenty-«even spedmens. 



LoetUty. 



wing. 


TaU. 


Ex- 

PJJHt 
CUlUiAn. 


Tanui. 


104.6 


1016 


5L8 


86 


176.6 


08 


45 


32.3 


184 


103 


415 


31 


101 


107.5 


418 


84 


18a6 


1016 


414 


34.4 


185 


107.5 


47.8 


83 


1810 


100.1 


410 


810 


180 


10L2 


418 


311 


10L8 


108.0 


47.5 


311 


102 


m 


46 


3i 


107.4 


m9 


40 


814 


18a 7 


1018 


44 


8L0 


174 


00 


315 


31 


180 


106 


44 


82.5 


170L8 


0L5 


415 


82.8 


180 


1010 


47.8 


812 


178 


015 


44.5 


38 


104 


1015 


4L5 


34 


18&6 


Uft 


44 


34 


188.8 


1017 


44.0 


816 


10X6 


106 


47 


316 



Outer 
ante- 
rior toe. 



MALIS. 

TaadnttimlwCg. #. rtgbu) from Veim Cms (6) and Tama» 
lp«(4) 

TteidottnialM (5. g. ndmmt) from Ooflfrero (6), Micfaoacan (1), 
OBlBaa).aiidStnak)a(l) 

OMaMt male fhnn Yucatan 

ThneadnltnialM from Chiapas 

flevntdott males from Guatemala 

Tie adolt males from Britlsb Honduras 

Thneadntt males from southern Honduras 

Ox adott males from Nicaragua 

ftnadolt males from Costa Rica 

One adoit male from western Panama (type of C. g, lmson» 

bmh) 

FEMAUtS. 

ItlMadntttemales (5. g, tegM) from Tamaullpas (4) and Verm 
Owes) 

Tte adott females iS. f. nctarnO from Onecrero (6), Jalisco (1), 
Tq4e(l),Collma(l),and8inaloa(2) 

Oaesdatt male from Tabasco ^ 

Oaeadoltiemalefr^omCampeobe 

Two adult females from cailapas 

IHt adott females from Gnateoiala. 

Tins adott females from British Hondurss 

Two adott females IkomsoiitlMfnHoiiduiis 

Two adatt females from NloangDft- 

Ttt adott females Ikom Costa Rloa. 

Oil adott fmale from western Panama 



217 

23L6 

» 

218 

213 

218 

211 

216 

218 

916 



24 

24 

216 

217 

217 

216 

216 

218 

216 



I im not able to detect any iurly average chmcterB toeeparate the birds from Goeta 
Rici, western Panama, etc., from those from Guatemala and the extreme eouthem 
Sdtee ol Mexico; hence the characters ascribed to 8, g. huxana Bangs are in reality 
those ol 8. g, guaUmaUmU as compared with 8. g, regiut of Vera Cruz, San Luis Potosf , 
ad southern Ttunaulipas. It is very likely that Mr. Bangs onnpared his 8, huxam 
vift Yen Cms examples of 8. g. regiuif considering the latter to be true 8, guaUmal- 
oifif, and hence committed the error of redescribing 8. g.g%uiUmaien$%$9ia a new form. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



176 BULLBTIlSr 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

region either duller red or else dark sooty tinged with red, black of 
f oreneck, upper chest, and upper parts duller, and bars on under parts 
much less sharply defined. * 

Ycung female. — Similar to the young male, but loral, orbital, and 
malar regions sooty, slightly, if at all, tinged with red. 

Southern Mexico, in States of Oaxaca (Tehu&ntepec City; Santa 
Efig6nia; Chihuit&n; Tolosa; Rio Givfcia), Tabasco (Frontera; 
Teapa), Campeche (Apazote), Yucatan (Tunkas; Labna; Buctzotz; 
Izam&l; La Vega), and Chiapas (Tumbal&; Huehuet&n; Palenque; 
Canj6b; Teopisca), and southward through Guatemala (Savana 
Grande; DuefLas; M6dio Monte; Volcan de Agua; Rabin&l; San 
Ger6nimo; Retalhuleu; Los Amates, Yzab&l; Patultil, S0I0I&; 
Chapulco), British Honduras (Belize; Cayo; Orange Walk; near 
ManateeLagoon), Honduras (Omoa; Truxillo; Yaruca; RioSeg6yia) 
Salyad6r (San Carlos; San Salyad6r; Volcan de San Migu61), Nica- 
ragua (Lavala; Matagalpa; San Ger6mmo, Chinandega; San Rafael 
del Norte; Grenada; Ocot&l; RioEscondido; Virgin Bay; Realejo), 
and Costa Rica (Gr6cia; Angostura; SanJos^; La Palma and Rancho 
Redondo de San Jos6; La Pahna de Nicoya; Cerro de la Candel&ria; 
Santo Domingo de San Mateo; Bebedero; Volcan de Miravalles; 
Ten6rio; Lepanto; LasTrojas; TreoRios; Pigres; Barranca; Pozo 
del Rio Grande; Paso Re&l; Boruca; Cop^y and Santa Maria de 
Dota; tHmfinez; Guayabo; BoniUa; Siptirio), to western Panam& 
(Divala; Santiago de Ver&gua). 

Pieiu guaUmakniU Hartlaub, Rev. Zool., vii, 1844, 214 (Guatemala; coU. 
Bremen Mub.?).— Sundevall, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 6, part. 

[Picui] gtuUemalentii Gibbbl, Thes. Om., iii, 1876, 156. 

C[ampephUu8] gtuUemaUrms Gray, Gen. Birds, ii, 1845, 436.— Rbichbnbach, 
Handb. ScansoreB, Picinse, 1854, 392, part.— RmowAT, Man. N. Am. Birds, 
1887, 281, part. 

CkanpephiluB gtuUemdlentis SALvm, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, 157 (Santiago de 
Veragua, w. Panama).— Lawbbnob, Ann. Lye. N. Y., ix, 1868, 130 (San Jos^, 
Grecia, and Angostura, Costa Rica); Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 4, 1876, 34 
(Chihuitan and Tehuantepec (^ity, Oaxaca).— Gbat, List Birds Brit. Mus., 
Capit. and Picid., 1868, 57, part (Honduras).— Frantzius, Joum. fOr Om., 
1869, 363 (Costa Rica).— Boucabd, Liste Ois. r^ol. Guat., 1878, 27; Ptoc. 
Zool. Boc. Lond., 1883, 452 (n. Yucatan; habits).— Sumiohraot, La Natu- 
raleza, v, 1882, 240 (Santa Efigenia, Oaxaca).— Nutting, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., y, 1882, 398 (La Palma de Nicoya, w. Costa Rica; habits); vi, 1884, 387, 
406 (Sucuy& and Los Sdbalos, Nicaragua).— ZblbikSn, Cat. Aves de Costa 
Rica, 1882, 23; Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., viii, 1885, 111 (Costa Rica); Anal. 
Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, i, 1887, 123 (Grecia, Jim^ez, Las Trojas, and Cartago, 
Costa Rica).— RmowAT, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., x, 1887, 582, 591 (Truxillo 
and Rio Segovia, Honduras).— Stonb, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sd. Phila., 1890, 206 
(Tunkas and Labna, Yucatan).— Ohbrrib, Auk, ix, 1892, 327 (San JO06, 
Costa Rica, accidental; common coastwise).— Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., xvi, 1893, 518 (Rio Escondido, Nicaragua).— Undbrwood, Ibis, 1896, 
443 (Volcan de Miravalles, Costa Rica).— Dbarborn, Pub. 125, Field Mub. 
N. H., 1907, 91 (Los Amates and Ffttulul, Guatemala). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD6 OF NOBTH AND BODDLE AMEBICA« 177 

[CampepkUui] guatemdUntis Gray, Hand-liBt, ii, 1870, 187, no. 8630, part.—- 

ScLiLTBB and Salvin, Nom. Ay. Neotr., 1873, 98, part. 
CampopkUus guatenuUensis Habgitt, Gat. Birds Brit. Hub., xviii, 1890, 473, part 

(Teapa, Tabaflco; Buctzotz, Yucatan; Orange Walk, Gayo, and Belize, Brit. 

Honduras; Honduras; Savana Grande, Medio Monte, Yolcan de Fuego, and 

Pacific coast distr., Guatemala; near Virgin Bay, Nicaragua; Bebedero, San 

JoB^, and Dota, Costa Rica).--SALviN and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, 

ii, 1895, 446, part (Tehuantepec City, Chihuitan, and Santa Efigenia, Oaxaca; 

Izamal, Timkas, Labna, etc., Yucatan; Brit. Honduras; Rabin^, San 

GenSnimo, Retalhuleu, etc., Guatemala; Volcan de San Miguel, Salvador; 

Omoa, etc., Honduras; Matagalpa, etc., Nicaragua; Lepanto, Rio Frio, Can- 

delaria Mts., Jimdnez, etc., Costa Rica; Santiago de Veragua, w. Panama).— 

Ferbt, Pub. 146, Field Mus. N. H., Om. Ser., i, no. 6, 1910, 266 (Guayabo, 

Costa Rica). 
[Campophilut] guatemakrms Shabpb, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 229, part. 
[DryoeopuM] guatemalerms Bonapabtb, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 133. 
DryoeopuM gtuUemtUenns Sclatsb and Salyin, Ibis, 1859, 135, part (Honduras).— 

Taylor, Ibis, 1860, 119 (San Pedro, Honduras). 
Dryoeopva guaOxmaUrmi Sclateb, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1858, 359 (Omoa, 

Honduras). 
[Dryotomia] gwiUmaUnau Bonapabtx, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 122 (Consp. 

Volucr. Zygod., 1854, 7). 
Megapiau guaUmdUniis Malhbbbb, Mon. Pidd., i, 1861, 19, part; iii,1862, 

pi. 7, figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 
PMoeoeeastes guaUmdUniis Cabanis, Joum. ffir Om., 1862, 175 (Costa Rica; 

crit.). 
PieuM guatmalerma (not Picua guaUmaUiMU Hartlaub) Sundbvall, Consp. Av. 

Picin., 1866, 5, part. 
S^capaneuMl guaHmaUmis Cabanis and Hbinb, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863. 

92, part (Costa Rica). 
[Scapaneus] gtuOimalensU Hbinb and Rbighbnow, Nom. Mus. Hein. Om., 1890, 

215, psk (Costa Rica). 
Scapaneus guoHmalenni Salvadori, Atti Soc. Ital. Torino, iv, 1868, 183 (Costa 

Rica). 
ScapoTUus giuUemaUnM guaUmalermt BiDOWJLYt Ttoc, Biol. Soc. Wash., xxiv,. 

Feb. 24, 1911, 34 (geog. range). 
Pieui le$9onii Lesson, L'Echo du Monde Sav., 11 ann., no. 52, Jan. 5, 1845, 

col. 921 of vol. for 1844 (Realejo, Nicaragua and San Carlos, Salvador; coll, 

A. Lesson); Descr. Mam. et Ois., 1847, 203 (reprint). 
CampophUui guatemalerm$ huxans Banos,^ Auk, xviii, Oct., 1901, 360 (Divala, 

CShiriqui, w. Panama; coll. E. A. and O. Bangs); xxiv, 1907, 293 (Bomca 

Paso R^, and Pozo del Rio Grande, s. w. Costa Rica); Bull. Mus. Comp. 

Zool., TTT1T, 1903, 146 (Yanica, Honduras). 
CampephUuB guaUmaUntU hvaooM Cabrttkr, Ann. Carnegie Mus., vi, 1910, 

591 (Costa Rica; crit.). 

fl Apparently Mr. Bangs compared his specimens from Panama and Costa Rica 
vith examples of the large form {8, g, regiiut) from eastem Mexico, supposing the 
latter to be the typical 8. gtuUeTnalenna; but Guatemalan specimens are practically 
identical with those from Costa Rica and western Panama, and hence 8. g. buxans 
becomss a synonym of 8. g, giuUemalenna, 

3622*— BulL 50, pt e— 14 12 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



178 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

SCAPANBUS GUATEMAIBN SIS NBLSONI Ridgwtj. 

VILSOVS XVOBT-BELL. 

Similar to 8. g. guatemdUrisis but black of upper parts, neck, and 
chest less sooty (that of foreneck glossy, slightly bluish), that of chest 
more extended; back-stripes whiter Gess yellowish); lighter bars on 
under parts of body paler and narrower; yellow on imder side of 
wings paler; and average measurements decidedly smaller. 

AdvU mofe.— Length (skins), 290-330 (304); wing, 165.6-187 
(176.6); tail, 96-105.5 (98); cuhnen, 43-50 (45.1); tarsus, 31-33.6 
(32.3); outer anterior toe, 19.6-26 (23.6) .« 

AduU ferrude.— Length (skins), 281-350 (307); wing, 174^189 
(180.7); tail, 94.6-113 (103.8); cuhnen, 40.5-49 (44); tarsus, 30-33.6 
(31.9); outer anterior toe, 20-24 (22.3).* 

Southwestern Mexico, in States of Sinaloa (Mazatl&n; Presfdio de 
Mazatl&n; Escuinapa; Brazil; Mt. Juan Lisiarraga, 6,500 ft.; Las 
Cabras I.), Jalisco (Tonila; Bahia de Banderas), Colima (Rio de la 
Armeria; Manzanillo; Santiago; Cualata; Jacolapa), Michoac&n (La 
Salada; Volcan de JoruUa), and Guerrero (Acapulco; Dos Arroyos; 
El Zopilote; El Binc6n; Tecp&n; Papayo; La Saluda; Omilteme), 
and Territory of Tepic (San Bias; Tepic). 

CampephUuB giuUemalentis (not Pieus guatemdUntU Hartlaub) Lawbbhcb, Mem. 

Bo0t. Soc. N. H., ii, 1874, 293 (Masadaii, Sinaloa; Rio de la Anneria, 

Colima). 
Campopkilui giuUemdUnria Haboitt, Oat. Birds Brit. Mns., rvi, 1880, 473, part 

(Mazatlan and Preflidio near Mazatlan, Sinaloa; Tepic; Tonila, Jalisco; 

Santiago, Cualata, and Jacolapa, Colima).— 8 alyin and (jodman, Biol. 

Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 446, part (localities in Sinaloa, Tepic, Jalisco, 

and Colima; Dos Anoyoe, Guerrero). 
C[ampephilus\ giuUenuilenM Ridqwat, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 281, part. 
Campepkilua guatemalenni guaUmaUnsU Milleb (W. De W.), Bull. Am. Mus. 

N. H., xzi, Nov. 24, 1905, 352 (Escuinapa, Brazil, Las Cabras Islands, and 

Mt. Juan lisiarraga, s. Sinaloa). 
ScapanevM guatemalenti$ neUoni Bidowat, tVoc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxiy, Feb. 2i, 

1911, 34 (£1 Rincdn, Guerrero; coll. U. S. Nat Mus.). 

SCAPAmUS GUATBMAIBNSIS REGIUS (Reichenbach). 

VXBA OnVZ IVOBT-BELL. 

Similar to 8. g. ndsani but much larger (even than 8. g. guatemo' 
lenais), and black of foreneck, chest, etc., rather less intense. 

AdvU mole.— Length (skins), 326-367 (353); wing, 183.5-206 
(194.6); tail, 93.5-117.5 (106.6); cuhnen, 48-56.5 (51.8); tarsus, 
33.5-38 (36); outer anterior toe, 25-30 (26.7).« 

AdvU female.— Length (skins), 318-384 (348); wing, 187-209 
(197.4); tail, 105-123.5 (113.9); cuhnen, 43-63 (49); tarsus, 34.5-37 
(35.4); outer anterior toe, 23.5-27 (25.6).* 

<> Ten specimens. h Nine specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS 09 NORTH AND MIDDLE AMEBIOA. 179 

Central-easteni Mexico, in States of Tamaulipas (Tampico; Tamesi, 
nearTampico; AltaMira; Victoria; CafiondeCaballeros; Santa Leo- 
nora; Rio de la Cruz), San Luis Potod (Vallfa), and Vera Cruz (Mira- 
d6r; Orizaba; Cdrdova; Jalapa; Santu Ana near Jalapa; Colipa; Pa- 
pantla; Urero; Santecomap&m; Pasa Nueva; Buena Vista; Puebla 
Vieja; Paso de Mlpa; Misantia; Medellin; Laguna Verde; Llano 
Verde; San Juan Martin). Mexico (near City of Mexico) ? 

Dryoooptu erytkrops (not Picua erythropi ValencienneB) Sclateb, Proc. Zool. 
8oc. Lond., 1856, 306 (Cordova, Vera Cruz). 

{'i)Campepkilus guatemaUntU Sclater, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 331 (s. Mexico). 

OampephiluB guaUmdlenM Sclatsr, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, 177 (near 
City of Mexico).— Fbbrabi-Pbbbz, Proc. U. 8. Nat. Hub., ix, 1886, 158 
(Santa Ana and Ptoo de Milpa, Vera Cruz).— Richmond, Proc. U. S.Nat. 
Mas.,- xviii, 1896, 629 (Alta Mira, Tamaulipas). 

[CampepkUtu] gtuUemaUmii Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 187, no. 8630, part.— 
Sclater and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 98, part. 

(1)C[ampepkUu$] guatemalenM Grat, list Birds Brit. Mns., Capit. and Picid., 
1868, 57, part (Mexico). 

C[ampefidlu$] gtuUemalentii Boowat, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 281, part. 

GmpephUui guaUmdUnm gtuUemalenna PHnxiPS, Auk, xxviii, Jan. 1911, 76 
(Santa Leonora and Rio de la Cruz, Tamaulipas). 

OanpopfdluB guaUmaUntU HARorrr, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xvi, 1890, 473, part 
(Tampico and Tamesi near Tampico, s. Tamaulipas; Misantia, Laguna 
Verde, Santa Ana near Jalapa, Jalapa, and Colipa, Vera Cruz).— Salvik and 
GoDicAN, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 446, part (Papantla, San Juan 
Martin, Laguna Verde, Orizaba, Uvero, Cordova, Santecomapam, Llano 
Verde, and Play a Vicente, etc., Vera Cruz; localities in Tamaulipas). 

[Otmpopihxlui\ giuitemalerms Sharps, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 229, part. 

Dryoeopu$ guatemalenns Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1857, 220 (Santecoma- 
pam, Vera Cruz; ciit.).— (7)Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1859, 135, part 
(s. Mexico).— SuiacHRAST, Mem. Best. Soc. N. H., i, 1869, 560 (Tkrra 
Caliente, Vera Cruz). 

Meffttpicus guatemdlen$i$ Malhjerbb, Mon. Pidd., i, 1861, 19, part (Papantla, 
Vera Cruz). 

{T)S(eapaneu$] guatemaUnM Cabanis and Hbinb, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 
92, part (Mexico). 

[SeapoTuus] guaUmakruU Hbinb and Rbichbnow, Nom. Mus. Hein. Om., 1890, 
215, part (Mexico). 

[Drffotomut] odoardua Bonapabtb, Notes Om. Coll. Delattre, 1854, 85, footnote, 
in text (Mexico). 

DrfoiottiuB odoardus Bonapabtb, Notes Om. Coll. Delattre, 1854, 86, footnote, 
in text (Mexico). 

[Dryooopus] reffiui Lichtbnstbin, Nom. Av. Mus. Berol., 1854, 75 (Mexico; 
nom^i nudum!). 

({canpepkikuH regduM Rbiohbmbaoh, Handb., Scansores, Picin», 1854, 393, 
id. 694, figs. 4331, 4332 (Papantla, Vera Cmz; coll. Berlin Mus.). 

[Dnopicui] regitu Bonapabtb, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 122 (Consp. Volucr. 
Zygod., 1854, 8). 

BeapaneuM guatemaUnm regku Ridowat, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxiv, Feb. 24, 
1911, 34 (geog. range). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



180 BUU-BTIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Genus CNIPARCHUS Cabanls and Heine. 

(?)Megaptcosf^ Malhbbbb, Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Moselle, be cahier, 1848-1849, 
17. (Type, by original designation, M. grayi MalherbesPicut poUem 
Bonaparte.) 

Cniparchusb Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, July 11, 1863, 98. 
(Type, Pieus hssmatogaster Tschudi.) 

Large PicidsB (wing about 173-193 mm.) resembling Scapaneus but 
differing in relatively longer and more slender hill, much shorter 
(rounded and '^ bushy" instead of pointed) crest, shorter and more 
rounded wing (longest primaries exceeding secondaries by less than 
one-fifth the length of wing), with relatively larger and broader tenth 
primary, relatively longer tarsus, and banded inner webs of remiges. 

Bill longer than head, rather slender, regularly wedge-shaped in 
vertical profile, decidedly broader than deep at anterior end of nos- 
trils; cuhnen staight for most of its length but very faintly convex 
toward base, sharply ridged; gonys a little more than twice as long 
as mandibular rami, distinctly ridged, straight for greater part but 
slightly convex basally; supranasal ridge very distinct, running out 
to edge of maxilla at a little less than one-third the distance from tip 
to base of tomimn. Nostril large, longitudinally elliptical-oval, 
much nearer to tomimn than to culmen, at least partially covered 
by small antrorse prefrontal feathers. Malar apex and chin with 
feathers not distinctly antrorse. Orbital region extensively and com- 
pletely naked. Wing rather short, much roimded, the longest pri- 
maries exceeding secondaries by less than one-fifth the length of 
wing; fifth, sixth, and seventh primaries longest, ninth shorter than 
fourth, tenth (outermost) nearly two-thirds as long as ninth, strongly 
bowed or incurved, very broad (greatest width equal to one-sixth or 
more the length). Tail nearly two-thirds as long as wing. Tarsus 
much longer than outer hind toe without claw.* 

Oohrdtion, — Tnner webs of remiges blackish broadly banded or 
transversely spotted with white or buffy; rump red or buffy; a white 
or buffy stripe from nostrils across lores and beneath orbital and 
auricular regions to side of neck; pileum red; rest of plumage black, 
the under parts of body dark red in 0. Jixmatogaster and O. h. spten- 
dens, barred with black and tawny in 0. pollens; bill black. (C. 
hsematogaster and its subspecies have the rump red, and no white on 
back; 0. pollens has the lower back and rump pale buff, lower rump 

o The interrogation mark here has reference to the question of whether Picui pollens 
and P. hamatogaster are really congeneric. (See remarks under footnote e.) 
6 "Von icy/^, Holzwurm und dpzw^ herrschen." (Cabanis and Heine.) 
6 The generic description (except as to color chaiacters) is taken entirely from the 
type of the genus C. JuematogaiUr (Tschudi), the only skin available at the {o^eeent 
time of C. pollens (Bonaparte), a species which is doubtfully congeneric but which 
agrees fedrly well in structural and color characters, being so young that I cannot 
be sure as to relative proportions of the bill, etc. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIRDS OF KOBTH AND MIDDLE AMEBICA. 181 

barred with black and tawny-btdOF, and a white stripe along each side 
of interscapular area; there is also a white or buff postocular stripe 
in C. Tisematogdster and 0. Ji. splendena, wanting in 0. pollens.) 
Range. — Panam& to Peru. (Two or three species ?) 

anPARCHUS HAMATOGASTBR SPLBNDENS (Hargitt). 
SPIJEHDID WOODPSCX 



Similar to 0. h. hsematogaster^ but adult male with foreneck and 
throat crimson (instead of black), spots or bands on inner webs of 
remiges buff-yellow instead of white and much broader, and feathers 
of hindneck black, instead of white, at base. 

Adult male. — ^Pileum (including crest), hindneck, sides of neck, fore- 
neck (together with more or less of lower throat), chest, and more or 
less of under parts of body carmine red; a black auricular area, con- 
tinued, narrowly, beneath bare orbital space across lores to anterior 
portion of forehead, where forming a narrow frontal band; a narrow 
Sometimes interrupted) supra-auricular or postocular stripe of buff; 
a very broad subauricular stripe of buff, extending anteriorly over 
suborbital and rictal regions and upper half of malar region to, and 
including, the nasal tufts; lower half of malar r^ion, chin, and more 
or less of upper throat imiform black; rest of under parts nearly 
uniform carmine red in unworn plumage, but usually the breast, 
abdomen, sides, and flanks dull blackish, washed, more or less, with 
red, and barred with pale fulvous or brownish buffy, the under tail- 
coverts mostly black; back, ^ scapulars, wings, upper tail-coverts, 
and tail, plain black, the primaries passing into a lighter, dull grayish 
brown color distaUy and tipped with dull whitish; rump carmine red; 
under wing-coverts and axiUars pale yeUowish buff, those near edge 
of wing narrowly barred with dusky; inner webs of remiges with 
very large quadrate spots of yellowish buff; bill dull black or slate- 
blackish; iris yellow;^ legs and feet blackish or dusky (in dried 

« P[ieu8] haenuUogaster Tschudi, Wiegmann's Archiv fttr Naturg., 1844, 302 (Av. 
Gdoi^. Perav., p. 42), pi. 25 (Peru).— -Picua hssmatogaster Sundevall, Consp. Av. 
FScin.y 1866, 6.— D[ryoa)pt«] JimnuUogaster Gray; Gen. Birds, ii, 1845, 436. — MegapkuB 
htemaUtgatUr Malherbe, Mon. Picid., i, 1861, 27; iii, 1862, pi. ix, figs. 1, 2, 3.— C[ampe- 
pkUiu] haematogaaUr Reichenbach, Handb., Scansores, Picinse, 1854, 395, pi. 651, 
fig. 4'i^.':~CampophiluB hssmatogaster Haigitt, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., zvi, 1890, 478.— 
Clnipardms] haematogaster Gabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., iv, heft. 2, 1863, 98. 

I have not seen a specimen of this subspecies. A skin from Bogota, in ihQ collec- 
tion of the U. S. National Museum, apparently an adult female, seems to be inter- 
mediate in coloration between C. h, hasmatogaster and C. h. splendens. 

^ Haigitt (Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xvi, 480) describes the ''upper and middle back 
pale buffy yellow, the outer and lower feathers barred with dusky black.'' In all 
^ Panama specimens examined by me (four adults) the whole back is black, with 
a very small amount of whoUy concealed whitish spotting. 

«T. K.Salmon. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



182 BULLETIK 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

skins); length (skins), 30»-320 (314); wing, 181.6-186.5 (184); tail, 
94-100.5 (97.2); exposed cnlmen, 46.5-50 (48.2); tarsus, 34-37 
(35.5); outer anterior toe, 22-23.5 (22.7).* 

AdvU female. — Similar to the adult male, but whole foreneck and 
throat black, and buff subauricular stripe extended, more or less, 
down sides of neck; length (skins), 292-305 (298.5); wing, 178-185 
(181.5); tail, 95-98 (96.5); exposed culmen, 45-46.5 (45.7); tarsus, 
35-39 (37); outer anterior toe, 21-24 (22.5).« 

Panam& (Santiago de Veragua; Calov^vora; Mt. Pirrf), Colombia 
(Santa Elena and Rem6dios, Antioqufa), and western Ecuad6r 
(Paramba). 

Campephilut Juematogaster (not Picua haemaiogaater TBchudi) Salvin, Proc. Zool. 

Soc. Lond., 1867, 157 (Santiago de Veragua, Panama; crit.); 1870, 212 (Galo- 

vevora, Veragua). — Sclatbr and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lend., 1879, 532 

(Santa Elena and Remedioe, Antioquia, Colombia). 
C[n%parchuB] haematogaster Cabanis and Hbinb, Mub. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 96 

(Ck>lombia). 
[Cfnipart^us] haenuUog<uter Hbinb and Rbichbnow, Nom. Mub. Hein. Om., 1890, 

216 (Colombia). 
[CampephiliLs] fuematogaster Sclatbb and SALvm, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 96, 

part (Veragua). 
CampophiluB spUndena Haroitt, Ibis, Jan., 1889, 58 (Santa Elena, Antioquia, 

Colombia; coll. E. Haigitt); Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., zviii, 1890, 480 (Calove- 

vora and Santiago, Panama; Antioquia, Colombia). — Salvin and Godman, 

Biol. Centr.-Am., Avee, ii, 1895, 449.— Haetebt, Novit. Zool., v, 1898, 497 

(Paramba, n. w. Ecuador, 3,500 ft.; crit.). 
ICampophilus] apUndtns Shabpb, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 229. 

Genus XIPHIDIOPICUS Bonaparte. 

Xiphidiopicus Bonapabte, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 126 (Consp. Volucr. Zygod., 
1854, 11). (Type, by monotypy, Picus percunua Temminck.) 

Xiphidiopipo Sundbyall, Consp. Av. Pidn., 1866, 115. (To replace Xipkidio- 
picus, on grounds of puriam.) 

Medium-sized Picid» (wing about 105-130 mm.) with outer hind 
toe longer than outer front toe, tail about three-fourths as long as 
wing, with very broad rectrices, upper parts mostly plain grayish 
green, under parts yellow streaked and barred (except on abdomen) 
with blackish and sides of head white except a dusky auricular stripe. 

Bill about as long as head or a little shorter, compressed (width at 
anterior end of nostrils less than its depth at same point), very nar- 
rowly chisel-shaped at tip; culmen slightly longer than tarsus, nearly 
or quite straight, distinctly ridged; gonys decidedly longer than man- 
dibular rami, straight, distinctly ridged, not prominent basally; 
supranasal ridge and prenasal groove distinct, parallel with culmen, 
running out to or toward culmen at a point about one-fourth the £s- 

o Two specimens, from Mt. Pini, eastern Pkouuna. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF KOBTH AKD MIDDL£ AMEBIOA* 183 

tance from tip to base of tomiiun. Nostril small, narrowly elliptical^ 
situated about midway between culmen and tbmium, covered by 
small, hair-like, antrorse prefrontal feathers. Feathers of malar apex 
antrorse, with bristly tips, those of chin with distinct though very slen- 
der antrorse or semiantrorse bristle-like tips. Orbital region naked 
for a narrow space around eye, the margin of eyelids unfeathered. 
Wing moderate, rounded, the longest primaries exceeding secondaries 
by less than one-fifth the length of wing; fifth, sixth, and seventh pri- 
maries longest, the ninth shorter than second, the tenth (outermost) 
about half as long as ninth. Tail about three-fourths as long as wing, 
the rectrices relatively very broad, the middle ones short-acuminate 
at tip. Tarsus shorter than either outer toe with claw; outer hind 
toe decidedly longer than outer front toe. 

Coloraiion. — Above mostly plain grayish green, the tail gray obso- 
letely barred with darker, the primaries blackish spotted with grayish 
green and dull whitish; under parts yellow, streaked anteriorly and 
laterally, barred posteriorly, with blackish; sides of head white, 
except an auricular stripe of blackish or grayish; a narrow black 
stripe on throat, confluent with a red jugular patch; adult male 
with pileum and hindneck bright red, adult female with crown black 
streaked with white. 

Range. — ^Island of Cuba (including Isle of Pines). (Monotypic.) 

KEY TO THE SUBSPECIES OF ZXPHmiOPICUS PEBCUBBUS. 

0. Laiger (nude aveiagiiig: Wing 120.4, tail 87.9, culmen 25.7, tarauB 23.4; female, 
wing 118.3, taU 91.4, culmen 21.8, tarauB 23); coloration darker, the under parts 
more diatinctly streaked, the streaks more blackish; red of foreneck more ex- 
tended; auricular stripe darker gray and broader. (Cuba.) 

Ziphldlopicas peronssiiB peroassns (p. 183). 

flo. Smaller (male averaging: Wing 108.8, tail 78.3, culmen 25.3, tarsus 21.9; female, 

wing 107.6, tail 81.8, culmen 21.8, tarsus 20.6); coloration paler, the under parts 

less distinctly streaked, the streaks more grayish; red of foreneck more restricted; 

auricular stripe narrower, more grayish. (Isle of Pines.) 

Ziphidiopioii8 peronsfus infulas-pinonmi (p. 185). 

XIPHIDIOPICnS PBRCUSSUS PBRCUSSUS (Temminck). 

CrUBAH OBXSir WOODPBOKE&. 

AduU male. — ^Pileum (except anterior part of forehead) and hind- 
neck bright poppy red, slightly darker on forehead and crown, where 
mofre or less broken by exposure of the dusky basal portion of the 
feathers, the forehead sometimes with a few small streaks or elongated 
spots of white; back, scapulars, rump, upper tail-coverts, wing- 
eoverts, and secondaries plain bright grayish yellowish green (nearly 
oil green), lighter and more yellowish on rump, paler and grayer on 
upper tail-<50verts,^ the secondaries rather broadly and regularly, but 

« The lower rump is sometimes more or less distinctly barred with dusky or blackish, 
and the upper tail-coverts usually have alternate black and white shaft-streaks. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



184 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

rather indistinctly, barred with blackish; tail slate-gray, rather 
broadly but indistinctly barred with darker, the shafts of rectrices 
black; primaries dull black or slate-black, broadly barred or spotted 
with light yellowish olive-green, these markings paler and more gray- 
ish on distal quills; nasal tufts and anterior portion of forehead, 
broad superciliary stripe, loral, suborbital and malar regions, sides 
of chin and throat, and sides of neck white (tinged with greenish yel- 
low in fresh plumage), the first two sometimes tinged with pale brown- 
ish, sometimes with bristly tips or terminal margins blackish; auricu- 
lar region grayish dusky, with narrow shaft-streaks of white, this 
dusky grayish auricular stripe, continued, more narrowly, down side 
of neck; median portion of chin and most of throat black; extreme 
lower throat, foreneck, and upper chest bright poppy red, this forming 
a somewhat triangular patch, widened and convex posteriorly; rest of 
under parts citron or sulphur yellow, deepening into canary yellow 
on abdomen, the lower chest and breast streaked with grayish dusky 
or blackish, the sides more broadly streaked and barred, the flanks 
still more broadly barred with the same; under tail-coverts marked 
with broad V-shaped bars of blackish; under wing-coverts yellowish 
white or very pale yellow, more or less heavily barred or spotted with 
blackish; inner webs of remiges dusky, broadly barred with yellowish 
white, except on distal portion of outer primaries (extensively) and 
terminal portion of secondaries; under surface of tail pale yellowish 
gray, more or less distinctly barred with blackish; bill, blackish, the 
mandible more grayish (bluish gray in life), at least basally; feet 
grayish (yellowish gray or olive-greenish in life?); length (skins), 
215-240 (231); wing, 113-130.5 (120.4); tail, 82-90.5 (87.9); cuhnen 
24-28 (25.7); tarsus, 22-25.5 (23.4); outer anterior toe, 18-21.5 
(19.3).« 

AduU female. — Similar to the adult male, but forehead and crown 
black, sharply streaked with white; length (skins), 205-224 (219); 
wing, 110-125.5 (118.3); tail, 85-97.5 (91.4); cuhnen, 20-23 (21.8); 
tarsus, 22-24 (23); outer anterior toe, 17-20 (18.2).« 

Island of CHiba (Guam4; El Guam4; Monte Verde; Guant&namo; 
Baracoa; Holqufn; Camagu^y; near Cardenas; near Trinid6d; 
Figuabas). 

PieuB perai89us TsifHrncK, PL GoL, 66e livr., (vd. iv), June, 1826, pis. 390, 424, 
and text (Cuba; coll. Leyden Mus.).— Vigoes, Zool. Joum., iii, 1827, 
444.— D'Obbigny, in La Sagra's Hist. Fis., etc., Cuba, Avee, 1839, 109, 
French ed., 143.— Dbnny, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1847, 39. — ^Lbmbete, 
Aves de la Jsla de Cuba, SuppL, \S50, 131.— TmENSicAKN, Joum. fOr Om., 
1867, 163.— SuNDBVALL, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 48. 

DleTidrobates] percustus Gray, Gen. Birds, ii, 1846, 437. 

Chloropicus percu89us Malherbb, M6m. Acad. Metz, xxz, 1849, 362. 

a Ten specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF NOETH AND MIDDLE AMEBIOA. 186 

[(Jhhrtmerpei] percuBsus Bonapabts, Oonsp. Av., i, 1850, 118.— Gray, Hand- 
list, ii, 1870, 199, no. 8786.— Gundlach, Joum. fttr Om., 1861, 334. 

Chiaronerpes pereustus Rbichenbach, Handb. Scansores, Picins, 1854, 407, 
pi. 662, figs. 4398, 4399.— Gundlach, Joum. fOr Om., 1856, 102 (habits); 
1874, 151 (habits); Repert. Fisico-Nat. Cuba, i, 1866, 294; Contr. Om. Cuba, 
1876, 115, 273.— Brbwbb, Proc. Bos. Soc. N. H., vii, 1860, 807.— Gbat, 
List Birds Brit. Mus., Picids, 1868, 107. 

Xipfndiopicui percuitut Sclatbb, Oat. Am. Birds, 1862, 339. — Oobt, Auk, iii, 
1886, 376; Birds West Ind., 1889, 171; Oat. West Ind. Birds, 1892, 12, 104, 
128.— HABonr, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 377.— Gundlach, Auk, 
viil, 1891, 189, in text (near Cardenas, Cuba; deecr. xanthochroic variety); 
Om. Cubana, ed. 1895, 140.— Chapman, BuU. Am. Mus. N. H., iv, 1892, 
301 (near Trinidad, s. Cuba).— Mbnboaux, Rev. Fran?. d*Om., no. 2, 
1900, 24 (Figuabas, e. Cuba). 

[Xipkidiopicus] percutsus Bonapabtb, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 126 (Consp. 
Volucr. Zygod., 1854, 11).— Sclatbb and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 
lOO.T-CoBT, List Birds West Ind., 1885, 20.— Shabpe, Hand-list, ii, 1890, 223. 

Xliphidiopiciui] perctusua percustus Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxiii, Dec. 
29, 1910, 174, in text. 

P[ieu»\ fUppeUn Waqlbb, Syst. Av., 1827, Picus, sp. 29; Isis, 1829, 509. 

XIPHIDIOPICnS PBRCUSSUS mSUUB-PmORUM Bangs. 
ISLS OF PZirBS orzbv woodpzcbxb. 

Similar to X. p. percusaus, but smaller; coloration averaging paler, 
especiaUj the under parts, which are more narrowly or less distinctly 
streaked, the streaks less blackish (more grayish), red of foreneck 
more restricted, and auricular stripe lighter gray, and rather 
narrower. 

AduU tnofc.— Length (skins), 196-210 (204.5); wing, 105-111 
(108.8); tail, 76-81 (78.3); cuhnen, 23.5-27 (25.3); tarsus, 21-23 
(21.9); outer anterior toe, 16.5-18.5 (17.6).« 

AduU female.— hength (skins), 195-205 (201); wing, 106-109.5 
(107.6); tail, 77-85.5 (81.8); cuhnen, 21-23.5 (21.8); tarsus, 20.5-21 
(20.6); outer anterior toe, 15-16.5 (15.6).« 

Isle of Pines, near Cuba (Nueva Gerona; Santa F6; Jdcaro; 
Callebonita). 

Xipkidiopicus percu$$u$ (not Picus percustus Temminck) Bangs and Zappby, 

Am. Nat., xxxix, 1905, 206 (Isle of Pines, Cuba). 
Xipkidiopicus percussus insulss-pinorum Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxiii, 

Dec. 29, 1910, 173 (Santa F6, Isle of Pines; coll. Mus. Comp. Zool.). 

Genus VENILIORNIS Bonaparte. 

DendrobaUs (not of Wagler, 1830) Swainson, Fauna Bor.-Am., ii, 1831, 300. 

(Type, Picus affinis Swainson.) 
VenUiomis [genus] Bonapabtb, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 125 (Consp. Volucr. 

Zygod., 1854, 10). (Type, as designated by Gray, 1855, Picus sanguineus 

lichtenstein.) 
Eieopicus [subgenus] Bonapabtb, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 125 (Consp. Volucr. 

Zygod., 1854, 10). (Type, Picu« oKvinti* Malherbe.) 

<s Four specimens. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



186 BULLETIN 50^ UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

CapnopieuB Bonapabtb, Ateneo Italiaao, ii, 1854, 125 (Consp. Volucr. Zygod., 

1854, 10). (Type, Picas fumigatui Lafresnaye and D^Orbigny.) 
CaUipictu Bonapabts, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 125 (Consp. Volucr. Zygod., 

1854, 10). (Type, Picas callonotus Waterhouse.) 
Campias Oabanis and Hbinb, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, Sept., 1863, 145. (Type, 

Picas tephrodops WaglersP. passeriniu LimuBUB.) 
Phodonerpes Rbichenbagh, Handb. Scansores, Picinse, 1854, 356. (Type, Picus 

fuimgatus Lafresnaye and D'Orbigny.) 
Phaeonerpes (emendation) Oabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 

139. 
''CryptUTcnerpes Reioh[bnbach] 1854." (Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 200.) 
Erytheronerpes Rbichenbach, Handb. Scansores, Picinse, 1854, 356. (Type, 

Picas soTiguineus lichtenstein.) 
Erythronerpes (emendation) Oabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 142. 

Small Picidad (wing about 80-105 mm.) with outer hind toe longer 
than outer front toe, tail less than two-thirds as long as wing, inner 
hind toe relatively very small (the toe and claw together less than 
half as long as outer toe), back plain olive, olive-russet, orange- 
russet, or red, no white spots on outer webs of primaries, and under 
parts plain olive-brown or olive, or barred with olive or dusky and 
whitish, or else plain whitish and upper parts red. 

Bill shorter than head, rather stout, about as wide as deep at 
anterior end of nostril, rather abruptly contracted in width ter- 
minally, the tip distinctly chisel-shaped; culmen straight or very 
faintly convex, sharply ridged; gonys decidedly less than twice as 
long as mandibular rami, nearly straight, or very faintly concave 
terminally and convex basally, more or less distinctly ridged; supra- 
nasal ridge and prenasal groove veiy distinct, parallel with but far 
removed from culmen, running out to edge of maxilla at a point 
near or slightly anterior to middle of tomium. Nostril small and 
narrow, longitudinal, sometimes pointed anteriorly, covered by a 
distinct prefrontal antrorse tuft of small hair-like, bristle-tipped, 
feathers. Feathers of malar apex and chin antrorse, bristle-tipped. 
Orbits mostly feathered. Wmg moderate or rather short, the longest 
primaries exceeding secondaries by much less than one-fourth 
(usually less than one-fifth) the length of wing; seventh and eighth, 
sixth and seventh, or fifth, sixth, and seventh primaries longest, 
the ninth shorter than fourth, the tenth (outermost) a little more 
than one-fourth to nearly one-half as long as ninth. Tail less than 
two-thirds (sometimes only half) as long as wing, the middle rectrices 
gradually and only moderately narrowed, and more or less strongly 
decurved, terminally. Tarsus nearly to quite as long as outer front 
toe with claw, decidedly shorter than culmen; outer hind toe de- 
cidedly longer than outer front toe; inner hind toe relatively very 
small, the digit and claw combined less than half as long as outer 
hind toe. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIRDS OF NOBTH AND MIDDLE AMEBIOA. 187 

Cclorciion. — dinner webs of remiges spotted or banded with whitish, 
at least on proximal portion, but no white spots on outer webs; 
general color of upper parts plain olive-brown, olive, yellowish olive, 
golden olive or russet, or bright red; under parts usually barred 
with olive or dusky and whitish, sometimes plain olive Gike upper 
parts), sometimes plain whitish (the upper surface bright red); 
adult males with pileimi or nape (or both) bright red. 

Range. — Southeastern Mexico to southern Brazil, Argentina, 
Bolivia, and Peru. (About twenty-six species, mostly South 
American.) 

KBT TO THB SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OP VENIUORNIS. 

0. Under parts plain smoiy brown or tawny-olive. ( VemfiomiB oleaginui,) 
h. Sides of head conspicuoiiBly paler than general color, the otbital region dull 
whitish; chin and upper throat dull whitish, mottled with dark grayish. 
(Highlands in States of San Luis Potosf, Puebla, and Vera Cruz, eastern 

Ifexico.) Yenllloniis oleaginns oleaginns (p. 188) 

66. Sides of head not conspicuously paler than general color, the orbital region, 
chin, and upper throat pale brown or buffy brown, 
e. Smallor (wing 82-98.5, tail 40-54.5, culmen 18.5-22.5, tarsus 15-19); cdofa- 
tion averaging deeper and brighter. (State of Vera Ouz to western Panama.) 

Yenillomis oleaginns sangninolentas (p. 190). 
ee. Larger (wing 96-97, tail 4^-50, culmen 21-24, tarsus 18.5-19); coloration 
averaging lighter and duUer. (Mountains of (Colombia and Venezuela to 
Peru, Bolivia, and Argentina.) 

VeniHomis ^etglnus tamigatas (extialiinital).^ 

m. Under parts barred with grayish bfown or olive and duU whitish. ( VenUiiornia 

hrta.) 

h. Wing-coverts with distinct small spots or streaks of yellow. 

e. Coloration darker, the dusky bars on under parts much broader, the back, 

etc., less yellowish; larger (wing averaging 88.7, tail 54, culmen 22.2, tarsus 

16.5). (Tobago and Trinidad.). . . .YenllloxnU UrkU UiUi (extralimital).^ 

« Piau fumigatui Lafresnaye and D*Orbigny, Voy. Am. M^d., iv, pt. 3, 1839, 380, 
pi. 65, fig. 1 (Province of Corrientes, Argentina, to Ohiquitos, Bolivia); Sundevall, 
CoDBp. Pidn., 1866, Sb.—Dendrobatet fumigatus Gray, Gen. Birds, iii, 1849, App. 
p. 21; Haigitt, Oat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, S42,—[Chloronerpe»] fimigatus 
Booi^Marte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 118. — Mesopicus fumigatus Malherbe, Mon. Pic, ii, 
1862, 54, pi. 57, figs. 3, 4. — Plhaeonerpe8]fumigatu8 Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., 
iv, heft 2, 1863, 139. — VenUiornis fumigatus Oberholser, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
Jane 2, 1899,205. 

This South American bird almost certainly requires subdivision. 

^P[ieui] (Chiaropicui) hirkii Malhetbe, Rev. Zool., viii, Nov., 1845, 400 (Tobago; 
coD. Brit. M\iB,),—Clhloronerpe»] ktrkii Gray, Gen. Birds, ii, 1846, 44Z, ^ChrysopHlus 
hrka Jardine, Oontr. Om., 1848, 15, pi. 2. — Mesopicu$ kirkii Malherbe, Mon. Picid., 
ill, 1861, pi. 59, figs. 7, S.^Chloronerpes hirhii Sclater, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 338 
CrruddBd).—Elrythr<merpe$] kirki Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Heia., iv, heft 2, 1863, 
144, footnote (Tobago; Trinidad). ~Picu« Ivrkii Sundevall, Consp. Picia., 1866, 36.— 
Dmivbatei hirH Hargitt, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 365, part (Trinidad; 
Tobago).— FeTttZiomu kirkii Oberholser, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., June 2, 1899, 
205.— Fmi/tbmit kirkii kirkii Hellmayr, Novit. Zod., xiii, Feb., 1906, 39 (Tobago; 
Unidad). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



188 BULLETIN 60, UIHTBD STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

cc. Coloration lighter, the dusky bars on under parts much narrower, the back, 
etc., more yellowish; smaller (wing averaging 82.1, tail 48.9, culmen 19, 
tarsus 15.4. (Venezuela.). . -Yenillomis kirkii oontinentalis (extralimital).<> 
66. Wing-coverts without any yellowish spots or streaks or with only minute traces 
of the latter, 
c. Dusky bars on under parts narrower, less dark in color, the whitish bars rela- 
tively broader; auricular region much paler brownish. 
d. Whitish bars on chest, etc., narrower, less brownish; wing-coverts not 
tinged with red; bill stouter. (Central Colombia.) 

Yenmomis Uxkii oedlii (extialimital).^ 
dd. Whitish bars on chest, etc., broader, more brownish; wing-coverte tinged 
with red; bill more slender. (Eastern Panama to western Ecuador.) 

YenlUonils kirkii daiienensis (p. 192). 
oe. Dusky bars on tmder parts broader, darker in color, ^e whitish bars rdatively 
narrower; auricular region much darker brownish. (Panama and south- 
western Costa Rica.) Yeniliomia kirkii neflectus (p. 193). 

VENIUORNIS OLBAOmUS OLBA6INUS (Lichtenstein). 

OLXAaoroirs woodpecker. 

AduU male. — ^Pileum and nape dark sooty or sooty blackish, passing 
into grayish brown on anterior portion of forehead, the feathers (ex- 
cept on forehead) broadly tipped with bright vermilion or poppy red, 
this nearly uniform on nape; back and scapulars plain yellowish 
tawny-oUve to slightly grayish raw-umber brown, passing into a 
duller, more grayish brown or olive, hue on lower rump; upper tail- 
coverts and tail blackish brown, the lateral rectrices lighter brown 
(nearly sepia) ; wings plain sepia brown, the coverts tinged or indis- 
tinctly edged with the color of back; nasal tufts grayish brown, 
passing into blackish terminally; loral, orbital, and auricular r^ons 
plain pale grayish brown (pale broccoli brown), paler (dull whitish) 
on orbital region; chin and throat (upper portion at least) dull 
whitish, more or less flecked with dusky grayish; rest of under parts 
plain yellowish tawny-olive (Uke upper parts) ; inner webs of remiges 
with broad bars or transverse spots of white, the distal portion 
(extensively on longer primaries) plain grayish brown; bill horn 
color, passing into blackish on culmen and terminal portion of 
maxilla; feet grayish dusky (in dried skins); length (skins), 163-175 

<s Veniliornia kirkii continerUalia Hellmayr, Novit. Zool., xiii, Feb., 1906, 39(Oarip^y 
near Cumand, Venezuela; coll. Tring Mub.). 

& Mesopicoa ceeilii Malherbe, Rev. et Mag. de Zool., Nov., 1849, 538 (Colombia).— 
[Chloronerpes] eecUii Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1860, 117 .—CJihwnerpes cecUii Sclater, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1856, 161 (Bogotd, Colombia).— ife«optcu« ceeilii Malherbe, 
Mon. Picid., ii, 1862, 71, pi. 60, figs. 1, 2.'-'Chlor(merp€8 cecUia Sclater, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1865, 161; Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 338 (Bogotd, Colombia).— C [Erythro- 
n€rp€8] aucUiae Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., iv, heft. 2, 1863, 143, footnote, part 
(Colombia).— Piciw cecUiss Simdevall, Consp. Picin., 1866, dQ.—Dendrohates eecUix 
Haigitt, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 366, part (Bogotd and Antioquia, Colom- 
bia).— Feniltomw ceeilii Oberholser, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., June 2, 1899, 206.— 
[VenilUjrnu] cedliss Sharpe, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 222, part. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD8 OF KOBTH AND MIDDLE AMEBIOA* 



189 



(168.5); wing, 100-102 (100.8); taU, 52.5-58 (55.1); culmen, 22-24.5 
(23.1); tarsus, 18-19 (18.3); outer anterior toe, 12-14.5 (13.8).« 

Young male. — Similar to the adult male, but red of pileum duller, 
more broken by exposure of dusky basal portion of feathers, and not 
extending over nape; general color duller Gess golden) oUvaceous. 

AduU female. — Similar to the adult male, but pileum and nape 
dusky, the feathers tipped with grayish brown; length (skins), 
168-171 (170); wing, 100-102 (100.9); tafl, 53.5-57 (55.7); exposed 
culmen, 21-22.5 (21.6); tarsus, 17-18 (17.5); outer anterior toe, 
12.5-13 (12.7).* 

Eastern Mexico, in States of San Luis Potosi (JiUtla), Vera Cruz 
(Jalapa; C6rdova; Orizaba; Playa Vicente?; Papantla), Puebla 
(&fetlaltoyuca; Huachinango), and Mexico (near City of Mexico). 

Pieu» oUaginus Lichtbnstein, Preis-Verz. Mex. Thierw., 1830, 1 (Mexico); 

Joum. fOr Om., 1863, 55 (reprint). 
[Oapnapkus] oleagimu Bonapabtb, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 125 (Consp. Volucr. 

Zygod., 1854, 10). 
Chlloronerpea (Phaionerpes)] oleagineuB Rbigbbnbach, Handb. ScaiiBoreB, Picinie, 

1854, 356, pi. 675, figs. 4467, 4468. 



« Five specimens. 


6 Four specimens. 




LooaUty. 


wing. 


Tall. 


Ex- 

poNd 

cnnnen. 


TaiBOs. 


Outer 
ante- 
rior toe. 
















100.8 


56.0 


28.1 


18.1 


13.6 


Out adatt male from Vera Gras (Jalapa) 


100.5 


52.5 


23 


19 


14 5 


Poor Mlnlt males (F. o. tangtdnolentui) from Vera Gnu 












rOiitaba. Baena Virta. and Motsoroiwo) 


98.6 


50.4 


21.4 


18.4 


13 1 


Oaa adult male ( V. o. tangninolentiii) from Oaxaca 


91 


52.5 


23 


18 


13 




87 


47 


22.5 


18 


13 




86 


46 


20.8 


15.8 


1L8 




88.7 


51.7 


21.8 


17 


11.8 




87.3 


47 


20 


16.5 


11.8 




86.1 


47.7 


20.7 


16.9 


12.1 




88 


49.8 


21.2 


16.9 


12.4 


One adalt male ( V, o. mngtOnoUfitui) from weetem Panama . . 


86.5 




21.5 


17.5 


12.5 


One (joonsr) male ( V. o. fumigatua) from Colombia (Bogott).. 


96 


50 


21 


18.5 


13.6 


Ooaadatt male (F.o./«iii4^ata«) from Veiieniela(M6rlda) 


97 


40 


24 


19 


14.6 














Ona adult female from San Lois Potod 


100.5 
101.5 


56 
55 


21.5 
21.2 


18 
17.5 


18 


Tvo adult females from Poebla 


12.7 


One adult femafe from Vera Cnit (Jalapa) 


100 


57 


22.5 


17 


12.6 














Vieta) 


91 


50 


20 


17 


12.6 




98.5 


52.8 


21 


17 


11.3 




89 


48.5 


19.5 


17 5 


10.5 




86.7 


4T.8 


20.5 


16.5 


11.3 




88.6 


40.8 


19.8 


17 


1X3 




84 


46 


18.8 


16 


12 




86 


43 


19 


16 


1X6 




87.7 


48.7 


20.2 


16.7 


12.3 




101 


57 


22 


18 


IS 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



190 BULLETIN 60, UKITED STATES KATIONAL MUSEUM. 

C%2oron«rpet oleaginm Gray, List Biids Brit. Mus., part iii, 1868, 112. 

[Chloronerpes] oUagimu Giu.t, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 200, no. 8808. 

Mesopieut oUaginua Malbbbbe, Mon. Pidd., ii, 1862, 53; iii, 1862, pL 57, 
figs. 6, 7. 

Deruirohates oleaginuB Hargitt, Gat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 344, part . 
(Orizaba and Jalapa, Vera Gmz; near City of Mexico). 

Eleopieui oleaginus Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., x, 1898, 34 (Jalapa). 

Veniliomis oleagintu Obebholsbr, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., June 2, 1899, 205. 

[Vemliamis] oleaginm Sharps, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 221. 

Chhronerpes oleagxneus Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1856, 307 (Cordova, 
Vera Cruz); 1859, 367 (Jalapa), 368 (Playa Vicente, Vera Cruz); 1864, 177 
(near City of Mexico); Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 337 (Orizaba; Jalapa). — 
Ferrari-Perez, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., ix, 1886, 159*(Jalapa). 

[(Jhloronerpes] oleagxneus Sclater and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 99. 

Pteus oleagxneus Sundevall, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 35. 

P[haeonerpes] oleagxneus Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 140. 

[Phaeonerpes] oleagxneus Heine and Reichenow. Nom. Mus. Hein. Cm., 1890, 218. 

Dendrobaies oleagxneus Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 
347 (Papantla, Coatepec, Jalapa, Cordova, Uvero, Potrero, Orizaba, and 
Playa Vicente, Vera O-uz; Mineril de San Sebastian, Jalisco?).** 

VBNILIORlfIS OLBAGmUS SANGUINOLBNTUS (Sclater). 
OABOT'8 WOODPXOKEB. 

Similar to F. o. okaginua, but smaller and with general coloration 
brighter, the back, etc., averaging more golden or tawny oUvaceous, 
frequently tinged (sometimes conspicuously) with red, the sides of 
head, chin, and throat, much darker, the loral, orbital, and auricular 
regions wood brown to raw-umber brown, the chin and throat dull 
gi'ayish brown or brownish gray. 

AduU mafe.— Length (skins), 135-176 (158.5); wing, 82-98.5 
(87.6); tail, 43.5-54.5 (48.9); cuhnen, 19-22.5 (21.1); tarsus, 15-19 
(17.1); outer anterior toe, 11.5-14.5 (12.3).^ 

AdAUt /emafe.— Length (skins), 136-166 (150); wing, 82-95.6 
(87.5); tail, 40-53 (48.1); culmen, 18.5-21.5 (20.1); tarsus, 16-17.5 
(16.6); outer anterior toe, 10.5-13 (11.8).^ 

Southeastern Mexico, in States of Vera Cruz (Orizaba; Buena 
Vista; Motzorongo), Oaxaca (moim tains near Santo Domingo), 
Tabasco (Teapa), Yucatan (La Vega; Puerto Morelos; Tizimin; 
Chichen-Ttza), and Chiapas (Palenque), and southward through 
Guatemala (San Jo86; Escuintla; Savana Grande; Chocttim; sources 
of Rio de la Pasi6n; Retalhuleu; Los Amates, Yzab&l), British Hon- 
duras (Toledo; near Manatee Lagoon; Orange Walk), Honduras 
(Santa Ana; San Pedro Sula; Yaruca; Omoa), Nicaragua (San 
Rafael del Norte; Santo Domingo; Pefia Blanca; Chontales; Mata- 
galpa; Lavala; Rio Coca; Rio Escondido), and Costa Rica (Barranca; 
Jimenez; San Bernardo; La Hondura; El Gener&l; Turrialba; Gu&- 

o Specimens from Jalisco should be carefully compared with those from eastern 
Mexico. 
5 Thirty-one specimens. 
« Seventeen specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD8 07 KOBTH AND MIIH>LE AMBBIOA. 191 

cimo; La Estrella de Cartago) to western Panam4 (Volcan do Chiri- 
qul, 7,000 ft.; Cordillera de Toi6j Cordillera del Chucu). 

Chloronerpe$ mnffuinolentus Sclatbr, Froc. Zcx)l. Soc. Lond., May, 1859, 60, 
pi. 151 (Omoa, Honduras; coll. Derby Mub.); Ann. and Biag. N. H., 3d ser., 
vi, 1860, 80.— Gray, List Birds Brit. Mus., Capit. and Picid., 1868, 112.— 
SciATBBand Salyin, Ibis, 1859, 136 (Omoa). 

[Chloronerpes] wngmru>UrUu9 Sglatbb and Salyin, Nom. Ay. Neotr., 1873, 99. 

Metopieus Mnguinolentus Malbbrbe, Men. Picid., ii, 1862, 76; iii, 1862, pi. 43 
bis, fig. 6. 

(7)Plhae(merpes] sangtdnolenim Gabanis and Hsine, Mus. Hein., Iy, heft 2, 
1863,140. 

Piau tanguinolentus Sunbeyall, Gonsp. Ay. Picin., 1866, 35 (Honduras). 

Dendrobates minguinoleniui Haboitt, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., XYiii, 1890, 346. — 
Salyin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., AYee, ii, 1895, 439 (Omoa, Hon- 
duras; Santo Domingo, Chontales, and Rio Escondido, Nicaragua). 

Vtmlwmis mmguinolentus Obbbholseb, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sd. Phila., June 2, 
1899,205. 

[VeMliorn%B\ sangvinolentus Shabpe, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 221. 

Chhronerpes oleagineus (not Picas oUaginus Licbtenstein) Salyin and Sglatbb, 
Ibis, 1860, 400 (Choctum, Guatemala). — ^Lawrence, Ann. Lye. N. Y., ix, 
1868, 131 (Barranca and Turrialba, Costa Rica).— Fbantziub, Joum. fOr 
Om., 1869, 364 (Costa Rica).— Boucabd, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, 452 
(Yucatan).— ZeleikSn, Cat. Ayos de Costa Rica, 1882, 23; Anal. Mus. 
Nac- Costa Rica, i, 1887, 124 (Barranca). 

Ckloronerpes oUaginus Bougabd, Liste Ois. r^col. Guat., 1878, 27. 

DendrobaJUs oUaginus Haboitt, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., XYiii, 1890, 344, part 
(Tizimin, Yucatan). 

Mmpicua cahoH Malhebbb, Mon. Picid., ii, 1862, 53 (''NouYelle-Grenade?"); 
iii, 1862, pi. 57, figs. 1, 2. 

Chkfonerpes eaboti Sclatbb, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 337 (Choctum, Guatemala).— 
Salyin, Ibis, 1866, 206 (Choctum; crit.); Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, 157 
(Ccffdillera de Tol^, Panama; crit.); 1870, 212 (Cordillera del Chucu, 
Panama).— Gray, List Birds Brit. Mus., Capit. and Picid. 1868, 113.— 
ZeleikSn, Cat. AYes de Costa Rica, 1882, 23; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, 
1885, 111; Anal. Mus. Nac. C. R., i, 1887, 124 (Costa Rica).— Ridg way, 
IVoc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xiY, 1891, 476 (Jimenez, Costa Rica; descr. young 
nude). 

ChloronerpeseaboHf RmowAT, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xIy, 1891, 476 (Jimenez, 
Co0ta Rica; descr. immature male). 

[Ckloronerpes] oaboii Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 200, no. 8809.— "Solater and 
Salyin, Nom. Ay. Neotr., 1873, 99. 

P\ha£onerpes] caboH Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., Iy, heft 2, 1863, 139. 

Picus caboH Sundeyall, Consp. Ay. Picin., 1866, 35. 

DendrobaUs oaboH Haboitt, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 344 (Teapa, 
Tabasco; SaYana Grande, sources Rio de la Pasion, Choctum, and Retal- 
huleu, (jruatemala; Orange Walk, Brit. Honduras; Costa Rica; Veragua). — 
Salyin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Ayos, ii, 1895, 438. 

EUopieuM eaboti Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XYi, no. 947, Oct. 4, 1893, 
519 (Rio Escondido, Nicaragua). ^7 

FentZiomu caboii Oberholser, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., June 2, 1899,205. — 
Banos, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Club, iii, 1902, 34 (Volcan de Chiriqui, 
Panama, 7,000 ft.); Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., xxxix, 1903, 146 (Yaruca, 
Honduras).— Cole, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 1, 1906, 130 (Chichen-Itza, 
Yucatan).— Dearborn, Pub. 125, Field Mus. N. H., 1907, 92 (San Jos^, 
€hiatemala; Los Amates, Guatemala?).— Carrikbb, Ann. CSamegie Mus., 
Yi, 1910, 589 (Costa Rica). 

[VenOiornU] oaboH Shabpb, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 221. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



192 BX7LLETIK SO, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

VBNIUORNIS KIRKn DARXBNBNSIS Rid^waj. 

DABlAV WOODPBCXEB. 

Similar to V. Jc. corUineTUalis,^ but wing-coverts without yeUowish 
spots or streaks, and under parts more narrowly barred, the paler 
bars pale brownish buff instead of dull buffy white; similar also to 
V. Jc. cecUii,^ but back, etc., brighter, more tawny, and under parts 
more broadly barred with pale brownish buff (instead of dull whitish), 
and slightly smaller. 

AduU male. — ^Pileum dusky, the feathers broadly tipped with 
bright crimson (more poppy red or vermilion posteriorly), the anterior 
portion of forehead and the nasal tufts plain brown; hindneck deep 
saffron or Indian yellow; back, scapulars, and wings bright olive- 
tawny, the wing-coverts (sometimes back also) slightly tinged or 
touched with red; rump and upper tail-coverts bright poppy red; 
tail brown, the middle rectrices extensively blackish distally and 
sometimes broadly but indistinctly banded with the same basaUy, 
the lateral rectrices broadly barred or banded with darker; loral 
region, anterior portion of malar region, chin, and upper throat plain 
pale buffy brownish, the auricular region deeper grayish brown 
(nearly broccoli brown), finely and indistinctly streaked with paler; 
under parts pale brownish buffy, very regularly barred with dark 
grayish brown (nearly hair brown), the darker bars decidedly broader 
than the buffy ones on chest, elsewhere about as wide or (on flanks) 
slightly narrower; under wing-coverts buffy white, sparsely but 
rather broadly barred with dusky, those along edge of wing largely 
deep grayish brown; inner webs of remiges dusky broadly barred or 
spotted with pale dull buff or dull buf^ whitish; bill light horn color, 
darker toward culmen; iris dark reddish brown;^ feet dull grayish 
(in dried skms); length (skins), 143; wing, 83-86 (84); tail, 52-64 
(63); exposed culmen, 18.6-20.6 (19.6); tarsus, 16.6; outer anterior 
toe, 11.6-12.6 (12).^ 

Eastern Panam& (El Re&l, Dari£n); western Ecuad6r (Ouay- 
aqufl). 

a See p. 188. 

b According to Heyde and Lux. 

c Two specimens, one from El Real, Darien, the other from Guayaquil, weet^n 
Ecuador. These compare in measurements as follows: 



LooaUty. 


wing. 


Tall. 


Ex- 

pONd 

culmen. 


Tancts. 


Outer 
ante- 
rior toe. 


MALBS. 

No. U0796, ooU. U. 8. Nat Mas., El Re&], Daridn, PanamA 
(trpe) 


83 
86 


62 
64 


18.6 
20.6 


16.6 
16.6 


11.6 


No. 64072, ooU. U. 8. Nat Moa., Onayaqofl, Eeuaddr 


12.6 







The two specimens are practically identical in coloration. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF NOBTH AND MIDDLE AMBBIOA. 



198 



(?) ChUmmgtpes eeeiiii? (not Me9opieo$ etcUH Malherbe?) Solatbb, Fkoc. Zool. 

8oc. Lond., 1860, 286 (Bababoyo, w. Ecuador), 297 (EBmeraldas, w. Ecuador). 
(?) CMoranerpei eeeUim Birlbspch and Taozanowsei, Proc. Zool. 8oc. Lond., 

1883, 571 (Chimbo, w. Ecuador).— Balvadobi and Fssta, Boll. Mus., Zool., 

etc., Torino, xv, 1900, 15 (Foreste del Rio Peripa, w. Ecuador). 
Vemliormi kirkii darienerma Ridowat, Proc. Biol. Soc. Waah., xxiv, Feb. 24, 1911, 

33 (El Beal, Darien, eastern Ftoama; coll. U. S. Nat. Mua.). 

VBlflUORinS KIRKn HBGIECTUS (Bangs). 
dxvAla woodpxossb. 

Similar to V. h darienensis, but under parts much darker, the 
darker bars broader and the paler ones narrower, both relatively and 
absolutely. 

Adidt mdU.— Length (skms), 133-160 (147); wing, 83-86 (84.6); 
tMl, 46-54 (49.8); cuhnen, 18-22 (20.6); tarsus, 16-16 (16.6); 
cmter anterior toe, 11.6-13.6 (12.8).^ 

AduU female.— Length (skins), 131-161 (142); wing, 82-86 (83.1); 
tail, 47-63.5 (60.2); cuhnen, 18.6-20 (19); taraus, 16-16 (15.4); outer 
anterior toe, 12-13 (12.3).* 

Southwestern Costa Rica (Pozo del Rio Grande; El Pozo de T6r- 
raba; Palm&r), through western and middle Panam& (Divala; David; 
Mina de Chorcha; Bibal&z) to eastern Panam& (Cana, Dari6n, 1,800- 
2,000 feet). 

ChUmmerpes cecUii (not Me$opico8 eecUii Malherbe) Sciatsb, PIoc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., 1856, 143 (David, Ohiriqui, w. Panama). 
ChloronerpeB cecUuc Salvd^, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, 157 (David, Panama); 

1870, 213 (Mina de Chorcha, Veragua, w. P^mama). 



a Eight specimenfl. 


6 Five 


specimens. 






Locality. 


Wing. 


TaiL 


Ex- 

poMd 

CQiniBn. 


^Tanuf. 


Outer 

ante* 

riortoe. 


1«ft4iittiiia]Mfroait.w.OoftftA|cft 


84.1 
86.3 

82.7 
84 

83.1 


48.7 
51 

40 

53.6 

50.2 


20 
21.5 

18.7 

20 

19 


15.8 
15.8 

16 

15.6 

16.4 


11.0 


T^UMidnltinalMfkxnne. Panama fCana. Darien) 


18 


I'wnidnit ftnnalM fmm ■. w. Oofrta Rlea 


13.7 


Oba aA^}t ftfimie fmin ^. PftFiftinA (Ptyalft. ^hfiinnl) ... 


12 


I**!* fhiU ff^mahw f^wn 9. Panama (Cana, Paiifln) 


13.3 







I have not been able to make direct comparison between the specimens from Oana, 
Burien, and those from Costa Rica and western Panama, the latter having been bor- 
rowed from other museums and returned befwe the f<»mer were received. They 
differ markedly, however, in coloration from the type of V. h. dari£nenii8, and accord- 
ing to my recollection of the series (A typical F. h. rUgUctva agree very closely with 
the latter. The type of F. l, darienengis was obtained, as stated on the label, in the 
W damp (probably coast-plain) forests of the Rio Pirrf , whneas the Cana examples 
of F. h, negleettii were taken in the mountains at an elevation of 1,800-2,000 feet; 
hsDce they doubtless represent, respectively, lowland and mountain focms. 
8822*— BulL 60, pt e— 14 ^18 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



194 BULLBTIK 60, UNITED 8TATBS NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

[Chloronerpes] cealim Sclatbb and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 99, part. 

Dendrohates cecUix Haboitt, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xvi, 1890, 366, part (Mina de 
Ohorcha and Bibaldz, Panama).— Oherbib, Expl. Zool. Merid. Ooeta Rica, 
1893, 46 (PalmAr, e. .w. Costa Rica).— Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., 
Aves, ii, 1890, 440, part (David, Bibaldz, and Mina de Chwcha, F^mama). 

[VenUwmis] cecUix Sharps, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 222, part (Panama). 

Vemltornia cecilix Bangs, Auk, xviii, 1901, 360 (Divala, Chiriqui, w. Panama). 

Veniliomis negUctm Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Club, ii, Dec. 30, 1901, 99, 
Divala, Chiriqui, w. Panama; coll. E. A. and O. Bangs); Auk, xxiv, 1907, 
293 (Pozo del Rio Grande, s. w. Costa Rica).— Carrikbr, Ann. Carnegie 
Mus., vi, 1910, 589 (Costa Rica). 

Genus DRYOBATES Bole. 

Dendrocopos (not Dendroeopus Vieillot, 1816) Eoch, Baier Zool., i, 1816, 72. 

(Type, Picas major Linnseus.) 
Dryohates Boie, Isis, xxi, 1826, 977. (Type, by monotypy. Picas pube$oens 

Linnseus.) 
Dendrodromas KiUP, NaturL Syst., 1829, 136. (Type, Picas leaooTiotos Bechstein.) 
Leucxmoiopicas Malhbrbe, Rev. Zool., 1845, 373. (Type, Ptcut stnckUmdi 

Malherbe.) 
Pipripicas Bonapabtb, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 123 (Consp. Volucf. Zygod., 

1854, 8). (Type, Picas Uuconotos Bechstein.) 
Picalus (not of GeofEroy St.-Hilaire, 1832) Brbhh, VoUst. Vogelf., 1855, 70. 

(Type, Picas minor Linnseus.) 
Tridactylia (not of Shaw, 1815) Bonapabtb, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 123 

(Consp. Volucr. Zygod., 1854, 8). (Type, Picas UcorUii Jones=P. pubescens 

Linnseus.) 
('?)Dendrotyp€s Cabanis and Hbinb, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, June, 1863, 46. 

(Type, Picas macei Vieillot. o) 
Xylocopus b Cabanis and Hbinb, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, June, 1863, 51. (Type, 

Picas minor Linnseus.) 
Dendroooptes Cabanis and Hbinb, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, June, 1863, 51. (Type, 

Picas m£dius Linnseus.) 

Rather large to very small PicinsB (wing 90-150 mm.) with outer 
hind toe decidedly longer than outer front toe, longest primaries 
exceeding secondaries by more than one-fourth (but less than one- 
third) the length of wing, outermost (tenth) primary about one-third 
as long as ninth, culmen longer (usually much longer) than outer 
hind toe with claw (or else with tuft of antrorse prefrontal plumes 
covering basal half of maxiUa); outer webs of primaries (at least) 
spotted with white, lateral rectrices white (with or without black 
bars or spots), upper parts black or (rarely) brown, often barred or 
striped with white on back, imder parts whitish, with or without 
darker markings. 

Bill usually shorter (sometimes very much shorter) than head, 
rarely slightly longer, distinctly chisel-shaped at tip, its width at 

<^ This species I have not been able to examine. 

^ $(fXau (Holz) und Kdvccat (schlagen, klopfen). (Cabanis and Heine.) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 195 

anterior end of nostrils about equal to its depth at same point; 
culmen straight or very faintly convex, sharply ridged; gonys twice 
as long as mandibular rami, or slightly more, more or less distinctly 
ridged, straight or very nearly so; supranasal ridge and prenasal 
groove very distinct, parallel with culmen, running out to (or toward) 
edge of maxilla at a point less than one-third to a little more 
than one-third the distance from tip to base of tomium. Nostril 
small, longitudinally elliptical or linear (sometimes more pointed 
anteriorly), situated nearer to tomium than to culmen, completely 
covered by a conspicuous antrorse tuft of hair-like, bristly-tipped 
pr^rontal feathers. Feathers of malar apex and chin antrorse, 
bristle-tipped, the latter covering base of gonys. Orbital region 
partly naked, the margin of lower eyelid and posterior portion of 
upper eyelid clothed with minute feathers. Wing rather long, the 
' longest primaries exceeding secondaries by more than one-fourth 
(but less than one-third) the length of wing; sixth and seventh, 
sixth, seventh and eighth, or seventh and eighth primaries longest, 
the ninth much shorter than fifth (sometimes a little shorter than 
fourth), the tenth (outermost) about one-third as long as ninth. 
Tail nearly two-thirds as long as wing, the rectrices broad, the middle 
ones more or less strongly decurved terminally and with tip gradually 
short-acuminate. Tarsus longer than outer hind toe with claw 
(except in Z>. acdlaris, D. nuUaMi, D. itricklandi, and D. arizonm), 
feathered in front for at least upper third; outer hind toe much 
longer than outer front toe. 

Coloration. — (1) General color of upper parts black, the scapulars 
or lower back, spots on primaries (sometimes secondaries and wing- 
coverts also), auricular and orbital regions white; posterior under 
parts red or tinged with red; adult males with pileum or a nuchal 
band red. (Z?. major^ D. mediua, D. minor, D. leucotua, and other 
P&l»arctic species.) 

(2) Above black with a white stripe down back, the primaries 
(sometimes also secondaries and wing-coverts) spotted with white; 
auricular region black, with a white stripe above and below; posterior 
under parts white or light brownish, like anterior portions; adult 
Qiales with a red nuchal band. (Z>. viUosua and D. ptibescena groups.) 

(3) Similar to section 2 but the black replaced by brown (one 
species without white on back) and under parts spotted with black. 
(D. stricklandi and D. arizonx.) « 

(4) Similar to section 2 but back barred with white and black, 
lateral and posterior under parts spotted with black, the adult males 
with occiput as well as nape red, the crown streaked or speckled with 
white. (J). aeaUins and D. mMaJlvi groups.) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



196 BITLLBTIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Rcmge. — ^Palaearctic and Nearctic Regions; south in America to 
Panam&. (More than fifty species and subspecies.^) 

KEY TO THE SPBCIB8 AND 8UB8PBCIB8 OV DBT0BATE8. ' 

a. Back with a broad longitudinal median stripe of white, or at least without regular 
bars; black auricular patch confluent posteriorly with black of hindneck. 
(. Larger (wing more than 108, or else underparts smoky brown; exposed culmen 
21 or more). (Dryobatei tiUoevs.) 
c. Middle wing-coverts heavily spotted with white; greater coverts with a large 
subbasal (concealed) spot of white; all the secondaries spotted (in trans- 
verse series) with white. (Eastern and northern forms.) 
d. Larger (averaging: wing more than 130, tail more than 83, exposed culmen 
more than 31 mm.). (Northern North America east of Bocky Mts., 
chiefly north of United States.) 

Diyobates viUosns septentrionalis (p. 210). 

dd. Smaller (averaging: wing less than 121, tail less than 75, exposed culmen 

less than 30 nmi.). 

e. Larger (averaging: Male, wing 120.4, tail 71.4, exposed culmen 29.2; 

female, wing 119.9, tail 74.2, exposed culmen 27.3); under parts more 

purely white, and white markings of upper parts averaging rather larger. 

(Middle districts of eastern North America, from more southern British 

Provinces to northern border of Lower Austral Zone.) 

Diyobates viUosus viUotus (p. 201). 

u. Smaller (wing averaging less than 114). 

/. Wing longer (averaging 113.8 in male, 112.2 in female); lend region 

largely black; adult male with red nuchal patch narrower, usually 

interrupted medially by a black stripe from occiput to hindneck. 

(Lower Austral Zone of eastern United States.) 

Dryobates yiUosiu audubonil (p. 206). 

ff. Wing shorter (averaging less than 108 in male, less than 105 in female); 

loral region wholly or mostly white; adult male with red nuchal 

patch broader, not interrupted medially. 

g. Sides of breast heavily streaked with black; lateral rectrices without 

black spots on inner web. (Islands of New Providence and Andros, 

Bahamas.) Dryobates viUosiu maynardl (p. 208). 

gg. Sides of breast with few if any black streaks; lateral rectrices usually 
with one or more black spots on iimer web. (Islands of Abaco, 
Little Abaco, and Great Bahama, Bahama.) 

Dryobates viUotus piger (p. 209). 
oc. Middle wing-coverts wholly black, or with much fewer or smaller white 
spots; greater coverts without any sub-basal (concealed) white spot, often 
wholly black; inner secondaries without white spots, those on distal sec- 
ondaries and primaries reduced in size. (Western and Middle American 
forms, except one.) 
d. Underparts essentially white. 
e. Underparts pure white. 
/. White of back more restricted, more or less broken by black streaking 
or spotting; lateral rectrices frequently with one or more black 
spots on distal portion; flanks often spotted or broadly streaked with 
blackish. (Slightly smaller than D, v. monticola,) (Newfoundland.) 

Dryobates ▼iUosus itaaaovm (p. 211). 

a Most of the Old World species generally referred to this genus have not been 
examined in the preparation of the above generic description, which is based on all 
the American species and D. major, D, UucotuB, D, mediuBf and D. minor only of 
the Old World forms. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 197 

/. Wliite of back more extended, unbroken; lateral rectrices never with 
black spots, and flanks never distinctly (if at all) spotted or streaked. 
g. Larger (wing averaging 133.3 in male, 131.1 in female). (Rocky Mt. 
district, from British Columbia to northern New Mexico.) 

Dryobates villosuB montioola (p. 212). 
gg. Smaller (wing averaging 126.3 in male, 123.6 in female). (Extreme 
western Texas, New Mexico and Arizona, except extreme southern 
portion, and southern Utah.) 

Dzyobates yillosiui leucofhoreotts (p. 214). 
te. Underparts not pure white. 
/. Larger (wing averaging 129.1 in male, 126.3 in female). (Sierra Nevada 
district of California, Oregon, Washington, and Nevada.) 

Dryobates villosna ozius (p. 215). 
ff. Smaller (wing averaging 122.6 in male, 120.1 in female). (Northern 
Lower California, southern California, and coast district of middle 
California, north to Mendocino Co.) 

Diyobates villosos hylosoopoB (p. 217). 
dd, Underparts not white (pale brownish gray to deep smoky brown). 
€, Underparts drab-grayish or buffy grayish. 
/. Larger (wing averaging 124 or more, tail 77 or more); under parts deeper 
smoke-gray or drab gray. 
g. Pale grayish or whitish of back not usually broken into spots or 
irregular bars; flanks not heavily, if at all spotted with black; 
lateral rectrices without black bars or spots. 
h. Under parts darker and grayer or more smoky; white of back more 
strongly tinged with gray; wing-coverts less often spotted; nasal 
tufts usually dull whitii^ or grayish. (Northwest coast district, 
from Humboldt Co., California, to British Columbia.) 

Dryobates villosns harrisi (p. 218). 

hh. Under parts paler (often nearly white) and more buffy; white of 

back less tinged with gray (often not at all); wing-coverts more 

often spotted; nasal tufts usually strongly buffy or tawny. 

(Southeastern coast of Alaska, including Alexander Archipelago.) 

Dryobates vUlosus sltkensls (p. 220). 

gg. Pale grayish or whitish of back broken into spots or irregular bars; 

flanks heavily spotted with black; lateral rectrices usually broadly 

barred or spotted with black. (Queen Charlotte Islands, British 

Columbia.) Dryobates yillosus picoideus (p. 220). 

ff. Smaller (wing averaging less than 124, tail less than 75); underparts 
paler smoke-gray, drab-gray, or buffy gray. 
g. Larger (wing averaging 123.5 in male, 123.3 in female); imderparts 
slightly paler. (Southwestern New Mexico, southern Arizona, and 
southward to Diuungo, Zacatecas, and Coahuila.) 

Dryobates villosus icastus (p. 221). 
gg. Smaller (wing averaging 120.7 in male, 118.2 in female); imderparts 
slightly darker. (Middle-eastern portion of Mexican plateau, in 
States of San Luis Potosf and southern Tamaulipas.) 

Dryobates vUlosus intermedius (p. 222). 

ee. Underparts decidedly brownish. 

/. Larger (averaging: wing 117.7 in male, 114.6 in female, tail 71.5 in male, 

69.5 in female); imderparts more grayish brown. (Highlands of 

southern Mexico, in States of Vera Cruz, Puebla, Mexico, Morelos, 

Oaxaca, Guerrero, Michoacin, and Jalisco.) 

Dryobates vUlosus Jardinil (p. 223). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



198 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

ff. Smaller (averaging: wing lees than 110 in male, lees than 106 in female, 
tail lees than 64 in male, lees than 61 in female); underparts lees 
grayish brown. 
g. Underparts darker brown. 
h. Larger (wing averaging 109.4 in male, 104.6 in female, tail 63.9 in 
male, 60.9 in female). (Guatemala and State of Chiapas, south- 
em Mexico.) Dxyobates vlUosng sanotomn^ (p. 225). 

lih. Smaller (wing averaging 102.8 in male, 102.1 in female, tail 58.6 
in male, 58.4 in female). (Highlands of Costa Rica and western 

Panama.) Dryobates Tillosug ezttmng (p. 226). 

gg, Underparts paler brown (size of 2). v, sanctorum), (Highlands of 

northern Nicaragua.) Dxyobates vUlosns fomens (p. 226). 

bh. Smaller (wing less — ^usually much less — ^than 106, the underparts pure white 

to dull white); exposed culmen not more, usually much less, than 18 mm. 

(Dryobates pubescens,) 

e. Middle wing-coverts heavily spotted with white; greater coverts with a laige 

sub-basal (concealed) spot of white; all the secondaries spotted (in transverse 

series) with white. (Eastern and northern forms.) 

d. Smaller (averaging: wing 88.6 in male, 88.7 in female, tail 50.5 in male, 

51.6 in female); underparts diill white. (Lower Austral Zone of Eastern 

United States.) Dxyobates pubescens pubesoens (p. 228). 

dd. Larger (averaging: wing more than 94, tail more than 55); underparts pure 
white. 
e. Smaller (averaging: wing 94.1 in male, 94.7 in female, tail 55.8 in male, 
56.4 in female). (Middle districts of eastern North America, in Upper 
Austral and Transition life-zones; Eodiak Island, Alaska?) 

Dxyobates pubesoens medianns (p. 233). 

ee. Larger (averaging: wing 99.1 in male, 98.8 in female, tail 63.1 in male, 

63.3 in female). (Northern North America, east of Rocky Mts., north 

to Mackenzie and Yukon, west to west coast of Alaska; south in winter 

to extreme northern United States.) 

Dxyobates pubescens nelson! (p. 235). 

oe. Middle wing-coverts wholly black or with much fewer or smaller white spots; 

greater coverts without any sub-basal (concealed) white spot, often wbolly 

black; inner secondaries without transverse white spots, and spots on other 

remiges reduced in size. (Western forms.) 

d. Under parts pure white; larger (wing averaging 99.3 in male, 100.9 in female, 

tail 62.3 in male, 63.9 in female). (Rocky Mountain district, from Britisih 

Colimibia to New Mexico and Arizona; during migration, west to eastern 

California, etc., east to eastern Montana, western Nebraska, etc.) 

Dxyobates pabescens homoras (p. 236). 

dd. Under parts not pure white; smaller (wing averaging less than 98, tail less 

than 62). 

e. Larger (averaging wing 96 in male, 97.2 in female); inner secondaries with 

rounded spots of white; middle wing-coverts spotted with white; imder 

parts grayish white. (Coast district of southern Alaska, from Kenai 

Peninsula to Taku River.) Dryobates pubescens glaclalls (p. 239). 

ee. Smaller (averaging wing less than 96 in male, lees than 93 in female); 

iimer secondaries and middle coverts usually without white spots; 

imder parts brownish white to light brownish gray or drab. 

/. Under parts light brownish gray or drab; slightly larger (averaging wing 

95.1 in male, 92.8 in female). (Northwest coast district, from southem 

British Columbia to northern California.) 

Dxyobates pubescens galrdnerii (p. 241). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIKDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 199 

ff. Under parts dull white or brownish white; slightly smaller (averaging 
wing 92.6 in male, 92.2 in female). (California, except northern coast 
district and southeastern desert mountains.) 

Dryotwteg pnbetcena tmati (p. 239). 
aa. Back regulady barred with black (or dark brown) and white, or else wholly 
uniform brown; black <x dark brown auricular area not confluent with same 
color of hindneck. 
h. ScapulaiB (as well as interscapulars) barred with black and white, 
e. Forehead black, abruptly contrasted with white or dull buffy of nasal tufts; 
general color of under parts (normally) pure white; adult male with whole 
crown black (sometimes streaked, not spotted, with white). (Southwestern 
Oregon, through California, to northwestern Lower California.) 

Dryobateg nuttallil (p. 242). 
ee. Forehead smoky brownish (more or less dark), not strongly contrasted wi^ 
similar but usually paler color of nasal tufts; general color of under parts 
dull brownish white to broccoli brown or diab; adult male with crown 
spotted with red and white. {J>Fyohalu sooZom.) 
d. Smaller (wing averaging less than 98 in male, less than 96 in female). 
«. Larger (wing averaging more than 94 in male, more than 92 in female). 
/. Lateral under parts spotted; posterior under parts more heavily barred; 
outer web of lateral (developed) rectrix usually broadly barred on 
proximal half . 
g. Under parts less numerously spotted, the median portion of chest 
with few if any markings; bill larger (exposed culmen averaging 
20.2 in male, 18.5 in female). (Middle and northern Vera Cnu, 
south^n Tamaulipas, and southern San Luis Potoef.) 

Dxyobates soalaris soalaris (p. 245). 

qg. Under parts more numerously spotted, the whole chest spotted; bill 

smaller (exposed culmen averaging 18.8 in male, 17.3 in female). 

(State of Chiapas.) Dryobateg soalaris peroua (p. 248). 

ff. Lateral imder parts streaked; posterior imder parts less heavily barred 

(usually spotted); outer web of lateral rectrix with proximal half 

unbarred. 

g. Smaller (averaging: wing 94.5 in male, 94.6 in female; culmen 20.3 in 

male, 18.2 in female; tarsus 16.8 in male, 16.3 in female); under 

parts darker, m(»e smoky. (State of Sinaloa, western Mexico.) 

Dryobateg scalarig slnaloensls (p. 250). 
gg. Larger (averaging: wing 97.7 in male, 95 in female; culmen 22.1 in 
male, 19.3 in female; tarsus 17.4 in male, 17 in female); imder parts 
paler, more buffy. (Tree Marias Islands, western Mexico.) 

Dryobateg soalaris graysoni (p. 250). 
se. Smaller (wing averaging less than 93 in male, less than 89 in female). 
/. Outer web of lateral rectrix with proximal half distinctly barred with 
black. 
g. White bars on back, etc., broader (decidedly wider than black oneg); 
black bars on lateral rectrices narrower; wing slightly longer (aver^ 
aging 90.7 in male, 88 in female). (Coast district of southern Vera 
Cruz.). Dryobateg scalarls ridgwayi (p. 247). 

gg. White bars on back, etc., narrower (narrower than black ones); black 
bars on lateral rectrices broader; wing slightly shorter (averaging 
89.1 in male, 87 in female). (Yucatan.) 

Dryobateg soalaris parvus (p. 248). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



200 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

/. Outer web of lateral rectrix with proximal half unbarred. 
g. Smaller (wing averaging 86.8 in male, 84 in female; tail 45.8 in male, 
44 in female); black bars on distal portion of lateral rectricee broader. 

(British Honduras.) Dryobates scalaiis lencoptilunui (p. 249). 

gg. Laiger (wing 92, tail 48.5, in male); black bars on distal portion of 

lateral rectricee nairower. (State of Michoacan, southwestern 

Mexico.) Dryobates soalaxis aselus (p. 251). 

dd, Laiger (wing averaging more than 100 in male, more than 96 in female). 

e. Outer web of lateral rectrix with proximal half unbarred; black bars on 

back, etc., not wider than white ones, or else (2). s. Iuett$anu8, D. s, ere- 

micus) the posterior imder parts less heavily barred. 

/. Smaller (wing averaging 100.8 in male, 96.8 in female). (Southern 

Scmora.) Dryobates scalaiis agnus (p. 252). 

ff. Laiger (wing averaging 102 or more in male, more than 99 in female). 
g. Smaller (wing averaging 102 in male, 99.2 in female; tail 63 in male, 
63.8 in female; exposed culmen 24.5 in male, 20.5 in female); under 
parts paler. (Southern Lower California.) 

Dryobates scalaiis luoasaiiiis (p. 252). 
gg. Laiger (wing averaging 106.6 in male, 101.4 in female; tail 68 in male, 
66.9 in female; exposed culmen 26.9 in male, 23.9 in female); under 
parts darker. (Northwestem Lower Califorinia.) 

Dryobates scalaiis eremions (p. 253). 
ee. Outer web of lateral rectrix usually distinctly barred on proximal half. 
/. Posterior imder parts less heavily barred; black bais on back, etc., not 
wider than white ones. 
'g. Black bars on back, etc., not narrower than white ones. 
h. Laiger (wing averaging 104 in male, 101.5 in female; tail 60.8 in 
male, 62.4 in female; exposed culmen 22.7 in male, 19.8 in female); 
imder parts paler. (Extreme western Texas to southern Cali- 
fornia and extreme northern Lower California, north to southern 
Nevada and Utah, and south to northern Durango.) 

Dryobates soalaiia oacto^hllus (p. 254). 
hh. Smaller (wing averaging 102.1 in male, 99.6 in finale; tail 57.7 in 
male, 56.9 in female; exposed culmen 20.9 in male, 17.5 in 
female); under parts darker. (States of Jalisco, southern 
Durango, Zacatecas, and northwestem Michoacan, western 
Mexico.) 

Dryobates soalaiis oentrophilns (p. 256). 

gg. Black bars on back, etc., nanower than white ones. (Size of D. s. 
eerUropkUui,) (Texas, Nuevo Leon, northern and middle Tftmau- 
lipas, and nwth to southeastern Colorado.) 

Dryobates scalaiis sympleotas (p. 257). 

ff. Posterfor imder parts more heavily barred; black bars on back, etc., 

wider than white ones. (Size of D. «. oadophilua.) Southeastern part 

of Mexican plateau in San Luis Potosf, Guanajuato, Puebla, Hidalgo, 

etc.) Dryobates soalaiis balidi (p. 258). 

hh. Scapulars uniform brown, 
c. Median portion of back and rump broadly barred or transversely spotted with 
white. {Southeastern Mexico, in States of Vera Cruz, Puebla, Mexico, and 

Morelos.) Dryobates strioklandi (p. 259). 

cc. Whole back and rump uniform brown. (DryohaUt arizanm.) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF KOBTH AND MIDDLE AMEBIGA. 201 

d. Larger (avenging: wing 117.3 in male, 113.2 in female; exposed culmen 
27.2 in male, 24.1 in female); under parts averaging less heavily spotted 
and white spots on outer webs of primaries larger. (Southern Arizona and 
southwesterh New Mexico southward through Sonora and Chihuahua to 

Durango.) Dryobates arlzonas arizonss (p. 261). 

dd. Smaller (averaging: wing 108.9 in male, 108 in female; exposed culmen 
23.6 in male, 20.8 in female); under parts averaging more heavily spotted 
and white spots on outer webs of primaries smaller, sometimes obsolete. 
(Southwestern Mexico, in States of Sinaloa, Jalisco, Colima, and Zaca- 
tecas and Territory of Topic.) Dryobatea arizonas frateioulus (p. 263). 

DRTOBATBS VILLOSUS VILLOSUS (Lbmmas). 

HAIBY WOODPEOKBR. 

Adult male. — ^Pileum unifonn glossy blue-black; a nuchal band of 
bright poppy red or scarlet, usually interrupted in middle portion 
by an extension of the black of pileum; rest of upper parts black, 
the median portion of back (broadly) white, the wings (including 
middle coverts) spotted with white, the spots on greater coverts and 
reanges arranged in regular transverse series; two lateral rectrices, on 
each side (including outermost rudimentary rectrix), entirely white, 
tiie third white except basal portion of inner web, the fourth with 
greater part of outer web and distal portion of inner web white ;^ nasal 
tufts dull white to dull brownish yellow, the bristly shafts blackish; 
a broad white supra-auricular stripe, narrower anteriorly, where 
extending over eye (sometunes confluent with whitish of nasal tufts); 
a broad white suborbital-subauricular stripe, anteriorly confluent 
with whitish or dull yellowish of nasal tufts, posteriorly extending 
to sides of neck; between these two white stripes a broad black stripe 
iQYolying whole of auricular region and part of suborbital region, 
posteriorly confluent with black of hindneck; a black malar stripe 
(usually more or less broken anteriorly by admixture of white), con-* 
tinned and gradually widening, posteriorly, where confluent with a lat- 
eral extension of the black of hindneck, and also sending off a short 
branch along side of chest; underparts immaculate white; bill deep 
grayish horn color, the mandible slightly paler; iris reddish brown 
(daret brown to burnt umber) ; legs and feet dull grayish blue, bluish 
gray or grayish olive; length (skins), 184-228 (220); wing, 114.5-124 
(120.4); tail, 65-77 (71.4); exposed cuhnen, 27-33 (29.2); tarsus, 
21-23 (21.9); outer anterior toe, 13-15.5 (14.4).* 

AdvU female. — Similar to the adult male but without any red on 
head; length (skins), 185-231 (206);. wing, 115-128 (119.9); tail, 

« The termiiial portion of these white rectrices usually otained, more or less deeply, 
with hrown or tawny (from contact with decayed wood?). 

* Twenty-five specimens, from New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, District of 
Colombia, northern Virginia, and eastern Tennessee. 



Digitized by 



Google 



202 



BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



68.5-83 (74.2); exposed culmen, 25-30 (27.3); tarsus, 20-23 (21.1); 
outer anterior toe, 13-15 (14).* 

a Twenty-four specimens, from Ontario, New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, 
District of Columbia, northern Virginia, eastern Tennessee, and northern Illinois. 



Locality. 



Wing. 


TaiL • 


Ex- 
posed 


Tarsus. 


132.3 


83.3 


36 


23.6 


129.6 


82 


31.2 


22 


12S.1 


82.7 


31.1 


23 


122.6 


77 


3L6 


23 


129 


82 


32 


24 


125.3 


78.6 


81 


2L7 


121.3 


74 


29.5 


21.8 


122.3 


73 


30 


22.2 


119.6 


70.3 


28.2 


22.2 


119.9 


70 


30.4 


21.6 


11&5 


70 


30 


2L6 


117 


76 


30.6 


20.6 


116.6 


60.6 


27.6 


22 


116 


70 


28.6 


21.6 


119.6 




31 


20.6 


116 


72.6 


30.5 


21 


116.6 




28 


21.6 


114.6 


65.6 


28.6 


20 


113 


68 


29 


21 


118.6 




27 


20.6 


113 


67 


26.6 


2L6 


113.9 


65.1 


28.3 


20.6 


130.4 


84.3 


3L3 


22.6 


m 


81 


28.6 


21.6 


123.3 


79.6 


28.3 


2a7 


125.6 


81.5 


28.6 


21.6 


120.3 


74.2 


27.9 


21 


116.9 


71.1 


»7 


21.1 



Onter 
ante- 
rior toe. 



Eleven adult males from Yukon, ICaokenxie, eta (D. v. iep- 

tentrUmalit) 

Two adult males from Maine, June (D. v. septentrtanaiiif) 

Four adult males frt>m New Brunswick, October, November 

(D. V. viUostuf) 

One adult male frt>m Nova Scotia, October (P. v. vfOotutf) 

One adult male frt>m Ontario, November (D. v. 8epUntrUmaJi$f). 
Two adult males tiom North Dakota, November (P. v, vBUmu) . 
Six adult males from New York, liarch, July, August (D. v. 

vtOosut) 

Three adult males from mountains ct Pennsylvania, June, 

July (2>. V. vfiZonw) 

Seven adult males lh>m lowlands ot Pennsylvania, March, 

May, December (D. v. vOJonu) 

Five adult males frt>m Maryland and District Cohnnbia, April, 

June, September, October (P. v.vfOotut) 

One adult male from northern Virginia, August (P. v, tfOUmu). 
One adult male frt>m southeastern Virginia (Dismal Swamp), 

June (P. p. otfdtttenltf ) 

One adult male from southwestern Indiana, April 80 (P. v, 

auduboniif) 

One adult male from southeastern Illinois, spring (P. v. au- 
duboniif) 

One adult male from eastern-central North Carolina, May 

iD. V. vttlosut) 

One adult male from northwestern South Carolina, June 

{D. V, vmottuf) 

One adult male from eastern Tennessee, August (P. v. HOonuf) . 
One adult male from southeastern Missouri, May (P. v, au- 

duborUi) 

One adult male from Ixmisiana, January (P. v. audubonii) 

One adult male from Mississippi, May (P. v. a/udubonii) 

One adult male lh>m southeastern Georgia, April (P. v. au- 

duborUi) 

Ten adult males from Florida, January, March, April, May, 

November (P. v. audvbofUi) 

FKMALBS. 

Eleven adult females from Yukon, Mackenzie, eta (P. v. 
teptentrkmdUi) 

One adult female from North Dakota, November (P. «. iep- 
tentrUmaiitf) 

Three adult females tiom New Brunswick, August, October, 
November (P. v. vOUmuf) 

Four adult females fh>m Ontario, January, April, June, De- 
cember (P. v. vflZonwf) 

Seven adult females from New York, May-December (P. v. 
vSOonu) 

Six adult females fhmi Pennsylvania, May-November (P. v, 
vfOotut) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF NOBTH AND MIDDLE AMEBIGA. 



203 



Young male. — Similar to the adult male, but without any red 
nuchal patch, the crown, however, streaked or spotted with red 



Footnote— Comttnoed. 



Locality. 



Wtng. 



TaU. 



Ex- 
posed 

OUllXlBll* 



Taniu. 



Cater 
ante- 
rior toe. 



ntlnoed. 

One adnlt female from ivntheastem niinols, September (D. v, 

tflkmu) 

One adult female from northem Viiiginia, Janoary (D. «. 

fObfttf) 

One adult female from soathwestem Indiana, ICay (D. v, 

vOonuf) ^. 

Two adolt females from soatheastem Illinois^ April (P. «. 

ndmboiOif) 

Ooe adolt female from sontheastem Missoml, Jane (P. v. 

One adalt female from Arkansas, October (D. v. vdUmuf) 

fmt adolt females from Looialana, January, April (D. v, 
esAiftoRfa') 

Oneadnlt female from Mississippi, September (P. v. wduboniif) 

Seven adolt females fhmi North Carolina January-Septem- 
ber (P. v.audubonUf) 

Foor adolt females from Sooth Carolina, March, April, Deoemr 
Ut {D. V. audvbonU) 

Poor adolt females from Georgia, February, April (P. v, 
niubonii) 

Eight adolt Itanales from Florida (P. v. aitdtitefi<0' 



iao.6 

118 

116 

114.5 

117.6 
116 

112.7 
116.5 

116 

113.5 

113.1 
111.8 



72.6 
68.6 
60 
68.6 



64.6 



65.1 
66 



60.6 
60 



66.0 
64.4 



26 

25.6 

2&5 

25.7 

26 
28 

25.6 
26 

26.5 

25.5 

26 
26 



22.5 

21 

21 

21 

20 
20.5 

20.2 
10 

10.0 

20.1 

22.1 
10.2 



14.5 

> 
14 

14 

13.5 

13 
13.5 

14.2 
IS 

13.4 

18.5 

13.4 
13.1 



Tlie above meflBurements show how difficult it is to subdivide this species satis- 
hciorHy into two or more subspecies according to size. The transition from the 
smallest specimens^ found in Florida and along the Gulf coast to Texas, to the largest, 
foond in Mackenzie and Yukon, is so very gradual and the attendant change in colora- 
tion so very slight that subdivision with definite characters is practically impossible. 
The difference in size between extreme northem and southern specimens is very 
great, but it is almost impossible to satisfactorily define subspecies, whether only 
two or several, or to satisfactorily limit their respective ranges. The difficulty is 
enhanced by the lack of anything like adequate material; for, the species being 
more or lees migratory over much the greater part of its range, comparison of speci- 
meos should be restricted to those taken in or near the breeding season, possible 
migrants being eliminated. Unfortunately a great majority of the specimens in 
collections are winter, late fall, or early spring birds, and ^erefore are of only second- 
ary use for the purpose in view. The value of measurements of the wing and tail 
is greatly vitiated if both winter and summer or late spring specimens are included 
together, since there is considerable difference owing to abrasion of the tips of the 
remiges and rectrices. Besides exercising care in these matters, it is necessary also 
to separate specimens from different faunal areas within a given State, for there is 
much difference in size between birds from the coast lowlands and those from the 
interior mountainous districts of Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and the Carolinas, 
lor instance, as also between those from eastern and western Tennessee and Kentucky, 
southern and northern Indiana and Illinois, etc. 

The author admits his inability to offer a satis&ictory treatment of the subject, 
which can only be done when the necessary material can be brought together. 

The case is quite the same as that affecting D. pubescenSf Colaptes auratus, PhUBO" 
tomu$ pileatus, and other birds which undergo a gradual increase of size from Florida 
and the Gulf coast northward, without accompanying material change in coloration 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



204 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

(usually more or less pale — sometimes pale yellowish or pinkish), 
the reddish gr yellowish tips to the feathers often preceded by a 
small spot or streak of white; black parts of plumage duller. 

Young female. — Similar to the young male, but without any red- 
dish or yellowish on crown, which, however, is sometimes minutely 
streaked or spotted with whitish. 

Middle districts of eastern United States and adjacent portions of 
Canada (Upper Austral and Transition and southern edge of Cana- 
dian life zones); north to New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, 
Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, etc., south to Maryland, Virginia 
(except southern coast district?), higher parts of North and South 
Carolina, Tennessee, etc.. West Virginia, Kentucky (except Mississippi 
lowlands), southern Indiana, Illinois, and ACssouri (except lowlands 
of Mississippi, lower Ohio, and lower Wabash rivers), northwestern 
Texas (Lipscomb, breeding), etc., west to eastern border of the Great 
Plains. 

(The range of this intermediate form can be stated only in general 
terms; northward specimens are larger, approaching D. v. septen- 
trionaUa, especially in Maine; southward it grades into D. v. auAvr- 
honii — the dividing line, in both cases, being practically impossible of 
exact definition, in fact a matter of arbitrary decision.) 

[Picus] viUotuB LmNJBUS, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, i, 1766, 175 (New Jersey; based on 
Ficus variuB medius quasi villo8ut Catesby, Nat. Hist. Qurolina, i, 19; Picus 
vafius virginumuB BrisBon, Om., iv, 48; etc.). — Gmeun, Syst. Nat., i, pt. i, 
1788, 435.— Latham, Index 0^., i, 1790, 232.— Rsichxnbach, Handb. 
Scansoree, Pidnffi, 1854, 374, pi. 638, figs. 4252-4254.— Gray, Hand-list, 
ii, 1870, 184, no. 8592, part.— CouES, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 193.— 
D'HAifONynj.E, Oat. Ois. Eur., 1876, 10 (accidental in England). 

Picus viUosus VnsaLor, Ois. Am. Sept., ii, 1807, 64, pi. 120; Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. 
Nat., xxvi, 1818, 71, part.— Woson, Am. Cm., i, 1808, pi. 9, fig. 3.— 
Stephens, Shaw's Gen. Zool., ix, 1815, 171.— Bonapabte, Ann. Lye. N. Y., 
ii, part i, 1826 (Synop. Birds U. S.), 46; Geog. and Oomp. List, 1838, 39.— 
Lesson, Traits d'Om., 1831, 228.— Nuttall, Man. Om. U. 8. and Can., 
Land Birds, 1832, 575; 2d ed., 1840, 683.— Audubon, Om. Biog., v, 1839, 
164, pi. 416; Synopsis, 1839, 179; Birds Am., oct ed., iv, 1842, 244, pi. 262.— 
BAntD, Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 74, part.— Malherbb, Mon. Pidd., 
i, 1861, 75; iii, 1861, pi. 21, figs. 1, 2.— Sundevall, Consp. Av. Pidn., 1866, 
16.— Allen, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., iii, 1872, 180 (e. Kansas).- HABTma, 
Man. Brit. Birds, 1872, 122 (accidental in England; 3 records).— Coubs, 
. Check List, 1873, no. 298,. part; 2d ed., 1882, no. 438, part; Bull. U. S. 
Geol. and Geog. Surv. Terr., iv, 1878, 615 (Turtle Mt., North Dakota).— 
BAntD, Brewer, and RmowAY, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, pi. 49, figs. 8, 
4, 5.— Brewster, Ann. Lye. N. Y., xi, 1875, 144 (Ritchie Co., West Vir- 
ginia; crit.); Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, iii, 1878, 179 (descr. yoimg male). — 
Dalgleish, Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, v, 1880, 73 (acdd. in England).— Rmo- 
WAT, Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 188; Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 360. 

Plicus] villosus BoNNATERRE and ViEiLLOT, Tabl. Enc. M6th., iii, 1823, 1305. — 
BoNAPABTB, Joum. Ac. Nat ScL Fhila., iii, pt. ii, 1824, 369; Obs. T^llson's 
Am. Om., 1826, [30].— Wagler, Syst Av., 1827, Picus, sp. 27, part.— Gray, 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD8 OF NORTH AKD MIDDLB AMBBICA. 205 

Gen. Biidfi, ii, 1845, 435.— Bonapabtb, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 137.— Maximilian, 
Jotim. ffir Cm., 1858, 353 (Allegheny Mts., Ohio, etc.).— Ridowat, Ann. 
Lye N. Y., X, 1874, 377, part (XUinoia).— OouM, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 
1884,483. 

[Piaa vUloius,] Var. vUlotuB Baied, Brbwsb, and Ridowat, Hist. N. Am. 
Birds, ii, 1874, 503. 

Pieui (Truhopiau) viUona Baird, Rep. Fftdfic R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, p. xxvii. 

[Drffobates] viUoiUi Bon, Isis, 1828, 326. 

DryobaUi viUomu Bbkwstbb, Auk, iii, 1886, 104 (Black Mts., w. North Oarolina, 
5,700 ft.).— Ahbbican Ornitholooi8T0' Union, Check List, 1886 (and 2d ed., 
1895), no. 393.— Lanodon, Auk, iv, 1887, 130 (Chilhowee Mts., e. Tennes- 
see).- Ridowat, Om. Illinois, i, 1889, 376, part.— Bbndibb, Idle Hist. N. Am. 
Birds, ii, 1895, 46.— Swalbs and Tavsbnxr, Wilson Bull., no. 55, 1906, 65 
(Lake Muskoka, Ontario; crit.).— Adams, Ecol. Surv. N. Mich., 1906, 115 
(Porcupine Mts., n. Michigan, suinmer).^Vi8HBB, Auk, xxvi, 1909, 148 
(w. South Dakota, resident).— Cooks, Auk, xxvi, 1909, 412 (Dry Willow 
Creek, Yuma Co., Colonulo, breeding; Arkansas Valley, w. to Fowler, 
Cobrado).— (?)EiiBODY, Auk, xxvii, 1910, 172 (Hanover Co., Viighiia, 
resident).— Wood and Gaigb, Pub. 4, Mich. Geol. and Biol. Surv., 1911, 286 
(Michigan; resident, except on Isle Royale).— Bxal, BuU. 37, U. 8. Biol. 
Surv., 1911, 13, pi. 1, upper fig. (food). 

DlryobaUs] vUhtuB Cabanib and Hbinx, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 66, part.— 
Ridowat, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 282. 

Dryobates vUUmu viUomis Obxbholsxb, Notes on Mam. and Summer Birds 
w. North Oftrolina, 1905, 14 (breeding on mts. down to at least 5,000 ft.); 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xl, 1911, 596, 598 (monogr.).— Jxnkins, Auk, xxiii, 
1906, 166 (crit.).— SiirrH (H. G.), Auk, xxv, 1908, 185 (Dry WiUow Creek, 
Yuma Co., Colcmuio, breeding; crit.).— Ahebican Obnuhologibts' Union, 
Oieck List, 3d ed., 1910, 185. 

{1)Picus (Dendrocojms) viUatus Swainson, Fauna Bor.-Am., ii, 1831, 305. 

ITrithopieuB] viUotua Bonapabtb, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 123 (Consp. Volucr. 
Zygod., 1854, 8). 

Dendrocopus vilUmu, Typicalj Haboitt, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 230. 

[DendrocopUB] viUosui Shabpe, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 214, part. 

Picas leuamdas Boddaebt, Tabl. PI. Enl., 1783, 21 (based on Pic, du Canada 
Daubenton, PI. Enl., pi. 345, fig. l^adult female). — Cassin, Proc. Ac. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 1863, 199.— Gbat, List Birds Brit. Mus., Capit. and Picid., 1868, 
46. 

[PicuM] canadensii Gmeun, Syst. Nat., i, pt. i, 1788, 437 (based on Pic, du Canada 
Daubenton, PL Enl., pi. 345, fig, l«-adult female).— Latham, Index Om., 
i, 1790, 230. 

Piau canadenna Stephens, Shaw's Gen. Zool., ix, 1815, 173.— Vieillot, Nouv. 
Diet. d'Hist. Nat., xxvi, 1818, 92. 

{?)Picu8 canadenns (not of Gmelin?) Audubon, Om. Biog., v, 1839, 188, pi. 417, 
fig. 7; Synopsis, 1839, 177; Birds Am., oct. ed., iv, 1845, 235, pi. 258.— 
Malhebbs, Mon. Pidd., i, 1861, 78; iii, 1861, pi. 21, ^, 4. 

(?)P[ieu$] canadensii Bonnatebbb and Vieillot, Enc. M^th., iii, 1823, 1318.— 
Bonapabtb, Consp. Av., 1850, 137.— Rbichbnbach, Handb., Scansores, 
. Picin«, 1854, 373, pi. 638, figs. 4250, 4251. 

Plieus] leuecmelanus Waoleb, Syst. Av., 1827, Picus, sp. 18 (Canada; coll. Paris 
Mus.). 

Picus martini Audubon, Birds Am., 1838, pi. 417, figs. 1, 2 (Toronto, Ontario; 
type now in coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.). — Bonapabtb, Geog. and Comp. List, 
1838, 39.— Malhebbb, Mon. Picid., i, 1861, 82; iii, 1861, pi. 22, figs. 1, 2. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



206 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Picas martinm Audubon, Om. Biog., v, 1839, 181; Synopsis, 1839, 178; Birds 
Am., oct. ed., iv, 1842, 240, pL 260. 

P[tcta] martinm Gray, Gen. Biids, ii, 1845, 435. — Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 
1850, 138.— Reichbnbach, Handb. Scaiisores, Picinse, 1854, 364, pL 632, 
figs. 4206, 4207. 

[Tridiopicus] marHnx Bonaparte, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 123 (Consp. Volucr. 
Zygod., 1854, 8). 

Pieui pkaiiptii Audubon, Om. Biog., v, 1839, 186, pL 417, figs. 6, 6 (Massachu- 
setts; type now in coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.); Synopsis, 1839, 177; Birds Am., 
oct. ed., iv, 1842, 238, pi. 259.— Nuttall, Man. Om. U. S. and Can., Land 
Birds, 2d ed., 1840, 686.— Malherbe, Mon. Picid., i, 1861, 84; iii, 1861, 
pi. 21, fig. 5.— Gray, List Birds Brit. Mus., Capit and Pidd., 1868, 46. 

P[icta] pkUipni Gray, Gen. Birds, ii, 1845, 435. 

P[icu«] philipsi Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 138. 

[Picus] pkiUxpni Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 185, no. 8601. 

[TrichopicuB] pkUipn Bonaparte, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 123 (Consp. Volucr. 
Zygod., 1854, 8). 

P[%cu8] philippm Reichbnbach, Handb., Scansores, Picinse, 1854, 364, pi. 632, 
figs. 4204, 4205. 

PicuB rvbrioapiUuB Nuttall, Man. Om. U. S. and Can., Land Birds, 2d ed., 1840, 
685 (new name for P. maartini Audubon). 

[PieuM ( Trichopicui) vUlo9U8\ var. medius (not Picas medius Linn«eus) Baird, Bep. 
Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, p. xxvii. 

[Picas viUosus.] Var. medius Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 84. 

[Picas viUosusJ] Var. media Sundevall, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 16 (Wisconsin). 

[Picas vUlosus ... a. villosus . . .] I/, m^ii Coues, Birds Northwest, 1874, 279. 

[Picas villosus] b. m^ius Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 483. 

Picas villosus medius Goode, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 20, 1883, 336 (index). 

Trichopicus villosus medius Goode, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 20, 1883, 346 (index). 

DRTOBATES VILLOSUS AUDUBONH (Swainson). 

SOirrEBBV HAIBT WOODPBOKBR. 

Similar to D. v. viUostLS, but decidedly smaller^ white of under 
parts, etc.; less pure, and white markings of upper parts rather 
smaller. 

AduU rrude.—heaigth (skins), 191-217 (199.3); wing, 110.6-117.5 
(113.8); tail, 68-69 (65.2) ; exposed culmen, 26.6-30.5 (28.1); tarsus, 
19.5-21.5 (20.6); outer anterior toe, 13-14.6 (13.6).* 

^uK/^moZe.— Length (skins), 188-203 (195.6); wing, 108.6-115.5 
(112.2); tail, 59-70 (64.8); exposed culmen, 26-27.5 (26); tarsus, 
19-23 (20.1); outer anterior toe, 12.5-14 (13.2).* 

Lower Austral Zone of eastern United States, from lowlands of 
Georgia and Florida westward along the Gulf coast plain to south- 
eastern Texas; northward through lowlands of lower Mississippi 
Valley to southeastern Missouri and lower Wabash Valley, and along 
Atlantic coast plain to southeastern Virginia (Dismal Swamp). 

Picas aadubonii SwAmeoN, Fauna Bor.-Am., ii, 1831, 306, figs. 5, 6, 7 (Geoigia).— 
CASsm, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, 200 (crit.). 

<> Eleven specimens (ten from Florida, one from Geozgia). 
( Eleven spedmenB (eight from Florida, three from Georgia). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLB AMERICA. 207 

Pieut auduboni Trudbau,<> Joum. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., vii, 1837, 404 (near New 
Orleans, Louisiana; type now in coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.;«-young with yellow 
crown-patch). — Bonapabte, Geog. and Ckunp. List, 1838, 39.— Audubon, 
Cm. Biog., V, 1839, 194, pi. 417, fig. 10; Synopsis, 1839, 181; Birds Am., oct. 
ed., iv, 1842, 259, pi. 265.— Nuttall, Man. Om. U. 8. and Can., Land 
Birds, 2d ed., 1840, 684.— Malhbrbb, Mon. Picid., i, 1861, 87; iii, 1861, 
pi. 22, fig. 4. 

Plkus] auduboni Grat, Gen. Birds, ii, 1845, 435.— Bonapabts, Consp. Av., i, 
1850,138. 

[Tridiopiaui} audtiboni Bonapabts, Ateneoltaliano, ii, 1854, 123 (Consp. Volucr. 
Zygod., 1854, 8). 

Pieu» vUloaus, var. auduboni Mbrbiam, Am. Nat., viii, Jan., 1874, 88 (St. Johns 
and Ocklawaha rivers, Florida). 

[Pieus viUo8U8,] Var. auduboni Baibd, Bbbwbr, and Rn)OWAT, Hist. N. Am. 
Birds, ii, Jan., 1874, 503.— Ridowat, Ann. Lye. N. Y., x, 1874, 377 (s. 
Illinois). 

Dryobaiea viUosus audubonU IUdgwat, Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., viii, no. 23, Sept. 
2, 1885, 355.— AiiEBiCAN Oriotholooists' Union, Check IJst, 1886, (and 
2ded., 1895), no. 3936 .—Fox, Auk, iii, 1886, 319 (Roane Co., e. Tennessee).— 
Scott, Auk, vi, 1889, 251 (Tarpon Springs, Florida).— Looios, Auk, vii, 
1890, 37 (Pickens Ck)., South Carolina, 3,000 ft.); viii, 1891, 327 (Csesan 
Head, South Carolina). — Bbndibe, Life Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 
51.— Bbybr, Proc. Louisiana Soc. Nat. for 1897-99 (1900), 102 (Louisiana, 
resident). — Danibl, Auk, xix, 1902, 400 (Dismal Swamp, Virginia). — 
Oberholsbb, Notes on Blam. and Summer Birds W. N. Carolina, 1905, 15 
(up to 5,000 ft. in mts.); Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xl, 1911, 596, 601 (monogr.).— 
Wayne, Birds South Car., 1910, 88 (descr. nest and eggs). 

D[ryobaU$] viUosus audubonU Rid^way, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 282. 

DryohaUs vUlosui andubonii Sinolby, Rep. Geol. Surv. Texas, 1894, 349 (Lee 
Co., Texas, resident). 

DnfobaUs vUlosus auduboni Brbwstbb, Auk, iii, 1886, 104 (Black Mts., w. North 
Carolina, below 4,000 ft.).— Batchbldbb, Auk, iii, 1886, 313, 314, in text 
(w. North Carolina, 3,300 ft., in winter).— (?)SBNNETr, Auk, iv, 1887, 242 
(Roan Mt., 6,300 ft., July, and Cranberry, 3,000 ft., Aug., North Carolina).— 
Jbnkins, Auk, xxiii, 1906, 167 (crit.). — Howell, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 
zd, 1908, 120 (Natchitoches, Louisiana, Dec.); Auk, xxvi, 1909, 133 (n. 
Georgia); xxvii, 1910, 216 (Olive Branch, Alexander Ck)., Illinois, May, 
common), 296 (Barboursville and Manmioth Cave, Kentucky), 301 (Cross 
Mt., etc., e. Tennessee), 382 (St. Francis River and Cushion Lake, s. e. Miss- 
ouri). — ^AiiBBicAN Obnttholooists' Union, Check List, 3d ed., 1910, 186. 

[Pieus ( Triehopieus) vUUmis.] var. minor (not Picus minor Linnseus) BAnto, Rep. 
Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1868, p. xxvii (nomen nudimi). 

[Pieus viUosu^.] Variety minor Baibd, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 85. 

[Pieus viUosus.] Var. minor Sundbvall, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 16, part. 

[Pieus viUosus ... a. viUosus ..,]</. minores Coubs, Birds Northwest, 1874, 
280 (synonymy). 

[Pieus viUosus] c. minor Coubs, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 483. 

Picas villosus minor Goodb, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 20, 1883, 336 (index). 

Trichopicus viUosus minor Goodb, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 20, 1883, 346 (index). 

[Dendrocopus viUosus.] SmaU Southern Form HABorrr, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 
xviii, 1890, 231. 

^Redescribed as a new species, the author being apparently unaware of Swain- 
nn*s prior description under the same name. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



208 



BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



Piciu cuvieri Malheebb, Mon. Picid., i, 1861, 85 ("North America;" » young 

female); iii, 1861, pL 22, ^, 3. 
Picas vtllosiLS (not of linnffiUB) Woodhouse, in Sitgreaves' Expl. Zufii and Col. 

R., 1853, 89 (Indian Territory; Texas).— Allen, Bull. Mue. Comp. Zool., ii, 

1871, 302 (Florida).-<5ouB8, Check List, 1873, no. 298, part; 2d ed., 1882, 

no. 438, part.— OoiLBY, Sci. Proc. Roy. Dublin Soc., iii 1882, 57 (Navarro 

Co., Texas, resident). 
D[ryobate8] vUlotui Cabanis, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 66, part (Geoigia; South 

Carolina). 
DryohaUs vUlosui Beckham, Auk, iv, 1887, 304 (Bayou Saia, Louisiana).— Rmo- 

WAY, Om. Illinois, i, 1889, 376, part.— Ferry, Auk, xxiv, 1907, 432 (Cairo, 

Illinois, Aug.).— Philifp, Auk, xxvii, 1910, 318 (Lake Ellis, etc.. North 

Carolina, summer). 
Dendroeopus maynardi (not Dryohates viUonu maynardi Ridgway) Haroitt, Cat. 

Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 570 (Tarpon Springs, Florida); Ibis, 1891, 467, 

in text (Tarpon Springs). 

DRTOBATES VILLOSUS MAYNARDI Ridgway. 

KAYVABD'S WOODPXOKSK. 

Similar to D. v, audubonii, but wing shorter, loral region wholly 
white (sometimes with a few minute dots of black), thus connecting 
the white superciliary and suborbital stripes, sides of breast more 
streaked with black; adult male with red nuchal patch broader, not 
interrupted medially. 

Adult male.— Length, (skins), 180-200' (183); wing, 103-109 
(107.3); tail, 61.5-68 (65.2); cuhnen, 26-29.5 (27.7); tarsus, 19-20.6 
(19.8); middle toe, 13-14.5 (13.7) .« 

AduU female.— Length (skins), 170-200 (183); wing, 100.5-108.5 
(104); tail, 61-68.5 (63.9); cuhnen, 23.5-27 (26); tarsus, 17.5-19.6 
(19); outer anterior toe, 12.5-13.5 (12.8).* 

Islands of New Providence and Andros, Bahamas. 
Pieus viUosus (not of linnsens) Bryant, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., vii, 1859, 106 
(Nassau, New Providence, Bahamas).— Albrecht, Joum. fOr Om., 1861, 51 
(Bahamas).— CoRT, Birds Bahama I., 1880, 120 (New Providence I.). 

o Thirteen specimens. 



Locality. 


Wing. 


TalL 


Ex- 

posed 

cutmen. 


Taraus. 


Oater 
ante- 
rior toe. 


MALKS. 

Ten adult males from New Providence Island 


J07 
106.5 
106 
107. a 

103.6 
106.6 
106.6 
103.4 


66.2 
66.6 

64 

63.2 
66.2 
64.6 
62.3 


28 
27.2 
28.6 
28.5 

25 
25.2 
24 
24.7 


10.8 
19.9 
20 
20.3 

19.1 
18.7 
18.7 
19.2 


13.7 




18.7 


One adult male (D. v. piger) fromOreat Bahama Island 

Fiye adult males (D. 0. pi^) from Abaoo Island 


12.6 
13.4 


riMALBS. 


12.© 


Thnw adnlt females frt>TU A nririoaTsland 


12 8 


Nine adult females (P. o.pi^) from Abaoo Island 


13.8 
13.1 







Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIRDS OF NOBTH AND MIDDLE AMBBIGA. 209 

P%eu» irmdaris (not of Gould, 1862) Matnabd, Nat. in Florida, i, no. 4, 1885 (New 
Providence, Bahamas; coll. 0. J. Maynard). 

[Piaa] viRosus irmUaris Gort, List Birds West Ind., 1885, 19. 

Picu8 viUotUB inwJaris Cobt, Auk, iii, 1886, 375, part (synonymy). 

Dlryohates] vUlasus maynardi Ridoway, Man. N. Am. Birds, Sept. 27, 1887, 282 
(new name for Piau irutilaris Majrnard, preoccupied). 

Dryohales vUlonu maynardi Ridowat, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 591; Auk, viii, 
1891, 331 (New Providence I.).— Cory, Birds West Ind., 1889, 170, part 
(synonymy); Cat. West Ind. Birds, 1892, 12, 104, 127, 142, part (New Provi- 
dence I.; Andros I.). — ^Northrop, Auk, viii, 1891, 75 (Andros I.). — ^Bon- 
HOTE, Ibis, 1899, 516 (New Providence I.; habits; crit.); 1903, 294, i»rt (New 
Providence I.).— Riley, Auk, xxii, 1905, 355 (New Providence I.)- — Ober- 
HOLSBR, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xl, 1911, 596, 603 (monogr.).— Todd, Ann. 
Carnegie Mus., vii, 1911, 420 (New Providence I. ; Andros I. ; crit.). — ^Worth- 
INGTON, Ann. Carnegie Mus., vii, 1911, 453 (New Providence I.). 

Dryobates maynardi Bangs, Auk, xvii, July, 1900, 288 (Nassau, New Providence 
I.; descr. young). 

D[ryobate8] m[aynardi\ maynardi Jenkins, Auk, xxiii, April, 1906, 169, in text. 

[Dendrocopus villoma.] Subsp. a. DendrocopuB mayncardi HARorrr, Cat. Birds Brit. 
Mus., xviii, 1890, 233. 

[Dendrocopiuil maynardi Sharpe, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 214, part. 

DRYOBATES VILLOSUS PIGER G. M. Allen. 
ALLXJBrn WOODPBOKSB. 

Similar to D. v. maynardi, but with fewer black streaks (or none) on 
sides of breast and, usually, with one or more black spots on inner 
webs of two lateral pairs of normal rectrices. 

AduU TnoZe.— Length (skins), 182-203 (189); wing, 105.5-110 
(107); tail, 62.5-65.5 (64); cuhnen, 27.5-29.5 (28.5); tarsus, 20-20.5 
(20.3); outer anterior toe, 12.5-14 (13.4) .« 

AduU female.— Length (skins), 170-202 (180); wing, 100-109.5 
(104.2); tail, 60-68 (63.3); culmen, 22.5-27 (24.4); tarsus, 18-20.5 
(19); outer anterior toe, 12-14 (13).* 

Abaco, Little Abaco, and Great Bahama islands^ Bahamas. 

Pieu$ villosus irutdaris (not Picus ingidaria Maynard, 1885, nor of Gould, 1862) 
CoRT, Auk, iii, 1886, 375, part (''northern Bahama Islands^'). 

Dryobates villosia maynardi (not of Ridgway, 1887) Cory, Birds West Ind., 1889, 
170, part (''northern Bahama Islands"); Auk, viii, 1891, 298 (Abaco I.), 350, 
part (Abaco I.); Cat. West Ind. Birds, 1892, 12, 104, 127, 142, part (Abaco I.; 
Great Bahama I.).— Rtooway, Auk, viii, 1891, 334 (Abaco I.). — ^Bonhote, 
Ibis, 1903, 294, part (Great Bahama I.; Abaco I.; Little Abaco 1.7). 

Dryobates villosus piger Allbn (G. M.), Auk, xxii, April, 1905, 124 (Great Bahama 
Island, Bahamas; coll. Mus. Comp. Zool.).— Jenkins, Auk, xxiii, 1906, 169, 
in text. — Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xl, 1911, 596, 603 (monogr.) 
— Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., vii, 1911, 421 (Abaco I.; crit.) — ^Worthing- 
TON, Ann. Carnegie Mus., vii, 1911, 454 (Abaco I.). 

Dryobates maynardi piger Jeukisb, Auk, xxiii, April, 1906, 169, in text. 

« Six specimens. * Twelve specimens. 

3e22*— Bull. 50, pt6— 14 14 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



210 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATJONAL MUSEUM. 

DRTOBATBS VILLOSUS SBPTBffTRIOHALIS (HttfUOl). 

VO&THZUr HAIBY WOODPBCKBR. 

Similar to D. v. viUosua but decidedly larger, the white purer, and 
white markings averaging rather larger. 

AduU Tmife.— Length (skins), about 245-250;" wing, 128.5-138 
(132.3); tail, 77.5-87 (83.3); exposed culmen, 34-37.6 (36); tarsus, 
22-25 (23.6); outer anterior toe, 14.5-16 (15.3).* 

^uft /moZe.— Length (skins), 227-260 (240); wing, 128-136.5 
(130.4); tail, 78.5-90.5 (84.3); exposed cuhnen, 29.5-33.5 (31.3); 
tarsus, 22-23.5 (22.5); outer anterior toe, 13.5-15.5 (14.3).« 

Canadian Zone (except Pacific coast section) of North America, 
from western Yukon (Fort ReUance), southern Alaska (Homer, 
Eenai Peninsula, September 13), central Mackenzie, and central 
Eeewatin southward (at least in fall, winter, and spring) to Sas- 
katchewan, eastern Montana (Fort Eeogh, April 7), Manitoba, 
Alberta, Quebec, etc. (Specimens taken diuing June at Columbia 
Falls, Montana, and Sebec Lake, Maine, are very nearly if not 
quite as large as some specimens of D. v. septerUrianalis from the far 
north, and apparently should be referred to that form; but examples 
taken in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia during August, October, 
and November, are decidedly smaller. See table of measurements 
on p. 202.) 

[Ptcuff] villo9us (not of LinnseuB) Fobstbr, Fhiloe. Trans., Ixii, 1772, 388 (Severn 

R.). 
Picus villostu ViEiLLOT, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., ttti, 1818, 71, part (Hudson 
Bay).— Gray, List Birds Brit. Mus., Picids, 1868, 45 (Fort Simpson).— Blak- 
I8TON, Ibis, 1862, 3 (Forks of Saskatchewan R.); 1863, 51 (north to lat. 63'', 
n. w. Canada; habits). — (Joubs, Check List, 1873, no. 298, part; 2d ed., 
1882, no. 438, part.— Cobt, Nat. Hist. Magdalen Is., 1878, 51.— Mebbiam, 
Bull. Nutt. Om. aub, vii, 1882, 236 (Godbout, Quebec).— Stbabns, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., vi, 1883, 118 (Eskimo R., Labrador).— Soott, Auk, i, 1884, 
161 (Ottawa, Ontario, in winter). 
(7)Picu8 (Dendrocopus) viUotua SwAn^soN, Fauna Bor.-Am., ii, 1831, 305. 
[Dendrooopus] vUlonu Shabpb, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 214, part. 
[Picus] letuxnneUu (not of Boddaert, 1783) Gbat, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 186, no. 

8599, part. 
Dlryohates] leucomelaa Cabanis and Hbine, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 67, part. 
Picus villosus leucomelas Rtogway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, Aug. 24, 1880, 

188, 219; Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 360a. 
Dryobates villosus leucomelas RmowAT, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, no. 23, Sept. 
2, 1885, 355.— Amebican Obnttholooistb' Union, Check List, 1886, 393a; 
3d ed., 1910, 185.— Seton, Auk, iii, 1886, 155 (Manitoba).— Nelson, Rep. 
Nat. Hist. Coll. Alaska, 1887, 156 (Ft. Reliance, etc.).— Chapman, Bull. 

a Only two of the eleven skins are made up in such shape that the total l^igth can 
be measured with approximate accuracy, 
b Eleven specimens. 
c Ten specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD6 OF KOBTH AND MIIM>LB AMEBIOA. 211 

Am. Mu8. N. H., iii, 1890, 138, part (Ft. Liard, Mackenzie; Ft. Reliance, 
Yukon Terr.; crit.); xvi, 1902, 239 (Homer, Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, 
Sept.).— -Thompson, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xiii, 1890, 648 (Winnipeg, etc., 
Manitoba, breeding).— Oiabkb (W. E.), Auk, vii, 1890, 322 (Ft. Churchill).— 
Nutting, Bull. Lab. N. H. State Univ. Iowa, ii, 1893, 270 (Grand Rapids, 
lower Saskatchewan).— Benddub, Life Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 50. — 
Bishop, North Am. Fauna, no. 19, 1900, 77 (Fifty-mile R., near Miles Canyon, 
Yukon Valley).— CouBBAUz, Ottawa Nat., 1900, 28 (s. Saskatchewan, resi- 
dent).— Flsmino, Auk, xviii, 1901, 39 (Parry Sound and Muskoka, n. 
Ontario, resident).— Cubbieb, Auk, zxi, 1904, 35 (Leech Lake, n. Minne- 
sota, breeding).— Wood, Auk, xxii, 1905, 177 (Isle Royal, n. Michigan, 
Aug., Sept.).— JBNB3N8, Auk, xxiii, 1906, 166 (crit.).— Adams, Ecol. Surv. 
N. Mich., 1906, 123 (Isle Royal, Aug., Sept.).— Andeeson, Proc. Davenport 
Ac. Sci., xi, 1907, 274 (Sioux City, Iowa, Nov., Dec.).— Pbeble, North Am. 
Fauna, no. 27, 1908, 379 (Great Slave Lake, Ft. Simpson, etc., to lower 
Athabasca R.).— Stansill, Auk, xxvi, 1909, 395 (centr. Alberta).— Gbinnell 
(J.), Condor, xi, 1909, 205 (Forty-mile, Yukon Terr., Nov.).— Osgood, North 
Am. Fauna, no. 30, 1909, 89 (Plateau Mt., Yukon Tenr.). 

D[rffobaUs\ viilosus leuamulaa Ridgwat, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 282. 

D[ryobaU8] v{%llosu8] leucomelas Wood and Gaige, Pub. 4, Mich. Geol. and Biol. 
Surv., 1911, in text (breeding on Isle Royale). 

[PicuB villosus.] Var. canadensis (not Picus canadensis GmeUn) Baibd, Bbbweb, 
and Ridgwat, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 503, part. 

Picus septentrionalis iivTtAjXt Man. Om. XJ. S. and Can., Land Birds, 2d ed., 
1840, 684 (''northern parts of the continent as far as the 63d parallel, as well 
as in the Oregon Territory.'*). 

Dryobates vUlosus sepUntrionalis Obeeholsbb, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xl, no. 
1840, June 3, 1911, 597, 604 (monogr.). 

[Picas (Tridiopicus) villosus] var. major (not Picus rnajor Liniueus) Baibd, Rep. 
Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, p. xxvii (nomen nudum). 

[Picus villosus] Variety major Baibd, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 85, 
part. 

[Picus viUosus.] Var. major Sundevall, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 16, part. 

[Picus vUlosus ... a. villosus . . .] 9/. majores Couss, Birds Northwest, 1874, 
279, part 

[Picus vUlosus] a. major Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 483. 

Picus viUosus major Goods, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 20, 1883, 336 (index). 

Triehopicus villosus major Goods, Bull. XJ. S. Nat. Mus., no. 20, 1883, 346 (index). 

[Dendrocopus viUosus.] Large Northern form HABonr, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 
xyjii, 1890, 231. 

DRTOBATES YIIXOSUS TERE^NOVA Batch^der. 

HSW70Xnn>LAVD WOODPBOKBR. 

Similar to D. v. viUo^us and D. v. septerUrionaUs (intennediate in size) 
but with much less white on back and wings, the white dorsal stripe 
usually more or less broken by black spotting (sometimes reduced to 
spots), the wing-coverts with fewer and smaller white spots, and white 
spots on remiges reduced in size; sides and flanks sometimes streaked 
with dusky, and lateral rectrices sometimes with one or more black 
spots or bars on inner web. 

Adult fiurfe.— Length (skins), 222-238 (231); wing, 126-133.5 
(128.4); tail, 80.5-90 (83.4); cuhnen, 29.6-32 (30.7); tarsus, 21.5- 
23.5 (22.4); outer anterior toe, 15-16 (15.4).» 

a Six apecimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



212 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

AdvU /wnoZe.— Length (skins), 220-236 (225); wing, 122-128 
(124.8); tail, 80.5-86 (82.8); culmen, 25.5-27 (26.3); tarsus, 21.5- 
23.5 (22.2); outer anterior toe, 14-15 (14.6).« 

Dryohates vUlosiu leucomelas (not Piau leucomelas Boddaert) Pobtbr, Auk, xviii, 
1900, 72 (Newfoundland).— (?) Townsend and Allbn, Proc. Boat. Soc. N. H., 
xxxiii, 1907, 376 (s. Labrador, resident). 
Dryobates villasfis tenssnovx Batchbldeb, Proc. New EngL Zool. Club, iv, June 
24, 1908, 37 (Placentia, Newfoundland; coll. C. F. Batchelder).— American 
Obnitholooists' Union Cohhittee, Auk, xxvi, 1909, 296 (Check List no 
393^); Check List, 3d ed., 1910, 186.— Arnold, Auk, xxix, 1912, 76. 
Dryobates villosus terracnavae Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mub., xl, 1911, 597, 
607 (monogr.). 

DRYOBATES VILLOSUS MONTICOLA Anthony. 
&OOKY KOTnrTAnr woodpboksk. 

Similar, in large size and whiteness of under parts, to D. v. septenr- 
trionalis, but with white spots on wing-coverts much reduced in size 
or number, or altogether wanting. 

AduU moZe.— Length (skins), 216-236 (226); wing, 130-137.5 
(133.3); tail, 78.5-89.5 (82.5); exposed culmen, 28-34 (32.6) ; tarsus, 
22-24.5 (22.7); outer anterior toe, 14-16 (14.7).* 

Adult femde.— Length (skins), 208-231 (218); wing, 126.5-134.5 
(131.1); tail, 71.5-87.5 (79.8); exposed culmen, 28-31 (29.5); tarsus, 
21.5-23.5 (22.1); outer anterior toe, 13.5-15.5 (14.3).« 

Canadian and Transition zones of Rocky Mountain district, from 
central and eastern British Columbia (Vernon; Ashcroft; Ashmola 
River; LakelaHache; Crater Mountain; Similkameen River; lower 
Fraser Valley; Okanogan; Querelle; Sicamous; Caribou district; 
Chilliwack) and southward to eastern Utah and northern New 
Mexico; eastward to eastern Montana (Fort Keogh and Lame Deer, 
breeding), western South Dakota (Elk Mountains, breeding), western 
Nebraska (Squaw Caflon, Sioux County, June; Harrison, Sioux 
County, February); westward to eastern Washington (Spokane 
River; Fort Spokane and Conconully, September), and eastern Utah 
(Wahsatch and Uintah Mountains, breeding). 

Picus harriaii (not of Audubon) Baibd, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1868, 87, port 

(Spokane R., e. Waahington). 
Picus harrisii Merbiam, An. Rep. U. S. GeoL Surv. Terr, for 1872 (1873), 093 

(Teton Canyon, Idaho, June). 
Picus harrisi Aiken, Proc. Boat. Soc. N. H., xv, 1872, 206 (e. Colorado) .—Rtoq. 

WAY, Om. 40tli Parallel, 1877, 545, part (Parley's P^k, Utah); Field and 

Forest, ii, 1877, 209 (Colorado). 
[Picus villosus. ] Var. hcarrisii Coubs, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 294, part. 
Picus villosus . . . var. harrisi Coues, Check list, 1873, no. 298a, part.— Baird, 

Brewer, and RmowAY, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 507, part.— Henshaw, 

Zool. Exp. W. 100th Merid., 1875, 386 (Grass Valley, Utah; Ft. Garland and 

Pagosa, Colorado). 

a Five specimens. ^ Ten specimens. « Eight specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF KOBTH AKD MIDDLE AMEBIOA. 218 

Pieus viUoius, var. harriti Allbn, Proc. Boet. Soc. N. H., zvii, 1874, 63 (Yellow- 
Btone and Musselfihell rivers, Montana). — Soott, Bull. Nutt. Cm. Club, iv, 
1879, 95 (Twin Lakes, Colorado, breedbig). 

Pieut viUo$u», var. Aommt Ridowat, Am. Joum. Sci., iv, Dec., 1872, 456, part; 
BuU. Essex Inst., v, 1873, 173 (Wahsatch Mto., Utah, 4,000-10,000 ft.).— 
Allen, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., iii, 1872, 151 (Colorado).— Hbnshaw, Ann. 
Lye. N. Y., xi, 1874, 9 (mts. of Utah). 

Picu8 vUUmii . . . var. harritix Hbnshaw, Rep. Cm. Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 
1874, 48 (mts. of Utah, resident), 89 (mts. near Ft. Garland, Colorado, June). 

Picus viUotui harriti RmowAT, Bull. Essex Inst., vii, Jan., 1875, 34 (Parleys Park, 
Utah); Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 188, part; Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, 
no. 3606, part.— CouBs, Bull. U. S. Geol. and Creog. Surv. Terr., iv, 1878, 616 
(Rocky Mts., lat. 49''); Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 439, part.— Dbbw, Bull. 
Nutt. Cm. Club, vi, 1881, 140 (San Juan Co., Colorado); Auk, ii, 1885, 17 
(Colorado, breeding at 4,500-11,500 ft.).— Allen and Bbbwstib, Bull. Nutt. 
Om. Club, viii, 1883, 196 (Colorado Springs, Colorado, May, June).— Aobbs- 
BOBO, Auk, ii, 1885, 283 (s. e. South Dakota; "resident").— Hbnshaw, Auk, 
iii, 1886, 78 (upper Pecos R., New Mexico). 

[Pieua vUlostti] var. harrini Allbn, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., iii, 1872, 180 (mts. of 
Colorado). 

F[<eut] v[%lloita] harrisi Coubs, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 483 part. 

Pieus vid<mu harrisii Gbinnbll (G. B.), in Ludlow's Rep. Recon., 1876, 80 (Little 
Belt Mts., Montana). 

DryobaUs villotus harritii Am bbican Obnjtholooibts' Union, Check List, 1886, 
no. 393c, part.— €ooKB, Bird Migr. Miss. Val., 1888, 128 (Vermilion, South 
Dakota). 

Dryobates viUonts haniti Bbceham, Auk, iv, 1887, 120 (Pueblo Co., Colorado). 

[Dendrooopus viUoius.] Subsp. p. Dendrocopua harriai Habgitt, Cat. Birds Brit. 
Mus., xviii, 1890, 234, part (localities in Montana, Dakotas, Wyoming, and 
Colorado). 

PicuM vUlosuM (not of linnseus) Allbn, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., iii, 1872, 163 (Mt. 
Lincoln, Colorado).— (?) Williams, Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, vii, 1882, 62 (Belt 
Mts., Montana, breeding). — (?) Camebon, Auk, xxiv, 1907, 270 (Custer and 
Davenport Counties, Montana, breeding). 

(?) Dryobates villoma Nblson, Rep. Nat. Hist. Coll. Alaska, 1887, 155 (Brit. 
Columbia; s. e. Alaska). 

[Pioisvillosrja . . . b. Aamni] a. Tno/orea Coubs, Birds Northwest, 1874, 280, part. 

DryobaUi vUUmu hyloscopua (not D. hyloacopua Cabanis and Heine) Ambbican 
Obnttholgoists' Union, Check List, 2d ed., 1895, no. 393<f, part.— Mbbbiam, 
North Am. Fauna, no. 5, 1891, 97 (Salmon R. and Sawtooth Mts., etc., 
Idaho).— Lows, Auk, xi, 1894, 268 (Wet Mts., Colorado, 10,000 ft.).— Rich- 
mond and Enowlton, Auk, xi, 1894, 303 (south-centr. Montana). — ^Bendibb, 
life Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 53, part.— Cooke, Bull. Col. Agric. Coll., 
no. 37, 1897, 82 (resident in Colorado, breeding up to 11,000 ft.).— Mbbmll 
(J. C), Auk, xiv, 1897, 353 (Ft. Sherman, Idaho, resident).— Caby, Auk, 
xviii, 1901, 233 (Black Hills, Wyoming).— Sillo way. Bull. Univ. Montana, 
no. 3, 1901, 50 (Flathead Lake, etc., Montana).— Bbooks, Auk, xx, 1903, 281 
(breeding at 158-mile House, Caribou Distr., Brit. Columbia). 

D[ryobaie»] villoma hyloaoopus RmawAY, Man. N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1896, 596, 
part. 

(?) DryobaUa villoma leuoomelaa (not of Ridgway, 1885; not Picua Imcomelaa Bod- 
daert) Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., iii, 1890, 138, part (Ashcroft, Brit. 
Columbia; crit.).— Fannin, Check list Birds Brit. Col., 1891, 27 (e. of Cas- 
cade Range).— Rhoadb, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sd. Phila., 1893, 43 (int. Brit. Colum- 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



214 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

bia; crit.).— Brooks, Auk, xvii, 1900, 106 (lower Fiaser Valley, Brit. Colum- 
bia); XX, 1903, 281 (Querelle and Caribou District, Brit. Columbia) .—Kbb- 
MODE, Prov. Mus. Victoria, 1909, 48 (SicamouB and Chilliwack, int. Brit. 
Columbia). 

Dryobates vUlotta montanut (not Picua montanut Ord, 1815, nor Brehm, 1828) 
Anthony, Auk, xiii, Jan., 1896, 32 (Boulder Co., Colorado, Dec.; coll. A. W. 
Anthony). 

[Dryobates viUonut] monticola Anthony, Auk, xv, Jan., 1898, 54, in text (to replace 
D. V. moTUcmua, preoccupied). 

Dryobates v%llo$ti» monticola American ORNirHOLoaiSTs' Union, Auk, xvi, 1899, 
110; Check List, 3d ed., 1910, 186.— Bailey (Florence M.), Auk, xxi, 1904, 
353 (upper Pecos R., New Mexico, 7,400-11,600 ft., breeding).— Jenkins, 
Auk, xxiii, 1906, 168 (crit.).— Oilman, Condor, x, 1908, 147 (Navajo Reserva- 
tion, New Mexico, resident). — Rockwell, Condor, x, 1908, 164 (Mesa Co., w. 
Colorado, resident).— Warren (£. R.)> Condor, xi, 1909, 14 (Montrose Co., 
Colorado, resident). — ^Henderson, Univ. Colo. Stud., vi, 1909, 231 (mts. of 
Colorado, resident).— Orbrholsbr, Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., xl, 1911, 597, 606 
(monogr.). 

[Dendrocopus] monticola Sharps, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 214. 

DRYOBATBS YILLOSUS LBUCOTHORECTIS Oberholaer. 

WHZTX-B&XASTXD WOOOPXCKER. 

Similar to D. v. monticola but decidedly smaller. 

AduU moZe.— Length (skins), 201-235 (216); wing, 123.5-131 
(126.3); tail, 75.5-86.5 (79.4); exposed culmen, 28.5-33 (30.8); 
tarsus, 20-22.5 (21.5); outer anterior toe, 12.5-15.5 (13.8).« 

AMU /maZ^.— Length (skins), 196-214 (207); wing, 120-128 
(123.6); tail, 73.5-83 (77.8); exposed culmen, 24-27.5 (25.9); tarsus, 
20-22 (20.8); outer anterior toe, 13-14.5 (13.5).* 

Arizona (except northeastern portion) and middle New Mexico to 
extreme western Texas (Guadalupe Mountains) and southern Utah 
(Pine Valley; Kiver View; Beaver Mountains). 

Picus harriaii (not of Audubon) Baird, Rep. Pacific B. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 87, 
part (LitUe Colorado R., Arizona; Ft. Fillmore, Ft. Massachusetts, and 
Rio Grande, New Mexico); Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 75, part. — Ken- 
NBRLT, Rep. P^ific R. R. Surv., ix, x, pt. iv, no. 3, 1859, 21 (Little Colorado 
R.).— CouBS, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, 62 (Ft. Whipple, Arizona; 
crit.).— CooPBB, Om. Calif., 1870, 375, part (e. branches of Colorado R., 
Arizona). 

Picua harrin Coues, Ibis, 1865, 162 (Pt. Whipple). 

[Picus v%Uo8U8] Var. harriaii Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 294, part. 

Picua vUloaua . . . var. harriai . . . Coues, Check List, 1873, no. 298a, part. — 
Henshaw, Rep. Om. Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 1874, 133 (Ft. Wingate, New 
Mexico, etc.). 

Picua villomaf var. harriai Baou), Bbewbe, and RmowAT, Hist. N. Am. Birds, 
ii, 1874, 507, part.— Henshaw, Zool. Exp. W. 100th Merid., 1875, 386, 
part (Tanks and Mt. Graham, Arizona). 

a Sixteen specimens. ^ Ten specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIRDS OF KOBTH AKD MIDDLB AMBBIOA. 215 

Ttichopieui hmiiU Hbnrt, Ftoc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Fhila., 1859, 105 (New Mexico). 
PieuB vilUmu, var. harririi Bidowat, Am. Joum. Sci., iv, 1872, 456, part. 
Picas viUonii harrin Ridqwat, Proc. TJ. S. Nat. Miw., iii, 1880, 188, part; Nom. 

N. Am. BiidB, 1881, no. 3606, part.— €oub8. Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 

489, part.— Batchbldek, Auk, ii, 1885, 127 (Las V^gas Hot Springs, New 

Mexico). 
P[iau] vlUUmui] haniii Coubs, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, no. 483, part. 
Dryobata viUotus hamsii Ridqwat, Proc. V, 8. Nat. Mus., viii, 1885, 355, 

part.— Ambbican Ornitholooists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 393c, 

part.— MrrcHBLL, Auk, xv, 1898, 308 (San Miguel Co., New Mexico, breeding). 
l>[Tyobaie8] vQloms harrisH Bidowat, Mui. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 283, part. 
[Dendrooopua vUUmis.] Subsp. j9. DerutocopuM harrin HABorrf, Cat. Birds 

Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 234, part (Spring^ville, Arizona). 
[Piaa viUotu8 . . . .b. harrigii] h\ rnedH Coubs, Birds North West, 1874, 280, 

part (in synonymy). 
Pieui harram Kbnnbslt, Rep. Fiaeific R. R. Surv., iv, pt. vi, 1856, 10 (Little 

Colorado R., Arizona). 
[Dryobatea villonu] hylo9copu$ (not D. hylo$eopus Cabanis and Heine) Brbwstbb, 

Auk, V, 1888, 252, in text (part). 
Dryobatea vUhaua hylotcopuM Ambbioan Obntthglooists' Union, Suppl. to 

Check List, 1889, 9, part; Check List, 2d ed., 1895, no. 393<f, part.— Mbr- 

BiAM, North Am. Fauna, no. 3, 1890, 92 (San Francisco Mt., Arizona, in 

pine belt).— Mbabns, Auk, vii, 1890, 251 (mts. of Arizona, breeding in 

pine belt).— BBNDtRB, Life Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 53, part. — ^Wbt- 

MORB, Kansas Univ. Sci. Bull., iv, no. 19, 1906, 378 (Bill Williams Mt., 

Arizona). 
D[ryohaie$] vUlonu hyloicopua Ridowat, Man. N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1896, 596^ 

part. 
Dryobatea villoaua leuooihoreeHa Obbrholsbb, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xl, no. 1840, 

June 3, 1911, 597, 608 (Burley, New Mexico; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.).— Bbbq- 

TOLD, Auk, xxix, 1912, 332 (Gila R., New Mexico).— Ambbican Ornitholo- 

gists' Union CoiocnTBB, Auk, xxix, 1912, 383. 

DRTOBATBS VILLOSUS ORIUS Oberholoer. 
8ZB&BA WOODPXOBX&. 

Siinilar to D. v. leucothorectis, but decidedly larger and with under 
parts less purely white (usually more or less tinged with pale drab- 
grayish) ; similar also to D. v. morUicoJa but smaller and less purely 
^diite beneath. 

AduU Tmife.— Length (skins), 206-244 (224); wmg, 125.5-132.5 
(129.1); tail, 69.5-83.5 (77); exposed eulmen, 30-34.5 (31.9); tarsus, 
21-24 (22.9); outer anterior toe, 14-15.5 (15) .« 

AduU fenude.— Length^ (skms), 213; wing, 125-128.5 (126.3); 
tail, 78.5-83 (80.1); exposed eulmen, 27-27.5 (27.1); tarsus, 21-22 
(21.5); outer anterior toe, 14-15 (14.4). <^ 

Sierra Nevada district of California, Oregon, South-central Wash- 
ington, and Nevada; casually (id winter) to western Washington 
(PuyaUup). 

a Thirteen specimeuB. ^ One specimen. « Four epecimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



216 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL BCUSEUM. 

(7)Picu8 (Trichopicut) harrisii (not Picua harriii Audubon) Baird, Rep. Pacific 
R. R. Surv., ix, 1868, p. xxvi, part. 

{t)P\cuB harrisii Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1868, 87, part (The Dalles 
Oregon). 

Pi/nu harrini Cooper, Om. Calif., 1870, 376, part (summit of Sierra Nevada). — 
Feilnbr, Ann. Rep. Smithson. Inst, for 1864 (1866), 426 (Ft. Crook, Cali- 
fornia; habits). 

PicuB harrin Sglater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, 3 (near Shasta, California). — 
RmowAT, Om. 40tJi Parallel, 1877, 646, part (near Pyramid Lake and 
Carson City, Nevada). 

Pieus '^harrin" Beldino, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., i, 1878, 391, 393 (Calaveras 
Co., California, 2,400-4,600 ft.). 

[PicuB vUUmu.] Var. harrisii Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 294, part. 

Picus vUlosus . . . var. harrisi Coues, Check List, 1873, no. 298a, part.— Baird, 
Brewer, and Ridgwat, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 607, part. 

Picus viUosus, c. ^OTTtst RmowAY and Beldino, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., i, 1878, 
428 (Soda Springs, Murphys, and Summit Meadows, California; breeding 
from 3,600 ft. upward). 

Picus viUasuSf var. harrisi Baird, Brewer, and Ridoway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, 
1874, 607, part. 

Picus viUosuSf var. harrisii Ridowat, Am. Joum. Sci., iv, 1872, 466, part. 

Picus viUasus harrisi Ridowat, Bull. Essex Inst., vii, Jan., 1876, 13, 16, 21, 24 
(localities in Nevada); Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 188, part; Norn. 
N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 3606, part.— Mearns, Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, iv, 
1879, 196 (Ft. Klamath, Oregon, sum. res.).— Coues, Check List, 2d ed., 
1882, 439, part. 

P[ieu8] v[iUosus] harrisi Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 483, part. 

Dryobates viUosus harrisii Ridowat, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, 1886, 366, part. — 
American Ornitholooists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 393o, part. — 
Bendire, Auk, V, 1888, 24 (Ft. Klamath, Oregon, breeding).-— Merrill 
(J. C), Auk, V, 1888, 251 (Ft. Klamath). 

D[ryobates] villosus harrisii Ridowat, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 283, part. 

[Dendrocojms villosus,] Subsp. fi. Dendrocopus harrisi HARonr, Cat. Birds 
Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 234, part (Carson City, Nevada; Ft. Crook and Lake 
Tahoe, California). 

[Picus vUlosvs b. harrisii] \/, medxi Coues, Birds Northwest, 1874, 280, part 
(in synonymy). 

[DryohaUs] hyloscopus (not of Cabanis and Heine) Heine and Reichsnow, Nom. 
Mus. Hein. Om., 1890, 214 (Sierra Nevada). 

[DryobaUs villosus] hyloseopus Brewster, Auk, v, 1888, 262, in text, part (Ft. 
Klamath). 

Dryobates villosus hyloseopus American Ornttholoqists' Union, Suppl. to 
Check List, 1889, 9, part; Check List, 2d ed., 1896, no. 393{f, part.— Mer- 
RiAH, North Am. Fauna, no. 16, 1899, 114 (Mt. Shasta, California).— Ben- 
dire, Life Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1896, 63, part.— Widmann, Auk, xxi, 
1904, 68 (Yosemite Valley).— Rat, Auk, xxii, 1906, 366 (high Sierra Nevada, 
breeding). — Sheldon, Condor, ix, 1907, 188 (Eagle Lake, n. e. California, 
breeding). — Dawson, Auk, xxv, 1908, 483 (Kirkland, e. Washington). 

D[ryobates] villosus hyloseopus Ridgwat, Man. N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1896, 696, 
part. 

[Dendrocopus] hyloseopus Sharps, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 214, part. 

Dryobates villosus orius Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xl, no. 1840, June 3, 
1911, 697, 609 (Quincy, California; coll. XT. S. Nat. Mus.). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIRDS OF KOBTH AND MIDDLB AMEBICA. 
DRTOBATES VUXOSUS HYLOSCOPUS (Cabanis). 

OABAVIS' WOOOPXOKEB. 



217 



Similar to D. v. leucothorectis, but decidedly smaller, and under 
parts dull grayish or brownish white or pale drab-grayish or buffy 
grayish. 

AduU Twofe.— Length (skins), 194-221 (214); wing, 118.6-129 
(122.6);tail, 68-78.5 (73.1); exposed cuhnen, 28.5-33 (30.9) ; tarsus, 
21-22.5 (21.6); outer anterior toe, 13-14.5 (13.9).« 

MtJi fenude.— Length (skins), 190-210 (202); wing, 114.5-126 
(120.1); tail, 67-81.5 (75.1); exposed cuhnen, 26-29 (27.2); tarsus, 
19.5-21 (20.5); outer anterior toe, 12.5-14.5 (13.5).* 

Coast district of Califomia and northern Lower California, north to 
Mendocino County (Cahto; Mount Sanhedrin), south to San Pedro 
Martir Mountains, Hansen's Ranch, sixty miles north of Campo, 
etc.; in the interior of southern Califomia north to Mariposa County 
(Bear Valley) and Mono County (White Mountains). 

Picas vUlotus (not of limueus) Vioobs, Zool. Voy. "Blossom/' 1839, 23 (Monte- 
rey, Califomia). 

Picas (Trichopicus) harrisH Bajxd, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1859, p. xxvi, 
part. 

Picas hanisii Sciatbb, Ptoc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1857, 127 (San Jos^ Valley, Cali- 
fornia).— Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 87, part (Petaluma, 
Santa Clara, Tulare Valley, Ft. Tejon, and Santa Isabel, Califomia); Rep. 
U. S. and Mex. Bound., ii, pt. 2, 1859, 5 (Santa Isabel); Cat. N. Am. Birds, 
1859, no. 75, part.— Hbebmann, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., x, pt. iv, no. 1, 
1859, 57, part (Tejon Pass, California).— Xantus, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1859, 190 (Ft. Tejon).— CoopBK, Om. Calif., 1870, 375, part (Santa Barbara 
and Tejon Pass). 

^Picus vUloms.] Var. harrisii Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 294, part. 



a Sixteen specimens. & Eleven specimens. 






LooalitF. 


Wing. 


TalL 


Ex- 

posed 

cuunen. 


Tareos. 


Outer 
ante- 
rior toe. 


MALES. 

fmm minit nMlM from DortiMnn T^wer Oaltfornift 


121.7 
124 

117.8 
123 


78.2 
73 

73.7 
77.6 


80.6 
31.8 

27.2 
27.3 


2L6 
21.6 

20.4 
20.6 


13.8 


flix adult males frran touthem CftUfoniia 


14.1 


'^T adnlt frnnnlra frxnn I'Own* Cfilifonii& 


13 




14.1 







Besides the gradual increase in size toward the northward, indicated by the above 
■K Msuiom ents^ there is a variation in color of under parts in the opposite direction, 
^ledmens from north of San Francisco Bay (in Marin, Sonoma, and Mendocino coun- 
ties, Califomia) being often pale drab-grayish or buffy grayish below, thus showing a 
feeodency toward D. v, harrisi, as should be expected from the fact that the range of 
die latter begins in the next county northward. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



218 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Picus vUlomi . . . var. harrisi Coubs, Check list, 1873, no. 298a, part. 

Picus vUlomi, var. harrisi Baibd, Brbwbb, and Ridowat, Hist. N. Am. Birds, 
ii, 1874, 507, part.— Hbnshaw, Rep. Om. Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 1876, 268 
(Ft. Tejon and Mt. Whitney, California). 

Picus viUosuSt var. harrisii RmowAY, Am. Joum. Sci., iv, 1872, 456, part 

Picus vUlosus harrisi Brbwstbb, Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, iii, 1878, 179 (Nicasioy 
Marin Co.; descr. young).— Rido way, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 188, 
part; Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 3606, part.— Coubs, Check list, 2d ed., 
1882, no. 439, part. 

P[iciLs] v[illosus] harrisi Coubs, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 483, part. 

Dryohates vUlosus harrisii RmowAT, Plroc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, 1885, 355, part. — 
American ORNrrHOLoaisrs' Union, Check list, 1886, no. 393c, part. — 
Mobcom, Bull. Ridgw. Om. Club, no. 2, 1887, 41 (Bear Valley, June).— 
Bbyant (W. E.), Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., ser. 2,a889, 286 (Hansen's Ranch 
and San Pedro Martir Mts., Lower California, 7,000-10,000 ft.). 

D[ryobates] vUlosus harrisii Ridoway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 283, part. 

Dryohates vUlosus harrisi Evbbmann, Auk, iii, 1886, 93 (Ventura Co., California, 
resident). 

[Picus vUlosus . . . b. harrisii] V. medii Coubs, Birds Northwest, 1874, 280^ 
part (in synonymy). 

Dryohates hyloscopus Cabanis and Hbinb, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, June, 1863, 68 
(San Jos^, Califomia; coll. Heine Mus.). 

Dryohates vUlosus hyloscopus Ambbigan Obnttholooists' Union CoMMirrBB, 
Suppl. to Check list, 1889, 9, part; Check list, 2d ed., 1895, no. 393, part; 
3d ed., 1910, 186, part— Anthony, Zo6, iv, 1893, 236 (San Pedro Martir 
Mts.).— Bbndibb, life Hist. Birds N. Am., ii, 1895, 53, part— Obinnbel 
(J.), Pub. 2, Pasadena Acad. Sci., 1898, 25 (Los Angeles Co., Califomia); 
Univ. Calif. Pub. ZooL, v, 1908, 61 (San Bernardino Mts., 6,000-9,800 ft.); 
Auk, xxii, 1905, 383 (Mt. Pifios, Ventura Co., breeding).— Mailliard, 
Condor, iii, 1901, 122 (San Benito Co., resident).— Stonb, Proc. Ac. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 1904, 581 (Mt. Sanhedrin, Mendocino Co.; crit).— Jenkins, Con- 
dor, viii, 1906, 126 (Monterey Co.); Auk, xxiii, 1906, 167 (crit).— Obeb- 
HOLSBB, Proc. U. S. Nat Mus., xl, 1911, 597, 611 (monogr.). 

D[ryohates\ viUosus hyloscopus Ridoway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1896, 596, 
part. 

Dryohates v[Ulosus] hyloscopus Thompson, Condor, iii, 1901, 17 (San Luis Obispo 
Co., breeding). 

[Picus] hyloscopus Gbay, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 185, no. 8604. 

[Dendrooopus] hyloscopus Shabpb, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 214, part. 

DRYOHATES VUXOSUS HARRISI (Audubon). 

HAUtlB'S W00OPB0BX&. 

SiBiilar to D. v. hyloscojms, but under parts (including lateral reo- 
trices) light drab or buflfy drab-gray, instead of white or nearly white, 
the head-stripes and stripe on back also usually more or less suffused 
with the same color, often uniformly light drab; average size slightly 
larger. 

AduUmale.—Length (skins), 210-240 (223); wing, 124-136 (127.8); 
tail, 73.6-84 (78.3); exposed cuhnen, 29-35 (31.7); tarsus, 22.&-24 
(23.4); outer anterior toe, 15-16 (15.4).« 

^dt^/moZc.— Length (skins), 202-222 (212); wing, 120-128 (124); 
tail, 74-82.5 (76.9); exposed cuhnen, 26-31 (28.2); tarsus, 21-23.6 
(22.1); outer anterior toe, 14-15.5 (14.8).* 

o Fourteen Bpedmens. & Twelve specimens. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF NORTH Al!n> MIDDLE AMBBIOA. 219 

Humid Pacific coast district, from Humboldt and Siskiyou coun- 
ties, northern California, through western Oregon and Washington, 
to British Columbia; occasional in winter as far southward as, 
Monterey County. 

Picus harrUii Audubon, Birds Am., folio ed., iv, 1838, pi. 417, figs. 8, 9. — 
TowNSEND, Narrative, 1839, 347. 

Picas harrid Audubon, Om. Biog., v^ 1839, 191 (near Fort Vancouver, Wash- 
ington; type now in coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.); Sjmopsis, 1839, 178; Birds Am., 
oct. ed., iv, 1842, 242, pi. 261.— Nuttall, Man. Om.U. S. and Can., Land 
Birds, 2d ed., 1840, 687.— Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 87, part 
("dark bellied variety**; Whitby Island, Steilacoom, Spokane R., Vancou- 
ver, and Shoalwater Bay, Washington; Columbia R., Fort DaUes, and St. 
Helens, Oregon); Cat. N.Am. Birds, 1859, no. 75, part. — Nbwbebrt, Rep. 
Pacific R. R. Surv., x, pt. iv, 1859, 89 (n. California; Oregon). — Hebrmann, 
Rep. Pacific R. R. Sm^., x, pt. iv, no. 1, 1859, 57, part (n. California). — 
CooPEB and Suckley, Rep. Pacific R. R. Sm^., xii, pt. ii, 1860, 159, part (w. 
Washington and Oregon).— Malhbbbb, Mon. Picid., i, 1861, 73; iii, 1861, pi. 
20, figs. 1, 2.— SuNDBVALL, CoDsp. Av. Picin., 1866, 17.— Bbown, Ibis, 1868, 
419 (Vancouver I.).— Gbay, List Birds Brit. Mus., Picid», 1868, 47. — Coopbb, 
Om. Calif., 1870, 375, part (coast near Columbia R.). 

P[iaa] hcarrisii Gray, Gen. Birds, ii, 1845, 435.— Rbichbnbach, Handb. Scan- 
sorea, Picinffi, 1854, 364, pi. 632, figs. 4208, 4209. 

Plieus] harriti Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 138. 

[Picus] harrisii LicHTBNfiTBiN, Nom. Mus. Berol., 1854, 75. — Gsay, Hand-list, ii, 
1870, 184, no. 8593. 

[Tricho'picus'] harritn Bonapabte, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 123 (Consp. Volucr. 
Zygod., 1854, 8).— Goodb, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 20, 1883, 346 (index). 

Picas ( TritJiopicus) harrisii Baibd, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1868, p. xxvii, 
part. 

[Picas viUosus,] Var. harrisii Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, Oct., 1872, 194, part. 

Picas vUlosus, var. harrisii Rhmjway, Am. Joum. Sci., iv, Dec., 1872, 456, part. 

Picas vUlosus . . . var. harrisi Coues, Check List, 1873, no.^298a, part. 

Picas vUlosus, var. harrisi Baibd, Bbbweb, and Ridoway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, 
ii, 1874, 507, part. 

Picas viUosus harrisi Ridoway, Proc. XJ. S. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 6, in text, 188, 
part; Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 3605, part.— Coues, Check List, 2d ed., 
1882, no. 439, part. 

P[icas] v[illosus] harrisi Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 483, part. 

D[ryoh<Uei'\ harrisi Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 68. 

Dryobates villosus harrisii Ridgway, Proc. XJ. S. Nat. Mus., viii, no. 23, Sept. 2, 
1885, 355, part; Man. N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1896, 596, exclusively.— 
Amebican OBNiTHOLOOKrre' Union, Check List, 1886 (and 2d ed., 1895), 
no. 393c, part.— Rhoadb, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1893, 42 (Brit. 
Columbia; crit.). — Bendibe, Life Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 52. — Obeb- 
HOLSBB, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xl, 1911, 597, 615, part (monogr.). 

D[ryobaUs] villosus harrisii Ridqway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 283, part. 

DryohaUs villosus harrisi Anthony, Auk, iii, 1886, 165 (Washington Co., 
Oregon). — Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., iii, 1890, 137, part (Kalama, 
'Washington; Vancouver I., Westminster, and Mt. Lehman, Brit. 
Columbia; variations of plumages.) — ^Andebson and Gbinnell, Proc. 
Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1903, 7 (Siskiyou Mts., n. California; crit.).— Jenkins, 
Auk, xxiii, 1906, 168 (crit.).— Amebican Obnttholooists' Union, Check 
list, 3d ed., 1910, 186.— Swabth, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., x, 1912, 33 (crit.). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



220 BULLETIN 60^ UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

[Dendrocopus vUlosus.] Subsp. p, Dendrocopus harriH Haroitt, Gat. Birds Brit. 

Mu8.,xvii, 1890, 234, part (Vancouver I. and Orcas I. Brit. Columbia) 
[Dendrocopus] harrid Shabpe, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 214. 

DRTOBATES VILLOSUS SITKENSIS Swartfa. 

SITKA EAIBT WOOOPIOKBB. 

Similar to D. v. harrisi but under parts averaging decidedly paler 
and more buffy (less "smoky"), sometimes nearly white; dorsal 
area usually white, instead of smoky grayish; nasal tufts usually 
strongly buffy or tawny; wing-coverts usually spotted, more or less, 
with white. 

AduU mofe.— Length (skins), 225-240 (228); wing, 124-130 
(126.6); tail, 73-82 (77.4); culmen, 29-33.6 (31); tarsus, 20.2-23.5 
(22.1); middle toe, 15-15.5 (15.2).« 

AduU female.— Length (skins), 215-240 (222); wing, 122-128 
(124.2); tail, 74-82 (79.3); culmen, 27-30 (27.8); tarsus, 20-22.5 
(21.8); middle toe, 14-15.5 (14.7).* 

Coast district of southeastern Alaska (Sitka; Howkan; Loring; 
(Micoot; Prince of Wales, Coronation, Dall, Etolin, Boca de Quadra, 
Wrangell, Admiralty, Chichagoff, Baranoff, and Kuiu islands). 

Picui viUonu (not of Linnaeus) Dall and Bannister, Trans. Chicago Ac. 
Sci., i, 1869, 274 (Sitka, Alaska).— Finsch, Abh. Nat. Brem., iii, 1872, eo, 
(Sitka).— SoHALOW, Joum. ftlr Cm., 1891, 258 (Sitka). 
Pxcua vUloms hanisii (not Pxcua harriti Audubon) Habtlaitb, Journ. ftlr Orn., 

1883, 275 (Chilcoot, Alaska). 
Dryohatea viUoms harridi Gbinnell, Auk, xv, 1898, 127 (Sitka); Univ. Cal. Pub. 

Zool., XV, 1909, 216 (Admiralty Islands, Alaska; crit.). 
DryohateB villo8ti8 haniti Oberholsbr, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xl, no. 1840, 1911, 
615, part (Loring, Howkan, and near Eillisnoo, Admiralty Island, Alaska). — 
SwABTH, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., vii, 1911, 66 (Prince of Wales, Coro- 
nation, Dall, Etolin, Boca de Quadra, Wrangell, Admiralty, Chicha- 
goff, and Euiu Islands, and Sitka Alaska; crit.) 
Dryobates villosiu piooideus (not Dryohates piooideus Osgood) Oberholseb, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., xl, no. 1840, 616, part (Easaan Bay, Prince of Wales Island, 
Alaska). 
Dryohatea vUloaua sUkerma Swabth, Univ. Cal. Pub. Zool., vii, no. 9, Oct. 9, 1911, 
315 (Etolin Island, Alaska; coll. Univ. Calif. Mus. Vert. Zool.). 

DRYOBATES VILLOSUS PICOIDBUS (Osgood). 

QUSSV CHABLOTTS WOODPXOKBB. 

Similar to D. v. Tiarrisi, but white (or pale drab) of back more 
restricted and broken^ more or less, by bars, spots, and streaks of 
black; lateral rectrices sometimes spotted or broadly barred with 

o Ten specimens. h Seven specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF NOBTH AND MIDDLE AMEBIGA. 



221 



black; the sides sometimes streaked and flanks barred or transversely 
spotted with black. 

Adult female,''— Length (skins), 205-220 (215); wing, 121-127 
(124); tail, 76-81 (79.2); exposed cuhnen, 25.5-27.6 (26.4); tarsus, 
22-24 (22.6) ; outer anterior toe, 14.5-15.5 ( 14.8).* 

Queen Charlotte Islands^ British Columbia. 

Dryobaies picoideus Osgood, North Am. Fauna, no. 21, Sept., 1901, 44 (Cum- 
shewa Inlet, Queen Charlotte I., Brit. Columbia; coll. U. S. Nat. Mu8.).— 
Jenkd^s, Auk, xxiii, 1906, 169 (crit.). — Kbbmods, Prov. Mus. Brit. Col., 
1909, 49. 

Dryohaies viUostis picoideua Ambbigan Orkitholooists' Union Committbb, 
Auk, xix, 1902, 319; Check List, 3d ed., 1910, i86.— Obbrholsbr, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mu8., xl, 1911, 597, 616, part (monogr.). 

Dryobatet vUkmis hcarrisi (not Piau harrm Audubon) Swabth, Univ. Calif. 
Pub. ZooL, vii, 1911, 66, part (Queen Charlotte Islands; crit.). 

DRYOBATES VILLOSUS ICASTUS OberholMr. 

OHIHirAHUA W00OPI0KB&. 

Similar to D. v. JiyloscopuSj but smaller and with under parts 
always dull white or (usually) very pale drab-grayish. 

AdiiU Tnofo.— Length (skins), 185-213 (204); wing, 117-128 
(123.5); tail, 67.5-76 (71.6); exposed culmen, 25.5-30.5 (28.1); 
tarsus, 2Q-21.6 (20.8); outer anterior toe, 12.5-16 (13.6).<^ 

AdvU females.— Length (skins), 187-209 (198); wing, 119-128.5 
(123.3); tail, 70-82.5 (74.6); exposed cuhnen, 23-28 (25.5); tarsus, 
18-22 (20.2); outer anterior toe, 12.5-14 (13.4).^ 



o Adult males not seen. 
* Five specimens. 



c Seventeen specimens. 
d Twelve specimens. 



LocaUtj. 



Wing. 


TalL 


Ex- 
posed 
culmen. 


Tarans. 


121.7 


71.2 


28.7 


22.2 


124 


72.5 


27 


21 


120.1 


73 


29 


20.8 


123.5 


70 


29.2 


20.7 


122.7 


71.5 


26.7 


20.1 


118.5 


60.5 


26.2 


20.5 


123.5 


76 


27.6 


20 


124.8 


76.6 


25.9 


20.1 


121 


73.5 


24 


20.3 


125.5 


78 


24.5 


18 


119 


70 


25 


21 



Outer 
ante- 
rior toe. 



Twoadnli males from southern Ailsona (Hnachuca Mountains) . 

One adult male from northern Sonora 

9x adult males frtmi Chihuahua 

Tbne adult males frxim Duiango , 

Three adult males frtnn Zacatecas 

Two adult males from Coahuila 

FEMALES. 

One adult female from southwestern New Ifexloo (Bear 

Spring Moontalns) 

Ox adult females frtmi Chihuahua 

Tvo adult females fix>m Durango 

One adult female from northwestern Jalisco (Bolafios) 

(^ adnit female from Coahuila 



14.5 

12.5 

14.2 

13.5 

13 

13.2 



14 

12.6 
12.8 
14 

13.5 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



222 BULLETISr 50^ UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Southwestern New Mexico (Animas Peak; San Luis Mountains; 
Bear Spring Mountains) and southern Arizona (Santa Catalina 
Mountains; Huachuca Mountains; Pima Coxmty; Pin&l County) and 
southward over northwestern Mexico^ in States of Chihu&hua (Mound 
Valley; Casa Colorado; Temasochi; Rio de Igl^as; Rio de Emeri- 
bano; Rio de Urique; Reftigio; Sierra Madre; Sierra de San Luis; 
30 miles west of MifLaca; Colonia Garcia; Pacheco; Rancheria de 
los Apaches; PifLos Altos; Bustillos), eastern Sonora (El Puerto), 
Durango (El Salto; Arroyo del Bu6y), northeastern Jalisco (Bola- 
fios), Zacatecas (Plateado; Sierra de Valparaiso) and Coahuila 
(Cameros; Sierra de Guadalupe). 

Picus viUosus harrisi (not Pxcus harrisi Audubon) Bbbwstisb, Bull. Nutt. Qm. 
Club, viii, 1883, 22 (Chiricahua MtB., 8. e. Arizona).— Soott, Auk, ii, 1885, 
174, in text, 356 (Santa Catalina Mts., s. Arizona). 

Dryohates villoms harrini Scott, Auk, iii, 1886, 425 (Sajita Catalina and Pinal Mts.). 

[DendrocopiLSvillosui.] Subsp. p. Dendrocoptu harrm HARorrr, Cat. Birds 
Brit. MuB., xviii, 1890, 234, part (localitieB in Chihuahua; Ciudad Durango, 
Durango; Sierra de Nayarit,<> Sierra Madre de Colima,a and Sierra de Valpa- 
raiso, ^ Jaliflco?o). 

Dendrocopus harrisi Habqiit, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 570 (Siena de 
Bolafios, Jalisco). — Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1885, 
431, part (Casa Colorado, Pi&os Altos, Temosachi, Rio de Iglesias, Rio de 
Emeribano, Rio de Urique, and Refugio, Chihuahua; Ciudad Durango; 
Sierra Bolafios, Jalisco; Valparaiso, Zacatecas; Sierra de Nayarit, Tepic?<»). 

DryobaUs vUlosus hyloscopus (not Dryohates hyloscopus Cabanis and Heine) 
Rhoads, Proc. Ac. Nat Sci Phila., 1892, 116 (Santa Catalina Mts., 8,000 ft.).— 
Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., v, 1893, 35 (El Puerto and Rancfao de Ice 
Apaches, Chihuahua). — Swabth, Pacific Coast Avihiuna, no. 4, 1904, 10 
(Huachuca Mts., chiefly above 7,000 ft.; crit.).— Miller (W. DeW.), BuU. 
Am. Mus. N. H., xxii, 1906, 166 (Arroyo del Buey, n. w. Durango, May 28; 
crit.). 

Dryohates viUosiis icasttLS Obbbholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xl, no. 1840, Jime 3, 
1911, 597,612, (El Salto, Durango; coll. U. S. Kat. Mus.). 

DRYOHATES VILLOSUS INTBRMBDIUS Nelson. 

ZVTSBIIEDIATX WOODPXOKZ&. 

Similar to D. v. icastus, but color of under parts decidedly darker 
Gight buflfy drab-gray instead of dirty white or very paJe drab- 
grayish). 

AduU male.— Length (skins), 202-219 (211); wing, 119-122.5 
(120.7); tail, 70.5-74 (71.8); exposed culmen, 28-28.5 (28.3) ; tarsus, 
20-21.5 (20.8); outer anterior toe, 13.5-14 (13.7).^ 

<> Specimens from these localities not seen by me. 
& Three specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD6 09 KOBTH AND MIIMDLX AMSBICA. 



228 



AdiiU femdU.— Length (skins), 191-201 (196); wing, 116-120.5 
(118.2); tail, 74; exposed culmen, 25-26.6 (26.2); tarsus, 20.6; 
outer antOTior toe, 13-13.5 (13.2).« 

Middle eastern portion of Mexican plateau, in States of San Lufs 
Potoef (ViUdr; Sierra de San Lufs Potosf; moimtains near Jesiis 
Maria) and southwestern Tamaulipas (Miquihuana; Moctezuma; 
Galindo; Montelunga; Ciud^ Victoria). 

[Dendrocojnu viUcmut,] Subep. p, DtndtocopuM harriti Haboitt, Cat. Birds Brit. 
Mus., xviii, 1890, 234, pek (Siena de San Litb Potod). 

Dendrocopus harrisi Salvin and Godman, Bid. Centr.-Am., Avee, ii, 1895, 431, 
port (Sierra de San Luiis Potosi). 

DryobaUs viUosus tnUrmediuM Nelson, Auk, xvii, July, 1900, 259 (ViUar, San 
Luis Potosf; coll. U. 8. Nat. Mus.).— Jenkins, Auk, xxiii, 1906, 169 (crit.).— 
Phuups, Auk, zxviii, 1911, 76 (Galindo and Montelunga, Tamaulipas).— 
Obbrholsbb, Proc. U. 8. Nat Mus., zl, 1911, 597, 613 (monogr.). 

MtTC^ATBS VIIXOSUS JARDINn (Malherbe). 

JABDIVX'g WOODPXOKZ&. 

Similar to D. v. irdermediua, but color of under parts decidedly 
darker, varying from buflfy drab-gray to broccoli brown or drab. 

iWtittmafc,— Lmgth (skins), 172-219 (197); wing, 111-124 (117.7); 
tail, 64.5-77 (71.5); exposed culmen, 24-28.5 (26.2); tarsus, 19.5- 
21.5 (20.5); outer anterior toe, 13-14.5 (13.9).* 

^ttft /moZe.— Length (skins), 175-201 (187); wing, 110-121.5 
(114.6); tail, 62-75.5 (69.5); exposed ciilmen, 20-25 (22.5); tarsus, 
18.5-20.5 (19.5); outer anterior toe, 12-14.5 (13.4).« 

<s Two specimens. & Twelve specimens. 



LocaUty. 



c 


Fourteen specimens. 


wing. 


Tafl. 


Ex- 

P«ed 

culnuQ. 


Tanos. 


110.6 


75 


27.2 


20.2 


iia.6 


78 


26.4 


20.6 


Ui.2 


66.8 


26.7 


20.5 


124 


77 


27.5 


20 


124 


75 


26 


10.5 


116.2 


60.7 


25.6 


2a7 


115 


7a7 


22 


10.5 


118 


68.6 


21.3 


10.2 


Ul 


66 


23.5 


18.5 


117.3 


71 


23.3 


20.3 


118.5 


72.7 


23.4 


20 


110 


62 


23.5 


10 



Outer 
ante- 
rior toe. 



Two aitailtinaleB from JaUfloo 

Que adult male from Micboecan — 
Tine adolt males from Ooerrero. . . 

Ooe adult male from Mordoe 

Ooe adult male from If exico 

Eoor adnlt males from Vera Gnu. . . 

IXIULSS. 

Two adult lezDales from Jaliaoo 

Fhe adult females from Hichoecan. 
One adult tnnale from Oaerroo — 
Tbrae adnlt females from Morelos. . . 

Two adult females from Mexkx) 

Ods adult female from Vera Craz .. . 



14.2 

14 

18.7 

13 

14 

18.0 



12.7 

12.6 

13.5 

18.8 

18 

18 



Hie darkest birds in the series examined are from Gueirero, Morelos, Mexico, and 
Vera Cmz, the palest mostly from Jalisco and Michoac&n, but also from Guerrero and 
Vera Cruz. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



224 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Highlands of southern Mexico, in States of Vera Cruz (Orizaba; 
Jalapa; Mirad6r; El Jacale, C6rdova; Las Vigas; Cofre de Perote), 
Puebla (San Migu61 Molino; Teziutl&n; Mount Orizaba), Mexico 
(City of Mexico; Mexicalcingo; Tlalp6m; Chimalpa; San Pedro; 
northern slope Volcan de Toluca; Ajusco; Bio Frio; Tenango del 
Valle), Morelos (Popocatepetl; Huitzil&c), Oaxaca (Toniaguia), 
Guerrero (Omilteme; Amula; mountains near Oiilpancingo), 
Michoac&n (Nahuitzin; Patzcuaro; Mount Tancftaro), and Jalisco 
(Sierra de Colima; Volcan de Nieve). 

P[icu8] (Leuconotopicut) jardinn Malhbbbe, Rev. ZooL, Oct., 1845, 374 (Mexico); 
Mem. Acad. Metz, xxz, 1849, 327. 

Picas jardinii Malhbrbe, Mon. Picid., i, 1861, 103, iii, 1861, pi. 25, figs. 4, 5. — 
ScLATBB, Ptoc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1856, 308 (El Jacale, Cordova, Vera Cruz); 
1857, 214 (Orizaba, Vera CJruz); 1859, 367 (Jalapa, Veia Cruz), 388 (Oaxaca); 
Cat. Am. BirdB, 1862, 334 (Jalapa) .—^clatbb and SALvm, Ibis, 1859, 136, 
part (Orizaba).— Gbay, List Birds Brit. Mus., Picidse, 1868, 50 (Mexico). 

Plicus] jardinii Gbat, Gen. Birds, iii, 1849, App., p. xxi.— Bonapakte, Consp. 
Av., i, 1850, 137.— ScLATBB, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, 177 (near City of 
Mexico). 

[Pieiju] jardinii Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 186, no. 8614.— Sclatbb and Salvin, 
Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 99, part. 

Picus jardinei CASsm, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, 201 (Jalapa, Vera Cruz; 
crit.). — SuNDBVALL, CoBsp. Av. Picin., 1866, 17. 

[Phrenopicus] jardinii Bonapabtb, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 123 (Consp. Volucr 
Zygod., 1854, 8). 

Dlryohates]jardinei Cabanis and Hbinb, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 69. 

[Dryobates] jardinei Heine and Rbichbnow, Nom. Mus. Hein. Om., 1890, 214. 

[Picus vUUmu] var. jardini Rhxjway, Am. Joum. Sci., iv, Dec., 1872, 456, foot- 
note, in text, part. — ^Baou), Beeweb, and Rn>owAY, Hist. N. Am. Biids, ii, 
1874, 507, in text, part. 

Dryobates vUlosus jardini jENxms, Auk, xxiii, 1906, 168, part (s. Mexico). 

[Dendrocopus villosus.] Subsp. y, Dendrocopus jardinii Habgitt, Cat. Birds Brit. 
Mus., xviii, 1890, 237, part (Valley of Mexico; Mexicalcingo, Tlalpam, Chi- 
malpa, and San Pedro, Mexico; Tonaguia, Oaxaca; Popocatapetl, MotcIos; 
Cofre de Perote and Jalapa, Vera Cruz; San Migud Molino, Puebla; Omil- 
teme and Amula, Guerrero). 

Dendrocopus jardinii HABorrr, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 570 (Rio Frio and 
Tenango del Valle, Mexico). — Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, 
ii, 1895, 432, part (localities in Vera Cruz, Puebla, Oaxaca, Guerrero, and 
Mexico). 

[Dendrocopus] jardinei Shabpe, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 214. 

D[endrocopus] jardinei Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Club, iii, 1902, 34, in text. 

Dryobates villosus jardinii Fbbbabi-Pbbbz, Plroc. U. S. Nat. Mus., ix, Sept. 17, 
1886, 159 (Teziutlan, Puebla).— Ridoway, Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., ix, 1886, 
159 (Teziutlan; crit.).— Obbbholseb, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xi, 1911, 597, 
618 (monogr.). 

D[ryobates] villosus jardinei Ridoway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 283, part (Vera 
Cruz; Puebla). 

Picus harrisii (not of Audubon) Sumichbast, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., i, 1869, 562 
(alpine reg. Vera Cruz); La Naturaleza, v, 1881, 240. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIRDS OF NOBTH AND MIDDLE AMEBIGA. 225 

Picus vUlotus, var. harrin Baird, Brbweb, and Ridowat, Hist. N. Am. Birds, 

ii, 1874, 507, part (in synonymy and range). 
(?) DryobatesidllomienistomenuiOBEMHOLaJiTL, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., zl, no. 1840, 

June 3, 1911, 597, 614 (Omilteme, Guerrero; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.). 
(?) Dryobatei viUosus hylohates Obebholseb, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xl, no. 1840, 

June 3, 1911, 597, 617 (Huitzilic, Morelos; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.). 

DRYOBATES VIIXOSUS SANCTORUM (Nelson). 

T0D08 BAirrOS WOODPIOKEB. 

Similar to D. v. jardinii, but decidedly smaller and color of 
under parts much darker and browner (the color usually deep 
broccoli brown or between broccoli brown and Vandyke brown), 
the dorsal and subauricular stripes usually also brown instead of 
white. 

AduU rwafe.— Length (skms), 174-196 (188); wing, 107-111.5 
(109.4); taa, 63-65 (63.9); exposed culmen, 23-25.5 (24.2); tar- 
sus, 17-20 (19.2); outer anterior toe, 13-14.5 (13.7).» 

AdvU female,— Jj&jx^h, (skins), 175-193 (186); wing, 99.5-108.6 
(104.6); taa, 57.5-65 (60.9); exposed culmen, 20-23 (21.1); tarsus, 
17.5-19 (18.3); outer anterior toe, 12.5-13.5 (13.1).« 

Highlands of (Chiapas (San Oistdbal; Pinabete; Canj6b; Juncan&), 
Guatemala (San Ger6iiimo; Duefias; Calderas, Volcan de Fuego; El 
Rmc6n de San Marcos; Santa Maria de Quezaltenango; Cui- 
pach6; Tolimfin; Chilasco; Todos Santos; near Tecp&m; Hacienda 
Chanc61; Volcan de Santa Maria), and Honduras (Taulevi; Siqu&te- 
peque).^ 

PicuM jardinii (not of Malherbe) Sciatsr, Ptoc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1858, 359 (Tau- 
levi, Honduras).— ScLATSK and SALvm, Ibis, 1859, 136, part (Taulevi).— 
Taylor, Ibis, 1860, 119 (Siquatepeque, Honduras). 

[Pieui vUlonu] var. jardini RmowAY, Am. Joum. Sd., iv, 1872, 456, footnote, 
in text, part.— Baird, Brewer, and RmowAY, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 
507, in text, part 

[Pietu] jardinii Gray, Hand-Hst, ii, 1870, 186, no. 8614, part— Sglater and 
Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 99, part 

Dlryohaies] viUosus jardinei Ridoway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 283, part. 

Dryohates vUUmu jardini Jenkins, Auk, xxiii, 1906, 168, part. 

[DendrocopuB vUloms,] Subsp. y, Dendrooopua jardinii HARonr, Cat. Birds Brit. 
Mus., xviii, 1890, 237, part (San Gerdnimo, Duefias, and Volcan de Fu^;o, 
Guatemala). 

DendrocopiLM jardinii Salvdy and Godman, Biol. €entr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 432, 
part (£1 Rincon de San Marcos, Santa Maria de Quezeltenango, Cuipache, 
Tollman, Chilasco, San Ger6nimo, Duefias, and Volcan de Fu^;o, Guate- 
mala; Siquatepeque, Honduras). 

a Seven specimens. 

( Specimens from Honduras not seen by me. They should be compared with 
Nicaraguan examplfss (P. v.JvmeuB), 

3622'— BulL 50, pt 6—14 ^16 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



226 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

DryobaUi tanetorym Nblbon, Auk, ziv, Jan., 1887, 50 (Todos Santos, Guatemala; 

coll. U. S. Nat. Mu8.). 
Dryobates viUonu tanctorum Dbarborn, Pub. 125, Field Mus. N. H., 1907, 92 

(near Tecpam, Guatemala, 8,000 ft.). — Obbrholsbb, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 

xl, 1911, 597, 619 (monogr.). 
[Dendrooopus] mmctorum Shabpb, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 214. 
D[endro€Opus] $cmctorum Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Club, iii, 1902, 33, 34 

in text. 

DRTOBATBS VILLOSUS FUMBUS Oberholaer. 

OOOTAL WOODPXOSS&. 

Similar to D. v. sanctorum, but color of under parts averaging » 
decidedly paler G>uflFy broccoli brown or light isabella color, usually 
mixed with dull brownish whitish), the dorsal stripe white, more or 
less tinged with brown posteriorly; adult male with red nuchal band 
decidedly broader. 

AdvU male.— Length (skins), 170-185 (178); wing, 106-109.5 
(108.1); tail, 60-63 (61.6); exposed cuhnen, 24.5-26 (25.1); tarsus, 
18.5-19.6 (19.1); outer anterior toe, 12-14 (13.1).^ 

AduU fem^.— Length (skms), 167-188 (175); wing, 101-108.5 
(105.3); tail, 65.6-64 (59.8); exposed culmen, 21.5-24 (22.9); tar- 
sus, 18-19 (18.7); outer anterior toe, 13-13.6 (13.3).^ 

Moimtains of northern Nicaragua (Jinotega; Ocotfil; Matagalpa; 
San Kafa61 del Norte). 

DendrOcopus jardinii (not Picu8 jardinii Malherbe) Salvin and Godman, Biol. 

Gentr.-Am., Avee, ii, 1895, 432, part (Matagalpa and San Rafael del Norte, 

Nicaragua). 
Dryobatei vilUmufumeus Obbrholsbb, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xl, no. 1840, June 

3, 1911, 597, 619 (San Rafael del Norte, Nicaragua; coll. Am. Mus. Nat. 

Hist.). 

DRYOBATES VILLOSUS EZTIMUS Bangs. 
BOaXJXTX WOODPXCBXB. 

Similar in coloration to D. v. sanctorum, but dorsal stripe usually 
white or partly white, the wing and tail averaging slightly shorter; 
adult male with red nuchal band averaging decidedly broader. Simi- 
lar also to D. V. fum^eus, but wing and tail averaging slightly shorter 
and under parts decidedly darker. 

AdvU moZe.— Length (skms), 161-180 (171.3); wing, 97.6-106.6 
(102.8); tail, 54.5-63 (58.6); exposed cuhnen, 22-26.5 (24.9); tar- 
sus, 19-21 (19.8); outer anterior toe, 12-15 (13.8).*' 

o Only one among twelve adults approachea D. v. wnctorum in darknees of the 
under parts, the specimen in question being from Jinotega (Feb. 19). 
6 Seven specimens. 
« Five specimens. 
^ Nineteen specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIED8 OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMBBICA. 



227 



AduU femdU.— L&ngth (skins), 160-174 (169); wing, 98-105 (102.1); 
tail, 49-64 (58-4); exposed culmen, 21-23.6 (21.9); tarsus, 18-19.6 
(18.7); outer anterior toe, 12-14 (13.1).« 

Apart from the Aig^tly shorter wing and tail thfire is very little by which to dis- 
tingiiiah this form from D, v, tandorum^ unless it is the apparently broader red nuchal 
band of the adult male. I am very doubtful whether the Nicanguan bird is really 
separable from the Costa Rican one. It is true that eleven of the twelve specimens 
examined have the under parts conspicuously paler than in most Costa Rican exam- 
ples; but five of the latter (out of a series of seventy-nine) are exactly like Nicanguan 
spedmens in the color of the under parts, one of them (from Cop6y, Dota) being 
even appreciably paler than the palest of the latter. 

Highlands of Costa Rica (Volcan de Turrialba, 9,000-10,000 feet; 
Volcan de Irazti; Coliblanco; La Estrella, Azak&r, and Birrfs, Car- 
tago; Cervantes; San Jos6; La Palma de San Jos6; Cerro de la 
Candel&ria near Escazti; La Hondura; Navarro; Desengafio;Ojuras 
de T^rraba; Las Yueltas, Cop6y, Lagu&ria, and Santa Maria, Dota), 
and western Panam& (Volcan de Chiriquf, 6,000-9,000 feet; Boquete, 
4,000-6,000 feet). 

Pieui harrim (not of Audubon) Cabanis, Joum. fOr Om., 1862, 175 (Costa Rica; 
crit.).— Lawrence, Ann. Lye. N. Y., ix, 1868, 130 (Costa Rica).— Feant- 
znxs, Joum. fOr Om., 1869, 364 (Costa Rica). 

Fieu8 viUoms, var. harriti Baibd, Beewbe, and Rnx}WAY, Hist. N. Am. Birds, 
■tt, 1874, 607, part (Costa Rica). 

Picui jardinU (not of Malherbe) Lawrence, Ann. Lye. N. Y., ix, 1868, 130 
(San JoB^, Cervantes, and Birris, Costa Rica).— Frantzius, Joum. fOr 
Om., 1869, 364 (Costa Rica).— tSalvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, 212 
(Yokan de Chiriqui, Panama).— Zeled6n, Cat. Aves de Costa Rica, 1882, 23. 

[Picui] jardmU Sclater and Saltin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 99, part. 

[Pieut viUonui] var. jardini RmowAT, Am. Joum. Sci., iv, Dec., 1872, 466, foot- 
note, in text, part (Costa Rica). 

a Eighteen specimens. 



Locality. 



Wing. 


Tall. 


Ex. 

POMKI 

culmen. 


Tanus. 


117.7 


71.5 


96.2 


20.6 


100.4 


68.9 


24.2 


10.2 


106.1 


61.6 


26.1 


10.1 


108.7 


68.5 


24.6 


10.7 


1QL7 


67.3 


26.3 


20 


114.6 


60.6 


22.6 


10.5 


104.6 


60.0 


21.1 


18.8 


106.3 


50.8 


22.0 


18.7 


108 


67.8 


21.7 


1&5 


102.3 


60.8 


22.8 


10 



Outer 
ante- 
rior toe. 



KALES. 

Twfllreadalt males of i>.v./8rtf<ii«. 

SereD adult males tnm Guatemala and Chiapas (D. o. taneUh 

rmm) 

SereD adult males from Nicaragua (i>. 9. /ttiiiMt) 

Ten adult make from Costa Rica (i>. 9. cxtfnMw) 

Nine adult males from western Panama (i>. 9. cxtfnMw) , 

rUfALXS. 

Seven aduH females of D. 9. /srtfMI 

Seven adult famalee from Guatemala and Chiapas (D. v, 

lomm) 

riTB adult females from Nicaragua (D. v. fumeuf) 

Ten adult females Ihim Costa Rica (D. 9. catfintfM) 

Blg^t adult females from western Panama (D. 9. exthnut) 



13.0 

13.7 
13.1 
13.5 
14.1 



13.4 

13.1 
13.3 
13.1 
13.3 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



228 BULLETIN 50^ UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Dyctiopieua jardinei Bougard, Proc. ZooL Soc. Lond., 1878, 49 (Navairo and 

Volcan de Irazd, Costa Rica). 
Deruirocopus jardinii ZELEDdN, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, no. 7, May 23, 1885, 

111 (Coeta Rica).— Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Avee, ii, 1895, 

432, part (Desengafio, Ceno de la Gandelaria, San Joe^, Volcan de Irazd, 

Navanro, Cervantes, and Birds, Costa Rica; Volcan de Chiriqui, Panama). 
[Dendrocopus villoma,] Subep. r- Dendroooptu jardmU Haroitt, Cat. Birds 

Brit. Mus., zviii, 1890, 237, part (Costa Rican localities). 
Dryohates jardinU ZeleikSn, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, i, 1887, 123 (Volcan de 

Irazti).— Chbrbib, Auk, ix, 1892, 327 (San Jos^, Costa Rica). 
D[ryoh<Ue8] viUonu jardinei RmowAT, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 283, part (Costa 

Rica; "Veragua"). 
Dryohatet vUlosua jardini Jenjonb, Auk, xxiii, 1906, 168, part (Costa Rica; crit.). 
Dendrocopus villosus extirmis Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Club, iii, Jan. 30, 

1902, 33 (Boquete, Chiriqui, w. Panama, 6,000 ft. alt.; coll. E. A. and O. 

Bangs). 
Dryohates viUosus exUmua Carsiksr, Ann. Cam^e Mus., vi, 1910, 588 (Costa 

Rica; habits) .—Fbrrt, Pub. 146, Field Mus. N. H., Om. S^., i, no. 6, 

1910, 266 (Coliblanco, Costa Rica).— OBSRHOifiBR, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xl, 

1911, 697, 620 (monogr.). 

DRYOBATBS PUBBSCBNS PUBBSCENS (LimuBOs). 
80TTTHXBV OOWVY W00OPBCXS&. 

Advlt mdU, — ^Pileum, auricular region, median portion of hindneck, 
sides of interscapular region, scapulars, and upper tail-coverts* black, 
faintly glossed with bluish; four middle rectrices black, without 
gloss; wings dull black, passing into dark brownish slaty on pri- 
mary coverts and terminal portion of primaries, the middle coverts 
with a rather large mesio-terminal roundish, guttate, or cuneate 
spot of white and a sub-basal roundish or transverse spot of the 
same; greater coverts with a roundish subterminal spot of white 
on outer web and a sub-basal roundish spot (concealed) of same on 
both webs; secondaries crossed by four transverse series of roimdish 
white spots, the first concealed by greater coverts, the last smaller 
and terminal; outer webs of primaries with similar but more elongate 
and quadrate spots, about four in number on longest quills besides 
a smaller terminal spot or margin; a broad median stripe of white 
on back, this sometimes slightly streaked or flecked with black; 
two lateral rectrices, on each side, white or dull white, with two * 
broad black bars across distal portion, the proximal one usually 
broken or interrupted; third rectrix with distal half, more or 
less, of outer web white, the terminal portion of inner web with one 
or more broad white bars or spots; nasal tufts dull white, the bristle- 
like shafts black terminally; a white supra-axuicular stripe, con- 
tinued, narrowly, above eye, its posterior end in contact with a 
bright red nuchal band; a broad subauricular stripe of white, extend- 

a Sometimee there are more or leas distinct indications of a third incomplete bar. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF KOBTH AND MIDDLE AMEBICA. 



229 



ing anteriorly, beneath eye, to lores, where confluent with the duller 
white of nasal tufts, its posterior end involving sides of neck, includ- 
ing post-auricular region, except upper portion; malar region grayish, 
intermixed with black, anteriorly (sometimes wholly black except 
extreme anterior portion), posteriorly continued as a gradually 
widening "solid" black stripe which curves upward behind the white 
cervical area and connects with the black of back; under parts plain 
pale brownish gray or dull grayish white, more whitish on chin and 
throat, the under tail-coverts usually barred or flecked with black; 
under wing-coverts mostly immaculate dull white, but with a black 
patch on carpo-metacarpal region; inner webs of remiges dull slaty 
with large semiquatrate spots of white, except on distal portion of 
longer primaries; bill dark horn grayish, paler on mandible; iris 
brown or reddish brown; legs and feet dusky (oUve-grayish in life); 
length (skins), 139-165 (145.7); wing, 86-91 (88.6); tail, 48-63 
(50.5); exposed culmen, 15-16.5 (15.7); tarsus, 15-16.6 (16.9); outer 
anterior toe, 9.5-11 (10.5).* 

AduU female. — Similar to the adult male, but without any red on 
head, the red nuchal band replaced by a white one, this usually 
divided by a median black area; length (skins), 139-153 (144); wing, 
86.5-91 (88.7); tail, 48-54.5 (51.6); exposed culmen, 14-16.5 (15.2); 
tarsus, 14.5-16 (15.3); outer anterior toe, 9.5-11 (10.1).^ 

a Fourteen specimens (ten from Florida, four from southern Geoigia). 

& Thirteen specimens (ten from Florida, three from southern Geoigia). 

The extreme difficulty of satis&ctorily separating this species into two or more 
Buhspecies and defining their respective ranges with even approximate accuracy is 
quite as great as in the case of D. viUosus (see p. 203), the two cases being exactly 
parallel, as the following measurements will.show: 



LocaUty. 


Wing. 


TalL 


Ex- 

posed 

culmen. 


Tarsus. 


Outer 

ante> 

riortoe. 


MALES. 












Klneadalt males from interior of Alaska (I>. p. neZfonO 


99.2 


62.6 


16.6 


16.2 


10.6 














pladBlit) 


96 


68.7 


16.3 


16.8 


10.5 


Two adult males from Eadiak Island, Alaska (D. p. medianuttt) 


94.7 


60 


16.5 


15.7 


10.6 


Toot adult mahw from Mackenzie (P. p. %tl9<yi^ 


96.8 


63 


17 


16.1 


10.2 


Two adnlt males from Athabasca, Jane (D. p. ndion^ 


98.7 


66.7 


17.6 


16.5 


10 


One adnlt male from Saskatchewan, ICay 31 (D. p. luUoni).. . . 


96.6 


62.6 


17.5 


15.5 


10.5 


One adult male from Minnesota, May 23 (D. p. iiMcIianiM) 


92 


53.5 


17 


16 


10.5 




95.4 


59.9 


15.9 


16 


10.8 


Two adnlt males from Maine, Apill (J), p. fMdkinu9) 


94.2 


57.5 


16.7 


16.2 


10.5 


Oae adnlt male from New Hampshire, June (P. p. fMdUima) . . 


93.5 


58 


16 


16 


11 


Six adntt males from Massachusetts, March-June (P. p. 












maHaMU) 


95.2 


56.3 


16.5 


15.7 


10.8 


One adult male from New York, April, August (P. p. meAUifMU) 


93 


52.6 


16.5 


16.6 


11 


Three adnlt males from Pennsylvania, March, April, July 












CZ> p nwrftoiHtf ) 


93 


54.3 


16.5 


16.3 


10.8 


QMadolt male from northeast^n Illinois, June (P. p. rocdiantM) 


95 


56 


17 


16.5 


11 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



230 



BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



Young male. — Similar to the adult male, but without the red 
nuchal band, the occiput and more or less of crown, however, with 
feathers tipped with red (usually more or less pale), the crown often 
dotted with white; black areas duller (without gloss); under parts 
sometimes more or less streaked on chest and flanks. 

Young female. — Similar to the young male, but without any red 
on head. 

Lower portion of Lower Austral Zone, from Florida and coast low- 
lands of G^rgia and South Carolina along Gulf coast to southeastern 
Texas; grading into Z>. p, median/us along northern edge of Lower 

Footnote— Cootinaed. 



LocaUty. 


Wing. 


TalL 


Ex- 
posed 


Tarsus. 


Outer 
ante- 
rior toe. 








MALis— cootlniied. 












One adnH male from nortbwwtom lowm, Jtme (D. p. medi&mu). 


94.6 


68 


16 


16 


10 


Two adult malei from eastern Kanaas, July (D. p. pubeteengT). 


91.6 


64 


16.6 


16.6 


10.3 


Eleven adult males from soatheastem Illinois and southwest- 














91.7 


64.1 


16.1 


16.1 


10.6 


BU adult males from Virginia, Maryland, and District of Co- 












lumbia (D. Pt jHnhfften^f) ,..,... 


91.7 


60.8 


17.1 


16.9 


10.7 


Two adult males from western North Carolina, May (D. p. 












meiiamuf) 


93.6 


68.6 


16.7 


16 


10.7 


Five adult males from northern South Carolina, January, 














91.3 


63 


16 


16.6 


10.8 


Two adult males from eastern Tennessee, April 15 (D. p. 












JmftMCffUf ) . a ai4,*xx 


91 


60 


17 


16 


10 




90.6 


48 


17.6 


16.6 


10.5 


Five adult males from Texas, Mareh, April, December (D. p. 












pubetcetu) 


88.7 


61.9 


16.6 


16.8 


10.4 




86.6 


49.9 


16.4 


16.4 


10.1 


One adult male from Mississippi, April (D. p. pubeteem) 


90 


66 


17 


16 


9.6 


One adult male from Alabama, summer (P. p. pubetoem) 


89 


63 


16 


16 


11 


One adult male from northern Georgia (P. p. metfJawMf) 


93 


63 


16 


16.5 


U 




89.3 


61.4 


15. 4 


15.8 


10.2 


Ten adult males from Florida, January, February, March 












(D. p. pubtteem) 


88.3 


60.3 


15.8 


15.9 


10.6 


rEMAUBS. 












Two adult females from interior Alaska (P. p. netMNiO 


100.6 


67.6 


16.7 


16.7 


10 


Three adult females from Eenal Peninsula, Alaska (P. p. 












gladaUi) 


97.3 


61.3 


16.6 


16.6 


10.7 


Two adult females from Kadiak Island, Alaska (P. p. am- 












dlanutff) 


94.7 


69.7 


16.3 


16.7 


ia2 


Thnw adult females ftt>m Mackenxie CP. v, nelwnf) 


100 


64.3 


16.7 


15.3 


laa 


One adult female from Alberta, February (P. p. ndionif) 


97 


63 


16 


15.6 


10 


Three adult females from Mtamesota, AprU (P. p. nOtonif).... 


97.6 


69.7 


16.3 


16.3 


10.3 


Two adult Itoiales from Newfoundland (P. p. medtawutT) 


96.6 


69.6 


15.8 


15.6 


10 


One adult female from Wisconsin, October (P. p. neltoni). . . . 


96 


63.6 


16.3 


16 


10 




97 


68.7 


16.3 


16 


10 


Nine adult females firom Massachusetts, AprU, May (P. p. 












medianut) 


95.3 


67.8 


16.7 


15.8 


ia6 


Two adult females from interior New York, winter (P. p. 












nudUmui) 


96.6 


67.7 


16.3 


16.6 


10 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF KOBTH AND MIDDLE AMEBIOA. 



281 



Austral Zone» where specimens are practically identical except in 
slightly greater size. 

[Picus] pvhucens IwifMXJB, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, i, 1766, 175 (based on The Smallest 
Spotted Woodpecker Cateeby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, i, 21).— Gmbun, Syet. Nat., 
i, pt i, 1788, 435.— Latham, Index Om., i, 1790, 232.— Gray, Hand-list, ii, 
1870, 184, no. 8590, part.-€ouBB, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 194, part. 

PieuspubescentYiEiLLOT, Oib. Am. Sept., ii, 1807, 65, pi. 121; Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. 
Nat., xxvi, 1818, 82.— Wilson, Am. Om., i, 1807, 153, part, pi. 9, fig. 4.— 
Stbphenb, Shaw's Gen. Zool., ix, 1815, 170, part.- Bonapabtb, Obe. Wilson's 
Am. Om., 1826, [240], part; Ann. Lye. N. Y., ii, pt. i, 1826 (Synop. Birds 
U. S.) 46, part; Geog. and C5omp. List, 1838, 39, part.— Lbsson, Traits 
d'Om., 1831, 228.— NuTTALL, Man. Om. U. S. and Can., Land Birds, 1832, 
576; 2d ed., 1840, 687; Water Birds, 1834, 600.— Audubon, Om. Biog., ii, 
1834, 81, pi. 112; v, 1839, 539; Synopsis, 1839, 180; Birds Am., oct. ed., iv, 
1842, 249, pi. 263.— WooDHOusE, in Hep. Sitgreaves* Expl. Zufii and 
Col. R., 1853, 89, part (Indian Territory; Texas).— Baikd, Rep. Pacific 
R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 89, part; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 76, 
part.— Malhbkbe, Mon. Picid., i, 1861, 119; iii, 1861, pi. 29, figs. 8, 9.— 

FootDote— Ccmtlnaad. 



LocaUty. 



Wing. 


TalL 


Ex- 
ouhnen. 


Taisns. 


98.7 
03.6 


64.2 
64.7 


16.2 
16.0 


16.2 
15.6 


91 


66 


16.6 


16 


80 




16 


16 


02.4 


64.8 


16.0 


16.6 


02 


63.7 


16 


16.8 


00.6 


67 


16.6 


16.6 


03 


66 


16.7 


16 


01 


62 


16 


16.6 


00.7 


64.6 


16.0 


16.7 


88.7 


66.6 


16.6 


16.2 


02.2 


66.2 


16.3 


15.6 


00.7 


64.6 


16.2 


16.2 


80 


66 


16.2 


16 


88.6 


61.2 


16.2 


16.4 



Outer 

ante* 

liortoe. 



reiCALB&-cootlnu6d. 
Two adult femalei from Long Island, New York (D. p. fiie- 

Flve adult femalee frtmi Pennsylvania (D. p. medfontw) 

One adult female from northeastern nUnois, Xone (P. p. 

WUiitlWM) ................................................... 

One adult female from eastern Kansas, July (P. p, pubetoentf) , 
Eight adult females from southeastern Illinois and southwest^ 

em Indiana (D. p. pufteMeMf) 

Ttane adult females from ooast of Virginia, May, June (D. p. 

jMiBficmif)-- , 

One adult female from western North Carolina, July (D. p. 

■efisuKt) 

Two adult females from eastern Tennessee, ICaroh, Ai>ril (P. p. 

One adult female from Indian Territory, August (P. p. 
piibe$eentf) , 

Four adult females from Texas, January, ICaroh, April, Aug- 
ust (P.p. puteMnu)..... 

Two adult females from Louisiana (P. p. pubcKent) 

Three adult females frum northern South Carolina, January, 
February (P. p. ptt6efcentf) 

Two adult females from southeastern South Carolina (P. p. 
pabetetni) 

Three adult females from southeastern Georgia (P. p. p«- 
fteterat) 

Ten aduH females frt>m Florida (P. p. pubescent) 



10.6 
10.1 

10.6 
10 

10.2 

10.3 

10.6 

10.6 

11 

10.1 
0.7 

10.2 

10.6 

10.2 
10 



CoDceming certain of the above measurements, it may be stated that the female 
from northeastern Illinois has the wing excepti(mally short for a northern bird, but 
this may be to some extent due to wearing; and that the series from southeastern 
Illinois and southwestern Indiana (both males and females) includes more winter 
than spring or summer birds, most ol them being from Wabash County, Illinois, and 
Knox County, Indiana. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



282 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

SciATEB, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 334, part (synonymy only).— (7)Dre88BB, 
Ibis, 1865, 468 (near San Antonio, Texas, winter). — Sundbvall, Consp. Av. 
Picin., 1866, 17, part.— Coubs, Check List, 1873, no. 299, part; 2d ed., 1882, 
no. 440, part. — Baird, Bbbwbr, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 
609, part.- RiDGWAT, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 188, part; Nom. N. Am. 
Birds, 1881, no. 361, part.— Ogilby, Sci. Proc. Roy. Dublin Soc., iii, 1882, 67 
(Navarro Co., Texas, resident).— (?)Bbown (N. C), Auk, i, 1884, 122 (Boeme, 
Kendall Co., Texas, 1 spec., Feb. 3).— Scott, Auk, vi, 1889, 251 (Tarpon 
Springs and Punta Rassa, Florida). — Bbybr, Proc. Louisiana Soc. Nat. for 
1897-99 (1900), 102 (Louisiarc, resident). 

P[icu8] pubacens Bonnatbrrb and Vieillot, Enc. M6th., iii, 1823, 1311.— Bona- 
PARI*, Joum. Ac. Nat. Sci Phila., iii, pt. ii, 1824, 369, part; Obs. Wils. 
Am. Om., 1826, [30], part; Consp. Av., i, 1860, 138, part.— Gray, Gen. 
Birds, ii, 1845, 435, part.— Coubs, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 483, part.— 
Ridgway, Ann. Lye. N. Y., x, 1874, 377, part (Illinois).— Kopman, Gulf 
Fauna and Flora Bull., i, no. 2, 1899, 57 (s. Louisiana, resident). 

[Picas piibescens] var. puhescens Baird, Brbwbr, and Ridgway, Hidt N. Am. 
Birds, ii, 1874, 601, part. 

[Tridiopicus] jnibescens Bonapartb, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1864, 123 (Consp. Voluc. 
Zygod., 1854, 8), part. 

Picus ( Trichopicus) pubescens Baird, Rep. Pacific R.R.Surv.,ix, 1868, p. xxvi, part. 

D[ryobates] pubescena Boib, Isis, 1826, 977; 1828, 326.— Cabanis and Hbinb, Mub. 
Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 62, part (syn. only). — Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 
1887, 283, part. 

DryobaUa pubescens American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886 (and 
2d ed., 1895), no. 394, part.— (?)Lloyd, Auk, iv, 1887, 190 (Tom Green and 
Concho Counties, w. Texas).— (?)Bbckham, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., x, 1888, 
663 (San Antonio, Texas, 2 specs., Feb.)--SiNGLBY, Rep. Geol. Surv. Texas, 
1894, 350 (Lee Co., Texas, resident).- Bbndirb, Life Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 
1895, 55, part, pi. 1, fig. 24 (Florida). 

Dryobates ptibescens pubescens (not of Oberholser, 1896) Ambrican Ornitholo- 
gists' Union, Check List, 3d ed., 1910, 187. 

[Picas pubescens] a. pubescens Coubs, Birds Northwest, 1874, 282, part. 

Dendrocopus pubescens Hargftt, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 238, part 
(Miami, Florida), 671 (Tarpon Springs, Florida). 

[Dendrocopus] pubescens Sharpb, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 214. 

Picas (Dendrocopus) meridionalis Swainson, Fauna Bor.-Am., ii, 1831, 308 
(Georgia).— Nuttall, M%n. Om. U. S. and Can., Water Birds, 1334, 601; 
Land Birds, 2d ed., 1840, 690. 

P[icus] meridionalis Gray, Gen. Birds, ii, 1845, 436.— Bonapartb, Consp. Av., i, 
1850, 138. 

[Picas] meridionalis Rbichbnbach, Handb. Scans., Piciiue, 1864, 375.— Gray, 
Hand-list, ii, 1870, 184, no. 8595. 

Picas m^ridionalis Nuttall, Man. Om. U. S. and Can., Water Birds, 1834, 601. — 
Malhbrbb, Mon. Picid., i, 1861, 124. 

[Dendrocopuji] meridionalis Sharpb, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 214. 

Dryobates pubescent meridionalis Obbrholsbr, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xviii, June 
24, 1896, 647 (monogr.). 

[ Trichopicus] meridionalis Bonapartb, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1864, 123 (Consp. Voluc. 
Zygod., 1864, 8). 

Picus le eontei Jonbs, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., iv, 1848, 489, pi. 17 (Liberty 
Co., C^rgia; abnormal specimen with only three toes). 

Picas leoontei Baird, in Rep. Stansbury's Surv. Gt. Salt Lake, 1852, 333 (Georgia). 

[ Tridactylia] leconiei Bonapartb, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1864, 123 (Consp. Voluc. 
Zygod., 1854,8). 

Picoides le canUi Malhbrbb, Mon. Picid., i, 1861, 182; iii, 1861, pi. 22, fig. 3. 

(?)Dryobates pubescens medianus (not Pums medianus Swainson?) Fbbrt, Auk, 
xxiv, 1907, 432 (Cairo, Illinois, Aug.). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF KOETH AKD MiDDLfi AMSBICA. 233 

DRYOBATBS PUBSSCBNS MEDIANUS (Swainaon). 

DOWVY W00OPB0XS&. 

Similar to Z>. p. puhescens, but larger, and the whitish of under 
parts, etc., slightly paler (more nearly white). 

^di^wofe.— Length (skms), 145-161 (153); wmg, 91-96.5 (94.1); 
taU, 51-60.5 (55.8); exposed culmen, 15-17.5 (16.4); tarsus, 15-16.5 
(16); outer anterior toe, 10-11 (10.5).« 

AduU female— Length, (skms), 145-161 (153); wing, 91.5-97 
(94.7); tail, 50.5-61.5 (56.4); exposed cuhnen, 14.5-17.5 (15.4); 
tarsus, 15-16.5 (15.4); outer anterior toe, 9.5-11 (10.4).^ 

Upper Austral Zone and part of Transition Zone of eastern North 
America, from southeastern Virginia (Dismal Swamp), highlands of 
North and South Carolina, northern Georgia, eastern Tennessee, 
southern Illinois and Indiana, eastern Kansas, etc., northward to 
about northern border of United States and maritime provinces of 
Canada to Newfoundland; grading into Z>. p, ndsoni northward, into 
2). p. pubescens southward; westward to eastern portion of Great 
Plains, occasionally to base of Rocky Moimtains (Denver, Colorado, 
May); Kodiak Island, Alaska (resident).^ 

PieuB fmheBoens (not of Linns&us) Wh^son, Am. Om., i, 1807, 153, part, pi. 9, 
fig. 4.— ViBttLOT, Oifl. Am. Sept., ii, 1807, 65, port, pi. 121; Nouv. Diet. 
d'Hiflt. Nat., xxvi, 1818, 82, part.— Stephens, Shaw*B Gen. Zool., ix, 1815, 
170, part.— Bonaparte, Ann. Lye. N. Y., ii, pt. i, 1826, 46, part; Synopais 
Birds U. S., 1828, 46, part; Obe. "Wilson's Am. Om., 1826, [240], part; Geog. 
and Comp. List, 1838, 39, part.— Lbbbon, Traits d'Om., 1831, 228, part,— 
NuTTALL, Man. Om. U. 8. and Can., i, 1832, 576, part.— ^Audubon, Om. 
Biog., ii, 1834, 81, part, pi. 112; v, 1839, 639, part; Synopsis, 1839, 180, part; 
Birds Am., oet. ed., iv, 1842, 249, part, pi. 263.— Woodhouse, in Rep. Sit- 
greaves' Ezpl. Zufii and Col. R., 1853, 89, part (Indian Territory; Texas).- 
Badu), Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 89, part; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, 
no. 76, part.— Malhbbbb, Mon. Picid., i, 1861, 119, part; iii. 1861, pl.29, figs. 
8, 9.— SoLATBR, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 334, part (eastem North America). — 
StrNDBYALL, Consp. Ay. Picin., 1866, 17, part.— Allen, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., iii, 1872, 129 (Topeka and Leavenworth, e. Kansas, May; crit.). — 
CoxTES, Check List, 1873, no. 299, part; 2d ed., 1882, no. 440, part.— Baird, 
Bbbwer, and RmowAT, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 609, part.— Mearns, 

A Thirteen specimens, from Massachusetts (6), New York (2), Pennsylvania (3), Wis- 
consin (1), and Iowa (1). 

& Eighteen specimens, from Massachusetts (9), New York (4), and Pennsvlvania (5). 
In Ihe series from Massachusetts are several specimens which closely approach D. p. 
neUoni in dimensions. 

ei am not able to detect the minutest difference, in any respect, between Eadiak 
examples of this species and specimens of true D, p. mediantts from the northeastern 
United States, and therefore, notwithstanding the puzzle of geographic distribution 
invdved in the case, I do not know what else to do with these Eadiak birds than to 
rder them (provisionally, at least) to D. p. mediantis. 

An adult male from Satuma Island, British Columbia, taken Feb. 3, 1894, in the 
Bang^ collection (no. 4508), is exactly like Eadiak specimens, and may be a migrant 
fromyiere. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



234 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, iii, 1878, 71 (descr. young female with red on nape). — 
BBBW8TBB, Ann. Lye. N. Y., xi, 1875, 144 (Ritchie Co., Weat Virginia); 
Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, iii, 1878, 179 (deecr. young).— Dalolsish, Bull. 
Nutt. Om. Club, V, 1880, 74 (accidental in Enghuid).— RmowAT, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. MuB., iii, 1880, 188, part; Norn. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 361, part.— 
BiCKNELL, Auk, ii, 1885, 257 (notes). 

Picas (pendrocopus) jmbescen* Swainson, Fauna Bor.-Am., ii, 1831, 307, part. 

DendrooopuB pubescens Hargiit, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 238, part 
(localities in IllinpiB, Indiana, New York, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New 
Jersey, District of Columbia, and Virginia). 

[Dendrocopus] puhescens Shabpb, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 214. 

[Pints pubescens] a. ptibescens Coues, Birds Northwest, 1874, 282, part. 

Plicits] pubescens Bonaparte, Joum. Ac. Nat. 8cL Phila., iii, pt. ii, 1824, 369, 
pcurt; Obe. Wilson's Am. Om., 1826, [30], part; Consp. Av., i, 1850, 138, 
part.— Gray, Gen. Birds, ii, 1845, 435, part.^M a XTim ja n , Joum. fOr Om., 
1858, 354 (Wabash and Missouri).— Rmo way, Ann. Lye. N. Y., x, 1874, 377, 
part (Illinois).— CouBS, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 483, part. 

[Picas] pubescens Lawbence, Ann. Lye. N. Y., viii, 1866, 291 (vicinity of New 
York City).— Geay, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 184, no. 8590, part.— Coues, Key N. 
Am. Birds, 1872, 194, part.— D'Hamonyillb, Cat. Ois. Eur., 1876, 10 (acci- 
dental in England). 

[PicuM pubescens] var. pubescens Baibd, Breweb, and RmowAY, Hist. N. Am. 
Birds, ii, 1874, 501, part. 

[Triehopicus] pubescens Bonapabte, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 123 (Consp. Voluc. 
Zygod., 1854, 8), part. 

Picas (Trichapicas) pubescens Baibd, Bep. P^unflc R. R. 8urv., ix, 1858, p. xxvi, 
part. 

DlryobaUs] pubescens Boib, Isis, 1826, 977, part; 1828, 326, part.— Cabanis and 
Heine, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 62, part (N. America). — RmowAY, Man. 
N. Am. Birds, 1887, 283, part. 

Dryobates pubescens Amebigan Obntthglooists' Union, Check List, 1886 (and 2d 
ed., 1985), no. 394, part.— Bbewsteb, Auk, iii, 1886, 104 (mts. of w. North 
Carolina, 4,000 ft.).— Sennett, Auk, iv, 1887, 242 (mts. of w. North Carolina, 
6,100 ft.).— (?)Anthony, Auk, iii, 1886, 165 (Washington Co., Oregon).- Rido- 
WAY, Om. Illinois, i, 1889, 378, part.— Thobne, Auk, xii, 1895, 214 (Ft. Keogh, 
e. Montana, resident).— Bendibe, Life Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 55, part. — 
Cooke, Bull. Ck)l. Agric. Coll., no. 37, 1897, 82 (Colorado).— Pobteb, Auk, 
xvii, 1900, 72 (Newfoundland).— (?)Rathbun, Auk, xix, 1902, 135 (Seattle, 
Washington, 1 spec., Feb. 20, 1892).— Beal, Bull. 37, U. S. Biol. Surv., 1911, 
17, pi. 1, lower fig. (food). 

Pieus (Dendrocopus) medianus Swainson, Fauna Bor.-Am., ii, 1831, 308 (New 
Jeraey).— NuTTALL, Man. Om. U. S. and Can., Water Birds, 1834, 601. 

Pieus medianus Malhebbe, Mon. Picid., i, 1861, 122. 

P[icus] medianus Gbay, (Jen. Birds, ii, 1845, 435.— Bonapabte, Consp. Av., i,. 
1850, 138. 

[Pieus] medianus Reiohenbach, Handb. Scans., Picinae, 1854, 375.— Gbay, 
Hand-list, ii, 1870, 184, no. 8594. 

[Triehopicus] medianus Bonapabte, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 123 (Consp. Voluc. 
Zygod., 1854, 8). 

Dryobates pubescens medianus Bbewsteb, Auk, xiv, Jan., 1897, 82, in text. — 
Amebigan Obnitholoqists' Union Committee, Auk, xiv, 1897, 120 (check 
list no. 394c); 3d ed., 1910, 187.— Mobbell, Auk, xvi, 1899, 251 (Nova 
Scotia, resident).— Caby, Auk, xviii, 1901, 233 (Black Hills, Wyoming).— 
Pbeble, North Am. Fauna, no. 22, 1902, 111 (Moose Factory; s. Keewatin).— 
Adams, Ecol. Surv. N. Mich., 1906, 115 (Porcupine Mts., n. Michi^, 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDd OF KOBTH AND HODDLE AMBBIOA. 



235 



summer).— Akdebson, Proc. Davenp. Ac. Sci., xvi, 1907, 274 (Iowa).— 
TowNSEND and Allen, Proc. Boet. Soc. N. H., xxxiii, 1907, 376 (s. Labra- 
dor, 8. of 66®).— Embody, Auk, xxvii, 1910, 172 (Hanover Co., Viiginia, reei- 
dent).— Fbrby, Auk, xxvii, 1910, 199 (Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, breed- 
ing).— Howell, Auk, xxvii, 1910, 296 (BarboursviUe, etc., Kentucky), 301 
(CrosB Mt., 3,400ft., and Walden Ridge, e. Tennefisee), 383 (St. Francis River, 
8. e. Missouri, breeding).-^?) Jewbtt, Oondor, xiv, 1912, 192 (Sawtooth Mts., 
Idaho, late fall). 

KODIAK BBFERENCB8. 

Pieui pubescens (not of Linnseus) Baird, Brewer, and RmowAT, Hist. N. Am. 
Birds, ii, 1874, 509, part (Eodiak).— Nelson, Rep. Nat. Hist. Ck>ll. Alaska, 
1887, 156, part (Kodiak). 

DRYOBATES PUBBSCENS NBLSONI Oberholser. 

VOBTHB&ir OOWVT WOODPBOKZB. 

Similar to Z>. p. medianus, but decidedly larger, white of under parts, 
etc., purer, and black bars on lateral rectrices usually narrower or 
less numerous, sometimes nearly obsolete. 

AduU male.— Length (skins), 147-162 (159); wing, 95-101.6 (99.1); 
taa, 58.5-67 (63.1); exposed culmen, 16-18 (17); tarsus, 15.5-17 
(16.2); outer anterior toe, 10-11 (10.5) .« 

AduU female.— Length (skins), 155-168 (161); wing, 97-101.5 
(98.8); tail, 57-72 (63.3); exposed culmen, 15-16.5 (15.9); tarsus, 
15-16.5 (15.7); outer anterior toe, 9.5-10.5 (10. 1).*^ 



A Twenty-one specimens. 



b Eleven specimens. 



LooaUty. 



Wing. 


TaU. 


Ex- 
posed 


Tanufl. 


M.2 


62.6 


16.6 


16.2 


96.8 


68 


17 


16.1 


86.7 


65.7 


17.5 


15.5 


90 


62.4 


17.8 


16.6 


101 


64.5 


17.5 


16.7 


100.5 


67.5 


16.7 


15.7 


100 


64.8 


15.7 


15.8 


97 


63 


16 


15.5 


97.5 


50.7 


16.8 


16.8 


98 


68.5 


16 


15 


100 


62 


16 


16.6 



Outer 
ante- 
rior toe. 



IQneadnlt males from interior Alaska 

Poor adntt males from ICackende 

Two adult make from Athabasca 

FlTe adott males from eastern Montana (January, April, May, 

Dcosmber) 

One adolt male from eastern Wyoming (October) 

IBMALBS. 

Tvoadottfemalesfrom western and interior Alaska 

tbee adnlt females from Maokensie 

One adnlt female from Alberta (Febraary) 

Tlixee adult females from Minnesota (Fort Snelling, Apr. 18). 

One adnlt female from Wisoonstn (Kenosha, October) 

One adnit female from New York (Locust Grove, Apr. 10). . . 



10.6 
10.2 
10 

las 

10.5 



10 

10.2 

10 

ia2 

10 
10.6 



llanjr winter specimens from eastern Massachusetts closely approach this form in 
mt/e azui agree exactly in coloration, measurements being as follows: 

Three adult males from eastern Massachusetts (November): Wing, 97.5; tail, 57.2; 
exposed culmen, 16.5; tarsus, 15.8; outer anterior toe, 10.7. 

Hiree adult females from eastern Massachusetts (November, December, January); 
Wing, 96.5; tail, 59.8; exposed culmen, 15.7; tarsus, 15.8; outer anterior toe, 10.5. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



286 BULLETIN 60, XTOTTED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Northern portion of Canadian 2iOney and western part of Hudsonian 
Zone east of Rocky Mountains, from the Kowak River, shores of 
Norton and Kotzebue Sounds and Kuskoquim Bay through the Yukon 
Valley, Alaska, Yukon and Mackenzie, southward in winter through 
Athabasca, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, etc., to eastern Mon- 
tana (Ft. Keogh; Ft. Custer), eastern Wyoming (sources of Cheyenne 
River), Minnesota (Ft. Snelling), Wisconsin (Kenosha), and northern 
New York (Locust Grove).** 

Picas ptibescens (not of LinnseiiB) Biaioston, Ibis, 1862, 3 (Forks of Saskatche- 
wan); 1863, 51 (Mackenzie R., etc.; habitB).— Dall and Bannister, Trans. 
Chicago Ac. Sci., i, 1869, 274 (Ft. Yukon to Nulato, Alaska).— Coues, Check 
list, 1873, no. 299, part; 2d ed., 1882, no. 439, part.— Baird, Brewer, and 
RmowAT, Hist. N. Am, Birds, ii, 1874, 509, part. — Ridqwat, Nom. N. Am. 
Birds, 1881, no. 361, part.— (?)Merriam, Bull. Nutt. Om. Gub, vii, 1882, 
236 (Point de Monts, Quebec).— (?)Stbarns, Ptoc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vi, 1883, 
118 (Eskimo R., Labrador).— Nelson, Cruise of "Corwin," 1881 (1883), 74 
(St. Michael, Yukon and Kuskoquim rivers, and Eotzebue Sound, Alaska). — 
McLeneqan, Cruise ''Corwin," 1884, 117 (Eowak R., n. w. Alaska). 

[Picut] pvJbesceru Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 194, part. 

Pltau] puhetcem Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 483, part. 

[Picas jmbescens] a. pubucens Coues, Birds Northwest, 1874, 282, part. 

Picas (Dendrocopus) jmbescens Swainson, Fauna Bor.-Am., ii, 1831, pp. xxvi, 
307, part. 

Dryobates puhescens American ORNrrHOLOOisrs' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 
394, part.— Turner, Contr. Nat. Hist. Alaska, 1886, 166 (Yukon VaUey and 
St. Michael, Alaska).— Nelson, Rep. Nat. Hist. Coll. Alaska, 1887, 156, 
part (Yukon Valley). 

Dlryobates] puheseens E^dqway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 283, part. 

Dryobates puheseens ndsoni Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., zviii, Jime 24, 
1896, 549 (Nulato, Alaska; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.).— American Ornttholo- 
oiSTs' Union ComirrrEE, Auk, xiv, 1897, 120 (check list no. 394</); Check List, 
3d ed., 1910, 187.— Fisher (W. K.), Condor, iv, 1902, 69 (diagnosis).— Preblb, 
North Am. Fauna, no. 27, 1908, 380 (near Peace R., lower Athabasca; local- 
ities in Mackenzie basin).— (?)Vishbr, Auk, xxvi, 1909, 148 (Black Hills, w. 
South Dakota, rare resident).— Stansill, Auk, xxvi, 1909, 395 (centr. 
Alberta). 

[Dendrocopus] nelsoni Sharpe, Hand-list, ii, 190Q, 214. 

DRTOBATBS PUBESCBNS HOMORUS (Ctbanis and Heine). 

BATCHELDSB'S WOODPSCKEB. 

Similar in large size and whiteness of under parts ^ to D. p. ndsoni, 
but with less of white on wing-covertS; sometimes with nonC; the 
spotS; when present, only on terminal or (usually) subterminal por- 
.tiou; and on only a few of the covert feathers. 

a Many winter specimens from eastern Massachusetts, etc., are precisely like 
typical D. p. nelsoni in coloration and very nearly as laige, and probably should be 
referred to that subspecies. Certainly they are much nearer D. p, nelsoni than to 
D, p. medianus from Pennsylvania, etc. 

b Also in tendency to reduction or absence of bars on lateral rectrices. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 287 

MuU mafc.— Length (skins), 14&-167 (166); wing, 94.5-103.5 
(99.3); tail, 58-68 (62.3); exposed cxibnen, 16-18 (17.1); tarsus, 
15.5-17 (16.5); outer anterior toe, 10-11 (10.5) .« 

AduU female.— Length (skins), 149-161 (158); wing, 95-105.5 
(100.9); tail, 61-66.5 (63.9); exposed culmen, 15.5-18 (16.7); tarsus, 
15.5-17 (16.2); outer anterior toe, 9.5-11 (10.3) .« 

Transition and Canadian zones of western North America, from 
southern British Coltunbia east of Cascade Mountains (Lake La 
Hache; Vernon; Buonaparte; Caribou District; Ducks; Chilliwack; 
Okanogan) and southward over Bocky Mountains and contiguous 
ranges to mountaios of New Mexico and Arizona (breeding) ; west to 
middle Washington (Yakima, breeding; Okanogan County) and (at 
least in fall and winter) mountains of eastern California (Quincy, 
Plumas County, April; Piute Mountains; Kernville; Bort Tejdn) ; east 
to eastern Montana (Fort Keogh, breeding) and western Nebraska. 

(1)P%eui leueurus Habtlaub, Naumannia, ii, heft 2, 1852, 55 (Rocky Mts.; ex 
Fbul yon WQrttembeig, manuscript). 

(1)P[%eus] leumruB Sundbvall, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 18. 

(?X7VicAoj>icu«] leueurus Bonapabtb, AtenM) Italiano, ii, 1854, 123 (Gonsp. Volucr. 
Zygod., 1854, 8). 

(t)D[ryobaUs] leuamts Oabanis and Hbinb, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 65. 

Dry^Mtes pubescens leueurus Fisheb (W. E.), Condor, iv, May, 1902, 69. — 
Gbinnbll (J.), Pacific Coast Avi&una, no. 3, 1902, 37 (California range). 

Picus gairdneri (not of Audubon) Baibd, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 
91, part (Laramie R. and Ft. Laramie, Wyoming).— Coopbb, Om. Cal., 
1870, 377, part (Rocky Mts).— Aiken, Proc. Boet. Soc. N. H., xv, 1872, 206 
(e. Ooloiado, winter).— Rroo way. Field and Forest, ii, 1877, 209 (Colorado); 
Om. 40th Parallel, 1877, 546 (upper Humboldt Valley, Nevada, and Parleys 
Park, Utah). 

P[ieus] gairdneri Coubs, Ibis, 1865, 162, in text (Ft. Whipple, Arizona). 

[Pieus puhescens,] Var. gairdneri Coubs, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 194, part. 

Picas pubescens gairdneri Ridowat, Bull. Essex Inst., vii, Jan., 1875, 22, 34 
(upper Humboldt VaUey; Parleys Park); Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 
188, part; Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 361a, part.— Dbbw, Bull. Nutt. 
Om. Club, vi, 1881, 141 (San Juan Co., Colorado); Auk, ii, 1885, 17 (Colo- 
rado, breeding at 4,500-11,500 ft.).— Coubs, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 
441, part.— AiXBN and Bbbwstbb, Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, viii, 1883, 196 
(Colcmido Springs). — ^Bbckham, Auk, ii, 1885, 143 (Pueblo, Colorado, May). — 
(7)Mbbbill, Auk, v, 1888, 252 (Ft. Klamath, Oregon). 

Picas pubescens . . . var. gairdnerii Coubs, Check List, 1873, no. 299a, part. 

Picas pubescens . . . var. gairdneri Ridowat, Bull. Essex Inst., v, Nov., 1873, 
173 (Colorado).— Hbnshaw, Rep. Om. Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 1874, 48 
(Provo, Utah, Nov.), 89 (Ft. Garland, Colorado, breeding); Zool. Exp. 
W. 100th Merid., 1875, 388 (Ft. Garhmd). 

[Picas pubescens] b. gairdneri CoTTBBy Birds Northwest, 1874, 282, part. 

Pieus pubescens, var. gairdneri RroawAT, Bull. Essex Inst., v, Nov., 1873, 173 
(Wahsatch Mts., Utah, 8,000 ft.).— Baibd, Bbbwbb, and Ridowat, Hist. 
N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 512, part.— Allbn, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., xvii, 
1874, 63 (Missouri and Musselshell rivers, Montana).— Hbnshaw, Ann. Lye. 
N. Y., xi, 1874, 9 (Wahsatch Mts. and Prove, Utah).— Scott, Bull. Nutt. 
Om. Gub, iv, 1879, 95 (Lake Co., Colorado, June). 

a Ten specimens. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



238 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Dryobates puhe9een$ gairdrierii Ambbigan Ornitholooists' Union, Check List 
1886, no. 394a, part.— (?)Scott, Auk, iii, 1886, 426 (Gila R., idizona, 
April).— (?)CooKB, Bird Migr. Mias. Val., 1888, 128 (centr. Dakota).— 
(?)BBNDna, Auk, v, 1888, 240 (Ft. Klamath, Oregon, breeding). 

D[ryobatts] pubeseenB gavrdnerii RroawAT, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 283, part. 

D[ryobates] p[ub€9cens] gaurdneri Coubs, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 483, 
part. 

[Dendrooojms pube9cen$.] Subep. a, Dendrooojms gairdneri Haboitt, Oat. Birds 
Brit. Mus., zviii, 1890, 241, part (Santa Fe Mts., New Mexico). 

D[ryobate$] homorui Cabanis and Hbinb, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, Jime, 1863, 65 
(California). 

[Dryobates] homorus Hbinb and Rbichbnow, Nom. Mus. Hein. Om., 1890, 214 
(California). 

Dtyobatei puheseeru homorui RmowAT, Man. N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1896, 697, 
part.— Ambbigan Obnttholooists' Union Oommittbb, Auk, xiv, 1897, 
126 (check list no. 3945); Check List, 3d ed., 1910, 187.— Dawson, Auk, 
xiv, 1897, 174 (Okanogan Co., Washington).- Mbbbill (J. C), Auk, xiv, 
1897, 364 (Ft. Sherman, Idaho, resident).— Coo kb. Bull. Col. Agric. Ck>ll., 
no. 37, 1897, 83 (Colorado, resident up to 11,000 ft.).— Bbooks, Auk, xx, 
1903, 282 (Caribou District, Brit. Columbia).— Ghhan, Condor, x, 1908, 
147 (Navajo Reservation, New Mexico, breeding). — Rockwbll, Condor, x, 

1908, 164 (Mesa Co., w. Colorado, resident).— Wabbbn (E. R.), Condor, xi, 

1909, 14 (Montrose Co., Colorado).— Hendbbson, Univ. Colo. Stud. Zool. 
vi, 1909, 231 (mts. of Colorado, resident). — ^Kbbmodb, Prov. Mus. Brit. 
(3ol., 1909, 49 (Ducks, Vernon, ChiUiwack, and Okanogan, int. Brit. 
Columbia). 

P[ieu8] honumi$ Sundbvall, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 18 (crit.). 

[Picus] homorua Gbat, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 186, no. 8696. 

Dryobates pube$cen$ oreacus Batchbldbb, Auk, vi, no. 3, July, 1889, 263 (Las 
Vegas Hot Springs, New Mexico, Dec. 18; coll. C. F. Batdielder).— Chap- 
man, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., iii, 1890, 138 (Ducks and Ashcroft, int. Brit. 
(Columbia; crit.).— Ambbigan OuNrrHOLoaiSTs' Union Committbb, Auk, 
Vii, 1890, 62'; Check List, 2d ed., 1896, no. 3946.— Mbabns, Auk, vii, 1890. 
262 (San Francisco Mt., Arizona, breeding in pine and spruce belts). — 
Fannin, Check List Birds Brit. Col., 1891, 28 (int. Brit. Columbia). — 
Rhoads, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1893, 42 (int. Brit. Columbia; crit.). — 
Richmond and Enowlton, Auk, xi, 1894, 303 (s.-cent. Montana).— Bbndibb, 
Life HiBt. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1896, 60.— Sillowat, Bull. Univ. Mont., no. 3, 
1901, 60 (Flathead Lake, etc., Montana).— Cambbon, Auk, xxiv, 1907, 270 
((duster and Davenport counties, Montana, resident). 

Dry&bates jmbescena oroceeui Lowb, Auk, xi, 1894, 268 (Wet Mts., Colorado, 
10,000 ft.). 

[Dendrocopus] areacui Shabpb, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 214. 

Picus jnibescens (not of Linnfieus) Woodhousb, in Rep. Sitgreaves' Expl. ZulKi 
and Col. R., 1863, 89, part (New Mexico). 

(?) Picus pubeseens Gbinnbll (G. B.), in Ludlow's Rep. Recon., 1876, 81 (Yel- 
lowstone Park). 

(7)Dryobates pubeseens Mbbbiam, North Am. Fauna, no. 6, 1891, 97 (Wood R. 
Valley, Idaho).— Fannin, Check List Birds Brit. Col., 1891, 27 (Cascade 
Mts. and eastward, Brit. Columbia, resident). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLB AMBBICA. 239 

DRYOBATBS PUBBSCBNS OLACULIS OrinnelL 

VALDS2 OOWVY W00OPB0KB&. 

Intermediate in size between Z>. p. ndsoni and D. p. medicmua, but 
differing from both in absence of white sub-basal spots on greater 
wing-covertS; reduction of size, or number, of white spots on middle 
coverts, and more spot-Uke or rounded form of white markings on inner 
secondaries; under parts less purely white (more grayish) ? 

AduU male.— Length (skins), 152-162 (157); wing, 94-99 (96); 
tail, 57-60 (58.7); exposed culmen, 16-17 (16.3); tarsus, 16.5-17 
(16.8); outer anterior toe, 10-11 (10.5).« 

AduUfemah.— Length (skins), 155-162 (158); wing, 96-99 (97.2); 
tail, 59-63.5 (61.2); exposed cuhnen, 16-17 (16.5); tarsus, 16-17 
(16.5); outer anterior toe, 10.5-11 (10.7).* 

Kenai Peninsula (Homer; Moose Camp), shores and islands of 
Prince William Soxmd (Valdez Narrows; Naked Island) and east- 
ward along coast of Alaska to Taku Kiver; northern British Columbia 
(Fort Babme) ?^ 

Picu8 pvbescens (not of Liimieus) Finsch, Abh. Nat. Brem., iii, 1872, 60 (Alezan- 
drovek, Alaska).— Coubb, Check List, 1873, no. 299, part; 2d ed., 1882, no. 
440, part.— BAniD, Brbwer, and Rhkiwat, Hiat. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 509, 
part. — Rnx}WAT, Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 361, part. — Habtlaub, Joum. 
far Om., 1883, 276 (Chilcat R., Alaska). 
[Picus] ptibescens Coubs, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 194, part. 
P[icus] puhe9een$ Coveb, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 483, part. 
DryobaUs piibeacens Ambbican Ornitholooists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 
394, part.— (?)Nel8on, Rep. Nat. Hist. Coll. Alaska, 1887, 156, part (Sitka?). 
Dlryobates] puhescens Ridowat, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 283, part. 
Dryobates pubetcens neUoni (not of Oberholser) Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., 
xvi, 1902, 239 (Homer, Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, Sept.); xx, 1904, 402 
(Moose Camp, Kenai Peninsula, Sept.; crit.). 
DryobaUi pubeacem gladalU Grinnbll (J.), Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., v, no. 12, 
March 5, 1910, 390 (Valdez Narrows, Prince William Sound, Alaska, Sept.; 
coll. Mus. Vert. Zool. Univ. Calif.).— Swabth, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., vii, 
1911, 68 (Taku R., Alaska; crit.; habits). 

DRYOBATBS PUBBSCBNS TURATI (Malherbe). 

WILLOW WOODPBCXS&. 

Similar in pattern of coloration to D. p. homorus, but decidedly 
smaller and with white of under peiHs much duller. 

AdvU male.— Length (skms), 145-163 (154); wmg, 88.5-97 (92.6); 
tail, 53.5-60.5 (55); exposed culmen, 15-17 (16.3); tarsus, 15-17 
(16-1); outer anterior toe, 9-11.5 (10.5) .« 

a Three BpecimenB. 

^ A breediiig bird from Fort Babine, in the interior of northern British Columbia, 
is very near thiB form in its characters, but has indications of white subbasal spots on the 
greater wing-coverts. Its measurements are essentially the same (wing, 94; exposed 
colmen, 16; tarsus, 16.5; outer anterior toe, 10). 

« Ten specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



240 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

AdvUfenuOe.— Length (skins), 141-163 (152); wing, 88-96 (92.2); 
tail, 61-60.6 (65.8); exposed culmen, 14.5-17 (15.5); tarsus, 16-17 
(16.2); outer anterior toe, 10-11 (10.6).« 

Upper Austral and Transition zones of Califomia, except on north- 
west coast and southeastern desert mountains. 

Picas meridionaUa (not of SwaiiiBon) Nuttall, Maa. Om. U. 8. and Can., 2d ed., 

i, 1840, 690 (California).— Gambbl, Joum. Ac. Nat. 8ci. Fhila., i, 1847, 55 

(California).— (?)Hbbrmann, Rep. Pacific R. R. Snrv., x, pt. vi, no. 2, 1859, 

57 (mtB. of n. California). 
Picas gairdneri (not of Audubon) Bahid, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv. , ix, 1858, 91, part 

(Petaluma, SacramenJto, and San fYancisco, California). — ^Xai^tus, Proc. Ac. 

Nat. Sci. Phila., 1859, 190 (Ft. Tejdn, California).— Cooper, Om. Calif., 1870, 

377 (chiefly). — Baird, Brbwbb, and RmowAT, Hist. N. Am. Biidfl, iii,1874, 

521 (Santa Cruz I., California, breeding; measurements of eggps). 
Picus (Trichopiciu) gairdnen Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, p. zxvii, 

part. 
[Picas jmbesctns.] Var. gairdneri Coubs, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 194, part. 
Picas pvbescens, var. gairdneri Bahid, Brbwbr, and RmowAT, Hist. N. Am. 

Birds, ii, 1874, 512, part. 
Picas pubescens gairdneri (not of Ridgway, 1875) Ridgwat, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 

iii, 1880, 188, part; Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 361a, part.— Coubs, Check 

List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 441, part. 
Plicas] plubescens] gairdneri Coubs, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 483, part. 
Dryohates pvbescens gairdnerii Ambrican Ornttholooists' Union, Check List, 

1886 (and 2d ed., 1895), no. 394a, part.— Townsbnd (C. H.), Proc. U. S. 

Nat. Mus., z, 1887, 205 (Baird, Shasta Co., California, breeding).— Embrson, 

Bull. Calif. Ac. Sci., ii, 1887, 426 (Poway Valley, San Diego Co., California, 

breeding). — Fishbr, North Am. Fauna, no. 7, 1893, 47 (Tehachapi Pass, 

Grapevine Mts., and Panamint MtB., California, breeding). — Bbndirb, Life 

Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 58, part.— Grinnbll (J.), Pub. 2, Pasadena 

Ac. Sci., 1898, 25 (Los Angeles Co., California). — Van Dbnburg, Proc. Ac. 

Nat. Sci. Phila., xxxviii, 1899, 162 (Santa Clara Co., California, breeding). 
Dlryobates] pubescens gaurdnerii RmowAT, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 283, part. 
Dryohates pubescens gairdneri Embrson, Auk, iii, 1886, 94 (Ventura Co., California, 

resident).— Mahxiard, Condor, iii, 1901, 122 (San Benito Co., California, 

resident). 
Picas pubescens^ fi, gairdneri Rn>owAT and Bbldino, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., i, 

March 2, 1879, 428 (Marysville, Murphys, and Big Trees, California). 
[Picus pubescens] b. gairdneri Coubs, Birds Northwest, 1874, 282, part. 
[Dendrocopus pubescens."] Subep. a, Dendrocopus gairdneri HARonr, Cat. Birds 

Brit. Mus., zviii, 1890, 241, part (Monterey, Los Alamos, San Bernardino, 

Visalia, and Walker Basin, California). 
Picas gardineri Sclatbr, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1857, 127 (San Jos^ Valley, 

California). 
Picus turati Malhbrbb, Mon. Picid., i, 1861, 125, iii, 1861, pi. 29, figs. 5, 6, 7 (near 

Monterey, California; coll. Malherbe). — Cassin, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 

1863, 202 (crit.). 
[Picas] turati Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 185, no. 8597. 
P[icus] turati Sundbvall, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 18 (crit.). 
D[ryohates] taratU Cabanis and Hbinb, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 65 (Monterey, 

California). 

a Ten specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD8 OF NOBTH AND MIDDLE AMEBICA. 241 

Dryobaiet pubeseem turati Fibhbb (W. K,), Condor, iv, May, 1902, 68 (diagnoeia; 
crit.).— <jRiNNBLL (J.)» Pacific Coast Avifauna, no. 3, 1902, 37 (California 
range).— Amehigan Ornitholooists' Union ComarTSB, Auk, xx, 1903, 341 
(check list no. 394e); Check list, 3rd ed., 1910, 187.— Stonb, Proc. Ac. Nat. 
Sd. Phila., 1904, 581 (Mt. Sanhedrin, n. California; crit.).— Widmann, Auk, 
xxi, 1904, 68 (Yoeemite Valley).— Shabp, (3ondor, ix, 1907, 87 (San Diego Co., 
California, breeding).— Goldman, Condor, z, 1908, 203 (Summit Lake and 
Tulare Co., California, June). 

(?)Pieus puhe9een$ (not of Linnaeus) Ridowat, Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, iii, 1878, 67 
(MaiyBville, Yuba Co., California, Dec. 27; crit.). — Ridowat and Beldinq, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., i, 1879, 428 (MarysviUe).^ 

DRYOBATBS PUBESCENS GAIRDNERn (Auduboo). 

QAIKDVmwn WOOBPSCKSS. ^ 

Similar to D. p. turati, but color of under parts darker (often light 
brownish gray or drab), the white of back often tinged with brownish 
gray. 

ildtttt TnaZe.— Length (skins), 150-160 (156); wing, 92-97 (95.1); 
tail, 53-64 (58.1); exposed culmen, 15-19 (16.4); tarsus, 16-18 
(16.6); outer anterior toe, 10.5-12 (11. 1).'' 

AduU female.— Length (skins), 151-167 (157); wing, 91.5-100 
(92.8); tail, 63-60 (57.5); exposed culmen, 14.5-17 (15.5); tarsus, 
15.5^17 (16.4); outer anterior toe, 10-11.5 (10.9) .'^ 

Humid Transition Zone of northwest coast district, from southern 
British Columbia (Victoria; Satuma Island; Port Moody; Agassiz; 
Vernon; New Westminster; Mount Lehman; Kalama) southward 
through western Washington and Oregon to Mendocino and Siskiyou 
(Jonnties (occasionally to Marin County, at least in winter), California. 

Picus gcnrdnerii Audubon, Om. Biog., v, 1839, 317 (no locality given, but type 
from near Ft. Vancouver, Washington; type loet?); Birds Am., oct. ed., iv, 
1842, 252.— Newbbrry, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., x, pt. iv, 1859, 89 (n. 
California; Oregon).— Lord, Proc. Roy. ArtU. Inst. Woolwich, iv, 1860, 111 
(Brit. Columbia). 

Pieui gavrdneri Audubon, Synopsis, 1839, 180.— Baibd, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., 
ix, 1858, 91, part (Shoalwater Bay and Ft. Steilacoom, Washington; St. 
Helens and Ft. Dalles, Oregon); ed. 1860 (Birds N. Am.), atlas, pi. 85, figs. 
2, 3; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859» no. 77, part.— Sciateb, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1859, 236 (Vancouver I.).— Cooper and Sucklbt, Rep. Pacific R. R. 
Surv., xii, pt. ii, 1860, 159 (w. Oregon and Washington).— Malherbe, Mon. 
Picid., i, 1861, 123.— Cassin, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, 201 (crit.).— 
SuNDEVALL, Cousp. Av. Piciu., 1866, 17.— Gray, List Birds Brit. Mus., 
PicidflB, 1868, 44, part (Vancouver I.).— Brown, Ibis, 1868, 419 (Van- 
couver I.).— Cooper, Om. Calif., 1870, 377, part. 

a The specimen noted agrees with typical D, p. turati in small size and decidedly 
smoky whitish coloration of the under parts, but has the middle wing-coverts heavily 
and numerously spotted with white, and the greater coverts with a sub -basal row of 
white spots, as in the eastern forms. It is a very puzzling specimen, but I am now 
inclined to regard it as merely an aberrant specimen otD. p. turati 

^ Ten specimens. 

3622'*— Bull. 50, pt 6—14 ^16 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



242 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Plicus] gairdneni Rbighbnbagh, Handb. Scansores, Picinae, 1854, 375. 

[Picus] gairdneri Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 184, no. 8591. 

Dryobates pube$cens gairdnerU RmowAT, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, no. 23» 
Sept. 2, 1885, 355; Man. N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1896, 596.— American Oski- 
THOLOoiSTs' Union, Check List (and 2d ed., 1895), 1886, no. 394a, part. — 
Bbndiiui, Life Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 58, part. 

D[ryobaU$] puhe$een$ gairdnerU Ridgwat, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 283, part. 

[Trichopicus] gairdneri Bonapabte, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 123 (Consp. Yolucr. 
Zygod., 1854, 8). 

Picus (Trichopieua) gairdneri Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, p. xxvii, 
part. 

Dlryobates] gairdneri Cabanis and Hbinb, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 64 (Oregon; 
Washington). 

IPicus pubesceni.] Var. gairdnen Ooubs, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 194, part. 

FicuB ptibescens, var. gairdneri Ridqwat, Am. Joum. Sci., iv, Dec., 1872, 456. — 
Baird, Brbwbr, and Ridqwat, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 512, part. 

Picus ptibescens gairdneri (not of Ridgway, 1875) Ridowat, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
iii, 1880, 188, part; Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 361a, part.— <3oxrB8, Check 
List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 441, part. 

P[icus] p[ubescens] gairdnen Coubs, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 483, part. 

Dryobates pubescens gairdneri Anthony, Auk, iii, 1886, 165 (Wadiiington Co., 
Oregon).— Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., iii, 1890, 138 (Westminster, 
Mt. Lehman, Ealama, and Vancouver I., Brit. Columbia; crit.).— Mbrriam, 
North Am. Fauna, no. 16, 1899, 114 (Sisson, n. California).— Fishbr (W. K.), 
Condor, iv, 1902, 69 (diagnosis).— Anderson and Grinnell, Proc. Ac. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 1.903, 7 (Siskiyou Mts., n. California; crit.).— American Orni- 
thologists' Union, Check List, 3d ed., 1910, 187. — Swarth, Univ. Calif. 
Pub. Zool., X, 1912, 34 (crit.). 

[Picus pubescens] b. gairdneri Coues, Birds Northwest, 1874, 282, part. 

IDendrocopus pubescens.] Subsp. a, Dendrooopus gairdneri Haroitt, Cat. Birds 
Brit. Mus., zviii, 1890, 241, part (Brit. Columbia; Vancouver I.; Walla 
Walla, Columbia R., Albany, Umatilla Agency, and palles, Oregon). 

[Dendrocopus] gairdneri Sharpe, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 214. 

Plicus] gardneri Gray, Oen. Birds, ii, 1845, 435. 

Dryobates pubescens fumidus Matnard, Omith. and Ool., xiv, no. 4, April, 1889, 
58 (s. Vancouver I., Brit. Columbia; coll. F. B. Webster). 

(7)Picus meridionalis (not of Swainson) Heermann, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., x, 
pt. iv, no. 2, 1859, 57 (mts. of n. Calif(»nia). 

DRYOBATES NUTTALin (Gambel). 
irVTTALL*8 WOODPBOXS&. 

AdvU male in autumn and winter. — ^Forehead and greater part of 
crown blacky more or less conspicuously streaked (except sometimes 
on forehead) with white, the streaks of narrowly guttate or cuneate 
form; extreme posterior portion of crown, occiput, nape, and upper 
hindneck bright red (poppy red to scarlet vermilion), this color 
separated, on each feather, from a dusky basal area by a small V- 
shaped or sagittate spot of whitish; lower hindneck, upper back, 
lesser wing-coverts, upper tail-coverts, and four middle rectrices \mi- 
form black; rest of back, together with scapulars and rump, broadly 
barred with black and white, the bars of the two colors approximately 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 243 

equal in width; middle and greater wing-coverts black, the former 
Yiiih a single subterminal roundish or subcordate spot of white, the 
latter with two roundish white spots on outer web; remiges black, 
broadly barred with white, their inner webs with larger roundish or 
subquadrate spots of the same; outermost normal (i. e., second) rec^ 
trix white, with one complete subterminal bar of black and a second 
incomplete or interrupted bar, the basal portion of inner web usually 
with more or less of black; next rectrix similar but with more black 
at base and with second subterminal interrupted bar reduced to a 
pair of smaU, widely sparated spots, or even obsolete; third (i. e. 
fourth) rectrix with more than basal half black and without second 
(sometimes without any) subterminal black spot or bar; nasal tufts 
and anterior portion of loral or latero-frontal region dull whitish or 
li^t yellowish, the former dusky terminally; posterior portion of 
loral r^on, narrow rictal stripe (extending posteriorly beneath orbital 
and auricular regions), a broader supra-auricular stripe (extending 
anteriorly to at least middle of orbital region and posteriorly con- 
tinued, more broadly, along sides of neck), together with under parts, 
white, the imder parts of body usually tinged, more or less strongly, 
with pale brownish buffy; auricular region and broad malar stripe 
(the latter continued posteriorly over lower sides of neck, where 
much expanded), black; sides and flanks spotted with blacky the 
markings more longitudinal on sides of breast, more transverse on 
flauks; under tail-coverts barred or transversely spotted with black; 
bill horn color (more or less dark) usually darker toward culmen; 
iris brown; legs and feet grayish oUve or greenish gray in dried skins. 

AdvU male in spring and summer. — Similar to the autumnal and 
winter plumage, but white streaks on forehead and crown much 
reduced in size, sometimes obsolete, and red nuchal area more 
restricted, through wearing off of red tips of feathers of anterior 
portion. 

AduU female in autumn and winter. — Similar to the adult male of 
corresponding season, but without any red on occiput or nape, which 
are black, with guttate or elliptical streaks of white, like forehead 
and crown. 

AduU female in spring and summ^er. — Similar to the fall and winter 
plumage, but pileum and hindneck uniform black or else (in earlier 
spring), with very smaU or scattered white streaks. 

Young male. — ^Essentially like adult males, but occiput, nape, and 
hindneck uniform black, the whole crown red, spotted or speckled 
with white, ^'pattern" of upper parts less sharply defined, and mark- 
ings on lateral under parts less distinct. 

Young female. — Similar to the young male, but red of crown more 
restricted, and forehead streaked with white. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



244 BULLBTIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

AdvU WMife,— Length (skina), 166-180 (173); wing, 100.6-107.6 
(102.7); tail, 61-67 (63.8); culmen, 19.6-22 (20.8); tarsus, 17.6-19 
(18.4); outer anterior toe, 12-13.6 (12.8).« 

AduU /ewioZe.— Length (skins), 161-182 (169); wing, 98-104.5 
(101.9); tail, 69-67 (63.8); cuhnen, 18-21 (19.3); tarsus, 17.6-18.6 
(17.9); outer anterior toe, 12-13 (12.4).« 

Upper Sonoran Zone in California (west of Sierra Nevada), 
southwestern Oregon (Ashland), and liorthem Lower California (70 
miles east of Ensenada ?; Rancho Yiejo, 16 miles east of Alamo; San 
Eafa61?; San Pedro Martir Mountains). 

Picus nutUxllii Gambel, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., i, April, 1843, 259 (Loe Angelee 
Co., Califomia; coll. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila.7).— Baird, in Rep. Stansbury's 
Surv. Gt. Salt Lake, 1852, 333 (California).— Woodhousb, in Rep. Sit- 
greaves's Expl. Zufii and Col. R., 1853, 90 (California).— Newberbt, Rep. 
Pacific R. R. Surv., x, pt. iv, 1859, 89.— Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sd. 
Phila., 1863, 195 (crit.).— Sundevall, Conep. Av. Picin., 1866, 19. 

Picus nuttaUi Sclateb, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1857, 127 (San Joe6 Valley, 
Califomia); 1858, 3 (near Shasta, Calif.).— Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., 
ix, 1858. 93; ed. 1860 (Birds N. Am.), atlas, pi. 41, fig. 2; Cat. N. Am. 
Birds, 1859, no. 78.— Xantus, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1859, 190 (Ft. 
Tejon, Califomia). — Hbermann, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., x, pt. iv, no. 2, 
1859, 57 (valleys of Califomia).— Malhebbe, Mon. Picid., i, 1861, 100; iii, 
1861, pi. 24, figs. 8, 9.— Gbay, List Birds Brit. Mus., Picidse, 1868, 49.— 
CooPEB, Om. Calif., 1870, 378.— Baibd, Beewbb, and RnxiWAY, Hist. 
N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 521, pi. 50, figs. 3, 6.— Henshaw, Rep. Om. Spec. 
Wheeler's Surv., 1876, 258 (Santa Barbara, Ft. Tejon, Tejon Mts., and 
Kemville, Califomia; habits).— Ridg way, Om. 40th Parallel, 1877, 547 
(Sacramento Valley); Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 189; Norn. N. Am. Birds, 
1881, no. 364.— Beldino, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., i, 1879, 428 (Murphys, 
MarysviUe, and Stockton, Califomia). 

Picus (Dydiopicus) ntUtaUi Baibd, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, p. xxviii. 

Dlictyopipo] nxUtalli Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 75. 

[Dictyopipo] nuUalli Heine and Reighenow, Nom. Mus. Hein. Om., 1890, 215 
(Folsom and Aubum, Califomia). 

[Picui scaiaris,] Var. nuttaUU Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 193. 

Picu8 scakaris . . . var. nuUaUi Coues, Check list, 1873, no. 297a. 

Picus scalaris nuUalli Coues, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 435. 

Plicus] slcalaris] nuUalli Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 482. 

Dryobates nuUalli Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, Sept. 2, 1885, 355. — 
EvEBMANN, Auk, iii, 1886, 94 (Ventura Co., California).- Townsend (C. H.), 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., x, 1887, 205 (Red Bluff, n. California).— Anthony, 
ZoS, iv, 1893, 236 (San Pedro Martir Mts., Lower Califomia, up to 4,000 
ft.).— Gbinnell (J.), Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., v, 1908, 62 (Seven Oaks, etc., 
San Diego Co.; San Bernardino Mts., breeding).— Amebican Obnitholo- 
0IST8* Union, Check List, 3d ed., 1910, 188.— Beal, Bull. 34, U. S. Biol. 
Surv., 1910, 19 (food); Bull. 37, 1911, 24 (food). 

Dryobates nuUallii Amebican Obnitholooists' Union, Check list, 1886, (and 
2d ed., 1895), no. 397.— Mobcom, Bull. Ridgw. Om. Club, no. 2, 1887, 41 
(San Bernardino, California).— Gault, Bull. Ridgw. Om. Qub, no. 2, 1887, 
7fr-81 (range, habits, etc.).— (?)Bbyant (W. E.), Proc. Calif. Ac. Sci., ser. 

<^ Ten Specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 245 

2, 1889, 286 (San Rafael and Enaenada, Lower Galifomia, up to 3,500 

tt.).('^—FiSHBR (A. E.), North Am. Fauna, no. 7, 1893, 47 (Gajon Pass, San 

Bernardino Mts., Old Ft. Tejon, Walker Basin, etc.).— Bendibe, Life Hist. 

N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 65.— Mailliabd, Auk, xv, 1898, 196 (San Ger6nimo, 

Marin Co., California and 30 m. pprthward).— Van Denbubq, Proc. Ac. 

Nat. ScL Phila., xxxviii, 1899, 162 (Mt. Hamilton, Santa Clara Co., breeding). 
DlryobaUs] nuUdllii Rioowat, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 285. 
Dendrocopui ntUtalli Habqitt, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 244 (Ashland, 

Oregon; localities in California). 
[Dendrocopus] nuUalli Shabpe, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 215. 
Pieu9 aoakaii (not of Wagler) Gahbbl, Joum. Ac. Nat. Sd. Phila., i, 1847, 55, 

pi. 9, figs. 2, 3 (California). 
PieuM wiUonti Malhbrbb, Rev. et Mag. de Zool., Nov., 1849, 529 (Monterey, 

Califomia; coll. A. Malherbe?;»adult male). 
PlicTis] wihoni Bonapabte, (^nsp. Av., i, 1850, 138. 
Plieus] wUsonii Rbichbnbach, Handb. Scansores, Pidnse, 1854, 375. 
[Triduypiaail wiUani Bonapabte, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 123 (Consp. Volucr. 

Zygod.,1854, 8). 

DRYOBATES SCALARIS SCALARIS (Wagler). 
OXIZABA WOODPKOl 



Adult male. — ^Pileum, superficially, bright red (poppy red or ver- 
milion), the feathers dark grayish sooty basally, and with a white 
spot in middle portion, the red tips gradually increasing in length 
toward the nape, so that the white spots are concealed posteriorly, 
but exposed on the crown, where also the basal dusky shows, more or 
less; forehead with very little, if any, red, passing into brownish 
(more or less dark) anteriorly; hindneck, back, scapulars, and rump 
broadly, sharply, juad regularly barred with black and white, the black 
bars narrower titian the white, and less distinct on rump ; shorter upper 
tail-coverts black, usually with a white subapical spot or bar; longer 
upper tail-coverts and four middle rectrices imiform' black; lateral 
(developed) pair of rectrices dull or brownish white, crossed by about 
six broad bars of black, those on basal portion of outer web usually 
reduced to spots next to shaft; next (third) pair similar, but with 
about basal half of inner web uniform black; fourth pair black, with 
broad white spots, or broadly and irregularly edged with white, on 
about terminal half of outer web, the inner web sometimes with one to 
three white spots on terminal portion; wings black, the middle coverts 
with a central or subapical, usually cordate, spot of white, the lesser 
coverts (at least the posterior ones) with a smaller and more roimded 
white central spot, the greater coverts crossed by two transverse 
series, or bands, of white spots, the secondaries with six similar white 
bands, the first (subbasal one) concealed by greater coverts, the pri- 
maries similarly marked; nasal tufts dull brownish white to pale 
brown; a broad supraauricular stripe of brownish white or pale dull 
brownish buffy ; a broad subamicular stripe of the same color, extend- 

^ According to Anthony (Zo6, iv, 1893, 236) this may be />. tcalaria eremicui. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



246 



BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



ing anteriorly, beneath eye, to baae of nasal tufts, the two sometimeB 
confluenton sideof neck, behind the black auricular stripe; malar r^on 
dull whitish or pale brownish buffy anteriorly, more or less distinctly 
barred with dusky (plain light brownish or dull grayish anteriorly), 
black posteriorly, where the black is continued backward as a narrow 
stripe, which usually sends a lateral branch upward to meet the pos- 
terior end of the black auricular stripe; under parts dull brownish 
buffy or pale Isabella color,* paler (approaching dull grayish white) 
on chin and upper throat, flanks, and imder tail-coverts, the sides of 
chest and breast marked with streaks or, usually, more or less guttate, 
spots of black, the sides spotted, the flanks transversely spotted or 
barred, the under tail-coverts with transverse bars or spots of the 
same, usually of more or less V-shaped form; imder wing-coverts dull 
brownish white^ sparsely (sometimes indistinctly) spotted or streaked 
with black or dusky; inner web of remiges dull slate or dusky, with 
large, roimdish spots of white, arranged in transverse series, on inner 
half of web; bill horn color, more or less darker on maxilla, paler on 
mandible; iris brown; legs and feet dusky horn color (olive-greenish 
in life); length (skms), 160-168 (162); wing, 95-101 (97.3); tail, 
62.5-67 (64.9); exposed culmen, 19.5-21 (20.2); tarsus, 18-18.5 
(18.1); outer anterior toe, 11.5-13 (11.8).^ 

Advli female. — Similar to the adult male, but without any red, the 
pileum uniform black, passing into sooty brown on anterior portion of 
forehead; length (skins), 145-168 (152); wing, 93-98 (96.1); tail, 
49-52.5 (50.1); exposed culmen, 17.5-19.6 (18.5); tarsus, 16-16.5 
(16.3); outer anterior toe, 10.5-12 (11.6).^ 

Young male. — Similar to the adult male, but wi£h nape and sides 
of occiput imiform black, the red confined to the crown, black mark- 
ings duller, all the markings less sharply defined, and plumage of 
softer texture. 

Young female. — Similar to the young male, but usually with much 
less of red on crown (often only a few of the feathers tipped with red) . 

Middle and northern Vera Cruz (Orizaba; Mirad6r; Carriz&l; C6r- 
dova; Huatusco, near C6rdova; Jalapa; Co&tepec; Jico; Plan del 



a The color deeper in fresh, or winter, plumage, paler in Bununer. 
h Five specimens. 


Looalitj. 


Wing. 


TaU. 


Ex- 
posed 
otunieii. 




Onter 
ante- 
rior toe. 


MALES. 


86.8 
98.7 


6S.6 
67 


90.2 
20.2 


18 
18.2 


11.8 


Two adalt malM from soatlMm TamaaUpM 


13 







The birds from southern Tamaulipas are intennediate between typical D. s, 9oalari$ 
and D. s, tymplectui, but are nearer the former, both in measurements and coloration. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF KOBTH AND MIDDLE AMEBICA. 247 

Rio), southern Tamaulipas (Aldama; Tampico; Alta Mira); and 
southern San Lufs Potosi (Vall^). 

F[ieui] ioalaris Waglbr, Isis, 1829, 511 (Mexico a).— Gbat, Gen. Birds, ii, 1845, 
435.— BoNAPABTB, Oonsp. Av., i, 1850, 138.— Rbichxnbagh, Handb. Scan- 
soTOB, Picinse, 1854, 377, pi. 639, figs. 4264-4266. 

[Picus] scalaru Lichtensteik, Nom. Av. Mus. Berol., 1854, 75. — Gbat, Hand-list' 
ii, 1870, 185, no. 8605.— Sglater and Salyin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 99, part. 

FieuM BcdUxns Sglatbr, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1856, 307, part (Mexico; crit.); 
Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 333, part (Orizaba, Vera Cruz) .—Malhbrbe, Mon. Picid. 
i, 1861, 116; iii, 1861, pi. 27, figs. 1-6.— Sundevall, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 
18 (Jalapa, Vera Cruz).— Gbat, list Birds Brit. Mus., Capit. andPidd., 1868, 
48 (Mexico).— Baibd, Brewer, and Ridowat, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 
515, part. 

D[ryohat€9\ Kolcaru Rn>GWAT, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 284, part (Vera Cruz). 

Dtyobates tealaris scalaris American ORNrrHOLOOierrs' Union, Check List, 3d ed., 
1910, 188.— Obbrholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xli, 1911, 140, 141 (monogr.). 

[Picus $calan$] var. 9calan$ Baird, Brbwbr, and Ridowat, Hist. N. Am. Birds, 
ii, 1874, 501, 517, part. 

[Dyctiopicus] scalarit Bonaparte, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 123 (Consp. Volucr. 
Zygod., 1854, 8). 

Piau (DycUopiau) Bcalaria Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, p. xxviii, 
part. 

D[ictyopipo] icalaris Cabanis and Heinb, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 74 (Jalapa). 

[Dictyopipo] scalaris Heine and Reichenow, Nom. Mus. Hein. Om., 1890, 215 
(Jtdapa). 

Dendrocopus scalarisBMRQmf Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 246, part (Aldama 
and Tampico, Tamaulipas; Jalapa, Cordova, Orizaba, and San Andres, Vera 
Cruz).— Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 435, part 
(Tampico and Aldama, s. Tamaulipas; Jalapa, Coatepec, Cordova, Huatusco 
near Cordova, Orizaba, and Plan del Rio, Vera Cruz). 6 

[Dendrocopus] sadaris Sharps, Hand-list, ii. 1900, 215, part. 

Picus ffracilis Lesson, Rev. Zool., 1840, 41 (Mexico). 

Picus orizabsi Cabsin, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, 196 (Orizaba, Vera Cruz; 
coll. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.). 

DRTOBATBS SCALARIS RIDGWAYI ObarholBer. 
tlalootalpAm woodpkobxr. 

Similar to D. 8. scalaris, but decidedly smaller; similar in size to 
D. s. 'parvus, but lateral under parts streaked instead of spotted (or, 
if spotted, tlie spots narrow and much smaller), malar r^on paler 
(with less blackish intermixture) anteriorly, and black bars on back, 
etc., relatively narrower. 

AduU male.— Length (skms), 140-164 (147); wing, 88-92.5 (90.7); 
taU, 45-50.5(47.7); exposed culmen, 18.5-20.5 (19.1); tarsus, 16-17.5 
(16.6); outer anterior toe, 11.5-12 (11.7).^ 

a The precise locality not stated, but the deBcription indicates the form from central 
and northern Vera Cruz. 

ft The localities Sola and Juchatengo (Oaxaca) and Amula (Guerrero), mentioned in 
the "Biologia," I am unable to properly allocate, not a single specimen from either of 
the States of Oaxaca or Guerrero being contained in the series of more than 550 exam- 
ples of this species examined in this connection. 

c Four specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



S48 BULLETIN 60, tJNiTED 6TATES ITATIONAL MtJSBSUM. 

AduUfe7rude.---'Ijength (skin), 140;«wing, 86-89.5 (88); tail, 47.5 ;<* 
exposed culmen, 17-19.5 (18); taFsus, 16; outer anterior toe, 11-11.5 
(11.3).^ 

Coast district of southern Vera Cruz (JalUp&n; Tlalcotalp&m; 
Pasa Nueva). 

Dryohata scalarU ridgwayi Obbbhoisbb, Proc. TJ. S. Nat Mub., xli, June 30, 1911, 
140, 143 (Jaltipin, a. Vera Cruz, Mexico; coU. U. S. Nat. Mus.). 

DRTOBATBS SCALARIS PBRCUS Oberholser. 
oomztAv woodpbokbb. 

Similar to D. 8. scalaris in size, but black bars on back, etc., broader, 
and lateral under parts with larger and more numerous black spots, 
the spots extending entirely across chest; red of occiput, etc., in adult 
male slightly deeper Gess orange-red or scarlet). 

AdvUmalc—Lengih (skins), *136-141 (139); wing, 94-99 (96.5); 
tail (imperfect); exposed culmen, 17.5-20 (18.8); tarsus, 17; outer 
anterior toe, 11.5-12.5 (12).*^ 

AduU female.— Length (skins), 132-142 (137); wing, 90-94.5 
(92.3); tail (imperfect); exposed culmen, 16.5-18 (17.3); tarsus, 
lfr-17 (16.5); outer anterior toe, 11.5-12 (11.7).« 

State of Chiapas, southern Mexico (San Vicente; Comit&n; Tuxtla 
Gutierrez). 

DryobaUs scdlaris percus Obebholssb, Proc. TJ. S. Nat. Mus., xli, June 30, 1911, 
140, 144 (Ck>mit&n, Chiapas, s. Mexico; coll. U. 8. Nat. Mus.). 

DRTOBATBS SCALARIS PARVUS (Cabot). 
SZaiX WOODPKOKBB. 

Similar to D. 8. ridgwayi in small size (wing averaging slightly 
shorter), but differing in having the lateral imder parts much more 
heavily marked with black, the markings mostly in the form of 
rounded or cordate spots (instead of streaks), in broader black and 
narrower white bars on back, etc., anterior portion of malar region 
more blackish, and red of occiput, etc., in adult male slightly deeper 
Gess orange). 

AduU tnoZ^.— Length (skins), 141-155 (149); wing, 87-92 (89.1); 
tail, 46-53.5 (48.4); exposed culmen, 18-20.5 (19.4); tarsus, 15.5-17 
(16.3); outer anterior toe, 11-12.5 (11.5).** 

AduU female— Length (skins), 139-150 (144); wing, 86-S9.5 (87); 
tail, 46-49 (47.3); exposed cuhnen, 16-18 (16.9); tarsus, 15.5-16.5 
(15.9); outer anterior toe, 11-12 (11.5).« 

a One specimen. c Two specimens. * Six specimens. 

^ Three specimens. ^ Ten specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 249 

Yucatan (Sis&l; M6rida; Temftx; Chichen-Itza; La Vega; west of 
Tunkas; Progreso; San Felipe; Tekanto; Tictil; Tirimfn; Chable; 
PoctU; Cozum61 Island). 

Ficu$ parvus Cabot, Joum. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., v, 1846, 90 (TictU, Yucatan; 
coll. S. Cabot, jr.). 

F[icu$] parvus Gbat, Gen. Birds, iii, 1849, App., p. 21. 

D[ryoh(Ue$] icalarU parvus Ridgwat, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 284. 

DryobaUs sedlaris parvus Stone, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1890, 206 (Tunkas 
and Tekanto, Yucatan).— Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., viii, 1896, 285 
(Chichen-Itza, Yucatan).— Obsbholsbr, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., zli, 1911, 140, 
145 (monogr.). 

Fieut scalaris (not of Wagler) Sclatbr and SALvm, Ibis, 1859, 136 (Ticul, Yuca- 
tan).— Lawbbncb, Ann. Lye. N. Y., ix, 1869, 206 (Mdrida, Yucatan). — 
Baibd, Brsweb, and RmowAT, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 515, part 
(Yucatan).— BoucABD, Plroc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, 452 (Yucatan).— 
Salvin, Ibis, 1885, 191 (Cozumel I.; habits); 1889, 368 (Cozumel I.; crit.). 

[Picus] ioaJarU Sclatbb and Salvdi, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 99, part. 

Dendroeopus scalaris Haboitt, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 246, part (Mdrida, 
Tizimin, Chable, and Cozumel Island, Yucatan).— Salvin and Godman, 
Biol. Centr.-Am., ii, 1895, 435, part (Pocul, etc., Yucatan). 

[Dendrocopus] scalaris Shabpb, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 215, part (Yucatan). 

Picus vagatus Cassin, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, 196 (Mexico?; coll. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila.); Joum. Ac. Nat. Sci. Hiila., 1863, pi. 52, fig. 1.— Sunde- 
VALL, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 19.— Gray, List Birds Brit. Mus., Capit. and 
Picid., 1868, 49. 

[Picus] vagatus Gbay, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 186. no. 8610. 

DRTOBATBS SCALARIS LBUCOPTILURnS OberholBer. 
PECK'S WOODPBCKBB. 

Similar to D, 8. parvus, but still smaller; lateral rectrices less regu- 
larly and less extensively barred (the inner web more extensively 
black basally, the outer with proximal portion more narrowly or not 
at all barred) ; back, etc., rather less broadly barred, and red of head 
in adult male slightly deeper (less scarlet). 

ildtift Twofc.— Length (skins), 137-149 (143); wmg, 85-88.5 (86.8); 
tafl, 43-48.5 (45.8); exposed cubnen, 18-19 (18.5); tarsus, 16.5; 
outer anterior toe, 11.5-12 (11.7).* 

AdvU female. — ^Length (skin), 133.5; wing, 84; tail, 44; exposed 
cuhnen, 16.5; tarsus, 15; outer anterior toe, 11.5.^ 

British Honduras (pine ridge near Manatee Lagoon; Ycacos 
Lagoon). 

Dryobates scalaris UucopUlurus Obebholseb, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xli, June 30, 
1911, 141, 146 (Pine Ridge, near Manatee Lagoon, British Honduras; coll. 
Carnegie Mus.). 



o Two specimens. ^ One specimen. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



250 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

DRTOBATBS SCALARIS SINALOENSIS Ridcway. 

UAZATlJLa WOODPKOKBB. 

Similar to D. s. azdus, but decidedly larger and with sides of chesty 
etc., streaked instead of spotted with black; similar to D. s. agmts, 
but decidedly smaller. 

AdtM male.— Length (skins), 151-156 (153); wing, 94-95 (94.5); 
taU, 43.5-53 (48.4); exposed culmen, 19-21.5 (20.3); tarsus, 16.5-17 
(16.8); oyter anterior toe, 12-13 (12.6).* 

AdvU female.— Length (skins), 140-157 (151); wing, 93-96 (94.6); 
tail, 53.5-55.5 (54.5); exposed culmen, 17.5-19 (18.2); tarsus, 16-17 
(16.3); outer anterior toe, 11-12.5 (11.8).^ 

Western Mexico, in State of Sinaloa (Mazatl6n; Presidio de 
Mazatl6n; Culiacdn; Plomosas; Altata; Mount Juan lisiarraga). 

Picui luccuianui (not P. ItusasanuB Xantus) Finsoh, Abh. Nat. Ver. Bremen, 

1870, 354 (Mazatlan, Sinaloa). 
Picui toaJarU (not of Wagler) Lawbbncb, Mem. Boat. Soc. N. H., ii, 1874, 294, 

part (MazaUan). 
Dendrocopus sctdaris Habqitt, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 246, part (in 

synonymy).— SALvm and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 435, 

part (Mazatlan; Presidio de Mazatlan). 
[Picus tcalaris] var. graysonx Bauid, in Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway's Hist. N. 

Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 517, part (Mazatlan). 
Picu$ icdlarii var. graysoni Lawbbncb, Mem. Best. Soc. N. H., ii, 1874, 294, 

part (Mazatlan). 
D[ryob<Ues] scalaris tinaloensis IUdowat, Man. N. Am. Birds, Sept. 27, 1887, 285 

(Mazatlan, Sinaloa; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.). 
Dryobates tealaris ainaloentis RmowAT, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 592; 2d ed., 

1896, 613.— Lantz, Trans. Kansas Ac. Sci. for 1896-97 (1899), 220 (Altata, 

Sinaloa).— MnxER (W. De W.), Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., xxi, 1905, 352 (Juan 

Lisiarraga, s. Sinaloa). — Obbrholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xli, 1911, 140, 

149 (monogr.). 

DRTOBATES SCALARIS 6RATS0NI (Baird). 

TBXS MABZA8 WOODPKOBXS. 

Similar to D. 8. ainaloensis, but decidedly larger, bars on lateral 
rectrices averaging broader (except on proximal portion of inner web, 
where usually narrower), primary coverts usually without trace of 
whitish spots, and black bars on back, etc., decidedly broader; differ- 
ing from D. 8. agnu8 in the same characters (except width of bars on 
lateral rectrices) and in smaller size (except bill and feet, which are 
slightly larger). 

AdvU male.— Len^ (skins), 157-183 (171); wing, 96.5-99 (97.7); 
taU, 51-57 (54.5); exposed culmen, 20.5-23 (22.1); tarsus, 16.5-18 
(17.4); outer anterior toe, 12.5-13 (12.9).« 

a Four specimens. ^ Five specimens. « Nine specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMEBIOA. 251 

AduU female — Length (skins), 159-172 (166); wing, 92-98 (95); 
tail, 49-56 (53.6); exposed culmen, 18.5-20 (19.3); tarsus, 16.5-17.5 
(17); outer anterior toe, 11.5-12.5 (12).« 

Tres Marias Islands (Maria Madre Island; Geofa Island), western 
Mexico. 

Pieus lueananus (not P. liuxuantLS Xantua) Finsch, Abh. Nat. Ver. Bremen, 

1870, 354, part (Tres Marias). 
Pieus iealaris (not of Wagler) Grayson, Proc. Boat. Soc. N. H., xiv, 1871, 273 

(Tres Marias). 
Dendrooopus scalaris Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1895,435, 

part (Tres Marias; crit.). 
[Pieus scdlaris] var. graysonx Baibd, in Baird, Brewer, and Ridgw&y's Hist. N. 

Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 501, 517, part (type from Tres Marias Islands, w. Mexico; 

coU. U. S. Nat. Mus.). 
Pieus scakaris var. ffraysoni Baibd, Brbwbr, and Ridgwat, Hist. N. Am. Birds. 

ii, 1874, 515 (in synonymy under P. scakaris). — Lawrence, Mem. Best. Soc, 

N. H., ii, 1874, 294, part (Tres Marias; habits; crit.). 
D[fyobaUs] scalaris graysonx Rn>owAT, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 285. 
Dryobates scakaris graysoni Nelson, North Am. Faima, no. 14, 1899, 43 (Tres Marias; 

habits; crit.).— Bailet (H. H.), Auk, xxiii, 1906, 388 (Geofa I., Tres 

Marias).— Oberholser, I^oc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xU, 1911, 141, 148 (monogr.). 
[Dendrocojyus scakaris.] Subsp. fi, Dendrocopus graysonx Harqitt, Gat. Birds Brit. 

Mus., xviii, 1890, 250. 

DRTOBATBS SCALARIS AZBLUS Oberholser. 

WCHOAOlir WOODPKOKEB. 

Similar to D. a. parvus^ but wing averaging slightly longer, bill and 
feet smaller (the former more slender); lateral rectrices with black bars 
narrower, on outer web confined to terminal portion; similar in col- 
oration (including pattern of lateral rectrices) to D, s. sinaloensis, but 
decidedly smaller, and sides of chest, etc., spotted instead of streaked. 

AdvU male. — ^Liength (skin), 156.5; wing, 92; tail, 48.5; exposed 
culmen, 18.5; tarsus, 15.5; outer anterior toe, 11.^ 

States of Michoac&n (La Salada), Oaxaca (Oaxaca City; Tlalcolula; 
Sola), and Guerrero (Amula), southwestern Mexico. (Probably also 
eastward to southern Puebla.O 

DryobaUs scakaris axelus Obsbholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xli, June 30, 1911, 
141, 147 (La Salada, Michoacdn, s. w. Mexico; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.). 

a Four specimens. 

fr One specimen (type of the subspecies). 

« A specimen from Ghietla, southern Puebla, in the collection of the Gomision C^eo- 
g;raficft Ezploiadora de Mexico, which I examined in 1886, apparently agrees in size 
and color characters with the type of this form. (See Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, 1886, 
159, where, by a misprint, the length of wing is given as 2.80 instead of 3.80 inchee»i 
96.52 mm. ^nie length of wing, as thus corrected, is considerably greater than in the 
type of D. s. azdus, as given above; but at that time the wing was measured by laying 
it flat against a measuring stick, by which method the wing of the type of />. s. aselus 
1 94 mm.) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



252 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL IfUSEUM. 

DRTOBATBS SCALARIS AGNUS OberiiolBer. 

OAMOA WOODPKOKBB. 

Similar to D. a. sinaloenaia, but decidedly larger. 

Advlt moZe.— Length (skins), 165-170 (167.5); wing, 100-101.5 
(100.8); tail, 58-59.5 (58.8); exposed culmen, 20-23 (21.5); tarsus, 
17; outer anterior toe, 13.^ 

AdvU fetn^.— Length (skins), 160-161.5 (161); wing, 95-98.5 
(96.8); tail, 56.5-60.5 (58.5); exposed culmen, 19.5-20 (19.8) ; tarsus, 
16-16.5 (16.3); outer anterior toe, 12.*^ 

Southern Sonora (Camoa; Batamot&l). 

Dryobates scalaris agntu Obbrholsbb, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xli, June 30, 1911, 
140, 150 (Camoa, Rio Mayo, Sinaloa, w. Mexico; coll. U. S. Nat. Mu8.). 

DRTOBATBS SCALARIS LUCASANUS (Zantus). 
SAH LUOAS WOODPKOKBB. 

Similar to D. 8. dgnus, but decidedly larger (especially bill and feet), 
black bars on back, etc., broader (usually much broader) than white 
ones, white bars on wings usually decidedly narrower, and black 
markings on lateral under parts usually shorter and broader (spots 
rather than streaks) . 

^cZutttnofe.— Length (skins), 174-191 (184); wing, 100-105 (102); 
tail, 60.5-66 (63); exposed culmen, 23.5-25 (24.5); tarsus, 18.5-19.5 
(19.1); outer anterior toe, 13-14.5 (14).^ 

^(ZuK/ewioZe.— Length (skins), 168-182 (175); wing, 95-102 (99.2); 
tail, 57-«9 (63.8); exposed culmen, 19-22 (20.6); tarsus, 17-18 
(17.7); outer anterior toe, 12.5-13 (12.8).* 

Cape San Lucas district of Lower California (Cape San Lucas; San 
Jos6delCabo; LaLaguna; La Paz; SanlgnAcio; Rosarito; Santo 
Domingo; Miraflores; Todos Santos; Pescadero, 10 miles south of 
Todos Santos; Santa Anita; El Cajoncito; San Francisco Moun- 
tains; Victoria Moimtains; Santa Margarita Island). 

PictM Ituxuanus Xantus, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., Nov., 1859, 298 (Cape San 
Lucas, Lower California; coU. U. S. Nat. Mub.). — Baird, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1859, 302 (Gape San Lucas; crit.).— Malhbbbe, Mon. Pidd., i, 1861, 
166.— SciATBB, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 333.— Cassin, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1863, 195.— Geat, list Birds Brit. Mus., Capit. and Picid., 1868, 60.— 
Eluot, lUustr. New and Unfig. Birds N. Am., i, 1869, 7. 

P[icu8] lucasanui Sundbvall, Consp. Av. Pidn., 1866, 20. 

[Picus] Ituxuanua Gbat, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 186, no. 8612. 

D[ictyopipo] luoasana Cabanis and HBmB, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 75. 

Picus scalaris var. liuxuanus Baied, in Coopbb, Om. Calif., 1870, 381 (crit.). — 
BAniD, Bbbwbb, and RmowAT, Hist. N. Am. Birds, u, 1874, 519. 

[Picus scdaris] var. lucasanus Baibd, Bbbwbb, and RmawAT, Hist. N. Am. Birds, 
ii, 1874, 501, 517. 

Picus scalaris . . . var. hieasanus CouBS, Check List, 1873, no. 2975. 

a Two specimens. ^ Ten specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF KOBTH AKD MIDDLE AlCEBICA. 253 

PieuM Boakaris Iwxuanus Ridowat, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, Aug. 24, 1880, 189, 
219, 229; Norn. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 363a.— Ooues, Check list, 2d ed., 
1882, no. 436.— Bblding, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mua., v, 1882, 543 (Cape district. 
Lower California); vi, 1883, 349 (VictcHria Mts., Lower California). 

P[icu8] ^edlaris] luoasanus Couss, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 482. 

Dryobata sealaris lucasanus Bidowat, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, no. 23, Sept. 2, 
1885, 355.— American Ornttholoqists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 396a; 
2d ed., 1895, no. 396a, part; 3d ed., 1910, 188, part.— Bryant (W. E.), Proc. 
Calif. Ac. Sci., 2d ser., 1889, 286 (Cape San Lucas, Victoria Mts., Santa 
Margarita I., and n<Mlh to 28®).— Townsbnd (C. H.), Proc. U. B. Nat. Mus., 
xiii, 1890, 137 (Cape San Lucas).— Bendirb, Life Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 
1895, 65, part.— Oberholsbr, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xli, 1911, 141, 150 
(monogr.). 

D[ryohatei] sealaris Ituxuanus Ridgwat, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 285. 

Dryobaies lucasanus Brewster, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., xli, 1902, 102 (Cape San 
Lucas district; habits; crit.). 

[DendrocopuM scalaris.l Subsp. a, Denctrooopm Ituxuanus HARorrr, Cat. Biids Brit. 
Mus., xviii, 1890,. 250. 

[DeTidrocopus] lucasanus Sharpe, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 215. 

Dendrocopus sealaris (not Picus sealaris Wagler) Salyin and Godman, Biol. Centr.- 
Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 435, part. 

DRTOBATES SCALARIS EREMICUS Oberholser. 

8AH FBBlTAirDO WOODPSCKBR. 

Shnilar to D. 8. liLcasarms, but larger, white bars on back, etc., 
ayeraging still narrower (usually but little more than half as wide as 
the black bars), and posterior under parts usually much more heavily 
barred. 

AdvUmdle.— Length (skins), 182-202 (190); wing, 104-111 (106.6); 
tail, 64-72 (68); exposed culmen, 24-28.6 (26.9); tarsus, 19.6-21 
(20.4); outer anterior toe, 13-16 (14) .« 

MiM fernale,— Length (skins), 170-187 (178); wing, 98.6-104.5 
(101.4); tail, 66-67.5 (66.9); exposed cidmen, 22.6-26.6 (23.9); tarsus, 
17.5-19.5 (18.9); outer anterior toe, 13-14 (13.4).^ 

Pacific coast district of northern Lower California (San Quintin; 46 
miles east of San Quintin; Rio San Sim6n; Arroyo San Sim6n; San 
Fernando; Ros&rio; Ubai; Nachoguero Valley; Rancho Layla; 
Playa Maria; Playa Maria Bay; San Telmo; Santa Ana; San 
Andrfe; Ensenada; San Pedro Martir Mountains ?0- 

(?)2>ryo5ate9 sealaris lucasanus (not Picus lucasanus Xantus) Anthont, Zo6, iy, 

1893, 236 (San Pedro Martir Mts.). 
Dryobaies sealaris lucasanus Amsrioan ORNrrHOLOoisrs' Union, Check list, 2d 

ed., 18&5, no. 396a, part; 3d ed., 1910, 188, part.— Anthony, Auk, xii, 1895, 

138 (San Fernando, Lower California; crit.).— Benddib, Life Hist. N. Am. 

Birds, ii, 1895, 65, part. 

O' Ten specimens. 
h Five specimens. 
<^ Specimens from San Pedro Martir Mountains not examined. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



254 



BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



Dendrocoput wakaru luoa$anu8 Thatbr and Bangs, Condor, iz, 1907, 136 (Santa 
Ana and San Andres, Lower Oalifomia). 

{7)Dryobate8 nuttallU (not Picua nuUallii Gambel?) Bryant (W. E.), Ptoc. Ac. 
Nat. Sci. Fhila., 2d ser., 1889, 286 (San Bafael and Ensenada, Lower Cali- 
fornia; see Anthony, Zo6, iv, 1893, 236). 

Dryohates scalaris eremicua Obbbholsbb, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mub., xli, June 30, 1911, 
141, 151 (San Fernando, n. w. Lower California; coU. U. S. Nat. Miw.). — 
Ambbioan Obnitholoqists' Union CoMMrrnsE, Auk, xxix, 1912, 383. 

DRYOBATBS SCALARIS CACTOPHILnS Oberholser. 

0A0TV8 WOODPSOKBR. 

Similar to D. «. symplectus, but slightly larger, and with black bars 
on back., etc., decidedly broader. 

AduUmaU—lj&ii^h (skins), 166-181 (170); wing, 99-107.6 (104); 
tail, 66.6-68 (60.8); exposed cuhnen, 21-27 (22.7); tarsus, 16.6-19.5 
(18.1); outer anterior toe, 12-14 (12.9).* 

AdvU /mafe.— Length (skins), 148-176 (162); wing, 97-106 
(101.6); tail, 66-66 (62.4); exposed culmen, 17.5-22 (19.8); tarsus, 
16-18.6 (17.1); outer anterior toe, 11.6-13 (12.2).* 

Lower and Upper Austral zones from extreme western Texas (Fort 
Hancock; Fort Davis; Davis Moimtains; El Paso; Chisos Moim tains; 
20 miles southwest of Toyahvale) through New Mexico and Arizona 
to southern Califomia (Hesperia, Needles, and Cushenbury Springs, 
San Bernardino Coimty; San Gorg6nio Pass, Riverside Coimty; 
Whitewater, Walters, Vallecito, Yuma, and Moimt Spring, San 
Diego Coimty) and northern Lower Califomia (Colony, etc., lower 
Colorado River; delta of Colorado River; Salton River; Gardners 
Laguna; C6copah Major Mountains) ; north to southern Nevada (east 



o Thirty-five specimens. 



ft Thirty-six specimens. 



LocaUty. 



Wing. 



Tail. 



Ex- 
posed 

OQuDCIl. 



Tamis. 



Outer 
ante- 
rior tos. 



Ten adult males from New Mezioo 

Ten adult males from Arixona 

Two adult males from northern Lower California 

Four adult males from northern and middle Sooom 

Five adult males from Chihuahua 

Four adult males from northern Durango 

FEMALIS. 

Eight adult females from New Mexico , 

Ten adult females from Arisooa 

Fire adult females frxun southeastern Califomia (1) and north- 
ern Lower Oalifomia (4) 

Seven adult females from northem and middle Sonora 

Three adult females fhmi Chihuahua 

Three adult females lh>m northem Durango 



104.2 

105 

105.6 

100.2 

104.2 

103.5 



102.1 
100.8 

100.7 
100.1 
104 
104 



60.6 

6L9 

63 

60.9 

6L1 

68.1 



6L4 
60.6 

50.8 
60 
60.5 
62.5 



22L1 
23.1 
24.5 
22.2 
22.1 
23.5 



20.4 
19.3 

20.6 
19.8 
20 
19.8 



17.6 
18.0 
19.2 
16.9 
17.8 
18.5 



16.0 
17.2 

17.6 
16.7 
17.2 
17.6 



12.7 
18.2 
13.6 
12.0 
12.0 
13.1 



12.1 
12.1 

12.6 
12.3 
1L8 
12 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AlCEBIOA. 255 

base of Charleston Mountains; Vegas Wash) and southern Utah 
(Santa Oara River); south through northern and middle Sonora 
(Espia ; Boca Grande ; Magdalena ; Bacadahuachy ; Hermosillo ; Mocte- 
aima; Guadalupe; Senoyta; Pozo de Luis; Colorado River below 
Col6nia Diaz; near Nogales; Oputo; Nacori; Guaymas; Santa Cruz) 
and Chihuahua (Col6nia Diaz; Col6nia Juarez; Casas Grandes; 
Indines; Chihu&hua; San Diego; Rio Grande) to northern Durango 
(Cienega de las Yacas; Rio Sestin; Las Bocas; Rancho Baill6n; 
Boe&rio; Matalotes). 

Pieui Bcalaris (not of Wagler) Baibd, in Rep. Stansbury's Surv. Great Salt Lake, 
1852, 333 (California; New Mexico); Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv.,.ix, 1858, 94, 
part (Chihuahua, Boca Grande and Espia, Sonora; Colorado R., California; 
Gila R. Arizona); Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 79, part; Rep. U. S. and 
Mex. Bound. Surv., ii, pt. 2, 1859, 5, part (Boca Grande; Espia; GilaR.; 
Colorado R.).— Kbnnbrly, Rep. Pacific. R. R. Surv., iv, pt. vi, 1856, 16 
(Camp 112, "New Mexico"); x, pt. iv, no. 3, 1859, 22, part (Bill Williams 
Fork and Colorado R., Arizona). — HEBRifANN, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., 
X, no. 1, 1859, 18, part (s. California); x, pt. iv, no. 2, 1859, 57, part 
(Vallecito and Ft. Yuma, s. California).— Coues, Ibis, 1865, 159 (Ft. 
Whipple, Arizona); Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, 52 (Ft. Whipple); Check 
List, 1873, no. 297, part; 2d ed., 1882, no. 434, psjrt.— Eluot, lUustr. New 
and Unfig. Birds N. Am., i, 1869, 7, part.— Cooper, Om. Calif., 1870, 379, 
part (Colorado R. and adjacent mountains).— Baird, Brewer, and Rmo- 
WAT, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 515, part.— Henshaw, Rep. Om. 
Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 1874, 133 (30 miles s. of Apache, Gila R., and San 
Pedro R., Arizona); Zool. Expl. W. 100th Merid., 1875, 390 (San Pedro R.. 
Camp Lowell, Cienega, Gila R., etc., Arizona).— Rido way, Ptoc. U. S. Nat, 
Mus., iii, 1880, 189, part; Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 363, part.— Brew- 
ster, Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, vii, 1882, 22 (Tucson and Cienega, Arizona). — 
MoRCOM, Bull. Ridgw. Om. Club, no. 2, 1887, 41 (Yuma, Califomia).— 
Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., v, 1893, 35 (Oputo and Bacadehuachy, n. e. 
Sonora; San Diego, n. w. Chihuahua). 

[Picus] 8cakBri$ Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 192, part.— Sglater and Salvin, 
Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 99, part. 

P[icu8] scalarU Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 481, part. 

Picxu (Dyctiopicus) scdlaris Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, p. xxviii, 
part. 

Dryobates tcaHaris Ridowat, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, Sept. 2, 1885, 355, part.— 
American Ornttholooists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 396, part. — 
Scon, Auk, iii, 1886, 426 (Pinal, Pima, and Gila counties, Arizona). 

Dendrocopus scalarU HARorrr, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 246, part (locali- 
ties in New Mexico and Arizona; San Goigonio Pass, Califomia; Indines, 
Chihuahua; Hermosillo and Moctezuma, Sonora). — Salvin and Godman, 
Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 435, part (Arizona; Hermosillo and Guaymas, 
and Guadalupe, Sonora; Indines, Chihuahua). 

[PicuB toaiarxB] var. 6atrdi Baird, Brewer, and Ridowat, Hist. N. Am. Birds, 11, 
1874, 517, part (Arizona, etc.). 

D[ryobatei] icalarU bairdi (not Picus bairdi Malberbe) Ridowat, Man. N . Am. Birds, 
1887, 285, part. 

DryobaUi tcalaru bairdi American ORNrrHOLOQisrs' Union, Suppl. to Check 
List, 1889, 22, part; Check List, 2d ed., 1895, no. 396, part.— Rhoads, Proc. 
Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1892, 116 (Santa Catalina Mts., Arizona, chiefly in oak 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



256 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM, 

belt).— FiSHBR (A. K.)» North Am. Fauna, no. 7, 1893, 47 (Heeperia, e. of 
Gajon Paas, 8. e. California; e. base Charleston MtB., and Vegas Wash., b. 
Nevada; near mouth of Santa Clara R., s. Utah; junction of Bear Creek and 
Virgin R., Arizona). — Bbndirb, Life Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 63, part. — 
MiLLBR (W. De W.), Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., xxii, 1900, 344 (Matalotes, etc., 
n. w. Durango; crit.).^HuNN, Auk, xxiii, 1906, 421 (Silver City, New 
Mexico, resident).— Grinnell (J.), Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., v, 1908, 61 (base 
of San Bernardino Mts., at Cushenbury Springs, s. California, Aug.). — 
HoLUSTER, Auk, XXV, 1908, 458 (Needles, s. e. California, conmion). 

DryohaUs scalarU bairdii Stephens, Auk, Vii, 1890, 297 (Colorado Desert). 

Dryobates acalaris huxuanus (not Picus Ituxuantu Xantus) American ORNrrHOLO- 
gists' Union, Check List, 2d ed., 1895, no. 396a, part; 3d ed., 1910, 188, 
part.— Miller (G. S.), Auk, xi, 1894, 178 (Whitewater, San Diego Co., 
California). — Bendire, Lif^ Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 65, part.— Stone, 
Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1905, 681 (Colony and Cocopah Major MtB., Colo- 
rado delta. Lower California). 

Dryohates Ituxaanus Grinnell (J.), Pacific Coast Avifauna, no. 3, 1902, 37 (near 
Whitewater, Colorado Desert, breeding). 

Dryabates scalaris cactophilxis Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xli, June 30, 
1911, 140, 152 (Tucs6n, Arizona; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.).— American Orni- 
thologists' Union Committse, Auk, xxix, 1912, 383. 

DRTOBATBS SCALARIS CSNTROPHILnS Oberholser. 

JAUBOO WOODPKOKIB. 

Similar to 27. a. cdctophUus, but slightly smaller^ black bars on 
back, etc., averaging decidedly broader, the white bars narrower 
and (usufiJly) less purely white, and under parts slightly darker; 
decidedly smaller than D. 8. iairdi, with imder parts slightly paler, 
and black bars of back, etc., averaging slightly narrower. 

AduU maZe.— Length (skins), 152-185 (168); wing, 100-104.6 
(102.6); tail, 56-63.5 (58); exposed cuhnen, 19.5-23 (21.1); tarsus, 
16.5-17.5 (17); outer anterior toe, 11.5-13 (12.2).« 

AduU female.— Length, (skins), 142-171 (153); wing, 97-103.5 
(99.6); tail, 54-«2.5 (56.9); exposed culmen, 16.5-18.5 (17.5); tar- 
sus, 16-17 (16.4); outer anterior toe, 10.5-12 (11.4).* 

Western Mexico, from southern Durango (Gud&d Durango) through 
Zacatecas (San Juan Capistrano) and Jalisco (Atemaj&c; Ocotl&n; 
Ameca; Zapotl&n; Beltr&n; Zacoalco; Arroyo de Gavil&n; La Pis&gua; 
Las Canoas; Guadalajara; Volcan de Colima; BolafLos; Miner&l de 
San Sebasti&n near Masco ta), to Michoac&n (Patamb&n; Uruap&m) 
and Territory of Tepic (Arroyo de Gavil&n, near Amatl&n). 

Pieus scalaris (not of Wagler) Haboitt, Oat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 246, 
part (Santa Ana, Guadalajara, ZapoUan, Beltran, Zacoalco, and Huayimic, 
6,000 ft., Jalisco).— SALvm and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 
435, part (Volcan de Colima, Bolafios, Mineral de San Sebasti&n near Mascota, 
etc., Jalisco). 

Dryobates scalaris centrophilta Obbbholseb, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xli, June 30, 
1911, 140, 157 (Ameca, Jalisco, west-central Mexico; coll. TJ. S. Nat. Mus.). 

<s Five specimens. b Seven specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 






BIBDS OF KOBTH AND MIDDLE AMEBIOA. 257 

DRTOBATBS SCALARIS STMPLBCTUS Oberliolaer. 

TZZA8 WOODPKOl 



Similar to D. 8, acdlaria but decidedly larger; white bars of back, 
etc., broader, purer white; under parts decidedly paler, much less 



AdvU male.— Length (skins), 154-180 (165); wing, 98-107 (102.2); 
tail, 53.5-61 (57.1); exposed cuhnen, 20-24 (22.3); tarsus, 16-18.5 
(17.6); outer anterior toe, 12-13.6 (12.6).« 

AdvU female.— Leingth (skins), 152-173 (161); wing, 96.5-105 
(100); tail, 52.6-60.5 (56.9); exposed culmen, 18-21 (20); tarsus, 
16.5-18.5 (17.3); outer anterior toe, 11-13 (12.1).^ 

Middle and northern Tamaulipas (Forl6n; Villagr&n; Soto la 
Marina; Mi6r; Camargo; Matamoras; Nuevo Laredo; Xicotencatl; Rio 
Pil6n; Victoria; San Fernando de Presas), Nuevo Le6n (Rodriguez; 
Santa Catarina; Monterey; Rancho San Juan; Boquillo) and north- 
em Coahuila (Sabinas) northward through southern, central, and 
western Texas (east of Pecos River and, mostly, west of 97 th merid- 
ian) to southeastern Colorado (Pueblo, Baca, Otero, and Hu6rfano 
counties). 

P%cu$ Kalaru (not of Wagler) Woodhouse, in Rep. Sitgreaves' Expl. Zuiii and 
Col. R., 1853, 89 (San Antonio and e. of Pecos R., Texas).— Ksnneblt, Rep. 
Pacific R. R. Surv., x, pt. iv, no. 3, 1859, 22, i»rt (San Antonio).— Baibd, 
Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 94, part (Rio Grande and San Pedro, 
Texas; Tamaulipas; Nuevo Leon); Gat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 79, part; 
Rep. U. S. and Mex. Bound. Surv., ii, pt. 2, 1859, 5, part, pi. 3 (Tamaulipas; 
Nuevo Leon; Rio Grande and San Pedro, Texas).— Hbebmakn, Rep. Pacific 
R. R. Surv., X, no. 1, 1859, 18, part (Texas); x, pt. iv, no. 2, 1859, 57, part 
(Texas).— Dbbssbb, Ibis, 1865, 313, 468 (s. Texas).— Elliot, lUustr. New and 
Unfig. N. Am. Birds, i, 1869, 7, part.— Coopeb, Om. Calif., 1870, 379, part.— 
CouES, Check List, 1873, no. 297, part; 2d ed., 1882, no. 434, part.— Baibd, 
Bbbweb, and RmawAT, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 515, part, pi. 50, figs. 
4, 6.— McCaulbt, Rep. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. Terr., iii, 1877, 679 
(McClellan and Mulberry creeks, etc.. Red River Valley, Texas).— Mbbbill, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1, 1878, 150 (Ft. Brown, Texas; descr. eggs).— Sennbtt, 
Rep. U. S. Creol. and Creog. Surv. Terr., iv, 1878, 38 (Brownsville and Hidalgo, 
Texas); v, 1879, 415 (Lomita Ranch, Texas).— Ridg way, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., iii, 1880, 189, part; Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 363, part.'— Bbown 
(N. C), Bull. Nutt. Om. Gub, vii, 1882, 40 (Boeme, Kendall Co., Texas, 
resident).- Nbhblino, Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, vii, 1882, 170 (Houston, etc., 
Texas).— OoBLBT, Sci. Proc. Roy. Dublin See., iii, 1882, 58 (Navarro Co., 
Texas, resident; habits). 

[Pieui\ scalaru Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 192, i>art.— Sclateb and Salvin, 
Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 99, part. 

Picu9 (Dyctiopiciu) scalarU Baibd, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, p. xxviii, 
part. 

« Nineteen specimens, from Texas (10), northern Tamaulipas (3), Nuevo Le6n (5), 
tnd Coahuila (1). 
& Nineteen specimens, from Texas (10) and Tamaulipas (9). 
8022*'— Bull. 50, pt ^-14 ^17 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



258 BULLETnr 50, ttnitid states natiokal museum. 

P[icu8] KoUvrU OotrBB, Key K. Am. Birds, 3d ed., 1884, 481, part. 

Dryobates »calan$ RmowAT, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, Sept. 2, 1885, 355, part. — 
Ambrican Obntthologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 396, part. — Lloyd, 
Auk, iv, 1887, 190 (Tom GieoD and Concho counties, Texas).— Hancock, 
Bull. Ridgw. Om. Club, no. 2, 1887, 16 (Corpus Christi, Texas).— Hasbbouok, 
Auk, vi, 1889, 238 (Eastland Co., Texas). 

DendrocopuB sealant HABGirr, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 246, part, 571 
(localities in Texas; Nuevo Leon; Nuevo Laredo, Soto la Marina, and Sierra 
Madre near Victoria, Tamaulipas). — Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., 
Aves, ii, 1895, 435, part (Nuevo Laredo, Topo Chico, and Hacienda de las 
Escobas, Nuevo Leon; 'Sierra Madre near Victoria and Soto la Marina, Tamau- 
lipas; Texas). 

[Dmdrocojpwi\ scalaria Shabpb, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 215, part. 

[Picus acalaris] var. acalaris Baird, Brbwbb, and Ridowat, Hist. N. Am. Birds, 
ii, 1874, 517, part (Texas). 

DlryobaUs] aealani bairdi (not Picus bairdi Malherbe) Bzdowat, Man. N. Am. 
Birds, 1887, 285, part (Texaa). 

Dryobates scalaris bairdi Beckham, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., x, 1887, 637, 640, 664 
(Bexar and Bee coimties, Texas).— Cookb, Bird Migr. Miss. Val., 1888, 129 
(San Angelo, etc., Texas); Bull. Col. Agric. Coll., no. 37, 1897, 83 (Pueblo and 
Huerfano counties, s. e. Colorado, resident); no. 44, 1898, 162 (St. Charlee 
Canyon, Pueblo Co., Colofado, 1 pair breeding); Auk, xxvi, 1909, 413 (Baca 
Co., Colorado; Springfield, Baca Co., Colorado, April, May; Swink, Otero 
Co., Colorado, Oct.).— Ambkican Oknitholooists' Union, Suppl. to Check 
List, 1889, 22, part; Check List, 2d ed., 1895, no. 896, part; 8d ed., 1910, 188, 
part. — ^Attwatbb, Auk, ix, 1892, 235 (San Antonio, Texas, resident). — 
Rhoads, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1892, 106 (Corpus Christi, abundant). — 
Bendirb, Life Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 63, part.— Cabroll, Auk, xvii, 
1900, 344 (Refugio Co., Texas). 

Dryobates seaiaris symplectus Oberholsbb, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xli, June 30, 
1911, 140, 155 (mouth of Nueces River, Texas; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.). 

DRYOBATES SCALARIS BAIRDI (MiUherbe). 
BAZBD'8 WOODPBOKBB. 

Similar to D. 8. acalarU but decidedly larger and much darker; 
black bars on back, etc., and on lateral rectrices equal to or exceeding 
white interspaces in width, under parts more grayish (less buffy) 
brownish, and forehead dark sooty instead of light smoky brownish. 

AduU male— Length (skins), 167-180 (173); wing, 102-107.5 
(104.4); tail, 56-62.6 (60.1); exposed culmen, 20-23.5 (22.1); tarsus, 
17-18.5 (17.7); outer anterior toe, 12-14 (12.7).* 

AduU /ernofe.— Length (skins), 162-175 (169); wing, 97.5-103 
(101.3); tail, 67-62 (69.7); exposed culmen, 19.6-20.5 (20); tarsus, 
16-17 (16.7); outer anterior toe, 12-13 (12.3).* 

Southeastern portion of Mexican plateau, in States of Puebla 
(Chalchicomula; Athxco; Puente Colorado; San Miguel Molino; 
Pin&l, near Puebla), San Lufs Potosi (Hacienda La Parada; Ahual- 
ulco; Moctezuma; Hacienda Angostura, Rio Verde), Hidalgo (Tula; 

o Seven specimens. b Six specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIRDS OF HOBTH AND MIIH>LB AMBKOA. 259 

Pachuca), Guanajuato (Silao)^ and Coahuila (La Ventura; Gameros; 
Jar4l); Mexico (Valley of Mexico; Tetelco^ Tlalpdm; Tetelco, 
Xochimilco)? 

Picui bairdi ICalhbrbb, Mon. Picid., i, 18(^1, 118 (Mexico;^ ex Sclat^, manu- 
Bcript); iii, 1861, pi. 27, figs. 7, 8.-~Soijltbb, Oat. Am. Birds, 1862, 333, part 
(n. Mexico); Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, 117 (near City ot Mexico). — 
Cassin, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, 196, part (northern Mexico).— 
GaiT, List Birds Brit. Mus., Gapit. and Picid., 1868, 48 (north Mexico). 

{1)P[ieu8] bmrdii Sundbvall, Ooosp. Av. Picin., 1866, 19 (n. Mexico). 

[Pieus] bairdi Grat, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 186, no. 8609. 

{?)D[ictyopipo\ bairdi Cabanib and Hbinb, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1868, 76 (n. 
Mexico). 

D[ryobaU8] scaiaris bairdi Ridowat, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 285, part. 

Picas scalaris (not of Wagler) Lawrencb, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 4, 1876, 34 
(Puente CJolorado, Puebla).-<?)HBRiiBRA, La Naturalesa, (2) i, 1891, 179 
322 (VaUey of Mexico). 

Dendroooput soalariM Haroitt, Gat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 246, part 
(Atlixco, Pinal, and San Miguel Molino, Puebk; Tetelco de Tlalpam, and 
Tetclco de Xochimilco, Mexico?). — Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., 
Avesy ii, 1895, 435, part (Guanajuato; plains of San Luis Polosl; Moctezuma, 
San Luis Potoel; Puente Ck>lorado, Puebla; Valley of Mexico, Tetelco, and 
Ghimalpa, Mexico). 

Dryobates 8calari8 bairdi Jour, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, 1894, 785 (Ahualulco, 
San Luis Potoel).— Obbbholsee, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xli, 1911, 140, 158 
(monogr.). 

DRTOBATBS STRICKLANBI (Malherbe). 

8TBI0B1.AVD'8 WOODPSOXBB. 

Adrdt male. — Crown dark sooty brown, seal brown, or very dark 
sepia, fading into paler sooty brown on forehead and nasal plumes; 
occiput and upper nape bright poppy or vermilion red; upper parts 
dark sooty brown or seal brown, the median portion of back and 
^ole rump, broadly barred or transversely spotted with white, the 
outer webs of primaries (except outermost) with quadrate spots of 
white, these becoming smaller and less numerous on inner (proximal) 
quills; upper tail-coverts and tail blackish brown or brownish black, 
tiie two lateral rectrices (on each side) mostly white, with several, 
tisually broad, bars of black on distal portion, the third with more 
or less of white on distal portion, mostly on outer web; a broad 
Bupra-auricular streak of white and a broad suborbital and sub- 
auricular stripe of the same, originating at rictus and extending to 
side of neck, where involving the greater part of that area; auricular 
region very dark sooty brown, the malar region similar, forming a 
conspicuous, usually broad and uninterrupted, stripe of that color; 
under parts dull white, heavily streaked, spotted, and barred with 
very dark sooty brown, the markings mostly longitudinal on f oreneck 

«Type locality fixed by Oberholser (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xli, 1911, 159) as 
State of Hidalgo, south-central Mexico, 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



260 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

and chesty transverse on flanks and under tail-coverts^ on the latter 
more or less cordate or broadly V-shaped; bill dusky, usually paler 
(more grayish or horn colored) on mandible; feet duskjr (in dried 
skins); length (skins), 164r-184 (174); wing, 112-117.6 (115.3); tail, 
64-71.5 (67.5); culmen, 20-21 (20.6); tarsus, 19-20 (19.4); outer 
anterior toe, 12-13 (12.7).* 

Young male. — Similar to the adult male, but red of occiput extend- 
ing over more or less (sometimes greater part) of crown, and under 
parts with the white more brownish and markings less sharply defined. 

AduU female. — Similar to the adult male, but without any red on 
head, the entire occiput and nape being uniform dark sooty brown, 
like hindneck and crown; length (skins), 166-175 (170); wing, 
111-118 (114.1); tail, 62-70 (66.6); culmen, 18-19.5 (18-7); tarsus, 
17.5-19.5 (18.6); outer anterior toe, 11.5-13 (12.3).« 

Southeastern Mexico, in States of Vera Cruz (Jaiapa; Cofre de 
Perote; Las Vigas, 8,000 feet), Puebla (Chalchicomula; Mount Ori- 
zaba, up to 11,000 feet; San Andrfe; Suap&m; San Migu61 Molino), 
Mexico (Tetelco, Xochimilco; Moimt Popocatepetl; Rio Frio, Ixtac- 
cihudtl), and Morelos (HuitzU&c). 

P[icu8] (Leu4!onoU>picus) stricklandi Malherbe, Rev. ZooL, Oct., 1845, 373 

("Mexico;" coU. — .) 
Picas rtricklandi Malhbrbb, M^m. Acad. Metz, zzx, 1849, 347; Bull. Soc. d*Hist. 

Nat. Moselle, 1849, 14; Mon. Picid., i, 1861, 108, part; iii, 1861, pi. 28, figs. 

4, 6, 6.— ^CLATBB, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1859, 367 (Jalapa, Vera Cniz); 

Oat. Am. Birds, 1862, 334 (Jalapa).— Sttndbvall, Consp. Av. Rein., 1866, 

20, part (Mexico).— Salvin, Oat. Strickland Coll., 1882, 387 (Mexico). — 

Hargitt, Ibis, 1886, 112-114, in text (crit.). 
Plxcus] stricklandi Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 137. 
[Picus] stricklandi Sclater and Salvin, Nom. A v. Neotr., 1873, 99. 
[Phrenopicus] stricklandi Bonaparte, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 123 (Consp. Volucr. 

Zygod., 1854, 8). 
T[hrenopip6] stricklandi Cabanis and HsniE, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 71 

(Jalapa). 
Dlryobates] stricklandi Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 286. 
Dryobates stricklandi Stone, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1890, 214 (base of Volcan 

de Orizaba, Puebla, 8,700 ft.).— Cox, Auk, xii, 1895, 357 (Volcan de Orizaba, 

11,000 ft.).— Chapman, Bull. Am. Mua. N. H., x, 1898, 43 (Las Vigas, Vera 

Cruz, 8,000 ft.). 
Dendrocopus stricklandi HARonr, Cat. Biids Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 243 (Tetelco, 

Xochimilco, Mexico; Jalapa, and Las Vigas, near Jalapa, Vera Cruz). — 

Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 433 (Tetelco, and 

Rio Frio, Ixtaccihuatl, Mexico; San Andres, San Miguel Molino, and Suapcun, 

Puebla; Jalapa, Cofre de Perote, and base of Volcan de Orizaba, Vera Cruz), 

571 (Rio Frio, Ixtaccihuatl, Mexico). 
[Dendrocoptu] stricklandi Sharps, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 215. 
Picus cancellatus (not of Wagler) Sclatbr, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1856, 308 (San 

Andres; Suapam). 

^ Five specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 261 

DRTOBATBS ARIZONiB ARIZONiB (Htfgitt). 
ABIZOVA WOODPBOnUL 

Similar to D. stridclaridi, but without any white on back or nunp; 
brown of back, etc., lighter, and markings on foreneck, chest, and 
breast in form of large roimded or subcordate spots instead of streaks. 

AdvU male in autumn and winter. — ^Pileum and hindneck deep sooty 
brown (warm sepia to dark sepia), becoming paler (more smol^ 
brown) on forehead and nasal tufts, interrupted by a nuchal crescent 
of bright red (poppy red to scarlet vermilion) ; auricular region simi- 
lar, sometimes rather lighter and grayer brown; back, scapulars, 
wing-coverts, rump, and general color of remiges plain grayish brown 
(deep broccoli brown or drab), the last (except two outermost) 
marked on outer webs with rather small quadrate or triangular spots 
of white, except on terminal portion, the distal secondaries similarly 
marked, but with smaller spots; upper tail-coverts and tail similar 
to or darker than pileimi in color, the former sometimes having a 
few feathers narrowly tipped with white, the two outer pairs of 
normal rectrices broadly barred with white on tenninal portion 
(about five white bars, including terminal one, on outer web, fewer 
on inner web, these white bars sometimes broader than the dusky 
mterspaces) ; inner webs of remiges (except tenninal third or more 
of longer primaries) spotted or broadly barred with white; a narrow 
postocular stripe and broader rictal stripe, extending posteriorly 
beneath orbital and auricular regions, white, both confluent pos- 
teriorly with a large white area on side of neck; a broad, usually 
more or less broken or interrupted malar stripe of dark sooty brown 
or sepia (the anterior portion usually barred or spotted with whitish), 
continued posteriorly to lower portion of sides of neck, where much 
broader than anteriorly; under parts dull white, spotted, except on 
chin and at least upper part of throat, with dark sooty brown, the 
spots largest and usually roimdish or sub-cordate, but sometimes 
guttate on chest or breast, the flanks and xmder tafl-coverts broadly 
barred with dark sooty brown or duskjr; bill horn color, darker toward 
cdmen; legs and feet grayish olive or greenish gray (in dried skins). 

Adult male m sprmg and summer. — Similar to the autimm and 
winter plumage, but brown of upper parts paler, inclining more or 
less toward isabella color, and red nuchal crescent more scarlet. 

AduU female. — Similar to the adult male, but without any red on 
nape. 

Yofwng male. — Essentially like the autumnal or winter adult male, 
but red of head on crown and occiput instead of on nape, only the 
tips of the feathers being red, forming a large patch, more or less 
broken, at least anteriorly; spots on breast, etc., smaller, nearly longi- 
tudinal, the ground color of under parts more grayish white. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



262 



BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



Young femdU. — Not ooiiBtuitlj differ^it from the young male, but 
red of crown and occiput usually (?) more restricted. 

AdvU male.— Length (skins), 179-202 (193); wing, 114-121 (117.3); 
tail, 63-70.5 (67); culmen, 26.5-28 (27.2); tarsus, 19.6-21 (20.2); 
outer anterior toe, 13-14 (13.6) .» 

AduU female.— Length (skins), 173-190 (180); wing, 109-118 
(113.2); tail, 60-68 (63.5); culmen, 23-25.6 (24.1); tarsus, 18-19.6 
(18.8); outer anterior toe, 12-13.6 (12.8).* 

Southwestern New Mexico (Animas Moimtains), southern Arizona 
(Huachuca Mountains; Fort Huachuca; east side San Lufs Moirn- 
tains; Santa Kita Moimtains; Chiric6hua Moimtains; Santa Cata- 
lina Moimtains; Dragoon Moimtains; mountains of Pima and Pin&l 
coimties), and southward through Sonora (La Chumata; near Opo- 
sura) and Chihu&hua (PiiLos Altos; Eancheria de los Apaches; 30 
miles west of MifLaca; Colonia Garcia; Rio Verde; Temasochic; 
Temochic; Rio de Urique) to northwestern Durango (Cienega de las 
Vacas; Arroyo del Bu£y; liCatalotes). 

Picu8 atriekkmdi (not of Malherbe, 1845) Malsbbbx, Mon. Picid., i, 1861, 108, 
part (descr. adult male), pi. 28, fig. 4.— Sukdbvall, Conap. Av. Picin., 1866, 
20. — HsNSHAW, Am. Sportsman, y, 1875, 328 (Santa Rita Mts., Arizona); 
Zool. Expl. W. 100th Merid., 1875, 389 (Chiricahua Mts., Arizona; habits).— 
Allbm, Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, v, 1880, 90.— Ridgway, Ptoc. U. S. Nat. Mub., 
iii, 1880, 189, 219, 233; Norn. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 365.-— Brewster, Bull. 
Nutt. Om. Club, vi, 1881, 72 (Chiricahua Mts.); viii, 1883, 22 (Santa Rita and 
Chiricahua Mts.; remarks on plumages); Auk, ii, 1885, 199 (Santa Rita Mts.; 
descr. young male and female).— Ooubs, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 437. 

[Picus] atricklandi Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 182, no. 8560. 

P[icu8] $tnckUmdi Coubs, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 482. 

Dryohatu atrickiandi Ridqway, Ptoc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, Sept. 2, 1885, 365.— 
American Ornxtholoqists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 398.---Soott, Auk, 
iii, 1886, 426 (Santa Catalina Mts., Arizona; habits). 

PicuB ariamm HARonr, Ibis, 5th ser., iv, no. 2, April, 1886, 115, in text (Santa 
Rita Mts., Arizona; coll. £. Hargitt). 



o Ten specimens, from Arizona. 


^ Ten specimens. 






LooAUty. 


Wing. 


TaiL 


posed 
culmen. 


Taisus. 


Outer 

ante> 

riortoe. 


MAfrlW. 












Twi adolt mfthW imm ArlcoilA 


117.8 
115 


«7 
0L6 


27.3 
26.8 


2a2 

1&8 


18.6 




12.8 


Ten adult males (D. a.fratereuliu) from Jalisco (8), Slnaloa (1), 












and Zaoatecas (I). ......... 


106.9 


eas 


23.6 


ia9 


12.8 


rSMALBS. 












Ten adult females frranArisonaCO) and New If ezioo(l) 


118.2 


68.6 


24.1 


ia8 


12.8 


Fire adoH females Aram Clilhiiahaa (1) and Durango (4) 


11S.9 


04 


21.6 


18.1 


ILO 


Ten adult females (D. a. Avtvaulue) from Jalisoo (8), Slnaloa 












(1), and /.aoateoas (1). 


106 


08.5 


2a8 


17. » 


11.9 







Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD8 OF NOBTH AKD MIDDLE AMEBICA. 263 

D[ryobaUs] arigonm Ridowat, Bfan. N. Am. Birds, 1867, 386. 

Dendrooopus arigonm Haboitt, Oat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 228 (Santa Rita 
Mts., Chiricahua Mts., and Pinal Co., Arizona; near Oposura, Sonora; Rio 
Verde, Temoeachic, Temochic, and Rio de Urique, Chihuahua).— Salvin 
and GoDMAN, Biol. Oentr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 434, part.— -Thatbr and 
Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xix, 1906, 19 (La Chumata, n. w. Sonora, 
breeding). 

[Dendrocopus] arizonm Shaspb, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 214. 

Dryobates arizonm Ambbigan ORNrrHOLOOisrs' Union CoMMrrrBE, Suppl. Check 
List, 1889, 22; Check List, 2d ed., 1895, no. 398; 3rd ed., 1910, 188.— Allen, 
Bun. Am. Mus. N. H., v, 1893, 35 (Rancheria de los Apaches, n. w. Chihua- 
hua).— Bbndibb, life-Hist N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 68.— Swabth, Pacific 
Coast Avifauna, no. 4, 1904, 11 (Huachuca Mts., s. Arizona, 4,500-8,000 ft.; 
habits, molt, etc.); Condor, vii, 1905, 78 (Santa Rita Mts., s. Arizona). — 
ViSHBB, Auk, zxvii, 1909, 282 (mts. of Pima Co., Arizona, in oak belt). 

Dryobates arizonm arizonm Mellbb (W. DeW.), Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., xxii, 1906, 
166 (Matalotes, Cienega de las Vacas, and Arroyo del Buey, n. w. Durango). 

DRTOBAIES ARIZONiB FRATERCULUS Rid^way. 

OOLXMA WOODPBOSB&. 

Similar to Z>. a. arizofix, but smaUer, averaging more heavily 
spotted beneathy and with white spots on outer webs of primaries 
smaller (sometimes obsolete). 

AduU mofe.— Length fckins), 167-183 (176); wing, 108-112.6 
(108.9); taU, 68-64 (60.6); culmen, 23-24.6 (23.6); tarsus, 18-20.6 
(18.9); outer anterior toe, 12-13 (12.3).« 

MvU female.— h&ngth (skins), 164-171 (164); wing, 103-113.6 
(108); taU, 66-68 (69.6); culmen, 20-22.5 (20.8); tarsus, 17-18.6 
(17.9); outer anterior toe, 11.6-12.6 (11.9).* 

Southwestern Mexico, in States of Sinaloa (Sierra de Choix), 
Jalisco (Jacali; Sierra Madre; Los Masos; La Pis&gua; Volcan de 
Colima; Las*Canoas; Tonila; Volcan de Nieve; Hacienda San 
Marcos, 6,200 feet; Sierra de Nayarft; Sierra de Bolafios), Oolima 
@ierra Madre; Sierra Nevada), and Zacatecas (Sierra de Valparaiso), 
and Territory of Tepfc (Sierra de Nayarft, 8,000 feet). 

Dlryobates] arizonm Jratercuhu RmowAT, Man. N. Am. Birds, Sept. 27, 1887, 286 
(Sierra Madre, Colima, s. w. Mexico; coU. U. S. Nat. Mus.). 

Dryobates arizoTimJraUrculus RmowAT, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 592; 2d ed., 1896, 
613. 

Dendrocopus arizonm (not of Haigitt, 1886) HABorrr, Oat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 
1890, 228, part (Sierra de Nayarit, 8,000 ft., Topic; Hacienda San Marcos, 
5,200 ft., Jalisco).— Salydt and Godman, Biol. Oentr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 
434, part (Sierra de Nayarit; Volcan de Colima, Sierra de Bolafios, and 
Hacienda de San Marcos, Jalisco; and Sierra Nevada de Colima, Colima; 
Sierra de Valparaiso, Zacatecas). 

a Ten specimens ^i each sex, eight from Jalisco, one from Sinaloa, and one from 
Zacatecas. Removing from the females the one from Zacatecas, which is exception- 
ally large in length of wing, tail, and bill, the avenge of these measurements would 
be less (wing, 107.4; tail, 58.1). The adult male from Zacatecas, however, is not 
materially above the average in measurements. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



264 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Genus XENOPICUS Baird. 

Xenopicus Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1868, 83, in text. (Type, by 

monotypy, LeucoTierpes albolarvatus Caasin.) 
Xenocraugusa Cabanis and Heinb, Mub. Hein., iv, heft 2, July, 1863, 74. 

(Type, Leuconerpes albolarvatiLs Caasin.) 

Medium-sized Picins (wing about 122-131 mm.), agreeiDg closely 
with Dryohates in structural characters,* but with relatively shorter 
gonys (decidedly less than twice as long as -mandibular rami), and dif- 
fering conspicuously in coloration, which is uniform black, with head, 
f oreneck, and proximal portion of primaries white (the adult male with 
a red occipito-nuchal band, as in typical Dry abates). 

Bill about as long as head, its outlines nearly straight in both lateral 
and vertical profile, its width at anterior end of nostrils about equal 
to its depth at same point, its tip distinctly but rather narrowly 
chisel-shaped; culmen straight or very faintly convex, sharply 
ridged; gonys nearly one and a half times as long as mandibular 
rami, nearly straight, rather indistinctly ridged; supranasal ridge 
and prenasal groove very distinct, running out to edge of maxilla 
anterior to one-third the distance from tip to base of tomium. Nos- 
tril longitudinally elliptical or linear, nearer to tomium than to culmen, 
covered by a conspicuous antrorse tuft of small, hair-like, prefrontal 
feathers. Feathers of malar apex and chin antrorse, hair-like. 
Orbital region partly naked, but eye margined behind and below 
(except anteriorly) with minute feathers. Wing rather large and 
pointed, the longest primaries exceeding secondaries by slightly 
more than one-fourth the length of wing; seventh, or sixth and sev- 
enth, primaries longest, the ninth shorter than fourth, the tenth 
(outermost) about one-third as long as ninth, or slightly less. Tail 
less than two-thirds as long ia wing, the rectrices moderately broad, 
the middle pair moderately decurved and rather gradually contracted 
terminally, the subacuminate tip rather short and broad. Tarsus 
slightly shorter than outer hind toe with claw, decidedly longer than 
outer front toe with claw. 

Coloration. — ^Uniform black, with head, foreneck, and proximal 
portion of primaries white ; adult male with a red occipto-nuchal band. 

Range. — ^Pacific coast mountains of North America, from British 
Columbia to southern California. (Monotypic.) 

<> ''Von ^iMKt fremd, sonderbar nnd Kpairfbc^ Specht." (Cabanis and Heine.) 
& There is, apparently, evidence to tilie effect that the tongue of XenopicuB is con- 
siderably less extensile than that of Dryobata; but the evidence is somewhat conflict- 
ing and requires further investigation. (See Ridgway, Om. Fortieth Parallel, 1877, 
548; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mub., iii, 1880, 6, and Merrill, Auk, v, 1888, 254. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD8 OF KOBTH AND MIDDLE AMBBIOA. 



265 



ZBNOPICUS ALBOLARVATUS ALBOLARVATUS (Cutiii). 
WII1TE»H1ADBT> WOODPSOSS&. 

AdtUt male. — ^Head, all round (except posterior occiput and upper 
nape, and a postocular streak), together with foreneck, plain white, 
the nasal tufts more or less tinged with brownish; an occipito-nuchal 
band of bright poppy red; rest of pliunage uniform, slightly glossy, 
black, duller black on wings, the primaries extensively white on 
proximal half (more or less) of both webs, this white extending much 
farther on outer than on inner web; bill slate-blackish; iris brownish 
red or dull carmine; legs and feet grayish olive or olive-grayish (in 
life); length (skins), 205-236 (216); wing, 124r-131 (127.9); tail, 
74-85 (80.9) ; cuhnen, 27-30.5 (28.1) ; depth of bill at base, 7-8 (7.6) ; 
tarsus, 21-23 (21.9); outer anterior toe, 13.5-16 (14.2).« 

AdvU female. — Similar to the adult male, but without any red on 
occiput or nape; length (skins), 190-215 (208); wing, 124-130.5 
(126.9); tail, 75.5-90 (82.3); cuhnen, 24r-27 (25.3); depth of bill at 
base, 6.5-8 (7.1); tarsus, 20-23 (21.2); outer anterior toe, 13.5-14.6 
(13.9).« 

Young male. — Similar to the adult male, but the black much duller, 
especially on underparts, where, as well as on hindneck, the feathers 
are sometimes indistinctly and narrowly margined at tip with 
grayish, the hindneck sometimes indistinctly spotted with whitish, 

<> Fourteen specimens. 



LooaUty. 



Wing. 


TiU. 


Ex- 
posed 
oulnMO. 


Depth 
ofbiU 
atbeae. 


Tamu. 


128.7 


82.7 


28.7 


7.8 


22 


127.5 


7A4 


28 


7.4 


2L9 


12&6 


7tt.8 


27.5 


7.7 


2L8 


122 




2a5 


8 


28.6 


128.4 


8a8 


20L6 


&6 


22.0 


127.1 


8a8 


sai 


ai 


22.2 


130 


00 


90.6 


&5 


21 


129 


84.5 


26.7 


7.5 


22.2 


120.3 


8L8 


2&8 


7.2 


2a8 


126 


81 


24.6 


&6 


21 


120.6 


80.6 


28 


8 


28 


12S.0 


79.6 


27.1 


7.9 


2L7 


127 


8a2 


28.2 


&2 


2L7 



Outer 
ante- 
rior toe. 



FlTe adult males from Oregon. 

Six adult males from northern Califoniia 

Three adult males from western Nevada. 

One adult male (X. a. ffmviroitris) from Wilsons Peak, 
San Gabriel Mountains , 

Five adult males {X, a. ffravirottrit) from San Ber- 
nardino Mountains. 

Four adult males {X. a. gnvbrottrit) from San Jaotnto 
Mountains 

nukLEB. 

One adult female frtmi Washington 

Two adult fomales from Oregon 

Tta adult females from northern California. 

One adult female from western Nevada. 

One adult female {X. a. gravtrottrit) from Cuymaca 
Mountain, San Diego County 

Seven adult females (JT. a. gravbrottrii) from San Ber- 
nardino Mountains. 

Two adult females (JT. 0. prosfroifrit) from San Jadnto 
Mountains , 



14.0 

14 

14 

14 

14.2 

145 

14 

142 
18.8 
14 

146 

14 

14 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



266 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

and red of head more extended, coTering more or less of crown, but 
more broken, sometimes paler. 

Y oung female. — Similar to the young male, but head without any 
red or witibi only a few red feathers on median portion of occiput.** 

Cascade and Sierra Nevada Mountains, from southern British 
Columbia (Similkameen) southward through Washington, Oregon, 
and California to Tej6n Mountains (Kern County) ; east to western 
Idaho (Fort Sherman; Orangeville, near Mount Idaho) and western 
Nevada (east slope of Sierra Nevada). 

Leuconerpes alholarvatiu Cassin, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., v, Oct., 1850, 106 
(Oregon Canyon, near Georgetown, 12 miles from Sutter's Mill, Eldorado 
Co., California; coll. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.). 

[Leuconerpes] alholarvatua Bonapabte, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 125 (Consp. 
Volucr. Zygod., 1854, 10). 

Melanerpes albolarvattta Cassin, Joum. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 2d ser., ii, pt. iii, 
Jan., 1853, 257, pi. 22.— Baird, in Rep. Stansbury's Surv. Gt. Salt Lake, 
1853, 333 (California).— Hbermann, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., x, pt. iv, 
no. 2, 1859, 59 (Sutter's Mill, California).— Newberry, Rep. Pacific R. R. 
Surv., X, pt. iv, 1859, 91 (Cascade Mts., Oregon).— Bridges, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1858, 3 (Trinity Valley, California).— Gray, List Birds Brit. 
Mus., Picidfie, 1868, 117. 

[Melanerpes] albolarvatus Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 201, no. 8821. ^ 

Pictu {Xenopicus) albolarvatus Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 
p. xxviii. 

Picus albolarvatus Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 96; Cat. N. Am. 
Birds, 1859, no. 81.— Cooper and Suckley, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., xii, 
pt. ii, 1860, 160 (Spokane R., Oregon).— Cassin, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1863, 202.— Lord, Proc. Roy. Artil. Inst. Woolwich, iv, 1864, 112 (Ft. 
ColviUe, Washington); Intellect. Observer, ix, 1866, 331-333, colored 
plate.— Feelner, An. Rep. Smithson. Inst, for 1864 (1865), 425 (bet. Ft. 
Crook and Shasta Buttfe, California; habits). — Stjndevall, Consp. Av. 
Picin., 1866, 29.— Cooper, Om. Calif., 1870, 382.— Coues, Check List, 1873, 
no. 295.— Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 
526, pi. 50, figs. 7, 8.— Henshaw, Rep. Om. Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 1876, 
259 (Tejon Mts., Mt. Whitney, and Walker Basin, California, breeding).— 
Ridqway, Om. 40th Parallel, 1877, 547 (Sierra Nevada, near Carson City).— 
Bendire, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., xix, 1877, 129 (Blue Mts., Oregon; descr. 
eggs).— Beldinq, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., i, 1879, 393, 428 (Calaveras Big 
Trees, Murphys, Summit Meadows, and Soda Springs, California).— Brewer, 
Bull. Nutt. Om. aub, v, 1880, 56 (Placer Co., California; descr. nest 
and eggs). 

[Picwf] albolarvatus Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 192. 

Xenopicus albolarvatus Malhbrbe, Mon. Picid., ii, 1862, 221; iv, 1862, pi. 101, 
figs. 3, 4.— Elliot, New and Unfig. Birds N. Am., i, 1869, pi. [24] and 
text.— Ridqway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 6, 189; Nom. N. Am. 
Birds, 1881, no. 366.— Coubs, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 442.— American 
Ornetholooists' Union, Check List, 1886 (and 2d ed., 1895)^ no. 399; 3d 

o In the series of young birds are three whose sex was determined by the collector as 
male, that correspond in small amount of red on the head to the young female, as 
described above, and one marked female which is like normal young males; but I 
suspect that the determination of sex is erroneous. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMEBIOA. 267 

ed., 1910» 189.~BBNDiKa, Auk, y, 1886, 240 (Ft. EUmath, Oregon, breeding); 
Life Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1896, 70.— Mereill (J. C), Auk, v, 1888, 253 (Ft. 
Klamath, Oregon, habits); xiv, 1897, 354 (Ft. Sherman, n. Idaho, resident). — 
Bbewstxr, Auk, V, 1888, 253, 254 (remarks on plumages, etc.).— HABonr, 
Cat. Burds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 284.— Merriam, North Am. Fatma, no. 5, 
1891, 97 (Grangeville, near Mt. Idaho, w. Idaho, breeding; Blue Mts., 
e. Oregon, breeding).— Fannin, Check list Birds Brit. Col., 1891, 28 (Cas- 
cade Mts.; Similkameen). — Fisher (A. K.), North Am. Fauna, no. 7, 
1893, 48 (higher parts of Sierra Nevada).— Dawbon, Auk, xiv, 1897, 174 
(Okanogan Co., Washington, breeding at 3,000 ft.).— Anderson and Grinnbll, 
Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1903, 8 (Siskiyou Mts., n. California; crit.).— Rat, 
Auk, XX, 1903, 183 (Lake Valley, centr. Sierra Nevada, 6,500 ft.; habits).— 
Jbwbtt, Auk, xxvi, 1909, 6 (Baker Co., Oregon, com. res.). — Kermodb, 
Prov. Mus. Brit. Col., 1909, 49 (Similkameen Valley, e. of Cascade Mts.).— 
ViSHER, Auk, xxvii, 1910, 282 (Santa Catalina Mts., Arizona, 7,000 ft., 
1 spec., May 26).— Brooks, Auk, xxix, 1912, 252 (Similkameen Valley and 
near Okanogan Landing, Brit. Columbia; 2 8i>ec8.). 

X[enopicu$] albolarvatus Coubs, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 484.— RmowAY, 
Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 286. 

[Xenajrieus] albolarvahu Sharps, Handlist, ii, 1900, 217. 

Xlenoeraugus] albolarvatus Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 74. 

[Xenoanugus] albolarvatus Hbinb and Rbichbnow, Nom. Mus. Hein. Om., 
1890, 215 (Forest Hill, California). 

Xenopieus albolarvatus albolarvatus Grinnbll (J.), Pacific Coast Avi&tima, no. 
8, Aug. 30, 1912, 14. 

ZENOPICUS ALBOLARVATUS ORAVIROSTRIS (GriaiMU). 
OBinXLL'B WOODPBOSB&. 

Similar to X. a. albolarvatus, but bill decidedly larger. 

AduU male.— Length (skins), 207-230 (220); wing, 122-130 
(127.2); tail, 75-84.5 (80.8); culmen, 28-32 (29.7); depth of bill at 
base, 7.5-9 (8.3); tarsus, 22-23.5 (22.6); outer anterior toe, 14-15 
(14.3).* 

AduU fernale.— Length (skins), 208-215 (214); wing, 124-129.5 
(126.3); tail, 77.5-84 (80.3); culmen, 26-29 (27.4); depth of bill at 
base, 7.6-8 (7.9); tarsus, 21-23 (21.8); outer anterior toe, 13-15 (14).« 

San Gabri^, San Jacinto, San Bernardino, and Cuymaca Moxm- 
tains, southern Califomia. 

Xenopieui albolarvatus (not Leuconerpes aibokarvatus Caasin) Morcom, Bull. 

Bidgw. Om. Club, no. 2, 1887, 41 (Bear Valley, San Bernardino Co., s. 

California).— Qrinnxll (J.), Pub. 2, Ptoadena Ac. 8ci., 1898, 25 (Los 

Angples Co., California; rondent in pine belt). 
Xenopieus gravirostris Grinnxll (J.), Condor, iv, July, 1902, 89 (Camp Cbiles, 

Sierra San Gabriel, Loe Angeles Co., California; coll. J. Grinnell).— Rat, 

Auk, xxiii, 1906, 414 (bet. Ft. Tejon and Lebec, s. Califomia). 
Xenopieus albolarvatus gravirostris Grinnxll (J.), Auk, zzii, 1905, 383 (Mt. 

Piflos, above 6,600 ft.; crit.); Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., v, 1908, 62 (San 

Bernardino Mts., s. Califomia, 6,500-9,000 ft.; crit.). 

a Ten spedmens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



268 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Genus PHRENOPICUS Bonaparte. 

Phrenopicus Bonapabte, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 123 (ConBp. Volucr. Zygod., 
1864, 8). (Type, as fixed by Gray, 1855, Piau borealis Vieillot.) 

Pyroupkus Malhebbe, Mon. Picid., Introduction, 1861, p. liii. (Type, Picas 
borealis Vieillot.) 

Tkrenopipo Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., iy, heft 2, June 20, 1863, 70. 
(Type, PicuM horealia Vieillot.) 

Similar to DryolxUea, but differing in relatively much longer and 
more pointed wing Congest primaries exceeding secondaries by more 
than one-third the length of wing, the ninth primary nearly as long 
as fifth); much smaller tenth (outermost) primary (only one-fourth, 
instead of one-third, as long as ninth), and relatively much smaller 
bill (culmen shorter than outer hind toe with claw but prefrontal 
plumes covering less than basal third of maxilla), the adult male 
with a longitudinal streak of red on each side of occiput. 

Bill shorter than head, rather compressed for anterior half, dis- 
tinctly but narrowly chisel-shaped at tip, its width at anterior end 
of nostrils about equal to its depth at same point; culmen straight 
or very faintly convex, sharply ridged; gonys less than twice as 
long as mandibular rami, straight, distinctly ridged; supranasal ridge 
and prenasal groove very distinct, running out to edge of maxilla 
about one-third the distance from tip to base of tomium. Nostril 
longitudinally elliptical, nearer to tomium than to culmen, com- 
pletely covered by the conspicuous antrorse tuft of hair-like, bristle- 
pointed, prefrontal feathers. Feathers of malar apex and chin 
antrorse, with slender bristle-Uke tips. Orbital r^;ion mostly feath- 
ered, including margin of eyelids. Wing long and pointed, the 
longest primaries exceeding secondaries by more than one-third 
the length of wing; sixth, seventh, and eighth primaries longest^ 
the ninth nearly as long as fifth, the tenth (outermost) one-fourth 
as long as ninth or slightly less. Tail nearly two-thirds as long as 
wing, the rectrices relatively rather narrow, the middle pair strongly 
decurved and gradually contracted terminally. Tarsus about as 
long as culmen, about as long as outer hind toe with claw, the latter 
decidedly longer than the outer front toe and claw. 

Coloration. — ^Above black, the back and wings barred and spotted 
with white; outer rectrices white spotted or barred with black; 
auricular and suborbital regions and xmder parts white, the latter 
spotted and streaked with black laterally; a black malar stripe; 
adult male with a narrow concealed streak of red along each side 
of occiput. 

Range. — Southeastern United States. (Monotypic.) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD8 OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMEBICA. 269 

PHRBNOPICUS BORBALIS (Viaillot). 

BID OOOKADXD WOODPBOKB&. 

AduU male. — ^Pileum, hindnecky loral and rictal regions, and broad 
malar stripe, extending posteriorly to sides of neck, where wider than 
anteriorly, glossy blue-black; nasal tufts dull whitish; suborbital and 
auricular regions white, forming a large patch or area which extends 
posteriorly onto sides of neck and anteriorly sends a narrow branch 
to above middle of eye; a streak of bright red (poppy red or scarlet- 
Termilion), mostly concealed, along each edge of occiput, immediately 
above the white auricular area; extreme upper back sooty black, 
usually with concealed spots or streaks of whitish; rest of back, 
together with scapulars, broadly barred with sooty black and white, 
the two colors approximately equal in extent; upper rump also 
baired with black and white, but less r^ularly or distinctly; lower 
rump, upper tail-coverts, and four middle rectrices black; two outer 
normal rectrices white (usually more or less stained), with basal 
portion of inner web black, the white portion of inner web with three 
broad bars or transverse spots of dull black, the distal of which reap- 
pears on outer web; third normal rectrix with whole, or nearly all, 
of inner web black, also the basal half, approximately, of outer web, 
the line of demarkation longitudinally oblique; ^ wings sooty black, 
the middle and posterior lesser coverts variously spotted with white, 
the greater coverts with two transverse rows of white spots, the 
secondaries crossed by four (exposed) narrow bands or broad bars 
of white; outer webs of primaries (except two outermost) with sub- 
quadrate spots of white; inner webs of remiges (except terminal 
half, more or less, of longer primaries) with large spots of white; 
underparts white, the sides of chest longitudinally spotted or broadly 
streaked with deep black, the sides, flanks, and under tail-coverts 
with smaller spots and streaks of dusky; bill, blackish; iris, brown; 
legs and feet dusky greenish olive in dried skins. 

AdvU female. — Similar to the adult male, but without any red 
streak on sides of occiput. 

Young rnxde. — ^Essentially like adult female, but a large spot of 
bright red or orange-red in center of crown, forehead narrowly streaked 
with white, general "pattern" of coloration less sharply defined, 
and underparts duller white, with markings dusky or dark sooty 
brown or brownish black instead of deep black. 

Yowng female. — Similar to young male, but without any red on 
crown. 

a UsuaJly there is a more or less distinct dusky spot near tip of outer web, and 
often the terminal portion of outer web of the fourth normal rectrix has more or less 
of white edging or spotdng. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



270 



BULLBTDSr 60, UNITBD STATES llATIOirAL MTTSEUM. 



AduU maZ€.— Length (akme), 181-203 (192); wing, 94.5-126 
(118.7); tail, 69.5-81 (75.6); culmen, 20-23 (21.4); tarsus, 19-21 
(20.2); outer anterior toe, 12.5-14.5 (13.6).« 

AdvU /emofo.— Length (skins), 174-203 (192); wing, 114-126 
(118.9); tail, 70-81 (75.5); culmen, 19-22 (20.3); tarsus, 19-21 
(19.9); outer anterior toe, 12.6-14 (13.3).* 

Pine forests of Lower Austral Zone of eastern United States, from 
Florida to eastern Texas (Bowie, Harris, Galveston, Fort Bend, Tyler, 
Jasper, Marion, and Hardin counties) ; north to central Virginia (Albe- 
marle C!ounty), eastern Tennessee (Morgan, Roane, and Scott counties; 
Cumberland Plateau), western Kentucky (Fulton County), and south- 
eastern Missouri (Shannon and Carter counties, breeding) ; casually to 
New Jersey (Hoboken) and eastern Pennsylyania (Delaware Ciounty). 

PieuM hcreoMs YibQiLOT, Ois. Am. Sept., ii, 1S07, 66, pi. 122 (''Danfi le nord dee 
ifctatB-Unis"); Nouv. Diet. d'Hiat. Nat., xxvi, 1818, 69.— Stbphbks, Shaw's 
Gen. Zool., ix, 1817, 174.-^abdinx, ed. Wileon's Am. Om., i, 1832, 251, 
pi. 15, fig. I.—Baibd, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 96; Cat. N. Am. 
Birds, 1869, no. 80.— Cassin, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, 203.— Gray, 
List Birda Brit. Mas., Picida, 1868, 50.— Allen, Bull. Mus. Ck>mp. Zool., 



« Twenty-one specimens. * Sevwiteen specimens. 




Locality. 


Wing. 


TalL 


posed 


Tarsus. 


Outer 
ante- 
rior toe. 








MALES. 

Tflfi adult malM fhnn Florida 


U4 4 

123 

122.5 

124.6 

120.S 

124 

122 

U&4 

120 

122 

118.6 

119 

128 

U9l7 

128 


744 

7a5 

78.2 

7&6 

73 

75.8 

78 

74.8 

74 

7«.2 

78 

78 

72 

77.7 

78.6 


2L8 

22 

2a5 

21 

20 

21 

20 

2a4 

20 

2a2 

20 

2a6 

19 

2L2 

20 


2a2 

20 

2a2 

20 

2a6 

1915 

2a5 

1A9 

19 

19.6 

19 

1916 

2a6 

2a6 

20 


13L8 


One adult male from Georgia •...! 


14 


Two adnlt m?Am from 8011th Carolina 


14 


One adnltTTiAi* from Mlmltfftpirf 


14 5 


One adtil t male from TxniMaoa 


18L5 


Two adult males from Tennessee 


18.5 


Four adnU males from Tens 


18.7 


rBMAua. 


18L1 


One adolt fftmale from Georgia..... ^^ ^ .^x ^^..........a.... 


14 


Two adnlt females bvm South CaroUna. 


18 


One adult female from North Carolina 


13.5 


One n^nit c»n«)A frmn MliMisnlppI . , 


13.5 


One aduJt female from Tennessee 


13.5 


Two adult females from Texas. ............. , x ............... . 


14 


One adult fsmale from Indlao Territory 


1X5 







Florida specimens have decidedly shorter wings than those from other localities, 
but other measurements do not differ, and I can detect no color differences. Com- 
parative measurements are as follows: 

AdaUmala, 

Ten from Florida: Wmg, 94.5-119 (avwaging 114.4). 
Eleven from other States: Wing, 120.5-126 (avengiiig 122.6). 

AduUfemdUt: 

Eight from Florida: Wing, 114.5-120 (averaging 116.4). 
Nine from other States: Wing, 118.5-126 (averaging 121.1). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDB 01* KOBTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 271 

ii, 1871, 306 (e. Florida).— Coum, Check Lkt, 1873, no. 296; 2d ed., 1882, 
no. 433. — ^Baibd, Brewbb, and Ridowat, Hist. N. Am. Birda, ii, 1874, 
524, pi. 49, fig. 8.— Matnabd, Birda E. N. Am., 1879, 244, pi. 19.— Brown 
(N. C), Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, iv, 1879, 11 (Cooeada, Alabama; notee).— 
NsHRUNO, Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, vii, 1882, 170 (Harris, Galveston, and 
Ft. Bend counties, e. Texas). — Betbr, Ftoc. Louisiana Soc. Nat. for 1897-99 
(1900), 102 (Louisiana). 

[Picui] borealia Lawrencb, Ann. Lye. N. Y., vili, 1866, 291 (Hoboken, New 
Jersey; accidental).— Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 186, no. 8613.— Coues, 
Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 192. 

P[icu8] horealis Bonapabtb, Joum. Ac. Nat. Sd. Fhila., iii, pt. ii, 1824, 371, 
footnote; Obe. Wilson's Am. Om., 1826, [31].— Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 
2d ed., 1884, 481. 

T\hnnepipo] banalii Cabanis and Hbinb, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 70 
(GecHgia). 

DryobaUs hcrealis Ridowat, Flroc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, no. 23, Sept. 2, 1885, 
355.— American ORNrrHOLOOisrs' Union, Check List, 1886 (and 2d ed., 1895), 
no. 395; 3d ed., 1910, 188.— Fox, Auk, iii, 1886, 319 (Roane Co., e. Ten- 
nessee) .—Cooxb, Bird Migr. Miss. Val., 1888, 128 (Newport, Arkansas; Hous- 
ton, Texas).- Scott, Auk, vi, 1889, 251 (Tarpon Springs, Florida).— Pindar, 
Auk, vi, 1889, 313 (Fulton Co., Kentucky, rare). — Rives, Proc. Newport Nat. 
Hist. Soc., Doc. vii, 1890, 65 (Albemarle Co., Virginia).— Stone, Birds E. 
Penn. and New Jers., 1894, 94 (Delaware Co. and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 
and Hoboken, New Jersey, accidental).— Rhoads, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1895, 483 (Cumberland Plateau, Mwgan and Scott counties, e. Tennessee). — 
Bbhdire, Life Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 61.— Woodruff, Auk, xxiv, 
1907, 349 (Shannon and Carter counties, Missouri, breeding); xxv, 1908, 200 
(Shannon and Carter counties, ciwnmon). — Bbal, Bull. 37, U. S. Biol. Surv., 
1911, 23 (food).— Wbthors, Auk, xxix, 1912, 112, in text (Mena, Arkansas, 
Dec.). 

D[rffobaU9] horedlii Ridowat, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 283. 

Dendrocopus horealxB Haroftt, Cat Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 251 (Aiken, 
South Carolina; localities in Florida), 571 (descr. yoimg male). 

[Dendroeopui] horealis Sharpe, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 215. 

Pieus quendus Wilson, Am. Om., ii, 1810, 103, pi. 15, fig. 1 (North Carolina, 
South Carolina, or Geoigia; coll. Peale Mus. or Aoul. Nat. Sci. Phila.). — 
Bonaparte, Ann. Lye. N. Y. (Synopsis Birds U. S.), 1826, 46.— Nuttall, 
Man. Om. U. S. and Can., Land Birds, 1832, 577.— Audubon, Om. Biog., 
V, 1839, 12, pi. 389, figs. 1, 2; Synopsis, 1839, 180; Birds Am., oct. ed., iv, 
1842, 254, pi. 264.— WooDHOUSE, in Biep. Sitgreavee* Expl. Zuiiiand Colorado 
R., 1853, 89 (Indian Territory; e. Texas).- Malhbrbe, Mon. Picid., i, 1861, 
134; iii, 1861, pi. 31, figs. 4, 5, 6.— Cassin, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, 
203.— SuNDEVALL, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 21.— Ridowat, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., iii, 1880, 189; Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 362. 

Plieui] quatihu Bonaparte, Joum. Ac. Nat Sci. Phila., iii, pt. ii, 1824, 370; 
Obs. "trason'a Am. Om., 1826, [31].— Waoler, Syst. Av., 1827, Picus, sp. 
21; IsiB, 1829, 509.— Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 137. 

[Pkrenopicus] quendus Bonaparte, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 123 (Consp. Volucr. 
Zygod., 1854, 8). 

[Tkrenopipo] qumdtu Heine and Rbichbnow, Nom. Mus. Hein. Om., 1890, 214 
(South Carolina; Georgia). 

P[icus] vieiUota Waglsr, Syst. Av., 1827, Picus, sp. 20 (new name for Picta 
harealxB YieiUotsadult male). 

P[icta] UvjcotiB Ill[iger] Lichtsnstein, Verz. Douhl., 1823, 12 (new name for P. 
qumduB Wilson). 

PicM leuocftii Bonaparte, Qeog. and Comp. list, 1838, 39. 

[Picua] leueotia Lichtbnstbin, Nom. Mus. Berol., 1854, 75. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



272 BULLBTIK 60, TTNITBD STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Genus SPHYRAPICUS Baird. 

Pilumnui (not of Leach, 1816) Bonaparte, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 123 (Consp. 

Volucr. Zygod., May, 1864, 8). (Type, Picu$ thyroideus CaaBin.) 
Sphyrapicua Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1868, 101. (Type, by orig. 

designation, Picu$ variuM linnseus.) 
Sphyropicus (emendation) Sclatbr, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lend., 1869, 236. — Eluot, 

New and Unfig. Birds N. Am., i, pt. ii, 1866, pi. 26. 
Clado8copus<i (not of Reichenbach, 1861) Gabanis and Heinx, Mus. Hein., iv. 

heft 2, June, 1863, 60, 80. (New name for Sphyrapicua, on grounds of purism.) 
Campohorus Gabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, June, 1863, 80. (Type 

Picas thyroideuB Gassin.) 

Medium-sized Picinae (wing 118-143 mm.), with outer hind toe 
longer than outer front toe,^ gonys nearly to more than three times as 
long as mandibular rami, supranasal ridge running out to edge of 
maxilla at or posterior to middle, tarsus longer than outer hind toe 
with claw, middle rectrices slenderly and abruptly acuminate and 
slightly (if at all) decurved terminally, and young very different in 
coloration from adults. 

Bill about as long as head or slightly shorter, broad and rather 
depressed basally , compressed anteriorly, the tip distinctly but rather 
narrowly chisel-shaped, its width at anterior end of nostrils decidedly 
greater than its depth at same point; culmen straight or very nearly 
so, distinctly ridged; gonys nearly to more than three times as long 
as mandibular rami, straight, or very faintly concave terminally and 
convex basally, rather distinctly ridged; supranasal ridge and pre- 
nasal groove very distinct, nmning out to tomial edge of maxilla at or 
slightly posterior to middle. Nostril narrow or linear, obtusely 
pointed, decidedly nearer to tomium than to culmen, mostly if not 
wholly covered by a conspicuous antrorse prefrontal tuft of hair-like 
feathers. Malar apex without a distinct antrorse tuft, but the 
feathers on extreme anterior portion, likewise those of the margin of 
chin, directed forward and distinctly bristle-like. Orbits mostly 
feathered, including margin of eyelids, except anteriorly. Wing long 
and pointed, the longest primaries exceeding secondaries by one- 
third the length of wing; seventh and eighth primaries longest, ninth 
equal to or slightly longer than fifth, tenth (outermost) about one- 
fourth as long as ninth. Tail less than two-thirds as long as wing, the 
middle rectrices slightly, if at all, decurved terminally, where abruptly 
and slenderly acuminate. Tarsus longer than outer hind toe with 
claw; outer hind toe very slightly longer than outer front toe; tarsi 
and toes slender, and claws only moderately large. Tongue scarcely 
extensile and otherwise peculiar; the apo-hyal and cerato-hyal ele- 
ments of the hyoid not reaching backward much beyond the tympano- 
maxillary articulation, the basi-hyals short and peculiarly shaped.^ 

o ' * KX&doc (Zweig) und oKxmh) (spahen) . ' ' (Gabanis and Heine. ) 
b The difference in length very slight, however. 
c See Goues, Proc. Ac. Sci. Phila., 1866, 62. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMEBIGA. 273 

Coloration. — ^Abdomen immaculate yellow or whitish; upper tail- 
coverts at least partly white; middle and greater wing-coverts white, 
or else whole wing (as well as back) barred with black and pale brown 
or brownish white; chest black or barred with black, or else red (the 
head and neck iJso red). Young very different from adults in 
coloration. 

Range. — ^North America in general. (Three or four species.) 

KBT TO THE SPB0IX8 AKD SUBflPSOIBS (7) OF SPHTSAPICUB. 

a. Middle wing-covertB and outer web of greater coverts white, forming a conspicuous 
longitudinal patch on wing. 
b. Sides of throat and lower throat red or white, like rest of throat; back conspicu- 
ously variegated with whitish; sides of chest yellowish, red, or brownish, 
c. Chest uniform glossy black (^e feathers narrowly margined with whitisL or 
pale yeUowiih in first winter plumage). 
d, Qda and throat wholly red. 
e. Nape whitish; red of throat separated from white subauricular stripe by pos- 
terior extension of black malar stripe; back with more white or pale 
brownish; wing averaging 124.1, tail 72.5. (Eastern North America; 
south in winter to Cuba, Jamaica, Costa Rica, etc.) 

Sphynpiciu faxtus faxiiu, adult male (p. 274). 
M. Nape red; red of throat extending laterally to white subauricular stripe; 
back with less white; wing averaging 127.5, tail 76.5. (Rocky Moun- 
tains to Siena Nevada and Cascade ranges, south in winter to north- 

weetem Mexico.) Sphyzapiciui Tariua nuchalis, adult male (p. 279). 

dd. Chin and throat at least partly white. 
e. Chin and throat wholly white; pileum often uniform glossy black; wing 
avengmg 124.3, tail 71.7^ 

Sphyxapioiia faxiiu faxiiu, adult female (p. 275). 
u. Chin white, but at least lower throat (sometimes whole throat) red; pileum 
always red; wing averaging 128.1, tail 74.4. 

Sphysapioiu vaxtns nuchalis, adult female (p. 279). 
ec. Chest not black. 
d. Chest red, like head and neck. 

* €, Smaller, with red portions of plumage averaging lighter and duller; more 
white on back; male averaging, wing 123.1, tail 74.6; female, wing 
122.8, taO 75.1. (Southern California to eastern Oregon.) 

Sphysapions ruber ruber, adults (p. 282). 
M. Laiger, with red portlmis of plumage averaging darker and brighter; less 
white on back; male averaging, wing 128.6, tail 78.9; female, wing 
130.5, tail 81.5. (Western Oregon to southern Alaska.) 

SphyrapioiiB ruber notkenaia, adults (p. 284). 

dd. Chest dull grayish brown or brownish gray, more or less distinctly barred 

or lunulated with darker. 

«. Back light yellowidi brown, variegated with black; sides of head with a 

distinct supra-auricular and a conspicuous suborbital and sub-auricular 

stripe of whitish; throat dull whitish; abdomen distinctly yellowish. 

Sphytapioiu farlua farlua, yoimg (p. 275). 
ee. Back black or dark sooty, variegated with whitish; sides of head without 
distinct stripes; throat sooty brofm or grayish, nearly concolor with 
chest. 
/. Head and chest without reddish suffusion. 

Sphyrapicus variua nuchalis, young (p. 279). 
3022**— BuU. 50, pt 6—14 18 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



274 BULLETIN 50, UIHTBD STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

ff. Head and cheet with a reddish suffusion .^ 

Sphynpioiu ruber (and subspecies), young (pp. 282). 
&&. Sides of throat and loww throat black; sides of chest black, 
c. Chest, etc., glossy greenish blue-black; thioatrstripe red; abdominal area 
bright yellow. (Western North America, south to northern Mexico in 

winter.) SphynpionB fhyzoideni, adult male (p. 286). 

cc. Chest, etc., d.ull black; throa^stripe whitish; abdominal area pale yellow or 

yellowish white S^yrapiciui fhyzoideuB, young male (p. 286). 

aa. Middle and greater wing-coverts black barred with pale grayish brown or dull 
brownish white. .Sphyxapiong thyroideus, adult, and young, female (pp. 286, 287). 

: SPHYRAPICUS VARIUS VARIUS (Liniuras). 
SAPSiroi 



AivU male. — Forehead and crown bright poppy red or crimson, 
bordered posterioriy by an occipital crescent of glossy blue-black, 
extending laterally to above middle of eye; nape (at least laterally) 
white or brownish white, rarely tinged with red; back and scapulars 
black faintly glossed with greenish blue, broken by heavy spotting 
of white or brownish white, the white prevailing on sides of back, the 
black predominating on median portion; rump and upper tail-coverts 
mostly black laterally, mostly white (usually immacidate) medially; 
tail black, the inner web of middle pair of rectrices white with several 
larger or smaller oblique spots or bars of black, the lateral rectrices 
margined terminally with white (except in abraded plimiage); 
wings black, the exposed portion of middle coverts and outer web of 
greater coverts (except inner or proximal ones) white, forming a 
conspicuous longitudinal patch, the outer webs of primaries and 
distal portion of secondaries with large elongated spots of white, the 
inner secondaries (tertials) with much white on distal portion; a 
broad and sharply defined band of white originating at nasal tufts 
and extending between orbital and malar regions to sides of neck; 
a narrower postocular stripe of white originating above posterior 
portion of eye and extending thence to nape; a malar stripe of 
black, becoming narrower posteriorly, where confluent with a large 
jugular patch of uniform glossy blue-black, having a strongly con- 
vex or rounded posterior outline; chin and throat bright poppy red, 
the feathers white beneath surface; median under parts and portions 
adjacent to posterior and lateral edges of the black jugular area, 
pale yellow (primrose to nearly sulphur yellow); sides and flanks 
dull white or brownish white (usually more brownish anteriorly), 
broken by V-shaped markings of blackish; under tail-coverts white, 
sometimes with a few shaft-streaks or other markings of blackish; 
bill brownish black or blackish brown; iris brown; legs and feet 
grayish olive-green or greenish gray (in life). 

a This character possibly not constant, in which case the young of S, r^hv and 8, 
nwSMii would not always be distinguishable. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 275 

AduU male in cmtwrnn and winter. — Similar to the spring and 
summer plumage; but the lighter-colored markings of back and 
scapulars and color of nape light yellowish olive or light buflfy yel- 
lowish brown instead of white, yellow of imder parts deeper, and 
sides light brownish instead of whitish; bill more brownish. 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male, but chin and throat 
white instead of red, and frequently with red of pileum reduced in 
extent, often altogether wanting, the whole forehead, crown, and 
occiput sometimes uniform glossy black, sometimes with small 
whitish streaks or sagittate spots. (Seasonal variations same as in 
adult male.) 

Young {sexes dike). — W^ngs and tail as in autumnal adults, but 
other?rise very different; pileum sooty brown or sepia, each feather 
with a more or less distinct small terminal or subterminal spot of 
paler; auricular region and malar stripe brownish (instead of black), 
the former with narrow shaft-streaks of dull whitish; chin and upper 
throat dull white or pale buffy brownish; lower throat, foreneck, 
and chest pale brown, broken by crescentic bars or lunules of 
dusky; otherwise as in autumnal adults but sides and flanks more 
brownish. (The red of the adult plumage appears in scattered 
feathers on forehead and crown before any black feathers are ac- 
quired on chest or malar region, and also on the throat in the case 
of young males.) 

Adult tnofe.— Length (skins), 189-206 (198); wing, 120-130 
(124.1); taU, 67-76 (72.5); cuhnen, 21.5-25.5 (23.4); tarsus, 19-22 
(20.3); outer anterior toe, 14-16 (14.7).* 

Adult female.— Lejigth (skins), 182-206 (192); wing, 121-128 
(124.3); tail, 68-75 (71.7); cuhnen, 22-24 (22.7); tarsus, 18.5-20 
(19.4); outer anterior toe, 13.5-15.5 (14.4).« 

Eastern North America, breeding from northern portion of Caro- 
linian life-zone in northern Missouri, northern Indiana, northern 
Ohio, Massachusetts (mountains of Berkshire County), etc., north to 
Mackenzie (Fort Providence; Fort Simpson; Fort Smith; Fort Rae; 
Fort Resolution; Fort liard; Nehawney Moimtains, 100 miles north- 
west of Fort Simpson; Big Island, Great Slave Lake), central Kee- 
watin, central Quebec, and Cape Breton Island, west to Alberta 
(Fort McHenry, Athabasca River), and southward on Allegheny 
Mountains to North Carolina; wintering from Pennsylvania, Ohio 
Valley, etc., southward (occasionally farther northward); migrating 
southward over greater part of Mexico, in States of TamauUpas 
(Sierra Madre, near "Victoria), San Luis PotosI (Soled&d), Nuevo 
Le6n (Rodriguez; Monterfiy; Cerro de la Silla), Coahuila (Sierra de 
Guadalupe), Guanajuato, Hidalgo (Re&l del Monte; El Chico), 

a Ten specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



276 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Mexico (Temisciltepec; Coapa; Ixtapalapa; Mexicalcingo; Hacienda 
Eslava; Culhuac6n; Coajimalpa; Chimalpa; Tetelco); Jalisco (Volcan 
de Colima; Zapotl&n; La Barca), Colima (Plains of Colima; Colima), 
Michoac6n ( Patamb&n) , Morelos ( Huitzil&c) , Guerrero ( mountains near 
Chilpancingo), Oaxaca (La Parada; Llano Verde; Villa Alta; Tot6nte- 
pec; Toniaguia; Santa Efig6nia), Vera Cruz (Mirad6r; Orizaba; 
Jalapa; C6rdova; Co&tepec; Cofre de Perote), Puebla (Atlixco; 
Huexotitla), Chiapas (Gineta Mountains) and Yucatan (M6rida), 
and southward through Guatemala (Cob&n; Tecp&m; Lake Atitl&n; 
Los Amates; Duefias; San Ger6nimo; Tolim&n; Volcan de Agua; 
Volcan de Fuego), Honduras (Siqu&tepec) and Nicaragua (San 
Bafa61 del Norte) to Costa Rica (Coliblanco) ; also in winter to 
Bahamas (Andros, In&gua, New Providence, Bimini, Caicos, and 
Bum Cay islands), Cuba (near Trinid&d), Isle of Pines, Little Cay- 
man, Jamaica, St. Croix, St. Andrews and Old Providence islands 
in Caribbean Sea, and in Bermudas; accidental in southern Green- 
land (Julianshaab, 1 spec, July, 1845), and casual in eastern Wyo- 
ming and eastern Colorado (El Paso County). 

[Picua] varius LiNNiBUS, Syat. Nat., ed. 12, i, 1766, 176 (baaed on TTie YeUotD- 
helly'd Woodpecker Catesby, Nat. Hist. Oarolina, i, 21, pi. 21; Pic varii de la 
Caroline Briaeon, Om., iv, 62).— Omwjn, Syet. Nat., i, pt. i, 1788, 438.— 
Latham, Index Om., i, 1790, 232.— Sglateb, Ptoc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1859» 
367 (Jalapa, Mexico).— Gbat, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 186, no. 8617. 

Picu8 varita Vibuxot, Oia. Am. Sept., ii, 1807, 63, pis. 118, 119; Nouv. Diet. 
d'Hiat. Nat., xxvi, 1818, 80, 94.— WasoN, Am. Om., i, 1808, 147, pi. 9, fig. 
2.— BoNAPABTB, Ann. Lye. N. Y., ii, pt. i(Synop. Birds U. S.), 1826, 45; 
Geog. and Gomp. List, 1838, 89.— Ntjttall, Mui. Om. U. S. and Can., Land 
Birds, 1832, 574; 2d ed., 1840, 680.— Audubon, Om. Biog., ii, 1834, 619, pi. 
190; V, 1839, 537; Synopsis, 1839, 182; Birds Am., oct. ed., iv, 1842, 263, pi. 
267.— D'Obbignt, in La Sagra's Hist. Fis., etc., Cuba, Om., 1839, 108; 
Prencb ed., p. 141.— Gosbb, Birds Jamaica, 1847, 270.— jABDmE, Contr. 
Om., 1848, 83 (Bemrnda); 1850, 8 (Bemmda).— Lbmbxtb, Aves dela Isla 
de Cuba, 1850, 131.— Bbinhabot, Joum. f Or Om., 1854, 430, 440 (Green- 
land); Ibis, 1861, 8 (Julianshaab, s. Greenland, 1 spec., July, 1845). — 
Cabanis, Joum. ftlr Om., 1856, 102 (Cuba).— Sclatbb, Ploc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1856, 308 (C6rdova, Vera Cruz); 1858, 305 (La Parada, Oaxaca); 1859, 
388 (Llano Verde and Tot6ntepec, Oaxaca).— Ma Tnm.T an, Joum. fOr Om., 
1858, 417 (deecr. tongue).— Wnus, Ann. Bep. Smithson. Inst., 1859, 287 
(Bermuda).— Mabtens, Joum. fttr Om., 1859, 215 (Bermuda).— Bbyant, 
Proc. Boet. Soc. N. H., vii, 1859, 106 (Andros I., Bahamas); 1866, 65 (Baha- 
mas).— Taylob, Ibis, 1860, 119 (pine reg. of Siqu&tepec, Honduras). — 
Newton, Ibis, 1860, 308 (St. Croix).— Reinhabdt, Ibis, 1861, 8 (Julianshaab, 
Greenland, 1 spec., July, 1845).— Gundlach, Joum. ftlr Om., 1861, 415 
(Cuba).— Albbecht, Joum. Ifir Om., 1861, 51 (Bahamas); 1862, 202 (Ja- 
maica).— Mabch, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, 284 (Jamaica).— Sunbb- 
VALL, Consp. Av. Pidn., 1866, 33. 

Plicus] varius Bonnatebbe and Vieillot, Enc. M6th., iii, 1823, 1311.— Bona- 
PABTB, Joum. Ac. Nat. Sd. Phila., iii, pt. ii, 1824, 370; Obs. Wilson's Am. 
Om., 1826 [30]; Consp. Av., i, 1850, 13a— Waolbb, Syst. Av., 1827, Picus, 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD8 OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMEBIOA. 277^ 

ep. 16; Isia, 1829, 509.— Gray, Gen. Biids, ii, 1846, 435.— Maxdolian, 
Joum. fttr Om., 1868, 417. 

Picus (Dendroeopui) variuM Swainson*, Fauna Bor.-Am., ii, 1831, pp. xxvi, 309. 

Pilumnui variua Bonaparte, Anteneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 123 (Consp. Voluc. 
Zygod., 1854, 8.) 

Sphyrajncui variui Baibd, Rep. Pacific B. R. Surv., ix, 1858, p. xxviii, 103.— 
Malhbrbb, Mon. Pic, i, 1862, 157; iv, 1862, pi. 37, figs. 2, 3, 4.— Blakiston, 
Ibis, 1862, 3 (Giand Rapids of and Forks of Saskatchewan). — Dbxsser, Ibis, 
1865, 468 (San Antonio, Texas, resident, breeding).— Coubs, Check List, 
1873, no. 302; 2d ed., 1882, no. 446.— Tbippb, Proc. Boat. Soc. N. H., xv, 
1872, 233 (Decatur and Mahaska counties, s. Iowa, breeding).— Gundlach, 
Joum. fttr Om., 1874, 150 (Cuba); Om. Cubana, 1876, 273; ed. 1895, 139.— 
CouBS, Birds Northwest, 1874, 285; Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. 
Terr., iv, 1878, 616 (Pembina and Souris B., North Dakota, breeding).— 
Brbwstbr, Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, i, 1876, 63 (biography); iii, 1878, 180 
(deecr. young); Auk, iii, 1886, 104 (mts. of w. North Carolina, breed- 
ing).— La wrxncb, Mem. Best. Soc. N. H., ii, 1874, 294 (Plains of 
Colima); Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 4, 1876, 35 (Santa £figenia, Oaxaca; 
Gineta Mts., Chiapas).- Matnard, Birds Florida, 1878, 223, pi. 18.— Mbr- 
RiAM, Bull. Nutt. Om. aub, iv, 1879, 1 (Lewis Co., New York; habits); 
Auk, i, 1884, 295 (Point de Monts, Quebec).— Rmo way, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., iii, 1880, 189; Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 369; Om. Illinois, i, 1889, 
380.— Cory, Birds Bahama Is., 1880, 121 (New Providence I.); Auk, iii, 
1886, 375; iv, 1887, 181 (St Andrews I., Caribbean Sea); viii, 1891, 294 (New 
Providence I.), 296 (Biminis Islds.), 297 (Caicos Islds.; Inagua); Birds West 
Ind., 1889, 170; Cat. West Ind. Birds, 1892, 104.— Rbid, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
no. 25, 1884, 212 (Bermudas, April, Nov., Dec.).— Bicknbll, Auk, ii, 1885, 258 
(note6).—AMBRiCAN ORNrrHOLOGiSTs' Union, Checklist, 1886 (and 2d ed., 
1895), no. 402.— Allbn (J. A.), BuU. Am. Mus.N. H., i, 1886, 247 (Massachu- 
setts, a few breeding) .—Ralph and Baoo, Trans. Oneida Hist. Soc., iii, 1886, 
123 (Oneida Co., New York, breeding).— Ferrari-Perbz, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., ix, 1886, 159 (Huexotitla, Puebla).— Bbndirb, Auk, v, 1888, 225 (descr. 
nest and eggs); life Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 82. — Ebtbs and Williams, 
Proc. Davenp. Ac. Sd., v, 1888, (20) (Des Moines, Iowa City, etc., breed- 
ing).— Bbrotold, List Birds Buffalo, New York, 1889, 12 (breeding).— 
SooTT, Auk, vii, 1890, 310 (Dry Tortugas, Florida); ix, 1892, 374 (Jamaica, 
Jan.).— Clark (W. E.), Auk, vii, 1890, 322 (Ft. Churchill).— Northrop, 
Auk, viii, 1891, 75 (Andros I., Bahamas, Feb.).— Stone, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1891, 435 (Luzerne Co., Pennsylvania, breeding).— MoBridb, Proc. 
Ind. Ac. Sci., 1891 (1892), 167 (Waterloo, De Kalb Co., n. e. Indiana, breed- 
ing).— Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., iv, 1892, 301 (near Trinidad, s. 
Cuba).— Rhoads, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1895, 483 (Roan Mt., Tennessee, 
4,000 ft.; breeding?).— Bailt, Auk, xiii, 1896, 293 (Elk Co., Pennsylvania, 
breeding).— Jones, Wilson Bull., no. 16, 1897, 61 (Oberlin, Ohio, breeding).— 
BuTLBR, Birds Indiana, 1897, 834 (Carroll, Laporte, Starke, De Kalb, and 
Porter counties, n. Indiana, breeding). — Cookb, Bull. Col. Agiic. Coll., no. 
37, 1897, 83 (El Paso Co., Colorado; 1 spec.).— Bonhote, Ibis, 1899, 516 
(New Providence, Bahamas); 1903, 295 (New Providence, Feb., March).— 
Faxon and Hoffman, Birds Berkshire Co., Mass., 1900, 36 (very rare summer 
resid.).— Prbblb, North Am. Fauna, no. 22, 1902, 112 (Ft. Churchill; Moose 
Factory); no. 27, 1908, 384 (north to Great Slave Lake and Ft. Simpson).- 
EiFRia, Auk, XX], 1904, 241 (Allegheny and Garrett coimties, w. Maryland, 
higher parts; breeding?).— Morris, Wilson Bull., no. 51, 1905, 56 (habits 
in winter).— SwALBS and Tavbrnbr, Wilson Bull., no. 55, 1906, 65 (Lake 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



278 BULLETIN 60, TJNITBD STATES NATIONAL MTJSEUM. 

I 
Muskoka, Ontario, breeding). — Dbabborn, Pub. 125, Field Miu. N. H., 
1907, 72 (Tecpam, Lake Atitlan, and Los Amates, Guatemala, 6,000-9,500 
ft.).— Flbiono, Auk, xxiv, 1907, 76 (Toronto, Ontario, breeding).— Wood- 
RUFP, Bull, vi, Chicago Ac. Sci., 1907, 110 (Chicago area; tranoient). — 
Anderson, Proc. Davenp. Ac. Sci., xi, 1907, 276 (Iowa, breeding n. of 
42^).— Nash, Vertebr. Fauna Ont., 1908, Birds, p. 50 (summer resid.). — 
Brooks (E. A.), Auk, zxv, 1908, 285 (near Pickens, Randolph Co., West 
Virginia, breeding in spruce belt); xvi, 1909, 84 (Randolph Co., West 
Virginia, breeding at 4,000 ft.). — Stansill, Auk, xxvi, 1909, 395 (centr. 
Alberta, breeding).— Ferry, Pub. 146, Field Mus. N. H., Cm. Ser., i, no. 
6, 1910, 266 (Coliblanco, Costa Rica).— Bbal, BuU. 37, U. S. Biol. Surv., 
1911, 27, pi. 2 (food). 

[Sphyrapicus] varim Gunblaoh, Joum. f (kr Cm., 1861, 334 (Cuba) ; Repert. Fisico- 
Nat. Cuba, i, 1866, 294.— Coubs, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 195.— Cory, List 
Birds West Ind., 1885, 20 (Bahamas). 

S\phyrapicuB] varius RroowAY, Bfan. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 288. 

[Spl^picus varxui] Wood, Wilson Bull., no. 51, 1905, 57 (Wayne X>)., Michigan, 
breeding habits). 

Sj^iyropicut varius Soiatbr and Salvin, Ibis, 1869, 136, 236 (Guatemala). — 
ScLATBR, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 335 (Orizaba, Vera Cruz); Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1864, 117 (near City of Mexico).— Bladston, Ibis, 1863, 52 (Sas- 
katchewan). — ^BRYANT,Pn)c. Boston Soc. N. H., 1865, 91 (anat. tongue) .^Law- 
rence, Ann. Lye. N. Y., ix, 1869, 205 (Merida, Yucatan).— RroowAY, BuU. 
Essex Inst., v, 1873, 177 (Colorado); Auk, viii, 1891, 338 (Rum Cay, Bahamas, 
March) .^Baird, Brewer, and Ridoway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, pi. 51^ 
figs. 1, 2; iii, 1874, 521 (El Paso Co., Colorado; 1 spec.).- Newton, Man. N. H. 
Greenl., 1875, 97 (2 specs.; July, 1845, and 1858).— Coueb, Check list, 2d 
ed., 1882, no. 446.— HARorrr, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 188 (Costa 
Rica; etc., etc.).— Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, i, 1896, 
427.— Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., xxxix, 1903, 146(Ceiba, Honduras). — 
Lowe, Ibis, 1911, 150 (Little Cayman). 

[Sphyropicus] varim Sclater and Salvin, N<Mn. Av. Neotr., 1873, 99.— Sharps, 
Hand-list, ii, 1900, 212. 

Slpkyropicus] variua Newton (A. and E.), Handb. Jamaica, 1881, 109.— Cousa, 
Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 486. 

Spkyropicus vorittf, var. varxui Ridoway, Am. Joum. Arts and Sci., v, Jan., 
1873, 40.— Baird, Brewer, and Ridoway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 539. 

[Sphyrapicus varius] a. varius Coues, Birds Northwest, 1874, 285. 

Sphyrapicus varius varius Goodb, Bull. XJ. S. Nat. Mus., no. 20, 1883, 343. — 
Banos and Zappby, Am. Nat., xxxix, 1905, 206 (Isle of Pines, Cuba, April). — 
American ORNrraoLooiSTs' Union, Check List, 3d ed., 1910, 190.— Todd, 
Ann. Carnegie Mus., vii, 1911, 421 (New Providence, Great Inagua, and 
Watling islands, Bahamas).— Worthinqton, Ann. Carnegie Mus., vii, 1911, 
454 (Bahamas). 

C[ladoscopus] varius Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 80. 

[Cladoscopus] varius Heine and Rbichenow, Nom. Mus. Hein. Om., 1890, 216. 

DycHopicus varius Boucard, Liste Ois. rdcol. Guat., 1878, 27. 

Picus airothorax Lesson, Traits d'Om., 1831, 229 (loadity unknown ;=young; 
see Pucheran Rev. et Mag. de Zool., 2d ser., vii, 1855, 21, 22). 

[Ckuhseopus varius] var. atrioapilla Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, 
1863, 82 (Cuba; nomen nudum).— Heine and Rbichenow, Nom. Mus. Hein. 
Om., 1890, 215 (Cuba). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMEBICA. 



SFHTRAPICUS VARIUS NUCHAUS Btird. 

BXD-VAPXD UAPBVOKER 



279 



Similar to S. v, varius, but with much less white on back, this 
forming two definite but broken stripes, converging posteriorly; 
nape always with more or less of red, under parts less strongly tinged 
with yellow, and wing and tail averaging decidedly longer; adult 
male with red of throat more extended, both laterally and posteriorly, 
covering malar region (except anterior portion), where meeting 
white sub-auricular stripe; adult female with at least lower half of 
throat red (sometimes whole throat red, only the chin being white) ; 
young much darker above than corresponding stage of S. v. varius, 
the pileum uniform dark sooty slate, white markings on back less 
brownish, and under parts much less yellowish, the chest and fore- 
neck brownish gray or grayish brown (instead of buffy brown), and 
usually less distinctly barred or limulated with dusky.* 

AduU moZe.— Length (skins), 179-216 (197); wing, 121-130 
(127.5); tail, 67.5-77.5 (76.5); cuhnen, 21-26 (23.3); tarsus, 19-21.5 
(20.4); outer anterior toe, 14.5-16 (15.2).* 

^iuft /emafe.— Length (skins), 187-210 (195); wing, 126-132 
(128.1); taU, 71-79 (74.4); culmen, 20-24.5 (23); tarsus, 19-20.5 
(19.9); outer anterior toe, 14.5-16 (15.1).« 

Western North America, chiefly east of Cascade and Sierra Nevada 
ranges; north to celitral British Columbia (Vernon; Buonaparte; 

a On account of the conspicuous difference in coloration of the young, definite 
difference in color pattern of back, head, and neck in adults, and comparative 
rarity of intermediate specimens (which are far less common, relatively, than in the 
case of Co1aptes)f I believe that it would be better to consider this form as specifi- 
cally distinct from S, varius. It is true that specimens do occur that are interme- 
diate between S. nuchalis and S. variui, as well as between the former and i^. ruber; 
but they may be (and I believe are) hybrids; certainly there is no more reason for 
not considering them as such than in tiie case of Colaptes; and if S, ntuAalia is to 
be considered as merely a subspecies of 8. variua then, most certainly, must S, ruber 
also. 

& Twenty specimens. 

« Twelve specimens. 



Locality. 


Wing. 


Tafl. 


Ex- 
posed 
dilmen. 


Tanas. 


Outer 
ante- 
rior toe. 


UAUta. 
Twiivfi adnlt malftt from Rooky MountfUa distHot 


127.8 
127.1 

128.S 
127 


78 
78 

748 
745 


28.2 
23.0 

218 
243 


20i4 
20i4 

1ft 
20 


10.1 


TAght adult males from CalUbnila (4), Lower Calitomia (1), 
and British Colmnbia (3) 


Ub4 


FEMALES. 

Teo adult females from Rooky Momitain district 


10.1 




10.6 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



280 BULLETIN 60, UOTTED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Ducks; Ashcroft) and Alberta; breeding southward to extreme 
western Texas (Fort Davis), New Mexico (Zufii Moimtains; Hondo 
Canyon; Culebra Mountain; San Miguel County) and Arizona (Fort 
Whipple), west to eastern Oregon (Warner Mountains; Blue Moun- 
tains) and northeastern California (Hayden Hill, Lassen County), 
east to Montana (Thompson Pass; St. Marys Lake; Weeksville; 
Flathead Lake; Columbia Falls; Big Horn Mountains), Wyoming 
(Bear Lodge; Sherman), western Kansas (near Wallace), etc.; in 
migration southward over northwestern Mexico, in States of Chi- 
huahua (Colonia Garcia; Colonia Pacheco; Chihu&hua City; 30 miles 
west of Mifiaca; Bustillos; Casa Colorado; Reftigio; Temasochic; 
Guerrero), Sonora (Rancheria de los Apaches; El Pinita; El Puerto; 
Las Cuervas; Rio Bavispe), Durango (Cienega de las Vacas), Jalisco 
(Sierra de Bolafios), Coahuila (Rio Sabinas), and Lower California 
(Laguna; Rio San Pedro; Santa Rosarita), casually to Guatemala 
(Panajachel); sporadically westward during migration to western 
Washington (mountains near Bellingham Bay), and California west 
of Sierra Nevada (Alhambra, February; Baird, Shasta Coimty, 
November; San Ger6nimo, Marin Coimty, 3 specimens; Palo Alto, 
Santa Clara Coimty, February; Los Angeles Coimty, winter; San 
Clemente Island). 

Picas varitLs (not of Liniueiis) BAmo, in Stansbury's Surv. Gt. Salt Lake, 1862, 
326 (New Mexico).— -Heeemann, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., x, pt. iv, no. 2, 
1859, 58 (Ft. Yuma). 

Sphyrapicus voariui (not of Baird) Malhsrbe, Mon. Picid., i, 1861, 161, part. 

{7)8phyrojncu8 varius Beown, Jbis, 1868, 419 (Vancouver I.).— Holden, Proc. 
Boat. Soc. N. H., xv, 1872, 207 (Sherman, Wyoming, breeding). 

[Sphyrapicus varius] Variety muihalis Baou), Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 
103, in text (Mimbres River, New Mexico; coll. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila.). 

Sphyrapicus nuchalis Baied, Rep. P^ific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, pp. xxviii, 921 
(descr. specimens from Ft. Bridger and Laramie Peak, Wyoming; Ft. Thorn, 
New Mexico); ed. 1860 (Birds N. Am.), atlas, pi. 35, figs. 1, 2; Cat. N. Am. 
Birds, 1859, no. 86.— Coopee, Proc. (3alif . Ac. Sci., ii, 1863, 122 (Ft. Mojave).— 
Cassin, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, 204 (crit.).— Coues, Ibis, 1865, 
162 (Ft. Whipple, Arizona); Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, 53 (Ft. 
Whipple, resident; crit.).— RmowAY, Field and Forest, i, 1877, 209 (Colo- 
rado); Om. 40th Parallel, 1877, 549 (Carson City, upper Humboldt Valley, 
and Thousand Spring Valley, Nevada; Foley's Park, Utah). 

Sphyrapicus nuchalis Baied, Ibis, 1867, 270.— Coopbe, Om. Calif., 1870, 390 
(Ft. Mojave and Ft. Yuma; Rocky Mts., lat. 48**).— Baied, Bebwee, and 
RiDGWAY, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, pi. 51, figs. 3, 4.— Bendiee, Proc. 
Bost. Soc. N. H., xix, 1877, 129 (Blue Mts., Oregon, breeding; deecr. nest). — 
HAEGrrr, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 569 (Sierra Bolafios, Jalisco; 
etc.). — Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 429 (localities 
in Chihiiahua; Sierra do Bolafios, Jalisco; Pkmajachel, Guatemala). 

[Sphyrapicus varius,] Var. nuchalis Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 195. 

Sphyropicus varius, var. nuchalis Ridoway, Am. Joum. Sci., v, Jan., 1873, 40; 
Bull. Essex Inst., v, 1873, 173 (Wabsatch Mts., Utah, 7,000-9,000 ft.).— 
Baied, Beewee, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 542. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBOS OF KOBTH AND MIDDLE AMEBICA. 281 

Sphiprapicus varnu, . . . var. nueihalii Gouss, Check liet, 1873, no. 302a. 

SjikyrapicuM varius, var. ntuihaHs Ridgway, Bull. Essex Inflt., v, Nov., 1873, 
185 (Colorado).— -Allen, Bull. Mub. Comp. Zool., iii, 1872, 168 (South Ptok, 
Colorado), 180 (mte. of Colorado, 7,000-12,000 ft.); Ploc. Boet. Soc. N. H., 
xvii, 1874, 63 (MusBelshell B., Montana).— Hbnshaw, Zool. Exp. W. 100th 
Mtfki., 1875, 392 (Gila R. and Mt. Giaham, Arizona; Toquerville and 
Virgin City, Utah; Ft. Garland and Navajo Creek, Colorado).— Scott, 
Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, iv, 1879, 95 (Twin Lakes, Colorado, breeding). 

Slfik^picus] varitu nududia Rn>owAT, Bull. Essex Inst., vi, Oct., 1874, 174 
(Rocky Mts.); Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 288. 

8phiynpicu$ varius nuchalU Ridoway, Bull. Essex Inst., vii, Jan., 1875, 22, 24, 
34 (localities in Nevada and Utah); Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 189; 
Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 369a.— Drew, Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, vi, 
1881, 141 (San Juan Co., Colorado, breeding).— Merrill, Bull. Nutt. Om. 
Club, vi, 1881, 206 (Ft. Shaw and Bighorn Mts., Montana; descr. nest and 
eggs).— CouES, Check list, 2d ed., 1882, no. 447.— Beldinq, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mu8., vi, 1883, 349 (Laguna, Lower California).— Goes, Auk, i, 1884, 
100 (s. fork Smoky Hill R., near Wallace, w. Kansas, breeding); Auk, iii. 

1886, 114 (near Wallace, w. Kansas).- Drew, Auk, ii, 1885, 17 (Colorado, 
breeding at 4,000-7,000 ft.).— Scott,' Auk, iii, 1886, 427 (Santa Catalina Mts., 
Arizona).— American Ornitholooists' Union, Check List, 1886 (and 2d ed., 
1895), no. 402a; 3d ed., 1910, 190.— Townseni) (C. H.), Proc. U. S. Nat. Mub., x, 

1887, 205 (Baird, Shasta Co., n. California, 1 spec., Nov. 13).— Cooke, Bird 
Migr. Miss. Yal., 1888, 130 (Ft. Davis, w. Texas; etc.); Bull. Col. Agric. 
Coll., no. 37, 1897, 83 (Colorado, breeding up to 12,000 ft., but mostly at 
8,000-9,000 ft.).— Bendire, Auk, v, 1888, 226 (geog. range, habits, etc.); Life 
Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 88.— Merriam, North Am. Fauna, no, 3, 1890, 
92 (San Francisco Mt., Arizona, Sept.).— Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., iii, 
1890, 139 (int. Brit. Columbia).— Fannin, Check List Birds Brit. Col., 1891, 
28 (e. side Cascade range).— Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., v, 1893, 35 (n. e. 
Sonora and n. w. Chihuahua; crit.). — Mailliard, Auk, xv, 1898, 196 (San 
Geronimo, Marin Co., California, 3 specs.).— Mitchell, Auk, xv, 1898, 308 
(San Miguel Co., New Mexico, breeding at 9,000-12,000 ft.).— Grinnell 
(J.), Pub. 2, Pasadena Ac. Sci, 1898, 25 (Los Angeles Co., California, winter 
visitant in foothills); Pacific Coast Avifauna, no. 3, 1902, 38 (California 
range).— Van Denburo, Proc. Calif. Ac. Sci., xxxviii, 1899, 162 (Palo 
Alto, Santa Clara Co., California, 1 spec., Feb.; crit.).— Swarth, Pacific 
Coast Avifauna, no. 4, 1904, 12 (Huachuca Mts., Arizona, Feb.-April). — 
Miller (W. De W.), Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., xxii, 1906, 166 (Cienega de las 
Vacas, n. w. Durango, March 31).— Epson, Auk, xxv, 1908, 434 (mts. near 
Bellingham Bay, Washington, 1 spec.).— Isxlt, Auk, xxix, 1912, 35 (Sedge- 
wick Co., Kansas, Dec., Feb.). 

8[jphiympicu»\ x{anu8'\ nuckalis Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 486. 
[8pf^frapicu8 variua] b. niuihalis Coues, Birds Northwest, 1874, 286 (synonymy; 

Wind R. Mts.; Popoogie Creek; Laramie). 
[SphyropUui variuB.] Subsp. a. Sphyropieu8 nuchaUi Harottt, Cat. Birds Brit. 

Mas., xviii, 1890, 192 (TemosAchic, Guerrero, Casa Colondo and Refugio, 

Chihuahua; Brit. Columbia; etc.). 
C[lado900piui\ ntuJiolis Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 82. 
P[ieui] varius ocddentalii Sundevall, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 34 (new name 

for 8phyrapicu$ nuthalis Baird). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



282 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

SPHYRAPICUS RUBER RUBER (Gmelin). 

BBD-BBEA8TXD UAPVUOl 



A&uU male in spring and summer. — Head, neck, and chest, bright 
red (nearest poppy red) superficially, (the feathers dusky grayish 
beneath surface) ; nasal tufts and anterior and lower portion of loral 
region dull yellowish white or pale dull buffy, the posterior portion of 
loral region (next to eye) black, this sometimes continued, narrowly, 
along edge of forehead; red of suborbital region lighter than that 
of malar r^on, the latter blackish at anterior end; rest of under 
parts very pale straw yellow or yellowish white, the breast more 
or less washed or overlaid with bright red, the sides, flanks, and 
under tail-coverts less yellowish white, broken by mostly V-shaped 
or hastate markings of dusky grayish; general color of upper parts 
(except head and neck) black, broken by a double series (converging 
posteriorly) of white spots down middle of back, a longitudinal 
white patch on wing-coverts (involving most of middle coverts 
and outer webs of distal greater coverts) and white spots on outer 
web of primaries and at tip of proximal secondaries, the inner web 
and tip of upper tail-coverts abo white, and inner web of middle 
pair of rectrices with obUque, quadrate spots of white; bill brownish 
black or blackish brown; iris brown; legs and feet grayish; length 
(skins), 176-208 (194); wing, 118-127.5 (123.1); tail, 71.5-77 (74.6); 
cxilmen, 23-25.5 (24.2); tarsus, 20-22 (20.7); outer anterior toe, 
14-16 (15.2).* 

AduU male in OAitumn and winter. — Similar to the adult male in 
spring and sununer, but the red duller, more vinous (sometimes 
approaching lake red or light burnt carmine), under parts of body 
more decidedly yellowish, spots on back brownish white or pale 
brownish, and bill horn brownish instead of nearly black. 

AduU female, — Similar to the adult male and not always distin- 
guishable, but usually (?) with the breast less strongly washed with 
red; length (skins), 186-206 (195); wing, 120-125.5 (122.8); tail, 
71-79 (75.1); cuhnen, 22-25 (23.8); tarsus, 19-21 (20.1); outer ante- 
rior toe, 14.5-15.5 (15) .« 

Young (both sexes). — ^Wings, tail, and back essentially as in adults; 
pileum, nape, auricular region, and malar region sooty blackish or 
dark grayish sooty, the forehead and crown usually tinged, more or 
less strongly, with dull red, sometimes decidedly dull red (malar 
region also sometimes dull reddish) ; suborbital stripe white (some- 
times tinged with red) ; chin, throat, and chest dull grayish (the first 
two sometimes partly intermixed with dull whitish), usually more 
or less distinctly barred with darker but sometknes immaculate, 
often tinged (in part at least) with reddish; sides grayish, usually 



a Ten specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD6 OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 283 

indistinctly barred with darker, the flanks broadly and rather dis- 
tinctly barred with dull gray and white; under tail-coverts white, 
more or less broken by variable markings of dusky grayish; abdomen 
dull pale yellowish or dull yellowish white. 

California; breeding in Transition Zone from northern California 
to mountaiDs of southern California, east to south-central Oregon 
(Fort Klamath), and eastern slope of Sierra Nevada; south in winter 
to northern Lower California (Ensenada; Ros&rio). 

[Piaa] ruber Gmbun, Syst. Nat., i, pt. 1, 1788, 429 (based on Red breoited Wood- 
pecker Latham, Syn. i , pt. 2, p. 562, no. 9).--Lathah, Index Om., i, 1790, 
228.— <jRAT, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 186, no. 8616, part. 

Pieus ruber Stephens, Shaw's Gen. Zool., ix, 1815, 160.— Vigors, Zool. Voy. 
"BlosBom,'' 1839, 23 (Monterey, Calilomia).— AuDXTBOfi, Om. Bipg., v, 1839» 
179, part, pi. 416, figs. 9, 10; Synopsis, 1839, 181, part; Birds Am., oct. ed., 
iv, 1842, 261, part, pi. 266.— Nuttall, Man. Om. U. S. and Can., Land 
Birds, 2d ed., 1840, 681.— Herrmann, Joum. Ac. Nat. Sci. Fhila., 1853, 
270 (Califomia); Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., x, pt. vi, 1869, 57 (mts. of Cali- 
f<»iiia).— Malhbebb, Mon. Pidd., i, 1861, 132, part; iii, 1861, pi. 31, figs. 1, 
2. — Sundevall, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 32, part (California).— Gray, List 
Birds Brit. Mus., Picid», 1868, 51. 

P[ieu8] ruber Waqlbr, Sys. Av., 1827, Picus, sp. 15. 

MeJanerpes ruber Bonaparte, Geog. and Oomp. List, 1838, 39, part.— Gambel, 
Joum. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1847, 56 (Califomia).— Sclater, Ptoc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1857, 127 (San Job6 Valley, Califomia); 

Mlehnerpes] ruber Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lend., 1858, 2. 

[Melanerpes] ruber Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 115, part. 

[Pilumnui] ruber Bonaparte, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 123 (Consp. Volucr. Zy- 
god., 1854, 8), part. 

8phyrapicu» ruber Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, pp. xxviii, 104, 
part; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 87, part.— Ooues, Check List, 1873, no. 
303?, part.- Henshaw, Rep. Om. Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 1877, 1319 (e. 
slope Sierra Nevada). — Ridoway, Om. 40th Parallel, 1877, 549 (w. slope Sierra 
Nevada).— American ORNrrHOLooiSTS' Union, Check List, 1886 (and 2d ed., 
1895), no. 403, part.— Cooper, Auk, iv, 1887, 91 (Saticoy, Calif (unia, Nov.).— 
Bendire, Auk, V, 1888, 229, part (geog. range; habits, etc.); Life Hist. N.Am. 
Birds, ii, 1895, 92, part.— Merrill and Brewster, Auk, v, 1888, 255 (Ft. Zla- 
math, 8. e. Oregon).— Bryant, Proc. Calif. Ac. Sci., ser. 2, 1889, 286 (Ensenada, 
Lower Califomia).— Fisher (A. K.), North Am. Fauna, no. 7, 1893, 48 (Tej6n 
Pass, 8. Califomia, July; s. Sierra Nevada, Aug., Sept.).— Grinnell (J.), 
Pub. 2, Risadena Ac. Sci., 1898, 25 (Los Angeles Co., Califomia, Oct.- 
March).— Merriam, North Am. Fauna, no. 16, 1899, 114 (Mt. Shasta).— 
Van Denburg, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., xxxviii, 1899, 163 (Los Gatos and 
Pido Alto, Califomia, Nov., Dec.).— Stone, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1904, 
581 (Mt. Sanhedrin, Mendocino Co., Califomia; crit.). — ^Thayer and Bangs, 
Condcn-, ix, 1907, 136 (Rosario, Lower Califomia, Nov.).— Beal, Bull. 34, 
U. S. Biol. Surv., 1910, 21 (food); Bull. 37, 1911, 31 (food). 

[Sphyrapicut] ruber Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 195, part. 

8{phyrapicu8] ruber Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 289, part. 

Sph^ropicus ruber Xantus, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1859, 190 (Ft. Tejdn, 
Califomia). — Cooper, Om. Cal., 1870, 392, part. — ^Baird, Brewer, and 
RiDQWAT, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, pi. 51, fig. 6 (Califomia).— HARorrr, 
Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 194, part. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



284 BULLETIK 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MTJSEUM. 

[SphjfropicuB] ruber Shabpb, Hand-liBt, ii, 1900, 212, part. 

C[laih$copu$] ruber Oabakis and Hbinb, Mus. Hein., iv, 1863, heft 2, 82 

(Calif omia). 
[Cladoscopus] ruber Heine and Reichenow, Nom. Mus. Hein. Om., 1890, 215 

(California). 
8phyrapicu8 ruber ruber (not of Grinnell, 1909) American OiiNrrHOLOOiBTs' 

Union, Check List, 3d ed., 1910, 191.— Willbtt, Pacific Coast Avifauna, 

no. 7, 1912, 56 (Bear Valley, San Bernardino Mts., breeding). 
Sphyropieua variui var. ruber Ridgway, Am. Joum. Sci., iv, Dec., 1872, 456, 

footnote, part; v, Jan., 1873, 40, footnote, part. — Baird, Brewer, and 

RmowAT, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 544, part.— Henbhaw, Rep. Om. 

Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 1876, 259 (Te}6n Mts. and near Kemville, s. Cali- 
fornia, breeding). 
Spkyrapicus varius ruber Ridoway, Bull. Essex Inst., vi, Oct., 1874, 173, 174 

(Sieira Nevada); Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 189; N(Hn. N. Am. Birds, 

1881, no. 3696, part. 
SphyropieuB varius ruber Coubs, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 448, part.— Mearns, 

Bull. Nutt. Om. aub, iv, 1879, 195 (Ft. Klamath, s. e. Oregon). 
8[phyropieui] i3[ariui] ruber Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed, 1884, 486, part. 
[Sphyrapicue varius] c. ruber Coitbs, Birds Northwest, 1874, 286, part (synonymy 

and range). 
Sphyrapieus variuSy p. ruber Ridgway, in Belding, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., i, 

March 21, 1879, 429 (Murphys and Big Trees, Calaveras Co., Califomia). 
SphyrapkuM varius daggetH Grinnell, Condor, iii, Jan., 1901, 12 (Pasadena, Los 

Angles Co., Calif(»mia; coll. F. S. Daggett); Pacific Coast Avi&una, no. 3, 

1902, 38 (range); Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., v, 1908, 63 (San Bernardino Mta., 

7,000-8,500 ft.; habits; crit.).— Kellogg, Condor, xiii, 1911, 119 (Trinity 

and Shasta counties, Califomia, in summer). 
Sphyrapicus varius nudiaUs (not 8, nuchaHs Baird) Linton, Condor, x, 1908, 84 

(San Clemente L, Califomia, 1 spec., Oct. 11; see Willett, Pacific Coast 

Avifauna, no. 7, 1912, 56). 

SPHTRAPICnS RUBER NOTKBNSIS (Sockow). 

VOBTHSHV BBD-BB3BA8TXD SAPSITCl 



Similar to S. r. ruber, but slightly larger and with coloration darker 
and brighter; the red of head, neck, and chest averaging brighter, 
and whitish spots on back usually smaller (sometimes obsolete). 

AduU moi^.— Length (skins), 187-217 (203); wing, 123.5-133.5 
(128.6); tail, 72-81.5 (78.9); cuhnen, 24-27 (26.3); tarsus, 20-22 
(21.1); outer anterior toe, 15-16.5 (15.7).« 

AdvU female.— Jjength (skins), 196-230 (209); wing, 125.5-133 
(130.5); tail, 78.5-85 (81.5); cuhnen, 23.5-27 (24.9); tarsus, 19.5- 
21.5 (20.5); outer anterior toe, 15-17 (15.7) .« 

Northwest coast district, breeding from western Oregon (Beaver- 
ton; Point Grove; Portland; Washington County) ; northward through 
western Washii^gton (CowUtz; Okanogan County) and British 
Columbia (including islands) to southern Alaska (Wrangel; Skagway ; 
Kupreanof, Kuiu, Prince of Wales, Etolin, Wrangell, and Admiralty 



<» Ten Bpedmens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD6 OF KOBTH AND MIDDLB AMEBIOA. 286 

islands; Chilkat River; Chickamin River); occasional southward in 
winter as far as Monterey^ California. 

Picus ruber notkeruia Sucxow, Anfangqgr. Natuig. Th., ii» i, 1800, 535 (Nootka 
Sound, Brit. Columbia; baaed on ''Cook's last voy., ii, 297."). 

Sphifrapieui ruber natkemU Richmond, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xv, April 25, 
1902, 89 (crit. nomencl.).— American OBNirHOLOoiSTs' Union CoMMirrBB, 
Aiik, xiz, 1902, 319; Check List, 3d ed., 1910, 191.— Bowles, Auk, xxiii, 
1906, 144 (Puyallup Valley, Washington, resident).— Edson, Auk, xxv, 1908, 
434 (Bellingham Bay, Washington, resident).— Esrmodb, Prov. Mus. Brit. 
Col., 1909, 49 (Vancouver I.; Chilliwack). 

8pkyrapicu8 ruber nootkemii Bowles, Condor, x, 1908, 130 (Puyallup Valley, 
Washington). 

Picus JlaviventriB Vibuxot, Ois. Am. Sept., ii, 1807, 67 (Nootka Sound); Nouv. 
Diet. d'Hist. Nat., xzvi, 1818, 95 (Nootka Sound).— Stephens, Shaw's Gen. 
ZooL, ix, 1815, 161. 

PlicusjflaviverUris Bonnatbrre and Vieillot, Enc. M^th., iii, 1823, 1320. 

Spkyrapicua ruber flaviverUris Osqood, North Am. Fauna, no. 21, Sept., 1901, 
45 (Queen Charlotte islands, Vancouvw I., etc.; crit nomend.). — ^Batm- 
BUN, Auk, xix, 1902, 135 (Seattle, Washington, breeding). 

Picus ruber (not of Gmelin) Audubon, Om. Biog., v, 1839, 179, part, pi. 416, 
figs. 9, 10; Synopsis, 1839, 181, part; Birds Am., oct. ed., iv, 1842, 261 part, 
pi. 266.— Malherbe, Mon. Picid., i, 1861, 132, part; iii, 1861, pi. 31, figs. 
1, 2.— Sundeyall, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 32, part (Nootka Soimd). 

Melanerpes ruber Bonaparte, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 39, part. 

[Melanerpes] ruber Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 115, part. 

[PUumnus] ruber Bonaparte, Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 123 (Consp. Volucr. Zy- 
god., 1854, 8), part. 

Sphyrapieus ruber Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, pp. xxviii, 104, 
part; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 87, part.— CouBS, Check List, 1873, no. 
803, part.— American Ornitholoouts' Union, Check List, 1886 (and 2d ed., 
1895), no. 403, part.— Anthony, Auk, iii, 1886, 165 (Washington Co., Oregon, 
resident).- Nelson, Rep. Nat. Hist. Coll., Alaska, 1887, 160(Chilcat R.).— 
Bendire, Auk, V, 1888, 229, part (geog. range; habits, etc.); Life Hist. 
N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 92, part.- Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., iii, 1890; 
139 (coast Brit. Columbia).— Fannin, Check List Birds Brit. Col., 1891, 28 
(e. and w. side of Cascade range).— Dawson, Auk, xiv, 1897, 175 (Okanogan 
Co., Washington, 1 spec.).— Bishop, North Am. Fauna, no. 19, 1900, 78 
(Skagway, Alaska). 

[Sphyrapieus] ruber Coubs, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 195, part. 

Sphyrapieus] ruber Ridgwat, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 289, part. 

Sphyropieus ruber Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1859, 236 (Vancouver I.). — 
Brown, Ibis, 1868, 419 (Vancouver I.).— Cooper, Om. Cal., 1870, 392, 
part.— Habtlaub, Joum. fiir Om., 1883, 275 (Chilkat R., Alaska).- Har- 
OUT, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 194, part C'Behzing Straits"; Ft. 
Rupert and Vancouver I., Brit. Columbia). 

[Sphyropieus] rub^ Sharpe, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 212, part. 

Sphyropieus varius var. ruber RmowAY, Am. Joum. Sci., iv, Dec., 1872, 456, 
footnote, part; v, Jan., 1873, 40, footnote, part.— Baixd, Brbwbr, and 
RmowAT, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 544, part. 

Sphyrapieus varius ruber Ridoway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 189, part; 
Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 3696, part.— Coubs, Chedc List, 2d ed., 1882, 
no. 448.— Grinnell (J.), Condor, iii, 1901» 12 (crit.; range); Pacific Coast 
Avifauna, no. 3, 1902, 38 (range).— Anderson and Grinnbll, Proc. Ac. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



286 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Nat. Sci. Fhila., 1903, 8 (Siskiyou Mte., n. Califomia; crit.).— Swabth, 
Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., vii, 1911, 69 (Eupreanof, Kuiu, Prince of Wales, 
Etolin, and Wrangell islands and Chickamin R., Alaska; crit.); x, 1912, 34 
(descr. nest; crit. nomencl.)*^ 

Spkyropicut varius ruber Coues, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 448, par* 

8[pkyropicus] v[ariu8] ruber Coueb, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 486, part. 

[Sphgrapku* writw] c. ruJber Coues, Birds Northwest, 1874, 286, part (synonymy). 

Spkyrapieus ruber ruber Grinnell (J.), Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., v, 1909, 218 
(Admiralty Is., Alaska; crit.)* 

SPHYRAPICUS THTROmEUS (Casdn). 

WZLLIAK80V*8 WOODPSOl 



AdvU nude. — Greater part of head and neck, back, scapulars, 
chest, and sides of breast uniform glossy greenish blue-black; a white 
postocular or supra-auricular streak, extending to sides of nape, 
where considerably expanded; a white suborbital and subauricular 
stripe originating on and involving nasal tufts and extending to 
beneath end of auricular region; a median stripe of bright poppy 
red on lower chin and upper throat; abdomen and median portion 
of breast bright sulphur or canary yellow (sometimes nearly lemon 
yellow) ; sides, flanks, and under tail-coverts white, broadly striped 
and spotted with black, the markings more or less V-shaped on flanks 
and under tail-coverts; lower rump and upper tail-coverts white, 
the lateral portions of the former and outer webs of latter largely 
black; tail black; wings black, the middle coverts and outer webs 
of greater coverts (except inner or proximal ones) white, forming a 
very conspicuous large longitudinal patch on wing, the second, or 
third, to fifth primaries (counting from outermost) usually with a 
greater or less number of small white spots on outer web; bill black 
in summer, purplish slaty brown in winter; iris deep reddish brown; 
legs and feet grajrish oUve in life; length (skins), 190-220 (208); 
wing, 131.5-139 (136.8); tail, 70.5-88.5 (83.2); cuhnen, 23-28 (25.6); 
tarsus, 20.5-22.5 (21.5); outer anterior toe, 14-15 (14.5).^ 

Young male. — Similar in pattern of coloration to the adult male, 
but the black everywhere much duller (that on back often broken 
by more or less concealed white spotting or streaking), throat-stripe 
white instead of red, yellow of abdomen and breast paler, and sides 
and flanks barred, rather than striped or spotted, with dusky. 

AduU female. — Very different from either adult or yoimg male. 
Pileum and hindneck deep drab, the occiput and nape more 'or less 
streaked (sometimes also narrowly barred) with black; back and 
scapulars broadly barred with black and pale drab or, (in worn 

<^ Mr. Swarth seems to have made out a good case in favor of restriction of the name 
ruber to the northern form instead of the southern one. Unfortunately it is now 
too late for me to reopen the question. 

& Twenty specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 



287 



summer plimiage) dull brownish white, the paler bars usually nar- 
rower than the black ones; wings (including coverts) black, barred, 
more or less broadly, with pale drab or dull brownish white; rump 
and upper tail-coverts white, spotted or barred with black on lateral 
portions; tail black, the middle rectrices crossed with oblique bars 
of white (at least on inner web), the lateral rectrices barred with 
white on distal portion; sides of head drab, paler (sometimes whitish) 
on orbital region, the malar region usually streaked or flecked with 
black; chin and throat plain light drab (nearly ^cru-drab), rarely 
with a median streak of red; chest usually barred with black and 
pale buflPy brown or pale 6cru-drab, with a tendency to more or less 
of a black patch through coalescence of the black bars on central 
portion, frequently with a large and well-defined patch of imbroken 
glossy greenish black, sometimes covering whole throat and fore- 
neck; sides and flanks regularly barred with black and pale ^ru- 
drab or brownish bu£Py; abdomen and median portion of breast 
immaculate yellow (primrose to nearly lemon yellow); under tail- 
coverts white, with V- or U-shaped bars of black; bill, etc., as in 
adult male; length (skins), 198-222 (209); wing, 132.6-143 (136.2); 
tail, 78-89 (84.1); cuhnen, 21.5-28.5 (24.2); tarsus, 20-22.5 (21); 
outer anterior toe, 14-16 (14.8).* 

Young ferruile.—Sunjlej^ to the adult female, but bars less sharply 
defined, qhest never( ?) with a black patch, yellow of abdominal area 
paler and duller (often dull yellowish white), and texture of plumage 
different. 

Boreal Mountain forests of western North America; north to 
southern British Columbia (near Fairview, Osoyos District; Simil- 
kameen); breeding southward to southern California (San Jacinto 
Mountams, Mount Whitney, etc.), southern Arizona (Santa Catalina 
Mountains) and central New Mexico (Zufii Mountains; Tres Piedras; 
Willis; Pecos Baldy; San Migu61 County), east to Colorado and 
Wyoming (Springhill; Laramie Peak); wintering in southern Calir 
fomia to western Texas (Concho, Tom Green, and Uvalde coimties) 

a Seventeen specimens. 



Lootftty. 


Wing. 


Tafl. 


Bx- 

IK)eed 
culmen. 


Tanas. 


Outer 
ante- 
rior toe. 


MALES. 


13&7 
137.9 

13&9 
137.1 


82.7 
83.7 

83.7 
84.8 


244 
20.8 

22.0 
25.7 


21 
22 

2ao 

21.1 


14.3 


Ten adim znalM from Cidilomim (0), NevMla (1), and Ongon (3). 

mCALES. 


14.7 
14.7 


Sev€0 adult famalM from Caliioniia (4), Nevada (2), and 
Oragoii(l) 


14.0 







Digitized by VjOOQIC 



288 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

and southward through Chihu&hua (Golonia Garcia; Rancheria de 
lo6 Apaches; PifLos Altos; Jestis Maria; Casa Colorado; ReMgio) and 
Sonora (Rio Bavispe) to Jalisco (Sierra de Bolafios; Tinguindi near 
Guadalajara) and northern Durango (Las Bocas). 

PieuB thyrcndeuM Cassox, Froc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Fhila., v, Dec., 1851, d49 (Oaliioniia; 
coll. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila.). — ^Hsbbmann, Joum. Ac. Nat. Sd. Phila., 2d aer., 
ii, 1853, 270; Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., x, pt. iv, 1859, 58 C'southem mines 
of Califomia").— SuNDEVALL, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 32.— Xjbat, List Birds 
Brit. Mus., Capit. and Picid., 1868, 52. 

[Piau] thyroideus Gray, Hand-liet, ii, 1870, 186, no. 8618. 

[Ptiumnui] thjfraidau Ek>NAPABnB, Ateoeo Italiano, ii, 1854, 128 (Consp. Voluc. 
Zygod., 1854, 8). 

C[olaptes] UnyreoideiM Reiohxnbagh, Handb. Scanaores, Picinse, 1854, 416. 

Mekmerpea thyroideus CAasm, Illustr. Birds Calif. Tex., etc., 1856, 201, pi. 32.— 
ScLATEE, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1858, 2. 

8phyrapieu8 thyroideus Baibd, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, pp. xxviii, 
106* Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 88.— Malhbebe, Mon. Picid., i, 1861, 162; 
iii, 1861, pi. 37, fig. 1.— CAsem, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, 204.— 
CouBS, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, 54 (Ft. Whipple; crit.); Check List, 

1873, no. 304; 2d ed., 1882, no. 449; Birds Northwest, 1874, 288.— Eluot, 
New and Unfig. N. Am. Birds, i, 1869, pi. 25.— Henshaw, Am. Nat., viii, 

1874, 242 (proves identity of S. thyroideus and '*S. wilUamsonU*'); Rep. Om. 
Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 1874, 90 (mts. near Ft. Garland, Colorado; crit.); 
1876, 259 (Mt. Whitney, Califomia); ZooL Exp. W\ 100th Merid., 1875, 394 
(Rio Branco and mts. near Ft. Garland, Colorado; Gila R., New Mexico; 
Mt. Graham, Arizona); Ann. Lye. N. Y., xi, 1874, 9 (Utah, in pine zone). — 
Grinnell (G. B.) in Ludlow's Rep. Recon., 1876, 81 (Tower Creek, 
Yellowstone Park).— RmowAT, Gm. 40th Parallel, 1877, 551 (Sierra Nevada, 
near Carson City; Parley's Park, Utah); Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 
189; Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 370; Auk, iv, 1887, 75 (Blue Canyon, 
Califomia; descr. adult male with red crown). — Scorr, Bull. Nutt. Om. 
Club, iv, 1879, 95 (Twin Lakes, Colorado, breeding); Auk, iii, 1886, 427 
(Santa CataUna Mts., Arizona). — Drew, Auk, ii, 1885, 17 (Ck)lorado, breeding 
at 5,000-10,000 ft.).— American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886 
(and 2d ed., 1895), no. 404; 3d ed., 1910, 191.— Lloyd, Auk, iv, 1887, 191 (North 
Concho and Nueces Canyon, Uvalde Co., w. Texas, in winter). — Cooke, 
Bird Migr. Miss. Val., 1888, 130 (Concho, Tom Green and Uvalde counties, 
w. Texas); Bull. Col. Agric. Coll., no. 37, 1897, 84 (Colorado, breeding ftt 
5,000-10,000 ft.).— Bendirb, Auk, v, 1888, 235 (range; breeding habits; 
descr. nest and eggs); Life Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 97.— Merrill (J. C), 
Auk, V, 1888, 255 (Ft. Elamath, e. Oregon, resident).- Merriam, North 
Am. Fauna, no. 3, 1890, 92 (San Francisco Mt., Arizona).— Mearns, Auk, 
vii, 1890, 252 (mts. of Arizona; habits, plumages, etc.).— Allen, Bull. Am. 
Mus. N. H., V, 1893, 35 (Bavispee R., n. e. Sonoia, Dec.; Rancheria de los 
Apaches, n. w. Chihuahua, Jan.; crit.).— Mitchell, Auk, xv, 1898, 308 (San 
Ifiguel Co., New Mexico, breeding at 7,000-11,000 ft.).— Grinnell (J.), Pub. 
2, Pasadena Ac. Sci., 1898, 25 (Los Angeles Co., California, winter, in pine 
belt).— Anderson and Grinnell, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sd. Phila., 1903, 8 (Siski- 
you Mts., n. Califomia; crit.).— Miller (W. De W.), Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., 
xxii, 1906, 166 (Los Bocas, n. w. Durango, Feb.).— Brooks, Auk, xxvi, 1909, 
61 (near Fairview, Osoyos District, Brit. Columbia, 1 spec.). — Kermode, 
Provincial Mus. Brit. Col., 1909, 50 (Similkameen, Brit. Columbia).-— Visher, 
Auk, xxvii, 1910, 282 (Santa Catalina Mts., Ariacnia, breeding in oak belt). — 
Beal, Bull. 37, U. S. Biol. Surv., 1911, 32 (food).— Lacbt, Auk, xxviii, 1911, 
209 (Kerrville, Texas, Oct. 24, 1898). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD8 07 NORTH AND MIDDLE AMEEIOA. 289 

[Sphyrapicua] thyroidetu Coxrxs, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 195. 

JS[phyrapieus] thyroideus GouBS, Ibis, 1865, 102 (Ft. Whipple, Arizona).— Rido- 
WAT, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 289. 

ISpkyropieus thyroideuB Cooper, Om. Calif. 1870, 394.— Merriam, Sixth An. Rep. 
U. 8. Geol. Surv. Terr., 1873, 694 (Madison R., Montana).— Baird, Brewer, 
and RiDOWAT, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 547, pi. 56, ^. 6.— Beldino, 
Fsoc. U. S. Nat. Mns., i, 1878, 429 (Placer and Calaveras counties, Cali- 
fornia). — Scott, Auk, ii, 1885, 174 (Santa Catalina Mts., Arizona).— HARorir, 
Oat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 196 (Pifios Altos, Jesus Maria, Casa Colorado, 
and Refugio, Chihuahua, etc.), 569 (Sierra Bolafios, Jalisco). — Salyin and 
GoDHAN, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 430 (Siena de Bolafios and Tin- 
guindi, near Guadalajara, Jalisco; etc.). 

S[jphyropicvui\ thjfroideu$ Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 486. 

ISphyropieus] thywideua Sharpe, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 212. 

CampoboruB thyroideus Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 80. 

C[ladoacoput] thyroideus Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 84. 

[Cladosoopus] thyroideus Heine and Reichbnow, Nom. Mus. Hein. Om., 1890, 
215 (Forest Hill, California). 

Pieus natalxK Malherbb, Joum. ftbr Om., 1854, 171 (Mexico; Darmstadt Mus.). 

C[eniurus\ nataliae Reichenbach, Handb. Scansores, Picinse, 1854, 411. 

Pieus wUliamsonii Newberry, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., vi, 1867, 89 (nomen 
nudum), pi. 34, upper fig. (Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon; coll. U. S. Nat. 
Mus.;>«adult male with red color of throat destroyed by alcohol). 

Pieus wiiHoTnsoni Sundevall, Consp. A v. Picin., 1866, 32. 

Spkyrapicus wiUiamsonU Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, pp. xxviii, 
105 (Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon; Laramie Peak, Wyoming); ed. 1860 
(Birds N. Am.), atlas, pi. 34, fig. 1; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 89.— ^ues. 
Check Listy 1873, no. 305. 

Sphyrapicus wiUiamsoni Malherbb, Mon. Picid., i, 1861, 163; iii, 1861, pi. 36, 
fig. 4.— Coues, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, 54 (Ft. Whipple, Arizona, 
resident).— Allen, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., iii, 1872, 158 (South Park, Colo- 
rado). 

JSlphyrapicus] vnUioTnsoni Coues, Ibis, 1865, 162, in text (Ft. Whipple). 

Sphyropiau wiUiamsonii Cooper, Om. Calif., 1870, 393.— Merriam, Sixth An. 
Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. Teir., 1873, 694 (headwaters Madison R., Wyoming). 

Sphyropicus wHlioTnsoni Baird, Brewer, and Ridowat, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 
1874, 545, pi. 51, fig. 5. 

ClUubsoopus] wiHioTnsoni Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 82. 

Mekmerpes vnlliamsoni Gray, List Birds Brit. Mus., Capit. and Picidse, 1868, 116. 

[MeUmarpes] vnlliamsoni Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 201, no. 8820. 

Mekmerpes ruJbrigtUaris Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1858, 2, pi. 131 (Trinity 
Valley, n. California; coll. P. L. Sclater ;«>adult male); Ann. and Mag. N. H., 
3d ser., i, 1858, 127. 

Genus PICOIDES Lac^p^de. 

Pieoides LAoiriDE, Tableau Ois., 1799, 9. (Type, as designated by Gray, 1840, 

Pieus tridactylus Linnseus.) 
Tridacfylia Stephens, in Shaw's Gen. Zool., ix, 1815, 218. (Tyi)e, T. hirsuta 

Stephens»PiaM tridactylus Liniueus.) 
Aptemus Swainson, Fauna Bor.-Am., ii, 1831, 302. (Type, Pieus (Aptemus) 

arcticus Swainson.) 
Pipodes GiiOOER, Handb. Naturg., 1842, 198. (Type, Pieus iridactyliu Linnnus.) 
Dryoeolaptes Gistel, Naturg. des Thierieichs fOr hOhere Schulen, 1848, 86. 

(Type, Pieus tridactylus Linnsus.) 

a622'— BulL BO, pt 6—14 ^19 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



290 BULLETIN 60, XJNITBD STATES KATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Medium-sized Picin» (wing 109-134 mm.), with only one hind toe 
(the outer, the hallux being absent) and excessively depressed bill, 
the coloration much as m species of Dryobates, but adult male with 
a yellow crown-patch instead of red occipital or nuchal area. 

Bill about as long as head, extr^nely depressed, its width at ante- 
rior end of nostrils much greater than its depth at same point, regu- 
larly wedge-shaped in vertical profile, the tip distinctly though nar- 
rowly chisel-shaped; culmen straight, sharply ridged; gonys nearly 
to quite two and a half times as long as mandibular rami, straight, 
distinctly ridged; supranasal ridge and prenasal groove very distinct, 
about twice as far removed from culmen as from tomium, running 
out to the latter at a point a little posterior to the middle. Nostril 
longitudinally, narrowly cxmeate (pointed anteriorly), much overhung 
by the projecting edge of the supranasal ridge, completely covered by 
the large antrorse prefrontal tuft of haii^like feathers. Feathers of 
malar apex and chin antrorse and hair-like, the latter softer and cov- 
ering base of gonys. Orbital region entirely feathered above and 
behind eye, partly naked in front and below. Wing moderate, the 
longest primaries exceeding secondaries by a little more than one- 
third the length of wing; fifth, sixth, and seventh, or sixth, seventh, 
and eighth, primaries longest, the ninth equal to third or intermediate 
between third and fourth, the tenth (outermost) about one-third as 
long as ninth. Tail two-thirds as long as wing or slightly less, the 
middle rectrices slightly decurved and gradually contracted termi- 
nally. Tarsus decidedly longer than hind toe with claw, the latter 
slightly but decidedly longer than outer front toe with claw, the inner 
front toe nearly as long as the outer. 

Coloration. — ^Above black, the primaries spotted with white, the 
back sometimes barred or striped with white; sides of head black, 
with a white stripe from lores beneath orbital and auricular r^ons 
(sometimes with a white supra-auricular stripe also); under parts 
white, barred or spotted latently with black; lateral rectrices white, 
with or without black spots or bars; adult males with a yellow patch 
on crown. 

Range. — Subarctic and cold-temperate portions of northern hemi- 
sphere, south, in high mountains, to New Mexico, Arizona, and 
C^iina. (About eight species and subspeciee.) 

KST TO THS 8PBGIB8 AND SUBaFSGIBS OF KOOmBS. 

a. Back barred or otherwiae marked with white. {Picoidet arMrtoantu.) 
h. Rump and upper tail-coverts without white spots or bars, or else with few and 
small ones; back mostly black, the median portion barred or spotted with 
white; sides and flanks more heavily barred with black; forehead with black 
prevailing; white suprarfturicular stripe usually obsolete. (Canadian and Hud- 
Bonian zones, from Ungava, Labrador, Newfoimdland, Mkine, northern New 
York, etc., to Montana, Alberta, and southern Mackenzie.) 

Piooidei amedoanus amerioanui (p. 291). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD8 OF NOBTH AND MIDDLE AMEBIGA. 291 

66. Rump (sometimes upper tail-coverts also) barred or spotted with white; back 
mostly white, this with usually a longitudinal instead of transverse disposi- 
tion; sides and flanks less heavily barred; forehead with whitish prevailing, 
or at least conspicuously spotted with white; white supra^uricular streak 
distinct, usually conspicuous, 
c. Smaller (wing averaging 116.8 in adult male, 113 in adult female); white of 
back more or less broken by black ban; white spots on inner web of inner- 
most secondaries smaller. (Hudsonian sone of Alaska and Mackenzie and 
southward over Hudsonian hig^ilands of British Columbia and western 

Alberta.) Piooides amerioanus fttsdatas (p. 295). 

cc. Larger (wing averaging 123.3 in adult male, 121.5 in adult female); white of 
back continuous, not broken ((ff very rarely and to slight extent) by black 
bars; white spots on inner web of innermost secondaries larger. (High 
coniferous forests of Rocky Mountains, from southern Idaho and Montana 

to New Mexico and Arizona.) Picoides amezioanus dorsaUs (p. 297). 

aa. Back wholly black. (Northern New England, northern New York, northern 
Michigan, and northern Minnesota to southern Ungava, central Keewatin, south- 
em Mackenzie, central Yukon, and southern Alaska, west, through higher 
mountains of western South Dakota, Wyoming, Idaho, and Nevada, to the 
Siena Nevada and Cascade ranges.) Piooides arctlciis (p. 298). 

PICOIDES AMERICAlfUS AMERICAlfUS Brehm. 

THBXS-TOID WOODPXOKXB. 

AduU male. — Crown yellow (light wax yellow or dull light gamboge 
to saffron); forehead black, more or less spotted with dull white, 
especially on posterior portion (next to yellow of crown); rest of 
pileum, together with loral, orbital, and auricular regions and hind- 
neck, imiform glossy blue-black, sometimes with an indication of a 
narrow .postocular or supra-auricular streak of white, often with 
whitish spots or streaks on occiput (next to yellow of crown); rest 
of upper parts dull black or sooty black, the lower hindneck with 
more or less of white (sometimes formiog a rather distinct but broken 
collar), back and upper rump barred or transversely spotted, along 
median portion, with white, the outer webs of remiges also spotted 
with white, except proximal secondaries, the innermost of which 
have white spots along edge of inner web; two lateral normal rec- 
trices, on each side, with distal half or more white, the third exten- 
sively white terminally, this white more or less stained with brownish, 
especially on distal portion; nasal tufts light grayish brown, finely 
streaked with black, this sometimes predominating on lower or ter- 
minal portion; a more or less distinct rictal streak or narrow stripe 
of white, passing beneath orbital and auricular regions; beneath this 
a more or less broad malar stripe of glossy black or blue-black, usually 
more or less broken by white tips to the feathers; under parts white, 
the sides and flanks broadly barred with black, the anterior portion 
of sides (sides of breast) with bars more irregular, sometimes broken 
into spots and streaks; bill grayish horn color, the mandible paler 
(pale yellowish gray); feet dark grayish horn color (in dried skios); 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



292 



BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



length (skins), 190-220 (202); wing, 110-118.5 (116); tail, 68.5-82.5 
(74.5); culmen, 24-28 (26.7); tarsus, 20-21.5 (20.6); outer anterior 
toe, 9.5-12 (10.5).* 

AduU female. — Similar to the adult male but without any yellow 
on head, the entire pileum glossy blue-black, usually more or less 
streaked or spotted with grayish white on forehead and crown, but 
sometimes immaculate; length (skins), 181-199 (190); wing, 109-116 
(111.9); tail, 69.5-77 (72.9); cuhnen, 22.5-26.5 (24.4); tarsus, 19-20 
(19.7); outer anterior toe, 9.5-10.5 (10).* 

Canadian Zone and part of Hudsonian Zone of North America, 
chiefly east of Rocky Mountains; north to Labrador (Okak; Lance 
au Loup; Black Bay; Maklovik River; Hopedale), northern Ungava 
(Fort Chimo; Forks; Davis Lilet), Keewatin (Severn River; Fort 
Churchill), and southern Mackenzie (Fort Simpson; Fort Franklin; 
Fort Anderson; Great Bear Lake); west to Alberta (Smoky Trail; 
15 miles west and 15 miles south of Henry House), British Columbia 
(Ashmola Rivpr, September 30), and eastern Idaho (west slope Bitter- 
root Mountains, September ;« breeding southward to Anticosti Island, 

a Twenty-one specimens, 
fr Eighteen specipiens. 



Locality. 



wing. 



TaJL 



Ex- 
posed 
0Qlm6n. 



Tarsus. 



Oater 
ante- 
rior toe. 



Ten adult males from Maine (6), New Bronswlok (1), and 
New York (3) 

Two adult males from Newftnmdland 

mne adult males from Quebec (1), Labrador (0), and Un- 
gava (2) 

Ten adult males (P. a. /oaddtiM) from Mackenxie 

Twenty adult males (P. a. fudatiu) from Alaska (18) and 
Yukon Territory (2) 

Ten adult males (P. a. dortaUa) from Rocky Mountains of 
United States 

Ten adult females from New York (1), Maine (6), and New 
Brunswick (4) 

Eight adult famales from Labrador (4) and Ungava (4) 

Ten adult famales (P. a. /baetodw) from Mackenste (0) and 
Athabasca (1) 

Thirteen adult females (P. a. fudatw) from Alaska 

Ten adult famales (P. a. dormUt) from Rocky Mountains of 
United States 



lias 

llfl.8 



110 
Ufl.8 



no. 8 

123.8 



ULO 
112:1 



113.1 
118 



12L6 



73.1 
73.8 



7&1 
74.2 



73.4 
7&2 



72.4 
73.6 

72.8 
73.8 

7&1 



26.0 
26.8 



26.4 
27 



27.1 
28.0 



24.4 
24.8 



23.0 
241 



26.6 



2a7 
2a8 



2a4 
10.0 



2a8 

2ao 



10.7 
1«l7 



10 
10.6 



2a6 



lao 
Its 



0.2 

ia4 



las 
ia8 



0.0 
10 

A7 

lai 
lao 



The occurrence in £ar western localities, well within the range of P. a. JtucuUuMf 
of perfectly typical examples of P. a. americanua, is very puzzling. Except those 
found in southern Mackenzie, however, such specimens are all fiJl or winter birds, 
and may be migrants. The specimen from the Bitterroot Mountains is even an 
extreme example of P. a. ammamui. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIRDS OF NOBTH AND MIDDLE AMEBIOA. 293 

northern New York (Herkimer, Lewis, and Hamilton counties), 
northern Ontario, etc.; sporadically or irregularly southward in 
winter to Massachusetts, southern Ontario, northern Michigan, 
northern Wisconsia, northern Minnesota, etc. 

lPicu$] tridactylus (not ol linncBUs) Fobstbb, Philos. Trans., Ixii, 1772, 388 
(Severn R., Keewatin). 

Picas tridaetylus Bonapastb, Ann. Lye. N. Y., ii, pi. i, 1826, 46, 437 (descr. 
plumages); Synop. Birds U. S., 1828, 46.~Swain80n, Fauna Bor.-Am., ii, 
1831, pi. 56 (sources of Athabasca R.).— Nuttall, Man. Om. TJ. S. and Can., 
Land Birds, 1832, 676.— Audubon, Om. Biog., ii, 1834, 197, pi. 132; v, 1839, 
538. 

Pieu$ (Aptemut) tridaetylus Swainson, Fauna Bor.-Am., ii, 1831, 311 (sources 
of Athabasca R.).~-NuTrALL, Man. Om. TJ. S. and Can., Water Birds, 1834, 
602. 

(7)Pieus unduiatus Vibillot, Ois. Am. Sept., ii, 1807, 69 (based on Picas varius 
oajfonensis Brisson, Om., iv, 54; Pic tacheii de Cayenne Daubenton, PI. Enl., 
pi. 553). — BoNNATBBBE and Vibillot, Enc. M^th., iii, 1823, 1319. 

Tridactylia undalaia Stephbns, Shaw's Gen. ZooL, ix, 1815, 220. 

llridactylia] undukUa Cabanis and Hbinb, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 28 (n. 
North America; Labrador). 

(?)Pieas ttndosus Guyibb, R^e Anim., 2d ed., i, 1829, 451 (same basis as P. 
undalatus Vieillot). 

{7)Picus uTidatus Tbmmincx, Tabl. M^th., 1835-39, 63 (same basis as P. undti- 
lotus Vieillot). 

Picoides variegatus Valbnoibnnbs, Diet. Sci. Nat., xl, 1826, 191, part. 

Picas hirsutas Vibillot, Nouv. Diet. d*Hist. Nat., zxvi, 1818, 103, part (Hudson 
Bay; cites Ois. Am. Sept.).^WAOLBB, Syst. Av., 1827, Picus, sp. 132.— 
Audubon, Om. Biog., v, 1839, 184; Synopsis, 1839, 183; Birds Am., oct. ed., 
iv, 1842, 268, pi. 269.— Nuttall, Man. Om. U. S. and Can., Land Birds, ed. 2, 
1840, 622. 

Aptemus hvrsutus Bonapabtb, Oeog. and Comp. List, 1838, 39. 

[Aptemiui] hirsutus Bonapabtb, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 139; Ateneo Italiano, ii, 
1854, 123 (Consp. Volucr. Zygod., 1854, 8). 

Alptemus] hirsutas Rbiohbnbaoh, Handb. Scansores, Piciiue, 1854, 361, pi. 630, 
figs. 4192, 4193. 

P[icoides] kirsutus Gbat, Gen. Birds, ii, 1845, 434. 
« Picoides hirsutas Malhbbbb, M^. Acad. Metz, xxx, 1849, 329. — Baibd, Rep. 
Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 98; Cat. N .Am. Birds, 1859, no. 83.— 
(?)Blaki8ton, Ibis, 1863, 52 (n. w. Canada) .^Matnabd, Birds e. N. Am., 
1879, 247. 

Picas kirsittu Audubon, Om. Biog., v, 1839, pi. 417, figs. 3, 4. 

Picoides americanus Bbbhm, Handb. V(Sgel Deutschl., 1831, 195 (''Amerika'').— 
Malhbbbb, Mon. Picid., i, 1861, 176; iii, 1861, pi. 39, figs. 1, 2.— Sclatbb, 
Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 335.— Gbat, List Birds Brit. Mus., Picidae, 1868, 
30.— CouBS, Check List, 1873, no. 301; 2d ed., 1882, no. 444.— Baibd, 
Bbbwbb, and Ridowat, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, pi. 50, ^, 2.— Mbb- 
BiAM, Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, iii, 1878, 200 (Lewis Co., New York, breeding; 
descr. nest and eggs); iv, 1879, 6 (Lewis Co., resident).— Bbbwstbb, Proc. 
Best. Soc. N. H., xxii, 1883, 381 (Ellis Bay, Anticosti I., breeding).— 
TuBNBB, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, 1885, 242 (Labrador).— Ambbioan 
Obntthologists' Union, Check List, 1886 (and 2d ed., 1895), no. 401.— 
Allbn, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., i, 1886, 247 (Massachusetts records; accidental 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



294 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

in winter).— Ralph and Baog, Trans. Oneida Hist. Soc., iii, 1886, 123 (Her- 
kimer and Hamilton counties, New York, rare resident).— Chadboukne, 
Auk, iv, 1887, 104 (White Mts., New Hampshire, 3960 ft.).— Thompson, Proc 
U. S. Nat. Mus., xiii, 1890, 650 (n. e. Manitoba).— HARonr, Oat. Birds Brit, 
Mus., xviii, 1890, 279 (Big Moose Lake, Moose R., Hamilton Oo., and Her- 
kimer Oo., New York; etc.).— €ook, Bull. 64, Mich. Agric. Exp. Sta. 
1893, 88 (n. peninsula and Gogebic district, Michigan, visitant).— Bbndirs 
life Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 77.— Morrbll, Auk, xvi, 1899, 251 (Nova 
Scotia, March).— (7)RoBBiN8, Auk, xvii, 1900, 173 (Beverly, Massachu- 
setts, Jan. 21, 1899 «).— Nobton, Proc. Portland Soc. N. H., ii, 1901, 163 
(Northwest R., Labrador; descr. young).— Flbminq, Auk, xviii, 1901, 39 
(Parry Sound and Muskoka, n. Ontario, winter); xix, 1902, 79 (Toronto, 
Ontario, Nov. 16, 1901).— Pbbblb, North Am. Fauna, no. 22, 1902, 112 
(Severn R., Ft. Churchill, etc., Keewatin). — ^Townsbnd and Allbn, Phx:. 
Bost. Soc. N. H., xxxiii, 1907. 377 (Labrador).— Robbbts, in Wilcox's Hist. 
Becker 0>., Minn., 1907, 176 (Lake Itasca, breeding in 1902).— Nash, Vertebr. 
Ontario, 1908, Birds, p. 60 (resident in northern, rare winter visitant in 
southern, Ontario). — (?) Swabth, (Condor, xiii, 1911, 211 (Admiralty Islands, 
s. Alaska, resident). 

[Piocndes] amencanu9 Gbat, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 181, no. 8637. — (3ou£8, Key 
N. Am. Birds, 1872, 194, part.— Shabpb, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 217, part. 

P[icoide9\ americanvs Bbbwstbb, Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, viii, 1883, 122 (unusual 
influx into e. Massachusetts, winter of 1860-61).— Ooues, £ey N. Am. Birds, 
2d ed., 1884, 485, part.— Ridowat, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 287, part. 

Aptemus americanus Swainson, Classif. Birds, ii, 1837, 306. 

Pieui ammamus Sundbvall, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 16. 

Picoida trukuUylui, var. americanus Baibd, Bbbwbb, and Ridgwat, Hist. N. 
Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 532, part. 

Picoides oTnencanus ... a. arMrieanus Coubs, Birds Northwest, 1874, 284. 

Picoides americanus americanus Bangs, Auk, xvii, April, 1900, 132, part (crit.). — 
Akxbican Obnttholooibts' Union, (?heck List, 3d ed., 1910, 194.— 
(?)SwAETH, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., vii, 1911, 69 (Prediwater Bay, Chichi^ 
goff Island, Alaska; crit.).— Saundbbs, Auk, xxviii, 1911, 37 (Bear Oanyon, 
Crallatin Oo., Montana); Ck>ndor, xiv, 1912, 26 (Pipestone Creek, Jefferson 
Co., Montana, Oct. 6, 1909). 

Picoides tridactylus americanus Ridowat, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, March 27, 
1880, 6, 189; Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 368.— Mbbbzam, Bull. NuU. Om. 
Club, vi, 1881, 232 (Adirondack region, New York, resident); Auk, i, 1884, 
295 (Point de Monts, Quebec). 

[Tridactylia] americana Hbinb and Rbiohbnow, Nom. Mus.-Hein. Om., 1890, 
213 (Canada; Labrador). 

Picus arcHcus (not of Swainson) DbKat, Zool. New York, 1844, 190, pi. 17, 
fig. 36. 

[Piandes americanus.] Var. /aseUUus Baibd, in Cooper's Om. Calif., 1870, 385, 
part. 

Picoides americanus faseiatus (not of Chapman, 1902) Pbbblb, North Am. Fauna, 
no. 27, 1908, 382, part (Ft. Anderson, Mackensie; some specimens from Ft. 
Simpson; crit., etc.). — ^American ORNrrnoLooiSTS* Union, Check List, 3d 
ed., 1910, 190, part. 

«The vernacular name "Arctic Three-toed Woodpecker" being coupled with 
the technical name Picoides americanuSf it is uncertain whether this species or P, 
arcticus is meant. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF KOBTH A^n> MIDDLB AMEBIGA. 295 

Pieoides amerioanus hacatm Bangs, Auk, xvii, April, 1900, 136 (Bangor, Maine; 

coll. £. A. and 0. Bangs). 
PicoideM baoatus Hows, Contr. Am. Om., ii, 1902, 15 (Pico Peak, Vermont, 

breeding above 2,500 ft.). 
[PieMes] baaxOus Shaspb, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 217. 
PimideM americanus labradarius Bangs, AiJc, xvii, April, 1900, 138 (Okak, 

Labrador; coll. J. D. Somborger). 
[Picoi€k$] labradorius Sharps, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 217. 

PICOIDES AMBRICANUS PASCIATUS Baird. 
AT.asyATff THBXS-TOID WOODPSOXIB. 

Similar to P. a: americanus, but with much more white on back, 
the white bars much larger and more or less coalesced along median 
line, forming a more or less continuous longitudinal patch; whitish 
spots on forehead much larger, sometimes coalesced into a nearly 
uniform dull white frontal area; upper tail-coverts and lower rump 
barred or spotted with white ;^ black malar stripe narrower and 
usually less distinct, and black bars on sides and flanks narrower; 
averaging slightly larger. 

AduU male.— Length (skins), 188-216 (202); wing, 113-123 (116.8); 
taU, 69-80.6 (74.5); cuhnen, 24-29.6 (27.1); tarsus, 19-21.6 (20); 
outer anterior toe, 9-11.6 (10.5).* 

AduU female.— Length (skins), 181-205 (196); wing, 109-^117 
(113.1); tail, 68-77 (73); cuhnen, 22-26 (23.9); tarsus, 18.6-20.6 
(19.3); outer anterior toe, 9-10.5 (9.9).*^ 

Hudsonian and Canadian zones in Alaska (St. Michaels; Russian 
Mission, lower Yukon; Fort Yukon; Nulato; Kowak River; Una- 
lakleet; mountains near Eagle; Lake Clark; Coal Creek; Glacier 
Moimtain; CharUe Creek; Circle; head of Toklat River; Nushagak; 
niamna; Hope; Tyoonok; Seldovia; Fort Kenai; Homer; Haines; 
ShaktoUk; Chilcoot; Portage Bay; Prince of Wales Island; Hoonah, 
Chichagoff Island; Kadiak), Yukon (Dawson; Macmillan River; 
Forty-mile; Ogilvie Range; Plateau Mountains; Fort ReUance), 
and western Mackenzie (Fort Simpson; FortLiard; Fort Rae; Fort 
Smith; Fort Anderson; Great Bear Lake; Great Slave Lake; Lake 
Hardisty; Slave River), and southward through western and central 
Athabasca (Slave River), Assiniboia (near Grenfell, April 3), and 
Alberta (Jasper House; Grand Cache; Athabasca Landing; Stony 
River; Henry House; Banff, August; Red Deer, December), to 
northern Montana (St. Marys Lake, Jime 4; Columbia Falls, April, 
October; Glacier Lake, Swift Current River, October; Clarkes Fork, 
June 7); west to British Columbia (Satuma Island; Vancouver 

o SometimeB even the wing-coverta and middle rectnces are spotted with white. 

6 Thirty specimenfl. 

<^ Thirty-three epecimenB. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Island; Coast Range; Fort Halkett; Caribou) and Washington 
(Chilowyuck Lake, August). 

Picoides amerieanua (not of Brehm) Dall and Bannistsr, Trans. Chicago Ac. Sci*, 
i, 1869, 274 (Ft. Yukon to St. Michaels, Alaska).-<;ouss, Check List^ 1873, 
no. 301, part; 2d ed., 1882, no. 444, part.— Habtlaub, Joum. f Or Om., 1883, 
275 (Chilcoot and Portage Bay, Alaska).— Bbndibb, Life Hist. N. Am. Birds, 
ii, 1895, 77, part. 

[Picoides] ameriamus Coubs, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 194, part.— Shabpb, Hand- 
list, ii, 1900, 217, part. 

Plicoides] amerioanui Coubs, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 485, part. 

Picoides tridactylus, var. americanus Baibd, Brbwer, and Rn>owAT, Hist. N. Am. 
Birds, ii, 1874, 532, part. 

Picoides tridaetylus americanus Rn>QWAT, Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 368, part. 

Picoides americanus ... a. oTnericanus Coues, Birds Northwest, 1874, 284, part. 

Picoides americanus americanus GRmNEix (J.), Condor, xi, 1909, 205 (Forty-mile, 
Yukon Terr.; crit.); zii, 1910, 42 (Rapids, Yukon B., and Russian Mission, 
lower Yukon, Alaska). 

[Picoides ommotmia.] Var. fasdatus Baibd, in Cooper's Om. Calif., 1870, 385, 
part (type from Ft. Simpson, Mackenzie; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.). 

Picoides ameriamus/aseiatus Amebigan OENrrHOLoaiSTs' Union Commttteb, Auk, 
xviii, July, 1901, 300; Check List, 3d ed., 1910, 190, part.— Chapman, Bull, 
Am. Mus. N. H., xvi, 1902, 240 (Homer, Alaska, Sept.); xx, 1904, 402 
(Seldovia, Eenai Peninsula, Alaska, July). — Osgood, North Am. Faunia, no. 
24, 1904, 70 (Iliamna, Lake Clark, Chalitna R., etc., Alaska Peninsula); no. 
30, 1909, 39 (Circle, Glacier Mt., etc., Alaska), 61 (Ogilvie Range, Yukon 
Terr.), 89 (Plateau Mts., Yukon Terr.). — ^Pbbblb, North Am. Fauna, no. 
27, 1908, 382, part (Ft. Liard, Ft. Rae, and Ft. Simpson, Mackenzie; 
Athabasca Landing, Alberta; crit.). — Kbbmode, Provincial Mus. Victoria, 
1909, 49 (Vancouver I. and Coast Range, Brit. Columbia). 

Aptemus kirsutus (not Pieus kirsutus Vieillot) Finsgh, Abth. Nat. Ver. Bremen, 
iii, 1872, 61 (Alexandrovsk, Alaska; crit.). 

Picas tridactylus (not of Linnsus) Adams, Ibis, 1878, 427 (St. Michaels, Alaska). 

Picoides tridactylus alascensis Nelson, Auk, i, April, 1884, 165 (Nulato, Alaska; 
coU. U. S. Nat. Mus.). 

Picoides americanus alascensis Ridowat, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, no. 23, Sept. 2, 
1885, 355.— Ambbigan Obnitholooists' Union, Check List, 1886, (and 2d ed., 
1895), no. 401, a.— Tubnbb, Contr. Nat. Hist. Alaska, 1886, 166 (Nulato; Ft. 
Yukon).— Nelson, Rep. Nat. Hist. Coll. Alaska, 1887, 157 (Ft. Liard; Ft. 
Simpson; Anderson R.; Alaska in general; Eadiak). — ^Macfablanb, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., xiv, 1891, 438 (Ft. Anderson, Mackenzie, breeding).— 
Bendibe, Life Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 80. — Gbinnell (J.), Pacific Coast 
Avi&una, no. 1, 1900, 40 (Eowak R., n. w. Alaska, resident).— Bishop, North 
Am. Fauna, no. 19, 1900, 78 (Haines, Glacier, Yukon Valley, etc.). — Bbooks, 
Auk, xvii, 1900, 106 (Cascade Mts., s. to Mt. Baker). 

P[icoides] americaniu alascensis Ridqwat, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 287. 

[Picoides americanus.] Subsp. a. Picoides alascensis Haboitt, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 
xviii, 1890, 280 (part only?; Unalakleet, Nulato, and Shaktolik, Alaska; 
Ft. Reliance, Yukon Terr.; Ft. Halkett, Brit. Columbia; Ft. Simpson, Great 
Bear Lake, and Mackenzie R., Mackenzie). 

Picoides americanus dorsalis (not Picoides donalis Baird) Tubneb, Contr. Nat. 
Hist. Alaska, 1886, 166 (St. Michaels; Ft. Yukon; Nushagak). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD6 0^ yiOWR AND MIDDLE AMSBtCA. 29? 

{7)Pia)ides amenamutfufnipeetui Gsinnbll (J.)> Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., v, no. 2, 
Feb. 18, 1909, 217 (Hoonah, Ghichagoff I., Alaska; coll. Mub. Vertebr. Zool. 
Univ. Calif.). 

{^)Piooide» americanus dorsalis (not Pieoides donalis Baird?) Nblsok, Rep. Nat. 
Hist. Coll. Alaska, 1887, 160 (Ft. Eenai; Eodiak).— Mbrriam, North Am. 
Fauna, no. 5, 1891, 97 (Salmon R. Mts., Idaho).— Fannin, Check List Birds 
Brit. Col., 1891, 28 (mts. e. of Cascade Range, n. to CasBiar).~SjERMODE, 
Ftov. Mus. Victoria, 1909, 49 (e. of Cascade Range, Brit. Columbia). 

PICOIDES AMSRICANUS DORSAUS (Baird). 

JLLPVn THSIX-TOID WOODPSOl 



Similar to white-backed examples of P. a. fasdatuSf but larger; 
white markings on back usually all longitudinal (very rarely with 
any transverse bars of black), white supra-auricular streak usually 
broader, forehead usually with more black and less whitish spotting, 
white spots or bars on inner web of innermost secondaries larger, 
and sides and flanks usually less heavily barred with black. 

AduU mafe.— Length (skins), 190-210 (201); wing, 120.5-128 
(123.3); tail, 71-77.5 (76.2); cuhnen, 20-30.5 (28.9); tarsus, 20-22.6 
(20.9); outer anterior toe, 10-12 (10.8) .*» 

AduU female.— hength (skins), 191-212 (198); wing, 118-129 
(121.6); taU, 70-81.5 (76.1); cuhnen, 26^28 (26.5); tarsus, 19.5-21.5 
(20.6); outer anterior toe, 10-11.5 (10.6).* 

Boreal forests of Rocky Mountain district, from northern Montana 
(Paola; east side Bitterroot Mountains; Gallatin Basin; Belt Moun- 
tains) and Wyoming (Lake Fork; Lower Gteyser Basin; Laramie 
Peak; Fort Bridger), southward through higher moimtains of Colorado 
to New Mexico (Pecos Baldy; Upper Pecos River; Zufii Mountains; 
Jamez Mountains; Manzano Mountains; Santa Fe Mountains; Twin- 
ing; Copperton; La Jara Lake; Cantonment Burgwyn; Rio Grande) 
and Arizona (San Francisco Mountain; White Moimtains; Bakers 
Butte; Willow Springs; Kaibab Plateau). 

Pieoides dor$alis Baibd, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 100 (Laramie Peak, 
Wyoming; coU. U. S. Nat. Mus.); ed. 1860 (Birdfl N. Am.), 100, atlas, pi. 85, 
fig. 1; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 84.— Malhsrbe, Mon. Picid., i, 1861, 
179.— Oasbin, Ptoc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, 203.— Gray, List Birds Brit. 
Mus., Picidse, 1868, 31.— Merbiam, Sixth An. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr, 
for 1872 (1873), 694 (Lower Geyser Basin, Wyoming).— Habgitt, Cat. Birds 
Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 278 (Ft. Bridger, Wyoming; Santa Fe Mts. and Rio 
Grande, New Mexico); Ibis, 1891, 467, in text (crit.). 

[Pieoides] donalia Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 181, no. 8538.— Sharps, Hand-list, 
ii, 1900, 217. 

T[ridactylia] dorsalia Cabakis and Hbinx, Mub. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 26. 

Picas doTsalis Sundevall, Consp. Av. Picin., 1866, 14. 

[Pieoides americanus.] Var. dorsalis Baird, in Cooper's Om. Calif., 1870, 386, 387 
(crit.).— CouBS, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 194. 

a Ten specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



2dS BULLETIN SO, XTOTTED STATES NATIONAL MtJSEXTM. 

Piooides amencanus, var. donalii Allxn, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., iii, 1872, 163 
(Mt. Lincoln, Coloiado), 180 (mte. of Colorado above 8,000 ft.).— Hbnshaw, 
Zool. Exp. W. 100th Merid., 1875, 891 (mts. near Ft. Garland, SouOi Park, 
Pagosa, and Rio Grande, Colorado; White Mts., Arizona, Oct.). — Scott, 
Bull. Nutt. Om. aub, iv, 1879, 96 (Twin Lakes, Colorado). 

Piooides ammcanut . . . var. donaUs Coubs, Check List, 1873, no. 301a. 

[Piooide8 amencanus.] b. donalis OouBS, Birds Northwest, 1874, 285. 

Picoides tridactylvM, var. dorsaiUs Rxdowat, Bull. Essex Inst., v, Nov., 1873, 185 
(Colorado), 194 (Colorado; crit.). 

Picoides tridaetylus donalis Ridowat, P^oc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., iii, March 27, 1880, 
7, 189; Norn. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 368a.— Drew, Auk, ii, 1885, 17 (Colo- 
rado, breeding at 8,000-12,000 ft.).— Hbnshaw, Auk, iii, 1886, 78 (upper 
Pecos R., New Mexico, resident). 

Picoides americanuSf fi, dorsalis Ridqwat, Field and Fewest, i, June, 1877, 209 
(Colorado). 

Picoides amencanus dorsalis Dbbw, Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, vi, 1881, 141 (San 
Juan Co., Colorado).— (?) Williams, Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, vii, 1882, 62 
(Belt Mts., Montana).— CouES, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 445.— American 
Ornithologibts' Union, Check List, 1886 (and 2d ed., 1895), no. 4016; 3d 
ed., 1910, 190.— Mbarns, Auk, vii, 1890, 252 (San Francisco Mt., Arizona, 
breeding in pine and spmce belts; habits, etc.).— ^Mbrriam, North Am. 
Fauna, no. 3, 1890, 92 (San Francisco Mt., in spmce and balsam belt). — 
Richmond and Knowlton, Auk, xi, 1894, 303 (Gallatin R., s.-centr. Mon- 
tana, 7,200 ft., Aug.).— Bbndirb, Life Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 80.— 
CooKB, Bull. Col. Agric. Coll., no. 37, 1897, 83 (Colorado, resident, 8,000- 
12,000 ft.).— Bangs, Auk, xvii, 1900, 135 (crit.).— Henderson, Univ. Colo. 
Studies Zool., vi, 1909, 231 (mts. of Colorado, resident). — Sattnders, Auk, 
xxviii, 1911, 37 (Grallatin CJo., Montana); Condor, xiv, 1912, 26 (Silver Bow 
and Jefferson counties, Montana).— Jewbtt, Condor, xiv, 1912, 192 (Saw- 
tooth Mts., Idaho, 7,500 ft., Nov.). 

P[icoides] almericanus] dorsalis Coubs, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 485. 

P[icoides] amerioanus dorsalis Ridowat, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 287. 

Picoides arcticus . . . var. dorsalis Hbnshaw, Rep. Om. Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 
1874, 89 (mts. near Ft. Garland, 10,000 ft., and South Park, Colorado, June). 

Picoides arcticus dorsalis Bailet (Florence M.), Auk, xxi, 1904, 353 (upper Pecos 
R., New Mexico, 11,600 ft., breeding.) 

Picoides tridaetylus, var. americanus (not Picoides americanus Brehm) Baird, 
Brewer, and Ridowat, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 532, part. 

PICOIDES ARCTICUS (Swiinson). 

BLAOK-BAOKSD TKBXB-TOXD WOODPBOKXB. 

AduU male. — Crown bright yellow (canary yellow or naples yellow 
to orange) ; rest of pileum, except (usually) extreme anterior portion 
of forehead, together with orbital; superciliary^ and auricular regions^ 
hindneck; and sides of neck, uniform glossy blue-black; rest of upper 
parts black, or sooty black, the scapulars and interscapulars broadly 
margined with glossy blue-black, the lesser wing-coverts narrowly 
margined with the same, the middle wing-coverts and upper tail- 
coverts margined with deeper black than central portion; outer webs 
of remiges, except inner or proximal secondaries C'tertials") spotted 
with white; four middle rectrices black, the next pair mostly black. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDB OF ISfOBTa AKD USXJIDUt AM8SI0A* 



299 



but the distal portion, more or less extensively, brownish white or 
pale rusty brown, usually tipped with black, the three lateral pairs 
(including rudimentary outer rectrices) mostly white, more or less 
strongly tinged terminally with brownish; nasal tufts dusky, some- 
times finely streaked with paler; extreme anterior portion of fore- 
head usually white, grayish white, or pale grayish, a broad white 
stripe extending thence across lores and beneath orbital and auricular 
regions to side of neck; malar region black or bluc^black, forming a 
stripe which extends posteriorly across sides of neck, where usually 
confluent with the black neck area; under parts white, the sides and 
flanks broadly barred with black, the bars less regular and sometimes 
broken into spots or streaks on anterior portion of sides; bill slate 
color, the mandible usually paler, sometimes light bluish gray or 
horn gray, especially toward base; iris reddish brown or chestnut; 
legs and feet dusky grayish (slate color or slate-gray in life) ; length 
(skins), 206-248 (220); wing, 126-134 (129.6); tail, 74-86 (77.9); 
culmen, 31-36 (33); tarsus, 21.6-24 (22.9); outer anterior toe, 
11.6-13.6 (12.6).« 

AdvU female. — Similar to the adult male, but without any yellow 
on crown, the entire pileum being uniform glossy blue-blac^; length 
(skins), 207-234 (221); wing, 123-133.6 (126.8); tail, 73.6-84.6 
(78.8); culmen, 28.6-34.6 (30.7); tarsus, 21-23 (22); outer anterior 
toe, 11-13 (12.2).^ 

Young male. — Similar to the adult male, but yellow crown-patch 
smaller, black of upper parts duller, white of under parts duller and 



a Thirty-nine specimens. 



^Thirty-four specimens. 



Looallty. 



Wing. 



TaU. 



Ex- 
posed 
culmen. 



Tanas. 



Onter 
ante- 
rior toe. 



Two adnlt males from Newfoundland 

Ten adult males from New Brunswlok (8), Nova Sootla (1), 

Maine (6), and New York (1) 

Tin adult males from Minnesota to Maokenile 

One adult male from AJarica 

Six adult males from Montana (4) and Idaho (2) 

Tta adult males from Cattfoniia (4), westem Nevada (2), 

Oregon (2), and British Columbia (2) 

TEMALEB, 

One adult female from Newfbundland 

Ten adult females from New Brunswlek (1), Mataie (6), and 

New York (4) 

Ten adult females from Minnesota to Mackmrie 

Two adult feoiales from Montana (1) and Idaho (1) 

Ten adult females from Califccnia (2), westem Nevada (1), 

Oi«goo(l), Washington (1), and Biltlih Columbia (5) 

One adult female from Ungava 



12&S 
120:6 

laas 

12S 

lao 

120L7 



12S.5 

128.0 

127 

126 

127 
126.6 



82.6 



sai 

8a4 



7A6 
70L2 

82.6 

78.7 
7».7 
76.8 

7&6 
78 



82.6 

82.8 
88.8 
84 

82.7 

82.0 



30 

sai 

8L6 
81 

8a8 
29 



22.6 

22.0 
28.2 
22.6 
28.8 

22.6 



22 

22 

22.2 

22 

2L0 
22 



12.6 

12.4 
13 
13 
12.7 

12.2 



12.6 

12.8 
12.2 
12 

11.0 
12.5 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



300 BULLBTIK 60, ITNITBD STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

tinged on chest with pale brownish gray, and bars on sides and flanks 
slate-black and much less sharply defined. 

Young female. — Similar to the young male, but yellow crown-spot 
much smaller (sometimes absent?). 

Canadian life-zone of North America; north to central Alaska 
(Mechatna Eiver; Yukon River), Yukon (Fort Reliance), southern 
Mackenzie (Fort Anderson; Fort Rae; Fort Providence), central 
Keewatin, and northern Ungava (Forks); breeding southward to 
Maine, New Hampshire (Franconia), Vermont (Lunenburg), north- 
em New York (Lewis, Hamilton, and Herkimer counties), northern 
Ontario (Parry Sound; Muskoka), northern Michigan (Porcupine 
Mountains; Cheboygan County; Crawford County; Oscoda Coimty), 
northern Minnesota (Carlton, Cass, and Becker counties), Montana 
(Prickly Pear Canyon between Helena and Fort Shaw; Columbia 
FaUs), Wyoming CBlack Hills), Oregon (Plymouth; Fort Klamath) 
and northeastern California (Honey Lake); in winter, sporadically 
or irregularly southward to Massachusetts (Plymouth; Lynn; Wo- 
bum ; Winchendon ; Hyde Park ; Cape Cod) , Connecticut (Eas t Windsor 
Hill), Pennsylvania (Pocono Mountains), southern Ontario, northern 
Ohio, northeastern Illinois (Chicago), Wisconsin (Menomonie), east- 
em Nebraska (Omaha), etc., and in Sierra Nevada to latitude 39^ 
or farther. 

Picu9 (Aptemua) arcHcus Swainson, Fauna Bor.-Am., ii, 1831, pp. xxvi, 313 

(eastern slope of Rocky Mts. near sources of Athabasca R.).— Nuttaix, Man. 

Om. U. S. and Can., Water Birds, 1834, 603; Land Birds, 2d ed., 1840, 691. 
Aptemua arcticus SwAmsoN, Classif . Birds, ii, 1837, 306.— Bonapabts, Geog. and 

Comp. List, 1838, 39.— Newbbbby, Rep. PSadfic R. R. Surv., vi, 1867, 91 

(Cascade Mts., Oregon). 
[Aptemus] arcticus Bonapabtb, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 139; Ateneo Italiano, ii, 1854, 

123 (Consp. Volucr. Zygod., 1854, 8).— LiOHTBNSTBm, Norn. Av. Mus. Berol., 

1854, 75. 
Alptemus] arcticus Rbichbnbach, Handb. Scansores, Picins, 1854, 361, pi. 630, 

figs. 4189, 4190, 4191. 
Picus arcticus SwAmsoN, Fauna Bor.-Am., ii, 1831, pi. 57.— Gloobb, Handb. 

Naturg. Vfig. Eur., 1834, 462, footnote.— Nuttall, Man. Om. U. S. and Can., 

2d ed., i, 1840, 691.— Audubon, Synopsis, 1839, 182; Birds Am., oct. ed., iv, 

1842, 266, pi. 268.— Putnam, Proc. Essex Inst., 1856, 214 (Maaaachusetts).— 

Sttndbyall, Consp. Ay. Picin., 1866, 15. 
P[icus] arcticus Willis, An. Rep. Smithson. Inst, for 1858 (1859), 284 (Nova 

Scotia, resident). 
P[iooides] arcticus Qbat, Oen. Birds, ii, 1845, 434.— Coubs, Key N. Am. Birds, 

2d ed., 1884, 485.— Ridqwat, Ann. Lye. N. Y., x, 1874, 377 (n. Illinois, win- 

ter visitant); Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 287.— Nblbon, Bull. Essex Inst., 

yiii, 1876, 115 (Chicago, Illinois, 1 spec.). 
Picoides arcticus Baibd, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 98; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 

1859, no. 82.— Malbkbbb, Mon. Picid., i, 1861, 174; iii, 1861, pi. 39, figs. 

5, 6.— BoABDHAN, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1862, 123 (Maine).— Blakiston, 

Ibis, 1863, 51 (Red R. Settlement, Manitoba; Mackenzie R.; w. slope Rocky 

Mts.).— LoBD, Proc. Roy. Artil. Inst. Woolwich, iy, 1864, 112 (mts. Brit. 

Columbia).— MgIlwbaith, Ptoc. Essex Inst., 1866, 83 (Hamilton, Ontario, 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLB AMEBIOA. 801 

winter).— TuRNBULL, Birds E. Penn. and N. J., 1809, 41 (Pocono Mts., n. 
Pennsylvania, occasional).— Cooper, Om. Calif., 1870, 384 (summit of Sierra 
Nevada).— Couss, Check List, 1873, no. 300; 2d ed., 1882, no. 443; Birds 
Northwest, 1874, 284.— Msbbiam, Sixth An. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr., 
1872 (1873), 694 (Lower Geyser Basin, Wyoming); Trans. Conn. Ac. Sci., iv, 
1877, 64 (Simsbury and East Winsor Hill, Connecticut, winter); Bull. Nutt. 
Om. Club, iv, 1879, 6 (Lewis Co., New York, resident); vii, 1882, 236 (Point 
de Monts, Quebec, resident); North Am. Fkuna, no. 16, 1899, 115 (Mt. Shasta, 
California, breeding). — ^Baird, Brewer, and Ridgwat, Hist. N. Am. Birds, 
ii, 1874, 630, pi. 50, fig. 1.— Ridgwat, Om. 40th ParaUel, 1877, 548 (Sierra 
Nevada, near Carson City, winter); Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 189; 
Nam. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 367;Om. Illinois, i, 1889, 379.— Beldino, Proc.U. 
S. Nat. Mus., i, 1878, 429 (Soda Springs and Summit Meadows, Sierra Nevada, 
Sept.).— Roberts, Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, iv, 1879, 154 (Carlton Co., Minne- 
sota, breeding; Minneapolis, winter); An. Rep. Geol. and N. H. Surv. Minn., 
1880, 163 (Grand Maiais and Black Point, Minnesota, Aug.).— Brewster, 
Bull. Nutt Om. aub, iii, 1878, 180 (descr. young male); vi, 1881, 182 (Plym- 
outh, Massachusetts, Dec.); viii, 1883, 122 (Lynn, Massachusetts, abundant 
winter of 1860-61); Proc. Best. Soc. N. H., ttji, 1883, 381 (near Gaspe and 
mouth of Mingan R., Gulf of St Lawrence, summer) ; Auk, i, 1884, 93 (Wobum, 
Massachusetts, Oct, 1883); v, 1888, 254 (Ft. Klamath, Oregon; crit.), 390 
(Winchendon, Massachusetts, winter).— Deanb, Bull. Nutt. Om^. Club, v, 
1880, 56 (Hyde Park, Massachusetts, winter).— Gunn, Bull. Nutt. 6m. Club, 
vi, 1881, 119 (Cheboygan Co., Michigan, breeding).— Wiluams, Bull. Nutt. 
Om. Club, vii, 1882, 62 (Belt Mts., Montana, breeding) .^Batchelder, Bull. 
Nutt. Om. Club, vii, 1882, 150 (Grand Falls and Fairfield, New Brunswick).— 
Wood, Om. and Oolog., ix, 1884, 62 (30 m. n. of Mackinac, Michigan).— Tur- 
ner, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, 1885, 242 (Labrador).— American Orni- 
thologists' Union, Check list, 1886 (and 2d ed., 1895), no. 400; 3d ed., 1910, 
189.— Ralph and Bago, Trans. Oneida Hist. Soc., iii, 1886, 123 (Herkimer and 
Hamilton Counties, New York, breeding). — Seton, Auk, iii, 1886, 155 (Big 
Plain and Red R.yalley,w. Manitoba).— Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., i, 1886, 
246 (Massachusetts records).— Nelson, Rep. Nat. Hist. Coll. Alaska, 1887, 157 
(Ft.Reliance, upper Yukon).— Faxon and Allen, Auk, v, 1888, 151(Franconia, 
New Hampshire, 1 spec., Jime).— Bendire, Auk, v, 1888, 240 (Ft. Klamath, 
Oregon, breeding); Life Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1895, 74.— Merrill, Auk, v, 
1888, 254 (Ft. Klamath, Oregon, breeding).— Brittain and Cox, Auk, vi, 
1889, 117 (Restigouche Valley, New Brunswick, summer).— Dutcher, Auk, 
vi, 1889, 136 (Long Island, 1 spec., winter).— Hasbrouok, Auk, vii, 1890, 206 
(near Syracuse and Tully, centr. New York, winter).— HARonr, Cat. Birds 
Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 282 (Big Moose Lake and Hamilton Co., New York, 
June; Menonomee, Wisconsin, Oct.; Honey Lake, California, June; etc.). — 
Cantwell, Om. and Oolog., xv, 1890, 133 (n. Minnesota, breeding).— Thomp- 
son, Proa U. S. Nat. Mus., xiii, 1890, 549 (Manitoba, resident; habits).— Mao- 
rARLANE, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xiv, 1891, 437 (Ft. Anderson, Mackenzie, 
breeding).— Cook, Bull. Mich. Agric. Exp. Sta., 1893, 88 (northern peninsula 
of Michigan, breeding).— Fleming, Auk, xviii, 1901, 39 (Parry Sound and 
Muskoka, n. Ontario, breeding).— Cart, Auk, xviii, 1901, 234 (Black Hills, 
Wyoming, June).— Howe, Contr. Am. Om., ii, 1902, 16 (Lunenbuig, Ver- 
mont, breeding).— CxTRRiER, Auk, xxi, 1904, 35 (Leech Lake, Minnesota, 
breeding). — ^Nichols, Auk, xxi, 1904, 81 (Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 1 spec., 
Dec.).— Osgood, North Am. Fauna, no. 24, 1904, 70 (Malchatna R., Alaska).— 
Wood and Frothinoham, Auk, xxii, 1905, 47 (Crawford Co., Michigan, July, 
Sept.; Oscoda Co., June).— Wood, Wilson Bull., no. 51, 1905, 50 (Les Che- 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



302 BULLBTIW 60, TTNITBD STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

neaux I., Michigan, abundant in Oct. and Noy.).-^WBiOHT, Auk, xzii, 1905, 
80 (Middlesex Co., MasBachuaettB, 1 spec., Oct., Nov.).— Adams, Ecol. Surv. 
N. Mich., 1906, 115 (Porcupine Mts., Michigan, July).— ^Andsbson, Ptoc. 
Davenport Ac. Sci., xi, 1907, 274 (Omaha, Nebiadca, 1 spec., Dec. 15; Dakota 
City, 1 spec.).— WooDBtJW, Bull, vi, Chicago Ac. Sci., 1907, 110 (Chicago 
area, rare winter visitant).— Towksxnd and Allen, Froc. Best. Soc. N. H., 
xxxiii, 1907, 376 (Labrador, common resident).— Pbbbls, North Am. Fauna, 
no. 27, 1908, 381 (north to lat. 63^ on Mackenzie R.).— Nash, Vertebr. Ont., 
1908, Birds, p. 49 (n. Ontario, resident).— Gbinnbll, Condor, xii, 1910, 42 
(Yukon R., Alaska). 

[Piocfides] arcHcui Gbat, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 181, no. 8539.— Coubs, Key N. Am. 
Birds, 1872, 194.— Shabfb, Hand*list, ii, 1900, 217. 

Pieoides arcHcus ixretieus Babgs, Auk, xvii, April, 1900, 129 (crit.). 

Tlridactylia] carctica Cabanis and Hbinb, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, 1863, 27. 

Pieu9 tridactylus (not of Linnsus) Bonapabtb, Am. Om., ii, 1828, 14, pi. 14, 
fig. 2.— Jabdimb, ed. Wilson's Am. Om., iii, 1882, 423, pi. 14, fig. 2.— Audu- 
bon, Om. Biog., ii, 1834, 198; v, 1839, 538, pi. 132.— Nuttall, Man. Om. 
U. S. and Can., 2d ed., i, 1840, 578. 

Piooides arctieus teniuiroitm Bakqs, Auk, xvii, no. 2, April, 1900, 131 (Ft. Elar 
math, Oregon; coll. W. Brewster). 

Piooides tenuirosiris Gbinnbll (J.), Pacific Coast Avi&una, no. 3, June, 1902, 38 
(California range).— Rat, Auk, xx, 1908, 184 (hig^ Sierra Nevada, centr. 
CJalifomia, breeding). 

[Piooidea] tefmirostris Shabpe, Handlist, ii, 1900, 217. 

Genus PICUMNUS Temminok. 

Picumnu8 Tsmminck, Planches Col., livr. 62, Sept., 1825, text to pi. 371. {Type^ 

P. cirrhatus Temminck.) 
Aathenvnis Swainson, Zool. Joum., iii, 1828, 353. (Type, Pipra minuta 

Linnaeus.) 
Picultis Geoffrot Saint-Hilaibe, Nouv. Ann. du Mus, d'Hist. Nat., ser. 3, i, 

1832, 396. (Type, Pipra minuta Linnffius.) 
Microcolaptes Bonapabte, Ateneo Italiazio, ii, 1854, 126 (Consp. Yolucr. Zygod., 

1854, 11). (Type, Picumnus d^orlngmanua TadTeeDAye,) 
Craugiscuu » Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., iv, heft 2, May, 1863, 10. (Type, 

Pkunwus dnnamomeu8 Wagler.) 

Very small Picumznnse (wing about 49-55 mm.) with nostril much 
nearer to tomium than to cuhnen, gonys much Icmger than mandi- 
bular rami, outermost (tenth) primary less than half as long as 
ninth, inner web of middle rectrices white or pale yellow, culmen 
longer than outer hind toe without daw, and without whitish or 
dusky stripes on side of head. 

Bill shorter than head, much compressed, cuneate in lateral 
profile, pointed, or not distinctly chisel-shaped at tip, its width at 
anterior end of nostrils decidedly less than its depth at same point; 
cuhnen straight or slightly convex, distinctly but not sharply ridged; 
gonys straight or very nearly so, ascending terminally, faintly 
ridged; maxilla without supranasal ridge or prenasal grooye, its 
tomium slightly convex and deflected for basal half. Nostril very 

a « Diminutivf orm von xpaur^, Specht. ' - (Cabanis and Heine.) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD6 OF NOBTH AND MIDDLE AMEBIOA. 303 

small^ longitudinally elliptical or subcuneate, much nearer to tomium 
than to culmen, covered by a conspicuous antrorse and semierect 
dense prefrontal tuft of rather shorty bristly tipped feathers. Feath- 
ers of malar apex semiantrorse, short, but with distinct bristle-like 
tips, those of the chin with recurved, semiantrorse, bristle-like tips. 
Orbital region naked for a considerable distance around eyes, the 
margin of eyeUds without feathers. Wing short and rounded, very 
concave beneath, the longest primaries exceeding distal secondaries 
by much less than length of culmen; sixth and seventh or fifth, 
sixth and seventh primaries longest, the eighth shorter than fifth 
(sometimes nearly equal to third), the ninth much shorter than first, 
the tenth less than half as long as ninth. Tail a little more than 
half to three-fifths as long as wing, strongly rounded or graduated, 
the rectrices rather narrow, not rigid, with slender shaft and soft, 
rounded tip. Tarsus longer than outer hind toe without claw, the 
planta tarsi with a single row of large quadrate scutella; outer toes 
equal in length or the posterior one very slightly longer; inner front 
toe with its claw reaching nearly (sometimes quite) to base of claw 
of outer toe. 

Cohration, — ^Pileum black dotted with white (the crown partly red 
or orange in adult males) ; back and scapulars grayish brown or oUve, 
sometimes dotted with white or barred or squamated with dusky; 
tail black, the inner web of middle pair of rectrices white or pede 
yellow; under parts whitish or yellowish barred or squamated with 
black (in part, at least), or brown spotted with white or with chest 
and indistinct stripes on sides plain olive. 

Bcmge. — Honduras to southern Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia, and 
Peru. (About thirty-five species, all but one of them South 
American.^) 

KEY TO THE 8UBSPEGIBS OF FICUMNUS OUYACEUS. 

a. Crown streaked with oraDge-red or yellowish orange. (Adult males.) 
h. Crown streaked with orange-red (scarlet). 
c. Back, etc., more buffy or yellowish dive; chest more bufify; yellow of posterior 
under parts more creamy; wing avenging 55.8, tail 28.8, culmen 11.6, 
outer anterior toe 10.4. (Central Colombia.) 

Ptounuiiu olivaoeus oliyaoeus (extralimital).^ 
oc. Back, etc., darker and less buffy or yellowish olive; chest less buffy; yellow 
of posterior under parts less creamy (more sulphur yellow); wing averag- 
ing 53.3, tail 28, culmen 12.3, outer anterior toe 11.2 (Eastern Nicaragua 
and Honduras.) Pionmnus oliyaoeus dlmotns (p. 307). 

o The above generic description is based on P. oKvaeeuSf P. spUogastetf P. dr- 
rhatuty P. rrdmUus, P. squamulattUf P. pygmaBus, and P. gutttfer. 

& T\icumnuB\ olivaceus Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., viii, Jan., 1845, 7 (Bogotd, Colombia; 
coll. Massena).— Picumnu« olivaceuB Sundbvall, Consp. Picin., 1866, 104; Hargitt, 
Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1800, 548, part (ezcl. syn. P , JUtfootinctaB and specimens 
from Honduras). — Picamnua olivaceui oUvaceu9 Ridgway, Proc, Biol. Soc. Wash., 
xxiv, Feb. 24, 1911, 34 (geog. range). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



304 BULLETIN 50, UIHTED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

66. Crown streaked with yellowiah orange or orange-yellow.<> 
c. Back, etc., much more yellowish olive; under parts more bufify; smaller 
(wing averaging 51.4, tail 24.6, culmen 11.1, outer suteriar toe 9.5). (Eastern 

Panama.) Ploimiiiiis oliyaoeas ptmamensli (p. 304). 

ec. Back, etc., much less yellowish olive; under parts less bufify; laiger (wing 
averaging 53.1, tail 27.7, culmen 11, outer anterior toe 10.7). (Western 
F&nama and southwestern Costa Rica.) 

Ptounmus oliyacens flavotinctas (p. 306). 
aa. Crown without red, orange, or orange-yellow streaks (minutely dotted with white 
instead). 
6. Ground color of pileum deep black, 
c. Back, etc., more buffy olive. 

Pldunnus oliyaoeut oliyaoeut, adult female (extralimital). 
ce. Back, etc., more greenish olive. (Western Colombia.) 

Ptounmus oliyaceot gianadensls, adult female (extralimital).^ 
66. Groimd color of pileum sooty, sooty black, or dull black, 
c. Ground-color of pileum sooty black or dull black; general coloration darker 
and less buffy; wing and tail longer (wing 52-54, tail 26-60). 
d. Back, etc., clearer or more greenish olive; chest lees yellowish or bufify; 
white dots on pileum laiger. 

Ptdunnus oliyaoens dlmotut, adult female (p. 907). 
dd. Back, etc., more buffy olive; chest more bufify; white dots on pileum 
smaller, those on crown lees numerous. 

Pioiimiiiis oliyaoeut flavotlnotat, adult female (p. 306). 
cc. Ground color of pileum dark sooty brown; general coloration paler and more 
buffy; wing and tail shorter (wing 50.5, tail 24). 

Piounmns olivaceus panamensls, adult female (p. 305). 

PICUMNUS OLIVACEUS PANAMBNSIS Ridgwaj. 
pavakA pxomuiT. 

Similar to P. o. granaderms,^ but smaller; coloration decidedly 
more yellowish olive^ pileum much duller black, and feathers of malar 
region and chin more narrowly margined with black or with these 
markings obsolete. 

Adult male. — ^Pileum dull black, the crown with short, narrow 
streaks of orpiment orange, the occiput with small circular spots or 
dots of white; back, scapulars, and rump plain yellowish olive, the 
wing-coverts similar, but darker and margined or edged with color 
of back or slightly paler ; remiges dusky grayish brown, the secondaries 
broadly G>ut not sharply) edged with dull light buffy olive-yellowish 
(nearly pale wax yellow), the median portion of proximal secondaries 
(broadly) light grayish brown or hair brown, the primaries narrowly 

o I have not seen the adult male of P. o. granadmsUy which belongs to this section. 

^PieamniM granadmna Lafreanaye, Rev. Zool., x, March, 1847, 78 (Cali, w. 
Ecuador; coll. De Lattre; type now in coll. Phila. Acad. Nat. Sci.); Malherbe, 
Mon. Pidd., ii, 1862, pi. 118, Hg. 3; Sundevall, Oonsp. Picin., 1866, 104. [Picumnut 
oUvaeeiu.] Subsp. a. Picumnu8 granadentia Haigitt, Oat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 
1890, 549, part (excl. specimens from Panama, Chiriqui, and Ecuador). — PicumnuM 
oUvaceus granadeniis Ridgway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxiv, Feb. 24, 1911, 34 (geog. 
range). 

J bav^ seen only the female of this form. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBD8 OF NOBTH AND MIDDLE AMEBIGA. 



305 



edged (except distally) with pale yellowish olive; upper tail-coverts 
pale buffy yellow; tail dull black, the middle pair of rectrices with 
inner web and inner portion of outer web pale buffy yellow (pale 
naples yellow or straw yellow), the two outer pairs with a broad, 
obhque subterminal area of the same or pale yellowish buff; auricular 
r^on plain light yellowish or buffy oUve, the feathers along upper 
margin with a guttate or cuneate streak of dull white, the general 
light buffy olive color fading below to pale olive-bufiy on chin and 
throat, this passing into deeper oKve-buffy or pale buffy olive (more 
buffy than color of auricular region) on chest and upper breast; rest 
of under parts light buffy yellow (nearly straw or naples yeUow) 
rather broadly but not sharply streaked with grayish brown or oUve; 
under wing-coverts mostly buff, the inner webs of remiges broadly 
edged with pale yellowish buff or buffy yellow; bill blackish ter- 
minally, more grayish basally; feet dusky grayish (in dried skins); 
length (skins), 83-85 (84); wing, 49.5-53.5 (51.4); tail, 24-25.5 (24.6); 
culmen, 10.5-12 (11.1); tarsus, 11.5-12.5 (12); outer anterior toe, 
10-10.5 (10.4).« ^ 

AduU female, — Similar to the adult male, but crown without orange 
streaks (sparsely and minutely dotted with white), the ground color 
dark sooty brown rather than blackish; length (skin), 76; wing, 50,5; 
tail, 24; culmen, 12; tarsus, 12.5; outer anterior toe, 10.5.^ 

Young male. — ^Essentially like adults, but dark sooty of pileum 
passing anteriorly into light brownish gray on forehead, nape and 

« Four specimens. 
h One specimen. 

Avenge measurements of the several forms of this species (according to material 
examined) are as follows: 



LooaHty. 



Wing. 



TaU. 



Ex- 
posed 

CUllDOIIi 



Tarsus. 



Outer 
ante- 
rior toe. 



Seren adult males of P. o. oUvaeem (from BogoUl, Coloinbia). . 

(No adult males of P. o. tnmaienfU seen) 

Four adult males of P. o. ]MnaffMiuit (fkom eastern Panama) . . 

Ten adult males of P. o. famjUnetiu flram southwestern Costa 

Rica 



55.8 



2&8 



11.0 



12.4 



ia4 



Three adult males of P. o. dimotut ttfxm. Honduras (2) and 
I Nicaragua (1) 



PXMALSS. 

One adult female of P. o. oUwtuuM, from Bogoti 

Four adult females of P. o. granadentis, from near Honda, 

western Colombia 

One adult female of P. o. panamentUf from eastern Panama. . . 
Ten adult females of P. o. flavodnaut, tnm southwestern 

CostoRica 

One adult female of P. o. dimotw, tram Honduras 



5L4 
53.1 
53.3 

54 5 

54.2 
5a5 

52.7 
54 



24.5 
27.7 
28 

28.5 

27.2 
24 

27.7 
27.5 



11.1 

U 

12.3 

ia5 

1L2 
12 

11 
11 



12 

12.2 

12.5 

12 

12.2 
12.5 

12.2 
12.5 



ia4 
ia7 

11.2 
0.5 

ia5 
ia5 

ia4 
las 



3622"— BuU. 50, pt ^-^14 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



306 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

sides of occiput streaked with dull white (instead of dotted with 
pure white), wing-coverts distinctly margined with pale buflfy olive 
or olive-buffy, and streaks on sides, etc., more dusky. 
Eastern PanamA (Lion Hill and Obispo stations, Panam& Railway) . 

Pieumnus granadenns (not of Lafresnaye) Lawbence, ^i^- Lyc- N. Y., vii, 1862, 

333 (Lion HiU, e. Panama). 
Pieumnus olivaceus (not ot Lafresnaye) Hargitt, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 

1890, 548, part (in eynonymy).— Salyot and Godman, Biol. Gentr.-Am., 

Aves, ii, 1896, 452, part (lion Hill and Obispo, e. Panama). — ^Banos, Proc. 

New Engl. Zool. Club, ii, 1900, 18 (Loma del Leon, i. e.. Lion Hill, e. Panama ; 

crit.). 
Pieumnu$ oKvaoeiu panamemis RmawAT, Pioc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxiv, Feb. 24, 

1911, 34 (Lion Hill Station, F&nama; coU. U. S. Nat. Mus.). 

PICUMinJS OLIVACEUS FLAVOTmCTUS (Ridgwaj). 
VXSAGirA PXOVLXT. 

Similar to P. o. paruimenais but larger (except bill), and coloration 
darker and duller, the color of back, etc., much less yellowish olive, 
under parts less buffy, and black margins to feather^ of malar region 
and chin more distinct. Much more closely resembling P. o. granor- 
densis in general coloration but pileum much duller black. 

AduU mofe.— Length (skins), 82-«9 (86); wing, 51-54.5 (53.1); 
tail, 26.5-29.5 (27.7); cuhnen, 10.&-11.6 (11); tarsus, 11.5-13 (12.2); 
outer anterior toe, 10-11 (10.7). « 

AdvU fernale.— Length (skins), 83-89 (85); wing, 52-54 (52.7); 
tail, 26-30 (27.7); culmen, 10.5-11^ (11); tarsus, 11.5-12.5 (12.2); 
outer anterior toe, 10-11 (10.4). « 

Western Panam& (Divala; Bugaba; Mina de Chorcha), and south- 
western Oosta Rica (Pozo AztU de Pirrfs; Pozo del Rio Grande; 
Buenos Aires; Boruca; Palm4r; Tfirraba; Paso Re&l; El Gener&l). 

Pieumnus flavoHnetus Rn>owAY, Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., xi, nig. 34, Sept. 20, 1889, 
543 (Pozo AeuI de Pirns, e. w. Co8ta Rica; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.). 

Pieumnus olivaceus JUtvoHnetus Habtebt, Novit. Zool., ix, Dec. 16, 1902, 606 
(crit.).^BAN08 Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., zxxix, 1903, 147, in text; Auk, 
xxiv, 1907, 293 (Boruca, Paso Re^, and Pozo del Rio Grande, s. w. Costa 
Rica. — CARBSKERy Ann. Carnegie Mus., vi, 1910, 594 (lowlands of s. w. Costa 
Rica; habits).— RtDOWAT, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxiv, 1911, 34 (geog. range). 

Plicumnvs] o[livaceiui\ flavotinctus Hkllmatb, Bull. Brit. Om. Club, xxiii, 1909, 
67, in text. 

Pieumnus olivaceus (not of Lafresnaye) Sclateb and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1870, 212 (Mina de Chordia and Bugaba, w. Panama; crit.).— Zele- 
d6n, Cat. Aves de Costa Rica, 1882, 24; Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., viii, 1885, 
111 (Costa Rica); Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, i, 1888, 124 (Costa Rica).— 
Haboitt, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 548, part (in synonymy).— Salvin 
and GoDMAN, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 452, part (Pozo Azul de Pirris, 
Costa Rica; Bugaba and Mina de Chorcha, w. Panama). 

o Ten specimens, from Costa Rica. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMEBICA. 307 

Pieumonu olivaceui Chbbeib, Expl. Zool. Merid. Coete Rica, 1893, 46 (Palmir, 

Bonica, T^naba, and Buenos Aires, s. w. Costa Rica). 
[Picumnus olivaceus.] Subsp. or. Picumnus granadensis (not P. gnmadensia Lafrea- 

naye) Haboiit, C&t. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 540, part (in synonymy). 
Picumnus granadensii (not of Lafresnaye) Bangs, Auk, xviii, 1901, 361 (Divala, 

w. Panama). 

PICUMNUS OUVACBUS DIMOTUS (Bangs). 
HovDxnaAs pxoitlit. 

Similar to P. o. olwaceus,^ but slightly smaller (especially the 
bill), color of back, etc., darker and less buffy olive, and chest darker 
and less bnffy olive. Similar also to P. o. Jlavotinctus, but larger 
(especially the bill), throat more whitish Gess buffy), and adult male 
with streaks on crown orange-red (scarlet), as in P. o. olivdceus, 
instead of yellowish orange or orange-yellow. 

Adult TnoZe.— Length (skins), 92-94.5 (93.5); wing, 53-54 (53.3); 
tail, 27.5-29 (28); cuhnen, 12-12.5 (12.3); tarsus, 12-13 (12.5); 
outer anterior toe, 11-11.5 (11.2).^ 

Adult female. — ^Length (skin), 93; wing, 54; tail, 27.5; culmen, 11; 
tarsus, 12.5; outer anterior toe, 10.5.* 

Caribbean slope of Nicaragua (San Carlos) and Honduras (C6iba; 
San Pedro Sula; Juli&n). 

Picumnus olivactu$ (not of Lafresnaye) Sculter and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., 1870, 837, 839 (Julian and San Pedro, Honduras).— Haboitt, Cat. 

Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 548, part (Julian and San Pedro, Honduras). — 

Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, 1893, 519 (San Carlos, e. Nicaragua; 

crit.).— Salyin and Godmam, Biol. C^itr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1895, 452 (Julian 

and San Pedro, Honduras). 
Picumnus dimotus Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., xxxix, July, 1903, 146 (Ceiba, 

HondtutLs; coll. E. A. and O. Bangs). 
Picumnus oHvaeeus dimotus RroowAT, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xxiv, Feb. 24, 

1911, 34 (geog. range). 

Genus NESOCTITES Hargitt. 

NesoctiUs d Haboitt, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 552. (Type, Picumnus 
micrmnegas Sundevall.) 

Large PicunminsB (wing 68-75 mm.) with nostril much nearer to 
cuhnen than to tomium, gonjrs but Uttle longer than mandibular 
rami, outermost primary more than half as long as ninth, no stripes 
on side of head, and without black, white, or pale yellow on rectrices. 

Bill shorter than head, much compressed anteriorly, subcuneate 
in lateral profile, pointed at tip, its width at anterior end of nostrils 

a See p. 303. 

* Three specimens. 

c One specimen. 

^ N^aoc, island; /crfr^c, a colonist, inhabitant. (Richmond.) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



308 BULLETIN 60, UIHTED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

slightly less than its depth at same point; culmen slightly convex, 
distinctly but not sharply ridged; gonys slightly longer than mandi- 
bular rami, straight, ascending terminsily , slightly prominent basally. 
Nostril small, longitudinally elliptical or narrowly ovate, situated 
much nearer to culmen than to tomium, partly covered by an antrorse 
or semierect prefrontal tuft of short, stiff, feathers without elongated 
bristle-like tips. Rictal region with obvious but not conspicuous 
bristles, the feathers of malar apex and chin with rather distinct 
bristle-like, semiantrorse tips. Orbital region mostly feathered. 
Wing moderate, much rounded, very concave beneath, the longest 
primaries exceeding distal secondaries by about one-fifth the length 
of wing; sixth and seventh primaries longest, the eighth slightly 
shorter than fifth, the ninth shorter than first, the tenth (outer- 
most) more than half as long as ninth. Tail slightly (but decidedly) 
more than half as long as wing, strongly rounded, the rectrices not 
rigid, moderately broad, with shaft slender and tip soft and rounded. 
Tarsus nearly as long as outer hind toe with claw, the planta tarsi 
with a single row of large quadrate scutella, these in contact on 
inner side with the similar but somewhat larger scutella of the acro- 
tarsium but on the outer side separated by a longitudinal space, 
undivided for the greater part but on lower portion broken into 
several irregular scutella; outer hind toe distinctly longer than outer 
front toe; inner front toe relatively short, reaching (without claw) 
but little beyond subterminal articulation of outer toe, its claw 
falling decidedly short of base of claw of outer toe. 

Cohration. — ^Above plain olive, including tail, the crown with a 
yellowish patch (enclosing a smaller one of dull red in adult male) ; 
under parts pale yellowish, streaked and spotted with dusky. 

Bcmge, — ^Island of Haiti, Greater Antilles. (Monotypic.) 

NESOCTTTES MICROMEOAS (SondeTaU). 

HAITLUr PX017LIT. 

AdvU male. — Forehead grayish-oHve, the feathers of posterior por- 
tion tipped with oUve-yellow; rest of pileum olive-yellow, citron 
yellow, or dull canary yellow superficially (the feathers olive beneath 
surface), the posterior crown or anterior portion of occiput with a spot 
of brownish red (nearest madder brown, but brighter and more red- 
dish) ; rest of upper parts plain olive-green, slightly more brownish on 
secondaries, the hindneck sometimes tinged with yellow; superciliary 
region, upper portion of auricular region, and sides of neck grayish 
brown, the latter (also lower portion of hindneck) more or less dis- 
tinctly spotted with dull whitish or pale yellowish buffy; lower por- 
tion of auricular region streaked with whitish and brownish gray; 
loral and suborbital regions dull white to pale brownish buffy; malar 
r^on, chin, and throat yellowish white, the first narrowly (some- 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BntDS OF KOBTH AND MIDDLE AMEBIGA. 309 

times obeoletely) barred^ with dusky grayish, the throat sparsely 
streaked or flecked with dusky grayish (sometimes nearly immacu- 
late), the feathers grayish basally ; rest of imder parts pale sulphur or 
primrose yellow, broken by numerous, mostly guttate, streaks of 
dusky, these broadest (more spot-like) on flanks and under tail- 
coverts; under wing-coverts and broad edging to inner webs of remiges 
pale cinnamon-buff; bill horn color, darker on culmen (especially 
toward tip), the mandible paler and more grayish, at least on basal 
half; feet dark grayish (in dried skins); length (skins), 122-137 
(129); wing, 68-74 (70.2); taU, 37-43 (39); cuhnen, 15-17 (16.7); 
tarsus, 17-18 (17.3); outer anterior toe, 13-14 (13.4) .« 

AdvU female. — Similar to the adult male, but without the red spot 
on crown; length (skins), 126-143 (134); wing, 70.5-75 (73.2); tail, 
39-43.6 (41.6); cuhnen, 17-18 (17.2); tarsus, 17-18.5 (17.8); outer 
anterior toe, 14-16.6 (14.7) .« 

Young (both sexes). — Similar to the adult female. 

Island of Haiti (Jacm^l and Peti6nville, Haiti; Saman4, La 
Canita, Santo Domingo, Puerto Plata, Catare, and Aguacate, Santo 
Domingo). 

Bucco cayanerms (not of Gmelin, 1788) SAixi, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1857, 234. 
Chloronerpes poMserinus (not of Bonaparte, ex Picas pa$$erinus Linnseus) SAixi, 

Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1857, 234 (Santo Doniingo). 
C[ampia9] pa$8ennu» Gabanis and Hiink, Hub. Hein., iv, heft. 2, 1863, 147 

(Haiti). 
Picus poMsmntu (not of Linn»us) Drapikz, Diet. Claas. d'Hist. Nat., xiii, 1828, 

504 (Santo Domingo).— Bryant, Proc. Boet. Soc. N. H., xi, 1867, 96 (Santo 

Domingo). 
Picumnus micnmugaM Sundbyall, Consp. A v. Picin., 1866, 95 (Rio Janeiro, 

Brazil, error; coll. Stockholm Mu8.; see Tristram, Ibis, 1884, 167, 168).— 

Bryant, Proc. Boat. Soc. N. H., xi, 1867, 96 (Santo Domingo).— Gray, List 

Birds Brit. Mus., Picidae, 1868, 28.— Pblzeln, Om. Bras., 1870, 442.— Cory, 

Auk, iii, 1886, 373; Birds West Ind., 1889, 167.— Maynard, Cat. Birds West 

Ind., 1903, 12. 
P[icumnwi\ micromegaM Tristram, Ibis, 1884, 167 (Santo Domingo; crit.). 
[Picwrnnui\ micromegoi Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 180, no. 8530. 
Ne$ociiU$ micromegas Haroitt, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xviii, 1890, 552 (Samani, 

Santo Domingo).— Cory, Cat. West Ind. Birds, 1892, 12, 103, 131.— Chbrrie, 

Contr. Om. San Dom., 1896, 20 (Santo Domingo City, Catare, and Aguacate, 

Santo Domingo; habits). 
INesoctiUi] mienmegas Sharps, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 235. 
Pieumnus lawrencU Cory, Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, vi, July, 1881, 129, pi. 1 (Haiti; 

coll. C. B. Cory), 153 (Jacmti and Peti6nville, Haiti); Birds Haiti and San 

Dom., 1884, pi. [14].— Rxiohbnow and Sohalow, Joum. fOr Om., 1882, 214 

(reprint of Gtig, descr.). 
Picumnus lawrencei Cory, Birds Haiti and San Dom., 1884, 109.— Vbrrill (A. E. 

and A. H.), Proc. Ac. Nat. Sd. Phila., 1909, 360 (Sanchez and Samani, 

Santo Domingo). 
[Picumnus] lawreneei Cory, List Birds West Ind., 1885, 19; revised ed., 1886, 19. 

a Ten specimens. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



310 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

TBS BAKBSTS AMD HOHXT GinDXS. 

'^Rhamphastidae Cabanis, Wiegmann's Archiv iHi Natuig., 1847, pt. i, 348 

(includes EamphastideB). 
<CCapiUmea Shabpb, Rev. Rec. Att. Claflsif. Birds, 1891, 83; Hand-list, ii, 1900, 

177 (excludes Indicatodds). 
^Capitonidas Gadow, in Bronn's Thiflr-Iteich, YOg., 1893, 266, 301; ClasBif. 

Vertebr., 1898, 37.— Bbddabd, Struct, and Glaasif. Birds, 1898, 192. 

Aegithognathons or (in some CapitonidaB) desmognathous Scan- 
sores with the vomer single, bifurcate; cervical hsBmapophysiB single, 
sharp, channeled; spina externa stemi moderately long, not forked; 
clavicles separated (not ankylosing into a furculum) ; manubrial proc- 
ess pointed; coca absent; femora-caudal and accessory semitendino- 
sus muscles present, ambiens and accessory femoro-caudal muscles 
absent; oil-gland tufted; contour feathers with aftershaft, and bill 
not highly specialized. 

KEY TO THE FAIOLIXS Or CAPITONB8. 

a. Ventral pteryla forked on side of breast; wing rounded, with ten relatively short 
primaries, the longest of which exceed secondaries by much less than length of 
culmen; fifth to sixth primaries longest; outermost primary small, m^'ch less 
than half as long as longest; nostrils bored directly into the homy rhinotheca 
(no nasal fossae); bill relatively much larger, broader, or deeper (usually both) 
basally, the culmen less convex; conspicuous, elongated, frontal bristles; plu- 
mage \isually bright and varied (\isually with red, orange, yellow, green, or 
blue, often several of these hues combined and strongly contrasted), the sexes 

more or less different in coloration Capitonide<> (p. 311). 

aa. Ventral pteryla not forked on side of breast; wing long and pointed, with nine 
primaries, the longest of the latter exceeding secondaries by more than twice 
the length of culmen; four outermost primaries (sixth to ninth) longest, the 
outermost (ninth) nearly to quite equal to longest; nostrils in center of large 
nasal fosBse, surrounded by broad membrane; bill relatively much smaller, 
narrower and less deep basally, the culmen more strongly convex; plumage 
plain or dull, without bright hues (except, sometimes, yellow), the sexes alike 
in coloration Indloatoridae (extralimital).^ 

^ The above external characters taken chiefly from the American genera. 

^^Indicatarinm Swainson, Glassif. Birds, ii, 1837, 325; Bonaparte, Prodr. Syst. 
Om., 1840, 17; Consp. Av., i, 1850, 100; Gabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., iv, heft i, 
1863, 1; Gadow, Bronn's Thier-Reich, VOg., ii, 1891, 267, 301. ^Indicaioridm 
Stejneger, Stand. Nat. Hist, iv, 1885, 412, 421, in text; Fuerbringw, Unters. Morph. 
Syst. Vag., ii, 1888, 1389; Shi^, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 176. =^IndiaUore$ Shaipe, 
Rev. Rec. AU. Glassif. Birds, 1891, 83; Hand-list, ii, 1900, 176. 

A rather small group, of about eighteen species and four genera, mostly confined 
to Africa, two species (of the t3rpical genus Indicator) occurring in the Himalaya 
Moimtains and the Malay Peninmila and Borneo respectively. 

The above diagnosis is taken from the genera Indicator and Melignothet alone, the 
other two genera (Prodotiteua Sundevall and lielignomon Reichenow) not being 
available for examination in this connection. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDB OF KOBTH AKD BODDLB AMEBIOA. 311 

Family CAPITONID^. 



^Buccomdm Bonapabti, Consp. Av., i, Jan., 1850, 141. 

•^'CapiUmidas (not of Bonaparte, 1850) <> Sclatbb, Oat. Am. BiidB, 1862, 329; 

Ibis, 1880, 341.— Huxley, Proc. ZooL Soc. Lond., 1867, 466.— Sclatbr and 

Salyik, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 108.— Gakbod, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1874, 117.— FoBBES, Ibis, 1884, 120.— Fubrb&inoeb, XJnten. Morph. Syst. 

YSg., 11, 1888, 1389.— Saltin and Godman, Biol. Oentr.-Am., Aves, 11, 

1896, 547.— Shabpb, Hand-llflt, 11, 1900, 177. 
=Megalssm%n« Sundbvall, Met. Nat. Av. Dlap. Tent., 11, 1873, 75 (Engliah 

translation, 1889, 147). 
^Megalaimidx Stbjnbgeb, Stand. Nat. Hist., Iv, 1885, 412, 418, In text. 
^Capitoninm Gabanis, Wlegmann's Archlv Mr Natuig., 1847, 1, 348.— Gadow, 

Bronn's Thier-Relch, V5g., U, 1891, 267, 301. 
^Caj^iUmes Shabpb, Rev. Glasaif. Birds, 1891, 83; Hand-list, 11, 1900, 177. 

Small to large Capitones with the ventral pteryla forked on side of 
breast as well as on throat; nostril bored directly into the homy 
rhinotheca (without surrounding or contiguous nasal fossse); pri- 
maries relatively short, the longest exceeding secondaries by much 
less than length of culmen, the wing^tip rounded (fifth to seventh 
primaries longest), the tenth (outermost) primary much less than 
half as long as the eighth, often not more than half as long as ninth; 
bill stout to very stout, subcorneal, broad and deep basally, compressed 
terminally, the culmen never very strongly convex; tail decidedly less 
to slightly more than two-thirds as long as wing, consisting of ten 
rectrices, more or less rounded, the outermost pair of rectrices a little 
less than two-thirds to decidedly more than three-fourths as long as 
middle pair, the rectrices moderately firm, all normally broadly 
rounded at tip; tarsus equal to or (usually) longer than culmen, 
decidedly longer than longest toe with claw, stout, very distinctly 
scutellate, the scutellation holaspidean; anterior toes united or 
coalesced for whole of basal phalanx, the inner (without claw) reaching 
to about base of third phalanx of the outer toe; outer posterior toe 
about as long as outer anterior toe, the inner hind toe about half as 
long as the outer, or slightly less; latero-frontal (post-nasal) region 
with several long, antrorse, hairlike bristles, the rictal region and 
chin also with similar but less strongly developed bristles; orbital 
region sometimes partly naked. 

The BarbetB are a very homogeneous group of ''scansorial" 
**picarian" birds, related to both the Woodpeckers (Picid») and the 
Toucans (Ramphastidse), from both of which they differ in anatomical 
characters as tabulated on page 2. 

a ssBucconidft. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



312 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

The Capitonid£B are forest birds, living mostly among the tree tops, 
where they feed on fruits, berries, and insects and, some species at 
least, nest in holes in trees and lay pure white eggs. Some kinds are 
said to run up and down trunks of trees, though in a different maimer 
from the Woodpeckers. 

As a rule, they are birds of beautiful, or at least gaudy, plumage, 
the coloration consisting of strongly (but not always harmoniously) 
contrasting areas of several of the spectnmi hues 0>lue, green, 
yellow, orange, and red), usually with more or less of black. Often 
the two sexes, while equally bright or showy in coloration, are yet so 
different in their colors as to have often been described as distinct 
species. 

Unlike the Toucans, the Barbets are not confined to the American 
Tropics. In fact, they are poorly represented there, being far more 
numerous in tropical Asia and Africa. In America only four 
genera, with about eighteen species, are known to occur, about seven 
times as many genera and nearly seven times as many species being 
foimd in the Eastern Hemisphere.* 

''They are birds mostly of a bright green plumage, some of them 
variegated, especially on the head, with scarlet, violet, blue, or yel- 
low, though others are plainly colored. All of them seem to live 
chiefly on fruit, but insects occasionally form part of their food, and 
in captivity they become carnivorous. They breed in holes of trees, 
laying white eggs, and most, if not all, of them utter a clear ringing 
note so loud as to attract general attention." (Newton, Dictionary 
of Birds, Part I, p. 28.) 

''Although the limits of this family appear to be well defined, the 
characters used for the separation of genera are by no means easy to 
distinguish, and in any case they are difhcult to formulate. The 
OapiUmidm appear to me to constitute a family of Picarian birds in 
which no single character for the separation of genera can be con- 
sidered to be absolute, and even style of coloration is of no avail as 
a generic character. As a rule, the plumage is gaudy and the con- 
trasts striking; but there are some genera, such as CalorhampJms and 
OymnohuccOf which it would be difficult to match for dullness of 
coloration. Scarcely one of the genera admitted here is so well 
defined that it does not form a link toward some other genus, and 
Pogtmorhyrichus and its allies may well be considered as subgenera 

«In Sharpens "Hand-list of the Genera and Species of Birds," ii, 1900, 177-187, 
nineteen genera and one hundred and twenty-two species of Capitonidse are listed as 
peculiar to the Old World. Of these, eleven genera and eighty-two species are found 
in Africa only, while eight genera and forty species occur only in southern Asia and 
the Indo-Malayan region. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMEKIOA. 313 

bdonging to one leading type, of which the toothed bill is the most 
prominent feature. The same may be said of Barhatula and Smi- 
larhis, and MegdUema and CyanopsJ' (Shelley, Cat. Birds Brit. 
Mus., Vol. XIX, p. 13.) 

The authors of a beautiful monograph of the family, Messrs. 
C. H. T. and G. F. L. Marshall, have divided the Capitonidae into 
three subfamilies, Fogonorhynchinse, Megalseminse, and Capitoninse, 
but later writers ignore these subdivisions. 

KEY TO THE AMERICAN GENERA OF CAPITONn>iB. 

a. Tomia smooth, without difitinct, if any, eubtenninal notch or denticulation; tip of 
mandible edmple (normal); bUl more slender, its width at base less than length 
of maTilla from nostril; mesorhinium broadly rounded or flattened ; tail very little 
more (often less) than two-thirds as long as wing, the outermost pair of rectrices 
two-thirds to more than three-fourths as long as middle pair; adult males without 
a nuchal tuft; sexes distinctly different in coloration. 
b. Bill more slender; nostrils narrower, separated by a much narrower mesorhinium; 
tail more than two-thirds as long as wing, the outer pair of rectrices much less 
than three-fourths as long as middle pair; outermost (tenth) primary about 
half as long as ninth, relatively broad; back, etc., plain green; sexes with col- 
oration of head and neck very different Eubuoco (p. 314). 

bb. Bill stouter; nostrils circular, separated by a much broader mesorhinium; tail 
less than two-thirds as long as wing, the outer pair of rectrices nearly to more 
than three-fourths as long as middle pair; outermost (tenth) primary much less 
than half as long as ninth, relatively very narrow; back, etc., black, streaked, 
etc., with yellow or orange (or botii), or plain glossy blue-black; sexes with 
coloration of head not essentially different (except, sometimes, throat). 

Capito (p. 319). 

aa. Maxillary tomium conspicuously notched and toothed subterminally; tip of 

mandible bifurcate; bill stouter, its width at base greater than length of maxilla 

from nostril; mesorhinimn narrowly ridged; tail much more than two-thirds as 

long as wing, the outer pair of rectrices less than two-thirds as long as middle 

pair; adult males with a nuchal tuft of elongated, glossy black feathers, the sexes 

otherwise alike in coloration. 

5. Lateral base of maxilla more swollen; mesorhinimn less distinctly ridged; middle 

toe, without claw, much more than two-thirds as long as tarsus; outermost 

rectrices slightly more than half as long as middle pair; coloration much more 

varied, the chest bright red, pileum glossy black with a white spot on each 

side of occiput Senmomls (extralimital).<> 

hb. Lateral base of maxilla less swollen; mesorhinium more distinctly ridged; mid- 
dle toe, without claw, not more than two-thirds as long as tarsus; outermost 
rectrices nearly two-thirds as long as middle pair; coloration plain, without 
red, glossy black (except nuchal tuft of adult male), or white. 

Diororhynohus (p. 324). 

<» Tetragonopa (not of Gerstftcker, February or March, 1855) Jardine, Edinburgh 
Riiloe. Joum., n. s., ii, no. 2, October, 1855, 404 (type, T, rampfuxBtinua Jardine). — 
Pan (not of Oken, 1816) Richmond, Auk, xvi, January, 1899, 77 (to replace Tetra- 
gonop$ Jardine, preoccupied).— ^cmnomw Richmond, Auk, xvii, April, 1900, 179 (to 
replace Pan Richmond, preoccupied). 

A monotypic genus, the single known species of which is confined to eastern 
Ecuador. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



814 BULLETIN 60, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Genus EUBUCCO Bonaparte. 

Eubucco Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1860, 142. (Type, Capito richardsoni Gray.) 
Abelterua*^ Heine, in Heine and Reichenow, Nom. Mus. Hein. Om., 1890, 227. 
(New name to replace Eubtuxo Bonaparte on grounds oi piuism.) 

Rather small CapitonidsB (length about 130-160 mm.) with rather 
slender, compressed bill, relatively narrow mesorhinium, oval to 
nearly linear nostrils, tail less than two-thirds as long as wing, outer- 
most (tenth) pflrimary broad and about half as long as ninth, back, etc., 
plain green or olive-green, the sexes with coloration of head and neck 
radically different. 

Bill about as long as head, rather slender (its depth at nostril equal to 
not more than half the length of exposed culmen), very much broader 
than deep at base (width at base at least one and a half times as great 
as depth at same point), compressed anteriorly; culmen rounded (or 
at least not distinctly ridged), nearly straight for basal half or more, 
gently convex terminally, the tip of maxilla pointed and more or less 
strongly decurved, but not uncinate; gonys about as long as man- 
dibular rami or slightly longer, nearly straight, ascending terminally, 
not ridged; lateral base of maxilla more or less timiid or turgid, espe- 
ciaUy the upper-posterior margin; tomia perfectly smooth, the max- 
illary tomium rather strongly though gradually deflected basally. 
Nostril small, more or less narrow, partly concealed by, or at least in 
contact with (posteriorly) feathering of frontal antisB, from which 
spring several rather long but very slender antrorse bristles, the chin 
and rictal region with similar but rather smaller bristles. Orbital 
region partly naked. Wing rather short, very concave beneath, much 
rounded; longest primaries exceeding secondaries by much less than 
length of exposed culmen, the sixth and seventh or fifth, sixth, and 
seventh primaries longest, eighth shorter than fourth (sometimes 
diorter than second), ninth much shorter than first, the tenth (outer- 
most) about half as long as ninth, normally broad. Tail more than 
two-thirds as long as wing, the outermost pair of rectrices more than 
half to slightly more than two-thirds as long as middle pair. Tarsus 
slightly shorter to longer than culmen (from base), decidedly longer 
than longest toe with claw. 

Coloration. — Above (except sometimes head and neck) plain green 
(varying from bluish green to olive-green), under parts with more or 
less of yellow, the flanks striped with green or greenish dusky; adult 
males with at least pileum red and a bluish band across hindneck; 
adult females without red on head. 

Range. — Cbsta Rica to Bolivia and eastern Peru. (About eight 
species and subspecies.) 

o ^ApkXnpoCt silly, stupid. (Richmond.) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BIBDS OF NORTH AKD MIDDLE AHBBICA. 815 

KST TO TBX 8P1CISS AND 8UMPBGIX0 Or BUBUGOO. 

o. Pileum and auricular region red (more or less bright). {Adult maUi.) 
h. Malar region red, like pileum and throat; no red or orange pectoral patch. 
(Eulmcoo bowrcieri.) 
c. Red of foreneck extending over median portion of cheat and breast to upper 
abdomen, the color on each side of this sulphur yellow. (Central Colombia.) 
Bubuooo booioiezl bouroierl, adult male (extralimital). « 
ce. Red of foreneck not extending ^^ther backward than chest, the whole chest 
and breast yellow or tawny-orange (sometimes passing into sulphur yellow 
laterally). 
d. Breast and chest sulphur yellow (sometimes tawny-orange medially); green 
of back, etc., more olivaceous. (Eastern Ecuador.) 

lubuooo bonioieKi sheUeyl, adult male (extralimital).^ 

dd. Chest and breast wholly dull orange or tawny-orange; green of back, etc., 

purer (less olivaceous). 

e. Chest and breast more deeply orange or tawny-orange; wing averaging 73.1, 

tail 48.6, exposed culmen 19.3, tarsus 21.5, outer anterior toe 15.9. 

(Western Ecuador to northwestern Colombia.) 

lubBOCo bouoieii »qiiatorialii, adult male (extralimital).^, 

ee. Chest and breast lighter orange or tawny-orange; wing averaging 71, tail 

47.7, exposed culmen 19, tarsus 20, outer anterior toe 15.3. (Costa Rica 

and western Panama.) Bubucoo bouroieii salvlni, adult male p. 317). 

<> Micropoffon bourcieri Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., viii, May, 1845, 179 (Bogota, Colom* 
bia;=adult male); Rev. et Mag. de Zool., i, 1849, 116, pi. 4. — C[ap%to] bourdmiQiBj^ 
Gen. Birds, ii, March, 1846, 430.— Capito boureieri Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lend., 
1854, 115; Marshall, Mon. Capit., 1871, 165, pi. 66; Shelley, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xiz, 
1891, 118, pi. 5, fig. 6.— Capito haureieni Ooflln, Mus. Pays-Bas, i, Buccones, 1863, 58.— 
[Eubueco] bourcieri Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 142 (Colombia). — lUeropogon 
harUaubii Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., viii. May, 1845, 180 (Bogota, Colombia; nadult 
emale) ; Rev. et Mag. de Zool., i, 1849, 176, pi. 6.— C[apito] hartlaubii Gray, Gen. Birds, 
ii, March, 1846, 430.— Captto hartlaubi Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1854, 115.— 
Capito hartlaubii Goffin, Mus. Pays-Bas, i, 1863, 6l,—{Eubucoo] hartlaubi Bonaparte, 
Consp. Av., i, 1850, 142 (Bogot4). — Capito capi»iraiu$ Eyton, Jardine's Contr. Gm. for 
1849 (pub. 1850?), 131 (no locality given; types in coll. T. C. Eyton and Knowdey 
Mus.). — Megalaima capistratua Eyton, Jardine's Contr. Gm., 1850, 29, pi. 45. 

b Capito ihelleyi Dalmas, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1900, 175 (Napo, e. Ecuador). 
An adult male from Napo in the collection of the American Museum of Natural History 
agrees with Dalmas* description except that the median portion (broadly) of the 
breast and upper abdomen are tawny-orange. 

c Eubucco bourcieri (not Mieropogon bourcieri Lafresnaye) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1859, 146 (Pallatanga, Ecuador); 1860, 95 (Nanegal, Ecuador), 297 (Esmeraldas, 
Ecuador).— Capito bourcieri Sclater, Ibis, 1861, 188, part (Esmeraldas; Nan^); 
Salvin, Ibis, 1870, 111, 112, part (Ecuador); Berlepech and Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1883, 573 (Chimbo, Ecuador); Shelley, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xix, 1891, 
118, part (Intac, Esmeraldas, and Nanegal, Ecuador).— Capito «quatoriali$ Salvadori 
and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool., etc., Torino, xv, no. 368, Feb. 19, 1900, 22 (Intac, w. 
Ecuador; coll. Mus. Zool., etc., Turin).— CTaptto] blourderil mquatorialii Menegaux, 
Bull. Soc. Fhilom., 1908, 4, in text (Gualea, w. Ecuador). 

I am not at all sure that the birds from northwestern Colombia (San Antonio, Rio 
Gali) really belong to E, b. tequatorialii, not h