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U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 155 PLATE 1 




WEST INDIAN TREE DUCK (DENDROCYGNA ARBOREAL A RESIDENT SPECIES OFTEN 
FOUND IN MANGROVE SWAMPS 






MITHSONIAN INSTITUTIO 
UNITED STATES NATIONAL/fe, 
Bulletin 155 




THE BIRDS OF HAITI 
AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 



BY 
ALEXANDER WETMORE 

Assistant Secretary, Smithsonian Institution 
AND 

BRAD SHAW H. SWALES 

Honorary Assistant Curator of Birds 
United States National Museum 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1931 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C. 



Price 31.00 (Paper cover) 



ADVERTISEMENT 

The scientific publications of the National Museum include two 
series, known, respectively, as Proceedings and Bulletin. 

The Proceedings, begun in 1878, is intended primarily as a medium 
for the publication of original papers, based on the collections of 
the National Museum, that set forth newly acquired facts in biology, 
anthropology, and geology, with descriptions of new forms and 
revisions of limited groups. Copies of each paper, in pamphlet 
form, are distributed as published to libraries and scientific organi- 
zations and to specialists and others interested in the different sub- 
jects. The dates at which these separate papers are published are 
recorded in the table of contents of each of the volumes. 

The Bulletin, the first of which was issued in 1875, consists of 
a series of separate publications comprising monographs of large 
zoological groups and other general systematic treatises, (occasion- 
ally in several volumes), faunal works, reports of expeditions, cata- 
logues of type specimens, special collections, and other material of 
similar nature. The majority of the volumes are octavo in size, 
but a quarto size has been adopted in a few instances in which large 
plates were regarded as indispensable. In the Bidletin series appear 
volumes under the heading Contributions from the United States 
National Herbarium, in octavo form, published by the National 
Museum since 1902, which contain papers relating to the botanical 
collections of the Museum. 

The present work forms No. 155 of the Bulletin series. 

Alexander Wetmore, 
Assistant Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 

Washington, D. C, January 27, 1931. 

ii 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Page 

Introduction 1 

Physiography 2 

Historical account of ornithological investigations 7 

Field work for the Smithsonian Institution 22 

Discussion of the avifauna 37 

General 37 

Remarks on distribution 46 

Birds of Gonave Island 47 

Birds of Tortue Island 49 

Birds of Grande Cayemite Island 51 

Birds of Saona Island 51 

Birds of the Seven Brothers Islands 52 

Birds of Navassa Island 53 

Recommendations regarding further studies 53 

Acknowledgments 54 

Method of treatment 56 

Annotated list: 

Coly mbif ormes 57 

Colymbidae 57 

Procellariif ormes 61 

Procellariidae 61 

Hy drobatidae 63 

Pelecaniformes 64 

Phaethontidae 64 

Pelecanidae 65 

Sulidae 68 

[Phalacrocoracidae] 70 

Fregatidae 71 

Ciconiif ormes 73 

Ardeidae 73 

Ciconiidae 89 

Threskiornithidae 90 

Phoenicopteridae 94 

Anserif ormes 97 

Anatidae 97 

Falconif ormes 105 

Accipitridae 108 

Falconidae 117 

Galliformes 122 

Perdicidae 122 

Numididae 125 

Gruif ormes 128 

Aramidae 128 

Rallidae 130 

in 



IV TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Annotated list — Continued. p a g« 

Charadriif ormes 142 

Jacanidae 142 

Haematopodidae 144 

Charadriidae 146 

Scolopacidae 155 

Recurvirostridae 168 

OEdicnemidae 169 

Laridae 172 

Columbif ormes 182 

Columbidae 182 

Psittacif ormes 210 

Psittacidae 210 

Cuculif ormes 218 

Cuculidae 218 

Strigif ormes 231 

Tytonidae 231 

Strigidae 239 

Caprimulgif ormes 247 

Nyctibiidae 247 

Caprimulgidae 248 

Micropodif ormes 258 

Micropodidae 258 

Trochilidae 266 

Trogonif ormes 276 

Trogonidae 276 

Coraciif ormes 280 

Alcedinidae 280 

Todidae 283 

Picif ormes 290 

Picidae 290 

Passerif ormes 300 

Tyrannidae 300 

Hirundinidae 315 

Corvidae 325 

Mimidae 331 

Turdidae 334 

Bombycillidae 345 

Dulidae 345 

Vireonidae 352 

Coerebidae 363 

Compsothlypidae 366 

Ploceidae 401 

Icteridae 406 

Thraupidae 414 

Fringillidae 429 

Bibliography 446 

Index 459 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 



By Alexander Wetmore 

Assistant Secretary, Smithsonian Institution 

AND 

Bradshaw H. Swales 
Honorary Assistant Curator of Birds, United States National Museum 



INTRODUCTION 

The island that Columbus named Hispaniola, divided politically 
in modern times between the Dominican Republic and the Republic 
of Haiti biologically is the most interesting of the Greater Antilles 
since in its great area of elevated mountains it has preserved remnants 
of life of an ancient type that elsewhere in the West Indies has dis- 
appeared. Though naturalists began their observations in Hispaniola 
in the days of Columbus since when many strange and peculiar forms 
have become known, only within the past fifteen years has there come 
a definite understanding of the importance of Hispaniola in out- 
lining problems of distribution in this general area. Advance in mod- 
ern knowledge of the life of this island has been due in large measure 
to the efforts of the veteran explorer Dr. W. L. Abbott. Since an 
early visit to the Dominican Republic in 1883 Doctor Abbott has been 
interested in Hispaniola and has visited the region of Samana Bay 
repeatedly in the intervals between travels in more distant parts of 
the world. In 1916, he began definitely to make systematic collections 
on the island, which he continued until 1923, in that time amassing 
series of specimens, particularly in birds, mammals, reptiles, amphib- 
ians and plants, with material in less amount from various other 
groups. Since ceasing active personal work he has retained his inter- 
est in the island and has financed extensive work on the part of other 
naturalists. The rich collections thus obtained have all come to the 
Smithsonian Institution for the United States National Museum, and 
have given this institution the finest collections extant from the island 
in question. Though undertaken primarily to fill gaps in our collec- 
tions the information that immediately became available was ob- 
viously so extended and so important that several reports on the col- 
lections have been planned. As the Museum collections became ex- 

1 



2 BULLETIN" 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

tensive it was decided finally to make these reports comprehensive 
accounts of the various groups covered so as to bring this information 
down to date. 

The report on the birds of Hispaniola was projected originally 
by Dr. Charles W. Richmond, Associate Curator of Birds and Mr. 
Bradshaw H. Swales, Honorary Assistant Curator of Birds, in the 
United States National Museum. These two worked over the collec- 
tions in a preliminary way as they were received from Doctor Abbott 
and published descriptions of a number of new forms. At the close of 
1926 Doctor Richmond became engrossed in other matters and with- 
drew from this cooperative enterprise, which was continued by Mr. 
Swales in collaboration with Dr. Alexander Wetmore, Assistant 
Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. Mr. Swales went over 
much of the literature published in English for records, and before 
his final illness and death on January 23, 1928, examined the pre- 
liminary write-up of the accounts of the first seventy forms of birds 
here treated. The surviving author has carded the remaining litera- 
ture, has identified carefully the entire collection of birds and has 
written the account that follows. In view of Mr. Swales' prolonged 
interest in the project and the extensive work that he performed in 
assembling preliminary data it has seemed entirely fitting that he 
should be credited as part author of this report which may on that 
basis stand as a monument to his memory, to his contributions to the 
science of ornithology, and to his interest in that science which has 
brought hundreds of rare and valuable specimens to the collections 
of the United States National Museum. 

PHYSIOGRAPHY 

The island of Hispaniola has an irregular form elongated in gen- 
eral from east to west, and is approximately 650 kilometers long by 
260 kilometers broad with a surface area that is said to be 73,150 
square kilometers. (PI. 2.) It is located between Cuba and Porto 
Rico between 17° 36' 40" and 19° 58' 20" north latitude and 68° 
20' and 74° 30' west longitude. The Windward Passage, separating 
Hispaniola from Cuba, descends to depths of 1,830 meters while the 
maximum depth of Mona Passage between the Dominican Republic 
and Porto Rico is about 580 meters. 1 

1 Data for the present section, where not given from first-hand information, is taken 
principally from the following : Vaughan, T. W., Cooke, Wythe, Condit, D. D., Ross, C. P., 
Woodring, W. P., and Calkins, F. C, Geological Reconnaissance of the Dominican Re- 
public, Geol. Surv. Dominican Republic, Mem. 1, 1921, pp. 1-268, 23 pis. 

Woodring, Wendell P., Brown, John S., and Burbank, Wilbur S., Geology of the Re- 
public of Haiti. Dept. of Public Works, 1924, pp. 1-631, 40 pis., 37 figs. 

West Indies Pilot, vol. 1, ed. 5, 1927, Hydrographic Office, Navy Dept., pp. 358-359, 
430-541. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 3 

On approach from the sea the general appearance of the island is 
rough and mountainous, broken hills bulking high on the horizon, 
and though there are extensive coastal and interior plains in travel 
by land one is continually climbing over ranges of hills, often by 
trails that are steep and difficult. 

Beginning at the north, the Cordillera Septentrional, or northern 
mountain system, arises in low, arid, rocky hills near Monte Cristi, 
and extends southeastward about 200 kilometers roughly parallel 
to the northern coast to terminate finally at the marshy area known 
as El Gran Estero between Matanzas and Rivas at the head of 
Samana Bay. The highest points in this range are north of San- 
tiago where some of the peaks are reported to rise from 1,000 to 
1,400 meters above sea level. Toward the east these hills become pro- 
gressively better watered until on Loma Quita Espuela, northeast 
of San Francisco de Macoris, the rainfall is extremely heavy and 
there is abundant forest. 

The estero just mentioned is low and marshy and has evidently 
at one time cut off what is now the Samana Peninsula as a separate 
island. It has been filled in by silt borne by the Rio Yuna, and 
it is said that channels communicate through its marshy expanse 
between the lower Yuna, which flows into Samana Bay, and the 
Atlantic Ocean. The Samana Peninsula which is about 50 kilometers 
long by 11 or 12 kilometers broad is traversed by a range of hills 
that rise to an average elevation of about 500 meters, the summit 
of Loma Las Cafiitas at Sanchez being 514 meters above sea level. 
The hills, heavily forested with trees 15 to 25 meters high, are dis- 
posed in three parallel ridges with low depressions between, in 
which there are occasional small lakes, the Laguna de Rancho 
Fabian on the trail between Sanchez and Las Terrenas being 100 
meters long by 75 meters wide. 

To the south of the Cordillera Septentrional lies the great Cibao 
Valley that extends across from Manzanillo Bay near Monte Cristi 
to Samana Bay. The western portion is traversed by the Rio Yaque 
del Norte which heads finally in the great mountain system of the 
interior of the Dominican Republic beyond Jarabacoa. In its west- 
ern portion the Cibao Valley is dry and arid and has great stretches 
grown with cacti that form veritable jungles. Near Monte Cristi 
considerable areas are cultivated under irrigation. Toward the east 
the valley becomes progressively better watered until beyond San- 
tiago it is known as the Vega Real, where rainfall is abundant and 
rich and valuable crops are grown. This area is traversed by the Rio 
Yuna and its principal tributary the Camii which carry waters from 
the central mountains as well as those that come to them in the 
valley. To the eastward the Vega Real becomes lower, until at 



4 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Samana Bay it is swampy with broad, wet savannas grown with 
palms, or extensive stretches of wet forest, penetrated with difficulty, 
that at the sea become mangrove swamps. 

The central mountain system of the island is a broken series of 
ridges and peaks that present no systematic arrangement to the 
eye of the traveller. The Cordillera Central, as it is known in the 
Dominican Republic, begins in a series of low hills in the arid 
eastern end of the island and extending westward broadens and be- 
comes better watered until in its central portions it receives heavy 
downpours of rain. It continues through northern Haiti as the 
rugged Massif du Nord to a point northwest of Gros Morne, and at 
the south in Haiti is extended through the Montagnes Noires into 
the Sierra de Neiba that runs back into the Dominican Republic 
between the valleys of San Juan and Enriquillo. At the north the 
central mountain mass is limited by the Cibao Valley, while at the 
south in the Dominican Republic one spur reaches the vicinity of the 
sea at Sabana Buey. The system is 130 kilometers wide near its 
middle, and in its greatest extent is between 400 and 500 kilometers 
long. The summit of Loma Tina, in the Dominican Republic, near 
its center, reputed to be the highest mountain in the West Indies, is 
reported to rise 3,140 meters above sea level, while Culo de Maco 
nearby is about its equal. Loma Rucillo, also called Pico de Yaque, 
not far from Culo de Maco, is recorded as 2,955 meters high. Broad 
stretches through these central mountains are covered with beautiful 
forests of pine mingled with areas of rain-forest jungle. The 
climate of the high interior valleys is invigorating, with hot days 
and cool nights, with occasional frost in the highest altitudes in 
winter. Rainfall is abundant in the Dominican Republic while to 
the west in Haiti the land is drier. 

The northwest peninsula of Haiti is cut off from the Massif du 
Nord by the deep trough of the Trois Rivieres valley, and is 
traversed by several mountain ranges, extending mainly from east to 
west, and rising to a maximum elevation of 700 meters above the 
sea. In the southern part of the western end is the extensive Bom- 
bardopolis plateau 20 by 25 kilometers in size, elevated to an average 
of 400 to 500 meters. 

The great Central Plain, or Plaine Centrale of Haiti, begins near 
St. Michel and extends to the southeast as a level floored valley 
between the Massif du Nord and the Montagnes Noires, crossing 
the Dominican frontier to be known as the San Juan Valley. It 
forms a great interior basin cut off by hills from the bordering low- 
lands of the island. The plain of Azua extends from the eastern 
end of the Sierra de Neiba to the sea at the Bahia de Ocoa. 



BULLETIN 155 PLATE 



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f A T L A 



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rs/fce/fo 

O /fOf/TC CHI CO 




^CA7ALlHirA IS 



MAP OF 

nnd the DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 

TO SHOW PRINCIPAL LOCALITIES 

MENTIONED IN 
A REPORT on BIRDS of the ISLAND 



scale: or kilometers 



69" 









■ 















•HAITI ■»!«■■ DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 



CARIBBEAN 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN" REPUBLIC 5 

A remarkable depression called the Cul-de-Sac Plain begins in 
Haiti at the sea north of Port-au-Prince and continues to the south- 
east as a broad valley, crossing the Dominican frontier to be 
known as the Enriquillo Basin and reaches the sea again at the 
Bahia de Neiba. In the early Quaternary period, no distant time 
geologically, this great trough was a strait of the sea completely 
separating the southwestern part of Hispaniola from the main mass. 
At present it has an average altitude of only 50 meters or less above 
the sea, certain areas being actually below sea-level. The Etang 
Saumatre in the Cul-de-Sac area of Haiti is a broad lake of brackish 
water, while to the eastward lies Lake Enriquillo, a body of heavily 
concentrated brine whose surface in 1919 lay 44 meters below sea 
level. This great valley of the Cul-de-Sac is dry and arid, and in 
places shows clearly its recent emergence above the sea in its shell- 
strewn sands and exposed growths of corals. 

South of this great depression there begins the mountain complex 
known at its eastern end as the Sierra de Bahoruco which comes to 
the Caribbean Sea at Barahona, with spurs extending southward 
from the main range elsewhere toward the coast. To the west this 
mountain mass enters Haiti to form the backbone of the southern 
peninsula of that republic, where the mountain system is considered 
to be of two parts, the eastern being the Massif de la Selle, and the 
western the Massif de la Hotte that continues to the end of the 
peninsula. The Bahoruco range, Morne La Selle, and many of the 
ridges that surround Morne La Hotte have extensive forests of 
pine with an abundant turf of grass, mingled with low, dense rain 
forest. Morne La Selle is said to reach an elevation of 2,680 meters. 
The air is cool and pleasant in the high altitudes, suggestive of that 
of the mountains of Arizona and New Mexico. Frost comes occa- 
sionally in winter on the great ridge of La Selle. This mountain 
complex includes the bare ridges that rise back of Petionville, and 
extends west to a low divide running from Jacmel to Grand Goave. 
There is however no abrupt surface transition at this line which has 
been chosen to limit the eastern extension of the Massif de la Hotte, 
the basis of division being difference in geological formation. The 
eastern part of the Massif de la Hotte as far west as the mountain 
pass that carries the road from Miragoane to Aquin is relatively low 
but to the west the ridge becomes higher culminating finally between 
Les Cayes and Jeremie in the mountainous region of Morne La Hotte, 
whose elevation is not definitely known but whose highest points rise 
well above 2,000 meters elevation. Throughout the entire higher 
areas of this southern mountain range rains are heavy, culminating 
finally in the almost constant precipitation on Morne La Hotte, 



6 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

which supports a dense rain-forest with many peculiar botanical 
elements. 

Coastal plains of more or less extent are found around much of 
the island, cut at many points where the interior mountains send 
down spurs to form sea cliffs, the different sections being designated 
by a variety of local names. 

Saona Island, at the southeastern extremity of the main island, is 
about 22 kilometers long and from 3 to 5y 2 kilometers wide. The 
greater part of the island, which is wooded, is low, the land rising at 
the eastern end in a rocky bluff 35 meters high. Saona is located on a 
shallow bank connected with the adjacent coast. 

On the same shallow bank north of Saona is found Catalinita 
Island, a small brush grown island 12 meters high, where there is a 
spring of fresh water and where, according to the West Indies Pilot, 
many birds are found. 

Catalina Island, about two kilometers off the port of La' Romana, 
Dominican Republic, is about four kilometers in extent. The north- 
ern portion is low and flat while the southern part rises to 35 meters 
above the sea. The island is wooded and there is a sandy beach on 
the western side. 

Beata Island, or lie de la Beate, situated off the most southern 
point of Hispaniola near the center of the south coast is a little more 
than 6 kilometers broad and rises to a height of 100 meters. It is 
connected with the main island by a shallow bank. On the northeast 
and west there are said to be sandy beaches. 

Alta Vela Island, a short distance southwest of Beata, is about a 
kilometer long by a little less than a kilometer wide, rising in a great 
hill 152 meters high. 

lie a Vache, opposite Les Cayes on the south shore of the south- 
western peninsula of Haiti, is more than 12 kilometers long by 4 
kilometers wide. The eastern end is low and thickly wooded, while in 
the west are several small hills 30 meters high. The channel between 
it and the main island is shallow. 

Grande Cayemite Island, opposite Les Basses and east of Jeremie, 
is more than 9 kilometers long by 5 kilometers wide, is thickh 
wooded, and rises to a height of 152 meters above the sea. Petite 
Cayemite a short distance to the west is less than 2 kilometers long. 

Gonave Island, the largest separate island in the group here con- 
sidered, lies opposite Port-au-Prince, in the great bay between the 
northwestern and southwestern peninsulas of Haiti. It is 57 kilo- 
meters long and averages 15 kilometers wide. The highest points, 
Morne Chien Content and Morne la Pierre, near the eastern end, are 
elevated 755 meters above the sea. The southeastern part of the 
island is more rugged than the other portions. The Plaine Mapou in 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 7 

this same section is a completely enclosed depression 5 kilometers 
long by 1 kilometer wide. The surface of the island is broken and 
hilly, and very arid, with xerophytic thickets in places near the coast, 
but broad open areas with only scattered trees in the interior. Man- 
groves fringe many bays. Gonave is joined to the main island by a 
shallow bank. There are several small islets near its eastern end, 
among which may be mentioned Petite Gonave and lie Fregate. 

Tortue Island, off Port-de-Paix on the north coast of Haiti, is 37 
kilometers long and has an average width of 5 kilometers. The in- 
terior consists of a rolling plateau rising in low, rounded knobs to 
325 meters above sea level. Much of the island is heavily wooded 
though considerable areas have been cleared. The channel separating 
Tortue from the main island is remarkable for its depth, this ranging 
from 777 to 1,267 meters. 

On the Monte Cristi bank between Cap-Ha'itien and Monte Cristi 
is a group of small islets known as the Sept Freres or the Siete 
Hermanos. Monte Chico, Toruru, Muertos, Tercero, Ratas, and 
Arenas are low and sandy, covered with grass and scattered shrubs. 
Monte Grande, surrounded by reefs so that it is difficult of access, has 
a growth of higher trees. Lizards abound and terns and other birds 
resort to these Seven Brothers Islands to breed. 

Elsewhere along the coasts of Hispaniola there are various other 
islets of small size concerning which little is known and which need 
not be enumerated here, except to state that there are a number along 
the northern shore of the Samana Peninsula. 

The small island of Navassa according to Dr. K. P. Schmidt 2 in 
" its topography recalls that of Mona Island, in the passage between 
Santo Domingo and Porto Rico, at least in its sheer sea cliff. It dif- 
fers from Mona Island chiefly in the fact that there is a broad terrace 
at the top of the sea cliff, with a rising mound in the center. * * * 
The island is arid, and the vegetation scanty. * * * The surface 
rock is as rough as that of Mona, or the ' diente perro ' country of 
Cuba described by Barbour." 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF ORNITHOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS 

The record of ornithological observations in Hispaniola begins 
with the period of discovery and includes the names of many trav- 
elers. According to G. Brown Goode 3 " Columbus was charged by 
Queen Isabella to collect birds, and it is recorded that he took back 
to Spain various skins of beasts." Whether he secured specimens 
during his sojourn in Hispaniola is not certain but it is related that in 

2 Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 44, Dec. 23, 1921, p. 555. 
»Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 3, 1886, p. 63. 



8 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

his triumphal parade in Barcelona, in April, 1493, there were dis- 
played various kinds of live parrots, and skins of birds. In the 
journal of Columbus first voyage there is mention during the first 
part of December, 1492, at Baie des Moustiques, Haiti, of a singing 
bird that was mistaken for the nightingale. At Gros Morne, about 
the middle of the month, the supposed nightingale was again re- 
corded, with astonishment that it should sing in the winter. As 
it was heard both day and night it is probable that reference is made 
to the mockingbird, the only common song bird of the region that 
sings constantly in this manner. About the middle of January, 
1493, at the eastern end of Samana Bay, Columbus records feathers 
of parrots and other birds used by the Indians to decorate the hair. 
On his second voyage, at the end of August, 1494, his men are said 
to have landed on the islet of Alta Vela where they killed pigeons 
and other birds with sticks. 

After noting the incidental references to birds made by Columbus 
it is of interest to record the observations of Oviedo which began 
in the earliest days of the colonization of the island. Gonzalo Fer- 
nandez de Oviedo y Valdez, according to the account of Los Bios, 
came to Hispaniola at the close of 1515 and on his return to Spain 
after a brief stay took with him " treynta papagallos " (thirty par- 
rots). He returned to the island in 1523 to establish his family at 
Santo Domingo City, continuing his travels on September 16, of that 
3 7 ear. At the end of 1530 he was with his family for a brief space 
and then continued to Spain, returning to Santo Domingo City in 
the autumn of 1532. In 1534 he was in Spain, and on January 11, 
1536, had returned to Hispaniola, where he had established an estate 
on the Rio Haina three leagues from the capital. From 1546 to 
early in 1549 he was in Spain again, where he returned in the autumn 
of 1556, and where he died in 1557 at the age of 79 years, having 
crossed the ocean to the New World twelve times. Oviedo's account 
of the birds of Hispaniola is fairly extensive, and, though it is in 
the main general, there may be definitely recognized from his descrip- 
tions such species as the palm-chat, martin, red-tailed hawk, wood- 
pecker, parrot, paroquet, pelican and nighthawk, as well as a number 
of others that are included under such names as dove, heron, and 
similar group designations. His description of the nesting of the 
palm-chat is excellent. Because of the personal knowledge evident 
in most of his statements we may overlook his inclusion of the story 
current in his day of a monstrous bird with one foot webbed like that 
of a duck, and the other armed with the talons of a hawk that fed 
indifferently on fish or fowl, which Oviedo says was found in His- 
paniola and Porto Rico ! His entire account of his travels and obser- 
vations, divided into fifty chapters, is replete with interest. 



THE BIKDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC \j 

In the year 1618 Charles de Rochefort published a brief but inter- 
esting account of the hunting of the flamingo as noted during his 
travels. 

At the close of the year 1700 Father Labat, a French priest who 
traveled extensively in the West Indies, came to Monte Cristi and 
visited in turn Tortue Island, Cap-Ha'itien, Port-de-Paix, Mole St. 
Nicolas, Petite Riviere, Estere, Leogane, lie a Vache, Les Cayes, 
Fonds-des-Negres, Maniel, and Catalina and Saona Islands, depart- 
ing from the island in April, 1701. His accounts of birds are casual, 
including mention of pigeons, paroquets, thrushes and other birds 
on Tortue, and pigeons at a few other points. 

Mathurin Jacques Brisson in his six-volume work entitled Ornith- 
ologie, published in 1760, includes recognizable descriptions of 
thirty-three kinds of birds from Hispaniola, in the collection of M. 
de Reaumur from species received from a M. Chervain. In some 
cases male and female of one kind are considered distinct forms, and 
there are four not included in the number above whose identity is 
uncertain, as well as three others improperly attributed to Hispan- 
iola. The two types of Phaenicophilus erroneously are said to have 
been collected in Cayenne by Artur. Of the collector Chervain noth- 
ing has been learned aside from this mention in Brisson. Apparently 
he was an industrious naturalist who worked prior to 1760, presum- 
ably in the French colony of Haiti. M. de Reaumur may be the per- 
son mentioned in the Journal de Saint -Domingue (December, 1765, 
p. 65, and February, 1766, pp. 236-237) as author of a work on 
entomology, and proponent of the introduction of the cochineal insect 
to be reared on the abundant cacti of the island. The work of Cher- 
vain has been important as the accepted scientific names of a number 
of birds are based on the descriptions taken by Brisson from his 
specimens. 

In the Histoire Naturelle des Oiseaux of Georges Louis Leclerc 
Buffon, published in nine volumes with the assistance of Mont- 
beillard from 1770 to 1783, there are included many references to 
Hispaniolan birds, taken mainly from published accounts, but 
notable for their inclusion of many excellent first hand observations 
obtained from reports of a correspondent named Deshayes. Accord- 
ing to Moreau de Saint-Mery 4 M. Lefebure Deshayes, born in Saint- 
Malo, France in 1732, resided in the canton of Plymouth, parish of 
Jeremie, on an estate called Tivoly, about a quarter of a mile (220 
toises) from the sea. Deshayes while a student of general natural 
history preferred birds to all other subjects, and painted them with 
such care and beauty of execution that his work received high praise 
from Buffon. He was a member of the society called Cercle des 

4 Descrip. Part. Frang. Isle Saint-Domingue, vol. 2, 1798, pp. 814-815. 



10 BULLETIN - 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Philadelphes, formed by amateurs resident in Haiti, interested in 
various phases of science, and among other papers contributed to 
that organization is said to have presented one on le colihri (possibly 
the tody, rather than the hummingbird, since colibri is the usual 
name for the common tody of Haiti). Deshayes died in Cap- 
Haitien in 1788 leaving to the Cercle des Philadelphes his manu- 
scripts and a part of his library. His portrait was hung in the 
assembly room of the society. 

Among other naturalist-observers of the French colonial period 
mention must be made of M. de liable who is said to have been 
" marechal de camp, ingenieur en Chef de la partie du nord de St. 
Domingue." All that is known of his work as a naturalist is found 
in a set of water color drawings bound in four volumes that have 
been available for examination through the courtesy of Wheldon and 
Wesley Ltd. of London, and that have since been purchased for the 
Blacker Library in McGill University at Montreal through the 
interest of Dr. Casey A. Wood. One of these volumes is given to 
birds and includes 58 plates of that group, most of them natural size, 
shown in most cases in excellent color and attitude, and taken ob- 
viously from life. They include a herring gull, the only record for 
the island, as well as representation of Antrostomus cubanensis 
ekmani and Pterodroma liasitata; the majority are the common birds 
of the island. These plates have been bound in a volume lO 1 /^ by 
121/2 inches, the binding being old with a sticker on the inside of the 
front cover that reads 

Aux deux Creoles 

Rue du Faub. St. Honore, No. 60. 

De La Rue, Rapetier. 

Fabrique toutes sortes de Registres & Portfeu 

Fourniture de Bureaux 

Tient tout ce qui a rapport au Dessin & a Pein re 

a Paris 

The birds are shown in life-like attitude in many cases with a 
background of landscape. The collection has been renumbered in 
its present arrangement and some of the drawings that had become 
frayed at the margins trimmed. The original inscription in some 
cases is partly gone but has been carefully copied so that the word- 
ing has been preserved. The drawings of birds are marked as made 
" au Cap " which would signify Cap-Hai'tien, except one which is 
marked Fort Dauphin, and are dated from December 29, 1773, to 
August 19, 1784. Apparently Rabie's interest in depicting the local 
fauna and flora was aroused in 1771 since some of his drawings of 
fishes are marked as made at sea in that year. Moreau de Saint- 
Mery mentions his name as an engineer as early as 1752 so that he 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 155 PLATE 3 




SHORE OF SAMANA BAY WITH THE INTERIOR HILLS IN THE BACKGROUND 

Near Sanchez, Dominican Republic, May 9, 1927. 




Near the mouth of the Rio Yuna showing groves of royal palm: 
Near Sanchez, Dominican Republic, May 10, 1927. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 155 PLATE 4 




A MOUNTAIN TRAIL THROUGH THE PINES 

Near Constanza, Dominican Republic, May 19, 1927. 




DENSE JUNGLE OF RAIN FOREST. TYPICAL OF THE HIGHER ALTITUDES 
WHERE RAINFALL ABOUNDS 

Near Constanza, Dominican Republic, May 19, 1927. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 11 

seems to have been long resident in the colony. He is said to have 
died in Paris in 1785. His sketches include fruits and vegetables, 
insects, fish, crustaceans; and mollusks as well as birds. 

Francis Alexander Stanislaus, Baron de Wimpffen, who traveled 
in Hispaniola from 1788 to 1790, gives occasional mention of birds, 
noting especially the presence of guinea-fowl, wild turkeys, and 
curassows, introduced gallinaceous birds that he hunted as game. In 
passing the islet of Alta V.ela he described it as " a mere rock, with 
a few green spots about it " and says that it is a " retreat for a 
prodigious number of sea birds." 

Vieillot seems to have traveled in Haiti between 1790 and 1800, 
the date and the length of his sojourn not being definitely indicated 
in the sources seen at this time. In the introduction to his Histoire 
Naturelle des Oiseaux de l'Amerique Septentrional (vol. 1, 1807, pp. 
1, 2) he notes that during a sojourn in Hispaniola he made many 
notes on the birds which he prepared in the form of a memoir and 
offered to Buffon. The latter had already completed the volumes on 
birds in his great natural history and therefore advised Vieillot to 
return to North America, gather further material, and prepare a 
complete account of the ornithology of that continent. Subsequently 
Vieillot began this undertaking but it was ten years after his return 
from Hispaniola before he came again to America. In his final ac- 
count he incorporated his notes made in Hispaniola but after the 
issuance of two volumes the work was suspended and never com- 
pleted. Though he makes no reference to definite localities it is prob- 
able that his investigations were made in Haiti, at that time a pros- 
perous French colony, since travel in the Spanish part of the island 
was difficult, and the Spanish were not on too good terms with the 
French. Further where he gives the local names of birds these are 
the Creole appellations current in the Republic of Haiti to-daj^. He 
described particularly the sharp-shinned hawk of the island (Ac- 
cipiter striatus striatus), and is the first naturalist to name in modern 
scientific form a species that he had taken personally on the island. 

Among the various historians who in their chronicles of progress 
and travel in Hispaniola have made reference to birds special men- 
tion must be made of Moreau de Saint -Mery who published in 1797 
and 1798 two separate works of two volumes each, one dealing with 
the French part of the island and the other with the Spanish section, 
in which he describes with much detail the various parts of the island 
with remarks on the people, the agriculture, the forests, the histor}^ 
and a multitude of other subjects. While his reference to birds is 
casual his work serves as a source of valuable collateral information, 
particularly as regards interest in science in general, and has given 
much data that otherwise would have been lost. 



12 BULLETIN" 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Early interest in science in the island turned to plants rather than 
to other branches of natural history. Charles Plumier made botanical 
collections in 1690. Jean Baptiste Rene Pouppe Desportes collected 
plants at Cap-Haitien in 1732, and Pere Xicolson made similar col- 
lections for several years, publishing hi 1776 a natural history of the 
island in which however he makes no reference to birds. In the 
Dominican Republic Olaf Swartz collected plants about 1781 to 
17S6, and Turpin from 1791 to about 1802 carried on similar studies 
near Cap-Haitien and on Tortue Island. Poiteau, from 1791 to 
about 1801, was engaged in similar researches on the north side of the 
island. 

M. E. Descourtilz, according to his Voyages d'un Naturaliste, pub- 
lished in Paris in 1809, came to Port-au-Prince on April 2, 1799, 
continuing on April 7 to St. Marc where apparently he arrived two 
days later. Here he speaks of observations at the Lagon Peinier in 
the plain of the Artibonite, and on April 16 passed by way of Pont 
de TEstere to Gonaives and Plaisance, so that on April 26 he was in 
Cap-Haitien. Returning immediately to Gonaives he studied and 
collected for some time at the Artibonite. near Desdunes, and at Gros 
Morne. On August 4 he set out for Port-au-Prince, continuing by 
land to L'Arcahaie. and from there by boat to his destination. On 
August 22 he began the return journey to St. Marc. Until February 
and March. 1800. his further travels covered familiar ground, when 
he made an expedition into the mountains of Cibao, returning to 
St. Marc, April 6. At about this time he was taken captive during the 
revolt of the negro slaves, and was held for some time, this termi- 
nating his natural history observations. He finally obtained freedom 
and left the island on " 1 Prairial, an XI " of the revolutionary cal- 
endar (about May 23, 1803). The list of birds in his account of his 
expedition comprises about 56 species, named in part after Brisson, 
and in part not described sufficiently for certain identification. His 
accounts are frequently of interest though concerned principally with 
hunting birds for game. 

William Walton, jr. in 1810. in an account of the Present State 
of the Spanish Colonies, included a brief statement of the game 
birds of Hispaniola that has some records of value. 

Karl Ritter, who is indicated on the title page of his book Xatur- 
histoiische Reise nach der Westindischen Insel Hayti auf Kosfcen Sr. 
Majestat des Kaisers von Oesterreich. published in Stuttgart in 1836, 
as " Gartendirector in Ungarn und Mitgleid mehrerer gelehrten 
Gesellschaf ten " came on April 14. 1820, to Cap-Haitien, where 
through force of circumstances he remained for some time, not per- 
mitted to travel except in the immediate neighborhood. On October 
16 he records a journey to Sans Souci where he speaks of the Cita- 
delle but was not allowed to enter though he climbed the hill on 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 13 

whose summit it rests. Later in October he made an excursion to 
" Fort-Royal ' : , followed by a journey to the Riviere Massacre in 
search of living crocodiles. On February 7, 1821, he left for 
Gona'ives, arriving on the third day, and continued later to St. Marc, 
but did not go to Port-au-Prince. His work in natural history was 
much curtailed by the political conditions at the time. In his ac- 
count of the fauna he gives observations on habits of a few birds and 
a list of 78 species, of which he indicates that he secured specimens 
of 52. 

Paul Wilhelm, Herzog von Wiirttemberg, also visited Hispaniola, 
since in his Erste Reise nach dem Nordlichen Amerika in den Jahren 
1822 bis 1824, published in 1835 he speaks (p. 48) of a shell brought 
to him in Cuba and remarks " desto haufiger f and ich sie spater auf 
S. Domingo und an den ostlichen abhangen der Cordillern." And 
later (p. 59) mentions reports of a mapou tree near Miragoane re- 
vered by natives as a god. In another place (p. 68) he mentions two 
forms of crow on " St. Domingo " and in a footnote says they are 
new and gives them scientific names. Wiirttemberg made two jour- 
neys and must have visited Hispaniola in the second since his detailed 
itinerary in the book mentioned does not touch that island. In 
Naumannia for 1852 (pp. 50-56) is an article by Hartlaub entitled 
Ueber einige neue oder weniger bekannte Vogel Amerika's aus brief- 
lichen Mittheilungen des Herzogs Paul Wilhelm von Wiirttemberg 
mitgetheilt, in which there is an annotated list of birds recorded by 
Wiirttemberg in Cuba with occasional references to Haiti. He men- 
tions observations made at Miragoane, Mirebalais, the hills east of 
Mirebalais, " Escabobas " and Loma de San Juan. The date " 1829 " 
is given in connection with some of these statements. 

According to Mulsant and Verreaux, 5 Alexandre Ricord, born in 
1798 in Baltimore, traveled in 1826 in the Antilles, mainly in Santo 
Domingo, for the Paris Museum, where he collected many interest- 
ing specimens, devoting his attention principally to fishes. His name 
is carried in the genus Riccordia, spelled by Reichenbach with a 
double c through a slip of the pen. Ricord collected the type of 
Plagiodontia aedium Cuvier, a curious mammal, among other speci- 
mens, but nothing has come to our eyes regarding birds that he se- 
cured, with exception of his description of Loxia haitii* a species of 
uncertain identity. 

Alcide d'Orbigny in his Voyage Pittoresque dans les deux 
Ameriques, 1836, pp. 11-24, describes his landing in Port-au-Prince 
on May 29, 1826, where he was occupied for a week in the city and 



6 Hist. Nat. Ois. Mouch., vol. 2, 1876, p. 76. 
•Rev. Zool., 1838, p. 167. 



2134—31- 



14 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

the country nearby. He mentions Bizoton, Mon Repos, and Roche 
Blanche, and says that on June 10 he embarked for Cap-Ha'itien, 
viewing en route Gonaives, Mole St. Nicolas, and Tortue Island, 
arriving at the Cap June 14. From here he visited Milot and the 
Citadelle. After leaving Cap-Haitien he came to Les Cayes leaving 
there on " 30 mai " (apparently should be June 30). His only men- 
tion of birds is general and it is not definitely said that he made 
collections in ornithology. 

John Hearne was another traveling naturalist of this period who 
visited Haiti, though knowledge of his activities there is scanty. In 
a letter dated February 15, 1834, at Port-au-Prince, he wrote to the 
Zoological Society of London regarding a pair of goats sent to the 
gardens of that organization, and mentions several birds, including 
the musicien, or solitaire. On July 16, 1834, in a second communica- 
tion from Port-au-Prince he announced the sending of " an alligator 
from the river Artibonite," and some doves, including the ground- 
dove and the Key West quail-dove (Oreopeleia chrysia). John 
Gould in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1837 
(published 1838) (p. 127) describes an immature specimen of the 
glossy ibis (Plegadis f. falcinellus) collected by Hearne in Haiti as 
Ibis erythrorliyncha under the impression that it represented a new 
species. 

One of the earliest naturalists to make an extensive collection of 
birds was Auguste Salle, who according to Crosse, 7 came to Santo 
Domingo City June 8, 1849, and made this his base for excursions 
during the ensuing two years, in the course of which he covered the 
greater part of the Dominican Republic. From Bani Salle pene- 
trated to Maniel and Azua, and on a subsequent journey continued 
through Azua to San Juan, Neiba, and Lake Enriquillo to Cerro de 
Sal and Barahona. On a subsequent journey he reached Cotui, La 
Vega, Moca, Santiago, Ponton in the valley of the Yaqui, near the 
Haitian frontier, and Puerto Plata. Another expedition included 
Sabana Grande, Seibo, Higuey, Macao, Cap Espada and Cap En- 
gano. He passed considerable time at San Cristobal, in the hills 
seven or eight leagues west of Santo Domingo City. He was search- 
ing especially, at the instance of Hugh Cuming, for a land shell 
Helix gigantea, of which for a long time he found only a few dead 
examples. Finally on the eve of his departure, when he was almost 
in despair, he discovered that this creature was nocturnal, and sally- 
ing forth with torches in a downpour of rain that threatened to 
extinguish his lights, found the shell common in regions where he 
had searched carefully for it by day, and collected a fine series. He 

7 Crosse, H., Faune Malacologique Terrestre et Fluviatile de l'Isle de Saint Domingue, 
Paris, 1891, pp. 7-27. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN - REPUBLIC 15 

left the island July 8, 1851. Salle gave in the Proceedings of the 
Zoological Society of London for 1857 (pp. 230-237), a considerable 
account of his ornithological collections, including 61 species. A few 
of his skins have come through dealers in natural history specimens 
into the collections of the United States National Museum. He 
described the vervain hummingbird under the name Ornismia cathe- 
rinae, and in a sale catalogue of specimens issued in 1861 included a 
number of birds taken in the Dominican Republic. 

Some time about 1865 P. R. Uhler visited Haiti and secured a 
few species of birds which were included in Doctor Bryant's report 
on the Younglove collection mentioned beyond. Seven of his skins 
that came to the Smithsonian were catalogued on November 17, 1865. 
One alcoholic specimen transferred later was collected near Jeremie, 
being a young mockingbird taken at the Grand Anse river on March 
20, 1865. Nothing further is now known regarding this material or 
the ornithological collections of this worker. 

William More Gabb came to the Dominican Republic early in the 
year 1869 at the request of the government of that country, and re- 
mained until 1872 conducting a geological reconnaissance of the 
island. He was on the island again in the winter of 1876-1877, to 
develop a promising mining claim, and came again the following 
winter but was taken ill and returned to the United States where 
his health was so broken that he died on May 30, 1878. Gabb col- 
lected birds in small numbers, and among his specimens that came to 
the United States National Museum there may be mentioned the type 
of Lawrencia nana (locality and date not certain), and of two birds 
in alcohol, a myrtle warbler and a grassquit, secured by a friend, 
Charles A. Fraser at Puerto Plata. Lawrence in describing Tol- 
marchus gabbii remarks that the type, which came from Hato Vie jo, 
was brought by Professor Gabb with eight other species from Santo 
Domingo, and speaks of further collections that were expected. 

Charles B. Cory collected in Haiti between January 1 and March 
12, 1881, later publishing an account of his observations in which he 
enumerates 65 species. He gives no itinerary but records notes and 
specimens from Port-au-Prince, Fort Jacques, Gonaives, Le Coup, 
Jacmel, Gantier, Jeremie, fitang Saumatre, and Lake Enriquillo. 
From data obtained from his recorded specimens it appears that he 
was at Jacmel January 12 to 26, Gonaives February 10, Le Coup, now 
called Petionville, February 15 to March 9, Port-au-Prince February 
17 and 21, Fort Jacques March 3, and Gantier March 6. In the latter 
part of 1882 Cory returned to the island for work in the Dominican 
Republic which was continued until September, 1883. He was as- 
sisted in these investigations by the taxidermist M. Abbott Frazar, 
but whether both Cory and Frazar were in the field continuously is 



16 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

not certain. No account of the trip has been published but an itiner- 
ary may be worked out roughly from published dates connected with 
specimens. As there is an overlapping in dates in some cases it ap- 
pears that the two collectors were separated occasionally. Follow- 
ing is a digest of available dates: Puerto Plata November 12, 1882 
to January 30, 1883 ; Magua January 7, January 26 to February 1 ; 
Samana January 8, March 12 to April 27, June 1, 2, and 25, Septem- 
ber 1 to 11 ; La Vega July 9 to August 15 ; Almercen, or Villa Rivas, 
August 21 to 29. In La Vega, in May, 1927, Wetmore met by chance 
an old gentleman who had been Cory's host and hunting companion 
in that region, who still recalled his skill as an unerring shot. The 
results of the prolonged work of Cory's two expeditions included 
descriptions of a number of new forms, and were embodied finally 
in an illustrated work on the " Birds of Haiti and San Domingo " 
which was published in four parts, beginning in March, 1884, and 
completed a year later. This covers 111 species, most of the peculiar 
forms of the island being illustrated in color, with descriptions and 
brief notes on habits. 

In June and July, 1883, Dr. W. L. Abbott came to Samana Bay in 
the Dominican Republic and there made a considerable collection of 
birds that he presented to the Academy of Natural Sciences in Phila- 
delphia. He collected at Samana, Las Canitas (the present day San- 
chez), and at Sabana la Mar, securing representatives of about 42 
species. These specimens have been examined in part in the prepara- 
tion of the present report. 

In the Ibis for 1884 (pp. 167-168) Canon Tristram published a list 
of 29 species of birds from the Dominican Republic received from 
Mr. C. McGrigor. No localities are cited, but from the published 
catalogue of Tristram's collection it appears that McGrigor collected 
at Samana, definite dates noted being April 25 and September 10 and 
12, 1883, and January 11, 1884. There is listed also a skin of Galyp- 
tophilus taken at Arenoso March 23, 1884. In addition Tristram 
received a number of birds collected at Almercen, or Villa Rivas, 
in 1886 and 1887 by A. S. Toogood who is believed to have been a 
missionary. 

L. Gentil Tippenhauer of Port-au-Prince in his work entitled Die 
Insel Haiti, published in two parts in 1892, and reprinted in one vol- 
ume in 1893, gives a list of birds of the island compiled mainly from 
literature but including a few original observations made during a 
long residence on the island. 

On August 20, 1892, Dr. Ernst Hartert observed and collected in 
the vicinity of Sanchez while his steamer lay at anchor off that town. 
A few notes appear in his account of his early journeys, the actual 
date of his visit having been furnished b}^ Doctor Hartert in a recent 
letter. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 155 PLATE 5 




Gravel knolls frequented by the Bahaman nighthawk (Chor- 
deiles minor vicinus) 

Near Hinche, Haiti, April 23, 1927. 




Typical view of the central plain of Haiti 
Near Hinche, Haiti, April 23, 1927. 



U S NA1IONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 155 PLATE 6 




Looking toward Morne Tranchant from the 
lower slopes of la selle. note scanty cover 
of forest 

Near Furey. Haiti, April 9, W27. 




Western end of the main ridge of La selle 
From Morne La Visite, \ i >i il LI, 1927. 



THE BIKDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 17 

Early in January, 1895, Dr. Cuthbert Christy landed at Santo Do- 
mingo City, continuing at once to Sanchez, which he notes was called 
Las Cahitas on older maps. He remained on the island until July, 
and though occupied busily with a medical practice prepared about 
70 skins, collected during country excursions to visit distant patients. 
He was located at La Vega during the greater part of April and May, 
spending the remainder of his stay at Sanchez. His published list, 
written in pleasing style, includes interesting observations on the 
habits of 59 species of birds, and is one of the few of the earlier ac- 
counts that gives much on the life history of the native forms. 

At this same period George K. Cherrie was engaged in making an 
extensive collection of birds for the Field Museum under direction 
of Mr. Cory. Cherrie arrived in Santo Domingo City January 8, 
1895. On January 19 he left the capital and from January 21 to 
February 6 was located at Catarrey, spelled Catare in Cherrie's paper 
on his collections, in the foothill region at an elevation of about 450 
meters. From this base he made various excursions, one of which 
took him up the course of the Rio Guananito, a tributary of the 
Haina, into the pines of the higher altitudes. Following this for a 
short period he worked at Santo Domingo City, and then returned 
through Catarrey to Aguacate for the period February 20 to 28. 
From March 2 to 7 he was again at Catarrey. After another brief 
period at Santo Domingo City he removed to San Cristobal, where 
among other activities he explored some caves. On March 28 he con- 
tinued to Honduras, near the Rio Ocoa, where he located March 29 
to April 2. On April 3 he continued to Maniel, shown on the maps as 
San Jose de Ocoa, where he remained for six days in vain attempt to 
find a guide to conduct him into the high interior mountains toward 
Loma Tina. Failing this he returned to Santo Domingo City and 
continued collecting in that vicinity until the first week in May. 
From his field notes he prepared for publication an annotated list of 
83 species with many valuable observations. 

A. Hyatt Verrill collected in the Dominican Republic from De- 
cember 21, 1906, to April 13, 1907, securing considerable series of the 
resident birds and a long array of North American migrants. Part 
of his specimens came to the Tring Museum, and many more to 
Mr. J. H. Fleming. Verrill began work at Sanchez, continuing there 
until about December 29, when he crossed Samana Bay to San Lo- 
renzo, working there until January 13, and at El Valle, farther in- 
land, until January 19. From January 20 to 28 he was again at 
Sanchez, when he removed to Samana, collecting in that vicinity 
until about February 25. He worked at Sanchez again from Febru- 
ary 26 to March 11, and then located at La Vega March 18. His next 
point called Miranda he says " is a small village nearly forty miles 



18 BULLETIN" 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

inland from La Vega, and situated in the heart of the wild and 
unsettled mountains of the island." His work was terminated by 
an attack of typhoid fever that nearly cost his life. His account 
of the birds was published in collaboration with A. E. Verrill. 

James Lee Peters, traveling for the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, began ornithological investigations at Monte Cristi, Do- 
minican Republic, on February 6, 1916. From February 11 to 14 
he was occupied in a journey to Bulla in the valley of the Rio Mao, 
proceeding by way of Valverde, where he reached the edge of the pine 
forests. On February 23 he proceeded by water to Puerto Plata 
and located at Sosiia, 25 kilometers to the east. On March 3 he be- 
gan a pack trip to the eastward, during which he collected at Gaspar 
Hernandez March 3 and 13, Rio San Juan March 4 and 12, Cabrera 
March 5, 7 and 11, Arroyo Savanna March 8 and 9, and Los Toritos 
March 10. From March 24 to 26 he was at Choco, in the hills a 
short distance south of Sosiia, and on April 5 visited El Batey, 
returning to Sosiia by way of Cabarate. He left the island on 
March 11. His investigations are detailed in a report on birds from 
the northern coast of the Dominican Republic published in the 
Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 

In the same year Rollo H. Beck, on an extended collecting trip to 
secure specimens for the Brewster-Sanf ord collection in the American 
Museum of Natural History, touched at San Pedro de Macoris 
September 23, 1916, and arrived that same day at Santo Domingo 
City. He collected in that vicinity until October 26 when he pro- 
ceeded by water to Sanchez arriving the following day. On Novem- 
ber 20 he crossed Samana Bay to San Lorenzo, and on November 27 
removed to La Vega, where he remained until December 10, when he 
returned to Sanchez, and on December 18 arrived once more in 
Santo Domingo City. On December 29 he came to Tiibano in the 
Province of Azua, and on January 1, 1917 started on an expedition 
into the mountains of the interior. He ascended Loma Tina to its 
summit on January 3, and on January 11 was on the high ridge 
separating the valleys of Tiibano and Constanza. On January 16 he 
was at Tiibano, and on January 26 visited La Caiiita. January 31 he 
set out again for the mountains, following a branch of the Rio de los 
Cuevos toward Loma Pelone Blanco, known locally as Ultima Cie- 
naga, and February 2 ascended that mountain. February 6 he re- 
turned to Tiibano remaining until February 21 when he started on a 
trip to Loma Rucillo. His trail led over the range above the Rio de 
los Cuevos, across the Rio Medio and up a steep slope for about 8 
kilometers to the settlement of La Caiiita, the second of that name 
in his itinerary, the other being below Tiibano. On February 23 he 
crossed to the head of the Rio Yaque del Sur and there secured his 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 19 

first crossbills. The following morning at his camp in a little valley 
he records that the ground was white with frost. He remained in 
this vicinity working the high slopes, until March 4 when he left for 
Tubano, arriving the following day. On March 10 he was again in 
his former camp at the head of the Yaque, on this day collecting nine 
crossbills. March 13 he moved to Tortillos, a short distance east on 
the Rio Blanco, returning to his former camp March 15. Four days 
later he set out for Tubano, continued to Azua on March 21, and on 
March 24 arrived in Santo Domingo City. Following this he made 
a trip to St. Thomas and other islands east of Porto Hico, returning 
to Santo Domingo City May 21. On June 11, 1917 he came to Les 
Cayes, Haiti (frequently called Aux Cayes in English writings) and 
continued that evening to Port-a-Piment a short distance west. On 
June 15 he moved to Les Anglais, his objective being the ascent of 
Morne La Hotte. June 18 he proceeded inland up a steep slope where 
he found coffee growing to 1200 meters, and at noon reached the last 
available water above the highest native hut. Beyond there were no 
trails and. progress was impeded by trees blown down by a recent 
hurricane. On the following day he laboriously cut a trail to the 
top of a long ridge running toward the highest peak in the vicinity 
and continued along this to two pines. On returning to his camp at 
noon he found that his men had deserted him. On June 21 he 
moved to another site, the following day cutting a trail up to the 
pines. June 24 he climbed again to the summit of the ridge near 
the base of the peak, returning on June 26 to Port-a-Piment. On 
July 1 he returned again to the interior, and July 4 cut another trail 
along the ridges toward the peak. On July 6 he returned to Port-a- 
Piment, and on the following day was in Les Cayes. July 12 he 
continued to Navassa Island where he remained until July 19, pro- 
ceeding then to Cuba. Dr. F. M. Chapman has described several 
new forms from Beck's collection and has courteously allowed full 
use of the Beck material in the present report. Beck's itinerary as 
given above is taken from his manuscript journals, available through 
the kindness of Doctor Chapman and Doctor Murphy of the American 
Museum of Natural History. 

Dr. Glover M. Allen of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, while 
collecting reptiles and other material in Haiti in 1919, secured a few 
birds at Dumai which he says (in a letter) is a plantation a few kilo- 
meters from Port-au-Prince on August 7, and near Lake Enriquillo 
August 14. 

Mr. J. S. Brown and Mr. W. S. Burbank, during field studies con- 
cerned with a geological survey of the Republic of Haiti, on March 
4 and 5, 1921 visited the caves at L'Atalaye, near St. Michel, to ex- 
amine the deposits of guano there found. (Pis. 11 and 12.) In the 



20 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

course of excavations to determine the depth of this material in the 
Grotte San Francisque they encountered a deposit of bones and 
brought away a handful or two as samples. In this material which 
came to the United States National Museum Wetmore found the 
fragments from which he described the great barn owl Tyto ostologa. 

Emil Kaempfer came in the late .spring of 1921 to Puerto Plata 
and remained for some time in the Dominican Republic, the birds 
that he collected going to the Tring Museum. The exact date of his 
departure is uncertain but Doctor Hartert writes that he collected a 
pigeon hawk at Moca Januaiw 1, 1924. Kaempfer was engaged prin- 
cipally in other zoological collecting but devoted considerable at- 
tention to birds, and has published a general account containing his 
more interesting observations. He traveled extensively collecting 
birds on the Samana Peninsula, at Rivas, La Vega, Cotui, Moca, 
Jarabacoa, Constanza, and Tiibano. 

A small collection of birds of the Dominican Republic has been as- 
sembled at the Agricultural station at Moca by Prof. Raffaele Ciferri, 
Director of the station, the specimens procured having been identi- 
fied by Dr. E. Moltoni of Milan. A brief list of the collection has 
been published by the collector (see bibliography). In addition to 
this Professor Ciferri and his brother Ermanno Ciferri, the latter 
resident at San Juan de la Maguana, have presented to the Museo 
Civico di Storia Naturale in Milan a collection of three hundred 
bird skins representing one hundred and thirteen forms which have 
been the basis of a report by Doctor Moltoni. The work of the two 
Ciferris has been centered principally about San Juan and Moca, 
but has included collections from Haina, the Rio Haina and Guerra 
in the Province of Santo Domingo, San Juan, Sabana San Thome, 
Sitio de la Maguana, Rio Manade, and Monte Viejo in the Province 
of Azua, Bonao in the Province of La Vega. Moca in the Province 
of Espaillat, Santiago in the Province of Santiago, the Seven 
Brothers Islands off the north coast opposite Monte Cristi, and Beata 
Island on the south coast. Their investigations as reported by Mol- 
toni extend from 1925 to 1929, and have added several forms to the 
list known from the island. 

William Beebe, as director of an expedition of the Department of 
Tropical Research of the New York Zoological Society, worked in 
Haiti from January 1 to May 23, U>27. Though occupied principally 
with life in the Mater Beebe made numerous observations on birds, 
and his published records give considerable useful information. His 
observations were carried on principally in the vicinity of Bizoton, 
where his schooner was anchored, with records from the Etang 
Miragoane, Source Matelas. the various reefs along shore — including 
those near Gonave Island — the Etang Saumatre, Furcy, and a few 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN EEPUBLIC 21 

other points. His published list includes 36 species, and there are 
numerous references to birds throughout the text of his book Beneath 
Tropic Seas. 

In the summer of 1927 Prof. Stuart T. Danforth of the University 
of Porto Rico made an extended journey through Hispaniola between 
June 14 and August 10, collecting birds at numerous localities. From 
June 14 to July 27 he was accompanied by Frank P. Mathews whose 
skins came to the American Museum of Natural History, and from 
July 2 to August 10 by John T. Emlen, jr., whose specimens are in 
the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences. The party traveled 
by motor car principally, working near Santo Domingo City from 
June 14 to 18, near Monte Cristi until June 28, with visits to an irri- 
gation project at Vasquez and to Laguna del Salodillo near the Hai- 
tian frontier. June 29 and 30 they were near La Vega, returning then 
to Santo Domingo City until July 2. From July 4 to 7 the party 
worked at Higiiey, Seybo, and Hato Mayor, and from July 9 to 11 
near San Juan. July 12 they crossed into Haiti at Belladere and con- 
tinued by way of Las Cahobes to Port-au-Prince. July 15 they trav- 
eled by airplane to Anse a Galets on Gonave Island, remaining there 
until July 20, collecting between that village and fitroites, with one 
trip to Boucan Legume. From July 22 to 24 Mathews and Emlen 
visited Kenscoff, while Danforth worked the Etang Miragoane, 
Fonds-des-Negres, Aquin, and Les Cayes. July 28 and 29 Danforth 
and Emlen continued to St. Marc, collecting at the Etang Bois-Neuf 
south of that town, and at the Artibonite River to the North. July 
31 they were at Cap-Ha'itien, and August 2 and 3 at the Citadelle 
above Milot. On August 4 they crossed the border into the Dom- 
inican Republic at Dajabon for a second short stay at Monte Cristi, 
and on August 7 were near Bonao as the guests of Doctor Ciferri. 
Work was concluded at Santo Domingo City August 10. The com- 
bined list of birds observed as published by Danforth includes notes 
on 121 forms. 

James Bond, research associate of the Philadelphia Academy of 
Natural Sciences, engaged in extended ornithological investigations 
in Haiti from December, 1927, to June, 1928, during which he covered 
the principal geographic divisions of the Republic. During the last 
of December he worked in the vicinity of Port-au-Prince, and in Jan- 
uary was occupied in two excursions into the Massif de la Selle, the 
first to Morne Tranchant in the vicinity of Kenscoff and Furcy, and 
the second to Morne Malanga and Gros Morne in the Crete a 
Piquants group at the western end of the La Selle mountain forma- 
tion. He also visited Jacmel and worked along the sea coast to 
Marigot. Later he traveled into the eastern part of the La Hotte 
region and worked in the swamps of Trou Caiman. During Feb- 



22 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

ruary he was on Gonave Island at the iDtang Miragoane, and in the 
arid region about Trou Forban between Mont Kouis and L'Arcahaie. 
During all of March and a part of April he was occupied in north- 
western Haiti, where he visited Tortue Island. He ascended Morne 
Basile and also Morne Haut Piton south of Port-de-Paix. In the 
latter part of April he traveled through the Cul-de-Sac region to the 
£tang Saumatre and Lake Enriquillo, continuing to Laguna Limon. 
In May he crossed to northeastern Haiti and came south from the 
northern plain through the Massif du Nord to Hinche, ascending 
Morne Salnave, above Acul Samedi. In late May he was again on 
Gonave Island, and in early June climbed Morne La Selle, return- 
ing to Trou Caiman and crossing once more to Gonave. His pub- 
lished observations contain distributional notes of much value since 
he visited points not previously seen by ornithologists. His observa- 
tions are especially valuable for their notes on the nests and eggs of 
rare native forms. 

Dr. E. L. Ekman, who has explored Haiti and the Dominican 
Republic botanically more thoroughly than any other naturalist, be- 
came interested in birds through his contact with Wetmore in 1927 
when they worked on Morne La Selle, and in 1928 when he made sev- 
eral prolonged excursions with Bond. In his later journeys Doctor 
Ekman has collected specimens of unusual and interesting birds, 
which he has forwarded principally to Dr. Einar Lonnberg, who 
has named a goatsucker (Antrostomus cubanensis ehmani) in his 
honor. A collection of about 200 specimens made by Ekman reported 
on by Professor Lonnberg in 1929 contained representatives of 107 
forms including skins from Navassa, Gonave, and Tortue, and many 
of the rarer birds from the main island. Of particular interest have 
been his notes on the birds of Navassa as most of what is now known 
of the birdlife of that island is found in his published records of 
his observations there, and his observations from the higher eleva- 
tions of the Dominican Republic and the Seven Brothers Islands off 
Monte Cristi. 

The Crahe Pacific Expedition of the Field Museum under the 
leadership of Dr. Karl Schmidt visited Haiti in the latter part of 
1928, including observations on birds in its schedule of investigation. 
At this writing the extent of the studies made is not known. 

FIELD WORK FOR TIIE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

Active participation of the Smithsonian Institution in research 
in the ornithology of Hispaniola began in 1866 when Mr. A. E. 
Younglove of Cleveland, Ohio, with Mr. J. H. Beardsley as a trav- 
eling companion, visited Haiti at the instance of Spencer Fullerton 
Baird, Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, travel- 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 23 

ing as nearly as may be ascertained at this late date through love 
of adventure and to aid somewhat in collecting new material for 
science. All that is known of this expedition is contained in letters 
addressed to Baird preserved in the files of the United States 
National Museum, and a manuscript catalogue of the collection em- 
bracing 141 specimens that came to the Smithsonian Institution. 
Younglove and Beardsley left New York about December 15, 1865, 
and were shipwrecked on the Jersey coast, barely escaping with their 
baggage. They returned to New York to set out again about two 
weeks later and arrived at Port-au-Prince January 15, 1866. Young- 
love writes of the comparative scarcity of birds so far as species are 
concerned, and of his difficulties in securing information about the 
habits of his specimens because of his lack of knowledge of the 
language of the country. Most of his collecting was done in the 
vicinity of Port-au-Prince, though he made one trip to Jeremie on 
the southwestern peninsula. He describes the mountains as im- 
penetrable because of the condition of the trails, and remarks on the 
unhealthiness of the country. One of his skins is marked Le Coup 
and several are labeled " Mountains " without any other data. They 
probably come from the area near Kenscoff or Furcy. He speaks in 
his letters of a plan to visit some salt lakes 30 miles away, evidently 
the Etang Saumatre, but apparently did not put this into effect. 
His work was finished about July 1, 1866, when he returned home. 
Many of his specimens are still preserved in the United States Na- 
tional Museum while others have been distributed to other insti- 
tutions. The collection was reported on in 1867 by Dr. Henry 
Bryant, who described five species from it as new to science. 

The most important observations and collections in natural history 
that have been made in Hispaniola have been those of the veteran 
explorer Dr. William L. Abbott who, following his early work of 
1883, returned to the island in the summer of 1916 and continued 
work with only brief interruptions for journeys to the United States 
until the close of 1923. During this extended period Doctor Abbott 
visited all of the important districts of the area under consideration, 
penetrating to the most remote sections, and amassed collections for 
the Smithsonian Institution that are without equal elsewhere. In 
addition to his own efforts, he took with him on various occasions 
Mr. E. C. Leonard of the division of plants in the United States Na- 
tional Museum, and after ceasing active work in the field himself has 
continued his interest through providing the means for further travel 
on the part of others. It is his efforts in this field that have made 
possible the present report on the birds. The itinerary that follows 
is taken from manuscript notes and other sources and is sufficiently 
complete to indicate the places and periods of collecting. 



24 BULLETIX 155j UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSETTM 

Drawn by memories of his earlier visit in L883, Doctor Abbott re- 
turned to the Samana Bay region in the Dominican Republic toward 
the end of July. 1916, and on July 26 began collecting birds near 
Samana, a town of about two thousand inhabitants on the shore of 
Samana Bay. The population here is descended in Large part from 
negroes, the majority of whom speak English, come from the United 
States from 1822 to 18:24 during the regime of President Hover of 
Haiti. The region is hilly, and fairly well wooded in spite of the 
considerable country population. From July 28 to 30 Doctor Abbott 
was at San Lorenzo on the south side of Samana Day. where 
precipitous limestone hills, honey-combed with caves, descend ab- 
ruptly to the sea. (PI. 13.) Here he camped in one of the caves 
which he noted was floored with shell middens and contained many 
Indian carvings. From August 6 to 14 he collected at Laguna, a set- 
tlement of scattered houses belonging mainly to English speaking 
people near the southern base of the hill called Pilon d'Azuear. 
distant about 8 kilometers inland from Samana. There was much 
virgin forest here with few inhabitants to the north until the coast 
was reached because of lack of water. On August 17 he crossed to 
San Juan Bay on the northern side of the peninsula, and on August 
26 collected at Rojo Cabo, a short distance inland from the south 
shore of Bahia de Rincon, and at La Galera on the bay itself. The 
land here was rough and stony. On August 29 and 30 he was at Rojo 
Cabo. and on September 9 to 10 crossed again to San Lorenzo. 

Following this Doctor Abbott undertook one of the most important 
journeys connected with his work on the island, his first visit to the 
groat interior valley of Constanza. Proceeding by way of La Vega, 
on September 20 he was at the small settlement of El Rio on the up- 
per waters of the Rio Jimenoa at about 1200 meters altitude. (PI. 15.) 
From September 22 to October 2 he was located at Constanza about 

25 kilometers beyond El Rio. an old settlement in a broad, open valley 
at about 1200 meters elevation with mountains rising on either side 
600 meters higher. (Pis. 14 and 15.) The waters of the valley of 
Constanza drain into the Rio Yaqui del Stir. The Rio Jimenoa at El 
Rio is an affluent of the Rio Yaqui del Norte, and the Rio Tireo, 
whose valley is crossed on the trail from El Rio to Constanza, is a 
tributary of the Yuna. The region thus is an important water-shed. 
The village of Constanza in 1010 had about eighty houses, and about 
1000 people were resident in the region. The rounded hills bordering 
the valley were covered with forests of open pine mingled with areas 
of dense rain forest. (PI. 4.) On this expedition he secured the first 
specimens of the crossbill (Loxia megaplaga), the song sparrow 
(Brachyspiza capensis an^Ularum) , and the eared owl (Asio stygius 
nocttpctanx) gaining thus an insight into the strange highland avi- 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 155 PLATE 7 




SWAMPY MEADOWS AND SPRING AT SOURCES PUANTES. HAITI 
March 30, 1927. 









| 




i^M__,^*jU2)l^wjfafljfi6j 


4 








"$&" 





The valley at Fonds-desnegres, Haiti, from the south 

April 5, 1927. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 155 PLATE 8 





Semiarid hills behind Aquin Bay 
Near Aquin, Haiti, April 3, IIL'7. 




THE ETANG MIRAGOANE 

The largest fresh-water lake in Haiti, April 1, 11)27. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 25 

fauna whose presence hitherto had been entirely unsuspected. Octo- 
ber 4 to 9 he made El Rio his base for operations, and from October 
11 to 16 was at Jarabacoa at a much lower elevation. Following this 
he returned to Sanchez where he collected from October 20 to 24. 

On returning again to the island in 1917 he began work in the 
Republic of Haiti, landing at the end of January at Port-de-Paix on 
the north coast. On January 30 he crossed to Tortue Island, where he 
remained until February 8, securing the first ornithological collections 
to be made on this island, and finding there a peculiar vireo (Vireo 
crassirostris tortugae) with its near relatives in the Bahama Islands 
to the north. He collected at Port-de-Paix February 12, and from 
February 16 to 22 was located on the coast at Riviere Bar, at the 
mouth of a small stream about 10 kilometers east of Port-de-Paix. 
On February 24 he was again in Port-de-Paix, and continued at the 
beginning of March to Moustique, inland from Cabaret on the Baie 
des Moustiques, not far from the center of the northwestern penin- 
sula, where he remained from March 2 to 12, except for March 9 
when he was at Port-a-Piment on the southern side of this peninsula. 
March 19 he was at Mole St. Nicolas, and from March 21 to 27 worked 
on the elevated plateau at Bombardopolis. March 29 and 30 he was at 
Jean Rabel, and March 31 and April 1 was again on the Baie des 
Moustiques, reaching Port-de-Paix on April 4. He collected on 
Tortue again April 6 to 8, and from April 14 to 17 was working once 
more at Port-de-Paix. From April 25 to 27 he was occupied in the 
vicinity of Cap-Ha'itien. 

At the beginning of May Doctor Abbott again traveled west along 
the northern coast, collecting at Baie des Moustiques May 4 to 8, and 
at Petit Port a l'Ecu May 9, the latter being a short distance east of 
Port a l'Ecu. May 12 he was at Trois Rivieres on the coast, a few 
kilometers east of Port-de-Paix. From May 16 to 20 he was again on 
Tortue collecting further specimens. In work on this island he 
camped at La Vallee and Basse Terre, both on the south coast, and 
from here made excursions to all parts of the island. The southeast- 
ern section near the coast is densely inhabited, with less cultivation 
elsewhere. May 30 to June 3 he was once more at Jean Rabel, June 13 
and 14 he was again at Port-de-Paix, June 26 to 28 at Petit Port a 
l'Ecu, and June 29 on Tortue. This completed investigations for this 
expedition. 

In November, 1917, Doctor Abbott returned to Haiti for investiga- 
tions in the southern part of the Republic, where his work centered 
for a time about Jeremie. He collected there assiduously from No- 
vember 18 to December 20, making an excursion to the caves at La 
Grotte about 12 kilometers southwest from December 8 to 9. From 
December 18 to 24 he was located at Moron on the head waters of the 



26 BULLETIN 155, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Riviere Grand Anse, 25 kilometers in an airline southwest of Jeremie. 
From December 25 to 28 he collected again at Jeremie, and then 
moved to Grande Cayemite Island, locating at Anse Masson from 
January 4 to 14, with a visit to the island of Petite Cayemite on 
January 13, and one to the vicinity of Les Basses on the coast of 
the main island opposite Grande Cayemite on January 9. Janu- 
ary 16 he collected again at Jeremie, and then made an attempt to 
reach the interior mountain of La Hotte, locating at Moline at about 
600 meters altitude from January 25 to February 1, and collecting 
on the hills near-by to an elevation of 900 meters. The little settle- 
ment in question is about 20 kilometers in an air line east of south 
of Jeremie in a beautiful hill country where much coffee is grown. 
It proved unhealthy so that in a few days Doctor Abbott's boys were 
down with fever, from which one later died, and it was necessary to 
return. He found the narrow-billed tody (Todus angustirostris) 
and Swainson's hummer {Riccordia swainsonii) at this point, and 
reports some pine forest in the vicinity. From February 8 to 10 
he was again at Jeremie, where he packed his collections and then 
set out in a small boat for Gonave Island, where he located from 
February 18 to 28 at La Mahotiere near the middle of the southern 
coast, where he says the water was very bad. He describes Gonave 
as dry, with little rainfall, but nevertheless fertile since vegetable 
gardens and pastures receive moisture from the abundant dew. The 
coast belt at La Mahotiere was very arid with the hills inland covered 
with greener and more luxuriant vegetation. From here he pro- 
ceeded to Port-au-Prince, and March 5 to 10 was occupied near the 
eastern end of the Etang Saumatre. Following this until March 
12 he was at Trou Caiman, a short distance away, where he was 
taken ill and was incapacitated for some time, nearly losing his life. 

At the beginning of February, 1919, Doctor Abbott returned for 
further work in the Dominican Republic, coming to Sanchez where 
he located from February 3 to 23, collecting on the wooded hills 
above town, and in the great expanses of swampy forest in the delta 
of the Yuna River. (PI. 3.) He removed then to Samana, collect- 
ing birds March 3 at the Rio San Juan on the north coast, and at 
Laguna from March 4 to 10. March 16 to 20 he was engaged in 
ornithological investigations at San Lorenzo on the south side of 
Samana Bay. 

Following this he made a prolonged trip to the valley of Constanza, 
proceeding on April 3 by rail from Sanchez to La Vega, where he 
secured pack horses and continued the following day to Jarabacoa. 
He arrived at Constanza on April 6, to find that there had been a 
severe drought in the region extending southward from the town so 
that food was scarce and cattle in poor condition. The arrival of 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 27 

rain was coincident with his coming so that supplies gradually be- 
came more plentiful. He was accompanied by John King and 
another black boy from Samana. On April 15 he marched to a clear- 
ing known as " Boho Kali " (spelling uncertain, the first being pos- 
sibly Bohio, this meaning a hut) said to signify the " place of the 
vine," at 1,500 meters elevation on the slopes of the Loma Rio 
Grande southeast of Constanza and about 7 kilometers distant in an 
air line. There it rained constantly and was very cold with morn- 
ing temperature about 50° Fahrenheit. Many thousands of acres of 
pineland had been burned over during the preceding drought to make 
green feed for a few head of stock with much injury to the pine 
forests, as undergrowth was destroyed and the vitality of the larger 
trees injured. It was reported that plantations did poorly here as 
they were killed by frost in winter. The siskin {Loximitris domini- 
censis) was common in flocks, the birds being in molt at that season. 
April 24 Doctor Abbott returned to Constanza, and April 28 crossed 
the high ridge to the southward to a clearing 10 kilometers distant 
known as Corralito, where he camped among the pines 450 meters 
above the narrow valley of the Rio Grande. He remarks that the 
country reminded him of Kashmir. On May 3 he continued 10 kilo- 
meters farther to the little settlement of Hondo on the Rio Grande, 
camping between one and two kilometers above Hondo Aba jo in a 
small grass grown clearing surrounded by thick scrub on a bluff 
above the river. Three si^ecies of swifts were seen here and the notes 
of nightjars were heard regularly. He speaks of one goatsucker 
that he did not secure, with a peculiar flight that reminded him of 
the course of an Australian boomerang. On May 10 he returned to 
Constanza where he found paroquets feeding on ripening guavas. 
May 12 he continued to El Rio to search for crossbills, which he did 
not find, and remained for eight days, coming on May 20 to Jara- 
bacoa, May 21 to La Vega, and May 22 to Sanchez, where he re- 
mained until about June 1, returning then for a brief period to the 
United States. 

In August of that year Doctor Abbott was again in the Dominican 
Republic, collecting from August 11 to 21 on the eastern end of the 
Samana Peninsula. On August 11 and 13 he worked at Laguna, 
August 12 at the Pilon d'Azucar, August 16 to 19 at Puerto Rincon 
on the bay of that name, and August 21 at Puerto Frances south of 
Cap Samana. Laguna del Diablo, where he took numerous water 
birds during his various stays in this general region is a small lagoon 
in the interior hills a few kilometers west of Rincon. In September 
he began work on islands off the southeastern coast, visiting Cata- 
linita Island September 11, where he found a colony of brown peli- 
cans and saw barn swallows and kingfishers. On Saona Island from 



28 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

September 12 to IT birds were in poor plumage and difficult to find, 
with many mosquitoes and sand flies. Catalina Island was visited 
September 19. Returning to the main island he went into the south- 
western section of the Dominican Republic, camping from October 
1 to 6 at Duverge, about five kilometers from the southeastern shore 
of Lake Enriquillo. Sandpipers and other water-loving birds 
abounded along the swampy shores of the lake, and many rails were 
heard. Following this he returned again to the States. 

About the middle of February, 1921, Doctor Abbott returned once 
more to Haiti, accompanied by Mr. E. C. Leonard of the United States 
National Museum who engaged in extended botanical explorations. 
They were occupied in Port-au-Prince from February 19 to 23, and 
then moved to St. Marc for a few days. March 2 about sundown 
they arrived at Anse a Galets, a village of a dozen houses on Gonave 
Island, where they collected until March 14. The town is located 
near the mouth of a little stream called La Source that rises from a 
spring in the hills. The small bay here was bordered by mangroves 
back of which were extensive salines bare of vegetation, rising to 
ground covered with a dense growth of Prosopis juliflora and numer- 
ous cacti. Beyond were rugged hills. About eleven on the morning 
of March 15 they arrived at Etroites farther to the west at Etroite 
Point, the town being located in a break in the mangrove swamp 
with a reef offshore. Inland was an open plain, and beyond hills 
covered with trees and bushes. Work continued here until March 
22 when they returned to St. Marc, remaining there until March 30, 
and then removing to Port-au-Prince for the period April 1 to 3. 
From April 4 to 14 they were at Marmeville, at the eastern end of 
the Etang Saumatre, where many strong springs of fresh water rise 
from the earth and after a course of a few rods through boggy 
meadows empty into the lake. Back of the lake shore the level 
ground was covered with thorny trees and cacti. April 7 Doctor 
Abbott collected at Trou Caiman, about one mile southwest of Thom- 
azeau, where there are extensive swamps grown closely with cat-tails 
and other marsh growth and a border of open meadowland. From 
April 17 to May 3 they located at Fonds Verettes in the lower hills 
of La Selle, where there were dense thickets grown with climbing 
bamboo and scattered pine trees, though most of the primitive wood- 
land had been destroyed. On one occasion Doctor Abbott had a 
glimpse of the thrush afterwards secured by Wetmore {Haplocichla 
swalesi) but though he returned to the spot several times did not suc- 
ceed in obtaining specimens. From May 5 to 13 Doctor Abbott and 
Mr. Leonard were at Fond Parisien on the shores of the fitang 
Saumatre where they found the weaverfinch and so solved the mys- 
tery of a supposed colonizing oriole that had been reported from 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 29 

Haiti. May 14 to 16 they were again at Manneville, and on May 
26 were at Furcy in the hills back of Port-au-Prince, in a region 
almost entirely cut over with only occasional pines. They collected 
here on Morne Tranchant, on Morne St. Vincent, and on other 
eminences in this much-broken country. About the middle of June 
they moved to Petionville where they were located from June 15 
to 28, and on July 4 arrived again on Gonave Island, this time land- 
ing at Picmy on the south coast a short distance west of the south- 
eastern point. Here there were a few palm trees where Doctor Ab- 
bott sought the mythical : ' Dulus nuchalis" and collected the speci- 
mens from which the Gonave palm-chat has been described. Abbott 
and Leonard remained here until July 9, and on July 10 landed on 
Petite Gonave Island, where they found ragged coral rocks and occa- 
sional sandy beaches with a lagoon bordered by mangroves in the 
center. Following this they returned to Port-au-Prince and con- 
tinued north by way of Cap Haitien leaving the island at the end 
of July. 

At the end of November, 1920, Doctor Abbott returned to His- 
paniola, this time to the Dominican Kepublic. Until about Decem- 
ber 12 he was at Sanchez and then removed to Samana, working over 
familiar ground at Laguna from December 17 to 24, and at 
Samana December 27 to 30. After a second stay at Sanchez 
he moved to Villa Riva, or Rivas, on the railroad line to La Vega 
for a few days, and on January 19 was at Pimentel. January 
28 he was collecting at Cotui, remaining there until February 
7. Collections in the savannas of the two latter localities brought 
specimens of the grasshopper sparrow and thick-knee. From Feb- 
ruary 13 to 21 he was at Guayubin on the Rio Yaqui del Norte not 
far from Monte Cristi, and February 23 to March 1 he worked at 
Mao where a specimen of Antrostomus cubanensis ekmani was taken. 
He located at Navarrete March 3 to 6, and then from March 9 to 
14 was at Sanchez, and from March 16 to 20 at Samana. A trip 
through the end of the Samana Peninsula covered Rojo Cabo March 
23 and 24, Cape Samana March 25 and 26, Lajana, a small settlement 
4 kilometers south of Puerto Rincon, March 27, Puerto Frances, 
March 28 and 29, and Las Cacaos a little village 9 kilometers east 
of Sanchez March 30 and 31. There followed a journey to the south- 
ern shores of Samana Bay, where he located at San Gabriel Island 
April 5 and collected in this neighborhood until April 11, with a 
visit to a second spot known as La Llanada, this time just west of San 
Gabriel island. He returned to Samana then, collecting at Hato 
Viejo on the Old Heart River 15 kilometers northwest of Samana 
near Port Limon from April 19 to 23. He was at Samana April 
2134—31 3 



30 BULLETIN" 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

25, and Sanchez April 28 to May 1. His work was concluded in 
Puerto Plata May 7. 

January 3, 1922, found Doctor Abbott again in Sanchez. January 
8 to 10 he moved to Samana, and January 11 to 14 was once more in 
Sanchez. Following this came an extended journey to the Barahona 
district in the southwestern part of the Republic where he worked 
on the Sierra de Bahoruco. He was at Barahona January 23 to 24, 
and at Paradis, a village on the seashore 31 kilometers southeast of 
Barahona January 28 to February 5 and again on February 18. 
Work here extended to Herman's coffee plantation at an elevation of 
450 meters in the hills. February 8 to 14 he located at Trujin on 
the shore of a large salt lagoon, and February 15 to 17 at Petit Trou, 
also called Enriquillo, on the coast. Following this he entered the 
Sierra de Bahoruco, visiting Polo at an elevation of 600 meters 
from February 26 to March 13. From here he explored the Loma 
del Cielo about 1200 meters high finding a rain-forest at the summit, 
and Loma Le Haut, of about the same elevation. The solitaire was 
common in these sections. From March 15 to 18 he was at Cabral 
on the Laguna Rincon, where he reported the most extensive reed 
beds he had seen on the island, covering several thousand acres. Here 
he obtained the short-eared owl, and various water birds. 

Returning to Sanchez for work March 30 and 31, he continued 
to San Francisco de Macoris and from there made a pack trip to 
Loma Quita Espuela from April 5 to 14, where his work centered 
about a clearing known as La Brazita on the southern slopes, and 
covered the area to the top of the mountain. April 17 he had re- 
turned to San Francisco de Macoris, April 20 to Sanchez and April 
23 to Samana, when he crossed to the south shore of Samana Bay 
for work at San Gabriel and San Lorenzo April 26 to May 2. May 
5 and 6 he was at Samana, May 9 and 15 at Laguna, May 17 to 20 
at Samana, and May 24 to 30 at Sanchez, which concluded his work 
for the season. 

Two brief trips by Doctor Abbott to the Dominican Republic were 
made in 1923. The first came in the early part of the year and took 
him to new country to the eastward of San Lorenzo Bay, a region 
hitherto inaccessible. From February 1 to 7 he was at Jovero on 
the coast and then moved ten kilometers inland along the trail to 
Seibo to a little clearing called El Liar where he remained from Feb- 
ruary 8 to 16. Beyond this point there was extensive virgin forest 
with the hills of the eastern extension of the Cordillera Central 
above. February 18 to 20 he was again at Jovero, and from Feb- 
ruary 22 to 27 remained at Las Canitas (a common place name in the 
Dominican Republic), located about thirty kilometers east of Jovero, 
near the shore of Samana Bay. March 2 he was in Samana, and 
March 6 to 13 collected near Sanchez. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 155 PLATE 9 




Head of the Riviere Chotard on Morne La Selle 

April 15, 1927. 




Camp on La Selle at about 2.ooo-meters elevation 

April 12, 1927. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 155 PLATE 10 




Artibonite river near Las Cahobes. Haiti 

April 20, 1927. 




Open forest of pine at 2.ooo-meters elevation on the main ridge 

of La Selle 

Below Morne La Visite, April 11, L927. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 31 

In early November, 1923, Doctor Abbott was again at Sanchez 
where he collected plants from November 4 to 8, and then removed 
to Samana until November 12. November 15 and 16 he was again at 
Jovero, and then moved to the little settlement of Guarabo on the 
trail to the east behind Cape Rafael, where he remained until No- 
vember 24 working the adjacent area including Monte Redondo, an 
isolated hill about 300 meters high, near the cape, that serves as a 
landmark for the entrance to Samana Bay from the southward. At 
this time there was one small clearing on the west base, the re- 
mainder being forested with much indication of damage by hurri- 
canes. He located at Punta Jicaco November 29 to December 1, was 
at Jovero December 4 to 6, and then returned to Samana. On De- 
cember 14 he visited a long ridge rising to an altitude of 600 meters 
that crosses the base of the peninsula of Cabo Cabron that is known 
locally as Loma de Traverzada. December 17 to 19 he was at 
Samana and December 24 to 28 at Sanchez, this completing his in- 
vestigations on the island which had covered all of the important 
areas. 

On April 1, 1917, Mr. J. B. Henderson, regent of the Smithsonian 
Institution, and Dr. Paul Bartsch, Curator of Mollusks in the 
United States National Museum, came to Port-au-Prince, Haiti, 
and were engaged until near the end of that month in collecting 
mollusks through an area extending along the coast from Jeremie to 
St. Marc, and inland through the Cul-de-Sac region. Doctor 
Bartsch, interested always in the bird-life about him, made daily 
entries in his journal of the birds that he observed, and as oppor- 
tunity offered collected birds for specimens, preserving part as skins 
and part entire in alcohol. The detailed itinerary of this party fol- 
lows: Petionville, April 1; Thomazeau, April 2; Glore, April 3; 
Trou Caiman, April 4; Petit Goave, April 8 and 9; Miragoane, 
April 9 ; Jeremie, April 10 to 12 ; Trou des Roseaux, April 13 and 14 ; 
Jeremie, April 15 and 16 ; Port-au-Prince, April 19 ; Port-au-Prince 
to St. Marc and return April 21 and 22; Cul-de-Sac region, April 
24; salt flats north of Port-au-Prince, April 25; near Port-au-Prince, 
April 25 to 28. The more than eighty birds taken during this period 
are sufficient indication of Doctor Bartsch's energy, in view of his 
occupation with the collection of mollusks which was the main object 
of the expedition. From his specimens he described a new form of 
yellow rail, Porzana flaviventer hendersoni, while there were included 
as well several migrant birds not previously recorded or little known 
in the island. He has placed at our disposal his manuscript notes 
from which numerous records of value have been taken. 

During March and April, 1925, Mr. Gerrit S. Miller, jr., accom- 
panied by Mrs. Miller, was occupied in work in Haiti principally in 
the cave deposits near L'Atalaye which had been located four years 



32 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

previous by Burbank and Brown. Mr. Miller arrived in Port-au- 
Prince March 3, 1925, and was located for the following ten days 
about ten kilometers west of the city near Point Lamentin. Follow- 
ing this he spent four weeks at L'Atalaye near St. Michel at the 
western border of the Central Plain, where he explored the bone de- 
posit located in 1921, and found additional beds of the same material 
in four other caves in the vicinity. (Pis. 11 and 12.) Included in the 
large collections obtained were quantities of bird bones, including 
abundant remains of the extinct barn owl and other species of inter- 
est. In addition numerous birds were collected, partly through 
the assistance of Mr. E. J. Sieger, manager of the plantation at 
L'Atalaye. 

In February, 1928, Mr. Miller, with Mrs. Miller, and Mr. Herbert 
W. Krieger, Curator of Ethnology in the United States National Mu- 
seum, came to the Dominican Republic for the exploration of kitchen 
midden sites in the caves on the south side of Samana Bay, and at old 
Indian village sites on the Samana Peninsula, Mr. Miller's principal 
interest being in the bones to be obtained, and Mr. Krieger's in study 
of the archeological remains. The first explorations continuing from 
February 19 for about a month, were made in the caves near San 
Lorenzo where quantities of bird bones were secured with the remains 
of other vertebrates. (PL 13.) Later beginning about the first of 
April the old village site of Cacique Mayobanex at the mouth of the 
Rio San Juan on the north side of the Samana Peninsula was ex- 
plored, with more bones of birds as a result. Toward the end of 
April middens at Anadel two kilometers from Samana were exca- 
vated and additional remains of birds were obtained. 

In January, 1929, Mr. Krieger returned to the Dominican Republic 
for further archeological explorations, being occupied from January 
22 to April 1 in the Silla de Caballo range east and south of Monte 
Cristi, and then making a traverse along the north coast from near 
the eastern end of the Samana Peninsula to Puerto Plata. The bones 
of birds obtained as a part of this work were not as abundant as those 
from previous expeditions but are of importance. He made a further 
expedition in the first weeks of 1930, working at Constanza and Jara- 
bacoa and securing quantities of bird bones from Indian village sites. 

To supplement the collections previously made by Dr. W. L. Ab- 
bott, and to obtain information on faunal areas and distribution for 
use in reports on the Abbott collections, Alexander Wetmore con- 
ducted zoological explorations on the island, under the Swales Fund, 
and through assistance from Doctor Abbott from March 27 to June 
3, 1927. Following his arrival in Port-au-Prince, and a few days 
spent in that vicinity, at Sources Piiantes (PI. 7), Mont Rouis, 
Gressier and elsewhere work was begun on March 31 at Fonds-des- 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 33 

Negres in the southern peninsula, where, in company with Dr. C. H. 
Arndt, a considerable area was covered from Aquin on the south 
coast to the great fresh water lake known as the Etang Miragoane on 
the north. (Pis. 7 and 8.) Much of Haiti is dry and arid, but the 
vegetation in the better watered region at Fonds-des-Negres appears 
more as is anticipated in visits to subtropical regions. Guinea hens 
running wild in abundance, native coots {Fulica caribaea) with 
smooth, glistening white plates on the forehead, gray or green liz- 
ards 12 inches in length clinging motionless on the tree trunks, and 
for some unknown reason held in the deepest fear by the Haitian 
laborers, were a few of the many attractive features of this locality. 
There was opportunity here to investigate the communal nests of the 
palm-chat whose flocks construct at the top of some royal palm a 
permanent home of sticks at times six or seven feet in diameter. 
(PL 23.) 

On returning from the southern peninsula, Wetmore in company 
with Dr. E. L. Ekman, the botanist, and Doctor Arndt set out the 
morning of April 8 from Petionville for the great mountain ridge of 
La Selle. The road, at first broad and open, wound steadily up the 
slopes of the hills bordering the Cul-de-Sac plain toward Kenscoif 
and Furcy to altitudes where the air was cool and pleasant at which 
there appeared the familiar weeds of temperate climates, left as evi- 
dence of the agriculture of the period of French colonization. The 
first evening camp was made on the Riviere Jacquisy in the valley 
below Furcy. On the second day when they approached the pre- 
cipitous escarpment of La Selle the pack animals were unable to 
progress with their loads of camp and collecting equipment over the 
steep, rocky trails, and it was necessary to engage cheerful Haitian 
women as porters, finally reaching the summit of the ridge at 2,250 
meters above the sea. (PI. 6.) At camp 300 meters below the sum- 
mit, near the head of the Riviere Chotard were forests of pine with 
the ground covered with bracken, or with a turf in which white 
clover and strawberries blossomed. (Pis. 9 and 10.) The higher 
peaks and the slopes of many ravines were covered with rain-forest 
jungle in which trees and shrubs grew densely, interlaced with the 
entangling, wirelike strands of a creeping bamboo. Parrots, vocifer- 
ous crows, and pigeons were abundant in the pinelands, while in the 
jungles were found solitaires, a beautiful chestnut-sided robin, Hap- 
lodchla swalesi not previously known to science, and many other 
birds. (PL 22.) In early morning it was pleasant to rest in the 
warm sun on the edge of the 450 meter precipice that marked the 
face of Morne La Visite, one of the higher points above camp, while 
through the still air from the jungle depths came the clear, flutelike 
notes of the musicien, the appropriate Haitian name of the solitaire, 



34 BULLETIN" 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

mingled with the throbbing beat of distant work drums to whose 
irregular cadence laborers toiled and sang in a remote world of 
cultivated fields far below. As no zoological collector had visited 
the crest of this mountain ridge previously so far as known, various 
specimens taken were new to science. Smoothly scaled lizards, found 
under flat stones and preserved in a bottle of native rum purchased 
from the load borne on the head of a traveling merchant woman, 
proved to be a new genus, and landshells gathered at random were 
also new. By means of a tall pine tree felled for a ladder Wetmore 
and Ekman climbed down into a great sink hole and discovered in a 
sheltered crevice bones of extinct mammals that ranged the island be- 
fore the coming of Columbus. Returning April 17 by way of Cha- 
pelle Faure in Nouvelle Touraine Wetmore journeyed April 20 past 
the Artibonite River (PI. 10) to Hinche in the level Central Plain 
where he was welcomed at the experiment station by Mr. and Mrs. 
J. E. Boog-Scott, and pleasantly entertained while he explored for 
strange birds. (PI. 5.) April 21 he visited the caves at L'Atalaye, 
to view the excavations from which had come the remains of the 
giant owl Tyto ostologa and other birds. (PI. 11 and 12.) April 
24 he visited another cave at the Bassin Zime to the northeast, and 
on April 25 returned to Port-au-Prince. 

On April 26 he journeyed by airplane through courtesy of the 
Marine Corps from Port-au-Prince to the north over the Central 
Plain, past the ruins of the Citadelle of Christophe perched on its 
high hilltop, to Cap-Ha'itien and then overland by motor car to 
Poste Charbert where work continued until April 28, including a visit 
to Caracol on the coast on April 27. Returning by plane with Capt. 
R. A. Pressley he crossed to Gonaives and for miles flew low over 
the coastal swamps viewing the myriads of water birds from the air 
and finally locating the flamingos of which he was in search. 

Early on the morning of April 30 he left the hospitable home of 
Dr. and Mrs. George F. Freeman and began the long journey by 
motor car to Santo Domingo City, proceeding by way of Belladere 
and Comendador. That night he stopped in San Juan in the Do- 
minican Republic, continuing the following morning to Azua to 
arrange details of importation of part of his collecting outfit, and 
then returned to Comendador to claim guns and ammunition which 
it had been necessary to leave in the police station the night before. 
Santo Domingo City was reached late that evening. He was re- 
ceived with the greatest courtesy by Mr. E. E. Young, American 
Minister, and by officials of the Dominican Republic, and on May 
4 continued by motor car through Catarrey and Aguacate, scenes 
of early investigations by Cherrie, to Bonao, Cotui, and San Fran- 
cisco de Macoris. The following morning he went by train to San- 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 35 

chez, where he remained until May 16, working in the swamps of the 
Yuna delta, and visiting the Arroyo Barrancota and San Lorenzo 
Bay to examine the caves, and the colonies of pelicans, terns and 
frigate birds on the Cayos de los Pajaros. (Pis. 3 and 13.) 

Continuing May 16 to Moca and La Vega at the latter place he 
bargained for pack mules and on the following day was bound for 
the mountains of the interior. Leaving the palms and banana 
plantations of the lowlands he traveled for miles through open 
forests of beautiful pines past Jarabacoa, climbed by narrow trails 
up the steep slopes of El Barrero, impassable during rains, to come 
finally to El Rio, and on May 18 to the interior valley of Constanza, 
where the air was cool and where, in winter, frosts come to kill 
tender vegetation. (PI. 15.) At Constanza, birds abounded, among 
them especially a song sparrow of the genus Brachyspiza with its 
relatives in South and Central America, and found elsewhere only 
in the interior mountains of this island. Dense deciduous forests 
covered many slopes, alternating with pines in pleasing contrast. 
(Pis. 4 and 14.) A rare quail-dove inhabited the jungles, and trogons 
nested in hollow trees. In climate and topography, the region, 
except for its vegetation, was reminiscent of the mountains of Ari- 
zona and New Mexico. 

On May 29 he came again to El Rio, and on May 30 reached La 
Vega. May 31 he made a brief visit to Santiago, and on June 2 
moved by motor car from La Vega to Santiago and from there by 
train to Puerto Plata to leave for New York on June 3. 

Bones of extinct mammals and birds secured by Mr. Miller in 
Haiti in 1925 proved of such scientific value that further work there 
became of importance. Through the interest of Dr. W. L. Abbott 
the necessary funds were provided and on December 15, 1927, Mr. 
A. J. Poole, aid in the Division of Mammals, United States National 
Museum, began further work in the caves near St. Michel. Through 
the courtesy of Mr. G. G. Burlingame, President of the United West 
Indies Corporation, headquarters were made on the plantation at 
L'Atalaye. Work continued here with brief interruptions until the 
middle of March, with extensive collections containing many bird 
bones as a result. Visits were made at the end of December and 
during the first week of March to a cave at St. Raphael, at the mid- 
dle of February to the Citadelle, and during the first week in March 
to Cap-Ha'itien. Before leaving for New York on March 21 Mr. 
Poole also visited the cavern at Diquini near Port-au-Prince. 

The following winter Mr. Poole returned to Haiti, accompanied 
by Mr. W. M. Perrygo of the staff of taxidermists of the United 
States National Museum to carry on further explorations in various 
caves and to make zoological collections, particularly of birds and 



36 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

reptiles in areas not previously visited, the work being financed in 
part by Dr. W. L. Abbott and in part by the Smithsonian Institution. 
The following account is taken principally from the manuscript 
notes of Mr. Poole. The collectors reached Port-au-Prince Decem- 
ber 16, and on December 20 proceeded by way of Ennery to St. 
Michel, where they established headquarters for work in that vicinity 
and at L'Atalaye. January 10 they removed to St. Raphael, and 
January 14 and 15 worked again at St. Michel. January 17 they 
moved to Dondon, and on January 20 proceeded by way of Grand 
Riviere to Cap-Haitien, and from there to Fort Liberte, where they 
arrived January 26. Here they outfitted for work in the small 
islands known as Les Sept Freres, or the Seven Brothers, off the 
coast. They reached the islands in a twenty foot Haitian sail boat 
on January 28, on this day visiting Toruru, Monte Chico, and Muer- 
tos Islands. All of these islands are small, 8 Toruru being approx- 
imately 150 meters long by 100 meters wide, flat and only slightly 
elevated, with two or three small trees, a few bushes, small cacti, and 
a rather heavy growth of coarse grass. The western side of the 
island was rough with reefs projecting above the water and large 
pieces of coral strewn over the narrow beach. Small lizards were 
abundant. Monte Chico is almost a duplicate of Toruru both in 
size, appearance and vegetation. 

Camp was established on Muertos Island the afternoon of January 
28, and this was used as a base during subsequent work on the islands. 
This island, the smallest of the seven, is only 120 by 90 meters, very 
low with sandy shores, and is surrounded on three sides by reefs. In 
the center were three or four trees of good size and a small but heavy 
growth of bushes. Small lizards were common, and there was a 
colony of roof rats here. 

Tercero Island, visited on January 30, is about 800 meters long 
by 400 meters wide, surrounded by a wide, sandy beach. The island 
was covered with thorny bushes and small trees, interspersed with 
patches of cacti. At the northeast is a depression that apparently 
marks the site of an old lagoon. The oystercatcher was obtained 
here. The following day the boat was despatched for supplies but 
was prevented from returning until February 3 during which period 
the collectors were marooned on Muertos Island dependent on rains 
for drinking water. On February 4 attempt was made to land on 
Monte Grande, the largest in the group with rather heavy forest, 
but weather conditions were not right to permit entry through the 
reefs to the rocky shore so that they continued to Ratas Island. In 

8 For an account of the plant-life of these islands see Ekman, Excursion Botanica al 
Nord Oeste de la Repuhlica Dominicana, published in Est. Agr. Moca, Ser. B, Bot., No. 17, 
January, 1930, pp. 11-16. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 155 PLATE 11 




LIMESTONE RIDGE IN WHICH IS THE GROTTE SAN FRANCISCO AND OTHER 

BONE CAVES 

Near St. Michel, Haiti, April 21, 1927. 




Typical gully cut through the central plain, haunt of many 

BIRDS 

Ravine Papaye, near Hinche, Haiti, April 22, 1927. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 155 PLATE 12 




INTERIOR OF GROTTE SAN FRANCISCO. TYPE LOCALITY OF EXTINCT BARN 
OWL (TYTO OSTOLOGA) 

Near St. .Michel, Haiti, April 21, 1927. 



Js*v* 





&~ .„ .yB&H&to* 



JU**> 






The Riviere Samana. in the foothills above the central plain of 

Haiti 



Near Bassin Zime, Haiti, April 24, 1927. 



THE BIRDS OP HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 37 

size and vegetation this was similar to the neighboring Tercero Is- 
land. At the north and east were extensive reefs exposed at low 
tide, which were attractive to shore birds. They did not land on 
Arenas Island but passed near enough to observe that it was identi- 
cal with the others in form and vegetation. On February 5 the 
party returned to Fort Liberte, with a collection representative of 
the bird life of the islands as well as numerous other specimens. 
Terns nest there but at this season had not yet come in to their 
breeding grounds, it being reported by fishermen that they appeared 
in May. The golden warbler and migrant sandpipers and plovers 
were the most abundant birds. 

At Fort Liberte birds were abundant and the collectors remained 
there for some time securing an excellent collection. February 20 
they left for Cap-Haitien, and continued on February 23 to St. 
Marc. Here they collected in the hills back of town, and near the 
Artibonite River at Pont Sonde, which is just north of the Artibo- 
nite River on the road to Dessalines. February 27 they left in a 
sailboat for Gonave Island, landing at Anse a Galets the following 
day, and on March 2 moved back into the interior of the island to 
the section called En Cafe, a nine hours' journey to explore in caves, 
and make collections of birds and reptiles. March 9 and 10 they 
were at Massacrin, and March 11 and 12 at Plaine Mapou. March 
13 they returned to Anse a Galets. Their instructions were to collect 
principally in the interior of the island as previous work had been 
done mainly on the coast. March 17 they arrived at Hinche where 
they were given assistance by Mr. J. E. Boog-Scott, and on the 
day following came to Cerca-la-Source. They located camp here 
near a large cave 8 kilometers from the village where they were 
occupied until March 29, this concluding their field work on the 
island, as they sailed for the north from Port-au-Prince on April 
3. Their collections are important both for remains of extinct an- 
imals from new sites, and for the birds obtained from localities 
hitherto unknown. Three North American migrants secured were 
new to the avifauna of the island. Their work was materially 
assisted by Gen. John M. Russell, American High Commissioner, 
Dr. George F. Freeman, head of the Service Technique, and many 
friendly officers in the United States Marine Corps and the Haitian 
Gendarmerie. 

DISCUSSION OF THE AVIFAUNA 

The total list of forms of birds at present known from Hispaniola 
and the islands adjacent, including Navassa, Gonave, Tortue, and 
Saona is 215, while there are 13 additional that have been recorded 
but on such questionable grounds that their occurrence is uncertain 



38 BULLETIN" 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

so that at present they are considered hypothetical. These last are 
included in the general account that follows but the statement regard- 
ing them is placed in brackets to indicate that their status in the list 
is not definite. 

The following references given in the works of older authors as 
relating to birds from Hispaniola do not pertain to species of that 
area, or may not be identified successfully from the data given: 

Tamatia a tete c& Gorge Rouges, Button, Hist. Nat. Ois., vol. 7, 
1780, p. 97, "Saint-Domingue." This is a species of barbet figured 
as the Barbu, de St. Domingue, by Daubenton, Planch. Enl., p. 206, 
fig. 2, and is accredited to Hispaniola through some misunderstand- 
ing of the locality from which it came. 

Chiroxiphia pareola, Tristram, Cat. Coll. Birds belonging H. B. 
Tristram, 1889, p. 121, listed as "(?) a. San Domingo, 1887.— A. S. 
Toogood " is certainly an error, as this bird known now as Chiroprion 
pareola ranges from the Amazon Valley and Guiana to the Island of 
Tobago. 

F ormicarius brachyurus, Hartlaub, Isis, 1847, p. 609, listed from 
Hispaniola is properly known as B amp hoc Indus brachyurus, a 
species confined to the island of Martinique. 

Muscicapa coronata, Bitter, Naturh. Keis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 
1836, p. 156. "Buff. 298, gekronter Fliegenf anger;" and Muscicapa 
coronata "Azaras Churrinche," Hartlaub, Isis, 1847, p. 609, listed 
from Hispaniola, may refer to the vermilion flycatcher Pyrocephalus 
rubinus, a species ranging in continental America from the south- 
western United States to Argentina. 

The following may refer to species of Hispaniola but give no 
certain clue through which they may be identified : 

Ficedula Carolinensis Brisson, Ornith., vol. 3, 1760, pp. 486-488. 
(" S. Domingue," described from a specimen sent by Chervain to de 
Reaumur.) 

Ficedula Dominicensis fusca Bresson, Ornith., vol. 3, 1760, pp. 
513-515, pi. 28, fig. 5. (" S. Domingue," described from a specimen 
sent by Chervain to de Reaumur, is perhaps a warbler.) 

Muscicapa Americana Brisson, Ornith., vol. 2, 1760, pp. 383-386. 
(" S. Domingue," sent by Chervain to de Reaumur.) 

Parra calidris Ritter, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, 
p. 157. (Listed without comment.) 

Sylvia griseicollis Vieillot, Hist. Nat. Ois. Amer. Sept., vol. 2, 
1807, pp. 29-30, pi. 87. ("Saint-Domingue;" apparently a species 
of warbler.) 

Sylvicola griseocollis Hartlaub, Isis, 1847, p. 609. (Listed from 
Hispaniola; probably taken from Vieillot's Sylvia griseicollis.) 



THE BIKDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 39 

Sylvia pumilia Vieillot, Hist. Nat. Ois. Amer. Sept., vol 2, 1807, 
p. 39, pi. 100. "A la Jamaique, a Saint-Domingue, a Caienne, 
ainsi qu'a la Caroline; " apparently a species of warbler.) 

Sylvicola pumilia, Hartlatjb, Isis, 1847, p. 609. (Listed from 
Hispaniola; probably taken from Vieillot 's Sylvia pumilia.) 

When birds as a concrete topic are mentioned in conversation 
with those of foreign birth resident in Hispaniola, particularly with 
Americans, the remark is inevitably made that the island has no 
birds, a statement not entirely accurate as the number of forms that 
has been found will indicate. This belief, however, has become a 
part of the usual knowledge gathered by the casual tourist in brief 
visits to Port-au-Prince or Santo Domingo City, and is so univer- 
sally accepted that it is even current and established among some 
of those residents who have interest in local natural history. In 
consequence scant attention is paid to birds and an exceedingly 
interesting subject for investigation has been almost wholly neglected. 
This is true even among persons of native birth, since only the more 
striking avian species are singled out by name, the small, obscurely 
marked forms being designated usually merely as " oiseaux," 
" siguas " or "siguitas " according to the language that is spoken. 

It is true that as one traverses roads and trails by motor car or on 
horse or mule back few birds are noted by either eye or ear, except by 
one who is adept in field ornithology. The circumstance seems so con- 
vincing that one might well accept current tradition in the matter 
and turn to botanizing as an outlet for recreational energy, since 
everywhere interesting plants of many species cloak the land in 
profusion. Let an observant pedestrian follow the little footpaths 
that everywhere in Haiti lead through the scrubs, or penetrate the 
less frequented woodlands and thickets of the Dominican Republic, 
and a different picture meets the view. Woodpeckers laugh and 
call amid the trees, anis scale away with planelike flight from 
branches barely out of reach, the lizard cuckoo peers out through 
red-lidded eyes, the gray thrush hops robinlike to meet the visitor, 
and a host of smaller forms that may perhaps be identified only with 
glasses flutter among the branches or along the ground, each indi- 
vidual intent on his own affairs. As one pauses and looks about 
tiny palm swifts dart quickly overhead, a sparrow hawk or a bur- 
rowing owl meets the view, or with chattering calls the curious palm- 
chats flutter past in search of flowers or berries. Though it is true 
that in Hispaniola birds are far fewer than in tropical regions of 
Central and South America where hundreds of species may occur 
at one locality, yet they are actually common, and in proportion to 
the number of species are about as abundant in individuals as is the 
case in the average temperate zone region. The number of resident 



40 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

birds is greatly augmented by swarms of migrants that reach the 
island as the northern summer closes, and remain until spring and 
the approach of the breeding season call them again northward, 
but even after the first of May when the spring migration is prac- 
tically at an end resident birds may be found in fair abundance by 
one who searches properly. 

The explanation of this strange difference between fact and current 
information may be found in the lack of striking song among the 
resident forms, and the silence of migrants and winter residents that 
reserve their principal vocal efforts for sojourn in their northern 
homes. The mockingbird, the vireo, and the thrush are the only 
persistent singers whose notes are loud and striking. Crows gabble 
among the palm trees, the woodpecker calls, parrots shriek and 
squall, pigeons utter their hooting and cooing calls, and sudden out- 
bursts of sound come from flocks of palm-chats. Aside from these 
striking bird notes are few. The little yellow-throated grassquit 
sings constantly but so modestly that its notes may be scarcely heard 
with the singer near at hand in plain view. The same is true of 
a number of other species that are commonly distributed. Again 
breeding seasons for different individuals may vary through a con- 
siderable period so that only a part of each species may be in song 
at one time. There is thus no concentration of annual song in a 
brief period of weeks as in regions with definite seasons. 

As these lines were first written on a pleasant morning in early 
June, 1927, in the woodlands of Plummers Island in the Potomac 
River a few miles above the city of Washington the notes of wood 
thrush, red-eyed vireo, Kentucky warbler, cardinal, tufted titmouse, 
and a host of minor songsters greeted the ear, while an hour earlier 
in open fields not far distant there were heard the songs of blue- 
birds, robins, house wrens, chats, chewinks, thrashers, and field 
sparrows. At the same time memory carried back ten days to a 
last excursion in the highlands of the Dominican Republic where 
squamated pigeons, trogons, solitaires, parrots and strange flycatch- 
ers furnished the avian chorus, while other equally interesting forms 
went silently about their affairs, and one is convinced that it is to 
their less exuberant notes and not to smaller numbers that we must 
attribute the current belief that Hispaniola has no birds. The ap- 
parent paucity is due to lack in perception on the part of the observer. 

Of the known forms of birds of Hispaniola there are 68 that are 
endemic in the area considered, most of these being found on the 
main island, with a few confined to Gonave, Tortue, Navassa, or 
Saona. Most of these peculiar forms have allies in the other islands 
of the Greater Antillean group but a few, as Rupornis ridgnvayi, 
Speotyto c. dominicensis, Loximitrh dominicensis, Loxia mcgaplaga, 
and Brachyspiza c. antillarum are here isolated in their distribution, 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 41 

having their nearest relatives in the Lesser Antilles or on the Amer- 
ican continents. Certain others, as Dulus dominic-us, Lawrencia 
nana, the two species of Microligea, Calyptophilus, and Phaenico- 
philus are quite peculiar, Dulus, Lawrencia, and Calyptophilus, espe- 
cially being without known relatives of close affinity. The occur- 
rence of a species of Loxia with its nearest relatives breeding in the 
boreal areas of North America and of a form of Brachyspiza, rang- 
ing elsewhere through South America north into Costa Rica is espe- 
cially notable in its union in the highlands of this Antillean island 
of faunal elements considered typical respectively of the northern 
and southern American continents. Though the presence of these 
two here may be due to some fortuitous chance it is suggestive of an 
earlier time, perhaps in the Pleistocene, possibly at the close of the 
Tertiary, when these and other similar forms had a broader range 
than at present, but through various causes have been restricted 
elsewhere leaving a few survivors on Hispaniola as indication of 
their former spread. 
Following is the complete list of living forms peculiar to this area : 

Accipiter striatus striatus 

Rupornis ridgwayi 

Falco sparverius dominicensis 

R alius longirostris vafer 

OEdicnemus dominicensis 

Chaemepelia passerina navassae 

Oreopeleia leucometopius 

Amazona centralis 

Aratinga chloroptera cliloroptera 

Hyetornis rufigularis 

Saurothera longirostris longirostris 

Saurothera longirostris petersi 9 

Tyto glaucops 

Speotyto cunicularia troglodytes 

Asio domingensis domingensis 

Asio stygius noctipetens 

Antrostomus cubanensis ekmani 

Siphonorhis brewsteri 

Nyctibius griseus abbotti 

Anthracothorax dominicus 

Riccordia swainsonii 

Mellisuga minima vielloti 

Temnotrogon roseig 'aster 

Todus angustirostris 

Todus subulatus 

Chryserpes striatus 



8 Confined to Gonave Island. 



42 BULLETIN" 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Nesoctites micromegas 

Nesoctites abbotti 9 

Tolmarchus gabbii 

Myiarchus dominicensis 

Blacicus hispaniolensis hispaniolensis 

Blacicus hispaniolensis tacitus 9 

Elaenia albicapilla 

Lamprochelidon sclateri 

Corvus palmarum palmarum 

Mimus polyglottos dominions 

Mimocichla ardosiacea ardosiacea 

Haplocichla swalesi 

Myadestes genibarbis montanus 

Dulus dominions dominions 

Dulus dominions oviedo 9 

Vireo crassirostris tor tug ae 10 

Lawrencia nana 

Coereba bananivova bananivora 

Ooereba bananivora nectar ea 10 

Dendroica petechia albicollis 

Dendroica petechia Solaris 9 

Dendroica pinus chrysoleuca 

Microligea palustris 

Microligea montana 

Icterus dominicensis 

Holoquiscalus niger niger 

Tanagra musica 

G alyptophilus frugivorus frugivorus 

" fimgivorus abbotti 9 

" tertius tertius 

" selleanus 
Spindalis multicolor 

Phaenicophilus poliocephalus poliocephalus 
Phaenicophilus poliocephalus coryi 9 
Phaenicophilus palmarum palmarum 
Phaenicophilus palmarum eurous 11 
Loximitris dominicensis 
Loxia megaplaga 
Loxigilla violacea affinis 
Loxigilla violacea maurella 10 
Ammodramus savannarum intricatus 
Brachyspiza capensis antillarum 



9 Confined to Tonave Island. 

10 Found only on Tortue Island. 

11 Peculiar to Saona Island. 



U. S. NATIONAL. MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 155 PLATE 13 




View among islas de los pajaros, breeding place of sea birds 
San Lorenzo Bay, "Dominican Republic, May 11, 1927. 




Cave on San Lorenzo Bay, Dominican republic, formerly inhab- 
ited by Indians 

May 11, 1927 



U. S NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 155 PLATE 14 




Hills near the valley of Constanza. Dominican Republic 
May 24, 1927. 




View across the valley of Constanza. Dominican Republic 

May 21, 1929. 



THE BIRDS OP HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN - REPUBLIC 43 

From cavern deposits there has been described also one species, a 
great barn owl Tyto ostologa, a form of huge dimension compared 
to its living relatives, that seems to have lived within comparatively 
recent times but that so far as known is now entirely extinct. In- 
cluding this owl the endemic forms number 69. Account of the birds 
of the cavern bone deposits will be the subject of a special report 
when the extensive collections secured in recent work have been 
fully identified. 

Among extinct species there is also to be included in all proba- 
bility a macaw of which nothing is known except for brief mention 
by Buffon on the authority of the naturalist Deshayes. The color 
and size of this bird remain entirely unknown and its very presence 
is open to question, though probable because of the known occurrence 
of species of this group on Cuba and Jamaica. 

Migrant birds from North America and a few from elsewhere 
come to Hispaniola in abundance and in the northern winter season 
furnish a prominent element in the insular birdlife. There are no 
doubt additions to be made to this list particularly among the 
waterbirds so that local observers will do well to pay close attention 
to them. Some of those reported seem to have come merely as strag- 
glers while the relative abundance of others is at present uncertain. 
Among species of casual occurrence Wilson's petrel Oceanites o. 
oceanicus breeds in southern seas and comes northward in its migra- 
tions. One form of nighthawk Chordeiles m. gundlachii is seem- 
ingly migrant through this area from breeding grounds in Cuba. 
To the naturalist from North America one of the pleasing features 
of the migrant swarm of wood warblers is the great abundance 
of the Cape May warbler which seems to center its winter distribu- 
tion in this island and is at times the most abundant of the smaller 
birds. In connection with migration, attention is directed to the 
records of common terns and black-crowned night herons banded in 
the United States and found subsequently in Hispaniola accounts 
of which are given under the species in subsequent pages. Following 
is a complete list of the migrant species at present known from the 
island : 

Oceanodroma leucorhoa leucorhoa 
Oceanites oceanicus oceanicus 
Butorides virescens virescens 
Nycticorax nycticorax hoactli 
Nettion carolinense 
Querquedula discors 
Nyroca affinis 
Circus hudsonius 
Pandion haliaetus carolinensis 



44 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Falco peregrinus anatum 

Falco columbarius columbarius 

Porzana Carolina 

Fulica amevicana americana 

Charadrius melodus 

Charadrius semipalmatus 

Oxyechus vociferus vociferus 

Pluvialis dominions dominions 

Squatarola squatarola cynosurae 

Arenaria interpres morinella 

Cajyella delicata 

Phaeopus hudsonicus 

Actitis macularia 

Tringa solitaria solitaria 

Totanus flavipes 

Totanus melanoleucus 

Pisooia minutilla 

Pisobia melanotos 

Micropalama himantopus 

Ereunetes pusillus 

Ereunetes mauri 

Tryngites subruficoUis 

Crocethia alba 

Larus argentatus smithsonianvs 

Sterna hirundo Mrundo 

Ghlidonias nigra surinamensis 

Antrostomus carolinensis 

Chordeiles minor gundlachii 

Chaetura pelagica 

Megaceryle alcyon alcyon 

Sphyrapicus varius varius 

Rip aria rip aria rip aria 

Hirundo erythrogaster 

Dumetella carolinensis 

Hylocichla minima minima 

Bombycilla cedrorum 

Mniotilta varia 

Compsothlypis americana pusilla 

Dendroica tigrina 

Dendroica coronata coronata 

Dendroica caerulescens caerulescens 

Dendroica caerulescens cairnsi 

Dendroica dominica dominica 

Dendroica palmarum palmarum 



THE BIEDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN EEPUBIJC 45 

Dendroica magnolia 

Dendroica discolor 

Dendroica striata 

Seiurus aurocapillus aurocapillus 

JSeiurus motacilla 

Seiurus noveboracensis noveboracensis 

Seiurus noveboracensis notdbilis 

Geothlypis trie has trichas 

Geothlypis trichas brachidactyla 

Setophaga ruticilla 

Dolichonyx oryzivorus 

Hedymeles ludoviciana 
Of numerous attempts at the introduction of exotic birds definite 
success seems to have attended the experiment with only four kinds, 
namely, Colinus v. virginianus, Colinus v. cubanensis, Numida gale- 
ata, and Textor c. cucullatus. Lieutenant Wirkus of the Gendar- 
merie is reported to have brought guinea fowl to Gonave Island 
in an attempt to establish them there as a game bird but so far as 
known without success, as this species has not been recorded wild. 
Gonave seems to have been the field for earlier experiments of this 
sort since in the account of Moreau Saint-Mery (vol. 2, 1798, p. 529) 
we read that " depuis cette epoque [1787] & pendant son generalat, 
M. de la Luzerne s'est occupe de peupler la Gonave de plusieurs 
animaux utiles — II y a fait mettre des pacaris venus de Carthagene, 
des Agamis tires de Cayenne, & on vient d'y lacher 4 paires de 
tourterelles & deux oiseaux martins de L'Isle de France." Nothing 
is known further of these attempts. 

The peacock seems to have become wild on the plains of Neyba, 
Dominican Republic near the close of the eighteenth century as 
Saint-Mery 12 says " Here it is also that are found the royal or 
crowned peacocks (a mixture of the white and colored peacock), 
which are highly esteemed, because they have a more delicate flavour 
than the common peacocks, and because the beauty of the brilliant 
plumage surpasses that of the peacocks in Europe." He says they 
were also found at Azua. Walton 13 records them from Neyba 
saying " nor can anything be more pleasing than to see flocks of this 
animal feeding in stately parade in the rich bottoms. Though their 
plumage is not so brilliant as those we domesticate in Europe it still 
varies to the sight in gay colours. * * * This is the only quar- 
ter where the bird is seen collectively." 

^Descrip. Span. Part Saint-Domingo, vol. 1, 1798, pp. 85, 306. 

13 Pres. State Span. Col. incl. partic. Rep. Hispanola, vol. 1, 1810, pp. 121-122. 

2134—31 4 



46 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

The turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) seems at one time to have been 
feral on the island since the Baron de Wimpffen in his Voyage to 
Saint Domingo in the years 1788, 1789 and 1790 says (p. 124) " the 
turkeys, which the Jesuits seem only to have domesticated for them- 
selves, had again run wild " and on the following page remarks 
" when we are in want of game, I take my gun, go into the coverts, 
and bring home a turkey, just as a sportsman, with you, does a 
snipe, or a woodcock." 

Wimpffen in another place (p. 161) mentions the " Hoco " say- 
ing further (p. 162) " the Hoco, Oco, or Oeco transported hither 
from Cayenne, and originally from Mexico, with a plumage of 
glossy black, except the breast which is white, and a crest of the 
most beautiful yellow, is stronger and larger than the peacock." 

Eitter also 14 says that a curassow " Crux alector " was introduced 
into Haiti from Mexico. 

Bond 15 lists the domestic fowl Gallus gallus with the local name 
Poule marron with the remark that it is " said to occur near Caracol 
in a wild state, though I never encountered it. Doctor Barbour, 
of the Service Technique, tells me that they are smaller than the 
average domestic fowl and are mottled in appearance." Columbus 
included the domestic fowl among the animals that he brought to 
Hispaniola on his second voyage in 1493. 

REMARKS ON DISTRIBUTION 

The resident forms of Hispaniola divide loosely into two prin- 
cipal groups, one of species found on the coastal plain or lower 
hills of the interior some of whose members range at large over the 
entire main island, and a second much smaller aggregation confined 
to the high interior mountains. The endemic forms in the first 
mentioned are mainly of types that range through the adjacent 
Greater Antillean islands, with a few highly peculiar species, as, 
Lawrencia nana and Dulus dominicus, that have no close relatives 
elsewhere. The high mountain species, as, Loxia niegaplaga and 
Brachyspiza capensis antillarum are highly peculiar in occurrence 
and seem to represent remnants of an ancient general distribution 
of these types that have become extinct in adjacent islands being 
preserved in the upland area of Hispaniola where the elevated lands 
are of greater extent than elsewhere in the West Indies. The actual 
range of these mountain forms in Haiti and the Dominican Re- 
public still remains to be accurately determined. The crossbill, 
Elaenia, and Microligea montana are found in Haiti on the higher 
slopes of La Selle. Possibly some other of the peculiar forms 

"Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, p. 150. 

18 Froc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 520. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 47 

known about Constanza in the Dominican Republic may be found 
on La Selle or in northern Haiti when the mountains of that repub- 
lic have been more thoroughly explored. 

Some peculiarities of distribution are of interest though in some 
cases without apparent cause. To date there seem to be no records 
from the Samana Peninsula for the elsewhere omnipresent ground 
dove. This peninsula it will be recalled is a mountainous ridge 
separated from other high ground by a broad area of lowland swamp 
so that it is in effect an island. If the ground dove occurs in that 
area it is local and has escaped record by collectors. Oreopeleia 
leucometopius and Brachyspiza capensis antillarum are known only 
from the high interior of the island in the region extending from 
near El Rio and Constanza to Tiibano and the mountains above San 
Juan. The handsome thrush Haplocichla swalesi has been found 
only on the high ridge of Morne La Selle, and Phaenicophilus 
poliocephalus poliocephalus is known only in the western part of the 
southwestern peninsula, except for the geographic race P. p. coryi 
of Gonave Island, though its close relative Phaenicophilas palmarum 
palmarum ranges universally through the main island. 

As of interest in this discussion of distribution there is summa- 
rized in following paragraphs what is known of the birds to be found 
on some of the small islands adjacent to the coasts of Haiti and the 
Dominican Republic. 

BIRDS OF GONAVE ISLAND 

Gonave Island, the largest of the separate islands tributary to the 
main island of Hispaniola, has much of romantic interest, and has 
been the object of considerable research since its peculiarities were 
first made known by Dr. W. L. Abbott. The total list reported 
from it is now 84 forms which seems fairly complete though nu- 
merous others may be expected. Resident birds on Gonave show 
a decided tendency to variation in the direction of slightly larger 
size and grayer coloration from those of adjacent Haiti so that 
there have been recognized 7 geographic races as peculiar to Gonave 
alone, all of these being allied to Haitian forms. Following is the 
complete list known for Gonave on present information: 

Pelecanus occidentalis occidentalis 

Sula leucogastra leucogastra 

Fregata magnificens 

Ardea herodias adoxa 

Hydranassa tricolor rujicoTlis 

Florida caerulea caerulescens 

Butorides virescens maculatus 

Nyctanassa violacea violacea 

Phoenicopterus ruber 



48 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Buteo jamaicensis jamaicensis 
Falco sparverius dominicensis 
Aramus pictus elucus 
Rallus longirostris vafer 
Pagolla wilsonia ruflnucha 
Oxyechus vociferus rubidus 
Tot anus flavipes 
Totanus melanoleucus 
Pisohia minutilla 
Ereunetes pusillus 
Himantopus mexicanus 
Gelochelidon nilotica aranea 
Sterna albifrons antillarum 
Thalasseus maximus maximus 
Columba leucocephala 
Columba squamosa 
Zenaida zenaida zenaida 
Zenaidura macroura macroura 
Melopelia asiatica asiatica 
Chaemepelia passerina insularis 
Oreopeleia montana 
Oreopeleia chrysia 
Amazona ventralis 
Goccyzus americanus a?nericanus 
Coccyzus minor teres 
Hyetornis rufigularis 
Saurothera longirostris petersi 16 
Crotophaga ani 

Speotyto cunicularia troglodytes 
Asio stygius no dip et ens 
Siphonorhis brewsteri 
Chordeiles minor vicinus 
Nyctibius griseus dbbotti 
Anthracothorax dominions 
Riccordia swainsonii 
Mellisuga minima vielloti 
Megaceryle alcyon alcyon 
Todus subulatus 
Sphyrapicus varius varius 
Nesoctites dbbotti 16 
Tyrannus dominicensis dominicensis 
Myiarchus dominicensis 
Blacicus hispaniolensis tacitus 16 
Petrochelidon fulva fulva 

18 Peculiar to Gonave Island. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN EEPUBLIC 49 

Gorvus leucognaphalus 
Mimus polyglottos dominicus 
Mimodchla ardosiacea ardosiacea 
Dulus dominicus oviedo 16 
Vireo olivaceus olivaceus 
Lawrencia nana 
Coereba bananivora bananivora 
Mniotilta varia 

Compsothlypis americana pusilla 
Dendroica petechia Solaris 16 

" tigrina 

" caerulescens caerulescens 

" dominica dominica 

" palmarum palmarum 

" discolor 

" striata 

Seiurus aurocapillus aurocapillus 
" motacilla 

" noveboracensis noveboracensis 
GeotMypis tricMs trichas 

" " brachidactyla 

Icterus dominicensis 
Hologuiscalus niger niger 
Tanagra musica 

Calyptophilus frugivorus abbotti 16 
Spindalis multicolor 
Phaenicophilus poliocephalus coryi 18 
Hedymeles ludovicianus 
Tiaris olivacea olivacea 

" bicolor marchii 
Loxigilla violacea a finis 

BIRDS OF TORTUE ISLAND 

Tortue Island off the northern coast of Haiti like Gonave has had 
its bird life first known through the investigations of Doctor Abbott. 
At present 47 forms of birds have been recorded from its confines, a 
number that is sure to be considerably augmented. As the channel 
separating Tortue from Haiti is deep ranging from 270 to 625 
fathoms in depth, it might be expected to show as much peculiarity 
in its birdlife as Gonave but to date only three forms have been 
recognized as restricted to it. One of these, Vireo crassirostris tor- 
tugae, has no representative on Hispaniola proper being allied to 
forms of the Bahama Islands to the north. The occurrence of this 

16 Peculiar to Gonave Island. 



50 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

bird on Tortue would seem to be fortuitous since there is little reason 
to suppose a former close union of Tortue with the Bahamas. The 
honey-creeper and grosbeak (Loxigitta) of Tortue differ from those 
of the main island, while the lizard-cuckoo is the same. It will 
be recalled that the latter on Gonave is a distinct race. Numbers of 
the peculiar types of Hispaniola are not known to range to Tortue. 
Following is the complete list of birds known from the island : 

Phaethon lepturus catesbyi 

Falco sparverius dominicensis 

Aramus pictus elucus 

Pagolla wilsonia rufinucha 

Totanus fiavipes 

Crocethia alba 

Himantopus mexicanus 

Columba leucocephala 

" inornata inomata 

Zenaida zenaida zenaida 

Zenaidura macroura macroura 

Chaemepelia passerina insularis 

Oreopeleia chrysia 

Coccyzus minor teres 

Saurothera longirostris longirostris 

Chordeiles minor vici?ius 
• Chaetura pelagica 

Streptoprocne zonaris pallidifrons 

Anthracothorax dominicus 

Mellisuga minima vielloti 

Sphyrapicus varius varius 

Tyrannus dominicensis dominicensis 

Myiarchus dominicensis 

Petrochelidon fulva fulva 

Dumetella carolinensis 

Mimus polyglottos dominicus 

Mimocichla ardosiacea ardosiacea 

Vireo crassirostris tortugae 17 

Vireo olivaceus olivaceus 

Goereba banwiivora nectarea 1T 

Mniotilta varia 

C ompsothlypis americana pusilla 

Dendroica petechia albicollis 
" tigrina 

" coronata coronata 

" caerulescens caervlescens 

" palmarum palmarwrm 

17 Peculiar to Tortue Island. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 155 PLATE 15 




Edge of pine forest with guava bushes in foreground, haunt of 
song sparrow (brachyspiza c. antillarum) 

Near Constanza, Dominican Republic, May 20, 1927. 




Headwaters of Rfo jimenoa 
Near El Rio, Dominican Republic, .May 29, 1927. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN EEPUBLIC 51 

Dendroica discolor 

Seiurus aurocapillus aurocapillus 

" noveboracensis notabilis 
Geothlypis trichas brachidactyla 
Dolichonyx oryzivorus 
Icterus dominicensis 
Holoquiscalus niger niger 
Tiaris olivacea olivacea 

" bicolor marchii 
Loxigilla violacea maurella 17 

BIRDS OF GRANDB CAYEMITB ISLAND 

The avifauna of this small island is known only from a brief visit 
by Dr. W. L. Abbott who recorded there 13 forms of birds, a list that 
will be greatly extended. The abundance of Rupornis ridgwayi, (col- 
lected also on Petite Cayemite) is the only matter of especial note. 
Following is the known list : 

Pelecanus occidentalis occidentalis 

Hydranassa tricolor ruficollis 

Nyctanassa violacea violacea 

Rupornis ridgwayi 

Pagolla wilsonia rufinucha 

Totanus flavipes 

Pisobia minutilla 

Himantopus mexicanus 

Columba leucocephala 

Myiarchus dominicensis 

Dendroica coronata coronata 

" palmarum palmarum 

Tiaris olivacea olivacea 

BIRDS OF SAONA ISLAND 

The bird life of Saona Island also is known through the efforts of 
Doctor Abbott who collected there briefly at a period when birds 
were in poor plumage. One form Phaenicophilus palmarum, eurous 
is peculiar. The following list of 22 forms known now from Saona 
will be greatly extended : 

Sula leucogastra leucogastra 
" piscator 

Fregata magnificens 

Charadrius melodus 

Oxyechus vociferus rubidus 

Catoptrophorus semipahnatus semipalmatus 

17 Peculiar to Tortue Island. 



52 BULLETIN" 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Totanus flavipes 

" melanoleucus 
Pisdbia melanotos 
Larus atricilla 
Sterna hirundo hirundo 

" dougallii dougalln 

" fuscata fuscata 

" albifrons antillarum 
Thalasseus maximus maximus 
Chlidonias nigra sunnamensis 
Chaemepelia passerina insularis 
Coccyzus minor teres 
Tyrannus dominicensis dominicensis 
Hirundo erythrogaster 
Gorvus leucognaphalus 
Phaenicophilus palmarum eurous 

BIRDS OP THE SEVEN BROTHERS ISLANDS 

The bird life of this group of seven small islets off the north coast 
between Cap-Haitien and Monte Cristi is known principally from 
brief investigations made by A. J. Poole and W. M. Perrygo of the 
United States National Museum who collected there at the end of Jan- 
uary and beginning of February, 1929. They did not succeed in land- 
ing on the island of Monte Grande which is well wooded and where 
conditions for small birds are better than on the other islets of the 
group. Further observations will add considerably to the list of 
birds that they obtained especially in the way of more migrants 
since these islands are in a position to attract wandering or lost 
individuals. The known list of forms follows: 

Ardea herodias adoxa 

Florida caerulea caerulescens 

Pandion haliaetus carolinensis 

Haematopus palliatus prattii 

Charadrius melodus 

Squatarola squatarola cynoswae 

ArenaHa inter pres morinella 

Ereimetes pusillus 
" niauri 

Crocethia alba 

Sterna anaetheta melanoptera 
" fuscata fuscata 

Thalasseus maximus maximus 

Dendroica petechia albicollis 
" coronata coronata 

" discolor 



THE BIEDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN EEPUBLIC 53 



BIRDS OF NAVASSA ISLAND 



Finally there may be listed the few birds known from distant 
Navassa, an American possession that is included in the present ac- 
count through its geographic position. Our present knowledge of 
the life of this island comes principally from the work of R. H. 
Beck who was there in July, 1917, and Dr. E. L. Ekman who visited 
Navassa in October, 1928. The list at present contains twenty-one 
forms, one peculiar to the island and two of doubtful status : 

Sula leucogastra leucogastra 
" piscator 

Fregata magnificens 

Falco peregrinus anatum 

Sterna anaetheta melanoptera 

Golu-niba leucocephala 

Coluniba squamosa 

CJutemepelim passerina navassae 

Coccyzus americanus americanus 

Crotophaga ani 

fTyto glaucops 

Megaceryle alcyon alcyon 

Tyr annus dominicensis dominicensis 

fPetrochelidon fulva fulva 

Vireo olivaceus olivaceus 

Mniotilta varia 

Dendroica palmarum palmarum 

Seiurus aurocapillus aurocapillus 

Geothlypis trichas orachidactyla 

Setophaga ruticilla 

RECOMMENDATIONS REGARDING FURTHER STUDIES 

Attempt has been made in the present paper to make the account 
for each form complete so far as existing information permits but the 
many gaps in our knowledge of many birds are readily evident on 
careful perusal. There are needed especially definite observations on 
the nests, eggs, and nesting habits of numerous forms, and an 
economic study of the avifauna remains to be undertaken. The range 
of the high mountain species remains to be worked out in detail, 
and there is required much information regarding migrants that 
come to the island with regard to their arrival, departure, and relative 
abundance. In a word, the present account with its summary of 
present information may be taken as a starting point for further 
detailed studies. 

Finally, recommendation is made that definite areas in both re- 
publics be set aside as national parks and established as sanctuaries 



54 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

where original conditions may be preserved for coming generations 
and the continuance of plants, birds, and other animal life assured. 
In the present stage of development there remain large areas that as 
yet have not been commercially exploited where the original 
xerophytic forests, rain-forests, or stands of pine remain in their 
primitive condition, but every year sees some curtailment of this 
condition and some new use proposed for these various types of land. 
Establishment of park areas and forest reserves, for example in the 
Quita Espuela district, in the high mountain area about Constanza, 
on the ridge of La Selle, and in the La Hotte region may now be 
made without particular difficulty. If delayed too long the timber 
will be largely destroyed and a condition similar to that in Porto 
Rico where it has been possible to establish only one reserve of any 
extent, that on El Yunque, while elsewhere original conditions have 
been largely destroyed, will result. Such park areas, set aside now 
and guarded from fire and needless cutting, will prove valuable 
assets for the future. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The present account of the birds of Hispaniola is due primarily to 
the interest of Dr. W. L. Abbott, whose untiring energy during his 
prolonged work in the field assembled the bulk of the specimens 
upon which our work has been based, giving to the United States 
National Museum what is unquestionably the finest and most com- 
plete collection of the birds of this area extant. In addition to speci- 
mens Doctor Abbott has furnished numerous manuscript notes and 
much oral' information on the frequent occasions on which he has been 
consulted, either in the museum or during visits to his home in 
Maryland. His assistance has given the greatest addition to knowl- 
edge of the avifauna of this region that has come in the present cen- 
tury, and has continued beyond his personal efforts in that he has 
financed further work on the part of others. The United States 
National Museum stands deeply indebted to him for his long and 
continued interest. 

In work in the field in 1927 Doctor Wetmore was most hospita- 
bly received in both Haiti and the Dominican Republic, and has 
to acknowledge many courtesies. Through the State Department 
necessary information and other courtesies were obtained. Col. D. C. 
McDougal, of the United States Marine Corps, gave much informa- 
tion regarding the island as well as letters that aided most mate- 
rially in establishing contacts in Haiti. In Port-au-Prince Doctor 
Wetmore was received with every attention by Gen. John H. Rus- 
sell, American High Commissioner, and was assisted further by Gen. 
Julius Turrill, at that time Chief of the Gendarmerie d'Haiti, and 



THE BIEDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN EEPUBLIC 55 

other officers of the Gendarmerie. Thanks are due to the air service 
of the Marine Corps for transportation to and from Cap-Haitien by 
plane, a courtesy that enabled a view of the northern part of the 
republic not otherwise possible in the time at hand. 

Dr. George F. Freeman, Directeur General of the Service Tech- 
nique du Departement de l'Agriculture, was deeply interested in 
the work and afforded every facility to further it, and with Mrs. 
Freeman extended the hospitality of his home in Port-au-Prince, 
besides assisting most materially in work throughout the country. 
To Dr. and Mrs. C. H. Arndt, and Mr. and Mrs. J. E. Boog-Scott 
thanks are due for hospitable entertainment at Fonds-des-Negres 
and Hinche, respectively, while to Dr. William R. Barbour thanks 
must be returned for the arrangements that permitted work in the 
north at Poste Charbert. Dr. G. N. Wolcott thoughtfully arranged 
several local excursions about Port-au-Prince, and other assistance 
came from Dr. Carl Colvin, Dr. A. E. Vinson, and Mr. M. J. Perry 
of the Service Technique. Dr. E. L. Ekman, the botanist, was a 
pleasant companion during an excursion to La Selle, his knowledge 
of the country and of the people rendering comparatively simple 
a task otherwise somewhat difficult. 

In Santo Domingo City Mr. Evan E. Young, American Minis- 
ter, was most helpful in giving advice, and in arranging for per- 
mits necessary before field work could be begun. These were granted 
most expeditiously and considerately by Senor Luis Ginebra, at 
that time Secretario de Estado del Interior, Policia, Guerra y 
Marina. Earlier assistance in these matters had been courteously 
rendered by Senor Angel Morales, Minister from the Dominican 
Republic in Washington, and by Lie. Ramon O. Lovaton, Minister 
from the Dominican Republic in Port-au-Prince. At La Vega 
valuable assistance was obtained through the governor of the prov- 
ince, Senor Teofilo Cordero y Bido in arrangements for a trip to 
Constanza. Finally thanks must be returned to many persons who 
rendered hospitality during travel in regions not too plentifully sup- 
plied with hotel and other accommodations without whose friendly 
aid the journey would have been difficult or impossible. 

In work on collections during the preparation of this report speci- 
mens have been examined in the Field Museum in Chicago, the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology in Cambridge, and the American 
Museum of Natural History in New York City, and necessary ma- 
terial has been received in loan from these institutions, as well as 
from Mr. J. H. Fleming of Toronto, who further supplied a list of 
specimens from the Dominican Republic collection secured from the 
field work of Verrill. Dr. Frank M. Chapman permitted examina- 
tion of material in the Beck collections, and Dr. Robert Cushman 



56 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Murphy allowed access to Beck's manuscript journal for information 
regarding collecting localities. Dr. C. E. Hellmayr has been most 
helpful in furnishing information regarding specimens in the Cory 
collection in the Field Museum, and Mr. J. L. Peters has given 
valuable assistance and data, especially useful from his personal 
experience in the field in the Dominican Republic. Dr. Ernst 
Hartert has kindly furnished data on many specimens in the Tring 
Museum, Dr. Einar Lonnberg has given information regarding skins 
received from Doctor Ekman and Dr. E. Moltoni has supplied cer- 
tain data from specimens in his charge. Finally thanks are due 
Dr. Charles W. Richmond, Associate Curator in the Division of 
Birds in the United States National Museum, particularly for advice 
in certain questions of nomenclature. 

METHOD OF TREATMENT 

With each of the forms treated in the annotated list that follows, 
there is given the current scientific name, with the authority, fol- 
lowed by the usual English name and the names current locally in 
Hispaniola in Spanish, French, and Creole where these are known. 
The first reference to literature that follows, is, in all cases, that to 
the publication where the form was first described under the accepted 
scientific name, and includes in parentheses the type locality. There 
follows a brief synonymy, that includes synonyms where an endemic 
bird has been redescribed, and that gives the more important perti- 
nent references to the scientific names or common names under which 
the form has been recorded from Hispaniola. In parentheses there 
is included a brief statement as to occurrence or other points of 
interest in the reference concerned. By consulting this synonymy 
it will be possible to coordinate names used in the writings of older 
authors with modern usage where there has been change. There has 
been no attempt to make the synonymy exhaustive or complete as 
it is considered that this would be useless labor, but there have been 
included all references of interest or value, so far as they have come 
to attention. 

The first paragraph in the general account under each form gives 
briefly a statement of the occurrence and range so far as concerns 
Hispaniola. This is followed by discussion in detail of the various 
records available with what is known of the habits, song, charac- 
teristics, and other matters of interest. A final paragraph presents 
in brief form a statement regarding size and color that will be of 
assistance in identifying the various birds of the island. It is be- 
lieved that this last will be useful information since there is no 
compact handbook available that covers the birds of the region. 
The student will find the Handbook of the Birds of Eastern North 



THE BIKDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN" REPUBLIC 57 

America, by Dr. Frank M. Chapman (published by D. Appleton 
and Company, New York City), a useful work of reference; 
though this does not treat the forms peculiar to the West Indies, 
it includes the many migrants that come to Hispaniola from North 
America, as well as many of the water-birds which have extended 
ranges that carry them to the shores of the mainland as well as 
through the Greater Antilles. 

The island covered in this account is known variously as Haiti 
or as Santo Domingo (sometimes written San Domingo), current 
terms that may cause some confusion where attempt is made to 
make statement regarding the eastern or western sections since the 
land is occupied politically by two separate countries, the Domini- 
can Republic in the east and the Republic of Haiti in the west. 
Difficulty at once arises when either Haiti or Santo Domingo is 
used when reference is made to the entire island to express the in- 
tended thought clearly, this being further complicated in references 
from the older French works on natural history in which the present 
area occupied by the Republic of Haiti, formerly a French colony, 
is termed Saint-Domingue. To avoid any ambiguity of meaning 
in the present account the name Hispaniola, used for the island by 
the early Spanish writers, has been adopted for reference when the 
entire area is intended, while where Haiti or the Dominican Republic 
is mentioned reference is made to the territory occupied now by 
these two republics. This course has been followed as the simplest 
method to permit clear, concise statement. 

Order COLYMBIFORMES 

Family COLYMBIDAE 

COLYMBUS DOMINICUS DOMINICUS Linnaeus 

WEST INDIAN GREBE, ZARAMAGULLON, ZAMBULLIDOR, TIGTJA, PLONGEON, 
CASTAGNEUX DE SAINT-DOMINGUE, PETIT PLONGEON 

Colymbus dominicus Linnaeus, Syst Nat., vol. 1, 1766, p. 223 (Hispaniola). 

Columbus fltiviatilis Dominicensis Brisson, Ornith., vol. 6, 1760, pp. 64-67, 
pi. 5, fig. 2 (sent to de Reaumur by Chervain). 

Castagneux de Saint-Domingue, Buxton, Hist. Nat. Ois., vol. 8, 1781, p. 248 
(" Saint-Domingue"). — Descourtilz, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, p. 265 (taken 
once). 

Podiceps dominicus, Saixe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, p. 237 (Higuey). — 
Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 1867, p. 97 (Haiti).— Cory, 
Birds Haiti and San Domingo, March, 1885, pp. 185-186 (listed after Bryant). — 
Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, pp. 318, 323 (listed). — Lonnberg, Fauna 
och Flora, 1929, p. 100 (Haiti, specimen). 

Podicipes dominicus, Christy, Ibis, 1897, p. 343 (Yuna swamps). 

Columbus dominicus, Ritter, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, p. 
157 (listed). 



58 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Colymbus dominicus, Hitter, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, p. 
157 (listed).— Cory, Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. SI (Haiti, Dominican 
Republic). — Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 355 (Yavon 
River, San Lorenzo; " Yaqui " River, Miranda; rare). — Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., 
vol. 30, 1927, p. 138; Beneath Tropic Seas, 1928, p. 217 (Etang Miragoane). 

Colymbus dominicus dominicus, Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 
1917, p. 396 (Cabrera, specimen; El Batey). — Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 489 (Etang Miragoane, Port-de-Paix). 

Resident; fairly common, in fresh-water marshes, lagoons and 
sluggish streams. 

The West Indian grebe is so shy that it is observed with difficulty, 
so that it is probable that it is more common than the few records 
available indicate. It inhabits fresh waters where there is abundant 
aquatic growth to afford it shelter. When alarmed it escapes by 
submerging slowly or by a rapid dive, after which it may rise to 
the surface at a distance or may come up within the rushes so that 
it is not again seen. Its mysterious disappearances are proverbial 
among hunters and others who invade its haunts. 

Brisson's account on which the Linnaean name now recognized 
for this bird was based, states that this grebe was sent from " S. 
Domingue " by Chervain for the collection of M. de Reaumur. In 
spite of this early reference to the species there are few other definite 
records for Hispaniola. Salle mentions it from a marsh on the 
plains near Higuey. Cory did not find it. Christy says : " In July, 
while shooting in the Yuna swamp, I several times obtained a good 
view of this grebe. It was very shy, and always dived or swam 
into the rushes on the first appearance of the boat." Verrill records 
it from the Rio Yavon near San Lorenzo, and near Miranda. For 
the latter locality he reports it from the " Yaqui River," apparently 
an error for the Rio Yuna which passes near Miranda, as the Yaqui 
del Norte is far distant. Peters shot a male March 11, 1916 at Cabrera, 
where he found " two or three others of the same species in a small, 
muddy pool less than forty yards across." He saw three more in a 
lagoon at El Batey April 5. On May 13, 1927, at an altitude of 
1,500 feet above the sea in the hills between Sanchez and Las Terrenas, 
as Wetmore looked out from a commanding knoll across the little 
lake known as the Laguna de Rancho Fabian, one of these grebes 
suddenly appeared on the surface, followed a few seconds later by 
another. Since this lake is small and is entirely surrounded by heavy 
forest it seemed a most unlikely place for the species. Turtles were 
seen in the same water. He did not meet the bird elsewhere. 

In the Republic of Haiti the species is known from several points 
including two specimens, both immature females, taken by Dr. W. L. 
Abbott at Port-de-Paix on April 4 and 14, 1917, and from the account 
of Bond who reports it from Etang Miragoane and Port-de-Paix. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN" REPUBLIC 59 

In Abbott's specimens the iris is noted as yellow, or brownish 
yellow. 

Descourtilz informs us that the breast feathers are used to make 
a valuable ornament but considered the bird rather rare as he took 
it only once. Bartsch saw it on the fitang Saumatre near Glore 
on April 3, 1917, and on Trou Caiman, April 4. Beebe, on March 2, 

1927, reports six on the fitang Miragoane. 

The birds should be found in the fresh- water lagoons through the 
coastal plain. It is probable that the Chervain record given above 
refers to what is now the Republic of Haiti, since the French in the 
main occupied the western part of the island. 

In color this grebe is grayish brown above, grayer on the head; 
throat dull black ; f oreneck brownish ; underparts white ; feet broadly 
lobed, projecting far back on the body; tail apparently absent; length 
225 to 275 mm., wing 75 to 85 mm. In the immature bird the throat 
is whitish. This species is distinguished from the Antillean grebe, 
the only other species of its family in this region, by slender bill and 
by smaller size. 

PODILYMBUS PODICEPS ANTILLARUM Bangs 

ANTILLEAN GREBE, ZUMBULLIDOR, ZARAMAGULLON, PLONGEON, GRAND 

PLONGEON 

Podilymbus podiceps antillarum Bangs, Proc. New England Zool. Club, vol. 
4, March 31, 1913, p. 89 (Bueycito, Province of Oriente, Cuba). — Peters, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, p. 396 (Laguna Flaca near Cabrera). — Bond, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 489 (Etang Miragoane, 
Artibonite River). — Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 359 (Laguna del Salodillo, Santo 
Domingo City, Haina, Artibonite River). — Lonnbebg, Fauna och Flora, 1929, 
p. 100 (Haiti).— Moltoni, Att. Soc. Jtal. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, p. 307 
(Rfo Haina). 

Grebe, Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 138; Beneath Tropic Seas, 

1928, p. 217 (Etang Miragoane). 

Plongeon, Descourtilz, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, p. 264 (Riviere Estere). 

Podiceps dominicensis, Rittes, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, 
p. 157 (specimen). 

Podilymbus podiceps, Cherrie, Field Columbian Mus., Ornith. ser., vol. 1, 
March, 1896, p. 26 (Ozama River, specimen). — Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Philadelphia, 1909, p. 355 (Rio Camu, near La Vega, rare). — Bartsch, Proc. 
Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 30, July 27, 1927, p. 132 (Haiti). 

Eesident; common in lagoons and sluggish streams where there 
is proper cover. 

The Antillean grebe, the West Indian form of the pied-billed grebe 
frequents ponds, lakes, and sluggish streams where there is cover 
of rushes to which it may retreat when danger threatens. It feeds 
frequently in open waters, securing its prey of small fishes, crusta- 
ceans and aquatic insects by diving. It seldom uses its shortened 
wings but depends upon submerging to avoid its enemies, an art 



60 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

in which it is so expert that it frequently escapes the aim of the 
hunter by disappearing so rapidly at the discharge of a gun that 
it is safely below the surface before the shot from the shell can reach 
it. In the breeding season the males utter a loud, rolling, sonorous 
call that carries over the water for long distances. 

The Antillean grebe is distinguished from the form of pied-billed 
grebe found in the United States by faintly darker color and slightly 
smaller size. In 8 males from Hispaniola the wing ranges from 
120.1 to 124.5 mm., and in 3 females from 113.0 to 114.4 mm. The 
North American bird, in which the wing in males ranges from 128.1 
to 133.7 mm. and in females from 116.0 to 126.5 mm., may occur 
as a winter migrant as it passes south at that season into Cuba. 
Three skins of antillarum taken at Fort Liberte, February 14 and 
15 by Poole and Perrygo which have the streakings of the young 
plumage on the sides of the head and neck, though in bodily size 
fully grown, differ conspicuously from skins of P. p. podiceps in the 
same stage of development in much darker coloration above and on 
the sides. The difference, in fact, is so striking that it demonstrates 
effectively the distinctness of the two races. 

Cherrie secured one of these grebes on the Ozama Kiver near Santo 
Domingo City, April 26, 1895. Verrill considered it rare along the 
Rio Camu in the vicinity of La Vega. Peters found two on Laguna 
Flaca, several miles south of Cabrera, on March 10, 1916. Abbott 
shot a male on Laguna del Diablo, near Rojo Cabo on the Samana 
Peninsula on March 8, 1919, and reports it as breeding at that point. 
Danforth found it in 1927 at Los Tres Ojos de Agua, near Santo 
Domingo City, near Haina, and at Laguna del Salodillo near Copey. 
Moltoni lists a specimen from the Rio Haina, August 14, 1929. 

This grebe may be more numerous in Haiti than in the adjacent 
republic, since more specimens have thus far come from that part 
of the island. In the river near Jeremie Dr. W. L. Abbott found 
the Antillean grebe common and collected adult male and female 
and an immature female on February 8, 1918. Dr. Paul Bartsch 
secured an adult pair at Trou des Roseaux on April 13, 1917, and an 
adult male at Trou Caiman on April 4 of the same year. Abbott 
secured specimens from the Etang Saumatre on March 5 and 6, 1918, 
and April 8, 1920. Another is marked as taken near Fond Parisien 
on the same lake May 7, 1920. He reports the species as fairly 
common on this body of water. A female taken March 6, 1918 was 
evidently breeding as it contained nearly mature eggs. Wetmore 
recorded a mated pair on the Etang Miragoane April 1, 1927, and 
heard several other birds calling. A grebe seen by Beebe on this 
same lake March 2, 1927 is believed to be this same form. There is 
a skin in the Museum of Comparative Zoology taken August 14, 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 61 

1919 at Lake Enriquillo by G. M. Allen. Descourtilz found these 
birds rather common on the Riviere Ester e, where he shot them for 
his negro companions to eat. He relates an incident where he had 
killed one and a boy was swimming out to retrieve it when the bird 
was seized and drawn down by a large caiman. Danforth records 
young one-third grown July 28 and 29 on the Artibonite beyond St. 
Marc. Bond says that he found these birds common on the lakes 
and rivers of Haiti, stating specifically that he saw them at the Etang 
Miragoane, and on the Artibonite River. As has been previously 
mentioned Poole and Perrygo shot three immature birds molting 
into first fall plumage at Fort Liberte February 14 and 15, 1929. 

The adult bird above is blackish brown; below silvery white, 
washed with brownish on the chest, and more or less mottled with 
blackish on sides and under surface; throat black; bill strong and 
heavy, with a blackish band across the center; feet strongly lobed, 
projecting far back on the body; length about 340 mm., wing 113 to 
124 mm. The immature bird is whiter below and has the throat 
white. The species is distinguished from the West Indian grebe 
by larger size and thick heavy bill. 

Order PROCELLARIIFORMES 

Family PROCELLARIIDAE 

PUFFINUS LHERMINIERI LHERMINIERI Lesson 
AUDUBON'S SHEARWATER 

Puffinus Iherminieri Lesson, Rev. Zool., vol. 2, 1839, p. 102 ("Ad ripas 
Antillarum "). 

Procellaria obscura, Beyant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 1867, 
p. 98 (between Haiti and Navassa). 

Puffinus obscurus, Coby, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, March, 1885, p. 184 
(at sea, twenty miles north of Tortue Island). — Tippenhaueb, Die Insel Haiti, 
1892, p. 323 (listed). 

Puffinus auduboni, Coby, Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 83 (Haiti and San 
Domingo ) . 

Puffinus Iherminieri llierminieri, Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 
80, 1928, p. 489 (near Inagua Island).— Danfobth, Auk, 1929, p. 360 (north of 
Puerto Plata). 

The exact status of Audubon's shearwater on the coasts of His- 
paniola is at present uncertain. Bryant refers to it under the name 
Procellaria obscura, remarking that " the last eight birds were seen 
by myself off the coast, at a short distance from land, between St. 
Domingo and the island of Navassa." Cory says that numbers were 
seen at sea about twenty miles north of Tortue Island. On June 30, 
1927, Emlen found it common fifty miles north of Puerto Plata. 
2134—31 5 



62 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Bond saw it near Inagua Island to the northward. These are the 
only pertinent records. For the statement of Godman 18 that it 
breeds on " San Domingo " we find no basis ; we assume that Bent 19 
followed Godman when he also included " Santo Domingo " in the 
breeding range of this species. 

Audubon's shearwater nests in the Bahamas and may be expected 
to occur regularly off the northern coasts of both republics, mainly 
well out at sea. It is possible that careful exploration in the group 
of islands known to the Haitians as Les Sept Freres and to the 
Dominicans as Los Siete Hermanos, may reveal the species as a 
nesting bird. 

This shearwater is sooty black above and white below with tubular 
nostrils and sharply hooked bill. It measures about 325 mm. in 
length, with the wing from 195 to 203 mm. long. The flight is 
smooth and graceful, performed often by sailing with stiffly spread 
wings. On land the bird is not able to stand erect. 

PTERODEOMA HASITATA (Knhl) 
BLACK-CAPPED PETREL 

Procellaria hasitata Kuhl, Beitr. Zool. Vergl. Anat., 1820, p. 142 ("Mers de 
l'Inde"). 

Diablotm, Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois., vol. 9, 1783, p. 335 ("Saint-Domingue"). 

JEstrelata hasitata, Coby, Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 84 (Haiti). — 
Saivin, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol. 25, 1896, p. 403 (Haiti, specimen). — Godman, 
Mon. Petrels, pt. 3, 1908, p. 186, pi. 49 (specimen from Haiti figured). 

Pterodroma hasitata, Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, pp. 
307-308 (Moca, specimen). 

Early record for the black-capped petrel for this area is based 
upon the skin of an adult in the British Museum received from 
J. Hearne and marked as from Haiti. It may be noted that at a 
meeting of the Zoological Society of London on July 14, 1835 John 
Gould exhibited "a collection of skins of Birds, formed in Haiti 
by J. Hearne, Esq.," that contained sixteen species. 20 The petrel is 
not, however, specifically mentioned. Godman gives a colored plate 
taken from the British Museum specimen, and says regarding it 
"it was originally presented to the Zoological Society by Mr. J. 
Hearne, and is believed to have come from Hayti." In addition 
to this Buffon has quoted a statement from Labat which attributes 
the diablotin to " Saint-Domingue." There may be mentioned also an 
excellent water color drawing of this species in a portfolio of 
paintings by M. de Rabie, which we have examined through the 
courtesy of Messrs. Wheldon and Wesley, in which a specimen is 

18 Monograph Petrels, Part 2, March, 1908, p. 130. 
"U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 121, 1922, p. 76. 
»Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1835, p. 105. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 63 

depicted in lifelike attitude resting on its breast on land at the edge 
of a body of water. This plate (No. 42) is labelled Le Diablotin 
and is indicated as made " au Cap le 26 8bre 1778. Rabie." The 
attitude of the bird suggests strongly that the artist saw it alive. 
Dr. C. W. Richmond notes that on April 20 or 21, 1900 while travelling 
by steamer along the north coast of the Dominican Republic he 
distinctly saw three of these birds flying in toward the land. More 
recently Moltoni reports a specimen collected at Moca, May 15, 1928, 
where the bird is to be considered a stray as this is an inland locality. 

This petrel nested formerly on Guadeloupe and Dominica in the 
Lesser Antilles in abundance but has not been found on its breeding 
grounds in recent years. Both J. T. Nichols and Wetmore have 
observed it in the past fifteen years at sea off the West Indian 
Islands. 

The black-capped petrel is dark brownish black above with white 
under parts and upper tail coverts and a white band across the hind- 
neck. It is about 370 mm. long, with the wing about 290 mm. The 
nostrils are tubular as in all birds of its group. 

Family HYDROBATIDAE 

OCEANODROMA LEUCORHOA LEUCORHOA (Vieillot) 

LEACH'S PETREL 

Procellaria leucorhoa Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 25, 1817, p. 422 
(maritime parts of Picardy, France). 

Dominican Republic, casual. 

On May 11, 1927, Wetmore shot a male Leach's petrel on Samana 
Bay midway between Sanchez and San Lorenzo Bay. The bird was 
alone and was flying low over the water. No one who examined it 
in Sanchez had ever seen one previously, and this individual must 
be considered merely a stray that had wandered in from the ocean. 
On Atlantic coasts the species nests from Maine north to Greenland 
and in winter passes south to the Equator or casually farther. It is 
seldom seen near land except on its breeding grounds. 

This petrel is slaty brown in color throughout, blacker on wings 
and tail, with a brownish band along the wing coverts, and white 
upper tail-coverts. It is about 185 mm. long with the wing from 
148 to 163 mm. long. The nostrils are enclosed in a tube. 

OCEANITES OCEANICUS OCEANICUS (Kuhl) 

WILSON'S PETREL 

Procellaria oceanica Kuhl, Beitrage Zool., 1S20, p. 136, pi. 10, fig. 1 (southern 
Atlantic Ocean, off the mouth of the Rio de la Plata). 21 

Oceanites oceanicus, Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 359 (Dominican Republic). 

21 Designated by Mathews, Birds Austr., vol. 2, May 30, 1912, p. 13. 



64 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Reported off the coast of the Dominican Republic; abundance 
uncertain. 

Danf orth writes that " three followed the S. S. Catherine for about 
an hour off the southeast coast of the Dominican Republic on June 
14." There is no other record. 

Wilson's petrel, like Leach's petrel, is black with white on the 
upper tail-coverts, but is a little smaller, and is distinguished by the 
longer tarsi, the feet in flight projecting beyond the end of the tail 
so that they are easily seen. 

Order PELECANIFORMES 
Suborder PHAETHONTES 

Family PHAETHONTIDAE 

PHAETHON LEPTUEUS CATESBYI Brandt 
YELLOW-BILLED TROPIC-BIED, ItAEIJUNCO, PAILLE-EN-ftUEUE 

Phaethon catesbyi Brandt, Bull. Soc. Imp. Sci. St. P6tersbourg, vol. 4, 1838, 
p. 98 (Bermuda). 

Phaeton catesbyi Bartsch, Smiths. Misc. Coll., vol. 68, no. 10, 1917, fig. 43 
(photo taken near Jereniie). 

Phaeton flavirostris, Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 1867, 
p. 98 (listed from Haiti). 

Phaethon flavirostris, Cory, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, March, 1885, 
pp. 175-176 (listed) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 84 (Haiti, Dominican 
Republic). — Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti. 1892, p. 323 (listed). — Cherrie, 
Field Columbian Mus., Ornith. ser., vol. 1, 1896, p. 26 (Santo Domingo City, 
specimens). 

Phaethon americanus, Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 137; Beneatb 
Tropic Seas, 1928, p. 218 (at sea ten miles off Mole St. Nicolas; Bizoton). 

Phaethon lepturus catesbyi, Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 
1928, p. 489 (Tortue Island). 

Phaethon lepturus catesbyi, Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 380 (Puerto Plata). 

Resident; locally along rocky coasts. 

Cherrie found the yellow-billed tropic-bird along the coasts of 
the Dominican Republic and reports two young and an adult female 
brought to him at Santo Domingo City on April 19, 1895. Danforth 
says that Emlen saw three at Puerto Plata, June 30, 1927. 

The tropic-bird is mentioned by Bryant without comment as re- 
ported from Haiti. Bartsch found a nesting colony of about fifty 
birds near Jeremie April 10 to 1G, 1917, and saw others at Trou des 
Roseaux April 14. Doctor Abbott secured a nestling nearly ready to 
fly at Jean Rabel Anchorage, May 30, 1917, and collected an adult 
male on Tortue Island, April 8, 1917. He says that tropic-birds 
breed in the latter locality. Beebe speaks of two seen off Mole St. 



THE BIRDS OP HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 65 

Nicolas and of one noted at Bizoton. Bond recorded them on the 
rugged north coast of Tortue Island, March 23, 1928, and believed 
that they were nesting there. 

The tropic-bird is found usually near rocky headlands or along sea- 
cliffs, but may occur casually anywhere along salt water. It is 
sometimes seen far at sea. 

The tropic-bird is white, the feathers of breast and back usually 
with a faint blush of pink, with black about the eye and on the 
wing. The strong bill is yellow or orange yellow. The young have 
the back rather finely barred with blackish. The bird is 480 to 600 
mm. or more long, the two long slender median tail feathers pro- 
jecting far beyond the others composing one half or more of this 
length. In general form it suggests a gull but is easily distinguished 
by the form of the tail. 

Suborder PELECANI 

Superfamily PELECANIDES 

Family PELECANIDAE 

PELECANUS OCCIDENTALIS OCCIDENTALIS Linnaeus 22 
BROWN PELICAN, ALCATRAZ, PELICAN, GRAND-GOSIER, BLAGUE-A-DIABLE 

Pelecanus onocrotalus p occidcntalis Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., eel. 12, vol. 1, 
1766, p. 215 (West Indies). 

Alcatraz, Oviedo, Hist. Gen. Nat. Indias, Libr. 14, Cap. 6, (Reprint) Madrid, 
1851, pp. 444-445 (Santo Domingo City; description, habits). 

Grand-Gosier, Charlevoix, Hist. Isle Espagnole, vol. 1, 1733, pp. 40-41 (de- 
scription; mention of white pelican). 

Pelecan, Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois., vol. 8, 1781, p. 294 (" Saint-Domingue "). — 
Descourtilz, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, pp. 241-243 (uses for pouch). 

Pelikan, Hartert, Nov. Zool., vol. 9, 1902, p. 293 (Sanchez). 

Pelecanus onocrotalus, Ritter, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, pp. 
152, 157 (listed). 

Pelecanus fuscus, Cory, Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, 1881, p. 155 (abundant) ; 
Birds Haiti and San Domingo, March, 1885, p. 172 (Port-au-Prince, St. Marc; 
common) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1S92. p. 85 (Haiti, Dominican Republic). — 
Tlppenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, pp. 317-318 (listed).— Cherrie, Field Col. 

22 Charlevoix (Hist. Isle Espagnole, vol. 1, 1733, pp. 40-41) described the pelican 
rather fully remarking " au bord de la mer, ofi sa couleur est toil jours, d'un cendie obscur, 
& de long des rivieres, ofl il est, au moins en quelques endroits, d'un tres-beau blanc." 
The last phrase seems to indicate the occurrence of the white pelican (Pelecanus 
erythrorhynchos) in early times, a species larger than tbe brown pelican and colored 
white. His observation is especially apt since he says that the white form occurs on 
rivers as the white pelican frequents fresh waters. However, no other report of the 
species is known so that this record, alone from the fact that it is made rather casually, 
is not considered sufficient to give the species full standing in the insular list, particu- 
larly since it is possible that Charlevoix may have confused the pelican with some other 
large white bird. 



66 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Mus., Ornith. ser., vol. 1, 1896, p. 26 (Samana, Bay).— Christy, Ibis, 1897, p. 
342 (Samana. Bay, common; nesting on Pelican Cays). — Yerrill, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sei. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 355 (abundant). 

Pelecanus occidentalis, Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, p. 396 
(Estero Balsa, Manzanillo Bay; Margante). — Ciferri, Segund. Inf. An. Est. 
Nac. Agr. Moca, 1927, p. 6 (listed). 

Pelecanus o. occidentalis, Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 138; Be- 
neath Tropic Seas, 1928, pp. 27, 29, 138, 218 (Sand Cay and Lamentin Reef, 
near Port-au-Prince). 

Pelecanus occidentalis occidentalis, Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 
vol. 80, 1928, p. 489 (Jacmel, Gonave Channel, Port-de-Paix, Gonave Island). — 
Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 360 (Boca Chica, San Pedro de Macoris, St. Marc, 
Les Salines, Gonave). — Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, p. 
308 (Haina, specimen). 

Resident, found along coasts in fair numbers. 

The brown pelican is found along the coasts, and is widely distrib- 
uted, being most abundant where fish abound in shallow bays. In 
spite of its ungainly form the brown pelican dives gracefully and 
swiftly from thirty feet or more in the air, and secures its food of 
fish in the scoop formed by the capacious pouch dependant from 
the lower mandibles. The fish captured are swallowed and are not 
held in the pouch as many suppose. 

Oviedo gives a description of the brown pelican and its method 
of feeding, and says that it was seen daily about Santo Domingo 
City. The size and capacity of the pouch were to him matters of 
much wonder. 

The only breeding resorts definitely known at this time in the 
Dominican Republic are on the Pelican Keys (called also Islas de 
los Pajaros) at the entrance to San Lorenzo Bay, and on Catalinita 
Island. (PL 13.) Christy describes the colony first mentioned as 
large but did not visit it personally. On May 11, 1927 Wetmore re- 
corded only half a dozen nearly grown young in this rookery, but 
nesting was nearly over for the year as he found numbers of young 
on the wing on Samana Bay, near the mouths of the Barrancota 
and Yuna Rivers, and along the beach east of Sanchez. The nests 
observed were built in the tops of low trees on the rocky slopes of 
the islets. Apparently the birds were more abundant in earlier 
years as Christy mentions a gathering of 600 at the head of Samana 
Bay after an easterly gale. Abbott secured a number of bones of 
the pelican in caves formerly inhabited by Indians, one fourth mile 
from the sea at San Lorenzo Bay. Peters saw a few pelicans at 
Estero Balsa on Manzanillo Bay February 10, and one at Margante 
March 13. Cherrie found them only in Samana Bay. September 
10 to 12, 1919, Abbott reported about one hundred nests, about half 
containing young, on the northern end of Catalinita Island. There 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN" REPUBLIC 67 

is a specimen (male) in the collection of J. H. Fleming taken Feb- 
ruary 16, 1907 by Verrill on Cayo Levantado opposite Samana. 
Danforth found the pelican in 1927 at Boca Chica and San Pedro 
de Macoris on the south coast, and Ciferri collected one at Haina, 
July 6, 1926. 

The species is fairly common along the coast of Haiti. BufTon 
in 1781 reported it on the authority of Deshayes, this being the 
earliest record for the republic. The bird occurs regularly but in 
small numbers in the vicinity of Port-au-Prince. Beebe, reports 
six seen regularly at Sand Cay and from ten to seventeen at Lamen- 
tin Eeef during the late winter and early spring of 1927. He ob- 
served them feeding on Jenkinsia and Atherina, and says that twice 
he saw a diving pelican collide with a yellow-tail, both fish and 
bird being in pursuit of the same prey. Bartsch recorded pelicans 
daily in April, 1917 in excursions about Jeremie, and also noted 
them at Trou des Roseaux April 13 and 14, and near Miragoane 
and Petit Goave April 9. Cory found the species at St. Marc, and 
Wetmore saw it in the vicinity of Gonai'ves April 28, 1927. Abbott 
secured skins of a young bird fully grown, and an adult male in 
breeding dress on Grande Cayemite Island, January 7 and 8, 1918. 
Another male was prepared as a skeleton. He took an adult female 
in much worn and faded plumage, on Gonave Island, February 26, 
1918, and reports the bird common there at that time. Danforth 
saw them at St. Marc, Les Salines, and on Gonave Island in the 
summer of 1927. Bond found them at Port-de-Paix, Jacmel, and 
in the Gonave channel, and was told of a breeding colony near the 
eastern end of Gonave Island. There may be another colony some- 
where along the north shore of the southern peninsula. Poole and 
Perrygo recorded a pelican at Anse a Galets, Gonave Island, Feb- 
ruary 28, 1929. Abbott was told by an American resident in St. 
Marc that thirty years ago pelicans had been far more plentiful 
but that large numbers had been slaughtered for their feathers and 
that since the species had not regained its earlier abundance. Des- 
courtilz writes that in his day the pouch of the pelican was put to 
various uses, as a pouch to carry shot or tobacco, as a water proof 
shoe which guarded the wearer against arthritis, or as a cape for 
children, which was supposed to ward off certain ills. 

The brown pelican is one of the largest sea birds on the island 
and is marked from all others by the long bill, 260 to nearly 300 
mm. in length, with a pouch bare of feathers suspended beneath. 
Adults in breeding plumage have the back of the neck deep chestnut 
while at other times this area is white. Young have the head and 
neck grayish brown. 



68 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Superfamily SULIDES 
Family SULIDAE 

SULA LEUCOGASTRA LEUCOGASTRA (Boddaert) 
BROWN BOOBY, BOBY, PAJARO BOBO, FOU 

Pelecanus leucogaster Boddaert, Table Planch. Enl., 1783, p. 57 (Cayenne). 

? Fou, Oesmblin, Hist. Avent. Flibustiers, vol. 1, 1775, pp. 356-357 (recorded; 
species not indicated). — Descourtilz, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, pp. 243-244 (two 
shot; species not indicated). 

Sula fusca, Salle, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1S57, p. 237 (recorded, eastern 
coast Dominican Republic). — Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, 
May, 1867, p. 97 (listed, Dominican Republic). 

Sula sula, Cory, Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 84 (Haiti, Dominican 
Republic). 

Sula leucogastra, Cory, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, March. 1885, p. 171 
(listed after Bryant).— Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 323 (listed).— 
Cieerri, Segund. Inf. An. Est. Agr. Moca, 1927, p. 6 (listed). — Lonnberg, 
Fauna och Flora, 1929, p. 99 (Navassa, specimen). — Ekman, Ark. for Bot, vol. 
22A, No. 16, p. 6 (Navassa, breeding). 

Sula leucogastra leucogastra, Danforth, Auk. 1929, p. 360 (Saona Island; 
Gonave).— Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, p. 308 (Beata). 

Recorded on the eastern and southern coasts of the Dominican Re- 
public; found on Navassa Island; of irregular occurrence in Haiti. 

Salle remarks that this booby is found along the sea in desert 
regions which would indicate that he saw it somewhere along the 
arid eastern coast of the Dominican Republic. Abbott (September 
12 to 18, 1919) saw several near Saona Island but did not take speci- 
mens. He reports a booby of some kind on a mid-channel buoy 
near Sanchez (March, 1919) but did not identify it. Danforth saw 
a few off Saona Island June 14, 1927. Ciferri obtained one alive on 
Beata Island in May, 1926. The brown booby breeds in numbers on 
Mona and Desecheo Islands in Mona Passage between Hispaniola 
and Porto Rico, so that it should occur regularly near the adjacent 
Dominican coast in its excursions for food. Nesting colonies are 
found also among the Bahamas so that it should come at times to 
the northern shores of both republics. This booby fishes at sea so 
that it is not seen frequently except from vessels, or near its 
colonies. It obtains its food by diving from the air. 

Oexmelin records a booby from Tortue Island, and Descourtilz 
reports that he shot two, but in neither case is there definite indica- 
tion of the species. Cory reports the brown booby from Haiti but 
without known basis so that his record is doubtful. Danforth writes 
that F. P. Mathews saw three at Boucan Legume, Gonave Island, 
July 18, 1927. Ekman secured a specimen on Navassa Island, 
according to Doctor Lonnberg, and found them breeding there. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 69 

The adult brown booby has the entire upper surface, the neck and 
upper breast dark brown, and the remainder of the lower surface 
white. Immature birds are entirely grayish brown, paler below, 
with the primaries blackish. In the first year it is similar to the red- 
footed booby of similar age but does not have the red feet of that 
species and is slightly larger. The brown booby is approximately 
760 mm. in length and has a strong, heavy bill. 

SULA PISCATOR (Linnaens) 
RED-FOOTED BOOBY, PAJARO BOBO, FOTT 

Pelecanus piscator Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1, 1758, p. 134 (Java 
Seas). 

Sula piscator, Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 519 
(listed). — Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 360 (Saona Island). — Lonnberg, Fauna och 
Flora, 1929, p. 100 (Navassa, specimens). — Ekman, Ark. for Bot., vol. 22A, 
No. 16, p. 6 (Navassa, breeding). 

Recorded from Navassa Island, and off the Haitian coast opposite ; 
probably breeding on Navassa. 

Mr. W. B. Alexander informs me that on March 8, 1926, as he 
passed Navassa Island small parties of red-footed boobies flying 
over the sea were frequent, and were in view regularly until evening 
when the high mountains of Haiti were dimly visible through the 
haze. Toward evening the birds were evidently heading toward 
Navassa Island to spend the night. Dr. E. L. Ekman secured two 
on Navassa that he forwarded to Lonnberg, and writes that the birds 
were nesting there in numbers. 

There is a breeding colony on Desecheo Island in Mona Passage 
so that these birds may be expected at times to range off the eastern 
coast of the Dominican Republic with the brown booby. Danforth 
records one seen by F. P. Mathews near Saona Island, June 14, 1927. 

The red-footed booby has habits similar to those of the related 
species and likewise secures its food by diving from the air. 

The adult of this species is marked by pure white plumage except 
for the black primaries and black tips on the greater wing coverts 
and secondaries. The immature bird is sooty gray, paler on the 
head and lower surface, with a very faintly indicated darker band 
across the breast, and whitish tips on the tail. In a later stage the 
undersurface may be nearly white with faint indication of the dark 
pectoral band and the dorsal surface paler gray. Occasional indi- 
viduals that appear fully adult have the posterior part of the body, 
including the tail pure white, and the rest of the plumage gray. 
The immature stage is distinguished from the brown booby only 
by slightly smaller size and red feet and tarsi. In this dress the 
two can rarely be separated unless in the hand except by one familiar 
with them. 



70 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

[SULA DACTYLATRA DACTYLATRA Lesson 
BLUE-FACED BOOBY 

Sula dactylatra Lesson, Trait e" d'Orn., 1831, p. 601 (Ascension Island). 

Sula dactylatra?, Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 1867, 
p. 97 (Haiti, listed). 

Sula cyanops, Cory, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, March, 1885, pp. 170- 
171 (listed) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 84 (Haiti, Dominican Repub- 
lic). — Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 323 (listed). 

The blue-faced booby was reported with a query from Haiti by 
Bryant, merely as a name without comment of any kind. The record 
is considered very doubtful and seems to be the basis for other reports 
of this species from this area. The note may refer perhaps to the 
red-footed species. 

The blue-faced booby nested formerly in the Bahamas, but is not 
known elsewhere nearby, the nearest modern breeding colonies known 
to us being Alacran reefs on the coast of Yucatan, and Los Hermanos 
Islands, Venezuela. The adult is white like the red-footed booby 
but has the tail feathers, except the middle pair, sooty brown. The 
young is dark grayish brown above with whitish streaks on back and 
rump, and white below with grayish streaks on the flanks.] 

[Family PHALACROCORACIDAE] 

[PHALACROCORAX AURITUS FLORIDANUS (Audubon) ? 
FLORIDA CORMORANT, GRAND GOSIER 

Carbo floridanus Audubon, Birds Ainer. (folio), vol. 3, 1835, pi. 252 (Florida 
Keys). 

Cormoran, Descourtilz, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, pp. 239-241 (common near 
the sea). 

Descourtilz includes in his list of birds "le Cormoran, appele a 
Saint-Domingue Grand-Gosier, Brisson, torn. VI pag. 511, pi. XLV." 
He describes it as common near the sea and says that the pouch is 
used to carry tobacco, as the negroes believe that it keeps the leaves 
fresh. Since Descourtilz traveled also in Cuba where the Florida 
cormorant is common it is possible that his observations pertain to 
that island and that he is in error in ascribing the species to His- 
paniola. We have chosen to consider the record uncertain in view of 
the fact that some of the ornithological 1 observations of Descourtilz 
who was primarily a botanist seem open to question. It must be 
borne in mind however that this author came to the island in 1799 
when conditions may have differed from those at present, and that 
further the region between Gonaives and the mouth of the Artibonite 
where Descourtilz worked extensively has not been studied carefully 
by an ornithologist. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 71 

The Florida cormorant is from 535 to 760 mm. long with the 
wing about 305 mm. The adult is black with a greenish sheen 
and has a tuft of white feathers on each side of the crown when in 
breeding dress. The young are dull grayish brown. The bird has 
a long body, long neck, webbed feet like those of a pelican, and a 
hooked bill.] 

Suborder FREGATAE 

Family FREGATIDAE 

FREGATA MAGNIFICENS Mathews 

FRIGATE-BIRD, MAN-O'-WAR BIRD, RABIHORCADO, RABIJUNCO, 
TIJERILLA, FREGATE 

Fregata minor magnificens Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, vol. 2, December 19, 
1914, p. 120 (Barrington Island, Galapagos Archipelago). 

Fregate, Oexmelin, Hist. Avent. Flibustiers, vol. 1, 1775, pp. 357-35S 
(habits). — Saint-Mery, Descript! Part. Frang. lie Saint-Domingue, vol. 1, 1797, 
p. 717 (near Port-de-Paix). 

Man of War Bird, $aint-Mery, Descript. Span. Part Saint-Domingo, vol. 1, 
1798, pp. 192-193 (Samana Bay). 

Tachypetes aquilus, Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 1867, 
p. 98 (Haiti).— Cory, Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, 1881, p. 155 (Haiti; seen) ; 
Birds Haiti and San Domingo, March, 1885, pp. 173-174 (shot). — Christy, 
Ibis, 1897, p. 342 (Samana Bay). 

Tachypetes aquilis, Tippenhatjee, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 323 (listed). 

Fregata aquila, Cory, Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 85 (Haiti, Dominican 
Republic). — Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 355 (San 
Lorenzo Bay). 

Fregata magnificens, Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. vol. 61, 1917, p. 397 
(North Coast, Dominican Republic). — Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 
vol. 80, 1928, p. 489 (Gonave channel, Port-de-Paix). — Danforth, Auk, 1929, 
p. 360 (Saona Island, Santo Domingo City, San Pedro de Macoris, Boca Chica, 
Gonave). — Lonnberg, Fauna och Flora, 1929, p. 99 (Navassa, specimen). — 
Ekman, Ark. for Bot, vol. 22A, No. 16, p. 6 (Navassa). 

Fregata magnificens rothschildi, Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 138 ; 
Beneath Tropic Seas, 1928, p. 218 (Port-au-Prince; Fregate Island, breeding). 

Kesident ; seen in small numbers along the coasts, locally common. 

Moreau de Saint-Mery records the man-6-war bird among the 
small islands of Samana Bay, and in his remarks concerning the 
species says "the cooling oil of which is excellent for the gout 
and the sciatica." His observations evidently refer to the colony 
on the islands that comprise the Pelican Keys or Islas de los 
Pajaros at the entrance of San Lorenzo Bay, where the birds still 
nest today. (PL 13.) Doctor Abbott, on March 16, 1919, reported 
about forty or fifty pairs in this colony, and collected two sets of 
two eggs each, and a pair of adult birds. He notes one set of 
eggs as fairly well incubated, and says that some of the nests con- 



72 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

tained young. The eggs are dull white, with chalky shells, more 
or less nest-stained. The two sets measure 71.3 by 49.8 and 67.4 
by 47.5; 72.3 by 48.7 and 65.5 by 49.2 mm. On May 11, 1927, in 
this colony Wetmore recorded twenty occupied nests containing 
well-grown young, some nearly able to fly. The nests were grouped 
closely in several small trees at the summit of the islet, fifty feet 
above the water. Adults soared silently overhead watching as two 
men landed on a rock shelf from a launch and climbed up the steep 
slopes through the matted vegetation. The nests were composed of 
fair-sized twigs formed into a loose platform. One young bird that 
was brought away as a specimen is covered with white down except 
for the bare throat, and has the brown tertials and interscapulars 
well developed, while the primaries and secondaries are barely break- 
ing the growing sheaths. The early growth of the feathers of the 
back is a highly practical adaptation to the needs of the bird since 
these feathers serve to protect the body from both sun and rain, a 
matter of importance as the nests are wholly exposed. This young 
bird had the usual habit of clattering the bill loudly and biting 
when approached. It was able to break the skin on the back of 
a man's hand with the sharp hook at the end of the bill. 

From this colony the adult birds range over all of Samana Bay. 
Christy speaks of them as seen several times, and Verrill mentions 
them. Wetmore saw them at the mouth of the Arroyo Barrancota, 
and once along the beach east of Sanchez. Peters mentions them as 
seen occasionally along the north coast of the Dominican Republic 
between February 6 and April 11, 1916, but says that they were by 
no means common. Abbott reported them as common on Saona 
Island from September 12 to 18, 1919, and says that when he first 
visited Samana Bay in 1883 he found the birds in thousands so that 
their numbers have greatly decreased. Danforth in 1927 found them 
off Saona Island, June 14, Santo Domingo City, June 14, San Pedro 
de Macoris, July 1, and Boca Chica, July 4. 

The frigate bird is regular in occurrence on the coasts of Haiti but 
has been little recorded. Oexmelin in 1775 describes their habit of 
pursuing boobies to make them disgorge food, which the frigate then 
seizes, and says that this is the most diverting thing to be seen in 
America! Saint-Mery reports them near Port-de-Paix. Cory re- 
marks that his party saw and shot several but gives no localities. 
Doctor Bartsch reports the species near Jeremie from April 11 to 16, 
near the Trou des Roseaux April 13 and 14, and near Port-au-Prince 
April 19, 1917. At the Etang Miragoane on the north coast of the 
southern peninsula, on April 1, 1927, Wetmore observed half a dozen 
circling high overhead and finalty passing over toward the sea at 
an altitude where they were barely visible from the earth. Their 
presence at this point was strange as the lake has sweet water. He 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AXD THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 73 

observed one on April 27 flying above the landing at Caracol. Abbott 
found a few on Gonave Island February 18 to 28, 1918, and Beebe 
reports a breeding colony on January, 1927, on Fregate Island at 
the eastern end of Gonave. Danforth saw them about Gonave July 
17 to 20, 1927, and Poole and Perrygo observed two on February 27, 
1929, in crossing from St. Marc to Anse a Galets. Bond saw them 
in the Gonave channel, and near Port-de-Paix. Ekman collected one 
on Navassa Island, reported by Lonnberg, and reports that they nest 
on this island. 

This species is parasitic in habit, depending for food upon prey 
taken by force from weaker companions. At San Lorenzo Bay the 
frigate bird nested adjacent to colonies of terns and pelicans that 
might serve to capture its food. 

The male frigate bird is entirely black, with a greenish or violet 
sheen above. On the throat is a bare sac that is brilliant red in the 
breeding season and may be inflated like a top balloon. At other 
periods of the year it is shrunken, and is colored orange. The female 
is dull black, with the breast and foreneck white, and a brown band 
along the wing coverts. The bill is long and strongly hooked, while 
the feet and tarsi are extraordinarily small and weak compared to 
the size of the body. The tail is long and deeply forked. The 
species varies from 950 to 1050 millimeters in length. 

Order CICONIIFORMES 
Suborder ARDEAE 

Family ARDEIDAE 23 
Subfamily Ardeinae 

ARDEA HERODIAS ADOXA Oberholser 

WEST INDIAN GREAT BLUE HERON, GARZON CENICIENTO, CITACO, 
RECONGO, GROS QTJOCK, LA GIRONDE 

Ardea herodias adoxa Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 43, Dec. 12, 
1912, p. 544 (Curacao Island). — Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 
vol. 80, 1928, p. 489 (Port-au-Prince, Port-de-Paix, Lake Enriquillo). — Dan- 
forth, Auk, 1929, p. 360 (Monte Cristi, Aquin, Les Salines, Gonave). — Moltoni, 
Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, p. 308 (Santiago, specimens). 

Ardca herodias, Cherrie, Field Columbian Mus., Orn. ser., vol. 1, 1896, p. 25 
(mouth of Rio Ozama).— Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 323 (listed).— 
Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 138 ; Beneath Tropic Seas, 1928, pp. 70, 
218 (one taken, two seen). 

Ardea herodias repens, Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, p. 397 
(Rio Yaqui ; between Gaspar Hernandez and Rio San Juan). 

23 Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 323, lists Ardea occidentalis without comment 
as found in Haiti. The record is regarded here as erroneous. 



74 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Resident; fairly common, mainly in coastal region. 

The West Indian great blue heron is found locally, mainly in 
extensive lagoons and marshes near the coast. The species is seem- 
ingly resident though no nesting sites have j^et been recorded. 

Cherrie saw these birds frequently in 1895 along the Rio Ozama 
near Santo Domingo City, and Peters observed several along the 
Rio Yaqui del Norte near Monte Cristi on February 6, 1916, and a 
few others at widely scattered localities between Gaspar Hernandez 
and the Rio San Juan early in March. Dr. W. L. Abbott observed 
this bird on Lake Enriquillo near Duverge, and Bond found it in 
1928 on this same large lake. Danforth records it at Monte Cristi 
July 24 to 27 and August 5, 1927. Poole and Perrygo in 1929 in work 
in the small islands of the Seven Brothers group off the north coast of 
Haiti recorded one on Tercero Island on January 30, and one on 
Ratas Island February 4. In both cases the birds flew across to 
Monte Grande Island. Ciferri obtained two specimens near San- 
tiago, D. R., January 1, 1928. 

An adult male taken by Abbott near Sanchez, February 12, 1919, 
agrees with the diagnosis for the subspecies adoxa in being paler 
above than Ardea herodias herodias of the United States. It has the 
following measurements : Wing 467 mm., tail 180 mm., culmen from 
base 149.8 mm., tarsus 178 mm. Very little material in this species 
has been collected in the West Indies. 

There is comparatively little known of the occurrence of this 
heron in Haiti. Dr. Paul Bartsch observed it on the Etang Saumatre 
near Glore on April 3, 1917, and at Trou Caiman the following day. 
In crossing the coastal lagoons and mudflats between Gonaives and 
Desdunes by airplane on April 28, 1927, with Capt. R. A. Pressley, 
United States Marine Corps, Wetmore observed about thirty of 
these birds. The majority were in the delta of Riviere de 1' Estere, 
south of Gonaives. On the same trip several were noted in the 
coastal lagoons near Port-au-Prince. 

It was a curious experience to look down on these great birds and 
the multitude of other herons from an airplane, and to observe the 
confusion spread among them as the great vehicle approached and 
passed. There would seem to be a rookery somewhere near Gonaives. 
The birds usually nest in trees but where these are not suitable they 
may select low bushes or may even make nests on the ground amonc 
rushes. Danforth found them at Aquin July 23, Les Salines July 30, 
and on Gonave Island July 16, 1927. Beebe reports a bird in im- 
mature dress taken near Port-au-Prince and two others seen, one at 
Source Matelas March 21, 1927- Bond saw them near Port-au-Prince 
and Port-de-Paix, and says that they are rare. Poole and Perrygo 
recorded one at Fort Liberte February 6, and three at Anse a Galets 
on Gonave Island February 28. 



THE BIEDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 75 

The great blue heron is a solitary species except when breeding 
when it usually gathers in colonies. It feeds in shallow bays or 
marshes standing rigidly in the water with head bent forward, wait- 
ing motionless for the small fishes that form its principal prey to 
approach the surface when they are seized with a quick forward 
thrust, held for a moment until their struggles moderate, and then 
are swallowed. The flight is performed with a steady flapping of 
the broad wings, with the neck drawn in against the forepart of the 
body. 

As the great blue heron is the largest of the long-legged, long- 
necked heron tribe in the island it can be confused with no other 
species. In general the bird is gray, with black and white markings 
on head and breast, and rufous tibiae. The one collected by Abbott 
measured 1,160 mm. in length. 

CASMERODIUS ALBUS EGRETTA (Gmelin) 
EGRET, GARZA REAL, GARZON BLANCO, CRABIER BLANC, QUOCK BLANC 

Ardea egretta Gmelin, Syst. Nat., vol. 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 629 (Cayenne). 

Grande Aigrette, Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois., vol. 7, 1780, p. 378, (" Saint- 
Domingue "). 

Grande Aigrette Blanche, Descourtilz, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, pp. 222-224 
(common). 

Herodias leuce, Salle, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, p. 236 (listed). 

Ardea leuce, Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 1867, p. 97 
(Dominican Republic). 

Ardea egretta, Bitter, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, pp. 151, 157 
(Fort Royal, specimen).— Cory, Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 89 (Haiti, 
Dominican Republic). — Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, pp. 317, 3213 
(listed). — Christy, Ibis, 1897, pp. 340-341 (Yuna swamps; mouth of Barran- 
cota, breeding). 

Gasmerodius alius egretta, Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 138; Be- 
neath Tropic Seas, 1928, p. 219 (Port-au-Prince, one). — Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 489 (Trou Caiman, specimen). 

Gasmerodius alba egretta, Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 360 (Laguna del Salodillo, 
Les Salines). 

Resident ; formerly common, now rare. 

Buffon includes " Saint-Domingue " in the range of this heron 
without further comment as to locality. Salle the next earliest writer 
to report this heron says merely that it is known as the white heron. 
Christy in 1893 found the egret common in the Yuna swamps at the 
head of Samana Bay, and reported a breeding colony on February 
18, on a rocky island near the mouth of the Arroyo Barrancota, that 
contained about one hundred birds. He speaks of shooting several 
and says that occasionally the merchants of Sanchez sent the plumes 
of these birds to New York for sale. Since that time the species 
has decreased so that apparently few remain. Abbott has recorded 
it from Lake Enriquillo near Duverge from October 1 to 6, 1919. 



76 BULLETIN" 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Wetmore did not succeed in finding it in 1927, but Danforth observed 
one at the Laguna del Salodillo, near Copey, June 26, 1927. 

The earliest report for Haiti is that of Ritter who speaks of find- 
ing the egret near Fort Royal and says that he secured a specimen. 
Bartsch recorded it at Trou Caiman, April 4, 1917, and on the coastal 
flats north of Port-au-Prince April 25. Beebe reports that during 
the late winter and early spring of 1927 a solitary bird flew back and 
forth past his schooner anchored off the Bizoton wharves to feeding 
and resting places. Danforth saw three at Les Salines July 30, 1927. 
Bond shot one at Trou Caiman January 15, 1928, and saw another 
at the same point on June 15. 

The egret is found usually in mangrove swamps, in shallow bays, 
or along the reefs of the coastal region. Its long pursuit by man 
for the handsome plumes that adorn its back in the breeding season 
have brought the species near extermination throughout its range, 
and constant persecution has made the few survivors wary and dif- 
ficult of approach. Now that fashion has been informed that the 
decorative plumes are at their highest stage only when young birds 
are hatching in the nest so that when the parents are killed the 
young are left to starve sentiment has turned tardily in favor of the 
egret and there is no longer a market, other than a surreptitious one, 
for the beautiful feathers that have brought the species so near ex- 
tinction. In the southern United States egrets are increasing under 
this protection but unfortunately in tropical America the country 
man still has in mind the former high value of " Garza" plumes 
and is inclined to kill the birds at every opportunity. It is highly 
desirable that this attitude change as the species is one of those 
graceful and interesting forms whose esthetic appeal when alive far 
outweighs the value of the few filamentous feathers that may be 
cut from its dead body that is then cast aside in the stinking mud 
of the swamps and left a prey to scavenger crabs and flesh flies, 
while its young slowly starve in the trees above. 

The egret is the largest of the herons of pure white plumage in 
this region, being a little more than a meter in length with the wing 
measuring about 381 mm. In life it is distinguished by large size 
coupled with yellow bill and black tarsi. 

EGRETTA THULA THULA (Molina) 
SNOWY HERON, GARZA BLANCA, CRABIER BLANC, QTTOCK BLANC 

Ardea TKula Molina, Sagg. Stor. Nat. Chili, 1782, p. 235 (Chile). 

Aigretta, Descourtilz, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1S09, pp. 227-228 (mentioned). 

Ardea alba minor, Descouktilz, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, pp. 62-63 (plain of 
the Artibonite). 

Herodias candidissima, Salle, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1S57, p. 236 (listed). — 
Hitter, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, pp. 151-157 (Fort Royal).— 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 77 

Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 1867, p. 97 (listed).— 
Tristram, Ibis, 1884, p. 168 (specimen, Dominican Republic). — Cory, Birds 
Haiti and San Domingo, Dec, 1884, p. 153; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 
89 (Haiti and Dominican Ptepublic). — Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, pp. 
317, 323 (listed). 

Egretta thula thula, Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, p. 397 
(Monte Cristi, and mouths of Bios Piedra, Ori and San Juan). — Beebe, Zool. 
Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 13S (Etang Miragoane) ; Beneath Tropic Seas, 1928, 
p. 219 (Etang Miragoane). — Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 
1928, p. 490. — Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 360 (Vaequez, Monte Cristi, Bonao). — 
Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, p. 308 (Bonao, specimens). 

Resident, in the lagoons and marshes of the lowlands, mainly near 
the coast; now rare. 

Salle has included the snowy heron in his list of birds from the 
Dominican Republic without record of where he saw it, his notes 
apparently furnishing the basis for subsequent inclusion of the 
species by Bryant and Cory. Tristram 24 records a specimen with- 
out locality in a collection made by C. McGrigor. Peters seems to 
be the only observer who has found the bird in any numbers. He 
noted it at Monte Cristi February 6, 1916, and near the mouths of 
the Rios Piedra, Ori, and San Juan from March 3 to 14, at times in 
small flocks. Abbott' found it uncommon at Lake Enriquillo near 
Duverge from October 1 to 6, 1919. Danforth found it near Vasquez 
June 25, near Monte Cristi August 5, and on the Yuna near Bonao 
August 7, 1927. Ciferri collected three on the Yuna near Bonao 
February 8 and April 5 and 6, 1927. 

In Haiti Abbott secured a male at Jeremie on December 28, 1917, 
and Bartsch recorded the snowy heron at Trou Caiman April 4, 
1917. Beebe saw six or eight at the Etang Miragoane, March 2, 
1927, and Bond observed it at the same point in 1928. It is probable 
that this species was represented among many white herons seen 
by Wetmore from an airplane on April 28, 1927, in passing over 
the coastal swamps south of Gonai'ves, but of the identity of these 
the observer could not be certain. Descourtilz, in April, 1799, found 
the snowy heron common at " lagon Peinier " in the plain of the 
Artibonite, and says that the scapular plumes were sold for one 
hundred francs per ounce, being more valuable than those of the 
large species. Ritter reported the snowy heron near Fort Royal. 

These graceful birds are found in lowland swamps and lagoons, 
often among mangroves but also on fresh waters farther inland 
where they feed on fishes and large insects. They are alert and 
wary and seldom permit close approach. Their nuptial plumes 
though smaller than those of the large egret have been highly prized 

- 4 Ibis, 1884, p. 168. 

2134—31 6 



78 BULLETIN" 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

in the past and have led to the destruction of untold thousands. 
There is little definite data as to the former abundance of the snowy 
heron in Hispaniola, but it is probable that it was common and has 
been reduced in numbers by plume hunters as in Cuba and Porto 
Rico. 

The snowy heron is one of the smaller species to be confused 
mainly with the white immature stage of the little blue heron, from 
which it is distinguished by entirely white primaries when in the 
hand, and when alive by the black legs and black bill, the latter 
being yellow only at the base. It is much smaller than the egret; 
the one taken by Abbott measured 565 mm., with the wing 252 mm. 

DICHROMANASSA RUFESCENS RUFESCENS (Gmelin) 
REDDISH EGRET, GARZA 

Ardea rufescens Gmelin, Syst. Nat., vol. 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 628 (Louisiana). 

Ardea rufa, Cory, Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, 1881, p. 154 (Haiti, seen) ; 
Birds Haiti and San Domingo, Dec, 1884, pp. 152-153 (specimens). — Tippen- 
hauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 323 (listed). 

Ardea rufescens, Cory, Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 89 (Haiti, Dominican 
Republic). 

Dichromanassa rufescens, Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 360 (Artibonite). 

Dichromanassa rufescens rufescens, Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 
vol. 80, 1928, p. 520 (listed). 

Apparently a rare resident in Haiti and the Dominican Republic. 

Cory in 1881 reports several seen without mentioning definite 
locality, later (1885) remarking " probably resident in San Domingo. 
Several specimens were taken." The only specimen that we have 
seen is a female in white phase taken by Abbott at the eastern end of 
Lake Enriquillo on October 2, 1919. He informs us that he saw birds 
in the reddish phase but is now uncertain as to the locality. Dan- 
forth reports two seen on the Artibonite Sloughs above St. Marc 
July 29, 1927. 

Examination of a small series of these herons in the United States 
National Museum collection, including five adults from various 
localities in Lower California but only three from the eastern part 
of the range of the species (one from Florida and two from Cozumel 
Island), bear out the contention of Van Rossem in describing 
Dichromanassa rufescens dickeyi 25 as new that birds from Lower 
California are darker on the head and neck. Part of our series from 
Lower California however have the tips of the dorsal plumes pale as 
in the eastern birds. 

The reddish egret, a species larger than the little blue heron or 

^Dichromanassa rufescens dickeyi Condor, 1926, p. 246. (San Luis Island, Lower 
California.) 



THE BIED3 OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 79 

snowy heron, in the dark phase has the head and neck rufous chest- 
nut and the remainder of the body plumage dark bluish slate. About 
thirty plumes that grow from the back and extend beyond the tail 
are slaty, tipped more or less with whitish. There is also a white 
phase in which the bird is entirely white except occasionally for a 
slight grayish mottling at the tips of the primaries. The specimen 
secured by Doctor Abbott had a total length of 715 mm. and a wing 
measurement of 320 mm. The dark phase is readily recognized but 
the white form, formerly considered a distinct species is sometimes 
identified with difficulty. In the hand it is found that the reddish 
egret has the tarsus twice as long as the middle toe without the claw 
while in the egret, snowy heron and little blue heron the tarsus is 
decidedly less than twice the middle toe without the claw. This 
measurement is sufficient to determine any white specimen of the 
present species. 

HTDRANASSA TRICOLOR RUFICOLLIS (Gosse) 
LOUISIANA HERON, GARZA, CRABIER, QTTOCX 

Egretta ruficollis Gosse, Birds Jamaica, 1847, p. 338 (Jamaica). 

Demi-Aigrette, Descoubtllz, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, pp. 228-229 (recorded 
from Haiti). 

Ardea leucogastra, Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 323 (listed). 

Hydranassa tricolor, Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 139 ; Beneath 
Tropic Seas, 1928, pp. 67, 70, 108, 219 (near Port-au-Prince). 

Hydranassa tricolor ruficollis, Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, 
p. 397 (Mouth of Rio Piedra). — Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 
80, 1928, p. 490 (Etang Miragoane, Trou Caiman, Port-de-Paix, Fort Liberie, 
Gonave Island). — Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 360 (Monte Cristi, Laguna del 
Salodillo, specimens). 

Resident; common in the mangrove swamps and lagoons of the 
coast, about the salt lakes of the Cul-de-Sac plain, and the fresh 
water lagoons of the lowlands. 

Though the Louisiana Heron is fairly common in both republics 
it has been seldom reported in print. Peters recorded one seen near 
the mouth of the Rio Piedra, D. R. on March 16, 1916. Doctor 
Abbott secured specimens near Sanchez February 13, 1919, and at 
the eastern end of Lake Enriquillo on October 5, 1919. Wetmore 
observed one on the Arroyo Barrancota, May 8, 1927, and others on 
the islands known as Cayos de los Pajaros at the entrance of San 
Lorenzo Bay May 11. It is possible that they breed with other 
herons at this latter locality. Danforth in 1927 saw them at Monte 
Cristi, Laguna del Salodillo and Vasquez. 

In Haiti Abbott collected specimens on Cayemite Island January 
5, 1918, on the Etang Saumatre March 6, 1918, at Trou Caiman 
April 7, 1920, and at Port a l'Ecu June 28, 1917. The bird from 



80 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Cayemite Island is in immature dress and probably indicates breed- 
ing in that locality. Bartsch reports the Louisiana heron near Glore 
on the Etang Saumatre April 3, 1917, at Trou Caiman April 4, and 
from the salt-flats north of Port-au-Prince April 25. Beebe saw 
three near Port-au-Prince during a period of three months in 1927, 
and records them also at Source Matelas January 13 and March 21, 
and at the fitang Miragoane. 

Wetmore found this species common in the marshes of the Etang 
Miragoane April 1, 1927, observed several in the coastal lagoons near 
Aquin April 3, and one on the open beach near Cap-Haitien April 
26. On April 28 in passing by airplane at a very low altitude above 
the mangrove-bordered lagoons south of Gonai'ves he recorded many 
with multitudes of other herons. He noted approximately four hun- 
dred of the present species rising from shallow water in one opening 
in the swamps. Danforth in 1927 saw it at Port-au-Prince, Aquin, 
Etang Miragoane, Gona'ives, Les Salines, Cap-Ha'itien and Anse a 
Galets, Gonave Island. Bond, who found the species at the Etang 
Miragoane, Trou Caiman, Port-de-Paix, Fort Liberte and on Gonave 
Island considered it the most common heron of Haiti with the excep- 
tion of the green heron. Poole and Perrygo collected two males at 
Fort Liberte February 12 and 18, 1929. 

The Louisiana heron is confined entirely to the lowlands where, as 
has been indicated, it is found usually in the coastal lagoons but may 
range also in fresh-water marshes when these are extensive. It is 
largely restricted to marshy and swampy habitats and is seldom 
found feeding in the dry fields so often frequented by other small 
herons. 

This species has the upper parts largely dark slate, with buffy 
tips to the dorsal plumes; throat white, with more or less chest- 
nut on the foreneck; breast mingled slaty and white and abdomen 
entirely white. The bird measures from 600 to 660 mm. in length. 
Among a group of birds characterized by thin form the Louisiana 
heron is more slender and elongated than any of the others here 
treated, so that it is distinguished at a glance by its long thin neck, 
long bill, and slender legs. 

FLORIDA CAERULEA CAERULESCENS (Latham) 

LITTLE BLUE HERON, GARZA AZITL, GARZA BLANCA, CRABIER, CRABIER 
BLEU, CRABIER NOIR, CRABIER BLANC, 0.U0CK, 0.U0CK BLANC, METIS 

Ardea caerulescens Latham, Index Orn., vol. 2, 1790, p. G90 (Cayenne). 
Metis, Descourttlz, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, pp. 224-227 (Haiti). 
Crabier Bleu, Descourtim, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1S09, pp. 229-230 (Haiti). 
Little Blue Heron, Beebe, Beneath Tropic Seas, 1928, p. 108 (fitang 
Miragoane). 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 81 

Ardea caerulea, Hitter, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, p. 157 
(listed). — Cory, Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, 1881, p. 155 (specimens, Haiti) ; 
Birds Haiti and San Domingo, Dec, 1884, p. 154 (idem.) ; Cat. West Indian 
Birds, 1892, p. 90 (Haiti, Dominican Republic). — Tristbam, Ibis, 1884, p. 168 
(specimen, Dominican Republic) ; Cat. Coll. Birds belonging H. B. Tristram. 
1889, p. 270 (specimen, Dominican Republic). — Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 
1892, pp. 317, 323 (listed).— Cherrie, Field Columbian Mus., Ornith. ser., vol. 
1, 1896, p. 25 (specimen).— Christy, Ibis, 1897, pp. 338-339 (Sanchez). 

Ardea caerulea caerulescens, Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 
1909, p. 355 (abundant). 

Florida caerulea, Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 6, 1917, pp. 397-398 
(common). 

Florida caerulea caerulescens, Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 
80, 1928, p. 490 (Etang Miragoane, Fort Liberie, Gonave Island). — Danforth, 
Auk, 1929. p. 360 ( common ) .— Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, 
p. 308 (Bonao, Santiago, specimens). 

Resident; common in the lowlands, particularly in the coastal 
lagoons. 

The little blue heron is one of the common herons of the island, 
that through lack of decorative plumes has escaped the fate of the 
more highly ornamented egrets. It is found in great abundance in 
the shallow lagoons grown with mangroves that often border the 
outer margins of the coastal plain, particularly at the mouths of 
streams, and also occurs inland about fresh water lakes. In addition 
it ranges in the interior along some of the small streams where these 
flow quietly with sluggish current. 

In the vicinity of Samana Bay these herons abound. Verrill 
records them as common on the water front near the town of 
Samana, and in the collection of J. H. Fleming there is a series 
of eleven skins taken by Verrill on the Caria Honda, San Lorenzo 
Bay, from December 30, 190G to January 12, 1907. They range 
along the lower Yuna and Arroyo Barrancota, and on May 11, 1927, 
Wetmore found a number of occupied nests containing either eggs 
or small young in trees on the slopes of the Cayos de los Pajaros 
at the entrance of San Lorenzo Bay. Christy reported them as com- 
mon and Peters found them on the north coast. Abbott recorded 
them near Duverge on Lake Enriquillo from October 1 to 6, 1919. 
Ciferri obtained specimens near Bongo on the Rio Masimpedro 
December 12, 1926, on the Yuna February 2, 8 and 20, 1927, and at 
Santiago October 20, 1927. 

In Haiti Abbott secured one at Moron on December 18, 1918, an 
inland localitj^, and "Wetmore saw the species along a small stream, 
the Riviere des Cotes de Fer, at the Coffee Experiment Station at 
Fonds-des-Negres. Little blue herons were seen in many hundreds 
by Wetmore on April 28, 1927, in passing in an airplane low over the 
lagoons near Gonai'ves and Desdunes. From some of the bays a 



82 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

veritable cloud of birds rose, the majority being the present species. 
He observed them further at Aquin, Etang Miragoane, Gressier, 
Port-au-Prince, Cap Haitien and Caracol, all during April, 1927. 
James Bond recorded them at the Etang Miragoane, Fort Liberte 
and on Gonave Island. F. P. Mathews saw them on Gonave Island 
in July, 1927, according to Danforth. Poole and Perrygo saw this 
species at Grand Riviere January 21, 1929, on Tercero Island, in the 
Seven Brothers group January 30, and collected two adults and two 
in white immature dress at Fort Liberte February 11, 12 and 15, 
1929. Further they secured an adult four miles south of Cerca-la- 
Source March 23, 1929. The latter it is supposed represents a 
wanderer from the coastal region. 

Descourtilz describes the mixed phase of plumage in this species 
which he thought was produced by crossing between the little blue 
heron and the egret. In Haiti the young in white dress are known 
as crabier blanc, and the adults as crabier bleu, or crabier noir. 

The adult bird is slaty gray above and blackish below, with a wash 
of rufescent color on head and foreneck. Part of the young are 
slaty and a part pure white except for a mottling of grey at the tips 
of the primaries. Other individuals show a mixture of slate and 
white. The length ranges from 540 to 575 mm., and the wing from 
about 245 to 275 mm. The white birds are often mistaken for the 
snowy heron but may be told by the greenish tarsi, these being black 
in the snowy heron. 

BUTORIDES VIRESCENS VIRESCENS (Linnaeus) 
LITTLE GREEN HERON 

Ardea virescens Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1, 1758, p. 144 (coast of 
South Carolina). 

Butorides virescens virescens, Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, 
p. 398 (Sosua, specimen). 

Rare in winter ; three specimens known. 

Peters shot a male at Sosiia, Dominican Republic on March 29, 
1916, that he has identified as the typical form of this species saying 
that it " agrees perfectly in color and size with representatives from 
the United States; the sides of the neck being more purplish than 
in B. v. maculatus, while all its measurements are larger than typical 
B. v. maculatus. Wing 177, tail 70.5, exposed culmen 60, tarsus 52, 
middle toe 44 mm. 

" While I have referred this specimen to the continental form it 
is perfectly possible that its larger size may be due to individual 
variation in B. v. maculatus." 



THE BIKDS OP HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 83 

Abbott collected a male at Sanchez, D. R., February 12, 1919, 
that measures as follows : wing 176.0, tail 62.0, culmen 59.0, tarsus 
51.0 mm. And a male secured by Poole and Perrygo at Fort Liberte, 
Haiti, February 12, 1929, has the following dimensions : wing 178.0, 
tail 66.3, culmen 61.9, tarsus 49.3 mm. These are distinctly larger 
than specimens of the resident form B. v. maculatus secured at the 
same time, and in addition are decidedly darker in color on the sides 
of the neck and on the abdomen. 

Apparently the green heron of eastern North America comes regu- 
larly to the island. 

There is also one record of a bird of this form taken at Fajardo, 
Porto Rico, February 16, 1899 26 so that the subspecies may occur 
casually in winter in the two eastern islands of the Greater Antilles. 

The characters of this form as distinguished from the West In- 
dian little green heron are indicated above. 

BUTORIDES VIRESCENS MACULATUS (Boddaert) 

WEST INDIAN GREEN HERON, MARTINETE, GARZA MORADA, CRABIER, 
CRACRA, RACRAC, VALET DE CAIMAN 

Cancroma maculata Boddaert, Table Planch. Enl., 1783, p. 54 (Martinique, 
Lesser Antilles). 

Crabier, Saint-Mery, Descript. Part. Franc, lie Saint-Doiningue, vol. 1, 
1797, pp. 262, 717 (Dondon, Port-de-Paix). — Descourtilz, Voy. Nat, vol. 2, 1809, 
pp. 230-231 (common). 

Ardea cracra, Descourtilz, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, p. 66 (Pont de l'Estgre). 

Ardea virescens, Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 1867, p. 
97 (Dominican Republic).— Cory, Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, 1881, p. 155 
(Port-au-Prince, specimen) ; Birds Haiti and San Domingo, Dec, 1884, p. 155 
(Gantier, Port-au-Prince). — Tristram, Ibis, 1884, p. 168 (Dominican Republic, 
specimen). — Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 323 (listed). — Cherrie, 
Field Columbian Mus., Ornith. ser., vol. 1, 1896, p. 25 (common). — Christy, 
Ibis, 1897, pp. 339-340 (common). 

Butorides virescens, Salle, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, p. 236 (listed). — 
Tristram, Cat. Coll. Birds belonging H. B. Tristram, 1889, p. 270 (Dominican 
Republic, specimen ) .— Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 139; Beneath 
Tropic Seas, 1928, pp. 108-219 (common). 

Butorides virescens virescens, Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 
1929, p. 309 (Bonao, specimens). 

Butoroides virescens maculata, Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 
1909, p. 356 (abundant). 

Butorides virescens maculatus, Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, 
p. 398 (Monte Cristi, Sosua, specimens).— Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila- 
delphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 490 (Etang Miragoane, Trou Caiman, Port-de-Paix, 
Gonave Island). — Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 360 (common). 



28 See Wetmore, Birds Porto Rico and Virgin Islands, New York Acad. Sci., Scient. 
Surv. Porto Rico and Virgin Islands, vol. 9, 1927, pp. 295-296. 



84 BULLETIN" 155, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Resident, common; most abundant in the lowlands but ranging 
along streams into the high interior. 

The green heron is the most widely distributed of its family in 
Hispaniola as it ranges in mangrove swamps, lakes, and marshes, 
or along streams wherever it may find food and cover. Because 
of its small size it is comparatively little disturbed and so is usu- 
ally very tame. It may be expected to occur anywhere that there 
is water. 

Though common these birds are not truly gregarious, and in fact 
are inclined to resent too close approach of another of their own 
kind. Along the Riviere Cul-de-Sac near Damien, "Wetmore ob- 
served two fighting petulantly until one dropped into the water 
when it swam a few strokes before it reached shallows that per- 
mitted it to wade. The voice of this heron is a rude squawk ut- 
tered in a protesting tone when it is disturbed in any way. 

At Caracol, Haiti on April 27, 1927, one was seen with a large 
crayfish which it only swallowed after several unsuccessful attempts. 
Bond reported nests at Trou Caiman in June. Descourtilz, who 
records this heron at Pont de l'Estere on April 16, 1799, says that 
it was called valet de caiman because it is believed by the country- 
men to warn the caiman by its cries of the approach of danger. 

On May 10, 1927, this heron was the most common of its kind 
along the lower Yuna near where that stream empties into Samana 
Bay. A nest found was a flattened structure of twigs built on a 
projecting tree limb about six feet above the water. An adult 
crouched at the side of this rude platform which contained two 
fresh eggs. These are glaucous-green and measure 39.5 by 29.5 
and 39.9 by 29.5 mm. Another set of two taken by Abbott near 
Jean Rabel Anchorage on June 3, 1917, came from a nest placed 
twenty feet from the ground in a tree growing near the beach. 
The male parent was taken on the nest. The eggs in this second 
set are lighter in color than the two described above as they are 
pale glaucous-green. They measure 40.1 by 39.5 and 38.6 by 29.8 
mm. 

Following are measurements from our series of skins from His- 
paniola : 

Seven males, wing 162.0-168.5 (166.3), tail 53.0-62.0 (56.9), cul- 
men 51.5-63.0 (56.9), tarsus 45.8-55.0 (48.4) mm. 

Five females, wing 165.0-172.0 (169.4), tail 55.5-61.2 (58.6), cul- 
men 53.9-61.5 (57.3), tarsus 45.9-51.5 (48.7) mm. 

The adult green heron is dull greenish above, darker on the head, 
with wing coverts edged with buffy; the sides of the neck and 
breast are deep rufous, with a line of white mixed with dusky 
down the foreneck; the abdomen is gray. Young birds have the 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 85 

anterior underparts whitish streaked with grayish and the dorsal 
surface duller. These birds range from 410 to 470 mm. in length, 
and have the wing from 162 to 175 mm. long. 

NYCTICORAX NYCTICORAX HOACTLI (Gmelin) 

BLACK-CROWNED NIGHT HERON, YABOA, GALLINAZO, COO-D'EAU, COQ DE 

NUIT, QUOCK 

Ardea Hoactli Gmelin, Syst. Nat., vol. 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 630 (in Novae His- 
paniae lacubus). 

Coq-d'eau, Descoubtilz, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, pp. 238-239 (reported). 

Nyctiardea naevia, Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 323 (listed). — 
Chbistt, Ibis, 1897, p. 341 (Yuna swamps). 

Nycticorax nycticorax naevius, Petees, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, 
p. 398 (Rio Sosua).— Ciferri, Seguud. Inf. An. Est. Nac. Agr. Moca, 1927, p. 6 
(listed).— Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 490 (listed). 
— Danfobth, Auk, 1929, p. 360 (Artibonite, Les Salines). — Moltoni, Att. Soc. 
Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, p. 309 (Haina, specimen). 

Apparently resident, though migrants come from North America 
during the northern winter; rather rare. 

The status of this heron is uncertain as there are few records. 
Christy found it several times in the Yuna region. Peters records 
two near the Rio Sosua, April 10, 1916. Abbott collected a female 
near Sanchez February 6, 1919. Wetmore saw three along the 
Arroyo Guayabo near where that stream enters the Yuna on May 10, 
1927, and noted several on the following day on the islets known as 
Cayos de los Pajaros at the entrance of San Lorenzo Bay. Ciferri 
secured one near Haina April 4, 1926. In Haiti the species is re- 
ported by Descourtilz, who says it is excellent for the table, by Tip- 
penhauer (without locality or comment), and by Bartsch who 
observed it on the salt flats north of Port-au-Prince, April 25, 1917. 
Danforth in 1927 saw one on the Artibonite beyond St. Marc July 
29, and six at Les Salines July 30. Though some individuals of the 
black-crowned night heron may be resident others come from the 
north during winter. To Dr. W. B. Bell and Mr. Frederick C. Lin- 
coln, of the Bureau of Biological Survey, United States Department 
of Agriculture, we are indebted for reports of two birds banded in 
a nesting colony at Barnstable, Massachusetts, that were taken sub- 
sequently in Hispaniola. One of these, marked June 15, 1924 by 
Mr. Leavitt C. Parsons, was taken about November 5, 1927, between 
Constanza and San Juan de la Maguana, Dominican Republic. The 
other, banded June 17, 1925 by Mr. E. H. Forbush was killed at 
Anse-a-Veau, Haiti, by Numa Cassy, and was reported under date of 
May 21, 1928 by the editor of Le Temps, of Port-au-Prince. 

The night heron as its name indicates is abroad mainly after night- 
fall though at times it is more or less active by day. In daylight 
hours, however, it is usually found resting in the seclusion of dense 



86 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

trees, ordinarily in swamps, where it flushes with heavy flight. Its 
harsh calls are heard often at night overhead as the birds pass to 
roosts or feeding grounds. 

The adult has the neck, forehead and underparts whitish and the 
crown, and upper back greenish black. The lower back, wings and 
tail are ashy, and two slender plumes growing from the back of the 
head are white. The immature bird is grayish brown above streaked 
with white or buffy, and whitish below streaked with blackish. The 
bird measures about 450 mm. in length. It is heavier bodied than 
other herons. 

NYCTANASSA VIOLACEA VIOLACEA (Linnaeus) 
YELLOW- CEO WNED NIGHT HERON, YABOA 

Ardea violacea Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1, 1758, p. 143 (Carolina). 

Ardea cayenensis, Hitter, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1S36, pp. 151, 
157 (Fort Royal). 

Nyeticorax violaceus, Chekrie, Field Columbian Mus., Ornith. ser., vol. 1. 
1896, p. 25 (Rio Ozama). — Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909. 
p. 357 (very common). 

Nyctiardea violacea, Tippenhatjer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 323 (listed). 

Nyclanassa violacea, Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 139 ; Beneath 
Tropic Seas, 1928, p. 219 (Bizoton, one). — Lonnberg, Fauna och Flora, 1929, 
p. 99 (Haiti, specimen). 

Nyctanassa violacea violacea, Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 
80, 1928, p. 490 (Port-au-Prince; Grand Lagon, Point-a-Raquettes, Gonave 
Island). — Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 360 (fairly common). — Moltoni, Att. Soc. 
Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, p. 309 (Bonao, Moca, San Juan, specimens). 

Resident; fairly common in suitable localities. 

Cherrie saw the yellow-crowned night heron on the Rio Ozama 
near Santo Domingo City on several occasions. Verrill writes that 
it was " very common in the swamps and along the larger rivers " 
without giving definite localities. In the collection of J. H. Fleming 
there is a male taken by Verrill, March 8, 1907, at Sanchez. Abbott 
collected specimens at Laguna and Cape Rojo on the Samana Pen- 
insula on August 10 and 29, 1916, respectively. Danforth in 1927 
found this species at Monte Cristi, San Juan, and Bonao. Ciferri 
obtained specimens at Bonao, Moca, and San Juan. 

In Haiti Ritter records one taken near Fort Royal, Abbott secured 
specimens on Grande Cayemite Island January 5, 1918, and at Petit 
Port a PEcu on May 9, 1917. He saw yellow-crowned night herons 
occasionally on Gonave Island from February 18 to 28, 1918. Dr. 
C. H. Arndt, under date of April 22, 1927, has written from Fonds- 
des-Negres that a pair were nesting at that time in a large mombin 
tree on the grounds of the coffee experiment station. Beebe saw one 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 87 

near Bizoton, and Wetmore noted one near pools of water along the 
Ravine Papaye, in the vicinity of Hinche, on April 20 and 23, 1927. 
Bond found it near Port-au-Prince, and at Grand Lagon and Point- 
a-Raquettes on Gonave Island. He secured a female in first fall 
plumage on Gonave February 9, 1928. Danforth in 1927 saw it near 
St. Marc, Les Salines, and Les Cayes. 

This heron in the main is an inhabitant of wooded swamps where 
it is most active at night; during the day it perches in thick trees 
where it is sheltered from the sun. Wetmore found one in the 
Ravine Papaye where the only water was collected in scattered pools 
as it was the dry season. Though by choice inactive during daylight 
hours, this heron is alert and takes to flight when too closely ap- 
proached. Its flight is strong and direct, performed with the neck 
drawn in on the shoulders as is usual in herons. 

The yellow-crowned night heron in general is colored gray, with a 
whitish wash on the abdomen, and blackish streaks on the dorsal 
surface ; the crown, cheeks, and the slender, elongated plumes grow- 
ing from the back of the head are white, the rest of the head and the 
throat are black. The immature bird is rather like the young of the 
black-crowned night heron but is marked by its heavier bill. The 
bird is similar in size to the black-crowned night heron. 

[Subfamily Botaurinae] 

[BOTAURUS LENTIGINOSIS (Montagu) 

AMERICAN BITTERN 

Ardea lentiginosa Montagu, Suppl. Orn. Diet., 1813, text and plate (Piddle- 
ton, Dorsetshire, England). 
Botaurus minor, Tippenhaueb, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 323 (listed). 

The only record is that of Tippenhauer who lists the species with- 
out comment. 

The American bittern comes regularly to Cuba 27 and is found 
occasionally in Porto Rico 28 so that it may be expected in Hispaniola 
in winter. For the present it is held in the hypothetical list. 

The bittern above is brown, with the feathers bordered and mot- 
tled with buff and buffy ochraceous; top of head and back of neck 
bluish slate washed with buff ; below creamy buff, streaked with buffy 
brown ; a black stripe on either side of upper neck. Young birds are 
deeper buff than adults. The total length is about 710 mm. and the 
wing about 265 mm.] 

" Barbour, Mem. Nuttall Ornith. Club, no. 4, 1923, p. 31. 

28 Wetmore, New York Acad. Sci., Scient. Surv. Port Rico, Virgin Islands, vol. 9, 1927, 
pp. 302-303. 



88 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

IXOBRYCHUS EXILIS EXILIS (Gmelin) 
LEAST BITTERN, MARTINETE CHICO, CBABIER 

Ardea exilis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., vol. 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 645 (Jamaica). 

Crabier des Mangles, Descourtilz, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, pp. 231-233 (one). 

Ardea minuta, Bitter, Naturh. Iteis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1830, p. 157 
(specimen). 

Ardetta exilis, Tippenhatter, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 323 (listed). 

Ixobrychus exilis, Bartsch, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, July 27, 1917, p. 
132 (Haiti, listed).— Petess, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, p. 397 
(Monte Cristi). 

Ixobrychus exilis exilis, Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 

1928, p. 490 (Trou Ca'iman, Port-de-Paix, Lake Enriquillo). — Danforth, Auk, 

1929, p. 361 (Laguna del Salodillo). 

Resident; local in distribution. 

In the Dominican Republic Peters found a few least bitterns in 
reed-grown swamps near the mouth of the Rio Yaqui del Norte at 
Monte Cristi on February 20, 1916, and Danforth saw one at La- 
guna del Salodillo, near Copey, June 26, 1927. Bond has recorded 
them from Lake Enriquillo. 

In Haiti Bartsch reported the bird near Glore on the Etang 
Saumatre April 3, 1917 and secured five at Trou Caiman on April 
4. Later Abbott collected three at the Etang Saumatre on March 
6, 8, and 9, 1918. Wetmore flushed one in a swamp grown with 
saw-grass at the Etang Miragoane on April 1, 1927. Descourtilz 
says that he captured one in his hand but does not give the locality. 
Bond reports that they are abundant at Trou Caiman, and found 
them also at Port-de-Paix. 

The least bittern frequents the rushes of lowland swamps, usually 
being found in aquatic growth standing in the water. It is seldom 
that men penetrate its chosen habitat as there is little there to at- 
tract invasion so that this heron may be seen seldom though fairly 
common. The birds often turn the striped breast toward an in- 
truder rather than take to flight, when with bill pointing straight 
in the air their form simulates the surrounding growth of rushes 
so closely that the eye does not readily single them out. When they 
do flush they fly out with dangling legs, uttering protesting, croak- 
ing notes. 

Part of the adult least bitterns that we have examined from 
Hispaniola and Porto Rico are paler below than the average from 
the eastern United States, possibly indicating that the Antillean 
bird is separable. There is such variation in depth of color that we 
call attention to this matter with the suggesion that West Indian 
birds be collected in considerable series before attempt is made to 
establish their status as a distinct race. The matter is complicated 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 89 

by some uncertainty regarding Cory's least bittern, which may be 
an erythrism of eoeilis, though some contend that it is specifically 
distinct. 

The least bittern, the smallest of our herons, is only from 315 to 
340 mm. in length, and is slight and slender in body. Its plumage 
is marked by bufl'y and rufescent tints, with the crown and back 
black in males and brown in females. 

Suborder ClCONlAE 

Superfamily CICONIIDES 

Family CICONIIDAE 

Subfamily Mycteriinae 

MYCTERIA AMERICANA Linnaeus 
WOOD IBIS, FAISAN 

Mycieria americana Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1, 1758, p. 140 (Bra- 
zil).— Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 520 (listed). 

Pheasant, Saint-Mery, Descrip. Span. Part Saint-Domingo, vol. 1, 1798, p. 
85 (Plain of Neiba). 

Tantalus loculator, Christy, Ibis, 1897, p. 338 (Yuna swamps). 

Resident locally in the Dominican Republic, now very rare. 

The wood ibis is well known to hunters in the Dominican Republic 
under the name Faisan, but no report of it in adjacent Haiti has 
come to our eyes. Moreau de Saint-Mery speaks of the " Pheasant" 
as common at the close of the eighteenth century on the plain of 
Neiba. Christy reports wood ibises at the end of June, 1895, in the 
swamps at the mouth of the Rio Yuna, describing their occurrence 
as follows : " I saw five of these birds about half a mile off perched 
on a tree covered with matted creepers. They very soon rose, and 
rather to my surprise circled high up into the air. We several times 
during that day saw single birds, and once I obtained a long shot at 
one flying over, but without result. The boatman called them the 
' Faisan.' What the word meant they could not tell me ; but it seemed 
to have some connection with the bare vulture-like head and neck of 
the birds." The local name is the Spanish term for pheasant, whose 
application to the present species seems curious. Abbott, in June, 
1919, heard of large ibises on the Arroyo Guayabo which flows into 
the Yuna a few miles above its mouth, and in September of the same 
year saw one at Saona Island. 

At Sanchez, in May, 1927, Wetmore was told by experienced hunt- 
ers that the species had not been seen on the Yuna for several years. 
He heard report of it, however, in the swamps of the lower Yaqui 
del Norte, and in the vicinity of Lake Enriquillo. and was told that 



90 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

a mounted bird had been displayed in recent years in a drugstore in 
Santiago. Inspection of twenty or more little pharmacies in that 
city on May 31 gave no trace of such a specimen. 

The wood ibis is as large as the great blue heron but with much 
heavier body, shorter legs, longer, curved bill, and the head and neck 
in the adult bare of feathers. The wing and tail feathers are glossy 
black and the rest of the plumage is white. The immature bird has 
the head and neck more or less feathered but is easily distinguished 
by the long, curved bill. 

Superfamily THRESKIORNITHIDES 

Family THRESKIORNITHIDAE 

Subfamily Threskiornithinae 

PLEGADIS FALCINELLUS FALCINELLUS (Linnaeus) 
GLOSSY IBIS, COCO PRIETO, PECHEUR, IBIS NOIR 

Tantalus falcinellus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, pt. 1, 1766, p. 241 (Austria, 
Italy). 

Pecheur, Descourtilz, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, pp. 233-235 (Haiti, rather 
rare). 

Glossy Ibis, Beebe, Beneath Tropic Seas, 1928, p. 108 (Etang Miragoane). 

Tantalus Falcinellus, Ritter, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, pp. 
152, 157 (Haiti, specimen). 

Ibis erythrorhyncha Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, Nov. 14, 1837 (publ. 
June 14, 1838) p. 127 (Haiti).— H arte aub, Isis, 1847, p. 609 (listed). 

Plegadis autumnalis, Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 
355 ("Colorado River," specimen). 

Plegadis falcinellus, Cory, Cat. Birds Haiti and San Domingo, Dec, 1884, 
p. 151 (of possible occurrence). — Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, pp. 317, 
322 (listed). 

Plegadis falcinellus falcinellus, Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 
80, 1928, p. 490 (Etang Miragoane, Trou Caiman, Artibonite Plain, Fort 
Liberty, Lake Enriquillo). — Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 361 (Artibonite Sloughs). 

Resident; fairly common locally. 

In the Dominican Republic the glossy ibis seems to be confined 
principally to the southern section since the only report north of the 
central mountain range is that of Verrill who records " one specimen 
taken at Colorado River," which is near Sanchez. 

Abbott found them common on the open marshes and secured 
specimens at the eastern end of Lake Enriquillo October 2, 3, and 5, 
1919. He saw several and shot one at Lake Rincon, near Cabral, on 
March 15, 1922. Bond also records them from Lake Enriquillo. 

In Haiti the species seems more abundantly distributed, though 
Descourtilz in 1799 reported them rather rare. A bird secured by 
Hearne, apparently a young individual, was described as a distinct 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 91 

species in 1838 by Gould. Abbott has forwarded specimens labeled 
fitang Saumatre taken April 5 and 6, 1920. One was secured from a 
lake near Thomazeau May 13, and one near Manneville on May 14, in 
the same year. Bartsch observed the species at Trou Caiman April 
4, 1917, and Abbott collected specimens there on March 12, 1918, and 
April 7, 1920. Beebe records glossy ibises at the fitang Miragoane. 
Wetmore saw glossy ibises feeding in swampy meadows at that point 
on April 1, 1927, and a number came flying overhead when disturbed 
by the discharge of a gun. Near Desdunes on April 28, a flock 
of twenty rose at the passage of an airplane, in which Wetmore was 
passenger, and unlike the herons which remained near the water, 
ascended to the level of the passing airship, and finally rose above 
it. Danforth and Emlen saw one on the Artibonite Sloughs beyond 
St. Marc July 28, 1927. Bond records them as common locally at 
fitang Miragoane, Trou Caiman, on the Artibonite Plain, and at 
Fort Liberte. On June 22, 1928 he found a large breeding colony 
in the Trou Caiman swamp, most of the nests containing young, with 
many out of the nest. He examined one set of four eggs. 

The glossy ibis is found about fresh or brackish ponds whefe the 
water is shallow, or in marshy meadows. It usually occurs in 
flocks that are alert and if hunted do not permit close approach. 
The birds have a strong, direct flight with the neck and long, curved 
bill extended straight in front so that their profile in the air is en- 
tirely different from that of the straight-billed herons. Their flock 
formation is highly pleasing as the birds move in lines or angled 
flocks with each individual holding position with military precision 
at a set distance from his companions. 

The glossy ibis stands as tall as the smaller herons but is heavier 
in body. When feeding or flying it appears plain black so that the 
hunter is astonished when one comes to hand to find that the feathers 
of the back show a glint of green, and that in the adult the head, 
neck and underparts are coppery brown with, in places, a metallic 
sheen. The young are duller and have the coppery color replaced 
by dull brown, the head and neck being obscurely streaked with 
white. 

GTJARA ALBA (Linnaeus) 
WHITE IBIS, C0C6, C0C6 BLANCO 

Soolopax alba Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1, 1758, p. 145 (Carolina). 

? Gru blanche d'Amerique, Descoubttlz, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, pp. 221-222 
(Haiti, rare; specimen). 

Tantalus albus, Rittee, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, pp. 152, 
157 (Haiti, rare; specimen). 

Ibis alba, Tristram, Cat. Coll. Birds belonging H. B. Tristram, 1889, p. 270 
(Dominican Republic, specimen). 



92 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Eudocimus albus, Cost, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, Dec., 1884, pp. 150-151 
(Dominican Republic, recorded). — Tippen hatter, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, pp. 317- 
322 (listed).— Cheisty, Ibis, 1897, pp. 337-338 (Yuna, Barrancota, speci- 
mens). — Lonnbekg, Fauna och Flora, 1929, pp. 98-99 (Haiti, specimen). 

Guara alba, Coby, Oat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 88 (Haiti, Dominican 
Republic). — Vereill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 355 (abun- 
dant).— Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 491 (Etang 
Miragoane). 

Resident ; now rare. 

In the Dominican Republic the white ibis was first reported by 
Cory who noted it as a winter visitant and probably a resident. As the 
species is not known to migrate, except for local shifting of individu- 
als with the seasons, his statements with regard to its fluctuating 
numbers are difficult of interpretation. The bird seems to have been 
most common always in the swamps at the head of Samana Bay, 
and there it remains today in small numbers. Christy reported it 
as very common in 1895 on both the Yuna and the Arroyo Bar- 
rancota. The coco has always been one of the game birds of the 
island, and Christy informs us that several times he shot thirty or 
forty in one hunt during the brief period of evening twilight. 
Verrill found the birds common and said that they were excellent 
eating. A pair that he collected March 1, 1907, near Sanchez are 
in the J. H. Fleming collection. Tristram possessed a specimen 
taken in the Dominican Republic by A. S. Toogood. In the collec- 
tions forwarded by Abbott there are four skins, two in adult and 
two in immature plumage, that were taken near Sanchez, February 
3 and 6, 1919. A female taken on the date last mentioned contained 
eggs nearly ready to lay. According to Hartert, Kaempfer collected 
an immature male in the Yuna swamps on October 1, 1922, for the 
Tring Museum. Wetmore observed several near the mouth of the 
Yuna on May 10, 1927, and on May 16 recorded one along the same 
stream at Villa Riva. Abbott found a few on Lake Enriquillo near 
Duverge October 1 to 6, 1919. 

In Haiti the "Gru blanche" of Descourtilz, which he said flew in 
V-shaped flocks in the marshes, and was so rare that he se- 
cured only four in five years' hunting, was probably this species. 
One is reported by Ritter, and Tippenhauer remarks of this bird 
that it was sought eagerly for its flesh. Bartsch reported one at 
Trou Caiman April 4, 1917. Bond writes that it is not uncommon 
at the fitang Miragoane but did not find it elsewhere. 

The white ibises are now shy and difficult of approach, so that they 
are noted usually as white birds with black-tipped wings and long 
curved bills that fly with outstretched necks across the sky, or rest 
in the tops of distant trees. The immature individuals are distin- 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 93 

guished from the adults by their grayish brown backs, and grayish 
heads and necks. The white ibis measures from 565 to 700 mm. 
in length. 

Subfamily Plataleinae 

AJAIA A.TAJ A (Linnaeus) 
ROSEATE SPOONBILL, CUCHARETA, SPATULE 

Platalea ajaja Linnaeus. Syst. Nat., ed.10, vol. 1, 1758, p. 140 (Brazil). 

Spoon-bill, Saint-Mery, Descript. Span. Part Saint-Domingo, vol. 1, 1798, 
p. 306 (Dominican Republic, mentioned). 

Spa rule, Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois., vol. 7, 1780, p. 460 (" Saint-Domingue ").— 
Descourtilz, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, pp. 220-221 (Haiti, very rare). 

Platalea ajaja, Tristram, Ibis, 1S84, p. 168 (Dominican Republic, specimen). 

Ajaja ajaja, Cory, Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. SS (Haiti, Dominican 
Republic). 

Ajaia a jam, Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, p. 309 (specimen) . 

Ajaia ajaja, Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, p. 398 (Monte Cristi, 
specimen). — Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Pliiladelpbia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 491 (re- 
ported). — Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 361 (Laguna del Salodillo, Artibonite River). 

Resident; rare. 

The spoonbill is one of the rarest of marsh birds of Hispaniola. 
It is mentioned by Moreau de Saint-Mery as one of the birds found 
in the Dominican Republic but without statement of definite locality. 
Tristram reports one in a collection made by C. McGrigor that is 
supposed to have come from near Samana Bay. J. L. Peters in 1916 
examined the skull of one obtained by Curt Peters in the marshes at 
the mouth of the Rio Yaqui del Norte, and states that the species was 
reported as rare near Monte Cristi. Abbott informs us that he found 
a flock of twenty or more near Trujin in the Dominican Republic on 
February 9, 1922, but that they were so wild that he did not succeed 
in collecting specimens. They were said to breed there at the south 
end of the lagoon. He heard of them at Rincon and also in the Yuna 
swamps, and was told that they were found occasionally at Lake 
Enriquillo. An officer in the marines informed him that he had killed 
one at the eastern end of this lake. Danforth saw eight at the 
Laguna del Salodillo, near Copey, June 26, 1927. Dr. E. L. Ekman 
(in a letter) says that he found this species on the island of Beata, 
and on the Barahona Peninsula. 

Descourtilz reported the spoonbill as very rare in Haiti. Abbott 
heard of them on the Etang Saumatre, and saw the wing of one said 
to have been killed there. Near Desdunes, Haiti, on April 28, 1927, 
as Wetmore crossed by airplane in company with Captain Pressley, 
flying low over the coastal lagoons, a flock of three spoonbills rose 
to follow a flock of flamingos. Looking directly down from an 
2134—31 7 



94 BULLETIN" 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

altitude of two hundred and fifty feet the spatulate bill was observed 
clearly, serving to identify them with ease. Danforth saw three 
near the mouth of the Artibonite, July 30, 1927. 

The spoonbill is a large ibis-like bird, with pinkish red and white 
plumage, having the head and throat more or less bare. It is sepa- 
rated from all other birds of this region by the long, flattened bill, 
that is greatly expanded at the tip so as to present the form of a 
spatula with broadened end. 

Suborder Phoenicopteri 

Family PHOENICOPTERIDAE 

PHOENICOPTERUS RUBER Linnaeus 
FLAMINGO, FLAMENCO, FLAMAND 

Phoenicopterus ruber Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1, 1758, p. 139 
(Jamaica, Cuba, and Bahamas). 

Flamman, Rochefort, Hist. Nat. Mor. lies Antilles l'Amerique, 1618, pp. 
151-152 (recorded). 

Flamand, Charlevoix, Hist. Isle Espagnole, vol. 1, 1733, pp. 41-42 (re- 
corded). — Saint-Mery, Descrip. Part. Frang. lie Saint-Domingue, vol. 2, 179S, 
pp. Ill, 621 (Gonaives, breeding). 

Flamingo, Saint-Mery, Descript. Span. Part Saint-Domingo, vol. 1, 179S, 
pp. 85, 306 (Neyba, Azua). — Condit and Ross, Geol. Rec. Dominican Republic, 
Geol. Sur. Dom. Rep., Mem., vol. 1, 1921, p. 192 (Lake Enriquillo). 

Flammant, Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois., vol. 8, 1781, pp. 4S5-iS6, 491 (He a 
Vache, Gonave, Lake Enriquillo). 

Flamant, Descourtilz, "Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, pp. 217-220 (Gonaives). 

Flamenco, Walton, Pres. State Span. Col. incl. partic. Rep. Hispaniola, vol. 
1, 1810, p. 121 (plains of Neiba). 

Phoenicophcrus ruber, Ritter, Naturb. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1S36, pp. 
151, 156 (Haiti, specimen). 

Phoenicopterus ruber, Salle, Proc. Zool. Soe. London, 1857, p. 236 ("Laguna 
de Neiba").— Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 1S67, p. 97 
(Dominican Republic). — Tristram, Ibis, 1884, p. 168 (Dominican Republic, 
specimen).— Cory, Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, 1881, p. 155 (Haiti) ; Birds Haiti 
and San Domingo, March, 1885, p. 165, (Gonaives) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 
1892, p. 88 (Haiti, Dominican Republic). — Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1S92, 
pp. 317, 323 (Gonaives, Salt Lakes). — Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp Zool., vol. 61, 
1917, p. 399 (Monte Cristi, specimen). — Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila- 
delphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 491 (Gonave Island, Etang Saumatre, Lower Artibonite, 
Caracol, Fort Liberte, Lake Lim6n). — Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 361 (Artibonite 
River ) . 

Phoenicopterus r. ruber, Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 138; Be- 
neath Tropic Seas, 1928, pp. 108, 218-219 (Etang Saumatre). 

Resident; locally in small numbers. 

Moreau de Saint-Mery in his account of the Dominican Republic 
informs us that "the plain of Neybe * * * seems to be the 
chosen spot of the flamingoes * * * which keep in flocks" and 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 95 

continues on another page to say that they are found also near 
Azua. Walton reports them in 1810 from the Plains of Neiba. In 
view of these early observations it is of interest to record that Abbott 
secured a male at the eastern end of Lake Enriquillo on October 5, 
1919, and was told that these birds nested in that region. He saw 
as many as forty or fifty in a day. Condit and Ross in the course 
of a geological reconnaissance of the Republic also reported them 
on the southern shores of Lake Enriquillo. Buffon writes thai 
Deshayes recorded them on Lake Enriquillo, and that at one time 
several were kept in captivity for a year. Salle informs us that 
though he did not secure specimens he saw these birds near the 
"Laguna de Neiba." Three taken by Abbott at Trujin in this same 
general region include two adult females and a male in immature 
plumage. They were said to breed at the south end of the lagoon 
at that point. J. L. Peters examined the skull of one taken near 
Monte Cristi by Curt Peters, and says that they are reported in fall 
in that vicinity. Tristram examined one in a collection of birds 
made by C. McGrigor in the Dominican Republic (without specific 
locality). Abbott heard of them on Saona Island in 1919, but did 
not find them. Rochefort in 1618 says that flamingos were common 
and that hunters approached them on all fours, covered with the 
skin of an ox so that they passed unnoticed among the grazing cattle. 
By this ruse they killed the birds with ease. He describes the 
flesh as delicate, and the skin as prized for its down. He believed 
that the birds were able to detect the approach of a hunter or the 
nearness of firearms by their odor (a belief for which we consider 
there is no foundation, though it is alleged today by duck hunters 
in parts of Europe that ducks are frightened by human scent borne 
on the wind). Though Rochefort describes the flamingo, the figure 
that accompanies his account is that of a spoonbill. Charlevoix, 
writing in 1733, does not agree with the statement as to the excel- 
lence of the flesh of the flamingo, as he says that it is ordinary 
except for the tongue which is a delicate morsel. 

In Haiti Deshayes informed Buffon that flamingos were common 
on Gonave Island, lie a Vache and in the Cul-de-Sac region. Saint- 
Mery at the end of the eighteenth century reported flamingos as 
common near Gonai'ves, and said that they breed there. They were 
kept in captivity by Rossignol de Grandmont, and became very tame. 
He recorded them also on the coast at Aquin, and says that the Baie 
des Flamands is named from their presence. Descourtilz likewise 
found them very common near Gona'ives, and relates that during a 
threatened invasion by the English an excited negro threw the entire 
populace into a state of alarm by mistaking the flocks of pink plum- 
aged flamingos on the salines for troops of red-coated British sol- 



96 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

diery advancing to attack the town. He tells us also that the natives 
made flutes and pipe-stems from the long leg bones of these birds. 
Persecution by hunting probably accounts for the statement of Hit- 
ter in 1836 that flamingos were seen in flocks but were very shy. 
Cory says that he saw a flamingo near Gonaives (in the spring of 
1881), and reports that the bird was known to the natives at Gantier. 
Tippenhauer records them near Gonaives, and on the saline lakes of 
the Cul-de-Sac. 

Abbott heard of flamingos on the Grande Saline near Gonaives, on 
the lagoons on the north side of Gonave Island, and on occasion on 
Tortue Island, but did not see them. Beebe, on March 15, 1927, en- 
countered twenty-one in two flocks on the Etang Saumatre and 
heard that there was a large breeding colony on this lake. He saw 
three young birds on the wing. W. J. Eyerdam, in a letter sent to 
the United States National Museum reports that at the end of July 
and during early August, 1927, during work on Gonave Island, 
flamingos were common. He counted* twenty-two in one flock and 
fourteen in another, and stales that they were seen daily while he was 
at Point-a-Raquettes. The natives reported that they were nesting. 

Capt. R. A. Pressley, United States Marine Corps, states that he 
has found flamingos regularly in the shallow lagoons near Desdunes, 
and on April 28, 1927, in flying over this area with Wetmore as pas- 
senger, located a flock of twelve. As the plane passed and then 
banked to swing again over the birds, they flew low over the surface 
of the water — wonderfully beautiful in their pinkish plumage set 
off by black-tipped wings. To the passenger the pleasure of this 
view was redoubled when his glance passed over the members of 
the flock one by one to discover that three birds following behind 
were the even rarer roseate spoonbill. Danforth and Emlen saw 
about 150 near the mouth of the Artibonite River July 30, 1927, 
where they were feeding on the open flats. James Bond writes that 
he found the flamingo not rare, recording it at the fitang Saumatre. 
on the lower Artibonite River, at Caracol, and at Fort Liberie. 
There were many on Laguna Limon on the Dominican frontier in 
April, 1928, and he saw it in large numbers on Gonave Island. He 
was told that it nested at Trou Louis on the south side of the island, 
and at Grand Lagon on the north. 

It is probable that the flamingos of the island nest in one or two 
colonies isolated in great stretches of salt lagoons, and that they 
range more widely at other times of the year. It may be possible 
for some observant aviator to locate such a breeding colony from the 
air. The birds should not be disturbed as they are now too rare to 
be considered game. 



THE BIEDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 97 

In addition to the color, which has been described above, this 
species may be told by its form, as it stands taller than the great 
blue heron, and by the curious, heavy bill, which is bent down at an 
abrupt angle near its middle. Young are whitish with dusky streak- 
ings above. 

Order ANSERIFORMES 

Family ANATIDAE 29 
Subfamily Dendrocygninae 

DENDROCYGNA VIDUATA (Linnaeus) 
WHITE-FACED TREE-DUCK 

Anas viduata Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, vol. 1, 1766, p. 205 (Lake 
Cartagena ) . 

Dendrocygna viduata, Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 66. 1929, 
p. 309 (Haina, specimens). 

Very rare; possibly of accidental occurrence. 

The only record for this species is that of Moltoni who reports 
a pair taken by Ciferri at Haina May 20, 1926. The species is com- 
mon in the continental portions of tropical America and has been 
recorded casually in Cuba and Barbadoes in the West Indies. 

29 The species of ducks that are now known to occur in Hispaniola are so few that it is 
certain that the list will he considerably extended with further observations. Some of 
the species to be found are included beyond in brackets to indicate that they are still in 
hypothetical status. 

Anas torquata, reported from " St. Domingue " by Schlegel (Mus. Pays-Bas, Anseres, 
1866, p. 61) does not refer to Hispaniola, since the species in question, now known as 
Nettion leucophrys, comes from South America. 

The muscovy duck Cairina moschata (Linnaeus), common in domestication, may occa- 
sionally be found in a wild state, through wandering from its accustomed place with 
man. Buffon (Hist. Nat. Ois., vol. 9, 1783, p. 167) states that these ducks were kept 
captive at that day but says nothing to indicate that they had become feral. Ritter 
(Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, p. 157) reports a specimen, but does not say 
where he obtained it. An officer in the Marine Corps described to Doctor Abbott a 
large duck that must have been this form that he had killed near Santo Domingo City. 
There is no indication that this species was native to the island. 

There is uncertain record for the wood duck Aix sponsa (Linnaeus), since it was 
reported to Abbott that it had been shot near Santo Domingo City. He saw no specimens. 
The species is resident in Cuba. Bond also says (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 
80. 1928, p. 520) that in February he "shot a small duck which was swimming about 
with a small flock of Lesser Scaup (Vi/roca- afpnis) at Lake Miragoane. Unfortunately 
the bird was only wounded and I was unable to find it. The duck appeared to have 
white patches about the eyes, giving it a spectacled appearance. After examination of 
the study collection of ducks in this Academy, I feel the bird may have been a female 
wood duck, but am by no means certain. An American living in Port au Prince told 
me of having observed the wood duck in Haiti." 

There is ground for belief that geese of unknown species came in earlier years as 
migrants. Oviedo (Hist. Gen. Nat. Indlas, Libr. 14, cap. ?. Reprint, Madrid, 1851, p. 
443) says " hay muchos Ansares de passo bravas y es el passo dellas por diciembre." 
Further Descourtilz (Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, pp. 251-252) remarks under the name oie 
sauvage, " est la m6me que celle d'Europe, * * * Elles volent aussi tres-haut sur 
deux lignes, formant un V." 



98 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

This duck has the forepart of the head entirely white, the lower 
neck chestnut, the back of the head and neck, lower back, and abdo- 
men black, the upper back brown, and the sides whitish buff barred 
with black. The tarsus is like that of the fulvous tree-duck. 

DENDROCYGNA ARBOEEA (Linnaeus) 

WEST INDIAN TREE-BUCK, YAGTJASA, YAGTJASA COLQRABA, CANARB 
SIFFIEUR, GINGEON 

Anas arborea Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1, 1758, p. 128 (America). 

Gingeon, Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois., vol. 9, 1783, pp. 176-181 (part; habits). 

Canard Siffieur, de St. Doiningue, Daubenton, Planch. Enl., no. 804. 

Canard Siffieur, Descourtilz, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1S09, pp. 252-254 (Riviere 
Estere). 

Dendrocycna viduata, Ciferri, Segund. Inf. An. Est. Nac. Agr. Moca, 1927, 
p. 6 (listed). 

Anas arborea, Hitter, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, p. 157 (Haiti, 
specimen). 

Dendrocygna arborea, Cory, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, March, 1885, pp. 
166-167 (specimens) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1S92, p. 87 (Haiti, Dominican 
Republic).— Tristram, Cat. Coll. Birds Bel. H. B. Tristram, 1889, p. 270 
(Dominican Republic, specimen). — Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, pp. 318, 
323 (listed).— Verrux, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 355 (com- 
mon).— Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 138; Beneath Tropic Seas, 1928, 
p. 218 (Source Matelas). — Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 
1928, p. 491 (Etang Miragoane).— Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 361 (Laguna del 
Salodillo, Les Salines, Gonai'ves, Grand Goave, Etang Miragoane, Artibonite). 

Resident; fairly common in the lowlands. 

Former distribution of the tree-duck (frontispiece) in the Do- 
minican Republic is somewhat uncertain, but to-day the section 
surrounding Samana Bay, particularly the area near San Lorenzo 
Bay, seems to be that where the species is most common. W. L. 
Abbott secured specimens there on July 26 and 30, and September 10, 
1916, and forwarded a female from Sanchez February 22, 1919. He 
reports tree-ducks as fairly numerous at Lake Enriquillo October 
1 to 6, 1919. On May 6, 1927, while wading in a recently flooded 
swamp five miles east of Sanchez, Wetmore flushed two tree-ducks 
in a wooded area where water was overflowing green vegetation 
growing in the shade of trees. The birds rose heavily with a low 
quack and flying low under the branches passed rapidly out of 
sight. Danforth reports them common at Laguna del Salodillo, 
near Copey, June 26, 1927, where he shot twelve. Two had small 
seeds in their stomachs. 

In Haiti Bartsch recorded the tree-duck on April 3, 1917, near 
Glore on the fitang Saumatre, and saw it again at Trou Caiman on 
April 4. Abbott shot specimens at the fitang Saumatre on March 7, 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 99 

1918, and secured one at Les Basses on January 9, 1918. He says 
that it is in his experience the most common duck in Haiti, and easy 
to shoot as when one fires into a flock the survivors usually fly to 
a distance and then return giving opportunity for one or two more 
shots before they finally leave. Bond found them at the Etang 
Miragoane and heard of them at Fort Liberte. Beebe noted three at 
Source Matelas. Danforth in 1927 found them very common at 
Les Salines and near Gona'ives, and observed a few near Grand 
Goave, at the Etang Miragoane, and in the Artibonite Sloughs beyond 
St. Marc. 

Descourtilz reports the tree-duck as common, and says that he saw 
it on the Riviere Estere. Buffon quotes extensively from notes fur- 
nished by Deshayes, and though he gives these under t^e wigeon refers 
certainly to this tree-duck since Deshayes describes them as perching 
in trees, as having long legs, and as holding the tail down like a guinea 
when walking. Deshayes relates that the birds are found in flocks and 
feed extensively on rice. They laid in January, having young about 
in March. Often the eggs were taken and placed under hens for 
hatching so that tree-ducks were frequent in captivity. 

The species is found to-day in lagoons and swamps in the lowlands. 
It feeds frequently at night and is seldom seen except when one 
chances to encounter a flock hidden in the reaches of swamps. 

In general coloration this tree-duck is dull brown above, with 
paler margins on most of the feathers that give the plumage a squa- 
mated appearance. The throat is white, the foreneck whitish 
streaked finely with dusky, and the upper breast dull brown. The 
lower breast, sides and under tail coverts are buffy white spotted 
with blackish, and the abdomen is buffy white. The species is distin- 
guished from all other ducks of this region by the relatively long legs 
which are covered with finely reticulated scales that form a honey- 
comblike pattern quite different from the broad transverse plates 
that cover the front of the lower leg in ordinary ducks. 

Subfamily Anatinae 

[MARECA AMERICANA (Gmelin) 
EAIDPATE, AMERICAN WIGEON 

Anas americana Gmeun, Syst. Nat., vol. 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 526 (Louisiana and 
New York). 

Anas penelope, DEScotrctTrLz, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, p. 42 (Artibonite). 

Anas americana, Ritteb, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, p. 157 
(listed). 

Mareca americana, Tippenhauer. Die Insel Haiti, 1892, pp. 318, 323 (listed). 



100 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Status uncertain; probably found during winter as migrant from 
North America. 

Descourtilz reports the wigeon from " lagon Peinier" in the plain 
of the Artibonite in April, 1799, but without clear description so that 
the record is subject to question. Notes by Hitter and Tippenhauer 
likewise seem uncertain, so that the species is here placed in hypo- 
thetical status. As it comes to Cuba and Porto Rico there is little 
question but that it will be found eventually with other migrant ducks 
in Hispaniola. 

The adult male has the middle of the crown white or buffy, 
bordered by glossy green more or less sprinkled with black; cheeks 
and throat buff finely barred with black; upper breast and sides 
vinaceous, the latter somewhat barred with wavy black lines; lower 
breast and abdomen white; black grayish brown finely barred with 
black. The female has the head and throat white or pale buff, finely 
streaked with black, the upper breast and sides pale vinaceous washed 
with grayish, and the rest of the underparts white. The back is 
grayish brown barred somewhat with buff. The greater wing coverts 
in both sexes are white, forming a prominent patch, and the spec- 
ulum is black, in the male glossed distinctly with green. The species 
is about the size of the Bahama pintail and is told from other clucks 
by the proportionately small bill.] 

[DAFILA ACUTA TZITZIHOA (Vieillot) 
PINTAIL, SPRIG, PATO PESCUEZILARGO 

Anas tsitzihoa Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 5, 1S16, p. 163 (Mexico). 

Probably a winter visitor. 

An officer in the United States Marine Corps who hunted ducks 
regularly in Haiti informed Dr. W. L. Abbott that he had killed 
" sprigs " in addition to the Bahama pintail with which he was 
thoroughly familiar. The pintail comes regularly to Cuba 30 in 
small numbers and Danforth has seen it in western Porto Rico 31 
so that it may be expected to range occasionally in winter to His- 
paniola. Until more definite information is available we place it in 
the hypothetical list. 

The pintail has the general form of the Bahama pintail, but is 
slightly larger and has a longer, more slender neck, and an elongated 
tail in the male with a projecting spike of feathers. The male has 
the head and throat olive brown, a blackish stripe on the hindneck, 
and the back gray. The scapular feathers are black, the wing 

30 Barbour, Mem. Nutrall Ornith. Club, No. 6, 1023, p. 37. 
81 Journ. Dept. Agric. Porto Rico, vol. 10, 1926, p. 37. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI ASF) THE DOMINICAN BEPTJBLIC 101 

speculum green, and the underparts white. The female suggests 
somewhat the Bahama pintail but is grayer and has the tail grayish 
brown, not different in color from the back.] 

DAFILA BAHAMENSIS BAHAMENSIS (Linnaeus) 
BAHAMA PINTAIL, BAHAMA DUCK, PATO CBIOLLO 

Anas bahamensis Linnaeus, Syst. Nat, ed. 10, vol. 1, 175S, p. 124 (Bahamas). 

Dafila bahamensis, Cory, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, March, 1885, pp. 
167-168 (possibly seen) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 86 (Haiti, Dominican 
Republic). — Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 323 (listed). 

Poecilonetta bahamensis, Lonnberg, Fauna och Flora, 1929, p. 99 (Haiti, 
specimen ) . 

Poecilonetta 6. bahamensis, Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 138; 
Beneath Tropic Seas, 1928, p. 218 (Source Matelas). 

? Dafila caribaca " Herz. v. Wiirttemb." Hartlaub, Naumannia, 1852, p. 56 
(Haiti). 

Dafila bahamensis bahamensis, Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 
80, 192S, p. 491 (Etang Miragoane, Trou Caiman, Port-de-Paix). — Danforth, 
Auk, 1929, p. 361 (Lagnna del Salodillo, Etang Bois-Neuf, Artibonite Sloughs, 
Gonaives. ) 

Resident; fairly common. 

The Bahama pintail was overlooked by early travelers, except b} T 
Cory who believed that he saw it on two occasions but was not 
certain. 

The only records for the Dominican Republic are those of Abbott, 
who secured one at Trujin February 8, 1922, and saw others near 
Cabral in March, 1922, and of Danforth who found them abundant 
at Laguna del Salodillo, near Copey. 

Paul Bartsch secured one at Trou Caiman, Haiti, on April 4, 
1917, and preserved the head in alcohol. Abbott says that numbers 
were found during the winter of 1916-1917 near Port-de-Paix, and 
that a few bred there. He shot two at that point on April 14, 1917, 
and April 5, 1920 secured two more on the Etang Saumatre. On 
May 6 he took a male near Fond Parisien. Wetmore flushed two 
from a salt water lagoon near Aquin on April 3, 1927, and observed 
two near Gonaives and nine more north of Port-au-Prince on April 
28 in passing low over the coastal swamps by airplane. Danforth 
saw thirty at the fitang Bois-Neuf, south of St. Marc July 25, col- 
lected one on the Artibonite Sloughs July 28, and saw a dozen near 
Gonaives July 30, 1927. Bond found it in 1928 at the fitang Mira- 
goane, where he secured a male February 4, at Trou Caiman, where 
he took a female June 22, and at Port-de-Paix. He speaks of it 
as the most numerous of the resident ducks, and says that though 
it prefers fresh water it frequents salt water lagoons, being the 
only duck in this area having that habit. 



102 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Attention may be called here to the name Dafila carihaea of Hart- 
laub described briefly from Haiti as "Wesentlich verschieden von D. 
a?7ie?"icana und uro-phasiauus; grosser wie beide." As urophasianus 
is an old name for Dafila l)aha7iiensis it is possible that Dafila cari- 
haea refers to the Bahama duck, though from the meager description 
the species concerned may not be successfully identified. 

The Bahama duck is found in freshwater marshes or in the brack- 
ish lagoons of the coast, at times ranging on broad stretches of open 
water, but usually found among rushes or other aquatic growth, or 
in mangroves. It flushes quickly and flies with swift direct flight. 

The generic name for this duck is usually given as Paecilonetta, 
but Wetmore has determined that birds of this supposed group are 
not generically distinct from Dafila. 32 

The Bahama duck, which is only a little larger than a teal 
is easily told in the hand or on the wing by the light, buffy brown 
tail, distinctly lighter than the back, and the sharp line of demar- 
cation on the cheeks between the white of the throat and side of the 
head and the grayish brown of the crown. There is a spot at the 
base of the bill which is usually bright red but is said sometimes 
to be light yellow, a case of this being recorded by Abbott in a 
specimen taken at Port-de-Paix. 

NETTION CAROLINENSE (Gmelin) 
GREEN-WINGED TEAL, PATO DE LA FLORIDA, SARCELLE 

Anas carolinensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., vol. 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 533 (Hudson Bay 
to Carolina). 

Nettion crecca carolinensis, Beere, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 138 ; Be- 
neath Tropic Seas, 1928, p. 218 (Port-au-Prince). 

Rare in winter. 

Beebe says "three were examined in a hunter's bag in Port-au- 
Prince." Abbott was informed by Lieutenant Nickinson of the 
Marine Corps that he had shot this species near Santo Domingo City. 
This teal should occur with other migrant ducks in winter, and may 
be more common than the meager information above quoted indicates. 

The green-winged teal, with its blue-winged relative, is among the 
smallest ducks that come to the island. The adult male has the head 
and neck rufous chestnut, with green on the sides of the head. The 
female is more plainly colored. Either sex is distinguished easily 
from the blue-winged teal by the green wing speculum and the lack 
of blue on the shoulder. These birds measure about 365 mm. in 
length. 

83 See Wetmore, New York Acad. Sci., Scient. Surv. Porto Rico and Virgin Islands, 
vol. 9, 1927, pp. 310-311. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 103 
QUERQUEDULA DISCOES (Linnaeus) 
BLUE-WINGED TEAL, PATO DE LA FLORIDA, SARCELLE 

Anas discors Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, vol. 1, 1766, p. 205 (Virginia or 
Carolina). 

Satcelle, Saint-Mery, Descript. Part Frang. lie Saint-Domingue, vol. 2, 
1798, p. 565 (Btang Miragoane). — Descourtilz, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, pp. 256- 
257 (Haiti). 

Teal, Saint-Mery, Descript. Span. Part Saint-Domingue, vol. 1, 1798, p. 214 
(Manzanillo and " Cosbeck " Bays). 

Anas discors, Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 1867, p. 
97 (Dominican Republic). 

Querquedula discors, Salle, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, p. 237 (Higuey). — 
Cory, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, March, 1885, pp. 168-189 (listed) ; Cat. 
West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 86 (Haiti, Dominican Republic). — Tippenhauer, Die 
Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 323 (listed).— Christy, Ibis, 1897, p. 342 (Tuna swamps).— 
Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 355 (Dominican Repub- 
lic).— Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 138; Beneath Tropic Seas, 1928, 
pp. 67, 70, 218 (Haiti).— Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 
1928, p. 491 (Fjtang Miragoane, Trou Caiman, Port-de-Pais). 

Winter visitor, common; migrant from North America. 

For a bird that is reported as common there are comparatively 
few definite records for the blue-winged teal, probably because 
most of the specimens shot have found their way into the cooking 
pot. Moreau de Saint-Mery wrote that " ducks, teals * * * fly 
in clouds particularly in the Bay of Mancenilla and that of Cos- 
beck," a statement that must refer in part to the present bird since 
it is the most common of migrant ducks in the West Indies. Salle 
recorded it in the marshes near Higuey, Dominican Republic, and 
Christy shot several in the Yuna swamps but did not find it com- 
mon. Verrill makes only a general statement regarding it. Abbott 
reported a small flock on Lake Enriquillo, October 1 to 6, 1919. 

In Haiti Bartsch recorded the blue-winged teal at Glore on the 
Etang Saumatre April 3, 1917, and at Trou Caiman April 4. Ab- 
bott collected one from a large flock at Les Basses on January 4, 
1918, and others at the Etang Saumatre April 10 and 13, 1920. 

Saint-Mery reports teal, apparently this species from Etang 
Miragoane, and Descourtilz gives a very good description of the 
blue-winged teal under the name " Sarcelle commune de Saint- 
Domingue." The latter author speaks of ten species of ducks that 
are recognized by hunters in Haiti, and says that at Etable (near the 
Artibonite) ducks were so numerous that their noise disturbed his 
sleep. His servant in four shots at night killed fifty-eight. Offi- 
cers of the Marine Corps who hunted extensively in the marshes 
and lakes of the lowlands informed Wetmore that from November 
to March this teal was the most abundant duck that they encoun- 



104 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

tered and that at times it occurred in large numbers. Beebe in 
1927 saw four at Source Mate! as January 13 and eight March 21. 
He reports that he saw fifty-three killed March 2, and that the last 
were noted April 12. Bond found it at the Etang Miragoane, Trou 
Caiman, and Port-de-Paix and says that it is by far the most abun- 
dant of the migrant ducks. 

This teal is one of the important game-birds of Hispaniola as its 
hunting is excellent sport and its flesh is palatable for the table. 

The blue-winged teal is instantly recognized by the bright blue 
patch on the shoulder that shows clearly in flight and is the most 
prominent marking when the bird is in the hand. It is a species 
of small size. Adult males are brighter colored than females, and 
have a prominent white crescent in front of the eye. 

[SPATULA CLYPEATA (Linnaeus) 
SHOVELLER 

Anas clypeata Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1, 1758, p. 124 (Southern 
Sweden). 
Sucet, Descourtilz, Voy. Nat, vol. 2, 1809, p. 257 (listed). 
Anas clypeata, Tippeothauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 323 (Haiti). 

Descourtilz includes the shoveller among the wild game of the 
island under the name sweet, and the species is listed by Tippenhauer. 
James Bond informs me that it was described to him by several 
Americans who hunted ducks in Haiti, including Dr. W. R. Barbour 
of the Service Technique. The bird should be present in small 
numbers with other ducks as a winter migrant from North America, 
as it is known from Cuba and Porto Rico. Until a specimen is 
reported it is included in the hypothetical list. 

The shoveller has the same bright blue shoulder patch as the blue- 
winged teal, but is larger and is marked at once by the peculiar bill, 
which is expanded at the tip until it is twice as wide as at the base, 
a character from which the species derives its name. ] 

Subfamily Nyrocinae 

NYROCA AFFINIS (Eyton) 
LESSER SCAUP DUCK, PATO DEL MEDIO 

Fuligula afflnis Eyton, Mon. Anatidae, 1838, p. 157 (North America). 

Fuligula afflnis, Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1S92, p. 323 (Haiti). 

Aythia mania, Veriull, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 355 (San 
Lorenzo Bay). 

Nyroca afflnis, Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 138; Beneath Tropic- 
Seas, 1928, p. 218 (Port-au-Prince).— Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 
vol. 80, 1928, p. 492 (Trou Caiman, Artibonite River, Etang Miragoane). — 
Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 6S, 1929, p. 310 (specimen). 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 105 

Winter visitant from North America (abundance not known). 

Abbott secured three from a flock of four January 2, 1922 in the 
mouth of the Yuna River opposite Sanchez. He saw others at 
Cabral between March 15 and 18, 1922. It is assumed that the birds 
reported by Verrill in San Lorenzo Bay as the greater scaup were 
the present species, since the greater scaup has not been known to 
occur in winter south of Florida. 

In Haiti Abbott secured a female January 4, 1918 at Grande 
Cayemite Island, and another specimen at the Etang Saumatre 
April 6, 1920. Beebe reports four off shore from Port-au-Prince 
(probably near the Bizoton wharves) early in January, 1927. Tip- 
penhauer lists the species from Haiti without comment. Bond found 
it at the Etang Miragoane, Trou Caiman and on the Artibonite 
River. 

There is nothing further known to us regarding the occurrence 
of this species. 

The lesser scaup is a North American species that comes regularly 
to the West Indies to spend the winter on open lagoons or stretches 
of quiet water on the larger streams. The birds are gregarious and 
are usually encountered in little groups that drift about in the safety 
of open water during the day, and approach the shore line only 
under cover of darkness. This species is one of the deep water ducks 
that secures its food mainly by diving. 

The adult male has the head, neck and upper breast black with 
a gloss of purple on the side of the head. The back is white mottled 
with dusky, and the under surface white, except for the under tail 
coverts which are black. There is a white wing speculum. In the 
female the black found in the male is replaced by dull brown, and 
there are conspicuous white markings on the head adjacent to the 
bill, particularly on the sides of the head. The hind toe as in all 
deep water ducks has a broad flap or lobe. 

[NYROCA COLLARIS (Donovan) 
RING-NECKED DUCK 

Anas collarw Donovan, Brit. Birds, vol. 6, 1809, pi. 147 (Lincolnshire, Eng- 
land. Found in Leadenhall Market, London). 

Fuligula collarjs, Tippenhauek, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 323 (listed). 

Reported without comment by Tippenhauer and here placed in 
the hypothetical list pending report of a specimen. The species is 
seemingly rather rare in Cuba, and has been reported only once in 
Porto Rico. 

The ring-neck in form and appearance is generally similar to the 
lesser scaup duck. The male has the back black, and a poorly defined 



106 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

chestnut collar around the neck. The female is brown. Both sexes 
have the wing speculum gray, and a light band across the tip of the 
bill, characters which distinguish them readily.] 

Subfamily Erismaturinae 

ERISMATURA JAMAICENSIS JAMAICENSIS (Gmelin) 
WEST INDIAN RUDDY DUCK, PATICO DE FLORIDA, COUCOURAIME 

Anas jamaicensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., vol. 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 519 (Jamaica). 

Erismatura rubida, Tippenhatjeb, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 323 (Haiti). 

Erismatura jamaicensis, Ciferri, Segund Inf. An. Est. Nac. Agr. Moca, 1927, 
p. 6 (listed). 

Erismatura jamaicensis jamaicensis, Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadel- 
phia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 492 (Trou Caiman). — Danfobth, Auk, 1929, p. 361 
(Laguna del Salodillo, specimen). — Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 
68, 1929, p. 310 (Haina, specimen). 

Resident; local. 

Tippenhauer lists the ruddy duck from Haiti without definite lo- 
cality or statement as to its occurrence. W. L. Abbott believes that 
he saw it on the Laguna del Diablo, at the eastern end of the Samana 
Peninsula, but was not entirely certain. 

Ciferri has listed a specimen in the collection of the Experiment 

Station at Moca, D. R., the first one actually known for the island, 

and sent a specimen collected near Haina April 10, 1926, to Moltoni. 

Danforth saw three males at the Laguna del Salodillo, near Copey, 

June 26, 1927, and collected one which he says agrees well in color 

and measurements with Porto Rican specimens. He measured it as 

follows : Wing 132.0, tail 77.5, culmen 42.5, tarsus 33.0 mm. Bond 

found the ruddy duck in 1928 in small numbers at the Trou Caiman, 

Haiti, and on January 15 secured a female which had been caught 

alive by a boy. This bird is in very worn plumage and is extremely 

dark in color, being blackish above mottled faintly with dull russet, 

the russet color predominating on the scapulars, and showing 

strongly on occasional feathers of the side of the neck. On the 

under surface it is dark hair brown. The wing is very small and 

apparently not fully developed, while the tail is so worn that the 

shafts of the feathers project as spines having only ragged bits of 

web, with the tips completely gone. The wing measures 109.6 mm., 

the culmen from base 40.7 mm. and the tarsus 30.7 mm. The length 

of wing is decidedly under that normal for the West Indian form, 

and it is apparently not entirely grown. Bond believed that he saw 

a male in full plumage with two females at the £tang Miragoane 

February 4, 1928. At the Trou Caiman natives informed him that 

the ruddy duck nested during the summer months. 



THE BIRDS OP HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN EEPUBLIC 107 

The ruddy duck is short and compact in body with a full, heavy 
neck and broad bill. The throat and back of the male in full 
plumage are bright rufous-brown, and in the young male, male in 
eclipse dress and the female grayish-brown. The species is easily 
known by the stiffly pointed tail-feathers, which are often held erect 
as the bird swims, and by the very short upper tail coverts. 

NOMONYX DOMINICUS (Linnaeus) 
MASKED DUCK, PATO CHORIZO, CROTJBE 

Anas dominica Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, vol. 1, 1766, p. 201 (Hispaniola). 

Croube, Descouetilz, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, pp. 254-256 (Haiti). 

Querguedula Dominicensis Bbisson, Ornith., vol. 6, 1760, pp. 472-474, pi. 41, 
fig. 2 (" S. Domingue," specimen). 

Anas dominica, Descoubtilz, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, p. 42 ( " lagon Peinier," 
Artibonite). — Ritteb, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, p. 157 (listed). 

Erismatura dominica, Tippenhauek, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, pp. 318, 323 
(listed). 

Nomonyx dominicus, Verbhx, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 355 
(Colorado River near Sanchez). — Petees, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, 
p. 399 (El Batey, specimen). 

Resident; apparently rare. 

The earliest account of this curious little duck that we have seen 
is that of Brisson who describes its color and form in detail, says 
that it occurs in " S. Domingue & au Mexique " and that he had 
examined it in the collection of Abbe Aubry. As he designates it 
" La Sarcelle de S. Domingue " we may suppose that the specimen he 
examined came from Hispaniola. 

Definite records are few. Verrill under this species remarks, 
" Colorado River, Sanchez, rare " a record that may be open to some 
doubt. Peters shot a male among reeds at the border of a lagoon 
near El Batey, on April 5, 1916, the only existing specimen from 
the island known to us at the present time. Abbott believes that 
some little ducks seen on Laguna del Diablo on the Samana Penin- 
sula, March 12, 1919, were this species but did not collect specimens. 

In Haiti Bartsch reports this species as seen on Trou Caiman, 
Haiti, April 4, 1917. Descourtilz found it in the " lagon Peinier " 
on the plain of the Artibonite, in April, 1799, and says of it that it 
is solitary, that its flight is very low and for only a short distance, 
and that its eggs which are white are very large for the size of 
the bird. Bond believed that a bird described to him under the 
name of Canard Zombi was this species but was not certain. 

The masked duck is found in reed grown lagoons where it seldom 
ventures into the open. When alarmed it may dive and disappear 
with all the facility of a grebe or may fly to some cover. 



108 BULLETIN" 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

The atlull male is in general rusty brown, paler below with the 
anterior portion of head black, the back streaked with black, and 
the wing speculum white. The female and young male are paler 
with the black markings more broken. The birds are small as they 
measure only 300 to 370 mm. long. 

Order FALCONIFORMES 33 
Suborder FALCONES 

Family ACCIPITRIDAE 
Subfamily Accipitrinae 

ACCIPITER STRIATUS STRIATUS Vieillot 

HISPANIOLAN SHARP-SHINNED HAWK, GUARAGUOU DE SIERRA, SAN 
NICOLAS, HALCON, MALFINI, PETIT MALFINI 

Accipiter striatus Vieillot, Ois. Am6r. Sept., vol. 1, 1807, p. 42, pi. 14 (" Saint- 
Donringue "= Haiti 3 ' ) . 

Sparvius striatus, Vieillot, Encycl., Meth., vol. 3, 1823, pp. 1205-1266 ("Saint 
Domingue"). 

Nisus striatus, Haktlaub, Isis, 1847, p. 609 (listed). 

Nisus fuscus, Coky, Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, 1S81, p. 154 (Haiti, specimen). 

Accipiter frinyilloides, Coky, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, Dec, 1884, pp. 
120-121, col. plate (Le Coup, specimen) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 98 
(Haiti, Dominican Republic) ; Auk, 1895, p. 279 (Dominican Republic). — 
Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, pp. 319, 322 ( listed ) .— Cherbie, Field 

ss The following references pertain apparently to either the turkey vulture Cathartes 
aura (Linnaeus), or the black vulture Coragyps urubu (Vieillot). 

Marchand, Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois., vol. 1, 1770, pp. 176, 179 (name applied by French 
of " Saint-Domingue " ) . 

Vultur Brasiliensis Brisson, Ornith., vol. 1, 1760, p. 470. (S. Domingue.) No specimen 
is listed. 

Aquhla nudlcollis, Ritter. Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, p. 155 (Haiti). 
The only note is " geyer mit nakendem Halse." There is no mention of a specimen taken. 
This name which occurs in a list of birds supposedly found in Haiti bas been overlooked 
except as indicated in the next citations. 

Falco nudicollis (Ibycter aquilinus), Hartlaub, Isis. 1847, p. 610 (listed after Ritter 
with query). 

Aquila nudicollis, Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 319 (listed apparently after 
Ritter). 

Cathartes aura, Hartlaub, Isis, 1847, p. 610 " wir kennen ihn von Cuba, Domingo 
und St. Nevis." 

The note by Ritter, which seems to be the sole basis for all other references, may 
probably refer to birds that he saw in Cuba. There is current, however, an uncertain 
belief that buzzards were introduced near Gonaives many years ago during the period 
of French colonization, the experiment being unsuccessful. We have found no definite 
statement to substantiate this. 

M In the original description Vieillot remarks " elle porte le nom de malfini, que les 
Creoles donnent indistinctement d. tous les petits oiseaux de proie " and in the Tableau 
Encyclopedique et Methodique says further " les colons de Saint-Domingue appellent cet 
Epervier Malfini, avec l'epithete de petit." As the name malfini is used only in the 
Republic of Haiti it is taken from this that his description applies to the bird of naiti 
which is therefore indicated as the restricted type locality. 



THE BIBDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN BEPUBLIC 109 

Columbian Mus., Ornith. ser.. vol. 1, 1896, p. 22 (Honduras, Catarrey, 
specimens). — Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 357 (Miranda, 
specimen). 

Accipiter striatus striatus, Peters, Bull. Mus. Cornp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, p. 399 
(Bulla).— Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 492 
(listed).— Danforth, Auk, 1929, pp. 361-362 (La Vega ) .— Moltoni, Att. Soc. 
Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, p. 310 (San Juan, specimen). . 

Resident mainly in the hills of the interior ; locally common. 

The sharp-shinned hawk of Hispaniola is found principally in the 
wilder sections of the forested hills of the interior. Though observed 
as early as the close of the eighteenth century by Vieillot in his travels 
on the island, the bird remained little known, and until recently 
comparatively few have been taken. 

In the Dominican Republic Cherrie secured specimens at Honduras 
(near Bani) April 2, 1895, and at Catarrey, February 6. In the 
stomachs of these he found remains of large insects, lizards and 
birds. Verrill collected this form at Miranda. Peters recorded one 
at Bulla on February 12, 1916, but did not secure it. He did not 
find it in his work along the north coast of the island. Near Con- 
stanza in the high interior the sharp-shinned hawk seems to be 
locally common, as, though Wetmore did not record it, Abbott ob- 
tained specimens in that vicinity on April 9, 12, 19, and 30, and May 
2, 1919. One of these, taken April 19, is marked as from the Loma 
Rio Grande. In 1917 Beck collected specimens for the American 
Museum of Natural History on Loma Rucillo March 1, Loma Tina 
January 15, and at Tiibano February 15 and 20. Danforth records 
one seen by F. P. Mathews near La Vega July 7, 1924. Ciferri ob- 
tained one at the Sabana San Thome, near San Juan, Oct. 19, 1928, 

As indicated above it appears that Vieillot's specimen which served 
as his type came from the Republic of Haiti. Cory secured one near 
Petionville (or Le Coup) on March 3, 1881, the only one that he 
observed. Bartsch reported it from near Jeremie from April 10 to 
16, 1917. On July 3, 1917, Beck collected three on the higher slope 
of Morne La Hotte. Wetmore recorded one below Morne Cabaio 
in the Massif de La Selle, April 10 and 13, 1927. On one occasion 
one flew through the pines at his camp with a hummingbird (Ric- 
cordia swainsonii) in hot pursuit. Abbott secured skins at Mousti- 
que March 3, and at Bombardopolis March 21, 1917. He found re- 
mains of a small bird in the stomach of one, and describes the iris 
of this hawk as varying from deep crimson to orange red, the bill 
as leaden colored with the tip black, the tarsi greenish yellow, and 
the toes yellowish. 

This small hawk, little if any larger than the sparrow hawk, is 
distinguished readily by its much longer, square-ended tail. It is 
2134—31 8 



110 BULLETIN" 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

a species of swift, darting flight that seems common in the forests 
of the high interior. There is nothing known of its nesting, or little 
of its habits except as recorded above. 

Above this species is dark slate gray, with a whitish tail tip. The 
sides of the head and neck are cinnamon brown, and the remainder 
of the underparts white barred finely with cinnamon and slate. The 
tibia are sometimes cinnamon brown, margined lightly with white, 
and sometimes white barred with mixed slate and warm brown. The 
tarsi are very long and slender. 

Subfamily Buteoninae 

BUTEO JAMAICENSIS JAMAICENSIS (Gmelin) 
WEST INDIAN RED-TAILED HAWK, GUARAGUOU, MAIFINI, GROS MALFINI 

Falco jatnaicensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., vol. 1, pt. 1, 1788, p. 266 (Jamaica). 

?Malfeni, Chaelevoix, Hist. Isle Espagnole, vol. 1, 1733, p. 41 (recorded). 

?Malfini, Saint-Mery, Descrip. Part. Frang. lie Saint-Donringue, vol. 1, 
1797, p. 263 (Dondon). 

Guaraguao, Oviedo, Hist. Gen. Nat. Indias, Libr. 14, Cap. 2. Reprint, Madrid, 
1851, p. 442 (habits). 

Red-tailed hawk, Beck, Nat. Hist., vol. 21, 1921, p. 381 (food). 

Buteo fulvus, Vieleot, Ois. Amer. Sept., vol. 1, 1S07, p. 34 (" Saint- 
Domingue"). 

lAquila antillarum Ritter, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, p. 155 
(Haiti: nomen nudum). — Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 319 (listed). 

Rupomis ridgwayi, Cherrie, Field Columbian Mus., Ornith. ser., vol. 1, 1896, 
p. 22 (Dominican Republic, refers to Buteo). 

Buteo tropicalis Verriix, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, pp. 357-358 
(Described as new, San Lorenzo, Dominican Republic). 

Buteo borealis, Cory, Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 99 (Haiti, Dominican 
Republic).— Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 139; Beneath Tropic Seas, 
1928, p. 221 (Haiti). 

Buteo oorealis jwmaicensis, Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. vol. 61, 1917, pp. 
399-401 (Choc6, Los Toritos, El Batey, Sosua).— Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 493 (Haiti, common).— Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 
362 (Haiti and Dominican Republic). — Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat. 
vol. 68, 1929, p. 310 (Moca, specimens). 

Resident ; common, mainly among hills and mountains. 

The West Indian red-tailed hawk is widely spread through both 
republics and is seen regularly in travel through the country. 
Cherrie who did not secure specimens gives notes under the name of 
Rwpornis ridgwayi that evidently refer to the present bird, as he 
reports it seen frequently in the mountains, while Rupomis is more 
a species of the lowlands. Further Rwpornis is rare and the red-tail, 
which Cherrie does not mention at all, is common. Cory did not 
include the red-tail in his Birds of Haiti and San Domingo published 
in 1885, but lists it from Hispaniola in his Catalogue of West Indian 
Birds which appeared in 1892. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN EEPUBLIC 111 

Peters found this form fairly common in hilly or heavily timbered 
country near the coast (Choco, Los Toritos, Sosua, El Batey) and 
collected an adult male at Choco March 25, 1916. Abbott has for- 
warded specimens from Sanchez, October 24, 1916, and February 15, 
16 and 17, 1919, from El Rio in the interior, September 20, October 
8 and 9, 1916, and May 12, 1919, and from near Constanza September 
26, and October 2, 1916. 

Wetmore observed two over the Monte Las Canitas near Sanchez 
May 7, 1927, found the species at San Lorenzo Bay on May 11, and 
in the swamps at the mouth of the Arroyo Barrancota May 8. Num- 
bers were seen over the forested hills between Sanchez and Las Ter- 
renas May 13, and he prepared as a specimen one brought to him 
alive at Sanchez on May 11. 

On May 17, 1927, Wetmore observed several near El Rio. Near 
Constanza this bird was seen regularly from May 18 to 26. Dan- 
forth in 1927 saw this bird at Monte Cristi June 27, and San Pedro 
de Macoris July 7. Abbott secured one on Saona Island. September 
16, 1919, and reported several others during the period from Sep- 
tember 12 to 18. Ciferri collected specimens near Moca February 
27 and September 18, 1927. 

In Haiti Bartsch has reported the red-tail in the vicinity of 
Jeremie April 12, 15 and 16, and near Trou des Roseaux April 13 
and 14, 1917. Abbott collected one at Jeremie November 25, 1917, 
and three others at Moline January 30, 1918. He secured one on 
Morne St. Vincent June 2, 1920, one at an altitude of 600 meters near 
Moustique, March 8, 1917, and one near Anse a Galets, on Gonave 
Island, March 7, 1920. He reports several seen on Gonave from 
February 18 to 28, 1918. 

Wetmore found this hawk common at Fonds-des-Negres from 
March 31 to April 5, 1927, recorded one near La Tremblay April 7, 
and saw three circling over a deep valley among the hills east of 
Furcy on April 8. From April 9 to 16 he observed it regularly on 
the great ridge of La Selle, and on April 17 recorded several near 
Chapelle Faure, Nouvelle Touraine. He recorded one in the hills 
northeast of Hinche near the Bassin Zime April 24, and two near 
Caracol April 27. On April 28 in crossing above Morne Terrible 
toward the Cul-de-Sac Plain by airplane he saw one circling below, 
with its colors showing to advantage in this unusual lighting. G. S. 
Miller, jr., secured one between St. Michel and L'Atalaye on March 
26, 1925. Danforth in 1927 found the red-tail at Petionville and 
Kenskoff July 23, at the Citadelle above Milot August 2, and on 
Gonave Island July 17. Bond reports it common throughout Haiti 
in 1928. In the following year Poole and Perrygo secured one at 
Plaine Mapou on Gonave Island, March 12, at which the natives were 



112 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

so delighted that they gave the collectors several chickens. The red- 
tail was seen also at Cerca-la-Source March 18 to 24. 

The traveler from other climes who is accustomed to scan the sky 
for large birds welcomes with keen delight the stately form of the 
red-tail as it soars over the barren mountain slopes, cultivated fields, 
pinelands or swamps of Hispaniola. The birds float high in air 
calling occasionally with high pitched screams whose wild cadences 
seem fitting and appropriate to the scenes that they survey. Red- 
tails are gregarious to the extent that sometimes half a dozen may be 
in the field of vision at one time though usually single individuals 
are seen. 

For food they have available the introduced rats and mice, birds, 
lizards, snakes, frogs and possibly large insects. Wetmore ob- 
served one in flight with a rat dangling from its talons. Abbott 
records one taken near Sanchez that had remains of rats in its 
stomach, and another from near Furcy that had eaten bats. They 
were said to destroy chickens even in the time of Oviedo, which is 
not surprising in a country where chickens are not confined, but 
compelled to seek the greater part of their food, wander regularly 
afield at a distance from houses. Many houses, too, occupy only 
small clearings so that these hawks come naturally near at hand. 
Wetmore noted that the passing of these hawks frequently caused 
commotion among small birds. Beck notes several dashing at 
domestic fowls, and shot one with the remains of a chicken in its 
crop. 

The scream of this form is exactly like that of the red-tail of 
eastern North America. Occasionally these birds are very tame 
and when resting in trees allow close approach, only calling shrilly 
in protest when one approaches too near. 

Buteo tropicalis Verrill, described as a new species from two 
specimens from the south side of Samana Bay, one at least being 
from San Lorenzo Bay, is based on the immature phase of the pres- 
ent form. 

The United States National Museum has now twenty-one skins 
of this hawk, the largest series known to us. It is pertinent to list 
here the measurements of the specimens from Hispaniola : 

Eight males, wing 332-366 (342), tail 180-203 (192); culmen 
from cere 24.0-26.4 (24.9) ; tarsus 72.0-83.6 (77.0) mm. 

Nine females, wing 360-374 (363.0), tail 190-212 (201.3), culmen 
from cere 25.0-28.8 (27.0), tarsus 81.2-85.7 (83.9) mm. 

Aquila antiUa-rum of Hitter is a nomen nudum without nomen- 
clatural standing. It is cited questionably under the red-tail since 
this, the most prominent of the large hawks of Haiti, is not other- 
wise mentioned by Hitter. It is possible therefore that Ritter may 
have intended to indicate the red-tail under this name. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 113 

The specific name of the red-tailed hawk must change from 
borealis to jamaicensis with the recognition of the Greater Antillean 
race as a valid form, since Gmelin who proposed both these names 
on the same page named jamaicensis first with borealis following. 
Through application of the principle of anteriority the scientific 
name of the red-tail becomes Buteo jamaicensis. 

The red-tailed hawk, the largest of the common hawks of this 
area, is easily distinguished when adult by its reddish brown tail. 
The back is dusky brown, mottled more or less with buffy, the 
throat blackish, and the rest of the underparts buffy white, with a 
large blackish patch, more or less interrupted with white, on the 
center of the lower surface. The young have the tail dusky brown 
barred indistinctly with paler. 

BUTEO PLATYPTERUS PLATYPTERUS (Vieillot) 

BROAD-WINGED HAWK 

Sparvius platypterus Viellot, Tabl. Encycl. Meth., vol. 3, 1823, p. 1273 
(Schuylkill River, near Philadelphia, Pa.). 

Apparently very rare. 

During a visit to the Exposicion Nacional at Santiago, Dominican 
Republic, on May 31, 1927, Wetmore examined a mounted specimen 
of the broad-winged hawk that was shown among examples of the 
work produced by one of the higher schools of Santiago. The bird 
was in immature plumage and had been recently mounted as it was 
fresh and clean in appearance. Nothing could be learned regarding 
it except that it was said to have been killed near Santiago. There 
is no other record of the species for Hispaniola, though occurrence 
of the bird there is not surprising since the broad-winged hawk is 
found regularly in Cuba and has been reported from Porto Rico. 

The adult broad-w T ing is dusky brown above, more or less varie- 
gated with a whitish or brownish wash on the feathers, with the 
tail broadly banded with whitish. It is buffy white below, barred 
irregularly with rufescent brown. The immature bird is darker 
above, with the tail band grayish instead of white, and below is 
streaked and spotted with dusky brown. The species has a wing 
measurement in males of 250 to 270 mm. and in females of 280 to 
290 mm. It is easily distinguished from Rupornis by the more 
pointed wing tip which in the broad-wing has the seventh and 
eighth primaries (counting from the inside) about equal and the 
sixth abruptly shorter ( being 20 mm. or more less in length than the 
seventh) while in Rupornis there is little difference in length between 
the sixth, seventh and eighth primaries, the sixth and the eighth 
being about equal. 



114 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

RUPORNIS RIDGWAYI Cory 
RIDGWAY'S HAWK, CULLALA, GTTARAGUOTJ, MALFINI SAVANNE 

Rupornis ridgwayi Cory, Quart. Journ. Boston Zool. Soc, vol. 2, Oct., 1883, 
p. 46 (Samamt, Dominican Republic). — Cory, Auk, 1884, p. 4 (reprint orig. 
description, with further notes) ; Birds Haiti and San Domingo, Dec, 1884, pp. 
121-122, 2 col. pis. (Samana., Almercen, Magua, specimens) ; Cat. West Indian 
Birds, 1892, p. 99 (Haiti, Dominican Republic).— Tristram, H. B., Cat. Coll. 
Birds belonging H. B. Tristram, 1889, pp. 61, 271 (SamanH, specimen). — Tippen- 
hauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, pp. 319, 322 (listed).— Christy, Ibis, 1897, p. 335 
(? Yuna). — Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 357 (Miranda, 
specimen). — Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, p. 401 (Laguna 
Flaca, specimens). — Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, 
p. 493 (Massif du Nord). 

Coryornis ridgivayi, Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 362 ( Santo Domingo City, Haina, 
Gonave Island). 

Resident, rather rare. 

In the Dominican Republic Dr. W. L. Abbott secured an adult male 
at Guarabo near Jovero on November 18, 1923, noting that the feet 
were yellow, and the iris brownish yellow, and that the stomach con- 
tained lizards. He also secured an immature bird (with sex not 
marked) near Sanchez, February 7, 1919. The stomach of the second 
specimen contained remains of a rat. There are also skins in the 
Academy of Natural Sciences taken by Abbott labeled Samana Ba}' 
June 30 and La Caiiita (now Sanchez), D. R., July 14 and 15, 1883. 
Cory records specimens from Magua January 31, Samana April 3 
and September 4, and Almercen, August 27, 1883, and there is a skin 
in the United States National Museum received from Cory taken at 
Almercen, now known as Rivas, on August 24, 1883. Tristram 
possessed one specimen taken by T. A. Toogood at Samana in 1886. 
Verrill reports one taken at Miranda and says that he observed it in 
other localities. Peters shot two males at the Laguna Flaca on the 
north coast on March 8, 1916. These records all pertain to the north- 
eastern part of the Dominican Republic. Danforth, however, in 
1927 recorded the bird east of Santo Domingo City July 4 and 8 and 
near Haina June 16. 

In Haiti Abbott found Ridgway's hawk common and tame in the 
scrub on the Cayemite Islands in January, 1918, and collected a fine 
series. Twelve were taken on Grande Cayemite between January 
6 and 10, and one on Petite Cayemite January 13. Two were seen 
in the latter locality. The stomach of one contained remains of a 
ground dove, and of another a mouse. Abbott records the iris as 
brown, brownish yellow, or pale brownish yellow, bill leaden color 
with the tip black, the cere yellowish green, the tarsi greenish, and 



THE BIKDS OP HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 115 

the feet yellow. Bond found it in among the pine forests in the 
eastern part of the Massif du Nord, where he collected an adult 
female near Bois Laurence May 2, 1928, and on the same day re- 
corded two nests placed twenty-five and forty feet from the ground 
respectively. Both held downy young. Danforth says that on July 
18, 1927 he saw three circling over low woods on Gonave Island. 
Nothing is recorded of the habits of the species and few of the in- 
habitants know it. At Sanchez it was reported to Wetmore under 
the name cullala, and near La Vega it was known as the guaraguou. 

No definite type locality is assigned in the original description 
but through the kind offices of Dr. C. E. Hellmayr we learn that both 
male and female indicated by Cory as types were secured at Samana 
in April, 1883. 

After comparison of a very fair series of specimens we are led to 
believe that Mr. Ridgway, in describing Coryornis 35 as a monotypic 
genus for Bupornis ridgwayi was deceived by inadequate material 
since the characters alleged to separate the supposed group from 
Bupornis Kaup do not appear to exist. We consider ridgwayi as 
not generically separable from Bupornis magnirostris the type form 
of Kaup's genus. 

The adult bird is dull gray above, with indistinct shaft streakings 
of dusky, and the wing coverts washed with brownish. The chin is 
white, the upper breast light gray streaked with dusky, and the rest 
of the lower parts, including the tibiae, rufous brown barred 
narrowly with white. The bird is from 360 to 390 mm. long. 

. Subfamily Circinae 

CIRCUS HUDSONIUS (Linnaeus) 
MARSH HAWK 

Falco hudsonius Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, vol. 1, 1766, p. 128 (Hudson 
Bay). 

Circus hudsonius, Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 
493 (Trou Caiman, St. Michel, Tortue Island). 

Uncommon in winter as a migrant from North America. 

Peters reports one seen on several occasions near Sosiia in the late 
winter of 1916 but did not secure it. Abbott saw one twice, about 
March 19, 1922, near Cabral, but did not get within gun range. In 
Haiti in 1928 Bond saw the marsh hawk at Trou Caiman, St. Michel, 
and on Tortue Island. It is probable that the bird comes casually 
during the winter months as a migrant from North America. It is 

SB Auk, 1925, p. 585. 



116 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

seen rather regularly in Cuba and the Bahamas, and has been re- 
corded from Porto Rico. 3 ' 1 

The bird does not watch for prey from a commanding perch like 
other hawks of the island but instead is found quartering steadily 
back and forth over marshy savannas or open fields in search for 
food. Attempt should be made to secure specimens. 

The marsh hawk is about as large as the red-tail, but has a longer 
tail and more slender form. The female is dark brown, and the 
male light gray, both sexes being marked by a large white patch on 
the rump. 

Subfamily Pandioninae 

PANDION HALIAETUS CAROLINENSIS (Gmelin) 
OSPREY, AGUILA MARINA 

Falco earoltnensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., vol. 1, pt. 1, 1788, p. 273 (Carolina). 

Pandion haliaetus, Cory, Birds of Haiti and San Domingo, Dec, 1884, pp. 
125-126 (Port-au-Prince). — Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 322 
(listed). — Verrile, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 359 (recorded). 

Pandion haliaetus carolinensis, Cory, Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 99 
(Haiti, Dominican Republic).— Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zo61., vol. 61, 1917, p. 
402 (Monte Cristi).— Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 140; Beneath 
Tropic Seas, 1928, p. 221 (Port-au-Prince). 

A winter visitant in small numbers along the coast. 

Peters has recorded an osprey seen near Monte Cristi on Feb- 
ruary 17, 1916. Abbott saw this species at Lake Enriquillo October 
1 to 6, 1919, and at the mouth of the Yuna during spring of the same 
year. At Catalinita Island he recorded four from September 10 to 
12, 1919. In view of these few records Verrill's statement that the 
bird was " abundant around the mangrove swamps " must be taken 
with some reservation. 

Cory recorded one at Port-au-Prince (probably in February, 1881) 
but did not secure it. Beebe says that at the Bizoton wharves, on 
March 3, 1927, one attempted to alight on one of the masts of his 
schooner with a large fish in its talons. Poole and Perrygo observed 
two about the island of Monte Grande in the Seven Brothers group 
on January 30 and February 4, 1929. 

As the osprey feeds entirely upon fish it must be confined to the 
coastal region and the lakes and larger streams of the lowlands in 
Hispaniola. Its large size distinguishes it from all other hawks of 
the region. 

The osprey is blackish brown above with the head white marked 
with blackish brown on the crown and cheeks. Below it is white, 
sometimes streaked with light brown. 

30 Wetmoie, New York Acad. Sci., Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and Virgin Islands, vol. 9, 
1927, p. 323. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 117 

PANDION HALIAETUS RIDGWAYI Maynard 
BAHAMAN OSPREY 

Pandion Ridgwcir"' Maynard, Airier. Exch. and Mart, vol. 3, no. 3, January 
15, 1887, p. 33 (Andros Island," 5 Bahama Island). 

Apparently a straggler. 

Mr. Gerrit S. Miller, jr. Curator of Mammals, United States Na- 
tional Museum has furnished the following interesting statement: 

"On the morning of February 17, 1928, while running southeast- 
ward along the coast of the Dominican Republic toward Cape En- 
gano, the steamship Huron of the Clyde Santo Domingo Line was 
visited by a fish-hawk which I had no hesitation in identifying as 
Pandion ridgwayi Maynard. The bird perched on the steamer's low 
mast-head for several hours and evinced much interest in the pas- 
sengers moving about on the deck beneath, constantly turning its 
head from side to side and downward to keep them in view. The 
head markings could thus be perfectly studied, even without the aid 
of a glass. With a glass the individual feathers could almost be 
counted. The markings were exactly those of the Bahaman fish- 
hawk, the type specimen of which, now in the British Museum, was 
for many years in my possession." 

This form described originally from the Bahama Islands and 
found recently on the coast of Yucatan 30 is similar in size to the 
American osprey, differing from that bird in having the sides of 
the head white without the dark line that passes through the eye 
in the other form, and the top of the head and neck also white 
except for an occasional dark marking. Careful watch should bp 
maintained as it may prove to be of regular occurrence. 

Family FALCONIDAE 
Subfamily Falconinae 

FALCO PEREGRINUS ANATUM Bonaparte 
DUCK HAWK 

Falco anaium Bonaparte, Geogr. and Comp. List, 1838, p. 4 (Egg Harbor. 
New Jersey). 

F. p. anatiim, Lonnberg, Fauna och Flora. 1929, p. 98 (Navassa, recorded). 

Falco peregrimis anatum, Ekman, Ark. for Bot., vol. 22A, No. 16, 1929, p. 7 
( Navassa ) . 

37 Given as Pandion ridgwayi in corrected description in vol. 3, no. 6, February 5, 1887, 
p. 69. 

38 Swann, Synop. Accip., pt. 4, May 20, 1922, p. 232, gives the type locality as " Bitter 
guana Key," but in the original description it is listed as from Andros. 

39 Griscom, Auier. Mus. Nov. No. 235, Nov. 18, 1926, p. 13 ; recorded from Hick's Key, 
Ascension Bay, Boca de Paila, breeding. 



118 BULLETIN 15 5, "UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Migrant from North America ; rare. 

The only record for the Dominican Republic is that of one taken 
by Kaempfer and sent to the Tring Museum. Hartert informs us 
that this specimen is labeled Espaillat, November, 1923, 300 meters 
altitude. The locality probably refers to the Province of Espaillat. 
The primaries in this bird are in molt. 

Poole and Perrygo recorded one February 11, 1929, near the old 
fort at Fort Liberie, Haiti, but did not secure it. Lonnberg reports 
a young bird from Navassa Island, in October, 1928, from a collec- 
tion made by E. L. Ekman. 

The adult is dark bluish slate above, and cream-buff below barred 
and spotted with black. The immature is fuscous on the back, more 
or less margined with ochraceous or rufous, with the underparts 
streaked, spotted or barred with black. There is a prominent mark 
of black in the region of the ear. The species is easily told as the 
largest of the falcons, being from 400 to 480 mm. in length. 

FALCO COLUMBARIUS COLUMBARIUS Linnaens 
PIGEON HAWK, GAVILAN 

Falco columbarius Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1, 175S, p. 00 (Caro- 
lina). 

Falso columbarius, Cory, Birds of Haiti and San Domingo, Dec, 1884, pp. 
123-124 (Puerto Plata, specimen) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1802, p. 00 (Haiti, 
Dominican Republic). — Tippenhaueb, Die Insel Haiti, 1802, p. 322 (listed). — 
Christy, Ibis, 1807, p. 335 (head of Saniana, Bay). 

Falco columbarius columbarius, Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1017, 
p. 401 (Arroyo Savanna, specimen). — Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 
vol. 80, 1028, p. 403 (? Gonave Island).— Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 
68. 1020, p. 310 (Laguna de Haina, specimen). 

Winter visitant in uncertain numbers. 

Christy reports one seen in a mangrove swamp at the head of 
Samana Bay without giving the date. Peters shot a female at Ar- 
royo Savanna on March 9, and saw another near Monte Cristi, Feb- 
ruary 19, 1916. Beck took specimens at La Vega November 28 and 
December 7, 1916, and on Loma Rucillo February 27, 1917. Cory 
collected a male at Puerto Plata on December 7, 1882, and Abbott 
shot an adult male at Trujin in the southwestern part of the Domin- 
ican Republic on February 10, 1922. Dr. Hartert writes us that 
Kaempfer collected two immature specimens for the Tring Museum, 
a female at Lopez, Prov. Espaillat March 12, 1922, and a male at 
Moca, January 7, 1924. Ciferri secured one alive at the Laguna 
de Haina in February, 1926. 

In Haiti the only records are those of specimens take by Abbott, 
an immature bird, sexed questionably as a female, shot at an altitude 
of 900 meters near Moustique in the northwest, on March 4, 1916, an 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 119 

adult male killed near Moline in southwest Haiti, on January 26, 
1918, and an immature female shot on Grande Cayemite Island Jan- 
uary 5, 1918. The one taken at Moline had eaten a bat. Perrygo 
observed one near L'Atalaye toward the end of December, 1928. 

On comparison the four specimens secured by Abbott prove to be 
typical columbarius, as would be expected. 

The pigeon hawk is a dashing little falcon that feeds extensively 
on birds that it captures readily as it is swift of flight and strong 
in muscle. 

This species is about the size of the sparrow hawk, but is easily 
distinguished by the dark slaty gray upper surface streaked indis- 
tinctly with blackish, by the heavy blackish streaking and barring 
of the underparts, and by the black tail, tipped with whitish and 
banded with gray. 

FALCO SPARVERIUS DOMINICENSIS Gmelin 

HISPANIOLAN SPARROW HAWK, CERNICALO, CUYAYA, MALFINI, PRIPRI, 
GRIGRI, VERS-MOTJCHETTE, 'TI MALFINI 

Falco dominicensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., vol. 1, pt. 1, 1788, p. 285 (Santo 
Domingo). 

Cernicalo, Oviedo, Hist. Gen. Nat. Indias, Libr. 14, Cap. 2, Reprint, Madrid, 
1851, p. 442 (mentioned). 

Grigri, Saint-Mery, Descrip. Part. Frang. lie Saint-Domingue vol. 1, 1797, 
p. 263 (Dondon). 

Emerillon, de St. Domingue, Daubenton, Planch. Enl. No. 465. 

AEsalon Carolinensis Bbisson, Ornith., vol. 1, 1760, p. 389, pi. 32, fig. 1 
(" Saint-Domingue "). 

AEsalon Do?ninicensis Brisson, Ornith, vol. 1, 1760, p. 393, pi. 32, fig. 2 
(" Saint-Domingue ") . 

Falco plumMceps Hartlaub, Naumannia, 1852, pt. 2, p. 52 (Cuba and 
Haiti). 

Falco mercurialis Hartlaub, Naumannia, 1852, pt. 2, p. 52 (Cuba and Haiti). 

Tinnunculus sparrerius, Vielllot, Hist. Nat. Ois. Am6r. Sept., vol. 1, 1807, p. 
41 (" Saint Domingue"). 

Tinnunculus sparverius, Sall£, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, p. 231 (Nizao). — 
Cory, Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, 1881, p. 154 (Haiti, specimens). 

Tinnunculus isabellinus, Tristram, Cat. Coll. Birds belonging H. B. Tristram, 
1889, p. 271 (Dominican Republic). 

Falco spaverius, Ritter, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, p. 155 
(Haiti, specimen). 

Falco sparverius, Cory, Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 99 (Haiti, Domin- 
ican Republic). — Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 358 
(Miranda). 

Falco sparverius isabellinus, Cory, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, Dec, 
1884, pp. 124-125 (Puerto Plata, Magua). — Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, 
pp. 319, 322 (listed). 

Falco dominicensis, Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 1867, 
p. 90 (Dominican Republic, Haiti ) .—Cory, Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 99 
(Haiti, Dominican Republic). — Cherbie, Field Columbian Mus., Ornith. ser., 



120 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

vol. 1, 1896, p. 23 (Dominican Republic).- — Verriix, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila- 
delphia, 1909, p. 358 (Dominican Republic). 

Falco sparverius dominicensis, Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, 
pp. 401-402 (Monte Cristi, Sosiia, Choco, specimens). — Kaempfer, Journ. fur 
Ornith., 1924, p. 181 (Dominican Republic ) .— Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 
1927, p. 140; Beneath Tropic Seas, 1928, p. 221 (Haiti).— Bond, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 493 (Haiti, including Tortue and Gonave 
Islands). — Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 362 (common). — Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. 
Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, pp. 310-311 (Haina, Moca, specimens). 

Cercncis dominicensis, Ciferri, Segund. Inf. An. Est. Nac. Agr. Moca, 1927, 
p. 6 (listed). 

Resident; common except in the densest forests. Following are 
definite records of occurrence : 

Dominican Republic: — Sanchez, San Francisco de Macoris, Pi- 
mentel to La Vega, along the railroad (Wetmore) ; Choco, Sosiia 
(Peters) ; Monte Cristi (Peters, Danforth) ; Miranda (Verrill) ; 
Santiago (Wetmore) ; Puerto Plata, Magua (Cory) ; Jarabacoa, El 
Rio, Constanza (Abbott, Wetmore) ; Comendador (Wetmore) ; 
Nizao (Salle); Haina (Danforth). 

Haiti : — Caracol, Cap-Ha'itien, Hinche, Maissade, Las Cahobes, 
Morne a Cabrits, (Wetmore); Dondon (Saint-Mery) ; St. Michel, 
Fort Liberie, St. Raphael, Pont Sonde, Cerca-la-Source (Poole and 
Perry go) ; Bombardopolis, Moustique, Fonds Verettes (Abbott) ; 
Port-au-Prince, Damien, Carrefour, Kenskoff, Furcy, Massif de la 
Selle near Morne La Visite, La Tremblay, Fonds-des-Negres, Mira- 
goane, Etang Miragoane (Wetmore) ; Jeremie (Abbott) ; Gonave 
Island, Tortue Island (Abbott, Danforth, Poole and Perrygo) ; 
Thomazeau, Glore, Trou Caiman, Petit Goave, Trou des Roseaux 
(Bartsch). 

The little sparrow hawk is one of the familiar species of His- 
paniola, welcome to the eye on its open perch on pole, dead tree or 
royal palm spike, in a land where many of the birds skulk and hide, 
and are seen with difficulty. The sparrow hawk has characteristics 
that readily distinguish it whether quietly at rest, hovering grace- 
fully over some creature concealed in the grasses that may serve as 
food, or flying across open savannas or among the trees of open for- 
ests. Its usual call is a shrill kitty kitty kitty that proclaims it at 
once a member of the great horde of sparrow hawks that inhabit the 
New World. It is impetuous and playful, and frequently darts at 
red-tailed hawks at rest or on the wing. Wetmore found it among 
the palms of the lowlands and lower hills and also among the open 
pines of the higher mountains. It was occasionally seen soaring 
high above the trees but usually rested on open perches amid the 
branches. It does not occur amid dense rain forest jungles and so is 
more abundant in semi-arid sections than elsewhere. It seems rather 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 121 

rare on the southern side of the Samana Peninsula. The bird is not 
averse to the haunts of man and may be seen even in the gardens in 
the suburbs of Port-au-Prince. 

The sparrow hawk builds its nest in hollows in trees. Bond has 
observed them mating as early as January. At Comendador on April 
30, 1927, Wetmore bought two young not quite fledged from a boy 
who said that he had taken them from a hollow in a palm. These 
were male and female. Abbott collected a mated pair at Jeremie, 
December 3, 1917, and shot a female at Etroites on Gonave Island, 
March 20, 1920, that contained eggs nearly ready to be laid. The 
season for breeding probably varies as climatic conditions are di- 
verse in different parts of the island. 

Wetmore recorded the sparrow hawk eating lizards on several 
occasions and once saw one carrying a small snake. Abbott writes 
that the stomach of one taken at Jeremie, January 16, 1918, was filled 
with insects, mostly grasshoppers. The bird is a useful species as it 
is frequently a destroyer of the larger injurious insects. 

The names Falco mercurialis and F. plwmbiceps of Hartlaub 4 ' 1 
based on collections by Wurttemberg, applied to supposed races of 
the sparrow hawk of Cuba and Haiti seem to have been overlooked. 
Hartlaub's statement in full is as follows : 

" 3. Falco sparverius, auct. Von dieser Art beobachtete der Herzog 
zwei Subspecies, eine dunkelgraugefarbte, welche er F. mercurialis — 
und eine lohgelbe, welche er F. plwmbiceps nennt. Bei den Creolen 
hiess ersterer S. Antonio, letzterer S. Nicola. Beide kommen auf 
Cuba und Haiti vor." So far as Haiti is concerned these are syno- 
nyms of Falco dominicensis Gmelin, published in 1788, while for 
Cuba they are antedated by Falco sparverioides Vigors described 
in 1827. 

The degree of relationship between the sparrow hawks of His- 
paniola and those of Cuba is one somewhat difficult to establish in 
spite of the abundant material from both islands at hand. The 
Cuban bird Falco sparverius sparverioides Vigors in the male has 
the wing 170.0 to 185.0 mm. (with an average in 12 specimens of 
175.8), and in the female 174.0 to 191.0 (with an average in twelve 
skins of 182.8 mm.) Many of both sexes are deeply rufescent above 
and below, this color being relieved only by the usual black mark- 
ings; while others are nearly white on the under surface. Some 
have considered these two color phases as distinct species but for this 
there is no foundation as the extremes are connected by intergrades 
so that they merge into one another. Barbour notes that light and 
dark birds frequently mate. 

40 Naumannia, 1852, pt. 2, p. 52. 



122 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

The bird from Hispaniola in the male has the wing 182.0 to 193.0 
with an average of 186.0 mm. (14 specimens) and in the female 
184.5 to 202.0 with an average of 190.3 mm. (13 specimens). It thus 
averages slightly larger than the Cuban bird, though a few in the 
series from Cuba are as large as birds from the adjacent island. 
The series from Haiti and the Dominican Republic varies in depth 
of brownish color from nearly white below to a strong brownish wash 
on the breast but none that we have seen are as completely rufescent 
as the darkest specimens from Cuba. Except for the rufescent phase 
so commonly represented in Cuba birds from the two islands are 
quite similar in coloration. 

The male sparrow hawk is white or buffy white below with more 
or less of a rufescent wash on the breast, and the sides and flanks 
with a few black spots. The tail is bright reddish brown with 
whitish tip followed by a black band. The rump and upper back 
are reddish brown and the middle back, wing coverts and crown are 
gray, the latter sometimes with a reddish brown central patch. 
Black streaks across the otherwise pale cheeks form prominent field 
marks. The female is similar but has the entire upper surface ex- 
cept the head reddish brown barred heavily with black, and is 
streaked below with reddish brown. The species ranges from 255 
to 285 mm. in length. 

Order GALLIFORMES 

Suborder Galli 

Superfamily PHASIANIDES 

Family PERDICIDAE 

Subfamily Odontophorinae 

COLINUS VIRGINIANUS VIRGINIANUS (Linnaeus) 
BOB-WHITE, CAILLE 

Tetrao virginianus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1, 1758, p. 161 
(Carolina). 

Caille, Saint-Mery, Descrip. Part. Frany. lie Saint-Domingue, vol. 2, 1798, 
p. 479 (Leogane, common). 

Ortyx virginiana, Cory, Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, 1881, p. 154 (Haiti, com- 
mon) ; Birds Haiti and San Domingo, Dec., 1884, pp. 13S-139 (specimens). — 
Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, pp. 320-321, 322 (Haiti). 

Colinus virginianus (part), Cory, Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 96 
(Haiti).— Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 139; Beneath Tropic Seas, 
1928, p. 220 (Bizoton, Etang Miragoane) .— Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 362 (Mire- 
balais, Grand Goave, Fonds-des-Negres). 

Colinus virginianus virginianus, Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 
vol. 80, 1928, p. 493 (Furcy, Etang Miragoane). 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 123 

Haiti, introduced; locally common. 

Introduction of the quail in Haiti came during the French colonial 
period as it was recorded from Leogane, at the close of the eighteenth 
century. Of this locality Moreau de Saint-Mery in his pleasantly 
informative descriptive narrative says " elle a beaucoup de cailles, 
dont l'espece est semblable a, la perdix a pied gris des Etats-Unis 
d'Amerique." 

Cory in 1881 said the bob-white was common, and according to 
statement of the inhabitants had been introduced many years ago. 
It is curious that the species was not mentioned by Younglove who 
between January and June, 1866 covered much of the same area in 
Haiti visited by Cory. The bird is well known to the Haitian coun- 
trymen and is now established in many sections. 

Paul Bartsch recorded it at Thomazeau, April 2, 1917, near Jeremie 
April 10, about five miles west of Jeremie April 16, in the Cul-de- 
Sac region April 24, and near Port-au-Prince, including the coastal 
region and the hills back of the city, from April 25 to 27. The 
specimen collected by Abbott, the only one from Haiti in the United 
States National Museum, is similar in color to birds from Christ- 
church Parish, South Carolina in the deep brown of the upper sur- 
face, the greater extent of black, and the restriction of brownish 
mixture in the black of the auricular region. On the other hand it 
is much more buffy below. This bird is decidedly darker than those 
from the central and northern states, but is entirely different from 
the form found in Florida. Cory remarks of his Haitian specimens 
that they " approach very closely in coloration to the, Bahama form, 
but are lighter and much less black on the breast than that which is 
found in Florida." 

"Wetmore found the quail at Fond-des-Negres from April 3 to 5, 
1927, and heard the males whistling regularly in early morning. Dr. 
and Mrs. C. H. Arndt at the Coffee Experiment Station said that 
they had heard it calling daily for some time. It is well known near 
Miragoane where Mr. Rogevie said that the natives trapped quail 
and offered them for sale alive. He had kept several in captivity 
at one time. They were said to be offered at times in the markets 
of Port-au-Prince. W. R. Barbour of the Service Technique stated 
that he had found quail in some numbers throughout the Cul-de-Sac 
Plain. Beebe in 1927 heard it daily at Bizoton and found it at the 
Etang Miragoane. On April 17, 1927 Wetmore heard its calls near 
Kenskoff, and W. L. Abbott, on June 13, 1920, shot a male near Furcy. 
Danforth recorded it in 1927 at Mirebalais, Grand Goave and Fonds- 
des-Negres. Bond found it at Furcy and near the Etang Miragoane. 

There is such abundance of cover in its range that quail are diffi- 
cult to find. They seem from present information to occur along the 
southern peninsula from a point west of Jeremie through Fonds-des- 



124 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Negres east to Port-au-Prince and north and east through the Cul- 
de-Sac Plain at least as far as Mirebalais and Thomazeau, and a 
point 20 kilometers north of Port-au-Prince, extending inland 
through the hills to an elevation of 1,200 meters or more at Kenskoff 
and below Furcy. 

The bob-white has a short plump form that distinguishes it from 
all other birds of the island except the quail-doves. It is reddish 
brown above mottled with black and grayish buff, and whitish below 
barred irregularly with black. The flanks are streaked with bright 
brown, and there are heavy black markings on the sides of the head, 
crown and upper breast. The throat is white in the male and brown 
in the female. The male taken by Abbott measured 230 mm. in 
length. 

COLINUS VIRGINIANUS CUBANENSIS (Gould) 
CUBAN BOB-WHITE, CODORNIZ, CORONISA 

Ortyx cubanensis Gould, in Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. 3, May, 1846, p. 514 
Cuba). 

Cuban Quail, Phillips, U. S. Dept. Agr. Techn. Bull. 61, April, 1928, p. 31 
(Dominican Republic.) 

Colinus cubanensis, Cory, Auk, 1S95, p. 279 (Dominican Republic). — Cherrie, 
Field Columbian Mus., Ornitb. Ser., vol. 1, March, 1896, p. 24 (Dominican 
Republic). 

Colinus virginianus, Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 362 (part, Santo Domingo 
City, Los Alcarrizos, Hato Mayor). 

Colinus virginianus virginianus, Moltoni, At.t. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 
1929, p. 311 (Sabana de Guerra, specimen). 

Said to have been introduced into the Dominican Republic. 

The earliest record for the Cuban bob-white is that of Cherrie 
who says " introduced into San Domingo by an American sugar 
planter by the name of Bass, about six years ago. It has increased 
very rapidly, and now for a good many miles around San Domingo 
City flocks of from ten to twenty-five are frequently met." 

In the American Museum of Natural History there are two adult 
males taken by R. H. Beck near Santo Domingo City May 28 and 
29, 1917. Both of these birds are very dark, the black of the breast 
being so extensive that it covers the greater part of each feather. 
The rufescent colors also are darker than the average for this race. 
These two have the following measurements: wing 101.2-102.0, tail 
37.0-41.1, culmen from base 14.5-15.0, tarsus 27.9-28.2 mm. Maj. J. A. 
Bonilla Atiles of the Policia Nacional Dominicana informed Wet- 
more that he had found this bird in flocks and had shot a number. 
At Constanza there was further talk about the quail at San Pedro 
de Macoris and it was believed here that the bob-white was an enemy 
of the woodpecker which it drove from the cornfields when that 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 125 

bird came to feed on maize ! The foundation for this curious state- 
ment is uncertain. Danforth in 1927 found quail quite common in 
the region west of Santo Domingo City, and on June 30 at Los 
Alcarrizos saw a covey of five adults with several downy young. 
Others were seen at Hato Mayor. Ciferri obtained a young bird at 
Sabana de Guerra, in Santo Domingo Province, August 12, 1929. 

The Cuban bob-white differs from the bird introduced into Haiti 
in being much darker colored. The male has the breast nearly solid 
black, and shows little brown above except on the upper back. 
The female is much more heavily barred below and more black above 
with very little mixture of brown. 

Family NUMIDIDAE 

NUMIDA GALEATA Pallas 

GUINEA HEN, GUINEA, GALLINA DE GUINEA, PINTADO, PINTADE, 
PINTADE MAPONNE, PINTADE SAUVAGE 

Numida galeata Pallas, Spic. Zool., vol. 1, fasc. 4, 1767, p. 13 (Based on 
domesticated bird). 

Pintade, Charlevoix, Hist. Isle Espagnole, vol. 1, 1733, pp. 39^40 (in feral 
state). 

Pintade marrone, Saint-Mery, Descrip. Part. Franc, lie Saint-Dorningue, 
vol. 1, 1797, pp. 262, 717 ; vol. 2, 1798, pp. 79, 174, 621, 648, 809 (many locali- 
ties).— Descourttlz, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, pp. 177-182 (habits). 

Pintado, Wimpffen, Voy. Saint Domingo, 1817, p. 188 (mentioned). 

Guinea-fowl, Saint-Mery, Descrip. Span, part Saint-Domingo, vol. 1. 1798, 
pp. 305-306 (numerous). — Walton, Pres. State Span. Col. incl. partic. Rep. 
Hispaiiola, vol. 1, 1810, p. 122 (plains of Neyba, abundant). — Kent, Forest and 
Stream, vol. 20, 1883, p. 68 (Dominican Republic). 

Numida meleagris, Ritter, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, pp. 150, 
156 (Haiti).— Salle, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857. p. 236 (Bani, San Juan de 
la Maguana, Santiago, Monte Cristi). — Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 
vol. 11, May, 1867, p. 97 (Dominican Republic). — Cory, Cat. West Indian Birds, 
1892, p. 96 (Haiti, Dominican Republic). — Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, 
p. 320 (listed). — Christy, Ibis, 1897, p. 341 (Dominican Republic). — Verrill, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 357 (listed).— Phillips, U. S. Dept. 
Agric. Techn. Bull. 61, April, 1928, pp. 11-12 (Dominican Republic). 

Numida galeata, Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 362 (Haiti, Dominican Republic). 

Numida g. galeata, Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 139 ; Beneath 
Tropic Seas, 1928, p. 220 (Haiti). 

Numida galeata, Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 
494 (Haiti). 

Introduced ; common in many localities ; at present found in largest 
numbers in Haiti. Following are notes of recorded occurrance : 

Dominican Republic: — Bani, Santiago, (Salle) ; San Juan, Monte 
Cristi (Salle, Danforth) ; Neiba (Walton) ; Comendador (Wet- 
more) ; Azua, Tubano (Beck) ; near mouth of Yuna (Christy) ; 
Sosua (Abbott). 
2134—31 9 



126 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Haiti: — Dondon, Port-de-Paix, Port-a-Piment, Petite-Riviere, 
Aquin, St. Louis, Jeremie, (Saint-Mery) ; Port-a-Piment, on south- 
ern peninsula (Beck) ; Moustique, Riviere Bar, Pimentel (Abbott) ; 
Glore, Trou Caiman (Bartsch) ; Fonds-des-Negres, La Tremblay, 
Caracol (Wetmore) ; Hinche (Wetmore, Poole and Perry go) ; St. 
Michel, Cerca-la-Source (Poole and Perry go) ; L'Arcahaie, St. Marc, 
Les Salines (Danforth). 

The guinea hen was introduced into Hispaniola many years ago 
so that it was well established and wide spread in the eighteenth 
century. Charlevoix in 1733 records the wild bird, and believed 
that it could not be domesticated. Saint-Mery in 1797 and 1798 
lists it from many localities often in flocks. At Petite-Riviere he 
notes that in the dry season hunters set fire to the vegetation and so 
drove the birds where they could be killed. As this often took place 
in the breeding season a great destruction of nests resulted. Des- 
courtilz, who came to Port-au-Prince in 1799, found the bird com- 
mon and gives a considerable account of its habits and hunting. 
Walton, writing in 1810 says that guineas were killed on the plains 
of Neiba in such numbers that they sold in the market for one real 
each. Ritter reports that they were brought to the Antilles in the 
year 1500, but does not give his authority for that statement. 

Christy remarks that the guinea hen was common in the Dominican 
Republic, and shot it in the drier parts of the Yuna delta. Beck 
secured a young bird one-third grown at Azua, December 28, 1916, 
and a series at Tubano from December 30, 1916, to March 6, 1917. 
Abbott found them at Sosiia in 1919 and recorded them as common 
but difficult to procure near Pimentel January 19 to 25, 1921. In 
the spring of 1927 Wetmore heard of guineas at various places but 
actually saw them only near Comendador, on April 30. It was 
his belief that they were common through the wild semi-arid scrubs 
in the western part of the eastern Republic but that elsewhere hunt- 
ing had greatly reduced their numbers. 

In Haiti the Pintade, usually pronounced " pintard," is one of the 
common game birds and abounds in many localities. Abbott pre- 
pared specimens shot at Moustique Bay on the northwest coast May 
4, 1917, at Riviere Bar, also near the coast, on February 21, 1917, 
and at Moustique, inland from Moustique Bay, near the center of 
the northern peninsula, on March 8, 1917. Beck shot one at Port-a- 
Piment, on the southern peninsula, June 29, 1917. Bartsch saw 
guineas at Glore on the Etang Saumatre, April 3, 1917, near Trou 
Caiman April 4, five miles west of Jeremie April 16, between Port- 
au-Prince and St. Marc April 21 and 22, and in the Cul-de-Sac 
Plain April 24. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 127 

On April 5, 1927, Wetmore killed four from a flock of a dozen at 
Fonds-des-Negres, preparing two as skins. This flock was encount- 
ered in the tops of tall trees where the birds rested quietly or walked 
along the larger limbs fifty feet from the ground. Their flesh pos- 
sessed a delicate flavor, that made it better than that of the domesti- 
cated bird. At dusk on April 7 at La Tremblay in the Cul-de-Sac 
plain a number flew into the tops of dense growths of mesquite to 
roost. They were calling loudly here though ordinarily the wild 
bird is rather silent. Near Hinche from April 22 to 24 guineas were 
seen occasionally either in the tops of trees or on the ground. On 
April 24 at dusk several flushed from trees in an isolated grove in a 
small ravine where they had come to roost at some distance from 
other cover. At Poste Charbert, near Caracol, several were seen 
on April 26 and 27. Their habit of perching high in the trees and 
of flying swiftly away forty or fifty feet above the ground was some- 
what of a surprise to one accustomed to them only as a barnyard fowl 
in a state of domestication. Poole and Perry go found them common 
at St. Michel in December, 1928, and January, 1929, collecting speci- 
mens December 27 and January 15. They were common at Hinche 
March 17, 1929, and very plentiful at Cerca-la-Source March 18 to 
24, five being taken. 

The thorny scrubs of the semi-arid regions seem best fitted for 
the needs of guinea fowl and in such areas it abounds in many locali- 
ties. Kent informs us that the birds are prolific and that he has 
frequently seen fifteen in a brood. They come out to feed in culti- 
vated lands but seem more at home in the scrubs where though many 
may be heard particularly in evening they are hard to find. Bond 
found them ranging to 750 meters above the sea on La Selle, but says 
that they are more common at lower elevations. He did not find 
them in a wild state on either Tortue or Gonave Islands. Lieutenant 
Wirkus of the Gendarmerie is said to have released a pair on Gonave 
but the birds soon disappeared. It is current belief that the wild 
guinea has the tarsi black while those of the domesticated bird are 
reddish. Of the sixteen skins from Hispaniola examined, eleven 
have the tarsi dull black while five have more or less of a reddish 
cast. It is doubtful that the supposed color criterion will hold as 
there is in all probability a constant mixing between feral and 
domestic birds. 

The following measurements of wild-killed birds from Hispaniola 
.are offered: 

Two males, wing 252.0-255.0 (253.5), tail 135.0-142.0 (138.5), cul- 
men from cere 21.0-21.1 (21.0), tarsus 62.5-69.0 (65.8) mm. 

Three females, wing 230-245.0 (235.0), tail 120.0-137.5 (127.8), 
culmen from cere 21.0-22.0 (21.4), tarsus 66.2-67.5 (66.7) mm. 



128 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

The guinea fowl is so well known that it is necessary merely to 
state that it is a bird the size of a domestic fowl, in color grayish 
black profusely spotted with white, with a prominent bony crest 
on the head. 

Order GRUIFORMES 

Suborder GRUES 

Superfamily GRUIDES 

Family ARAMIDAE 

ARAMUS PICTUS ELUCUS Peters 
LIMPKIN, CARRAO, COLAS, GRAND COLAS, POULE-A-JOLIE, POULE BELLE 

Aramus pictus elucus Peters, Occ. Pap. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 5, Janu- 
ary 30, 1925, p. 143 (Sosua, Dominican Republic). — Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 494 (Haiti, Gonave and Tortue). — Danforth, 
Auk, 1929, p. 362 (Bonao, Villa Alta Gracia). — Lonnberg, Fauna och Flora, 
1929, pp. 100-101 (Haiti). 

Ardea scolopacea, Bitter, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1S36, p. 157 
(listed). 

Aramus scolopaceus, Salle, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1S57, p. 236 (Dominican 
Republic). 

Aramus scolopaceus giganteus, Cory, Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, 1881, p. 
155 (Haiti, specimens). 

Aramus pictus, Cory, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, Dec, 1884, pp. 157-158 
(Gantier, specimens). — Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 323 (listed). 

Aramus pictus pictus, Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., 1929, p. 311 (Rio 
Yuna, Bonao, specimens). 

Aramus giganteus, Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 1S67, 
p. 97 (Dominican Republic). — Tristram, Cat. Coll. Birds belonging H. B. Tris- 
tram, 1889, p. 267 (Almercen, specimen). — Cory, Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, 
p. 90 (Haiti, Dominican Republic). — Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadel- 
phia, 1909, p. 356 (Dominican Republic). 

Aramus vociferus, Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, p. 403 (Sosua, 
specimen). 

In the Dominican Eepublic Abbott shot an adult male on the Rio 
San Juan (or St. John), near Samana, and a series, including three 
pairs, at Sosua (four prepared as skins and two as skeletons). In 
the locality last named he found them very common. The latter are 
topotypes of the present subspecies, as in describing it Peters chose 
as his type an adult female that he had collected personally at Sosua, 
Dominican Republic on March 22, 1916. In addition to those men- 
tioned there is in the Academy of Natural Sciences a skin taken by 
Abbott on Samana Bay, June 30, 1883. Verrill reported the species 
as common throughout the savannas of the Dominican Republic 
" but seldom seen although frequently heard." Salle records them 
without giving localities saying that they were found in heavy, 



THE BIEDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 129 

humid forests where they lived principally upon mollusks. In the 
evening they perched on the tops of tall trees and from these elevated 
points uttered their sonorous cries. 

Peters reports that his type specimen was killed in thick brush 
bordering a dry stream-bed, and that another, flushed March 30 from 
tall grass flew into nearby woods. He thought that possibly limpkins 
were more common in that vicinity than his few notes indicate, as 
they were retiring in habit, an observation borne out by the series 
collected by Abbott at this same point. 

Cory secured specimens of this bird at Samana, and Canon Tris- 
tram had one taken at Almercen (now Villa Kivas) by A. S. 
Toogood in 1887. Danforth saw them near mountain streams in 
the vicinity of Bonao and Villa Alta Gracia on August 7, 1927, 
where he heard them calling during the night. He received a speci- 
men taken near Bonao December 14, 1927, by Ermanno Ciferri. 
Others were sent by Ciferri to Moltoni. 

In Haiti the limpkin is first definitely noted by Cory who secured 
two at Gantier and remarks that the flesh was held in high esteem 
for the table. Abbott forwarded a female taken at Moustique on 
March 2, 1917. He says that limpkins are common on the northeast 
peninsula but that he did not find them in the southern part of the 
republic. He heard them calling on Tortue Island. The limpkin 
was reported to Wetmore at various points, both in the uplands 
and along the coastal plain but he did not meet it in person. It is 
probably less common now than formerly. 

Bond writes that he found the limpkin generally distributed 
through Haiti from sea-level to 1,500 meters altitude, occurring on 
Gonave and Tortue as well as on the main island. He collected a 
female near St. Michel March 8, 1928. Regarding its habits he 
writes " this peculiar bird never took to wing if it could possibly 
avoid it, preferring to run through the undergrowth just far enough 
to keep out of sight. If chased and hard pressed it would open 
its wings like a hen, and run with great speed. On one occasion 
I chased a limpkin for about five minutes and was not only unable 
to make it fly, but failed to oust it from the clump of bushes where 
I had found it. Only once, when I came face to face with a limpkin 
on Gonave Island, was it startled sufficiently to take to flight, and 
had it not been on a steep hillside, I firmly believe that it would 
not have done so." Among bones brought from the caves at En 
Cafe, Gonave Island by J. S. C. Boswell are leg bones of a limpkin. 
Poole and Perrygo collected one at Dondon January 19, 1929. 

The bird is as large as a medium sized hen with long bill, long 
neck, and long legs. The plumage is olive brown in general with 
prominent white streaks, more pronounced on the anterior portion 
of the body. The throat is white. 



130 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Superfamily RALLIDES 
Family RALLIDAE 
Subfamily Rallinae 

RALLUS LONGIROSTRIS VAFER Wetmore 
HISPAN10IAN CLAPPER RAIL, RALE D'EATT, RATEAU 

Rallus longirostris vafer Wetmore, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 41, June 
29, 1928, p. 121 (Etroites, Gonave Island, Haiti).— Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Philadelphia, 192S, p. 495 (Port-au-Prince, Caracol, Jaquesy, Fort Liberty). — 
Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 362 (Monte Cristi, Les Salines, Gonave). 

Rallus longirostris, Bartsch, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 30, July 27, 
1917, p. 132 (Haiti).— Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 139 (Bizoton) ; 
Beneath Tropic Seas, 1928, p. 129. 

Rallus longvrostris carioaeus, Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, 
p. 402 (Monte Cristi). 

Resident in mangrove swamps ; local in occurrence. 

The first specimen of the clapper rail known to us for Hispaniola 
is a male taken by J. L. Peters in an extensive mangrove swamp near 
Monte Cristi on February 18, 1916. Danforth collected one at the 
same point June 24, 1927. These are the only two definite records 
for the Dominican Republic. 

Bartsch reported the clapper rail from the coastal swamps north 
of Port-au-Prince, Haiti, on April 25, 1917, and Abbott collected 
specimens on Gonave Island in 1920, securing four at Etroites March 
18, 19 and 20, and two at Picmy July 7 and 8. Beebe reports one 
seen twice in 1927 on a sandy beach at Bizoton. 

On April 3, 1927, Wetmore heard the cackling, grunting calls of 
these rails in the mangroves bordering the bay at Aquin, Haiti, and 
flushed one at the border of an open lagoon. This individual flew 
swiftly to shelter on the opposite side of a stretch of open water. 
At Caracol on April 27 the grunting calls of clapper rails came from 
the mangroves on all sides, becoming loud and vociferous at every 
shot fired by the collector. At this point the high ground marking 
the landing for the village was limited in area and was closely in- 
vested with mangrove swamps. There was constant activity here 
among fishermen and in the landing of small cargoes from schooners 
plying along the coast. As the men engaged in this work were pre- 
occupied with their own affairs, and there was no hunting, rails had 
become unusually tame, and came without fear into little open places 
among the mangroves. They walked slowly and with a furtive air, 
twitching the white marked tail at intervals, or when they felt that 
they were under observation paused motionless. When really 
alarmed they ran swiftly to safe shelter amid the black shadows of 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 131 

the arching mangrove roots. Of three taken two were prepared as 
skins and one as a skeleton. 

Danforth in 1927 records them from Les Salines and Gonave 
Island. They seem to be especially common along the northern 
coast as Bond in 1928 found them particularly numerous on the 
shores of the Baie de Caracol at Caracol and Jaquesy. He noted 
them also at Port-au-Prince and Fort Liberte, but did not see them on 
Gonave Island. Poole and Perrygo noted two at Cap-Ha'itien Janu- 
ary 22, and collected four at Fort Liberte February 8, and 18, 1929. 

In most localities the clapper rail is shy and secretive so that its 
presence is betrayed through its notes coming by day or night from 
thickets or mangroves, or by its long-toed tracks, with long stride, 
impressed in the soft mud of the runways leading through its haunts. 
Its nocturnal activities we may only conjecture, though from the 
light tracery of its foot prints it appears that under shadow of 
night the bird comes out into the open. Ordinarily it is seen only 
as a gray shadow slipping away among the mangrove roots, or more 
rarely is flushed from some restricted corner where it is under neces- 
sity of flying to gain new shelter. 

The clapper rail of Hispaniola differs from the bird of Jamaica, 
R. I. caribaeus Bidgway, with which it has been ordinarily allocated, 
in being grayer, less brownish both above and below, with the fore- 
neck and upper breast more evidently cinnamon colored, and the 
malar stripe, which is the same color, more prominent. In the 
original description Wetmore 41 states that " there is decided varia- 
tion in color in rails of this group, two distinct phases being evident, 
one being paler above, due to predominance of the lighter edgings of 
the dorsal feathers and restriction of the dark centers, and the other 
decidedly darker with the duller colors of the central parts of the 
dorsal feathers much extended, and the lighter margins correspond- 
ingly restricted. The darker appearance of the extreme of the latter 
type becomes much accentuated with plumage wear. The individual 
differences indicated need to be kept carefully in mind in segregating 
geographic races. 

" The Jamaican material before me in the present comparisons 
includes the type of caribaeus and one other specimen in the United 
States National Museum, and a third skin from the Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, loaned through the courtesy of Mr. Outram Bangs. 
These birds are all old and are more or less faded, having been col- 
lected in the sixth decade of the last century. In arriving at dif- 
ferential characters to distinguish the Hispaniolan race due allow- 
ance has been made for color change in the Jamaican series, 
particularly through study of differences evident between these three 

tt Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 41, June 29, 1928, p. 122. 



132 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

and specimens of comparable museum antiquity of other races of 
longirostris, with the result that the darker, duller, browner ap- 
pearance of the series of caribaeus justifies the separation here pro- 
posed. In the three caribaeus examined two males have the wing 
144.0 and 147.6 mm., the culmen 61.8 and 58.5 mm., and the tarsus 
(in both) 54.2 mm. while a female has the wing 139.8, culmen, 54.7, 
and tarsus 50.2 mm. There is indicated a slightly longer wing, and 
shorter culmen and tarsus than in vafer, a difference so slight, how- 
ever, that it needs to be verified in a larger series before it is 
accepted." 

The series of vafer that we have seen includes two females from 
Caracol, and two males and four females from Etroites and Picmy 
on Gonave Island. The latter do not differ from the mainland 
birds. One of the specimens from Caracol is in partly melanistic 
phase as the cinnamon color normal to the breast is almost entirely 
obscured by dark gray. 

Measurements are as follows (given in millimeters) : 

Males (4 specimens) wing 151.0-159.5 (155.0), tail 61.5-66.4 
(63.3), culmen, 63.8-68.5 (65.5), tarsus, 57.0-61.0 (59.0). 

Females, (7 specimens) wing, 134.5-144.5 (138.4), tail 54.4-60.0 
(56.9), culmen, 53.6-63.0 (58.7), tarsus, 46.4-59.5 (52.8). 

Type, male, wing 151.8, tail 62.2, culmen 63.8, tarsus 59.0. 

Peters writes that the male he secured at Monte Cristi had the 
wing 149 mm., tail 65 mm., exposed culmen 61 mm., and tarsus 
50 mm. 

The adult clapper rail is about 340 mm. in length, with long neck 
and bill, strong legs, large feet, and short tail. The upper surface 
is deep brown, the feathers margined with grayish olive, the throat 
is white, the breast buffy brown, and the sides dusky, barred with 
white. The downy young are coal black. 

PORZANA CAROLINA (Linnaeus) 
SORA, GALLINUEIA 

Rallus carolinus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1, 1758, p. 153 (Hudson 
Bay). 

Rallus olivaceus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 28, 1819, p. 561 ("Saint- 
Domingiie"). 

Porzana Carolina, Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat Sci. 'Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, 
p. 495 (Etang Miragoane). 

Winter visitor; abundance not certainly known. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott secured two males at Laguna Bincon near 
Cabral, Dominican Republic, March 18, 1922, and a third at the 
same point on the following day. The birds were common. He 
collected a female at Trou Caiman, Haiti, March 11, 1918, and 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 133 

*. 

reports others near the Etang Saumatre. Bond secured two at the 
fitang Miragoane February 4, 1928. These constitute the only rec- 
ords at present known to us from the island. 

The sora rail inhabits the rushes and grasses of freshwater marshes, 
where it seeks heavy cover but may be flushed by driving, when it 
flies away with dangling feet to drop after a short distance into the 
marsh. The bird may be expected in suitable localities from October 
to March. 

Dr. C. W. Richmond has called our attention to the R alius oliva- 
ceus of Vieillot, described in 1819 from " Saint-Domingue." Sharpe 42 
has made this a synonym of his Porzana aTbicollis of South America, 
which is erroneous as Vieillot's description is that of a young sora 
rail in first fall plumage. It is therefore cited here in the synonymy 
of Porzana Carolina. 

The back is olive-brown with dark centers to the feathers, and 
faint streaks of white. The breast is gray or brownish gray, the 
abdomen white, and the sides black barred with white. Adults have 
the throat and face black, a marking lacking in the immature birds 
in fall. The sora measures 205 to 225 mm. in length, and has a 
narrow body, very short tail, and strong legs. 

PORZANA FLAVIVENTER HENDERSONI Bartsch 
YELLOW-BELLIED RAIL, GALLERETA CHIQUITA 

Porzana flaviventris hendersoni Bartsch, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 
30, July 27, 1917, p. 131 (Trou Caiman, Haiti). Smithsonian Misc. Colls., vol. 
68, no. 12, 1918, fig. 42 (view of habitat). 

Porzana flaviventer hendersoni, Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 
80, 1928, p. 495 (Trou Caiman). 

Hapalocrew Ridgway, Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 72, no. 4, Dec. 6, 1920, 
p. 3 (type by orig. desig. Rallus flaviventris Boddaert). 

tRallus, Saix£, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, p. 236 (Dominican Republic). — 
Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 1867, p. 97 (Dominican 
Republic). 

Resident in Haiti ; apparently rare. 

There are few specimens known from Hispaniola at present — two 
from Trou Caiman, Haiti, a female secured by Bartsch on April 4, 
1917, and a male taken by Abbott on March 11, 1918, and a female 
from the freshwater marshes southwest of Fort Liberte shot by 
Poole and Perrygo February 13, 1929. Bartsch writes that he saw 
three others at Trou Caiman, two near Glore on the Etang Saumatre 
April 4, and another at Trou des Roseaux April 13. Bond saw one 
at Trou Caiman January 15, 1928. Salle mentions a small rail from 
the Dominican Republic that is probably this species but took no 
specimens. 



"Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol. 23, 1894, p. 102. 



134 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

This tiny rail is found in the aquatic growths of freshwater 
marshes where it is so secretive that it is probably much more com- 
mon than the few records given indicate. In its marshy haunt the 
collector seldom penetrates and the rail remains hidden securely 
unless startled. Thomas Barbour in Cuba secured a number by 
beating their coverts with a long bamboo, thus frightening the birds 
into flight, when they could be seen and shot, an artifice that will 
merit attention from collectors who visit the haunts of this bird. 

The yellow-bellied rail of Cuba and Jamaica is now designated 
as Porzana flaviventer gossii (Bonaparte). The three seen from 
Haiti are similar in color to gossii but are very slightly smaller. 
The wing in gossii ranges from 65.1 to 71.4 mm. with an average of 
67 mm., while the culmen measures from 16.2 to 17.9 mm. In the 
three birds from Hispaniola one male has the wing 62.0 and the cul- 
men 15.9 mm., while two females have the wing 63.1-63.5 and the 
culmen 14.6-16.3 mm. The difference is so slight that it may prove 
inconstant, in which case hendersoni will become a synonym of 
gossii, which will then range throughout the Greater Antilles. 43 

We have considered the characters alleged for Hapalocreco, pro- 
posed by Mr. Kidgway 44 to receive the present species, but fail to 
find them in our opinion sufficiently distinct to merit recognition 
when compared with other species of the group usually designated 
as Porzana. The combined length of the first two joints of the 
middle toe is in most specimens of -flaviventer not quite as long as 
the tarsus, instead of equalling that measurement as stated, the 
proportion being almost the same in other species of Porzana when 
due allowance is made for size. The length of the alula and other 
items in a larger series than originally available to Ridgway do not 
seem diagnostic. 

With the general form of the sora, the yellow-bellied rail is char- 
acterized by tiny size as it is but little larger than a sparrow. It is 
whitish below with a wash of buff on the breast, and heavy bars of 
black on the flanks and under tail coverts. Above it is deep buff and 
black, streaked with white with a dusky gray crown. 

Subfamily Gallinulinae 

IONORNIS MARTINICUS (Linnaeus) 

PURPLE GALLINUXE, GALLARETA, GALLINA DE AGUA, POTTLE SULTANE, 
ANGOII, POULE-A-JOLI, JORDELLE 

Fulica martinica Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, vol. 1, 176G, p. 259 (Marti- 
nique). 

Calamon, Oviedo, Hist. Gen. Nat. Indias, Libr. 14, Cap. 2, Reprint, Madrid, 
1851, p. 442 (mentioned). 

13 For more detailed discussion of the supposed races of this species see Wetmore, New 
York Acad. Sci., Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and Virgin Islands, vol. 9, 1027, pp. 338-339. 
** Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 72, no. 4, Dec. 6, 1920, p. 3. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINIC AN REPUBLIC 135 

Poule Sultane, Descouktilz, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, pp. 199-201 (Riviere 
Limbe). 

?Rale Bidi-bidi, Descourtilz, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, pp. 245-246 (identity 
not certain). 

fRallus jamaioensis, Descourtilz, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, p. 66 (identity not 
certain). — Rittee, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, p. 157 (identity 
not certain). 

Gallinula martinicensis, Rittee, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, 
p. 157 (Haiti, specimen). 

Porphyrio martinica, Cory, Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, 1881, p. 155 (Haiti, 
specimens). 

Porphyrio martinicus, Tristbam, Cat. Coll. Birds belonging H. B. Tristram, 
1889, p. 267 (Dominican Republic, specimen). 

Porpliyriola martinica, Ciferri, Segund. Inf. An. Est. Nac. Agr. Moca, 1927. 
P. 6 (listed). 

Jonornis martinica, Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 323 (listed). 

Ionornis martinica, Cory, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, March, 1885, pp. 
162-163 (Can tier) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 91 (Haiti, Dominican 
Republic). — Verriix, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 356 (San Lo- 
renzo, Sanchez). — Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, p. 402 (Monte 
Cristi, El Batey). 

Ionornis martinicus, Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, 
p. 495 (Etang Miragoane). — Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 362 (Vasquez, Laguna 
del Salodillo). 

Iornis martinicus, Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, p. 311 
(Haina, specimens). 

Resident; fairly common in freshwater marshes. 

Following are records of definite occurrence. Dominican Repub- 
lic: — Laguna Rincon, near Cabral (Abbott); San Lorenzo Bay 
(Verrill) ; Sanchez (Verrill, Abbott, Wetmore) ; El Batey, Monte 
Cristi (Peters) ; Vasquez, Laguna del Salodillo (Danforth) ; Haina 
(Ciferri). 

Haiti: — Gantier (Cory) ; Sources Puantes (Wetmore) ; fitang Mir- 
agoane (Bond) ; Trou Caiman, Trou des Roseaux (Bartsch) ; Jere- 
mie (Abbott) ; Riviere Limbe, (Descourtilz). 

On Laguna Rincon, near Cabral, Dr. W. L. Abbott found these 
birds plentiful, and collected an adult female March 15, 1922. 
Verrill wrote that they were " not rare at San Lorenzo and in the 
vicinity of Sanchez," and Abbott secured a male at Sanchez February 
7, 1919. On May 10, 1927 Wetmore observed two resting on reeds 
at the mouth of the Rio Yuna enjoying the warmth of the early 
morning sun. An immature female that he shot is molting into 
first plumage and has the wing feathers about three-fourths grown. 
His boatman said that the birds were seen regularly at this point. 
Peters shot males near El Batey in April, and in the vicinity of 
Monte Cristi in February. Danforth shot one at Vasquez June 25, 
and saw two at the Laguna del Salodillo, near Copey, June 26, 1927. 
Descourtilz found the purple gallinule breeding on the Riviere 
Limbe. 



136 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

In Haiti Cory secured the purple gallinule near Gantier, where 
he found it not uncommon, and saw birds brought by natives to 
Petionville (then known as Le Coup). The latter may have come 
from some distance, however, as women travel many miles with 
articles of food which they display in the markets. Bartsch shot 
one at Trou Caiman April 4, 1917, and recorded the species at Trou 
des Koseaux April 13. Abbott collected two near Jeremie February 
8 and 10, 1918. On March 29, 1927 Wetmore observed one walking 
along a muddy bank among mangroves at the overflow of the 
sulphur spring at Sources Puantes north of Port-au-Prince. (PL 
7.) Bond saw several at the Etang Miragoane February 4, 1928. 

The purple gallinule usually seeks covert in aquatic growths where 
it wades, climbs, or swims, but may occasionally be seen in the open. 
In proper light the coloration of the adult bird is beautifully bright 
but in any shadow it is obscure. When walking the constant 
twitching of the white under tail coverts attracts the eye when the 
bird might otherwise remain unnoticed. Abbott describes the colors 
of the bill in a female taken at Jeremie as follows ; terminal half of 
bill pale green; base of lower mandible reddish; base of the upper 
mandible and frontal plate fleshy brown. 

This gallinule when adult has the under surface rich purple, 
changing to black on the abdomen, and white on the under tail 
coverts. The back is dull green, the head purple, and the outer 
webs of the primaries, and a line along the side of breast and neck, 
bright blue. The immature are washed with brown. The bird is 
nearly as large in body as a pigeon. 

GALLINULA CHLOROPUS PORTORICENSIS Danforth 

ANTILLEAN GALLINULE, GALLARETA DE AGUA, GALLINAZA, GALLARETA 
PICO ROJO, POULE D'EAU 

Gallinula chloropus portoricensis Danforth, Auk, 1925, p. 560 (Cartagena 
Lagoon, Porto Rico). — Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 
465 (Port-de-Paix, Trou Caiman, nesting) .—Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 362 
(Hispaniola, common). — Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, p. 
311 (Guerra). 

Poule d'eau, Descourtilz, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, pp. 261-262 (Riviere Estere). 

Gallinula galeata, Salle, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, p. 237 (Mouth of 
Rio Haina). — Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 1867, p. 97 
(Dominican Republic).— Cory, Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, 1881, p. 155 
(Gantier) ; Cat. Birds Haiti and San Domingo, March, 1885, pp. 161-162 
(Gantier, specimens) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 91 (Haiti, Dominican 
Republic). — Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 323 (listed). — Verrill, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 356 (Dominican Republic). 

Gallinula chloropus, Ritter, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1S36, p. 157 
Haiti, specimen). 



THE BIKDS OP HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 137 

Gallinula chloropus cachinnans, Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, 
p. 402 (El Batey, Yasica River).— Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 139; 
Beneath Tropic Seas, 1928, p. 219 (Etang Saumatre, Etang Miragoane). 

Gallinula chloropus (cercerisf), Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 
1929, p. 312 (Bonao). 

Resident ; locally common in freshwater marshes. 

Salle found this gallinule at the mouth of the Rio Haina. Abbott 
secured a male and a female, both adult, at Laguna Rincon, near 
Cabral, where the birds were plentiful, on March 16 and 17, 1922, 
and a male in immature dress at Sanchez on February 7, 1919. 
Peters reported this gallinule as rather common in the lagoons and 
sluggish streams of the north coast, and collected two females at 
El Batey, April 5, where in a large lagoon he noted adults accom- 
panied by young still in black down. On the same day in riding 
from El Batey to Cabarete he saw a flock of a dozen resting on the 
bank of the Rio Yasica. Verrill reported this gallinule as common 
but gave no localities. Danforth, in 1927, collected two at the 
Laguna del Salodillo June 26, and on July 3 saw a pair with four 
downy young at Los Tres Ojos de Agua, near Santo Domingo City. 
Ciferri obtained specimens at Guerra, August 11, 1929 and on the 
Rio Yuna near Bonao April 22, 1927. 

In Haiti, in 1799, Descourtilz found this gallinule on the Riviere 
Estere. Abbott shot two females at Port-de-Paix, April 14, 1917, 
a male at Trou Caiman, April 7, 1920, and a male at the Etang 
suitable places on the Cul-de-Sac plain, as Cory in 1881 found 
them near Gantier, and Bartsch records them from Glore on the 
Etang Saumatre April 3, 1917, and shot one (head and feet pre- 
served in alcohol) at Trou Caiman April 4. Bartsch found them 
also at Trou des Roseaux on the southwestern peninsula April 13, 
and between Port-au-Prince and St. Marc April 21 and 22. He 
reports that on April 28 in Port-au-Prince women brought to his 
hotel a bunch of live gallinules which they offered for sale. Abbott 
collected an immature female at Jeremie February 8, 1918, and 
Wetmore killed an adult male on the Etang Miragoane April 1, 

1927. Beebe found them at the Etang Miragoane and the Etang 
Saumatre. Danforth found a nest containing one egg at the Arti- 
bonite sloughs beyond St. Marc on July 29, 1927. Bond secured eggs 
near Port-de-Paix in early April, and at Trou Caiman June 22, 

1928. Poole and Perrygo collected eleven at Fort Liberte February 
14 and 15, 1929, finding the birds common in freshwater marshes 
southwest of town. 

The Antillean gallinule is found in fresh or slightly brackish 
marshes where it frequents sluggish channels, swimming about like 



138 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

a coot in open water, but at any alarm taking refuge in the rushes. 
In spite of its narrow toes it swims as readily as it wades. 

Peters 45 has written that the gallinule of the West Indies is not to 
be distinguished from Gallinula chloropus cachinnans of the United 
States. In this we do not agree as on comparison of an excellent 
series we find that the gallinule of the Antilles, south at least to 
Dominica, as well as that from the Bahamas is distinguished from 
the North American bird by the restricted area of brown coloration 
on the back which in most specimens does not extend far onto the 
wings coverts. 46 

Following are measurements taken from our series from His- 
paniola : 

Seven males, wing 166.0-178.0 (172.0), tail 62.3-75.6 (69.8), cul- 
men from posterior margin of nostril 21.5-22.9 (22.0), tarsus 54.7- 

61.0 (57.4 47 ) mm. 

Nine females, wing 161.0-171.0 (167.0), tail 63.6-73.5 (67.7), cul- 
men from posterior margin of nostril 19.2-21.9 (20.6), tarsus 50.1- 
57.4 (53.8) mm. 

In size, form, and color this gallinule resembles the coots found in 
the same waters but may be readily identified by the bright red 
frontal shield, which is entirely without white, and in the hand, by 
the long narrow toes without lobes. 

Subfamily Fulicinae 

FULICA AMERICANA AMERICANA Gmelin 

AMERICAN COOT, MTJDHEN, GALLARETA, GEOUDEL, POULE D'EAU, CANARD 

MARRON 

Fulica americana Gmelin, Syst. Nat., vol. 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 704 (North 
America). 

Fulica americana americana, Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 
80, 1928, p. 495 ( Port-de-Paix, specimen). 

Fulica americana grenadensis, Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 363 (Haina). 

Migrant from North America; possibly resident in suitable lo- 
calities. 

Eight skins, all collected in Haiti, constitute the records of this 
species based on specimens for the island. (PL 16.) Dr. W. L. 
Abbott collected a male at Port-de-Paix, April 14, 1917, a male at the 
Etang Saumatre March 9, 1918, and a male at Jeremie November 23, 

45 Auk, 1927, p. 535. 

48 For a discussion of this form and its relationships see Wctmore, New York Acad. 
Sci., Scient. Survey Porto Rico and Virgin Islands, vol. 9, 1927, pp. 344-345. 
47 Average of six specimens. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 155 PLATE 16 




American coot (Fulica Americana americanai in center: Caribbean coot 
(fulica caribaea) at right and in background 

The two species are distinguished by the color of the frontal shield. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 139 

1917. Wetmore shot a female at the Etang Miragoane April 1, 1927. 
Poole and Perrygo secured male and female at Dessalines December 
24, 1928, and a female at Fort Liberie February 14, 1929. Bond 
shot a male at Port-de-Paix April 2, 1928. Danforth records two 
near Haina June 16, 1927 which would indicate that they were on 
their breeding grounds. Attention is drawn to this matter that 
investigation may be made by those interested. 48 

In habits and appearance this well known bird is similar to the 
Caribbean coot, differing only in the color of the frontal shield, 
which in the present species has the upper portion deep red. 
(PI. 16.) 

FULICA CARIBAEA Ridgway 

CARIBBEAN COOT, GALLARETA, GALLARETA PICO BLANCO, GEOUDEL, 
POULE D'EAU, FOULQUE 

Fulica caribaea Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 7, 1S84, p. 358 (St. 
John ) .—Peters, Bull. Mus. Coinp. Zool, vol. 61, 1917, p. 403 (El Batey). — 
Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 495 (Trou Caiman, 
specimen). — Danfobth, Auk, 1929, p. 363 (Laguna del Salodillo, Haina, Etang 
Miragoane, Artibonite, Gonaives). — Moltoni, Att. Soc. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 
1929, p. 312 (Guerra). 

Poule d'eau, Descourtilz, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, pp. 262-264; vol. 3, 1809, 
p. 147 (Haiti, habits, hunting). 

?Poule d'eau, Saint-Mery, Descrip. Part. Franc, lie Saint Domingue, vol. 2, 
1798, p. 809 (Jeremie). 

fFulica mexicana, Descourtilz, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, p. 66 (Pont de 
l'Estere). — Bitter, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, p. 157 (Haiti). 

fFulica americana, Cory, Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, 1881, p. 155 (Haiti) ; 
Birds Haiti and San Domingo, March, 1885, pp. 163-164 (Gantier) ; Cat. West 
Indian Birds, 1892, p. 91 (Haiti, Dominican Republic). — Cherrie, Field Colum- 
bian Mus., Ornith. ser. vol. 1, 1896, p. 25 (Dominican Republic). — Tippenhauer, 
Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 323 (listed).— Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila- 
delphia, 1909, p. 356 (Dominican Republic). 

fFulica a. americana, Beece, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 139 ; Beneath 
Tropic Seas, 1928, p. 219 (Etang Miragoane). 

Resident, locally common. 

As the Caribbean coot (PI. 16) in Hispaniola has been confused 
with the American coot until recently, records in literature, except 
for those of Descourtilz, and Peters are of uncertain allocation. As 
a matter of convenience others are given, with a query, under the 
present species. 

48 It may be noted that there is in the National Museum a male American coot taken 
at Cabanas, Cuba, on May 23, 1900, by William Palmer and J. H. Riley. Danforth, 
Auk, 1928, p. 482, has recorded two coots taken on Long Pond near Hodges, Jamaica, 
August 9, 1926, under the name Fulica americana grenadensis Riley. Our specimens 
from Haiti have the frontal shield exactly as in contin-eutal am&ricana, and have do indica- 
tion of the characters of grenadensis. 



140 BULLETIN" 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

The first certain record of this species for the Dominican Kepublic 
is that of Peters who killed a male and a female at El Batey April 5. 
He found several pairs in a lagoon formed by an old channel of the 
Rio Yasica, and collected a set of seven eggs. Peters reports other 
coots seen near Monte Cristi, but was not certain whether they were 
the Caribbean or the American species. The eggs taken, preserved 
in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, have the ground color slight- 
ly brighter than pale olive-buff, spotted finely with plumbeous black 
and blackish slate, part of the spots being minute dots, and a part 
somewhat larger, all distributed uniformly and rather closely over 
the surface. These eggs measure as follows : 50.2 by 33.9, 50.8 by 
34.6, 51.0 by 34.4, 51.2 by 34.8, 51.2 by 34.9, 51.4 by 34.3, and 51.4 by 
34.7 mm. Both Cherrie and Verrill under the name americana 
mention coots as seen without definite locality, that may or may not 
have been the present species. Abbott also reported coots of uncer- 
tain identity as common at Laguna Cabral near Rincon in March, 
1922. Danforth collected one at the Laguna del Salodillo, near 
Copey, June 26, 1927, and saw others at Haina. Ciferri obtained one 
at Laguna de Ranachero, near Guerra, August 12, 1929. 

Among specimens collected by Abbott in Haiti there are two 
caribaea, a female from Port-de-Paix, taken April 14, 1917, and a 
male from Trou Caiman shot April 7, 1920. Bartsch preserved the 
head and feet from a specimen taken at Trou Caiman April 4. He 
also recorded coots without certain identification from Trou des 
Roseaux April 13, and on April 28 saw a bunch of live mudhens 
brought for sale to his hotel in Port-au-Prince. Cory during the 
late winter months in 1881 found coots, that must have included this 
species, common about the lakes near Gantier. Bond collected one 
at Trou Caiman January 15, 1928, and John T. Emlen, jr., secured a 
male near the mouth of the Artibonite River July 28, 1927. 

The earliest record is that of Descourtilz who mentions a coot 
seen at Pont de l'Estere, April 16, 1799, and later describes the 
present species as he specifically states that the frontal shield was 
pure white. He says that hunting them is best accomplished by four 
men armed with shotguns, one to walk on either bank of the stream 
or channel, and two to proceed over the water in a boat. These last 
drive the birds from the shelter of the rushes, in which they hide 
at the slightest noise, so that they may be killed. In the nesting 
season it is common practise to set fire to the marshes at the time 
when coots and other water birds have eggs. The negroes then 
search in the ashes for partly roasted eggs or for birds that have not 
had the fortune to escape the flames. The destructiveness of this 
method is evident. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 141 

Wetmore collected three Caribbean coots at the Etang Miragoane 
on April 1, 1927, preserving two, a male and a female, as skeletons, 
and a female as a skin. As he approached the open water of this 
lake along a little trail hidden among rushes he saw numbers of coots 
swimming with nodding heads on the open wafer. One that was 
within range was killed at once, and the black boy who accompanied 
him to retrieve birds floundered in soft muck to his waist in securing 
it. Other coots of this species swam in little groups spreading rip- 
ples over the calm, mirrorlike surface of the lake, while in the blue 
sky high above a flock of frigate-birds turned in slow spirals, at an 
altitude so great that they appeared no larger than swallows. Along 
a swampy channel coots were gathered in bands, walking about across 
the open mud like dumpy, large-footed chickens. These gatherings 
often contained all three of the species found in the island that 
sportsmen usually group under the name of " mudhen " as on one 
occasion on a right and left with his doubled barreled gun into a 
flying flock Wetmore secured two Caribbean coots, an American coot, 
and an Antillean gallinule. Danforth in 1927 found them at the 
Etang Miragoane, on sloughs near the lower Artibonite Kiver where 
he collected one July 28, and near Gonaives. 

The frontal shield in this species is plain white with a faint tinge 
of ivory throughout. (PI. 16.) The end of the bill is crossed by a 
dark band. In the fresh specimen the frontal shield is perfectly 
smooth, and is as hard and firm to the touch as the shield in ameri- 
cana. This is curious since in museum specimens the shield in ameri- 
cana dries smooth while in caribaea it becomes more or less wrinkled. 
The light color of the frontal shield in caribaea is very distinct and 
with fresh killed specimens in hand the differences in color described 
showed clearly. 

The local name of " Geoudel " applied to these birds is of uncer- 
tain meaning. 

The wing in Fulica caribaea is diastataxic as in F. amencana. 

The Caribbean coot, like the American species, is as large as a small 
chicken, with strong, broadly lobed feet armed with sharp claws. The 
head and neck are blackish slate, and the remainder of the plumage 
dark slaty gray, with whitish tips on some of the secondaries, a 
white line on the alula, edge of metacarpal, and part of outer margin 
of first primary, and black under tail-coverts, bordered broadly on 
either side with white. As noted above the frontal shield is pure 
white. 

2134—31 10 



142 EULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Order CHARADRIIFORMES 

Suborder Charadrii 

Superfamily JACANIDES 

Family JACANIDAE 

JACANA SPINOSA VIOLACEA (Cory) 

WEST INDIAN JACANA, GALLITO, GALLITO DE AGTJA, MEDECIN, VANNEAU 
ARME, CHIRURGIEN, POULE D'EAU DOREE, CHEVALIER MORDORE 
ARME 

Parra violacea Cory, Bull. Nuttall Omitli. Club, 1881, pp. 130 and 155 
(Gantier, Haiti). 

Jacana, Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois., vol. 8, 1781, pp. 187-188 (description, hab- 
its). — Descourtilz, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, pp. 65-66 (Pont de l'Estere). 

Vanneau Arnie, Descourtilz, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1S09, pp. 208-209 (Haiti). 

Jacana armata fusca Brisson, Ornith., vol. 5, 1760, pp. 125-129, pi. 11, fig. 
1 (" S. Doiningue"). 

Parra gymnostoma, Cory, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, Dec, 1884, pp. 159- 
160, col. pi. (Le Coup?).— Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, pp. 317, 323 
(listed). 

Parra jacana, Bitter, Naturh. Beis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, pp. 152, 157 
(listed).— Hartlaub, Isis, 1847, p. 610 (listed). 

Jacana spinosa, Cory, Cat. West Indian Birds, 1S92, p. 92 (Haiti, Domini- 
can Bepublic). — Cherrie, Field Col. Mus., Ornith. ser., vol. 1, 1896, p. 25 (Bio 
Ozama). 

Jacana spinosa violacea, Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, p. 406 
(El Batey, specimens; Monte Cristi). — Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, 
p. 139; Beneath Tropic Seas, 192S, pp. 108, 220 (Etang Saumatre, Etang Mira- 
goane) .— Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 495 (Etang 
Miragoane, Fort Liberte). — Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 363 (Haina, Laguna del 
Salodillo, Etang Miragoane, Gonai'ves). — Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., 
vol. 68, 1929, p. 312 (Bio Haina, specimens). 

Resident; fairly common at certain points, but apparently local 
in distribution. 

At the eastern end of Lake Enriquillo Abbott found jacanas fairly 
common, and collected two adult males on October 2, 1919, while at 
Laguna Rincon, near Cabral, where the birds were plentiful, he 
took an adult female on March 15, 1922, and another female in im- 
mature dress March 17. Cherrie in 1895 found jacanas quite com- 
mon along the Ozama River near Santo Domingo City, and states 
that he saw downy young with their parents on April 26. Peters 
found jacanas in small numbers on a lagoon at El Batey, near the 
north coast of the Dominican Republic, on April 5, 1916, and col- 
lected two specimens. He also examined the wing of one killed on 
the Rio Yaqui del Norte near Monte Cristi. Danforth collected 
one at the Laguna del Salodillo, near Copey, June 26, 1927, and 
saw others near Haina. Ciferri secured two on the Rio Haina, 
August 14, 1929. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINIC A1ST REPUBLIC 143 

The species is seemingly rather local in the Dominican Republic, 
and is not recorded as yet from the lagoons of the Samana Penin- 
sula, nor from the Yuna delta at the eastern end of Samana Bay. 

In Haiti the jacana is first recorded definitely in 1760 by Brisson 
who described a specimen sent by Chervain to de Reaumur. Buffon 
notes that according to Deshayes this species is known as " chevalier 
mordore arme." Descourtilz found it April 16, 1799 at the Pont 
de l'Estere, and makes mention of it in connection with other birds 
on other pages of his book. He calls it " le Vanneau Arme de Saint- 
Domingue." 

Cory described this form from a single specimen taken in the late 
winter of 1881, and was told by the natives that the bird was found 
at other points. No locality is given in the original description but 
in his work entitled Birds of Haiti and San Domingo, published in 
1884 (p. 160) he says that this specimen was "taken near Le Coup." 
In the Bulletin of the Nuttall Ornithological Club for 1881 (p. 155), 
he says, however, that it came from Gantier. Hellmayr at Wet- 
more's request has examined the type specimen in the collections of 
the Field Museum and informs us that the type specimen of Parra 
violacea, Field Museum No. 36416 (Cory Coll. No. 5104) is a female 
(not a male as stated in the original description) taken on March 
5, 1881. The locality given on the label is Le Coup, Haiti, but this 
name is written in different ink from the rest of the data and seems 
to have been added later. Since Le Coup, now called Petionville, is 
in the hills above Port-au-Prince, the occurrence of the bird there 
seems entirely out of place as its haunts are in the lowlands. It 
seems probable that the type was taken near Gantier as described in 
1881. On consulting the roster of specimens given in the Birds of 
Haiti and San Domingo we find that Cory was at Le Coup from 
March 1 to 4 and again on March 7. In the intervening period there 
is record of specimens taken at Gantier March 6. It will be noted 
that the type in question was taken March 5. In view of this and 
of Cory's own statement in 1881 we consider Gantier the proper 
type locality and believe that "Le Coup" was added erroneously 
without consideration of the topographic difference involved in the 
few miles separating the two points in question. 

Bartsch recorded the jacana at Trou Caiman April 4, 1917, and 
Abbott collected a male at the same point on March 10, 1918. This 
bird is peculiar as it resembles the adult above but below is white 
with only a slight mixture of black and brown. In spite of its seem- 
ing immaturity as regards the ventral plumage it is marked as a 
breeding bird. We consider that it is an albinistic specimen that has 
retained the juvenile dress in part after reaching maturity. Abbott 
secured other males near the fitang Saumatre March 7, 1918, and 
April 11, 1920, and one near Manneville on May 15, 1920. Beebe 



144 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

found them in marshes at the Etang Saumatre March 2, 1927. At 
the fitang Miragoane on April 1, 1927, Wetmore found the jacana 
common and collected an adult female. He saw several young in im- 
mature dress. He did not meet the species elsewhere but while in 
Haiti did not visit other points suited to it. Danforth found it at the 
fitang Miragoane and near Gonai'ves in the summer of 1927. Bond 
also found it at the Etang Miragoane, and saw a few at Fort Liberte, 
where two were taken by Poole and Perrygo February 14, and others 
seen February 16, 1929. 

The jacana inhabits wet meadows, or pools and lagoons covered 
with mats of floating vegetation over which it walks with ease by 
grace of its long toes with their greatly elongated claws, which be- 
cause of their wide spread in relation to the slight weight of the 
body give ready support on an apparently unstable surface. The 
legs are very long. 

Measurements of birds from Hispaniola follow : 

Eight males, wing 120.7-125.4 (123.2), tail 40.3-49.2 (42.8), culmen 
from base 29.3-31.9 (31.1), tarsus 49.4-54.4 (52.5) mm. 

Two females, wing 137.3-142.7, tail 47.0-49.5, culmen from base 
34.1, 49 tarsus 51.1-58.5 (57.8) mm. 

The front of the head is ornamented by a lappet with the posterior 
margin divided into three narrow lobes. In the adult the plumage of 
the anterior portion of the body is black, while elsewhere the feathers 
are purplish brown except for the wing quills which are light yel- 
lowish green. The bend of the wing bears a sharp thornlike spine 
from which the bird receives its Haitian name of medecin. The im- 
mature is pure white below with a white line through the eye. The 
light green of the wings, displayed in flight or often by raising the 
wings above the back when the bird is on the marsh, is a prominent 
field mark. The body is about as large as that of a Wilson's snipe. 

Superfamily CHARADRIIDES 
Family HAEMATOPODIDAE 

HAEMATOPUS PALLIATUS PRATTII Maynard 

BAHAMAN OYSTER-CATCHER, PRATT'S OYSTER-CATCHER, C0RAC0LER0, 

OSTRERO 

Haemotopus prattii Maynakd, Appendix to Cat. Birds West ladies, Nov. 29, 
1899, p. 34 (Flemming's Key, Bahama Islands). 60 

Baematopus palliatus, Coby, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, Dec, 1884, p. 145 
(reported) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 95 (Haiti, Dominican Republic). — 
Ttppenhaueb, Die Insel Haiti, 1S92, p. 322 (listed). 

40 One specimen. 

50 This appendix was published in advance of the work itself, and was reprinted with 
the appearance of the list proper. In this reprint the generic name of the present bird 
is corrected to Eaematopus. 



THE BIEDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN EEPUBLIC 145 

Rare; possibly resident. 

The oyster-catcher was reported to Cory on the coasts of the Do- 
minican Republic but was not seen by him personally. So far as 
we are aware the only definite record for the eastern republic is that 
of a male taken at Jovero, Dominican Republic, on November 28, 
1923, by Dr. W. L. Abbott. Poole and Perrygo collected a pair on 
Tercero Island in the Seven Brothers group January 30, 1929. 
Nothing further is known of the occurrence of the bird on the island. 

The oyster-catcher is a shore-bird of large size that frequents 
rocky shores or nearby sandy beaches, where it calls and whistles 
loudly at the sight of man, and at any alarm flies to some secure 
spot where it is safe from attack. It is strong and robust in body 
and is difficult to kill. 

Though current literature 51 lists the oyster-catcher of the West 
Indies as typical H. p. palliatus this seems to have been done without 
examination of specimens from the Greater Antilles. On compari- 
son of the skins from Hispaniola we find that the males have the 
following measurements : culmen from base 81.3 and 85.9 mm., which 
equals the average for H. p. prattii the form of the Bahama Islands, 
and is longer than the bill in males of typical palliatus from the 
southeastern United States. The tip of the bill in the female from 
Tercero Island is broken so that it can not be measured. The bill in 
the Hispaniolan specimens is also relatively heavy, somewhat more 
so in fact than in the only male of prattii available to us at this time. 
As elongated culmen and heavy bill are the characters at present 
used to separate the Bahaman bird the Jovero and Tercero skins 
must be identified as of that race. This makes it appear probable 
that the bird of Desecheo Island in Mona passage, between the 
Dominican Republic and Porto Rico, identified as palliatus 52 solely 
on the assumption of supposed range as no specimens were available, 
may also be this same form. It is possible on the other hand that the 
bird from Jovero is a migrant or a stray from the Bahamas. The 
status of the races of palliatus as regards the area from northern 
South America northward is yet unsatisfactory and should be re- 
viewed when more material is available. It may be noted that 
Murphy in the paper cited above is in error in attributing prattii to 
Bangs as this form was first described by Maynard. 

The oyster-catcher has the head and neck sooty black, the back 
grayish brown, and a large patch in the wings and the under surface 
white. Abbott, in the bird taken at Jovero, records the iris as brown- 
ish yellow, the feet as" pinkish flesh color, and the bill and margin 
of the eyelids red. It measured 447 mm. in length. 

61 Ridgway, R., D". S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 50, pt. 8, 1919, pp. 32, 36 ; Murphy, R. C, Amer. 
Mus. Nov., No. 194, Nov. 17, 1925, pp. 5-7. 

63 Wetmore, A., New York Acad. Sci., Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and Virgin Islands, vol. 9, 
1927, pp. 349-350. 



146 BULLETIN 155, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Family CHARADRIIDAE 53 
Subfamily Charadriinae 

CHARADRIUS NIVOSUS TENUIROSTRIS (Lawrence) 
CUBAN SNOWY PLOVER, PLAYERO 

Mgialitis tenuirostris Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, vol. 7, 1862, 
p. 455 (near Guantanamo, Cuba). 

Charadrius nivosus tenuirostris, Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 
vol. 80, 1928, p. 520 (listed).— Danforth, Auk, 1929, pp. 231-232, 363 (St. Marc, 
Haiti, specimen). 

Rare ; status uncertain, but apparently breeds. 

There are few records of the snowy plover at present for Hispan- 
iola. There is in the United States National Museum a female 
taken at the ^Etang Saumatre, Haiti, March 9, 1918, by W. L. Abbott, 
a bird in somewhat worn adult dress so that from the date it seems 
probable that the species may breed in the area mentioned. Dan- 
forth found a pair on July 25, 1927, at the Etang Bois-Neuf, a 
small brackish lagoon south of St. Marc, Haiti, and collected a 
female which was near the breeding season. The stomach of this 
specimen contained three ants (Odontomachus haernatodes) and two 
Corixids. 

The snowy plover is one that frequents alkaline plains near the 
borders of lakes and channels, where its light coloration, coupled 
with the intense light reflected from the alkaline crusts of its back- 
ground, often render it difficult to see even when its presence is 
made certain by its low, whistled call. When its breeding grounds 
are approached it may circle about overhead or may start out running 
across the muddy surface, continuing without pausing for distances 
far beyond those usually covered by its relatives so that it is necessary 
for the observer to run also to keep within sight of it. 

The bird is not much larger than a sparrow, having the wing 
from 98 to 107 mm. long. It is light gray above, and white below 
with a blackish spot on either side of the breast. It is distinguished 
from the semipalmated plover by paler coloration above, slightly 
smaller size, and lack of a breast band. 

CHARADRIUS MELODUS Ord 

PIPING PLOVER 

Charadrius melodus Ord, Reprint, Wilson's Orn., vol. 7, 1824, p. 71 (Great 
Egg Harbor, New Jersey). 

™Vanellus Dominicensis armatus Brisson (Ornith., vol. 5, 1760, pp. 118-120), which 
was said to have come to de Reaumur from " S. Domingue " through Chcrvaln, from the 
description is evidently a wattled plover. This bird was called Charadrius trissonii by 
Wagler, Syst. Av., 1827, p. 77, and is listed under this name by Hartlaub, Isis, 1847, 
p. 609. The locality must be incorrect since no plover of this type is known from the 
Antilles. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 147 

Migrant from North America ; apparently rare. 

The only record is that of two females collected by Poole and 
Perrygo on Tercero Island in the Seven Brothers group January 31, 
1929. 

The piping plover is reported as migrating regularly to the Ba- 
hamas so that its occurrence on the northern shores of Hispaniola is 
not unexpected. It is another of the small beach birds that are con- 
fusing in identification except by one familiar with them. 

In color the piping plover is similar to the Cuban snowy plover, 
but is distinguished by slightly larger size, the wing measuring 112 
to 124 mm. instead of 98 to 107 mm. as in the preceding species. The 
bill is shorter and distinctly heavier, measuring only 11 to 13.5 mm., 
against 13 to 15.5 in C. n. tenuirostris. 

CHARADRIUS SEMIPALMATUS Bonaparte 
SEMIPALMATED PLOVER, PLAYERO 

Charadrius semipalmatus Bonaparte, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 
vol. 5, 1825, p. 98 (coast of New Jersey). 

Mgialitis semipalmatus, Tristram, Ibis, 1884, p. 16S (Dominican Republic, 
specimen). — Cory, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, Dec, 1884, p. 144 (Puerto 
Plata, specimen) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 95 (Haiti, Dominican Re- 
public).— Tristram, Cat. Coll. Birds belonging H. B. Tristram. 1889, p. 20 (Do- 
minican Republic, specimen). — Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 322 
(listed). — Verriix, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 356 (Samana). 

Charadrius semipalmatus, Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, p. 404 
(Monte Cristi).— Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 363 (Monte Cristi). 

Migrant from North America. 

Though there are comparatively few records for this species it is 
probable that when a more careful search is made it will be found 
fairly common, particularly in spring and fall. 

Cory reports one taken at Puerto Plata in December. One col- 
lected at about the same time by C. McGrigor somewhere in the 
Dominican Republic, possibly at Samana, is recorded by Tristram. 

Verrill says that the semipalmated plover was common at Samana 
(January 29 to February 25, 1907) and Peters saw a small flock 
at Monte Cristi February 18, 1916. Abbott collected an immature 
male at Lake Enriquillo, October 5, 1919, and an adult male and an 
immature female at Saona Island September 17, 1917. Wetmore 
saw one near Sanchez May 6, 1927. Danforth records a flock of ten 
at Monte Cristi August 5, 1927. 

The little known of the species in Haiti is expressed in an imma- 
ture female taken at Jeremie, December 5, 1917 by Abbott, one 
recorded at Aquin, April 3, 1927 by Wetmore, one taken at Port-au- 
Prince, April 25, 1917 by Bartsch, and five from Fort Liberie shot 
February 10 and 19, 1929 by Poole and Perrygo. 



148 BULLETIN" 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

The semipalmated plover frequents muddy flats often with flocks 
of other shorebirds but is so small and quiet that it is frequently 
overlooked. From the few records available it appears to be present 
from September to May. 

This species is ver}^ small and is marked by dark brown color 
above and white below, with a dark band across the breast, this 
being black or brownish gray according to season or age. In flight 
a band of white is shown in the wing. It measures from 165 to 
190 mm. in length, with the wing 114 to 127 mm. 

PAGOLLA WILSONIA RUFINUCHA (Ridgway) 
EUFOUS-NAPED PIOVER, PLAYEEO, TITIRE DE PLAYA, BECASSINE 

JEgialitis Wilsonius, var. rufinucha Ridgway, Ainer. Nat., vol. 8, February, 
1874, p. 109 (Spanishtown, Jamaica). 

JEgialitis wilsonius, Cory, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, Dec, 1884, p. 143 
(Port-au-Prince) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 95 (Haiti, Dominican 
Republic).— Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 322 (listed). 

2Eglalitis wilsoni, Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 356 
(Samana). 

Pagolla wilsonia wilsonia, Ridgway, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 50, vol. 8, 1919, 
p. 110 (Samana). 

Pagolla wilsonia rufinucha, Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, 
p. 405 (Monte Cristi, Gaspar Hernandez). — Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 495 (Port-de-Paix, Fort Liberte, Gonave, and 
Tortue Islands). 

Ochthodromus wilsonius rufiniiclius, Danfoeth, Auk, 1929, p. 363 (Monte 
Cristi, Les Salines, Gonave). 

Probably resident; local. 

Verrill reported this plover from Samana where he said that it 
was common. Peters says that these birds are found along the 
north coast wherever the beach is sufficiently wide to allow a margin 
of dry sand above high-water mark. He secured specimens at Monte 
Cristi and Gaspar Hernandez and remarks that birds taken at the 
latter point March 14 appeared to be paired. Hartert informs us 
that there are six in the Tring Museum, a male and two females, 
collected by Kaempfer at the mouth of the Yuna River September 
3, 6, and 27, 1922, and a male and two females taken by Verrill at 
Samana February 2, 4, and 6, 1907. Danforth found them common 
near Monte Cristi the summer of 1927 and secured four specimens. 

There are more records of occurrence for Haiti, probably because 
of more extended field work in the coastal region. At Caracol, on 
the north coast, Wetmore found them common on an open playa 
near the landing. The birds here showed some agitation and were 
believed to be on their breeding grounds. Abbott secured adults 
at the fitang Saumatre on March 6, 1918 and April 9, 1920, and took 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 149 

two on Grande Cayemite Island, January 5, 1918. Wetmore killed 
a pair April 3, 1927, near Aquin on the south coast. There these 
plovers were common on open flats about a salt water lagoon. They 
ran about in the open, the heavy bill coupled with the dark band 
across the breast being marks that distinguished them easily from 
other shorebirds found here. Their call is a high-pitched feet feet. 
The two taken were near the nesting season. 

Danforth records them in 1927 at Les Salines and also on Gonave 
Island where he collected four. Bond found them at Port-de-Paix 
and Fort Liberte, writing that a boy brought him an egg at the latter 
point on April 29, 1928. He collected two on Gonave Island Feb- 
ruary 8, 1928, and reports them as found also on Tortue Island. 
Poole and Perrygo found them common near Fort Liberte, collecting 
fourteen skins from February 7 to 19, 1929. 

Subspecific relationships of the West Indian individuals of this 
species have been somewhat puzzling. The West Indian race was 
named rufinucha by Kidgway many years ago but recently 54 has been 
considered by the same author as inseparable from the group found 
along the coasts of the southeastern United States. Comparison of 
a series of twenty-one recent specimens from Hispaniola upholds 
Peters' contention 55 that there is a West Indian race marked by darker 
color of the dorsal surface. It appears that this difference lessens 
appreciably as specimens age in our collections as skins from Porto 
Rico and Cuba taken twenty-five years ago are so slightly darker 
than those of Florida that recently Wetmore has been misled into 
considering them not worthy of separation from true wilsonia. 56 
On examining the fresh material indicated above in connection with 
the older series he is now convinced that rufinucha is valid, and that 
the form found on Porto Rico as well as on Hispaniola should bear 
that name. 

Following are measurements of specimens from Hispaniola: 

Ten males, wing 114.1-123.1 (118.0), tail 43.7-49.4 (47.2), culmen 
from base 19.3-23.5 (21.0), tarsus 28.7-32.2 (30.9) mm. 

Eleven females, wing 113.8-123.7 (119.3), tail 44.0-50.1 (48.0), 
culmen from base 19.4-22.3 (21.1), tarsus 28.6-32.2 (30.4) mm. 

The rufous-naped plover is larger than the semipalmated plover, 
but is similarly colored in that it is white below with a dark band 
across the chest, and grayish brown above. It is easily told by the 
large, heavy bill. 

"Ridgway, R., U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 50, pt. 8, 1919, pp. 110-112. 
"Auk, 1927, p. 535; Bull. Mus. Conip. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, p. 405. 
66 See Wetmore, A., New York Acad. Sci., Scl. Surv. Porto Rico and Virgin Islands, 
vol. 9, 1927, pp. 352-353. 



150 BULLETIN" 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

OXYECHUS VOCIFERUS VOCIFERUS (Linnaeus) 
XILLDEER 

Charadrius vociferus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1, 1758, p. 150 (Vir- 
ginia and Carolina). 

Oxyechus vociferus (rubidus"!), Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 
68, 1929, p. 312 (Moca, specimens). 

Migrant from North America; apparently rare. 

Among specimens secured by Poole and Perrygo at Fort Liberte, 
Haiti is a female of the killdeer from North America, taken Feb- 
ruary 19, 1929. This specimen has the following measurements, 
wing 170.0, tail 92.0, culmen from base 20.7, and tarsus 37.9 mm., 
having the larger size and darker coloration above that mark the 
typical race of this bird. As this is the first record for the island 
the abundance of this form as a winter migrant is uncertain. 

It is possible that specimens recorded by Moltoni from Moca 
November 25, 1926 and January 7, 1927, may also be this form as 
he records the wing in two females as 166 and 167 mm., and in 
one male as 165 mm. 

OXYECHUS VOCIFERUS RUBIDUS Riley 
WEST INDIAN KILLDEER, PLAYERO, PRAILECITO, COLLIER 

Oxyechus vociferus rubidus Riley, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 22, 
April 17, 1909, p. 88 (Santo Doiningo=Hispaniola). 

Pluvier a collier, de St. Domingue, Daubenton, Planch. Enl. No. 286. 

Collier, Saint-Mery, Descrip. Part. Fraug. lie Saint-Doiningue, vol. 1, 1797, 
p. 262 (Dondon).— Descourtilz, Yoy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, pp. 211-212 (Haiti). 

Kildir, Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois., vol. 8, 1781, p. 97 (" Saint-Domingue"). 

Killdeer, Beck, Nat. Hist., vol. 21, 1921, p. 39 (above Tubano). 

Pluvialis Dominicensis torquata Brisson, Ornith., vol. 5, 1760, pp. 71-74, pi. 
6, fig. 2. ("S. Domingue.") 

Charadrius vociferus, Bitter, Naturh. Eeis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1S36, p. 
157 (listed). — Hartlatjb, Naumannia, 1852, p. 53 (Mirebalais). — Bryant, Proc. 
Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 1867, p. 97 (Dominican Republic). 

JEgialites vociferus, Salle, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, p. 236 (Dominican 
Republic). 

^Egialitis vociferus, Cory, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, Dec, 1884, pp. 
141-142 (listed) ; Cat. Birds West Indies, 1892, p. 95 (Haiti, Dominican Re- 
public). — Tristram, Cat. Coll. Birds belonging H. B. Tristram, 1889, p. 266 
(Dominican Republic, specimen). — Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, pp. 317, 
322 (listed).— Cherrie, Field Col. Mus., Ornith. ser., vol. 1, 1896, p. 25 (Do- 
minican Republic). — Christy, Ibis, 1897, p. 337 (La Vega. Puerto Plata). — 
Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 356 (El Valle, Sanchez, 
Samana., La Vega). 

Oxyechus vociferus, Forbes and Robinson, Bull. Liverpool Mus., vol. 2, 1S99, 
p. 66 (Almercen). 

Oxyechus vociferus rubidus, Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, p. 
404 (Jaibon, Gaspar Hernandez).— Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 139; 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 151 

Beneath Tropic Seas, 1928, p. 220 (Haiti).— Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila- 
delphia, vol. SO, 1928, p. 496 (Itltang Miragoane, Trou Caiman, litang Saumatre, 
Ennery, Port-de-Paix). — Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 363 (many localities). 

Resident ; locally distributed. Following are records of occurrence : 

Dominican Republic: — San Juan (Wetmore); Lake Enriquillo 
(Abbott) ; Saona Island (Abbott) ; El Valle, Sanchez, Samana, La 
Vega (Verrill) ; Almercen, or Rivas (Forbes and Robinson) ; Jaibon, 
Gaspar Hernandez, Monte Cristi (Peters) ; Constanza (Abbott, 
Wetmore) ; base of Loma Tina above Tubano (Beck) ; Higiiey, 
Seibo, Hato Mayor, Haina, San Cristobal, Vasquez, Monte Cristi, 
Laguna del Salodillo, Dajabon, San Juan (Danforth). 

Haiti : — Baie des Moustiques, M61e St. Nicolas, (Abbott) ; Etang 
Saumatre (Abbott, Bond) : Glore, near Port-au-Prince (Bartsch) ; 
Trou Caiman (Bartsch, Bond) ; Sources Puantes, Aquin, Hinche. 
Caracol (Wetmore) ; Mirebalais (Wiirttemberg) ; Dondon (Saint- 
Mery) ; Ennery, Port-de-Paix (Bond) ; St. Michel, Fort Liberte, 
Cerca-la-Source (Poole and Perrygo) ; Etang Bois-Neuf, Sloughs 
near mouth of Artibonite, Les Salines, Gonaives, Les Cayes, Gonave 
Island (Danforth). 

The killdeer is found in open meadows or fields, marshy savannas 
or bare, open playas where it walks or runs over the ground pausing 
at intervals to teeter slightly, uttering its clear calls of kill deer, kill 
deer at the slightest alarm. When at a distance it often turns its 
brown back toward the observer and then blends almost perfectly 
into its background. The bird may be less abundant now than 
formerly, as Verrill, in 1909, reported it common at a number of 
localities. It ranges from the coast to the higher elevations of the 
island wherever there is open country suited to its needs. Abbott 
collected a specimen at Constanza in the high interior May 11, 1919, 
and Wetmore found several there from May 18 to 21, 1927, and col- 
lected a female. They were found on prairies and pastures in the 
open valleys. Beck reports them from a high meadow above 
Tubano at the base of Loma Tina. 

Forbes and Robinson 5r record the killdeer from Almercen (now 
known as Rivas). Cherrie noted it as fairly common along water 
courses near the coast, and secured one that contained a nearly de- 
veloped egg on March 24. Abbott recorded it at Lake Enriquillo, 
October 1 to 6, 1919, Peters collected six at Jaibon, and Gaspar 
Hernandez, and saw others at Monte Cristi. Danforth in 1927 found 
it at Higiiey, Seibo, Hato Mayor, Haina, San Cristobal, Vasquez, 
Monte Cristi, Laguna del Salodillo, Dajabon, and San Juan. 

In Haiti, Brisson reports the killdeer in 1760, and Saint-Mery 
and Descourtilz recorded it under the name " collier " in 1797 and 

"Bull. Liverpool Mus., vol. 2, 1899, p. 66. 



152 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

1809 respectively. Wiirttemberg secured it at Mirebalais. Abbott 
shot specimens at Mole, St. Nicolas March 19, and Baie des Mous- 
tiques May 5, 1917, and one at the Etang Saumatre March 5, 1918. 
On March 29 and 30, 1927, Wetmore found one feeding along the 
muddy overflow of the sulphur spring at Sources Puantes on the 
coast north of Port-au-Prince, and April 3 saw a number with other 
waders about a lagoon at Aquin. At Hinche on April 23 and 24 
a pair was found on a barren, stony knoll far from water. From 
their actions they appeared to have a nest or young. Near Caracol 
killdeer were seen in open ground at Poste Charbert xlpril 26, and 
near the coast on April 27. Danforth in 1927 found them at the 
Etang Bois-Neuf , on the sloughs near the mouth of the Artibonite, 
at Les Salines, Gonai'ves, Les Cayes, and on Gonave Island. 

Bond found them at the fitang Miragoane, Trou Caiman, fitang 
Saumatre, Ennery, and Port-de-Paix. Poole and Perrygo secured 
skins at St. Michel January 14, and Fort Liberie February 11, 1929. 
They recorded these birds also at Cerca- la-Source from March 18 
to 24, 1929. 

W. L. Abbott secured a set of three eggs May 30, 1917, at Jean. 
Rabel Anchorage, brought to him by a boy who found them in a 
nest on a pebbly sea beach. These eggs have the ground color 
slightly brighter than pale olive-buff, spotted irregularly with black, 
a few of the markings being partly concealed so that they appear 
slate gray. The spots are rather evenly distributed over the surface 
but with the larger, heavier ones on the larger end. The markings 
on the average are angular or drawn out into short lines. One of 
the eggs is less profusely marked than the other two. They measure 
as follows : 36.5 by 28.1, 36.7 by 28.0, and 36.7 by 27.9 mm. 

Following are measurements of birds from Hispaniola. 

Four males, wing 145.0-157.0 (151.0), tail 84.3-93.4 (88.5) , oilmen 
from base 18.5-20.7 (19.7), tarsus 33.7-35.0 58 (34.6) mm. 

Three females, wing 155.0-160.0, tail 82.9-90.0 (86.4), culmen from 
base 20.7-20.9 (20.8), tarsus 33.9-36.7 (36.0) mm. 

The Tourterelle, de St. Dominique, figured by Daubenton (Planch. 
Enl. No. 487) is evidently an artifact made with the body of a mourn- 
ing dove {Zenaidura macroura), and the head and upper neck of 
a killdeer. 

The killdeer is as large as a thrush with grayish brown back, 
rufous brown rump and upper tail coverts, and white forehead and 
under surface, with two black bands across the chest, a black band 
across the front of the head and a white line behind the eye. As 
the bird raises its long wings in flight prominent white markings 
are displayed on the flight feathers. 

58 Average of three. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 153 
PLUVIALIS DOMINICUS DOMINICUS (Miiller) 
AMERICAN GOLDEN PLOVER, CHORLITO, PLUVIAL, PLUVIER DORE 

Charadrius dominicus Muixer, Natursyst. Suppl., 1776, p. 116 (Santo Do- 
mingo=Hispaniola) . 

Pluvier Dore, Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois., vol 8, 1781, p. 84 ("Saint-Doiningue").— 
Descourtilz, Voy. Nat, vol. 2, 1809, pp. 209-211, (Haiti). 

Pluvialis Dominicensis aureus Brisson, Ornith., vol. 5, 1760, pp. 48-51, pi. 6, 
fig. 1 (" S. Dorningue"). 

Charadrius pluvialis, Bitter, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, p. 
157 (listed). 

Pluvialis dominicus dominicus, Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 
1929, p. 312 (San Juan, specimens). 

Migrant. 

The scientific name for the present species is based on le pluvier 
dore de S. Domingue of Brisson, who informs us that his description 
is taken from a specimen sent to M. de Reaumur by Chervain. Des- 
courtilz speaks of the pluvier dore as common and says that they 
come to wet fields to feed and are very tame. Abbott reported them 
common at the Etang Saumatre in early March, 1918. Ciferri col- 
lected three at the Sabana San Thome, near San Juan, September 
18, 1928. Further than this there is no record of the species at 
present. It may occur regularly in migration though this is as jet 
uncertain. 

The golden plover is similar in size to the black-bellied plover, 
and is distinguished by lack of a hind toe. 

SQUATAROLA SQUATAROLA CYNOSURAE Thayer and Bangs 

AMERICAN BLACK-BELLIED PLOVER, PLUVIAL 

Squatarola squatarola cynosurae Thayer and Bangs, Proc. New England 
Zool. Club, vol. 5, April 9, 1914, p. 23 (Baillie Island, Arctic America). — 
Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, p. 404 (Monte Cristi, Rio San 
Juan).— Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 496 (Port- 
de-Paix).— Danforth, Auk, 1929, pp. 363-364 (Monte Cristi; St. Louis, Les 
Salines, Gonave Island). 

Found during winter; abundance, from available data, uncertain. 

The only records for the Dominican Republic are those of Peters 
(the first to record the species in Hispaniola) who observed a flock 
of about twenty near Monte Cristi February 18, and two others west 
of the mouth of the Rio San Juan March 4, 1916, Abbott, who found 
the species at Lake Enriquillo October 1 to 6, 1919, and Danforth, 
who saw a few at Monte Cristi June 24 and 27, and August 5, 1927. 
In Haiti Abbott collected a female in winter dress at Baie des Mous- 
tiques May 7, 1917, and saw black-bellied plovers early in March, 
1918 at the liltang Saumatre. Wetmore observed half a dozen near 



154 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Aquin April 3, and one near Caracol April 27, 1927. Bond saw a 
number near Port-de-Paix and collected one. Poole and Danforth 
found them at St. Louis July 23, Les Salines July 30, and at Anse a 
Galets and Etroites, Gonave Island July 17. Poole and Perrygo in 
1929 collected one on Tercero Island January 31, and one on Muertos 
Island February 4, both of these being in the Seven Brothers group. 
At Fort Liberte they secured five on February 9. 

The black-bellied plover during winter is found on open mud- 
flats, usually near coastal lagoons, but occasionally appears on sandy 
beaches. It is fairly large of body and has an erect carriage so that 
it is easily seen among other shorebirds with which it may be as- 
sociated. 

In winter dress, in which the species is usually seen in Hispaniola, 
the sides of the head and under parts are white, the breast somewhat 
streaked with dusky, and the upper parts brownish gray mottled 
somewhat with white. The axillar feathers are black. Birds found 
in late spring or early fall may be in breeding dress, in which they 
are pale gray above, spotted with brownish black, with the under- 
parts and sides of head black. The bird is distinctly larger than a 
killdeer, has the wing ranging from 178 to 199 mm. and possesses 
a small but distinct hind toe. 

Subfamily Arenariinae 

ARENARIA INTERPRES MORINELLA (Linnaeus) 
RUDDY TURNSTONE, PLAYERO TURCO 

Tringa morinella Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, vol. 1, 1766, p. 249 (coast of 
southeastern Georgia). 

Strepsilas interpres, Teistbam, Ibis, 1SS4, p. 18S (Dominican Republic). 

Arenaria interpres, Cory, Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 92 (Haiti, Domini- 
can Republic).— Verriix, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 356 
(Samana Bay). 

Arenaria interpres morinella, Petees, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zo-ol., vol. 61, 1917, p. 
406 (Monte Cristi, Gaspar Hernandez). — Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila- 
delphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 496 (Jaquesy, Fort Liberte).— Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 
364 (Les Salines, Monte Cristi). 

Winter visitant along the coast ; fairly common. 

Though there are few records for the turnstone this is probably 
due to lack of observation rather than to rarity of the bird, which 
should be distributed in fair numbers through the coastal lagoons. 

The earliest report is that of Tristram, who received a skin from 
C. McGrigor taken in the Dominican Republic, probably near 
Samana. Verrill reported them common on the little cays in 
Samana Bay. There are two specimens in the collection of J. H. 
Fleming taken by Verrill on Cayo Levantado opposite Samana on 
February 14, 1907. Peters saw them at Monte Cristi during the 



THE BffiDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 155 

second and third weeks in February, and between Gaspar Hernandez 
and the Kio San Juan on March 4, 1916. Abbott collected a female 
on Saona Island, September 14, 1919. Danforth reports five at 
Monte Cristi August 5, 1927. 

In Haiti Abbott secured a male at the fitang Saumatre on March 
7, 1918. At Aquin, on April 3, 1927, Wetmore observed fifty or more 
scattered over mudflats adjacent to a salt water lagoon, and others 
along adjacent sandy beaches, basis for our statement that the species 
is probably more common than the few records indicate. At Caracol 
on April 27 a dozen were recorded. Danforth saw fifteen at Les 
Salines July 30, 1927. They seem especially common along the north 
coast of Haiti as Bond records them at Jacquesy and Fort Liberte, 
collecting skins on April 28, 1928, and Poole and Perrygo in 1929 
secured three on Muertos Island in the Seven Brothers group Jan- 
uary 29 and February 2, and six at Fort Liberte February 9. 

On its wintering ground the turnstone is found ordinarily on mud 
flats or muddy playas, always in the open, and ordinarily in little 
flocks. It is also encountered on sandy beaches, but is then usually 
in migration. It is unobtrusive and feeds quietly, often allowing 
close approach, to flush when alarmed with a low whistle and fly with 
rapid flight to another feeding ground. 

The turnstone is somewhat heavier in body than the killdeer but 
is of about the same stature. The adult is white below, with the 
chest and foreneck black, and the upper surface marked with black, 
white and rusty brown. The lower back and upper tail coverts 
are white, the rump is black, and there is a prominent white band 
in the wings, so that the bird appears strikingly colored as it rises 
in flight. In winter and immature dress the black of the chest is 
restricted, and there is little rusty on the back. The wing measures 
from 139 to 157 mm. 

Family SCOLOPACIDAE 59 

Subfamily Scolopacinae 

CAPELLA DELICATA (Ord) 
WILSON'S SNIPE, BECASINA, BECASSE DES SAVANNES 

Soolopax delicata Ord, Reprint of Wilson's Ornithology, vol. 9, 1825, p. 
ccxviii (Pennsylvania). 

59 Ritter, Naturh. Reis. Wcstind. Insel Hayti, 1836, p. 157, includes the red-backed 
sandpiper (Pelidna alpina sakhalina) in his list, under the name Tringa cinclus, without 
annotation as to where he found it. Abbott believes that he saw this sandpiper on Saona 
Island, September 12 to 18, 1919, but did not secure specimens. The species is found 
on mudbars, where it probes for food with its long bill. It has not been definitely 
reported south of southern Florida. 

The species is one of moderate size being 200 mm. or a little more in length with the 
upper parts brownish gray, middle upper tail coverts blackish, under parts whitish, the 
breast indistinctly streaked with blackish. In breeding dress there is a large patch of 
black on the abdomen that may be more or less indicated in birds in migration. The 
bill is relatively long and slightly decurved at the tip. 



156 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Bgcassine, Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois., vol. 7, 17S0, p. 488 (migrant). 

BScasse des Savannes, Descourtjxz, Voy. Nat, vol. 2, 1809, pp. 212-214 
(Haiti). 

Scolopax frenata, Ritter, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, p. 157 
(specimen). — Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1S92, p. 317 (listed). 

Gallinago delicata, Verriul, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 356 
(San Lorenzo, El Valle). 

Capella gallinago delicata, Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 
1928, p. 496 (Etang Miragoane, Trou Caiman, Artibonite Plain, Port-de-Paix). 

Migrant from the north ; abundance uncertain. 

Verrill writes that this snipe was " abundant at San Lorenzo and 
at El Valle, where in the broad wet savannas I found the best snipe 
shooting I have ever seen." This was between December 29, 1906, 
and January 19, 1907. Abbott saw several at the eastern end of 
Lake Enriquillo between October 1 and 6, 1919. Hartert inform^ 
us that there is a skin in the Tring Museum taken by Kaempfer at 
Villa Kiva, January 6, 1924. 

Deshayes wrote to Buffon that the becassine was migrant remain- 
ing through the winter until February, and that a month after 
arrival they become so fat that they are heavy as quail. Descourtilz 
describes this species as the becasse des savannes. Abbott secured 
two skins at Trou Caiman, March 10, 1918. Bond writes that he 
found them at the Etang Miragoane, Trou Caiman, on the Arti- 
bonite Plain, and at Port-de-Paix. 

The Wilson's snipe or jack snipe is found in wet meadows or 
open marshes where it remains hidden until startled when it springs 
into the air with a harsh, explosive note and darts away with swift, 
erratic flight that after a few yards becomes straight. The bird may 
pitch again nearby, or may swing back overhead and pass to some 
other feeding ground. Its sudden rise is disconcerting and though 
the despair of the tyro provides excellent sport for the expert wing 
shot. 

The bird is blackish brown above, streaked longitudinally with 
buffy brown, and white below with mottled breast and barred sides. 
Its peculiar mark is the long straight bill with flexible tip, with 
which it probes in the mud, and the large eyes set far back on the 
sides of the head. The wing measures from 117 to 135 mm. 

Subfamily Numeniinae 

[PHAEOPUS BOREALIS (J. R. Forster) 
ESKIMO CURLEW 

Scolopax borealis J. R. Forster, Philos. Trans., vol. 62, 1772, p. 431 (Fort 
Albany, Hudson Bay). 

Numenius borealis, Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 322 (listed). 



THE BIKDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN" REPUBLIC 157 

Status uncertain. 

The Eskimo curlew, formerly abundant, is now nearly extinct 
as few individuals have been seen in recent years. It has been found 
in Porto Rico casually. Tippenhauer has included it in his list 
of birds without information as to its standing. It is placed in the 
hypothetical list. 

This species is similar to the Hudsonian Curlew in general appear- 
ance, but is smaller, the bill being under three inches, and the pri- 
maries blackish without bars on the inner surface.] 

PHAEOPUS HUDSONICUS (Latham) 
HUDSONIAN CURLEW 

Numenius Jiudsonicus Latham, Index Ornith., vol. 2, 1790, p. 712 (Hud- 
son Bay). — Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 322 (listed). — Beebe, Zool. 
Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 139; Beneath Tropic Seas, 1928, p. 220 (Etang 
Sauniatre). 

Phaeopus hudsonicus, Daneoeth, Auk, 1929. p. 364 (Les Salines). 

Rare during migration. 

Tippenhauer mentions this bird without giving locality where he 
found it. Beebe in 1927 remarks that " three birds kept just beyond 
gun-shot on the marshes of the Etang Saumatre." Danforth and 
Emlen saw one at Les Salines July 30, 1927. There are no further 
records at present. The Hudsonian curlew is found on open mud- 
flats or beaches. 

It is grayish brown above, with the feathers mottled somewhat 
with whitish. The rump and tail are barred with buff and dull 
black, the underparts are buffy or whitish streaked with black on the 
neck and breast, and barred with black on the sides and under wing 
coverts. The decurved bill is more than three inches in length. 

ACTITIS MACULARIA (Linnaeus) 
SPOTTED SANDPIPER, PLAYERO MANCHADO 

Tringa macularia Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, vol. 1, 1766, p. 249 (Penn- 
sylvania). 

? Becasseau, Descourttlz, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, pp. 214-216 (in part). 

Tringoides macidarius, Cory, Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, 1881, p. 154 ( Jaemel, 
specimens) ; Birds Haiti and San Domingo, Dec, 1884, pp. 148-149 (Port-au- 
Prince, Jaemel, specimens). — Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 322 
(listed). — Christy, Ibis, 1897, p. 337 (Sanchez, Yuna River). 

Totanus macularius, Hartert, Nov. Zool., vol. 9, 1902. p. 293 (S&nchez). 

Actitis macularia, Cory, Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 94 (Haiti, Domini- 
can Republic). — Cherrie, Field Col. Mus., Ornith. ser., vol. 1, 1S96, p. 25 
(Dominican Republic). — Verrhx, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1919, p. 
356 (Dominican Republic). — Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917. p. 
2134—31 11 



158 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

404 (Monte Cristi, Sosua, between Cabarete and San Juan). — Beebb, Zool. 
Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 139; Beneath Tropic Seas, 192S, p. 220 (Bizoton).— 
Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 496 (abundant).— 
Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 384 (L'Arcahaie, Les Salines, Monte Cristi, Bonao). — 
Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, p. 313 (Bio San Juan, 
specimen). 

Winter visitant ; common. 

The spotted sandpiper is universally distributed through both 
republics wherever conditions are suitable for it, from the salt 
lagoons and mangroves of the coast to the larger streams of the 
interior where the shores are not too heavily forested. Hartert 
found it on the beach at Sanchez August 20, 1892 (date furnished in 
a letter). It was observed by Cherrie " at all points visited," Christy 
found it at Sanchez, and along the Yuna. Verrill speaks of it as 
"exceedingly common everywhere." In the collection of J. H. 
Fleming there are five skins of this species taken by Verrill at 
Samana February 5, 6, and 17, and La Vega March 14, 1907. Peters 
found it at Monte Cristi, Sosua, and along the sandy beaches from 
Cabarete to San Juan. He observed it until his departure from the 
island on April 11, 1916. On Samana Bay Wetmore recorded it 
near Sanchez, May 6 and 9, near the mouth of the Arroyo Barran- 
cota May 8, in the Yuna delta May 10, and at San Lorenzo Bay May 
11, 1927 (three seen). He collected an adult female in summer 
plumage near Sanchez on May 6. Danforth saw it at Monte Cristi 
August 4 and 5, and near Bonao August 7, 1927. Ciferri obtained 
one on the Rio San Juan September 18, 1929. 

In Haiti Cory reports two taken near Port-au-Prince in February, 
and three at Jacmel in the latter part of March, 1881. W. L. Abbott, 
collected one at Jeremie, December 5, 1917. Bartsch found this 
species at Glore, on the Etang Saumatre April 3, Trou Caiman April 
4, Petit Goave, April 8 and 9, and near Port-au-Prince, April 25, 
1917. Wetmore recorded it at Source Matelas and Mont Rouis 
March 30, Aquin April 3, Caracol April 27, and Gressier April 28. 
Beebe found it at Bizoton. Danforth found it at L'Arcahaie July 
25 and Les Salines July 30, 1927. Poole and Perrygo collected four 
at Fort Liberte February 11 and 18, 1929, and three near Cerca-la- 
Source March 22 and 25, 1929. Two of the latter, preserved as 
skins, are in an interesting stage of molt with the spots of the sum- 
mer plumage appearing on the lower surface. 

The species may be expected to occur regularly from July to May 
as many return from their breeding grounds in North America dur- 
ing early summer, and some linger until the spring is far advanced. 

The spotted sandpiper is found on muddy shores, gravel bars, or 
sandy beaches indifferently, and though often associated with others 
of its kind where food is abundant it is not gregarious and does not 



THE BIRDS OP HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 159 

occur in flocks. As it moves it tilts the body nervousty, the posterior 
portion tipping up and the anterior down, a constant jerking motion 
that is certain to catch the eye. Though usually found in the open 
the spotted sandpiper may penetrate far into the depths of mangrove 
swamps. When flushed the bird rises with a low peet weet and flies 
off with short strokes of its wings, usually just above the water, so 
that often it is mirrored on the surface, giving to the eye of the 
observer two figures, the bird itself and its reflection below. 

The spotted sandpiper is among the smaller sandpipers being 200 
mm. or less in length. It is greenish olive above, with obscure dusky 
markings, and white below. In breeding dress the under surface is 
heavily spotted with dull black. In winter plumage the underparts 
are white with perhaps a faint wash of grayish brown across the 
breast. As it flies there is displayed a prominent white band in 
either wing. 

TRINGA SOLITARIA SOLITARIA Wilson 
SOIITARY SANDPIPER, ZARAPICO SOLITARIO 

Tringa solitaria Wilson. Airier. Orn., vol. 7, 1813, p. 53, pi. 58, fig. 3 (probably 
Pennsylvania ) . 

Totanus solitarlus, Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 322 (listed). — 
Cherrie, Field Columbian Mus., Ornitb. ser., vol. 7, 1896, p. 25 (Santo Domingo 
City). 

Tringa solitaria solitaria, Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Pbiladelpbia, vol. 80, 
1928, p. 496 (Trou Caiman).— Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 364 (Artibonite).— 
Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, p. 313 (Haina, San Juan). 

Winter visitant ; probably fairly common. 

Little is known at present of the occurrence of the solitary sand- 
piper in Hispaniola. Tippenhauer lists it without comment. Cher- 
rie found it on March 16 and April 27 on the Rio Ozama near Santo 
Domingo City, and according to Hartert there is a skin in the Tring 
Museum taken by Kaempfer at Las Lagunas, Province Espaillat, 
March 5, 1922. Ciferri collected it at Haina in September, 1925, 
and near San Juan August 11 and September 1, 1928. Wetmore saw 
one near Gressier March 29, 1927, and Danforth one near the mouth 
of the Artibonite July 29, 1927. Bond saw several and collected one 
at the Trou Caiman in January, 1928. The species is probably fairly 
common during winter about swamps and lagoons on the coastal 
plain. 

The solitary sandpiper, like the spotted sandpiper, ranges alone 
on open muddy shores or about small pools of fresh water. It is 
prone to occur anywhere that water collects after heavy rains as in 
such situations it finds suitable feeding grounds. It is quiet in de- 
meanor and though it jerks the body nervously as it moves is less 
active than some of the other sandpipers. As it wades in the shal- 



160 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

lows it may easily pass unnoticed until it is approached too closely 
when it flushes swiftly with a loud pees wees and flies rapidly away. 
The solitary sandpiper is larger than the spotted sandpiper and 
has longer legs. It is dusky black above, spotted very lightly with 
white, with the outer tail feathers barred prominent^ with white. 
Beneath it is white with fine dusky gray lines on the foreneck and 
sides of the breast, and the axillars and under wing coverts grayish 
black, barred with white. The wing measures from 121 to 134 mm., 
females being usually larger than males. 

CATOPTKOPHORUS SEMIPALMATUS SEMIPALMATUS (Gmelin) 
WILLET, CHORLO 

Scolopax semipalmata Gmelin, Syst. Nat., vol. 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 659 (New 
York). 

Totanus semipalmatus, Tippenhauek, Die Insel Haiti, 1882, p. 322 (listed). 

CatoptropJwrus s. semipalmatus, Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 139; 
Beneath Tropic Seas, 1928, pp. 67, 69, 219 (Source Matelas). 

Catoptrophorus semipalmatus semipalmatus, Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila- 
delphia, vol. 80, 192S, p. 520 (listed).— Danfoeth, Auk, 1929, p. 364 (Les. 
Salines, specimen). 

Probably resident ; local. 

The only records of the willet for the Dominican Republic are 
those of one taken on Saona Island, September 14, 1919, by W. L. 
Abbott, and two males secured by Kaempfer, now in the Tring Mu- 
seum, which Hartert informs us were taken at the mouth of the Yuna 
River October 11, 1922, and near Sanchez November 25, 1921. The 
Abbott specimen, of uncertain sex, has the following measurements : 
wing 197.0, tail 70.2, culmen from base 57.5, tarsus 55.4 mm. It is 
identified as the subspecies semipalmatus. Abbott saw several at 
Baie des Moustiques in 1917, and Beebe recorded five at Source 
Matelas January 13 and 23, 1927. 

In Haiti Wetmore found a dozen near Aquin on April 3, 1927, 
scattered over the open mudflats near a salt water lagoon. He shot 
one but was prevented from retrieving it by the depth of the soft 
mud. The birds called noisily and flew about with display of the 
prominent black and white wing markings. He recorded one at 
Caracol on April 27, and on April 28 saw numbers near Gonai'ves in 
passing low above the coastal lagoons in an airplane. The clear cut 
wing markings made identification easy as the birds flew beneath the 
plane. 

Danforth collected one of two seen at Les Salines July 30, 1927. 
The species is one that inhabits open mudflats and is thus restricted 
to the coastal plain. 



THE BIRDS OP HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 161 

The willet in breeding dress is grayish brown above with spots 
and bars of dusky, and white below with irregular markings of dusky. 
The axillars and under wing coverts are blackish. In winter the 
bird lacks the dusky spottings. When at rest it appears quite plain 
and ordinary so that one is astonished by the striking pattern of 
white on black revealed when it spreads its wings for flight. The 
species is one of the largest shorebirds reported for the island being 
as bulky in body as a pigeon. 

TOTANUS FLAVIPES (Gmelin) 
LESSER YELLOWLEGS, CHORLO, CABALIERO, PATA AMARILLA 

Scolopax flavipes Gmelin, Syst. Nat., vol. 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 659 (New York). 

Totanus flavipes, Hitter, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1S36, p. 157 
(Haiti). — Tippenhauek, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 322 (listed). — Bartsch, Proc. 
Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 30, July 27, 1917, p. 132 (Haiti).— Bond, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 496 (Etang Miragoane, Trou Caiman, 
Port-de-Paix, Fort Liberty, Gonave and Tortue Islands). — Danforth, Auk, 
1929, p. 364 (Etang Bois-Neuf, Artibouite, Les Salines, Monte Cristi). — 
Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, p. 313 (Laguna de Guerra, 
specimen ) . 

Neoglottis flavipes, Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 139; Beneath 
Tropic Seas, 1928, p. 220 (Source Matelas). 

Winter visitant ; probably common near the coast. 

The present species is common during migration through the 
Greater Antilles. The only records for the Dominican Republic are 
the following. W. L. Abbott secured one on Saona Island Sep- 
tember 13, 1919, ,and one at the eastern end of Lake Enriquillo, 
October 5, 1919. (At the latter point the bird was common from 
October 1 to 6). Kaempfer collected one at Sanchez September 15, 
1922, the specimen now being in the Tring Museum according to 
Hartert. Danforth saw lesser yellowlegs at Monte Cristi August 
4 and 5, 1927. Ciferri shot one at Laguna de Guerra August 13, 
1929. 

In Haiti, Hitter in 1836 and Tippenhauer in 1893 list this species 
without comment, and it is probable that this bird is included among 
those listed by Descourtilz in 1809 under the names clin-clin and 
tui-tui. Bartsch saw this species in a trip from Port-au-Prince to 
St. Marc and return April 21 and 22, 1917, and collected one on the 
salt flats north of Port-au-Prince April 25. Abbott shot one at 
Trou Caiman March 11, 1918, and two at Grande Cayemite Island 
January 4, 1918. Wetmore recorded one in muddy shallows near 
the sulphur spring at Sources Puantes March 29 and 30, 1927, and 
at the Etang Miragoane April 1. Beebe found a flock of 21 at 
Source Matelas in January, 1927. Danforth collected one of about 



162 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

one hundred seen at the Etang Bois-Neuf July 25, and saw others 
on the sloughs near the mouth of the Artibonite July 28 and 29, and 
at Les Salines July 30, 1927. Bond records them from Etang 
Miragoane, Trou Caiman, Port-de-Paix, Fort Liberte, and on Gonave 
and Tortue Islands. 

The lesser yellowlegs is found singly or in little groups on muddy 
shores along salt or fresh water, or around ponds and marshes, 
where aquatic vegetation is low so that it does not impede feeding. 
The birds walk about on the mud or wade in shallow water to secure 
their food of water insects, amphipods and other aquatic creatures. 
Their flight is swift and direct, and they often utter a clear, whistled 
note that is characteristic when once it is learned. 

The lesser yellowlegs is grayish brown above, mottled with white 
and dusky, with white rump and light barred tail. Below it is white, 
with grayish brown streaks on the breast. The markings of the 
under surface are heavier in the breeding season. The bird is dis- 
tinguished by the bright yellow tarsi and feet. The wing measures 
from 149 to 163 mm. 

TOTANUS MELANOLEUCUS (Gmelin) 
GREATER YELLOWLEGS, CHORLO, CABALLERO CHILLON, PATA AMARILLA 

Scolopax melanoleuca Gmelin, Syst. Nat., vol. 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 659 (Chateau 
Bay, Labrador). 

Totanus melanoleucus, Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 322 (listed). — 
Baetsch, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 30, July 27, 1917, p. 132 (Haiti).— 
Cifebri, Segund. Inf. An. Est. Nac. Agr. Moca, 1927, p. 6 (listed). — Danforth, 
Auk, 1929, p. 364 (Monte Cristi, Les Salines, Gonave Island).— Moltoni, Att. 
Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, p. 313 (Haina, San Juan, specimens). 

Neofflottis melanoleuca, Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull. vol. 30, 1927, p. 139 ; Beneath 
Tropic Seas, 1928, pp. 69, 70, 220 (Source Matelas). 

Winter visitant ; abundance uncertain. 

Abbott reported this species from Saona Island, September 12 to 
18, 1919, and Danforth found it at Monte Cristi June 24 and 27 and 
August 5, 1927. Ciferri obtained it at Haina in April, 1926, and San 
Juan October 28, 1928. 

In Haiti it is listed by Tippenhauer without comment. Bartsch 
saw it on the salt flats north of Port-au-Prince, Haiti on April 25, 
1917. Beebe found it at Source Matelas January 23, 1927, and took 
one at the same point March 21. Danforth found it at Les Salines 
July 30, and on Gonave Island observed it at Anse a Galets July 
"15 and Etroites July 17, 1927. The species is regularly migrant 
through the Greater Antilles so that the records though not based 
on specimens taken are not to be considered unusual. 

Like its small relative the greater yellowlegs will be found in 
the marshes of the coastal plain or on the mudflats bordering saline 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 163 

lagoons. It has the same habits as the lesser species but to a 
discriminating ear its calls are slightly different. It resembles the 
lesser yellowlegs in coloration but is told by larger size, the wing 
measuring from 180 to 199 mm. 

Subfamily Calidrinae 

PISOBIA MINUTILLA (Vieillot) 
LEAST SANDPIPER, ZARAPICO MENTJDO 

Tringa minutilla Vieiixot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 34, 1819, p. 466 (Nova 
Scotia to Antilles). 

Ereunetes minutilla, Tippenhatjer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 322 (listed). 

Pisobia minutilla, Baetsch, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 30, July 27, 
1917, p. 132 (Haiti).— Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 139; Beneath 
Tropic Seas, 1928, p. 129 (Source Matelas).— Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila- 
delphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 496 (Lake Enriquillo, Gonave Island). — Danforth, 
Auk, 1927, p. 364 (Etang Bois-Neuf, Artibonite River, Les Salines, Monte 
Cristi).— Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat, vol. 68, 1929, p. 313 (San Juan, 
specimen). 

Migrant and winter visitant along coast; abundance uncertain. 

At Lake Enriquillo in the Dominican Republic this little sandpiper 
was found in large flocks from October 1 to 6, 1919, by Abbott, and 
was reported in 1928 by Bond. Wetmore shot one near Sanchez 
May 6, 1927, and saw four others near the mouth of the Rio Yuna 
May 10. Hartert writes us that there are six in the Tring Museum 
taken at Sanchez December 24, 1906 by A. H. Verrill, and six more 
collected by Kaempfer at the mouth of the Yuna September 27 to 
October 3, 1922. Danforth found the least sandpiper at Monte 
Cristi August 4 and 5, 1927. Ciferri collected it at San Juan Sep- 
tember 1, 1928. 

In Haiti a number of specimens of this species were taken by 
Bartsch on the salt flats north of Port-au-Prince April 25, 1917. 
W. L. Abbott took one on Grande Cayemite Island January 14, 1918, 
indicating that the species is present through the winter, and re- 
ported the birds as common. Beebe secured specimens at Source 
Matelas in early 1927, and Wetmore found two near Aquin April 3, 
1927. Danforth in 1927 saw many at the fitang Bois-Neuf July 25, 
collecting one, and reports them also from the sloughs at the mouth 
of the Artibonite July 29, and at Les Salines July 30. Bond says 
that he found them particularly numerous on Gonave Island. 

This species usually frequents open stretches of mud, and in His- 
paniola is most common near the coasts, as elsewhere there is only 
limited area available to it. It is small and quiet and so may fre- 
quently escape attention. At times it occurs in flocks. 

The least sandpiper is among the smallest of its group having 
the wing only from 82 to 91 mm. long. It is mottled black and 



164 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

grayish buff above, with occasional indications of rusty, and white 
below with the breast grayish white streaked with dusky. In the 
hand it may be told from its small relative, the semipalmated sand- 
piper, by the lack of webs between the toes, while in life it is marked 
from that species by the greenish tarsi. 

PISOBIA MELANOTOS (Vieillot) 
PECTORAL SANDPIPER, ZARAPICO MANCHADO 

Tringa melanotos Vieuxot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 34, 1819, p. 462 
(Paraguay). 

?Becassine des savannes, Descourtiez, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, pp. 216-217 
(Haiti). 

Cinclus Dominicensis Brisson, Ornith., vol. 5, 1760, pp. 219-222, pi. 24, fig. 1. 
(" S. Domingue.") 

Tringa dominicensis Degland, Orn. Eur., vol. 2, 1S49, p. 232, (Based on 
Brisson.) 

Tringa maculata, Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 322 (listed). 

Pisobia melanotos, Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 364 (Les Salines). 

Pisobia melanotus, Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, p. 313 
(San Juan, specimens). 

Migrant : status uncertain. 

Abbott shot a pectoral sandpiper on Saona Island September 15, 
and two more on Catalina Island September 19, 1919. Ciferri se- 
cured two at Sabana San Thome, San Juan, August 11, 1928. 

These are the only records for the Dominican Republic. 

The Alouette-de-mer de S. Domingue or Cinclus Dominicensis of 
Brisson taken from a bird in the Reaumur collection secured by 
Chervain has been identified as the present species and has served as 
the basis for Tringa dominicensis Degland. Descourtilz described a 
bird as the Becassine des savannes that is possibly the pectoral sand- 
piper but this is not certain. Tippenhauer lists this species without 
comment. Danforth writes that he saw two at Les Salines July 
30, 1927. No specimen, other than that of Brisson is known from 
Haiti. 

This sandpiper is found on muddy shores where it wades about 
quietly, or in recently flooded meadows where it may not be seen until 
it flushes suddenly with a harsh note. It is found usually on fresh 
or brackish waters. It nests in the far north and spends the winter 
in South America so that it should visit Hispaniola regularly in 
spring and fall. 

The pectoral sandpiper is streaked with blackish and rusty buff 
above, and below is white with a grayish buff band streaked with 
dusky across the breast. The wing measures 119 to 146 mm., and the 
bird is shorter legged than other sandpipers with which it might be 
confused. The tarsus is dull greenish. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 165 

MICROPALAMA HIMANTOPUS (Bonaparte) 
STILT SANDPIPER, 

Tringa liimwntopus Bonaparte, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, vol. 2, 1826, 
p. 157 (Long Branch, New Jersey). 

Micropalama liimantopus, Cory, Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 92 (Haiti, 
Dominican Republic). 

In migration; status uncertain. 

The only record for this species is that of Cory who lists it from 
Hispaniola without stating his basis for its inclusion. As the stilt 
sandpiper is known to be migrant in Cuba and Porto Rico it should 
be fairly common in spring and fall migration, since it nests in the 
far north and spends the winter in South America. 

The stilt sandpiper somewhat resembles the lesser yellowlegs, but 
is more slender, and has somewhat grayer, less contrasted markings. 
The legs are greenish in color, which distinguishes it at once from 
the yellowlegs. It is found in similar situations as that species. 

EREUNETES PUSILLUS (Linnaeus) 
SEMIPALMATED SANDPIPER, MARINGOITIN, BECASSINE 

Tringa pusilla Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, vol. 1, 1766, p. 252 (Santo 
Domingo=Hispaniola) . 

? Maringouin, Descourttlz, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, pp. 249-251 (Haiti, 
common). 

Cinclns Dominicensis minor Bkisson, Ornith., vol. 5, 1760, pp. 222-226, pi. 25, 
fig. 2 (" S. Domingue"). 

Ereunetes pusillus, Tippenhatjer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 322 (listed). — 
Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 356 (Sanchez). — Bartsch, 
Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 30, July 27, 1917, p. 132 (Haiti). — Peters, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, p. 403 (Monte Cristi). — Bond, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 49 (Lake Enriquillo, Gonave Island).— 
Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 364 (Etang Bois-Neuf, Les Salines, Monte Cristi). — 
Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 139; Beneath Tropic Seas, 1928, pp. 
219-220 (Haiti).— Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, p. 313 
(San Juan, specimens). 

? Alouette de Mer, Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois., vol. 7, 1780, pp. 551-552 (" Saint- 
Domingue "). 

Migrant from eastern North America. 

In the Dominican Republic the semipalmated sandpiper has been 
taken at Sanchez by Verrill, and at Monte Cristi, February 18, 1916 
by Peters. Danforth saw it at Monte Cristi August 5, 1927. Bond 
records it from Lake Enriquillo. Ciferri secured three at Sabana 
San Thome, San Juan, August 9, 1928. 

In Haiti Tippenhauer includes the semipalmated sandpiper in 
a list of birds without comment. Bartsch secured specimens on the 
salt flats north of Port-au-Prince, April 25, 1917, and Wetmore saw 
several about a salt water lagoon near Aquin April 3, 1927. Beebe 
observed two in the early part of 1927. Danforth in 1927 collected 



166 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

two at the Etang Bois-Neuf July 25, observing many others. He 
recorded several at Les Salines July 30. Bond reports them from 
Gonave Island. Poole and Perrygo shot a female (culmen 18.1 mm.) 
on Monte Chico Island in the Seven Brothers group January 29, 1929, 
and two males (culmen 17.5 and 19.1 mm.) at Fort Liberte February 
10, 1929. 

The Linnaean name for this species is based on Brisson's description 
of the Petite Alouette-de-mer de S. Domingue, Cinclus Dominicensis 
minor taken from a bird in the collection of de Reaumur secured by 
Chervain in " S. Domingue." Descourtilz speaks of a bird called 
the maringouin that he says is very small and flies in dense flocks so 
that on one occasion he killed 120 with two shots, that is probably 
this species. 

This sandpiper is found on extensive mudflats and often congre- 
gates in large flocks that patter quickly about in friendly company 
in search of food, and when alarmed take flight in close bands that 
pass swiftly through the air, moving and turning with the greatest 
precision as though practised in intricate maneuvers by some stern 
drillmaster. 

The species is similar in size to the least sandpiper but may be 
distinguished in life by the distinctly black bill and tarsi, these being 
greenish in the related species, and in the hand by the small webs 
beween the toes. 

EREUNETES MAURI Cabanis 

WESTERN SANDPIPER 

Ereunetes mauri Cabanis, Journ. fur Ornith., 1856, p. 149 (Cuba). — Bartsch, 
Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 30, July 27, 1917, p. 132 (Haiti). 

Migrant from western North America. 

Among specimens taken on the salt flats north of Port-au-Prince 
April 25, 1917 by Paul Bartsch there is one that is identified as this 
species as it has a bill measurement of 26.8 mm. Poole and Perrygo 
found the western sandpiper in numbers on the Seven Brothers 
Islands off the north coast of Haiti in 1929 and collected fourteen 
males and eight females on Muertos Island February 1, and one fe- 
male February 2. Measurements of the culmen in the males are as 
follows: 21.4, 21.7, 21.7, 22,0, 22.3, 22.8, 22.9, 23.0, 23.9, 23.9, 24.1, 
24.1, and 24.7 mm. : in females 24.6, 26.0, 26.2, 26.3, 27.2, 27.3, 27.5, 
27.9, and 29.3 mm. The first three males are a trifle small but fit in 
this series better than in E. pusillus. All are in winter plumage so 
that no color differences are evident. The occurrence of the western 
sandpiper in such numbers at this point is somewhat surprising, and 
indicates that attention should be paid to the collection of more of 
this genus to determine the relative abundance of the two species 
involved. 



THE BIRDS OP HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 167 

In general appearance and habits the western sandpiper is ex- 
actly like the semipalmated. It will be found casually with that 
species. In color it is like the semipalmated sandpiper though a 
little more rusty above, being distinguished mainly by the longer 
bill, which is as long as or longer than the tarsus, instead of shorter 
as in the related species. 

TRYNGITES SUBRUFICOLLIS (Vieillot) 
BUFF-BREASTED SANDPIPER 

Tringa subruficollis Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 34, 1819, p. 465 
(Paraguay). 

Tryngites subruficollis, Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, 
p. 313 (San Juan, specimen). 

Casual in migration. 

The only record is that of one collected by Ciferri at the Sabana 
San Thome, near San Juan, D. R., October 1, 1928. 

The buff-breasted sandpiper has the wing from 122 to 136 mm. 
long. Above it is pale grayish brown with the centers of the feath- 
ers olive. The underparts are brownish buff mixed with whitish, 
usually with concealed black markings. The primaries have the inner 
webs speckled prominently with black. 

[LIMOSA FEDOA (Linnaeus) 

MARBLED GODWIT 

Scolopax fedoa Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1, 1758, p. 146 (Hudson Bay). 
Limosa fedoa, Tippenhatjer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 322 (listed). 

Status uncertain. 

Tippenhauer has included this with other shorebirds without 
stating where it is found. As it has been recorded from Cuba and 
Porto Rico it may be expected to occur occasionally during migra- 
tion. It frequents muddy shores. 

The marbled godwit in life appears as large as the Hudsonian 
curlew from which it is distinguished by browner plumage, and by 
the form of the bill, which is long and slightly upcurved at the tip.] 

CROCETHIA ALBA (Pallas) 
SANDERLING, ARENARO, BECASSINE 

Trynga alba Pallas, in Vroeg, Cat. Rais., Adumbr., 1764, p. 7 (coast of North 
Sea). 

Calidris arenaria, Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 322 (listed). 

Calidris leucophaca, Peters, Bull. Mus. Conip. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, p. 404 
(Gaspar Hernandez). 

Crocethia alba, Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 
496 (Tortue).— Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, p. 313 
(Haina, specimens). 



168 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Found during migration; may remain through winter. 

One seen by Peters on an open sandy beach a few miles east of 
Gaspar Hernandez on March 4, 1916 and two secured by Ciferri at 
Haina in 1925 are the only observations at present for the Dominican 
Republic. 

Tippenhauer includes it in his list of the birds of Haiti without 
indicating reason for this action. Abbott shot two on the shores 
of the ]5tang Saumatre on March 10, 1918, these being the only speci- 
mens now recorded from the entire island. Bond saw a number on 
Tortue Island. 

The sanderling may occur alone or in flocks along sandy beaches 
or with other waders in open areas of muddy lagoon. 

This species is of small size, having the wing 113 to 127 mm., 
and appears very light in color, especially when flying, as in 
winter plumage, the stage in which it will be found in Hispaniola, 
it is pure white beneath and light brownish gray above, with the 
primaries black crossed by a white band. In the hand it may be 
told from all other sandpipers by the fact that it has no hind toe. 

Family RECURVIROSTRIDAE 

HIMANTOPUS MEXICANUS (Miillcr) 

BLACK-NECKED STILT, VIUDA, PLAYERO, ECHASSE, PET-PET, BELLE PETE, 
PIGEON D'ETANG, BECASSINE 

Charadrius mexicanus Muller, Natursyst., Suppl., 1776, p. 117 (Mexico). 

Echasse, Descourtilz, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, pp. 235-238 (Haiti, breeding). 

Himantopus mexicanus, Salle, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1S57, p. 237 
(Higuey). — Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 1867, p. 97 
(Dominican Republic). — Cory, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, Dec, 1SS4, pp. 
146-147 (listed) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1S92, p. 92 (Haiti, Dominican 
Republic). — Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1S92, p. 322 (listed). — Cieerri, 
Segund. Inf. An. Est. Nac. Agr. de Moca, 1927, p. 6 (listed). — Beebe, Zool. 
Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 139; Beneath Tropic Seas, 1928, pp. 69, 70, 219; 
(Source Matelas, Etang Miragoane). — Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 
vol. 80, 1928, pp. 496-497 (Etang Miragoane, Trou Caiman, Port-de-Paix, Fort 
Liberie, Gonave and Tortue Islands). — Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 364 (numerous 
localities). — Lonnberg, Fauna och Flora, 1929, p. 100 (Haiti). — Moltoni, Att. 
Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, p. 314 (Haina, Laguna de Guerra, 
specimens). 

Resident; local. 

Salle found the black-necked stilt in marshes near Higuey. Abbott 
found them common at the eastern end of Lake Enriquillo October 1 
to 6, 1919, and shot one at Laguna Cabral, near Rincon, March 16, 
1922. Danforth in 1927 records them as breeding at Haina and 
Monte Cristi, and saw them also at the Laguna del Salodillo. Ciferri 
sent specimens to Moltoni from Haina April 15, 1926, and Laguna de 
Guerra August 13, 1929. 



THE BIEDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 169 

In Haiti the stilt seemingly is locally common. Descourtilz says 
that it deposits from two to four eggs, and that its local name of 
pet-pet is given in imitation of its cry. W. L. Abbott reports it 
common in suitable localities, and shot a male and two females near 
Port-de-Paix April 14, 1917, and a female at the Etang Saumatre, 
April 5, 1920. He found it also on the saline on Grande Cayemite 
Island in the early part of January, 1918. Bartsch recorded it be- 
tween Port-au-Prince and St. Marc April 21 and 22, 1927. Wetmore 
observed two near Aquin, on April 3, 1927 near a salt water lagoon 
and near Desdunes in passing low over the swamps in an airplane on 
April 28 saw a considerable colony at one lagoon. Beebe in 1927 
recorded it at Source Matelas, January 23 and March 21, and at the 
Etang Miragoane, and says that two shot at the former locality had 
been feeding on corixids. Danforth found it in 1927 at the Etang 
Bois-Neuf, the sloughs near the mouth of the Artibonite River, Les 
Salines, Sources Puantes, and on Gonave Island. Bond says that 
it is common in all fresh water swamps, and is found also in mangrove 
lined lagoons along the coast. He records it at Etang Miragoane, 
Trou Caiman, Port-de-Paix, and Fort Liberte, and on Gonave and 
Tortue Islands. Stilts were nesting at the Trou Caiman in June. 

These birds are found in lowland marshes usually those that 
border salt water, and appear to be local in their distribution. They 
walk gracefully about on their long stiltlike legs and when on their 
breeding grounds are so solicitous for their nests or young that 
they fly courageously to meet intruding man, sad to say, often to 
their own destruction. Their sharp, barking calls are distinctive and 
resemble those of no other bird. 

The body of the black-necked stilt, about as large as that of a 
small pigeon, is mounted on very tall, slender stilts of legs that with 
the long neck and straight bill give the bird a curious appearance 
of fragility. It is pure white below and on the lower back, and 
black on wings, neck and upper back, with a wash of gray on the 
back in the immature. The tail is grayish white. 

Superfamily OEDICNEMIDES 
Family OEDICNEMIDAE 

OEDICNEMUS DOMINICENSIS Cory 

HISPANIOLAN THICK-KNEE, BUCARO, COTJRLIS DE TERRE, COTTRRE-VITE, 
COQ SAVANNE, POTJLE SAVANNE 

OEdicnemus dominicensis Cory, Quart. Journ. Boston Zool. Soc, October, 
1883, p. 46 (La Vega, Dominican Republic). 

Courlis de Terre, Descoubtilz, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, pp. 202-204 
(description). 



170 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Burhinus dominicensis, Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 141 (exhibited 
alive in zoological park). 

OEdicnemus dominicensis, Cory, Auk, 1884, pp. 4-5 (notes) ; Cat. Birds Haiti 
and San Domingo, Dee., 1884, pp. 140-141, col. pi. (Dominican Republic) ; Cat. 
West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 95 (Dominican Republic). — Thompson, Auk, 1885, 
p. 110 (Cincinnati Zoological Gardens). — Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892. 
pp. 317-322 (listed). — Cheerie, Field Columbian Mus., Ornith. ser., vol. 1, 
1896, p. 25 (Dominican Republic).— Christy, Ibis, 1897, p. 337 (Rivas).— 
Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 356 (rare). — Beebe, Zool. 
Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 139; Beneath Tropic Seas, 1928, p. 497 (Etang 
Saumatre).— Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 497 
(reported on northern and central plains).— Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 363 
(Gonaives).— Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, p. 314 (San 
Juan ) . 

Resident ; locally fairly common in the northern part of the Domin- 
ican Republic and extreme northeastern Haiti; reported also near 
Hinche and San Juan. 

The specimens upon which the original description of this species 
was based were secured near La Vega, D. R. Cory reports the bird 
as fairly common on the high hills back of La Vega, and says that 
M. A. Frazar considered it somewhat nocturnal in its habits though 
he saw it feeding during the day. Christy found it on one occasion 
on the Sabana Grande near Almercen (now called Rivas). W. L. 
Abbott shot specimens at Pimentel January 25 and 26, where he 
found a good many, and near Cotui February 3, 1921. He heard 
of it south of Jovero. J. A. Julia informed Wetmore that it was 
common west of Monte Cristi toward Dajabon on the Haitian 
frontier. He relates that when driving at night he has had birds 
bewildered by his head lights strike the fender of his car. Abbott 
heard of them in this same area. It was also reported to Wetmore 
inland from Sabana La Mar on the south shore of Samana Bay. 
H. W. Krieger, of the United States National Museum, during 
archeological researches in this same area was told by Senor R. 
Arcadio Sanchez, Governor of Monte Cristi Province, that the bucaro 
was well known on the plain southeast of Monte Cristi from thirty 
to fifty kilometers distant, and that it occurred also along the coast 
and in the delta region of the Rio Yaque del Norte. The same 
statement was made by Mr. Grossart of the Compania Comercial 
and others. Chauffeurs are said to delight in running them down 
on the auto roads. 

Abbott did not find this bird in the southern part of the Domin- 
ican Republic and from present information, except for a specimen 
sent by Ciferri to Moltoni from San Juan, October 19, 1929, it is 
known in that republic only from Sabana La Mar and Cotui north 
and west through La Vega for an undetermined distance toward 
Monte Cristi and Dajabon. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 171 

In Haiti Descourtilz says that he took specimens and describes the 
bird as the Courlis de terre or Courre-vite, but does not say certainly 
that he secured them within the limits of the Haitian Republic. 
Abbott heard that the species occurred on the Plaine du Nord west 
of Ouanaminthe, and that it was also found at Mole St. Nicolas. 
Beebe writes that John Tee- Van saw two on the shore of the Etang 
Saumatre March 15, 1927, and in a letter written to Wetmore says 
further that there can be no question of the identification as the 
birds were seen under the most favorable circumstances by one long 
familiar with the thick-knee in captivity. Tippenhauer reports that 
this bird was brought often from the Dominican Republic and kept 
in captivity. According to Danforth one was seen near Gonaives 
July 14, 1926, by R. S. Mathews. His record for Kenscoff seems 
uncertain. Bond heard of the occurrence of this species on the 
Northern and Central Plains. He was assured by natives that a 
strange cackling call heard before daybreak near Acul-Samedi south 
of Fort Liberte was this bird. He saw none during the course of 
his work. Poole and Perrygo were told at Hinche of the Coq savanne 
but were not able to find it and from the descriptions given them 
were not certain of its identity. J. E. Boog-Scott says, however, 
that he has found the bird in the vicinity of Hinche. It is possible 
that part of the reports for Haiti, including that of Beebe, pertain 
to introduction through escape from captivity. The definite range 
of the species in both republics should be ascertained as accurately 
as possible before the thick-knee is crowded out of existence by 
increase in agriculture. 

The bucaro is a bird that inhabits open plains and prairies and 
is found in pairs or family groups. It is terrestrial and seldom 
flies, and in fact is so quiet that it seems almost stolid. It runs 
quickly at need but after a short distance stops and remains without 
movement for long periods so that it is difficult to detect. Wetmore 
traveled long distances through its haunts without seeing one at 
freedom. 

The bucaro is kept by many people in patios and corrals for its 
services in eating roaches and vermin of all kinds, and it is thus in 
considerable demand. Wetmore was told that both adults and young 
were sold in the markets at from fifteen to thirty cents each. Adults 
had one wing clipped when first captured and, though never tame in 
the sense that they permitted themselves to be handled, became fear, 
less and remained after they had regained the power of flight at the 
next molt. They are usually kept in pairs and are said at times to 
breed in the state of loose captivity in which they were held. Their 
call is a loud repetition of a single note given so rapidly that it 
becomes a rattle, rising in volume and then dying away, a sound that 



172 BULLETIN" 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

comes frequently from behind the fences or walls surrounding the 
better homes in small towns. Popular superstition relates that the 
bucaro calls at the change of each hour so that the birds are reputed 
to be time keepers. They are among the most interesting of the 
island's species. Two of these birds were exhibited in the Zoological 
Gardens in Cincinnati, Ohio, as early as 1884. 

The bucaro in body is as large as a small crow with long legs and 
very short toes (which are three in number), and fairly long neck, 
which is usually disguised as the bird habitually stands with the 
head drawn in on the shoulders. Above it is dusky streaked with 
buff, with a black mark above the eye and a light mark through it. 
The breast and foreneck are grayish white with dusky streaks, and 
the rest of the underparts are dirty white. Abbott describes the 
large, expressive eye as yellow, and the tarsi as greenish slate. 

Suborder Lari 

Family LARIDAE 
Subfamily Larinae 

LARUS ARGENTATUS SMITHSONIANUS Coues 

HERRING GULL 

Larus Smithsonianus Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1862, p. 296 
(East and West Coasts of North America). 

Accidental. 

The only record for this species is that of a water color sketch of 
an adult herring gull in a bound book of drawings made by M. de 
Rabie in Haiti in the latter part of the eighteenth century, this 
volume having been examined through the courtesy of Messrs. 
Wheldon and Wesley. Drawing no. 37, marked " La Mauve " depicts 
an adult herring gull in lifelike attitude, according to the inscrip- 
tion on the back of the plate in the handwriting of the artist, " au 2/3 
de grandeur naturelle " made " au Cap le 7 juillet 1775." The 
locality au Cap refers to Cap-Hai'tien. 

The herring gull is a species of North America that comes south 
casually to Cuba but is very rare south of Florida. The sketch is 
identified as the American form on the basis of probability. 

The herring gull with a wing from 401 to 419 mm. long is so 
much larger that the laughing gull, the only other species found in 
Hispaniola, that it may be told with ease. The adult has the head 
and underparts pure white, and the back and upper surface of the 
wings gray. The ends of the primaries are black tipped with white. 
Young birds are grayish brown mottled with whitish, becoming 
lighter with age until they assume adult plumage. 



THE BIEDS OP HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 173 
LARUS ATRICILLA Linnaeus 
LAUGHING GULL, GAVIOTA, PIGEON DE LA MEB, 

Larus atricilla Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1, 175S, p. 136 (Bahama 
Islands) . 

Gavia ridibunda Brisson, Ornith., vol. 6, 1760, pp. 192-195, pi. 18, fig. 1 
(" S. Domingue"). 

Larus atricilla, Cory, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, March, 1885, pp. 177-178 
(listed) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 82 (Haiti, Dominican Republic).— 
Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 323 (listed). — Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 497 (Port-au-Prince, and interior saline 
lakes). 

Chroicocephalus atricilla, Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 138 ; Be- 
neath Tropic Seas, 1928, p. 217 (Haiti). 

Larus atricilla atricilla, Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 364 (coast). 

Fairly common; of regular occurrence but not as yet recorded 
breeding. 

In the Dominican Republic Abbott collected two laughing gulls 
at Catalinita Island September 11, 1919, that are adults in winter 
dress as shown by the white tail and gray alula only faintly marked 
with dusky. One is still molting about the head. He found the 
species at Saona Island September 12 to 18, and from October 1 to 
6 of the same year reported it common at the eastern end of Lake 
Enriquillo. Wetmore recorded two in the little bay at the mouth of 
the Rio Ozama at Santo Domingo City, May 3, 1927, and in a cafe 
at Sanchez saw a crudely mounted specimen suspended by a wire 
from the ceiling that was said to have been killed at Matanzas. The 
latter was a young individual with spots still persisting on the wing 
coverts. Danforth saw one in the harbor of Santo Domingo City 
June 14, and two at San Pedro de Macoris July 4, 1927. Brisson 
in 1760 describes the laughing gull from a specimen secured by 
Chervain for de Reaumur, presumably in Haiti. Abbott shot two 
males and one female, all in full nuptial plumage, at Fond Parisien 
on the fitang Saumatre May 5, 1920. Beebe reports one seen in 1927, 
apparently near Port-au-Prince. Bond saw one at Port-au-Prince 
in July, 1928, and found them on the saline lakes of the Cul-de-Sac 
Plain. Danforth observed a few in Port-au-Prince harbor July 27, 
six at Les Salines July 30, and recorded many off Mole St. Nicolas 
July 27, 1927 on the authority of F. P. Mathews. Cory recorded a 
few individuals but does not state whether they were seen at the 
eastern or western end of the island. 

The laughing gull is found along coasts, and from Abbott's 
records on the fitang Saumatre and Lake Enriquillo comes also to 
the saline lakes of the Cul-de-Sac region. No breeding colonies are 
2134—31 12 



174 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

at present known. The two adult males taken have the wing 296 
and 300 mm. respectively, and the female has the wing 299 mm. 
Measurements of birds examined from the Antilles indicate vaguely 
two groups of individuals, one with the wing ranging from 293 to 
305 mm. and the other from 312 to 331 mm. There is however no 
definite break between the two so that there is no clear support of 
the contention that there is a North American continental race dis- 
tinguished by larger size, particularly since some of the large birds 
from the West Indies and Bahamas are taken at dates when migrants 
should have retreated north to their nesting grounds. The matter 
is discussed by Dwight 60 and Wetmore 61 who agree that the present 
evidence does not substantiate claim for two forms. The question 
can be settled only with adequate series of breeding birds from the 
Bahamas and West Indies. 

In breeding dress the laughing gull has the entire head except 
for the white ej^elids dark sooty gray, the back gray, the ends of the 
wings black and the rest of the plumage white. In winter dress 
the head is more or less mottled with white, the white being ex- 
tensive in birds of the year. It can be confused only with the royal 
tern from which it differs always in smaller bill which is dull reddish 
in life, and the extensive black in the wing. 

Subfamily Sterninae 

GELOCHELIDON NILOTICA ARANEA (Wilson) 

GUIL-BILIED TERN 

Sterna aranea Wilson, Amer. Ornith., vol. 8, 1814, p. 143, pi. 72, fig. 6 (Cape 
May, New Jersey). 

Oelochelidon nilotica aranea, Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 365 (recorded). 

Migrant ; status uncertain. 

The only records for the gull-billed tern are those of a pair taken 
by Abbott near Fond Parisien on the Etang Saumatre May 5, 1920, 
and of birds recorded by Danforth, who found four at Etang Mira- 
goane July 22, twenty-five at Les Salines July 30, five at Monte 
Cristi August 5 (where one was taken), and four at Stroites, Gonave 
Island July 17, 1927 (reported by Emlen). The species is known to 
breed on Cuba and some of the Bahama Islands. The birds noted 
on Hispaniola may have been in migration to some other point of 
there may be a breeding colony about the salt lakes in the Cul-de-Sac 
region. 

60 Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 52, Dec. 31, 1925, pp. 266-267. 

61 New York Acad. Sci., Scient. Surv. Porto Rico and Virgin Islands, vol. 9, 1927, pp, 
378-379. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN" REPUBLIC 175 

The gull-billed tern is pure white below and pale gray above with 
black crown. It is distinguished from other medium-sized terns by 
the heavy bill which is black in color. In winter dress the crown is 
white, the auricular region gray, and a space in front of the eye 
blackish. The wing is 290 to 300 mm. long. 

STERNA HIRUNDO HIRUNDO Linnaeus 

COMMON TERN, GAVIOTA 

Sterna hirundo Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1, 1758, p. 137 (Sweden). 
Sterna hirundo hirundo, Danforth, Auk, 1922, p. 365 (Saona Island). 

A number of records ; status not certain, but apparently regular in 
migration. 

W. L. Abbott secured two specimens, an adult in full summer 
plumage, and a young male in juvenal dress, apparently only recent- 
ly on the wing, at Saona Island, September 14, 1919. Danforth 
reports that they were common off Saona June 14, and Emlen noted 
about fifty there July 1, 1927. Hartert writes that there are three 
skins taken by Kaempfer in the Tring Museum, an immature male 
from the mouth of the Yuna shot December 28, 1922, and two other 
males marked Samana Bay, an immature on October 2, and an adult 
on October 28, 1922. 

The hurricanes of the late summer of 1928 apparently brought 
havoc to the ranks of this tern since following the storms a number 
of dead birds were reported, all of particular interest since they were 
birds banded before they were able to fly in breeding colonies on the 
coast of Massachusetts. For information regarding them we are in- 
debted to Frederick C. Lincoln of the Biological Survey. A bird 
banded by Charles B. Floyd on July 10, 1928 at Tern Island, Chat- 
ham, Mass. (No. 678,732,) was reported through the Department of 
State as captured at Haina, D. R., on September 15, 1928. One 
banded July 7, 1928, at Penikese Island, Mass., by F. C. Lincoln 
(No. 709,083) was reported by A. D. MacGillivray September 14, 
1928 as blown in by the hurricane at San Pedro de Macoris. An- 
other banded at the same point by Mr. Lincoln on July 8 (No. 
710,318) was reported by the Department of State September 14, as 
captured at Boca Chica, one of the mouths of the Yuna, opposite 
Sanchez. Another marked at Chatham, Mass., by Mr. Floyd July 3 
(No. 675,752) was reported found at Altamira, Puerto Plata, D. R., 
by Ramon German under date of October 23. The final record, a 
bird marked at Chatham, Mass., by Mr. Floyd on July 9, 1928, that 
was found dead near Cap-Ha'itien, Haiti, September 27, 1928, by 
Maj. John R. Henley is of particular interest since it is at present the 
only record of this species from Haiti. 



176 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

The common tern is recorded throughout the summer in western 
Porto Rico, particularly near Cabo Rojo lighthouse on the south- 
western point of the island. 62 As Saona Island is not far distant 
birds seen there may have come from Porto Rico, or there may be 
colonies that nest along the little known eastern coast of Hispaniola. 
The records may, however refer entirely to northern migrants which 
apparently pass regularly through this area, as such is indicated by 
the banded birds from Massachusetts that have been reported. The 
fact that specimens taken come during the months of fall is some 
indication that they refer to migrant birds. 

The common tern is from 315 to 320 mm. in length, gray above 
with black crown, and white below. The tail is white with the outer 
webs of the outer feathers dusky. Larger size and the dark markings 
in the tail distinguish it from the roseate tern. 

STERNA DOUGALLII DOUGALLII Montagu 

ROSEATE TEEN 

Sterna dougallii Montagu, Suppl. Orn. Diet., 1813, text and plate (not num- 
bered) (Cambrae Islands, Firtb of Clyde). 

Sterna dougallii Tippenhauek, Die Insel aiti, 1892, p. 323 (listed). 

Breeding on the eastern coast of the Dominican Republic. 

Abbott shot a male roseate tern on Saona Island, September 13, 
1919. Wetmore collected three breeding females on the Cayos de los 
Pajaros or Pelican Keys at the entrance of San Lorenzo Bay, on May 
11, 1927. Two of these were preserved as skins and one as a skeleton. 
On the date given about twenty pairs were nesting on the smallest 
of the three islets composing the group, where as nearly as could be 
told from the summit of an adjacent island they were occupying an 
open platform of rock thirty or forty feet square where there was no 
vegetation. This was the highest point of the islet and was elevated 
about forty feet above the water. The birds remained close about 
their breeding place and seemed to pass out to the east toward the 
open sea to feed. When disturbed they circled overhead with sharp 
cries. 

Tippenhauer included the roseate tern in his list without comment 
as to his basis. There is at present no certain record for Haiti. 

The roseate tern is colored in general like the common tern but is 
smaller and has the long, forked tail pure white. In breeding dress 
the feathers of the undersurface are suffused with a blush of pink 
from which the species derives its name. 

62 Struthers, Auk, 1923, p. 474. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 177 
STERNA ANAETHETA MELANOPTERA Swainson 
BRIDLED TERN 

Sterna melanoptera Swainson, Birds W. Africa, vol. 2, 1837, p. 249 (West 
Africa ) . 

Sterna anosthaeta, Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1S92, p. 323 (listed). 

Sterna anaetheta melanoptera, Lonnberg, Fauna cell Flora, 1929, p. 100 
(Navassa, specimen). — Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 6S, 1929, p. 314 
(Seven Brothers group, specimens). 

Melanosterna anaetheta recognita, Ekman, Ark. for Bot., vol. 22 A, No. 16, 
p. 6, 1929 (Navassa, breeding). 

Sterna anaetheta recognita, Ekman, Est. Agr. Moca, Ser. B., Bot., No. 17, 
January, 1930, pp. 11, 12, 13 (Monte Grande, Tercero, Ratas, breeding). 

Tippenhauer includes the bridled tern in his list without stating 
reason for his action. Lonnberg records one from Navassa Island 
taken by E. L. Ekman, which he writes us was collected in October, 
1928. Wetmore and Bond were told that at certain times of the 
year eggs of seabirds were found in abundance on the little islands 
of the Seven Brothers group off Monte Cristi toward Cap-Ha'itien 
which suggested that there was a tern colony in that group. In 
February, 1929, Poole and Perrygo visited the islands in question 
to determine if possible what birds nested there but found that they 
were too earty in the season as the bird colonies were deserted. 
On Tercero Island they secured quantities of skulls and other bones 
which on identification in Washington prove to be those of the bridled 
tern. The season of nesting from available information seems to come 
from May to July. Ciferri obtained two specimens of this tern in 
the Seven Brothers group in July, 1929, where they are reported by 
Ekman from Monte Grande, Tercero, and Ratas. 

This species breeds in the colonies of seabirds that frequent Mona 
and Desecheo Islands and as it is seen occasionally along the western 
coast of Porto Rico should come also to the adjacent shores of the 
Dominican Republic. 

The bridled tern is easily distinguished among other terns by its 
sooty black wings and crown, slaty back, and white forehead, the 
line of white extending back on either side above the eye, and white 
underparts. 

STERNA FUSCATA FUSCATA Linnaeus 
SOOTY TERN 

Sterna fuscata Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1, 1758, p. 228 (Santo 
Domingo =Hispaniola) . 

Sterna fuscu Brisson, Ornith., vol. 6, 1760, pp. 220-222, pi. 21, fig. 1. 
(" S. Domingue.") 

Sterna fuliginosa, Ritteb, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, p. 157 
(specimen). — Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 1867, p. 98 



178 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

(Haiti).— Cory, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, March, 1885, pp. 181-182 
(recorded) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 83 (Haiti, Dominican Republic). — 
Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, pp. 318, 323 (listed). 

Sterna fuscata, Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 
497 (questionably identified, Gonave Channel). — Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 365 
(Puerto Plata, Saona Island, Mole St. Nicolas). 

Recorded ; status not certain, but a breeding species. 

The scientific name of the sooty tern is based on Brisson's de- 
scription of a bird in juvenal dress sent by Chervain from " S. 
Domingue " to de Reaumur. From the figure and description the 
specimen was very young and can not have been long on the wing, 
indication that it came from a breeding colony somewhere along the 
coast of Hispaniola. Ritter lists a specimen of this species in his 
collection made in 1820-1821. Cory writes that this bird is found 
without giving definite localities. Danforth reports that the sooty 
tern was seen by Emlen at Puerto Plata June 30, and off the eastern 
coast of Santo Domingo July 1, and by Mathews off Saona Island 
June 14, and off Mole St. Nicolas July 27, 1927. The species is 
known to breed in the Bahama Islands and on the island of Mona 
east of the Dominican Republic. It is found only along the sea. 

The sooty tern is black above and white below, differing from the 
bridled tern in darker back and in restriction of white on the fore- 
head which does not extend back over the eye. 

STERNA ALBIFRONS ANTILLARUM (Lesson) 
LEAST TERN, PIGEON DE MEE, 

Sternula antillarum Lesson, Compl. Oeuvres Buffon, vol. 20, 1847, p. 256 
(Guadeloupe Island, West Indies). 

Sterna antillarum, Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 1867, 
p. 98 (Haiti).— Cory, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, March, 1885, pp. 179-180 
(listed) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 83 (Haiti, Dominican Republic).— 
TrppENHAUER, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, pp. 31S, 323 (listed). 

Sterna albifrons antillarum, Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 
80, 1928, p. 497 (Fort Liberie, Etang Saumatre, Lake Enriquillo, Gonave 
Island). — Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 365 (Monte Cristi, Les Salines, Saona 
Island). 

A breeding species; probably resident. 

There are few definite records for the least tern in the Dominican 
Republic. Abbott recorded it at Saona Island from September 12 
to 18, 1919, and earlier took one, now in the Academj^ of Natural 
Sciences, at La Cafiita (Sanchez) July 13, 1883. Bond found it on 
Lake Enriquillo. 

In Haiti Bryant in 1863 includes it in his list without comment. 
Cory in his Birds of Haiti and San Domingo says of it " common 
in summer and probably breeds " but gives no localities for either 
republic. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 179 

Abbott collected a pair, May 12, 1917, at the mouth of Trois 
Rivieres in northwestern Haiti, and an adult male on the fitang 
Saumatre near Fond Parisien, on May 5, 1920. At Jean Rabel An- 
chorage, on May 30, 1917, he secured a set of two eggs from a pebbly 
sea beach just above high water mark. The parent was seen on the 
nest. These eggs have the ground color light cartridge buff, with 
the surface dull, not shining. They are spotted rather heavily with 
Hays brown, natal brown and slate gray, the spots being most nu- 
merous about the larger end. They measure 30.8 by 23.6, and 31.0 
by 23.5 mm. Danforth says that F. P. Mathews found a small 
breeding colony on the beach at the mouth of the Rio Yaque del 
Norte June 25, 1927, and that least terns were found at Les Salines 
July 30 and off Saona Island August 10. Bond records them from 
Fort Liberte, fitang Saumatre, and on Gonave Island. He did not 
observe them until April, after which they were common. Abbott 
describes the bill in an adult female in life as yellow, tipped with 
black, and the feet as yellow with black claws. 

The least tern frequents sea beaches, but also goes inland in suit- 
able localities, so that it should occur regularly about the lakes of 
the Cul-de-Sac region. 

This species is easily distinguished as the smallest of the terns. 
The back is light gray, the crown black, the forehead and under 
parts pure white. It ranges from 230 to 245 mm. in length. 

THALASSEUS MAXIMUS MAXIMUS (Boddaert) 
ROYAL TERN, GAVIOTA, PIGEON DE MER 

Sterna maxima Boddaert, Table Planch. BnL, 1783, p. 58 (Cayenne). 

Sterna regia, Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 1867, p. 98 
(Haiti). 

Sterna maxima, Cory, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, March, 1885, pp. 178-179 
(listed) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 82 (Haiti, Dominican Republic).— 
Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, pp. 318, 323 ( listed ) .— Verrill, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 355 (Dominican Republic). — Peters, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, p. 403 (Puerto Plata, Sosua). — Lonnberg, 
Fauna och Flora, 1929, p. 100 (Gonave, specimen). 

Thalasseus maximus, Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 138 ; Beneath 
Tropic Seas, 1928, p. 497, (Bizoton).— Ekman, Est. Agr. Moca, Ser. B, Bot., 
No. 17, January, 1930, p. 13 (Ratas Island). 

Thalasseus maximus maximus, Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 
80, 1928, p. 497 (Gonave and St. Marc Channels, Fort Liberte, Etang Saumatre, 
Lake Enriquillo). — Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 365 (recorded). 

Of regular occurrence ; fairly common ; probably breeds. 

In the Dominican Republic the royal tern was reported as common 
by Verrill, who collected two at Sanchez, on March 1, 1907, which 
are now in the collection of J. H. Fleming. Abbott found them at 



180 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Saona Island September 12 to 19, 1919, and collected a female at 
Sanchez February 6, 1919. Wetmore found them common at the 
head of Samana Bay from May 6 to 11, 1927, and at times noted 
several fishing in company. He collected a male near the mouth of 
the Arroyo Barrancota, May 8, 1927. Peters reported them at 
Puerto Plata February 25, 1916, and occasionally at Sosiia until 
April 11. Wetmore recorded one in the harbor at Puerto Plata 
June 3, 1927. Danforth observed the royal tern in Santo Domingo 
City harbor June 14 and August 9, at San Pedro de Macoris July 
4, at Monte Cristi June 24 and August 5, and at Puerto Plata July 
1, 1927. Bond found this species on Lake Enriquillo. Ekman in 
July, 1929, found a flock resting on Ratas Island in the Seven 
Brothers group. 

The royal tern is first recorded for Haiti by Bryant in 1863. In 
1917 Bartsch found it at Petit Goave and Miragoane April 9, near 
Jeremie April 11, and at Trou des Roseaux April 13. Wetmore saw 
it at Aquin April 3, and at Caracol April 27, and Abbott collected 
a male at the mouth of Trois Rivieres May 12, 1917. Beebe reported 
one occasionally about his schooner at Bizoton in the early part 
of 1927. According to Danforth Emlen saw it on Gonave Island 
July 17, 1927. Bond saw it in the Gonave and St. Marc Channels, 
at Fort Liberte, and on the Etang Saumatre. Poole and Perrygo 
collected five, all males, at Fort Liberte on February 10, 1929. 
Lonnberg records one taken by Ekman on Gonave Island. 

The royal tern is found mainly along the seashore, searching for 
fish which it secures by diving in the shallows of bays and harbors, or 
resting, facing the wind, on some pile or stake standing in the water. 
It is the largest of the terns of this region being from 475 to 505 mm. 
in length so that it can be confused only with the laughing gull from 
which it differs in longer, straighter bill, and in lack of prominent 
black on the ends of the wings. The upper surface is light gray, 
with the crown black, and the underparts white. In winter dress 
the anterior part of the crown is white. The feathers of the nape 
are extended to form a short crest. The eye is dark brown, the bill 
light orange or orange yellow, and the feet and tarsus black (colors 
noted by Abbott from freshly killed specimen). 

THALASSEUS SANDVICENSIS ACUFLAVIDUS (Cabot) 
CABOT'S TERN, GAVIOTA 

Sterna acuftavida Cabot, Proe. Boston Soe. Nat. Hist., vol. 2, 1847, p. 257 
(Tancah, Yucatan). 

Sterna cantiaca, Tippenhatter, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 323 (listed). 

Thalasseus sandvicensis acuflavidus, Danfokth, Auk, 1929, p. 365 (Monte 
Cristi, Samana Bay). 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 181 

Recorded ; status not certain. 

Abbott secured a male in post-breeding dress at Sanchez June 1, 
1919. Hartert informs us that Kaempfer collected an adult male 
for the Tring Museum at the same point on September 23, 1922. 
Danforth writes that he saw five at Monte Cristi July 5, 1927, and 
that R. S. Mathews saw six off Samana Bay, July 11, 1925. 

The bird is included by Tippenhauer in his list for Haiti without 
definite comment. 

Cabot's tern is of medium size among the terns of this region, and 
in color is a miniature of the royal tern. The bill is relatively 
longer and is black with the extreme tip yellow. 

[HYDROPROGNE CASPIA IMPERATOR (Coues) 

CASPIAN TERN 

Thalasseus imperator Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 14, Feb- 
ruary, 1863, p. 538 (Fort Resolution, Great Slave Lake, Mackenzie). 
Eydroprogne caspia, Danfokth, Auk, 1929, p. 365 (Les Salines). 

Danforth writes " three noted at Les Salines on July 30 1927." 
As specimens were not taken, and as this tern is not known to go 
regularly to the West Indies this report is here placed in the hypo- 
thetical list pending further information.] 

CHLIDONIAS NIGRA SURINAMENSIS (Gmelin) 

BLACK TERN 

Sterna surinamensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., vol. 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 604 (Surinam). 
Eydroclielidon lariformis, Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 393 (listed). 

Migrant; apparently rare. 

Tippenhauer has reported this species without giving definite 
record. The only specimens known to us are two taken by W. L. 
Abbott on Saona Island, Dominican Republic, September 13, 1919. 

The black tern is found usually over freshwater ponds, marshes, 
and lagoons, where it flies easily back and forth low over the water. 
Its flight is light and graceful so that a flock of the birds on the wing 
is a most pleasing picture. 

The black tern is a little larger than the least tern, being from 
230 to 245 mm. in length. The adult in breeding dress has the head 
and undersurface entirely black, and is dark gray above. Immature 
birds and adults in post-breeding plumage are white below, with the 
forehead and a ring around the neck whitish, and the crown dusky. 
Birds seen in spring show transition between white and black on the 
under surface. The bill and feet are black. 



182 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

ANOUS STOLIDUS STOLIDUS (Linnaeus) 
NODDY TERN 

Sterna stolida Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1, 1758, p. 137 (West In- 
dies). — Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 1S67, p. 97 (Haiti). 

Anous stolidus, Coky, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, March, 1885, pp. 182-183 
(common) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 83 (Haiti, Dominican Republic). — 
Tippenhauek, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 323 (listed). 

Anous s. stolidus, Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 138; Beneath Tropic 
Seas, 1928, p. 218 (Bizoton). 

Anous stolidus stolidus, Ekman, Est. Agr. Moca, Ser. B., Bot, No. 17, January, 
1930, pp. 12, 13 (Tercero, Ratas, breeding). — Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. 
Nat., vol. 68, 1929, p. 314 (Seven Brothers Group, specimen). 

Probably of regular occurrence along the coast; abundance un- 
certain. 

Bryant reported the noddy as abundant off the coast, while Cory 
says that it is common in summer. The only recent record is that 
of Beebe who says "an unmistakable Noddy flew swiftly past the 
schooner early one morning after a very severe storm which had 
lasted most of the night." This was at Bizoton near Port-au-Prince. 
Ekman writes that the noddy nests abundantly on Tercero and 
Ratas Islands in the Seven Brothers Islands where the native fisher- 
men call it " bubi." Ciferri obtained one here in July, 1929. 

The noddy is known to nest on Mona and Desecheo Islands 
and in some of the Bahama Islands so that it should range regularly 
to the coasts of Hispaniola. Possibly colonies may be found on some 
of the coastal islands. It is found at sea or about the islands on 
which it nests, and elsewhere does not come near shore except by 
accident. 

The noddy tern is of medium size in its group, and is easily told by 
its sooty brown color with a wash of grayish white on the crown. 

Order COLUMBIFORMES 
Suborder Columbae 

Family COLUMBIDAE 63 

COLUMBA LEUCOCEPHALA Linnaeus 

WHITE-CROWNED PIGEON, PALOMA CABEZA BIANCA, PALOMA AQUITA, 
RAMIER, PIGEON A COTJRONNE BLANCHE, RAMIER TETE BLANCHE 

Columba leucocephala Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1, 1758, p. 164 
(Bahama Islands). — Bitter, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, p. 156 
(specimen). — Saixe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, p. 235 (Dominican Repub- 

63 Cory, in the Auk, 1887, p. 120, remarks of the ring-dove Streptopelia risoria (Lin- 
naeus) that he had a specimen in his collection marked " San Domingo." Since this 
species is known only in captivity it does not have definite status in the list of birds 
from Hispaniola. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 183 

lie). — Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 1867, p. 96 (Domini- 
can Republic).— Cory, Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, 1881, p. 154 (Haiti); Birds 
Haiti and San Domingo, Dec, 1884, pp. 134-135 (Puerto Plata, specimens) ; 
Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 96 (Haiti, Dominican Republic). — Tristram, 
Ibis, 1884, p. 168 (Dominican Republic). — Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, 
pp. 320, 322 (listed). — Cherrie, Field Columbian Mus., Ornith. ser., vol. 1, 1896, 
p. 23 (sold in markets). — Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 
357 (Dominican Republic). — Kaempfer, Journ. fur Ornith., 1924, p. 183 (San- 
chez ) .—Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 498 (Jacmel, 
Ennery, Caracol ; Gonave and Tortue Islands). — Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 365 
(recorded). — Lonnberg, Fauna och Flora, 1929, p. 101 (Haiti, specimen). — 
Ekman, Ark. for Bot., vol. 22A, No. 16, 1929, pp. 5, 7 (Navassa). 

Pigeon a couronne blanche, Descourtilz, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1S09, pp. 1S6-18S 
(Haiti). 

Patagioenas leucocephala, Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, 
p. 408 (San Juan, Margante). 

Resident; common. 

In the Dominican Republic Salle, in 1857, wrote that the white- 
crowned pigeon was abundant and sold at such a low price as to be a 
veritable manna to the inhabitants. Pigeons were killed when in 
flight between their feeding and resting grounds, or by means of an 
artificial decoy placed in the top of a tree which attracted passing 
birds so that they alighted, offering easy shots to the hunter beneath. 
He found them nesting about March, and ranging in bands from 
April to October. Cherrie, in May, 1895, saw immense numbers of- 
fered for sale in the markets of Santo Domingo City. Verrill, in 
1907, found them in great flocks from May to September. They were 
hunted extensively and sold for ten cents to twenty-five cents a pair. 
Abbott collected a male at San Lorenzo on Samana Bay, July 31, 
1916, and on August 6, 1916 secured a male in juvenal plumage at 
Laguna, on Samana Peninsula. This bird is duller gray than adults 
and lacks the handsome markings of the hindneck, which is plain 
sooty brown. The crown is the same color with a slight indication 
of white on the forehead. The wing coverts and breast feathers are 
tipped narrowly with cinnamon-buff. Kaempfer reported them 
breeding near Sanchez in May. 

From May 7 to 13, 1927, Wetmore found the white-crowned pigeon 
in abundance around Samana Bay, including the hills back of San 
Lorenzo Bay. Many were seen between Sanchez and Pimentel May 
16. The thousands that frequented the swamps bordering the lower 
courses of the Rio Yuna and the Arroyo Barrancota were the great 
feature of the bird life of this section. Flocks and single birds 
passed above the tree tops with direct, sweeping flight, and others 
rested scattered through the tops of the mangroves. Their white 
crowns and dark plumage made a pleasing contrast when they were 
at rest or on the wing. The birds were not greatly molested, though 
occasionally a few were shot for the table, so that they were quite 



184 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

tame. In Sanchez during the day white-crowned pigeons passed 
along the hills back of the village, flying between the swampy wood- 
lands at the head of Samana Bay and the forested slopes to the 
eastward. Occasionally single birds were seen but usually they 
passed in flocks containing four or five to a dozen individuals. At 
a distance they appeared black but sometimes the sun rays caught 
the white crown cap so that it glistened like silver. The birds flew 
with strong, vigorous flight. In the wet forests at an altitude of 
1,500 feet their guttural cooing came from all sides, and in traversing 
the trails birds flushed continually with loudly clapping wings. 

Struthers in an account of the birds of Mona Island lying midway 
between the Dominican Republic and Porto Rico ei remarks " at 
sunrise and sunset flocks numbering as high as five hundred indi- 
viduals were seen approaching Mona from the direction of Santo 
Domingo. Many of these birds were collected and several had the 
seed of the royal palm in their crops. As this palm was not found 
on Mona these birds must have migrated recently." Mona is distant 
about 35 miles from the nearest point of the Dominican Republic. 

Cory found the white-headed pigeon in large numbers and said 
that they nested in May. He secured specimens at Puerto Plata De- 
cember 21 and 29, 1882, and January 3, 1883. Peters found a few at 
San Juan and Margante March 12 and 13, 1916, and was told by 
natives in this section that large flocks appeared in August. Dan- 
forth found many at Seibo early in July, and flocks between Dajabon 
and Monte Cristi in June and August, 1927. 

In Haiti Bartsch found this species in 1917 near Jeremie April 12 
and 15, Trou des Roseaux April 14, between Port-au-Prince and St. 
Marc April 21 and 22, and in the Cul-de-Sac region April 24. Ab- 
bott reported them as breeding in numbers on Grande Cayemite 
Island in January, 1918. On Gonave Island he secured males on 
February 22 and 27, 1918, and March 5 and 9, 1920, and was told 
that numbers came there at the proper season to breed. Near Bom- 
bardopolis, at an altitude of 1,500 feet, they seem to have been com- 
mon as he secured eight specimens, including both sexes, March 22, 
23, 25 and 26, 1917. Four more males were collected on Tortue 
Island April 6, 7 and 8, 1917. The birds breed here in numbers in 
the mangroves, and on May 17, 1917, Abbott collected twenty sets 
of one egg each. These are glossy white in color and elliptical in 
form, slightly pointed at the smaller end. There is some variation 
in shape, and considerable variation in size as the following measure- 
ments will indicate : 32.8 by 26.2, 33.4 by 25.7, 34.6 by 26.1, 35.0 by 
25.9, 35.1 by 27.2, 35.6 by 26.2, 36.5 by 25.5, 36.6 by 25.6, 36.7 by 25.5 
37.0 by 26.1, 37.2 by 26.8, 37.2 by 27.0, 37.3 by 27.0, 37.4 by 26.8, 37.4 

«Auk, 1927, p. 543. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN" REPUBLIC 185 

by 28.4, 37.5 by 25.6, 37.6 by 27.5, 38.4 by 26.0, 40.0 by 27.0, and 40.0 
by 27.9. 

Wetmore observed one white-crowned pigeon at Poste Cliarbert 
on April 26, 1927. Danforth collected specimens on Gonave Island 
in 1927. Bond records them in 1928 from Jacmel, Ennery, and Cara- 
col, and says that they are common on Gonave and Tortue Islands. 
He secured a female June 24 (locality not given) that contained an 
egg nearly ready to be deposited. He records measurement of one 
egg as 37.9 by 27.3 mm. Poole and Perrygo in 1929 saw several 
at Anse a Galets, Gonave Island February 28, and recorded others 
at En Cafe in the interior from March 3 to 14. They collected one 
(at Massacrin) March 8 and three others March 12. 

E. H. Beck secured three on Navassa Island July 14, 1917. in- 
cluding a juvenile bird fully grown but still entirely in ju venal 
dress with no white on the crown, so that it seems that the species 
breeds on that island. It has been recorded there in October by E. 
L. Ekman. 

The soft parts in an adult male taken by Wetmore near Sanchez 
May 8, 1927 were colored as follows : iris light buff ; tip of bill dull 
greenish yellow, rest, as well as cere, dull red; tarsus and toes dull 
red ; claws light brown. 

This bird is dull gray with black edgings and greenish reflections 
on the feathers of the hindneck, a rich reddish brown patch on the 
nape and a white crown. Females have the light color of the crown 
obscured by a wash of slate. 

COLUMBA SQUAMOSA Bonnaterre 

SCALED PIGEON, PALOMA TURCA, PALOMA TORCAZA, PALOMA MORADA, 
RAMIER, RAMEREATJ, RAMIER COU ROUGE 

Columba squamosa Bonnaterre, Tabl. Enc. Meth., vol. 1, 1792, p. 234 (Gua- 
deloupe Island, West Indies). — Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 
80, 1928, p. 498 (La Hotte, La Selle, Chaine des Mateux, Massif du Nord, 
Montaignes Noires, Gonave Island). — Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 305 (recorded). 
— Lonnberg, Fuana och Flora, 1929, p. 101 (Haiti) . — Ekman, Ark. for Bot., 
vol. 22A, No. 16, 1929, pp. 5, 7 (Navassa). — Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. 
Nat., vol. 68, 1929, p. 314 (Bonao, specimens). 

Paloma Torcaca, Oviedo, Hist. Gen. Nat. Indias, Libr. 14, Cap. 2; Reprint, 
Madrid, 1851, p. 442 (common). 

Rainier (in part), Saint-Mery, Descrip. Part. Frang, lie Saint-Domingue, 
vol. 1, 1797, pp. 262, 717, vol. 2, 1798, pp. 79, 50G, 577, 621, 648, 809 (Dondon, 
Port-de-Paix, Port-a-Piment, above Jacmel, Cayes, Fonds-des-Negres, Aquin, 
Saint-Louis, Jereinie). — Descourtilz, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, pp. 182-186 
(common). 

Wood-pigeon (in part), Saint-Mery, Descrip. Span. Part Saint-Domingo, 
vol. 1, 1798, pp. 193, 214 (common). — Wimpffen, Voy. Saint Domingo, 1817, 
p. 188 (mentioned). 



186 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Columla portoricensis, Hartlatjb, Isis, 1847, p. 609 (listed from Hispaniola). — 
Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Pt. 4, Columbae, 1868, p. 6S (type from Haiti). 

Columba corensis, Salle, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, p. 235 (Dominican 
Republic). — Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 1867, p. 96 
(Dominican Republic). — Cory, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, Dec, 1884, 
pp. 136-137 (Magua, specimens) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 96 (Haiti, 
Dominican Republic). — Tippenhatter, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 322 (listed).— 
Cherrie, Field Columbian Mus., Ornith. ser., vol 1, 1896, p. 24 (Dominican 
Republic).— Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 357 (Domini- 
can Republic). — Kaempfer, Journ. fur Ornith., 1924, p. 183 (Sanchez). 

Resident ; abundant in many places in the interior. 

The scaled pigeon, which shares with the white-headed and plain 
pigeons the names paloma in the Dominican Republic and ramier 
in Haiti, is common through the wooded sections of the island be- 
ing especially numerous in the hills of the interior. Oviedo speaks 
of it in the early part of the sixteenth century, and it has been one of 
the favored game birds of the island to the present day. 

In the Dominican Republic Abbott collected a male above Paradis, 
February 1, 1922, and two pairs at Laguna, on the Samana Penin- 
sula August 7, 12 and 13, 1916, and March 6, 1919. He notes that 
birds secured here in March were in breeding condition. He secured 
another pair near Constanza April 13 and IT, 1919, the latter taken 
at an altitude of 1,800 meters on Loma Rio Grande. Kaempfer noted 
scaled pigeons near Sanchez, and Cory secured a pair at Magua 
January 27 and 29, 1883. Wetmore did not identify them in the 
coastal region but on May 17 and 18 and again on May 29 to 30, 
1927 recorded many in riding from Jarabacoa to Constanza by way 
of El Rio. At Constanza in the intervening period the birds were 
common. The birds were found in both deciduous and pine forests, 
and were observed continually flying with strong flight high above 
the mountain valleys as they crossed from slope to slope. Their calls, 
smooth and less guttural in tone than those of C. leucocephala, 
came frequently to the ear. The note may be written who who hoo- 
oo-hoo uttered slowly in a loud tone. The male in display scaled out 
with set wings, tilting from side to side and changing direction 
slightly every few feet so that while it transversed a circular or 
elliptical course the actual line of flight was very irregular. Dan- 
forth records one taken at Laguna del Salodillo, near Copey, June 
26, 1927, others seen at Seibo and La Vega, and ten, mainly young 
shot at Bonao in early August. Ciferri sent specimens to Moltoni 
from Bonao taken November 7, 18, and 20, 1927. 

In Haiti the birds are abundant in forested sections but not found 
elsewhere. Abbott found them in numbers near Moron, back of 
Jeremie, and collected three males December 18, 1917. At Moustique 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 187 

he recorded them as common and prepared twelve skins from March 
3 to 9, 1917. A female shot March 9 contained mature eggs. 

Wetmore in 1927 reported one from Sources Puantes March 30, 
and others at Fonds-des-Negres April 2 and 5. On the Massif de la 
Selle they were seen regularly from April 12 to 15. Here the ramier 
was especially common among the scattered fields of the Jardins 
Bois Pin where they perched in the tops of dead trees, often in little 
companies. At one time nine were observed resting in the early 
morning sun in two adjacent trees. The swift, direct flight always 
caught the eye as they crossed the sky. At rest they sat erect with 
tail straight down and head well up so that the neck appeared long. 
When approached in the open they usually took flight out of gun 
range but there was little difficulty in stalking them behind light 
cover for they were not too wary due to present prohibition against 
the general possession of firearms in Haiti. They were observed at 
Chapelle Faure on April 17. The skulls of several taken on this 
mountain range were preserved as specimens while the bodies made 
an excellent addition to a somewhat restricted camp menu. A male 
shot April 15 was approaching the breeding season. At Hinche 
Wetmore took one April 22 and on April 24 observed several near 
the Bassin Zime. The adult male taken April 22 showed the fol- 
lowing colors of the soft parts: iris orange red; margins of eyelids 
bright red ; bare skin about eye pale purplish red above and in front 
of eye, with scattered papillae colored honey yellow; distal half of 
bill dull grayish yellow; basal portion, including cere, deep red, 
tarsus and toes deep, dull red; claws dull grayish yellow. Abbott 
has recorded the eyes in specimens taken at Laguna in August as 
red in the male and orange red in the female, while in a female from 
Moustique taken in March he reports the iris as orange, eyelids red, 
and the orbital skin yellow. Danforth found squamated pigeons at 
the Citadelle de Christophe above Milot, at Fonds-des-Negres, and 
on Gonave Island in 1927. Bond found this pigeon widely distrib- 
uted through the mountainous regions recording it in Morne La 
Hotte, Massif de la Selle, Chaine des Mateux, Massif du Nord, and 
the Montaignes Noires. He found it rare on Gonave Island. A nest 
found on Morne Salnave back of Acul Samedi was placed about 
five metres above the ground. Poole and Perrygo collected one at 
L'Atalaye December 31, 1928, and one at St. Michel January 6, 1929. 
E. L. Ekman has reported this species from Navassa Island in 
October, 1928. 

Schlegel 65 says that the type of Goluniba portoricensis, a synonym 
of the present species, came from Haiti. 

65 Mus. Pays-Bas, vol. 4, 1873, Columbae, p. 68, 



188 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

This pigeon, almost as large as the domestic species, is dark bluish 
gray in general color, with the head, hindneck and upper breast dull 
purplish drab, the hindneck with a patch of rich purplish brown, 
and the duller feathers behind margined with the same color. The 
female is slightly dullef than the male. 

COLUMBA INORNATA INORNATA Vigors 
PLAIN PIGEON, PALOMA, EAMIER, MILLET, CENIZA, EAMIEK, CENIZA 

Columba, inornata Vigors, Zool. Journ., vol. 3, December, 1827, p. 466 (near 
Havana, Cuba). 

? Coritas, Oviedo, Hist. Gen. Nat. Indias, Libr. 14, Cap. 2; Reprint, Madrid, 
1851, p. 442 (common). 

Great Ash-colored Wood Pigeon, Saint-M£ry, Descrip. Span. Part Saint- 
Domiugo, vol. 1, 1798, p. 305 (common). 

Columbaf, Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 1867, p. 96 
(Dominican Republic). 

? Columba caribaea, Bitter, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, p. 156 
(listed).— Hartlaub, Isis, 1847, p. 609 (listed). 

Columba incorata, Tippenhatjer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 322 (listed). 

Columba inornata, Cory, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, Dec, 1884, p. 136 
(Magua) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 97 (Haiti, Dominican Republic). — 
Christy, Ibis, 1S97, p. 336 (head of Samana Bay). — Verriel, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 357 (listed). — Lonnberg, Fauna och Flora, 1929, p. 
101 (Haiti). 

Columba inornata inornata, Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 
1928, p. 498 (Northern Peninsula, Massif du Nord, Montaignes Noires, Bnnery, 
iStang Saumatre, Lake Enriquillo, Tortue Island). — Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 
365 (Artibonite). 

Resident ; locally common. 

The plain pigeon is less widely distributed than the two preceding 
species but is common in certain sections. It is less wary and more 
readily killed, which probably accounts for the lessening numbers 
recorded of the present form in Cuba and of the slightly differen- 
tiated subspecies described from the Isle of Pines, Jamaica, and 
Porto Rico. The wooded interior of Hispaniola today is the only 
area where representatives of the species as a whole are actually 
common. 

This is apparently the bird referred to by Oviedo as gorita, and is 
also the great ash-colored wood-pigeon of Moreau de Saint-Mery, 
which was said to be " extremely delicate " and to fly in clouds. 
There are two skins in the Academy of Natural Sciences taken by 
W. L. Abbott on Samana Bay, D. R., July 30, 1883. Cory collected a 
male at Magua in the Dominican Republic February 2, 1883. 
Christy describes it as abundant at the head of Samana Bay in 
June, July and August. He gives an account of its hunting but we 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 189 

believe has confused it in part with the white-headed pigeon which 
he does not mention in his list, and which is today the predominately 
abundant species of large pigeon in the area mentioned. Verrill 
records the plain pigeon as rarer than the squamated pigeon. Abbott 
secured specimens at San Lorenzo, on Samana Bay, July 28, 1916, 
and March 19, 1919, and one at Sanchez February 22, 1919. He 
thought that they were nesting in the mangroves at San Lorenzo in 
March but was not certain. R. H. Beck collected specimens at San- 
chez November 6 and 23, 1916, and a series on Loma Tina from 
January 8 to 24, 1917. 

Wetmore found a few at the mouth of the Arroyo Barrancota 
May 8, 1927, and one at the mouth of the Yuna May 10. Near 
Constanza from May 20 to 27 they were fairly common both among 
the pines and in the rain forest, though most in evidence in the pines 
because of the more open branches. The hooting of males at a dis- 
tance suggested the calls of owls but near at hand came to the ear 
as kr-r-r-r coo-ivhoo-hoo, coo-whoo-hoo the first note being a gut- 
tural growl, followed by slow, hooting calls. At times the guttural 
note was omitted. When calling they perched on dead limbs in 
the tops of tall trees where they had view over the surrounding- 
country. Males were truculent like most pigeons and were seen 
driving one another about. 

Bitter must have had the present species in mind when he listed 
Columha caribaea from Haiti. The species is also included from 
Haiti by Cory and Tippenhauer, but the only definite records ap- 
pear to be those of Wetmore who saw several along the road between 
Maissade and Hinche April 21, 1927, and found them common near 
Hinche April 22 to 24, preparing a pair as skins on April 22 and 
others as skulls and skeletons on that date and the day following. 
They were the most common of the large pigeons in this vicinity, 
frequenting the large trees along the streams and ravines, particu- 
larly along the Ravine Papaye. They rested in little groups of two 
to ten, sometimes in dead trees and sometimes on leafy branches, 
and true to their reputation in other islands were far less wary than 
other doves so that they were easily approached. They sat quietly 
arranging their plumage or resting, and when alarmed drew up 
very straight with the head fully erect, finally taking flight with a 
loud clapping of wings to dart rapidly away. The breeding season 
was at hand and on April 23 a nest was found in a mango tree 
standing in a little clearing near the Ravine Papaye. The struc- 
ture, placed twenty feet from the ground among branches where a 
denser growth of leaves than ordinary furnished shelter, was a plat- 
2134—31 13 



190 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

form of weed-stems and grasses, with a slight concavity arranged 
so loosely that the egg was visible from below. The adult was 
flushed from the nest so that identity was certain. The single egg 
was slightly incubated and like all pigeons' eggs of this group is 
white with a somewhat glossy surface. It measures 35.9 by 28.0 
mm. At Poste Charbert, near Caracol, the plain pigeon was com- 
mon April 26 and 27. 

Danforth saw five in low woods near the mouth of the Artibonite 
Kiver July 29, 1927. Bond says that this is the most common pigeon 
in northern Haiti, being one of the few common birds in the upland 
pine forests of this section. He records them from the Northern 
Peninsula, Massif du Nord, Ennery (specimen), Montaignes Noires, 
Etang Saumatre, Lake Enriquillo and on Tortue Island. He did 
not see them on Gonave. Poole and Perrygo secured two at L'Ata- 
laye January 8, 1929, reported them at Hinche March 17, and found 
them very plentiful at Cerca-la-Source, preparing two skins and two 
skeletons March 21 and on March 24 and 25 preserving a number 
of skulls. An adult female taken April 22, had the iris grayish 
white ; margins of eyelids dull rose, bare skin about eye purplish, 
washed with dull rose; bill dull black, cere dusky gray; tarsus and 
toes dull red ; claws dusky. 

Through the courtesy of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 
there has been available an extensive series of this form from Cuba 
for comparison with our equally extensive lot from Hispaniola. 
There is considerable individual variation in the depth and suffusion 
of the reddish color both above and below and also some individual 
difference in the depth of the gray colors. Allowing for this the 
birds from the two islands are so closely similar as to remain united 
in one form. The measurements as well as the colors are also prac- 
tically the same as the following will show : 

Ten males from Cuba, wing 205.0-229.0 (212.6), tail 123.3-146.8 
(134.2), culmen 17.4-20.8 (19.1), tarsus 27.1-30.8 (29.3) mm. 

Nine males from Hispaniola, wing 208.0-228.5 (219.4), tail 117.5- 
132.5 (125.0), culmen 17.8-21.4 (19.7), tarsus 29.3-31.6 (30.0) mm. 

Eight females from Cuba, wing 207.0-222.0 (212.0), tail 132.2- 
146.7 (139.7), culmen 17.7-20.0 (18.6), tarsus 28.0-31.0 (28.8) mm. 

Seven females from Hispaniola, wing 205.0-217.0 (211.5), tail, 
110.5-131.0 (120.1), culmen 17.6-20.7 (19.8), tarsus, 28.0-30.3 (29.2) 
mm. 

The plain pigeon, as large as the scaled pigeon and possibly 
heavier in body, is gray washed with vinaceous or purplish red over 
the forepart of the body, with the greater wing coverts edged lightly 
with white. Females are less brightly colored than males. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 191 
ZENAIDA ZENAIDA ZENAIDA (Bonaparte) 

ZENAIDA DOVE, TORTOLA, ROLON, TOURTE, GROSSE TOURTERELLE, 
TOURTERELLE ROUGE, GROS TOTIRTE 

Columba zenaida Bonaparte, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 5, 
June, 1825, p. 30 (Florida Keys). 

? Tourte, Grosse Tourterelle, Descoubtilz, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, pp. 188- 
189 (apparently Zenaida dove). 

Zenaida, Lonnbebg, Fauna och Flora, 1929, p. 101 (Haiti). 

Zenaida amabilte, Coby, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, Dec, 1884, pp. 128- 
129 (Puerto Plata, Magua).— Tippenhaueb, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 322 
(listed). 

Zenaida zenaida, Coby, Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 97 (Haiti, Domini- 
can Republic). — Chebbie, Field Columbian Mus., Ornith. ser., vol. 1, 1896, p. 24 
(Dominican Republic). — Verbiel, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 
357 (Dominican Republic). 

Zenaida zenaida zenaida, Petebs, Bull. Mus. Conip. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, pp. 
407-408 (La Chorrera, Arroyo Savanna). — Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., 
vol. 68, 1929, p. 315 (San Juan, specimens). 

Zenaida aurita zenaida, Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 
1928, p. 498 (Haiti, Gonave, Tortue).— Danfoeth, Auk, 1929, p. 366 (common). 

Resident; locally common. 

The Zenaida dove frequents open fields, pastures, and prairie lands 
bordered by trees and open growths of arid scrub, and does not 
occur in densely forested regions where there are no clearings. It 
is possible that with increase in cultivation in the last twenty-five 
years it has extended its range to a considerable degree, particularly 
in the Dominican Republic since Cherrie in 1895 reported it as com- 
mon in the coast districts but not found in the high interior, and 
Cory at an earlier date recorded specimens only from Puerto Plata 
and Magua. The latter found them nesting in May. 

Wetmore found the Zenaida dove common along the road between 
Azua and Comendador May 1, 1927, and recorded single birds at 
San Francisco de Macoris May 7, and Santiago May 31. Peters, 
who secured three specimens, found them common only on the Mar- 
tinez Savanna, southwest of Cabrera. His skins were procured at 
La Chorrera February 12, 1916, and Arroyo Savanna March 9 and 
10. Abbott secured a male at El Rio near the head of the Rio 
Jimenoa, where there are extensive clearings, on May 17, 1918, and 
another at Hondo, west of Constanza May 5, 1919. There do not 
seem to be records of this species on the Samana Peninsula. Dan- 
forth reports this dove in 1927 as very common, especially in the 
hills west of Azua, and says that he collected specimens at Vasquez 
and San Juan. Ciferri secured it near San Juan (Arroyo Loro, 
Sabana San Thome). 



192 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

In Haiti the Zenaida dove is apparently more abundant than in 
the eastern republic of Hispaniola. Bartsch recorded it at Trou 
Caiman April 4, 1917, and near Port-au-Prince April 25. Abbott 
collected specimens at Jean Rabel Anchorage March 30, 1917, Bom- 
bardopolis at elevation of 450 meters March 27, and Baie des Mous- 
tiques May 7. He secured a female on Gonave Island February 18, 
1918, and two of the same sex on Tortue Island February 2 and 4, 
1917. Wetmore found Zenaida doves common at Hinche, where he 
collected one April 22, 1927. They fed on bare open ground and were 
seen to some extent among open scrubs. The call of the male, 
phrased like that of the mourning dove but deeper in tone and more 
sonorous, given somewhat more quickly and not quite so prolonged at 
the end, with all the syllables somewhat curtailed, may be written as 
coo oo oo coo coo. The wings in flight produce a whistling sound that 
is louder and lower pitched than that of the related species. The re- 
semblance between these two forms is really surprising and in life 
it requires careful attention to avoid confusing them. The males 
of the Zenaida dove in the breeding season have a display habit, 
common to many pigeons, of circling in the air with stiffly set wings. 
The Zenaida dove was common at Poste Charbert near Caracol on 
April 26 and 27. 

There is a specimen in the Academy of Natural Sciences from 
Gonave Island taken July 18, 1927, by John T. Emlen, jr. Bond 
reports it from Gonave, as well as from Tortue. Poole and Perry- 
go secured one at St. Michel, December 23, 1928, and four at Cerca- 
la-Source March 23, 25 and 28, 1928. One of these shows albinistic 
tendencies as the usual brown color is replaced in part by buff. 

The Zenaida dove is warm brown in color, with violet iridescence 
on the sides of the neck. There is a black spot below the ear and 
black markings on the inner secondaries. The tail is tipped with 
gray and the secondaries with white. In appearance it is similar to 
the mourning dove but is distinguished by the short, slightly rounded 
tail. 

ZENAIDURA MACROURA MACROURA (Linnaeus) 

WEST INDIAN MOURNING DOVE, T6RT0LA, TOURTERELLE, TOURTERELLE 

QUEUE-FINE 

Columba macroura Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, pt. 1, 1758, p. 164 m (Cuba). 
? Ring-dove, Saint-Mery, Descrip. Span. Part Saint Domingo, vol. 1, 1798, 
p. 305 (abundant). 

80 Based on the Long-Tailed Dove of Edwards Natural History, p. 15, pi. 15, which 
came from the West Indies. Type locality here designated as Cuba. 

The Tourterelle de St. Domingue, Daubenton, Planch. Enl. No. 487, is an artifact with 
the body of a mourning dove and the head of a killdeer (not a golden plover as Salvadori 
has stated). On it are based Columba dominicensis Latham, Index Ornith., vol. 2, 1790, 
p. 615, (in Dominicensi Insula), and Columba annulata Wagler, Syst. Av., 1827, p. 267 
(in Dominicensi Insula). For a full synonymy see Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 
vol. 21, 1893, pp. 639-640. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 193 

Turtle, Wimpffen, Yoy. Saint Domingo, 1817, p. 1S8 (size of quail). 

Tortola (in part) Oviedo, Hist. Gen. Nat. Indias, Libr. 14, Cap. 2; Reprint, 
Madrid, 1851, p. 442 (recorded). 

Tourterelle, Saint-Mery, Descript. Part. Frang.Jle Saint-Domingue, vol. 1, 
1797, pp. 262, 717, vol. 2, 1798, p. 79 (Dondon, Port-de-Paix, Port-a-Piment). 

Tourterelle vineuse, Descourtilz, Toy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, pp. 189-193 
(common). 

Tourterelle brune, Descourtilz, Toy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, pp. 193-194 (common). 

Turtur caroliniensis Brisson, Ornith., vol. 1, 1760, p. 110, pi. 8 (" Saint- 
Domingue "). 

*? Columba dominicensis, Hartlaub, Naumannia, 1S52, p. 53 (Haiti, common). 

Columba carolinensis, Bryant, Proc. Boston Soe. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 
1867, p. 96 (Haiti, Dominican Republic). 

Zenaidura carolinensis, Sat.le, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, p. 235 (Domini- 
can Republic).— Cory, Bull. Nuttall Ornitb. Club, 18S1, p. 154 (Gantier) ; Birds 
Haiti and San Domingo, Dec, 1884, pp. 129-130 (Le Coup, specimen). — Tippen- 
hauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 322 (listed).— Christy, Ibis, 1897, p. 335 
(La Vega). 

Zenaiduni macroura, Cory, Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 97 (Haiti, Do- 
minican Republic). — Cherrie, Field Columbian Mus., Ornitb. ser., vol. 1, 1S96, 
p. 24 (San Cristobal, Honduras, Maniel). — Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila- 
delphia, 1909, p. 357 (La Vega, specimen). — Kaempfer, Journ. fur Ornith., 1924, 
p. 183 (Sanchez).— Lonnberg, Fauna och Flora, 1929, p. 101 (Haiti). 

Zonaidura macroura macroura, Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, 
p. 408 (Monte Cristi).— Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, 
p. 498 (Haiti, Gonave, Tortue). — Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 365 (common).— 
Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, p. 315 (San Juan, specimens). 

Resident ; common. 

In appearance, habits and note the West Indian mourning dove is 
a counterpart of the forms of North America. In Hispaniola this 
bird, as usual, is a species of open country, where it feeds in fields and 
pastures, or of open glades in woodland, and nests and rests in 
thickets and groves of trees. It does not penetrate dense rain-forest 
jungles except casually, although it finds in the open pine forests of 
the highlands conditions favorable for its life. The birds are found 
ordinarily in pairs or little bands that congregate where seeds that 
furnish food abound. They walk about on the ground with rapidly 
nodding heads but at any alarm stop to remain motionless when their 
color harmonizes so with the ground that they may not be perceived 
until they flush with musically winnowing wings and dart quickly 
away with rapid flight to a perch in some tree. When approached 
in such a situation they jerk the head and twitch the tail nervously 
and then suddenly take flight again. The song of this species is a 
cooing call, uttered with slow cadence, that in tone is mournful to 
the ears of some, though others, like the writers, find it pleasing. 
The birds are hunted as game but unless too severely pursued hold 
their abundance. 

The mourning dove has been recorded by many naturalists in 
Hispaniola. Oviedo includes under the name tortola. Brisson in 



194 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

1760 describes a mourning dove sent to de Reaumur by Chervain, 
and it is described in more or less detail by Saint-Mery, Descourtilz 
and Baron Wimpffen. 

In the Dominican Republic Wetmore found it common in the 
semi-arid section extending from Comendador to Azua on April 30 
and May 1, 1927. Cherrie reported it from San Cristobal, Honduras 
and San Jose de Ocoa (which he terms Maniel). Kaempfer found 
it at Sanchez, and Christy and Verrill obtained specimens near La 
Vega. Wetmore recorded it near Santiago May 31, 1927. Peters 
found it rather rare on the north coast in 1916 as he observed it only 
iiear the fort at Monte Cristi. In the interior Abbott secured four 
males and one female near Constanza on September 22 and 28 and 
October 1, 1916, and April 29 and May 1, 1919, obtaining one at an 
altitude of 1,500 metres. Wetmore recorded it commonly in the 
open valley of Constanza from May 18 to 25, and found a few scat- 
tered through the open pine lands. He collected two on May 18 and 
20 which were prepared for skeletons. He found the mourning dove 
in the clearings at El Rio on May 29. Danforth found it especially 
abundant near Monte Cristi. Ciferri sent specimens to Moltoni, 
taken at Sabana San Thome, San Juan, October 10 and 23, 1928. 

In Haiti, where the country is more open and the climate on the 
average drier, the mourning dove is more common. Two specimens 
were sent to the Smithsonian Institution from Port-au-Prince by 
A. E. Younglove in 1866, one of them being still in the United States 
National Museum collections. Cory reported this dove from Gantier 
and Petionville, in the former locality as abundant. In 1917 Bartsch 
recorded this species at Thomazeau, April 2, near Glore April 3, 
Trou Caiman April 4, and near Port-au-Prince April 19 to 25. On 
the southwestern peninsula he found it near Jeremie April 10 to 15, 
Trou des Roseaux April 13 and 14, Petit Goave April 8 and 9, and 
Miragoane April 9. In 1927 Wetmore recorded several March 29 in 
mesquite thickets near the city of Port-au-Prince and observed others 
drinking from the Riviere Cul-de-Sac near Damien on April 29. 
Several were seen at the Etang Miragoane April 1, and doves were 
common in open fields at Fonds-des-Negres April 2 and 5, Aquin 
April 3, and L'Acul April 4. Several were observed near La Trem- 
blay April 7. On the Riviere Jaquisy below Furcy this dove was 
common April 8 and 9, and its voice at the earliest hint of dawn was 
the first bird note of the morning. On La Selle from April 9 to 15 
it was common, being especially abundant in the cultivated fields of 
the Jardins Bois Pin. Mourning doves called from the trees about 
camp at the head of the Riviere Chotard and were found assembled 
in little flocks in open fields dotted with dead trees. The mourning 
dove was seen at Chapelle Faure and Furcy April 17. It was ob- 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 195 

served on Morne a Cabrits April 20 and at Maissade April 21, and was 
recorded daily at Hinche April 20 to 24. At Caracol on the North 
Plain it was common on April 26 and 27 and was found in pairs. 

Abbott secured a female at Bombardopolis March 21, 1919, and a 
pair at Moustique on March 9 and 10 at elevations of 600 and 900 
meters. He took a female at Baie des Moustiques May 4. On Tortue 
Island he secured three males January 30 and 31, and May 18, 1917, 
and on May 18 and 19 collected two sets of eggs, one containing the 
two eggs usual to this species, and the other, apparently incomplete, 
only one. The nests were located about twelve feet from the ground 
in mangroves near tKe seashore. The parent of the set of two, taken 
on the nest, proved to be a male bird. The eggs, as usual are pure 
white with a slight gloss. The set of two measures 27.7 by 21.8 and 
29.0 by 22.2, and the single egg 29.0 by 21.2 mm. Danforth in 1927 
found the mourning dove very common between Gona'ives and Cap- 
Haiti'en. Bond reports them on Gonave and Tortue Islands, and 
Poole and Perrygo collected specimens at St. Michel January 6 and 
15, Fort Liberte February 15, St. Marc February 25, and at En 
Cafe in the interior of Gonave Island March 5, 1929. 

Three males from Tortue Island are distinctly darker below than 
others from Haiti, this color extending over the lower tail-coverts. 
They are equalled only by two birds seen from eastern Cuba which 
differ from other Cuban specimens as the Tortue birds do from others 
from Haiti. Further material will be of interest but it is probable 
that the specimens indicated represent individual and not geographic 
variation. 

Following are measurements of the series from Hispaniola : 

Eleven males, wing 133.0-148.1 (138.2), tail 115.4-129.4 (122.4), 
culmen 12.5-14.7 (13.4), tarsus 20.4-22.5 (21.1) mm. 

Four females, wing 129.4-137.2 (133.4), tail 95.0-111.8 (102.5), 
culmen 11.8-13.9 (13.0), tarsus 19.3-21.3 (20.7) mm. 

Colvmba macroura of Linnaeus 67 is a composite based on the 
long-tailed dove of Edwards, which is the mourning dove of the 
West Indies, and the Palumbus migratorius of Catesby, which is the 
passenger pigeon. The Edwards reference is the one given first and 
has been used in applying the name, though the range assigned by 
Linnaeus is that of the passenger pigeon. In the twelfth edition 
of the Systema Naturae in 1766 Linnaeus dropped Cohimba macroura 
of 1758 entirely, and named the passenger pigeon Colwriba canaden- 
sis (p. 284) and Columba migratoria (p. 285), the North American 
mourning dove Cohimba carolinensis (p. 286), and the long-tailed 
dove of Edwards Columba marginata (p. 286). In the period when 
the twelfth edition of Linnaeus was generally accepted as the basis 

"Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1, 1758, p. 184. 



196 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

for zoological nomenclature the mourning dove was called Columba 
carolinensis, or later, Zenaidura carolinensis. When the committee 
of the American Ornithologists' Union appointed to prepare a check- 
list of North American birds decided to adopt the tenth edition of 
Linnaeus as the starting point of binomial nomenclature the mourn- 
ing dove became through this procedure Zenaidura macroura. 68 In 
1902 William Palmer and J. H. Eiley recognized that the Cuban 
birds differed from those of the eastern United States in smaller 
size and named the former Zenaidura macroura bella. G0 They did 
not discuss the name macroura but accepted it as currently used. 
Subsequently Bangs reviewed this action, 70 deciding that Columba 
macroura 1758 applied to the passenger pigeon, which under this 
became Ectopistes macrowus (Linnaeus), that the North American 
mourning dove should be called Zenaidura carolinensis carolinensis 
(Linnaeus) and the West Indian form should be known as Zenaidura 
carolinensis marginata (Linnaeus). The third edition of the A. O. 
U. Check-list in 1910 gives Zenaidura macroura macroura as " extra- 
limital " without comment and uses Zenaidura macroura carolinensis 
for the continental bird. Kidgway in the seventh volume of the 
Birds of North and Middle America in 1916 uses macroura for the 
bird of- the West Indies and carolinensis for the form of eastern 
North America. From this brief synopsis it is evident that the 
names of the mourning dove are involved in some confusion. 

The " Long-tailed Dove " of Edwards was described and figured 
in the first part of his Natural History on page 15, the colored plate 
facing this page. On page 125, in part two of this work, in a cata- 
logue of the names of birds that he had described, Edwards refers 
to it as " Columba, macroura " so that Linnaeus was correct in his 
citation from Edwards though he does not give the page reference 
to the Latin name. Edwards states definitely that his specimen of 
the long-tailed dove was brought " from the West Indies." 

Since two races of the mourning dove have been recognized in the 
area in question the name macroura has been applied to the Antillean 
form and carolinensis to the continental bird. In no place, however, 
does there seem to have been definite assignation of the Linnaean 
name macroura or definite designation of a type locality. It seems 
logical to follow current custom in applying macroura to the mourn- 
ing dove, as though a composite as used by Linnaeus in 1758 the 
citation of Edwards may be taken as the principal reference since 
it stands first, and Linnaeus accepted Edwards' Latin name for his 
species though he did not give the page on which this Latin name 

88 First published by Ridgvvay, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 8, 1885, p. 355. 

69 Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 15, March 5, 1902, p. 33. (Type locality, Mariel, 
Cuba; type in U. S. National Museum.) 

70 Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 19, February 26, 1906, pp. 43-44. 



THE BIRDS OP HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 197 

occurred. As an attempt to stabilize current usage C dumb a 
macroura Linnaeus of 1758, a composite in the original description, 
is here definitely taken as applying to the mourning dove from the 
reference given to Edwards, and its type locality designated as Cuba, 
where the bird is common. The West Indian race will stand as 
Zenaldura macroura macroura (Linnaeus), with Columba marginata 
Linnaeus, 1766, and Zenaldura macroura bella Palmer and Riley, 
1902 as synonyms. 

The mourning dove is colored like the Zenaida dove but lacks the 
white in the wings and has the tail long, narrow and much 
graduated. 

MELOPELIA ASIATICA ASIATICA (Linnaeus) 

WHITE-WINGED DOVE, ALA BLANCA, TOITRTERELLE AILE-BLANCHE, 
BALBARIN, BARBARIN 

Columba asiatica Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1, 1758. p. 163 (" Indiis "= 
Jamaica). 

Melopelia leucoptera, Coky, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, Dec, 1884, p. 131 
(Puerto Plata, specimen) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 97 (Haiti, Domini- 
can Republic). — Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 322 (listed). — Cherrie, 
Field Columbian Mus., Ornitli. ser., vol. 1, 1896, p. 24 (Mt. Laguneta, speci- 
men). — Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 351 (recorded). 

Melopelia a. asiatica, Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 139 ; Beneath 
Tropic Seas, 1928, p. 220 (recorded). 

Melopelia asiatica asiatica, Peteks, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, p. 
407 (Sosua, Rio San Juan).— Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 
1928, pp. 49S-499 (Haiti, Gonave and Tortue).— Danfoeth, Auk, 1929, p. 366 
(recorded). 

Fairly common resident in lowlands and lower hills; not known 
at present from the high interior. 

The white-winged dove is generally distributed through the 
coastal plain and the lower hills and is seen regularly in travel 
through the country. The loud cooing calls of the males come from 
the shelter of trees through the hottest hours of the day, indicating 
the presence of unseen birds, while frequently a passing dove seen 
in flight from trail or roadway reveals the flash of white in the wing- 
that identifies the present species. The white-winged dove is espe- 
cially partial to mesquite scrubs of the arid sections, particularly 
where these are intermingled with tree cacti, but ranges also in 
areas of heavy rainfall. 

In the Dominican Republic Cherrie reports the species from 
" Mount La Laguneta " a locality that we do not know but assume 
to be near San Cristobal as there is a skin from that point in the 
Field Museum. Wetmore found the white-winged dove fairly com- 
mon in the scrubs bordering the auto road between Comendador and 
Azua April 30 and May 1, 1927. Occasional birds were seen or 



198 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

heard at Sanchez May 6 and 9, several were found in the woodland 
at the mouth of the Yuna May 10, and one was recorded at San 
Lorenzo Bay May 11. On May 9 he took an adult male from the 
top of a tall tree and found the colors of the head remarkably bril- 
liant. The bill, including the cere, was dull black; bare skin about 
eye bright blue; iris reddish orange; tarsus and toes red; claws 
dusky. Peters observed a few near Sosua February 25 to April 11, 
1916 and collected one specimen. A few were noted March 4 at the 
mouth of the Rio San Juan. Danforth in 1927 found this bird very 
common in the arid section about Monte Cristi, and reports a few 
near Santo Domingo City and San Juan. 

The species has been more frequently recorded in Haiti. Bartsch 
found it at Petit Goave April 8 and 9, 1917, Jeremie April 10 to 12 
and 15 to 16, and near Trou des Roseaux April 13 and 14. He 
recorded it in the vicinity of Port-au-Prince April 19, 24 and 27. 
Wetmore found it in the mesquites at the edge of Port-au-Prince 
in early morning of March 29, and saw it later in the day at Damien 
and Carrefour. At Fonds-des-Negres it was common from March 
31 to April 5 and was heard calling constantly throughout the day. 
The birds remained concealed in the heavy foliage here and were not 
seen as frequently as in more arid sections. Individuals were seen 
at the £tang Miragoane April 1, Aquin April 3, and L'Acul April 4. 
On April 20 he recorded them at Las Cahobes, and from April 22 
to 24 found them in small numbers near Hinche. At Poste Char- 
bert near Caracol they were common, particularly along the Riviere 
Trou where dozens were observed. It is possible that the birds were 
colonizing here to breed, as is the regular habit of the subspecies 
found in the southwestern United States. Poole and Perrygo se- 
cured specimens at L'Atalaye January 9, St. Michel January 6 and 
15, and Cerca-la-Source March 25, 1929. Abbott collected a male 
at Moustique at an elevation of 450 meters, and a female at Anse 
a Galets, Gonave Island March 5, 1920. From February 18 to 28, 
1928 he reported the white-wing as the most common dove on 
Gonave. On June 4, 1917 he collected two sets of two eggs each 
at Jean Rabel Anchorage, one from a nest in a tree cactus ten feet 
from the earth, and the other from a nest placed four feet from 
the ground in a small tree near the sea. These eggs are white, with 
a very faint tinge of cream, and have somewhat glossy shells. They 
measure 29.0 by 22.6, and 29.5 by 22.7; 28.6 by 22.2 and 29.2 by 
21.9 mm. Danforth in 1927 says that they were quite common 
between St. Marc and Gonaives, and that he saw a few near 
Belladere, Port-au-Prince, Etang Miragoane, Aquin, and Les Cayes. 
They were quite common on Gonave Island. Bond reports a nest 
with young on Gonave Island in January 1928, and one with eggs 
at Trou Caiman in June. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 199 

Birds from Haiti seem a little paler above than those from Ja- 
maica but the material at hand is too small in amount to distinguish 
them successfully. 

Columba asiatica of the tenth edition of Linnaeus is taken from 
the Turtur, indicus, fuscus of Edwards Natural History (pp. 76, 127) 
and the Columba subfusca media of Browne (p. 468). Linnaeus 
gives the habitat as " in Indiis ". Edwards says that he was told 
that his specimen " came from the East Indies," which is an obvious 
error. In his twelfth edition (p. 281) Linnaeus renamed this bird 
Columba leucoptera, adding to the two previous references Bris- 
son's Colwmba indica, 71 giving the habitat as "Asia." The type 
locality of asiatica is indicated by Mearns 72 with some uncertainty 
in the statement " Jamaica, or at least the West Indies, is supposed 
to be the type locality of Melopelia asiatica (Linnaeus)." The type 
locality is here definitely designated as Jamaica. 

The white-winged dove is about as long as the Zenaida dove but 
is smaller in body. It is light brown above and on the breast, with a 
black spot below the ear and a wash of purple on the head. The rest 
of the underparts are light gray, the wing black with a prominent 
band of white, and the rounded tail black tipped with white. 

CHAEMEPELIA PASSERINA INSULARIS (Ridgway) 
CUBAN GROUND-DOVE, ROLITA, ORTOLAN 

Columbigallina passerina insularis Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 10, 
18S7, p. 574 (Grand Cayman). 

Petite Tourterelle de St. Domingue, Daubenton. Planch. Enl.. pi. 243. 

Cocot-zin, Descourtilz, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, pp. 194-196 (common). 

Turtur parvus Americanus 7S Brisson, Ornith., vol. 1, 1760, p. 113, pi. 9, fig. 1 
(" Saint-Domingue"). 

Columba passerina, Heakne, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1834, p. 110 (forwarded 
from Haiti). — Rittee, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, p. 156 (Haiti, 
specimen). — Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 1867, p. 96 
(Dominican Republic, Haiti). 

Columbigallina passerina, Cory, Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 92 (Haiti, 
Dominican Republic). — Cheerie, Field Col. Mus., Ornith. ser., vol. 1, 1S96, p. 24 
(Dominican Republic). 

Chamaepelia hortulana Hartlaub, Naumannia, 1852, p. 56. (Haiti.) 

Chamaepelia passerina, Salle, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, p. 236 (Domini- 
can Republic).— Coey, Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, 1881, p. 154 (Haiti) ; Birds 
Haiti and San Domingo, Dec, 1884, pp. 127-128 (abundant). — Tristram, Ibis, 
18S4, p. 168 (Dominican Republic, specimen). — Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 
1892, pp. 320, 322 (listed).— Christy, Ibis, 1897, p. 335 (La Vega). 

"Ornith., vol. 1, p. 105. 

72 Auk, 1911, p. 489. 

73 Turtur parvus fuscus Americanus Brisson, Ornith., vol. 1, 1760, p. 116, pi. 8, fig. 2, 
of which the author says " on la trouve & saint Dominque, d'ou elle a et6 envoySe a M . 
de Reaumur par M. Ghervain " is Chaemepelia minuta of South America, wrongly 
ascribed to Hispaniola. 



200 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Chaemepelia passerina aflavida, Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., vol. 8, 1912, 
pp. 563-564 (Haiti, Dominican Republic). — Ridgway, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 
50, pt. 7, 1916, p. 415 (Jacinel, Petionville, Port-au-Prince, Catarrey, Honduras, 
Sanchez, San Cristobal, La Vega, San Jose de Ocoa, Fuerte Resoli, Santo 
Domingo City, Puerto Plata).— Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 139; 
Beneath Tropic Seas, 1928, p. 220 (Haiti).— Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 336 (com- 
mon). — Lonnberg, Fauna och Flora, 1929, p. 101 (Haiti). — Moltoni, Att. Soc. 
Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, p. 315 (San Juan, specimens). 

Chaemepelia passerina iusularis, Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., p. 407 
(Monte Cristi, Sostia). 

Chamaepelia passerina insularis, Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 
vol. 80, 1928, p. 499 ( Port-de-Pais, specimen). 

Kesident, except in the higher mountains and in dense forests. 

The ground-dove is too widely distributed to make necessary 
detailed discussion of its distribution. It has been recorded at the 
following points : 

Dominican Republic: Comendador to Azua, Santo Domingo City 
to San Francisco de Macoris, Moca (Wetmore) ; La Vega (Christy, 
Verrill, specimen from latter in collection of J. H. Fleming) Jara- 
bacoa (Abbott) ; Monte Cristi, Sosiia (Peters) ; San Juan (Ciferri) ; 
Saona Island (Abbott). 

Haiti: Jeremie (Abbott, specimens; Bartsch) ; Trou des Roseaux, 
Petit Goave, Miragoane (Bartsch) ; Aquin, Fonds-des-Negres, fitang 
Miragoane, L'Acul, Carrefour, Damien, La Tremblay (Wetmore) ; 
Port-au-Prince (Younglove, specimens, Bartsch, Wetmore) ; Trou 
Caiman, Glore (Bartsch) ; Massif de la Selle, Chapelle Faure, Furcy, 
Morne a Cabrits to St. Michel by way of Hinche, Caracol (Wet- 
more) ; Riviere Bar, Moustique; Etroites and Anse a Galets, Gonave 
Island; Tortue Island (Abbott) ; L'Atalaye, St. Michel, St. Raphael, 
Pont Sonde, Fort Liberte, Cerca-la-Source (Poole and Perrygo). 

The bird has long been known from Haiti since Hearne in 1834 
sent specimens alive to the Zoological Society of London. Wetmore 
found a few in the cultivated fields of the Jardin Bois Pin on 
La Selle but did not meet with it in the open pine forests on the 
summit of the ridge. It is not known at present from the high valley 
of Constanza. Abbott found it abundant on Gonave, Tortue, and 
Saona Islands. It seems to be rare on the Samana Peninsula as there 
are no records for it there at present. 

The ground-dove is found in open fields or pastures and does not 
range in dense woodland though it may occur in very small clear- 
ings. Many are noted at the roadside in traveling through the 
country. The ground-dove is found in pairs or little bands, con- 
gregating where its food of seeds may be obtained. It walks about, 
nervously moving the head, to remain still at hint of danger and 
then to rise suddenly with a bright flash of reddish brown from the 
tinder surface of the wings. The call of the male, uttered constantly 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 201 

during the breeding season, may be written coo-oo-oh, coo-oo-oh 
uttered almost as one syllable, with a rising inflection. Given con- 
stantly through the heat of the day it may become highly monotonous 
to the human ear. The birds though small are hunted to some extent 
as game. 

Cory reports ground doves nesting in May, while near La Vega 
Christy found eggs and young toward the end of June. The eggs 
are white with a distinct gloss, and number two to a set. Abbott 
collected a set of two near Sosua, July 22, 1919 from a nest of 
grasses placed on the ground beneath a tussock of grass. These 
measure 21.3 by 16.2 and 21.3 by 16.8 mm. He forwarded one egg 
from Tortue Island, Haiti, taken on May 14, 1917, which measures 
22.5 by 17.0 mm. Christy also describes nests found on the ground, 
a habit that will be inimical to the species as the mongoose increases, 
but that may perhaps be overcome as in Porto Rico where a closely 
related subspecies of ground dove now nests in trees. 

Danforth and Emlen report the flight of one of these doves, timed 
by the speedometer of their automobile, at thirty-four miles an hour. 

Following are measurements for comparative examination : 

Twenty-three males from Hispaniola (including Tortue, Gonave 
and Saona Islands), wing 80.0-87.0 (83.6), tail 51.8-61.1 (54.6), cul- 
men 9.7-11.8 (10.9), tarsus 14.9-17.2 (16.0) mm. 

Six females from Hispaniola (including Tortue and Gonave Is- 
lands), wing 81.5-83.5 (82.3), tail 51.2-56.4 (54.3), culmen 10.3-11.6 
(11.0), tarsus 14.4-16.9 (15.7) mm. 

Hartlaub 74 gives " Chamaepelia hortulana, Herz. v. Wurttemb. 
Von den Creolen Haitis Ortolan genannt ; grosser als passerina; eine 
allerliebste kleine Taube, welche eine sehr gute speise abgibt und von 
alien mir bekannten arten abweicht." Though probably referring 
to the ground-dove because of the generic name used this is not 
certain since the only descriptive phrase that saves this from being 
a nomen nudum " grosser als passerina " does not hold true. Hart- 
laub's species, therefore, is considered not certainly identifiable so 
that the name is not accepted. Todd T5 writes that Hellmayr has 
not been able to locate Hartlaub's type. The name insularis based 
on a bird from Grand Cayman is used for this race. 

The ground dove of Hispaniola is similar to that of Cuba and the 
Cayman Islands. Though there is variation in depth of color this 
is individual and not correlated with geographic range. J. L. Peters 
has kindly compared the series in the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology for us and informs us that birds from Cuba and Hispaniola 
in that collection are identical as they are in ours. A small series 



71 Xaumannia, 1852, pt. 2, p. 56. 

75 Ann. Carnegie Mus., vol. 8, 1912, p. 561. 



202 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

from Gonave Island are very faintly paler than birds from Haiti 
proper but not sufficiently to merit more than casual notice. Several 
from Tortue Island are duller, less pinkish below and decidedly 
darker above, a difference that seems to be due to wear and stain 
on the feathers. One from Saona Island is the same as that of 
Hispaniola. 

The ground-dove is distinguished from all others of its family by 
tiny size as it is only a little larger than a sparrow. The male is 
pinkish brown on breast and forehead and gray above, with the 
breast flecked with black and the wings spotted with metallic blue. 
The female does not have the reddish color on the breast and the 
wing spottings are paler. Both sexes have the under surface of the 
wings deep cinnamon brown. 

CHAEMEPELIA PASSERINA NAVASSAE Wetmore 
NAVASSA GROUND-DOVE 

Chaemepelia passerina navassae Wetmore, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 
43, September 26, 1930, p. 149 (Navassa Island). 

Chamaepelia passerina, Ekman, Ark. for Bot, vol. 22 A, no. 16, 1929, p. 7 
(Navassa). 

Chaemepelia passerina aflavlda, Lonnbebg, Fauna och Flora, 1929, p. 101 
(Navassa, specimen). 

Navassa Island; resident. 

The first specimens of this dove recorded are three pairs taken by 
R. H. Beck, July 16 and 17, 1917, for the American Museum of Nat- 
ural History. Through the kindness of Dr. F. M. Chapman these 
were examined during work on the Haitian collections in the Ameri- 
can Museum when it was observed that they seemed slightly paler 
than typical insularis. As these birds were all in much worn plumage, 
it was decided after somewhat lengthy comparisons that this differ- 
ence might be due to fading, so that it was considered that they were 
not sufficient basis to warrant naming the Navassa bird as a distinct 
race. On May 10, 1930, Lee Parish visited Navassa in his yacht 
Esperanza on behalf of the Smithsonian Institution when two males 
and three females of the ground-dove were obtained by S. W. Parish 
and W. M. Perrygo. These birds which came to hand as this report 
was in press are in fresh, unworn plumage, and have been sufficient to 
indicate that the bird of Navassa differs from that of Haiti in paler 
coloration and in slightly smaller size. It is interesting to note that 
its variation is in the direction of G. p. exigua of Mona Island. 

This dove was also collected on Navassa by E. L. Ekman. 

Following are measurements from all of the birds seen : 

Males, five specimens, wing 79.6-82.0 (80.9), tail 51.6-57.5 (54.8), 
culmen with cere 9.8-10.8 (10.2), tarsus 14.8-16.0 (15.2) mm. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 203 

Females, five specimens, wing 76.2-83.0 (80.0), tail 52.4-57.5 (53.6), 
culmen with cere 11.1-11.7 (11.4), tarsus 13.8-15.8 (14.7) mm. 

Type, male, wing 81.0, tail 55.0, culmen with cere 10.8, tarsus 
14.8 mm. 

OREOPELEIA MONTANA (Linnaeus) 
RUDDY QUAIL-DOVE, PERDIZ, PERDRIX, PERDRIX ROUGE 

Columba montana Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1, 1758, p. 163 (Jamaica). 

Perdrix rouge, Charlevoix, Hist. Isle Espagnole, vol. 1, 1733, p. 40 (men- 
tioned). — Descoubtilz, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, pp. 196-199 (found in hills). 

IColumba montana, Bbyant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 1867, 
p. 96 (Dominican Republic). 

Oeotrygon montana, Salle, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, p. 235 (Dominican 
Republic).— Cory, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, Dec, 1884, pp. 132-133 (Puerto 
Plata, Samana, specimens) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 97 (Haiti, 
Dominican Republic). — Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, pp. 320, 322 
(listed). — Cherrie, Field Columbian Mus., Ornith. ser., vol. 1, 1896, p. 24 
(Dominican Republic). — Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, 
p. 357 (Dominican Republic). — Kaempfer, Journ. fur Ornith., 1924, p. 184 
(Cotui). 

Oreopeleia montana, Petebs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, p. 406 (Los 
Toritos).— Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, pp. 520-521 
(listed). — Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 366 (San Juan, Bonao, Gonave). 

Resident; fairly common in forested areas in regions of consid- 
erable rainfall. 

The ruddy quail-dove frequents forests where the ground be- 
neath the trees is sufficiently open to permit it to walk about, con- 
ditions that are found in swampy woodlands along the lowland 
streams or in the growths that cover the hills. Verrill reports it 
from dense growths of sawgrass, which seems unusual, while Abbott 
found that groves of cacao, with their heavy shade and open lanes 
along the ground, were frequented instead of the forest growth 
which they replaced. The quail-dove is retiring so that it usually 
walks quickly aside to avoid a human intruder or flushes quickly 
with a flutter of wings to dart immediately behind some cover and 
then fly away unseen behind this protective screen. The difficulty 
of hunting it is easily evident. Its presence is often unsuspected 
except by those who recognize the moaning calls of the males that 
come regularly during the breeding season from the forest depths, 
or who have eyes quick enough to detect the movement of birds 
walking on the ground among the dense shadows amid which they 
live. 

Salle knew these quail-doves well and gives a graphic word picture 
of the sombre shade of their forest haunts. Cory reports them as 
abundant and found them in flocks, a report pertaining apparently 
to Puerto Plata where he secured six specimens December 16 and 
18, 1882. He lists one other specimen in his collection from Samana 



204 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

April 2, 1883. He had specimens also from Almercen (Villa Rivas). 
One of his skins, a female, from Puerto Plata, December 14, 1882, 
is now in the United States National Museum. Cherrie recorded 
the ruddy quail-dove in the hills of the southern part of the Domin- 
ican Republic in small numbers but saw few near the coast. He 
obtained specimens at Catarrey. Verrill says that near El Valle 
large numbers were trapped by the natives and sold in the markets 
at three cents a pair. Ridgway examined specimens from Sanchez 
and La Vega in addition to those indicated above. Beck secured 
specimens at Santo Domingo City October 9, 10, 19, and 20, 1916, 
and at Tiibano February 13, 1917. 

At Laguna, on the Samana peninsula, Abbott found the ruddy 
quail-dove in numbers so that he collected twelve specimens of both 
sexes August 10, 13, and 14, 1916, and March 4, 6, 7, 8, and 10, 1919. 
He took two at Sanchez February 17 and 20, 1919. A female shot 
February 20, near Sanchez, contained a nearty mature egg, and he 
indicates February to May as the regular breeding season. At 
Laguna he observed a number of nests composed of a few sticks or 
dead leaves placed loosely from six to eight feet from the ground 
on clumps of Tillandsia, an epiphyte abundant in the dripping 
woodland. A set of two eggs taken at this point about March 15, 
1919, are colored light buff, are rather rounded, and measure 26.4 by 
21.1 and 26.1 by 21.7 mm. A second set of two and a single egg 
secured in April, 1919 were forwarded from the same locality, the 
single being slightly paler than the average of the others. One egg 
in the set is broken, the other measuring 28.1 by 21.2 mm. The 
single egg mentioned is greatly elongated and is more pointed, its 
measurements being 31.2 by 19.6 mm. It appears abnormal in 
form. Two young birds not quite grown were taken March 6 and 
7, 1919. 

Kaempfer found the ruddy quail-dove very common at Cotui, 
where nests seen at the end of February contained either young or 
hard-set eggs. The nests observed were placed only a meter above 
the ground. He wrote that the birds were hunted at night with 
torches when they could be captured by hand. 

Wetmore heard the resonant cooing of this dove in the heavy 
forests above Sanchez May 7, 1927, and on May 13 these birds were 
fairly common in the dripping woodland bordering the irregular 
trail that leads over the hills to Las Terrenas on the north coast. 
May 10 he flushed several in swampy forest opposite the Arroyo 
Guayabo near the mouth of the Yuna, and heard their moaning 
calls frequently. One was heard near Constanza May 24. Peters 
collected a male at Los Toritos in the spring of 1916 and reports 
that children trapped these birds in little traps made of sticks. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 205 

Danforth collected one near San Juan July 11, and two near Bonao 
August 7, 1927. On the latter date he found a nest placed on a matted 
bush about a foot from the ground; it contained two eggs. 

The ruddy quail-dove seems far less abundant in Haiti than in 
the Dominican Republic, probably because of the restricted areas 
in the former republic where suitable rain forest is found. Des- 
courtilz describes the hunting of this species and says that it is known 
locally as heleux. Tippenhauer includes it in his list without com- 
ment. F. P. Mathews collected a male at Anse a Galets, Gonave 
Island July 17, 1927. 

Abbott reports the iris in males as brownish yellow, orange brown, 
or brownish yellow. 

The adult male is chestnut or rufous-chestnut above, glossed on 
the hindneck and back with reddish purple, pinkish cinnamon on 
throat and malar region, vinaceous fawn on the breast, and buffy 
cinnamon on the rest of the underparts. The female is much darker, 
being olive-brown above except for the rufescent forehead, the 
plumage glossed faintly with bronze, and cinnamon below, with a 
band of darker brown across the breast. The birds are about as 
large in body as the Zenaida dove and have the tail nearly square. 

OREOPELEIA CHRYSIA (Bonaparte) 
KEY WEST QUAIL-DOVE, PERDIZ, PERDRIX, PERDRIX GRISE 

Geotrygon chrysia Bonaparte, Compt. Rend., vol. 40, 1855, p. 100 (Florida). 

Perdrix grise, Descourtilz, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, p. 196 (recorded). 

Colutnba mystacea, Heakne, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1834, p. 110 (sent alive 
from Haiti). 

Columba martinica, Ritter, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, p. 156 
(Haiti, specimen). — Bkyant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 1867, 
p. 96 (Port-au-Prince, specimens). 

Leptoptila, Salle, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, p. 235 (Dominican Re- 
public). 

Geotrygon martinica, Cory, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, Dec, 1884, pp. 
133-134 (Puerto Plata) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 97 (Haiti, Dominican 
Republic).— Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, pp. 320, 322 (listed).— Cher- 
rie, Field Columbian Mus., Ornith. ser., vol. 1, 1896, p. 24 (Aguacate). — 
Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 351 (Cayo Levantado, 
specimen). 

Oreopeleia chrysia, Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, pp. 406-^07 
(Arroyo Salado, Puerto Plata, specimens). — Ridgway, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 
50, vol. 7, 1916, p. 471 (Puerto Plata, Aguacate, Cuya, Cayo Levantado). — 
Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. SO, 1928, p. 499 (Haiti, Gonave, 
Tortue). — Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 366 (San Juan, Bonao, Fonds-des-Negres). — 
Lonnberg, Fauna och Flora, 1929, p. 101 (Haiti, specimen). 

Resident; found locally in small numbers. 

The present species like the preceding is an inhabitant of forests 
where it walks about on the ground, and is seen with difficulty ex- 
2134—31 14 



206 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

cept when it is in flight. It is not restricted to areas of consider- 
able rainfall, however, and can accommodate its environmental needs 
to limited tracts of semi-arid scrub so that though perhaps seeming 
less abundant in numbers than the ruddy quail-dove it has a much 
wider range. Hartert informs us that Kaempfer collected a num- 
ber for the Tring Museum at altitudes ranging from 30 to 500 meters 
near Tubano in the province of Azua, between August 9 and 17, 
1923. These include two juveniles taken August 12 and 13, which 
offer some clue to the breeding season in that locality. Cherrie saw 
only one, which had been killed by a native at Aguacate. Verrill 
secured one on Cayo Levantado, opposite Samana, which Hartert 
tells us is now in the Tring Museum, and was taken February 15, 
1907. Peters secured one in rather open woodland at Arroyo Salado, 
March 7, 1916, and says that there is one in the Museum of Compara- 
tive Zoology shot at Puerto Plata by M. Abbott Frazar, January 
16, 1883. Cory lists one taken at Puerto Plata, December 18, 1882. 
W. L. Abbott has reported it from the Dominican Republic in his 
manuscript notes but does not cite definite localities. Beck col- 
lected a series of twenty-seven skins near Tubano from February 
3 to 15, 1917. Danforth shot one near San Juan July 10, and saw 
one near Bonao August 7, 1927. 

There are numerous records for Haiti. Descourtilz mentions it in 
1809, and it is included among other species sent by John Hearne in 
1834 to the Zoological Society of London. Hitter records taking 
one, and two secured by A. E. Younglove in 1866 were sent to the 
Smithsonian, a male from " Le Coup " (Petionville) February 19, 
and a female from near Port-au-Prince, May 9, these being the two 
listed by Bryant from Port-au-Prince. The first of these Younglove 
specimens is still in the United States National Museum. W. L. 
Abbott secured three at an elevation of 300 meters near Bombard- 
opolis on March 24, 26, 1917. He saw a quail-dove on Tortue Island 
which he believed to be this species, in which in all probability he 
was correct, since the forest there seems too dry to favor the occur- 
rence of O. montana. Wetmore collected an adult female in the 
Ravine Papaye, near Hinche April 22, 1927, and on the following 
day heard two calling in the dense, hot scrub in that vicinity, the 
note being a low, resonant coo, suggestive of that of the ruddy quail- 
dove but with a different pitch and far less carrying power so that 
it was audible only to a distance of less than one hundred yards. 
The bird taken flushed with a loud rustling of wings at the edge of 
a dry water course and flew rapidly. When first taken the iris was 
dull red, with the inner margin honey yellow; margins of lids and 
bare skin about eye dull red; distal half of bill dusky; basal half, 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 207 

including cere, deep dull red ; tarsus and toes dull red with a grayish 
cast; claws dusky. Danforth saw one at Fonds-des-Negres July 23, 
1927. Bond in 1928 reports them as common in the arid regions of 
Haiti and as particularly numerous on the islands of Gonave and 
Tortue. He reports one flushed from an empty nest on Gonave 
June 25, and found them breeding on Tortue in March. Natives 
trapped them on Gonave Island in numbers, using corn or water as 
bait. Bond reports the call as a booming note that is ventriloquial 
in effect and so difficult to locate. Poole and Perrygo collected one 
at L'Atalaye January 5, four at Cerca-la-Source March 22 and 26, 
and one at Anse a Galets March 13, 1929. 

This quail-dove is reddish brown on back and wings, with the 
crown and hindneck metallic green or blue according to the angle 
of light, and the forehead brown. Below it is white on the throat, 
with a malar stripe of brown, vinaceous drab on the breast, and 
white on the abdomen. The wing-coverts are reddish brown brighter 
in the male and duller in the female. 

OREOPELEIA LEUCOMETOPIUS Chapman 
HISPANIOLAN QUAIL-DOVE, PERDIZ, PERDIZ CENIZA, PERDRIX GRIS 

Oreopeleia leucometopius Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 37, 
May 14, 1917, p. 327 (Lonia Tina, Province of Azua, Dominican Republic). — 
Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 521 (La Selle). 

Oreopeleia leucometopium, Ekman, Est. Agr. Moca, Ser. B. Bot., No. 15, 
December, 1929, p. 5 (Loma de Jayaco). 

? Violet-winged pigeon, Saint-Mery, Descrip. Span. Part Saint-Domingo, 
vol. 1, 1798, p. 305 (abundant). 

Blue ground pigeon, Beck, Nat. Hist., vol. 21, 1921, pp. 39, 41 (habits, col- 
lecting). 

Resident in rain-forest of mountains of Dominican Republic. 

The present species was discovered in 1917 by R. H. Beck who 
found it on the slopes of Loma Tina, near Tubano, and near Las 
Cafiitas, the latter locality being on the Rio del Medio, a tributary 
of Rio Yaque del Sur. Beck describes it as living on the ground 
in dense forest and in habits more like a quail or partridge than 
an ordinary pigeon. He secured an excellent series on Loma Tina 
January 12, 15, 17, 22, and 27, and February 2, at Tubano February 
10, 12, 13, 14, and 15, and at La Canita nearby March 9, 1917. The 
type specimen, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. No. 163,788, a male, taken on 
Loma Tina January 27, 1917 (original no. 7089), has the following 
measurements : wing 151.7, tail 76.6, culmen with cere 13.5 and tarsus 
35.6 mm. Whether this is the " violet-winged pigeon " mentioned 
long ago by Moreau Saint-Mery is not certain, but this is not impos- 
sible. It is true that the wings of this quail-dove are not violet, but 



208 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

the adjacent back feathers are that color which is found in no other 
dove of the island. 

Abbott shot a pair of these quail-doves at an elevation of 900 
meters near Hondo, west of Constanza on May 3, and 5, 1919, a 
locality not far from Las Canitas where Beck secured specimens. 
Abbott records them as not common and writes that he killed a 
young individual near Constanza but that it was too badly shot to 
skin. On March 13, 1922, he collected a female at an elevation of 
1,200 meters on Loma del Cielo in the Sierra de Bahoruco about two 
miles east of Polo, Province of Barahona. He was told also by an 
officer of the Guardia of a curious pigeon near Cabo Isabella on the 
north coast but was not certain that it was the present species. 

On May 17, 1927, as Wetmore ascended the trail to El Rio, at the 
summit of the steep mountain slope above the crossing of the Rio 
Jimenoa below Jarabacoa one of these beautiful doves flew across the 
path directly in front of his mule. Another was seen at dusk 
directly above the settlement of El Rio. The flight was swift and 
direct, and on the wing the neck appeared very short. On the 
morning of May 25, above Constanza, in heavy rain-forest where 
slender palms thrust their heads toward the light amid denser 
growth he heard a strange call, certainly a pigeon but one not 
familiar, that began as a low hoot hoot hoot repeated with great 
rapidity and audible for only a few yards and changed suddenly to 
a hollow, resonant coo that came to the ear in slow, throbbing beats 
often for the space of a minute, a sound that carried for a long 
distance through the dripping verdure. Creeping slowly through 
little openings between the trees, hampered always by the entangling 
strands of the climbing bamboo he finally looked down a steep slope 
into a space where for a few yards the ground was free of under- 
growth beneath a little group of palms to obtain a brief glimpse of 
one of these quail-doves as it walked quickly aside into cover. A 
quick shot through the dense growth had no other effect than to 
place a load of shot pellets in the trunks of intervening trees, and 
half an hour later from the trail above he heard the strange, 
cadenced beat of the call from the same spot as before. On the 
following day very early in the morning the bird was again calling 
but took alarm before it was seen and a wait in a blind for an hour 
and a half gave no result. On May 27, another prolonged wait was 
fruitless, but on returning toward the trail a quail-dove that possibly 
had been watching the hunter flushed with a great rustling of wings, 
to alight twenty-five feet from the ground in a tree, where an instant 
later it was secured. It was truly a wonderful bird that well repaid 
the long tramps afoot over execrable trails in the faint light of 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 209 

dawn, and the waits in the wet jungle growth. Another was heard 
calling this day and it was found that they were well known to the 
natives though reputed difficult to secure. The species was reported 
at El Rio May 30. 

The individual taken May 27, which after some deliberation was 
preserved in alcohol for subsequent dissection, had the tip of the bill 
pale brown ; top of cere dusky ; sides of cere and base of bill dull red ; 
iris orange red; tarsus and toes light pinkish brown; claws dusky. 
Abbott noted the iris in a female from Hondo as blood red. E. L. 
Ekman under date of September 21, 1929 writes that he had col- 
lected this species recently on the summit of Loma Jayaco in the 
Cordillera de Neiba. He observed it in the Cordillera Central from 
1000 to 1500 meters altitude. At La Vega Wetmore heard further 
talk of this quail-dove under the name paloma del suelo, a bird that 
local hunters supposed was a hybrid between the ordinary quail- 
dove or perdiz and a pigeon or paloma. Apparently the species now 
has a considerable distribution in the high mountains but will soon 
be restricted in range as the rain-forests that provide its home are 
cleared to provide lands for cultivation. 

In Haiti this quail-dove is as yet not certainly reported though 
from Abbott's record in the Sierra de Bahoruco it may range in those 
mountains across the frontier. Bond writes that "the natives on the 
top of Morne La Selle told me that they occasionally encountered a 
gray quail-dove. It was said to be rare and to occur in the scrub on 
the ridge of the mountain." 

Oreopeleia leucometopius is unquestionably of the same stock as 
O. caniceps of Cuba, differing in white instead of gray forehead, 
darker gray on head, more bluish back, greater extent of metallic 
purple on sides of breast, deeper russet of ventral region, restricted 
rufous on outer webs of primaries, and slightly shorter wing tip so 
that the emarginations of the outer primaries are slightly nearer the 
tip of the wing. Though the two birds are patently similar we agree 
with Doctor Chapman that the form of Hispaniola is specifically 
distinct. It will be recalled that Wetmore has described a quail- 
dove of this same type, in structural form at least, as Oreopeleia 
larva from bones found in cavern deposits of Porto Rico. 

This quail-dove has the forehead pure white, head slate gray, back 
and sides of breast rich purple, becoming indigo on the rump, center 
of upper breast greenish, lower breast dull gray and abdomen and 
under tail coverts rufous. The female is somewhat duller than the 
male. In body the bird is as large as a Zenaida dove. The species 
is to be mistaken for no other found in Hispaniola. 



210 BULLETIN 155, UNIT-ED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Order PSITTACIFORMES 

Family PSITTACIDAE 
Subfamily Pioninae 

AMAZONA VENTRALIS (Miiller) 74 
HISPANXOLAN PARROT, C0T0RRA, PERRUCHE, JACGUOT 

Psittacus ventralis Mulleb, Natursyst., Suppl., 1776, p. 79 (" Martinique "= 
Hispaniola). 

Papagayo, Oviedo, Hist. Gen. Nat. Indias, Libr. 14, Cap. 4; Reprint, Madrid, 
1851, p. 443 (common). 

Amazone a tete blanche, Button, Hist. Nat. Ois., vol. 6, 1779, p. 213 (" Saint- 
Domingue ").—Descouettlz. Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, pp. 201-202 (Haiti). 

Amazone a tete jaune, Descouetilz, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, pp. 201-202 
(Dominican Republic, error for A. ventralis). 

Perruche, Saint-Meby, Descrip. Part. Frang. lie Saint-Domingue, vol. 1, 
1797, p. 262 (Dondon). 

Parrot, Jeffeeys, Nat. Civ. Hist. French Dom. North and South America, pt. 
2, 1760, pp. 12, 170 (method of capture). — Saint-Meey, Descrip. Span. Part 
Saint-Domingo, vol. 1, 1798, p. 306 (numerous). — Wimpffen, Voy. Saint Do- 
mingo, 1817, p. 1S8 (recorded).— Beck, Nat. Hist., vol. 21, 1921, p. 41 (near 
Loma Tina). 

Psittacus dominicensis, Haetlaub, Isis, 1847, p. 609 (Hispaniola). — Ritteb, 
Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, p. 155 (listed). 

fPsittacus ochrocephalus, Ritteb, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, 
p. 155 (listed). 

Chrysotis sallaei Sclateb, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, p. 224 (described 
as new from Dominican Republic). — Salle, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, p. 
234 (habits).— Coey, Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, 1881, p. 154 (Jeremie, speci- 
men) ; Birds Haiti and San Domingo, Dec, 1884, pp. 115-116, col. sketch of 
head (Samana, Magna, Jeremie, specimens). — Tippenhaueb, Die Insel Haiti, 
1892, pp. 318, 322 (listed).— Cheisty, Ibis, 1897, p. 334 (Sanchez, common). 

Psittacus Sallaei, Beyant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 1867, 
p. 96 (Dominican Republic, Haiti). 

Amazona sallaei, Coey, Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 101 (Haiti, Dominican 
Republic). — Cheeeie, Field Columbian Mus., Ornith. ser., vol. 1, 1896, p. 22 
(abundant). — Clabk, Auk, 1905, pp. 331, 344 (listed). — Veeeill, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 359 (common). 

Chrysotis ventralis, Haetebt, Nov. Zool., vol. 9, 1902, p. 293 (Sanchez). 

Amazona ventralis, Petees, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, pp. 408-409 
(Arroyo Savana, specimens). — Kaempfee, Journ. fur Ornith., 1924, p. 183 
(Sanchez).— Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, pp. 140, 141; Beneath Tropic 
Seas, 1928, p. 221 (recorded). — Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 
80, 1928, p. 499 (La Selle, Chalne des Mateux, Montaignes Noires, Massif du 
Nord, Gonave). — Danfoeth, Auk, 1929, p. 366 (generally distributed). — LSnn- 
bebg, Fauna och Flora, 1929, p. 102 (Haiti). — Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. 
Nat, vol. 68, 1929, p. 315 (Bonao, specimens). 

78 The Papegai a. bandeau rouge, of Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois., vol. 6, 1779, pp. 241-242 
("Saint-Domingue"), and the Perroquet, de St. Domingue, of Daubenton, Planch. Enl., 
no. 792, refer to Amazona vittata of Porto Pico. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 211 

Resident; common in many localities particularly in the interior. 

The parrot is a common captive in Hispaniolan households where 
it often lives in a state of semi-freedom in houses, patios, and shade 
trees. It is docile when captured young, learns to speak words of 
human speech readily, and is exported in small number to nearby 
islands or to the United States. Though locally common in the 
settled lowlands it is reduced from its early abundance and is en- 
countered in numbers at present only in the forests of the interior 
mountains. Where it is found it is a conspicuous member of the 
avifauna as though it feeds concealed among the leaves of trees it 
makes daily flights in screeching flocks above the forests. 

The species has long been considered a game bird. Jefferys in 1760 
related that the Indians were said to send a boy into a tree with a 
captive parrot on his head which he caused to scream. Wild birds 
attracted by this gathered about squalling excitedly and were noosed 
skilfully one by one and killed. Moreau de Saint-Mery says that 
parrots were numerous in his day and excellent for the table, but 
Baron Wimpffen in 1817 found them shy so that it was "almost 
impossible to get a shot." Salle says they were good to eat and 
natives still consider them game. 

Cherrie relates that he saw several flocks of parrots containing as 
many as five hundred birds, and that the birds were watchful so that 
they were approached with difficulty. Beck, near the base of Loma 
Tina, observed that they ate the seeds of ripe sour oranges. Wetmore 
found a flock near San Juan, May 1, 1927, but there are compara- 
tively few modern records in the southern section of the Dominican 
Republic. Hartert observed this bird at Sanchez in 1892, and 
Christy records it in that section as found at every turn. He 
observed it nesting in holes in the palm trees. Abbott records a 
nest at Laguna on the Samana Peninsula, that on March 5, 1919, 
contained two young covered with pin feathers. The nest was in a 
hollow about nine inches in diameter in a half dead vervain tree 
that stood in a clearing a hundred yards from a house and the same 
distance from woodland. The trunk of this tree was hollow for 
most of its length with the lower part filled with wet debris. The 
entrance hole was twenty-seven feet above the ground. On May 
28, 1919 his boy, John King, secured an addled egg from a hollow 
in a palm twenty feet from the ground. This egg is white, stained 
to a dull color by age. It measures approximately 35.7 mm. long 
(one end being damaged) by 27.6 mm. wide. Kaempfer recorded 
parrots as breeding in the lowlands in April. He says that they 
are destructive to maize and the cultivated legume called gonduro, 
a complaint made almost universally of Amazon parrots throughout 
the range of the genus. Cory secured skins at Samana March 23, 



212 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

and June 1, 1883, and at Magua January 29 of the same year. Peters 
took specimens at Arroyo Savana and found the species common 
east of the Rio San Juan and inland from Cabrera. Ridgway has 
listed specimens from Cafia Honda, Sabana la Mar, La Caiiita, and 
Almercen (Rivas) in addition to the localities that have been men- 
tioned. Abbott forwarded skins from several points on the Samana 
peninsula, including two from the north shore near San Juan Bay 
August 17, 1916, La Galera, August 26 and Rojo Cabo, August 30. 
He collected one at an altitude of 1500 metres near Constanza 
September 22, 1916, and another at the same point April 29, 1919. 
There are two in the Academy of Natural Sciences that he took at 
Sabana la Mar June 25, 1883. 

Wetmore observed parrots at Villa Altagracia May 4, 1927, when 
a flock of a dozen passed. Near Sanchez they were observed in the 
mouth of the Arroyo Barrancota, May 8, along the lower Yuna 
May 10, and near the village May 14. In the interior they were 
more abundant being observed at El Rio May 18, 29 and 30, and 
near Constanza in numbers from May 18 to 29. They passed 
across the sky regularly in early morning and late afternoon trav- 
eling high in the air. Their flight though not of great velocity is 
remarkably ducklike as it is performed with short, quick wing 
strokes. When flying low over the trees they frequently sail for 
short distances with set wings. Loud, screeching calls almost in- 
variably announce the coming of a flock, a sound that amid the 
forests clothing the great ridges or in the broad open valleys was 
not so disagreeable to the ear as when the birds are confined within 
a building. At times they alighted in dead trees where they crawled 
and squalled in usual parrot fashion. It was always a matter of 
astonishment to have a number fly into the branches of a fairly 
open deciduous tree and there seem to disappear entirely so closely 
did the green of the plumage blend with the leaf color amid which 
they rested. When assured that there was no danger threatening 
they began then to call in low tones and to crawl about through 
the limbs. 

A female taken May 27 at Constanza had the bill pale brownish 
white, tinged with slate on the sides and with yellow at the base; 
cere pale brownish white ; bare skin about eye dull yellowish white ; 
iris bone brown; tarsus and toes dull grayish white; claws dusky. 
In 1927 Danforth found parrots especially common in the wooded 
hills near Bonao where he collected specimens August 7. Others 
were recorded between Azua and San Juan, between Navarrete and 
Monte Cristi, and near Seibo and Comendador. Ciferri sent speci- 
mens to Moltoni shot near Bonao February 6, 1927. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN" REPUBLIC 213 

In Haiti the parrot though fairly common seems less abundantly 
distributed than in the Dominican Republic, though here again 
many are seen in captivity. Saint-Mery in 1797 reported them from 
Dondon. Bryant in the middle of the nineteenth century while on 
Great Inagua Island in the Bahamas saw a number of these parrots 
brought in captivity from Haiti. Cory in 1881 reported the species 
as abundant on the coast in summer and procured one specimen at 
Jeremie. During Abbott's investigation he recorded parrots as gen- 
erally distributed but not particularly common except on Grande 
Cayemite Island where in January, 1918, they abounded (specimen 
taken January 6). He shot one at Jeremie December 26, 1917, and 
one at Furcy June 1, 1920. Two were taken at Moustique, at eleva- 
tions of 600 and 900 meters on March 3 and 4, 1917. G. S. Miller, jr., 
collected three (two preserved as skeletons) near St. Michel, 
March 12, 1925. Wetmore found parrots in numbers on the high 
ridge of La Selle from April 9 to 15, 1927, where they were observed 
feeding about the plantations of the Jardins Bois Pin or in flight 
above the pine forests in morning and evening. In traveling long 
distances the flocks though maintaining coherence were divided 
clearly into pairs or groups of three that flew closely, the third in- 
dividual probably being a young bird still accompanying its parents. 
Above Hinche a few were seen near the Bassin Zime April 24, and 
at Caracol on April 26 and 27, flocks were seen in morning and 
evening flight. Danforth found them in 1927 between St. Marc 
and Gonai'ves. Bond records them from La Selle, Chaine des 
Mateux, Montaignes Noires, and Massif du Nord, and Poole and 
Perrygo recorded them at St. Michel December 21 and 23, 1928, 
and Grand Riviere January 21, 1929. 

On Gonave Island Abbott observed a few parrots high up on the 
hillsides from February 18 to 28, 1918, but found none there in 
1920. He did not see them on Tortue Island. Bond says that par- 
rots are fairly common on the higher parts of Gonave Island, and 
Perrygo saw a pair at En Cafe March 9 and four March 10. The 
birds were very wild so that none were taken. 

The series in the United States National Museum has the follow- 
ing measurements : 

Males, 12 specimens, wing 178.5-192.0 (186.4), tail 91.4-107.3 
(98.8), culmen from cere 24.3-28.5 (26.0), tarsus 18.7-21.9 
(20.5) mm. 

Females, 5 specimens, wing 171.0-185.0 (181.1), tail 93.0-103.9 
(98.2), culmen from cere 24.2-26.1 (25.2), tarsus 20.2-22.8 (21.6) mm. 

The parrot is clear green in general coloration with blue on the 
crown and sides of the head, and on the wings, white on the fore- 
head and in front of the eye, and more or less red on the abdomen. 



214 BULLETIN 155, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Subfamily Arinae 

[MACAW 

Macaw, Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 16, Nov. 1, 1905, pp. 14-15 
(Hispaniola) ; Extinct Birds, 1907, p. 52 (Hispaniola). 
Ara rouge, Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois., vol. 6, 1779, p. 183 (reported). 
Ara tricolor, Clark, Auk, 1905, pp. 337, 348 (listed from Haiti). 

Macaws are reported in early days from Cuba and Jamaica but 
the only note that refers to them in Hispaniola is that of Buffon who 
in the Histoire Naturelle des Oiseaux, (vol. 6, 1779, p. 183) says 
under l'Ara rouge " en general, les aras etoient autrefois tres-com- 
muns a Saint-Domingue. Je vois par une lettre de M. le chevalier 
Deshayes, que dequis que les etablissemens francois ont ete pousses 
j usque sur le sommet des montagnes, ces oiseaux y sont moins 
frequens." A. H. Clark, in Auk, 1905, p. 348, cites this but through 
a lapsus calami refers it to Brisson, and considers that the Haitian 
bird may have been Ara tricolor. 

According to Moreau de Saint-Mery, 77 Deshayes, born in 1732, 
resided on an estate called Tivoly located a quarter of a mile from 
the sea in the canton of Plymouth, parish of Jeremie. Though a 
student of general natural history he preferred birds to all other 
subjects. 

Lord Rothschild writes 78 : "I may also mention that a small 
Macaw, also supposed to have been A. tricolor, was found on Hayti. 
This, in my opinion, must have been a third species, but we have 
no definite description of it." And in another place 79 says : " There 
was a third member of the tricolor group of Macaws found on the 
large island of Haiti, which Mr. Clark has also united under A. tri- 
color^ but I believe it must have been different, just as the Jamaica 
bird." 

The record as it stands above is indefinite and uncertain and until 
other evidence is offered the macaw can not be accepted in this list.] 

ARATINGA CHLOROPTERA CHLOROPTERA (Souance) 
HISPANIOLAN PAROQUET, PERICO, PERRICHE, PERRTJCHE 

Psittacara chloroptera Souancf., Rev. Mag. Zool., 1856, p. 59 (" Saint- 
Domingue"). 

Papagayo, Ovtedo, Hist. Gen. Nat. Indias, Libr. 14, Cap. 4; Reprint, Madrid, 
1851, p. 443 (common). 

Sincialo. Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois., vol. 6, 1779, pp. 265-268 (part; "Saint- 
Domingue "). 

77 Descrip. Part, Franc, Isle Saint-Domingue, vol. 2, 1798, pp. 814-815. 
™ Bull. Brit. Ornith. Club, vol. 16, 1905, pp. 14-15. 
70 Extinct Birds, 1907, p. 52. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 215 

Perroquet, Ohxmelin, Hist. Avent. Flibustiers, vol. 1, 1775, pp. 355-356, (com- 
mon). — Saint-Mery, Descrip. Part. Frang. lie Saint-Domingue, vol. 1, 1797, 
pp. 262, 717 (Dondon, Port-de-Paix). 

Papegai & bandeau rouge, Descotjrttlz, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, pp. 201-202 
( recorded ) . 

Paroquet, Beck, Nat. Hist., vol. 21, 1921, pp. 41, 46 (Ttibano). 

fPsittacus rufirostris, Ritteb, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, p. 155 
(listed). 

Psittacus guyanensis, Ritter, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, pp. 
151, 155 (specimen). 

Psittacus chloropterus, Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May 
1867, p. 96 (Dominican Republic). 

Conurus guyanensis, Hartlaub, Isis, 1847, p. 610 (Hispaniola). 

Conurus euo-ps, Tristram, Ibis, 1884, p. 168 (Dominican Republic). 

Conurus chloropterus, Salle, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, p. 234 (Dominican 
Republic). — Cory, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, December, 1884, pp. 113-114, 
col. pi. (descriptions, habits) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 101 (Dominican 
Republic) ; Auk, 1895, p. 279 (listed). — Tristram, Cat. Coll. Birds belonging 
H. B. Tristram, 1889, p. 272 (Dominican Republic, specimen). — Tippenhauer, 
Die Insel Haiti, 1892, pp. 318, 322 (listed).— Cherrie, Field Columbian Mus., 
Ornith. ser., vol. 1, 1896, p. 121 (not common, specimens). — Christy, Ibis, 1897, 
p. 334 (Yuna).— Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 359 (El 
Valle, Matanzas). 

Aratinga chloroptera, Lonnberg, Fauna och Flora, 1929, p. 102 (Haiti). 

Aratinga chloroptera chloroptera, Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 140 ; 
Beneath Tropic Seas, 1928, p. 221 (recorded). — Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 499 (Port-au-Prince, La Selle, Ennery, Massif 
du Nord, St. Michel).— Danforth, Auk, 1929, pp. 366-367 (abundant).— 
Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, p. 315 (San Juan, specimens). 

Resident; common in the high mountains of the interior, locally 
distributed elsewhere. 

In the early history of Hispaniola paroquets were found in num- 
bers. Oviedo speaks of them as common and says that the Indians 
called them xaxdbes. Oexmelin reported them in flocks and writes 
that they nested in old woodpecker holes or other cavities in trees, 
laying three or five eggs, or rarely seven. He supposed that they 
deposited eggs always in odd numbers. In the nineteenth century 
paroquets seem to have become rare in the coastal region and lower 
hills, as Salle secured only one specimen and saw few others. Cherrie 
reported few and secured only four. Natives reported the species 
to him as abundant at certain seasons which probably indicates that 
flocks descended at times from the interior mountains. Christy in 
1895 observed several small flocks in the Yuna swamps. Verrill 
considered them rare and found them only at El Valle and Matanzas. 
Cory secured a number at Samana March 12, April 3, 7, 9 and 18, 
and September 3, 1883, three of these skins being now in the United 
States National Museum. Beck collected a series on Loma Tina 
and at Tubano, in December, 1916 and January 1, 1917. Abbott 



216 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

found paroquets in small flocks in the high interior near Constanza, 
securing two specimens there on April 26, and four on May 11, 1919, 
and one near El Rio on May 19 of the same year. On March 1, 
1922, he shot one at an elevation of 600 meters in the Sierra de Baho- 
ruco near Polo. Near Sanchez in 1883 he found the paroquet com- 
mon. He was told that fifty years previous paroquets had come in 
great flocks so that it was necessary to guard the fields of maize 
against their depredations. Hundreds were shot in driving them 
out. In 1919 he saw none at all on the Samana peninsula, and in 
that vicinity heard of them only at Matanzas and near Cabo Frances 
Viejo. With prohibition against firearms the birds seem to be again 
on the increase since Wetmore found several flocks May 10, 1927. 
along the lower Yuna. He recorded several bands near Comendador 
April 30, and found them near Constanza May 18 and 21, collecting 
two on the date last mentioned. These two were shot on the wing 
at one discharge from a passing flock, divided as usual into couples 
that flew near together, and proved to be male and female, indica- 
tion that these segregations within the flock are pairs as is always 
supposed. 

Danforth writes that in 1927 the paroquet was abundant through 
the region between San Juan, Dominican Republic, and Mirebalais 
so that thousands were seen in small flocks daily. At San Juan 
there was a roost somewhere to the west as flocks were observed 
traveling to and from it night and morning. The birds were feed- 
ing on the fruit of a wild fig, and were tame and unsuspicious so 
that they were not alarmed even when some of them were shot. 
Nine taken were not in breeding condition. He observed this species 
elsewhere at Laguna del Salodillo, near Copey, June 26, Hato Major 
July 7, Vasquez August 6, and Bonao August 7. Ciferri obtained it 
at San Juan, February 5 and May 30, 1928, and July 4, 1929. 

In Haiti the paroquet has been reported more rarely. Saint-Mery 
speaks of it near Dondon and Port-de-Paix. Abbott collected three 
at the Etang Saumatre April 8, 1920, and others on the slopes above 
Fonds Verettes May 1, and near Fond Parisien May 6 and 8. 
Bartsch observed one in the Cul-de-Sac region April 24, 1917, and 
Beebe records a few flocks in the interior. Wetmore found them 
numerous on the summit of La Selle April 9 to 15, 1927, and secured 
two specimens April 13. Squalling flocks passed over the pines at 
intervals but the birds were wary and seldom permitted near 
approach. Many were seen about the little plantations of the Jar- 
dins Bois Pin. The flight of the paroquet is swift and direct and 
the long slender tail makes an excellent field mark. One morning 
at sunrise two alighted in the top of a dead tree near camp and 
when collected proved to be male and female. G. S. Miller, jr., 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 217 

secured one near St. Michel March 18, 1925. Wet more found a few 
along the Ravine Papaye near Hinche April 20 and 23, and at the 
Bassin Zime April 25. A few were observed near Maissade April 
21. At Poste Charbert near Caracol, flocks were seen in evening 
flight on April 26 and 27. Danforth saw a few at Petionville July 
23, 1927. 

Bond recorded the paroquet at Port-au-Prince, on La Selle, the 
Massif du Nord, and at Ennery and St. Michel. He reports a nest 
on Morne Salnave placed in a hole in a dead pine " at least 80 feet 
above the ground." Poole and Perrygo found paroquets common at 
St. Michel December 21, 1928, and on December 31, collected one at 
L'Atalaye. Another was taken at St. Raphael January 13, 1929, 
and others were seen at Grand Riviere January 21, and Hinche March 
17. At Cerca-la-Source four were taken March 21 and 23. 

The calls of this paroquet are higher pitched than those of the 
native parrot so that the two are easily distinguished at a distance 
when they may not be seen. As the paroquet raises the wings to take 
flight the flash of red from the under wing coverts is very pleasing. 
A few of these birds were seen in captivity with one wing clipped to 
prevent their flying but they did not seem such favorites as cage 
birds as the parrots. The Haitian name perrlche is a creole rendition 
of the French perruche. 

In studying the series of skins of this bird from Hispaniola it has 
been necessary to again consider the status of Aratinga ohloroptera 
maugei on the basis of the single specimen from Mona Island in the 
Field Museum, which has been available for comparison through the 
kindness of Dr. C. E. Hellmayr. The green in this bird is faintly 
duller on the underparts and the bill is slightly larger than the aver- 
age. The greatest peculiarity is found in the extensive red on the 
under primary coverts, this color pervading all of these coverts except 
two on one side. In an extended series of chloroptera from Hispani- 
ola proper, including those in the Field Museum, United States Na- 
tional Museum, Academy of Natural Sciences, Tring and the American 
Museum there are some birds that have a few of the under primary 
coverts red but not one approaches the bird from Mona in that 
respect. The bird from Mona, which is a female, has the following 
measurements ; wing 162.0, tail 159.5, culmen 26.6 and tarsus 17.8 mm. 
It, therefore, averages slightly smaller than skins from Hispaniola. 
It may be noted here that the right wing has the tips of the two 
longest primaries slightly broken so that this wing measures only 
157.5 mm., which will account for this wing length given by Wetmore 
in his Birds of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands, 80 as in earlier 

80 New York Acad. Sci., Sci. Surv. Porto Rico and Virgin Islands, vol. 9, 1927, p. 417. 



218 BULLETIN 155, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

examination this wing was measured without noticing the slight 
break indicated. 

Following are measurements from the Hispaniolan series; 10 
males, wing 169.4-178.5 (171.6), tail 129.0-155.6 (147.7), culmen 
from cere 22.8-28.3 (25.7), tarsus 15.2-18.3 (16.9) mm. 

Eleven females, wing 162.5-170.0 (166.8), tail 131.5-156.5 (147.1), 
culmen from cere 23.3-25.9 (24.5), tarsus 15.3-18.7 (16.9) mm. 

The paroquet is entirely green except for more or less mixture of 
red on the under wing coverts that some times shows on the edge 
of the wing. The long, graduated, pointed tail serves to distinguish 
it readily from the square tailed parrot. 

Order CUCULIFORMES 
Suborder Cuculi 

Family CUCULIDAE 
Subfamily Cuculinae 

COCCYZUS AMERICANUS AMERICANUS (Linnaeus) 
YELLOW-BILLED CUCKOO, PAJARO BOBO 

Cueulus americanus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1, 1758, p. Ill 
(Carolina). 

Cueulus Dominiccnsis Bbisson, Ornith., vol. 4, 1760, pp. 110-112, pi. 9, fig. 2 
(" S. Domingue " ) . 

Coccyzus americanus, Chebeie, Field Columbian Mus., Ornith. ser., vol. 1, 
1896, p. 19 (Dominican Republic, specimens). — Ekman, Ark. for Bot., vol. 22 A, 
No. 16, p. 7, 1929 (Navassa). 

Coccyzus americanus americanus, Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 140 ; 
Beneath Tropic Seas, 1928, p. 221 (Port-au-Prince). — Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, pp. 499-500 (listed).— Danfobth, Auk, 1929, 
p. 367 (apparently breeding). — Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 
1929, p. 315 (San Juan, specimens). 

Fairly common ; apparently breeding. 

Brisson describes and figures the yellow-billed cuckoo from a 
specimen sent by Chervain to de Reaumur. Cherrie relates that at 
the beginning of May, 1895, at Santo Domingo City this species 
suddenly appeared in numbers so that on May 2, 3, and 4 he collected 
five pairs. One female secured held an egg in the oviduct that 
would have been deposited within two days. Beck collected one at 
Sanchez November 22, 1916, and one at Santo Domingo City May 
28, 1917. Hartert informs us that four specimens in the Tring 
Museum collected by Kaempfer were secured near Tubano, in the 
Province of Azua, from August 9 to 19, 1923. They were found 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 219 

from 400 to 700 meters altitude. Danforth recorded them at Monte 
Christi June 22, Dajabon June 23 (specimen), Laguna del Salodillo 
June 26, Santo Domingo City July 1, Vasquez August 6, and Bonao 
August 7. Ciferri sent specimens to Moltoni taken at San Juan 
July 5 and 6, 1929. 

In Haiti Abbott collected a female at Port-de-Paix June 13, 1917, 
and four males and one female at Picmy, Gonave Island July 5 and 
6 of that yea,r. All of these are adult birds. Beebe reports one in 
a garden at Port-au-Prince without giving the date. Danforth 
records six taken on Gonave July 15 to 19, 1927, one of which, in the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, was taken at Anse a Galets July 15. 
Danforth found them also at the sloughs near the mouth of the Arti- 
bonite July 29. He reports that three birds taken on Gonave had 
the stomachs filled with noctuid caterpillars, with an elaterid beetle 
in one. From present somewhat meager evidence it appears that 
the yellow-billed cuckoo nests in Hispaniola, while from Cherrie's 
experience at Santo Domingo City where the species appeared sud- 
denly in numbers at the opening of May it would seem that it may 
be a migrant found mainly in summer. Known dates of its occurrence 
at present range from May 2 to November 22. The bird is found in 
dense shrubbery and trees where it moves slowly and leisurely oc- 
casionally uttering a loud, slowly cadenced, rattling call. The 
specimens taken at 700 meters near Tubano may mark the upward 
limit of range in the interior hills. 

E. L. Ekman found the yellow-billed cuckoo on Navassa Island in 
October, 1928. 

We have compared the series of six secured by Abbott with speci- 
mens from eastern North America and find that they are apparently 
identical in color. These specimens have the following range of 
measurement (in millimeters) : 

Four males, wing 134.8-143.1 (138.1), tail 134.0-136.7 (135.7), 
culmen from base 24.2-25.0 (24.6), tarsus 25.7-26.8 (26.2). 

Two females, wing 135.6-146.9 (141.2), tail 133.1-149.8 (141.4), 
culmen from base 24.2-25.0 (24.6) , tarsus 25.7-26.8 (26.2). 

Though the average is slightly less than that for extensive series 
from eastern North America many northern birds are no larger 
than those from Haiti so that the apparent difference would prob- 
ably disappear with more specimens. We consider the Hispaniolan 
birds to be C. a. americanus. 

The yellow-billed cuckoo, while from 275 to 308 mm. long, is 
very slender. It is white below and grayish brown above, with a 
chestnut wash on the primaries, and a black tail with the outer 
feathers broadly tipped with white. 



220 BULLETIN" 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

COCCYZUS MINOR TERES Peters 
MANGROVE CUCKOO, PAJARO BOBO, TACOT 

Coccyzus minor teres Peters, Proc. New England Zool. Club, vol. 9, June 
24, 1927, p. 112 (Sosfia, Dominican Republic). — Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Philadelpbia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 500 (recorded).— Danfokth, Auk, 1929, p. 367 
(specimens). — Lonnberg, Fauna och Flora, 1929, p. 101 (Haiti). 

Cuculus seniculus, Ritter, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, p. 155 
(Haiti, specimen). 

Coccygus minor, Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 1867, 
p. 96 (Haiti).— Cory, Bull. Nuttall Ornitb. Club, 1881, p. 154 (Haiti, speci- 
mens) ; Birds Haiti and San Domingo, July, 1884, pp. 101-102 (La Vega, 
specimens). — Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, pp. 319, 322 (listed). 

Coccygus dominions ?, Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 
1867, p. 96 (Dominican Republic). 

Coccyzns seniculus, Saixe\ Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, p. 234 (listed). 

Coccyzus dominicus, Hartlaub, Isis, 1847, p. 609 (listed) ; Naumannia, 1S52, 
p. 53 (Haiti).— Saixe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, p. 234 (listed). 

Coccyzus minor, Cory, Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 102 (Haiti, Domini- 
can Republic). — Cherrie, Field Columbian Mus., Ornitb. Ser., vol. 1, 1896, p. 
19 (Dominican Republic). — Verrill. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelpbia, 1909, 
p. 359 (San Lorenzo, El Valle, La Vega). 

Coccyzus minor nesiotes, Ridgway, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 50, pt. 7, 1916, p. 27 
(Port-au-Prince, Le Coup, San Cristobal, Catarrey, Puerto Plata, Samana, 
Cafia Honda, La Canita, San Lorenzo, El Valle, La Vega). — Peters, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, pp. 409-410 (Monte Cristi, Sosfia).— Moltoni, Att. 
Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, p. 315 (Bonao, specimen). 

Coccyzus minor maynardi, Cory, Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 102, 
(Haiti, Dominican Republic). 

Resident ; fairly common in some localities. 

Though known as the mangrove cuckoo the present species fre- 
quents tangled growth of all kinds from the thorny cactus grown 
scrubs of semi-arid sections to the dense lowland jungles of the 
areas with abundant precipitation. It moves about rather slowly, 
peering out among the leaves as ft searches for its insect food, 
largely caterpillars, and when not seen frequently announces its 
presence by loud, rolling, sharply syllabled calls. It is local in oc- 
currence and may be absent over wide areas. There is considerable 
variation in depth of color in specimens from Hispaniola which 
has caused some naturalists to suppose that two forms were found 
on the island. There is no indication of this, however, and recently 
Mr. Peters has recognized a distinct form from Hispaniola and 
Porto Rico in which we concur. 

Seven males from Haiti and the Dominican Republic in the 
United States National Museum have the following measurements 
(in millimeters): wing 120.4 to 127.4 (125.1), tail 151.0 to 162.5 
(154.8), culmen from base 26.1 to 29.9 (27.6), tarsus 26.9 to 28.0 
(27.2). 



THE BIEDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 221 

Six females measure as follows: 126.0-131.9 (128.1), tail, 140.0- 
161.0 (151.9), culmen from base 27.3-28.9 (27.7), tarsus 27.0-28.8 
(27.9). 

In the Dominican Republic Cherrie reported a few from the low- 
lands (Catarrey, San Cristobal) in the southern part of the country 
and did not find the species above 100 meters altitude. Abbott se- 
cured a pair at Trujin on February 8 and 10, 1922, two at Villa 
Rivas January 15 and 17, a female, near the breeding season, at Pi- 
mentel January 23, 1921 and one at Laguna on the Samana Penin- 
sula March 7, 1919. Verrill reported them as abundant in some 
localities but entirely absent in others. He records them in his 
paper from San Lorenzo, El Valle and La Vega but says that he 
saw none at Sanchez. Specimens that he secured, now in the col- 
lection of J. H. Fleming of Toronto, include three from Cana Honda 
January 6, 10 and 12, two from Samana, January 31 and February 
19, and three from La Vega March 11, 13 and 14, 1907. Cory lists 
two from La Vega July 24 and August 7, 1883, these being the only 
summer specimens at present on record. Peters found them com- 
mon in the desert region at Monte Cristi, and in the more luxuriant 
tangles near Sosua, securing eighteen skins. Beck secured speci- 
mens at Santo Domingo City September 27, and October 2, 17 and 
19 and November 29, 1916. Abbott reports this bird as common on 
Saona Island September 12 to 18, 1919 but did not collect specimens. 

In 1927 Danforth collected a breeding male at Seibo July 4 and 
observed another individual carrying nesting material on the follow- 
ing day. He took one at Vasquez June 25 and saw others at Monte 
Cristi June 18 to 27 and Bonao August 7. Ciferri secured one at 
Bonao September 5, 1927. 

In Haiti Wurttemberg, according to Hartlaub, found this species 
very common. A. E. Younglove sent two, taken at Port-au-Prince 
February 28 and April 13, 1866 to the Smithsonian Institution, 
which are still in the collections of the United States National Mu- 
seum. Bartsch recorded the species near Glore April 3, and at Trou 
Caiman April 4, 1917. Abbott secured skins at Port-de-Paix April 
14, and Cap-Hai'tien April 27, 1927. He collected a female at Anse 
a Galets on Gonave Island March 5, 1920. Wetmore secured one 
near Caracol on April 27, 1927, the only one observed during the 
entire course of his work on the island. Danforth records them in 
1927 from the Citadelle Hill above Milot August 2, and collected 
one at the ittang Miragoane July 22. Others were taken on Gonave 
Island during the middle of July. Bond says that he did not see 
this bird until after February 20, 1928, but that after that he re- 
corded it frequently. He reports it from the Morne La Hotte and 
2134—31 15 



222 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

the Massif de la Selle, and from Port-de-Paix, Cap-Haitien, Gonave 
and Tortue Islands. There are three specimens in his collection in 
the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, one from Miragoane 
February 20, and two from Tortue Island March 17 and 18, 1928. 
One was taken at Anse a. Galets, Gonave Island, July 19, 1927, by 
John T. Emlen, jr. Poole and Perrygo in 1929 found this cuckoo 
at L'Atalaye January 5, Fort Liberte February 6, 7, 10, 12, and 19, 
and St. Marc February 25. 

The present species is from 300 to 325 mm. in length with slender 
form and long, narrow tail. Above it is grayish brown with a 
blackish line through the eye, and below it is deep buff, grayish 
on the breast, the buff color becoming deeper on the under tail 
coverts. The under side of the tail is black with the feathers tipped 
broadly with white. The bill is black except for the base of the 
lower mandible, which is yellow as in the yellow-billed cuckoo. 

HYETORNIS RUFIGULARIS (Hartlaub) 
HISPANIOLAN HYETORNIS, BOBQ, MANTERQ, TACOT, TACOT CABRI 

Coccyzus rufigularis " Herz. v. Wiirttemb." Hartlaub, Naumannia, 1852, 
p. 55 (Mountain forests of Dominican Republic). 

Piaya Pauli guilelmi Hartlaub, Naumannia, 1852, p. 55 (substitute name for 
Coccyzus rufigularis) . 

Hyetomis fleldi Cory, Auk, 1895, p. 278 (Described as new; type locality 
"Maniel"=San Jose de Ocoa, Dominican Republic). — Cherrie, Field Colum- 
bian Mus., Ornith. ser., vol. 1, 1896, pp. 19-20 (Honduras, San Jose de Ocoa, 
specimens). — Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 359 (between 
Miranda and La Vega). 

Hyetomis rufigularis, Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, 
p. 500 (Gonave Island).— Da nforth, Auk, 1929, p. 368 (Gonave Island).— 
Lonnbeeg, Fauna och Flora, 1929, p. 101 (Haiti). 

Resident; local in distribution. 

In view of the large size of this cuckoo, larger even than the lizard- 
cuckoo, the little known regarding it at present is surprising. It 
was first recorded by Wiirttemberg who secured it in 1829 " in den 
gebirgigen Urwaldern des Spanischen S. Domingo." His descrip- 
tion of it however was overlooked so that when Cherrie in 1895 se- 
cured three at Honduras and two at San Jose de Ocoa Cory described 
them as new under the name Hyetomis fleldi. Cherrie reports that 
he learned comparatively little of the habits of this bird since it 
progressed so rapidly through the forest, running quickly along the 
limbs of the trees and flying across to new points of vantage, that it 
was necessary to move rapidly to keep it in sight. He likened the 
note to the hoarse croaking of a frog. Like other cuckoos of the 
Dominican Republic he said that the flesh of this bird was esteemed 
as a delicacy for the sick. Verrill met with the species only once 
between Miranda and La Vega. Beck collected an extensive series 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 223 

at Tubano December 30, 1916 and February 4 to 20, 1917, and one on 
Loma Tina January 8, 1917. Abbott secured specimens near Con- 
stanza April 9 and 30, and May 1, and near Hondo at an altitude of 
900 meters May 4, 1919. On April 28 he speaks of them as common 
at Corralito near Constanza, and says that they were common else- 
where in that region. He found them breeding in May, and on May 
9 near Hondo, killed a female that contained an egg ready to lay. 
The one taken April 30 had the stomach filled with locusts, mantids, 
pentatomids, and the remains of lizards. Hartert writes that there 
are seven skins in the Tring Museum collected by Kaempfer, an adult 
male from Constanza taken July 31, and two males and four females 
secured near Tubano at from 300 to 500 meters altitude between 
August 9 and 23, 1923. 

In Haiti Abbott secured three near Moustique at from 750 to 900 
meters altitude March 9 and 12, 1917. He saw them nowhere else 
on the mainland but secured five on Gonave Island on February 20, 
23, 25, and 26, 1918, and four more at Anse a Galets, March 11, and 
fitroites March 16 and 21, 1920. They were not especially shy but 
inhabited dense jungle where they were not easily seen except when 
called out into view. Most of them were found on densely wooded 
hillsides at 300 meters altitude. The stomach of one taken March 
21, 1920 contained the remains of mice. 

Abbott records the bill as blackish above and lead colored at the 
base of the mandible, and the tarsus as lead colored. This agrees 
with the statement of Cherrie who writes "maxilla and point of 
mandible is black ; eye dusky ; feet, legs and basal part of mandible 
plumbeous." Danforth records one collected by F. P. Mathews in 
the hills above Anse a Galets, Gonave Island, July 19, 1927 and 
says that the stomach contains lizard remains and a few bits of 
Coleoptera. Bond writes " not uncommon on Gonave Island. I 
did not observe it elsewhere. The notes of this cuckoo resemble 
the bleating of a rather large lamb from which it has derived its 
name of Tacot cabri. It also emits at times a very strange though 
more cuckoo-like u-wack-u-wack-u-wack-u-wdck-wdck-wdck-wdck. 
Its flight is heavier, more labored, than that of Saurothera? 

In view of the differences that exist between the lizard-cuckoos of 
Gonave Island and those of Hispaniola proper it is somewhat sur- 
prising that the Hyetomis from these two localities appear identical. 
In the present species the female is slightly larger than the male. 
Following are comparative measurements of birds from Hispaniola 
proper and Gonave Island : 

Haiti and the Dominican Republic : 

Males, four specimens, wing, 160.0-175.0 (167.1), tail 251.0-266.0 
(258.3), culmen from base 35.0-36.2 (35.6), tarsus 37.0-40.4 (38.5) 
mm. 



224 BULLETIN 155, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Females, four specimens, wing 181.0-184.5 (183.1), tail 270.0-285.0 
(277.8), culmen from base 40.5-45.9 (43.8), tarsus 43.0-45.0 (44.3) 
mm. 
Gonave Island : 

Males, four specimens, wing 163.0-173.0 (168.0), tail 246.0-269.0 
(254.3), culmen from base 37.1-12.1 (38.8), tarsus 38.7-45.3 (41.3) 
mm. 

Females, five specimens, wing 180.0-185.0 (183.0), tail 270.0-280.0 
(274.8), culmen from base 12.2-44.2 (43.2), tarsus 42.5-46.0 (44.6) 
mm. 

The present species measures from 430 to 525 mm. in total length, 
nearly two-thirds of this being given to the long tail. The upper 
surface is grayish brown except for the end of the tail which is 
black, tipped with white and a wash of chestnut on the wing. The 
breast, throat and sides are chestnut, the abdomen cinnamon-buff, 
and the under surface of the tail black, the individual feathers 
tipped widely with white. The bill is strongly decurved with 
minute serrulations along the cutting edges. 

SAUROTHERA LONGIROSTRIS LONGIROSTRIS (Hermann) 
KISPANI0LAN LIZARD-CUCKOO, PAJARO BOBO, TACOT 

Cuculus longirostris Hermann, Tab. Afiin. Anim.. 17S3, p. 186 (Hispaniola). 

Tacco, Montbeillard, in Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois., vol. 6, 1779, pp. 402-407 
(part; habits). 

Cuculus Jamaicensis longiroster Brisson, Ornith., vol. 4, 1760, pp. 116-118, 
pi. 17, fig. 2 ("S. Domingue"). 

Cuculus vetula, Ritter, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, p. 155 
(Haiti, specimen). 

Saurothera vetula, Hartlaub, Isis, 1847, p. 609 (listed). 

Saurothera Vicilloti, Salle, Proe. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, p. 234 (Domini- 
can Republic). 

Saurothera vieillotii P, Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 
1867, p. 95 (Dominican Republic). 

Saurothera domingensis " Herz. v. Wiirttemberg " Hartlaub, Naumannia, 
1852, p. 55 (Dominican Republic). 

Saurothera dominigeneis, Ciferbi, Segund. Inf. An. Est. Agr. Moca, 1927, 
p. 6 (listed). 

Saurothera Dominicensis Lafbesnaye, Rev. Zool., vol. 10, November, 1847, 
p. 355. (Based on Cuculus Jamaicensis longiroster Brisson, from " S. Do- 
mingue.") 

Saurothera dominicensis, Salle, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, p. 234 (listed). — 
Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 1867, p. 95 (Dominican 
Republic, Haiti).— Cory, Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, 1881, p. 154, (Haiti) ; Birds 
Haiti and San Domingo, July, 18S4, pp. 98-99, col. pi. of head (Petionville, 
Puerto Plata, specimens) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 102 (Haiti, Domini- 
can Republic). — Tristram, Ibis, 18S4, p. 168 (Dominican Republic) ; Cat. Coll. 
Birds belonging H. B. Tristram, 1889, p. 272 (Dominican Republic, specimen). — 
Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, pp. 318, 322 (listed). — Cherrie, Field 
Columbian Mus., Ornith. ser., vol. 1, 1896, p. 19 (Dominican Republic, abun- 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 155 PLATE 17 




The hispaniolan lizard-cuckoo (Saurothera longirostris longirostr 



IS 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 225 

dant). — Chbisty, Ibis, 1897, p. 331 (Dominican, Republic). — Forbes and Rob- 
inson, Bull. Liverpool Mus., vol, 1, August, 1897, p. 42 (Las Canitas, specimens) .— 
Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 359 (Dominican Repub- 
lic). — Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, p. 409 (Monte Cristi, Bulla, 
Sosua, Choco, specimens). — Bartsch, Smithsonian Misc. Colls., vol. 68, no. 12, 
1918, fig. 56 (photo). — Kaempfer, Journ. fur Ornith., 1924, p. 181 (nest, habits). — 
Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, pp. 140, 141 ; Beneath Tropic Seas, 1928, 
pp. 51, 52, 221 (food). 

Saurotliera longirostris, Stresemann, Nov. Zool., vol. 27, 1920, p. 330 (change 
of name). — Lonnberg, Fauna och Flora. 1929, p. 101 (Haiti, Tortue). 

Saurothera longirostris longirostris, Richmond and Swales, Proc. Biol. Soc. 
Washington, vol. 37, March 17, 1924, pp. 105, 106 (mentioned).— Bond, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci., vol. 80, 1928, p. 500 (Haiti, Tortue).— Danforth, Auk, 1929, 
p. 367 (common). — Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, p. 316 (Haina, 
San Juan, Bonao, specimens). 

Resident, common. 

The lizard-cuckoo is one of the common birds of the island, dis- 
tributed everywhere that there is shrubbery or forest to afford it 
cover. (PI. 17.) It occurs close about the towns, coming into the 
outskirts of Port-au-Prince, and is seen at times in gardens. In the 
country districts the birds appear everywhere, in Haiti even in scant 
stands of bushes on barren mountain slopes. They move in a 
leisurely manner, walking with long strides along the tree-limbs, 
often crouching and proceeding stealthily in search of their insect 
or lizard prey, or creeping and crawling like great rats along dense 
branches near the ground. Frequently they rest quietly at one point 
for several minutes. In early morning particularly they delight in 
sitting in the rays of the sun with Heathers fluffed out loosely to 
absorb the warmth. Their call, a rattling, grating note, repeated 
several times, is given frequently. In addition they have low calls 
that may be rendered as tchk, a clicking sound, and tick cwuh-h-h 
in a lower tone. Though preferring to progress among limbs, whei. 
flight is necessary it is performed with rapid beats of the relatively 
small, rounded wings, and ends in a sail with spread pinions that 
carries the bird to the desired perch. The whole reminds one of 
descriptions of the supposed method of flight of the archeopteryx, 
the most ancient of known fossil birds. 

Lizard-cuckoos are inquisitive and fearless and may be decoyed 
easily to approach within a few feet. Their food is made up largely 
of orthoptera and lizards, and it is common to see one with the limp 
body of a lizard dangling from its bill. Abbott reports a mantis 
in the stomach of one and orthoptera in three that he examined. In 
the Dominican Republic the flesh of the pajaro bobo is given to 
invalids to produce appetite, and is highly prized among the country 
people as a cure for indigestion. 

The species has seemingly always been abundant. Cherrie reports 
that he collected 80 specimens, representing all of the localities where 



226 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

he worked. Christy found large green orthoptera in the stomach 
of two that he skinned. J. H. Fleming has a considerable series 
collected by Verrill at Cana Honda, El Valle, Sanchez, near Samana, 
and at La Vega. Kaempfer describes a nest found near Jarabacoa 
as a flat, poorly made structure composed of a few leaves placed on 
the stump of a tree 50 cm. from the ground. He reports orthoptera 
and a snake 42 cm. long in the stomachs of specimens collected. 
Abbott secured specimens at Laguna on the Samana Peninsula, near 
Jarabacoa, and in the vicinity of Constanza. Wetmore observed 
a number at Constanza, and near El Rio, so that the species seems 
to range from the sea coast through the interior over the high 
mountains. Abbott reports one shot but not preserved on Saona 
Island September 12 to 18, 1919. 

Danforth collected a young bird barely able to fly near Monte 
Cristi June 22, 1927. In the stomach of one bird he found two 
cockroach nymphs and two cicadas (Odopoea cincta), and in an- 
other two large cicadas, a small grasshopper, and a lizard of the genus 
Anolis. Ciferri sent specimens to Moltoni from Haina, Bonao, and 
the Sabana San Thome near San Juan. 

In Haiti, as has been said, the bird occurs wherever there is cover. 
In 1866 A. E. Younglove found it common as he forwarded eight 
from Port-au-Prince and Jeremie to the Smithsonian Institution. 
Abbott secured one near Furcy, and Wetmore saw numbers on the 
summit of La Selle. The bird extends through the Cul-de-Sac plain 
and the great central plain, and is common in the north. Abbott 
found it common on Tortue Island where he collected three specimens. 
Beebe brought living specimens to New York for exhibit in the 
Zoological Park. 

A male collected by Wetmore at Fonds-des-Negres April 2, 1927, 
had the maxilla and tip of mandible dull black; rest of mandible 
pale neutral gray; center of lower eyelid neutral gray; rest of bare 
skin about eye clear red ; tarsus and toes neutral gray ; under sides of 
toes yellowish. 

Following is the occurrence of this species as recorded by Wetmore 
in 1927: 

Dominican Republic: Comendador, April 30; San Juan May 1; 
Sanchez May 6 to 13 ; La Vega to El Rio May 17 ; Constanza May 
18 to 27. 

Haiti; Port-au-Prince, March 29; Fonds-des-Negres March 31 to 
April 4; Aquin, April 3; La Tremblay, April 7; Riviere Jaquisy 
April 8 and 9; Massif de la Selle, April 9 to 15; Chapelle Faure, 
April 17; Morne a Cabrits, April 20; Las Cahobes, April 20; Hinche, 
April 20 to 24; Maissade, April 21; Caracol, April 26. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 227 

Abbott collected specimens at Jeremie and Riviere Bar, in addition 
to those already mentioned. Poole and Perrygo secured this bird 
at L'Atalaye, St. Michel, St. Raphael, Dondon, Pont Sonde, and 
Cerca-la-Source. 

Stresemann 81 wrote that the earliest name applicable to this species 
is Cuculus longirostris of Hermann, published in 1783, which ante- 
dates the name dominicensis of Lafresnaye (1847) long in current 
use. On investigation it appears that longirostris of Hermann is 
based on the Tacco of Montbeillard in Buffon. 82 This is a composite 
composed of a mixed account of the lizard-cuckoos of Jamaica and 
Haiti taken from Sloane and others. The first reference is to the 
Coucou a long bee, de la Jamai'que in Daubenton, Planch. Enl., no. 
772, which in spite of the locality given is the species of Hispaniola. 
The name longirostris of Hermann will, therefore, apply as Strese- 
mann indicates to the species current as S. dominicensis (Lafresnaye), 
with Hispaniola as the type locality. 

In a considerable series of these birds there is slight variation in 
depth of color of the upper surface and in extent and depth of shade 
in the cinnamon of throat and abdomen but this appears individual, 
as birds from the high mountains and coastal plain and from arid 
and humid sections appear similar. The skins obtained by Abbott 
on Tortue island do not differ from those of Hispaniola proper. 

In the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences there is an 
immature male not fully grown with wing quills still in process of 
development that was taken by James Bond at Port-au-Prince 
December 26, 1927. In general color this is like the adult but has a 
faint wash of brown above, and the webs of the two central tail 
feathers distinctly brownish. The buff of the throat is well indi- 
cated but is faintly paler than in the adult while the chin is nearly 
white. The rectrices have a fairly distinct spot of chamois at the 
extreme tip and a wash of the same color on the proximal portion of 
the usual white marking. The outermost pair lacks the customary 
white tip of the adult, the dark coloration of the main part of the 
feather fading gradually into a terminal mark of dull chamois. The 
buff throat is so distinctly more evident than the faint wash of that 
color found in the form of lizard-cuckoo peculiar to Gonave Island 
as to suggest a wider separation than has been supposed for that form. 
Following are measurements of birds from Hispaniola, including 
Tortue Island: 

Fourteen males, wing 129.7-138.0 (134.3), tail 184.0-227.0 (205.5), 
culmen from base 46.0-53.6 (50.7), tarsus 33.4-37.5 (35.5) mm. 

81 Nov. Zool., vol. 27, 1920, p. 330. 
" Hist. Nat. Ois., vol. 6, 1770, p. 402. 



228 BULLETIN" 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Nineteen females, wing 126.7-144.6 (136.6), tail 182.0-227.0 (210.0), 
culmen from base 46.4-54.3 (49.3), tarsus 33.9-39.3 (36.7) mm. 

The lizard-cuckoo ranges from 405 to 450 mm. in length, more 
than one half of this being taken by the greatly elongated tail. The 
bird is slender in form, with a long bill that in life appears nearly 
straight. (PI. 17.) The upper surface is dark grayish brown, the 
breast light gray, the throat and abdomen cinnamon, and the under 
surface of the tail black with the feathers broadly tipped with white. 

SAUROTHERA LONGIROSTRIS PETERSI Richmond and Swales 

GONAVE LIZARD-CUCKOO, TAC0T 

Saurotliera longirostris petersi Richmond and Swales, Proc. Biol. Soc. 
Washington, vol. 37, March 17, 1924, p. 105 (La Mathotiere, Gonave Island, 
Haiti).— Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 500 (Gonave 
Island). — Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 367 (Gonave Island). — Lonnberg, Fauna 
och Flora, 1929, pp. 101-102 (Gonave). 

Gonave Island; resident. 

The present form, named in honor of James L. Peters of the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, is restricted to Gonave Island 
where W. L. Abbott collected the type, a male, near La Mahotiere on 
the south coast, February 20, 1918, and others on February 19, 20, 21, 
22, and 23. On a subsequent visit he secured three additional males 
at Anse a Galets March 6 and 8, 1920. He reports that the bird is 
common in the dense scrubs and that its habits are similar to those of 
the mainland form except that it seems shyer. One that he examined 
had eaten a lizard. He describes the tarsus as lead-colored and the 
iris as reddish brown. Bond says that this race does not differ in 
notes and habits from the bird of the main island. Danforth reports 
that it is not as common as typical longirostris. In the stomach of 
one he found a lizard (Anolis), two sphingid caterpillars, three 
noctuid caterpillars, a chrysalid, and the wings of a damsel fly. 

This race differs from Saurothera I. longirostris in the restriction 
or absence of the buffy throat patch, paler abdomen and undertail 
coverts, and paler dorsal surface. Three of our skins have no buff 
on the throat whatever, and in others this color is faint and restricted 
in area. The differences are so striking as to be almost of specific 
value. Measurements (in millimeters) of the specimens at hand 
range as follows : 

Six males, wing 133.0-136.5 (134.5); tail 213.0-236.0 (221.3); 
culmen from base 44.0-52.7 (48.8); tarsus 34.9-37.0 (36.3). 

Three females, wing 133.0-139.0 (135.2) ; tail 217.0-232.0 (223.0) ; 
culmen from base 44.5-47.0 (45.3); tarsus 38.5-40.0 (39.2). 

Type specimen, male, wing 136.0, tail 224.0, culmen from base 44.0, 
tarsus 37.0. 



THE BIRDS OE HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 229 

Subfamily Crotophaginae 

CROTOPHAGA ANI Linnaeus 
ANI, BLACK WITCH, JUDIO, BOTJTS-TABAC, PERRQQUET NOIR 

Crotophaga ani Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1, 1758, p. 105 (Ja- 
maica). — Ritter, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, pp. 152-155 
(Haiti, specimen). — Hartlaub, Isis, 1847, p. 610 (listed). — Salle, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Loudon, 1857, p. 234 (Dominican Republic). — Bryant, Proc. Boston 
Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 1867, p. 95 (Haiti).— Cory, Bull. Nuttall Ornith. 
Club, 1881, p. 154 (Haiti, abundant) ; Birds Haiti and San Domingo, July, 
3S84, pp. 100-101 (Dominican Republic, Haiti) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, 
p. 102 (Haiti, Dominican Republic). — Cherrie, Field Columbian Mus., Ornith. 
ser., vol. 1, 1S96, p. 19 (Dominican Republic). — Tristram, Cat. Coll. Birds 
belonging H. B. Tristram, 1889, p. 272 (Dominican Republic). — Tippenhauer, 
Die Insel Haiti, 1892, pp. 318, 322 (listed).— Christy, Ibis, 1897, pp. 331-332 
(Sanchez, La Vega). — Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 359 
(Dominican Republic). — Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, p. 409 
(Sosua, specimens). — Kaempfer, Journ. fur Ornith., 1924, p. 180 (Dominican 
Republic). — Ciferri, Segund. Inf. An. Est. Nac. Agr. Moca, 1927, p. 6 
(specimen). — Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 140; Beneath Tropic 
Seas, 1928, pp. 51, 221 (Haiti).— Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 
80, 1928, p. 500 (Haiti).— Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 368 (common).— Lonnberg, 
Fauna och Flora, 1929, p. 102 (Haiti).— Ekman, Ark. for Bot, vol. 22A, No. 16, 
1929, p. 7 (Navassa).— Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, p. 316 
(Haina, Moca, specimens). 

Ani des Paletuviers, Montbeillard, in Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois., vol. 6, 1779, 
pp. 423^29 (part). 

Bouts-de-tabac, Saint-Meey, Descrip. Part. Franc. lie Saint-Domingue, 
vol. 1, 1797, p. 717 (Port-de-Paix). 

Crotophaga major, Ritter, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, p. 155 
(Haiti, specimen). — Hartlaub, Isis, 1847. p. 610 (listed). 

Resident, common and widely distributed; absent from heavily 
forested areas. 

The ani is found mainly in fields and open pastures, especially 
where these are intermingled with shrubs or thickets. The birds 
are gregarious and are seldom seen alone as usually from six to 
a dozen are found in company. They frequently feed on the ground 
about cattle, capturing insects disturbed from the grass. They 
greet intruders with querulous calls and when disturbed fly up to 
low perches where they assume picturesque attitudes, often half 
a dozen perching on one limb facing in different directions with 
craning heads and twitching tails. In flight the feet are thrown 
back beneath the tail. 

Christy found a few anis at Sanchez, but observed them in greatest 
abundance at La Vega where he examined eggs taken early in July. 
Verrill found them abundant. Abbott secured specimens at Laguna, 
on the Samana Peninsula, August 6, and at Sanchez October 23, 
1916. Kaempfer says that they roost at night in company, and that 



230 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

nests containing one hundred eggs were reported to him by country- 
men, the latter probably an exaggeration. Cory secured one at 
Puerto Plata November 24, 1882, and Peters collected two at Sosiia. 
Wetmore reported them at Comendador April 30, San Juan May 1, 
Los Alcarrizos and San Francisco de Macoris May 4, Sanchez May 
6 to 14, and at various points between La Vega and Jarabacoa May 
17. In the high valley at Constanza they were fairly common from 
May 19 to 27. On one occasion a flock came through a tract of 
pine forest flying and sailing a hundred feet or more in the air 
and pausing to rest in the tops of the tallest trees, an unusual habit 
in a bird that seldom rises fifty feet above the earth. On one occa- 
sion he observed a flock of fifteen at daybreak, indication that 
they may gather in roosts at night, as at Constanza the flocks ob- 
served during the day did not contain more than half a dozen indi- 
viduals. They were recorded near El Rio May 30. Moltoni reports 
specimens received from Ciferri from Haina and Moca. 

In Haiti the ani is widely distributed and is known as perroquet 
noir or more usually among the Creoles as bouts-tabac pronounced 
sometimes bouts-de-tabac. Deshayes wrote to Buffon that the flight 
of this bird was weak so that many were killed during hurricanes. 
Cor} 7 secured an egg near Jacmel, which was greenish blue in 
color covered irregularly with a coating of chalky white. Younglove 
forwarded four skins from Port-au-Prince taken February 2, and 
May 3 and 8. 1866. Bartsch found them near Glore April 3, Trou 
Caiman April 4, Petit Goave April 8 and 9, Miragoane April 9, 
near Jeremie April 10 to 16, Trou des Roseaux April 13 and 14, 
and in the vicinity of Port-au-Prince April 21 to 27, 1917. Abbott, 
who reports them as universally distributed, collected specimens 
at Jeremie Nov. 18, 1917, Fonds Verettes April 20, 1920, and Baie 
des Moustiques May 8, 1917. Saint-Mery in 1797 noted them from 
near Port-de-Paix. Wetmore in 1927 found anis at Carrefour, Da- 
mien and Sources Puantes March 29, Mont Rouis March 30, Fonds- 
des-Negres March 31 to April 5, Etang Miragoane April 1, Aquin 
April 3, and L'Acul April 4. On April 9 he observed several at 
an altitude of 1600 meters on the slopes of La Selle above the Riviere 
Jaquisy. He found them at Morne Rouge April 20, and at Hinche 
from April 22 to 24. On the latter date an occupied nest was seen 
in the streets of the village. At Caracol April 26 and 27 they were 
common. G. S. Miller, jr., secured a male at St. Michel March 21. 
1925. Danforth records them as common on Gonave and says that 
he secured a specimen at Anse a Galets. Poole and Perrygo in 
the winter of 1928-1929 found this species at Port-au-Prince Decem- 
ber 16, St. Michel January 6 and 23, St. Raphael January 13, Don- 
don Januarv 17 to 19, Fort Liberte February 6 to 12. St. Marc 



THE BIEDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 231 

February 25, Pont Sonde February 26, Hinche March 17, Cerca-la- 
Source March 27 and at En Cafe and Plaine Mapou on Gonave 
Island March 3 to 14. 

There is a skin of the ani in the United States National Museum 
from Navassa Island received December 3, 1890, from J. F. R. 
Dufour, of Washington. E. L. Ekman has recorded this species 
from Navassa in October, 1928. 

The ani is from 345 to 390 mm. long with a very long tail and 
slender body. In life it appears black but in the hand shows 
indistinct markings of bronze on the head and forepart of the 
body, and faint violet reflections in the wings. The bill is greatly 
compressed and arched so that the upper margin is a thin plate and 
the whole bill is as high as the head. Like other cuckoos the ani 
has two toes in front and two in back. 

Order STRIGIFORMES 

Family TYTONIDAE 

TYTO GLAUCOPS (Kaup) 
HISPANIOLAN BARN-OWL, LECHTJZA, FRESAIE 

Strix glnucops Kaup, Jardine's Contr. Ornith., 1852, p. 118 (" Jamaica "= 
Dominican Republic R3 ) . 

Lechuga, Oviedo, Hist. Gen. Nat. Indias, Libr. 14, cap. 7 ; Reprint, Madrid, 
1851, p. 446 (many). 

Fresaye, Saint-Mery, Descrip. Part. Fi-ang. lie Saint-Domingue, vol. 1, 1797, 
p. 263 (Dondon). 

Oiseaux nocturnes, Saint-Mery, Descrip. Part. Frang. lie Saint-Domingue, 
vol. 2, 1798, p. 604 (Baraderes). 

?Owl, Ekman, Ark. for Bot, vol. 22A, No. 16, 1929, p. 7 (Navassa). 

Strix glaucops, Cory, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, Dec, 1884, pp. 117-118 
(Puerto Plata) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 100 (Haiti, Dominican 
Republic).— Tippenhaueb, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, pp. 319, 322 (listed).— 
VEBRmL, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 359 (listed). 

Strix dominicensis Cory, Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, vol. 8, 1883, p. 95. 
(Described as new from " Santo Domingo "= Puerto Plata. D. R.). 

Tyto glaucops, Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, pp. 410-411 
(listed).— Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, pp. 140-141; Beneath Tropic 
Seas, 1928, p. 221 (Bizoton). — Richmond, Smithsonian Misc. Colls., vol. 66, no. 
17, 1917, p. 38 (mentioned).— Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 
80, 1928, p. 500 (Haiti).— Danfobth, Auk, 1929, p. 368 ( recorded ) .— Moltoni, 
Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, p. 316 (San Juan, Moca, specimens). 

Tyto alba glaucops, Kaempfer, Journ. fur Ornith., 1924, pp. 181-182 (Domini- 
can Republic). — Hartert, Nov. Zool., vol. 35, 1929, p. 101 (listed). 

Resident; fairly common in some localities. 



M Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, vol. 2, August, 1913, p. 1040, says " der Typus im British 
Museum stammt von San Domingo." 



232 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

The barn owl is widely distributed through the island and though 
nowhere common is probably more abundant than might be supposed 
since it is abroad usually by night and in the day remains in con- 
cealment, usually in caves, clefts in rocks, or hollow trees. Appar- 
ently it early found the haunts of men favorable to its activities 
since Oviedo writing in the sixteenth century says that there were 
many owls in Santo Domingo City, and that they came regularly 
about the thatched huts of the natives. 

Sharpe 84 lists two mounted specimens in the British Museum from 
" S. Domingo ", one taken by Salle, and the other without indication 
of its source. One of these is assumed to be the type on which Kaup 
based his description. Curiously enough this species is not mentioned 
by Salle, or by Sclater in the paper listing Salle's birds published in 
the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London in 1857. Hart- 
laub's statement 85 regarding his Strix dominicensis, taken from 
Wiirttemberg, is somewhat confused as he says "Vielleicht nur 
Varietat von furcata; eine schone Tageule aus den Urwaldern des 
spanischen Domingo." The comparison to furcata indicates a Tyto 
while the statement that it is a " day-owl " would seem to point to 
Speotyto. 

Cory collected two males at Puerto Plata, December 2, 1882 and 
March 1, 1883, and says that no others were seen. On one of these 
in 1883 he based a new name Strix dominicensis which is however a 
synonym of Strix glaucops of Kaup, in addition to being a homonym 
of StHx dominicensis Gmelin of 1788. Cory saw only the two speci- 
mens mentioned. Verrill says " common, but seldom seen during the 
day." He does not mention collecting specimens. Peters did not 
see this species but at several points heard calls during the night 
which natives asserted were uttered by the barn owl. 

Abbott seems to be the first collector to meet with the barn owl 
regularly. He secured a female at Samana August 3, 1916, indi- 
cating the iris as dark brown, bill pale horn, cere pale purplish flesh 
color, and feet dirty brownish white. At Rojo Cabo he took a female 
August 29, 1916, and a male March 24, 1921. The stomach of the 
latter contained a large bat. At Laguna, also on the Samana Penin- 
sula, he secured a male August 9, 1916, and a female August 11, 1919. 
From Laguna he forwarded in addition three skeletons of this species, 
one March 19, 1919, one in 1919 without other date, and one Novem- 
ber 29, 1923. The latter, received in rough dried form with much 
of the plumage intact, had five albinistic primaries in the left wing. 
R. H. Beck forwarded six adults to the American Museum of Natural 
History, taken at Santo Domingo City October 16, 1916, Tubano 



M Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol. 2, 1S75, p. 302. 
85 Nanmannia, 1852, p. r>4. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 155 PLATE 1i 




Colony of nests of introduced weaver-finch (Textor c. cucul- 

LATUS) 

Near Mont Rouis, Haiti. March 30, 1927. 




Young hispaniolan barn owl (Tyto glaucopsi 
From high ridge of La Selle, Haiti, April 15, 1927. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 233 

February 6, 8, 9 and 12, 1917, and Loma Tina January 5, 1917. A 
native brought him two young in the down with the adult at Tiibano 
February 8, the young with new feathers appearing on back and 
wings and being in color like the younger specimen in down secured 
by Wetmore in Haiti. Kaempfer reported the lechuza fairly com- 
mon and observed that he secured a female and two young in Decem- 
ber. He sent six skins to the Tring Museum according to informa- 
tion given us by Doctor Hartert. He records that flesh of this owl 
made into a pomade was believed to cure asthma. Danforth found 
this owl in a limestone cave at Los Tres Ojos de Agua, east of Santo 
Domingo City, July 3, 1927. Ciferri obtained it at the Sabana San 
Thome, San Juan September 1, 1928 and Moca in April, 1929. 

In Haiti this owl was recorded at Dondon by Saint-Mery, and 
is probably the species represented by the " Oiseaux nocturnes " re- 
ported by the same author to inhabit a cavern at the Bay of Bar- 
aderes. Abbott secured a female in the cave known as Trou de Bon 
Dieu near Port-de-Paix, April 17, 1917, and a second female in a 
mangrove swamp near Petit Port a l'Ecu on May 9, 1917. In his 
notes he remarks that this species was heard calling nearly every- 
where at night, and that he noted it on Isle Tortue. Beebe says that 
one came about his schooner anchored off Bizoton on six different 
evenings, flying about and swooping at the light. He secured a 
female alive on shore. 

Three miles west of L'Acul on April 4, 1927, Wetmore flushed one 
of these owls in a small cave in a limestone formation. The bird 
retreated first to the depths of the cave and then came fluttering out 
overhead into the light of the sun. A ledge of rock twenty feet 
from the cave floor was evidently a favored perch as below it were 
quantities of bones from regurgitated pellets of which a small bag 
full were taken for identification. On April 7, 1927 Dr. G. N. 
Wolcott presented a male that had been killed in his yard in Port- 
au-Prince. Barn owls were heard calling regularly at night about 
Dr. G. F. Freeman's residence, Villa Keitel. One was heard in 
camp on the Riviere Jaquisy April 8, and another April 10 near the 
head of the Riviere Chotard on La Selle. On the following morn- 
ing while investigating a sink hole called by the natives Trujin, an 
opening forty or fifty feet deep and one hundred fifty feet long 
<vith an arch across the center, a barn owl was observed resting 
like the true bird of Minerva on a round column of stone twenty- 
five feet below the surface level. Its gaze was directed downward 
and it paid no attention whatever to those above as they circled the 
opening looking for a means of descent. This was below Morne La 
Visite at an elevation of nearly 2000 meters. On April 15 a tall 
slender pine with many branches was cut, and the limbs trimmed a 



234 BULLETIN" 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

foot from the trunk which was then lowered into the hole to form 
a ladder down which descent was easy. Below the column on which 
the owl rested regularly was a considerable accumulation of bones 
from its prey while beneath a slight ledge projecting out over the 
floor of the sink was a nest containing two young in the down, one 
developing pin feathers on the wings and the other somewhat 
younger. (PL 18.) There was no nesting material other than an 
accumulation of pellets and other refuse. The young uttered char- 
acteristic growling, hissing notes and shrank away as the nest site 
was examined. The half eaten body of a rat lay beside them, and 
the parent bird flushed from its shelter, seeming confused as it half 
flew and half clambered along the rocky wall to a height of six feet 
and then flew to a perch at the opposite end of the sink. A quantity 
of pellet material was collected for examination. A native boy 
plucked a few filaments of down from one of the young, putting them 
away carefully and on questioning explained somewhat sheepishly 
that they were " pour la remede." 

The young bird taken is covered with long soft down in color 
somewhat duller than light buff. 

Bond says that according to natives this species does not occur on 
Gonave Island. Ekman writes " an owl has been seen and heard 
repeatedly by the keepers of the lighthouse " on Navassa Island, 
an interesting observation that should refer to the barn owl. The 
food of the barn owl is composed largely of rats, with a fair number 
of birds and occasional lizards. For the benefit of those not familiar 
with the feeding habits of these birds it may be stated that their 
prey is torn apart and swallowed in fragments, the bird consuming 
skin, bones, fur, scales, and many feathers though birds except those 
of smallest size are usually partly plucked. The digestive processes 
of the stomach remove the nutriment from such masses, and the 
bones and other indigestible parts are formed into pellets which at 
the proper time are regurgitated leaving the stomach empty for 
another meal. Pellets accumulate in quantity beneath perches fre- 
quented by these owls and from their content serve as a ready index 
to the food preferences of the bird, it being necessary only to identify 
the skulls and other bones found in them. There follows an account 
of four sets of such pellets collected in the field and examined by 
Wetmore in Washington. 

In March, 1925 G. S. Miller, jr., secured a number of barn owl 
pellets from a cave at Diquini, not far from Port-au-Prince. From 
these he removed a large number of brown rat remains (Rattus rat- 
tus) and skulls and other bones of bats, in search for other mamma- 
lian species. Other bones were identified by Wetmore. These included 
jaws of a small lizard {AnoJis sp.) remains of a small tree-toad 



THE BIBDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 235 

{Hyla dominicensis) and the following birds: 2 mourning doves 
{Zenaidura m. macroura), 4 ground-doves (G haemepelia p. insu- 
laris), 2 mangrove cuckoos {Goccyzus m. teres), 4 lizard cuckoos 
{Saurothera I. longirostris) , 1 solitaire (Myadestes g. montanus), 1 
palm-chat {Dulus d. dominicus), 1 weaver-finch {Textar c. cu-culla- 
tus) , 1 Jamaican vireo (Vireo o. olivaceus) , 2 warblers {Dendroica 
sp.), 5 palm tanagers {Phaenicophilus p. palmarum), 1 grassquit 
(Tiaris o. olivacea), 1 grassquit {Tiaris b. marchii), 1 grosbeak 
{Loxigilla v. affirm). The above list does not include the numbers of 
the different mammals found as this data was not available. 

In a cave near L'Acul, Haiti, on April 1, 1927, Wetmore collected 
a quantity of pellet material beneath a ledge where a barn owl 
rested and from it identified the following : 41 brown rats (Rattus 
rattus), 29 house mice {Mus musculus), 27 bats of 4 species {Arti- 
beus j. jamaicensis, Phyllops haitiensis, Macrotus w. waterhousii, 
and Monophyllus cubanus ferreus), 3 young domestic fowl from ten 
to twenty days old {Gallus gallus), 1 wild pigeon {Columba sp.), 
1 ground dove {C haemepelia p. insularis), 1 young quail-dove 
{Oreopeleia sp), 1 lizard-cuckoo {Saurothera I. longirostris) , 1 ani 
(Crotophaga ani), 1 Hispaniolan tody {Todus subulatus), 1 His- 
paniolan woodpecker {Chryserpes striatus), 3 palm-chats {Dulus 
d. dominions), 1 weaver-finch {Textor c. cucullatus), 12 Jamaican 
vireos {Vireo o. olivaceus), 4 palm tanagers {Phaenicophilus p. 
pahnarum), 3 grassquits {Tiaris &. olivaceus), 1 grosbeak {Loxigilla 
v. affinis), 1 large tree-lizard {Anolis ricordii), and 12 tree-toads 
{Hyla dominicensis). 

From about the nest of a barn owl in the sink hole called by the 
natives Trujin, located on the high ridge of La Selle below Morne 
La Visite on April 15, 1927, Wetmore collected another lot of pellet 
material that included the following: 134 brown rats {Rattus rat- 
tus), 6 house mice {Mus musculus), 4 bats {Eptesicus hispaniolae) , 
1 black swift {Nephoecetes n. niger), 1 cloud swift {Streptoprocne 
z. melanotis), 1 Hispaniolan trogon {Temnotrogon roseigaster) , 2 
Hispaniolan siskins {Loximitris dominicensis), 4 Hispaniolan cross- 
bills {Loxia megaplaga) . The presence of the remains of two swifts 
in this material can be explained only on the supposition that they 
were captured among rock ledges when asleep at night as it would 
be impracticable for an owl to take birds of such rapid flight except 
when they were at roost. 

In the early spring of 1928 G. S. Miller, jr., and H. W. Krieger 
of the United States National Museum while searching caves at San 
Lorenzo Bay in the Dominican Kepublic collected a quantity of pel- 
let material in one cave from which the following are identified: 
6 tree frogs {Hyl-a dominicensis), 16 ground lizards {Ameiva sp.), 



236 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

1 small lizard (Anolis sp.), 1 pigeon (Columba sp.), 2 mourning 
doves (Zenaidura m. macroura), 1 mango hummingbird (Anthra- 
cothorax dominions), 1 Hispaniolan tody (Todus subulatus), 1 
narrow-billed tody (Todus angustirostris) , 1 Hispaniolan wood- 
pecker (Ghryserpes striatus), 1 cliff swallow (Petrochelidon f. 
fulva), 3 Hispaniolan thrushes (Mimoeichla a. ardosiacea), 5 Ja- 
maican vireos (Vireo o. olivaceus), 1 redstart (Setophaga ruticilla), 

2 Hispaniolan spindalis (Spindalis multicolor), 13 Hispaniolan 
palm tanagers (Phaenioophilus p. pahnarum). Bones of these spe- 
cies were selected from a great quantity of remains of rats which 
are not available for count. The presence of tree-frog remains is 
notable. 

From the above data it appears that the barn owl is a definite 
element in the control of rats and mice which are of economic im- 
portance in their destructiveness to crops and other things pertain- 
ing to man. It is true that the owl seems to capture many birds, 
but it is believed that its aid in rodent control offsets any injury in 
this direction and the owls should not be destroyed for that reason. 

The barn owls of Haiti show two distinct color phases one being 
light with light buffy and grayish tints predominating and the other 
very dark with the buff very deep and the color of the back much 
darker. Very light and very dark birds offer considerable contrast 
but in the series available the two phases merge imperceptibly 
through individual specimens. 

The barn owl is one of the larger landbirds of the island being 350 
mm. or more in length. It is easily told from other birds by the 
broad disks or rings of gray feathers that surround either eye 
which give the bird the strange appearance that in the United 
States causes a closely related form to be known as the " monkey- 
faced owl. " Above the barn owl is dusky brown mottled with light 
or dark buff or grayish and below buff with the feathers barred 
lightly with irregular marks of dusky. Feathering extends down the 
tarsus but the feathers become sparse on the lower half continuing 
as stiff, scattered, hairlike filaments to the last joints of the toes. 

TYTO OSTOLOGA Wetmore 

GIANT OWL 

Tyto ostologa Wetmoke, Smithsonian Misc. Colls., vol. 74, no. 4, October 
17, 1922, p. 2, figs. 1 and 2 (from cave near St. Michel, Haiti).— Bond, Proc 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 521 (listed). 

Extinct ; known only from bones found in caves in Haiti. 

During a geological reconnaissance in Haiti in March, 1921 J. S. 
Brown and W. S. Burbank secured the fragments of the metatarsus 
from which the present species was described in a large cave known 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 237 

as Grotte San Francisco, near the summit of a long ridge of lime- 
stone about three kilometers northeast of St. Michel. The specimens 
were secured at a depth of less than a meter from the surface. In- 
trigued by the peculiar mammalian bones from these same excava- 
tions Gerrit S. Miller, jr., Curator of Mammals in the United States 
National Museum, visited the section indicated in March and April, 
1925, securing a large quantity of bones, among them many addi- 
tional remains of this owl. These, which will be described fully 
in a paper dealing with the birds represented in the bone deposits 
of Haiti, give information on other parts of the skeleton additional 
to the metatarsus. The results of Mr. Miller's work were so valu- 
able that in December, 1927, under funds provided by Dr. W. L. 
Abbott, Arthur J. Poole, Aid in the Division of Mammals, was sent 
to St. Michel to complete the collections from these caves. This was 
important at this time since it had been learned that earth from these 
deposits was being removed for use as fertilizers, a procedure that 
would destroy everything in the deposits of scientific value. Mr. 
Poole remained in the field until March, 1928, during which period 
he explored a number of caves, sifting the earth carefully and re- 
covering a great mass of mammalian and avian bones among which 
are many remains of this owl. The species is known from these 
investigations from the Grotte San Francisco near St. Michel and 
from caves above L'Atalaye a short distance away. 

The size of Tyto ostologa is apparent when it is known that a 
complete metatarsus measures 93 mm. in length and that the other 
bones of the skeleton are of proportionate dimensions. The meta- 
tarsus in the ordinary barn owl is from 66 to 77 mm. long and is 
much more slender. T. ostologa was apparently as tall or perhaps 
somewhat taller than the great horned owl Bubo virginianus and 
had very large, strong feet. Its period of existence as a species co- 
incided with a flourishing native fauna of small mammals now so 
far as known entirely extinct, whose existence was first indicated 
in certain stories repeated by the historian Oviedo as he heard them 
from the Indians but which were disregarded until discovery of an 
abundance of mammalian bones in the caves from which come the 
remains of Tyto ostologa. If we may judge from analogy with the 
living barn owls these bone deposits are due to the activities of the 
giant owl which foraged for its animal food, swallowed it with many 
of the bones entire, and subsequently in its cavern homes regurgi- 
tated the indigestible parts of its meals in the form of pellets which 
formed the usual accumulations beneath its perches. From the re- 
mains of these pellets we now secure skulls and other remains of 
extinct insectivores, rats, and hutia-like mammals, and various birds 
2134—31 16 



238 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

mingled with an occasional fragment of the owl through whose 
agency the other remains have been preserved for us. Occasional 
lumps of bones found in the deposit are still cemented together in 
the form of pellets. 

In a visit to St. Michel on April 21, 1927, Wetmore examined in 
person the Grotte San Francisco from which had come the type 
bones of Tyto ostologa. After walking up a limestone slope through 
dry scrub in the blazing heat of an afternoon sun the air within the 
cavern was cool and refreshing. Stalagmitic columns divided the 
cave in two sections, with a large opening or chimney admitting 
light from above into a chamber at the farther end. The loose soil 
was reddish in color and rose in a powder of dust during some casual 
digging that disclosed a few bones. At one side was a projecting 
ledge which apparently had served the great owl as a roost as it 
does the modern barn owl today as below mammalian remains were 
in abundance. As the site was examined one could imagine great 
owls peering down with drowsy eyes from the cavern ledges or flying 
out on soft, noiseless wings through the opening above to range the 
nearby hillsides and savannas in search of prey. 

There is no definite criterion from which the age of these cave 
deposits may be estimated, except that the animal tissues have en- 
tirely disappeared from the bones found in them. Some of the more 
perfect bones are white and appear startlingly recent. It seems 
probable that the deposits were accumulated over a long period of 
years extending perhaps • from four hundred to two thousand or 
more years ago. 

On April 15, 1927, in the Trujin on La Selle described in connec- 
tion with Tyto glaucops, beneath the span of rock forming a bridge 
across the sink, Wetmore chanced to observe a hollow thirty inches 
long by a foot wide behind some hanging stalactites at an elevation 
of six feet from the floor where the depression was completely 
sheltered from the elements. On climbing up to look into this an 
old skull lying on a little earth caught the eye and proved on ex- 
amination to represent one of the extinct species of rodents of the 
island. Careful digging revealed many other bones among them 
skulls of Nesophontes. Practically all of the earth was removed and 
brought to Washington where it has been carefully examined. 
Though no remains of Tyto ostologa were identified the other ma- 
terial is so similar to that from La Selle as to lead to the supposition 
that the depression was formerly the nesting place of the giant owl. 

In this connection it is of interest to detail an account of a visit 
to La Selle given by Moreau de Saint-Mery 86 whose account he says 
was taken from the journal Affiches Americaines for April 28, 1788. 

88 Deecrlp. Part. Franc lie Salnt-Domingue, vol. 2, 1798, p. 298. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 239 

The story runs that on February 1, 1788 M. l'Abbe Madoule, master 
of mathematics, M. le Comte de Bermont, and M. Toupin climbed to 
the summit of La Selle from the northwest at about ten leagues from 
Port-au-Prince. They found trees covered with moss, the ground 
torn by the rootings of wild pigs, and reported an abundance of 
pigeons, thrushes, and woodpeckers. From eight in the evening un- 
til one in the morning they heard hollow cries imitating the human 
voice that they attributed to some nocturnal bird, as they had seen 
feathers resembling those of a swan at the edge of sort of a den or 
cavern. The account is so definite as to suggest that they may have 
heard the calls of Tyto ostologa. As these adventurers noted that 
the feathers examined were like those of a swan we may suppose 
that they were white, which maj' be a clue to the color of this bird. 

There is no indication that this species, which was far larger than 
any others now recorded for its family, is still living. It must be 
considered one of the most extraordinary members of a highly 
interesting extinct fauna. 

Family STRIGIDAE 87 

SPEOTYTO CUNICULARIA TROGLODYTES, new name 

HISPANIOLAN BURROWING OWL, CHOUETTE A TERRIER, COU-COU, 

COTJ-COU TERRE 

Speotyto dominicensis Cory, Auk, 1S86, p. 471 (Haiti). 

Buhio de paja, Oviedo, Hist. Gen. Nat. Indias, Libr. 14, Cap. 7; Reprint, 
Madrid, 1851, p. 446 (recorded). 

Chouette, Saint-M£ry. Descrip. Part. Franr. lie Saint-Domingue, vol. 1, 1797, 
p. 263 (Dondon). 

6T The small eared owl described and figured by Vieillot (Hist. Nat. Ois. Am6r. Sept.. 
vol. 1, 1807, pp. 53-54, pi. 22) as le Hibou Nudipede, Bubo nudipes, is currently Identified 
as a species found in Central America. In the original description Vieillot gives no 
locality, stating of his specimen only " de ma collection." On page 45 of the work cited, 
however, in discussing the chouette nudipfdc of Porto Rico, which is Oymnasio nudipes, 
be says " cette Chouette porte un vetement qui a de 1'analogie avec celui du Hibou 
nudipede ; mais ses couleurs ne sont pas nuanc^es et distributes tout-a-fait de m§me. 
Le Hibou a les plumes de la tete elevens en forme d'aigrettes, la Chouette les a aussi 
courtes que les autres. * * * L'une et l'autre se trouvent a Saint-Domingue et a 
Porto-Ricco." The same author later (Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., vol. 7, 1817, p. 46) bases 
the name Strix psilopoda on the plate cited above, stating that " on le trouve a Saint- 
Domingue et a Porto-Ricco." In the Tabl. Meth., Ornith., vol. 3, 1823, p. 1282, he 
uses this latter name again saying that the bird is found on both the islands mentioned. 

It is true that the decription and plate agree closely with the Central American owl 
currently known as Otus nudipes, except that the figured bird has a more rounded tail, 
but at the same time it is curious that if it is that species Vieillot should have given 
the range as " Saint-Domingue et Porto-Ricco " as he collected personally on the first 
island mentioned. Further at that date there were few specimens accessible to him from 
the region extending from Costo Rica to Panama, the range of the species to which the 
name is cow attributed. 

In this connection it may be noted that Oviedo (Hist. Gen. Nat. Indias, Libr. 14, cap. 
7; Reprint, Madrid, 1851, p. 446) describes a small eared owl from the Dominican 
Republic saying " hay buhos, pero muy chiquitos <5 no mayores que las lechugas que he 
dicho [referring to the burrowing owl], 6 assi aquellas orejas 6 cuernos levantados en 
le cabega y de proprio plumaje, 6 los ojos pequenos a proporcion del cuerpo ; pero muy 
claros, como los buhos de Espafia." 

In view of the above it seems not impossible that a small eared owl may exist in 
Hispaniola, a matter that 6hould be borne in mind in future investigations. 



240 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

' Athene cunicularia, Hartlaub, Isis, 1847, p. 610 (listed). 

Athene dominicensis, Salle, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, p. 231 (habits). 

Strix cunicularia, Vielllot, Hist. Nat. Ois. Amer. Sept., vol. 1, 1807, pp. 48-49 
(habits). 

Strix dominicensis, Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 1867, 
p. 90 (Dominican Republic). 

Speotyto, Lonnberg, Fauna och Flora, 1929, p. 102 (Haiti). 

Speotyto cunicularia, Cory, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, Dec, 1884, pp. 118- 
119 (Petionville, Port-au-Prince). — Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, pp. 319, 
322 (listed). 

Speotyto dominicensis, Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 359 
(between La Vega and Santiago, Azua). — Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, 
p. 140; Beneath Tropic Seas, 1928, p. 221 (Haiti). 

Speotyto cunicularia dominicensis, Cory, Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, 1881, 
p. 154 (range) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 100 (Haiti, Dominican Re- 
public). — Cherrie, Field Columbian Mus., Ornith. ser. , vol. 1, 1896, p. 22 
(Honduras). — Kaempfer, Jour, fiir Ornith., 1924, p. 182 (habits). 

Speotyto floridana dominicensis, Ridgway, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 50, pt. 6, 
1914, p. 823 (Haiti, Dominican Republic). — Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
vol. 61, 1917, p. 410 (Sosua, Monte Cristi). — Bartsch, Smithsonian Misc. 
Colls., vol. 68, no. 12, 1918, fig. 45 (photo).— Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 501 (Haiti).— Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 368 
(specimens).— Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, p. 316 (San 
Juan, specimen). 

Resident; locally common. 

The burrowing owl inhabits semi-open arid scrubs and does not 
enter areas of heavy forest. It has not been recorded from the 
Samana Peninsula, and in the high interior is known now only from 
the valley of Constanza. It is most common in Haiti and in north- 
western and southwestern Dominican Republic. 

This species lives in holes in the earth which it excavates to a 
depth of several feet. It is active by day and may be seen standing 
on the little mound of earth above its burrow singly, in pairs, or in 
family groups, or perched in low trees, on fence posts, stumps or 
other low perches where it watches all that may transpire with round 
eyes and a general air of smug satisfaction at its estate. When 
alarmed it bows with quick genuflexions and if disturbed flies quick- 
ly to some more distant perch or retreats hastily to the depths of its 
burrow. Although active by day it is also abroad by night and is 
frequently heard calling after dark. In modern travel it is often 
observed at night in the light thrown by automobile headlights. 

Oviedo mentions owls smaller than those of Spain that must in- 
clude the present species. Salle describes the habits of the burrow- 
ing owl and remarks that the burrow entrance is usually strewn 
with fragments of dried horse dung, a peculiar habit of unknown 
significance observed in other forms of the burrowing owl in North 
America and in the plains of southern South America. Cherrie did 
not find burrowing owls abundant in the Dominican Republic as he 



THE BIEDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 241 

collected only one, taken at Honduras. Verrill found them near 
Azua and between La Vega and Santiago. Peters secured a pair at 
Sosiia, and found them rather common in the desert area near Monte 
Cristi. His specimens secured near Sosua lived in a burrow with 
two entrances dug in reddish soil which had heavily stained theii 
plumage. 

Wetmore recorded a few between Comendador and Bani April 
30 and May 1, 1927. Many were observed at night by the lights of 
the motor car in which he was traveling when the birds watched 
the moving shadows about them and paid little attention to the light 
rays themselves. Near San Juan May 1 some one had dug out a 
burrow three feet deep in the side of a bank beside the road and 
had killed the three fledged young that the nest contained. An 
adult owl perched on the body of one of the young birds, tearing at 
it with vigor and when disturbed attempted unsuccessfully to fly 
away with its prey. A second bird was badly torn about the head 
while the third was untouched. The case was evidently one of 
cannibalism but whether on the part of a parent or a stranger it was 
impossible to say. One of the young, prepared as a skin, was as 
yet unable to fly. It has the abdomen and flanks dull buff without 
spots or markings. 

W. L. Abbott secured a male at Constanza on April 7, 1919, and 
Wetmore observed one at the same point May 19, 1927 that had been 
captured on its nest which contained five hard set eggs. The boy in 
whose possession it was, placed the eggs in one of the hollowed logs 
which are stood on end and used in pounding coffee. The bird, 
apparently a female, tethered by a long cord, recognized her eggs 
immediately and settled down to incubate them in spite of rough 
handling. Two days later she was still faithfully covering her 
treasures aided by bits of meat from the bodies of birds skinned for 
specimens in lieu of the rice offered as food by her captor. The 
latter, tired of his charge, wished to kill her but was persuaded to 
set her at liberty. Two of the eggs were blown, though very hard 
set. 

Danforth found these owls common in 1927 in the dry area be- 
tween Navarrete and Monte Cristi, and on June 23 saw them nesting 
in holes in dry clay banks bordering mangrove swamps. In the 
stomachs of two examined he found a little mouse fur in one, and 
remains of beetles and the claws of a centipede in the other. He 
observed them further at Santiago, Tubano, and San Juan. Ciferri 
sent a specimen to Moltoni taken at Sabana San Thome, San Juan, 
June 22, 1929. 

In Haiti the burrowing owl seems more common than in the 
eastern republic because of the more extensive sections adapted to its 
needs. It is especially numerous in the Cul-de-Sac region, and 



242 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Abbott recorded it in numbers on the northwest peninsula. Cory 
records specimens near Petionville February 27 and 28, and March 1, 
1881, and one near Port-au-Prince February 21, 1881. There is one 
in the United States National Museum from his collection taken at 
Port-au-Prince, December 31, 1880. He reported it common about 
the saline lakes of the Cul-de-Sac, and it still remains in numbers 
about the Etang Saumatre according to Abbott and Bartsch. 
Bartsch secured one at Trou Caiman April 4, 1917, and Abbott took 
two at the same point March 10, 1918. Bartsch collected a series of 
five skins between Port-au-Prince and St. Marc April 20, 1917, and 
two more birds the following day at St. Marc which were put in 
alcohol. He recorded others at Thomazeau April 2, Glore April 3, 
and near Port-au-Prince April 25 and 27. Wetmore found them at 
Damien March 29, 1927, Sources Puantes March 29, La Tremblay 
April 7, and Las Cahobes April 20. He had confidently expected to 
find them abundant in the central plain near Hinche but saw none 
there. 

Saint-Mery recorded this species at Dondon. Abbott collected six 
skins at Baie des Moustiques from March 31 to May 4, 1917, and 
seven more at an altitude of 450 meters near Bombardopolis March 21 
to 26 of the same year. One from the first locality had eaten a 
lizard and a scorpion, and one from the second contained insects 
and a mouse. 

At Bais des Moustiques May 4, 1917 Abbott secured four sets of 
eggs. These are white, with a distinct gloss and are rounded in 
form. A set of two was fresh. They measure 31.6 by 26.7, and 32.0 
by 26.4 mm. A set of three eggs also fresh, measures 28.3 by 25.3, 
29.5 by 24.8 and 29.7 by 24.6 mm. A second set of three, apparently 
heavily incubated, measures 30.9 by 26.4, 31.0 by 26.5, and 31.5 by 
26.3 mm. Four addled eggs from a burrow four feet long dug just 
beneath the surface of the earth in a meadow, at which both parents 
were taken measure 32.0 by 27.0, 32.1 by 26.9, 32.2 by 26.5 and 32.2 by 
26.7 mm. The two eggs secured by Wetmore at Constanza are 
slightly larger, measuring 32.9 by 28.3 and 33.7 by 27.1 mm. 

Danforth in 1927 recorded this burrowing owl at Port-au-Prince 
and Les Caves. Bond says that he found this bird at Port-de-Paix 
in March, and further that he did not encounter it on Tortue Island. 
Poole and Perrygo secured skins at Fort Liberte February 11 and 18 
and Pont Sonde February 26, 1929. Further they took one at Massa- 
crin on Gonave Island March 9, though Bond says he did not find 
it on that island. 

Vieillot says that the eyes in the male are a very vivid yellow 
while those of the female are paler ; Abbott, in a male shot at Bom- 
bardopolis March 21, 1917, records the iris as yellow, bill greenish 
yellow and feet greenish. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 243 

The Florida and Hispaniolan burrowing owls recently have been 
considered a species apart from cunicularia which, divided into a 
number of forms, ranges from western North America south to 
Patagonia, but in our opinion they have gone such a little wa}' on 
the road to differentiation that the line of demarcation is not sharp 
cut so that we consider these two as subspecies of the continental 
group. Some South American specimens of cunicularia have the 
under wing coverts distinctly spotted and an occasional specimen of 
troglodytes has them nearly immaculate. Also occasional speci- 
mens of the cunicularia group are as heavily barred below as the 
floridana aggregation. The feathering of the tarsi is less heavy in 
foridana and troglodytes, but the difference here is slight. 

After some search in literature it appears that the subspecific name 
dominicensis for the burrowing owl here discussed must be changed. 
Speotyto dominicensis Cory has been cited from the Bulletin of 
the Nuttall Ornithological Club, 1881, p. 154, but is here a nomen 
nudum as there is no description, the statement being merely " 47. 
Speotyto cunicularia dominicensis (Mol.) Baird. — Resident and very 
abundant in the low scrub bordering the large lakes of the interior." 
The reference to Baird is not certain. In his Birds of Haiti and 
San Domingo (1885, p. 118), Cory calls this bird Speotyto cunicu- 
laria, but in the Auk for 1886 (p. 471) gives it as Speotyto domini- 
censis Cory, the name dating from this point, being accompanied by 
a description. However, there is a previous Athene dominicensis of 
Bonaparte 88 which is preoccupied by Athene dominicensis 89 Gray. 
The latter refers to Speotyto c. cunicularia, since it is based on Azara 
and must be, therefore, the bird of southern South America. As 
there is no other name available it becomes necessary to give the 
burrowing owl of Hispaniola a new designation. It may be known 
as Speotyto cunicularia troglodytes. 

Following are measurements of our series; Males, 14 specimens, 
wing 152.0-164.5 (158.7), tail 69.0-81.7 (73.3), culmen from cere 
13.7-16.4 (14.9), tarsus 42.3-46.6 (44.3) mm. 

Females, 12 specimens, wing 150.0-163.0 (156.8), tail 63.3-74.0 
(69.5), culmen from cere 13.8-15.3 (14.5), tarsus 40.0-44.8 (43.1) mm. 

The burrowing owl is earthy brown above spotted and streaked 
with white and buffy white, and whitish or buffy below barred 
irregularly with earthy brown, with a broad white band across the 
upper breast and the throat white. The legs are feathered, the 
feathering becoming hairlike at the lower end of the tarsus and on the 
toes. The bird ranges from 210 to 230 mm. long, and is distinguished 
easily from any other owl of this area by small size and smooth, 
rounded head, without the projecting tufts of feathers called ears. 

*»Consp. Av., vol. 1, 1850, p. 38. ("Ex Antill.") 
"Gen. Birds, vol. 1, 1845, p. 35. 



244 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

ASIO DOMINGENSIS DOMINGENSIS (Muller) 
EISPANIOLAN SHORT-EARED OWL, LECHUZA, CHOTJETTE, CHAT-HUANT 

Strix dommgensis P. L. S. Muller, Vollst. Naturs. Suppl. Reg.-Band, 1776, 
p. 70 (Hispaniola). 

Chouette ou Grande Cheveche de Saint-Domingue, Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois., 
vol. 1, 1770, pp. 392-393 (" Saint-Domingue"). 

Strix dominieensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., vol. 1, pt. 1, 1788, p. 296 (His- 
paniola).— Shaw, Gen. Zool., vol. 7, pt. 1, 1809, p. 261 (based on Buffon). 

?8trix dominieensis, Ritter, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, p. 155 
(specimen). 

Asio domingensis dommgensis, Wetmore, Proc. Biol. Soe. Washington, vol. 41, 
October 15, 1928, pp. 165-166 (discussion of nomenclature). — Bond, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 50 (St. Michel, specimen).— Moltoni, 
Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat, vol. 68, 1929, p. 316 (Moca, San Juan, specimens). 

Resident; rare. 

W. L. Abbott collected a female of the native short-eared owl 
March 19, 1922, at the Laguna Rincon, near Cabral, Dominican Re- 
public. E. L. Ekman, under date of December 2, 1929, writes that 
he obtained a pair near San Juan. The Ciferris collected specimens 
at Moca October 12, 1927, San Juan February 3, 1928, and Sabana 
San Thome, near San Juan May 30, 1928. Another, a male, was 
secured by James Bond from four or five seen near St. Michel, Haiti, 
March 4, 1928. Abbott notes that his bird had eaten a rail, 
apparently a sora. 

That Buffon examined a specimen of the short-eared owl from 
Hispaniola, and noted the peculiarities that distinguished this species 
from the widespread Asio flammeus, has been overlooked in recent 
decades. His remarks are as follows: 

" Cet oiseau nous a ete envoye de Saint-Domingue, & nous paroit etre une 
espece nouvelle differente de toutes celles qui ont ete indiquees par tous les 
Naturalistes ; nous avons cru devoir la rapporter par le nom a celle de la 
chouette ou grande cheveche d'Europe, parce qu'elle s'en filoigne moins que 
d'aucune autre ; mais dans le reel, elle nous paroit faire une espece a part, & 
qui meriteroit un nom particulier ; elle a le bee plus grand, plus fort & plus 
crochu qu'aucune espece de chouette, & elle differe encore de notre grande 
cheveche, en ce qu'elle a le ventre d'une couleur rouffatre, uniforme, & qu'elle 
n'a sur la poitrine que quelques taches longitudinales ; au lieu que la chouette 
ou grande cheveche d'Europe, a sur la poitrine & sur le ventre le grandes taches 
brunes, oblongues & pointues, que lui ont fait donner le nom de Chouette flam- 
bee, noctua flammeata." 

The early authors who were so assiduous in coining Latin names 
for all birds whose descriptions appeared in current literature did 
not neglect this note of Buffon's as the species was styled Strix 
domingensis by Muller in 1776 and Strix dominieensis by Gmelin in 
1788. The bird must bear the first name mentioned, that of Muller. 

The species indicated by the Strix dominieensis of Ritter may be 
the present one but that is not certain. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 245 

Following are measurements in millimeters of the two specimens 
seen: 

Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. No. 82,270, male, wing 294, tail 130, culmen 
and cere 30.0, tarsus 52.5. 

U.S.N.M. No. 279,303, female, wing 297, tail 132, culmen and cere 
28.0, tarsus 57.2. 

On comparison it develops that Asio domingensis is so related to 
A. portoricensis Ridgway, of the adjacent island of Porto Rico that 
the two should be treated as geographic races. The Porto Rican bird 
is distinguished by slightly smaller size, the wing in four example^ 
ranging from 274 to 281 mm. (average 277 mm.), more rounded tail, 
darker forehead and less heavily marked chest. In general color, 
except as noted, the two forms are closely similar, birds in first 
fall plumage being darker buff than those that are older. The Porto 
Rican short-eared owl will be known as Asio domingensis portori- 
cen-sis Ridgway. 

The Hispaniolan short-eared owl is dark brown above with the 
feathers edged prominently with cinnamon buff, with bars of the 
latter color on wings and tail. There is a dark ring around the eye 
beyond which the facial disk is cinnamon buff and white. The bird is 
cinnamon buff below with the abdomen immaculate, the sides and 
flanks very lightly streaked and the breast very heavily marked with 
dusky. The bird is easily distinguished from the barn owl by the 
difference in color of the facial disk and from the eared owl by its 
smooth head and paler color. 

ASIO STYGIUS NOCT1PETENS Riley 
HISPANIOLAN STYGIAN OWL, LECKTJZA, H0UH0TJ, FRESAYE-A-CORNES 

Asio noctipetens Riley, Smithsonian Misc. Colls., vol. 66, no. 15, Doc. 1, 
1916, p. 1 (Constanza, Dominican Republic). — Richmond, Smithsonian Misc. 
Colls., vol. 66, no. 17, 1917, p. 38 (mentioned). — Kaempfee, Journ. fur Ornith., 
1924. p. 183 (Sanchez). 

Asio stygius noctipetens, Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, vol. 80, 
1928, p. 501 (Gonave Island, specimen). — Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., 
vol. 68, 1929, p. 316 (Moca, specimens). 

Bubo clamator (part), Yieileot, Hist. Nat. Ois. Anier. Sept., vol. 1, 1807, 
p. 52 (" Saint-Domingue"). 

Resident; rare. 

Little is at present known of this owl, first described from an 
adult male secured by Dr. TV. L. Abbott near Constanza, D. R., at 
an elevation of about 1200 meters, on September 23, 1916. 
(PI. 19.) Kaempfer collected a second bird from the swampy 
forests at the mouth of the Rio Yiina, which Hartert says is an 
adult female taken November 18, 1922. Abbott informs us that this 
latter bird was secured alive from a native. According to infor- 



246 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

mation from Hartert the label indicates the iris as golden yellow; 
bill blue-black, pale towards base ; and feet dark gray, with a bluish 
tinge. The ends of the primaries are broken so that the true wing 
measurement may not be obtained. Ciferri secured skins at Moca 
January 1, 1927, and July 29, 1929. 

Abbott says that he heard these owls hooting at night from the 
forests near Constanza but though Wetmore during his residence 
at that town listened for it regularly he was unable to hear any sound 
that might be attributed to it. The species, familiar to inhabitants 
under the name lechuza, was said to inhabit the dense rain-forests 
and to come out at night to hunt in the open pine-lands. It was 
reputed to rest in one certain place by day. Though its call was 
known no one could definitely describe it. It was said to take 
chickens on occasion when these were not properly housed. 

Apparently this owl was known to Vieillot in his work in Haiti as 
under the name Bubo clannator (which refers to another owl but 
under which the author seems to have given notes pertaining to 
several species of eared owls) he remarks that the colonists of "Saint- 
Domingue" knew an owl that they called houhou. 

James Bond collected a male at Pointe-a-Raquette on Gonave 
Island, June 29, 1928, the only specimen definitely known at present 
from Haiti. He was told that the bird was not uncommon on 
Gonave but saw it only on this one occasion. It was said to live in 
wooded ravines and to hunt at night in the plantations of the natives. 
The one taken had eaten a ground-dove. 

Through the courtesy of Mr. Bond and Doctor Stone. Wetmore 
has compared the skin from Gonave Island with the type from Con- 
stanza and finds that it is similar though with coloration somewhat 
browner due obviously to wear and fading of the plumage. These 
skins are quite similar to Asio stygius, differing in general darker 
coloration, particularly above, with the light markings more re- 
stricted on wing coverts, scapulars, and facial disk and absent on the 
interscapular region. After careful comparison noctipetens is 
placed as a subspecies of stygius of which it is obviously the geo- 
graphic representative. It will be recalled that Asio stygius siguapa 
(d'Orbigny) is found in the adjacent island of Cuba; according to 
Barbour 90 this differs from continental stygius in paler facial disk 
and general grayer coloration. 

Following are measurements in millimeters of the two specimens 
from Hispaniola : 

Type, U.S.N.M. 249,475, male, wing 291, tail 160, culmen and cere 
34.3, tarsus 45.0. 

80 Birds of Cuba, Mem. Nuttall Ornith. Club, No. 6, June, 1923, p. 87. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 155 PLATE 19 




The hispaniolan eared owl (Asio stygius noctipetens) 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 247 

Acad. Nat. Sci. No. 82,272, male, wing 303, tail 169, oilmen and 
cere 35.8, tarsus 47.3. 

Abbott describes the soft parts in his specimen as follows: iris 
yellow, toes dirty lead color, claws black, bill horny black, with the 
tip and lower mandible yellowish. 

This owl, which is about 440 mm. in length is blackish brown 
above, mottled faintly with grayish buff on forehead, sides of head, 
wing coverts, inner secondaries, and tertials, and barred with buff 
on the tail. Below it is buff, paler anteriorly, streaked and barred 
heavily with blackish brown. Elongated feathers project as two 
horns on the crown, and the legs are feathered to the toes. (PL 19.) 

Order CAPRIMULGIFORMES 
Suborder Caprimulgi 

Family NYCTIBIIDAE 

NYCTIBIUS GRISEUS ABBOTTI Richmond 

HISPANIOLAN NYCTIBIUS, DON JUAN, CHAT HUANT 

Nyctibius griseus abbotti Richmond, Smithsonian Misc. Colls., vol. 68, no. 7, 
July 12, 1917, p. 1 (Port a Piment, Haiti).— Wetmoee, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
vol. 54, October 15, 1918, pp. 577-586, 3 figs, (anatomy, systematic position). — 
Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 502 (reported). 

Resident; abundance not certain. 

The present form was described from a male taken by W. L. 
Abbott at Port a Piment, on the southern shore of the northwest 
peninsula of Haiti, March 9, 1917. It was caught alive while asleep. 
Under date of February 12, 1918 Abbott wrote from Jeremie that 
he had heard many chat huant (as these birds are named in Haiti) 
calling but that he did not secure any. He also reported them from 
the Cul-de-Sac region under date of May 19, 1920. James Bond 
collected a female on Gonave Island June 28, 1928, a gray bird like 
the type, with the wing 295.0, tail 212.0, culmen from base 26.2, and 
tarsus 17.9 mm. He writes (in a letter) that his specimen came 
from Pointe-a-Raquette. 

The body of the type specimen, preserved in alcohol, was studied 
by Wetmore who has published an account of the anatomy. The 
following items of food, with their percentages by bulk, were found 
in the capacious stomach of this bird : 

Three Stenodontes exsertus Olivier 5 per cent, 2 other ceramb} 7 cid 
beetles not identified 5 per cent, 2 small Passalid beetles 2 per cent, 
18 locustid eggs 5 per cent, remains of moths 83 per cent. 



248 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

In the Dominican Republic Abbott examined a bird, badly 
mounted, in a drug store in Puerto Plata, and heard the queer call 
of the Don Juan morning and evening in May near Hondo in the 
mountains. They were reported to be local in distribution, and were 
said to be found near San Francisco de Macoris. 

Hartert writes us that there is an adult in the Tring Museum taken 
by Kaempfer near Tiibano in October, 1923. 

This group of birds is found elsewhere in the Greater Antilles 
only in Jamaica. It is true that Hartlaub 91 says that Herzog von 
Wiirttemberg secured one in Cuba, but there is no other record for 
that island and there is reason to believe that this individual was 
obtained elsewhere, possibly in Haiti where Wiirttemberg traveled 
extensively. 

The Don Juan or chat huant is the largest of the goatsuckerlike 
birds on the island and, though superficially like the others, through 
possession of powder downs and certain anatomical peculiarities, is 
segregated in a family distinct from the Caprimulgidae. The form 
of Hispaniola is approximately 450 mm. in length, with long tail, 
fairly heavy body, and a tremendous mouth that measures approxi- 
mately 45 mm. across the gape and opens sufficiently to engulf a 
small mango. The bird is gray above, streaked with black and 
mottled with whitish, and the same color below, with black spots 
on the breast. 

Family CAPRIMULGIDAE 92 
Subfamily Caprimulginae 

ANTROSTOMUS CAROLINENSIS (Ginclin) 
CHUCK-WILL'S-WIDOW, PITANGUA, DON JUAN 

Caprimulgus carolinensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., vol. 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 102S 
(Carolina.) 

? Caprimulgus rufus, Ritter, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, p. 
156 (specimen). 

Caprimulgus carolinensis, Kaempfer, Journ. fur Ornith., 1924, p. 182 (Moca). 

Androstomus carolinensis, Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, pp. 320, 321 
(listed). 

Antrostomus carolinensis, Cory, Bull, Nuttall Ornith. Club, 1881, p. 153 (spec- 
imens) ; Birds Haiti and San Domingo, July, 1S84, pp. 84-85 (Petionville) ; Cat. 
West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 105 (Haiti, Dominican Republic). — Cherrie, Field 
Columbian Mus., Ornith. ser., vol. 1, 1896, p. 18, (Catarrey, specimen). — Ver- 

111 Naumannia, 1852, pt. 2, p. 54. 

92 In the Conspectus Avium, vol. 1, 1850, p. 61 Bonaparte has the following description : 
"Antrostomus dominions, Bp. Mus. Lugd. ox Insula S. Dominici. Similis praecedenti, 
[i. e. Antrostomus vociferus] sed obscurior, magis et pulcherrime variegatus." In the 
Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol. 16, 1892, p. 535, Doctor Hartert writes " I have examined 
the types of this supposed species in the Leyden Museum ; they are said to be from 
Haiti, but, in my opinion, are C. pectoralis with wrong locality." Caprimulgus pectc- 
ralis is a species of South Africa. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 249 

bill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 360 (Sanchez, La Vega, El 
Valle). --Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, p. 317 (Haina, 
specimen). 

Migrant from United States; abundance not certain as the birds 
are seldom seen. 

The chuck-will's-widow is a migrant species that comes in winter 
from the southeastern United States to the West Indies. It is strictty 
nocturnal, remaining under cover during the entire day and be- 
coming active only at night when it comes out to search for food. 
It is seen therefore only casually when one comes across a sleeping 
individual. The few records available are not to be taken as an 
index to the abundance of the species. 

Cherrie secured one February 3, 1 896, near Catarrey, and says that 
he heard the Chuck-will's-widow calling frequently on clear even- 
ings. Verrill records it near Sanchez, La Vega, and El Valle, and 
says that it was not rare in the more open portions of wooded hill- 
sides. Hartert informs us that the Tring Museum has an adult 
female taken by A. H. Verrill at Sanchez, March 9, 1907. R. H. 
Beck secured specimens at Santo Domingo City October 14 and 17, 
La Vega December 4, 1916, Loma Tina January 16, and Tubano 
February 20, 1917. Abbott forwarded one taken February 18, 1923 
at Jovero, and says that it was killed by a boy with a slingshot or 
catapult in dense jungle near a river. Near Hondo, below Con- 
stanza, he saw several large nightjars in the wooded swamps that 
may have included this species, but this was not certain as he did 
not succeed in procuring specimens. Kaempfer has reported a few 
in cacao plantations near Moca, and Hartert states (in a letter) that 
the Tring Museum has skins collected by Kaempfer at Villa Riva, 
February 4, 1924, Guanabano, near the border between the Provinces 
of La Vega and Espaillat March 1, 1922, and near Caimato, Province 
of Espaillat, April 1, 1922. Moltoni received one taken by Ciferri 
near Haina. 

There are few definite records for Haiti. Ritter lists a specimen 
of " rother Zeigenmelker " that may perhaps have been the chuck- 
will's-widow. Cory speaks of two taken and gives one of them as 
secured at Petionville February 28, 1881. 

The chuck-will's-widow is distinguished from other goatsuckers of 
the island by large size, having the wing 201 to 225 mm. long and 
measuring itself about 325 mm. in length. The plumage in general 
is brownish, above becoming more or less grayish on the inner wing 
feathers, everywhere minutely vermiculated with black, with black 
streaks and spots on head and back. The breast is similar but paler, 
there is a band of buff across the throat, and the abdomen is dull 
buff barred with dusky. The male has the inner webs of the outer 



250 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

rectrices broadly white, while in the female they are buff. The 
species is distinguished from any of the other goatsuckers by having 
lateral filaments on the long bristles that project about the mouth. 

ANTROSTOMUS CUBANENSIS EKMANI Lonnber* 
HISPANIOLAN GOATSUCKER, PITANGUA 

Antrostomus ekmwni Lonnbekg, Ark. for Zool., vol. 20 B, no. 6, March 18, 
1929, p. 1, fig. 1 (Jeremie, Haiti) .— Lonnberg, Fauna och Flora, 1929, pp. 102- 
103, fig. 1 (specimen, eggs). 

? Caprvmulgus carolinensls (part), Kaempfeb, Journ. fur Ornith., 1924, p. 
182 (notes on nest). 

Antrostomus, sp. ? Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, 
p. 521 (mentioned). 

Known locally in the Dominican Republic, and Haiti ; resident. 

This peculiar bird is known at present from a specimen secured 
by W. L. Abbott February 23, 1921 at Mao, D. R., in the valley 
of the Yaqui del Norte, one found byKaempfer near La Vega, August 
2, 1922, and by a third, the type of the race, taken by Ekman near 
Jeremie in July, 1928. (PL 20.) The second specimen Hartert in- 
forms us was found dead in such condition that it could be preserved 
only by leaving most of the bones in the skin. Abbott writes that 
his bird was found resting on a branch near the ground in an area 
of the dense growth characteristic of the arid region there. Pos- 
sibly this form was included among the goatsuckers seen but not 
collected by Abbott near Hondo below Constanza. 

E. L. Ekman, the botanist, secured the type of this race at 1500 
meters altitude at the Habitation Quillaud near Trou des Roseaux 
in the Massif de la Hotte June 27, 1928. The bird was flushed from 
a nest on the ground in which there were two eggs, light greenish 
white in color spotted with brown. 

It is of interest to note that in a collection of water-color draw- 
ings of birds made by M. de Rabie near the close of the eighteenth 
century there is an excellent illustration of the present bird, easily 
recognized by size and color, particularly by the plain buff outer 
margins of the distal ends of the rectrices. The drawing in question 
is labelled peut-on voir and is indicated as made " au Cap " ( = Cap- 
Haitien). It is number 14 in the portfolio in question which has 
been examined through the courtesy of Wheldon and Wesley of Lon- 
don. There is no other mention of it in the older records from Haiti 
unless possibly this may be the Caprimulgus rufus listed by Ritter. 1 

Kaempfer in his notes on " Caprimulgus carolinensis " (see refer- 
ence above) writes "die Eier dieses Vogels sollen nach Berichten von 
Eingeborenen weiss mit braunen Punkten sein und das Nest sich auf 

1 (Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, p. 156) whose Identity Is not certain but 
which is more probably the chuck-will's-widow. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 155 PLATE 20 




HlSPANIOLAN GOATSUCKER (ANTROSTOMUS CUBANENSIS EKMANI 



THE BIEDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 251 

dem Boden befinden. Der Ruf ist ein schauerlich klingendes weithin 
horbares Pitangua, gegen das Ende stark anschwellend." As Antro- 
stomus carolinensis, the chuck-will's-widow, is known only as a mi- 
grant these observations may refer to the native species. 

This bird in size and form is similar to Antrostomus cubanensis 
cubanensis Lawrence of Cuba from which it differs in having the 
light tips of the outer rectrices and the under tail coverts cinnamon- 
buff, immaculate except for the longer central feathers which have 
dark bars on the outer webs, and with the light mottlings on the 
inner webs of the primaries less extensive, the feathers being im- 
maculate on the inner web for the distal fourth. The Cuban form 
has the entire under tail coverts heavily barred with the inner webs 
of the primaries displaying extensive mottled bars that extend to 
distal end of the feathers. 

Though Abbott noted developing eggs as large as number two 
shot in his specimen for some reason he marked it " $ ? ". After 
comparison with Cuban birds it appears to be a female, as the female 
of that form differs from the male, in addition to the narrower light 
band on the tip of the tail, in having distinct paler markings on the 
inner webs of the outer rectrices, producing a series of bars. This 
area in the male is immaculate. As the bird from Mao has the 
mottled bars on the inner webs of the rectrices it appears certainly 
to be a female. It has the following measurements (in millimeters) ; 
wing 170.5, tail 128.3, culmen from base 16.3, tarsus 17.9. The 
dimensions are closely similar to those of A. c. cubanensis. 

The present bird in form is like the chuck-will's-widow but is 
smaller, and grayer, less buffy, in color. In the hand it may be told 
by shorter wing, which measures about 170 mm. (instead of the 
200 mm. or more of the chuck-will's-widow) and by the smooth 
bases of the rictal bristles which lack lateral filaments. (PI. 20.) 

SIPHONORHIS BREWSTERI (Chapman) 
BREWSTER'S GOATSUCKER, GRQUILLE-CORPS 

Hicrosiphonorhis breiosteri Chaman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 37, 
May 14, 1917, p. 329 (Ttibano, Dominican Republic).— Bond, Auk, 1928, pp. 
471-474. pi. 16 (Gonave Island; habits, eggs). — Lonnberg, Fauna och Flora, 
1929, p. 102 (Haiti). 

Siphonorhis brewsteri, Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 
1928, pp. 501-502 (Gonave Island, Trou Forban). 

Resident; local. 

The present species, peculiar to the island, was first taken by R. H. 
Beck, who collected an adult female near Tiibano, in the Province 
of Azua, February 10, 1917. Hartert informs us that Kaempfer 
secured three specimens for the Tring Museum, near Tiibano on 



252 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

August 13 and 14, 1924, at an elevation of 300 meters. According 
to the labels these include one male and two females. This species 
was first identified from Haiti by bones from the cavern deposits at 
L'Atalaye identified by Wetmore. In 1928 Bond recorded it in 
small numbers in the arid region about Trou Forban and Magasin 
Caries between L'Arcahaie and Mont Rouis, and on Gonave Island 
found it fairly common so that he collected a series. He writes that 
he usually found them " perched lengthwise on a horizontal branch 
of a bush, from one to five feet above the ground. The protective 
coloring of the birds, combined with their immobility, made them 
extremely difficult to make out. Occasionally, however, I flushed 
them from the ground, on which occasions they would flit a short 
distance through the scrub like large moths and either settle again 
on the ground, or, as frequently happened, would fty up into a 
nearby bush like some passerine ! It will thus be seen that the bird 
once found was not difficult to collect and in fact in no case did I 
fail to secure a bird which I had followed up. 

k ' In May and June, which is evidently their breeding-season, 
the little goatsucker is more noisy at night, and at times I heard it 
during the day! The notes may be described as half croaks, half 
whispers, and can be recalled by the syllables gu-eck, goo-re-caw, 
with the accent on the re. The bird also emits at times a clear rising 
whistle, which reminded me forcibly of a Canada Jay. 

"Partly because of its note, partly because of its habit, typical 
of the family, of quivering its wings when flushed from the nest, 
the little goatsucker is known to the natives as the ' Grouille-corps ' 
or ' shaking-body.' " 

Bond secured two sets of two eggs each. The first one was 
found May 16, 1928 on Gonave Island on the top of a narrow ridge on 
burnt land, placed in a little hollow formed by the bird on the 
ground. The eggs are dull white with rather evenly distributed 
spots of pale violet-gray and numerous spots or scrawls of buff and 
pale brown. A second set brought in by a native June 27 has the 
violet-gray markings restricted to the large end and the buff spots 
lacking. The first set measures 25.0 by 18.2 and 25.2 by 18.9 mm., 
and the second 24.8 by 18.9 and 24.6 by 18.9 mm. Bond cites the 
hills above Pointe-a-Raquette as the place where this little goat- 
sucker was first seen, but does not state whether his subsequent notes 
pertain to this locality or to others. 

On examination of the excellent series collected by Bond it appears 
that male and female are generally similar in color, but that females 
average decidedly paler, less blackish on the breast, and in most of 
those examined are a little less rufescent on the back. Two juvenile 
birds secured May 17, 1928, though not quite grown, were evidently 






THE BIEDS OP HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN EEPUBLIC 253 

able to fly. These are in molt from juvenal to first fall plumage, 
with most of the feathers except those on the breast already replaced. 
Where juvenile feathers persist on lower breast and abdomen the 
markings are softer and less distinct and the color is more buffy than 
in the next plumage. Otherwise they are like the adults. 

Following are measurements of the series in the Academy of 
Natural Sciences: 

Four males, wing 115.0-120.1 (117.0), tail 99.1-104.8 (101.2), 
culmen from base 9.2-11.3 (10.6), tarsus 24.4-24.9 (24.6) mm. 

Five females, wing 112.9-120.2 (114.8), tail 92.6-104.1 (97.4), 
culmen from base 9.6-11.0 (10.3), tarsus 22.2-23.9 (23.1) mm. 

Wetmore agrees with Bond that the present species should be 
placed in the genus /Siphonorhis since the structural differences 
alleged in the original description of Microsiphonorhis do not hold 
when a series is examined, the only apparent distinction between 
hrewsteri and Siphonorhis americanus being that the bill in the 
former is relatively heavier. The long, strong tarsi of the bird of 
Hispaniola attract attention at once, and we agree with Chapman 
that in length of tarsus and in general appearance both Siphonorhis 
americanus of Jamaica and S. hrewsteri are of the same general tj^pe 
as Nyctidromus of the continental American tropics. 

The present species is distinguished by small size from all others 
of its family found in Hispaniola. It is brownish gray above, 
mottled as usual in goatsuckers with a mixture of black and lighter 
colors. There is a distinct white throat band, and the under surface 
is barred and vermiculated with black and buff or buffy white. 

Subfamily Chordeilinae 

CHORDEILES MINOR VICINUS RHey 

BAHA1TAN NIGHTHAWK, QUEREBEBE, PETIT-ON-VOIR 

Chordeiles virginianus vicinus Riley, Auk. 1903, p. 432 (Long Island, 
Bahamas). 

Aves Nocturnas, Oviedo, Hist. Gen. Nat. Indias, Libr. 14, cap. 7; Reprint, 
1851, p. 446 (habits). 

Chordeiles minor, Cory, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, July, 1884, pp. 85-83 
(La Vega, specimens) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 105 (Haiti, Dominican 
Republic).— Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1S92, p. 321 (listed).— Christy, 
Ibis, 1897, pp. 32S-329 (La Vega ) .— Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 
1909. p. 360 (Dominican Republic, common). 

Chordeiles virginianus minor, Kaempeer, Journ. fur Ornith., 1924, p. 182 
(Dominican Republic, common). 

Chordeiles virginianus gundlachii, Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 1917, p. 
411 (Sosua).— Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. SO, 192S, p. 502 
(Port-de-Paix, Acul Samedi, Tortue Island). — Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 369 
2134—31 17 



254 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

(fairly common). — Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, p. 317 
(Haina, Bonao, specimens). 

Chordeiles minor victims, Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, 
p. 37 (San ThomS, specimen). 

Summer resident ; locally common. 

The nighthawk is migrant in Hispaniola, according to available 
information arriving in April and nesting in May and June. It is 
a bird that prefers pasturelands and other open country and does 
not range in dense forests as do other goatsuckers except to rest occa- 
sionally in trees. Nighthawks appear in the air toward sunset or 
on cloudy days, and fly steadily with strong beats of their long wings 
in zigzag, irregular course across the sky in search of insect food 
which they capture on the wing in their broadly opened mouths. 
As the dusk of evening deepens they come to lower elevations when 
they may sweep back and forth barely above the ground. The name 
of " hawk," given to them apparently because of their long, narrow 
wings, is a misnomer since they are members of the family of goat- 
suckers or nightjars. They rest on the ground or on the limbs of 
trees, in the latter case always perching longitudinally along the 
limb. The date of departure from Hispaniola for their unknown 
winter home somewhere in South America is not at present known. 

The earliest report of the nighthawk on the island, that of Oviedo 
in the sixteenth century, relates probably to the Dominican Repub- 
lic. He says " hay en esta isla aves may ores que vengejos, e 
las alas tienen y el vuelo de la mesina forma, e vuelan 
con tanto velocidad e con aquella manera de voltear, subiendo y 
descendiendo, dando vueltas en el ayre. E no salen ni se veen sino 
el tiempo que el sol se entra debaxo del horigonte, e tambien 
algunas veces si el sol no paresce, por estar el cielo nubloso." He 
describes further their notes which may be heard at a distance and 
remarks that they are great enemies to bats, striking at them in 
the air, a curious statement of uncertain foundation. Cory, who 
secured three at La Vega, July 31 and August 2 and 4, 1883, remarks 
that the nighthawk is abundant in many localities in the summer 
months. Christy found them also at La Vega and writes that 
he observed nine at one time. Verrill writes that they were com- 
mon in the savannas of the interior. Peters reports that the first 
of the returning migrants appeared on the north coast near Sosua 
on April 10, 1916, the night before his departure from the island. 
Kaempfer reported them as the most common of the family found 
throughout the Dominican Eepublic. He was told that they nested 
on the ground in dry stony localities. They were found resting 
in low trees and appeared on the wing as the sun set, or sometimes 
earlier on cloudy days. He recorded a flock of fifty or more in May 
near Jarabacoa. Hartert writes us that the Tring Museum received 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 255 

two skins from Kaempfer, a male taken at Manabao, in the west- 
ern part of the Province of La Vega, not far from the head of the 
Kio Yaqui del Norte, May 2, 1923, and a female in worn dress from 
Tiibano, August 16, 1923. Wetmore saw one near Comendador April 
30, and at Constanza from May 18 to 28 recorded them regularly. 
They appeared high in the air above the village, always at sundown, 
coming from the north, northeast, or east, and passed down the 
valley to the west. It appeared almost that they moved down to 
some lower altitude where the evening air was warmer and there- 
fore more favorable to flying insects. Most of those seen were males 
but occasionally a pair appeared when the male dashed down fre- 
quently past his mate to check suddenly and produce a peculiar 
roaring, whirring sound that carried for long distances. In the 
intervals in this display he called steadily and frequently suspended 
his wing strokes to hold his wings in a broadly open V above his 
back while he sailed for a short distance. The Spanish name of 
querebebe is given in imitation of the call of the male, which to 
Wetmore 7 s ear resembled rather the syllables chitty-chit chitty-chit 
uttered rapidly. Danforth in the summer of 1927 found nighthawks 
fairly common, recording them at Seibo, Hato Mayor, Santo Do- 
mingo City, Los Alcarrizos, Bonao, Monte Cristi, and San Juan. 
Moltoni reports one taken by Ciferri at San Thome, Province of 
Azua, August 20, 1929. Others that he lists under the name gund- 
lackii from Haina, August 12, 1926, and Bonao May 4 and 8, 1927, 
the last taken from the nest, are also mentioned here. 

In Haiti nighthawks were reported by Paul Bartsch April 21 
and 22, 1917 between Port-au-Prince and St. Marc. June 28, 1917, 
Abbott collected a female at Port a l'Ecu on the north coast, and 
May 19 and 22 he secured three females on Tortue, where he recorded 
them as nesting on pebbly sea beaches. At Jean Rabel Anchorage 
he collected two eggs, one on May 29 and the second on June 2, 1917. 
In each case the parent was flushed from the egg which was deposited 
without nesting material among the pebbles of a gravelly sea beach. 
These eggs are elongate in form and measure 29.5 by 21.1 and 33.4 
by 22.0 mm. The disparity in size between the two is somewhat 
remarkable. The ground color of these eggs is dull white with a 
slight gloss, speckled evenly everywhere with fine spots, in the 
larger egg of fuscous-black, and in the smaller one of neutral gray. 
Bond found nighthawks common on Tortue Island, records them 
at Port-de-Paix, and says that they were particularly numerous near 
Acul Samedi both on the lowland plains and in the pine forests 
of the hills. 

Wetmore recorded two at Fonds-des-Negres on April 2, 1927, 
and near Hinche from April 22 to 24 found them common. Two 
were taken here on the latter date. The birds were found over 



256 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

gravel-surfaced knolls bearing little vegetation. Apparently they 
were located on their breeding grounds with nesting about to begin, 
as males swung back and forth through the air in zigzag course, 
fifty yards from the earth, each one confining himself to a limited 
area which apparently was his chosen nesting territory. As they 
flew they called chitty-chit chitty-chit chitty-chit, a rasping note 
that in tone and utterance sounded almost exactly like the call of a 
katydid. At intervals they swept suddenly down through the air, 
turning just before reaching the earth to produce a whirring boom 
that was higher pitched, weaker, and less resonant than that of the 
nighthawks of the minor group in the United States. To keen ears 
this was barely audible at fifty yards. 

In the summer of 1927 Danforth reported nighthawks at Les 
Cayes. Poole and Perrygo recorded a dozen at Plaine Mapou on 
Gonave Island March 3 to 14, 1929 but did not collect specimens. 

After careful comparison it appears that two forms of nighthawk 
come to Hispaniola of which the Cuban bird appears in passage to 
or from nesting grounds elsewhere, while the breeding bird as shown 
by Abbott's specimens is the Bahaman nighthawk, G. m. vicinus. 
Specimens from Tortue and Port a 1'Ecu, and a male taken by Wet- 
more at Hinche, five in all, agree with vicinus from the Bahama 
Islands in being pale above and lighter below than the Cuban bird. 
In fact they average slightly lighter than most Bahaman birds. 
Measurements are as follows (in millimeters) : 

One male, wing 169.5, tail 90.8, culmen from base 7.0 and tarsus 
13.4. 

Four females, wing 167.5-175,0 (172.5); tail 87.6-94.3 (91.5): 
culmen from base 7.0-7.7 (7.2) ; tarsus 13.4-14.2 (13.8). 

As a matter of convenience here all records in literature are cited 
under vicinus though part may refer to the other form. Since the 
breeding bird of Hispaniola proves to be vicinus that is probably the 
race that nests on Porto Rico, instead of gundlachii as has been 
supposed. 

The relationship of the Cuban bird gundlachii and the Bahaman 
form vicinus to the nighthawks of the minor type of North America 
is puzzling. From all appearances the birds of the Greater An- 
tilles and Bahamas are merely geographic races of the continental 
type yet the calls of the two from observations made by Wetmore 
in Haiti (where he collected both vicinus and gundlachii) are radi- 
cally and entirely different. The call of North American minor in 
its various geographic races is a loud almost raucous peent or pe-ernt 
that announces the presence of these birds at a great distance, while 
the boom of the male is a resonant, roaring sound that may be heard 
likewise over a wide radius. The katydidlike chitty-chit of the 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 257 

West Indian and Bahaman races is so absolutely different as to sug- 
gest strongly that these constitute a species distinct as is Chordeiht 
acutipennis. It may be noted too that the eggs of vicinus and gund- 
lachii of which there is a fair series in the United States National 
Museum are much less boldly marked than in the continental birds 
the spots being decidedly finer. Only an occasional egg from North 
America is as finely marked. The eggs of the West Indian and 
Bahaman birds thus resemble those of acutipennis. Examination 
of the skins, however, in series reveals no trenchant difference and 
though Wetmore is convinced in his own mind that gundlachii and 
vicinus are specifically distinct the two are listed here as forms of 
minor pending further observations in the matter. 

The nighthawk is easily told as the only one of the goatsucker 
family that is regularly abroad by day. Above the bird is heavily 
mottled with gray and buff on a black background, and below is 
whitish or buffy white barred narrowly with dusky. There is a 
buffy white band across the throat and a white bar on the under 
surface of the primaries near their tips. Males have a wide white 
bar across the end of the tail that is not found in females. Night- 
hawks differ from other goatsuckers in lack of strong bristles about 
the mouth. 

CHORDEILES MINOR GUNDLACHII Lawrence 
CUBAN NIGHTHAWK, QUEREBEBE, PATIN VOIE 

Chordeiles gundlachii La whence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, vol. 6, 
December, 1856, p. 165. (Cuba.) 

Migrant ; abundance uncertain. 

It has been mentioned above that specimens now at hand of breed- 
ing nighthawks from Hispaniola belong to the Bahaman form in- 
stead of the Cuban race as had been supposed in the past. 2 Two, 
skins taken by Wetmore at Hinche, on April 23, 1927, a male and a 
female, have the dark dorsal coloration and deep buff under surface 
characteristic of the Cuban race as at present understood and are 
identified as that form. They are small in dimension as the fol- 
lowing measurements (in millimeters) indicate: 

Male, wing 166.5, tail 83.0, culmen from base 8.4, tarsus 11.8. 

Female, wing 168.5, tail 91.0, culmen from base 7.6, tarsus 13.2. 

There is a male in the American Museum of Natural History 
secured at San Isidrio, Dominican Republic, June 1, 1917, by R. H. 
Beck, with the wing 161.0, tail 91.9, culmen from base 6.4 and tarsus 
13.2 mm. that is also determined as this race, as is a female in the 



1 Obeiholser, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 80, 1914, p. 83, includes Haiti in the breeding range 
of the Cuban nighthawk, but docs not list specimens examined from that island so that 
basis for his action is uncertain. 



258 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Academy of Natural Sciences taken at Caracol, Haiti, April 28, 1928, 
by James Bond with the wing 166.0, tail 85.3, culmen from base 4.4 
and tarsus 14.7 mm. 

As the Cuban bird does not winter in Cuba but goes elsewhere 
it is not surprising that it should occur in migration in Hispaniola. 
Further collecting should be carried on to indicate its abundance. 

Order MICROPODIFORMES 
Suborder Micropodii 

Family MICROPODIDAE 
Subfamily Chaeturinae 

NEPHOECETES NIGER NIGER (Gmelin) 
ANTILLEAN BLACK SWIFT, VENCEJO, GOLONDRINA, RTRONDELLE NOIRE 

Hirundo nigra Gmelin, Syst. Nat., vol. 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 1025 (Hispaniola). 

Vencejo, Oviedo, Hist. Gen. Nat. Indias, Libr. 14, cap. 2 ; reprint, Madrid, 1851, 
p. 442 (common). 

Petit Martinet Noir, Montbeiixard, in Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois., vol. 6, 1779, pp. 
668-669 ( " Saint-Domingue " ) . 

Hirundo Apos Dominicensis Bkisson, Ornith., vol. 2, 1760, pp. 514-515, pi. 46, 
fig. 3 (" S. Domingue "). 

Hirundo nigra, Vieillot, Hist. Nat. Ois. Am€r. Sept., vol. 1, 1807, p. 64 
(habits).— Hartlaub, Isis, 1847, p. 609 (listed). 

Cypseloides niger, Cory, Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 105 (Haiti, Domini- 
can Republic). — Hartert, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol. 16, 1892, p. 495 (La Vega, 
specimen). — Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 360 (Samanft,). 

Nephoecetes niger, Cory, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, July, 1884, pp. 88-S9, 
1 fig. (La Vega, specimens). — Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 322 
(listed).— Christy, Ibis, 1897, p. 329 (La Vega). 

Nephoecetes niger niger, Griscom, Auk, 1924, pp. 68-71 (discussion). — Bond, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 502 (La Selle, Morne 
Tranchant, Port-au-Prince). — Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 368 (Dominican Re- 
public). — Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 6S, 1929, p. 317 (Bonao, San 
Juan, specimens). 

Resident; locally common, in a few places abundant. 

The black swift is of a family often confused with the swallows — 
which belong in a separate order among the perching birds — because 
of its swallowlike form. It feeds in similar manner by capturing its 
prey in open mouth on the wing, but by one reasonably expert in 
ornithology may be told without trouble by its flight which is much 
more rapid than that of swallows, and is performed with greater dash 
and speed. Black swifts are usually seen in little flocks that feed 
rather high in air. Often they are difficult to secure for specimens 
as they never perch on tree limbs but alight only against the faces of 
cliffs or in hollow trees. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 259 

The black swift seems most abundant in the Dominican Eepublic 
in the vicinity of La Vega where Cory secured a number of specimens 
from July 25 to August 8, 1883. He says that he did not meet with it 
elsewhere. Christy also observed it near La Vega and relates that in 
wet weather he found it gathered in vast flocks just outside the town. 
Verrill reported it from Samana. Abbott secured two males and a 
female at Hondo, below Constanza, May 8 and 9, 1919, and two 
females near El Rio on May 14 of the same year. He did not pro- 
cure it elsewhere. 

Wetmore, in 1927, found a dozen at Las Alcarrizos May 4, one on 
the lower Yuna near Sanchez May 10, one at Villa Riva May 16, 
many near La Vega, May 17 and 30, two at El Rio May 18, others at 
the same point May 30, several at Constanza from May 18 to 28, and 
several near Santiago May 30. He secured specimens near Con- 
stanza May 18. He observed that they were easily told at a glance 
from the chimney SAvift by the tail which in the black swift appears 
longer and distinctly broader at the end, and in addition seems dis- 
tinctly flexible and is often expanded and twisted from side to side 
as the birds turn in the air. The birds appear very black with long 
wings. The flight is very rapid, and is accomplished generally with 
less wing motion than in the chimney swift. Near Constanza black 
swifts were rather local in occurrence and frequented certain parts 
of the valley almost to the exclusion of others. One morning when 
fog lay heavy along the hills on all sides but the sky above the town 
was clear, swifts circled overhead in the open air until the sun came 
through the mist when they disappeared. Black swifts seem very 
silent and only twice were loud chirping calls heard that apparently 
emanated from these birds though this was not wholly certain. West 
of La Vega on May 30 black swifts were observed in abundance in 
flocks of fifteen or twenty circling swiftly among the royal palms. 

In California a closely related form places its nests on rocks be- 
neath waterfalls or in dark crevices among the rocks of precipices, 
but it is possible from their apparent abundance at La Vega that 
here the black swifts locate their nests in some other manner. 

In the summer of 1927 Danforth found them at Santo Domingo 
City in June and July, Bonao in July and August, San Juan July 
10 and 11, and at Haina and La Vega in June. Ciferri obtained them 
at Bonao May 8 and September 1, 1927, and at Sabana San Thome, 
near San Juan, May 5, 1929. 

Curiously enough there are very few records for this bird in Haiti. 
Brisson in 1760 describes a specimen sent to de Reaumur from 
Chervain from " S. Domingue ", possibly from Haiti. Vieillot in 
1807 says that this species is found in dry, arid sections but gives no 
definite localities. His statement that " elle se perche souvent sur les 



260 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

branches seches " throws some doubt on his observations, as in this 
he has unquestionably confused them with some swallow. Bartsch 
has recorded them April 16, 1917, as seen about five miles west of 
Jeremie, and Dr. C. H. Arndt told Wetmore of great numbers of 
swifts seen in the month of January beyond Jeremie that may have 
been this species. Bond saw them at 1800 meters elevation on Morne 
La Selle, and on Morne Tranchant, and recorded three on one occasion 
at Port-au-Prince. 

Following are measurements of a small series : 

Males, two specimens, wing 150.4-151.7 (151.1), tail 58.7-64.4 
(61.6), culmen from base 6.5-7.0 (6.8), tarsus 12.4-12.7 (12.6) mm. 

Females, five specimens, wing 147.1-151.6 (148.3), tail 53.8-59.0 
(56.8), culmen from base 5.4-6.3 (5.9), tarsus 11.0-12.5 (12.0) mm. 

The black swift is as large as a medium sized swallow, and is 
sooty black in color throughout, lighter on the under surface, with 
black markings about the eye and a grayish edging on the feathers of 
the forehead and in front of the eye. Their difference from the 
chimney swift in appearance in life has been described. In the hand 
it is found that the tail feathers of the black swift are soft at the 
tip while in the chimney swifts the shafts of the feathers project 
beyond the web as little spines. 

CHAETURA PELAGICA (Linnaeus) 
CHIMNEY SWIFT 

Hirundo pelagica Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1, 1758, p. 192 (Carolina). 

Hirundo Pclasgia, Vieillot, Ois. Am6r. Sept., vol. 1, 1807, p. 63 ("Saint- 
Domingue "). 

Chaetura pelagica, Babtsch, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 30, July 27, 
1917, p. 132 (Haiti). 

Found in passage during migration; abundance uncertain. 

The chimney swift, a common bird in eastern North America, 
known to the early colonists as a species that nested in hollow trees, 
with the advent of Caucasian civilization took up its summer abode 
in chimneys and so became familiar about the homes of man. Each 
autumn it gathered in flocks for the southward migration and was 
traced in passage to Florida and the gulf coast of the United States 
and there disappeared. The credulous held firmly to the belief that 
during winter the birds went into a state of suspended animation in 
caves or hollow trees or submerged in the mud of marshes and ponds 
there to spend the winter months in hibernation. The more scientific, 
realizing that hibernation was unknown in birds, looked for these 
swifts in some winter home to the southward but for many years in 
vain. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 201 

An early observation of Vieillot on the chimney swift in Hispaniola 
has been completely overlooked. This author who traveled in Haiti, 
in his account of the chimney swift (see reference above), after 
stating the usual range for the bird in the north, remarks " on la 
trouve aussi a Saint-Domingue." On April 19, 1917, Paul Bartsch, 
familiar with the bird in the north, observed a number of chimney 
swifts circling in the air above the city of Port-au-Prince. On May 
18, 1917, W. L. Abbott collected an adult male chimney swift on 
Tortue Island, the first collected specimen on record so far as we are 
aware from south of the United States. 

In the early morning of April 15, 1927 Wetmore noted a flock 
of forty or fifty circling over his camp on La Selle at an altitude 
of 1,900 meters chippering clearly as they darted rapidly above the 
pines. At Hinche on the evening of April 23 a single bird passed 
toward the northwest traveling rapidly and directly at an elevation 
of 80 meters above the earth. On April 30 he noted several at 
Belladere and on the following morning saw several across the 
Dominican border near Comendador. It is believed that these records 
all pertain to birds in passage from some winter home in northern 
South America. Further observations of occurrence will be im- 
portant. 

The only other record of the chimney swift south of the United 
States that we have seen is that of Bangs and Peters 3 who report a 
male taken at Presidio, Vera Cruz, by W. W. Brown, May 6, 1925. 

The chimney swift is sooty black, paler on the rump and upper tail 
coverts and throat. It is smaller than the black swift as it has a wing 
measurement of only 122 to 133 mm., and in addition has the shafts 
of the tail feathers protruding as rigid spines. 

STREPTOPROCNE ZONARIS PALLIBIFRONS (Hartert) 
ANTIILEAN CLOUD SWIFT, VENCEJO 

Chaetura zonaris pallidifrons Haetebu, Ibis, 1896, p. 363 (Ferry River, St. 
Catherine, Jamaica ) . 4 

Chaetura zonaris, Coby, Cat. West Indian Birds, 1S92, p. 106 (recorded with 
a query, Haiti, Dominican Republic) ; Auk, 1S95, p. 279 (Dominican Republic). — 
Chebbie, Field Columbian Mus., Ornith. ser., vol. 1, 1896, p. 18 (Santo Domingo 
City, specimen).— Vekeill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 361 (La 
Vega ) . 

Streptoprocne zonaris melanosis, Peters, Proc. New England Zool. Club, vol. 
6, Nov. 23, 1916, p. 37 (described as new from Sosua, Dominican Republic) ; 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 1917, p. 413 (Sosua, specimens; Monte Cristi, Choco, 
Rio San Juan).— Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. SO, 1928, pp. 
502-503 (La Selle, La Hotte, Port-au-Prince, Ennery, Port-de-Paix, Tortue 
Island). — Danfoeth, Auk, 1929, p. 36S (recorded). — Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. 
Scienz. Nat., vol. 6S, 1929, p. 317 (San Juan, specimen). 

8 Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 67, 1927, p. 474. 

1 For this locality see Hartert, Nor. Zool., vol. 29, 1922, p. 399. 



262 BULLETIN 155, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Supposed to be resident ; local in occurrence. 

The cloud swift is found ordinarily among the hills over towering, 
steep-sided ridges and about high precipices but through its great 
speed in flight so annihilates distance that flocks may appear tempo- 
rarily almost anywhere. It is believed to be resident, and may breed 
in the interior mountains. Observers will do well to note its occur- 
rence in the hope of locating nests, as it is one of the most interesting 
forms in the bird life of the island. 

The earliest certain record is that of Cherrie, who secured one near 
Santo Domingo City in the early part of 1895, since Cory in 1892 
had queried its occurrence on the island. Cherrie reported great 
flocks. Verrill recorded cloud swifts as common at La Vega but says 
that usually they flew at such elevation that they were beyond gun 
range. Peters collected four at Sosua February 28, and March 27 
and 31, 1916, and reported them also at Monte Cristi, Choco, and 
Rio San Juan. At Sosua, where he saw them most frequently they 
were irregular in occurrence as sometimes none were observed for a 
period of a week. They were usually noted just before sundown 
when a flock would appear from the north and pass toward the 
south. Abbott secured two males at El Rio, on May 14, and 18, 1919. 
He saw them at Hondo early in May of the same year, and recorded 
them as numerous at Constanza on May 10 and 11. On March 5, 
1921 he recorded many flying low over a ridge above Navarrete but 
had no gun. On the following morning when he returned properly 
armed the birds had disappeared. Danforth found them quite 
common in 1927 at Bonao in June and August, saw several at La 
Vega June 29 and 30, and noted about two hundred at San Juan 
June 10 and 11. Others were noted at Comendador. Ciferri 
forwarded a skin taken at Sabana San Thome, San Juan, June 4, 
1928 to Moltoni. 

In Haiti, Beck collected specimens at Port-a-Piment June 28 and 
29, and on the slopes of La Hotte June 28 and July 1, 1917. 
Bartsch recorded this bird near Glore on April 3, 1917. Wetmore 
found a number about the precipitous cliffs and over the high slopes 
of La Selle from April 9 to 14, 1927, and on April 17 observed them 
above Chapelle Faure, in Nouvelle Touraine. He collected two 
females on La Selle, one on Morne La Visite April 11, and one above 
the Jardins Bois Pin April 14. As he made camp with Ekman at 
the head of the Riviere Chotard a dozen cloud swifts came rapidly 
over the pines, and on April 11 he found thirty or forty circling in 
fashion typical of their family over the valley opposite the tremen- 
dous cliffs that mark the north face of Morne La Visite. At 
intervals a few darted in over the peak, and by dint of expenditure 
of much ammunition one came finally to hand after two or three had 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 263 

fallen over the dizzy edge into the depths below where it was hope- 
less to search for them. On the wing they seem smaller than they 
really are. One was observed to make a loop in the air by turning 
head down and after a descent of a few feet swinging off to the side. 
In late afternoon when rainclouds obscured the peak little parties 
darted down the slopes above the pines passing at tremendous speed 
with a great rush of wings or occasionally swinging three together 
to sail in close proximity with the wings held stiffly in a V angle 
above the back. To observe their adroitness and skill in flight is 
exhilarating to a degree. Their call is high pitched whee whee 
whee, or a rapid chip chip chip chip. In the hand their form is 
stocky and solid, while the strong feet armed with curved claws are 
especially noticeable. The female taken April 14 had the iris bone 
brown, bill black, and tarsus and toes dark purplish gray. Bones 
of one of these great swifts found at a nest of the barn owl Tyto 
glaucops in the Trujin on La Selle must be from an individual pulled 
from some rock cleft at night as it is impossible to believe that the owl 
could capture this bird except when it was asleep. 

Danforth in 1927 found a few at Las Cahobes July 12 and a few 
near the Citadelle above Milot August 2 and 3. James Bond reports 
these swifts from La Selle, the Massif de la Hotte, Port-au-Prince, 
Ennery, Port-de-Paix and Tortue Island. Perrygo observed two at 
L'Atalaye December 29, 1928. 

Peters has described a local race of the cloud swift from specimens 
that he collected at Sosiia, Dominican Republic, distinguishing it 
from the bird of Cuba and Jamaica by blacker coloration particu- 
larly on the sides of the head. Through the courtesy of the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology we have been permitted to examine his 
type and other specimens and to compare them with four additional 
skins secured by Abbott and Wetmore. Though the type and one 
other bird are blacker than the average the remaining skins may not 
be successfully separated from the series from Cuba and Jamaica 
so that it appears that Mr. Peters' type and other skins are marked 
by individual characters that are not substantiated by further 
specimens. "We use the name pallidifrons of Hartert for all the 
birds of the Greater Antilles. 

The cloud swift is the largest of the swifts in Hispaniola and is 
among the large species in its family for the entire world. The 
wing spread is about equal to that of the sparrow-hawk but the 
wings are decidedly narrower. The plumage is sooty black, browner 
beneath, with a white color extending around the upper breast and 
hind neck. The bird is 200 mm. or more in length in life and has 
a wing measuring from 148 to 161 mm. 



264 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Subfamily Micropodinae 

TACHORNIS PHOENICOBIA PHOENICOBIA Gosse 
PALM SWIFT, GOLONBRINA, PETIT HOLLE, JOLLE-JOLLE 

Tachornis phoenicohia Gosse, Birds Jamaica, 1847, p. 58 (Jamaica). 

Hirundo cayenensis, Ritter, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, p. 156 
(listed). 

Cypselus cayennensis ? Saele, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, p. 232 (Do- 
minican Republic). — Bkyant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 1867, 
p. 95 (Dominican Republic). 

Cypselus phoenicohius, Cosy, Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, 1881, p. 153 (Gantier, 
Jacmel, specimens) ; Birds Haiti and San Domingo, July, 1884, pp. 87-88, col. 
fig. (Gantier, Jacmel, Puerto Plata, La Vega, specimens) ; Cat. West Indian 
Birds, 1892, p. 106 (Haiti, Dominican Republic). — Tippenhatjer, Die Insel 
Haiti, 1892. 322 (listed).— Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909. 
p. 360 (La Vega). 

Tachornis phoenicohia, Lonnberg, Fauna och Flora, 1929, p. 103 (Haiti). 

Tachornis phoenicobia phoenicohia, Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 
1917, p. 414 (Sosua, specimens). — Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 
vol. 80, 1928, p. 503 (Port-au-Prince, Jacmel, Fond Parisien, Ennery, St. 
Michel). — Danforth. Auk, 1929, p. 36S (locally common). — Moltoni, Att.' Soc. 
Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, p. 318 (Moca, San Juan, specimens). 

Resident in the lowlands; locally common. 

The newly arrived naturalist in Hispaniola, eagerly alert to the 
kaleidoscopic impressions of a new environment that crowd his days, 
may have as one of his early experiences a glimpse of a little, gray, 
narrow-winged form that comes skittering overhead in the blazing 
sun, sliding from side to side in the air with a twinkle of wings and 
a flash of white so rapidly that it is gone among the palms before 
the mind has had time to consider whether it be giant moth or bird. 
Seconds after it has passed it is realized that the first of the palm 
swifts of the island has been in view. The narrow wings move so 
rapidly about the body as to appear often as a blur, while the bird 
travels so swiftly that it may require several meetings before there 
is clear perception of its colors and form. 

The palm swift is confined mainly to the lower country but finds 
congenial haunts over the suburbs of towns and cities so that it is 
not difficult to see. (PL 21.) Salle recorded it from the Dominican 
Republic saying that it appeared in numbers high in the air after 
rains. Cory secured specimens at Puero Plata, November 23, 1882, 
and La Vega August 8, 1883. Verrill reported palm swifts as com- 
mon along the Rio Camii near La Vega and Peters found them fairly 
common near Sosua, securing three as specimens. He saw them 
flying into the dead fronds of palms to rest. Abbott secured a 
female at Lake Enriquillo, October 5, 1919. In Santo Domingo City, 
on May 2, 1927, in passing through a suburban street Wetmore ? s 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 155 PLATE 21 




Palm-swift (Tachornis phoenicobia phoenicobia* 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 265 

attention was attracted by a swarm of these little birds darting in 
and out of a long shed-like structure. There was opportunity to 
investigate the following morning when it was found that the build- 
ing was a tannery and that the birds were attracted by an abundance 
of flies that filled the place. On this second occasion a dozen swifts 
were constantly about, circling past the doorways and flying through 
the several low sheds that housed the plant. One was observed at 
San Francisco de Macoris May 4, and at La Vega they were common 
on May 17 and 30, when they were observed alighting among the 
dead, hanging fronds of the royal palms. They were common in 
Santiago May 31. Ciferri collected skins at Moca August 23, 1928 
and Sabana San Thome, San Juan, December 28, 1928. 

In Haiti the palm swift is locally common. Cory found it abun- 
dant near Gantier where he took one March 6, 1881 ; he secured one 
at Jacmel January 12 of the same year. Bartsch in 1917 found the 
palm swift at Thomazeau April 2, near Glore April 3, at Trou 
Caiman, April 4, Petit Goave April 8 and 9, Miragoane, April 9, near 
Jeremie April 10 to 12 and 15 and 16, at Trou des Roseaux April 13 
and 14, and in the vicinity of Port-au-Prince April 19 to 27. 

Abbott found the bird common about Jeremie and collected two 
females December 17 and 20, 1917. At Fond Parisien he secured 
three males May 8, 1920, and in northwestern Haiti shot males at 
Port-de-Paix February 24, and at Moustique, March 11, 1917. Near 
Bombardopolis he secured a female March 25, 1917 at an elevation 
of 450 meters above the sea, the highest altitude at which the species 
has been reported at present. Wetmore in 1927 observed palm 
swifts in Port-au-Prince from March 27 to 29, and on April 19, 25 
and 28, usually among the palm grown gardens of the suburbs, but 
occasionally darting over the buildings in the business part of town. 
At the Etang Miragoane, on April 1 several coursed swiftly over 
marshy meadows often flying very low. A male taken here was past 
breeding and had the mouth and throat crammed with insects so 
that it may have been feeding young. Occasional birds were seen 
at Fonds-des-Negres April 2, 4 and 5, and at Aquin April 3. James 
Bond reports this species from Port-au-Prince, Jacmel, Fond Pari- 
sien, Ennery, and St. Michel. 

Careful comparison of our series of ten with several from Jamaica 
fails to show any definite differences between skins from the two 
islands. Jamaican specimens seem very slightly browner on the 
head but it is believed that this is due to adventitious stain from the 
greater age of these specimens. 

Following are measurements of a small series from Hispaniola : 

Males, five specimens, wing 99.3-100.1 (103.3), tail 39.3-^0.8 (40.2), 
culmen from base 4.2-4.8 (4.5), tarsus 6.2-7.8 (7.1) mm. 



266 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Females, four specimens, wing 102.7-108.4 (105.8), tail 41.0-44.0 
(42.5), culmen from base 4.2-4.4 (4.3), tarsus 7.0-7.3 (7.1) mm. 

The palm swift is so tiny, being only 100 to 120 mm. long, that it 
will be confused with no other swift on the island. It is sooty black 
on back, wings and tail, the black being somewhat browner on head 
and sides, and white on breast, abdomen, and rump. 

Suborder TROCHILI 

Family TROCHILIDAE 5 
Subfamily Trochilinae 

[ARCHILOCHUS COLUBRIS (Linnaeus) 
RTJBY- THROATED HUMMINGBIRD 

Trochilus colulris Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1, 1758, p. 120 (Carolina 
to New England). 

Archilochus colubris, Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 140; Beneath 
Tropic Seas, 1928, pp. 167-168, 222 (Bizoton, seen). 

Status uncertain. 

Beebe writes that " a male hummed about my head for several 
minutes, and then perched a few feet away at Bizoton sand beach 
on March 6. As far as visual reliability alone can be trusted, this 
is an absolute identification." And further in his book Beneath 
Tropic Seas writes " One day as I was rowing lazily over a coral 
reef close to the sand beach of Bizoton, I heard a sharp whirr of 
wings directly behind me, and a moment later a ruby-throated hum- 
mingbird alighted on the end of a long net handle which stuck up 
over the stern-post. I rested on my oars and watched for a full 
minute while the perfect plumaged mite preened and arranged some 
feathers too small for my coarse eyesight. This was not any of the 
Haitian hummers, some of which were larger and one much smaller, 
but my own familiar countryman of northern honeysuckles. When 
he had finished his toilet, he wiped his beak, rose gently, hung in 
front of my face for a moment, and then, with a single upward 
curve, set a course northward, directly across the wide expanse of 
water." There is no other record. The species is one that is found 
occasionally on the north coast of Cuba and in the Bahamas and 
may come casually to Hispaniola as a winter migrant. Pending 
further information as to its occurrence and the collection of speci- 
mens it is held in the hypothetical list. 

5 Palytmus holosericeus, Vieillot, Hist. Nat. Ois. Am6r. Sept., vol. 2, 1807, p. 71, given 
from " Saint-Domingue," and Trochilus holosericeus, Hartlaub, Isis, 1847, p. 609 in- 
cluded from Hispaniola, refer to the blue-breasted hummingbird, Sericotes holosericeus 
(Linnaeus), in which the typical form comes east through the Virgin Islands to the eastern 
coast of Porto Rico but is not known to range farther. Its citation from Hispaniola by 
the authors listed above must be considered an error. 



THE BIEDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 267 

The female is marked like the female of Mellisuga m. vlelloti but 
is decidedly larger. The male has the throat metallic red.] 

MELLISUGA MINIMA VIELLOTI (Shaw) 

HISPANIOLAN VERVAIN HUMMINGBIRD, ZUMBADORCITO, OUANGA 
NEGRESSE, SUCE-FLEURS 

Trochilus Vielloti Shaw, Gen. Zool., vol. 8, pt. 1, 1812, p. 347 (Hispaniola). 

Trochilus niger, Audebert and Vieillot, Ois. Dor., vol. 1, 1802, pp. 119-122, 
pi. 53 (habits). — Vieillot, Hist. Nat. Ois. Ainer. Sept., vol. 2, 1807, p. 73 
( " Saint-Domingue " ) . — Ritter, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, pp. 
153, 155 (nest).— Haktlaub, Isis, 1847, p. 609 (listed). 

Trochilus melllsugus, Hartlaub, Isis, 1847, p. 610 (listed). 

Trochilus minimus, Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, vol. 11, May, 1867, 
p. 95 (Dominican Republic; Haiti). 

Ornismya minima, Haktlaub, Isis, 1S47, p. 609 (listed). 

Ornismia Catharinae Salle, Rev. Mag. Zool., October, 1849, p. 498 (described 
as new from Dominican Republic). 

Dyrinia minima, Kaempfeb, Journ. fur Ornith., 1924, p. 181 (Dominican 
Republic) . 

Dyrinia minima Vieillot i, Simon, Hist. Nat. Troch., 1921, pp. 400-401 (His- 
paniola). 

Melisuga Domimcensis Brisson, Ornith., vol. 3, 1760, pp. 702-704, pi. 36, 
fig. 8 ("Saint-Domingue"). — Salle, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, p. 233 
(Dominican Republic).— Cory, Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, 1881, p. 153 (Haiti) ; 
Birds Haiti and San Domingo, July, 1884, pp. 92-93, col. fig. (Petionville, Puerto 
Plata, specimens) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 107 (Haiti, Dominican 
Republic).— Tristram, Cat. Coll. Birds belonging H. B. Tristram, 1889, p. 108 
(Samana, specimen). — Tippenhaueb, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, pp. 318, 322 
(listed). — Cherrie, Field Columbian Mus., Ornith. ser., vol. 1, 1896, p. 18 (Do- 
minican Republic). — Christy, Ibis, 1897, p. 329 (Sanchez, La Vega). — Verrill, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 361 (common). 

Mellisuga catherinae, Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 140; Beneath 
Tropic Seas, 1928, p. 22 (Port-au-Prince). 

Mellisuga catharinae, Ridgway, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 50, pt. 5, 1911, pp. 
586-587 (Petionville, Port-au-Prince, Catarrey, Honduras, San Francisco, San- 
chez, Cana Honda, La Canita, Rio San Juan, La Vega). — Peters, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, p. 414; (Monte Cristi, specimens). — Danforth, Auk. 
1929, p. 368 (recorded).— Lonnberg, Fauna och Flora, 1929, p. 103 (Haiti). 

Melisuga minima, Porsch and Sassi, Verh. Ornith. Ges. Bayern, vol. 18, 1928, 
p. 7 (listed). 

Mellisuga minima catharinae, Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 
80, 1928, p. 503 (Haiti, Gonave, Tortue ; nest and eggs).— Moltoni, Att. Soc. 
Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, p. 318 (Haina, specimens). 

Resident ; locally common. 

This tiny bird with its closely related cousin of Jamaica is the 
second smallest of the birds of the world, the smallest being Helena's 
hummingbird (Calypte helenae) of Cuba. The greater size of the 
vervain hummer is expressed in so very few millimeters of length of 
wing and body that it is almost negligible and would not be per- 
ceived except with the birds in hand. On the wing the vervain 



268 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

hummer appears small but its tiny dimensions are only fully appre- 
ciated when one pauses in its search of flowers to rest on some twig 
in the sun when it seems no larger than a bee, so that one marvels 
at its delicate form that retains in spite of its diminutiveness the 
organs and functions of larger relatives. 

The vervain hummer frequents shrubbery, fields grown with 
bushes, and open scrubs, and does not penetrate dense forest growths. 
It ranges from sea level into the mountains, the highest elevation 
at which it is recorded at present being the Valley of Constanza. 
Apparently the climate of the uplands has little peril for it since 
the nights at that altitude are very cold. Possibly it may descend 
to lower elevations in winter when frost comes occasionally killing 
tender vegetation in the mountains. 

Should its tiny form in its rapid movements escape the eye atten- 
tion is regularly directed to it by its song, a series of labored, twitter- 
ing syllables uttered with constantly elongating neck and turning 
head, an effort of surprising volume when the author is considered, 
that, though high pitched, has considerable carrying power as it is 
audible to human ears easily at a distance of seventy-five yards. 
Occasionally this song is given on the wing, but ordinarily the bird 
is moved to vocal expression when at rest on some perch in the sun. 
The song seemingly is greatly enjoj^ed as it may continue without 
cessation for several minutes. Like larger members of its family 
this hummer is pugnacious and does not hesitate to dash headlong 
at birds as large as the mockingbird that chance to offend its eye. 

The Hispaniolan form has long been known, as Brisson in 1760 
described it from a specimen in the museum of de Reaumur, col- 
lected by Chervain. Vieillot in 1802 gives a considerable account 
of its habits describing the song and nest. The latter he says may 
be placed on a limb or attached to the side of an upright branch. 
It is built of cottony material, covered externally with lichens. The 
eggs, two in number, are incubated for twelve days and the young 
remain in the nest for seventeen or eighteen days. He says that 
the male shares in the duties of incubation. 

Salle found this hummer in the Dominican Republic and, over- 
looking earlier names, described it as a new species under the 
specific designation catharinae, dedicating it to his mother. He 
records the nest as placed from eighteen inches to three feet from 
the ground in thorny thickets or on the leaves of cactus, woven 
ordinarily of the webs of spiders and caterpillars and covered with 
lichens. He observed occupied nests during July and August. Cory 
collected a male at Puerto Plata November 24, 1882. Tristram 
reports a male taken at Samana in 1884 by C. G. McGrigor. Cherrie 
found the species common but difficult to collect. Christy received 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 269 

a nest from La Vega at the beginning of March which contained 
two fully grown young. Dr. A. Busck secured a vervain hummer 
in the San Francisco Mountains in the southern part of the Do- 
minican Republic August 28, 1905, the specimen being in the United 
States National Museum. Verrill found it common at all points 
visited and collected a number of specimens. Six of these in the 
collection of J. H. Fleming were secured at Samana February 9, 
12 and 18, 1907. Peters shot three at Monte Cristi, and Abbott 
skinned one at Sanchez October 21, 1916. Keempfer reports a nest 
made of the down of the kapok tree, placed one and one half meters 
from the ground, and saj's that in August he found these hummers 
in thousands near Constanza. The latter observation may indicate 
a vertical migration from the lowlands into the mountain valleys as 
is regular in many continental hummers. TVetmore observed them in 
1927 at Sanchez May 7 and 9, at El Rio May 18 and 30, and com- 
monly near Constanza May 20 to 27. One was taken May 21. 
Danforth found them in 1927 at Santo Domingo City (specimen), 
Bonao, and La Vega. Moltoni received skins from Ciferri taken 
at Haina in September, 1925. 

In Haiti the vervain hummer is common and from its tiny size has 
attracted attention from many travelers. Ritter in 1836 speaks of 
finding its nest in guava bushes. A. E. Younglove forwarded two 
specimens taken June 1, 1866, to the Smithsonian Institution. These 
were preserved as mummies, one being still in the United States 
National Museum. Cory in 1881 spoke of it as abundant, and lists a 
female taken at Petionviile February 7, 1881. There is another that 
he secured from the same point on March 7 in the United States 
National Museum. Tippenhauer gives this form the local name of 
ouanga negresse. Bartsch in 1917 found it near Glore April 3 
(specimen), Trou Caiman April 4, near Jeremie April 10 to 12, 15 
and 16 (specimens April 10 and 11), Trou des Roseaux April 14, and 
in the vicinitjr of Port-au-Prince April 19 to 27. Abbott reports it 
as generally common, and occurring en Tortue Island where he col- 
lected one February 1, 1917. He records it also from Gonave and 
saj^s that it was common in the hills above three hundred meters 
elevation. Wetmore in 1927 collected one at the flowers of a mimosa 
near L'Acul April 4, and observed two in flowering logwoods near 
Fonds-des-Negres April 5. He observed one near La Cahobes April 
20, and at Hinche April 22 shot two at the blossoms of a flowering 
tree but because of their tiny size was unable to find either one. At 
Caracol on the north plain they were common April 26 and 27, and 
two were taken on the former date. They were seen ordinarily feed- 
ing at flowers. Beebe recorded them at Port-au-Prince. 
2134—31 18 



270 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Danforth in 1927 found them at Cavaillon, St. Marc, and Fonds- 
des-Negres, and says that they are more common on Gonave Island 
than on Hispaniola proper. There are two specimens in the Acad- 
emy of Natural Sciences taken on Gonave Island July 15, 1927 by 
John T. Emlen, jr. James Bond reports them from Gonave and 
Tortue and secured a nest containing two fresh eggs on Tortue Island 
March 21, 1928. The data with the nest states that it was " brought 
in by boy, who said nest was placed about three feet above ground 
near a spring in woods." The nest was constructed on the fork of a 
slender limb a little more than two millimeters in diameter and was 
made of soft plant downs of two colors, whitish and dull reddish 
brown. The structure varies from 30 to 33 mm. in diameter and is 
deeply cupped. Externally it is covered with flakes of thin, paper- 
like bark. The eggs are dull white in color. Bond gives the meas- 
urements as " 11.6 by 8.4 and 11.5 by 8.15 " mm. Both eggs were 
cracked when examined in May, 1929. Poole and Perrygo secured 
two specimens of this hummer at Fort Liberte, Haiti, February 6, 
1929. 

The earliest available name for the vervain hummer of Hispaniola 
is Trochilus vielloti of Shaw published in 1812. We agree with 
Simon 6 that this form is best regarded a subspecies of minima of 
Jamaica from which it differs only in slightly darker coloration. 

The vervain hummer measures from 60 to 70 mm. in length with 
the wing from 34 to 40 mm. It is dull metallic green above and pale 
grayish white below. The male has the throat spotted lightly with 
dusky, a marking lacking in the female. 

RICCORDIA SWAINSONII (Lesson) 
HISPANIOLAN EMERALD HUMMINGBIRD, ZUMBADOR, OUANGA NEGRESSE 

Ornismya swainsonii Lesson, Hist. Nat. Ois. Mouch., 1829, p. 197, pi. 70 
(" Bresil "=Hispaniola). 

Trochilus maugaeus (part), Vielllot, Hist. Nat. Ois. Amer. Sept., vol. 2, 
1807, p. 73 (" Saint-Domingue "). 

Trochilus elegans, Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 1867, 
p. 95 (Dominican Republic). 

Sporadinus elegans, Salle, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, p. 233 (mountains, 
Dominican Republic).— Cory, Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, 1881, p. 153 (Gantier, 
P€tionville, specimens) ; Birds Haiti and San Domingo, July, 1S84, pp. 93-94, 
1 col. fig. (Samana, specimens) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1S92, p. 107 (Haiti, 
Dominican Republic). — Tristram, Cat. Coll. Birds belonging H. B. Tristram, 
1889, p. 110 (Samana, specimen). — Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, pp. 319, 
322 (listed). — Cherrie, Field Columbian Mus., Ornitb. ser., vol. 1, 1S96, pp. 
18-19 (Catarrey, Aguacate, specimens). — Christy, Ibis, 1897, p. 329 (S&ncbez, 
La Vega).— Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 361 (El 
Valle). 

6 Hist. Nat. Troch., 1921, pp. 400-401. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 271 

Ricordia elegans, Porsch and Sassi, Verh. Ornith. Ges. Bayern, vol. 18, 1928, 
p. 7 (listed). 

Ricordia swainsoni, Kaempfer, Journ. fiir Ornith., 1924, p. 181 (Dominican 
Republic). 

Riccordia swainsoni, Lonnberg, Fauna och Flora, 1929, p. 103 (Haiti). 

Riccordia swainsonii, Ridgway, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 50, pt. 5, 1911, p. 546 
( Petionville, Gantier, Samana, Cattarey, Aguacate, El Valle, La Caiiita, San- 
chez, La Vega).— Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 503 
(mountains of Haiti). — Danforth, Auk, 1929, pp. 368-369 (recorded). 

Resident; found principally in the hills and mountains of the 
interior. 

The emerald hummer is found mainly in heavy forest in the hills 
and is most common in regions of considerable rainfall. Cory re- 
corded five specimens from Samana April 27, and September 1, 3, 
7, and 8, 1883. Tristram received one from the same point taken by 
C. G. McGrigor, January 11, 1884. Cherrie found it only at Catar- 
rey and Aguacate, recording sixteen skins collected. He found it 
only in the darkest parts of the forest, usually near the ground. 
Christy says that it was fairly common at Sanchez and La Vega, 
while Verrill reports it as " found at all points visited but most 
abundant at El Valle." Beck collected specimens near Sanchez 
(probably in the hills above town) October 27, November 4 and 11, 
and December 11, 1916. He took a series on Loma Tina January 3 
to 19, Loma Pelona February 3, Loma Rucilla March 19, and at La 
Vega November 28 and December 4, 1917. Abbott found it common 
about Constanza especially in the clearing at Bohokali. He collected 
seven specimens September 22 and 28, 1916, and April 7, 12 and 13, 
1919. On Quita Espuela at 750 meters on April 16, 1922 he secured 
a nest of this species in heavy forest, the nest being built on a limb 
the size of a pencil in a small bush a meter from the ground in a sit- 
uation where it was quite exposed. The nest is made of soft ma- 
terial, the base being filaments of moss and fern and the cup above 
of cottony substance mixed with coarser plant fibers, covered exter- 
nally with bits of lichen stuck on with spider webbing. The nest is 
50 mm. across by 60 mm. high, with the cup 25 by 35 mm. and the 
depression 20 mm. deep. 

Kaempfer recorded this hummer only in the hills above 500 meters 
altitude. Wetmore in 1927 found it common in the forested hills 
back of Sanchez on May 13 and collected one specimen. He did not 
find it there in the lowlands. He saw it at El Rio May 18, and 
near Constanza recorded it regularly from May 22 to 27. It was 
common in the damp, deciduous rain forests, keeping principally 
in the shade, anywhere from ground level to the tops of the trees. 
In early morning when the air was damp it came out occasionally 
to feed in the open growths of pine. The wings produce a loud 



272 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

humming in flight. Danforth observed a few at Hato Mayor and 
Bonao in the summer of 1927. 

Cory in 1881 reported two taken at Gantier and two near Petion- 
ville (Le Coup) but apparently there may have been some error in 
this as subsequently he makes no reference to specimens taken at 
these points. The records are therefore considered doubtful as from 
present knowledge the species in Haiti is confined to the higher 
forested hills. Bond, however, writes (in a letter) that he has ex- 
amined a female taken on Gonave Island. Abbott secured this spe- 
cies near Moline on the southern peninsula at 600 meters above the 
sea, February 1, 1918, on Morne Tranchant, near Furcy, at 1200 
meters altitude, May 29, 1920, and near Bombardopolis at 450 meters 
March 25, 1917. 

Wetmore in 1927 observed one near Mont Kouis on March 30 in 
heavy forest a short distance above the sea. On La Selle from April 
9 to 15 he found this hummer common above an elevation of 1500 
meters. It was observed usually in the rain forest jungle but came 
out in more open country to feed at the flowers of a species of agave. 
A male taken April 12 at the head of the Riviere Chotard had the 
base of the mandible dull pinkish, the rest of the bill black, iris bone 
brown, and tarsus and toes brownish black. He found a few near 
Hinche April 22 and 23. 

Danforth writes that these hummers were common on the Citadelle 
Hill above Milot August 2 and 3, 1927, and that he collected speci- 
mens that same summer at Petionville and on Gonave Island. Bond 
found nests on June 3 and 6, 1928 on Morne Tranchant at an elevation 
of 1,900 meters, placed in bushes a meter or more from the ground. 
The nests were about 65 mm. high by 50 mm. in diameter. The 
first contained one young bird while the second was not yet complete. 

Abbott says that the base of the bill in a male taken at Constanza 
September 28, 1916, was flesh color and the remainder black. The 
bicolored appearance of the bill, an easily seen field mark, persists 
in the dried skin. 

The male is brilliant green above and below, with a touch of 
velvety black on throat and breast. The female is brownish gray 
beneath. This species is intermediate in size between the tiny ver- 
vain and the large mango hummers being distinctly smaller than 
the latter. The male is marked by the long forked tail. 

ANTHRACOTHORAX DOMINICUS (Linnseas) 

HISPANIOLA27 MANGO HUMMINGBIRD, Z1JMBAD0R, OUANGA NEGRE3SE 

Trochilus dominions Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, vol. 1, 1766, p. 191 ("Dom- 
inica "=Hispaniola). 

Hummingbird, Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1835, p. 105 (Haiti). 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 273 

?Colibry, Charlevoix, Hist. Isle Espagnole, vol. 1, 1733, pp. 42-43 (observa- 
tions). 

?Colibri, Saint-Mery, Descrip. Part. Franc. lie Saint-Domingue, vol. 1, 
1797, p. 717 (Port-de-Paix). 

Colibri, de St. Domingue, Daubentox, Planch. Enl., pi. 6S0, fig. 1. 
Plastron Noir, Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois., vol. 6, 1779, pp. 59-60 (part; "Saint- 
Domingue"). 

Trochilus aurulentus, Bkyant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 
1867, p. 95 (Dominican Republic, Haiti). 

Trochilus dominions, Bitter, Naturh. Iteis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, p. 155 
(specimen). 

Trochilus gramineus, Bitter, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, pp. 
153-154, 155 (specimen).— Hartlaub, Isis, 1847, pp. 609, 610 (listed). 

Polyhnus Dominiccnsis Brisson, Ornith., vol. 3, 1760, pp. 672-673, pi. 35, 
fig. 4 ("S. Domingue"). 

Polytmus Jamaicensis Brisson, Ornith., vol. 3, 1760, pp. 679-681, pi. 35, fig. 1 
(" S. Domingue"). 

Polytmus aurulentus (part), Viellot, Hist. Nat. Ois. Amer. Sept., vol. 2, 
1807, p. 72 ("Saint-Domingue"). 

Polytmus elegans, Vieillot, Hist. Nat. Ois. Amer. Sept., vol. 2, 1807, p. 72 
(" Saint-Domingue "). 

Polytmus gramineus, Vieillot, Hist. Nat. Ois. Amer. Sept., vol. 2, 1S07, p. 72 
(" Saint-Domingue ") . 

Polytmus viridis, Vieillot, Hist. Nat. Ois. Amer. Sept., vol. 2, 1807, p. 71 
(" Saint-Domingue "). 

Lampornis aurulenta, Salle, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1S57, p. 233 (Dominican 
Republic). 

Lampornis aurulentus, Cory, Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, 1881, p. 153 (Petion- 
ville, Haiti). — Tristram, Ibis, 1S84, p. 168 (Dominican Republic, specimen). 

Lampornis dominions, Cory, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, July, 1S84, pp. 
90-91, 2 col. figs, (abundant) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 106 (Haiti, 
Dominican Republic). — Tristram, Cat. Coll. Birds belonging H. B. Tristram, 
1SS9, p. 106 (Samana, specimens). — Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 
322 (Haiti).— Cherrie, Field Columbian Mus., Ornith. ser., vol. 1, 1S96, p. 18 
(common). — Christy, Ibis, 1897, p. 329 (Samana,, La Vega). — Verrill, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 361 (common). — Kaempfer, Journ. fur 
Ornith., 1924, p. 181 (recorded). — Porsch and Sassi, Verb. Ornith. Ges. Bayern, 
vol. 18, 1928, p. 7 (listed). 

Lampornis dominicensis, Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 319 (listed). 

Anthracorax dominions, Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, p. 414 
(Monte Cristi, Sosua, Choc6, specimens). 

Anthracothorax dominions, Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 140; Be- 
neath Tropic Seas, 1928, p. 222 (Haiti).— Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila- 
delphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 503 (Haiti, Gonave, Tortue).— Danforth, Auk, 1929, 
p. 369 (common). — Lonneerg, Fauna och Flora, 1929, p. 103 (Haiti). — Moltoni, 
Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat, vol. 68, 1929, p. 318 (Haina, San Juan, specimens). 

Resident, common. 

The present species, the largest of the three hummers resident in 
Hispaniola, is widely distributed from sea-level into the mountains in 
both arid and well-watered sections so that it is the most commonly- 
seen of its group. It is seemingly somewhat more abundant in semi- 



274 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

arid regions but is found regularly where rainfall is heavy. It is 
perhaps the colibry recorded by Charlevoix in 1733, while both male 
and female are described and figured, under distinct names, by Bris- 
son in 1760 from specimens sent by Chervain to de Reaumur. 

In the Dominican Republic Salle found this hummer many years 
ago about the flowers of cactus. Cory secured skins at Puerto Plata, 
December 14, 23 and 24, 1882, and at Samana, April 5 and Septem- 
ber 3, 1883. Tristram received three specimens from Samana taken 
by C. G. McGrigor, in September, 1883. Cherrie found it tolerably 
common, but Christy identified it only twice, at Samana and La 
Vega. Verrill wrote that it was common, a statement borne out by 
an excellent series of his taking in the collection of J. H. Fleming, 
taken in 1907, on January 4 and 10 at Caiia Honda, January 14 at 
El Valle, February 1 at Rio San Juan, February 3, 5, 10, 11, 12, and 
18, and March 3, 6, 7, and 9 at Samana, March 9 at Sanchez, and 
March 16 at La Vega. Peters secured a series of twenty at Monte 
Cristi, Sosua, and Choco. Abbott collected it at Laguna August 7 
and 10, and at Rojo Cabo August 30, 1916, both places being near 
the eastern end of the Samana Peninsula. He took others near 
Constanza September 27, 29 and 30, 1916, and April 9, and 16, 1919. 
Wetmore, in 1927, found this species at Azua May 1 about flowers in 
a suburban yard, at Sanchez, May 6 to 13 (a male taken May 7), 
at La Vega May 17, and near Constanza May 21 and 22. Danforth 
in the same year collected specimens at Santo Domingo City, Monte 
Cristi, Laguna del Salodillo, La Vega, and San Juan. Ciferri for- 
warded skins to Moltoni from Haina and Sabana San Thome near 
San Juan. 

In Haiti this is the most commonly seen of the hummingbirds. 
A. E. Younglove in 1866 collected four specimens near Port-au- 
Prince May 9, 16, and 21, which he forwarded to the Smithsonian 
Institution where they still remain. Cory in 1881 reported it as 
common, and though he found it feeding or resting near the ground 
says also that he saw it often in the tops of the tallest trees. He 
remarks especially upon one huge tree growing in a little valley in 
the outskirts of Petionville in whose top he frequently saw a dozen 
of these hummers darting in and out among the top-most branches 
at such an altitude above him that they appeared to his eye no 
larger than flies. Bartsch in 1917 found it near the Etang Sauma- 
tre April 3, Petit Goave April 8, near Jeremie April 10 to 12 and 15 
and 16, near Trou des Roseaux April 13 and 14, and in the vicinity 
of Port-au-Prince April 21, 22, and 27. At all these points except 
Trou des Roseaux he secured specimens which were preserved in 
alcohol with the exception of one which was made into a skin. 
Abbott found them very common and secured an excellent series of 
10 specimens from the main island, near Moline at an elevation of 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 275 

600 meters January 30, 1918, Jeremie December 1, 2, 8 and 9, 
1917, Riviere Bar, February 18 and 22, 1917, and Bombardopolis, 
at an elevation of 450 meters, March 22 and 23, 1917. On Gonave 
Island he found it likewise common, feeding at the flowers of cactus 
and collected four skins February 24, 25, and 27, 1918. He took 
four more on Tortue Island January 31 and February 1, 2, and 7, 
1917. 

Wetmore recorded this species at many localities, reporting it in 
Port-au-Prince in the garden of his hotel on March 27, the day of 
his arrival. At Montfleury, March 29, in company with Dr. G. N. 
Wolcott, he observed a male for some time as it alternately rested in 
the shade on a dead twig high above the Riviere Froid, or descended 
to feed at the blossoms of a flowering tree (Inga vera). The bird 
was alert and active on the wing, whirling, poising and shifting its 
position with the greatest celerity. The long tail was nervously 
expanded and gyrated from side to side to assist in balance during 
the frequent shifts in center of gravity as the bird whirled from 
flower to flower. The sun was reflected from its plumage as it 
passed through raj r s of light with a strong sheen of copper. One 
was seen at Damien this same day, and on March 30 one was observed 
in dry, hot mesquite scrub near L'Arcahaie. This hummer was found 
at the Etang Miragoane April 1, Fonds-des-Negres April 2 and 5, 
L'Acul April 4 (when a female taken showed some development of 
the ovaries), La Tremblay April 7, and Kenskon* April 8. None 
were seen on the summit of La Selle. The species was noted at 
Hinche April 22 to 24, and Caracol April 26 and 27. Near Cap- 
Hai'tien on April 28 Mr. Jungerneel showed him a nest of this 
species built on the flower stalk of a banana plant just below a bunch 
of developing bananas. The structure was made almost entirely of 
cotton, covered externally with lichens. It contained two young 
almost as large in body as the adult, with pin feathers barely be- 
ginning to show. There was a slight indication of down on the 
dorsal pteryla but nowhere else. Both birds had short bills, with 
elongation to the condition found in the adult just beginning. The 
skin was dusky gray with a wash of yellowish at the gape. The 
nest was located where it received the fierce heat of the sun with no 
shelter available until noon when shadow reached it. The young 
maintained the cervical air-sacs fully inflated with considerable 
inflation in the body also so that at first glance their bloated appear- 
ance gave a startling impression of deformity. The air cushions 
thus engendered may be supposed to have served as some protection 
against the extreme heat. 

Danforth says that in the summer of 1927 these birds fairly 
swarmed in the tree cactus country near Gonai'ves. He found a nest 
on Gonave Island July 19, built twenty feet from the ground on a 



276 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

fairly large branch of a prickly legume. It contained two eggs. 
Poole and Perrygo secured specimens at L'Atalaye January 8, Fort 
Liberte February 6, Pont Sonde February 27, Cerca-la Source March 
24, and at En Cafe on Gonave Island March 6, 7, 8 and 10, 1929. 
The birds from Tortue and Gonave Islands seem identical with those 
of the large island. Females of these hummers are subject to con- 
siderable adventitious staining from the flowers at which they feed. 

Dr. R. Ciferri, Director of the Estacion Nacional Agronomica at 
Moca, has presented to the United States National Museum a male 
of this hummer taken by E. Ciferri at San Juan de la Maguana, 
Dominican Republic, February 10, 1930 that in general is like the 
female with a few green feathers of the adult male dress growing in 
on the foreneck. The bird is said to have been sexually adult. It 
appears from this skin, the only immature male seen, that in this 
species the male in first plumage resembles the female. The skin 
forwarded by Ciferri is seemingly in molt from the juvenal stage 
into full adult dress. 

This species which is as has been said the largest hummer on the 
island measures from 115 to 135 mm. in length, with the bill 23 to 27 
mm. long. The male is shining green above, on the sides, and on 
the throat, black with a tinge of blue elsewhere underneath, with a 
few white feathers on the flanks. The tail is coppery colored on the 
inner web of the feathers. The female is whitish below with white 
tips on the tail feathers. 

Order TROGONIFORMES 

Family TROGONIDAE 

TEMNOTROGON ROSEIGASTER (Vieillot) 

HISPANIOLAN TROGON, PIRAGUA, PAPAGAYO, COTORRITA DE SIERRA, 
NATIONAL, CALEgON ROUGE, DAME OR DEMOISELLE ANGLAISE, PIE DE 

MONTAGNE 

Trogon roseigaster Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., vol. 8, 1817, p. 314 
(Hispaniola). — Salle, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, p. 235 (Dominican Repub- 
lic). — Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 1S67, p. 95 (Domi- 
nican Republic). 

Couroucou a ventre rouge (part), Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois., vol. 8, 1779, pp. 
289-291 (habits). 

Trogon rhodogaster Temminck, Nouv. Rec. Planch. Col. Ois., vol. 3, livr. 63, 
November, 1825, in text for genus Trogon (Based on Buffon). 

Temnotrogon roseigaster, Cory, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, July, 1S84, 
pp. 95-97, col. pi. (La Vega, specimens) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 103 
(Dominican Republic) ; Auk, 1895, p. 279 (Dominican Republic). — Tippenh alter, 
Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 322 (listed).— Cherrie, Field Col. Mus., Ornith. ser., 
vol. 1, 1896, p. 19 (Aguacate, specimens). — Christy, Ibis, 1897, p. 330 (re- 
ported). — Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 359 (La Vega, 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN" REPUBLIC 277 

Miranda ) .—Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, p. 413 ( ChocS ) .— Beebe, 
Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 140; Beneath Tropic Seas, 1928, p. 221 (Mira- 
goane).— Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 504 
(Miragoane, La Hotte, La Selle, Haut Piton, Ennery ; eggs). — Danforth, Auk, 
1929, p. 36S (Bonao). — Lonnberg, Fauna och Flora, 1929, p. 104 (Haiti). — 
Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 6S, 1929, p. 318 (Bonao, Monte Vie jo, 
specimens). 

Resident in the hills and mountains ; locally common. 

In travel along the wilder trails through the hills of Hispaniola 
there may come to the ear a curious cooing call suggesting the note 
of a pigeon but at the same time differing from the sound produced 
by any of the familiar species of that group. The call is ventrilo- 
quial and seems to arise first from one side and then from another. 
Finally there is a glimpse of a bird in black silhouette, resting in 
shadow on some open limb, with body erect and tail hanging straight 
down. No color is visible and it is a pleasurable surprise when one 
of the birds pitches to a lower perch or is brought into closer view 
by the aid of binoculars and the colors of the plumage flash out 
brilliantly, the clear red of the abdomen sharply marked from the 
gray of the breast, and the back a shimmering green. 

Trogons frequent both deciduous trees and pines and in places 
are common so that their calls are heard constantly through the day. 
In the hand, where the delicate white barring on the wing may be 
admired, the feathers are found to be lax and loose and the skin 
extremely tender so that the preparation of specimens for museum 
study is a matter of considerable care. 

Salle, familiar with the trogon during his early travels in the 
Dominican Republic, says that they utilize old woodpecker holes as 
nesting sites, and that their eggs are white (an inaccurate statement) 
and much rounded. He says that the natives called them piragua, 
though to-day they are usually known in Spanish as papagayo. Cory 
found them common in the forested hills above La Vega where he 
secured fifteen specimens from August 6 to 12, 1883. He speaks 
of them as local in occurrence which is true so far as the lower 
sections of the island are concerned. Cherrie encountered them only 
at Aguacate where he collected eight skins. Christy did not see the 
bird and listed it only from native reports. His statement that it 
was found near " Harabajoa," which is quoted in the range given bj 
Mr. Ridgway 7 refers to the well-known town of Jarabacoa. Verrill 
found the trogon in the pine forests near La Vega and Miranda 
but speaks of it as shy and difficult to procure. Peters working on 
the north coast saw it only at Choco, where he recorded one March 
25, 1916. 

To W. L. Abbott we are indebted for an excellent series of this 
beautiful bird, specimens being taken as follows: near Jarabacoa 

7 U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 50, pt. 5, 1911, p. 792. 



278 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

October 15, 1916, El Kio, October 4, 5, and 6, 1916, and May 18, 1919, 
and in the vicinity of Constanza, September 25 and 26, 1916, and 
April 9, 1919, including seven skins from this last locality. In 1927 
Wetmore heard the strange call of the trogon regularly on May 17 
and 18 while riding over the mountain trails from Jarabacoa to 
Constanza by way of El Rio. Near Constanza from May 19 to 27 
the birds were common and were encountered regularly. They called 
among the high pines, the note resembling the syllables cuh kwao or 
cuh kwao kioao, uttered rather slowly and carrying for considerable 
distances through the clear air. Occasionally in some dense growth 
of rain forest one came down curiously to a closer view of the hu- 
man intruder, flying with a rapidly tilting flight resembling in 
exaggerated type that of some long-tailed, short-winged sparrow, 
and accompanied by a loud rattle of the rounded wings. When ex- 
cited or curious these trogons may utter a low, rattling call, or at 
times a complaining sound like the loudly pleading whine of a dog. 
One pair on May 25 was interested in a hole fifteen feet from the 
ground in a dead stub standing in the wet rain forest so located 
that it could not be reached as the trunk was too decayed to bear 
the weight of a climber. One bird rested near the opening and as 
the site was under examination another came flipping noisily through 
the wet leaves to join it in peering down at the intruder. 

The species seemingly is very rare in the forests on the Samana 
Peninsula, where the natives do not know it, the only report for 
this area being that of a marine who told Abbott that he had killed 
two in the hills back of Sanchez while shooting pigeons. Wetmore 
did not hear its characteristic calls during extended journeys afield 
in this region. Danforth heard it near Bonao August 7, 1927, and 
Ciferri forwarded skins to Moltoni taken at that locality at Lo 
Slano December 11, Allaco December 15, and Puente Yuna Novem- 
ber 11, 1927, as well as from Monte Viejo (1,500 m.) August 28, 1929. 

In Haiti the species has long been known. In Buffon in 1779 
there is a considerable account of the bird from observations sup- 
plied by Deshayes. It is said there that the birds breed in April 
and again in August and September, depositing three or four eggs, 
erroneously described as white, on a bed of decayed wood in a cavity 
in a tree trunk. The young are said to be naked when hatched. 
Deshayes says that his attempts to keep them in captivity were un- 
successful. Some of his statements, notably where he says that 
when the nest cavity chosen is not sufficiently big they enlarge it with 
the strongly toothed bill need verification before they are implicitly 
accepted. Levaillant, 8 according to Gould, 9 says that he had a speci- 

8 Hist. Nat. des Couroucous, 1806, pi. 13. Date taken from Sberborn, Index Anim., 
pt. 1, 1922, p. lxxxi. 

"Mon. Trogonidae, 1838, without pagination. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 279 

men but that the bird was rare as he had seen only two others, in 
the collections of Abbe Aubry and Doctor Mauduit. Vieillot ap- 
parently did not meet with it personally, as he bases his description 
of the species mainly on the statements of Buffon. 

A E. Younglove secured one in the " mountains," back of Port-au- 
Prince on June 5, 1866, and forwarded it to the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion where it still remains in the United States National Museum. 
From that time to the period of the investigations made by Abbott 
there has been little added to knowledge of the bird in Haiti. Abbott 
secured one at Moline in southwestern Haiti on January 29, 1918. 
At Riviere Bar, east of Port-de-Paix, where the birds were common 
near sea level, he collected five on February 16, 17, and 19, 1917. The 
only other records available are from the inland hills where one was 
taken at 900 meters elevation near Moustique March 4, 1917. 

In 1927, Wetmore encountered the trogon first at Fonds-des-Negres 
April 2, when he collected two at an altitude of 450 meters on the 
upper course of the Riviere Seche, and heard others near the Coffee 
Experiment Station below. Others were recorded near Fonds-des- 
Negres April 5. On the high slopes of La Selle the birds were com- 
mon from April 10 to 15, and were heard daily calling from the tall 
pines or from thickets of deciduous forest. On April 12 half a 
dozen were gathered on low perches in a little grove engaged in 
mating display. Two, apparently rival males, were matched in 
harmless combat in which they rested a few feet apart with head out- 
stretched and tail hanging straight down. At intervals the tail was 
raised slowly to nearly a right angle with the back and then brought 
down rather quickly to its normal perpendicular position. At brief 
intervals one dashed at the other with a loud rattle of wings but ap- 
parently the two never actually struck one another as the one attack- 
ing usually passed beneath the opponent. They uttered constantly 
a rolling note that mingled with the usual cooing calls uttered stead- 
ily by their companions. Their light-colored eyes and bills were very 
conspicuous. In the low thickets grown with creeping bamboo tro- 
gons perched at times within six feet of the ground. A pair taken 
at Fonds-des-Negres April 2 had the iris light orange, bill bright 
honey yellow, tarsus brownish gray, and the under side of the toes 
yellow. 

The Haitians call this species cale^on rouge, dame or demoiselle 
Anglaise, pie de montagne, or national. 

Beebe observed this species only once west of Miragoane in Jan- 
uary. Bond records it at the same point, stating that he found it 
in mangrove swamps at sea level. He also noted it on La Hotte, La 
Selle, Haut Piton in the Massif du Nord, and at Ennery. He col- 



280 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

lected three on Morne Malanga, and says that he had report of it on 
Gonave Island but did not see it there personally. On La Selle he 
was fortunate in finding two occupied nests on June 10 and 11, 1928, 
both being placed in deserted nest-holes of the Hispaniolan wood- 
pecker (Chryserpes striatus), one being five meters from the ground. 
Both sets contained two eggs, one fresh and the other slightty incu- 
bated. The eggs are decidedly paler than pale niagara green, un- 
marked, with the surface slightly glossed, and very slightly granular. 
They measure 30.4 by 23.3 and 27.9 by 23.5 mm. and 31.4 by 23.9 and 
31.1 by 23.5 mm. The green color of these eggs is entirely unex- 
pected as in most trogons they are white, the only exceptions that- 
come to mind being the quetzal {Pharomachrus ?nocinno) which also 
has green eggs, and Trogonurus mexicanus which according to Salvin 
and Godman 10 has very pale greenish eggs. 

Following are measurements taken from our series of skins. 

Males, seventeen specimens, wing 129.9-140.4 (135.2), tail 146.0- 
161.0 (154.0), culmen from base 16.4-18.4 (17.3), tarsus 15.0-18.4 
(16.8) mm. 

Females, four specimens, wing 132.6-141.0 (136.6), tail 150.0-161.0 
(154.0), culmen from base 15.9-17.1 (16.5), tarsus 16.3-16.7 (16.4) 
mm. 

The Hispaniolan trogon is metallic green above, gray on the throat 
and breast, and delicate red on the abdomen and under tail-coverts, 
with prominent spots of white at the tips of the tail feathers. The 
male differs from the female in having a bluish cast on the back, and 
the wing coverts barred narrowly with lines of white. The species is 
about as large as the sparrowhawk. 

Order CORACIIFORMES 

Suborder Alcedines 

Superfamily ALCEDINIDES 

Family ALCEDINIDAE 

Subfamily Cerylinae 

MEGACERYLE ALCYON ALCYON (Linnaeus) 
BELTED KINGFISHER, MARTIN PESCADOR, MARTIN-PECHEUR 

Alcedo alcyon Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1, 1758, p. 115 (North 
America). 

Martin-pecheur hupe\ de St. Domingue, Daubenton, Planch. Enl., pi. 593 
(figure of male). 

Ispidina Dominicensis cristata Brisson, Ornith., vol. 4, 1760, pp. 515-517 
(" S. Domingue"). 

10 Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, vol. 2, 1896, p. 488. 



THE BIKDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 281 

Megaccryle domingensis Reichenbach, Handb. Spec. Ornith., Alcedineae, 
1851, p. 26 (not M. domingensis idem p. 25= J/, stellata). 

Alcedo alcyon, Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 1867, p. 
95 (Dominican Republic, Haiti). 

Ceryle alcyon, Salle, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1S57, p. 233 (listed). — Cory, 
Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, 1881, p. 154 (winter) ; Birds Haiti and San Do- 
mingo, July, 18S4, pp. 103-104 (winter, specimens) ; Cat. "West Indian Birds, 
1892, p. 103 (Haiti, Dominican Republic).— Tristram, Ibis, 1884, p. 168 
(Dominican Republic, specimen). — Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1S92, p. 322 
(listed). — Cherrie, Field Columbian Mus., Ornith. ser., vol. 1, 1896, p. 20 
(near coast). — Christy, Ibis, 1897, p. 332 (Samana Bay, specimen). — Verrill, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 359 (recorded). 

Megaccryle alcyon, Ekman, Ark. for Bot., vol. 22 A, No. 16, 1929, p. 7 
(Navassa). 

Megaccryle a. alcyon, Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 140; Beneath 
Tropic Seas, 1928, p. 222 (Etang Miragoane). 

Streptoceryle alcyon alcyon, Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, p. 412 
(north coast). — Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 504 
(Haiti).— Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, p. 318 (Haina, 
specimen). 

Winter visitant along coast and on the rivers and lakes of the 
coastal plain. 

The belted kingfisher arrives as a migrant from North America 
in fall and remains until spring, frequenting mangrove swamps 
and the banks of streams, lagoons and lakes in the lowlands, where 
with its crested head it is an attractive feature of the landscape. 
Natives assert that it breeds, a statement that has been accepted by 
Verrill, but there is no basis for this assertion so far as can be 
ascertained. 

In the Dominican Republic Cherrie recorded the kingfisher fre- 
quently along water courses near the coast. Christy found it on 
the Yuna, and among the mangroves at the head of Samana Bay. 
He collected one March 7, and says that he saw it in June, the 
latter a statement to be taken with some reserve. Verrill reported 
the kingfisher as common, and Peters in 1916 says that it w<as fairly 
common along the north coast. Beck collected specimens at Santo 
Domingo City October 20, Sanchez November 6, 191G, and Tubano 
February 12 and 13, 1917. Abbott found it common in winter, and 
collected a female February 14, 1919, at Sanchez. He saw two or 
three at Catalinita Island from September 10 to 12, 1919, an early 
date of fall arrival. Hartert informs us that there are two in the 
Tring Museum collected by Kaempfer on the Rio Yuna October 22, 
1922. The collector has marked on the label " breeds here " but of 
this again there is no proof. Abbott says definitely that the king- 
fisher is absent in summer, and Wetmore was afield on Samana Bay 
on many occasions in the first part of May, 1927, in localities fa- 
vorable to tills bird without seeing one. 



282 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

The kingfisher has long been known from Haiti if we suppose that 
the one sent by Cher vain to de Reaumur from " S. Domingue " (the 
specimen described by Brisson) came from the French colony. Cory 
speaks of the kingfisher as a common winter visitant, especially about 
the interior lakes, during his first work in Haiti in 1881. Bartsch 
in 1917 reported it on the Etang Saumatre April 3, near Jeremie 
April 10 to 12, and 15, and at Trou des Roseaux April 13. Dr. W. L. 
Abbott found it common from November, 1917, to March, 1918, and 
recorded a few along the coast of Gonave Island February 18 to 28. 
He collected one at the Etang Saumatre March 8. Beebe recorded 
one at Etang Miragoane March 2, 1927, and says that he saw others 
occasionally elsewhere. Wetmore, in 1927, observed it at Carrefour 
March 29, and at Mont Rouis March 30, both on the coast. He saw 
one April 8 along the Riviere Jaquisy, below Furcy, at an elevation of 
800 meters, and one April 24 on the Riviere Samana near Hinche. 
The last one that he recorded was found on the coast at Caracol April 
27. The records for the Riviere Jaquisy and for Hinche probably 
represent the extent of the inland wandering of the species which 
follows the larger streams back among the hills. Perrygo reported 
the kingfisher at Fort Liberte February 8 and 16, 1929. Ekman 
found the kingfisher on Navassa Island in October, 1928. 

Reichenbach 11 under Megaceryle alcyon refers to Daubenton's 
Planch. Enl. No. 593, Martin-pecheur hupe, de St. Domingue, imply- 
ing that mistakes have been made with regard to its scientific name. 
He says " Gray citirt sie ohne Anstand zu Ceryle Alcyon — mir 
zweifelhaft bleibt und wohl auf St. Domingo besser beobachtet zu 
werden und nach Wiederauffindung den Namen M. domingensis zu 
erhalten verdient." On a previous page, however (p. 25), he gives 
the name Megaceryle domingensis as referring his plate CCCCX. 
figure 3105, which is Megaceryle stellata, as he says "Das Vater- 
land des von mir 3,105 abgebildeten Vogels ist mir nicht bekannt und 
ich finde ihn so viel von Meyen's Vogel verscheiden, dass ich ihn eher 
fiir den enl. 593 abgebildeten von St. Domingo halten mochte, iiber den 
ich weiter unten bei M. Alcyon mich noch weiter aussprechen werde : 
M. domingensis zu nennen." On page 24 he gives "domingensis: 
CCCX. * 3,105 " immediately following his name M. stellata 
(Me}^en) but there says nothing more about it. It appears then that 
he uses the name domingensis for two distinct species, and that 
through page priority its application to the belted kingfisher of 
North America is preoccupied by its allocation to the South Ameri- 
can Megaceryle stellata. 

The belted kingfisher is of moderate size being 325 mm. or more in 
length with small feet, heavy bill and strongly crested head. Above 

11 Handb. Spec. Ornith., Alcedineae 1851, p. 26. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 283 

it is dark gray and below white. The male has the band across the 
breast and the sides gray. In the female the sides are bright brown, 
a color that sometimes forms a second band across the breast. 

Superfamily TODIDES 
Family TODIDAE 

TODUS SUBULATUS Gray 

HISPANIOLAN TODY, BARRANCOLI, BARRANQTJERO, PERROQUET DE 

TERRE, COIIBRI 

Todus subulatus " Gould " Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. 1, April, 1847, pi. 22 (His- 
paniola").— Hartlatjr, Isis, 1847, p. 609 (listed).— Tristram, Ibis, 1884, 
p. 168 (Dominican Republic, specimen). — Cory, Birds Haiti and San Do- 
mingo, July, 1884, pp. 105-106, col. fig. (Puerto Plata, Port-au-Prince, speci- 
mens) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 103 (Haiti, Dominican Republic). — 
Cherrie, Field Columbian Mus., Ornitb. ser., vol. 1, 1896, p. 20 (abundant). — 
Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, pp. 318, 322 (listed).— Christy, Ibis, 1897, 
pp. 332-333 (habits).— Hartert, Nov. Zool., vol. 9, 1902, p. 293 (Sanchez, speci- 
mens). — Verriix, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 360 (abundant, Do- 
minican Republic). — Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, p. 441 (Monte 
Cristi, Sosua, Choco, Rio San Juan, Arroyo Salado, specimens). — Kaempfer, 
Journ. fur Ornith., 1924, p. 181 (habits).— Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull. vol. 30, 1927, 
p. 140; Beneath Tropic Seas, 1928, p. 221 (Haiti).— Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, pp. 504-505 (Haiti, Gonave Island; habits, 
nest). — Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 369 (abundant). — Lonnberg, Fauna och 
Flora, 1929, p. 104 (Haiti, Gonave). — Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz., Nat., vol. 
68, 1929, p. 319 (Haina, San Juan specimens). 

Todier, Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois, vol. 7, 1780, p. 226 (description, nest). 

Todier de St. Domingue, Daubenton, Planch. Enl., pi. 585, figs. 1 and 2. 

Perroquet de terre, Saint-Mery, Descrip. Part. Frang. lie Saint-Domingue, 
vol. 1, 1797, p. 262 (Dondon). 

Todus viridis, Vietllot, Hist. Nat. Ois. Amer. Sept., vol. 1, 1807, pp. 87-88, 
pi. 56 (habits). — Ritter, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1S36, p. 155 (speci- 
men). — Hartlaub, Isis, 1847, p. 609 (listed). 

Todus dominicensis, Salle, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, pp. 233-234 
(habits). — Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 1867, p. 91 
(Dominican Republic, Haiti).— Cory, Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, 1881, p. 154 
(Haiti).— Tristram, Cat. Coll. Birds belonging to H. B. Tristram, 1889, p. 98 
(SamanS,, specimens). 

Kesident; abundant. Not recorded for Tortue Island. 

The Hispaniolan tody is universally distributed, with the ex- 
ception of the higher mountain areas, and is one of the most abundant 
and constantly seen species of the island. It ranges alike in dry 
areas or humid sections, its only requirement being a cover of thorny 
scrub or low forest that will afford it shelter. It is one of the few 
species of birds that appears regularly beside the trails and road- 
ways as one travels through the country. 

12 Gray marked his plate simply "Todus subulatus Gould" without giving any locality. 



284 BULLETIN" 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Following is a digest of localities at which this tody has been 
reported : 

Dominican Republic : Santo Domingo City, Seibo (Danforth), San 
Juan (Wetmore, Danforth) ; San Jose de Ocoa, Honduras. San 
Cristobal (Cherrie) ; Los Alcarrizos (Wetmore) ; Hondo, below Con- 
stanza (Abbott) ; Cana Honda (Verrill) ; Sanchez (Hartert, Verrill, 
Abbott, Wetmore) ; Samana (Tristram, Verrill) ; Laguna, Rojo Cabo 
(Abbott) ; La Vega (Verrill, Wetmore) ; Jarabacoa (Wetmore) ; 
Monte Cristi (Peters, Danforth) ; Sosua, Choco, Rio San Juan, 
Arroyo Salado (Peters) ; Haina, San Juan (Ciferri). 

Haiti: Moron, Moline, (Abbott); Jeremie (Abbott. Bartsch) ; 
Trou des Roseaux (Bartsch) ; Aquin, Fonds-des-Negres L'Acul, 
fitang Miragoane (Wetmore) ; Miragoane, Petit Goave, Trou 
Caiman, Glore (Bartsch) ; Port-au-Prince (Younglove, Bartsch) ; 
Fonds Verettes (Abbott) ; Damien, Sources Puantes, Mont Rouis, 
La Tremblay, Riviere Jaquisy, to 1700 meters altitude on La Selle, 
Petionville, Morne a Cabrits, Las Cahobes, Hinche, Maissade, Cara- 
col (Wetmore) ; Dondon (Saint-Mery, Poole and Perrygo) ; Bom- 
bardopolis, Mole St. Nicolas, Moustique (Abbott) ; St. Michel, 
L'Ataiaye, Cerca-la-Source, St. Raphael, Fort Liberte (Poole and 
Perrygo) ; Gonave Island (Abbott, Bond, Emlen, Poole and Per- 
rygo, Danforth). 

On the north slope of La Selle below Morne Cabaio Wetmore 
found this tody in April to an elevation of 1700 meters, which seems 
to be near its maximum elevation for regular occurrence. Elsewhere, 
where the slopes are lower, it may range over the tops of the 
mountains. In ascending the range of hills back of Sanchez this 
species was found on the south facing slopes to the very top, where 
a few were encountered in the edge of the range of the narrow- 
billed tody to which the Hispaniolan tody then gave way and dis- 
appeared. Abbott and Wetmore did not find it in the Valley of 
Constanza though Abbott collected specimens at Hondo a short dis- 
tance below. This tody ranged in small numbers in the mangrove 
swamps of the Yuna and Barrancota on Samana Bay, and was fairly 
common among the cacti and mesquites that formed the arid scrubs 
near L'Arcahaie, all of which will illustrate its adaptability to en- 
vironment, and makes it appear the more curious that it does not 
penetrate through all of the dense rain forests that cover the moun- 
tains. 

The Hispaniolan tody is common on Gonave Island where Abbott 
collected a considerable series, but is not found at all on Tortue 
Island, a curious circumstance. It is not recorded at present from 
Saona Island. 

The tody is so strikingly marked with green back and brilliant red 
throat that it attracts the eye in spite of its small size and so is known 



THE BIEDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN EEPUBLIC 285 

to the majority of those who travel in the country. The birds watch 
for their insect food from open perches, usually near the ground 
but occasionally well up among the branches of trees. They prefer 
shade and in the desert sections of their range usually perch in what- 
ever shadow may be available. Attention is often attracted by their 
whistled call of terp terp terp, uttered in a complaining tone, varied 
by a metallic rattle heard during the nesting season. The notes are 
entirely different from those of the species found on Porto Rico. 
They perch with tail pointed down and the large bill directed up at 
an angle of forty-five degrees, their light eyes conspicuous at a near 
distance, turning the head to watch for their prey, and flying out 
with a whir of wings to seize passing insects with a snap of the bill. 

In April in Haiti Wetmore found them usually in pairs, preparing 
for the nesting season. Near Foncls-des-Negres on April 2 a pair 
had started a tunnel in a low cut-bank a few feet above the water 
of the Riviere Seche. On April 3 near Aquin another pair was 
excavating a hole for a nest in a roadside bank with its suiface 
baked hard by the intense heat of the sun, the tunnel at this time 
being only three or four inches deep. He was astonished at the 
sites chosen by some near Fonds-des-Negres and evidently suitable 
cut-banks are less common than the birds. Several nest tunnels were 
located in the face of fairly steep slopes at the borders of paths 
while one was in a little bank that was only eighteen inches above 
the surrounding level, with a slope of only 45°. The hole in this 
case was about six inches above the trodden trail. The deepest 
openings seen were from one to two feet in length, with the excava- 
tion still continuing. No finished nests were observed but the tun- 
nels were said to be from one to more than two feet in length, with 
an enlarged chamber at the end in which the eggs were deposited 
on loose earth. Both sexes at times produced a whirring rattle with 
the wings, a sound like that made by drawing a stick rapidly along 
a paling fence, flying quickly up as they made it and then dropping 
down. This was often produced as they left the nesting hole. 

Near Laguna, on the Samana Peninsula, early in March, 1919, 
Abbott found many nest holes under construction but none yet com- 
pleted. On his return the first of June children had gathered a 
number of eggs for him in May during his absence and he preserved 
29. He was told that four constituted the usual set. The eggs be- 
fore us are white with a distinct gloss, frequently obscured by stain 
from the reddish earth on which they were laid, and rounded ovate 
in form. Following are measurements in millimeters of the Abbott 
specimens: 16.4 by 13.8, 16.6 by 14.1, 16.7 by 14.2, 17.2 by 14.4, 
17.2 by 14.5, 17.3 by 14.7, 17.3 by 15.0, 17.4 by 14.5, 17.4 by 14.5, 
2134—31 19 



286 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

17.5 by 14.2, 17.5 by 14.2, 17.5 by 14.5, 17.6 by 14.4, 17.6 by 14.5, 

17.6 by 14.5, 17.6 by 14.5, 17.7 by 14.3, 17.8 by 14.0, 17.8 by 14.2, 
17.8 by 14.4, 17.9 by 14.3, 18.4 by 15.1, 18.8 by 14.5. The last two 
seem abnormally long. 

Abbott was told that todies bred twice each year. Kaempfer 
reports eggs in the month of May. Cory found one nest that con- 
tained three eggs. Danforth in 1927 collected a female at Santo 
Domingo City June 17 containing an egg ready to be deposited. A 
nest found July 18 on Gonave Island was in a little clay bank not 
over eight inches in height beside a much used footpath. The tunnel 
was only nine inches long. Salle believed that they lined the nest 
cavity with dry herbaceous material, but in this seems to have been 
mistaken as others say that the eggs are deposited on the earth with- 
out protection. Vieillot's observation that the eggs are blue is also 
an error. 13 

In Haiti the natives call this tody colibri. a name that Mr. P. 
Rogevie of Miragoane says is correct. In the Dominican Republic 
the bird is usually known as barrancoli. 

An adult male taken April 2 had the maxilla dusky brown, with 
a reddish cast near the center of the culmen; mandible orange red; 
iris grayish white ; tarsus and toes dull brown ; claws black. In the 
Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences there is a young male in 
juvenal dress taken at Anse a Galets, Gonave Island, July 18, 1928, 
by John T. Emlen, jr., that has the dorsal surface plain, dull green, 
and the lower parts white with the breast streaked heavily with 
poorly defined markings of dusky. There is no red evident any- 
where and only a very faint wash of yellow on the flanks. 

Birds from Gonave Island on first examination appear brighter 
green above and whiter below than those from the mainland but on 
examination of a large series so many individuals are found from 
Haiti and the Dominican Republic that are exactly like those of 
Gonave that the supposed differences disappear and lose even an 
average character. There is much variation from light to dark in 
shade of green and in the hue of the undersurface. Occasionally 
specimens are strongly suffused with red on the lower parts. Gonave 
birds are very slightly larger as the following will show : 

Birds from Haiti and the Dominican Republic — 

Males, sixteen specimens, wing 47.0-51.5 (49.0), tail 33.6-37.7 
(35.8), culmen from base 19.0-23.2 (20.9), tarsus 13.3-15.0 (14.2) mm. 

Females, thirteen specimens, wing 45.6-52.2 (49.0), tail, 33.6-37.6 
(35.4), culmen from base 20.4-23.6 (21.4), tarsus 13.0-15.3 (14.3) mm. 

Birds from Gonave Island — 

Males, seven specimens, wing 49.8-52.5 (50.9), tail 34.0-38.2 (36.0), 
culmen from base 18.8-22.9 (21.1), tarsus 13.5-15.8 (14.7) mm. 

« Hist. Nat. Ois. Amer. Sept., vol. 1, 1807, p. 87. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 287 

Females, six specimens, wing 48.0-52.5 (50.2), tail 34.3-37.5 (35.7), 
culmen from base 19.8-21.6 (20.5), tarsus 14.0-14.8 (14.4) mm. 

This tody measures from 115 to 125 mm. in length. The bill is 
long, flat, and comparatively wide, measuring from 5.5 to 6 mm. in 
width at the nostril. The throat is red, the breast grayish white, 
abdomen pale yellowish, and the sides and flanks light red. The 
under surface is often washed somewhat with reddish. 

TODUS ANGUSTIROSTRIS Lafresnaye 
NARROW-BILLED TODY, BARRANCOLf, PICHUI, CHICORETTE 

Todus angustirostris Lafresnaye, Rev. et Mag. Zool., October, 1851, p. 478 
(Dominican Republic). — Cory, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, July, 1884, pp. 
107-108, col. plate (Puerto Plata, specimens). — Tippenhatjer, Die Insel Haiti, 
1892, p. 322 (listed).— Cherrie, Field Columbian Mus., Ornith. ser., vol. 1, 
1896, p. 20 (Dominican Republic). — Verbill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 
1909, p. 369 (Dominican Republic). — Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 
1917, p. 412 (Sosua specimens). — Richmond, Smithsonian Misc. Colls., vol. 66, 
no. 17, 1917, pp. 38-39 (mentioned). — Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 
vol. SO, 1928, p. 504 (La Hotte, La Selle, Morne Tranchant, Morne Basile, 
Massif du Nord). — Danfcrth, Auk, 1929, p. 369 (Fonds-des-Negres). — Lonn- 
berg, Fauna och Flora, 1929, p. 104 (Haiti). — Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. 
Nat., vol. 68, 1929, p. 319 (Monte Viejo, specimen). 

Suoulatus angustirostris, Cory, Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p 103 (error 
for Todus). 

Todus suoulatus angustirostris, Cory, Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 103 
(Haiti, Dominican Republic). 

Resident; restricted mainly to the hills and mountains. 

Since the other Greater Antillean islands have only one form of 
tody each it is astonishing to find two distinct species on Hispaniola. 
For many years the two were confused, until 1851 when Lafresnaye 
correctly described the present bird from a specimen taken by Salle 
in the Dominican Republic. Salle himself did not have proper 
understanding in the matter as in his list published in the Pro- 
ceedings of the Zoological Society of London in 1857 he gives 
angustirostris as a synonym of suoulatus, believing incorrectly that 
the differences pointed out by Lafresnaye between the two forms 
were those distinguishing male and female of one species. By some 
the narrow-billed tody was later called a subspecies of suoulatus an 
allocation wholly incorrect as the two are specifically distinct. 

The narrow-billed tody is primarily a species of dense, damp 
jungles and in Wetmore's experience was found principally in the 
higher mountains, as on La Selle and near Constanza. Above San- 
chez he observed it around 450 meters altitude and it seems to be 
locally common under proper conditions at such elevations. Only 
along the abandoned railroad at San Lorenzo did he record it at sea 
level, and here and above Sanchez were the only places where he 



288 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

found it mingling with the other species of tody. The two seem 
to occupy distinct ecological associations, with the broad-billed form 
widely distributed through the lowland areas, and the narrow-billed 
species closely confined to the wet jungles bound with creeping bam- 
boo that grow principally in the mountains, not wandering beyond 
these limits. Though superficially alike in color and markings the 
two species are easily distinguished by their notes so that there is 
instant recognition when they are heard. The call of the narrow- 
billed tody, uttered with bill pointing upward at any disturbance 
in its haunt is a chattering chippy chippy chippy chip occasionally 
varied to chic-o-ret or chip-chui. In April Wetmore found them in 
pairs with the males scolding nervously at intruders. One was 
seen resting within a few inches of his mate with the feathers of 
his sides expanded beyond his wings so that their brilliant pink 
was prominently displayed while he jerked his tail and uttered 
his call. Though no shyer than the companion species the narrow- 
billed tody is usually difficult to see when its calls are heard as it 
inhabits dense growths and is so tiny that a single leaf may com- 
pletely hide it from view. 

There is an old skin of this species without data in the United 
States National 1 Museum that was secured by Gabb in the Dominican 
Republic. In the southern part of that country Cherrie found it at 
the interior points where he collected, securing specimens at Aguacate 
and Catarrey. Ridgway, 14 has recorded it from Santo Domingo City 
but this we consider uncertain. (His basis for reference to it at 
Puerto Resoli is unknown to us.) Verrill confused it with the broad- 
billed species since he says that its note is similar to that of subulatus 
in which he was entirely mistaken. The only references of his to it 
that are to be trusted are skins that he collected at Caiia Honda Janu- 
ary 2, and El Valle, January 15, 1907, which E. Hartert informs us 
are in the Tring Museum. Beck collected specimens at Santo 
Domingo City, October 5 and 20, and Sanchez Nov. 3, 13, and 14, 
1916, and on Loma Tina January 3, 1917. 

Abbott found the narrow-billed tody common near Constanza, 
where he collected specimens September 24, 25, 28, and 29, 1916, and 
April 9, 10, and 11, 1919. On May 4 and 6, 1919 he secured two at 
Hondo. On May 9 about two miles below Hondo Abajo he collected 
two eggs, one containing a fair-sized embryo, from a hole dug in the 
bank of a dry stream bed. The tunnel was excavated to a depth of 
eleven inches and near the end turned at right angles to the left, 
probably because of a large stone encountered at this point, to termi- 
nate in a chamber that from Abbott's notes was the " size of a small 
fist." He says that children often rob the nests to eat the eggs. The 

14 U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 50, pt. 6, 1914, p. 445. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 289 

two eggs collected are glossy white, unmarked, and measure 15.5 by 
13.5, and 15.7 by 13.5 mm., being distinctly smaller than those of 
Todus subulatus. Among eggs of todies brought to Abbott at 
Laguna, on the Samana Peninsula, taken by children during May, 
1919, there is one that from its size is certainly the present species 
as it measures 15.1 by 13.7 mm., distinctly smaller than in subulatus. 

Peters found this tody only at Sosua, where he collected one speci- 
men. Cory records five from Puerto Plata, November 17, December 
13, 22, and 23, 1882, and January 11, 1883. From the general topog- 
raphy it seems probable that these came from the hill Loma Isabela 
de Torres whose cloud-capped summit might offer suitable resort for 
this species. 

In the spring of 1927, Wetmore found the narrow-billed tody on 
May 13 on the summit of the hills above Sanchez, in crossing on the 
trail that leads to Las Terrenas. In climbing up the steep mountain 
face Todus subulatus was common to the summit where at 450 meters 
altitude it mingled for a brief space with T. angustirostris which re- 
placed it completely in the dripping rain forest farther inland. 
Three specimens of angustirostris were taken on this occasion. On 
May 11 he heard them calling from the hill slopes at San Lorenzo 
Bay but was not able to find them in the dense growth of vegetation. 
The presence of the species at this point however was verified sub- 
sequently when he identified the skull of one from barn owl pellets 
collected in one of the caves in that vicinity. On May 17 in ascend- 
ing the steep slopes of El Barrero above the Rio Jimenoa, on the 
trail from Jarabacoa to Constanza, the chattering calls of the narrow- 
billed tody came frequently from either hand as soon as the dense 
rain forest suited to its needs was encountered. Near Constanza 
from May 19 to 27 it was the only species encountered. Moltoni re- 
ceived one from Ciferri taken on Monte Viejo at 1200 to 1500 meters 
elevation in August, 1929. 

In Haiti Abbott collected one at Moron on the southwest peninsula 
December 24, 1917, while at Moline, about 30 kilometers southeast of 
Jeremie at an elevation of 600 meters he found them common securing 
six between January 25 and 30, 1918. He took one near Furcy at an 
elevation of 900 meters, May 31, 1920. 

Wetmore encountered the narrow-billed tody on the summit of 
La Selle from April 11 to 15 and collected several. The birds were 
found in dense thickets throughout this region down the slopes into 
the lower levels of the Jardins Bois Pin and the ravine of the Riviere 
Chotard, completely replacing the lowland species. On April 17 in 
passing over the steep trails from Chapelle Faure in Nouvelle Tou- 
raine to Furcy he recorded it at a number of places, particularly in 
the damp thickets on Morne St. Vincent. Beck secured one on the 



290 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

higher slopes of La Hotte July 3, 1917, Danforth shot one at Fonds- 
des-Negres July 23, 1927 in a coffee plantation, and Bond one on 
Morne Tranchant January 6, 1928. Bond found this species in 
1928 on La Selle, Morne Tranchant (specimen), Morne Basile in 
the Montagnes Noires, and the Massif du Nord. 

A male collected by Wetmore on La Selle April 12 had the maxilla 
and distal half of the mandible black, rest of bill light dull red, iris 
ivory white, tarsus and toes pinkish brown, and claws black. One 
from Constanza May 27 (preserved in alcohol and sex not taken) 
had the base of the mandible deep reddish orange, rest of bill black- 
ish, iris pale grayish white, tarsus and toes dusky brown. 

The Dominicans call this species barrancoli from its habit of nest- 
ing in cut banks, while at Constanza it was also known as pichui 
probably from its note. The Haitians on La Selle called it chicorette 
in evident imitation of one of its calls. 

Like the other tody this species is brillant green above with a 
bright red throat, and pinkish red sides. It is distinctly lighter 
below with the yellow wash confined to the undertail coverts and 
extreme lower abdomen so that it often appears clear white with a 
wash of grayish across the breast. In any case it may be told by its 
note, or in the hand by the distinctly narrower, black-tipped bill, 
which measures at the nostrils from 4 to 5 mm. in width. 

Order PICIFORMES 
Suborder Pici 

Family PICIDAE 15 
Subfamily Picinae 

CHRYSEEPES STKIATUS (P. L. S. Miiller) 
HISPANIOIAN WOODPECKER, CARPIISTERO, CHARPENTIER, PIVERT 

Picas striatus Muixer, Vollst. Naturs. Suppl. Reg.-Band, 1776, p. 91 
(Hispaniola). 

Carpintero, Oviedo, Hist. Gen. Nat. Iudias, Libr. 14, Cap. 2 ; Reprint, Madrid, 
1851, p. 442 (habits). 

Charpentier, Charlevoix, Hist. Isle Espagnole, vol. 1, 1733, p. 40 (listed). — 
Oexmelin, Hist. Avent. Flibustiers, vol. 1, 1775, p. 356 (nest). — Saint-Meky, 

16 Picus rubidicollis Vieillot, Hist. Nat. Ois. Am6r. Sept., vol. 2, 1807, p. 63, recorded 
from " Porto-Ricco et St. Saint-Domingue," and Picus portoriccnsis, Hartlaub, Isis, 1847, 
p. 609, listed from Hispaniola, refer to the Porto Rican woodpecker (Melancrpes porto- 
riccnsis), and are listed erroneously from Hispaniola as this species is confined to Porto 
Rico and the adjacent island of Vieques. 

Picus Dominicensis minor Brisson, Ornith., vol. 4, 1760, pp. 75-77, pi. 4, fig. 2, said 
to have been sent from " S. Domingue " to Abt>6 Aubry seems to be a Piculus and can 
hardly have come from Hispaniola. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 291 

Descrip. Part. Frang. lie Saint-Doiningue, vol. 1, 1797, p. 717 (Port-de-Paix). — 
Descourtilz, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, p. 68 (Gonaives). 

Pic Raye de Saint-Domingue, Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois., vol. 7, 1780, pp. 27-28 
(description). — Daubenton, Planch. Enl., pi. 281. 

Pic Ray6 & tete noire, de St. Domingue, Daubenton, Planch. Enl., pi. 614 
(female). 

Pivert, Saint-Mery, Descrip. Part. Frang. lie Saint-Domingue, vol. 2, 1798, 

p. 298 (La Selle). 

Picus Dominicensis striatus Bresson, Ornith., vol. 4, 1760, pp. 65-67, pi. 4, 
fig. 1 (" S. Domingue " ; refers to male). 

Picus Dominicensis striatus minor Bbisson, Ornith., vol. 4, 1760, pp. 67-69, 
pi. 3, fig. 2. (" S. Domingue"; refers to female.) 

Picus striatus, Vieillot, Hist. Nat. Ois. Amer. Sept., vol. 2, 1807, pi. 114 
(description, habits). — Ritter, Naturh. Eeis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, p. 155 
(Haiti, specimen). — Haktlaub, Isis, 1S47, p. 609 (listed). — Macquart, Ann. 
Soc. Ent. France, 1853, pp. 657-660 (parasitized by larva of a fly). — Bryant, 
Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 1867, p. 96, (Dominican Republic; 
Haiti). 

Chloronerpes striatus, Cory, Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 104 (Haiti, 
Dominican Republic). — Cherrie, Field Columbian Mus., Ornith. ser., vol. 1, 
1896, p. 21 (Dominican Republic). 

Melanerpes striatus, Vebeill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 360 
(Dominican Republic, abundant). 

Centurus striatus, Salle, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, p. 234 (Santo 
Domingo City).— Cory, Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, 1881, p. 154 (Haiti) ; Birds 
Haiti and San Domingo, July, 1884, pp. 111-112, 2 col. figs. (Puerto Plata, 
Petionville). — Tristram, Ibis, 1S84, p. 168 (Dominican Republic) ; Cat. Coll. 
Birds belonging H. B. Tristram, 1889, p. 104 (Sainana, specimens). — Tippen- 
hauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, pp. 318, 322 (listed).— Christy, Ibis, 1897, pp. 
333-334 (Dominican Republic). — Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, 
pp. 412-413 (Monte Christ! ; Sosua, specimens). — Kaempfer, Journ. fur Ornith., 
1924, p. 179 (Dominican Republic). — Lonnberg, Fauna och Flora, 1929, p. 104 
(Haiti). 

Chryserpes striatus, Miller, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 34, 1915, pp. 517- 
520 (recognized as in distinct genus). — Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull. vol. 30, 1927, pp. 140, 
141; Beneath Tropic Seas, 1928, p. 222 (Haiti).— Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 505 (Haiti; nesting).— Danforth, Auk, 1929, 
p. 369 (abundant).— Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, p. 319 
(Moca, San Juan, specimens). 

Resident; common. 

The woodpecker is a bird of strong, robust form and familiar 
habit that is universally distributed wherever there is tree growth 
to support it, as it ranges from mangrove swamps on the coast through 
thorny scrubs, coffee plantations, and sparsely wooded hillsides to 
the rolling pinelands of the interior hills and mountains seemingly 
with no preference. It is one of the most common and easily seen of 
the native birds. So far as known at present it is confined to the 
main island and does not occur on Gonave and Tortue. 

To the North American naturalist the Hispaniolan woodpecker 
in action at once suggests the melanerpine woodpeckers, while its 



292 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

loud, rollicking, rolling calls, often interspersed with tree-toad-like 
gutturals, in its changing tones brings to mind continental flickers, 
ant-eating, and red-headed woodpeckers. The birds fly from tree 
to tree with rapidly bounding flight, and alight indifferently on 
trunk or branches, to hitch about, bracing with the strong, stiff tail, 
clinging to the bark with the strong feet and sharp claws. Occa- 
sionally one may fly to the outer branches of a tree and seizing a 
small twig in its feet swing back downward in search for food. The 
nest is placed in a hole drilled by the bird itself in a tree trunk. 
Often one tree may have several holes in it, and on one occasion 
Wetmore observed a palm with a dozen cavities cut by this wood- 
pecker. In the lowlands the royal palm is the favorite nesting tree, 
and there is little doubt that subsequent rotting induced by the col- 
lection of water in these artificial cavities affects the tree and may 
eventually extend until the trunk breaks in the wind. Whether this 
damage is serious is questionable and one that should be examined 
with an open mind to all the factors concerned, including the abun- 
dance of palms, the extent to which they are utilized by man, and 
the rapidity of growth which would normally replace those de- 
stroyed. At the present time it appears that damage is negligible as 
royal palms abound as do the woodpecker. It is Wetmore's opinion 
from present observations that damage that has been claimed is 
more imaginary than real, being based on isolated cases where the 
shooting of one or two birds would correct the difficulty. At Poste 
Charbert Wetmore was told that the woodpeckers drilled holes in 
the water tank that supplied the house, a matter of some importance, 
corrected however by casual shooting. Near Constanza the wood- 
pecker was reported to damage maize, an allegation made in other 
localities also. It would appear that the bird should be given care- 
ful study by some one competent to determine its exact status. It is 
the opinion of Wetmore from present information that as a species 
it is useful through destruction of injurious forest insects, and that 
only those individuals that develop injurious habits should be killed. 
There should be no general war on it without careful investigation. 
That the woodpecker has been common throughout the historic 
period is shown by frequent reference to it in early works of travel. 
Oviedo describes the nesting cavity dug in the trunk of a palm. The 
species is mentioned by Charlevoix in 1733, and by Oexmelin in 1775, 
the latter like Oviedo noting the nesting holes drilled in the hard 
wood of palm trunks. Brisson in 1760 described minutely the male 
and female from specimens sent by Chervain to de Reaumur, con- 
sidering them distinct species. Vieillot (writing in 1807) says that 
he found them nesting in May, and that they laid from four to five 
eggs. 



THE BIRDS OP HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 293 

In the Dominican Kepubiic Salle notes that in one taken near 
Santo Domingo City he found the larva of a parasitic fly which he 
succeeded in rearing and that was described by J. Macquart (in 
1853) as an Anthomyid, Aricia pici, now called Philornis pici. 16 
Cory (in 1885) , speaks of the woodpecker as abundant, and says that 
the complete set of eggs usually numbered three. He recorded one 
nest with eggs taken May 13 (year not given). Tristram received 
a pair from A. Toogood, taken at Samana in 1887. Cherrie reported 
that the bird tapped the trunks of palm trees for the sap, an observa- 
tion that seems not to have been made by others. Christy says that 
they are destructive to the fruit of the cacao, and reports that he 
secured four slightly incubated eggs at Sanchez on February 27. 
There are two skins in the United States National Museum taken by 
A. Busck September 1, 1905, in the San Francisco Mountains. Ver- 
rill heard bad report of the woodpecker as he says that it feeds on 
" fruits, oranges and cacao-pods, and frequently ruins the crop." He 
continues " fortunately its increase is kept down by a fatal provision 
of nature in the shape of a parasitic worm that infests the throat and 
head. This worm matures at the season when the young woodpeckers 
are able to leave the nest, and after that time it is practically im- 
possible to find an adult Melanerpes [that is woodpecker] alive. The 
ground beneath the nests is often strewn with the dead and dying 
birds, their throats and crops so distended with the disgusting para- 
sites as to render them incapable of flight." This account would 
appear to be considerably overdrawn as the species remains too com- 
mon to support belief in such wholesale destruction. Danforth re- 
ports that specimens he collected in the summer of 1927 were para- 
sitized by round worms. 

J. H. Fleming has specimens from Sanchez, Caiia Honda, and 
Samana collected by Verrill. J. L. Peters secured 19 near Monte 
Cristi and Sosua, and describes nests seen in " post cactus " in the 
lower Yaqui Valley. He found 25 birds congregated in one tree on 
one occasion. Kaempfer examined a heavily incubated egg at Con- 
stanza the middle of July. W. L. Abbott prepared skins at Laguna 
on the Samana Peninsula August 7 and 8, 1916, and Sanchez Sep- 
tember 24, October 20 and 23, 1916, and February 11, 1919. 

Wetmore, in 1927, observed the woodpecker occasionally on May 1, 
in traveling from Comendador to Azua. On May 4 in crossing by 
motor car from Santo Domingo City to San Francisco de Macoris it 
was fairly common wherever there was forest growth. Two were 
seen resting side by side on the trunk of a palm attentively examin- 
ing a nest hole. Near Sanchez they were common from May 6 to 13. 
Numbers were seen in the mangrove swamps on the lower Barrancota 

18 See Aldrich, J. M., Ann. Ent. Soc. America, vol. 16, 1923, p. 308. 



294 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

and in the swampy woods along the Yuna. On May 9 near the town 
one was flushed from a nest 10 meters from the ground in a trunk of a 
palm. In the forested hills the woodpecker was the most prominent 
bird as it was heard calling and hammering on every side. Curi- 
ously enough in all his experience on the island he did not hear these 
birds make the rattling drum, so prominent a habit in other wood- 
peckers during the breeding season. From La Vega to El Rio May 
17, and on the return journey May 30, many were seen along the 
trail. At Constanza from May 19 to 28 they were common but did 
not range extensively through the great forests of pine, preferring 
the deciduous growth. 

In Haiti Saint-Mery, writing in 1797, tells us that the woodpecker 
was found near Port-de-Paix, and on a later page says that it was 
observed by Abbe Madoule and two companions on February 1, 
1788, on the summit of La Selle. Descourtilz recorded it at Gonaives 
April 16, 1799. A. E. Younglove collected specimens near Port-au- 
Prince April 14 and May 7, 1866. Cory secured skins near Petion- 
ville in February and March 1881. In April 1917, Bartsch recorded 
it near Jeremie, Trou des Roseaux, Miragoane, Petit Goave, Port-au- 
Prince, Trou Caiman, Glore and Thomazeau. 

Abbott secured specimens at Jeremie November 18, 19, 20, and 22, 
Riviere Bar February 10, 12, 16, and 17, and Bombardopolis March 22, 
during 1917. At Jean Rabel Anchorage the same year he found 
the birds nesting in holes excavated in the trunks of tree cacti, and 
collected four sets of eggs. These are white in color with a slight 
gloss. A single egg was secured on May 80 from a hole 13 inches 
deep, 7 feet from the ground in a tree a foot in diameter. This egg 
measures 25.8 by 18.3 mm. On June 2 two sets were taken. One of 
four eggs came from a nest hole " 16 inches deep, 7V2 f ee t from the 
ground." These measure 22.5 by 19.3, 23.5 by 19.4, 23.6 by 19.4 and 
23.8 by 20.0 mm. Five eggs from a hole " 13 inches deep, 61.4 feet 
from the ground " measure 24.5 by 18.5, 24.8 by 18.8, 25.6 by 19.3, 
25.7 by 18.9, and 25.7 by 19.1 mm. Four eggs from a set of five 
secured June 3 in a cavity " 18 inches deep, 7 feet from the ground " 
measure 28.7 by 19.6, 29.2 by 20.3, 29.5 by 20.0 and 29.6 by 20.4 mm. 
From these figures a considerable variation in size is evident. 
Abbott says in his notes that he did not find the woodpecker on 
Tortue, nor does he mention it from Gonave. In 1925 G. S. Miller, 
jr., secured skeletons near St. Michel. Beebe brought living birds 
in 1927 for exhibition by the New York Zoological Society. 

Wetmore, in 1927, recorded the woodpecker at Damien March 29. 
L'Arcahaie March 30, where it was common among the enormous 
cacti, perching on the flat pads, Mont Rouis March 30, Fonds-des- 
Negres March 31 to April 5, where it was observed feeding on 
berries, Aquin April 3, L'Acul April 4, La Tremblay April 7, the 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 295 

summit of La Selle April 9 to 15, Las Cahobes, April 20, Maissade 
April 21, Hinche April 22 to 24, and Caracol April 26 and 27. Dan- 
forth in the summer of 1927 says that he found them nesting in 
large cacti. Poole and Perrygo secured specimens at St. Michel 
December 23, 26, and 29, 1928, Dondon January 18, St. Raphael 
January 12 and 13, Fort Liberte February 7 and 8, St. Marc Febru- 
ary 25 and Cerca-la-Source March 22 and 23, 1929. 

An adult male taken by Wetmore at Fonds-des-Negres April 2, 
1 927, had the maxilla and tip of mandible dull black ; rest of mandi- 
ble neutral gray; iris bright yellow; tarsus and toes greenish gray. 

W. deW. Miller 17 has given a detailed discussion of the structural 
characters of this woodpecker and has segregated it in the genus 
Chryserpes distinct from other species of its group. On critical 
examination we find the Hispaniolan woodpecker generally similar to 
Centurus carolinus, the type of the genus Centurus, but with culmen 
more sharply ridged, feathers of crown and nape shorter and stiffer, 
upper tail coverts much shorter, and the tuft of the oil gland shorter. 
Other characters are of minor importance but aid to indicate the 
generic distinctness of the species. 

Miller examined a fair series of these birds and gives it as his 
opinion that "there is little doubt that Chryserpes striatus consists of 
two or three races differing chiefly if not wholly in size." Kaempfer 18 
believed that birds from 800 to 1,000 meters altitude and above 
differed from those of the lowlands in being larger with heavier 
bills. We have compared an excellent series and find considerable 
difference in size individually and some seasonal variation in color 
due to plumage wear in birds from arid localities but can not corre- 
late this variation with geographic locality. We consider it entirely 
individual. Difference in wing measurement in birds from one lo- 
cality may be as much as ten millimeters, and the size and strength 
of the bill may vary in equivalent amount. 

The Hispaniolan woodpecker is a robust bird from 225 to 265 mm. 
in length, yellowish green on the back heavily barred with black, 
wings black barred with dull yellow, tail black above, yellowish olive 
below, rump and nape red, breast brownish yellow and abdomen 
olive yellow. The male has the crown red while in the female it 
is black. 

SPHYRAPICUS VARIUS VARIUS (Linnaens) 

YELLOW-BELLIED WOODPECKER, CHARPENTIER 

Picus varius Linnaeus, Syst. Nat, ed. 12, vol. 1, 1766, p. 176 (Carolina). 
Sphyrapicus varius, Lonneerg, Fauna och Flora, 1929, p. 98 (Haiti). 
Sphyrapicus varius varius, Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 
1928, p. 505 (Gonave and Tortue Islands). 

17 Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 34, 1915, pp. 517-520. 
18 Journ. fiir Ornith., 1924, p. 179. 



296 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Migrant from North America; apparently rare. 

K. H. Beck secured a female yellow-bellied woodpecker on Loma 
Tina, Dominican Republic, January 3, 1917, that was molting into 
breeding dress, and on February 10 of the same year shot another of 
the same sex in full breeding plumage. On March 6, 1920 W. L. 
Abbott collected a female near Anse a Galets or Gonave Island, 
noting that it was extremely fat. Bond reports the species from 
Trou Louis on Gonave Island, and from Tortue. Lonnberg writes 
that the specimen he records as taken by Dr. E. L. Ekman was secured 
on Tortue in March, 1928. 

The yellow-bellied woodpecker is a little smaller than the 
Hispaniolan woodpecker, and is black above, mottled with white 
on the wings and buffy white on the back, with a broad band of 
white across the wing coverts. Below it is yellowish with sides 
streaked with brown and a broad shield of black on the breast. The 
throat is whitish in the female, and the crown either red or black. 
Throat and crown are red in the male. 

Subfamily Picumninae 

NESOCTITES MICROMEGAS (Sundevall) 

HISPANIOLAN PICULET, ELATTTERO, CHARPENTIER-CAMEILE, 
CHARPENTIER-BOIS 

Picumnus micromegas Sundevall, Consp. Av. Pic, 1866, p. 95 (" Brasilia "== 
Hispaniola). 

Petit pic olive de Sainl-Domingue, Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois., vol. 7, 1780. 
pp. 29-30 (description). 

TBucco cayennensis, Salle, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, p. 234 (identity not 
certain). 

Picus passerinus, Ritter, Naturli. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, p. 155 
(specimen). — Hartlaub, Jsis, 1S47, p. 610 (listed). — Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. 
Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 1867, p. 96 (Dominican Republic). 

Chloronerpes passerinus, Salle, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, p. 234 
(Higuey). 

Picumnus lavyrencU Cory, Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, 1881, p. 129, pi. 1, 
(Described as new; type from Jacmel, Haiti); pp. 153-154 (Jacmel, Petion- 
ville). 

Picumnus lawrencci, Cory, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, July, 1884, pp. 
109-110, col. pi. (Samana, Rivas, Petionville, Jacmel, specimens). — Tippen- 
hauee, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, pp. 318, 322 (listed).— Verriix, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 360 (Sanchez, Sainam'i). 

Picumnus micromegas, Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May. 
1867, p. 96 (Dominican Republic, Haiti).— Tristram, Ibis, 1884, pp. 167-168 
(Dominican Republic, specimen) ; Cat. Coll. Birds belonging H. B. Tristram, 
1889, p. 100 (Samana, specimen). 

Nesoctites micromegas, Hargitt, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., vol. 18, 1890, pp. 
552-553, 3 figs, (description of new genus; specimens). — Cory, Cat. West 
Indian Birds, 1892, p. 103 (Haiti, Dominican Republic). — Chebrie, Field 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 297 

Columbian Mus., Ornith, ser., vol. 1, 1S96, pp. 20-21 (Santo Domingo City, 
Catarrey, Aguacate, specimens). — Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 16, 1917, 
p. 412 (Estero Balsa, Sosua, Los Toritos, specimens). — Kaempfer, Journ. fur 
Ornith., 1924, pp. 183-184 (Sanchez, specimens). — Lonnberg, Fauna och Flora, 
1920, p. 104 (Haiti). 

Nesoctites micromegas micromegas, Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 
vol. 80, 1928, p. 505 (Miragoane, Port-au-Prince, Fond Parisien, Trou Forban, 
Ennery, Massif du Nord, Plaine du Nord). — Danforth, Auk, 1929. pp. 309-370 
(recorded). 

Resident, locally common. 

The piculet is a shy inhabitant of forests where it creeps about in 
such cover that it is seen with difficulty. Little is known at present 
of its habits. 

Most of the available records pertain to the Dominican Republic. 
Salle speaks of it as very rare in the forests near Higuey. He lists 
another bird as " Bucco cayennensis " 19 that is supposed to be the 
present species which he says he found in deep forest. Cory collected 
specimens at Samana June 2, and September 1, 3, 4, 5, and 8, and 
at Rivas August 24, in 1883. Tristram received a female from 
Samana, collected in 1883 by C. McGrigor. Cherrie says that he 
secured a series of 25 at Santo Domingo City, Catarrey and Agua- 
cate. Verrill writes that he obtained it only at Samana and San- 
chez. Peters collected four in the spring of 1916 at Estero Balsa, 
Sosiia and Los Toritos. He describes its song as a series of six 
whistled notes from which the species derives its local name of 
flautero. Beck took specimens near Sanchez May 28, October 9 
and 10, and November 4, 16, 17 and 23, 1916. 

Abbott found the piculet common at Laguna on the Samana Pen- 
insula, and says that though not shy it was difficult to see because 
of its inconspicuous coloration. He collected specimens there on 
March 9, and August 11, and 13, 1919. On March 30 of that year 
his bo}r, John King, brought him a set of four eggs from a hole in 
an alligator pear tree 12 feet from the ground, reporting that he had 
a good view of the parent bird as it left the nest. These eggs, which 
proved to be very hard set, are rounded oval in form and white in 
color with a distinct gloss. They measure 19.1 by 17.0, 19.4 by 16.6, 
19.8 by 16.5 and 20.0 by 16.6 mm. A single egg also secured by John 
King near Laguna May 19, 1919 measures 21.1 by 16.2. This speci- 
men was heavily incubated. Skins were obtained at Rojo Cabo 
August 30, 1916, Port Rincon August 17, 18, and 19, 1919, and at 
Pimentel January 22, 1921. In a female taken at Port Rincon 
Abbott has marked the iris as reddish brown and the feet greenish 
slate. 

19 Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, p. 234. 



298 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Kaempfer secured two birds partly grown near Sanchez. Dan- 
forth in 1927 records this species as locally common in woods near the 
Rio Yaqui del Norte in the vicinity of Monte Cristi, and also near 
Seibo. He found a few at Bonao, Laguna del Salodillo, and east of 
Azua. One taken at Monte Cristi had eaten a centipede, many ants, 
three earwigs and many small beetles. He describes the call as " a 
rolling trill with a deep flycatcher-like tone resembling somewhat 
that of Tolmarchus taylorV At Seibo July 4 a female was observed 
excavating a hole in a partly rotted fence post. 

In Haiti A. E. Younglove collected two near Port-au-Prince 
April 25 and May 9, 1866. Cory reports two, a male from Jacmel 
January 16, and a female from Petionville March 4, 1881. He says 
that the piculet has the habits of a woodpecker and utters a short, 
sharp note, generally while flying. Danforth reports it from the 
Citadelle Hill above Milot in 1927. Bond records it as common in 
arid sections along the coast but rare inland. He found it at 
Miragoane, Port-au-Prince (specimen, February 1, 1928), Fond Par- 
isien, Trou Forban northwest of L'Arcahaie, Ennery, in the Massif 
du Nord, and on the Plaine du Nord. He remarks that " the notes 
are loud and of woodpecker quality and resemble the syllables 
kuck-ki-M-ki-ke-ku-kuck." 

The piculet of Hispaniola was first described by Sundevall as 
Picumnus micromegas. He was told that his specimen came from 
Brazil from which the true range of the bird was not suspected, so 
that when Cory collected specimens in Haiti in 1881 he named them 
lawrencii in honor of George N. Lawrence. Bryant in 1863 correctly 
identified micromegas of Sundevall as from Hispaniola, but as he 
made no comment as to why he had done so his action was overlooked, 
until in 1884 Tristram went into the matter carefully indicating that 
lawrencii of Cory is a synonym of micromegas of Sundevall. 

The piculet is a small bird little larger than a sparrow, measuring 
only 145 to 160 mm. in length. Though woodpeckerlike in form the 
tail feathers are short and soft at the ends as the bird does not brace 
with the tail in climbing. The plumage is yellowish olive green 
above with a patch of golden yellow on the crown, and yellowish 
white below streaked and spotted lightly with blackish. The male 
has a spot of red in the center of the yellow crown patch. 

NESOCTITES ABBOTTI Wetmore 

GONAVE PICULET 

Nesoctites abbotti Wetmore, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 41, October 
15, 1928, p. 1G7 (La Mahotiere, Gonave Island, Haiti). — Lonnbekg, Fauna och 
Flora, 1929, p. 104 (Gonave). 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 299 

Nesoctites micromegas abbotti, Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 
80, 1928, p. 505 (Gonave Island).— Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 370 (Gonave). 

Gonave Island; common resident. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott, in whose honor this species is named, found 
the Gonave piculet common in dense scrub on the hillsides, and 
usually encountered it in pairs. In all he secured 14 specimens taken 
February 20, 21, 23, 24, and 27, 1918, and March 8, 9, 10, and 14, 
1920. The latter were shot near Anse a Galets. The specimen 
selected as type is a male taken February 24, 1918. The soft parts 
are said to be similar in male and female, the iris being reddish 
brown, upper mandible blackish above and leaden beneath, and tarsi 
greenish lead color. 

Danforth found it common on Gonave in 1927 and says " it is 
almost abundant in the brushy woods, and its characteristic callnote 
is heard on every side. We collected five specimens. The stomach 
contents of one consisted exclusively of the seeds and pulp of some 
fruit." 

Bond writes that the piculet is " very common on Gonave Island, 
its abundance being due perhaps to the absence of the much larger 
Chryseryes. In habits and notes it is similar to the mainland form. 
Six specimens were secured. 

"A nest was found in June. It was placed about 12 feet above 
the ground in arid growth. It was apparently empty. The nesting 
hole was of downy-woodpecker size." 

This form is generally similar to Nesoctites micromegas (Sunde- 
vall) but is very much paler both above and below, the under surface 
being white, with only a very faint tinge of yellowish on the breast, 
and the upper surface much grayer. The white of the sides of the 
neck is more extended and the yellow of the crown in the male is 
more restricted. 

Following are measurements (in millimeters) of the series 
obtained : 

Eight males, wing 65.9-68.4 (67.7) ; tail 36.5-42.8 (39.5) ; culmen 
from base 15.8-17.2 (16.5) ; tarsus 17.0-18.3 (17.4). 

Six females, wing 69.3-73.2 (71.2) ; tail 37.0-41.5 (39.9) ; culmen 
from base 17.0-17.7 (17.5) ; tarsus 17.3-18.5 (17.8). 

Type, male, wing 68.0; tail 42.8; culmen from base 16.5; tar- 
sus 17.9. 

In general the Gonave Island bird is similar to that of the main 
island, but the differences, mainly those of paler coloration, seem 
so distinct that it is considered a species apart from micromegas. 



300 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Order PASSERIFORMES 

Suborder Tyranni 
Superfamily TYRANNIDES 

Family TYRANNIDAE 20 

TYRANNUS DOMINICENSIS DOMINICENSIS (Gmelin) 
GRAY KINGBIRD, PETIGRE, PITIRRE, TITIRI, PXPIRITE 

Lanius dominicensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 17SS, vol. 1, pt. 1, p. 302 (Hispaniola). 

Titire, ou Pipiri, Buffon, Hist. Nat. Oi«., vol. 4, 1778. pp. 573-577 (habits). 

Tyrannus intrepidus, Ritter, Natarh. lieis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, p. 
156 (specimen). 

Tyrannus matutmus, Salle, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, p. 232 (Dominican 
Republic). 

Tyrannus griseus, Vieillot, Hist. Nat. Ois. Anier. Sept., vol. 1, 1807, pp. 76-77, 
pi. 46 (habits, description). — Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, 
May, 1S67, p. 90 (Dominican Republic, Haiti).— Cory, Bull. Nuttall Ornith. 
Club, 1881, p. 153 (Haiti). 

Tyrannus Dominicensis Brisson, Ornith., vol. 2, 1760, pp. 394-395, pi. 38, 
fig. 2 ("S. Domingue"). 

Tyrannus dominicensis, Cory, Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, 1881, p. 153 (Haiti, 
specimens) ; Birds Haiti and San Domingo, July, 1884, pp. 77-79 (Puerto Plata, 
specimens; Samana, eggs); Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 108 (Haiti, 
Dominican Republic). — Tristram, Ibis, 1884, p. 168 (Dominican Republic, 
specimen) ; Cat. Coll. Birds belonging H. B. Tristram, 1889, p. 124 (Rivas, 
specimen). — Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, pp. 320, 321 (listed). — 
Cheerie, Field Columbian Mus., Ornith. ser., vol. 1, 1S96, p. 18 (Dominican 
Republic, specimens). — Christy, Ibis, 1897, pp. 327-32S (Dominican Republic, 
nesting). — Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 361 (Dominican 
Republic). — Kaempfer, Journ. fur Ornith., 1924, p. ISO (Dominican Republic). — 
Lonnberg, Fauna och Flora, 1929, p. 105 (Haiti). 

Tyrannus d. dominicensis, Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 140 ; Be- 
neath Tropic Seas, 1928, pp. 67, 222 (Haiti).— Ekm an, Ark. for Bot., vol. 22 A, 
No. 16, 1929, p. 7 (Navassa). 

Tyrannus dominicensis dominicensis, Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 
1917, pp. 414-415 (Monte Christi, Sosiia, specimens). — Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 506 (Caracol, nest).— Danforth, Auk, 1929, 
p. 370 (common). 

Tyrannus curvirostris curvirostris, Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., 
vol. 6S, 1929, p. 319 (Moca, specimens). 

20 Salvadori in Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat., vol. 7, 1864, p. 153, described a small fly- 
catcher under the name Anaeretes cristatellns that he says " e indicato come proveniente 
da Haiti." Sclater and Salvin after examining his type specimen report in the Proc. 
Zool. Soc. London, 1868, p. 175 (footnote) that this is Serpopliaya suberistata (Vieillot), 
which ranges in South America from Pernamhuco and Piauhy south into Argentina as 
far as the Rio Negro, and does not occur in the Greater Antilles. Salvadori's locality is 
therefore erroneous. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN EEPUBLIC 301 

Kesident, common; not found in heavily forested sections. 

The gray kingbird is almost universally distributed in the culti- 
vated sections of Hispaniola, occurring everywhere about fields and 
pastures but not penetrating the forests. Wetmore did not find it 
on the heights of La Selle, though it ranged on the north face of 
that range above the Riviere Jaquisy, but in the Valley of Con- 
stanza, at a slightly lower altitude than La Selle with a climate 
equally cold, the bird was fairly common. He observed it in the 
mangroves bordering the Yuna and Barrancota, and on the little 
wooded islets on the southern shores of Samana Bay, seeming ex- 
ceptions to the statement that the species is not found regularly in 
forested sections until it is remembered that open stretches of water 
in these haunts afforded favorable feeding grounds comparable to 
the open lands frequented elsewhere. It comes into the suburbs of 
towns and villages, and ranges in semi-arid and humid sections 
alike. Abbott collected specimens on Gonave and Tortue Islands, 
and from September 12 to 18, 1919, found it common on Saona. 
He saw two or three pairs on Catalinita Island September 10 to 
12 of the same year. 

The gray kingbird rests on open perches to watch for passing in- 
sects, flying out to secure these on the wing. Its flight is direct, 
performed with rapid beats of the wings, and can be fairly rapid. 
The bird is belligerent and delights in pursuing other kingbirds or 
individuals of other species, its victims ranging in size from the 
red-tailed hawk down, all, regardless of stature, fleeing from its 
angry attacks. From an economic standpoint it is one of the most 
useful species found on the island and should be protected as it is 
fitted to thrive in connection with developing agriculture. If prop- 
erly guarded it should increase in numbers as the forests are cleared 
and more land comes under cultivation. 

Present definite records of its occurrence are as follows: 

Dominican Republic : Comendador to Azua, San Francisco de 
Macoris (Wetmore) ; Rivas (Tristram) ; Cana Honda, El Valle, 
Cayo Levantado, Samana (Verrill) ; Rojo Cabo, San Lorenzo (Ab- 
bott) ; Sanchez, La Vega, (Verrill, Wetmore) ; La Vega to Jara- 
bacoa (Wetmore) ; El Rio, Constanza (Abbott, Wetmore) ; Santiago 
(Wetmore) ; Moca (Ciferri) ; Puerto Plata (Cory) ; Monte Cristi, 
Sosua (Peters): Saona and Catalinita Islands (Abbott). 

Haiti: Jeremie (Abbott, Bartsch) ; Trou des Roseaux, Miragoane, 
Petit Goave (Bartsch) ; Aquin, L'Acul, Fonds-des-Negres, Etang 
Miragoane, Carrefour, Damien (Wetmore) ; Port-au-Prince 
(Younglove, Bartsch, Beebe, Wetmore) ; Trou Caiman, Thomazeau, 
Glore (Bartsch) ; Fonds Verettes (Abbott) ; Mont Rouis, Las Ca- 
2134—31 20 



302 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

hobes, Hinche to St. Michel, Cap-Haitien (Wetmore) ; Caracol 
(Wetmore, Bond) ; L'Atalaye, St. Michel, St. Kaphael, Fort 
Liberie, St. Marc, Cerca-la-Source (Poole and Perrygo) ; Riv- 
iere Bar, Bombardopolis, Jean Rabel Anchorage, Moustique, 
Tortue Island (Abbott) ; Gonave Island (Abbott, Danforth, 
Poole and Perrygo) ; Navassa Island (Ekman). 

The gray kingbird outside the breeding season gathers frequently 
at night in central roosts to which many individuals may come. As 
the birds congregate in the evening they utter continual vociferous 
calls, often rising to circle in the air, and then settle again in the tree 
tops where they spend the night. At day break they are very noisy 
again for a time and then disperse to their feeding grounds for the 
day. 

The principal nesting season appears to come from April to June, 
though Vieillot reports that they nest irregularly. He records the 
number of eggs as three to four. Cory reports a nest April 18, 1883, 
with three fresh eggs, and another May 20 with two eggs. Christy 
observed nests with young during June. The last two authors de- 
scribe the nest as constructed of small twigs loosely placed together. 

At Baie des Moustiques on May 8, 1917, Abbott collected three sets, 
two of two and one of three eggs. One of these came from a nest in 
a mangrove ten feet above high water mark, and another from an 
acacia ten feet from the ground. A nest that he took here eight feet 
above high water in a mangrove is a flat structure of small twigs 
about 240 mm. in diameter by TO mm. high with an inner cup, com- 
posed of long fine strands of rootlets coiled in a circular manner, 85 
mm. in diameter by 35 mm. deep. The three sets of eggs taken 
measure as follows (in millimeters) 26.0 by 18.3, and 26.0 by 18.7 
(one broken egg not measured) ; 23.5 by 17.8, and 24.3 by 17.7; 26.5 
by 17.7 and 26.9 by 17.3. On June 1, 1917 he collected a set of two, 
from a nest ten feet from the ground in a low tree near the seashore, 
that measure 24.7 by 18.0 and 27.2 by 18.0. Two eggs secured on 
Tortue Island May 19, 1917, from a slightly built nest of twigs 8 feet 
from the ground in a mangrove have the following dimensions : 22.7 
by 17.5 and 23.5 by 17.7. There is a further set of four eggs from 
Haiti without definite date or locality that measure as follows: 23.6 
by 17.2, 25.3 by 18.4, 25.5 by 18.5 and 25.8 by 18.5 mm. The eggs are 
elliptical oval in form and in color vary from white tinged with 
ivory yellow to very pale pinkish buff, spotted boldly with vinaceous 
russet, burnt umber, natal brown, and purplish gray, the markings 
being heaviest about the larger end. 

On May 6, 1927 Wetmore saw a gray kingbird carrying nesting 
material into a mangrove near Sanchez, and on May 26 near Con- 
stanza he observed an occupied nest 40 feet from the ground on the 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 303 

limb of a pine. Bond describes a nest containing three eggs found 
in a mangrove swamp near Caracol, May 26, 1928. 

Abbott describes the bill and feet in this species as black and the 
iris as dark brown. 

The gray kingbird, 225 to 235 mm. long, is dark gray above, with 
blackish wings and tail, the former edged with whitish, a blackish 
band through the eye, white underparts with a wash of gray on the 
breast, light yellow under wing coverts, and a concealed patch of 
orange and yellow on the crown. 

TOLMARCHUS GABBII (Lawrence) 
HISPANIOIAN PETCHARY, MANJUILA, PIPIRIT, TETE POLICE 

Pitangus Gabbii Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, vol. 11, 1876, p. 
288 (Hato Viejo, Mao River, Province of Santiago, Dominican Republic). — 
Coby, Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, 1881, p. 153 (Haiti) ; Birds Haiti and San 
Domingo, July, 1884, pp. 76-77, col. fig. (Magua, Petionville, specimens) ; Cat. 
West Indian Birds, 1882, p. 108 (Haiti, Dominican Republic) ; Auk, 1895, p. 
279 (Dominican Republic). — Tippenhatjer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 321 
(listed). — Cherbde, Field Columbian Mus., Ornith. ser., vol. 1, 1896, p. 17 (Hon- 
duras, specimen). — Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 361 
(Miranda). 

Tyrannus (part), Brisson, Ornith., vol. 2, 1760, pp. 391-392 (" S. Domingue "). 

Tyr annus intrepidus ?, Salle, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, p. 232 (listed). — 
Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 1S67, p. 90 (considered error 
for Tolmarchus) . 

Tyrannus tyrannus, Cory, Birds West Indies 1889, p. 132 (listed) ; Cat. West 
Indian Birds, 1892, p. 108 (Dominican Republic). — Ridgway, U. S. Nat. Mus. 
Bull. 50, vol. 4, 1907, p. 691 ("Haiti"). 

IHuscicapa cayenensis, Ritter, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, p. 
156 (specimen). 

"iMuscicapa flava, Vieillot, Hist. Nat. «Ois. Amer. Sept., vol. 1, 1807, p. 69 
(" Saint-Domingue"). 

Tolmarchus gabbi, Ridgway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 18, Sept. 2, 
1905, p. 209 (listed).— Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, p. 415 
(Monte Cristi, Bulla, specimens). — Kaempfer, Journ. fur Ornith., 1924, p. 180 
(Tilbano). 

Tolmarchus gabbii, Ridgway, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 50, pt. 4, 1907, pp. 683-684, 
(description, range). — Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 141 (living speci- 
men in Zoological Park). — Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 370 (local). — Lonnberg, 
Fauna och Flora, 1929, p. 105 (Haiti). — Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., 
vol. 68, 1929, p. 319 (San Juan, specimen). 

Tolmarchus caudifasciatus gabbii, Hellmayr, Cat. Birds Amer., Field Mus. 
Nat. Hist., Zool. ser., vol. 13, April 11, 1927, p. 158 (Port-au-Prince, Petionville. 
Magua, Honduras, specimens). — Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 
80, 1928, p. 506 (La Selle, Morne Malanga). 

Resident; local in occurrence. 

The petchary though widely distributed is less common than the 
gray kingbird whose place it takes in areas of forest. It is found 
almost entirely amid heavy growths of trees, finding in coffee planta- 



304 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

tions situations to its liking but usually not coming into the open. 
Though found throughout the entire island records of occurrence are 
rather few. It seems from present information to be more common 
in the southwestern peninsula of Haiti than elsewhere. It is quiet 
and retiring in habit and has been overlooked by many naturalists. 

Cherrie secured one at Honduras April 2, 1895, the only one that 
he saw. Kaempfer found it only at Tubano where he says that it 
was known as manjuila. Verrill reports it only at Miranda; Cory 
collected two at Magua, January 26 and 31, 1883. Peters secured 
four males at Monte Cristi and Bulla, the latter not far from the 
type locality as Gabb collected the type specimen at Hato Viejo, 
on the Mao River. At Monte Cristi Peters found the petchary in 
the cactus grown scrub but it is less abundant in such situations than 
in denser forest. In the Dominican Republic Abbott collected it 
only near Constanza where he secured skins September 27, 28, and 
29, 1916, and April 12, 1919. Wetmore in 1927 found a few on May 
13 at an elevation of 450 meters in the forested hills east of Sanchez 
on the trail that crosses to Las Terrenas. At Constanza on May 19 
he saw one calling from a perch high in the top of a pine, uttering 
a prolonged, rolling trill that terminated with several sharply 
explosive notes. Danforth recorded it in 1927 near Santiago June 
18, Vasquez June 25, Monte Cristi June 20, Azua July 9, and San 
Juan July 10 and 11. Moltoni received one from Ciferri taken at 
San Juan, July 7, 1929. 

In Haiti Cory secured two near Petionville in February, 1881. 
Bartsch shot one near Jeremie April 16, 1917, and recorded the 
species north of Port-au-Prince April 21 and 22. Abbott found it 
rather numerous in the southwestern peninsula where he secured an 
excellent series, including specimens from Jeremie November 20, 28, 
29, and 30, and December 9 and 11, 1917; Moron December 19, 20, 
and 23, 1917, and Moline January 29, 1918. Wetmore found the 
petchary common at Fonds-des-Negres March 31 to April 5, and 
collected several specimens. The birds were mating at this period 
and were very noisy. Pairs were observed on several occasions flying 
in company low through the undergrowth, the male above and almost 
touching the female, snapping his bill loudly and continually, a 
flight that continued from fifty to one hundred feet. On April 17 
he saw one at Chapelle Faure in Nouvelle Touraine, and on April 26 
and 27 recorded others at Poste Charbert near Caracol. Danforth 
collected one at Fonds-des-Negres July 23. Bond reports them from 
La Selle, and secured two males on Morne Malanga January 21 and 
23, 1928. 

Beebe reports that he has exhibited this bird alive in the Zoologi- 
cal Park in New York City. 



THE BIEDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN" REPUBLIC 305 

In a female from Moron, December 19, 1917, Abbott notes the bill 
as black, somewhat brownish beneath, feet black, and iris dark 
brown. Another from Jeremie taken November 20 agreed in color 
of feet and bill. An adult female shot by Wetmore at Fonds-des- 
Negres April 2, 1927, had the bill dull black, iris bone brown, tarsus 
and toes dusky slate. 

The present species is included in Brisson's description of his 
Tyrannus of which he says that a specimen from Hispaniola was 
sent to de Reaumur by Chervain. His statement that it was migrant 
to Virginia and Carolina refers however to some other bird. Salle 
seemingly reported this species under the erroneous name Tyr annus 
intrepidus, which applies properly to the common kingbird of the 
eastern United States known now as Tyrannus tyrannus. This ref- 
erence appears to be the basis for the report of Tyrannus tyrannus 
from Hispaniola by later authors as there is no definite record for 
this bird, which migrates farther to the west, being known only 
casually from Cuba and the Bahamas. 

We do not agree with Hellmayr in considering gabbii a subspecies 
of Tolmarchus caudifasciatus as its characters seem to entitle it to 
specific recognition. 

Specimens taken in November and December in freshly grown 
plumage when compared with skins secured in April or later are 
darker above and have a brownish wash on the breast. 

The type specimen in the American Museum of Natural History, 
Cat. No. 42,641 is marked " Pitangus gabbii Lawr. Type W. M. 
Gabb — St. Domingo Coll. Geo. N. Lawrence, Hato Vie jo." It is in 
worn plumage and measures as follows: wing 99.4, tail 77.3, culmen 
from base 25.0. tarsus 20.2 mm. 

The petchary in form and size resembles the gray kingbird but 
is much darker in color, being blackish brown above, almost black 
on the head, with wings and tail edged with rufous. Below it is 
white with a slight wash of gray or brown on the breast. There is 
a concealed patch of bright yellow in the crown. 

MYIARCHUS DOMINICENSIS (Bryant) 

EISPANIOLAN FLYCATCHER, MAROA, MAROITA, MANUELITO, ALOUETTE 
KTTPPEE, LOUIS, PIPIRIT GROS-TETE 

Tyrannula stolida (var., dominicensis) Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 
vol. 11, May, 1867, p. 90 (Port-au-Prince, Haiti). 

Huscicapa flaviventris, Vieillot, Hist. Nat. Ois. Amgr. Sept.. vol. 1, 1807, 
p. 70 (habits). 

Myiarehus stolidus, Coey, Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, 1881, p. 153 (Haiti). 

Myiarehus ruflcaudaUis Coey, Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, 1883, p. 95 (de- 
scribed as new from Puerto Plata. Dominican Republic). 



306 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Myiarchus dominicensis, Cory, Birds Haiti and San Domingo July, 1884, pp. 
79-80, col. fig. (Rivas, Samana, La Vega, specimens) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 
1892, p. 108 (Dominican Republic).— Tristram, Cat. Coll. Birds belonging H. B. 
Tristram, 1889, p. 124 (Rivas, specimens). — Tippenhatjer, Die Insel Haiti, 
1892, p. 321 (listed) ; Field Columbian Mus., Ornith. ser., vol. 1, 1896, p. 18 
(Dominican Republic, specimens). — Christy, Ibis, 1897, p. 328 (Sanchez, speci- 
men). — Verrill, Proe. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 361 (Dominican 
Republic).— Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, p. 415 (Monte Cristi, 
Sostia, Choco, specimens). — Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 370 (many records). — 
Lonnberg, Fauna och Flora, 1929, p. 105 (Haiti). — Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. 
Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, p. 319 (Haina, San Juan, specimens). 

Myiarchus stolidus dominicensis, Heixmayr, Cat. Birds Amer., Field Mus. 
Nat. Hist, Zool. ser., vol. 13, pt. 5, April 11, 1927, pp. 169-170 (Port-au-Prince, 
Petionville, Jacmel, Santo Domingo City, Aguacate, La Vega, Rivas, Magua, 
Samana, Catarrey, San Cristobal, Honduras, San Jose de Ocoa, Puerto Plata, 
specimens). — Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 506 
(Haiti, Gonave, Tortue; nest). 

Resident; common. 

This flycatcher is distributed rather widely through the island 
both in arid and humid sections, being found in cactus-grown scrubs, 
mesquites, pine forests and other woodland. Wetmore did not re- 
cord it on the high summit of La Selle but it is found regularly in 
the mountains near Constanza at a somewhat lower altitude. The 
bird occurs alone or in pairs watching for insect food from some 
elevated perch. 

In the Dominican Republic Cherrie secured a large series so that 
his statement that it was " tolerably common " underestimates its 
abundance. He took specimens (according to records published by 
Hellmayr) at Santo Domingo City, Aguacate, Catarrey, San Cris- 
tobal, Honduras, and San Jose de Ocoa. Cory secured it at La 
Vega, Rivas, Magua, Puerto Plata, and Samana. Near Samana 
May 5, 1883, Cory collected four eggs from a hole in a tree 4 feet 
from the ground; he describes the nest as a soft structure of hair, 
moss and feathers. Christy found this flycatcher near Sanchez. 
Tristram had one taken at Rivas in 1887 by A. S. Toogood, and 
Verrill collected skins at Samana February 23, and Sanchez March 
3, 1907, that are now in the collection of J. H. Fleming. Peters 
collected specimens at Monte Cristi, Sosua, and Choco. 

Abbott found this species generally common, collecting specimens 
at Laguna on the Samana Peninsula August 13, 1916, and March 6, 
1919, at Rojo Cabo, not far distant, August 30, 1916, and near Jara- 
bacoa, October 11 and 12, 1916. Wetmore observed a few between 
San Juan and Azua May 1, 1927, and at Sanchez from May 6 to 13 
recorded it occasionally near the town and found it common in the 
wet forests that covered the hills at an elevation of 450 meters. 
Near Constanza from May 19 to 26 it was common, being found 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 307 

here mainly in the forests of pine, often perching high above the 
ground. It was seen at El Rio May 30. Danforth in 1927 found 
this flycatcher common between Santiago and Monte Cristi, and 
saw it also at Santo Domingo City, Seibo, and San Juan. On June 
23 he collected a young bird recently from the nest. Bond saw one 
nest building at Lake Enriquillo April 15, 1928. Moltoni received 
skins from Haina and San Juan. 

In the Dominican Republic this species is called manuelito, maroa 
or maroita, the two latter names reported only from the northern 
part of the Republic. 

In Haiti the Hispaniolan flycatcher is somewhat more widely dis- 
tributed than in the Dominican Republic, the dry scrubs and open 
forests of the western part of the island seeming especially suited 
to its needs. In 1866 A. E. Younglove collected specimens February 
10, April 25, and May 8 and 10, which he forwarded to the Smith- 
sonian Institution, a male shot February 10 serving as the type of 
the species from which Bryant prepared his description published 
in 1867. Cory collected this flycatcher at Petionville and Jacmel 
in 1881. In April, 1917 Bartsch recorded it at Glore, Trou Caiman, 
Petit Goave (specimen), in the vicinity of Jeremie, near Port-au- 
Prince and at St. Marc (specimen). 

W. L. Abbott secured skins at Moustique March 4, 5, and 10, and 
Bombardopolis March 27, 1917. He collected a small series on 
Tortue Island February 1, 4, and 17, 1917, on Gonave Island Febru- 
ary 19 and 24, 1918 and March 8, 1920, and one on Grande Cayemite 
Island January 10, 1918. On May 9, 1917, at Petit Port a l'Ecu he 
found a nest in an old woodpecker hole cut into the trunk of a tree 
cactus about five feet from the ground. The nest was constructed 
of cottony down and contained three eggs of which one is broken. 
The other two measure 21.1 by 16.0 and 21.5 by 16.2 mm. At Jean 
Rabel Anchorage June 5, 1917 native boys brought him a set of two 
eggs together with the parent bird alive. These eggs measure 19.7 
by 16.4 and 19.9 by 16.3 mm. The eggs are very pale ivory yellow, 
marked heavily with mars brown, warm sepia and deep quaker drab, 
the markings being heaviest at the larger end and tending to extend 
in a straight line along the longitudinal axis of the egg, many being 
so elongated as to suggest pen markings. 

It will be recalled that in the nest of the crested flycatcher of the 
United States, which belongs to the same genus, shed snake skin 
is almost universally found in the nesting material. Abbott noted 
particularly that this peculiar material was not used in the nest that 
he examined. 

G. S. Miller, jr., collected one of these flycatchers at St. Michel, 
March 24, 1925. In 1927 Wetmore found this flycatcher at a number 



308 BULLETIN" 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

of points in Haiti. At L'Archaie March 30 several were observed 
in an arid cactus and mesquite scrub. The birds rested on open 
perches near the ground, in alert attitude enhanced by raised crests, 
and darted out to capture passing insects with a loud snap of the 
bill. Their call was a high pitched, somewhat sibilant note that 
may be written tuhee-ee, varied occasionally to whit-a whit-a. Two 
taken at Aquin April 3 in dry scrub back of the beach were near the 
breeding season. The species was recorded at La Tremblay April 
7, Morne a Cabrits April 20, Hinche April 22 to 24, and Caracol 
April 26 and 27. 

Danforth in 1927 found this flycatcher near the mouth of the 
Artibonite River, at Etang Miragoane, and on Gonave Island. 
Bond reports this flycatcher as abundant in the arid lowlands of 
Haiti, including Gonave and Tortue Islands. He found a nest near 
Port-de-Paix, April 1, 1928, placed in a natural cavity a little more 
than a meter from the ground, that contained two nearly fledged 
young. Poole and Perrygo secured specimens at St. Michel January 
6, L'Atalaye January 8, St. Raphael January 12, Pont Sonde Feb- 
ruary 27, and Fort Liberte February 6 and 11, 1929. Danforth 
reports that one bird taken had eaten ten weevils (Lach?iopus) and 
a butterfly; another a seed, three caterpillars, and a small chryso- 
melid beetle; a third seeds of Solanaceae; a fourth a fly (Erax 
rufotibia) and some coieoptera; and a fifth a Buprestid, a weevil 
(Lachnopm), a grasshopper (Schistocercus), and a fly (Erax 
rufotibia) . 

Four specimens from Gonave Island average very slightly paler on 
the dorsal surface than most birds from the main island but are 
matched in this respect by one skin from Tortue and by a few from 
the main island, so that we consider this difference as of individual 
nature. Birds in fresh plumage are blacker and those in worn dress 
grayer above. Measurements are almost identical as the following 
indicate. 

Haiti and the Dominican Republic : 

Males, seventeen specimens, wing 80.1-88.1 (84.0), tail 73.7-82.9 
(78.0), culmen from base 18.2-21.8 (20.1), tarsus 19.3-23.1 (21.2) mm. 

Females, six specimens, wing 78.0-84.9 (81.5), tail, 72.9-79.2 (76.1) , 
culmen from base 18.0-21.3 (19.5), tarsus 20.0-21.3 (20.8) mm. 

Gonave Island: 

Male, one specimen, wing 83.8, tail 74.4, culmen from base 21.5, 
tarsus 20.2 mm. 

Females, three specimens, wing 79.5-82.3 (80.6), tail 72.8-77.7 
(75.5), culmen from base 19.0-19.4 (19.1), tarsus 20.3-21.3 (20.7) mm. 

Hellmayr writes that the type of Myiarchus ruficaudatus Cory, a 
male, F. M. No. 31149, was taken at Puerto Plata, D. R., December 
11, 1882. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 309 

The Hispaniolan flycatcher, while it measures from 180 to 195 mm. 
in length, is of slender form with long tail. It has the flat bill 
characteristic of its family. Above it is olive brown, darker on the 
head, light gray on the breast, and pale yellow on the abdomen. 
The primaries are edged with chestnut brown and the secondaries 
with whitish, and the inner webs of the tail feathers are margined 
with chestnut. 

BLACICUS HISPANIOLENSIS HISPANIOLENSIS (Bryant) 
HISPANIOLAN WOOD PEWEE, SIGTJA, PIPIRIT TETE FOTT 

Tyrannula carribaea (var., hispaniolensis) Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. 
Hist., vol. 11, May, 1S67, p. 91 (Port-au-Prince, Haiti). 

TMuscicapa gu&rula, Rittee, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, p. 156 
(Haiti, specimen). 

Contopus frazari Cory, Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, 1883, p. 94. (Puerto 
Plata, Dominican Republic, described as new) ; Birds Haiti and San Domingo, 
July, 1SS4, pp. 81-82 (discussion). 

Contopus hispaniolensis, Cory, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, July, 1884, pp. 
81-82, col. fig. (La Vega, Puerto Plata, Samana, specimens). — Tippenhauer, 
Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 321 (listed). 

Sayornis dominicensis Cory, Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, 1883, p. 95 (Magna, 
Dominican Republic; described as new) ; Birds Haiti and San Domingo, July, 
1884, pp. 81-82 (discussion). 

Blacicus hispaniolensis, Cory, Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 109 (Haiti, 
Dominican Republic). — Cherrie, Field Columbian Mus., Ornith. ser., vol. 1, 1896, 
pp. 17-18 (Dominican Republic). — Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 
1909, p. 361 (Dominican Republic). — Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 
1917, p. 415 (Monte Cristi, Gaspar Hernandez, Rfo San Juan, specimens). — 
Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 370 (Seibo, Santo Domingo City, San Juan). — Lonn- 
berg, Fauna och Flora, 1929, p. 105 (Haiti). — Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. 
Nat, vol. 68, 1929, p. 320 (San Juan, Monte Viejo, specimens). 

Blacicus caribacus hispaniolensis, Hellmayr, Cat. Birds. Amer., Field Mus. 
Nat. Hist., Zool. ser., vol. 13, 1927, p. 205 (Santo Domingo City, La Vega, 
Aguacate, Honduras, Samana, La Laguneta, Magua, Catarrey, Maiman, Puerto 
Plata, specimens). — Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, 
p. 506 (Haiti). 

Resident; fairly common, particularly in the forested hills of the 
interior. 

The wood pewee is an inhabitant of thickets and woodlands where 
it rests quietly on open perches, usually near the ground but occa- 
sionally thirty or forty feet above it, and watches for its food of 
flying insects which it flies out and captures expertl}- with a snap of 
the bill, and then circles back to its perch. Aside from these sallies 
for food it is quiet and will pass unnoticed except to those of keen 
and attentive perception. It is most easily seen in early morning 
when it comes out into more open lands than at any other time as 
in the heat of the day it remains at rest, frequently in the shadow of 
dense coverts. The bird has the mannerisms of the wood pewees of 



310 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

North America but in general seeks perches nearer the ground. In 
the Dominican Republic Cory found it abundant in the hills back of 
La Vega in July, 1883. and collected it also at Samana September 10 
and 11, and Puerto Plata November 22, 1882. Cherrie found it 
common in the southern part of the republic and took specimens at 
Santo Domingo City, Aguacate, Honduras, and Catarrey. Along 
the northern coast the species seems somewhat rare as in 1916 Peters 
secured only three specimens, at Monte Cristi, Gaspar Hernandez, 
and Rio San Juan, and in addition observed only one other, which 
was seen at Estero Balsa. All except one were found amid man- 
groves. 

TV. L. Abbott found the wood pewee more common and secured an 
excellent series. On April 10, 1922 he collected one male at an ele- 
vation of 700 meters near Polo in the Bahoruco mountains. Three 
were taken at San Lorenzo on Samana Bay July 28 and September 
9, 1916, and March 19, 1919. One was shot at Jarabacoa October 14, 
1916, two at El Rio October 4 and 8, 1916 and six at Constanza Sep- 
tember 25, 27, and 28, 1916, and April 10 and 12, 1919. In 1927 
Wetmore secured one in the mangrove swamps at the mouth of the 
Arroyo Barrancota opposite Sanchez, and found them fairly numer- 
ous in the forested hills of the Samana Peninsula at an elevation of 
450 meters. Near Constanza from May 19 to 26 they were common, 
and others were recorded at El Rio May 30. In the great forests oi 
pine about Constanza he heard on many occasions a mournful call 
of considerable carrying power coming from the tops of the pine 
trees, a note of several syllables that may be written pw pip pip pip 
After several days of search he traced it to the quiet little wood 
pewee, which was entirely unexpected as the author, but when this 
was once established the circumstance seemed quite natural as the 
call is suggestive of that of a North American flycatcher that resides 
in similar haunts, the olive-sided flycatcher {Nuttallomis mesoleucus) . 
From further observation he found that the wood pewee of His- 
paniola has other notes of a varied character so that its voice has 
considerable range in sound production. Danforth in 1927 collected 
two at Seibo July 4 to 6, saw others at Santo Domingo City, and 
collected one at San Juan July 11. Ciferri collected one at San 
Juan July 7, 1929, and two at an elevation of 1,200 to 1,500 meters 
on Monte Viejo, May 25 to 28, 1929, one of the latter being a young 
individual. 

The type specimen of this species was secured in the hills back of 
Port-au-Prince, Haiti, in all probability somewhere above Petion- 
ville, on June 6, 1866, by A. E. Younglove, and the bird was de- 
scribed by Dr. Henry Bryant in the following year. It is possible 
that the " Graukohli<jer Fliegenf an^er " which Ritter lists in 1836 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 311 

under the scientific name of Muscicapa querula may have been this 
same species but this is not certain. Cory does not seem to have 
found the wood pewee in the western republic so that the next in- 
formation regarding it in Haiti comes from the collections of Abbott 
who secured five at Moron December 18, 19, 20, and 24, 1917, one 
at Moline January 26, 1918, and three at Moustique March 2, 3, and 

11, 1917. Bartsch in 1917 observed it in the vicinity of Jeremie 
April 10 to 12, and 15 and 16, near Trou des Roseaux April 13 and 14, 
and in the vicinity of Port-au-Prince, mainly near the coast, April 
24, 25, and 27. G. S. Miller, jr., secured it near St. Michel, March 29, 
1925. In 1927 Wetmore found it fairly common near Fonds-des- 
Negres from March 31 to April 5, and from specimens taken learned 
that the breeding season was near. At this time the birds were en- 
tirely silent so far as he observed. On La Selle they were seen April 

12, 13, and 14, being especially common at the borders of the thickets 
where these joined the pinelands. They especially were in evidence 
in early morning when they came out of the coverts to rest in the 
warm rays of the morning sun. On April 27 he observed a pair at 
Poste Charbert near Caracol. Bond found it most common in the 
mountains but saw it also at the borders of mangrove swamps. 

In a specimen taken by Abbott, marked questionably as a female, 
from Moron, Haiti, December 20, 1917, the upper mandible is indi- 
cated as dark brown or black and the lower as brownish yellow. 

The Hispaniolan wood pewee is subject to some variation in color, 
birds in fresh fall plumage being decidedly darker than spring speci- 
mens especially on the back. Cory was misled by these differences 
and named two of these variants, calling one Contopus frazari and 
the other Sayor-nis dominice?i$is, the type of the first according to 
Hellmayr coming from Puerto Plata, and of the second from Magua. 
Later Cory, recognizing his error, indicated these properly as syno- 
nyms of Blacicus hispaniolensis. 

The wood pewee is a bird of slender form, long tail and broad, 
flat bill that measures from 150 to 160 mm. in length. Above it is 
olive brown, blacker on crown, wings and tail, with paler edgings on 
the inner wing feathers. The breast is brownish gray and the abdo- 
men brownish buff. The general tone of olive and warm brown, the 
small size, and quiet demeanor are characteristic. 

BLACICUS HISPANIOLENSIS TACITUS Wetmore 
GONAVE WOOD PEWEE 

Blacicus hispanwlensis tacitus Wetmoee, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 
41. December IS, 1928, p. 201 (Anse a Galets, Gonave Island, Haiti).— Lonn- 
berg, Fauna och Flora, 1929, p. 106 (Gonave). 

Blacicus hispaniolensis, Danfoeth, Auk, 1929, p. 370 (Gonave Island). 

Blacicus caribaeus hispaniolensis, Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 
vol. 80, 1928, p. 506 (part; Gonave). 



312 



BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



Gonave Island; resident. 

The present form was described from eight skins collected on 
Gonave Island by W. L. Abbott. Three of these, taken February 20 
and 25, 1918, are marked simply Gonave Island. Four more, includ- 
ing the type come from Anse a Galets, March 7, 9, and 13, 1920, and 
fitroites, March 17, 1920. Danforth collected three in 1927 and re- 
ports that one had eaten a moth, a wasp {G hatch inserta) and a small 
beetle. 

This form is closely similar to the bird from the main island from 
which it differs in paler coloration, being grayer above and lighter 
buffier below on the abdomen. The breast is gray without a wash 
of brown. This form is similar in dimensions to the birds of the 
main island comparative measurements in millimeters being as 
follows : 

Blacicus h. hispaniolensis 





Wing 


Tail 


Culmen from 
base 


Tarsus 


14 males 

8 females - 


68.8-76.9 (73.4) 
67.5-73.8 (71.1) 


60.0-71.3 (65.8) 
62.9-68.8 (65.9) 


14.1-16.0 (15.2) 
13.5-15.8 (14.6) 


14.1-15.8 (15.1) 
13.5-15.9 (14.8 


Blacicus h. tacitus 


4 males 

3 females 


73.4-77.9 (75.5) 69.0-72.7 (70.6) 
69.6-74.7 (72.6) 67.6-70.3 (69.1) 


14.8-16.9 (15.5) 14.5-15.9 (15.0) 
14.2-15.6 (14.8) 14.9-15.3 (15.1) 



So far as known tacitus is confined to Gonave Island where Bond 
reports it as common. 

ELAENIA ALBICAPILLA (Vieillot) 
HISPANIOLAN ELAENIA 

Muscicapa albicapilla Vieillot, Hist. Nat. Ois. Ain§r. Sept., vol. 1, 1807, 
p. 66, pi. 37 (" Saint-Domingue "=Hispaniola). 

Tyrannula albicapilla, Hartlaub, Isis, 1847, p. 609 (listed). 

Elainea cherriei Coey, Auk, 1895, p. 279 (" Calare "=Catarrey, Dominican 
Republic). 

Elainia cherriei, Cherrie, Field Columbian Mus., Ornith. ser., vol. 1, 1896, 
p. 17 (Catarrey, Aguacate). 

Elaina cherriei, Vebrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 361 
(Miranda, specimen). 

Elaenia cherriei, Lonnberg, Fauna och Flora, 1929, p. 105 (Haiti). 

Elaenia fallax cherriei, Hellmayr, Cat. Birds Arner., Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 
Zool. ser., vol. 13, pt. 5, April 11, 1927, p. 429 (Catarrey, Aguacate). — Bond, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 507 (La Selle, Morne 
Basile).— Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, p. 320 (Monte 
Viejo, specimen). 

Resident in the higher hills of the interior. 

To see the little flycatcher known as the elaenia it is necessary to 
leave the heat of the lowlands and to climb by winding trails — often 



THE BIEDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 313 

over slopes so steep as to be almost precipitous — until one reaches the 
great pine forests of the interior mountains. In these cool altitudes 
above the rustle of wind in the pine needles one may hear a low 
chattering call from a little olive gray bird with a tinge of yellow on 
the under surface that may be hopping about among the branches 
or may be resting quietly on the lookout for insects. This is the 
elaenia, one of the interesting native birds, whose intimate acquaint- 
ance has come to few naturalists. Though partial to the extensive 
stretches of pines that cover broad areas of the poorer soil in the 
hills, the elaenia is somewhat remarkable for its catholic taste in 
habitat, as though often found in the tops of the highest trees where 
its tiny form is barely visible, it may come also within the borders of 
the dense rain-forests, or may be seen in thickets of guava or other 
low growth in more open country. Its call is a somewhat explosive 
swee-o, given rather abruptly, followed at times by twittering notes, 
or a mellow pleasantly modulated trill that is truly a song. In early 
morning when the sun shines through the chill of the mountain air 
the elaenia is most in evidence as then it comes freely into the open 
and rests in the warming rays. Once known, in spite of its unobtru- 
sive coloration it is a species never to be forgotten. 

To the present time the elaenia has been seen by few naturalists. 
It was first described in 1807 by Vieillot, who called it the " mou- 
cherolle a huppe blanche " from the white markings in the elongated 
feathers of the crown. Though his description and plate apply 
certainly to the present species which he says he found in " Saint- 
Domingue " his observations have been overlooked, so that when 
Cherrie collected one at Catarrey, January 31, 1895, and two others 
at Aguacate on February 22 and 27 of the same year Cory immedi- 
ately described these as a new species Elaenia cherriei in honor of 
the collector, a name that the bird has borne in modern treatises but 
that must give way to Elaenia albicapilla, as Vieillot has long pri- 
ority in description. Cherrie noted little of his birds except that they 
were found in the interior hills, and little more was added by A. H. 
Verrill who in 1907 collected one specimen at Miranda. W. L. 
Abbott, the first to observe the birds in numbers, found them one of 
the commonest birds in the upland pine forests in the Dominican 
Republic. His first specimen was taken near El Rio on October 8, 

1916. On a subsequent journey in 1919 he encountered them in 
numbers and collected a series at Constanza from April 9 to 13, 
shot one at Hondo May 4, and two more near El Rio May 16 and 18. 
Beck secured a series on Loma Tina from January 3 to February 2, 
one at La Cafiita February 22, one on Loma Ultimate Civil Feb- 
ruary 1, and a series on Loma Rucilla February 24 to March 16, 

1917. An immature bird in juvenal plumage taken by Abbott at 
El Rio October 8 resembles the adult in general but the olive of the 



314 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

back is more grayish, the lower parts are not as yellowish, and the 
concealed white crown stripe is lacking. The feathers of the pileum 
are deep olive changing to deep gull gray basally with a light shaft 
streak. Over each eye are a few feathers of the adult plumage com- 
ing in, the secondaries are edged distally on the external margin with 
deep olive buff, and the abdomen is lighter than in the adult bird. 

In 1927 on May 17 and 18 Wetmore found the elaenia along the 
trail leading up from the Rio Jimenoa beyond Jarabacoa to El Rio 
and Constanza and recorded it again in retracing this journey on 
May 30. From May 19 to 27 the birds were common about Con- 
stanza and several were taken. Birds collected at this time were 
in breeding condition. Abbott in 1919 noted that specimens taken 
in mid April were not yet mating. At times they were found in the 
tops of the tallest pines and again were seen hopping about low down 
among the guava bushes. Ciferri secured one on Monte Viejo at 
1,200 to 1,500 meters elevation in May, 1929. 

The first specimen definitely recorded from Haiti is a male shot 
by Abbott near Furcy on June 13, 1920. In 1927 Wetmore found 
them common on La Selle, directly opposite Furcy, from April 9 to 
15, taking one on the first date mentioned at an elevation of 1,500 
meters below Morne Cabaio. Among the pines on the summit of 
the ridge the birds were common and were encountered daily. Here 
they were found mainly in the pine forests, and were seldom seen in 
the rain-forest. On one cool morning following heavy rains on the 
previous evening two were seen hopping about among weeds and 
fallen branches only a few inches from the ground, seeking the 
warmth of the rising sun. Bond found them common on La Selle, 
and also observed them at 1,500 meters altitude on Morne Basile in 
the Montaignes Noires of northern Haiti, collecting one there on 
March 6, 1928. He secured another on Morne Malanga January 22 
of the same year. 

In an adult female taken by Wetmore at Constanza May 27, 
1927, the base of the mandible was pale brownish white, the re- 
mainder of the bill blackish, the iris Hay's brown and the tarsus 
and toes black. 

We do not agree with Hellma} 7 r that this species should be con- 
sidered a race of Elaenia fallax. 

The type specimen on which Cory based the name cherriei (Field 
Mus. Nat. Hist. no. 31844), a male collected by G. K. Cherrie at Cat- 
arrey, D. R., January 31, 1895 (orig. no. 4706), is a bird in fresh 
plumage, very yellow on the abdomen, with the breast strongly 
washed with olive brown. It has the following measurements ; wing 
71.2, tail 68.0, culmen from base 12.5, tarsus 20.0 mm. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 315 

Hellmayr in vol. 5 of his Catalogue of the Birds of the Americas, 
1927 (p. 429), gives " Gonave " as a locality for this flycatcher, 
which he informed Wetmore was based on two skins in the Tring 
Museum. Hartert writes (in a letter) that the two specimens in 
question were acquired in the Dalmas Collection and were collected 
by a Monsieur Guyon and not by Dalmas. They bear a little label on 
which is written on one side " Guyon, Oct. 1898 " and on the other 
" Gonave, St. Domingue." The locality is in Hellmayr's hand- writ- 
ing and is assumed to be based on verbal information received from 
Count Dalmas when Hellmayr was packing the collection for ship- 
ment to Tring. It seems certain that the locality is erroneously 
attributed to Gonave Island as there is no proper range for the 
elaenia on that island. 

The elaenia is even smaller than the wood pewee of Hispaniola 
as it only measures from 145 to 160 mm. long. It has a long tail and 
is slender in form but is easily told from the wood pewee by its 
smaller, narrower bill and different coloration. Above it is greenish 
olive gray with the wings and tail dull black, the former with two 
whitish wing bars and whitish margins on the inner feathers, and the 
latter edged with greenish. Below it is light grayish on the breast 
and yellowish on the abdomen. When in the hand there may be 
noted a concealed spot of white at the bases of the feathers of the 
crown. 

Suborder OSCINES 

Family HIRUNDINIDAE 

LAMPROCHELIDON SCLATERI (Cory) 
SCLATER'S SWALLOW, G0L0NDRINA, HIRONDELLE 

Hirundo sclateri Cory, Auk. 1884. p. 2 ("Santo Domingo "=La Vega, Do- 
minican Republic) : Birds Haiti and San Domingo, March, 1884, pp. 45-47, col. 
pi. (La Vega, specimens) : Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 115 (Dominican 
Republic).— Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 321 (listed).— Christy, Ibis, 
1897, p. 322 (La Vega ) .— Verriix, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, 
p. 364 (La Vega). 

Hirundo euchrysea (var. dominieensis?) Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. 
Hist., vol. 11, May, 1867, p. 95 (described as new from Port-au-Prince). 

Tachycineta sclateri, Cory, Auk, 1886, p. 58; Birds West Indies, 1889, p. 72 
(description, range). 

LamprochcUdon sclateri, Ridgway, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 50, pt. 3, 1904, pp. 
102-103 (Island of Haiti ) .—Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 
1928, p. 507 (La Selle, La Hotte).— Lonnberg, Fauna och Flora, 1929, p. 105 
(Haiti).— Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, p. 320 (Bonao, 
specimens). 

Kesident in the hills of the interior ; local in occurrence. 
This handsome swallow is found among the interior hills and is 
greeted with delight wherever seen from its graceful actions and 



316 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

pleasing coloration. As one climbs over steep slopes in the moun- 
tains among dead trunks of pine a long-tailed swallow may come 
circling through the air to display in passing a white breast and 
glossy back. In its active evolutions it is certain to attract the eye 
and the traveler is sure to pause to observe its course as it circles 
quickly away. In choice of haunts and general habits it is suggestive 
of the violet-green swallow of North America. 

In the Dominican Republic, Cory encountered Sclater's swallow 
near La Vega, and in July and August, 1883 prepared a series of 
specimens of which there are still twenty-three in the Field Museum 
collections including the type of the species. Four others secured 
at this time are in the United States National Museum. The type 
of sclateri (Field Mus. Nat. Hist. no. 10,874) is a male taken August 
2, 1883, a bird in slightly worn plumage. It has the following 
measurements : wing 113.0, tail 53.0, culmen from base 6.0, tarsus 10.0 
mm. Christy in 1895 also found this swallow near La Vega, and 
Verrill in 1907 reports it abundant there along the Rio Camu. 
Abbott on October 13 and 14, 1916 collected three near Jarabacoa 
at 550 meters altitude, the lowest altitude at which he recorded it. 
Near El Rio he took others October 4 and 7, 1916, and May 17, 1919, 
and at Constanza shot specimens September 27, 1916, and April 21, 
1919. He reported that they were nesting in May. Beck secured 
specimens on Loma Rucilla February 27 and March 5, on Loma Tina 
January 10 and 24, and on Pico del Yaque February 24, 1917. 

In 1927 Wetmore recorded these swallows at El Rio May 18, and 
at Constanza May 18 and 27. On May 30 they were seen regularly 
from El Rio to Paso Bajito on the trail to El Barrero but were not 
observed beyond this point. Near Constanza occasional birds came 
flying over the streets of the town, particularly during storms when 
the air above the village was clear while heavy fogs concealed the 
surrounding hills. The birds were regularly at home about knolls 
where standing trunks of dead trees afforded them nesting cavities. 
About such places they circled tirelessly, swinging gracefully out 
among the pines or over the dense stands of rain-forest, but returning 
always to more open localities. Birds that were assumed to be males 
uttered a pleasing song on the wing, a simple repetition of two notes 
given without much variation in tone. Ciferri collected skins at 
Puente Yuna near Bonao January 5 and 7, 1928. 

From the fact that Cory, Christy, and Verrill found these swal- 
lows abundant near La Vega in late summer while Wetmore did 
not observe them there in May it seems probable that they nest in 
the higher hills and come down into the lowlands when their young 
are on the wing. This supposition is borne out further by the fact 
that Cory collected immature birds near La Vega in late July, 1883. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 317 

(Specimen in United States National Museum taken July 28.) 
Peters did not report this swallow from the north coast. 

The first specimen known from Haiti is one taken by A. E. 
Younglove on June 7, 1886, which according to the collector was 
secured in the " mountains " near Port-au-Prince. This bird, an 
adult in full plumage, is the type of Hirundo euchrysea (var. clonn- 
inicensis) of Bryant, a name antedated by an earlier Hb^undo dom- 
inicensis of Gmelin so that the species is known from Cory's later 
description as sclateri. 

Cory does not mention seeing the species in Haiti and the next 
records known to us for that republic are a female shot on the slopes 
of La Selle above Fonds Verettes by Abbott May 1, and a male taken 
on Morne Tranchant near Furcy May 29, 1920. 

On April 8, 1927, as Wetmore came to Kenskoff on the trail from 
Petionville a swallow came swiftly past to be recognized as the 
present species, which proved to be common over the slopes three 
miles to the eastward. At his camp on the Riviere Jaquisy on the 
following morning numbers were seen and one was taken, while on 
La Selle from April 10 to 15 they were observed regularly and 
and several were collected. The open pinelands seemed especially 
suited to them while they ranged also over the open summits of 
Morne Cabaio and Morne La Visite and through the clearings 
and bush grown pastures of the Jardins Bois Pin. Always pleasing 
in appearance their soft calls added to their attractiveness. At 
this season they were mating and were busily examing old 
woodpecker holes and other cavities in dead trees in which they 
evidently nested. Often they were found resting on the limbs of the 
dead trunks containing their nesting sites. Several were observed 
on April 17 in crossing the slopes of the 'deep valley on the trail 
from Chapelle Faure in Nouvelle Touraine to Kenskoif. On April 
24 two probably a pair were found at the Bassin Zime in the edge 
of the hills beyond Hinche, which suggests that they breed through 
the extensive tracts of open pine forests that cover the higher slopes 
beyond. The calls of this species are closely similar to those of the 
tree swallow of North America to which, as well as to the violet- 
green swallow, it is closely allied. Bond found them common on 
La Selle and La Hotte and notes a nest found June 5, 1928, in an 
old woodpecker hole in a dead pine 15 meters from the ground. He 
collected one on Morne Tranchant, 

This swallow is of medium size, metallic green above, and pure 
white below, with the sides of the head dull black, this color infring- 
ing on the sides of the throat. The tail is fairly long and is notched 
at the end. The young in first plumage are duller above with a 
band of gray across the breast. 
2134—31 21 



318 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

RIPARIA RIPARIA RIP ARIA (Linnaeus) 

BANK SWALLOW, GOLONDRINA 

Hirundo riparia Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1, 1758, p. 192 (Sweden). — 
Ritter, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, p. 156 (Haiti; specimen). 

Migrant from North America ; apparently very rare. 

The only record of the bank swallow at present is that of Ritter 
who says that he secured a specimen in Haiti during his travels there 
in 1820 and 1821. The species is recorded as a migrant in Porto 
Rico, Cuba, and Jamaica so its occurrence in Hispaniola is to be 
expected. 

The bank swallow is small in size, brown above, and white below, 
with a brown band across the breast. It will be confused with no 
other species of the region as the dark band across the light breast 
distinguishes it from all except the young of Sclater's swallow, 
which is larger and much darker, with a metallic gloss above. 

HIRUNDO ERYTHROGASTER Boddaert 
BARN SWALLOW, GOLONDRINA, HIRONDELLE 

Hirundo erythrogaster Boddaert, Tabl. Planch. Enl., 1783, p. 45 (Cay- 
enne).— Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 141; Beneath Tropic Seas, 1928, 
p. 223 (Bizoton). 

Hirundo erythrogastra, Bartsch, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 30, July 
27, 1917, p. 132 (listed).— Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, 
p. 320 (San Juan, specimens). 

Hirundo rustica erythrogastra, Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 
vol. 80, 1928, p. 507 (Fort Liberty ). 

Migrant from North America ; fairly common on the coastal plain. 

The only records for the Dominican Republic at present are those 
of Ciferri, who collected specimens for Moltoni at San Juan Sep- 
tember 18, 1928, and September 7, 1929, and Abbott who found these 
swallows numerous at Catalinita Island from September 10 to 12, 
1919, and says that he saw them flying southward over the ocean 
toward South America. He observed that they were common at 
Saona Island from September 12 to 18 of the same year. 

In Haiti in 1917 Bartsch found the barn swallow at Petit Goave, 
April 8 and 9, near Trou des Roseaux, April 14, and about Jeremie, 
April 15 and 16. Abbott shot two females at Baie des Moustiques, 
May 5, 1917, and Beebe notes that three flew about his schooner 
anchored off the Bizoton wharves on February 20, 1927. On April 1, 
1927, Wetmore recorded a dozen circling with native cliff swallows 
over marshy meadows at the Etang Miragoane, and on April 19 saw 
two at Bizoton. Bond saw several at Fort Liberte April 30, 1928. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 319 

The barn swallow, of medium size, is easily told from all others 
that occur on the island by the long, very deeply forked tail which is 
often expanded while the bird is in flight. The species is dark 
metallic blue above, with forehead and throat chestnut, and the 
remainder of the underparts deep buff. 

PETROCHELIDON FULVA FULVA (Vieillot) 

HISPANIOLAN CLIFF SWALLOW, GOLONDRINA, HIRONDELLE FAUVE, 

HIRONDELLE 

Hirundo fulva Vieillot, Hist. Nat. Ois. Amer. Sept., vol. 1, 1807, p. 62, 
pi. 32 (Hisponiola). 

? Swallow, Ekman, Ark. for Bot., vol. 22A, No. 16, 1929, p. 7 (Navassa). 

Petrochelidon fulva, Cory, Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, 1881, p. 152 (Gonaives, 
specimen) ; Birds Haiti and San Domingo, March, 1884, pp. 47-^S, col. pi. 
(Gonaives, Rivas, specimens) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 115 (Haiti, 
Dominican Republic). — Tippen halter, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 321 (listed). — 
Cherrie, Field Columbian Mus., Ornith. ser., vol. 1, 1S96, pp. 12-13 (Santo 
Domingo City, breeding). — Verrlll, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, 
p. 364 (Dominican Republic ) .— Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 141; 
Beneath Tropic Seas, 192S, p. 223 (Furcy). — Lonnbebg, Fauna och Flora, 
1929, pp. 105-106 (Haiti). 

Petrochelidon fulva fulva, Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, p. 
418 (Monte Cristi, Rio San Juan, specimens). — Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 507 (Haiti, Gonave, Tortue). — Danforth, Auk, 
1929, p. 371 (Santo Domingo City, Citadelle, Gonave Island). — Moltoni, Att. 
Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, p. 320 (San Juan, specimens). 

Resident; locally distributed; not found regularly at high alti- 
tudes. 

The native cliff swallow nests in caverns, usually about water, 
from which it follows naturally that it is found in regions where 
limestone is exposed near the sea or along inland streams. Outside 
the nesting season the species wanders to some extent but even then 
is not commonly distributed. It is most abundant along the sea 
where rocky headlands project near the water. 

The earliest record for the Dominican Republic appears to be 
that of Cory who reports a specimen from Rivas August 21, 1883. 
He says that he took another but does not state the locality, merely 
remarking that only a few flocks were seen. In 1895 Cherrie found 
these swallows nesting at Santo Domingo City April 24. when the 
breeding season appeared to be at its height. Verrill recorded the 
cliff swallow but gives no localities. Peters secured skins at Monte 
Cristi and the Rio San Juan, saying that during February, 1916, 
they were common along the Rio Yaqui del Norte near Monte Cristi, 
and abundant over the saline flats between the town and the landing. 
Abbott secured one at Rojo Cabo on the Samana Peninsula August 
26, 1916, and two at San Lorenzo on Samana Bay March 19, 1919. 



320 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

At the latter locality lie found them breeding in crevices and clefts 
in the limestone rocks in the little islets that line the shore in this 
area. They nested at times in company with the martin. Many of 
their eggs were destroyed by grackles. Wetmore in 1927 observed 
a few cliff swallows flying over the houses of Santo Domingo City 
on May 3, and on Samana Bay recorded them May 8 about the rocky 
islands opposite the mouth of the Arroyo Barrancota. On May 11 
he observed them in numbers along the limestone cliffs, islets, and 
headlands from San Lorenzo west along the southern coast of Samana 
Bay. On May 16, 30, and 31, and June 1 they were seen about 
La Vega. Danforth in 1927 found them nesting on a ledge over- 
hanging the sea at Santo Domingo City, and reports that they had 
young the first week in July. Ciferri collected specimens at Sabana 
San Thome, near San Juan, July 25, 1929. 

Following are observations that pertain to Haiti. Vieillot, who 
termed this species hirondelle fauve and gave it the scientific name 
of fulva, says that he observed it once in the middle of May and 
collected one when a number flew into the open windows of a house 
and when driven out returned immediately. Cory in 1881 collected 
one at Gonai'ves on February 10, and says that he observed several 
flocks flying about houses but these disappeared the following day 
and none were found subsequently. Bartsch in 1917 recorded them 
about Jeremie from April 10 to 16, collecting one April 14, at Trou 
des Roseaux April 13 and 14, and in the general vicinity of Port-au- 
Prince April 21, 22, and 24. Abbott secured a series of skins at 
Cap-Haitien April 25 and 27, and one at Baie des Moustiques May 
7, 1917. On July 7 he found them nesting on Tortue Island. Beebe 
records them on one occasion about the Gendarmerie station at 
Furcy which seems to be the highest altitude at which the species 
has been reported. The hills in that vicinity are generally bare 
and open so that there these swallows might easily come up from 
lower elevations. In 1927 Wetmore saw a few cliff swallows at 
Fonds-des-Negres March 31, and found them common April 1 over 
the marshy meadows along the north side of the fitang Miragoane. 
At the Bassin Zime, in the hills beyond Hinche, on April 24 he found 
a considerable colony nesting in a cave back among the shadows near 
the entrance. An adult male was taken. At Cap-Haitien on April 
26 a flock of these swallows in much excitement busily gathered mud 
for their nests at the border of the sea, carrying it to the girders 
supporting a newly installed iron bridge across a tidal stream, a 
rapid accommodation to a change in their environment. Bond found 
them breeding in Christophe's Citadelle and also near Fort Liberte. 
He found them common on Tortue and Gonave. Poole and Perrygo 



THE BIEDS OP HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN" REPUBLIC 321 

collected several at St. Raphael January 10 and 13, 1929. There is a 
skin in the Academy of Natural Sciences taken at Anse a Galets, 
Gonave Island July 20, 1927, by J. T. Emlen, jr. As indicated above, 
the cliff swallow nests ordinarily in caves and in clefts and crevices 
in cliffs. Related swallows elsewhere, with human settlement, have 
changed their primitive habits and now nest regularly about build- 
ings and other structures erected by man. It is possible that Vieil- 
lot's birds that at the close of the eighteenth century flew into 
the windows of his house were in search of nesting sites, and it is 
probable that with coming modern developments this cliff swallow 
may change its nesting habits decidedly as is already the case 
with those found about the bridge at Cap-Haitien. Cherrie in 
1895 describes the lining of nests of this bird as a soft, cottony 
material from the seed pods of a native tree, which may be the 
same as the soft brownish white fiber that Abbott found in nests 
collected along the south side of Samana Bay, west of San Lorenzo 
in April, 1921, which E. C. Leonard informs us appears to be from 
the fruit of a bombax {Pachira emarginata A. Rich.) These nests 
found by Abbott were built of mud placed in sheltered crannies, 
some only two or three feet above high water. He collected six 
sets, three of two eggs, and three containing three. The eggs are 
elongate oval, in color white, spotted rather boldly with mikado 
brown, warm sepia, and gray, the markings distributed over the en- 
tire surface with usually a greater concentration about the larger 
end to form a wreath that is more or less distinct according to the 
specimen. A few have the spots very fine and small. One egg 
examined has the ground color cartridge buff. Following are meas- 
urements in millimeters of those specimens that are entire : April 
9, 1921, set of two, 19.6 by 13.5, 20.0 by 13.4; set of three, 18.5 by 
14.2, 18.6 by 14.1, 19.7 by 14.2; April 12, 1921, set of two, 18.7 by 
14.5, 19.5 by 14.3; set of two, 19.9 by 14.4, 19.9 by 14.5 and set of 
three, 19.2 by 14.3, 20.1 by 13.8, 20.2 by 14.2. On Tortue Island 
July 6, 1917, Abbott found many of these swallows nesting in a cave 
about half a mile inland from the coast and collected a set of two 
eggs, in form very long and pointed which measure as follows; 
21.4 by 13.8 and 21.4 by 13.8 mm. In the cave above the Bassin 
Zime beyond Hinche on April 24, 1927, Wetmore found a consider- 
able colony of these birds nesting in the darker shadows near the 
entrance. Their nests were constructed from dried pellets of mud 
built against the rock to form a cup that in some cases was en- 
closed above with a small entrance in the side. Other birds built 
up a mere ledge of earth with a bit of nesting material behind it. 
One pair had utilized a natural cavity of the proper size, filling in 



322 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

the front except for the entrance hole. Most of the nests were 
out of reach but half a dozen to which he could climb were only 
partly completed. Another contained three heavily incubated eggs. 
While some of the nests were only six feet from the floor of the 
cave others were located in the ceiling sixty feet above. All were 
placed where they were obscured by shadows so that they were not 
easily seen. This species must be subject to heavy depredation 
from the barn owl which also inhabits caves. 

Danforth in 1927 found large numbers nesting in the ruins of 
the Citadelle of Christophe on August 2 and 3. From July 18 to 20 
he observed many flying over mangrove swamps on Gonave Island. 

Ekman records numbers of swallows on Navassa Island, in 
October, 1928, that may have included the present species. 

As there are few measurements available in literature of the 
typical Petrochelidon fulva fulva from Hispaniola, the type 
locality, the following (taken in millimeters) from our series will be 
of interest : 

Eight males, wing 97.1-103.0 (99.5), tail 37.0-44.2 (41.6), culmen 
from base 7.4-8.3 (7.9), tarsus 11.3-14.7 (12.5). 

Two females, wing 99.7-101.2 (100.5), tail 41.5-45.3 (43.4), culmen 
from base 7.4-8.3 (7.9), tarsus 11.3-14.7 (12.5). 

These birds average slightly smaller than the size given by Eidg- 
way 21 in specimens from Cuba, and differ from the Cuban birds 
otherwise mainly in lesser extent of the chestnut area of the rump. 
The latter appears to be the principal character separating Petro- 
chelidon f. cavicola 22 of Cuba as a race apart from fulva. The 
series of eleven adults from Hispaniola shows considerable variation 
in depth of brown below, running from light to dark in different 
individuals, with the white varying also in extent, so that the char- 
acter pointed out by the describers of cavicola of greater extension of 
brown below with the brown richer in color does not hold as this 
is noted in various individuals in our series from Hispaniola. The 
greater extent of the brown rump in Cuban birds is however easily 
seen. 

The cliff swallow of Hispaniola is of medium size, from 120 to 130 
mm. long, with short tail only slightly notched at the tip. The 
back and crown are dark, steely blue with a metallic reflection, 
while the rump, a band across the hind neck, and the forehead are 
chestnut. Below the bird is white on the abdomen, and elsewhere 
is light brown. 

21 U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 50, pt. 3, 1904, p. 53. 

22 Petrochelidon fulva cavicola Barbour and Brooks, Proc. New England Zool. Club, 
vol. 6, Jan. 13, 1917, p. 52. (Preston, Nipe Bay, Province of Oriente, Cuba.) 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 323 

PROGNE DOMINICENSIS (Gmelin) 

CARIBBEAN MARTIN, GOLONDRINA, HIRONDELLE, HIRONDELLE A VENTRE 

BLANC 

Hirundo dominicensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., vol. 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 1025 ("in 
insula S. Dorainici "=Hispaniola). — Bbisson, Ornith., vol. 2, 1760, pp. 493-494 
(" S. Domingue"). — Vieillot, Hist. Nat. Ois. Am6r. Sept., vol. 1, 1807, pp. 59-60, 
pi. 28 (" S. Domingue"). — Rittek, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, 
p. 156 (listed). — Hartlaub, Isis, 1847, p. 609 (listed). — Bryant, Proc. Boston 
Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 1867, p. 94 (Dominican Republic). 

Golondrina, Oveedo, Hist. Gen. Nat. Indias, Libr. 14, cap. 2; Reprint, Madrid, 
1851, p. 442 (habits). 

Grande Martinet noir & ventre Wane, Montbetllard, in Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois. 
vol. 6, 1779, pp. 669-670 (" Saint-Domingue "). 

Progne dominicensis, Salle, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1S57, p. 232 (listed). — 
Cory, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, March, 1884, pp. 44-45, col. pi. (Samanii, 
specimens) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 114 (Haiti, Dominican Repub- 
lic).— Tristram, Cat. Coll. Birds belonging H. B. Tristram, 1889, p. 205 
(Samana, specimen). — Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, pp. 320, 321 
(listed). — Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 364 (Dominican 
Republic) .—Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, pp. 418-419 (Sosua, 
Rio San Juan, specimens; Monte Cristi, Puerto Plata, Abreo, seen). — Beebe, 
Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 141 ; Beneath Tropic Seas, 1928, p. 507 (listed).— 
Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 507 (Lake Enri- 
quillo). — Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 371 (generally distributed). — Lonnberg, 
Fauna och Flora, 1929, p. 105 (Haiti). — Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., 
vol. 68, 1929, p. 320 (Moca, specimens). 

Breeding locally throughout the island; supposed to migrate in 
fall to some distant winter home. 

The Caribbean martin is the largest of the native swallows and is 
found regularly in the towns so that it is easily seen. It is supposed 
to come to the island for the breeding season and then to migrate 
elsewhere for its winter home, as it does in Porto Rico, but the dates 
of its arrival and departure in Hispaniola are yet to be ascertained. 

The earliest record historically for the Dominican Republic is that 
of Oviedo who describes a swallow that is evidently this species — 
as he notes that it is larger than the swallows of Spain — which he says 
in his day had already begun to build in the great church and the 
Dominican monastery in Santo Domingo City, truly a rapid adapta- 
tion to the coming of the Caucasian. Cory secured five specimens at 
Samana June 25, 1882, and says that he saw it elsewhere but does not 
give the localities. Tristram received a skin from Samana taken by 
C. G. McGrigor September 12, 1883, the latest record for fall avail- 
able at this time. Abbott found the martin nesting in clefts of rock 
on islets near the entrance to San Lorenzo Bay but was not able to 
reach the cavities to obtain eggs. He secured five skins there on 
March 18 and 20, 1919. Peters collected males at Sosiia and the Rio 



324 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

San Juan, and saw others at Monte Cristi February 22 and about 
the fort at Puerto Plata February 26, 1916. He noted them also at 
Abreo. 

In 1927 Wetmore saw four martins near the mouth of the Yuna 
opposite Sanchez May 10, and shot one that was flying about a wood- 
pecker hole in the trunk of a palm. The birds came in flight to drink 
from the river and for a time alighted on a sandbar. On May 11 
several were seen about the rocky islands at the entrance of San 
Lorenzo Bay. At La Vega the birds were fairly common in town 
being seen May 16 and 30 and June 1. They were found near the 
crossing of the Rio Jimenoa at Jarabacoa May 17 and 30, and at 
El Rio in the mountains May 18. Near Constanza from May 19 to 
27 they were observed among dead pines on low ridges bordering the 
valley, or flying high above the forests. Danforth in 1927 observed 
the martin at Higuey, Santo Domingo City, Monte Cristi, Laguna 
del Salodillo, and Comendador. Bond observed many flying over the 
marshes of Lake Enriquillo. Ciferri obtained skins at Moca August 
20, 1928, and August 11, 1929. 

The martin is fairly common in Haiti and has a long history there. 
De Reaumur received a specimen from Chervain which may have 
come from the western republic, though this is not certain, that was 
described by Brisson. Vieillot remarked in 1807 that the martin was 
found only from April to October so that its migratory habit has 
long been recognized. It is listed by Ritter in 1836, and by Tippen- 
hauer in 1893. Bartsch in 1917 recorded a colony nesting in hollows 
in a tree near Trou Caiman April 4, and saw martins also near 
Jeremie April 15 and 16, and over the Cul-de-Sac Plain near Port- 
au-Prince April 24. Abbott recorded them on the southern peninsula 
of Haiti only at Petit Trou cles Nippes. He collected one female on 
May 14, 1920, at Manneville on the Etang Saumatre. In 1947 he 
secured several at Port-de-Paix February 12, at Moustique, at eleva- 
tions of 750 to 900 meters, March 5 and 12, and at Jean Rabel Anchor- 
age May 30. He found a large colony in Cap-Hai'tien and says that 
in towns they nest in holes in the ends of houses where the decay of 
the end of a rafter has left a cavity or in similar openings. He 
found them common also in cliffs along the sea at Port a l'Ecu and 
Cotes de Fer, in company with the cliff swallow. Wetmore found 
them in Haiti April 9, 1927, at 1500 meters altitude on the north 
slopes of Morne Cabaio, and April 17 on Morne St. Vincent, near 
Furcy. The call of this species is high in pitch and though cheerful 
is not so full and rolling as that of the purple martin of North 
America. Danforth in 1927 found them at Grand Goave, Aquin, 
Les Cayes and Cap-Haitien. Perrygo recorded them at Fort Liberte 
February 7, 1929. The specimens obtained from Hispaniola do not 
differ from skins examined from Porto Rico. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 325 

Following are measurements from our series from the former 
island (Hispaniola) : 

Ten males, wing 139.6-146.4 (142.5) ; tail 69.1-77.3 (72.9) ; culmen 
from base 11.6-12.8 (12.0 23 ), tarsus 14.3-15.6 (14.9) mm. 

Four .females, wing 138.3-144.4 (140.9), tail 68.7-72.5 (71.1), 
culmen from base 11.7-12.7 (12.3 2i ), tarsus 13.8-14.9 (14.3) mm. 

The male Caribbean martin is dark, steely blue throughout, except 
for the white abdomen and under tail coverts. Females are duller 
above, and have the dark colors of the underparts deep gray. 

Family CORVIDAE 
Subfamily Corvinae 

CORVUS LEUCOGNAPHALUS Daudin 
WHITE-NECKED CROW, CUERVO, CORNEIILE 

Corvus leucognaphalus Daudin, Traite d'Orn., vol. 2, 1800, p. 231 (Porto 
Rico). — Salle, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, p. 232 (Dominican Republic). — 
Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 1S67, p. 94 (Dominican 
Republic).— Cory, Bull. Nuttall Ornitb. Club, 1881, p. 153 (Gantier, specimens) ; 
Birds Haiti and San Domingo, July, 1884, pp. 74-75 (Gantier, Rivas) ; Cat. 
West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 109 (Dominican Republic)- — Tippenhatjee, Die 
Insel Haiti, 1892, pp. 319, 321 (listed).— Cherrie, Field Columbian Mus., 
Ornitb, ser., vol. 1, 1896, p. 17 (Dominican Republic, common). — Christy, Ibis, 
1897, p. 327 (Rio Yuna ) .— Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 61, 
3909, p. 361 (San Lorenzo). — Meinertzhagen, Nov. Zool. vol. 33, 1926, p. 94 
(description, discussion). — Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 371 (Bonao, La Vega). — 
Lonnberg, Fauna ocb Flora, 1929, p. 110 (Haiti). — Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. 
Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, p. 321 (San Juan, specimen). 

Corvus erythrophthalmus Wurttemberg, Erst. Reis. nordl. Amer., 1835, p. 
68 ( described as new from " Nahe des Cibao-gebirges im ehemaligen Spani- 
schen St. Domingo"). — Hartiaitb, Isis, 1847, p. 609 (Hispaniola) ; Naumannia, 
1852, pp. 54-55 (common). 

Corvus leucognaphalus erythrophthalmus, Ridgway, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 
50, pt. 3, 1904, p. 279 (description, range). — Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool.. 
vol. 61, 1917, p. 416 (Rio San Juan, specimen; Monte Cristi, seen). — Beebe, 
Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 140; Beneath Tropic Seas, 1928, p. 222 (Haiti). 

Corvus dominicensis Cory, Auk, 1886, p. 228. (Proposed as new from the 
Dominican Republic.) 

Resident; locally common. 

We have termed this bird the white-necked crow because though 
in life it appears wholly black when in the hand it is found that the 
feathers of the hind neck at the base are pure white, this color being 
entirely concealed by the black overlying feather tips. The present 
species is distinctly larger than the other crow of the island and 
utters higher pitched notes that are rather like those of the ravens 

23 Average of nine individuals. 

24 Average of three individuals. 



326 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

of the north. It also flies frequently high in the air for long dis- 
tances, and appears in life to have a longer wing, and a more 
graceful, sweeping wing stroke. As both species of crow are black, 
familiarity with them is required to make entirely certain of their 
identity. 

In the Dominican Republic the white-necked crow is first definitely 
noted by Wurttemberg who wrote in 1835 that he had found it in 
the Cibao range, where according to a later report by Hartlaub he 
encountered it in noisy flocks of hundreds that came fearlessly about 
houses. Salle recorded it in heavy forest, and Cory collected five 
at Rivas in August, 1883. One of these taken August 21, and an- 
other, shot September 10 at Samana, are in the United States Nation- 
al Museum collections. Cherrie says that these crows band together 
in immense flocks that follow the ripening of fruits on which they 
feed. Christy observed them in the larger forests of the Yuna 
swamps, and Verrill reports immense flocks at San Lorenzo where 
the birds flew regularly morning and evening between their roosts 
in the mountains and their feeding grounds in the swamps, always 
passing at a great elevation. On the north coast Peters in 1916 
found this crow very local, observing a few in the cactus forests near 
Monte Cristi, and in the extensive mangrove swamps at the mouth 
of the Rio San Juan where he collected one female. Abbott found 
them very common at the mouth of the Rio Yuna and along the 
southern shores of Samana Bay, particularly at San Lorenzo. The 
older inhabitants at Samana and Sanchez said that these crows had 
been common on the Samana Peninsula years ago but in modern 
times had become more rare. Abbott however collected two at Port 
Rincon, August 16, 1919. Others were taken near Sanchez February 
7, and at San Lorenzo March 18 and 19 of the same year. He shot 
one on Saona Island September 12, 1919. In 1927 Wetmore found 
a few at Comendador April 30, and near Constanza May 24. Dan- 
forth in the same year observed them at Bonao, and in the pine woods 
above La Vega; Ciferri collected one at San Juan October 1, 1928. 

Though this crow is common in Haiti there are few published 
records for it. Cory found it at Gantier in 1881, Tippenhauer 
mentions it, and Beebe saw it in 1927. Wetmore found one in the 
mangroves at Sources Puantes March 29, noting the white of the 
hind neck as the bird turned its head. On the summit of La Selle 
the birds were common and seemed to congregate at night in a roost 
somewhere to the eastward of the Riviere Chotard. On several 
occasions a number came flying in early morning from that direction, 
on one occasion thirty being seen in company. They traveled in 
direct lines, usually high in air calling loudly, at times pausing to 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 327 

circle in the warm rays of the sun. Others were seen at Las Cahobes 
April 20, and at Hinche April 20 to 23. A few were seen as far as 
St. Michel on April 21. An adult male taken April 22 had the iris 
deep brownish orange, and the bill, tarsi and toes black. On April 
24 a pair was said to have a nest in the top of a palm where it could 
not be reached. 

In 1927 Danforth saw them between Port-au-Prince and St. Marc, 
and on July 15 recorded one on Gonave Island. At Las Cahobes 
he took two females, one with the iris red and one with it yellow. 
Bond found them common in the pine forests of northeastern 
Haiti, and in smaller numbers about Hinche, St. Michel, and Ennery. 
A few were seen in Port-au-Prince. He records a nest in the crotch 
of a pine near Bois Laurence May 2, 1928. Poole and Perrygo 
obtained specimens at Dondon January 18 and Cerca-la-Source 
March 22, 1929. This crow, a fruit feeder, is considered a game-bird, 
and before the prohibition against firearms was hunted extensively, 
which with clearing of large areas of forests has probably brought 
about a reduction in numbers below its formerly reported abundance. 
The flesh is considered excellent eating. Natives in both republics 
interpret its gabbling calls as attempts at speech which are sometimes 
rendered in phrases not always polite in meaning. The country 
Haitian is firmly convinced that these crows converse in Spanish. 

Though the white-necked crow of Hispaniola has been recognized 
by Mr. Ridgway as a race distinct from that of Porto Rico under 
the sub-specific name of erythrophthalmus Wiirttemberg, it appears 
that the supposed differences were based on insufficient material in 
which the specimens did not have the sex properly marked. With 
the series of skins now available there is no apparent difference 
between birds of the two islands. Cory also tentatively separated 
the Hispaniolan bird under the name domi?iicensis. 

Following are pertinent measurements: 

Four males from Hispaniola, wing 298.8-317.0 (308.5), tail 192.0- 
200.0 (195.1), culmen from base 56.4-59.8 (58.4), tarsus 51.6-53.2 
(52.5) mm. 

Four females from Hispaniola, wing 285.0-292.0 (289.0), tail 178.0- 
186.2 (183.3), culmen from base 52.5-55.7 (53.9), tarsus 52.6-53.5 
(53.1) mm. 

Three males from Porto Rico, wing 300.0-312.0 (304.0), tail 192.5- 
202.5 (196.8), culmen from base 55.7-57.5 (56.9), tarsus 50.0-53.2 
(52.1) mm. 

Six females from Porto Rico, wing 288.0-298.0 (292.1), tail 177.0- 
193.5 (186.5), culmen from base 52.7-56.5 (54.5), tarsus 50.0-54.1 
(52.1) mm. 



328 BULLETIN" 15 5, UNTIED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

As has been said the white-necked crow is jet black except for 
the concealed bases of the feathers of the hindneck which are pure 
white. The larger size which distinguishes it from the palm crow 
is indicated in the measurements above. 

CORVUS PALMARUM PALMARUM Wiirttembergr 
PALM CROW, CAO 

Corvus palmarum WtiRTTEMBERG, Erst. Reis. nord. Amer., 1835, p. 68 (Cibao 
Mountains, Dominican Republic). — Hartlaub, Isis, 1847, p. 609 (listed). — 
Ridgway, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 50, pt. 3, 1904, p. 276 (description, range).— 
Bartsch, Smithsonian Misc. Colls., vol. 68, no. 12, 1918, fig. 44 (photo). — Dan- 
forth, Auk. 1929, p. 371 (habits, food). — Lonnberg, Fauna och Flora, 1929, p. 
110 (Haiti). 

? Corbeau, Montbeillard, in Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois., vol. 3, 1775, p. 37 (" St. 
Domingue "). 

? Corneille, Saint-Mery, Descrip. Part. Franc, lie Saint-Domingue, vol. 2, 
1798, p. 78 (Port-a-Piment). 

? Corvus caribaeus, Ritter, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, p. 155 
(Haiti). 

Corvus jamaicensis, Salle, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, pp. 232-233 (be- 
tween Ban! and Azua). — Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 
1867, p. 94 (listed). 

Corvus solitarius " Wurttemberg," Hartlaub, Naumannia, 1852, p. 55 
(new name for C. palmarum ; Mlrebalais " Escabobas " = ? Las Cahobes, " Loma 
San Juan."). — Cory, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, July, 1884, p. 75 (Gantier, 
specimens) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 110 (Haiti, Dominican Republic) ; 
Auk, 1S95, p. 279 (Dominican Republic). — Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, 
p. 321 (listed). — Cherrie, Field Columbian Mus., Ornith. ser., vol. 1, 1896, 
p. 17 (San Jose de Ocoa). — Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 61, 
1909, p. 361 (Dominican Republic). 

Corvus bracliyrhynchos palmarum, Meinertzhagen, Nov. Zool., vol. 33, 1926, 
p. 90 (description, discussion). 

Kesident, locally common. 

Smaller size and entirely black color without concealed white on 
the hind-neck mark this crow from the companion species found 
on the same island. The two are easily told when examined in skin 
form but in the field some experience is necessary to distinguish 
them. In flight the wing of the palm crow appears shorter, and 
flight is accomplished by a steadier flapping than in the other form. 
The call of the palm crow is also different being a harsher caw, less 
musical than that of the white-necked species, resembling more the 
notes of the North American crow. The two forms often inhabit 
the same areas and will repay study by someone with leisure to be- 
come thoroughly acquainted with them. They seem to have been 
confused by some travelers so that relatively few definite records 
for them are available. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 329 

In the Dominican Republic, where this species is known as cao, 
the palm crow was first recorded by the Herzog von Wiirttemberg 
who gave it its scientific name and says that he found it in the Cibao 
range without specifying a more definite locality. Salle says that 
he observed it in the arid sections between Bani and Azua. Cherrie 
found it at San Jose de Ocoa, which goes under the colloquial name 
of Maniel. Verrill lists it but does not give any locality. Abbott 
collected a female at Polo, in the Bahoruco Mountains March 6, 1922, 
and found it common near Constanza, where he collected skins Sep- 
tember 22 and October 2, 1916, and April 7 and 8, 1919. He notes 
that a pair taken April 7 had a newly finished nest ten meters from 
the ground in a pine tree. Others were building nests at this same 
time. At Lake Enriquillo from October 1 to 6, 1919, he found these 
birds common. In 1927 Wetmore found a few palm crows in the 
swamps at the mouth of the Arroyo Barrancota on Samana Bay 
May 8, and recorded them as fairly common in certain sections near 
Constanza May 24 to 27. They were found in little groups that in 
company fed on the ground or rested in the trees. They were often 
resentful of human intrusion and at times came to scold vigorously 
at unusual actions. On one occasion three came with raucous calls 
within fifteen feet of the observer jerking their drooping wings and 
elevated tails vigorously. The tongue does not show at all between 
the mandibles while the bird is calling, being concealed in its normal 
position between the mandibles on the floor of the mouth. Dan- 
forth in the summer of 1927 found this crow common in June in 
the brushy region between Monte Cristi and Navarrete. They were 
molting at this time. They were also common in the rolling coun- 
try about Las Matas. In three stomachs he found lizards, snails, 
Coleoptera (including Prepodes and Calosoma) caterpillars, a 
cicada, other Hemiptera, fruit pulp, and seeds. 

In Haiti in 1829 Wiirttemberg recorded this species from 
Mirebalais and from " Escabobas," the latter perhaps being the 
modern Las Cahobes. Cory collected specimens at Gantier on March 
6, 1881, one of these being now in the United States National 
Museum. He says that the birds were shot as game, their flesh 
being considered a great delicacy. Paul Bartsch in 1917 found them 
at Thomazeau April 2, near Glore April 3, Trou Caiman April 4, and 
near Petit Goave April 8 and 9. Others were recorded near Port-au- 
Prince April 21, 22i, 25 and 27, and on April 24 he collected a fine set 
of four eggs on the Cul-de-Sac Plain at the base of Morne a Cabrits. 
These eggs are light Niagara green, covered rather evenly with diffuse 
spots of clove brown and dark olive, the spots being moderately 
large and somewhat uneven in outline. These eggs measure 36.7 by 
26.2, 37.1 by 26.4, 37.6 by 24.0, and 38.2 by 24.8 mm. W. L. Abbott 



330 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

collected one of these crows at Bombardopolis March 25, 1917, and 
two at the fitang Saumatre March 6 and 9, 1918. In 1927 Wetmore 
observed them on the summit of La Selle on April 9, when a little 
flock scolded vigorously at his pack animals. At Hinche from April 
22 to 24 these small crows were common among the trees lining the 
ravines cut below the level of the plain. They ranged in little flocks 
containing from four to six individuals, and were frequently observed 
about the tops of the royal palms where they seemed to be nesting. 
At any disturbance they gathered in groups like jays to clamour 
noisily. One little band mobbed a yellow-crowned night heron and 
drove it to cover. One bird was recorded at Caracol May 27. An 
adult female taken at Hinche April 22, 1927 had the iris deep brown, 
and the bill, tarsi and toes black. Danforth saw them in 1927 near 
Mirebalais, near St. Marc, about the sloughs near the mouth of the 
Artibonite, and east of Gonaives. According to Dr. G. N. Wolcott 
these crows were seen eating sphingid caterpillars (Celerio lineata) 
in the cotton and sisal plantation at Hatte Lathan. Bond found them 
common on the plains and abundant in the pine forests of the north. 
He recorded them in June on La Selle, and collected one at Trou 
Caiman. He found them nesting in pines and palms high above the 
ground. Poole and Perrygo recorded this crow at St. Michel De- 
cember 21, 1928, L'Atalaye December 28, 1928 and January 9, 1929, 
Dondon January 17 and 18, St. Marc February 25, and Cerca-la- 
Source March 18 to 24, 1929. 

The small crows found on Hispaniola and Cuba are similar in 
size and seem to differ only in color, palmarum being more iridescent, 
and minutus a duller black. They seem best regarded as subspecies 
and will stand as Corvus palmarum palmarum Wiirttemberg, and 
Corvus palmarum minutus Gundlach. Bangs and Peters agree in 
this treatment. Meinertzhagen in his review of the genus Corvus 25 
has indicated these two as subspecies of orachyrhynchos of North 
America but in this is in error. 

The palm crow was first described by Paul Wilhelm von Wiirttem- 
berg in 1835 from "Nahe des Cibao-Gebirges in ehemaligen Span- 
ischen St. Domingo " so that the type locality is the Cibao range of 
the Dominican Republic. In 1852 Hartlaub published a note on this 
species in which he changed the name to solitarius from a manuscript 
designation by Wiirttemberg, which is of course antedated by 
palmarum. 

Measurements of palmarum from our series are as follows : 

Four males, wing 250.0-264.0 (255.3), tail 143.6-149.0 (146.7), 
culmen from base 49.0-51.7, tarsus 50.1-51.0 (50.6) mm. 

25 Nov. Zool., vol. 33, 1926, pp. 90-91. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND- THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 331 

Nine females, wing 227.0-259.0 (246.6), tail 134.3-152.0 (146.6), 
culmen from base 44.2-49.4 (46.5), tarsus 48.4-50.2 (49.3) mm. 

The palm crow is entirely black and is much smaller than the 
white-necked crow, as indicated by the measurements given above. 

Family MIMIDAE 

MIMUS POLYGLOTTOS DOMINICUS (Linnaeus) 
HISPANIOLAN MOCKINGBIRD, RUISENOR, R0SSIGN0L, MERLE 

Tardus dominions Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, vol. 1, 1766, p. 295 ("Domin- 
ica ") =Hispaniola) . 

Ruysenor, Oviedo, Hist. Gen. Nat. Indias, Libr. 14, cap. 2 ; Reprint, Madrid, 
1851, p. 443, (common). 

Merle cendre, de Saint-Domingue, Montbeillard, in Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois., 
vol. 3, 1775, pp. 320, 325.— Datjbenton, Planch. Enl., pi. 558, fig. 1. 

Rossignol, Saint-Meby, Descrip. Part. Frang. lie Saint-Domingue, vol. 1, 
1797, p. 717 (Port-de-Paix). 

Nightingale, Wimpffen, Voy. Saint Domingo, 1817, p. 188-189 (habits). 

Jamaica Nightingale or Mockingbird, Walton, jr., Pres. State Span. Col. 
inch partic. Rep. Hispanola, vol. 1, 1810, p. 122 (recorded). 

Merula Dominicensis Bbisson, Ornith., vol. 2, 1760, pp. 284-286, pi. 27, fig. 1 
(description). 

Turdus orpheus, Vieillot, Hist. Nat. Ois. Amer. Sept., vol. 2, 1807, pp. 13-14 
(description, habits). 

Turdus polyglottus, Ritteb, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, pp. 152, 
156 (specimen). 

Mimus gilvus, Haetebt, Nov. Zool., vol. 9, 1902, p. 293 (Sanchez, specimen). 

Mimus dominicus, Salle, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, p. 232 (Dominican 
Republic).— Coey, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, 1885, pp. 21-22 ( Petionville, 
St. Marc, Jacmel, specimens). — Tippenhauee, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, pp. 320, 
321 (listed).— Chbisty, Ibis, 1897, pp. 319-320 (Sanchez, La Vega ) .— Veebhx, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 61, 1909, p. 364 (abundant). 

Mimus dominicus, Cherbie, Field Columbian Mus., Ornith. ser., vol. 1, 1896, 
pp. 10-11 (abundant). 

Mimus orpheus dominicus, Coey, Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, 1881, p. 151 
(abundant). 

Mimus polyglottus orpheus, Cory, Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 121 
(Haiti, Dominican Republic). 

Mvtnus polyglottos orpheus, Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, pp. 
415-416 (Monte Cristi, Sosua, Choco, specimens). — Kaempfee, Journ. fur Ornith., 
1924, p. 180 (common). 

Mimus polyglottus (var., dominicus), Bbyant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 
vol. 11, May, 1867, p. 93 (Dominican Republic, Haiti). 

Mimus polyglottos dominicus, Ridgway, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 50, 1907, 
pp. 233-234 (description, range, synonymy). 

Mimus polyglottus dominicus, Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 141 ; 
Beneath Tropic Seas, 1928, pp. 52, 67, 224 (Haiti).— Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 192S, p. 508 (Haiti).— Danfoeth, Auk, 1929, p. 371 
(abundant).— Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, p. 321 (Moca, 
specimens). 



332 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Resident; common. 

The mockingbird is both widely distributed and easily seen so 
that it is one of the prominent birds found on the island. It fre- 
quents open brush, or the borders of fields and pastures where there 
is a cover of thicket in which it may find shelter, but does not pene- 
trate into heavy forest, though it may occur wherever there are little 
clearings. It is found abundantly all through the lowland regions 
of the island and is ubiquitous so that there is no necessity for citing 
localities at which it has been recorded. Wetmore found it abundant 
on the open slopes at Kenskoff and Furcy and observed it on the 
north slope of Morne La Selle to an elevation of 1600 meters but 
did not see it on the high summit of the range. It was not recorded 
in the mountain valleys about Constanza and El Rio but may pos- 
sibly occur there in small numbers as all conditions there except the 
cold of the night air are favorable to it. Abbott secured it on Tortue 
and Gonave Islands, and Danforth and Poole and Perrygo took it 
on the latter. The species is especially common in semi-arid sec- 
tions grown with cactus, mesquite and logwood. 

In traveling along country roads or trails one frequently observes 
a slender, long-tailed bird with gray back and white breast that 
shows a broad mark of white in the dark wings as it flies across in 
front of car, horse or pedestrian, or rises with slowly flapping wings 
to sing in the air above its haunt of thorny thickets. This is the 
mockingbird, ruiseiior, or rossignol, according to the language that 
one speaks. The song, clear and pleasing, is at its height in April 
and May, and the birds may then be heard on all sides. Their notes 
are similar to those of the mockingbird of the mainland, famous for 
its powers of mimicry, but the Hispaniolan race does not imitate 
other birds so constantly as its northern relative, principally because 
there are few species in its haunts with striking notes. Wetmore 
heard the mocker giving the song of the common vireo (Vireo oliva- 
ceus olivaceus) regularly, and occasionally copying the note of the 
gray kingbird, but no other species. The song is thus more truly 
that of the mockingbird than that heard in other regions. Vieillot 
many years ago noted this peculiarity as he observed that in Haiti 
this form is not a mimic, but in this he was not altogether correct 
as is indicated above. The species is recorded by many of the early 
travelers who wrote of the island from the days of Columbus and 
Oviedo, sufficient indication of the prominent place that it takes in 
the landscape. 

At Baie des Moustiques W. L. Abbott secured a set of three eggs 
May 8, 1917 which have the ground color paler than pale glaucous 
green and are spotted heavily with army, cameo, and vandyke brown, 
large spots occurring over the entire surface but concentrating about 
the large end to form a broad, poorly defined wreath. Two of these 



THE BIEDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 333 

eggs measure 23.7 by 18.4 and 23.9 by 18.3 mm. The third is broken. 
On Tortue Island he collected another set of three from a nest made 
rather loosely of thorny twigs and lined with shreds of bark placed 
in an acacia about two meters from the ground. The date of collec- 
tion is not given but is assumed to be about the middle of May, 1917. 
These eggs are more finely spotted than the ones just described, and 
have some of the markings coated by a shell deposit so that they 
appear purplish. All three have spots distributed over the surface 
with a heavy concentration about the large end. They measure 23.8 
by 17.8, 23.9 by 18.2 and 24.6 by 18.3 mm. Cherrie secured young 
birds near Santo Domingo City from March 18 to May 2, 1895. 
Christy recorded young near La Vega in April and May, while 
Kaempfer reports that there may be no especial breeding season as 
he observed young in May, September, and December. He recorded 
nests as placed from two to four meters from the ground. Wetmore 
saw an occupied nest near Caracol, Haiti, April 27, 1927 placed two 
meters from the earth in a logwood. Danforth in 1927 found a nest 
containing young near Monte Cristi June 22. On Gonave Island he 
saw a nest containing two eggs and a newly hatched young July 16, 
and on July 18 one with large young and another with eggs. Most 
of the nests seen were in acacia trees but one was in a mangrove. 
Bond in 1928 found them nesting in northern Haiti in March and 
April but says that they breed later in the south. Poole and Perrygo 
secured a young bird recently from the nest at Fort Liberte February 
16, 1929. The mockingbird is kept regularly as a cage bird especially 
in the Dominican Republic. 

An adult male taken by Wetmore at Hinche, Haiti on April 22, 
1927 had the iris deep yellow ; bill, tarsi and toes dull blackish. 

The mockingbird is from 230 to 255 mm. in length, slender in 
form, with a long tail. Below it is white and above gray, with wings 
and tail black. The outer tail feathers are white and there is a 
prominent band of white in the wing. 

DUMETELLA CAROLINENSIS (Linnaeus) 

CATBIRD 

Muscieapa carolinensis Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, vol. 1, 1766, p. 328 
(Virginia or Carolina). 

Casual migrant from North America. 

The only record of the catbird is that of a male taken by Dr. W. 
L. Abbott on Tortue Island February 5, 1917. It winters regularly 
in Cuba and the Bahama Islands and may be expected to occur cas- 
ually in Haiti. 

This species is approximately 200 mm. in length, and is dark gray 
with black crown and chestnut under tail coverts. 
2134—31 22 



334 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

MARGAROPS FUSCATUS FUSCATUS (Vieillot) 
PEARLY-EYED THRASHER 

Turdus f meatus Vieillot, Hist. Nat. Ois. Anier. Sept., 1S07, vol. 2, p. 1, pi. 
57bis (Hispaniola; Porto Rico). — Haktlaub, Isis, 1847, p. 609 (listed). 

Margarops fuscatus, Cory, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, March, 1884, p. 22 
(no record other than that of Vieillot) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 121 
(Haiti, Dominican Republic). — Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 321 
(listed). 

Margarops fuscatus fascatus, Ridgway, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 50, pt. 4, 1907, 
p. 266 (listed). — Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull. vol. 30, 1927, p. 141 (living specimen 
received from Haiti). 

Status uncertain. 

Vieillot in 1807 wrote of this species " La grive brune se trouve 
dans les grandes iles Antilles et particulierement a Porto-Ricco et 
a Saint-Domingue. * * * De ma collection." Beebe obtained 
one in 1927 in a collection of living birds received direct from Haiti 
and placed it on exhibition in the zoological garden in New York 
City. The species is common in the Bahamas, Jamaica, and Porto 
Rico and extends through the northern Lesser Antilles. It is abun- 
dant on Mona and Desecheo Islands in Mona Passage only a short 
distance east of Hispaniola and is found on Inagua to the north. 
It is not particularly difficult to secure so that if it occurs regularly 
in Hispaniola it would seem that some of the many collectors who 
have visited Hispaniola since the days of Vieillot would have ob- 
tained it. Cory says specifically that he did not procure it, and 
Tippenhauer seems to have listed it from Cory. The species may be 
found on some of the outlying islets. The living specimen sent to 
Beebe may possibly have been brought from elsewhere since there is 
no definite information as to where it was secured. The species thus 
seems of uncertain status and may perhaps belong in the hypotheti- 
cal list. 

The pearly-eyed thrasher is from 250 to 300 mm. in length with 
rather stocky body. It is grayish brown above, the feathers being 
darker centrally so that it appears faintly scaled or spotted, and 
white below streaked with grayish brown, the sides and flanks being 
almost wholly brown. The tail feathers are tipped with white. 

Family TURDIDAE 

MIMOCICHLA ARDOSIACEA ARDOSIACEA (Vieillot) 

HISPANIOLAN THRUSH, ZORZAL, CALEQON ROUGE, MERLE, ROSSIGNOL DE 
MONTAGNE, OUETE-OUETE, COUETE-COUETE 

Turdus ardoslaceus Vieillot, Tabl. Encyc. Meth., vol. 2, 1823, p. 646 
(" Saint-Domingue "= Hispaniola). — Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 
11, May, 1867, pp. 92-93 (Dominican Republic, Haiti). 

Calegon rouge, Saint-Mery, Descrip. Part. Frang. lie Saint-Domingue, vol. 
2, 1798, p. 298 (La Selle). 



THE BIRDS OP HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 335 

Merle, Saint-Mery, Descrip. Part. Frang. lie Saint-Domingue, vol. 1, 1797, 
pp. 717, 736 (Port-de-Paix, Tortue Island). 

Merula Americana cinerea Brisson, Ornith., vol. 2, 1760, pp. 288-290 (" S. 
Domingue "). 

Turdus plumoeus, Vieiblot, Hist. Nat. Ois. Amer. Sept., vol. 2, 1807, pp. 2-3 
(habits). — Hitter, Naturh. Reis. YVestind. Insel Hayti, 1836, p. 156 (speci- 
men). — Hartlaub, Isis, 1847, p. 609 (listed). 

Galeoscoptes plumoeus, Salle, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, p. 231 (Santo 
Domingo City). 

Mimocichla ardesiaca, Cory, Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, 1881, p. 151 (hills 
near Port-au-Prince, specimens) ; Birds Haiti and San Domingo, March, 1884, 
pp. 18-20, 2 col. pis. (Petionville, Puerto Plata, Magua, La Vega, Samana., 
specimens); Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892. p. 122 ("San Domingo"). — 
Tristram, Ibis, 1884, p. 168 (Dominican Republic, specimen) ; Cat. Coll. Birds 
belonging H. B. Tristram, 1SS9, p. 129 (Samana, specimen). — Tippenhatjer, 
Die Insel Haiti, 1892, pp. 320, 321 (listed).— Cherrie, Field Col. Mus., Ornith. 
ser., vol. 1, 1896, p. 9 (Dominican Republic, specimens). — Christy, Ibis, 1897, p. 
319 (La Vega).— Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 366 
(Dominican Republic). — Kaempfer, Journ. fur Ornith., 1924, p. 184, (Tubano). 

Mimocichla ardosiacea, Lonnberg, Fauna och Flora, 1929, p. 107 (Haiti). 

Mimocichla ardosiacea ardosiacea, Ridgway, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 50, pt. 
4, 1907, pp. 80-81 (Hispaniola).— Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, 
p. 416 (Sosfia, Choc6, specimens).— Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull. vol. 30, 1927, p. 141 
(living example in zoological park). — Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 
vol. 80, 1928, pp. 508-509 (Haiti, Gonave, Tortue).— Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 372 
(habits, food).— Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, p. 321 
(San Juan, Monte Viejo, specimens). 

Resident; common in forested areas, particularly in the interior. 
Found on Tortue and Gonave Islands. 

This handsome thrush is robinlike in appearance and in actions 
but is shy and retiring so that it is not easily observed. It resides 
in thickets and woodlands, usually in those sections with abundant 
rainfall, or, in drier areas, near permanent water, and is recorded 
more regularly from its notes than from actual observation. 

Salle reported it in the vicinity of Santo Domingo City, where 
it was also observed by Cherrie, who found it in addition common in 
the interior. Cory obtained specimens at Puerto Plata, Magua, 
La Vega and Samana. He reports the nesting season as December 
and January, and describes and figures in color a nest and eggs taken 
January 9 (1883) near Puerto Plata. The eggs were said to be dull 
bluish white, heavily blotched with brown measuring (in inches) 
" 1.10 by 1.85 ". Tristram received a skin from C. McGrigor taken 
at Samana in 1883. Christy reported this thrush from La Vega, 
and Verrill wrote that it was common but shy. Specimens that he 
collected, now in possession of J. H. Fleming, were secured at 
Sanchez March 6 and 9, and La Vega March 11, 13 and 18, 1907. 
A juvenile was secured March 9. Peters found this thrush rare on 
the north coast as he secured only two at Sosiia and Choco, but 
records it at Monte Cristi and at Bulla as somewhat more numerous. 



336 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

W. L. Abbott collected skins at Laguna August 9, 1916, and March 
9, 1919, and Eojo Cabo, August 28 and 30, 1916, both localities being 
on the Samana Peninsula. He secured one at El Rio in the interior 
October 5, and one near Jarabacoa October 11, 1916. In 1919 he 
collected one May 4, near Hondo, below Constanza. Kaempfer 
reports the species as common at Tiibano near the locality last 
mentioned. 

In 1927 Wetmore recorded this thrush in small numbers between 
Comendador and Azua April 30 and May 1. At Sanchez May 7 to 
13 it was found in some numbers, particularly in the forested hills 
inland. The birds were in molt at this time. On the trail from 
Jarabacoa to Constanza this thrush was seen frequently May 17, 
18, 29 and 30, and at Constanza from May 19 to 27 it was common. 
A few were observed in the lowlands between La Vega and Santiago 
May 31. Danforth in the summer of 1927 observed it at Seibo, 
Santo Domingo City, Los Alcarrizos, Bonao, La Vega and Monte 
Cristi. Ciferri obtained skins at San Juan and at 1200 to 1500 meters 
on Monte Vie jo. 

Writing of Haiti, Vieillot terms this thrush the rossignol de. <mon- 
tagne and describes the eggs as "blancs et tachetes de noir," in which 
he was in error as will be seen by the description given below. 
Younglove collected several of these thrushes in April and May, 
1866 which he sent to the Smithsonian Institution, while Cory 
reported them in 1881 as common at an altitude of 750 meters near 
Fort Jacques, and as seen occasionally in dense cover near Port-au- 
Prince. Bartsch in 1917 recorded this species at Thomazeau April 
2, Glore April 3, Trou Caiman April 4, Petit Goave April 8, Trou 
des Roseaux April 13, and near Jeremie April 15 and 16. Abbott 
secured specimens at La Grotte, December 8, Jeremie December 12, 
and Moron December 20, 1917. In the north of Haiti he obtained 
two near Bombardopolis March 21, and one at Moustique March 11, 
of the same year. On Gonave Island he found them fairly common 
securing specimens February 22 and 24, 1918, and March 3, 1920. 
Moreau de Saint-Mery wrote in 1797 that Pointe des Oiseaux on 
Tortue Island was named from the large numbers of birds particu- 
larly merles there found so that it is interesting to report that Abbott 
found the thrush common on Tortue in 1917, collecting a female on 
February 8. On May 20, 1917 a native brought him a nest of this 
species containing one egg, the nest being loosely constructed of 
banana fibres and some mud. The egg is pale glaucous-green covered 
with broad, poorly defined spots of cameo and walnut brown. It 
measures 32.8 by 22.3 mm. A second nest found May 22, placed in a 
mass of orchids about three and one half meters from the ground, 
contained two young and an addled egg, the latter being collected. 



THE BIRDS OP HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 337 

This egg is somewhat more heavily marked than the one described 
above and measures 30.2 by 21.8 mm. The eggs are strikingly and 
handsomely colored. 

Wetmore in 1927 found this thrush very common in coffee planta- 
tions about Fonds-des-Negres from March 31 to April 5. Males 
were singing and the breeding season was evidently in progress. On 
April 2 one rested for a time in the limbs of a tree holding a beak 
full of dead leaves, while it jerked its wings and tail nervously. 
Finally it flew to the side of a large epiphyte fifteen meters from 
the ground and deposited its burden on the foundation of a nest. 
The nest site was in a tree with foliage mainly at the tips of the 
branches so that the interior limbs were open. It stood at the edge 
of a clearing with a little house only a few yards away. On April 
5 one was seen carrying food to young in another locality. On 
April 9 on the Riviere Jaquisy below Furcy one was singing, and 
from April 10 to 15 the species was common on the high summit of 
La Selle. The song of this thrush was one of the early bird songs 
heard about camp there and came to the ear at the first hint of 
day. The notes are labored in utterance but are given steadily, and, 
in spite of occasional harsh breaks, the whole is pleasing. The call 
note is a low peep peep. During the day when all was quiet these 
thrushes appeared near camp on the ground in the open. In their 
usual method of progression they ran rapidly for a few feet and 
then stopped abruptly with the head held erect. The mannerisms 
are wholly those of a robin. Where seen clearly the white under 
tail-coverts are prominent while in flight the white spots at the ends 
of the outer tail feathers are displayed plainly. The birds often 
perched in the tops of dead trees but at any alarm dropped quickly 
into the thickets below where they remained carefully concealed. 
The thrush was observed April 17 at Chapelle Faure in Nouvelle 
Touraine, and April 20 on Morne a Cabrits. On April 24 it was 
common at the Bassin Zime but none were seen in the immediate 
vicinity of Hinche. It was recorded April 26 and 27 at Poste Char- 
bert near Caracol. In 1927 Danforth found it at Fonds-des-Negres 
and near the Citadelle, and on July 18 saw an adult accompanied by 
young on the wing on Gonave. Bond found this species widely 
distributed in Haiti from sea level to the tops of the mountains, and 
on Gonave and Tortue. In 1928 birds were in breeding condition 
on Tortue in March, and nests were seen in southern Haiti in May 
and June. In an adult male taken by Wetmore at Fonds-des-Negres 
April 2, 1927, the bill and free margins of the eyelids were coral red ; 
tarsus, toes, and claws slightly paler red ; iris reddish brown. Dan- 
forth records that in the stomach of one he found a seed and two 
cockroaches (one of them Epilampra saublosa), and in another four 



338 BULLETIN" 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

seeds, a snail, a lamellicorn beetle (Lachnosterna hogradi) and a 
millipede. 

The thrush is from 250 to 270 mm. in length with rather heavy 
body. In general coloration it is gray, darker above with wings and 
tail black and abdomen and under tail coverts white. The throat 
is white broadly streaked with blackish slate and the tail has the 
external feathers broadly tipped with white. 

HAPLOCICHLA SWALESI Wctmore 
SWALES' THRUSH, MERLE, OTTETE-OUETE NOIR 

Saplocichla sicalesi Wetmore, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 40, June 30, 
1927, p. 55 (Jardins Bois Pin, Massif de la Selle, Haiti, 1800 meters altitude).— 
Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1929, p. 509 (La Selle).— 
Bbebe, Beneath Tropic Seas, 192S, p. 11 (mentioned). 

Haplocichla stvalesii, Lonnberg, Fauna och Flora, 1929, p. 107 (Haiti). 

Resident in Haiti on the high ridge of La Selle; not recorded 
elsewhere. The species ranges from 1500 to 2100 meters coming 
occasionally a little lower. 

On April 11, 1927, as Wetmore came into the dense growth of 
rain forest jungle below the summit of Morne La Visite he heard a 
strange thrush note and a moment later had a glimpse of the songster 
within a distance of a few feet, recognizing it instantly as a species 
new to the known fauna of the island. Hours were spent in creep- 
ing cautiously through wet thickets, bound into almost impenetrable 
entanglements by long strands of creeping bamboo, but not until two 
days later did the first specimen of this beautiful bird come to hand. 
(PL 22.) The colors were such that at a distance the species was 
invisible to the eye in the dense shadows and when clearly seen 
individuals were usually so close at hand as to make it impracticable 
to collect them with ordinary loads, while their appearance was so 
brief as to make it impracticable to change to lighter shells before 
the birds had disappeared. Finally in a heavy rain several came 
out into an open trail apparently in enjoyment of the downpour and 
specimens were secured with comparative ease. On subsequent days 
numbers were observed and in all four were collected. In the 
Jardins Bois Pin this thrush was somewhat more familiar as here it 
lived near the huts of the country people and inhabited smaller 
sections of thicket adjacent to little clearings. 

Swales' thrush spends much time on the ground where it has the 
habits usual to the robin-like thrushes, running with lowered head 
across little open spaces and then pausing abruptly with head thrown 
erect. In the dark shadows of its haunts its colors merge so per- 
fectly with its background that it is extremely difficult to see at any 
distance except when in motion. At times it ran up on recumbent 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 155 PLATE 22 




SWALES' THRUSH (HAPLOC1CHLA SWALESI) KNOWN ONLY FROM HIGH RIDGE OF 

LA SELLE 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 339 

logs or rested among low branches, and while singing perched among 
limbs sometimes forty feet from the earth but always concealed 
among leaves. The song resembles somewhat that of the gray robin 
(Mimociclila a. ardosiacea) and suggests also that of the smaller 
thrushes (Hylocichla) of the United States. It is given slowly and 
clearly with decided intervals between the notes. From the other 
thrush of the island the notes are easily told since they are much 
more clear and distinct in utterance, and less broken. The alarm 
note is wheury wheury wheury repeated usually three times with 
great rapidity. 

Abbott says that in May, 1920, when on the slopes of La Selle 
above Fonds Verettes he saw one of these thrushes but had no gun. 
On subsequent visits he was not able to find it again. Bond collected 
birds in breeding condition on La Selle in June, 1928. 

Structurally the present species is characterized by long, slender 
tarsus and rounded wing, the wing tip being somewhat more rounded 
than in Haplocichla aurantia of Jamaica, which hitherto has stood 
alone in a monotypic genus. Haplocichla swalesi is so entirely 
different in color from aurantia as to preclude the idea of close 
association between the two other than their union in the same 
genus. They are evidently not geographic representatives of one 
stock as is so often the case with allied birds on West Indian islands. 

Following is a description of the type specimen : 

Mus. Cat. No. 264,707, adult male, collected in the Massif de la 
Selle (altitude 1800 meters), April 15, 1927, by A. Wetmore. Entire 
upper parts, including sides of head, deep black ; chin white ; throat 
and upper foreneck black streaked lightly with white; upper breast 
blackish slate with faintly indicated brownish edgings; sides of 
upper breast sepia; lower breast and sides bright hazel; abdomen 
white; flanks and under tail coverts blackish slate, the lower flank 
feathers and under tail coverts with light shaft streaks and edgings 
of white. Bill orange rufous, extreme base of mandibular rami and 
area about nostrils blackish; eye ring light orange; iris Rood's 
brown; tarsus Rood's brown with a line of honey yellow down the 
back; bare skin at back of tibio-tarsal joint honey yellow; toes 
somewhat lighter than tarsus; lower surfaces of toes honey yellow. 
(Colors from fresh specimen). 

Measurements are as follows : 

Males (five specimens), wing 126.7-131.5 (129.6), tail 102.5-105.5 
(104.0), culmen from base 23.2-24.8 (24.2), tarsus 42.2-47.0 
(44.0) mm. 

Female (one specimen), wing 123.9; tail 97.7; culmen from base 
22.4 ; tarsus 46.0 mm. 

Type (adult male), wing 126.7; tail 102.5; culmen from base 
24.7 ; tarsus 42.3 mm. 



340 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

HYLOCICHLA MINIMA MINIMA (Lafresnaye) 
BICKNELL'S THRUSH 

Tardus minimus Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 1848, p. 5 (Bogota). 

Turdus aliciae, Cory, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, March, 1884, pp. 17-18 
(Puerto Plata, specimens) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 122 (Dominican 
Republic). — Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 34 (listed). — Cherrie, 
Field Col. Mus., Ornith. ser., vol. 1, 1S96, p. 9 (Aguacate; Santo Domingo City, 
specimens). — Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 366 (Sanchez, 
specimen). 

Hylocichla, Lonnberg, Fauna och Flora, 1929, p. 98 (Haiti). 

Hylocichla aliciae aliciae, Ridgway, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 50, pt. 4, 1907, p. 60 
(Santo Domingo). 

Hylocichla aliciae bicknelli, A. O. U. Check-List, ed. 3, 1910, p. 360 (Haiti). 

Hylocichla minima subsp.?, Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 
80, 1928, p. 509 (Morne Malanga). 

Winter visitant from North America ; rare. 

Thrushes of this type were first reported by Cory who secured 
specimens near Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic, taking a female, 
December 14, a male December 16, 1882, and a second female January 
6, 1883. Cherrie collected two males near Aguacate February 22 and 
25, and one at Santo Domingo City May 1, 1895. Verrill collected 
one at Sanchez. 

In March, 1921, Swales and Richmond examined four specimens 
loaned by the Field Museum, including the male and female taken 
by Cory at Puerto Plata in December, 1882, and the two males 
secured by Cherrie at Aguacate in February 1895 and found them to 
be Bicknell's thrush. The three remaining skins listed have not 
been seen and may possibly include representatives of Alice's thrush. 
All records for the species are included here, however, on the basis 
of material actually identified. With regard to the female taken 
January 8, 1883, at Puerto Plata it may be noted that Cory gives the 
wing as 3.80 inches (equivalent to 96.5 mm.) and the other two from 
the same locality as 3.75 and 3.78 inches respectively. On this basis 
it seems probable that the third bird like the others which have been 
seen is Bicknell's thrush. Wetmore has examined the Verrill speci- 
men from Sanchez in the Tring Museum and finds it to be this form. 

Bond reports a thrush of unknown form from Morne Malanga, 
Haiti, January 19, 1928. This is probably the specimen recorded 
by Lonnberg, which he has informed us (in a letter) was taken by 
Ekman in January, 1928, and which is a Bicknell's thrush. This is 
the only certain record at present for Haiti. Further specimens 
should be taken to determine if both forms occur. 

Bangs and Penard 2G have found from examination of the original 
specimen that the bird described by Lafresnaye as Turdus minimus 

26 Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 63, June, 1919, p. 30. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 341 

from a specimen from " Bogota " is a Bicknell's thrush. From this 
Bicknell's thrush, formerly called Hylocichla aliciae bicknelli Ridg- 
way (named in 1882), becomes Hylocichla minima minima (Lafres- 
naye), while Alice's thrush, formerly Hylocichla aliciae aliciae 
(Baird), will be known as Hylocichla minima aliciae (Baird). 

Bicknell's thrush differs from Alice's thrush {Hylocichla minima 
aliciae) in being slightly smaller and browner above. The wing in 
aliciae ranges from 99 to 109 mm. in males and 97 to 107.5 mm. in 
females, in minima from 88.5 to 98.0 mm. in males and 85 to 93 mm. 
in females. 

Bicknell's thrush is olive with a slight tinge of brown above. It 
has a whitish eye-ring and grayish lores. Below it is white, tinged 
with cream-buff on the sides of throat and breast, spotted with black. 
The sides are brownish gray. 

MYADESTES GENIBARBIS MONTANUS Cory 
HISPANIOLAN SOLITAIRE, JILGUERO, MUSICIEN, OISEATJ MUSICIEN 

Myadestes montanas Cory, Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, 1881, p. 130 (near 
Fort Jacques above Petionville, Haiti) ; Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, 1881, p. 151 
(one specimen taken near Fort Jacques) ; Birds Haiti and San Domingo, March, 
1884, pp. 52-53, col. pi. (Fort Jacques) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 122 
(Haiti); Auk, 1895, p. 279 (Dominican Republic, specimens). — Tippenhauer, 
Die Insel Haiti, 1S92, pp. 320, 321 ( listed ) .— Verriix, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil- 
adelphia, 1909, p. 366 (Sanchez, Miranda). — Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila- 
delphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 521 (mentioned). 

Musicien, Montbeillard, in Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois., vol. 4, 1778, p. 290 (south 
Haiti). — Saint-Mery, Descrip. Part. Frang. lie Saint-Domingue, vol. 1, 1797, 
pp. 155, 262; vol. 2, 1798, pp. 299, 506 (Mont Organise, Dondon, Nouvelle Tou- 
raine, Trou Coucou, and above Jacmel).— Hearne, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1834, 
p. 25 (mentioned). — Ritter, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, pp. 152- 
153 (mentioned). 

Cyphorinus cantons, Schomburgk, Athenaeum, No. 1291, July 24, 1852, p. 798 
(song). 

Myadestes montanus t, Cherrie, Field Columbian Mus., Ornith. ser., vol. 1, 
1896, pp. 9-10 (Catarrey, Aguacate, specimens). 

Myadestes genlbarbis cherriei Ridgway, Smithsonian Misc. Colls., vol. 47, 
Aug. 6, 1904, p. 112 (described as new from Catarrey, Dominican Republic) ; 
U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 50, pt. 4, 1907, pp. 177-178 (Haiti).— Bond, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 509 (La Hotte, La Selle, Montaignes 
Noir, Massif du Nord). — Lonnberg, Fauna och Flora, 1929, p. 107 (Haiti). — ■ 
Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1928, p. 321 (Monte Viejo, speci- 
mens). 

Myadestes solitaries (part), Ridgway, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 50, pt. 4, 1907, 
p. 174 (Fort Jacques, Haiti). 

Eesident in the hills of the interior ; locally fairly common. 

When riding mountain trails that pass dense growths of damp 
rain-forest one may hear occasionally a series of clear, whistled notes, 
like those of a flute, that come slowly through the air and then cease, 



342 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

to be repeated at a short interval, or perhaps answered from a little 
distance. The countryman knows this disembodied voice as the jil- 
guero or the musicien, according to whether one is traveling in the 
Dominican Republic or in Haiti, but is almost sure to state that it is 
supposed to be a bird but that by no possible chance can one ever be 
seen. By the superstitious the notes are believed to emanate from 
some spirit. The observant naturalist on penetrating the thicket 
may obtain a fleeting glimpse of a small gray bird with a reddish 
brown throat and under tail-coverts and will know that he has found 
the source of the mysterious voice in the solitaire. 

Though common in many localities in the interior hills in Hispan- 
iola comparatively few specimens have been taken until recently. 
Cherrie in 1895 obtained seven at Aguacate and three at Catarrey, 
and has written an interesting account of the bird and his impres- 
sions of the wonderful song. From February 20 to 28 at Aguacate 
he found them mating. He reports the food as fruits and insects, 
the latter taken frequently on the wing. Verrill in 1907 recorded 
them only from Sanchez and Miranda, though he reports that the 
song was often heard in the mountainous districts. R. H. Beck 
secured two on La Hotte June 22 and July 3, 1917. Kaempfer col- 
lected four which are in the Tring Museum. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott secured a small series at the following localities : 
one male, Hato Viejo River, near Limon, on the Samana Peninsula, 
April 23, 1921 ; four males near Constanza, April 10, 11, 13 and 29, 
1919; four males Loma del Rio Grande, above Constanza, April 18 
and 22, 1919; one male, El Rio May 14, 1919; and a pair at Loma 
del Cielo, in the Bahoruco Mountains March 13, 1922. Ciferri 
secured skins at 1200 to 1500 meters elevation on Monte Viejo August 
25 to 28, 1929. 

In 1927 Wetmore recorded the song of the solitaire on the trail 
to Constanza from the summit of El Barrero above the first crossing 
of the Rio Jimenoa near Jarabacoa where it was noted frequently. 
The bird was common in the rain-forest and was heard daily from 
May 17 to 30 during the entire period of work in the upland country. 
The birds sang from perches in the tree tops but always were con- 
cealed among the leaves. Though usually found in extensive tracts 
of dense jungle they sang at times from scattered growths of trees 
along streams passing through open mountain meadows. The song 
resembled the notes of a flute or occasionally of some one whistling, 
varying in tone in different individuals, but always of such a char- 
acter as to be easily imitated. The first note was low, the second 
higher in scale, and the third low again like the first. At intervals 
with these clearer calls there came a ringing, double note. Occasion- 
ally a pair was observed in the dense growth hopping about alertly. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 343 

occasionally quivering the tips of the wings slightly. When the birds 
were at rest the tail hung straight down, at other times it was held at 
an angle. The light yellow tarsi were always prominent and were 
even noticed when birds flew over head. The natives knew the song 
of the jilguero but very few professed to have seen it so that the 
specimens collected attracted much interest. 

In Haiti the musicien has been known to historians for many years. 
At the close of the eighteenth century Moreau de Saint-Mery wrote 
that Mont Organise in the northeastern mountains was said to have 
been named because it was the favorite resort of this beautiful 
songster. He reported it also at Dondon, Nouvelle Touraine, and 
on the slopes of La Selle above Jacmel. Montbeillard in 1778 quotes 
records from Deshayes who found it in the high mountains of the 
south of Haiti. Hearne in 1834 wrote to the Zoological Society of 
London that he hoped to secure a specimen alive for the zoological 
gardens but apparently was not successful. The first specimen of 
which there is actual record seems to be the type collected by Cory 
near Fort Jacques, above Petionville on March 3, 1881. Cory speaks 
of the solitaire as apparently rare and secured no others. It was 
reported to Abbott during his work in the southwestern peninsula 
but at that season was not singing so that he did not succeed in 
finding it. In 1927 Wetmore found it fairly common in the rain- 
forests on the slopes of La Selle recording its song on April 12, 13, 
and 16. An adult male taken April 12 had the bill black ; iris bright 
reddish brown; tarsus and toes bright yellow; and claws dusky. 
The birds were found principally in the steep-sided ravines below 
the summit of the long ridge that forms the top of this range. In 
early morning their clear, flutelike notes came with indescribable 
purity to the listener resting on the brink of the great precipice 
that forms the face of Morne La Visite, a marvellously beautiful 
song and one never to be forgotten. One was heard on the summit 
of Morne St. Vincent near Furcy on April 17. Bond in 1928 found 
them on La Hotte, and La Selle, in the Montaignes Noires, and in 
the Massif du Nord. 

The excellent series of fourteen skins available enables the clearing 
away of confusion that has existed regarding the identity of the 
solitaires of Hispaniola. Cory in 1881 described his single specimen 
as Myiadestes montanus. 21 He gave no locality in the original de- 
scription but elsewhere writes that it was taken " in the neighbor- 
hood of Fort Jacques." The skin, Field Mus. No. 26,988, a female, 
is labeled " Le Coup, Hayti," this being equivalent to the present day 
Petionville. When Cherrie secured others in 1895 in the Dominican 
Republic he found that they differed somewhat from Cory's type 

27 Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, 1881, p. 151. 



344 BULLETIN" 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

and suggested that there might be two forms, one in the western 
and one in the eastern part of the island. However in view of the 
fact that Cory's type which was not in too good condition was the 
only bird available from Haiti he followed Cory and called his 
specimens montanus. Ridgway was likewise impressed with the 
difference shown by the type specimen of montanus, which he identi- 
fied erroneously as Myadestes solitarius of Jamaica, and named the 
birds collected by Cherrie in the Dominican Republic Myadestes 
genibarbis cherriei (type locality Catarrey). Wetmore has exam- 
ined the type of montanus and finds that it is unquestionably the 
same form as all others taken in Hispaniola but is aberrant in 
having the malar stripe rufous below the gape while the white spot 
normally found on the chin is also obscured by rufous, the bases of 
the feathers here only being lighter. The ear coverts are streaked 
with white as is normal in the Hispaniolan bird. The rufous of 
the malar region occupies the same position as the white normally 
found in the Hispaniolan race. In several specimens from the 
Dominican Republic and Haiti now available there is a mixture of 
rufous in the white of the malar region while the white of the chin 
is also somewhat obscured. It appears that there is only one form 
of solitaire on Hispaniola which will be known as Myadestes geni- 
barbis montanus Cory. 

Following are measurements in millimeters of birds from 
Hispaniola. 

Thirteen males, wing 86.5-92.8 (89.5) ; tail, 78.5-9L0 (84.4) ; 
culmen from base 11.3-12.3 (11.9) ; tarsus 21.^-24.2 (22.3). 

One female, wing 89.0, tail 84.8, culmen broken, tarsus 22.0. 

Type of montanus, female, wing 85.0, tail 85.2, culmen from base 
13.0, tarsus 23.5. 

Myadestes solitarius Baird of Jamaica, according to Ridgway 28 is 
larger the male having the wing 91.5 to 96.5 mm., and tail 92.0-99.0 
and the female the wing 88.5-95.5, tail 86.5-95.0. The bird is also 
blacker on the side of the head. 

A juvenile bird taken by James Bond on Morne Malanga, Haiti 
January 20, 1928 has some traces of the juvenal dress remaining, 
there being a few feathers on the crown that are tipped with black 
and spotted subterminally with cinnamon buff. The greater wing 
coverts are tipped faintly with whitish-buff, and there are tear- 
shaped spots of cinnamon buff on the shafts of the scapulars beyond 
which the tip of the feather is black. The lesser wing coverts have 
subterminal spots of whitish buff, there are a few feathers in the 
center of the abdomen that are whitish, barred narrowly with black 
at the tip, and a few on the upper breast that are dull cinnamon- 

28 U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 50, pt. 4, 1907, p. 174. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN" REPUBLIC 345 

buff margined distantly with black. Elsewhere the plumage is that 
of the adult. 

The solitaire is from 185 to 195 mm. long of slender form with 
long tail. In general it is grajr, darker above and paler below, with 
throat and under tail-coverts chestnut, chin and malar streak white 
and outer tail feathers tipped with white. 

Family BOMBYCILLIDAE 

BOMBYCILLA CEDRORUM Vieillot 
CEDAR, WAXWING 

Bombycilla cedrorum Vieillot, Ois. Amer. Sept., vol. 1, 1807 (1808), p. 88, 
pi. 57 (Eastern North America) ? 

Ampelis cedrorum, Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, pp. 
320-321 (Bonao, specimens). 

Migrant from North America; abundance not certain. 

Dr. Edgardo Moltoni of the Museo Civico di Storia Naturale in 
Milan writes that he has received three specimens of the cedar 
waxwing taken by the Ciferri brothers at Piedra Blanca near 
Bonao, Dominican Republic, in January, 1926. There is no other 
record for the island. 

The cedar waxwing from 140 to 160 mm. in length, is brownish 
fawn color, grayer on the back and still grayer on the wings, with 
the forehead, chin and a line through the eye black, the under tail- 
coverts white, and a yellow band across the end of the tail. Some 
individuals have small red tips that appear like bits of sealing wax 
at the ends of the secondary feathers and more rarely on the tips of 
the tail feathers. There is a distinct crest. 

Family DULIDAE 

DULUS DOMINICUS DOMINICUS (Linnaeus) 

PALM-CHAT, SIGUA PALMERA, SIGUA DE PALMA, OISEAU PALMISTE, 

ESCLAVE 

Tanagra dominica Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, vol. 1, 1766, p. 316 ("Do- 
minica "=Hispaniola). — Descouktilz, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809, p. 68 (Go- 
nai'ves). — Lafkesnaye, Rev. Mag. Zool., 1851, pp. 585-590 (notes large feet; 
habits). 

Palm-tree bird, Wimpffen, Voy. Saint Domingo, 1817, p. 18S (listed). 

Paxaro comunero, Oviedo, Hist. Gen. Nat. Indias, Libr. 14, cap. 5 ; reprint, 
Madrid, 1851, p. 444 (nesting babits). 

Esclave, Montbeillard, in Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois., vol. 4, 1778, pp. 263-264 
(description). — Descouktilz, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1S09, p. 206 (listed). 

Oiseau Palmiste, Descourtilz, Voy. Nat., vol. 2, 1809. pp. 205-207 (evidently 
Dulus, though reference is made to Brisson's Palmiste d tete noire, which is a 
Phaenicophilus) . 

Tanagra, de St. Domingue, Daubenton, Planch. Enl., pi. 152, fig. 2 (col. plate). 



346 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Grive de la Guyane, Montbeillard, in Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois., vol. 3, 1775, 
p. 2S9 (description). 

Passer maculosus Feuillee, Journ. Observ. Phys., vol. 3, 1725, pp. 3S6-387 
(Haiti). 

Tangara Dominicensis Bresson, Ornith., vol. 3, 1760, pp. 37-38, vol. 2, fig. 4 
(described from " S. Domingue"). 

Turdus gujanensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., vol. 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 809 (based on 
Buffon). 

Turdus guianensis, Hitter, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, pp. 
152, 156 (specimen).— Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 320 (listed). 

Tanagra mancipium Hermann, Tabl. Aff. Anim., 1783, p. 211 (based on 
l'esclave of Buffon). 

Taugara dominica, Bitter, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, p. 156 
(listed). 

Dulus palmarum Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 10, 1817, p. 435 (de- 
scription) ; Gal. Ois., pt. 2, 1824, pp. 237-238 (habits, description). 

Dulus dominicensis, Hartert, Nov. Zool., vol. 9, 1902, p. 293 (Sanchez). 

Dulus dominions, Hartlaub, Isis, 1847, p. 609 (listed). — Strickland, in 
Jardine's Contr. Ornith., 1851, pp. 103-104 (placed in family Ampelidae). — 
Salle, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, p. 232 (listed). — Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. 
Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 1867, p. 92 (Dominican Republic, Haiti). — Tristram, 
Ibis, 1884, p. 168 (Dominican Republic, specimen) ; Cat. Coll. Birds belong. 
H. B. Tristram, 1889, p. 203 (Samana, Rivas, specimens). — Cory, Bull. Nut- 
tall Ornith. Club, 1881, p. 152 (habits) ; Birds Haiti and San Domingo, March, 
1884, pp. 51-52, col. pi. (Samana, Petionville, specimens) ; Cat. West Indian 
Birds, 1892, p. 115 (Dominican Republic, Haiti). — Tippenhauer, Die Insel 
Haiti, 1892, pp. 320, 321 (listed).— Cherrie, Field Col. Mus., Ornith. ser., vol. 
1, 1896, p. 13 (habits).— Christy, Ibis, 1897, p. 322 (habits).— Richmond, 
Smithsonian Misc. Colls., vol. 66, no. 17, 1917, p. 39 (habits). — Busck, Proc. 
Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 7, 1907, pp. 2-3 (parasitized by anthomyiid fly). — 
Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1909, p. 364 (habits). — Peters, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 1917, pp. 417— £18 (color, measurements, habits). — 
Kaempfer, Journ. fur Ornith., 1924, pp. 179-180 (habits). — Ciferri, Segund. 
Inf. An. Est. Nac. Agr. Moca, 1927, p. 6 (listed).— Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 
30, 1927, p. 141; Beneath Tropic Seas, 1928, p. 223 (habits).— Bond, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, pp. 509-510 (habits).— Danforth, Auk, 
1929, p. 372 (recorded).— Lonnberg, Fauna och Flora, 1929, p. 106 (Haiti).— 
Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, p. 321 (Moca, specimens). 

Dulus nuchalis Swainson, Anim. in Menag., 1838, p. 345 ("Brazil.") — 
Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 510 (= dominions). 

Resident throughout the island, except in the highest altitudes. 

The palm-chat, restricted in range to Hispaniola, is one of the 
most peculiar as well as one of the most prominent of the smaller 
birds of the island. Distributed universally throughout the low- 
lands, the huge stick nests of this species, usually in the top of a 
palm, are a regular feature of the landscape, and attract certain at- 
tention to a bird that otherwise might not attain notice except by 
ornithologists on account of^its plain coloration. (PI. 23.) The 
palm-chat is common in both republics throughout the range of 
the royal palm, and extends into the mountains to altitudes of 1500 
meters or more. It is absent therefore only on the highest peaks and 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



BULLETIN 155 PLATE 23 




The palm-chat (Dulus dominicus dominicus) 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN - REPUBLIC 347 

ridges and in areas grown with dense rain forest which are not suited 
to its requirements. It is seen in small numbers in the great valley 
of Constanza in the Dominican Republic but is not found on the 
high ridges above. In Haiti it is known on the open mountain slopes 
at Furcy and was observed by Bond at 1800 meters on the higher 
mass of La Selle opposite. It is not known to range to Tortue Island. 
The species is seen so universally that there is no necessity for list- 
ing points and dates of observation. We have before us an extensive 
series of skins and the partial synonymy at the head of this section 
will indicate the many references to the species in literature. 

The palm-chat is a gregarious species that lives in little bands, 
each group being made up of several pairs, at the proper season 
accompanied by their young, and having as the center of its activi- 
ties the communal nest, which serves as a resting place when the 
birds are not searching for food or otherwise engaged and as a roost 
at night. Their communal habits and nests have attracted universal 
attention from early travelers who came to Hispaniola from Oviedo 
down, so that the species is mentioned frequently in older works of 
travel. 

Oviedo noted that this species built a communal nest as large as 
that of the stork in Spain, made of twigs closely interlaced, in which 
structure each pair had its separate compartment. Vieillot de- 
scribes the nest in similar words, as does Salle in an account fur- 
nished to Lafresnaye. The large size of the structure has been 
truthfully recorded by many observers but the number of individuals 
that frequent each nest, at least in modern times, is usually only 
eight to sixteen, and according to Wetmore's observations the largest 
bands seen did not include more than twenty individuals. State- 
ments of various travellers that two hundred or three hundred were 
seen in company seem to be exaggeration. 

The nesting season seems to extend mainly from March to June. 
At Fonds-des-Negres, Haiti, April 5, 1927, Wetmore, with the as- 
sistance of Dr. C. H. Arndt, employed a man to climb to several 
nests and send them to the ground for examination. The method 
employed in climbing the smooth palm trunks was interesting. A 
double hitch was made around the trunk of the tree with two sep- 
arate ropes, the free ends of each being tied together to form a sling. 
Through one of these the man thrust his leg until he rested on the 
thigh, while he placed the sole of his bare foot in the other. Stand- 
ing on this foot he slipped the double hitch up the smooth trunk 
for two or three feet when he rested on his thigh and loosening the 
lower rope brought it to the level of the first one. Progressing thus 
he rapidly ascended the trunk cutting away the seed heads of the 
palm as he reached them, and in a short time climbed to the nest. 
Some of these were built entirely around the crown of the palm 



348 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

supported by the lower fronds while others were placed around the 
trunk on the fruiting fronds a few feet below the crown of leaves. 
The nests were constructed of twigs from half the size of a lead 
pencil to a little larger, ranging from 250 to 450 mm. in length, 
with occasional twigs 600 to 750 mm. long. It seemed remarkable 
that a bird the size of the palm-chat, having the dimension of a 
cedar waxwing, could rise from the ground to a nest from twelve 
to fifteen meters from the earth with such burdens. The first nest 
examined was obviously under construction, and not yet complete. 
The twigs were interlaced rather loosely particularly at the sides 
and top. The structure was the size of a bushel basket and was evi- 
dently occupied by only a few pairs. There was a roughly defined 
central tunnel 100 to 125 mm. in diameter leading through the mass 
of sticks from side to side, opening at either end to the outside. 
Near the end was a slight accumulation of shredded bark that made 
a little platform on one of which had rested an egg, unfortunately 
broken. The nest padding was barely sufficient to protect the egg. 
This nest seemed to have been entirely newly formed and was evi- 
dently not yet complete. A second structure secured on this day 
was much larger and had evidently been used the year previous with 
much material recently added. Eight individual birds were ob- 
served flying away from it and it appeared to contain four separate 
units each 450 to 500 mm. in diameter with stick ends projecting in 
every direction, and the separate sections loosely interwoven about 
the trunk of the palm. In each unit a tunnel led to a central cham- 
ber 100 to 125 mm. across with the bottom well filled with fine shreds 
of bark and other soft materials to form a distinct cup. Though 
each nest was a separate unit with its own portal to the exterior 
there were roughly defined channels or passages running through 
the interlacing twigs at the top of the nests that could permit the 
birds to creep about under cover. The separate nests were very 
compact so that it was necessary to cut and break away the twigs to 
get at the interior. Subsequent examination of a number of other 
completed nests indicated that this was the normal type of con- 
struction, each communal structure consisting of several separate 
compartments opening separately to the outside. The twigs used 
in construction were usually slightly smaller in diameter than a lead 
pencil and were dead twigs of light wood, coffee and orange twigs 
being usual in the lowlands. The nest lining was always the small- 
est possible amount of fine grass and shredded bark that would 
serve to support the eggs. (PI. 24.) 

Though each pair occupied a separate domicile in a common struc- 
ture, that may be likened to an apartment house, work on this domi- 
cile was carried on to some extent in common as it was not unusual 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN - REPUBLIC 349 

to see half a dozen of the birds resting near together, perhaps with 
two or three so close as to actually touch, all pulling and twisting at 
the sticks about them to work them more firmly into place. Occa- 
sionally birds clung back down to the bottom of the nest to pull and 
tug with much fluttering of wings at refractory bits of material. 
The twigs are carried into the trees in the bill of the bird and not in 
the feet as some have stated. The stick is held crosswise in the bill 
and the bird flies with steady direct flight at a sharp angle upward, 
often stopping to rest for a moment on some limb before reaching 
the nest. The stick nest is without question a safeguard against 
owls and other similar predators. 

On March 10, 1919, Dr. W. L. Abbott secured four eggs as a set 
from a nest near Laguna on the Samami Peninsula, that he describes 
as a meter and a half in diameter and the same in height. These eggs 
are oval, white with a faint gloss, spotted rather heavily with deep 
to dark heliotrope gray, the spots concentrating to form a more or 
less distinct wreath at the large end. One egg has the spots fewer 
and more distinctly outlined than is the case in the other three. They 
measure as follows : 25.2 by 19.7, 25.2 by 20.1, 25.3 by 19.7 and 25.7 by 
19.5 mm. Bits of broken egg shell secured by Wetmore at Fonds-des- 
Negres April 5, 1927. are similarly marked to the eggs described 
above. The only previous account of the egg that we have seen is 
that of Lafresnaye 29 who quotes Salle in describing the eggs as white, 
evidently in error. 

The palm-chat is most evident about its nest where it rests in sun 
or shadow depending upon the temperature of the hour or perches 
on the palm fronds or the projecting spike above. In feeding, the 
birds search through trees and shrubbery, usually two or three to- 
gether, often seeming alert and vivacious with much character in 
pose and attitude though at rest with body erect and tail pointing 
straight down they appear rather stolid and heavy. They are 
eminently social and seek company, sidling along to perch beside a 
companion and often resting so near that their bodies touch. Mated 
pairs were especially attentive so that when one moved along the 
other immediately followed to crowd against its companion. The 
birds are very noisy and utter a variety of rather harsh chattering 
notes in chorus. Wetmore did not succeed in identifying anything 
that might be called a song. 

Old nests regularly fall to the ground with the maturity and death 
of the palm fronds that support them, this probably being the foun- 
dation of the story that a band of two or three hundred gather 
together to tear out old structures and cast them to the ground, a tale 
for which there is little reason for credence. 

29 Rev. Mag. Zool., 1851, p. 588. 
2134—31 23 



350 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

On the mountains near Furcy the palm-chat builds in pine trees, 
or other open trees and here makes smaller structures usually occu- 
pied by two pairs, as the open limbs are not fitted to support the 
large nest mass common in the lowland palms. Sometimes three or 
four separate nests were placed in one tree, and on one occasion 
Abbott found the nest of a grackle (Holoquiscalm) tacked on to the 
side of a nest of the palm-chat. Wetmore observed palm-chats 
investigating nests of the weaver-bird {Text or c. cucullatus) appar- 
ently through curiosity. 

The food of the palm-chat so far as known is vegetable. Wetmore 
observed them eating blossoms of Cordia serrata and other flower- 
ing plants, biting them off and swallowing them piecemeal or 
entire. One bird swallowed four flowers of Cordia, twelve mm. in 
width in rapid succession, swinging head down and reaching far 
out to secure them or flying past a cluster of blossoms to cut one off 
in passage without the slightest hesitation and then alighting to 
swallow its catch. They also eat berries of various kinds in quan- 
tity. Danforth found palm berries in the stomachs of those that he 
shot. No complaint has been made of damage against them and at 
present the species is not known to have any particular economic 
importance. Baron de Wimpffen wrote in 1817 that the " flesh is 
said to be delicious " but it is not known that the palm-chat is 
regularly hunted. 

The palm-chat is one of the birds of the island that is parasitized 
by a peculiar anthomyiid fly Philornis pici (Macquart) whose eggs 
are laid on nestling birds and develop in a sac under the skin of 
the head or wing. A. Busck 30 described the larva of this fly from 
a parasitized palm-chat shot September 8. The larva left the bird 
the same day, burrowed in earth and made a cocoon from which 
the adult insect emerged September 18. He found these parasites 
common at San Francisco, Dominican Republic, the infestation in 
small birds there amounting to nearly 90 per cent of the individuals 
examined. The insects did not seem to cause injury that was neces- 
sarily fatal as adult birds that he shot frequently showed a shrivelled 
larval sac indicating that they had been parasitized in early life. 
The iris in the palm-chat is reddish brown in both sexes. 

An immature palm-chat taken by Abbott at Laguna on the Samana 
Peninsula August 7, 1916, is fully grown but still retains the juvenal 
dress on head and body. The markings and colors in general are 
similar to those of the adult except that the feathers of the throat 
and foreneck are almost entirely dark with only faint lighter edgings 
and the rump is lighter being buffy brown. 

ar-roc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 7, 1907, pp. 2-3. 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 351 

The series of skins that we have examined shows much variation, 
those from Haiti as a whole seeming slightly lighter and less heavily 
streaked below than those from the Dominican Republic, particu- 
larly when compared with skins from the Samana Peninsula which 
are especially dark and heavily marked. There is evident tendency 
toward geographic distinction in color but from the series examined 
this is not expressed with sufficient definition to warrant the naming 
of local races on Hispaniola proper, which may come later with 
more detailed studies of local conditions and larger sets of skins. 

As few sets of measurements of this species have been published 
the following taken from an extensive series may be of interest: 

Males, 17 specimens, wing 82.3-89.8 (86.3), tail 65.6-77.0 (69.8), 
culmen from base 13.5-16.5 (15.1), tarsus 20.3-24.4 (22.3) mm. 

Females, 15 specimens, wing 83.4-90.0 (86.8), tail 63.5-77.4 (68.3), 
culmen from base 13.7-16.0 (15.0), tarsus 20.2-23.5 (22.2) mm. 

The bird described by Swainson as Dulus nuchalis 31 supposed to 
have come from " Brazil " said to be " above olive brown ; nape with 
a transverse bar of white; beneath cream color, with distinct stripes 
of dark brown " has long been a puzzle since it has been believed 
that it might be a distinct species with habitat not known. Bond 
writes : 32 "I have examined Swainson's type of Dulus nuchalis in 
the Cambridge (England) Museum. There is nothing remarkable 
about the bird, the only difference in coloration being an ill-defined 
and irregular spot of albinism on one side of the neck. Nuchalis, 
therefore, must be considered synonymous with dominicus." 

The palm-chat is from 190 to 210 mm. in length with moderately 
long tail and fairly strong bill somewhat curved at the base. The 
bird is olive above with a greenish wash on the rump and upper 
tail-coverts, and edgings of the same color on feathers of wings and 
tail. The under surface is yellowish white broadly and distinctly 
streaked with sooty brown. The species may always be identified 
at its huge nests of sticks in the royal palms which differ wholly 
from the structures built by any other of the small birds of the 
island. 

DULUS DOMINICUS OVIEDO Wetmore 
GONAVE PALM-CHAT, OISEAU PALMISTE 

Dulus dominicus oviedo Wetmobe, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 42, 
March 25, 1929, p. 117 (Picmy Gonave Island, Haiti). 

Dulus dominicus, Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, 
p. 509 (Gonave; local). 

ffl Anim. Menag., 1838, p. 345. 

82 Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 510. 



352 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Gonave Island, resident. 

The palm-chat of Gonave Island is grayer brown, less olive above, 
has the rump and upper tail-coverts less extensively washed with 
green, and averages somewhat larger, with heavier bill than the 
form of the main island. The new race was described from seven 
specimens taken at Picmy, a little village on the southeastern shores 
of La Gonave on July 5, 1920, bj^ TV. L. Abbott. The series is quite 
uniform in the characters noted and is approached in color and size 
by only a few of the many specimens examined from Hispaniola 
proper. 

Following are measurements (in millimeters) of the Gonave series : 

Males, five specimens, wing 90.1-92.2 (91.2) ; tail 72.3-80.7 (75.0) ; 
culmen from base 15.6-16.8 (16.2) ; tarsus 21.0-23.1 (22.3). 

Females, three specimens, wing 88.3-94.1 (90.9) ; tail 72.0-74.8 
(73.0); culmen from base 16.2-17.3 (16.9); tarsus 22.1-24.1 (22.9). 

This race is named in honor of Capt. Gonzalo Fernandez de 
Oviedo y Valdes, first among the early historians of the New World, 
who in his Historia General y Natural de las Indias, begun in 1526, 
gave to the world many observations on natural history particularly 
from Hispaniola where he resided for years. His account of the 
panearo comunero, as he termed the palm-chat is highly entertaining. 

Abbott writes that the palm-chat is local on Gonave as on his first 
visit he did not find it. On a later trip inland from Picmy along 
a small stream where he found royal palms he located quite a large 
colony of the birds and there collected his specimens. Bond says 
that it is local in occurrence due probably to the few available palms 
and other nesting trees. Poole and Perrygo collected it at Massacrin 
on March 9, 1929. 

Family VIREONIDAE 

Subfamily Vireoninae 

VIREO CRASSIROSTRIS TORTUGAE Richmond 

TORTUE VIREO, OISEAU CANNE 

Vireo crassirostris tortugae Richmond, Smithsonian Misc. Colls., vol. 68, 
no. 7, July 12, 1917, p. 2 (Tortue Island, Haiti).— Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 510 (Tortue; habits). — Lonnberg, Fauna och 
Flora, 1929, p. 106 (Haiti). 

Resident on Tortue Island, Haiti ; common. 

Abbott writes that he found these birds in pairs in dense bush, 
but makes no further comment on their habits. 

James Bond writes that this vireo " occurs abundantly throughout 
the island. In habits, song and nesting it resembles the northern 
white-eyed vireo (V. grlseus). March appeared to be the height of 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 353 

the breeding season, as many as five nests being found during my two 
weeks' stay on the island during that month. These were placed 
from about one to three feet above the ground, and contained one 
fresh egg, two fresh eggs, three heavily incubated eggs, and three 
young nearly ready to leave the nest, while one nest was empty, the 
young having but recently flown. A single egg secured March 18th 
measures 21.6 by 14.5 mm." A nest that he collected is a cuplike 
structure suspended, as usual in vireos, by the margin from a fork 
at the end of a limb. It is made of strips of bark with a lining and 
filling of leaves and other soft materials, with a very deep cup. The 
occurrence of this vireo on Tortue is of considerable interest since 
the species crassirostris, with four other geographic races, range 
through the Bahama and Cayman Islands to Old Providence in the 
Caribbean Sea. As Tortue is only fifty miles from Great Inagua 
the separation here is not great, it being more remarkable that the 
vireo has not crossed from Tortue to the coast of Haiti less than 
five miles away. 

Vireo crassirostris tortugae differs from Vireo c. crassirostris in 
being tinged or washed with buff instead of yellow below, and in 
having the upper surface buffy brown rather than grayish. It does 
not require comparison with the other forms of crassirostris 
(flavescens, alleni and approximates) as these are brighter colored, 
being much more yellow. V. c. tortugae is subject to considerable 
plumage wear as the summer season advances, then appearing grayer 
than in fresh dress. Even worn specimens are browner, however, 
than crassirostris. The twenty-one specimens available were taken 
from January 30 to February 8, April 7 and 8, and June 29, 1917. 
Measurements from this entire series show no appreciable difference 
from crassirostris, the smaller size alleged in the original description 
disappearing when a larger series is measured. Dimensions of 
tortugae (in millimeters) are as follows: 

Males, 17 specimens, wing 59.3-63.4 (61.5), tail 45.7-51.5 (48.9), 
culmen from base 12.2-13.8 (12.9), tarsus 18.3-20.8 (19.8). 

Females, 4 specimens, wing 57.0-63.3 (59.5), tail 44.3-46.8 (45.9), 
culmen from base 12.4-13.6 (12.9), tarsus 19.5-20.3 (19.9). 

Type, male, wing 62.7, tail 50.7, culmen from base 13.3, tarsus 19.8. 

There is apparently some difference in eye color, due possibly to 
age as Abbott has marked this on different specimens as pale yellow- 
ish, grayish white, gray and dark gray. He indicates the bill as 
lead color, blackish above, and the tarsi as leaden. 

This vireo is from 129 to 136 mm. long, dull buffy brown above, 
and whitish washed with buff (more heavily on the chest) below. 
A yellowish white line extends from above the eye to the lores, and 
there are two white wine; bars. 



354 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

VIREO OLIVACEUS OLIVACEUS (Linnaeus) 

JAMAICAN VIREO, BIEN-TE-VEO, QUIEN FUE, JULIAN CHIVI, OISEAU 
CANNE, PETIT BANACHE 

Musoicapa olivacea Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, vol. 1, 1766, p. 327 
(Jamaica). 

Turdus hispaniolensis, Ritter, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, 
p. 156 (Haiti, specimen). — Hartlaub, Isis, 1847, p. 609 (listed). 

Musoicapa altiloqua, Viexllot, Hist. Nat. Ois. Amer. Sept., vol. 1, 1807, p. 
67 (" Saint-Domingue"). 

Tyrannula altiloqua, Hartlaub, Isis, 1847, p. 609 (listed). 

Vireo altiloquus, Salle, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, p. 231 (listed). 

Vireo altiloquus barbatulus, Cory, Bull. Nuttall Ornitli. Club, 1881, p. 152 
(Haiti). 

Vireo calidris, Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 1S67, p. 93 
(Dominican Republic, Haiti). — Cory, Birds Haiti and Sun Domingo, March, 
1884, pp. 49-50 (Petionville, Sainana, specimens) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, 
p. 115 (Haiti, Dominican Republic). — Ttppenhatjer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 
321 (listed).— Cherrie, Field Col. Mus., Ornith. ser., vol. 1, 1896, p. 13 
(Dominican Republic, specimens). — Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, p. 576 (specimen at sea 
near island). — Verrill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 61, 1909, 
p. 364 (common). 

Vireosylva calidris calidris, Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, p. 417 
(Monte Cristi, Sosua, specimens). 

Vireosylva olivaceus, Lonnberg, Fauna och flora, 1929, p. 106 (Gonave). 

Vircosylvia olivacea, Ekman, Ark. for Bot., vol. 22A, No. 16, 1929, p. 7 
(Navassa). 

Vireo olivacea olivacea, Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 
1928, p. 510 (Haiti, Gonave, and Tortue). 

Vireo olivaceus olivaceus, Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 372 (habits, song, food). — 
Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, p. 321 (San Juan, specimens). 

A breeding form, found on Gonave and Tortue as well as on the 
main island. 

The visitor to Hispaniola who is familiar with the birds of eastern 
North America recognizes at once the Jamaican vireo through its 
close similarity in song and habit to the red-eyed vireo of the North. 
The species inhabits woodland growths and mangrove swamps in 
both arid and humid sections, being rather universally distributed. 
In the highlands it does not occur in the pine forests, and on La 
Selle Wetmore did not record it on the summit of the high ridge of 
that mountain system, though he observed it on the north face of 
Morne Cabaio at 1,700 meters, and saw it also at Chapelle Faure in 
Nouvelle Touraine. At Constanza and El Rio a few were found in 
groves of deciduous trees. Strangely enough though this vireo was 
seen at Las Cahobes and at Caracol none were found at Hinche on 
the central plain during Wetmore's stay there in April, though the 
birds must occur there at times as the mockingbirds about the ex- 
periment station, which so far as known are strictly resident, imi- 
tated its song constantly. Possibly the vireo passes through this 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 355 

section in spring migration. The Jamaican vireo finds dense semi- 
arid scrubs much to its liking but at the same time ranges commonly 
through such humid forests as clothe the hills of the Samana 
Peninsula where rain is of almost daily occurrence and the vegeta- 
tion below the exposed tree tops never dries. 

In Porto Rico the Jamaican vireo is migrant arriving in February 
and leaving in September. In the extensive series secured by Ab- 
bott in Hispaniola the earliest spring record is that of one from 
Tortue Island February 2, and the latest in fall one taken at Rojo 
Cabo on the Samana Peninsula August 30. Hartert informs us 
that there is a specimen in the Tring Museum taken by Kaempfer 
in the Yuna swamps October 12, 1922. The species seems however 
to remain here through the year as in an extensive series secured by 
A. H. Verrill, now in the collection of J. H. Fleming, there are three 
skins marked as taken at Sanchez December 22, 25 and 26, 1906, 
two at Cafia Honda January 7 and 12, 1907, two at El Valle January 
14 and 17, and a series at Sanchez from January 21 to 30. Bond re- 
ports seeing two at Port-au-Prince December 26, 1927. Beck se- 
cured specimens at Santo Domingo City October 3 to 24 and at 
Sanchez November 3 to 18 and December 12, 1917. This matter of 
winter occurrence is curious since it is certain that this vireo is 
found in the Santa Marta region in Colombia at that season, and 
that it leaves Porto Rico in winter. We are inclined to believe that 
it is partially migrant in Hispaniola also, a supposition confirmed 
by a report of M. J. Nicoll who on February 27, 1904 secured one 
that flew about his vessel while passing to the south of the island 
en route from Porto Rico to Jamaica, a bird that would seem to 
be a migrant from the south. The matter of the occurrence of this 
bird is one that should be given attention by naturalists who are on 
the island during winter. 

R. H. Beck secured four on Navassa Island, July 14 and 17, 1917, 
that are in worn breeding dress. They appear browner, less green- 
ish than ordinary but are not in condition for proper comparison. 
Ekman recorded this species from Navassa in October, 1928. 

The ordinary song of this vireo may be written as cher chereo, 
a couplet that after a short pause is again repeated. Occasionally 
this is varied somewhat but the bird has no extended repertoire. On 
the hills back of Sanchez Wetmore found them abundantly dis- 
tributed through the forest each male having its territory where it 
moved about slowly or remained quietly perched uttering its song. 
In the swamps of the Yuna and Barrancota they were also common. 
Abbott secured a series on Gonave Island and another on Tortue, 
so that apparently the birds are found there in numbers. Danforth 
records them from Gonave reporting that the song there is different 
from that heard on Hispaniola proper. 



356 BULLETIN" 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

On Tortue Island May 19, 1917, Abbott found a nest in a mangrove 
four meters from the ground that contained three small young. 
The nest is a cupped structure suspended by the margin in the fork 
at the tip of a limb. It is made of rootlets, mosslike materials, and 
bits of bark with rather thick walls, and is lined with brownishj 
fibers. Sets of two and three eggs were collected on May 20 and 23, 
1917, the eggs being white spotted very sparingly with minute to 
moderate spots of black and blackish brown, these being found 
mainly at the larger end of the egg. The individual eggs of these 
two sets were confused in cataloguing and may not now be separated. 
The two eggs that may be measured have the following dimensions : 
22.6 by 16.4 and 23.5 by 15.7 mm. The nest of the set secured May 
20, suspended like the one described above in the fork at the tip 
of a twig, is a much slighter structure than the first one and is made 
largely of shredded bark padded heavily with cotton so that it is 
conspicuously white. It was placed two meters from the ground. 
Danforth found numerous nests containing from one to three eggs 
on Gonave Island July 15 to 20, 1927, at heights of five to nine feet 
from the ground. An adult male of this vireo taken at Sanchez, 
May 9, 1927 by Wetmore had the maxilla and tip of mandible dull 
slaty brown; iris reddish brown, and tarsus gray number 6 (of 
Ridgway). 

In the extensive series examined all specimens are referable to the 
typical form, birds from Hispaniola agreeing closely with those of 
Jamaica, those of Porto Rico averaging very faintly paler. Bangs 
and Penard 33 have shown that the specific name olivaieeus, long in 
use for the red-eyed vireo, must replace calidris current for the 
present group, the appellation of the red-eyed vireo being changed 
to Vireo virescens. 

The Jamaican vireo is from 155 to 175 mm. in length, of slender 
form, greenish above, duller and grayer on the head, and whitish 
below, with a yellowish green wash on the sides and under tail 
coverts, a prominent light streak above either eye, a blackish malar 
stripe, and a grayish brown mark before the eye. 

LAWRENCIA NANA (Lawrence) 
FLAT-BILLED VIREO 

Empidonax nanus Lawrence, Ibis, 1875, p. 386 ("St. Domingo "=Doininic:in 
Republic). — Cory, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, July 1884, pp. 82-83, col. 
fig. (description, figure of bead). — Tippenhauer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892^ p. 321 
(listed). 

Lawrencia Ridgway, Auk, 18S6, p. 382 (new genus for Empidonax nanus 
Lawrence). 

33 Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. G", 1925, pp. 205-206. 



THE BIEDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN" REPUBLIC 357 

Lawrencia nanus, Cory, Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 109 (Dominican 
Republic).— Vekbill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 61, 1909, p. 361 
(.Miranda, specimen). 

Laivrencia nana, Ridgway, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 50, pt. 4, 1907, p. 893 (descrip- 
tion, allocation to oscines). — Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, pp. 
416-417 (Sosiia, specimen). — Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 
192S, p. 511 (Gonave Island; northern Haiti).— Danfoeth, Auk. 1929, p. 370 
(Gonave Island).- — Lonnberg, Fauna och Flora, 1929, p. 106 (Gonave). 

Resident, locally distributed in both republics; found on Gonave 
Island. 

Though the present species was described as long ago as 1875 there 
is still little known regarding it. The type secured in the Dominican 
Eepublic by W. M. Gabb and preserved in the United States Nation- 
al Museum, bears neither date nor locality as these were matters 
considered at that day of no great importance. Verrill in 1909 wrote 
of this bird " extremely rare, found at Miranda only " but seems not 
to have collected any so that his record is open to doubt. The second 
specimen so far as record goes was not obtained until 1916 when J. L. 
Peters secured one at Sosiia, Dominican Republic, on April 8. He 
writes that the bird had " just flown across a little open stretch and 
alighted in a small tree through which it was searching in a most 
vireo-like manner when I shot it." W. L. Abbott found the species 
common on Gonave Island, Haiti, and there collected nine skins, four 
of them February 20, 21 and 24, 1918, marked Gonave Island and five 
March 6, 7 and 10 from Anse a Galets. He secured another at Port 
Rincon, on the Samana Peninsula, Dominican Republic, August 16, 
1919, and one at Mao, in the Yaqui Valley, February 24, 1921. He 
writes that the birds were common on Gonave, being found in dense 
brush near the foot of the hills, usually in pairs, and remarkably 
tame. Under date of September 2, 1919 he reports others seen near 
Sosiia, Dominican Republic, but did not secure them. Hartert (in 
a letter) says that there is a male in the Tring Museum taken by 
Kaempfer at Tiibano, Province of Azua, Dominican Republic, at 300 
meters altitude on July 24, 1923. Danforth in 1927 found it fairly 
common on Gonave where F. P. Mathews collected a male near Anse 
a Galets July 20, which " was perched on top of a bush, calling with 
a fairly loud, unmusical trill." James Bond in 1928 collected speci- 
mens in Haiti which are in the Academy of Natural Sciences in 
Philadelphia, a female at Magasin Caries, February 25, a breeding 
male and another with sex not indicated at Port-de-Paix March 12 
and 13, and others from Gonave February 5 and 8. He writes that 
" Lawrencia in habits and appearance resembles the white-eyed 
vireos delighting as it does to creep about in low scrub, occasionally 
hopping about on the ground in search of food. Only once did I 
observe this bird fly at insects in the manner of a flycatcher, the snap 



358 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

of its bill on this occasion being distinctly audible. * * * The notes 
of this vireo resemble a clear, whistled rather titmouse-like wit-wit- 
wit-wit-wit, sometimes varied to a more rapid " wi-wi-wi-wi-wV 
Its note when scolding resembles that of V. griseus." He did not find 
nests but believed that they were breeding on the northern peninsula 
in March, and on Gonave in May and June. Poole and Perrygo col- 
lected one at Fort Liberte February 8, 1929. Wetmore in 1927 ob- 
served the flat-billed vireo at two localities. On March 30 with Dr. 
G. N. Wolcott near Mont Kouis as the motor car in which he rode 
stopped beside the road a slender little bird appeared in a scrubby 
tree, six meters away hopping and peering about in a leisurely way 
in its search for insects. It was typically vireolike in action differ- 
ing only in the more slender form, and longer tail than ordinary in 
that group. The light eyes were easily evident. This individual 
disappeared into heavier brush and could not be found again. It 
was seen within 50 meters of the sea, near the base of a steep hill 
where dense scrub grew in a stony soil beneath taller trees which now 
were leafless. On May 7 at the summit of the hill above the town of 
Sanchez, Dominican Republic, one came out of a dense tangle of 
vines almost within reach in response to a squeak. It hopped about 
in leisurely manner and flew with quick, certain flight strongly sug- 
gesting a vireo. It disappeared soon in the dense tangle but later 
was located again and collected. A low, whistled song of two notes 
constantly repeated resembling wheury wheuinj wheury wheury and 
so on for six or eight repetitions that came constantly from the same 
dense tangles of vines he was inclined to attribute with some cer- 
tainty to this species, though he failed to locate the singer, since he 
was familiar with the notes of other birds found at this point and 
recognized these as new to his experience. The one taken, an adult 
female about to breed, had the iris dull ivory white ; base of mandible 
dull whitish, rest of bill dusky; tarsus and toes gray number 6 (of 
Ridgway). 

From scanty information at hand it appears that this species is 
found principally among low limestone hills grown with scrub and 
that it may occur in humid or arid sections, being perhaps more com- 
mon in the latter. 

There are two color phases in this species, one in which the lower 
surface is strongly suffused with yellow, and one in which the under- 
pays are white with only the faintest tinge of yellow in the center of 
the abdomen. The yellow phase seems to predominate as ten of 
twelve skins in the United States National Museum are of that color 
and only two, one of them the type of the species, are white. White 
and yellow birds are alike in size, and of the white phase one comes 
from Gonave and one from the main island. Birds from Gonave do 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN" REPUBLIC 359 

not differ appreciably from those of the main island. Following are 
measurements taken from our series : 

Males, 6 specimens, wing 55.4-59.5 (56.7), tail 48.4-55.5 (52.9), 
culmen from base 9.5-10.4 (9.9), tarsus 18.5-20.9 (19.7) mm. 

Females, 5 specimens, wing 54.5-57.0 (55.8), tail 51.2-53.1 (51.9), 
culmen from base 9.1-10.5 (9.8), tarsus 18.1-19.8 (19.1) mm. 

Type, sex not known, wing 54.6, tail 49.7 culmen from base 10.2, 
tarsus 18.4 mm. 

The affinities of this small bird have been a matter of some uncer- 
tainty. The species was described in 1875 by George Newbold 
Lawrence as Empidonax nanus and placed in the tyrant flycatchers, 
Tyrannidae, evidently because of its flat bill. In 1886 Kidgway 
separated it in another genus which he called Lawrencia in honor of 
Lawrence, remarking that " the type of this genus is exceedingly dif- 
ferent in structure from any of the species of Empidonax" He sug- 
gested that in color it resembled "some of the Vireones especially 
V. belli." On reviewing the species 34 critically again in connection 
with his studies of the Tyrannidae Ridgway decided from examina- 
tion of the wing structure and the form of the tarsal envelope and 
foot that Lawrencia belonged in or near the family Vireonidae 
though differing from recognized genera of Vireos in possessing a 
broad, depressed bill of markedly triangular form. 

Among specimens forwarded by Dr. W. L. Abbott to the collec- 
tions of the National Museum there is a complete specimen and 
a body in alcohol from Gonave Island. Dissection of the complete 
bird has afforded opportunity for a comparative study to deter- 
mine more definitely the relationships of the species. These were 
examined by Wetmore some years ago and an account of his find- 
ings was presented before the A. O. U. meeting in Cambridge, Mass., 
in 1923. As for various reasons this account of the anatomy and 
affinities of this bird has never been published it is pertinent to 
include it here in some detail. 

The alcoholic specimen examined had three rather prominent 
rictal bristles on either side of the bill while the tips of the feathers 
bordering the base of the maxilla were modified into setae. Both 
upper and lower eyelids were bare save for a single row of small 
marginal feathers on the upper lid and a double row on the lower 
lid that merged into the densely feathered region of the lores. A 
large roughly elliptical temporal space, characteristic of the osci- 
nine Passeriformes occupied the side of the head posterior to the 
auricular opening. (Fig. 1.) The spinal and ventral tracts were 
differentiated on the side of the neck immediately below the ear 

M Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 1906, pp. 12-13, and U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 50, vol. 4, 
1907, pp. 339, 892-893. 



360 



BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



where a rather broad apterium began. The spinal tract (pteryla 
spinalis) was somewhat narrowed between the shoulders, and then 
at the center of the scapulae, broadened gradually to form an 
enlarged tract. This contracted suddenly behind with abrupt lat- 
eral angles and a shallow posterior indentation on either side and con- 
tinued in a double row of papillae to expand slightly once more 
behind the level of the femoral attachment on the pelvis, and finally 
terminated at the base of the large oil gland. The oil gland 
had a prominent naked nipple and was bare except for two or three 
scattered down feathers. There was no trace of a median apterium 
in the large dorsal rhombus of the spinal tract. 

There were twelve rectrices. The upper coverts of all save the 
center pair were normal and lay above the bases of the quills at their 





Figure 2. — Upper wing 
muscles of the flat- 
billed v i r e o law- 
rencia nana. x 2 



Figure 1. — Dorsal ptery- 
losis of the flat- 
billed vireo lawrencia 
nana. natural size. 

outer margins. The median coverts were represented only by slender 
filoplumes of which there were two on one side and three on the 
other all growing from the integument above the inner margin of 
the quill base on either side. There were thus ten fully developed 
coverts and a series of filaments that may be considered as the aborted 
remnants of two more. Other filoplumes were not found nearer than 
the lower part of the spinal tract above the oilgland. 

The humeral tract was three rows of papillae wide. In the wing 
there were nine secondaries and ten primaries. The tenth (outer- 
most) primary, while reduced in length and falcate in shape was 
one-half the length of the ninth and was similar in form and relative 
size to the tenth primary in the subgenus Vireo. The wing was 
eutaxic. The ventral feather tracts beginning at the base of the bill 
proceeded backward, broadened somewhat and then divided at a 
point one-third of the total length of the neck above the shoulders. 
After passing on to the breast these tracts expanded broadly, this 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 361 

lateral extension continuing to opposite the base of the knee where 
each tract was suddenly restricted and continued as a narrowed line 
down the side of the abdomen, the two converging finally to meet 
the circle of feathers surrounding the anal prominence. 

The arrangement of the shoulder muscles was typical of that of 
the oscinine Passeriformes according to present knowledge. The 
M. propatagialis longus (fig. 2) was free from the shoulder for a 
short distance only before becoming tendinous. It received a very 
slender slip from the M. cucullaris. The M. propatagialis brevis was 
moderately strong in form, elliptically elongate and pointed. From 
the slightly prolonged lower point came a slender tendon that 
passed down and attached to the tendon of the M. extensor meta- 
carpi radialis longus, and then separating again passed inward to 
insert on the ectepicondylar process of the humerus. 

On the upper arm the M. deltoideus major brevis was strong and 
heavy extending practically the full length of the humerus to insert 
on the ectepicondylar process. The M. deltoideus major longus was 
likewise long and strong. It narrowed somewhat below, but did 
not become tendinous. It inserted in fleshy fasciae at the base of 
the ectepicondylar prominence behind the insertion of the tendon 
of the brevis portion of this muscle. 

The M. latissimus dorsi was double, both anterior and posterior 
portions being present, of which the latter was slightly the stronger. 
The two were separated in origin as usual but converged rapidly and 
met immediately after passing out over the scapula. At the point 
where the two passed free from the M. trapezius toward their attach- 
ment on the humerus the anterior portion overlapped the posterior 
and continued partly superimposed upon it. 

In the Tyrannidae the arrangement of these muscles is different. 
In Tolmarchus gabbii, a tyrannine form, the M. propatagialis brevis 
is more moderate in development, extending only half way down 
the humerus, with the lower end decidedly blunt. The slender 
tendon extends from the outer margin of the blunt termination and 
is attached below in the usual manner to the tendon of the M. extensor 
metacarpi radialis longus. The two tendons attach finally to the 
ectepicondylar process very near one another the point of attachment 
of the brevis lying above and external to the other. The disparity 
in size between the two tendons beyond their point of attachment 
is marked, that of the brevis being only about one third the bulk of 
the other. The other shoulder muscles exhibit marked differences 
from the condition described in Lawrencia nana. The M. deltoideus 
major brevis is quite heavy but extends only three-fifths of the 
length of the humerus to insert on the humeral shaft. There is no 
tendon proceeding down from it to the ectepicondylar process. The 
M. deltoideus major longus also is partly aborted as it thins out, 



362 BULLETIN" 155, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

becomes attenuate below the middle of the humerus and finally passes 
on as a very slender tendon 5 millimeters in length that as usual 
inserts on the ectepicondylar process. The anterior and posterior 
portions of the M. latissimus dorsi arise far apart and converge but 
do not meet until after leaving the body to proceed toward their 
attachment on the humerus. Both are rather slender. In another 
New World flycatcher, Myiarchus do??iinicensis, the M. latissimus 
dorsi show the same conformation. In such oscinine species, how- 
ever, as Vireo virescens and Vireo crassirostris tortugae the deltoid 
muscles are similar in development to those of Lawrencia nana. The 
M. latissimi dorsi also have the same overlapping arrangement as 
that described in Lawrencia. 

The syrinx of Lawrencia nana is of the diacromyodian type. The 
intrinsic muscles insert on the dorsal and ventral end of the first 
bronchial semiring. The single pair of extrinsic muscles is very 
slender. In Vireo -flavifrom the extrinsic muscles are likewise 
slender and attenuate. The intrinsic muscles are flattened. Dorsally 
their attachment is to the end of the second bronchial semiring and 
ventrally to the end of the first semiring. 

For comparison a description of the anisomyodian type of syrinx 
found in the Tyrannidae is given. In Tyrannus tyrannus the ex- 
trinsic muscles are cylindrical and in contrast to those in the 
oscinine birds just described are strong and well developed. The 
intrinsic muscles form an enlarged rounded mass on either side. 
From this an elongation is inserted on the dorsal end of the second 
bronchial semiring alone. The development of these muscles in 
Tyrannus verticalis is the same. 

The viscera in perching birds at present offer no known points 
of value for classification but may be described in Lawrencia to com- 
plete this account. The right lobe of the liver is slightly longer than 
the left but the two are nearly equal in bulk as the left portion has 
a somewhat broader lateral extension than the right. A gall 
bladder is present under the right lobe and there are two hepatic 
ducts that enter the ascending arm of the duodenum below its an- 
terior end. The pancreas has a single lobe included in the loop 
of the duodenum but only loosely attached to the gut. The intes- 
tine as a whole measures 115 millimeters in length, while the long 
intestine, extending from the caeca to the anus is 8 millimeters 
long. The caeca are paired, ear-shaped lobes about 2.5 millimeters 
in length and 2 millimeters broad that project as rounded, nodular 
prominences from the sides of the ventral surface of the intestine. 
The stomach appears strong and muscular. The ventricular por- 
tion measures 8 millimeters by 10 millimeters. 

In the skull of Lawrencia there is distinct agreement with the 
vireos in the form of the free end of the vomer which is not incised, 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 363 

in the large single opening, forming the anterior passage from the 
orbit above the mesethmoid, in the shape of the transpalatines in 
which the outer margin curls upward as a scroll, and in the form 
and position of the foramina of the occipital veins. 

From the other genera of vireos Lawrencia differs extremely in 
the broad, depressed, triangular bill the width of which at the 
frontal antiae is more than twice the depth at this point. The elon- 
gated, slender tarsus is also striking. In the skull the face is dis- 
tinctly broader, the lower margin of the lachrymals extending out- 
ward only to the inner margin of the zygoma, and the outer margin 
of the processus maxillaris of the premaxilla being distinctly convex. 

It is easily apparent that Lawrencia is a somewhat peculiar mem- 
ber of the Vireonidae. 

The flat-billed vireo is from 125 to 135 mm. long with slender 
form and long tail. Above it is greenish olive gray, with whitish 
lores and a whitish ring around the eye. The wings are dusky, the 
feathers being margined faintly with whitish, with a broad band of 
white across the ends of the primary coverts. Below the bird is 
white or light yellow. 

Family COEREBIDAE 
Subfamily Coerebinae 

COEREBA BANANIVORA BANANIVORA (Gmelin) 

HISPANIOLAN HONEY-CREEPER, SIGTTITA, STJCRIER, BANANISTE, PETIT 

SERIN, BANANE MURE 

Motacilla bananivora Gmelin, Syst. Nat., vol. 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 951 ("insulae 
S. Dominici "=Hispaniola). 

Bananiste, Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois., vol. 5, 1778, pp. 332-334 (description). 

Sucrier (part), Montbett,t,ari>, in Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois., vol. 5, 1778, pp. 543, 
545 ( " Saint-Domingue " ) . 

Certhiola, Haetlaub, Isis, 1847, p. 609 (listed). — Sallf,, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
London, 1857, p. 233 (listed). 

Cert Ma flavcola, Bitter, Naturh. Reis. Westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, p. 155 
(specimen). 

Certhiola Clusiae " Wiirttemberg " Hartlaub, Naumannia, 1852, p. 56 
(Haiti). 

Certhiola cluciae, Cory, Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, 1881, p. 151 (locally 
abundant). 

Certhiola bananivora, Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 
1867, p. 95 (Dominican Republic, Haiti). — Cory, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, 
March, 1884, pp. 41^3, col. fig. (description of nest; Puerto Plata, Saman&, 
PStionville, specimens). — Tippenhatjer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 321 (listed). — 
Tristram, Cat. Coll. Birds belonging H. B. Tristram, 1889, p. 218 (Saman&, 
Rivas, specimens). — Christy, Ibis, 1897, p. 321 (Sanchez, description of 
tongue). — CrFERRi, Seg. Inf. An. Est. Nac. Agr. Moca, 1927, p. 6 (listed). 

Coereba bananivora, Cory, Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, p. 116 (Haiti, 
Dominican Republic) . — Cherrie, Field Col. Mus., Ornith. ser., vol. 1, 1896, p. 12 



364 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

(nesting). — Verriix, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 61, 1909, p. 364 
(Dominican Republic). — Peters, Bull. Mus. Corn p. Zool., vol. 61, 1917, p. 423 
(Monte Cristi, Sostia, specimens). — Kaempfer, Journ. fiir Ornith., 1924, p. 184 
(Dominican Republic). — Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 30, 1927, p. 141; Beneath 
Tropic Seas, 1928, p. 223 (Haiti).— Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 
vol. 80, 1928, pp. 511-512 (Haiti).— Danforth, Auk, 1929, p. 372 (generally dis- 
tributed; Gonave). — Lonnberg, Fauna och Flora, 1929, p. 108 (Haiti). — 
Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, p. 322 (Haina, San Juan, 
specimens ) . 

Resident, locally common, more particularly in sections with 
plentiful rainfall; found on Gonave and Petite Cayemite Islands. 

The honey-creeper is commonly distributed through the island be- 
ing found especially where abundant rainfall produces suitable cover 
of vegetation. It ranges from sea-level to the tops of the mountains 
in both republics as it has been recorded from the summit of La Selle 
and from the mountains above Constanza and El Rio. In the up- 
lands it inhabits deciduous growths and does not range among the 
pines except where its usual habitat is afforded by trees and bushes 
growing along little streams. Wetmore did not record it during his 
brief stay near Hinche in 1927 but it is possible that it is found 
locally in areas of brush in that vicinity. Though usually common 
the bird is somewhat retiring so that it may be easily overlooked 
except by those familiar with its high-pitched, insect-like song. It 
seems especially common over the southwest peninsula of Haiti and 
the Samana peninsula in the Dominican Republic. Abbott found it 
common on Gonave Island, and secured a male on Petite Cayemite 
Island January 13, 1918. Danforth in 1927 records it as fairly com- 
mon on Gonave where he found a nest containing one egg July 17. 
Poole and Perrygo collected skins in 1929 at Plaine Mapou and 
Massacrin on Gonave. 

These birds feed regularly at blossoms of many kinds being espe- 
cially fond of the banana. Though much of the food is nectar they 
also consume quantities of minute insects and spiders. Peters reports 
that at Monte Cristi they feed extensively at the flowers of the agave. 

The breeding season extends over a considerable part of the year. 
Peters secured young not more than two months old at Monte Cristi 
between February 7 and 21, and an incubating female at Sostia 
March 30, 1916. Cherrie found male and female busily carrying 
nesting material at Santo Domingo City February 15, 1895, and 
Cory describes a nest found May 1, 1883 (probably at Samana, 
though this is not stated) in deep woods, placed at the end of a 
long limb, containing two fresh eggs. On May 9, 1917 W. L. Ab- 
bott collected a set of three eggs (of which one was lost) at Petit 
Port a l'Ecu. The nest, placed in a bush one and one-half meters 
from the ground, is the globular structure usual in this genus, rough- 
ly 100 mm. in diameter, entirely enclosed, with a small opening in 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 365 

one side. This nest is constructed of weed stems, filaments of moss, 
grasses, and small leaves, mingled with occasional masses of spider 
webbing, lined with softer materials of the same kind. The nest 
wall is thickened at the side below the opening to form a sort of 
threshold being only half as thick elsewhere. The two elliptical 
eggs are dull white heavily marked with suffused markings of verona 
brown which while heaviest at the large end cover the entire sur- 
face concealing most of the light background. One of the eggs is 
broken so that it can not be measured, the other is seemingly a 
" runt " egg measuring only 14.9 by 11.2 mm. Another nest was 
collected by Abbott at Lajana, Dominican Republic, on the south 
side of Samana Bay. This structure was placed at the tip of a limb 
in a thorny bush growing in a cleft in a limestone cliff a meter and a 
half above the sea. It is generally similar to the one described 
above but is made of coarser materials with very little spider web- 
bing. It contained one egg colored like those described above but 
with the spotting confined mainly to the larger end of the egg with 
only scattered markings below. This egg measures 16.0 by 12.5 mm. 
Abbott remarks that nests of this bird are often suspended on lianas 
swinging over paths or open places in the woods from two to three 
meters from the ground. Wetmore found a nest May 11, 1927 at 
San Lorenzo, Dominican Republic suspended at the tip of a limb a 
little more than a meter from the ground in jungle on a steep hillside. 
The nest was a ball of grasses and bark shreds with a smooth, 
round entrance beneath. It contained three hard-set eggs only one 
of which could be properly preserved. This has the white back- 
ground almost entirely obscured by suffused markings of natal brown 
and measures 17.5 by 13.0 mm. Bond records that he found the 
honey-creeper breeding for the entire period of his stay on the island 
from January to June 1928. 

The honey creeper regularly uses the old nests as roosts. At the 
home of Dr. George F. Freeman in Port-au-Prince at the end of 
March and during April Wetmore observed one of these birds on a 
number of occasions as it retired for the night. Almost invariably 
it flew up from dense brush across the street to rest with flitting 
wings on a telephone wire for a few minutes and then suddenly 
pitched down into a casuarina and entered a nest six meters from 
the ground near the tip of a drooping limb where it was distin- 
guished with difficulty from the abundant epiphytes that clothed the 
branches about it. 

The honey-creeper measures from 100 to 112 mm. in length and 

has a short tail and a slender, strongly decurved bill. It is sooty 

brown above with a white line over the eye and a white spot on the 

wing, dark gray on the throat and foreneck, and yellow on the 

2134—31 24 



366 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

breast. Immature individuals have the throat and line over the 
eye yellowish, and the underparts dull grayish white. 

COEREBA BANANIVORA NECTAREA Wetmore 

TORTUE HONEY-CREEPER, PETIT SERIN 

Coereba bananivora nectarea Wetmore, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 42, 
March 25, 1929, p. 118 (Tortue Island, Haiti). 

Resident on Tortue Island, Haiti. 

The honey-creeper of Tortue Island differs from that of Hispaniola 
proper in having the throat and f oreneck slightly darker gray. This 
difference was noted when the series from Hispaniola secured by 
Abbott was first examined, and was verified by a specimen secured 
March 23, 1928 by James Bond, now in the Philadelphia Academy 
of Natural Sciences. In other respects the Tortue bird seems similar 
to that of the main island. Following are measurements of the two 
males in the United States National Museum : Wing 58.0 35 -58.5 
(58.3), tail 33.9 35 -35.3 (34.6), culmen from base 12.5-13.0 35 (12.8), 
tarsus 17.0-17.2 35 (17.1) mm. 

A female in the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences has 
the wing 58.1, tail 54.4, culmen from base 12.9 and tarsus 16.4 mm. 

A nest collected by Abbott, not occupied at the time, is a ball made 
of the gray moss common in the trees of many localities, lined with 
weed stems and grasses. 

Family COMPSOTHLYPIDAE 3H 

MNIOTILTA VARIA (Linnaeus) 
BLACK AND WHITE WARBLER, PETIT CHIT 

Motacilla varia Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, vol. 1, 17G6, p. 333 
(Hispaniola). 

Black and white warbler, Beck, Nat. Hist., vol. 21, 1921, p. 41 (Loma Tina). 

Ficedula Dominicensis varia Bkisson, Ornith., vol. 3, 1760, pp. 529-531, pi. 
27, fig. 5 ("S. Domingue"). 

Sylvicola varia, Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, May, 1S67, 
p. 91 (Haiti). 

Mniotilta, Hartlaub, Isis, 1847, p. 609 (listed). 

Mniotilta varia, Cory, Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, 1881, p. 151 (Haiti) ; Birds 
Haiti and San Domingo, March, 1884, pp. 23-24 (winter) ; Cat. West Indian 
Birds, 1892, p. 117 (Haiti, Dominican Republic).— Tristram, Ibis, 1884, p. 168 
(Dominican Republic, specimen). — Tippenhatjer, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, p. 321 
(listed). — Cherrie, Field Col. Mus., Ornith. ser., vol. 1, 1896, p. 11 (Dominican 
Republic, specimens). — Verrux, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 61, 
1909, p. 364 (Dominican Republic).— Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 61, 
1917, p. 423 (Rio San Juan, specimen; Sosua). — Beebe, Zool. Soc. Bull., vol. 

86 Type. 

38 The following apparently refers to wood warblers which may not be identified 
specifically. 

Pivionets, Saint-Me>y, Descrip. Part. Franc, tie Saint-Domlngue, vol. 1, 1797, p. 717 
(Port-de-Paix). 



THE BIRDS OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN BEPUBLIC 367 

30, 1927, p. 141; Beneath Tropic Seas, 1928, p. 223 (Haiti, specimens).— Bond, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, 1928, p. 512 (winter). — Ekman, Ark. 
for Bot., vol. 22A, No. 16, 1929, p. 7 (Navassa).— Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital 
Scienz. Nat., vol. 68, 1929, p. 322 (San Juan, specimens). 

Winter visitant from North America; fairly common. 

The black and white warbler is one of the migrant horde of small 
birds that in fall swarms southward through the West Indies, com- 
ing regularly to spend the winter in Hispaniola. It is told easily 
from its relatives by its black and white streaked plumage, and by 
its habit of running over the limbs and trunks of trees where it 
clings easily to the bark with its sharp claws often from the under 
side of branches. It may occur anywhere through the island where 
there is suitable tree growth. 

This species is another of the group that have Hispaniola as the 
type locality since Linnaeus based his Latin name for it on the ac- 
count of Brisson who described a specimen sent by Chervain to de 
Reaumur. 

The first definite record for the Dominican Republic seems to be 
a skin sent by C. McGrigor to Canon Tristram. Cherrie speaks of 
collecting nine in the southern part of the Dominican Republic from 
January 22 to April 21, 1895, but does not cite localities. In the 
collection of J. H. Fleming there are the following specimens secured 
by A. H. Verrill in 1907 : Sanchez, January 21, February 28, March 
6 and 9; Samana, January 31, February 4 and 7, and Cayo Levan- 
tado, opposite Samana, February 14. Beck reports the black and 
white warbler from Loma Tina in the high interior February 3, 
1917, and collected one at Santo Domingo City September 27, 1916. 
Peters found it rather uncommon along the north coast, securing 
one at Rio San Juan, and seeing a few others near Sosua. W. L. 
Abbott collected a female at Laguna on the Samana Peninsula 
March 7, 1919, and a male at Polo in the Bahoruco Mountains, 
February 26, 1922. Ciferri secured skins near San Juan at Sabana 
San Thome September 29 and October 25, 1928, and at Corral de 
los Indios October 7, 1928. 

Though it is probable that the specimen mentioned as collected by 
Chervain came from Haiti the first definite record from that republic 
is of two birds that A. E. Younglove secured at Port-au-Prince, 
March 7 and April 13, 1866, and sent to the Smithsonian Institution. 
Cory found this species in 1881, and Bartsch in 1917 recorded it at 
Thomazeau April 2, and Glore April 3. Abbott reported it for 
Tortue Island, and Beebe records it as common in 1927 when he shot 
several. Wetmore in 1927 saw two on the outskirts of Port-au-Prince 
March 29, one at Fond-des-Negres March 31, one at Etang 
Miragoane April 1, and one on the very summit of Morne La Visite 
in the Massif de La Selle at 2100 meters elevation on April 13. At 



368 BULLETIN 15 5, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Hinche a male was taken April 20 and a female seen April 23. 
Bond records it at Port-au-Prince and on Gonave, and Poole and 
Perry go collected specimens at St. Michel January 14, St. Raphael 
January 11, Dondon January 19, Fort Liberte February 16, Pont 
Sonde February 27, St. Marc February 25, Plaine Mapou, Gonave 
Island March 12, and Cerca-la-Source March 21 and 24, 1929; at 
the latter point it was plentiful. Ekman found it on Navassa 
Island in October, 1928. 

The black and white warbler is from 115 to 130 mm. long with 
long, slender bill. The plumage is streaked black and white both 
above and below in the male, and white with faint dusky streaks on 
the