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U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN, 133 PL. I 




Map of Southern South America, to Show Collecting Localities 
Mentioned in the Present Report. Route of Travel Is Indicated 
BY Heavy Dotted Line 



La.x^-0 - S<-^ 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 
Bulletin 133 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE 

BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, 

URUGUAY, AND CHILE 



BY 



ALEXANDER WETMORE 

Assistant Secretary, Smithsonian Institution 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
1926 



ADVERTISEMENT 

The scientific publications of the National Museum include two 
series, known, respectively, as Proceedings and Bulletin. 

The Proceedings^ begun in 1878, is intended primarily as a 
medium for the publication of original papers, based on the collec- 
tions of the National Museum, that set forth newly acquired facts 
in biology, anthropology, and geology, with descriptions of new 
forms and revisions of limited groups. Copies of each paper, in 
pamphlet form, are distributed as published to libraries and 
scientific organizations and to specialists and others interested in 
the different subjects. The dates at which these separate papers 
are published are recorded in the table of contents of each of the 
volumes. 

The Bulletin^ the first of which was issued in 1875, consists of 
a series of separate publications comprising monographs of large 
zoological groups and other general systematic treatises (occasion- 
ally in several volumes), faunal works, reports of expeditions, 
catalogues of type-specimens, special collections, and other material 
of similar nature. The majority of the volumes are octavo in size, 
but a quarto size has been adopted in a few instances in which 
large plates were regarded as indispensable. In the Bulletin series 
appear volumes under the heading Contributions from the United 
States National Herhatium^ in octavo form, published by the 
National Museum since 1902, which contain papers relating to the 
botanical collections of the Museum. 

The present work forms No. 133 of the Bulletin series. 

Alexander Wetmore, 
AssiMant Secretary., Smithsonian Institution. 

Washington, D. C, December 3. 1925. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Page 

Introduction 1 

Itinerary 2 

Life zones 15 

Tropical Zone 15 

Lower Austral Zone 16 

Upper Austral Zone 17 

Temperate Zone 18 

Notes on migration 19 

Annotated list of birds 39 

Rheiformes 23 

Rheidae 23 

Tinam^formes 27 

TLnamidae 27 

Sphenisciformes 42 

Spheniscidae 42 

Colymbiformes 43 

Colymbidae 43 

Procellariiformes 50 

Diomedeidae 50 

Hydrobatidae 50 

Ciconiiformes 53 

Phalacrocoracidae 53 

Anhingidae 54 

Ardeidae 54 

Ciconiidae 60 

Threskiornithidae 63 

Plataleidae 65 

Phoenicopteridae 67 

Anhimidae 67 

Anseriformes 69 

Anatidae 69 

Falconiformes 86 

Cathartidae 86 

Falconidae 92 

Accipitridae 104 

Galliformes 116 

Cracidae 116 

Gruiformes 118 

Rallidae 118 

Aramidae 126 

Cariamidae 128 

Charadriiformes 129 

Stercorariidae 129 

Laridae 131 

III 



IV TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Annotated list of birds — Continued. Page. 

Charadriiformes — Continued. 

Jacanidae 141 

Kecurvirostridae 143 

Haematopodidae 144 

Phalaroix)didae 145 

Scolopacidae 146 

Charadriidae 164 

Thinocoridae 172 

Columbiformes 174 

Columbidae 174 

Cuculiformes 186 

Cuculidae 186 

Psittaciformes 191 

Psittacidae 191 

Coraciiformes 199 

Tytonidae 199 

Strigidae 200 

Nyctibiidae 202 

Caprimulgidae 203 

Alcedinidae 206 

Bucconidae 209 

Ramphastidae 210 

Picidae 210 

Trogonidae 225 

Trochilidae 226 

Micropodidae 232 

Passeriformes 234 

Dendrocolaptidae 234 

Furnariidae 242 

Formicariidae 283 

Rhinocryptidae 289 

Cotingidae 293 

Tyrannidae 295 

Phytotomidae 339 

Hirundinidae 341 

Troglodytidae 347 

Mimidae 350 

Turdidae 355 

Sylviidae 359 

Motaoillidae 360 

Corvidae 364 

Cyclarhidae — ^ 366 

Vireonidae 367 

Compsothlypidae 368 

Icteridae 372 

Thraupidae 391 

Fringillidae 395 

Index 435 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, 
URUGUAY, AND CHILE 



By Alexander Wetmore 
Assistant Secretary, Smithsonian Institution^ 



INTRODUCTION 

The successful operation of the Federal Migratory Bird Treaty 
in according protection, hitherto uncertain, to migratory game and 
insectivorous birds, with resultant increase in many species, led 
naturally to inquiries regarding the present status of birds that 
migrate in winter beyond our borders. Particularly was this the 
case with those species, mainly shore birds, that pass south into the 
southern portion of the South American Continent. To gather first 
hand information on the questions involved the Biological Survey, 
United States Department of Agriculture, in May, 1920, dispatched 
the writer to Argentina with instructions to carry on the desired 
observations. During the extended period of field work incident to 
such a task there was abundant opportunity to make representative 
collections of native birds and to record many points of interest 
concerning their distribution and habits. 

Since observation of shore birds was the main object in mind, 
travel was restricted largely to the level sections where suitable 
shores and marshes were available, so that collections were made in 
the main in the lowlands. The area covered extended from north- 
ern Paraguay south to northern Patagonia, and from the eastern 
border of Uruguay west to the foothills of the Andes in Mendoza, 
and included a limited section near Valparaiso, Chile. Points for 
work were chosen carefully to allow comprehensive survey of as 
large an area as practicable. Studies of the specimens secured to- 
gether with field observations, where pertinent, are presented here- 
with in as much detail as is warranted. 

For assistance while in South America, thanks are due especially 
to Dr. Roberto Dabbene of the Museo Nacional in Buenos Aires, 

^ The investigations covered in the following pages were made when the author was 
on the staff of the Bureau of Biological Survey, U. S. Department of Agriculture. The 
report has been brought to completion since he became Assistant Secretary of the 
Smithsonian Institution. 

1 



2 BULLETIN 133^ UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

our foremost authority on Argentine birds, for information and 
assistance in organizing field work in Argentina, and many valuable 
details regarding the country. Dr. Roberto Sundberg, of the De- 
fensa Agricola, among others, was instrumental in securing permits 
necessary for work in Uruguay, and Sefior Juan Tremoleras, of 
Montevideo, an experienced naturalist, gave valuable information 
regarding his country. In Valparaiso Dr. Edwyn Reed was most 
cordial in arranging for work in the vicinity, and later forwarded 
a number of valuable specimens from Juan Fernandez Island. Ac- 
knowledgment is due also to many friends for courtesies in connec- 
tion with the prosecution of field work, for living quarters in re- 
mote sections, and for transportation where travel was difficult. 

In subsequent work on the collections secured, loan of material 
necessary for comparison has been obtained through the friendly 
cooperation of the authorities of the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, the Field Museum of Natural History, the Carnegie Mu- 
seum, the American Museum of Natural History, and the Museum 
of Vertebrate Zoology, while visits made to the four institutions 
first named have permitted more comprehensive studies. Finally 
acknowledgment is made of the constant advice of Dr. C. W. Rich- 
mond, Associate Curator of Birds in the United States National 
Museum, in particular with regard to obscure and difficult points 
in nomenclature. 

ITINERARY 

In the following paragraphs is given an itinerary of travel per- 
formed while engaged in the duties outlined in the preceding para- 
graphs, with brief descriptions of the localities where specimens 
were secured. These have been located as definitely as possible since 
many of them are not shown in current atlases. They may be 
found also on the accompanying map (pi. 1), where the route 
followed is shown by a dotted line, and collecting localities are 
indicated by a line drawn below the name of the place. 

On June 21, 1920, after a 24-day journey from New York, I ar- 
rived in Buenos Aires, where Dr. Roberto Dabbene, at the Museo 
Nacional de Historia Natural, received me with the greatest cor- 
diality and on this and many subsequent occasions accorded me the 
freedom of the museum collections, gave me letters of introduction to 
naturalists throughout Argentina, and aided in many other ways. 
Several days were occupied in necessary preliminaries and in secur- 
ing needed information. On June 29, during a day afield near 
Berazategui, Province of Buenos Aires, distant 27 kilometers south- 
east of Buenos Aires, I secured my first specimens of Argentine birds. 
The region was one of level fields, with bordering lines of willows 



BIEDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 3 

and eucalypts, that gave waj^ to muddy shores and rush or brush 
grown marshes at the border of the Rio de la Plata. 

On the evening of July 3 I left Buenos Aires for the north by rail, 
and arrived the following noon at Santa Fe, where I had oppor- 
tunity for a trip afield in the afternoon in level country near an open 
lagoon. As this was the hunting season many men were out in 
pursuit of birds of all kinds, as was the case at Berazategui. That 
same evening I continued north by rail to Resistencia, capital of the 
Territory of Chaco, where I arrived the following night. At Resisten- 
cia I was fortunate in meeting Seiior Enrique Lynch Arribalzaga, with 
whom I was associated for several days. Field work was carried on 
here in a limited area of marsh, small lagoons, brush-grown fields 
and pastures, thickets, and small woodland near the Rio Negro, a 
small stream north of town. On July 11 I continued to Barran- 
queros, on the banks of the Rio Parana, 8 kilometers from Resisten- 
cia, and crossed by steamer to Corrientes. The following morning 
at daybreak I embarked on a small steamer for the port of Las 
Palmas. Travel on the great inland river systems at this time was 
uncertain, due to a strike among sailors who manned the steamers, 
and most of the boats normally available were not running. Gov- 
ernment police boats were pressed into service for transportation of 
mails, and it was one of these that afforded communication at the 
time between Corrientes and Formosa. The river at this point 
varied from 200 to 400 meters in width, with its swift, turbid current 
enclosed between cut banks 2 or 3 meters high. Above Corrientes the 
shores were wooded or open by turns, with scant sign of habitation. 
At one point a hill 10 meters high made a marked eminence in an 
otherwise level landscape. 

The port for Las Palmas, Chaco, is located on the western bank of 
the Rio Paraguay, a short distance above the confluence of that 
stream with the Parana. The steamer cast anchor, swung in to the 
shore, a plank was thrust out to the bank, and the few passengers 
and luggage for this point disembarked. A small narrow-gauge 
railroad led inland for 9 kilometers to the little village of Las 
Palmas, headquarters for a large estancia that covered 60 leagues of 
land. The manager, R. A. Young, to whom I presented a letter 
from Seiior Enrique Caceres, governor of the Territory of Chaco, 
received me here and granted permission to carry on work on the 
lands under his charge. Quarters were obtained at a little fonda in 
the village. A strike among workmen employed in the quebracho 
and sugar mill was in progress, and at times the factory, guarded by 
militia imported for the purpose from Buenos Aires, was virtually in 
a state of siege. The Rio Quia, known familiarly as the " Riacho," 
passed the northern border of town, with numerous small lagoons 



4 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

and old river channels, or esteros, adjacent. The Rio de Oro, a large 
stream, drained an area farther north. Tracts of woodland, partly 
open and partly dense jungle, bordered streams and channels, with 
broad savannas on either side, through which were scattered groves of 
trees, many 18 or 20 meters tall. Slight depressions in the prairies 
were filled with water and many low tracts were grown with tall 
stands of saw grass, laiown as paja hrava. Lagoons were bordered 
by rushes and covered with floating masses of vegetation. Suitable 
tracts in the higher savannas were under cultivation, and grazing 
cattle had opened trails through forest that otherwise would have 
been impassable. (Pis. 2, 3, and 4.) 

Work was completed here on August 2, when I went down again to 
the port to board another police boat bound up the Paraguay for 
Formosa. The current was swift, rendering progress slow. The 
banks were wooded, with game or cattle trails leading to water at 
intervals, or with occasional clearings in the vicinity of the few 
small towns. (PI. 4.) 

Formosa, the capital of the Territory of Formosa, located on 
the west bank of the Rio Paraguay, was reached early on August 3. 
The land on the river bank near the town is comparatively high, but 
inland and to the north becomes low and swampy. A line of railroad 
built by the National Government to promote development of the 
country extended northwest from Formosa for a distance of 297 
kilometers, on a line midway between the Bermejo and Pilcomayo 
rivers. It was contemplated to extend it finally to Embarcacion, 
where it would connect with other lines from the south. Stations 
on this road at this time bore numbers corresponding to their dis- 
tance in kilometers from Formosa. On August 5 I took the biweekly 
train to Kilometer 182, a point that had been recommended by 
Mayordomo, Cacique of the Tobas, whom I had met at Las Palmas. 
As the railroad leaves Formosa it enters the Chaco, a broad nearly 
level area of alternate forest and marshy savanna, cut by several 
large streams, that extends west of the Rio Paraguay from north- 
ern Santa Fe north through Chaco, Formosa, and western Para- 
guay into Bolivia. For miles our train traversed a roadbed built 
through an interminable estero, with broad swamps and prairies 
on either hand, dotted with slender trunked palms interspersed 
with stands of saw-edged grass and rushes, and bordered by bands 
of low-growing hardwoods, prominent among which was the que- 
bracho, valuable for its dye product. Hundreds of acres were 
covered with ant hills built up 3 or 4 feet above the surrounding 
level to raise them above inundations caused by the summer rains. 
At intervals we crept out to higher ground and stopped at some 
little station, with a cluster of low houses or grass-thatched huts 
about it. Elsewhere no signs of man were visible; bands of rheas. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 133 PL. 2 




Border of Low Woodland in Formosan Chaco 

Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, August 8, 1920 




Small Lagoon in Chaco, Partly Covered with Floating Plant 
Known as Llantel de Caballo (Pistia occidentalis) 

La Sabana, Chaco, July 5, 1920 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 133 PL. 3 




PARTLY Dry Lagoon in Chaco, Bordered by Dense Growth of Sawgrass 

Resistencia, Chaco, July S, Ui2() 




Termite Hill Opened by Flickers (Colaptes campestroides) 

Las Palmas, Chaco, July 30, 1920 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 133 PL. 4 




A Stagnant Estero. or Ancient River Channel, in Chaco, Bordered 
BY Forest and Covered with Growth of Water Hyacinth; Haunt 
of Jacanas Jacana JACANA) 

Las Palmas .Chaco ..July 30, 1920 




Mouth of Rio de Oro Where It Debouches into the Rio Paraguay. 
The Low Wooded Banks Are Typical of the Chaco 

Below Puerto Bermejo, Chaco, August 2, 1920 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 133 PL. 5 




Sluggish Stream Draining a Broad Palmar, or Marsh Grown with 

Slender Palms 

Near Formosa, Formosa, August 23, 1920 




Open Tract West of Puerto Pinasco. Paraguay. Dry Grass, 
Growing in Sandy Loam, Has Been Burned by Indians to Drive Out 
Game 

Riacho Salado ,170 kilometers west of Rio Paraguay, September 24, 1920 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 5 

^ocks of maguari storks, coiirlans, and other strange birds were 
numerous. In mid-afternoon I reached my destination, Kilometer 
182 (known locally as Fontana), and there left the railroad at the 
hospitable invitation of Don Pedro Upitz to continue by oxcart 
northwest for 15 kilometers to the estancia Linda Vista on the 
Riacho Pilaga. Seilor Upitz had come in here as a colonist four 
years before, and had established himself beyond the limit of scant 
settlement in open country ranged by the Tobas. For several miles 
on either side of the railroad the forest had been cut away, but at 
the Riacho Pilaga tree growth was in its original condition. Open 
savannas, often of a marshy nature, mingled with scattered groves, 
while near the small sluggish streams, known as riachos, were 
extensive forests with a jungle undergrowth that, as it was not 
grazed, required a machete to penetrate. Several lagoons, some 
covered with matted vegetation that drifted about with the wind, 
offered attraction to water birds. The savannas were grown with 
bunch grass that seldom attained great height as it was burned 
yearly by the Indians to drive out concealed game. An extensive 
forest, known as the Monte Ingles, lay near a little frequented 
stream, the Riacho Ingles. The country as a whole was higher 
than that immediately west of Formosa and was now comparatively 
dry. It is inundated extensively during the summer rains. Frost 
was frequent; the first intimation of spring came toward the close 
of my stay with the blossoming of the tree known as lapacho 
{Teconia ohtusata). On August 21 I returned to Formosa for 
further work for a few days. (Pis. 2 and 5.) 

On August 26 I passed my equipment through the Argentine 
customs in Formosa and crossed by rowboat to Alberdi, Paraguay, 
a little town on the opposite side of the Rio Paraguay, where pas- 
sage was secured by steamer for Asuncion. The following morning 
I had a view of the winding outlet of the Rio Pilcomayo, and a short 
time later landed in Asuncion, the capital of Paraguay. Through 
the kindness of officials of the International Products Co., I re- 
ceived permission to visit their extensive land holdings in Alto 
Paraguay, and on August 28 set out up river again for Puerto 
Pinasco. 

The Rio Paraguay this season was higher than normal by several 
feet, the water was tinged a dull olive, though with little sediment, 
and the current ran swiftly. On the west the shores were uniformly 
low, but low hills appeared at intervals on the eastern bank. At 
long intervals we stopped at small towns, and once or twice remained 
for several hours to take on wood used as fuel. The boat arrived 
at Puerto Pinasco, marked on older maps as Puerto Stanley, at 
daybreak on August 31. At this point the river is deflected to the 
west by a long hill projecting from higher country behind, and flows 

54207—26 2 



6 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

in general in an east and Avest direction for several kilometers before 
turning again to the south. At Puerto Pinasco the International 
Products Co. maintained a quebracho mill and headquarters for 
their cattle ranches, that in the aggregate covered several hundred 
square leagues of land. The Americans stationed here received me 
with greatest hospitality, and I owe much to their friendly assist- 
ance, in particular to Frank Branson, in charge of the large ranch 
at Kilometer 80, to Carl Hettman, his assistant, and to Fred Hett- 
man, engineer for the companj^ at Puerto Pinasco. On September 
1 I visited a low hill, covered w'ith dense forest located 35 kilometers 
west of the port. This hill or cerro, noted as being the only elevation 
of the sort in this part of the Chaco, was formed by an outcrop of 
what appeared to be quartzite, porphyritic in spots, overlaid with 
a deposit of limestone in which were traces of molluscan fossils. 
It rose 15 to 18 meters above the surrounding level. Apparently it 
is an outlier of the higher land that here forms the eastern bank 
of the stream. On September 3 I worked near the river at Puerto 
Pinasco and on September 4 proceeded inland to the ranch at Kilo- 
meter 80, located 80 kilometers west of the port. A narrow-gauge 
railroad used in transporting quebracho logs and supplies ran out 
for 56 kilometers; the rest of the journey was performed on horse- 
back. The region showed the diversity usual in the Chaco. Broad 
savannas were broken by belts of low woodland, with dense under- 
growth of spiny plants, or had scattered bushes and trees over their 
surface. Abundant growth of grasses furnished almost limitless 
feed for cattle. Lagoons, usually U shaped, and often a kilometer 
or two long, were numerous, and harbored many water birds. A 
meandering stream, the Riacho Jacare, wound across the country 
which was divided by fences into huge pastures 5 kilometers square 
each, thus embracing a league of land. Broad areas were covered 
with open stands of tall slender palms. A large open lagoon at 
the ranch house furnished an attractive point at which to observe 
shore birds passing abundantly in migi'ation. It was much w^armer 
here, there was no frost, and the discomforts of cold quarters in the 
Chaco of Argentina were soon forgotten. Warm, dry winds from 
the north prevailed. 

On September 23, in company w'ith Carl Hettman, I made a brief 
trip into the unexplored interior in a motor car. We continued west 
to a puesto, or outlying shelter hut at Kilometer 110, where we re- 
mained for the afternoon and night, collecting about a lagoon. The 
following morning we passed out through the last fences and con- 
tinued west over Indian footpaths. The country was level and, as 
in the Chaco in general, the alternate belts of savanna and woodland 
ran east and west. Large areas grown with scattered palms were 
evidently inundated by summer rains; the forest groAvth became 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 7 

lower as we progressed. The dry season was near its close, and 
lagoons and streams were disappearing rapidly where they were 
not already dry. We crossed the stream bed of the Riacho Salado 
several times, now dry except for occasional alkaline pools, and 
passed two fair-sized lakes, Laguna Lata and Laguna Perdido. At 
Kilometer 200 we camped at a lake named Laguna Wall. Here w^e 
were beyond the limits of the Anguete Indians and encountered the 
first Lenguas. Seventy-five kilometers beyond was Laguna Verde, 
and still farther we heard there was a large Indian village. Con- 
siderable areas of slightly rolling country, with loose sandy loam, 
were traversed, and extensive thickets of a heavy thorned shrub, 
Imown as vinal., were encountered. There was evident approach to 
a more arid section, different from that found nearer the river. (PL 5.) 
We saw one jaguar, greatly astonished at the apparition of our 
rapidly moving car, encountered two otters traveling in search of 
permanent water, and startled occasional small deer, or rheas. Birds 
were numerous. On September 26 we returned to the home ranch, 
and on the 28th I arrived again in Puerto Pinasco. On September 
30 an Indian took me across to the eastern bank of the Rio Paraguay, 
where I spent the day on the long hill already mentioned, the Cerro 
Lorito, of limestone formation, which rises 100 meters or more above 
the stream. Tall forest growth came to the water's edge and har- 
bored species of birds not seen in the Chaco. Broad stretches of 
quiet water on either side of the river were covered with masses of 
floating water hyacinth and other growth, known collectively as 
camalote. 

On October 2 I took the steamer to Asuncion, where I arrived on 
October 3, and continued on the 7th by rail to Buenos Aires, reach- 
ing that city on the 9th. Various matters of business consumed the 
period until October 19 when I proceeded to Dolores, in the eastern 
part of the Province of Buenos Aires, by rail, and then on October 
22 continued east to Lavalle, traveling by motor as far as Conessa 
and by horse-drawn vehicle for the remainder of the distance. This 
region is a vast plain, elevated only slightly above sea level, with 
winding channels or cailadones bordered by rush-grown marshes at 
frequent intervals. Land was divided into extensive estancias given 
over mainl}?^ to grazing, so that rural population was limited. Lavalle 
(formerly called Ajo) is a straggling village on the banks of a 
small tidal stream known as the Rio Ajo. The land here is lower 
than at Dolores, so that exceptional tides force water up into some 
of the streets of the village; 10 kilometers below Lavalle the Ajo 
flows into the Bay of Samborombon. For this distance the stream 
is bordered by marshes and alkaline barrens, grown with Salicomia 
feruviana^ with occasional little elevated spots that support a few 
low trees or bushes. Tidal channels with soft clay bottoms, difficult 



8 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

and often dangerous to cross, wind about through the marshy flats. 
Across the level pampa inland a few slight elevations of a meter 
or so are grown with groves of native trees that form veritable 
islands in an apparently limitless level plain, otherwise broken 
only by widely scattered estancias with their plantations of eucalypts. 
While at Lavalle it was my good fortune to spend a number of 
days at the Estancia Los Yngleses, the home of the late Ernest 
Gibson, an ornithologist well known for his careful and painstak- 
ing observations on the birds of this region. The Gibson estate is 
located about 6 kilometers south of Lavalle, and is surrounded by 
well-established groves of eucalyptus in addition to the lower tala, 
ombu, and coronillo trees native to the pampa. For work quarters 
it was my privilege to occupy a little building erected by Mr. Gibson 
for a study and museum. From this hospitable point I crossed on 
November 3 to the coast where camp was made in a little hut, 25 
kilometers south of the northern point of Cabo San Antonio, on 
property belonging to the Estancia Tuyu. Here a broad sand 
beach extended north and south as far as the eye could reach, bor- 
dered inland by a stretch of shifting sand dunes 400 meters wide, 
with a marshy swale intervening between the dunes and the more 
elevated grazing lands beyond. Like most of this coastal region, 
this tract was visited only by occasional herdsmen or by parties from 
one of the estancias. Shore birds were encountered in migration 
from the north, with a great flight of long-tailed and parasitic 
jaegers, while large bands of pintails and other ducks came up from 
the south. A tremendous storm that endured for two days interfered 
somewhat with field work. On November 8 I returned to Los 
Yngleses, and November 11 continued to Lavalle for a few more 
days at the mouth of the Ajo and the vicinity. On November 16 I 
crossed by stage coach to Santo Domingo on the railroad, a distance 
of 18 leagues across the green plains, with only an occasional grove 
or an estancia to break the line of the horizon. For the first half 
of the distance marshes were frequent, but beyond the land became 
higher. The great storm of 10 days before was reported to have 
killed 300,000 sheep in the Province of Buenos Aires alone, and in 
many places we passed piles of their bodies, (Pis. 6 and 7,) 

On November 17 I returned by rail to Buenos Aires, and on the 
20th left again for the south. On the following morning the train 
passed through the barren hills of the Sierra de la Ventana and 
arrived in Bahia Blanca, where the route turned west. After leav- 
ing the level flats near the sea the railroad traversed an arid section 
slightly elevated and rolling, covered with low scrub and occasional 
tracts of scanty grass. At Rio Colorado descent was made to the. 
stream valley of that name, and continued along it to Fortin Uno^ 
where we crossed another elevated region to the valley of the Rio 



BIEDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 9 

Negro. At night on November 21 I reached the station of Rio Negro 
and obtained quarters in the village of General Roca, 2 kilometers 
distant. The valley of the Rio Negro here was about G kilometers 
wide, with a line of low rolling hills of sand and water-worn gravel 
at the north, cut by winding valleys that became steep-sided bar- 
rancas where first they opened on the flats below, and then disap- 
peared. The region was arid and had vegetation of the usual desert 
types. Thorny mesquites (Prosopis strombulifera) were common, 
mingled with a yellow-flowered shrub {Caesalpina fraecox)^ and 
creosote bush {Covillea divaricata and G. nitida). An opuntia 
{Opuntia hickeni) and a turkey-head cactus {Echinopsis leucantha) 
was fairly common. The valley floor, sloping gently to the Rio 
Negro, 5 kilometers from Roca, was covered with a scrub of atriplex 
{Atriplex lampa and A. crenatifolia) and creosote bush. Consider- 
able areas were cleared, and, under irrigation, yielded abundant 
crops. The actual flood plain of the stream was of sandy loam, 
interspersed with much gravel. Here were thickets of willows, some 
attaining the size of trees, and baccharis (Baccharis dracunifolia) , 
with a varied flora of herbs. Cottonwoods and tamarisk {7'auiaHx 
gallica) have been planted along irrigation ditches. The Rio Negro 
is a broad, swiftly-running stream, rather heavy with grayish white 
sediment. Its course was broken by low islands bordered by small 
channels, and little lagoons of quiet water were common. On the 
opposite shore a rock escarpment, with steep talus-strewn slopes at 
the base, rose to an elevation of 100 to 125 meters. The soil in gen- 
eral in this area was strongly alkaline. The crested tinamou, small 
flycatchers, finches, and odd tracheophones were common, while water 
birds abounded along the river. The region supported an avifauna 
far different from that of country covered previously. (PI. 16.) 

On the evening of December 5 I continued west by rail and 
on December 6 reached Zapala, in the Gobernacion de Neuquen, a 
town of 30 or 40 houses, at that time the terminus of the railroad, 
located on a broad flat on the watershed between the Limay and 
Neuquen Rivers, in sight of the distant snow-capped Cordillera. 
Here the land was thrown into broad ridges, with shallow depressions 
between that led down into a broad valley draining to the eastward. 
The region was arid, but supported various shrubs and a certain 
amount of grass. Elevation was about 900 meters, and the region 
lay in a higher life zone than Roca, except for certain hot north- 
facing valleys. Violent winds were frequent. Small seed snipe 
were here on their breeding grounds. Work was continued here 
until December 11. (PL 17.) 

On December 12 I arrived in Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, and on 
the following day visited the flats about the bay at Ingeniero White, 
the port for the city. Here were broad stretches of alkaline barrens 



10 BULJUETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

stretching inland from muddy bays, where shore birds were common. 
Woody vegetation was confined to low shrubs (mainly Grahwmia 
hracteata), except where willows or eucalypts grew about scattered 
houses. Broad areas were covered with Salicornia. December 14 I 
moved north by rail to Carhue, Buenos Aires, a small town just be- 
yond the Sierra de la Ventana, with a large lake of strongly saline 
water known as Lago Epiquen near by. The country here was 
rolling and was divided, as usual, into large estates given to grazing 
or the cultivation of wheat. Hollows on the pampa were occupied by 
little ponds or marshes, and extensive upland^ were grown with bunch 
grass. Thousands of grebes were present on the large lake, attracted 
perhaps by myriads of brine shrimp, but were preparing to move 
to their breeding grounds elsewhere. After a few days spent in ob- 
servation and collecting in this somewhat high pampa, on December 
21 I continued by rail by way of Alta Vista, Darragueira, and Pico 
to Victorica, in the Gobernacion de Pampa, where I arrived Decem- 
ber 22. Rolling sand dunes mingled with more level areas at this 
point and there were extensive tracts of open forest of calden {Pro- 
sopis nigra), a thick-trunked, short-limbed tree, with lower growth 
of smaller trees, spiny shrubs, and stalked cacti. The region had 
been reported as one of many lagoons, but the present season had 
been extremely dry so that little water remained, and water-loving 
birds had perforce departed for other regions. The drought broke 
after Christmas, and two tremendous downpours filled all hollows 
with water. Small brush and tree haunting birds were very 
abundant here, but their tenure is limited, as land is being steadily 
cleared for wood or for cultivation. The belt of forest (pi. 9) was 
reported to extend for many kilometers north and south. On De- 
cember 31 I departed by rail for Buenos Aires, where I arrived the 
following day. 

January 7, 1921, I embarked on a steamer and early the follow- 
ing morning arrived in Montevideo, Uruguay, where I was oc- 
cupied in various official matters for nearly two weeks, with time 
only for excursions along the coast to Carrasco, a summer resort, 
or to some of the numerous parks. On January 22 I proceeded 
by train to San Carlos and crossed by motor to Rocha in eastern 
Uruguay. The following morning I went for the day by train to 
the port of Rocha, known as La Paloma, where I found an ex- 
tensive sand beach bordered inland by rolling pampa, cut by steep- 
walled gullies that sheltered dense thickets. Returning to Rocha 
the following morning I continued by motor from Rocha to San 
Vicente de Castillos, called locally Castillos, and shown on most 
maps as San Vicente. Inland, rounded hills, with frequent ex- 
posures of granite, rose with slopes grown with thickets and low 
trees. The Cerro Navarro, northeast of town, was especially promi- 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 133 PL. 6 




View Across Level Pampas of Eastern Buenos Aires 

From lookout station at Estancia Los Yngleses, Lavalle, Buenos Aires, October 30, 1920 




Plantation of Trees on Pampa, Attractive to Small Brush Inhabit- 
ing Birds. An Ombu Tree at Left 

Estancia Los Vngleses, Lavalle, Buenos Aires, November 10, 1920 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 133 PL. 7 




Broad Saline Flats Grown with Salicornia and Pampas Grass 

.Muuth (if I{io Ajo, below Lavalle, Buenos Aires, (Jctobei- 25, 1920 





■7—r-.^^^ 










•1^--^^^^^ ' ^ ■ 



Marsh, or Canadon, Grown with Rushes, Typical of Pampas Region 

Kstaiieia Los Yngleses, Lavalle, Buenos Aires, October 29. 1920 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE H 

nent. The Laguna Castillos, Laguna Negro, and other lakes, 
swamps, and cienagas, covered broad areas on the coastal plain, 
interspersed with great forests of palms and open prairies. The 
palm groves were of a different type than those of the Chaco, as 
the trees had thick, heavy trunks and long fronds, whose heavy 
bases, when dry, furnished a valuable source of firewood. These 
groves covered large tracts extending toward the Brazilian frontier, 
a few miles distant. (Pis. 11 and 12.) Kains were frequent through- 
out my stay. It was said in San Vicente that I was the first North 
American to visit that section, and I was received with every 
courtesy. On February 2 with all my equipment I continued north 
and east of north in a two-wheeled cart drawn by horses over a 
little-traveled road heavily washed and gullied by rains. We crossed 
a range of rolling hills and then descended into a broad valley 
drained by the Arroyo Sarandi. The country was sparsely popu- 
lated, rheas were abundant, and many other birds were seen. At 
the Paso Alamo on the Sarandi, 30 kilometers north of San Vi- 
cente, I made a camp for a few hours and collected a number of 
birds in low thickets and prairies. That night I slept at a holiche 
near the level marsh known as the Banado de la India Muerta, and 
on the following morning did some collecting in the vicinity. On 
February 3 I reached Lazcano, 20 kilometers north of the marshes 
just mentioned, and there remained until February 9. Low rocky 
hills here bordered a broad valley drained by the Rio Cebollati. 
The stream itself was bordered by dense thickets and low trees, 
forming a band nowhere wide but still of fair extent, considering 
the type of country. On either hand were broad saw-grass swamps 
and meandering channels in fording which my horses frequently 
sank until head and neck alone projected above the water. Water 
birds abounded, thicket-haunting species were found along the 
stream, and prairie-inhabiting forms were encountered on the bare 
uplands. (PL 13.) 

February 9 I left Lazcano by coach, crossed the river on a ferry 
or balsa at the Paso del Santafecino to enter a more populous 
region that continued to Corrales in the Department of Corrales, 
where I arrived that night. On February 10 I returned to INIonte- 
video by railroad, and on February 13 continued by rail to Rio 
Negro, Department of Rio Negro, in northwestern Uruguay. Here 
a high, rolling plain was cut by a broad swift stream, the Rio 
Negro, bordered by low thickets with lagoons and marshes of small 
size in its flood plain. Birds were abundant but were in molt, and 
so were quiet. Rains were frequent and the weather enervating 
because of humidity and intense heat. Completing field work hero 
on February 22, I went by train to Salto on the Rio Uruguay, and 
crossed that broad stream by ferry to Concordia in Argentina, 



12 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

where, after the usual customs examination, I secured quarters until 
there was a train for Buenos Aires, where I arrived again on Feb- 
ruary 24. On February 25 the day was spent in examining collec- 
tions in the museum at La Plata, in company with Dr. Carlos Bruch. 

March 2 I went by rail to Guamini, in the southwestern part of 
the Province of Buenos Aires, not far from Carhue, where observa- 
tions had been made in December. Broad, open pampa (pi. 8), 
slightly rolling, extended for an apparently limitless distance, with 
occasional slight depressions occupied by lakes of more or less alka- 
line water that served to support fish or water stock. Guamini was 
built on the shore of the Laguna del Monte that had risen recently 
and flooded some of the lower streets of the town. Broad barrens, 
covered in part with alkaline efflorescences, stretched on either hand^ 
with salicornia, chenopodaceous plants, and other salt loving herbs 
in abundance. Fall was at hand, the pampan vegetation had turned 
brown, the sky was often overcast and the wind cold. Colder 
weather in Patagonia was driving shore birds north, and the lake 
shore furnished attractive resting places where they flocked by 
hundreds. 

On March 8 I left for Buenos Aires, where I arrived on the fol- 
lowing morning. Here I Avas fortunate in meeting James L. Peters, 
who was traveling for the Museum of Comparative Zoology at 
Harvard University. As we were both bound for western Argen- 
tina we joined forces and traveled in company for a period. After 
a farewell visit to Doctor Dabbene at the Museo Nacional, we left 
by train on March 11, and on the following evening arrived in 
Mendoza, Province of Mendoza (altitude approximately 750 meters). 
On March 13 we collected across rough arid flats cut by many dry 
washes west of the city. Thorny brush of a desert type was scat- 
tered over sandy, gravelly slopes with abrupt hills in the back- 
ground. In lower sections broad areas produced abundant crops 
through irrigation. On advice of Dr. Carlos S. Reed, then in 
charge of the Educational Museum in Mendoza, we proceeded on 
March 15 to Potrerillos, Mendoza, on the line of the transandean 
railroad, within the Andean foothills above the junction of the Eio 
Blanco and Rio Mendoza. The country Avas rough and broken, with 
bowlder-strewn winding valleys leading between steeply sloping 
hills; inland rose the snow-covered ridges of the Sierra del Plata. 
The altitude at the railroad was given as 1,370 meters. Our collect- 
ing was carried on mainly at about 1,500 meters. The region was 
only slightly less arid than the open plains below and supported the 
usual desert types of cacti, thorny shrubs, and bunch grass. The 
nights were cold and sharp and westerly winds from the higher 
slopes carried the chill of snow. On March 19 we rode inland to 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 13 

an old estancia, known as El Salto at an elevation of 1,800 meters, 
where a number of species of higher zone affinities not found below 
were taken. (Pis. 17 and 18.) 

At Potrerillos we met W. B. Alexander, engaged at the time in 
studying parasites of cactus for introduction into Australia, who 
returned with us to Mendoza, March 21, and continued in our com- 
pany on the following day, when we went by train to Tunuyan, 
Mendoza, 81 kilometers south. At this point a broad cultivated 
valley of fertile black loam bordered a small stream, known as the 
Kio Tunuyan. AYaste land along the river and extensive marshy 
cienagas furnished suitable places for water birds (pis. 18 and 19), 
and broad fields where hemp was harvested attracted seed eaters. On 
March 24 we drove west by motor for 50 kilometers to the arid slopes 
below the mountain foothills, where we found the usual desert 
shrubs. On the eastern shore of the Rio Tunuyan was a range of 
rolling sand hills from 20 to 60 meters in elevation, with many dry 
washes and arroyos covered with thorny shrubs. Weather in gen- 
eral had become colder. 

March 29 we returned to Mendoza and left by train the following 
day, Mr. Peters for Buenos Aires, and I for Tucuman by way of 
Villa Mercedes, Rio Quarto, and Cordoba. Mr. Alexander, who had 
journeyed ahead, joined me at San Luis. We arrived April 1 in 
Tucuman, where Mr. Peters joined me again on April 5. We met 
Dr. Miguel Lillo and examined his excellent collections, and also 
made the acquaintance of Sehores L. Dinelli and E. Budin. Peters 
and I had planned to penetrate here into the higher mountains on 
the west, but found that the rainy season, which normally terminated 
in March, was still in progress, making mountain trails uncertain 
and in places impassable. As the next alternative we went on April 
6 to Tapia, Tucuman, a Avell-known collecting spot, which though 
only 30 kilometers north of Tucuman, is in the edge of a more arid 
belt of lessened rainfall. Tapia was merely a station on the railroad 
with a few small houses and no regular accommodation for travelers. 
Through courtesy of the station agent, Seiior Maximo Kreutzer, we 
were allowed to use a corner of the depot baggage room for work 
and sleeping quarters, and remained here until April 14. The region 
was one of small knolls and long hills that rose in places into small 
cumbres, the whole covered with a low scrub forest in which occa- 
sional clearings had been made. (PI. 19.) 

Large barrancas and scattered cattle trails made convenient pas- 
sageways through the thickets, though ordinarily the growth was 
not sufficiently dense to impede passage. The altitude was approxi- 
mately 700 meters. Bird life was abundant and of gi'eat variety. 



14 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

The season was fall; many birds apparently had come down from 
the mountains and migratory movement was still in progress. At 
the same time we were far enough north to escape rigorous cold, so 
that insect feeding species were present in numbers. A red-flowered 
epiphyte {Psittacanthus) that formed brilliant patches of color, 
visible in the trees for long distances, drew many hummingbirds, 
among them a beautiful species with long tail {Sappho sapho). 

The night of April 14 we returned to Tafi Viejo, Tucuman, and 
on the 16th visited Senor Budin in Tucuman. On April 17 we 
climbed the Sierra San Xavier above Tafi Viejo, a mountain rising 
to an altitude of 2,300 meters. The town lies at about 600 meters, 
Avith small cultivated fields or chacras extending up a gradual slope 
to the base of the hills at about 1,300 meters. At this point we en- 
tered a steep-sided valley and traversed a trail that zigzagged up the 
slopes through a heavy rain forest dense with creepers, ferns, and 
parasitic plants, and with an undergrowth of huge nettles, other 
soft-stemmed plants, and low shrubs. At about 1,800 meters on the 
trail this forest terminated, though on southeast exposures it ran 
up 250 meters farther. Beyond were openings, Avith grass waist 
high, and groves of tree alder and other strange trees that formed 
forest of another type in certain areas. At 2,100 meters tree growth, 
except in sheltered gulches, gave way to rounded slopes covered with 
bunch grass. Among such diverse habitats we obtained a number 
of birds not seen before and regretted that our departure was im- 
perative on the following day. 

In Tucuman, on April 18, we parted company and I returned to 
Mendoza, where I arrived April 20. At 5 the following morning 
I passed my baggage through the Argentine customs, and shortly 
after left on the trans-Andean railroad for Valparaiso, Chile, where 
[ arrived at midnight. Through Dr. Edwyn Eeed, to whom I was 
indebted for many courtesies, I removed on April 23 to Concon, a 
tiny settlement where the Rio Aconcagua enters the sea, going by 
rail to Vina del Mar and by motor car to a little road house at Con- 
con, where I arrived at 9 in the evening in a drenching rain. At 
Concon the Aconcagua meandered through a level, fertile valley 
with rounded hills grown with brush on either hand. A broad 
gravel or sand beach lay on the ocean front, with rocky cliffs to the 
south. The weather was cool but pleasant, and with the general 
aspect of the country gave a strong reminder of California. On 
April 29 I returned to Valparaiso, and on the following morning 
embarked on the Grace Line steamer Santa Elisa for the States. 
Stops were made at Antof agasta, Chile, May 2 ; Iquique, Chile, May 
3; Mollendo, Peru, May 4; and Callao, Peru, May 6. On May 11 
we passed through the Panama Canal, and May 18 arrived at New 
York. On the following morning I again reached Washington. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 15 
LIFE ZONES 

After some hesitation on the part of the author there has been 
inchided in this report a brief sketch of the life zones of the region 
traversed, a treatment that is necessarily tentative, since it is based 
on an amount of work in the field wholly inadequate when the great 
extent of territory included is considered. The limits assigned to 
the various divisions are thus merely suggestive. Attempt is made 
only to call attention to major zonal divisions as they appear to an 
eye trained to such observations in North America. Definite limits 
and characteristics may be given only with extensive data that may 
change some of the inferences presented at this place. 

Doctor Dabbene in his Ornitologia Argentina (pp. 169-182) for 
the whole of Argentina has outlined five major faunas of somewhat 
different significance than the zones here outlined. Mr. Peters in 
his recent paper on the summer birds of northern Patagonia (pp. 
281-283) has found three life zones indicated in the Territory of 
Rio Negro, which, beginning with the lowest, he numbers Zones 1, 
2, and 3. 

In the present instance four zones only are considered, the Tropi- 
cal, Lower, and Upper Austral, and Temperate. Though the term 
Austral as applied to a life zone was originated jto designate a region 
in the Northern Hemisphere it may without violence be utilized for 
the corresponding zone south of the Equator, since in reality it sig- 
nifies an area adjacent to the Tropics. It is considered preferable 
to use an established name rather than coin a neAV one. The zone 
above the two divisions of the Austral is termed the Temperate in 
accordance with established usage of Goldman, Chapman, Todd, and 
others in regions near the Equator. 

TUOPICAI. ZONE 

If, as seems logical from experience in other parts of the New 
World, we adopt the occurrence of frost as marking the southern 
limit of the Tropical Zone, then the southern Chaco, north to the 
Rio Pilcomayo in Chaco and Formosa is not tropical, since heavy 
frosts are of regular occurrence there. In passing up the Rio Para- 
guay from Asuncion a large-leaved Cecropia^ a tropical tree, was 
first recorded near the little village of Curuzu-Chica, while the mango 
tree was first observed a short distance above, at Antioquiera. This 
appeared to be the limit of dilute Tropical Zone along the Paraguay, 
though even at this point bananas appeared to have been slightly 
touched by frost. The winter of 1920, however, had been unusual 
for severity of cold. Puerto Pinasco and the Chaco behind it ap- 
peared to be within the lower limit of the Tropical Zone, though 



16 



BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



even here it did not seem to me that the typical tropics had been 
reached. From this point the line limiting the Tropical Zone may 
swing down in the west into the lowlands of Salta and Jujuy, and 
in the east to include part of the Territory of Misiones. As the land 
through the interior is comparatively level, transition between Tropi- 
cal and the succeeding zone is very gradual. The folloAving forms of 
birds taken at Puerto Pinasco were not secured farther south. Some 
of them, however, are recorded for eastern Salta, Jujuy, or for 
Misiones : 



Heterospisias merldionalis meridion- 

alis. 
Pyrrhura frontalis chiripepe. 
Trogonurus variegatus hehni. 
Dendrocolaptes picumnus. 
Lepidocolaptes angustirostris cer- 

thiolus. 



SyrMllaxis albilora. 
Troglodytes musculus niusculus. 
Turdus albicollis. 
Basileutcrus hypoleucus. 
Basileuterus flaveolus. 
Myospiza humeralis humeralis. 



LOWER AUSTRAL Z0NE3 



A moderate climate, one where frost may occur regularly but snow 
only casually, characterizes the greater part of the level sections of 
eastern and northern Argentina, extending south to the valley of the 
Rio Negro and on the north including Uruguay and a portion of 
southern Paraguay. As the zone that succeeds the Tropical belt it 
may be called the Lower Austral Zone. Though varied in its char- 
acteristics, it is readily divisible into at least two sections — one arid 
and the other humid. The level eastern pampas lie within the humid 
section of this zone, which includes also the Argentine Chaco. To- 
ward the interior there is a gradual decrease in amount of annual 
rainfall, with a corresponding transition to a condition of aridity 
characterized by broad, dry plains grown with scattered scrub of 
calden (Prosopis nigra), piquillin {Gondalia lineata), or perhaps 
broad areas covered with creosote bush {Covillea divaricafa), atri- 
plex {Atriplex Imnpa and A. crenatlfolia), and others. This zone 
'covers the broad flats of eastern Mendoza to the base of the moun- 
tains, where it penetrates among the winding valleys into the foot- 
hills to about 1,200 meters altitude (in that latitude) and extends in 
the interior from Santiago del Estero and La Rioja south to the 
valleys of the Rio Colorado and Rio Negro in northern Patagonia. 
It corresponds to Peters' Zone 1 in Patagonia, which, according to 
him, prevails in the Territory of Rio Negro below " 1,000 to 1,500 
feet," and extends up the valley of the Rio Limay to a point between 
Paso Limay and Senillosa. It is also the zone of central Chile. 

The Lower Austral Zone is characterized by the following breed- 
ing; birds: 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PAEAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 17 



Rhea americana albescens. 
Calopezus elegans morenoi. 
'Nothura maculosa nigroguttata. 
Nothnra darwini mendosensis. 
Nothoprocta perdicaria perdicaria. 
Rhynchotiis rufescens pallescens. 
Spiziapteri/x circumcinctus. 
Larus eirrocephalus. 
Sterna trudeaui. 

Lcptotila ochroptera chlorauchenia. 
Picazuros picazuros reichenbachi. 
Notioenas maculosa fallax. 
Amoropsitta ay mora. 
Myiopsitta monachus monachus. 
Dyctiopicus mixtus malleator. 
Chrysoptilus melanolaimus perplexus. 
Lepidocolaptes angusUrostris angusti- 

rostris. 
Lepidocolaptes angustirostris pracda- 

tus. 



Drymornis b7-idgesii. 

Fnrnarius rufns rufus. 

Leptasthenura fuliginiceps paraensis. 

Siptornis patagonica. 

Stigmatura budytoides fiavocinerea. 

Rhinocrypta lanceolata. 

Teledromas fuscus. 

Spizitornis parulus curatus. 

Spizitornis parulus patagonicus. 

Troglodytes musculus bonariae. 

Mimus triurus. 

Mimus patagonicus tricosus. 

Trupialis defilippM. 

Phrygilus carbonarius. 

Diuca minor. 

Brachyspiza capensis argentina. 

Brachyspiza capensis choraules. 

Embernagra olivascens gossei. 



UPPER AUSTRAL ZONE 



Beyond the valley of the Rio Negro in Patagonia climatic condi- 
tions become more austere and snow and ice are regular features of 
a prolonged winter. This zone, which may be called the Upper 
Austral, since it corresponds to that zone in the north, runs south- 
ward apparently into Santa Cruz, perhaps almost to the Straits of 
Magellan and extends to the base of the Andes in the west. It was 
found at Zapala, Neuquen, though a narrow tongue of Lower Austral 
came along the floor of a deep valley almost to Zapala, and from 
there runs northward along the arid mountain slopes, being found 
above 1,500 meters in Mendoza. It corresponds to Zone 2 in Peters' 
statement of the life zones of Patagonia. Its occurrence in Chile 
is uncertain, but it should be found along the northern border of the 
southern forest region. In the south this zone is wholly arid and 
covers an area of rolling plateaus, broken by rocky hills ai^id rough 
valleys, covered with low, thorny bushes or mats of spiny, stiff- 
stemmed plants that persist throughout the year. Various flowering 
annuals appear with a somewhat rigorous spring and persist for 
a short period. There are numerous lakes, particularly in the west 
(many of them alkaline), with occasional patches of permanent green 
vegetation in spring}^ localities. The region is one of high winds, 
that blowing from the west, sweep with them air currents cold 
from Andean snows. 

The following birds are characteristic of this area : 
Pterocnemia pennata. Enicomis phoenicurus. 

Tinamotis ingoufi. Muscisaxicola capistrata. 

Calopezus elegans elegans. Muscisaxicola, maculirostris. 

Thinocorus orbignyianus. Sicalis lebruni. 

MetriopeUa m. melanoptera. Phrygilus aldunatei. 

Gcositta rufipennis. 



18 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Others may be added as the southern distribution of birds in 
Patagonia becomes better known. In this zone Vultur gryphus 
finds its lowest point of regular occurrence. A considerable number 
of species range in both Upper Austral and Transition Zones. 

TEMPERATE ZONK 

As field work did not carry me above the Upper Austral Zone, 
I am dependent on the accounts of other travelers for information 
on this higher zone. A statement regarding the Temperate Zone 
as it is found in Avestern Patagonia is based mainly on Peters' re- 
marks concerning his Zone 3, which he says covers the east Andean 
slopes in western Rio Negro and is characterized by a temperate 
forest with normal rainfall. Part, at least, of the forest of south- 
ern Chile, where precipitation is heavy, must belong here, but the 
southern limit of this zone is uncertain. In passing north along 
the Andes, tree growth becomes scanty a short distance north of 
Lago Nahuel Huapi, and in w^estern Nfeuquen entirely disappears. 
Beyond, through the length of Argentina, the higher mountain 
slopes are arid and bare with scant vegetation, which is restricted 
mainly to the valley floors and the gentler inclines above. The 
bolder mountain masses show bare rock exposures, in the main 
too young to have weathered into permanent soil. Zonal delimi- 
tation under these conditions is difficult. In Eio Negro Peters 
placed the upper limit of his Zone 3 at about 1,000 meters. The 
dry, arid slopes to the northward have forced zonal lines rather 
abruptly upward as in crossing on the trans- Andean railroad from 
Mendoza it appeared to me that Temperate Zone began at the Rio 
Tupungato at about 2,800 meters' altitude. 

The following birds include mainly species of the southern 
forested region. The list may be expanded by including some of 
the water birds peculiar to the Magellanic region. 



Attagis gayi gayi. 
Chloroenas araucana. 
Microsittace ferruginca. 
St7'ix rufipes. 
Ipocrantor magellaniciis. 
Cinclodes patagoiiicus rupestris. 
Sylviorthorhynchus desmurii. 
Pygarrhichas alho-gularis. 



Scytalopus magellanicus. 
Scelorchilus ruhccula. 
Ftei-optochos tarnii. 
Agriornis livida fort is. 
Lichenops perspicillata andina. 
Melanodera mclanodera. 
Melanodera xanthogratnnia. 



Above the Temperate Zone is a great Paramo Zone extending 
to the line of perpetual snoAvs on the mountains, a cold, bleak region 
with little bird life, at present insufficiently known, that will be dis- 
missed at this place with bare mention. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 19 
NOTES ON MIGRATION 

Though ordinarily we may think of extensive and widespread 
migratory movements among birds as something more or less pe- 
culiar to the Northern Hemisphere, yet on investigation we find 
pronounced migrations among the birds of South America, espe- 
cially in the southern part of the continent. The migratory flight 
in the latter region may be considered as of two kinds, first, that 
of birds come from North America for the period of the northern 
winter, and, second, that of species that pass south to breed, and 
with the close of the period of reproduction withdraw again toward 
the Tropics. 

Though a number of passerine and other birds from North 
America come conmionly to the northern part of South America, 
comparatively few of these species pass as far south as the section 
covered by Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina, and Chile. Among 
the few of the smaller land species that perform this extended 
flight, the barn swallow and the bobolink are worthy of mention, 
especially the latter, as though the barn swallow occurs during the 
northern winter months from the West Indies southward, the bobo- 
link withdraws wholly into the Chaco. The yellow-billed cuckoo, 
cliff swallow, olive-backed thrush, nighthawk, and Swainson's hawk 
are of more or less common occurrence in the northern half of the 
region in question, but are not found in abundance. In addition 
to these may be mentioned the parasitic and long-tailed jaegers 
(that have been recorded casually, but that occasionally at least, 
occur in great abundance along the coast of Buenos Aires), Cabot's, 
royal, and arctic terns, and the red and northern phalaropes. Tl>e 
great body of North American migrants, how^ever, are shore birds, 
some of which as the two yellowlegs, the sanderling, and the spotted 
sandpiper have extended winter ranges, while others as the Hud- 
sonian godwit, the upland plover, the buff -breasted, pectoral, 
Baird's, and white-rumped sandpipers find in the pampas and in 
Patagonia their winter metropolis. With these last may be men- 
tioned the Eskimo curlew now nearly, if not actually, extinct. 

A few individuals of these northern species arrive in the south in 
July and August, but their main southward flight occurs from Sep- 
tember to November. In other words, they pass south with the 
coming of fall in the Northern Hemisphere, and below the Equator 
follow the advance of southern spring to their winter home, remain 
during the southern summer, and with the coming of colder weather 
in February and March withdraw northward until they cross the 
Equator and follow the northern spring in its advance to their 
breeding grounds in the northern United States, Canada, and Arctic 



20 BULLETIN 133^ UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

America. Their itinerary thus takes advantage of the shifting sea- 
sons in both continents. 

Because some of these species now or formerly occurred in the 
Argentine in great abundance, it has been held by some that there 
are in these species two groups of individuals, a northern body that 
breeds in North America and migrates south to clement regions in 
Mexico or Central America, and a southern group, that occupies a 
breeding ground in Patagonia, the islands of Antarctic seas, or even 
the great Antarctic Continent, that comes north to winter in the 
Argentine. This belief was based in part upon the seemingly irreg- 
ular occurrence of some of these migratory birds, with records 
(scattered and few) of certain species that were found on the pampas 
during the northern breeding season, and in part upon disbelief in 
the powers of flight in creatures apparently small and weak. There 
are certain species, such as the pied-billed grebe, cinnamon teal, ful- 
vous tree duck, and others that have a breeding range in both North 
and South America. In some of these individuals from the two 
colonies appear indistinguishable; in others the two groups may 
differ slightly in minor characters. There has never been any cer- 
tain indication, however, of the breeding south of the Equator of 
such species as the golden plover, Hudsonian godwit, the yellow- 
legs, and other species considered as migrants from the north. 
The scattered individuals that remain in Argentina during the 
northern summer are wounded, sterile, or otherwise diseased indi- 
viduals that have been unable to perform the long flight northward, 
or that have lacked the physiological incentive to do so. The few 
supposed occurrences of their nesting have, on investigation, proven 
erroneous, and the migration and seasonal movements of these spe- 
cies is so well understood that there is no question that they nest 
in the north and pass south of the Equator only in migration. Data 
from birds banded in the north eventually will authenticate these 
facts. 

In their movements after reaching the northern coast of South 
America these northern species have three main routes, one north 
and south along the Atlantic coast, one that passes along the Pacific 
coast line, and a third that follows the great interior north and 
south river system of the Paraguay and Parana. Some of the birds 
that follow this last route on their southern journey apparently drive 
straight south across the pampas until they strike the southern coast 
of Buenos Aires, and then swing around to follow up to some win- 
tering ground in the eastern pampas, or near the mouth of the Rio 
de la Plata. In November, on the eastern coast of Buenos Aires, I 
witnessed a curious phenomenon where one line of northern migrants 
came driving south down the coast, and a second, traveling in the 
opposite direction, came sweeping up from the south. My only sup- 



BIEDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 21 

position was that birds on the latter course had come south by the 
interior route perhaps to reach the coast near Bahia Blanca, and 
were now turning to seek their winter homes. 

With regard to the migratory movement of native birds, particu- 
larly in Argentina, many instances are noted in the writings of Dab- 
bene, Gibson, Hudson, and others, while Peters has given an account 
of the arrival of a number of species in northern Patagonia. In 
general, such migratory movements are as readily evident to the 
field observer as in northern regions. Large numbers of ducks of 
various kinds, seed snipe, small ground-haunting flycatchers {Les- 
sonia r. rufa), a subspecies of house wren, and other birds appear in 
the Province of Buenos Aires from more southern regions at the 
commencement of winter, and wholly or in part withdraw again as 
summer approaches. Other species, as Thermochalcis Jongirostris. 
are regular birds of passage from Brazil to Patagonia. The migra- 
tory flights of the fork-tailed flycatcher are as evident as those of the 
northern kingbird {Tyrannus tyrannus), for at the end of January 
these birds gather in flocks and begin a northward movement that 
carries all to Brazil during the following month. The jacana, the 
sulphur-bellied flycatcher {Myiodynastes solitarius)^ two species 
of martins {Progns elegans and Phaeoprogrie t. tapera), and a small 
swallow {Iridoprocne alhiventris) are summer visitants near Buenos 
Aires that retire at the approach of cold, as do the greater part of 
other small species, some of whose individuals are hardy enough 
to remain. 

Even in the Paraguayan Chaco, in the edge of the Tropics, the 
spring migration was easily evident, as with the approach of warmer 
days in September Podager nacunda passed in small numbers to 
the south (making as regular a flight as the North American night- 
hawk), a kingbird {Tyrannus tn. melancholicus) ^ and another fly- 
catcher {Myiodynastes solitarius) appeared, and a little goatsucker 
{Setopagis parvulits), hitherto absent, began its tremulous calls 
at evening. 

The low woodland of the level reaches of the Chaco, with its 
dense jungle impervious to cold winds, and its tangled openings, 
where the sun may be warm even on sharp frosty mornings, harbors 
many winter visitants from the more open country to the south, or 
from the mountain slopes to the west. Here many small flycatchers, 
warblers, and other insect-eating birds rest in comfort and security, 
remaining quiet during brief spells of cold and becoming active when 
the sun appears. The woodlands to the westward that cover the 
low hills in northern Tucuman are also attractive at this season, and 
at times small birds are so abundant there that they fairly swarm. 

Altitudinal migrations were easily evident in the Andean foot- 
hills in Mendoza, as flycatchers and others came working down 



22 BUULETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

the mountain slopes in little bands, traveling down toward the 
plains where they passed on northward. With heavy storms in the 
higher reaches, these movements become more pronounced and at 
times include hill inhabiting species that temporarily pass down 
to the warmer lowlands until the stress of weather has passed. 

It was interesting also to observe the migrational movements of 
a form of the monarch butterfly {Anosia erippits) that wintered 
in numbers in the Chaco, and in spring flew southward to spread 
over the pampas. 

ANNOTATED LIST OF BIRDS 

The following account consists of an annotated list of the species 
of birds collected, with observations on a few of which no specimens 
were taken. Measurements, made in millimeters, have been taken 
by the method usual among present day American ornithologists. 
The wing measurement is the chord of the distance from the bend 
of the wing (the metacarpal or wrist joint) to the tip of the longest 
primary taken with dividers except in large birds where the measure- 
ment is made with a straight rule, but without flattening the wing. 
The length of tail, measured with dividers, is the distance from the 
base of the median rectrices on the uropygium to the tips of the 
longest tail feathers. The culmen has been measured from the base 
in all cases except where (as in parrots) it is specified as taken from 
the cere, etc. The distance, measured with dividers, is taken in a 
straight line from the basal point to the extreme tip. The tarsal 
length, likewise taken with dividers, is secured by placing one point 
of the instrument at the upper end of the tarsus on its posterior 
side, and the other at the end of the middle trochlea of the meta- 
tarsus. 

With shifts in generic names, so common in our modern nomen- 
clature, at times a change is required in the current designation for 
a family. Current family names have been derived from the appel- 
lation of some genus considered as typical of the group concerned, 
in the main from the oldest genus name in the family. Where this 
genus name has been changed through the application of the law of 
priority in publication, type fixation, or other cause, change in the 
family name necessarily follows. Certain ornithologists (mainly in 
England) are advocating derivation of a new family name from the 
next oldest generic appellation. This, however, may cause confusion 
since it may result in shifting the tjq^e genus from a group that 
has been held typical of the family concerned, to one that is aberrant 
or possibly even to a genus of doubtful allocation. The confusion 
that may arise is easily evident. It seems preferable to allow the 
same generic group to remain as typical of the family regardless of 
change in its appellation; in other words, to allow the family name 



BIEDS OF ARGENTINA, PAEAGUAY, URUGUAY, AISD CHILE 23 

to change with shifts in the name of the type genus. Such changes 
though lamentable are less confusing than shifts in the facies of a 
family complex, such as might result if the other course that has been 
-outlined is adopted. 

Such a course is implied in the International Code of Nomen- 
•clature (art. 5), which specifies that "the name of a family or sub- 
family is to be changed when its type genus is changed." 

Order RHEIFORMES 
Family RHEIDAE 

RHEA AMERICANA (Linnaeus) 

Struthio americanus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1, 1758, p. 155. 
(Sergii)e, Brazil.) 

In spite of continued pursuit by Indian and white hunters the 
rhea still remains in fair abundance in the wilder sections of the 
■Chaco, while on many of the extensive estancias in the pampas of 
Argentina and Uruguay the birds are preserved in bands that in 
many instances include a large number of individuals. In settled 
districts, where land has been divided into small holdings, the great 
birds have been largely exterminated, a fate that will befall the 
majority as rural population increases. At the Riacho Pilaga, For- 
mosa, in August, 1920, Indians brought in bundles of rhea plumes 
for trade, to be sold later in Buenos Aires where they were made 
into feather dusters. Near the railroad at this same locality rheas 
still occurred in some of the open camps, but were more abundant 
farther inland toward the Rio Pilcomayo. Occasional bands were 
observed from the train in traversing the railroad line leading 
northwest into the interior from the town of Formosa. 

In the Paraguayan Chaco west of Puerto Pinasco rheas were 
common. In 1920 fences on the holdings of the International Prod- 
ucts Co. had been extended westward to a point 120 kilometers from 
the Rio Paraguay. Outside this boundary rheus Avere encountered 
frequently but were wild and wary, as they were subject to pursuit 
by Indians who frequently offered bundles of plumes or sections of 
skin for sale. Small bands were to be seen within the fences in 
some of the league square fotrerofi^ where open savannahs offered 
suitable range, and near the ranch at Kilometer 80, west of Puerto 
Pinasco, rheas were observed frequently, especially in the region 
along the Riacho Jacare. On my arrival in that region on Sep- 
tember 6 I was told that a rhea's nest containing 43 eggs had been 
found a week previous, and during the period of my stay male 
rheas were heard booming during the morning hours. On one oc- 
casion (September 12) in company with Carl Hettman I heard this 



24 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

deep boom from a depression bordering a stream, and soon after 
saw a rhea running away through the acacias. The sound is decep- 
tive, as it frequently seemed to come from a great distance when, as 
in the present instance, the bird was quite near. In fact the rhea 
sounds nearly as loud when far distant as when close at hand. 
Though the birds frequented the open camps, they followed narrow 
trails through bands of forest leading from one open tract to an- 
other. When not alarmed they Avalked slowly along, feeding from 
the ground. When approached they took sudden alarm and ran 
away with long strides, often with spread wings, covering the 
ground rapidly. 

Rheas were to be stalked only with great care. In hunting them 
the Tobas cut small, leafy limbs from shrubs that did not wither 
quickly, and tied these on their bodies until they resembled bushes. 
In this disguise, one by the way that was most effective, they worked 
slowly down on the unsuspecting birds, advancing when the rheas 
were feeding with heads down, and remaining motionless when the 
rheas raised their heads to observe the country. Advance was 
made until within a few meters when the birds were killed with 
bow and arrow, or by a discharge from a single-barreled shotgun 
loaded with slugs. The Tobas and Pilagas in Formosa claimed 
that these birds possessed a keen sense of smell and were always 
careful to hunt them up wind. Whether there is truth in the asser- 
tion is uncertain, but it may be remarked that many Indians were 
readily detected even where the olfactory sense in the observer was 
only moderately developed. 

On September 23, at Kilometer 110, I purchased two young rheas 
only 3 or 4 days old, for a yard of light-weight canvas from 
Capita-i, an Anguete. These young had a mournful little whistle, 
repeated constantly, that carried for some distance. They were in- 
teresting little birds, erect in carriage, with a preternaturally old 
appearance that was betrayed at once by their stumbling over slight 
obstacles as they walked or ran. In resting they frequently leaned 
against some object instead of lying prone, as do the young of many 
other long-legged birds. 

One young rhea from this same brood was kept alive. It proved 
to be tame and unsuspicious, and, in fact, sought human company. 
At freedom in the patio at the ranch house it responded readily to 
an imitation of its note, and spent many hours reclining against my 
feet and ankles as I worked on notes and specimens. It was es- 
pecially prone to do this toward evening when it became tired, and 
apparently in its eyes long-legged humans filled the place normally 
occupied by a long-legged father rhea. Young birds were common 
in a domestic state in many of the regions visited. When small 
they form odd and amusing pets, fearless and friendly in every way ; 



BIEDS OF ARGENTINA, PAEAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 25 

like some other pets, however, they have a surprising rapidity in 
growth, and soon develop to a point where they become a nuisance 
through an appetite that is satisfied omnivorously with whatever 
may offer that is small enough to swallow from the vegetables pre- 
pared for dinner, seized instantly when the cook's attention is at- 
tracted elsewhere, to the watch or shaving soap of the unfortunate 
owner. 

An egg secured on September 23, 120 kilometers west of Puerto 
Pinasco, is between pale olive-buff and olive-buff in color, and has 
the shell roughened by fine short corrugations that at short inter- 
vals form slit-like pores several times longer than wide, with their 
axes in general longitudinal to the axis of the egg. This egg meas- 
ures 135.2 by 96.5 mm. Rhea eggs, made into a batter with flour and 
fried, were excellent eating, and were sought after during the early 
breeding season. A single egg, thus prepared, Avas sufficient for 
three persons. 

I am indebted to Carl Hettman for the following note on this 
species, based mainly on observations made on the upper E.io Pilco- 
mayo. In that region the rhea nest mainly in September and Octo- 
ber. The male is said to select a nest site on loose sandy soil, among 
tall grass in some secluded corner near forest or perhaps in a small, 
well-screened opening in the monte. A hole more or less circular a 
meter across is scratched out to a depth of from 100 to 150 mm. 
The females deposit their eggs in this. Frequently, in fact, nearly 
always, single eggs loiown as guacho (stray) eggs are found near by. 
It is supposed that they are deposited by females who visit the nest 
to find it occupied by some other member of the harem of their 
polygamous mate. Should the nest be found, the male is encountered 
near at hand. To attract attention from his treasures he dashes 
about with spread wings, but makes no effort (in the wild bird) to 
attack. 

The breeding season varied, I found, with the locality. Mention 
has been made of the period in the Paraguayan Chaco. On Decem- 
ber 8, in the hills back of Zapala, in the Territory of Neuquen, I en- 
countered a male that had either eggs or small young concealed in 
a broad hollow, though search failed to reveal them. On February 
2, north of San Vicente, Department of Rocha, Uruguay, I 
noted a male with chicks a week old, and were told that others were 
breeding. 

Rhea flesh is eaten, the wings forming the portion most highly 
prized, and, in addition, parts of the bird figure as remedies in the 
country medicine chest. From the upper part of the stomach, pre- 
served in a dried form, portions, cut up as needed, are boiled to make 
a tea said to be a specific for indigestion, a curious use for the power- 
ful digestive agents found in the stomach of this bird. An oil found 



26 BULLETIN 133^ UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

in the hollow tibiotarsal bone, when applied externally, is claimed 
to be an excellent remedy in cases of rheumatism. 

The rhea is known as avestmz^ or more commonly in the north as 
ftandu, a guarani term also used to designate a spider. Occasionally 
when there was danger of confusion the rhea was indicated as 
nandu guaqu^ or large nandu. The bird was also called sure^ while 
to the Anguete Indians it was known as pil-ya-pin. The booming: 
of the male was spoken of as hureado nandu. 

On large estancias where rheas are not molested they increase 
rapidly in number, and many landowners complained that the great 
birds were expensive, as they consumed much feed otherwise avail- 
able for stock. Some said that their daily consumption of food 
equaled that of a sheep; others placed it as equivalent to that of a 
steer. As there was little return from sale of feathers, sentiment in 
many quarters is arising against them. 

The only specimens secured were two chicks (mentioned above), 
taken September 23, 1920, at Kilometer 110 west of Puerto Pinasco,. 
Paraguay. These were apparently about 3 days old. Both are 
females, and though of the same sex show considerable difference in 
tone of color, one being browner than the other. 

Three subspecies of Rhea have been recognized, the typical ameri- 
cana from North Brazil, intermedia Rothschild and Chubb ^ from 
South Brazil and Uruguay (type locality Barra San Juan, Colonia, 
Uruguay), and albescens Lynch Arribalzaga and Holmberg^ from 
Argentina (type locality Carhue, Province of Buenos Aires). The 
bird from Argentina was separated by Brabourne and Chubb * 
under the subspecific name rothschildi on the basis of specimens from 
the Estancia Los Yngleses, near Lavalle (formerly Ajo), Province 
of Buenos Aires. The name Rhea albescens., proposed for a sup- 
posed distinct species, the white rhea, though based on albinistic 
specimens, is obviously applicable to the present form, since Carhue 
is far to the northward of the known range of Darwin's rhea. In 
passing it may be noted that Rhea a^nericana, var. albinea of Doer- 
ing° is simply a new name for albescens of Lynch Arribalzaga and 
Holmberg. 

The status of rheas from Paraguay is uncertain. Two supposi- 
tions are open, either that they represent an undescribed form or that 
they are representative of intermedia known from South Brazil. 
The tAvo juvenile specimens from Puerto Pinasco differ from a newly 
hatched specimen of R. a. albescens^ taken near Bahia Blanca, Argen- 

2 Nov. Zool., vol. 21, 1914, p. 223. 

3 El Naturalista Argentine, vol. 1, pt. 4a, April, 1878, p. 101. 
*Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1911, p. 273. 

^ Exped. al Rio Negro, Zool., 1881, p. 58. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 27 

tina (from University of Kansas Museum, collected in 1903), in hav- 
ing the wings more heavily marked with dark bands and the neck 
grayer." 

PTEROCNEJMIA PENNATA (d'Orbigny) 

Rhea pennaia d'OBBicNY, Voy. Amer. Merid., Itin., vol. 2, 1834, p. 67. 
(Bahia San Bias, southern Buenos Aires.) 

On December 6, 1920, at Zapala, in western Neuquen, I examined 
an adult female of Darwin's rhea secured by a police officer, who had 
killed the bird about 50 kilometers southwest of town by a fortunate 
shot with a revolver. As the rhea had been skinned roughly to pre- 
pare it for the table, I was able only to note the curious arrangement of 
the feathering on the front of the tarsus and to secure the skull. On 
December 10 I saw a living young bird, recently hatched, of the same 
species that had been captured between a j)oint below San Martin de 
Los Andes and Zapala. The call of this chick was lower and some- 
what harsher than that of Rhea americana, but had a similar mourn- 
ful, whistled inflection. 

The skull secured has the dorsal elongation of the lachrymal bone, 
short and triangular, extending back only to a point well anterior to 
the rearward extension of the nasals, with the orbital margin of the 
postorbital process smooth. In Rkea ainericana the lachrymal is 
produced as an elongate spine that ends at the level of the posterior 
end of the nasals, while there is a distinct notch where the anterior 
margin of the postorbital process joins the margin of the orbit. I 
am not able to distinguish the difference in the form of the temporal 
fossa in the two species described by Pycraft.'^ 

A second skull taken from the mummied body of a bird only half 
grown found on a butte south of Zapala December 9, exhibits the 
same distinguishing characters in the lachrymal as the adult. 

Order TINAMIFORMES 
Family TINAMIDAE 

CALOPEZUS ELEGANS ELEGANS (la. Geoff. Saint-Hilaire) 

Eudromia elegans "D'Orb. et Is. Geoff.," Is. Geoff. Saint-Hilaire, Mag. 
Zool., 1S32, cl. 2, pi. 1. (Mouth of Rio Negro.*) 

On December 15, 1920, while working through the rolling pampa 
south of the shore of Lago Epiquen, near Carhue, Buenos Aires, 

" For a description of the iiabita, economic value, hunting, and domestication of the 
rhea see La Cultura Argentina, Muniz, F. J., Escritos Cientiflcos, 1916, pp. 83-218, an 
acccount reprinted from old numbers of La Gaceta Mercantil. 

'' Ou the Morphology and Phylogeny of the Palaeognathae, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, 
vol. 15, December, 1900, p. 270. 

» Designated by Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. ZoOI., vol. 65, May, 1923, p. 287. 



28 BULLETIN 133^ UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

I was astonished to hear the low whistle of the martineta and to 
catch sight of an occasional crested bird as it ran aside through the 
weeds. Others were noted in this same region on December 18. 
It was said that the martineta was encroaching sloAvly on the range 
of Rhynchotus rufescens in southern Buenos Aires, and that as 
Calopezus came in it drove out and replaced the rufous-winged 
bird. Barrows ° in 1881 recorded Calopezus only from the neighbor- 
hood of Bahia Blanca, though he covered the region to the north- 
ward as far as Carhue and Puan, so that there may be something 
in the belief that the species is extending its range. Carhue is 
situated in west central Buenos Aires, a point within the more 
watered section of the eastern pampas. No specimens of crested 
tinamou were secured here, so that these notes are placed ques- 
tionably under the subspecies elegans. The form known as morenoi 
which occurs in western Pampa was found in more arid country, 
though the eastern limit of its range is not known. 

On December 15 a copeton, as the birds were known locally, 
flushed with a startled note direct from a nest containing three 
beautiful eggs. The nest was a slight hollow scratched out under 
the lee of a low hillock of earth in ground partly bare of vege- 
tation, though a fringe of grasses partly overhung the nest cavity. 
A few bits of grass stems carelessly arranged formed an attempt at 
nest lining, but lay at one side where they were no protection to 
the eggs. The whole formed as crude and carelessly constructed 
a nest as I have seen, save among such groups as shore birds and 
goatsuckers. Tlie eggs have the usual shining glasslike surface 
and vary in color from cosse to calliste green. One has the side 
discolored to a light yellowish olive. They measure as follows: 
51.9 by 40.5, 51.9 by 38.9, 51.7 by 38.5 mm. (PL 8.) 

Many Calopezus were offered for sale in the markets of Buenos 
Aires during winter. Those examined were in part at least of the 
typical subspecies. It is probable, however, that the forms marketed 
there include the western and northern subspecies as well. 

CALOPEZUS ELEGANS MORENOI Chubb 

Calopezus elegans morenoi Chubb, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 38, Dec. 12, 
1917, p. 31. (Neuquen, Argentina.) 

Adult females of the crested tinamou were taken at General Roca, 
Rio Negro, Argentina, on November 25 and 26, 1920, and males on 
December 2 and 3. A chick not more than 2 days old was collected 
on December 3. An immature female about half grown was taken 
December 27 near Victorica, Territory of Pampa, and an adult female 
with a nearly grown male at Tunuyan, Province of Mendoza, on 

» Auk, vol. 1, 1884, p. 318. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 133 PL 8 





Plumes of the Pampas Grass 

Guamini, Buenos Aires, March 3, 1921 




A^# 






L-'A*** 



Nest and Eggs of Crested Tinamou (Calopezus e. elegans) 

Carhue Buenos Aires, December 15, 1920 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 133 PL. 9 




Open Forest OF Calden iProsopis nigra i. Nesting Ground of Banded 
Falcon (Spiziapteryx circumcinctus) and Boyero 'Taenioptera 

IRUPERO) 

Near Victorica, Pampa, December 23, 1920 





»^^^HH^^^HhBB^^^^^^^HH^^b&- ^^ 





















The Sombre Todo (Iodina rhombifolia), a Common, Spiny-Leaved Tree 

OF THE Pampas 

\'iclori('a, Pampa, December 2S, 1920 



BIRDS OF AEGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 29 

March 27. The small series secured at General Roca came from a 
point about 80 kilometers east of the town of Neuquen, the type 
locality of the subspecies described as morenoi by Chubb. These 
differ from birds from the mouth of the Rio Negro (designated b} 
Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 65, May, 1923, p. 287, as type 
locality of C. e. elegans), in grayer coloration and in lighter, less 
heavy barring of the underparts that tend to become immaculate on 
the abdomen. The two birds from Tunuyan, Mendoza, differ from 
those from General R.oca in slightly browner coloration, with the 
light spots and bars on the upper surface larger, giving a distinctly 
more speckled appearance to the back. This same tendency is ex- 
hibited in the juvenile specimen from Victorica, Pampa. Birds from 
the three localities, however, may be allocated to morenoi without 
violence, giving this form a range extending from the Rio Negro, 
in Neuquen and western Rio Negro (probably from the southern 
side of the watershed of this stream), north through the plains and 
lower Andean foothills to central Mendoza, and east through the 
western Pampas to extreme north central Pampa (probably through 
San Luis). In San Juan morenoi is replaced by the peculiar pale 
Calopezus e. albidus Wetmore,^° while to the northward are found 
CaJopezus e. formosus Lillo in eastern Tucuman and northwestern 
Santiago del Estero and C. e. intermedins Dabbene and Lillo ^^ in the 
Andean valleys of w^estern Tucuman and La Rioja. CalojJesus ele- 
gans elegans is thus confined to eastern and southern Patagonia and 
southern Buenos Aires. 

An adult male of morenoi from General Roca taken December 2 is 
molting and has new feathers of the body plumage appearing on the 
back. These new plumes are considerably darker in ground coloi- 
than the old feathers, while the light markings are suffused with u 
deeper shade of buff, indicating that the dry arid climatic conditions 
found in the haunt of this bird induce considerable fading of the 
plumage. 

The chick (U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 283661) has the ground color of 
the head buffy brown, with a line of dull white extending from the 
base of the nasal groove backward on either side of the crown down 
over the back of the neck. This line has the brown feathers on either 
margin tipped with points of black that form a broken border for it. 
A well- developed straight crest of 8 or 10 filamentous plumes ex- 
tends from the back of the crown ; this is buffy brown in color with 
the feathers marked with black below the extremity. Lores buffy 
brown extending as a narrow line almost to edge of eyelid ; super- 

" Calopezus elegans albidus Wetmore, Journ. Washington Acad. Sci., 1921, p. 437 
(San Juan). 
"An. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires, vol. 24, July 22, 1913, p. 194. 

54207—26 3 



30 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

ciliary, beginning behind lores and extending down over sides of 
neck white, interrupted by a black bar above center of eye, bordered 
by a broken black line above, with a similar line beginning behind 
eye ; auricular region deep mouse gray ; stripe below and behind eye 
to auricular region buffy brown ; supramalar streak white, extending 
from base of bill as a narrow line across lower loral region, broaden- 
ing below eye and extending over side of neck; malar streak buffy 
brown with a narrow line of black on either side; hind neck and 
back buffy brown, the back with many slender white plumes inter- 
spersed among the brown forming white lines, and the brown 
feathers tipped with prominent spots of black ; this same coloration 
extends over base of wings and flanks where the spots become 
smaller; wings vinaceous buff mixed with white; throat, lower 
breast, and abdomen dull white, a faintly indicated line of blackish 
and buffy -brown spots leading down from lower margin of ramus; 
a poorly defined band of vinaceous buff mixed with neutral gray 
across breast. 

This chick of niorenoi from General Roca is markedly paler than 
a chick four days or more older of G, e. elegans from Bahia Blanca. 
The latter has the ground color of the down on the crown tawny- 
olive, while on the back it is slightly duller than tawny-olive. The 
young elegans is more heavily banded across the breast and has 
underparts decidedly browner in color. The distinction between 
these two young is more decided than in the few adults examined. 

The martineta or crested tinamou was observed from a train near 
the town of Rio Colorado, Rio Negro, on November 21, while at 
General Roca, Rio Negro, the birds were common from November 
25 to December 3. Small bands containing from three to six or 
eight were encountered among the arid hills lying north of town, 
often near the mouths of little valleys that opened out on barren 
flats. The birds ranged back and forth in the open thorny scrub, 
from the bottoms of the draws to tops of low hills, passing out onto 
the flats below or penetrating (pi. 16) inland among the hills. The 
flocks were composed mainly of males that were not breeding, some 
in a condition of partial molt of the body plumage. The presence 
of flocks was betrayed by their curious, three-toed tracks in the sand, 
thougli the birds themselves usually hid. As I ranged back and 
forth over the low slopes in search, the tinamou finally took alarm, 
usually when I had returned the second or third time over ground 
where I suspected that they were concealed, and burst out with a 
roar of wings like a pheasant, to pass out of sight over the slopes. 
Occasionally one, more wary than the others, came out from 40 to 
100 meters behind me and dropped at once over the crest of a hill 
without offering a shot. The birds rise swiftly from 3 to 6 meters in 
the air and then go straight away, perhaps climbing gradually to 



BIEDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 31 

pass some low ridge, or if flushed on a high slope, drop to disappear 
behind some shoulder. The wings beat rapidly for 15 or 20 strokes 
and then are set for a short sail, to be followed by another series of 
wing beats. The flight is swift but the birds are easily killed. 
They usually offer quartering shots, and a slight wound at long 
range is suflicient to bring them to ground when they may run a 
short distance or may crouch with eyes half closed to await Avhat- 
ever fate may overtake them. Occasionally one or two ran rapidly 
away under cover of bushes, head and neck erect, and tail drooped 
so that in form they resembled guinea fowl. Such birds frequently 
gave a low whistled call cheef^ heard occasionally as they took wing. 
During the warmer part of the day they spent much time in dust 
baths in the shade of low bushes, presumably to rid themselves of 
vermin. On two that I shot fresh from such baths, rows of mallo- 
phaga occupied the slender feathers of the crest, apparently a refuge 
from the dangers of asphyxia as the insects crawled down immedi- 
ately into the head feathers of the dead bird. 

The call of this species, a low mournful whistle given slowly, that 
may be represented as wheet whee whee was on the order of the more 
musical note of the rufous-winged tinamou {Rhynchotus) , but with 
far less carrying power. 

On the level flats above the stream bed of the Rio Negro, crested 
tinamou were breeding, though those in the hills a few miles away 
did not seem to be in pairs. In traversing the broad flats I saw their 
tracks or occasionally had a glimpse of a gray form running rapidly 
through the brush, but the cover of AtHphx and creosote bush was 
dense, and it was seldom that the birds flushed. By careful stalking 
it was possible to work close to whistling males, but I seldom saw 
them. On December 3 I found a nest containing broken eggs and 
later surprised an adult bird with several chicks. The parent flapped 
away on its breast with beating wings to attract my attention, while 
the young disappeared instantly. After careful search I located two 
and was able to capture one though the other escaped. The grayish 
color of the down on these tiny birds simulated that of the earth on 
which they crouched so that it was difficult to single them out. They 
lay motionless with head outstretched, but unlike young gallinaceous 
birds slipped away to one side, when opportunity offered, to a new 
hiding place. They remained under cover of the thorny bushes where 
it was difficult to get at them and with crouching step ran from 
cover to cover. On stopping they suddenly changed direction and 
ran a few inches to one side, a maneuver executed so quickly that 
it frequently eluded the eye. 

The dung of the adult birds is greenish in color and soft in con- 
sistency with a very offensive odor. The crop and alimentary tract 
of the chick taken was filled with what was unmistakably the ordure 



32 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

of the parent — certainly a curious circumstance — taken either to 
supply partly digested vegetable food, or water, in a region where 
succulent vegetation was scarce and moisture absent. 

On December 6 I noted "many martinetas, as these tinamou are 
called, in traveling by train to Zapala in western Neuquen. Scat- 
tered individuals were common, while it was not rare to see 30 or 
40, or even 100, all adults, banded together. These frequently ex- 
hibited little alarm, appearing graceful in their attitudes in con- 
trast to their stiff, stilted motions when startled. At times one ran 
out and bowed abruptly, throwing the head down almost between the 
feet. Near Zapala on December 7 I found where some predatory 
animal had eaten a martineta, but noted no further sign of them 
there. 

Near Victorica, Pampa, these tinamou were fairly common and an 
immature bird was taken. Males were heard whistling on December 
29. On March 27, on the flats bordering the Eio Tunuyan, a short 
distance south of Tunuyan, Mendoza, half a dozen were found in 
company. On the low brush-covered sand hills east of the river, 
the birds w^ere abundant and tracks were seen in the sand in many 
places. An adult female secured on this day was about to lay, so 
that the breeding season seems to vary considerably with the locality. 

The hugely developed caeca found in the intestine of this bird, 
differing greatly from those in any other known species, have been 
described and figured by Beddard.^^ They are thin-walled sacs 
with the external surface divided into many lobular projections 
well marked toward the base, and tending to disappear at the free 
end. The size is immense in proportion to the bulk of the bird. In 
one specimen that I examined they measured roughly 130 mm. long 
by 25 mm. in diameter, in another 125 mm. long by 22 mm. wade. 
The distal end becomes smooth and more attenuate than the base. 
In discussing a specimen of Calopezus e. forinosus (female), col- 
lected by R. Kemp, at Laguna Alsina, Bonifacio de Cordoba, C. 
Chubb ^^ gives a figure, taken from a sketch by the collector on the 
original label of the bird, where the caeca are shown as elongate 
cylindrical organs, somewhat swollen at intervals. The figure, how- 
ever, does not agree wath the field notes, given immediately above it, 
as there Mr. Kemp states, " Caeca — 100 and 140 mm. Large, conical 
and sacculated." It must be presumed that there has been some error 
in attributing the sketch to the present bird as from the delineation, 
no one would describe the caeca as large, conical, or sacculated. Per- 
sonally I examined the caeca in about a dozen specimens of Calopezus 
elegans, including birds of both sexes and in all found them of the 
conical lobulated type figured and described by Beddard, though 

« Ibis, 1890, pp. 61-66. ^' Ibis, 1919, p. 14. 



BIEDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 33 

varying somewhat in the smoothness and elongation of the free end. 
They constitute an odd development in an interesting bird, one con- 
nected without doubt with bodily function, perhaps of aid in some 
way in the conservation of water in a species specialized for life 
in arid regions. 

NOTHURA MACULOSA NIGROGUTTATA Salvadori 

Xothiira nhjrognttata Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol. 27, 1895, p. 
560. ("Central Pampas," Argentina.) 

From specimens examined in the collection of the United States 
National Museum, this form of the spotted tinamou seems to range 
through the pampas of the Province of Buenos Aires north into 
western Uruguay. (One specimen, seen, collected by Capt. T. J. 
Page, in August, 18G0, marked " Uruguay " Avithout more definite 
locality is similar to birds from northern Buenos Aires.) Nothura 
m. nigroguttata is similar to N. ni. maculosa but is paler in general 
coloration (more buffy, less rufescent) with the markings of the 
under surface bolder, darker, and better defined. The northward 
range in Argentina is at present uncertain. Hartert and Venturi ^* 
record a specimen from Mocovi, Santa Fe, as nigroguttata^ but 
an old skin from Corrientes, taken by Page in November, 1859, 
may represent a distinct form ranging between nigroguttata of the 
South and true maculosa of Paraguay: Above this bird resembles 
nigroguttata in type of marking, but the general tone of the upper 
parts is distinctly browner with less black, and the markings of the 
underparts are restricted to scanty narrow bars on the sides and 
flanks, and to narrow streaks on the breast and throat. In form of 
markings this bird thus suggests Nothura m. savamiaruiii Wetmore, 
but has the bold black color of that form replaced by browns. 

On October 21, 1920, near Dolores, Province of Buenos Aires, I 
flushed several of these tinamous in low ground near a marsh, 
while on the following day a dozen or more were noted in crossing 
from Dolores to Lavalle. Near Lavalle the species was common 
from October 23 to November 17. It was noted subsequently near 
Carhue from December 15 to 17, and at Guamini, from March 3 to 8. 
The tinamou recorded from Rio Negro, western Uruguay, from 
February 15 to 19, was supposed to be the present form, but no 
specimens were taken. 

The spotted tinamou, a bird of the open country, thrives especially 
in the pampas, but ranges into more wooded country where open 
savannahs or prairies cut through the groves and forests. In closely 
grazed pastures it is often found in open tracts where the only 
cover is a few weed stalks, or a clump or two of dead grass left 
standing from the previous year. In such regions it is encountered 

" Nov. Zool., vol. 16, 1909, p. 266. 



34 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

many times in low, marshy ground where cover is more abundant 
than on the uplands. The birds seem more at ease and more com- 
mon, however, in regions where low grasses or similar vegetation 
offer shelter. 

Males were heard giving their low piping whistle, a single note 
repeated with increasing rapidity until it terminated in a trill, 
during the whole year, though more commonly in spring. They 
run rapidly with head and neck erect, and sloping back so that 
in attitude they suggest guinea fowl. In feeding they walk 
rapidly with nodding heads, pecking at the tender herbage. When 
frightened the birds crouch and remain motionless, or run quickly 
aside to flush with a thunder of wings when closely pressed. 

Spotted tinamon rise with a rush, throwing the feet back under the 
tail when under way ; after a series of rapid strokes of the rounded 
wings they scale for a short distance and then stroke again to avoid 
losing momentum, continuing to fly and sail alternately until safe, 
when they scale to the ground. Flight is accompanied by a strange 
whirring whistle that might be considered vocal, but is evidently 
mechanical in its origin, as the sound is heard only when the wings 
are beating sAviftly, and ceases when the birds are scaling with 
motionless pinions. The flight is well controlled, as at times I saw 
them rush away down wind at a tremendous speed. In alighting, 
however, the birds often seem awkward, as they scale down to 
within 2 or 3 feet of the ground and then throw the wings up and 
drop heavily to earth, when two or three hops or a little run are 
taken to stop their momentum; often the bird may stumble and 
fall forward in its breast. The flight is direct and swift, and the 
roar made in rising disconcerting but the birds are easily killed 
once one has learned to gauge their speed. 

Near Carhue on December 16 I flushed one direct from a nest 
placed in a little hollow under a clump of grass growing on a low 
hillock. The nest hollow was lined with grasses and contained 
four eggs, with incubation begun. The eggs are dusky drab in 
color with highly polished surface that, though apparently smooth, 
contains many small rounded pits. These eggs measure 40.4 by 
31.1, 41.1 by 31.9, 41.8 by 31.3, 42.7 by 32.0 mm. On December 17 
in this same region I flushed several young birds ranging in size 
from the bulk of a zenaida dove to nearly grown, and found that 
they flew as readily as adults. Adults and young fly with the 
neck curved so that the head is held slightly erect. The species is 
known universally as jyerdiz. 

Spotted tinamous are exposed for sale in large numbers in the 
markets of the city of Buenos Aires, and form one of the staple 
game birds offered in hotels, restaurants, or occasionally as a sub- 
stitute for the chicken served unfailingly at meals on railroad dining 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 35 

cars. Many thousands are killed each year by sportsmen, and the 
hunting of this species is a favorite pastime with those addicted to 
such sport. Like the bobwhite of North America, the spotted tina- 
mou seems to have adapted its habits to changes brought about by 
man in its haunts, so that when it receives the slightest encourage- 
ment it remains common in spite of persecution. The meat is white 
and palatable and the bird larger in bulk than a quail. It is hunted 
with dogs, and though it has a tendency to run before them, makes 
a very satisfactory game bird that might thrive if introduced in the 
more temperate portions of the United States 

NOTHURA MACULOSA SAVANNARUM Wetmore 

Nothiira maculosa savannarum WEyrMORE, Journ. Washington Acad. Sci., 
vol. 11, Nov. 4, 1921, p. 435. (San Vicente, Department of Rocha, 
Uruguay.) 

The type specimen of this well-marked subspecies, an adult female, 
was taken at San Vicente, Department of Kocha, Uruguay, on Jan- 
uary 27, 1921. As pointed out in the original description, the bird 
differs from Nothura m. nigroguttata in much bolder, heavier black 
markings on the dorsal surface, paler, more finely streaked hind 
neck, and more restricted, darker markings on the breast. In addi- 
tion, the lateral bars on the sides and flanks are heavier and do not 
extend as far out on the abdomen and upper breast. The same char- 
acters set it off from true Nothura ni. maculosa^ while savannarum 
in addition is paler, more buffy, less rufescent above and below. 
Specimens of Nothura m. viinor (Spix) are not available, but from 
Hellmayr's observations,^" this form, described from Diamantina 
(formerly called Tejuco), Minas Geraes, Brazil, resembles savan- 
narum in paler, more buffy coloration and restricted ventral mark- 
ings, but is distinctly smaller. The wing in the type of savannarum 
measures 139.5 mm., while the same measurement in a series of five 
minor, according to Hellmayr, varies from 111 mm. to 116 mm. 
The subspecies described as savanna-imm is supposed to range through 
eastern Uruguay into Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and to meet minor 
somewhere to the northward in southern Brazil. Names that have 
been applied to spotted tinamous seem to refer entirely to other sub- 
species than the present one. TiTiamius major (Spix)^^ is said by 
Hellmayr ^^ to be a synonym of N. m. maculosa. Tinamus medius 
Spix,^" also a synonym of true maculosa, is said to be based on an 
immature bird. There may be confusion in regard to these names, 
as T. medius and T. minor were described from Tejuco, now called 
Diamantina, Minas Geraes, while T. major is given as from " Campis 

" Abhand. KOn. Bayerischen Akad. Wiss., vol. 22, 1906, pp. 707-708. 
"Av. spec. nov. Brasiliam, vol. 2, 1825, p. 64, pi. 80. 
" Av. spec. nov. Brasiliam, vol. 2, 1825, p. 65, pi. 81. 



36 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Minas Geraes " prope paf^os Tejuco et Contendas." However, the 
types of T. majoi' and T. niedius are said by Hellmayr to have the 
rufescent cast of the dorsal surface found in N. vi. maculosa, while 
N. m. minor is a small form so that none of these names can apply to 
the bird I have described as savam/naru'tri. The Nothura media of 
Salvadori^^ is a synonym of TV. m. minor (Spix). While Nothura 
assimilis G, R. Gray ^^ described from " South America " is also 
identical with .V. m. minor.-^ 

Near La Paloma, port of the town of Rocha, the spotted tinamou 
was seen on January 23, 1921, while from January 25 to February 
2 it was common near San Vicente, Avhere the birds were especially 
abundant in g^rassy fields near the Lnguna Castillos. The female 
described as the type of the present form, taken here on January 
27, contained a Avell-formed egg almost ready to be laid. The 
birds were heard whistling in all directions, and half-grown young 
were seen on January 30. From February 3 to 9 they were noted 
in numbers near Lazcano. 

NOTHURA MACULOSA BOLIVIANA Salvadori 

Nothura hoUviana Salvadobi Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol. 27, 1S95, p. 561. 
(Bolivia.) 

Specimens of the spotted tinamou taken at Las Palmas, Chaco, 
Kilometer 182 (Riacho Pilaga), Formosa, and Kilometer 80, Puerto 
Pinasco, Paraguay, are representative of the Bolivian form, though 
with adequate material there is no question but that they will be 
found to constitute one or more distant races allied to that bird. 
In general they are characterized by a strong grayish cast above and 
below, with the markings of the underparts restricted, and on the 
breast formed into lines. All are sharply cut off from the brighter 
colored Nothura m. maculosa and N. m. nigroguttata that range 
east and south of the Chaco. {Nigroguttata is said to occur at 
Mocovi, Santa Fe, in the southern end of the Chaco region.) Three 
distinct types of coloration are represented by the three localities 
from which specimens called here boliviana are available. A female 
taken at Las Palmas, Chaco, on July 16, 1920, differs from others 
here described under the name N. m. holiviana, in being more 
deeply buff in coloration, especially on the wings and sides of the 
neck, and in having bolder, heavier black markings on the hind 
neck. Two males from the Riacho Pilaga, 10 miles northwest of 
Kilometer 182, Formosa, taken August 15 and 18, are much grayer 
than this Las Palmas bird, and have the hind neck grizzled with 

»8 Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol. 27, 1895, p. 563. 
'» List Birds Brit. Mus., pt. 5, Gallinae, 1867, p. 105. 

=» See Salvadori, Cat. Birds, Brit. Mus., vol. 27, 1895, p. 564, and Hellmayr, Abliand. 
Kon. Bayerischen Akad. Wiss., vol. 22, 1906, p. 707. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 37 

dull black and olive-buff, with a slight buffy tinge. A female from 
Kilometer 80, west of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, is grayer through- 
out than any of the others, while the markings on the liind neck 
and on the underj^arts are greatly restricted. 

Spotted tinamous are birds of sedentary habit that have been 
divided into a number of subspecies, even under the more or less 
cursory examination that has been granted them by ornithologists 
up to the present time. When series of specimens are available from 
their entire range it will be found that a number of geographic races 
have been overlooked, as it is probable that every extensive river 
system may have a distinct form ranging through the plains of its 
drainage basin. In the material at hand in the United States 
National Museum three types of coloration are readily distinguished 
among the spotted tinamous; Nothura m. maculosa, N. m. nigro- 
guttata, and N. m. savannai^m (probably N . m. minor, which I have 
not seen) a group of subspecies characterized by more or less intense 
buffy coloration and bold markings of the dorsal surface, ranging 
from the well-watered pampas north to the Chaco and through 
eastern Paraguay, Uruguay, and southern Brazil; Nothura m. 
boUviana, N. m. peruviana, and N. m. agassizi of grayish color, 
strongly marked above and streaked on the breast below, covering 
eastern Peru, Bolivia, and the Chaco in Bolivia, Paraguay, and 
Argentina ;^^ and Nothura d. daricini, N. d. tnendosensis, and N. d. 
salvadorii, of grayish cast, with fine, vermiculated lining above and 
diffuse markings below, from Patagonia, and the arid regions of 
western Argentina, north into Salta. Nothura maculosa and N. 
darioini are at present recognized as distinct species, while the 
group characterized by holiviana (including the forms given above) 
would also seem distinct, specially from N. maculosa in the char- 
acters that have been enumerated. It is significant that a form 
identical with or close to holivia/na was taken at Las Palmas on the 
west bank of the Kio Paraguay, while a specimen in the United 
States National Museum, from Corrientes a few miles below on the 
eastern shore, just below the confluence of the Parana and Paraguay, 
has the buffy coloration and bold markings of the true maculosa 
group. The relationships of these birds are points to be settled 
only when additional series are available., 

Nothura m. hoUvia^ia does not seem to have been recorded pre- 
viously from Argentina. 

One who has garnered from desultory reading on South American 
natural history that the spotted tinamou is a bird of weak, uncertain 

^ Tinamus ioraquira Spix (Av. spec. nov. Brazillam, vol. 2, 1825, p. 63, pi. 79) if 
correctly delineated in the original plate should be placed in the genus Nothoprocta, 
a group that differs from Nothura in having the posterior face of the tarsus covered 
with small reticulate, hexagonal scales instead of with two rows of large scutes, the 
outer of which is much broader and more distinct than the inner. 
54207—26 i 



38 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

flight must perforce abandon this idea at the first encounter in the 
field. The birds rise with a disconcerting whistle and roar of wings 
that startled me into missing my first bird clean, but on my second 
encounter I retaliated by making a double, though one bird was lost 
in the grass, as I failed to mark it properly. At Las Palmas, in 
the Territory of Chaco, Nothura m. holiviaTia was common from 
July 14 to July 28. The birds were encountered in savannas and 
prairies bordered by heavy groves, where growths of grasses a foot 
or so high afforded cover. Occasionally one ran out with neck ex- 
tended to the utmost to watch me, but more frequently they lay 
close and were overlooked in the heavy cover. At the Riacho Pilaga, 
Formosa, from August 8 to 20, tinamou were common in the drier 
areas. Though it was winter and the air often sharp and frosty, 
I heard the plaintive piping whistle of males frequently as I worked 
at specimens or walked through the open savannas in early morning. 
Cover was so heavy here that the birds were seen less easily than in 
the case of the form inhabiting the open pampa, and though heard 
constantly they were seldom flushed. On one occasion I saw one 
walking across an open space where there was little cover, but a 
minute later, when I returned with a gun, the tinamou had hidden 
and could not be found, though it was only a few feet away. When 
flushed they rose from 2 to 5 meters from the ground and darted 
swiftly away. It was difficult to make them rise a second time. 

One was noted in the outskirts of the town of Formosa on the 
Paraguay River on August 23, and several were seen near Puerto 
Pinasco on September 3. At Kilometer 80 they were abundant from 
September 6 to 26, and were seen in the open camps through the 
Chaco for a distance of 200 kilometers west of the river. A female 
killed on September 6 had the ovaries developing, while males were 
calling constantly. The call consists of a repetition of one note that 
begins slowly, becomes louder and somewhat more rapid, and then 
dies away, a pleasant and agreeable sound. Though brush-grown 
areas were common here, the birds ranged entirely in open country. 
On September 25 at Laguna Wall a set of five fresh eggs was secured 
from a Lengua Indian who had taken them that morning. These 
eggs are slightly paler than dusky drab (being lighter than the set 
of N. m. nigroguttata described from Carhue) and measure (in mil- 
limeters) as follows: 42.3 by 31.2, 43.1 by 31.6, 44.2 by 31.5, 44.9 by 
32.2, 45.1 by 31.5. 
The Anguete Indians knew this species as 6-eA' en likh\ 
The soft parts of a bird secured at Las Palmas were colored as 
follows: Maxilla fuscous; sides of maxilla, and mandible cartridge 
buff; iris apricot orange; tarsus and toes vinaceous buff. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 39 
NOTHURA DARWINI MENDOZENSIS Chubb 

Nothnra danrini mcndozensis C. Chubb, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 38, Dee. 
12, 1917, p. 31. (Mendoza, Argentina.) 

No specimens of this tinamoii were preserved so that the alloca- 
tion of field notes under this heading is provisional. Spotted tina- 
mous of this type were recorded at General Roca, Territory of Rio 
Negro, from November 23 to December 3, 1920, where the birds fre- 
quented alfalfa fields and other green growth near the river. At 
Victorica, Pampa, on December 28 I shot an immature bird, but was 
forced to kill it at too close range because of bushes among which it 
was found so that it was not possible to preser\'e it. It was light in 
color and resembled mendozensis. Others were noted here between 
December 26 and 29. The bird at times frequents open brushy areas 
as well as fields and prairies, in this differing from the preceding 
spotted tinamous. At Tunuyan, Mendoza, tinamou were fairly com- 
mon from March 23 to 28 ; on the latter date I killed one but lost it in 
high weeds. 

There is one specimen in the United States National Museum from 
Cordoba (taken July 8, 1913, by Renato Sanzin) that differs from 
specimens from Mendoza, the type locality, in more buffy coloration 
and in possessing bolder markings above. 

In notes and general habits N. darwini is similar to N. m<icul-osa. 

NOTHOPROCTA CINERASCENS (Burmeister) 

Nothura cinerasccns Bukmeister, Journ. fiir Orn., vol. 8, 1860, p. 259. 
(Tucuman.) 

An adult female about to lay was killed near Tapia in northern 
Tucuman on April 10, 1921. These tinamou Avere fairly common 
here in areas where thickets of small thorny shrubs grew in dense 
clumps, interspersed with irregular openings covered with weeds 
growing from 1 to 3 feet high. The call of males was a whistle sug- 
gesting that of Calopezus elegans but far less musical. Though 
heard frequently from April 6 to 14, they lay so close that only three 
or four were seen during this period. They rise with a startling roar 
of wings almost at one's feet and dash swiftly away, frequently giv- 
ing a loud clucking call, dodging almost at once behind some clump 
of brush that offers protection. I was forced to kill the one taken at 
too close range, as it was about to disappear behind a bush, and 
tore it badly. 

Tinamou heard whistling above the city of Mendoza on March 13 
mdy have been the present species, as also one that flushed with an 
excited note from a rocky hill slope near Potrerillos, Mendoza, on 
March 19. 

Nothoprocta cinerascens is distinct from N. perdiccuria in having 
coarser, larger reticulations on the posterior face of the tarsus. 



40 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

NOTHOPROCTA PERDICARIA PERDICARIA (Kittlitz) 

Crypturus perdicarius Kittlitz, Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersbourg, 
Divers Savan.s, vol. 1, Livr. 2, 1830. p. 193, pi. 12. (Valparaiso, Chile.") 

A female taken at Concon north of Valparaiso, Chile, on April 
27, 1921, was prei^ared as a skin, Avhile another, secured at the same 
time, was preserved as a skeleton. Conover-^ has shown that the 
tinamou of southern Chile differs from that of more northern locali- 
ties in darker coloration and more brownish upper parts, with 
undersurface clay color instead of gray, and has named it N. f. 
sanhorni (type locality Mafil, Valdivia). 

Conover considers Nothoprocta coquimbica Salvadori,^* named 
from a bird taken at Coquimbo by Doctor Coppinger, in the month 
of June, indistinguishable from true perdicaria. According to the 
ranges assigned by Salvadori perdicaria is found in northern and 
central Chile, while coquimbica occurs in South Chile.^^ Mani- 
festly the ranges as given are interchanged as Coquimbo lies 350 
miles north of Valparaiso. The bird from Concon, while coming 
from within a few miles of the type locality of perdicaria^ has the 
breast decidedly grayer than a small series of old skins in the 
United States National Museum, from near Santiago, Chile, in 
this resembling the description of coquiniMca, but, on the other 
hand it is blacker above, with paler, browner markings than is 
shown in the plate of coquimbica given by Salvadori. 

On April 27 I encountered several of these tinamou in a steep- 
sided brush-clothed gulch in the rolling hills, south of the mouth 
of the Rio Aconcagua at Concon. Some ran aside, as I approached, 
to hide in the brush, while others rose with excited whistling calls 
and dashed away behind cover of trees. Others were noted on 
April 28. In the female bird noted above, the maxilla, save on the 
posterior cutting edge, was fuscous-black; remainder of maxilla 
and mandible drab-gray, with the tip of the mandible shaded with 
fuscous; iris Rood's brown; tarsus and toes slightly duller than 
chamois ; nails fuscous. 

Tinamou were offered for sale in the markets of Valparaiso in 
considerable numbers, and were sold in the streets in pairs by itiner- 
ant vendors. 

RHYNCHOTUS RUFESCENS PALLESCENS Kothe 

Rhi/nchottis pallescens Kothe, Joiirn. flir Oriiith., January, 1907, p. 164. 
(Tornquist, Buenos Aires.) 

The southern, gray race of the rufous-winged tinamou, distin- 
guished by its grayer coloration and larger size from the typical 

" According to Chrostowski (Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., vol. I, no. 1, Sept. 30, 
1921, p. 18), Kittlitz' type specimen was killed near Valparaiso on Apr. 3, 1827. 
2«Auk, 1924, p. 334. 

^ Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol. 27, 1895, p. 554, p. 15. 
'^ See Brabourne and Chubb, Birds of South America, 1912, p. 6. 



BIEDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 41 

form, must bear the subspecific name pallescens. Though Kothe 
recorded a specimen from Tornquist in the Province of Buenos 
Aires as Rhynchotus rufescens catingae Reiser, a form that ranges 
far to the north in Piauhy, Brazil, at the same time he proposed for 
it the designation pallescens, a name that has been usually over- 
looked, as it has not been listed in the Zoological Record. I collected 
a pair of these birds in the sand-dune region 15 miles south of 
Cape San Antonio, Province of Buenos Aires, on November 4, 
1920, and two others (one of which was preserved as a skeleton) on 
November 6. The skull of a third specimen was secured on the 
same day. An adult male taken on the Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, 
on August 18 seems to represent a northern race, ranging between 
pollescens of the pampas, and R. r. alleni of Matto Grosso. It 
has the bold black markings and general gray cast of 'pallescens^ 
but differs in having the foreneck, hindneck, and upper breast 
washed distinctly with brown, and the rictal stripe much heavier. 
A bird in the collection of the National Museum from Cordoba is 
somewhat intermediate between the birds of northern and central 
Argentina, as it has a slight buify wash on the neck. I have con- 
sidered it inadvisable to describe the specimen from the Formosan 
Chaco until further material is available. 

The rufous-winged tinamou, though common in many localities, 
is so shy that in spite of its size it is difficult to see and still more 
difficult to collect. The call of the male, a musical, slow^ly given 
whistle that bears a strong resemblance to the song of the Balti- 
more oriole, may be heard frequently, but it requires careful stalk- 
ing to obtain sight of the bird. In fact, for several months this 
note was a puzzle to me. I heard it first at Las Palmas, Chaco, 
and again at the Riacho Pilaga, Kilometer 182, Formosa, coming 
from the long grass of the savannas. On many occasions I followed 
the clear whistled call out across the open without catching sight 
of the elusive musician, and, until I traced the note to its proper 
source, I was inclined to attribute it to a blackbird, Gnoriniopsar 
chopi^ a species almost ubiquitous in the Chaco that frequently 
flushed from the spot from which the call seemed to come. At 
Las Palmas in July I had a glimpse of one as it ran swiftly through 
the grass at the border of a wood, but did not secure a specimen 
until August 18, when at the Riacho Pilaga, one burst out at my 
feet with a thunder of wings and rushed away 2 meters above the 
ground, to be dropped at 40 meters with a charge of number eight 
shot. In the Chaco, Indians were said to hunt the large tinamou 
as they did the rhea, disguised by branches from a thick-leaved 
bush, so that they resembled dense shrubs. Tinamou were lured 
out into the open by an imitation of their whistle, and killed with 
bow and arrow or shotgun by the hunter invested in his blind. 



42 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Near Lavalle, in eastern Buenos Aires, the species had been ex- 
terminated on the fertile, pastured uplands, but was common in a 
desert stretch of sand dunes lying parallel to the beach below Cabo 
San Antonio. From November 3 to 8, while camped in a small 
hut in this region, I found the birds in comparative abundance. For 
two days during a tremendous storm the tinamou, discouraged by 
the downpour of rain, were entirely silent, but later when the 
weather cleared after the temporal they sang from all sides. By 
following the note it was usually simple to locate a pair and by 
startling them to force them to wing. The flight is swift but heavy 
and direct, so that they are easily killed. At this season they were 
breeding, as females taken contained eggs ready to lay. 

While crossing on a train near Sierra de la Ventana on November 
21 I noticed a number of pairs walking quietly about in the bunch 
grass that covered the pastures. On December 17 near Carhue I 
heard several calling from growths of thistles below the crest of 
a hill, where the birds were sheltered from wind, but though the 
musical, somewhat labored calls came from near at hand, the tina- 
mou retreated through the dense growth as I advanced, and I did 
not catch sight of them. On March 3 and 4, 1921, the species was 
heard calling at long intervals near Guamini. It is said that these 
birds can not compete with the crested tinamou, Calopezus elegaTis^ 
so that when the latter invades a region the rufous-winged bird 
disappears. 

In Uruguay the note of the rufous-winged tinamou was heard 
on February 2, 1921, at the Bahado de la India Muerta, south of 
Lazcano, but none were seen. 

This tinamou is hunted with dogs, and it is claimed that after 
the bird makes two or three flights it is exhausted and may be taken 
by hand. Be this as it may, I can testify that the initial flight is 
vigorous. The flesh of the rufous-winged tinamou is white in 
color and delicious in flavor, far exceeding in taste that of the other 
species that I encountered. The bird is so heavy that the tender 
muscles of the breast are frequently split as it falls to the ground 
when shot. The caeca of this species are long, slender, and cylin- 
drical in form, entirely different from those of Calopezus. 

Order SPHENISCIFORMES 
Family SPHENISCIDAE 

SPHENISCUS MAGELLANICUS (Forster) 

Aptenodytes tnagcllaniGa FoKSTEnt, Comm. Soc. Reg. Scient. Gottingensis, 
vol. 3, 1781, p. 143, pi. 5. (Staten Island, Tierra del Fuego, aud the 
Falkland Islands.) 

On January 23, 1921, I found over 100 dried bodies of penguins 
cast up on the beach at La Paloma, Uruguay, and carried away one 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 43 

or two complete and a series of skulls. Fishermen there told me 
that it was frequent to find these birds along the beaches in winter 
and apparently there is heavy mortality among them. The pajaro 
nino, as the penguin is called, was also reported as frequent on the 
eastern coast of the Province of Buenos Aires. 

Order COLYMBIFORMES 
Family COLYMBIDAE 

COLYMBUS DOMINICUS BRACHYRHYNCHUS Chapman 

Volymbus dominiciis brachyrhynchus Chapman Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. 
Hist, vol. 12, Dec. 23, 1899, p. 255. (Chapada, Matto Grosso, Brazil.) 

On August 9, 1920, near the Riacho Pilaga, 10 miles northwest of 
Kilometer 182, Formosa, Argentina, I found two of these grebes 
swimming slowly across the open water of a rush-bordered lagoon. 
At the time I was navigating a crude balsa made of a bundle of 
cattails bound together on which I knelt and paddled with a small 
pole. With this unwieldy craft I managed to approach near enough 
to secure one of the grebes, but the other dived and was lost in 
the rushes. 

In the specimen taken the wing measures 102 mm. and the culmen 
21.5 mm., so that in size this bird agrees with the measurements 
given by Chapman in his original diagnosis of the subspecies hrachy- 
rhynchus. It is also slightly darker below than C. d. hrachypterus 
Chapman. The present specimen, when compared with a con- 
siderable series of hrachypterus^ has the sides of the breast grayer, 
and the band across the upper breast lighter in color. 

Colynibus doTninicus differs from C. chilensis, the other common 
small grebe of this region, in having the outer webs of the inner 
primaries and the secondaries margined, at least near the tip, with 
dull gray, while the scutes on the tarsus and middle toe are broader 
and less numerous. In dominicus the large scutes on the front of 
the tarsus number from 12 to 14, and those on the basal joint of the 
middle toes from 11 to 12, a total of from 23 to 26 in the combined 
spaces. In C. chilensis there are from 15 to 17 scutes on the front of 
the tarsus, and 14 to 17 on the basal segment of the middle toe, a 
total of from 30 to 34. 

Should the small grebe from southern South America prove 
separable from northern examples, the name Podiceps speciosus 
Felix Lynch Arribalzaga,^" based on a specimen in winter plumage 
taken in May, 1873, on Baradero Island, Province of Buenos Aires, 
is available. La Ley, a large folio sheet, was a daily paper, pub- 
lished for a short period only, under the editorship of Senor Enrique 

^ La Ley, Buenos Aires, July 2, 1877, p. 1. 



44 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Lynch Arribalzaga and his brother. Because of the rarity of this 
publication the pertinent part of the description of P. speciosus is 
transcribed here from notes made from a partial set of La Ley in 
the Bibliotheca Nacional in Buenos Aires. 

LA LEY DIARIO DE INTERESE8 GENE3JAL 

Administraclon y Direcci6n, Malpu 211. Buenos Aires, Julio 2 de 1877 Redaction 

an6nima 

[Page 1.] Descripciou de una especie del genero Podiceps, por Felix Lynch. 
[An introductory statement gives notes on the grebes found in Argentina, and 
states that the new species, taken in May, 1873, at the Isla de Baradero, was 
supposed to be a migrant from Entre Rios.] 

PODICEPS SPECIOSUS (Nobis) 

La parte superior de la caheza es parda oscura en la frente y vertex ; sus 
plumas son bastante largas y forman un copetillo cuya punta se dirije hacia 
atras. Cada pluma lleva un pequeiia borde de color castano. Cuando el ave 
se asusta eleva algo las plumas de la cabeza. 

El occipucio es bianco, pero sus plumas tienen el extremo pardo oscuro. 
La parte inferior de la cabeza, sus costados, region parotida y algo del cuello 
de color bianco sucio, pero la cara y las plumas que cubren los oidos son 
jaspeados de oscuro; la mancha blanca de los costados de la cabeza adquiere 
gradualmente un tinto acanelado claro hacia su borde posterior y en lo alto 
de cuello, este ultimo es castaiio claro en lo anterior y costados, y pardo 
oscuro en lo posterior. La base de el es algo mas oscura by sus plumas se 
asemejan a pelos. El dorso del ave y las coberteras de las alas pardo oscuras 
con jaspe castano claro k causa de que las plumas oscuras llevan un ribeto de 
aquel color. 

El lomo hasta la rabadilla, negro. La cola, blanca acanelada con algunas 
plumas negras. El i)echo, vientre y costados acanelados claros, con debil 
bano vinoso y cierto reflejo plateado sobre todo en los dos primeros. 

Nueve de las remeras primarias son oscuras por encima con sus barbas 
externas rojizas y por de bajo son prises plateadas ; la decima remera es 
blanca, pero el bordo externo, el mastil y gran parto del extremo son de color 
negruzco, las tres primeras remeras secundarias son blancas pero manchadas 
de negruzco como la decima primaria ; el color negruzco desmiuuye gradual- 
mente de una 3- otra en intensidad y estension hasta que, a contar de la 3a 
secundaria las dem^s son blancas puras con mastil del mismo color. 

Las tapadas, blancas con algun bafio acanelado. Iris rojo carmin. Pico 
negruzco en la maudibula superior, azulado sucio en la enferior ; el estremo de 
esta tiltima del color de la supei'ior. Pies aplomados oscuros — Longitud total, 
23 cet. — Pico desde su angulo hasta la punta, 0.02 — Tarso 6,94. — Dedo medio, 
0.05 ; " interno 9,035 ; externo 9,05, y plugar 0,01. 

This paper was noticed in El Naturalista Argentino,^** where it is 
said to have been accompanied by a plate. No plate was given in 
the original publication, so that it was probably issued as a separate 
sheet and so lost. 

^ Probably an error for 9,05. 

=8 Vol. 1, pt. 1, Jan. 1, 1878, p. 32. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 45 

With regard to the genus name Colymbus, I have followed Ameri- 
can custom in applying it to a group of grebes, though there is uncer- 
tainty as to whether it belongs to that family or to the loons. Dr. 
Witmer Stone in the Auk, 1923 (pp. 147-148), has reviewed the case 
briefly and is inclined to consider that Colyvibus should go to the 
loons. His argument on the matter is readily accessible and need 
not be quoted here. It may be noted, however, that though Gray in 
1840 and 1841 cites G. glacialis Linnaeus as type of Colymhus with- 
out comment, in an appendix issued in 1842 containing revisions to 
his second edition he remarks (p. 15), '•'' Colyvibus^ after L. add 
(1735)," thus indicating that here, as in 1855, he had the edition of 
Linnaeus for 1735 in mind. The earliest definite fixation of type for 
Colyinbus Linnaeus 1758 is apparently that of Baird, Brewer, and 
Ridgway, Water Birds (vol. 2, 1884, p. 425), where it is cited as 
Colymhus cHstatus Linnaeus. For much of the matter given above 
I am indebted to Dr. C. W. Eichmond. 

COLYMBUS CHILENSIS (Lesson) 

Podiceps chUeiisis " Garnot " Lesson, Man. d'Orn., vol. 2, June, 182S, p. 
358. (Concepcion Bay, Chile.) 

This species was first described by Lesson in his Manuel d'Orni- 
thologie under the names of Podiceps chilensis and P. americanus, of 
which P. chilensis has anteriority, as P. myiencanus is given lower 
down on the same page. The species has been commonly accepted 
under the name aniericanus, dating from Podiceps mnericanus Les- 
son and Garnot,^^ which, however, is preoccupied by the name used 
above. The designation Podiceps chiliens-is occurs in the work last 
cited, but on page 601. 

On November 2, 1920, at the Estancia Los Yngleses, near Lavalle, 
Province of Buenos Aires, I secured an adult male of this species in 
full plumage. While watching a small pool surrounded by rushes, I 
had a glimpse of the neck of one of these birds projecting above the 
surface of the water, but it disappeared at once. I remained hidden 
for several minutes, making a variety of cooing and grunting calls, 
until suddenly, without a ripple on the water or a sound, the bird 
appeared in the center of the pool directly in front of me, where by a 
quick shot, it was secured. The bill of this individual was black; 
iris slightly lighter than carmine ; tarsus and toes dark neutral gray, 
blotched with deep to light olive gray, with the under surface of the 
webs blachish slate. 

At General Roca, Rio Negro, on December 3. these small 
grebes were common along quiet channels bordered with rushes and 

* Voyage Autour du Monde, Coquille, Zoologie, vol. 1, November, 1820, p. 599. 



46 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

willow thickets near the Rio Negro. Here the birds floated about 
with back and rump feathers expanded to receive the warm rays of 
the sun, or swam with slender necks erect in ordinary grebe attitude. 
At times one rose, and with body erect and neck extended forward, 
fluttered along the surface for a few feet, an action probably reminis- 
cent of mating displays given in spring. At such occasions the white 
secondaries showed prominently. At times the grebes gave a 
whistled call, often in an explosive tone, that at first I supposed was 
the song of some passerine unknown to me. One female taken was 
in molt and had cast all of the feathers in the primary and secondary 
series in the wing; new feathers growing in had just burst the 
sheaths. The birds were observed preening their plumage and eat- 
ing discarded feathers. An individual that floated near shore was so 
fearless that I turned it about with my hand while attempting to get 
it in proper position for a photograph. 

At Carhue, in the Province of Buenos Aires, on December 16 a 
single bird of this species was observed among great flocks of C. 
occipitalis on the alkaline waters of Lago Epiquen. Near Guamini 
the species was noted in small numbers in open water of a large lake 
on March 3, 4, and 6, 1921. 

In the small series at hand are specimens of this grebe secured 
in localities ranging from the Straits of Magellan to Bolivia and 
central Chile. I am, hoAvever, unable to differentiate those from 
the various areas as subspecies. The grebe described from the Falk- 
land Islands as rollandi by Quoy and Gaimard is a large repre- 
sentative of the present species, distinguished by much larger size 
and darker coloration. It is sufficiently distinct to be recognized 
as a separate species on the basis of material available at present, 
though formerly the name rollandi was used for all grebes of this 
type in South America. 

COLYMBUS OCCIPITALIS OCCIPITALIS (Garnot) 

Podiceps occipitalis Gabnot, Ann. Sci. Nat., vol. 7, January, 1826, p. 50. 
(Falkland Islands.) 

The name in common use for this bird, taken from Podiceps cali- 
pareus^^ is antedated by Podiceps occipitalis Garnot, as cited above. 
It may be noted that the description by Lesson and Garnot just cited 
is also antedated by plate 45 of the same work, published with liv- 
raison 5 in October, 1827, where the bird is figured under the cap- 
tion Podiceps kalipareus.^^ Chapman^- has confirmed the validity 
of C. o. juninensis (Berlepsch and Stolzmann)^^ described from 

30 Lesson and Garnot, Voyage autour du Monde, Coquille, Zoologle, vol. 1, May, 1830, 
p. 727. 

*» See Matthews, Austral Avian Record, vol. 2, October 23, 1913, p. 53. 
"U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 117, 1921, p. 49. 
^ Ibis, 1894. p. 112. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 4? 

Lake Junin, Peru. Comparison of a skin from Santiago, Chile, with 
two from Argentina shows no differences that may not be ascribed 
to individual variation. Specimens from the Falkland Islands, the 
type locality, are not available to me at present. 

On December 15, 1920, as I came down from Carhue, Province of 
Buenos Aires, to the shore of Lago Epiqu«n, I made out the forms 
of thousands of small white-breasted birds resting on the surface of 
the water. On closer approach I found that they were grebes of the 
present species swimming, preening, resting, or feeding in loose 
flocks and bands that extended down the lake until lost to view in a 
shimmering heat haze that danced over the water. From where I 
rested on a small hillock overlooking the barren shores of the saline 
lake (similar in formation and salinity of water to Great Salt 
or Owens Lakes in the United States) fully 10,000 grebes were in 
sight, while the number on the entire expanse of the lake, a body 35 
kilometers long by 20 kilometers wide, must have been immense. All 
were in full plumage and at a short distance appeared entirely white. 
Though the majority were quiet, mating activities were carried on 
in a few areas. Pairs or occasional parties of five or six individuals 
partly rose on the surface, and with sides touching, dashed off across 
the water for 10 or 12 meters. Usually as they stopped one, or more 
in case of a small flock, rose, and with extended neck and fluttering 
wings, splattered off for a short distance alone. Pairs approached 
one another with the posterior portion of the body lowered and 
breast raised, frequently to remain with breasts opposed, as they 
turned and pressed against one another, for a minute or more. At 
such times the breast feathers were expanded laterally, so that the 
birds appeared large. A call note resembling tick tick, given in an 
excited tone, was heard constantly. On the whole, the actions of the 
birds reminded me of the American eared grebe {GolyTnbus nigri- 
collis calif 07viicus) , but were more subdued. It is possible that they 
became more active a little later in the season, as not more than 5 per 
cent as yet felt the mating impulse. It is presumed that the species 
may nest in lakes in the mountains. E. Budin, of Tucuman, accord- 
ing to Hartert and Venturi,^* found the species nesting in a lake in 
the Cumbres de Calchaqui at an altitude of 4,300 meters. The 
birds were in all probability attracted to Lago Epiquen by the abun- 
dant food available in the form of brine shrimp {Artemia, species), 
but would not remain since the heavy, saline water and lack of aquatic 
vegetation were not suitable for breeding colonies. 

In early morning flocks swam up into the mouth of an arroyo 
where fresh water entered the lake, and here on December 15 I 
secured two and on December 16 another. These birds were easily 

^ Nov. Zool., vol. 16, December, 1909, p. 256. 



48 BULLETIN 133^ UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

killed, as they seemed less agile in rapid diving than other species of 
grebes that I have taken. 

An adult male had the bill dull black, more grayish at base; iris 
scarlet, with a narrow circle of baryta yellow around the margin of 
the pupillar opening; outer face of tarsus, fourth toe, and under 
surface of all the toes, dusky neutral gray; inner faces of first and 
second toes washed with vinaceous buff; rest of tarsus and toes neu- 
tral gray. 

AECHMOPHORUS MAJOR (Boddaert) 
Colymhus major Boddaert, Tabl. Planch. Enl., 1783, p. 24. ("Cayenne.") 

This large grebe, when in full plumage, bears a striking resem- 
blance to Holboell's grebe in pattern of markings and color. The 
bill in general form agrees with Aechmophorus occidentalis (the 
type of the genus), but is slightly heavier, while the base of the bill 
is somewhat more heavily striated, and the nostril, bordered above 
by a stronger membrane, is less elongate in form. In addition 
the feathers on the sides of the mandibular rami form a more obtuse 
angle and in most specimens do not extend as far forward, while 
the streaked plumage of juvenile birds is strikingly different from 
that of the plain gray of the chick of occidentalis. 

The species was first observed on the Parana River between Holt 
and Zarate on October 9, 1920. On October 25 six or eight were 
seen on salt water in the mouth of the Rio Ajo, below Lavalle, 
Buenos Aires, and three, all in immature dress, were taken. Two of 
these, preserved as skins, have indistinct dark streaks on the side of 
the head, and lack the full bright color of adults. As my boat ap- 
proached in the narrow river, these birds worked to one side and 
finally made a long dive to allow me to pass. Three were observed 
sleeping as they floated on the water, with the neck drawn back so 
that the bill rested on the shoulder at the side of the neck with the 
point ahead. As this threw the rounded head in the middle of the 
back it produced a curious outline. From this attitude the birds 
dived with no loss of time in swinging the bill to the front, an evident 
advantage of this attitude over that assumed under similar circum- 
stances by the pied-billed grebe in which the bill is turned and insert- 
ed among the feathers of the back. One of the grebes taken here had 
the end of one toe and part of the web on another bitten out as 
though by a turtle or a small shark. The species seems to range 
along the seashore, as on November 6 when I was on the coast below 
Cabo San Antonio one washed ashore after a heavy storm, while on 
the following day two more, one an adult male, were secured under 
similar conditions. These had been dead for two days at least, and 
were preserved either as skulls or skeletons. 



BIKDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 49 

Near General Roca, Rio Negro, on November 27, one was seen 
breasting the swift current of the Rio Negro in main stream. On 
January 9, 1921, in the mouth of the Arroyo Carrasco, below Monte- 
video, I found two pairs apparently on their breeding grounds. 
When I first arrived only two grebes were visible, but these were 
joined at once by two others, one of which came sliding out from the 
reeds on the opposite bank. The birds, handsome in their full 
plumage, swam back and forth with arching necks and raised crests, 
finally diving as I came out from cover of the bushes. Two others 
were seen offshore in salt water opposite Carrasco on January 16. 
while near Lazcano, Department of Rocha, Uruguay, two in full 
plumage were noted February 7. On March 4 one was recorded on 
the Laguna del Monte at Guamini, Province of Buenos Aires, Ar- 
gentina. 

It is probable that birds from Patagonia and Chile may be sep- 
arated from those from Buenos Aires, and farther north by smaller 
size, smaller, more slender bills, and in adult plumage, by grayer hind 
neck. The series at hand, however, is insufficient to make these 
points certain. 

PODILYMBUS PODICEPS ANTARCTICUS (Lesson) 
Podiceps antarcticus Lesson, Rev. Zool., July, 1842, p. 209. (Valparaiso.) 

The pied-billed grebe of southern South America may be segre- 
gated from typical podiceps of North America as a subspecies under 
the name antarcticus of Lesson, on the basis of average grayer colora- 
tion above, including sides of neck, and more brownish hind neck. 
It is a large robust form with strong, heavy bill. Specimens have 
been examined from Buenos Aires, Rio Negro, and Chubut, Ar- 
gentina, and Santiago, Chile, but whether this form covers the whole 
of South America remains to be determined. Females of this species 
in breeding dress may be distinguished from males by the greater 
extent of the dusky markings on the feathers of the undersurface, 
especially on the lower breast and abdomen, so that they appear 
much darker, a point that needs attention in making comparisons. 
Following are measurements, in millimeters, of three specimens taken 
near General Roca, in the Territory of Rio Negro, Argentina : Two 
males, wing 136.5, 145.0; culmen, 25.6, 25.0; tarsus, 45.5, 46.0; one 
female, wing, 133.8 ; culmen, 22.5 ; tarsus 42.5. 

Near Lavalle, Province of Buenos Aires, from October 30 to No- 
vember 9, pied-billed grebes were seen at intervals in pools in the 
marshes. They were very shy and seemed to be on their breeding 
grounds. At General Roca, in Rio Negro, they were found in the 
quiet water of narrow lagoons, bordering the present channel of 
the river. On November 30 I killed three here, a mated pair and a 
fully grown male still in immature plumage. The adult male taken 



50 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

called at intervals with the usual sonorous notes of this species. 
The birds were observed here from November 27 to December 3. 
Near Lazcano, Department of Rocha, Uruguay, one was seen Feb- 
ruary 7, 1921, and near Concon, Chile, several were noted on a small 
slough on April 25. 

One harboring the old delusion that grebes possess no tails has 
only to watch the present species during the breeding season to be 
undeceived, as at that time males frequently swim about truculently 
with the short tail held erect, so that it is very prominent. In diving, 
the birds, if not frightened, often lower the fore part of the body 
and then sink slowly beneath the surface, turning the head about 
for a last view, before they finally disappear without leaving a ripple 
on the water. 

Order PROCELLARIIFORMES 
Family DIOMEDEIDAE 

DIOMEDEA MELANOPHRIS Temminck 

Diomedea melanophris " Boie," Temminck, Nouv. Rec. PI. Col. d'Ois., livr. 
77, April, 1828, pi. 456. (Cape of Good Hope.) 

The black-browed albatross, common off the coast of Brazil below 
latitude 22° 37' S. from June 15 to 19, 1920, was observed in small 
numbers in the great mouth of the Rio de la Plata on June 20, below 
Montevideo. On January 23, 1921, I found a skull of this species 
cast up on the beach near La Paloma, Department of Rocha, 
Uruguay. 

Family HYDROBATIDAE 

MACRONECTES GIGANTEUS (Gmelin) 

ProceUaria gigantea Gmei.in, Syst. Nat., vol. 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 563. 
(Staaten Land."") 

On May 2, 1921, I collected the skull of a giant fulmar on the 
beach at Antofagasta, Chile. Like many of the other birds cast up 
by the waves at this place, the bird was covered with crude oil, sug- 
gesting that it had been killed through becoming saturated with oil 
floating on the sea. 

PUFFINUS PUFFINUS PUFFINUS (Brunnich) 

ProceUaria puffinus Brunnich, Oni. Bor., 17G4, p. 29. (Faroes and Nor- 
way, ) 

On November 7, 1920, following a heavy storm that had endured 
for three days, a Manx shearwater washed in on the beach 25 kilo- 
meters south of Cabo San Antonio, Province of Buenos Aires. The 

»^ See Mathews, Birds of Australia, vol. 2, pt. 2, July 31, 1912, pp. 184, 18G. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 51 

bird was so emaciated that the pectoral muscles were reduced to thin 
bands overlying the sternum, a condition due apparently to lack of 
food, as there was no indication of disease. The measurements of 
this specimen, in millimeters, are as follows : Wing, 227.5 ; tail, 71.5 ; 
culmen, 35.6; tarsus, 42,6. The feathers of wings and back are 
somewhat worn, while the rectrices seem to have been renewed re- 
cently. The specimen is of the type with blackish upper surface 
(differentiating it from the grayer P. p. yelkouan and P. f. maure- 
tanicus). A shearwater of this species (subspecific form unknown) 
has been recorded from Iguape, on the coast of Sao Paulo, Brazil,^*^ 
but there seems to be no previous note of occurrence for Argentina. 

PUFFINUS CREATOPUS Coues 

Pufflnus creatopus Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1864, p. 131. 
(San Nicholas Island, California.) 

Skulls of this shearwater were preserved from two mummied 
specimens found on the beach at Antofagasta, Chile, on May 2, 1921. 

PUFFINUS GRAVIS (O'Reilly) 

Procellaria Gravis O'Reilly, Greenland, Adj. Seas, etc., 1818, p. 140, pi. 12, 
fig. 1. (Cape Farewell and Staten Hook to Newfoundland.) 

On January 23, 1921, 1 found the dried body of a great shearwater 
on the beach at La Paloma, Department of Rocha, Uruguay, and 
secured the skull. There seems to be no other record for the occur- 
rence of the species in Uruguay, though it is known from the Falk- 
land Islands and Tierra del Fuego north into North Atlantic seas. 

PUFFINUS GRISEUS (Gmelin) 

Procellaria grisea Gmelin, Syst. Nat., vol. 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 564. (New- 
Zealand.) 

A number of mummified shearwaters of this species were found 
on the beach at Antofagasta, Chile, on May 2, 1921, and three skulls 
were collected. About 9 in the evening on May 5, while the steamer 
was passing 12 kilometers west of the Balliesta Islands, Peru, sev- 
eral came on board attracted by the lights, and near the same hour 
on May 7, wben 16 kilometers west of Lobos Afuera Island, we 
encountered large numbers. On this last occasion 40 or 50 blun- 
dered aboard, and several hundred in the water were observed 
scurrying aside as the ship passed by the lights from the promenade 
deck. Those that came aboard fell sprawling on deck and then 
scuttled along, half erect, with rapid awkward steps. The 
obliquely placed feet, with the comparatively slight flexure of which 
they were susceptible, made their stride short and stilted. Some 

» Von Ihering, Aves do Brazil. 1907, p. 37. 



52 BULLETIN" 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

hurried into dark corners; others attempted to clamber into the 
lighted passageAvays, pulling themselves over the raised thresholds 
of the doorways by aid of their bills. Occasionally one gave a 
raucous call, with widely opened mouth. All resented handling by 
biting savagely. Wlien thrown overboard they fluttered heavily 
down to the water or turned to swing in again toward the ship. 
One that I skinned proved to be an immature female, and all of 
those handled appeared to be young birds. During the daytime 
they were observed resting on the water or scaling over the waves, 
when they were recognized by the light under wing coverts that 
showed in contrast with their otherwise somber coloration. 

PROCELLARIA AEQUINOCTIALIS AEQUINOCTIALIS Linnaeus 

ProceUaria aequinoctialis Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1, 1758, p. 132. 
( Cape of Good Hope. ) 

This species, noted commonly at sea from June 15 to 20, 1920, 
from latitude 22° 30' S. to the mouth of the Rio de la Plata, fre- 
quently came close to the stern of the steamer in following over the 
wake. The birds circled with set wings, scaling swiftly along, often 
tilting sideways at such an angle that they seemed about to over- 
turn. As their momentum slackened they rose again Avith a few 
quick wing strokes, and then swinging in a short circle scaled away 
once more. Occasionally they alighted on the water, where they 
floated high like gulls. They were characterized by sooty black 
plumage, rounded tail, and a bill marked with yellow and slaty 
black. The silence of these great sea birds, in time, impresses one 
as uncanny. 

On November 3 and 4 many were circling just outside the breakers 
below Cabo San Antonio, on the eastern coast of Buenos Aires, 
during a heavy gale. At times they swung in to w^ithin 100 meters 
of the shore. On a dead bird picked up on the beach at La Paloma, 
Rocha, Uruguay, on January 23, 1921, the culmen measured 50.5 mm., 
while there was a small white interramal chin spot. The head of 
this specimen was preserved. 

OCEANODROMA TETHYS (Bonaparte) 

Thalassidroma tethys Bonaparte, Journ. fiir Ornith., 1853, p. 47. (Gala- 
pagos Islands.) 

An immature female Galapagos petrel came aboard ship on the 
evening of May 9, 1921, when we were about 10 miles west of La 
Plata Island, on the coast of Ecuador. As Loomis^^ has indicated, 
the tail in this species is slightly forked, the incision in the present 
specimen amounting to 5 mm., so that tethys seems to belong in the 

"Proc. California Acad. Scl., ser. 4, vol. 2, pt. 2, no. 12, Apr. 22 1918, p. 153. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 53 

genus Oceanodroma rather than in Procellaria^ where in P. pelagica, 
the type species, the tail is slightly rounded. 

OCEANITES GRACILIS GRACILIS (Elliot) 
Thalassidrotna gracilis Elliot, Ibis, 1859, p. 391. (Chile.) 

On the evening of May 7, 1921, 15 kilometers west of Lobos de 
Afuera Island, Peru, four graceful petrels, attracted by the lights, 
were captured on board ship. On deck they were helpless and even 
by aid of their wings were barely able to walk. When handled they 
gave a low chirping call. All were males, in which the outermost 
primaries had been molted recently, so that one or two of the outer 
ones were still inclosed in sheaths. They agree in color and char- 
acters with the type of this species preserved in the National Mu- 
seum, save that the wing is shorter, due to the molting primaries. 
In most of a series studied by Loomis ^^ the molt came from late 
November to early January, though one June specimen had recently 
shed the primaries. My skins vary in amount of white on the abdo- 
men from a diffuse wash on the tips of the feathers in one to another 
in which the white forms a solid well-defined patch. The wing in 
the type specimen of the species measures 131.2 mm. Measurements 
for two of my specimens are 118.3 mm. in each case, but these birds, 
as stated above, have just completed a molt and may have the pri- 
maries not quite fully grown. They seem, however, to be smaller 
than the form described as Oceanites g. galapagoensis Lowe ^^ from 
the Galapagos Islands. 

Mathews *° has noted that in six specimens of the graceful petrel 
five had the tarsus booted, while the other showed indistinct signs of 
scutellation. In the six birds that are before me the tarsus is booted 
with faint scutes indicated for a short distance at either end. 

Order CICONIIFORMES 
Family PHALACROCORACIDAE 

PHALACROCORAX VIGUA VIGUA (Vieillot) 

Rydrocorax vigua Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 8, 1817, p. 90. 
(Paraguay.) 

The common cormorant, known universally as vigua from its 
appellation in Guarani, was observed in many localities. The species 
was fairly common on the Rio Paragua}'^, from Corrientes as far 
as Asuncion and increased in abundance from that point to Puerto 
Pinasco. Scattered individuals were observed at Las Palmas, Chaco, 

ssproc. California. Acad. Sci., ser. 4, vol. 2, pt. 2, Apr. 22, 1918, p. 181. 
»«Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 41, June 8, 1921, p. 140. 
« Birds of Australia, vol. 2. pt. 1, May 30, 1912, p. 9. 



54 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

on July 30, and on August 16 at the Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, one 
was shot as it circled past a large lagoon. At Puerto Pinasco the 
species was common and passed constantly along the river. Inland 
in the Chaco it Avas less numerous but was noted occasionally in 
lagoons. At Kilometer 80 one was seen September 15, and at Kilo- 
meter 110 one was noted on September 24. 

In the Province of Buenos Aires cormorants were seen in small 
numbers near Dolores on October 21 and 22, while near Lavalle 
they were common from October 23 to November 15, both in channels 
that traversed the marshes wherever there was sufficient water and 
along the tidal reaches of the Rio Ajo. A male was taken here on 
October 8. At General Roca, Rio Negro, single birds were observed 
occasionally from November 24 to December 3. Near Montevideo, 
Uruguay, on January 9 and 16, 1921, cormorants were common along 
the beaches as far as Carrasco and w'ere observed fishing in salt 
water, flying along parallel to the coast or resting in flocks in close 
formation on sandy beaches. One was observed at La Paloma, 
Rocha, on January 23, Near San Vicente, Rocha, the species was 
fairly common on January 31 at the Laguna Castillos. On Feb- 
ruary 2 one was noted inland at the Paso Alamo on the small Arroyo 
Sarandi. Near Guamini, Buenos Aires, they were recorded from 
March 3 to 8 in flocks that contained as many as 300 adults and 
young. The species seemed to be distributed universally wherever 
deep water or quiet lagoons offered suitable feeding grounds, though 
most common near large streams. On the Paraguay River it in- 
creased in abundance to the northward. 

The two specimens that I secured were both immature individuals. 

Family ANHINGIDAE 

ANHINGA ANHINGA (Linnaeus) 

Plotus anhinga Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, vol. 1, 1766, p. 218. (Brazil.) 

A snakebird was observed along the Riacho Quia near Las Palmas, 
Chaco, on July 30 and 31, 1920. 

Family ARDEIDAE 

NYCTICORAX NYCTICORAX NAEVIUS (Boddaert) 
Ardca naevia Boddaert, Tabl. Planch. Enl., 1783, p. 56. (Cayenne.) 

The only specimen taken is a female, secured October 31, 1920. 
near Lavalle, Buenos Aires, in very worn plumage that seems to 
be that of the second year. The bird is a peculiar shade of grayish 
brown above with slightly indicated streaks of whitish on the crow^n, 
neck, and lesser wing coverts. Below it is whitish with the sides of 
tlie head, neck, and breast streaked with grayish brown. The abdo- 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 55 

men is white. This specimen measures as follows (in millimeters) : 
wing, 289; tail, 105.5; exposed culmen, 65.7; tarsus, 80. The status 
of the South American night herons is at present obscure, but so far 
as I can determine from available material there is no distinction be- 
tween the lighter colored Nycticorax from Argentina north into 
northern South America and that of North America. Doctor Chap- 
man" recently has recognized N, n. tayazu-guira (Vieillot) as a valid 
race, while Hartert"^ has considered it a synonym of naevius. The 
latter course is the one here followed. 

The night heron, known as the sorro de agua (water fox), had 
the habits usual to the species in other regions. On the pampas, 
where growths of rushes formed extensiA'e cover in lagoons and 
swamps, they were fairly common. In Uruguay they were observed 
in wooded swamps. None were seen in the Chaco. The species was 
recorded as follows : Lavalle, Buenos Aires, October 31 and Novem- 
ber 9, 1920; General Roca, Rio Negro, December 3 (one very light 
and one very dark bird observed) ; Carhue, Buenos Aires, December 
15 to 18; San Vicente, Uruguay, January 31, 1921; Lazcano, Uru- 
guay, February 7 ; Rio Negro, Uruguay, February 16 to 18 ; Guamini, 
Buenos Aires, March 3 ; Tunuyan, Mendoza, March 26 and 28. 

BUTORIDES STRIATUS CYANURUS (Vieillot) 

Ardea cyanura Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 14, 1817, p. 421. 
(Paraguay.) 

Though Todd*^ considers variation in this species individual and 
recognizes no subspecies, the adult green heron of southern South 
America in the series that 1 have seen may be distinguished from 
that of the northern portion of the continent (including Venezuela, 
Colombia, and the Guianas) by paler, less grayish abdomen. Imma- 
ture birds have the streaks on the foreneck heavier and the throat 
more heavily spotted with black in the median line than those from 
northern localities. Vieillot 's name, Ardea cyanura^ based on Aza- 
ra's account of this heron in Paraguay, is available for this southern 
subspecies, of which I have seen specimens from northern Argen- 
tina, Uruguay, and Paraguay. 

Cancroma grisea of Boddaert,** referring to the Crabier de 
Cayenne of Daubenton, which has Surinam as its type locality, 
must be considered a synonym of striatus. Ardea noevia J. F. 
Miller*' and Ardea naevia Shaw**' seem to represent a North Ameri- 

"U. S. Nat. Mus., BuU. 117, 1921, pp. 51-.54. 

«Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 35, Oct. 14, 1914, p. 15. 

*' Ann. Carnegie Mus., vol. 14, 1922, p. 136. 

" Tabl. Planch. Enl. Hist. Nat., 1783, p. 54. 

"•Var. Subj. Nat. Hist., no. 6, 1782, pi. 35. 

*« In J. F. Miller. Cim. Phys., 1796, p. 70 (pi. 35). 



56 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

can green heron, as the sides of the head are figured and described 
as distinctly brown or ferruginous. In the reference mentioned to 
the Cimeha Physica, Sherborn and Iredale*^ have called attention 
to the transposition of the text and plates for Ardea naevia and 
A. torquata^ in which the plate of naevia is accompanied by text 
headed torquata and relating to that species, which follows. The 
confusion is easily cleared, however, by careful reading of the 
descriptive portion. 

Green herons were not widespread in abundance in the localities 
that I visited, but are reputed to be more common in more northern 
and eastern regions. Their habits are those common to green herons 
the w^orld over. 

At Puerto Pinasco I noted one or two near the Rio Paraguay 
during the first week in September, 1920, but saw none in the inte- 
rior Chaco. In the swamps and lowland lagoons of eastern Uruguay 
the birds were common. I found them first at San Vicente on 
January 31, and again on February 2 at the Arroyo Sarandi, to the 
nortliward. At Lazcano they were common near the Rio Cebollati 
from February 5 to 9 and were recorded at Rio Negro, Uruguay, 
from February 14 to 19. A female was secured at San Vicente 
January 31 and a male at Lazcano February 6. The birds fed in 
open, marshy swamps or more frequently along shallow pools sur- 
rounded by thickets of water-loving shrubs. During the heat of the 
day they retired to shaded perches in trees or thickets near water. 
Intruders were greeted with complaining squawks, reiterated as the 
birds flew to more distant perches, and perhaps continued after a 
point of safety had been reached. One was observed as, in a crouch- 
ing attitude, it crept slowly, with tail twitching nervously, toward 
the margin of a channel, intent on reaching striking distance of a 
school of minnows that played in the shallows. 

SYRIGMA SIBILATRIX (Temminck) 

Ardea sibilatrix Temminck, Nouv. Rec. Planch. Col. Ois., livr. 46, May, 
1S24, pi. 271. (Paraguay and Brazil.) 

Five specimens of the whistling heron were taken, one of which 
was preserved as a skeleton. The first one shot, an adult male, 
killed at Las Palmas, Chaco, July 22, 1920, had the soft parts 
tinted as follows: Distal third of bill black; remainder light grayish 
vinaceous tinged with a bluish shade at the base of the mandibular 
rami; bare skin on side of head light squill blue, shading to deep 
dull violaceous blue on base of bill, with a narrow band of this color 
extending across base of culmen; iris olive-buff; tarsus and toes 
black. Adult males were taken near the Riacho Pilaga at Kilo- 

*' Ibis, 1921, p. 306. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 57 

meter 182, Formosa, on August 9 and 14, and an adult pair at 
Kilometer 80 on September 10. 

These herons were noted in small numbers in the Chaco, where 
they frequented open marshy lagoons and the borders of esteros. 
Frequently they walked about on masses of floating vegetation where 
the water Avas a meter or so deep, or stalked slowly about pools in 
wet meadows. They were wary and, as they fed in the open, difficult 
to approach. They fly with a peculiar short stroke of the wing 
that is highly characteristic, and in flight appear dull gray, with 
light tail and duller forepart of body, so that when a fallen bird 
is retrieved the beautiful, blended colors of the plumage come as a 
sharp surprise. Their alarm note is a harsh quah-h-h quah-h-h, 
resembling that of other herons, but in addition they give a shrill 
whistled note that is repeated frequentl3^ The latter call I heard 
only from birds that were flying, and noted that, as it was given, the 
neck was outstretched, to be retracted as the whistling was finished. 
A pair observed in display about a small pool, on September 24, 
flew swiftly back and forth and then set the wings to sail rapidly 
in short circles while they turned first one side and then the other 
to show alternately the dark back and the light breast. The per- 
formance was executed with a dash and speed that would have done 
credit to a duck and reminded me in a way of the darting maneuvers 
executed at times by shore birds. 

In the Chaco the whistling heron was observed as far west as 
Laguna Wall, 200 kilometers west of Puerto Pinasco, on the Para- 
guay River. Occasional individuals were seen from January 24 to 
February 2 at San Vicente, in the Department of Rocha, eastern 
Uruguay, where I found them at times walking about in dry fields 
in search of the abundant grasshoppers. Others were noted at 
Lazcano, February 6, 8, and 9, and one Avas seen at Rio Negro, 
Uruguay, February 16. 

The species is knoAvn as garza chifflon or simply as chifflon. The 
Toba Indians called it -pilK' la tse de, while the Anguete knew it by 
the impressive cognomen of pat gwa zhi gwa Tiiohh. Indians occa- 
sionally offered the plumes of the wing coverts and nape for barter. 

CASMERODIUS ALBUS EGRETTA (Gmelin) 

Ardea egretta Gmexin, Syst. Nat., vol. 1, pi. 2, 1789, p. 629. (Cayenne.) 

Two adult egrets were seen near Kilometer 80, west of Puerto 
Pinasco, Paraguay, on September 13, 1920, and four were observed 
at Carrasco, near Montevideo, Uruguay, on January 16, 1921, a sad 
commentary on the present status of a bird once found in abundance 
throughout southern South America. Breeding colonies were re- 
ported on the Rio Pilcomayo and near the Rio Cebollati in eastern 
Uruguay. In Argentina herons are protected and traffic in their 



58 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

plumes is prohibited. In the Chaco, however, where the aborigines 
live almost entirely by the chase, Indians are permitted to kill herons 
and other birds for food at any season, a concession that has led to 
organized hunting of herons for plumes. In August, 1920, when 
I was at the Riacho Pilaga in Formosa, the Tobas were preparing 
for an extended plume hunt in heron rookeries located somewhere 
near the Rio Pilcomayo and wished me to accompany them. When 
I inquired concerning the condition of the plumes at that season I 
found the Tobas well versed in the matter, as they remarked with- 
out hesitation that eggs should now be hatching in the nests so that 
in a few days the plumes would be ripe. I was informed that during 
the previous year Cacique Mavordomo, chief of the Tobas of that 
section, had organized plume hunting on a cooperative scale, and 
had secured 78 kilograms of plumes. These had been sold to travel- 
ing merchants for between 8,000 and 9,000 pesos (at normal exchange 
9,000 paper pesos is equivalent to about $3,965) for shipment to 
Buenos Aires. 

ARDEA COCCI Linnaeus 

Ardea cocoi Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, vol. 1, 1766, p. 237. (Cayenne.) 

This heron was observed in fair numbers, but no specimens were 
secured. The cocoi heron, when seen in the field, resembles the great 
blue heron of North America in haunt and habits, as it does in call 
notes and general appearance. It was observed solitary on the shores 
of large lagoons and rivers, and was more common in the northern 
portion of the section traversed than in the Pampas. It was recorded 
in small numbers along the Parana and Paraguay Rivers from Cor- 
rientes to Puerto Pinasco, from July to September, 1920. About the 
1st of October adult birds suddenly increased in number along the 
Rio Paraguay, and many were observed in passing by steamer from 
Puerto Pinasco to Villa Concepcion on October 2. It is probable 
that at this time they had come out from the drying Chaco to feed 
and secure food for young. At Lavalle, Buenos Aires, the species 
was recorded from November 8 to 16, and at General Roca, Rio 
Negro, on November 27. Young birds of the year were observed at 
San Vicente, Rocha, on January 31 and February 2, 1921, and near 
Lazcano, Rocha, from February 5 to 9. Cocoi herons were noted at 
Guamini, Buenos Aires, on March 6 and 7, and in the vicinity of 
Tunuyan, Mendoza, on March 23. 

TIGRISOMA MARMORATUM (Vieillot) 

Ardea marmorata Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 14, 1817, p. 415. 
(Paraguay.) 

An adult female, taken at Kilometer 80, west of Puerto Pinasco, 
Paraguay, on September 17, 1920, measures (in millimeters) as fol- 
lows: Wing, 330; tail, 127.5; exposed culmen, 100; tarsus, 107. A 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 59 

male shot at the same locality on September 20 has the following 
measurements: Wing, 358; tail, 127.5; exposed culmen, 106; tarsus, 
112. Both of these birds are in full plumage and are similar save 
that the female, in addition to being slightly smaller, is paler 
throughout, and has the lower neck barred with black on the sides 
and behind. A third bird, a female, shot 110 kilometers west of 
Puerto Pinasco on September 23 is identified as the present species 
with some reservation. It is juvenile, molting from ju venal plumage, 
and may represent holivianuin instead of viai^iioraturri. In color it 
is buff barred with black, as usual in young tiger bitterns, save that 
the black bars are more restricted in width than in other specimens 
examined. The crown and hind neck vary from mikado brown to 
cinnamon, barred narrowly with black. New feathers that are ap- 
pearing on the upper back are dull black, barred narrowly with wavy, 
irregular bars of cinnamon; others on the sides of the foreneck are 
russet margined tipped and barred with black. This bird measures 
as follows: Wing, 316; tail, 115.5; exposed culmen, 99; tarsus, 108 
mm. 

It is probable that Tigrisoma marmoratuTn will prove to be a sub- 
species of T. Imeatum^ a species of northern range, from which it 
differs mainly in larger size as far as may be judged from available 
descriptions. 

The tiger bittern is a species that frequents open shores of marshy 
lagoons, often among growths of cattails or other rushes. Two 
ranged about a lagoon at the Riacho Pilaga in Formosa during 
August, 1920, but were wild and wary. On one occasion I knocked 
one over with a broken wing and waded for it in Avater reaching to 
my armpits, but was so impeded by mud and aquatic growth that the 
heron swam to a mass of floating vegetation and was lost before I 
reached it. Near Kilometer 80, west of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, 
three were observed in Laguna Palmas, where they walked about on 
floating plants that choked the Avater. When they flushed, one 
alighted on a shaded perch in a tree, where I stalked it and shot it. 
This bird, an adult female, had the bill black, with the lower half of 
the mandible pale olive-buff, a color that extended along the gonys 
to ih& tip ; bare skin from above eye to base of bill, wax yellow ; a line 
from anterior canthus of eye to bill, and another above commissure 
to below eye, deep neutral gray ; rest of bare skin on side of head and 
over ramus of lower jaw, citron yellow; iris antimony yellow; front 
of tarsus, and toes shading from chaetura black to chaetura drab; 
back of tarsus for upper half varying from tea green to vetiver 
green. 

The flight of these herons is slow and direct, accomplished with 
slowly flapping wings, and in the air they appear as large as a great 



60 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

blue heron. They were seen in flight to various feeding grounds at 
dusk. At a large lagoon at Kilometer 110 they were fairly common 
and were encountered among rushes, from which they flushed with a 
low note that resembled took xook. 

In the Guarani language the species was known as hoc.6. The 
adult was called nhe ha na by the Anguetes, while the bird in barred 
immature plumage was known as ca pi a tik. 

IXOBRYCHUS INVOLUCRIS (Vieillot) 

Ardea involucris Vieillot, Eucyc. Meth., vol. 3, 1823, p. 1127. (Paraguay.) 

Azara's least bittern is similar in haunt and habit to the least 
bittern of the West Indies and the United States, so that it may be 
more common than would appear from the few occasions on which I 
encountered it. On October 31, 1920, at the Estancia Los Yngleses, 
near Lavalle, Buenos Aires, while wading about in water nearly to 
my knees, I saw three among rushes in a caiiadon. The birds were 
wild, flushed at a distance of 60 meters, and flew rapidly away above 
the marsh vegetation, to drop down again when at a considerable dis- 
tance away. A male was killed at long range on this date and one 
was taken on November 2. Another was seen November 9, The 
birds appear light in color when flying and are of surprisingly rapid 
flight for a bird of this group. At Carhue, Buenos Aires, one flushed 
from a clump of cattails in an arroyo on December 15 and one was 
seen the following day. One was recorded at the Laguna Castillos, 
south of San Vicente, Uruguay, on January 31, 1921. 

Family CICONIIDAE 

JABIRU MYCTERIA (Lichtenstein) 

Ciconia mycteria Lichtenstein, Abhaudl. Kon. Akad., Wiss. Berlin (Phys. 
Klass.) for 1816-17, 1819, p. 163. (Brazil.) 

At the Eiacho Pilaga, Formosa, two jabirus were seen on August 
16, 1920, as they soared at least 1,000 meters above the earth. The 
birds, in appearance snow white with dark heads, turned in short 
circles with set wings, and finally sailed away out of sight. At Puerto 
Pinasco, Paraguay, on September 3 one passed high overhead. I had 
no other opportunity to observe this species. 

MYCTERIA AMERICANA Linnaeus 

Mycteria americana Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1, 1758, p. 140. 
(Brazil.) 

On November 16, 1920, a flock of 12 wood ibis was noted between 
Lavalle and Santo Domingo, Buenos Aires; the species was seen 
nowhere else in Argentina. At the Laguna Castillos, below San 



BIRDS OP ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 61 

Vicente, Uruguay, wood ibis were fairly common on January 31, 
1921, and an immature male was taken. Here they ranged in bands 
of 10 to 20 individuals, often accompanied by a roseate spoonbill or 
two, that rested in open grassy areas adjoining shallow rush-grown 
lagoons. They were wary, but under cover of rushes I crept within 
40 meters of one flock and lay for a time watching them as they 
rested motionless or preened their feathers. At a sudden alarm 
they rose in confusion, and I killed one that I had singled out in 
advance. When flocks were flushed they usually sailed and flapped 
for a time in narrow circles a hundred meters above the earth and 
then flew on to some safer resting place. 

On Februar}^ 2 a flock -uas observed in a baiiado near the Arroyo 
Sarandi; 30 miles northwest of San Vicente, and from February 6 
to 9 scattered individuals were seen near Lazcano. The wood ibis 
was known locally as fraile. 

The specimen secured still shows traces of the nestling down on 
the nape and the back of the neck. In this species neck feathers of 
the Juvenal plumage often burst the sheaths near the base, while the 
tip is still inclosed in a corneous case so that the tips of the feathers 
appear as though waxed. 

EUXENURA GALATEA (Molina) 
Ardea Galatea Molina, Sags. Stor. Nat. Chili, 1782, p. 235. (Chile.) 

In Molina's account of the birds of Chile there are two composite 
names that refer in part to the present species and in part apparently 
to the egret {G asmerodius) . The first of these, Ardea galatea (p. 
235), is described as "di color di latte col becco giallo lungo quattro 
pollici, e le gambe crem fine ; queste gambe, come pure il collo, hanno 
due piedi, e sette pollici di altezza," while the Latin diagnosis, in a 
footnote, says "Ardea occipite subcristato, corpore lacteolo, rostro 
luteo, pedibus coccineis." The length of bill cited is too short for 
Euxenura and nothing is said of black in the wings, but in general 
color of feathers and legs and in size this can fit only the stork, and 
the name is here taken for that species, Tantalus pillus of the same 
work (p. 243) is also a composite, but here again general size and 
color of body are those of Euxenura^ while length of bill and color 
of legs are those of Gasmerodius. Both names seem more applicable 
to Euxenura and are here accepted for that bird, a course that 
obviates necessity for change in the name of the egret. 

The Maguari stork was common through the Chaco as far north 
as the Territory of Formosa, but was not observed in Paraguay. 
From Garabate, Santa Fe, northward to Charadai, Chaco, many 
were seen from the train on July 5, 1920. Single individuals were 

54207—26 5 



62 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

recorded at Las Palmas, Chaco, on July 27 and 31, while near the 
Riacho Pilaga, in east central Formosa, the species was common. 
On August 21 I examined one that had been killed near the station 
known as Fontana at Kilometer 182 on the Government railroad. 
One was observed near the town of Formosa on August 24, and a 
short distance inland the birds were common. In eastern Buenos 
Aires scattered individuals were seen east of Dolores on October 22, 
while from October 27 to November 16 the species was common in 
the marshes in the vicinity of Lavalle and extended west as far as 
Santo Domingo. None were observed in western Buenos Aires. In 
Uruguay I saw this species in small numbers at the Laguna Castillos, 
near San Vicente, on January 31, and farther north near the Paso 
Alamo on the Arroyo Sarandi on February 2. Scattered individuals 
were noted near Lazcano on February 6 and 7. 

This handsome bird is an inhabitant of Avet, open savannas where 
woodland does not encroach too closely, or of extensive marshes and 
wet meadows on the pampas. Its large size and contrasted colors 
render it conspicuous, and it is a species that will become rarer as its 
range is invaded more extensively by man. In the wilder d^istricth 
Maguari storks were v^ary, as is any large bird that is hunted con- 
stantly, but on some of the extensiA^e estancias in eastern Buenos 
Aires, particularly at Los Yngleses, the great birds were seldom 
molested, so they had become accustomed to herdsmen and others 
passing through their haunts and paid little attention to men. In 
the air these storks fly with neck outstretched and legs extended, 
beating the broad wings strongly to gain momentum for a glide or 
sail that may carry them for a long distance. At times they circle 
with outspread wings, frequently rising a hundred meters or more 
in the air. They evidence considerable interest in intrusions in their 
haunts and swing back and forth overhead, turning the head curi- 
ously to eye the intruder below. Where not molested they may pass 
at 50 or 60 meters, but usually are more wary. In flight the peculiar 
fork of the short, black-colored tail is readily seen through the mesh 
of the white under tail coverts that project beyond the ends of the 
longest rectrices. 

It was not unusual in favorable situations in the Chaco to find 30 
or 40 of these storks gathered in a scattered band, though elsewhere 
they were less gregarious. It is possible that these congregations 
represented migratory bands come up for Avinter from the south. 
These storks were silent so far as my observation extended, save that 
a bird with a broken wing clattered its bill loudly, but made no 
attempt to strike at me. The species is known in Guarani as tuyuyii 
and in Spanish as cigiiena. A male and a female that I killed on 
October 28 near Lavalle, Buenos Aires, were not breeding, though in 
fully adult plumage. The female slioAved the following colors: Tip 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 63 

of bill blackish, bordered with a wash varying from pompeiian red 
to brick red; base of bill puritan gray, shaded anteriorly into tea 
green; iris cream color; bare carunculated skin around eye, and 
between rami of mandibles between nopal red and brazil red; bare 
skin on sides of throat primuline yellow, bare area on breast duller 
than brazil red, shaded to primuline yellow laterally and anteriorly ; 
tarsus and crus a peculiar purplish red between pomegranate purple 
and bordeaux ; nails black. 
The Aving is diastataxic. 

Family THRESKIORNITHIDAE 

MOLYBDOPHANES CAERULESCENS (Vieillot) 

Ibis caerulescens Vieuxot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 16, 1817, p. 18. 
(Paraguay.) 

In the Chaco, west of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, this ibis was 
fairly common from September 5 to 25, 1920, but was not observed 
elsewhere. A female was taken September 7 and two males on Sep- 
tember 12 (one preserved as a skeleton), while a female killed on 
September 13 was so badly shot that I saved only the skull. In an 
adult female the bill was black ; bare throat deep Quaker drab ; bare 
loral region dark neutral gray; iris orange chrome, somewhat paler 
on inner margin where it bordered the pupil; tarsus and toes tes- 
taceous; nails black. In another female the bill and bare skin on 
the head were black; lower eyelid pale vinaceous lilac; iris mikado 
orange. 

These striking birds were found on marshy ground or about such 
small pools of water as remained in nearly dry lagoons. Frequently 
they were seen at rest in the tops of dead trees, where they had a 
commanding outlook, but always over or near water. The flight is 
direct, accomplished by steady flapping, and the passage of the bird 
is often announced by loud trumpet calls, kt-ee kree kree, unlike any 
other bird note that is familiar to me. They fly with neck and legs 
outstretched in usual ibis fashion and are strong and muscular of 
body, so that they are hard to kill and difficult to skin when finally 
secured. The body gives off an unpleasant musty odor similar to 
that of the glossy ibis. While calling they frequently sail with 
motionless decurved wings. They stalk slowly about probing in mud 
and water often to the full extent of their long curved bills, or rest 
quietly in the sun and preen their feathers. At a distance they are 
to be distinguished from Theristicus caudatus by the head, which 
appears thickened and heavy because of the bushy nuchal crest. The 
species was commonly known as handwi^ria^ or in Guarani as 
curucau nioroti. (The last word, signifying "light," serves to dis- 
tinguish the present species from T. caudatus^ which is characterized 
as "blue.") The Anguete Indians call this ibis tay tit. 



64 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

THERISTICUS CAUDATUS (Boddaert) 

8colopa<v caudatus Boddaert, Tabl. Planch. Enl. Hist. Nat, 1783, p. 57. 
(Cayenne.) 

This large ibis was common in the Paraguayan Chaco, west of 
Puerto Pinasco, from September 7 to 26, 1920. The birds ranged 
in small flocks of 9 or 10 individuals in openings among palms near 
the borders of lagoons, where at times they were accompanied by 
one or two crested ibis {Molyhdophanes caerulescens) . It was usual 
to find them walking about in search for food in short grass beneath 
the palms or at rest on fallen palm trunks or on the ground. Their 
call note was a loud kree kree hree-ee^ a trumpetlike call similar to 
that of the crested ibis, but higher in pitch. A wounded bird 
emitted a grunting note like hwah-ah. In flight they travel directly, 
with head and feet extended, and steady, regular wing beat. In 
silhouette the head appears more slender than in the crested ibis, so 
that they may be distinguished in situations where colors are not 
readily visible. In Guarani the species is known as Gurucau yohi^ 
and otherwise as handurria. 

In a male and two females killed on September 13 the colors of 
the soft parts were similar in the two sexes. In a female they were 
as follows: Bill and bare skin on head dull black, save for lower 
eyelid, which is pale vinaceous lilac; iris nopal red; tarsus eugenia 
red, shading on toes to old rose ; nails dull black. 

Salvadori *^ has given an excellent account of the South American 
ibises of the genus Theristicus^ to which there is little that may be 
added. It may be noted that caudatus^ in which the undersurface 
below the neck is more or less uniform, has the transverse grayish 
band, prominent on the upper breast in melanopis and hranicldi., 
indicated by a distinct grayness of the feathers of that area, while 
in addition in one female caudatus secured the feathers of the breast 
below this band are washed distinctly with a rusty color, an indica- 
tion of the light breast patch prominently developed in the two 
other species. The three known species of this genus are comple- 
mentary in their ranges and differ from one another in a series 
of characters in such regular and progressive manner as to indicate 
close affinity ; indeed, it is not impossible that eventually intergrades 
may be secured that will link the three as geographic forms of one 
wide ranging speciop. The following key (adapted in large part 
from Count Salvadori's paper) may serve to identify them : 

a\ Breast and abdomen black or blackish (save for faintly indicated grayish 
band) ; greater wing-coverts white; culmen 145 mm. or more in length. 

caudatus. 

a*. Breast, below transverse gray band, white with more or less nifescent wash; 
greater wing coverts not clear white ; culmen 135 mm. or less in length. 

«Ibis, 1900, pp. 501-517. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 65 

6\ Abdomen black; breast more or less rufescent; greater wing coverts 
grayish white ; culmen longer, 128 mm. or more in length__ melanopis. 

6*. Upper portion of abdomen white; breast white with very faint rufescent 
tinge; greater wing coverts gray; culmen shorter, less than 125 mm. 
in length branickii. 

PLEGADIS GUARAUNA (Linnaeus) 

Scolopax guarauna Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, vol. 1, 1766, p. 242. 
(Brazil.) 

The white-faced glossy ibis was irregularly distributed through- 
out regions of open marshes. Near Berazatequi, Buenos Aires, June 
29, 1920, of two flocks seen, one contained about 40 birds. An im- 
mature individual that had been killed by a hunter was examined. 
One was seen near Las Palmas, Chaco, on July 31, and at Formosa, 
Formosa, on August 23, a flock of 40 passed south above the Rio 
Paraguay. Near Lavalle, Buenos Aires, on October 22, six were 
noted in a pasture among sheep. A female taken November 2, 
though in immature plumage, showed some development of the ova- 
ries. At Santo Domingo, Buenos Aires, November 16, nearly 1,000 
were scattered through flooded fields. One was observed near Car ■ 
hue in western Buenos Aires on December 21. At the Laguna Cas- 
tillos below San Vicente, Uruguay, the birds were fairly common 
on January 31, but were not observed elsewhere in that country. 
On March 2, I noted many from the train between the stations of 
Canuelas and 25 de Mayo, Province of Buenos Aires, and on March 
4 saw 50 near Guamini. x\. small flock fed in a marshy meadow near 
Tunuyan, Mendoza, on March 27. 

Scanty material available seems to indicate that birds from south- 
ern South America may average smaller than those from western 
United States. The female secured near Lavalle, Buenos Aires, 
measures as follows: Wing, 235; tail, 83; culmen 105.5; tarsus, 79 
mm. It would seem that guarauna is entitled to specific rank as 
distinguished from the true glossy ibis. In a fair series from the 
western United States and southward all adults possess a distinct 
white line on the forehead and at times on the sides of the head 
behind the bill, a mark that is definitely lacking in the other species, 
both from the New World and from the Eastern Hemisphere. 

Family PLATALEIDAE 

AJAIA AJAJA (Linnaeus) 

Platalea ajaja Linnaeus, Syst. Nat, ed. 10, vol. 1, 1758, p. 140. (Brazil.) 

A roseate spoonbill was seen at intervals about a lagoon at the Kilo- 
meter 80 ranch west of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, during September, 
1920, but was so shy that it flew away to other lakes whenever men 



66 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL. MUSEUM 

appeared. On the Estancia Los Yngleses near Lavalle, Buenos 
Aires, a flock that at times numbered 15 was observed regularlj' 
from October 22 to November 2. Others were seen in crossin<]j from 
Lavalle to Santo Domingo on November 16. N ar San Vicente, 
Uruguay, a few were observed in marshes in company with wood 
ibis on January 31, 1921, and one was seen not far from Lazcano, 
also in the Department of Rocha, on February 6. 

Near Lavalle the birds were found about shallow, open pools ac 
the borders of rush-grown caiiadones, or were observed as they 
crossed the marshes or circled in a close flock above the rushes. In 
flight, neck and legs were fully extended, and the broad wings beat 
slowly and steadil3\ Occasionally they uttered low grunting or 
croaking calls. Whether in the air or walking along the border of 
some pool the bright colors of their plumage showed clearly in 
beautiful contrast with a background of blue sky or green rushes. 
Locally the birds were known as rosado or as cucharon. 

A male and a female about ready to breed were shot on November 
2. The soft parts in the male v/ere colored as follows: Maxilla 
mineral gray, with margin and irregular spots over surface dark 
neutral gray, and scales at base mineral gray; mandible pale ecru 
drab, with a wash toward center of mineral gray, margined and 
blotched with dark neutral gray, with scales near base mineral gray ; 
bare skin on sides of head to behind eye, and a transverse line behind 
base of maxilla pale zinc orange; crown and sides of head above ears 
pale turtle green; gular skin for an inch behind symphysis of man- 
dible glaucous, rest of pouch light ochraceous buff ; skin through ears 
and across back of head black; iris scarlet red; tarsus and crus old 
rose, tarsus more or less clouded with fuscous; toes fuscous. This 
male, though otherwise in full plumage, had the center of the crown 
and the nape still covered with feathers. 

On examining these two birds while they were fresh I found that 
the gular area contained a distensible air sac that apparently was 
maintained partly inflated, and was connected with extensive pas- 
sages of the cervical air sac along the sides of the neck. This gular 
sac formed a large oval chamber lying beneath the tongue, con- 
stricted behind to a small orifice leading into the cervical series of 
air cells mentioned above. When fully inflated it forced the thin 
skin forming the floor of the mouth in front of the small tongue up- 
ward until the bladderlike distension was raised against the partly 
elevated or opened upper mandible so that it gave a most curious ap- 
pearance. This development was present in both sexes. 

These two spoonbills from Lavalle appear to be somewhat larger 
than birds from the southern United States and seem to represent a 
form that it may be possible to recognize, though at present I do not 
care to consider the matter definitely, as I do not have other speci- 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 67 

mens from South America available. The two birds taken have the 
following measurements: Male, wing, 370; tail, 105; culmen, 172; 
tarsus, 112; female, wing, 360; tail, 97; clumen, 163, tarsus, 105 mm. 

Family PHOENICOPTERIDAE 

PHOENICOPTERUS CHILENSIS Molina 

Phaenicoptenis Chilensis Molina, Sagg. Stor. Nat. Chili, 1782, p. 242. 
(Chile.) 

In suitable localities in the Province of Buenos Aires the flamingo is 
fairly common, incongruous, though beautiful, figures in the land- 
scape to one accustomed to think of them as birds of more tropical 
regions. At the mouth of the Rio Ajo near Lavalle on November 15, 
1920, a dozen beat heavily past me in a strong wind, barely out of 
gun range, while on the following day 50 in company were seen feed- 
ing in a canal. Near Carhue, in southwestern Buenos Aires, flamingos 
were observed frequently from December 15 to 18. A form of brine 
shrimp (genus Artemia) swarmed in the heavily alkaline waters of 
Lake Epiquen and may have formed the food of the great birds, as 
the water was too heavily impregnated with salts to permit the oc- 
currence of mollusks. At any rate flamingos occurred there in lines 
or loose flocks, never separated far from one another, often in water 
nearly to their bodies. While some fed by immersing their heads, 
others rested quietly or preened their feathers with bills awkwardly 
developed for such a use. As I approached they walked slowly a 
little way and then extended their wings, raised the long legs sud- 
denly, and started away, striking the water with alternating strokes 
of their webbed feet in a clearly audible patter until they had 
gained sufficient momentum to rise in the air. Occasionally they 
gave low, honking calls. 

On January 31, 1921, several bands were seen at the Laguna Cas- 
tillos near San Vicente, Rocha, Uruguay, where they ranged with 
coscorobas and black-necked swans, a beautiful trio whose pleasantly 
contrasting colors, visible for a long distances, linger clearly in 
memory. 

Family ANHIMIDAE 

CHAUNA TORQUATA (Oken) 

Chaja torqtiata Oken, Lehrb. Naturg., Th. 3, Zool., Abth. 2, 1816, p. 639. 
(Paraguay and La Plata."') 

Brabourne and Chubb, when they proposed °° the name Ghauna 
salvadorii for the crested screamer, to replace Palmnedea cristata 

<9 In tbe original the type locality is given as " Paragui, um La Plata," based ap- 
parently on Azara, who says " habita no solo el Paraguay, sino tambien las dos bandas 
del rfo de la Plata." Since La Plata was separated from Paraguay as early as 1620 
it must be supposed that Oken meant Paraguay and La Plata, not Paraguay near La 
Plata as a literal translation of the German would read. 

™ Birds of South America, vol. 1, December, 1912, p. 53. 



68 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Swainson (1837), antedated by Palamedea cristata Linnaeus (1766), 
a name that refers to the cariama, overlooked a note by Dr. C. W. 
Kichmond to the effect that the proper name for the bird in question 
was found in Ghaja torquata Oken (1816). 

The screamer was found in the Chaco in remote regions where set- 
tlements Avere few, and was common in the pampas on large estancias, 
where the birds were given more or less protection. Though for- 
merly distributed throughout this entire region they have been killed 
or driven away throughout extensive areas. Occasional screamers 
were noted from the train in crossing the marshy region in northern 
Santa Fe on July 5. At the Riacho Pilaga, in the interior of For- 
mosa, single birds were observed about lagoons from August 10 to 
21, and on August 16 an adult male Avas taken. Near Puerto Pinasco, 
Paraguay, they were common from September 6 to 30, and were 
found in the interior Chaco to the westward as far as I penetrated 
(to Kilometer 200). One was observed on the Rio Paraguay itself 
on September 30. 

Screamers ranged usually in pairs, but at times congregated in 
some numbers. On one occasion I saw 14 in a flock, circling in the 
air like vultures, 18 gathered in a band at the border of a lagoon and 
others scattered about near by, until in all I had 40 of the great birds 
under observation at one time. They were found ordinarily on float- 
ing masses of vegetation over deep water or in damp meadows where 
marshy growth was not too luxuriant. When alarmed or suspicious 
they flew up to perch in the low tops of near-by trees, where they 
were able to view the country. On alighting on the carnal ote, as the 
masses of water hyacinth and other vegetation that formed floating 
mats in the water were called, they frequently extended the wings 
for a few seconds, until they had tested the footing, but their long 
toes enabled them to walk over these insecure masses without trouble. 
The approach of any suspicious object was the occasion of loud 
trumpeting calls, rather gooselike in nature, that resembled the syl- 
lables chah hah^ given slowly and with equal emphasis. These calls 
were loud, so that they carried for long distances, and had a certain 
stirring quality that was more or less pleasing, but Avere repeated so 
incessantly that in time they tended to become irritating, particularly 
when more desirable game was put on the alert by the alarms sounded 
by these efficient sentinels. These loud calls were often followed by 
a curious rattling, rumbling sound, audible only for a short distance, 
that resembled the noise produced by rubbing and compressing a 
dried, distended bladder. This sound was wholly internal and 
seemed to be produced when air was forced from the large air sacs 
into the smaller cells that lie between the skin and the body. At 
times the forepart of the body was slightly elevated as it was pro- 
duced. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 69 

On September 25 I examined a young screamer about half grown, 
but still rather helpless, in the possession of an Indian boy. The 
bird gave a low whistling, piping call. 

In the vicinity of Lavalle, Buenos Aires, screamers were common 
from October 27 to November 9, and after my experience with them 
in the Chaco it seemed strange to find them walking about in marshy 
spots among scattered bands of sheep. The flight of screamers 
is strong, and tliey rise heavily with loud swishing wings. I saw 
them occasionally soaring in circles high in the air. At the Estan- 
cia Los Yngleses I was told that 50 had gathered to feed in a small 
tract of alfalfa and that it had been necessary to drive them away to 
prevent damage. On November 6, after a severe storm, an imma- 
ture bird washed ashore on the beach below Cape San Antonio. I 
supposed that it had been blown out to sea during a heavy gale and 
drowned. 

In Uruguay screamers were seen at the Laguna Castillos, near 
San Vicente, on January 31, and the Arroyo Sarandi (Paso Alamo) 
February 2. A few w^ere noted near Lazcano on February 6 and 
8. The birds were very wary here and were much hunted. Their 
flesh is dark and coarse fibered, but I found it palatable. The 
species is known universally as Cfiaja^ a name given in imitation of 
the common call. 

The adult male collected in Formosa on August 16 weighed 6.7 
pounds. The soft parts were colored as follows: Maxilla and tip 
of mandible blackish brown No. 3; rest of mandible olive gray, 
shading to pale olive gray at base; bare space about eye vandyke 
red, shading to dull Indian purple on chin, rami of mandible and 
space behind nostrils ; iris orange cinnamon ; tarsus and toes alizarine 
pink, slightly darker toward crus; nails black. At Kilometer 80, 
west of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, I killed a female on September 
13 and a pair on September 17. These were all in partial molt. In 
one. new growth covering the larger spur on the wing had pushed 
thef', older covering away so that on one wing the sheath slipped off 
as I handled it. The wing spurs vaiy in development and may be 
more perfect in young individuals than in older ones, in vrhich they 
may have suffered more or less injury. 

Order ANSERIFORMES 
Family ANATIDAE 

CYGNUS MELANCORIPHUS (Molina) 

Anas Melancoripha Molina, Sagg. Stor. Nat. Chili, 1782, p. 234. (Cbile.) 

The beautiful black-necked swan was recorded October 28, 1920, 

and again on November 16, near Lavalle, Buenos Aires. At General 

Roca three were observed resting in backwater from an eddy on the 

54207—26 6 



70 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Rio Negro. On January 31, 1921, when I visited the Lagima Cas- 
tillos, near San Vicente, Rocha, the great birds were common but 
were too wary to permit approach, so that in the end no specimens 
were obtained. On the wing the birds form a beautiful picture 
from the contrast in color between the black neck and the snow white 
body. As they pass they may utter low honking calls suggesting 
those of geese. 

CAIRINA MOSCHATA (Linnaeus) 

Anas moschata Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1758, p. 124. ("Brasilia.")" 
The Muscovy duck was fairly common in the wilder sections of the 
Chaco where lagoons offered permanent water during the dry season 
of winter. The first noted were seen on August 13, 1920, near the 
Riacho Pilaga, a few leagues south of the Rio Pilcomayo in the 
Territory of Formosa, Argentina. As two rose from a marshy 
lagoon and passed me, beating heavily against a strong wind, I shot 
and wounded one. The birds made a short circle and alighted on a 
large horizontal limb of a quebracho tree growing in the open, where 
they rested for some time. On this occasion I had the misfortune 
to lose the crippled bird in a dense tract of monte. A single one of 
these ducks was observed at frequent intervals in open water on a 
large lagoon, and when alarmed swam out into growths of cat-tails 
and hid. It was shot on August 17 and proved to be an immature 
male. Another dead bird was examined in possession of some 
Indians at this same point. 

At Kilometer 80, west of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, from Sep- 
tember 7 to 17 these great ducks were common in flocks of three to 
a dozen about lagoons densely grown with sedges and rushes, where 
pools of open water w^ere small and infrequent. Conditions were 
somewhat similar to those frequented many times by mallards, 
though in this case the locality may have been chosen through neces- 
sity, as it was near the end of the dry season and all lagoons were 
greatly reduced in area. When alarmed the Muscovies rose readily 
in spite of their weight and flew off low over the tops of the dense 
groves of palms that surrounded the marshes. Often instead of 
continuing to other lagoons, after a flight of a few yards the birds 
alighted on the larger limbs of some dead deciduous tree standing 
among the palms, where they rested in company. It was a source of 
continual surprise to me to flush them from such locations. I found 
that their claws were curved and sharp pointed as an aid in a firm 
grasp on the limbs. 

The flight of the Muscovy duck is heavy and rather slow. At each 
stroke of the wings the white shoulders of adult birds flash promi- 

" Linnaeus gives the type locality of tbe present species as " India." Berlepsch 
and Hartert (Nov. Zool., vol. 9, April, 1902, p. 131) have corrected this to "Brasilia" 
as the species in a wild state is known only from the New World. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 133 PL. 10 




Large Domed Nests of Sticks Constructed by Pseudoseisura lophotes 

Near Rio Xegro, Uruguay, February 17. 1921 




Abandoned Nest of Lenatero (Anumbius annumbd Occupied by 
Diuca Finches (Diuca minor) 

Near Victorica, Pampa, December 26, 1920 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 133 PL. II 




Lowland Thickets near Laguna Castillos, Haunt of Brush Inhabit- 
ing Birds That Here Have Outpost Colonies in the Pampas 

Near San Vicente, Uruguay January 31, 1921 




Summit of the Cerro Navarro, a Granite Outlier of the Hill 
Formation of Northern Uruguay 

San Vicente, Uruguay, January 28, 1921 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 71 

nently, making a conspicuous field mark. At no time were they 
observed flying at an altitude of more than 80 meters in the air, 
while usually they passed barely high enough to clear low trees, from 
15 to 30 meters above the ground. In alighting they flapped heavily 
to break their momentum as they came down into the grass. Their 
tree-perching habit may be the outcome of life in a region where 
during the rainy season there is nowhere else to rest save in the 
water. 

An adult male taken September 7 was completing a molt of the 
body plumage and had the sexual organs dormant. No indication of 
breeding was noted among them. 

To the Anguete Indian the Muscovy duck was known as meh 
dik tee. 

The immature male (fully grown) secured in Formosa shows 
patches of old brown feathers among glossy black plumes that 
recently had been renewed. It does not have the broad white 
shoulder of the adult; there are scattered black feathers over the 
loral region, and the skin behind the eye is closely feathered. The 
caruncles of the adult are barely indicated. The adult taken in 
Paraguay in life had the soft parts colored as follows: Nail on both 
mandible and maxilla dark neutral gray; remainder of tip of bill 
pale drab gray, washed with livid brown on margin; spot behind 
nostrils, line of culmen between nostrils, as well as central portion of 
mandibular rami pale drab gray; band across bill in front of 
nostrils extending around on mandible, and base of bill, including 
bare skin on side of head, black; caruncles black at base, elsewhere 
purplish vinaceous ; iris cream buff ; tarsus and toes black. 

DENDROCYGNA BICOLOR BICOLOR (Vieillot) 

Anas Mcolor Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 5, 1816, p. 136. (Para- 
guay.) 

Near Lavalle, Province of Buenos Aires, the fulvous tree duck 
was common among the cailadones from October 28 to November 9, 
1920. The birds ranged in flocks, frequently 30 or 40 together, that 
were found in open ponds where the water was a meter deep. They 
were frequently active at dusk. When flushed they rose with the 
whistled w^heezy calls that gave them their local name of pato 
siiflon and passed on, often flying rather high, to more distant rest- 
ing places. In the air they seldom show color, aj^pearing simply as 
silhouettes of black against the sky. The birds on the wing differ 
in appearance from other ducks and offer a remarkable resemblance 
to ibises as they pass with rather slow wing beat and long necks 
outstretched, a similarity engendered by the long, bluntly pointed 
wing. The flight is only moderately fast. A female taken on 



72 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

October 28 and a male on November 10 showed no indication of 
breeding. 

At Tucmnan, Argentina, on April 3 and 5, 1921, tree ducks, sup- 
posed from their notes to be the present species, passed overhead 
during the evening toward some feeding ground south of town. 

The typical subspecies may be distinguished fi^om Dendrocygna 
hicolor helva Wetmore and Peters from North America, by its 
slightly duller coloration and heavier, broader bill. 

DENDROCYGNA VIDUATA (Linnaeus) 

Anas viduata Linnaeus., Syst. Nat., eel. 12, vol. 1, 1766, p. 205. (Lake 
Cartagena. ) 

The white-faced tree duck was seen only in the Paraguayan Chaco 
west of Puerto Pinasco. From September 6 to 8, 1920, the species 
was fairly common near the ranch at Kilometer 80, and a male was 
taken here on September 6. The birds rested in flocks on open shores 
or mud bars at the borders of lagoons, frequently 100 or even more 
together. They were most active toward night, and at dusk, or 
even after dark, passed overhead to distant feeding grounds, their 
approach heralded by their strange, sibilant, whistled calls swee ree 
ree, swee ree ree. After September 8 these flocks disappeared, but 
on September 24 and 25 the species was again encountered farther 
vs est at Laguna Wall, approximately 200 kilometers west of Puerto 
Pinasco. Flocks seen here ranged in size fro^n 40 to 100. In even- 
ing the birds circled or passed high overhead, frequently flying in 
wavy lines like pintails, calling constantly. During early morning 
and in evening they were observed feeding in shallow ponds, where 
they waded along, working eagerly in the mud and water like huge 
teal. As the birds advanced the head was swung from side to side to 
cover the feeding ground thoroughly, while the silt collected was 
sifted rapidly through the bill. At this season they were not breed- 
ing. In Guarani the species is known as suiriri, a good imitation 
of the call, while the Anguete Indian distinguishes it as kwah te gwi 
jah. 

The male secured on September C had the soft parts colored as 
follows : Band across tip of bill, nostrils, and extreme base of culmen 
puritan gray; rest of bill black; iris Rood's brown; tarsus and toes 
clear green-blue gray; nails black. 

After careful comparison of a fair series of white-faced tree 
ducks from both African and South American localities, I am unable 
to find sufficient grounds to warrant separating birds from the two 
continents as subspecies. African birds have the upper back some- 
what more finely vermiculated, the black markings on the sides nar- 
row, and the brown of the breast somewhat duller. These differences, 
however, are so slight as to seem almost intangible, though it seems 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 73 

probable that with extensive material two or more forms may be 
separated. 

COSCOROBA COSCOROBA (Molina) 

Anas Coscoroha Molina, Sasg. Stor. Nat. Chili, 1782, p. 234. (Chile.) 
The coscoroba was first observed on November 15, 1920, at the 
raouth of the Rio Ajo, Lavalle, Buenos Aires, when four passed in 
companj' with flamingos. Other white birds that I took to be this 
species were noted occasionally flying across the marshes, but none 
came Avithin gun range. On January 31, 1921, at the Laguna Cas- 
tillos, near San Vicente, Uruguay, I found a considerable number 
gathered on open shores with Cygnus Tnelancorifhus. The white 
coloration of these fine birds, especially when massed in flocks, made 
them conspicuous at long distances, and they were correspondingly 
v^ary. Before I was able to creep up within 100 meters the flocks 
flew out a meter into the lagoon, and then swam away over the high 
waves out of range, to return when I had passed. At rest they ap- 
pear entirely white, but as the wings are extended the black at the 
tips of the primaries is revealed. The bill appears to be light red- 
dish in color. No specimens were taken. 

DAFILA SPINICAUDA (Vieillot) 

Anas spinicauda Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 5, 1816, p. 135. 
(Buenos Aires.) 

Six adults of the southern pintail were collected near Lavalle in 
Buenos Aires as follows? One female on November 2, 1920, another 
on November 3, and three males and one female on November 6. An 
adult male taken November 2 was preserved as a skeleton. In addi- 
tion to the usually recognized characters of longer tail and greenish 
black speculum used to distinguish males from females, it may be 
noted that in females the throat is so nearly immaculate as to ap- 
pear almost white, while in males it is strongly spotted. In a small 
series of these birds from Chile, Argentina, Paraguay, and Peru, 
I am unable to detect differences in size or coloration that may be 
correlated with geographic range. 

An adult secured at Lavalle had the soft parts colored as follows : 
Stripe down culmen nearly to nail, nail and margin of maxilla ad- 
jacent, serrate margin of bill, and tip of mandible including nail, 
black; space behind nail on maxilla and mandible gray number 7; 
rest of bill mustard yellow; iris Vandj^ke brown; tarsus and toes 
olive gray, clouded on joints with neutral gray; webs slate color. 

The coloration of young in the down, less than a week old, taken 
from one of four specimens secured at General Roca, Territory of 
Rio Negro, on November 27 is as follows (Cat. No. 283,675, U.S.N.M. 
male) ; forepart of crown buffy brown, becoming clove brown, mixed 



74 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

with buffy brown, on hind crown, and hind neck; loral region and 
stripe extending under eye biiffy brown, with a faintly indicated 
whitish spot at base of bill on loral region ; streak behind eye clove 
brown; superciliary streak, lower eyelid, and poorly defined auri- 
cular streak whitish ; lower hind neck, upper back, and wings with 
down clove brown basally, buffy brown distally, the lighter color 
predominating and extending down on sides of breast ; rest of upper 
parts deeper than clove brown; streak extending across posterior 
side of forearm to base of wing, and from there in a somewhat ir- 
regular line on either side of back to line of thighs whitish ; under- 
parts whitish with a slight buffy tinge; and indistinct collar of buffy 
brown across upper breast. The specimens taken are very uniform 
in color. 

The southern pintail was common in the fresh water of marshy 
pools and channels near Lavalle in the Province of Buenos Aires at 
the end of October, 1920. On November 6, following a severe storm 
of wind and rain that flooded large areas and killed many thousand 
sheep, a great migration of these birds came in from the south, the 
flight continuing during morning and evening for a period of three 
days. At the time I was in camp in the sand-dune area on the 
east coast of the Province of Buenos Aires, about 24 kilometers south 
of Cape San Antonio. 

In flocks and pairs pintails came swinging in to feed on areas of 
flooded land adjacent to the dunes. The birds showed little fear, 
and if I merely crouched on the ground had no hesitancy in passing 
within 60 meters, so that I killed four without difficulty. On the 
evening of November 7 the flight from the south was greatly in- 
creased, the birds passing in flocks of half a dozen to one hundred. 
The larger flocks traveled in irregular lines, the birds more or less 
abreast, passing steadily to the northward from 30 to 60 meters from 
the ground, while occasional bands swung around to drop in on some 
suitable feeding ground. At intervals I noted pairs of ducks, male 
and female flying together, alone or in company with flocks, but 
during the entire movement certainly more than 95 per cent of the 
pintails seen were males. The following morning the flight began 
again at daybreak and continued until about 10 in the morning. 
Flocks scattered out to feed over the pampa covered with shallow 
water from the rains. The total number of birds seen on this day 
between 5 o'clock in the morning and noon was estimated at between 
15,000 and 20,000 individuals. As before, more than 95 per cent of 
those observed near at hand were males, and it was assumed that 
this proportion held among those noted at a greater distance. Male 
birds that I shot were still in full breeding condition. From the 
make-up of the flocks it was my belief that in Dafla spinicauda^ as 



BIRDS OF ARGENTHSTA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 75 

m Dafila acuta in the United States, males desert their mates as soon 
as the eggs are deposited, and then band together to spend the re- 
mainder of the summer in company. Pintails nested commonly 
through the pampas in this immediate region and were breeding at 
this time. It was my opinion, however, that many of the birds 
observed, patently in migration, had come from more southern 
regions in Patagonia, where the species nests commonly. The ex- 
treme eastern part of the Province of Buenos Aires, behind the Bay 
of Samborombon and Cape San Antonio, is divided into great 
estancias, with small rural population. Broad marshes, sAvamps, 
and wet meadows, loiown as canadones and baiiadones extend for 
miles and furnish feeding and loafing grounds suitable for these 
birds where they may pass the hot weather and molt in lazy idleness. 
After November 9 these ducks remained abundant, but, although 
they roamed over the country in search of feeding grounds, there 
was no concerted movement among them, as the great migration 
from the south seemed at an end. On November 15 I found many 
(nearly all males) along the Rio Ajo below Lavalle, where few had 
been observed on October 25. 

The breeding season, as in many other birds of this region, may 
be irregular. A paired female taken November 4 was not yet in 
condition to lay. On November 16 in traveling from Lavalle to 
Santo Domingo, Buenos Aires, I observed what seemed to be a 
mating flight of this bird. As a pair circled over a caiiadon, high in 
air, the male at short intervals swung under and slightly in front 
of the female, while she at each approach swerved to one side or the 
other leaving him again behind. 

At General Roca, in the Territory of Rio Negro, from November 
23 to December 3, pintails were common along the Rio Negro. A 
female, in company wuth eight young 3 or 4 days old, was found on 
November 27, and four of the young birds were taken. On December 
3 a female was seen with a brood of immature birds at least three- 
quarters grown. In both instances the females (who were not 
accompanied by males) were very solicitous and thrashed about in 
the water to attract my attention or flew back and forth overhead. 
A single bird was seen on a salt lagoon at Ingeniero White, the 
port of Bahia Blanca, on December 13, while from December 15 to 
18 the species Avas common at Carhue, in western Buenos Aires. 
The fresh skull of an adult male Avas secured from the camp of a 
hunter. One was seen at a small pool near Victorica, Pampa, De- 
cember 29. 

In Uruguay tAvo were noted January 9, 1921, on an arroyo beloAV 
Carrasco, a bathing resort near Montevideo, while on January 31 a 
fcAv were found on the Laguna Castillos near San Vicente, in the 



76 ■ BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Department of Rocha. Others were recorded at Lazcano, in the same 
general region, on February 7. 

Around the Laguna del Monte at Guamini, Province of Buenos 
Aires, Argentina, the species was common from March 3 to 8. I 
was surprised to note occasional true pairs of these birds here, 
though the breeding season was past, as fall was well advanced. I 
judged that these were pairs that for some reason had been unsuc- 
cessful in nesting during the summer and that had not as yet parted 
company. Near Tunuyan, Mendoza, a flock of 25 pintails was seen 
on March 25, and others the following day. Early on the morning 
of March 28 a flock of 100, and later two smaller groups, passed 
due north, flying high in air. These last seemed to be flight birds 
in fall migration. 

In general appearance and habits Dafila spinicauda is similar to 
Daflla acuta. The birds frequent the open water of lagoons or rest 
on bars, muddy shores, or projecting points where they have open 
outlook. They impress one as alert and intelligent, eminently able 
to care for themselves. In wilder sections, Avhere not molested, they 
exhibit little fear, but when hunted it was many times almost im- 
possible to come within range of them, especially on open pampa, 
where there was little or no opportunity for concealment. The birds 
often feed by immersing the head and neck as they paddle across 
shallow pools or bays, or in deeper water tip in order to reach the 
bottom. Where heavy winds or rising waters flood areas of muddy 
flat the pintails follow the creeping advance of the water line to 
reed eagerly in the windrow of seeds and dead or drowning insects 
that it carries with it. Recently flooded areas of shallow water 
are always attractive. The flight is swift and direct. On the wing 
the birds resemble D. acuta., but appear heavier in the neck. Though 
females resemble males, they may be distinguished sometimes when 
in the air by the shorter, less-pointed tail, especially when flocks 
swerve in passing OA'erhead. The call of the male is a mellow, 
trilled whistle, a purling sound pleasing to the ear, resembling that 
of the northern pintail. It is given frequently as parties of males 
pass on the wing. The note of the female is a low ha-ach or qua-ack., 
slightly lower in tone than that of our pintail. 

The species is one of the abundant ducks of the pampas and was 
common among birds offered for sale during winter in the great 
markets of the city of Buenos Aires. 

PAECILONITTA BAHAMENSIS RUBRIROSTRIS (Vicillot) 

Anas ruhrirostris Vieiixot, Kouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 5, 1816, p. 108. 
(Buenos Aires.) 

Near Carhue, in western Buenos Aires, the southern Bahama duck 
was common from December 15 to 18, 1920. The birds ranced in 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 77 

small flocks, at times as many as 50 together, near the mouths of 
fresh-water arroyos draining into the strongly saline Lago Epiquen, 
or in small ponds common here in slight depressions through the 
undulating pampa. The birds rose with a high-pitched call, and on 
the wing in flight and form resembled Daflla spinicauda, a species 
from which they were easily distinguished by the buffy-brown tail 
(in color distinctly lighter than the back) and by the sharply defined 
lines of their bicolored heads. 

As no specimens were taken these notes are allocated under the 
subspecies ruhrirostris on the basis of Bangs's recent review of the 
group.^^ 

NETTION FLAVIROSTRE (Vieillot) 

Anas flavirostris Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 5, 1816, p. 107. 
(Buenos Aires.) 

The curious nesting habits of the tree or yellow-billed teal have 
been well described by the late Ernest Gibson in his notes on birds of 
the Cape San Antonio region, Province of Buenos Aires.^^ While 
working at Mr, Gibson's estancia, Los Yngleses, near Lavalle, from 
October 30 to November 9, 1920, I found the birds fairly common. 
The breeding season had begun and the teal were nesting in huge 
stick nests of the monk parrakeet {Myioj)sitta monachus) placed in 
the tall eucalyptus trees lining the driveways near the estancia house. 
The birds themselves spent much of their time resting 40 or 50 feet 
from the ground on open horizontal limbs in the eucalyptus, where 
they stood on one leg asleep with the bill in the feathers of the back 
as calmly as though they rested on some mud bar in a lagoon. 
Though six or eight frequently congregated in these situations, 
when flushed the birds separated in pairs that circled swiftly over 
the open fields to return to some safer haven among the trees. The 
males gave a low whistle and the females a high-pitched kack hack 
ka-ack^ notes that in both cases resembled those of the similar sex 
in the green-winged teal {Nettion carolinense) . In fact, the re- 
semblance to the call of the northern bird was so close that I never 
overcame a feeling of surprise when I heard the present species call 
from the treetops. 

After heavy rains the tree teal descended to shallow pools in the 
grassy fields near at hand, but at other times flew out to feed in the 
marshes and swamps in company with other ducks. Males taken 
were in full breeding condition. On October 31 I observed a male 
on the wing in pursuit of a female, giving his musical whistled note. 
The two circled and swimg swiftly through the tops of the trees in a 

^■^ Proc. New England Zool. Club, vol. 6, Oct. 31, 1918, p. 89. 
"Ibis, 1919, pp. 20-21. 



78 ■ BULLETIN 133;, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

mating flight similar to that of Nettion caroliriense or N. crecca. A 
brood of newly-hatched young was reported but I did not see them. 
As the parrot nests occupied by the teal are frequently from 15 to 25 
meters from the earth there was considerable speculation as to how 
the ducklings reached the ground. It may be supposed, however, that 
they merely tumbled out, their slight weight and resilient bodies 
being sufficient guarantee against injury from the fall to the grass- 
padded carpet below. 

Along the K.io Negro south of General Iloca, Territory of Rio 
Negro, occasional birds were seen from November 27 to December 3. 
They were still breeding here and were found in pairs in quiet side 
channels bordered with heavy growths of willows. A single bird 
was noted in company with the southern pintail {Dafila spinicauda) 
near Carrasco, below Montevideo, Uruguay, on January 9, 1921. On 
March 8 six were observed resting in shallow water near Guamini, 
Province of Buenos Aires. Near Tunuyan, Mendoza, two were seen 
March 25, and on March 28 one, apparently a flight bird from the 
south, passed in company with pintails. 

An adult male was taken October 30 and another November 9 at 
Los Yngleses near Lavalle. Both birds were in full breeding plum- 
age. Specimens from Chile and Argentina do not seem to differ 
appreciably in size or coloration. 

NETTION LEUCOPHRYS (Vieillot) ^* 

Anas leucophrys Vielllot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 5, 1816, p. 156. 
Paraguay. ) 

Though it is probable that teal seen about open lagoons near Las 
Palmas, Territory of Chaco, Argentina, at the end of July, 1920, 
were the present species, the ring-necked teal was taken only in 
the Paraguayan Chaco near Puerto Pinasco. On September 8 near 
the ranch at Kilometer 80 west of Puerto Pinasco a flock of a dozen 
passed me SAviftly to alight in a small channel that had been filled 
by heavy rains a few hours before. Two that I secured were females, 
both immature birds that had just attained full growth. On Sep- 
tember 24 and 25 several mated pairs of these small teal were ob- 
served at Laguna Wall, 200 kilometers west of the Rio Paraguay, 
beyond the locality given above. All seen here were mated, and an 
adult male taken September 25 was in breeding condition. 

In habits the ring-necked teal is similar to related ducks. When 
startled the birds spring into the air and dart away with swift direct 
flight. On the wing the forepart of the head appears very light 
while as the birds pass the flash of the white patch on the greater 
coverts on the otherwise dark wing makes a good field mark. At 



" See Oberholser, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 30, Mar. 31, 1917, p. 75, for 
change in name for this species from the current H. torquatuni. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, aND CHILE 79 

Laguna Wall the birds frequented shallow, open pools in marshy 
areas, and when flushed circled swiftly away low over the marsh 
vegetation. The call of the female was a high-pitched, somewhat 
varied note, that may be represented as qua-a^ qua-er or qua-ack. 
Those taken were very fat. 

The Anguete Indian called the present species pcA ro a pah^ 
while to my Lengua boy at Laguna Wall it w^as known as pil wa pah. 

J^ETTION BRASILIENSE (Gmelin) 
Ayias brasUiensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., vol. 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 517. (Brazil.) 

At Kilometer 80, west of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, the Brazilian 
teal was noted in small numbers in company with other ducks on 
the bare, open shore of a large lagoon. The male of a mated pair 
was crippled one morning, but was not actually recovered imtil 
several days later on September 18, 1920, when I came across him 
again. To my surprise the female bird, still accompanied him, 
though the male was unable to fly. I recorded the note of the 
male as a high, whistled call not so clear as that of the green-winged 
teal. The call of the female was a loud qua-ack. 

Near Rio Negro, in west central Uruguay, a few of these ducks 
were seen about a small rush-grown lagoon near the shore of the 
Rio Negro. Two males killed here on February 18, 1921, had com- 
pleted the wing molt and were able to fly, though the new primaries 
were not quite fully grown. New feathers were growing in over the 
breast and back on these birds, but there is no indication of an 
eclipse plumage, as old and new feathers are similar in color. These 
two birds were past breeding, as the intromittent organs were 
shrunken and small, though in one the testes were still 28 mm. long. 
(In the other the testes were greatly reduced.) On this same occa- 
sion, however, I noted several mated pairs, while males frequently 
joined in little flocks so that sometimes four or five were found 
together. 

These ducks fed in the shallows of swampy lagoons or swam 
about, threading their way through the floating surface plants that 
in many places covered the water in a mat. On the wing the black 
shoulder with the white bar on the tips of the secondaries showed 
prominently, while with binoculars it was possible to see the elongate 
patch of the white axillars alternately hidden and displayed with 
the movement of the wings. The call note of the female, as noted 
here, was a high pitched kack hack, while the males gave a high 
swees swees swee that suggested the call of a wigeon. Males had 
the habit, common among teal, of bowing to one another or to their 
mates. 

The colors of the soft parts in life in the male taken west of 
Puerto Pinasco were as follows: Upper mandible between dark 



80 BULLETIN 133^ UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

vinaceous purple and Indian purple; lower mandible etruscan red; 
iris bone brown ; tarsus and toes coral red ; nails deep mouse gray. 

MARECA SIBILATRIX (Poppig) 

Anas sihilatrix Poppig, Froriep's Notizen, vol. 25, no. 529, July 1829, p. 10. 
(Chile.) 

The strikingly marked Chiloe wigeon was first observed on No- 
vember 6, 1920, on the Estancia Tuyu, south of Cape San Antonio, 
Province of Buenos Aires, when a few came » to ponds behind the 
dune region bordering the beach. On November 9, in company with 
B. S. Donaldson, at the Estancia Los Yngleses I killed a fine male, 
a bird in full plumage, very heavy and fat but not in breeding con- 
dition. Along the Rio Negro below General Roca, Territory of Rio 
Negro, the wigeon was common from November 27 to December 3. 
All those observed were males, gathered in small flocks that rested 
on sand or gravel bars bordering the swiftly flowing main chan- 
nels of the river, or that frequented the quieter w^aters of the lagoons 
bordering the stream on either side. The birds examined closely 
were all adult, evidently past breeding. One taken was beginning to 
molt. At Carhue, Buenos Aires, wigeon were observed from De- 
cember 15 to 18 in small numbers. A few observed on December 18, 
when about 30 were seen, were in pairs, but the majority of those 
noted were males. On the wing the white shoulders of this species 
form a prominent field mark. Males have a low whistled note re- 
sembling the syllables wheur, wheur, accompanied at times by low 
chattering calls. The birds were wild and alert, so that it was diffi- 
cult to collect them. 

Birds of this species in fresh, unworn plumage have the light mar- 
gins on the feathers of the dorsal surface broad and conspicuous so 
that they appear much paler and more conspicuously streaked than 
others that are somewhat worn. 

QUERQUEDULA CYANOPTERA (Vieillot) 

Anas cyanoptera Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 5, 1816, p. 104. (Lu 
Plata Region and Buenos Aires.) 

On November 16, 1920, between Lavalle and Santo Domingo, in 
the Province of Buenos Aires, I noted six pairs of cinnamon teal and 
occasional additional males through the extensive swamps of this 
region in open marshes and pools. Near General Roca, Territory of 
Rio Negro, Argentina, occasional pairs were seen from November 23 
to 30 on quiet channels of the Rio Negro, and on December 3 I ob- 
served a flock of 30 males, all in full plumage, evidently birds that 
had bred and were preparing to molt. On this same day one was 
seen in company with a flock of wigeon. Near Carhue, western Bue- 
nos Aires, a male was recorded December 15, and a female with six 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 81 

newly hatched young on December 16. The head of an adult male, 
discarded by some hunter, was found on the day following. At 
Guamini, in this same region, I noted ten or a dozen cinnamon teal 
on March 3, 1921, among them two males in full brown plumage. 
Others were noted on March 4. On March 28 a female was observed 
near Tunuyan, Mendoza. 

QUERQUEDULA VERSICOLOR VERSICOLOR (Vieillot) 

Anas versicolor Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 5, 1816, p. 109. 
(Paraguay.) 

The gray teal was noted in numbers near Lavalle, Province of 
Buenos Aires, Argentina, from October 28 to November 9, 1920, but 
was not observed elsewhere in the regions visited. At Los Yngleses 
the birds were common in the caiiadones and were found in pairs 
or in small flocks. They frequented shallow, open pools in the 
marshes, and wdien flushed flew with swift darting flight rather low 
over the rushes. Many times they were observed in passage over 
the marsh, but never traveled at high altitudes in the air. On No- 
vember 9 I encountered several flocks, each containing 8 or 10 males, 
that apparently were banded together after having bred. These 
remained separate from the mated birds, frequenting the water of 
open pools, or standing on the shore of some pond or open marsh. 
A female was taken October 28 and three others, a male and two 
females, on October 31. 

From examination of a small series of these teal in the Unite(i 
States National Museum, it appears that birds from the Straits of 
Magellan may be separated as Querquedula versicolor fretensls 
(King).^^ A bird sexed as a female but probably a male examined 
from Gregory Bay differs from northern birds in larger size and 
in bolder, heavier markings on the underparts, especially on the 
abdomen. The bill in particular is long and heavy. The measure- 
ments, in millimeters, of this specimen are as follows : Wing, 203.0 ; 
tail, 75.5; culmen, 47.0; tarsus, 36.5. Specimens that represent true 
versicolor have been examined from Paraguay, Province of Buenos 
Aires, Argentina, and central Chile. The bill in these ranges froni 
38.2 to 43 mm., the wing from 180.9 to 192.5 mm. The northward 
range of the subspecies fretensis is at present uncertain. 

SPATULA PLATALEA (Vieillot) 

Anas platalea Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 5, 1816, p. 157. 
(Paraguay.) 

A few males were noted November 8, 1920, near Lavalle, Buenos 
Aires, in company with southern pintails recently arrived in migra- 
ns Anas fretensis King, Proc. ZooL Soc. London, pt. 1, Jan. 6, 1831, p. 15. (Straits 
of Magellan.) 



82 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

tion. A number were observed exposed for sale in the markets of 
Buenos Aires at the end of June. No specimens were secured. 

METOPIANA PEPOSACA (Vicillot) 

Anas peposaca Vib^llot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 5, 1816, p. 132. (Para- 
guay and Buenos Aires.) 

The rosy-billed duck was one of the common species found in the 
region surrounding LaA^alle, Province of Buenos Aires, from Octo- 
ber 23 to November 9, 1920. The birds frequented open pools in 
the marshes where the water stood from a few centimeters to a 
meter or so deep, and though not averse to frequenting small ponds 
surrounded by high vegetation did not penetrate among the rushes. 
In form and habits the species is closely similar to the American 
redhead {Marila arnericana), a species from which it is not dis- 
similar in color pattern aside from the prominent rosy-colored knob 
developed on the bill in males'. Females, when on the wing or when 
resting on the water, resembled female redheads closely, but were 
marked by the sharply outlined white under tail coverts that made 
a prominent field mark. The flight was swift and direct, and birds 
showed entire lack of fear of any object not wholly visible to them, 
so that to secure a shot it was often only necessary to crouch in the 
grass or rushes when they were circling on the wing. 

At this season rosy-billed ducks were found in pairs or were en- 
gaged in mating. Frequently four or five males swam in pursuit 
of one female, who remained in the lead while in turn her suitors 
rose to flutter along for several meters with the rear portion of the 
body dragging on the surface of the water. The note of the male 
is a purring kah-h-h, a low call that carries for only a short distance. 

On December 3 several were found on quiet channels and lagoons 
near the Rio Negro below General Roca, Territory of Rio Negro. 
Others were noted at Carhue, Buenos Aires, December 17, and on 
February 6, 1921, the species was seen in a large marsh near Laz- 
cano, in the Department of Rocha, Uruguay. On February 8, at 
Lazcano, I examined a young bird three-quarters grown that had 
been killed recently by some gunners. This bird displayed dull 
markings slightly darker than those of the female, especially on the 
breast. In form it showed the strong, heavy leg muscles character- 
istic of the young of deep-water ducks, while the muscles of the 
breast were thin and undeveloped, though the wing quills were half 
grown. Two adult males were observed at Rio Negro, in west- 
central Uruguay, on February 16. The species is commonly known 
as pato picaso. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 83 
HETERONETTA ATRICAPILLA (Merrem) 

Anas atricapilla Merkem, in Ersch u. Gruber, Allg. Encyc, sec. 1, vol. 35, 
1841, p. 26. (Buenos Aires.) 

The curious black-headed duck was encountered only in the cafia- 
dones on the Estancia Los Yngleses, south of Lavalle, Province of 
Buenos Aires. The birds frequented pools surrounded by rushes 
where the water was from 2 to 3 feet deep, and were shy and retir- 
ing, so that it was difficult to observe them. On my first encounter 
I found two pairs in a small pond in company with coots and other 
ducks. To my astonishment the black-headed ducks dived when 
startled and disappeared like so many grebes, evidently seeking the 
shelter of the rushes. Another pair was observed on November 9, 
1920, when I was fortunate in securing the male, though both birds 
dived instantly at the flash of the gun. The female disappeared and 
was not seen again. When in the water the birds suggest ruddy 
ducks, though the tail is not held at an angle as in the genus 
Erismatura. 

Black-headed ducks were evidently breeding during the first week 
in November. Females noted swam about with heads erect, behav- 
ing like other ducks. Males followed them or faced them with 
neck drawn in and throat puffed out, at intervals raising the point 
of the bill and giving a low note quah quah^ barely audible at 45 
meters. It is possible that in diving quickly the birds use wings as 
well as feet, but on this point I was not certain. The species is 
widely distributed but is not common as it was not encountered 
elsewhere. 

The colors of the soft parts in the male that I secured were as 
follows: Top of bill behind nostrils, line of culmen, nail and space 
behind it black; base of maxilla shading from Rocellin purple 
anteriorly to vinaceous buff toward feathers; rest of maxilla deep 
Dutch blue; mandible tilleul buff, becoming deep Dutch blue at 
base; iris bone brown; front of tarsus and toes deep olive buff, be- 
coming neutral gray on sides, joints, and webs. 

The specimen taken was an adult bird in breeding condition. At 
the back of the mouth on either side was a vertical slit 12 mm. long, 
forming the entrance of a thin-walled cheek pouch that extended 
backward, and to a slight degree downward, for about 25 mm., 
above and external to the hyoidean muscles. This sac was evidently 
capable of considerable inflatiom For at least the anterior half it 
was overlaid by a thin fascia of muscle, probably a portion of the 
cucullaris. In addition, the upper end of the esophagus is full and 
large, with thin walls that are pouched outward, evidently capable 
of expansion. Midway of the neck the walls of the esophagus be- 
came normal. There was no tracheal air sac. 



84 BULLETIN 133^ UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

The trachea, proceeding from above, was soft for the upper half, 
below which it was hardened and firm for the space of 15 mm. ; ap- 
parently the rings tended here to ossify. At this point the trachea 
broadened gradually, and became again thin walled, until it reached 
a diameter of 12 mm., when it contracted slowly until at the level 
of the shoulders it was once more of normal breadth. There was no 
bulla ossea. 

On examining the freshly killed bird, I found that the skin of 
the throat hung in a loose fold that began below the line of the 
eye. In skinning this specimen it was noted tliat the neck was large, 
so that the skin passed readily over the head. 

The black-headed duck is a species of somewhat uncertain affini- 
ties that requires more detailed anatomical study before its position 
may be definitely laiown. The lack of a broad lobe on the hind toe, 
the somewhat weakened form of the bill, and small feet are charac- 
ters that assign it to its present position in the subfamily Anatinae 
near the freckled duck Stictoiietta naevosa. In the full, loose skin 
of the neck, development of special, distensible sacs about the head 
in the male, small wings, glossy, shining plumage, and lack of a 
bulla ossea it suggests the Erismaturinae, a group from which 
Ueteronetta differs, however, in lack of a lobed hind toe, small feet, 
presence of an enlargement in the center of the trachea, and elon- 
gated upper tail coverts. It is possible that the characters that ally 
it with the latter group are due to convergent evolution, as the duck 
in habits is similar to the ruddies. For the time it may be left in 
its present position. 

ERISMATURA VITTATA Philippi 

Erismatura vittata Philippi, Wiegmann's Arch, fiir Naturg., 1860, pt. 1, 
p. 26. (Chile.) 

The small southern ruddy duck, though widely distributed, seems 
to be rather rare in occurrence, as it was seen only in northern Pata- 
gonia near General Koca, in the Territory of Hio Negro. The birds 
were found in channels and long lagoons bordering the main stream 
of the Rio Negro, where the water, though often deep, had slight 
current, and was in places bordered by clumps of cattails or over- 
hung by low willows. A pair seen on November 27, 1920, were evi- 
dently nesting, but the majority of the birds observed were males 
that seemed to have completed breeding for this season. Frequently 
three or four were found in compMiy swimming with heads drawn 
in and spread tails held up at an angle. They were undemonstra- 
tive save when occasionally one swam out to jerk the head up and 
down two or three times, a custom common among males of many 
ducks. A breeding male secured on November 27 was in full plum- 
age, though the rectrices showed wear and in part were faded in 



BIKDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 85 

color. The soft parts in this bird were colored as follows: Maxilla 
and base of mandible Eton blue; nail and anterior margin of 
maxilla marked with fuscous; mandible, except at base, pale brown- 
ish vinaceous; iris Rood's brown; tarsus and toes storm graj^, be- 
coming dark neutral gray on joints and webs. A male shot on De- 
cember 3 did not have the sexual organs developed. 

On seizing my first specimen of this ruddy duck, I was pleased to 
detect in its neck an air sac that, to the sense of touch, appeared 
similar to one that I had described in the North American Erisina- 
tura janiaicensis.^^ 

The body of this bird was preserved carefully in alcohol for 
subsequent examination. On dissecting it I find the arrangement 
on the throat is considerably different from what it is in the North 
American bird. In Erismatura vittata the larynx is less highly 
specialized than in E. jamaicensis. The fold of connective tissue, 
attached to the thyroid cartilage, that I have called the "lifrula 
laryngis " is reduced to a slight ridge. The larynx in general has 
the cavity anteriorl}'^ compressed from side to side, and posteriorly 
expanded. There is no marked division or vestibule in its lower 
portion, and the lateral pads found in javiaicensis that I termed 
the "pulvini laryngis" are wanting. On the dorsal surface of 
the trachea just behind the larynx is a transverse slit that inter- 
rupts or divides the upper tracheal ring. The succeeding ring is 
broadly notched for half its width, but is not cut entirely through. 
This slit forms the opening from the trachea into the tracheal air 
sac that extends down between trachea and esophagus. 

The neck of this tracheal air sac is long and narrow, while the 
elongate sac itself is but little enlarged or swollen. In its total 
length from opening to free lower end the sac measures 65 mm., 
while at its greatest distension it is apparently not more than 
10 mm. in diameter. It is thin walled and transparent in tex- 
ture, ends below at the level of the shoulders, and has no con- 
nection, save through the trachea, with the series of pulmonary 
air sacs. The sternotrachealis muscle expands somewhat over the 
sac, but is developed merely as a broad, thin fascia of little muscular 
strength. 

The weak development of the sac, with the small tracheal slit 
and lack of specialization of the larynx, are notable when com- 
pared with this structure in Erismatura jamaicensis. The esophagus 
of Erismatura vittata., however, is remarkable. The pharyngeal 
end has the surface rugose as usual; immediately below the tube 
swells in an elliptical expansion that contracts again to normal size 
at the level of the shoulder, so that it occupies the same position 

^Proe. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 52, Feb. 8, 1917, pp. 479-482; Condor, vol., 20,. Janu- 
ary, 1918, pp. 19-20. 



86 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

as the tracheal air sac. The dorsal wall of the esophagus bordering 
the line of the muscular neck is thickened, while the distended 
anterior saclike portion is much thinner. This portion of the 
esophagus is obviously capable of considerable inflation, and re- 
mains broad and full even in the alcoholic specimen. Below the 
distension the esophageal walls are thickened as is normal. 

The lingual muscles covering the hyoids are unusually heavy and 
well developed, as are the muscular slings that support the hyoidean 
apparatus below the head. Muscular attachments are evident on 
the lateral walls of the upper end of the esophagus, but in the 
specimen available I am unable to make out their arrangement. 

It is evident that the atrophy of the tracheal air sac has been 
replaced by this curious esophageal expansion, a structure en- 
tirely absent in E. jatnaicensis. The syrinx has no lateral bulb, 
agreeing thus with jamaicensis. Female specimens of vlttata were 
not examined, but it seems probable that the structures described 
above are of a sexual nature and confined to the male. 

Order FALCONIFORMES 
Family CATHARTIDAE 

CATHARTES URUBITINGA Pelzeln 

Cathartes Urubutinga Pelzeln, Sitz. Kais. Akad. Wiss., vol. 44, 1861, p. 7. 
(Sapitiba, Irisanga, and Fort San Joaquim, Brazil.) 

In his account of the Birds of British Guiana, 1916 (p. 211), 
Chubb takes Cathartes ruficoUis Spix as the name for the yellow- 
headed vulture, a usage that more recently has been followed by 
Swann.^'^ On examining the original account of Cathartes rufi- 
coUis^^ it is found that it is described as having the head red, the 
wing coverts brownish, and the shafts of the primaries dark, char- 
acters that indicate that this name refers to Cathartes aura, so that 
7'uficollis is not available for the yellow-headed bird, which must be 
known as uruhitinga Pelzeln as above noted. In his original de- 
scription Pelzeln described uruhitinga on the basis of specimens col- 
lected by Natterer in Brazil without definite citation of locality. 
Later ^® he cites nine specimens collected by Natterer at Sapitiba, in 
the district of Rio Janeiro, Irisanga, near the Rio Mogyguassu in 
northern Sao Paulo, and Fort San Joaquim, on the Rio Branco in 
extreme northern Brazil, not far from the frontier of British Guiana. 
The name uruhitinga, therefore, is based on birds from these three 
localities. 

B7 Syn. Acclpitres, ed. 2, pt. 1, Sept. 28, 1921, p. 4. 

s^ Spix, Avium Spec Nov. Brasiliam, vol. 1, 1824, p. 2. 

s» Ornith. Brasiliens, 1871, p. 1. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 87 

The yellow-headed vulture was observed first at Resistencia, Chaco, 
on July 8 and 10, 1920. From July 16 to August 1 the species was 
recorded at Las Palmas, Chaco, and from August 9 to 19 at the 
Eiacho Pilaga, Formosa. In the locality last named it was more 
common than the red-headed turkey vulture. At Puerto Pinasco, 
Paraguay, the yellow-headed vulture was seen on September 1, and 
at the ranch at Kilometer 80, west of that point, it was recorded on 
September 8, 9, and 15. One was observed at Lazcano, Uruguay, on 
February 8, 1921. The bird was found in the same territory as the 
turkey vulture, often in company with that species, of which it is a 
counterpart in general appearance, actions, and habits. On cold 
winter mornings the birds remained in their roosts until the sun had 
warmed the air, and on cold, cloudy days remained wholly inactive; 
but in sunny weather I seldom sat down to care for birds that I had 
killed without one or more of these vultures swinging overhead to 
observe what I was about. Like the turkey vulture, they have a 
graceful flight as they quarter tirelessly back and forth in search 
for food, or soar in great circles high in air. At times they rest in 
dead trees, or may alight in heavy woods if attracted by any move- 
ment or activity that seems to promise food. They appear slight in 
body for their wing expanse, and are tough and hard to kill, [n a 
wounded individual I noted that the sides of the concave horny 
tongue tip were capable of being appressed to a considerable degree. 
The species was readily distinguished in life from the turkey vul- 
ture by the distinctly yellow head. A male killed near Las Palmar, 
Chaco, on July 20 had the head colored in a striking manner. The 
bill was cream buff, shading to vinaceous buff on a broad area that 
extended onto the forehead, behind the nostrils; side of the head in 
general, including eyelids, deep chrome; center of crown dark Ty- 
rian blue, bordered on either side by a broad band of stone green; 
skin of throat posteriorly deep chrome, becoming paler forward, to 
shade into olive buff toward base of bill ; space between mandibular 
rami spotted with dark Tyrian blue ; a dull spot of slate blue beneath 
the nostrils on either side ; iris carmine ; tarsus cartridge buff, shad- 
ing to neutral gray on the toes, where the interscutal spaces have a 
scurfy whitish appearance. 

A female taken at Kilometer 182, Formosa, on August 13, 1920, 
was preserved as a skeleton. 

The species does not seem to have been seen previously in Uruguay, 
but I include the Lazcano record without hesitation, though no speci- 
men was taken, as one bird rested on a fence post while I passed at a 
distance of 10 meters, so that I had an exceptionally clear view of it. 

The red-headed and yellow-headed vultures have been involved in 
much confusion, as though easily distinguished in life, in the field, 



88 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

in dried skins they appear closely similar. The following may be of 
aid in separating the two species: 

a/ Head (in life) mainly yellow; general coloration more uniform, blacker, 
sheen of feathers of dorsal surface with green predominating, purple 
restricted or nearly absent; wing coverts black without distinct paler 
edgings C. urubitinga. 

a'. Head (in life) mainly red; general coloration less dark, more variegated 
with brownish edgings to feathers, sheen of feathers of dorsal surface 
with purple predominating, green restricted or nearly absent ; wing 
coverts distinctly margined with brownish, this color often exten- 
sive C. aura. 

The color of the shafts in the outer primaries is not of definite 
value, as it is variable in both species. It has been alleged that in 
urubitinga the feathering on the back of the neck extended farther 
forward. This, however, is merely an age character, as immature 
birds of either species have the neck more or less feathered to the 
base of the cranium or even onto the nape, while in adults this area is 
naked.''° 

That aura and urubitinga are distinct species there can be no doubt. 
Though aura has a much greater zonal range, in tropical and sub- 
tropical regions, aura and urubitinga are found together throughout 
extensive areas, while they are sufficiently distinct to controvert any 
theory that might consider them color phases of one species. 

The specimen from Las Palmas has the following measurements: 
Wing, 514; tail, 217 (culmen defective) ; tarsus, 60; middle toe with 
claw, 76 mm. These dimensions are somewhat larger than those of 
birds from eastern Brazil, British Guiana, and Venezuela, so that it 
is possible that a race characterized by slightly greater size inhabits 
the basin of the Rio Paraguay. 

CATHARTES AURA RUFICOLLIS Spix 

Cathartes ruflcolUs Spix, Avium Spec. Nov. Brasiliam, vol. 1, 1824, p. 2. 
(Interior of Bahia and Piauhy.) 

The geographical forms of the turkey vulture and the nomencla- 
ture applied to them have been involved in much confusion and un- 
certainty, a state that has not been remedied by the recent action of 
Chubb '^^ in adopting ruficoUis as the proper name for the j^ellow- 
headed vulture. A review of the entire group has shown that there 
are apparently five forms of aura that may be recognized, two from 
North America and the West Indies and three from South America. 
In general it may be said that turkey vultures from North America 
and the West Indies differ from those of South America in browner 
coloration and more distinct brown edgings on the wing coverts. 

«» See Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 62, April, 1918, p. 34. 
61 Birds of British Guiana, vol. 1, 1916, p. 211. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 89 

With this in mind, the following brief synopsis of my findings as to 
the valid forms and their distribution will be clear. 

CATHARTES AURA AURA (Linnaeus). 

Vultur aura Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1, 1758, p. 86. (State of 
Vera Cruz, Mexico."*) 

The typical form of the turke}^ vulture has the wing coverts dis- 
tinctly margined with brown like C. a. se2)te7ifrionalis, but is smaller 
as the measurements of the wing range from 475 to 510 mm. It 
ranges from Panama (Empire, Fort Lorenzo) northward into Mex- 
ico, and in the West Indies. Swann'^^ has described the bird from 
Cozumel Island as C. a. insularis. From the description this is ap- 
parently similar in size to au7'a (wing 470-505 mm.), but is said to 
be darker. As Cozumel Island lies only 15 miles from the main- 
land, I am inclined to consider this as doubtfully distinct (no speci- 
mens are at hand), and for the present a synonym of aura, espe- 
cially since there is some variation in degree of blackness in that 
form. The type of Gathartes hurrovianus Cassin^* has been ex- 
amined by Nelson and pronounced identical with aura. 

CATHARTES AURA SEPTENTRIONALIS Wied. 

Cathartes septentt-ionali-s "NVied, Reise Nord-America, vol. 1, 1839, p. 162. 
(Near New Harmony, Indiana.) 

The northern turkey vulture is similar in color to typical aura, 
but is larger, with a wing ranging from 520 to 553 mm. It ranges 
from the northern part of the Mexican table-land north through the 
United States into southern Canada. The southern limit attained 
by this form in Mexico is uncertain, 

CATHARTES AURA RUFICOLLIS Spix. 

Cathartes ruficollis Spix, Avium Spec. Nov. Brasiliam, vol. 1, 1824, p. 2. 
(Interior of Bahia and Piauhy.) 

The turkey vulture of eastern and northern South America is 
similar in size to typical aura, as the wing ranges from 495 to 
510 mm., but differs in blacker color and in restriction of the brown 
edgings on the wing coverts. It ranges from Paraguay (probably 
from northern Argentina and Uruguay) north through Brazil into 
the Guianas and Venezuela. The applicability of the name ruficollis 
to the red-headed turkey vulture is discussed under the account of 
the yellow-headed vulture. Hellmayr ^'^ has stated that Spix's type 
of ruficollis was no longer extant, and referred the name to aura 
with a query. I think there can be no valid reason for not recog- 

*^Type locality fixed by Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. IS, Apr. 18, 1905, 
p. 124. 

««Syii. Accipitres, ed. 2, pt. 1, Sept. 28, 1921, p. 3. 

" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, vol. 2, 1845, p. 212. 

s^Abhandl. K. Bayerischen Akad. Wiss., II Klass. vol. 22, pt. 2, 1906, p. 567. 



90 BULLETIN 133^ UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

nizing that this name denotes a red-headed turkey vulture, and as 
such it is the oldest name available for the small vulture of eastern 
and northern South America. Oenofs pernigra Sharpe,*"* described 
from Guiana, Amazonia, and Peru, must be placed as a synonym 
here. 

CATHARTES AURA JOTA (Molina). 

Yulcur (sic) Jota Molina, Sagg. Stor. Nat. Chili, 1782, p. 265. (Chile.) 

The form that must bear this name is similar in color to ruficolUs 
Spix, but is larger (wing from 530 to 550 mm.). It ranges from 
the Straits of Magellan through Chile north through the Andes 
apparently to Colombia. C. a. ^neridionalis Swann''^ must be con- 
sidered a synonym of Molina's jota. 

CATHARTES AURA FALKLANDICA (Sharpc). 

Oenups falldandica Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol. 1, 1874, p. 27. 
(Falkland Islands.) 

No specimens of the turkey vulture from the Falkland Islands 
are at hand. From descriptions it is similar in size to C. a. ruficoUis, 
but is distinguished by distinct grayish margins on the median 
wing coverts and secondaries. According to Swann,''^ the Falkland 
Island vulture ranges from the Falkland Islands north along the 
coast of southern Chile. 

A female turkey vulture secured on September 11, 1920, at Kilo- 
meter 80, west of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, has a wing measure- 
ment of 500 mm. and so is representative of the form here called 
ruflcollis. Additional notes assumed to belong under this form which 
follow are not validated by specimens; Vera, Santa Fe, July 5, 1920; 
Las Palmas, Chaco, July 14, 17, 21, and 26; Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, 
August 19; Kilometer 80, west of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, Sep- 
tember 11, 15, 16, 17, and 20; San Vicente, Uruguay, January 26, 
28, and February 2, 1921 ; Lazcano, Uruguay, February 7 and 9. 

In Paraguay this species was known as urubu capini, literally 
translated as bald-headed buzzard. 

The following records may pertain to the present form or may 
refer to C. a. jota (Molina) : General Roca, Rio Negro, November 
23 to 29, 1920 (fairly common) ; Zapala, Neuquen, December 7 to 9; 
Tunuyan, Mendoza, March 27; Tapia, Tucuman, April 12; Tafi 
Viejo, Tucuman, April 17. The status of the turkey vultures from 
central Argentina must remain in abeyance until specimens can be 
measured and examined. It is probable that jota comes north into 
northern Patagonia if not farther, and that it also occurs through 

8«Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol. 1, 1874, p. 26. 

«TSyn. Accipitres, ed. 2, pt. 1, Sept. 28, 1921, p. 3. 

*8 Who, in the reference just cited, p. 4, gives this form as iota Molina. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 91 

the eastern foothills of the Andes, along the entire western border 
of the Republic. 

CATHARTES AURA JOTA (Molina) 

Vulcur Jota Molina, Sagg. Stor. Nat. Chili, 1782, p. 265. (Chile.) 

On April 25 and 27 turkey vultures were observed near Concon, 
in the Intendencia of Valparaiso, Chile. No specimens were secured 
so that these notes are allocated here solely on geographical evidence. 

CORAGYPS URUBU FOETENS (Lichtenstein) 

Cathartes foetens Lichtenstein, Verz. Ausg. Saiig. und Vog. Zool. Mus. 
Kon. Univ. Berlin, 1818, p. 30. (Paraguay.) 

The black vulture, common in the warmer regions that I visited, 
had habits identical with those of the species in the southern United 
States. It was recorded as follows : Resistencia, Chaco, July 8, 1920 ■, 
Las Palmas, Chaco, July 17 to August 1 ; Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, 
August 7 to 19; Formosa, Formosa, August 23 and 24; Puerto 
Pinasco, Paraguay, September 1 to 23 (seen west to a point 110 
kilometers from the Rio Paraguay ; Las Flores, Maldonado, Uruguay, 
Januar}^ 22, 1921; San Vicente, Uruguay, January 26; Tunuyan, 
Mendoza, March 22 and 24; Tapia, Tucuman, April 11; Concon, 
Chile, April 25. About temporary camps of woodcutters in the 
Chaco these birds gathered in flocks to secure offal from the killing 
pens where meat was prepared for human consumption. In cattle 
country carcasses of horses and other animals offered a supply of 
food. In the town of Rio Negro, Uruguay, on Februarj^ 18 I saw 
a tamed bird running about in the streets, with no fear of dogs 
or pedestrians. It was of interest to note that in the Chaco I saw 
three species of vultures in view at the same time on several occasions, 
while a white-breasted bird seen soaring high in air may have been 
the king vulture, so that it may be possible there to find four forms 
of this family together. 

The matter of subspecies in the black vulture is still open to 
question, as in a limited series I do not find any sharply trenchant 
difference between northern and southern birds. Todd ^^ in a recent 
consideration of the bird does not recognize geogi'aphic races. 
Specimens from Florida and Georgia have wing measurements 
ranging, irrespective of sex, from 420 to 436 mm. In one from 
Chile the wing is 405 mm., while in an adult female that I killed 
on April 11, 1921 (skull alone preserved), the wing measured 433 
mm. It is possible that there are more than two forms involved. I 
have followed current usage in recognition of a southern race as the 
specimens available are not sufficient to enable an independent 
opinion in the matter. Cathartes foetens of Lichtenstein is given in 

«» Ann. Carnegie Mu.s., vol. 14, 1922, p. 142. 



92 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

a catalogue of specimens with no description, but with a reference to 
the iribu of Azara. On consulting Azara ^° it is found that the inhu 
is the black vulture so that this name will antedate Vultur hrasilien- 
sis Bonaparte." 

The type locality for the southern form, is thus Paraguay. Hell- 
mayr ^- has held incorrectly that Vultur uruhu of Vieillot ^^ is a 
synonym of Cathartes aura. Although in his discussion of the 
species, Vieillot states that "un rouge sanguin colore la peau de la 
tete et du cou " his diagnosis and plate can apply only to the black 
vulture. In the general account of this species Vieillot points out 
clearly the distinctions between the black and turkey vultures, and it 
may be that his note on the color of the head and neck under the 
black vulture refer to the purplish suffusion found on these parts in 
the adult bird when recently killed. 

VULTUR GRYPHUS Linnaeus 

Vultur gnjphus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1, 1758, p. 86. (Chile.) 

On March 19, 1921, at El Salto, an estancia above Potrerillos, 
Mendoza, at an elevation of 2,000 meters, I saw one of these birds 
sailing above the valley. Tliree were observed above Uspallata, 
Mendoza, on April 21. The male of this species is known as condor, 
the female as huitre, a distinction that may lead to confusion as it 
would indicate that two distinct species were intended. 

Family FALCONIDAE 

MILVAGO CHIMANGO CHIMANGO (Vieillot) 

Polydorus chimango Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 5, 1816, p. 260. 
(Paraguay.") 

The chimango seems more common in the pampas region than 
elsewhere in its range, as there it is often found in such numbers 
that it may be said to be abundant. To the northward it is replaced 
by the allied Milvago cMmachima throughout the Chaco, save in the 
extreme southern part. Records for M. chimango made during my 
field work follow: Berazategui, Buenos Aires, June 29, 1920; Vera 
to Los Amores, Santa Fe, July 5, (the most northern point at which 
the species was observed); Dolores, Buenos Aires, October 21; 

TCApunt. Hist. Nat. Pax. Paraguay, vol. 1, 1802, p. 19. 

"Consp. Gen. Av., vol. 1, 1850, p. 9. 

■'^Abhandl. Kon. Bayerischen Akad. Wiss., Kl. II, vol. 22, pt. 3, 1906, p. 567; and 
Nov. Zool., vol. 28, May, 1921, p. 174. 

■"Hist. Nat. Ois. I'Amer. Sept., vol. 1, 1807, p. 23, pi. 2. 

'* The type locality for chimancjo of Vieillot, established by common usage as 
Paraguay (see Brabourne and Chubb, Birds of South America, vol. 1, December, 1912, 
p. 63, and Swann, Synoptical List of the Accipitrcs, ed. 2, pt. 1, Sept. 28, 1921, p. 
16), is in a way unfortunate, as Vieillot, translating Azara"s comment, says that the 
chimango is rare in Paraguay but common along the Rio de la Plata, a condition that 
holds to-day. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 93 

Lavalle, Buenos Aires, October 23 to November 15; General Roca, 
Rio Negro, November 23 to December 3; Zapala, Neuquen, Decem- 
ber 7 to 9; Carhue, Buenos Aires, December 15 to 18; Victorica, 
Pampa, December 26 to 30; Carrasco, Uruguay, January 9 and 16, 
1921; La Paloma, Uruguay, January 23; San Vicente, Uruguay, 
January 26 to February 2; Lazcano, Uruguay, February 3 to 9; 
Guamini, Buenos Aires, March 3 to 8; (Potrerillos, Mendoza, March 
20 a rectrix found) ; Tunuyan, Mendoza, March 24 to 28; Concon, 
Chile, April 26 to 28. Adult males taken at Lavalle, November 8, 
General Roca, November 26, Carhue, December 15, and an immature 
female shot at Tunuyan, March 24, are all representative of the 
typical form. Milvago c. femucoensis Sclater'^ described from 
Palal near Temuco, Province of Cautin, Chile, and said to range in 
the Provinces of Cautin and Valdivia, is represented in the United 
States National Museum by specimens collected by naturalists from 
the United States Fish Commission steamer Albatross, at Laredo 
Bay, Straits of Magellan, a considerable extension of range over 
that j)reviously known for this form. These birds agree with one 
from Valdivia in darker coloration and more heavy persistent bar- 
ring below than is found in typical chimango. Apparently temu- 
c-oensis ranges throughout the region of heavy rains in southern 
Chile. Specimens from near Santiago, Chile, Tunuyan, and Gen- 
eral Roca show a tendency toward dark coloration, but are so near 
chwiango as to be indistinguishable. A skull and a skeleton of adult 
males were preserved at Victorica, Pampa, on December 28 and 31, 
und the skull of an immature bird with the cranial bones not yet 
ankylosed was found near Guamini, Buenos Aires. 

The chimango is a common species of the open country, and is 
seen almost inevitably by the naturalist on every day afield during 
work within its range. The birds are at their best as scavengers 
along muddy shores where they feed or forage in little groups, often 
in company with gulls, or are found beating back and forth over 
areas where food may be found. In the open country they rest on 
the ground or on fence posts, or perch in low bushes or trees where 
such are available. The birds have little fear, as they are despised 
for their manner of living, and, save where they become too numer- 
ous, are seldom molested. It was common to have them come about 
fearlessly while I examined dead birds in the field, and care was 
necessary to guard specimens from damage. The flight of the 
chimango is comparatively weak, though the birds often delight in 
soaring and sailing during windy weather, particularly at the begin- 
ning of the breeding season. When in the air they show a white 

■^ Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 38, March 4, 1918, p. 43. 
54207—26 7 



94 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

rump and two light patches on either wing. Small birds show no 
fear of them, and feed or rest with unconcern though chimangos 
may be near at hand, except when they have nests containing eggs 
or young, when these little hawks are harried mercilessly by every- 
thing from small passerines to the spur-winged lapwings, doubtless 
for good cause, as the chimango delights in helpless prey. On one 
occasion I observed one pecking steadily in an attempt to drag out 
the entrails of a lamb, too helpless from some disease to move other 
than to flinch at the cruel strokes of the bird's beak. At other times 
the chimango may be of considerable economic value, as in Uruguay, 
during a period of invasion by locusts, chimangos were seen in bands 
that at times numbered 30 or 40 individuals gathered to feed on this 
food. The hawks walked or ran about on the ground or swooped 
down at their prey from above, and fed until completely satiated. 
At Carrasco, Uruguay, on January 16, I obserA^ed 16 gathered over 
an area of sand dunes to feed on a small cicada {Proama, species) 
abundant at the time. Their feet are too weak to afford firm grasp 
with the talons, but on the ground they walk with ease and freedom. 
One that I wounded slightly ran so swiftly that it was captured only 
after a long chase. The birds are usually more common in the 
vicinity of water than elsewhere, and drink copiously and frequently 
even though the water may be quite brackish in taste. 

MILVAGO CHIMACmMA CHIMACHIMA (Vieillot) 

Polyhorus chimachima Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 5, 1816, p. 259. 
(Paraguay.) ""5 

In addition to the color characters assigned by Bangs and Penard ^'^ 
to Milvago cMmachima cordata from Panama, this northern form 
seems to be slightly smaller, as in the type, a female, the wing is 
given as 292 mm., and the tail 196 mm., and in a male topotype the 
wing is 275 mm., and tail 183 mm. In two adult females of the 
southern form from Las Palmas, Chaco, and Riacho Pilaga, For- 
mosa, the measurements are as follows: Wing, 305, 302 mm.; tail, 
197, 197 mm. An adult male from Kilometer 80, Puerto Pinasco, Para- 
guay, measures, wing 292 and tail 187 mm. There is considerable 
variation in color of the head and underparts in adults of the typical 
form, some being much paler than others. 1 believe that the 
plumage, as it ages after the molt, is subject to considerable 
bleaching. 

This small carrion hawk, known as the chimango, or, more prop- 
erly in Guarani, as kiriri^ was encovmtered first at Las Palmas, 
Chaco. On July 27, 1920, one or two were found in the tops of low 

■""No locality is designated in Vieillot's original description but the type locality has 
been assumed to be I'aiaguay as tlie description is taken from Azara. 
"Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 62, April, 1918, p. 35. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 95 

trees scattered across a prairie, and at my appearance greeted me 
with harsh squalls. An adult female was taken. Another was ob- 
served on July 30. At the Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, a female in 
streaked juvenal plumage was killed on August 7, and an adult 
female on the following day. Others were recorded here until Au- 
gust 19, and one Avas seen near the town of Formosa on August 24. 
In the region about Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, they were fairly 
common and an adult male was collected September 15. 

This form has customs similar to that of Mtlvago chimango, a 
species that it replaces in the north, but is more of an inhabitant 
of wooded areas. The partly open, partly forested Chaco seemed 
fitted especially for its needs, and here it was encountered where 
scattered trees furnished shelter. The birds are scavengers in habit 
and feed on any waste animal food that is available. They also 
bear a bad reputation among the housewives on the estancias for 
their propensity to filch young chickens and ducks, and, as the kiriri 
comes familiarly about buildings, its depredations maj^ at times be 
considerable. My " squeaking " to attract small birds from dense 
coverts always drew these small hawks when they were about, and 
their squalling calls were often annoying when I was straining my 
ears to catch some faint bird note from the surrounding thickets 
or trees. Carrion hawks often came while I was engaged in clean- 
ing bird skeletons, and walked about on the ground to pick up bits 
of flesh that I threw out to them, while it was necessary to hang 
skeletons put out to dry in places where they were secure from the 
sharp eyes of these prying marauders. The ohimango is a bird of 
weak flight, flapping and sailing rather slowly, and never, so far 
as I am aware, is it directly aggressive to other birds unless it en- 
counters young or individuals that have been injured in some way. 
Adults when on the wing appear light in color on the body and tail, 
with a light bar in either wing. Their call, a harsh squall, is remi- 
niscent of that of Ihycter ater. 

POLYBORUS PLANCUS PLANCUS (Miller) 

Falco Planeus Millee, Var. S'ubj. Nat. Hist., 1777, pi. 17. (Tierra del 
Fuego. ) 

The carancho was almost universal in occurrence throughout Ar- 
gentina and Uruguay, as it ranged throughout wooded regions as 
well as on the open pampas. None were observed at the localities 
worked in Rio Negro and Neuquen in northern Patagonia, but this 
was due in all probability to the short time occupied in field work 
in those regions. The carancho, as the bird is known in the south, 
is a bird of strong flight, though it does not delight in soaring or 
circling in the air as is customary in vultures and many hawks. 
Its vigorous form, with contrasted light and dark colors, is one that 



96 BULLETIN laS, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

constantly attracts attention when traveling through its range, 
whether the birds are observed at rest in the top of some tree that 
commands an outlook over open country, or in steady direct flight 
toward some distant point. In the Chaco the caracara, as the bird 
is called in Guarimi, is Imown as a scavenger that is tolerated so 
that it is tame, and at times almost aggressive in its approach to 
man. In the pampas these hawks are killed relentlessly because of 
their depredations in eating out the eyes of newly-born lambs, and 
in many districts the bird is becoming rare. 

At Las Palmas, Chaco, caracaras were common from July 13 to 
August 1, 1920. When waste from a sugar factory killed many fish 
in a small stream caracaras gathered in bands to feed on them, and, 
it may be added, filched a number of mouse traps that I had sup- 
posed were securely hidden in the brush along the bank. One was 
observed eating a cavy, found lying dead, which like all large prey 
was held firmly under one foot and torn into small bits with the 
heavy bill. Near the Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, caracaras were re- 
corded from August 7 to 19. One flew down frequently to disturb 
feeding flocks of monk parrakeets {Myiopsitta in. cotorra) in a 
sweet-potato field in hope that some cripple, wounded by the shoot- 
ing of Indians, might fall into its clutches. It was not able to 
seize the uninjured birds. On August 12 one flew to a large stick 
nest, 9 meters from the ground in a quebracho tree standing in an 
open savanna, to bring a bit of stick to add to the structure. After 
this had been arranged satisfactorily the bird settled for an instant 
in the nest cavity, and then flew to a limb overhead and surveyed 
the nest carefully. At the town of Formosa, on August 23, cara- 
caras flew back and forth above the strong current of the Paraguay 
River in search for any carrion that might come downstream. 

In the vicinity of Lavalle, Buenos Aires, caracaras were observed 
frequently from October 27 to November 15. The skull of a male 
was secured on October 31. The birds were wary here as they were 
shot relentlessly by the estanceros because of their destructiveness 
to young stock. During the day carranchos ranged over the open 
pampa but returned at nightfall to roost in trees in occasional 
groves of ombu, tala, or eucalyptus. On November 6 I collected a 
set of two fresh eggs near the coast about 25 kilometers south of 
Cape San Antonio. The site was a small tree in a little grove 
planted about a water hole, a spot remote from habitation and the 
only suitable one available in a radius of several kilometers. The 
nest, placed about 6 meters from the ground, was an untidy struc- 
ture, bullry^ and heavy in appearance, made of dried stems of a 
sharp-pointed rush, with broken ends stuck out in all directions. 
The deeply cupped interior was lined in part with a felted mass 
of pellets ejected by the parents, that formed a soft bed for the 



BIRDS OF AEGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 97 

two handsomely marked eggs. As I examined these and packed 
them in my hat to remove them both caracaras hovered with harsh 
grating calls a few feet above my head. The ground color of these 
eggs varies from light-pinkish cinnamon to pinkish cinnamon, ob- 
scured and in places almost obliterated by a heavy irregular wash 
that varies from auburn and chestnut to hessian brown and liver 
brown. About the large end these blotches become heavier and more 
concentrated, and in places are almost black. These eggs measure 
59.8 by 48 mm. and 54.5 by 48.5 mm. A caracara was gathering 
sticks for a nest on November 15. 

A few were observed near San Vicente, Uruguay, from January 
26 to February 2, 1921, and one was seen at Lazcano on February 
7. North of Cordoba, Argentina, many were noted along the rail- 
road on March 31 and at Tapia, Tucuman, the species was fairly 
common from April 7 to 13. A few were recorded on the slopes 
of the Sierra San Xavier, above Tafi Viejo, on April 17. 

On my return from Paraguay to the pampas of Buenos Aires I 
noted that the carrancho of the south seemed larger than that ob- 
served a fevr days previous in the northern Chaco, an impression 
that has been sustained by a study of specimens. Skins from Chile 
(one) and Argentina from the Straits of Magellan northward 
(nine) show a wing measurement that varies from 410 to 442 mm. 
(average 431 mm.). Skins from Brazil (Pernambuco, and one 
from Bahia or Rio de Janeiro) and Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay 
(three in all) range from 365 to 405 mm. (average 387 mm.). 
(There seems to be no constant difference in size correlated with sex 
in the caracaras.) The large form apparently ranges throughout 
Argentina as I killed an adult female at Las Palmas, Chaco, on 
July 20, 1920, with a wing measurement of 429 mm.) and into 
Paraguay as a bird from that country without definite locality 
(taken on the Page expedition in the fifties) has the wing 425 mm. 
As the type locality of Miller's Falco plancus has been cited by 
Shaw^^ as Tierra del Fuego, the southern form will stand as 
Polyhorus plancus plancus. 

POLYBORUS PLANCUS BRASILIENSIS (Gmelin) 

Falco trasiliensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., vol. 1, pt. 1, 17SS, p. 262. (Brazil.") 
As has been stated aboA'e a male caracara secured at Kilometer 
80, west of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, on September 15, 1920, has 
a wing measurement of 405 mm., and so appears to belong to the 
northern form, for which the name Falco hrasiliensis of Gmelin 
is available. This is assumed to be the form that ranges from 

'sCim. Phys., 1796, p. 34. 

™ Type locality hereby fixed as Pernambuco. 



98 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

northern Paraguay northward through Brazil. The status of the 
bird from the coastal region of extreme southern Brazil (Santa 
Catherina and Rio Grande do Sul) is uncertain. From September 
6 to 30, 1920, I found caracaras common in the country about 
Puerto Pinasco. As they were not persecuted in this region they 
came in numbers about ranch buildings in search of offal from the 
killing pens. Their habits do not differ from those of the southern 
form. 

HERPETOTHERES CACHINNANS QUERIBUNDUS Bangs and Penard 

Herpetotheres cachinnans queribundus Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. 
Conip. Zoul., vol. 63, June, 1919, p. 23. (Pernambueo, Brazil.) 

The southern laughing falcon was seen first on July' 21, 1920, near 
Las Palmas, Chaco, when an adult female was taken as it rested on 
a dead stub in an opening in the forest. Farther northward at the 
Riacho Pilaga, in central Formosa, from August 8 to 20 the species 
was more common, and two additional females were shot on August 
14 and 20 (the latter preserved as a skeleton). At Kilometer 80, 
west of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, one was seen September 12, and 
at Kilometer 200 two were found on September 25. The birds, 
usually in pairs, inhabit the taller growths of heavy forest where 
they rest on open perches surrounded b}'^ dense heavy growth. 
Where not molested they come out into more open regions. 
Though of heavy build, seeming strong and powerful, they ar2 
sluggish in ordinary habit and are seldom seen save at rest. On 
only one occasion did I observe one turning in circles in the air 
above the trees. 

One is not long in the haunts of the laughing falcon without be- 
coming familiar with its strange loud notes, though it may be some 
time before the bird is seen. The call begins as a single note, given 
at short intervals, and then changes to a more rapid repetition of 
varied sounds. After two or three minutes the mate of the per- 
former may join in and the birds call rapidly, first in alternate short 
notes and then in a strange medley, a weird, unearthly concert, start- 
ling indeed to one not familiar with its source, that may be con- 
tinued without cessation for 10 minutes. These strange duets were 
especially impressive when heard at dusk. Countrymen related 
that the birds were very observant and announced by their calls the 
passage of men through the forest. 

The falcons themselves are handsome birds, their heavy white 
crests and boldly marked black head being no less impressive than 
their notes. The Toba Indians knew them as gua kow in evident 
imitation of their calls, while in Guarani they were called Guaycuru, 
a word signifying a Chaco Indian, usually designating a warlike 
type. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 99 

The three adult females taken had the tips of the rectrices mucli 
worn, in one to such an extent that the bare shaft projected for 
nearly 10 mm. beyond the barbs of the feathers. The bill was black ; 
cere and gape primuline yellow; iris walnut brown; tarsus and toes 
deep olive buflf; claws black. 

These southern birds represent the light extreme of the form de- 
scribed as querihundus. Two females offer the following measure- 
ments : Wing, 290-298 ; tail, 230-238 ; culmen from cere, 24-23 ; tar- 
sus, 57-66.5 mm. (Measurements of the specimen from Formosa 
given first in each case.) An old specimen in the collection of the 
United States National Museum, Cat. No. 16526, collected by T. J. 
Page, recorded by Bangs and Penard in the original description of 
the subspecies as from Parana, in reality was secured on the Para- 
guay River in southern Matto Grosso, between Corumba and the 
Paraguayan border. 

MICRASTUR SEMITORQUATUS (Vieillot) 

Sparvius semitorquatus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 10, 1817, 
p. 322. (Paraguay.) 

Critical study of names proposed for this hawk indicates that the 
designation above is the proper one. The esparvero faxado of 
Azara ^° is without question an immature of the present species, and 
as such furnished the sole basis for Vieillot's epervier a demi-collier 
roux Sparvius seinitorquatus from Paraguay. Azara's description 
of the bird, excellent and unmistakable in its details, states that 
" baxo de la cabeza es bianco ; pero cada pluma tiene a lo largo una 
tirita obscura." Vieillot in translating this makes an error in ascrib- 
ing these markings to the crown, as he says " les plumes du dessus de 
la tete ont un trait transversal noiratre sur un fond blanc." Had 
he written dessous instead of dessus the transcription would have 
been correct. The remainder of Vieillot's description coincides with 
that of Azara except that the tail is said to be 241 mm. long instead 
of 235 mm. Vieillot, in his Encycl. Meth., follows his own statements, 
translating them into latin. It would appear that the original tran- 
scription was erroneous, perhaps a mere typographical error, and 
that the name must be recognized for the present species, as it has 
priority of pagination over /Sparvius melanoleucus (which is de- 
scribed on page 327 of the same work) based on Azara's esparvero 
negrihianco, the adult of the present bird. 

The single specimen obtained was shot near Kilometer 80, west of 
Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, on September 9, 1920. The bird was 
attracted by my squeaking to call up smaller species and flew in to 
perch in the heavy growth a few feet away. The flight was almost 

*» Apunt. Hist. Nat. Paxaros Paraguay, vol. 1, 1802, p. 126. 



100 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

noiseless, so that the downy margins on the flight feathers seem to 
serve to deaden the sound of the wings. In life the facial niif was 
almost as prominent as in the marsh hawk. 

Swann^^ has described a subspecies from Sarayacu, Ecuador, as 
huckleyi on basis of small size. Specimens available agree more or 
less in measurement throughout the entire range of the bird, so 
that it is possible that this bird from Ecuador, with a wing measure- 
ment of only 217 mm., may be an aberrant specimen or may belong 
elsewhere. 

My skin from Paraguay is a male (apparently in its second year) 
of the extreme of the rufescent phase for this species. The dorsal 
surface is entirely warm brown in color, with the transverse lighter 
markings on wings and back more definitely indicated than is usual. 
A few dusky feathers are in evidence on the crown and back. It 
measures as follows: Wing, 246; tail, 248; culmen from cere, 18; 
tarsus, 81.5 mm. 

SPIZIAPTERYX CIRCUMCINCTUS (Kaup) 

Earpagus circumcinctus Kaup, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1851 (pubL Oct. 
28, 1852), p. 43. (" Chili "= Argentina.) 

This rare hawk was found in small numbers near Victorica, 
Pampa, on December 23, 27, and 28, where three specimens were 
secured, a. pair on December 23 and an adult male on December 28. 

The birds frequented the larger growth of woodland in this 
region, usually where the forest of heavy-limbed, stocky trees was 
fairly open. To avoid the intense rays of the sun, they chose shaded 
perches in such trees as the calden, where the foliage was confined 
largely to the tips of the branches and did not obscure the outlook 
below or at the side. Attention was drawn by the querulous whining 
calls of these falcons, similar to a note of the brown thrasher, but 
given in a much louder tone. At times the birds, rather tlian fly, 
hopped agilely through the limbs to place a screen of branches 
between themselves and the observer. Their flight was direct, like 
that of a small falcon, with the white rump displayed as a prominent 
identification mark. When they appeared in the open they were 
pursued hotly by fork-tailed flycatchers and other related species. 
The birds taken were breeding (though no nests were observed) and 
were in somewhat worn plumage. (PI. 9.) 

An adult female shot December 23 had the tip of the bill dull 
black; base of maxilla light grayish olive; base of mandible mig- 
nonette green ; cere, gape, skin of lores, and bare skin about eye wax 
yellow; iris light cadmium; tarsus and toes slightly paler than 
deep colonial buff; nails black. 

« Syn. Accipitres, ed. 2, pt. 1, Sept. 28, T921, p. 25. 



BIEDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 101 

The species may not have been taken in the Territory of Pampa 
before, as the " Biga de la Paz, Pampa," of Burmeister may refer 
to the town known as Paz in southern Santa Fe. At Victorica the 
species is near its southern range, though it may range south to the 
limit of the Pampan monte, somewhere northwest of Bahia Blanca. 
With the destruction of this forest for wood, the bird will, of ne- 
cessity, become extinct in this area through lack of suitable cover. 

In parts of the Province of Cordoba Spiziapteryx may be com- 
mon, as on April 19, 1921, between Quilino and Cordoba, from a 
train window I noted 8 or 10 at rest in the morning sun, perched 
like sparrow hawks on dead stubs or telegraph poles. The species 
has been reported previously from Santa Fe ( ? ) , Mendoza, Cordoba, 
Santiago del Estero, Catamarca, La Rioja, Tucuman, and Salta. 

CERCHNEIS SPARVERIA CINNAMOMINA (Swainson) 
Falco cinnaniominns Swainson, Anim. Menag., 1838, p. 281. (Chile.) 

Treatment of the sparrow hawks from the southern part of South 
America, with existing material, is difficult and uncertain. Two 
forms are currently recognized, australis of Ridgway of eastern and 
northern range, and clnnainomina of Swainson, described from 
Chile. These two differ inter se in size, in the marking of the tail 
and to a slight degree in coloration of the under surface. Material 
in the United States National Museum representing them is far from 
satisfactory, but from study of this and from literature it appears 
that the male of cirmaTnomina differs from austraZis in larger size 
(wing 187-199, average 193; tail 129-143, average 134 mm.), in nar- 
rower subterminal band on the tail (9-16 mm.), in more or less 
rufous on the tips of the rectrices, and in having the outer rectrix 
W'ith only one bar (rarely more) and the inner web rufescent. The 
female has the wing 197-209 mm., and the black bars on the rec- 
trices narrower and less complete. In the male of australis, as 
represented by birds from Brazil, the wing is shorter (175-185, aver- 
age 181; tail, 122-131; average 127 mm.), subterminal tail band 
broader (18-22 mm.), tail tipped with white or gray, inner web 
of outer rectrix white, with three or more black bars, and the under- 
parts whiter. The female has the wing 179-190 mm., the black bars 
on the tail wider, more complete, and the subterminal band wider. 

Skins from Patagonia and the eastern base of the Andes in Ar- 
gentina agree well with c'lnnaiiKytnina. Those from the pampas 
region northward into Uruguay and Paraguay are more or less inter- 
mediate between cinnamomina and australis. This broad area of 
intergradation between the two forms, as here considered, is puzzling, 
but may be explained in a way by considering some of the inter- 
mediates taken in the north that most nearly resemble typical cin- 
namomina^ as possible winter migrants from more southern breeding 

54207—26 8 



102 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

grounds. Four specimens that I secured have the following char- 
acteristics : An adult male shot at Victorica, Pampa, on December 
28, 1920, a breeding bird, has the tip of the tail mixed rufous and 
white, the black subterminal band 12 mm. wide at its widest point, 
the inner web of the outer rectrix rufescent, unmarked save for the 
subterminal bar, and the following measurements : Wing, 186 ; tail, 
128 mm. It thus has the color markings of cintiamoTnina, but is 
smaller than most of that form. A female taken at Guamini, Buenos 
Aires, March 8, 1921, has the black tail bands interrupted centrally, 
very slightly restricted, and the following measurements: Wing, 
197.5; tail, 130.5 mm. It is within the limit of measurement for 
cinnamomina, but is more boldly marked. An adult male shot at 
Las Palmas, Chaco, July 27, 1920, has the tips of the tail without 
rufous, the subterminal band 16-17 mm. wide, the outer rectrix 
with the inner web partly white, with one black spot in addition 
to the subterminal band, the wing 190 and the tail 128 mm. The 
bird thus slightly approaches australis in coloration, but is large. 
An adult breeding male from San Vicente, in eastern Uruguay, taken 
January 25, 1921, has the tip of the tail rufous, the subterminal 
band 16 mm. wide, the external rectrix with two bars on the white 
and rufous inner web, the wing 189 and the tail 123 mm. This bird 
from its geographic position might be supposed to be near australis^ 
but seems as near cinnamomina as the others. From the review 
above it will be seen that these specimens are all more or less inter- 
mediate, but I have considered them all nearer cinnamomina than 
atis trails. 

The sparrow hawk was recorded as follows : Las Palmas, Chaco, 
July 16 to August 1, 1920 ; Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, August 21 ; For- 
mosa, Formosa, August 23 and 24; Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, Sep- 
tember 1 to 20 ; General Roca, Rio Negro, November 23 and 27 ; Vic- 
torica, Pampa, December 24 to 29; La Paloma, Uruguay, January 23, 
1921; San Vicente, Uruguay, January 25 to February 2; Lazcano, 
Uruguay, February 5 to 9; Rio Negro, Uruguay, February 17 and 
18; Guamini, Buenos Aires, March 3 to 8; Mendoza, Mendoza, 
March 13; Potrerillos, Mendoza, March 16 to 21; Tunuyan, Men- 
■ doza, March 23 to 29 ; Tapia, Tucuman, April 6 to 13. 

Wherever found the bird was recorded as a watchful observer 
from some commanding perch from which it had a clear outlook 
over open country. In the breeding season it circled about scream- 
ing killy hilly hilly., but at other seasons it was silent, only taking 
wing when too closely pressed. Occasionally in the Chaco I saw one 
stooping swiftly at some inoffensive Ileterospizlas at rest in a tree 
top that perhaps had roused the ire of the smaller bird through the 
usurpation of a favored perch. At Kilometer 80, near Puerto Pi- 
nasco, sparrow hawks seemed to be nesting on September 7, but in 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 103 

the pampa they did not appear to breed until December. In Uru- 
guay, where the present bird is common, it is an efficient enemy of 
the locust hordes that devastate the cultivated lands. 

FALCO FUSGO-CAERULESCENS FUSCO-CAERULESCENS Vieillot 

Falco fusco-caerulescens Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 11, 1817, p. 
90. (Paraguay.) 

Near the Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, and from that point eastward 
to the Rio Paraguay, aplomado falcons were fairly common during 
the middle of August, 1920. They frequented open savannas where 
stubs of dead quebrachos offered lookout stations, or failing these, 
even rested on the tops of bushes near the ground. Their flight was 
swift and direct, performed with strong, quick beats of the wings, 
and in general appearance they suggested small duck hawks. At 
the Riacho Pilaga the sight of these little falcons brought conster- 
nation to the screeching flocks of monk parrakeets that fed in the 
open in old sweet-potato fields. A male falcon taken on August 12, 
a bird fully grown but in dark immature dress, had the tip of the 
bill black, shading posteriorly through gray number 7 to mustard 
yellow at base, cere and bare skin about eye mustard yellow; iris 
Rood's brown; tarsus and toes primuiine yellow; claws black. The 
species was not seen again until April 9, 1921, at Tapia, Tucuman, 
when a female was brought down with a broken wing as it passed 
me above a wooded slope. This bird ran sw^iftly on the ground to 
cover and was captured only after a rapid chase down a brush-grown 
slope. On April 10 two were seen, evidently hunting, as one dashed 
down into little openings in the woods and then, disappointed in 
seeing prey, rose again to continue its direct flight. On April 17 a 
male was Idlled from a little tree above a mountain pool at an eleva- 
tion of 2,300 meters, in the Sierra San Xavier, above Tafi Viejo, 
Tucuman. This was an immature bird of the year, while the female 
taken at Tapia is probably in its second year, as it is distinctly gray 
above. 

The subspecies Falco f. septentrionalis Todd^^ proposed for the 
aplomado falcon of North America may be distinguished by slightly 
larger bill, longer tail, and bj^ greater average size in all measure- 
ments. In color northern and southern birds appear identical. The 
wing measurement in this species seems somewhat variable and in 
the series at hand is not of definite value in separation, save w^hen 
used in averages. The bill, however, is slightly larger and longer, 
and the tail longer in septenti'^ionali^. A single female from La 
Raya, in the Andes of Peru, that greatly exceeds any other specimens 
in general size (wing, 313 mm.) save that the bill is small, probably 

s=Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 29, June 6, 1916, p. 98. (Fort Huachuca, 
Arizona.) 



104 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

is representative of an unnamed subspecies. Following is a synopsis 
of measurements of specimens in the collections of the United States 
National Museum : 

PALCO F. FUSCO-CAERULESCENS. 

Five males (Santiago, Chile; Conchitas, Buenos Aires; Kilometer 
182, Formosa; Tapia, Tucuman ; Paraguay) wing, 235-255.5 (245.4) ; 
tail, 148.5-165 (156.3); culmen from cere, 14.5-16 (15.3); tarsus 
43-45 (43.5 mm.). Three females (Chile; Conchitas, Buenos Aires; 
Tapia, Tucuman) wing, 280-290 (285) ; tail, 181.8-183.3 (182.5) ; 
culmen from cere, 16.9-18 (17.6) ; tarsus, 4*7.8-50.5 (49.1 mm.). 

FALCO F. SEPTENTRIONALIS. 

Nine males (Mirador, Vera Cruz; Alta Mira, Tampico; Lake 
Palomas, Chihuahua; Hachita, and Luna County, New Mexico; 
Fort Huachuca, Arizona), wing, 245-272.5 (259.1); tail, 146.5-187 
(172.2) ; culmen from cere, 15.1-17.7 (16.4) ; tarsus, 43-47.5 (45.3 
mm.). 

Four females (Mirador, Vera Cruz; Mazatlan, Sinaloa; Otero 
County, New Mexico; Fort Huachuca, Arizona), wing, 287-298 
(293) ; tail, 188.3-203.5 (197.1) ; culmen from cere, 18.5-19.8 (19.1) ; 
tarsus, 46.5-53. (49.9 mm.). 

GAMPSONYX SWAINSONII SWAINSONII Vigors 

Gampsoni/x swainsonii Vigors, ZooI. .Toui-n., vol. 2, April, 1825, p. G9. 
(Ten leagues W. S. W. of Bay of San Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.) 

A male of this beautiful little falcon was taken September 25, 
1920, at Kilometer 200, west of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay. The 
bird was killed as it rested on a dead limb in iho, top of a tree that 
stood in the border of a tract of forest. The call note of this indi- 
vidual was a lovf kee kee. In attitude the bird resembled a sparrow 
hawk at rest, but was distinguished by its shorter tail. 

Compared with two skins from Diamantina, Brazil, this specimen 
differs in a broader collar of black across the hind neck. One side 
is nearly immaculate, the other is streaked slightly with rufous. 
Measurements are as follows: Wing, 154; tail, 92.5; culmen from 
cere, 13; tarsus, 29.5 mm. 

Family ACCIPITRIDAE 

ELANUS LEUCURUS LEUCURUS (Vieillot) 

Milvus leucurus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 20, 1818, p. 563. 
(Paraguay.) 

On September 24, 1920, near an alkaline stream known as the 
Riacho Salado in the Chaco, 170 kilometers west of Puerto Pinasco, 
Paraguay, I saw one of these kites in a savanna dotted with low 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 105 

trees, and after some difficulty secured it. The bird, an ad'ult male, 
rested on the top of a low shrub, balancing in the wind, but flew 
before I came within range to circle and sail gracefully for several 
minutes before it chose to rest. Finally, blown by a gust of wind, it 
miscalculated its distance in passing me and fell at a long shot. On 
the following day two were found resting in the top limbs of low 
trees in an open marsh grown with saw grass on the border of 
Laguna Wall, 30 kilometers farther west. When flushed they 
swung about lightly and gracefully, seldom more than a few yards 
from the ground. One was taken and preserved as a skeleton. The 
Lengua Indians called this species Kdbuko. 

At the Estancia Los Yngleses near Lavalle, Buenos Aires, the 
alcon hlanco. as this kite is Imown, was foimd on October 27, and 
two males were taken. The first was observed as it hovered in the 
wind 15 or 18 meters from the ground, stationary above one spot 
of grass that it watched intently. At a hasty glance its light colora- 
tion gave it the semblance of a gull. Another was secured from a 
perch in the top of an ombu tree where it rested in a part of a 
grove sheltered from wind. In one of these birds, apparently full 
adult, the cere and upper mandible were chamois ; gape and base of 
lower mandible slightly grayer than primuline yellow ; remainder of 
bill black; iris orange chrome (verging toward orange rufous); 
tarsus and toes slightly duller than apricot yellow; claws black. 
The other male, though fully adult in other respects, retained an 
indication of the dark spotting at the tips of some of the rectrices 
that is found in juvenal plumage. 

Bangs and Penard®" have described the white-tailed Idte from 
North America as Elanus leucurus majusculus (type-locality, 
Florida) on the basis of slightly greater size. The difference be- 
tween birds from North America and those from South America, 
while slight from the series examined in the U. S. National Museum, 
seems constant. A small series from Venezuela, Brazil, Paraguay, 
Argentina, and Chile seem uniform in size and coloration. Meas- 
urements of South American specimens that I secured as noted 
above follows: 



No. 


Locality Date 


Sex 


Wing 


Tail 


Culmen 
from 
cere 


Tarsus 


283734 
283733 
283735 


Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay Sept. 24,1920 

Lavalle, Buenos Aires Oct. 27,1920 

do do.- 


Male ad— 
—do 

...do — 


Mm. 
301 
304 
302 


Mm. 
151.5 
163.0 
174.0 


Mm. 
18.0 
17.0 
16.5 


Mm. 
34.5 
36.4 
35 











88 Proc. New England Zool. Club, vol. 7, Feb. 19, 1920, p. 46. 



106 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

ROSTRHAMUS SOCIABILIS SOCIABILIS (Vieillot) 

Herpetotheres sociaMlis Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. IS, 1817, 
p. 318. (Corrientes and Rio de la Plata.) 

As the everglade kite from Florida, described by Ridgway®^ as 
Eostrhamus sociahilis plumbeus^ may be distinguished from South 
American specimens by the grayish wash on the upper surface, the 
typical form will bear the trinomial designation used above. 

Though Azara states that he had never seen his gabildn de estero 
sociable in Paraguay, I found it about the lagoon at Kilometer 80, 
west of Puerto Pinasco, on September 8 and 9, 1920, and noted many 
little piles of empty snail shells at the bases of palm stubs, where 
they had been carried and dropped when empty. The hawks were 
shy, so that I had no shots at them. On the Estancia Los Yngleses, 
near Lavalle, Buenos Aires, the everglade kite, known as the cara- 
colero was fairly common from October 28 to November 16. A 
female in immature dress was taken October 28, and a male in the 
same plumage, with one fully adult, on October 31. Apparently 
the dark adult feathering is not assumed until the third year. 

These hawks were found about open marshes often in little flocks, 
that in one instance numbered as many as 11. When fence posts 
were not available and there were no trees near at hand, the hawks 
rested on the ground on very slight elevations or perched in the 
rushes. At other times they soared in company in short circles, 
often following this pastime for the space of nearly an hour. The 
bluntly pointed wing, with its broad expanse and well-rounded out- 
line, and sharply square-cut tail served to identify the species at 
once, even when far distant. At this season they were somewhat 
noisy and emitted a rasping chattering call that was audible at no 
great distance, especially on days when the wind was strong. Near 
their resting places I found piles of empty snail shells (in this case 
of Amipullaria insularuTii d'Orbigny) where they had been dis- 
carded. None of the shell heaps were extensive at this season and 
I judged that the hawk was migratory and had only recently re- 
turned from the north. In the Paraguayan Chaco, where the snail 
hawks frequented marshy savannas, I saw them perched frequently 
in the leafy tops of trees. 

Near San Vicente, in eastern Uruguay, several everglade kites 
were seen on January 31, 1921, near the Laguna Castillos, and one 
was noted February 2 on a bahado bordering the Arroyo Sarandi 
near the Paso Alamo. At Lazcano, Uruguay, they were seen over 
saw grass marshes from February 5 to 7, and an immature female 
was shot on February 7. At Rio Negro, Uruguay, they were ob- 

** Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. North American Birds, Land Birds, vol. 3, 
1874, p. 209. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 107 

served near marshes on February 17 and 18. On March 8 one was 
seen from the train near 25 de Mayo, Buenos Aires, and others were 
noted in the same manner west of the city of Buenos Aires on 
March 13. 

The immature female taken October 28, when fresh, had the bill, 
anterior to the cere, black; base of bill, including: the mandibular 
rami, the skin back as far as the eye and a narrow external rim on 
the eyelids zinc orano:e ; iris liver brown ; tarsus and toes dull j'^ellow 
ocher; claws black. The male in adult plumage secured on October 
31 had the bill mainly black ; cere, bare skin in front of eye, gape, and 
mandibular rami flame scarlet; iris carmine; tarsus and toes apricot 
orange; claws black. The adult thus was much brighter in color. 
The immature female from Uruguay, fully grown, but a bird of the 
year, has the paler markings in the plumage much darker, more 
nifescent, than in birds in second-year dress. 

Doctor Oberholser ^^ proposes to replace Rostrhanius of Lesson by 
Cyniindes Spix ^^ on the ground that Cymindes is a new name at the 
reference cited, a suggestion, however, that is in error. Spix gave 
diagnoses for all of the genera that he used without citing the name 
of the founder, so that Aguila, Polyborus, and Cathartes which pre- 
cede Cymindes are characterized in the same manner as the name 
under discussion. On reference to the index to the first volume of 
Spix, which immediately precedes the text, the genus in question is 
given as Cymindis^ on page 7, as stated, it stands as Cymindes, while 
plate 2 is lettered Cymindis Leucopygus. It is obvious, therefore, 
that Cymindes is simply an emendation (apparently unintentional) 
of Cymindis Cuvier and as such has no priority over the generic 
name Rostrhamus for the everglade kite. 

GERANOSPIZA GRACILIS (Temminck) 

Falco gracilis Temsiinck, Nouv. Rec. Planch. Col. Ois., livr. IG, April. 
1822," pi. 91. (Eastern Brazil.) 

Hellmayr ^® considers gracilis of Temminck a subspecies of Gerano- 
spiza caerulescens. In the material available the two appear so 
different, with no indicated intergrades, that this usage is not 
justified. 

This bird was encountered on two occasions near the ranch at 
Kilometer 80, west of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay. On the morning 
of September 15, 1920, one rested quietly on a post above a pond in 
one of the corrals, and was killed from the door of the kitchen. 
On September 20 in a tract of heavy monte one flew into the top of 

sBProc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 35. Mar. 20, 1922, p. 79. 
*« Av. Spec. Nov. Brasiliam, vol. 1, 1824, p. 7. 
8'' From Sherborn, Ibis, 1898, p. 488. 
88 Nov. Zool., vol. 28, May, 1921, p. 177. 



108 BULLETIN 133^ UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

a tall tree to a perch above the surrounding leaves and peered about, 
giving a note resembling whaow in a drawn-out nasal tone. In 
Guarani the species was called taguatoi. 

Both birds taken are males, one in full plumage, and the other in 
process of molt from a lighter, immature dress. This second bird 
has the throat white, and is lighter, less distinctly marked below than 
the adult. The second specimen, when first killed, had the maxilla 
and tip of the mandible black; remainder of mandible and a spot 
on the maxilla below the nostril glaucous-graj'^ ; iris marguerite yel- 
low; cere deep neutral gray; tarsus and toes carnelian red; nails 
black. 

CIRCUS CINEREUS Vieillot 

Circus cinereus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 4, 1816, p. 454. (Para- 
guay and Rio de la Plata.) 

The small marsh hawk was recorded only near Lavalle, Buenos 
Aires, where at the Estancia Los Yngleses on October 29, 1920, I 
secured a male as it came sailing across a marsh with several 
Agelaius thilius in hot protest of its passage. This specimen, 
hatched apparently the previous summer, is in brown immature 
plumage save for one or two gray clouded feathers in the dorsal 
region, and a grayish wash on some of the primaries. In life the 
tip of the bill was dull black; base of maxilla light Payne's gray; 
base of mandibular rami, gape, and cere light olive yellow, chang- 
ing laterally on the cere to asphodel green ; iris pale pinard yellow ; 
tarsus primuline yellow; claws black. 

Near the coast below Cape San Antonio in this same region I 
found a pair that evidently nested somewhere near at hand in the 
rush-covered marshes that here alternated with sand dunes. The 
male, an adult bird in full plumage, that appeared very light in 
color on the wing, was taken November 6. This species is similar in 
appearance and manner of hunting to the North American marsh 
hawk and has the same light graceful soaring flight that enables 
it to scan the grass closely in its search for food. 

CIRCUS BUFFONI (Gmelin) 

Falco 'buffoni Gmelin, Syst. Nat., vol. 1, pt. 1, 178S, p. 277. (Cayenne.) 

Of two specimens (both males) of this marsh hawk taken, one 
was secured at Las Palmas, Chaco, on July 26, 1920, and the second 
at the Riacho Pilagu, Formosa, on August 15. The first of these 
was an adult bird in full dark plumage, with sexual organs one- 
fourth developed. The breast and neck are entirely black save for an 
obscure white patch on the chin and partly concealed white markings 
on the ruff and upper breast, while the abdomen varies from russet to 
mars brown, and the thighs and flanks are nearly black. Feathers 



BIEDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 109 

of the lower abdomen and under tail coverts are marked or tipped 
obscurely with white. The second specimen is an immature bird 
in process of molt from the first year plumage : On the dorsal sur- 
face new, nearly black feathers are appearing. Below, the breast 
and abdomen are dirty white, with more or less streaking of fus- 
cous. It appears that three years at least may be required to gain 
the full adult plumage, since the new feathers growing in on the 
back in this individual are obscurely margined with rusty, a char- 
acter absent in the fully adult bird. The plumages and plumage 
change in this hawk are of considerable interest, but can be studied 
successfully only with a considerable series. Apparently the species 
is dimorphic since light or dark individuals are found in the young 
stages. 

This beautiful hawk inhabited the open savannas of the Chaco, 
or the extensive marshes of the pampas. Almost invariablj^ it was 
seen skimming in true harrier style along the borders of channels 
or lagoons where it might hope to encounter prey, its large size 
serving to distinguish it from C. cinereus found in the same regions. 
The dark plumaged adults were especially handsome, their colora- 
tion being frequently visible at a considerable distance. 

The species was found at a number of points, but was more 
common in the Chaco than elsewhere, as will be observed in the 
folloAving records: Las Palmas, Chaco, July 26 and 31, 1920; 
Eiacho Pilaga, Formosa, August 15 and 17; Kilometer 182 to For- 
mosa, Formosa, August 21, several; 200 Idlometers west of Puerto 
Pinasco, Paraguay, September 25, one; Lavalle, Buenos Aires, 
November 2 and 4; San Vicente, Uruguay, January 31, 1921, and 
at the Paso Alamo, Arroyo Sarandi, February 2, one; Lazcano, 
Urugua3% February 3, one. 

The adult male taken had the distal half of the bill black; base 
gray number seven ; cere vetiver gray ; iris ochraceous tawny ; tarsus 
and toes light orange-yellow; claws black. 

URUBITINGA URUBITINGA URUBITINGA (Gmelin) 

Falco uriiUtinga Gmelin, Syst. Nat., vol. 1, pt. 1, 17SS, p. 265. (Eastern 
Brazil.'") 

Near Las Palmas, Chaco, on July 14, 1920, I Idlled a male in im- 
mature plumage from a tree above a pool of water in heavy forest. 
This bird was only recently from the nest, as, though in complete 
plumage, down filaments still clung to some of the rectrices and 
secondaries. Above it is dark brown, with markings of sayal brown 

^Gmelin writes that the bird was found in Brazil, but Berlepsch and Hartert (Nov. 
Zool., vol. 9, 1902, p. 113) from the original sources of Gmelin's information have 
given the type locality as "Bras, or.", eastern Brazil.) 



110 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

on the borders of the feathers, and the head and neck blackish, 
streaked with white. The wings have obscure mottlings of light- 
pinkish cinnamon, and the long tail is obscurely banded with narrow 
alternating bars of blackish and a lighter color that varies from 
whitish and light-pinkish cinnamon to dull brown. The under sur- 
face of the body is whitish, with streaks of blackish. The thighs 
are obscurely barred with black, ivory yellow, and sayal brown. 

At the Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, on August 16, a pair were hunt- 
ing along the border of a lagoon in search for food. They flew from 
perch to perch on low rounded masses of reeds that projected from 
floating vegetation lodged against the rushes, or dropped down to 
the partly submerged stuff below. As they flew the white band 
across the tail was so prominent as to attract attention at once. 
They paid no attention to me as I drifted down on them with the 
wind in an unwieldy cachiveo made from the trunk of a silk-cotton 
tree, until I came near enough to secure both birds. They were 
male and female, and though not in breeding condition, I was of the 
opinion that they were paired. The soft parts, similar in both 
sexes, were as follows: Bill mainly black; a space on maxilla below 
nostril and base of mandible gray number 7 ; cere and gape chamois ; 
iris verona brown; tarsus and toes primuline yellow; claws black. 

On August 21, while passing by train from the station at Ki- 
lometer 182 to Formosa, I saw several of these hawks flying over 
open marshes. At Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, I killed an adult 
male on September 10. The note emitted by this bird was a shrill 
Ker-r-r-re-e-e-e^ with a cadence similar to that of a policeman's 
whistle. The species was found, in my experience, mainly in open 
country and appeared to hunt over marshes, where its long legs may 
have been of service in resting on partly submerged perches or in 
securing prey from the water. 

BUTEO POLYOSOMA (Quoy and Gaimard) 

Falco Polyosoma Quoy and Gaimard, Voy. Uranie Physicienne, Zool., 
August, 1824, p. 92, pi. 14. (Falkland Islands.) 

A handsome adult male of this species was taken at General Koca, 
Rio Negro, on December 2, 1920, as it rested on a pole and tore at 
the body of a cavy held in its feet. Others were observed soaring 
over the dry gravel hills of this region, in apiDcarance and action 
suggesting red-tailed hawks. On December 6, at Kilometer 1097, 
between Neuquen and Zapala, I observed a nest of this hawk placed 
on a telegraph pole, where it was supported by the wires. The 
owners of the structure rested in the tops of low bushes a few feet 
away. A hawk of this species was observed near Zapala, Neuquen, 
on December 8. Buteonine hawks were seen in the foothills of the 



BIKDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 111 

Ancles in Mendoza. and again in Tucuman, but identity of these 
birds is often uncertain, even when specimens are available, and I 
do not care to hazard a guess as to what they may have been. The 
question of species and subspecies in the South American representa- 
tives of the genus Buteo is much involved and can be made clear 
only by collection of extensive series throughout the continent. 

According to Stresemann,®** Buteo erythronotu^ (King)^^ becomes 
Buteo folyosoma (Quoy and Gaimard). 

BUTEO SWAINSONI Bonaparte 

Buteo sicainsoni Bonaparte, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, p. 3. (Near the 
Columbia River.) 

On April 17, 1921, a Swainson's hawk was soaring in company 
with other hawks over the summit of the Sierra San Xavier above 
Tafi Viejo, Tucuman. 

GERANOAETUS MELANOLEUCUS (Vieillot) 

Spizaetus melanoleucus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 32, 1819, 
p. 57. (Paraguay.) 

Near the city of Mendoza this species was seen on March 13, 1921, 
and above Potrerillos one, that had perhaps been captive at some time 
as a string dangled from its leg, was observed on March 16. Sev- 
eral were found in company with smaller hawks, soaring over the 
Cumbre above Tafi Viejo, Tucuman, on April 17. When awing the 
tail of this bird appears strongly rounded. 

RUPORNIS MAGNIROSTRIS PUCHERANI (J. and E. Verreaux) 

Asturina Pncherani J. and E. Vekkeaux, Rev. Mag. ZooL, ser. 2, vol. 7, 
1855, p. 350. (Paraguay.") 

From available material it seems that this subspecies is charac- 
terized by the dark, almost black throat (in the adult), very narrow 
rufescent bars of the undersurface, slight longitudinal stripes on 
foreneck and upper breast, and by the rufescent tinge of the lighter 
bars in the tail. Two adult females collected at Las Palmas, Chaco, 
on July 26 and 28, 1920, agree with specimens examined from Para- 
guay in these particulars. An adult female from San Vicente, 
Uruguay, taken on January 31, 1921, is not wholly in agreement 
with pucherani, as it has the heavier barring on the undersurface 
found in B. tri. nattereri, but in other respects is more like the present 

^ Journ. fur Ornith., 1925, pp. 309-319. 

^ Haliaeetus erythronotus King, Zool. Journ., -vol. 3, 1827, p. 424. (Port Famine, 
Straits of Magellan.) No locality is cited in connection with the original description, 
but on p. 426, in closing his account of the hawks secured. King remarks that " all 
of the above species of Falconidae were collected at Port Famine." See also Swann, 
Syn. Accipitres, pt. 2, Jan. 3, 1922, p. 85.) 

"^Type locality designated by Brabourne and Chubb, Birds of South America, vol. 1, 
December, 1912, p. 68. 



112 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

form with which it is identified. An immature male from Rio Negro, 
Uruguay, secured February 15, is also slightly intermediate in its 
characters. 

Hellmayr '•'^ has proposed to replace the subspecific name yucKerani 
by su'perciliaris from Sparvius superciliaris Vieillot^* based on the 
esparvero pardo ceja hlanca of Azara. Azara, however, says in the 
beginning of his description that the feathers of the head and nape 
in his bird were pointed, while the remaining plumes of the dorsal 
surface had rounded ends, a character not to be found in Rupomis^ 
so that he must have had some other hawk in mind. Though the 
remainder of the description may fit the immature stages of the 
present bird, this first statement must identify the bird described 
as one of some other genus. It is curious that Azara's Esparvero 
indaye, which is undoubtedly a Ruporivis^ was not given a name by 
those who republished his descriptions. 

This small hawk was common in open wooded regions of the 
Chaco in northern Argentina and Paraguay, and was observed in 
less abundance in Uruguay. It frequented the borders of groves 
where it might perch in the shade or the open as desired. The 
caranchillo, as the bird was called, was fearless often to a point of 
stupidity, and was seldom alarmed even by a gunshot fired close at 
hand. In regions where it was common it came almost invariably 
when I was "squeaking" to draw warier denizens of the thickets 
from cover, and perched near at hand with jerking tail while it 
peered about to locate the sound. Though most other birds were 
little afraid the squalling calls of the hawk caused some to remain 
partly concealed, and even frightened shyer ones from appearing 
at all, so that at times I found Rupornis considerable of a nuisance. 
Toward the end of August the mating season seemed near as the 
hawks became very noisy, and screaming shrilly, often turned in 
short circles two hundred meters in the air, while others squealed in 
answer from the tree tops below. 

An adult female taken July 26 had the soft parts colored as fol- 
lows: Tip of bill dull black, base clear green-blue gray, becoming 
deep colonial buff on rami of mandible; cere primuline yellow; iris 
massicot yellow ; tarsus and toes honey yellow ; claws black. 

These hawks were recorded as follows: Resistencia, Chaco, July 
9 and 10; Las Palmas, Chaco, July 13 to 31; Riaqho Pilaga, For- 
mosa, August 7 to 21; Formosa, Formosa, August 23 and 24; Puerto 
Pinasco, Paraguay, September 3 to 25 (observed west to a point 200 
kilometers from the Rio Paraguay) ; San Vicente, Uruguay, Janu- 
ary 31, 1921 (two seen) ; Rio Negro, Uruguay, February 15 to 18. 

The pelvic powder downs in these hawks are well developed. 

s^Nov. Zool., vol. 28, 1921, p. 183. 

" Nouy Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 10. 1817, p. 328. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 113 
RUPORNIS MAGNIROSTRIS SATURATA (Sclater and Salvin) 

Asturina saturata Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1876, p. 
357. (Apolo"' and Tilotilo, Bolivia.) 

A male in fresh fall plumage that agrees with the characters 
assigned to this form was taken near Tapia, Tiicuman, on April 18, 
1921. From B. m. j)uchc7'ani of areas farther east it is distinguished 
by darker coloration throughout, and by the much bolder, heavier 
markings of the under surface. The bird was killed as it rested in 
a tree in low scrubby forest. On April 12 another was observed as 
it turned in short circles far above the earth and gave the shrill 
squealing calls common in hawks of this species more especially in 
spring. This subspecies does not seem to have been recorded pre- 
viously in Argentina. 

HETEROSPIZIAS MERIDIONALIS MERIDIONALIS (Latham) 
Falco meridionalis Latham, Ind. Orn., vol. 1, 1790, p. 36. (Cayenne.) 

An adult female of this hawk taken at Kilometer 80, west of 
Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, on September 7, 1920, appears to be a 
representative of the typical northern form as it has the following 
measurements: Wing, 412; tail, 214; culmen from cere, 23; and 
tarsus, 100 mm. The species was fairly common both at Puerto 
Pinasco and in the Chaco to the westward from September 1 to 23. 
At this season the birds were found in pairs and the female secured 
showed some growth in size of the ovary, so that the breeding season 
seemed near. The birds frequented open savannas dotted with small 
trees that offered convenient resting places. Though in appearance 
(save in color) and in action they resemble the red-tailed hawk 
(Buteo horealis) they seem slower and less aggressive. On one 
occasion I saw one stoop at a guira cuckoo on the ground but miss 
it, and the cuckoo was then able to escape in spite of its slow, weak 
flight. On windy days tlie hawks rested facing the wind with head 
lowered to a level with the body, and the tail raised so as to offer 
as little resistance to the gusts as possible. Sparrow hawks drove at 
them occasionally but the large hawks merely dropped their heads 
to avoid being struck, and made no attempt to punish their assail- 
ant. The call note of this large hawk is a high pitched note resem- 
bling kree-ee-ee-er that terminates in a drawn out wail. It suggests 
in a way the squealing call of Buteo horealis^ but is less forceful and 
vigorous. Occasionally a pair circled about in the air a hundred 
meters from the earth and emitted a snarling, grunting kweh hioeh 
hwuhrh kweh kweh. To the Anguete Indians they were known as 
so has gookh., and to the Lenguas as nata pais shar o. 



»s So spelled in the Century Atlas of the World. 



114 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

HETEROSPIZIAS MERIDIONALIS AUSTRALIS Swann 

Heterospisias meridionalis australis Swann, Auk, vol. 38, 1921, p. 359. 
(Laguna de Malima, Tucuman, Argentina.) 

Swann recently has separated the southern hawks of this species 
as above, on the basis of larger size and darker coloration. From the 
specimens at hand it appears that this action may be sustained on the 
basis of size, but that constant color differences correlated with geo- 
graphic range, are not present. Nine specimens of tneridionalis 
from Panama, Brazil (Para, Pernambuco, Diamantina, and Cha- 
pada), show the following measurements: Wing, 378^17; tarsus, 
90-111.5 mm. The series examined contains three females, one 
doubtful male, and five birds without indication of sex. Three skins 
from Argentina (Kilometer 182, Formosa, Corrientes, and Conchi- 
tas, Buenos Aires) measure as follows: Wing, 423-450; tarsus, 109- 
113 mm. Doctor Allen ^^ has described the plumage changes with 
age in this species, findings that are verified in the series here at 
hand. In general, birds during their first season are very dark 
brown, almost black, save for more or less white on the under surface 
and some rufous in the primaries and greater coverts. During the 
second year the amount of rufous in the wings is increased and in- 
vades more or less of the underwing surface as well as the lesser 
wing coverts. In the third year the under parts and head become 
rufous, barred below, save on the throat, with blackish, but the back 
remains fuscous brown. In the fully adult plumage, apparently in 
the fourth year, the upper back assumes an ashy shade, but otherwise 
the bird is similar to what it was in the plumage of the preceding 
year. Apparently the type of Swann's australis is a bird in third 
year plumage. I am unable to detect any difference in color between 
a bird in third-year stage from Para {meridionalis) ^ and one in a 
similar plumage from near the city of Buenos Aires {australis). 
An adult female (third year) that I secured on August 12, 1920, near 
the Riacho Pilaga, Formosa (wing 423 mm.), is somewhat interme- 
diate between the northern and southern forms, but has been identi- 
fied with the southern bird. A specimen in the United States Na- 
tional Museum secured by Capt. T. J. Page at Corrientes (wing 
448 mm.) seems to be typical australis. As Corrientes is just south 
of the Paraguayan border it is not improbable that though merid- 
ionalis was found in the Chaco at Puerto Pinasco, the form of east- 
ern Paraguay is the larger southern bird, in which case Swann's 
name will become a synonym of Circus rufulus Vieillot,^^ based on 
the gavildn acanelado of Azara. 

This handsome hawk was first observed near Las Palmas, Chaco, 
in July, 1920, but specimens were not secured until I entered the 

wBull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 5, 1893, pp. 145-146. 
w Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 4, 1816, p. 466. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 115 

Territory of Formosa, where the bird was more common. As at 
Puerto Pinasco, this hawk was sluggish in its movements. At this 
season it was found alone, usually perched in the top of some low 
tree that gave command of an open space. Occasionally one sailed 
along across the savannas a few feet from the ground on the 
lookout for food. Grass fires attracted these birds, and I saw them 
frequently near areas where fires were about burned out where no 
doubt small rodents and other similar prey offered desirable food. 
When on the wing the handsome markings of this beautiful bird 
are displayed to the fullest advantage so that, save for the dark 
tipped wings, it appeared wholly rich reddish brown. 
The Toba Indians called this species mi yuh. 

ACCIPITER GUTTIFER Hellmayr 

Accipiter guttifer Hellmayk, Verh. OrnitK. Ges. Bayem, vol. 13, Sep- 
tember 20, 1917, p. 200. (Bolivia.) 

According to Bertoni ^^ Sparvius guttatus of Vieillot ^^ founded 
on the Esparvero pardo y goteado of Azara ^ refers to the immature 
of Accipiter pileatus (Temminck) ; in accordance with this, Hell- 
mayr has given the present bird, long known as guttatus^ the name 
Accipiter guttifer. 

A female shot at Tapia, Tucuman, on April 10, 1921, dashed into 
a clump of bushes in front of J. L. Peters and me, in pursuit of 
a small bird. On seeing us, hardly 3 meters away, it checked its 
flight abruptly, alighted for an instant on a stump, irresolute as to 
the best manner of escape and then darted off. When dropped with 
a broken wing it ran swiftly on the ground. 

The bird is an adult female in post nuptial molt, with new plumes 
appearing in wings, tail, upper breast, crown, and back. 

ACCIPITER ERYTHRONEMIUS (Kaup) 

Nisus vel. Ace. erytlironemins " G. Gray," Kaup, in Jardine, Contr. Ornitli,, 
1850, pt. 3, p. 64. (Bolivia.) 

On February 19, 1921, at Rio Negro, Uruguay, one of these small 
hawks was killed as it flew past bearing something in its talons. 
Its prey, whatever it may have been, dropped in high grass where 
it could not be found. Later another was seen on a perch near the 
ground at the border of a small opening in heavy brush. As it 
fiew it came near me and was secured. The long tail, rounded wings, 
and the head apparently drawn in on the shoulders give this bird the 
appearance usual in small Accipiters. 

*8An. Soc. Cient. Argentina, vol. 75, February, 1913, p. 79. 

«9Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 10, 1817, p. .327. 

* Apunt. Hist. Nat. Paxaros Paraguay, vol. 1, 1802, p. 113. 



116 BULLETIN 133^ UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

The two taken are males in molt from an immature to adult 
plumage. Old feathers still appear in wings and tail, but elsewhere 
have been replaced, though all of the new feathers are not fully- 
grown. The narrow bars on the under surface are mainly dark 
gray, or grayish brown with little mixture of rufous. These two 
measure as follows: Wing, 164-171; tail, llT-123.5; culmen from 
cere, 9.6-10 ; tarsus, 47-50 mm. 

Swann - treats Accipiter salvini Ridgway from Venezuela as a 
subspecies of A. erythronemius. 

Order GALLIFORMES 
Family CRACIDAE 

ORTALIS CANICOLLIS (Wagler) 

% 

Penelope canicolUs Wagler, Isis, 1830, p. 1112. (Paraguay.) 

Nine specimens, all adult, secured in the Chaco were taken as 
follows: Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, August 13, 14 (one skeleton), 
18 (one in alcohol), and Kilometer 80, Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, 
September 6, 10, and 20 (two). At Puerto Pinasco the birds were 
found inland to Kilometer 200. Birds from the two localities are 
similar; males are larger and usually paler on the posterior dorsal 
surface than females. A female taken August 13 at the Riacho 
Pilaga had the soft parts as follows: Bill fawn color; soft oper- 
culum over nostrils, and space behind hair brown; bare skin on 
sides of head fawn color, on throat tinged with Pompeian red; iris 
army brown; tarsus and toes avellaneous; claws fuscous. The skin 
of the throat was more heavily tinged with red in males than in 
females. 

The charata as Ortalis canicolUs is usually Icnown was a com- 
mon species in the more extensive forests of the wilder, less-fre- 
quented portions of the Chaco. It was typically a tree-haunting 
bird that frequented open tree limbs, the borders of trails or edges 
of groves where dense cover close at hand furnished shelter at any 
alarm. They were found in bands that included from four to eight 
individuals, until in September they separated in pairs for the pur- 
pose of breeding. On days with high wind when hunting in suit- 
able sections I saw them in numbers, though ordinarily the slight 
sounds that I made in passing through the monte were sufficient to 
cause the alert birds to hide. Frequently flocks descended to feed on 
or near the ground, but when alarmed rose at once into the tree- 
tops. Once I startled one badly in a forest path so that it rose with 
roaring wings like a tinamou or pheasant but usually the flight was 
silent. When alarmed, if low down they towered with rapidly 

^Syn. Accipitres, ed. 2, pt. 1, Sept. 28, 1921, p. 58. 



BIRDS OP ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 117 

beating wings into the trees, or if found on high perches flew with 
a few quick strokes of the wings that terminated in a short sail 
in a direct line with long tail slightly spread and neck outstretched. 
They alighted as easily as jays, ran quickly along the large limbs 
and were lost at once to view. In the tops of trees they remained 
motionless to escape observation, but were often betrayed by the 
outline of the long tail or by a moving shadow caused by a head 
concealed behind leaves. When flocks chanced to alight overhead 
without having seen me approach the birds examined me curiously 
as they uttered low whining calls. When at ease they sank on the 
breast like pheasants and turned the head quietly from side to side. 
When excited the long neck was extended to full length. Flocks 
came to feed in flowering lapacho trees standing at the border of the 
forest, apparently in search of the blossoms. 

The mating season, heralded by the harsh calls of the males, began 
in September. Near at hand I found that the call began with a low 
resonant note followed by a harsh cackle that changed in tone and 
continued in rapid repetition for nearly a minute, thus, &m/?, ka 
chee chaw raia taw, chaw raiu taw, chaw raw taio, a call that carried 
easily for half a mile. At once this was answered by another bird, 
another and another until perhaps half a dozen were calling from 
near at hand. At this season they were heard many times at night. 
On warm spring mornings the notes were heard on all sides — an 
odd chorus, barbarous and uncouth, but attractive in spite ot its 
harshness. When engaged in calling males sought a commanding 
perch often in the top of some tall tree and were so engrossed in 
their challenges that it was possible to stalk them without great 
care. At times they were accompanied by females; copulation took 
place in the tree tops. 

One morning I secured a bird just as a heavy rain came on. On 
skinning it later I found the cavity of the large oil gland entirely 
empty and judged that it had used the supply of oil to prepare for 
the coming storm. 

The ancient Guarani name of Yacii-Caraguata given to this bird 
in Azara's time has been abbreviated to Yacii though the species 
is called more frequently by the term Charata. The Tobas in For- 
mosa knew it as Gua che na (a cog-nomen of evident onomatopoeic 
origin) and the Anguetes in Paraguay as Kin a tee. 

The trachea in females of this species is normal. In males it is 
elongated to form a loop over the breast muscles on the right-hand 
side that reaches to the keel of the sternum and then turns to pass 
back and enter the thoracic cavity. From the lower end of the loop 
a slender band of muscle passes back to insert on the connective 
tissue overlying the pectoralis major above the end of the keel on 



118 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

the sternum. The sternotrachealis muscles are inserted as usual 
on the costal processes of the sternum. 

The flesh of these birds is excellent eating but the sport in their 
huntino- lies entirely in the care and skill necessary to stalk them 
successfully. It is seldom that they give an open wing shot, but, 
on the contrary, offer snapshots as they run away along limbs. 

In the series of seven fresh skins at hand individual variation 
seems to cover the phase described by Cherrie and Reichenberger 
from Suncho Corral, Santiago del Estero as Ortalis cardcollis grisea^ 
though the skins in question come from Formosa and the Paraguayan 
Chaco near Puerto Pinasco. With the somewhat limited material 
at hand subspecies may not be recognized. Wagler based his descrip- 
tion of canicoUis on Azara's account of the Yacii-caraguata so that 
his type locality must be located in southern Paraguay or the adja- 
cent provinces of Argentina. (Azara remarks that the bird was 
not known south of 27° S. latitude.) 

Order GRUIFORMES 
Family RALLIDAE 

FULICA ARMILLATA Vieillot 

Fulica armillata Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 12, 1817, p. 47. 
(Paraguay.) 

This large coot was common in the cafiadones near Lavalle, Bue- 
nos Aires, where, near the Estancia Los Yngleses, an adult female 
was shot on October 29, 1920. The birds were found on open pools 
or among rushes, and swam about with nodding heads and other 
mannerisms typical of the genus. They were nesting and I believed 
that nests containing large handsomely marked eggs belonged to 
this species, but after considerable effort I was unable to identify 
the owners definitely, and did not take them. 

At General Roca, Rio Negro, from November 30 to December 3 
a band of nearly 100 of the present species, with a few F. leucop- 
tera frequented an open space in a quiet channel near the river. 
I killed two males, and a male white-winged coot, at a single shot 
on November 30. (PL 16.) The birds fed in scattered company, 
but when alarmed gathered in a close flock. There was some mat- 
ing activity among those of the present species, and males gave 
an occasional mating display in which they arched the neck, raised 
the tips of the wings, half closed the eyes, and opened the mouth. 
Though they turned toward their mates in these maneuvers they 
took care to guard against a savage bill thrust by remaining at a 
safe distance. Among themselves males, when not alarmed, were 

•Amer. Mus. Nov., No. 27, Dec. 28, 1921, p. 2. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 119 

aggressive and fought savagely, often pursuing some vanquished 
competitor for some distance. A young bird two v^'eeks old, seen 
on December 3, may have belonged to this species. 

On January 31, 1921, on the Laguna Castillos, below San Vicente, 
Uruguay, F. armillata was found in bands that rested on the low 
shores and swam out into the lake as I came near. A number had 
been affected by alkali in the water so that I picked up a male in 
condition to skin and secured skulls from two more that lay dead 
on the shore. 

At Concon, Chile, on April 24, I examined one that had been 
killled by a hunter. 

An adult female shot on October 29 had the soft parts colored 
as follows : Bill in general slightly brighter than olive yellow ; space 
on culmen from above nostril to center of frontal shield, and spot 
on base of bill immediately behind nostril burnt lake, shading on 
outer margin to Brazil red; iris Vandyke red, slightly clouded with 
duller markings; tarsus and toes in general olive lake; marginal 
webs and borders of scutes washed with deep neutral gray ; spot on 
rear of crus dull English red ; claws dull black. 

The feet in the present species are enormous, much larger than 
in other species with which it is associated, and have proportionately 
broader lobes. The bird, in addition, is heavy in body and appears 
large when seen at a distance. In life adults of the three coots 
of this region may be distinguished without difficulty by the color 
of the frontal shield and bill. In armillata a dark-red mark on the 
lower margin of the shield and base of the bill crosses the other- 
wise light color of these parts. In leucoftera bill and shield are 
entirely light, while in i^ffrons the shield is dark red. According 
to Doctor Dabbene,* F. armillata in swimming does not hold the 
tail erect over the back, as is customary in ru-fifrons^ but drops it 
in the manner of a tinamou. 

Though the three are separated without trouble in the field, or 
when freshly killed, there is often difficulty in naming dried skins. 
The following notes may be of assistance in separating them : 

flw* Frontal plate produced posteriorly in a narrow acute point ; tail longer 
(58 to 62 mm.) ; frontal plate dark red; outer web of tenth primary 
usually plain (occasionally with a faint white margin) Fulica rufifrons. 

(/.' Frontal shield rounded or if pointed posteriorly not greatly elongated ; tail 
shorter (47 to 56.5 mm.) ; frontal plate orange or yellow; outer web of 
first primary bordered with white. 

?>.* Feet relatively larger ; crus more or less reddish ; secondaries plain or very 
slightly margined with white at extreme tip Fulica armillata. 

6.^ Feet relatively smaller ; crus greenish or yellowish ; secondaries tipped 
prominently with white Fulica leucoptera. 

«An. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires, vol. 28, July 19, 1916, p. 190. 



120 BULLETIN 133^ UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

In F. arTnillata the tarsus is usually equal to one-third of the wing, 
the median under tail coverts are neutral gray, and the secondaries 
may be plain or may have a very small white tip. The crus is 
marked more or less with red. Measurements of the three adults 
taken follow : Two males, wing, 197-205 ; tail, 50-52 ; tarsus, 65-71 ; 
one female, wing, 179; tail, 52; tarsus, 60 mm. 

FULICA RUFIFRONS Philippi and Landbeck 

Tulica ruflfrons Philippi and Landbeck, Anal. Univ. Oliile, vol. 19, no. 4, 
October, 1861, p. 507. (Chile.) 

The red-fronted coot was common near Lavalle, Buenos Aires, 
and two were taken on October 29, 1920, in a large caiiadon on the 
Estancia Los Yngleses. The birds were found in the deeper parts 
of the marshes among the rushes or, less frequently, in open water. 
They have loud clucking notes and swim with rapidly nodding 
heads like others of the genus. They were so shy that when found 
in the open they swam back to cover to avoid any possible danger^ 
Several swam up to examine a dead bird that I had killed as it lay 
in the water. An adult female had the bill lemon chrome, with a 
slight wash of light cadmium, changing at tip to jewel green; sides 
of bill at base, and frontal shield as far forward as anterior end of 
nostril diamine brown, becoming madder brown at outer margin; 
iris chocolate; tarsus citron green, toward margin of scutes verging 
to mignonette green; crus and toes mignonette green; margins of 
scutes, joints, and lobes on toes neutral gray; claws blackish. This 
specimen has the following measurements: Wing, 170; tail, 62.3; 
tarsus, 55.3 mm. 

In Fulica rufifrons the crus is greenish and the base of the acutely 
elongated frontal plate dark red. The median under tail coverts 
are black or blackish slate, there is no white on the tips of the sec- 
ondaries, and the outer web of the tenth primary is plain or very 
faintly bordered with white. The tail measures 58.2-62.3 mm. and 
the birds usually have more white on the abdomen than either 
leucoj)tera or armillata. 

FULICA LEUCOPTERA Vieillot 

Fulica leucoptera Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 12, 1817, p. 48. 
(Paraguay.) 

Near Lavalle, Buenos Aires, the white-winged coot was recorded 
as common from October 31, 1920, when two were taken, until the 
middle of November, when I left this region. The birds frequented 
open pools in the marshes where they swam about with nodding 
heads, but at the slightest alarm disappeared behind the protecting 
screen of the rushes. From this secure retreat their clucking notes 
were always audible, but it was often difficult to see the birds. At 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 121 

General Eoca, Rio Negro, from November 23 to December 3 the 
birds were found in small sloughs, or, with bands of the larger 
bodied F. armillata^ on open channels. From their actions they 
seemed to be breeding, but no nests were found and Doctor Dabbene 
states that they do not nest until the end of January or the first part 
of February.^ 

Near Carhue, Buenos Aires, white-winged coots were found from 
December 15 to 18 in a little fresh-water marsh that bordered an 
arroyo draining into Lake Epiquen. Truculent males grasped one 
another by the feet and then struck savage blows with their pointed 
bills. From March 3 to 8, 1921, bands of adults and young were 
found along the open shores of the Laguna del Monte at Guamini, 
where there were no growths of rushes of any kind. One was noted 
on the Rio Aconcagua near Concon, Chile, on April 28. 

An adult female shot October 31 had the bill, eye, and legs colored 
as follows: Tip of bill Biscay green, shading inward to dull green- 
yellow; basal half of bill pale vinaceous fawn, becoming whitish at 
extreme base; base of mandible tinged with green; frontal shield 
slightly paler than strontian yellow; iris mars orange; tarsus and 
toes Paris green, with posterior face of tarsus and outer margin of 
lobes on toes dawn gray, shading on the outer margins of the lobes 
to castor gray. 

Skins of the white- winged coot are marked by the greenish crus 
and the orange or yellow shade of the frontal shield. The median 
under tail coverts vary from black to dark neutral gray, the outer 
margin of the tenth primary is margined with white, and the sec- 
ondaries are tipped more or less extensively with white. The frontal 
plate is rounded posteriorly and the tail measures from 48-.56.5 mm. 
There is little or no white on the abdomen. 

Measurements of a pair are as follows: Male, wing, 191.0; tail, 
56.5 ; tarsus, 58.0 ; female, wing, 173 ; tail, 50.6 ; tarsus, 52.5 mm. 

GALLINULA CHLOROPUS GALEATA (Lichtenstein) 

Crex galeata Lichtenstein, Verz. Ausgest. Saug. Vog., 1818, p. 36. (Brazil.) 

The validity of this form, as distinct from G. c. cachinnans Bangs 
from North America, is sustained by a series of five males and two 
females secured August 9 and 16, 1920, at the Riacho Pilaga, For- 
mosa. Individuals in adult stage are readily separated from similar 
specimens of cachinnans by their more olivaceous, less brownish 
backs. In addition the white of the abdomen, when birds are viewed 
in series, is less extensive in southern than in northern birds, and 
may be practically absent in adults of galeata. The white on this 
area, however, varies so with age as to be of little use in studying 

5 An. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires, vol. 28, July 19, 1916, p. 184. 



122 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

single birds. An immature individual, a male, is very brown above^ 
and on first glance seems to be identical in color with the adult of 
cachinnans. In the northern bird immature specimens in addition 
to being more extensively white below are browner above than adults^ 
a distinction that seems to hold in galeata as well. Though this im- 
mature is similar to the adult of cachinnans it is darker and more 
olivaceous than the immature of that form, in addition to being 
less extensively white below. A second specimen is somewhat inter- 
mediate in stage of plumage. 

Measurements of these specimens, in millimeters, are as follows: 
Five males, wing, 170-186 (176.5) ; tail, 66-74.2 (69.9) ; tarsus 52.5- 
62.6 (57.2). Two females, wing, 164-177.6 (170.8); tail, 62.8-67.5 
(65.1); tarsus, 50-56.2 (53.1). 

On one of the large lagoons at the Riaclio Pilaga gallinules were 
common, and when first seen as they were swimming about in open 
water at a distance I mistook them for coots. An Indian to whom 
I appealed for a boat quickly fashioned a crude pointed raft with 
three or four armloads of tall, green cat-tails, bound together with 
a few of the tougher stems, and on this somewhat precarious craft 
I paddled out to explore the lagoon. The gallinules were shy but 
by working up behind concealing points of rushes I succeeded in 
shooting several, as well as a grebe, before all had flown or swam 
into shelter of the rushes. A few days later an Indian brought me 
more that he had killed at the same place. 

At Rio Negro, Uruguay, on February 18, 1921, the birds were 
common in the vegetation concealing the water of a small lagoon. 
Near Tunuyan, Mendoza, two were recorded March 26. 

PARDIRALLUS RYTIRHYNCHOS RYTIRHYNCHOS (Vieillot) 

Rallus rytirhynclios Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 28, 1819, p. 549. 
(Paraguay.) 

Eight specimens of this species were secured, six of Avhich were 
preserved as skins, one as a skeleton, and one in alcohol. An adult 
male from Lazcano, Uruguay, shot February 7, 1921, and an adult 
male from Rio Negro, Uruguay, taken Februaiy 18, differ constantly 
from a series from Buenos Aires in darker, duller coloration. It is 
possible that these should be separated as typical rytirhynchos and 
that the Argentine birds represent another form. These birds vary 
individually to such an extent that a considerable series will be 
needed to establish or disprove this point. An adult male from 
General Roca, Rio Negro, in northern Patagonia, taken December 3, 
1920, and two males and a female from Tunuyan, Mendoza, secured 
March 23, 25, and 28, 1921, agree in color and are similar to others 
from Argentina. 



BIRDS OF. ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 123 

The type and one other specimen described by Peale® as Rallus 
luridus from Orange Harbour, Tierra del Fuego, belong to the form 
PardiraUus rytirhynchos sanguinolentus (Swainson)^ so that luridus 
should be cited in the synonymy of that subspecies. Should Rallus 
setosus named by King,^ it is presumed from the Straits of Magellan, 
prove the same this name will antedate sanguinolentus. From the 
description, however, it appears that setosus, like rytirhynchos, is 
of the type with dark centers in the feathers of the dorsal surface. 

PardiraUus r. rytirhynchos was recorded at the following points: 
Lavalle, Buenos Aires, October 29 to November 15, 1920; General 
Roca, Hio Negro, December 3 ; Carhue, Buenos Aires, December 17 ; 
Carrasco (near Montevideo), Uruguay, January 16, 1921; Lazcano, 
Uruguay, February T and 8; Rio Negro, Uruguay, February 18; 
Tunuyan, Mendoza, March 22 to 28. One recorded near Concon, 
Chile, on April 26, that was not secured, is supposed to have been 
PardiraUus r. sanguinolentus. 

PardiraUus during the summer season is a frequenter of rush or 
grass-grown marshes in the pampas, or ranges through swamps or 
along channels grown with low dense shrubber}^, particularly where 
such growth stands in water. Though it resembles ordinary rails in 
general habits it must swim well as it is found many times where the 
water stands nearly a meter deep. When in its haunts one may 
be startled by a solemn hollow-sounding repetition of notes, too too 
too-oO'Oo, an odd, lugubrious call suggestive almost of the super- 
natural, coming from the rushes almost at hand, although no sign 
of the bird may be seen. If one retreats a short distance and waits 
quietly a rail may run out to the edge of cover, but more often the 
only sign of its presence is the hollow repetition of its calls. In fact, 
for some time I was inclined to attribute these notes to a grebe as 
they came from rushes that stood in fairly deep water. After the 
breeding season the hollow notes are given less frequently, but a low, 
grunting sound, suggestive of the protest of the tuco tuco {Ctenoviys) 
in its underground chambers, may be heard, or a sudden gunshot 
may startle the rails into emitting wheezing shrieks that are answered 
and repeated from every side. All are strange sounds, not at all 
birdlike in their nature, and so different in quality and tone as to 
make it seem almost impossible that they come from the same bird. 

The brilliant colors of the bill are easily seen when the birds 
venture into the open. They suggest Virginia rails as they v/ork 
about with the tail cocked over the back and twitched at intervals. 
At times deliberate in movement, again they traverse runs in the 

« U. S. Explor. Exped., vol. 8, 1848, p. 223. 

''Rallus sanguinolentus Swainson, Anim. Menag., 1838, p. 335, said to inhabit "Brazil 
and Chili " ; type locality restricted to Chile by Chubb, Ibis, 1919. p. 51. 
8Zo6I. Journ., vol. 4, April, 1828, p. 94. 



124 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

grass more rapidly, occasionally pausing at some opening to peer 
about. It was unusual to have them venture more than 2 meters from 
shelter. In small swamps in Uruguay, where dense shrubbery grew 
in less than a meter of water, a tangle so heavy as to be almost im- 
j)enetrable, these rails clambered about among the branches like galli- 
nules, as much as 2 meters above water. Again, one was flushed from 
some scant cover of rushes or grass along a ditch through an alfalfa 
field, or one ran down to the water's edge at some river channel with 
comparatively high, brush-bordered banks. 

A male taken at General Roca on December 3 and a female shot 
February 18 at Rio Negro, Uruguay, were breeding. 

Near Tunuyan, Mendoza, toward the end of March, these rails were 
common, and were evidently in migration from colder regions in 
Patagonia. Marshes and cienagas were filled with them, while others 
were encountered in heavy growths of weeds, at the borders of hemp 
fields (one taken had hemp seed in the throat), or along irrigation 
ditches. At this time it was common for them when startled to flush 
from exceptionally heavy cover, almost certain proof that they were 
migrants, as no resident rail familiar with the runs and passages 
would think of leaving such excellent hiding places. The flight was 
rather swift and at times the birds rose 3 or 4 meters in the air. On 
the wing they appear almost black. 

An adult male shot December 3 had the base of the mandible and 
the side of the maxilla, below and behind the level of the nostril, 
madder brown ; small frontal shield and base of mandible yale blue ; 
center of bill mineral green, shading to dusky green toward tip ; iris 
slightly darker than ferruginous ; tarsus and toes between coral pink 
and light coral red; posterior face of tarsus clouded with fuscous. 
Females taken seemed as brilliant, and birds of both sexes shot in fall 
were equally bright. 

CRECISCUS MELANOPHAIUS (VieUIot 

Rallus melanophaius Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 28, 1819, p. 549. 
(Paraguay.) 

At the Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, an adult female taken in the 
rushes bordering a lagoon was brought to me on August 8, 1920. 
The bird was known locally as canastita or in Guarani as batuitui. 

This specimen has the throat, breast, and abdomen pure white, with 
the barring on the posterior underparts restricted to the flanks and 
the white bars wider than the dark ones. Four specimens seen from 
Bahia and Sao Paulo, Brazil, have a reddish wash on the under sur- 
face with a much broader barred area on sides and flanks, that ex- 
tends over on the abdomen, where the dark bars are wider than the 
white ones. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 125 

NEOCKEX ERYTHROPS (Sclater) 

Porzana erythrops, P. L. Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soe. London, 1867, p. 343, 
pi. 21. (Near Lima, Peru.) 

At Tapia, Tiicuman, on April 13, 1921, a peon brought me an im- 
mature specimen of Neocrex that he stated had been killed by a small 
weasel-like animal. The bird, apparently two-thirds grown, has the 
body plumage developed but wings and tail are not completely 
feathered. It is much darker above than an adult of erythro'ps from 
Lima, Peru, so that the Neocrex from Argentina may represent a dis- 
tinct form. According to Lillo ® the bird is common near the city 
of Tucuman. 

ARAMIDES CAJANEA CHIRICOTE (Vieillot) 

Rallus chiricote Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 28, 1819, p. 551. 
(Paraguay.) 

The present species is more of a true wood rail in habit than A. 
ypecaha, as it frequented wooded swamps or small channels run- 
ning through forests where dense cover was close at hand and did 
not venture into the broad pajonales, or saw-grass swamps, inhabited 
by its larger relative. My first one was seen September 30 on the 
forested bank of the Rio Paraguay, opposite Puerto Pinasco, where 
it was killed as it walked slowly along among dead weeds above the 
river's margin at the border of a thicket. This specimen, an adult 
male, when fresh had the tip of the bill bice green, shading to olive 
ocher at base; bare skin of eyelid, gape, and spot on the bare in- 
terramal space pompeian red; iris pecan brown; front of tarsus 
hydrangea red, shading to Corinthian red on posterior face; nails 
fuscous. 

At La Paloma, near Rocha, Uruguay, on January 23, 1921, as 1 
rounded a sharp turn in a brush-grown arroyo cut between low, 
clay banks, I surprised one of these rails at rest on the odoriferous 
carcass of a horse that lay partly submerged in a pool of water. 
The bird stood with one leg drawn up against the body with no ap- 
parent discomfort from the horrible stench that rose around it, until, 
sighting me, it flew ashore and ran off through the brush. Near 
San Vincente on January 28 one ran with long strides, neck ex- 
tended, and twitching tail, along trails made by cattle through heavy 
brush bordering a swamp, and was so alert that it eluded me in short 
order. Several were noted at the Paso Alamo on the Arroyo Sarandi 
on February 2, and on February 6 in forest bordering a pool on the 
Rio Cebollati below Lazcano I killed an immature female about two- 
thirds grown but not fully fledged, as rusty doAvns persist on the 
crown and the foreneck. Others were recorded at Rio Negro, Uru- 
guay, February 15 and 17. 



» An. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, vol. 8, Oct. 2, 1902, p. 215. 
54207—26 9 



126 BULLETIN 133^ UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

ARAMIDES YPECAHA (Viellot) 

Rallus ypecaha Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. His. Nat., vol. 28, 1819, p. 568. 
(Paraguay.) 

The ypecaha, as this large wood rail is loiown, was fairly common 
about the saw-grass swamps in the Chaco where its strange notes, 
that suggested the combination wheeze and clank of a rusty windmill 
pump, came morning and evening in one of the strangest bird con- 
certs that I have ever heard. Occasionally during the day one ran 
out through the rank growth to pause with twitching tail to look 
from the crest of some low bank before it disappeared over the rise 
and was lost in heavy cover beyond. At the Riacho Pilaga one 
evening a dog that had accompanied me while I set some traps, 
plunged into a swamp and immediately two wood rails came flying 
swiftly out and passed rapidly to safer cover. One morning at day- 
break, while crossing from Lazcano to the Rio Cebollati in southern 
Uruguay, I saw two walking about with heads erect and twitching 
tails in an open pasture far from any cover, but on no other occa- 
sion were they observed save as they crossed ahead of me from one 
grass covert to another. 

The only specimen taken was a female shot at Lazcano, Uruguay, 
on February 7, 1921. The species was recorded at the following 
points: Las Palmas, Chaco, July 30, 1920 (heard daily during my 
stay here, but not recognized during the first few days) ; Riacho 
Pilaga, Formosa, August 13 to 20; Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, Sep- 
tember 1 and 3 ; Lavalle, Buenos Aires, November 2 and 9 ; Lazcano, 
Urugauy, February 7 to 9. 

The species was kept often in captivity and was among the native 
birds offered for sale in the bird stores in the cities. 

Family ARAMIDAE 

ARAMUS SCOLOPACEUS CARAU Vieiilot 

Aramus carau Vieuxot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 8, 1817, p. 300. 
(Paraguay.) 

In the northern portion of the Chaco the limpkin, known by the 
appelation of carau, was fairly common in localities remote from 
habitation. 

In Formosa the species was observed from the train on August 5, 
1920, and again on August 21, in passing between the town of For- 
mosa and the station in the interior at Kilometer 182. At times 40 
or 50 were congregated on suitable marshes. Limpkins were noted 
at the lagoon at Kilometer 110, west of Puerto Pinasco on September 
23, and a male was taken. Others were seen at Kilometer 200 on the 
following day. On September 30 I found two in flooded forest on 
the eastern bank of the Rio Paraguay opposite Puerto Pinasco. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 127 

At Lavalle, Buenos Aires, limpkins were noted on November 
2 and 9, and several were recorded on November 16 when crossing 
to Santo Domingo. On February 2, 1921, I killed an adult male 
(preserved as a skeleton) at the Paso Alamo on the Arroj'o Sa- 
randi, north of San Vincente, eastern Uruguay. In the marshes 
bordering the Rio Cebollati near Lazcano, Uruguay, the birds were 
fairly common from February 6 to 9, and at Rio Negro, Uruguay, 
I found them from February 15 to 18. 

In the Chaco limpkins ranged in open, rush-grown marshes, prob- 
ably because the season was winter and water holes and swamps 
had become dry in wooded sections. Similar regions were inhabited 
on the pampas as these formed the only tracts in this area suited 
to the habits of this species. Elsewhere limpkins frequented wooded 
swamps, areas that seemed better suited to their needs. In traversing 
the open country the birds flushed frequently from small openings 
among the rushes, rising with the peculiar flight that marks them 
as far as they can be seen. When the bird is not hurried the wings 
are extended at an angle of 45° above the back, and are stroked 
quickly at short intervals down to the level of the body, but little 
or no farther, and then raised again. At the highest point of 
elevation there is a distinct pause before the wing is brought down 
again, so that the bird sails for a few feet with stiffly held raised 
wings. The whole wing motion suggests that of some huge but- 
terfly save that the line of flight is direct rather than erratic. 
When startled the birds flap away as any crane or stork might with 
neck extended and legs trailed behind. 

In dense wooded swamps my attention was frequently attracted to 
limpkins by abrupt explosive or clattering notes that often resembled 
the syllables koy kop or kawp. The ordinary call of car-r-r-rau car- 
r-r-rau, that gives this and the northern limpkin their common name 
throughout their range in the West Indies and Latin America, may 
be heard for a great distance. Two or three individuals calling at 
once may cause a tremendous noise; in fact one might well believe 
that the chorus was produced by a considerable congregation of birds 
concealed in the bushes. 

Limpkins often sought elevated perches in the tops of low trees or 
rested concealed among heavier growth, where they turned the head 
from side to side and at short intervals twitched the tail upward 
with a quick jerk that suggested a similar motion common among 
rails. Their food consisted mainly of large fresh-water snails 
{Avipullaria insularum d'Orbigny). Empty shells of these mol- 
lusks were found in abundance resting on the mud, with the opening 
upward and the thin, corneous operculum lying a few inches away, 
where it had dropped after it had been pulled away. At rest the 
birds appear remarkably ibislike. 



128 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

In the Anguete language the species is known as allat. 

Bangs and Penard ^° have indicated that the limpkin from south- 
ern South America differs from that of northern localities in larger 
size, a contention that is upheld by the skins available in the National 
Museum. The male that I secured west of Puerto Pinasco has the 
following measurements: Wing, 355; tail, 170; culmen, 127; tarsus, 
144 mm. The wing measurements given by Bangs and Penard for 
males of the southern form range from 341 to 343, so that this bird 
is of maximum size. 

For a recent revision of the forms of Aramus the reader is re- 
ferred to a paper by Peters (Occ. Pap. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. : vol. 
5, Jan. 30, 1925, pp. 141-144). 

Family CARIAMIDAE 

CARIAMA CRISTATA (Linnaeus) 

Palamadea cristata Linnaeus, Sy.st. Nat., ed. 12, vol. 1, 1766, p. 232. 
(Brazil.) 

On September 13, 1920, near the ranch at Kilometer 80, west of 
Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, one of these strange birds ran out in 
front of my horse as I rode up over the steep bank of a small stream, 
but traveled on through the brush so rapidly that I did not get a 
shot at it. 

CHUNGA BURMEISTERI (Hartlaub) 

Dicholophus hurmeisteri Haetlaub, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1860, p. 335. 
(Tucuman and Catamarca, Argentina.) 

Near Tapia, Tucuman, from April 6 to 13, 1921, these birds were 
fairly common, but were so wary that no specimens were secured. 
Their high-pitched yelping calls were heard daily from low hilltops 
where the forest was rather open, but as noiseless approach through 
the thorny scrub was impossible the birds invariably took alarm and 
ran away before I was within sight or range of them. Once or twice 
I had a glimpse of one down some long opening in the brush, but had 
no opportunity for closer approach. An immature Chuna was 
examined that had been killed by a hunter who refused to part 
with it. 

The generic name Ckunga, ordinarily attributed to Eeichenbach,^^ 
has been assigned correctly by Waterhouse ^^ to Hartlaub.^^* There 
is some question as to whether the date of publication of Reichen- 
bach's paper was 1860 or 1861, but as Reichenbach on page 160 refers 

^0 Notes on a coUection of Surinam Birds, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 62, April, 
1918, p. 42. 

"Vollst. Naturg. Tauben, 1861 (?), p. 159. 

"Ind. Gen. Avium, 1889, p. 45. 

" Proc. Zool. Soc. London, August, 1860, p. 335. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 129 

to the original description of the Chuiia in the Proceedings of the 
Zoological Society of London his name must have appeared later 
than Hartlaiib's notice of it. Hartlaiib remarks that the subgenus 
Chung a is proposed by Burmeister, but no reference to such action 
is at present known. 

Order CHARADRIIFORMES 
Family STERCORARIIDAE 

STERCORARIUS PARASITICUS (Linnaeus) 

Larus parasiticus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1, 1758, p. 136. (Coast 
of Sweden.) 

Three specimens were taken 15 miles south of Cape San Antonio 
on the eastern coast of the Province of Buenos Aires, a female on 
November 4, 1920, and two males on November 7. The female is 
Avhite below and on the hind neck, with slightW indicated grayish- 
brown streaks on the neck, both in front and behind. Broken bars 
of a similar color cross the breast and to a less degree the abdomen, 
and the under tail coverts are barred with fuscous and white. The 
two males represent the dark phase and are dull in color throughout. 
These specimens apparently are in their second year, as traces of 
the first-year plumage of the juvenile are evident. The primaries 
and rectrices are worn and have not yet been molted. 

While adult jaegers may be named with ease, it is trite to remark 
that identification of specimens representing the immature stages is 
attended with more or less difficulty. With regard to the two 
smaller forms, parasiticus and longicaudu^, it may be necessary to 
have recourse to more than one character in order to be definitely 
sure that identification is correct. The following brief summary 
(for which I make no claim of originality, as it is a combination 
of matter given by Ridgway, Coues, Saunders, and Mathews) may 
be of assistance in naming birds of this group : 

a \ Bill higher than wide at base ; wing usually more than 350 mm. ; in adult 
the middle pair of rectrices broad throughout, twisted. (Subgenus 

Coprotheres) pomarinus. 

a *. Bill not higher than wide at base, wing less than 345 mm. ; in adult the 
middle pair of rectrices straight. 
W. Length of horny cere (supranasal saddle) decidedly greater than length 
of dertrum; tarsi and feet black; three or more outermost primaries 

with shafts ivory yellow. (Subgenus Stercorarius.) parasiticus. 

6^ Length of horny cere (supranasal saddle) not gi-eater than length of 
dertrum; tarsi wholly or in part light in color, feet black; only two 
outermost primaries mth shafts ivory yellow (the shaft of the third 
sometimes light, but with a brownish tinge for at least part of its 
length). (Subgenus Atalolestris.) longicaudus. 



130 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

The first species given above, the pomarine jaeger, has in recent 
usage been recognized as a monotypic genus Coprotheres^ a distinc- 
tion proposed first by Reichenbach in 1850. The second species 
farasiticus is the type of the genus Stercorarius of Schaeffer 1789, 
while Mathews" has proposed Atalolestris as a subgenus for longi- 
caudus. After consideration of the differences indicated it has 
seemed that the three small jaegers may be placed in one genus 
Stercorarius. In case any further degree of superspecific difference 
is desired it may be indicated by the use of subgeneric terms. 

On November 4, south of Cabo San Antonio, two parasitic jaegers 
came beating down the sea beach from the northward, pausing at 
intervals for an agile pursuit of some tern, or to investigate some 
other source of food. I secured one and later saw another. On 
November 7 several more were seen and two were taken. Though 
less abundant than the long-tailed species the parasitic jaeger was 
well represented in the migration passing southward at this time, 
so that I estimated that they were present in a ratio of 1 to 15 among 
the bands of longicaudus. The notes made on the habits of the long- 
tailed jaeger apply equally well to the present species. 

The female secured in light phase had the tip of the bill and the 
gape dull black, the remainder deep mouse gray; iris natal brown; 
tarsus and toes black. 

STERCOKARIUS LONGICAUDUS Vieillot 

Stercorarius longicaudus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 32, 1819, 
p. 157. (Northern Regions.) 

Four females and two males were taken on the beaL-h 25 kilometers 
south of Cape San Antonio, eastern Buenos Aires, on November 4, 
6, and 7, 1920. Of these birds one is a nearly adult male, as it has 
only scattering feathers of the immature plumage on the white 
upper breast and on the flanks. The remaining five are immature 
but seem to be more than 1 year old. The feathers of the upper 
surface are more or less margined with white. All are light under- 
neath, but vary from deep mouse gray on the throat to white streaked 
with deep mouse gray. The wing quills show more or less wear. 
A female had the tip of the bill and the gape dull black, the re- 
mainder of the bill deep mouse gray; crus, toes, and webs black; 
tarsal joint pale green-blue gray; tarsus pale olive gray, with the 
dark and light areas on tarsus and toes sharply delimited. The 
blotching of light and dark was conspicuous, so that it attracted 
attention in handling the birds. The extent of the light patches 
varied considerably, as in some individuals it covered the entire 
tarsus and the hind toe with its nail, while in others part of the 

" Birds of Australia, vol. 2, pt. 5, .Tan. 81, 1913, p. 500. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 131 

tarsus itself was black. One specimen taken had lost the distal por- 
tion of one foot in some ancient injury. 

From November 4 to 7 long-tailed jaegers, acompanied by a few 
parasitic jaegers, were in migration southward along the broad sand 
beach extending southward from Cape San Antonio. On the after- 
noon of November 4 three came drifting slowly down to leave two 
of their number lying on the sand, while the third, more wary, kept 
out of range and continued southward. 

During the two days following a tremendous gale of wind and 
rain made field work useless, so that I was confined to short excur- 
sions about camp. Occasional jaegers passed, keeping low down 
behind the shelter of the dunes, sweeping by at high speed, driven 
by the high velocity of a quartering wind. With fairer weather on 
November 7 the birds increased and were in sight constantly, all in 
silent passage toward some winter range in the south. The number 
that I actually saw during the period of my observations must have 
ranged between 1,200 and 1,500, while the total number of indi- 
viduals that passed was far in excess of this. 

The birds traveled alone or in little groups of three or four, some 
wary and others very tame. They drifted along, frequently scaling 
for long distances or occasionally flapping their wings, never more 
than 50 feet in the air, often only a few feet above the sand. At 
intervals one dropped lightly to the beach near the water mark to 
pick up a few beetles that had drifted ashore after the storm and 
then remained to rest for a few minutes. Others more energetic 
harried the Trudeau's terns with agile wing strokes until they dis- 
gorged their prey of fish on the sand, when the jaeger stooped easily 
to pick it up and then continued its flight. Their steady southward 
movement without pause to circle about or return was most 
impressive. 

Family LARIDAE 

LARUS DOMINICANUS Lichtenstein 

Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 1823, 
p. 82. (Coast of Brazil.) 

In a recent paper Fleming" has named a form of this gull from 
the South Shetland Islands on basis of lighter color. Mathews and 
Iredale ^^ list the black-backed gull of New Zealand as Larus domint 
amus antipodus (Bruch) without comment as to the differences con- 
sidered as a basis for' this subspecific designation. After study of 
an insufficient series of dominicanus that includes specimens from 
both Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South America, New Zealand, 

15 Larus dominicanus austrinus Fleming, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 37, Dec. 
29, 1924, p. 139. (Deception Island, South Shetland Islands.) 
" Ibis, 1913, p. 248. 



132 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

ivnd Kerguelen Island, I do not detect any constant characters that 
may seem to serve to distinguish birds from these localities. The 
gonydeal angle in two specimens from Kerguelen Island is very 
prominent but is approached in this respect by birds from South 
America. Two specimens from New Zealand seem to have the wings 
and mantle somewhat blacker than others, but here again the differ- 
ence may break down when recourse is had to a fair series from else- 
where. The bird from South Shetland I have not examined. On 
the whole, specimens from the scattered localities at hand seem re- 
markably constant in their conformity to one type of coloration. 

The similarity in color and structure between L. doniinicanus and 
L. marinus from North Atlantic and Arctic regions is striking, and 
in final analysis birds from the two regions seem separable by dif- 
ference in size alone so that one may well question the degree of re- 
lationship between the two. In habit and distribution the two are 
complementary one to the other, and it seems logical to conclude 
that they have arisen from one parent stock. Differentiation in the 
two regions has apparently progressed to a point where we may 
recognize the two as full species though the propriety of calling 
them subspecies of one form may be considered. 

Three specimens were taken near Lavalle, Buenos Aiies, a male 
on October 25 and a male and a female on November 3. All are 
in partial immature dress. The male first mentioned above has 
molted in part into adult plumage though worn brown feathers 
are scattered over the dorsal surface, the primaries are still old, 
and only part of the tail has been renewed. The neck and lower 
surface are still more or less mottled. The two secured on Novem- 
ber 3 are less advanced in stage of plumage though dark feathers 
are appearing on the mantle. The female is small, so that when 
I killed it I was under the impression that it w^as an individual of 
some other species. 

In June the Dominican gull, known as gaviota cocinera^ was com- 
mon in the harbors of Rio de Janeiro (June 16), Montevideo, and 
Buenos Aires. At Berazategui, Buenos Aires, a number were re- 
corded along the Rio de la Plata in company with smaller gulls on 
June 29. In the vicinity of the coast near Lavalle, Buenos Aires, 
the species was common from October 25 to November 13. The 
birds ranged along the tidal mouth of the Rio Ajo and in the Bay 
of Samborombon, or occasionally came a few leagues inland in search 
of refuse about the killing pens at the estancias. On the beach 
south of Cape San Antonio they were fairly common. The ma- 
jority seen at this season were in immature dress and those taken 
were not in breeding condition. 

On December 13 I saw a number in the bay at Bahia Blanca, 
where they gathered Avith harsh calls to feed on refuse cast over- 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 133 

board from ships at anchor in the harbor. The species was re- 
corded near Montevideo and Carrasco, Uruguay, on January 9 and 
16, 1921. At nightfall I observed them passing along the coast 
to some resting place to the eastward. A few were observed at La 
Paloma, Rocha, on January 23. Near Guamini, Buenos Aires, on 
March 5 I was rather surprised to observe three in company with 
flocks of Larus maculipennis about the large lake near town. Larus 
doviinicamis was more usual in occurrence near the coast, j^t came 
here about 120 miles inland. 

The species is similar in habits and notes to large gulls of the 
North' rn Hemisphere. 

LARUS MACULIPENNIS Lichtenstein 

Larus maculipennis Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 1823, 
p. 83. (Montevideo.) 

The brown-hooded gull is the most common of the lariform birds 
found on the open pampas. An adult male taken at Lavalle, Bue- 
nos Aires, on October 29, 1920, was in full plumage and about to 
breed. In this bird when freshly killed the bill was Vandyke red; 
margin of eye-lids dull Brazil red; iris Vandyke brown; tarsus 
and toes Vandyke red; and nails dull black. The colors of bill and 
legs have become somewhat duller in the dried skin. One of two 
females secured on the coast 15 miles below Cape San Antonio 
on November 3 is in winter plumage with brown feathers of the 
Juvenal plumage present on the lesser wing-coverts. In the other 
the dark hood is indistinctly outlined on the crown and sides of the 
head, with scattering dark feathers on the throat. In both speci- 
mens the ends of the inner secondaries are grayish brown and the 
tail is tipped with dull black. Both have the feathers of wings 
and tail considerably worn. An adult female secured at the Laguna 
Castillos, near San Vicente, Department of Rocha, Uruguay, on 
January 31, 1921, is in full winter plumage except that the outer 
primaries are being renewed. The plumage of the breast has a faint 
rosy tint. Two adult males in full winter plumage (one prepared 
as a skeleton) were secured at Guamini, Buenos Aires, on March 5, 
and a skull was taken from a dead individual on the same date. 
The skin preserved shows a few pin feathers on the ventral surface. 
From other specimens at hand it appears that the post-breeding 
molt is completed about the end of March. 

The genus C hroicocephalus that has been used for the hooded 
gulls (including L. cirrocephalus and L. maculi'pennis) is seemingly 
based entirely on differences in color and color pattern. Several 
years ago I examined the skeleton of Larus franklini, 'Philadelphia, 
and atricilla, and several species considered to represent typical 
Larus, but after careful study was unable to make out structural 
54207—26 10 



134 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

differences other than those that serve to separate species. As there 
are no structural characters known, either internal or external that 
may be used to diagnose C hroicocephalus I prefer to include the 
two species of hooded gulls treated in the present paper in the genus 
Larus. 

The call notes of the brown-hooded gull suggest those of Larus 
franklini and are entirely different from the cawing calls of L. cir- 
rocepJialus that was associated with it in small numbers. In the 
Province of Buenos Aires maculipennis was common in late June, 
1920, along the Rio de la Plata. Near Berazategui on June 29 these 
birds were abundant in flocks that rested on the muddy beaches or 
flew over the fields inland. Hunters decoyed them within range by 
waving some white object and killed them in numbers for food. 

From October 22 to November IT the brown-hooded gull was 
common in eastern Buenos Aires in the vicinity of Lavalle. At this 
season adults in full plumage Avere found in pairs that stood about 
in the pampa near little pools of water or that came circling over- 
head curiously with a scolding Kek Kek Kek to examine any in- 
truder. At the same time I observed flocks of birds still in winter 
plumage both on the open plains and along the sea beach below 
Cape San Antonio. Apparently part at least of the young may 
require two years to reach sexual maturit}^ and full plumage. 
Occasional adult birds were observed with these flocks. The species 
has a slow, flapping flight and with its short square tail, notes, and 
general appearance is strongly suggestive of Franklin's gull. 

I observed a dozen gulls near General Roca, Rio Negro, on 
November 30, that may have been the present species. At Ingeniero 
White, near Bahia Blanca, on December 13, brown-hooded gulls 
were fairly common over the bay, and near Carhue, Buenos Aires, 
they were found on the shores of Lake Epiquen. Near Montevideo, 
Uruguay, in January the species was common. 

Brown-hooded gulls breed in abundance on rocky islets along the 
coast of the Department of Rocha, eastern Uruguay, and formerly 
it was the practice to raid these colonies to secure (ggs in large 
quantities. In recent years the commission charged with oversight 
of agricultural affairs (the Defensa Agricola) has afforded the gulls 
absolute protection, a step that has been well merited. Near La 
Paloma, the seaport town for the city of Rocha, I saw bands of 
these birds containing as many as 200 individuals feeding in the 
pastures on the abundant grasshoppers. The gulls were gathered 
in close flocks that flew slowly, barely above the earth, and as grass- 
hoppers were discovered dropped to earth to secure them. Those 
from the rear rose continually to fly over their companions to the 
head of the column so that the band drifted slowly along, as though 
blown by the wind, in close though continually shifting formation. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 135 

Such flocks were a usual sight and to their activities may be at- 
tributed the comparative freedom of this region from the plagues 
of locusts that are frequently so destructive elsewhere. The useful 
habits of these gulls are recognized by many farmers, who object to 
hunters who kill the birds, an attitude that may be followed with 
great advantage in other regions. 

Xear San Vicente on January 31 I found brown-headed gulls com- 
mon near the Laguna Castillos where I saw several individuals sick 
or dead from alkali poisoning. This gull was common near the 
large lakes at Guamini, Buenos Aires, from March 3 to 8, and was 
observed in abundance in the marshy region below Cafiuelas. At 
this season adult birds were ragged and disreputable as they were 
in molt. In the majority the body was clothed in winter plumage, 
but wing and tail feathers, more notably the outer primaries, were 
still in process of renewal. Adult and immature individuals, gath- 
ered along the lake shore in flocks that contained as high as 100 
individuals, were wary as they were shot by hunters at every op- 
portunity. A thousand birds or more were seen daily. Flocks fre- 
quently passed out to feed in the pastures and were observed fol- 
lowing plowmen at work in the fields to feed in the freshly turned 
furrows. 

No gulls were observed during my work in the Chaco. 

This species is known in Argentina simply as gaviota. 

LARUS CIRROCEPHALUS Vieillot 

Larus cirrocephahis Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat, vol. 21, 1S18, p. 502. 
(Brazil.) 

The gray-hooded gull was observed only at the Estancia Los 
Yngleses, near Lavalle, Buenos Aires, from November 1 to 10, 1920, 
and at the mouth of the Rio Ajo in the same vicinity on November 
15. An adult female was taken November 1, and an adult male, 
preserved as a skeleton, on November 10. After minute comparison 
of four of these gulls from Buenos Aires, with a series of 27 from 
Africa, all adult, I may only substantiate the observations of others 
and state that, anomalous as it may seem, there is no apparent dif- 
ference between birds from the two localities. Those from South 
America seem very slightly larger but in the series at hand the 
distinction is too slight to be reliable. One may well ponder on 
the conditions that have brought about such a remarkable dis- 
tribution in this species and on the length of time that the two 
groups of individuals have been separated. 

The adult bird is easily distinguished from the brown-hooded gull 
that inhabits the same region by the much lighter head, a difference 
that may be detected in a favorable light at a considerable distance. 
The note of cirrocephalus is a strange caw caw, similar to that of a 



136 BULLETIN 133; UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

crow, and entirely different from that of other gulls that I know in 
life, a call so characteristic that it distinguishes it at once. I found 
the birds in pairs, apparently mated though I saw no nests, that 
frequented the vicinity of the killing pens at Los Yngleses where 
they searched for waste scraps of meat. Others beat back and 
forth across the open pampa or came to hover over a fallen com- 
panion. The flight is steady and direct. The adult female taken 
had the soft parts colored, as follows : Bill madder brown, becoming 
diamine brown at base; iris naphthalene yellow; bare eyelids drag- 
on's-blood red ; tarsus and toes dragon's-blood red ; nails black. The 
light iris in this species is peculiar. 

GELOCHELIDON NILOTICA (Gmelin). 

Sterna nilotica Gmelin, Syst. Nat., vol. 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 606. (Egypt.) 

The gull-billed tern was found in small numbers. At the port 
of Ingeniero White, a few kilometers from the city of Bahia 
Blanca, Buenos Aires, I watched about 50 on December 13, 1920, 
as they fed over shallow bays or rested on muddy points. They 
circled about with chattering calls, frequently diving for small fishes 
in the tidal channels. One flew over my head with one of the 
abundant crabs {C hasmagiiathus granulata) in its bill and after 
alighting in shallow water pulled off the animal's claws and then 
swallowed it. Six or eight gull-billed terns were observed at Lake 
Epiquen near Carhue, Buenos Aires, on December 15 and 18, and 
several were noted in company with Royal Terns below Carrasco, 
near Montevideo, Uruguay, on January 9, 1921, 

Mathews ^^ has separated gull-billed terns from South America 
as Gelochelidon n. gronvoldi stating that they differ from North 
American birds Gelochelidon n. aranea (Wilson) in longer bill and 
wing. It is unfortunate that I secured no specimens of the South 
American bird as there are none available in the National Museum. 
Gull-billed terns are said to nest on Mexiana Island near the mouth 
of the Amazon, and along the coast of Brazil, while the winter home 
of the North American bird is not certainly known. Southern 
records may therefore not be allocated under subspecies without 
study of specimens. 

This tern was first properly designated by Linnaeus in Hassel- 
quist's Reise Palastinum, German translation (1762, p. 325). Ac- 
cording to opinion 57 of the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature names in this work are untenable as the first edition 
appeared in 1757. It hardly seems that this attitude is proper, 
however, since binomial nomenclature is taken as beginning on 
January 1, 1758, and this German translation appeared four years 

"Birds of Australia, vol. 2, pt. 3, Sept. 20, 1912, p. 3H1. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 137 

subsequent to that date. As Dr. L. Stejneger has pointed out in 
a dissenting opinion accompanying this action of the International 
Committee the names given in the edition for 1762 fulfill all of 
the conditions imposed by the code to make them eligible. 

STERNA TRUDEAUI Audubon 

Sterna trudeaui Audubon, J. J., Birds of America (folio), vol. 4, 1S38, 
no. 82, pi. 409, fig. 2. (Great Egg Harbor, N. J.) 

Trudeau's tern was locally common in eastern and southern Buenos 
Aires and near the coast in eastern Uruguay, but was not recorded 
elsewhere. It was first noted on October 21, 1920, near Dolores in 
eastern Buenos Aires, where I recorded a dozen or more in pairs 
that flew back and forth along a drainage canal cut through a 
marsh. As two passed near at hand I killed the female with a 
shot from my collecting pistol. Near Lavalle the species was fairly 
common from October 25 to November 15, and a second female was 
secured on November 4. One shot October 31 was preserved as a 
skeleton. Near Carrasco, east of Montevideo, Uruguay, one was 
seen January 9, 1921, and on January 16 the birds were common. 
The skull of a dead bird that had washed ashore was secured on 
the latter date. One was observed on the coast at La Paloma below 
Eocha, Uruguay, on January 23, and about 20 were recorded Janu- 
ary 31 at the Laguna Castillos below San Vicente. One was se- 
cured there in a helpless condition from alkali poisoning. Near 
Guamini, Buenos Aires, from March 3 to 8 the species was fairly 
common on the borders of the large lagoons. It was not unusual 
to find 100 or more gathered in company with gulls. This point 
was the farthest inland at which I noted the species, as elsewhere 
it was foimd only along the coast or in level marshy areas near tide 
water. 

Trudeau's tern in flight and general actions is similar to other 
smooth-headed terns. As the birds beat back and forth with zigzag 
flight along shallow channels they darted down at intervals to secure 
small fish that appeared in the water within striking distance. 
When they were not feeding they gathered in close flocks to rest 
on some sandy beach or point near water. Below Cape San Antonio 
parasitic and long-tailed jaegers harried them and made them 
disgorge. Once or twice I noted hooded gulls in similar attempts, 
but in each case the tern with seeming ease eluded its less agile 
pursuer. 

The call notes of Trudeau's tern are sharp and explosive and 
suggest in many ways the sounds emitted by Forster's tern, a species 
that the present one suggests strongly in life. A usual call was a 
sharp tik tik tik, changed when birds became angry or excited to 
a drawn out keh-h-h. As birds in full plumage approach across 



138 BULLETIN 133;, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

the level expanses of the broad marshes or along some open sea 
beach they appear plain gray, with light head and a prominent 
dark mark through the eye. In winter the undersurface of the 
body is entirely white. At times they were wary but were enticed 
within range by a white bird or a handkerchief waved in the air. 
Near Lavalle through inquiry I located a small breeding colony of 
the gaviotina^ as these terns were known locally, where the birds 
were associated with gulls, but before I was able to visit it the 
ternery was raided by boys who sold the eggs to the local baker 
for use in preparing cakes. 

The two females secured for skins in October and November 
were in full breeding plumage. In one the back of the crown is 
washed with gray of the same shade as the back in the form of 
a transverse bar. In this specimen, an adult, the soft parts were 
colored as follows: Tip of bill cinnamon buff, base between zinc 
orange and tawny, band across distal third black; iris Vandyke 
brown ; tarsus and toes zinc orange, the scutes clouded with fuscous ; 
nails blackish. In winter plumage the bill is black tipped with 
yellowish, a condition that suggests Cabot's tern, from which the 
present species may be distinguished readily in the field by its 
lack of a nuchal crest. A female, apparently adult, secured on 
January 31, is in the winter plumage as the bill is black at the base 
and the undersurface of the body is entirely white. The primaries 
in part had been renewed recently but the outer ones were much 
worn and broken. Measurements of the two adult females in full 
plumage are as follows: Wings, 255-26G; tail, 139-135; exposed 
culmen, 41.8-42.5 ; tarsus, 24-24.5 mm. 

STERNA HIRUNDINACEA Lesson 

Sterna Mrundmacea Lesson, R. P., Traits d'Ornith., 1831, p. 621. (Coast 
of Brazil.) 

On November 4, 1920, I found 20 or more on the beach below 
Cape San Antonio, eastern Buenos Aires, mixed among flocks of 
Trudeau's tern. The birds were wary and difficult to approach as 
they rested in close flocks in the sand. At rest or on the wing they 
suggested Forster's or common terns, but appeared larger. A female 
secured had the forehead and part of the lores white with slight 
mottlings of white throughout the otherwise black crown. The 
wing feathers and tail were considerably worn. The soft parts 
in this specimen were colored as follows : Bill slightly darker than 
jasper red, space behind nostril dusky neutral gray; iris natal 
brown; tarsus and toes jasper red, webs scarlet, nails black. A male 
secured at the same time is in worn immature plumage, with the 
nape and upper hind neck clouded with blackish, and the lesser 
wing coverts dusky. The wing feathers were considerably worn, 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 139 

while the elongate tips of the outer tail feathers had been entirely 
lost. 

At Guamini, Buenos Aires, on March 7, 1921, I saw a flock of 
10 slender, black-capped terns that seemed to be the present species, 
but I did not approach near enough to them to secure specimens. 

STERNA SUPERCILIARIS Vieillot 

Sterna supcrciliaris Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 32, 1819, p. 176. 
(Paraguay.) 

This handsome little tern Avas seen first at Puerto Pinasco, Para- 
guay, on September 3, 1920, when one was observed feeding along 
an estero near the Paraguay River. On September 30 in the same 
vicinity I encountered two that rested on dead stubs in the water or 
circled about in the air. A carancho {Polyhoms p. hrasiliensis) 
passed overhead and one of the terns pursued it for some time with 
sharp metallic cries. A male in full adult plumage was tolled 
within range by waving a hankerchief. On January 9, 1921, on 
the beach near Carrasco, east of Montevideo, Uruguay, I encountered 
two pairs of these small terns, evidently on their nesting grounds as 
they darted constantly at my head with complaining cries until I 
had passed beyond their bounds. On January 31 near San Vicente, 
in the Department of Rocha, I found a dozen, all immature, beating 
back and forth over the Laguna Castillos in company with Trudeau's 
terns. Though young these birds were expert as fishermen, and were 
so wary that I had difficulty in shooting one. The bill in this speci- 
men, a female, is not yet fully formed as it is only three-fourths as 
long as that of adults. The bird is still in mottled juvenal plumage. 

In habits and form this species is suggestive of the least tern and 
frequents similar localities along large fresh-water streams or sea 
beaches. 

The adult male secured had the soft parts colored as follows: Bill 
wax yellow ; tarsus and toes, olive ocher ; crus, yelloAvish olive ; claws, 
black ; iris. Rood's brown. Measurements of this specimen are : 
Wing, 189; tail, 82; exposed culmen, 36.6; tarsus, 16.8 mm. 

In a small series birds from Colombia and British Guiana seem 
a trifle smaller than those from Paraguay. 

THALASSEUS MAXIMUS MAXIMUS (Boddaert) 

Sterna maxima Boddaert, Tabl. Plaucb. Enl. d'Hist. Nat., 1783, p. 58. 
(Cayenne.) 

On November 4, 1920, I shot a male royal tern on the beach 24 
kilometers below Cape San Antonio, on the coast of the Province of 
Buenos Aires. The bird was found in company with smaller terns. 
November 15 several were noted in the mouth of Rio Ajo and in 



140 BULLETIN 133^ UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

the small indentation of the Bahia de Samborombon into which it 
opens, below Lavalle, Buenos Aires. On January 9, 1921, 40 or 
more were recorded at Carrasco, a bathing resort a few kilometers 
east of Montevideo, Uruguay, and on January 16 others were seen 
in the same locality. The male secured had the soft parts colored 
as follows: Bill, between flesh-ocher and rufous; iris, natal brown; 
tarsus, black with a few of the scutes marked with vinaceous russet ; 
underside of toes, ochraceous orange. The bird was in full plumage. 

PHAETUSA SIMPLEX CHLOROPODA (Vieillot) 

Sterna chloropoda Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 32, 1819, p. 171. 
(Paraguay.) 

The large-billed tern was fairly common near the Rio Paraguay. 
At Las Palmas, Chaco, it was seen in small numbers about lagoons 
from July 23 to 31. On July 26 two were observed resting on a flat 
clump of grass and one, an adult female, was taken. At Puerto 
Pinasco several were observed over the Paraguay River on Septenj- 
ber 3, and from September 6 to 21 occasional birds were recorded 
west of that point at lagoons near the ranch at Kilometer 80. They 
were seen frequently in steamer travel along the river, the last being 
noted at Villa Concepcion, Paragua}^, on October 3. 

These birds on the wing appear more robust than other terns, an 
appearance heightened by the strong, heavy bill. They frequenth' 
swing up to an intruder and examine him curiously or scold vigor- 
ously with harsh raucous calls. At such times the light-colored bill 
is prominent. 

The soft parts in the adult female secured were colored as follows : 
Bill lemon chrome, becoming light cadmium at base of culmen; 
tongue and inside of bill lemon chrome, becoming cress green toward 
the fauces ; iris fuscous ; tarsus and toes primuline yellow ; claws dull 
black at tip, changing at base to gray number 7. 

Large-billed terns from the northern portion of South America 
have the upper surface varying from darker than neutral gray to 
dark neutral gray, while in specimens from Paraguay and northern 
Argentina (Chaco) the hind neck, back, scapulars, lesser wing 
coverts, and tail are between light neutral gray and neutral gray. 
The evident differences separate birds from the two regions as well- 
marked subspecies. 

/Sterna simplex of Gmelin ^^ has been referred doubtfully to the 
present species by several writers. It is based on the simple tern of 
Latham ^^ from Cayenne. Turning to the original citation in 
Latham it is found that the bird described is evidently in immature 
plumage. The points given agree perfectly with those of the young 

18 Syst. Nat., vol. 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 606. 

'9 Gen. Syn. Birds, vol. 3, pt. 2, 1785, p. 355. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 141 

of the present species save that the crown is described as nearly 
white and the legs as red. The crown in the immature large-billed 
tern is pale gray, while the feet are yellow. The size, color of the 
wing coverts, large bill, and forking of the tail are those of Phaetxisa, 
and the head, while not true white, is lighter than the back and 
might be characterized as " nearly white." It is my opinion that the 
present species may be recognized from this description, which can 
not refer to any other tern of this region. Gmelin in translating 
Latham's English into Latin wrote "vertice * * * alba," but 
this has no consequence, as Gmelin had no specimens but simply 
took what Latham had said regarding the bird. The " variety a " 
of Latham's simple tern which follows refers to some other species. 

The name of the large-billed tern, therefore, becomes Phaetufsa 
svrnplex Gmelin with the type locality Cayenne. The southern form 
will stand as Phaetusa s. chloropoda Vieillot. Sterna hrevirostris 
Vieillot^" based on the hati fico corto of Azara, a name that has 
been assigned doubtfully to the present bird, is based on the imma- 
ture of some other species. Otherwise it would have priority over 
chloropoda. 

Specimens of the northern form have been seen (in the collections 
of the United States National Museum, the Field Museum of Natural 
History, the Academy of Natural Sciences, and the Museum of Com.- 
parative Zoology) from Colombia (Barranquilla), Venezuela (Punta 
Caiman, Manimo River, Eio Uracoa, Aruba Island, Lake Valencia), 
British Guiana (Georgetown), Dutch Guiana (Braamspunt, Tyger- 
bank, Diana Creek), and Brazil (Serra Grande and Conceicao, 
Amazonas, Santarem and Pernambuco). The southern form is rep- 
sented in the Museum of Comparative Zoologj^ bj^ skins from Con- 
cepcion del Uruguay . (collected by Barrows) in addition to the 
localities that have been noted. It seems probable that P. s. chloro- 
poda is found in the Paraguay-Parana drainage and that P. s. sim- 
plex covers the river basins of northern South America. 

Family JACANIDAE 

JACANA JACANA (Linnaeus) 
Parra jacana Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, vol. 1, 1766, p. 259. (Surinam.") 

The jacana, common in the Chaco and in parts of Uruguay, was 
recorded at the following points : Resistencia, Chaco, July 9 and 10, 
1920; Las Palma.5, Chaco, July 17 to 31; Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, 
August 9 to 17; Formosa, Formosa, August 23; Puerto Pinasco, 
Paraguay, September 1 to 30 (found from the Rio Paraguay, west 

^Nouv. Diet Hist. Nat, vol. 32, 1819, p. 16C. 

^ See Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zoo!., vol. 0, .Vpril, 1002, p. 121). 



142 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

for 200 kilometers) ; Lazcano, Urug'uay, February 7, 1921 ; Rio 
Negro, Uruguay, February 18; Rio Lules, near Tucuman, Tucuinan. 
April 1. At Las Palmas, Chaco, a male and two females (one pre- 
served as a skeleton) were shot July 23, a male was taken at the 
Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, August 9, a female at Puerto Pinasco, 
Paraguay, September 8, and a male at Lazcano, Uruguay, Febru- 
ary 7. 

Specimens from Demerara and north Brazil appear darker than 
those from the south, but the series available shows some variation 
in this respect. 

The aguajyiaso, a name for the jacana that has persisted since the 
days of Azara and his friend Noseda, was found at times where 
masses of floating vegetation choked narrow winding esteros 
through the forests but more frequently was seen at the borders of 
open lagoons. The birds frequented areas where aquatic plants cov- 
ered the surface of the water so thickly as to present the deceptive 
appearance of solid ground, where with their long widely spread 
toes the jacanas sank only to a slight distance. In such situations, 
though they walked about with long strides, apparently preoccu- 
pied with momentous affairs, the sight of a hawk in the distance 
was sufficient to send all scurrying to cover in the rushes. At times 
oO or 40 jacanas were found scattered in little groups over an exten- 
sive area. Though social and gregarious, they resented too close 
approach on the part of their fellows with cackling calls and 
threatening, upraised wings quivering above their bodies. Where 
Avasherwomen came daily to wash piles of clothing that they bal- 
anced expertly on their heads while working, in lieu of other dry 
places to pile them, jacanas became tame and paid little attention 
to men. In the central Chaco as the marshes dried during the win- 
ter season the birds were restricted in range, and it was not unusual 
to see them about ponds and mudholes surrounded by the thatch 
huts of peons where the birds mingled with domestic ducks and 
chickens of the door yards. 

As jacanas walk about over the water hyacinth and other growths 
one may get a suggestion of red or brown in the plumage, but on the 
whole they are as inconspicuous as most other waders, so that the 
flash of greenish yellow as they spread their wings in flight or ex- 
tend them, perhaps as a signal, above their backs is always a pleas- 
ant surprise. In flight the rapidly moving wings form a strongly 
contrasted color patch on either side of the body. In general ap- 
pearance they suggest long-legged gallinules as they stalk about, a 
resemblance that remains as they fly with neck and legs extended. 
While feeding the birds often pull over bits of vegetation and then 
peer at the exposed leaves. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 143 

A female shot September 8 at Kilometer 80, west of Puerto 
Pinasco, Paraguay, had the ovaries enlarged and was near the 
period of oviposition. At Rio Negro, Uruguay, on February 18 a 
fully grown yolingster was still under the anxious care of its 
parents. Although the adults, as demonstrative as avocets under 
similar circumstances, fearlessly ran or flew after me with clatter- 
ing scolding calls, or when I looked in their direction lay prostrate 
with feebly fluttering wings to draw my attention, the young, con- 
spicuous in its light plumage, watched me suspiciously and kept 
well out of range. 

Jacanas are silent unless on the alert, when they utter a variety 
of grunting calls or a whistled alarm, or when bickering among 
themselves give vent to displeasure in scolding, clattering notes. 

An adult male, when shot on July 23, had the base of the maxilla, 
rictal lappets, and the frontal leaflet mineral red ; rest of bill cinna- 
mon, becoming more yellow below, and tinged with slate at tip ; iris 
A'^ery dark brown; tarsus deep neutral gray; posterior face of crus 
tinged with vetiver green ; toes dusky brown. 

Family RECURVIROSTRIDAE 

HIMANTOPUS MELANURUS Vieillot 

Himantopus melanurus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 10, 1817, p. 42. 
(Paraguay.) 

Near Santa Fe, in the Province of Santa Fe, on July 4, 1920, the 
stilt was observed in flocks on marshy ground in the lowlands that 
border the Rio Parana and on the following day from the train was 
noted at intervals in suitable localities between Vera, Santa Fe, and 
Charadai, Chaco. On July 26 two came to a lagoon near Las 
Palmas, Chaco, but were too wild to allow near approach. Near 
Kilometer 80, west of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, stilts visited a 
lagoon near the ranch house on September 6, 13, and 20, but did not. 
frequent it or others near by regularly. As this happened also at 
Las Palmas it would appear that they may wander during winter 
to some extent. Two were shot at Kilometer 80 on September 6, and 
two more on September 20. The Anguete Indians called them keh 
tsay a nah^ while in Guarani they were designated as ta too. In 
the Chaco stilts were found only about the more open lagoons and 
did not occur about those with borders heavily grown with rushes. 

In the vicinity of Lavalle, eastern Buenos Aires, stilts were seen 
from October 22 to November 15, but were not very common, though 
the open ponds and marshes of that region were well suited for their 
needs. They were seen on the coastal mud flats at the mouth of the 
Rio Ajo. It is probable that increase in grazing and cultivation has 
caused a decrease in their numbers, and, as the birds are large and 



144 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

conspicuous, that they have suffered extensively at the hands of gun- 
ners. On December 15 nearly 100 were noted in a close flock in an 
indentation on the shore of Lake Epiquen near Carhue, Buenos 
Aires. On the following day a few pairs seen on partly inundated 
land on the lake shore seemed to be on their breeding grounds and 
may have had eggs or young as they ran about with rapidly waving 
wings and scolding calls. A few were recorded here on December 
17 and 18. Near Guamini, in this same region, stilts were common 
from March 3 to 8 in close flocks or scattered bands that fed in 
shallow pools or bays. These flocks consisted of young and old 
that apparently had banded together in preparation for migration. 
Adults were still somewhat anxious about their young, though the 
latter were fully grown, and scolded sharply with barking calls that 
were answered by the whistled notes of their offspring. A pair of 
adults taken were molting the primaries. The birds are similar in 
appearance and carriage to the black-necked stilt {Himantojni^H mexi- 
canus). They walk about slowly in mud or shallow water with 
heads bent in search for food, seldom wading where the water is 
deep in spite of their extraordinary length of leg. Though ordi- 
narily inoffensive, they sometimes drive the young about after the 
latter are fully grown, or may fly at them and force them to lie 
prostrate to avoid being struck. 

A male in first year plumage with gray crown and brownish gray 
back, taken September 6, had the bill black; iris orange chrome; 
tarsus and toes flesh pink, washed with pale quaker drab at joints. 

In a small series there is no difference apparent in birds from 
Chile, Peru, Paraguay, and Argentina. 

Family HAEMATOPODIDAE 

HAEMATOPUS PALLIATUS Tcmminck 

Haematopus palliatus Temminck, Man. Orn., ed. 2, vol. 2, 1820, p. 532. 
(South America.) 

Although on the morning of June 16, 1920, as the steamer came 
in toward the wharf in the harbor of Rio de Janeiro, seven oyster 
catchers circled past barely above the low waves, I did not have 
opportunity to observe and watch these birds further until I reached 
the coast of the Province of Buenos Aires in late October. Two 
were seen on the mud banks at the mouth of the Rio Ajo below La- 
valle on October 25, and from November 3 to 7 they were fairly 
common on the broad sand beach that extends southward for many 
miles below Cape San Antonio. Here oyster catchers in pairs fed 
in the shallow sweep of the surf, often where waves of more mo- 
mentum than usual came nearly to their bodies. The birds walked 
slowly, with necks drawn in and heads inclined forward, seldom 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 145 

extending the neck to full length unless on the wing. Their flight 
was swift and direct, usually only a few feet above the sand, but 
not infrequently, to avoid me, in a semicircle that carried them 
over the dunes or out over the sea. 

They were difficult to kill at any great distance because of their 
dense plumage and heavily muscled bodies. A female and two males 
were shot on November 3, and a second female on the day that 
followed. The nesting season was about at hand, and it is probable 
that some had eggs at that season, as females shot were nearly ready 
to lay. One male in mating ardor pursued a female in swift flight 
that carried them turning and dodging over the dunes along the 
beach until the birds were lost to sight. On November 15, at the 
mouth of the Rio Ajo again, where several oyster catchers were 
seen, one pair had a nest somewhere on a small strip of sandy beach. 
I hid behind a clump of grass and watched from a distance, but 
though the birds returned in a short time, I failed to locate either 
eggs or young. 

At Ingeniero White, on December 13, an oyster catcher was eating 
small crabs that it pursued quickly across the mud or secured by 
pulling them out of holes sunk in the clay. Four oyster catchers 
were recorded on the coast near Montevideo, Uruguay, on January 
16, 1921, and several noted on the sandy beach at La Paloma, Rocha, 
on January 23, may have had young, as they circled past me with 
shrill whistles. The species is known locally as teru de la costa. 

An adult female shot November 3 had the center of the bill be- 
tween scarlet red and jasper red, shading at base to a color between 
bittersweet orange and flame scarlet, and at extreme tip to anti- 
mony yellow; bare eyelids slightly darker than orange chrome; iris 
cadmium yellow; tarsus and toes cartridge buff; nails buff. 

The specimens taken, which have been placed in Doctor Murphy's 
hands for study, are assumed to be the subspecies duinfordi of 
Sharpe, but definite allocation is delayed pending his forthcoming 
revision. 

Family PHALAROPODIDAE 

STEGANOPUS TKICOLOR VieiUot 

Steganopus tiHcolor Vieuxot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 32, 1819, p. 136. 
(Paraguay.) 

Wilson's phalarope was recorded first at the mouth of the Rio 
Ajo below Lavalle, Buenos Aires, on November 15, 1920, when four 
were seen feeding on a mud bank. Later a flock of a dozen circled 
past with soft honking calls and a female in full winter plumage 
was taken. At Carhue, Buenos Aires, 40 were recorded December 
15 in company with les.ser yellowlegs on mud bars in a brackish 
water marsh behind a fringe of rushes that bordered Lake Epiquen, 



146 BULLETIN 133^ UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

where they had some protection from the gales that swept the 
pampa. A dozen were noted here on December 16 and more on 
December 18. 

Family SCOLOPACIDAE 

PHAEOPUS HUDSONICUS (Latham) 

Numenius hudsonicus Latham, Index Orn., vol. 2, 1790, p. 712. (Hudson 
Bay.) 

One was recorded on the beach at Concon, Cliile, April 25, 1921. 

RARTRAMIA LONGICAUDA (Bechstein) 

Tringa longicauda Bechstein, in Latham, Allg. Ueb. Vogel, vol. 4, pt. 2, 
1812, p. 453. (North America.) 

Formerly abundant, the upland plover is now rare in the re<2:ion 
where it spends the period of northern winter. Its winter range 
on the open pampa is a region so vast that it is difficult to form a 
proper estimate of the actual number of individuals of the species 
that remain. , Among epicures the species has inherited in part the 
name and reputation of the Eskimo curlew and is sought con- 
stantly by gunners to supply that demand. The few that survive 
frequent remote regions on some of the large estancias where they 
are secure until they leave their seclusion and begin their return 
flight northward. The majority of those that I noted were identi- 
fied by their liquid calls, heard, as is the case in Washington, as 
they passed at night. 

They were noted first at Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, on September 
29, 1920, when several passed in the evening driving southward 
over the Paraguay River. Others were recorded at Villa Con- 
cepcion, Paraguay, on October 3, also in passage down river. Dur- 
ing October, November, and December none were recorded, a sig- 
nificant indication of the present-day rarity of the species, as dur- 
ing this period I traversed hundreds of miles of pampa where the 
birds had formerly been abundant. Not until the spring migra- 
tion northward began did I again note the upland plover. 

The first was seen at La Paloma, below Rocha, Urugay, on Jan- 
uary 23, 1921. On February 7, near Lazcano, Uruguay, two passed 
at daybreak driving directly northward, and another in similar 
flight was heard about 10 in the evening on February 22 at Con- 
cordia, Entre Rios. 

During the latter part of February and the first half of March, 
batitu, as the bird is Imown locally, was a regular item on the bill 
of fare in the better class hotels and restaurants in the city of 
Buenos Aires. I was told that now they were difficult to secure 
as few were offered for sale. The game market was closed by law 
at this season so that the birds were not offered openly, but reached 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 147 

the hotels in a surreptitious manner. As game birds were served 
with head and tarsus intact it was a simple matter to determine that 
the birds offered were actually upland plover and not other shore 
birds, as I proved by ordering them on various occasions. Once 
my waiter brought two to show me that had been plucked and 
cleaned, but were still uncooked. The price charged for a portion 
was a peso and thirty or forty centavos, about 65 cents in our 
currency. I was told that the birds were so scarce that they were 
secured only by those gunners familiar with places where the 
upland plover alighted when in migration. 

Two were seen near Ezeiza, Buenos Aires, on March 2; at Gua- 
mini, Buenos Aires, two were recorded in northward flight, high 
in the air on March 3, and two more on March 4. At Tucuman, 
Tucuman, five were heard early in the evening of April 1 as they 
passed over the city traveling due north during a slow rain accom- 
panied by heavy mist. On the night of April 5 under similar con- 
ditions an extensive flight of shore birds began at a quarter of 10 
and continued until half past 11. During this period* J. L. Peters, 
with whom I was traveling at the time, and I identified the call 
of the upland plover from 38 individuals. The birds were in com- 
pany with yellowlegs, solitary sandpipers, and a few golden plover. 
How many passed unheard in the darkness there was no way to 
know. The calling of these birds when in northward migration 
was a phenomenon of common knowledge in Tucuman during that 
season in the year, but all commented upon the fact that the birds 
seemed to have decreased greatly in abundance in recent years. 

In conclusion I may say that while the upland plover was re- 
corded on various occasions this took place when the birds Avere in 
flight and that though special search was made I was not fortunate 
enough to discover an area where the birds were in residence. As, 
like the Eskimo curlew, a species that I did not meet, the Bartramian 
sandpiper inhabits the drier uplands it is i^robable that difference 
in ecological conditions due to intensive cultivation and grazing 
have wrought such great changes in the more primitive conditions 
found on the pampa in its original state that the birds are unable 
to adjust themselves to them and have been slowly crowded out, 
where other destruction has not overtaken them. 

ACTITIS MACULARIA (Linnaeus) 

Tringa macularm Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, vol. 1, 17G6, p. 249. 
(Pennsylvania.) 

On October 25, 1920, near the mouth of the Rio Ajo below Lavalle, 
Buenos Aires, I saw the familiar form of a spotted sandpiper teeter- 
ing on a projection at the base of a cut bank of clay. The bird 
proved to be an immature female. The species had been taken once 



148 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

previously in Aroentina near Concepcion, Tucuman, on March 4, 
1918," but the present record is the farthest sonth at which the 
spotted sandpiper has been Imown. (The statement in El Hornero 
that my specimen was secured at Cape San Antonio was due to a 
misunderstanding on the part of Doctor Dabbene.) 

TRINGA SOLITARIA CINNAMOMEA (Brewster) 

Totamis solitarius clnnamomeus Brewster, Auk, vol. 7, 1890, p. 377. (San 
Jose del Cabo, Lower California.) 

As has been said in the account under Totanus melanoleucus, the 
solitary sandpiper belongs with the wood sandpiper in Trlnga, a 
genus of tringine sandpipers characterized by a tAvo-notched meta- 
sternum, with the nasal groove extended for two-thirds or less of 
the maxilla. 

The solitary sandpiper in its southward migration reached For- 
mosa, Formosa, on the Rio Paraguay, on August 23, 1920, when 
three were found on overflowed ground along a slough tributary to 
the Paraguay. The birds were silent and walked so quietly along 
the borders of the pools, often where overhung by brush or grass, that 
they might easily have been overlooked. An adult female that I 
shot was thin in flesh, and from other indications I was certain that 
these birds had just arrived. At Kilometer 80, west of Puerto Pi- 
nasco, Paragua}^, solitary sandpipers passed southward, stopping 
occasionally at the lagoons, from September 6 to 21, and on Septem- 
ber 24 and 25 a number were seen at Laguna Wall at a point 200 
kilometers west of the river. The species was not recorded during 
spring and summer on the pampas, and was not seen again until 
December 3, when a male was killed on the Rio Negro, near Gen- 
eral Roca, Rio Negro, where it was found amid scattered willows on 
a muddy shore from which water had recently receded. Apparently 
this is the farthest south from which the species has been recorded. 
At Lazcano, Rocha, from February 2 to 8, solitary sandpipers were 
in migration in small numbers and were traveling northeastward 
along the Rio Cebollati toward the coast. A female was taken Feb- 
ruary 7. One was recorded at Rio Negro, Uruguay, on February 17, 
and one was seen at a roadside pool near General Campos, in Entre 
Rios, Argentina, on February 23. Another was noted at 2.5 de Mayo, 
Buenos Aires, March 2. During the night of April 5 at Tucuman, 
Tucuman, the call of this species was heard frequently among the 
notes from the great flight of waders that passed northward over 
the city. At this southern end of their range the solitary sandpiper 
frequents the margins of shallow pools as in the north, often in 
localities unsought by other waders. I found it far from common. 

" El Hornero, vol. 2, December, 1920, p. 124. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 149 

The specimens taken at Formosa and General Roca belon<^ cer- 
tainly to the western form, on the basis of size (male, wing, 134.3; 
female, wing, 136.7 mm.), dorsal coloration, and the presence of 
mottling on the inner web of the outer primary. A female from 
Lazcano, Uruguay, has molted the outer primaries, but on the basis 
of other measurements and on the presence of some dark butf mot- 
tling on the back seems Avithin the limit of variation of cinnaniomea 
and is identified as the same as the other two. Though the typical 
subspecies solitaria is recorded definitely from Colombia by Chap- 
man,^^ these findings seem to cast a doubt on its presence as far south 
as Argentina. 

A specimen taken August 23, newly arrived from the north, shows 
no indication of molt. One on December 3 has begun the renewal 
of feathers on the side of the breast and the wing coverts, but has not 
yet shed the flight feathers. On February 7 one has the wing 
feathers, including the coverts, renewed with the bodj'^ plumage save 
on head, neck, and back mainly new. The species seems to have a 
complete molt during the period of northern winter. 

TOTANUS FLAVIPES (Gmelin) 

Scolopax flavipes Gmelin, Syst. Nat, vol. 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 659. (New 
York.) 

On July 31, 1920, at Las Palmas, Chaco, three lesser yellowlegs, 
the earliest of the northern migrants, appeared at a lagoon during a 
heavy wind. It may have been imagination, but to me it appeared 
that they flew slowly as though tired, suggesting that they had just 
arrived from the north. From September 5 to 21 the species was in 
steady migration southward at Kilometer 80, west of Puerto Pi- 
nasco, Paraguay, and on September 24 and 25 it was common with 
other shore birds at Laguna Wall, 120 kilometers farther west. 
Elsewhere the species was recorded as follows : Dolores to Lavalle, 
Buenos Aires, October 23, many; Lavalle, Buenos Aires, October 
29 to November 15 ; General Roca, Rio Negro, November 23 ; Carhue, 
Buenos Aires, December 15 to 18 ; San Vicente, Uruguay, January 
31, 1921; Lazcano, Rocha, February 5 to 9; 25 de Mayo, Buenos 
Aires, March 2; Guamini, Buenos Aires, March 3 to 8; Tunuyan 
Mendoza, March 23 to 28; Simoca, Tucuman, April 1; Tucuman, 
Tucuman, April 5; Tapia, Tucuman, April 13; and Tafi Viejo, 
Tucuman, April 15. 

The lesser yellowlegs was wide spread in distribution after Oc- 
tober and was more abundant on the whole than Totanus r/iclanolcu- 
cus. The birds frequented the shores of open lagoons, shallow pools, 
or coastal mud flats, and though found distributed singly or two or 
three together it was not unusual to encounter them in larger bands 

^ Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 36, 1917, p. 223. 



150 BULLETIN 133^ UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

that might contain 100 individuals. On their wintering grounds 
they were rather silent, but with the opening of northward migration 
resumed their habit of uttering musical though noisy calls when 
disturbed in any manner. On the pampas they congregated during 
drier seasons about lagoons and flocks often sought refuge from the 
violent winds that swept the open plains behind scant screens of 
rushes. After any general rain these flocks dispersed to pools of 
rain water in the pastures, where insect food was easily available. 
The winter population was thus not stationary, but shifted con- 
stantly with changes in the weather. By the first of March the 
lesser yellowlegs had begun their northward movement and numbers 
were found near Guamini, where they paused to rest after a north- 
ward flight from Patagonia. In their case, as in that of other 
migrant species from North America, it was instructive to note that 
the migration southward came in September and October when the 
birds traveled southward with the unfolding of the southern spring 
and that the return northward was initiated by the approach of 
rigorous weather in faraway Patagonia. Migrant flocks, many of 
whose members offered sad evidence of inhospitable treatment at the 
hands of Argentine gunners in the shape of broken or missing legs, 
were noted on the plains of Mendoza, near the base of the Andes, in 
March. And during early April the migration became a veritable 
rush so that on the night of April 5, at Tucuman, the air was filled 
with the cries of these and other waders in steady flight northward 
above the city. 

The lesser yellowlegs seems to undergo a complete winter molt 
while in the south. Two females secured September 6 and 21 at 
Kilometer 80, Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, have both body and flight 
feathers worn. A female from Lazcano, Uruguay, taken February 
7, is renewing the two outermost primaries in either wing. The 
other primaries, the secondaries, and the tertials, as well as the wing 
coverts, are new feathers, and the body plumage is in process of 
renewal. Another female killed at Guamini March 8 has the wing 
feathers entirely replaced and new plumage appearing on the body. 

Like the greater yellowlegs, Totanus flavipes has been reported in 
Argentina from May to August, but it must be assumed, on the basis 
of crippled individuals. 

The generic relationships of this species have been discussed in the 
account of its larger brother T. nielamoleucus. 

TOTANUS MELANOLEUCUS (Gmelin) 

Scolopax melanoleuca Gmelin, Syst. Nat., vol. 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 659. (Cha- 
teau Bay, Labrador.) 

The generic relationship of the two yellowlegs to one another and 
to related shore birds has been subject to considerable difference of 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 151 

opinion. Mathews "* used the genus Iliornis of Kaup for the little 
greenshank, and remarks (p. 199) that "the species T. fiavipes seems 
to fall easily into the genus Iliornis.'''' Further ^^ he unites the greater 
yellowlegs with Glottis nebularius in the genus Glottis. Mr. Ridg- 
way -^ has segregated the two yellowlegs in the genus Neoglottis. 
Doctor Hartert ^^ has united them in the genus Tringa with eleven 
other species, namely, incana, totarms, guttifer, ergthropus, nehularia, 
ochropus, soUtaria, hypoleucos, macularia, stagnatilis, and glareola. 

Comparison of the greater and lesser yellowlegs fails to reveal 
characters of generic value that may serve to separate them. Save 
that the bill may be a trifle shorter in relation to the length of tarsus 
the lesser yellowlegs is practically a miniature of the greater. 
Mathew's suggestion that the two are not congeneric may be dis- 
missed as untenable. 

With due respect to Mr. Ridgway's opinion I do not believe that 
the two yellowlegs may be separated successfully in a generic sense 
from Totanus totanus. Examination of melanoleucus, -fiavipes, 
totanus, nebularius, erytJiropus, and stagnatUis reveals much of in- 
terest. Glottis has been considered as a distinct genus for nebularius 
on the basis of the recurved bill in that species. In this character it 
is approached by nielanoleucus and furthermore varies in amount 
of curvature so that in series melanoleucus and nebularius may not 
be separated on this basis. Some specimens of Totanus totanus have 
a distinct Aveb between middle and imier toes, while in others this 
web is reduced in extent. Development of this web grades clown in 
unbroken series from totanus through erythropus where it is distinct 
but small, to melanoleucus, fiavipes, and sfagnatilis, in which it is 
faintly indicated. The bill is shorter than the tarsus in melanoleucus, 
fiavipes, and stagTiatilis, from somewhat shorter to as long as the 
tarsus in totanus and longer than the tarsus in erythropus. Here, 
again, there is no line of demarcation. The little greenshank, 
stagnatilis, has the bill somewhat more slender than the others but 
in insufficient amount to validate its separation as a distinct genus. 
There is no reason apparent for not including in Totanus the follow- 
ing species, totanus, erythropus, nebularius, mda/rioleucus, fiavipes, 
and stagnatilis. In addition it seems doubtful if Pseud ototanus may 
be successfully maintained for guttifer, a matter that is here left in 
abeyance since I have seen only one skin of this species. 

The course followed by Doctor Hartert in lumping 13 species under 
the genus Tringa seems ill advised. Four of the included species, 
hypoleucos, macularia, solitaria, and ocrophus have but two notches 

"J;irds Australia, vol. 3, pt. 2, May 2, 1913, p. 197. 

^ .'Ol. 3, pt. 3, Aug. 18, 1913, p. 224. 

* Birds North and Middle America, vol. 8, 1919, p. 129. 

^ Vog. PaUiark. Fauna, vol. 2, Heft. 13, Feb., 1921, pp. 1607-16C8. 



152 BULLETIN 133^ UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

in the posterior border of the metasterniim, while in the nine remain- 
ing there are four such indentations. In hypoleucos and macularia 
the maxilla is grooved nearly to the tip, while in ocrophus and soli- 
taria this groove extends less than two-thirds of the length of the 
maxilla. Actitis may be used for the first two leaving ocroylius, 
the type of Tringa^ and solitaria united in the genus Tringa. Of 
the two species that remain of the 13 mentioned by Hartert Hetero- 
scelus may be used for incanus (and also for hrevipes) because of 
its difference in tarsal scutellation, while glareola, closely allied to 
the species here placed in Totanus, differs in that the tarsus is de- 
cidedly less than one and one-half times the middle toe without the 
claw and so may be maintained in Rhyacophilus. 

During my work in South America the greater yellowlegs was 
recorded as follows: Kilometer 80, west of Puerto Pinasco, Para- 
guay, September 8 to 21, 1920; Kilometer 200, in the same region, 
September 24; Dolores, Buenos Aires, October 22; Lavalle, Buenos 
Aires, October 23 to November 15 ; Carhue, Buenos Aires, December 
15 to 17; San Vicente, Uruguay, January 31 and February 2; Laz- 
cano, Kocha, February 5 to 8; 25 de Mayo, Buenos Aires, March 2; 
Guamini, Buenos Aires, March 3 to 8; Tunuyan, Mendoza, March 
25 to 28; Tucuman, Tucuman, April 5; Concon, Chile, April 24 
and 26. 

After their arrival in September greater yellowlegs were dis- 
tributed throughout the open pampa wherever shallow ponds offered 
suitable feeding places. Occasionally 10 or 20 gathered in a flock, 
especially when northward migration was under way in March 
and April, but when on their wintering grounds it was usual to find 
two or three in company, seldom more. They are rather silent 
during the winter season but when the northward journey begins 
are as noisy as is their custom in the north. The species is large 
so that it is attractive to pot hunters and many are killed. I saw 
a number of crippled birds during the last two months of my stay 
in Argentina and consider that it is these injured individuals, unable 
to perform the necessary flight, or without desire to do so from 
their injuries, that are recorded on the pampas from May to August 
when all should be in the Northern Hemisphere. Reports of their 
breeding in Argentina, based on the presence of these laggards in 
migration are wholly unauthenticated. 

An adult female shot February 2 at San Vicente, Uruguay, and 
another taken March 6 at Guamini, Buenos Aires, were molting 
the feathers of the forepart of the body and the neck. The primaries 
were fresh and unworn and appear to have been newly grown. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 153 

CROCETHIA ALBA (Pallas) 

Tnjnga alba Pallas, in Vroeg, Cat. Rais., 1764, Adumbr., p. 7. (Coast of 
North Sea.) 

An adult female of the sanderling was taken November 6, 1920, 
on the exposed outer beach 24 kilometers south of Cape San Antonio, 
Buenos Aires, one of the feAv birds that cared to brave the severe 
gale then in progi-ess. On the following day 20 in three flocks 
passed in southward migration, flying about a meter above the >and 
near the line marked by the wash of the waves. The species was 
not recorded again until April 29, 1921, when 25 were seen near 
Concon, Chile, in flight northward along the coast. 

PISOBIA MELANOTOS (Vieillot) 

Tringa melanotos Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 34, 1819, p. 462. 
(Paraguay.) 

Azara, with his usual meticulous care, described his chorlito lonio 
pardo — the basis of Vieillot's THnga melanotos — so minutel}- that 
there is no mistaking it for one of the two larger Pisohia, while his 
note to the effect that the tarsus was greenish points unmistakably to 
the pectoral sandpiper, since, as is well known to observant field 
naturalists, Baird's sandpiper, the only other species that may here 
be confused, has the tarsus black. The dimensions given by Azara 
are also those of the pectoral sandpiper. Sadly enough, Tringa 
melanotos on page 462 of Vieillot's work has priority over Tringa 
maculata on page 465 and so must supplant it. 

The pectoral sandpiper was recorded as fairly common. At Ki- 
lometer 80, west of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, the species arrived 
on September 9, 1920, and passed in small numbers until the close 
of the month. On September 24 and 25, thirty or more were seen 
on muddy areas at the Laguna Wall at Kilometer 200. In crossing 
from Conessa to Lavalle, Buenos Aires, October 22, two flocks, con- 
taining in the aggregate 20 individuals, were seen near pools on the 
grass-grown pampa. Four were noted at the mouth of the Rio Ajo 
October 25. At Carhue, Buenos Aires, one was found in company 
with lesser yellowlegs December 15. On January 15 I observed four 
or five captive in the zoological gardens in Montevideo, Uruguay, 
and was informed that they had been captured that season. Near 
Lazcano, Uruguay, two were seen at a small lagoon, and on the fol- 
lowing morning I found a flock of 16 resting on mud lumps in a pool 
in a road. These latter were evidently tired, as all rested quietly 
in the sun, several crouched on their breasts. When flushed the flock 
flew on to the westward instead of following down the Rio Cebollati, 
as was the custom of other migrating shore birds noted here. At 
Guamini, Buenos Aires, a pectoral sandpiper was noted on March 4 



154 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL. MUSEUM 

and another March 5. Near Tunuyan, Mendoza, six were recorded 
March 26 in company with the two species of yellowlegs. Two 
pectoral sandpipers that I shot here were extremely fat — in fact, 
one could not be preserved as a skin for this reason — but flew easily 
in spite of their heavy bodies. None were recorded later than this 
date. 

Two adult females shot at Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, September 9, 
1920, were in worn breeding plumage, with no indication of molt. 
A female shot at Lazcano, Uruguay, February 8, had renewed the 
entire plumage save that new feathers in small amount were still in 
sheaths on breast and back. A male taken at the same time had 
the outer primary in either wing barely appearing and the ninth, 
the adjacent one, not quite fully grown. Nevertheless the bird was 
apparently in northward migration. A male taken at Tunuyan, 
Mendoza, March 26, Avas in full plumage. 

PISOBIA BAIRDII (Coues) 

Actodromas bairdii Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1861, p. 194. 
(Fort Resolution, Great Slave Lake, Canada.) 

Three Baird's sandpipers were observed March 5, 1921, near 
Guamini, Buenos Aires, in company with white-rumped sandpipers. 
The species was at this time in northward flight from a wintering 
ground in Patagonia. 

PISOBIA FUSCICOLLIS (Vieillot) 

Tringa fuscicolUs Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 34, 1819, p. 461. 
(Paraguay.) 

In addition to the characters of the white or dark upper tail cov- 
erts and other color differences usually assigned to distinguish the 
white-rumped and Baird's sandpipers, the two may be easily sepa- 
rated by the form of the bill. In P. hairdii the bill tip is little ex 
panded, the maxilla is elongately pointed, and the dorsal surface of 
the tip is hard and smooth. In P. fuscicolUs^ on the contrary, the 
tip of the bill is sensibly widened and has the surface distinctly 
pitted. These distinctions, perceptible under a low magnification 
lens, when once seen are recognized easily with the unaided eye and 
form a valuable identification character when, for example, one has 
specimens of the white-rumped sandpiper in which the dark cen- 
ters of the white feathers are somewhat more extensive than usual, 
or in which some of the light tail coverts have been lost and not yet 
renewed in molt. In fact, in an extensive series it is not difficult to 
find specimens that may not easily be separated from P. hairdii by 
color alone but that are readily identified by the bill. 

The same differences that have been pointed out between the bills 
of the white-rumped and Baird's sandpipers serve to distinguish 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 155 

Baird's sandpiper from the pectoral, since P. nielanotos has the tip of 
the bill heavily pitted. The appearance of the bill Avill thus sepa- 
rate these two readily where size or the color of the rump and upper 
tail coverts are not sufficiently distinct. 

The white-rumped sandpiper was the most abundant of the 
migrant shore birds in the regions visited in southern South Amer- 
ica. The species was not recorded until September 6, 1920, when 
it appeared in abundance in southward migration on the lagoons 
at Kilometer 80, west of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay. The first 
flocks from which specimens were taken were adult females, and 
two taken on the date when they were first recorded had laid eggs 
a few weeks previous as was shown by the appearence of the 
ovaries. The southward migration came with a rush as the birds 
passed through the night as witnessed by their calls. The flight 
continued until September 21, when a dozen, the last seen here, 
were recorded. The birds circled about lagoons in small compact 
flocks or walked along on muddy shores, where they fed with head 
down, probing rapidly in the soft mud; anything edible encoun- 
tered was seized and swallowed and the bird continued without 
delay in its search for more. 

Farther south this species was encountered in abundance in its 
winter range on the pampa. Ten were recorded at Dolores, Buenos 
Aires, October 21, and from October 22 to November 15 the species 
was found in numbers on the coastal mud flats on the Bay of 
Samborombom. A few were seen at pools of water in the sand 
dunes below Cape San Antonio. Along the Rio Ajo white-rumped 
sandpipers were encountered in flocks of hundreds that came up 
stream to search the mud flats at low tide or were concentrated 
on bars at the mouth when the water was high. In early morning 
there was a steady flight of them passing to suitable feeding grounds. 
The birds flew swiftly with soft notes from 3 to 15 feet from the 
earth. In feeding they scattered out in little groups that covered 
the bare mud systematically. It was not unusual to record as many 
as 2,000 in a day. 

About 200 were observed in the bay at Ingeniero "V^Hiite, the port 
of Bahia Blanca, on December 13, and at Carhue, Buenos Aires, 
from December 16 to 18, white-rumped sandpipers were noted in 
fair numbers on inundated ground back of the shore of Lake 
Epiquen or about fresh-water ponds on the pampa inland. None 
were found in Uruguay during February, 

At Guamini, Buenos Aires, from March 3 to 8, white-rumped 
sandpipers were encountered in northward migration from a winter 
range in Patagonia. The species was fairly common on March 3 
and increased greatly in abundance on the two days that followed. 
The northward journey was apparently as concerted as the move- 



156 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

ment that carried the birds southward, as on March 6 there was a 
noticeable decrease in their numbers, and by March 8, though the 
birds were still common, the bulk of individuals had passed. They 
arrived in flocks from the southward, often of several hundred 
individuals, that whirled in and circled back and forth along the 
lake shore to decoy to birds feeding on the strand or to rise again 
and continue swiftly northward. Those that paused kept up a busy 
search for food along the muddy beaches in or near shallow water, 
or in company with little parties of buff-breasted sandpipers on 
the drier alkaline flats back of the shore line. In early morning 
they were especially active and were in continual movement. Occa- 
sionally they worked out into comparatively deep water where in 
feeding it is necessary to immerse the head over the eyes nearly 
to the ear openings. When disturbed flocks rose with soft notes 
that resembled tseet tseet or tseup to circle to new feeding grounds 
on the lake shore. 

Occasional parties of males, animated by the approaching breed- 
ing season, broke into soft songs and called and twittered, often for 
several minutes, in a musical chorus in low tones that had so little 
carrying power that they merged in the strong wind, and it was some 
time before I succeeded in picking out the sweet individual songs 
tsep a tsej) a tsep a or twee tmee tee tee ty tee given as the head 
was bobbed rapidly up and down. Occasionally when the fall sun- 
light came warmly I sat in the mud and let little bands of white- 
rumps work up around me until they were feeding and calling within 
a meter or so, eyeing me sharply for any cause of alarm. At 
such times their twittering choruses came sweetly and pleasantly, 
clearly audible above the lap of waves and the rush of the inevitable 
winds of the pampas. Between songs the search for food continued 
without cessation. At short intervals, activated by the warmth of the 
sun, they suddenly indulged in dozens of combats with their fellows, 
bloodless affrays, of bluff and retreat, where they lowered their heads 
and with open mouths ran at one another pugnaciously. The one 
attacked sidled quickly away or fluttered off for a short distance, save 
where two of equal temperament chanced to clash when first one 
and then the other threatened with raised wings in alternate advance 
and retreat until the fray was concluded to their mutual satisfaction. 
At such times the movements of these otherwise plain little birds 
were sprightly and vivacious to a degree. Their loquacity at this sea- 
son was marked as it contrasted strikingly with their silence and quiet 
during the resting period of southern summer. Flocks frequently 
rose to perform intricate evolutions and then returned with a rush 
to sweep along the shore and join less ambitious comrades. As they 
passed the white runjp flashed plainly, certain advertisement of the 



I 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 157 

species. At times the chattering of these active flocks reminded me 
of the twittering of swallows. 

One adult femal^ taken September 6 is still in worn breeding 
plumage, another has replaced a part of the plumage of breast and 
back. Both have worn rectrices. An immature female in full plum- 
age was taken September 21, while one shot November 7 has lighter 
tips on the feathers of the dorsal surface partly worn away. Two 
more females, shot March 4 and 5, are in full prenuptial molt, a 
change that has involved the upper tail coverts so that these are as 
much brown as white and, though in migration, have the outer pri- 
maries still not quite grown. A complete molt seems to take place in 
February and March. 

CALIDRIS CANUTUS RUFUS (Wilson) 

Tringa rufa Wilson, Amer. Ornith., vol. 7, 1813, p. 43, pi. 57, fig. .l. 
(Shores of Middle Atlantic States.) 

On November 7, 1920, a sanderling in winter plumage was killed at 
a pool of fresh water in the dunes 24 kilometers south of Cape San 
Antonio on the coast of Buenos Aires. The bird was feeding in 
company with white-rumped sandpipers. 

TRYNGITES SUBRUFICOLLIS (Vieillot) 

Tringa subriificoUis Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 34, 1819, p. 465. 
( Paraguay. ) 

In addition to the generic characters usually cited, Tryngites may 
be recognized by the conformation of the nostril, wliich is elongate 
and has a median lobe projecting from the upper margin so as to 
lend the appearance of a median division. In addition, a single 
line of tiny plumes extends forward from the frontal antiae along 
the lower side of the nasal slit to a point anterior to the dividing 
lobe. These feathers ma}'^ be worn away in some specimens but are 
present in the majority. Aechmorhi/nchus has an approach to 
this condition in a slightly swollen flap on the upper margin of the 
nostril, but this extends for the full lenglh of the slit, and there 
are (in the four specimens seen) no feathers below the nostril. 
Prosohonia I have not seen. The nasal lobe in Aechmorhynchus 
is suggestive of the condition found in the plovers. 

The buff-breasted sandpiper was first recorded in fall when an 
adult male was found on September 21, 1920, standing a little apart 
from other sandpipers on the open shore of a lagoon at Kilometer 
80, west of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay. On November 13 another 
was seen with other sandpipers on the tidal flats below Lavalle, 
Buenos Aires. No others were noted until, from March 3 to 8, 
1921, a few were encountered in northward migration near Guamini, 
54207—26 11 



158 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Buenos Aires, where they arrived from regions farther south, tarried 
for a time, and then continued their north^yard flioht. 

The birds ranged in small flocks that occasionally fed with other 
sandpipers in the shallows or on muddy shores, but more frequently 
worked a short distance farther back on alkaline barrens where 
the surface was damp from the salt in the soil, but there was no 
standing water, and where vegetation was reduced to stumps of 
herbaceous growth that had been killed by concentration of alkali. 
They walked nervously, picking at the ground, and were active and 
quick in all their movements, constantly in motion, occasionally 
running a few feet to join others that had passed on ahead. When 
in the air or on the ground they are distinctly buff in color, with 
a glimpse of the marbled underAving surface as they rise or pass, 
and a flash of the gray tail with its darker markings as they alight. 
On the ground in profile, they show a long neck and long legs, 
while the short bill is suggestive of that of a pigeon. The neck 
is drawn in during flight. As they rise they may give a Ioav call 
that resembles chump^ somewhat robinlike in tone; a second call 
note is a low trilled fr-r-r-reet. The species is to be confused in 
the field Avith no other shore bird. 

An adult male shot September 21 had the bill black, shading to 
deep olive gray at the base of the maxilla ; iris cameo brown ; tarsus 
olive ocher, changing to dark olive buff on the toes, with a shading 
of the same color on the crus and the tarsal joint; nails black. 
Another male taken March 3 had the tarsus yellow ocher, shading 
to honey yellow on the toes. 

A male shot September 21 was in worn breeding plumage. Others, 
secured March 3 and 5 that were completing the molt, had the outer 
primaries not quite grown and new contour feathers still develop- 
ing. Specimens secured in March were extremely fat and difficult 
to prepare. 

MICROPALAMA HIMANTOPUS (Bonaparte) 

Tringa himantopus Bonaparte, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, vol. 2, 
1826, p. 157. (Long Branch, New Jersey.) 

The stilt sandpiper was encountered only in the Chaco, west of 
Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, though it has been said that it is common 
in some parts of the Province of Buenos Aires in winter. At Kilo- 
meter 80, on September 20, 1920, the first arrivals, a flock of a dozen, 
were recorded at the border of a lagoon; as I watched thev rose 
suddenly to whirl rapidly away to the southward. On the follow- 
ing day about 20 were seen and an adult female was taken. At 
Kilometer 170 on September 24 a small flock passed down the 
nearly dry channel of an alkaline stream known as the Riacho 
Salado, while at Laguna Wall (Kilometer 200) about 30 were seen 
September 24. and 40 on the day following. The birds were found 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 159 

in little flocks, often mingled with other waders that walked or 
waded through shallow Avater on muddy shores where they probed 
with their bills for food. 

The specimen taken had molted and renewed the wing feathers 
and was in winter plumage save for a few old feathers on the back. 

LIMOSA HAEMASTICA (Linnaeus) 

Scoloiiax haemastica Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1, 1758, p. 147. 
(Hudson Bay.) 

A reconsideration of my previous statement-* as to the validity 
of jNIathews' proposed genus VetoJa for Lhnosci haemastica^ fedoa, 
and lapponiea confirms my belief that the structural characters in 
which the four species of godwits differ inter se are too tenuous 
to warrant division of the genus Lim-osa. 

Save for a record to be mentioned later the Hudsonian godwit 
was first recorded on November 13, 1920, when four, in winter plum- 
age, were found with small sandpipers on the tidal flats near the 
mouth of the Rio Ajo, below Lavalle, Buenos Aires. Two more 
were seen here on November 15. The species Avas not noted again 
until March 3, 1921, when tAvo Avere seen along the Laguna del 
Monte in the outskirts of Guamini, Buenos Aires. Four more Avere 
found on March 4, one in brown dress and the others still in winter 
plumage. On March 5 eight Avere recorded, one only shoAving dis- 
tinct signs of breeding plumage. On the day following three 
passed swiftly northward over the lake Avithout pausing to alight, 
while on March 7 eight Avere seen together and a single bird later, 
and by a lucky shot I secured one, a male. March 8 tAveh^e that 
fed in a small bay Avere so slow in rising that I secured three. At 
dusk 12 more came to roost on a mud bar in company with golden 
j)lover. Though reported 50 years ago as found in great bands and 
among the most abundant of shore birds in this region, the small 
number that I have recorded here are all that Avere observed in 
continued field Avork throughout the Avinter range of the species. 
I was fortunate in seeing these, as by chance I found a spot where 
they tarried in nortliAvard migration from some point to the south. 

In plain gray winter plumage this gochvit is as inconspicuous and 
nondescript in appearance as a willet. In general size it suggests 
a greater yellowlegs but can be distinguished at any distance by its 
quiet carriage, for it does not practice the constant tilting that is 
the habit of the yellowlegs. These godwits sought company Avith 
scattered flocks of stilts or smaller shore birds, and in feeding 
Avalked rapidly, at times in water nearly to their bodies or again 
in the shalloAvs. As they moved they probed rapidly and constantly 
in the mud with a nervous thrusting motion, often with the beak 

28 Bull. Mus. Comp. ZoiJl., vol. 63, August, 1919, pp. 180-182. 



160 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

immersed clear to their e3^es. Morsels of food that were encountered 
were passed rapidly up the length of the bill and SAvallowed. When 
their movements carried them too near the stilts the latter hustled 
them about, and made them run rapidly to escape their bills, but 
in spite of this discouragement the godwits remained in as close 
proximity as permitted to their belligerent neighbors perhaps because 
of similarity in feeding habit. Some Hudsonian godwit gave a 
low chattering call when flushed, a low qua qua that resembled one 
of the notes of L. fedoa. As they extend the wings to fly the dark 
axilla rs show as a patch of black and in flight the white tail, with 
black band across the tip, is prominent. The birds are hunted to 
such an extent that they were exceedingly wary. When opportunity 
offered I took only a few for specimens. 

A male shot March 7 is in full w^inter plumage with worn pri- 
maries but newly grown tail feathers and lesser wing coverts. Two 
females shot March 8 have renewed the flight feathers and tail and 
have the breeding plumage growing rapidly on the body. 

Reports that the Hudsonian godwit nest in the Southern Hemis- 
phere are without foundation and the presence of large flocks in 
eastern Buenos Aires as early in the season as July 2, as recorded by 
Gibson,^® may be explained only by considering them possible early 
migrants or by supposing that many did not breed each year, as from 
my own experience I know to be the case with some other shore birds, 
and that flocks of these nonbreeders may have failed to migrate 
northward. It may be added that Gibson's records of the birds in 
large flocks, though no year is given, must refer to his early ob- 
servations, since the species has been rare for many years. 

On my first day afield in Argentina, on June 29, 1920, a holiday 
when dozens of gunners were along the Rio de la Plata, near Beraza- 
tegui, Buenos Aires, I am satisfied that I saw a Hudsonian godwit 
in the hands of a gunner but circumstances were such that I could 
not secure or handle the bird. It was a specimen in full winter 
plumage. 

The passing of this fine bird must be a cause for regret among 
sportsmen and nature lovers alike, to be attributed to the greed of 
gunners and to the fact that its large size and gregarious habit 
made it desirable to secure and when opportunity offered easy to kill 
in large numbers. There is little hope even under the most rigorous 
protection that the species can regain its former numbers. It would 
appear that the small number that remain winter mainly in Patago- 
nia, as the species was encountered in any number only when in 
migration from that region, 

=»Ibis, 1920, p. 70. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 161 
CAPELLA PAKAGUAIAE (Yieillot) 

Scolopax parar/uaiae A''ieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat, vol. 3, 1816, p. 356. 
(Paraguay.) 

Mathews and Iredale^'' call attention to an overlooked generic 
name in Capella of Frenzel,^^ which as it Avas published in 1801 has 
precedence over GaUinago Koch 1816, and must be used for the true 
snipes. The only copy of Frenzel's work known seems to be the one 
in the library of the late A. Newton at Cambridge. 

The two true snipe found in the level country of eastern and 
southern South America are similar in general appearance and are 
difficult to distinguish on casual inspection. After examination of 
a small series it appears that they may be separated by the following 
characters : 

o\ Markings of foreneck and upper breast broader, indistinct, especially on 
lower foreneck; more buffy on breast and above (especially in fresh fall 
plumage) ; outer rectrix tapering at tip ; longer tertials more or less 
acuminate at distal end Capella paraguaiae, 

o.^ Markings of foreneck and upper breast finer, blacker, more sharply defined ; 
breast and dorsal surface blacker, less buffy ; outer rectrix rounded, 
almost truncate at tip ; longer tertials more or less rounded at distal 
end Capella braziliensis. 

The relative length of outer secondaries and primaiy coverts 
seems to be a variable character upon which one should not place 
too strong reliance. On the whole, C. hraziliensis is darker and 
C. paraguaiae paler in general tone. 

Capella andina Taczanowski has been considered a subspecies of 
hraziliensis, but, on the basis of two specimens, seems best con- 
sidered an offshoot of the same stock that has produced para- 
guaiae, as it agrees with that species in pale tone of coloration, in 
pointed outer rectrix, and in acuminate tertials. It is thus the 
andean representative of a species that in the South Temperate 
Zone ranges at lower altitudes. 

On June 29, 1920, near Berazategui, Buenos Aires, several Para- 
guayan snipe were flushed in marshy spots along the Rio de la 
Plata, and one that had been killed by a hunter was examined. One 
was recorded at Dolores on October 21 and another seen near Con- 
essa, between Dolores and Lavalle, on the day following. The 
species was far from common here at this season, as none w^ere re- 
corded in nearly three weeks' work around Lavalle. At Zapala, 
Neuquen, on December 8, one flushed from a boggy seep at a tiny 
spring where the spot of surrounding marshy vegetation at its 
greatest dimensions was not more than 10 by 30 feet and arid slopes 

soAustr. Av. Rec, vol. 4, Dec. 16, 1920, p. 1.31. 

"^Capella Frenzel, Beschr. Vog. und Eyer Geg. Wittenberg, 1801, p. 58. (Type, 
by monotypy, Scolopax coelestis Frenzel.) 



162 BULLETIN 133; UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

stretched for miles. At an altitude of 1,900 meters above Potrerillos, 
Mendoza, several were flushed at swampy spring holes on March 19, 
1921, and at Tunuyan, Mendoza, on March 25, 26, and 28 the birds 
were common around the muddy borders of lagoons and cienagas. 
They gathered in favored spots, and along certain muddy channels 
it was not unusual to flush a dozen together. The birds fed behind 
what cover offered, but were not averse to walking in the open, even 
on bright days, but if startled crouched flat on the mud. Little 
flocks frequently circled high in passing from one part of the marsh 
to another. In habit and action they resemble Wilson's snipe and 
have the same swift, erratic flight. The note with which they rise 
is harsh, but is flat and not so abrupt or startling as that given by 
the snipe of North America. A male was shot on March 25. 

Near Holt, in Entre Rios, on October 9, while waiting for a train 
ferry to cross the Rio Parana, snipe, apparently of this species, 
were seen in a mating display in which they flew swiftly 12 or 15 
meters above the ground and suddenly extended the wings stiffly in 
a V-shaped angle above the back and fell laterally through the air 
for a considerable distance. 

CAPELLA BRAZILIENSIS (Swainson) 

Scolopax hraziliensis Swainson, Fauna Bor.-Am., vol. 2, 1832, p. 400. 
(Equinoctial Brazil.) 

Near the ranch at Kilometer 80, Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, on 
September 12, 1920, one of these snipe flushed in front of my horse 
as I rode along the border of an estero. I marked it down and dis- 
mounted and when it rose again secured it. As I waded in to re- 
trieve it another flushed and was taken. They were found on float- 
ing vegetation in a scant growth of rushes where the water was 
knee-deep. Both were adult females. In Guarani they were known 
as jacahere. 

From February 7 to 9, 1921, this species was common in the 
banados between Lazcano and the Rio Cebollati, in eastern Uruguay, 
where short, marshy vegetation covered a black, mucky soil. Two 
females were taken on February 7. The birds flush with a low harsh 
note, flatter in tone and less startling than the explosive call of the 
Wilson's snipe, dart off across the marsh in swift zigzags for a 
space, and then start straight away. It appeared that they were 
slower and heavier than the jacksnipe of North America and were 
easier to kill. They seem dark in color on the Aving. Adults were 
in molt at this season and young were fully grown. On a few occa- 
sions I saw them standing erect or walking about in the grass, but 
at the slightest alarm they crouched with the head extended on the 
ground. Other snipe that appeared the same were seen at Rio Negro, 
Uruguay, on February 16, 17, and 18. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 163 

NYCTICRYPHES SEMICOLLARIS (Vieillot) 

Totanus semicoUaris Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 6, 1816, p. 402. 
(Paraguay.) 

The painted snipe of South America differs so in structural 
characters from the Old World species as to warrant its generic 
separation, and indeed to such an extent as to cast some doubt on 
belief in the near affinity of these two groups. The bird under 
discussion here has the bill more curved at the tip, the tip expanded 
on both upper and lower mandibles, the distal end distinctly pitted, 
a median groove to distal end of gonys, a slight web between outer 
and middle toes, the tail strongly wedge-shaped, the median feathers 
tapered, and soft in structure at the tip with the median upper 
and lower coverts longer than the lateral rectrices. In Rostratula, 
as here restricted, the bill is less curved, with no distal expansion 
or pitting, no median groove on the gonys, no web at the base of 
the outer and median toes, tail only slightly rounded, of stiff blunt 
feathers with all of the rectrices longer than the tail coverts. The 
distinctions are easily evident on examination of specimens. For 
the South American bird Wetmore and Peters have erected the 
genus Nycticryphes.^- 

The South American painted snipe was fairly common near 
Lavalle, Buenos Aires, from October 28 to November 9, 1920, in 
boggy, fresh-water marshes where partly submerged areas grown 
with rushes afforded shelter and clumps of grass standing in from 
75 to 150 mm. of water gave them footing. At that season the birds 
were found in pairs or alone though several might be startled near 
one another. In general habits, flight, and appearance they sug- 
gested jacksnipe but seemed more averse to bright sunlight, as, 
though they flushed readily in cloudy weather, it was often difficult 
to start them when the sky was clear and the light intense. They 
rose always near at hand with a sudden spring accomj)anied by 
a low rattle of wing quills that was stilled at once as they darted 
rapidly away. After a flight over the rushes they hesitated for an 
instant as though uncertain of the ground below and then dropped 
suddenly to cover. It frequently required considerable tramping 
to start them a second time. As they rose the light lines on either 
side of the back and the curved bill showed plainly, but as they 
traveled away they appeared wholly light and dark in color. 
Though in form and action their flight was not unlike that of 
GaUinago, they pursued a less erratic course and were silent. How- 
ever, it required quick work to shoot them, so that their local 
cognomen of can^e correro was well warranted. As they were killed 
over dense cover it was often difficult to locate those that had fallen. 

^Proc. Biol. Soc. Washing-ton, vol. 3G, May 1, 192.3, p. 14.3. 



164 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

A female shot October 28 showed Avell-developed ovaries. On 
November 2 I flushed one from a nest and killed it, but unfortu- 
nately lost it, so that I did not learn the sex. The nest was placed 
under a tuft of dead grass on a dry, open island a hundred meters 
in extent, surrounded by a broad expanse of marsh. The site 
selected was on dry, open ground 15 meters from water. A few 
grass stems had been broken down to form a little protected cavity, 
entirely covered save in front, in which the two eggs lay with no 
nest lining. In its lack of definite structure the whole reminded me 
of the nest of a Wilson's phalarope. Incubation had begun. The 
eggs, suggestive in a way of those of the black tern, have a ground 
color slightly brighter than pale olive buff, spotted with heavj?^ irreg- 
ular spots of black, and less extensively with buffy brown and Sac- 
cardo's umber. The markings are much bolder and heavier in one 
than in the other. The two eggs measured 34.7 by 24.6 mm. and 
34.2 by 24 mm. 

Near the Laguna Castillos below San Vicente, Rocha, Uruguay, 
an adult male was taken among rushes on January 31, 1921. 

The species was next encountered in the cienagas near Tunuyan, 
Mendoza, Avhere it was common on March 25 and 26. Here painted 
snipe frequented scattered clumps of grass or Scirpus at the border 
of dense stands of cat-tails or, less often, marsh vegetation dead 
or living that bordered channels of almost bottomless black mud. 
At times a dozen or fifteen birds flushed together from some shel- 
tered opening among the cat-tails, but more often they were encoun- 
tered alone. Once or twice one darted in to alight near me and 
instantly assumed a motionless attitude, standing with legs erect but 
with the head and body inclined forward with the bill almost touch- 
ing the earth. Occasionally one broke this tense attitude by a jerky 
bow and then became motionless once more. Two adult males were 
taken on March 26 and one on March 28. Though it was fall, testes 
in these birds were 8 mm. long, as large as white navy beans. 

An adult female shot October 28 had the tip of the bill cinnamon 
buff; base strontian yellow; the intermediate space on maxilla water 
green, and on mandible celandine green; iris Rood's brown; tarsus 
and toes vetiver green, shading to deep grape green on toes and 
inside of tarsus. 

Family CHARADRIIDAE 

CHARADRIUS COLLARIS Vieillot 

Charadrius collaris Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 27, 1818, p. 136. 
(Paraguay.) 

The widely ranging collared plover was recorded in small num- 
bers at several localities. Two were recorded at Santa Fe, Santa Fe, 
on July 4, 1920, and one July 8 at Resistencia, Chaco. On the whole 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 165 

the species seemed rare in the Argentine Chaeo, perhaps because of 
a lack of suitable range for it, as it was not found again until I 
reached Kilometer 80, west of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, Avhere it 
was recorded in small numbers about an open lagoon from Septem- 
ber 6 to 21. A pair was taken September 6, and I noted that the 
breeding season was near. Two were seen on the shore of a small 
pond near Lavalle, Buenos Aires, November 13. The species was 
common along the sandy beaches on the coast of southern Uruguay, 
and in January was nesting. A number were recorded between Mon- 
tevideo and Carrasco, January 9, 1921, and east of Carrasco, Jan- 
uary 16. Others w^ere seen at La Paloma in the Department of 
Rocha, January 23. At this season all seemed to have well-grown 
young but still showed much anxiety as I passed, and forced the 
young to hide. The parents circled around me with low calls, their 
light bodies often difficult to distinguish against the sky in the 
brilliantly reflected light of the sun. The birds were found on the 
outer beaches or through the bare dunes a short distance inland, 
wdiere they ran about in scattered companies. The alarm note was 
a sharp, metallic tsee and occasionally they uttered a slightly rolling 
tur-r-r. In winter they were more silent and only uttered a low 
whistled chajy or cherp as they rose and darted rapidly away. Near 
Rio Negro, Uruguay, on February 18, while crossing an area of 
high prairie where the soil was water-soaked from recent rains, I 
found about 20 of these plover, both adult and young, and judged 
that they had forsaken their coastal breeding grounds to wander 
inland as the young were fully grown. All Avere very wild. On 
March 3 I saAv two near Guamini on the open shore of the Laguna 
del Monte. Two were recorded March 22 along the Rio Tunuyan at 
Tunuyan, Mendoza, and on March 25, 26, and 28 I found several 
in company with other shore birds along a small, muddy arroyo near 
some extensive cienagas. The bed of this channel was sunk about 4 
meters below the surrounding level and was barely 30 meters wide, 
a greatly restricted area for these birds when the open areas that 
they frequent ordinarily are considered. A female was taken here 
March 25. At Concon, Chile, April 25, about 25 were found on a 
sandy beach and when flushed flew off in close flock formation. 

In general habits this species suggests the snowy plover, but sel- 
dom runs for such long distances as is the habit of that species. 

CHARADRIUS FALKLANDICUS Latham 

Charadritis falklandiciis Latham Index Orn., vol. 2, 1790, p. 747. (Falk- 
land Islands.) 

The Falkland plover is easily distinguished in the field from com- 
panion species by the two distinct bands on the breast. One was 
seen on the shore of the Rio de la Plata near Berazategiii, Buenos 
54207—26 12 



166 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Aires, on June 29, 1920. At Zapala, Neuquen, on December 8, I 
shot a juvenile specimen just able to fly from a family that was 
runninf^: about in the closely cropped grass of a pasture near a tiny 
stream. Two broods were recorded at Ingeniero White, Buenos 
Aires, on December 13, while on December 15 and 16 several were 
seen on the shore of Lake Epiquen, near Carhue. An adult male 
was taken on the 15th. Between Montevideo and Carrasco, Uruguay, 
a few were recorded on January 9 and 16, 1921, on sandy beaches 
where they fed at the water line by thrusting the bill quickly in the 
sand. One was noted at La Paloma, Uruguay, Januar}^ 23. Near 
Guamini, Buenos Aires, they were fairly common on the muddy 
shores of the Laguna del Monte from March 3 to 7, in company with 
sandpipers. Two immature females were shot March 4. Half a 
dozen were seen at Concon, Chile, April 25. 

The Falkland plover inhabits sandy beaches on the seashore or 
the borders of open lagoons inland. In habits and appearance it 
is similar to related species and like them frequently squats and hides 
to avoid detection. The ordinary call is a sharp jnt fit. 

PLUVIALIS DOMINICUS DOMINICUS (Muller) 

Charadrius dominicus Mullee, Natursyst., Suppl., 1776, p. 116. (Santo 
Domingo, West Indies.) 

Golden plover arrived at Kilometer 80, west of Puerto Pinasco, 
Paraguay, on September 6, 1920, and continued in southward pas- 
sage until September 25. The birds came to the open shores of 
lagoons with other sandpipers, but were more often seen in flocks 
of 30 or 40 scattered over open savannas where the grass was not 
too long. At this season they were rather silent and were very wild. 
On September 16 cold weather in the south drove many back on 
their route, and birds passed north during the entire afternoon, not 
pausing to alight though the weather at the point of observation 
was not unfavorable. The return southw^ard began two days later. 
On September 24 and 25 flocks were seen at Laguna Wall, 200 kilo- 
meters west of the Paraguay River. The Anguete Indians called 
this species pill toil. 

On October 23, near Conessa, Buenos Aires, small flocks were 
scattered over the open pampa and the number seen was estimated 
at 260. On November 6, 7, and 8, golden plover were scattered over 
the open camp back of Cape San Antonio and a number arrived from 
the south. On November 13 and 15, I found a considerable number 
near the mouth of the Rio Ajo and on November 16 about 30 were 
recorded in crossing from Lavalle to Santo Domingo. 

December 13 a golden plover was seen on the mud flats near 
Ingeniero White, Buenos Aires; December 14 thirty were seen near 
Saavedra, and from December 15 to 18 a few were noted near Carhue. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 167 

The species was not found west of these points and seems to be 
restricted during the resting period to the better watered grass- 
grown eastern pampa. 

The northward migration began with a flock of nine seen January 
23, 1921, at a little fresh-water pool on the beach near La Paloma, 
Uruguay; when flushed tliese passed on to the west. Single indi- 
viduals were seen near San Vicente, Uruguay, in flight toward the 
northwest on January 24 and 30. At Lazcano, Uruguay, birds in 
passage north were seen in early morning on February 7 and 8, and 
one was recorded February 18 at Rio Negro, Uruguay. On March 
8 at Guamini, Buenos Aires, 15 'came in at dusk to roost on a little 
mud bar in company with Hudsonian godwits. The migration 
seemed almost at an end then, as later I saw only four at Tunuyan, 
Mendoza, on March 23 ; and on April 5 only a few were heard call- 
ing with other shore birds in flight northward over Tucuman, 
Tucuman. 

An adult female shot September 6 had renewed part of the body 
plumage but had the flight feathers still worn. Another, shot No- 
vember 15, was nearly in winter plumage and had begun the molt 
of the inner primaries. 

OREOPHOLUS RUFICOLLIS RUFICOLLIS (Wagler) 

Charadnus 7-uficollis Wagler, Isis, 1829, p. 653. (Canelones, Uruguay.) 

The spelling of the generic name for this plover as proposed by 
Jardine and Selby ^^ is Oreopholus, as given above.^* Brabourne 
and Chubb ^^ state that no type locality has been given for this 
species and suggest Patagonia. In Wagler's original description, 
however, is the statement "Habitat in America. {Canelonnes.) 
{Miis. Berol. ),'''' which indicates Canelones, Uruguay, as the source 
of his type. Uruguay has not been included usually in the range 
of this species, but Oreopholus 7-uficollis was seen by Aplin^^ at 
Santa Ana, and is recorded by Tremoleras^^ in Montevideo and 
Canelones. 

On December 8, 1920, near Zapala, Neuquen, while traversing a 
sandy area with a thin cover of low bushes my attention was at- 
tracted by a low plaintive whistle, lohees tur tur. As I watched to 
determine the source of the sound one of these plover ran forward 
a few steps and then stopped to watch me quietly. In this bird, 
an adult male, the tarsus was pinkish vinaceous, and the toes black. 

The subspecies O. r. simonsi Chubb from southwestern Peru, 
Bolivia, and Tarapaca is a strongly marked race that differs from 

"111. Orn., vol. 3, December, 1835, pi. 151. 

=^ See Ridgway, Birds North and Middle America, vol. 8, 1919, p. G3. 

3= Birds South America, 1912. p. 38. 

^ Ibis, 1894, p. 207. 

3' El Hornero, vol. 2, no. 1, July, 1920, p. 13. 



168 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

the typical form in larger size and in more buffy coloration. The 
light margins on the feathers of the back and wings are more 
rufescent and are broader than the dark central streaks, the head, 
neck, and rumj) are more buffy, less grayish, and the undersurface has 
a rufescent wash. It is probable that birds from central Chile may 
be differentiated from eastern specimens with a more extensive 
series than is available to me, as two specimens from near Santiago 
have the gray of the breast more restricted than some from Argentina. 

BELONOPTERUS CHILENSIS CHILENSIS (Molina) 

Pai-ra Chilensis Molina, Sagg. Stor. Nat. Chili, 17S2, p. 258. (Cliile.) 

The use of the name bestowed by Molina on the Chilian lapwing 
has been disputed but after due consideration it seems that it may 
be recognized. In the first edition of his work on the Natural 
History of Chile (cited above), Molina gave a brief diagnosis in 
Latin as a footnote for each species of bird treated. On referring 
to his account of the present bird we find it given as number 23, 
II Theghel, Pm^a Chilensis, with the diagnosis " Parra unguibus 
modicis, pedibus fuscis, occipite subcristato." The description that 
follows wath a considerable account of the habits refers to Belonop- 
terus save that he states "la sua fronte e guernita di una carnosita 
rossa divisa in due lobi," a condition found in the Jacana and not 
in the lapwing. Evidently he was endeavoring to describe the 
plover as he gives an excellent account of its habits but had con- 
fused with it the lobed forehead of the Jacana — probably because 
both birds possess a spur on the w4ng. In the second edition of 
Molina's work, printed in 1810 (p. 205), is a duplication of the ac- 
count of Pm^a Chilensis save that it is numbered T, has the Latin 
diagnosis omitted, and has included a reference to a Chilian vocabu- 
lary. On page 206 is added the following statement : " Questa 
proprieta, che gli e comune col Vanello, e la maggior parte de' 
caratteri sopra-esposti, me avevano da prima determinato a porlo 
nel medesimo genere, denominandolo Tringa Chilensis., ma la piccola 
carnosita della sua fronte m' ha obbligate a lasciarlo nel genere 
Parra, dal quale pero si scosta per la modicita delle sue dita." 

Here, again, there is confusion regarding a supposed fleshy lobe 
on the head, but again attention is called to the short toes of the 
bird in mind. Molina's description therefor is composite, but when 
it is carefully considered will be found to apply in the main to 
Belonopterus; there can be no question but that Belonopterus is 
intended. It appears that the use of chilensis as the subspecific 
name of the western form of the South American lapwing is 
warranted. 

Should any decide that this name is not properly identified, then 
they must fall back on Vanellus occidentalis Harting,^^ a new name 

^i^Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1874, p. 450. (Chile.) 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 169 

proposed for the Chilian bird, with Pdrra chilensis, concerning 
whose identity Harting was apparently uncertain, cited in the 
synonymy. Dr. P. R. Lowe when he considered Molina's name 
untenable ^^ and proposed to call the western form Belonopterus 
cayannensis moJina, evidently overlooked this action of Harting's 
though the type of occidentalism^ is supposed to be in the British 
Museum. As I have noted beyond the name Vanellus grisescens 
Prazak,*^ based on a specimen from North Chile is also a synonym 
under this form. 

The Chilian lapwing is even handsomer, in its larger size and 
more extensive black markings contrasted boldly with the gray 
head, than the teru teru of the eastern and northern pampas, to 
which it is similar in habits and appearance. Like that fine bird, 
though it exasperates one with the ceaseless iteration of its calls, 
it may be forgiven much for confiding interesting traits that it 
exhibits at times and for its showy coloration. No lover of birds 
can recall days afield in the pampas without seeing in recollection 
the contrasted markings of these fine plovers. 

The call notes of the Chilian lapwing, though similar to those of 
the eastern bird, are harsher and are pitched in a higher tone so that 
there is no difficulty in recognizing it when one enters its haunts. 
I encountered it first at Zapala in western Neuquen on December 8, 
1920, but secured no specimens. At Tunuyan, Mendoza, males, 
taken on March 25 and 26, 1921, are similar in color and size to 
Chilian specimens from the western side of the Andes. They were 
observed here in small numbers from March 23 to 28. At Concon, 
Chile, they were noted from April 25 to 27. East of the Andes this 
form occurs on the somewhat broken plains at the base of the 
mountains where it ranges eastward for an unknown distance. It is 
possible that there is a gap between the areas inhabited by the 
eastern and western forms. 

The specimens from Tunuyan (both males) have the following 
measurements, in millimeters: Wing, 256-258; tail, 114.5-129; ex- 
posed culmen, 30-30.5; tarsus, 74.5-73.5. 

BELONOPTERUS CHILENSIS LAMPRONOTUS (Wagler) 

Chm'adrius Lampronotus Waglek, Syst. Av., pt. 1, 1827, p. 74. (Paraguay.) 

Study of the South American lapwings available has shown that 
they may be divided into three well-marked races, as follows : 

1. BELONOPTERUS CHILENSIS CHILENSIS (Molina). 

Range : Chile, Patagonia, western Argentina along the eastern 
base of the Andes, and Peru (no Peruvian specimens seen). Char- 
ts buu. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 41, Apr. 13, 1921, p. 111. 
*o Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol. 24, 1896, p. 735. 
*i Ornith. Monatsber., vol. 4, 1896, p. 23. 



170 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

acters : Larger size, gray head and neck, more extensive black mark- 
ings on head and neck, and further posterior extension of black on 
breast. (Wing 240 to 258 mm.) 

2. BELONOPTERUS CHILENSIS CAYANNENSIS (Gmelin). 

Range : Colombia, Venezuela, the Guianas (type locality Cayenne), 
and northern Brazil (south at least to Diamantina, near Santarem). 
Characters : BroAvnish head and sides of neck, forming an unbroken 
collar on foreneck, and greater length of tarsus (77.5 to 82.5 mm.). 

3, BELONOPTERUS CHILENSIS LAMPRONOTUS (Wagler). 

Range: Southern and eastern Brazil,*^ Paraguay, Uruguay, and 
Argentina west to the plains at the eastern base of the Andes south 
into northern Patagonia. Characters: Brownish gray head and 
sides of neck, with a black line passing from black of throat to 
breast, and shorter tarsus (69.5 to 75.5 mm.). 

The third form has been recognized as Belonopterus grisesceris 
Prazak by Brabourne and Chubb.*^ As Vanellus grisescens Pra- 
zak** was described from a single specimen secured by Richard 
Materna in " North Chile," it can not refer to the bird of the eastern 
pampas and must be considered a synonjan of chilensis. As a 
matter of fact, the name lampronotus of Wagler cited above is 
available for the southern form, and does not refer to the northern 
typical subspecies, as in his description Wagler states that lampro- 
notus has a black line leading down the middle of the foreneck to 
the breast, sides of the head, hind neck, and sides of neck ashy and 
tarsus 3 inches long, characters that indicate a bird from the south. 
He cites the range as Paraguay, Brazil, and Cayenne. The type 
locality is hereby restricted to Paraguay. 

The large, conspicuously colored teru teru is one of the most 
prominent birds found on the Argentine pampas, a species that the 
traveler meets almost at once on reaching open country. Where 
the birds are common one is never free from their insistent espionage, 
and though the birds are pleasing in color, their clamor soon be- 
comes tiresome even when they do not alarm desirable game. Where 
herdsmen pass continually through the fields on horseback the 
plovers are tame; elsewhere, where hunting is prevalent, they may 
be more shy, but it is seldom difficult to call them within gun range 
by sitting down in the open or by waving a white handkerchief. 
During the breeding season the birds fly out to meet all comers and 
with clamorous calls conduct intruders across their chosen domain. 
On moonlit nights their barking stiltlike calls may be heard con- 
tinuously, while they call at any time when disturbed, even though 



*2 A skin in the Field Museum, from Cidade da Barra, Rio San Francisco, Bahia, 
is representative of tliis form. 

*3 Birds of South America, December, 1912, p. 38. 

" Ornith. Monatsber., vol. 4, 1896, p. 23. '' 



BIRDS OF AKGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 171 

it may be j^itch dark. In olden times they were prized for their 
watchfulness at night, which gave warning of the approach of any 
possible enemies, and it is to this that the sentiment in Avhich they 
are held at present is due. Though peons rob their nests continually, 
comparatively few of the terus are killed, which may account for 
their abundance in settled regions. 

The species was found in practically all of the regions visited. In 
the Chaco where the country is broken by frequent tracts of monte 
they were less common than farther south in more open country. 
During winter they were frequently observed in pairs that often 
seemed to have a restricted range where they were observed daily. 
They traveled to some extent, however, and were frequently seen in 
strong, direct flight, passing high overhead. In the Chaco back of 
Puerto Pinasco they were seen at a distance of 200 kilometers west 
of the Paraguay River. A female that I secured on September 6, 
1920, at Kilometer 80, was about ready to breed. It is possible that 
another form may be described from this region as this specimen, 
in common with one or two seen from southern Brazil, has the black 
line down the foreneck considerably restricted. 

The well-watered eastern pampas form the true metropolis of the 
teru teru, as though the species frequents open, grassy plains, it 
seeks always the vicinity of water. In eastern Buenos Aires the 
birds were especially abundant and at the end of October apparently 
were breeding. At this season they became especially pugnacious 
in pursuit of passing hawks and storks, Avhile one even dashed 
repeatedly at an inoffensive European hare that loped along ahead 
of me. It Avas frequent to see two pairs of terus high in air in a 
display flight in which the fully extended wings, marked promi- 
nently with black and white, were waved slowly. The birds were 
observed west to Carhue, Buenos Aires, but none were noted at 
Victorica, Pampa, though I was told that they occurred there in 
wet seasons. A few seen at General Koca, Eio Negro, were supposed 
to be the present bird but may have been cMlensis. 

In Uruguay terus were common. On January 22 between San 
Carlos and Rocha I observed several bands of 20 or 30 gathered on 
open spaces on the banks of little arroyos running with clear water. 
These bands, observed commonly until the end of February, were 
composed of old and young, all less noisy than earlier in the season. 
The birds rested or fed in loose flocks that ran aside to permit 
passage of vehicles or men on horseback. At this season terus were 
in molt and their resting places were strewn with cast feathers. 
Grasshoppers, present in great abundance, were a favorite food, and 
the birds on the whole must have a considerable economic importance. 
A young bird only a few days old was captured near Lazcano on 
February 7. An adult taken on the following day is representative 



172 BULLETIN 133, UNITED * STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

of the pampas race. Flocks were noted near Guamini, Buenos Aires, 
as late as March 3. 

In Paraguay the lapwing was called taow taow by the Anguete 
Indians, an interesting similarity to the teru teru of the Guaranis 
by which the bird is known almost universally in the southern repub- 
lics. Both names are bestowed in imitation of the bird's notes. 

The downy young bird *^ secured is avellaneous on the dorsal sur- 
face with irregular spottings and markings of black, a band of black 
across the nape, and broken streaks of heavy black in the center of 
the back and on the flanks; undersurface white, with a broad black 
band across foreneck and upper breast that is variegated with white 
in a median longitudinal line, forming a faint stripe; thighs vina- 
ceous buff ; tail mixed avellaneous and black. This bird has no wing 
spur but, like adults, possesses a prominent claAv on the pollex. 

Attention is called to the fact that the plate used as the frontis- 
piece for volume 2 of Hudson's Birds of La Plata (London, 1920) 
represents the northern typical form of teru teru with undivided 
grayish-brown breastband, and not the subspecies that inhabits the 
pampas. 

Family THINOCORIDAE 

THINOCORUS RUMICIVORUS RUMICIVORUS Eschscholtz 

Thinocorus rumicivorus Eschscholtz, Zool. Atlas, pt. 1, 1829, p. 2, pi. 2. 
(Concepcion Bay, Chile.) 

Several subspecies of the small seed snipe have been proposed from 
various parts of its extensive range; so far as I may perceive from 
material now at hand those from Chile, Argentina, and Uruguay be- 
long to one form. Rothschild **' has described Thinoco7'us rumici- 
vorus venturii from Barracas al Sud, Buenos Aires (based on winter 
migrants from the south, since in eastern South America the species 
does not breed north of Patagonia). Series including birds from 
Chile, from near Buenos Aires (Conchitas), Uruguay, and Patagonia 
(Zapala, Neuquen, and Coy Inlet, Santa Cruz) show considerable in- 
dividual variation but no differences that may be correlated with 
range. Should it prove on the basis of more extensive material that 
an eastern subspecies may be recognized Tinochorus swainsonii 
Lesson ^^ named from Buenos Aires *^ must be used for it. 

Lowe's Thincorus peruvian-us,*° from Islay, Peru, must be consid- 
ered a synonym of Peale's Glareola cuneicauda^^ named from San 

<5 See also description of tliis plumage by Henninger, Auk, 1923, p. 122. 
*«Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 41, Apr. 13, 1921, p. 111. 
" Ferussac's Bull. Sci. Nat. Geol., vol. 25, June, 1831, p. 344. 

••« See Lesson, 111. Zool., Livr. 6, pi. 16, dated .Tune 1, 1831 (according to Mathews. 
Nov. Zool., vol. 18, 1911, p. 12, published in February, 1833). 
^"BuU. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 41, Apr. 13, 1921, p. 111. 
50 U. S. Expl. Exp., vol. 8, 1848, p. 244. 



i 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 173 

Lorenzo near Callao. Peale's type is an immature male, now con- 
siderably worn and stained by time. In small size, however, it 
agrees with Lowe's diagnosis, so that the form found on the Peruvian 
coastal region must be known as Th'moconis r. cuneicaudus (Peale). 
The type specimen (in the United States National Museum) has the 
following measurements : Wing, 97.5 ; tail, 52.3 ; culmen, 8.5 ; tarsus, 
16 mm. 

At Zapala, Neuquen, on December 8 and 9, I encountered the small 
seed snipe on its breeding grounds on the closely grazed slopes of an 
open valley in which there was a tiny stream and occasional little 
seeps or spring holes. As I came suddenly over the top of a high 
bank above the little rill that drained the valley a half-grown chick, 
that I recognized instantly as a seed snipe, ran out with wings spread 
and low piping calls, and after some difficulty I captured it. The 
mother flushed only a few feet away. Farther on in the valley adults 
were fairly common and, though they were wild, on the two days 
mentioned four males were taken. 

The area had an alkaline soil that supported scant herbage through 
which were scattered hillocks a few inches high. Male seed snipe 
rested quietly on the tops of these, at a distance resembling some 
curious lark or sparrow. As I approached they ran quickly away 
or crouched and hid. When flushed suddenly they rose swiftly and 
darted away in swift zigzags, uttering a low harsh call. The mark- 
ings of their wings and their appearance at these times bore a strik- 
ing resemblance to those of a small snipe or sandpiper. Males when 
at rest occasionally uttered a plaintively whistled whew with slightly 
expanded pulsating throat. To escape pursuit they ran rapidly, 
with head slightly forward like little plover, and when out of my 
path crouched with head and neck extended on the gi-ound. When 
not alarmed they walked slowly, with short steps, frequently wdth 
nodding head like a dove. Occasionally males darted off to mount 
high in air and circle over the valley. On their return they set their 
wdngs and came down rapidly, checking their descent every few 
feet so that they descended in a series of '' steps." The performance 
was accompanied by a curious chuckling double note. 

The bill in these birds was usually stained by adherent bits of 
vegetation on which they had been feeding. 

April 25, 1921, near Concon, Chile, about 25 seed snipe were found 
at the mouth of the Rio Aconcagua, on a sandy area where vegeta- 
tion was scant and there was much gravel mixed with the soil. A 
part had scattered over a wide tract, but a dozen or so ranged 
together and flew in unison. On alighting they spread somewhat in 
search of food. At intervals males towered and called as in the 
breeding season. 



174 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

A young bird half-grown, collected December 8 at Zapala, has 
most of the original covering of down rej^laced by the immature 
plumage, though much down still persists on the head. Adult 
males in somewhat worn plumage were taken December 8 and 9. 
One of these had the gonys, culmen, and tip of the bill dull black; 
remainder of maxilla deep olive buff ; remainder of mandible vetiver 
green ; nasal operculum deep neutral gray ; iris Rood's brown ; tarsus 
and toes chamois. A male and a female preserved as skins from 
Concon are in full fall plumage. Specimens were preserved in 
alcohol and as skeletons. 

The curious opercular flap that covers the nostril in the seed snipe 
is an undoubted protection against wind and sand to a bird that 
much of the time inhabits regions where protective cover is scant 
and strong winds carry clouds of dust. It may be remarked that 
the Pteroptochids Rhinocrypta and Teledromas that inhabit the 
same areas have developed a very similar structure. 

Order COLUMBIFORMES 
Family COLUMBIDAE 

LEPTOTILA OCHROPTERA OCHROPTERA (Pelzeln) 

Leptoptila ochroptera Pelzeln, Ornith. Brasiliens, pt. 3, January, 1870, 
p. 278. (Sapitiba, Brazil.) 

After comparison of a fair series of pigeons of this species from 
southern Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay, I am able to distinguish 
the typical subspecies from cJilorauchenia only by size, as in the 
series at hand color differences seem variable. Northern birds 
usually are duller in color on the abdomen than those from the south, 
a difference that perhaps is constant in fresh specimens, but is sub- 
ject to variation with age, as younger individuals are duller than 
those that are older. Specimens also discolor with time, so that those 
taken 30 or 40 years ago are not comparable with fresh material. 
Males of L. o. ochroptera have the wing 146 to 148.5 mm. (speci- 
mens from Kilometer 182, Formosa, and upper Paraguay) ; females 
135.5 to 142.5 mm. (Jaboticabel, Sao Paulo; Puerto Pinasco, Para- 
guay; Rio Bermejo, above its mouth, Argentina). 

In Leptotila o. chlorauchenia the wing in males measures from 
153 to 158 mm. (specimens from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; Laz- 
cano, Uruguay; Las Palmas, Chaco; Conchitas, Buenos Aires); in 
females from 150.5 to 153.3 (San Vicente, Uruguay; Las Palmas, 
Chaco.) Specimens from Las Palmas, Chaco, near the Rio Para- 
guay, are the southern form. Two from Kilometer 182, in the in- 
terior of the Formosan Chaco, have the measurements of the north- 
ern form but are intermediate in color, since one is light and the 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 175 

other dark on the ventral surface. Intergradation apparently takes 
place through this region. The skins listed from above the mouth 
of the Rio Bermejo, from the old Page collection, are somewhat 
open to suspicion as to locality. 

An immature female from an altitude of 2,000 meters on the 
slopes of the Sierra San Xavier, above Tafi Viejo, Tucuman, is 
placed tentatively with L. o. ochroptera on the basis of small size. 
Concerning the validity and relationships of L. callauchen and 
L. saturata named by Salvadori ^^ from San Lorenzo, in eastern 
Jujuy, I am uncertain. 

These pigeons inhabit rather heavy growths of \o\< Avoods and, 
though their habits are somewhat like those of quail doves, are not 
difficult to secure, as they come out frequently in openings or are seen 
walking in trails or in sections free of undergrowth. When not 
alarmed they walk steadily about with nodding heads, or if fright- 
ened may remain motionless. When alarmed they flush rapidly, 
with darting flight, often with a rattle of Avings. On infrequent 
occasions their initial flight is accompanied bj^ a shrill whistling 
like that made by a woodcock, produced probably by the attenuated 
tip of the outermost primary. They may dai't away to heavy cover, 
or after a flight of a few yards may perch on some low limb where 
they are partly screened from view. 

Occasionally one bowed low with elevated tail and suddenly 
flashed the white tij^s of the rectrices, an action observed more fre- 
frequently during the breeding season, and one that suggested a 
similar habit in Melopelia asiaflea. The call was a low, resonant 
who whoo-oo, a sound similar to that produced by blowing across the 
opening of a wide-mouthed bottle, and one that suggested the note 
of OreopeJeia montana. I was surprised to find that the female as 
well as the male gave this curious note. More rarely a bird gave a 
low coO'OO, barely audible at the distance of 10 meters. The white 
tail tip and reddish-brown undersurface of the wings are prominent 
in flight. 

At the Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, from August 9 to 21, these birds 
were fairly common ; males were taken on August 9 and 18. In very 
early morning they Avere found in open roads or trails but later in 
the day sought the seclusion of the forest. Individuals recorded at 
Formosa, Formosa, on August 23, may have been of the subspecies 
chlorauchenia. 

Near Puerto Pinasco the species was fairly common and was en- 
countered at Kilometer SO, and beyond to Laguna Wall on the west- 
ward, from September 1 to 25. An adult male w^as taken September 
8 near the port, and females on September 16 and 23 near Kilome- 

=1 Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. Univ. Torino, vol. 12, no. 292, May 12, 1897, p. 33. 



176 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

ter 80. On September 30 I found the species common on the heavily 
forested hill known as the Cerro Lorito, on the eastern bank of the 
Paraguay River. 

Notes on LeptotUa made in Tucuman are placed here with reser- 
vation. At Taipa from April 7 to 13, 1921, the birds ranged in 
fair numbers through the dry forests. At this season they were 
silent and their presence was unsuspected save when they chanced 
to flush wuth a rattle of wings. Above Tafi Viejo on April 17, oc- 
casional wood pigeons flushed near the winding trail that traversed 
the lower slopes of the Cumbre San Xavier. Betw^een 2,000 and 
2,500 meters 15 or 20 were scattered through a small, rather open 
grove of tree alders, where they flushed from the ground with a 
rattle of wings, and flew up to concealed perches among the yellowed 
leaves that still clung to the branches, or when driven from the 
shelter of the grove darted swiftly down the steep slopes to more 
secure cover in the denser forest below. Many of them, like a female 
that I killed, were in dark brown immature plumage. In the im- 
mature bird secured, though the outer primary is narrow, the in- 
cision at the tip is much less pronounced than in adults, as the ex- 
tremity of the feather measures 5 mm. in width. In adult birds 
it is barely more than 2 mm. at this point. 

LEPTOTILA OCHROPTERA CHLORAUCHENIA Giglioli and Salvadori 

Leptoptila chloratichenia Giglioli and SALVAnoRi, Atti. Roy. Acad. Scienz. 
Torino, vol. 5, pt. 2, 1870, p. 274. (Ef-.tancia Trinidad, Montevideo, 
Uruguay.) 

Names for the southern wood pigeon are in confusion and the 
usage followed, while that of custom, is considered tentative, Lep- 
toptila ochroptera was published in the third part of Pelzeln's 
Ornithologie Brasiliens, dated (on the original cover) 1870. As 
this part of Pelzeln's work is mentioned in the abstract of the meeting 
of the Deutsche Ornithologische Gesellschaft of Berlin for February 
1, 1870,^2 we may assume that it appeared in January of that year. 
Leptoptila chalcauchenia was proposed by Sclater and Salvin before 
a meeting of the Zoological Society of London for December D, 

1869, and appeared in the last part of the Proceedings of that organi- 
zation for 1869, which, if the usual custom was followed, was printed 
in March or April, 1870. Leptoptila chlorauchenia Giglioli and 
Salvadori read before a meeting in Turin on January 2, 1870, was 
published in the issue of Atti Royale Accademie Scienze for January, 

1870, a number that includes a Summary of meetings from January 2 
to January 30, so that it probably appeared in February or later. 
It was also published in the Ibis for April, 1870 (p. 186). From 

^- See Journ. fur Ornith., 1870, p. 153. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 177 

available information it is not apparent whether chalcauchenia or 
<ihlorauchenia has priority, and it is not impossible that one of 
them may antedate ochroptera. In a recent number of El Hornero 
(vol. 3, 1923, p. 200), Peters has stated that chalcauchenia is valid 
which may well be true but requires further substantiation. 

When sufficient material is available for a review of these pigeons 
it seems probable that what is here considered as the species ochrop- 
tera may be merged as a part of the wide ranging Leptotila 
verreauxi. 

The southern wood pigeon was fairly common in the southern 
portion of the Chaco and, Avherever thickets offered shelter, among 
the hills or near the streams of southern Uruguay. On the pampas 
it was found in small numbers in groves, and though driven out 
in some areas where the tala forests have been destroyed has spread 
in other sections where groves have been planted on estancias to 
furnish shelter to stock from the severity of storms. The habits of 
this form are similar to those detailed under L. o. ochroptera. 

At Las Palmas, Chaco, from July 16 to 30, 1920, the species was 
common and specimens were taken July 16 and 17. This was the 
beginning of the breeding season and birds taken were sexually 
active. They called constantly, and were especially nois}^ during dull, 
rainy weather when they sat huddled on low perches calling in reso- 
nant tones at frequent intervals. An adult female had the bill 
black; bare skin about eye gray number 7; an irregular semilunar 
mark before and behind eye acajou red; tarsus and toes acajou red; 
■claws black. 

Two pairs inhabited the tala woods at the Estancia Los Yngleses, 
near Lavalle, Buenos Aires, as was recorded on November 8. Neaf 
San Vicente, Uruguay, from January 25 to 31, 1921, the birds were 
fairly common on the brush-covered slopes of the hill known as the 
Oerro Navarro. They called frequently and an adult female taken 
January 25 was about to lay. At Lazcano, Uruguay, from February 
5 to 8, the species was found in the heavy woods along the K.io 
CeboUati where a male was taken February 6. At Rio Negro, Uru- 
guay, the birds were recorded from February 14 to 19. 

Leptotila ochroptera has a diastataxic wing, thus agreeing with 
what Miller ^^ has recorded in L. verreauxi. 

METRIOPELIA MELANOPTERA MELANOPTERA (Molina) 

Columba Melanopter-a Molina, Sagg. Stor. Nat. Chili, 1782, p. 236. (Cliile.) 

Specimens secured in Mendoza and Neuquen agree with two from 
Santiago, Chile, in the National Museum, which are taken as repre- 
sentative of the typical form. J. L. Peters has called my attention 
to a note in the Journal fiir Ornithologie, 1913 (p. 401), where 

S3 Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 34, 19l5, p. 130. 



178 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Reichenow states that Columba melanoptera of Molina should be 
placed in the genus Zenaida. Since Zenaida zenaida has 14 rectrices 
and a diastataxic wing,^* while in Metriopelia melanoptera I find 
12 rectrices and a eutaxic wing (verified in two specimens), Reiche- 
now's action has no basis other than that of superficial resemblance. 

At Zapala, Neuquen, on December 7, 1920, I flushed a male in 
open brush on the slope of a hill, and killed it as it darted away. 
Near Potrerillos, Mendoza, a male was taken March 15, 1921, two 
females on March 16, and a fourth specimen on March 17. 

The birds were found, rather rarely, on arid hill slopes, grown 
with open brush, or on the gravelly flood plains of small streams. 
It is seldom that they are seen on the ground, as there they are 
concealed by the rocks and brush, among which they walk with nod- 
ding heads; they become motionless at any alarm. They flush 
swiftly with a peculiar, almost metallic, rattle of the wings, that 
resembles exactly the winnowing whistle of a blackbird's flight 
when part of the primaries are missing in molt. They climb for 
a few feet in rising and then dart swiftly away. The black under 
wing surface is prominent in flight. On March 19 several Avere seen 
at El Salto at an altitude of 1,800 meters, while on March 24 one 
flushed in a dry wash on the flats near the base of the foothills 
25 kilometers west of Tunuyan. The bird is known as paloma de 
la sierra. 

An adult male taken December 7 had the bill black; bare skin 
before eye salmon color; iris yellowish glaucous; tarsus and toes 
black. Another shot March 15 had the bill dull black; cere deep 
neutral gray; iris light dull glaucous blue; eyelids light Payne's 
gray; margin of lower lid, anterior canthus, and space before eye, 
extending as a crescent below the lower lid slightly brighter than 
salmon color; tarsus and toes dark quaker drab; nails black. Fe- 
males shot March 16 did not differ from the one last described. 

COLUMBINA PICUI (Tcmminck) 

CoJumha Picui Temminck, Hist. Nat. Gen. Pig. Gall., vol. 1, 1913, pp. 
485, 49S. (Paraguay.) 

Material of this pigeon at hand includes specimens from southern 
Brazil, Paraguay, central Argentina, Mendoza, Chile, and interme- 
diate localities, in which I can find no difl^erences that warrant sub- 
division of the species. The status of a race in northeastern Brazil 
seems somewhat uncertain, so that I have not attempted to use a tri- 
nomial for my specimens. 

This small pigeon was widely distributed throughout the region 
that I visited and was recorded at many points. The species is social, 
and where food is abundant decidedly gregarious. Two or three to 

"Miller, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 34, 1915, p. 130. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 179 

half a dozen were nearly always found in company, while bands of 
25 or 30 were not unusual save when the birds were breeding. They 
frequented the borders of thickets, weed patches, open prairies, or 
old fields seldom far from trees that might give them shelter. 
Where high gi'ass covered the open savannas the birds gathered in 
any little open space at the border of forest, while recent burns 
or plowed fields were always attractive to them. At the Riacho 
Pilaga, Formosa, a little band came daily to feed on sorghum heads 
stored under a porch at the ranch. The species is one that comes 
frequently about houses and that may be found in the plazas of the 
larger cities. I found it even in the Plaza San Martin, in the heart 
of Buenos Aires, so that it was almost a surprise to encounter the 
birds in comparative abundance in the wilder sections of the Chaco 
far from human habitation. In March, near Tunuyan, Mendoza, 
extensive fields of hemp called the birds in abundance. As the hemp 
was grown solely for the fiber that it produced, the seed was allowed 
to ripen thoroughly and shelled out to lie on the ground. Doves gath- 
ered literally in hundreds, especially where lines of willows bordered 
the fields to offer resting places. The birds flush quickly with a dart- 
ing flight and fly rapidly, but as they are small in size are not 
hunted, save by the pothunters, who kill all small birds. In the air 
the black and white in the wing flash alternately, while there is an 
additional line of white visible in the tail. In habits and general 
appearance the birds are suggestive of ground doves. 

Males began their monotonous cooing calls in October. On De- 
cember 17 a female, shot near Carhue, Buenos Aires, contained an 
egg with the shell partly formed. Near Montevideo, Uruguay, on 
January 16, 1921, two young, not more than three-fourths grown 
but strong in flight, were seen. A nest recorded January 29, near 
San Vicente, Uruguay, was placed at the border of a little thicket, 
more than 2 meters from the ground, where two small limbs crossed 
and offered firm support. The nest, a slight platform of grass and 
weed stems, contained two eggs nearly ready to hatch. A second 
nest found February 19 near Rio Negro, Uruguay, at the border of 
a thicket was placed in a shrub among thickly laced branches more 
than 2 meters from the ground. The nest, a slight structure of grass 
and fine twigs with a few feathers from the bodies of the OAvners, 
contained two slightly incubated eggs that are white in color and 
rather dull in texture. These measure, respectively, 23.6 by 17.7 
and 23.1 by 18.2 mm. To my surprise, when I collected the bird that 
was incubating, it proved to be the male. Males were calling and 
were still in breeding condition at Tunuyan, Mendoza, on March 24. 
At Tapia, Tucuman, in the second week of April young birds, fully 
grown, were common and the breeding season appeared to be at an 
end. With allowance for differences in climatic conditions it appears 



180 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

from these notes that two broods are reared each season, while in 
some localities three may be produced. 

These pigeons were recorded at the following points: Buenos 
Aires city, June, October, and January, in the Plaza San Martin; 
Resistencia and Las Palmas, Chaco, July, 1920 ; Riacho Pilaga, For- 
mosa, August 7 to 21 (male taken August 7) ; Formosa, Formosa, 
August 23 and 24; Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, from the Rio Para- 
gTiay west for 200 kilometers, September 3 to 25 (male taken at 
Kilometer 80, September 17) ; Lavalle, Buenos Aires, November 2, 
9, and 13; Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, December 14 (one in the 
main plaza) ; Carhue, Buenos Aires, December 15 to 18 (female shot 
December 17) ; Victorica, Pampa, December 23 to 29; Carrasco, near 
Montevideo, Uruguay, January 9 and 16, 1921; La Paloma, Uruguay, 
January 23; San Vicente, Uruguay, January 25 to February 2; 
Lazcano, Uruguay, February 3 to 8 ; Rio Negro, Uruguay, February 
14 to 19 (male and set of eggs taken February 19) ; Guamini, Buenos 
Aires, March 6 and 8; Mendoza, Mendoza, March 13; Potrerillos, 
Mendoza, March 17 and 19; Tunuyan, Mendoza, March 22 to 28 
(three males taken March 24) ; Tapia, Tucuman, April 7 to 13. 

A male taken September 17 had the maxilla and tip of mandible 
dusky neutral gray ; base of mandible olive buff ; iris Payne's gray, 
with paler margin ; bare skin about eye storm gray ; tarsus and toes 
dull Indian purple; claws blackish. 

ZENAIDA AURICULATii AURICULATA (Des Murs) 

Peristera auriculata Des Murs in Gay, Hist. Fis. Pol., Chile, ZooL, vol. 1, 
1847, p. 381. (Central provinces of Chile.) 

Study of a considerable series of Zenaida auriculata shows the 
validity of the well-marked form described by Bangs and Noble ^^ 
from Huancabamba, Peru, as Z. a. pallens (marked by smaller size 
and darker posterior underparts), but does not reveal other forms 
that may be recognized at present. There is a tendency for birds 
from Buenos Aires and Mendoza southward to be larger than speci- 
mens from Uruguay and Paraguay northward to Colombia, while 
specimens from Neuquen and Mendoza, at the base of the Ancles, 
are slightly grayer as well as larger. The species is one in wliich 
there is considerable change in color as specimens age, while meas- 
urements at times seem contradictory to the statements made above. 
Chilian examples at hand are insufficient to establish the characters 
of the typical form, so that I do not care to attempt any further 
subdivision. It may be remarked that specimens of -pollens from 
Pisac, Chospiyoc, the Tomba Valley, and Lima, Peru, are browner 
above than true auHcuIata^ rather than paler and grayer as stated 
in the original description. Otherwise the diagnosis is correct in 

^5 Auk, ISIIS, p. 440. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 181 

pointing out the briohter, pinker coloration of the breast and the 
paler, huffier tint of the posterior underparts. 

The Zenaida dove has a wide distribution in open or semi-open 
country in southern South America and, like the mourning dove of 
the United States, is one of the species of birds seen constantly' dur- 
ing travel, whether by train or other convej-ance. It was present in 
the Chaco in winter, but was less abundant than in drier, more open 
country farther south. At the Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, on August 
19, 1920, I noted these doves in close flocks, containing from a dozen 
to twenty-five individuals, that fed in open fields with other pigeons.- 
Two were seen near the town of Formosa August 23. At Puerto 
Pinasco, Paraguay, one was observed on September 1 at Kilometer 
25 in company with a flock of blackbirds, Gnorimopsar chopi. Else- 
where in this region the species was observed on September 24 and 
25 at Laguna Wall (Kilometer 200). The Zenaida dove was abun- 
dant on the pampa in the vicinity of Lavalle, Buenos Aires, from 
October 22 to November 13, and was found in equal numbers at 
General Roca, Rio Negro, from November 23 to December 3, and near 
Zapala, Neuquen, from December 7 to 9. Adult females were taken 
at Lavalle October 25, at General Roca December 2 (preserved as a 
skeleton), and at Zapala December 7. At Carhue, Buenos Aires, 
several were observed December 17, and an adult male was taken. 
The species was common at Victorica, Pampa, from December 23 
to 29, often in yards in town. It was noted near Carrasco, Uruguay, 
January 9 and 16, and was abundant at La Paloma January 23. 
It was noted in numbers at San Vicente January 25 to February 2 
(a female taken January 28), Lazcano, February 3 to 8, and Rio 
Negro, February 14 to 19. One was seen at Guamini, Buenos Aires, 
March 4, and occasional birds were reported at Potrerillos, Mendoza, 
March 17, 19, and 21. On the plains near Tunuyan the birds were 
gathered in considerable flocks from March 22 to 29. Near Tapia, 
Tucuman, they were observed in small numbers from April 7 to 13, 
and others were recorded at Concon, Chile, April 26 to 28 (a female 
taken April 26). 

Like the Zenaida dove of the "West Indies, Z. auricukita suggests 
in habits and even in appearance (save for shorter tail) the equally 
abundant mourning dove {Zenaidura macroura) of our northern 
continent. The birds feed on the ground in pairs or flocks, often in 
plowed fields where seeds are abundant, but more frequently in 
pastures where there is cover of grass or weeds. In the more arid 
sections they walk about in shelter of open scrubby bushes with the 
quick, short steps and nodding heads usual in pigeons. When ap- 
proached they suddenly stop motionless and then flush with loudly 
clapping wings that become silent as the birds dart away in swift, 
direct flight. On cool morninjTs single birds or little bands gathered 



182 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

in the top of some open tree, frequently an ombii, to rest in the sun. 
They were common in groves of tala or ombii trees in the eastern 
pampas, and flushed constantly with clapping wings as I passed 
near them. Others fed along the walks or in the extensive open 
grounds surrounding estancia houses. 

From October to February birds were found in pairs, though 
flocks gathered to feed in suitable localities. Males called at this 
season, giving a low, sad-toned whoo lohoo whoo whoo-oo in a gut- 
tural tone with little carrying power or volume of sound. When 
•about to coo the upper part of the throat was expanded with air. 
]Males often sailed with set wings in short circles above the trees, 
with the throat distended with air, so that with their short tails 
they presented an odd, rounded appearance — display flights that 
ended by a descent to some perch. As flocks of birds flew past me 
individuals suddenly darted sideways to produce a rattling sound 
with their wings. A nest found February 2, 1921, near San Vicente, 
Uruguay, was composed of a few weed stems and twigs placed on a 
foundation of an old nest of some oscinine, in the fork of a small 
tree more than 2 meters from the ground. It contained two eggs too 
hard set to save. A second nest, built like the first on fragments of 
the old nest of some perching bird, was a slight mat of fine twigs in 
the limbs of a small tree 2 meters from the earth. A third, recorded 
February 14 at Rio Negro, Uruguay, placed more than 2 meters from 
the ground amid dense limbs of a shrub, was a slightly cupped 
platform of twigs so loose in construction that the eggs were visible 
through it from below. All nests examined contained eggs so hard 
set that they could not be blown. February 6 to 8, while working 
near Lazcano, I found young three-quarters grown, able to fly, in 
thickets growing in sandy soil near the Rio CeboUati. 

After the breeding season Zenaida doves congregated Avherever 
food was abundant and frequently forsook areas where they had been 
common earlier in the year. Grain or hemp fields v\'ere especially 
attractive, as were tracts where certain large-seeded weeds were 
common. The species is hunted for game, but no more so than other 
small birds. The flesh is similar to that of other wild pigeons, 

PICAZUROS PICAZURO PICAZURO (Tcmminck) 

Columba Picazura Temminck, Hist. Nat. Pig. Gall., vol. 1, 1S13, pp. Ill, 
449. (Paraguay.) 

At the Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, this large pigeon was common 
during my stay in August, 1920, and two adult males were killed 
on August 16. The birds were gregarious while feeding or resting, 
but in flight across country were found alone or in bands of small 
size. They frequented the open savannas where recent burns at- 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 183 

tracted them, and also congregated on occasional newly plowed 
fields. When one or two drop in to some feeding ground, others 
that chance to pass decoy to them until in a comparatively short time 
from 50 to 100 may be found in company. On the ground they 
walk quickly with characteristic jerking, nervous, pigeon gait, peck- 
ing at any food that may offer. When satisfied they leave, a few at 
a time, to fly to water to drink, and then come stringing back 
singly or in little groups. One or two may alight in low trees and 
all that pass that way are sure to join them. Some of the birds 
rest on open branches and others among leaves, where in spite of 
their large size they are w^ell concealed. They usually gather in 
close proximity where they may catch the warmth of the sun. 

They flush with loudly clapping wings, but the ensuing flight 
is noiseless. In the air their wings appear broad and heavy, and 
only slightly pointed, so that with their short tails they have a 
heavy, fore-shortened ap2:)earance. The flight was direct but only 
moderately swift. The birds roosted somewhere to the south of the 
ranch where I was stopping and during the day were observed 
frequently, in early morning as they came from their roost, and 
later as they passed to feeding grounds or watering places. They 
are heavy in body and furnish an abundance of excellent meat. 
At intervals I heard males give an odd call koh huh kwaoh^ given 
rapidly four or five times, and then, after a brief rest, repeated 
once more. 

Others w^ere seen at Formosa, Formosa, on August 23 and 24 
(perhaps of the following form), and at Kilometer 110, west of 
Puerto Pinasco, I saw a number on September 23. 

In Guarani they were known as picaztiro. 

A male killed August 16 had the bill dawn gray with a wash 
of fuscous at the tip; cere neutral gray obscured by a Avhitish, 
flaky encrustation; bare skin about e^'e acajou red, save for the 
lids which are Hathi gray, Avith the margin about the eye acajou 
red; iris flesh ocher; scutes on tarsus and toes acajou red; nails 
fuscous. 

Since no one appears to have examined specimens of this pigeon 
from Paraguay, the type-locality, as Temminck's description is 
based on that of Azara, there is a reasonable doubt as to whether 
birds from that region belong to the pale northern form, as was 
assumed by Hartert when he described the dark southern bird as a 
distinct subspecies. Should it prove true that it belongs to the 
southern form it will be necessary to describe the northern bird. 
In the present case I find that an adult male from the interior of 
Formosa is paler than others from central Argentina and Uruguay. 
Hence I identify it as the typical form. 



184 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

PICAZUROS PICAZURO REICHENBACHI (Bonaparte) 

Crossophthahnus reichenbacJii Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., vol. 2, 1857, p. 55. 
(Patagonia.) 

When Doctor Hartert °^ pointed out that the picazuro pigeon from 
northern Argentina differed from that from more northern regions 
and named it Columha picazuro venturiana^ he overlooked the fact 
that another name was available for it, probably because the name 
here used, that of Bonaparte, had been placed by Salvadori"' in 
the synonymy of Notioenas maculosa. Crossojjhthalmus reiclienbacM 
was described by Bonaparte from an adult from Patagonia and a 
juvenile (at least so characterized) from Paraguay. On scanning 
the original reference it will be seen that the adult refers to Picazuros 
picazuro and the supposed young bird to Notioenas rruiculosa., since 
the former is said only to have the wing coverts margined with 
white, while the latter has the feathers of the back and the superior 
wing coverts terminally spotted with white. As the adult of this 
composite is picazuro the name should be restricted to that bird. 
It will apply to the form that has been described as venturian^ and 
must supplant that name. The type-locality given as Patagonia 
may be erroneous, but may perhaps be determined by examination 
of Orbigny's original specimen if still extant. 

An adult male of the dark southern form of the picazuro pigeon 
was taken at San Vicente, Uruguay, on January 26, 1921. Since 
a specimen in the collection of the United States National Museum 
from Corrientes is also representative of the dark southern bird, 
the question of the identity of the bird from Paraguay, the type- 
locality of the typical form, naturally arises, as Corrientes is not 
far from the Paraguayan border. The fact that a bird from the 
Formosan Chaco is pale does not necessaril}^ indicate that one from 
east of the Paraguay River in the same latitude would be the same, 
since the specimen in question came from the interior of the Chaco 
in a region where pale forms, similar to those from the Paraguayan 
Chaco, occur. In other words, it is not improbable that a pale bird 
may range in the Paraguayan Chaco and that a dark one may occupy 
eastern Paraguay. 

Several of these pigeons were recorded at the Estancia Los 
Yngleses, near Lavalle, Buenos Aires, October 23, 1920, and one 
was seen on November 9. In southern Uruguay I found them com- 
mon. One was seen at La Paloma, January 23, while near San 
Vicente, from January 25 to February 2, the birds were common and 
were breeding. They were most common in the extensive pahno.res, 
where forests of palms covered broad marshy areas in the lowlands. 
The pigeons rested in the tops of the palms and flew out with loudly 

^ Nov. Zool.. vol. 16, December, 1900, p. 260. 
" Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol. 21, 1893, p. 273. 



Bir.DS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 185 

clapping wincfs as I passed, or if at a reasonable distance watched 
me alertly with jerking heads. The note of a wounded individual 
was a curious, low, growling call. The display flight of the males 
at this season was interesting. The birds sailed out with the wings 
broadly extended, elevated at an angle above the back, and thrown 
slightly forward so that there was a space between the tips of the 
tertials and the sides. In this manner the pigeon described a grace- 
ful curve to another perch or returned to the one that it had left. The 
action was similar to that of the domestic pigeon under similar cir- 
cumstances. A nest, found January 29, was placed at the border of 
a little thicket on a small horizontal limb a little more than 2 meters 
above the ground. This was a slight platform of grass, weed stems, 
and little twigs, irregular in outline, and from 60 to 70 mm. in 
diameter. An adult pigeon flushed from the nest, and in it rested 
a young bird about half grown, with contour feathers partly cover- 
ing the body. As usual in pigeons of this group, the incoming con- 
tour feathers are deeper in color, and more reddish than in the adult. 
Hairlike filaments of down that still adhere to head and breast are 
chamois color. 

At Lazcano, farther north in the Department of Rocha, from Feb- 
ruary 5 to 8, these pigeons were found in flocks of half a dozen 
that fed in weed patches or rested in the shade of coronillo trees 
in open pastures, or in dense thickets near the Rio Cebollati. A few 
were recorded at Rio Negro, Uruguay, on February 15 and 19. 

NOTIOENAS MACULOSA MACULOSA (Temminck) 

Columba maculosa Temminck, Hist. Nat. Pig. Gall., vol. 1, 1813, pp. 113, 
450. (Paraguay.) 

At Lazcano, Uruguay, the spotted-winged pigeon was found from 
February 7 to 9, 1921, feeding in little flocks in weed patches, often 
in company with Picazuros p. picazuro. The mottled shoulder of 
the present species shows plainly in favorable light, and, with 
slightly smaller size, is sufficient to distinguish the bird from its rela- 
tive, which it resembles closely in form and habit. Two adult males 
were taken February 7. One of these has the following measure- 
ments: Wing, 203.5; tail, 97.5; culmen from cere, 11; tarsus, 27.8 
mm. 

NOTIOENAS MACULOSA FALLAX (Schlegel) 

Chloroenas fallax S<eHLEGi!X, Mus. Hist. Nat. Pays-Bas, vol. 4, 1873, p. 80. 
(Rio Negro, Patagonia.) 

The spotted-winged pigeon from central and western Argentina 
is darker on head, neck, upper back, and ventral surface, and is 
larger than what is assumed to be typical maculosa from the Rio 
Bermejo, Argentina, and Lazcano, Uruguay. Chloroenas fallax as 
originally described by Schlegel was based on a specimen said to 



186 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

have come from Mexico, and a female shot in June, 1871, in Eio 
Negro. Since the description is that of Notioenas maculosa the type 
should be restricted to the second specimen as is done here, and the 
specimen said to have come from Mexico if (as seems from what 
Schlegel has written) this species, considered as bearing an erroneous 
locality. 

The present subspecies was recorded December 28, 1920, at Victor- 
ica, Pampa, in fair numbers, and an adult male was taken. The 
birds at this season were in pairs that ranged through the open 
monte. During the heat of the day they rested on the broad limbs of 
calden or algarroba trees where they found comfortable perches well 
shaded from the intense rays of the sun. At evening they came to 
drink from a water hole near town. When approached they flushed 
with loudly clapping wings and darted swiftly away. As I passed 
a tree containing a large hollow, I heard a strange growling call 
in a low tone that I attributed to the young of some monte cat. On 
investigation I found nothing in the hollow, though I noted that a 
pair of spotted-winged pigeons flushed from the tree, a circum- 
stance to Avhich I paid no attention until later when a wounded 
pigeon in my hand uttered the same queer call. 

The male secured, when first killed, had the bill dull black; iris 
slightly darker than pearl gray ; tarsus and toes neutral red ; claws 

Ml fl P K 

Order CUCULIFORMES 
Family CUCULIDAE 

CROTOPHAGA ANI Linnaeus 

Crotopliaga ani Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1, 1758, p. 105. (East- 
ern Brazil.'*) 

At Las Palmas, Chaco, the ani was fairly common and a male was 
taken on July 19, 1920. Others were recorded July 22 and 24. Sev- 
eral were seen at Formosa, Formosa, August 24, and on September 
30 a male and a female were shot from a flock of a dozen on the 
Paraguay River at Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay. In Guarani the 
species is known as ano-i or little ano, so that the name ani is per- 
haps a contraction of this term. 

The three taken seem to offer no tangible differences from speci- 
mens from the northern range of the species. 

GUIRA GUIRA (Gmelin) 

Cticulus guira Gmeilin, Syst. Nat., vol. 1, pt. 1, 1788, p. 414. (Brazil.) 

In a small series of specimens from Paraguay, Uruguay, and the 
following Provinces and Territories of Argentina, namely, Buenos 

=58 See Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., vol. 9, April, 1902, p. 98, and Hellmayr 
Nov. Zool., vol. 12, September, 1905, p. 299. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 187 

Aires, Mendoza, Santa Fe, and Chaco, no definite variation is ap- 
parent save that specimens from Mendoza appear someAvhat paler 
and whiter below. Birds of this species easily become soiled and 
most of the skins from eastern localities are considerably discolored 
by dirt so that on careful examination the lio;hter color of skins from 
semiarid Mendoza seems more apparent than real. Cory has stated 
that specimens from Ceara average smaller than those from the 
south, but a single skin from Marajo is as large as those from Buenos 
Aires. 

Though a bird of open country, the guira, like the ani, prefers 
regions of open savannas diversified with thickets and groves so 
that, though fairly common on the pampas, it was most abundant 
in the partly wooded areas farther north. In southern Uruguay 
and central Argentina the species is called urraca^ signifying prop- 
erly a magpie, but in the north where jays occur the term urrcuca 
is applied to them, and the guira is known as inrincho. It is inter- 
esting to note that guira^ in the Guarani tongue signifies bird as a 
group designation. 

Guiras are social and range in pairs or flocks that frequently num- 
ber 20 individuals. The birds feed on the ground, usually with one 
member of the band perched as guard where it may survey the 
country. Open pastures or savannas are frequented and the birds 
are attracted by recent burns in grasslands. As they alight they 
throw the tail up and the head down, and then walk or run rapidly 
with long legs fully extended. At any alarm they utter a curious 
rattling call that may be represented as kee-ee-ee-ee^ from which 
they derive their Guarani name of piriri (meaning a crackling noise, 
as the crackle of a brush fire, or the noise produced in walking 
through dry weeds), and then fly off in a loose, stringing flock to 
alight in company on a tree, post, or fence. The flight is slow and 
Aveak, accomplished by a brief beating of the wings, followed by a 
short sail in which the wings are held stiffly extended. On the wing, 
head and tail are held at a slightly higher level than the back. The 
long tail is held at various angles when the birds are at rest, while 
the wings may be drooped and the crest lowered or raised. Curi- 
osity, interest, or indifference are expressed in constantly changing 
attitudes, many of which are bizarre and unusual so that the long, 
slenderly formed guiras are always of interest. On cool mornings 
flocks rest in the rays of the sun with hanging tail, drooping wings, 
and fluffed out feathers, a sight so frequent that in el sol como un 
pirincho is a common saying for any one who basks in the sun's rays 
on a cold morning. 

The song of the guira, if such it may be called, is a series of 
discordant notes of great carrying power, exactly like the noise 
produced by blowing on a grass blade held taut betvveen the thumbs ; 



188 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

in fact, for some time when I heard this sound I mistook it for 
some child in noise-making play and wondered mildly that the 
method of producing the sound, common in the United States, 
should be loioAvn to the youth of the south. The food of this species 
is mainly insects, and the species is a valuable aid to agriculture in 
its destruction of injurious grasshoppers. On one occasion I saw 
one with a cicada in its bill. The birds are considered excellent 
for domestication since they are said to rid houses of all of the 
creeping and running insects that pester man, while it was rumored, 
probably without basis in fact, that they might learn to imitate a 
few words of human speech. They have a parrotlike habit of 
searching with the bill through the plumage of companions, perhaps 
for parasites. Their feathers are long and not very abundant, while 
the skin is thick and strong. The body exhales a strong, pungent 
odor, similar to that of the ani, and cuckoos of the genus Coccyzus^ 
to me a disagreeable smell that if endured for any length of time 
produces headache. 

Guira guira Avas definitely recorded as follows: Santa Fe, Santa 
Fe, July 4, 1920; Resistencia, Chaco, July 9; Las Palmas, Chaco, 
July 13 to August 1 (a male taken July 15) ; Riacho Pilaga, For- 
mosa, August 8, 15, and 20; Formosa, Formosa, August 23 and 24; 
Puerto Pinasco, Paraguaj?- (from the river west to Kilometer 80, 
September 1 to 30 (a female taken at Kilometer 80, September 16) ; 
Dolores, Buenos Aires, October 21; Lavalle, Buenos Aires, October 
27 to November 13; Carhue, Buenos Aires, December 17 (an adult 
female shot); Victorica, Pampa, December 23 and 27; Carrasco, 
Uruguay, January 9 and 16, 1921; La Paloma, Uruguay, January 
23; San Vicente, Uruguay, January 25 to February 2 (a male shot 
January 27) ; Lazcano, Uruguay, February 3 to 9 (one taken Feb- 
ruary 6) ; Guamini, Buenos Aires, March 3 and 4; Tunuyan, Men- 
doza, March 24 and 29; Tapia, Tucuman, April 6 to 13. 

In the museum of the University of Kansas are two specimens 
taken near Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, by H. T. Martin and S. A. 
Adams, one in November and one on December 10, 1903. This is 
about the southern limit of the species from information at present 
available. 

A male taken July 15 had the tip of the bill varying from apri- 
cot orange on the culmen to salmon orange on the mandible; base 
of bill and bare skin on side of head reed yellow; iris cadmium 
orange; tarsus and toes dark olive gray, becoming olive gray at 
margins of scutes. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUx^Y, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 189 

TAPERA NAEVIA CHOCHI (Vieillot) 

Coccyzus choclii Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. S, ISIT, p. 272. 
( Paraguay. ) 

On April 8, 1921, near Tapia, Tucuman, one of these birds 
flushed from the ground at the border of a thicket and alighted on 
a low branch among leaA^es, where it peered out Avith extended neck, 
raised crest and slowly vibrating tail. It proved to be a juvenile 
female barely grown. The culmen and base of the maxilla were 
blackish mouse gray; remainder of maxilla buffy brown; mandible 
tea green; iris smoke gray; tarsus and toes vetiver green, shaded 
on side of tarsus with castor gray. 

It is recorded by Hartert and Venturi '^^ that this strange cuckoo 
foists its domestic cares on certain smaller birds, notably on species 
of Synallaxis. Dr. H. von Ihering"" reports a young bird secured 
from the rounded stick nest of Synallaxis spixi, while in another 
nest of this same species he secured an incubated egg, larger and 
duller in color than others in the set, that contained an unmis- 
takable embryo of Tapera. Fonseca*^^ also records it as parasitic 
on SynuUaxis spixi, and says that as the cuckoo is too large to enter 
the globular inclosed nest of its host it tears a hole in one side 
to give access to the nest cavity where it deposits its egg. 

The specimen from- Tapia is in juvenal plumage, with spotted 
crown and barred throat. The usage of Bangs and Penard^- has 
been followed in recognizing a large southern form of Tapera, 
though I find specimens from Venezuela as large as those from the 
south. Individual variation in color in this species, with condition 
of plumage is extensive. 

MICROCOCCYX CINEREUS (Vieillot) 

Coccyzus cinereus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 8. 1817, p. 272. 
(Paraguay.) 

The first of these cuckoos was recorded at Victorica, Pampa, on 
December 23, 1920, when an adult female was shot as it rested in 
the sun in the top of a tree. The note of tiiis individual was a 
sonorous cow-io cow-w cow cow, in tone like the call of the. yellow- 
billed cuckoo but without the rattling, clucking termination usual 
in the song of that bird. At Tapia, Tucuman, on April 7 and 8, 
several were seen and three taken, including an adult pair and a 
juvenile female not fully grown. They were found in rather dense, 
dry scrub in a region of barrancas. The birds were alert but silent 

°9Nov. ZooL, vol. IG, 1909, p. 230. 
^oRev. Mus. Paulista, vol. 9, 1914, pp. 391-395. 
" Rev. Mus. Paulista, vol. 13, 1923, pp. 785-787. 
8- Bull. Mus. Comp. ZooL, vol. 62, April, 1918, p. 50. 

54207—26 13 



190 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

and worked rapidly tlirougli the l)ranches of the trees. Their flight 
was direct, and seldom high above the earth. The small wings and 
long tail give them the appearance in the air usual in allied species. 
The young bird taken, barely from the nest, had the inside of the 
mouth ornamented with a series of tubercles dead white in color 
that outlined the throat cavity in a startling manner when the 
mouth was opened. Four lay at the angles of the pharynx, one 
ornamented the tongue, and five somewhat less prominent were 
found on the palate. Against a duller background their pure white 
color stood out prominently. Such ornaments, visible only when 
the mouth is fully opened must serve as directive markings to assist 
the adults in placing food properly, when feeding the young. 

The 3"oung bird, not yet fully fledged, has the throat and breast 
grayish white and the wings, tail, and dorsal surface in general with 
a faint rufescent wash that is absent in the adults. The adult male, 
taken April 8, had renewed all of the flight feathers save the tenth 
primary. The adult female secured the day previous has renewed 
all save the third and sixth primaries and some of the secondaries. 
The female, taken December 23, had the bill black; bare skin 
around eye hydrangea red ; iris pomegranate purple ; tarsus and toes 
deep neutral gray ; claws black. 

COCCYZUS MELACORYPHUS (VieUlot) 

Coccysus melacoryplius Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 8, 1817, p. 271. 
(Paraguay.) 

The present cuckoo is a thicket-haunting species found in low 
scrub, so shy that it is difficult to observe. Near Rio Negro, Uruguay, 
from February 14 to 19, 1920, I found these birds on their breeding 
grounds in heavy brush that bordered streams. Here they were ob- 
served searching for food among leafy branches from :) to 6 meters 
from the ground, or were heard calling, a low, guttural cuh-h-hy 
audible only a short distance awa}'. They were shy and nervous 
and sought safer cover whenever they found that they were seen. 
On February 15 one was seen carrying food to young, while on Feb- 
ruary 18 two in Juvenal plumage, fully grown, were taken. Adult 
males taken February 15 and 19 and females shot on February 14 
and 18 are in full breeding plumage. The two young (male and 
female), secured February 18, are slightly duller brown above than 
adults and have the light markings on the tail diffuse and not sharply 
delimited. The young apparently molt the retrices before the next 
breeding season. 

At Tapia, Tucuman, two males were taken in the thickets fre- 
quented by Micrococcyx cinereus on April 7 and 12. These, both 
adult, are in process of molt on head, neck, and breast and are 
renewing the quill feathers. In one molt of the primaries has begun 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 191 

with renewal of the fifth, ninth, and tenth in one win<»- and the sixth 
and eighth in the other. The second specimen has molted the second 
primary in either wing. 

The species does not seem to have been recorded previously from 
Uruguay. 

COCCYZUS AMERICANUS AMERICANUS (Linnaeus) 

Cuculus americanus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1, 1758, p. 111. 
(Carolina.) 

On February 15, 1921, an adult female Avas taken near Rio Negro, 
Uruguay, as it worked slowly and silently through willows in an 
open thicket along a small stream, in the same type of country as 
that frequented by the black-billed C. melacoryphus. The specimen 
is completing the molt and has the last of the new contour feathers 
appearing on head and breast. The fifth, eighth, and tenth pri- 
maries are not yet fully developed, though all of the old feathers in. 
the wing (and also in the tail) have been cast. As this bird is in 
molt, measurements of wing and tail are not reliable. The culmen 
equals 26.2 mm. ; the tarsus, 26.5 mm. The coloration of the dorsal 
surface is the same as that in early spring migrants of C. a. ameri- 
canus when they arrive in the United States, and the inner webs of 
the primaries are distinctly rufescent, not buffy as in C. a julieni 
(Lawrence). The yellow-billed cuckoo has not been recorded pre- 
viously from Uruguay, but the present record is not surprising, as 
the bird has been noted from Buenos Aires. 

Order PSITTACIFORMES 
Family PSITTACIDAE 

AMAZONA AESTIVA (Linnaeus) 

Psittacus aestivus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., eel. 10, vol. 1, 1758, p. 101. (South- 
ern Brazil.) ^3 

An adult male taken at Kilometer 80, Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, 
has the shoulder partly red and partly yellow. As comparative ma- 
terial is not available the subspecific identity of this specimen is 
uncertain though on geographic grounds it may be supposed to 
represent A. a. xantliofteryx of Berlepsch.^^ 

At Kilometer 80, west of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, these amazons 
were common from September 7 to 21, and a male was taken Sep- 
tember 7. On September 23 a few were observed farther west at 
Kilometer 110, These parrots, called filli' puV by the Anguete In- 
dians, were found in pairs, usually in groves of palms where they 

« See Hellmayr, Abh. Kon. Bayer. Akad. Wiss., Klass. II, vol. 22, 1906, p. 59.3. 
" Chrysotis aestira xanthopteryx Berlcpsch, Ornith. Monatsb., vol. 4, 1896, p. 17.3. 
(Bue.ves. Bolivia.) 



192 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

fed on the palm seeds. It was common to see them in flight across 
30untiy, their passage announced b}' noisy calls that at a distance have 
a ludicrous resemblance to calls for helq) helj). In early morning when 
the sun chanced to strike them at the proper angle their beaut i- 
fulh' variegated colors of red, yellow, and green showed plainly, but 
at midda}^ they appeared as dark silhouettes or, if near at hand, 
plain green. 

The male taken, when fresh, had the bill dusky neutral gray ; cere 
dusky green gray; iris orange chrome, at inner margin shading to 
light orange yellow; bare skin surrounding eye pale olive buff; tar- 
sus and toes deep mouse gray, the scales outlined with grayish white. 

AMAZONA TUCUMANA (Cabanis) 

Chrysotis tucuwaim Cabanis, .Jouni. fiir Ornitli., 1S85, p. 221. (Tuciiman.) 

Between 1,800 and 2,000 meters elevation on the Sierra de San 
Xavier, above Tafi Viejo, Tucuman, on April IT, 1921, these parrots 
w^ere common in bands that passed screeching over the forested 
slopes or worked about in dense forest growth, well concealed by 
heav}^ limbs and abundant foliage. The flocks were wild and seldom 
permitted near approach, and only once did a shot offer, when a 
female, apparenth^ an immature bird, was taken. The bird secured 
has no trace of the red on the tibial region described by Salvadori ^^ 
in tAvo specimens taken at Lesser, Salta. 

PIONUS MAXIMILIANI SIY (Souance) 

Pionus Hiy Sovance, Rev. et Mag. ZooL, 1856, p. 155. (Paraguay and 
Bolivia.) 

From the description of Pionus hridgesi of Boucard*^" it is ap- 
parent that it is a bird in immature plumage of the species Imown 
as 7naximiliani. It appears from available material that specimens 
of maximiUani from central Brazil are smaller than those from 
southern Brazil, Paraguay, the Argentine Chaco, and eastern 
Bolivia. The distinction between these has been pointed out by 
Souance, who restricted the name maxhrhiliani to the bird of Brazil 
and called the larger specimens from Paraguay and Bolivia Pionus 
siy from the vernacular name given by Azara. The name of Souance 
thus antedates the designation of Boucard, and hridgesi becomes a 
synonym of siy. 

What I assume to be Pionus vi. inaximiliani is rej)resented in 
material seen by skins from Macaco Secco (near Andarahy) and 
Santa Rita (State of Bahia), Jacareinha and Rio de Janeiro, 
Brazil; it seems to be distinguished from P. rti. siy only by size. 

«6Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. Torino, vol. 12, no. 292, May 12, 1897, p. 27. 
«« Hummingbird, Apr. 1, 1891, p. 27. (Bolivia, and Corrientes, Argentina.) 



BIRDS OF AEGENHNA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 193 

A male from near Andarahy has a wing measurement of 167.2 mm., 
while in three others, with sex not indicated, from the other locali- 
ties listed, the wing measures 170, 176, and 179.2 mm. 

Hellmayr''^ records the wing of a bird from Bahia as 170 mm. 

A fair series of P. m. siy shows a variation in Aving measurement 
from 183.5 to 197 mm. The specimens seen are marked as males or 
do not have the sex indicated. One bird from Santa Catherina, 
Brazil, has the wing 192 mm.; two males from Fazenda Cayoa, E. 
Parana, measure 183.5 and 186.8 mm. ; and two from Puerto Pin- 
asco, Paraguay (both males), 190 and 191 mm. respectively. A 
bird (male) from Las Palmas, Chaco, measures 196 mm., and one 
from Corrientes 197 mm. Four males from Puerto Suarez, Bolivia, 
range from 187.1 to 193 mm. Another from Santa Cruz, Bolivia, 
measures 185.8 mm. 

P. m. lacerus Heine from Tucuman is said to be larger and darker 
than siy. A male seen in the Field Museum (ISTo. 48990) from Metan, 
Salta, is probably best referred to this form since it has a wing' 
measurement of 202 mm., though it is no darker than P. m. siy. 

Pionus m. sly was found near Las Palmas, Chaco, from July 14 
(when a male was taken) to July 31, 1920. At Puerto Pinasco, 
Paraguay, on September 1 it was common on the hill at Kilo- 
meter 25 (specimen), and at Kilometer 80 was recorded from 
September 13 to 20 (a male shot September 15), Several were seen 
at Kilometer 200 on September 25. The birds ranged through the 
forest in little bands that were seen frequently in swift flight to 
water, or from one tract of monte to another. Their passage was 
heralded in most cases by strident shouts of chulp chulj> that were 
redoubled when one of their number chanced to receive an injury. 
On the wing they appear very dark. 

The Anguete Indians called them yeht a flllC puV. 

AMOROPSITTACA AYMARA (d'Orbigny) 

A,rara uymara d'OKBicNY, Yoy. Amer. Mer., vol. 2, 1839, p. 37G. (Palca, 
Province Coehabamba, Bolivia.) 

These little mountain parrakeets were recorded first on Marcli 13, 
1921, on the slopes above the city of Mendoza, when by follov/ing 
back on the line of flight of a small flock we found a water hole, 
perhaps the onlj^ one in an otherwise wholly arid tract. On March 
19 near El Salto, at an altitude of nearly 2,000 meters above Pofcreril- 
los, Mendoza, these parrakeets were common. Here they ranged 
over the hills in small bands that fed in berry bearing bushes, or 
descended to search for fallen fruit in the grass belov\\ The birds 
were highly social and Avere foimd always in parties. Their flight 

"Abbandl. Kon. Bayer. Akad. Wiss., Klass. II, vol. 22, 100(5, p. 500. 



194 BULLETIN 133^ UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

was swift and direct. Their chattering notes were high pitched and 
at times suggested the excited calls of barn swallows. Three were 
taken. On March 21 a flock was recorded at an altitude of 1,800 
meters near the hotel at Potrerillos. 

MYIOPSITTA MONACHUS MONACHUS (Boddaert) 

Psittactis monachus Boddaert, Tabl. Planch. Enl., 1783, p. 48. (Monte- 
video. ) 

No locality is cited by Boddaert in connection with his Psittacus 
tnonachus^ though Brabourne and Chubb "^^ give Montevideo as the 
type locality, apparentl}^ taking this from Latham.*'^ Latham under 
his gray-breasted parrakeet includes reference to Buffon, Daubenton, 
and Pernetty, the latter of whom says that the species was found 
at Montevideo. As it is proposed to divide the species into three 
geographic races, Montevideo, Uruguay, is here accepted as the 
type-locality. The three subspecies recognized in available material 
will stand as follows: 

MYIOPSITTA MONACHUS MONACHUS (Boddaert). 

Bill large and heavj'^; abdomen more yellowish; dorsal surface 
bright green. 

Culmen from cere, 18.6-22; wing, 140.5-157; tarsus, 17-19.4 mm. 
Buenos Aires, Santa Fe, Entre llios, and Uruguay (at least in 
southern part). 

MYIOPSITTA MONACHUS COTORRA (Vieillot). 

Bill small; abdomen less yellowish; dorsal surface bright green. 
Culmen from cere, lG-17.3; wing, 127-140.6; tarsus, 15.2-16.9 mm. 
Formosa (Kilometer 182) and Paraguay (Puerto Pinasco). 

MYIOPSITTA MONACHUS CALITA (.Tardine and Selby™). 

Bill small, wing short, dorsal surface distinctly duller green. 

Culmen from cere, 16.8-17.7; wing, 131-137.5; tarsus, 15-16.4 mm. 

Mendoza, and San Luis (Nueva Galia). According to Hartert,^^ 
also at Rio Colorado, Tucuman, and La Banda, Santiago del Estero. 

The large-billed form of the monk parrakeet was recorded near 
Lavalle, Buenos Aires, from October 23 to November 15, 1920, and a 
male and two females were preserved as skins on October 30. A 
small colony inhabited a clump of eucalyptus trees in town, while 
at the estancias in the surrounding country the birds were common 
wherever there was tree growth to furnish them shelter. At Los 
Yngleses large stick nests of this parrakeet were placed in the higher 

"« Birds South America, 1912, p. 85. 

«o Syn. Birds, vol. 1, pt. 1, 1781, p. 247. 

''opsittaca calita Jardine aud Selby, 111. Oni., vol. 2, pt. 6, August, 1830, pi. 82 
(Province of Mendoza). The name calita is an evident lapsus calami for catita, the 
common name of this parrakeet in Argentina and Uruguay. Las Catitas in the Province 
of Mendoza, given by Jardine and Selby as calitas, is today an important center in the 
grape district. 

" Nov. Zool.. vol. 16, December, 1909, p. 234. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 133 PL. 12 




Border of a Banado, or Lowland Marsh 

Near San Vicente Uruguay January 27, 1921 




A View in One of the Lowland Palm Forests of Eastern Uruguay 

Near San Vicente, Uruguay, January 27, 1921 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 133 PL. 13 




^mmt<K 



A Crossing on the Arroyo Sarandi (in Eastern Uruguay) Known as 
THE Paso Alamo 

Taken February 2, 1921 




View of the Dense, Low Forest Bordering the Rio Cebollati 

Near Lazcano, Uruguay, February 8, 1921 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 195 

€ucalypts Avhere companies of screeching birds clambered about over 
them, or, as this was spring, added new material to the mass already 
accumulated. The nests were rough and unfinished externally, and 
as the larger ones were 2 meters in diameter often contained material 
sufficient to fill a wagon. The majority were placed 14 or 18 meters 
from the ground. After a tremendous storm in early November, I 
found that several of the nests had been dashed to the ground. The 
birds frequented trees, save when once or twice a day they flew out 
to drink at some channel in the marshes. On November 3 and 6 
small bands were noted in a clump of isolated trees near the coast 
below Cape San Antonio, where the}'^ had apparently settled recently, 
and on November 16 between Lavalle and Santa Domingo a flock 
was seen in the iron work of a high wagon bridge. 

In southern Uruguay the monk parrakeet was common wherever 
trees offered shelter. A few were seen near La Paloma January 23, 
and at San "N^icente from January 25 to February 2 the species was 
common in extensive palm groves in the lowlands. In the low for- 
ested tract that bordered the Rio Cebollati below Lazcano from Feb- 
ruary 5 to 9 monk parrakeets frequented open pastures studded with 
trees, and were also found in the dense forest. 

Where scattered palm trees grew in small openings nearly every 
palm held one of the large stick nests of this bird, usually with a 
pair of parrakeets clambering over it. At this season the parrots 
fed on thistle heads in rank groAvths of these weeds that here have 
ruined thousands of acres of pasture. The thistle heads Avere nipped 
off from the stem and held in one foot while the bird extracted the 
seeds with the aid of bill and tongue. It was reported that monk 
parrakeets damaged maize extensively when the grain was ripening. 
Two were shot at Lazcano on February 8. 

Small flocks of monk parrakeets that were noted at Victorica, 
Pampa, on December 24, 27, and 29, were probably M. m. calita, as 
a specimen in the National Museum taken at the Estancia El Bosque 
near Nueva Galia, San Luis, a short distance farther north, belongs 
to that form. Since none were shot at Victorica the identity of the 
bird from that region is not wholly certain. 

MYIOPSITTA MONACHUS COTORRA (Vieillot) 

Psittacus cotorra Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 25, ISIT, p. 362. 
(Paraguay.) 

Psittacus coton^a of Vieillot based on Azara is a composite of ob- 
servations by Azara on the monk parrakeet in Buenos Aires and in 
Paraguay. Since the bulk of the notes refer to Paraguay, and the 
measurement of the bill, given as 8 lines, indicates the small northern 
bird, the type locality is here fixed as Paraguay. The name is thus 
available for the small northern subspecies. 



196 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

At the Riacho Pilafi:a, Formosa, monk parrakeets of the northern 
form Avere abundant from August 10 to 21, and a number were pre- 
served as specimens. The birds roosted somewhere in the extensive 
monte, and in early morning flew across in pairs or small flocks to 
spend the day in a large field where recent plowing had brought 
to the surface discarded sweet potatoes left from last year's harvest. 
The parrots alighted in close company, a hundred or more together, 
in search of food, often in company with cowbirds, chopi blackbirds, 
and large pigeons. As they fed they maintained a constant con- 
versational chatter, while at the slightest alarm the flock rose shriek- 
ing and screaming to circle about in the air. As I worked at speci- 
mens or notes through the long afternoons their rather disagreeable 
uproar came constantly to my ears, but in compensation for this 
discord I found a tree filled with resting birds, that nestled against 
one another in pairs or clambered singly through the branches, a 
beautiful and pleasing sight when the light fell I'iroperly to bring 
out the contrast between the bright green of their plumage against 
the dull gray green of the foliage. Indians, armed with old single- 
barreled shotguns, at intervals potted these flocks either to secure 
food, or in expectation that they might sell the birds to me for speci- 
mens, and a carrancho {Polyhorus j). flancus) swooped down a dozen 
times a day and flushed tlie flocks in screaming chatter, in hope that 
he might encounter a cripple, less agile than its companions, that 
might not escape his talons. The passing of an Aplomado falcon 
brought consternation to the parrots so that they rose and circled a 
hundred yards in air, and as haAvks were common the shadow of a 
turkey vulture was frequently sufficient to throw them into scream- 
ing confusion. During a heavy storm far to the southward that con- 
tinued for an entire day with barely audible thunder, the parrakeets 
vs^ere very nervous, and at each low rumble rose with screams to 
circle in the air. Thej' seemed inordinately afraid of the flashing of 
lightning, perhaps from the destruction wrought by storms to their 
nests. 

The Toba Indians called this species either il-lit or Ki likh. 

At Kilometer 80, Vvcst of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, from Sep- 
tember 6 to 18, the species was fairly common and was observed to 
feed on the seeds of an algarroba. Three were taken on September 
18. At Kilometer 110 on September 23 a dozen were observed eating- 
the ripening seeds of an algarroba. As two parrakeets passed -over- 
head an Indian cast a throw stick at them and the birds barely 
escaped it. 

A male shot September 18 had the sides of the bill fawn color, 
shading to avellaneous on gonys and culmen ; iris benzo brown ; tar- 
sus and toes deep mouse gray, the scales outlined with whitish. 



BIRDS OF AEGEXTIXA, PARAGUAY, VRUGUAY, AXD CHILE 197 

PYRRHURA FRONTALIS CHIRIPEPE (Vieillot) 

I'.sittacus chiripepe A'ieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 25, 1817, p. 361. 
(Paraguay.) 

As indicated by Salvadori,'- since Psittacus vlUatus Shaw, 1811, 
is preoccupied by vittatus Boddaert 1783, Pyrrhura viftata (Shaw) 
must be repLiced by Pyrrhura frontalis ( Vieillot).'" PsUiaciis 
frontalis was stated by Vieillot to have come from Cayenne; but since 
it was based on the pe7fuche-ara a handeau rouge of Levaillant,'* the 
type locality must, according to Salvadori/- be cited as Bra,-^)!. 

Females were shot at Las Palmas, Chaco, on July 1.") and 21, 1920, 
and 25 kilometers west of Puerto Pinasco. Paraguay, on September 
1. These differ from skins from eastern Brazil in small size, and are 
taken as representing the subspecies ehirlpepe. Xone of the three 
has the reddish spot on the back ascribed to this species, so that this 
character is variable.""' These specimens have the following measure- 
ments : 



No. 



Locality 



Date 



283752 Female Las Palmas, Chaco July 15,1920 

283751 ...do I do __ July 21,1920 

283750 ... do I Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay Sept . 1. 1920 



Wing 


Tail 


Culmen 
from 
cere 


128.1 
131.5 
131.8 


133. 3 
138.2 
139.0 


15.0 
16.2 
17. ; 



Tarsus 



14.0 
13.0 
13.0 



At Las Palmas, Chaco, these parrakeets were common from July 
14 to 31, and were observed frequently in passage across ♦the sky. 
They were wild and difficult to approach in most cases, but like many 
other birds of such habit were surprisingly tame when I came upon 
them suddenly near at hand. The}'- were known locally as loro 
naranjero and were said to do considerable damage in orange groves. 
an allegation that I verified bj' personal observation. Their flight 
was swift and darting, and on the wing they often suggested 
pigeons. Their screaming calls may be represented as l-ree-ah Ttree 
Jcree kree ah. 

On September 1 these birds were common on a low wooded hill 
25 kilometers west of Puerto Pinasco, but were not found farther 
inland here, nor were thej^ recorded in the interior of Formosa. 

To the Anguete Indians they were known as yem a seet i gwi. 

NANDAYUS NENDAY (Vieillot) 

Psittacus nendaij A'ieillot, Tabl. Enc. Metli., vol. 3, 1823, p.l400. (Para- 
guay. ) 

A male was killed near the Rio Paraguay at Puerto Pinasco. 
Paraguay, on September 3, 1920, and another near Kilometer 80 

■^-Ibis, 1900, p. 6G9. 

'^Psittacus frontalis Vieillot. Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 25, 1817, p. 361. 

'*Hist. Terr., 1801. pi. 17. 

'5 See Ilellmayr, Abh. Kon. Bayeiiselicn .\knd. Wi>:s.. II. KI., vol. 22, 1006. p. SS."). 



54207— 2( 



-14 



198 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

on September 13. Through this region these parrakeets, known in 
Anguete as chi to ffwi, and in Guarani as nenday, were fairly com- 
mon, especially among open palm forests where palm nuts offered 
food. Occasionally they fed on the ground under trees that had 
dropped their seeds. Like other parrots they fly regularly to water 
and alight in bushes where these stand in pools and sidle down until 
they cau reach the fluid. They travel in flocks of ten to a dozen 
individuals, that feed, or move in company, with fairly swift, direct 
flight. Their approach is heralded by loud squalling calls and should 
one of their number be killed, those remaining redouble their out- 
cry. The common call may be represented as kree-ah kree-ah. The 
species was recorded at Kilometer 200 on September 25. A few 
were noted during August at the Riacho Pilaga, in central Formosa, 
but were so wary that none Avere secured. 

A male taken September 13 had the bill sooty black ; iris chamois ; 
tarsus pale vinaceous fawn. 

THECTOCERCUS ACUTICAUDATUS (Vieillot) 

Psittacus aciiticaudatus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol 25, 1817, p. 
3G9. (Lat. 24° S., Paraguay.) 

At the Riacho Pilaga (Kilometer 182), Formosa, on August 11, 
1920, a male parrakeet of this species flew out from the border of 
a forest to rest in the sun in a dead tree, where I shot it after a long 
stalk. On August 18 another was taken from a flock of 20 that 
passed awiftly overhead. Two others were seen on August 21. The 
Toba Indians called this bird ta tas. 

On December 28 I found these birds fairly common in the open 
forest near Victorica, Pampa, and collected a male. At this season 
they seemed to be nesting for frequently as I passed through the 
timber single birds darted swiftly around with shrieking calls. 
They were feeding here on the piquillin and other berry-bearing 
bushes. 

At Tapia, Tucuman, from April 6 to 13 the species was common 
in the forests, where they ranged in considerable bands wherever 
seeds, berries, or the fruit of large tree cacti offered food. Morning 
and evening bands flew down to the river to drink, often flying 
high in the air, and then returned to the cover of the forest. It was 
said that they destroyed much corn at certain seasons. The long 
tail readily distinguished this parrot from others and gave them 
somewhat the appearance of Gyanoliseus. As they passed overhead 
the light colored maxilla and feet were often visible. Three that 
were killed on April 8 were preserved as specimens. The birds 
are not bad eating where meat is scarce. 

Specimens from Pampa and Tucuman seem slightly duller green 
than those from Formosa, but the series at hand is too small to 
establish the difference definitely. The acute tip of the maxilla in 



BIRDS OP ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 199 

this species in contrast with the broadened mandible is remarkable ; 
in most specimens the distal end of the bill shows considerable wear, 
indicating that it is used extensively in work that requires heavy 
cutting. 

CYANOLISEUS PATAGONUS PATAGONUS (Vieillot) 

Psittacus patagonus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 25, 1817, p. 
367. (Buenos Aires.) 

Since Azara/^ from whom Vieillot took his description of the 
Patagonian parrot, says that he had four specimens of this bird from 
Buenos Aires, and continued with the statement that he was in- 
formed that the bird ranged from latitude 32° S. to the Patagonian 
coast, it seems logical to assume that the type locality should be in 
the Province of Buenos Aires, where the birds were common form- 
erly, and not in Patagonia as is usually stated. 

The barranca parrot or loro han^anquero was foimd near Gen- 
eral Roca, Rio Negro, from November 23 to December 3, 1920. In 
this arid region the parrots frequented the flood plain of the Rio 
Negro in the main, though occasionally a small flock ranged in- 
land among the gravel hills that bordered the valley. In early 
morning barranca parrots were astir an hour or two after daybreak, 
when the air had been warmed by the sun, and remained abroad un- 
til dark. In early morning floclvs were encountered near the river, 
where they came for water, and later worked inland wherever ber- 
ries or seeds offered them food. At such times they traveled rather 
low, ranging from 2 to 10 meters in the air. As customary with par- 
rots, they fiy steadily, in direct line, with the usual accompaniment 
of screechine: calls. Their food consisted of berries that chanced 
to be ripe at that season, among which may be noted Lycium salsum 
and Discaria, species. The birds resemble macaws in appearance, 
a suggestion that is furthered by the flashes of color that appear in 
their plumage during flight. 

An adult female when killed had the bill deep neutral gray; bare 
skin around eye pale olive buff; iris light buff; tarsus and toes 
cartridge buff; claws black. 

Order CORACIIFORMES 
Family TYTONIDAE 

TYTO ALBA TUIDARA (J. E. Gray) 

Strix tuidara J. E. Gray, in E. Griffith, ed. Cuvier's Anim. Kingd., vol. 
6, 1829, p. 75. (Brazil.) 

At Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, on September 1, 1920, a pair of 
barn owls had a nest in the roof of a store building, where the screech 

'«Apunt. Hist. Nat. Paxaros Paraguay, vol. 2, 1805, p. 420. 



200 BUJ-/LETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

of the yoimf>- was heard constantl}^ at night. A barn owl was noted 
in the town of Tunny an, Mendoza, about 3 in the morning on March 
26, 1921. 

''^t7^ix ferlata Lichtenstein, 1819"' is antedated by ^itrix perlata 
Vieillot/^^ 1817 for another species so that the name for the South 
American barn owl becomes tuidara as indicated by Mathews."^ 

Family STRIGIDAE 

GLAUCIDIUM BRASILIANUM BRASILIANUM (Giaeiin) 
Strix brasiliaiia Gmelin, Sys-t. Nat., vol. 1, pt. 1, 178S, i>. 289. (Brazil.) 

An adult female was talien Februar}^ 5, 1921, near Lazcano, Uru- 
guaj'', in a heavy thicket of lovf trees and shrubs that bordered the 
Rio Cebollati. The bird was frightened out as I forced my way 
through the dense cover, and flew to another perch a few meters 
away to turn and peer at me. The tail had been entirely molted 
and partly renewed and new feathers were appearing on the body. 
Molt of the wing quills had not yet begun. 

GLAUCIDIUM NANUM VAFRUM Wetmore 

Glaucidiuiii uaiiiint vafriim Wetmoee, .lourn. Wa.^hington Acad. Sci., vol. 12, 
AiTgust 19, 1922, p. 323. (Concon, Inteiulencia of Valparaiso, Chile.) 

A female was taken April 27, 1921, on a brush-grown hillside near 
Concon, Chile, as it sunned itself on an open limb in the cool air 
of early morning. The bird crouched with Avings slightly extended 
and feathers flutiecl out so that it appeared twice natural size. The 
eyelike spots in the back of the head were very prominent so that 
their appearance was curious to an extreme.®*' The tip of the bill in 
this bird was deep olive buff; base puritan gray, shading to deep 
olive buff, the gray clear below, indistinct above; iris pale greenish 
yelloAv. 

The form of this owl from central Chile differs from typical nanum 
from the Straits of Magellan in broader, heavier dark bars on the 
tail. The southern subspecies, typical nanum^ appears to range north 
through the forested region to near Temuco, though there it shows 
strong evidence of intergradation toward vafrum. Glaucidium 
nanu7)i is closely allied to G. hrasilianum so that examination of the 
subspecies composing the two groups, as they are now understood, 
reveals that they are separated by a difference in depth of color alone. 
The two subspecies composing nanum- differ from those attributed to 

'•'Strix peilata Liclitt'iistoin, Abb. Kon. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 181G-17, 1819, p. 10(5. 
(Brazil.) 

^* Strix periuta Vieillot, Is'ouv. Did. Hist. Xat., vol. 7, 1S17. p. 2G. 

'••Birds Austr., vol. 5, pt. 4, Aug. 30, 1916, p. fi71. 

^ For a striking representation and description of this peculiarity see .T. Koslowsky, El 
Hornero, vol. 1, 1919, pp. 229-235, pi. ;'.. 



BIEDS OF AEGENTIjS^A, PAEAGUAY, L^RUGUAY, AND CHILE 201 

hrasilianum in darker, more suffused coloration on the dorsal surface 
and in heavier markings on the imderparts. The two groups are 
comj^lementar}' in range and it seems highly probable that in time 
they will be found to intergrade. 

ASIO FLAMMEUS FLAMMEUS (Pontoppidan) 

^trlx flaiiimca Poxtoppidan, Daiiske Atlas, vol. 1. 1763, p. 617, pi. 25. 
(Sweden.) 

The short-eared owl was fairh^ common in marshy areas on the 
pampas, and elsewhere was found in tracts of low greaseAvoods or 
other small bushes. It was recorded as follows : Formosa, Formosa, 
August 24. 1920; Dolores, Buenos Aires, October 21: Lavalle, 
Buenos Aires, October 29 to November 15; General Roca. Rio 
Negro, November 25 and December 3; Zapala, Neuquen, December 
9: Ingeniero White (Bahia Blanca), Buenos Aires, December 13; 
Carhue, Buenos Aires, December 15 to 18; Guamini, Buenos Aires, 
^larch 3. 

At Carhue I heard the high-pitched hooting call of this owl and 
one circled about mj'^ head, giving a curious barking note. 

A female v,as taken at Lavalle, Buenos Aires, October 29, 1920. 
According to Bangs's outline of this group,*^ this bird should stand 
as Asia fwnmeus l)revlauris (Schlegel), but in the series available 
to me from South America there is nothing apparent to distinguish 
them from North American birds either in color or size of bill. 

SPEOTYTO CUNICULARIA CUNICULARIA (Molina) 

fitrix Cioiictilaria Molina, Sagg. Stor. Nat. Chili, 17S2, p. 263. (Chile.) 
At Las Palmas, Chaco, a burrowing owl was seen in a little open 
prairie near the fonda where I was lodged during July, 1920, but no 
others were observed in the north. Near Dolores, Buenos Aires, one 
was noted October 21, and in the vicinit}^ of Lavalle the species 
was common from October 27 to November 15. An occupied nest 
hole, recorded November 4, was dug in the side of a sand dune, 
while another, seen November 13, was in a level open pasture. In 
both the entrance had been decorated with broken bits of dried cow 
dung. Near General Roca, Rio Negro, burrowing owls were fairly 
common from November 23 to December 3, mainh^ on alkaline plains 
near the Rio Negro. Two were seen at Zapala, Neuquen, on Decem- 
ber 9. They were recorded in fair numbers at Carhue. Buenos 
Aires, from December 15 to 18, and near Victorica. Pampa. from 
December 23 to 27. Near Carrasco, Uruguay, young full}' grown 
were seen January 9, 1921, and others were recorded January 16. 

s' Notes on South American Shcrt-eared Owls, I'roc. New Enfrland Zool. Club, vol. 6, 
Feb. IS, 1910, p. 9G. 



202 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

At La Paloma, Uruguay, the species was noted January 23. Near 
San Vicente, Uruguay, from January 25 to February 2, and in the 
vicinity of Lazcano, from February 3 to 9, the birds were com- 
mon in open country, and were among the prominent forms of the 
region. Single birds or little groups were noted constantly, and it 
was amusing to see them drop prudently down a hole as I ap- 
proached instead of taking to wing. The sjiecies must be counted 
among valuable enemies of the locust. In certain country dis- 
tricts in Uruguay the flesh of the burrowing owl is served as a 
V delicacy to those conA'alescing from illness in the belief that it 
produces appetite for other food. At Guamini, Buenos Aires, these 
owls were noted froni March 3 to 8, and at Tunuyan, Mendoza, 
they were recorded from March 24 to 29. Near Tapia, Tucuman. 
they were heard calling occasionally at night from April G to 13, 
and one was seen at Concon, Chile, April 28. 

Males were collected at General Roca, Rio Negro, on November 
30, 1920, and at Tunuyan, Mendoza, March 27, 1921. This species ex- 
hibits even more variation in color from light to dark on the south- 
ern continent than in the United States. Specimens that were very 
light, in fact almost white, were observed frequently, at times using 
the same holes as dark individuals. In revision of subspecies this 
must be borne in mind as otherwise confusion Avill result. The two 
specimens secured agree fairly well in size and color with birds 
from Chile, though there is a tendency for Argentine birds to aver- 
age larger. Those from northwestern Argentina are particularly 
large and with abundant material may prove to belong to a distinct 
race. 

Family NYCTIBIIDAE 

NYCTIBIUS GRISEUS GRISEUS (Gmelin) 

Caprimulgus griseus Gmelin, Syst. Nat., vol. 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 1029. 
( Cayenne. ) 

A female Nyctihius was taken September 30, 1920, on the heavily 
forested slopes of the Cerro Lorito on the eastern side of the Para- 
guay River opposite Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay. The form of the 
bird as it rested on a gall projecting from the trunk of a tree 150 
mm. in diameter caught my eye by chance. The claws grasped the 
perch firmly while the body stood erect parallel to the tree, and 
separated from it only by the space of 25 mm. The tail hung 
straight down, the eyes were closed, and the feathers in front of 
and above the eye on either side were erected to form projecting 
horns. The bird resembled a bit of stick that had fallen to become 
lodged on the tree trunk. 

The specimen taken is grayish in tone and has the following 
measurements: Wing, 267.0; tail, 183.5; exposed culmen, 14.6; tar- 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 203 

sus, 15.2 mm. Specimens of griseus from the type locality are not 
at hand, but a bird from the Para River is assumed to represent the 
typical form. The bird from Paraguay is very similar to it in size, 
and in color pattern differs only in having slightly heavier black 
streaks on the under tail coverts. For the present, therefore, Capri- 
mulgus cornutus Vieillot must be considered as a synonym of Nycti- 
hius g. griseus. Examination of a small series of potoos seem to show 
that, like many of the Caprimulgidae, they have two types of colora- 
tion, one dark and more or less rufescent, and the other pale and 
gray, a fact that makes the proper designation of geographic races 
difficult. Skins from Peru and Ecuador referred doubtfully by Mr. 
Ridgway to cornutus^- are larger and darker than the specimens 
mentioned from Brazil and Paraguay. Whether they represent an 
unnamed form or whether they should be referred to the bird from 
Panama, which they resemble closely, it is not possible at present to 
decide. 

The female shot September 30 in Paraguay had the bill black; 
margin of mandible vinaceous buff; iris deep chrome; tarsus and 
toes drab. 

Family CAPRIMULGIDAE 

THERMOCHALCIS LONGIROSTRIS (Bonaparte) 

Caprimulgus longirostrls Bonaparte, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 
^ vol. 4, pt. 2, no. 12, 1825, p. 384. (Brazil.") 

South of Tunuyan, Mendoza, on March 27, 1921, a male of this 
species flushed with a chattering, whistling call among low bushes 
on a sandy hill slope, and darted swiftly and erratically away to 
drop to fresh cover. As it rose a second time it was secured. The 
large white wing patches give a resemblance to Chordeiles when the 
bird is on the wing. Another was seen April 8, near Tapia, Tucu- 
man, in dry forest on a steep rocky slope. 

On an evening in mid-October one of these birds flew from tree 
to tree along the Avenida de Mayo, in the heart of the business 
district of Buenos Aires, an individual that had become bewildered 
during migration. At Lavalle on November 12, 1920, I was taken 
to view a curious bird, described as " possessing a moustache like 
a Christian," that had been captured in a garden about three weeks 
ago, to find that it was the present species. According to popular belief 
a feather of this bird was a potent love charm, and the fortunate 
owner of the bird had been charging 10 centavos for a view of the bird 
to those of the populace whose curiosity regarding the anomalous 
creature was uncontrollable, while feathers retailed at a peso each, 

^ Birds North and Middle America, vol. 6, 1914, p. 587. 

8» Bonaparte described his bird as from South America without knowu locality, but 
Brabourne and Chubb, Birds of South America, 1912, p. 101, cite " Brazil " without 
comment. 



204 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

apparentlj^ a thrivins business, since the captiA'e had been denuded 
of nearly a third of its phimage. 

SETOPAGIS PARVULUS (Gould) 

Cupriuiulgus jjomilus Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1S37, p. 22. (Parana 
River near Santa Fe, Argentina.) 

Near the ranch at Kilometer 80, behind Puerto Pinasco, Paraii:uay, 
these goatsuckers began to call suddenly on the evening of September 
17, 1920, and it was supposed that they were migratory as none had 
been recorded previously. On the following night, by means of an 
electric headlight, tAvo of the nocturnal songsters w^ere taken, so that 
their identity was established beyond question. Their song resembles 
you cheery chu chu cliu chu chu chu^ the first two notes uttered in a 
clear tone and the rest forming a bubbling, rattling trill. They 
called from leafy trees in open pastures, or from the forest, or came 
out to rest on the limbs of fallen trees along the borders of the monte, 
•or in paths cut among the trees. Here the headlight caught their 
eyes with a reflected glow of deep burning red, like a coal of fire 
but more intense in color, a beautiful object against the dark back- 
ground. At intervals this light disappeared, apparently as the bird 
turned its head, and then came into view again. Never more than 
one point was seen at a time so that vision seemed to be entirely 
monocular. The species continued its notes until my departure. 
It was reco-ded September 23 at Kilometer 110, and September 24 
and 25 at Laguna Wall (Kilometer 200). None were found at 
Puerto, Pinasco, itself. 

In Spanish this species was known as cuatro cuero^ in Guarani as 
uro-ooh^ while the Anguete Indians called it ka jee vay ta ta nee nm. 

For various reasons one of the specimens secured was preserved 
entire in alcohol. The other, an adult male, seems large as it meas- 
ures: Wing, 141.2: tail, 103; exposed culmen, 9.7: tarsus, 15.6 mm. 
Comparative material is not at present available to decide the status 
of this bird. 

The rictal bristles in this species are remarkabl,y short. 

HYDROPSALIS TORQUATA FURCIFERA (Vieillot) 

Caprimulgus furcifer Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 10, 1817, p. 242. 
(Paraguay.) 

Specimens of this fork-tailed goatsucker from Argentina, Uru- 
guay, Paraguay, and southern Brazil are distinguished from those 
of northern and eastern Brazil by slightly larger size, and darker 
coloration, Avith more buff on the abdomen so that the southern birds 
should rank as a subspecies of 11. torquata. 

At Victorica, Pampa, from December 23 to 29, 1920, this goatsucker 
was fairly common in low open forests of calden and algarroba, where 



BIRDS OF AEGEXTIXA, PARAGUAY, TRUGUAY, AND CHILE 205 

the underfri'owth of shrubs grew in thicket formation, leaving small 
openings dotted with tufts of grass. The birds rested in shade, on 
little spots of bare earth, singly, or occasionally as many as three 
together. When startled they flushed with a rattle of ^^ings pro- 
duced in part by striking the wings above the back, and after a 
graceful, somewhat erratic darting flight of a few meters, dropped 
suddenly to earth. After alighting they frequentty bobbed up to the 
full length of the legs and then dropped suddenly down again, or 
opened and closed their great mouths in silent protest at my intru- 
sion. Adult males in flight SAvung erratically from side to side with 
a flashing of the long, deeply forked tail as they turned. It was not 
uncommon for them to elude me completeh- in dense brush without 
offering a shot. One that fell disabled emitted a low growling call 
that at times terminated sharply in a croak intended to startle an 
enem3^ Of six collected here, four Avere preserved as skins. Three 
of these are adult males in partial molt, and one an immature female. 
The elongated lateral rectrices had been dropped in two of the males, 
and in the other were very loosely attached, Avhile molt of the body 
plumage was beginning. Two specimens show an interesting molt 
of the rictal bristles in which the separate bristles are being shed and 
renewed irregularly. The immature female had developed the pos- 
terior bristles first, and then six of the anterior ones had grown in 
.simultaneously, and have the bases still inclosed in sheaths. 

An adult male had the bill dull black ; iris Hay's brown ; tarsus 
and toes deep brownish drab ; claws dull black. 

At Lazcano. Uruguay, a female, apparently adult, was taken Feb- 
ruary 5, 1921, among small open thickets near the Rio CeboUati. 
Three were seen and an adult female taken near Rio Negro. Uruguay, 
on February 1-1. 

One flushed in a diT wash on March 13, above the city of Mendoza, 
in the Province of Mendoza, was probably a migrant as it was in 
a drier, more arid region than usual. 

Specimens from western xVrgentina have the nuchal collar slightly 
paler, more buffy, less rufescent than those from Brazil, Paraguay, 
and Uruguay, but this character is slightly variable and may be due 
to age or condition of plumage. 

PODAGER NACUNDA (Vieillot) 

Caprinuilgiis iiaciinda Vieillot, Xouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 10, 1817, p. 
240. (Paraguay.) 

The iiacunda, a summer visitant in southern South America, is 
now apparently' rarer than in the days of Hudson, a condition 
caused perhaps by increased cultivation and extensive grazing in 
its haunts on the open pampa. Early writers speak of flocks con- 



206 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

taining from 40 to 200 individuals, but the bird in my experience 
was so rare that to see an individual was a treat, while a flock of 
a dozen gathered by some condition of favorable food left a thrill 
that is still remembered. At Formosa, Formosa, on August 23, 1920, 
one passed down the Paraguay Kiver at dusk, evidently the first of 
the spring migrants. Others passed Kilometer 80, west of Puerto 
Pinasco, Paraguay, on September 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10, all bound south- 
ward in evening, or once in early morning after a storm. The 
migration ceased abruptly before there was opportunity to secure 
specimens, and in work in the pampas I failed to find the birds, until 
on February 7 at Lazcano, Uruguay, one passed the patio of the 
hotel on the evening of February 7. At Rio Negro, Uruguay, from 
February 13 to 17, the species was present in fair numbers and a 
male was collected on February 16. Another was taken on the fol- 
lowing day. In early evening iiacundas hawked about high in air, but 
at dusk circled low over patches of weeds at the edge of town, at- 
tracted by myriads of beetles that filled the air. On the 16th I 
watched for them at the border of a small lagoon, and, after one or 
two alarms from teru terus coming in silently to roost, was rewarded 
by the sight of a goatsucker hawking low over the grass. In a few 
minutes I had the bird in my hand where I could admire the beau- 
tiful contrast of color in the plumage and the large, lustrous eyes. 

The wings in this species are short and the body heavy, so that 
at times it presents an owllike appearance. The birds quarter back 
and forth when feeding like nighthawks, and though strong fliers 
are not as graceful on the wing as birds of that group. They are 
strong in body and often difficult to kill. When thej^ alight they may 
stand erect for a moment to look about and then sink to the crouch- 
ing position ordinary to goatsuckers. The leg is long and fairly 
strong, and in one taken the feet were very muddy, an indication 
that the birds walk about more or less, as might be supposed from 
the structure of their legs. As they flush from the ground they 
may give a low rattling call and a wing-tipped bird opened its mouth 
threateningly and hissed like a nighthawk in similar condition. 

Near Rivas, Buenos Aires, eight were noted while passing in a 
train on March 11, 

Family ALCEDINIDAE 

MEGACERYLE TORQUATA TORQUATA (Linnaeus) 

Alcedo torgiMta Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, vol. 1, 1766, p. 180. (Mexico.)" 

Two specimens of the ringed kingfisher, both males, taken, respec- 
tively, on July 17, 1920 at Las Palmas, Chaco, and August 16 at 

" See Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., vol. 9, April, 1902, p. 104. 



BIEDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 207 

Xilometer 182 (Riacho Pilaga), Formosa, appear similar to skins 
from northern South America and Mexico. In a fair series I am 
not able to make out the distinctions assigned by Bangs and Penard ^^ 
when ihej recognized the form from Paraguay as M. t. cyanea 
(VieiUot). 

The species was encountered only in the northern portion of the 
region that I visited. At Resistencia, Chaco, from July 8 to 10, 
the ringed kingfisher was recorded in fair numbers, and it was noted 
that the breeding season was near, as the birds frequently rose in 
pairs or threes to circle about from 60 to 100 meters from the earth, 
with slow wing beat and constant calls. At Las Palmas, Chaco, 
they were fairly common from July 13 to July 31. Mating was 
completed during this period and by the close of the month their 
pairing evolutions in the air became infrequent. On July 21 an 
occupied nest was found in a cut bank above a small stream, the 
Riacho Quia, placed beneath a mass of roots. The entrance hole 
was about 140 mm. in diameter and showed along the bottom a 
double furrowed track with a ridge 16 mm. high, separating the 
two channels made by the feet of the owners. The nest was nearly 
2 meters deep and may have contained eggs as both parents circled 
near in excitement. The location was such that time did not permit 
an excavation. 

On Augtist 2 in traveling by steamer up the Rio Paraguay above 
Puerto Las Palmas, the large kingfisher was common in pairs. 
Frequent cut banks along the streams offered nesting sites. At the 
Riacho Pilaga the species was recorded from August 9 to IT, and 
several were seen at Formosa, Formosa, August 23 and 24. It was 
common along the Paraguay river from September 1 to 3, and 
on September 30, near Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay and was recorded 
occasionally at Kilometer 80 in the interior from September 7 to 21. 
X few were noted on February 6 and 8, 1921, near Lazcano, Uru- 
guay, along the Rio Cebollati, and one was seen February 19 near 
Rio Negro, Uruguay. 

The usual call note of the ringed kingfisher is a harsh chuck or 
check varied at times by a rattle, both calls so similar to notes of 
some of the woodpeckers as to suggest those birds whenever they 
are heard. The flight is strong and vigorous and in actions and 
appearance these birds are suggestive of the belted kingfisher of 
the north. 

CHLOROCERYLE AMAZONA (Latham) 

Alcedo amazona Latham, Index Orn., vol. 1, 1790, p. 257. (Cayenne.) 

Near Las Palmas, Chaco, this species was recorded at intervals 
from July 17 to 30, and an adult male was taken July 17. The 

"Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 62, April, 1918, p. 53. 



208 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

species was fairW common on the Paraguay River above Puerto 
Las Palmas on August 2. At Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, the birds 
were found in pairs along the Rio Paraguay on September 3 and 
30, and Avere recorded at lagoons near Kilometer 80 on September 
8, 10, and 18. On February 2, 1921, two were taken at the Paso 
Alamo on the xVrroyo Sarandi north of San Vicente, Uruguay. 
These birds call in a high-pitched steely rattle or a low chuck. 
They are found over water where they have the habits common to 
their larger relative, the ringed kingfisher, but differ from that 
bird in that they are frequently found about little ponds in the 
savannas, where the w^ater is shallow and small in extent. 

A wounded bird exhibited a peculiarity, that I have not ob- 
served previously, in that a small air sac, capable of distension at 
will, lay underneath the skin of the lower eyelid. When this sac was 
filled with air the distended lid half covered the eye, while the free 
margin of the lid was pressed out until it was 2i/. mm. from the 
ej^eball. The sac was rudely oval, was pointed at either end. and 
extended across from inner to outer canthus. Its distension was 
greater below than at the margin of the lid. The sac was distended 
and deflated several times during my examination of the bird. 
and the chamber was readily seen on dissection. The function of 
this curious structure is evidently to protect the eye durijig impact 
with water Vx'hen the bird dives. 

The wing in this species is eutaxic as has been recorded by AV. D. 
Miller.^'5 

CHLOROCERYLE AMERICANA VIRIDIS (Vieillot) 

Alccdo viridis Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 19, ISIS, p. 413. 
(Paraguay.) 
This form of the green kingfisher differs from C. a. americana 
in larger size, and lighter green above, wliile in the female the dark 
breastband is narrower and is more obscured by pale tips on the 
feathers. In the areas visited the bird was found in the same locali- 
ties as its larger relatives — in fact, I collected my first specimens 
of all three of the species found in northern Argentina within the 
space of fifteen minutes — but is less abundant. Like (J. amazona it 
often frequents small pools in the savannas. At Las Palmas, Chaco, 
a female was taken Jul.y 17, 1920, just after it had flown grace- 
fullj'^ out to capture a passing insect on the wing. July 27 another 
fished in a small estero, hovering over the water, and then darting 
down to strike the water with great dasli and speed. At the Paso 
Alamo on the Arro3^o Sarandi, north of San Vicente, Uruguay, a 
female was taken on February 2, 1921. Another was shot near 

'^«Aiik, 1920, p. 427. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 209 

Lazcano, Urui4uay, on February 7, and one was seen near Rio Negro, 
Urug-iiay, on February 19. The ordinary call of this species is a 
sharp click ch'ck given as the tail is twitched and the anterior por- 
tion of the body is raised. This species has an air sac in the lower 
eyelid similar to that described in C amazona. 

Family BUCCONIDAE 

NYSTALUS MACULATUS STRIATIPECTUS (Sclater) 

Biicco strkiiipcctus Sctj^-Tek, Anu. Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. 13, ser. 2, May, 
1854, p. 3G4. (Bolivia.) 

Thongh Dr. P. L. Sclater read a description of Bucco sfoiafipectus 
before a meeting of the Zoological Societ}' of Ijondon on December 

13, 1853, this was not published in the Proceedings until November 

14. 1854, so that the reference to the first published description must 
be cited from the Annals and INIagazine of Natural History for 
May, 1854, where it is included in a synopsis of the Bucconidae. 

This species was observed only near Tapia, Tucuman, from April 
7 to 11. 1921, save for several .seen near Rio Colorado. Tucuman, 
on April 1, from a train. Buccos were found at rest on low perches 
in the trees, often in rather brushy localities, in regions cut by 
steep-w^alled barrancas. During clear weather that followed rains 
they occasionall}^ came out to more open perches or even rested in 
the sun on telegraph and telephone wires. They perched with head 
drawn in. bill held level or pointed slightly upward and tail 
elevated, the latter from its slender form appearing as if stuck into 
the body. The birds were stolid and allowed close approach, though 
at times they turned toAvard an intruder with a half -threatening 
air that was ludicrous. When startled they flew for short distances 
with a loud rattling flutter made by their small, rounded wings. 
They were wholly silent. Local!}' the species was known as durmi- 
dxirmi or dunyiili-durmili. 

Five specimens collected on April 7, 8, 9, and 11 include adults 
and young of both sexes. A male when first killed had the bill, in 
general, dull black; sides of maxilla, and mandible at cutting edge, 
etruscan red; iris straw yellow, becoming neutral gray at outer 
margin ; tarsus and toes grayish olive ; claws dull black. 

The small size of the brain with slight development of the cere- 
bellum in this species is particularly noticeable, while in the skele- 
ton the huge skull in contrast to the tiny plate of the low-keeled 
sternum is even more striking. 

There are two specimens in the United States National Museum 
collections marked as secured by Capt. T. J. Page on the Bermejo 
River in Februaiy, 1860. a region from which the bird does not 
appear to have been reported previously. 



210 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Family RAMPHASTIDAE 

RAMPHASTOS TOCO Muller 

Ramphastos Toco Muller, Natursyst., Suppl., 1776, p. S2. (Cayenne.) 

A few of these toucans were seen at Resistencia, Chaco, during 
early July, while at Las Palmas, in the same Territory, they were 
common from July 13 to 31. An adult male was taken July 20. 
The birds frequented the border of open forest or were found in 
trees scattered through small openings. They ranged in little com- 
panies of from three to six individuals and were rather wary. 
In early morning it was common for them to perch in the top of 
some tree to enjoy the heat of the sun, when if chance brought them 
between the observer and the bright light their bills appeared trans- 
lucent. Trees of various sorts that bore berries were frequented^ 
and in spite of the apparently clumsy bill, drupes were seized and 
swallowed adroitly. On one occasion one descended to a perch on 
a tree root fully 15 inches above the inky water of a lowland stream 
in order to drink. It bent over gingerly, hestitating several times 
before dipping the tip of the bill in the water, a caution directed 
by the presence of savage fish and jacares (alligators). When a few 
drops of water had been secured the head was thrown back and the 
fluid swallowed. The call note of this species is a harsh rattling 
grunt. Flight is accomplished by a succession of beats of the wings 
followed by a short sail. 

The specimen taken had the line of culmen, mandible, and side 
of maxilla scarlet red; upper part of mandible wax yellow; tip of 
mandible and line aroimd entire base of bill black ; bare skin around 
eye orange chrome ; eyelids smalt blue surrounded by a line of light 
cadmium; iris hazel; front of tarsus parrot gTeen; posterior face 
of tarsus and toes Alice blue ; claws black. 

Family PICIDAE 

PICUMNUS CIRRATUS PILCOMAYENSIS Hargitt 

Picumnus pilcomayensu Hargitt, Ibis, 1891, p. 606. (Rio Pilcomayo.) 

Eight skins of the piculet that I have listed under this name repre- 
sent two distinct forms, but at the present moment these can not be 
separated successfully because of confusion existing with regard to 
Hargitt 's designation of type for his Picwmnus pilcomayensis. In 
the series mentioned three skins (and one alcoholic specimen) from 
Resistencia and Las Palmas, Chaco (two males and two females), 
differ constantly from five from the Riacho Pilaga (Kilometer 182). 
Formosa, and Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay (four males and one 
female), in heavier barring of the undersurface that covers the entire 
foreneck and lower throat, leavins: the chin alone white. In the 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 211 

series from Formosa and Paraguay the barring on the foreneck is 
restricted or absent, a distinction seen without difficulty in comparing 
specimens. In describing pilcomayensis, Hargitt chose a specimen 
without a label, and assumed that it came from the " Rio Pilcomayo." 
He mentions a second male secured near Empedrado (a short distance 
below Corrientes), and therefore not far from Resistencia and Las 
Palmas, both this bird and the type being of the form with barred 
neck as nearly as may be determined from his description. He also 
had a third specimen, a female from Fortin Page on the Pilcomayo. 
Kerr ^^ lists only two specimens. No. 6, which by reference to Hargitt 
we learn comes from an island opposite Empedrado, and No. 125,. 
a female shot at Fortin Page on the north fork of the Pilcomayo. 
Kerr mentions that he found this bird on the Pilcomayo, at Puerto 
Bermejo, and on an island in the Parana opposite Empedrado. Ob- 
viously Hargitt's unlabeled type may have come from any of these 
regions. Since on geographical grounds the bird from Fortin Page 
should resemble the light-breasted form from the interior of Formosa 
and from Puerto Pinasco, by inference it is possible that the type of 
pilcomayensis^ if of the barred-throated form, may have come from 
near either Empedrado or Puerto Bermejo. Until this specimen 
is examined with the female from Fortin Page, the two forms, one of 
them undescribed, here included can not be successfully differ- 
entiated. 

Measurements of the skins secured are appended. 



No. 



284629 
284627 
284624 
284626 
284628 
284622 
284625 
284623 



Locality 



Male I Resistencia, Chaco July 9,1920 

...do Las Palmas, Chaco July 21,1920 

...do Riacho Pilaga, Formosa.-. Aug. 8,1920 

...do ' do... Aug. 18,1920 

...do 1 Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay Sept. 1,1920 

...do i do : I Sept. 30,1920 

Female.... Las Palmas, Chaco... 1 July 14,1920 

...do Riacho Pilaga, Formosa I Aug. 11,1920 



Date 



Wing 


Tail 


51.2 


33.0 


49.2 


32.5 


50.4 


32.5 


47.fi 


30.0 


50.4 


32.8 


48.6 


31.0 


48.5 


29.2 


49.5 


29.5 



Exposed 
culmen 



10. S 
10.2 
11.0 
9.5 
10.0 
10.2 
10.3 
11.0 



This piculct was found in tangles of low brush and vines at the 
borders of tracts of forest, often in company with the little bands 
of flycatchei's, tanagers, wood hewers, and formicariids that trav- 
eled in congenial companies in search for food. The piculets 
were found frequently in pairs, though the season was winter. They 
ranged in such tangled cover, and clambered, climbed, and hopped 
about so actively, that one seldom caught more than a glimpse of 
them, as their tin}' size made it difficult to follow their course. At- 
tention was usually drawn by their high-pitched calls tse-re tse-rCy 
or by their pecking at some bit of bark. In general appearance and 



«' Ibis, 1892, p. 138. 



212 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

actions they suggested titmice or nuthatches, but lacked the habit of 
traveling head down found in the latter birds, though the piculets 
climbed back down along the underside of limbs without difficulty. 
Tlie tail was not used as a brace and did not touch the limbs on which 
the bird traveled save by accident or for an instant when the cling- 
ing attitude common to titmice was assumed. The birds ordinarily 
ranged from 1 to 3 meters from the ground. The flight is undulat- 
ing, and on the Aving the bird appears thick set and heavy. The 
feathers exhale the strong, rank odor characteristic of hole-roosting 
woodpeckers. 

In Paraguay the Anguete Indians called the piculet kehlanke moli. 

These birds were recorded as follows : Resistencia, Chaco, July 
9, 1920; Las Palmas, Chaco, July 14 to 31; Riacho Pilaga, Form- 
osa, August 8 to 18 ; Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, Kilometer 25 West, 
September 1, Kilometer 80, September 11, and tlie Cerro Torito, 
Sei^tember 30. 

A male shot July 9 had the maxilla and the tip of tlic mandible 
blackish slate; base of mandible gray number G: tarsus and toes 
slate; iris dark brown. 

In the male the red-tipped feathers on the forehead liave broader, 
stifl'er shafts than in the plainer feathers of the remainder of the 
crown, or in the less decorative head feathers of the female. 

DYCTIOPICUS MIXTUS BERLEPSCHI (Hellmayr) 

Dryohates rnixtus herlepsclii Hellmayr, Yerh. Oru. Ges. Bayern, vol. 12, 
July 25, 191.5, p. 212. ( Mangrullo, Neiiquen. Argentina.) 

Xear the Rio Negro, below General Roca, Rio Negro, two of 
these woodpeckers were encountered in a grove of large willows on 
December 3, 1920, and an adult female Avas taken. In the open 
forest in the vicinit}' of Victorica, Pampa, this form Avas fairly com- 
mon, so that two immature birds were shot on December 27 (one a 
male, the other Avith sex not determined), an adult nuile Avas secured 
on December 28, and an immature female on December 29. In form 
and habits these birds suggest Dryohates nuttaUi. They search 
persistently for food on the rough bark of Ioav trees, and though 
rather shy, as they often rest motionless on the side of a limb to 
aA^oid detection, are after all easy of approach. The flight is un- 
dulating and the call note a low rattle. At the end of December 
immature birds, recentlv from the nest, Avere observed in company 
Avitli adult males. 

Adults of this form maA^ be distinguished at a glance from typical 
mixtus (as represented by a series of four from near Buenos Aires, 
taken in March, September, and October) b}^ the much longer bill, 
AAhile on closer comparison the darker auricular spot of herlepschi 
is readily apparent. The adult female secured at General Roca, Avith 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 213 

a ciilmen measurement of 23 mm., comes from near the type-locality, 
as Mangrullo, Neiiqiien, lies between 80 and 100 kilometers northwest. 
The culraen in the adult male from Victorica measures 24.5 mm. and 
in coloration the bird is in agreement with the specimen from Roca 
and with Hellmayr's description. Since Hellmayr described this 
subspecies from specimens from Mangrullo, Arroytos, and " Rio 
Limay " in the Territory of Neuquen, the record from Victorica, 
Pampa, represents a considerable extension of range. It is probable 
that Tjerlepsehi is found throughout the belt of open forest that ex- 
tends from southern San Luis south through Pampa. Conditions 
in the tract mentioned are more favorable to its existence than in the 
scanty willows that border the Rio Negro and its tributaries, the 
Neuquen 'and Limay. 

DYCTIOPICUS MIXTUS MALLEATOR Wetmore 

Dijctioi)icus mixtus malleator Wetmore, Journ. Washington Acad. Sci., 
vol. 12, Aug. 19, 1922, p. 326. (Las Palmas, Chaco, Argentina.) 

In the Chaco this woodpecker was only fairly common. On July 
23, 1920, an adult male (type of the subspecies) vvas taken near Las 
Palmas, Chaco, as it worked busily in a dead fall in dense, swampy 
forest. A female was shot July 27 as it hopped about in low, scat- 
tered trees on an open prairie. Another female was shot at the 
border of forest, near Kilometer 80, Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, on 
September 11, 1920. Near Tapia, Tucuman, a female was taken 
April 8, 1921, and another was observed April 9. The birds when 
feeding hammer busily at the bark and trunks of trees and in manner 
suggest small Dryohates. Their call is a low rattle. 

A single specimen from Tapia is slightly more heavily streaked 
on the breast than others. The present subspecies is easily dis- 
tinguished from typical mixtus by the heavier black markings on 
the lower surface and the restriction of the white on the back. 

DYCTIOPICUS LIGNARIUS (BIoHna) 

P/c».s' Llynariiis Molixa, Sagg. Stor. Nat. Cliili, 1782, p. 236. (Chile.) 

Near Concon, Chile, this woodpecker was observed on April 25, 26. 
and 27, 1921, and a female was collected on April 26. The birds were 
found in Ioav growths of dense brush and in habits resembled D. 

mixtus. 

VENILIORNIS OLIVINUS (Malherbe) 

Picm oUvinus Malherbe, Mem. Soc. Roy. Sci. Liege, vol. 2, pt. 1, 1845, 
p. 67. (Brazil.) 

Woodpeckers of this species, like those of the other two forms 
of the same genus here discussed, were quiet inhabitants of dense 
forests where they w^orked industriously, often in concealed situa- 
tions in which they were discovered Avith difficultv. In mannerisms 



214 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

and in the persistence with which they searched for food they sug- 
gested the smaller members of the genus Dryohates, but frequented 
■denser cover than is usual in birds of that group. Usually they were 
found working steadily along, tapping the limbs over which they 
passed as if to test them. When food was discovered they worked 
■quietly and rapidly, hammering steadily without apparent attention 
to their surroundings. When insects were abundant considerable 
areas on dead trunks were denuded of bark before the bird had ex- 
hausted possibilities and had moved to other feeding grounds. The 
only note heard from them was a low chuh cJiuh. On September 20 
one of these quiet little birds under the influence of spring began to 
drum. The rattle produced was rather short and was made some- 
what slowly, Avith a decrease in speed toward the end that produced 
a drawling sound of little carrying power. 

The species was recorded as follows: Resistencia, Chaco, July 8 
and 10, 1920; Las Palmas, Chaco, July 14 to 31; Riacho Pilaga, 
Formosa, August 18 ; Formosa, Formosa, August 23 ; Puerto Pinasco, 
Paraguay, September 1, 11, and 20. A female was taken at Resis- 
tencia July 8 ; a male at Las Palmas, July 14, and a male at Kilometer 
80, west of Puerto Pinasco, September 11. 

VENILIORNIS FRONTALIS (Cabanis) 

Cloroncrpes (Campias) fro)ita1is Cabanis, .Touni. fiir Ornith., 1883, p. 
110. (Tucuman.) 

April IT, 1921, between 1,600 and 1,800 meters on the slopes of the 
Sierra San Xavier above Tafi Viejo, Tucuman, several of these 
woodpeckers were seen, and a female was taken. They worked 
busily along limbs or small trunks, often in localities near the 
ground where they were entirely concealed by dense vegetation, and 
their presence was indicated merely by their low calls or their ham- 
mering in search for food. 

VENILIORNIS SPILOGASTER (Wagler) 

Picus spilogaster Waglkr, Syst. Av., 1827, p. 33. (Brazil and Paraguay.) 
An adult female was taken near San Vicente, Uruguay, on Janu- 
ary 30, 1921, in heavy tree growth in a gulch on the side of the 
Cerro Navarro. The bird was in such heavy cover that I should 
not have found it save for its steady hammering on a dead limb. 
Another was shot at Rio Negro, Uruguay, on February 15, as it 
worked quietly through a lowland thicket near a small stream. 

Both specimens are in molt on the body. The first one taken 
had the maxilla and tip of the mandible dull black; base of mandible 
storm gray; iris bone brown; tarsus and toes dark-grayish olive; 
claws dusky neutral gray. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 215 
SCAPANEUS LEUCOPOGON (Valenciennes) 

Piciis leucopogon Valenciennes, Diet. Sci. Nat., vol. 40, 1826, p. 178. 
(Brazil.) 

The i:)resent species was first recorded at Las Palmas, Chaco, 
when a male was collected on July 14, 1920. One was seen on July 
24, and a female was shot on July 27. At the Riacho Pilaga, For- 
mosa, the species was fairly common from August 7 to 16, and 
four were taken on August 7, 11, and 18, The birds inhabited 
tracts of forest, where the trees were tall, and fed over the trunks 
and larger limbs as do pileated woodpeckers. On August 11 males 
began to drum, indicating that the breeding season was at hand, 
and a female shot on this day had a fully formed egg in the ovi- 
duct. It measures 35.0 by 24.6 mm., and, like other woodpeckers' 
€ggs, is white in color. The drumming of the male was a curious 
performance, entirely different from what one would expect from 
so strong and robust a bird. The dead limb chosen for a resonator 
was struck twice with great rapidity, ta tat, the two sounds almost 
blending into one so quickly did they come. After a rest of a few 
seconds the drum was given again, and so on, frequently for con- 
siderable periods, especially during the hours of early morning. 
The sound produced, though short, was audible for a considerable 
distance, so that I heard it frequently' when working about lagoons 
far from forests. A male taken on August 18 must have shared in 
the duties of incubation, as the entire abdomen was bare of feathers, 
while the skin of the denuded area was wrinkled and thickened. 

Near Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, in the vicinitj' of Kilometer 80, 
this woodpecker was heard drumming on September 9, and indi- 
viduals were seen on September 15 and 20. In this region they 
were far from common. Near Tapia, Tucuman, a pair Avas taken 
on April 12, 1921, in open, dry forest on the slope of a hill. At 
intervals these two gave subdued chattering calls. In flight this 
species progresses in strong bounds. The skin is thick and tough 
and adheres so closely to the bod}' that the preparation of speci- 
mens is difficult. On the head it is necessaiy to separate the skin 
from the skull with a knife, so firmly is it attached to the bone. 

The bill in an adult male, shot July 14, was olive buff, browner 
toward the tip ; iris pinard yellow ; tarsus chaetura drab. 

The Toba Indians called this species ne on rah. 

CEOPHLOEUS LINEATUS LINEATUS (Linnaeus) 

Picas Uneatus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, vol. 1, 1766, p. 174. 
(Cayenne.) 

A fine adult male was taken on July 16, 1920, near Las Palmas, 
Chaco, in a grove of tall trees on an open prairie. Attention was 
attracted to it by its steady hammering as it Iniocked flakes of 



216 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL. MUSEUM 

bark from the dead limbs. The bill in this bird was pale smoke 
gray, with the culmen lined with hair brown, the base of the mandi- 
ble and the sides of the maxilla gray number 8; tarsus and toes 
slate gray number 5 ; iris dull Avhite. 

This specimen differs from C. I. wvprocerus Bangs and Penard 
in larger size, as the wing measures 193 mm., but is similar to a 
male from Diamantina (near Santarem), Brazil, and to a series 
from Surinam (in the Museum of Comparative Zoology) the near- 
est approach to skins from the type-locality available. 

CELEUS KERRI Hargitt 

* 

Celeus kerrl Hakgitt, Ibis, 1S91, p. 605. (Fortin Donovan,"' Rio Pil- 
comayo.) 

Males of this fine species were secured at Las Palmas, Chaco, on 
July 31, 1920, and near Kilometer 80, west of Puerto Pinasco, Para- 
guay, on September 20. The species has been recorded previously 
from the Rio Pilcomayo, Sapuca3% and Curuzu Chica, Paraguay, 
and Pan de Azucar, Brazil, so that the first of these constitutes a 
southward extension of range from information in published 
records. The bird from Puerto Pinasco is distinctly browner in 
tone than the one from Chaco. This species frequents the heaviest 
growth of the swampy forests in the Chaco, where, save for its 
persistent hammering as it chisels its food from decaying wood, it 
might readily pass unnoticed. On careful approach through the 
tangle of vines and thorny scrub the birds were found within a 
short distance of the ground, often under such somber conditions 
that even their light-colored, crested heads were hardly to be dis- 
tinguished. In spite of Kerr's derogatory remarks regarding the 
soiled appearance of his specimens, I found this a strikingly marked 
and beautiful bird, the more so since its finely contrasted colors, 
viewed amid its somber surroundings, came as a distinct surprise. 
A fully adult male had the maxilla light mouse gray, becoming 
dark quaker drab along the line of the culmen; mandible yellowish 
glaucous, shaded at base with neutral gray; iris morocco red; tar- 
sus storm gray; toes gray number 6. 

PICULUS CHRYSOCHLOROS CHRYSOCHLOROS (Vieillot) 

Picus cUrysoeJiloros Viellot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 20. 1818, p. 98. 
(Paraguay.) 

Oberholser ^° has indicated that Gliloronerpes Swainson, 1837, is 
to be replaced by Picidus Spix, 1824. 

The present species was encountered in the Chaco on only a few 
occasions in heavy woods in the vicinity of streams. Two males 

«« See Ibis, 1892, p. i:^G. 

^ Proc. Biol. Soc. Vv'ashiugton, vol. 3G, Doc. 19, 1923, p. 201. 



BIRDS OF AEGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 217 

Avere taken at Las Palmas, Cliaco, on July 17, 1920, and another 
(preserved in alcohol) on July 27. A female was secured August 
11 near Kilometer 182, Formosa, and another Avas seen on August 
18. A male was shot at Kilometer 80, west of Puerto Pinasco, 
Paraguay, on September 11. These birds work quietly about the 
larger limbs and trunks of trees, often descending on dead stubs 
to Avithin a few feet of the ground. They spend much time in 
digging for food in deadATood, hammering as steadil}^ as a Dryo- 
hates. Though silent they shoAved some curiosity and decoyed 
readily AA'ithin range. 

The Toba Indians called them kiui rah. 

This form sIioaa's considerable A^ariation in length of wing, as two 
males from Las Palmas measure 115 and 127 mm., respectively, 
Avhile in one from Puerto Pinasco the Aving equaled 122.5 mm. 

PICULUS RUBIGINOSUS TUCUMANUS (Cabanis) 

Chloroncrpes tiicumanus Cabanis, Joiini. fiir Oruith., 1S83, p. 103. (Tucu- 
man.) 

On April 17. 1921, two Avere seen at an elevation of 1,700 meters 
in the heaAy forest coAering the Sierra San Xavier above Tafi Viejo, 
Tucuman, and a female was taken. The birds fed among the higher 
tree limbs. Their usual call Avas a thin jyick, a curious call resembling 
that of a rose-breasted grosbeak, and in addition they gave a rattling 
chatter. 

The specimen taken has a wing measurement of 120 mm. 

TRICHOPICUS CACTORUM (d'Orbigny) 

Piciis cactorum iVOkbigxa", Toy. Ainer. IMerid.. Ois.. 1S35-1S44. ]>. .378. ])1. G2. 
i\g. 2. (Mizque, Bolivia.) 

This genus belongs among the melanerpine Avoodpeckers and 
a})pears to be allied to Trlpsurus. In its characters it is intermediate 
between Tripsurus and Centurus^ particularly in respect to the 
restriction of feathering about the eye, as in Trichopiciis the ocular 
apterion Avhile large is less extensiAe than in Tnpsui'vs, Avhile there 
is a distinct line of feathers on the lower lid. Until more is known 
of the structure of these birds the present species must be considered 
of doubtful generic distinctness. 

At Las Palmas, Chaco, the yellow-throated Avoodpecker was en- 
countered and specimens taken on July 19, 27, and 30. They ranged 
in open groA^es or in trees growing scattered through the savannas, 
and Avere found in bands of four to half a dozen that roA'ed about 
and Avere not settled in an}' particular region. In actions they sug- 
gested Balanosphyra strongh^ as they Avorked about on the upper 
limbs of the trees. Their common call was a harsh yak-ah yak-ah 
and their alarm a scolding rattling chuli-Ji-h chuh-h-h check-ah. At 



218 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

times they were rather vociferous, particularly when excited. When 
alarmed they hid motionless among the limbs and remained thus for 
some time. One of the specimens taken had the third toe on one 
foot only partly developed with no claw, while the fourth toe on 
the opposite side had a deformed claw. Yet this bird climbed with- 
out difficult3^ 

At Tapia, Tucuman, these woodpeckers were fairly common from 
April 9 (when one w^as taken) to 13, 1921. They ranged through the 
scrubby forest in little bands that contained from three to six indi- 
viduals, usually in the vicinity of the giant cactus that grew abun- 
dantly in this region. Frequently they clambered about or perched 
on the cacti, and holes of some small woodpecker in the cactus trunks 
were attributed to this species. 

An adult male, taken July 19, had the bill dull black; iris natal 
brown ; tarsus and toes deep-grayish olive. 

An immature male from Tapia, not wholly in adult plumage, has 
the light dorsal line smokj' gray instead of white as in specimens 
from Las Palmas. 

LEUCONERPES CANDmUS (Otto) 

Picus candidus Otto, Nat. Vog. Biiffon, vol. 23, 1796, p. 191. (Cayeune.) 

This handsome woodpecker was recorded first at Las Palmas, 
Chaco, on July 28, 1920, when half a dozen passed with low chatter- 
ing notes. At the Riacho Pilaga, August 12, three were seen and 
collected, and others were recorded on August 21, near Fontana, 
on the railroad. Two were noted at Formosa, August 23. Near 
Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, one was observed September 3, while 
near Kilometer 80, west of Puerto Pinasco, they were fairly com- 
mon on September 7, 17, and 18. Three were taken on the date 
last mentioned. These birds are gregarious, at least in winter, and 
seem to Avander, as they were seen in flight in long looping boimds 
over the open country, when their contrasted colors of black and 
w^hite were sure to attract attention. When at rest they were encoun- 
tered in regions of scattered trees in the savannas, or in the open, 
straggling growth of palmars. Their gregariousness was marked, 
and when in flight if one alighted the others came down at once to 
join it, while they hovered over dead companions, or rested near by 
with scolding notes. Their usual call was a drawn out kee-ee-ee or 
kee-ee-ah, uttered with a mournful cadence, given with greater 
vehemence when the birds were excited. When approached they had 
the usual woodpecker habit of working around to the opposite side 
of a tree trunk, but in some cases paid little attention to me. In 
mid-September, wdth approach of the mating season, males extended 
their wings above the back and then fairly danced up the tree 
trunks with raised crest, mouth opened, and excited calls. In many 
of their ordinary mannerisms they suggested ant-eating woodpeckers. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 219 

In external characters this genus seems to be only slightly dif- 
ferentiated from Tripsufnis, with which it agrees in the broadly 
naked area about the eye. 

CHRYSOPTILUS MELANOLAIMUS MELANOLAIMUS (Malherbe)^' 

Chrysopicns melanolaitnus Malherbe, Mou. Pic, vol. 2, 1862, p. 1S5, pU 
89, figs. 7 and 8. (Bolivia and Chile.) 

A male in partial molt secured at Tunuj^an, Mendoza, on March 
27, 1921, is taken as representing the typical race of this woodpecker^ 
though specimens from Bolivia, the type-locality, have not been 
available for comparison. The black area posterior to the malar 
stripe is broad and extensive, so that it passes down on the side of 
the neck well below the level of the ear. The underparts are marked 
with heavy black spots and bars, and small spots cover the entire 
abdomen. The rump is very light. Measurements of this specimen 
are as follows: Wing, 118; culmen, 37.2; tail, 95.6; tarsus, 32 mm. 
Scattered new feathers are still in the sheaths on the head, neck, 
breast, back, and wing coverts. The outer primaries have been 
renewed, but the inner ones and some of the secondaries are still of 
old growth. 

An adult female from Victorica, Pampa, taken December 27, 1920^ 
is somewhat intermediate toward C. a. pei'plexus, but in the small 
series of specimens at liand seems to be nearer to those that I have 
called melanoJaimus. The bird in question is in worn breeding 
plumage. The light markings of the upper surface are bleached 
until they are nearly white, and the black post malar mark is ex- 
tensive. The markings of the lower surface are less heavy than in 
birds from Mendoza, but the abdomen is distinctly spotted. This 
bird measures as follows: Wing, 161.2; culmen, 37.1; tail, 101; 
tarsus, 31 mm. 

A male in the United States National Museum, taken at Santiago 
del Estero, July 29, 1922, by D. S. Bullock, is also representative of 
this form, as it has the bold markings and large size characteristic 
of melanolahnus. It measures as follows: Wing, 156.2; tail, 102.2; 
culmen from base, 38.2; tarsus, 30 mm. 

At Victorica, Pampa, these woodpeckers were found from De- 
cember 27 to 29, at times in parties of five or six, through the dry, 
open forest of calden, algarroba, and similar trees prevalent in this 
section. The presence of two in the arid region near Tunuyan, 
Mendoza, on March 27, on a low hill covered with bushes, was a 
surprise to me, as large tree growth in this neighborhood was con- 
fined to poplars, cottonwoods, and willows growing along irrigation 
ditches. 



«> Though the bird is indicated as melanoJaimus in the text the plate is marked 
melanolaemua. 



220 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

CHRYSOPTILUS MELANOLAIMUS PERPLEXUS Cory 

Chrysoptilns inelanolaemus perplexus Cory, Cat. Birds Americas, pt. 2, 
no. 2, December 31, 1919, p. 442. (Conchitas, Buenos Aires.) 

An adult male of this recently recognized form was secured at 
the Estancia Los Yngleses, near Lavalle, Buenos Aires, on November 
9, 1920. Study of a small series of specimens from northern Buenos 
xlires shows that the subspecies rather doubtfully characterized as 
ferplexus by the late Mr. Cory may be distinguished from birds 
from Mendoza, taken as representing true melanolaimus^ by shorter 
bill, somewhat smaller black markings on the ventral surface with 
the abdomen more nearly immaculate, and more extensive light 
markings on the inner Aveb of the second rectrix. The culmen in 
two males of melanolaimus measures 33.7-37.2 mm. ; in two females, 
37.1-37.5 mm. In three males of per plexus the culmen ranges from 
30.7-31, in four females from 29.5-30 mm. The black area posterior 
to the malar stripe is slightly more restricted than in the Mendozan 
birds. The wing is slightly shorter in perplexus, but the distinction 
here seems rather slight. In the bird from Lavalle the wing meas- 
ures 141.5 mm., but I note that the primaries are somewhat worn. 

These birds were found in fair numbers in the grove at the 
Estancia Los Yngleses on November 9. One was observed on No- 
vember 13. 

When comparing woodpeckers of this species it must be borne 
in mind that the bird is much brighter colored and has the light 
markings much more yellow or orange, as the case may be, when 
in fall or winter plumage than later in the year. The bright colors, 
through wear and fading, become paler and less intense, so that 
summer and winter specimens are frequently very different in ap- 
pearance. 

CHRYSOPTILUS MELANOLAIMUS NIGROVIRIDIS C. H. B. Grant 

GhrysopUlus nigroviridis C. II. B. Gbant, Ibis, 1911, p. 321. (Fortiu 
Nueve,°* Rio Pilcomayo, Paraguay, lat. 24° 53' S., long 58° 30' W.) 

The skin of a male secured at Las Palmas, Chaco, on July 16, 
1920, is taken as representative of the present bird. A second male 
preserved as a skeleton was secured on July 31. Grant in his 
original description considered Chrysoptilus nigroviridis as a dis- 
tinct species, somewhat intermediate between C. melanolai'mus and 
C. melanoclilorus. He described it as " rather larger " than me- 
lanolaimus^ but with the black behind the malar stripe more re- 
stricted, the rump golden yellow, the ear coverts washed with 
golden buff and somewhat more greenish below. The single skin 
that I have from Las Palmas fits his description both in color 

»i From Kerr. Ibis, 1892, pp. 122, 135. 



BIEDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 221 

and measurements with sufficient accuracy, and is identified as 
the bird that Grant described. From my comparisons it appears 
that nigroviridis is a fairly well marked subspecies of melanolaimus 
that may be distinguished from specimens from Mendoza, taken as 
representative of typical inelanolalnms^ and from perplexus^ by 
the restriction of the black marking behind the malar stripe, the 
smaller size of the spots on the undersurface, and slightly more 
greenish cast below. In measurements this form seems somewhat 
intermediate between true tnelanolaimus and perplexus. Measure- 
ments of two male birds from Las Palmas (including the one pre- 
pared as a skeleton) are as follows: Wing, 155-157.5 mm.; culmen, 
31.6-34 mm. The type of nigroviridis collected by Prof. J. G. 
Kerr was taken in the month of April (1890), so that we may 
presume that it was in winter plumage, which would account for the 
golden wash on ear coverts and rump mentioned by Grant. On 
the basis of my present studies (on very insufficient material) it 
would seem that nigroviridis is the form of melanolaimus found 
in the Chaco. In restriction of the black behind the malar stripe 
and in the greenish tinge of the undersurface, the Las Palmas 
specimen, while undoubtedly closely related to melanolaimus^ sug- 
gests Chrysoptilus melanochlorus^ and it may be that further col- 
lecting will produce intermediate specimens that will link the forms 
of the two groups as geographic variants of one wide-ranging 
species. 

These woodpeckers, handsomely marked and of good appearance, 
were common in the Chaco near the Eio Paraguay, but did not 
seem to penetrate far inland. In general habits they resemble 
flickers, but are more partial to wooded sections than the South 
American species of that group, and to not range far into open 
country unless trees are near at hand. They fed on the ground in 
little openings, and in settled districts were observed on plowed 
ground between rows of trees in orange groves. Burns in open 
savannas were attractive to them. They are gregarious to the ex- 
tent that five or six may be found together, though it is not unusual 
to see single birds at rest quietly in the open top of a tree, or to 
have one fly up to hitch along the larger limbs of a tree under shel- 
ter of leaves. The flight is bounding like that of any flicker and 
in general appearance the species suggests the pampas flicker; in 
fact, I killed my first specimen on a dull, gloomy, rainy day under 
the impression that it was an ordinary flicker. The ordinary call 
note is a loud scolding keah keah keah kah. 

From July 16 to 31, 1920, the species was fairly common at the 
borders of open savannas near the small stream known as the 
Riacho Quia (Guarani for "dirty creek"), at Las Palmas, Chaco. 
54207—26 15 



222 BULLETIN 133, UKITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

In a male taken July 16 I noted that the iris was garnet brown ; in 
a second male secured July 31 the bill when fresh was dark neutral 
gray, the iris Vandyke brown, the tarsus and toes tea green. 

No specimens were taken elsewhere, so that the following observa- 
tions are allocated under the present subspecies on the basis of 
probability. These birds may be quite local in their distribution, 
as during my collecting at the Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, I did not 
meet with them, but on August 21 several were seen among stand- 
ing dead trees in cut-over lands that I traversed in coming out to 
the railroad at Kilometer 182, to the station Imown locally as Fon- 
tana. Near the town of Formosa I found them fairly common, on 
August 23 and 24, in palm forests that grew in swampy localities. 
One that I observed drumming on the trunk of a palm varied the 
pitch of its music by a shift of position on the tree. The roll or 
drum produced began slowly but increased in rapidity to its close. 
It continued for a period of three seconds and then stopped ab- 
ruptly. It suggested the sound produced by Golaftes auratus, but 
was delivered more slowly. At Puerto Pinasco the birds were seen 
near the river, on September 3, in fair numbers. At this time they 
seemed to be mating, and when calling from a perch had the habit 
of opening and closing the wings suddenly, to flash the vivid yellow 
concealed beneath. None were observed inland to the west of Puerto 
Pinasco. 

CHRYSOPTILUS MELANOCHLORUS CRISTATUS (Vieillot) 

Picus cristatus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 24, 1818, p. 98. 
(Paraguay.) 

A male and a female fully grown but in immature plumage, shot 
near San Vicente in the Department of Rocha, Uruguay, on Janu- 
ary 26 and 29, 1921, are taken to be representative of this form. 
These birds are pale greenish yellow below, heavily marked with 
sharply defined black spots that become bars on the sides and flanks. 
These specimens measure as follows : Male, wing, 149 ; tail, 98 ; cul- 
men, 31; tarsus, 26.8 mm. Female, wing, 148; tail, 97; culmen. 28.4 
tarsus, 26 mm. 

These handsome flickerlike woodpeckers were observed only near 
San Vicente, Uruguay, from January 26 to 31, 1921. They ranged 
in little family parties of five or six through the extensive palm 
forests of the lowlands, attracting attention by their loud calls. On 
January 29 the muffled chatter of young attracted attention to a nest 
at a height of 7 feet from the ground in a living hard-trunked tree 
(not a palm) that grcAv in a small grove in the bottom of a shaded 
gulch on a hill slope. The woodpeckers had drilled through living 
wood into a spot that had decayed, and then had dug out a large 
irregular cavity a foot deep. The four young in nakedness, long 
necks, and general appearance suggested flickers of the same age. 



BIEDS OF ARGENTINA, PAEAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 223 

They gave the chattering call usual to young woodpeckers in begging 
for food, and in addition emitted a low wheezing note. The smallest 
was entirely devoid of down. All had prominent heelpads. These 
birds were preserved in alcohol. 

COLAPTES CAMPESTRIS CAMPESTKIS (VieUlot) 

Pious campestris Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 24, 1818, p. 101. 
(Paraguay.) 

A male collected at Kilometer 80, west of Puerto Pinasco, Para- 
guay, on Se^Dtember 13, 1920, was the only one secured. Two were 
recorded near the Rio Paraguay at Puerto Pinasco on September 3. 
At Villa Concepcion, Paraguay, on October 3, an individual at rest 
in a tree continually flashed one wing to display the yellow mark- 
ings below. 

The Auguete Indians called this species wpaiku. 

The male taken had the following measurements: Wing, 159; 
tail, 106.4; exposed culmen, 34.5; tarsus, 32.1 mm. 

COLAPTES CAMPESTROroES (Malherbe) 

Geopicos {Colaptes Swainson) campestroides Malhekbe, Rev. Mag. Zool., 
1849, p. 541. (South Brazil.) 

In habits and general appearance the pampas flicker differs little 
from the familiar Colaptes auratus of the eastern United States. 
The carpintero del suelo, as C. campestroides is usually known, is 
found frequently in little bands that feed on the ground in open 
country, dotted with trees to which the birds may fly for shelter. 
Through the Chaco they were common in the open savannas, and 
were also abundant through the undulating pampas and the low- 
land palm forests of eastern Uruguay. Recent burns were always 
attractive to them. Though formerly reported as common on the 
level plains of Buenos Aires and near-by Provinces, the species may 
now be almost extinct there as I sav»^ none in extended travels 
through that region. (PI. 3.) 

One of the call notes of the pampas flicker is a loud call strongly 
suggestive of the whistle of a greater yellowlegs, especially when 
heard at a distance across a marshy savanna where conditions of 
situation favor such a deception. When several gather on the 
trunk of a tree or a fence post, they go through many gesticulations 
with nodding heads, the whole accompanied by loud ejaculations of 
tvhick whick whick. Often one or both wings are extended and 
retracted quickly with a sudden flash of j^ellow, as the undersurface 
of the flight feathers is displayed. Another call is a harsh kiu, a 
signal that carries far across the open country. In the palm groves 
of Uruguay, when young flickers had recently left their nests, this 
species joined the oven birds in railing at my intrusions. 



224 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Though this flicker fed constantly on the ground, and in tlie trees 
often perched on a limb like other birds, it climbed with ease, and 
often emulated other woodpeckers in clambering over the trunks or 
limbs. The flight Avas bounding and was marked by the display of 
the white rump and the flashing of the undersurface of the wings. 
In Uruguay, as in Brazil, they were known as jnco pao or less often 
as j>ico pico. 

The species was recorded at the following points: Las Palmas, 
Chaco, July 13 to 31, 1920; San Vicente, Uruguay, January 26 to 
February 2, 1921 ; Lazcano, Uruguay, February 5 to 9 ; Rio Negro, 
Uruguay, February 15 to 19. The lack of records from the southern 
part of the range of the species is notable. An adult male from San 
Vicente, taken January 26, has the undersurface of the tail washed 
strongly with yellow. A male and a female from Las Palmas, taken 
July 13, lack this marking entirely. 

COLAPTES PITIUS PITIUS (Molina) 
Pious pitius Molina, Sngg. Stor. Nat. Chili, 1782, p. 236. (Cliile.) 

The typical form of the Chilian flicker is distinguished from 
C p. cachinna7is Wetmore and Peters ^^ of southern Patagonia by 
longer, broader bill, and less heavily barred underparts, in particular 
on the sides. 

After careful consideration of the smaller generic groups into 
which the flickers recently have been separated, I do not consider 
that the genera Pituipicus and Soroplex are well founded. Pitui- 
picus has been distinguished from Soroplex and Colaptes on the 
grounds that it possesses a bill longer than the head, gonys longer 
than mandibular rami, and length of tail equal to less than two- 
thirds of wing. The last-named character has no weight, as in a 
series of nine specimens I find that the tail is universally equiva- 
lent to two-thirds or more of the length of wing. As regards the 
other characters it is found that they do not hold true in the short- 
billed southern subspecies of pitius^ in which the gonys is no longer 
than the mandibular rami and the bill equal to or shorter than the 
head. Pituipicus^ therefore, may not be maintained. To continue, 
after careful study it is found that the South American flickers 
included in the genus Soroplex differ from true Colaptes only in 
heavier bill, in black rather than in highly colored undersurface 
of tail, and in lack of a black breast crescent. Alleged characters 
based on the form and character of the gonys are unstable. On 
consideration of this matter I do not hold Soroplex as a valid group 
to be distinguished from true Golaptes.^^ 

^ Proc. Eiol. Soc. Wasbiugton, vol. 35, Mar. 20, 1922, p. 43. (Bariloche, Gobernacion 
<Je Rio Negro, Argentina.) 

"« Nesocelcus may be readily separated from Colaptes by the open, exposed nostrils, with 
no covering of forward projecting plumes. ' 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 225 

Colaptes J). ]?itin.s was encountered near Concon, Chile, in small 
numbers. Three of these birds frequented a small valley with slopes 
grown with low bushes studded with occasional trees along a water- 
course, where they fed on the ground among the bushes in small 
openings grown with grass. In spite of this cover they were so wary 
that it was difficult to approach them, as at the slightest alarm they 
rose and traveled away with stronglj-- bounding flight that displayed 
alternately the white rump and the yellow undersurf ace of the wings. 
Their call was a high-pitched double note, flickerlike in nature, but 
of different character than the species encountered in Argentina. 
Like other flickers, I found that they decoyed readily to a " squeak " 
when they had no cause to suspect danger, a trait that brought two 
within range and added them to my collection. 

A specimen secured on April 28, 1921 (probably a male), had the 
bill dark neutral gray, iris chalcedony yellow, and tarsus and toes 
deep olive gray. 

Family TROGONIDAE 

TROGONURUS VARIEGATUS BEHNI (Gould) 

Troffon hehni Gould, Mon. Trog., etl. 2, 187.5, pi. 20, with text. (Bolivia.) 

Two skins preserved from the vicinity of Puerto Pinasco, Para- 
guay, exhibit the characters assigned to the subspecies hehnL A 
male differs from specimens from eastern Brazil in larger size, re- 
striction of white on the tips of the lateral rectrices, and more 
greenish cast to head and breast. The female is larger in size. The 
white breastband appears wider in both sexes than in the typical 
form. The male from Puerto Pinasco measures: Wing, 128; tail, 
124; exposed culmen, 16.5; tarsus, 14 mm.; the female, wing. 120; 
tail, 120; exposed culmen, 15.4; tarsus, 13.6 mm. 

On September 1, 1920, a female was secured in heav_y timber on 
a low^ hill at Kilometer 25, west of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay. The 
bird flew from some unseen perch to alight as easily as a jay on an 
open limb, 3 meters from the ground. When it observed me the crest 
feathers were slowly raised. On September 21 tAvo were taken in 
the border of somewhat open forest, near Kilometer 80. The call 
note of this species is a fairly loud regular coo coo coo varied to 
coh coh coh coh coh. The flight is direct and darting, and on the 
wing the birds suggest cuckoos in manner and actions. The body 
in this species exhales the same strong odor found in cuckoos, par- 
ticularly in the Crotophaginae. 

An adult male, when fresh, had the bill court gray; lower man- 
dible washed with light celandine green; margin of eyelids yellow 
ocher; iris carob brown; toes storm gray, with the scales outlined 
in whitish. In an adult female the bill was light celandine green; 



226 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

<;ulmen lined faintly with fuscous; margins of eyelids around eye 
Isabella color; iris carob brown; toes as in male. 

In Guarani this species was known as su ru cu cih^ in Anguete as 
tsa lakh. 

TROGONURUS SURRUCURA (Vieillot) 

Troffon surructira Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 8, 1817, p. 321. 
( Paraguay. ) 

An adult female taken at Las Palmas, Chaco, on July 21, 1920, 
was found at rest on an open limb in rather open forest near a 
stream. It perched with tail hanging straight down and at intervals 
uttered a low plicl\ 

The sides of the bill were court gray ; base of maxilla dark neutral 
gray; gonys light celandine green; iris light seal brown; lower end 
of tarsus and toes dark neutral gray, with scales outlined in grayish 
white; underside of toes yellowish. 

This specimen has the following measurements: Wing, 134; tail, 
149.5 ; exposed culmen, 15.2 ; tarsus, 12.6 nun. 

Family TROCHILIDAE 

LEUCIPPUS CHIONOGASTER (Tschudi) 

TrocJiilus chionoyaster Tschudi, Fauna Peruana, Orn., 1845-184G, p. 247, 
pi. 22, fig. 2. (Peru.) 

Two immature males secured at Tapia, Tucuman, on April 12 and 
13, 1921, agree with descriptions of the present species save that in 
one there are a few tiny, light-vinaceous cinnamon feathers between 
the mandibular rami and that in the other a few flecks of the same 
color occur on the throat and sides of the throat. Both of these 
specimens are obviously only recently grown and are in molt on the 
foreneck. It is suggested that the brownish color described is a 
Juvenal plumage that is entirely lost in the adult. These specimens 
should perhaps bear the subspecific name longirostris of Schliiter,^* 
but in the absence of comparable material this is not certain. 
Schliiter states that his form has the following measurements: 
Wing, 60; culmen, 25-27 mm. In my specimens the wing measures 
54.8 and 55 mm. and the culmen 23 and 23.6 mm. (It must be borne 
in mind that these are evidently immature birds.) Simon ^^ places 
the more southern birds under the subspecific name hypoleucus of 
Gould.''" Gould gives the length of bill in his type as 28 mm., 
while Simon records from 23 to 25 mm. only for specimens that he 
considers hypoleucus. As a further complication, INIr. Ridgway'"^ 
considers the generic name Leucippus Bonaparte, type Trochilus 



^ Leucippus Iriicor/aster loncjlrostris SchUiter, Falco, 1913, p. 42. (Province of Salta.) 

"5 Hist. Nat. Troch., 1921, p. 103. 

^Trochilus hypoleucus Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1846, p. 90. (Bolivia.) 

"^ Birds Nortli Middle America, vol. 5, 1911, p. 305. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 227 

fallax Boiircier, as not applicable to T, chionogaster Tschudi, which 
he says should probably be placed in T alo phoriis ]Mulsant. 

The two or three individuals of this species seen were observed at 
the flowers of a common red-flowered epiphyte {Psittacanthns cunei- 
folius) that was attractive to other hummers in the region. They 
hovered with humming wings in order to probe the long tubed 
blossoms, and at short intervals paused to rest on some convenient 
perch. Their call note was a low chit chit suggestive of that of 
SappJiO. 

One of the birds when taken had the base of the mandible deep 
Corinthian red, and the remainder of the bill and the feet black. In 
the other the base of the mandible was vinaceous fawn ; maxilla and 
tip of mandible black ; tarsus and toes aniline black. 

The plate in Tschudi's work on which the species is depicted was 
made previous to the writing of the text as it is lettered Trochilus 
leucogaster^ a name proposed for another hummer, so that in the text 
change was made to chio nog aster. No definite type locality is given 
by Tschudi so that Peru is assumed. 

HYLOCHARIS CHRYSURA (Shaw) 

Trochilus clirysxirus Shaw, Gen. Zool., vol. S, pt. 1, 1812, p. 335. (Para- 
guay.) 

Four specimens of this interesting hummer were taken as follows : 
A female at the Kiacho Pilaga on August 14, 1920, a female at Kilo- 
meter 25, a male at Kilometer 80, and a second male on the Rio 
Paraguay near Puerto Pinasco, Paragiia} , on Sej)tfmber 1. 1."), and 
30. These four specimens present a puzzling combination of differ- 
ences that with available material may not be treated satisfactorily. 
The two females from Formosa and Paraguay, with a culmen 
measurement of 20 and 21.5 mm., respectively, and a wing 52.5 mm. 
long, agree fairly well with birds from Buenos Aires and offer noth- 
ing M orthy of comment. A male taken on the Cerro Lorito on the 
eastern bank of the Paraguay River opposite Puerto Pinasco has 
the culmen 20.2 mm. and the wing 50 mm. It differs from any others 
in the small series examined in having the entire maxilla dull black, 
as well as the distal half of the mandible. In skinning this bird 
I marked it as sexually fully adult, but it may be that the black bill 
is still an indication of an immature condition. The last specimen, 
a fully adult male, from the Chaco at Kilometer 80, with the culmeji 
18.6 mm. and the wing 51.4 mm., in its small bill suggests the form 
named mcLxiuelli by Hartert ^^ from the plains near Reyes on the Rio 
Beni in northern Bolivia. Hartert records that specimens from 
Matto Grosso seem intermediate between his form and the typical 

^ Hylocharis ruficolUs maxwelli Hartert, Nov. Zool., vol. 5, December, 1898, p. 519. 



228 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

one, and it is not improbable that my specimens from the Chaco and 
from northern Paraguay are in the same category. 

The present species seemed to be partially migratory. In the 
Chaco it was recorded near the Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, on August 
13 and 14, 1920, while on the wooded hill at Kilometer 25, Puerto 
Pinasco, I found it common on September 1. The species was found 
only on September 15 near Kilometer 80, but was recorded again 
on the Cerro Lorito opposite Puerto Pinasco on September 30. The 
birds were usually found about flowers in heavy forests, though oc- 
casionally they searched for insects over the bark of trees or came 
to the blossoms of lapacho trees {Tecoma obtusata) that grew at the 
border of the monte. They were nervous and excitable, and on sev- 
eral occasions darted swiftly at my head when I was squeaking to 
call up other birds. In feeding they worked actively at flower 
clusters for several minutes and then rested on perches protected by 
overhanging leaves. In flight their wings produced a loud rattle, 
and in addition the hummers made a metallic sound, composed of a 
series of rapid notes that were plainly vocal since the throat was in 
movement as they were uttered. Often when the birds scolded from 
a perch the wings were extended wide for a few seconds and then 
drawn in again to the body. A male shot September 15 had the 
testes enlarged about one-half. 

The bird was Imown in the Guarani tongue as mainumhii. 

CHLOROSTILBON AUREO-VENTRIS (d'Orbigny and Lafresnaye) 

Ornismya anreo-ventris cI'Orbigny and Lafresnaye, Mag. Zool., vol. 8, 1838. 
cl. 2, p. 28. (Moxos, Cochamba, Bolivia.) 

An adult male of this hummer taken at Rio Negro, Uruguay, 
February 14, 1921, lacks the distinct coppery reflections of the 
undersurface found in specimens from Argentina, and is smaller so 
that it agrees with what is currently known as egregius.^^ This 
bird has the following measurements: Wing, 50.4; tail, 30.6; ex- 
posed culmen, 18.8 mm. An adult male from Lazcano, Uruguay, 
shot February 6, and an adult female taken January 26, near San 
Vicente, Uruguay, while not wholly similar to skins from Argen- 
tina, agree with them closely. Of a pair from the Riacho Pilaga, 
Formosa, secured August 11 and 14, 1920, the male is smaller than 
those from Buenos Aires, as its wing measures 51 mm. and the ex- 
posed culmen, 17.7 mm. Three immature birds from Tapia, Tucu- 
man (April 7, 8, and 13, 1921), have the bill distinctly duller in color 
than adults. One male has an extensive area of the green adult 

^ ChlorostiWon cgrcgius Heine, Journ. fiir Ornitli., 18G3, p. 197. (Sao Joao deJ Rey, 
Minas Geraes, Brazil.) Tlie type locality of this bird lias been cited as Taquara, 
though Heine states distinctly that he described it from two skins in the Berlin Museum 
secured by Sellow at Sao Joao del Rey. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 229 

plumage on the throat, with more feathers of the same color in 
process of groAvth aromid it. The male until it dons adult plumage 
has a white spot behind the eye like that found in females. Imma- 
ture birds of both sexes are duller above than adults. 

Present understanding of the geographic forms of ChlorostiJbon 
aureo-ventHs is highly unsatisfactory. Simon has described a 
southern form,^ including a range from southeastern Brazil to 
Buenos Aires, but has complicated matters by calling egregius a 
form of C. 'prasina. The subspecific variations of aureo-ventris 
must for the present remain clouded in doubt. 

ChloTostUhon aureo-ventris was recorded at the following points: 
Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, August 11, 14, and 18, 1920; Lavalle, 
Buenos Aires, October 29 to November 15; San Vicente, Uruguay, 
January 26 to February 2, 1921 ; Lazcano, Uruguay, February 3 to 
9 ; Rio Negro, Uruguay, February 14 to 19 ; Tapia, Tucuman, April 
7, 8, and 13. Individuals were seen during July, 1920, near Las 
Palmas, Chaco. 

During winter these hummers were encountered occasionally at 
the border of forests and thickets, where they received the warmth 
of the sun and were protected from cold winds. Small shrubs that 
were in flower were frequented, and I saw them gleaning insects 
from the limbs of trees. In the pampas during summer hummers 
came in small numbers to flowers about the estancias or occasionally 
dropped down into the inclosed patios of small country hotels. On 
January 26, near San Vicente. Uruguay, a female flashed by me in 
a forest of palms, and on glancing up I caught sight of her nest 
placed on a swinging bit of fern root, 12 feet from the groimd, be- 
low the crown of leaves that formed the top of the tree. To my 
great disappointment the nest was empty. It was of the usual hum- 
mer type, a soft, cup-shaped structure made of plant downs and 
fine bark, covered with fragments of brown bark fastened in place 
with spider webbing. 

Near Tapia, Tucuman, this hummer, with others, frequented the 
red flowers of an abundant epiphyte {Psittacanthus cuneifoUus). 

A female, taken August 14, had the tip of the bill black, and the 
basal half orange-cinnamon, the two colors blending at the point of 
junction; iris Rood's brown; tarsus and toes fuscous; nails black. 

OREOTROCHILUS LEUCOPLEURUS Gould 

Oreotrochiliis leucoplenrus Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1847. p. 10. 
(Chilian Cordillera.) 

Near Potrerillos, Mendoza, two females were secured on March 
16 and 19, 1921. This species is more sluggish in its movements than 

» ChlorostWbon aureiventris tucumaniis Simon. Hist. Xat. Troch., 1921, p. 65. 
(Tucuman.) 

54207—26 16 



230 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

most hummers, and though it fed at the same plants (the red- 
flowered Psittacanthus cuneifolius) ^ it flew directly to the flower 
clusters and clung to them with its strong feet while it probed the 
blossoms, instead of hovering in the air before them. The flight 
was comparatively slow and the wing motion far from rapid. At 
El Salto (altitude 1,800 meters) these birds sought the warm shelter 
of hill slopes, where they rested in low bushes among fragments of 
rock, and at intervals darted down into the valley below to feed. 
During the flight the white of the tail is prominent. 

SEPHANOmES GALERITUS (Molina) 

Trochilus galeritus Molina, Sagg. Stor. Nat. Chili, 1782, p. 247. (Chile.) 

Since G. R. Gray in 1840 ^ listed Sephanoides (which he attributes 
to Lesson) as a genus, >vith TrocMJus Jdngii of Vigors as type, this 
name must replace Eustephanus^ erected by Eeichenbach in 1850. 
The specific name of this hummer may also be open to question since 
Molina in his Latin diagnosis says " Trochilus cu7'virostris " and his 
entire description, as usual, is somewhat vague. 

This species was common near Concon, Chile, from April 25 to 
28, where a male was taken April 25 and females on April 25 and 27. 
The male, in fresh fall plumage, is dark green above, with little of 
the coppery reflection found in most skins, so that it suggests the 
condition in the bird described by Boucard ^ as Eustephanus hurtoni 
on the basis of one specimen from Chile. It is possible that hurtoni 
represents the fresh plumage of gale?iius, since its measurements 
agree with those of the common bird. 

Near Concon, JS. galeritus was common among open, brushy growths 
that covered ranges of low, sandy hills. The birds fed at the blos- 
soms of flowering shrubs, searched old yucca heads for insects, or 
snapped at gnats dancing in the air. Their flight was rather slow, 
accompanied by a subdued, barely audible humming; at intervals 
they closed the wings for a second, allowing the body to sink for a 
foot or so, and then with renewed motion continued on their course. 
The legs, for a bird of this group, were long and the feet and claws 
strong. They often clung to flowers with their claws, while probing 
them for food, in the manner noted in O reotrochilus leucopleurus. 
The male had a twittering song with a metallic rattle that suggested 
some finch. The usual call was a high-pitched tsee-ce that changed 
to a steady rattle, as, with a flash of reflected light from the brilliant 
crown, the bird darted away in pursuit of some intruder. 

An adult male had the bill black ; iris Vandyke brown ; tarsus and 
toes fuscous black. 

An adult male (preserved as a mummy), and a male and two fe- 
males in alcohol, of the rare Juan Fernandez hummer generously 

=• List Gen. Birds, 1840, p. 14. 

3 Hummingbird, vol. 1, Mar. 1, 1891, p. 18. 



BIEDS OF AEGENTINA, PAEAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 231 

presented by Dr. Edwyn Reed, of Valparaiso, demonstrate that this 
species is generically separable from Sephanoides under the name 
Thaummte of Eeichenbach, on the basis of broader, shorter bill, 
stronger tarsi and feet, broader rectrices, and relatively longer tail. 
These distinctions, though most apparent in males, are readily seen 
when females are compared. The four specimens donated by Doctor 
Eeed form a valuable accession to the collections in the United States 
National Museum, since the Juan Fernandez hummer had been rep- 
resented there previously by the skin of a male alone. 

SAPPHO SAPHO (Lesson) 

Ornismija sapho Lesson, Hist. Nat. Ois.-RIouch., 1829, p. 105. (" Interior of 
Brazil.") 

Trochilus spayyatiurus of Shaw,'* the name in common use for the 
present species, must be transferred to the bird described by Gould ^ 
as Comet es phaon^ since Shaw's plate, though crude, shows distinctly 
the long bill and the light line extending beneath the eye of this bird, 
while he describes the gold crimson bar on the otherwise black tail 
that also is characteristic of it. The locality assigned by Shaw, 
Peru, is also the one inhabited by this species. The bill in the hum- 
mer, that has been called sparganurus in the past, is shorter, a white 
line, where present, extends only to the anterior margin of the eye, 
not below it, and the tail is coppery red instead of crimson ; in addi- 
tion, the bird is of more southern range. Cometes phaon Gould, 
therefore, takes the name Sappho sparganura (Shaw) and Ornis- 
mya sapho must be used as the name for the other species. The 
locality assigned by Lesson, " interior of Brazil," is doubtless incor- 
rect. Cory ^ recenth^ has used Leshia of Lesson ' for the species under 
discussion. Though Lesson did not designate a type for this genus, 
Gray* subsequently selected Ornismya kingii of Lesson,' a species 
not now considered congeneric with Ornismya sapho^ so that Sappho 
of Reichenbach ^" must be used for the present species. 

Near El Salto, at an elevation of between 1,500 and 1,800 meters 
above Potrerillos, Mendoza, this beautiful!}^ marked hummer was 
fairly common on March 19, 1921. A red-flowered epiphyte {Psit- 
tacanthus cuneifolius) , parasitic on creosote bush, was common, and 
Sappho came with other hummers to feed at it. The plant grew 
in clumps from 1 to 2 meters from the gi-ound, with the massed 
color of the flowers against the gray green of the surrounding vege- 
tation prominent at a considerable distance. On the rock-strewn 

* Gen. Zool., toI. 8, pt. 1, 1812, p. 291. 

*Proc. Zool. See. London, 1847, p. 31. (Peru.) 
« Cat. Birds Amer., pt. 2, no. 1, Mar., 1918, p. 281. 
' Ind. Gen. Syn. Troch., 1832, p. xvii. 

* List Gen. Birds, 1840, p. 14. 
"Troch., 1832, p. 107, pi. 38. 
".■\.v. Syst. Nat., 1850, pi. 40. 



232 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

hill slopes above were little nooks protected from wind and warmed 
by radiation from the sun-heated stones, to which the hummers re- 
sorted to rest, and from which they darted down at intervals to feed 
on the flower clumps below. 

Near Tapia, Tucuman, from April 7 to 13, this species, found as 
before about the brilliant flower clusters of Psittacanthus, was com- 
mon. The birds were especially active on days of bright sunshine. 
Males and females alike poised with vibrating wings in feeding, and 
at frequent intervals paused to rest on open twigs, usually in the 
sun as the weather was cool. When three or four gathered at one 
flower clump there was much fighting among the long-tailed males, 
while any intruder was greeted with a low chattering call, chit-it, 
that often came from birds prudently concealed behind the dense 
shelter of thorny branches. When on the wing both sexes frequently 
expanded the deeply forked tail, a display, of course, most prominent 
in the long-tailed males, and males at rest often jerked the tail up 
and down in gnat-catcher fashion. The flight was rapid and direct, 
though the bird had the usual hummer habit of swinging up or down 
with an irregular bounding motion. Because of the long tail it ap- 
peared large and was easier to folloAv with the eye than most hum- 
mers. A few were seen near 2,100 meters on the Sierra San Xavier 
above Tafi Viejo, Tucuman, on April 17. 

A male, taken March 19 above Potrerillos, was molting on the 
tkroat and had the tail almost grown anew. A male (April 9) and 
four females (April 8, 9, and 13) from Tapia were in partial molt 
on head, tail, and body. Immature females differed from the single 
adult taken in larger green spots on the throat and a wash of cinna- 
mon on this area. In an adult male when freshly taken the bill 
and tarsus were black; iris liver brown. 

HELIOMASTER FURCIFER (Shaw) 

Trochilus Furcifer Shaw, Gen. Zool., vol. 8, pt. I, p. 280. (Paraguay.) 

A female taken near Las Palmas, Chaco, on July 31, 1920, 
like other hummers seen here (in winter) was found near the border 
of forest, in a region protected from cold winds. The bird, attracted 
by squeaking, alighted with a subdued humming of its wings on a 
limb near at hand. 

The bill, tarsus, and toes, in life, were black. 

Family MICROPODIDAE 

MICRCPUS ANDECOLUS DINELLII (Hartert) 

Apus andecolus dinellii Hartert, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 23, December 
31, 1908, p. 43. (Angosta Percliela, altitude 2,550 meters, Jujuy, 
Argentina. ) 

Dinelli's swift was recorded first in the valley of the Rio Negro 
soutli of General Roca, Rio Negro, on November 27, 1920, when 10 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 233 

or more were noted and 5 were collected. These birds present a 
strange appearance in the air, as their long, thin, narrow wings 
seem as broad at the tip as near the body, while in color they appear 
wholly light-brownish gray or wdiite, veritable ghosts of birds with 
wings barely thicker than paper. During the strong wind that pre- 
A^ailed they sailed constantly with set wings cutting the air rapidly ; 
when one did choose to fly, it passed with lightninglike speed. 
Males and females, the latter paler in color on the back, were taken, 
and I supposed that the birds had drifted across from breeding sta- 
tions on the high rock escarpment on the southern side of the valley. 
Frequently they Avere seen in trios. Others of these swifts were 
recorded about a rocky point in the valley of the Rio Blanco at 
Potrerillos, Mendoza, on March 18, 19, and 20, 1921. From about 
30 that were seen, 4 were taken on March 18 and 1 on the day fol- 
lowing. The call of this species is a high-pitched laughing chatter 
that does not carry far in the wind. 

Immature birds, as represented in the fall series, have the forehead 
darker than adults secured in spring and are somewhat more buffy 
below. Young females are somew^hat darker on the back than those 
taken in spring, but are still noticeably paler than males. 

This swift does not appear to have been recorded previously south 
of the Province of Mendoza. 

STREPTOPROCNE ZONARIS (Shaw) 

Hirundo zonaris Shaw, Cim. Phys., 179G, p. 100, pi. 55. (Chapada, Matto 
Grosso," Brazil.) 

The collared swift was recorded above Mendoza, Mendoza, on 
March 18, 1921, and on the slopes of the Sierra San Xavier above 
Tafi Viejo, Tucuman, on April 17. No specimens were secured. 

CHAETURA ANDREI MERIDIONAUS Hellmayr 

Chaetura andrei meridionaUs, Hellmaye, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 10, Mar. 
30, 1907, p. 63. (Isca Yacu," Santiago del Estero, Argentina.) 

The present species was found only in the vicinity of Puerto Pin- 
asco, Paraguay, where an adult female was taken September 20, near 
Kilometer 80, and a male September 23, near Kilometer 110 (the 
latter preserved as a skeleton). Swifts were found over the forest in 
certain localities, where they seemed to have selected breeding sta- 
tions in hollow trees. Though seen on September 1 near the low hill 
at Kilometer 25, arid on September 30 over the Cerro Lorito on the 
E.io Paraguay, I found them also in certain areas in the level country. 

11 Doctor Chapman's action (BuU. Aroer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 33, Nov. 21, 1914, p. 605) 

in selecting Chapada, a point far distant from the coast, as the type locality of Shaw's 
Hirundo zonaris, may perhaps be questioned, since it is doubtful If interior specimens had 
been seen or described as early as 1796. 

" See Dabbene. El Hornero, vol. 1, 1917, p. 7. 



234 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Ordinarily they circled about high overhead, where it was impossible 
to reach them, and when they did descend to lower altitudes it was 
necessary usually to take a snapshot at them overhead as they dashed 
past little openings in the tree tops. Under these circumstances con- 
siderable time and ammunition Avere expended before one was finally 
secured. The birds spent much time in circling high in air, but de- 
scended at intervals to flash past dead stubs in which I supposed 
they would nest later. Often they flew about in trios and frequently 
were seen in pairs. Their wing motion was extremely rapid, and 
when sufficient momentum had been gained they scaled rapidly along 
with set wings. During cold, rainy weather a few appeared about 
the lagoon at Kilometer 110, perhaps driven in here by unfavorable 
feeding grounds in other regions. Their usual call note was a low 
chu chu chu chu^ followed by a rattling chipper. On September 30, 
on the Cerro Lorito, I found them circling about a little clearing, in 
which there were one or two dead trees. The Anguete Indians called 
this species mee tset tse he. 

The skin preserved, an adult female, measures as follows: Wing, 
127.5; tail, 37; exposed culmen, 4; tarsus, 11.5 mm. Swifts of this 
genus have been recorded seldom from Paraguay, while the names 
under which they are given are so involved that it is difficult to place 
them. My specimens have been identified in accordance with Hell- 
mayr's treatment of the South American forms of Chaetura" 

Order PASSERIFORMES 
Family DENDROCOLAPTIDAE 

DENDROCOLAPTES PICUMNUS Liditenstcin 

Dendrocolaptes Picvmnns Lichtenstein, Abh. Kon. Akad. Wiss. Berlin for 
1818-19 (pub. 1820), p. 202. (Brazil.) 

An adult female shot in heavy forest on the Cerro Lorito opposite 
Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, was the only one seen. This specimen 
has fine shaft streaks of whitish on the feathers of the back, a char- 
acter that, according to Hellmayr, is one that differentiates D. picv/m- 
nus from the closely allied D. intermedius Berlepsch. The latter 
species is said also to have the head browner and back more reddish 
brown. Hellmayr^* has recorded D. picumnus from Bernalcue, 
Paraguay, and there are other less definite records for Paraguay. 

My specimen was secured as it clung to the base of a tree above a 
large colony of ants, on which it fed eagerly, hopping and sidling 

" Verb. Ornith. Ges. Bayern, vol. 8, 1908, p. 145. 

"Abh. Kon. Bayerischen Akad. Wiss., II Kl., vol. 22, 1906, p. 632. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 235 

rapidly about, perhaps to prevent the insects from climbing into its 
feathers. 

XIPHOCOLAPTES MAJOR MAJOR (Vieillot) 

Dendrocopus major Vibzillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 26, 1818, p. 118. 
(Paraguay.) 

Individuals of this species were seen twice near Las Palmas, 
Chaco, during the first part of July, 1920, but none were collected 
until I arrived at the Riacho Pilaga, Formosa. Two secured there, 
on August 18, 1920, were the only ones seen. At Kilometer 80, west 
of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, two were taken on September 15 and 
another on September 17. The skins preserved, while somewhat 
variable in color, have the abdomen distinctly barred so that they 
show no approach to X. m. castaneus, described by Ridgway from 
Bolivia, in which the abdomen is said to be plain. A skin from the 
interior of Formosa is decidedly darker above than three from 
Paraguay. One of the latter, however, is much deeper in color be- 
low than any of the others, so that variation in shade of brown seems 
to be an individual character. 

In accordance with Azara's observations I did not find the present 
species common, though it was recorded on several occasions. The 
birds were found in or near the heavier timber in the Chaco, and 
from my limited records seem to feed to a considerable extent on the 
ground, Avhere the groves were fairly open and the vegetation below 
not too dense. Often they were restricted in such haunts to the 
borders of trails or cattle paths. When flushed they flew up to 
cling to a tree trunk sometimes near the ground and again among 
the higher branches where their attitude and actions were similar 
in a way to those of a woodpecker. When clinging in this fashion 
the feet usually were placed wide apart, and the bird progressed in 
a series of long hitches, with the head and neck erect. They seemed 
to range in pairs, though none of those taken were breeding. One 
that I wounded called harshly, while its mate appeared a few feet 
away to call kway kivay in an inquiring tone. The birds are heavily 
muscled and in form are robust. Many of the tendons in the muscles 
of the lower leg are more or less ossified, so that in preparing skins 
it is noticeably difficult to cut them. 

An adult male, taken September 17, had the tip of the bill dark 
neutral gray, shading on median portion of maxilla to light-grayish 
olive ; rest of maxilla and mandible light neutral gray ; iris vinaceous 
rufous ; tarsus and toes between deep and dark olive gray. 

Near Puerto Pinasco those who spoke the Guarani tongue called 
this species uravo-vahi. 



236 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

LEPIDOCOLAPTES ANGUSTIROSTRIS ANGUSTIROSTRIS (Vieillot) 

Dendrocopus angustirostris Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 26. 1818, 
p. 116. (Paraguay.) 

An adult male shot at Resistencia, Chaco, on July 10, 1920, and 
an immature female taken at Las Palmas, Chaco, July 13, are sup- 
posed to represent the typical form of the present species. These 
two have the undersurface definitely but not heavily streaked and 
give the following measurements for wing and culmen : Male, wing, 
98.2 ; culmen from base, 32.7 ; female, wing, 92.3 ; culmen from base, 
31 mm. Two males secured at Tapia, Tucuman, on April 9 and 11, 
1921, have the streaks on the ventral surface blacker and much 
heavier, and are referred to this form with reservation as it is 
probable that they represent a distinct subspecies. The specimens 
in question (in molt) have the following measurements: Wing, 94.4 
and 99.6 mm. ; culmen from base, 34 and 35.7 mm. In coloration of 
the dorsal surface they are rather close to the birds from Chaco. 

At Resistencia, Chaco, this bird was recorded only on July 10, 
1920, when a male was taken. Near Las Palmas, where forests were 
more extensive, they were found in fair numbers from July 13 to 31, 
while near the Riacho Pilaga they were recorded on August 11 and 
18. No specimens were taken here, and it is possible that the birds 
noted were L. a. ceHhiolus found in the Paraguayan Chaco. At 
Tapia, Tucuman, they were fairly common from April 7 to 13. 

This wood hewer in the Chaco frequented the heavier growths of 
timber that grew in swampy localities, where it ranged in pairs that 
frequently joined company with little traveling bands of other 
brush and forest hunting birds, and accompanied them on their 
rounds in search for food. The flight of the bird under discussion 
is undulating, and is seldom continued for any long distance. They 
alight on a tree trunk, to which they cling with sharp claws and 
firmly braced tail, and begin immediately to hitch upward, often 
assisting their progress by a rapid flit of the wing. They continue 
up the trimk and over the larger branches and then fly to another 
tree or drop to the base of the trunk they have just examined and 
cover the ground once more. Their long bills were frequently thrust 
into the recesses of small air plants, or under moss and loose bark, 
which was pried away with a quick twist of the head to. expose any 
animal life concealed beneath. The call notes of the present species 
in all its forms are loud and musical. 

The tongue is small and undeveloped in proportion to the size 
of the bill, in contrast to what is found in such long-billed groups 
as humming birds, honey creepers, and honey eaters. 



BIRI>S OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 237 
LEPIDOCOLAPTES ANGUSTIROSTRIS PRAEDATUS (Cherrie) 

Picolaptes angustirostris praedatus Cherrie, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
vol. 25, May 20, 3916, p. 187. (Concepcion del Uruguay, Entre Rios, 
Argentina. ) 

The prebeiit subspecies, seemingly differentiated from the typical 
form by greater size, longer bill, and the extension of the stripes on 
head and hind neck down to the upper back, is the southernmost 
representative of the species, as it ranges through the scanty wooded 
areas of the northern pampas, in western Uruguay, Buenos Aires, 
and in the band of forest that crosses the Territory of Pampa in 
the vicinity of Victorica. 

There is in the United States National Museum an old specimen 
taken near Buenos Aires by the Page expedition, while I secured 
two females near Victorica, Pampa, on December 24 and 27, 1920, 
and an immature male at Rio Negro, Uruguay, on February 15, 
1921. If the skin from Buenos Aires be considered as typical of 
the form, a logical procedure, as the type came from Concepcion, 
in similar country 300 kilometers to the northward, it is found that 
the skins from Victorica have a shorter wing, are grayer, and that 
one has a much longer bill. (The mandibles in the second skin 
from Victorica are imperfect.) The last are placed with praedatus 
on the basis of size of bill, and because they agree with praedatus 
in the extension of the head and neck streaks over the upper back. 
The specimen from Eio Negro, Uruguay, is only recently from the 
nest, and its bill is short and undeveloped. It is darker above, more 
blackish on the head, and more heavily streaked below than the 
others. Pertinent measurements, in millimeters, of these four skins 
are as follows : 



Cata- 
logue 
No. 


Locality 


Wing 


Culmen 
from base 


12358 


Buenos Aires 




102.0 


39 7 


283878 


Victorica, Pampa 




93. 5 42 h 


283879 


do 




91.0 
103.0 




284572 


Rio Negro, Uruguay 















Near Victorica, Pampa, several wood hewers of the present form 
were recorded on December 24 and 27, 1920, in the Ioav, open forest 
of calden, algarroba, and similar trees characteristic of the region. 
The dry atmosphere had a tendency to make feathers hard and 
brittle so that the tails in all the Lepidocola'ptes seen were worn 
short and blunt from abrasion on the rough-barked trees. Near 
Rio Negro, Uruguay, on February 15, 1921, 1 found a brood of fully- 
grown j^oung in low woods, clambering actively about with low, 
rather rapid, whistled notes, with all of the mannerisms of adults. 



238 BULrLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

LEPIDOCOLAPTES ANGUSTIROSTRIS CERTHIOLUS (Todd) 

Picolaptes hivittatus certhiolus Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 26, 
Aug. 8, 1913, p. 173. (Curiche Rio Grande, eastern Bolivia.) 

Four specimens from west of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, a female 
shot at Kilometer 25 on September 1, and three from Kilometer 80 
(two males secured September 9 and 13, and a female taken Sep- 
tember 17), seem best referred to the present form, described from 
eastern Bolivia. L. a. certhiolus differs distinctly from L. a. angusti- 
rostris in the fainter streaking on the ventral surface that in some 
specimens becomes nearly obsolete. The four skins from near 
Puerto Pinasco agree closely with the type of certhiolus (that through 
the kindness of W. E. Clyde Todd, has been compared directly with 
them) in color and amount of streaking on the breast and abdomen. 
The Paraguayan specimens are slightly variable in this respect, 
some representing a closer approach to typical angustirostris than 
others. They are slightly duller above than the type of certhiolus, 
and are also a trifle smaller (in males, wing, 91.6-95.2 mm.). In 
Mr. Todd's type-specimen the wing measures 100.6 mm. 

Examination of a small series of these wood hewers shows con- 
clusively that the bird with unstreaked breast, known as hivittatus, 
intergrades through certhiolus with the heavily marked group that 
has been maintained as angustirostr'is. In fact, intergradation seems 
so complete as to render division into forms difficult, since, when the 
vast range occupied is considered, comparatively few localities have 
been represented in the series seen. Since angustirostris of Vieillot 
is the older name, the forms of the species as at present known will 
stand as follows : 

LEPIDOCOLAPTES A. ANGUSTIROSTKIS (Vieillot). 

Dendrocopus angustirostris Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 26, 1818, 
p. 116. (Paraguay.) 

Lower surface heavily streaked; streaks of head terminated on 
nape. 

Eastern (?) and southern Paraguay, northern Argentina (Chaco, 
Tucuman), probably south to the limits of the Chaco in the Province 
of Santa Fe. 

LEPIDOCOLAPTES A. PRAEDATUS (Cherrie). 

Picolaptes angustirostris praedatus Chekrie, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
vol. 25, May 20, 1916, p. 187. (Concepcion del Uruguay, Entre Rios, 
Argentina. ) 
Larger than angustirostris with longer bill, and with the streaks 
on the head and nape extended onto the lower back. 

Central Argentina (Entre Rios, northern, Buenos Aires, and 
central Pampa) and Uruguay (Rio Negro). 



BIRDS OF AEGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 239 
XEPIDOCOLAPTES A. CERTHIOLUS (Todd). 

Picolaptcs bivittatus certhiohis Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 
26, August S, 1913, p. 173. (Curiche Rio Grande, eastern Bolivia.) 

Less heavily streaked below than angustirostris, in some with 
streaks nearly obsolete, more riifescent. 

Eastern Bolivia and the Chaco of Paraguay for an indeterminate 
distance southward. 

LEPIDOCOLAPTES A. BIVITTATUS (Lichtenstein) . 

Dendrocolaptes hivittatus Lichtenstein, Abh. Berlin Akad., 1820-21 
(1822), p. 158, pi. 2, fig. 2. (Sao Paulo, Brazil.) 

Lower surface uniform or nearly so, lighter, more rufescent above. 

Southern Brazil (Sao Paulo to Matto Grosso?). 

Four skins in the Carnegie Museum from the Province of Lara, 
Bolivia, have the streaks on the undersurface nearly obsolete and 
are somewhat brighter above than the average oi L. a. certhioTus as 
here taken. These may represent intermediates toward hivittatus 
or may be that form, but with available material I am at a loss 
where to place them. It is possible that hivittatus ranges across 
Matto Grosso into the lower regions of north central Bolivia, while 
certhiolus may be restricted to the Chaco region of eastern Bolivia, 
and Paraguay west of the Rio Paraguay. 

LEPIDOCOLAPTES A. CORONTUS (Lesson). 

Picolaptes coronatus Lesson, Traitfi Orn., 1831, p. 314. ("Br§sil.") 

Similar to L. a. hivittatus, but undersurface, save throat slightly 
duller than a shade between cinnamon buff and clay color. 

Eastern Brazil (Bahia, Piauhy, Ceara.) 

Six skins of this form that I have examined in the Field Museum 
come from Jua and Quixada in Ceara. Doctor Hellmayr informs 
me that coronatus of Lesson, based on Plate 90 in the first volume 
of Spix's Avium Brasiliam (vol. 1), is the same as the form that 
he separated under the subspecific name of hahiae}^ 

L. a. certhiolus, like other forms of this species, inhabited forested 
regions, often where the growth was dense and almost impenetrable, 
but was not averse to working out through the more open palm 
groves, or palmares, that covered swamp regions, or open groves 
of hardwoods where brush fires had prevented undergrowth. Like 
others of its family, it climbed steadily in long hitches, woodpecker 
fashion, always traveling up the tree trunks or limbs on which it 
rested. One observed posed before its mate braced firmly with its 

>• Picolaptes Uvittatvs bahiae Hellmayr, Verb. Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 1903, p. 219. 
(Bahia.) 



240 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL. MUSEUM 

tail against a tree trunk, with wings spread, mouth open, and crest 
raised. 

It was recorded west to Kilometer 110, west of Puerto Pinasco. 

CAMPYLORHAMPHUS RUFODORSALIS (Chapman) 

Xiphorhynchus rnfodorsalis Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., voL 
2, July 5, 1889, p. 160. (Conimba, Matto Grosso, Brazil.) 

An adult male taken at Las Palmas, Chaco, July 19, 1920, and a 
female from the Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, secured August 11, are 
referred to the present species. Menegaux and Hellmayr ^'^ consider 
rnfodorsalis indistinguishable from lafresnayanus (d'Orbigny) from 
Bolivia on the basis of examination of a series from Mattogrosso, 
d'Orbigny's original specimens marked Chiquitos, and a skin from 
Rio de la Plata. Through the kindness of W. E. Clyde Todd, I 
have seen five skins from the collections of the Carnegie Museum 
from Bolivia, three from Guanacos, Province of Cordillera, one from 
Palmarito, Rio San Julian, Chiquitos, and one from Curiche Rio 
Grande, eastern Bolivia. These differ constantly from the Argentine 
specimens in shorter, more slender bill (culmen from base, 67-73.5 
mm.), and in duller, less rufescent coloration on the ventral surface, 
so that on the basis of this material I must hold rnfodorsalis valid. 
The two skins from Chaco and Formosa have the culmen from base 
90 and 87.8 mm., respectively. A third specimen from the Rio 
Bermejo (Page expedition), with the ends of both mandibles shot 
. away, has the base of the bill much heavier than is true in the 
Bolivian birds. The three Argentine skins agree in being more 
rufescent below than the others. They are listed here under a spe- 
cific name, though it is probable that i^fodorsalis will prove to be 
a geographic race of lafresnayanus. 

This curious form was encountered in low, swampy lands in heavy 
growths of timber, where it frequented dense cover. The birds 
clambered alertly up sloping tree trunks, with the tail braced to aid 
their ascent, and at any alarm disappeared in the jungle. From 
their actions I judged that the grotesque curved bill was employed 
to search for insects among the stiffened leaves of bromeliaceous 
epiphytes that grew abundantly on trees and shrubs; the clasping 
stems of the leaves of these plants formed cups that harbored con- 
siderable animal life, and often contained considerable water in 
which unfortunate insects were drowned, a feeding ground inacces- 
sible save to the curious beak of this wood hewer. 

A male, taken July 19, had the bill orange cinnamon, shaded with 
fuscous at tip and base of culmen; iris deep-brownish drab; tarsus 
and toes deep olive ; underside of toes shaded with yellowish. 

'8 Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Autun, vol. 19, 1906, pp. 78-79. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PAKAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 241 
DRYMORNIS BRIDGESH (Eyton) 

JVtMJco hridgesii Eyton, Jardii>e's contrib. Orn., 1849 (pub. 1850), p. 130, 
p. 38. (Bolivia.) 

Near Victorica, Pampa, Bridge's wood hewer was fairly common 
from December 23 to 29, 1920, so that two males (one prepared as a 
skeleton) were taken December 23 and a female on December 24. 
The}' were found in little flocks of four or five in open forest where 
they fed on the ground where it vras more or less free from under- 
growth, often in company with Pseudoseisiira lophotes. Wlien 
startled they flew away with undulating flight to alight on some 
tree trunk, up which they climbed until they came to rest on a slop- 
ing limb. Their ordinary call was a loud ivhee whee whee^ to which 
they added a chattering note when excited. Though they climbed 
readily, they seemed to prefer to rest on a sloping limb of good size 
and in such situations frequently ran along the branches instead of 
hitching about with the aid of the tail. A bird with a broken wing 
ran along on the ground as rapidly and easily as a plover or a lark, 
so that I had considerable difficulty in capturing it. 

A few were recorded near Tapia, Tucuman, from April T to 13, 
1921, but none were taken. 

A male, secured December 23, had the base of the mandible ecru 
drab : rest of bill black ; iris natal brown ; tarsus and toes dull black. 

SITTASOMUS SYLVIELLUS CHAPADENSIS (Ridgway) 

Sittasotnus cha pa densis Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 14, 1891, p. 
509. (Chapada, Matto Grosso, Brazil.) 

Five specimens of Sittasonius sylvieUus from three rather widely 
separated localities offer some variation in color, but, until better 
series of skins are available, may be referred to the subspecies 
chapadensis. A male and a female shot west of Puerto Pinasco, the 
male at Kilometer 25, September 1, and the female at Kilometer 80, 
September 15, are slightly grayer, less yellowish both above and 
below than two females taken at Las Palmas, Chaco, on July 15. An 
adult male secured April IT, 1921, at an altitude of nearly 1,700 
meters on the Sierra San Xavier, above Tafi Viejo, Tucuman, is 
much more yellowish than those last mentioned, especially on th.i 
lower breast and abdomen, while the bill appears larger and heavier. 
The three seem to represent phases that may eventually be recog- 
nized as subspecies. Hellmayr ^^ refers skins from Tucuman to 
chapadensis and considers this to range in Goyaz and Matto Grosso, 
Brazil, eastern Bolivia. Paraguay (Colonia Risso). and northern 
Argentina (Jujuy. Salta, and Tucuman). 

'•Nov. Zool., vol. 1.5, June, 1908, p. 64. 



242 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

I recorded this Sittaso'tnus at Las Palmas, Chaco, from July 15^ 
to 30, 1920; Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, August 11 and 18; Kilometer 
25, Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, September 1; Kilometer 80, in the 
same vicinity, September 8, 15, and 20; and on the Sierra San 
Xavier, above Tafi Viejo, Tucuman, on April 17, 1921. 

The taquarita, as the species is known, inhabits heavy forest and 
is not found in open areas. In search for food it creeps and climbs 
over tree trunks and limbs, bracing with the tail to assist it in 
progress, and moving so actively that it is difficult to follow. In 
its method of climbing and the nervous activity that keeps it con- 
tinually moving, it is suggestive of Certhia. The birds were found 
often in company with little groups of other forest birds that travel 
in social flocks. According to my brief observations, they were 
entirely silent. 

Family FURNARIIDAE 

GEOSITTA CUNICULARIA CUNICULARIA (Vieillot) 

Alauda cunicularia Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 1, 1816, p. 369, 
(Near the Rio de la Plata and Buenos Aires.) 

The common miner was recorded at the following points: Lavalle, 
Buenos Aires, November 7 and 8, 1920 (adult and immature males 
taken November 7) ; Carhue, Buenos Aires, December 15 to 18; Car- 
rasco, Uruguay, January 9 and 16, 1921 ; La Paloma, Uruguay, Jan- 
uary 23; San Vicente, Uruguay, January 31 to February 2 (adult 
shot at Paso Alamo, February 2) ; Lazcano, Uruguay, February & 
(adult female taken) to February 9; and Guamini, Buenos Aires, 
March 3 and 4. In the series at hand skins from the Province of 
Buenos Aires and Uruguay average slightly smaller than those from 
Zapala, other localities in northern Patagonia, and Chile. Northern 
skins are browner, and those from Chile grayer. Birds from Zapala 
are intermediate in this respect and are referred to G. c. helhnuyri. 
Two males from Uruguay have a wing measurement of 88 and 88.2 
mm., respectively (a third from Quinta, Rio Grande do Sul, that I 
have seen is similar), while males from Buenos Aires range from 
89.2-93.5 mm. Geositta c. froheni^ as at present understood, distin- 
guished by larger size (wing, 101.5-103.5 (and paler outer rectrix, is 
represented in the United States National Museum by three speci- 
mens from the Province of Mendoza. 

Adults have much longer bills than immature individuals even 
when the latter appear fully grown. In immature plumage, birds 
are distinguished by the paler margins on the feathers of the dorsal 
surface, and by the narrow, buffy tips of the longer primaries. An 
adult male secured February 2 has begun to molt on the breast. 
Others are in full plumage. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 243 

The miner was local in its distribution and was found only where 
areas of open sandy soil offered it a suitable habitat. Near Lavalle, 
Buenos Aires, it was encountered among the dunes near the coast in 
a broad area that intervened between the bare wind-swept, con- 
stantly shifting sand hills just back of the beach, and the inner land- 
ward tract that had been covered entirely by vegetation. Others 
were recorded at sandy blow-outs farther inland where open sand 
was exposed for more limited areas; elsewhere they were found in 
one or the other of two types of country, among dunes or along 
sandy hill slopes. Frequently the birds were shy and from their in- 
conspicuous coloration were overlooked. Their undulating flight 
carries them in sweeping bounds a meter or so above the earth, while 
w^hen they alight they walk or run about among the scant growths 
of vegetation that maintain a precarious foothold in the soil. With 
head and body well erect they walk with nervous hesitant strides 
like Fumarlus, or run for several steps and then pause. The tail in 
old and young is constantly vibrated when the birds are otherwise 
at rest. Among the dunes they disappear constantly over distant 
ridges, so that it is difficult to follow them. The only note that I 
heard them give Avas a curious song, attributed to the males, a high 
pitched he he he he he he he, uttered in a laughing tone as the birds 
rose from 4 to 10 meters in the air, and then descended wuth tremu- 
lously vibrating wings, or as they circled and swung about in erratic 
dips and curves over the undulating surface below. In the high 
winds that usually prevailed in their haunts their calls seemed 
ventriloquial, and may be confused with some of the notes of the 
more common burrowing owl. This song seems to be given without 
regard to the season of the year, as I heard it from the first week in 
November to the end of April whenever I chanced to encomiter the 
species. From its habit of wagging the tail this bird is often called 
nienio-cola. 

An adult male shot November 7 shoAved developed testes, and had 
the abdomen bare, indicating that it had been incubating. An imma- 
ture bird, fully grown, was taken at the same time. 

GEOSITTA CUNICULARLA. HELLMAYRI Peters 

Geositta cunicularia hellmayri Peters, Occ. Pap. Boston Sec. Nat. Hist., 
vol. 5, Jan. 30, 1925, p. 145. (Huanuluan, Rio Negro, Argentina.) 

Two males from Zapala, Neuquen, an adult taken December 8 and 
an immature specimen shot on the following day, are referred to 
the present form, described recently by Peters. These two have 
wing measurements of 94.2 and 96 mm., respectively, and, in addi- 
tion to larger size, are slightly grayer than skins from Buenos Aires 
and Uruguay. 



244 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Near Zapala the miner frequented sandy areas along the slopes of 
little vallej^s. On December 9 I noted a male standing in the 
entrance of a nesting burrow, excavated in the face of a low-cut 
bank, a tunnel without apparent end, as some mammal had attempted 
to dig it out without success, and after considerable labor I aban- 
doned the task myself without having reached the nest cavity. 

GEOSITTA CUNICULARIA FISSIEOSTRIS (Kittlitz) 

Alauda. fissirostris Kittlitz, Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersbourg, Div. 
Sav.. vol. 2, 1835, p. 468, pi. 3. (Valparaiso.) 

An adult female, taken at Concon, Chile, April 25, 1921, is allotted 
here on geographic grounds. In the poor series at hand I am 
unable to assign definite characters differentiating this alleged race 
from typical cunicularia, except that it appears faintly grayer. 

GEOSITTA RUFIPENNIS (Burmeister) 

OeoMmon rufipennis Burmeister, Jonrn. fiir. Ornith., 1860, p. 249. 
("Parana." Dabheno** has substituted Cordillera de Mendoza.) 

A female of this species, shot at an elevation of about 1,500 meters 
above Potrerillos, Mendoza, on March 18, 1921, has been difficult to 
place subspecifically in the light of available material. Burmeister 
in his original description assigned Parana as the locality for his 
specimens, although, as Doctor Dabbene has shown, the bird is not 
known to visit the central pampas. For this reason Dabbene sub- 
stitutes the Cordillera of Mendoza as the type-locality. Further- 
ftiore, Dabbene distinguishes a form from Tucuman with cream- 
colored underparts as G. r. hurmeisteri. The bird described by 
Burmeister was said to be " rothlichgrau " on the undersurf ace. 
Dabbene states that the Museo Nacional in Buenos Aires has a 
specimen collected in Mendoza during the time of Burmeister, and 
on this apparently bases his assignment of the type-locality. Mene- 
gaux and Hellmayr^^ write that Burmeister's types preserved at 
Halle are " blanc grisatre." Dabbene considers these as representa- 
tive of his G. r. hurmeisteri. A series of skins is needed to straighten 
out the forms involved successfully. My specimen from Potrerillos 
has a very slight wash of vinaceous buff on the otherwise grayish- 
white breast and abdomen and is distinctly paler than birds from 
Chubut. At the same time it is not cream colored below. It is 
possible that it is near the northern form. 

At Potrerillos this bird was seen occasionally among low brush 
on rocky slopes, from wliicli it flew out when alarmed with an 
undulating flight to seek other cover. The reddish brown of wings 



'8 An. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires, vol. 30, July 11, 1919, p. 133. 
"M^m. See. Hist. Nat. Aiitun, vol. 19, 1906, p. 46. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 245 

and tail were prominent in flight. The bird taken was in active 
pui-suit of some insect over the rocks. The specimen is in partial 
molt on the head. 

FURNARIUS RUFUS RUFUS (Gmelin) 

Merops rufus Gmelin, Syst. Nat., vol. 1, pt. 1, 1788, p. 465. (Buenos 
Aires. ) 

The typical form of the ovenbird, characterized by large size 
(wing 96.3-104 mm. in a series of 16 specimens), and by general 
grayish tone in color, ranges from the Province of Buenos Aires 
north into Uruguay and in Argentina as far as the Chaco. It was 
recorded and collected as the following points : 

Berazategui, Buenos Aires, June 29, 1920 (adult female taken) ; 
Santa Fe, Santa Fe, July 4; Dolores, Buenos Aires, October 21; 
Lavalle, Buenos Aires, October 23 to November 15 (two adult 
males, shot October 30) ; Lavalle to Santo Domingo, Buenos Aires, 
November 16; Montevideo, Uruguay, January 9 to 16, 1921 (in 
parks and outskirts of the city) ; La Paloma, Uruguay, January 23 ; 
San Vicente, Uruguay, January 25 to 31 (two immature males, shot 
January 26, and one adult male, January 29) ; Lazcano, Uruguay, 
February 3 to 9 (immature female, taken February 6) ; Eio Negro, 
Uruguay, February 14 to 19 (immature male, shot February 15) ; 
and Guamini, Buenos Aires, March 6 and 7 (a male taken March 6). 

Specimens from Uruguay are very slightly darker than those 
from Buenos Aires, but are the same size as birds from near the 
type-locality. During summer the plumage of this bird through 
wear, becomes considerably lighter, especially on the underparts, 
than when it is in fresh winter feather. 

Through the pampas of Buenos Aires the ovenbird is restricted 
to the neighborhood of scattered groves of trees, and as these are 
usually located about houses the bird is one of the most domestic 
and beloved of Argentine birds. It is recorded south to Bahia 
Blanca, but in western Buenos Aires it is rare so that I was inter- 
ested in obtaining it at Guamini. Though groves of tala, coro- 
nillo, and other trees Avere common near the Rio de la Plata in 
the early settlement of the Province of Buenos Aires, tremendous 
expanses of open plain were wholly without cover for birds that 
sought the shelter of trees. With the settlement of the country, 
eucalyptus were introduced and, with native species of trees, were 
planted in groves about the estancia houses, so that now one is 
seldom out of sight of them in crossing the pampa. As this has 
increased the shelter available, the effect must have been to increase 
the numbers of certain birds, among them the present species. It 
was interesting to note their occurrence in scattered tree clumps 



246 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

planted about wells and water holes miles from larger groves. In 
eastern Uruguay, where groves of palms cover kilometers of low- 
land, ovenbirds fairly swarm. There, .though they came familiarly 
about houses, they are less domestic, as there is abundance of range 
for them, so that instead of being concentrated near houses they 
range through the countryside. At San Vicente any alarm was 
sufficient to bring ten or a dozen to shriek their disapproval of my 
intrusion. 

The loud calls of the ovenbird never fail to announce its presence. 
One, presumably the male, with bill thrown up and wings drooped, 
gives vent to a series of shrieking, laughing calls, with distended, 
vibrating throat, and quivering wing tips. At about the middle of 
this strange song its mate chimes in with shrill calls of a different 
pitch, and the two continue in duet to terminate together. The loud 
notes may be audible at half a mile. 

Ovenbirds remain paired throughout the year and mated birds 
may usually be found near one another. Though they s?ek shelter 
in trees they feed on the ground, frequently far distant from cover, 
where, with their plump bodies and short tails, they suggest a thrush 
in form. Search for a livelihood is a serious affair that absorbs 
every attention, so that they have a preoccupied air. as they walk 
about in the herbage with nervous hesitant strides and slightly 
nodding heads. The calls of a neighbor or a mate are certain to 
bring response even from a distance. 

The strange, domed, mud nest of this bird is certain to attract at- 
tention from the least observant, as it is built in the most conspicuous 
situations without the slightest attempt at concealment. Hundreds 
ntay be seen without effort during travel in the pampas. The usual 
structure averaged 300 mm. long by 200 mm. wide, though the di- 
mensions varied according to circumstances, some being nearly 
globular and others more elongate. A dome-shaped roof with walls 
25 to 35 mm. thick was elevated on a level mud platform until it was 
entirely arched over with an irregular hole in one side. An inner 
wall of curving outline was then constructed leading to the back of 
the inclosure at one side. This cut off the nest cavity from the en- 
trance hall, and entry to the nest was througli a small opening, with 
a raised threshold, below the roof. When the margins of the open- 
ing were rounded off the structure was complete. As the mud used 
for building material was mixed with vegetable fibers, grass, or hair, 
the whole made a structure of great firmness. When mud was 
scarce the birds sometimes utilized fresh cow dung as building ma- 
terial, making a structure that when dry, was as strong as a model 
of papiermache. To examine the interior in any nest it was neces- 
sary to cut a hole in it with a heavy knife, as the hand could not be 
introduced into the nest cavity through the entrance. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 133 PL. 14 




Domed Nest of Hornero, or Ovenbird 'Furnarius r. rufus), Built 
OF Mud. The Gate on Which This Was Placed Was in Daily Use 

Ebtancia Los Yngleses, Lavalle, Buenos Aires, November 11, lUL'O 




Nest of;hornero, or Ovenbird (Furnarius r. rufus). on Summit of 
Telegraph Pole 

Near Lazcano, Uruguay, February 9, 1921 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 133 PL. 15 




Two Nests'of the Hornero, or Ovenbird (Furnarius r. rufus), on 
Face of Clay Bank. Note That One Is Entered from the Right 
and the Other from the Left 

La Paloma, Uruguay, January 23, 1921 




Hornero, or Ovenbird (Furnarius r. rufus), and Nest 
ON Side of Palm 

San Vicente, Uruguay, January 27, 1921 



BIRDS OF AEGENTINA, PAEAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 247 

Though normally nests were placed on more or less horizontal 
limbs of trees, the birds were so abundant that almost any available 
site was utilized. Cross arms on telegraph poles were favored 
situations, while many of the mud structures were placed on the 
summits of poles. Through eastern Buenos Aires I recorded dozens 
of nests set as capstones on the tops of fence posts; any irregularity- 
on the top of the post was filled in with mud and the nest, placed on 
the platform thus made, formed an ornamental ball that capped 
the pillar. Man}' nests were perched on the roofs of houses or on 
cornices. On one occasion I noted on a house with a gable roof two 
ovenbirds' nests placed one at either end at the very summit of the 
gables, where they resembled ornaments as symmetrically placed as 
though by the hands of the human occupants of the dwellings. On 
the coast of southern Uruguay, near La Paloma, ovenbirds som.e- 
times placed their homes on projecting points on the abrupt faces 
of clay banks that bounded deep cut arroyos, where the rounded nests, 
perched like the structures of ancient cliff dwellers, were practically 
inaccessible. As they were built of the same clay as the banks on 
which they rested, they were almost indistinguishable save when 
shadows threw the openings into relief. Farther to the eastward, 
in Uruguay, it was usual to see nests stuck on the sides of palm 
trunks, where some slight roughness or projection offered support. 

As the nests were plainly visible the birds made no point of 
stealth in visiting them; frequently if one stopped to look up at a 
nest the owner came down to rest upon the top of it. 

Ernest Gibson many years ago commented upon the fact that in 
eastern Buenos Aires the nest of the harnero^ as the ovenbird is 
known, liad the opening invariably at the left side. I was interested 
in observing ' that birds in tliat region adhere to the same custom 
to-day, as in considerably more than 200 nests that I saw in the 
region of Dolores, Lavalle, and Santo Domingo all had the entrance 
at the left. In Uruguay and elsewhere right or left hand openings 
were made without evident choice. On one occasion in passing from 
Rocha to La Paloma I had opportunity to see about 100 of these 
ovens and found that they were more or less evenly divided as to 
position of the entrance. 

As the nests are durable they last for more than one year, so 
that old ones are available for use of other birds. The band- 
breasted martin, Phaeoprogne tapera, appeared to choose these for 
nesting sites, and at times may have attempted to oust ovenbirds 
from domiciles still in use, as I recorded squabbles between the two 
species over the possession of ovens. (Pis. 14 and 15.) 

The eggs of the hornero are white, without gloss, and with the 
shell somewhat roughened. In many cases the eggs are covered 
with mud. At Lavalle, Buenos Aires, on October 30, 1920, in one 



248 BULIjETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

nest I found five eggs, all pierced by the bill of some bird. On No- 
vember 16 I collected a set of four fresh eggs, with one of Molothrus 
honariensis five leagues east of Santo Domingo, Buenos Aires, from 
a nest placed on top of a fence post. The side of one of the eggs 
had been broken when the nest was opened. Three of the eggs 
in this set are normal, while one is considerably dwarfed. They 
measure, in millimeters, as follows: 30.9 by 21.6; 30.7 by 21.7: 29.8 
by 21.2; and 21.4 by 17.6. 

FURNARIUS RUFUS PARAGUAYAE Cherrie and Reichenberger 

Furnarius rufus paraguayae Chebkie and Reichenbekgee, Amer. Mus. 
Nov., no. 27, Dec. 28, 1921, p. 5. (Puerto Pinaf^co, Paraguay.) 

The Paraguayan ovenbird was recorded at the following localities : 
Resistencia, Chaco, July 5 to 10 (adult female, taken July 8) ; Las 
Palmas, Chaco, July 13 to 31 (adult male and female, shot July 
31) ; Formosa, Formosa, August 5, 23, and 24; Eiacho Pilaga, 
Formosa, August 7 to 21 (adult female, August 7, adult male, 
August 11) ; Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, September 1, 3, and 30; 
Kilometer 80, west of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, September 6 to 21 
(adult female, on September 17). 

This recently described form is smaller and darker colored than 
F. r. y'w/ws, and, though similar in measurements to F.r.conunersonij 
is much duller (less rufescent), especially on the back. In F. r. rufus 
(15 specimens) from the Province of Buenos Aires, Uruguay, and 
extreme southern Rio Grande do Sul (one specimen from Quinta, 
between Rio Grande do Sul and Pelotas) the wing measures from 
97-104 mm. Seven skins of F. r. paraguayae from Chaco, Formosa 
and Paraguay (Sapucay and 80 kilometers west of Puerto Pinasco) 
range from 90-95.2 mm., while four F. r. comTnersoni from Urucum, 
Matto Grosso (loaned for examination by the American Museum of 
Natural History) measure from 90.4r-94.4 mm. Specimens from 
Resistencia and Las Palmas are only slightly darker than birds 
from Buenos Aires, but are so small (wing, 92.4, 94.3, and 95 mm.) 
that they are best placed with paraguayae. Skins from the interior 
of Formosa are darker even than one from near Puerto Pinasco, the 
type locality. It would appear that F. r. j)(iraguayae ranges in the 
Argentine and Paraguayan Chaco, and in an indeterminate area 
east of the Rio Paraguay in Paraguay, while F. r. rufus extends 
from Bahia Blanca and Guamini northward into central Uruguay 
(Rio Negro), and probably into southern Santa Fe. 

Allocation of records for ovenbirds that I made at Tapia, Tucu- 
man, from April 7 to 14, 1921, is uncertain, since Cherrie and Reich- 
enberger consider birds from Perico, Jujuy, and Embarcacion, 
Salta, intermediate but nearer F. r. covimersoni. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 249 

In the Chaco the ovenbird, while it came regularly about the older 
e«tancia houses and the small towns, was more of a bird of the 
country than in the pampas. The birds ranged through tracts of 
open groves near savannas, and did not penetrate far into the 
denser forests. Open borders of lagoons were favorite feeding 
places, and in such places horneros sometimes congregated until sev- 
eral were feeding in a relatively small area. When thus engaged 
they often suggested sandpipers, particularly when seen at a dis- 
tance. In walking they frequently take several long steps, pause 
with one foot raised for an instant, and then continue. Their gait 
is easy and, when desired, as rapid as that of a blackbird. On 
September 3, at I'uerto Pinasco, one Avas observed carrying food to 
young in the nest. 

The Toba Indians called this species kwo ti ih. 

UPUCERTHIA DUMETARIA Is. Geoff. Saint-HUaire 

Upucerthia Dumctaria Is. Gbx)ff. Saint-Hilaibe, Nouv. Ann. Mas. Hist. 
Nat. (Paris), vol. 1, 1832, p. 394. (Patagonia.) 

A male shot at General Roca, Rio Negro, November 23, 192l\ 
and another taken April 28, 1921, at Concon, Chile, are difficult 
to place subspecifically with the comparative material at present 
available. The bird from Roca, in worn breeding plumage, is 
slightly more rufescent than specimens that may represent true 
dumetaria from farther south in Rio Negro. It thus shows ap- 
proach to Vfucerthia duTiietaria darwini Scott,"'' according to the 
original description. The specimen has the following measure- 
ments: Wing, 105.2; tail. 76.2; culmen from base, 34; tarsus, 
25.2 mm. 

The bird from Concon, Chile, is much darker in color throughout 
and belongs to another form. It would appear that this is Upu- 
certhia dumelaria saturatior Scott,^^ the type of which may have 
come from the vicinity of Valparaiso. Upucerthia tamucoensh 
Chubb ^- is doubtfully distinct from saturatior. The specimen from 
Concon measures: Wing, 96.8; tail, 70.6; culmen from base, 31.5; 
tarsus, 24 mm. It seems to possess the smaller measurements at- 
tributed by Chubb to faTnucoensis. 

Near General Roca this species was found among the heaviest 
growths of A triplex and other shrubs in the lowland flood plain of 
the Rio Negro, where it was recorded on November 23, 24, and 27. 

^ Upucerthia dartoini Scott, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 10, Apr. 30, 1900, p. Ixlii. 
(Mendoza.) 

^ Uptwerthia saturatior Scott, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 10, Apr. 30, 1900, p. Ixiil. 
(Central Chile, "ex Berkeley James Coll.") 

^ (Upucerthia tamucoensis Chubb, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 27, July 13, 1911, p. 101, 
("Tamueo" southern Chile.") 



250 BULLETIN ia3, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

The birds were shy and difficult of approach. Attention was at- 
tracted to them by their song, a rapid chijrpy cliif'py chippy chipy 
given as they sat on the top of a bush or post, with tail slightly 
raised. At the slightest alarm thej'^ made long flights low among 
the bushes, where it was difficult to follow their course. Xear Zapala, 
Neuquen, a second specimen (preserved in alcohol) was shot on 
December 8, 1920. The bird was encountered there in heavy tracts 
of thorny brush in an arroyo leading toward the lowlands. At Con- 
con, Chile, tAvo Avere seen on April 28 in open brush on a sloping 
hillside. 

The curved bill of this species gives it a thrasherlike appearance, a 
suggestion heightened by its habits and choice of haunts. 

The male shot April 28 had the bill, in general, dull black, shad- 
ing at base of cutting edge of maxilla and at base of gonys to hair 
brown; gape Isabella color; iris bone brown; tarsus and toes clove 
brown. 

UPUCERXmA VALIDIROSTRIS (Burmeister) 

Ochetorhynchus validirostru Bubmeistbe, Keise La Plata-Staaten, vol. 2, 
1861, p. 464. (Sierra de Mendoza.) 

The present species was observed occasionally near Potrerillos, 
Mendoza, from March 15 to 21, 1921, and an immature female was 
secured March 15 at an altitude of 1,500 meters. The birds were 
found singly among bushes scattered over sloping hillsides, or on the 
gravel flood plains of small streams, where they Avalked about on 
the ground. They were secretive and Avere difficult to detect until 
they rose and flew Avith a strong undulating flight aboA^e the bushes. 
Occasionally one uttered a Ioav chtirlt, but as a rule they were silent. 

The specimen taken is fully grown, though immature. The throat 
is somewhat whiter than the breast, but the tail is distinctly ru- 
fescent, so that the specimen does not seem to agree with Scott's 
Upucerthia fitzgeraldi^^ which is supposedly a subspecies of validi- 
rostris. The feathers of breast and throat have very faintly marked 
darker tips, an indication of the more prominent breast markings in 
U. dumetaria. The specimen measures as follows : Wing, 80.5 ; tail, 
75.5; culmen from base, 33.7; tarsus, 26.7 mm. 

The bill in this bird in life was black, shading to storm gray at 
base of mandible ; iris deep quaker blue ; tarsus and toes dull black. 

UPUCERTHIA CERTHIOmES (d'Orbigrny and Lafresnaye) 

Ana'bates certhioides d'OfiBiGNY and Lafresnaye, Mag. Zool., 1838, cl. 2, 
p. 15. (Corrientes.) 

The present species was recorded at Las Palmas, Chaco, from 
July 14 to 31, 1920 (an immature male, taken July 14, and an adult 

=3 Upucerthia fltsgeraldi Scott, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 10, Apr. 30, 1900, p. Ixili. 
(Pucnte del Inca, Mendoza.) 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 251 

female, July 26) ; Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, August 11 and 18 (two 
males, taken on the latter date) ; and Tapia, Tucuman, April 7 to 
13 (an immature female, shot April 7). There is no appreciable 
difference in appearance in specimens from the three localities rep- 
resented by the five birds preserved as skins. The association of this 
and allied straight-billed forms in the genus Ufucerthia with spe- 
cies of the U. dumetaria type is questionable. 

These birds of wrenlike appearance and action inhabited heavy 
brush where they worked about on or near the ground, in such dense 
cover that it was difficult to observe them. At any alarm they gave 
vent to loud whistled calls, suggestive of those of a canyon wren, 
and at times were called out by squeaking noises. Their notes are 
loud and might easily be attributed to a bird of greater bulk. 

In an immature male the maxilla and tip of the mandible were 
dull black; base of mandible pallid brownish drab; tarsus and toes 
fuscous. 

UPUCERTHIA LUSCINIA (Barmeister) 

Ochetorhynchus Luscinia Burmeister, Journ. fiir Ornith., 1860, p. 249. 
( Mendoza. ) '* 

The present species was encountered only on a dry flat above the 
city of Mendoza, Province of Mendoza, western Argentina, on March 
13, 1921, when a female was taken. The few noted Avere found in 
low brush along a dry wash. 

This bird has been treated as a geographic race of U. cei^thioideSy 
a usage not borne out in my opinion by examination of specimens, 
since luscima^ in addition to larger size, much more robust form, and 
more grayish coloration, has a decidedly longer tail and broader rec- 
trices. The difference between the two is so extensive that any in' 
tergradation, indicating subspecific relationship, must be considered 
extremely doubtful unless it may be definitely proved by specimens. 

CINCLODES FUSCUS FUSCUS (Vieillot) 

Anthu8 fuscus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Xat., vol. 26, 1818, p. 490. 
(Montevideo and Buenos Aires.) 

At Berazategui, in the Province of Buenos Aires, several were 
seen and a male was taken on June 29, 1920, on low ground near the 
Rio de la Plata. An immature male Avas shot at El Salto, at an ele- 
vation of 1,600 meters above Potrerillos, Mendoza, on March 19, 1921. 
This second specimen has several white feathers in the crov.n, an 
albinistic tendency. It is darker brown than the one shot near 
Buenos Aires. 

These birds walk on the ground with constantly wagging tails, and 
when flushed may fly, with a flash of the light band in the wings, to a 

** According to Ilartert (Nov. Zool.. vol. 16, December, 1909, p. 208). 



252 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

perch on a post or dead branch. The species is reported as common 
on low, wet ground in the pampas in winter. 

CINCLODES OUSTALETI OUSTALETI Scott 

Cmclodes oustaleti Scott, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 10, Apr. 30, 1900, 
p. Ixii. (Central Chile.) 

After the middle of March the present species was fairly common 
in the foothills of the Andes, in the Province of Mendoza, though it 
has not been recorded previously in any numbers in this region. 
The first one seen was found along an irrigation ditch in the out- 
skirts of Mendoza, on March 13, 1921. At Portrerillos a male was 
shot and another seen on March 18, at an elevation of 1,500 meters 
along the Rio Blanco, while on the following day at El Salto, 300 
meters higher, the birds were fairly common, and a male and a 
female were taken. They were found feeding near the swift- 
running streams, where they clambered agilely over the steep rock 
surfaces, or along quieter channels and irrigation ditches. At a 
small estancia several walked about on the beams supporting the 
roof of a shed. When flushed they frequently flew up along dry 
hillsides to rest for a few minutes on huge bowlders. Near Tunuyan, 
Mendoza, three or four were noted on March 25, and an immature 
male was taken along the muddy border of a small lagoon. Others 
were seen here on March 26 and 28. 

In life the present species, with its dark brown coloration, light 
superciliary stripe, and habit of constantly wagging the tail, is 
strikingly similar to the water thrushes of North America, a resem- 
blance heightened by the haunts frequented by the Cinclodes, and 
its sharp emphatic call note. The birds are continually in move- 
ment, as the tail Avags constantly even when the body is quiet. The 
flight is strongly undulating. 

A male, taken at Portrerillos March 19, is in partial molt from 
Juvenal to first fall phmiage. Others are in full fall plumage. One 
individual has a few spots of white on the tips of the secondaries, 
indicative of albinism. The rump feathers in this specimen are mar- 
gined with whitish, a marking absent in others. Measurements of the 
four birds secured are as follows: Males (three specimens), wing, 
89.5, 91.1, and 93.4 mm.; tail, 64.5, 66, and 66 mm.; culmen from 
base, 18.1, 18.2, and 18.2 mm.; tarsus, 23.2, 24.2, and 25.1 mm.; fe- 
male (one specimen), wing, 92 mm. ; tail, 68 mm. ; culmen from base, 
17.2 mm. ; tarsus, 25 mm. 

ENICORNIS PHOENICURUS (Gould) 

Eremotitis pTioenicurus Gould, Zool. Voy. Beagle, Part 3, Birds, NoTember, 
1839, p. 69, pi. 21. (Santa Cruz, Patagonia.) 

Near Zapala, Neuquen, an adult female of the present species 
(with another specimen that was preserved in alcohol) was taken 



BIEDS OF AEGENTTNA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 253 

December 7, 1920. Others were noted December 8 and 9. If the 
genus Eremohius^ of Gould (1839) be considered preoccupied by 
Eremohia Stephens,^^ applied to a group of insects, then the bird 
under discussion here must bear the name Enicomis Gray.^'' 

Heiiicornis wallisi Scott ^^ in all probability is a synonym of ipliocn- 
icurus since the type locality, Arroyo Eke, is in central Santa Cruz, 
not far distant from the coast. Salvador! ^^ states that, according to 
Hellmayr, Scott's form is of doubtful validity, as three specimens in 
the Tring Museum differ from phoenicurus only in having the mid- 
dle rectrices " wholly brown or with but a small ferruginous patch at 
the base of the inner web." The types of E. phoenicurus in the 
British Museum are said to have the whole basal portion of the 
middle rectrices, on both webs, ferruginous. The skin from Zapala 
has the bases of the central tail feathers mottled faintly with fer- 
ruginous. Until more material is available this faint distinction is 
considered merely individual variation. 

The type of Enicomis striata Allen (Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
vol. 2, Mar. 22, 1889, p. 89), which I have seen in the American 
Museum of Natural History, described from a specimen brought 
back by Doctor Rusby, of unknown locality, ascribed questionably to 
Valparaiso, on examination proves to be U pucerthia ruficauda. 

Near Zapala these birds were found amid patches of low thorny 
brush that grew on the slopes of rolling hills, where the soil was 
composed of sand and stones. Here they worked secretively under 
cover or ran along on the ground with the tail cocked at an angle 
over the back. Occasionally one flew with tilting flight to a secure 
retreat passing only a meter above the ground. In general ap- 
pearance they suggested long-tailed wrens but were more terrestrial. 
Their call was a low clicking note. (PL 17.) 

LOCHMIAS NEMATURA NEMATURA (Lichtenstein) 

Myiothera ncmatura Lichtenstein, Yerz. Doubl. Zool. Mus., 1823, p. 43. 
(Sao Paulo, Brazil.) 

Near San Vicente, Uruguay, on January 29, 1921, as I came down 
to a small stream in a rocky, heavily wooded gulch a small bird came 
out curiously to meet me, and then retreated to the somber shadows 
behind. With its sooty brown coloration it was difficult to dis- 
tinguish in the cover, now dank and dripping from heavy rains, 
that it frequented, so that several times it had moved along while I 
was still trying to make out its dull-colored form on the perch 
recently occupied. Wrenlike in form and wrenlike in actions it 

« 111. Brit. Ent., Haust., vol. 3, 1829, p. 94. 

^List Gen. Birds, 1840, p. 17. 

==^Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 10, Apr. 30, 1900, p. 63. 

^Ibis, 1908, p. 453. 

54207—26 17 



254 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

hopped silently among limbs and roots, its very quietness lending a 
sense of mystery heightened by the dark shadows of its haunts. 

This individual, a female, is distinctly duller in color on the dorsal 
surface than two specimens in the United States National Museum 
marked Brazil without definite locality. It i^robably represents a 
southern form, at present not recognized. Measurements of this 
specimen are as follows: Wing, 63.7; tail, 45.5; exposed culmen, 17.4; 
tarsus, 23.1 mm. 

PHLEOCRYPTES MELANOPS MELANOPS (Vieillot) 

Sylvia melanops Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 11, 1817, p. 232. 
(Paraguay.) 

The present species, an inhabitant of fresh-water marshes, was 
recorded as follows : Lavalle, Buenos Aires, October 28 to November 
9, 1920 (three adult males, taken October 28, November 2 and 9, and 
an adult female, October 29) ; Carhue, Buenos Aires, December 15 
to 18 (adult male, shot December 15, two adult females, on December 
16 and 18) ; Lazcano, Uruguay, February 7 and 8, 1921 (immature 
female, taken February 7) ; Tunuyan, Mendoza, March 25 to 28 (two 
females, secured March 26). The series of nine specimens taken, 
compared with others from Chile and Patagonia, offers no con- 
stant differences and, save for seasonal variation, is quite uniform 
in color. Birds in fresh fall plumage are considerably browner than 
others. As the breeding season comes on they become paler through 
wear, so that birds secured in December are frequently almost white 
on the breast. There is considerable variation in length of bill. 
Phleocryptes Tnelano'ps schoenohaenus Cabanis and Heine-'' is darker 
above and below and larger than true melanops. The generic name 
has been usually emended to Phloeocryptes but was written Phleo- 
cryptes originally. 

The North American, viewing Neotropical birds for the first 
time, finds among them many striking similarities to birds from 
his own land, among which the tracheophone Phleocryptes is as 
striking as any, since in general appearance, notes, and haunt this 
frequenter of cat-tail and rush-grown marshes is similar to the 
oscinine long-billed marsh wren, a bird of an entirely different 
group. As one approaches the rushes of some canadon in the east- 
ern pampas, a small wrenlike bird may come near to hop about 
excitedly among the rushes to the accompaniment of clicking notes 
like those made by striking two pebbles together, and in a short 
time half a dozen of these Phleocryptes may be gathered about. 
Their alarm is soon over and it is not unusual to have them come 
almost within reach to look about confidingly. Where the aquatic 

^Phleocryptes schoenohaenus Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., pt. 2, 1859, p. 20. 
(Lake Titicaca, Peru.) 



BIRDS OF ARGENTTISrA, PARA.GXTAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 255 

vegetation is composed of large-leaved floating forms the birds 
hop about on the stems and leaves, frequently with feet and tarsi 
immersed in the cold water, while they seize eagerly any insects 
or other life that appear on the plants or in the water. At other 
times they cling to the stalks of vertical reeds and reach out as far 
as possible to dig with their bills among the small flouting plants, 
resembling duckweed, that cover the surface. 

Their nests are curious globular structures 6 inches in diameter, 
suspended among dead rushes from about one-half to a little over 
a meter above the water. Phleocryptes frequently was seen trans- 
porting tremendous loads of wet stalks and leaves from dead 
marsh growth that were molded rapidly into their round nests. 
As it dried, this material was cemented firmly together by the 
hardening of the slime engendered by the dampness in which it 
had previously laid so that the walls of the nest were firm and 
strong. A small opening led into the interior near the top, and 
the structure was warmly lined with soft feathers, gathered where 
they had been dropped by other avian denizens of the marsh, 
and plant downs from the cat-tails and other marsh vegetation. 
Though the nest of Phleocryptes was like that of a marsh wren, 
there the similarity ceased, as the eggs were clear blue like those 
of a robin. Three eggs appeared to be the usual number, though 
I noted nests that contained only two young. Breeding begins 
early as hard set eggs were taken on November 2, and two nests 
containing young a week old were recorded at the same time. 
Others were nest building on this same date. The three eggs taken 
have a distinctly granular surface, and in color are slightly duller 
than lumiere blue. They measure as follows, in millimeters : 22.1 
by 15.7, 22.4 by 15.3, and 22.6 by 15.5. 

The young had prominent orange margins on the opened bill 
that showed plainly in the darkened interior of the nest. Their 
ordure was inclosed in a capsule as in oscinine Passeriformes. 
Phleocryptes is one of the few tracheophone species that decoys 
easily to the loud squeaking attractive to most of the Oscines, and 
came almost invariably to search for the source of the curious 
noise. From their general appearance one might consider them as 
sedentary, but Hudson records that they are migrant near Buenos 
Aires. 

LEPTASTHENURA FULIGINICEPS PARANENSIS Sdater 

Leptasthenui-a paranensis P. L. Sclatkr, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1861, 
p. 377. (Argentina.) 

The present bird was encountered only near Potrerillos, Mendoza, 
where it was found from 1,500 meters altitude to about 1,600 meters 
in the vicinity of the Estancia El Salto. The four specimens 
secured, including one male and three females, all immature (in fact, 



256 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

barely grown), were taken March 15, 19, and 21. In the identifica- 
tion of these I have not had true fuliginiceps for comparison. Ac- 
cording to Hellmayr^" the typical form differs from paranensis in 
larger size (wing, 64 to 65 mm.) and in brighter brown on the dorsal 
and ventral surfaces. The single male of paranensis secured has a 
wing measurement of 56.8 mm. The three females measure, respec- 
tively, 56, 56.5, and 57 mm. 

These birds were observed in little family parties that ranged 
near the ground in the dense scrub that covered the hill slopes. 

It has been stated that the original specimens of this bird, secured 
by Burmeister, came from Parana, a statement that must be incor- 
rect, since paranensis is known only from the mountains of western 
Argentina. In the United States National Museum are two skins, 
secured from Burmeister, marked " Buenos Aires," while Burmeister 
himself, in his Reise durch die La Plata-Staaten (1861, p. 469), 
remarks under fuUginiceps, the name that he gave to this bird, "Bei 
Parana." It must be supposed, however, that he took his specimens 
during his travels in west Argentina. 

LEPTASTHENURA PLATENSIS Reichenbach 

Leptasthenura platensis Reichenbach, Handb. Spec. Ornith., 1851, p. 160. 
(Rio de la Plata.) 

This bird was encountered only at Victorica, Pampa, from Decem- 
ber 24 to 29, 1920, and Rio Negro, Uruguay, on February 18, 1921. 
An immature male, taken at Victorica on December 29, and two 
females of the same age on December 24 and 28, were preserved as 
skins. A third immature female was secured at Rio Negro on the 
date mentioned. L. platensis seems to constitute a distinct species, 
as it differs constantly from L. aegithalo'ides, its nearest relative, in 
the rufous instead of grayish tips on the outer rectrices and in the 
more pointed crest. Immature examples of platensis are darker 
above than adults and have shorter, more bushy crests ; though they 
resemble L. a. pallida in color of the dorsal surface they may 
be distinguished by the strongly rufescent tips on the outer tail 
feathers. 

Leptasthenura platensis was noted in small flocks — family parties 
of old and young — in trees of the densest foliage, such as the coro- 
nillo and sombre todo {lodina rhoTnbifolia) ^ where they clambered 
like titmice in a leisurely manner through the dense growths of 
limbs. Their notes, a faint tsee-ee-ee, were weak, and it was diffi- 
cult to follow them to their source, so that with their retiring habit 
this species must often escape detection. When individuals were 
located it was often a matter of several minutes before they could be 
seen clearly. 

*» Nov. Zool.. vol. 28, September, 1921, p. 260 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 257 
LEPTASTHENURA AEGITHALOiDES AEGITHALOIDES (Kittlitz) 

Synnalaxis Aegithalo'ides Kittlitz, Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Petersbourg, 
Div. Sav., vol. 1, 1831, p. 187. (Valparaiso.) 

Near Concon, in the Intendencia of Valparaiso, Chile, where this 
bird was fairly common from April 24 to 28, 1921, a male was se- 
cured on April 24 and three females on April 24, 26, and 27. As 
Kittlitz remarks that he secured his specimens " auf dem Hohen um 
Valparaiso," these may be considered as topotypical specimens. The 
present species is distinguished from L. platensis by somewhat more 
bushy crest, darker coloration, and grayish white on the inner webs 
of the rectrices. The genus Leptasthenura^ of which aegithalo'ides of 
Kittlitz is the type, is distinguished among the Synallaxis group by 
the possession of a long, slender gi'aduated tail of 12 rectrices and a 
more or less developed crest. The head feathers in certain other 
species are often full and long, but are kept closely appressed to the 
head. In Leptasthenura the development of the crest is observed at 
once when birds are handled in the flesh, though in the dried skin 
it is sometimes difficult to distinguish. 

Near Concon, L. aegithaJoldes was encountered, often in company 
with other small brush-inhabiting birds, in open thickets of low 
growth that covered the slopes of rolling hills, or in growths of 
weeds and thorny shrubs near water. The birds clambered about 
among the limbs, occasionally uttering low complaining notes, in 
actions resembling titmice. They were gregarious and were not 
seen alone. The long, slender tail was a prominent character that 
served to identify them as they passed with tilting flight across 
small openings between clumps of trees. 

A female, taken April 24, had the maxilla and tip of the man- 
dible dull black; base of mandible dusky green gray; iris natal 
brown ; tarsus and toes dull black. 

LEPTASTHENURA AEGITALOIDES PALLIDA Dabbene 

Leptasthenura aegithalo'ides pallida Dabbene, El Hornero, vol. 2. no. 2, 
January, 1921, p. 135. (Puesto Burro, Maiten. Chubut. alt. 700 
meters. ) 

The present form is similar to L. a. aegithalo'ides of Chile, but 
is easily distinguished by its general paler coloration. On Decem- 
ber 3, 1920, near General Roca, Rio Negro, I found two of these 
birds resting in the sun in the tops of thick bushes in a region where 
the atriplex and other growth typical of alkaline flats was tall and 
dense. The birds rested quietly with long tails hanging straight 
down, at intervals uttering a low buzzing trill very similar to the 
songs of some Synallaxis. I was surprised to find that the bird 
taken, secured during the act of singing, was a female. When fresh 



258 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

the extreme base of the mandible in this specimen was olive buff; 
rest of bill dull black; iris natal brown; tarsus and toes black. 

What I presume was this same form was recorded among low 
bushes covering the dry hills above the city of Mendoza, on March 
13, 1921. 

SCHOENIOPHYLAX PHRYGANOPHILA (Vieillot) 

Sylvia phryganophila Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 11, 1817, p. 207. 
(Paraguay.) 

The present species was recorded only in the Chaco, where it was 
noted near Las Palmas, Chaco, from July 16 to 31 (adult males 
taken on July 16 and 23), at the Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, from 
August 8 to 21 (an immature female, shot August 10), at Formosa, 
Formosa, August 23 (an adult female secured) and 24, at Puerto 
Pinasco, Paraguay, September 3, and at Kilometer 80, west of 
Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, from September 8 to 20 (an adult male, 
shot September 15). The specimen from west of Puerto Pinasco 
is somewhat more heavily streaked above than others. 

This species frequented saw-grass swamps, particularly w^here the 
clumps of grass were interspersed with low bushes or where low 
palms were scattered through the marshes, though occasionally 
it was encountered in open savannas. The birds flushed to fly with 
tilting flight and gracefully undulating tail to new cover from which 
it was usually difficult to dislodge them. The manner in which 
they were able to conceal themselves among the limbs of bushes, 
bare of leaves, was little short of miraculous, so that all in all they 
were difficult to secure, though fairly numerous. In heavy winds 
their tails were troublesome as they were blown about, even when at 
rest, unless in the densest of cover, while on the wing the long 
feathers were a serious handicap to flight. 

During September they were quite noisy and evidently were pre- 
paring to breed, as males were seen posing, fi'om perches below 
the females, with shaking wings and raised tail, while they gave 
their chuckling songs. The usual call is a low grating rattle. 

The Toba Indians called them to to likh. 

A male, taken July 16, had the maxilla dull black; mandible and 
sides of maxilla at base plumbeous; tongue whitish, with two indis- 
tinct blackish spots at base on either side; iris dragon's blood red; 
tarsus light cinnamon drab; toes pale mouse gray. 

SYNALLAXIS CINNAMOMEA RUSSEOLA (Vieillot) 

Sylvia russeola Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 11, 1817, p. 217. 
(Paraguay.) 

This yellow-throated, marsh-inhabiting Synallaxis was found at 
Las Palmas, Chaco, on July 22 (adult male secured), 27 (specimen 
preserved in alcohol) and 30; at the Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, August 
9 (adult male taken) to 17; at Formosa, Formosa, on August 23; 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 259 



and near Kilometer 80, west of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, on Sep- 
tember 17 (adult male taken). The three skins preserved are dis- 
tinctly duller, grayer brown above than skins from Diamantina, 
Brazil, supposed to be near typical cinnamoTnea, or than two from 
Fundacion, Colombia, and "Bogota," that have the gray forehead 
distinguishing S. c. fuscifrons Madardsz. A skin from Cachoeira, 
Sao Paulo, is darker above than skins from more northern localities 
but is much more refescent than S. c. russeola. It represents a dis- 
tinct form that apparently should bear the name S. c. ruficauda 
Vieillot.^^ In spite of assertions to the contrary, measurements of 
the four forms here tentatively recognized agree so closely as to 
have no significance in separating the subspecies. Measurements of 
the three males that I secured are given below : 



Locality 



Sex 



Wing 



Tail 



Culmen 
from 
base 



Tarsus 



Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay. 
Riacho Pilaga, Formosa ..- 
Las Palmas, Chaco 



Male ad... 

do.-.. 

do.... 



61.2 
62.0 

62.7 



65.2 
66.4 
64.5 



15.5 
15.1 
15.5 



21.3 
20.0 
21.5 



The birds under discussion were found among rushes that bor- 
dered lagoons, and were doubtless more common than the few rec- 
ords given indicate, since it was difficult to observe them in their 
rather inaccessible haunts. At some slight alarm one might come 
through the reeds with rattling, scolding notes to peer for an instant 
between the stems of the rushes, and then drop down again to be lost 
to sight in the dense growth. Otherwise they passed wholly un- 
noted. Their notes were exactly like those of wrens of the genus 
Tehnatodytes^ so that their white breasts, reddish backs, and large 
size when they appeared always come as a surprise. Occasionally I 
had a glimpse of one feeding on the wet surface of vegetation float- 
ing among the reed stems, but here they kept so low that it was diffi- 
cult to follow them for any distance. 

The Toba Indians were acquainted with them under the name of 
ve on reh. 

An adult male, killed July 22, had the maxilla and tip of the 
mandible black ; base of mandible gray number 8 ; iris Rood's brown ; 
tarsus gray number 6, with a slight greenish tinge in front at the 
lower end. 

SYNALLAXIS SPIXI Sclater 



Synallaxis Spixi Sclatek, Proc. 
(BrazU.) 



Zool. Soc. London, Aug. 13, 1856, p. 98. 



The three more common forms of Synallaxis of central and north- 
ern Argentina and Uruguay, S. spixi, S\ a. frontalu, and 8. a. 
albescens, are often confused, but with a little care may be readily 

^ Synallaxis ruficauda Vleillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat.,, vol. 32, 1819, p. 310. (" Bresil.") 



260 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

distinguished. S. f. frontalis has the tail reddish brown and the 
imderparts distinctly gray. S. spixi, while resembling frontalis in 
color of the undersurface, has the tail plain brown, not decidedly 
rufescent, and, in addition, usually may be told by the lack of gray 
across the forehead, as the rufescent crown cap extends to the base 
of the bill. S. a. albescens, like spixi, has a brown tail, but is dis- 
tinctly whiter below than either frontalis or spixi. 

Doctor Oberholser has separated a form of spixi from ConchitaSy 
Buenos Aires, under the subspecific name of notius, on the basis of 
grayer dorsal coloration than is found in birds from Brazil. Hart- 
ert^^ has considered this a synonym of spixi, but more lately Bra- 
bourne and Chubb ^^ have cited it as a valid form. Examination of 
the type-specimen shows it to be in very worn plumage, while a 
second specimen from Conchitas is in similar condition. After 
careful comparison of these two with six other skins of supposedly 
typical spixi (Sapucay, Paraguay; Quinta, Rio Grande do Sul; 
Santa Catherina, and two without locality) I can distinguish na 
valid difference when due allowance is made for change in color 
due to wear. 

The present bird was found only at Rio Negro, Uruguay, where 
on February 19, 1921, 1 secured a male in immature plumage in low- 
land thickets inhabited by S. a. frontalis. This bird has a mere trace 
of rufous in the crown and less on the wings than in adults. It is 
darker above and somewhat more brownish below than those in full 
plumage. It is distinguished from S. a. frontalis in the same plum- 
age by the absence of rufous in the tail. 

SYNALLAXIS FRONTALIS FRONTALIS Pelzein 

Synallaxis frontalis Pelzeln, Sitz, Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Naturw. Kl.^ 
vol. 34, 1859, p. 117. (City of Goyaz, Engenho do Cap Gama and 
Cuyaba.) 

/Synallaxis a.zarae, while it has a wing measurement about equal to 
frontalis, has a much longer tail ; Zimmer ^* considers frontalis spe- 
cifically distinct from azarae, an opinion in which I concur. Hell- 
mayr^^ considers Synallaxis frontalis of Pelzeln as based on the 
female of Parulus ruftceps of Spix,^*^ and uses Spix's locality, Ria 
Sao Francisco, as that of the type. Pelzeln, however, employs de- 
scriptive terms with his name, although frontalis is given as a manu- 
script name of Natterer, so that although he refers to Spix, the 
name is based on description and must take as type locality the 

«2Nov. Zool., vol. 16, 1909, p. 211. 

« Birds of South America, 1912, p. 229. 

»* Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., vol. 12, May 20, 1925, pp. 105-107. 

«5Nov. Zool., vol. 28, September, 1921, p. 264. 

««Av. Bras., vol. 1, 1824, p. 85, pi. 86, fig. 2. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 261 

regions cited in the original reference. These are the city of Goyaz, 
Engenho do Cap Gama, and Cuyaba. 

The limited series in the United States National Museum does not 
permit the description of new forms among the birds placed under 
this name, although one or more are probably represented. It may 
be noted that specimens that I secured at Rio Negro, Uruguay (in 
worn plumage), are slightly darker above than skins from the Chaco, 
while examples from the Chaco in turn seem slightly darker than 
those from Brazil. 

This form was recorded and secured as follows: Resistencia, 
Chaco, July 9, 1920 (adult male secured) ; Las Palmas, Chaco, July 
19 to 30 (female, July 19, and male, July 30) ; Riacho Pilaga, For- 
mosa, August 7 to 21 (males, August 7 and 9) ; Kilometer 80, west 
of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, September 15 (adult male) ; Rio 
Negro, Uruguay, February 14 to 19 (male and female immature, 
February 14, adult male, February 17, and immature male, February 
18) ; Tapia, Tucuman, April 9 (immature female) and 11 (adult 
male). This form is recorded by Hellma3^r from Buenos Aires west 
to Cordoba, Tucuman, and Salta, and north probably to the plains 
of Bolivia. Tremoleras has noted it from Montevideo and Canelones 
in Uruguay. 

Synallaxis f. frontalis has chosen as its haunt dense growths of 
weeds or thorny plants and heavy thickets, usually in low areas 
shaded by groves. It was especially common in the Chaco and in 
the dense thickets along the Rio Negro, in western Uruguay, and 
elsewhere was found in smaller numbers. The birds were found 
throughout the winter in bands containing from three to eight, ap- 
parently family parties still in company from the previous season, 
that often fed in growths of heavy grass at the borders of thickets. 
When startled they flew a short distance with tilting flight to some 
secure cover and at times paused in the open for a few seconds 
before disappearing among the branches. Frequently they fed 
among the leaves of bushes or dense herbage, usually near the 
ground, where they were constantly in motion. When not hopping 
about restlessly they peer quickly from side to side, at the twigs 
below or the leaves above, flitting the wings and twitching the long 
tail. All of these activities were carried on behind a screen of 
leaves so that only occasionally did a glimpse of them offer through 
some little opening. 

They appear much richer in color in life than in the form of a 
skin, as the dark browns and grays of their plumage enlivened by 
touches of rufous on crown, wings, and tail form a pleasing combi- 
nation. The feathers of the throat in life are puffed out so that their 
slaty black bases form a shield-shaped patch that appears almost 
black. 

54207—26 18 



262 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

They have a variety of sputtering, scolding calls that they utter on 
occasion of alarm or interest, and in the spring and summer sing a 
pleasing little song. A male taken September 15 at Puerto Pinasco. 
Paraguay, was approaching breeding condition, while near Rio 
Negro, Uruguay, fully grown young were common during the middle 
of February. Young in ju venal plumage lack the rufous crown cap 
of adults but gain it at the post-juvenal molt. In first dress they are 
browner both above and below and have the wing coverts less bright 
than after the first molt. In an adult male the maxilla was dull 
black; mandible gray number 6; iris pecan brown; tarsus and toes, 
grayish olive. Another differed in that the maxilla and tip of the 
mandible were blackish slate and the iris cinnamon rufous. 

SYNALLAXIS ALBESCENS ALBESCENS Temminck 

Sijnallaxis albescens Temminck, Nouv. Rec. Planch. Col. Ois., vol. 3, 1838, 
pi. 227, fig. 2. (Province of Sao Paulo, Brazil.'') 

Birds of this species were recorded at the following points: Re- 
sistencia, Chaco, July 10, 1920 (immature female taken) ; Las Pal- 
mas, Chaco, July 16 to 31 (males, July 17 and 31, females on July 
16, 17, and 28) ; Formosa, Formosa, August 24; Puerto Pinasco, 
Paraguay, September 3 (adult male) ; Victorica, Pampa, December 
24 to 29 (males on December 24, 27, and 29, female, December 29). 

The specimens secured are allocated to the typical form without 
direct comparison with skins from southern Brazil. The small 
series from Victorica, Pampa, in somewhat worn breeding plumage 
is slightly grayer than skins secured during winter in the Chaco, 
but seems otherwise similar. The remainder of the skins taken are 
quite uniform. Specimens in fresh winter plumage have the rufous 
color of the crown slightly obscured by brownish tips. 

During the winter months, in the Chaco, this spine tail was 
abundant in saw grass and bunch grass at the borders of thickets, 
or in little openings among scattered trees and bushes on the savan- 
nas. On sharp frosty mornings comparatively few were encountered 
until about 11, when as the day became warmer these small birds 
appeared in numbers in brushy pastures where none had been visible 
two hours before. They flew out with quick, tilting flight to new 
cover or dodged in and out among the clumps of grass or low 
branches with quick scolding notes, but seldom paused to perch in 
the open. Their choice of haunt in fairly open savanna regions 
was in decided contrast to the habitat of Synallaxis a. frontalis that 
frequented the spiny growths of caraguata amid denser, darker 

^ Designated by Berlepscb and Hartert, Nov. Zool., vol. 9, April, 1902, p. 59. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 263 

thickets. In a way the areas inhabited by the two are reflected in 
their tone of plumage, the bird of the grass ckimps being paler than 
the one that frequents the darker forest border. S. a. albescens was 
gregarious, so that a number w^ere found together, often in mixed 
flocks with little groups of finches. It w^as not unusual to find them 
in tall grass in wet localities rather distant from protecting shrub- 
bery. 

At Victorica, Pampa, albescens was of different habit, as here it fre- 
quented the bushes and low trees that formed a heavy ground cover 
in the open, scrubby forest. Toward the end of December the birds 
had completed breeding and were encountered in little parties that 
comprised adults and young. They were social and searched rather 
quietly through the limbs, often in close proximity to one another. 
Though quiet and deliberate in movement they clambered rather 
actively through the thorny twigs, always under cover. They ranged 
here from 1 to 10 meters from the earth, and were not found feeding 
on the ground. This difference in habit from what I had observed 
in the Chaco led me to suppose that the birds from Pampa were dif- 
ferent, but such does not seem to be the case. 

In a female, taken July 10, the maxilla was blackish brown number 
1 ; mandible mineral gray ; iris honey yellow around pupillar open- 
ing, becoming lighter toward outer margin; tarsus and toes deep 
grayish olive. 

SYNALLAXIS ALBILORA Pelzcln 

Synallaxis alMora Pelzeln, Sitzungsb. Math.-Nat. CI. Kais. Akad. Wiss. 
(Wien), vol. 20, 1856, p. 160. (Cuyaba.) 

Near Kilometer 80, west of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, on Sep- 
tember 16, 1920, I found one of these birds in heavy, low forest 
perched on a stick nest as large as a hat, while its mate hopped about 
in heavy brush near by. Attention was drawn to the pair by the 
curious song of the bird at the nest tas pit taho we^ a peculiar suc- 
cession of notes with rather slow nasal cadence. Both birds were 
slow and deliberate in their actions. 

In the adult female the maxilla was black ; mandible gray number 
6 ; iris liver brown ; tarsus neutral gray and toes storm gray. These 
birds may represent a new form, as the skin preserved is somewhat 
paler, less rufescent below than the average of a small series in the 
American Museum of Natural History from Matto Grosso, Brazil. 
The species is known from Brazil and Bolivia, but does not appear 
to have been recorded previously from Paraguay. Measurements 
of the bird secured are as follows: Wing, 58; tail, 74.5; culmen from 
base, 12.8; tarsus, 21.3 mm. 



264 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

SIPTORNIS MALUROIDES (d'Orbigny and Lafresnaye) 

Synallaxis maluroides cI'Orbigny and Lafresnaye, Mag. Zool., 1837, p. 22. 
(Buenos Aires.) 

S. maluroides is a bird of local distribution in the marshes of 
Argentina and Uruguay, and extends north along the coast into 
Eio Grande do Sul. It is often difficult to find and I met with it 
personally at only three localities. On October 25, 1920, I found it 
common in growths of rushes in the tidal marshes near the mouth 
of the Rio Ajo, and collected two males and two females. Super- 
ficially the birds resemble marsh wrens in appearance and in choice 
of habit, and, save for their long tails, might easily be confused 
with Cistothorus. Occasionally they were observed on the ground 
searching for food near clumps of grass but more often were en- 
countered only in the heavier growths of Juncus. When startled 
they flew with tilting flight low over the grass, often blown about 
in the stiff breeze that swept the marshes. In alighting they some- 
times perched for a short space with the head projecting above 
the grass cover so that they were able to look about though their 
bodies were entirely concealed. Like related species they were 
usually frightened by the squeaking noise attractive to most small 
oscinine birds and either flew to some safe retreat or hid in the 
densest cover available. Females taken were about to lay. On a 
second visit on November 15 I found these curious birds again 
common and secured another specimen that was preserved as a 
skeleton. 

On February 7, 1921, an adult male maluroides was secured in 
a fresh- water swamp in the valley of the Rio Cebollati, near 
Lazcano, Uruguay. This bird was molting the feathers of wings and 
tail. An immature male secured in the rushes of a cienaga near 
Tunuyan, Mendoza, on March 26, is in full juvenal plumage. 

Adults from Buenos Aires, when compared with the single speci- 
men from Uruguay, show no appreciable differences, though it is 
possible that Uruguayan specimens may have larger bills. The 
bird in immature plumage from Tunuyan has the anterior portion 
of the crown slightly duller than dark olive buff, with only one or 
two incoming feathers to suggest the rufescent crown of the adult. 
The tail is also duller in color than in birds in full plumage. 
Adult females have the crown patch slightly paler than males 
though the distinction here is slight. 

SIPTORNIS SULPHURIFERA (Burmeister) 

Spnallaxis sulphurifera Burmeister, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1868, p. 
636. (Buenos Aires.) 

In the vicinity of the Rio Cebollati near Lazcano, Uruguay, the 
present species was common from February 5 to 9, 1921, in marshes 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 265 

grown with saw grass. Though the birds were rather wrenlike in 
action they were less shy than some other marsh-inhabiting 
Furnariids, perhaps because this was their breeding season. One 
brood of young was already on the wing, as two birds in juvenal 
plumage were shot on February 5 and 7, but the adults were pre- 
paring for a second breeding period, as a female taken February 5 
was laying, and males secured February 5 and 7 were in breeding 
condition. These spinetails rested often in the tops of the saw- 
grass clumps where their light-colored breasts were easily visible 
at some distance, or at any alarm came out with jerking tails on 
lower perches to chip at me anxiously. Males had a harsh little 
song that may be represented by the syllables chree-a chree-a 
chree-a chree-chree-chree^ given indifferently on the wing or from 
a perch. Adults taken were in very worn plumage, probably from 
abrasion among the stiff grass stems among which they lived. 
Specimens in juvenal plumage lack the yellow throat patch and 
rufous wing coverts of adults, and have a more distinct buffy wash 
over the entire plumage, noticeable especially in the superciliary 
stripe and the breast. 

SIPTORNIS PYRRHOPHIUS PYRRHOPHIUS (YieUIot) 

Dendrocopus pyrrliophius Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 26, 1818, 
p. lis. (Paraguay.) 

The present form is one of rather general distribution in suitable 
localities in central and northern Argentina and in Uruguay. It 
was encountered at the following points: Las Palmas, Chaco, July 
15 to 31, 1920 (females taken July 15 and 26) ; Riacho Pilaga, For- 
mosa, August 7 to 18 (adult male, August 7) ; Victorica, Pampa, 
December 23 to 29 (immature male and female, December 23 and 
24) ; San Vicente, Uruguay, January 27 to 31, 1921 (immature male, 
January 28, adult and immature females, January 29, immature 
female, January 30) ; Lazcano, Uruguay, February 5 to 8 (adult 
female, shot February 5) ; Tapia, Tucuman, April 6 to 13 (immature 
male, April 9, female, April 8). No specimens of S. p. striaticeps 
from Bolivia have been seen, but according to Hellmayr in this 
form the streaking of the head extends down on the nape, the 
secondaries and tertials are bordered with cinnamon or russet, and 
the flanks are buffy brown. Typical pyrrhophius has the streaking 
on the head extended only over the occiput, the secondaries and 
tertials without conspicuous rufous margins and the flanks grayish 
brown. The coloration of the tail in the series of pyrrhophius at 
hand is variable. In many the inner web of the median rectrix is 
almost wholly brown, but the extent of this color is variable as in 
several it is restricted to a faint terminal spot. I can distinguish 
no constant differences amone the birds from the different areas 



266 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

represented, though two skins from Tucuman appear very slightly 
darker than others. Birds in ju venal plumage have the tips of 
breast, neck, and upper back feathers more or less faintly veraiicu- 
lated with fuscous; the dark markings on the breast in some are 
extended down on the abdomen and in others almost obsolete. 
Young specimens are often more or less stained. The few taken in 
Uruguay appear to have slightly larger bills than those from the 
westward. An adult female taken January 29 is molting wing and 
tail feathers while the body plumage is worn. 

In the present paper I have followed current usage in adopting 
the generic term Sijitornis for a broad group of species that with- 
out question may be divided into two or more restricted genera. 
At this time only a little more than half of the species known in this 
assemblage are available to me, sufficient to demonstrate that while 
Mr. Cory's treatment of the group ^^ has certain merits, it is far from 
conclusive, and in certain respects requires modification as regards 
the allotment of species in the genera recognized. Further ma- 
terial is needed before an intelligent discussion of the matter may 
be made. 

The present species, one of more active habit than many of its 
relatives, frequents groves and thickets often near the borders of 
openings and clearings, wdiere it works about from 2 to 10 meters 
or more from the ground. In ordinary circumstances the birds are 
suggestive of titmice as they clamber and hop about among the 
smaller limbs, and the long tail, with its pointed, rather stiffened 
feathers, seems almost an encumbrance to their movements, as it is 
often held in awkward positions. It may not be used even when the 
bird swings around on the underside of a horizontal limb, so that 
one comes to wonder at the possible function of the stiffened tip, 
when suddenly one of the little birds may start up a tree trunk in 
orthodox woodpecker fashion. Should any return be necessary they 
are not averse to whirling around and sidling down head first as 
acrobatically as any nuthatch, though this is not a usual habit. 

The birds are gregarious, and, in addition to traveling tw^o or 
three together, have a predilection for association with other small 
brush-haunting birds, and form in a way the guides for little 
traveling companies of Thamnophilus gilvigaste7\ Picumnus, etc., 
as chickadees do in similar bands in more northern regions. 

When excited /S. pyrrhophius comes about with rapid, sputtering 
explosive call notes that may be represented as spee-ee-ee-ee or 
tsee-ee-ee-a- In the breeding season they utter a low trill, not un- 
pleasing in sound, that is suggestive of the song of Synallaxis f. 
frontalis^ and is given from the cover of branches- 

ssproc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 32, Sept. .30, 1919, pp. 149-160. 



^ 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 267 

At Victorica, Pampa, at the end of December young were out of 
the nest, and though fully grown were still fed by their parents. 
Young birds, fully grown, were secured in Uruguay late in January, 
and one was taken at Tapia in April, In the Chaco this species was 
known as Alomo ca-a guepe. 

SIPTORNIS D'ORBIGNYII CRASSIROSTRIS (Landbeck) 

SynQ,llaxis crassirostris Landbeck, in Leybold, Anales Univ. Chile, vol. 26, 
no. 6, June, 1865, p. 713. (Between Melocoton and the Rio Tunuyan, 
Mendoza. ) 

A female Siptomis secured on the arid flats above the city of 
Mendoza, on March 13, 1921, seems to agree with Hellmayr's ob- 
servations regarding this form,^^ The specimen in question has 
renewed the tail feathers and the wing feathers, save for the pri- 
mary coverts, while feathers of the head are still in molt. The bird 
has a distinct rufous throat patch, the outer rectrix is wholly cinna- 
mon, the second one is cinnamon, save for the end of the shaft and 
an elongate patch on the inner web near the tip which are blackish. 
The third rectrix has nearly half of the web at the distal end 
blackish, while the fourth rectrix is black, except for the basal half 
of the outer web. The fifth has the cinnamon color still more re- 
stricted, while on the sixth there is a mere wash of cinnamon near 
the base of the outer web. The lower rump is cinnamon like the 
upper tail coverts. The wings are distinctly washed with the 
same color. 

From Siptomis steinhachi, which was found near Mendoza in 
the same area, /S. d. crassirostris differs in paler brown lower mandi- 
ble, rusty throat patch, whiter under surface, lighter dorsal region, 
browner crown, and in differently marked rectrices as indicated 
under steinbachi. 

As no typical specimens of cPorhignyii are at hand for comparison, 
the individual from Mendoza is allocated subspecifically solely on its 
agreement with Hellmayr's statement concerning crassirostris. A 
skin presented to the United States National Museum by Mr. B. H. 
Swales, collected by L. Dinelli near Colalao del Valle, Tucuman, 
at an altitude of 2,500 meters, seems to stand intermediate between 
d' orhignyii and crassirostris^ as the upper parts are more rufescent 
than in the bird from Mendoza, though the tail is the same. 

These birds usually were found in pairs that ran or hopped about 
on the ground beneath the scattered bushes or clambered swifty 
through the branches. When excited they chattered and called, and 
worked rapidly away through the brush. They are characterized 
by large size and distinctly reddish-brown coloration. 

»Verh. Ornlth. Ges. Bayern, vol. 13, Feb. 25, 1917, p. 116. 



268 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

The one taken has the following measurements: Wing, 64.2; tail, 
73.3 ; culmen from base, 12.3 ; tarsus, 22.1 mm. 

SIPTORNIS STEINBACHI Hartert 

Siptornis steinbachi, Hartert, Nov. ZooL, vol. 16, December, 1909, p. 213. 
(Cachi, Salta, Argentina, altitude 2,500 meters.) 

The skin of a female Siptornis secured March 13, 1921, near the 
city of Mendoza, is referred to the present species with some reserva- 
tion. The bird under discussion was taken in the same type of 
country as that inhabited by the one allotted as S. d. crassirostris 
and resembles that bird in general appearance, differing in lack of 
a rufous throat patch, in blackish bill, and deeper rufous on wings, 
under tail coverts, and flanks. The throat has a faint yellowish 
tinge in the center, with obscure blackish tips on the feathers. The 
specimen, apparently adult, is in full molt, and has only three rec- 
trices, the external ones on the right side. The two outermost are 
cinnamon, the third is cinnamon save for a blackish stripe, that 
extends along the middle of the distal half of the outer web and 
spreads to the shaft at the tip. The skin agrees substantially with 
the original diagnosis except for the dusky streaks on the lesser 
wing coverts. The specimen has the following measurements: 
Wing, 64; tail imperfect; culmen from base, 14.4; tarsus, 22 mm. 
These correspond closely to the measurements given by Hartert for 
his type, namely, wing, 66 ; culmen, 14 ; and tarsus, 22 mm. 

The bird does not seem to have been reported before save from 
the type-locality from which no specimens are available for com- 
parison. 

SIPTORNIS BAERI Berlepsch 

Siptornis Meri, Berlepsch, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 16, May 28, 1906, 
p. 99. (Cosquin, Cordoba.) 

Five specimens of this species were taken at Victorica, Pampa, 
on the following dates: December 24, 1920, adult male; December 
27, immature male ; and December 28, two adult males, one immature 
female. The species is easily distinguished from S. sordida, which 
it resembles superficially, by its heavier more robust bill and the 
darker median rectrices. Skins in juvenal plumage differ from 
adults in lighter ventral surface, more indistinct throat patch, and 
fine vermiculations of duslcy on breast. 

The species inhabits the same type of country as that frequented 
by Synallaxis a. albescens, a species quite similar in general appear- 
ance. Apparently haeri rears two broods during the season, as 
adults taken in December were in breeding condition, while a first 
brood was already on the wing. 

Victorica marks a slight extension in the previously known range. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 133 PL. 16 




Arid Hills Grown with Scattered Brush, Haunt of Crested Tinamou 
(Calopezus elegans morenoi ) 

North of General Roca, Rio Xegro, December 2, 1920 




A Quiet Channll ut- the Rio Negro. The Birds in the Water 
Are Coots (Fulica armillata and F. leucoptera i 

South of General Roca, Rio Xegro, December 3, 1920 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 133 PL. 17 







Elevated Plain Surrounding the Town of Zapala, Neuquen. Haunt 
OF Enicornis phoenicurus 

Taken December 8, 1920 




Foothills of the Pre-Cordillera, Showing Flats Grown with Creo- 
sote Bush 

Kilotnetor 32, Ferrocarril Trasandino, Mendoza, March 15, 1921 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 269 

In addition in the United States National Museum there is a speci- 
men taken by Capt. T. J. Page, labeled as secured in Uruguay in 
July, 1860. 

SIPTORNIS SORDIDA FLAVOGULARIS (Gould) 

Synallaxis fiavogularis Gould, Zool. Voy. Beagle, pt. 3, Birds, November, 
1839, p. 78, pi. 24. (Bahia Blanca and Santa Cruz.) 

The present spinetail, of wide distribution in Argentina, was re- 
corded at the following points : General Roca, Rio Negro, November 
24 to December 3, 1920; Zapala, Neuquen, December 9; Ingeniero 
White (Bahia Blanca), Buenos Aires, December 13; Guamini, 
Buenos Aires, March 8, 1921; Potrerillos, Mendoza, March 17 and 
19; Tunuyan, Mendoza, March 23 to 27; and at Formosa, Formosa, 
August 24, 1920. 

The series from Ingeniero White, the port of Bahia Blanca, in- 
cludes two males and seven females, taken December 13, all breeding 
birds, in worn, abraded plumage. These may be considered topo- 
typical skins, as Darwin states that he collected his specimens at 
Bahia Blanca and Santa Cruz. The series of females shows con- 
siderable variation in the form of the throat patch. In one the 
throat spot is fairly large (though smaller than in males) and tawny 
in color; in three the patch, while similar in hue, is restricted and 
more or less obscured by a mixture of white ; in another the area in 
question is faintly washed with yellowish; and in two the throat is 
plain white. In one male the throat is tawny and in the other cin- 
namon buff. Five specimens from General Roca, Rio Negro, in- 
clude four adult males shot November 24 (two), 27, and December 
3, and two adult females killed November 25 and December 9. 
These do not differ appreciably in color from those from Bahia 
Blanca when allowance is made for the fact that they are in better 
feather. All have the colored throat patch with the usual range in 
depth of color, and show more distinct blackish points on the tips 
of the feathers than in case of the more worn specimens from the 
coast. One adult female has a patch of white feathers in the center 
of the nape. An adult female taken at Zapala, Neuquen, on De- 
cember 9 is badly Avorn and is renewing the central rectrices- The 
single specimen from Guamini, in western Buenos Aires, similar 
in general appearance to those described above, is an immature 
female in molt into adult plumage. 

At Potrerillos, Mendoza, an immature female and another im- 
mature bird whose sex was not known were taken at an altitude 
of over 1,500 meters on March 17; and at Tunuyan, Mendoza, two 
immature males and an adult female were taken March 23 and two 
immature females on March 27. The adult female, in full molt. 



270 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

is somewhat deeper brownish gray, less whitish below than others 
that have been noted thus far. Immature birds in ju venal plumage 
lack the colored throat patch and have the breast and foreneck 
rather faintly vermiculated with dusky. The throat patch is as- 
sumed early in the post-juvenal molt, save in those birds that do not 
develop it. Its lack in certain individuals is an apparent retention 
of a character of immaturity, as it may be held that the throat patch 
has been a secondary acquirement. A single adult female secured 
at Formosa, Formosa, on August 24, while somewhat duller and 
darker on the breast than the average, is matched closely by some 
individuals in the considerable series at hand from the south, and is 
similar to an old specimen in the United States National Museum 
collection from Santa Fe. I have not seen S. s. a-ffinis Berlepsch 
from Tucuman, but, on the basis of Berlepsch's original description, 
consider the Formosan specimen nearer to fiavogularis. It is pos- 
sible that the one taken at Formosa represents a northern migrant, 
as it Avas shot in winter. 

Though recorded from northern Argentina, this spinetail was 
most abundant in the semiarid regions of the south and west, where 
it found a congenial home in low growths of bushes, particularly of 
piquillin {Condalia lineata), atriplex, and a sort of grease wood 
{Grahamia hracteafa) whose dense branches offered it safe cover. 
In places, as near the coast at Bahia Blanca, the birds were abun- 
dant and formed the dominant element among passerine species; at 
other localities they were found sparingly or only in limited areas. 

As they clamber around among the thorny twigs of dense bushes 
these spinetails seem rather clumsy in their movements, and when 
touched by thorns often fall with seeming awkwardness to one side. 
In reality, however, they are expert in progression, and, in spite of 
their seeming lack of skill, are working rapidly and surely through 
difficult passages. At intervals one may pause, often on a concealed 
perch near the ground, to sing a low, double-noted trill, tsee-ee-ee-ee 
tsee-ee-ee-ee, that is given by both males and females. Occasionally 
one may come up to sing from a more pretentious perch on the top 
of a bush where it has a wider view of its chosen world. The habit 
of song among females seems common in this group as I have noted 
it among others of related genera. Flight, tilting and fairly rapid, 
is practiced for short distances only, as the birds drop into safe cover 
as soon as possible. In addition to their song they uttered chattering 
scolding calls, especially during the breeding season and were con- 
siderably excited by squeaking. It was not unusual to see them on 
the ground, particularly under heavy cover. 

A nest found near General Koca, on December 3, 1920, was placed 
in a spiny bush among heavy branches about a meter from the 



BIKDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 271 

ground where it was difficult to reach it. This nest was composed of 
firmly interlaced thorny twigs that made a ball 200 mm. in diameter. 
At one side near the top was an entrance opening, located among 
thorny limbs of the shrub, and further protected by small spiny 
twigs grouped about it. After some difficulty I opened the stinicture 
to find that the interior cavity was firmly and closely felted with a 
lining of fur from the introduced hare, a device that not only made 
B, safe cushion for the eggs and young, but also gave protection 
from the severe winds of this region, that otherwise had free pas- 
sage amid interstices in the nest material. This nest contained two 
white eggs, that when first seen were beautifully tinted by the yolk 
within through the somewhat translucent shell. When blown they 
became dull white in color. These eggs measure as follows, in milli- 
meters: 18.4 by 14.4, and 18 by 14.6. In form the eggs are rather 
bluntly pointed with little distinction between large and small ends. 
It is probable that tAvo broods are reared in a season, as young only 
recently grown were taken in March. 

SIPTORNIS PATAGOKICA (d'Orbigny) 

Synallaxis patagonica d'ORBiGNY, Yoy. Amer. Merid., Ois., 1835-1844, p. 
249. (Banks of the Rio Negro.) 

Near General Koca, Rio Negro, from November 23 to December 2, 
1920, the present species was fairly common ; adult females were col- 
lected on November 23 and 24 and a male on November 25. The 
skins preserved do not differ appreciably from two taken near San 
Antonio del Oeste, not far from the type locality. The species has 
been recorded west to the Rio Limay in Neuquen,*° a short distance 
beyond Roca. The throat in patagonica of both sexes has the 
feathers slate at the base with the tips white, forming a distinct dark 
throat patch spotted rather irregularly with white, as prominent as 
the throat patch of Synallaxis f. frontalis. No mention of this is 
made in the description in the British Museum Catalog (vol. 15, 
p. 69), and in the key (p. 65) the throat is said to be unspotted, 
though the original description by d'Orbigny describes the throat 
as distinctly marked. The species differs notably in structural char- 
acters from the stiff-tailed forms of Siptornis and in some ways 
seems quite aberrant. 

This bird was found in the semiarid region that bordered the Rio 
Negro, where it frequented the denser, taller stands of Atriplex and 
other shrubs that grew in the river bottom or occurred more spar- 
ingly in the smaller, more scattered growth that clothed the gravel 
hills above the flood plain. Individuals hopped about among the 
twigs or walked slowly around on the ground, always under protec- 

"Hellmayr, Nov. ZooL, vol. 28, September, 1921, p. 268. 



272 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

tion of brush. Their flight was rapid and tilting with the black 
tail showing prominently as they darted away. The song is a 
musical, even trill, resembling the syllables tree-ee-ee-ee-ee. On 
November 24 I found a nest of this species, one of the prominent 
structures made of sticks so abundant in the brush of this region. 
The nest, placed in the top of a bush 3 feet from the ground, with- 
out concealment, was an irregular ball, approximately 400 mm. in 
outside diameter, constructed of thorny twigs from 100 to 300 mm. 
long, ranging in size from fine sticks to those as large in diameter 
as a lead pencil. A tubular entrance tunnel, made of small, very 
thorny twigs, closely and firmly interlaced, led out at one side for a 
distance of 400 mm., supported by a limb that grew out beneath the 
nest. The nest ball was so compactly made that it required some 
time and trouble to open it. The inner cavity was 125 mm. in 
diameter and had in the bottom a firmly felted cup of plant down, 
fur of the introduced hare (common in this region), and feathers. 
Three eggs that lay on this soft bed, dull white in color, were on the 
point of hatching and were badly broken in preparation. Two that 
are more or less entire offer the following measurements, in milli- 
meters: 20.9 by 15.1 and 20.1 by 14.5. 

SIPTORNIS HUMICOLA (Kittlitz) 

Synnalaxis humicola Kittlitz, Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.- P6tersbourg, Div, 
Sav., vol. 1, 1831, p. 185. (Valparaiso.), 

Near Concon, Chile, where /Siptornis humicola was fairly common, 
skins of two males were preserved on April 26 and 27 and a female 
on April 28, 1921. The birds frequented dense thickets of low 
brush that grew over the slopes of rolling hills, where they worked 
slowly about among the limbs or occasionally on the ground, where it 
was open but heavily protected above. In actions they suggested 
Synallaxis f. frontalis. Usually they were silent and so were diffi- 
cult to find, but on one encounter one burst out in a clear, trilled 
song like that of some wren. The muscular part of the stomach in 
this species is large and strong, heavier, in fact, in proportion to the 
size of the bird than in some seed-eating finches. 

A male, when first taken, had the maxilla and tip of the mandible 
black; base of mandible gray number 8; tarsus, deep olive gray; 
toes, tea green; iris, natal brown. 

SIPTORNIS LILLOI Oustalet 

Siptornis Lilloi, Oustalet, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris), vol. 10, 1904, 
p. 44. (Lagunita, Tucuman.) 

An immature female, shot at an altitude of 2,300 meters on the 
Sierra San Xavier, above Tafi Viejo, Tucuman, was the only one 
of these birds seen. The specimen is in the immature stage de- 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 273 

scribed by Lillo as S. dineJUi.*^ The tips of the tail feathers are 
rounded and do not display the acuminate points found in hudsoni 
and anthoides, a condition that may change with age. Hellmayr*^ 
has indicated that S. lilloi is the bird described by Chapman ^^ from 
above Tafi del Valle, Tucuman, as Siptornis punensis rufala. 

The individual taken was flushed among tussock grass that cov- 
ered an open slope at the summit of the cumbre, and was killed on 
the wing. It appeared dark in color when in the air, with a distinct 
reddish-brown band in the wings. A bird of similar appearance 
that I flushed but did not secure in tussock grass on the highest 
points near El Salto above Potrerillos, Mendoza, during March was 
probably Siptornis anthoides. 

SIPTORNIS HUDSONI (Sclater) 

Synallaxis hudsoni, P. L. Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1874, p. 25. 
(Conchitas, Buenos Aires.) 

Hudson's spinetail in general coloration suggests a pipit, while 
in attitude and habits it is strongly suggestive of the allied Anum- 
hius. It was encountered at only two localities in the Province of 
Buenos Aires, first near Lavalle, Buenos Aires, where it was fairly 
common in marshes on October 23 and November 6 and 9, 1920, and 
a second time near Guamini, where, on March 8, 1921, I found three 
in a dense patch of thistles and other weeds on the shore of the 
Laguna del Monte. Near Lavalle the bird was partial to marshes 
grown heavily with Juncus acutus, a sharply pointed rush that grew 
in clumps with little runways between. The birds were shy and 
secretive and were seldom seen until they darted out and flew 
rather swiftly with undulating flight to new cover. When once 
under shelter they crept rapidly away so that it was difficult in 
many instances to flush them a second time. The light outer margins 
of the tail showed prominently in flight. Occasionally one perched 
quietly among dead rushes at the border of some lagoon. 

On the evening of November 6, while setting a line of mouse traps 
among hollows between the dunes south of Cape San Antonio, I 
flushed one of these birds from the base of a clump of Juncus and 
after careful search discovered a nest, a domed structure placed 
directly on the ground in the base of the tussock of rush, with a 
runway like that of some mouse leading into it. Never have I 
seen the nest of a bird more completely concealed from any possible 
view, and save for the chance that directed my hands to the base of 
the clump in question, so that the female flew out almost in my 

" Rev. Letr. Cienc. Soc. Tucuman, vol. 3, July, 1905, p. 53. 

*- Arch. Naturg., vol. 85, November, 1920, p. 72. 

*3Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 41, Sept. 1, 1919, p. .'?28. 



274 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

grasp, I should never have suspected its presence. The nest was 
composed of bits of grass, and was warmly lined with many feathers. 
The three eggs, with incubation partly begun, are dull white with a 
very faint tinge of cream. The shell is slightly roughened. The 
eggs measure, in millimeters, as follows: 22.2 by 16.8, 21.5 by 16.7, 
and 21.4 by 16.5. 

An adult female, shot October 23, when first taken, had the 
maxilla and tip of mandible fuscous black; base of mandible drab 
gray ; iris light seal brown ; tarsus and toes ecru drab. 

Adult females, preserved as skins, were secured near Lavalle on 
October 23 and November 9, and an immature female was shot at 
Guamini on March 8. The two adults, though fully grown, differ 
strikingly in color of throat patch, as in one it is yellow and in the 
other cinnamon buff. The immature bird has the breast heavily 
and the abdomen more lightly streaked with dusky. Doctor Har- 
tert** has treated S. hudsoni as a subspecies of S. anthoides, with 
which decision I find that I can not agree, as anthoides is distin- 
guished b}^ its somewhat broader, less narrowly pointed rectrices, 
and more suffused, less definite color pattern on the dorsal surface, 
in addition to its darker coloration. 

CORYPmSTERA ALAUDINA ALAUDINA Burmeister 

CorypJiistera alaudina Burmeister, Journ. fiir Ornith., 1860, p. 251. (La 
Plata States.) 

Near Tapia, Tucuman, the present bird was common from April 
6 to 13, 1921 ; four of the six taken were preserved as skins. These 
comprise adult males, shot April 6 and 12, and an immature male 
and female, taken April 11. The immature specimens resemble 
adults, but have the streaks of the undersurface narrower and 
less sharply defined. The skin in this species is thick and very 
tough. 

An adult male, when killed, had the maxilla sayal brown, shad- 
ing to deep mouse gray at the tip and at the base of the culmen; 
mandible dull light-grayish vinaceous; tarsus and toes cinnamon; 
iris natal brown. 

I have not seen specimens of C. a. carnpicola Todd,^^ a northern 
subspecies said to differ from the typical form in paler, more buffy 
coloration above, with the underparts less heavily streaked. 

These curious birds inhabited dry, open scrub growing over roll- 
ing hills, where they were found in parties numbering from three 
to six, apparently families, as adults and young were taken from the 
same flock. Though the birds were common, they were silent un- 

« Nov. Zool., vol. 16, December, 1909, p. 214. 

«Proc. Biol. Soc. Washin^on, vol. 28, November 29, 1915, p. 170. (Guanacos, 
Bolivia.) 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 275 

less alarmed, and in the dense scrub were easily overlooked. It 
was not unusual to see them feeding on open ground among thorny 
bushes where, like an ovenbird, they walked about with long strides. 
When startled they rise at once into the limbs of the trees where 
they clamber quickly away until they are concealed behind twigs or 
leaves. Frequently they work rapidly along, flying from tree to 
tree, until they are lost to view. In fact, when thoroughly alarmed 
it is difficult to keep near them, so artful are they in seeking a 
screen behind which they may move rapidly away without being 
observed. Though not breeding at this season, they spent con- 
siderable time about nests, constructed of sticks, placed at low 
elevations in the trees. The little bands frequently rested in close 
proximity to these structures, or when not too much alarmed hopped 
or climbed rapidly to shelter behind them, where they rested in a 
crouching attitude with crest erect and head turning quickly from 
side to side. Their need for protection from sight was obvio.us 
since the light, streaked color pattern and the erect crest made them 
very conspicuous. When alarmed they gave a sputtering metallic 
rattle that was very peculiar. 

The stick nests that they frequented were 300 mm. in diameter, 
globular in form, with an entrance through a small tunnel that 
led into one side. The nests were strongly made with thorny, 
crooked twigs so interwoven that it was difficult to open them for 
examination. The twigs used were often 300 mm. or over long and 
as large around as a pencil. The birds delighted in resting in the 
entrance tunnel or in clambering about over the top. On April 12 
I observed three busy with the arrangement of a few small twigs 
about the entrance to one of these domiciles, a labor that was ac- 
companied by odd chattering and trilling notes. These changed 
to the sputtering alarm note as soon as I was "sighted and the whole 
part}^ moved rapidly away. 

In the collections of the United States National Museum there 
is a specimen secured in February, 1860, on the Rio Bermejo. 

ANUMBIUS ANNUMBI (Vieillot) 

Furnarius annumM Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 12, 1817, p. 
117. (Paraguay.) 

The present species, the one usually indicated by the name 
leiiatero^ though that designation is applied to all of the tracheo- 
phones that build stick nests, was recorded and skins were col- 
lected as follows: Kilometer 182, Formosa, August 21, 1920; For- 
mosa, Formosa, August 23 (adult male) and 24 (adult female) ; 
Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, September 3 (adult male) ; Kilometer 
80, west of Puerto Pinasco, September 6 to 18 (adult male, Sep- 



276 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

tember 7); Dolores, Buenos Aires, October 21; Lavalle, Buenos 
Aires, October 29 to November 13 (adult male, November 13) ; 
Victorica, Pampa, December 26 (adult male) ; Carrasco, Uruguay, 
January 9 and 16, 1921; La Paloma, Uruguay, January 23; San 
Vicente, Uruguay, January 25 to February 2; Lazcano, Rocha, 
February 3 to 9 (two adult males, February 3) ; Rio Negro, Uru- 
guay, February 17 to 19; Guamini, Buenos Aires, March 3 to 8 
(four taken March 6 include adult and immature males and fe- 
males). 

The material secured indicates that there are two forms of this 
curious and interesting bird, but as the ranges to be assigned and 
the names to be applied are uncertain my notes are given under the 
specific name. Two skins from the vicinity of Puerto Pinasco, 
Paraguay, in the Chaco, are somewhat duller in color and seem 
more heavily streaked above than those from the pampas. Two 
skins from Formosa are somewhat intermediate in appearance 
between these two northern birds and the paler, huffier, less heavily 
streaked birds secured in the Province of Buenos Aires and Uru- 
guay. Vieillot takes his Furnarius annurribi from Azara, but makes 
no mention of locality. Azara (vol. 2, p. 226) remarks that the 
anunibi is fairly common, without being abundant in the countries 
of the Rio de la Plata, and that it seems most common in Para- 
guay. Paraguay is commonly accepted as the type locality. Anthus 
acuticaudatus Lesson *° is described with no locality indicated. 
Anunibius anthoides d'Orbigny and Lafresnaye*^ was said to have 
come from Corrientes, which is near the boundary of Paraguay. 

This species ranges through areas of open brush, often scanty in 
character, or may even penetrate far into the open where heavy 
growths of thistles afford low coverts. During the entire year it 
seems to remain paired, so that only after the close of the breed- 
ing season, when grown young still accompanied their parents, 
were more than two found in company. The birds were tame, 
inconspicuous, and usually quiet in actions. They fed on the ground 
where they walked about on open grass sward or in shelter of low 
tussocks or clumps of weeds. Often they rested on fence posts or 
wires at a considerable distance from cover. When alarmed or at 
rest it was usual for them to seek refuge near their stick nests, or 
in spiny clumps of thistles, and when frightened they passed from 
one such covert to another, dropping down to fly with a direct or 
slightly undulating flight just above the ground. Save for an 
occasional flash of white from the tail they were wholly plain in 
appearance. 

■>« Traits Ornith., 1831,, p. 424. « j^Iag. Zool., 1838, CI. II, p. 17. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 277 

The stick nests of the present species were seen everywhere in 
their range and were of remarkable construction. Thorny twigs 
were woven in an irregular form, entirely inclosed, with an entrance 
opening frequently in the form of a short tunnel. These structures 
were placed in low, often thorny, trees, or occasionally in thistles. 
It was not unusual to see them built about the wires on the cross 
arms of telephone and telegraph poles, and occasionally one was 
built in the head of a railroad semaphore. In one such instance that 
came under my observation the birds had filled a space between iron 
uprights 4 feet long and were still busily engaged in carrying sticks 
up to 10 meters in the air, though lower nesting sites abounded. 
(PI. 10.) 

On one occasion I observed a pair that had evidently just chosen 
the site for a new home. The birds had selected a slight opening 
among more or less horizontal limbs of a thorny tree, where they 
hopped about a few inches apart as they examined the space criti- 
cally, or rested near together and pecked and pulled at near-by 
twigs. At intervals the male sang in a low tone. Nest construction 
is apparently a prolonged process and the birds seem to work at it 
when not in breeding condition. As the nests are firmly woven 
and durable they last for several years. Though ordinarily peace- 
ful, males fight savagely in defense of their chosen territory, battling 
with intruders until exhausted. 

The peculiar song of this species, given at times by the female 
as well as the male, may be represented as chick chick chick chee-ee- 
ee-ee-ee^ uttered in a rapid monotone, with an effort that shakes the 
whole body. It is repeated frequently and is often heard from a 
nest. The call note is a sharp tschick. In the Chaco the guira 
anumbi of Azara was know^n in Guarani as huituitui in imitation of 
the song while the Anguete Indians knew it as kas mis ka now ah. 

Tlie development of the skull with age in the Tracheophone meso- 
myodi seems less rapid than in the Oscines, so that the usual age 
criterion for our smaller Passeriformes of the extent of cancellation 
between the plates of the cranium may not be trusted. On March 
6, 1 killed four Anumbms^ an adult pair and two fully grown imma- 
ture birds. In the adult male the top of the skull was entirely 
covered with cancellations. In its mate, an adult female, the top of 
the skull was still open, as it was in the two young, the offspring of 
the adult pair. 

An adult male, taken August 23, had the maxilla and tip of 
mandible cinnamon drab; base of mandible pale drab gray; iris 
liver brown ; tarsus drab gray ; toes smoke gray. An immature male, 
taken March 6, had the maxilla and tip of the mandible slightly 
darker than hair brown ; extreme tip of culmen shading to chaetura 



278 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

black; rest of mandible puritan gray; iris cinnamon drab; tarsus 
and toes tea green. In an adult female, also taken on March 6, 
the bill resembled that of the immature male; the iris was Hay's 
russet; tarsus slightly duller than deep olive buff; toes tea green. 

PHACELLODOMUS STRIATICOLLIS STRIATICOLLIS (d'Orbigny and Lafresnaye) 

AnumMus striatioollis (1'Okbigny and Lafkesnaye, Mag. Zool., 1838, CI. II, 
p. 18. (Buenos Aires.) 

When compared with P. rufifrons alone the present species seems 
generically distinct, as it carries to extreme development the char- 
acters of strongly graduated tail and broadened shafts on the breast 
feathers found to a less degree in rufifrons. PhaceUodomus richer, 
however, offers such an appearance of transition between the two 
that in my opinion Phacelo'scenus Ridgway (for Anumhius striati- 
collis d'Orbigny and Lafresnaye) may not be maintained as a 
distinct genus. 

The subspecies maculipectus Cabanis, as represented by a skin in 
the Field Museum from Cuesta de Angama, Tucuman, is distinctly 
darker above than true st7'iaticoUis. 

On October 23, 1920, I found several of the present species in a 
partly dry, grass grown tidal marsh bordering the Rio Ajo at 
Lavalle, Buenos Aires, and collected a pair of adults. Three or 
four fed together on the ground, and as I approached climbed into 
a low, thorny bush, while others were encountered in thick, long 
grass where they were seen only as they flushed and flew with an 
undulating flight for a meter or more. At San Vicente, Uruguay, 
young birds were fairly common in dense brush on rocky hillsides, 
where I collected an immature female on January 25, 1921, and 
another (preserved in alcohol) on January 28. The birds scolded 
vigorously with rattling call notes but kejDt concealed behind leaf- 
grown branches. An immature male was shot in a growth of saw 
grass in a marsh near Lazcano, Uruguay, on February 5. 

The adult birds taken have the plumage worn so that it is harsh 
and hard to the touch from the prominence of the shaft tips of the 
feathers. Immature specimens in juvenal plumage are less rufescent 
on the back and breast, and, though the broadened shafts are evident 
on the feathers of head and breast, have the plumage softer than 
adults. The rectrices in striaticollis are slightly broader than in 
rufifrons. 

An adult, when first killed, had the maxilla blackish; mandible and 
maxillar tomia, below nostril, gray number seven; iris cream buff; 
tarsus and toes neutral gray. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 279 
PHACELLODOMUS RUBER RUBER (Vieillot) 

Furnarius ruber ViEaxLOT, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 12, 1817, p. 118. 
( Paragua.y. ) 

This species was recorded at Eesistencia, Chaco, on July 8, 1920, 
-when two were seen, and an adult male was taken, at the Riacho 
Pilaga, Formosa, August 16, when an adult female was secured, at 
Formosa, Formosa, where an adult male was taken August 23, and 
others seen on the day following, and at Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, 
on September 3. The three specimens taken do not differ appreciably 
from one another in color. Cherrie ''^ has described a northern form 
(that I have not seen) as P. r. ruhicula on the basis of more rufous 
coloration on the dorsal surface. 

These birds were found in swamps grown with saw grass, and in 
the cat-tails and other vegetation that bordered lagoons, particularly 
in the areas known as palmares, where low palms grew in scattered 
groves over marshy ground. They were frequently shy, especially 
when feeding in dense marsh vegetation from which they refused 
to be called by unusual noises. In fact, they were more often seen 
when I remained perfectly quiet and waited for them to dart out 
into sight for a few seconds. When the wind was quiet their noisy 
rustling among the dead cat-tail stalks was plainly audible though 
the birds themselves were entirely hidden. Rarely one came out for 
a few seconds with a sharp, scolding check check, and jerked ner- 
vously up and down on its perch with the body inclined well forward. 
The light eyes showed plainly when the birds were not too far 
distant. Where they were encountered amid palms they often came 
up into the palm tops, where on cool mornings they rested in the 
sun to preen their plumage. 

An adult male, taken August 23, had the maxilla and extreme tip 
of the mandible dull sooty black; rest of mandible dawn gray; iris 
primuline yellow, shading to mustard yellow at outer margin ; tarsus 
and toes storm gray. Another male, shot July 8, had the iris apricot 
orange. 

PHACELLODOMUS RUFIFRONS SINCIPITAUS Cabanis 

Phacellodomus sincijntalis Cabanis, Journ. fiir Ornitli., 1883, p. 109. (Tucu- 
man, Tucuman.) 

An immature female taken near Tapia, Tucuman, on April 12, 
1921, differs from P. r. rufifrons in darker coloration on the dorsal 
surface. The specimen mentioned was shot from a small flock in 
dense brush where the birds remained in close concealment. 

«Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 35, May 20, 1916, p. 186. 



280 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

PHAGE LLODOMUS SIBILATRIX Sclater 

Phacellodomus siMlatrix " Doring, MS.," Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. London,. 
1879, p. 461. (Cordoba.) 

An adult male taken July 15, 1920, at Las Palmas, Chaco, near the 
Riacho Quia, was the only one seen. 

PSEUDOSEISURA GUTTURALIS (d'Orbigny and Lafresnaye) 

Anatates gutturaUs d'ORBiGNY and Lafeesnaye, Mag. Zool., 1838, cl. 2^ 
p. 15. (Rio Negro, Patagonia.) 

The present species of shy, secretive habit, an inhabitant of arid 
regions, was encountered near General Roca, Rio Negro, November 
24 to December 2, 1920; at Zapala, Neuquen, from December 7 to 9; 
and near the city of Mendoza, in western Argentina, on March 13. 
These birds frequent the denser growths of low, thorny brush that 
grows over the dry, barren slopes of stony, sandy hills in these 
regions, where, though they may be noted at a distance, it is diffi- 
cult to approach them. They are seen occasionally running 
swiftly on the ground, with the tail erect, taking advantage of 
any cover that may offer. When excited they may come out to 
rest on some low branch with jerking wings and tail, while they 
peck nervously at the branches near at hand. They are found in 
pairs or family groups that remain near their huge stick nests 
placed in the low bushes. Their song is a loud, rattling call given 
in chorus by male and female, similar in a way to that of Furnarius 
rafus, but less loud and perhaps slightly more metallic in sound. 
In addition they give a low, clucking call. Though their laughing 
calls may be heard frequently at a distance, the birds slip away 
rapidly through the brush, so that it is difficult to approach within 
gunshot. Their undulating flight carries them barely above the 
ground. 

An adult female when first taken had the maxilla and tip of the 
mandible dark mouse gray; base of mandible pale Russian blue; 
iris cream buff; tarsus gray number 6. 

Adult females were taken at General Roca, November 24 and 29, 
and an adult female and three immature birds (two females and 
one male) at Zapala, on December 9. The adult birds are in ex- 
ceedingly worn plumage and have begun molt on the head. Im- 
mature birds of both sexes are alike, and differ from the adults 
in having faint, dusky cross bars on the breast. The white throat 
feathers in this species are soft and silky to the touch. 



BIRDS OF AEGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 281 
PSEUDOSEISURA LOPHOTES (Keichenbach) 

Homorus lophotes Keichenbach, Handb. Spec. Ornitli., August, 1853, p. 
172. (Bolivia"?) 

The present species probably may be separated generically from 
Pseudoseisura gutturalis, from which it differs to a considerable 
extent. The two are here associated pending further study. 

Though reported of fairly wide range, the present bird was 
encountered only near Victorica, Pampa, from December 23 to 29, 
and at Rio Negio, Uruguay, from February 16 to 18. It is an in- 
habitant of open groves of low trees where it feeds on the ground, 
often in company with Dr^ymornis hindgesi. At the slightest alarm 
the crested Pseudoseisura flies up with chattering calls, and hops 
about in the shelter of the limbs as alertly as a jay, pausing to 
peer out or to peck nervously at the limbs. The flight is strongly 
undulating. 

These birds build huge nests of sticks, as large in diameter as 
a bushel measure, somewhat flattened, with an entrance at one side, 
that are placed in the tops of low trees from 4 to 6 meters from 
the ground. The conspicuous nests are seen frequently, but the 
birds are usually so shy and retiring that it may be difficult to 
And them. However, on occasion they may come familiarly into 
dooryard trees, and at Victorica, where they were known as 6hor- 
loco, they were accused of stealing the eggs of domestic fowls. The 
birds are found in pairs save for the period when adults are ac- 
companied by young. (PI. 10.) 

The paired birds shriek in chorus with nasal, laughing calls that 
close with rattling notes suggestive of those of some melanerpine 
woodpecker. When excited they utter in a low tone a note resem- 
bling the syllable cuck cuck cuck. In an immature male, barely 
grown, the bill was black; iris ecru drab; tarsus and toes dark 
gi'ayish olive. 

Two immature specimens taken at Victorica on December 23, 
though fully feathered, had the borders of the gape soft and the bill 
shorter than in adults. These, in juvenal plumage, differ from 
older individuals in having indistinct, narrow, dusky bars on the 
breast and sides of the head. 

XENICOPSIS RUFO-SUPERCILIATUS OLEAGINUS (Sclater) 

Anabazeno'ps oleaginus P. L. Sclateb, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 18S3, p. 654. 
(Sierra de Totoral, Catamarca, Argentina.^") 

When Sclater described the present form of Xenicopsis he did so 
on the basis of skins secured by White in the Sierra de Totoral, 
Catamarca, and on others (in the United States National Museum) 

*» Keichenbach remarks that the locality on the label of his specimen, given as 
Bolivia, is probably Incorrect. 

" For citation of type specimen see Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol. 15, 1890, p. 106. 



282 BULXJETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

taken by the Page expedition at Parana. The type-locality was sub- 
sequently designated as Catamarca. Two immature specimens (fully 
grown) that I secured April 17, 1921, on the lower slopes of the 
Sierra San Xavier, above Tafi Viejo, Tucuman, are distinctly more 
yellowish olive both above and below than specimens from the 
Chaco, Parana (the Page specimens), and Uruguay, and indicate 
that there are two forms of the bird under discussion in Argentina, 
It is assumed that the Tucuman specimens are similar to those from 
Catamarca so that they are given the name oleaginus. The some- 
what duller-colored bird from farther east must take the name 
acritus (Oberholser) described from Sapucay, Paraguay. 

On the loAver forested slopes of the Cumbre above Tafi Viejo these 
birds were fairly common in dense growths of bushes and herbaceous 
vegetation, but worked about under the cover of large nettlelike 
plants where it was difficult to secure them. 

XENICOPSIS RUFO-SUPERCILIATUS ACRITUS (Oberholser) 

. Anal)a::enops acritus Oberholser, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 14, 
Dec. 12, 1901, p. 187. (Sapucay, Paraguay.) 

The type of X. r. acritus is an immature bird in the somewhat 
brighter more yellowish olivaceous plumage that distinguishes im- 
mature from adult individuals in this species, a fact that seems 
to have led to its separation originally. With oleagitius restricted 
to a more western range in Catamarca and Tucuman (probably 
north into Bolivia), the name acritus becomes available for the 
form of northeastern Argentina and Paraguay, distinguished from 
oleaginus by duller more grayish coloration. Typical X. r. rufo- 
superciliatus is brighter, more rufescent on the dorsal surface, 
especially on the wings and has the markings on the under surface 
somewhat less sharply defined. 

An adult male taken at Las Palmas, Chaco, on July 21. 1920, was 
the only one seen until I reached Lazcano, Uruguay, where two 
were seen and an immature female Avas taken near the Rio Cebol- 
lati on February 8. At Kio Negro, Uruguay, where the birds 
were fairly common from February 15 to 18, an immature male 
was preserved February IT, and a female of the same age on 
February 18. The adult male from Las Palmas, in full winter 
plumage, though a trifle brighter than two specimens from the 
Page expedition, is duller colored than the type of the subspecies. 
Two from Rio Negro, Uruguay, resemble the type save that they 
have not quite completed the molt into full plumage. The one from 
Lazcano in the same stage of molt is darker. 

These birds were found in dense thickets, usually in lowlands, 
wliere it was more or less wet and swampy. They worked do- 



BIRDS OF AEGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 283 

liberutely in the dense plant frrowth, often somewhat awkwardly, 
clambering about like large titmice, always well under cover. On 
one occasion one uttered a high-pitched note that may be written 
chee-a; otherwise they were silent. An adult male, taken July 
21, had the maxilla, sides, and tip of the mandible dull blackish 
brown; rest of mandible Rood's lavender, with the extreme base 
tinged with yellow; iris fuscous; tarsus and toes dark ivy green; 
lower surface of toes yellowish. 

CULICIVORA STENURA (Temminck) 

Miisdcapa stenura Temminck, Nouv. Rec. Planch. Col. Ois., vol. 3, No- 
vember, 1S22, pi. 167, fig. 3. (Brazil.) 

The single individual observed, an adult female shot at the 
Kiacho Pilaga, Formosa, August 14, 1920, was found in a dense 
stand of a tall grass {Andropogon condensatus) near the bank of 
a sluggish stream. It flew for short distances with a tilting flight 
and when at rest clung to the upright grass stems. The specimen 
is in full plumage, but has only eight rectrices, so that two must 
have been lost, as the species is supposed to possess 10. In Tem- 
minck's original plate it is figured with 12, probably through error. 

The specimen secured in Formosa had the bill dull black; iris 
Rood's brown; tarsus and toes black. 

In Argentina the species has been recorded previously from 
Mocovi and Ocampo, Santa Fe, and from Itapua, Misiones. 

Mr. Ridgway ^^ calls attention to the fact that this species, with 
nonexaspidean tarsi and only 10 rectrices, must be removed from 
the Tyrannidae, and suggests tentatively that it be put in the 
Furnariidae. 

Family FORMICARIIDAE 

TARABA MAJOR MAJOR (Vicillot) 

Thamnophilus major Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 3, 1818, p. 313. 
(Paraguay.) 

The present species was recorded at the following points: Re- 
sistencia, Chaco, July 9, 1920 (adult male taken) ; Las Palmas, 
Chaco, July 19 to 31 (male secured July 19, and a second one on 
July 31) ; Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, August 8 to 18 (two pairs, shot 
August 8 and 18, respectively) ; Formosa, Formosa, August 23 and 
24; Kilometer 80, west of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, September 8 
and 11; Kilometer 200 (in the same region), September 25; Tapia, 
Tucuman, April 10 (a female shot) to 13 (male taken), 1921. 

The bill in the pair from Tapia is slightly heq^vier than in others, 
but otherwise the series is very similar, and all are referred to true 

" U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 50, vol. 4, 1907, d. 340. 



^84 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

7)iajor. The two specimens from Tucuman have molted and renewed 
a part of the flight feathers. 

The present species is an inhabitant of thickets or dense growths 
of weeds, and, though as retiring in habit as a chat (Icteria), has 
more curiosity and may be decoyed more readily into view. It 
impresses one as a bird of character that will repay observation with 
curious and interesting traits. When it chooses to appear it is alert, 
certain in every movement, and jaunty in carriage, but often one 
merely has sight of a brilliant red eye glaring with a positively evil 
expression through some crevice between leaves, with only a sug- 
gestion of a darker body behind. The bird is more frequently heard 
than seen, even where it is common. Its calls, usually uttered in a 
complaining tone, are considerably varied, a common one being a 
low pru/i-h-h-h, another tur-r-r te tnh, while others do not lend 
themselves readily to representation. The song, strange and decep- 
tive in volume and tone, may be written as heh heh heh heh heh heh 
heh-h-h-h-h-h quo-ah. It begins slowly, becomes increasingly rapid 
until it changes to a rattle, and then, after a slight pause, terminates 
in a squall exactly like that uttered by a gray squirrel {Sciurus 
carolinensis) . During August the birds were usually in pairs, and 
males sang constantly in early morning in sunny weather. 

The Toba Indians called this species soo loo likh^ while the 
Anguete knew the female as al lakh tik tik, and the male as yum 
u oukh. 

An adult male, taken July 9, when fresh, had the maxilla and line 
of the gonys blackish slate ; rest of mandible, basal tomia of maxilla 
and tarsus gray number 6 ; iris spectrum red. The colors in females 
were similar, though both sexes varied slightly in the depth of red 
of the eye. 

THAMNOPHILUS RUFICAPILLUS RUFICAPILLUS Vieillot 

ThamnopMlus mflcapillus Vieicllot, Nouv. Diet. Hist Nat., vol. 3, 1816, 
p. 318. (Corrientes, Argentina. ) ^^ 

The present species seems to be rare or local, as it was seen on 
only two occasions. At the Paso Alamo, on the Arroyo Sarandi, 
nn adult male in rather worn plumage was taken on February 2, 
1921. Another specimen, preserved in alcohol, was secured near 
Rio Negro, Uruguay, on February 16. The birds were found in 
dense brush near water, where they worked slowly about under 
heavy cover, in habit suggesting ThamnopMlus gilvigaster. Their 
call note was a low whistle. 

Hellmayr^^ gives T hainnophilus suhfasciatus Sclater and Salvin 
and T. Tnarcapatae Hellmayr as subspecies of T. ruf,ca'pillus. Mr. 

62 Type locality selected by Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., vol. 13, pt. 3, 
Nov. 20, 1924, p. 108. 

ssArch. Naturg., vol. 85, 1919 (November, 1920), p. 85. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 285 

Kidgway has recognized the genus Rhopochares of Cabanis and 
Heine for the present group, but I have preferred to use the broader 
generic term for it. 

THAMNOPHILUS GILVIGASTER GILVIGASTER Pelzeln 

Thamnophilus gilvigaster " Temminck " Pelzeln, Ornith. Brasiliens, 
1868, p. 76. (Curytiba, Parana, Brazil.) 

The male of the common ant bird of Uruguay differs from that 
of northern Argentina in having the under tail coverts and flanks 
darker buff, and the darker gray of the breast extended back to 
the upper abdomen. Females likewise share the darker color of 
the underparts so that both sexes may be distinguished at a glance 
from dineUi'i. Doctor Hellmayr^* has considered the buff-bellied 
ant birds of southern distribution as subspecies of Thamnophilus 
caemlescens of Paraguay. With all due respect for the weight 
of Doctor Hellmayr's opinion in such matters, I am not now pre- 
pared to accept this in view of the greater difference in color 
between the sexes in caerulescens. Although gilvigaster belongs 
in the same group as caerulescens, and apparently occupies a con- 
tiguous range, intergradation between the two does not seem to 
have been proven, T haiiuiophilus ochrus Oberholser is the female 
of T. caerulescens, as is shown by examination of the type. In the 
specimens that I have seen, gilvigaster is readily told from Thamno- 
philus caerulescens Vieillot by the buff on the posterior portion of 
the body and by its slightly larger bill. 

Males were collected along the Rio Cebollati, near Lazcano, 
Uruguay, on February 5 and 8, 1921, and an immature female on 
February 5. An immature male was shot at Rio Negro, Uruguay, 
on Februar}^ 17, and an adult female on February 19. The latter 
specimens are fully as dark as those from eastern Uruguay and 
show no intergradation toward the paler Argentine form. Aplin^^ 
has recorded a bird of this genus from the thickets along the 
Arroyo Grande (a tributary of the Rio Negro) near Santa Elena, 
but I failed to note it at San Vicente near the coast of southeastern 
Uruguay. In its distribution in Uruguay this bird from its thicket- 
haunting habit would of necessity follow the courses of streams. 

These birds were common near Lazcano, from February 5 to 8, 
and in the vicinity of Rio Negro, from February 14 to 19, On 
both the Rio Cebollati and Rio Negro they inhabited dense, heavy 
growth near the streams where they moved about with jerldng 
tails, or occasionally perched quietly, twitching the tail at intervals. 
They showed considerable curiosity at strange sounds, and came 
about to peer at me, sometimes within 3 or 4 feet of my face, 

" Nov. Zool., vol. 28, May, 1921, p. 199, and Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. ser., vol, 13, 
pt. 3, Nov. 20, 1914, p. 102. 
"Ibis, 1894, p. 185. 

54207—26 19 



286 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

jerking their tails continually. They have several soft mewing or 
nasal notes, but do not become as excited at intrusion as do many 
small birds. A male taken February 7 (preserved as a skeleton) 
was in breeding condition and from the appearance of the ab- 
domen had been engaged in incubation. 

THAMNOPHILUS GILVIGASTER DINELLII Berlepsch 

Thamnophilus dinellii Berlepsch, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 16, May 28, 
1906, p. 99. (Estancia Isca Yacu, Santiago del Estero, Argentina.)^'' 

The bird here treated has been known variously as maculatios, 
caerulescens, and gilvigaster until dinellii was described by Berlepsch. 
The present combination seems to have been made first by Hartert.^'' 

Of this form I collected the following skins : Resistencia, Chaco, 
July 9, 1920, male and female; Las Palmas, Chaco, July 13, 14, 20, 
21, and 30, two males and three females; Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, 
August 8 and 11, two females; Tapia, Tucuman, April 12, 1921, 
immature female. These differ from gilvigaster from Uruguay in 
uniformly paler coloration on the ventral surface, Avith the grayish 
wash of the breast lighter and less extensive. Birds from the Chaco 
agree in general with the single skin from Tapia, Tucuman, though 
this bird from Tucuman, and two from the Eiacho Pilaga. Formosa, 
are slightly grayer on the dorsal surface than the series from the 
Territory of Chaco. 

The present ant bird, in the Chaco, was common in dense under- 
growth under heavy trees, but at times was found in more open 
groves scattered over the savannas. In general it had the motions 
of a titmouse, save that it did not cling to limbs, but with this 
mannerism combined the jerking of the tail and twitching of the 
wings of a flycatcher. It fed at times on the ground, where it hopped 
slowly about, pausing to peer around, but more often worked through 
limbs rising 3 or 4 meters from the ground. The birds had much 
curiosity and were easily called out from the heavier coverts. Their 
notes were somewhat varied, the usual one resembling pruh yruh 
pruh-h, given in a mewing tone. In spring, males mounted into the 
top of some bush or low tree where, concealed in the leaves, they 
sang a pleasing whistled repetition of notes suggestive of the song 
of the white-breasted nuthatch {Sitta carolinensis) . 

The Toba Indians called them Jcwo o likh. 

A male, shot July 9, had the maxilla and extreme tip of the 
mandible black; base of mandible gray number 5, with an indis- 
tinct, grayish line along the cutting edge ; tarsus and toes slate gray, 
underside of toes yellowish ; iris dark brown. A female was similar 
but had the colors somewhat duller. 



58 Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. ser., vol. 13, pt. 3, Nov. 20, 1924. p. 103, 
states ttiat Berlepsch's type specimen comes from Santiago del Estero, though In the 
original description it is listed from Tucuman. 

«' Nov. Zool.. vol. 16, 1909, p. 221. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 287 

This ant bird was recorded at the following localities : Resistencia, 
Chaco, July 9, 1920; Las Palmas, Chaco, July 13 to 30; Kiacho 
Pilaga, Formosa, August 7 to 18; Formosa, August 24; Kilometer 
25, Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, September 1; Kilometer 80 (Puerto 
Pinasco), September 9, 11, and 15; Kilometer 200 (in the same 
region), September 25 ; Tapia, Tucuman, April 12, 1921. The species 
was uncommon both at Tapia and west of Puerto Pinasco. No 
specimens were taken in the Paraguayan Chaco, so that it is possible 
that birds from that region belong to another form. 

MYRMORCHILUS STRIGILATUS SUSPICAX Wetmore 

Myrmorchilus strigilatus suspicax Wetmobe, Journ. Washington Acad. 
Sci., vol. 12, Aug. 19, 1922, p. 327. (Riacho Pilaga, near Kilometor 
182, Ferrocarril del Estado, Gobernacion de Formosa, Argentina.) 

The present form, described from specimens from the Riacho 
Pilaga, Formosa, and the Rio Bermejo, in Argentina, differs from 
typical strigilatus from Bahia, Brazil (the type locality) in moi'o 
buffy superciliary stripe, browner post-ocular mark, and buffy wash 
on the sides, flanks, and under tail coverts. Mr. Ridgway^* in 
including Myrino7'chilus in a section containing birds with 10 
rectrices was misled by an imperfect specimen as, in a small series 
of skins, I find 12 tail feathers present. 

At the Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, the present form was fairly 
common as it was recorded on August 11, 13, and 18; eight speci- 
mens including males and females were secured on the first and 
last of these dates. Individuals recorded but not taken near Kilo- 
meter 80, west of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, on September 8 and 
9, belong perhaps to this southern subspecies. 

These birds range in pairs in dense undergrowth where it is 
difficult to see them, and it was several days after my arrival at the 
Riacho Pilaga before I succeeded in obtaining specimens, though 
they had been heard frequently. The call note of the male is a 
loud, shrill whistle that is repeated several times, and may be 
represented as chee-ah chee-ah chee-ah chee-ah. This is answered 
by the female in a lower tone. On the ground they walk about 
easily, usually under such heav}^ cover that I had mere glimpses 
of their dark forms. When excited they bobbed up near at hand 
with a loud thrut thrut of the wings, at times on open limbs, where 
they rested, at intervals swinging the tail over the back like the 
handle of a pump, frequently through an angle of 90°. 

The Anguete Indians called them keh yow. 

An adult male (taken August 11), when first killed, had the biU 
black, becoming neutral gray at the base of the mandible; tarsus 
mouse gray; iris dull brown, 

M Birds of North and Middle America, vol. 5, 1911, p. 13. 



288 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

STIGMATURA BUDYTOIDES INZONATA Wetmore and Peters 

Stigmatura budytoidos inzonata Wetmore and Peters, Proc. Biol. Soc. 
Washington, vol. 36, May 1, 1923, p. 143. (Tapia, Tucuman.) 

The present race differs from jS. h. flavo-cinerea in the presence 
of a white spot on the inner web of the outer tail feather, and by 
the bright yellow of superciliary and underparts. S. h. hudytoides 
has the white marking in the tail more extensive. It was fairly 
common at Tapia, Tucuman, from April 9 to 13, 1921, where seven 
skins preserved were collected on the following dates: Two males, 
April 9 and 10, a female and one of unlaiown sex on April 11, a 
male on April 12, a male and one with sex not determined on 
April 13. The birds frequented dry, rather open forest of low 
trees, with frequent clumps of thorny bushes, where they ranged 
well under cover in pairs or little bands of three or four indi- 
viduals. As they hopped about in search for food they jerked 
and twitched the tail, frequently throwing it above the back, while 
the wings were drooped, a mannerism that with their slender forms 
gave them the appearance of gnatcatchers. In fact, as PolioptUa 
dumicola was found in the same situations it was at times difficult 
to distinguish readily between the two, when the birds were partly 
concealed behind screens of branches. At intervals Stigmatura 
emitted a series of sharp, explosive call notes in which two or more 
joined, a medley that suggested the explosive calls of Tyr annus 
verticalis. Save for these the birds would often have passed un- 
noted in the scrub. Their flight was weak and tilting, and was 
seldom pursued for any great distance. Specimens taken were in 
various stages of molt. 

Mr. Ridgway ^^ calls attention to the resemblance of Stigmatura 
(usually considered a tyrannid) to certain Formicariidae and sug- 
gests that it may belong in that family. 

STIGMATURA BUDYTOIDES FLAVO-CINEREA Burmeister 

Phylloscartes flavo-cinereus Burmeister, Reise La Plata-Staaten, vol. 2, 
1861, p. 455. (Valleys of Sierra Uspallata, Mendoza, Argentina.) 

S. h. flavo-cinerea is distinguished from the northern forms of the 
species by the duller yellow of the undersurf ace and the white super- 
ciliary. The two specimens that I have seen have no indication of a 
white spot on the inner web of the outer rectrix. A specimen se- 
cured by the Page expedition on the Rio Bermejo in March, 1860, is 
intermediate between flavo-cin^erea and i7izonata of Tucuman, as it 
has the dull breast of -fiavo-cinerea and the tail of inzonata^ while 
the superciliary is very dull yellow. 

»9U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 50, vol. 4, 1907, p. 339. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 289 

An adult male, secured near Victorica, Pampa, December 27, 1920, 
hopped about in the bushes at the border of a thicket Avith the tail 
held like that of a gnatcatcher at a jaunty angle above the back. 

The bill in this specimen was black ; iris hessian brown ; tarsus and 
toes dark neutral gray. 

EUSCARTHMUS MELORYPHUS MELORYPHUS Wied 

Euscarthmus meloryphus Wied, Beitr. Nat. Brasilien, vol. 3, 1831, p. 947. 
("Campo geral " and the border line between the Provinces of Minas 
Geraes and Bahia, Brazil.) 

An adult male secured at Las Palmas, Chaco, on July 23, 1920, 
does not seem to differ markedly from a specimen of this bird in the 
Field Museum from Macaco Secco, near Andarahy, Brazil. In the 
skin from Las Palmas dull olive-green tips on the central crown 
feathers almost entirely obscure the ochraceous-tawny color of the 
central crown stripe. 

This small bird was encountered in swampy woods in a heavy 
growth of caraguata (Aechmea disticliantlia) , a spiny-leaved plant 
that covered the forest floor, where it worked about a few inches 
from the ground, hopping slowly over the broad plant leaves or 
fluttering feebly from perch to perch in its search for food. 

Oberholser^° has indicated that, through a type fixation by Gray 
in 1840 (List Gen. Birds, p. 32), the genus Euscarthmus Wied, 1831, 
is applicable to the present species, replacing Hapalocercus Cubanis, 
1847. Mr. Ridgway ^'^ considers this genus as possibly a member of 
the Formicariidae. It is certainly not a true flycatcher, and is 
included tentatively at this point. 

Family RHINOCRYPTIDAE "^ 

SCYTALOPUS FUSCUS Gould 

Scytalopus fuscus, Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, February, 1837, p. 89. 
(Chile.) 

An immature male in full plumage, secured April 27, 1921, near 
Concon, Chile, was the only bird of this group encountered. While 
crossing a deep gulch with a small stream at the bottom, heavily 
shaded by a dense growth of trees, the individual in question, in its 
dull plumage barely visible in the somber shadows, came silently into 



««Auk, 1923, p. 327. 

«^ U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 50, pt. 4, p. 339. 

'^Apparently the first family designation for the tapaculos is that of Lafresnaye, 
who, in an Essai de I'Ordre dcs Passcreaux (the first part of which seems to have been 
published at Falaise in 1838, though doubt attaches to the date of succeeding sections), 
has as his third family (p. 13) the Rbinomidae. This, Lafresnaye continues, has for 
its type the genus Rhinomye Geoffroy, established in 1832, an evident emendation of 
Rhinomya. With Rhinocrypta replacing Rhinomya as a generic term the family name 
for the group becomes Rhinocryptidae instead of Pteroptochidae or Hylactidae, two 
terms that have been in common use. 



290 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

a dense mat of tangled branches 3 meters above the stream, attracted 
by a squeak, and bobbed about in a wrenlike manner. The bill, in 
life, was black; base of mandible light neutral gra}^; tarsus fuscous 
black ; toes smoke gray ; iris carob brown. 

The bird measures as follows: Wing, 52; tail, 44; exposed culmen, 
12.5; tarsus, 18.5 mm. 

RHINOCRYPTA LANCEOLATA (Is. Geoffroy and d'Orbigny) 

RMnomvQ, lanceolata, Isidore Geoffeoy and cI'Orbigny, Mag. Zool., 1832, 
cl. 2, pi. 3. (Cai-meu and Salina d' Andres Paz, Rio Negro.*"*) 

In the valley of the Rio Negro, below General E,oca, Rio Negro, 
the present species was common from November 23 to December 3, 
1920; a female was taken November 23 and males on November 23, 
27, and December 3. The birds were encountered usually in rather 
heavy growths of open brush that clothed the arid flood plain of 
the stream, and few seemed to range inland through the still drier, 
gravelly hills that formed the northern border of the valley. 
Though common, E. lanceolata was shy, and was seen or secured 
only at the expense of considerable effort. The birds normally ran 
about on the ground with crest erect and tail cocked at an angle 
above the back. As I traversed their haunts I was greeted by a low 
vrut prut prut^ or a musical tulloch, from the brush on either hand, 
and occasionally had a glimpse of one of the elusive birds as it 
darted across some little opening. Occasionally, when safe behind 
a protective screen of low weeds or a drooping branch, one stopped 
to peer back at me, or less frequently with a running jump one 
sprang into the branches of a bush and clambered up for a 
better outlook. It is doubtful if Rh'mocrypta has occasion to fly a 
hundred meters in the course of a month, a circumstance that has 
given rise to the appropriate local name of corre corre que no vuela. 
The slight breast muscles were pale in color, indicating a poor blood 
supply, and loose and flabby in substance in contract to the strong, 
heavy leg muscles. The heavy operculum that overhung either nos- 
tril was movable, and was so developed that it may serve as a pro- 
tective device that aids breathing during the constant heavy wind- 
storms of these regions, during which the loose earth forms a dense 
dust cloud in the air. On December 3 I found a nest placed more 
than a meter from the ground amid heavy branches in a dense, 
thorny bush. The somewhat bulky structure was an untidy affair 
made of weed stems, bits of bark, and grasses, lined with finer 
material. The top was covered in an arch, and the entrance was a 
large irregular opening in one side. The nest contained two white 
eggs and two of the spotted eggs of the glossy cowbird {Molothrus 

83 d'Orbigny, Voy. Am^r. M6rid., Ois., vol. 4, pt. 3, 1835-44, p. 195. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 291 

bonariensis) . The two white eggs measure, respectively, in milli- 
meters, 24.5 by 18.3 and 27.3 by 20.5. The smaller egg has a glossier, 
more irregular surface than the large one, which is smoother and 
dull in color. The difference in size and appearance between the 
two is so striking that I believe that the larger egg alone is that of 
RMnocryfta^ and that the smaller one was deposited in the nest by 
some Synallaods. The parent {R. lanceolata) slipped down from 
the nest through the branches to the ground; when secured, to my 
surprise, it was a male. 

Near Mendoza, Mendoza, this species was fairly common on March 
13, 1921, but was very shy. At Potrerillos, Mendoza, it was recorded 
on March 17, and several were seen and a female taken at El Salto, at 
an elevation of 1,800 meters. Others were recorded on March 27 
below Tunuyan, Mendoza, through a low range of sandy hills east of 
the Rio Tunuyan. In fall the birds were much shyer than during the 
breeding season, and, though their notes were heard, it was only by 
chance that one was seen as it ran across some little opening in the 
brush. Usually they took care to edge aside without exposing them- 
selves. The fall specimen secured is brighter, bufRer brown above 
and on the flanks and under tail coverts than summer birds, 
but is otherwise similar. The difference in color is attributed to the 
fact that this bird is in fresh fall plumage, while the others are some- 
what worn. 

An adult male, taken November 27, had the maxilla and tip of 
mandible dull black ; base of mandible, neutral gray ; iris, Vandyke 
brown; tarsus and toes, black. 

TELEDROMAS FUSCUS (Sclater and Salvin) 

Rhinocrypta fusca Sclateb and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, p. 161. 
( Mendoza. ) 

Near General Roca, Rio Negro, the barrancolino, as this tapaculo 
is known, was fairly common from November 25 to December 2. 
1920. Adult males, preserved as skins, were taken on November 25 
and 26, and a female on November 26. The species was found in 
low, open brush over the dry gravel hills that bordered the level 
valley of the Rio Negro, in a region wholly without permanent 
water. As I passed along the shallow, steep-walled barrancas that 
traversed this area, I had an occasional glimpse of a wrenlike bird 
of moderate size, as, with tail cocked over its back, it sprinted away 
over open ground, swerving constantly behind low clumps of vege- 
tation for protection. Like snowy plover the birds ran on and on 
and on long after one might expect them to stop, and hard running 
was required on the part of the collector in order to keep up with 
them. At other times as I cared for specimens that I had shot one 



292 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

would run out from the shelter of bushes with tail erect and wings 
drooped to watch me curiously. 

The song of this sj^ecies is loud, and, though simple in its nature,. 
was rather pleasing in contrast to the harsh surroundings among 
which it was heard. It may be represented by the syllables took took 
took took took^ repeated rapidly. In running Teledromas takes 
very long steps. In a series of tracks that I measured I found the 
steps to average 150 mm. apart, a remarkable distance when it is 
considered that the length of the bird from bill to tail is less than 
175 mm. 

On the evening of November 25, while setting a line of mouse- 
traps along a small barranca, I flushed a female from the entrance 
of a nest tunnel, an opening near the top of perpendicular cut bank 
in loose soil, 3 feet above the bottom of the dry channel. The round 
tunnel, from 60 to 75 mm. in diameter, led back for a distance of 
375 mm. to end in a chamber 150 mm. in diameter, with the bottom 
lined with bits of grass that formed a roughly, cup-shaped nest. The 
two eggs, in which incubation had begun, were white in color, with- 
out markings. One was broken in transportation. The other meas- 
ures, in millimeters, as follows : 26.2 by 20.5. 

The genus Teledromas Wetmore and Peters^* for the present 
species is distinguished from Rhinocrypta Gray by its smooth, un- 
crested head, relatively stronger, heavier bill; short under tail cov- 
erts ; and relatively longer hind toe and claw. In addition, it will be 
noted that while T. fuscus made its nest in a tunnel in the side of a 
cut bank, R. lanceolata^ as I have noted elsewhere, deposited its eggs 
in a stick nest in a low shrub. 

MELANOPAREIA MAXIMILIANI ARGENTINA (Hellmayr) 

Synallaxis maximiliani argentina Hellmayr, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 19^ 
Apr. 29, 1907, p. 74. (Norco, Tucuman, Argentina.) 

Four specimens of this bird secured (three skins and one in alco- 
hol) from the localities listed below, in the absence of comparative 
material, are referred on the basis of range to the subspecies argen- 
tina. W. D. Miller ^^ has with reason removed the present genus 
from the Formicariidae to the Rhinocryptidae, in part on inf9rma- 
tion from the bodies of the present specimens (preserved in alcohol) 
as when, at his request, I examined these I found that they pos- 
sessed four notches on the posterior border of the metasternum. It 
may be added that the habits of these birds are not radically dif- 
ferent from those of other tapaculos. Melanopareia ^^ was first taken 

e* rroc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 35, Mar. 20, 1922, p. 41. 

*5 In notes not yet published. 

8" Reichenbach, Handb. Spec. Ornith., August, 1853, p. 164. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 293 

at Las Palmas, Chaco, on July 10, 1920, when an adult male was 
secured. 

At the Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, two were taken (a female and one 
other put in alcohol) on August 14, and others were seen. On the 
Sierra San Xavier near Tafi Vie jo, Tucuman, they were fairly 
common on the open slopes just above the forest on April 17, 1921, 
and a female was secured. In the region of the Chaco the species 
was found in heavy saw grass near the borders of low thickets. The 
birds flew or climbed into the bushes where they worked away to 
safety or remained at rest, often giving a curious tilting jerk to 
the tail. They seemed to feed mainly on the ground. Above Tafi 
Vie jo they clambered slowly about among dense growths of weeds. 
The call note was a rapid chit tuck. 

Family COTINGIDAE 

PACHYRAMPHUS VIRmiS YIRIDIS (Vieillot) 

Tityra viridis Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 3, 1816, p. 348. (Para- 
guay.) 

A female, July 13 and a male July 14, 1920, shot near Las Palmas, 
Chaco, were the only ones seen. The birds were encountered in heavy 
forest near a stream, where they worked through the tops of the 
trees in search of insects, in movement suggesting vireos, as they 
frequently flew to a perch and remained for several seconds while 
peering about. A large insect was beaten heavily on a limb. The 
female uttered a low note that may be rendered as preer. The male, 
when first killed, had the bill clear green-blue gray, except the tip 
of the maxilla which was dusky ; tarsus and toes deep glaucous gi'ay ; 
iris dull brown. 

The two taken are similar to a specimen from Sapucay, Paraguay, 
and agree with it in being larger than P. v. cuvierii from Bahia. 
The wing measurement of the skins from Las Palmas is as follows : 
Male, 80.4 mm. ; female, 76 mm. 

PACHYRAMPHUS POLYCHOPTERUS NOTIUS Brewster and Bangs " 

Pachyrhamphus notius Brewster and Bangs, Proc. New England Zool. 
Club, vol. 2, Feb. 15, 1901, p. 53. (Concepcion del Uruguay.) 

The only one observed was an adult male that was shot January 
31, 1921, near San Vicente, Uruguay, in a small tract of low forest 
near the Laguna Castillos, where the bird perched like a flycatcher 
on a dead limb in a small, well-shaded opening among the trees. 
This specimen, with a wing measurement of 86.5 mm., presents in a 

^ For use of the name notius, see Bangs and Penard, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 
vol. 35, Oct. 17, 1922, p. 225. 

54207—26 20 



294 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

marked degree the characters of large size and dark coloration that 
distinguish the southern form. 

XENOPSARIS ALBINUCHA (Burmeister) 

Pachyrhamphus albinucha BuRMEasTER, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1868, p. 
635. (Rio de la Plata, near Buenos Aires.) 

Near Laguna Wall, 200 kilometers west of Puerto Pinasco, an 
adult male was taken September 25, 1920, as it watched alertly for 
insects from a low perch at the border of a thicket of vinal. The 
bill in this specimen is decidedly larger than in a topotype of the 
species examined in the collections of the United States National 
Museum, and may perhaps represent a distinct form. The culmen 
from the base measures 12.3 mm., while in the bird from Argentina it 
is 10.4 mm. Difference between the two in heaviness of bill is no- 
ticeable. A second specimen from Monteagudo, Tucuman, a male, 
in the collection of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, agrees in 
size with the bird from Buenos Aires (culmen from base 11 mm.). 

CASIORNIS RUFA (Vieillot) 

Thamnophilus rufus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 3, 1816, p. 316. 
(Paraguay.) 

Near Las Palmas, Chaco, a female of this cotinga was shot July 
13, 1920, and another, placed in alcohol, was taken July 21. Males 
were secured at Kilometer 80, west of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, 
September 11 and 16, and others were seen at Kilometer 25, Septem- 
ber 1, and on the eastern bank of the Rio Paraguay, opposite Puerto 
Pinasco, on September 30. The female from Las Palmas is deeper 
rufous above than others examined. A specimen shot July 21 had 
the tip of the bill dull black; base of mandible tilleul buff; base of 
maxilla avellaneous ; iris natal brown ; tarsus and toes deep purplish 
gray. Hellmayr '^^ considers C. fusca Sclater and Salvin, of which 
I have seen only one skin, a race of rufa Vieillot. 

A retiring species, the present form was found singly or in pairs 
only in dense undergrowth in heavy woods, where it hopped about 
from perch to perch or remained motionless among green leaves in 
the pose of a flycatcher. The call note, heard rarely, resembled 
tsa ah given in a high-pitched tone. 

HABRURA PECTORALIS PECTORALIS (Vieillot) 

Sylvia pectoralis Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 11, 1817, p. 210. 
(Paraguay.) 

An adult male secured at Las Palmas, Chaco, on July 17, 1920. 
agrees in size and color with another taken (with an adult female) 

«8Nov. Zool., vol. 15, June, 1908, p. 56. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 295 

near the Rio Paraguay at Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, on September 
3, so that both are assumed to represent the typical form, which 
would seem then to range south through the Chaco of northern 
Argentina, A female in the Page collection, taken at Parana, has 
the underparts browner and the bill larger than the female from 
Puerto Pinasco, and is supposed to be H. f. minimus (Gould). ®^ 
Habrura hogotensis Chapman,'" of which there is an adult male, 
taken by Hermano Apolinar Maria at the type-locality, in the United 
States National Museum, differs from 'pectoralis in much more ru- 
fescent coloration and in Avholly black bill, so that it seems to repre- 
sent a distinct species. 

On the two occasions that I encountered this tiny bird, it was 
found among weeds and low bushes in pastures not far distant from 
water. The few individuals seen, rather wild and difficult to ap- 
proach, fluttered about a few inches from the ground until flushed, 
when they flew with a rapid, quickly undulating flight to low perches 
on the sides or tops of small weeds. When at rest they occasionally 
twitched the tail quickly. In general appearance and mannerisms 
they suggested small flycatchers. 

Mr. Ridgway '^ considers this bird out of place in the Tyrannidae 
and suggests that it may be better located among the Cotingas. 

Family TYRANNIDAE 

AGRIORNIS LIVIDA LIVIDA (Kittlitz) 

Tamnophilus lividus, Kittlitz, M6m. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint Petersbourg, 
vol. 2, 183.5, p. 465, pi. 1. (Valparaiso and Concepcion Bay, Chile.) 

Three specimens of this large species, all in full winter plumage, 
were secured at Concon, Chile, a male on April 24, 1921, and females 
on April 25 and 28. Wing measurements of these three are as fol- 
lows: Male, 131.5 mm.; females, 124 and 124.5 mm. Agriornis I. 
fortis Berlepsch "^ is distinguished by larger size and paler colora- 
tion. Two skins of fortis secured from E. Budin, taken April 17 
and 27, 1918, at Puesto Burro, Maiten, Chubut, have wing measure- 
ments of 144.6 (male) and 134.5 mm. (female). Two immature 
birds (U. S. National Museum coll.), secured February 24, 1897, at the 
head of the Rio Chico, Santa Cruz, and March 7, 1897, on the Pacific 
slope of the Cordillera, beyond the locality first mentioned, have the 
head, back, and upper breast indistinctly streaked with dusky, but 

Tachijramplius minimus Gould, Zool. Beagle, pt. 3, Birds, July, 1839, p. 51. (Mon- 
tevideo, Uruguay.) 

""> Habrnra pectoralis hogotensis Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 34, Dec. 30, 
191-0, p. 646. (Suba, Bogota Savanna, Colombia.) 

'1 U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 50, pt. 4, 1907, p. 339. 

''^Agriornis liuida fortis Berlepsch, Proc. Fourth Int. Ornith. Cong., February, 1907, 
p. 352. (Valle del Lago, Chubut, Argentina.) 



296 BULKETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL. MUSEUM 

otherwise resemble adults. These birds are in molt from juvenal 
to first winter plumage. 

Near Concon, Chile, the large Agriornis was common from April 
24 to 28, 1921. The birds Avere found on open flats near the Rio 
Aconcagua, or in pastures dotted with bushes on the hill slopes 
above, where they rested quietl}^ on the top of some bush that offered 
outlook. Occasionally one dropped down to the ground where, like 
a robin, it ran rapidly along for a few steps and then paused ab- 
ruptly with head thrown up and body erect. The long, heavy bill 
marked them from other birds of similar size, even at a distance. 
All were silent. 

In the adult male of this species the tenth primary is abruptly 
narrowed at the tip for 10 to 16 mm., while the tip of the ninth is 
narrowed for about half the amount of the tenth. In females the 
primaries are normal. In the male taken at Concon the primaries 
resemble those of the female. Apparently this sexual distinction 
does not develop until the primaries have been molted once, so that 
the wing of males in their first winter is like that of females. 

The male shot April 24 had the maxilla dull black ; mandible light 
drab, shaded with deep quaker drab toward the tip; iris anny 
brown; tarsus and toes, dull black. 

AGRIORNIS STRIATA STRIATA Gould 

Agriornis striaius Goulu, ZooI. Voy. Beagle, pt. 3, Birds, 1839, p. 56. 
(Santa Cruz, Argentina.) 

Specimens of the present species secured number three, an adult 
male from General Roca, Rio Negro, taken November 29, 1920, an 
adult female from Zapala, Neuquen, shot December 7, and a male 
from Tunuyan, Mendoza, collected March 27, 1921. The two sum- 
mer birds are in somewhat worn breeding dress, while the fall skin 
is in full winter plumage. The female has the two outermost pri- 
maries very slightly sinuated on the outer margin. In adult males 
the ninth and tenth primaries are narrowed distally, and are incised 
deeply for 12 to 16 mm. at the tip, this incision being only slightly 
less on the ninth than on the outermost primary. The form Agri- 
ornis s. andecola^^ of which I have seen no specimens, is said by 
Berlepsch ^* to differ from tlie typical bird in having fainter brown- 
ish black throat stripes and a stronger buffy wash on the lower 
surface. It ranges in the higher Andes of western Bolivia. 

Near General Roca, Rio Negro, these flycatchers were encountered 
on November 29, 1920, and again on December 2, in a region of arid 
gravel hills covered with an open growth of low brush. They often 

''^ Pepoaza andecola d'Orbigny, Voy. Amer. Merid., vol. 4, pt. 3, Oiscaux, 1835-1844, 
p. 351. (5,000 meters above the sea, in Bolivia.) 

■^^Proc. Fourth Int. Ornith. Con<r., February, 10O7, p. 464. 



BIRDS OP ARGENTINA, PARA.GUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 297 

rested in usual flycatcher fashion on the top of a bush, but frequently 
dropped down to run raj^idly about on the ground. They were wary 
and when approached flew away barely above the ground, many times 
traveling for long distances before a pause, passing so low among 
the bushes that it was difficult to follow their course. Others were 
seen Dec mber 7 and 9 in similar territory near Zapala, Neuquen, 
four being observed together on one occasion, when they pursued 
one another with high-pitched, petulant calls. On March 27, 1921, 
several were seen in brush-grown areas east of the Rio Tunuyan, 
near Tunuyan, Mendoza, where they sought the tops of bushes that 
offered a commanding outlook over the surrounding ground. At 
rest their erect position, large head, and long bill are marked char- 
acters, while when flying their clay brown coloration and long wings 
are displayed. 

A male, taken NoA^ember 29, had the maxilla dull black ; mandible 
pale drab gray ; iris natal brown ; tarsus and toes black. 

AGRIORNIS MONTANA (d'Orbigny and Lafresnaye) 

Pepoaza montana (I'Orbigny and Lafresnaye, ]\Iag. Zool., 1837, CI. 2, 
p. 64. (Chuquisaca, Bolivia.) 

A male was shot at an altitude of 1,500 meters above Potrerillos, 
Mendoza, on March 17, 1921, and another (preserved in alcohol) 
was secured March 19, near El Salto, at 1,800 meters. The skin 
secured is of a bird in molt into first-winter plumage that lias the 
primaries normal as in females. In the fully adult male the ninth 
and tenth primaries are slender and are narrowed for a distance 
of 14 or 15 mm. at the tip. Berlepsch ''^ has found that Agr'i&rnis 
maritima''^ (d'Orbigny and Lafresnaye) is based on an adult male 
of A. montana of the same authors. As the name TnontaTia occurs 
on the page preceding the one where maritima is found, it has 
priority and must be used for the species. 

Though it is probable that the bird from western and southern 
Argentina should be distinguished as the subspecies leucura Gould," 
material at hand does not include specimens from Bolivia, so that 
adequate comparisons may not be made. 

The two examples of Agriornis montana observed were found on 
the ground or on low bushes near streams. They did not differ in 
actions from striata or livida, but were readily distinguished by 
the white in the tail. 

The male taken had the bill dull black; iris natal brown; tarsus 
and toes black. 

™ Proc. Fourth Int. Ornith. Congr., February, 1907, p. 464-465. 

""^Pepoaza maritima d'Orbigny and Lafresnaye, Mag. Zool., CI. 2, 1837, p. 65. (Cobija, 
BoUvia.) 

''''Agriornis leucurua Gould, Zool. Voy. Beagle, pt. 3, Birds, 1839, pi. 13. (Patagonia.) 



298 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

TAENIOPTERA CINEREA CINEREA (Vieillot) 

Tyrannus cinerciis Vieillot, Anal. Nouv. Ornith. El^m., 1816, p. 68. (Argen- 
tina.'^) 

Examination of the type and three other specimens of T. c. 
ohscura Cory^® indicates that this form is sli^jhtly darker than true 
cinerea. 

This flycatcher was recorded at the following points : Las Palmas, 
Chaco, July 13 to August 1; Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, August 8 
to 21 ; Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, September 3 ; Kilometer 80, west 
of Puerto Pinasco, September 8; San Vicente, Uruguay, January 
26 to February 2; Lazcano, Uruguay, February 3 to 9 (noted on 
February 9 as far as Corrales). Three adult males taken at Las 
Palmas, Chaco, July 28, Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, August 8 and 
San Vicente, Uruguay, January 26 were preserved as skins. The 
series of this species at hand is far from adequate for comparison, 
but it may be noted that a female from Matto Grosso appears paler 
above and has a broader light tip on the tail than the specimens 
listed above. The two skins from Las Palmas and Formosa are in 
full winter plumage. The one from Uruguay is in very worn 
breeding feather, but has not yet begun the molt. 

The iris is martius yellow, lined heavily toward the inner margin 
with peach red, so that at casual inspection it appears wholly red; 
bill and tarsus dull black. 

The present species ranges through the warmer areas of the region 
visited, as none were seen in the pampas of Buenos Aires. It is an 
inhabitant of open country, but chooses localities where trees or 
bushes are not far distant. The birds were encountered frequently 
about houses, or in the outskirts of little towns, or were observed in 
numbers along roads that wound through the open country. They 
chose commanding perches on posts, tops of bushes, telegraph wires, 
or, failing these, on elevated clods or little eminences on the ground, 
where they rested with heads drawn down in usual flycatcher atti- 
tude in watch for prey. When food was sighted they darted down 
to the ground to seize it, alighted perhaps to run along for a few 
steps, and then returned to a higher perch. Their wings were long 
and pointed and their flight, accompanied by a flashing of the black 
and white wing markings, light and graceful. As they alight the 
wings are often raised above the back for a second until they gain 
a secure hold on the perch. They are alert, active, and graceful in 
all their movements. In coloration they are strongly suggestive of 
a mocking bird {Mivius), and even close at hand give this impres- 
sion, a likeness that is at once belied when the bright red eye, pointed 

■« See Braboume and CTiubb, Birds South America, 1912, p. 259. 

w Field Mus. Nat. Hi.st., Orn. Ser., vol. 1, Aug. 30, 1016, p. 341. (Jua, Ceara.) 



BIRDS OP ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 299 

wing, and short tail are observed. During sharp, frosty winter 
mornings in the Chaco, as the first rays of the sun stretched with 
pleasing warmth across the open prairies, these flycatchers often 
uttered a little whistled song that could undoubtedely be readily set 
to the scales used in human music by one versed in musical anno- 
tation. 

In Uruguay they were especially common along the country roads, 
seeming in hot weather more sluggish than during the winter season. 
In the warmer part of the day they chose perches on fence wires, 
where their heads were in the shadow of a post. At rest they were 
so inconspicuous as to be often overlooked. Near San Vicente they 
were common in an extensive forest of palms where they appeared 
to be nesting, though no nests were found. In the summer time I 
heard them utter a faint swee. 

TAENIOPTERA CORONATA (Vieillot) 

Tyrannus Coronatus Vieillot, Tabl. Enc. M6th. Orn., vol. 2, 1823, p. 855. 
(Paraguay.) 

Two were secured at Victorica, Pampa, on December 26, 1920, an 
adult male in worn breeding plumage, and another preserved in alco- 
hol. The birds were encountered on this date in fair numbers scat- 
tered through rolling pampa, where low bushes or small trees were 
spread at intervals. They rested in the tops of bushes or occasion- 
ally among open limbs in a tree, at intervals jerking the tail. The 
flight was slow and direct and was performed with rapid beats of the 
partly opened wings. The birds were silent. 

The adult male taken had the bill and tarsus black; iris natal 
brown. 

TAENIOPTERA IRUPERO (Vieillot) 

Tyrannus Irupero Vieillot, Tabl. Enc. Meth. Orn., vol. 2, 1823, p. 856., 
(Paraguay.) 

Though Hudson has recorded this flycatcher as common through- 
out the Argentina of his time, the species now seems restricted in 
its range, as I did not find it in the open pampas. It was noted at 
the following points: Los Amores, Santa Fe, to Charadrai, Chaco, 
July 5, 1920 (seen from train at frequent intervals) ; Resistencia, 
Chaco, July 9; Las Palmas, Chaco, July 13 to August 1; Riacho 
Pilaga, Formosa, August 8, 14, and 21 ; Formosa, Formosa, August 
23 and 24; Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, September 1 and 3; Kilometer 
80, west of Puerto Pinasco, September 6 to 21 ; Victorica, PamjDa, 
December 23 to 29 ; San Vicente, Uruguay, January 25 to February 
2, 1921; Lazcano, Uruguay, February 3 to 9; Modesto Acuiia, Cor- 
doba, March 31 (seen from train) ; Tapia, Tucuman, April T to 
13. It will be noted that the species was not recorded during field 



300 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

work in the Province of Buenos Aires, nor was it seen on the numer- 
ous occasions that I crossed the Province in trains. In its present 
distribution the species seems common from central Pampa, southern 
Cordoba, central Santa Fe, Entre Rios, and southern Uruguay 
northward into Paraguay and southeastern Brazil. 

Three skins were preserved, an adult male shot at Las Palmas, 
Chaco, July 14, an adult female from Kilometer 80, Puerto Pinasco, 
Paraguay, September 18, and an adult female at Victorica, Pampa, 
December 24, 1920, The last named is in worn soiled breeding 
plumage. Comparisons of small series do not show differences be- 
tween birds from distant localities. Females as well as males have 
the tail tipped with black, so that Sclater's statement "' that the 
female has no black band on the tail is incorrect. In the male the 
narrowed tip of the outer primary measures 8 mm. or more, in 
females it is less than 6 mm. in length. The bill, tarsus, and toes in 
this species are black, the iris vandyke brown. 

This beautiful bird, known as hlanca for, viudita, or irupero, 
though a flycatcher, has the habits and mannerisms of a bluebird 
(Sialia), so much so that as it flits its wings from some fence post 
or bush one is almost surprised that it does not break into warbling 
song- The birds frequent open country, where posts, low trees, 
or bushes offer convenient stations from which to watch for food, 
which seems to consist largely of insects secured from the ground. 
The viudita rests quietly, eyeing the ground intently, until food is 
observed, when it flies gracefully down with rapid movement of its 
long pointed wings to rest and look about for a few seconds before 
returning to a higher perch. The pure white body plumage with 
black primaries and black-tipped tail make it a prominent and beau- 
tiful figure in the landscape, especially since it invariably seeks an 
open perch, in spite of which it is tame and unsuspicious. 

The flight is quick, nervous, and undulating, but the birds seem 
sedentary and seldom fly for great distances- The bird seemed 
wholly silent. A nest discovered near Victorica, Pampa, on Decem- 
ber 24 was placed in a hollow in the crotch of a large calden tree 
{Prosopis nigra) that stood somewhat separated from its fellows. 
The chamber that concealed the nest was an irregular hollow 200 
or 250 mm. in diameter, with an entrance through a slight crevice at 
one side. The only lining of this domicile consisted of a few 
feathers arranged carelessly on the loose rubbish in the bottom of the 
cavity. The one young bird that this nest contained, when com- 
pared to its beautiful parents, with their clean, contrasted colors, 
was an ugly duckling, indeed, since its dark skin was scantily covered 
with dull gray down. (PI. 9.) 

«>Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol. 14, 1888, p. 14. 



BIEDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, QRUGUAY, AND CHILE 301 

TAENIOPTERA PYROPE PYROPE (Kittlitz) 

Muscicapa Pyrope Kittlitz, Mem. Acad. Imp. S'ci. St.-Petersbourg, Div. 
Sav., vol. 1, 1831, p. 191. (Tome, Concepcion, Chile.) 

A sufficient series from central Chile indicates that the bird of 
that region is decidedly paler than that from the wooded region of 
the southern Andes, or from the vicinity of the Straits of Magellan. 
From April 24 to 28, 1921, these birds were recorded at Concon, 
Chile, where five skins were preserved, two males on April 25 and 
28, and three females on April 24, 26, and 27. In this species the 
females have the two external primaries narrowed at the tip, but 
lack the marked incision and attenuation found in the males. The 
bill, tarsus, and toes are shining black in both sexes. The iris in 
general is maize yellow, clouded with xanthine yellow or English 
red about the pupil. In some specimens the extent of the clouding 
of red varies in the right and left eyes so that one eye may be much 
brighter than the other. 

Though, when at rest this species in attitude suggests a Myiarchus 
or a Sayornis^ its flight, characterized by alert dash with sudden 
turns and w^hirls, is like that of others of the genus. The birds were 
found among openings in brush over rolling hillsides or along hedge 
rows and small streams, where they rested on commanding perches. 
In flight they are graceful and active as they swing out after some 
passing insect and then with an abrupt loop drop to another perch. 
Their call was a low tick tick given infrequently and barely audible 
at 80 yards. 

On the morning of April 27 there was a pronounced migration 
among them and the number present was greatly increased. 

TAENIOPTERA MURINA (d'Orbigny and Lafresnaye) 

Pepoaza Murina (I'Orbigny and Lafresnaye, Mag. Zool., 1837, CI. 2, p. 63. 
(Rio Negro, Argentina.) 

An adult male was shot November 23, 1920, near General Roca, 
Rio Negro, from three that were encountered among bushes. The 
birds ran rapidly on the ground or flew up to perch on the bushes. 
Others were noted November 30. The birds pursued one another 
with sharp squeaky notes through the bushes. On December 13 sev- 
eral were noted among greasewood bushes near Ingeniero White, 
Buenos Aires. The tail in flight appears dead black. 

TAENIOPTERA RUBETRA Burmeister 

Taenioptera Rubetra Bubmeistek, Journ, fiir Ornith., 1860, p. 247. (Sierra 
de Mendoza.) 

The present species was encountered first near General Roca, 
where from November 23 to December 2 it was recorded as fairly 



302 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

common on the plains that bordered the Rio Negro. Females were 
prepared as skins on November 23 and 24, and two additional speci- 
mens, one as a skeleton and one in alcohol, were preserved. 

They ran swiftly along on the ground to pause and stand with 
head erect, or perched in alert attitudes on fence wires or the tops 
of bushes. In flight they traveled for long distances barely above 
the ground to rise finally to a perch on a low bush. Males at inter- 
vals flew up to make a metallic rattle with their wings as they 
turned abruptly and dropped to the ground. 

Near Zapala, Neuquen, from December 7 to 9, these flycatchers 
were observed in little valleys where the grass had been closely 
cropped by stock. An adult male was taken December 7. Near In- 
geniero White, the port of Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, probably 
near the northern border of the breeding range, two were recorded 
on December 13. 

The male in the present species has the two outermost primaries 
decidedly attenuate, while in the female these two feathers are 
normal. In addition, the back of the male is more rufescent than in 
the opposite sex. An adult male, when first taken, had the base of 
gonys pallid brownish drab; rest of bill, tarsus, and toes black; 
iris Rood's brown. 

LICHENOPS PERSPICILLATA PERSPICILLATA (Gmelin) 

Motacilla perspicillata Gmelin, Syst. Nat., vol. 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 969. (Rio 
de la Plata.) 

Specimens of the widely distributed silverbill were secured at the 
following localities: San Vicente, Uruguay, January 27, 1921, adult 
male; Las Palmas, Chaco, July 23, 1920, adult female; Resistencia, 
Chaco, July 10, adult male; Berazategui, Buenos Aires, June 29; 
Dolores, Buenos Aires, October 21, adult male and female; Ingeniero 
White, Buenos Aires, December 13, immature male ; Tunuyan, Men- 
doza, March 21, 1921, adult male, March 24 and 28, females; General 
Roca, Rio Negro, November 30, 1920, adult male. Adult males 
examined from the northern part of the Province of Buenos Aires 
into Paraguay and southern Brazil have the white patch in the 
wing at its maximum extent and may be considered as typical of 
true perspicillata. The black on the outer webs of the primaries 
extends only 2 or 3 mm. beyond the level of the primary coverts, 
the median portions of the shafts of the ninth and tenth primaries 
are white, and the dark distal tip is restricted. The white area 
forms a prominent streak along the side of the closed wing. The 
wing varies from 86.2 to 91.5 mm. (average of 12 specimens, 88.8 
mm.). In skins from near Bahia Blanca, from the valley of the Rio 
Negi-o, and from Mendoza the white wing patch becomes somewhat 



BIBDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 303 

more restricted, so that instead of seven outer primaries that are 
nearly white the number is reduced to six, as the outer web of the 
fourth primary is extensively black. The black on the others is 
also increased both on the outer web and at the tip. The wing varies 
from 92 to 93.6 mm. (average of three specimens, 92.7 mm.). These 
show a distinct approach to andina, but are nearer perspiciUata. 
Finally, at Zapala and from the region south of the Rio Negro come 
specimens in which the black on the outer webs of the primaries 
may extend 5 or 6 mm. beyond the primary coverts, in which the 
shafts are black and the distal dark patch extensive. The wing in 
these ranges from 90.1 to 96.2 mm. (average of four specimens, 
92.9 mm.). Though the white may be somewhat more extensive 
than in some from Chile, these seem best referred to andina. In 
these the white in the closed wing appeared streaked with black 
owing to the extent of the dark markings on the outer webs of the 
primaries. 

A male taken at San Vicente, Uruguay, January 27, is molting 
the body feathers, while in three from Timuyan, Mendoza (March 
21 to 28), the outer primaries are being renewed. 

Following are the localities and dates when this flycatcher was 
recorded : Berazategui, Buenos Aires, June 29, 1920 ; Resistencia, 
Chaco, July 9 and 10; Las Palmas, Chaco, July 13 to August 1; 
Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, August 8 to 20 ; Formosa, Formosa, August 
23; Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, September 3; Kilometer 80, west of 
Puerto Pinasco, September 17; Dolores, Buenos Aires, October 21; 
Lavalle, Buenos Aires, October 23 to November 15; General Roca, 
Rio Negro, November 23 to December 3; Ingeniero White, Buenos 
Aires, December 13; Carrasco, Uruguay, January 9 and 16, 1921; 
La Paloma, Rocha, January 23; San Vicente, Rocha, January 27 to 
February 2 ; Lazcano, Rocha, February 5 to 9 ; Potrerillos, Mendoza, 
March 16 ; Tunuyan, Mendoza, March 22 to 29. 

The silverbill is restricted in its haunts to the vicinity of water. 
Though common in the Chaco north to the Rio Pilcomayo, it seemed 
rare or local beyond. In the pampas it was locally common in 
northern Buenos Aires, but was not detected in the regions that I 
visited near Guamini or Carhue. In northern Rio Negro it frequented 
the vicinity of streams, but was also common in the irrigated alfalfa 
fields, haunts that will enable the bird to extend its range, as culti- 
vation, through enlarged irrigation projects, increases in the arid 
sections of northern Patagonia and western Argentina. In the 
Province of Mendoza, where part of the birds noted may have been 
migrant from the south, the species was found along streams and 
irrigating ditches, on one occasion at an altitude of 1,500 meters in 
the vallev at Potrerillos. 



304 BULKETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL, MUSEUM 

These flycatchers run about freely on the ground, stopping ab- 
ruptly to throw up the head, so that they frequently suggest small 
thrushes. At other times they rest on clods of earth, bushes, or 
fence posts, from which they dart out at passing insects. Like 
T aenioytera irwpero^ they suggest in many of their mannerisms the 
bluebirds {Sialia) of North America. The crenulated lobe encir- 
cling the eye is easily seen in females, while in males, in which it is 
larger, its extent and light color produce an effect that is almost 
uncanny. During the breeding season males frequently rise 3 or 4 
meters in the air, to whirl over and descend head first, with rapidly 
vibrating wings that produce a white halo about the body. Occa- 
sionally one in the same display describes erratic parabolas in the 
air, that reveal its contrasted colors to the utmost. Not content 
with these conspicuous displays, it attempts song, a squeaky effort 
barely audible at 50 meters. At other seasons the birds are wholly 
silent. 

On November 24 a female was seen near Roca carrying material 
for nest lining, while at Ingeniero White, the port of Bahia Blanca, 
two or three broods of fully grown young were seen December 13. 
These last uttered low, squeaky calls. 

The species is known locally as pico plato^ or more rarely ojo plato, 
misnomers both since bill and eye are yellow. An adult male, taken 
July 10, had the bill straw yellow, tipped faintly with duslcy ; rosette 
about eye baryta yellow; iris barium yellow; tarsus and toes black. 
A female, shot July 23, had the maxilla and tip of mandible bone 
brown, becoming blackish at extreme tip; sides of maxilla, behind 
and below nostril, and base of mandible chartreuse yellow; iris 
vinaceous buff, with spots and mottlings of a darker color; rosette 
about eye deep olive-buff; tarsus and toes black. 

LICHENOPS PERSPICILLATA ANDINA Ridgway 

Lichenops perspicillatus andinus Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 2, 
May 22, 1879, p. 483. (Santiago, Chile.) 

An adult male silverbill shot at Zapala, Neuquen, on December 9, 
1920, is representative of the present race, as the white wing patch 
is restricted by encroachment of black, especially on the outer webs 
of the primaries, and the wing has a measurement of 96.2 mm. 
Females of the two races of Lichenops appear indistinguishable in 
color, though in andina they average somewhat larger than in true 
perspicillata. The difference is slight and measurements overlap, so 
that many specimens of this sex, taken alone, may not be certainly 
identified. 

On December 8 and 9, 1920, these birds were fairly common in 
areas where water offered them a suitable haunt. Extensive tracts 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 305 

in this arid region were not suited to them, so that their number was 
not great. 

MACHETORNIS RIXOSA RIXOSA (Vieillot) 

Tyranmis rixosus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 35, 1819, p. 85. 
(Paraguay.) 

Common and widely distributed through the pampas and the 
Chaco, the present bird was noted at the following points : Berazate- 
gui, Buenos Aires, June 29, 1920; Santa Fe, Santa Fe, July 4; Ee- 
sistencia, Chaco, July 9 and 10; Las Palmas, Chaco, July 14 to 23; 
Formosa, Formosa, August 5, 23, and 24; Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, 
August 21; Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, September 1 and 30; Kilo- 
meter 80, Avest of Puerto Pinasco, September 6 to 21 ; Lavalle, Buenos 
Aires, October 23 and November 9; Montevideo, Uruguay, January 
14, 1921 ; La Paloma, Uruguay, January 23 ; San Vicente, Uruguay, 
January 27 to Februai-y 2 ; Lazcano, Uruguay, February 5 to 9. 
The sj^ecies was most abundant in the Chaco, and was not recorded 
in the arid interior sections of central Argentina. An adult female 
taken at Formosa, AugTist 24, and a pair secured at the Estancia 
Los Yngleses, Lavalle, Buenos Aires, on Novemb r 9, resemble other 
skins examined from Paraguay and southern Brazil. 31. r. flavogu- 
laris Todd.^^ named from Venezuela, of which I have seen no speci- 
mens, is said to be brighter below than rixosa, with the throat but 
little paler than the abdomen, while the gray crown is duller, con- 
trasting less strongly with the back. This form is said to occupy 
all the northern portion of South America. 

These flycatchers inhabit wet localities in open regions, where 
occasional trees offer suitable night roosting places, a predilection 
that explains their greater abundance in the Chaco, where wet 
savannas with scattered trees are the characteristic feature of the 
country. Machetornis, though it roosts at night among leafy 
branches, spends most of its day on the ground, preferably near or 
among horses, cattle^ ov sheep that it follows as assiduously as do 
cowbirds for the sake of insects frightened up or attracted by the 
feeding stock. It is common to find Molothrus and Machetornis in 
company in suitable situations, and the flycatcher flies up to perch 
on the back of an ox or a horse as fearlessly as on a log or a post. 
In fact, the birds shoAved preference for such perches and frequently 
alighted on an animal when frightened from the ground. The ordi- 
nary method of progression of this bird was peculiar. A long, 
hesitating step made with bobbing head, was followed by a run for 
four or five steps, then another long step with the run repeated. In 
pursuit of insects or to evade too familiar approach it often ran 

8* Ann. Carnegie Mus., vol. 8, May 20, 1912, p. 210. (Tocuyo, Estado Lara, Venezuela.) 



306 BULUETIISr 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL, MUSEUM 

rapidly for a considerable distance. With its evident predilection 
for the vicinity of large animals, one may wonder if, hundreds and 
thousands of years ago, Machetornis was as familiar with the giant 
ground sloths and glyptodons that ranged then through these same 
regions as it is now with the stock introduced by man. 

When not in company with cattle, Machetornis frequently ran 
about on the aquatic plants that covered the surface of small lagoons, 
where the long legs came in play in enabling the birds to step over 
interstices between the leaves of the plants. With the coming of 
September mating activities began, and the flycatchers pursued one 
another with snap and vigor, uttering high-pitched, squeaky calls 
and rattling their wings. Occasionally one rested in a tree top to 
utter a soft song swee see dee^ a low effort that, though simple, was 
pleasing. 

The Anguete Indians called this bird yeht tin a has goohh. 

MUSCISAXICOLA MACULIROSTRIS d'Orbigny and Lafresnaye 

Muscisaxicola macuUrostris cI'Oebigny and Lafresnaye, Mag. Zool., 1S37, 
cl. 2, p. 66. (La Paz, Bolivia.) 

The 10 specimens taken were secured as follows: General Roca^ 
Rio Negro, November 29, 1920, adult female; Zapala, Neuquen, 
December 8, adult female; Mendoza, Mendoza (altitude, 850 meters), 
March 13, 1921, male and female; Potrerillos, Mendoza (1,500 to 
1,800 meters), March 16, IT, 18, and 19, four males and two females. 
The two adults secured in northern Patagonia in summer are breed- 
ing birds in slightly worn plumage. The series secured in the Prov- 
ince of Mendoza are all in fresh fall dress, and may be migrants 
come from the south. Three specimens seen from Galea, Peru are 
duller on the abdomen, and grayer on the sides of the head and neck 
than birds from Argentina, a difference that though slight seems 
distinct. With specimens from the type locality for comparison, it 
is probable that two forms may be recognized. 

Following are the dates on which M. mac'lpvostris was recorded: 
General Roca, Rio Negro, November 29, 1920; Zapala, Neuquen, 
December 8 ; Mendoza, Mendoza, March 13, 1921 ; Potrerillos, Men- 
doza, March 15 to 19 ; Tunuyan, Mendoza, March 25. 

Those seen on their breeding grounds were found among low 
bushes on sandy or gravelly hillsides. Those noted in winter chose 
similar haunts, usually on sloping flats near streams, or on hill- 
sides above water, where scattered bushes offered cover but left the 
ground bare in between. At this season they were found in little 
parties of two or three that ran alertly about on the ground, or 
rested for a few minutes in the tops of bushes. Passing insects were 
secured by a quick spring in the air, while others were picked up 
in the scanty herbage. Short, low flights, near the ground, revealed 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 307 

the long, pointed wings, gray back, and black tail with its light 
border that form the characters by which the bird may be recognized 
in the field. The flight is strong and certain, and the birds alighted 
alertly with head erect. All noted were silent. On March 17, along 
the Rio Mendoza below Potrerillos, they were in passage downstream 
in small parties that appeared to be in migration from the higher 
altitudes, 

A female, taken November 29, had the base of the mandible cream 
buff ; remainder of the bill black ; iris Hay's brown ; tarsus and toes 
black. 

LESSONIA RUFA RUFA (Gmelin) 

Alauda rufa Gmelin, Syst. Nat, vol. 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 792. (Buenos Aires.) 

Mathews ®2 shows that Alauda nigra Boddaert for this species is 
antedated by Alauda nigra of the same author for another bird so 
that the specific name becomes rufa of Gmelin. 

This ground-inhabiting flycatcher was recorded at the following 
localities: Berazategui, Buenos Aires, June 29, 1920 (adult male 
taken) ; Santa Fe, Santa Fe, July 4; Zapala, Neuquen, December 8 
and 9 (two adult males shot) ; Carrasco, Uruguay, January 16, 1921; 
Guamini, Buenos Aires, March 3 to 8 (four males, three females 
taken) ; Tunuyan, Mendoza, March 22, 23, and 27 (adult male shot) ; 
and Concon, Chile, April 23 (adult male taken). Twelve skins were 
secured in all. Birds from Zapala, shot in summer, were in full 
breeding plumage. Four males, shot in March at Guamini, were all 
in immature plumage, in which they are similar to females, save 
that the back is more rufescent. One shows distinct signs of molt, 
apparently from a juvenal plumage. On this basis the young males 
molt from a juvenal plumage into a first winter plumage that is 
similar to the dress of the female. A specimen taken in September 
at Conchitas, Buenos Aires (in the United States National Museum), 
is in molt from the dull winter dress into the black adult plumage. On 
this slender evidence it may be supposed that the young males assume 
adult dress by a prenuptial molt in spring. An adult male, shot 
at Tunuyan March 27, in full adult plumage, is renewing the outer 
primaries. A skin in the United States National Museum, taken 
in April at Conchitas, has the throat white and the lower surface 
mottled with whitish. Other winter taken adult males do not differ 
from breeding specimens, save for an occasional specimen with very 
faint whitish tips on the feathers of the lower surface. It is com- 
mon usage in recent years to consider Lessonia oreas,^^ which dif- 
fers from nigra in larger size and whitish edgings on the inner webs 



'^Austr. Av. Rec, vol. 3, Nov. 19, 1915. 

s^Centrites areas Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1869, p. 154. (Tinta, 
Peru.) 



308 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

of the primaries, as a subspecies of nigra (in which the inner webs of 
the primaries are black in the adult male, and cinnamon in the fe- 
male and immature male). The only specimens of oreas that I have 
seen are from Peru, and show no evidence of intergradation. 

Adult males have the eighth and ninth primaries narrowed dis- 
tally, with the seventh and tenth of normal width. As the narrowed 
feathers are concealed beneath the external primary they seem not to 
have been noted previously. In the male in first winter plumage, and 
the female at all seasons, all of the flight feathers are normal. 

At all seasons of the year these interesting flycatchers frequent 
open ground, preferably near water, where they hop or run about 
on the ground, pausing to peck at the turf or to throw the head up 
and flit the wings rapidly. They are almost as terrestrial as pipits, a 
fact that may account for the elongated pipitlike claw on the hallux ; 
like birds of that group they often seek elevated perches on little 
mounds of earth. They also fly up to rest on fence posts, or low 
bushes. Their flight is tilting and usually carries them only a foot 
or two above the ground. During the breeding season, near Zapala, 
males were common in the close-cropped grass of the lowland pas- 
tures, often in the vicinity of barrancas. As 7mfa has been supposed 
to breed only in Patagonia, it is unfortunate that a fine male that I 
watched for some time on January 16, 1921, near Carrasco, Uru- 
guay, was not secured. 

During the winter season rufa comes north to winter in abundance 
on the open pampas, but does not seem to penetrate beyond the limit 
of the plains. By March 3 I found the birds common on the level 
flats bordering the Laguna del Monte near Guamini, Buenos Aires, 
where they associated in little flocks. Others continued to arrive 
from the southward, driven up by the encroachment of cold in their 
summer homes. The birds now had the full lax plumage that pro- 
tects them in winter, and ran about on the open flats unmindful of 
the heavy wind, as they made no effort to seek shelter from its blasts. 
In early morning members of the little scattered flocks pursued one 
another or chivied passing pipits vivaciously. On March 23, near 
Tunuyan, Mendoza, a flock of 15 arrived suddenly on the flats bord- 
ering the river, evidently a migrant flock from the south. 

Like many other pampas birds, during winter they were entirely 
silent; and as my experience with them in summer was limited, I 
heard no calls from them whatever. 

FLUVICOLA ALBIVENTER (Spix) 

Muscicapa albiventer Spix, Av. Spec. Nov. Brasiliam, vol. 2, 1825, p. 21, 
pi. 30, fig. 1. (Brazil.) 

An adult female shot at Formosa, Formosa, on August 23, 1920, 
was found among open brush and saw grass at the border of a marsh, 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 309 

where it ran about on the ground or perched with rapidly jerking 
tail in the bushes. Another was seen, but not secured, at the border 
of a flooded estero near Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, on September 3, 

YETAPA RISORUS (Vieillot) 
Muscicapa risora Vieuxot, Gal. Ois., vol. 1, 1S25, p. 209, pi. 131. (Brazil.) 

The type locality of the present species is cited in most references 
as Paraguay, on thesupposition that it isbas.'donthec<9Zfl^rar<z^ar^o 
y hlanco of Azara. Vieillot, however, described the species from an 
actual specimen and remarks " Le nom latinise sous lequel nous 
decrivons cette espece est celui qu'elle porte au Bresil," and discusses- 
further certain differences between his specimen and the description 
of Azara. The specific name, usually given risorius^ is spelled as 
above in the original publication. The form of the tail in both sexes- 
of the present bird, taken in connection with its long, slender clawSy 
are so different from the condition found in Alectrurus tricolo7' as 
to warrant generic separation. Hence insorus is placed in the genus 
Yetapa Lesson.^* In form Yetapa is more similar to the large 
Guhernetes than to Alectimrus. 

An adult female, the only one taken, was shot August 18, 1920, 
at the Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, in a heavy growth of tall grass that 
covered a small prairie. The bird perched on the side of the tall- 
stemmed seed heads or flew for short distances with a tilting flight. 
Another was seen but not secured near Carhue, western Buenos Aires, 
in December. 

The Anguete Indians, in Paraguay, recognized the specimen that 
I had and called it uh yuh ka hi ha oi koh. 

GUBERNETES YETAPA (Vieillot) 

Muscicapa yetapa Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 21, 1818, p. 460. 
(Paraguay.) 

An adult female was taken near Las Palmas, Chaco, on July 27, 
1920, from a flock of three that passed me on an open savanna with 
direct, slight!}^ tilting flight and undulating tails. Their call was 
a harsh note that may be represented as rut rut. The bird secured 
is in full plumage and offers no j)eculiarities worthy of remark. The 
claws in this species, while less developed than in Yetapa risoru^j 
are elongate and rather slender. 

SISOPYGIS ICTEROPHRYS (Vieillot) 

Muscicapa icterophrys Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 21, 1818, p. 458. 
(Paraguay.) 

Adult males were secured at the Estancia Los Yugleses, near 
Lavalle, Buenos Aires, on October 30 and November 1, 1920, and an 

"Trait. Ornith., 1831, p. 387. 



310 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

immature female was shot near Tapia, Tucuman, on April 11, 1921. 
The two adults are in full breeding plumage. The third specimen, 
in partial juvenal plumage, is duller, less yellow below and on the 
superciliary, is grayer above, and has two broad, light streaks on the 
wing, formed by whitish tips on greater and middle wing coverts. 
At Los Yngleses, on October 30, a pair of these flycatchers had 
begun a nest in a fruit tree in the yard, and the female was busily 
engaged in carrying nest material to arrange it in a cuplike form in 
a convenient crotch. Other birds were recorded on November 1 
and 9, and one was seen near Lavalle November 13. In appearance 
and actions the birds were typical flycatchers. They chose resting 
perches among leafy branches, and when their backs were turned 
to the observer were inconspicuous. One captured a large cater- 
pillar, killed it, and swallowed it. At Tapia, Tucuman, two were 
observed occupying low perches in open trees in dry forest. They 
were in company with a band of other passerines that appeared to 
be in migration as they moved rapidly through the scrub. 

ARUNDINICOLA LEUCOCEPHALA (Linnaeus) 

Pipra leucocephala Linnaeus, Mus. Ad. Frid. Reg., vol. 2, 1764, p. 33. 
(Surinam.^) 

At the Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, an adult male was secured on 
August 8, 1920, and a male in immature dress on the day following. 
The birds were recorded on August 16 and 17, and one shot on 
the latter day was preserved in alcohol. The immature specimen 
has the black of the adult replaced by white on the breast and abdo- 
men, and by brownish gray on the back, wings, and sides. The 
adult specimen seems to have a larger bill (culmen from base, 18.5 
nun.) than the few examined from Bahia, Santarem, Demerara, 
and other points in northern South America. 

These odd flycatchers were fairly common in the outer growths of 
tall cat-tails that fringed lagoons, where it was difficult to secure 
them as one might work about the shore line for days without catch- 
ing sight of one save by chance. When I paddled out across the 
water in a clumsy boat hewn from the trunk of a silk-cotton tree, 
or on a crude raft made of a bundle of cat-tails lashed together, these 
birds were more in evidence, but it was difficult at that to retrieve 
specimens that were shot. Ordinarily these flycatchers rested quietly 
on low perches among the rushes, with the tail twitching quickly, 
while at short intervals they sallied out after passing insects. In 
flight a rattling sound was often produced by the wings. Their only 
call was a thin high-pitched note that may be represented as tseet. 

85 See Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool., vol. 9, April, 1902, p. 34. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 311 

KNIPOLEGUS CYANIROSTRIS (Vieillot) 

Muscicapa cyanirostris Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 21, 1818, p. 
447. (Paraguay.) 

The present species was found at Las Palmas, Chaco, July 14 
(male taken), and 30, 1920 (female secured), at San Vicente, Uru- 
guay, January 28 (two males shot), 30 (female), and 31, 1921 
(female), at Lazcano, Uruguay, February 6 (female), and at Rio 
Negro, Uruguay, February 14 and 18. The seven skins preserved 
offer no differences from others examined from Paraguay and south- 
ern Brazil. The male of this species resembles K. ate7Ti7)ius in 
color, but has the white on the wing restricted to a narrow margin 
on the inner webs of the primaries. The female differs from that of 
aternmus in being heavily streaked. The form of the primaries in 
both sexes is normal. Specimens secured at Las Palmas are in full 
winter plumage, while those shot in Uruguay, in midsummer, are 
in molt. An immature female that has not quite completed the molt 
into fall plumage is more rufescent above and less heavily streaked 
below than adult females securt d in winter. 

In an adult male, taken July 14, the tip of the bill was black; re- 
mainder pale Medici blue ; iris coral red ; tarsus and toes blgck. An 
adult female, taken July 30, had the maxilla dull black; mandible 
light Payne's gray, slightly darker toward tip; iris Rood's brown; 
tarsus and toes black. 

In the Chaco these birds frequented dense growths of heavy forest, 
while in Uruguay they were found in heavy thickets near water. 
They Avere especiallj^ common in the low growth along the Rio Ce- 
bollati, near Lazcano. They were silent and, save for the twitching 
of the tail, were rather qui t, though alert and active in the pursuit 
of insects on the wing. Their general appearance was that of a 
phoebe iSayornis). The streaked females are so different in color 
from the black males that they may easily be mistaken for another 
species. 

KNIPOLEGUS ATERRIMUS ATERRIMUS Kaup 

Cnipolegus aterrimus, Kaup, Journ. fiir Ornith., 1853, p. 29. ( Cochabamba, 
Yungas, Moxos, Chiqiiitos, Bolivia.'*) 

According to Berlepsch^^ Knipolegus anthracinus Heine, ^^ de- 
scribed from Bolivia and in current use for birds from northern 
Argentina, is identical Avith K. aterr'itnus of Kaup, since examina- 
tion of the type specimen did not bear out the supposed character 
of smaller size in aterrimus. I have seen no specimens from Bolivia, 
but Berlepsch states that skins from Argentina and Bolivia are 

8« From d'Orbigny and Lafresnaye, Mag. Zool., 1837, p. 59. 

8' Proc. Fourth Int. Orn. Congr., 1907, p. 471. 

«s Cnipolegus anthracinus Heine, Journ. fiir Ornith., 1859, p. 334. (Bolivia.) 



312 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

identical, so that without advantage of comparative material my 
notes are given herewith under the typical subspecies. Doctor 
Chapman's decision ®° that ockendeni of Hartert from Peru should 
rank as a subspecies of keterogyna^ which he considers specifically 
distinct from aterrimus, in my opinion, after examination of five 
specimens (including a male from Carabaya, the type locality) is 
erroneous. Though ockendeni, in addition to smaller size, and 
darker coloration in the female, has a somewhat heavier bill, it 
appears that it is a form of aterrimus. 

The male of the present species is distinguished from K. cyani- 
rostris by the broad white band across the underside of the wing, 
while the female is plain brown, unstreaked. An adult male of 
aterrimus in the United States National Museum, collected at 
Chilecito, La Kioja, Argentina, an abnormal specimen, has scattered 
white feathers on the sides and abdomen. 

This form was encountered first at General Roca, Rio Negro,, 
where the birds were fairly common from November 25 to December 
2, 1920. An adult male was shot here on November 29, and females 
on November 25 and 29. Part of the birds observed frequented 
willow thickets along the Rio Negro, where they were probably 
on their breeding grounds, while others were found in the open, 
brush through the arid, gravelly hills to the north of Roca. The 
number of these last varied from day to day, and it was my opinion 
that the individuals in these areas were still in migration. The 
birds rested on low perches, flirting the tail constantly, at intervals 
darting out after small insects, or dropping down to run along for 
a few feet on the ground. The flash of white from the wings of the 
somberly clad males, as they took flight, was almost startling, while 
the reddish brown color in the tail and rump of females in the glar- 
ing desert sun appeared almost red. Their only note was a faint. 
tseet. 

Later, at Tapia, Tucuman, the species was recorded from April T 
to 12, 1921, and two specimens were secured, a male April 12 and 
a female April 11. Here the birds were encountered along deep 
barrancas in the ojDen forests, apparently in fall migration. The 
male taken at Tapia is in full plumage, while the female is just 
completing a fall moult. The two appear identical with specimens 
from Rio Negro. 

In an adult male, taken November 29, the tip of the bill was black;, 
base glaucous gray; iris Rood's brown; tarsus and toes black. A 
female shot on the same date had the tip of the bill blackish; base 
all around glaucous gra}', much duller on the maxilla; iris Rood's 
brown ; tarsus and toes black. 

8» U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 117, 1921, p. 89. 



BIKDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 313 
ENTOTRICCUS STRIATICEPS (d'Orbigny and Lafresnaye) 

Muscisaxicola striaticeps d'ORBiGNrr and Lafbesnaye, Mag. Zool., 1837, 
cl. 2, p. 66. (Chiquitos, Bolivia.) 

Dr. Hellmayr ^° has determined that this species, known for many 
years as einer^eus Sclater,^^ should bear the name of striaticeps as in- 
dicated above. He writes that the type, in the Paris Museum, is 
labeled as taken at Chiquitos, Bolivia, though in the original descrip- 
tion the species is said to come from La Paz. The greatly narrowed 
l)rimaries in this species distinguish it not only from Knipolegus, 
but also from all other flycatchers. Mr. Ridgway described the pequ- 
liarities of this bird when he erected the genus Phaeotriccus, but as 
through inadvertence he designated Gnipolegus hudsoni as type, the 
name PTiaeotnccus must be used for hudsoni. As striaticeps is un- 
doubtedly peculiar, the present writer and Peters"^ have proposed 
that it be called Entotriccus. It is characterized by greatly nar- 
rowed primaries with the sixth to the tenth (outermost) distinctly 
falcate; seventh primary longest; tenth shorter than the first. 

This flycatcher was recorded at the following points: Riacho 
Pilaga, Formosa, August 8 (adult female taken), 13 (two females 
and a male) and 18; Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, September 3; Kil- 
ometer 80, west of Puerto Pinasco, September 9, 10 (a female shot) 
and 15 ; Tapia, Tucuman, April 7 to 13, 1921 (two males and a female 
taken April T and 9). The female taken at Tapia is less heavily 
streaked on throat and breast than skins from the Chaco, so that it 
is paler below, a difference due in part perhaps to the fact that the 
specimen is in fresh fall plumage. Females are identical with 
males in wing formula and in the narrowed form of the primaries. 

In the Chaco, during the winter season, these alert little flycatchers 
sought low perches on the sheltered sides of dense groves of forest, 
where they were protected from cold winds. In the warmer, more 
open scrub near Tapia, Tucuman, they were scattered at random 
through little valleys, though more frequent perhaps along deep- 
cut barrancas that were common in this region. When at rest the 
tail twitched constantly, heightening their superficial resemblance 
to smaU Empidonax. During warm forenoons, in pleasant weather, 
males, from a perch at the top of a low tree or a dead limb, frequently 
shot straight up for a distance of 20 feet, turned and descended head 
first, with closed wings until just above the former perch, when the 
velocity of their fall was checked with a sudden rattle of wings, and 
the bird once more was at rest, as nonchalant and jaunty as though 



s«Nov. Zool., Julj', 1906, pp. 318-319. 

"^ Cnipolef/us cinereus Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1870, p. 58. (Corumba, 
Matto Grosso.) 

"» Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 36, May 1, 1923, p. 144. Type, by original desig- 
nation, MuaciaaMcola striaticeps d'Orbigny and Lafresnaye. 



314 BULKETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAX, MUSEUM 

it had not moved. The directness with which they rose and de- 
scended gave the same impression as a ball that is snapped into 
the air to fall back to the hand that had tossed it. This odd action 
was witnessed frequently and was probably a mating display in- 
tended for the season of spring. The only call heard from these 
little birds was a low tsu wip. 

PHAEOTRICCUS HUDSONI (Sclater) 

Cnipolegus hudsoni Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1872, p. 541, pi. 31. 
(Rio Negro, eastern Rio Negro, Argentina.) 

When Mr. Ridgway''^ characterized the genus Phaeotriccus as 
new he evidently did so, as shoAvn in his diagnosis, from Entotriccus 
striaticeps, but for some reason designated Cnipolegus hudsoni 
Sclater as type. Though the structural characters cited can cover 
striaticej)s alone, the term Phaeotriccus may be applied only to 
hudsoni. As it happens Cnipolegus hudsoni Sclater is sufficiently 
distinct from the typical forms of Knipolegus Boie to warrant its 
separation so that Phaeotriccus comes into use for a valid generic 
group. It may be characterized as follows: Similar to Knipolegus 
Boie, but the three outermost primaries (eight to ten) narrow, 
tapering gradually from beyond center to tips; seventh primary 
broader but still narrower than normal ; sixth and seventh primaries 
about equal; first longer than fourth, shorter than fifth. The 
wing is illustrated in the original description of the species.^* The 
male, in addition to a narrow band of white across the primaries, 
has a white spot on the flanks that is concealed beneath the wing. 

The female of this species does not seem to have been described. 

Males of Hudson's flycatcher were seen near Victorica, Pampa, 
on several occasions from December 23 to 29, 1920. An adult male 
was shot December 27, and another December 29, but I have no 
record of the female. The species is an alert, aggressive little bird 
that frequents openings in dense scrub, where it selects a low 
perch from which to watch for food. At times it gives a sharp 
explosive note followed by a loud popping of its bill. 

The species, according to published notes, has been previously 
known from eastern Rio Negro (the type-locality) and eastern 
Mendoza (according to Fontana). 

MECOCERCULUS LEUCOPHRYS LEUCOPHRYS (d'Orbigny and Lafresnaye) 

Muscicapa leucophrys (I'Oebigny and Lafresnaye, Mag. Zool., 1837, cl. 2, 
p. 53. (Yanacache, Yungas, Bolivia.'*^) 

Three specimens, a male and two females, all immature indi- 
viduals in molt from juvenal to first winter plumage, were shot 

03 Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 18, Sept. 2, 1905, p. 209. 

^ Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1872, p. 542. 

»° See dOrbigny, Voy. Amer. Mend., vol. 4, pt. 3, Oiseaux, 1835-1844, p. 327. 



BIEDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 315 

April 17, 1921, at an altitude of more than 1,800 meters on the 
Sierra San Xavier, above Tafi Viejo, Tucuman. These three speci- 
mens are distinctly more olivaceous, less brown above and on the 
sides of the breast than a series of M. I. setoyliagoides from Peru 
and Colombia. I have not had the advantage of specimens from 
Bolivia in comparison and so only assume that the Tucuman birds 
are typical. 

In the groves and low thickets that were scattered over the open 
slopes of the Cumbre above the heavj'^ rain forest, these small fly- 
catchers were common. The majority ranged between 1,800 and 
2,000 meters, though a few were found in alders just below the 
summit, 150 meters higher. In appearance they resembled other 
small flycatchers as they moved about under cover of leaves. In 
general aspect and coloration they were also suggestive of Stig- 
inatura hudytoides. They gave a low trilling song. 

RHYNCHOCYCLUS SULPHURESCENS (Spix) 

Platyrhynchus sulphur escens Spix, Av. Spec. Nov. Brasiliam, vol. 2, 1825, 
p. 10, pi. 12. (Rio de Janeiro, Piauhy, and River Amazons.) 

Through lack of a sufficient series for comparison, it is not prac- 
ticable to identify subspecifically the specimens of this species that 
I secured in Paraguay and northern Argentina. They are brighter 
colored than the type of Oberholser's Rhynchocyclus scotius ^^ from 
an unknown locality in Brazil. Rhynchocyclus grisesceiis Chubb ^^ 
may be a distinct species, as it is said to be olive gray above instead 
of green, though it is possible that the type specimen, a female, may 
represent an individual phase of suJphurescens, in which case the 
name would apply to the subspecies found in the lower half of the 
Paraguay River Valley. 

At Las Palmas, Chaco, I shot a female of this flycatcher on July 
13, 1920, the only one seen in Argentina. The species has been re- 
corded previously within the limits of the Republic only in Misiones 
and at Ledesma, Jujuy.''^ In the vicinity of Puerto Pinasco, Para- 
guay, the species was more common, as an immature male was se- 
cured at Kilometer 25 West on September 1, and a pair were shot 
near Kilometer 80 on September 8. The bird was common near 
Kilometer 80 through September, but was not seen in the drier areas 
farther west. On September 30 it Avas recorded on the Cerro Lorito, 
on the eastern bank of the Paraguay River. The birds were en- 
countered in heavy forest, where they frequented the dense tops of 
low trees. Though they sallied out frequently to capture insects 

^ Rhynchocyclus scotius Oberholser. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 25, 1902, p. 63. 
(Brazil.) 

^''Rhynchocyclus grisescens Chubb, Ibis, 1910, p. 588. (Sapucay, Paraguay.) 
■* Dabbene, Orn. Argentina, An. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, vol. 18, 1910, p. 324. 



316 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

on the wing, they often suggested vireos as they searched alertly but 
rather slowly among small limbs, a simulation that was especially 
notable when one hoj^ped to a perch to remain quietly peering about 
without movement of the body for a short period. Their song was 
a curious effort that may be written as sweet swees swee-ees, given 
slowly, with every syllable uttered distinctly and separately. A male 
shot September 8 was nearly in breeding condition. 

EUSCARTHMORNIS MARGARITACEIVENTER MARGARITACEIVENTER (d'Orbigny and 

Lafresnaye) 

Todirostrum margaritacei venter d'ORBioNY and Lafeesnaye, Mag. Zool., 
1837, cl. 2, p. 46. (Chiquitos, Bolivia.) 

This tody flycatcher was fairly common in the Chaco from the 
vicinity of Resistencia north to northern Paraguay. At Resistencia, 
males were preserved on July 8 and 9, 1920, and others were seen 
July 10. At Las Palmas, Chaco, the species seemed less abundant 
since the only ones observed were two females shot July 19 and 27. 
Near the Eiacho Pilaga, where the forest as a rule was drier than 
nearer the Rio Paraguay, Euscarthmornis was recorded in a par- 
ticularly heavy stand of timber known as the Monte Ingles^ where 
several were seen and a female taken on August 18. Near Kilometer 
80, west of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguary, they were fairly common 
from September 9 to 20; a male and female were taken September 
10, and a second male September 20. Another male was shot Sep- 
tember 30 on the Cerro Lorito, a wooded hill on the eastern bank 
of the Rio Paraguay opposite the town of Puerto Pinasco. The 
series secured, all in full plumage, vary in color individually in the 
definiteness of streaking on the undersurface. No specimens from 
Bolivia are available for comparison. 

These small birds frequent the lower brush at the border of heavy 
forest, where they hop about among the twigs in search for food, 
iilways near cover. Their light eyes give them an odd appearance. 
Their movements, while active, are somewhat heavy, entirely dif- 
ferent from the sprightly actions of warblers. At times tliey utter 
a low call that resembles tsu tsu. 

A male, shot July 8, had the maxilla dull brown ; mandible a trifle 
paler; tarsus and toes russet vinaceous; iris yellowish white, suf- 
fused near pupil with dull buff. 

Oberholser ^® has shown grounds for transfer of the generic name 
EuscarthTnus, to what has been known as Hapalocercus, and has 
proposed Euscarthmornis for birds of the present group. 

"9 Auk, 1923, p. 327. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 317 
MYIOSYMPOTES FLAVIVENTRIS (d'Orbiguy and Lafresnaye) 

Alectrurus flaviventris (1'Okbigny and Lafresnaye, Mag. Zool., 1837, CI. 2, 
p. 55. (Corrientes, Argentina.) 

This small flycatcher, an inhabitant of marshes and the borders of 
swamps, was recorded and collected at the following points : Puerto 
Pinasco, Paraguay, September 3, 1920 (a pair of adults taken) ; Las 
Palmas, Chaco, July 22 (adult female) ; Dolores, Buenos Aires, 
October 21 (adult male) ; Lavalle, Buenos Aires, October 25 and 
November 9 (adult male taken October 25) ; General Roca, Rio 
Negro, November 24 to December 3 (a pair of adults) ; San Vicente, 
Uruguay, Januar}^ 31 (adult male taken at Laguna Castillos) and 
Februarj' 2 (seen at Paso Alamo on the Arroyo Sarrandi) ; Lazcano, 
Uruguay, February 5 to 9; Tunuyan, Mendoza, March 22 and 26 
(two males, three females). An adult female, taken November 27, 
had the bill black save at the base where it was tinged with tilleul 
buff; inside of mouth dull antimony yellow; tarsus and toes black. 
In an adult male, shot November 24. the inside of the mouth and the 
tongue were jet black. 

Specimens from the Province of Buenos Aires north into Par- 
aguay have slightly shorter wings than those from Mendoza, Pata- 
gonia, and Chile, but the difference seems too slight to Avarrant a 
name. Eight skins (there is no appreciable sexual difference in size) 
from Paraguay (Puerto Pinasco), Chaco (Las Palmas), and Buenos 
Aires (Conchitas, Dolores, and Lavalle) have a wing measurement 
ranging from 45.6 to 48.4 mm. Seven others from Chile (vicinity of 
Santiago), Mendoza (Tunuyan), Rio Negro (General Roca), and 
Chubut (Rio Chubut, below Leleque) have the wing from 48.9 to 
50.4 mm. (Several from Tunuj^an are molting primaries and do 
not offer true measurements.) If the difference indicated proves 
valid in further series, the large southern and western form will be 
known as Myiosympotes flaviventris citreoJa (Landbeck).^ 

During winter, in the saw grass marshes of the Chaco, these 
little birds worked about so quietly among weeds and low bushes over 
the water that it was a distinct surprise to find them more alert and 
active in willow thickets on the Rio Negro in the breeding season. 
At this period they came out within a few feet of me, apparently 
through curiosity, and males often rested in the sun on the tops of 
low willows from which they made short sallies for flying insects. 
Their song, heard frequentlj'^ in early summer, was peculiar. It 
began with a low, clicking sound, like that made by striking two 
rounded pebbles together lightly, that was repeated slowly, then 

' Arundinicola citreoJa Landbeck, An. Univ. Chile, vol. 24, no. 4, April, 1864, p. 3.38. 
(Mapocho, above Santiago, Chile.) 

54207—26 21 



318 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

with increasing rapidity while the bill was thrown up perpendic- 
ularly, and terminated in an abrupt note with which the bill was 
jerked down suddenly to its usual position, tick tick tick tick-tick- 
tick-you. In March this species was common about swales, weed 
patches, and cornfields near the Rio Tunuyan, in Mendoza, and was 
apparently in migration. Specimens in fresh fall plumage are 
brighter yellow than those secured in summer. 

PSEUDOCOLOPTERYX SCLATERI (Oustalet) 

Anaeretes sclateri Oustalet, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Paris, ser. 3, vol. 4, 1892, 
p. 217. ("Chili.") 

An adult female was taken at Las Palmas, Chaco, on July 22, 1920, 
a male (skeleton) July 28, and a second male at the Riacho Pilaga, 
Formosa, August 16. The sixth and seventh primaries in the female, 
though not minute as in the male, are noticeably shorter than the 
fifth and eighth. There is no apparent reason for not recognizing 
Pseudocolopteryx of Lillo - as a valid genus. 

These odd little birds were found among sedges and other low 
growth at the borders of lagoons, often above shallow water covered 
with fl.oating vegetation. As they worked about through such 
growth they were so well concealed that it was difficult to locate them. 
Occasionally one flew^ for a meter or perhaps a little more with feeble 
flight. Before alighting, males at times produced a sudden whir, a 
sound caused by the attenuate sixth arid seventh primaries. 

SERPOPHAGA SUBCRISTATA (Vieillot) 

Sylvia suhcristata Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 11, 1817, p. 229. 
(Paraguay.) 

/Serpophaga suhcristata is an inhabitant of eastern Argentina, 
Uruguay, Paraguay, and southern Brazil, where it is common in 
forests and bush-grown pastures. It is migratory in Buenos Aires, 
but remains through the winter in the Chaco. Thirteen specimens 
were secured as follows (localities arranged in geographic sequence) : 
Kilometer 80, west of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, September 15, 
1920, male; Las Palmas, Chaco, July 15 and 19, male and female; 
Resistencia, Chaco, July 8 and 9, male and female ; Rio Negro, Uru- 
guay, February 14 and 19, 1921, male and female; San Vicente, 
Uruguay, January 31, immature female ; Lavalle, Buenos Aires, No- 
vember 1, 1920, female; Victorica, Pampa, December 26 and 29, male 
and female; General Roca, Rio Negro, November 27, male and 
female. It is supposed that Serpophaga seen at the Riacho Pilaga, 
lormosa, August 12 to 18, 1920; at Formosa, Formosa, August 23 
and 24; at La Poloma, Uruguay, January 23, 1921, and at Lazcano, 

■■'RfV. let. cienc. soc, (Tucuniaa), vol. 3, July, 1905, p. 48. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 319 

Uruguay, February 7 and 8, belonged to the present species, but no 
specimens were collected for identification. 

It is probable that there are two forms of subcristata in the range 
as outlined in the opening paragraph above. The single specimen 
secured from west of Puerto Pinasco and a few others seen from the 
Chaco are paler below than birds from the Province of Buenos 
Aires. Birds that in bright coloration resemble those of the south 
were also secured at lias Palmas and Resist encia. It is possible that 
the pale birds represent a resident form of the Chaco and that the 
brighter ones are winter migrants from the south. 

>S. munda is so similar to &. KuhcHstata that it would appear that 
the two should stand as subspecies of one form. However, west of 
Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, on the ranch known as Kilometer 80, I 
found suhc7istafa and muiula ranging in the same forests without 
evidence of intergradation, so that they must be considered specifi- 
cally distinct. As S. inornata was taken there also, three distinct 
species of Serpophaga were found at this point. 

Serpophaga suhcHstata is one of the familiar species of the for- 
ested regions and brushy areas in the Chaco, that on the pampas 
inhabits groves about the estancias, and in the more arid south is 
found in heavy stands of Baccharis and Salix along the larger 
streams. Though undoubtedly a flycatcher, it is so sprightly and 
vivacious in its movements that in life it gives little suggestion of 
its tyrannine affinities. In fact, as the birds flit and hop about 
among the twigs, often calling or singing excitedly, they bear a 
striking resemblance to warblers. During winter they Avere found 
constantly with little bands of other little birds that ranged the 
forests and came around without fear to inspect me, often hopping 
out almost within reach. Both sexes sang frequently, a fact that I 
established by collecting specimens, but the notes of males were 
louder than those of the opposite sex. The entire song may be repre 
sented as chois chois chee chee chee chee-ee-ee-ee^ a few twittering 
notes followed by a hard trill, of which the first part was frequently 
omitted. 

The first young bird seen, a male not quite grown, was taken De- 
cember 29, near Victorica, Pampa. Other juvenile birds were re- 
corded at San Vicente, Urugua3% January 31, and Rio Negro, Uru- 
guay, February 14, In juvenal plumage subcristata is washed with 
brown above, especially on the upper tail coverts, and has the wing 
bars light-pinkish cinnamon instead of whitish. Beneath the birds 
are whitish, and the black and white markings found in adults in 
the crown are lacking. An adult female shot at Rio Negro, Uruguay, 
Februar}^ 19, is in fall molt. 

The bill and tarsus in this species are black. 



320 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

SERPOPHAGA MUNDA Berlepsch 

Serpophaga murula Berlepsch, Ornith. Monats., vol. 1, 1893, p. 12. (Sa- 
maipata, Valle Grande, Bolivia.) 

The present species seems identical with S. subcristata, save that 
the lower breast and abdomen are white instead of yellow, and the 
dorsal surface usually is grayer. The species inhabits western and 
northwestern xVrgentina, and extends eastward in the (^haco into 
Paraguay. It is said to occur also in the Argentine Chaco. The 
following specimens referr^ d to tnujida were collected : Kilometers 
25 and 80, west of Puerto Pinasco, September 1 and 9, 1920, two 
males; Mendoza, Mendoza (altitude, 850 meters), March 13, 1921, 
male; Potrerillos, Mendoza, March 16, 17, and 21, one male and 
two females; and Tapia, Tucuman, April 9, 1921. Birds of this 
genus recorded March 27, near Tunuyan, Mendoza, were supposed 
to be this species. 

One of the skins taken at Puerto Pinasco was an immature bird, 
though fully grown, Avith a slight olive wash on the lower back 
that is absent in the adult. Those shot in Mendoza and Tucuman 
are in fall molt. In ju venal plumage the two light wing bars are 
distinctly buff, while in the succeeding plumages these bars are much 
lighter to nearly white. In immature birds in first winter plumage 
the lower abdomen is very faintly washed with yellow, suggesting 
the condition found in subcristata, where this color in deeper hue 
extends over the abdomen and lower breast. At first glance this 
wash of yellow in iiiunda is confusing, but specim ns are easily dis- 
tinguished when compared in series as subcristata is told at once 
by the much yellower color. Careful comparison of an adequate 
series of the two fails to indicate differences that may separate them 
other than those that have been noted. 

West of Puerto Pinasco, S. munda was encountered in fair num- 
bers, in heavy timber where it work, d actively about in the smaller 
branches like some warbler. During fall in the Province of Men- 
doza the birds were found in low scrub that clothed the dry slopes 
above small valleys or in better watered sections in growths of weeds. 
They were fairly common and from their movements appeared to be 
in migration. In early morning, especially, they Avere recorded as 
moving actively through the thickets or weed patches, often uttering 
a low tseet, like the fall calls of some of our warblers. Near Tapia, 
Tucuman, they were found occasionally in the scrubby forest. 

SERPOPHAGA INORNATA Salvadori 

Serpophaga inornata Salvadoki, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Oomp. Univ. Torino, 
vol. 12, no. 292, May 12, 1897, p. 13. (San Francisco, Chaco of Bolivia.) 

Near Kilometer 80, west of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, on Sep- 
tember 20, 1920, two were taken in heavy forest, as they worked 



f 



BIRDS OP ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 321 

actively about through the trees. Their song was a low trill that 
may be represented as chee-ee-ee-ee. No others were recorded. 

The present species differs from S. subcristata and S. 7nunda, 
which it resembles superficially, in the lack of black and white 
markings in the crown. The bill in addition is longer than usual in 
the other two species. The abdomen is white centrally, while the 
sides and loAver tail coverts are washed with yellowish. It is distin- 
guished at a glanc.^ from its allies. 

SERPOPHAGA NIGRICANS (Vieillot) 

Sylvia nigricans Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 11, 1817, p. 204. 
(Paraguay and shores of the Rio de la Plata.) 

The present species is somewhat rare at the present time, and was 
found in few localities. At Berazategui, Buenos Aires, June 29, 
1920, an adult female was taken on low ground near a ditch. The 
bird was active in pursuit of insects and when quiet rested indiffer- 
ently on low grass stems, twigs, lumps of mud, or level ground. 
The feet were bedaubed with mud. In Uruguay the species was 
found on three occasions, each time in lowland marshes where dense 
thickets of low willows and other water-loving shrubs stood in 
shallow water. One was observed February 3, 1921, at the Paso 
Alamo on the Arroyo Sarandi. An adult male was taken February 
7, and another seen on the day following near the Rio Cebollati 
below Lazcano. A third, an immature female, was taken at llio 
Negro, Uruguay, on February 18. The birds hop rather actively 
about in their dense cover, jerking the broad black tail or nervously 
spreading it like a fan even when at rest. 

The adult male taken February 7 had the bill and tarsus black; 
iris warm sepia; inside of mouth, including tongue, warm chrome. 

The bird taken at Berazategui in June is in full winter plumage. 
The one shot near Lazcano, February 7, is badly worn and is molt- 
ing on the body. It appears much darker than the winter bird. 
The immature specimen taken, still in juvenal plumage, is browner 
above and on the lower abdomen and under tail coverts than adults 
and has no concealed white spot in the crown. 

COLORHAMPHUS PARVIROSTKIS (Gould) 

MyioMus parvirostris Gould, Zool. Voy. Beagle, pt. 3, Birds, July, 1839. 
p. 48. (Santa Cruz, Patagonia.) 

Near Concon, Chile, a male was secured on April 26, 1921, and 
another on the day following. The first mentioned, when first 
killed, had the maxilla and tip of mandible black; base of mandible 
hair brown; iris chestnut brown; tarsus and toes black. The birds 
were found near small streams where they sought low perches on 
weeds or bushes in little open spaces, whence they made sallies 



322 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

for passing insects. In appearance and actions they resembled the 
usual type of small flycatchers. 

SPIZITORNIS FLAVIROSTRIS FLAVIROSTRIS (Sclater and Salvin) 

Anaeretes flavirostris Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1876, 
p. 355. (Tilotilo, Yungas, Bolivia.) 

Five adult males secured near General Roca, Rio Negro, on No- 
vember 25 and 29, and December 2, 1920 (one prepared as a skele- 
ton), mark a considerable extension in range for this species, since it 
has been recorded by Dabbene " only south to the Sierra de Cordoba. 
It is possible that it has been overlooked through its similarity to 
Spizitomis parulus. S. f. flavirostris was found with S. jp. patagoni- 
eus, but was readily distinguished by the yellowish base of the 
mandible, by the heavier black streaks on the underparts, and, 
when in the flesh, by its dark eye. It was fairly common in the 
low bushes that dotted the sides of little valleys in the arid gravel 
hills north of the flood plain of the Rio Negro. In general appear- 
ance, aside from its crest, it suggested a gnatcatcher, as it hopped 
about in the tops of the low bushes or occasionally darted up to 
secure some insect in the air. The resemblance was heightened w4ien 
it threw the tail at a jaunty angle over the back, though the slender, 
recurved crest of a few black feathers broke the illusion at first 
glance. The birds were active and alert and often difficult to 
approach since they flew with tilting flight from bush to bush at 
the slighest suggestion of danger. 

Males were practically in breeding condition and were singing 
constantly, a low buzzing, squeaky effort, barely audible above the 
wind, that I wrote as seet zwee-ee seeta seeta seeta. 

The inside of the mouth and base of the mandible were zinc 
orange; rest of bill black; iris Hay's brown; tarsus black. 

Chapman * has named two subspecies of flavirostns from Peru- 

SPIZITORNIS PARULUS PARULUS (Kittlitz) 

Muscicapa Parulufi Kittlitz, Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Petersbourg, vol. 1, 
1831, p. 190. (Concepcion and Valparaiso, Chile.) 

On the grounds that Anairetes of Reichenbach, 1850,'^ is pre- 
occupied by Anaeretes Dejean, 1837,*^ Oberholser ^ has proposed the 
generic name Spizitornis for this bird. 

3 Orn. Argentina, An. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, vol. 18, 1910, p. 331. 

«Amer. Mus. Nov., no. 118, June 20, 1924, p. 8. 
. ^ Ajiairetes Reichenbacli, Av. Syst. Nat., 1850, pi. 66. 

<i Anaeretes Dejean, Cat. Col., ed. 3, 1837, p. 181. E. A. Schwarz informs me that 
this work, though marked as the third edition and universally so cited, is in reality 
a fourth print since, when the third revision of Dejean had been printed, it was de- 
stroyed by fire before more than a few copies had been distributed. It was set up 
again, and this reprint was still marked as the third edition though in reality it was 
the fourth. 

7 Auk, 1920, p. 453. 



BIEDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 323 

A series of three males and two females secured April 24, 26, and 
27, 1921. near Concon, Chile, with five more in the United States 
National Museum collection (Tome and other localities in Chile not 
specified), serve to demonstrate the characters of the t3'^pical form. 
From these it appears that true parulus is marked by grayish colora- 
tion, somewhat limited streaking of the undersurface, and the reduc- 
tion or absence of white wing bars. Hellmayr^ found this to be 
true in 10 skins from Valparaiso and Valdivia. A. y. curatus Wet- 
more and Peters, from Argentina, which is yellowish below like 
parulus^ is somewhat more broadly streaked, on the average, is 
lighter, more grayish above, and has two broad white Aving bars. 
One of the females from Concon has the greater and middle coverts 
faintly tipped with buffy. white and is somew^hat paler above than 
four others (all in fresh fall plumage). It indicates a near ap- 
proach to curatus, and may possibh^ be a migrant from some higher 
region where there is a tendency toward intergradation between the 
two forms. Barros^ records the birds as resident at an altitude of 
1,700 meters on the upper Rio Aconcagua. This one specimen was 
the cause of some uncertainty as to the validit}^ of curatus from east 
of the mountains; nine supposedly typical examples of patniJus, in 
Avhich there was a mere trace at most of a pale edging to the coverts, 
and Hellmayr's account of 10 more, in which the condition is similar, 
seem to indicate that this one specimen represents an intergrade. 

These tiny birds frequented the dense brush on the hill slopes 
above the Rio Aconcagua, where they traveled actively about through 
the bushes. In general appearance and actions they suggested king 
lets, as they flitted the wings constantly, an appearance that w^as 
belied by the jaunty black crest that came into view when the birds 
were seen clearly. They were frequently aggressive and drove one 
another about petulantly. At this season they were in full fall 
plumage. 

In a male the upper third of the iris was raisin black, the re- 
mainder marguerite yellow. The dark and light areas w^ere sharply 
defined and the unusual pattern with two distinct colors gave the 
eye an appearance that was exceedingly strange.^" 

SPIZITORNIS PARULUS CURATUS Wetmore and Peters 

Spizltornis parulus curatus Wetmore and Peters, Auk, 1924, p. 145. (Rio 
Colorado, Gobernacion de Rio Negro, Argentina.) 

The present form is represented by a female shot at Potrerillos, 
Mendoza, on March 15, 1921 (another seen but not taken March 17), 

* Arch, fiir Naturg., vol. 85, November, 1920, p. 51. 
»Rev. Chilena Hist. Nat., vol. 25, 1921, p. 185. 

>" This condition has been figured accurately by Barros, Rev. Chilena Nat. Hist., vol, 
•25, 1921, p. 185, fig. 26. 



324 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

and a male killed March 24 on an arid brush-grown flat 15 miles west 
of Timuyan in the same Province. An adult male shot December 
24, 1920, near Victorica, Pampa, in an open forest of calden and 
algarroba, is distinctly intermediate between curatu^ and pata- 
gonicus, and marks a point near the dividing line between the two. 
The abdomen in this intermediate skin is very faintly yellowish, 
and the back only faintly darker than in patagonicus. It might, with 
equal propriety be identified with either of the forms concerned. 

The geographic races at present known for the species panilus 
are indicated below : 

SPIZITORNIS PARULUS PARULUS (Kittlitz). 

Muscicapa Paridus Kittlitz, Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Petersbourg, vol. 1, 
1831, p. 190. (Concepcion and Valparaiso, Chile.) 

Above dark, wing bars absent or faint, auricular dark patch 
sharply defined. 

Central Chile. Skins from Bariloche, Rio Negro, while not typi- 
cal, have been assigned to this race.^^ 

SPIZITORNIS PARULUS AEQUATORIALIS (Berlepsch and Taczanowski) . 

Anaeretes parulus aequatorkilis Beklepsch and Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. London, 1884, p. 296. (Cechce, western Ecuador.) 

Similar to pamlus, but breast more heavilj^ streaked, darker above, 
crown with white markings restricted. 
Ecuador and Peru. 

SPIZITORNIS PARULUS CURATUS Wetmore and Peters. 

Spizitornis parulus curatus Wetmore and Petees, Auk, 1924, p. 145. (Rio 
Colorado, Gobernacion de Rio Negro, Argentina.) 

Similar to parulus, but paler above, with two distinct wing bars, 
dark auricular patch less sharply defined and upper breast whiter, 
less yellowish. 

Eastern Rio Negro through Pampa to Cordoba and the foothills 
of the Andes in Mendoza. Eastern Chubut? 

SPIZITORNIS PARULUS PATAGONICUS Hellmayr. 

Splsitornis parulus patagonicus Hellmayr, Arch. f. Naturg., vol. 85, No- 
vember, 1920, p. 51. (Neuquen, Gobernacion de Neuquen, Argentina.) 

Similar to curatus but paler above with abdomen white. 
Eastern Neuquen and northwestern Rio Negro, intergrading with 
curatus in central Pampa. 

" See Wetmore and Peters, Auk, 1924, p. 145. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 133 PL. I! 




Valley of Rio Blanco, with Sierra del Plata in the Background 

Above Potra-illos, Mendoza, March 18, 1921 




A Muddy Channel, or Cienaga, Haunt of Painted Snipe (Nycti- 

CRYPHES SEMI-COLLARIS) AND JACKSNIPE (CAPELLA PARAGUAIAE) 



Near Tunuyan, Mendoza, March 28, 1921 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 133 PL. 19 




Rio Tunuyan, near Tunuyan, Mendoza 

Taken Maich 22, I'.L'l 




Dry Forest near Tapia, Tucuman 

Taken Apiil 14, l'.)21 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 325 
SPIZITORNIS PARULUS LIPPUS Wetmore. 

Spizitoriiis parulus Jippus Wetjioee. Univ. California Publ. Zo?5l.. vol. 21, 
1923, p. 336. (Mayne Harbor, Evans Island, Owens Islands, Chile.) 

Similar to parulus but darker above, black of head duller, and 
breast more abundantly streaked. 
Straits of Magellan. 

SPIZITORNIS PARULUS PATAGONICUS Hellmayr 

Spisitornis parulus patagonicus, Hellmayr Arch, fiir Naturg., voL 85, 
November, 1920, p. 51. (Neiiquen, Gobernacion de Neuquen, Argen- 
tina.) 

Two adult males secured at General Koca, Rio Negro, November 
29 and December 3, 1920, have the underparts white, rather heavily 
streaked, two well-marked white wing bars, and the dorsal surface 
gray and may be considered typical of this form since they were 
taken only a short distance east of the type locality. 

Near Koca this bird often was found in low bushes in the same 
areas that were occupied by A. flavirostHs. However, on December 
3, 1 encountered 'patagonicus among growths of Atriplex and similar 
shrubs on the low flats near the Rio Negro, where flavirosfris was 
not seen, so that when the birds are settled for the summer at their 
breeding stations, the two species may affect different ecological 
associations. The two were similar in actions but had slightly dif- 
ferent notes and were easily distinguished by color. 

A male, shot November 29, had the bill black; inside of mouth 
zinc orange; iris pale olive bluff save for a purplish area that cov- 
ered a segment on the upper side ; tarsus black. 

TACHURIS RUBRIGASTRA RUBRIGASTRA (Vieillot) 

Sylvia ruhrigrastra Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 11, 1817, p. 277. 
(Paraguay and Buenos Aires.) 

Four specimens of this bright-colored marsh flycatcher include 
an adult male from Dolores, Buenos Aires, October 21, 1920, a male 
and a female from Tunuyan, Mendoza, March 26, 1921, and a female 
from Concon, Chile, April 29. Comparison of a series of 19 skins 
from Buenos Aires, Rio Negro, Mendoza, and Chile, indicates that 
birds from the southern part of the range of the species do not differ 
sectionally in spite of the wide range included. The two skins from 
Tunuyan and the one from Concon are immature individuals in 
first winter plumage, distinguished from older individuals by a 
yellow spot on the rump. 

True to their reputation these handsome mites of the feathered 
world were found among rushes in marshes, usually where the water 
was something less than a meter in depth. They were local in oc- 

54207—26 22 



326 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

currence and appeared to gather in little scattered colonies, as many 
extensive areas of suitable growth were not inhabited by them. 
They were sh}'^ and apprehensive, so that it was often difficult to 
approach them. Their custom was to clamber about among the rush 
stalks, where their long legs fitted them for progress, or occasionally 
to fly across little openings with slightly tilting, but direct flight, 
performed with head erect and rapidly flitting wings. The white 
in wing and tail are prominent in flight. Occasionally they de- 
scended to run about on little mud bars at the bases of clumps of 
cat-tails. 

They were first recorded at Dolores, Buenos Aires, on October 
21, 1920, when two were seen. Near Lavalle, in the same Province, 
they were found casually on October 30, November 2 and 9, but were 
not common. On March 26, and 28, 1921, a number were recorded 
near Tunuyan, Mendoza, in the rush-grown marshes known as 
cienagas. They were found here in little family parties, and, though 
shy, were tolled out by squeaking from concealment among the cat- 
tails. Near Concon, Chile, April 28, one was seen, and on the day 
following one was brought by a boy as, in company with Dr. 
E. P. Keed, I was about to leave for Valparaiso. 

LEPTOPOGON AMAUROCEPHALUS Cabanis 

Leptopogon amaurocephalus Cabanis, Arch. Naturg., vol. 1, 1847, p. 251. 
(Brazil.) 

On July 21, 1920, at Las Palmas, Chaco, an adult female Lepto- 
fogon was killed in dense brush near the Rio Quia. The bird 
hopped about actively under cover of the branches, or paused to 
rest for considerable intervals on hidden perches. In this specimen, 
when first taken, the extreme base of the mandible was tilleul buif ; 
rest of bill black; iris natal brown; tarsus and toes fuscous. 

With only three specimens of L. amaurocephalus at hand, I do 
not care to express an opinion as to the forms into which this 
species may be divided. The specimen from Las Palmas, which 
has the wing 65.2 mm. long, is slightly deeper and richer in color 
throughout than a skin from Victorica, Sao Paulo, or the type of 
icastus Oberholser ^^ from Sapucay, Paraguay. Chubb " has in- 
dicated that specimens from Sapucay do not differ from others from 
Brazil. 

CAMPTOSTOMA OBSOLETUM OBSOLETUM (Temminck) 

Muscwapa ohsoleta Temminck, Nouv. Roc. Planch. Col. Oiseaux, vol. 3,. 
1838, pi. 275, fig. 1. (Curytiba, Parana, Brazil.") 

Five males, one shot at Eesistencia, Chaco, July 8, 1920, one from 
Laguna Wall, 200 kilometers west of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, 

i-Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 14, Dec. 12, 1901, p. 187. 

'"Ibis, 1910, p. 582. 

i» Nov. Zool., vol. 15, June, 1908, p. 43. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 327 

taken September 25, 11>20, two from the Cerro Lorito on the east 
bank of the Rio Paraguay opposite Puerto Pinasco, secured Sep- 
tember 30, and one from Tapia, Tucuman, collected April 8, 1921, 
are referred to the typical form, as they agree in color with three 
seen from Taquara do Mundo Novo, Rio Grande do Sul, and have 
the measurements assigned by Hellmayr ^^ to that form. The wing 
in these birds, in the order cited, measures as follows : 53, 55.4, 55.8, 
55.2, and 54.3 mm. As these represent the chord of the folded wing 
taken with dividers, they are comparable with Doctor Hellmayr's 
figures, in Avhich it is supposed that tlie wing was measured flat. 

Mr. Ridgway ^^ has removed OrnitJiion iner?ne, the type of Orni- 
thion Hartlaub to the Pipridae, as it has a pycnaspidean tarsus, 
leaving the species with exaspidean tarsi, that have been associated 
with it, in the Tyrannidae under the name G cvm'pto stoma of Sclater. 

This small bird was of local occurrence and was seldom seen. At 
Resistencia the one taken was shot from a little flock of three that 
came flitting actively through some low trees in dense growth, occa- 
sionally uttering a vireolike, scolding note. Near Laguna Wall, in 
the Chaco, 200 kilometers west of Puerto Pinasco, the birds were 
fairly common in the dense growths of thorny vinal that covered 
large areas. On September 30, near the Rio Paraguay, I found a 
number in heavy timber over a wet area where the forest was open. 
The birds Avere seen high in the tops of the still leafless trees, 
where they perched quietly except when they darted out to secure 
passing insects. Their song was a rattling, laughing chee chee chee 
chee chee that was almost swiftlike in its tones. In fall, near Tapia, 
Tucuman. the species was encountered again in low scrub in company 
with other small, brush-haunting birds. 

One taken July 8 had the tip of the mandible blackish; base of 
culmen dull slate; rest of mandible pinkish white, becoming dull 
orange at gape; inside of mouth, orange; iris, broAvn; tarsus, slate 
black. 

ELAENIA ALBICEPS ALBICEPS (d'Orbigny and Lafresnaye) 

Muscipeta albiceps cFOrbigxy and Lafresnaye, Mag. Zool., 1837, cl. 2, p. 47. 
(Yungas, Bolivia.) 

The present species seems to be one that ranges throughout Pata- 
gonia, north at least to the Rio Negro, and that northward extends 
through the foothills of the Andes in Chile and Argentina to south- 
ern Peru. In Argentina it is reported from the isolated Sierra de 
Cordoba. From examination of a considerable series it seems that 
albiceps differs from E. parvirostris, which superficially appears 
identical in narrower bill, browner, less greenish dorsal coloration, 

«Nov. Zool., vol. 15, June, 1908, p. 44. 

i» Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 19, Jan. 29, 1906, p. 14. 



328 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

grayer breast, more extensive white in crown stripe, with feathers 
of occiput somewhat longer and fuller, and lack of whitish margins 
on the lesser wing coverts. The young of alhiceps in juvenal plum- 
age are duller brown than those of parvirostris. Specimens as- 
signed to alhiceps include an adult male shot in willows near the 
Rio Negro, south of General Roca, Rio Negro, December 3, 1920; 
immature male and female from an altitude of 1,500 meters at 
Potrerillos, Mendoza, March 17, 1921 ; and an immature female from 
TOO meters' elevation at Tapia, Tucuman, April 7, 1921. The last 
three are in juvenal plumage. The specimen from Tapia is consid- 
erably paler above than those from Potrerillos, but is duller in color 
than parvirostris, from the same locality, while in addition it has a 
narrower bill and no white on the lesser wing coverts. As it was 
taken in late fall it may be migrant from a higher elevation. 

Near General Roca, Rio Negro, Elaenia a. alhiceps was fairly 
common among thickets of willows near the river, but was so shy 
and retiring that it was difficult to secure. The call note of males, a 
rapidly given loheur, was audil>le at some distance, but in the dense 
growths of small willows the bird was difficult to see, while in more 
open groves they were too wary to permit easy approach. Else- 
where the species was recorded in the Andean foothills near Po- 
trerillos, Mendoza, from March 17 to 21, where the birds were found 
in growths of creosote bush {CovUlea cuneifolius) along streams. 
These, as well as one found in dry brush near Tapia, Tucuman, on 
April 7, were apparently in migration. 

ELAENIA PARVIROSTRIS Pelzeln 

Elainea parvirostris Pelzeln, Oni. Bras., pt. 2, 1868, p. 178. (Curytiba, 
Parana, Brazil.) 

This form of Elaenia ranges from northern Buenos Aires (Lavalle, 
Conchitas, etc.) northward through northern Argentina, Uruguay, 
Paraguay, and Brazil. In general it extends eastward of the area 
inhabited by alhiceps, and seems to frequent lower altitudes, since it 
is not found in the Andes nor is it known in the colder area of Pata- 
gonia on the south. Though similar in general appearance to alhi- 
ceps, E. parvirostris is distinguished by broader bill, more greenish 
dorsal coloration, lighter breast, shorter occipital feathers, and less 
amount of white in crown. The lesser wing coverts in parvirostris 
frequently are tipped with white, forming an indistinct third band 
on the wing. The young in juvenal plumage are brighter, more 
greenish in coloration than those of alhiceps. 

The five specimens secured include an adult male taken Novem- 
ber 9, 1920, at the Estancia Los Yngleses, near Lavalle, Buenos Aires, 
adult male and female from San Vicente, Uruguay, January 25 and 
28, 1921, an immature female, in juvenal plumage, shot at Rio Negro, 



BIKDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 329 

Ui-ugiiay, February 14, and a male from Tapia, Tucuman, April 13. 
The species was common in thickets near streams in southern Uru- 
guay (La Paloma, January 23, San Vicente, January 25 to 31, Rio 
Negro, February 14), but in Argentina was seen only on the two oc- 
casions when specimens were taken, as noted above. The birds were 
found on low perches among rather dense growth, where they made 
short flights from twig to twig or rested quietly with twitching tail. 
At the end of January they were breeding, and young were on the 
wing by the middle of February. Males in the nesting season gave 
an emphatic little song like that of some Einpldonax^ uttered from 
secure retreat among willows or similar shrubs. When alarmed 
about their nests they uttered a low tsip. 

MYIOPAGIS VIRmiCATA VIRIDICATA (Vieillot) 

Sylvia viridicata Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 11, 1817, p. 171. 
(Paraguay.) 

On September 30, 1920, at the base of the Cerro Lorito on the 
eastern bank of the Rio Paraguay, opposite Puerto Pinasco, Para- 
guay, attention was attracted to this flycatcher by its sharp ex- 
plosive note cJiur esp. The bird perched in heavy cover in the tops 
of trees and shrubs, in dense forest, occasionally flying out after 
insects. Only through its peculiar call was I able to follow it and 
secure it. It proved to be an adult male in breeding condition. This 
bird has the following measurements: Wing, 63.7; tail, 59.8; culmen 
from base, 10.6; tarsus, 15.7 mm." 

SUIRIRI SUIRIRI (Vieillot) 

Muscicapa suiriri Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 21, 1818, p. 487. 
(Paraguay.) 

The suiriri flycatcher was common through the Chaco from north- 
ern Argentina into Paraguay, and in the wooded country in the 
territory of Pampa and northern Tucuman. Dates and localities 
(with specimens preserved indicated in parentheses) at which it was 
recorded are as follows: Las Palmas, Chaco, July 13 to 31, 1920 
(male taken July 13, female July 18) ; Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, 
August 7 to 18; Formosa, Formosa, August 23; Kilometer 80, west 
of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, September 7 to 20 (females taken 
September 7 and 11) ; Kilometer 200, west of the same point, Sep- 
tember 25; Victorica, Pampa, December 23 to 29 (adult male taken 
December 23, two adult females December 24 and 28) ; Tapia, Tu- 
cuman, April 6 to 13) males taken April 6, 11, and 13, on* juvenile 
with sex indeterminate September 11). Birds secured in December 
were in worn plumage, those shot in April were in molt. In the 
Juvenal plumage (shown by one individual) described previously 

" For discussion of the forms of this species, see Berlepsch, Proc. Fourth Int. Ornith. 
Congr., February, 1907, pp. 425'-431. 



330 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

by Hartert ^* this bird presents a curious appearance for a species of 
this group as th > entire dorsal surface from forehead to upper tail 
coverts, including- the lesser wing coverts, is marked with triangular 
spots of white. 

I am uncertain as to the validity of Suiriri suirlri albescens 

(Gould) ^'^ separated by Oberholser ^° on supposed grayer dorsal sur- 
face and whiter wing bars. With a fair series I find these charac- 
ters somewhat variable in birds from Paraguay and from points 
farther south, so that I can not make a definite separation with the 
material at hand. 

-Though these birds frequented forest or brush-grown areas, they 
were conspicuous and easily seen, as they were usually encountered 
among open branches where there was little concealment of twigs 
or foliage. It was usual to find two or three together. The species 
had several notes that served to advertise its presence, one that re- 
sembled chee-ee-ee-ee-ee-ee^ a rolling whinny, being most common. 
The ordinary call note was a low chee chee^ and in the breeding sea- 
son they uttered a musical song in a low tone. Their movements 
were slow and rather methodical, so that at times they gave some 
suggestion of vireos. 

SUIRIRI IMPROVISA Wetmore 

Suiriri improfisa Wetmore, Auk, 1924, p. 595. (Tapia, Province of Tucu- 
man, Argentina.) 

The type and only specimen seen of this species was shot near 
Tapia, Tucuman, on April 9, 1921, as it worked slowly through the 
tops of trees in dry, open forest. In general appearance the bird 
suggests Suiriri suiriri except that it has a longer, heavier bill, but 
with this structural resemblance is combined a type of coloration re- 
sembling that of Suhlegatus fasciatus. In a way improvisa is repre- 
sentative of Suiri.ri affinis (Burmeister) (long considered an 
Elaenia^ but placed in Suiriri by Berlepsch),^^ but is distinctly dif- 
ferent in its darker color, distinct grayish band across the chest, and 
the lack of yellowish at the bases of the rectrices. It is surprising to 
discover so distinct species in a locality so well worked as Tapia. 

SUBLEGATUS FASCIATUS (Thunberg) 

Pipra fasciata Thunbe21g, Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersbourg, vol. 8, 
1822, pp. 283, 285. (Brazil.) (Reference from Brabourne and Chubb.) 

This flycatcher was first recorded at Las Palmas, Chaco, where 
specimens were collected July 13, 27, and 30, 1920. Others were 

18 Nov. Zool., vol. 16, December, 1909, p. 200. 

1" Pachyrhamphus albescens Gould, Zool. Voy. Heaglo, pt. 3. Birds, July, 1839, p. 50. 
pi. 14. (Buenos Aires.) 

2» Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 25, 1902, p. 136. 
^iProc. Fourth Int. Ornith. Congr., 1907, p. 442. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 331 

roted at Formosa, Formosa, August 23 and 24, and in September in 
the area west of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, they were observed at 
Kilometer SO, on September 10, 15, 1(3 (a male taken), and 20, and 
at Kilometer 200 (near Laguna Wall) on September 25. These 
birds frequented the dense branches of algarrobas and other low, 
thorny trees that were scattered across small, open prairies, where 
they hopped about under cover, avoiding the open save when flying 
with a tilting flight from tree to tree. At intervals the tail was 
jerked quickly two or three times, and occasionally one uttered a soft 
note, lohit^ or a more explosive sound, whit sfee. 

A specimen taken September 30 when fresh had the bill blackish 
brown number 3 ; iris Hay's brown ; tarsus and toes black. 

Berlepsch and Hellmayr '^ have considered Suhlegatus glnher 
Sclater and Salvin a geographic form of fasciatus, a contention 
not borne out by the scanty material at hand, since glaher has a 
distinctly broader, heavier bill that is black in color and is more 
distinctly uncinate at the tip. A skin seen from Santa Ana, in the 
Urubamba Valley, Peru (male, July 15, 1916), one of the five re- 
corded by Chapman -^ as Suhlegatus fasciatus fasciatus^ that has a 
much smaller bill and is paler in color than my skins from the Chaco, 
is probably Suhlegatus grlseocularis Sclater and Salvin,-* described 
from Maranura, a short distance below Santa Ana. 

PITANGUS SULPHURATUS BOLIVIANUS (Lafresnaye) 

Saurophagus bolivianus Lafkesnaye, Rev. Mag. Zool., 1852, p. 463. 
(Chuquisaca, Bolivia.) 

The eight specimens secured of this common bird are as follows : 
Female, Formosa, Formosa, August 24, 1920; female, Kilometer 
80, west of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, September 7: a pair, La- 
valle, Buenos Aires, November 13; adult and juvenile males and 
immature female, San Vicente, Uruguay, January 25, 26, and 28, 
1921 ; female, Lazcano, Uruguay, February 8. The species ranged 
through the humid eastern pampas of Argentina and Uruguay, 
along the base of the Andes, and in the Chaco, north into Para- 
guay, but was not seen in the semiarid interior. Points at which 
it was recorded are as follow^s: Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, Sep- 
tember 3 and 30, 1920; Kilometer 80, September 6 to 20; Kilo- 
meter 110, September 23; Kilometer 200, September 25; Formosa, 
Formosa, August 5, 23, and 24; Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, August 
8 to 21; Las Palmas, Chaco, July 13 to August 1; Kesistencia. 
Chaco, July 8 to 10; Santa Fe, Santa Fe, July 4; Carrasco, Uru- 
guay, January 9 and 16, 1921; La Paloma, Uruguay, Janivury 23; 

23 Journ. fur Ornith., 1905, pp. 4-5. 

«iU. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 117, 1921, p. 96. 

'^ Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1876, p. 17. (Maranura, Peru.) 



332 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

San Vicente, Uruguay, January 25 to February 2; Lazcano, Uru- 
guay, February 3 to 9; Hio Negro, Uruguay, February 14 to 19; 
Quilmes, Buenos Aires, June 27, 1920; Berazategui, Buenos Aires, 
June 29 ; Dolores, Buenos Aires, October 21 and 22 ; Lavalle, Buenos 
Aires, October 27 to November 15; Carhue, Buenos Aires, De- 
cember 17; Guamini, Buenos Aires, March 4, 1921; Tunuyan, 
Mendoza, March 23 to 29; Tapia, Tucuman, April 6 to 14; Tafi 
Viejo, Tucuman, April 17. 

This large flycatcher, though found on the pampas, was more 
common at the border of forests, along fence rows, or in open 
brush. It was especially partial to water and was observed fre- 
quently perched on limbs or rushes that overhung small streams 
or marshes. It was observed often in parks in cities where tree 
growth was extensive, and is one of the first of the native birds 
to attract the attention of the traveler, its presence constantly ad- 
vertised by its querulous notes. The birds usually watched for 
prey from some open post, and on occasion, from their intent gaze 
at the water, I suspected that they were on the lookout for small 
fishes. Occasionally they hovered in the air like kingfishers or small 
hawks, with the body suspended at an angle of 45° and rapidly 
beating wings. They were solitary save during the breeding sea- 
son, when they congregated in pairs. 

Their mating display, observed occasionally, was peculiar. The 
individual giving it, stood bolt erect with the neck perpendicular, 
threw the point of the bill down and exposed the flaring, colored 
crest directly in front, while it shook the wings rapidly and made 
a loud cracking sound with its bill. Nest building began in Oc- 
tober, and during November their large nests, often with crudely 
formed roofs, were seen on several occasions. Domed nests, common 
among pampas inhabiting birds, apparently give protection from 
predatory animals and shelter from the heavy storms of spring. 
A young bird, recently from the nest, was shot at San Vicente, 
Uruguay, January 25. 

Local names for this well-known species are given almost univer- 
sally in imitation of its notes, as witness hien-te-veo in Spanish, pH- 
o-giie in Guarani, and heht aow pah in Anguete. 

MYIODYNASTES SOLITARIUS (Vieillot) 

Tyrannus solitarius Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 35, 1819, p. SS. 
(Paraguay.) 

The present species, seen only in Paraguay, in the region near 
Puerto Pinasco, was migratory, and did not appear during spring 
until September 20, when a male was shot near Kilometer 80, An- 
other was recorded near the same point on September 21, one near 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 333 

Kilometer 110 on September 23, and a number at the base of the 
Cerro Lorito, on the eastern bank of the Rio Para<^uay, September 
30. The birds frequented heavy Avoods where tiiey sought sheltered 
perches 6 to 10 meters from the ground. Though their streaked plum- 
age made them conspicuous they were difficult to see, as they watched 
intruders alertly, and at any suspicious movement flew to a safer 
distance. 

The male taken had the base of the mandible pale olive buff; 
remainder of bill black; iris bone brown; tarsus and toes slate gray; 
claws black. 

MYIOPHOBUS FASCIATUS AURICEPS (Gould) 

MijiobiuH aurlccps Gould, Zool. Voy. Beagle, pt. 3, Birds, July, 1839, p. 47. 
(Buenos Aires.) 

At Lazcano, Uruguay, an adult male was shot February 5, 1921, 
and at Rio Negro, in the same country, a female (with two birds in 
Juvenal plumage, one a female, the other with sex unknown) was 
taken February 15, and another female on February IT. The crown 
spot in the male is ochraceous orange, and in the females j^ellow 
(nearly absent in some specimens). The young are more rufescent 
brown above and on the wing bars than adults, washed more with 
brownish below, and lack the coronal patch. Though Hellmayr -^ 
and Dabbene '° state that Argentine specimens of this species are not 
distinguishable from those of Brazil, the birds at hand substantiate 
Ridgway's recognition -^ of auHceps as a race distinct from fasdatus 
of Brazil and northern South America. The wing in five specimens 
from Venezuela, with sex not marked, measures from 53 to 60 mm., 
and in a male from Para, 56.5 mm. Three males from Buenos Aires 
and eastern Uruguay have the wing from 64 to 64.2 mm., and three 
females (two in much worn plumage) from the same region 58 to 
62 mm. There seems to be a recognizable difference in size between 
series from Argentina and Uruguay and elsewhere. 

These small flycatchers, with the habits of Empidonax, were found 
in dense, lowland thickets near streams. They chose resting places 
hidden among leaves, where they remained quietly on Avatch for 
insects, at short intervals twitching the tail. When food appeared 
it was pursued with snap and vigor, its capture announced by a click 
of the bill. Occasionally one uttered a plaintive note that may be 
rendered as tsi hur. 

^ Nov. Zool., vol. 15, June, 1908, p. 52. 

■^ A-a. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, vol. 18, July 16, 1910, p. 343. 

"Birds North Middle Amer., vol. 4, 1907, p. 543. 



334 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

PYROCEPHALUS RUBINUS RUBINUS (Boddaert) 
Miiscicapa rubinvs Boddaert, Tabl. Planch. Enl.. 1783, p. 42. (Brazil.)'' 

This handsome flycatcher, common in central and northern Argen- 
tina, was recorded and collected as follows : Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, 
August 8 and 14, 1920 (two males taken) : Formosa, Formosa, Au- 
gust 23 and 24 (male taken on 24th) ; Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, 
September 3 ; Kilometer 80, west of Puerto Pinasco, September 9 to 
21 (male September 21) ; Lavalle, Buenos Aires, October 24 to No- 
vember 13 (pair November 13) ; General Roca, Rio Negro, Novem- 
ber 27 to December 3; Victorica, Pampa, December 23 to 29 (male 
December 28, adult female December 24, immature female December 
28) ; Carrasco, Uruguay, January 9 and 16, 1921; La Paloma, Uru- 
guay, January 23; San Vicente, Uruguay, January 26 to Februar}' 
2 (female January 27) ; Rio Negro, Uruguay, February 18. 

This bird inhabited regions similar to those in which its northern 
representative, inexicanus, is found in the southwestern United 
States, namely, open thickets and groves of low trees, often in the 
vicinity of dry watercourses, where it chose low perches, frequently 
where a network of small limbs protected it from the sudden on- 
slaught of bird-eating hawks. The young males carry the streaked, 
immature plumage until late winter following the season in whicii 
they were hatched, as is shown by three males from the Territory of 
Formosa, killed in August, which are in transition from this streaked 
phase to the brilliant plumage of the adult. The period from Sep- 
tember, when they had attained full feather, until December consti- 
tuted the mating season during which their beautiful display, in 
which they flew out with head erect and crest raised, and supported 
themselves in air with rapid beats of the wings, vivid burning spots 
of red that instantly attracted the eye, was seen frequently. At a 
distance of a few yards, during this action, a thin, steely note tsit- 
tsur-ee-ee was faintly audible. Occasionally one gave a low, crack- 
ling note like the sound made by breaking dry twigs. An immature 
specimen secured December 28 had only recently left the nest. 

In some localities the brilliant display of the male had given this 
species the name of hrazita de fuego; elsewhere it was called chur- 
rinche. 

EMPIDONAX TRAILLII TRAILLII (Audubon) 

Miiscicapa traillii Audubon, Birds Amer. (folio), vol. 1. 1828, pi. 45. 
(Woods along the prairie lands of the Arkansas River.) 

An adult female, very fat, was found on the deck of the steamship 
Santa Elisa at daybreak on the morning of May 11, 1921. The bird, 
which belongs to the eastern race (formerly known as alnorura 

^ See Brabourne and Chubb, Birds of South America, vol. 1, 1912, p. 208. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 335 

Brewster), was supposed to have come aboard when we were oppo- 
site Cape Mala, Panama, in the Gulf of Panama. 

EMPIDONAX EULERI (Cabanis) 

Empidochanes Etileri Cabanis, Jouru. fiir Oruith., 1868, p. 195. (Can- 
tagallo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.) 

Of six skins attributed to this species, two males were taken at a 
low hill 25 kilometers west of Puerto Pinasco, Para<i!:ua3\ September 
1, 1920, a female at San Vicente, Uruguay, January 31, 1921, an- 
other female at Lazcano, February 8, and a male at Rio Negro Feb- 
ruary 14. All are adult. Specimens from Uruguay appear darker 
and browner than those from the Paraguayan Chaco, due perhaps in 
part to their more worn condition of plumage. The status and range 
of this species are in considerable confusion in current literature, 
as formerly euleri was supposed to occur only in Brazil. Lillo-^ 
has said that, according to Hellmayr, the bird ranges into Argen- 
tina, but it does not appear to have been recorded before from Uru- 
guay. Eiyipidonax argentinus (Cabanis), of which Evifidonax 
'brunneus Ridgway appears to be a synonym, is said to be smaller 
than euleri^ and though sometimes considered a geographic race, on 
the basis of one specimen seen (the type of hi'wmieus)^ appears 
specifically distinct. The wing in euleri has the following measure- 
ments: Males (4 specimens), 64.4—66.6 mm.; females (2 specimens), 
60.5-62.8 mm. 

These small flycatchers frequented Ioav brush in heavy forest, 
where the ground was densely shaded. Perches were chosen under 
shadow of groAvths of leaves, where the birds remained motionless, 
save for the rapidly twitching tail. In Uruguay they were fairly 
common, especially in swampy localities. In addition to those re- 
corded above, one preserved in alcohol was taken on September 30, 
1920, on the eastern shore of the Paraguay River, opposite Puerto 
Pinasco. 

MYIARCHUS TYRANNULUS TYRANNULUS (MuUer) 

Muscicapa Tyrannulus Muller, Natursyst., Suppl., 1776, p. 169. (Cayenne.) 

The present species, marked by broad, rufescent margins on the 
inner webs of the rectrices, was collected only at Kilometer 25 and 
Kilometer 80, west of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, where adult males 
were secured September 1 and 11, 1920. In this region they were 
fairly common in heavy forest, where they Avatched for insects or 
hopped slowly about in the outer branches of tall trees. On Sep- 
tember 15 seA^eral were found together, calling excitedly, apparently 
engaged in mating. Their usual call resembles one of the notes of 
NuttalJornis borealis, and in addition, they have a song, a rattling 

»Apunt. Hist. Nat., vol. 1, No. 3, Mar. 1, 1909, p. 42. 



336 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

whit iiihir-r-r-r whit. The species was recorded west to Kilometer 

200. 

MYIARCHUS SORDIDUS Todd 

Mylarchus sordidus Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 29, June 6, 
1916, p. 96. (EI Trompillo, Carabobo, Venezuela.) 

An adult male secured near San Vicente, in extreme eastern Uru- 
guay, January 81, 1921, is listed under sordidiis with reservation. 
Todd, in his review of the o-enus Myiarchus^^^ examined this bird 
and marked it '"'' Myiarchus sp. (near sordidus).'''' After study and 
comparison with Todd's revision of the genus it appears that the 
specimen shows the characters of darker dorsal surface that dis- 
tinguish sordidus from pelzelni., and under present understanding 
of the group it can be listed only as sordidus. It may be noted that 
Todd ^^ records sordidus from Rio Grande do Sul, so that eastern 
Uruguay is not a remarkable extension of range, especially since 
other south Brazilian species were obtained at the same point. 

The bird was shot in heavy brush bordering the Laguna Castillos. 

MYIARCHUS PELZELNI Berlepsch 

Myiarchus pelzelni Berlepsch, Ibis, 1883, p. 139. (Baliia, Brazil.) 

The present species was found near Victorica, Pampa, where an 
adult female was secured December 24, 1920, and an adult male and 
a young female December 27. The adult male is much grayer above 
than the female and has little yellow below. The young bird, not 
yet fully feathered, is yellower on the abdomen, and has rectrices 
and remiges margined with cinnamon. 

The birds were found in heavy growth of the semiarid, open 
forest of low, thick-trunked trees characteristic of this region, where 
they were located through their low-pitched mournful whistled 
calls. 

MYIARCHUS FEROX SWAINSONI Cabanis and Heine 

Myiarchus swainsoni Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., pt. 2, 1859, p. 72. 
(Brazil.) 

The present bird resembles M. t. tyrminulus superficially, but has 
a smaller bill and lacks the rufescent coloring in the tail. The bird 
was recorded at Resistencia, Chaco, July 8, 1920 (male taken) ; Las 
Palmas, Chaco, July 17 to 31 (two males July 17 to 21) ; and Tapia, 
Tucuman, April 8 to 13, 1921 (male shot April 8). They were 
found in open woods in fair numbers. In feeding they hopped 
easily about among twigs and leaves, snatching at insects, and occa- 
sionally resting stationary for a time. 



""See Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 35, Oct. 17, 1922, pp. 181-218. 
=° Idem, p. 197. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 337 
EMPIDONOMUS AURANTIO-ATROCRISTATUS (d'Orbigny and Lafresnaye) 

Tii7-anmis axirantio-atrocristatus (VObbigny and Lafresnaye, Mag. Zool., 
1837, cl. 2, p. 45. (Valle Grande, Bolivia.) 

The present species appears to be migrant in the southern part of 
its range, since it was not recorded until September 15, 1920, when 
three were found and two males taken near Kilometer 80, west of 
Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay. Others were noted there September 20 
and 21, and the birds were seen in fair numbers September 23 at 
Kilometer 170, and September 25 at Kilometer 200. From December 
24 to 29 the species was fairly common near Victorica, Pampa, where 
two males in rather worn breeding plumage were taken. One other 
male was shot at Rio Negro, Uruguay, on February 17, 1921. The 
birds frequented open, brushy areas, and where the forest was thick 
were encountered only at the borders of the groves. In actions they 
were somewhat similar to kingbirds, as they always chose perches 
at the tips of low branches, or at the top of small trees wdiere they 
might watch for prey. Their flight, as they darted or turned 
swiftly in the air after insects, and then alighted with an expert flirt 
of their long wings, was alert and graceful. The call note of males 
was a low, whistling pree-ee-ee-er^ that may be likened to the noise 
produced in flight by the wings of Nothura maculosa. At other 
times they uttered a series of squeaky calls that might pass for a 
song. 

The Lengua Indians in the Paraguayan Chaco called them snak pi 
tik. 

The bill, tarsi, and toes in fresh specimens were black; iris Van- 
dyke brown. 

TYRANNUS MELANCHOLICUS MELANCHOLICUS Vieillot 

Tyrannus melancholicus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 35, 1919, 
p. 84. (Paraguay.) 

As in the time of Azara, this kingbird arrived in Paraguay in 
September, since the first one taken, a male, was secured on Septem- 
ber 23, at Kilometer 110, west of Puerto Pinasco. Others were seen 
here September 26, and at Kilometer 80, September 28, while a male 
was taken from a perch above the Rio Paraguay, opposite Puerto 
Pinasco, on September 30. Near General Roca, Rio Negro, a few 
were noted December 3, in wallows along the Rio Negro, and at Vic- 
toria, Pampa, on December 23 and 24, the species was common. Two 
breeding males (one prepared as a skeleton) were taken there De- 
cember 23. Near San Vicente, Uruguay, from January 27 to 31, 
1921, the birds frequented groves of palms, where an adult female 
was shot January 27. The species was found in small numbers at 
Lazcano, Uruguay, from February 5 to 8, and was recorded near 



338 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Tniiuyan, Mendoza, March 26 to 28. It is migrant and retreats 
northward in winter. 

These birds were found at the borders of groves where they sought 
commanding perches and watched for passing insects. Tliey were 
stolid and inactive save when in alert pursuit of prey. Occasionally 
one uttered a high-pitched, trilling call, and a wing-tipped bird 
gave staccato cries like those of otlier kingbirds, but ordinarily they 
were silent. When not hurried, their flight was of the fluttering 
type, common to other kingbirds, performed with short, rapid vibra- 
tions of the partly opened wings. 

The two summer skins preserved, in Avorn breeding plumage, in 
appearance are much darker than those secured in spring. One 
from Victorica in particular shows little greenish wash on the upper 
surface. A male, shot December 23, had the bill, tarsus, and toes 
black; iris natal brown. 

The Anguete Indians in the Paraguayan Chaco called this species 
Ta pah. 

MUSCIVORA TYRANNUS (Linnaeus) 

MuHcicuim Tyrannus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, vol. 1, 1766, p. 325. 
(Cayenne.) 

Specimens of the fork-tailed flycatcher from Argentina appear 
somewhat darker on the back than the average of those from north- 
ern South America, Northern and southern forms niaj' not be 
separated with certainty on the basis of material at hand, as dark 
birds occur in the north in the small series seen. The (piestion is 
complicated by the extensive northward migration of the species 
from temperate areas into the Tropics, 

The species was widespread from spring until fall, and Avas 
noted as follows: Kilometer 80, Avest of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, 
September 6 to 27, 1920; Dolores, Buenos Aires, October 21; La- 
valle, Buenos Aires, October 25 to NoA^ember 15; Santo Domingo, 
Buenos Aires, November 16; General Roca, Rio Negro, November 
30; Carhue, Buenos Aires, December 17; Victorica, Pampa, De- 
cember 23 to 28; Carrasco, Uruguay, January 9 and 16, 1921; La 
Paloma, Uruguay, January 23; San Vicente, Uruguay, January 
25 to February 2; Lazcano, Uruguay, February 3 to 9; Rio Negro, 
Uruguay, February 14 to 19; Franklin, Buenos Aires, March 11. 
The three adult males and one female taken (Kilometer 80, Avest of 
Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, September 9, Carhue, Buenos Aires, 
December 17, Victorica, Pampa, December 28, and San Vicente, 
Uruguay, January 30) offer no striking peculiarities. Two fe- 
males in juA^enal plumage shot near Victorica, Pampa, December 
28, are recently from the nest and have no suggestion of the long 
tail found in adults. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 339 

The fork-tailed flycatcher was frequent throughout the open 
pampas, but was most abundant where there was scattered tree 
growth. In habits these birds resembled kingbirds. They in- 
variably sought perches in the open on fences, low bushes, or the 
tops of small trees, where they rested quietly. Though in appear- 
ance they suggested Muscivom forfcata. they were less noisy and 
active. Most of their notes were flat, with little carrying power 
against the force of the pampan winds. The call of young re- 
cently from the nest was a low tsip that suggested a note of 
Brachyspiza, while adults uttered an explosive call note, somewhat 
flat in tone, A'liried by a staccato rattle when tilting among them- 
selves or in pursuit of other birds. Hawks and other large birds 
were attacked viciously, and the flycatchers frequently darted out 
at any bird that passed too near. 

Fall migration among fork-tailed flycatchers began by the first 
of Februar}'. On February 2, while passing through a region of 
rolling hills north of San Vicente, Uruguay, I recorded at least 
2,000, many of them young with partly grown tails. The birds 
were found in small flocks, and were spread along wire fences for 
a distance of several miles. B}^ Februarj^ 9 they had lessened 
in abundance but continued common in Uruguay until February 
19. Throughout this period they were obviously traveling north- 
ward. Shortly after daybreak on Februarj' 18, near Lazcano, a 
band of 16 individuals paused to rest for a few minutes in bushes 
bordering a lagoon, and then, in straggling formation, passed on 
to the northeast. On March 2 occasional individuals were recorded 
from a train, from the suburbs of Buenos Aires as far south as 25 
de Mayo in the Province of Buenos Aires, but none were seen 
beyond that point. The last one recorded was observed from a train 
near Franklin, Buenos Aires, on March 11. 

The species is known universally as tiierita. 

Family PHYTOTOMIDAE 

PHYTOTOMA RUTILA Vieillot 

Phytotoma nttila Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 26, 1818, p. 64. 
(Paraguay.) 

During winter, near Las Palmas, Chaco (July 26 and 31, 1920), 
this strange bird was found in small flocks in bush-grown pastures, 
and occasional individuals were recorded at the Riacho Pilaga, For- 
mosa (August 14, 18, and 21). Near Las Palmas a pair of adult 
birds was secured July 26. The species seemed irregular in its 
occurrence in the Chaco region, and may have been only a winter 
visitant. The birds were found quietly at rest on the tops of low 
bushes, with crest erect, and were usualty difficult to approach. The 



340 BUI^LETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

light eye was prominent at a considerable distance. The birds passed 
from perch to perch, with an undulating flight not far above the 
ground, and as they checked their momentum in order to alight 
spread the tail, displaying its prominent white markings. At times 
they hopped down among the branches to conceal themselves among 
dense leaves. 

In the vicinity of Victorica, Pampa, from December 23 to 29, 
Phytotonia 7^tila was encountered in abundance on its breeding 
grounds, and six preserved as skins include three adult males, an 
adult and an immature female, and a fledgling. At this season the 
species ranged in wooded areas of low, heavy-trunked calden, algar- 
roba, and similar trees where there was abundant dense undergrowth 
of chaiiar, piquillin, and a variety of fow shrubs, many with thorn- 
protected branches. On entering these tracts for the first time my 
attention was drawn at once by one of the most bizarre bird notes 
that has as yet come to my ears, and, hastening to trace it, I found 
to my astonishment that it was the song of this plant cutter. Adult 
males in full, handsome plumage rested on open limbs, often at the 
tops of low trees, and with great earnestness gave a succession of 
low notes that may be likened only to the drawn-out squeaking pro- 
duced when two tree limbs, moved by winds, rub slowly across one 
another. Occasionally a more strenuous effort produced a sound 
like the squeaking of leather, that might terminate in a froglike 
croak. The whole, while ranking as a musical performance of the 
highest rank in the opinion of the one responsible for it, and without 
doubt the sweetest of music to his mate, was to human understanding 
ridiculous to an extreme. At intervals they flew from perch to perch 
with slow affected flight, performed with rapid beats of the wings, 
different entirely from their usual method of progression. 

It is possible that two broods are raised, as one fledgling and one 
fully grown immature bird were taken, while adult males were in 
full breeding condition. The fledgling, though as yet unable to fly, 
retreated precipitately among the thorny limbs of a i:)iquillin, where 
it was secured only with difficulty. The birds were feeding on green 
drupes of various sorts, and all those taken, here and elsewhere, had 
the sides of the bill covered with gum from plant juices. 

At Potrerillos, Mendoza, an immature female was shot March 19, 
1921, at an elevation of 1,800 meters. 

In the specimens from the areas listed, there are no differences 
apparent other than those that may be considered individual. The 
fledgling taken, a young male, suggests the female in color pattern, 
save that the coloration is softer and darker, and the streaks on 
both dorsal and ventral surfaces more obscure. The under tail 
coverts are tawny olive, with obscure shaft streaks of black. Im- 
mature females in full ju venal plumage have the streaking nar- 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 341 

rower. One has a buffy suffusion on the undersurface. An adult 
female in winter plumage is more buffy than one shot in the breed- 
ing season. A female, taken July 26, had the iris ochraceous buff; 
bill andover green, shading to vetiver green at base of mandible; 
tarsus and toes deep neutral gra3\ 

Family HTRUNDINIDAE 

IRIDOPROCNE MEYENI (Cabanis) 

Petrochelidon meyeni Cabanis, Mus. Hein., pt. 1, 1850, p. 48. (Santiago, 
Chile. ) 

At Guamini, Buenos Aires, several were seen and an immature 
female was taken on March 5, 1921. A dozen were recorded in 
company with Pygochelidon on March 7. Near Concon, Chile, the 
species was fairly common on April 27 and 28, and an adult male 
was collected on the date first mentioned. 

As Cabanis's name for this swallow is a substitute for Hirundo 
leucopyga " Lichtenstein " of Meyen,^^ the type locality for meyeni 
must be the same as that for Meyen's leucopyga^ that is, the city of 
Santiago. 

IRIDOPROCNE LEUCORRHOA (Vieillot) 

Hirundo leucorrhoa Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 14, 1817, p. 519. 
(Paraguay.) 

Seven skins preserved of this swallow include the following: 
Two adult males, Kilometer 80, west of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, 
September 6 and 9, 1920; two immature males, San Vicente, Uru- 
guay, January 27, 1921 ; adult male and female and immature male, 
Banado de la India Muerta, 12 miles south of Lazcano, Uruguay, 
February 3. Specimens in the United States National Museum 
from the Province of Buenos Aires (collected in the sixties) have 
a decidedly more greenish cast above than two from Paraguay, a 
character in which skins from Uruguay in worn plumage seem some- 
what intermediate. A definite difference possibly may be estab- 
lished with better series. 

A male, taken September 6, had the bill black; tarsus and toes, 
blackish brown number 1. Two juvenile specimens recently from 
the nest had the gape and base of the bill yellowish. 

In the Paraguayan Chaco. from September 6 to 23, these little 
swallows, like Iridoprocne hicolor in habits and appearance, were 
common in areas where cavities in broken palms that stood near or 
in shallow lagoons offered suitable nest sites. Males perched at 
or above old woodpecker holes or other openings, calling and lifting 

^Hirundo leucopyga " Lichtenstein " Meyen, Nov. Act. Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. 
Curios., vol. 16, Suppl., 1834, p. 73, pi. 10, fig. 2. (In der Stadt Santiago sehr haufig.) 



342 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

their wings in an endeavor to entice females to examine the proposed 
nest site or circled about near by. Their broken, warbling song Avas 
heard continually. Though apparently mating, the two taken were 
not yet in breeding condition, and two nest holes that I examined 
September 9 were empty. The species was recorded west to Kilome- 
ter 110. The white rump is a field mark prominent in flight. At 
San Vicente, Uruguay, from January 27 to February 3, families of 
young recently from the nest were recorded, while near Lazcano, 
Uruguay, from February 3 to 9, the birds had gathered in flocks 
which contained from 10 to 100 individuals that rested on fence 
wires or circled low over the fields. The birds were so abundant 
here that hundreds frequently were observed during a day. 

HIRUNDO ERYTHROGASTRA Boddaert 

Hlrundo erpthrogaster Boddaekt, Tabl. Planch. Enl., 1783, p. 45. 
(Cayenne.) 

On the evening of September 24, 1920, when near the Laguna 
Wall, in the Chaco, 200 kilometers w^est of Puerto Pinasco, Para- 
guay, I was delighted to distinguish the graceful forms of several 
barn swallows among the members of a flock of Pygochelidon that 
came circling over the marshes in search of a secure resort to spend 
the night. The L ngua Indian who was with me distinguished the 
specimen that I collected, an adult female, from other swallows as 
Tneni a sakh sa heht Ml wa nah. In the southern part of their win- 
ter range, barn swallows were not common as subsequently I saw 
them on only three occasions, at Puerto Pinasco, near the Rio 
Paraguay, September 30; near Lezama, Buenos Aires (from a 
train), October 19, and near Lavalle, Buenos Aires, November 15. 
Two were seen on each of these dates. 

ALOPOCHELIDON FUCATA (Temminck) 

Hirundo fucata Temminck, Nouv. Rec. Planch. Col. Ois., vol. 4, 1838, pi. 
161. (Brazil.) 

This species was observed on August 23 and 24 near my hotel in 
Formosa, Formosa, under such conditions that it could not be col- 
lected. On one occasion a pair alighted on the ground to waddle 
about with sidling steps, picking up bits of sand. A female shot 
March 28, 1921, from a flock of Pygochelidon. at Tunuyan, Mendoza, 
was the only one taken. On the wing this bird resembles a rough- 
wanged swalloAv {Stelgidopteryx) . 

Chubb ^^ has described a subspecies of this bird from Mount 
Roraima, British Guiana, as A. f. roraiTnae^ on the basis of brighter 
coloration of head and throat, paler dorsal surface, and smaller size 

saBuU. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 40, .Tune 30, 1920, p. 155. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 343 

(wing, 96 mm.). The specimen from Mendoza has a wing measure- 
ment of 96 mm., while another from the same Province, in the 
United States National Museum collections (taken by Weisshaupt), 
measures 92.5 mm., figures that cast some doubt upon supposed dif- 
ference in size in birds from southern localities. 

PYGOCHELIDON CYANOLEUCA (Vieillot) 

Hirundo cijanoleiica Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 14, 1817, p. 509. 
(Paraguay.) 

Near Lazcano, Uruguay, the present species was recorded from 
February 5 to 8, 1921, and two, an immature female and an adult 
male, were taken February 7 and 8. The immature bird, only re- 
centlj' from the nest, has breast and flanks washed with buffy brown. 
It is possible that swallows recorded at La Paloma January 23, San 
Vicente January 26 and 31, and Rio Xegro February 17 and 18 (all 
in Uruguay) were also this species. 

There is consideral)le doubt in my mind as to which of the two 
closely allied Pygochelidon is intended by Vieillot's Hirundo cyano- 
leuca- The description in Azara of the Golondrina de la timoneles 
n^gros on which Vieillot's name is based may apply with almost 
€qual propriety to either of the birds at present known as cyanoleuca 
or patagonica, as the present quotation from Azara ^* will show. 
^'Longitud 4-11/12 pulgadas, y las demas medidas a proporcion de 
la anterior [the barn swallow]. Del pico a la cola, todo el resto 
«ncima y el costado de la cabeza, son turqui. La cola, remos y 
cobijas, son lo mismo que en la precedente, aunque sin gotas blancas 
€n la cola. La tira que en la mencionada se adelanta desde la raiz 
del ala, en la presente es parda, y termina al fin de la garganta con 
una manchita obscura. De la horqueta a la cola bianco, con los 
timoneles inferiores negros, 6 casi como el lomo. La cola y remos 
debaxo pardos, como las tapadas; aunque las de junto al encuentro 
tienen ribetillos blancos." Small size {patagonica measures 125 mm, 
or more in length) is the only absolute character in the above that 
indicates cyanoleuca, as the colors described may apply to either 
species. It must be stated that patagonica is the only species that I 
heve seen from Paraguay since the specimen (in the United States 
National Museum) cited by Chapman ^^ as from Paraguay in reality 
comes from the Rio Paraguay, in southern Brazil. The only Pygo- 
chelidon that I collected in Paraguay (taken 200 kilometers west of 
Puerto Piuasco) was patagonica. Chapman has called attention 
to the rarity of records for the species with dark underwing coverts 
in the interior lowlands of South America, and it is my impression 

« mst. Nat. Pax. Paraguay, vol. 2, 1805, p. 508. 

"'Am. Mus. Nov., No. 30, Feb. 28, 1922, pp. 1, 3, and 11. 



344 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

that Hirundo cyanoleuca Vieillot will eventually be transferred to 
the bird noAv Imown as P. patagonica^ while P. cyanoleuca auct. will 
become P. minuta (Maximilian)-^*' The matter, hoAvever, is best left 
in abeyance pending more extended collectino; in Corrientes and 
Paraguay. 

PYGOCHELIDON PATAGONICA PATAGONICA (d'Orbigny and Lafresnaye) 

Hirundo patayonica cI'Okbigny and Lafresnaye, Mag. Zool.. 1837, cl. 2, 
p. 69. (Patagonia.) 

The present swallow is the most common species of the present 
family in Argentina. Records, based on specimens, of the occur- 
rence of this bird are as follows: Kilometer 200, west of Puerto 
Pinasco, Paraguay, September 24 (male taken) and 25, 1920 (the 
most northern record for the species in the interior) ; Carhue, 
Buenos Aires, December 15 to 18 (immature male, December 18) ; 
Guamini, Buenos Aires, March 4 to 8, 1921 (four skins, adults and 
immature of both sexes) ; General Roca, Rio Negro, November 27 
to December 3 (adult female, November 27) ; Zapala, Neuquen. 
December 8 (adult female) ; Potrerillos, Mendoza, March 17 to 21 
(adult female, March 19). 

The following records are assumed to represent this species, but 
identification was not checked by the collection of skins; Puerto 
Pinasco, Paraguay, September 3 ; Formosa, Formosa, August 24 ; 
Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, August 9 to 21; Las Palmas, Chaco, July 
14 to 31 ; Dolores, Buenos Aires, October 21, Lavalle, Buenos Aires, 
October 23 to November 13; Ingeniero White (near Bahia Blanca), 
Buenos Aires, December 13; Tunuyan, Mendoza, March 22 to 29. 
A northern subspecies of this bird from Peru, P. p. peruviana 
Chapman, differs from the typical form in smaller size, and paler 
under wing coverts. It is possible that P. fiavipes Chapman,''^ 
based on a single skin from Maraynioc, Peru, represents merely an 
immature phase of cyanoleuca. An immature female, cyanoleuca^ 
from Matchu Picchu, Peru, shot June 25, 1915, (Cat. No. 273,300 
U. S. N. M.,) has the feet and tarsi decidedly yellowish brown. 

Though it has been stated that the light external margin of the 
outer rectrices is found in patagonica alone, I have noted it in 
slight degree in skins of cyanoleuca from Costa Rica, Colombia, 
Peru, and Uruguay. 

During winter, in the Chaco, these little swallows were found in 
flocks about lagoons where they often rested on tufts of grass in 
the water, or after hawking about for insects in the dusk sought 
roosts among the rushes. One shot, September 24, was fat and in 

^Hirundo minuta Maximilian, Reis. Brasilien, vol. 2, p. 336. (Rio de Janeiro, 
Brazil.) 

s^Am. Mus., Nov., no. 30, Feb. 28, 1922, p. 8. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 345 

good plumage in marked contrast to the worn feathers and thin 
body of a newly arrived migrant barn swallow from North America, 
taken at the same time. During summer, P. jjatagonica was found 
through the pampas in pairs about cut banks near water, and was 
especially common along the Rio Negro in northern Patagonia. 
Though small and light in body, so that the birds blew about in 
the wind, they were able at will to breast the strongest blasts. 
Their nests were placed in little tunnels excavated in the sides of 
banks. Males sang a low and rather squeaky song at intervals, but 
on the whole the species was silent. On March 5 little flocks were 
common on the open pampa at Guamini, and by March 7 the num- 
ber of those present was greatly increased, apparently by migrants 
driven by colder weather from the south. The birds, many of them 
immature, hawked for food along the lake shore, and, when tired 
of buffeting the constant wind, settled in little open spaces on the 
ground. Occasionalh' a few joined hddiprocne meyeni at rest on 
the wires of a fence, but seldom did one pause on the higher tele- 
phone wires frequented by their companions of larger size. 

PHAEOPROGNE TAPERA TAPERA (Linnaeus) 

Hiriindo Tapera liiNNAEUS, Syst. Nat, ed. 12, vol. 1, 1766, p. 34.5. (Brazil.) 

This martin, in color and marking a larger counterpart of the 
bank swallow, is migrant in the southern part of its range, as it 
was not seen until September 17, 1920. when it was recorded at 
Kilometer 80, west of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay. It was observed 
from then until September 30, and on October 21 was already pres- 
ent at Dolores, Buenos Aires. The species was noted at Lavalle, 
Buenos Aires, from October 25 to November 13, and at the following 
points in Uruguay; Carrasco, January 9 and 16; Montevideo (in the 
Prado), January 14; La Paloma, January 23; San Vicente, January 
27 to 31; Lazcano, February 5 to 9, and Rio Negro, February 15 to 
18. The five skins taken include two males from Kilometer 80, 
Puerto Pinasco, a pair from Lavalle, and an adult female from San 
Vicente. These are similar to one another and all possess the dark 
spots on the median undersurface that are lacking in P. t. itnviacu- 
lata Chapman ^^ from Colombia and Venezuela. 

A male, shot September 18, had the bill, tarsus, and toes black; 
iris bone brown. 

This martin was encountered among dead trees in open woods or 
groves, and in the north was especially common among groves of 
palms. The birds ajDpear weaker in flight than most swallows, and 
pause frequently to rest on dead limbs after short circling flights. 

3«Biill. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 31, July 23, 1912, p. 156. (Chicoral, near 
Giradot, Alt. 550 meters, Tolima, Colombia.) 



346 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Their call is a flat chu chu cJiwp that has little carrying power. 
Diirino; the breeding season males often circled about witli stiffly 
held, decurved wings that formed an inverted A. They nested 
frequently in the mud nests of the hornero {Furnarhis rvfi(M). 

PROGNE CHALYBEA DOMESTICA (Vieillot) 

Hirundo domestica Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nut, vol. 14, 1S17. p. 52(X 
(Paraguay and Rio de la Plata.) 

In winter the present species was found in the central and north- 
ern portion of the Chaco, while in summer it was more widely 
spread. It was recorded as follows: Formosa, Formosa, August 2S 
to 24, 1920; Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, September 1 to 3, (adult 
male taken September 3) ; Kilometer 80, west of Puerto Pinasco, 
September 6 to 20 (female taken September 19) ; Buenos Aires, 
Argentina (on the Avenida de Mayo in the heart of the city), Octo- 
ber 17; Dolores, Buenos Aires, October 21; Lavalle, Buenos Aires, 
October 20 to November 10 (male shot October 31) ; Santo Do- 
mingo, Buenos Aires, November 17 (male taken) ; Carrasco, IJiu- 
guay, January 9 and 16, 1921; La Paloma, Uruguay, January 23; 
Lazcano, Uruguay, February 5 to 8; Corrales, Uruguay, February 
10; Rio Negro, Uruguay, February 15; Mencloza, Mendoza, March 
14. This form differs from typical chalybea in larger size and more 
extensive whitish tips on the feathers of throat and upper breast. 

In notes and actions similar to Progne subis, these martins were 
fairly common about many of the towns that I visited. In the 
pampan region they nested in crevices and openings about roofs and 
cornices of houses, while in the north it was common to see them 
about oj^enings in palm trees. In Paraguay, birds were observed 
examining nest sites on September 3, while a male taken at Lavalle, 
Buenos Aires, on October 31, was in full breeding condition. On 
February 10, at Corrales, eastern Uruguay, 50, including many 
3^oung, had gathered in a flock that rested on telephone wires. Males 
during the breeding season were active in the pursuit of carranchos 
{Polyhorus) and other hawks. 

PROGNE ELEGANS Baird 

Progne elegans Baikd, Rev. Amer. Birds, May, 1SG5, p. 275. (Bermejo 
River, Argentina.) 

The present species was found at General Roca, Rio Negro, on 
November 24, 1920, when two adult males were taken along the 
Rio Negro, and again on November 27, when it was found in town 
as well as in the country. An adult female that I shot fell in the 
river and was swept away in the swift current. On December 19, 
at Carhue, Buenos Aires, a pair examined crevices among the rafters 



BIEDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 347 

of a covered passage at the hotel where I was stopping, and on the 
following morning the male martin threw two young Passer doviesti- 
cus from a nest near his chosen site, in spite of the protests of the 
adult sparrows. As there were many o-penings suited for nesting 
still unoccupied, this act must be attributed to a wanton meanness 
of disposition. At Victorica, Pampa, the fork-tailed martin w^as 
fairh^ common in town from December 23 to 29. The last seen 
were three noted on March 31, 1921, as my train stopped at the sta- 
tion of Monte Ralo, Cordoba. 

In general appearance, action, and calls, the male of this species 
is similar to that of Progne subis, but is marked when on the wing 
by its longer, more deeply forked tail. The female is entirely dark 
underneath. 

Mr. Todd "° has called attention to the fact that Progne elegans 
Baird (based on an immature male) is the same as P. furcata Baird, 
the name current for this martin for many years, and must replace 
it, as the name elegans occurs on an earlier page of the same work 
in which Baird described furcata. 

Family TROGLODYTIDAE 

TROGLODYTES MUSCULUS MUSCULUS Naumann 

Troglodytes musculiis Naumann, Yog. Deutsclil., vol. 3, 1823, p. 724, 
(Bahia.) 

The series of house wrens taken during my work in South America 
has been studied by Chapman and Griscom during their revision of 
Troglodytes musculus and identifications of siDecimens are theirs. 
The only skin of typical musculus is an adult male taken at Kilo- 
meter 80, west of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, on September 11, 1920. 
The birds at that point were common at the borders of forest and 
came familiarly about the ranch buildings, where they sang from 
the doorAvays and searched for food among the split palm trunks that 
formed the roofs. It is assumed that this form was the one recorded 
on the Rio Paraguay, at Puerto Pinasco, and possibly the one seen 
in the Chaco near Laguna Wall, 200 kilometers west. 

TROGLODYTES MUSCULUS REX (Berlepsch and Leverkuhn) 

Troglodytes furvus var. rex Berlepsch and Leverkuhn, Ornis, vol. 6, 
1890, p. 6. (Samaipata, Bolivia.) 

A small series of wrens from the Chaco have been identified as 
intermediate between rex and musculus, but nearer reje. These in- 
clude the following localities: Resistencia, Chaco, July 9 and 10, 
1920 (adult female taken) ; Las Palmas, Chaco, July 13 to 31 (two 

39 Auk. 1925, pp. 276-277. 



348 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

jjairs collected) ; and Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, August 7 to 18 (adult 
male shot). It is supposed that those recorded at Formosa, Formosa, 
August 23; Tapia, Tucuman, April 6 to 13; and Tafi Viejo, April 17, 
were of this same race. 

The southern house wren, of whatever race, in action and general 
appearance is the same busy bird, full of life and energy, that greets 
us in our northern dooryards, and is one of the first species to be 
recognized on arrival in unfamiliar southern scenes. Notes and 
actions are unmistakably those of a house wren, and even the bub- 
bling song is not noticeably different. In the Chaco they were found 
in tangles of brush bordering thickets or in clumps of grass at the 
borders of savannas from which they darted back into the brush 
when alarmed. They were in full song in June and July, and sang 
occasionally during April when they were in molt. They were seen 
on the Sierra San Xavier, above Tafi Viejo, Tucuman, from the base 
to an elevation of 1,800 meters. 

TKOGL.ODYTES MUSCULUS BONARIAE Hellmayr 

Troglodytes musculus tonariae Hellmayr, Anz. Ornith. Ges. Bayern, uo. 1, 
Feb. 25, 1919, p. 2. (La Plata, Buenos Aires.) 

The pampan house wren was found at Berazategui, Buenos Aires, 
June 29, 1920 (immature female taken) ; Dolores, Buenos Aires, 
October 21; Lavalle, Buenos Aires, October 23 to November 13 
(adult male taken) ; Montevideo, Uruguay, January 9, 1921 (seen 
in the city) ; Carrasco, Uruguay, January 16; La Paloma, January 
23; San Vicente, January 25 to 31 (adult male, collected) ; Laz- 
cano, Uruguay, February 5 to 7 (a pair) ; Rio Negro, Uruguay, 
February 14 to 19 (four males, adult and immature shot). One 
that I saw March 3 near Guamini, Buenos Aires, was perhaps 
this same subspecies but may have been chilensh. 

A nest found February 7, 1921, near Lazcano, Rocha, Avas con- 
cealed in a hollow in a fence post standing near a thicket. The birds 
used a crack in one side as an entrance, and had constructed a 
slight cup of feathers and fine grasses lined with horsehair that 
contained four eggs with incubation far advanced. These eggs 
have the ground color grayish white, finely and uniformly spotted 
throughout with vinaceous, Corinthian red and brick red. They 
measure 17 by 13.8; 16.8 by 13.8; 16.4 by 13.8; and 16.1 by 13.4 mm. 

TROGLODYTES MUSCULUS CHILENSIS Lesson 

Troglodytes chilensis Lesson, Voy. Coquille, Zool., vol. 1, pt. 2, April, 
1830, p. 665. (Concepcion, Chile.) 

Under this name is grouped a series of specimens from the fol- 
lowing localities; Victorica, Pampa, December 23 to 29 (a pair 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 349 

taken) ; Mendoza, Mendoza, March 13; Potrerillos, Mendoza, March 
15 to 21 (five immature specimens) ; Timuyan, Mendoza, March 
22 to 29 (immature female) ; Concon, Chile, April 24 to 27 (two). 
House wrens seen at General E,oca, Rio Negro, November 23 to 
December 3, may also have been this form. 

CISTOTHORUS PLATENSIS PLATENSIS (Latham) 

Sylvia platensis Latham, Index Orn., vol. 2, 1790, p. 548. (Buenos 
Aires. ) 

At Lavalle, Buenos Aires, four adult males were taken October 
23, 1920, while at Tunuyan, Mendoza, a series of 10, all immature 
(both sexes represented), was secured between March 23 and 28, 
1921. Hellmayiy in a review of this species, considers that tyj^ical 
platensis ranges from Bahia Blanca north to Santa Elena, Entre 
Eios, and west to Mendoza, Of the present series the skins from 
near the mouth of the Kio Ajo, at Lavalle, may be considered as 
topotypical of Latham's platensis from " Bonaria." The skins from 
the Province of Mendoza are different, but as all are young must 
be allotted to 2)Iate7isis until adult specimens may be examined. 
All of the birds from Tunuyan appear slightly more heavily 
streaked above, and have the dark tail bars broader than skins 
from Lavalle. Half of those seen have the rump plain brownish 
and the streaks on the crown nearly obsolete. In the remainder 
the head is distinctly lineated; the back marldngs are heavier and 
extend down over the rump. In a way these specimens appear 
intermediate between C. p. homensis, which is very heavily marked 
above from neck to upper tail coverts, and is strongly rufescent, 
and platensis but are nearer the latter. It is probable that Cisto- 
thoims fasciolatus Burmeister*^ may prove a valid subspecies. 

At Lavalle, Buenos Aires, I found a small colony of these marsh 
wrens in low growths of dead rushes at the border of a tidal marsh, 
where attention was attracted by their tinkling songs tu-tu-tu tee-tee- 
tee ter-ter-ter tsee-ee-ee-ee^ each triplet being pitched in a slightly 
different key, while the whole terminated in a metallic music-box 
rattle. As the birds sang from the tops of rushes they were easily 
located by their light breasts, but as I approached they dropped down 
into heavy cover which they often refused to leave in spite of 
various attractive noises, from the usual squeak to the low clinking of 
a brass shell against a gun barrel, made to excite their curiosity. 
Their flight was undulating, often at a height of li/^ to 2 meters 
above the marsh. Near Tunu3'an, Mendoza marsh wrens were en- 

«Nov. Zool., vol. 28, September, 1921, p. 250. 
*i Journ. fur Ornith., 1860, p. 2.52. (Mendoza.) 

54207—26 ^23 



350 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

countered in growths of heavy weeds along irrigation ditches, in 
small marshes, or in corn fields, where they sang and chattered or 
worked quietly about. At this season it was easy to draw them into 
sight, as at a squeak they came clambering and hopping out through 
the dense growth that sheltered them until often they were scarcely 
a meter away. All were in molt into first fall plumage. Several 
of those secured were badly infested about the anus with larvae of 
a parasitic fly, which, however, seemed to cause them no incon- 
venience. 

An adult male, when fresh, had the maxilla dull black; base of 
mandible vinaceous buff, with the tip washed with quaker drab; 
iris natal brown ; tarsus and toes wood brown ; claws fuscous. 

Family MIMIDAE 

MIMUS TRIURUS (Vieillot) 

Turdus triurus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 20, 1818, p. 275. 
(Paraguay.) 

In the series of 11 skins preserved there seems to be no constant dif- 
ference between specimens from northern Patagonia, Pampa, Men- 
doza, and Paraguay. The banded mocking bird was collected and 
observed as follows: Santa Fe, Santa Fe, July 4, 1920; Resistencia, 
Chaco, July 10; Las Palmas, Chaco, July 13 to August 1 (male July 
15, female July 27) ; Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, August 13 to 21 
(female August 18) ; Formosa, Formosa, August 23 and 24; Puerto 
Pinasco, Paraguay, September 3; Kilometer 80, west of Puerto 
Pinasco, September 6 to 20 (males September 7 and 15) ; Kilometer 
110, September 23, and Kilometer 200, September 25 (west of the 
same point) ; General Roca, Rio Negro, November 23 to December 
3 (female November 24) ; Carhue, Buenos Aires, December 19; Vic- 
torica, Pampa, December 23 to 29 (adult male and two females De- 
cember 26, immature male, December 29) ; Tunuyan, Mendoza, March 
24 and 27, 1921 (immature female, March 27) ; Tapia, Tucuman, 
April 12. 

Birds taken at the end of December were in much worn plumage. 
A young male in ju venal plumage, taken December 29, has the 
breast obscurely mottled with grayish brown, but is otherwise similar 
to adults. An immature female, shot March 27, has not quite com- 
pleted the post- Juvenal molt, and in fresh plumage is darker and 
richer in color than others examined. Some skins from Victorica, 
Pampa, and the one from Mendoza, have the bill slightly heavier 
than in specimens seen from more eastern localities. 

In general appearance and habits the banded mocker is similar to 
Mimus folyglottos. It inhabits dense growths of low brush, though 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 351 

attracted frequently about farmhouses or courtyards. It was com- 
mon in the Chaco, was less numerous on the pampas because of lack 
of suitable coverts, and Avas found in fair numbers on the Kio Negi'o 
of Patagonia, where it finds its southern limit. It reached its 
greatest abundance in the dry, thorny scrubs of the Pampa Central, 
where, near Victorica, it was one of the common birds. It appears 
to be sedentary in habits, and individuals may be observed in the 
same vicinity day after day perched above some dense tangle of 
brush. During winter it indulged in occasional snatches of song, but 
wuth the coming of spring gave utterance to the melody that caused 
such pleasure and admiration in Hudson and occasioned his eulogy of 
its vocal powers. The song strongly resembles that of Mimus poly- 
glottos^ and is accompanied frequently by aerial gyrations, in which 
the birds spring into the air and support themselves with sIoav beats 
of the widely opened wings, that, with the spread tail, display their 
contrasted markings to the utmost. They are excellent mimics, a 
frequent imitation being that of the low chur-r-r-ri of the vermilion 
flycatcher. In ordinary flight the extensive white markings of the 
tail, with a flash of white in the wings, are prominent characteristics, 
while in proper light the brown coloration of the back may be dis- 
tinguished. 

The Anguete Indians called this species pihn mukh. 

A nest found December 26 near Victorica, Pampa, was placed 2 
meters from the ground in a small shrub near the center of an open 
thicket. The structure was composed of thorny branches, lined with 
various soft materials, while a bulwark of coarse, very spiny twigs, 
erected to a height of 50 mm., protected the rim on all sides. The 
nest contained six eggs, heavily incubated, of which one is that of 
Molothrus honariensis. Four of the others, unquestionably those of 
Alimus tnu7'us, are pale Niagara green, spotted throughout Avith a 
color varying from Avalnut to Rood's browm, varied with occasional 
markings of dull lavender. The spots are most numerous at the 
larger end. These four measure: 26.2 by 18.3; 25.7 by 18.6; 25.5 by 
18.2; and 25.2 by 18.7 mm. The sixth egg has the background dull 
white, with a faint greenish tinge, and is blotched boldly with hazel 
and chestnut brown, with a few markings of light plumbago gray. 
It is distinctly different in type from the four described above but 
may be an aberrant ^gg of fnurus. It measures 24.6 by 19.1 mm. 

Young mockers, seen at the end of December, rested quietly on 
open shaded perches, but hopped alertly to cover among heavy 
branches when at all alarmed. 



352 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

MIMUS SATURNINUS MODULATOR (Gould) 

Orpheus modulator Gould, Proc. Zool. Soe. London, 1836, p. 6. (Mouth of 
Rio de la Plata, Montevideo, and Maldonado, Uruguay.)*^ 

Six skins preserved include a pair from Lavalle, Buenos Aires, shot 
November 13, 1920; a pair from San Vicente, Uru<^uay, secured 
January 25 and 27, 1921 ; and immature male and adult female from 
Eio Negro, February 18 and 19. The two from Lavalle (wing, male, 
120 mm.; female 117.8 mm.) are in breeding plumage. Adults from 
San Vicente (wing, male, 121 mm.; female 110 mm.) that, from their 
locality, may be considered typical, are considerably worn but re- 
semble in color those from Buenos Aires, An adult female from 
Kio Negro is in full molt, as is an immature male from the same 
locality (wing, 121.5 mm.). 

The present form was common in tala woods near the town of 
Lavalle, but was local as it was not noted at the Estancia Los 
Yngleses, a few miles distant. In Uruguay it was common in 
brushy regions. Young recently from the nest were seen at La 
Paloma, January 23. 

MIMUS SATURNINUS CALANDRIA (d'Orbigny and Lafresnaye) 

Orpheus calandria d'OKBiGNY and Lafresnaye, Mag. Zool., 1837, cl. 2, 
p. 17. (Corrientes, Argentina.) 

Two adult males from the Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, shot August 7, 
1920, have a wing measurement, respectively, of 105.2 and 109.6 
mm. These are dark in color on the back, like M. s. modulator^ and 
differ from that form only in smaller size. A male taken September 
25 at Kilometer 200, west of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay (wing 109 
mm.), is somewhat browner above, indicating perhaps an approacli 
to M. s. f rater, '^^ but is nearer to calandria. 

The present form was a bird of the open that was recorded in the 
Chaco upon comparatively fcAv occasions. Near the Riacho Pilaga 
I found half a dozen feeding in an old cornfield, or on another occa- 
sion noted several running about on open ground. When flushed 
they uttered a sharp, scolding check check. Occasionally they were 
heard giving a mockerlike song, though the season was winter. At 
times, in singing, one sprang into the air to hover for a few seconds 
with slowly vibrating wings. Several observed in company at the 
border of a marsh in the Paraguayan Chaco flew immediately to 
heavy cover. 

*2 See Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., vol. 21, February, 1914, p. 159. Type-locality given 
erroneously by Gould as Straits of Magellan. 

*^ Mimus saturninus frater Hellmayr, Verb. K. K. Zool.-bot. Ges. Vienna, May 22, 
1903, p. 220. (Ypanema, Sao Paulo, Brazil.) 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 353 
MIMUS PATAGONICUS PATAGONICUS (d'Orbigmy and Lafresnaye) 

Orpheus patagonicus d'OEBiGNY and Lafresnaye, Mag. Zool., 1837, cl. 2, 
p. 19. (Patagonia.) 

Two males and a female of the Patagonian mocking bird, in 
slightly worn breeding dress, secured at General Roca, Rio Negro, 
November 24 and 29, 1920, show the normal development of grayish- 
brown ventral surface and cinnamon-buff flanks that characterize 
the species. One when first killed bad the bill and tarsus black; 
iris buffy brown. 

This mocker was common in growths of atriplex {Atriplex lampa 
and A. crenatifoNa) , creosote bush, and greasewoods on the flood 
plain of the Rio Negro, near General Roca, and proved to be a true 
desert form since it spread out through the arid, gravel hills north 
of the railroad, where water was wholly lacking. On December 
6 it was recorded from the train near Challaco, Neuquen (approxi- 
mately 100 kilometers west of the town of Neuquen), but was not 
found at Zapala. 

These mockers watched alertly from the tops of bushes, or flew 
ahead of me, showing a band of white, interrupted in the middle, 
at the end of the tail. Their song, mockerli^'e in type, delivered 
from some low perch, consisting of many broken phrases interspersed 
with frequent imitations of the notes of other brush birds, was 
similar to that of 31. triianis, though the performers were less flam- 
boyant in actions during delivery. 

MIMUS PATAGONICUS TRICOSUS Wetmore and Peters 

Mimus patagonicus tricosns Wetmore and Peters, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash- 
ington, vol. 36, May 1, 1923, p. 145. (Lujan de Cuyo, Province of 
Mendoza, Mendoza.) 

The present form is separated from typical patagonicus by its 
grayer dorsal surface, a difference most evident in birds in fall and 
winter plumage. 

Two were observed near an old puesto above the city of Mendoza, 
on March 15; and in the foothills of the Andes near Potrerillos, 
Mendoza, the birds were common from March 15 to 19. An imma- 
ture male, taken at El Salto, at an elevation of 1,800 meters, on 
March 19, is in post -ju venal molt. 

MIMUS THENCA (Molina) 

Turdus Thenca Molina, Sagg. Stor. Nat. Chili, 1782, p. 250. (Chile.) 

Near Concon, Chile, M. thenca Vv'as common from April 24 to 28, 
1921, and two specimens were taken. This species seems closely 
allied to M. longicaudatus Tschudi ** of Peru, which may prove sub- 

"Arch. fur Naturg., 1844, p. 280. (Peru.) 



354 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

specifically related to it. A male, when fresh, had the bill, tarsus, 
and toes black, the iris buffy olive. Known locally as thenca^ this 
mocker was common through open scrub that covered large areas of 
rolling hills. In general the bird is reminiscent of Mimus patagoni- 
cus. It delights in resting quietly on the tops of low trees where it 
has a commanding outlook, but at any danger may dive into safe 
cover below. The black moustache and broad white superciliary 
stripe are characteristic markings, while in flight the white tips of 
the rectrices show plainly. Though the season was fall these 
mockers sang more or less frequently, at intervals imitating other 
birds, but giving many notes that appeared to be their own, that, 
while distinctly mockerlike, differed from any that I had heard 
previously. 

DONACOBIUS ATRICAPILLUS ATMCAPILLUS (Linnaeus) 

Turdus atricapiUus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, vol. 1, 1766, p. 295. 
(Brazil.) 

Two females, killed September 30, 1920, at Puerto Pinasco, Para- 
guay, were preserved as skins, and a third bird, shot at the same time, 
was placed in alcohol. 

Griscom^^ has recv5gnized a northern race of this bird as D. a. 
hrachyptemis Madarasz, with a range from north central and north- 
ern Colombia to eastern Panama, on the basis of lighter coloration 
above. 

A female, when first killed, had the bill black, except for a spot 
of pale Medici blue at base of gonys ; iris apricot 3^ellow ; tarsus and 
toes fuscous ; bare skin on side of neck light cadmium. 

While passing in a narrow dugout canoe through the masses of 
floating water hyacinth and grass, called camalote, that covered great 
areas in the less rapid stretches of the Rio Paraguay, a bird showing 
considerable white in the tail, dark above and buff below, flew up, 
with a curious scolding note, to a perch on a grass stem. I shot it at 
long range and after pushing in to it, with some trouble, was as- 
tonished to find a Donacobius, a species that I had associated men- 
tally with the brushy haunts of thrashers and catbirds. At once I 
told ray Indian — who knew the bird as guira pecobd (pecoba being 
banana) and said that they were found in banana plantations — that 
we must secure others. After some search another popped out to 
rest with hanging tail on a low perch, and as I shot this one half 
a dozen more came into sight around us, flying for short distances 
with tilting flight or perching near by with twitching wings and tail. 
The plant growth in which they were found was luxuriant and 
extensive, and the birds lived with all the seclusion of marsh wrens. 

45 Auk, 1923, pp. 215-217. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 355 

Family TURDIDAE 

TURDUS RUFIVENTRIS RUFIVENTRIS VieUlot 

Turdus rufiventris, Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 20, 181 S, p. 22G. 
(Brazil.") 

The rufous-bellied robin was recorded as follows: Kilometer 25, 
west of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, September 1, 1920 ; Kilometer 80, 
west of Puerto Pinasto, Paraguay, September 13 (adult male) ; 
Villa Concepcion, Paraguay, October 3; Formosa, Formosa, August 
23 and 24; Las Palmas, Chaco, July 15 to 30 (adult male, July 30) ; 
Resist encia, Chaco, July 8 to 10 (adult male, July 8) ; Tafi Viejo, 
Tucuman, April 17, 1921 (female) ; Lazcano, Uruguay, February 5 
to 8; San Vicente, Uruguay, January 25 to 31 (young males, adult 
females); La Paloma, Uruguay, Januar}?^ 23; Berazategui, Buenos 
Aires, January 29, 1920; Lavalle, Buenos Aires, October 27 to No- 
vember 13 (pair, October 30), 

The nine skins preserved offer no differences save those due to 
wear or change in plumage. A male killed January 30 is in fully 
developed juvenal plumage. Adult females taken January 25 are 
badly worn and have initiated the post breeding molt in wing and 
tail, while from that date on birds were in the ragged condition 
common the world over to robins in fall. 

Cory has described a subspecies juensis*' on the basis of paler 
dorsal and posterior ventral regions. I have seen no skins from 
Ceara, the type-locality, but a specimen from Bahia seems somewhat 
paler than those from farther south. 

A male, shot July 30, had the tomia olive ocher, becoming light 
yellowish olive on mandible and yellowish olive at base of maxilla; 
bare ej^elid yellow ocher, becoming light yellowish olive toward 
outer margin, forming a prominent light eyering ; iris May's brown ; 
tarsus and toes neutral gray. 

The zorzal Colorado (or red thrush) was an inhabitant of thickets 
or semiopen forests often in the vicinity of water, though in northern 
Buenos Aires it was encountered in the dry, open groves on the 
larger estancias. The birds were seen frequently on the ground in 
forest, or occasionally at the open borders of lagoons, but at any 
alarm darted to cover. On large estates, as at Los Yngleses, the Gib- 
son estancia near Lavalle, they came out familiarly on the lawns. 
In notes, appearance, and habits they were strongly suggestive of 
the robins of North America. Their song was a sweet, broken war- 
ble, given from a resting place behind leafy branches in the top of 

*^ Brabourne and Chubb, Birds South Amer., vol. 1, December, 1912, p. 344, cite 
" Brazil=Rio." 

*'' Planesticus rufiventer juensis Cory, F^eld Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. ser., vol. 1, no. 10, 
Aug. 30, 1916, p. 344. (Jua, near Iguatu, Ceara. Brazil.) 



356 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

a low tree. The song period began, in Paraguay, the first of October, 
and extended to the time of molt in February. Their usual call note 
was a low pup pup varied with several louder, laughing calls that 
were heard especially toward dusk. On a fall evening in April, 
as J. L. Peters and I descended a trail on the slopes of the Sierra 
San Xavier, in Tucuman, robins called and answered on every side 
from the heavily forested slopes. In spite of their retiring habits 
the birds were curious, so that it was easy to call them out and shoot 
what specimens were wanted. On several occasions they were 
observed feeding on wild fruits, once (at E,esistencia, Chaco) on 
the berries of Rapanea laetevirens. The species is one that is hunted 
to some extent and will need protection to maintain it in its pres- 
ent abundance. 

A nest, found October 30 (at Los Yngleses), was placed in a tala 
tree 4 feet from the ground, where several small shoots projecting 
from the side of the trunk (which was 12 inches in diameter) fur- 
nished a firm support. The nest was made of the dried stalks of 
weeds mixed with a small quantity of fresh green material, and was 
lined with rootlets. A rim made of cow dung ran part around, but 
there was no complete cup of such material. This nest contained 
three eggs of the thrush, and three of those of the common cowbird 
{Molothrus h. honariends) . The thrushes' eggs have the ground 
color much paler than pale Niagara green, blotched and spotted with 
brick red and chestnut brown. Two of the eggs are boldly marked 
over the entire surface. The other has small, scattered spots 
throughout, with heavy markings at the larger pole. These eggs 
measure 28.7 by 21.4; 28.7 by 4; and 28.5 by 20.9 mm. Another nest, 
examined November 10, that contained one egg, had a solid cup of 
hardened earth that contained the nest lining. 

TURDUS MAGELLANICUS PEMBERTONI Wetmore 

Turdus magellanicus pem'bertoni Wetmore, Univ. Califoruia Publ. Zool., 
vol. 21, no. 12, June 16, 1923, p. 335. (Cerro Anecon Grande, Rio 
Negro, Argentina.) 

The present form is distinguished from T. m. magellanicus by 
grayer coloration both above and below, .a distinction easily evident 
when series are compared. Hellmayr'*^ considers magellanicus as 
subspecifically allied to T. falcMandii from the Falkland Islands, 
but, though the two are evidently of the same stock, difference be- 
tween them, in my opinion, is sufficiently great to warrant their 
specific separation. 

This bird, which might with propriety be known as the willow 
robin, was fairly common in the groves of large willows bordering 

«Nov. Zool., vol. 28, September, 1921, p. 238. 



BIKDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 357 

the Rio Negro, below General Roca, Rio Negro, where an adult male 
was shot November 27 and others were seen November 30. It re- 
sembled other related species in actions and in high-pitched call 
notes, but was shy and retiring. A fully grown young in spotted 
plumage was recorded November 27. 

The present species, in addition to the black crown, is distinguished 
from T. rufiventris by the pale color of tarsi and feet. 

TURDUS ALBICOLLIS Vieillot 

Turdus albicolUs Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 20, 1818, p. 227. 
(Brazil.) 

An adult male was taken September 30, 1920, opposite Puerto 
Pinasco on the eastern bank of the Rio Paraguay, where the birds 
were fairly common on the wooded slopes of the Cerro Lorito. At 
any alarm they flew in to view the cause, and perched with jerking 
wings and tail, while they called with a robinlike pinip. When one 
chanced to spy me, however, it dropped in the dense, low cover at 
once and was lost to view. The one taken had the maxilla and tip 
of mandible dull black; base of mandible primuline yellow; iris 
bone brown ; bare eyelid and gape yellow ocher ; tarsus and toes fus- 
cous. The wing measures 105.2 mm. 

Chubb ^^ has described a Paraguayan form of this thrush as Mervla 
albicolUs faraguayemis^ from slrins secured at Sapucay, Paraguay, 
which is said to " differ from the true M. alhicoUis Vieill. in being 
olive brown above instead of rufous brown, while the gray band 
across the throat is paler and narrower, and the white on the middle 
of the abdomen more extended, imparting a whiter appearance." 
My specimen when compared with a single skin from Brazil of un- 
certain locality does not bear out these alleged differences, though 
they may prove evident when suitable material is examined. 

TURDUS AMAUROCHAUNUS Cabanis 

Turdus amaurochalinus Cabanis, Mus. Hein., pt. 1, 1850, p. 5. (Brazil.) 

This robin was recorded and collected as follows: Resistencia, 
Chaco, July 10 (two males) ; Las Palmas, Chaco, July 13 to 31 
(adult female, July 30) ; Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, August 6 to 18 
(adult female, Augu.st 18) ; Formosa, Formosa, August 23 and 24; 
Cerro Lorito, opposite Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, September 30 
(adult female) ; San Vicente, Uruguay, January 30, 1921 (juvenile 
male) ; Lazcano, Uruguay, February 3 to 8 (juvenile male, February 
3) ; Rio Negro, L^ruguay, February 17 (adult female) ; Tapia, Tucu- 
man, April 13 (immature male and adult female). Specimens in 
juvenal plumage resemble adults in general appearance, but are 

^Ibis, 1910, p. 608. 
54207—26 24 



358 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

heavily spotted below and more or less streaked with whitish and 
buff above. Immature specimens in first winter plumage sometimes 
have small cinnamon tips on some of the greater coverts. An adult 
female, taken February 17, is in full molt. The bill, in adult males 
at least, becomes yellow at the approach of spring, but in yovmg 
males is dark. Females acquire yellow on part of the lower man- 
dible, but none were recorded with the bill entirely yellow. An 
immature male, taken July 10, has the bill fuscous tinged with lighter 
brown, becoming blacker at the base of the culmen ; iris Hay's brown ; 
tarsus slate gray. An adult male, killed on the same date, had the 
bill chamois, slightly darker about the nostril; tarsus light drab. 
The present species does not have the colored skin about the eye 
found in T. albicollis, which also differs in having a rufescent wash 
on the sides. 

These robins frequented thickets and growths of heavy timber 
where they remained well hidden save when human or other danger- 
ous intruders were not known to be near. In heavy forest I found 
them working about deadfalls, or less frequently found a little flock 
running about on some grass plot where surrounding bushes af- 
forded a screen that gave them some sense of security. Flocks also 
gathered to feed on the drupes of fruit-bearing trees, such as Ra- 
famea laetevirens and others. At the slightest alarm all dived pre- 
cipitately into the brush and were lost to view. When not afraid 
they ran about with wings and tail jerking jauntily like common 
robins, but when startled disappeared with all the furtiveness of 
the smaller thrushes. Their flight is direct and fairly rapid. 

Specimens from Tapia, Tucuman, appear whiter below than birds 
from farther east and south. In the series at hand successful divi- 
sion into geographic races may not be made. 

TURDUS ANTHRACINUS^ Burmeister 

Turdus anthracinus Bxjbmeisteb, Journ. fiir Ornith., 1858, p. 159. (Men- 
doza. ) 

Semimerula Sclater proposed for this and allied species does not 
seem sufficiently distinct to merit generic rank.^° As Selby ^^ has 
designated the European blackbird as the type of Turdus, this name 
must supplant Planesticus, an observation made first bj^ Dr. C. W. 
Richmond and recorded by Oberholser.^^ Since Hellmayr^^ has 
shown that Turdus fuscater d'Orbigny and Lafresnaye, the name 
previously applied to the species under discussion here, is in reality 
the large northern bird formerly called gigas, old friends of the 

^ See Ridgway, Birds North and Middle America, vol. 4, 1907, p. 90. 
« 111. British Orn., vol. 1, pt. 1, Land Birds, 1825, p. xxix. 
^ Proc. Biol. Soe. Washington, vol. 34, June 30, 1921, p. 105. 
^ Nov. Zool., vol. 28, September, 1921, p. 236. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 359 

zorzal negro of the western Argentine will recognize it under its 
present appellation only with difficulty. 

These black robins were encountered in the vicinity of Potrerillos, 
Mendoza, from March 15 to 21, 1921, where seven were taken, all, 
except one adult female, immature. The species was recorded to an 
elevation of 1,800 meters at an estancia known as El Salto. 

A male in the spotted and streaked juvenal plumage, shot March 
15, had the bill, in general, dull black, shading to onionskin pink at 
lip; gape between ochraceous buff and ochraceous orange; eye ring 
chamois; iris light drab; tarsus ochraceous buff, with a tinge of 
gray ; nails dull black. A male partly molted into first fall plumage 
had the bill including the gape zinc orange; eye ring mustard yel- 
low; bare eyelids water green; iris avellaneous; tarsus and toes yel- 
low ochre; nails dark neutral gray. The change from black to 
yellow bill is coincident with the post-j'uvenal molt. An adult 
female taken March 19 is in full molt. 

The present species was met in thickets in the vicinity of water, 
either near irrigation ditches or along streams. At intervals they 
flew from covert to covert, and after alighting might pause for an 
instant in the open with jerking wings and tail, but at the slightest 
alarm dropped into heavy cover. The taking of specimens was dif- 
ficult as it was restricted to what snapshots might offer. The birds 
were observed feeding on the berries of the piquillin {Gondalia 
lineata). 

Family SYLVIIDAE 

POLIOPTILA DUMICOLA (Vieillot) 

Sylvia dumicola Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 11, 1817, p. 170. 
(Uruguay.)" 

The gnatcatcher was recorded as follows: Resistencia, Chaco, 
July 8 to 10, 1920 (a pair) ; Las Palmas, Chaco, July 13 to 31 
(female, July 20) ; Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, August 7 to 18 (male, 
August 7); Formosa, Formosa, August 23 and 24; Kilometer 80, 
west of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, September 11, 15, and 20 (male, 
September 11); Kilometer 200, west of same point, September 25; 
Lavalle, Buenos Aires, October 27 to November 13 (male, October 
30) ; San Vicente, Uruguay, January 31, 1921 (male) ; Lazcano, 
Uruguay, February 6 (immature female) and 7; Rio Negro, Uru- 
guay, February 19 (two males, two females) ; Tapia, Tucuman, 
April 6 to 13 (two males April 8 and 9). A specimen from Kilo- 
meter 80, Puerto Pinasco, is slightly smaller than others, otherwise 
the series exhibits only the slight differences due to age, sex, or sea- 
sonal wear. April specimens are completing a fall molt. 

e* See Dabbene, El Hornero, vol. 1, 1919, p. 240. 



360 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

This handsome gnatcatcher was found in thorny trees at the 
border of forest, in semiopen scrub, and lowland thickets or, at the 
Estancia Los Yngleses, near Lavalle, Buenos Aires, in groves of 
tala {Celtis tola). The birds hopped jauntily about among the 
branches with drooping wings and elevated tail, in a manner similar 
to other Polioptila^ but the songs and call notes, as loud as those 
of a small warbler, were surprisingly strong for a bird of this 
group. The ordinary scolding note resembled zhree or pree-ee or 
a low chit-it. The usual song, given in a melodious tone, was 
whit see wheety wheety wheety or tee tee tee tee wheety wheety 
wheety. Occasionally they indulged in a more varied warble. They 
were found at times in mixed flocks with other small brush birds. 

An adult male taken on October 27, near Lavalle, was in breeding 
condition, and an immature female was secured at Lazcano, Febru- 
ary 6. The birds were encountered in pairs throughout the year, 
and remained attentively near one another at all times. In the 
autumn month of April, near Tapia, Tucuman, young males of the 
year were in full song and were active and demonstrative toward 
the females, so that pairing seemed to be in progress, though the 
nesting season was several months in the future. The case is anala- 
gous to that of Thr'^yothorus ludovicianus and Sitta caroUnensis, 
where young birds pair in their first fall and remain mated through 
the winter. 

Family MOTACILLIDAE 

ANTHUS FURCATUS FURCATUS d'Orbigny and Lafrcsnaye 

Anthus furcaius d'ORBioNY and Lafresnaye, Mag. Zool., 1837. cl. 2, p. 27. 
(Near Carmen, on the Rio Negro, Patagonia.)^ 

A series of 16 skins of this pipit afford the following distribu- 
tional data: Rio Negro, L^^ruguay, February 21, 1921, immature 
male; Baiiado de la India Muerta, 12 miles south of Lazcano, Uru- 
guay, February 3, three males, two females, adult and immature; 
San Vicente, Uruguay, January 31, adult male ; Berazategui, Buenos 
Aires, June 29, 1920, female immature; 15 miles south of Cape San 
Antonio, Buenos Aires, November 6, adult female; Carhue, Buenos 
Aires, December 15 to 17, two adult and one young male, three adult 
females; Victorica Pampa, December 26, adult male. In addition 
I have examined a male taken September 27, 1919, by E. G. Holt at 
Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and two males and two 
females shot near Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, by S. A. Adams, 
from October 31 to November 9, 1903. These records in part some- 
what extend the boundaries of the range assigned by Hellmayr.^^ 

55 See Hellmayr, El Hornero, vol. 2, Aug. 2, 1921, p. 181. 
50 El Hornero, vol. 2, Aug. 2, 1921, pp. 181-182. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 361 

This pipit was locally common in some of the areas visited, and 
though closely similar to A. c. correndera^ with which it was often 
associated, was readily told by its grayer, less distinctly streaked 
dorsal surface, and by the fact that in walking it did not tilt the 
tail. Near Berazategui, Buenos Aires, I secured my first specimen 
on June 29, 1920, on low, wet ground near the Rio de la Plata. At 
Carhue, Buenos Aires, from December 15 to 18, the birds were 
common over rolling, open country covered with low tufts of grass. 
At this season they were in pairs and were nesting- As I crossed 
the plains it was common for a pair to rise to circle about with 
strongly undulating flight and utter chirping calls of alarm until 
T had passed beyond their limits. Often males alone rose to accom- 
pany me for a short distance, darting down frequently to pass near 
the female when she remained u]3on the ground. On December 16, 
as I walked rapidly across the open prairie, a male pipit suddenly 
rose behind me with a sharp alarm call that brought his mate flutter- 
ing out from a nest concealed beneath a clump of grass almost at my 
feet. The nest was a thin-walled cup of grasses, lined with ma- 
terial of a finer texture than the exterior, placed in a slight depres- 
sion, so that the rim was flush with the surface. The two hard-set 
eggs that it contained have a buffy white ground color, almost con- 
cealed by obscure spots and blotches of pale ecru drab and snuff 
brown. They measure 19 by 14.6 and 19 by 14.4 mm. A young bird 
only recently from the nest, taken December 15, is dull blackish 
above, with each feather margined with pinkish buff, producing a 
mottled appearance. The hind claw already is well developed, 
though the tail has not yet attained its full length. 

At Victorica, Pampa, three were found in a little opening sur- 
rounded by bushes, and a male, which I shot, flew up to alight on a 
twig. At San Vicente, Uruguay, January 31, a breeding male was 
taken on the open shore of a lagoon in the same area where a breed- 
ing male of A. c. correndera was secured. On February 3 adult and 
juvenile individuals in molt into fall plumage were found south of 
Lazcano, Uruguay, and the birds were common until February 9 
as far as Corrales. Scattered flocks frequented rolling uplands near 
Rio Negro on February 21- At Guamini, Buenos Aires, scattered 
flocks were found through fields and along alkaline shores near the 
Laguna del Monte. 

ANTHUS CORRENDERA CORRENDERA VieUlot 

Anthus correndera Vieillot, No«v. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 26, 1818, p. 491. 
(Paraguay and Rio de la Plata.) 

Specimens taken of this pipit include the following : San Vicente, 
Uruguay, January 31, 1921, adult male; Dolores, Buenos Aires, Oc- 
tober 21, 1920, a pair ; Lavalle, Buenos Aires, adult male, November 



362 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

2, female, October 25 ; Guamini, Buenos Aires, adult male, adult and 
immature females March 7, 1921 ; Zapala, Neuquen, immature male 
(Juvenal dress) December 8, 1920; Tunuyan, Mendoza, adult male, 
March 28, 1921. The present species may be distinguished from A. 
furcatus, with which it is often associated, by the nearly straight, 
much elongated hind claw, longer bill, and more distinctly streaked 
plumage. Streaks on the flanks are blackish and plainly marked, 
instead of indistinct as in furcatus. 

Limits of subspecies in this pipit ^^ are difficult to draw. A skin 
from Tunuyan, Mendoza, is clearly intermediate toward chilensis, 
but seems best allotted to cori^endera. A bird in ju venal plumage 
from Zapala, Neuquen, seems to belong to the typical form. 

These pipits were abundant on the eastern pampas near Dolores 
and Lavalle, but were not noted in numbers elsewhere. During the 
breeding season, in October and November, males rose constantly 
to sing on the wing, circling with direct flight and rapidly flitting 
wings, a flight distinct from their undulating movement at other 
times. When tired the wings were set and the bird dropped slowly 
into the grass to rise and continue its evolutions in a short time. On 
October 21, near Dolores, a female flushed from a nest at my feet, 
ran rapidly away, and after a short flight joined her mate. The nest, 
placed in a mat of dead grass stems, was a cup composed of grass 
stems sunk in a little hollow so that its margin was flush with the 
surface. It was entirely concealed from above except for the open- 
ing that led into the cavity. Bottom and sides were damp from 
moisture that exuded from the soil so that the eggs were wet. The 
three slightly incubated eggs have a dull white ground color and 
are covered heavily with an irregular wash and spotting of natal and 
bone brown. The shell was very delicate. They measure 21. T by 
15.4; 21.6 by 14.9; and 21.1 by 14.9 mm. 

Apparently two broods may be reared, as though young were fully 
grown at Zapala, Neuquen, on December 8 and 9, males were still 
in song. On January 31 a breeding male (the only one of the species 
seen in Uruguay) was taken on the open shore of the Laguna Cas- 
tillos, near San Vicente. 

Near Guamini, Buenos Aires, the birds were common in grass, in 
little scattered flocks, March 7 and 8, and adults and young taken 
were in molt into fall plumage. The tongue in these individuals 
was blackish, being almost jet black in juveniles and paler in adults. 
One was shot in the act of eating a butterfly {C'olias leshia Fabricius) 
that was captured where it had sought shelter from cold and wind 
in the grass. Near Tunuyan, Mendoza, these pipits were noted at 
times in weed-grown fields. 

6'' See Hellmayr, El Hornero, vol. 2, August, 1921, pp. 185-188. 



BIEDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 368 
ANTHUS CORRENDERA CHILENSIS (Lesson) 

Corydalla chilensis Lesson, Rev. Zool., vol. 2, 1839, p. 101. (Chile.) 

Near Concon, Chile, on April 24 and 25, 1921, several of these 
pipits were seen. A male taken on the first date mentioned shows the 
pronounced yellow w^ash above and below that distinguishes this form 
from typical correndera. An immature male, shot near Guamini, in 
southwestern Buenos Aires, on March 7, 1921, is identical in colora- 
tion with the Chilian form, and must be designated as that race 
under our present understanding of the forms involved. Specimens 
of chilensis in the United States National Museum include birds 
from near Santiago, and a small series from Gregory Bay and 
Elizabeth Island, in the Straits of Magellan. Skins from Lago San 
Martin, Santa Cruz (Museum of Vertebrate Zoology collection), 
while not typical, are nearer chilensis than correndera. It is as- 
sumed that the specimen from Guamini is a migrant from the south 
or southwest. Patagonian skins seem more or less intermediate and 
specimens from Rio Negro are not wdiolly typical of correndera. 
The Guamini skin may possibly represent an extreme variant toward 
chilensis from some region in Patagonia wdiere the two forms inter- 
grade. 

ANTHUS LUTESCENS LUTESCENS Pucheran 

Anthus Ititescetis Puchkban, Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, vol. 7, 1855, 
p. 343. (Rio de .Janeiro, Brazil.) 

Eleven skins of this small pipit come from the following localities : 
Las Palmas, Chaco, July 15 and 22, 1920, one male, two females; 
Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, August 9, female; Puerto Pinasco, Para- 
guay, September 3, two females ; Kilometer 80, west of Puerto Pinasco, 
September 8, 9, and 21, three males, two females. Though single 
birds were seen occasionally, it was usual to encounter this species in 
flocks that contained as many as 50 individuals. The birds fre- 
quented wet meadows or the borders of lagoons where low, scattered 
clumps of bunch grass furnished a certain amount of shelter, or less 
often were found on open spaces at the borders of ponds, or even on 
mats of vegetation floating on shallow water. When first alarmed 
they crouched motionless in little depressions or under slight cover, 
where they entirely escaped the eye, or if too closely pressed took to 
wing with a curious, hesitant flight, in which the body was held at a 
vertical angle of 45° and the bird progressed in a series of jerking 
undulations. Though at times flocks rose to wheel about in the air, 
they usually dropped back to the ground in a short space to remain 
quiet until danger seemed past. When feeding in cover they walked 
slowly about in a crouching position, creeping under wisps of grass 
and seeking any slight protection that offered. At such times they 



364 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

bore some resemblance in mannerism to some of the grass finches. 
When in the open they stood more erect and seemed bolder. This 
species belies the common name of its family in that it does not wag 
the tail in walking, a modesty of action that was verified on several 
occasions. 

On October 3, near Villa Concepcion, Paraguay, a little colony of 
these pipits, in pairs, was found in the short grass of pasture land 
behind the town. Males sang a drawn-out song that resembled 
tsee-ce-ee-a yuh-h-h in a high, thin tone. The ordinary call note 
given in flight resembled chees chees^ tsu or tsea. 

Family CORVIDAE 

CYANOCORAX CYANOMELAS (Vieillot) 

Pica cyanomelus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 26, 1818, p. 127. 
(Paraguay.) 

The present species is represented by skins of three adult males, 
two from Las Palmas, Chaco, July 13, 1920, and one from Kilometer 
80, west of Puerto Pinasco, September 15. The latter specimen, has a 
slightly more slender bill than the others and a somewhat shorter 
wing. These jays were recorded at Las Palmas, Chaco, from July 
13 to 30, 1920; Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, August 8 to 21; Kilometer 
25, west of Puerto Pinasco, September 1 ; Kilometer 80, west of the 
same point, September 6 to 20 ; and the Cerro Lorito opposite Puerto 
Pinasco, September 30. Old skins of this jay vary much in color 
through fading, some appearing so different as to suggest another 
species. 

The birds were found in little bands of five or six, probably family 
parties from the previous season, that ranged, often in company 
with CyanoGorax c. chrysops^ through stands of tall trees bordering 
streams or the groves that dotted the prairies of the Chaco. At any 
curious sound they glided in on set wings to perch familiarly near 
at hand and peer about, while if one of their number was killed the 
others gathered above it for a vociferous wake, their remarks 
punctuated by vigorous jerks of wings and tail. Their flight, when 
traveling for any distance, was pecular. While straight and direct 
like that of other jays, it was accomplished by a number of slow 
beats of the wings followed by perhaps half a dozen quicker strokes, 
and every effort at flying ended in a long, upward glide that car- 
ried the bird to the desired perch. Their ordinary call is a loud 
car-r-r decidedly crowlike in sound, while at other times they called 
chah chah or quaw. At times they descended to hop about on the 
ground in search for food. Occasionally one was encountered that 
was bold to impudence, as when, in a wild, uninhabited region, in 
the Formosan Chaco, one came for scraps of cooked meat from my 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 365 

lunch, at the same time keeping a sharp eye on the dog who ac- 
companied me. The cooked flesh of the muscovy duck that I threw to 
it must have been strange fare, yet the bird held the fragments be- 
tween its toes and ate with relish. Once or twice jays of this species 
stole skeletons of small birds hung out to dry near camp, 

CYANOCORAX CHRYSOPS CHRYSOPS (Vieillot) 

Pica chrysops Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 26, 1S19, p. 124. (Par- 
aguay. ) 

In the wooded area of the southern section of the Chaco this 
strikingly marked jay was locally common where extensive tracts of 
forest still existed. It was recorded at the following points: Las 
Palmas, Chaco, July 14 to 27, 1920 (adult male July 14) ; Riaclio 
Pilaga, Formosa, August 8 to 18; Kilometer 80, west of Puerto 
Pinasco, Paraguay, September 8 (two seen). A skeleton and a 
specimen in alcohol were preserved at Las Palmas in addition to the 
skin already mentioned. 

The present species, during winter and early spring, was en- 
countered in little bands of five or six (probably families of the 
previous season) that ranged in the heaviest monte, or occasionally 
in groves scattered over open prairies, usually in company with the 
larger Cyanocorax cyanomelas. Both species exhibited great cur- 
iosity and were easily decoyed up within a distance of 5 or 10 meters. 
When they were within hearing, at any squeaking note they came 
sailing in with spread wings and crest fully erect to perch on some 
open limb and eye me with no semblance of fear. They uttered a 
number of jaylike calls, and on one occasion one suddenly jerked 
up and down on its perch, rising to the full length of its legs and 
then dropping back, while it called kuk kuk kuk kuk loudly. On 
the whole, chrysops was more noisy than cyanomelas. 

CYANOCORAX CHRYSOPS TUCUMANUS Cabanis 

Cyanocorax tucumanus C.vranis, Journ. fiir Oruitli., 1883, p. 216. (Tu- 
cuman.) 

Three specimens of the present form, a male, a female, and one 
with sex not determined, were secured near Tapia, Tucuman, on 
April 12, 1921. These, compared with typical skins, exhibit the 
characters of heavier bill, more strongly arched culmen, and darker, 
blacker dorsum that characterize this subspecies. The differences 
in crest and color of abdomen that have been alleged are not ap- 
parent. On the date in question two flocks, each numbering five or 
six individuals, were encountered in rather heavy forest near the 
Rio Tapia. They came hopping out rather curiously when they first 
saw me, but retreated at once to heavy cover, and worked away, 



366 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

their presence indicated only by their jaylike calls. April 17 another 
small band was encountered in one of the dense groves on the upper 
slopes of Sierra San Xavier, above Tafi Viejo, Tucuman, at an 
altitude of about 2,100 meters. These remained concealed among 
heavy branches and slipped away down the steep slopes to more 
distant quarters. The habits in general are similar to those of the 
typical form. 

Family CYCLARHIDAE 

CYCLARHIS GUJANENSIS VIRmiS (Vieillot) 

Saltator viridis, Vieillot, Tabl. Enc. Meth., vol. 2, 1828, p. 793. (Para- 
guay. ) 

The three skins of this species preserved include an adult male 
from Las Palmas, Chaco, July 31, 1920; adult male, Riacho Pilaga, 
Formosa, August 11; and immature female, Tapia, Tucuman, April 
12, 1921. The two males have a wing measurement of 82.5 and 79.5 
mm., respectively, and the female, with wing not quite grown, 78.5 
mm. The southern form, to which these birds belong, is distin- 
guished from C. g. cearensis Baird by larger size. 

An adult male, taken July 31, had the maxilla and tip of mandible 
cinnamon drab, changing to neutral gray at tip of culmen; base of 
mandible deep green-blue gray; iris ochraceous buff with a tinge of 
ochraceous orange; tarsus and toes gray number 7. 

These birds inhabited low trees in brush-grown pastures or at the 
borders of barrancas, where they hopped slowly and deliberately 
about among the dense branches with erect carriage, examining 
twigs and leaves for food. That the strong, heavy bill was of 
service was shown when one tore and pulled at a strip of insect- 
infested bark, using much strength in its efforts. The song, heard 
August 23 near Formosa, Formosa, was a pleasant warble, somewhat 
accented, so that it did not seem monotonous though constantly re- 
peated. From its tone I had supposed that it came from some finch 
and was astonished to trace it to a pepper shrike. 

The Toba Indians in P^ormosa called this species si trih. 

CYCLARHIS OCHROCEPHALA Tschudi 

Cyclarhis ochrocephala Tschudi, Arch, fiir Naturg., 1845, pt. 1, p. 362. 
(Southern Brazil and Buenos Aires.) 

The first of these birds observed was an adult female taken at 
Berazategui, Buenos Aires, on June 20, 1920, in a thicket near the 
Rio de la Plata. In southern Uruguay the species was common, as 
two adult males and one immature bird of the same sex were shot 
at San Vicente on January 28 and 30, 1921, and adult and imma- 
ture males on February 6 and 8. The species was observed at Rio 
Negro, Uruguay, from February 17 to 19. The adult female from 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 367 

Berazategui is peculiar in having the chestnut superciliary ex- 
tended behind the eye thus suggesting viridis. An adult male, taken 
January 30, had the tip of the culmen fuscous; rest of maxilla 
benzo brown: base of mandible light brownish drab; rest pallid 
quaker drab becoming fuscous at tip ; iris brick red ; tarsus and toes 
deep green-blue gray. 

Like its congener, this pepper shrike frequented brush where it 
hopped slowly about among the dense limbs with all the assurance of 
a tyrant flycatcher. 

Attention was often drawn to the bird by its rollicking, warbling 
song that carried for a considerable distance. A second song given 
with bill pointed toward the sky resembled too too too wheur. 
In addition to its songs, the species has several peculiar calls uttered 
in a loud tone. Those seen in January were accompanied by grown 
young. 

Where color may not be distinguished, the strong, heavy bill of 
this bird is a prominent field mark. 

Family VIREONIDAE 

VIREO CHIVI CHIVI (Vieillot) 

Sylvia chivi Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 11, 1817, p. 174. (Para- 
guay.) 

Eight skins preserved offer certain differences in coloration, but 
may be referred to typical chivi. An adult male shot September 30, 
1920, on the Cerro Lorito opposite Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, may 
represent the usual form of the type race. Four adult males from 
San Vicente, Uruguay (January 28, 29, and 30, 1921), and a pair 
from the Rio Cebollati, near Lazcano (February 6), are somewhat 
duller in coloration. Deeper coloration also characterizes an adult 
male from Tapia, Tucuman, shot April 9, 1921. 

On September 30 the species was common in the forests near the 
Rio Paraguay, apparently newly come in spring migration, since 
none had been seen previously. One was recorded at Asuncion, 
Paraguay, on October 6. In eastern Uruguay, the species bred com- 
monly on brush-grown slopes of canj^ons in the rocky hills near 
San Vic nte (January 28 to 30, 1921), and was fairly common in 
the dense thickets along the Rio Cebollati, below Lazcano (February 
6 and 8). Spring and summer birds sang as persistently as does 
V. olivaceus in the north, a species of which chivi is so much a 
counterpart in appearance, actions, and notes that it is recognized 
at first glance. Their smaller size and yellow-green sides and 
flanks are apparent on close scrutiny, while in the hand it is found 
that the iris is duller, as it varies from Rood's to Vandyke brown. 
The birds work quietly through the limbs, pausing frequently to 



368 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

peer about, in the slow manner usual to vireos. At a squeak they 
came down to peer at me with the crown feathers raised. The 
song, given Avithout interruption during search for food, is a series 
of phrases, similar to but possibly slightly less emphatic than that 
of the northern red-eye. 

At Tapia, Tucuman, from April 10 to 13, the species was fairly 
common in dense scrub, where it traveled in company with parula 
warblers and other small bush and tree haunting birds. The birds 
had ceased singing then, though their complaining call note was 
heard at intervals. An adult male taken was extremely fat. 

An adult male, shot January 30, had the maxilla dusky neutral 
gray; base of gonys washed with pallid brownish drab; r. st of 
mandible clear green-blue gray; iris Vandyke brown; tarsus and 
toes light Medici blue. 

Family COMPSOTHLYPIDAE 

BASILEUTERUS HYPOLEUCUS Bonaparte 

Basileuterua hypoleucus Bonaparte, Consp. Av., vol. 1, 1850, p. 313. 
(Brazil.) 

An adult female, shot September 1, 1920, at Kilometer 25, west 
of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, the only specimen collected, differs 
from skins of hyj)oleucus from Matto Grosso in the yellow under 
tail coverts and the yellowish wash on the lower breast and abdomen. 
It is possible that this bird represents a distinct race. 

The specimen was one of several found in heavy woods on a low 
hill, where the birds fed actively througli the tops of the lower 
growth. They were observed in little parties of three or four, 
apparently families since a part were fully grown young. 

BASILEUTERUS AURICAPILLUS AURICAPILLUS (Swainson) 

Setophaga anricapilla Swainson. Auim. in Meuag., 1S38, p. 293. (Brazil.) 

Near Las Palmas, Chaco, this Basileuterus was fairly common on 
July 13, 14, 17, and 21, 1920. Two were taken, an adult female, 
July 13, and one with sex not marked, July 21. The birds fre- 
quented dense thickets and heavy woods, where they hopped ac- 
tively about among the smaller twigs with flitting wings and jerk- 
ing tail. On February 5, 1921, I secured another, an immature 
male, found in dense growth along the Rio Cebollati, near Laz- 
cano, Uruguay, in company with a mixed flock of Serpophaga and 
Thamnophilus. The Basileuterus worked through the lower limbs 
between 1 and 2 meters from the ground with the tail wagging in 
a characteristic manner. 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 369 

The female shot July 13 had the maxilla and tip of mandible 
bone brown; base of mandible paler; tarsus tawny olive; feet 
slightly yellowish; iris very dark brown. 

The single bird from Uruguay is much darker on the flanks and 
dorsum than those from the Argentine Chaco, differences that may 
be due to immaturity or freshness of plumage, or may prove to be 
of subspecific value. The species has not been recorded previously 
from Uruguay. 

BASILEUTERUS LEUCOBLEPHARmES LEUCOBLEPHARmES (Vieillot) 

Sylvia leucotlepharldes Vieilxot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 11, 1817, 
p. 206. (Paraguay.) 

The present warbler was encountered in the following localities: 
Eesistencia, Chaco, July 9 and 10, 1920 (one of unlmown sex taken 
July 9) ; Las Palmas, Chaco, July 13 to 30 (adult female, July 13) ; 
Kiacho Pilaga, Formosa, August 7 and 18; San Vicente, Uruguay, 
January 30 (adult female taken) ; Lazcano, Uruguay, February 5 
to 8 (adult female, February 5) ; Rio Negro, Uruguay, February 
14 to 18. Specimens secured in Uruguay, in full post-braeding 
molt, appear darker than skins taken in winter in the Chaco, a con- 
dition due perhaps to their new plumage. All are assigned to the 
typical form, though the single skin in United States National 
Museum that is supposed to represent B. I. superciliosus (Swain- 
son) ^^ is not in satisfactory condition for comparison. 

Though in the Tableau Encyclopedique et Methodique,^^ Vieillot 
calls this species S. Leucohlephara^ in the original description the 
specific name is spelled leucohlepharides. 

Basileuterus I. calus Oberholser "'^ is a synonym of B. I. leucoble- 
pharides^ since the typical form comes from Paraguay.''^ 

This bird inhabited dense thickets or the heavy growtli tliat 
often borders clearings, where it frequented low growth or, with 
constantly wagging tail, walked about on the ground. The birds 
were inquisitive and came very near to me when suitable cover of- 
fered, a proximity that intensified the ear-piercing tsee that served 
them for call note. They were found in pairs. The song of the male 
was made up of a repetition of a single, clear, whistled note repeated 
several times in a slowly descending scale that in sound and cadence 
suggested the song of a canyon Avren {Catherpes mexicanus) but 
lacked the carrying power of the notes of that bird. A juvenile 
individual Mas recorded February 5. 

^ Trichas superciliosus Swainson, Anim. in Menag., 1838, p. 295. (Brazil.) 
=8 Vol. 2, 1823, p. 459. 

"^ Basileuterus leucoblepharus calus Oberholser, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 14 
Dec. 12, 1901, p. 188. (Sapueay, Paraguay.) 
•1 See Tabl. Encyc. Meth., vol. 2, 1823, p. 460. 



370 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

One taken July 9 had the bill blackish slate ; tarsus and toes honey 
yellow ; iris very dark brown. 

BASILEUTERUS FLAVEOLUS (Baird) 

Myiothlypis flavcolus Baird, Rev. Amer. Birds, May, 1865, p. 252. (Para- 
guay. ) 

This warbler was found only in the region west of Puerto Pinasco, 
Paraguay, where it was seen September 1, 1920, near Kilometer 25, 
and September 9 to 20, near Kilometer 80. Adult males, taken 
September 1 and 10, were preserved as skins. The species ranged in 
pairs in dense forest growth, feeding on or near the ground. The 
birds Avere shy but were occasionally seen walking or hopping about 
with constantly jerking tail. Males sang a sweet, warbling song, 
and the call note w^as a sharp chip. 

MYIOBORUS BRUNNICEPS (d'Orbigny and Lafresnaye) 

Setophar/a irunniceps (I'Orbigny and Lafresnaye, Mag. Zool.. 1837, p. 50. 
(Yungas, Bolivia.) 

On* April 17, 1921, the handsome brown-capped redstart was com- 
mon on the slopes of the Sierra San Xavier above Tafi Viejo, Tucu- 
man, between 1,800 and 2,100 meters, where it ranged in thickets 
of low, rather dense undergrowth scattered over rolling slopes above 
the forest, or occasionally came into more open areas among the 
groves of tree alders. The birds, alert and active in every move- 
ment, flew from perch to perch with a flirt of the tail that dis- 
played the prominent white of the outer feathers. 

The specimen preserved is an immature male in fresh fall plumage. 

GEOTHLYPIS AEQUINOCTIALIS VELATA (Vieillot) 

Sylvia velata Vieillot, Hist. Nat. Ois. Amer. Sept., vol. 2, 1807, p. 22, pi. 
74. (No locality. " De la collection de M. Dufresne.") 

The present yellowthroat was so local in its distribution and so 
sedentary that it was probably overlooked in many localities. It was 
recorded as follows: Las Palmas, Chaco, July 20, 22 (adult male 
taken), and 28 (male and female shot); Riacho Pilaga, Formosa, 
August 9 and 17 (a male taken on each of the dates mentioned) ; 
Formosa, Formosa, August 24 (immature male seciu-ed) ; Lazcano, 
Uruguay, February 5 (immature male) ; Rio Negro, Uruguay, Feb- 
ruary 17 (immature female) and 18 (immature female, adult male) ; 
Tapia, Tucuman, April 11 and 12 (adult females on the two dates 
given). Immature birds are somewhat browner than others, while 
adults shot in winter are more richly colored than those secured in 
summer. Immature birds were common in February, and adults 
taken in Uruguay in February and in Tucuman in April were in full 



BIRDS OF ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY, AND CHILE 371 

molt. Several seen had lost all of the rectrices and all were in 
ragged condition. No definite differences are apparent in birds 
from the localities mentioned.*'- 

This yellowthroat frequented cat-tails or other aquatic growth 
standing in water, or dense tangles of herbaceous vegetation border- 
ing wet swales, or other low localities. In this safe cover they crept 
about cautiously, at times flying for short distances with quick, tilt- 
ing flight to some safe retreat among the grasses. Though often 
common it was difficult to catch sight of them. Their call note was 
a harsh tseep tseej)-, quite different from the scolding call of Geo- 
thlypis triehas. I did not identify their song. 

COMPSOTHLYPIS PITIAYUMI PITIAYUMI (Vieillot) 

Sylvi-a pitiayiimi Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 11, 1817, p. 276. 
(Paraguay.) 

The present species, with a broad distribution through humid 
wooded areas in the northern half of Argentina, was recorded at the 
following points : Kesistencia, Chaco, July 8 to 10, 1920 (male, July 
8); Las Palmas, Chaco, July 13 to 30; Eiacho Pilaga, Formosa, 
August 18; Formosa, Formosa, August 23 and 24; Kilometer 25, west 
of Puerto Pinasco, Paraguay, September 1 (male) ; Kilometer 80, 
west of Puerto Pinasco, September 6 to 21 (male, September 8) ; 
Cerro Lorito, opposite Puerto Pinasco, September 30; San Vicente, 
Uruguay, January 28 to 31, 1921 (adult male, January 28) ; Lazcano, 
Uruguay, February 5 to 8 (immature male and female, February 5) ; 
Kio Negro, Rio Negro, February 15 (one with sex not determined) ; 
Tapia, Tucuman, April 6 to 13 (immature female, April 9; Tafi 
Viejo, Tucuman, April 17 (male). 

The series of specimens taken is fairly uniform with exception of 
a male in fresh plumage shot April 17 at an altitude of 1,800 meters 
on the slopes of the Sierra San Xavier. This bird is faintly darker 
above than typical birds from Paraguay and indicates an approach 
to the coloration found in C. p. elegans Todd,*^^ though lighter than 
the average of that form as shoAvn in a series examined from Co- 
lombia to southern Peru. More recently Todd has described an ad- 
ditional form, G ompsothlypis p. melanogenys^^ from Yungas de 
Cochabamba, Bolivia (elevation 1,500 meters), which is said to be 
much deeper in color, particularly above, than elegans. This I have 
not seen. It is possible that the bird from the Sierra San Xavier 
represents an approach toward vielanogenys. Further collections 

"''For the use of the name velata see Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., vol. 28, September, 1921, 
pp. 243-244. 

*3 Compsothlypis pitiayumi elegans Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., vol. 8, May 20, 1912, 
p. 204. (Anzoategui, Estado Lara, Venezuela.) 

" Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 37, July 8, 1924, p. 123. 



372 BULLETIN 133, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUl^I 

from the mountains of northwest Argentina may record a darker 
mountain form as an addition to the Argentine list. 

The present warbler was one the most widely distributed of 
forest-haunting birds through the Chaco, in suitable areas in Uru- 
guay, and in the wooded areas of Tucuman. During winter it 
joined little roving bands of birds of similar habits and was found 
everywhere in groves and thickets. The pitiayumi warbler is char- 
acterized by active, agile motions that carry it rapidly through the 
smaller branches. As spring approached males sang a song, similar 
to that of the northern species of the genus, that may be represented 
as swois swois swols see-ee-ee zee-ee-ee-ee-up. Young that had not 
finished the post-juvenal molt were taken at Lazcano, Uruguay, on 
February 5, and the birds here were seen in little flocks of 20 to 25 
individuals. The usual call was a sharp tsip. 

A male, taken Jul}^ 8, had the upper mandible dusky black ; lower 
mandible and extreme edge of upper for basal half ivory yellow, 
shading toward dusky at tip ; inside surface of lower mandible ivo