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SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Bulletin 172 



BIRDS FROiM SIAM AND THE MALAY 
PENINSULA IN THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL 

MUSEUM COLLECTED BY 
DRS. HUGH M. SMITH AND WILLIAM L. ABBOTT 



BY 

J. H. RILEY 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1938 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C. - - - - - Price 75 cents (Paper cover) 



ADVERTISEMENT 

The scientific publications of the National Museum include two 
series, known, respectively, as Proceedings and Bulletin. 

The Proceedings series, begun in 1878, is intended primarily as a 
medium for the publication of original papers, based on the collec- 
tions of the National Museum, that set forth newly acquired facts 
in biology, anthropology, and geology, with descriptions of new forms 
and revisions of limited groups. Copies of each paper, in pamphlet 
form, are distributed as published to libraries and scientific organi- 
zations and to specialists and others interested in the different sub- 
jects. The dates at which these separate papers are published are 
recorded in the table of contents of each of the volumes. 

The series of Bulletins, the first of which was issued in 1875, con- 
tains separate publications comprising monographs of large zoologi- 
cal groups and other general systematic treatises (occasionally in sev- 
eral volumes), faunal works, reports of expeditions, catalogs of type 
specimens and special collections, and other material of similar nature 
The majority of the volumes are octavo in size, but a quarto size has 
been adopted in a few instances in which large plates were regarded 
as indispensable. In the Bulletin series appear volumes under the 
heading Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, in 
octavo form, published by the National Museum since 1902, which 
contain papers relating to the botanical collections of the Museum. 

The present work forms No. 172 of the Bulletin series. 

Alexander Wetmore, 
Assistant Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 

Washington, D. C, October 18, 1938. 
n 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Introduction 1 

Localities in Siam and adjoining parts of French Laos, Cambodia, and 
Burma where natural-history collections were made by Dr. Hugh M. 

Smith, 1923-1934 5 

Dr. W. L. Abbott's itinerary in Siam 12 

Zoogeography of the region 16 

Previous ornithological work 17 

Systematic list of birds 20 

Colymbidae : Grebes 20 

Pelecanidae : Pelicans 20 

Sulidae: Boobies, gannets 21 

Phalacrocoracidae : Cormorants 22 

Anhingidae : Snakebirds 23 

Ardeidae: Herons, bitterns 23 

Ciconiidae: Storks, jabirus 35 

Plegadidae: Ibises and spoonbills 37 

Anatidae: Geese, ducks, swans 39 

Accipitridae: Hawks, Old World vultures, harriers, ospreys 42 

Falconidae: Falcons, caracaras 57 

Phasianidae : Quails, pheasants, peacocks 60 

Turnicidae: Hemipodes 74 

Gruidae : Cranes 76 

Rallidae: Rails, coots, gallinules 76 

Heliornithidae : Sun-grebes 82 

Jacanidae : Jacanas 83 

Rostratulidae : Painted-snipe 84 

Charadriidae: Plovers, turnstones, surf birds 84 

Scolopacidae: Snipes, woodcocks, sandpipers 89 

Recurvirostridae: Stilts, avocets 96 

Burhinidae: Thick-knees 97 

Glareolidae: Coursers, pratincoles 97 

Laridae : Gulls, terns 99 

Columbidae: Pigeons, doves 102 

Psittacidae: Parrots, macaws 118 

Cuculidae : Cuckoos 123 

Tytonidae: Barn owls 142 

Strigidae: Typical owls 144 

Podargidae : Frogmouths 153 

Caprimulgidae: Goatsuckers 154 

Hemiprocnidae: Crested swifts 157 

Micropodidae : Swifts 158 

Trogonidae : Trogons 1G3 

Alcedinidae : Kingfishers 169 

Meropidae : Bee-eaters 180 

Coraciidae : Rollers 186 

Upupidae : Hoopoes 189 

Bucerotidae : Hornbills 190 

Capitonidae : Barbets 197 

Picidae: Woodpeckers, piculets 210 

in 



IV BULLETIN 172, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Systematic list of birds — Continued. Page 

Eurylaimidae : Broadbills 246 

Pittidae: Pittas 255 

Alaudidae : Larks 262 

Hirundinidae : Swallows 263 

Campephagidae : Cuckoo-shrikes 267 

Dicruridae : Drongos 278 

Oriolidae : Orioles 294 

Irenidae: Fairy bluebirds 300 

Corvidae : Crows, magpies, jays 302 

Paradoxoruithidae: Parrotbills, suthoras 310 

Paridae : Titmice 311 

Sittidae : Nuthatches 313 

Certhiidae : Creepers ' 316 

Timaliidae: Babbling thrushes.- 317 

Pycnonotidae : Bulbuls 364 

Troglodytidae : Wrens 398 

Turdidae: Thrushes 398 

Sylviidae: Old World warblers 421 

Muscicapidae: Old World flycatchers 444 

Motacillidae: Wagtails, pipits 470 

Artamidae : Wood-swallows 478 

Laniidae : Shrikes 478 

Prionopidae : Wood-shrikes 481 

Sturnidae : Starlings 486 

Nectariniidae : Sunbirds 496 

Chalcopariidae : Rubycheeks 511 

Dicaeidae: Flowerpeckers 513 

Zosteropidae: White-eyes 522 

Ploceidae : Weaverbirds 524 

Fringillidae: Sparrows, finches, etc 533 

Index 537 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 
IN THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 
COLLECTED BY DRS. HUGH M. SMITH AND 
WILLIAM L. ABBOTT. 



By J. H. Riley 



INTRODUCTION 

This catalog of birds is founded upon large collections made by Dr. 
Hugh M. Smith in Siam, covering almost the entire country from 
Patani in Peninsular Siam to Chiengdao in the north, and the collec- 
tions of the late Dr. W. L. Abbott, made in Trang, the Malay States, 
and some of the islands off the coast of western Peninsular Siam. 

Dr. Hugh M. Smith went to Siam in 1923 as adviser and expert in 
fisheries to his Siamese Majesty's Government, to investigate and 
develop the fish resources of the country. In addition to his official 
duties, he immediately began collecting material in other branches of 
natural history in his spare time and forwarding the results to the 
United States National Museum. 

Dr. Smith collected in eastern and southeastern Siam early in 1924 
and visited Koh Chang, a large mountainous island lying about 10 
miles off the coast of the southeastern part of the country. Not many 
birds were collected on this visit, however. In May he visited 
Bangnara, Patani, and later in the year returned to southeastern Siam. 
He collected there and around Bangkok for the remainder of the year 
and early the following year. 

On January 1, 1926, Dr. Smith went to Koh Chang again, then 
explored the adjacent country and the Korat Plateau, revisited 
Bangnara and Patani, and made collections in Nakon Sritamarat and 
Koh Tao, off Bandon. In addition, he made collections around Bang- 
kok. 

Dr. Smith was still on Koh Tao early in 1927 and then collected 
on the mainland for a few days, returning to Bangkok. From there 
he went to eastern and southeastern Siam and was back in Bangkok 
late in March. 

Early in April 1928 he collected in Kanburi, then in southeastern 
Siam early in May, in Pran, southwestern Siam, late in May and early 

1 



2 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATION/VL MUSEUM 

in June, and in Nakon Sritamarat early in July, where he visited Kao 
Luang, the highest mountain in the vicinity. He returned to Kanburi 
early in September, then went to Koh Tao once more; visited Kao 
Seming and Krat early in October and reached Lampang, northern 
Siam, by the middle of November; went to the Khun Tan Mountains 
a few days later, collecting at 3,000-4,500 feet; then visited Chiengmai 
toward the last of the month. From Chiengmai he went, on Decem- 
ber 1, to Chomtong and to Doi Angka (or Intanon), the highest 
mountain in Siam, which rises to 8,500 feet. He remained there 
until December 9 and then returned to Cliiengmai and on the 14th 
and 15th ascended Doi Sutep, the mountain back of the city, 5,600 
feet high. By December 22 he was again in Bangkok. 

In mid-February 1929, Dr. Smith began collectmg on the Korat 
Plateau, visited Vientiane, Laos, and went down the Mekong to Ban 
Nakae. He collected in eastern Siam until the middle of April, from 
there going to Koh Kut on May 20 for a few days. A short time was 
spent at Chantabun. He w^as in Singora and at the Tale Sap from 
June 29 to July 12, and at Lat Bua Kao, eastern Siam, by July 29, 
where he remained until August 14. Collecting was begun at Sichol, 
Bandon, on August 28 and continued until September 5. He visited 
Kanburi, September 19 to 26; Khun Tan, October 16 to 28; Pak Chong, 
eastern Siam, November 16 to December 9; Krat, southeastern Siam, 
December 20, 1929, to January 1, 1930, where collecting was done on 
Kao Bantad, Kao Kuap, and Kao Seming. 

Dr. Smith reached Kao Sabap, Chantabun, an isolated peak a little 
over 3,000 feet high, on January 5, 1930, and collected there until the 
9th. He continued to collect in southeastern Siam until about the 
middle of March, proceeding thence to Prae, northern Siam, where he 
arrived on April 10. He reached Nan on April 16, returned to Prae on 
April 26, and to Bangkok on May 5. He then revisited Sichol, 
Bandon, on May 15 and remained until the 28th. Three birds were 
collected at Koh Sichang, July 3-5. Dr. Smith was also at the follow- 
ing places: July 10-23, at Aran, eastern Siam; August 23-September 
10, at Khun Tan; and October 1-10, at Kao Luang, Nakon Sritamarat. 
He visited Doi Nangka, a mountain mass north of Chiengmai, about 
5,000 feet high, November 2-22, then went to Kao Lem and Tha 
Chang, eastern Siam, December 25, 1930, to January 2, 1931. Tha 
Chang and Kao Lem are in a wild and rugged mountainous region 
northeast of Bangkok. 

Dr. Smith then went to Patani, Peninsular Siam, where he collected 
at Bukit, January 23-25, and at Yala, January 30-February 2. After 
returning again to Bangkolc, he went to Pran on April 1 and remained 
there until April 4, revisiting Doi Nangka, a wild mountain region 
northeast of Chiengmai, April 22 to May 6. Some time was spent 
from June 26 to 30 at Lem Sing and Kao Sabap, mountains in south- 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 3 

eastern Siam, and at Koh Pangan (also written Pennan) and Koh 
Samui, off Bandon, July 22 to August 7. From August 31 to Sep- 
tember 2, Dr. Smith was at Koh Samet, a forest-clad hilly island near 
the mainland in southeastern Siam. 

He collected at Tha Lo, Bandon, in the upper valley of the Tapi 
River, from September 13 to 30, going then to Nong Yang, Sriracha. 
Collecting was done at various localities in southeastern Siam until 
November 16, and at Hin Lap, eastern Siam, from December 6 to 12. 

In 1932 Dr. Smith collected at Chiengdao, northern Siam, on 
January 28, and remained there until February 1, spent February 3 
on Doi Sutep, then moved to Mekhan on the 6th and remained there 
until the 9th, collected in the Khun Tan Mountains, February 13 to 
March 4, and visited Bung Borapet, a large swamp in central Siam, 
June 19 to July 1; then went to Sriracha and vicinity, July 22 to 
August 9; Hin Lap, September 28 to October 3; Gengkoi, October 16; 
the Pasak Valley, October 18 to 23. The Pasak Pdver is a long and 
tortuous stream marking the boundary between Central Siam and 
the eastern plateau. Stretching eastward from the river is a vast 
primeval-forest jungle abounding in big game. 

In the last months of the year collections were made at the Sam 
Roi Yot (Three Hundred Peaks), in southwestern Siam, and in the 
mountain-forest jungle of the northwestern corner of Siam. 

At the beginning of 1933, work was continued in the northwest, and 
an expedition started from Chiengmai, headed northwesterly, crossed 
a dozen mountain ranges, and reached the remote town of Mehongsorn 
on the Pai River, a tributary of the Salwin. The party then de- 
scended the Salwin in dug-out canoes, camping at night on sandbanks, 
either on the Burmese or Siamese side of the river, until Moulmein, 
Burma, was reached on February 3, 1933. Much of the region trav- 
ersed was primeval-forest jungle, abounding in big game. 

Bung Borapet, a vast swampy area, was revisited from March 
21 to 30. The swamp has been dammed and converted into a perma- 
nent lake, where immense numbers of fish-eating and marsh-inhabiting 
birds occur together with kites, hawks, and vultures. 

Dr. Smith collected at Muek Lek, eastern Siam, April 16-28; in 
the Khun Tan Mountains, May 9-18; and at Koh Lak, southwestern 
Siam, June 5-25. He visited Kao Chong, Trang, Peninsular Siam, 
August 23 to September 13. Trang is the province in which Dr. 
W. L. Abbott had collected more than 30 years previously. He again 
went to Kao Sabap in southeastern Siam, October 23-November 26. 
According to Dr. Smith, Kao Sabap is covered with evergreen forest 
and is largely in a primeval condition. Returning to Trang, Dr. 
Smith collected on Kao Soi Dao, December 20, 1933, to January 29, 
1934. 



4 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

He went to Petchabun in central Siam on February 14 and Lomsak 
on the 16th, and collected at Kao Pae Pan Nam on the 18th and 19th, 
Vichienburi on the 27th, and Ban Nam Phu on the 28th. 

Dr. Smith collected at the following places from Alarch 12 through 
September 7: Wang Kien, Kanburi, March 12-17; Bangkok, March 
29-April 5; at Sriracha, April 19-20; Bangkok, April 27-May 14; 
Lam ton Lang, Pak Chong, May 25-June 2; Chantuk, June 7-17; 
Pak Chong, June 20-26 ; on Doi Phra Chao or Meru Sawan, August 
1-7; and on Doi Hua Mot, August 12 to September 7, 1934. These 
two mountains belong to the same mountain mass as Doi Nangka, 
and the last mentioned reaches a height of 6,000 feet. 

Dr. Smith's collecting in Siam came to an end at this point, and 
he returned to the United States. While on duty in Siam, he covered 
all the territory fairly well from Patani in southern Peninsular Siam 
to the northern boundary, and the eastern, southeastern, and south- 
western parts of the country. Many locaUties were visited more than 
once; some several times. Dr. Smith's residence was in Bangkok, 
and many birds were taken in the vicinity in the intervals between 
field trips. 

During his residence in the country, Dr. Smith forwarded to the 
United States National Museum a total of 6,459 bird skins, 96 bird 
skeletons, and 43 birds' eggs, besides large collections in other branches 
of natural history. This is a remarkable record when one considers 
that his primary object was to investigate the fish resources of the 
country. 

The foUovidng new forms of birds were described by me from Dr. 
Smith's collection: 

Arborophila diversa. 

Cirropicus chlorolophus conjundus. 

Psarisomus dalhousiae cyanicauda. 

Garrulax ferrarius. 

Pellorneum smithi. 

Corythocichla brevicaudata cognata. 

Sibia picaoides cana (Heterophasia picaoides cana) . 

Alcippc nipalensis eremiia. 

Ixos canescens. 

Heteroxenicus nangka (Brachypteryx leucophris nangka). 

Myophonus temminckii changensis {Myophonus crassirostris) . 

Niltava smithi {Niltava vivida oatesi). 

Niliava grandis nobilis. 

Hypolhymis azurea monlana {Hypolhymis azurea styani). 

Rhipidura albicollis celsa {Rhipidura albicoUis albicollis). 

Terpsiphone sababensis. 

Aethopyga nipalensis angkanensis. 

Dicaeum umbratile {Dicaeum beccarii cambodianum) . 

Piprisoma modesta pallescens. 

Zosterops palpebrosa vicinia (Zosterops palbebrosa cacharensis) . 



BIRDS FROM SIAJM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 



LOCALITIES IN SIAM AND ADJOINING PARTS OF FRENCH LAOS, 
CAMBODIA, AND BURMA WHERE NATURAL-HISTORY COLLEC- 
TIONS WERE MADE BY DR. HUGH M. SMITH, 1923-1934 

Since there are no good modern maps of Siam known to me, and 
since many of Dr. Smith's locahties would not appear in any case, I 
give a list of collecting localities, prepared by Dr. Smith. 



ABBREVIATIONS » 



C= Central Siam. 

N«= North Siam. 
E = East Siam. 
W-^West Siam. 



NW = Northwest Siam. 
SE = Southeast Siam. 
P= Peninsular Siam. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DEFINITIONS 



Ao: Bay, 

Ban: Village. 

Bang: Village. 

Bung: Marsh. 

Buri: Town. 

Chieng: City or town (Lao). 

Dot: Mountain (Lao). 

Hin: Rock or stone. 

Huey (or Hui): Creek or brook (often 

dry). 
Kao: Mountain (Siamese). 
Klong: Canal or stream. 
Koh (or Kaw) : Island. 
Kwan: Lake (Lao). 
Kwe (or Gwe): Fork (of a river). 



Lem: Point or cape. 

Me: Ptiver or stream. 

Menam: Large river, principal river of 

a district. 
Muang: an administrative district or 

town. 
Nakon: Town or city (written also 

Nakawn, Angkor, Lacon, or Lakon). 
Noi: Small. 

Pak: Mouth (of a river). 
Paknam: River mouth. 
Pang: Village. 
Tha: Crossing. 
Wieng (or Vieng): City. 
Yai: Large. 



LOCALITIES 

Amphar Klong: A stream near Kao Sabap; SE. 

Angtong: Village on the Menam Chao Phya north of Ayuthia; C. 

Aran (written also Aran Pratet, Aranya Pradesha, Aranya, etc.): Village and 

railway station near Cambodian border; E. 
Ayuthia (written also Ayudya, Ayudhya, Ayutaya, etc.): Ancient city on Menam 

Chao Phya about 40 miles north of Bangkok; C. 
Ban Bua Chum: Village on the Pasak River; C. 
Ban Chai Montri: Village on Klong Tadi, Nakon Sritamarat; P. 
Ban Chan: Village on Klong Tadi, Nakon Sritamarat; P. 
Ban Chumporn (or Pen Pisai): Village on the Mekong; E. 
Ban Den (or Ban Den Ja) : Village on the Mekong; E. 
Ban Foe Hilom: Village on the Mekong; E. 
Ban Haad Hai: Village on the Mekong; E. 
Ban Han: Village near Udon; E. 

Ban Hin Ngom: Village on the Mekong near Nong Kai; E. 
Ban Hoa Kam (also written Ban Ho Kam): Village on the Mekong; E. 
Ban Hoi Tah: Village west of Nakon Sritamarat; P. 
Ban Huey Ok: Village on the Mepai; Burma. 
Ban Huey Ta: Village (700 feet) at base of Kao Luang, west of Nakon Sritamarat; 

P. 



* See description of the zoogeographlcal divisions of Siam, p. 16. 



6 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Ban Kam Pran: Village on the Pasak River; C. 

Ban Kang: Village on lower slope of Doi Angka; N. 

Ban Keng Sadok: Village on the Mekong; French Laos. 

Ban Kiriwong: Village near head of Klong Tadi, Nakon Sritamarat; P. 

Ban Kg Tan: Village on the Mekong, in Nakon Panoin; E. 

Ban Leni Ngao: Village on Klong Tadi, Nakon Sritamarat; P. 

Ban Manoa Wan: Village on the Pasak River; C. 

Ban Mekok: Village on the Pasak River; C. 

Ban Mekong: Village on the Mekong; E. 

Ban Melao: Village (725 m) on the Melao, northwest of Chiengmai; N. 

Ban Mor: Village on Klong Tadi, Nakon Sritamarat; P. 

Ban Na Luang: Village on the Mekong; French Laos. 

Ban Nakae (or Nake): Village on the Mekong near Nakon Panom; E. 

Ban Nam Kien: Village near Nan; N. 

Ban Nam Phu: Village between Tapan Hin and Pasak River; C. 

Ban Nong Dsrn Ta: Village on the Mekong; E. 

Ban Nong Keng: Village; E. 

Ban Ong: Village on the Salwin River; Burma. 

Ban Pan: Village on the Sikuk River; C. 

Ban Pang: Village on the Menam Chao Phya; C. 

Ban Peng Sao: Village west of Nakon Sritamarat; P. 

Ban Phradieng (also written Padieng): Village northwest of Chiengmai; N. 

Ban Pong: Village on the Mekong north of Rajaburi; C. 

Ban Prakieng: Village on Klong Tadi, Nakon Sritamarat; P. 

Ban Sadet: Village between Sriracha and Hupbon; SE. 

Ban Sob Pa: Village on the Salwin River; Burma. 

Ban Sok: Village on Klong Sok, Tapi River; P. 

Ban Ta Pai: Village northwest of Chiengmai; N. 

Ban Ta Pla: Village on the Mekong; E. 

Ban Ta Yai: Village on Klong Tadi, Nakon Sritamarat; P. 

Ban Tadi: Village on Klong Tadi, Nakon Sritamarat; P. 

Ban Taeng: Village near Korat; E. 

Ban Tai: Village on the Mekong; E. 

Ban Takaw: Village on the Pasak; C. 

Ban Taoten: Village on the Mekong near Nakon Panom; E. 

Ban Tarn Dam: Village near Sriracha; SE. 

Ban Tawai Phra: Village on the Pasak River; C. 

Ban Tha Yai: Village west of Nakon Sritamarat; P. 

Ban Ton: Village on the Mekong; E. 

Ban Timg Kwa Tao: Village on the Salwin River; Burma. 

Ban Un Pai: Village on the Mepai; Burma. 

Ban Wang Paen: Village on the upper Meyom, northeast of Lampang; N, 

Ban Yan Sue: Village on Klong Tadi, Nakon Sritamarat; P. 

Bandon (called also Surat and Surashta Dhani): Large town on the Bandon 

River; P. 
Bang Than: Village near Bangkok; C. 

Bang Torani: Village north of Bangkok on the Menam Chao Phya; C. 
Bangbert: Bay and community on Gulf of Siam, north of Chumporn; P. 
Banghia: River and village east of Bangkok; C. 
Bangkok (called also Krungdeb or Kjungtep): Capital of Siam, on the Menam 

Chao Phya; C. 
Bangnara (known also as Naratiwat or Naradhivas): Village on the China Sea 

south of Patani; P. 
Bangpakong: Large river (and village near its mouth), east of Bangkok; C. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 7 

Bangplasoi (called also Cholbiiri, Chonburl, and Jolburi): Town at northeast 
corner of Gulf of Siam; C. 

Bangsai: Village on the Menam Chao Phya; C. 

Bangsorn: Suburb of Bangkok on the Menam Chao Phya; C, 

Bangsuk: Village near Pak Chong; E. 

Bawka (or Bohka): Fishing village on west side of Gulf of Siam near Chum- 
porn; P. 

Bo Ploi: Village north of Kanburi; C. 

Bua Sum: Village on the Pasak River; C. 

Bua Yai: Village north of Korat; E. 

Bukit: Village in Patani; P. 

Bung Borapet: Large swamp-lake near Paknampo; C. 

Bung Tabgrit: Swamp near Bung Borapet; C. 

Chaibadan: Town on the Pasak River; C. 

Chainad (written also Chainat and Jainad): Town on the Menam Chao Phya 
north of Ayuthia; C. 

Chaiya: Village on the west side of the Gulf of Siam north of Bandon; P. 

Chantabun (written also Chantaboon and Chantaburi): Town; SE. 

Chantuk: Near Pak Chong; E. 

Chiengdao: Village on the Meping near base of Doi Chiengdao; N. 

Chiengmai: City on the Meping; N. 

Chiengrai: Town on tributary of the Mekong; N. 

Chomtong (written also Chawmtawng): Town on the Meping southwest of 
Chiengmai; N. 

Chonburi (or Cholburi) : (See Bangplasoi.) 

Chong Yam: Village on the Salwin River; Burma. 

Chumporn (written also Chumpon, Chumpawn, Jumbara, etc.): Large town on 
west side of Gulf of Siam; P. 

Darn Khun Thod: Village west of Korat; E. 

Doi Angka (called also Doi Intanon): Highest mountain in Siam (8,600 feet) 
southwest of Chiengmai; N. 

Doi Bata (or Pata): Mountain near Pal: N. 

Doi Buak Hua Chang: Mountain northwest of Chiengmai; N. 

Doi Chiengdao: Second highest mountain in Siam (7,169 feet), north of Chieng- 
mai; N. 

Doi Hua Mot: Part of the same mountain mass as Doi Nangka; N. 

Doi Intanon: (See Doi Angka.) 

Doi Kao Lip: Mountain (1,600 m), near Salwin River; Burma. 

Doi Kiew Koh Ma: Mountain (1,400 m) northwest of Chiengmai; N. 

Doi Kinchong: Mountain of the Melang Valley; N. 

Doi Mana: Mountain (1,450 m) west of Pai; N. 

Doi Nangka: Mountainous area northeast of Chiengmai; N. 

Doi Pang Wua Jao: Mountain near the Salwin River; Burma. 

Doi Phra Chao or Meru Sawan: Part of the same mountain mass as Doi 
Nangka; N. 

Doi Sutep (or Suteb): Isolated mountain (5,600 feet) west of Chiengmai; N. 

Doi Tin Pata: Mountain near Pai; N. 

Qengkoi: Village and railway station on the Pasak River; C. 

Haad Yai: Village and railway junction; P. 

Hang Nor Wu: Village on the Salwin River; N. 

Hang Turn Kai: Village on the Salwin River; N. 

Hangkraben: Branch of the Menam Chao Phya north of Ayuthia, important 
fishing community; C. 

Hin Lap: Village west of Korat; E. 



8 BULLETIN 172, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Hin Ngoxn: Tanibon on the Mekong; E. 

Hua Hin: Village and resort on Gulf of Slam; W. 

Hua Vieng: Village in Nan Province; N. 

Huey Lak: Mountain brook northwest of Chiengmai; N. 

Huey Lvik: Brook (2,000 feet) in Khun Tan Mountains; N. 

Huey Me Lao: Mountain brook northwest of Chiengmai; N. 

Huey Me Sae: Mountain brook northwest of Chiengmai; N. 

Huey Salob: Brook northeast of Mehongsorn; N. 

Huey Ya Pla: Near Bandon; P. 

Huey Yang: Village and railway station south of Prachuab Kirikhan; P. 

Huey Yang: Brook flowing into Klong Yai, near Sriracha; SE. 

Hupbon (or Hoopbon): Village near Sriracha; SE. 

Kampaengpet: Village on the Meping north of Paknampo; C. 

Kampang: On the Nan River; N. 

Kanburi (or Kanchanaburi) : Town on the Meklong at junction of its two 

forks, Kwe Yai and Kwe Noi, C. 
Kantang: Town south of Trang; P. 

Kao Bantad: Mountain near Cambodia, east of Krat; SE. 
Kao Cheng: Mountain east of Trang; P. 
Kao Kuap: Mountain near Cambodia, east of Krat; SE. 
Kao Lem: Mountain (1,328 m) in Sankambeng Range; E. 
Kao Luang: Mountain (1,756 m) west of Nakon Sritamarat; P. 
Kao Luong: Extensive mountainous area near Burmese border west of Prachuab 

Kirikan; SW. 
Kao Nong: Mountain (1,247 m) east of Bandon; P. 
Kao Pae Pan Nam: Mountain west of Lomkao, Pasak River; C. 
Kao Sabap (or Sabab): Isolated mountain near Chantabun; SE. 
Kao Seming (or Saming): Low mountain in coastal plain near Krat; SE. 
Kao Soi Dao: Mountain (993 m) in Nakon Sritamarat Range west of Singora 

and southeast of Trang; P. 
Khlung: Village near Chantabun; SE. 
Khonken: Village on the Menam Chi near Udon; E. 
Khonka: Valley west of Mcsarieng; N. 
Khun Tan (or Khun Tal) : Extensive mountainous area; N. 
Kieu (or Kiew) : Fishing village on west side of Gulf of Siam on Bandon Bight; P. 
King Pal: Village north of Korat; E. 
Kiu Pang: Village near the Salwin River; Burma. 
Klong Ban Poh: Branch of the Menam Chao Phya; C. 
Klong Chawang: Mountain stream east of Bandon; P. 
Klong Kriangkrai: Small tributary of the Menam Chao Phya near Nakon 

Sawan; C. 
Klong Nakon Noi: Stream flowing through Nakon Sritamarat into Gulf of 

Siam; P. 
Klong Rangsit: A canal near Bangkok; C. 
Klong Sao Tong: Same as Klong Ta Sai, q. v.; P. 
Klong Sok: Branch of the Tapi River, Bandon Province; P. 
Klong Tadi: Stream flowing from mountains eastward into Gulf of Siam through 

Nakon Sritamarat; P. 
Klong Tai Sai: Village and stream near Ronpibun; P. 
Klong Yai: Stream near Sriracha flowing into sea near Rayong; SE. 
Klong Yai: Stream and village on Cambodian border opposite Koh Kut; SE. 
Knong Phra: Pak Chong; E. 

Koh Angtong: Island in Gulf of Siam near Koh Samui; P. 
Koh Chan: Bird-nest island on west side of Gulf of Siam north of Chumporn; P. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 9 

Koh Chang: Large island in Gulf of Siam; SE. 

Koh Chula: Islet in Gulf of Siam off Lem Sing; SE. 

Eoh Kahten: Small island in Gulf of Siam south of Koh Samui; P. 

Koh Kram: Island on east side of Gulf of Siam; SE. 

Koh Kut: Island in Gulf of Siam; SE. 

Koh Lak (same as Prachuab Kirikhan): Village on west side of Gulf of Siam 

south of Hua Hin, at junction of W and P Siam. 
Koh Lantar: Island in Bay of Bengal; P. 
Koh Maprao: Islet in Gulf of Siam near Langsuen; P. 

Koh Pangan (incorrectly called Koh Pennan): Island north of Koh Samui; P. 
Koh Pipidon: Island in Bay of Bengal; P. 
Koh Prab (or Prap): Islet in Bandon Bight; P. 
Koh Proet (or Prerd) : Island in Gulf of Siam near Koh Chang; SE. 
Koh Samet: Island in Gulf of Siam; SE. 
Koh Samit: Island in Gulf of Siam near Chumporn; P. 
Koh Samui: Large island in Gulf of Siam east of Bandon; P. 
Koh Sichang: Island near head of Gulf of Siam off Sriracha; SE. 
Koh Si-Koh Ha (Four-Five Island): Limestone island in Tale Sap; P. 
Koh Talu (incorrectly spelled Taluei on charts): Island in Gulf of Siam near 

Koh Samui; P. 
Koh Tao: Island in Gulf of Siam off Chumporn; P. 
Koh Yai: Island in the Menam Chao Phya north of Bangkok; C. 
Konken: North of Korat; E. 

Korat (called also Nakon Rajasima, Nakon Rachasima, etc.): Large town; E. 
Krabin: Town on the Sakeo River, tributary of the Bangpakong River; C. 
Krat (Trad): Town on the Krat River; SE. 
Kumpawapi: Village near Udon; E. 

Kuong Phra: Village between Pak Chong and Tha Chang; E. 
Kut Bong: Tambon on the Mekong; E. 
Kwe Noi: West branch of the Meklong; W. 
Kwe Yai: East branch of the Meklong; C. 
Kwe Yai: Branch of the Menam Nan near Paknampo; C. 

Lam Klong Lang: Stream west of Pak Chong flowing into the Pasak River; E. 
Lam Tong Lang (also written Lamton Lang): Village near Pak Jong; E. 
Lampang: Large town on the Menam Wang, a tributary of the Meping, south 

of Chiengmai; N. 
Langsuan: Fishing town on west side of Gulf of Siam south of Chumporn; P. 
Lantae (or Lante) : Village on the Menam Chao Phya; C. 
Lat Bua Kao: Railway village on tributary of the Menam Mun near Pak 

Chong; E. 
Lem Ngob: Village on mainland opposite Koh Chang; SE. 
Lem Sing: Chantabun; E. 

Lomkao: Village near headwaters of the Pasak River; C. 
Lomsak: Village on the Pasak River; C. 
Lopburi: Ancient town north of Ayuthia; C. 
Mae Hong Som: NW. 

Mehiek: Village on the Salwin River; Burma. 
Mehongsom: Large town on the Mepai; N. 
Mekang: Waterfall stream on Doi Sutep; N. 
Mekhan: Tributary of the Meping southwest of Chiengmai; N. 
Meklong: A town at the mouth of the Meklong River, W. 
Mekok: River at Chiengrai, tributary to the Mekong; N. 

Mekong: Large river forming part of boundary between Siam and Laos; E and N. 
Mekong: Siamese name for the Salwin River. 



10 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Mekong: Stream tributarj' to the Mepai, N. 

Melak: Village northwest of Chiengmai; N. 

Melang: Village (700 m) west of Pai; N. 

Mepai: Large river tributary to the Salwin; N. 

Mepeiing: Mountain stream northwest of Chiengmai; N. 

Meping: Principal river in northern Siam, joining the Menan at Paknampo to 

form the Menam Chao Phya. 
Meru Sawan: See Doi Phra Chao. 

Meserieng (called also Maing Longyi and Meyuam): Town on the Meyuam; N. 
Mesort (written also Mesord and Mesawt): Village on the Thoungying River; N. 
Mesuya: Valley northeast of Mehongsorn; N. 
Meyom: River tributary to the Menan; N. 
Meyuam: Large tributary of the Salwin and a town thereon also called Meserieng 

(q. v.); N. 
Moulmein: City at moutli of the Salwin River; Burma. 
Muang Erabin: (See Krabin.) 
Muang Pai: (See Pai.) 

Muek Lek: Village and railway station on tributary of the Pasak River; E. 
Na Muang: Tambon near Rajaburi; C. 
Nakon Chaisi (spelled also Nakawn Chaisi and Nagara Jaisa): town and district 

west of Bangkok; C. 
Nakon Nayok: Town and river northeast of Bangkok, river tributary to the 

Bangpakong; C. 
Nakon Panom: Town on the Mekong; E, 

Nakon Patom: Town west of Bangkok, capital of Nakon Chaisi; C. 
Nakon Sawan (written also Nagara Svarga):Town on the Menam Chao Phya at 
junction of the Meping and the Menan; practically the same as Paknampo; C. 
Nakon Sritamarat: Large town; P. 
Nam Cheo: Stream and village in Krat Province; SE. 
Nam Chi Hua: Village on the Salwin River; Burma. 
Nan: Town on the Menam Nan; N. 
Nan River: N. 

Nawong: Village near Patalung, Tale Sap; P. 
Noan Wat: Village north of Korat; E. 
Nong Bua (Lotus Lake): Village on the Pasak River; C. 
Nong Han (or Nong Lahan): Large lake near Sakon Nakon draining into the 

Mekong; E. 
Nong Han (or Nong Lahan): Large lake near Kumpawapi draining into the 

Menam Chi; E. 
Nong Hang Sai: Large lake near Payao; N. 
Nong Kae: Village on Klong Rangsit (see Rangsit); C. 
Nong Kai: Town on the Mekong; E. 
Nong Keng: Village on the Mekong; E. 
Nong Khor: Lake and village near Sriracha; SE. 
Nong Mong: Lake and village near Krabin; C. 
Nong Nam Kiew: Lake and village inland from Sriracha; SE. 
Nong Parai: Village on the Kwe Noi near Kanburi; W. 
Nong Pranang: Swamp-lake off the Menam Nan near Bung Porapet; C. 
Nong Preng: Lake and village east of Bangkok; C. 
Nong Bu: Lake off the Nakon Nayok River; C. 
Nong Yang: Lake and village east of Sriracha; SE. 
Nontaburi: Village on the Menam Chao Phya north of Bangkok; C. 
Pai (or Muang Pai): Large town on the Mepai; N. 
Pak Bhayoon: Village on Tale Sap; P. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA H 

Pak Chong (or Pak Jong): Mountain village; E. 

Pak Hai: Village on the Menam Chao Phya north of Bankgok; C. 

Pakhinburi: Village on the Mekong; Laos. 

Paknam Chao Phya: Fishing town at the mouth of the Menam Chao Phya; C, 

Paknam Khan Nu: Village on the Meping near Paknampo; C. 

Paknampo: Town at junction of the Meping and the Menan; C. 

Pakpoon: Village on the west side of the Gulf of Siam in Nakon Sritamarat 

Province; P. 
Pakret: Island in the Menam Chao Phya north of Bangkok; C. 
Pang Chao: Village on the Mekang on Doi Angka; N. 
Pang Meton: Village on Doi Nangka; N. 

Pang Sok: Mountain village between Muek Lek and Pak Chong, E. 
Papun (or Papoon): Town in Tenasserim Province; Burma. 
Pasak River: A long river flowing south and dividing eastern from central Siam. 
Patalung (called also Muang Lung and Siyek): Town near Tale Sap; P. 
Patani: Large town on west side of Gulf of Siam near China Sea; P. 
Payao: Lake and village between Lampang and Chiengrai; N. 
Petchabun: Town on the Menam Sak; C. 
Petchaburi: Town on Petchaburi River, south of Rajaburi; C. 
Petriew (or Petrieu): Town on the Bangpakong (called also Chachongsao and 

Chaxoengsao) ; C. 
Pichit: Town on the Menam Nan; C. 
Pitsanulok (or Bisnulok): Town on the Menam Nan; C. 
Pol: Village north of Korat; E. 

Pon Pisai (called also Ban Chumporn): Village on the Mekong; E. 
Pong (or Pawng) : Village on Pong River, tributary of Menam Chi, near Udon; E. 
Potaram: Village on the Meklong north of Rajaburi; C. 
Prachin: Village on the Bangpakong northeast of Petriew; C. 
Prachuab Kirikhan (called also Koh Lak): Town on west side of Gulf of 

Siam; W. 
Prae: Village on the Nan River; N. 

Pran: West side of Gulf of Siam, north of Koh Lak at the mouth of Pran River; W. 
Puk Noi: Village on the Pasak River; C. 
Puket: Large island and town on west coast of Peninsular Siam (formerly known 

as Junk Ceylan, etc.). 
Raheng: Town on the Meping; C. 
Rajaguri (spelled also Rachaburi, Rajburi, Rajpuri, Ratburi, etc.): Large town 

on the Meklong; C. 
Rangeng: Village near Korat; E. 

Rangsit: Extensive irrigated district north of Bangkok; C. 
Rayasothon: Village near Udon; E. 
Rayong: Fishing village on Gulf of Siam; SE. 
Roi Et (or Roi Ech) : Town northeast of Korat; E, 
Ronpibun: Village near Tung Song; P. 

Sai Yok: Village on the West branch (Kew Noi) of the Meklong; W. 
Sakeo (or Srakeo): Village near Krabin; C. 
Sakon Nakon: Town west of Nakon Panom; E. 
Salwin: One of the large rivers of Asia, forming part of the western boundary of 

Siam. 
Sam Roi Yot: Isolated mountainous limestone region south of Pran River; P. 
Samrong: Canal south of Bangkok connecting Menam Chao Phya and the 

Bangpakong; C. 
Sankambeng Range: Mountains dividing East and Southeast Siam. 



12 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Sanpayang (or Sanpaiang): Village (384 m) northwest of Chiengmai; N. 

Saraburi: Town on the Menara Sak; C. 

Satahip (or Sataheep) : Village and naval station on east side of Gulf of Siam 
south of Sriracha; SE. 

Sichol (or Sichal or Seechol): Mining camp southeast of Bandon; P. 

Sikeu: Village on branch of the Menam Mun; E. 

Sikuk: Tributary of the Menam Chao Phya; C. 

Singora (called also Songkla or Songkhla): Town on Gulf of Siam and Tale 
Sap; P. 

Sisiket (or Srisiket): Town east of Korat; E. 

Sobpung: Village (875 m) northwest of Chiengmai; N. 

Song Kwe: Valley west of Meserieng; N. 

Sriracha (or Srimaharaja) : Village on Gulf of Siam; SE. 

Supanburi: Town on the Supan River; C. 

Tachalom: Town on the Tachin River; C. 

Tachang Lei: Village on the Salwin River; Burma. 

Tachin: Town on the Tachin River (called also Samut Sakon, Samud Sakawn, 
etc.); C. 

Tadi: Stream flowing into Gulf of Siam through Nakon Sritamarat; P. 

Take (or Tago) : Fishing village on the Gulf of Siam near Chumporn; P. 

Tale Noi: Lake connected with the inner part of the Tale Sap; P. 

Tale Sap (Inland Sea): Large body of fresh and brackish water near Singora; P. 

Tapi: River discharging into Bandon Bight below Bandon; P. 

Ta Pra: Tambon north of Korat; E. 

Ta Ta-Fang (also written Ta Fang): Frontier police station on Salwin River west 
of Mesarieng; N. 

Takaw: Village on the Pasak River; C. 

Tha Chang (Elephant Crossing) : Village on the Menam Mun east of Korat; E. 

Tha Chang: Village on tributary of the Menam Mun west of Korat; E. 

Tha Lo: Village southwest of Bandon; P. 

Tha Luang: Village on the Pasak River, site of extensive irrigation works; C. 

Tonburi (or Thonburi) : Part of Bangkok on west bank of the Menam Chao 
Phya; C. 

Trad: (See Krat.) 

Trang: Town west of Patalung; P. 

Ubon (or Ubol): Town on Menam Mun at eastern terminus of Eastern Rail- 
way; E. 

Udon (or Udawn): Town north of Korat; E. 

Um Mong: Valley (600 m) west of Pai; N. 

Vichienburi: Village on the Pasak River; C. 

Vientiane (or Wiengchan) : Capital of French Laos. 

Wang Hin: Village east of Bandon; P. 

Wang Kien: Village on Kew Yai of the Meklong near Kanburi; C. 

Wat Kiriwong: Wat and community of Klong Tadi west of Nakon Sritamarat; P. 

Waterfall is on Kao Chong, Trang; P. 

Yala: Village in Patani Province; P. 

Yamoo: Village near Patani; P. 

DR. W. L. ABBOTT'S ITINERARY IN SIAM 

Dr. W. L. Abbott arrived at Prahmon, Trang, on February 18, 
1896, and collected there until April, except for a visit to Telibon 
Island, February 25 to March 1, and again on March 28. He then 
went up the Trang River about 20 miles to Tyching, which is on the 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 13 

right bank of the riv^er where the road crosses leading to Patalung, 
remaining there until August 8 and then moving to Lay Song Hong, a 
large lake or swamp near the head of the river, where he stayed until 
about the middle of January 1897. Then he dropped down the river 
to Kantany and remained there January 16 to 18, then went east to 
Chong, on the divide between Trang and Patalung, and on February 
22 camped at the base of Kao Nom Plu, a mountain 3,000 feet liigh, 
where he remained two weeks. 

On IMarcli 12 he reached the base of Kao Song and on the same day 
was prostrated by remittent fevers for nine days. Then he returned 
to Tyching and two daj^s later dropped down the river to Gdntong 
and later went to Bhagalterum, a village near the mouth of the Trang 
River and north of the Plian River, which empties into the Trang 
near its mouth, and remained there March 20 to 23, and then went 
to Plian, a town on the south bank of the Plian River, where he 
remained in the vicinity from April 2 to 10. He then went to a 
hospital at Penang. The results of this expedition were 1,027 bird 
sldns, besides large collections in other fields. 

Dr. Abbott returned to Trang in December 1898. He left Plian 
on December 26 and, going inland, reached Kok Sai (at the foot of 
Kao Nok Ram at the head of the Plian River) on the 27th and 
remained in camp there, on the edge of heavy forest, until January 
8, 1899. After maldng some visits to the slopes of the mountain, 
he moved camp up the slopes of Kao Nok Ram to 1,700 feet, with 
heavy forests in all directions, remaining there until the 18th. The 
mountain was ascended to the summit, 3,200 feet; some peaks not 
visited were 500 to 600 feet higher. He then returned to Kok Sai, 
leaving there on February 1 to visit Kao Soi Dao, a mountain south 
of Kao Nok Ram and not quite so high. He camped on the slopes 
at 1,100 feet and remained there until February 21. Returning to 
Kok Sai on the 22d, he stayed until the 25th and then went to Naklua, 
a village on the Trang River near its mouth, about 5 miles east of 
Prahmon, where he remained from March 2 to 5, 1899. Then he 
left for Singapore. 

On this trip he brought back 300 bird skins in addition to his usual 
miscellaneous collections. 

While outfitting at Singapore for a cruise in a schooner he was 
having built. Dr. Abbott collected 80 bird sldns at Selitar, 9 miles 
from Singapore, in May 1899. At that time there were still a little 
jungle and forest on Singapore Island. He found the parrot Psittacula 
longicauda quite common, but shot only one. Wild pigs and small 
deer were rather common; rusa and an occasional tiger still occurred. 

He then cruised in his schooner through the Rhio Archipelago and 
eastward to the Tambelan and Anamba Islands from July to Septem- 

33527—38 2 



14 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

ber, and on his way back touclied at Pulo Tioman on the last day of 
September and remamed for the first four days in October. C. 
Boden Kloss accompanied him on the cruise. 

Dr. Abbott set sail from Singapore early in November 1899 for 
the Mergui Archipelago and on his way stopped at Pulo Lada, near 
Langkawi, November 30; then he went to Pulo Langkawi and was 
there from December I to 9, then landed on Pulo Nipis on December 
13, and arrived at Pido Adang on December 14 and remained until 
the 17th. He reached Chance Island, the southern island of the 
Mergui Archipelago, on December 27 and remained until the 31st, 
then touched at Victoria Point, Tenasserim, on January 3, 1900, and 
went on to Tanjong Badak the same day and remained there until the 
12th, but on the 5th was at Victoria Island; these three localities are 
not far apart. The following islands of the Mergui Archipelago were 
then visited: St, Mathews, January 14-17; St. Lukes, January 19-21 ; 
Loughborough, January 23-26; South Twin, January 27; and Sul- 
livans, January 29-Februar3^ 5. Next came Bok Pyin, on the main- 
land, February 9-19; then Domel Island, February 22-27; Ross 
Island, March 5; Heifer Island, March 5-G; Bentinck Island, March 
8-12; Bok Pyin and Tanjong Badak, March 15; Victoria Point, 
March 16; Maliwun, Tenasserim, March 18-25; and Victoria Point 
again, March 30-31. He then sailed for Singapore, stopping at 
The Dindings from April 12 to 16, 1900. On this cruise 436 bird 
skins were collected. 

In September and October 1900, Dr. Abbott cruised along the 
coast of Trengganu and visited Pulo Tioman again. The latter has 
a peak 3,500 feet high, but it was not climbed. C. Boden Kloss 
accompanied him on the trip; 120 bird skins were secured in Treng- 
ganu and 39 on Pulo Tioman. 

On the way to explore the Nicobar and Andaman Islands, Dr. 
Abbott touched at Victoria Point, Tenasserim, on November 24 and 
December 5-16, 1900; Tanjong Badak, November 26; Sungei Balik, 
November 29 and December 3; St. Mathews Island, December 9; 
Hastings Island, December 12; Chaduquat Point, December 19; 
and High Island, December 30, 1900. Not many bird skins, however, 
were secured at these localities. 

From May to August 1901 Dr. Abbott was exploring the coast of 
Johore and also took a few birds on the Pahang side of the Endau 
River, but not many birds were obtained. 

In the summer of 1902, Dr. Abbott visited the Rumpin River, 
Pahang, and Pulo Bintang, Rhio Archipelago, and obtamed 88 bird 
skins, mostly in Pahang. 

In the fall of 1903, Dr. Abbott started on another cruise to Tenas- 
serim and the Mergui Archipelago on which he collected 119 bird 
skins. He touched Pulo Langkawi, November 5; was off Pulo 



BIRDS FROM SIAJVI AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 15 

Terutau, November 8-21; reached Victoria Island, Tenasserini, 
December 4-5; was off TanjoDg Badak, on the mainland, December 
9-10, and Champang, December 13-22. Then the following islands 
were visited: St. Matthew, December 24; Sir William James, Decem- 
ber 29-30; Sullivans, January 4-6, 1904; Domel, January 22-30; 
Kisseraing, February 2-5. He then stopped at Boyces Point on the 
mainland, February 9-12; Telok Krang, February 14-17; 6 miles 
south of Boyces Point, February 17; Red Point, February 18-23; 
Sungei Balik, February 25-26; Telok Besar, February 27 to March 
6; Maliwun, March 7-9; Victoria Point, March 12; Telok Besar, 
March 18-21; Victoria Point, March 29; and again at Pulo Terutau, 
April 6, 1904, on his way to Singapore. 

I have thought it weU to include all the birds collected by Dr. 
Abbott on the various expeditions mentioned above, except those 
from Pulo Tioman, the Rhio Archipelago, the Tambelans, and 
Anambas; the latter two have been worked up by Dr. Harry C. 
Oberholser,^ and the others are beyond the scope of this paper. 

Tenasserini, the Mergui Archipelago, and the Alalay States are 
also outside the limits of the present paper, but it is thought well to 
record the specimens from these localities, as they add few birds 
unrecorded from Siam and help to show the distribution of the forms 
to better advantage. 

Dr. Abbott was probably the first naturalist to make collections in 
the interior of Trang, and quite a number of his birds were unrecorded 
from Siam at the time they were taken, but as the interior of Penin- 
sular Siam has been visited several times since by other parties, most 
of his records have been duplicated. He, however, took the following 
birds that still remain otherwise unrecorded from Siam: 

Nannocnus eurythmus. Hydrocissa malayana. 

Sterna albifrons saundersi. Cranobrontes corrugatus. 

Cuculus micropierus concretus. Cyanops henrici henrici. 
Hirundapus giganteus giganteus. 

The following forms of birds have been described from Dr. Abbott's 
Malay Peninsula collections: 

(1) By DR. CHARLES W. RICHMOND 

Turdinulus granli. Oreocincla horsfieldi affmis. 

Stachyris chrysops. Aethopyga anomala. 

Criniger sordidus. 

(2) By DR. HARRY C. OBERHOLSER 

Butorides javanicus abbotti. Copsychus saiilaris haliblectus. 

Dendrophassa vernans abbotti. Kittacincla malabarica pellogyna. 

Phodilus badius abbotti. Kittacincla malabarica lamprogyna. 

Caprimulgus macrurus anamesus. Cyornis rubeculoides chersone sites. 



>Proc. 17. 8. Nat. Mus., vol. 65, pp. 129-143, 1919; U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 98, 76 pp., 1917. 



16 



BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



Collocalia linchi elaclujptera. 
Rarnphalcyon capensis hydrophila. 
Graucalus sumatrensis messeris. 
Dissemurus paradiseus messatius. 
Dissemurus paradiseus hypohallus. 
Dissemurus paradiseus mallomicrus. 
Anuropsis malaccensis driophila. 
Stachyris nigriceps dipora. 
Mixornis gularis chersonesophila. 
Mixornis gularis archipelagica. 



Hypothymis azurea forrestia. 
Culicicapa ceylonensis antioxantha. 
Lamprocorax panayensis halictypus. 
Aethopyga siparaja heliotis. 
Cinnyris ornata heliobleta. 
Arachnothera chrysogenys astilpna. 
Arachnothera longirostris anlelia. 
Arachnothera longirostris heliocrita, 
Uroloncha acuticauda lepidola. 



(3) By J. H. RILEY 

Cyanops franklini trangensis. 

A number of the foregoing forms are not now recognized, but as they 
will be dealt with in the text, it is not necessary to go into the question 
of their vaUdity here. 

ZOOGEOGRAPHY OF THE REGION 

The geography of the Malay Peninsula has been given in some detail 
by H. C. Robinson ^ to whose account the reader is referred. 

Siam, lying between Burma on the west and north and Indochina on 
the east, has no distinctive avifauna. The Peninsular part, being- 
between Peninsular Burma on the north and the Malay States on the 
south, is intermediate in location, but predominantly Malayan ia 
its fauna. 

Kloss * has proposed to divide the country into sLx zoogeographical 
divisions for convenience, as follows: 

(1) Northern Siam. The Laos country, mostly mountainous or 
submontane, north of latitude 18° N., between the mouth of the Me 
Mue or Thoungyin River, an affluent of the SalA\an, and the great 
eastern bend of the Mekong. 

The avifauna is characterized principally by the extension south- 
ward of many Burmese species. 

(2) Central Siam. The great watered plain of the Menam Chao 
Phya and its tributaries, south of upper Siam, including the low- 
lands of the basin of the Bangpakong River in the southeast and tho 
lower reaches of the Me Klav/ng and Petchaburi Rivers in the south- 
west. 

No distinctive birds occur in the division. 

(3) Western Siam. The hill country between the Tenasserim 
frontier and the Menam lowland plain from the Me Mue River mouth 
south to Koh Lak. This region was divided later into western and 
southwestern Siam. 

(4) Peninsular Siam. From the Isthmus of Kra south to the 
Malay States. 



» The birds of the Malay Peninsula, vol. 1, pp. xiii-xxix. 1927. 
< Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 1, pp. 250-251, and map, 1915. 



BIRDS FROM vSIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 17 

Characterized by the extension northward of many Malayan 
forms. 

(5) Eastern Siam. The Korat Plateau, bounded on the north and 
€ast by the Mekong, on the south by the Cambodian frontier, and on 
the west roughly by the Pasak River. 

Otocompsa johnsoni is confined to this region. 

(6) Southeastern Siam. The varied country along the Gulf, 
bounded on the east by the Cambodian frontier, on the north by 
eastern Siam (about latitude 14° N.), then west to the Pasak River, and 
south to the Gulf. 

Most of the forms discovered by Dr. Smith come from this region, 
and many Cambodian fonns enter the country here. The avifauna 
is strongly Cambodian. 

PREVIOUS ORNITHOLOGICAL WORK 

The first list of Siamese birds that I have seen is one by John 
Gould * of a small collection made by Sir Robert H. Schomburgk. 
This was only a nominal list of 64 species, but it contained one or mxore 
species that have not been taken in Siam since. One is named for 
the first time, but, as it is not so indicated and there is no description, 
it has no taxonomic standing. Five years later Sir Robert H. Schom- 
burgk ^ gave some notes on the habits of some of the birds he had sent 
to Gould and recorded a few additional species. 

Allan O. Hume in 1877 sent his collectors, W. Davison and J. 
DarUng, to work the Malay Peninsula, which they covered pretty 
thoroughly on the west side from the northern boundary south to 
Selangor. Owing to conditions at that early period, they were not 
able to penetrate far from the coast. Hume published the results 
of their labors,^ while their specimens went later to the British 
Museum. August Miiller ^ wrote a dissertation upon a collection of 
birds from the Island of Salanga, or Puket, on the west coast of 
Peninsular Siam, wliich he assigned to 155 species. There seems to 
have been little ornithological activity after this until Dr. W. L. 
Abbott began his work in eastern Asia in Trang in 1896, of which a 
full Ust of the birds will be given herein. 

In 1899-1900 the Skeat Expedition visited the eastern coast of the 
Malay Peninsula, and Bonhote ° published a list of the birds collected. 
Then Nelson Annandale and Herbert C. Robinson made an expedition 
to the Patani States and Perak, and the birds collected were worked 
up at the British Museum by Ogilvie-Grant.^° 

» Proc. Zool. Soc. Loudon, 1859, p. 151. 
« Ibis, 1864, pp. 246-268. 

' Stray Feathers, 1879, pp. 37-72, 151-163; 1880, pp. 107-132. 

• Die Ornis der Insel Salanga, sowie BeitrJige zur Ornithologie der Halbinsel Malakka, 96 pp., 2 folding 
iables, 1882; republislied in Journ. fUr Orn., 1882, pp. 353-448. 
« Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1901, vol. 1, pp. 67-81. 
" Fasciculi Malayenses, pt. 3, pp. 65-123, 1905. 



18 BULLETIX 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Eight or more years after Dr. Abbott's visits to Trang, parties from 
the Museum of the Federated Malay States visited the region and the 
Islands of Langkawi and Terutau, and the collections were worked up 
by Robinson and Kloss.^^ Tliis was the beginning of a long period of 
activity by one or the other of these men, who worked together in 
exploring Peninsular, eastern, and southeastern Siam. They have 
embodied the results of their labors in Peninsular and southwestern 
Siam in a joint paper.'^ 

In the meanwhile, the Natural History Society of Siam had been 
formed at Bangkok in 1913, and it began the pubHcation of its Journal 
the following year. Tliis society was composed of a number of 
enthusiastic members who soon began to pubHsh articles on birds in 
the Journal. 

Count Nils Gyldenstolpe had visited eastern and northern Siam in 
1911 and published the first extensive paper on the birds of this 
region*^; later he paid a second visit to the country, when besides 
collecting in northern Siam he spent some time at Koh Lak^^; later 
he compiled a complete hst of the birds of Siam known at that tiine.^* 

R. M. de Schauensee has made three journeys to Siam and published 
the results of his trips. ^^ His collections were presented to the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

H. G. Deignan ^'' has compiled a list of the birds personally taken 
or reported by others from the Chiengmai region, recording 337 
forms; this has had additions made to it by the collections of C. J. 
Aagaard ^^ and by de Schauensee on liis third expedition cited above. 
Later Mr. Deignan '^ returned to Cliiengmai and published a revised 
list, bringing the number of birds recorded from there to 410. 

Herbert C. Robinson projected a work upon the birds of the Malay 
Peninsula to be completed in five volumes, but unfortunately he died 
after only two of the volumes had been completed,^" but the remaining 
volumes are being written by F. N. Chasen. 

E. C. Stuart Baker's volumes on the birds of British India ^* contain 
descriptions of the majority of the northern Siamese forms. 

For a long while the avifauna of French In do-China was little known, 
but this defect has been largely remedied by the explorations of Jean 
Delacour, Pierre Jabouille, and others m recent years and by the 

" Ibis, 1910, pp. 659-675. pi. 10, map; 1911, pp. 10-80, pi. 1. 
" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, pp. 1-397, 1921-1924. 
" Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. ITandl., vol. 50, no. 8, pp. 3-76, 1 col. pi., 1913. 
«♦ Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. £6, no. 2, pp. 1-lGO. 1916. 
i» Ibis, 1920, pp. 44fr4y6, 569-607, 735-780. 

" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, pp. 553, 580, 1928; vol. 81, pp. 523-588, 1930; vol. 86, pp. 163- 
280, 1934. 
" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, pp. 131-176, 1931. 
'• Chasen and Kloss, Journ. Siara Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, pp. 232-248, 1932. 
» Ibid., vol. 10, pp. 71-129, 1936. 

M The birds of the Malay Peninsula, vol. 1, 7-1-329 pp., 1927; vol. 2, xxii+310 pp., 1928. 
•• The fauna of British India, ed. 2, Birds. 7 vols., 1922-1930. 



BIRDS FROM SI AM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 19 

publication by the two men mentioned of a 4-volume work on the 
birds of the country ,^^ with numerous colored plates. Many forms of 
eastern Siam extend into Cambodia and western Laos, probably many 
more than are laiown to do so at present. 

Since the present paper was first written, F. N. Chasen ^^ has 
published a "Handlist of Malaysian Birds," a systematic account of 
the birds of the Malay Peninsula from the Isthmus of Kra to and 
including the Malay States, Sumatra, Borneo, Java, and the adjacent 
small islands. 

In the present treatment I have tried to avoid controversial ques- 
tions and to condense the technical remarks as nmcli as possible. I 
have listed all the birds collected by Drs. Smith and Abbott and have 
given the data on eggs, but a thorough list of all the birds of Siam 
can not be given until all the data upon their occurrence in the country 
is upon record, which will not be for many years to come. The 
nomenclature is in need of review, but this is a matter that needs time 
and research and usually goes through a period of evolution and so 
has not been attempted. Another subject that needs attention in the 
country is that of migration. Since m.any lists, even some quite 
modern, fail to give dates of occurrence, it is often difficult with the 
data at hand to judge whether a bird is a migrant, a winter resident, 
or a resident. 

The breeding habits and life histories of the resident birds also need 
to be studied. E. G. Herbert ^* has made an excellent begmning, 
treating 108 forms, but more work along these lines is much to be 
desired. Observations should be made by a trained observer, who is 
thoroughly familiar with the bird observed, or who should collect a 
specimen for future identification by a competent specialist. 

Of the rarer birds of Siam, I have given all the references of occur- 
rence in the country known to me, but of the commoner forms, of 
which Drs. Smith or Abbott took adequate series, the references have 
been selected to furnish additional data. 

Undoubtedly many birds remain to be added to the avifauna of 
Siam. The present paper has been written from the distributional 
standpoint, to furnish data for a more thorough work by some future 
author. In the catalog to follow, Dr. Smith's birds are listed first, 
then those of Dr. Abbott. 



" Oiseaux I'Indochine Franfaise, 1931. 
n Bull Raffles Mus. 11, xx+389 pp., 1935. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6, pp. 81-123, 215-222, 1923; pp. 293-311, 1924; and Journ. Siam Soc. 
Nat. Hist. Suppl., 192G, pp. 323-326. 



20 BULLETIN 172, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

SYSTEMATIC LIST OF BIRDS 

Family COLYMBIDAE: Grebes 

POLIOCEPHALUS RUFICOLLIS ALBIPENNIS (Sharpe) 

Tachybaptes albipennis Sharpe, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 4, p. 4, 1894 (Indian 
Peninsula). 

Four males, four females, and one unsexed, Potaram, February 5-6, 
1926, January 23, 1927; one male and one female, Bangkok, May 22, 
1926; five males and two females. Bung Borapet, June 23, 1932, 
March 26-28, 1933; one male, Petrieu, January 20, 1924. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took one male, Tyching, Trang, July 6, 1896. 

He describes the soft parts as: Iris, straw-yellow; feet, black in 
front, olive behind; bill, black above, mottled with white beneath, 
naked skin at base pale green. 

None of the specimens taken by Dr. Smith is in adult plumage, but 
the single male taken by Dr. Abbott is approximately so. This I 
have carefully compared with a male and a female from British East 
Africa and a male from Madagascar in breeding plumage. The Trang 
male has less white at the base of the secondaries, and the outer web of 
these feathers is black and the latter color even extends for a short 
distance from the shaft toward the tip on the inner web. In the 
African race the secondaries are largely white at the base, and the 
black on the outer web is confined to a narrow border near the tip. 
This difference seems to hold also in the specimens in nonbreeding 
plumage. It seems to me incredible that the form occurring in Africa 
would be the same as that occurring in India and Siam, and as the 
latter seems to show a fundamental difference it should be recognized. 

The range of albipennis would then be Ceylon, India, and Burma, 
east to Siam and probably Cochinchina. 

Poliocephalus ruficollis poggei of China has more black on the 
cheeks in the breeding season than albipennis, but in the nonbreeding 
plumage the two forms are much alike, and it would be rather difficult 
to separate them in this stage. 

P. r. albipennis is more or less a common resident all over Siam in 
suitable situations; in Peninsular Siam it extends at least to Trang 
and probably farther. Herbert ^^ reports it not uncommon in central 
Siam. He received two sets of five eggs each, one from Ayuthia, 
June 25, and one from Tachin, October 22. 

Family PELECANIDAE: Pelicans 

PELECANUS ROSEUS Gmelin 

Pelecanus roseus Gmelin, Systema naturae, vol. 1, pt. 2, p. 570, 1789 (Manila, 

Philippines). 
Pelecanus philippensis Gmelin, ibid., p. 571 (Philippines)." 

" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 6, p. 355, 1926. 

«« Grant and Mackworth-Praed, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 55, p. 63, 1934, state that this name is a 
synonym. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 21 

One female, Nakon Sritamarat, August 30, 1924, 

Dr. W. L. Abbott writes that a large wliite pelican was observed 
several times at Lay Song Hong, Trang, but no specimens were 
obtained. It was probably this species. 

Gyldenstolpe " records one pair from Tha Law but observed great 
flocks on the coast of the Gulf of Siam at the end of April and begin- 
ning of May; later,-^ August 16, 1914, he took a male and a female at 
Chieng Hai, northern Siam, and states that during the rainy season 
they assemble in great numbers on the large swamps of central Siam. 
In Peninsular Siam there seem to be few records, but this is probably 
due to the lack of scientific collecting rather than to the scarcity of 
the bird in suitable localities. There are a number of specimens from 
the Malay States in the British Museum. Robinson ^^ states that 
pelicans are now rare in the Malay States but are still common in the 
Trang swamps, the Tale Sap in Singgora, and Tale Noi in Patelung, 
They used to be common in Patani Bay, and they are fairly numerous 
in Bandon. 

Delacour and Jabouille ^° report this pelican very common in suitable 
districts in Cochinchina and Cambodia, where it breeds in great 
numbers and forms an object of commerce; in Annam it is rare. 

It should and probably does occur in southeastern Siam. 

The range of the species extends from southern China to Burma, 
India, Cochinchina, Siam, and southward through Peninsular Siam to 
Java and the Philippines. 

Family SULIDAE: Boobies, Gannets 

SULA LEUCOGASTER PLOTUS (Forster) 

Pelecanus plains Forster, Descriptiones animalium . . ., Lichtenstein ed., p. 278, 
1844 (near New Caledonia). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected an immature female of this form, near 
the Aroa Islands, Straits of Malacca, November 14, 1899; and an 
immature female near Pulo Perak, Straits of Malacca, October 31, 
1901. 

Robinson and Kloss ^* record this booby, under the name Sula 
sula, as numerous off Langkawi in November 1907; Williamson ^^ 
picked up a dead specimen on July 18, 1916, on an islet near Koh 
Rin, Inner Gulf of Siam, and later found it on an islet near Koh 
Chuan, Inner Gulf of Siam, in May 1918.^^ Robinson and Kloss," 

" Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 50, no. 8, p. 71, 1913. 

" Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 132, 1916. 

'• The birds of the Malay Peninsula, vol. 1, p. 56, 1927. 

'" Oiseaux I'lndochine Franjaise, vol. 1, p. 49, 1931. 

" Ibis, 1911, p. 19. 

« Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 2, p. 63, 1916. 

« Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 38, 1918. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6, p. 85, 1921. 



22 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATION^YL MUSEUM 

writing of Peninsular Siam, state that it is common on the west 
coast of Siam, but they had not seen it on the east coast, though they 
were assured it breeds on a small island off the coast of Nakon Srita- 
marat. 

The jace occurs from northern Australia northward to Java, the 
Malay Peninsula, Siam, Indo-China, and the Chinese Coast (winter); 
eastward it occurs as far as Laysan. 

Family PHALACROCORACIDAE: Cormorants 

PHALACROCORAX CARBO SINENSIS (Shaw and Noddcr) 

Pelecanus sinensis Shaw and Nodder, Nat. Misc., vol. 13, 529, 1802 (China). 

One immature male, Sriracha, September 20, 1925. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected an adult male and an adult female at 
Lay Song Hong, Trang, August 22 and 29, 1896. 

Dr. Abbott gives the colors of the soft parts as: Iris, emerald green; 
bill, black above and whitish or fleshy beneath; naked skin at base of 
bUl and gular pouch, greenish black, thickly mottled with orange 
(male), deep yellow (female); naked skin beneath eye, orange; feet 
and claws, black. Weight of female, 4}^ pounds. 

Gyldenstolpe ^^ reports this cormorant common near the rivers and 
swamps of central Siam and in the small lakes around Tha Law; 
Robinson ^^ secured a male on Koh Pennan and states that he had 
obtained specimens on the coast of Patani and saw four birds in 
Senggora Roads on his way to Koh Samui; Gairdner ^^ records it for 
the Ratburi and Petchaburi Districts. 

The form ranges from southern Europe to China, south to India, 
Indo-China, Siam, and south in Peninsular Siam to the Malay States, 
where it is rare, however. 

This is the largest of the three cormorants credited to Siam. 

PHALACROCORAX NIGER (Vieillot) 

Hydrocorax niger Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., vol. 8, p. 88, 1817 (East 
Indies, error; Bengal). 

One male and five females, Bangkok, April 11, 1924, May 22 and 24, 
1926, October 10, 1923, and October 19, 1924; two females, Nong 
Preng, January 29, 1927; one male and two females. Bung Borapet, 
June 22-27, 1932, and March 22, 1933. 

Only two in the above series are adult and have begun to assume 
the breeding plumage. They are both females and were taken at 
Bangkok, October 10 and 19; the latter has a few white feathers on 
top of head and sides of neck; in the former a few white filoplumes 

«« Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 50, no. 8, p. 71, 1913. 
" Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 5, p. 143, 1915. 
>' Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Slam, vol. 1, pp. 15, 31, 162, 1914. 



BIRDS FROM SIAI^L AND THE M.\LAY PENINSULA 23 

appear on the pileum and around the eyes. The October 19 female 
has the bill very dark, except at the tip of the lower mandible, while 
in the October 10 female the bill is light colored, except along the 
culmen. These two specimens point to an early winter breeding 
season. 

This is a fresh-water cormorant and does not usually occur along 
the coast. 

Gjddenstolpe ^^ reports it common throughout southwestern and 
central Siam but apparently less abundant in the north; Robinson 
and Kloss ^^ say that they saw it in a mountain stream in Bandon; 
Chasen and Kloss *° state that it is unknown from the southern part 
of the Malay Peninsula. 

The species ranges from Ceylon to India, Burma, Siam, Indo- 
China, the Malay Peninsula, Borneo, and Java. 

Family ANHINGIDAE: Snakebirds 

ANHINGA MELANOGASTER Pennant 

Anhinga tnelanogaster Pennant, Indian zoology, p. 13, pi. 12, 1769 (Ceylon and 
Java) . 

Two males and one female, Bung Borapet, June 20, 1932, March 
28, 1933 ; one female, Nakon Sritamarat, March 10, 1929. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected a female at Maliwun, Tenasserim, 
March 19, 1900. 

Robinson and Kloss ^' saw a darter on the fresh-water lake in the 
Langkawi Islands, later given as Pulo Dayang Bunting*^; they state 
that it is rare in the Malay Peninsula; Gyldenstolpe *^ reports the 
snakebird rather common in suitable localities throughout the whole 
country. 

The species ranges from Mesopotamia to India, Burma, Siam, and 
Indo-China, south to Java, Borneo, the Philippines, and Celebes. 

Family ARDEIDAE: Herons, Bitterns 

ARDEA CINEREA RECTIROSTRIS Gould 

Ardea rectirostris Gotjld, Proc. Zool. Soc London, 1843, p. 22 (New South Wales; 
error; South India **). 

One female, Bangkok, August 2, 1924. 

This specimen, while of full adult size, has not fully assumed adult 
plumage. 

" Ibis, 1920, p. 775. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 86, 1921. 
<« Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 161, 1928. 
" Ibis, 1911, p. 19. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6, p. 85, 1921. 
" Ibis, 1920, 775. 

" Type in the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia from South India. Stone, Austral Avian 
llec, vol. 1, p. 142, 1913. 



24 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Gyldenstolpe *^ gives it as a winter visitor to Siam, where it seems 
to be fairly common in the southern and central parts; Deignan *' 
states that it occurs in small numbers at Chiengmai from October to 
May; Robinson and Kloss,*^ writing of Southwest and Peninsular 
Siam, say that it is "probably fairl}'- common in winter." 

The form breeds in eastern Siberia, northern China, and Japan ^ 
south to India and Burma, and migrates southward to winter in 
Indo-China, Siam, Java, and the Philippines. 

ARDEA SUMATRANA SUMATRANA Raffles 

Ardea sumairana Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 13, pt. 2, p. 325, 1822 
(Sumatra) . 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took an adult male and an adult female at 
Prahmon, Trang, March 19, 1896; one adult male, Tanjong Sikakap, 
east coast of Johore, August 5, 1901; one adult male and two adult 
females, Mergui Archipelago (Loughborough Island, January 25, 
1900; Heifer Island, March 5, 1900; and Bentinck Island, March 12, 
1900). 

Dr. Abbott notes the soft parts as follows: Iris yellow; bill black; 
pinkish white beneath; naked orbital skin bluish gray (one male) or 
dusty green (one female); naked skin at base of lower mandible 
yellowish. Weight of one male from Trang, 5K pounds; one female 
from Bentinck Island, 5 pounds. 

Robinson and Kloss ^* record a male from Pulo Terutau; Robinson *' 
gives it for Koh Mehsi, West Island, and for Koh Pennan ^°; Robinson, 
and Kloss,^^ writing of Southwest and Peninsular Siam, state that it 
is common in most places along the coast on mud flats and in mangrove 
swamps but very wary and hard to approach. 

The form ranges from Burma through the Malay Peninsula to the 
Sunda Islands, Moluccas, and New Guinea. In northern Australia 
a related form occurs. 

PYRRHERODIA PURPUREA MANILENSIS (Mejen) 

Ardea purpurea var. manilensis Meyen, Nova Acta Acad. Caes. Leopoldino- 
Carolinae Nat. Curios., vol. 16, suppl., p. 102, 1834 (Manila, Philippines) ► 

One male. Bung Borapet, June 23, 1932. 

Gyldenstolpe ^^ reports this bird fairly common in the swamps of 
northern Siam; Deignan *^ records it in small numbers about Chiengmai 

« Ibis. 1920, p. 767. 

« Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 173, 1931. 

*' Journ. Nat. Uist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 78, 1921. 

<* Ibis, 1911, p. 14. 

" Ibis, 1915, p. 726. 

5" .lourn. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 6, p. 143, 1915. 

n .lourn. Nat. Ilist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 7S, 1921. 

«" Kungl. Svenska Vct.-Akad. Handl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 136, 1916. 

M Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 173, 1931. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 25 

after the rains; Chasen and Kloss ^* record a female from the Raheng 
District; Gairdner ^^ records it for the Petchaburi District; Robinson 
and Kloss/^ after recording a male from Pakchan, say that in the 
south of the Peninsula it is extremely uncommon; Bonhote " records 
it for Patalung. 

It probably occurs all over Siam in suitable localities. 

The form breeds from India, Ceyion, Burma, and China south of 
the Yangtze to the Riu Kiu Islands, south to Siam, Indo-China, the 
Philippines, and the Greater Sunda Islands to Celebes. 

BUTORIDES JAVANICUS ACTOPHILUS Obcrholser 

Butorides javanicus adophilus Oberholser, Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 60, 

no. 7, p. 1, 1912 (North Pagi Island). 
Butorides javanicus icastopterus Oberholser, ibid., p. 1 (Simalur Island). 
Butorides siriatus connectens Stresemann, Orn. Monatsb., vol. 38, p. 48, 1930 

(Yaoshan, Kwangsi, China). 
Butorides javanicus abbotti Oberholser, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 159, p. 14, 1932 

(Pulo Langkawi, western Malay Peninsula). 

One male and one female, Nakon Sritamarat, October 7, 1896, and 
March 21, 1924; one male, Lem Sing, Chantabun, June 11, 1926; one 
immature male, Koh Chang, January 5, 1926. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took an adult and an immature female, Prahmon, 
Trang, March 7 and 19, 1896; one male, Singapore, May 22, 1899; one 
male, Domel Island, Mergui Archipelago, February 22, 1900; and a 
male, Pulo Langkawi, December 4, 1899 (the type of Butorides 
javanicus abbotti). 

There is an adult male in the United States National Museum taken 
at Saan Taw, Raheng District, western Siam, April 5. 

The Siamese specimens seem to agree with those from South China 
in size and color. Oberholser in naming B. j. abbotti included South 
China within the range of his new race, overlooking the fact that it 
had been previously provided with a name by Stresemann. Ober- 
holser gives the range as follows: "India and the Malay Peninsula, 
north to southern China, Nepal, Kashmir; west to Sind and the 
Laccadine Islands; south to Ceylon, Sumatra, and Nias; and east to 
the Natuna Islands and Cochin China." 

After reexamining the types of adophilus and icastopterus, I am 
convinced that they are only whiter migrants from farther north and 
differ in no way from specimens from southern China. 

The male from Lem Sing, Chantabun, is small and dark like Javan 
specimens, and the female from Prahmon, Trang, is also small but 
not so dark. These two I am regarding as small specimens of the 

» Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 160, 1928. 
»» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 1, p. 152, 1915. 
»• Journ. Nat. Uist. Soc. Slam, vol. 5, p. 78, 1921. 
»' Proo. Zool. Soc. London, 1901, vol. 1, p. 80. 



26 



BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



form, as the male from Singapore, taken May 22, is large like the rest 
of the series but is somewhat immature. It may have been a wanderer 
after the breeding season, as immature herons are known to wander 
thus. If so, it must have been hatched the previous summer as it 
has almost acquired adult plumage. The resident form of the Malay 
Peninsula and southern Siam may be Butorides javanicus javanicus, 
but from the evidence at hand this is not substantiated. 
Table 1 gives the measurements of the various series. 

Table 1. — Measurements of Butorides javanicus actophilus 



Specimens 



Wing 



Culmen 



4 males from South China 

4 males from western Siam, Mergui Archipelago, and Malay Penin 
sula --- 

5 males from Celebes 

8 males from the Philippines 

2 males from Simalur Island (one the type of kastopterus) 

1 female from Trang 

2 females from North Pagi Island (one the type of actophilus) 

2 females, Java - 

9 females from the Phnippines 



Mm 


Mm 


183-198 (188. 6) 


61-67. 5 (64. 9) 


176-180 (178. 3) 


60. 6-66. 6 (62. 2) 


180-176 (173.9) 


57-63 (59. 6) 


164-174 (165. 6) 


60-63 (61. 9) 


193-180 


67-65 


171 


58 


190-195 


63-68 


163-164 


61-62 


162. 5-175 (167. 7) 


57. 5-63 (61) 



There seems to be no difference in size between the sexes. As a 
matter of fact, the Siamese and Malay Peninsula bird is somewhat 
intermediate between the South China form and that of Java, but 
nearer the former. 

I have not examined any authentic specimens of B. j. amurensis. 
La Touche *^ gives the measurement of a male as wing 214 and culmen 
64 mm, and of a female as wing 209 and culmen 65 mm. Hartert's 
measurement for the wing is 200-214 mm.^^ Certainly I have meas- 
ured no specimens with such long wings from Siam. B. j. amurensis 
is migratory. It may migrate to the eastward of Siam to its winter 
quarters. A stray might occur occasionally in Peninsular Siam or even 
farther north in eastern Siam. 

Another form of green heron that may occasionally occur as a strag- 
gler in Peninsular Siam is Butorides javanicus spodiogaster Sharpe, 
of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. It is darker gray on the under 
surface and has been taken as a straggler in the Philippines. 

Gyldenstolpe *" reports B. j. actophilus as generally distributed 
throughout Siam, though less abundantly in the northern districts; 
Robinson and Kloss "^ state that it is abundant eveiywhere on the 
coast of the Malay Peninsula. Probably it is partially migratory in 
the northern part of its Siamese range. 

•' A handbook of the birds of eastern China, vol. 2, pt. 6, p. 456, 1934. 
" Die Vogol der paiaarktischon Fauna, Band 2, Heft 4, p. 1249, 1920. 
M Ibis, 1920, p. 7G9. 
" Ibis, 1911, p. 15. 



BIRDS FEOM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 27 

ARDEOLA GRAYII (Sykes) 
Ardea grayii Sykes, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1832, 157 (Deccan). 

One female, Nong Preng, January 29, 1927; one female, Bangkok, 
December 12, 1925; one female, Lomsak, Pasak Valley, February 16, 
1934; one female, Bandon, January 4, 1927. 

I have been unable to find any reliable character to separate winter 
and immature specimens of grayii and bacchus. This is partly due 
to the inadequate series of the former at my command. The problem 
might be worked out in some museum having an adequate series of 
grayii and bacchus from regions where only one or the other occurs. 
As a rule grayii has a slenderer and less robust bill, but this varies in 
bacchus greatly with the age of the specimen and is uncertain. All 
winter records from Siam of the two species are open to question, and 
for that reason they are not cited. 

One adult male of grayii from Lower Pegu measures: Wing, 210; 
culmen, 65; depth of bill at posterior border of nostril, 14; tarsus, 59; 
middle toe and nail, 60 mm. 

The four females measure: Wing, 200-210 (207); culmen, 55-59 
(57.7); depth of bill at posterior border of nostril, 12.5-13 (12.8); 
tarsus, 54-60 (56.5); middle toe and nail, 59-60 (59.5). 

The four females from Siam were taken in winter. They average 
Ughter above than specimens of bacchus of the same age, but the 
latter vary greatly in nonbreeding and immature plumages. 

The range of A. grayii extends from the Persian Gulf east to India, 
Burma, Siam, and the Malay Peninsula. 

Herbert °^ reports it breeding at Paknam, Ban Yang, Samkok, 
Ayuthia, and many other places in May, June, and July; Deignan*^ 
gives it as resident at Chiengmai, and it seems to be regarded as the 
common resident species in suitable localities all over over Siam and 
in the Malay Peninsula. 

ARDEOLA BACCHUS (Bonaparte) 

Buphus bacchus Bonaparte, Conspectus generum avium, vol. 2, p. 127, 1855 

(Malay Peninsula). 

One male (in breeding plumage), Muek Lek, April 17, 1933; one 
female, Bangkok, September 19, 1924; one unsexed, Koh Tao, off 
Bandon, September 24, 1928. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected a female at Tanjong Badak, Tenasserim, 
March 25, 1904. 

The two September specimens from Siam still have some of the 
breeding plumage remaining on the neck. The Tenasserim female 
is still in winter plumage, but there are one or two small red feathers 
coming in on the upper neck. 

M Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. IILst. Suppl.. vol. 6, p. 352, 1920. 
M Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 173, 1931. 



28 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

In a series of 18 breeding adults of bacchus from China there are 
only two that have the outer primaries entirely white at the tip; in 
speciosa, all the breeding specimens examined, except one, have 
entirely white primaries. This seems to hold for winter birds. My 
series of grayii is too Uinited to enable me to work out the differences 
between winter and immature specimens of it and specimens of bacchus 
taken at the same time; bacchus, however, seems to have a thicker, 
heavier bill. 

Nine breeding males from China (where grayii does not occur) 
measure: Wmg, 215-240 (227.8); culmen, 61-65 (63); depth of bill 
at posterior border of the nostril, 14-15.5 (14.9); tarsus, 55.5-64 
(59.2) ; middle toe and nail, 57-64 (59.7) mm. The female is somewhat 
smaller. Seven breeding females from China measure: Wing, 
197-222 (209.4); culmen, 60-63 (60.4); depth of bill at posterior 
border of nostril, 13-15 (13.8); tarsus, 56-63 (57); middle toe and 
claw, 54-62 (57) mm. 

The range of the species extends from northern China south 
through eastern Assam, Burma, Siam, and Indo-China to the Malay 
Peninsula and Borneo. Migratory m the northern part of its range. 

I consider whiter records of this species very uncertain and do 
not quote them. Robinson and Kloss ^* say it is rarer than grayii in 
Peninsular Siam but hard to distinguish except in the breeding 
season; Deignan ^^ reports that at Chiengmai it is much less common 
during the breeding season than A. grayii. 

It may be that in the extreme south of its range it is only a winter 
straggler and does not breed. 

ARDEOLA SPECIOSA CONTINENTAUS Salomonsen 

Ardeola speciosa continentalis Salomonsen, Orn. Monatsb., vol. 41, p. 41, 1933 
(Bangkok, Siam). 

One adult breeding male and two immature males, Bangkok, 
February 15 and April 23, 1924, December 26, 1925; one immature 
male. Bung Borapet, March 21, 1933. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took a female at Tanjong Badak, Tenasserim, 
December 29, 1900. This bird has the primaries including the tips 
and shafts wliite; wing, 195 mm. I feel quite certain that it belongs 
to this form. 

Three breeding species of Ardeola occur in Siam, and while the 
adults in breeding plumage are easily differentiated, the young and 
immature are very difficult to separate. A. speciosa in any plumage 
usually has the primaries entirely white. Immature specimens 
have the outer primaries brownish at the tip, but not to the same 
extent as grayii or bacchus. A. bacchus and A. grayii have the two 
or tliree outer primaries gray on the outer web and tip and shafts 

M Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. SO, 1921. 

«» Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8. p. 173, 1931. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 29 

brownish or blackish in the adult. Only rarely do adults of A. hacchus 
have the outer primaries entirely white like speciosa, and these are 
probably very old birds. My series of A. grayii is not sufficient to 
say whether the adults ever have the tips of the outer primaries 
white. The immatures of both A. hacchus and A, grayii have the 
outer primaries more or less dusky on the outer webs and tip, varj^'ing 
in degree probably with the age of the specimen. The immatures 
that I have assigned to A. speciosa continentalis have the primaries 
entirely white or with almost an imperceptible trace of grayish on 
the outer web of the first primary. 

The adults of the three species may be separated by the following 
key: 

1. Back claret brown, wnth a slight slaty wash; neck dark olive-buff grayii 

Back slate color; neck not olive-buflf 2 

2. Pileum and upper neck clay color speciosa 

Pileum and upper neck prussian red bacchus 

Both speciosa and grayii have the nuchal plumes white at the tips; 
these are lost after the breeding season. 

Ardeola speciosa speciosa (Horsfield), of Java, Sumatra, Celebes, 
Borneo, and Sumbawa, is very similar to continentalis but apparently 
somewhat smaller. With only one adult of the latter before me, it 
is impossible to pass judgment on its distinctness, however. 

The measurement of the wing in four males from Celebes is as 
follows: 205, 207, 209, 210 mm; in two males from Java, 192, 200 mm. 

The wing in the single male of continentalis measures 213 mm; the 
wings in the three males (that I have called immature, but may really 
be the winter plumage) measure 220, 225, 234 mm. The bill in 
continental specimens also seems to average somewhat larger. The 
culmens in the four males from Siam measure 62-66.5 (64.9) mm; 
two males from Java and four from Celebes measure 59-64 (60.9) mm. 
The adults from Celebes were taken in winter and are without the 
nuchal plumes, and they are not in the streaked winter plumage; 
here they probably breed early and the breeding plumage is acquired 
early, the nuchal plumes being the last to be assumed. 

Just what the range of Ardeola speciosa continentalis embraces is 
not known at present. So far it has been recorded only from Siam, 
Tenasserim, and the south of Indo-China.^° It is quite possible the 
Sumatran records also belong to it. 

BUBULCUS IBIS COROMANDUS (Boddaert) 

Cancroma corornanda Boddaert, Table des planches cnlumin^ez d'histoire 
naturelle, p. 54, 1783 (Coromandel Coast). 

One adult male in breeding plumage and three adult males in 
winter plumage, Bangkok, May 27, 1926, August 9, 1924, and 
December 29, 1925. 

w See Dclacour and Jabouille. Oiseaus I'Indochlne Francaiso, vo). 1, p. 64, 1931. 
33527—38 3 



30 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected one adult female in breeding plumage 
at Pralimon, Trang, April 16, 1896, and two males molting into the 
breeding plumage, Trang, March 4, 1899. One of the latter is moltiug 
all the feathers of the neck and the new feathers are still in the sheaths; 
the feathers of the pileum are being renewed. A few bufiy feathers 
have already appeared, but the majority are still in the sheaths. 

This is an abundant heron tliroughout Siam and accompanies the 
herds of buffaloes. Herbert " reports that breeding colonies are 
found at Ban Yang, Samkok, Ayutliia, and many other places and 
that three or four eggs are laid to a set in June and July. 

The form ranges from Korea and southern Japan to China, India, 
southeastern Asia, the Sunda Islands, and the Philippines and south- 
ward to New Guinea. 

EGRETTA GARZETTA GARZETTA (Linnaeus) 

Ardea garzetta Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 12, p. 237, 1766 (Oriente). 

One adult male, Bangkok, May 24, 1926; one adult male, Nong Kae, 
May 7, 1929; one adult male. Bung Borapet, June 27, 1932. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected an adult female at Tanjong Dungun, 
Trengganu, September 19, 1900, and a male at Bok Pyin, Tenasserim, 
February 19, 1900. 

This heron is probably resident throughout Siam. It has been 
recorded from Chiengmai in the north and as far south in Peninsular 
Siam as Patani. In winter the numbers are probably augmented by 
migrants from farther north. Herbert ^^ states that it has been found 
breeding in June and July at Bang Yang, Ayuthia, and numerous 
other places. 

The range of this form is from southern Europe to Japan and China, 
south to Africa and southeast Asia; migrant in the northern part but 
resident in the south. 

Two other forms of E. garzetta are recognized, one from the Sunda 
Islands and the other from Australia. 

DEMIEGRETTA SACRA (Gmelin) 

Ardea sacra Gmelin, Systema naturae, vol. 1, pt. 2, p. 640, 1789 (Tahiti). 

One male and one female, Koh Tao, September 20, 1928, and 
December 31, 1926; one male and one female, Sriracha, November 5 
and 7, 1924. The male from Sriracha is in the white phase. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected the following specimens: One female 
in the white phase, Prahmon, Trang, March 27, 1896; one male and 
one female, Pulo Langkawi, December 2, 1899. There is also a female 
collected by C. Boden Kloss from Koh Kra, Chantabun, December 
15, in the United States National Museum. 

«' Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 6, p. 3ri2, 1926. 
•« Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 6, p. 351, 192G. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 31 

This is a purely coastal bird, usually frequenting islands off the 
coast. It occurs in two phases, a blue and a white. 

Robinson ^^ records it from Koh Samui and Koh Pennan; later from 
Koh Klum and Koh Kra™; Robinson and Kloss ''^ from the vicinity 
of Puket; Gyldenstolpe ^^ from Koh Lak; Robinson and Kloss ^^ say 
it is common throughout the coasts of Malaya in suitable localities. 

The species has a \vide range, from southern Korea and the Riu 
Kiu Islands to Indo-China, Siam, BuiTna, the Malay Peninsula, the 
Sunda Islands, Philippines, Celebes, and south to New Guinea, 
Australia, and many Pacific Islands. 

MESOPHOYX INTERMEDIA INTERMEDIA (Wagler) 

Ardea intermedia Wagler, Isis, p. 659, 1829 (Java). 

Two males, Bung Borapet, June 20, 1930, and March 22, 1933. 

Gyldenstolpe ''* reports that tliis heron is abundant at Bangkok, 
along the Menam Chao Phaya, and Tha Law, and later ^^ states that 
a few specimens were seen along the coast in southwestern Siam; de 
Schauensee ^^ took a male at Chieng Sen on January 10, and reports 
it common there and at Chieng Rai. These two localities are in 
northeastern Siam. Robinson and lOoss ^'' state that it is distinctly 
uncommon in Southwest and Peninsular Siam. 

The form ranges from Peninsular India and Ceylon, east to Japan 
and China, and south to Indo-Cliina, Siam, the Sunda Islands and the 
Philippines. A related form is found in the Moluccas and Australia 
and another in Africa. It is probably more abundant than the records 
would indicate, for it is mistaken for the little egret (Egretta g. gar- 
zetta), wliich has the upper mandible black, or the cattle egret (Bubul- 
cus ibis coromandus), wliich is smaller and has a shorter bill and 
tarsus. The biU in Alesophoyx i. intermedia is yellow except at the 
extreme tip, wliich is blacldsh. 

NYCTICORAX NYCTICORAX NYCTICORAX (Linnaeus) 

Ardea nyclicorax Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 142, 1758 (southern 
PJurope). 

One immature male, Bangkok, October 31, 1924. 

Stuart Baker ^^ records tliis form from Hua Takhae, central Siam, 
Febrary 10, 19 IG; Deignan "^ had only one record for the Chiengmai 
region, a solitary bird at Nawng Haw in September, but later de 

" Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 5, p. 143, 1915. 

'0 Ibis, 1915, p. 726. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. See. Siam, vol. 3, p. 92, 1919. 

" Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Uandl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 137, 1916. 

'3 Journ. Nat. Hist. See. Siam, vol. 5, p. 79, 1921. 

'« Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Hand!., vol. 50, no. 8, p. 72, 1913. 

" Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Uandl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 136, 1916. 

'« Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci Philadelphia, vol. 81, p. 587, 1930. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 78, 1921. 

'8 Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 4, p. 42, 1920. 

" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol 8, p. 173, 1931. 



32 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Schauensee ^° recorded a specimen from Chiengmai, February 1 ; 
Herbert ^^ says it is said to breed at Bang-pa-in and Ayuthia and 
winters at Wat Koh Yai, Sambok; Gyldenstolpe ^^ reports that the 
night heron is only a winter visitor to Siam. It probably breeds in 
limited numbers, how^ever, in suitable localities. It has not been 
recorded from Peninsular Siam but probably occurs there in winter. 
This heron has a wide range, breeding from Holland and Germany 
east to Japan and China and south to India, Indo-Cliina, Siam, the 
Sunda Islands, the Plulippines, and Africa. 

GORSAKIUS MELANOLOPHUS MELANOLOPHUS (Raffles) 

Ardea melanolopha Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 13, p. 326, 1822 

(Sumatra). 

One immature male, Hupbon, near Sriracha, October 22, 1931; one 
immature male, Kao Sabap, November 8, 1933. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected an adult male at Lay Song Hong, 
Trang, November 25, 1896; and two immature males in the Langkawi 
Group (Pulo Lada, November 30, 1899, and Pulo Terutau, November 
16, 1903). 

Dr. Abbott describes the soft parts of the adult male from Trang as 
follows: Iris greenish yellow; orbital skin green; biU dark horn brown 
above (the label here has had the ink dissolved by grease and the 
color of the lower mandible cannot be read); feet brow^nish green, 
yellowish behind toes. 

This form ranges from Ceylon and the Malabar coast east to 
Assam, Burma, Siam, Indo-China, and south through Peninsular 
Siam, to the Malay States, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and the 
Philippines. 

Besides those listed above, specimens have been obtained in north- 
em and eastern Siam by other collectors, and the bird probably occurs 
throughout the country in suitable locaUties. Owing to its nocturnal 
habits, however, it is seldom taken. WUUamson informed Robinson 
and KHoss ^^ that he found it breeding in heavy forest at Pak Chong 
in June and August. 

IXOBRYCHUS SINENSIS SINENSIS (Gmelin) 

Ardea sinensis Gmelin, Systems naturae, vol. 1, pt. 2, p. 642, 1789 (China). 

One male and one female, Bangkok, March 3, 1925, and October 28, 
1926; tw-o males. Bung Borapet, June 19 and 27, 1932. 

A female, received by the United States National Museum from 
Dr. W. L. Abbott, was collected by C. Boden Kloss at Tanjong 
Kalong, Singapore, April 20, 1900. 

M Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 279, 1934. 
«i Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 6, p. 353, 1926. 
•1 Ibis, 1020, p. 768. 
B Journ. Nat. Ilist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6, p. 79, 1921. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 33 

This bird has been recorded in southwestern and Peninsular Siam 
from Ratburi, Petchaburi, Pakchan, Koh Lak, Junkseylon (Puket), 
and Koh Pennan. Robinson and Kloss ^* say of its occurrence in the 
Peninsula: "Probably partially naigrating and commonest in winter"; 
Gyldenstolpe ^^ reports it generally distributed throughout Siam. 

The form has a wide range, occurring from northeastern China 
south to Indo-Cliina, Burma, India, Ceylon, Siam, the Malay Penin- 
sula, Moluccas, and New Britain. The species has a still wider 
range and has been split up into a good many forms of more or less 
doubtful validity. 

NANNOCNUS CINNAMOMEUS (Gmelin) 

Ardea cinnamomea Gmelin, Systema naturae, vol. 1, pt. 2, 643, 1789 (China). 

Two adult males and two immature females, Bangkok, March 13 
and April 7, 1926, and June 27 and October 27, 1924; one male (not 
fully adult), Sichol, Bandon, May 28, 1930. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took one adult male and one adult female, near 
base of Kao Nom Phi, Trang, March 9, 1897, and one immature 
female, Trang, January 22, 1897. 

Dr. Abbott gives the soft parts as follows: Iris yellow; feet greenish; 
bill greenish yellow, brownish above and in a narrow line along 
commissure. 

This species has been recorded from Pakchan, Patani, Junkseylon 
(Puket), Ratburi, Petchaburi, and Tasan, Chumpon, and Peninsular 
Siam;^® Deignan ^^ reports it resident at Chiengmai, but more abun- 
dant during the rains; Herbert ^^ reports finding one nest with three 
eggs on June 25 near Bangkok, and a second nest with three eggs was 
found by his collector at Tachin on August 15. It is probably a com- 
mon resident through Siam in suitable localities. 

The species has a wide range, occurring from Manchuria south 
through China to Burma, India, Siam, Indo-China, the Pliilippincs, 
and Celebes. 

NANNOCNUS EURYTHMUS (Swinhoe) 

Ardetta eurythma Swinhoe, Ibis, 1873, p. 74, pi. 2 (Amoy and Shanghai, China). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took an adult male of this bittern near the base 
of Kao Nom Plu, Trang, March 9, 1897. 

I have found no previous records for tliis species from Siam, but 
since this was first written Dcignan ^^ reports the taking of a female 
near Ban Wai Tong Hong, Cliiengrai, North Siam, May 2, 1936. 

M Joiirn. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6, p. 81, 1921, 

s« Ibis, I'J-'O, 7G9. 

«» Robinson and Kloss, Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6, p. 81, 1921. 

" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 173, 1931. 

w Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 6, p. 353, 1928. 

" Journ. Slam Soc. Nat. .Hist. Suppl., vol. 10, p. 169, 1936. 



34 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

It breeds from southeastern Siberia to Cliina, the Japanese Islands, 
and Annam; in winter it migrates southward to Borneo, Celebes, the 
Malay Peninsula, and the Philippines. 

The three small bitterns occurring in wSiam may be distinguished in 
any plumage by the following key: 

1. Tibia feathered to the heel Ixobrychus sinensis 

Tibia not feathered to the heel (lower part naked) 2 

2. Primaries grayish or slaty Nannocnus eury thmus 

Primaries liazel or rufous Nannocnus cinnamomeus 

DUPETOR FLAVICOLLIS FLAVICOLLIS (Latham) 

Ardca flavicollis Latham, Index ornithologicus, vol. 2, p. 701, 1790 (South China). 

One male and three females, Bangkok, June 26, 1924, June 1, 
March 11, and October 28, 1926; two females. Bung Borapet, June 21, 
1932. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took a female in Trang but neglected to date it. 

The male from Bangkok taken October 28 (U.S.N.M. no. 308013) 
is molting on the back, and the dark slate feathers of the wings and 
back are being replaced by greenish-black feathers: the feathers of 
the chest and abdomen are blackish, those of the abdomen having a 
few buffy fringes; the feathers of the lower neck are slaty black, mar- 
gined outwardly with white, the chestnut spotting of the foreneck not 
extending to the lower neck; top of head and cheeks slaty black; sides 
of neck ochraceous-buff . 

The three females from Bangkok differ from the male as follows: 
Top of head and upperparts have a brownish cast; the abdomen is 
drab; the cheeks are bay, and the bay spotting on the foreneck is 
much more extensive and extends down onto the chest. These dif- 
ferences seem to hold and are sexual, as Stuart Baker *° has stated. 

There is a male in the United States National Museum (no. 279414) 
from Yachow, Ilunan, China, taken May 17, that is quite different 
from, any description that I have consulted. It is a blue-green slate 
above, on the hindneck, pileum, wings, and lower parts; the cheeks 
darker; the bay spots down the foreneck sparse and not extending to 
the lower neck; the white spotting on the median line of the neck also 
restricted; otherwise as in the normal plumage. Tliis I imagine is 
the full breeding plumage only assumed in old birds. 

Deignan ®' reports this form not uncommon south of Chiengmai 
from July to September; August Aliiller **- records it from Junkseylon 
(Puket); Robinson and Kloss,^^ writing of Southwest and Peninsular 
Siam, say that it is rare wherever it occurs and that Williamson has 
found it breeding at Bangkok. Owing to its nocturnal habits, the 

»o The fauna of British India, Birds, ed. 2, vol. 6, p. 368, 1929. 
«> Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 173, 1931. 
M Die Ornis dor Insel Salanga, p. 84, 1882. 
•« Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 81, 1921. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 35 

form probably escapes observation and is more numerous than the 
scattered records indicate. 

The form has a wide range, occurring from central and southeastern 
China to India, Siam, Indo-Cliina, south through the Malay Peninsula 
to the Greater Sunda Islands, Pliilippines, and Celebes. Other forms 
occur on islands to the southward. 

Family CICONIIDAE: Storks, Jabirus 

IBIS LEUCOCEPHALUS (Pennant) 

Tantalus leucocephalus Pennant, Indian zoology, p. 11, pi. 10, 1769 (Ceylon). 

One adult female, Nakon Sritamarat, September 27, 1926. 

Robinson^* reports storks common in Bandon and records tliree speci- 
mens from Langkawi; GaLrdner^^ gives it for the Petchaburi District; 
Robinson and Kloss^^ for Nong Kok, Ghirbi; Herbert^'' says his col- 
lector reported it as nesting at Ban Yang in July but did not succeed 
in obtaining eggs. 

The species ranges from Ceylon through India to Burma, south- 
west China, Indo-China, and Siam. In Peninsular Siam it is said 
not to range south of Langkawi. I have seen no records from north- 
ern Siam. 

ANASTOMUS OSCITANS (Boddaert) 

Ardea osciians Boddaert, Table des planches enlumineez d'histoire naturelle, 
p. 55, 1783 (Pondicherry). 

One adult unsexed, Potaram, January 31, 1926; one female, Pasak 
River, October 19, 1932. 

Gairdner^^ records this species from the Ratburi and Petchaburi 
Districts; Vv^illiamson ^^ reports it common at Promden on the rail- 
way between Bangkok and Tachin, March 1917, and liis collector 
secured some specimens at Tartia, central Siam, in July; Deignan^ 
says flocks occur from June to November at Nawng Chang Fum 
between Chiengmai and Lampoon and that it was once seen flying 
over Chiengmai; Herbert^ states that his collector took one fresh Qg^ 
from a temple on Klong San Sep, February 22, and reported there 
were many nests; he also gives measurements and notes on the soft 
parts of two specimens shot at Samkok, August 31. 

The opcnbill ranges fz*om Ceylon and India to Assam, Burma, 
Siam, and Cochinchina; apparently there are no records for Penin- 
sular Siam. 



" Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 5, p. 88, 1915. 

»8 Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siara, vol. 1, p. 152, 1915. 

«« Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 91, 1919. 

»' Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 6, p. 319, 1926. 

«' Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 1, pp. 30, 152, 1914-15. 

8« Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 39, 1918. 

' Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 172, 1931. 

'Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. C, p. 350, 1926. 



36 BULLETIN 172, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

DISSOURA EPISCOPUS EPISCOPUS (Boddaert) 

Arden episcopus Boddaert, Table des planches enlumin^ez d'histoire naturelle, 
p. 54, 1783 (India). 

One adult male, Bandon, January 5, 1927; one adult male, Kao 
Soi Dao, Trang, January 9, 1934. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took the following: Two adult males, one adult 
female, and one unsexed, Trang (Prahmon, April 1, 1896; Tyching, 
July 21, 1896; Lay vSong Hong, October 26, 1896, and January 21, 
1897); and two males and one female, Tenasserim (Bok Pyin, Feb- 
ruary 12, 1900; Champang, December 14, 1903; Tanjong Badak, 
March 26, 1904). 

Dr. Abbott gives the following notes: Iris red, sclerotic yellow; 
feet and legs dull brownish red; bill black, red at tip and along com- 
missure; naked skin about head black; gular pouch black. Stomach 
of a male (no. 153617) contained small crabs, jBsh, and grasshoppers. 
Weight of a male from Prahmon, Trang, 4% pounds; of a male from 
Bok Pyin, Tenasserim, 5K pounds. The female from Tanjong 
Badak, March 26, was building a nest when shot. 

Dissoura episcopus neglecta Finsch is a smaller race with a differ- 
ently colored bill and is confined to the Sunda Islands from Java 
east to Sumbawa and Celebes, as I have already pointed out.^ It 
seems very doubtful whether it occurs on the mainland at all. The 
naked skin on the sides of the neck is an age character and not diag- 
nostic of the race as claimed by Gyldenstolpe.* I have not, however, 
examined any specimens from north of Tenasserim. 

D. episcopus episcopus ranges over practically all India and cast to 
Indo-China and south in the Malay Peninsula to Kedah. It also 
occurs in the Philippines in a more or less intermediate form. 

Grant ^ records it from Patani; Robinson^ from Pulo Langkawi 
and Trang, Bandon,^ Koh Samui^; Robinson and Kloss® from Nong 
Kok, Ghirbi; Gairdner ^°from Ratburi and Petchaburi; Gyldenstolpe " 
from Sakerat and Aluang Pai, Korat Plateau, and Tha Law, Central 
Siam; and later ^^ he took a male at Hat Sanuk and found it not rare 
at Koh Lak; Lowe '^ reports it plentiful on the Meping in March; 
Robinson and Kloss ^* state that it has not been found south of the 



» Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 64, art. 16, p. 28, 1924. 

« Ibis, 1920, p. 766. 

' Fasciculi Malayenses, pt. 3, p. 115, 1905. 

« Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 4, p. 130, 1909. 

' Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 5, p. 88, 1915. 

• Ibid., p. 142. 

• Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 91, 1919. 

1' Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 1, pp. 30, 152, 1914-15. 

" Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 50, no. 8, p. 72, 1913. 

" Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Uandl., vol. 60, no. 2, p. 139, 1916. 

w Ibis, 1933. 491. 

"Ibis, 1911, 16. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 37 

latitude of Penang; de Scliauensee '* took a male at Chieng Sen, 
February 13. A related form is found in Africa. 

LEPTOPTILOS JAVANICUS (Horsfidd) 

Ciconia javanica Horspield, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 13, 188, 1821 (Java). 

One male, Potaram, August 3, 1926. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took a male at Prahmon, Trang, April 10, 1896, 
and a male at Champang, Tenasserim, December 1903. 

Dr. Abbott gives the color of the soft parts as: Iris dirty gi'ayish 
white; bill pale brownish horn, tinged with greenish; feet and claws 
black; naked skin on neck yellow, a small patch below and in front duU 
red; scalp dii'ty gray. Weight of male from Trang, 9 pounds; male 
from Tenasserim, 11)^ pounds. 

Robinson and Ivloss ^^ record a specimen taken at Lay Song Hong, 
Trang, under the name Leptoptilus dubius, which they afterward cor- 
rected; Gyldenstolpe ^^ took a female at Koh Lak and observed it south 
of Ratburi; Robinson and Kloss ^* record a male from Koh Naka Yai, 
Puket; and the same authors,^® writing of Southwest and Peninsular 
Siam, say it is common throughout the area, generally in rice fields in 
mangrove swamps, and on the coastal flats. 

The species ranges from Ceylon to eastern India, Burma, and south- 
ern China, south to Indo-China, Siam, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, 
Java, and Borneo. 

Family PLEGADIDAE: Ibises and Spoonbills 

PSEUDIBIS DAVISONI (Hume) 

Geroniicus davisoni Hume, Stray Feathers, vol. 3, p. 300, 1875 (Pakchan Estuary, 
Tenasserim) . 

One adult male. Ban Nong Keng, no date. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took an adult female at Prahmon, Trang, March 
14, 1896 ; and an adult female at Champang, Tenasserim, December 19, 
1903. 

Dr. Abbott gives the soft parts in the female as follows: Iris orange- 
red; feet dull red; claws black; biU dark plumbeous; naked head black, 
a broad collar bluish white. In the male: Iris reddish orange; feet 
pinkish purple; bill leaden (jade color); head dull black; collar pale 
blue, darker behind. 

Robinson ^° reports it from Lay Song Hong, Trang, from the Bandon 
River, Bandon,^^ and from Pulo Lontar^^; Robmson and Kloss ^^ from 

» Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 279, 1934. 

"Ibis, 1911, p. 16. 

" Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 141, 1916. 

'8 Journ. Nat. nist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 92, 1919. 

i» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 75, 1921. 

«»Ibis, 1911, p. 17. 

•1 Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 5, p. 89, 1915. 

" Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 7, p. 141, 1917. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 92, 1919. 



38 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

the Gliirbi region ; Herbert ^* says that his collector reported it breeding 
at Bang Yang (Tachin). 

Dr. Abbott writes that in Trang it was commoner than Thaumatibis 
gigantea. 

The species ranges from Pegu and Tenasserim to eastern Burma, 
southwestern Yunnan, Cochinchina, southern Laos, Cambodia, Siam, 
and Peninsular Siam. 

This species, while similar in general color to Thaumatibis gigantea, 
is a much smaller bird and has a white patch on the inner lesser wing 
coverts. Culmen in P. davisoni about 180 mm or less; in T. gigantea, 
about 240 mm. 

THAUMATIBIS GIGANTEA (Oustalet) 

Ibis gigantea Oustalet, Bull. Soc. Philom. Pai-is, ser. 7, vol. 1, p. 25, 1877 
(Cambodge). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took an adult male at Lay Song Hong, Trang, De- 
cember 5, 1896; and an adult on Pulo Terutau, April 6, 1904. 

Dr. Abbott thus describes the soft parts of the Trang specimen: 
Iris red; feet dark red; bill greenish horny (jade color); naked head 
dark brownish gray. Weight 7% pounds. 

He writes as follows of the Trang specimen: "It was a solitary 
individual in a dry paddy field in the dry season and was quite unsus- 
picious and allowed me to come as close as I desired to shoot it. The 
Siamese all knew it, so it cannot be rare. On one occasion m the wet 
season in a paddy field, there must have been dozens of ibises, both 
P. davisoni and T. gigantea, but I did not secure any." 

Gairdner ^^ records it from the Ratburi and Petchaburi Districts, 
and one was sent to the British Museum from the latter place for 
identification; a specimen collected by him near Chom Beung, Rat- 
bm-i, in March 1913, is recorded by Wiihamson,^^ who also later 
records a pair taken on December 24, 1918, on the coast of Cambodia, 
just south of the Siamese boundary; ^^ Robinson and Kloss ^* saw one 
from the train just south of Koh Lak, and they record a male taken 
at Krongmon, Trang, February 19, 1910.^^ 

The species has been recorded from Cambodia, southern Laos, 
Cochinchina, and southwestern and Peninsular Siam. 

" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 6, p. 349, 1926. 
" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 1, pp. 39, 152, 1914-15. 
M Journ. Nat. Hist. Soe. Siam, vol. 2, p. 71, pi., 1916. 
K Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 4, p. 196, 1921. 
«» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 74, 1934. 
«« Ibis, 1911, p. 17, pi. 1. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 39 

Family ANATIDAE: Geese, Ducks, Swans 

DENDROCYGNA JAVANICA (Horsfield) 

Anas javanica Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 13, p. 199, 1821 (Java). 

One male, Petrieu, January 20, 1924; three males and two females, 
Nong Mong, Muang lO-abin, August 25-28, 1925; one male, Potaram, 
February 4, 1926; five males and two females. Bung Borapet, June 
23-27, 1932, and March 23, 1933; one female, Nakon Sritamarat, 
September 14, 1924. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected two males and four females at Tyching, 
Trang, May 10-July 17, 1896. 

Dr. Abbott describes the soft parts as follows: Iris dark broAvn; 
bill leaden blue, black at tip and on the culmen; feet blackish slate, 
claws and webs black; orbital skin dull orange or yellow. 

This is a common duck in suitable localities all over Siam proper 
and in Peninsular Siam; also on some of the islands off the coast. 
Herbert ^° reports it breeding at Klong Kangsit, Sambok, and Pakret 
and states that the set usually consists of eight eggs, though ten some- 
times occur. 

The species ranges from India eastward to southern China, south 
to Indo-China, Siam, the Malay States, Sumatra, Java, and Borneo. 

SARCIDIORNIS MELANOTA (Pennant) ^ 

Anser melanotus Pennant, Indian zoology, p. 12, pi. 11, 1769 (Ceylon). 

One female, Nan River, near Kampang, northern Siam, March 21, 
1928. 

Gyldenstolpe ^^ saw some specimens of tliis bu-d kept in captivity 
by the Laos Prince of Chiengmai and was told by the natives it was 
rather common in several parts of northern Siam. Williamson ^' 
records a male shot by Mr. Gibbins on the Klong Luang Peng, near 
Bangkok, in February. There seem to be few Siamese records for 
this species. 

The species ranges from Africa and Madagascar to Ceylon, India, 
Burma, Tenasserim, Siam, Cochinchina, and southeastern China. 

CASARCA FERRUGINEA (Pallas) 

Anas ferruginea Pallas, in Vroeg's Beredeneerde catalogus, Adumbratiunculae, 
p. 5, 1764 (Tartary). 

One adult, unsexed, in heavy molt on the underparts, Klong 
Rangsit, autumn 1925. 

30 Journ. Siam. Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 6, p. 354, 1926. 

»> Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. .56, no. 2, p. 134, 1916. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 42, 1918. 



40 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

My previous record of this specimen ^^ was the first for Siam. 
Deignan ^* has since recorded a specimen from Ban En on the middle 
Meping. 

The species breeds from southeastern Europe east to the upper 
Amur and south to Persia, the Himalayas, and southwestern China; 
in winter it migrates to northern Africa, India, Burma, southern 
China, northern Annam, and Siam. 

NETTION CUECCA (Linnaeus) 

Anas crecca Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 126, 1758 (Sweden). 

One male, changing from an eclipse to nuptial plumage, KHong 
Rangsit, December 28, 1931. 

At the time of capture this specimen was an addition to the Siamese 
list and was later recorded as such.^* Rodgers and Deignan ^° have 
since recorded a female taken at Chiengmai, December 5, 1931. 
The species is of wide distribution, and there are many records south 
of its usual range. Robinson ^^ records a female from Kuala Lumpur, 
Selangor, and there is a specimen in the British Museum from Malacca. 

The species breeds from Iceland, northern Europe, and northern 
Asia to the Aleutian Islands and wmters in Africa, India, Burma, 
southern China, Siam, Indo-China, and the Philippines. 

QUERQUEDULA QUERQUEDULA (Linnaeus) 

Anas querqiiedula Linnaeus, Systema naturae, cd. 10, p. 205, 1758 (Europe; 
restricted type locality, Sweden). 

One male, Petrieu, January 20, 1924; two females, Klong Rangsit, 
December 21, 1925, and 28, 1931; one male, Potaram, February 7, 
1926; one male and one female, Nong Preng, January 29, 1927 (Dr. 
Smith has written on the label of the male, abundant); one male and 
two females, Bung Borapet, March 28, 1933. 

Gairdner ^^ records this teal from the Ratburi and Petchaburi Dis- 
tricts; de Schauensee ^" secured a pair from Hua Takay, December 
28; Deignan *° states that it is present in small numbers at Chiengmai 
from October 24 to February 20. 

The species breeds in northern Europe and northern Asia and 
winters south of its breeding range; in Asia from Arabia, India, 
Burma, Siam, the Indo-Chinese countries, smd islands to the south- 
ward as far as New Guinea. 



" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 9, p. 153, 1933. 
« Journ. Siam Soc. Nal. Hist. Stinpl. vol. 10, p. 132, 1936. 
" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 9, p. 154, 1933. 
«« Troc. Biol. Soc. Washiuslou, vol. 47, p. 92, 1934. 
" Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 6, p. 18, 1913. 
»* Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 1, pp. 31, 153, 1914-15. 
•» Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 81, p. 588, 1930. 
" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 10, p. 75, 1936. 



BIRDS FItOM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 41 

DAFILA ACUTA ACUTA (Linnaeus) 

Anas acuta Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 126, 1758 (Europe; restricted 
type locality, Sweden). 

One female, Paknampo, December 1925; one male and one female, 
Klong Rangsit, December 28, 1931. 

Gyldenstolpe *^ states that the Laos Prince of Chiengmai had some 
pintails in confinement taken at Pra Kao, a small town in northeast- 
ern Siam; Deignan *^ says they are uncommon during cold weather 
at Chiengmai, specimens being taken in October and December. 

The form breeds in Iceland, northern Europe, and northern Asia 
and migrates in the winter to northern Africa, Ceylon, India, 
Burma, Siam, southern China, Tonkin, and Annam. 

SPATULA CLYPEATA (Linnaeus) 

Anas chjpeata Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 124, 1758 (Europe; restricted 
type locality, Sweden). 

One female, Klong Rangsit, fall 1925. 

Williamson ** recorded a male shoveler shot by A. H. Duke at 
Klong Luang Peng, about 30 miles east of Bangkok, January 22, 1916. 

The species breeds from northern North America to northern 
Europe and northern Asia and migrates south to winter; in Asia to 
the Persian Gulf, India, Burma, southern China, Tonkin, Annam, 
and Siam. 

CHENISCUS COROMANDELIANUS COROMANDELIANUS (Gmelin) 

Anas coromandeliana Gmelin, Systema naturae, vol. 1, pt. 2, p. 522, 1789 (Core- 
mandel, India). 

One immature male, Petrieu, January 20, 1924; six males, Nong 
Mong, Muang Krabin, August 20-26, 1925; six males, two females, 
and one unsexed, Potaram, January 31-February 4-6, 1926; one male, 
Bangkok, May 25, 1926; one immature male, Nong Preng, Jauary 
29, 1927; 15 males and 12 females, Bung Borapet, June 20-27, 1932, 
and March 23-28, 1933. 

The cotton teal apparently is generally distributed throughout 
Siam in suitable localities. Robinson and Kloss ^ state that it is 
said to be common at the north end of the Tal6 Sap and Tale Noi in 
Patalung, but rare everywhere else in the Peninsula. 

The form ranges from Ceylon, India, and Burma east to southern 
China and south to Indo-China, Siam, the Malay Peninsula, the 
Philippines, Borneo, Java, Sumatra, and Banka. A related form 
occurs in eastern Australia. 



" Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 5fi, no. 2, p. 135, 1916. 
" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 174, 1931. 
" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 2, p. 64, 1916. 
" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6, p. 82, 1921. 



42 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

NYROCA BAERI (Radde) 

Anas (Ftdigvla) baeri Radde, Reisen im Siiden von Ost-Sibirien, vol. 2, p. 376, 
pi. 15, 18G3 (southeast Siberia). 

One female, Potaram, Meldong River, January 31, 1926. 

My previous record of this specimen ^ was apparently the first for 
Siam; Deignan ^ has since reported securing it at Chiengmai, March 
3, 1936. 

The species breeds from TransbailvaUa to the lower Amur and 
mnters in southern China, Assam, Burma, Bengal, and Siam. 

There are a number of other ducks that breed in northern Asia and 
migrate south in winter that have been taken in Indo-China ; without 
much doubt some of these will eventually be taken in Siam, and 
collectors should not neglect an opportunity to examine sportmen's 
bags for unusual specimens and have them identified and, if worthy, 
placed on record. 

Family ACCIPITRIDAE: Hawks, Old World Vultures, Harriers, 

Ospreys 

ELANUS CAERULEUS VOCIFERUS (Latham) 

Falco vociferus Latham, Index ornithologicus, vol. 1, p. 46, 1790 (India). 

One male and one female, Bangkok, September 27 and 29, 1924. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took one immature and two adult females at 
Tyching, Trang, J\me 30, July 25, and August 6, 1896. 

These Siamese specimens are considerably paler above and the 
black wing patch smaller than in E. c. caeruleus; they seem to have a 
somewhat longer wing. The wing of the male measures 285 mm, that 
of the three females 270, 281, and 282 mm. The wings of four males 
from East Africa measure 260, 268, 269, and 270 mm; three females, 
265, 268, and 270 nmi. These measurements do not agree with Kirke 
Swann's *'' or Stuart Baker's.^^ 

This kite is probably resident in Trang, and it is known to be 
resident near Bangkok. If it does not belong to this race, I do not 
know where else to place it; it certainly does not belong to the African 
form. 

Most of the Siamese records of this kite come from Bangkok or 
vicinity, where Herbert ^^ has found it breeding at Samkok and 
Bang Boon and secured eggs in January, February, July, and August; 
he concluded that two broods were raised and that a set consisted of 
tlu-ee or four eggs. 

*» Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 9, p. 154, 1933. 
<« Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 10, p. 75, 1936. 
*' A synopsis of the Accipitres, ed. 2, pt. 3, p. 161, 1922. 
" The fauna of British India, Birds, cd. 2, vol. S, p. 125, 1928. 
" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Uist. Suppl., vol. 6, p. 332, 1926. 



BIRDS FROM SIA.M AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 43 

Deignan ^° reports observing a specimen 2 kilometers north of 
Chomtong, northern Siam. 

The form ranges from India to Assam, Burma, Yunnan, Siam, and 
Indo-China, south in Peninsular Siam to Trang. 

MACHAERHAMPHUS ALCINUS Westemian 

Machaerhamphus alcinus Westerman, Bijdr. Dierk., vol. 1, p. 29, pi. 12, 1848 

(Malacca). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took a fine male of this strange hawk at Lay 
Song Hong, Trang, August 19, 1896. 

He gives the followmg notes: Iris golden-yellow; feet leaden, claws 
black; bill black. Crepuscular hawk like a goatsucker. Stomach 
contained eight small bats, which had been swallowed whole. 

Robinson and Kloss ^^ say this bat hawk is of crepuscular habits 
and will certainly be found to occur in the vicinity of most of the 
limestone hills that are so common in Lower Siam; Robinson ^^ 
reports meeting two nesting pairs on the banks of the Bandon River; 
they were nesting high up in very lofty trees. The species is widely 
spread throughout the Peninsula and at one time was not uncommon 
in the vicinity of Kuala Lumpur. 

This bat hawk ranges from Tenasserim and the Malay Peninsula 
through the Sunda Islands to New Guinea. A related species is 
found in Africa. 

LOPHASTUR JERDONI JERDONI (Blyli) 

Pernis jerdoni Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 11, p. 464, 1842 (Malacca). 

One adult male, Pak Chong, eastern Siam, November 17, 1925; one 
immature male, Aranya, July 11, 1930; one adult male, Kao Soi Dao, 
Trang, January 6, 1934. 

There are few records of this hawk for Siam. Stuart Baker ^' 
records a female from Hupbun and a male from Klong Song, near 
Petrieu, both in Herbert's collection; Robinson and Kloss ^* record 
four specimens from Trang and two from Langkawi. It will probably 
be found to occur all over Siam when the country is more thorouglily 
explored. 

The form ranges from Sikkim to eastern Assam south to Burma, 
Siam, Peninsular Siam, and Sumatra. The species has been divided 
into a number of races. 



«• Journ. Siam. Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 10, p. 64. 1935. 

« Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam. vol. 5, p. 94, 1923. 

w Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 5, no. 3, p. 90, 1915. 

M Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 4, p. 30, 1920. 

M Ibis, 1911, p. 25. 



44 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

BAZA LEUPHOTES BURMANA W. L. Sclater 

Baza lophoies burmana W. L. Sclater, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 41, p. 3, 1920 
(Maliwoon, Tenasserim) . 

One male, Kao Bantad, Krat, December 23, 1929; one male, Kao 
Soi Dao, Trang, January 12, 1934. 

The following specimens collected by Dr. W. L. Abbott are in 
the United States National Museum: One male and one female, 
Trang (Lay Song Hong, December 3, 1896, and Trang, February 13, 
1897); five males and three females, Sullivan Island, Mergui Archi- 
pelago, January 29-February 2, 1900. In addition, there is a female 
from Lat Bua Kao, eastern Siam, collected on October 11, 1916, by 
C. Boden Kloss, and an immature male from Me Taqua, Raheng, 
western Siam, collected on June 13, 1924, by K. G. Gairdner. 

Dr. Abbott describes the soft parts as follows: Iris dark bro^vn; 
bill and cere leaden; tip of bill dark horn brown; feet leaden, claws 
black. He notes the stomach contents of the eight specimens col- 
lected on Sullivan Island to consist exclusively of insects. Evidently 
it is a very useful bird. 

The male from Krat has the pectoral band below the white crescent 
chocolate, and a female from Sullivan Island approaches it; in the 
remainder of the series the pectoral band is black. 

This race is apparently not uncommon throughout Siam proper and 
in the Malay Peninsula. The species ranges from Assam south of the 
Brahmaputra south to Burma and Siam and east to Cochinchina, 
Cambodia, Annam, Laos, southern China, and south to Peninsular 
Siam. 

This is a beautiful crested hawk. It is black, with a broad, white 
crescent on the jugulum, then a narrow black pectoral band, the breast 
and sides banded chocolate and cream-buff; the belly and under tail 
coverts black, a chocolate patch at the base of the inner primaries, 
with a bold white mark near the tip of the secondaries, the tertials 
white at the base, showing through. 

This species is the type of the genus Baza Hodgson, and in my 
opinion the genus is monotypic. It differs from Lophoastur in its 
proportionally longer crest and longer wings, weaker feet and bill, 
and third outer primary longest instead of the fourth. 

The other form of the species. Baza leuphofes leuphoies ranges to 
the northward and westward of burmana and is said to differ from 
burmana in having the band across the chest rufous and chestnut 
instead of black. 

Robinson and Kloss " state that in the Malay States this falcon is 
only a winter visitor, so both forms probably occur in Siam during 
winter. I have examined no authentic specimens of typical leuphotes. 

•» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 91, 1923. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 45 

PERNIS APIVORUS PTILORHYNCHUS (Temminck) 

Falco ptilorhynchus Temminck, Nouveau recueil de planches colorizes d'oiseaux, 
livr. 8, pi. 44, 1821 (Java and Sumatra; in text to pi. 270, Java). 

One male, Tha Chang, Pak Chong, March 15, 1927, in immature 
plumage (wing, 363 mm); one male, Pak Chong, May 4, 1926, huffy- 
brown below, with narrow black shaft streaks (wing, 375 mm). 
Both specimens are without a crest. 

One immature female was collected by Dr. W. L. Abbott at Lay 
Song Hong, Trang, October 30, 1896. This specimen is in an almost 
uniform cinnamon-buff plumage below, the feathers of the belly with 
lighter edgings; there are no facial stripes whatever; the crest is long 
and black; wing, 395 mm. 

This form ranges from Borneo, Java, and Sumatra to the Malay 
States, Peninsular and eastern Siam, and southern Tenasserim. It 
ranges throughout the Malay Peninsula but does not seem to be 
common anywhere. The various plumages are not well understood. 

Gyldenstolpe ^^ took a young male at Koh Lak, January 14, 1915. 
Robinson ^^ recorded a specimen from Lem Ngob, southeastern 
Siam, the only record I have seen from that part of the country. 
Robinson and Ivloss ^^ list an immature female from Tapli, Pakchan, 
March 8, 1919. 

MILVUS MIGRANS GOVINDA Sykes 

Milvus govinda Sykes, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1832, p. 81 (Deccan). 

One female, Nong Kae, May 7, 1929; one male, Sam Roi Yot, 
November 17, 1932. 

This form ranges from India to Burma, Siam, and Southern Indo- 
China; rarely to the Malay Peninsula. 

This is the resident form of kite in Siam. Herbert ^^ reports it 
breeding on the river north of Bangkok, laying two or occasionally 
three eggs in January and February; Robinson and Kloss ®° state that 
it is a very rare visitor to the Malay Peninsula, where it has been 
taken as far south as near Taping, Perak, in November. 

This species can be distinguished from M. lineatus by its smaller 
size. 



»« Kungl. Svenska Vot.-Akad. Handl., vol. 56, no. 2. p. 130, 1916. 

" Ibis, 1915, p 728. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 94, 1923. 

" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 6, p. 331, 1926. 

«» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, 1023, p. 101. 



33527—38- 



46 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

HALIASTUR INDUS INDUS (Boddaert) 

Falco indus Boddaert, Table des planches enlumineez d'histoire naturelle, p. 
25, 1783 (Pondicherry). 

One adult male, Bangnara, Patani, July 11, 1926; one female, 
Kao Soi Dao, Trang, January 21, 1934; one egg, Bung Borapet, 
January 27, 1933. 

The specimen from Bangnara has the black streaking on the head 
and chest heavier and the streaks broader than any specimen I have 
seen. Bangnara is on the east side of the Peninsula, and it may be 
that this form wanders or occurs farther south on this side. This is 
supposed to be the form occurring in northern and central Siam, where 
it is said to be not uncommon. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected two adult males, one adult female, 
and one immature female in Trang, March 12, April 3, and July 25, 
1896; one immature female, Kamamun, Trengganu, October 2, 1900; 
one female, Tanjong Badak, Tenasserim, March 15, 1900; one 
female, Hastings Island, Mergui Archipelago, December 14, 1900. 

In Dr. Abbott's specimens and the female collected by Dr. Smith 
in Trang the shaft streaks on the head and chest are not so heavy 
as in the Bangnara male mentioned above; they seem to average 
coarser than in specimens from Java and the Philippines. If FI. i. 
intermedius occurs in the Malay Peninsula at all, it must be confined 
to the extreme southern end, or the two forms may wander after the 
breeding season. It would be better to place all the records for Siam 
and Peninsular Siam under H. i. indus until more is known of the 
distribution of the two forms in this part of Asia. 

This is a common resident form all over Siam proper and down 
Peninsular Siam as far as the Malay States. Herbert ^^ found it 
breeding at Samkok and Ayuthia, the set consisting of two eggs laid 
the latter part of January or in February, or occasionally in March. 

The form ranges from Ceylon, India, Burma, Indo-China, Siam, 
and Peninsular Siam as far as Trang or somewhat farther. 

ACCIPITER BADIUS POLIOPSIS (Hume) 
Micronisus poliopsis Hume, Stray Feathers, vol. 2, p. 325, 1874 (northern Pegu). 

Three immature males and two adult females, Bangkok, January 11, 
May 5, and October 24, 1924, December 28 and 29, 1925; two adult 
males and one immature female, Nong Khor, near Sriracha, September 
25, 1925, and February 5 and 6, 1927; one immature female, Pang 
Sok, August 12, 1926; one subadult female, Kanburi, April 16, 1928; 
one immature female, Koh Tao, September 21, 1928; one immature 
female, Ejiong Phra, April 13, 1929; one immature male, Aranya, 
July 23, 1930; one adult female, Chiengdao, January 28, 1932. 

" Joum. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 6, p. 330, 1926. 



BIRDS FROM SIAJM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 47 

Dr. Smith gives the color of the soft parts as: Iris, golden-yellow; 
bill plumbeous; cere green; feet and legs yellow. 

The following specimens collected by Dr. W. L. Abbott are in the 
United States National Museum: One adult male, Hastings Island, 
December 12, 1900, and one adult male and one adult female, High 
Island, December 31, 1900, both islands in the Mergui Archipelago; 
one adult and one immature female, Tanjong Badak, January 11, 
1900; one adult male and one adult female, Champang, December 13, 
14, 1903; one adult female, Telok Krang, February 15, 1904, the 
three latter in southern Tenasserim; one immature female, Trang, 
Peninsular Siam, January 28, 1899. 

The females are darker and more slaty than the males. The two 
adult males from Siam and a male from Daban, southern Annam, are 
much lighter above than the same sex from Tenasserim, but this does 
not seem to hold in the females, and it may be only individual vari- 
ation. 

This is a common resident all over Siam proper and down Peninsular 
Siam at least to Trang, or somewhat farther south. The form ranges 
from southern Assam to Siam, southern China, Indo-China, and the 
Malay Peninsula. 

ACCIPITER AFFINIS Hodgson 

Accipiter affinis Hodgson, Bengal Sporting Mag., new ser., vol. 8, p. 179, 1836 

(Nepal). 

One adult female, Bangkok, October 16, 1924; one immature 
female, Lam Klong Lang, Pak Jong, June 5, 1925; one immature male, 
Lat Bua Kao, July 29, 1929. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott purchased in Penang an unsexed specimen said 
to have been shot in the Province of Wellesley ; wing, 189 mm. 

The United States National Museum possesses a male of typical 
Accipiter virgatus from Java, and it is so totally different from affinis 
or anything from the continent that I quite agree with Robinson and 
Kloss's remarks under A. gularis ^^ that no resident form of virgatus 
occurs on the mainland. An adult male of affinis from Mount Omei, 
Szechwan, in the United States National Museum is not so dark 
above as virgatus; below the breast is not quite so richly colored, and 
the bars on the belly and tibia are grayish not blackish or very dark 
brown, as in virgatus; the latter is much smaller. The wing in male 
virgatus measures 146 mm; in affinis from Szechwan, 167 mm. 

Gyldenstolpe ^^ records a specimen from Khun Tan as A. virgatus; 
Robinson^* records it from Koh Kut and Koh Rang; Baker ^* a 
female from Chan Teuk; Robinson and Kloss record an adult 

«Uourn. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 104, 1923. 
M Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 1, p. 234, 1915. 
M Ibis, 1915, p. 728. 
" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 4, p. 29. 1920. 



48 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

female from Hat Sanuk, near Koh Lak, taken April 14, 1919 (evidently 
the southernmost record for Siam) .^'' It is probably resident in Siam. 

The species ranges from the Himalayas to the mountains of western 
China, Siam, Tonkin, and Laos. In winter it moves somewhat 
farther south. 

Just how to distinguish immature affmis from gularis is difhcult 
to answer; in the latter the closed wings come nearer to the tip of the 
tail. In comparable plumages A. affinis is more heavily marked 
below. In adult plumage there is no difficulty. A. gularis is much 
paler, with a hair-line dark streak down the center of the throat and 
a proportionally shorter tail; the central throat streak in affinis is 
comparatively heavy. 

ACCIPITER GULARIS NISOIDES BIyth 

Accipiter nisoides Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 16, p. 727, 1847 (Malacca) 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected an immature male and an immature 
female on Pulo Terutau, Langkawi Group, November 8 and 21, 1903. 

Gyldenstolpe " records two males from Pak Koh, March 24 and 
April 17, and an immature female from Khun Tan, May 24, 1914; 
Robinson ^^ records a female from Klong Yai, January 4, and a male 
from Ok Yam, January 3, 1915; Deignan "^ states that the form occurs 
on Doi Sutep from 2,500 to 3,500 feet and that he shot an immature 
bird on the plain in July; Robinson and Kloss ™ record three males 
from Kandhuli, Chaiya, Peninsular Siam, taken September 13-22. 

Winter-taken birds may be A. g. gularis, but closely related races 
of this genus are hard to discriminate, especially in immature plumage. 

A. g. nisoides is said to be resident from southern China to Indo- 
China, Burma, and Siam, probably going farther south in winter. 

LOPHOSPIZA INDICA (Pearson) 

Astur indicus Pearson (Ilodgson MS.), Bengal Sporting Mag., vol. 7, p. 177, 1836 
(Nepal). 

One female, Bandon, January 5, 1927; one female, Kao Bantad, 
Krat, December 27, 1929; one immature male and one immature 
female, Lat Bua Kao, July 30 and August 8, 1929; one male, Huey 
Yang, October 1, 1930; one female. Pang Mcton, May 1, 1931; one 
immature female, Kliun Tan, 3,000 feet, February 15, 1932; one 
immature female, Klong Yai, Sriracha, July 25, 1932. 

The following specimens were collected by Dr. W. L. Abbott: 
Five males and one female, Trang, April 3 and September 1, 1896, 

M Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5. p. 105, 1921. 

•' Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 125, 1916. 

" Ibis, 1915. p. 727. 

•« Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 175, 1931. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 104, 1923. 



BIRDS FRCM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENHsTSULA 49 

February 15, 1897, December 26, 27, 1898, and February 13, 1899; one 
female, Sullivan Island, February 2, 1900, and one male, Domel 
Island, February 24, 1900 (both in Mergui Archipelago); one male, 
Champang, Tenasserim, December 22, 1903. 

This must be a very common hawk throughout Siam and down the 
Malay Peninsula. It is resident in Siam proper but in the Peninsular 
region may be only a winter resident. The bird is much larger than 
Lophospiza trivirgata, and if the ranges of the two given by Stuart 
Baker ^^ are correct, then they must overlap. In my opinion they 
should be treated as distinct species. 

The form ranges from the eastern Himalayas to Assam, Burma, 
Indo-China, Siam, and Peninsular Siam to Trang or somewhat 
farther. 

BUTASTUR INDICUS (Gmelin) 

Falco indicus Gmelin, Systema naturae, vol. 1, pt. 1, p. 264, 1788 (Java). 

One female, Pak Chong, November 15, 1925; one female, Koh 
Chang, January 12, 1926; one female, Kao Sabap, November 4, 1933. 

The following specimens collected by Dr. W. L. Abbott are in the 
United States National Museum: One male, Pulo Langkawi, Decem- 
ber 9, 1899; two females, Tanjong Badak, Tenasserim, January 9, 
12, 1900, and December 9, 1903; and one female, Champang, Ten- 
asserim, December 17, 1903. 

Gyldenstolpe " reports it from Khun Tan, northern Siam, Rayong, 
southeastern Siam, and Bangkok; de Schauensee ^^ took a female on 
Doi Sutep and a pair at Chiengmai on his third expedition, 1,500 
feet, December 26 ^^; Robinson and Kloss ^^ report it rare in Peninsular 
Siam, where it is probably only a winter visitor. 

The species has a wide range. It breeds in southeastern Siberia, 
Korea, Japan, and northeastern China and migrates south in fall 
through Burma, the Malay Peninsula, Java, Indo-China, and the 
Sunda Islands to New Guinea. In the Philippines, as well as on 
some other islands, it is said to be both resident and migrant. 

NISAETUS NIPALENSIS FOKIENSIS (W. L. Silater) 

Spizaetus nipalensis fokiensis Swann, A synoptical list of the Accipitres, ed. 1, 
p. 72, Nov. 7, 1919 (nomen nudum). — W. L. Sclater, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, 
vol. 40, p. 37, Dec. 8, 1919 (Fokien Province, southern China). 

One female, Kao Sabap, October 27, 1933. The wing in this speci- 
men measures 420 mm, v/hich is rather small even for this form. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected an immature male on Pulo Terutau, 
Langkawi Group, November 9, 1903. 

" Tno fauna of British India, Birds, ed. 2, vol. 5, pp. 154-155, 1928 

" Ibis, 1920, p. 748. 

" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 81, p. 678 ,1930 

'< Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, p. 270. 1934. 

» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6, p. 98, 1923. 



50 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

The range of the form, according to Stuart Baker, is southern China 
and the Indo-Burmese countries to Tenasserim. 

Robinson and Kloss's ^^ record of S'pizaetus nipalensis from Pulo 
Terutau and that of Gyldenstolpe " from Hue Sai, northwest of Koh 
Lak, seem to belong to this form, which had not been separated at 
the time they wrote. Robinson and Kloss "^ record a female from 
Tapli, Pakchan, taken March 3 ; de Schauensee ^^ took a female at 
Cliiengmai, 4,500 feet, February 27. 

NISAETUS ALBONIGER Blyth 

Nisaetus alboniger Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 14, p. 173, 1845 (Malacca). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected two males at Lay Song Hong, Trang, 
August 2G and December 31, 1896. 

Dr. Abbott describes the soft parts as: Iris yellow or greenish 
yellow; bill and cere black, low^er mandible leaden at base; feet yellow, 
claws black. The contents of the stomachs in both specimens con- 
tained the remains of lizards. 

Herbert ^° recorded this species for Siam, but without locality; later 
Baker ^^ examined the specimen and recorded it as from Tung Song, 
Peninsular Siam. Besides the two collected by Dr. Abbott, this is 
apparently the only record for Siam. 

The species ranges from southern Tenasserim south through Penin- 
sular Siam to the Malay States and the Sunda Islands as far as Borneo. 
It seems to be commoner in the southern part of its range. 

The wang in the two specimens measures 310-317 mm. In onei 
stage of the immature plumage the head and lower parts are white and 
the back and wings light blackish brown, each feather edged with 
white. In any plumage this species can be distinguished by size 
from the other two species of the genus occurring in Siam. 

NISAETUS CIRRHATUS LIMNAETUS (Horsfield) 

Falco limnaelus Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 13, p. 138, 1821 
(Java) . 

The following specimens collected by Dr. W. L. Abbott are in the 
United States National Museum: Two males and seven females from 
Trang (Prahmon, March 13, 1896; Tyching, May 2-July 3, 1896; 
Lay Song Hong, September 7-December 19, 1896; Chong, January 24, 
1897). 

Dr. Abbott thus describes the soft parts: Iris brownish yellow, 
grayish brown, or golden-yellow; bill black; cere dull black; feet 

" Ibis, 1911, p. 22. 

" Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 126, 1916. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6, no. 2, p. 96, 1923. 

" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 270, 1934. 

eo Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 2, p. 58, 1916. 

«' Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 4, p. 28, 1920. 



BIRDS FROM SI AM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 51 

yellow, claws black. He gives the weight of four females as 3, Sji, 3%, 
and 4 pounds. 

Of the nine specimens from Trang, one male and four females are 
fuscous-black; two females are white below with a few light-drab 
markings, the head above yellowish buff streaked with a few sagittate 
fuscous-black markings; a male and female are rather heavily streaked 
below with fuscous-black, the pileum and nape fuscous-black, the 
feathers edged with buffy brown, the thighs barred with rusty brown. 
Dr. Abbott has marked one of the wliite-breasted females as immature, 
and it is my opinion that this phase is the young, probably in the first 
winter plumage, that the heavily streaked specimens are older birds in 
the second year, and that the fuscous black specimens are the fully 
adult birds. They breed in the second plumage, as a female shot 
from the nest by Count Gyldenstolpe at Koh Lak, January 20,^- was 
in this plumage. 

The only specimen examined by me from Java is a glossy fuscous- 
black male, with a wing measurement of 372 mm. The wing in the 
black Trang male measures 367 mm. 

The crest in this form is comparatively short, and the feathering of 
the tarsi does not extend down on the toes as it does on the other two 
species of the genus occurring in Siam. 

N. c. limnaetus ranges from northern India to eastern Bengal and 
Assam, south through Siam to the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, 
Borneo, and the Philippine Islands. It has been recorded from pretty 
much all over Siam, but evidently is more abundant in Peninsular 
Siam than farther north. Robinson ^^ has recorded it from Koh 
Pennan, off Bandon. 

HIERAAETUS PENNATUS (Gmclin) 

Falco pennatus Gmelin, Systema naturae, vol. 1, pt. 1, p. 272, 1788 (no locality; 
France has been suggested). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected one adult male (black phase) and two 
immature males in Tenasserim (Maliwun, March 23, 1900, and March 
9, 1904; and Telok Krang, February 16, 1904). 

He describes the colors of the soft parts of the adult male: Iris 
dark brown; bill and cere black; toes pale dirty yellowish, claws black. 

The adult male from Telok Krang is in the black phase. It is bone 
brown all over and is molting into an even darker brown (near light 
seal); the pileum and nape have the bases of the feathers wdiite and 
wood brown subterminally, these colors showing through and accentu- 
ating the seal-brov/n tips; the longer, upper tail coverts are light buffy 
brown; the bases of the middle tail feathers are whitish, almost hidden 
by the coverts. Superficially this specimen is almost identical with the 
black phase of Nisaetus cirrhatus limnaetus, but it has weaker feet; 

" Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 127, 1916. 
"s Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 5, p. 144, 1915. 



52 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

the feathers of the pileum and nape are more lanceolate; the nostril 
is not so rounded; and it is smaller. Wing, 370 mm. 

The two immature specimens have white heads and underparts 
streaked with very dark brown; the upperparts are dark brown, with 
white or light-brown edges to the feathers. 

I have had no authentic specimens of H. pennatus with which to 
compare the present specimens, and they may not belong here, but 
if not there seems to be no other species to which they could be 
assigned. 

Stuart Baker ^* gives the range as South Europe, North Africa, West 
and Central Asia to India, Ceylon, Burma, and the Malay Peninsula. 
I know of no authentic records for Siam, however. 

LOPHOTRIORCHIS KIENERH KIENERII (Sparre) 

Astur kienerii Sparre, Mag. Zool., 1835, cl. 2, pi. 35 (Himalaya). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected an adult male at Lay Song Hong, Trang, 
November 18, 1896. 

He gives the following description of the soft parts: Iris dark 
brown; bill black, leaden at the base, cere yellow; feet yellow, claws 
black. 

This is a crested hawk with feathered tarsi similar to Hieraaetus and 
Nisaetus but with slenderer feet and proportionally longer and sharper 
claws. It is black above; throat and chest creamy white with black 
streaks along the side; breast and abdomen cinnamon-rufous with 
bold black shaft streaks; tail like the back with fuscous cross bars, the 
tip narrowly edged with wood brown; thighs like the abdomen with 
blackish markings near the base next to the body; w^ng, 327 mm. 

This form ranges from the Himalayas east to Assam and south to 
South Annam and the Malay Peninsula. Gairdner ^^ took a specimen 
in the Petchaburi District that was identified at the British Museum; 
Chasen and Ifloss ^^ record one taken in the Raheng District, also by 
Gairdner. Tlds is a rare bird, and few specimens have been taken in 
Siam. Deignan ^^ gives two sight records for the Chiengmai region, 
both in February. 

A closely related form, LopJiotriorchis kienerii formosus (Strese- 
mann), inhabits Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Celebes, and the 
Lesser Sunda Islands east to Sumbawa, and possibly the southern part 
of the Malay Peninsula. 

w The fauna of British India, Birds, ed. 2, vol. 5, p. 79, 1928. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 1, p. 151, 1915. * 

«« Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 162. 1928. 

•' Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppi.. vol. 10, p. 76, 1936 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 53 

CUNCUMA LEUCOGASTER (Gmelin) 

Falco leucogaster Gmelin, Systema naturae, vol. 1, pt. 1, p. 257, 1788 (no locality; 
New South Wales, Mathews). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected the following: One adult male and one 
adult female, Trang (Prahmon, March 27, 1896, and Trang, December 
23, 1898); one adult female and one immature female, Mergui Archi- 
pelago (Sullivan Island, February 5, 1900; Bentinck Island, March 8, 
1900); and one immature female, Kamamun, Trengganu, October 1, 
1900. 

Dr. Abbott gives the colors of the soft parts of an adult female from 
Bentinck Island as follows: Iris dark brown; bill leaden, blackish at 
tip; cere brownish; feet dirty wliite, claws black. Weight, dji pounds. 

This species inhabits the coast of India, Burma, southeastern Siam, 
the Malay Peninsula, and southeast through the Philippine and Sunda 
Islands to Australia. Robinson and Kloss *^ state that it is common 
on the coast of the Malay Peninsula; Gyldenstolpe ^^ observed a pair 
nesting at Koh Lak, but they were not obtained; Robinson ^° reports 
it from Koh Samui and Koh Pennan, off Bandon; Robinson and 
Kloss ^^ state that the two unmature specimens from Langkawi for- 
merly identified as leucoryphus really belong to this species. 

This is a fish-eating eagle and does not as a rule wander far from 
the coast. 

ICTHYOPHAGA ICHTHYAETUS ICHTHYAETUS (Horsfleld) 

Falco ichthyaetus Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 13, p. 136, 1821 
(Java) . 

One adult male and one adult female. Bung Borapet, June 21 and 
June 24, 1932. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected the following: Two adult males and one 
adult female, Trang, 1896 (Prahmon, March 8 and April 10; Lay 
Song Hong, November 8); one adult (unsexed) and one immature 
(unsexed), Tanjong, Badak, Tenasserim, January 7, 1900, and 
December 10, 1903; and one adult female, Rumpin River, Pahang, 
July 21, 1903. 

He gives the soft parts as: Iris straw yellow or grayish yellow; cere 
and base of bill dark leaden, black at tip, or cere and bill dull black, 
horny blue at base of lower mandible; feet china, dirty, or greenish 
white, claws black. Weight of three specimens: One adult male 
from Trang, Z% pounds; one adult female from Trang, 5 pounds; and 
one adult female from Pahang, 5 pounds. 

"Ibis, 1911, p. 23. 

" Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 128, 1910. 
•0 Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 5, p. 141, 1915. 
•1 Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 100, 1923. 



54 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

This species is said to be generally distributed in Siam in suitable 
localities. As a good part of its food is fish, it is usually found near 
water. 

The form ranges from India through Assam, Burma, French Indo- 
China, and Siam to the Philippines and the Greater Sunda Islands as 
far as Celebes. 

SARCOGYPS CALVUS (Scopoli) 

Vultur calvus Scopoli, Deliciae florae et faunae insubricae, pt. 2, p. 85, 1786 
(Pondicherry). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected one male at Prahmon, Trang, April 4, 
1896; and one female, Trang, February 11, 1897. 

He gives the soft parts as: Male — iris straw color, finely mottled 
with black; bill and wattles black; naked head and cere purplish red; 
feet pale pink flesh color, claws black. Female — Iris dusky brown; 
bill and claws black; cere, head, and wattles dull red; feet and mottling 
in front of thighs red. The weight of the m^ale is given as 8 pounds; 
that of the female as 10 pounds. 

The female has the inner secondaries faded to a creamy white sub- 
terminally, this white area much frayed and in several of the feathers 
only a small spatula of the black tip remaining. The male, though 
taken later in the year, is in unworn and unfaded plumage. 

This species ranges throughout India and Burma, east to Siam, and 
Indo-China, south through Peninsular Siam to the Malay States. 

Gyldenstolpe ^^ in recording it from Koh Lak states that it is most 
abundant along the coast but that it occurs also in the central and 
northern parts of the country; Ogilvie-Grant ^^ records it from Patani; 
Deignan ^* reports it common at Chiengmai; Herbert ^^ found it breed- 
ing around Bangkok, depositing its single egg by the end of January 
or early in February. 

Apparently this is a common species all over Siam. 

PSEUDOGYPS BENGALENSIS (Gmelin) 

Vultur bengalensis Gmelin, Systema naturae, vol. 1, pt. 1, p. 245, 1788 (Bengal). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected one male at Tyching, Trang, April 23, 
1896; and one immature female. Lay Song Hong, Trang, no date. 

He gives the color of the soft parts as: Male — iris dark brown; head 
and neck slaty black ; bill and cere black, culmen pale greenish horny ; 
feet dull black, claws black. Immature female — iiis dark brown; 
head and neck muddy brown; two patches on lower part of neck 
behind bluish; cere dull black; lower mandible dull dark horn bro\vn; 
upper mandible dark brownish black, black at tip, a broad greenish 

»2 Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 132, 1916. 

M Fasciculi Malayenses, pt. 3, p. 115, 1905. 

»< Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 161, 1031. 

" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hi.st. Suppl., vol. 6, p. 329, 1926. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 55 

horny patch on eiihnen; naked patch over each clavicle pale bluish; a 
spot on lower eyelid pale yellow; feet dark dirty brown, claws dull 
black. The weight of the male is given as twelve and a half pounds, 
that of the female as ten pounds. 

This species ranges from the lower Himalayas from Kashmir to 
Burma and Indo-China, south to Siam and down Penisular Siam to 
the Malay States. Gyldenstolpe ^^ states that it is fairly com.mon 
over the whole country, and several nests were observed in some large 
trees south of Chiengmai ; Grant ^^ records it from Patani ; Robinson 
and Kloss ^^ record it common everywhere. It does not extend south 
of Taiping, Perak. 

CIRCUS MELANOLEUCUS (Forster) 

Falco melanoleucus Forster, Indian zoology, p. 2, pi. 2, 1769 (Ceylon). 

One female, Bangkok, December 30, 1925 (although marked 
female, most certainly an adult male). 

This species breeds from Lake Baikal east to Ussuriland and south 
to northern China; winters in eastern India, Burma, Siam, Indo- 
China, the Philippines, and Malay Peninsula. 

Gyldenstolpe ^^ secured a male and female at Khun Tan and 
observed it on the grassy plains at Nong Bua and in some numbers on 
the great swamps of central vSiam; Deignan ^ reports that it occurs on 
the Chiengmai ricefields from October to March; Lowe ^ observed it 
on the Meping; Robinson and Kloss ^ say that it is common in Pen- 
insular and southwestern Siam but a rare winter visitor to the southern 
parts of the Peninsula as far as Johore. 

CIRCUS AERUGINOSUS AERUGINOSUS (Linnaeus) 

Falco aeruginosus Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 91, 1758 (Sweden). 

One female, Nong Preng, January 29, 1927. 

This form breeds from southern Sweden east to the Yenessei and 
south to Turkestan and Mongolia; migrates south to winter in India, 
the Malay Peninsula, southern China, and the Pliilippines. 

Gyldenstolpe ^ reports it from Bangkok and central Siam, and on 
his second expedition he took four immature specimens at Koh Lak 
in November and December ®; de Schauensee ^ took a male at Cliieng- 
mai, December 25; Lowe ^ observed it on the Meping in March; 

»« Kunsl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 131, 1916. 

»' Fasciculi Malayenses, pt. 3, p. 115, 1905. 

«» Journ. Nat. Hist. See. Siam, vol. 5, p. 106, 1923. 

" Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 123, 1916. 

' Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 166, 1931. 

' Ibis, 1933, p. 485. 

> Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 102, 1923. 

* Kunsl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 50, no. 8, p. 63, 1913. 

• Kungl. Sven,ska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 124, 1916. 
f Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 81, p. 579, 1930. 

' Ibis. 1933, p. 485. 



56 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Robinson and Kloss ^ found it common in the ricefields bordering the 
upper reaches of the Pakchan Estuary and say that in winter it is 
fairly abundant in suitable open spaces as far south as Kuala Lumpur. 

SPILORNIS CHEELA MALAYENSIS Swann 

Spilornis cheela malayensis Swann, A synoptical list of the Accipitres, pt. 3, p. 83, 
1920 (Raub, Pahang). 

One female, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, January 9, 1934; one male, Koh 
Lak, June 15, 1933. 

The following specimens collected by Dr. W. L. Abbott are in the 
United States National Museum: Three males and three females, 
Trang (Prahmon, April 2-3, 1896; Tycliing, May 26, 1896; Lay Song 
Hong, August 31 and September 3, 1896; Trang, January 13, 1897); 
one female, Pulo Terutau, Langkawi Group, November 9, 1903; one 
male, Endau River, east coast of Johore, June 28, 1901; one immature 
female, Sungei Bahk, Tenasserim, November 29, 1900. 

Dr. Abbott's notes follow: Iris bright yellow; bill horny blue at 
base, tip black; cere and naked skin about lores and orbits bright 
amber; feet yellow, claws black. Weight of a female taken at Prah- 
mon, Trang, 2 pounds; the stomach of the same bird contained the 
remains of snakes. 

The male taken by Dr. Smith at Koh Lak is considerably paler below 
than the Trang female that he took. It is molting, and the new 
feathers coming in are much darker. The paler bird is regarded as an 
earlier stage of plumage. Two of Dr. Abbott's Trang male specimens 
are also pale beneath; also the male from Johore. 

The wings of four males from Siam measure 400, 355, 392, and 
393 mm; the single male from Johore 345 mm; the wings of five females 
from Siam 390, 395, 405, 370, and 390 mm; the wings of five males 
from Sumatra measure 325, 330, 341, 350, and 365 mm; three females 
from Sumatra 340, 360, and 363 mm. 

These measurements indicate that the Sumatran bird averages 
smaller than that of the mainland. It appears to be also slightly 
paler, but not constantly so. The small male from Johore may really 
belong with the Sumatran form, and the bird of the southern Malay 
States may be the same as that of Sumatra. The name of this form 
as restricted by Oberholser ® is Spilornis cheela bassus (J. R. Forster). 

The range of S. cheela malayensis extends from southwestern Siam 
and southern Tenasserim through Peninsuhir Siam to the Malay 
States. It has been recorded from the Malay Peninsula under 
various names such as Spilornis pallidus, bacha, and rutherjordi. The 
small pale bird from Johore docs resemble S. pallidus, but this form is 
confined to the lowlands of west and north Borneo and the Natuna 



• Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, voJ. 5, p. 103, 1923. 

• U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 159, p. 20, 1932. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 57 

Islands. So 1 think it better for the present to consider it a pale 
specimen of bassus. S. c. malayensis apparently is not an uncommon 
bird in suitable localities in Peninsular Siam, extending northward 
into southwestern Siam, but how far it goes in this direction is not 
known at present. 

Family FALCONIDAE: Falcons, Caracaras 

MICROfflERAX FRINGILLARIUS (Drapiez) 

Falco fringillarius Drapiez, Dictionnaire classique des sciences naturelles, vol. 6, 
p. 412, pi. 5, 1824 (Indies; Swann >" suggests Malacca, but Hartert " had 
previously suggested Sumatra). 

One female, Bangnara, Peninsular Siam, July 7, 1926. 

The following specimens collected by Dr. W. L. Abbott are in the 
United States National Museum: Three males and one female, Trang, 
May 24, July 20, and December 17, 1896, and January 3, 1899; one 
male, Singapore, May 26, 1899; one male and one female, Endau 
River, east coast of Johore, June 27, 1901; one male, Telok Besar, 
Tenasserim, February 28, 1904. He gives the color of the soft parts 
as: Iris dark brown; bill, cere, feet, and claws black. 

Robinson and Kloss ^^ report this as one of the commonest falcons 
in Peninsular Siam; Gairdner ^^ reports it from as far north as Ratburi 
and Petchaburi. It ranges from southern Tenasserim through Pen- 
insular Siam and the Malay States to Sumatra, Java, and Borneo. 

A comparison of nine males from the Malay Peninsula, eight from 
Sumatra, and a pair from Borneo shows no constant differences. 

Five males from the Malay Peninsula and one from Tenasserim 
measure: Wing, 91-103 (96); tail, 50-55 (51.9); culmen, 9-10 (9.7) mm. 

Four males from Sumatra: Wing, 91.5-102 (96.2); tail, 50-53.5 
(51.6); culmen, 9.5-10 (9.7) mm. 

One male from Java: Wing, 89; tail, 49; culmen, 9.5 mm. 

One male from Borneo: Wing, 92; tail, 51; culmen, 10 mm. 

Three females from the Malay Peninsula: Wing, 100-104.5 (102.5); 
tail, 56.5-57 (56.3); culmen, 11 mm. 

Four females from Sumatra: Wing, 100-105 (102); tail, 51.5-60.5 
(56.5); culmen, 10.5-11 (10.9) mm. 

One female from Borneo: Wing, 93; tail, 53; culmen, 11 mm. 

MICROHIERAX CAERULESCENS BURMANICUS Swann 

Microhierax caerulescens burmanicus Swann, A synoptical list of the Accipitres, 
pt. 4, p. 116, 1920 (Thayetmyo, Burma). 

One female, Pak Chong, February 4, 1925; one male, Ban Sadet, 
Sriracha, May 27, 1925; two males. Bo Ploi, Kanburi, September 26, 

i« A synopsis of the Accipitres, ed. 2, p. 181, 1922. 
" Nov. Zool., vol. 9, p. 541, 1902. 
" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 92, 1922. 
'» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 1, p. 151, 1915. 



58 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

1925; one male and one female, Meklian, February 6 and 7, 1932; 
one male, Doi Bata, December 25, 1932; one male, Mae Hong Som, 
January 7, 1933; one male, Muek Lek, April 26, 1933. 

Gyldenstolpe ^* reports this falconet rather common in northern 
and northwestern Siam and apparently rarer in eastern Siam; 
Deignan ^^ reports it common on Doi Sutep to 3,000 feet, more rarely 
to 5,500 feet, and "widely distributed on the plain at Chiengmai in 
winter; Chasen and Kloss ^® report it from the Raheng District, 
western Siam ; de Schauensee " saw several birds entering holes at 
Chiengdao, January 8 ; three were shot and they were all adult females. 

Three of the females reported upon by Chasen and Kloss from the 
Raheng District are in the United States National Museum. One 
of the females has the forehead, superciharies, and a small patch 
below the eye rufous; the throat is pure white; an immature plumage. 
The form is not uncommon evidently over all Siam proper. It ranges 
from Burma and the Shan States south to northern Tenasserim, Siam, 
and Indo-Cliina. 

NEOmERAX INSIGNIS CINEREICEPS (Baker) 

Polihierax insignis cinereiceps Stuart Baker, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 47, 
p. 101, 1927 (Myawadi, Tenasserim). 

Two females, Doi Angka, December 2, 1928. 

Gyldenstolpe ^^ reports this hawk taken in northern, southeastern, 
and eastern Siam; Chasen and Kloss ^^ report it from Raheng Dis- 
trict, western Siam; Deignan^*' states that it is uncommon on the 
lowest slopes of Doi Sutep from October to January and common 
at all seasons in the barrens near Chawmtawng, to the south of 
Chiengmai ; Lowe ^^ found a pair nesting 58 miles east of Umpang, 
February 17. 

The United States National Museum received a pair of these hawks 
from the Raffles Museum from the Raheng collection reported upon 
by Chasen and Kloss. The female is in very worn plumage; the male 
is a bird of the year, with the nesoptiles still adhering to the feathers 
of the back. The male has a white collar and the lower parts pure 
white with no streaks at all, even on the flanks. This does not agree 
with Baker's ^^ description of the immature of the species. 

The two females from Doi Angka are verj^ dark gray above, tbe 
head and hindneck russet with fine blackish shaft streaks. The 



i« Ibis, 1920, 749. 

'» Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Uist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 16.5, 1931. 

i« Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 162, 1928. 

" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 269, 1934. 

i« Ibis, 1920, p. 749. 

"Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 161, 1928. 

'« Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 165, 1931. 

« Ibis, 1933, p. 484. 

" The fauna of British India. Birds, ed. 2, vol. 5, p. 57, 1928. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 59 

female from Ralieng is similar in the color of the back, but the color 
of the head is lighter. It is somewhat faded, as the bird is in very- 
worn plumage. These northern and western records may belong to 
Neohierax insignis insignis. 

N. i. cinereiceps is resident from Tenasserim to Siam and Indo- 
China. 

FALCO SEVERUS SEVERUS Horsfield 

Falco severus Horsfield, Trans. Limi. Soc. London, vol. 13, p. 135, 1821 (Java). 

One adult male, Pran, April 1, 1931. 

The only specimens with wliich I have been able to compare the 
above specimen are two males and a female from the Philippines and 
a male from Cochinchina. The latter is immature and may be dis- 
regarded. The Pliilippine specimens are darker above and below 
than the Siamese male, and in all three of the Pliilippine birds the 
throats are washed with orange-cinnamon, while in the Siamese bird 
tliis region is pure wliite. There is Uttle or no difference in size, 
however. 

Gyldenstolpe ^^ says that this falcon is extremely rare in Siam and 
hitherto recorded only from Bangkok and Koh Lak ; Deignan "* found 
it on Doi Sutep at 1,800 feet in June; de Schauensee ^' took a pair at 
Nakon Nayok, November 17, and a male at Chiengmai, December 23. 
There are apparently no records, however, for Peninsular Siam, where 
it will eventually be found. It has a rather wide range, occurring 
from Assam, Tenasserim, and Siam to Indo-China, Java, and the 
Philippines. 

CERCHNEIS TINNUNCULUS SATURATUS (Blyth) 

Tinnunculus saturatus Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 28, p. 277, 1859 
(Tenasserim) . 

Two females, Bangkok, December 17 and February 19, 1923. 

The February specimen is lighter than the December one, but it is 
more worn and faded. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took an adult female at Kantany, Trang, January 
17, 1897. 

This race is a winter visitor to Siam, where it has been recorded 
from Trang, Langkawi, and Koh Lak ; Deignan ^^ says that this bird 
is uncommon at Chiengmai from October to February, ascending the 
mountain (Doi Sutep) to 3,500 feet. It breeds from Yunnan and 
the hills of eastern and central Burma to Tenasserim." 

It may eventually be found breeding in northern Siam. 

« Ibis, 1920, p. 749. 

" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Uist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 165, 1931. 
" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, p. 2C9, 1934. 
" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hi.st. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 165, 1931. 
" Peters, Check-list of birds of the world, vol. 1, p. 299, 1931. 



60 BULLETIlSr 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Family PH AS I AN I DAE: Quails, Pheasants, Peacocks 

FKANCOLINUS PINTADEANUS PHAYREI (Blyth) 

Perdix phayrei Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 12, p. 101, 1843 (Arracan). 

One female, Pak Chong, April 28, 1926; one female, Wang Kien, 
Kanburi, March 12, 1934; two males, Vichienburi, Pasak River, 
February 26, 1934. 

This form ranges from Arracan, Pegu, and Manipur to eastern 
Burma, Siam proper. Tonkin, Annam, Cochincnina, lower Laos, 
Cambodia, and Hainan. Gyldenstolpe ^^ says it occurs tnrougnout 
Siam tnougn locally distributed and nowhere common; Deignan ^' 
reports it uncommon at Chiengmai on the plain and on the lower 
slopes of Doi Sutep, once as high as 4,600 feet; de Schauensee ^° took 
specimens at Chiengmai, Bua Yoi, and Sriracha; Gairdner^^ records 
it for Ratburi and Petchaburi, but Robinson and Kloss ^^ are rather 
skeptical of its occurrence so far south in this direction; Chasen and 
Kloss ^^ record it from the Raheng district, western Siam, and one of 
the specimens was sent to the United States National Museum. A 
female also was received from C. Boden Kloss, collected at Lat Bua 
Kao, eastern Siam. 

A larger form, Francolinus pintadeanus pintadeanus (Scopoli), 
occurs in southern China. 

RHIZOTHERA LONGIROSTRIS LONGIROSTRIS (Temmjnck) 

Perdix longirostris Temminck, Histoire naturelle g6n4rale des pigeons et des 
gaUinac6s, vol. 3, pp. 323, 721, 1815 (Sumatra). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took an adult male of this bird at the Endau River, 
east coast of Johore, July 15, 1901. 

He gives the soft parts as: Iris brown; eyelid reddish brown; bill 
black; feet pale yellowish, claws horny yellow. 

The form ranges from Sumatra and the Malay States northward 
through Peninsular Siam to southern Tenasserim and southwestern 
Siam, Sumatra, and western Borneo. 

Herbert ^* was the first to record this bird from Siam, but he gave 
no definite locality; later Stuart Baker ^^ examined the specimen and 
gave the locality as lOong Ban Lai; Robinson and Kloss ^^ secured a 
female at Tapli, Pakchan Estuary, and say that it is the second 
record for Siam; de Schauensee^'' secured a male at Rajburi, which 

«» Ibis, 1920, p. 735. 

» Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 168, 1931. 

" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 276, 1934. 

»i Journ. Nat. Hi.st. Soc. Siam, vol. 1, p. 151, 1915. 

M Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 17, 1921. 

" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 153, 1923. 

MJourn. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 2, p. 58, 1916. 

"Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol 4, p. 35, 1920. 

MJourn. Nat. ULst. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 17, 1921. 

»'Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 276, 1934. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 61 

extends the range considerably to the northward. This makes only- 
three records for Siam, but it is probably commoner than the records 
indicate, especially in the southern part of the Peninsula. 

A related form, Rhizothera longirostris dulitensis Ogilvie-Grant, 
occurs in northern Borneo. 

MELANOPERDIX NIGRA NIGRA (Vigors) 

Crrjptonyx niger Vigors, Zool. Journ., vol. 4, p. 349, 1829 (Sumatra). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected an adult male at the Endau River, east 
coast of Johore, June 25, 1901, and another adult male at the Rum- 
pin River, Pahang, June 24, 1902. "Bill black; iris deep brownish 
red." 

These two males are the only specimens from the Malay PenLusula 
in the United States National Museum, but it has a fair series from 
Borneo and Sumatra. Birds from Borneo have been named Melano- 
perdix nigra borneensis, by Rothschild,^^ but Robinson and Kloss ^* 
have questioned their distinctness. After examining a series of nine 
males from Sumatra, the two males from the Malay Peninsula, and 
five males from Borneo, I fail to see any constant differences in this 
sex. The lighter and somewhat more slaty edges to the feathers of 
the upper side, spoken of by Lord Rothschild as one of the distin- 
guishing characters of borneensis, are, in my opinion, due to age, as 
two of the males in the Bornean series are slightly immature and lack 
this feature, while some males in the Sumatran series have it and in 
some these lighter edges are much reduced. 

Five females from Sumatra compared with four females from Borneo 
appear to be darker above and below, especially on the belly, and the 
form is worthy of recognition on the differences in this sex. 

There appears to be little or no difference in size between the two 
series. 

Nine males from Sumatra measure: Wing, 131-143 (137) ; tail, 60-70 
(64); culmen, 18.5-21 (19.9); depth of upper mandible at base, 9.5-10.5 
(10) mm. 

Five males from Borneo: Wing, 132.5-143 (137.3) ; tail, 59-64 (62.6) ; 
culmen, 18.5-21 (19.7); depth of upper mandible at base, 10-10.5 
(10.2) mm. 

The two males from the Malay Peninsula: Wing, 137-140; tail, 
60-60; culmen, 21-21.5; depth of upper mandible at base, 10-11 mm. 

Five females from Sumatra: Wing, 135-143 (139.5); tail, 59.5-67 
(62.6); culmen, 18-20 (18.9); depth of upper mandible at base, 10-10.5 
(10.2) mm. 

Four females from Borneo: Wing, 131-144 (137.4); tail, 58-65 (62); 
culmen, 18.5-20 (19); depth of bill at base, 10-10.5 (10) mm. 

•sBull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 38, p. 3, 1917. 
Mlbis, 1918, p. 592. 

33527—38 6 



62 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Apparently there are no records of Melano'perdix nigra nigra from 
Siamese territory. Ogilvie-Grant ^° records it from as far north as 
the Province of Wellesley, and Robinson *^ gives the range as the lati- 
tude of Penang southward through the Malay Peninsula to Sumatra. 
It is a lowland bird and will probably eventually be taken in southern 
Peninsular Siam. As mentioned above, a closely related form occurs 
in Borneo. 

EXCALFACTORIA CfflNENSIS CfflNENSIS (Linnaeus) 

Tetrao chinensis Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 12, p. 277, 1766 (China and the 
Philippines; Nanking, China). 

One female, Bangnara, Patani, May 23, 1924. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took an adult male at the Packa River, Trengganu, 
September 26, 1900. 

The form ranges from India east to southeastern China, south to 
Tonkin, Annam, Siam, and Peninsular Siam to the Alalay States, 
Formosa, Hainan, and Ceylon. 

Deignan ''^ had only one record for Chiengmai, in February; Her- 
bert's ^^ collector found a nest and four incubated eggs at Samkok 
(near Bangkok), July 17, and trapped the male and female; Robinson 
and lOoss ** report that it occurs in Peninsular and southwestern Siam 
in suitable localities, especially between Patani and Singora. 

The size and secretive habits of the birds probably account for the 
meager records; it is probably much more plentiful than appearances 
indicate. 

The species is divided into a number of forms, ranging from India 
to Australia. 

ARBOROPmLA RUFOGULARIS TICKELLI (Hume) 

Arboricola tickelU Hume, The game birds of India, Burmah, and Ceylon, vol. 2, 
p. 77, 18S0 (Muleyit). 

One male, Doi Angka, 8,000 feet, December 6, 1928; one male, Doi 
Sutep, 5,600 feet, December 15, 1928; four males and two females, 
Doi Nangka, April 24 and 27, 1931; one male and one female. Pang 
Meton (Doi Nangka), May 5, 1931; one male, Doi Hua Mot, August 
17, 1934. 

The last-mentioned specimen is an immature, much smaller than 
the remainder of the series and differently marked. The chest is 
spotted sparingly with small white spots; the throat is more heavily 
spotted; the spots on the juguhim heavy and almost forming a bar 
below the rufous of the throat; black spots in the wing larger, the 
rufous almost lacking, and large huffy patches appear; less white on 
the abdomen; wing, 128 mm. 

"Catalogue of the birds In the British Museum, vol. 22, p. 228. 1893. 
<■ Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 1, no. 4, p. 127, 1906. 
«Joiirn. Siam See. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. IfiS, 1931. 
«Journ. Slam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 6, p. 33G, 1926. 
«Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6, p. 19, 1921. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 63 

This form ranges from Tenasserim and southern Shan States to 
northern Siam and southwestern Laos. 

Deignan *^ reports it as occurring on Doi Sutep from 4,400 feet to 
the summit; de Schauensee ^* took a series there on his third trip to 
Siam. 

The species has been divided into six related forms, occurring from 
northern India to the mountains of southern Annam. 

ARBOROPHILA BRUNNEOPECTUS BRUNNEOPECTUS (BIyth) 

Arhoricola brunneopectus Blyth (Tickell MS.), Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 24, 
p. 276, 1855 (Tenasserim). 

One male, Khun Tan, 4,000 feet, February 17, 1932; one male, Doi 
Hua Mot, August 26, 1934. 

This form occurs from Pegu and eastern Burma to Yunnan, northern 
and western Siam. 

Williamson *'' reports it from Sai Yok, and Chasen and Kloss *' 
record it from the Raheng district, western Siam, and three speci- 
mens from their collection were received by the United States National 
Museum; de Schauensee " took a male at Cliiengsen, and on his third 
trip ^ he collected a series at Chiengm.ai and Chiengdao ; Deignan ** 
says it is common on Doi Sutep above 4,600 feet; Gyldenstolpe ^^ gives 
the additional record of Doi Vieng Par. 

Two closely related forms are found in Indo-China. 

ARBOROPHILA CAMBODIANA DIVERSA Riley 

Arborophila diversa Riley, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 43, p. 189, 1930 
(Kao Sabab, Cliantabun, southeastern Siam). 

Two males and three females, Kao Sabap, 3,000 feet, January 8^ 
1930, November 21, 1933. 

When tliis bird was described, only the description of Arborophila 
cambodiana Delacour and Jabouille was before me, and I did not 
realize that it was as distinct as it really is. Soon after the descrip- 
tion came out, M. Delacour kindly sent me an advance copy of the 
plate afterwards published.^' From this plate there are certain dif- 
ferences apparent ttiat were not emphasized in the original descrip- 
tion. The plate of A. cambodiana shows the feathers of the lower 
throat only narrowly bordered with black, the basal color predomi- 
nating, whereas in A. diversa the lower throat is black, the basal color 
hardly showing or not at all. The color of the chest and breast is 

« Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 168, 1931. 

wproc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 275, 1934. 

*'' Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 32, 1918. 

*» Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 154, 1928. 

«» Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 81, p. 682, 1930. 

•« Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 275, 1934. 

•1 Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 168, 1931. 

" Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 156, 1916. 

•» Oiseaux I'Indochine Frangaise, vol. 1, pi. 13, 1931. 



64 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONiUL MUSEUM 

quite different. In diversa the chest is russet, wiiile in cambodiana it 
is more of a hazel; the breast feathers of the latter are described as 
tipped witn chestnut, wnile in the former they are tipped witJti hair 
brown. The back is more heavily barred with black in cambodiana. 
Briefly, while these two forms are similar in color pattern, they differ 
widely in detail, but as they evidently represent each other in separate 
mountain areas, it is probably best to treat them as races. A. diversa 
came from an isolated mountain range v,here little or no collecting 
iiad been done prior to Dr. Smitli's visits. 

Briefly, the two subspecies may be summarized as follows: 

Lower throat black; chest russet; back with narrow black bars diversa 

Lower throat hazel with only narrow black edges to the feathers; 

chest hazel; back with broad black bars cambodiana 

The form was founded upon a single male. Dr. Smitli paid a second 
visit to the mountain about three years later and secured four speci- 
mens. The second male resembles the type, except that the throat 
is not so extensively black and the pileum and nape are rather heavily 
spotted with black. The females do not differ materially from the 
males, except that tlie black is more restricted on the lower throat, 
the pileum more heavily spotted with black, the forehead more of a 
cinnamon-bro%vn, and tlie chest is a little deeper russet. 

No two of the females are alike. In one, the black on the pileum 
predominates over the basic color and the black bars on the upperparts 
are more pronounced than in the males. The black barring on the 
upperparts in the other two females is more like that of the males. 
In anotiier (no. 333610) the russet of the chest is deep and pronounced, 
almost hazel; the tawny of the chin extends down and includes the 
throat, the black restricted to the lower throat or jugulum. 

The two males measure: Wing, 141-143; tail, 59-61 ; culmen, 20-20 
mm. The three females: Wing, 130-132 (131.3); tail, 54-56 (54.7); 
culmen, 18.5-19 (18.8) mm. 

The range of the present form is the isolated mountain range in 
soutlieastern Siam, extending into Cambodia. 

The related form, Arborophila cambodiana cambodiana Delacour 
and Jabouille, is known only from the region around Bokor, southern 
Cambodia. 

TKOPICOPEUUIX CHARLTONI CHARLTONI (Eyton) 

Perdix charltoni Eyton, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 1, vol. 16, p. 230 , 1846 
(Malacca). 

One male, Sichol, Bandon, Sei)tember 5, 1929; two males, Kao Sol 
Dao, Trang, January 19 and 26, 1934. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected six males and two females in Trang (Lay 
Song Hong, December 3, 1896; near Kao Nok Ram, January 2-4, 
1899; Trang, February 22-25, 1899). He describes the soft parts as: 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE IMALAY PENINSULA 65 

Iris dark browTi; bill dark horn brown, greenish beneath at the tip, 
dull red at base; orbital skin dull red; feet greenish yellow or pale 
green. The male from Sichol has the chestnut chest band reduced 
and lighter in color and the back lighter. There are some other slight 
differences when compared mth Trang females, but these may be 
individual. 

This form occurs from the lower part of the Malay Peninsula north 
through Peninsular Siam to southern Tenasserim. It has been col- 
lected from as far north as Maprit and Klong Bang Lai in south- 
western Siam.^ 

One female from Borneo is much darker above aiid below, with 
fev/er spots on the throat, than any mainland specimen examined by 
me and represents the race Tropicoperdix charltoni graydoni (Sharpe 
and Chubb). 

A related form, Tropicoperdix charltoni tonkinensis Delacour, occurs 
in northeastern Tonkin and North Annam. 

TROPICOPERDIX CHLOROPUS OLIVACEA Delacour and Jabouille 

Tropicoperdix chloropus olivacea Delacour and Jabouille, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, 
vol. 48, p. 129, 1928 (Nap6, Laos). 

One male and one female, Khun Tan, September 1, 1930, February 
18, 1932; one male, ^.lelang Valley, Decem.ber 31, 1932; one adult 
male and one immature male, Hin Lap, December 9, 1931 ; one female, 
Kao Lem, December 29, 1930; one female, Nong Khor, February 12, 
1927; one male, Kao Bantad, Krat, December 22, 1929; five males and 
two females, Kao Sabap, November 8-21, 1933; one male and one 
female, Lamton Lang, May 27, 28, 1934. Dr. Smith took three eggs 
at Muek Lek, April 26, 1933, apparently belonging to this form. 
They are rounded-ovate, olive-buft', and measure 36 by 29.4, 36 by 
28.7, and 35.4 by 29.4 mm. 

The above series of skins agrees fairly well w^ith a topotypical male 
of the form. 

De Schauensee ^^ took three specimens at Chiengsen ; and on his 
third trip to the country he collected a pair at Chantabun; he also 
assigns a male from Chiengmai, 4,500 feet, to T. c. chloropus ^^ but 
the three specimens from northern Siam (Khun Tan and Melong 
Valley) in Dr. Smith's series do not differ appreciably from south- 
eastern Siam specimens, and it is my opinion that T. c. chloropus is 
confined to the western and southwestern part of the country, as far 
as Siam is concerned. 

T. c. olivacea apparently ranges from northern and southeastern 
Siam to Cambodia and Laos. 



M Baker, Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 4, p. 35, 1920. 
•» Proc. Acad. Nat. Sei. Philadelphia, vol. 81, p. 583, 1930. 
M Proc. Acad. Nat. Sei. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 576, 1934. 



66 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

A related race, Tropicoperdix chloropus cognacqi Delacoiir and 
JabouiUe, occurs in Cocliincliina and southern Laos. These authors " 
also state that it occurs in southeastern Siam, but I know of no speci- 
mens from there. Two other forms of the species occur in French 
Indo-China. 

CALOPERDIX OCULEA OCULEA (Tenuninck) 

Perdix oculea Temminck, Histoire naturelle g6n6rale des pigeons et des gallinac^s, 
vol. 3, pp. 408, 732, 1815 (India; restricted by Robinson and Kloss to central 
Malay Peninsula ^^). 

Four males, Tha Lo, Bandon, September 16-20, 1931. 

Dr. W, L. Abbott collected a male at Lay Song Hong, Trang, 
October 11, 1896. He describes the soft parts as follows: Bill black, 
extreme tip pale brown; feet pale green, claws pale bro^vn. 

Tliis is a southern form confined to the Malay Peninsula from 
Pahang north to southwestern Siam. Gairdner ^^ reports it from the 
Petchaburi District, which must be about its northern limit in Siam. 

One of Dr. Smith's males collected September 16 is a bird of the 
year about half the size of the adult. It is in a plumage almost 
identical to that of the adult, except for a few minor details. 

ROLLULUS ROULROUL (Scopoli) 

Phasianus roulroul Scopoli, Deliciae florae et faunae insubricae, pt. 2, p. 93, 
1786 (Malacca). 

Three males and two females, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, January 24, 
1934. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected the following specimens in the Malay 
Peninsula: SLx males and thj-ee females, Trang (Lay Song Hong, 
August 21-November 27, 1896; near Kao Nok Ram, Januarj^ 6, 1899); 
one female, Endau River, east coast of Johore, July 16, 1901 ; and one 
male, Rumpin River, Pahang, June 12, 1902. 

Dr. Abbott gives the following notes on the soft parts: Bill black, 
deep red at base; naked orbital sldn vermilion; feet deep red, claws 
horn brown; his brown. 

One male from Lay Song Hong, Trang, collected September 6 
(no. 160099) is a bird of the year almost adult. It has already 
acquired a plumage similar to the adult, except for the forehead and 
lower parts; the latter has some mouse-gray feathers down the center 
of the body from the chin to the vent mixed with the black, some of 
these tipped with green; forehead deep mouse-gray to the posterior 
border of the eye, only blackish around the base of the bill, no wliite 
on the crown; red crest much shorter than in the adult. The long, 
black, hauiike feathers springing from the forehead have appeared. 

" Oiseaux I'Indochlne Francaisc, vol. 1, p. 274, 1931. 
»' Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 18, 1921. 
« Journ. Nat. Uist. Soc. Siam, vol. 1, p. 151, 1915. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 67 

The interesting thing about this specnnen is that the immature at 
one stage of its phunage has the breast mouse-gray with a greenish 
wash. At this stage the sexes are probably ahke. 

The range of the species extends from southern Tenasserim south 
through Peninsular Siam to the Malay States, Sumatra, Banka, 
Billiton, and Borneo. Robinson and Kloss ^^ record it from Tang Pran, 
Takuatung and Tasan, Pakchan Estuary; Gairdner^^ records it from 
Ratburi and Petchaburi, which must be its northern limit, or very 
near it, in Siam. 

The species is said to be confined to dense evergreen forests and to 
be commoner in the south than in the north of the Malay Peninsula. 
It is hard to observe but easy to trap. 

GENNAEUS LINEATUS LINEATUS (Vigors) 

Phasianus linealus Vigors, Proc. Zool. Soc, London, p. 24, 1831 (Straits of Ma- 
lacca, error). 

One male and one female, Sam Roi Yot, November 12, 1932. 

I have no comparable material of this species. The above male 
has the white streaks below confined to the sides of the chest. Gaird- 
ner ^^ reports this pheasant from Ratburi, where he took a set of eight 
eggs, April 3 ; Gyldenstolpe ^^ took a male at Hat Sanuk and states 
it was not uncommon there; Stuart Baker*** assigns specimens from 
the Mepmg Rapids between Chiengmai and Raheng and from near 
Raheng to this form; Chasen and Kloss ^^ also refer Raheng specimens 
to this form ; Lowe ^^ records it from the Um Pang District, Siam, and 
the Taok Plateau, Tenasserim; Herbert ^^ under the name G. I. sharpei 
describes three eggs taken by K. G. Gairdner in the Ratburi district, 
western Siam, May 2. Gates ^^ says this is a form of low elevations, 
ranging to not over 2,000 feet. 

Its entire range is too intricate to be given here. It is found in 
Tenasserim as far north as the southern Shan States and in south- 
western and western Siam, but just where it meets the next form is 
not known. 

GENNAEUS LINEATUS SHARPEI Gates 

Gennaeus sharpei Gates, A manual of the game birds of India, vol. 1, p. 357, 1898 
(Dargwin, 2,500 feet; Kollidoo, 3,500 feet; and Karen Hills, east of Toungoo, 
Burma). 

One male, Meserieng, January 20, 1933. 

Dr. Smith notes the following colors of the soft parts: "Bill horn 
color; face red; lower lid horn color; iris hazel; feet sepia." 

M Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5. p. 19, 1921. 

«i Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 1, p. 151, 1915. 

M Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 1, p. 40, 1914. 

«' Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 156, 1916. 

«< Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 4, p. 47, 1920. 

" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 154, 1928. 

M Ibis, 1933, p. 488. 

«' Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vd. 6, p. 336, 1926. 

»8 A manual of the game birds of India, 1 1. 1, p. 353, 1898. 



68 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

The above specimen differs as follows from the male assigned to 
G. lineatus lineaius: The chest feathers have fine white shaft streaks; 
the white streaks on the sides of chest are broader and extend down 
on to the flanks ; above, the fine white Imes appear to be somewhat finer; 
the unspotted inner web and tip of the middle tail feathers are avel- 
laneous, not white; the crest is greenish at tip instead of. steely blue. 

Gjddenstolpe ^^ says that authentic specimens have hitherto been 
collected only in the Meh Taw forest. Gates, in the description of 
this form, says that while the ranges of this and G. I. lineatus approach 
each other very closely, sharpei occurs at liigher elevations. Stuart 
Baker "° gives the range as the South Shan States, East Central 
Burma, and Siam. 

GENNAEUS LEWISI Delacour and Jabouille 

Gennaeus lewisi Dklacour and Jabouille, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 48, p. 125, 
1928 (Bokor, south Cambodia). — Delacour, Ibis, 1929, p. 202, pi. 5. 

One male, Kao Kuap, Krat, December 25, 1929; one male and one 
female, Kao Sabap, 3,000 feet, November 13 and 17, 1933. 

Tliis species finds its nearest ally in Gennaeus annamensis Grant, 
from south Annam, but the pattern of the back is coarser in leunsi, 
both the black and white concentric marks to the feathers are broader. 
To accommodate tliis larger pattern the number of white lines on each 
feather is reduced' in lewisi, and the feathers appear to be larger. 
Below, in Gennaeus annamensis, the lanceolate feathers on the sides 
of the neck and chest are either white or white on the inner web, 
becoming rather broad white shaft streaks on the flanks; this forms a 
rather broad white line on each side of the black juguhim and chest. 
In G. lewisi the feathers of the sides of the neck and chest are black 
with narrow white concentric lines, and the flanks have merely white 
hair lines along the shafts; in other words, there is no broad white line 
down the sides to contrast with the black jugulum and chest. 

The female G. lewisi differs widely from the same sex of G. anna- 
mensis. The back in the latter is a snuff brown; the scapulars have 
very fine dusky stipphng; the ^\dng coverts are the color of the back; 
the tail has wavy lines of a lighter color than the basic color and with 
some dusky markings; below it is a huffy brown with lighter brownish 
shafts to the feathers. In the female of G. lewi,si the back is chestnut- 
brown, each feather tipped with light grayish olive and the shaft 
whitish; wing coverts of the closed wing light grayish oliA^e, with white 
shafts contrasting with the reddish-brown flight feathers; tail roods 
brown without markings; lower parts drab with whitish shaft streaks. 
The figure of the female of G. lewisi in Delacour and Jabouille ^' is 



«» Ibis, 1920, p. 738. 

" The fauna of British India, Birds, ed. 2, vol. 5, p. 331, 1928. 

" Oiseaux I'lndochiue Franjaise, vol. 1, pi. 8, 1931. 



BIRDS FKv^M SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 69 

much too red and does not show the contrast between the wing coverts 
and the flight feathers. There may, however, be considerable varia- 
tion in the females. 

The male taken on Kao Kuap was recorded by me.^^ The two 
from Kao Sabap add an additional locality in Siam, though not far off. 
The white concentric lines to the feathers above in the Kao Kuap male 
are somewhat coarser than in the male from Kao Sabap. 

The range of G. lewisi extends from the mountains of southern 
Cambodia to southeastern Siam. 

GENNAEUS NYCTHEMERUS RIPPONI Sharpe 

Gennaeus ripponi Sharpe, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 13, p. 29, 1902 (Southern 
Shan Hills, Burma). 

One male and one female, Doi Nangka, April 26, 1931 ; two females, 
Khun Tan Mountains, 3,000 feet, May 15, 1931. 

The above male agrees with a male from east of Phong Saly, Laos, 
that I had previously identified as andersoni, but Stuart Baker ^^ 
claims the latter is a hybrid Gennaeus lineatus sharpii. The Laos 
male does not exactly agree with the plate of the type of Euplocamus 
andersoni Elliot ''* in detail, but it is close. 

The two females from the Khun Tan Mountains are somewhat 
different from the Doi Nangka female. The black on the crest tip in 
the latter comes much farther forward (about even with the eyes) and 
the upperparts are considerably lighter. Whether these differences 
are due to individual variation I cannot determine with the material 
on hand. All the females have bare incubation patches. 

Gyldenstolpe " saw one on Doi Par Sakerg that he provisionally 
assigned to this form, but took no specimens; Stuart Baker ^* assigned 
specimens in the Herbert collection from Muek Lek and Pak Chong, 
eastern Siam to this form; Deignan " found a silver pheasant common 
on Doi Sutep from 4,500 feet to the summit; Aagard ^* afterwards took 
a pair on this mountain at 4,600 feet; and de Schauensee ^^ recently 
took a small series at Chiengdao and Chiengmai. 

This form extends from the southern Shan States, Burma, to 
Yunnan, northern and eastern Siam, northern Laos, and northern 
Annam. 



'* Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 9, p. 154, 1933. 
" The fauna of British India, Birds, ed. 2, vol. 7, p. 454, 1930. 

'< Anderson, Anatomical and zoological researches; Comprising an account of the zoological results of two 
expeditions to western Yunnan, pi. ."iS, 1879. 
" Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 157, 1916. 
'« Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 4, p. 33, 1920. 
" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 108, 1931. 
" Chasen and Kloss, Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 232, 1932. 
" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 274, 1934. 



70 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

HOUPPIFER ERYTHROPHTHALMUS (Raffles) 

Phasianus erythrophthalmus Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 13, p. 321, 
1822 (Sumatra). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected two males and two females at the 
Rumpin River, Pahang, June 25-July 6, 1902. He describes the soft 
parts in the male as follows: Naked skin on side of head red; bill 
greenish horny, pale brownish at tip; dark brown over nostrils; feet 
pale leaden, claws pale brown. Weight, 2}{ pounds in one male. 

Tlie males in this species are bluish black, vermiculated with wliite 
on the upper parts; the rump maroon, the tail cinnamon. The female 
is plain black, including the tail. The two Malay males when com- 
pared with six males from Sumatra are more finely vermiculated with 
white above. In Borneo a related species occurs, Houppifer pyronotus, 
of which the male differs from the above in having the chest with 
white shaft streaks and the female purplish black. 

Robinson *° gives the range as throughout the Malay Peninsula 
south of Kedah to Sumatra. So far as I am aware, Houppifer ery- 
throphthalmus has not been recorded from Peninsular Siam, but it 
probably occurs in the southern part. 

LOPHURA RUFA (Raffles) 

Phasianus rufus Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 13, p. 321, 1822 
(Sumatra) . 

One male, Sichol, Bandon, May 25, 1930. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott secured four males and one female in Trang (Lay 
Song Hong, November 22 and December 8, 1896; near Kao Nok Ram, 
January 5, 1899; Trang, January 27 and 29, 1897); four males, Ten- 
asserim (Telok Besar, February 27-March 21, 1904). 

Dr. Abbott gives the color of the soft parts in the male as: Iris red; 
bill greenish horny (jade color), nostrils dark; naked parts of head 
smaltz blue; feet red; spurs horny w^hite. He gives the weight of two 
Trang males as 4 and 4% pounds; of three Tenasserim males, 4%, 5%, 
and dYi pounds. This seems to indicate that northern birds are larger. 

Robinson and Kloss *' record it from Nong Kok, Ghirbi, and Tasan, 
Chimipon ^-; de Schauensee *^ collected a pair at Nakon Sritamarat. 

The species ranges from southern Tenasserim south through Pen- 
insular Siam to the Malay States and Sumatra, except the southern 
part. Tasan seems to be about as far north as it goes in Peninsular 
Siam. 

This is a bird of the dense lowland evergreen forests and is rarely 
seen ; very little seems to be known of its habits. 

•» Journ. Feilerated Malay States Mus., vol. 1, no. 4, p. 128, 1906. 

•' Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 89, 1919. 

•'Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 19, 1921. 

»» Proc. Acad. Nat. Scl. Philadelpliia, vol. 86, p. 274, 1934. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 71 

One male from Trang (no. 160092) has the shaft stripes on the flanks 
partly deep buff and partly white; so the deep buff of these stripes 
mentioned by Robinson and Kloss ^^ in the immature is probably duo 
to age. One male (no. 169689) collected by Dr. Abbott in Trang, 
January 5, has the flank shaft stripes much reduced in width until they 
are not much more than hair lines. 

Dr. Smith's Sichol male specimen has the white flank markings 
broad and distinct and extending in a line across the chest; the chest 
feathers are stippled with white; the crest is short. 

DIARDIGALLUS DIARDI (Bonaparte) 

Euplocomus diardi Bonaparte, Comptee Rendus Acad. Sci. Paris, vol. 43, p. 415, 
1S56 (no locality given; Cochinchina). 

Five males, Pak Chong, February 18, 1924, May 15, 1925, November 
27, 1929, and June 22, 1934; one male and one female, Sikeu, near 
Korat, February 21, 1926; one male, Tha Chang, March 21, 1927; one 
female, Lat Bua Kao, July 31, 1929; one female, Hin Lap, December 
9, 1931; two males, Muek Lek, April 23, 1933; one male, and two 
females, Nong Ivlior, November 18, 1924, and February 7, 11, 1927. 

Dr. Smith gives the color of the soft parts as: Male — iris red; legs 
red; female — iris dull red-brown; bill black; legs red. 

Four eggs were collected at Lamton Lang, Pak Chong, May 25, 1934, 
and one at Pak Chong, June 22, 1934. They are rounded-ovate, pale 
ochraceous-buff, and measure 48.4 by 40.7, 48.8 by 39.8, 48.2 by 40.2, 
48.4 by 39.8, and 47.9 by 39.6 mm. 

This species ranges from southern Annam, Cochinchina, Cambodia, 
and southern Laos to Siam and the Shan States, Burma. 

Gyldenstolpe ^* records it from the Meli Lem River, northern Siam; 
Herbert *^ records one set of eight eggs taken April 19 and a partial 
set of two eggs taken May 2 by his collector at Muek Lek. 

All Dr. Smith's specimens are from the eastern or the southeastern 
part of Siam, and all the records for the country seen by me, except 
that of Count Gjddenstolpe, are from this region. It must be rare in 
the north. 

GALLUS GALLUS GALLUS (Linnaeus) 

Phasianus gallus Linnaeus, Systcma naturae, ed. 10, p. 253, 175S (Pulo Coudore, 

mouth of Mekong). 
Gallus gallus rohinsoni Rothschild, Nov. Zool., vol. 33, p. 206, 1926 (new name for 

Gallus gallus Grant, nee Linnaeus) (Sumatra). 

One male and one female, Bangnara, Patani, May 20 and 21, 1924; 
one male, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, January 19, 1934; one female, Pata- 
lung, July 9, 1929; one male, Huey Yang, Kao Luang, October 9, 1930; 
one male, Kanburi, April 10, 1928; one male, Tha Chang, January 1, 

X Kungl. Svouska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 50, no. 8, p. 67, 1913. 
" Journ. Siaui Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 6, 1926, p. 335. 



72 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIOX.VL MUSEUM 

1931; two males and one female, Sam Roi Yot, November 9, 13, 1932; 
one male, Klionka Valley, January 26, 1933; two eggs, Ban Sadet, 
June 2, 1895. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected the following: Four males and two 
females, Trang (Lay Song Hong, November 30, December 28, 1896); 
three males, Tenasserim (Bok Pyin, February 16, 1900; Champang, 
December 13, 1903; and Telok Besar, February 28, 1904). He de- 
scribes the soft parts as follows: Male — iris orange-red; upper mandible 
dark horn brown, lower mandible whitish horny, whole bill pale 
browTi at base; feet dark slaty, claws dark leaden; weight of two males, 
2 and 2% pounds. 

The following specimens from Siam are also in the United States 
National Museum: One male and one female, Koh Lak, November 
13, 1916; one male Koh Mesan, off Cape Liant, November 1, 1916; 
one female, Klong Mennam, January 11, 1915. 

This race of the jungle fowl ranges from the Malay States north 
through Peninsular Siam to Burma, Siam proper, Yunnan, Cambodia, 
southern Laos, southern Annam, Cochinchina, Sumatra, the Philip- 
pines, and Celebes. In suitable locations it is fairly well distributed 
all over Siam and the islands off the coast. 

Robinson and lOoss ^^ state that these birds were especially numer- 
ous at Tasan at the time of their visit and that they were breeding, the 
set being five to seven eggs. The date is not given, but it was some 
time in April, as their trip ended at Hat Sanuk on April 28, after they 
had spent some time at Chumpon and nearly a fortnight at Koh Lak; 
de Schauensee ^^ collected a series on his third expedition to Siam and 
the Shan States and gives a detailed description of the soft parts, too 
long to be quoted here. 

I doubt whether the Philippine and Celebes birds are the same as 
the mainland form, but do not here wish to go into the question. 

A related form, Gallus gallus hankiva Temminck, occurs in Java; 
Gallus gallus jabouillei Delacour and Kinnear is found in Tonkin, North 
Annam, and North Laos; and Gallus gallus murghi Robinson and 
E3oss, occurs in northern India. 

POLYPLECTRON BICALCARATUM BICALCARATUM (Linnaeus) 

Pavo bicalcaratum Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 15G, 1758 (China, 
error; Thoungyah, Burma**). 

One wing and two tails from natives, Kao Pae Pan Nam, Lom- 
sak, February 1934. 

The wing and one tail seem to fit the description of this species. 
The other tail differs in having the buff spots arranged into irregular 

«« Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, no. 1, p. 22, 1921. 
s' Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 273, 1934. 
« Lowe, Ibis, 1925, p. 477. 



BIRDS FRO]\I SIAM AISID THE MALAY PENINSULA 73 

bars and the ocelli without a biiffy outer ring, possibly an immature 
plumage. 

Robinson and Kloss ^^ refer Gairdner's records from Ratburi and 
Petchaburi to this form; Gyldenstolpe's ^° record from Kliun Tan may 
belong here or it may be P. b. bailyi. 

The form ranges from Chiltagong, Chin and Kachin Hills, south to 
northern Tenasserim and east to northern Siam, northern Laos, and 
southern Yunnan. There are few records for Siam, probably owing 
to the secretive habits of the birds. 

POLYPLECTRON GERMAINI Elliot 

Polyplectron germaini Elliot, Ibis, 1866, p. 56 (Cochinchina) . 

One female, Huey Yang, Kao Luang, Nakon Sritamarat, October 7, 
1930. 

This seems to be the first definite record of this fine species from 
Peninsular Siam. 

Delacour and Jabouille ^^ give the range of the species as Cochin- 
china, south Annam, Cambodia, and a great part of southern Siam. 

POLYPLECTRON MALACCENSIS (Scopoli) 

Pkasianus malaccensis Scopoli, Deliciae florae et faunae insubricae, pt. 2, p. 93, 
1786 (Malacca). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected an adult male at the Rumpin River, 
Pahang, June 26, 1902. 

He gives the soft parts as: Iris pale blue; naked orbital skin orange; 
bill blackish, fleshy beneath at base; gape orange; feet slaty. Weight, 
Iji pounds. 

Ogilvie-Grant ®^ records it from Patani; August Miiller ^^ from the 
island of Puket under the name P. bicalcaratum. 

The species ranges from southern Tenasserim southward through 
Peninsular Siam to the Malay States and Sumatra. It is readily 
distinguished by the ocelli of the tail, which are united, or nearly so, 
along the shaft. 

PAVO MUTICUS Linnaeus 

Pavo muiicus Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 12, 1766, p. 272 (Japan, error; 
Java«i). 
One male and one female, Bangnara, Patani, May 21 and 22, 
1924; one male, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, January 22, 1934; one immature 
without label. 



» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 22, 1921. 

»« Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Ilandl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 158, 1916. 

" Oiseaus I'lndochine Fran^aise, vol. 1, p. 2J3, 1931. 

M Fasciculi Malayenses, pt. 3, p. 123, 1905. 

w Die Ornis der Insel Salanga, p. 80, 1882. 

•« Hartert, Nov. Zool., vol. 9, p. 638, 1902. 



74 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected the following: Two males and one female 
in 1899 in Trang (Kok Sai, January 24; Naldua, March 2); and one 
female, Kamamun River, Trengganu, October 2, 1900, 

The species ranges from Burma to Siam, and French Indo-China, 
and down Peninsular Siam to the Malay States and Java. It appar- 
ently is not uncommon in suitable localites all over Siam proper and 
Peninsular Siam. 

Robinson and Kloss's ®^ record of Pavo cristatus from Nong Kok, 
Ghirbi, Peninsular Siam, is evidently a slip of the pen, as it is not 
mentioned in their later paper, ^'^ 

ARGUSIANUS ARGUS ARGUS (Linnaeus) 

Phasianus argus Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 12, p. 272, 1766 (Chinese Tartary; 
Malacca, as fixed by Hartert "). 

One adult male, Sichol, Bandon, May 21, 1930. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected the following: Seven males and sLx 
females in Trang (Lay Song Hong, August 22, December 8, 1896; 
Kao Soi Dao, 2,000 feet, February 16, 20, 1899); two males and one 
female at Telok Besar, Tenasserim, February 27 and March 16, 1904. 

Dr. Abbott gives the following on the soft parts (in the males): Iris 
brown; head dull blue; bill horny white, yellowish above and bluish 
about nostrils; feet red, soles whitish, claws horny white. He gives 
the weights of four males from Trang as 4K, 5, 5K, and 5% pounds; of 
two females from Trang as 3 and 3K pounds. The two males from 
Tenasserim weighed 6 pounds each; the one female, 3% pounds. 

The range of this bird is from southwestern Siam and southern 
Tenasserim southward through Peninsular Siam to the Malay States 
and Sumatra, 

Gyldenstolpe ®^ reports flushing one west of Koh Lak; this is about 
as far north in this direction of which there are any records. Farther 
south in the Malay Peninsula it is a common bird in suitable localities. 

A related form, Argusianus argus grayi (Elliot), occurs in Borneo. 

Family TURNICIDAE: Hemipodes 

TURNIX TANKI BLANFORDII BIyth 

Turnix hlnnjordii Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc, Bengal, vol. 32, p. SO, 1863 (Burma 
and Arrakan; type from Thayetmyo). 

One male and one female, Bangkok, March 6 and April 4, 1924; 
one fomnle, Nan, April 13, 1930; one male, Muek Lek, April 16, 1933. 

The form ranges from southern Ussuriland and Manchuria south 
■over eastern and southern China to Assam, Burma, Siam proper, 
Tonkin, Annam, Cochinchma, Laos, and Cambodia, 

« Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 89, 1919, 

»« Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 23, 1921. 

»f Nov. Zool., vol. 9, p. 538, 1902. 

w Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad, Handl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 158, 1916. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 75 

In northern China this bird is only a summer resident, migrating 
late in summer and early in fall farther south. It breeds in Burma 
and Siam, however. Herbert °^ found it breeding at Ban Kliang, cen- 
tral Siam, in July and August, the clutch consisting of four eggs. De 
Schauensee ^ found it veiy common in winter at Chiengmai; Robin- 
son ^ reports it from Ok Yam on the Franco-Siamese Boundary; 
Robinson and Kloss ^ collected it at Tasan, Chumpon, Peninsular 
Siam, and Koh Lak, southwest Siam; the Tasan record is about the 
limit of its range in this direction. Otherwise, it seems to be fairly 
well distributed over Siam in suitable localities. Probably it is more 
plentiful in winter when the resident birds are increased by others 
from farther north. 

Turnix tanki tanki Blyth occurs in India. 

TURNIX SUSCITATOR INTERKUMPENS Robinson and Stnart Baker 

Turnix suscitator interrumpens Robinson and Stuart Baker, Bull. Brit. Orn. 
Club, vol. 48, p. GO, 1928 (Kossoon, Peninsular Siam). 

One female, Bangnara, Patani, May 20, 1924; one female, Bukit, 
Patani, January 23, 1931; one female, Haad Yai, July 12, 1929; one 
male, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, January 9, 1934; two females, Koh Lak, 
June 9, 1933; one male, Bangkok, September 12, 1923; three males and 
four females. Bung Borapet, July 21, 24, 1932, March 24,30, 1933; 
two males Mesarieng, January 2^, 23, 1933. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected one male and four females in Trang 
(Tyching, April 25-June 18, 1896; Lay Song Hong, August 20, 1896); 
and one male on Pulo Langkawi, Langkawi Islands, December 3, 1899. 
He records the soft parts as: Iris yellowish white or white; bill horn 
blue, culmen browTiish; feet leaden. 

The specimens from Koh Lak and eastward average lighter below 
and grayer, less rusty above than the Peninsular birds; it is somewhat 
doubtful if they should be placed in the same form, but they are being 
left there for the present. 

The form ranges from Patani, Peninsular Siam, to Peninsular 
Burma, north to northern, central, and eastern Siam. 

Chasen and Kloss * record it from the Raheng district, and a male 
from their collection was sent to the United States National Museum. 
De Schauensee ^ took a series at Chiengmai and a pair at Nakon 
Sritamarat. Herbert ' found it breeding near Bangkok, the set con- 
sisting of four eggs, deposited from June to August. 

•» Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. SuppL, vol. 6, p. 339, 1920. 
> Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 276, 1934. 
» Ibis, 1915, p. 721. 
» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 24, 1921. 

• Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 154, 1928. 

• Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 276, 1934. 

• Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 6, p. 337, 1926. 



76 BULLETIN 17 2, UIS^ITED STATES NxVTIOKAL MUSEUM 

TUKNIX SUSCITATOR ATROGULARIS (Eyton) 

Hemipodius alrogularis Eyton', Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1839, p. 107 (Malacca). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected a single female at the Rumpin River, 
Pahang, June 19, 1902. He records the soft parts as: Iris straw-j^ellow; 
feet pale leaden. 

The only noticeable difference between this specimen and the 
series of interrumpens is that the black throat patch in the Pahang 
bird appears to be more extensive. 

The range of this form is given as the Malay Peninsula from the 
Province of Wellesley southward and northern Sumatra. 

Family GRUIDAE: Cranes 

ANTIGONE ANTIGONE SHARPH (Blanford) 

Grus (Antigone) sharpii Blanford, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 5, p. 7, 1895 
(Burma). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott writes that this variety of sarus is common at 
two or three places in Trang. None was shot, but they are often 
kept alive by the natives and grow exceedingly tame. 

Robinson and Kloss ^ state that they observed this form in the 
ricefields near Sawi Bay, south of Cliumpong, in April 1919 ; Gairdner * 
records it from the Ratburi and Petchaburi Districts. Gyldenstolpe ' 
states that it is generally distributed over the whole country and that 
wliile he was camped at Muang Fang, northwestern Siam, a native 
brought him a light-set egg, which was taken from a nest in the vicinity 
of the camp ; there was only the one egg in the nest. The egg was 
bluish white without any spots. Deignan ^° states that it occurs at 
Chiengmai from December to March; de Schauensee " took a male 10 
kilometers north of Ban Jong, northern Siam, January 14, and states 
that it is very rare about Chiengmai but common at Chieng Rai and 
Chieng Sen, where the country is more suitable for them. 

It ranges from eastern Assam and Burma to Siam and Cochinchina. 

Family RALLIDAE: Rails, Coots, Gallinules 

HYPOTAENIDIA STRIATA ALBIVENTRIS (Swainson) 

Rallus albiventris Swainson, Animals in menageries, p. 337, 1838 (India). 

One male and two females, Bangkok, February 4, 1924, June 3^ 
1926, and February 3, 1929; one male. Bung Borapet, June 27, 1932; 
one female, Nakon Sritamarat, Peninsular Siam, August 30, 1924, 

' Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 72, 1921. 

8 Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam. vol. 1, pp. 30, 152, 1914-15. 

• Kungl. Svcnska Vet.-Akad. llandl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 141, 1916. 

10 Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 170, 1931. 

" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 81, p. 583, 1930. 



BIRDS FROJI SIAM A^S'D THE LIALAY PENINSULA 77 

Compared with a single female of H. s. gularis of Java, the above 
specimens are larger, with longer, heavier bills. The three females 
measm-e: Wing, 123, 122, 120 mm; culmen, 34, 37, 36 mm. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took a male at Tanjong Kalong, Singapore, on 
May 2, 1900. It measures: Wing, 123 mm; culmen, 35 mm. The 
Bangkok male measures: Wing, 123 mm; culmen, 42 mm. The 
male from Bung Borapet: Wing, 128 mm; culmen, 34 mm. 

A single female from Java {H. s. gularis) measures: Wing, 110 mm; 
culmen, 32 mm. 

The series at my command is too small to define the range of the 
present race with certainty, but it extends from India to French 
Indo-China. In Siam it has been taken at Bangkok or vicinity, 
Chiengmai, and in the Peninsula, but nowhere commonly. 

Herbert ^^ found it breeding in central Siam from early in June 
until August and occasionally in September; six or seven eggs con- 
stitute a set. De Schauensee ^^ records four specimens from Paknam 
under the name H. s. gularis. 

RALLINA FASCIATA (Raffles) 

Rallus fasciatus Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 13, p. 328, 1S22 
(Sumatra). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected one male and one female, Tyching, 
Trang, Julj'^ 3 and 11, 1896. The male was caught on a nest with 
five eggs; the female was taken from a nest with six eggs. Both sexes 
must incubate. 

Dr. Abbott gives the colors of the soft parts as follows: Male — 
iris vermilion, orbital skin and legs vermilion, claws horny brown; 
bill black, leaden blue at base. Female — iris in two rings inner 
yellow-orange, the outer dark red; eyelids red; feet pinkish red, 
claws dark horny brown; bill leaden, black above. 

The eggs taken by Dr. Abbott are rounded-ovate, dull white with 
a slight gloss, and measure as follows: 31.8 by 25, 32.7 by 24.9, 32.6 
by 24.9, 32 by 24.8, 31.5 by 24.4, 32.8 by 24.3, 31.5 by 24.5, 32.8 by 
24.8, 32.3 by 24.7, 30.6 by 24.6, and 31.5 by 24.7 mm (the set of six 
given first). Average of the 11 eggs, 32 by 24.7 mm. 

Bonhote ^* records it from Patani; Robinson ^^ states that his party 
found it common in the edges of the ricefields at Ban Koh lOap, 
Bandon, the latter part of June and early in July 1913; later he 
records a male taken on Pulo Terutau, November 1, 1913; Robin- 
son and lOoss ^^ state that this species is highly migratory, though 

njourn. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. fi, p. 340, 1926. 
" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 8.6, p. 277, 1931. 
'* Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1901, vol. 1, p. 78. 
» Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 5, p. 88, 1915. 
w Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siaai, vol. 5, p. 41, 1921. 

3.3527—38 6 



78 BULLETIN" 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

whether merely local is not known. At the end of October 1909, 
after a period of heavy wind and rain, this bird appeared in large 
numbers near Alor Star, Kedah; Gyldenstolpe^^ gives the addi- 
tional locality, Kliun Tan, which seems to be unusually far north for 
it; the record may belong to the next species. 

The range of the species is from southern Burma south over the 
Jvlalay Peninsula to Sumatra, Java, Borneo, the Philippine Islands 
and southward to the Moluccas; Pelew Islands. Possibly only a 
winter visitor in the southern part of its range. 

RALLINA NIGROLINEATA (G. R. Gray) 

Zapornia nigrolineala G. R. Ghay, Catalogue of the specimens and drawings of 
Mammalia and birds of Nepal and Thibet. . . , p. 143, 1846. — Hodgson, in 
Gray's Zool. Misc., no. 3, p. 86, 1844 (Nepal; nomen nudum). 

Rallus superciliaris Eyton, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 1, vol. 16, p. 230, 1845 
(Malay Peninsula); not Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., ed. 2, vol. 28, p. 
565, 1819. 

Porzana amauroptera Jerdoist, The birds of India, vol. 3, p. 725, 1864 (northern 
India). 

Dr. Abbott took a male near the base of Kao Num Plu, Trang, 
March 9, 1897. 

He records the color of the soft parts as follows: Iris orange; bill 
blue-black, leaden blue beneath; feet dark leaden. 

This species differs from R.fasciaia in having the white spots on the 
outer webs of the outer primaries reduced to two toward the base and 
only one or two wliite spots on the outer web of the outer primary 
covert, and the other wing coverts outwardly unspotted; the back 
olive-brown rather than rood brown. R. Jasciata has the outer web 
of the primaries barred with white or light buff to near the tip, and all 
the wing coverts, except the lesser, barred blacldsh and white. R. 
Jasciata has a smaller wing and shorter bill; wing in two specimens, 
122-122.5 mm; culmen, 22-23 mm. In the single male of R. nigro- 
lineata listed above, the wing measures 141 mm and the culmen 
29 mm. 

There is a female in the United States National Museum collected 
by Dr. W. L. Abbott at the Mandau River, East Sumatra, December 
1, 1906, that differs from the Trang male as follows: The pileum is the 
same color as the back (prouts brown); the cheeks a much lighter 
brown; a supraloral streak to the middle of the eye above, hazel; 
foreneck and upper chest saccardos umber, with tawny centers to 
feathers showing through; lower chest with a broad band of tawny 
just above the black and white bars of the breast; there are no white 
bars on the inner webs of the primaries, except at the extreme base. 
This is probably changing from the immature to adult plumage. 

»' Ibis, 1920, p. 763. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AKD THE MALAY PENINSULA 79 

Wing, 138.5 mm; culmen, 25.5 mm. Robinson and Kloss ^^ record a 
male from Langkawi, taken February 1909; Robinson ^^ collected the 
same sex from Ok Yam, on the Franco-Siamese boundary, January 3, 
1915; Robinson and lOoss,^" under the name Rallina fasciata, record 
a female from Pulo Sireh, east side of Junkseylon (Fuket), February 13, 
1918, and later ^' one from Tasan, Chumporn; Rodgers and Deignan^^ 
record a female from Doi Angka, 4,500 feet, April 14, 1931. 

This rail breeds from northwestern India east to Annam and 
Burma and migrates south in winter to Ceylon, Siam, northern 
Annam, the Malay Peninsula, and Sumatra. Little is known of its 
breeding range. Robinson and Kloss say it is migratory in the 
Peninsula ; possibly it may breed in northern Siam. 

POEZANA PUSILLA PUSILLA (Pallas) 

Rallus pusillus Pallas, Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des russischea 
Reichs, vol. 3, p. 700, 1776 (Dauria). 

Two males, Bangkok, March 28, 1927, and December 22, 1928. 

This little crake breeds in northeast Siberia, northern China, and 
as far south as Kashmir, wintering in Indo-China, Siam, Java, Borneo, 
and the Philippines. 

In Siam it is only a winter resident, and there are but few records of 
its occurrence. It has been recorded from Bangkok, Minburi (east- 
northeast of Bangkok), and Me Klong (near Bangkok) ; Deignan -^ has 
recorded three from the Chiengmai region; in Peninsular Siam it has 
been recorded only from Patalung but probably occurs in suitable 
places elsewhere. 

LIMNOBAENUS PAYKULLII (Ljungh) 

Rallus paykullii Ljungh, Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 34, p. 259, 
1813 (near Banjarmassing, Borneo, and near Batavia, Java; type from 
Borneo in Nat. Hist. Mus. Stockholm). 

One male, Bangkok, Siam, November 3, 1924. 

This species breeds in eastern Siberia and China and migrates to the 
Malay Peninsula, Borneo, and Java. I know of no other record for 
Siam. 

AMAURORNIS PHOENICURA CHINENSIS (Boddacrt) 

Fulica chinensis Boddaert, Table des planches enlumin^ez d'histoire naturelle, 
p. 54, 1783 (Hongkong). 

One male and one female, Bangkok, February 6 and October 1, 
1924; one male, Koh Chang, January 10, 1926; one male. Nan, April 
13, 1930; one female, Ban Nam Kien, Nan, April 21, 1930; one imma- 

I'lbis, 1911, p. 10, 

'« Ibis, 191.5, p. 725. 

*o Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 91, 1919. 

« Ibis, 1921, p. 40. 

» Proc. Hiol. Soc. Washington, vol. 47, p. 92, 1934. 

« Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 10, p. 81, 1936. 



80 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

ture male still in down but with feather tracts showing on the lower 
parts, Ban Sadet, Sriracha, June 1, 1925; one male and one female, 
Bung Borapet, June 21 and 29, 1932; one female, Muang Pai, Decem- 
ber 28, 1932. Not uncommon in suitable localities throughout the 
whole country and evidently resident. 

There are three specimens (one male and two females) collected by 
Dr. W. L. Abbott in Trang, January 4 and February 9, 1897, and 
January 4, 1899, and one male from Telok Besar, Tenasserim, Novem- 
ber 26, 1900. 

The male from Trang is without any white frontal band and 
evidently is a bird of the preceding breeding season. Some specimens 
lack the black or sooty border on the sides of the neck and flanks. 
This is an age character, I believe, as the male without the white 
frontal band is also without the black neck border. Just how long it 
takes the birds to assume the fully adult plumage, I do not know. 

Herbert^* found it breeding at Mahachai, Ban Yang, and Chiengrak 
Noi; he found one nest on July 19 and others during August; the set 
consisted of from three to five eggs. 

The form ranges from the greater part of India east to Assam, 
Burma, southern China, Indo-China, Siam, and south through Penin- 
sular Siam to Malacca. 

GALLICREX CINEREA (Ginelin) 

Fulica cinerea Gmklin, Systema naturae, vol. 1, pt. 2, p. 702, 1789 (China). 

Three males and one female, Bangkok, August 6, September 10, 
October 1, and October 19, 1924; one male, Nong Mong Muang, 
Krabin, August 30, 1925. 

This species probably occurs all over Siam in suitable localities and 
throughout the Peninsula. It has been recorded from Patelung and 
Patani, Peninsular Siam; Ratburi, southwestern Siam; Bangkok, 
central Siam; and Chiengmai, northern Siam. Herbert ^^ found it 
breeding in central Siam from the middle of June to mid-September and 
states that the usual set consists of four eggs. Deignan ^^ reports it 
common at Chiengmai from March until September. This would 
indicate that it was migratory in north Siam as it is in China. 

The species is of wide distribution being found from Ceylon, India, 
and Burma to southern and eastern China, Indo-China, Siam, south 
to the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, the Philippines, 
and Celebes. 



" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 6, p. 346. 192'?. 
»» Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 6, p. 3-12, 1926. 
» Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Ilist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 169, 1931. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 81 

GALLINULA CHLOROPUS INDICUS BIyth 

Gallinula chloropusl var. indicus Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 11, p. 887, 
1842 (Calcutta, Bengal). 

Two males, Potaram, February 6 and 7, 192G; 12 males and 7 
females, Bung Borapet, June 23, 1932, March 23-28, 1933; one male, 
Bung Tabgrit, March 27, 1933; one male, Koh Lak, June 15, 1933. 

This form of gallinule probably occurs all over Siam proper. 
Deignan ^^ states that at Chiengmai it occurs locally from December 
to March; tliis would indicate that it is only a winter visitor there, 
and evidently farther south the resident birds are augmented in the 
cold season by an influx from the north. De Schauensee ^^ took a male 
at Meldong, April 4. 

The form ranges from Kashmir and southern Tibet to southern 
India, Ceylon, Burma, southern and eastern China, Japan, Indo- 
China, and Siam. 

PORPHYRIO POLIOCEPHALUS POLIOCEPHALUS (Latham) 

Gallinula poliocephala Latham, Index ornithologicus, Suppl., p. Ixvlii, 1801 
(India). 

One male. Bang Than, August 11, 1923; two males and two females. 
Bung Borapet, June 25, 27, 1932, March 23 and 28, 1933. 

The four specimens from Bung Borapet are fairly uniform in having 
the wings a more or less uniform motmot blue, while the male from 
Bang Than has the wing blackish with a bluish green wash and the 
lesser wing coverts lighter and brighter, approaching the color of the 
chest, which is near China blue as in viridis; the back is dark purplish 
blue, however. Both viridis and poliocephalus evidently occur together 
during the breeding season. 

Chasen and Kloss ^^ record it from the Kaheng District, and the 
female from this collection is now in the United States National 
Museum; Deignan ^° reports it common during the rains on the great 
marshes between Chiengmai and Lampoon; Gairdner's ^^ records for 
the Ratburi and Petchaburi Districts are open to doubt ;Gyldenstolpe^* 
shot a male at Chieng Hai; Herbert's ^^ description of the eggs from 
Hua Takliae taken July 15, is open to doubt unless the parent was 
taken. 

This form ranges from Ceylon to India, Burma, Tenasserim, and 
northern and central Siam. 



" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Uist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 169, 1931. 

" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, p. 578, 1928. 

» Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. l.'JS, 1928. 

"Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Uist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 109, 1931. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 1, pp. 31, 152, 1914-15. 

" Kungl. Svenslca Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 149, 1916. 

33 Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol 6, p. 343, 1926. 



82 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

PORPHYRIO VIRIDIS Bcgbie 

Porphyrio viridis Begbie, The Malay Peninsula, p. 515, 1834 (Malacca). 
Porphyria edwardsi Elliott, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 5, vol. 1, p. 98, 1878 
(Cochinchina, Saigon, Bangkok). 

One female, Bang Than, August 11, 1923; one male, Potaram, 
February 7, 1926; four males and two females. Bung Borapet, June 
20-30, 1932. 

All these specimens have more or less greenish-black backs and 
wings, while the blue of the foreneck and chest is near China blue. 
The specimens identified as Porphyrio poliocephalus poliocephalus have 
backs of a dark purplish blue, wings motmot blue, and foreneck and 
chest alice blue except in one specimen. As both P. p. poliocephalus 
and P. viridis were taken at the same locality in the breeding season, 
I am giving the latter the status of a species. 

The range of this species is a little uncertain. It was described 
from Malacca and is supposed to range up the Malay Peninsula, but 
I know of no records for Peninsular Siam north of the Malay States. 
It occurs in central Siam and ranges east to Cambodia, Laos, and 
Annam. It seems to be the commoner species of the two found in 
Siam from central Siam eastward. 

Family HELIORNITHIDAE: Sun-grebes 

HELIOPAIS PERSONATA (Gray) 

Podica personata Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1848, p. 90 (Malacca). 

One male, Pran, southwest Siam, June 5, 1928. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected a female at Maliwun, Tenasserim, on 
March 18, 1900. He gives the color of the soft parts as: Bill yellowish 
brown above ; feet green, edges of w^ebs yellow, claws pale horn-brown. 

Bonhote ^* records a female from Biserat, Jalor, Patani; Robinson ^' 
records a male from Koh Pangan (Pennan) and states that it is widely 
distributed throughout the Malay Peninsula in varied situations from 
sluggish mangrove creeks to rapid mountain streams but that it is 
nowhere common. Williamson ^^ records it from Muang Klilung, 
Chantabun; Vijjakich " obtained a specimen in a small, shallow 
marsh about 15 miles along the Lampang-Chiengrai road, probably the 
first record for northern Siam. 

The species ranges from Assam, Bengal, and Burma south through 
Siam and the Malay Peninsula to Sumatra; it has been taken also in 
Cambodia. 



M Proc. Zool. Soc. Lomlon, 1901, vol. 1, p. 79. 

•» Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 5, p. 141, 1915. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 32, 1918. 

•' Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 9, p. 330, 1934. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 83 

Family JACANIDAE: Jacanas 

HYDROPHASIANUS CHIRURGUS (Scopoli) 

Tringa chirurgus Scopoli, Deliciae florae et faunae insubricae, pt. 2, p. 92, 178& 
(Philippines). 

One immature male, Klong Rangsit, October 8, 1924 ; three immature 
females, Potaram, February 5, 1926, and January 23, 1927; one imma- 
ture male. Bung Borapet, March 26, 1933; one immature female, Koh 
Chang, December 22, 1925. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected an immature male on Singapore Island^ 
May 16, 1899. 

This species is not uncommon in suitable localities in central and 
western Siam ^^; Robinson and Kloss ^^ say that in the Malay Peniu' 
sula it is widely distributed, but extremely rare; Deignan*° reports it 
common at Chiengmai except during the driest months. The bird 
seems to occur all over Siam in suitable localities. 

The species is found from Ceylon north through India and Burma 
to northern China and south tlirough Siam and the Indo-Chinese- 
countries to the Philippines. 

METOPIDIUS INDICUS (Latham) 
Parra indica Latham, Index ornithologicus, vol. 2, p. 765, 1790 (India). 

Three adult males, tv/o im^mature males, and seven adult females, 
Potaram, February 4-6, 1926, and January 23, 1927; one immature 
male, two adult females, and one immature female, Bangkok, March 
29, 1924, and March 6, 1927; four adult males and five adult females, 
Bung Borapet, June 20-23, 1932, and March 23, 1933. One female 
(June 22) from Bung Borapet still retains a few white featiiers on the 
chest, 

Gyldenstolpe ^' records it from Chieng Hai and states that it is 
common in the swamps of Central Siam and that a nest and five fresh 
eggs were found at Nong Meh Lua on August 7, 1914; Herbert*^ 
reports it from Hua Takhae and Ban Laing, Central Siam, where three 
sets of eggs were collected on July 1, 28, and September 11; four eggs 
seem to constitute a set. Deignan *^ found it resident at Chiengmai. 
It is rather common in suitable localities throughout the whole 
country. 

The species ranges from India and Burma, east to Siam and southern 
Indo-China, and south through the Malay Peninsula to Sumatra and 
Java. 



» Gyldenstolpe, Ibis, 1920, p. 705. 

'e Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 58, 1921. 

« Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 170. 1931. 

« Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 142, 1916. 

" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 6, p. 345, 1926. 

« Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 170, 1931. 



84 BULLETIlSr 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Family ROSTRATULIDAE: Painted-snipe 

ROSTRATULA BENGHALENSIS BENGHALENSIS (Linnaeus) 

Ralliis benghalensis Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 153, 1758 (Bengal). 

One male and one female, Bangkok, October 23, 1926, and February 
22, 1927. 

This bird is reported to be a common resident throughout Siam and 
in the Malay Peninsula. Deignan ^ reports it resident throughout 
the year at Chiengmai but common only during the rains. In the 
cold weather he has found as many as ten under a bush a quarter of a 
mile from any water. Forty ^^ found four young a few days old near 
Bangkok on September 22; in the vicinity of Bangkok, Herbert** 
found a nest and four eggs on July 6, a nest and four eggs on August 
11, young nearly fully fledged on September 18, and young fully 
fledged on October 3 ; later *' he reports that sets of eggs were received 
in May, June, July, and August and that four eggs constitute a set. 

Robinson and Kloss *^ state that in the Malay Peninsula it is a 
fairly common species. 

The species ranges from Asia Minor through Persia to southern 
and eastern China and Japan, south to Indo-China, India, Philippines, 
Sumatra, Java, and Borneo; also Africa, south of the Sahara. 

Family CHARADRIIDAE: Plovers, Turnstones, Surfbirds 

LOBIVANELLUS INDICUS ATRONUCHALIS BIyth 

Lobivanellus atronuchalis Blyth, in Jerdon, The birds of India, vol. 3, p. 648, 
1864 (Burma). 

One male, two females, and one unsexed, Koh Chang, January 8 
and 12, 1926; two males and two females, Pak Chong, eastern Siam, 
February 4 and May 7, 1925; April 29 and May 9, 1926; one male 
and one female, Muang Kanburi, April 14, 1918; one male, Sam 
Roi Yot, November 14, 1932. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took a male and female at Prahmon, Trang, 
March 10, 1896; a female with three eggs at Trang, February 24, 
1899; a male on Pulo Langkawa, December 4, 1899; and a male and 
female in Tenasserim (Tanjong Badak, November 25, 1900; Boyces 
Point, February 16, 1904). He gives the soft parts as: Iris deep red 
or dark orange; wattles, orbital skin, and basal part of bill red, tip 
black; feet j^ellow with a tinge of greenish, claws black. 

Robinson *^ records it from Koh Samui and Koh Pennan and 
later ^° from Pulo Tenitau; Herbert ^^ states that in Central Siam 

<* Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 170, 1931. 

<» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 1, p. 55, 1914. 

" Ibid., p. 54. 

«' Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 6, p. 348, 1926. 

<s Joura. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 69, 1921. 

" Journ. Federated Malay Ststes Mus., vol. 5, p. 142, 1915. 

«o Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 7, p. 138, 1917. 

»' Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 6, p. 346, 1926. 



BIRDS FROM SIAJM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 85 

the nesting season appears to be April and May, but lie had seen young 
early in May and had taken fully incubated eggs by May 13 and a 
set of three fresh eggs as late as June 20. 

Apparently the form is commonly distributed throughout the 
whole country. 

The form ranges from Assam, south of the Brahmaputra, through 
Burma to the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and the Indo-Chinese 
countries. It is resident where found. 

HOPLOPTERUS DUVAUCELII (Losson) 

Charadrius duvaucelii Lesson, Diet. Sci. Nat. (Levrault), vol. 42, p. 38, 1826' 

(Calcutta). 
Charadrius ventralis Waglee, Systema avium, Charadrius, sp. 11, p. 59, 1827 

(Calcutta). 

One female, Chomtong, northern Siam, November 29, 1928, "in 
flocks on river Ping"; one male and one female, Ta Fang, January 17, 
1933. 

The United States National Museum contains a male and a female 
taken by Dr. W. L. Abbott at Lay Song Hong, Trang, August 16 
and October 28, 1896. He describes tlie soft parts as: Iris blackish; 
bill black; feet and legs dull black. 

Robinson and Kioss ^^ think Dr. Abbott's specimens represent the 
southern limit in the Peninsula. De Schauensee found it common at 
Chiengrai, northern Siam, in winter ^^ and on the Mekong and Mekok 
rivers on sandbars.^* Lowe states that it breeds in February in 
western Siam, laying two eggs in the river bed on sandy gravel." 

In Siam the species is generally distributed along the larger rivers 
of the whole country and in Peninsular Siam as far south as Trang. 

The species ranges from northern and eastern India east to Assam 
and Yunnan and south to Indo-China, Siam, and the Malay Peninsula 
as far as Trang. 

SQUATAROLA SQUATAROLA (Linnaeus) 

Tringa squatarola Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 149, 1758 (Sweden). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected a female at Prahmon, Trang, March 19, 
1896. 

Robinson *^ records a female from Koh Muk, Trang, January 5, 
1917; Gyldenstolpe " observed it once at Koh Lak; Williamson^* 
records it from Paloiam, Chantabun. 

The breeding range of this species is circumpolar. It migrates- 
south late in summer. On migration it usually frequents sea beaches 
or salt-water mud flats. 



" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, 1921, p. 59. 
M Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 81, p. 581, 1930. 
M Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 27S, 1934. 
M Ibis, 1933, p. 490. 

"Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 7, p. 138, 19J7. 
" Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 50, no. 2, p. 143, 1916. 
»' Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 34, 1918. 



86 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

PLUVIALIS DOMINICUS FULVUS (Gmelin) 

Charadrius fulvus Gmelin, Systema naturae, vol. 1, pt. 2, p. 687, 1789 (Tahiti). 

Two males, Bangkok, September 11, 1925; one female, Bandon, 
Januaiy 9, 1927. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected a male, two females, and one unsexed 
on St. Luke Island, Mergui Archipelago, January 20, 21, 1900. 

This form is a winter visitor, occurring throughout the whole 
country at that season. Deignan ^^ reports it uncommon at Chiengmai 
from October to February. 

It breeds in northeastern Siberia and Alaska and winters in south- 
eastern Asia and some of the Pacific Islands to Austraha. 

CHARADRIUS DUBIUS CURONICUS Gmelin 

Charadrius curonicus Gmelin, Systema naturae, vol. 1, pt. 2, p. 692, 1789 
(Curonia). 

Two males, Nong Mong, Muang Krabin, August 24, 1925; one 
male and one female, Bangkok, November 3, 1926, April 12, 1934; 
two males and one female, Sam Roi Yot, November 11, 1932. 

All the Philippine specimens examined by me have longer and 
stouter bills and shorter wings than mainland birds. It is doubtful 
if C. d. dubius extends to the continent. It hardly seems likely that 
the bird breeding in eastern Asia (Korea, China, etc.) is the same as 
that breeding in Europe, but of the latter I have seen but few 
specimens. 

The form breeds in the greater part of Europe and in Asia south 
to the Himalayas. It winters to the southward in Asia, in southern 
China, Indo-China, Siam, India, the Malay Peninsula, to the Sunda 
Islands. 

The records of the breeding and nonbreeding forms are so involved 
that they are not given. 

CHARADRIUS DUBIUS JERDONI (Legge) 

Aegialitis jerdoni Legge, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 18S0, p. 39 (Ceylon and 
central India). 

One female, Chiengmai, November 27, 1928. 

This is much smaller than the preceding form and is probably the 
breeding bird of southeast contmental Asia. The above female 
measures: Wing, 106; culmen, 12 mm. 

It ranges in southeastern Asia, from southern China to Indo-Cliina, 
Siam, Burma, India, and the Malay Peninsula. It is said also to 
extend southward to New Guinea. 

De Schauensee ^^ collected specimens at Petrieu, October 22, and 

»» Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Tli.st. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 171. 1931. 
«« Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 278, 1934. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 87 

Bangkok, November 3 and 4, and Gyldenstolpe ^^ at Khun Tan. 
Deignan ^^ reports it resident at Chiengmai. 

The remaining records of this and the preceding form are too in- 
volved to be quoted. 

CHARADRIUS ALEXANDRINUS DEALBATUS (Swinhoe) 

/Egialitis dealbatus Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1870, p. 138 (south coast 
of China, Formosa, and Hainan; type from Ainoy, China). 

One female, Konken, March 21, 1929; three females, Sam Roi Yot, 
November 8-10, 1932. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected two females and an unsexed specimen 
on Pulo Langkawi, December 1, 1899. 

The form ranges from southern Japan to southern China, Indo- 
China, Siam, Tenasserim, and the Malay Peninsula. 

Deignan ^^ records it from Chiengmai in winter, once in June; 
Robinson ^^ found it on Koh Samui and Koh Pennan, Bandon, about 
to breed. Most of the Siamese records, however, are of winter-taken 
birds. 

CHARADRIUS PERONI Schlegel 

Charadrius peroni Schlegel, Mus6um d'histoire naturelle des Pays-Bas, vol. 4, 
no. 29, livr. 7, p. 33, 1865 (Borneo, Java, Semao). 

Two males and two females, Sam Roi Yot, November 8-10, 1932. 

The two males and one of the females appear to be in full breeding 
plumage; these specimens are the northernmost record to date. 
Gyldenstolpe^^ records this plover from Koh Lak; Robinson **' re- 
ports it from Pulo Langkawi and from Pulo Telibun (Trang) ; Robin- 
son and Kloss ^^ say they have a considerable series of this species 
from the Malay Peninsula and various islands off the coast. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took a male and female at Tanjong, Sikakap, 
east coast of Johore, August 7, 1901. 

This is a resident species from the Malay Peninsula to Java, Borneo, 
the Philippines, and other islands of the East Indies as far as Celebes. 

CHARADRIUS MONGOLUS ATRIFRONS Wagler 
Charadrius atri/rons Wagler, Isis, 1829, p. 650 (Bengal, India). 

One male and six females, Lem Sing, Chantabun, June 9, 1926; 
four males and one female, Nakon Sritamarat, September 28 and 29, 
1926; one male and three females, Sam Roi Yot, November 8-10, 1932. 

There is a female collected by Dr. W. L. Abbott on Pulo Langkawi, 
western Malay Peninsula, December 6, 1899, in the United States 
National Museum. 



" Ibis, 1920, p. 757. 

«> Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 10, p. 82, 1936. 
«3 Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 171, 1931. 
«« Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 5, p. 142, 1915. 
«5 Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Uandl., vol. 56, p. 144, 1916. 
M Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 7, p. 139, 1917. 
" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 03, 1921. 



88 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

The form breeds in the Kirghiz Steppes, Ladak, and Tibet, migrat- 
ing south in winter to Persia, India, Siam, Malay Peninsula, Sunda 
Islands, and eastern Africa. 

Robinson and Kloss ^^ record it from Pulo Terutau, December; 
Robinson ^^ from Koh Pennan, June ; and Robinson and Kloss ^° from 
Koh Lak. 

CHARADRIUS MONGOLUS MONGOLUS Pallas 

Charadrius mongolus Pallas, Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des russischen 
Reichs, vol. 3, p. 700, 1776 (Mongolia). 

One female, Lem Sing, Chantabun, June 9, 1926. 

Wliile breeding specimens of C. mongolus and C. atrijrons are per- 
fectly distinct and easily differentiated, the nonbreeding birds are 
extremely difficult. C. mongolus has a shorter tarsus; otherwise I 
know of no certain way to separate the two forms in nonbreeding 
plumage. The tarsi in 10 specimens of C. mongolus, measure 28.5-31 
(29.8) mm; in six birds in breeding plumage of C. atrijrons, 32.5-34.5 
(33.1) mm. 

There are few authentic records of C. mongolus from Siam; the 
migration route is more to the eastward. Most of the records of 
C. m. mongolus from Siam and the Malay Peninsula are probably 
C. TO. atrifrons. 

Charadrius m. mongolus breeds from eastern Siberia west to 
Mongolia and migrates south late in summer to Japan, eastern 
China, the Philippines, Celebes, New Guinea, and Australia. 

PAGOA LESCHENAULTII (Lesson) 

Charadrius leschenaullii Lesson, Diet. Sci. Nat. (Levrault), vol. 13, p. 36, 1826 
(Pondicherry, India). 

One female, Koh Chang, January 9, 1926; one male and one female, 
Lem Sing, Chantabun, June 9, 1926; one male, Sriracha, February 4, 
1927; four females, Sam Roi Yot, November 8-10, 1933. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected a pair at Prahmon, Trang, March 24, 
1896, and a pair on Pulo Langkawi, December 6, 1899; also a female 
on Loughborough Island, Mergui Archipelago, January 26, 1900. 

In Peninsular Siam it has been recorded from Koh Lak and the 
island of Puket. Robinson and Kloss ^^ say it occurs sparingly 
throughout the Malay Peninsula. 

The species breeds in the Ku-ghiz Steppes and northwestern Alon- 
golia and winters as far south as Australia, the Solomon Islands, and 
South Africa. 



«e Ibis, 1911, p. 12. 

•• Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 5, p. H2, 1915. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 61, 1921. 

'" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 01, 1921. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 89 

Family SCOLOPACIDAE: Snipes, Woodcocks, Sandpipers 

NUMENIUS ARQUATA ORIENTALIS C. L. Brehm 

Numenius orientalis C. L. Brehm, Plandbuch der Naturgeschichte alien Vogel 
Deutsclilands, p. 610, 1S31 (East Indies). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected two males in Trang (Prahmon, March 
21, 1896; mouth of the Plian River, December 24, 1898); one male, 
Kissering Island, Mergiii Archipelago, February 5, 1904; one female, 
Tanjong Badak, Tenasserim, November 25, 1900; and one male, 
Boyces Point, Tenasserim, February 12, 1904. 

This form breeds in the Baical region and Dauria and probably 
westward, migrating late in summer to eastern Africa, India, Burma, 
Indo-China, and the Malay Archipelago. 

Robinson and Kloss '^ state that it is numerous on the coasts of the 
Malay Peninsula in the winter months; Gyldenstolpe ^^ observed only 
a few specimens during his stay in Siamese Malaya, November 1914 
to February 1915. 

NUMENIUS PHAEOPUS VAHIEGATUS (Scopoli) 

Tanlalus varicgatus Scopoli, Deliciae florae et faunae insubricae, pt. 2, p. 92, 
1786 (no locality-Luzon). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected two females at Bok Pyin, Tenasserim, 
February 16, 1900; and one female at Sir William James Island, 
Mergui Archipelago, December 29, 1903. 

This form breeds in eastern Siberia and migrates south in the fall 
as far as New Guinea, Australia, and the Pacific islands as far east 
as the Marianne Islands. 

Robinson and Kloss "* report it common in the Malay Peninsula in 
the winter months; Gyldenstolpe^^ observed great numbers on the 
coast of the Gulf of Siam. 

TOTANUS TOTANUS EURHINUS Oberholser 

Totanus totanus eurhinus Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 22, p. 207, 
1900 (Lake Tsonioriri. Ladak). 

One male, Meklong, April 12, 1926; one male, Bangkok, June 3, 
1926; one female, Nakon Sritamarat, September 27, 1926. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected a female at Prahmon, Trang, March 7, 
1896. 

This form breeds in the high mountains of western China, Tibet, 
and India, and probably of the Altai, and migrates in fall to India, 
Siam, Indo-China, the Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sunda Islands, 
and Celebes. 



" Ibis, 1911, p. 12. 

« Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 145, 191G. 

'♦ Ibis, 1911, p. 12. 

" Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 50, no. 8, p. 09, 1913. 



90 BULLETIN 172, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Robinson and Kloss ^^ report it common along the coasts of the 
Malay Peninsula in the winter months; Gyldenstolpe " found it 
abundant at the mouth of the Menam Chao Phya, along the Gulf of 
Siam, and at Tha Law; later ^^ he states that it is a common winter 
visitor to Central and Lower Siajn ; Robinson ^^ records it from Klong 
Yai, southeastern Siam, January 5; and later ^° collected a male from 
Langkawi, December 11, and states that it was common on Koh 
Muk in January. 

TOTANUS STAGNATILIS Bechstein 

Tolanus slagnatilis Bechstein, Ornithologisches Taschenbuch . . ., vol. 2, p. 292' 
IS03 (Germany). 

Three females, Meldong, April 12, 1926. 

Williamson *' records one taken by Aagaard at Bang Boon, near 
Bangkok, March 17, 1912; later he took it at Tachinand Bangplasoi, 
near Bangkok, March 1917. 

The species breeds from southeastern Europe across Asia to Lake 
Baical and migrates to Africa, . India, Siam, Indo-China, and the 
Sunda Islands to Australia. 

GLOTTIS NEBULARIUS (Gunnerus) 

Scolo'pax nebularia Gunnerus, in Leem's Beskrivelse over Finmarkens Lapper . . ., 
p. 251, 1767 (Lappland). 

One male and one female, Meklong, April 12, 1926; one female, 
Bangkok, January 30, 1927. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott secured a single male on Kissering Island, Mergui 
Archipelago, February 2, 1904. 

This species breeds in northern Europe and Asia and migrates to 
Africa, southern Asia, the Philippine and Sunda Islands to Australia. 

Robinson and Kloss *^ report the greenshank very common on the 
western coast of the Peninsula but probably rarer on the eastern side; 
Gyldenstolpe ^^ saw a small flock at Tha Law, April 2, and found it 
numerous along the coast of the Gulf of Siam by the end of April; 
Robinson and Kloss ** record it from Kuala Kedah and Pulo Terutau 
in November and December; Robinson ^^ records it from Klong Yai, 
southeastern Siam, January 5; and later *^ from Koh Muk, Trang, 
January 4; de Schauensee ^^ took a single female at Chiengrai, Jan- 

" Ibis, 1911, p. 12. 

" Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 50, no. 8, p. 70, 1913. 

'« Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl,, vol. 56, no. 2, p. 145, 1910. 

'• Ihis. 1915, p. 725. 

M Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 7, 1917, p. 140. 

*' Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 2, p. 62, 1910. 

M Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 60, 1921. 

a Kungl. Svenska Vot.-Akad. Handl.. vol. 50, no. 8, p. 70, 1913. 

M Ibis, 1911, p. 13. 

M Ibis, 1915, p. 726. 

M Journ. Federated Maiay States Mu.s., vol. 7, p. 140, 1917. 

" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 81, p. 585, 1930. 



BIRDS FROM SIAJVI AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 91 

uary 6 ; Deignan ^^ had only one record for the Chiengmai region, a 
single specimen at Nawng Haw in October, but later he secured two 
additional specimens, in September.^^ It is not an uncommon winter 
visitor to Siam ; it is probably more numerous in migration and more 
abundant in the south. 

TRINGA OCHROPrS Linnaeus 

Tringa ochropus Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 149, 1758 (Sweden). 

One male, Nakon Sritamarat, March 13, 1929. 

The green sandpiper is a common winter visitor to every part of 
Siam ^°; in Peninsular Siam, apparently, it is not so common, and I 
have seen no previous record. 

The species breeds in northern Europe and Asia and winters to- 
the southward. 

RHYACOPHILUS GLAREOLA (Linnaeus) 

Tringa glareola Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 149, 1758 (Sweden). 

Seven males and three females, Bangkok, March 2, September 17,^ 
October 26, and December 26, 1925, October 23, and November 4, 
1926; one male and one female, Potaram, February 4, 1926; two males,, 
Kao Seming, Krat, October 11, 1928; one female. Ban Ho Kam,^ 
February 28, 1929; one female. Nan, April 13, 1930; one male, two 
females, and one unsexed, Sam Roi Yot, November 11, 1932; two 
females. Bung Borapet, March 21 and 30, 1933. 

There is a male in the United States National Museum collected by 
Dr. W. L. Abbott at Lay Song Hong, Trang, December 25, 1896. 

Judged from the number of specimens of the wood sandpiper con- 
tained in collections from eastern Asia, it must be the commonest 
migrant wader in the East. It breeds in northern Europe and Asia 
and migrates south in the fall to Africa, India, southeastern Asia^ 
the Malay Archipelago, and Australia. 

Gyldenstolpe '^^ in recording it from Koh Lak says that it is very 
common in winter over the whole country ; Deignan ^^ reports it 
abundant at Chiengmai from July to March. Evidently it is a 
common winter visitor and migrant throughout Siam. 

ACTITIS HYPOLEUCOS (Linnaeus) 

Tringa hypoleucos Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 149, 1758 (Sweden). 

One female, Bangkok, October 28, 1925; one male and one female, 
Nakon Sritamarat, October 7, 1926; one male, Tha Lo, Bandon^ 
September 24, 1931; one female, Koh Tao, September 25, 1928; one 
male, Nan, April 13, 1930. 

»« Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 172, 1931. 

" Joum. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 10, p. 84, 1036. 

•» Gyldenstolpe, Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 50, no. 2, p. 145, 1916. 

« Kungl. Sveuska Vet.-Akad. Ilandl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 140, 1916. 

•' Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 173, 1931. 



92 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected a male at Lay Song Hong, Trang, 
October 3, 1896; and a female on Pulo Langkawi, December 2, 1899. 

Robinson and Kloss^^ state that this sandpiper is found in the Malay 
Penmsula throughout the year, the summer residents probably being 
sterile. Deignan '*'* gives it as common at Chiengmai from September 
to April. 

Next to the wood sandpiper tliis is probably the commonest migrant 
sandpiper occurring in Siam. It breeds throughout temperate Europe 
and Asia, migrating late in summer to Africa and southern Asia and 
south through the Philippines and the Sunda Islands to Australia. 

LIMNODKOMUS SEMIPALMATUS (BIylh) 

Macrorhamphus semipalmatus Bltth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 17, p. 252, 

1848 (Calcutta). 
Micropalama taczanowskia Verreaux, Rev. et Mag. Zool., 1860, p. 20G, pi. 14 

(Dauria). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected a male on Pulo Adang, Butang Islands, 
December 15, 1899. 

This dowitcher is a very rare bird in collections. Williamson °^ 
records a male shot by Aagaard at the mouth of the Lacon River, 
Nakon Sritamarat, September 1, 1911; Robinson and Kloss ^^ say 
they have a specimen taken in the Dindings by Williamson's collector. 

It is known to breed from western Siberia east to Transbaikalia and 
central Mongolia, migrating to northern India, Burma, Cliina, Siam, 
and Indo-China. 

CAPELLA STENURA (Kuhl) 

Scolopax sienura Kuhl, in Bonaparte, Ann. Storia Nat. Bologna, vol. 4, p. 335 
1830 (Sunda Islands). 

Three males and four females, Bangkok, September 12 and 17, 
and November 8, 1925, and November 2 and 3, 1926; two males and 
two females, Koh Chang, January 4 and 7, 1926; four males and one 
female, Nong Khor, near Sriracha, southeast Siam March 20 and 24, 
1926; four females, Kao Seming, Krat, October 12 and 15, 1928; one 
male, Bung Borapet, March 22, 1933. 

The follo^^dng specimens of this snipe collected by Dr. W. L. Abbott 
in the Malay Peninsula or vicinity are in the United States National 
Museum: Four males and three females, Trang (Prahmon, March 16, 
1896; Lay Song Hong, October 26-December 23, 1896; Chong, 
January 22, 1897; Trang, February 12, 1897); two males and three 
females, Pulo Langkawi, December 1-6, 1899; one female, Tanjong 
Badak, Tenasserim, March 25, 1904. 

"Ibis, lyu, p. 13. 

»< Journ. Siiira Soc. Nat. nist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 172, 1931. 

»» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siani, vol. 2, p. 62, 1916. 

•« Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 64, 1921. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 93 

This is a very common winter visitor to Siam, arriving in August 
and leaving in April, according to Forty ^^; Deignan ^^ confirms these 
dates for Chiengmai; Ogilvie-Grant,^® on the authority of Robinson, 
states that it arrived in Patani the second week of September; Robin- 
son ^ records it from Langkawi, February 10 to April 25, the latter a 
late date. 

This species breeds in eastern Siberia and migrates to India, southern 
China, Siam, Indo-China, the Malay Pensinula, Philippines, and the 
Greater Sunda Islands. 

CAPELLA GALLINAGO RADDEI (Buturlln) 

Scolopax {Gallinago) gallinago raddei Buturlin, Limicolae of the Russian Empire, 
pt. 1, p. 54, 1902 (East Siberia). 

One male and one female, Bangkok, November 2 and 3, 1926; two 
males and one female, Nong Preng, January 29, 1927; two males and 
four females, Potaram, February 7, 1926, and January 23, 1927; two 
males, Bandon, January 9, 1927. 

Several in the above series have molted the outer tail feathers; 
in this condition they are difficult to distinguish from C. stenura. The 
latter has the under wing coverts more heavily barred with black 
and the black bars on the axillaries broader. 

Gyldenstolpe ^ states that this form is fairly common during the 
winter but not so common as C. stejiura. Forty ^ says that it arrives 
at Bangkok in September and departs in the first half of March or 
somewhat later; Deignan* states that at Cliiengmai it is common 
from September to March. There is a specimen from the island of 
Salanga (Puket) in the Hume collection.* 

The form breeds in eastern Siberia and migrates to India, Siam, 
Indo-China, the Philippines, and the Greater Sunda Islands. 

SCOLOPAX RUSTICOLA RUSTICOLA Linnaeus 

Scolopax rusiicola Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 146, 1758 (Sweden). 

One female, Nong Khor, southeastern Siam, February 5, 1927; 
one female, Khun Tan, 3,000 feet, February 15, 1932. 

Deignan ** reports this as an uncommon winter visitor on the plain 
at Chiengmai. Gyldenstolpe ^ says that the woodcock has been met 
with a few times in northern and central Siam during the winter time; 
Robinson and lOoss ^ state that W. J. F. Williamson informed them 



»' Journ. Nat. Uist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6, p. 137, 1923. 
" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 172, 1931, 
«» Fasciculi Malayenses, pt. 3, p. 117, 1905. 
' Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 7, p. 141, 1917. 
> Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 147, 1916. 
« Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6, p 137, 1923. 
< Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl,, vol. 8, p. 172, 1931. 
• Catalogue of the birds in the British Museum, vol. 24, p. 641, 1896. 
« Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 172, 1931. 
' Ibis, 1920, p. 762. 

» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, 1921, p. 69. 
33527—38 7 



94 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

that the woodcock is fairly common in northern Siam in the winter 
months and that it is regularly obtained by sportsmen from near 
Chiengmai down to Ralieng, between October and March. 

The woodcock breeds in northern Europe and Asia and migrates to 
Africa and southern Asia (India, Siam, southern China, and Indo- 
China). 

ANTELIOTRINGA TENUIROSTRIS (Horsfield) 

Totanus tenuirostris Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 13, p. 192, 1821 
(Java) . 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected an adult male at Prahmon, Trang, 
March 21, 1896. He gives the soft parts as: Iris dark brown; bill 
black; feet dull olive-brown, claws black. 

Robinson and Kloss ^ state that they have only four specimens from 
the Malay Peninsula where it is a rare bird. Williamson ^° found this 
species in considerable numbers at Lat Yai, near Meldong, Central 
Siam, in February 1918. 

The species breeds probably in northern Siberia and migrates south 
late in summer through China, Japan, India, Siam, the Malay States, 
Java, the Philippines, etc., to Australia. Its rarity is probably more 
apparent than real. 

PISOBIA RUFICOLLIS (Pallas) 

Trynga ruficollis Pallas, Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des russischen 
Reichs, vol. 3, p. 700, 1776 (Siberia). 

Six males and one female, Nakon Sritamarat, September 28 and 29, 
1926. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected a male at Prahmon, Trang, March 
24, 1896. 

While Pisobia minuta and Pisobia ruficollis in breeding plumage 
are quite distinct and easily differentiated, specimens of the two 
species in winter plumage are extremely hard to discrimmate. I 
know of no absolute characters to tell the two apart in the cold season. 
There are certain average characters, but they are not absolutely 
certain. Specimens in winter plumage should be compared carefully 
with authentic specimens of the two species, as there are certain slight 
differences that are hard to convey in words. The wing in ruficollis 
averages slightly longer, the tarsus shorter, and the bill shorter and 
heavier. Six specimens of ruficollis measure: Wing, 98.5-106 (101.6); 
culmen, 17-18.5 (17.7); tarsus, 19-20.5 (19.4) mm. SLx specimens of 
minuta measure: Wing, 89-100.5 (96.2); culmen, 18-20.5 (19.2); 
tarsus, 20-22 (21) mm. 

Of the two, ruficollis is probably the commoner; minuta is relatively 
rare in Siam and the records more or less open to doubt. 

» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, 1921, p. 68. 
"> Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 35, 1918. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 95 

De Scliauensee " records rufcolUs from Chieng Sen Kao, Mekong 
Kiver, northern Siam, January 13 ; Gyidenstolpe ^- says specimens have 
been obtained at Patani, Peninsular Siam. 

The species breeds in northeastern Siberia and western Alaska 
and migrates late in summer along the coast of eastern Asia and 
through the Philippine and the Sunda Islands to Australia. 

PISOBIA TEMMINCKII (Leisler) 

Tringa temminckii Leisler, Nachtrage zu Bechsteins Naturgeschichte Deutsch- 
lands, p. 78, 1812 (Haiiau, Germany). 

One female, Chomtong, northern Siam, November 29, 1928. 

Williamson ^^ records this sandpiper from Bangkok; Deignan '* 
found it common in the winter of 1930-31 at Chiengmai; de Scliauen- 
see ^^ records one from Bangkok, March 12; Lowe^** took a male on 
the Meping, Alarch 7; on his third expedition de Schauensee^^ ob- 
tained three females at Bangkok, November 3, and one female at 
Chiengmai, January 26. 

This species breeds in northern Europe and Asia and migrates 
late in summer to Africa and southern Asia. It is easily distinguished 
from the other small stints occurring in Siam by the white outer tail 
feathers. 

PISOBIA SUBMINUTA (Middendorff) 

Tringa suhminuta Middendorff, Reise in den aussersten Norden und Osten 
Sibiriens . . ., vol. 2, pt. 2, p. 222, 1851 (Stanovoi Mountains, Siberia). 

One male, Meklong, April 12, 1926. 

Williamson ^* has recorded this stint from Bangkok; Sharpe '^ lists 
two from the island of Salanga (Puket), taken in February and Alarch; 
Baker ^^ reported a male in Herbert's collection from Klong Wang 
Hip, Peninsular Siam; Gyidenstolpe"^ took a single female near vSap 
Tue on the Mewong, Northern Siam, April 23, 1914; Robinson and 
Kloss ^^ record a single male from Koh Lak, southwestern Siam, April 
7, 1919, but say it is verj^ common. Deignan ^^ took a single male at 
Chiengmai, January 30, 1932; de Schauensee ^* secured a male at 
Chiengmai, January 26, and two specimens from Bangkok, October 
1932. 



» Proc. Acad. Nal. Sci. Philadelphia, vol 81, p. 586, 1930. 

u Ibis, 1920, p. 7f)0. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 1, p. 199, 1915. 

'« Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 172, 1931. 

i» Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, p. 577, 1928. 

i« Ibis, 1933. p. 491. 

«' Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 279, 1934. 

"Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 1, p. 199, 1915. 

>» Catalogue of the birds in the British Museum, vol. 24, p. 555, 1896. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 4, p. 39, 1920. 

>' Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Hundl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 146, 1916. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, no. 1, p. 68, 1921. 

« Rodgers and Deignan, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 47, p. 92, 1934. 

'* Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 279, 1934. 



96 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

The species breeds in eastern Siberia and the Kurile Islands and 
migrates to southeastern Asia to winter. It can be distinguished 
from the other small stints wintering or passing through Si am by the 
long middle toe and claw (about 36 mm). 

EnOLIA TESTACEA (Pallas) 

Scolopax testacea Pallas, in Vroeg's Beredeneerde catalogus, Adumbratiunculae, 
p. 6, 1764 (Holland). 

Two females, Nakon Sritamarat, September 27 and 29, 1926, 
Ogilvie-Grant ^^ records it from Patani; Wilhamson ^^ states that it 
has been recorded by Aagaard from Nakon (Lacon) Sritamarat, 
August 1-May 16, 1911-12, and from Chaiya, near Bandon, June 16, 
1912; Robinson and Kloss ^^ record a male from Kuala Kedah, taken 
November 1907. 

The species breeds in northern Siberia and migrates through 
Europe to Africa and India, Indo-China, Siam, the Malay Peninsula, 
and the Sunda Islands to Australia. 

UMICOLA FALCINELLUS (Brilnnlch) 

Scolopax falcinellus Brunnich, Ornithologia borealis, p. 49, 1764 (Zealand, 
Denmark). 

One female, Nakon Sritamarat, September 28, 1926. 

Ogilvie-Grant ^^ records this species from Kampong Budi, Patani; 
Williamson ^^ from the mouth of the Chao Phya River. 

The species breeds in northern Europe and Asia and migrates 
south late in summer to the Red Sea, India, the Malay Peninsula, 
the Philippines, and the Sunda Islands to Australia. 

Family RECURVIROSTRIDAE: Stilts, Avocets 

HIMANTOPUS HIMANTOPUS (Linnaeus) 

Charadrius himantopus Linnaeus, Systenaa naturae, ed. 10, p. 151, 1758 (south 
Europe) . 

Four males and one female, Lem Sing, Chantabun, June 4-11, 
1926; two females, Nakon Sritamarat, September 27, 1926. 

The Lem Sing specmiens are in worn breeding plumage and evi- 
dently were breeding; an egg was taken from the oviduct of the female, 
June 11. 

Gyldenstolpe ^° observed small flocks in the swampy country south 
of Ratburi in January. Williamson ^^ records it from Meklong; 

>' Fasciculi Malayenses, pt. 3, p. 118, 1905. 

>• Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 2, p. 62, 1916. 

•Jlbis, 1911, p. 14. 

M Fasciculi Malayenses, pt. 3, p. 118, 1905. 

>« Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 36, 1918. 

M Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. llauril., vol. 5(i, no. 2, p. 145, 1916. 

« Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 35, 1918. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 97 

Baker ^^ from Paklat, near Bangkok ; Deignan ^^ from Ban Mechai, 
Chiengrai, northern Siam, May 9, 10, 1936. 

The species ranges from southern Europe, Africa, Asia, and Ceylon 
to Siam, Indo-China, etc. Usually resident; only migratory in the 
northern part of its range. 

Family BURHINIDAE: Thick-knees 

ORTHORHAMPHUS MAGNIROSTRIS (Vieillot) 

Oedicnemis magnirostris Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., vol. 23, p. 231, 1818 
(no locality; Australia). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected one male, Pulo Adang, Butang Islands, 
December 17, 1899, and two males and two females in the Mergui 
Archipelago (St. Luke Island, January 19, 1900; SulHvan Island, 
February 1, 1900, and January 5, 1904; Bentinck Island, March 8, 
1900). 

He gives the colors of the soft parts as: Iris yellow; feet pale green- 
ish yellow or pale straw yellow, toes dark bone brown, claws black; 
bill black, base greenish yellow. 

Robinson and Kloss ^^ record a male taken on Dehsle Island, 
Peninsular Siam, February 19, 1919. This and the specunen col- 
lected by Dr. Abbott on Pulo Adang apparently are the only speci- 
mens taken in Siamese territory to date. The bird seems to be an 
island-frequenting species rather than a mainland one. 

The species ranges over the greater part of the Indo-Australasian 
region from the Andaman Islands to Australia. It has been divided 
into a number of nominal forms based upon insufficient material. 

Family GLAREOLIDAE: Coursers, Pratincoles 

GLAREOLA MALDIVARUM Forster 

Glareola (Pratincola) maldivarum Fokster, Faunula Indica, p. 11, 1795 (Maldive 
Islands). 

Eight males and four females, Bangkok, March 2, 1925, April 20 
and June 3, 1926; September 16, 1925; one male, Nong Kae, Central 
Siam, May 5, 1929. 

The United States National Museum has a small series from Lujon, 
Philippines, and a male from Java. Apparently they do not differ in 
color or size from Siamese specimens. McGregor ^* says it visits the 
Philippines in the winter months, but the dates on a number of the 
Museum's series, late March and April 28, are during the breeding 
season farther north. Wliether it breeds in Java I do not Imow; the 

*' Journ. Nat. Hist. Soo. Siam, vol. 4, p. 39, 1920. 

w Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 10, p. 169, 1936. 

** Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. .5, p. .^6, 1921. 

" A manual of Philippine birds, pt. 1, p. 153, 1909, 



98 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

few specimens examined by me from there were taken in fall. The 
few breeding birds examined from China apparently do not differ 
from Siamese specimens. For the present, without more evidence, 
it does not seem to be worth while to recognize Glareola maldivarum 
orientalis Leach. 

Herbert ^® states that the bird comes to Siam to breed late in 
winter and breeds in colonies; at Sapatoom eggs were very plentiful 
by March 16, but in the colon}'- at Samkok eggs were not plentiful 
until the latter part of April. Another colonj^ at Ayuthia bred about 
the same time as that at Samkok. The Sapatoom birds leave earlier, 
as their numbers are gradually reduced during May and June, but 
some young remain until August 8. A set of three fresh eggs was 
taken at Samkok on June 15. Two, and sometimes three eggs, 
constitute a set. Gyldenstolpe ^^ took a pair at Koh Lak on Decem- 
ber 1, 1914; Deignan ^^ found it common at Nawng Haw in March 
1929; de Schauensee ^^ took three specimens at Hua Mak, March 17; 
Robinson and Kloss *° record a male from Koh Lak, taken April 16. 
I have seen no records for Peninsular Siam, though it has been taken 
in Kedah. 

The species breeds from southeastern Siberia, Mongoha, and 
southern Manchuria south to India, Siam, and Indo-China and 
migrates through the Malay Archipelago to Australia. 

GALACHRYSIA LACTEA (Temminck) 

Glareola lactea Temminck, Manuel d'ornithologie, ed. 2, vol. 2, p. 503, 1820, 
(Bengal). 

Two females. Ban Tai, February 27, 1929. 

This species has been recorded by Baker ''^ from Krabin, central 
Siam, and by Chasen and Kloss *^ from the Raheng District, western 
Siam, Deignan ^^ found a single bird at Nawng Haw, northern 
Siam, in March 1929; de Schauensee^* found it common on the 
sandbars in the Mekong on both sides of the river at Chieng Sen, 
February 12; Lowe *^ found it very common during the first week 
of ALarch near Kempempet on the Meping. 

The species ranges from Ceylon to India, Burma, northern Siam, 
and southern Laos. 



«• Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 6, p. 344, 1926. 

»' Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 142, 1916. 

«s Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Ili.st. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 170, 1931. 

»« Proc. APa<l. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, p. 278, 1934. 

« Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 56. 1921. 

« Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 4, p. 38, 1920. 

«' Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 160, 1928. 

« Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 171, 1931. 

" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 278, 1934. 

« Ibis, 1933, p.490. 



BIEDS FROM SIAJVI AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 99 

Family LARIDAE: Gulls, Terns 

CHLIDONIAS HYBRIDA JAVANICA (Horsfleld) 

Sterna javanica Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 13, p. 198, 1821 

(Java) . 

One male, Bangkok, May 27, 1926; one male and one female, 
Bung Borapet, March 26, 1933. 

Gyldenstolpe ^^ records it as fairly common in the Inner Gulf of 
Siam and along the coasts of southwestern and Peninsular Siam. 
Robinson and Kloss *^ say they have examined many specimens in 
W. J. F. Williamson's collection taken near Bangkok. 

The form ranges from Assam, Burma, Siam, and the Malay States 
to Java, Celebes, and the Philippines, 

CHLIDONIAS LEUCOPTERA (Temminck) 

Sterna leucoptera Temminck, Manuel d'ornithologie, p. 483, 1815 (coasts of the 
Mediterranean) . 

One female, Bangkok, May 25, 1926. 

Williamson *^ has taken it near Bangkok in February, April, and 
October; Robinson *^ records it as common in Penang Harbor, March 
1911 ; a large series was secured in the same place in October. 

This species can usually be distinguished from C. hybrida, even 
when immature, by size alone and by having some black feathers in 
the underwing coverts as a rule, but in the very young, where these 
are lacldng, by the white upper tail coverts. 

The species breeds from southeastern Europe to central Asia and 
migrates south in fall to India, Burma, China, the Malay Peninsula, 
the Sunda Islands, and the Philippines. 

STERNA HIRUNDO TIBETANA Saunders 

Sterna tibetana Saunders, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1876, p. 649 (Tibet). 

One male and three females, Nakon Sritamarat, September 20, 
1926. 

Two of these specimens are immature. I have no material in the 
same stage of plumage with which to compare them. The adults 
seem to belong to this form and presumably the two immatures do 
likewise. 

This tern has been recorded by Robinson ^ from Pulo Terutau, 
November 29. 

The form breeds in the inland waters of Ladak, Tibet, northwestern 
Szechwan, and Turkestan and migrates to India, Burma, and the 
Malay States. 

" Ibis, 1920, p. 770. 

<' Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. .'), p. 48, 1921. 

<' Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 37, 1918. 

" .lourn. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 5, p. 17, 1913. 

•0 Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 7, p. 142, 1917. 



100 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Chasen^^ assigns all Malay Peninsula records to Sterna longipennis 
but upon insufficient evidence, it seems to me. Sterna longipennis 
has an entirely black bill, while in Sterna hirundo tibetana the bill 
(in the sldn) is light colored basally, probably red in life. The bill 
in longipennis is longer; the culmen in 10 adults measures 32-39 
(36) mm; the culmen in 10 adult tibetana, 31-34 (32.7) mm. Un- 
fortunately the 5''oung of tibetana seem to have dark bills, and I am 
unable to distinguish specimens of the forms in this plumage except 
by the bills. I suspect that longipennis migrates more to the east- 
ward, but I may be mistaken. 

STERNA LONGIPENNIS Nordmann 

Sterna longipennis Nordmann, in Erman's Verzeichniss von Thieren und Pflanzen, 
p. 17, 1835 (mouth of the Kutchui River, Sea of Okhotsk). 

Three immature males, Nakon Sritamarat, September 20, 1926. 

The culmens in these three males measure: 35, 35.5, and 37 mm, 
which is too much for tibetana. 

This species breeds in northeastern Asia and migrates along the 
coasts of China through the Philippines to New Guinea. 

Saunders ^^ records it from Tongka (Junkseylon) and Malacca. 

STERNA ANAETHETA ANAETHETA Scopoli 

Sterna anaethetus Scopoli, Deliciae florae et faunae insubricae, pt. 2, p. 92, 1786 
(Guinea, error; Philippines). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott had eight birds fly aboard his ship on a dark night, 
October 9, 1902, 30 miles west of Penang, of which he saved a pair, 
both immature; previously he had taken an immature female that 
came aboard his schooner off Malacca, November 9, 1899. He notes 
it as common everywhere in the Straits of Malacca. 

Williamson ^^ found it breeding on a rocky islet near Koh Phai and 
on some small islets near Koh Rin, July 17 and 18; later ^* he secured 
eggs on an islet near Koh Chuan, Inner Gulf of Siam; Robinson " 
states that it breeds on the Takang Burong rocks off the coast of 
Pahang, where eggs were taken July 15, 1912. 

The form breeds on islands in the China Sea from Formosa to the 
Malay States and Siam. 

STERNA ALBIFRONS SAUNDERSI Hume 

Sterna saunder si Hume, Stray Feathers, vol. 5, 1877, p. 324, (Karachi, Sind, India). 

There are two males in the United States National Museum col- 
lected by Dr. W. L. Abbott at Prahmon, Trang, Peninsular Siam, 
March 21, 1896. 

•1 Bull. Radios Mus., No. 11, p. 4,5, 1935. 

•> Catalogue of the birds in the British Museum, vol. 25, p. 69, 1896. 

»• Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 2, p. 63, 1916. 

'* Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 85, 1918. 

« Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 5, p. 17. 1913. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 101 

Tliis form differs from S. a. sinensis and S. a. pusilla in having the 
shafts of the three outer feathers dark. 

Robinson and Kloss ^^ report this tern as occurring in some numbers 
in the winter in the Straits of Malacca, but apparently the above are 
the only definite Siamese records. 

The form ranges from the Red Sea and Somali coasts east to the 
Malay Peninsula. 

STERNA ALBIFRONS SINENSIS Gmelin 

Sterna sinensis Gmelin, Sy sterna naturae, vol. 1, pt. 2, p. 608, 1789 (China). 

One male, two females, and one unsexed, Lem Sing, Chantabun, 
June 8, 14, 1926. 

This small series agrees very well with a small series from China 
in size and color. The culmens in five breeding males from China 
measure 30, 30, 30.5, 31.5, and 32 mm. The single male from Lem 
Sing measures 32.5 mm. The four breeding females from China 
have culmen measurements of 27, 29, 29, 29.5 mm. Two females 
from Siam have culmen measurements of 28.5 and 29 mm. 

The form ranges from the coast of Ceylon and Burma to Siam, 
China, Korea, Indo-China, and the Malay Peninsula. It is migratory 
in the northern part of its range but probably resident in the south. 

Baker ^^ records two females taken at Meldong, June 27; William- 
son *^ took it at Koh Lak and Hua Hin in June; de Schauensee *^ took 
a female at Bangkok on March 9 and reports it common there over 
the Menam. 

THALASSEUS BERGD EDWARDS! Mathews 

Thalasseus bergii edwardsi Mathews, The birds of Australia, vol. 2, pt. 3, p. 347, 
1912 (Ceylon). 

Two males, Nakon Sritamarat, September 20, 1926. 

Specimens of this form have been recorded from Tanjong Patani. 
Williamson ^° found it breeding on some small islands in the Gulf of 
Siam (Koh Rin and Koh Phai) in May 1918. Robinson ^' has recorded 
specimens from Pulo Terutau and Pulo Langkawi, taken in February 
and March; Herbert ^- reports it breeding on Koh Samui, Bandon. 

The two males from Nakon Sritamarat agree with a male and female 
collected by Dr. W. L. Abbott at Bok Pyin, Tenasserim, February 9, 
1900. The wings of the Nakon males measure 350 and 362 mm, the 
culmens 59 and 65 mm. Oberholser ^^ places the Bok Pyin specimens 
under Thalasseus bergii edwardsi. In the absence of additional speci- 
mens I am regarding all Siamese records as of this race. 

»» Journ. Nat. Rist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 53, 1921. 

»' Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 4, p. 40, 1920. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p 37, 1918. 

»» Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, p. 579, 1928. 

•» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 83, 1919. 

«• Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 7, p. 143, 1917. 

«' Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 6, p. 348, 1926. 

•» Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 49, p. 520, 1915. 



102 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

ANGUS STOLIDUS PILEATUS (Scopoli) 

Sterna pileaia Scopoli, Deliciae florae et faunae insubricae, pt. 2, p. 92, 1786 
(Philippines). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took an immature female in the Straits of Malacca, 
November 18, 1899; an immature female off the Dindings, Novem- 
ber 19, 1899; and an adult male 100 miles west of Penang, April 8, 
1903. 

Williamson ^* records tliis tern breeding on a rocky islet near Koh 
Chuan, Inner Gulf of Siam, in May 1918. Apparently this is the 
only Siamese record. 

The form ranges in the Indian and western Pacific Oceans from the 
Seychelles to the Hawaiian Islands and south to northern Australia. 

Family COLUMBIDAE: Pigeons, Doves 

CROCOPUS PHOENICOPTERUS VIRIDIFRONS (BIyth) 

Treron viridifrons Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 14, pt. 2, p. 849, 1845 
(Tenasserim) . 

One female, Ban Nam Kien, Nan, April 21, 1930. 

A topotypical female has the gray of the nape much lighter, the 
yellow collar broader, and the gray collar narrower than in the Siamese 
female. 

Gyldenstolpe ^^ records it as sparsely distributed in northern Siam, 
where specimens have been obtained at Meh Taw, Meh Lua, and 
along the Meh Yome River; Deignan ^'^ reports it irregularly common 
on the plain at Chiengmai, its movements being governed by the 
fruiting of certain trees; de Schauensee ^^ assigns specimens from 
Metang to annamensis, a form I have not seen. 

C. p. viridifrons ranges from Chittagong and Manipur on the west 
throughout Burma south to Moulmein and east into northern Siam. 
C. p. annamensis Ogilvie-Grant ranges from southern Annam to 
Cocliinchina and lower Laos, possibly to southeastern Siam. 

DENDROPHASSA FULVICOLLIS FULVICOLLIS (Wagler) 

Columba fulvicolHs Wagler, Systcma avium, Columba, sp. 8, 1827 (Java, error; 
type locality fixed by Robinson and Kloss,*''^ Sumatra). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took a male at Prahmon, Trang, March 31, 1896, 
and a male at Selitar, 9 miles from Singapore, Straits Settlements, 
May 18, 1899. He gives the soft parts as: Iris pink; bill pale bluish 
horn, base and cere dull red; feet H^dd purple, claws black. 

The United States National Museum also contains a male from 
TapanuU Bay, Sumatra, and a male from Banka. The latter is fulvous 

«» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 38, 1918. 

•s Ibis, 1920, p. 738. 

«» Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. Ififi, 1931. 

«' Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. S6, p. 271, 1934. 

M Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 30, 1921. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 103 

on the crown instead of the prussian red of the other three specimens. 
I tliink tliis is due to age or fading, however, as there are some prussian- 
red feathers coming in here and there. 

The wings of the four males measure: Trang, 152; Singapore, 144; 
Sumatra, 149; Banka, 15G mm. 

The Trang specimen is the only record for Peninsular Siam, other 
than the one for Puket, c[uoted by Gyldenstolpe.^^ The latter I have 
been unable to trace. 

The form ranges from southern Tenasserim through Peninsular Siam 
to the Aialay States, Sumatra, Nias, Banka, and Billiton. It has also 
been recorded from Cocliinchina. 

Another form, Dendrophassa Julvicollis baramensis Meyer is found 
in northern Borneo. The Nias bird has been separated on the strength 
of a single female as Dendrophassa fulmcolUs melopogenys Obserholser. 
The series of this sex at my command is too small to pass upon its 
validity. 

DENDROPHASSA BISINCTA PRAETERMISSA (Robinson and Kloss) 

Treron bisinda praelermissn Robinson and Kloss, Journ. Federated Malay 
States Mus., vol. 10, pt. 3, p. 203, 1921 (Koh Lak, southwestern Siam). 

One male. Ban Hin Ngom, February 25, 1929 ; one immature female, 
Pak Bhayoon, July 4, 1929; one male and two females, Sam Roi Yot, 
November 11, 1932. 

The wing in the males measures 153 and 162 mm. The miniature 
female is too young to be of any service for comparison. 

A male collected by Dr. W. L. Abbott at Bok Pyin, Tenasserim, 
February 16, 1900, is more yellowish about the throat, forehead, and 
lower parts, especially the belly, when compared with the Siamese male. 
It measures 167 mm in the wing. 

Robinson and Kloss have recorded it from Trang,^'' Ghirbi,^^ and 
Delisle Island and Koh Lak "; Gairdner " from the Ratburi and 
Petchaburi Districts; Barton ^* hsts it from the Raheng District. 
Whether Robinson's records from Ok Yam " and from Lat Bua Kao 
and Koh Mesan ^^ belong here or not, I cannot say; Robinson and 
Kloss " were apparently in doubt. They state that the wing is 
smaller, always under 150 mm. With these left out as doubtful, then, 
the range of tliis form extends from Selangor north through Peninsular 
Siam to southern Tenasserim and western Siam. 



M Ibis, 1920, p. 739. 

"Ibis, 1910, p. 674. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 89, 1919. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 29, 1921. 

"Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 1, pp. 39, 151, 1914. 

'« Ibid., p. 107. 

" Ibis, 1915, p. 723. 

'« Ibis, 1918, p. 82. 

" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 5, p. 29, 1921. 



104 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

DENDROPHASSA VERNANS GRISEICAPILLA (Schlcgel) 

Treron griseicapilla Schlegel, Ned. Tijdschr. Dierk., vol. 1, p. 71, 1863 (Sumatra 
and Banka; Sumatra has been designated as the type locality). 

Dendrophassa vernans abbotti Obehholser, Journ. Washington Acad. Sci., vol. 14, 
p. 298, 1924 (Tyching, Trang, Peninsular Siam). 

Three males and one female, Bangnara, Patani, May 9 and June 6, 
1924, and July 7, 1926; four males and four females, Koh Chang, 
January 1-10, 1926, and March 11, 1930; two females, Lem Smg, 
southeastern Siam, March 14, 1930. 

The following specimens collected by Dr. W. L. Abbott are in the 
United States National Museum: One male, Singapore Island, May 
20, 1899; one male, Pulo Tinggi, east coast of Johore, August 3, 1901 ; 
one female, Tanjong Dungun, Trengganu, September 21, 1900; two 
males (including the type of abbotti) and three females, Trang (Tyching 
June 2-27, 1896; Prahmon, March 31, 1896); three males, Tenasserim 
(Victoria, March 30 and November 24, 1900; Bok Pyin, February 
1900). 

He gives the soft parts as: Iris in two rings, inner blue, outer pale 
pink; bill leaden, base greenish yellow; orbital skin green; feet purplish 
red, claws pale horn brown. 

With a series of 10 males from the Malay Peninsula and Tenasserim 
and seven males from southeastern Siam, but only one male from 
Sumatra and one male each from Banka and Billiton, I am unable to 
see any tangible color differences between the series, and the measure- 
ments show no appreciable difl'erence in size. 

Ten males from the Malay Peninsula (7) and Tenasserim (3) 
measure: Wing, 142-155 (149.3); tail, 80.5-100 (87); bill, including 
cere, 16-17.5 (16.7) mm. Seven males from southeastern Siam 
measure: Wing, 138-158 (150.5); tail, 79-90 (85); bill, including cere, 
15.5-17 (16.2) mm. One male from Sumatra, one male from Banka, 
and one male from Billiton m^easure: Wing, 147.5-150 (148.5); tail, 
87-94.5 (91); bill, including cere, 16-17.5 (16.6) mm. Five females 
from the Malay Peninsula measure: Wing, 141-150 (145); tail, 75- 
81.5 (78.5); bill, including cere, 16-16.5 (16) mm. Eight females from 
southeastern Siam measure: Wing, 142.5-153 (148.6); tail, 77-87.5 
(81); bill, including cere, 16-17.5 (16.4) mm. 

Tliis race extends from Sumatra, Banka, and Billiton through the 
Malay Peninsula from Singapore north to Tenasserim and eastward 
to southeastern Siam, Cambodia, Cochinchina, and Annam. 

Chasen and Kloss '* record two females from Ban Dong, Ralieng 
District, western Siam. This is the northernmost record I have seen. 
It has also been recorded from Bangkok," and it occurs on many islands 
off the coast in the Gulf of Siam and along the west coast of the Malay 

» Journ. Siam Sec. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 156, 1928, 
»» Gyldenstolpe, Ibis, 1920, p. 73D. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 105 

Peninsula. Robinson ^^ reports it from Koh Samiii and Koh Pennan 
and obtained a heavily incubated egg of the latter on May 27. 

A number of other forms have been named from islands off the west 
Coast of Sumatra, Java, the Natunas, Anambas, Philippines, and 
Celebes. Oberholser ^^ recognizes no less than 1 1 . 

DENDROPHASSA OLAX OLAX (Temminck) 

Columba olax Temminck, Nouveau recueil de planches colorizes d'oiseaux, vol. 4, 
livr. 41, pi. 241, Dec. 1823 (Sumatra). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took a male and two females in Tran^, March 9^ 
1897, and January 20, 1899. He gives the soft parts as: Male — 
iris in two rings, inner yellow, outer red; bill pale greenish horny, 
base and cere green; feet red. Female — iris yellowish white or pale 
yellow. 

A male from Great Karimon Island does not differ materially from 
the Trang male. A series from Borneo seems to be smaller. The 
wmgs of eight Bornean males measure 114-124 (118.6) mm; wing of 
a male from Great Karimon Island, 130 mm; a male from Trang, 
133 mm. 

The Bornean race has been named Dendrophassa olax arismiora 
Oberholser. This will leave the range of Dendrophassa olax olax as 
Sumatra, the Malay States, and Peninsular Siam. 

In the latter there are only three previous records known to me: 
Baker ^^ records three males from Klong Wang Hip and a female in 
Herbert's collection; Robinson and KHoss ^ state that a pair (now in 
the British Museum) was collected by J. Darling near Ghirbi; and 
de Schauensee ^* collected a pair from Nakon Sritamarat. 

TEERON CURVIROSTRA CURVIROSTRA (Gme)in) 

Columba curvirostra Gmelin, Systema naturae, vol. 1, pt. 2, p. 777, 1789 (Tanna 
Island, error; type locality as designated by Robinson and Kloss,^' Rawang, 
Selangor) . 

Three males and one female, Bangnara, Patani, May 8, 1924, July 
11-12, 1926; two males, Tha Lo, Bandon, September 17 and 28, 1931. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected five males and two females, Trang 
(Tyching, May 10, 1896; Koh Sai, December 30, 1898; and Trang, 
January 19-February 24, 1899). He describes the soft parts as: 
Iris orange or brownish yellow; naked skin about orbit pale green; 
bill horny yellow or pale greenish horny, dark red at base, claws horn 
brown. 

This form probably does not extend much farther north than 
Bandon, and from there it ranges south to the Malay States and the 

'n Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 5, p. 140, 1916. 

"U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 159, pp. 32-3.3, 1932. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 4, p. 30, 1920. 

M Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 31, 1921. 

•♦ Proc. Acad. Nat. Set. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 271, 1934. 

•• Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 28, 1921. 



106 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEU:*! 

Straits Settlements. The specimens from Patani are slightly smaller 
than those from farther north in the Peninsula. No specimens have 
been examined south of Patani, The measurements and relation- 
ships will be discussed under the next form. 

The male taken on January 19 by Dr. Abbott is an immature bird. 
The maroon of the back is coming in irregularly and is about half 
completed; the under tail coverts are being renewed. It still retains 
the old tail of the immature plumage, the feathers of which are old and 
worn, and much narrower than they are in the adult; the two outer 
primaries of the immature plumage are still in place, and the third, 
though new, is still in growth. 

TBERON CURVIROSTRA NIPALENSIS (Hodgson) 

Toria nipalensis Hodgson, Asiat. Res., vol. 19, p. 164, pi. 9, 1836 (Nepal). 

One male, Huey Me Sae, December 24, 1932; one female. Ban 
Kiriwong, July 10, 1928; one male and one female. Pang Sok, eastern 
Siam, August 19, 1926; one male, Pak Chong, eastern Siam, May 10, 
1925; one female, Hupbon, near Sriracha, May 25, 1925; one male and 
one female, Nong Klior, near Sriracha, March 21 and 26, 1926; two 
males and one female, Kao Seming, Krat, October 10-14, 1928; two 
males and two females, Koh Chang, January 8-9, 1926; one male. 
Ban Tarn Dam, southeastern Siam, March 5, 1930. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected two males and one female, Domel 
Island, Mergui Archipelago, January 27 and 29, 1904; two males and 
one female, Tenasserim (Pakchan, December 19, 1900; Bok Pyin, 
February 16, 1900; and Boyces Pomt, February 9, 1904). He 
describes the soft parts as: Iris orange; naked orbital skm green; 
bill greenish yellow, base dark red; feet purplish red, claws pale 
horn brown. 

Of the considerable series of Treron curvirostra in the United States 
National Museum, only the forms that have a bearing on the Siamese 
forms will be here considered. A series of males from Sumatra ap- 
pears to be paler, especially below, with more white on the belly than 
in a series of the same sex from the Malay Penmsula, from Patani, 
north to Bandon. Males from Tenasserim and western, northern, and 
southeastern Siam are much darker below than Malay Peninsula 
birds. In the Malay Peninsula series there are one or two males that 
are dark like the northern birds, but there are no light-colored speci- 
mens among the large series from western, northern, and southeastern 
Siam. I have seen no Nepalese specimens nor any from India, but I 
assign the northern Siamese birds to Treron curvirostra niimlensis, as 
it does not appear to belong to forms occin'ring farther south. There 
seems to be a gradual darkening of the plumage below and an increase 
in size from the south to the north. Above, the differences are not 
so pronounced. The above dissimilarities also hold in the females, 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 107 

but not to the same extent. The palest specmien I have examined 
is a female from Bukit Parmassang, Banka Island (no. 180436), 

Six males from eastern Sumatra measure: Wing, 135-143.5 (139.2); 
tail, 73-82.5 (78.4); culmen, 15-17 (16) mm. 

Ten males from Peninsular Siam (Patani, 3; Trang, 5; and Bandon, 
2): Wing, 132-147.5 (139.9); tail, 73-82 (78); culmen, 15.5-17 (16) 
mm. 

Five males from Tenasserim (2), Mergui Archipelago (2), and 
western Siam (1): Wing, 146-151 (148.8); tail, 77-87 (82.5); culmen, 
15.5-18 (16.9) mm. 

Nine males from northern (1), eastern (3), and southeastern Siam 
(6): Wing, 140-151 (146.2); tail, 74-90 (82.7); culmen, 15-17 (15.7) 
mm. 

Three females from eastern Sumatra (2) and Banka (1): Wing, 
126-147.5 (133.5); tail, 69-71 (72.3); culmen, 15-15.5 (15.2) mm. 

Three females from Peninsular Siam: Wing, 131.5-145.5 (138.3); 
tail, 72-76 (74); culmen, 15.5-16.5 (16) mm. 

Three females from Tenasserim (1), Mergui Archipelago (1), and 
western Siam (1): Wing, 139-152 (145); tail, 70-82 (76.7); culmen, 
15-16 (15.5) mm. 

Eight females from northern, eastern, and southeastern Siam: 
Wing, 138.5-151 (144.6); tail, 75-89 (79.6); culmen, 15-17 (16). 

The specimens from Patani are slightly smaller than birds from 
farther north in the Peninsula. 

Specimens from Cochinchina and south Annam appear to belong 
with the birds from southeastern Siam. 

Treron curvirostra nipalensis has a wide range, occurring from 
Nepal south through Assam and Burma to eastern Bengal, Tenasserim, 
the northern part of Peninsular Siam, all Siam proper, Cochincliina, 
Cambodia, Laos, and Annam. Other forms occur in the Philippines, 
Borneo, Java, Sumatra, and the chain of islands off the west coast of 
Sumatra. 

BUTRERON CAPELLII MAGNIROSTRIS (Strickland) 

Treron magniroslris Strickland, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. 14, p. 116, footnote, 
1844 (Malay Peninsula). 

Two males, Bandon, January 8, 1897. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected one male and three females at Lay 
Song Hong, Trang, October 26, November 21 and 28, 1896. He gives 
the soft parts as: Iris dark brown; orbital ring greenish yellow; bUl 
pale greenish horny, cere green ; feet yellow, claws yellowish leaden. 

Robinson ^^ records it from Mabak, Patani; Robinson and Kloss " 
from Trang. Glydenstolpe ^** states that Eisenhofer's collector ob- 
tained a specimen in the neighborhood of Khun Tan, April 1914. 

M Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 2, p. S2, 1905. 

" Ibis, 1910, p. 073. 

8« Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Hand!., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 153, 1916. 



108 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

I have examined no specimens from Java, the type locality of the 
nominate form. 

The form ranges from the Malay States, Peninsular Siam, to the 
Mergui Archipelago (Elphinstone Island), and it has once been taken 
as far north as Khun Tan, Siam. 

The birds from Borneo, Sumatra, and Pulo Mata Siri, Java Sea, 
have each been provided with a name, 

SPHENOCERCUS SPHENURUS SPHENURUS (Vigors) 

Vinago sphenura Vigors, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1831, p. 173 (Darjiling). 

One male, Doi Nangka, November 19, 1930, 

This specimen is smaller than specimens from Yunnan {S. s. yun~ 
nanensis). 

Deignan ^^ took a specimen on Doi Sutep, 5,000 feet, in November. 
De Schauensee ®° found it not uncommon there and at Chiengdao 
between 3,000 and 5,000 feet on his third expedition. 

The present form ranges from Kashmir to Assam, south to the 
Shan States, Tenasserim, and northern Siam, 

LEUCOTRERON JAMBU (Gmclin) 

Columha jamhu Gmelin, Systema naturae, vol. 1, pt. 2, p. 784, 1789 (Java). 

Two males and one female, Bangnara, Patani, Peninsular Siam, 
July 4-15, 1926. 

There are two males and one female in the United States National 
Museum collected by Dr. W. L. Abbott at the Eumpin River, Pahang, 
June 10 and 12, 1902. 

August Miiller ^^ records four skins secured in Malacca, probably 
purchased. These were thought by Robinson and Kloss ^^ to have 
come from the mainland opposite Puket, but this is doubtful. Rob- 
inson ^^ does not mention Peninsular Siam in his latest book and was 
evidently aware of this error in the earlier work. 

The species ranges from Perlis in the western Malay States to Patani 
in the southern Peninsular Siamese States, and from thence south to 
Singapore, Tioman Island, Sumatra, Borneo, Banka, and Billiton. 
It probably has a \vider range than the above would indicate and per- 
forms local migrations, probably due to the ripening of certain fruits. 

The species is easily distinguished from all other pigeons. The 
males are green above and white below; the forepart of the head and 
tliroat to the posterior border of the eye carmine-red; the chin a 
brownish black; the chest with a large eosine pink spot; the under 
tail coverts brick red; outer primary much attenuated at the tip. 
The female has the chest and neck green; the forepart of the head 

8» Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 166, 1931. 
M Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 272, 1934. 
M Die Orcis der In.sel Salanga, p. 79, 1882. 
M Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, no. 1, p. 31, 1921. 
» The birds of the Malay Peninsula, vol. 2, p. 11, 1928. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 109 

aster purple, the chin slightly darker. Wing in male, about 144 mm; 
the female is somewhat smaller. 

BUCULA BADIA GEISEICAPILLA Walden 

Ducula hadia griseicapilla Walden, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 4, vol. 16, p. 228, 
1S75 (Karen Hills). 

One male, Doi Angka, 6,000 feet, December 4, 1928; two males, 
and two females, Khun Tan, 4,000 feet, August 27, 1930, and Febru- 
ary 14 and 29, 1932; one female. Pang Meton (Doi Nangka), Ma}^ 3, 
1931; one male, Doi Kinchong, January 1, 1933; one male, Kao Pae 
Pan Nam, Lamsak, February 5, 1934. 

The male from Doi Kinchong has the pileum and cheeks washed 
with vinaceous as in D. b. obscurata, but the back is not so dark» 

Gairdner ^* records this pigeon from Ratburi and Petchaburi; Cha- 
sen and Kloss ^* from the Raheng District, western Siam; Deignan ^^ 
reports it common on Doi Sutep, from 3,500 to 5,500 feet. 

The form ranges from eastern Bengal to Assam, Burma, western 
and northern Siam, and east probably to Tonkin and Laos. It is a 
mountain species. In Siam it has been found only in the mountains of 
the southwestern, western, and northern parts. 

In Sumatra and the Malay States Ducula badia badia (Raffles) i& 
found. 

DUCULA BADIA OBSCURATA Conover 

Ducula badia obscurata Conover, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 43, p. 1, 1930 
(Krat, southeastern Siam). 

One female, Kao Seming, Krat, October 14, 1928. 

This subspecies is easily distinguished from D. b. griseicapilla in 
having the pileum and cheeks washed with vinaceous instead of gull 
gray. Chasen and Kloss ^^ state, however, that they can see no 
material differences among specimens from north and west Siam to 
south Annam. With only one specimen from southeastern Siam, 
however, I do not like to pass judgment. 

MUSCADIVORES AENEUS AENEUS (Linnaeus) 

Columba aeneus Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 12, p. 283, 1766 (Moluccas, error; 
Hartert and Goodson ^^ say the type locality may be considered Flores; 
Oberholser '^ states, "We . . . now designate Borneo as the type locality")- 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected a male on the Rumpin River, Pahang, 
July 12, 1902, and a male on Pulo Bin tang, Rhio Archipelago, August 

•< Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 1, p. 515, 1915. 

M Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, p; 155, 1928. 

•« Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 106, 1931. 

•7 Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 233, 1932. 

•« Nov. Zool., 1918, p. 34r,. 

M U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 159, p. 27. 1932. 

33527—38 8 



110 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

7, 1902. These two males are somewhat larger than more northern 
hirds and agree fairly well with Bornean specimens but are probably 
on the whole a trifle smaller. The designation of, Borneo as the 
type locality is rather far fetched. I hardly think specimens would 
have been received from there in Linnaeus's time. Hartert and 
Goodson's designation of Flores has precedence. No specimens have 
been available from Flores for examination. 

Two males from Java are rather smaller. One male from Rumpin 
River, Pahang, measures: Wing, 245; tail, 138 mm. One male from 
Pulo Bintang, Rhio Archipelago: Wing, 237 ; tail, 149 mm. Two males 
from Java: Wing, 225-235; tail, 137-149 mm. Six males from 
Borneo: Wing, 237-254 (247.7); tail, 141-150 (146.6) mm. 

This form is said to occur eastward from Borneo to the island of 
Flores; also the southern portion of the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra. 

MUSCADIVORES AENEUS SYLVATICUS (Tickell) 

Columba sylvatica Tickell, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 2, p. .581, 1833 (Bor- 
abhum and Dholbhum, India). 

One male and one female, Nakon Sritamarat, Peninsular Siam' 
September 10, 1924, and September 30, 1926; one male and four 
females, Koh Tao, January 1-2, 1927, September 20-21, 1928; one 
male and one female, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, Januarj^ 7, 1934; one male. 
Ban Den Muang, February 25, 1929; one male. Ban Nakae, March 4, 
1929; one female, Nong Khor, November 14, 1924. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected the following: One male and one female, 
Prahmon, Trang, March 24 and April 3, 1896; one female, Pulo 
Adang, Butang Islands, December 15, 1899; four males and three 
females, Mergui Archipelago (Chance Island, December 29, 1899; 
St. Luke Island, January 19, 1900; Sullivans Island, January 30, 1900; 
Domel Island, February 25, 1900, and January 28, 1904). He gives 
the color of the soft parts as: Iris deep red; bill leaden blue; cere dull 
purple; orbital ring dull purple red; feet deep livid purple, claws 
bluish horn. 

This form differs from M. aenens aeneus in being somewhat smaller 
and more bronzy above and in having a more vinaceous wash on the 
breast, pileum, and cheeks. The latter character is very variable; in 
some specimens it is almost lacking, while in others it is very pro- 
nounced. It also occurs in Bornean birds. 

An immature female about one-half grown was taken by Dr. Smith 
on Kao Tao on September 20. It resembles the adult, except the 
pileum and the hindneck are mouse gray; the underparts pale mouse 
gray, without any vinaceous tinge; the tail feathers are much narrower 
than in the adult. 

Eleven males from Peninsular and eastern Siam and the Mergui 
Ai'chipelago measure: Wing, 225-243 (233.7); tail, 139.5-157 (146) 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA HI 

mm. Twelve females from Peninsular Siam, the Mergiii Archipelago, 
and southeastern Siam: Wing, 222-238 (230); tail, 127-147 (141) mm. 
A male from Rutland Island, Andamans, collected by Dr. W. L. 
Abbott, January 16, 1901, is somewhat larger than any specimen of 
M. a. sylvaticus measured by me: Wing, 252; tail, 158 mm. It may be 
a stray of AI. aeneus aeneus. 

A female collected by Dr. W. L. Abbott on St. Luke Island, Mergui 
Archipelago, January 19 (No. 172932) has tliree white tail feathers, 
one of the central pair and the next feather to it on the left side, and 
the one next to the other central feather on the right side. Three of 
the other tail feathers have spots of white or light gray of varying 
degree at the tip. One of the upper tail coverts has a white tip. 

A female (No. 308043), collected by Dr. Smith at Nakon Sritamarat, 
September 30, has one of the upper tail coverts pure white. 

Specimens of this species with dark-gray hindnecks and pileums 
usually have shorter wings and in my opinion are more or less imma- 
ture. I have rejected them in my averages. 

The range of this form extends from northern India (Nepal and 
Sikkim) south through Assam and Burma to southern Tenasserim, 
northern Siam, and Peninsular Siam as far as the Malay States. It is 
found on most of the islands off the west and east coasts of Peninsular 
Siam and in the Gulf of Siam. 

Birds of this genus usually occur on islands off the coast, rather 
than on the mainland far from the sea. I have seen few records for 
northern Siam. Gyldenstolpe ^ records it from there; Robinson ^ 
records it from Nam Khum, northeastern Siam; Chasen and Kloss ^ 
record it from the Raheng District, western Siam; Gyldenstolpe * 
cites it for Bang Hue Pong and Hat Sanak, southwestern Siam; Kloss ^ 
lists it from Lat Bua Kao, eastern Siam ; Baker ^ records two males 
from Krabin, central Siam; Robinson '' from the islands of Koh Kut, 
Koh Mehsi (East Island), and Koh Klum, southeastern Siam, and 
from Terutau and Koh Muk, Trang, * as well as from Koh Pennan, off 
Bandon ^; Robinson and Kloss ^° list specimens from Pulo Mohea 
(North island), Koh Pipidon, Koh Yam Yai, and Koh Yam Noi, 
western Peninsular Siam; they had previously given it from Telok Poh 
and Pulau Panjang, Ghirbi Bay, on the same coast. ^^ 

> Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 50, no. 8, p. 66, 1913. 

'Ibis, 1931, p. 324. 

Mourn. Siam See. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 1.55, 1928. 

* Kun^l. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 155, 1916. 
'Ibis, 1918, p. 83. 

« Journ. Nat. Hist. Sec. Siam, vol. 4, p. 31, 1920. 
'Ibis, 1915, p. 723. 

* Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 7, p. 136, 1917. 
•Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 5, p. 141, 1915. 
'» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 31, 1921. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 90, 1919. 



112 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

MYRISTICIVORA BICOLOR BICOLOR (Scopoli) 

Columba bicolor Scopoli, Deliciae florae et faunae insubricae, pt. 2, p. 94, 1786 
(New Guinea). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected a male on South Twin Island, Mergui 
Archipelago, January 27, 1900. 

This is a species that usually occurs on small islands off the coast of 
larger land masses. There are few records for Siam, as the islands 
probably have not been visited at the proper season. Robinson and 
Kloss ^^ record it from the outlying islands of the Langkawi Group; 
strictly speaking, this is not a Siamese record, but it is just over the 
line. Williamson ^^ reports it from Chumpon Bay, Peninsular Siam; 
Forty '* gives it for Koh Phai, Inner Gulf of Siam ; while Robinson and 
Kloss ^* say the species also occurs on the Koh Sichang Group. 

The form ranges from small islands off the coast of southern Burma, 
the Andamans, and Nicobars, through the PhiUppines and Sunda 
Islands to New Guinea. 

CALOENAS NICOBARICA NICOBARICA (Linnaeus) 

Columba nicobarica Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 164, 1758 (Nicobar 
Islands). 

Three males and four females, Koh Tao, December 27-31, 1926, 
and September 18-20, 1928. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected two males on Pulo Nipis, Butang Islands, 
western Malay Peninsula, December 13, 1899; and a male and female 
on South Twin Island, Mergui Archipelago, January 27, 1900. He 
gives the soft parts as: Iris brownish gray; bill and cere black; feet 
dark purple, soles yellow, claws horny yellow. 

Wherever this bird is found, and it has quite an extensive range, it 
seems to occur on the small islands off the main land niass or larger 
islands. Robinson and Kloss ^® report it for Terutau ; and later " they 
give it as common at certain seasons on the Islands off the west coast 
of Siam ; on the east coast it occurs on the smaller islands of the Pahang 
and Johore Archipelago and the Redang group off Trengganu. 

The species ranges from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands to the 
Mergui Archipelago and small islands oft" the Malay Peninsula, 
Sumatra, Cambodia, and Cochinchina, to the Philippines, and south- 
ward to the Solomon Islands, C. n. pelewensis Finsch occurs in the 
Pelew Islands. 

CHALCOPHAPS INDICA INDICA (Linnaeus) 

Columba indica Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 164, 1758 (India orientale). 

One immature female, Pak Chong, eastern Siam, February 23, 

1924; one male, Nong Khor near Sriracha, March 3, 1926; one male, 

"Ibis, 1910, p. 674. 

» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 2, p. 61, 1916. 

'< Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 2, p. 254, 1917. 

» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 34, 1921. 

w Ibis, 1910, p. 675. 

"Journ. Nat. Uist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 37, 1921. 



BIRDS FROM SIAJVI AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 113 

Pang Sok, eastern Siam, August 26, 1926; two males, Pran, south- 
western Siam, May 28, 1928, and April 2, 1931; one male, Koh Kut, 
May 21, 1929; one male, Huey Yang, Kao Luang, Nakon Sritamarat, 
October 6, 1930; one female, Hin Lap, eastern Siam, September 30, 
1932; one female, Sobpung, December 22, 1932; one male and one 
female, Khonka Valley, January 26, 1933. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected three males in Trang (Lay Song Hong, 
August 31, 1896; near Kao Nok Kam, January 4, 1899, and Prang, 
January 20, 1899). He gives the soft parts as: Iris dark brown; bill 
coral-red, base and cere purple; feet purple, soles and back of tarsi 
whitish. 

This pigeon has a wide range. It occurs practically all over India 
and extends east to Siam, southern China, Indo-China, the Malay 
Peninsula, the Philippines, and the Sunda Islands. It has been 
recorded fairly regularly over Siam proper and down Peninsular Siam 
to the Malay States ; also on many of the islands off the coast of Penin- 
sular and southeastern Siam. 

COLUMBA LIVIA INTERMEDIA Strickland 

Columba intermedia Strickland, Ann, Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 1, vol. 13, p. 39, 1844 
(India). 

One male, Nong Mong, Muang Krabin, August 27, 1925 ; one female, 
Koh Chang, January 7, 1926. 

Gyldenstolpe ^* saj^s specimens of this species have been recorded 
from several localities in central and southwestern Siam and that it 
has been obtained on the island of Puket; Deignan ^^ reports it at 
Chiengmai in flocks often found feeding far from houses and acting 
like wild birds ; Baker ^° records it from Pak Chong, eastern Siam. 
Most writers regard the form in Siam as the domestic pigeon gone 
wild; even so, it seems to have spread rather widely over the whole 
country, except Peninsular Siam, but not in great numbers. 

COLUMBA PUNICEA Tickcll 

Columba {Alsocomus) puniceus Tickell, in Blyth, Joiirn. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 
vol. 11, p. 461, 1842 (Chyebassa, India). 

One male, Muek Lek, April 7, 1933. 

This specimen is much deeper in color both above and below than 
a female from Koh Lak, the only specimen available for comparison. 
The third primary in both wings is being renewed ; the new feather is 
about half grown. 

Robinson ^^ records it from Pulo Terutau and states that Hume had 
recorded three specimens from Salanga; these specimens are now in the 

>8 Ibis, 1920, p. 741. 

•» Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 167, 1931. 

»» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 4, p. 32, 1920. 

" Joiirn. Federated Malay States Mus. vol. 4, p. 129, 1909. 



114 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

British Museum. Gairdner ^^ reports it from the Ratburi and Pet- 
chaburi Districts, Gyldenstolpe ^^ records a male from Hue Sai, Janu- 
ary 1915. Robinson ^* reports it common on Koh Muk, Trang, during 
the three days their party was there; it came in at dusk to roost in 
the tall mangroves, probably from the mainland. 

Kloss ^^ records it from Koh Lak ; Robinson and Kloss ^* from Junk- 
seylon (Salanga or Puket) ; Williamson ^^ records it from Koh Phra, 
Inner Gulf of Siam. Thus, it has been taken from Trang northward 
in the Peninsula to the southwestern part and thence to the south- 
eastern and eastern part of the country. 

The species ranges from eastern Bengal to Assam, Burma, Penin- 
sular and eastern Siam and east to Laos and south Annam. In Siam 
it does not appear to be a common species, and it is uncertain whether 
it is resident in the Peninsula. 

The species is often put in a separate genus (Alsocomus), but the 
characters relied upon in doing so, it seems to me, do not warrant 
such action. If such slight characters are recognized, the genus 
Columba as generally used would have to be broken up into numerous 
genera, without a consequent gain. 

STREPTOPELIA CHINENSIS TIGRINA (Tcitiminck) 

Columha tigrina Temminck, Histoire natiirelle g^nerale des pigeons et des gal- 
linac6s, vol. 1, p. 94, pi. 43, 1808-11 (type locality as fixed by Hartert, Java). 

Two males. Ban Nam Kien, Nan, April 21-22, 1930; one male, 
Rayasothon, March 23, 1929; one male. Ban Nakae, November 4, 
1929; one male, Mae Hong Sorn, January 6, 1933; one male, Mekhan, 
February 1, 1932; three males, Aranya, July 13-17, 1930; one male, 
Knong Phra, April 14, 1929; one male and one female, Bangkok, Jan- 
uary 17 and February 7, 1924; two females. Bung Borapet, June 28, 
1932; one, not sexed, Muang Kanburi, April 9, 1928; one male, Nong 
Mong, Krabin, August 28, 1925; one male, Sikeu, near Korat, Feb- 
ruary 17, 1926; one male, Mong Khor, near Sriracha, September 28, 
1925; one male, Klong Yai, Sriracha, July 24, 1932; one male and one 
female, Pak Chong, December 9, 1929 ; one male, Tha Chang, near Pak 
Chong, November 23, 1925; two males and one female, Koh Chang, 
January 7-10, 1926; one female, Pran, April 3, 1931; one female, 
Koh Pangan, July 31, 1931; one male and one female, Nakon Srita- 
marat, September 26, 1926, and March 16, 1929; one male and one 
female, Patalung, July 9, 1929. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Sinm, vol. 1, pp. 39, 151, 1914-15. 

« Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 55, no. 2, p. 151, 1916. 

'* Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 7, p. 136, 1917. 

"■ Ibis, 1918, p. 83. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 90, 1919. 

>' Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 31, 1918. 



BIRDS FROIM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 



115 



The following specimens received from Dr. W. L. Abbott are in the 
United States National Museum: One male and one female, Tan- 
jong Kalong, Singapore, October 15 and 20, 1899, four males and one 
female, Trang (Prahmon, April 13, 1896; Tyching, April 23-June 28, 
1896 ; Trang, January 1, 1899) ; three males and one female, Tenasserim 
(Tanjong Badak, January 12; Bok Pyin, February 12; and Victoria 
Point, November 24, 1900). 

Dr. Abbott gives the color of the soft parts as: Male — Iris orange; 
bill and cere black; feet red, pinkish purple, or dull pink. Female — 
iris pinkish orange (one specimen). 

This rather large series shows little variation according to latitude, 
but there is considerable individual variation. Some specimens are 
much darker than others, both above and below, but the form does 
not seem to be confined to any one section of the country. Two 
males and a female from Java can be matched from the Malay Penin- 
sula, and these again can be matched by specimens from northern or 
eastern Siam. The smallest specimen measured is a male from Singa- 
pore: Wing, 142.5; it also appears to be somewhat darker below, but 
it is a single specimen and it would be better to treat the differences 
as individual for the present. Measurements for the birds examined 
are given in table 2. 

Table 2.- — Measurements of Streptopelia chinensis tigrina 



Specimens 


Wing 


Tail 


Culmen 




Mm 
147-148. 5 

142. 5-161 (152) 
146-157 (150.9) 
145-160 (152.3) 


Mm 
135-143 

123-141 (134.3) 
123-142 (132. 5) 
127-154 (138.8) 


Mm 
16.5-17 


6 males from Malay Peninsula and 2 males from southern 
Tenasserim ... . . . 


15-17 (15.9) 




15-17 (16) 




15-17 (16) 







This form has a wide range, extending from the Moluccas, Celebes, 
Borneo, Java, Banka, Sumatra, through the Malay Peninsula to east- 
ern Bengal, Burma, Siam, and the indo-Chinese countries. In Siam 
it occurs commonly throughout the country and on n^any of the islands 
off the coast. 

Herbert ^^ reports it nesting in the vicinity of Bangkok and says 
that eggs may be found certainly during the first nine months of the 
year and that it is supposed to breed throughout; the clutch consists 
of two eggs. He gives a description of the nest and eggs. 

A number of other nominal races have been named from China, 
and Formosa. 



" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. nist. Suppl., vol. 6, p. 334, 1926. 



116 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

STREPTOPELIA ORIENTALIS MEENA (Sykes) 

Turtur meena Sykes, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1832, p. 149 (Deccan). 

Two males, Chiengdao, February 1, 1932; one male, Mae Hong 
Sorn, January 7, 1933. 

Gyldenstolpe ^^ recorded one shot at IQiun Tan, but not saved. 
Deignan ^° reports this dove as rare at Chiengmai, where a native 
brought him a live bird that had been snared on the plain in May; 
later he states it had been found there in March, May, and August.^^ 

The form ranges from Bengal and Assam to Burma, Tenasserim, 
and northern Siam. 

OENOPOPELIA TRANQUEBARICA HUMILIS (Tenuninck) 

Columha humilis Temminck, Nouveau recueil de planches colorizes d'oiseaux, 
livr. 44, pi. 259, March 1824 (Bengal and Luzon). 

One male and one female, Bangkok, September 18, 1923, and April 
23, 1924; one male and one female, Nong Mong, Muang Krabin, 
August 26, 1925; one female, Muang Kanburi, Apiil 10, 1928; one 
male, Sam Roi Yot, November 9, 1932. 

Gyldenstolpe ^^ records it from Khun Tan, Sap Tue, and Koh Lak 
and states that it is very common in the southwest but less so in 
northern Siam; Herbert ^^ states that it breeds in the vicinity of 
Bangkok from March to August, the clutch consisting of two eggs; 
Chasen and Kloss ^* record it from the Raheng District; Deignan ^^ 
found it common at Chiengmai ; Robinson and Kloss ^^^ give Pakchan 
as the southern limit of this dove in Peninsular Siam; elsewhere it 
seems to be generally distributed throughout the country. 

This form is supposed to range from Dauria and China south to 
Assam, Burma, Siam proper, Indo-China, and the Philippines, but it 
hardly seems possible that it covers so wide a territory. 

MACROPYGIA UNCHALL TUSALIA (Blyth) 

Columha (Macropygia) tusalia Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 12, p. 936, 
1843 (Darjeeling). 

One male and two females, Doi Angka, 6,200-8,400 feet, December 
5-7, 1928; one male and one female, Doi Nangka, November 3 and 10, 
1930; one female, Khun Tan Mountains, 4,300 feet. May 12, 1933; one 
immature female, Doi Hua Mot, August 21, 1934. 

The typical Macropygia unchall uncholl (Wagler) is confined to 
Java and the southern Malay States, and it is very doubtful if iusalia 
should be made only a race of unchall; probably it should be accorded 

" ICuDgl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 149, 1916. 

" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 175, 1931. 

«• Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 10, p. 86, 1936. 

" Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 150, 1916. 

»» Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 6. p 334, 1926. 

»« Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hi.st. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 156, 1928. 

M Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 167, 1931. 

M» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 35, 1921. 



BIRDS FROINI SIAJM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 117 

specific rank. The males of the two forms are quite distinct, the head 
and hindneck in tusalia being darker and the iridescence purple 
instead of green. The chestnut bars above are narrower and darker. 
The ranges are widely separated by territory where no forms of the 
species occur. 

Gyldenstolpe ^^ reports it extremely rare in Siam and at that time 
this form had been taken only at Khun Tan; Deignan ^"^ records it as 
uncommon on Doi Sutep at 3,500 to 5,500 feet. Chasen and ICioss ^* 
record a single male from Hue Pandeng, Raheng, and say it is rather 
small for typical tusalia.] wing of their male is given as 186 mm. This 
latter specimen is now in the United States National Museum and, 
according to my measurement, the vnng is 190 mm. It agrees with 
Dr. Smith's males from farther north. The wing of the Doi Angka 
male measures 190 mm. That of the Doi Nangka male measures 
188 mm. There are no topotypical specimens of the form available 
for comparison. De Schauensee ^® took a male and female at 
Chiengdao. 

This is a mountain form and extends from the Himalayas through 
northern Siam to Laos, Tonkin, and Annam. So far there appears ta 
be no authentic record from the Malay Peninsula. 

MACROPYGIA RUFICEPS ASSIMILIS Hume 

Macropygia assimilis Htjme, Stray Feathers, vol. 2, p. 441, 1874 (northeast of 
Moulmein, Tenasserim). 

One male and one female, Khun Tan, 4,000 feet, February 29, 
1932. 

Williamson *° records it from Raheng, 1,500 feet (May), and 
from Muang Wang; Chasen and Kloss *^ record a series taken by 
Gairdner in the Raheng District, three of which were afterward 
sent to the United States National Museum ; Deignan *^ took it in 
March on Doi Sutep, 5,500 feet; and de Schauensee ^ later secured a 
male there at 3,500 feet. 

The form ranges from Pegu to Mulej^it, the South Shan States,, 
and northern and western Siam. 

GEOPELIA STRIATA STRIATA (Linnaeus) 

Columba striata Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 12, p. 282, 1766 (India orientali;- 
Java) . 

One adult male, one adult female, and one immature female, 
(little over half grown) Bangkok, July 3 and September 19, 1923, 

«8 Ibis, 1920, p. 742. 

«' Jouru. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 167, 1931. 

M Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 156, 1928. 

" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 273, 1934. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 31, 1918. 

« Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. IHst. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 156, 1928. 

"Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 167, 1931. 

" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 273, 1934. 



118 bulleti:n^ 172, united states national museum 

and October 21, 1926; one adult male, Koh Pangan, July 31, 1931; 
one adult male, Koh Samui, August 7, 1931. 

The following specimens collected by or received from Dr. W. L. 
Abbott are in the United States National Museum: Two females, 
Trang (Prahmon, April 2, and Tyching, June 27, 1896); one male, 
Kemamun River, Trengganu, October 2, 1900; two females, Tanjong 
Kalong, Singapore, January 27 and March 20, 1900. He describes 
the soft colors as: Iris blue or bluish white; naked skin about orbit 
blue or greenish blue; bill and cere leaden blue; front of tarsus and 
top of toes dark purple, back or tarsus and soles fleshy. 

Ogilvie-Grant ** records it from Patani; Robinson*" from Pulo 
Lontar ; Baker *^ from Klong Wang Hip ; Robinson and Kloss *^ from 
Nong Kok, Gliirbi. Robinson and Kloss *^ also state that it is very 
common in open spaces in Peninsular Siam, to which all the above 
citations pertain, the bird becoming scarcer farther north. Herbert *' 
says that it is supposed to have been introduced at Bangkok, where it 
is now thoroughly established; a nest and eggs were found at the 
Sports Club in June and another at Supatoom. Deignan ^^ found it 
common at one locality on the plain at Chiengmai. Later ^' he 
found it not uncommon at Cliiengmai, where it was said to have been 
introduced from Java. 

The form ranges from Java to the Malay States and northward 
through Peninsular Siam to southern Tenasserim and northern Siam. 

Family PSITTACIDAE: Parrots, Macaws 

PSITTACULA EUPATRIA SIAMENSIS (Kloss) 

Palaeornis eupataria siamensis Kloss, Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 2, p. 219, 
1917 (Lat Bua Kao, eastern Siam). 

One male, Chomtong, northern Siam, November 29, 1928; one im- 
mature male, Nakon Panom, March 8, 1929; one female, Konken, 
March 21, 1929; one male, Noan Wat, February 14, 1929; one male 
and one female, Muang Kanburi, April 7, 1928; one male, Vichienburi, 
February 27, 1934. 

I am unable to decide whether there is more than one form of this 
parrot occurring in Siam, as my material is m.uch too scant3^ The 
male from Chomtong is a fully adult bird, and the nape is washed 
strongly with pale caerulean blue and the neck band is grenadine 
pink; in the male from Noan Wat the nape is much more Hghtly 

" Faspiciili Malayenses, pt. 3, p. 121, 1905. 

*» Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 7, p. 137, 1917. 

«« Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 4, p. 32, 1920. 

« Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 90, 1919. 

« Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 36, 1921. 

" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 6, p. 335, 1926. 

M Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. Ifi7, 1931. 

»i Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 10, p. 86, 1936. 



BIRDS FROM SIAJH AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 119 

washed with a Hghter bhie and the neck band is a Hghter pink, while 
in the male from Kanburi and Vichienbiiri, the blue on the nape is 
practically absent and the neck band is a little deeper than grenadine. 
The latter are apparently adult. These differences may be individual. 

The exact range of this form is rather uncertain. It apparently 
extends from western and northern Siam through eastern Siam to 
lower Laos, Cambodia, and Cochinchina. 

Chasen and Kloss ^^ record it from the Raheng District. A number 
of authors have recorded it from northern Siam, and the type came 
from eastern Siam. Dr. Smith's specimens from Kanburi come from 
about as far to the southwest as the form has yet been taken in Siam. 
De Schauensee " obtained a specimen at Chiengmai and another at 
Metang, which he thinks represents another subspecies but does not 
name it. 

PSITTACULA CYANOCEPHALA BENGALENSIS (Forster) 

Psittacus hengalensis Forster, Indische Zoologie, p. 40, 1781 (Bengal). 

One male and two females, Muang Kanburi, April 8-11, 1928 
one female, Pran, June 1, 1928; one female, Bung Borapet, June 24 
1932. 

The range of this form is from Nepal, Sikkim, eastern Assam, 
Yunnan, and Burma south to Siam and Tenasserim and east to Laos, 
Cambodia, Cochinchina, Annam, and southern China. It seems 
pretty well distributed over the whole of Siam proper. Kloss ^* 
has recorded it from Koh Lak in southwestern Siam, which seems to be 
about the limit of its range in that direction. 

PSITTACULA HIMALAYANA FINSCHI (Hume) 

Palaeornis finschi Hume, Stray Feathers, vol. 2, p. 509, 1874 (KoUidoo, Burma). 

One immature male and one female, Prae, April 28, 1930; one male 
and one female, Doi Buak Hua Chang, December 25, 1932; one female, 
Melang Valley, December 31, 1932; one female, Muang Pai, December 
29, 1932; one male, Hang Nor Wu, January 14, 1933; one male, 
Lomkao, February 20, 1934. Dr. Smith also took a male at Chong 
Yam, Burma, January 15, 1933. 

The United States National Museum has a large series from the 
mountains of Yunnan, but the majority are in molt or are immature 
and not comparable. The only full-plumaged male in the series does 
not differ materially from the northern Siamese specimens, except 
the tips of the middle tail feathers are a clearer yellow, without the 
pinkish cast of Dr. Smith's birds. I rather think this pinkish wash 
fades out with age. 

" Jotirn. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 164, 1928. 
'3 Prof. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 259, 1934. 
" Ibis, 1918, p. 90. 



120 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

This form ranges from Assam to Burma, Yimnan, Laos, Annam,, 
and northern Siam and south to Tenasserim. It is a mountain form 
and has so far been taken in the northern mountain districts only, 
where it is not uncommon, according to de Schauensee.^* 

PSITTACULA ALEXANDRI FASCIATA (Miiller) 

Psittacus fasciatus Muller, Natursystem, SuppL, p. 74, 1776 (Pondicherry). 

Three females, Doi Angka (lower slopes), December 9, 1928; six: 
males and three females. Ban Nam Kien, Nan, April 18-23, 1930; 
one male, Mekhan, February 1, 1932; one female, Sobpung, December 

21, 1932; two males and one female, Bangkok, March 4 and October 

22, 1924, October 28, 1925; three males and two females. Bung Bora- 
pet, June 21-29, 1932; two males, Lomkao, February 20, 21, 1934; 
one male, Wang luen, Kanburi, March 12, 1934; two males and four 
females, Muang Kanburi, April 9-12, 1928, September 24, 1929; three 
males and two females, Pak Chong, May 4 and 8, and December 20, 
1926; one male and one female, Chantuk, June 12, 13, 1934; one- 
female. Pang Sok, August 24, 1926; one female. Ban Nong Dern Ta, 
March 2, 1929; one male. Ban Foe Hilom, March 3, 1929; one male, 
Knong Phra, April 15, 1929; one female, Lat Bua Kao, August 11, 
1929; three males, Nong Mong, Krabin, August 22-23, 1925; one male 
and one female, Sakeo, near Krabin, May 2, 1928; two males and 
one female, Nong Khor, Sriracha, November 19, 1926, February 7 
and 9, 1927; two males and one female, Hupbon, May 25, 1925, 
November 8 and 15, 1931; two males and one female, Nong Yang, 
November 6, 20, 1931; one female. Ban Tarn Dam, March 6, 1930 ; 
one male, Kao Seming, Krat, January 2, 1930. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected 10 adult males, one immature male, and 
six females in Tenasserim (Bok Pyin, February 12-13, 1900; Telok 
Besar, November 26, 1900; Champang, December 14, 1903; Boycea 
Point, February 12, 1904). 

Dr. Abbott gives the color of the soft parts as follows: Male — 
upper mandible red, horn yellow at the tip, lower mandible dark horn 
brown; iris in two rings, inner narrow and green, outer yellow; feet 
pale green. The female has both the upper and lower mandibles black. 

This is a very variable form. The sexes are much alike; the 
principal difference is the red upper mandible and dark brown lower 
mandible in the male. The female has the bill wholly black. Several 
young in Dr. Smitli's series have the bill wholly red. They are all 
marked males, except one, and this might be wrongly sexed. The 
onionskin pink of the chest of the female is washed in the male with 
grayish \T!olet-blue of varj'ing depths of color. 

The range of the form is an extensive one, occurring from Kuman 
to East Assam, eastern Bengal, Burma, and Yunnan south to Siam 

" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 259, 1934. 



BIRDS FROM SI AM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 121 

and Tenasserim and east to Laos, Cambodia, Annam, Tonkin, and 
South China. It occurs all over Siam except the Peninsular part. 
Robinson and Kloss ^^ record one from Koh Pra Tung, Takuapah 
Inlet, western Peninsular Siam, and state that it constitutes the 
southernmost record in this direction. 

P. a. alexandri (Linnaeus) is confined to Java and southern Borneo; 
no specimens from the latter locality have been examined. Javan 
specimens are quite distinct from the mainland form, and it is very 
doubtful if they should be regarded as forms of the same species. 
There is a long gap between the ranges also. Three other forms have 
been separated — one from the Andamans, one from Simalur, and one 
irom Nias. 

PSITTACULA LONGICAUDA LON«ICAUDA (Boddaert) 

Psittacus longicauda Boddaert, Table des planches enlumiu^ez d'histoire naturelle, 
p. 53, 1783 (Malacca). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected one male and one female, Rumpin 
River, Pahang, June 11, 13, 1902; one male, Singapore Island, May 
28, 1899. 

He gives the colors of the soft parts of the male from Singapore as: 
Iris in two rings, the outer pale yellow, the inner green; upper mandible 
red, pale brownish at tip; lower mandible horn brown; cere green; 
feet greenish leaden. He says it is fairly common on the north side 
of the mainland, going about in pairs or small flocks of 4 to 10 and up 
to 30 individuals. 

This species ranges from Nias, Sumatra, Billiton, and Banka to the 
southern Malay Peninsula, and Borneo. 

Robinson and Kloss " state that probably this parrot will be found 
in the southern part of Patani, as Bonhote has recorded it from Ulu 
Selama in North Perak. 

This is distinguished from the other species of the genus occurring 
in Siam by having the crown green, cheeks and hindneck geranium 
pink, and two broad black malar stripes in the male; in the female 
the malar stripes are dark green, and there is no pink band across the 
hindneck. 

PSITTINUS CYANURUS CYANURUS (Forsler) 

Psittacus cyanurus Forster, Faunula Indica, p. 6, 1795 (Malacca). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected one immature male, one adult female, 
and two immature females at Lay Song Hong, Trang, Peninsular 
Siam, November 24 and December 10, 1896. 

Dr. Abbott describes the color of the soft parts as follows: Male 
(no. 180126, East Sumatra) — upper mandible red, tip horn brown, 
lower mandible horny brown; cere dark brown with a greenish tinge; 

»« Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6, no. 2, p. 116, 1923. 
«" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 116, 1923. 



122 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

iris pale yellow with an inner circle dark green. Female— bill horn 
brown, dark above. In the adult female from Trang the iris is given 
as white and the feet pale green. 

The range of the form is from middle Tenasserim through Penin- 
sular Siam to Singapore, Sumatra, Banka, and Borneo. 

It is evidently not a common bird in the Malay Peninsula and is 
erratic in its wanderings. It may be common at times and then 
disappear. Robinson and Kloss ^^ state that the only specimens on 
record from Peninsular Siam are two males and a female from Biserat, 
Jalor, Patani; they had specimens also from Pelarit, Perlis. Mr. 
Williamson's collector obtained two females and a male at Naihoot 
near Langsuan. 

Psittinus cyanurus pontius Oberholser is confined to the Mentawi 
Islands; and Psittinus abbotti Richmond, a related but very distinct 
species, is found on Simalur, islands off the west coast of Sumatra. 

LORICULUS VERNALIS VEBNALIS (Sparrman) 

Psittacus vernalis Sparrman, Museum Carlsoniariura, 1787, p. 29 (no locality ^s). 

One male, Ban Nam Kien, April 21, 1930; one male. Ban Tarn 
Dam, southeastern Siam, March 6, 1930; one male, Sriracha, Novem- 
ber 7, 1924; five males and two females, Koh Chang, January 5-13, 
1926, March 10, 1930; one female, Wat Kiriwong, Nakon Sritamarat, 
July 25, 1928. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected two females in Trang (Prahmon, 
March 15, 1896; Tyching, June 18, 1896) three females in Tenasserim 
(Bok Pyin, February 14 and 17, 1900; Champang, December 13, 1903) ; 
and five males on Sullivan Island, Mergui Archipelago, February 2-4, 
1900. He records the colors of the soft parts as follows: Bill horny 
orange; iris grayisli white; feet dull yellov/. 

The series from Sullivan Island average more yellowish on the chest 
and back than the Siamese birds; unfortunately I have only one male 
specimen from India for comparison. 

The form ranges from Sikkim to Annam, eastern Bengal, Burma, 
Andamans, and all Siam, east to Cambodia, Cochinchina, Laos, 
Annam, and Tonkin. In Siam proper it ranges pretty much all over 
the country and down Peninsular Siam as far as Klong in Selangor, 
according to Robinson and Kloss. ^° 

Deignan ^' states that it ascends Doi Sutep to 3,500 feet. 

5s Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. Ill, 1923. 

«« Stuart Baker, The Fauna of British India, Birds, ed. 2, vol. 4, p. 2i7, 1927, cives Cachar; Delacour and 
Jabouille, Oiscau.x I'lndochine Francais, vol. 2, p. 160, 1931, Nepaul; both very unlikely localities at this 
eiirly date. 

Mlbis, 191), p. 32. 

« Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl.. vol. 8, p. IGl, 1931. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 123 

Family CUCULIDAE: Cuckoos 

CUCULUS MICROPTERUS CONCRETUS S. Muller 

Cuculus concrcius S. Muller, Verhandelingcn over de natuurlijke Geschiedenis 
der Nederlaiidsche overzeesche bezittingen . . . , p. 236, 1845 (Borneo). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected a single male in Trang, February 24^. 
1899. He describes the soft parts as follows: Iris dark brown; bill 
black above, greenish beneath; orbital ring yellow; feet yellow. 

This is a small dark race of C. m. micropterus. The male from 
Trang measures: Wing, 177; culmen, 23 mm. 

Three males of C. m. microiJterus from China measure: Wing, 208- 
209 (208.5) mm; culmen, 25-27 (26.3) mm. Three females: Wing, 
207-214 (210.7); culmen, 25-27.5 (26.3) mm. 

The United States National Museum contains also the following- 
specimens of C. m. concretus: One male, Baguio, Benquet, Luzon, 
April 27, 1907; one female, Siak River, eastern Sumatra, January 3,. 
1907; one male, Tana Bala, Batu islands, off western Sumatra, 
February 11, 1903; one immature, Malacca. 

The form ranges apparently from Peninsular Siam to the Malay 
States, Sumatra, and adjacent islands, Java, Borneo, and the Philip- 
pines (Luzon). Dr. Abbott's specimen is the first record of C. m, 
concretus from Peninsular Siam, but the immature from Malacca 
brings up the question whether it is not the resident form in Peninsular 
Siam and farther south. 

The specimen listed above from the Batu Islands is grayer above 
than the other three adults, but whether this difference is individual 
or geographic, I cannot tell. All four adults of concretus are darker 
above and considerably smaller than the series of six adults of wicroj)- 
terus from China. The measurement of the Trang specimen is given 
above. The other three m.easure: Male, Luzon — wing, 179; culmen, 
26. Male, Batu Islands — wing, 188; culmen, 21. Female, Siak 
River, eastern Sumatra — wing, 194; culmen, 22 mm. 

No specimens have been available from Borneo or Java for examina- 
tion. 

HIEROCOCCYX SPARVERIOIDES SPARVERIOIDES (Vigors) 

Cuculus sparverioides Vigors, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1832, p. 173 (Himalayas). 

One male, Pak Chong, eastern Siam, February 18, 1924. 

Dr. Smith gives the following note on the colors of the soft parts: 
Iris brownish yellow; bill black above, dark green below; legs yellow. 

Gyldenstolpc '^- reports it rather rare at Khun Tan; Deignan ^^ 
records it from Doi Sutep, 2,700-5,500 feet. Lowe ^^ lists it from Um 

•* Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Uandl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 102, 1916. 
M Jour. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 159, 1931, 
" Ibis, 1933, p. 477. 



124 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Pang, western Siam; de Schauensee ^® from Bangkok, March 1, and 
later ^® from the same place, Chiengmai, and Hua Mak; Stuart Baker" 
from Krabin ; Robinson and Kloss ^ from Nong Kok, Ghirbi, and islet 
off Pulo Panjang; earlier ^^ they had recorded it from Trang; Robinson^" 
reports it from Pulo Dayang Bunting, Langkawi Group, and Pulo 
Lontar, also Ko Khan, Trang. 

This large hawk cuckoo ranges in the Himalayas from Kashmir 
to eastern Assam and southern China as far north as the Yangtze; 
southward it reaches Tonkin, Annam, Cochinchina, Laos, Burma, 
Siam, and down Peninsular Siam to the Malay States, the Philippine 
Islands, Borneo, and Java. It is resident in southern China, but in 
the Yangtze Valley it migrates south in winter. Whether it is resi- 
dent in northern Siam I do not know, but in Peninsular Siam and 
farther south it is probably only a winter visitor. It has been recorded 
from nearly all parts of Siam, but all the records seem to be of speci- 
mens taken in winter or earlj' in spring. 

HIEROCOCCYX FUGAX FUGAX (Horsfleld) 

Cuculus fugaxIloRSFiEhD, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 13, p. 178, 1821 (Java). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected an immature male at Tyching, Trang, 
July 22, 1896. 

He describes the soft parts as: Bill black, greenish yellow at base; 
orbital skin greenish yellow; feet pale yellow. 

Dr. Abbott took an older male on Pulo Bintang Rhio (Archipelago), 
August 6, 1902. The pileum and cheeks on this specimen were be- 
coming slate gray; the upperparts, which are clove broAVTi, have the 
buffy edges to the feathers much reduced; below there are no sj)ots, 
only streaks of blackish edged with russet; both specimens have a 
small white patch at the base of the crest on the nape. Fourth outer 
primary a little longer than the third. Bill from nostril, 17 mm. 

The Trang specimen is a younger bird about fully grown but still 
in an early immature plumage. The pileum and upper back are 
clove brown with narrow huffish fringes to the feathers; breast and 
belly with rhomboid blackish spots; cheeks sooty; chin white streaked 
with sooty; fourth outer primary a little longer than the third; bill 
from nostril, 18 mm. 

According to Chasen and Kloss's '^ notes on this species, the above 
specimens belong to //. /. jugax. They say that it is the resident 
form in Peninsular Siam from Bandon south to the IVIalay States. 
They examined specimens from Bandon and Nakon Sritamarat in 

•• Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, p. 573, 1928. 

•» Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phihulolphia, vol. 80, p. 257, 1934. 

•' Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 438, 1919. 

«9 Ibid., p. 98. 

•« Ibis, 1911, p. 40. 

" Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 7, p. 157, 1917. 

" Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 13, p. 278, 1927. 



BIRDS FROM SI AM AND THE M^yLiAY PENINSULA 125 

Peninsular Siam. It also occurs in Borneo and Java, as well as the 
Philippines. 

Not much seems to be known concerning this form. As most of 
the records are faulty, I shall not give them. 

HIEROCOCCYX FUGAX NISICOLOR (Blyth) 

Cuculus nisicolor Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 12, p. 943, 1843 (Nepal). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected one female, Kao Soi Dao, 1,000 feet, 
Trang, Februaiy 11, 1899. 

This specimen has the streaked lower parts of the immature. The 
third outer primary is the longest; bill from nostril, 16.5 mm. These 
characters place it in this migratory form according to Chasen and 
and Ivloss's notes.'^^ They say they have examined specimens from 
Pak Chong, eastern Siam (May); Pulo Terutau (December); Pido 
Rumpia, Sembilan Islands, Straits of Malacca (November, Decem- 
ber); One Fathom Bank, Straits of Malacca (November); Pulo 
Jemar, Aroa Islands, Straits of Malacca (November); Pahang (De- 
cember); Singapore (January). 

The range of this form is Nepal, Sikkim, Assam, eastern Bengal, 
Burma, Siam, southern Annam, Pulo Condore, and south through 
Peninsular Siam to the Malay States. Probably it is onlj'^ a summer 
resident in the north, migrating south in the winter season. 

mEROCOCCYX VAGANS (S. Muller) 

Cuculus vagans S. Muller, Verhandelingen over de natuurlijke Geschiedenis der 
Nederlandsche overzeesche bezittingen . . . , p. 233, note, 1845 (Java). 

One male, Tha Lo, Bandon, September 18, 1931; one male, Klong 
Yai, Sriracha, July 25, 1932. 

August Muller ^^ records a specimen taken on the island of Puket 
(Salanga) ; Stuart Baker '^* records one from Maprit, Peninsular Siam, in 
Herbert's collection; Robinson and Kloss " say that they have a few 
specimens from various parts of the Malay Peninsula but mention 
no specific localities. 

Dr. Smith's specimen from Klong Yai, Sriracha, is the farthest east 
the species has been taken to date. It is larger than the Bandon male 
listed above, but only 2 mm more than the maximum given by Stuart 
Baker. The wing in the Bandon specimen measures 137.5 mm; that 
from Sriracha, 155 mm. 

The species ranges from Tenasserim to southeastern and Peninsular 
Siam south to the Malay States, Java, and Borneo. 

" Joiirn. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 13, p. 278, 1927. 
" Die Ornis der Insel Salauga, p. 53, 1882 
'< Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 438, 1919. 
'•Journ. Nat. Uist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 151. 1923. 

33527— .S8 9 



126 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

CACOMANTIS MERULINUS QUERULUS Heine 

Cacomantis querulus Heine, Journ. fiir Orn., 18G3, p. 352 (Farther India and 
Nepal) . 

One adult male, Prae, April 10, 1930; one adult male, one immature 
male, and two immature females, Bangkok, October 31, 1923, Septem- 
ber 3, 1924, August 3, 1926; one immature (not sexed). Pong, Udon, 
February 17, 1929; one adult male, Nong Khor, near Sriracha, March 
24, 1926; one immature male, Koh Lak, June 22, 1933; one male, Kao 
Soi Dao, Trang, January 13, 1934; one immature male and one 
immature female, Bangnara, Patani, July 14 and 17, 1926. Dr. Smith 
also collected an adult male at Vientiane, Laos, February 23, 1929. 

Dr. Abbott collected an immature female at Boyces Point, Tenas- 
serim, February 12, 1904. This specimen has just commenced to 
change on the pileum and the throat to the adult plumage. It is 
much lighter on the lowerparts and back than fall-taken immature 
females but shows little or no wear. 

Deignan ''^ reports that at Chiengmai it occurs throughout the year 
but that it is rare from September to February; Chasen and Kloss " 
record it from Raheng, western Siam; Robinson and Kloss ^^ say that 
it appears to be present in the Peninsula throughout the year but 
that its numbers are greatly augmented during the winter months. 

The form ranges from eastern Bengal, Assam, and Burma, to Yun- 
nan, southern China, Tonkin, Laos, Annam, Cambodia, Siam, and 
Peninsular Siam as far south as Patani. It is migrant in the northern 
part of its range but resident in the southern; its numbers in the 
south are augmented in the winter months by northern migrants. 

Cacomantis merulinus threnodes Cabanis and Heine, a smaller, paler 
form, inhabits the Malay States, Sumatra, and the Mentawi Islands. 
So far as known, it has not been taken in Peninsular Siam, but it may 
occur along the southern border. 

CACOMANTIS SEPULCRALIS SEPULCRAUS (MUlIer) 

Cuculus sepulcralis S. Muller, Verhandelingen over de natuurlijke Geschiedenis 
der Nederlandsche overzeesche bezittingen . . ., p. 177, note, 1839-44 
(Java and Sumatra). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott purchased an immature specimen in Penang, 
said to have been shot in the Province of Wellesley. I place it here 
with some doubt. 

This is a darker and somewhat larger cuckoo than C. merulinus 
querulus; the chest is darker, and the cinnamon color extends farther 
forward, almost to the chin; the wliite notching on the inner webs of 
the outer tail feathers does not reach the shaft. 



'• Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 159, 1931. 
" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 168, 1928. 
H Ibis, 1911, p. 40. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 127 

Eobinson ^^ reports the taldng of a male on Koh Muk, Trang, 
January 4, 1917; Robinson and Kloss ^° list it from Kao Luang, 
2,000 feet, Nakon Sritamarat, and also ^' a male and immature 
female from Tapli, Pakchan, taken March 4, 1919. Judged from the 
records, it is probably not a common permanent resident. 

The range of the form is Peninsular Siam, the Malay States, Sumatra 
Java, Bah, Lombok, Sumbawa, Sumba, and the Philippines, except 
the Sulu Islands. 

PENTHOCERYX SONNERATII SONNERATII (Latham) 

Cuculus sonneratii Latham, Index ornithologicus, vol. 1, p. 215, 1790 (India). 

One male and one female, Chiengmai, November 27, 1928; one 
male and one female, Muang Pai, December 28, 1932; one female, 
Hupbon, October 31, 1931. 

Deignan ^^ reports it unconmion in winter on Doi Sutep to 4,600 
feet and on the plain; Chasen and Kloss ^^ record it from the Raheng 
District; Gyldenstolpe ^'^ lists it from Bangkok and later *^ from Pa 
Hing, northern Siam; Stuart Baker ^^ records it from Hupbon, south- 
eastern Siam. 

Apparently tliis cuckoo is an uncommon bird in Siam. It ranges 
from India to Burma, Assam, Siam, South Annam, and Cochinchina, 
and south to central Tenasserim. 

PENTHOCERYX SONNERATII MALAYANUS Chasen and KJosa 

Penthoceryx sonnerati malayanus Chasen and Kloss, Bull. Raffles Mus., no. 5, 
p. 84, 1931 (Kuala Lumpur, Selangor). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected two males in Trang, January 27, 1897, 
and January 20, 1899. He gives the soft parts as follows: Iris brown; 
feet leaden with a greenish tinge ; bill black above, dull leaden brownish 
at base beneath. 

These two males measure: Wing, 112-119.5; tail, 99-103; culmen, 
19.5-20 mm. Two males of P. s. sonnerati collected by Dr. Smith in 
northern Siam measure: Wing, 128.5-133; tail, 120-128; culmen, 
21-21.5 mm. Three females (2, northern Siam; 1, southeastern 
Siam): W^ing, 126.5-130 (128.2); tail, 116.5-127 (121.7); culmen, 
20-22 (21 mm). Apparently there is little difference between the 
sexes. 



'• Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 7, p. 155, 1917. 

'" Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 11, p. 60, 1923. 

«• Journ. Nat. Uist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 1.53, 192.3. 

" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 159, 1931. 

M Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 108, 1928. 

»< Kuugl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. llandl., vol. 50, no. 8, p. 58, 1913. 

" Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 50, no. 2, p. 103, 1916. 

•« Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 438, 1919. 



128 BULLETIN 172, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Robinson and Kloss record a female from Chong, Trang, Decem- 
ber 27, 1910 ^^; a specimen from Nong Kok, Ghirbi, January 6, 1918 **; 
and specimens from Kao Ram, 1,200 feet, and Kao Luang, Nakon 
Sritamarat.^^ De Schauensee ^° took a male at Nakon Sritamarat on 
May 25. August Miiller ^' long ago recorded two specimens from the 
island of Piiket (Salanga). 

Apparently it is not a common bird in Peninsular Siam. The form 
ranges from central Tenasseiim south through Peninsular Siam to 
Selangor. 

Chasen and Kloss *^ say that Penthoceryx sonneratii Jasciolatus 
(S. Miiller) is found in the extreme south of the Malay Peninsula and 
Sumatra. No specimens of this form are available for examination. 
Penthoceryx sonneratii musicus (Ljungh) inhabits Java. A male of 
this form in the United States National Museum is more russet above 
and with narrower black crossbars than malayanus; below the black 
crossbars are narrower; it is smaller, wing 106 mm. 

In a young male from the island of Tablas, Philippines, the black 
crossbars above and below are very broad and distinct, more so than 
any mainland bird before me (there are immatures from Raheng, 
Siam) ; the black on the central tail feathers occupies nearly the whole 
area and it has a purplish sheen, the russet along the borders reduced. 
It is nearly adult. The wing measures 118 mm. 

In the Philippines the species has been recorded from Calamianes, 
Palawan, and Tablas. ^^ Specimens from these islands probably 
represent an unnamed form. 

CHALCITES XANTHORHYNCHUS XANTHORHYNCHUS (Horsfield) 

Cuculus xanthorhynchus Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, voL 13, p. 179, 
1821 (Java). 

One male, Kao Luang, Nakon Sritamarat, July 16, 1928; two males 
and one female, Nong Yang, near Sriracha, November 9, 1931; one 
female, Bangkok, January 1, 1925; one immature male, Muek Lek, 
April 25, 1933. Dr. Smith also secured an adult male at Vientiane, 
Laos, February 20, 1929. 

The specimen marked "female" from Nong Yang differs somewhat 
from the female from Bangkok, especially in the central tail feathers. 
In the Nong Yang bird these are barred with bronzy green and 
cinnamon, while in the Bangkok specimen, they are unbarred, bronzy 
green with a purple sheen, the edges and tip cinnamon. The Bangkok 

" Ibis, 1911, p. 40. 

•8 Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 98, 1919. 

«» Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 11, p. 60, 1923. 

w Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. S^^, p. 257, 1934. 

•' Die Ornis der Insel Salanga, p. 52, 1882. 

»> Bull. Raffles Mus., no. 5, p. 84, 1931. 

M McGregor, A mnnual of Philippine birds, pt. 1, p. 373, 1909. 



BIRDS FROM SL-UI AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 129 

bii'd is a little larger. The female from Nong Yang resembles the 
immature male from Miiek Lek in the pattern of the tail, except that 
the latter has acquired two of the violet-purple outside feathers and 
one middle feather of the adult plumage. I consider the Nong Yang 
specimen an immature male. 

The immature male from Muek Lek has acquired the adult plumage 
on the back, head, and chest; the wings have not changed yet but 
resemble those of the female, although one new violet-purple secondary- 
has appeared in the right wing; the tail is barred cinnamon and bronzy 
green, somewhat like the outside feathers of the adult female; the 
green bars are closer together and run together along the shaft. The 
cinnamon is reduced to mere notches on the old remaining middle 
feather; there is one new violet-purple middle feather and two new 
outside feathers of the adult male plumage. 

Three males from the Philippines (Palawan, 2; Mindanao, 1) are 
somewhat sm.aller than the Siamese series. The three Philippine males 
measure: Wing, 92-105 (97.2); culmen, 14-15 (14.7) mm. The four 
males from Siam: Wing, 103.5-108 (105.4); culmen, 16-16.5 (16.1) mm. 

No specimens from Java are available for comparison. 

For some reason, probably because of its habits, there are few records 
of the violet cuckoo for Siam. 

Ogilvie-Grant ^* records specimens from Patani ; Williamson ^^ from 
Bangnara, Patani, and Bangkok; Robinson and Kloss ^^ from the 
eastern boundary of Trang; Robinson ^^ from Ban Kok Klap, Ban- 
don; and de Schauensee ^* from Bua Yai, Sriracha, and Nakon 
Sritamarat. 

The species ranges from Bengal east of the Bay and to Burma, Siam, 
Laos, Cochinchina, South Annam, and south through Peninsular Siam 
to the Malay States, Nicobar and Andaman Islands, Sumatra, Java, 
Borneo, and the Philippines. 

The m.ale of this species is easily distinguished. It is a beautiful, 
shining, dusky violet above and on the chest and throat; breast white 
barred with purple and dark green; bill yellow. The female can be 
diflerentiated from the same sex of maculatus by the different color of 
the pilcum, back, and central tail feathers; in maculatus, the pileum 
and hindneck are cinnamon, with slight dusky crossbars, while in 
nwthorhynchus they are natal brown, with faint crossbars of pecan 
brown; the back in the latter is shining olive, with lilac-purple iri- 
descence in certain lights, each feather edged with orange-cinnamon; 
in waculatus the back and wings are a shining coppery emerald-green; 
in xanthorhync/ius the feathers of the wing are like the back and broadly 

" Fasciculi Malayenses, pt. 3, 105, 1905. 

» Jotirn. N'at. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 25, 1918. 

« Ibis. 1911, p. 41. 

•' Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 5, p. 93, 1915. 

" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 257, 1934. 



130 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

edged with orange-cinnamon ; the middle tail feathers in the latter are 
a bronzy green in certain lights, broadly edged on the outer web and 
narrowly tipped with mikado brown; in other lights they are a bronzy 
lilac purple with a green sheen; the middle tail feathers of maculatus 
are emerald green with dusky tips. 

CHALCITES MACULATUS (Gmelin) 

Trogon maculatus Gmelin, Systema naturae, vol. 1, pt. 1, p. 404, 1788 (Ceylon, 
error; Pegu). 

One female, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, January 17, 1934. 

The range of the species is the Himalayas from Kuman to Assam, 
Burma, and western China (in Szechwan as far north as Wenchwan), 
Tonkin, Annam, Cochinchina, Siam, and south through Peninsular 
Siam to the Malay States. In Siam it has been recorded on Doi Sutep 
by Deignan^^ and others; Stuart Baker ^ from Samray, near Bangkok; 
de Schauensee ^ from Bangkok and later ^ from Chiengdao and Bua 
Yai ; Lowe * found it on the Klong Klung River, western Siam ; Robin- 
son and Kloss ^ report it from Nong Kok, Ghirbi. Earlier ^ they had 
recorded it from the eastern boundary of Trang. 

As this species breeds far north in western China and in India 
apparently in the mountains, it must move south in winter, at least 
in the northern part of its range. It may breed in the mountains of 
northern Siam, but in Peninsular Siam and the Malay States it prob- 
ably is only a winter visitor. 

Tlie color of the male is a beautiful shining emerald-green above and 
on the throat and chest; breast and belly white, barred with bronzy 
green; wing, 115 mm. The female is bronzy green above; the pileum 
and hindneck cinnamon, with a few dusky bars; below, including the 
throat, white, barred with bronzy green; the central tail feathers 
color of the back with a dusky tip; rest, except outer pair, cinnamon 
with bronzy green interrupted bars, a bronzy green or dusky sub- 
terminal bar and white or cinnamon tip, the outer pair of feathers 
with white bars on the outer w^eb and extending about halfway across 
on the inner; bill in both sexes yellow, dusky at the tip. 

There are not many records for Siam, but this is probably due to 
some peculiarity of the bird's habits. 

»« Journ. Biam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 159, 1931. 
' Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 439, 1919. 
» Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, p. 574, 1928. 
« Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, p. 257, 1934. 

* Ibis, 1933, p. 477. 

• Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam. vol. 3, p. 98, 1919. 
•Ibis, 1911, p. 41. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 131 

CHALCITES MALAYANUS MALAYANUS (Raffles) 

Cuculus malayanus Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 13, p. 286, 1822 
(Malay Peninsula). 

One male, Yala, Patani, February 1, 1931. 

This form of cuckoo has not been taken north of Patani, whence it 
was recorded by Ogilvie-Grant.^ Dr. Smith's specimen is apparently 
the second record. In the Malay States it has been recorded more 
frequently. 

The form ranges from Patani in Peninsular Siam to the Malay 
States, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, the southern Philippines, and Celebes. 

Hartert and Stresemann,^ in their paper on the Indo-Australian 
forms of the genus, divide Chalcites malayanus into 10 races, two un- 
named. Tliej all occur on islands to the south of the range of the 
Malay race and reach Australia. 

Dr. Smith's specimen from Patani has a longer wing than a male 
from Java and two males from Pulo Panjang, Borneo. The wings 
of the males in the United States National Museum measure as 
follows: Patani, 98; Java, 94; Borneo, 90-93; Celebes, 90 mm. 

The female of this form is similar to the male but with an intensified 
purple sheen to the green above. The pileum is like the back, a dull 
bronzy green with purplish reflections; the middle tail feathers are 
like the back, with a subterminal dusky tip. The female should not 
be confused with the same sex of the other two members of the genus 
occurring in Siam. The male is green above, with purplish-bronzy 
reflections. 

SURNICULUS LUGUBRIS DICRUROIDES (Hodgson) 

Pseudornis dicruroides Hodgson, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 8, p. 136, 1839 
(Nepal). 

One male, Hupbon, November 5, 1931 ; one male, Nong Yang, west 
of Sriracha, November 6, 1931; one male, Nong Khor, near Sriracha, 
March 22, 1926; one male, Tha Chang, west of Korat, March 20, 1927; 
one male and one female, Kao Sabap, November 16 and 19, 1933; one 
male, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, January 8, 1934. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took a male on Pulo Langkawi, Langkawi Group, 
December 3, 1899, that measures: Wing, 146.5; tail, 120; culmen, 20 
mm. 

The wing of the Langkawi bird is longer than any in the series taken 
by Dr. Smith in southeastern Siam and apparently belongs to the 
northern form. It was taken in winter, and it is probable the northern 
form may wander south at this season of the year; the male taken by 
Dr. Smith in Trang apparently also belongs to the northern form. 
The Kao Sabap male is small; wing, 134; it may be a bird of the year. 

' Fasciculi Malayenses, pt. 3, p. 105, 1905. 
8 Nov. Zool., vol. 32, pp. 160-163, 1925. 



132 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Robinson and Kloss,^ however, assign all Peninsular birds north of 
Patani to the northern form. I think they are intermediate, but no 
specimens from the Malay States have been available for examination. 

Four males collected by Dr. Smith in southeastern Siam measure: 
Wing, 135.5-142.5 (138.7); tail, 122-138 (128.6); culmen, 20-21 (20.4 
mm). 

Gyldenstolpe ^'^ took a female at Ban Meh Na, a small village at the 
foot of Chiengdao Mountain in northern Siam, June 24; Deignan ^^ 
reports it occasionally seen in March, August, and September at 
Chiengmai; de Schauensee *^ records it from Bangkok, March 27; 
Baker" from Krabin and Pak Chong; Kloss ^'^ from Koh Lak, south- 
western Siam. Judged from the records, the form is not a common 
bird in Siam proper. 

The form ranges from Upper India, Assam, Burma, Yunnan, and 
Siam to Laos, Tonkin, Annam, Cochincliina, Cambodia, and southern 
China. In Peninsular Siam it ranges as far south as latitude 10° N., 
according to Stuart Baker. ^^ 

SURNICULUS LUGUBRIS BARUSSARUM Oberholser 

Surniculus lugubris barussarum Oberholser, Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 60, 

no. 7, p. 5, 1912 (Tana Bala Island, Batu Islands). 
Surniculus lugubris brachyurus Stresemann, Nov. Zool., vol. 20, p. 340, 1913 

(Bentong, Pahang). 

One male, Koh Samui, Bandon, August 7, 1931. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took one male at Tyching, Trang, July 1, 1896; 
one male and one female, Trang, January 26 and 29, 1899. He de- 
scribes the soft parts as follows: Iris dark brown; biU black; feet leaden 
blue. 

Robinson and Kloss ^^ give it as a common resident throughout the 
Malay Peninsula. The birds from north of the Malay States are 
probably intermediate, but on geographic grounds I am placing them 
with the southern form. 

Three males from Trang (2) and Bandon (1) measure: Wing, 127- 
135 (131); tail, 114.5-131 (120.2); culmen, 19.5-21 (20.2 mm). 

Ogilvie-Grant ^^ has recorded it from Patani, and from there it is 
found as far north as Bandon. The form ranges from the extreme 
southern Malay States north to latitude 10° N., Sumatra, and the 
Batu Islands. 

Surniculus lugubris lugubris (Horsfield) is confined to Java and Bali. 

» JourD. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 150, 1923. 

>o Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 102, 1916. 

•' Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 159, 1931; vol. 10, p. 88, 1936. 

» Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philalelphia, vol. 80, p. 573, 1928. 

•' Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 439, 1919. 

«« Ibis, 1918, p. 97. 

i» The fauna of British India, Birds, ed. 2, vol. 4, p. 165, 1927. 

"Ibis, 1911, p. 39. 

" Fasciculi Malayenses, pt. 3, p. 106, 1905. 



BIRDS FROM vSIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 133 

CLAMATOR COROMANDUS (Linnaeus) 

Cuculus coromandus Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 12, p. 171, 1766 (Coro- 
mandel Coast). 

One male, Ban Nam Kien, near Nan, April 19, 1930; one male and 
one female, Bangkok, January 26 and September 14, 1925; one male, 
Pran, southwestern S am, June 1, 1928. 

Gyldenstolpe ^^ records it from Klmn Tan; Deignan" says that it is 
apparently migratory at Chicngmai, where he noted it in February, 
March, July, September, and November; Barton ^° lists it from the 
Raheng District; de Schauensee -^ from Bangkok, March 3, and Pak 
Djong, April 5; Robinson ^^ from Langkawi, Terutau, and Pulo 
Telibun, Trang; Robinson and Kloss^^ from Kao Keo, Nakon Srita- 
marat. The latter authors say it is not uncommon in the winter 
months over the whole of the Malay Peninsula.^^ De Schauensee ^^ 
on his third journey to Siam took a male at Petrieu, October 16. 

The range of the species is the Indian Peninsula and Ceylon 
east to Assem, Burma, Siam, Laos, Tonkin, Cochinchina, Annam, and 
soi'thern China and south through Peninsular Siam to the Malay 
States, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Celebes. 

This cuckoo is only a sum.mer resident in the northern part of its 
range, moving south in winter; in the Malay Peninsula and south it 
is supposed to be only a winter visitor. 

EUDYNAMYS SCOLOPACEA MALAYANA Cabanis and Heine 

Eudynamis malayana Cabanis and Heine, Museum Heineanum, pt. 4, p. 52, 
1863 (Sumatra). 

Four males and one female, Bangkok, September 19-October 5, 
1924, November 9, 1925, April 1, 1926; one male. Pang Sok, August 
19, 1926; one female, Vichienburi, February 26, 1934; one immature 
male, Muang Kanburi, April 14, 1928; one female, Bandon, January 
5, 1927; one male, Koh Tao, off Bandon, September 22, 1928; one 
male, Koh Pangan, off Bandon, July 31, 1931. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected five males in Trang (Prahmon, April 5, 
1896; Kantany, January 16-17, 1897; Trang, February 10, 1897); 
two males, Pulo Berhala, Straits of Malacca, November 11, 1905; 
and two males and one female, Mergui Archipelago (Domel Island, 
January 23, 1904 ; South Twin Island, January 27, 1900). He describes 
the soft parts as: Iris vermihon; bill duU homy green; feet leaden. 

I have grave doubts whether specimens from Siam and Peninsular 

18 Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. HandL, vol. 5fi, no. 2, p. 101, 1916. 

» Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 159, 1931; vol. 10, p. 88, 1936. 

»« Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 1, p. 107, 1914. 

SI Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, p. 573, 1928. 

« Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 7, p. l.'iS, 1917. 

« Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 11, p. 59, 1923. 

'< Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 150, 1923. 

'S Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 257, 1934. 



134 BULLETIN 17 2, TNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Siam really belong to malayana. The only males of the form ex- 
amined by me from farther south are a specimen from Java and one 
from Pulo Babi, west of Sumatra. Both have a steely-blue sheen 
to the upperparts, especially the tail, that cannot be matched by 
any of the specimens from Peninsular Siam or Siam proper. The bill 
also seems to be larger. The culmen of the Java male measures 
34 mm; that from Pulo Babi, 35.5 mm. Seven males from the 
Malay Peninsula (Trang, 5; Straits of Malacca, 2) have culmens of 
30-34 (32.3) mm; five males from Siam proper, 27-34 (30.2) mm. 
There seems to be a gradual decrease in the size of the bill from south 
to north. 

The female from Domel Island is quite different from the three 
females from Siam listed above. The upperparts, wings, and tail 
are spotted and barred with white; the streaks on the pileum only 
light buffy; below the streaks or bars are white. The three females 
from Siam are spotted or barred with ochraceous-ta\vny, especially 
the tail; only a few scattered spots on the mantle being white. Below 
they are warm buff. 

In southern China and Indo-China a smaller race, Eudynamys 
scolopacea chinensis Cabanis and Heine, occurs. The only females 
I have seen of this form are black and white like the female from 
Domel Island. Some of the small-billed specimens from Siam may 
really belong to the Chinese race. La Touche^^ says that it is only 
a summer resident in southeastern China and consequently must go 
south in winter. The material at my command is not sufficient to 
settle the question at present, and I am following previous authors in 
recognizing only one race in Siam. 

Robinson and Kloss " say that it is a migratory bird in the Peninsula 
and Robinson ^^ confirms this statement. 

Some form of tliis koel has been recorded from nearly all over 
Siam proper and Peninsular Siam into the Malay States. Deignan" 
found it at Chiengmai in March and May. Herbert^" fo\md it 
breeding in central Siam, parasitic on the crow. As a rule only one 
egg is found in a nest, but sometimes three or four occur. 

ZANCLOSTOMUS JAVANICUS PALLIDUS Robinson and Kloss 

Zanclostomus javanicus pallidus Robinson and Kloss, Journ. Federated Malay- 
States Mus., vol. 10, pt. 3, p. 203, 1921 (Kehdah Peak, 2,500-3,500 feet, 
Malay Peninsula). 

Two females, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, December 21 and 27, 1933; 
one unsexed, Kao Chong, Trang, September 1, 1933; one female, 
Waterfall, Trang, August 25, 1933. 

>• A liandbook of the birds of eastern China, vol. 2, pt. 2, p. 55, 1931. 

Mlbl-s. 1911, p. 41. 

»• Journ. Federated Malay States Mus.. vol. 7, p. 160, 1917. 

«• Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. ICO, 1931. 

"Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6, p. 304, 1924. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 135 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected two males and two females in Trang 
(Lay Song Hong, October 1, 1896; Trang, January 24, 1897; Kao 
Soi Dao, 1,500 feet, February 15 and 25, 1899); and one male at the 
Dindings, Straits of Malacca, April 15, 1900. He gives the color of 
the soft parts as follows: Iris very dark red; bill red, black at base 
of culmen; naked orbital skin blue; feet lead color. 

This form ranges from southern Tenasserim and southwestern 
Siam south through Peninsular Siam to the Malay States. 

Ogilvie-Grant^' records it from Patani; Robinson and Kloss^^ 
list it as common in Trang; Robinson ^^ records it from near Bankok 
Klap, Bandon; Robinson and Kloss^* list it from Kao Ram, 1,000 
feet, and Kao Luang, 2,000 feet, Nakon Sritamarat; de Schauensee^* 
received seven specimens from Nakon Sritamarat; Robinson and 
Kloss ^^ say this is a hill bird, fairly common in heavy jungle. 

A darker form, Zandostomus javanicus javanicus (Horsfield), is 
confined to Java. 

RHOPODYTES TRISTIS LONGICAUDATUS (BIyth) 

Phoenicophaes longicaudatus Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 10, p. 923, 
1841 (Moulmein, Tenasserim). 

One male, Doi Nangka, November 18, 1930; one female, Aranya, 
July 22, 1930; one female. Ban Nam Kien, Nan, April 22, 1930; one 
male, Gengkoi, on the Pasak River, October 16, 1932; two males and 
one female, Lat Bua Kao, July 31 and August 10, 1929; one female, 
Hin Lap, December 12, 1931 ; two males, one female, and one unsexed, 
Pak Chong, November 19-30, 1929, June 25, 1934; one female, Lam 
Klong Lang, Pak Chong, June 7, 1925; two males. Ban Haad Hai, 
March 2 and July 12, 1929; one male. Ban Hoa Kam, February 28, 
1929; three males and one female, Huey Yang, Sriracha, August 2-6, 
1932; one female, Klong Yai, Sriraclia, July 23. 1932; one male and 
one female, Nong Yang, east of Sriracha, October 20 and November 7, 
1931 ; one male and one female, Hupbon, October 27 and November 2, 
1931; one male, Lem Sing, Chantabun, June 11, 1926; one male, Kao 
Sabap, November 14, 1933; one male, and two females, Koh Chang, 
January 7-13, 1926; one female, Koh Kut, May 25, 1929; one male, 
Muang Kanburi, April 7, 1928; four males and two females, Pran, 
April 2-3, 1931 ; one male, Koh Lak, June 23, 1933 ; one male, Tha Lo, 
Bandon, September 27, 1931 ; one female, Nakon Sritamarat, Septem- 
ber 27, 1926; one female. Ban Tha Yai, west of Nakon Sritamarat, 
July 9, 1928; one female, Kao Chong, Trang, August 30, 1933; one 

•' Fasciculi Malayenses, pt. 3, p. 104, 1905. 

«Ihis, 1911, p. 42. 

" Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 5, p. 94, 191.^. 

** Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 11, p. 60, 1923. 

»» Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 258, 1934. 

"Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6, p. 156, 1923. 



136 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

female, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, January 8, 1934; one female, Yala, 
Patani, February 2, 1931 ; two males, Bangnara, Patani, May 13, 1924, 
July 3, 1926. 

Dr. Smith gives the colors of the soft parts as follows: Iris dark 
brown; bill light green; feet dusky green or (in a specimen from 
Patani) blue. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected one male and four females, Trang 
(Prahmon, February 20-April 3, 1896; Tyching, July 4, 1896; 
Kantany, January 15, 1897); and two males, Mergui Archipelago 
(Domel Island, February 27; Heifer Island, March 6, 1900). He 
gives the following notes on the soft parts: Iris dark red; bill light 
green, space about nostril dark red; tarsi dull olive or leaden; naked 
orbital space dull red. 

Tliis form ranges nearly all over Siam and down Peninsular Siam 
to the Malay States; it extends to Tenasserim and southern Burma, 
Laos, Tonldn, Annam, Cochinchina, and southern China. It seems 
to be common in Siam proper, but in the Malay States it is less so and 
confined almost exclusively to the liilis.^^ It also has been recorded 
from Koh Samui"* and Kao Nawng, 3,000 feet, Bandon,^^ by Robinson. 
Herbert *° says that the breeding season in central Siam extends from 
April 3 to August 13. The clutch consists of two or three eggs. 
Herbert gives a description of the nest and eggs. De Schauensee** 
states that it appears to ascend the hills higher in summer than it 
does in winter. Aagaard took it at 4,600 feet on Doi Sutep.*^ 

There is some uncertainty about the application of Lesson's Melias 
tristis. He gave no locality. Hartert ^^ states that he accepts Pegu. 
If he is upheld, it seems to me that the Siamese race will become R. t. 
tristis and the form from northern India ^nll become R. t. monticolus 
(Blyth).''* 

RHOPODYTES DIARDI DIARDI (Lesson) 

Melias diardi Lesson, Traits d'ornithologie, p. 132, 1831 (Java, error; Ilartert " 
substitutes Sumatra). 

One male, Bukit, Patani, January 27, 1931. 

Dr. W, L. iVbbott collected a female near Kao Nok Ram, Trang, 
January 5, 1899, and gives the following note on the soft parts: 
Feet dull leaden; bill green, a pale blue spot over the nostril. 

Bonhote*^ and Ogilvie-Grant *^ record this form from Patani; 

" Robinson, The birds of tlie Malay Peninsula, vol. 2, p. 79, 1928. 

" Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 5, p. 146, 1915. 

«■ Ibid., p. 94. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6, p. 304, 1924. 

<" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 258, 1934. 

« Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 235, 1932. 

« Nov. Zool., vol. 9, p. 545, 1902. 

« Journ. Asiat. Soc. Dcngal, vol. 11, p. 1095, 1842. 

" Nov. Zool., vol. 9, p. 545, 1902. 

" Proc. Zool. Soc. London, vol. 1, p. 75, 1901. 

*■ Fasciculi Malayenses, pt. 3, p. 103, 1905. 



BIRDS FROM SIAJM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 137 

Robinson and Kloss^^ report it rare in Trang, where they secured 
only two si)ecimens; later ^^ they record a female from Nong Kok, 
Ghirbi; de Schauensee^° obtained three specimens in Nakon Srita- 
niarat. Barton's record from the Raheng District *' later was ques- 
tioned by Glydenstolpe." 

The species is not a common bird in Peninsular Siam, being com- 
moner in the extreme south and the Malay States. It ranges from 
Sumatra to the Malay States and northward through Peninsular 
Siam to southern Tenasserim. 

1 have examined only three specimens from the Malay Peninsula 
and two from Sumatra, and these apparently do not show any material 
differences. A closely related form, Rhopodytes diardi borneensis 
Salvadori, is confined to Borneo. 

RHOPODYTES SUMATRANUS (Raffles) 

Cuculus sumatranus Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 13, p. 287, 1822 
(Sumatra and adjacent islands). 

Two males, Bangnara, Patani, May 13, 1924, July 10, 1926; one 
female, Yala, Patani, January 29, 1931; one male and one female, 
Patalung, July 7, 1929; four females, Tha Lo, Bandon, September 
15-30, 1931 ; two females, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, January 4 and 15, 1934. 

Dr. Smith describes the soft parts as: Bill grayish green; feet dark 
green; circumorbital skin orange-red. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected the following: Four males and three 
females, Trang (Prahmon, February 23-March 22, 1896; Lay Song 
Hong, August 15 and November 12, 1896); two males and two females, 
Trengganu (Tanjong Dungan, September 20; Dungun River, Septem- 
ber 22; and Packa, September 27, 1900); one male and one female, 
Singapore Island, May 16 and 29, 1899; one male, Pulo Rupat, Straits 
of Malacca, March 15, 1906. 

Dr. Abbott gives the following notes on the soft parts: Iris dark 
red, sclerotic pale blue or white (5), reddish orange (1), brown, sur- 
rounded by a pale blue ring, outside this a darker blue (1), pale blue 
or blue (5), bluish white (1); bill light green; feet slate; orbital space 
orange-red, posterior angle blood red. 

Judged from the above, the color of the iris must vary considerably ; 
according to the sexing, it is not due to sex, but possibly age or season. 

One male from vSumatra, one male from Banka, and one female 
from Billiton are the only typical specimens available for comparison. 
They do not seem to differ from mainland birds. 

"Ibis, 1911, p. 42. 

«» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 99, 1919. 

•0 Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 268, 1934. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 1, p. 107, 1914. 

»! Ibis, 1920, p. H95. 



138 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

A series of five males and three females from Borneo are smaller 
and paler on the throat, and the chestnut of the breast is more re- 
stricted than in mainland specimens. Ten males from the Malay 
Peninsula measure: Wing, 132.5-151 (144); tail, 209-230 (221.7); 
culmen, 30-36.5 (33.5) mm. Five males from Borneo: Wing, 130- 
145 (136.2); tail, 209-224 (214); culmen, 30-33.5 (31.7) mm. 

Robinson " records R. sumatranus from Lem Pia, Telibun Straits 
and Krongmon, Trang; Robinson and Kloss ^* from Nong Kok, Ghirbi. 
It does not seem to be a common bird in Peninsular Siam. 

The range is from Sumatra, Banka, and Billiton to the Malay- 
States and north through Peninsular Siam to southern Tenasserim. 
A slightly smaller race {Rhopodytes s. minor Riley) occurs in Borneo. 

UROCOCCYX EEYTHKOGNATHUS ERYTHROGNATHUS (Hartlaub) 

Phoenicophaes erythrognathus Hartlaub, Systematisches Verzeichniss der natural- 
historischen Sammlung der Gesellschaft Museum [von Bremen], p. 95, 1844 
(Sumatra). 

One male and three females, Bangnara, Patani, May 9 and June 2, 
1924, July 15 and 18, 1926; one male, Yala, Patani, January 30, 1931; 
two mules and one female, Kao Luang, Nakon Sritamarat, July 17 
and 23, 1928; one male and one female, Huey Yang, Kao Luang, 
October 9, 1930; one male, Sichol, Bandon, May 22, 1930; one male 
and one female, Tha Lo, Bandon, May 22, 1930, September 15, 1931; 
one male and one female, Waterfall, Trang, August 25, 1933; one male, 
Kao Chong, Trang, September 3, 1933; one male, Kao Soi Dao, 
Trang, January 12, 1934. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected the following specimens: Five males 
and two females, Trang (Prahmon, March 14, 1896; Lay Song Hong, 
September 9, 1896; Trang, January 31-February 4, 1897; Kao Nom 
Plu, 1,000 feet, February 25, 1897 and Kao Nok Ram, 1,000 feet, 
January 4, 1899); one female, Pulo Langkawi, December 4, 1899; two 
males and two females, Trengganu (Tanjong Dungun, September 
20 and 24, 1900; Packa River, September 24, 1900; Tanjong Laboha, 
September 30, 1900); one male, Endau River, Pahang side, June 27, 
1901; one male, Endau River, Johore, June 29, 1901; one male and 
one female, Tenasserim (Victoria Point, December 17, 1900; Bok 
Pyin, February 12, 1900). 

Dr. Abbott gives the following note on the soft parts: Bill green, 
dull red at base; feet dark leaden; orbital space dark crimson; spot 
on lower eyelid white; iris blue (male), yellow (female). 

Robinson and Kloss ^^ record it from Tasan, Chumporn, and this 
seems to be about its northern limit on the Siamese side of the Isth- 
mus. In Tenasserim it has been taken as far north as Yea. South- 



«> Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 7, p. 158, 1917. 
" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 99, 1919. 
"Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 158, 1923. 



BIRDS FROM SI AM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 139 

ward from these localities it seems to be fairly well distributed 
throughout Peninsular Siam, the Malay States, Sumatra, and Banka. 
A closely related form, Urococcyx erythrognathus borneensis (Blasius 
and Nehrkorn), inhabits Borneo. 

RHINORTHA CHLOROPHAEA CHLOROPHAEA (Raffles) 

Cuculus chlorophaeus Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 13, p. 288, 1822 
(Sumatra). 

Four males and three females, Bangnara, Patani, May 28, 1924, 
July 7-19, 1926; one female, Bukit, Patani, January 26, 1931; two 
females, Patalung, July 8, 1929; one male and one female, Kao 
Luang, Nakon Sritamarat, July 17 and 22, 1928; two males and two 
females, Sichol, Bandon, September 5, 1929, May 20 and 24, 1930; 
one female, Kao Chong, Trang, August 29, 1933; one female, Kao 
Soi Dao, January 22, 1934. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected four males and two females in Trang 
(Lay Song Hong, September 7-15, 1896; Trang, January 25-February 
2, 1897); one male and one female, Trengganu (Tanjong Dungun, 
September 19, 1900 and Dungun River, September 1900); one female, 
Endau River, east coast of Johore, July 13, 1901; and one male, 
Rumpin River, Pahang, May 27, 1902. He describes the soft parts 
as: Iris dark brown; bill pale green; orbital sldn pale greenish blue; 
feet leaden blue. 

Apparently there are no material differences between specimens 
from northern Peninsular Siam, southern Peninsular Siam, and the 
Malay States and those from Sumatra. Southern birds have some- 
what shorter tails. Specimens from Borneo represent a distinct 
form, however, with appreciably shorter tails and the shadow barring 
on the tails of the males less distinct and the throat and foreneck in 
the females, as a rule, washed with huffy; the latter sex also is some- 
w^hat darker on the back than the mainland form 

Seven males from Trang (4), Bandon (2), and Nakon Sritamarat (1) 
measure: Wing, 114-118.5 (115.9); tail, 170-177 (172.6); culmen, 
27-30.5 (28.9) mm. Four males from Patani, one from Trengganu, 
and one from Pahang: Wing, 112-117.5 (114.6); tail, 160-177 (168.5); 
culmen, 26-31 (28.5) mm. Five males from Sumatra: Wing, 110-119 
(115.8); tail, 161-169 (166.2); culmen, 26.5-28 (27.3) mm. One male 
from Tana Masa, Batu Islands: Wing, 121 ; tail, 182.5 ; culmen, 29 mm. 
Ten males from Borneo: Wing, 110-119 (114.6); tail, 149.5-169.5 
(159); culmen, 26-28 (27) mm. 

The male from the Batu Islands may represent an undescribed 
form. It has a considerably longer wing and tail than any male 
measured from elsewhere. 



140 BULLETIN 172, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Rhinortha chlorophaea chlorophaea ranges from Sumatra to the 
Malay States and northward through Peninsuhir Siam to Yea, 
Tenasserim. Robinson and Kloss^^ record it from Taph, Pakchan. 

Rhinortha chlorophaea fuscigularis Stuart Baker is confined to 
Borneo. 

CENTROPUS SINENSIS INTERMEDIUS Hume 

Centropus intcrmedhis Hume, Stray Feathers, vol. 1, p. 454, 1873 (Dhoon, Dacca 
and Thaj^etmyo) . 

One male, Bung Borapet, June 21, 1932; two adult males, one 
immature male, and one immature female, Bankgok, February 13, 
March 11, April 28, and October 22, 1924; one male, Sakeo, near 
Krabin, May 6, 1928; one male, Knong Plira, Pak Chong, April 14, 
1929; one male Nong Klior, near Sriracha, March 19, 1926; one male, 
Chantuk, June 12, 1934; two males, Muang Kanburi, April 9, 1928; 
one adult female and one immature female, Koh Pangan, off Bandon, 
July 30-31, 1931 ; one male and three fenuiles, Koh Tao, December 28, 
1926, September 17-20, 1928; one female, Patalung, July 9, 1929; 
one female, Pak Bhayoon, Tale Sap, July 11, 1929. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected two males and one female in Trang 
(Prahmon, April 2 and 4, 1896; and Tyching, May 24, 1896); and two 
females in Tenasserim (Maliwun, March 21, 1900; Telok Besar, 
February 29, 1904). 

The present form ranges from Assam south of the Brahmaputra, 
Burma, Siam, French Indo-China, Hainan, and Peninsular Siam as 
far south as Trang at least. In Siam it occurs nearly all over the 
country from the north, where it has been recorded by Gyldenstolpe ^^ 
from Khun Tan and Doi Par Sakeng; and by Deignan ^^ from Chieng- 
mai. It has been reported from other localities to at least as far 
south as Trang in Peninsular Siam. Herbert ^^ found it nesting in 
central Siam from May until September 20, laying three or four eggs. 
It has also been found on many of the islands aroimd the coast of Siam. 

Delacour and Jabouille ^^ state that the specimens from Indo-China 
are intermediate between this race and C. s. sinensis. The latter is 
a larger race occuring in southern China. 

The immature female from Bangkok was collected February 13 
and is about half grown. It must therefore have been hatched at a 
later date than the last date given by Herbert. 

CENTROPUS BENGALENSIS BENGALENSIS (Gmelln) 

Cuculus bengalensis Gmelin, Systema naturae, vol. 1, pt. 1, p. 412, 1788 (Bengal)^ 

One immature male and one immature female, Bangkok, May 12 
and 13, 1924; one male, nearly adult, Bung Borapet, June 24, 1932. 

M Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 158, 1923. 

»■ Kiiiiel. Svenska Vet.-Ai-ad. Handl., vol. 50, no. 2, p. lOr, 1916. 

"Journ. Siam ?oc. Xat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 100, 1031. 

"Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6, p. 305, 1925. 

w Oiseaux I'lndochine Franjaise, vol. 2, p. 187, 1931. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 141 

The male from Bung Borapet has assumed the adult plumage, 
except on the tail, where one new central tail feather on the left side 
is coming in. The head and lower parts are purplish black, while in 
javanensis, of Peninsular Siam, these parts are greenish black; the 
northern form is brighter and more russet on the back. 

The range of this form is the southwestern coast of India, Bengal, 
Assam, Burma, Tenasserim, Siam proper, Laos, Tonldn, Annam, 
Cochinchina, and southeastern Cliina. In Siam it has been recorded 
from nearly all over the country and as far to the southwest as the 
Petchaburi District, where it was recorded b}^ Gairdner^'; to the 
southeast de Schauensee ^^ has recorded it from Sriracha. It is much 
less common than C. sinensis inter medius. 

Herbert ®^ found two nests of five and six eggs at Bun Khang 
(Samkok), June 28 and July 19; and he received one set of three fresh 
eggs from Ban Yang (Tachin), August 15; he gives a description of 
the nest and eggs. 

CENTROPUS BENGALENSIS JAVANENSIS (Dumont) 

Cuculus javanensis Dumont, Diet. Sci. Nat., vol. 11, p. 144, 1818 (Java). 

One immature female, Yala, Patani, February 2, 1931. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took an adult male, Tyching, Trang, May 23,. 
1896; an immature female, Prahmon, Trang, April 2, 1896; and an 
adult female on the Bindings, Straits of Malacca, April 15, 1900. 

The adult male taken at Tyching, Trang, was caught while sitting 
on a nest containing three eggs, in which incubation had commenced. 
These were saved and are now in the collection. The eggs are oval, 
dull white, with little or no gloss, and measure 30.2 b}^ 25.3, 29.2 by 25, 
and 28.7 by 24.4 mm. 

Three specimens (two females and one unsexed) from Java and one 
male from Banka are available for comparison. 

The adult male from Trang agrees with the male from Banka and 
the unsexed specimen (almost certainly a male) from Java in having 
the black of the head and lowerparts with a greenish sheen rather than 
the purplish of C. h. hengalcnsis. The males in this species seem ta 
be smaller than the females; this also is the case in other cuckoos. 

The range of the form seems to be Peninsular Siam, Sumatra, 
Banka, Java, Bali, Borneo, Natuna Islands, and the Philippines. 

The range in Peninsular Siam is not determined. It certainly goes 
north to Trang. 

Stresemann ^^ in liis revision of the species includes in this form two 
specimens from Salanga (Puket). 

«' Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 1, p. 150, 1915. 

" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 259, 1934. 

«3 Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6, p. 306, 1924. 

M Nov. Zool., vol. 19, p. 337, 1912. 

33527—38 10 



142 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

CARPOCOCCYX RENAULDI Oustalet 

Carpococcyx renauldi Oustalet, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, vol. 2, p. 314, 1896 
(Kuangtri, Annam). 

One immature male, Lat Bua Kao, eastern Siam, August 11, 1929. 

Unfortunately no adult specimens are available for comparison. 
Tliis genus consists of large, long-legged, ground cuckoos. It is very- 
rare in collections. 

The forehead and throat in the above specimen are russet; the 
crown, nape, and hindneck are black, with a purple sheen; a few 
blacldsh violet feathers are appearing on the jugulum; back and 
scapulars olive-gray; lower back dusky, with roods-brown tips and 
mottlings to the feathers; rump mixed white and orange-cinnamon, 
with narrow dusky crossbars; upper tail coverts dusky green; chest 
white, with narrow dusky irregular crossbars; breast wliite; sides and 
flanks like the chest, the flanks with some orange-cinnamon tips to 
the feathers; thighs wliite vermiculated with dusky; under tail coverts 
dusky with mikado-brown tips, the longer feathers dusky green wiith 
cinnamon tips; bastard wing dusky violet tipped with cinnamon; 
primary coverts dusky green with dusky violet along the outer margin 
and tipped with cinnamon; primaries dusky violet, becoming dusky 
greenish toward the base on the inner feathers and tipped with 
cinnamon; secondaries dark olive-gray, with greenish and purpUsh 
reflections; wing coverts like the back the greater darker and with 
cinnamon tips; tail dusky \aolet. The specimen is in molt. Only 
two old feathers of the tail remain, but two new ones are coming in 
and are about 2 inches long; in color they are like the old ones. 

Stuart Baker ^^ records a pair in the Herbert collection from Pak 
Chong; de Schauensee ^^ lists a female from Pak Djong, about 60 
miles west of Korat, collected April 5. Gyldenstolpe ^^ says that it 
had recently been obtained in Peninsular Siam, but this must be an 
error, as Robinson and Kloss do not give it from there and I have 
seen no records. 

The species ranges from Tonkin, Annam, Laos, and Cambodia to 
eastern Siam and probably southeastern Siam. 

Family TYTONIDAE: Barn Owls 

TYTO ALBA JAVANICA (Gmelin) 

Strix javanica Gmelin, Systema naturae, vol. 1, pt. 1, p 295, 1788 (Java). 

Two males, Bangkok, October 17, 1923, and October 17, 1929; one 
female. Lam Klong Lang, Pak Chong, June 13, 1925; one male, Tha 
Luang, October 23, 1932. 

M Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 441, 1919. 

«• Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Pliiladelphia, vol. 80, p. 574, 1928. 

«' Ibis, 1920, p. 596. 



BIRDS FROM vSIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 143 

The three males are pure white below, sparsely marked with 
sagittate black spots; the female is light cimiamon-buff and more 
heavily marked with black spots. A male from Depok, Java, in the 
United States National Museum is darker above than the Siamese 
specimens; below it is a slightly deeper bufl' than the female from 
Siam. The Java male is also somewhat smaller; wing, 290 mm. 
The three males from Siam measure: Wing, 308, 305, and 305 mm; the 
female, 312 mm. 

The Siamese and Javan specimens are somewhat different and I 
believe eventually will be recognized as belonging to different forms, 
but for the present I place them here as other authors have done. If 
anyone has compared mainland and Javan specimens in adequate 
series, I have not noted it. 

Gyldenstolpe ®^ records it as very abundant at Bangkok; Gairdner "^ 
from Petchaburi; Deignan ''^ reports it rather common at Cliiengmai; 
Herbert ^^ gives it as very common at Bangkok and breeding in 
January and February and laying five or six eggs to a set. 

The form ranges from Ceylon and India to Burma and south 
through the Malay Peninsula to Java. 

PHODILUS BADIUS ABBOTTI Oberholaer 

Phodilus badius abbotti Oberholser, Joiirn. Washington Acad. Sci., vol. 14, 
p. 302, 1924 (Province of Wellesley, Federated Malay States). 

One male, Nong Khor, near Sriracha, southeastern Siam, September 
23, 1925; one male, Lat Bua Kao, eastern Siam, August 14, 1929. 

Dr. Abbott purchased the type in Penang; it was said to have been 
shot in the Province of Wellesley. 

Besides the above, the United States National Museum contains a 
female from the Raheng District, Siam. This small series agrees 
with the type of the form. A male from Buitenzorg, Java, while not 
differing much in color, is considerably smaller. The wing measures 
178 mm. The wings of two males from Siam measure 199 and 203 
mm; of the female, 224 mm; the type of abbotti, 198 mm. 

Robinson " questions the distinctiveness of abbotti and unites it 
with badius. The measurements he gives show the Malay Peninsula 
specimens to be somewhat larger than those of Java and the sexes are 
not segregated. If his views should prove correct, the name for the 
Siamese birds would be Phodilus badius badius (Horsfield). 

Gyldenstolpe ^^ took a single specimen at Khun Tan. Chasen and 
Kloss '* record a single female from Huey Yah Pla, Raheng District 

«' Ibis, 1920, p. 754. 

«» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 1, p. 150, 1915. 

'" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl.. vol. 8, p. 16.S, 1931. 

" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 6, p. 326, 1926. 

'2 Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 47, pp. 121-122, 1927. 

» Ibis, 1920, p. 754. 

'• Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 1C3, 192S. 



144 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

(this is the female mentioned above). Apparently it is not recorded 
from Peninsular Siam, but it must occur there. Robinson and Kloss '* 
say it is a bird of extreme rarity in the southern parts of the Peninsula. 
The range of the form is the Malay Peninsula, north to Siam and 
Burma and east probably to Cocliinchina. 

Family STRIGIDAE: Typical Owls 

STRIX INDRANEE MAINGAYI (Hume) 

Syrnium maingayi Hcme, Stray Feathers, vol. 6, p. 27, 1878 (Malacca). 
SLrix indranee riieyi Estelle Kelso, Auk, vol. 54, p. 305, 1937 (Kao Nok Ram, 
Trang). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected a female at Lay Song Hong, Trang, 
September 28, 1896, and a female at Kao Nok Ram, 2,000 feet, Trang, 
in 1899 (exact date not given). 

He states that the colors of the soft parts are: Iris dark brown; bill 
pale horny greenish; claws homy white at base, darkening to dark 
brown at tips. 

These two specimens are much darker than laotiana, the bars below 
broader and the breast crossed by a rather broad band of dark brown. 
The dark bieast band is broad in one, the cross rays showing only 
faintly in the center; in the other it is more or less interrupted with 
cross-rayed feathers, but the dark cross rays are broader than on the 
breast. The wings measure 362 and 369 mm. 

Robinson and Kloss ^^ record a specimen from Chong, Trang; 
Baker " lists it from Tung Song; Robinson and Kloss "^ state that 
they have six specimens from Trang southward to Selangor, the 
majority from the Malay States of which Kloss ^^ had previously 
given a Ust. 

The form ranges from southern Tenasserim southward through 
Peninsular Siam to the Malay States. Strix indranee bartelsi (Finsch) 
is peculiar to Java. 

A specimen of this owl in the United States National ^Museum is 
darker above than maingayi, and the lowerparts are strongly washed 
wdth rufous; the line above the disk also h strongly rufous. It is a 
very distinct race. 

Some recent authors have made this and related races forms of 
Strix leptogrammica, the nominate form of which is confmed to Boinco, 
but the latter is a much smaller species, with the upperparts barred 
rufous and blackish, the chest and throat uniform, rufous, the toes 
more extensively bare. The Indian and Siamase races have nothing 
to do specifically with this small species. 

" Joiirn. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 108, 1923. 

"Ibis, 1911, p. 31. 

" Joiirn. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam., vol. 4, p. 2fi, 1920. 

» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. ."i, p. 1C«, 1923. 

'» Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 4, p. 230, 1911. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 145 

Strix leptogrammica has been divided into four nominal races as 
follows: 

Strix le/ptogramviica leptogrammica Temiiiiiick (Borneo). 
Strix leptogrammica myrtha Bonaparte (Sumatra). 
Strix leptogravimica ninsensis Salvadori (ISiias). 

Str2X leptograminica nyctiphasma Oberholser (Banjak Islands, western 
Sumatra) . 

STRIX INDRANEE LAOTIANA Delacour 

Strix newarensis laotianus Dklacour, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 47, p. 11, 1926 
(Xieng-Khouang, Laos). 

T\vo females, Pak Chong, eastern Siam, Novem.ber 15 and 18, 1925. 

This owl is new to the Siamese bird list. The form is much paler 
than maingayi of Peninsular Siam, and the neck collar above is wider 
and more extensively barred with a paler buff; the scapulars and 
secondaries are more pronouncedly barred, and the latter are more 
broadljT^ tipped with white; below it is paler and the dark bai-s narrower, 
breast band absent; the facial disk is lighter. 

The two specimens are not exactly alilce. One is a lighter brown 
above, the cross rays more fulvous, the light bars on the scapulars 
darker and more fulvous; below' the differences are not so great. The 
wings measure 378 and 375 mm. 

The United States National Museum possesses an immature speci- 
men from Haut Donai, Annam, taken May 26. It is nearly fully 
grown but still retains some of the nesting do\m on the pileum, mantle, 
throat, and rump. The new postjuvenal plumage that has ah'eady 
appeared is similar to that of the Pak Chong specimens. 

So far this form is known only from a few specimens taken in south 
and central Annam, Laos, and eastern Siam. 

STRIX ORIENT ALIS ORIENTALIS Shaw 

Slrix orientalis Shaw, General zoology, vol. 7, pt. 1, p. 257, 1809 (China). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took a female (?) at Lay Song Hong, Trang, 
September 1, 1896. The wing measures 355 mm. He describes the 
soft parts as: Iris blackish brown; bill and cere dull black; toes black, 
claws horny black. 

A single female from Java has more buff to the bases of the feathers 
above and the white spotting is more pronounced; the wing measures 
325 mm. It represents Strix orientalis seloputo Horsfield. 

S. 0. orientalis ranges from southern Burma south through the 
Malay Peninsula to vSumatra and east through central Siam to 
Cochinchina. The type locality "China" is probably an error, as it is 
not knowTi from there. 



146 BULLETIN 172, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Bonhote ^° records it from Bukit Besar, Jalor, Pataiii; Ogilvie- 
Graiit ^' from Ban Sai Kaii and Biserat, Patani; Robinson and Kloss *^ 
from Chong, Trang; Williamson ^ from Bandon; Robinson and 
Kloss ^* from Koh Boi Yai, Puket; Baker ^^ from Kong Wang Hip. 
All these localities are in Peninsular Siam. Herbert ^^ collected two 
eggs from two nests in the Samkok District, Februarj^ 23, 1914, and 
February 15, 1916. Robinson and Kloss ^^ state that this owl is 
commoner in the northern parts of the Peninsula than farther south. 
It probably extends through southern Siam, as it occurs in Cochin- 
china. 

KETUPA KETUPU AAGAARDI (Nenmann) 

Bubo ketvpu aagaardi Neumann, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 55, p. 138, 1935 
(Bangnara, Patani, Peninsula Siam). 

One male and one female, Bangnara, Patani, May 25, 1924, and 
July 5, 1926. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected a male at Prahmon, Trang, April 4, 1896 
and a female and male in Tenasserim (Tanjong Badak, December 
1903; Boyces Point, February 9, 1904). He gives the soft parts as: 
Iris orange-yellow; bill black, cere horn blue or pale brown (in one 
male and one female), pale leaden, cere leaden (in one male); feet 
dirty whitish (in one male, not given for the other two). 

The specimen in which the bill is stated to have been pale leaden 
has now faded to a horn color, quite different from the other two skins 
taken by Dr. Abbott. The specimen appears to be adult. 

The above five specimens are paler above and below than two speci- 
mens examined by me from Java, which confirms the claims of the 
describer. The two specimens from Bangnara are paler below, with 
narrower black shaft streaks, than the male from Trang and the male 
and female from Tenasserim. The female from Bangnara is very 
light colored above and the shaft streaks below are very narrow. It is 
probably a bird of the year that is fully grown but has not acquired 
the full adult plumage. 

There are numerous records for Peninsular Siam from Patani north 
to Pakchan; Robinson ^^ reports that Kloss obtained it at Ok Yam 
in southeastern Siam. 

One of Kloss's specimens from Ok Yam was afterward acquired by 
the United vStates National Museum. It is a male, veiy dark; darker 

80 Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1901, vol. 1, p. 58. 
•1 Fasciculi Malayenses, pt. 3, p. 112, 19C5. 

82 Ibis, 1911, p. 30. 

83 Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 26, 1918. 
8< Jouru. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 94, 1919. 
8» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 4, p. 26, 1920. 

88 Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 6, p. 326, 1926. 
8' Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 108, 1923. 
88 Ibis, 1915, p. 729. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 147 

above and below than the two Javan specimens before me and with 
broader dark shaft stripes below. 

Two males from Sumatra agree in color with the Trang male and the 
male and female from Tenasserim. The northern specimens along 
with those from Sumatra may represent a form distinct from that 
from the southern part of the Malay Peninsula, but without more 
material from the latter locality it is better for the present that they 
be left with aagmirdi. 

The wings in the above series measure: Two males from Sumatra 
345, 350 mm; one male from Trang, 345 mm; one male from Tenas- 
serim, 360 mm; one male from Ok Yam, 355 mm; one male from 
Bangnara, Patani, 325 mm; one female from Bangnara, Patani, 325 
mm; one male from Java, 350 mm; the female from Java, 350 mm. 
The two other females are not suitable for measuring. 

The range of Ketwpa k. aagaardi may be regarded as Indo-China 
through southern Siam to Tenasserim and south through Peninsula 
Siam to the Malay States and Sumatra. Ketupa ketupu ketupu 
(Horsfield) is confined to Java. Ketujja ketupu pageli (Neumann) 
occurs in northeastern Borneo. Ketupa ketupu minor Buttikofer is 
confined to Nias Island. 

HUHUA NIPALENSIS (Hodgson) 

Bubo nipalensis Hodgson, Asiat. Res., vol. 19, p. 172, 1836 (Nepal). 

One male, Ban Den Ja, March 1, 1929, found in dense forest; wing, 
410 mm. 

Gyldenstolpe ^^ says that authentic specimens of this fine owl have 
been taken only at Khun Tan ; Chasen and Kloss ^° record a male from 
Tong Sulin, Raheng District, Gairdner ^^ gives it for the Petchaburi 
District. 

The species ranges from the Himalayas east to Assam, central 
Burma, south to Tenasserim, and east to Siam, Laos, and upper 
Tonkin. 

OTUS BAKKAMOENA LETTIA (Hodgson) 

Scops lettia Hodgson, Asiat. Res., vol. 19, p. 176, 1836 (Nepal). 

One male, Mekhan, February 6, 1932; one female, Khun Tan, 
October 21, 1929; two males and three females, Bangkok, February 
12 and May 6, 1924; April 5, August 4, and September 7, 1926; one 
male, Sam Roi Yot, November 17, 1932; one immature male, Koh 
Lak, June 7, 1933; one female, Kao Sabap, October 27, 1933. 

The wings of the four males measure: 156, 159, 160, and 167 mm; 
of the four females, 162-164 (163) mm. The female from Kao Sabap 
is darker above than any other in the series. 

8' Ibis, 1920, p. 751. 

M Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 104, 1928. 

n Journ. Nat. Ilist. Soc. Siam, vol. 1, p. 150, 1915. 



148 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUIM 

I doubt whether the above series really belongs to lettia. They do 
not seem to fit Stuart Baker's '^^ diagnosis of the form, but I have no 
topotypical specimens for comparison and so assign them here. 

The form ranges from Nepal to eastern Assam, eastern Bengal, 
Burma, Siam proper, and southeast to Cambodia and central and 
southern Annam. 

Gyldenstolpe ^^ records it from Den Chai and later ^^ from Pak Koh, 
Chum Poo, and Khun Tan ; Robinson ^^ from Pulo Dayang Bunting, 
Langkawi Group, December; Chasen and Kloss ^'^ from the Raheng 
District; Lowe ^^ from the Meping; de Schauensee ^^ from Chiengmai, 
Cliantabun, Tap Chang, Petrieu, and Bangkok; a female taken by him 
at Chiengmai, February 2, had eggs in the oviduct ready to be laid. 
Herbert ^^ found it a common breeder in the Bangkok District but 
more so in the Samlcok District, the nesting season extending from late 
in January to early in March and the set usually consisting of tliree 
eggs, sometimes four. 

It is probably onl}^ a winter visitor in Peninsular Siam. 

OTUS BAKKAMOENA LEMPIJI (Horsfield) 

Scops lempiji Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 13, p. 140, 1821 (Java). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected a male and two females at the Rumpin 
River, Pahang, July 15-22, 1902, and there is a male collected by C. 
B. Kloss at Tanjong Kalong, Singapore, April 3, 1900, in the United 
States National Museum. Two of the Rumpin River specimens are 
immature. One of the females is apparently adult. The male from 
Singapore is adult and has a cinnamon-buff suffusion both above and 
below that cannot be matched by any specimen in a series from Java; 
the adult female from Pahang is even a deeper cinnamon-buff than the 
male and the black spotting is much reduced below. The wing in the 
male measures 143 mm; in the adult female, 145 mm. These four 
specimens doubtfully belong to this form, but I do not know where else 
to place them. 

This is a small dark forjn found in southern Peninsular Siam. It 
has been recorded from the Langkawi Islands and Bandon, but the 
records from Bangkok and Koh Mesan prove to belong to two other 
forms. 

Robinson ^ gives the range as southern Tenasserim south to the 
Malay States, Sumatra, and Java. 

"The fauna of British India, Birds, ed. 2, vol. 4, p. 427, 1927. 
»» Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. ITandl., vol. 50, no. 8, p. 61, 1913. 
»< Ktinpl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Uandl., vol. n6, no. 2, p. 120. 1916. 
« Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 7, p. 145, 1917. 
•« Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Uist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 164, 1928. 
"Ibis, 1933, p. 483. 

«s Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 263, 1934. 
»» Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 6, p. 327, 1926. 
' The birds of the Malay Peninsula, vol. 1, p. 79, 1927. 



BIRDS FROM SIAJVI AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 149 

I have seen no Siamese specimens of this form but have examined 
a fair series from Java. Tlie wings of four females from Java measure 
135-146 (140.2) mm; two males, 139-141 mm. 

OTUS BAKKAMOENA CONDORENSIS Robinson and KIoss 

Otus bakkamoena condorcnsis Robinson and Kloss, Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. 
Suppl., vol. 8, p. 81, 1930 (Pulo Condore). 

One male, Pak Chong, eastern Siam, November 28, 1929; one fe- 
male, Pran, April 2, 1931. 

These two specimens agree with a male from Koh Mesan off Cape 
Liant, Siam, collected by C. Boden Kloss, November 1, 1916, in being 
very pale below and in having a white background with brownish 
stippling and a few scattering blackish shaft marks. They are quite 
different from the form found around Bangkok {Otus b. lettia). The 
specimens of the latter before me have the lower parts clay color, 
varying to a light claj^ey buff. 

The wing of the male from Pak Chong measures 159 mm; that from 
Koh Mesan, 158 mm; and the female from Pran, 151 mm. The 
three specimens seem to fit the description of condorensis, which evi- 
dently is a pale southeastern race. The female from Pran is puzzling, 
as Dr. Smith also collected Otus bakkamoena lettia from this general 
region. 

The exact range is not definitely known. 

OTUS SUNIA MALAYANUS (Hay) 

Scops malayanus Hat, Madras Journ. Lit. and Sci, vol. 13, pt. 2, p. 147, 1844 

(1845) (Malacca). 

One femnle, Bangkok, January 16, 1925; one male and one female, 
Koh Tao, January 2, 1927; one male, Tha Chang, March 20, 1917. 

The red and the gray phases and an intermediate phase are all 
represented in these specimens. There is no adequate series available 
for comparison. A male (Otiis sunio. modestusi) from Suifu, S/ech- 
wan, seems exactly to match the male from Koh Tao, except that it 
is darker on the chest; wing, 146 mm. The wing of the Koh Tao 
male measures 142.5 mm. 

Robinson ^ records it from Langkawi; Robinson and Kloss from 
Trang 3 and Junkseylon (Puket)^; Baker ^ from Krabin, central 
Siam. Robinson ^ states that this form is apparently only a winter 
visitor to the Malay States. It may be that modestus is really only 
a synonym. 

The form ranges from Singapore north to Tenasserim and central 
Siam. 



'Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 7, p. 145, 1917. 
•Ibis. 1911, p. 31. 

• Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 94, 1919. 
•Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 4, p. 26, 1920. 

• The birds of the Malay Peninsula, vol. 1, p. 80, 1927; vol. 2, p. 38, 1928. 



150 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

OTUS SAGITTATUS (Cassin) 

Ephialtes sagittatus Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 4, p. 121, 
1848 (Malacca); Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, ser. 2, vol. 2, p. 96, 
pi. 12, fig. 2, 1852. 

One male, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, January 5, 1934. 

This is the first specimen taken of tliis rare owl on Siamese territory. 

Stuart Baker ^ speaks of Herbert taldng numerous eggs of this 
species around Samkok, but I cannot find that he even took the 
bird, much less the eggs. Mr. Baker may have incorporated matter 
belonging to another species. 

The species ranges from Tenasserim south to the Malay States. 

It is peculiarly marked. The forehead, as far back as the middle 
of the orbit, and superciliaries are white; above tawny, deepening to 
russet on crown and nape, sparsely covered with sagittate spots of 
light fulvous, bordered on the lower margin with black; cheeks 
white, bordered posteriorly with black; throat white, the feathers 
barred with seal brown and fulvous; below clay color, with sagittate 
seal-brown bars or spots, the chest with fine dusky barring; the eyes 
are surrounded or nearly so by a mars-brown circle, becoming blackish 
on the upper lid in front. The feathering on the tarsi does not quite 
reach the toes. The wing measures 187 mm. This is not a complete 
description, but it is sufficient for present purposes. 

This owl is so peculiar that it is a question whether it really belongs 
in this genus or whether it should be removed and a new genus 
erected for it. 

ATHENE BRAMA PULCHRA Hume 

Athene pulchra Hume, Stray Feathers, vol. 1, p. 469, 1873 (Pegu). 

One male and one female, Rajaguri, April 10, 1926; two males, 
Muang Kanburi, April 7 and September 11, 1928; one female, Nakon 
Panom, March 8, 1929; one male, Udon, March 19, 1929. 

The series is quite uniform, both above and below. 

This bird is recorded by Herbert as rather common about 40 miles 
north of Bangkok and northward. His specimens have been remarked 
upon by Baker,* Chasen and Kloss® record it from Raheng; Deignan'" 
reports it common at Chiengmai. Herbert ^' found it breeding in 
the Samkok district in January and February, laying three or four 
eggs to a set, and the editor noted that the form had recently estab- 
lished itself in the Bangkok district. De Schauensee ^^ took a series 
on his third expedition at Chiengmai, Sriracha, Kengkoi, and Tung 
Sio. A female taken at Sriracha on February 8 had an egg in the 

' The fauna of British India, F.irds, ed. 2, vol. 4, p. 431, 1927. 

fJourn. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 4, p. 27, 1920. 

» Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. llist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 164, 1928. 

"Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 164, 1931. 

'1 Journ. Siam Soc. Hist. Suppl., vol. 6, p. 328, 1926. 

" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 268, 1934. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 151 

oviduct ready to be laid, and a fully fledged young male was taken 
at Kengkoi on May 5. 

The form ranges from central and south Burma to Siam, Cam- 
bodia, Cochincliina, and Lower Laos. Apparently it occurs locally 
nearly all over Siam except the Peninsular part of the country, from 
where I have seen no records. 

GLAUCIDIUM CUCULOIDES BRUGELI Parrot 

Glaucidium cuculoides brugeli Parrot, Orn. Ges. Bayern, vol. 8, p. 104, 1907 
(Bangkok, Siam). 

One male and one female, Ban Sadet, Sriracha, May 30 and 31, 
1925; one male and one female, Lam Klong Lang, Pak Chong, June 12 
and 13, 1925; one male and three females, Pak Chong, eastern Siam, 
November 17-19, 1925, April 29, 1926, November 28, 1929; three 
females, Nong Khor, near Sriracha, September 27, 1925, February 6 
and 12, 1927; one male. Ban Nakae, March 3, 1929; one male, Sakon 
Nakon, March 12, 1929; one male, Knong Phra, April 13, 1929; one 
male. Ban Tarn Dam, southeastern Siam, March 5, 1930; one male, 
Nong Yang, November 6, 1931; two males, Hupbon, October 27 and 
November 3, 1931; one male. Bung Borapet, July 1, 1932; one female, 
Chieng Dao, January 29, 1932; one male, Mekhan, February 7, 1932; 
one female, Ban Takaw, October 22, 1932; one male, Khonka Valley, 
January 25, 1933; one female, Vichienburi, February 26, 1934; one 
male, Kao Luang, Nakon Sritamarat, October 6, 1930. Dr. Smith 
also took a male on the Pai River, Burma, January 11, 1933, that 
seems to be indistinguishable from the Siamese specimens. 

Just how far this form extends south in Peninsular Siam, I do not 
know. Dr. Smith secured it from Kao Luang, Nakon Sritamarat, as 
listed above, and it has been taken nearly all over the country from 
this point north to Burma and to the east into Cochincliina. 

Herbert '^ collected two sets of three eggs each from near Bangkok — 
one from Ban Laing, January 17; the second from Poh Teng, February 
3; and a single egg from Koh Yai, February 7. 

GLAUCIDIUM BRODIEI TUBIGER (Hodgson) 

Nodua tuhiger Hodgson, Asiat. Res., vol. 19, p. 175, 1836 (Nepal). 

One female, Khun Tan Mountams, 4,000 feet, November 19, 1928; 
two males and one female, Khun Tan, 4,000 feet, February 25-March 
3, 1932; one male, Huey Yang, Sriracha, August 3, 1932; one female, 
Kao Sabap, November 30, 1933. Dr. Smith describes the soft parts 
as: Iris light yellow; bill greenish yellow; toes greenish, claws dark 
brown. 

The female from the Khun Tan Mountains agrees fairly well with 
a male from Tcnasserim; in fact the dark bars above are even darker 

» Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 6, p. 329, 1926. 



152 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

in the Siamese bird. The wing in the Khun Tan Mountain female 
measures 95.5 mm; the female from Khun Tan, 94 mm. The Khun 
Tan female is grayer above and the pileum is barred rather than 
spotted as in the other female and the Tenasserim male. The two 
males from Khun Tan have the pileum barred rather than spotted. 
In one the crossbars are white with scattering small white spots; in 
the other the crossbars and spots are fulvous. Tlie wings in the two 
males measure 90 and 86 mm. 

The male from Sriracha has the mantle russet and unbarred; only 
the scapulars are barred with blackish; the pileum olive-brown with 
scattering fulvous spots; the feathers along the bend of the wing 
beneath j^rimrose j^ellow. It is evidently an immature bii'd. The 
male from Khun Tan, with the wing 86 mm., has the carpal feathers 
yellowish and is probably a young bird also. 

The female from Kao Sabap is the darkest above of any of the 
specimens taken by Dr. Smith, and the bars on the back are a deeper 
fulvous; the throat, juguium, center of the breast, and bend of the 
wing are light sulphur j^ellow. It is quite difi'erent from the other 
specimens and may represent a diiTerent form, but owls are very 
variable. 

The form ranges from Nepal to eastern Assam and south to Burma, 
Siam, and the Malay Peninsula, east to Indo-China, and southern 
China. 

A pair from Fukien are grayer above and have paler neck collars 
than in the Siamese series. 

Gyldenstolpe '* has recorded this owl from Khun Tan and Pah 
Koh in the north; Robinson ^^ from Kao Nong, Bandon; Robinson 
and Kloss '^ from Tapli, Pakchan; de Schauensee '^ from Ban Jong, 
10 kilometers south of the Shan States border. Deignan '^ reports it 
from Doi Sutep, between 3,500 and 5,500 feet. 

NINOX SCUTULATA BURMANICA Hume 

Ninox burmanica Hume, Stray Feathers, vol. 4, p. 285, 1876 (Burma). 

One female, Bangkok, January 19, 1924; two males, Nong Khor, 
near Sriracha, March 23, 1926, and February 11, 1927; one male and 
one fenude, Udon, February 18, 1929; one female, Lat Bua Kao, 
August 11, 1929; one male, Doi Nangka, November 7, 1930; one male 
and one female, Muek Lek, April 26, 1933; one male, Lamton Lang, 
May 25, 1934. 

All the above series appear to be fairl}^ uniform in color and agree 
with a female in the United States National Museum identified by C. 

n Ibis, 1920, p. 754. 

" Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 5, p. 91, 1915. 

i« Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 112, 1923. 

" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 81, p. 576, 1930. 

'« Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 164, 1931. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 153 

Boden Kloss from Koh Kram, Inner Gulf of Siam. The wings of the 
males measure 210, 215, 215, 216, and 217 mm; the females, 205, 210, 
212, and 216 mm. 

The range of the form is Assam soutli of the Bramaputra, Burma, 
the Shan States, Siam, and all Indo-Cliina. 

This is tl e resident form of Siam proper. It is not known where it 
meets the next form in southwestern Siam or how far it extends to the 
northeast. All records are too uncertain to give. 

Family PODARGIDAE: Frogmouths 

BATRACHOSTOMUS STELLATUS (Gould) 

Podargus stcllatus Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1837, p. 43 (Java, error; 
Hartert '^ substitutes Malacca). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took a male on the Endau River, Pahang side, 
June 27, 1901; wing, 124 mm. He gives the soft part as: Iris straw 
yellow; eyelid-brownish yellow; feet pale brownish fleshy; inside of 
mouth pale bluish fleshy; upper mandible horny brown, lower 
mandible pale brownish fleshy. 

This specimen is hazel above; the nuchal band posteriorly is 
bordered by black; the white markings on the scapulars and wing 
coverts are bordered by black, both posteriorlj'^ or anteriorly; the 
thi'oat is ocliraceous-tawny, with faint irregular dusky bars, the lower 
throat with a few bufTy subterminal spots; the chest is orange-cin- 
namon, with concealed buft'y subterminal centers to the feathers; the 
breast and belly are cartridge buff, the feathers with narrow borders 
of orange-cinnamon, giving an occelated appearance; tail roods brown, 
barred with a much lighter brown, each bar bordered with a narrow 
dusky line above and below. Wing, 124 mm. This is not a complete 
description but is sufficient for present purposes. It does not agree 
with Hartert 's description.^^ 

Three Malacca trade skins in the United States National Museum 
are darker, and in two of them the white nuchal collar is almost 
lacking. 

The species is found in the Malay States, Sumatra, and Borneo. 

I know of no Siamese record, but it probably occurs along the 
southern border of Peninsular Siam. 

BATRACHOSTOMUS AFFINIS Blyth 

Batrachostomus affinis Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 16, p. 1180, 1847 
(Malacca). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected a male on the Rumpin River, Pahang, 
eastern Malay Peninsula, June 5, 1902; wing, 111 mm. He describes 
the soft parts as: Iris pale yellow ; feet brownish fleshy ; upper mandible 

'e Nov. Zool., vol. 9, p. 542, 1902. 

*" Catalogue of the birds in the British Museum, vol. 16, p. 639, 1892. 



154 BULLETIN 172, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

fleshy brown, lower mandible pale yellowish fleshy; angles of mouth 
pale yellow; inside of mouth pale fleshy. 

This is considerably smaller than stellatus and differently marked, 
the throat being white barred with black. 

Gairdner^* records it from the Petchaburi District; Robinson and 
Kloss ^^ record a male from Tasan, Chumpon, and mention a female 
in Air. Williamson's collection from Naihoot, Langsuen. They 
express some doubts of its identity, however. 

The species occurs from southern Tenasserim through Peninsular 
Siam to the Malay States and Borneo. 

Family CAPRIMULGIDAE: Goatsuckers 

CAPRIMULGUS MACRURU9 BIMACULATUS Peale 

Caprimulgus bimaculatus Peale, U. S. Exploring Expedition, vol. 8, p. 170, 1848 

(Singapore). 
Caprimulgus macrurus anamesus Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 48, 

p. 593, 1915 (Tanjong, Kalong, Singapore Island). 

Four males and four females, Bangkok, January 19 and July 23 
1924, August 3-6, 1926; one male and one female, Lem Sing, Chan- 
tabun, June 8, 1926, March 6, 1930; one female, Sriracha, April 20, 
1934; one male, Knong Phra, April 14, 1929; one male, Aranya, July 
17, 1930; one male, Kao Pae Pan Nam, Lomsak, February 18, 1934; 
one male, Patalung, July 5, 1929 ; two males and one female, Bangnara, 
Patani, June 2, 1924, July 3, 19, 1926. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott obtained five males and two females in Trang 
(Prahmon, March 13 and 24, April 14; Lay Song Hong, September 6 
and December 19, 1896; near Kao Nok Ram, January 5, 1899, and 
Trang, January 28, 1899) ; one male and two females, Singapore 
Island, May 15-26, 1899, and two males, Telok Besar, Tenasserim, 
March 1, 1904. There are two males and one female, collected by 
C. Boden Kloss at Tanjong Kalong, Singapore, November 2-26, 
1899, in the United States National Museum. Dr. Abbot gives the 
soft parts as: Iris dark brown (bill fleshy brown, tip black; feet fleshy 
brown, claws dark horny brown. 

Many of the Siamese specimens are in molt or immature and not 
suitable for measurement or comparison. These I have disregarded. 
Starting with the Siamese series (mostly from Bangkok) there is a 
gradual diminution of size in specimens from there down Peninsular 
Siam until Singapore is reached, but the difference is not great and 
not worthy of being recognized by name. 

The wings of four males from Siam proper measure 203-209 
(206) mm; two males from Tenasserim, 197-205 mm; five males from 
Trang, 190-200 (196.2) mm; three males from Singapore, 185-191 
(188) mm; the type of bimacidatus, 198 mm. 

>■ Journ. N'at. Hist. Soe. Siam, vol. 1, p. 150, 1915. 
» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 118, 1923. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 155 

The form has been recorded from northern Siam south through 
Peninsuhir Siam to the Malay States. Herbert ^^ reports it breeding 
at Samkok, the eggs being deposited from February to August 13. 
Dr. W. L. Abbott took a set of two eggs at Mahwun, Tenasserim, 
March 8, and another set of two eggs at Telok Besar, Tenasserim, 
March 14. 

The race is apparently resident where found and ranges from Assam, 
Burma, Yunnan, and southwestern Cluna, south to Siam, the Malay 
Peninsula, and Indo-Chiua. Other forms occur on the islands from 
Java south to AustraHa and in India. 

CAPRIMULGUS INDICUS JOTAKA Temminck and Schlegel 

Caprimulgus jotaka Temminck and Schlegel, in Siebold's Fauna Japonica, Aves 
p. 37, pis. 12, 13, 1847 (Japan). 

One female, Mekhan, February 8, 1932. 

This form breeds in Japan, the greater part of China, and the hills 
of Assam and migrates south as far as New Guinea to winter. In 
Siam it has been recorded as a migrant from Teratau, Langkawi, and 
Trang. 

CAPRIMULGUS MONTICOLUS BURMANICUS Baker 

Caprimulgus rnonticolus burmaniciis Baker, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 51, p. 102, 
1931 (Upper Chindwin, Burma). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected an adult female at Champang, Tenas- 
serim, December 20, 1903. 

In this specimen the chest is marked with sagittate spots of cinnamon, 
and the feathers of the hindneck have a rather broad orange-cinnamon 
central stripe at the tip, forming an UTegular coUar. Wing, 187 mm. 

This nightjar can be readily distinguished from the other forms 
inhabiting Siam by the two outer tail feathers in the male being mostly 
white, only the extreme tips mottled dusky. In the female the outer 
tail feathers are dusky mottled cinnamon, with irregular black bars. 
It is larger than asiaticus. 

The range assigned this form by the describer is Silvkim to eastern 
Assam, eastern Bengal, the whole of Burma, Siam, Cambodia, and 
Cochinchina. De Schauensee reports taking a female at Nakon 
Nayok ^* and on his third expedition he secured it at Chiengmai and 
Tamuang.^^ Baker ^^ records it from Paknampho; Barton " from the 
Raheng District; Lowe ^^ from 20 miles west of Kempempet. Gylden- 
stolpe ^^ says that it has been met with only in the northern parts of 
Siam and seems to be rare. Apparently it is resident throughout the 
year. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6, p. 303, 1924. 

M Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 81, p. 576, 1929. 

" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, p. 267, 1934. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 437, 1919. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 1, p. 107, 1914. 

»9Ibis, 1933, p. 482. 

» Ibis, 1920, p. 582. 



156 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

CAPRIMULGUS ASIATICUS SIAMENSIS de Schauensee 

daprimulgus asiaticus siamensis de Schauensee, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila- 
delphia, vol. 85, p. 373, 1933 (Feb. 21, 1934) (Chiengmai, Siam). 

One female, Bangkok, May 8, 1926; one male. Bung Borapet, 
June 21, 1932; four males, one female, and one unsexed, Sam Roi Yot, 
November 16-19, 1932; one unsexed, Koh Lak, June 8, 1933. 

Dr. Smith took an egg at Bung Khoa Den, March 17, 1933, that is 
light vinaceous-cinnamon, with pale brownish-drab under spots over 
the whole egg, overlaid with orange-cinnamon spots of various sizes, 
but none very large. It measures 28 by 21.2 mm. 

This form is resident all over Siam proper and probabty extends to 
Indo-China. Robinson and Kloss ^° say that it does not occur south 
of Koh Lak. Herbert ^' reports it breeding at Samkok, Ayuthia, and 
Bangkok from February to August 4. 

LYNCORNIS CERVINICEPS CERVINICEPS Gould 

Lyncornis cerviniceps Gould, Icones avium, pt. 2, pi. 14, 1838 (China or adjacent 
islands; Trang ^^). 

One male and one female. Pang Sok, August 25, 1926; one female, 
Sakeo, near Krabin, May 3, 1928; one female, Lat Bua Kao, August 
4, 1929; one male and one female, Aranya, July 17, 1930. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took three males and two females in Trang 
(Prahmon, April 8; Tyching, July 20, 21, 1896; Trang, February 25 
und March 2, 1899). There is a female in the UTiited States National 
Museum from Klong Yai, southeastern Siam, January 7, 1915, col- 
lected by C. Boden Kloss. Dr. Abbott describes the soft parts as: 
Iris dark bro\vn; feet dark fleshy brown. 

Robinson and Kloss ^^ report it fau'ly common all over Peninsular 
Siam, except Patani; Gyldenstolpe ^^ records it from Khun Tan and 
Hat Sanuk, where a nest was found on February 18 with one hard set 

This beautiful nightjar extends from Assam and Burma to Siam, the 
Malay Peninsula, and Indo-China, It probably occurs in suitable 
locahties throughout Siam and is nonmigratoiy. 

The female seems to have more russet in the plumage and the pileum 
bufRer than in the male. 

LYNCORNIS TEMMINCKII Gould 

Lxjncornis temminckii Govld, Icones avium, pt. 2, pi. [10] and text, 1838 (Borneo). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected two females on Singapore Island, May 15 
and 30, 1899, and a male and female, Endau River, east coast of 

M Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 141, 1923. 

'I Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6. p. 302, 1924. 

" Robinson and Kloss, Journ, Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 140, 1923. 

3'» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 140, 1923. 

« Kunsl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 5G, no. 2, p. 107, 191G, 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AKD THE MALAY PENINSULA 157 

Johore, June 27, 1901. He gives the soft parts as: Iris dark brown; 
bill pale fleshy, dark brown at tip; feet dark brown. 

This smaller species of Lyncornis is confined to the southern end 
of the Malay Peninsula from Penang southward, Sumatra, Nias, 
Banka, and Borneo. Apparently it has never been recorded from 
Peninsular Siam, but it occurs so close to the border that there is a 
possibility of it being taken there. 

It can be easily distinguished from the larger species by smaller 
size, shorter tail, and darker-colored crown. The wing in temminckii 
measures about 210 mm; in cerviniceps, about 300 mm or more. 

Family HEMIPROCNIDAE: Crested Swifts 

HEMIPROCNE CORONATA (Tickell) 

Hirundo coronata Tickell, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 2, p. 580, 1833 (Borab 
hum and Dholbhum, west of Calcutta, India). 

One female, Ban Kang, December 31, 1928; one female, Ta Pra, 
Korat, February 10, 1929; four males and one female, Mekhan, 
February 6-8, 1932; one female, Khun Tan, 4,500 feet, February 14, 
1932; one male, Mae Hong Sorn, Januaiy 10, 1933. 

This species extends from India to Burma, the Shan States, northern, 
and eastern Siam, and Indo-China. In Siam, apparently, it is con- 
fined to the hill forests of the northwest, northern, and eastern parts 
of the country. 

HEMIPROCNE LONGIPENNIS HARTERTI Stresemann 

Hemiprocne longipennis harterii Stresemann, Nov. Zool., vol. 20, p. 339, 1913 
(Deli, Sumatra). 

One male, one female, and one immature female, Bangnara, Patani, 
July 4 and 5, 1926; one female, Bukit, Patani, January 25, 1931; 
one male. Ban Kiriwong, July 20, 1928; one male, Sichol, Bandon, 
May 19, 1930; one male and one female, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, January 
7 and 20, 1934. 

Dr. W, L. Abbott collected three males and four females in Trang 
(Tyching, May 22 and June 4, 1896; Lay Song Hong, September 6- 
December 17, 1896; and Trang, March 4, 1899); one male and two 
females in Trengganu (Tanjong Dungun and Dungun River, Septem- 
ber 21, 1900; Kemamun River, October 1, 1900). He gives the soft 
parts as: Iris dark brown; bill and claws black; feet dark purple, 
leaden, or fleshy brown, soles fleshy. 

Oberholser ^* assigns Malay Peninsula specimens to his race H. I. 
anochra from the Natuna Islands, but as there are only two specimens 
from Sumatra in the United States National Museum and the series 
from the Anamba and Natuna Islands is small, I prefer to consider the 

" U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 159, p. 44, 1932. 
33527—38 11 



158 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Malay Peninsula birds the same as those of Sumatra as previous 
authors have done. After measuring and comparing the various 
specimens, except from the islands off the west coast of Sumatra, I 
can detect little or no difference between speciniens from Sumatra, 
the Malay Peninsula, Rliio Archipelago, the Anambas, and Natuna 
Islands, Banka, and Borneo, but from the last two localities there are 
not enough specimens to decide. The form found in Java, H. I. 
longipennis, is smaller and the gray of the rump extends farther 
foward on the back. 

Hemiprocne longipennis harterti ranges from Tenasserim and south- 
west Siam south through the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra to Banka, 
the Rio Archipelago, Anamba, and Natuna Islands, and Borneo. 
Other forms occur on the islands off the west coast of Sumatra and in 
Java and Bali. Robinson and Kloss ^^ state it is common in north- 
western and Peninsular Siam ; de Schauensee ^^ records it from Nakon 
Sritamarat, June. 

HEMIPROCNE COMATA COMATA (Temminck) 

Cypselus comatus Temminck, Nouveau recueil de planches coloriees d'oiseaux, 
vol. 4, livr. 45, pi. 268, 1824 (Sumatra). 

One male and one female. Ban Kiriwong, July 13 and 25, 1928; 
one male and two females, Kao Chong, Trang, August 27, 1933. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected a male at Tyching, Trang, July 22, 
1896 ; a male and a female on the Bindings, Straits of Malacca, April 
14, 1900. 

The range of this form extends from southern Tenasserim south 
through the Malay Peninsula to Sumatra, the islands off the west 
coast of Sumatra, the Rliio Archipelago, the Natuna Islands, and 
Borneo. Robinson and Kloss ^^ report it fairly abundant in Trang 
and the rest of the Peninsula ; de Schauensee ^^ records a male from 
Nakon Sritamarat, June 4. 

The form occurring in the Philippines has been separated as Hemi- 
procne comata major. It is larger than H. c. comata and the white on 
the belly is more extensive. 

Family MICROPODIDAE: Swifts 

MICROPUS PACIFICUS COOKI (Harington) 

Cypselus pacificus cooki Harington, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 31, p. 57, 1912 
(Goteik Caves, northern Shan States). 

One male and one female, Tha Lo, Bandon, September 24, 1931. 
These two specimens are darker above, the light throat patch and 
rump band are restricted, and the dark shaft streaks on the throat 

»» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Slam. vol. 5, p. 145. 1923. 

» Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 266, 1934. 

•'Ibis, 1911, p. 38. 

•• Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 266, 1934. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 159 

are wider and more pronounced than in North China specimens. 
The wing in the male measures 169 mm; in the female, 166 mm. 

TMiether this form breeds in Siam I am unable to say, as very few 
specimens have been collected, but since it has been found in Laos in 
the breeding season it would occur probably in northern Siam also. 

De Schauensee ^^ took a female on Cliiengdao, 4,500 feet, January 
19, and reports it common there at that time. 

MICROPUS AFFINIS SUBFURCATUS (BIyth) 

Cypselus suhjurcaius Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 18, p. 807, 1849 
(Penang). 

One male, Koh Sichang, July 5, 1930; two females, Koh Lak, June 
8, 1933. Dr. Smith also took a nest under a house on Koh Sichang, 
July 5. 

There are also in the United States National Museum a female 
collected by Dr. W. L. Abbott at Prahmon, Trang, April 15, 1896, and a 
male collected by C. Boden Kloss at Tanjong Kalong, Singapore, 
July 8, 1900. Dr. Abbott describes the tarsi as fleshy brown, the 
toes and claws as black. 

Robinson and Kloss '**' state that tliis is the common house swift of 
Peninsular Siam. Deignan ^^ found it at Cliiengmai in August. 
Forty *^ found a mummy in a cave on Koh Luan, a small island 
near Koh Phai, Inner Gulf of Siam. Gyldenstolpe ^ reports it 
rather common at Koh Lak; Robinson " found it rather common on 
the cliff's of Koh Muk, Trang, where it was breeding in January. 

The form ranges from Assam and eastern Bengal eastward to 
Burma, Yunnan, southern China, as far as Fukien, Indo-China, Siam, 
the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo, and Java. 

CYPSIURUS BATASSIENSIS INFUMATUS (Sclater) 

Cypselus infumatus Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1865, p. 602 (Borneo). 

Two females, Bangkok, December 21, 1925, and May 9, 1934; one 
female, Bandon, January 4, 1927; one male and one female, Sichol, 
Bandon, May 17, 1930; one male and one female, Ban Nam Kien, 
Nan, April 21, 1930; three males and one female, Aranya, July 10, 
1930; one female. Bung Borapet, March 25, 1933. Dr. Smith also 
took a pair at Vientiane, Laos, February 21, 1929, and a nest and two 
eggs from an areca palm at Ban Nam Ivien, Nan, April 21, 1930. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took two males in Trang, February 10, 1897. 
He gives the soft parts as: Iris dark brown; bill black; feet dark 
purplish. 

" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. StJ, p. 2fi(i. 1934. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, uo. 2, p. 14,i, 1923. 

<' Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam Suppl., vol. 8, p. 163. 1931. 

"Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 2, p. 71, 1916. 

« KunRl. Sven.ska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. ,56, no. 2, p. 107, 1816. 

" Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 7, p. 166, 1917. 



160 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

A male and two females from West Java in the United States 
National Museum are paler above than the Siamese series. No speci- 
mens from Borneo have been available for comparison. 

The form ranges from Assam to Burma, Yunnan, Siam, the Malay 
Peninsula, Sumatra, Indo-China, Hainan, Java, and Borneo. In the 
Philippines a related form, C. b. jyallidior (McGregor), occurs. 

Robinson and Kloss,^^ writing of Peninsular and southwestern Siam, 
state that this swift is common among the Lontar palms wherever 
they occur; Deignan^^ reports it common at Chiengmai; Robinson*^ 
records it from Koh Samui and Koh Pennan ; Herbert ^^ collected a 
nest and two eggs at Ban Khang, February 15. 

It seems to be comm-on all over Siam in suitable localities from the 
northern boundary to and including the Malay States. 

HIRUNDAPUS GIGANTEUS GIGANTEUS (Temminck) 

Cypselus giganteus Temminck, Nouveau recueil de planches colorizes d'oiseaux, 
livr. 61, pi. 364, 1825 (Java). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took a fine male at Lay Song Hong, Trang, 
August 30, 1896. He gives the soft parts as: Iris blacldsh brown; 
bill black; feet leaden blue, claws horny brown, tips black. 

This is apparently the first record of this bird for Siam. 

The form ranges from Trang and possibly farther north in Penin- 
sular Siam southward to Sumatra, Java, Borneo, the Natunas, and 
some of the Pliilippines (Palawan, CuUon, Calamianes). 

It can be distinguished from H. g. indicus by the absence of the 
white spot on the lores and by the darker throat. 

HIRUNDAPUS GIGANTEUS INDICUS (Hume) 

Chaetura indica Hume, Stray Feathers, vol. 1, p. 471, 1873 (Andamans and 
southern India). 

One male, Tha Chang, March 16, 1927; one male, Khun Tan 
Mountains, 4,000 feet, November 21, 1928; four males, Chantabun, 
January 11, 1930. 

There is a specimen of this form in the British Museum from 
Salanga, or Junkseylon, recorded by Hartert."*^ Robinson and Kloss ^° 
say that it occasionally straggles as far south as Selangor in the 
Peninsula; it is evidently rare or only a straggler. Dr. Smith notes 
that it is common on the highest ridges of the Khun Tan Mountains. 
Gyldcnstolpe ^' took a female on the Mehlem, March 10; Deignan ®* 

« Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 145, 1923. 

« Journ. Siam Sec. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 163, 1931. 

" Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 5, p. 146, 1915. 

"Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 6, p. 325, 1926. 

*• Catalogue of the birds in the British Museum, vol. 16, p. 476, 1892. 

w Journ. N:U. iJist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 144, 1923. 

«i Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 50, no. 8, p. 56, 1913. 

" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 163, 1931. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 161 

reports it rather common on the highest ridges of Doi Sutep in winter, 
leaving in April ; this would indicate that it is only a winter resident 
in Siam. Lowe ^^ found it not rare in western Siam and took two 
females 40 miles east of Umpang. 

It ranges from Assam and Burma, south to Manipur, the Andamans, 
northern and southeastern Siam into Cambodia, Cochinchina, and 
Laos; occasionally it straggles as far south as the Malay States. 

RHAPIDURA LEUCOPYGIALIS (BIyth) 

Acanthylis leucopygialis Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 18, p. 809, 1849 
(Penang). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected one male and two females in Trang 
(near base of Kao Nom Plu, March 11, 1897; Trang, March 12, 1897); 
one male, the Bindings, April 16, 1900. He gives the color of the 
soft parts as: Iris dark brown; bill black; feet bluish fleshy. 

This is a small, glossy, purplish-black swift; rump grayish with 
black shaft lines; upper tail coverts long and reaching beyond base of 
spines; the latter comparatively long and very fine. 

One of the females, taken by Dr. Abbott in Trang, March 12, had 
almost mature eggs. 

This species ranges from southern Tenasserim south through 
Peninsular Siam to the Malay States, Sumatra, Banka, and Borneo. 
De Schauensee ^* secured a male at Nakon Sritamarat, June 6 ; Robin- 
son and Kloss " say that it is probably common in southwestern and 
Peninsular Siam but hard to obtain. 

COLLOCALIA FRANCICA GERMANI Oustalel 

Collocalia germani Oustalet, Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris, 1876, p. 1 (Condore 

Island). 

One female, Singora, June 29, 1929; one male and three females, 
Koh Pangan, July 24-27, 1931. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected four males and seven females in Trang 
(Prahmon, February 24, 1896; Tyching, April 18 and July 25, 1896; 
Trang, September 4, 5, 1896, February 10 and 12, 1897, and Decem- 
ber 27, 1898). He gives the soft parts as: Iris blackish brown; bill 
black; feet dark brownish flesh, becoming black on toes and claws. 

Gyldenstolpe ^^ records it from Koh Lak; Robinson, under the name 
C. merguiensis, from Koh Samui and Koh Pennan (Pangan) ^^ and 
from Pulo Lontar.^^ 

The range of this form extends from the Mergui Archipelago to 
southwestern Siam, Peninsular Siam, Indo-China, and the Philippines. 

»» Ibis, 1933, p. 481. 

" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 266, 1934. 

»» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 144, 1923. 

M Kungl. Svenska Vet-Akad. Uandl., vol. 66, no. 2, p. 106, 1916. 

•"Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 5, p. 146, 1915. 

w Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 7, p. 154, 1917. 



162 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

COLLOCALIA FRANCICA INEXPECTATA Hume 

Collocalia inexpedata Hume, Stray Feathers, vol. 1, p. 206, 1873 (Button Island, 
Andamans) . 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected two males on Pulo Tioman, October 12, 
1900, and two males at Tanjong Silantei, east coast of Johore, July 26, 
1901. 

This form occurs on the Nicobars, south Andamans, and in the 
southern Malay States; once accidental in Tenasserim. 

The race is larger and has a darker rump than C.f. germani. 

COLLOCALIA LOWI ROBINSONI Stresemann 

Collocalia lowi rohinsoni Stresemann, Bull. Raffles Mus., no. 6, p. 98, 1931 (Pulo 
Belitung, Southwest of Terutau Island, west coast Malay Peninsula). 

One female, Sichol, Bandon, May 17, 1930. 

This specimen does not exactly agree with the original description. 
It does not have the bill larger or the feet stronger than in the single 
female of C. innominata with which it has been compared. It differs 
from that species, however, as follows: While the rump is lighter than 
the back, it is darker, with the shaft lines less conspicuous than in 
innominata; the shaft lines below less conspicuous and practically none 
at all on the chest and throat; wing externally purplish black instead 
of bluish black; inner margins of the remiges lighter; tarsi more heavily 
feathered; wing longer, 135 mm. Outer tail feather, 56 mm; middle, 45 
mm. This specimen may not belong here at all, but to an undescribed 
form. If the specimen has been correctly determined, then the range 
will be the Malay States northward through Peninsular Siam to Bandon. 

Robinson ®^ recorded it originally as Collocalia innominata and 
states that it was found nesting in some numbers at the type locality 
in December. 

COLLOCALIA INNOMINATA Hume 

Collocalia innominata Hume, Stray Feathers, vol. 1, p. 294, 1873 (Port Monat, 
Andaman Islands). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected a single female at Lay Song Hong, 
Trang, September 5, 1890. He gives the soft parts as: Iris blackish 
brown; tarsus brownish flesh, claws black; bill black. Wing, 124 mm. 
The tail is worn and cannot be measured accurately. 

Originally described from the Andamans, it has since been found to 
occur from southern Tenasserim through Penmsular Siam to the Malay 
States and (?) Sumatra. 

Deignan "^ took a pair on Doi Angka, 4,000 feet, April 20, 1931 ; this 
is so far north of the loiown range that I beheve the specimens should 
be carefully reexamined. De Schauensee ^* reports it from Chiengdao, 
4,600 feet, January 16. 

•» Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 7, p. 154, 1917. 

M Rodgers and Deignan, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 47, p. 92, 1934. 

•1 Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 266, 1934. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 163 

This species is much like Collocalia lowi robinsoni, but if the above 
specimen has been identified correctly it differs in having a shorter 
wing, the rump paler wdth blackish shaft lines, and the wings more 
bluish black; the lower parts have the shaft lines more conspicuous. 
Both have feathered tarsi. 

COLLOCALIA LINCHI ELACHYPTEKA Oberholser 

Collocalia linchi elachyptera Oberholskr, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 
58, p. 207, 1906 (Bentinck Island, Mergui Archipelago). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took the type series of this race, consisting of 
three males and two females, on Bentinck Island, Mergui Archipelago, 
March 9 and 10, 1900. 

This is a small race, wing 94-100 mm. 

Baker ^^ places the Malay States specimens with this race, but the 
only two I have seen from there (Pahang and Singapore) are large 
birds, with wings measuring 111-112 mm. 

C. I. elachyptera probably extends to the mainland of Tenasserim 
and Peninsular Siam. 

KEY TO SIAMESE COLLOCALIA 

o'. Size very large; wing, 157-162 mm gigas 

o^. Size considerably smaller; wing less than 140 mm. 
fei. Tarsus feathered. 

c'. Size larger, rump paler, tarsi densely feathered; wing, 
124-135 mm. 
d}. Size smaller; wing, 124-134 mm; chest with distinctly 

darker shaft lines; rump paler, with darker shaft lines iimomtnata 

(P. Size larger; wing, 135 mm or more; chest without dis- 
tinctly darker shaft lines; rump darker lowi robinsoni 

c^. Size smaller; wing, about 112 mm; tarsi only slightly 

feathered; rump only slightly paler than back vestita amechana 

h^. Tarsus naked. 

c'. Belly concolor with breast; size larger; wing, 114-120 mm. 

d} . Lighter above ; rump lighter f rancica ger mani 

(fi. Darker above; rump darker francica inexpectata 

c^. Belly white; size smaller; wing. 111 mm or less. 

d}. Size larger; wing, 103-111 mm linchi cyanoptila 

d^. Size smaller; wing, 94-100 mm linchi elachyptera 

Family TROGONIDAE: Trogons 

HARPACTES ERYTHROCEPHALUS ERYTHROCEPHALUS (Gould) 

Trogon erjjthrocephalus Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1834, p. 25 (Rangoon, 
Burma). 

One male, Doi Angka, 4,000 feet, December 4, 1928; one male, 
summit of Doi Sutep, December 15, 1928; one male and one female, 
Khun Tan Mountains, 3,000 feet, November 20, 1928, and May 10, 

M The fauna of British India, Birds, ed. 2, voL 4, p. 353, 1927. 



164 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

1933; four males and one female, Khun Tan, 3,000 feet, October 18 
and 21, 1929, August 28, 1930, February 20-22, 1932; one female, 
Kao Pae Pan Nam (west of Lomkao), February 18, 1934; one male and 
two females, Doi Hua Mot, August 23-September 1, 1934. 

This form ranges from Nepal to eastern Assam, the whole of Burma 
to Tenasserim and northern Siam. In the mountains of the Malay 
States a smaller darker race is found. In Siam it has been found as 
far south as the Raheng District, according to Barton ^^. 

De Schauensee ^* took a good series at Chiengmai and Chiengdao 
and makes some interesting technical remarks on the relationship of 
several of the forms to which I quite agree. 

HARPACTES EUYTHROCEPHALUS KLOSSI (Robinson) 

Pyrotrogon eryihrocephalus klossi Robinson, Ibis, 1915, p. 735 (Koh Chang, south- 
eastern Siam). 

Two males and two females, Koh Chang, January 5, 1925, January 
9-11, 1926; one male and one female, Kao Kuap, Krat, December 24 
and 26, 1929; one male, Kao Lem, December 27, 1930; one male and 
two females, Kao Sabap, October 28-November 26, 1933. 

The male from Kao Lem differs from the remainder of the series in 
having the throat and chest darker red, the white bars on the wing 
coverts are wider, and the back darker brown. I am placing it with 
klossi for the present, however. 

This is a smaller form than the northern Siamese race of this species, 
and the white bars on the wing coverts are narrow^er. From the small 
form inhabiting the Malay States (chaseni) it differs in being not so 
dark above and in being brighter red below, especially on the throat 
and chest. 

H. e. klossi ranges from southeastern Siam into Cambodia. Very 
little is known of its distribution. 

There are several other described races of H. eryihrocephalus, includ- 
ing the following: 

Harpades eryihrocephalus yamakanensis Rickett (Fukien and Kwangtung 

Provinces, China). 
Harpades eryihrocephalus rosa (Stresemann) (Kwangsi, China). 
Harpades eryihrocephalus hainanus Grant (Hainan). 
Harpades eryihrocephalus inlermedius Kinnear (Tonkin, North Annam, 

and Laos). 
Harpades eryihrocephalus annamensis (Robinson and Kloss) (southern 

Annam, southern Laos, and Cochiiichina). 
Harpades eryihrocephalus flagrans (Miiller) (Sumatra and ? Borneo). 
Harpades eryihrocephalus chaseni Riley (mountains of the Malay States). 

As the species is a mountain-inhabiting one and apparently does not 
occur in the lowlands, the various forms are more or less isolated. 

» Journ. N'at. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 1. p. 107, 1914. 

•♦ Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 264, 1934. 



BIRDS FROM SI AM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 165 

HARPACTES DIARDU NEGLECTUS (Forbes and Robinson) 

Pyrotrogon neglectus Forbes and Robinson, Bull. Liverpool Mus., vol. 2, no. 1, 
p. 34. 1899 (Malacca, Pahang). 

One female, Kao Luang, 2,000 feet, Nakon Sritamarat, July 22, 
1898; one female, Sichol, Bandon, May 15, 1930; one male, Kao Soi 
Dao, Trang, December 29, 1933. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected two males and two females in Trang 
(Lay Song Hong, September 2 and December 22, 1896; Kao Soi Dao, 
1,500 feet, February 14, 1899; Kok Sai, 500 feet, December 1898); one 
male, Tanjong Dungun, Trengganu, September 22, 1900; one adult 
male, one mimature male, and one female, east coast of Johore (Endau 
River, July 9 and 19, 1901; Sembrong River, July 4, 1901); one male, 
Province of Weliesley, Straits Settlements (purchased in Penang). 
He describes tlie soft parts as: Male — bill blue, black at the tip and 
along culmen; orbital skin lilac; iris dark red; feet leaden; in the 
female, the iris is dark brown. 

In this form the male has the head, throat, and foreneck black; a 
pink band across the nape; the tips of the outer tail feathers white, 
stippled with black; breast and belly scarlet; back ochraceous-tawny; 
middle tail feathers russet. In the female the head, throat, and fore- 
neck are like the back or only slightly darker. In either sex the form 
can be distinguished from the other trogons inhabiting the Malay 
Peninsula by the white, stippled with black, tips to the outer tail 
feathers. 

Two adidt males from Banka and two adult males from Sumatra 
in the United States National Museum have the whole pileum washed 
with deep red, while in the five adult males from the Malay States 
listed above this wash is faint and confined to the nape. One of the 
males from Banka (no. 180457) is almost, if not quite, as strongly 
marked with red on the pileum as Bornean specimens. On the whole, 
the Banka-Sumatran series seems to be lighter on the back than the 
series from the Malay States. I believe the mainland bird should be 
treated as a separate form from the one occurring in Sumatra. 
Blasius ^^ described Harpades diardii sumatranus from Sumatra and 
the Malay Peninsula. I definitely designate the type locality as 
Sumatra. This will bring Forbes and Robinson's name into use again 
for the mainland form. 

Harpades diardii negledus ranges from the Federated Malay States 
northward tlirough Peninsular Siam to Bandon and possibly a little 
farther north. 

Harpades diardii diardii (Temminck) is confined to Borneo and 
Banka, and Harpades diardii sumatranus Blasius inhabits Sumatra. 

M Mitt. Geogr. Oes. Nat. Mus. LUbeck, ii Reicho, vol. 10, p. 95, 1896. 



166 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL, MUSEUM 

HARPACTES KASUMBA KASUMBA (Raffles) 

Trogon kasumba Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 13, p. 282, 1822 (Su- 
matra) . 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected an adult male at the Riimpin River, 
Pahang, June 14, 1902. 

No specimens from Sumatra are available for comparison, but 
three adult males from Borneo average darker on the back, with the 
white on the outer tail feathers less extensive. 

Trogon temminkii Gould ^^ is founded on Trogon fasciatus Tem- 
minck ^^ and as the latter was evidently founded upon a Sumatra 
specimen, it becomes a pure synonym of Raffles's name. 

The range of Harpactes kasumba kasumba is Sumatra and the 
southern end of the Malay Peninsula, where it has been taken as far 
north as Bangnara, Patani.^^ 

The form resembles Harpactes diardii negledus but may be distin- 
guished by the scarlet instead of pink nape band and the pure white 
tips to the outer tail feathers without any black stippling. 

The Bornean form has been separated by Chasen and Kloss ®^ as 
Pyrotrogon kasumba impavidus. 

HARPACTES ORRHOPHAEUS ORRHOPHAEUS (Cabanis and Heine) 

Pyrotrogon orrhophaeus Cabanis and Heine, Museum Heineanum, Theil 4, Heft 1, 
p. 156, 1863 (Malacca). 

One female, Tha Lo, Bandon, September 23, 1931. 

If this specimen does not belong to this species, I do not know where 
to place it. It is not quite adult. It resembles the same sex of 
Harpactes duvaucelii very closely but differs from a female of that 
species of about the same age as follows: The breast and belly are 
ochraceous-ta^\^ly, becoming yellow-ocher on the middle of the 
abdomen and under tail coverts instead of Hght coral-red; the middle 
tail feathers are without black tips; the buff bare on the wing coverts 
are wider and farther apart; the back is somewhat darker; there are 
no coral-red tips to the tail coverts; a few red feathers are coming in 
on the ear coverts. Wing, 100; tail, 122 mm. 

The species is evidently rare, and not much is known concerning 
it. Miiller ™ secured it near Puket; farther south in the Malay 
States it has been collected oftener, probably because this part of the 
Peninsula is better kno\vn. It ranges from the Federated Malay 
States north through Peninsular Siam to Bandon. 

M Proc. Zool. Soc. Lonflon. 1835, p. 29. 

V Nouveau recueil de planches colorizes d'oiseaux, livr. 54, pi. 321, 1825. 

•• Robinson and Kloss, Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 146, 1923. 

M Bull. Raffles Mus., No. 5, p. 84, 1931. 

w Die Ornis der Insel Salanga, p. 60, 1882. 



BIRDS FEOM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 167 

HARPACTES DUVAUCELU (Tenuninck) 

Trogon duvaucelii Temminck, Nouveau recueil de planches coloriees d'oiseaux, 
livr. 49, pi. 29, 1824 (Sumatra). 

Two males and one female, BangTiara, Patani, July 6, 1926; one 
male, Kao Luang, Nakon Sritamarat, July 17, 1928; one female, 
Sichol, Bandon, May 23, 1930; one male, Kao Chong, Trang, Septem- 
ber 2, 1933; one female, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, January 22, 1934. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected one immature male, Kao Nom Plu, 
Trang, February 25, 1897, and purchased a male in Penang said to have 
come from the Province of Wellesley. He notes the color of the soft 
parts as: Iris dark bro-wn; upper eyelid blue; bill blue, black along 
the culmen and at the tip; feet blue. The specimen is not fully adult, 
however, and some of these colors may change at maturity. 

There seem to be no constant differences in color between speci- 
mens from the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Banka, and Borneo. 
Sumatran bii'ds are somewhat larger than mainland specimens, but the 
series from the former is small. A good series from Borneo is very 
close to the mainland bird in size. 

Wings of seven males from the Malaj^ Peninsula measure 99-103 
(101). Two males from Sumatra and two males from Banka, 103.5- 
109 (106.5). Eight males from Borneo, 94.5-102.5 (99.9) The 
species ranges from Borneo, Banka, and Sumatra to the Malay States 
and northward through Peninsular Siam to southern Tenasserim. 
Kobinson and Kloss^^ report it from as far north as Tasan, Chumpom, 
in Peninsular Siam. De Schauensee^^ collected two males and three 
females from Nakon Sritamarat; he compared them with specimens 
from Sumatra, Borneo, and Johore and states that the Sritamarat 
specimens are more scarlet below. 

HARPACTES ORESKIOS UNIFORMIS (Robinson) 

Pyrolrogon oreskios uniformis Robinson, Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., 
vol. 7, p. 149, 1917 (Lamra, Trang, Peninsular Siam). 

One female, Chiengdao, January 29, 1932; one female, Khun Tan, 
4,000 feet, February 26, 1932; one male, Aranya, July 19, 1930; one 
male, Muek Lek, April 16, 1933; two males and one female, Pak 
Chong, May 10, 1925, April 27, 1926, November 26, 1929; one male, 
Tha Chang, Pak Chong, March 22, 1927; one male, Nong Khor, 
Sriracha, February 11, 1927; one female, Huey Yang, Sriracha, 
August 1, 1932; one male (marked female), Sakeo, near Krabin, 
May 3, 1928; three males, Silveu, near Korat, February 21-March 1, 
1926; one female, Kao Seming, Krat, October 11, 1928; one female, 
Kao Sabap, November 1, 1933; one female, Kao Luang, 2,000 feet, 
Nakon Sritamarat, July 21, 1928; one male and one female, Kao Soi 
Dao, Trang, Januarj^ 7 and 22, 1934; one male, without label. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam., vol. 5, p. 148, 1923. 

» Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 265, 1934. 



168 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

A set of two eggs was taken at Sikeii, March 1, with the male parent. 
They are oval, cartridge buff, and quite glossy. They measure 24.4 
by 21 and 24.7 by 20.3 mm. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected the following: Two males and tw^o 
females, Trang (Prahmon, April 10, 1896; Lay Song Hong, September 
15, 1896, and January 1, 1897; Trang, January 29, 1897); one male, 
Pulo Langkawi, December 8, 1899; one male, Pulo Tenitau, Novem- 
ber 14, 1903; two females, Tenasserim (Victoria Point, December 17, 
1900; Sungei Balik, February 25, 1904). He gives the color of the 
soft parts as: Bill horn blue, tip and culmen black; feet leaden; orbital 
skin blue; ii'is dark browTi. 

The males from northern and eastern Siam differ as follows from 
the four males from Peninsular Siam: The pileum, throat, and chest 
are more of a light cadmium, not so dusky; the back is a lighter 
brown; and the tail is longer. 

Robinson and Kloss ^^ state that birds from the southern Malay 
Peninsula differ very slightly from those from farther north in having 
the bars on the secondaries and wing coverts rather closer together. 
No specimens from the Malay States have been available for exami- 
nation, but three males and one female from the Island of Nias, off 
western Sumatra, agree quite closely with Peninsular Siamese birds. 

Three males from Nias measure: Wing, 119-121 (119.7); tail, 
137-144 (140.7); culmen, 16-17 (16.7) mm. Four males from 
Peninsular Siam: Wing, 115-125 (120.7); tail, 136.5-156 (147.9); 
culmen, 15.5-17 (16.2) mm. Ten males from eastern Siam: Wing, 
114-122.5 (118.5); tail, 154-174 (163.8); culmen, 15-16 (15.4) mm. 

The form ranges from Nias, Sumatra, and the Malay States north- 
ward through Peninsular Siam to Tenasserim and northern Siam, 
and eastward through eastern Siam to Laos, Cambodia, Cochin- 
china, and Annam. The eastern bird should probably be separated 
from the one occurring in Peninsular Siam, but I do not wish to do so 
at present. The form is generally distributed /all over Siam proper, 
Peninsular Siam, and many of the islands off the coast. 

Gyldenstolpe ^* took a set of two eggs near Pak Koh on March 11, 
1914. He describes the eggs as cafe-au-lait in color and gives the 
measurements as 23.7 by 20.5 and 23.2 by 20.5 mm. He also says 
that this trogon is generally distributed over the whole of northern 
Siam. Gairdner ^^ records it from the Petchaburi District, and 
Barton ^^ from the Raheng District. 

Harpades oreskios oreskios (Teniminck) is confined to Java and 
Harpades oreskios dulitensis Grant to Borneo. 

M Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 148, 1923. 

" Kun?l. Svenska Vot.-Akad. Randl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 105, 1916. 

'« Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 1, p. 150, 1915. 

" Ibid., p. 107. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 169 

Family ALCEDINIDAE: Kingfishers 

CERYLE RUDIS LEUCOMELANURA Rcichenbach 

Ceryle leucomelanura Reichenbach, Handbuch der speciellen Ornithologie, 
Alcedineae, pp. iv, 21, pi. 409B, fig. 3488, 1851 (Ceylon), 

Three males, Potaram, February 4, 1926; eight males and three 
females, Bung Borapet, June 19-29, 1932, March 22, 1933; two 
males and one female, Bangkok, February 9 and July 5, 1924, and 
June 3, 1926. 

This race ranges from Ceylon and the whole of India, east to 
Burma, Siam, and Indo-China, and south to Tenasserim. 

It is evidently not an uncommon resident form all over Siam proper, 
but apparently does not extend south to Peninsular Siam, 

Gairdner ^^ records it for the Petchaburi District, and this is the 
most southern record I have seen in this direction; de Schauensee ^* 
took it at Kengkoi, which is the farthest east of which I have any 
records, although it is said to occur all over Indo-China. Herbert ^' 
found it breeding higher up the river than Bangkok from December 
28 to March, 

A closely related form, Ceryle rudis insignis Hartert, is found in 
southeastern Cliina, 

MEGACERYLE LUGUBRIS GUTTULATA (Stejneger) 

Ceryle guttulata Stejneger, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 15, p. 294, 1893 (new 
name for Alcedo guttata Vigors, 1831, not Boddaert, 1783; Himalayas). 

One male, Ta Fang, January 18, 1933; one male, Khonka Valley, 
January 19, 1933. 

Dr. Smith supplies the following note on the first specimen: Rare; 
small watercourses in deep jungle. Stomach contained only fish 
bones, 

Chasen and Kloss ^^ record two males from the Raheng District; 
one of these specimens is now in the United States National Museum 
and was taken June 30, This seems to be the only previous record 
for Siam, 

The race breeds from Kashmir to Assam, Burma, western and 
northern Siam, China, and south to Tonkin, Laos, and Annam. It 
is a mountain bird and does not occur in the low country, except 
possibly in winter, 

M. I. luguhris (Temminck) is a considerably lighter-colored race, 
with reduced spotting on the pectoral band, and is confined to some 
of the Japanese islands and Korea, 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 1, p. IM, 1915. 

" Proc. Acad. Nat. Pci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 2fil, 1OT4. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6, p. 307, 1924. 

•» Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 165, 1928. 



170 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL I\IUSEU^[ 

ALCEDO ATTHIS BENGALENSIS Gmelin 

Alcedo bcngalensis Gmelin, Systema naturae, vol. 1, pt. 1, p. 450, 1788 (Bengal). 

One male, Sam Roi Yot, November 9, 1932; four males and two 
females, Bung Borapet, March 22, 1933; one male, Potaram, January 
23, 1927; two males and five females, Bangkok, October 13, 1923; 
January 19, 1924, October 26-28, November 2, and December 28, 
1925, and September 23, 1930; one female, Lem Sing, March 15, 1930; 
one female, Nong Khor, near Sriracha, September 27, 1925; one male, 
Kao Seming, Krat, October 12, 1928; one unsexed, Koh Chang, 
January 13, 1926; one male, Petchabun, February 14, 1934; one female, 
Koh Tao, off Bandon, September 19, 1928; five males, five females, 
and one unsexed, Nakon Sritamarat, September 16-October 8, 1926. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected the following: One male, four females, 
and one unsexed, Trang (Prahmon, March 8-19, 1896 ; Lay Song Hong, 
September 28, 1896; Trang, January 1, 1899); one female, Pulo Lada, 
Langkawi Group, November 30, 1899; one male and two females, 
Tanjong Kalong, Singapore, October 29, 1899, March 2, 1900 (these 
three specim.ens taken by C. Boden Kloss) ; one female, Tanjong Dun- 
gun, Trengganu, September 20, 1900; one male and two females, 
Tenasserim (Maliwun, March 18, 1900; Victoria Point, March 30, 
31, 1900); and one female, Loughborough Island, Mergui Archipelago, 
January 25, 1900. 

Dr. Abbott gives the soft parts of the male as: Iris dark brown; 
bill black; feet red; claws horny brown; the female differs in having 
the lower mandible red or orange. 

This form has an immense range extending from India east to 
Assam, Burma, China, Korea, and Japan, south to Indo-China, Siam, 
Peninsular Siam, the Malay States, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and the 
Philippines. 

The form is a common resident bird, in suitable localities, all over 
Siam and on the islands off the coast. In the northern part of its 
range it is migratory or partially so. 

Alcedo atthis pallasii Reichenbach, a somewhat larger and paler 
form, breeds in Kashmir and Turkestan and extends westward to 
Transcaspia. It moves south of its breeding range in winter apparently 
but has not been taken east of the northwest provinces of India. 

ALCEDO MENINTING MENINTING Horsfield 

Alcedo meninting Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 13, p. 172, 1821 
(Java). 

One male, Nakon Sritamarat, October 1, 1926; one female, Sichol, 
Bandon, May 19, 1930. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected a pair at Chong, Trang, January 23-24, 
1897, and an unsexed specimen on Singapore Island, ]May 27, 1899. 
He describes the soft parts of the male as: Iris dark browTi; bill black. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 171 

reddish at gape; feet red, claws horn brown. The female is described 
as: Bill red, blackish above. 

The specimens of this species available to me for comparison are 
not sufficient to discuss the various races that have been proposed. 
Leaving out of consideration the forms described from the islands oflF 
the west coast of Sumatra, and considering only the Greater Sunda 
Islands, the Phillippines, and Siam, I have concluded that for the 
present it is inadvisable to recognize more than one form for specimens 
from Borneo, Java, Sumatra, and the mainland as far north in Penin- 
sular Siam as Nakon Sritamarat and Bandon at least, and possibly 
farther. Five males from Sumatra, four males from Borneo, two 
males from Peninsular Siam, and two from Tawi Tawi, Philippines, 
agree in having the head banded with blue and the wing coverts spotted 
with the same color; below, allowing for individual variation, they show 
no differences. There are not so many specimens of the female. 
There are three from Sumatra, one from Borneo, two from Java, two 
from Peninsular Siam, one from Singapore, and two from Tawi Tawi, 
Philippines. These again, allowing for individual variation, show no 
constant differences. There are some differences in measurements, but 
this is likely due to the smallness of the series rather than to geographic 
variation. 

Five males from Sumatra measure: Wing, 60-63 (61.8); tail, 23.5- 
28.5 (26.2); culmen, 36.5-41 (39.6) mm. Three males from Borneo: 
Wing, 60-62.5 (61.2); tail, 24.5-27 (25.5); culmen, 39-41 (39.8) mm. 
Two males from Peninsular Siam: Wing, 65-65.5; tail, 26.5-27.5; 
culmen, 41-42 mm. Two males from Tawi Tawi, Philippines: 
Wing, 62, 67; tail, 25, 28.5; culmen, 40, 40. 

Four females from Sumatra measure: Wing, 59-66 (62.4); tail, 
24.5-28 (26); culmen, 34-38 (36.7) mm. One female from Borneo: 
Wing, 61; tail, 27; culmen, 40.5 mm. Two females from Java: 
Wing, 65-66; tail, 26-29; culmen, 39.5-40.5 mm. Two females from 
Peninsular Siam: Wing, 64.5-66.5; tail, 26.5-28; culmen, 36-38 mm. 
Two females from Tawi Tawi, Philippines: Wing, 64-68; tail, 26-26.5; 
culmen, 36.5-37.5 mm. 

Stuart Baker ^' splits the range of what he regards as Alcedo menintmg 
meninfing with his Alcedo meninting sciniillans. He says that the bars 
of the forehead and crown are tinged with green in the latter. In 
the series before me the specimens that correspond to this definition 
are all females and came from: Sichol, Bandon; Chong, Trang; 
Singapore Island; Great Karimon Island, East Sumatra; and Tawi 
Tawi, Philippines; one specimen in each case. Some of these occur 
in the same locality as the memviing type of plumage, and Baker *^ 
mentions that meninting and sciniillans both occur together. Taking 

«' The fauna of British India, Birds, ed. 2, vol. 4, pp. 254-256, 1927. 
M Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 39, p. 39, 1919. 



172 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

the above facts into consideration, I have been forced to the conclu- 
sion that the hitter is only an aberration or an age character and has 
no geographic significance. In other words, A. m. scintillans should 
be considered as a synonym of A. m. meninting. 

The range of A. m. meninting as at present understood would there- 
fore be as follows: Southern Tenasserim, south through Peninsular 
Siam to the Malay States, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and some of the 
southern islands of the Philippines, 

This form does not seem to be a common bird in Peninsular Siam. 
Ogilvic-Grant ^^ records it from Biserat and Jalor, Patani; Robinson 
and Kloss ^* from Pulo Terutau; and later ^^ from Junkseylon. 
Baker ^^ lists it from Klong Wang Hip. 

ALCEDO EURYZONIA NIGRICANS Blyth 

Alcedo nigricans Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 16, p. 1180, 1847 (Malacca). 

One male, Kao Luang, Nakon Sritamarat, September 21, 1928; 
one male, Sichol, Bandon, May 24, 1930. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took a male at Kao Soi Doi, 1,000 feet, Trang, 
February 17, 1899. He gives the color of the soft parts as: Iris dark 
brown; bill very dark brown, blackish above; feet red. 

This form ranges from the Malay States to Peninsular Siam and 
Tenasserim. Robinson *^ records it from Chong Trang, and Kao 
Nawng, Bandon.*^ It seems to be a rare bird in Peninsular Siam and 
apparently has not been taken often in the Malay States. There are 
two females from Borneo in the United States National Museum, 
but there are none of this sex from the mainland. A male from Dutch 
East Borneo is considerably smaller than the three mainland males, 
and the neck patch is a richer, much deeper color, near tawny; cinna- 
mon in the mainland specimens. No specimens from Java have been 
examined. 

The male from Borneo measures: Wing, 79; culmen, 45 mm. The 
three males from Peninsular Siam measure: Wing, 83-91 (87); culmen, 
48.5-50.5 (49.5) mm. 

CEYX ERITHACUS ERITHACUS (Linnaeus) 

Alcedo erithaca Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 115, 1758 (Bengal). 
Alcedo tridactyla Pallas, Spicilegia zoologica . . ., vol. 7, pi. 2, fig. 1, p. 10, 1769 
(India) . 

One male, Nong Khor, near Sriracha, September 30, 1925; one 
female, Koh Kut, May 23, 1929; one male, Nakon Sritamarat, Sep- 
tember 16, 1926. 

*' Fr.scictili Malayenses, pt. 3, p. Ill, 1905. 

*• Ihis. 1911, p. 32. 

« Jonru. Nar. Hist. Sos. Siam, vol. 3, p. 95, 1919. 

*> nv:,i., p. 433. 

n Ibis, 1911. p. S3. 

"Journ. Federated Maiay States Mus., vol. 5, p. 91, 1915. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AXD THE MALAY PENINSULA 173 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected one male and two females, Domel 
Island, Mergui Archipelago, February 23, 25, 1900. He describes the 
soft parts as: Iris dark brown; bill and feet coral-red. 

The form ranges from Ceylon and practically aU India east to 
Assam, Burma, Siam, Indo-China, and Hainan and south through 
Peninsular Siam to the Aroa Island, Straits of Malacca, and Sumatra. 

Robinson and Kloss *^ state that it occurs tliroughout the Malay 
Peninsula. Gyldenstolpe ^^ says that it is generally distributed 
throughout Siam, though nowhere common. A related form, Ceyx 
erithacus macrocarus Oberholser, is found in the Nicobar and Andaman 
Islands. 

CEYX RUFIDORSUS RUFIDORSUS Strickland 

Ceyx rufidorsa Strickland, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1846, p. 99, 1847 (Malacca). 

One male, Sichol, Bandon, August 29, 1929. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took a male on the Endau River, east coast of 
Johore, July 15, 1901. 

Chasen and Kloss ^^ in working over this species reached the con- 
clusion that dilhmjnni Sharpe, innominata Salvadori, sharpei Salvadori, 
euerythra Sharpe, and robusta Parrot are synonyms of this form. As 
they had a large series, they are probably right. They give the 
range of C. r. rufidorsus as Malay Peninsula, Rhio-Lingga Islands, 
Banka, Billiton, Sumatra, Mentawi Islands, Batu Islands, Java, Bali, 
Kangean Islands, Anamba Islands, Natuna Islands, and Borneo. 
I have left out the Philippine Islands mentioned by them as specimens 
examined by me from some of the other islands of the group seem to 
be different. They have less of the plilox-purplish wash on the head 
and back. 

Robinson ^- records this kingfisher under the name Ceyx euerythra 
from Ban Kok Klap, Bandon. Bandon seems to be its northern limit 
on the m.ainland. 

RAMPHALCYON AMAUROPTERA (Pearson) 

Halcyon amauroptera Pearson, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 10, p. 635, 1841 
(Calcutta, India). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected two males and one female at Prahmon^ 
Trang, March 8, 17, 1896; one male, Pulo Adang, Butang Islands, 
December 14, 1899; two males, Maliwun, Tenasserim, March 18, 1900; 
one male, Sullivan Island, Mergui Archipelago, February 3, 1900. 
He describes the soft parts as: Iris dark brown; orbital skin orange or 
red; bill red, tip black; feet bright red, claws horny brown. 

" Uiis, 1911. p. 33. 
« Ibif, 1920. p. 588. 

•' Bull. Raffles Mus., no. 4, pp. 21-24, 1930. 
" Journ. Federated Malay States Mas., vol. 5, p. 92, 1915. 
33527 — 38 12 



174 BULLETIlSr 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

This species can readily be distinguished from the capensis forms 
occurring in Siam by the seal-brown back and wings and the ochraceous- 
orange pileum. 

The species ranges from eastern Bengal to Assam and south tlirough 
Tenasserim and western Peninsular Siam to the Langkaw^i group of 
islands. Robinson and Kloss ^^ state that they are not aw^are that it 
has been met with on the east coast of the Peninsula; it is fairly com- 
mon along the west coast but is never found far from salt water. 
Robinson ®* records it from Pulo Terutau and Pulo Dayang Bunting, 
Langkawi Group. 

RAMPHALCYON CAPENSIS BURMANICA (Sharpe) 

Pelargopsis hurmanica Sharpe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1870, p. 67 (Tonghoo, 
Burma) . 

One male and one female, Meldian, February 7, 1932; three males 
and one female, Bung Borapet, Jime 22-24, 1932, March 22, 1933; one 
male, Bung Tabgrit, March 27, 1933; one female, Bangkok, April 17, 
1924; one male, Pong, Udon, February 17, 1929; two males and one 
female, Lem Sing, March 12, 16, 1930, June 27, 1931; one male, Sikeu, 
near Korat, Februarj^ 17, 1926; one female, Petchabun, Februarj'- 14, 
1934; one male, Lamton Lang, May 30, 1934; one male, Rajagm^i, 
April 10, 1926; one male, Muang Kanburi, April 15, 1928; one male, 
Koh Lak, June 22, 1933. 

This form is a considerably lighter blue on the mantle and wing8 
and the head is a lighter brown (drab) than the next form (ma!ac- 
censis); it is also somewhat larger. Ten males from Siam proper 
measure: Wing, 146.5-159 (151.5); tail, 92.5-105 (97.7); culmen, 
77-90 (84) mm. Five females: Wing, 146-164.5 (156); tail, 84-104 
(97.7); cuhnen, 81-86 (84) mm. 

The race ranges from Buraia south to Siam and east to Cambodia, 
Laos, Cochinchina, and Annam. In Siam proper it is found resident 
all over the comitry and southward in the southwestern part as far as 
Koh Lak at least. 

Robinson and Kloss °^ record it from Hat Sanulv, near Koh Lak; 
Namchiik, Pakchan, and Kandhuli Chaiya; the two latter localities 
are in Peninsular Siam, and the last is at about the southern limit of 
its range in this direction. 

Specimens from Bandon ai^e more or less intermediate between 
hurmanica and malaccensis, but nearer tlie latter. 

Herbert ^^ states that in central Siam it is resident in the fnut gar- 
dens, where it breeds in hollow trees; four nests were found on the 

M Journ. Nat. Uist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 122, 1923. 

'* Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 7, p. 146, 1917. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 122, 1923. 

»e Journ. Nat. Uist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6, p. 308, 1924. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 175 

following dates: May 12, May 26, July 28, and August 31, only one of 
which contained a completed set of four eggs. 

RAMPHALCYON CAPENSIS MALACCENSIS (Sharpe) 

Pelargo'psis malaccensis Sharpe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1870, p. G7 (Malacca)' 
Ramphalcyon capensis hTjdrophila Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 35, 
p. G77, 1909 (Singapore Island). 

One male and one female, Bangnara, Patani, May 30, 1924, July 11 > 
1926; one male, Bukit, Patani, January 27, 1931; one male, Yala, 
Patani, February 1, 1931; one male and fom* females, Nakon Srita- 
marat, September 16-October 8, 1926; one unsexed, Ban Tlia Yai, 
Nakon Sritamarat, July 8, 1928; one female, Bandon, January 7, 
1927; one male, Tlia Lo, Bandon, September 14, 1931. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected the following: Three males and three 
females, Tyching, Trang, May 10-July 6, 1896; one male, Packa, 
Trengganu, September 26, 1900; one male, Jambu Luang, east coast of 
Johore, August 2, 1901; one male, Singapore Island, May 27, 1899 
(type of hydrophila Oberholser). He describes the soft parts as: 
Male, iris dark brown; bill dark red, tip black; feet bright red, claws 
black ; orbital ring red ; the female is similar. 

The t3'pe of Bamphalcyon cajyensis hydroj^hila Oberholser has a 
lighter-colored pileum with a more buffy wash than the remainder of 
the above series. There is a male from Nakon Sritamarat (no. 
308608) that has even a deeper, more ocliraceous wash on the pileum 
than the type of hydrophila; these two specimens I prefer to consider 
aberrant. The males from Trengganu and Johore have dark pileums 
and are similar to those from Trang, or even a little darker. The 
pileiun becomes lighter as the foim extends north in the Peninsula, 
and there is a bluish wash in the Bandon male and in one male from 
Nakon Sritamarat. In the other male from the latter locality, as 
mentioned above, tlie pilemn is washed with ocliraceous. The male 
from Bandon, however, is darker on the pileum and back than bur- 
manica from farther north. 

The females of the genus are apparently somewhat larger than the 
males and have a tendency to be somewhat lighter on the pileum. 
Two females from the Rhio Ajchipelago (Lingga Island and Pido 
Bintang), associated by Oberholser with the type of hydrophila in his 
description, have longer bills than any female measured from the 
mainland; they are somewhat immature and may or may not belong 
to the mainland race. As to their drab, ochraceous-washed pileums, 
they can be almost matched by a female from Nakon Sritamarat (no. 
308611). For tlie present they can be placed with the mainland form 
with some reservations. 

Ten males from Peninsular Siam (from Bandon south) and the Malay 
States measure: Wing, 139-153 (146.2); tail, 85.5-95 (91.7); culmen. 



176 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

73-84 (77) mm. Eight females: Wing, 145-158 (151.5); tail, 91-99.5 
(95.2); culmen, 75.5-83 (78) mm. 

The range of the form extends from Bandon in Peninsular Siam, or 
possibly slightly farther north, south through the Malay States to 
Singapore. Robinson ^' reports it from Koh Pennan, off Bandon. 

This form has a darker pilcum and back than R. c. burmanica. 

HALCYON SMYRNENSIS FUSCA (Boddaert) 

Alcedo fusca Boddaeut, Table des planches en!umin(5ez d'histoire naturelle, 
p. 54, 1783 (Malacca). 

One female, Mesuya Valley, January 2, 1933; one female. Bung 
Borapet, Jime 21, 1932; one male, Potaram, February 6, 1926; two 
males and five females, Bangkok, October 2 and 25, 1924, October 10, 
26, and December 18-30, 1925; one unsexed, Hupbon, October 31, 
1931; one female, Nong Khor, February 5, 1927; one male, Kao 
Sabap, November 4, 1933; two males and one female, Muang Kan- 
buri, April 7 and 9, 1928; one male and one female, Pran, April 1 and 
4, 1931; one female, Bandon, January 6, 1927; one unsexed, Bangnara, 
Patani, July 11, 1926; one female, Bukit, Patani, Januarj^ 24, 1931. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected tlic following: Three males, two females, 
and one unsexed in Trang (Prahmon, April 4, 1896; Tyching, July 8, 
1896; Lay Song Hong, August 16, and September 20, 1896; Trang, 
February 15, 1897, March 4, 1899). There is a female from Tanjong 
Kalong, Singapore, October 15, 1899, collected by C. Boden Kloss. 
Dr. Abbott also collected a set of two eggs in Trang, February 
15, 1897. 

Dr. Abbott gives the soft parts as: Iris dark brown; bill red, dark 
at base; feet red, claws dark hom brown. 

There seem to be no constant differences in color between Peninsular 
Siam specimens and those from Siam proper; the males from the north 
on the average seem to have somewhat larger bills, but it is not 
constant. 

The form ranges all over India and Burma east to Siam, southwest 
China, Indo-China, and Peninsular Siam to the Malay States as far as 
Singapore. Apparently it is a common resident form all over Siam and 
in the Malay Penin.5ula. 

The species has been divided into a niunber of forms. That from 
Fokien, China, has been separated as Halcyon smyrnensis Jokiensls 
Laubmann and Gotz.^^ 



»' Journ. Fed. Malay States Miis., vol. 5, p. 145, 1915. 
•> Verh. Orn. Ges. Bayern, vol. 17, p. 42, 1926. 



BIRDS FROM SI AM AND THE INIALAY PENINSULA 177 

HALCYON PILEATA (Boddaert) 

Alcedo pileala Boddaert, Table des planches enlumin^ez d'histoire naturelle, 
p. 41, 1783 (China). 

Five males and two females, Banirkok, February 6 and October 30, 
1924, October 22 and 29, and December 29, 30, 1925, and January 19, 
1927; one female, Nong Khor, February 12, 1927; one male, Lem 
Sing, March 15, 1930; one female, Koh Chang, January 5, 1926; one 
male, Rajaguri, April 10, 1926; one male and one female, Koh Tao, 
September 25, 26, 1928. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected the following: Five males and two 
females in Trang (Prahmon, March 19 and 21, 1890; Lay Song Hong, 
October 9, 1896; Trang, January 13, 26, 1897; Kantany, January 16, 
1897); one male, Pulo Adang, Butang Islands, December 15, 1899; 
one male and three females, Tenasserim (Tanjong Badak, January 6, 
1900; Bok Pyin, February 19, 1900; Victoria Point, November 24, 
1900; Maliwun Creek, December 20, 1901); two females, Mergui 
Arcliipelago (Loughborough Island, January 26, 1900; and Victoria 
Island, December 5, 1903). He gives the colors of the soft parts as: 
Iris dark brown; bill red, dusky at base; feet red, blackish in front 
and top of toes. 

Tliis species has a tremendous range, being found from Korea, in 
the north, south through China to Indo-China, Siam, Burma, and 
Assam, west to Nepal, thence south through Peninsular Siam to 
Celebes. 

In the northern part of its range it is only a summer resident, but 
farther south it is said to be resident the year around. The resident 
birds in the southern part of its range are probably augmented in the 
cold season by the migrants from farther north. It seems to be a 
rather common bird in Siam proper and in Peninsular Siam also. 

Herbert ^^ took a single egg from a hole in a tree in the middle of 
July at Paknampo, central Siam. 

It is said to be a seacoast bird, going inland only along the large 
rivers. 

ENTOMOTHERA COROMANDA COROMANDA (Latham) 

Alcedo coromanda Latham, Index ornithologicus, vol. 1, p. 252, 1790 (Coro- 
mandela; type locality fixed by Oberholser, Rangoon, Pegu). 

One male and one female, Nakon Sritamarat, March 28, 1924; one 
male, Koh Kut, May 25, 1929. 

Dr. Abbott secured a male at Tychmg, Trang, April 24, 1896. He 
gives the soft parts as: Feet red, claws orange-yellow; orbital ring 
orange. 

The form ranges from the Himalayas of Nepal east to Assam, 
Burma, southeastern China, Indo-China, Siam, and down Peninsular 

»» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6, p. 309, 1924. 



178 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Siam to Malacca. Gyldenstolpe ^ lias recorded it from Khun Tan; 
Robinson ^ from Pulo Langkawi and Pulo Terutau ; Robinson and 
Kloss " state that it is widely, though sparingly, distributed along both 
coasts of Peninsular Siam and is very numerous both in Singora 
and at Tanjong Patani. 

ENTOMOTHERA COROMANDA MINOR (Teinitiinck and Schlegel) 

Alcedo {Halcyon) coromanda minor Temminck and Schlegel, Fauna Japonica, 
Aves, p. 76 1842 (Borneo and Sumatra; type locality restricted by Ober- 
holser, Pontianak, Borneo). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took an adult male on Singapore Island, May 18, 
1899. He describes the soft parts as: Iris dark brown; eyelids red; 
bill and feet red, claws horny red. 

This is a smaller and considerably darker bird than the preceding 
race. It ranges from Borneo and Java to Singapore and Johore; 
possibly farther north. 

There are apparently no records of this form from Peninsular 
Siam, though it may reach Patani. 

SAUROPATIS CHLORIS ARMSTRONGI (Sharpe) 

Halcyon chloris subsp. a. armslrongi Sharpe, Catalogue of birds in the British 
Museum, vol. 17, p. 277, pi. 7, fig. 1, 1892 (Sunderbunds to Burmah, Tenas- 
serim, and Siam, south to the Malayan Peninsula, Sumatra, and northern 
Borneo; type locality as fixed by Oberholser, Siam). 

Two males, Bangkok, February 14 and April 13, 1924; one male 
and two females, Nakon Sritamarat, September 16-30, 1926; one male, 
Patalung, July 10, 1929; one female, Koh Pangan (Pennan), July 22, 
1931. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected the following: Two males and two 
females, Trang (Telibon Island, February 25 and March 1, 1896; 
Prahmon, March 22 and 26, 1896); one male and one female, Pulo 
Langkawi, December 2, 1899; one female, Tanjong Laboha, Treng- 
ganu, September 30, 1900; two males, Mergui Arcliipelago (Lough- 
borough Island, January 24, 1900; Bentinck Island, March 9, 1900); 
one male, Victoria Point, Tenasserim, March 30, 1900. He gives the 
soft parts as: Iris dark brown; bill black, white at base of lower 
mandible; feet fleshy brown. 

The two males from. Bangkok have the ear coverts blue like the 
croM'n. An unsexed specimen from Klong Yai has the ear coverts 
more of a greenish blue; the latter can be matched by specimens from 
Peninsular Siam. Only two specimens, one from Pulo Langkawi and 
one from Trengganu, have the ear coverts blackish, and they show 
signs of being slightly inmiature, though in other immature speci- 

1 Kungl. SveDska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 118, 1916. 
» Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 7, p. 147, 1917. 
» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 128. 1923. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 179 

mens the ear coverts are greenish blue. If Sauroyatis chloris humii 
Sharpe is to be recognized, it will have to be for a form inhabiting 
the Malay States and probably farther south. 

The range of S. c. armstrongi is from the southeastern coast of 
Bengal to Burma, the coast of Siam, southern Indo-China, and 
Peninsular Siam as far as Pujo Langkawi. It is a seacoast form and 
apparently is found all along the Siamese seacoast and on the islands 
off the coast. 

Herbert * reports it common in the nesting season at Bangkok, 
which extends from March 10 to August. 

CARIDAGRUS CONCRETUS CONCRETUS (Temminck) 

Dacelo concreta Temminck, Nouveau recueil de planches colorizes d'oiseaux, livr. 
58, pi. 346, 1825 (Sumatra). 

One male, Huey Yang, Kao Luang, October 6, 1930; one female, 
Kao Chong, Trang, September 6, 1933; one female, Kao Soi Dao, 
Trang, December 20, 1933. Dr. Smith gives the soft parts of the 
male as follows: Iris dark brown; bill blackish brown, below yellow; 
legs greenish yellow; the female is sim^ilar. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected a female at the Endau River, east 
coast of Johore, June 27, 1901, and a female at the Rumpin River, 
Pahang, July 5, 1902. Dr. Abbott's description of the soft parts of 
the female is practically the same as that of Dr. Smith except the legs 
are given as brownish yellow or yellow. 

The two females taken by Dr. Abbott were caught in rat traps in 
deep forest far from water. 

Beside the above, the United States National Museum contains 
only two males and one female from Sumatra with definite localities. 
From the two Sumatra males, the single male from Kao Luang differs 
in being much larger and in having the coverts of the wing edged with 
lighter blue. The single male from Kao Luang measures: Wing, 
116; culmen, 48 mm. The two Sumatra males: Wing, 104-107; 
culmen, 44.5-45 mm. Wliether these differences would hold in a 
larger series is problematical. 

Robinson and Kloss ^ state that Bornean specimens are darker 
blue. 

This species seems to be rare in museums, probably on account of 
its habits. 

It ranges from the extreme south of Tenasserim to Singapore, 
Sumatra, Banka, and Billiton. The Bornean form has been named 
Halcyon concreta borneana by Chasen and Kloss. ^ 

* Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6, p. 310, 1924. 
» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 130, 1923. 

• Bull. Raffles Mus., no. 4, p. 24, 1930. 



180 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

LACEDO PULCHELLA PULCHELLA (Horsfleld) 

Dacelo pvlchella Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 13, p. 175, 1S21 
(Java) . 

One male, Tha Lo, Bandon, September 24, 1931; one female, Iluey 
Yang, Kao Luang, October 4, 1930; one female, Kao Chong, Trang, 
September 13, 1933; one male, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, January 4, 1934; 
one male and three females, Kao Sabap, November 13-25, 1933; one 
female, Lamton Lang, May 28, 1934. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott secured a female at Tyching, Trang, July 3, 1896. 

He gives the color of the soft parts as: Feet brownish yellow, claws 
dark brown; bill red; orbital sldn red. 

The female in this species is somewhat larger than the male and 
differently colored. 

I am inclined to agree with Robinson and Kloss ^ in not recognizing 
a northern form of this kingfisher. The species varies considerably 
individually, but my material is not sufficient to show geographic 
differences, if any exist. A male from eastern Sumatra is darker 
chestnut on the forehead and cheeks than Peninsular Siamese males, 
and the head is without any white markings on the crown, but whether 
these differences are geographic I cannot tell. 

The species ranges from Pegu and Tenasserim to Siam and east to 
Cambodia, Laos, central and southern Annam, south through Penin- 
sular Siam to the Malay States, Sumatra, Java, and the Natuna 
Islands. 

Gyldenstolpe ^ records it from Pak Koh and Hue Pu, northern 
Siam; it has been recorded thence from practically all parts of the 
country and on some of the larger islands off the coast. It is said 
to be a bird of the dry jungle, and probably that is why it is not com- 
monly collected. Herbert ^ records a set of three eggs taken by his 
collector at Meklong, May 26. De Schauensee ^° secured a small 
series at Chiengmai, 3,500 feet, Chantabun, and at Nakon Sritamarat, 
which he assigns to Lacedo pulchella amabilis. 

Family MEROPIDAE: Bee-eaters 

MEROPS ORIENTALIS BIRMANUS Neumann 

Merops viridis birmanus Neumann, Orn. Monatsb., vol. 18, p. SO, 1910 (Alyingan, 
Burma^ . 

Two females, Chomtong, November 30, 1928; two males, Chieng- 
dao, January 28, 1932; three males and two females, Sam Roi Yot, 
November 9-19, 1932; one male, Tha Luang, October 23, 1932; one 
female, Ban Kang, December 1, 1928; two males, Noan Wat, February 

' Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 126, 1923. 

• Kungl. Svenska Vei.-Akad Uandl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 115, 1916. 

» Journ. Nat. Uist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6, p. 311, 1924. 

•« Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 262, 1934. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 181 

14, 1929; one immature male and three immature females, Cbantabun, 
May 26-27, 1929; one male, Sriracha, April 19, 1934; two males and 
one female, Muang Kanburi, April 7-9, 1928; two males and one 
female. Bo Ploi, Kanburi, September 9, 1928; one male and one female, 
Koh Lak, June 6, 1933. 

The four immature specimens collected at Chantabun are in two 
stages of plumage. All four are a warm buff below washed with light 
green in varying degrees, according to age; above they are a lighter, 
less bright green than the adult, with a bufi'y suffusion on the nape 
and upper back. In the first stage the black crescent on the chest is 
entii-ely lacking and the lowerparts are lighter, less green. In the 
next stage the black crescent appears on the chest; the lowerparts 
become a deeper green; the throat a citron j'ellow; the malar region 
bright green ; above, the pileum becomes a deeper buff, with a deeper 
buff suffusion. 

In some of the apparent adults the chin and sides of the throat 
become cendre blue, but the specimens with the bluest throats do not 
always have the deepest golden pileums. All the specimens with 
the bluest throats Dr. Smith has sexed as males, so it may be a sexual 
character. All the birds sexed as males have not the blue chins and 
throat, however; they are probably younger bh'ds. 

The present form has a rather wide range, extending from Assam, 
Burma, and Yunnan southward to Siam and eastward to Cambodia, 
Cochinchina, Annam, and Laos. It occurs nearly all over Siam proper 
and in the southwest has been taken as far south as Koh Lak where it 
has been collected by Count Gyldenstolpe and Robinson and Kloss. 

Stuart Baker recognizes two additional forms for Asia and Sclater 
four forms for Africa. Merops orientalis orientalis Latham inhabits 
nearly all India and Ceylon, except the extreme northwest frontier 

MEROPS PHIUPPINUS JAVANICUS Horsfield 

Merops javanicus Horsfield, Trans, Linn. Soc. London, vol. 13, p. 171, 1821 
(Java) . 

One male and one female, Bung Borapet, June 20, 1932, March 29, 
1933 ; one male and one female, Bangkok, January 3 and September 30, 
1924; one male and one female, Fran, April 1, 1931 ; one male and one 
female, Sam Roi Yot, November 8, 1932; one male and one female, 
Koh Tao, off Bandon, September 22, 1928. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected the following: Three males and one 
female, Prahmon, Trang, February 24 and March 9, 1S9G; one male, 
Tanjong Kalong, Singapore, November 19, 1899; one male, Fulo 
Langkawi, December 8, 1899. 

These birds agree with the form from Java rather than that from 
the Philippine Islands. Specimens from the Philippines have the 
breast washed with buffy and the back a golden-green, while specimens 



182 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

from Java and the mainland have the breast without the huffy wash, 
just a phiin bright green and the back the same. 

The form has a wide range, occurring from Ceylon and practically 
all India to the foothills of the Himalayas, eastward to Burma, Siam, 
Cambodia, Cochinchina, Annam, and Tonkin, and southward down 
Peninsular Siam to the Malay States, Sumatra, Java, and Celebes. 

The form is both a resident and migrant virtually all over Siam and 
extends down Peninsular Siam to Singapore. Robinson " in recording 
it from Pulo Terutau says that it is a migrant only in the southern part 
of the Peninsula; he has also recorded it from Koh Samui and Koh 
Pennan.^^ Williamson ^^ states that it is both resident and migrant 
at Bangkok. 

Merops philippinus philippinus Linnaeus inhabits the Philippine 
Islands. 

MEROPS VIRIDIS SUMATRANUS Rafflea 

Merops sumatranus Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 13, p. 294, 1822 
(Sumatra) . 

One male and one immature unsexed, Bangnara, Patani, May 9, 
1924, July 17, 1926; one male and one female, Singora, June 29, 1929; 
two males, Koh Lak, June 5 and 11, 1933; one female, Nong Khor, 
Sriracha, October 3, 1925. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected a male and a female in Trang (Pralmion^ 
February 21, 1896; Tyching, July 8, 1896); two males and one female 
at the Bindings, Straits of Malacca, April 15 and 16, 1900; one male, 
one female, and one unsexed, Tanjong Kalong, Singapore, March 6 
and April 20, 1900. He gives the soft parts as: Bill black; feet dull 
black; iris carmine. 

This form has a wide range, occurring from Borneo, Sumatra, and 
Nias through the Malay States and Peninsular Siam to southern and 
southeastern Siam, Cochinchina, Annam, Tonkin, and southeastern 
China. Robinson and Kloss ^* report it common over nearly all the 
Peninsula and met with it on Langkawi. Robinson '^ records it 
from Koh Samui and Koh Pennan, off Bandon; Kloss ^® lists it from 
Lat Bua Kao, eastern Siam. 

Bangs and Penard *^ described the form Merops sumatranus coeli- 
genus from Java. Two specimens in the United States National 
Museum bear out their diagnosis of bluer underparts, etc., as com- 
pared with specimens from the mainland. Unfortunately, however, 

" Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 7, p. 152, 1917. 

" Journ. Federated Malay Slates Mus., vol. 5, p. 146, 1915. 

13 Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 2. p. 328, 1917. 

lUbis. 1911, p. 37. 

" Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 5, 1915, p. 146. 

" Ibis, 1918, p. 93. 

>' Proc. New England Zool. Club, vol. 8, p. 43, 1923. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 183 

Hartert ^^ has shown that Merops viridis Linnaeus appHes to tliis 
species and was founded upon the Javan bird. As the mainland 
form is apparently recognizable, it will once again bring the name of 
Merops sumatranus Raffles into use for it. 

I have not examined any birds from the island of Sumatra, but there 
are in the United States National Museum five specimens from Nias 
collected by Dr. Abbott. These are in fresh unworn plumage. They 
seem to be of a brighter green on the chest than the series from the 
Malay Peninsula and Siam. The collection of the United States 
National Museum contains also three specimens from Hunan, China, 
in fresh plumage, and since they apparently do not differ from those 
from Nias, the above apparent difference is probably due to age 
or wear. 

Two specimens from Java (one male and one female) measure: 
Wing, 109-111; culmen, 35.5-36 mm. Twelve specimens from the 
Malay Peninsula and Siam (seven males and five females) : Wing, 
109-121 (113.4); culmen, 33.5-37.5 (35.4) mm. Three specimens 
from Plunan, China (one male, one female, and one unsexed) : Wing, 
111-118 (114); culmen, 36.5-38 (37) mm. Five specimens from the 
island of Nias (two males and three females): Wing, 113-118.5 
(115.8); culmen, 33-38 (35) mm. 

I have not examined any specimens from Borneo. 

Apparently there are three recognizable forms of this species, as 
follows : 

Merops viridis viridis Linnaeus (Java). 

Merops virid-'s americanus Miiller (Philippine Islands). 

Merops viridis sumatranus Raffles (as above). 

MELITTOPHAGUS ERYTHROCEPHALUS ERYTHRGCEPHALUS (Gmelin) 

Merops erythrocephalus Gmelin, Systema naturae, vol. 1, pt. 1, p. 463, 1788 
(India). 

One male and one female, Mesarieng, January 21, 1933; one female, 
Nong Bua, October 18, 1932; three males and four females, Hin Lap, 
December 10-12, 1931; one female, Nong Mong, Krabin, August 24, 
1925; one male and one female, Nong Khor, Sriracha, November 
10-14, 1926; one female, Ban Nakae, March 3, 1929; two males, and 
one female, Koh Chang, January 5-8, 1926; two males, Tlia Lo, 
Bandon, September 24, 1931; one female, Yalo, Patani, February 2, 
1931; two males, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, January 6 and 17, 1934. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected two males and five females in Tiang 
(Prahmon, February 21 and March 30, 1896; Telibon Island, Febru- 
ary 25, 1896; Lay Song Hong, November 11, 1896; near Kao Nok 
Ram, January 18, 1899); one female and one unsexed, Tenasscrim 
(Sungei Balik, November 28, 1900; Champang, December 21, 1903). 

'• Nov. Zool,, 1910, p. 483. 



184 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

One of Dr. Abbott's specimens is an immature male (about two- 
thirds grown and taken at Prahmon, Trang, March 30. It is a smaller 
edition of the adult, but the colors are paler, the forehead is green, 
and the ear coverts black. This specimen would indicate that they 
must commence at this locality to breed very early. 

Dr. Abbott describes the soft colors as follows: Bill black; feet dark 
fleshy brown or leaden; iris red. 

The form ranges from the west coats of India and Ceylon eastward 
to Assam, Burma, Yunnan, Siam, Cambodia, Cochinchina, Annam, 
Tonkin, and Laos and southward through Peninsular Siam to the 
Malay States. 

Robinson and Kloss '^ say that on Terutau and Langkawi Islands 
it is very abundant during the winter months and is found sparingly 
in Penang and extends south as far as Parit on the Perak River. The 
young bird taken by Dr. Abbott, mentioned above, would indicate 
that it must breed as far south as Trang, at least, and at a very early 
date. Deignan^*' reports that a few pairs breed on Doi Sutep at 5,500 
feet in April and then disappear. De Schauensee ^^ states that it 
appears to be rare in North Siam. It occurs nearly all over Siam in 
the breeding season, but just how far south it winters or how far 
south it breeds apparently is not known. 

A related form, M. e. leschenavlti (Vieillot), is confined to Java. It 
lacks the brown band above the black band across the chest, 

ALCEMEROPS ATHERTONI ( Jardine and Sclby) 

NycHornis athertoni Jardine and Selby, Illustrations of ornithology, vol. 2, pi. 58, 
1828 (Bangalore,^ "India"). 

One male and one female, Doi Hua Mot, August 19, 22, 1934; one 
female, Doi Phra Chao, August 6, 1934; one female, Khun Tan 
Mountains, 4,400 feet, November 22, 1928; one male and two females, 
Khun Tan, 3,000 feet, October 23, 1929, February 16, 1932; one female, 
Sakeo, near Krabin, May 4, 1928; two females, Lamton Lang, May 30 
and June 1, 1934; one male and one female, Lat Bua Kao, August 7, 
1929; two females, Pak Chong, June 15, 1925; one female. Lam Klong 
Lang, Pak Chong, June 10, 1925; one female, Klong Yai, Sriiacha, 
July 22, 1932; one male. Ban Tarn Dam, southeastern Siam, March 
5, 1930; two males, Pran, southwestern Siam, May 27, 1928. 

Several of the above specimens are heavily washed above with 
caerulean blue. They are in worn plumage, and I think this color is 
due to wear. 

There are two immature specimens in the series: A male from Pran, 
May 27, and a female from Pak Chong, May 15; they are about two- 

" Journ. Xal. Hist. Soc. Slam, vol. 5, p. 138, 1923. 
>» Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Flist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. ICl, 1931. 
" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 261, 1934. 
M Kinnear, Ibis, 1925, p. 751. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 185 

thirds grown. They are hke the adults but, of course, have much 
shorter bills. They evidently acquire the adult plumage at an earlier 
age than Alcemerops amictus. 

The species ranges from India eastward to eastern Assam and south 
into Burma, Siam, Laos, Tonldn, Annam, Cochinchina, and Cambodia. 
It occurs nearly all over Siam proper and has been taken as far south 
as Hat Sanuk by Robinson and Kloss ^^ and Koh Lak Paa by Count 
Gyldenstolpe.-'* Deignan '^ reports that it is found on Doi Sutep 
between 2,500 and 4,600 feet and also on the plain at Chiengmai. De 
Schauensee ^^ secured specimens from Chiengdao, 5,000 feet, as well as 
Doi Sutep, 4,500-5,550 feet, and Monghn, South Shan States, and 
reports it everywhere rather scarce. It is a forest bird. 

A single male from Daban, southern Annam, received through C. 
Boden Kloss, is considerably p^ler above and below, and the gorget is 
less pronounced and a paler blue; the underside of the tail is noticeably 
paler and the tip of the feathers dusky rather than blackish ; the shaft of 
the tail feathers is ivory instead of lemon-yellow. 

ALCEMEROPS AMICTUS (Temminck) 

Mernps amicta Temminck, Nouveau recueil de planches colorizes d'oiseaux, livr. 
52, pi. 310, 1824 ^Bencoolen, Sumatra). 

One male and one female, Kao Luang, 1,000 feet, Nakon Sritamarat, 
July 23, 1928; one male, Tha Lo, Bandon, September 15, 1931; two 
males and one female, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, December 20, 27, 1933, 
January 25, 1934. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected four males and one female in Trang 
(Prahmon, March 6, 1896; Tyching, July 21, 1896; Lay Song Hong, 
September 20, 1896; Kao Soi Dao, 1000-2000 feet, February 11-18, 
1899); and one female, Champang, Tenasserim, December 22, 1903. 
He gives the soft parts as follows: Bill black, base of lower mandible 
leaden; feet greenish leaden; iris orange-red. 

The species ranges from Tenasserim south thiough Peninsular Siam 
to the Malay States, Sumatra, Banka, and Borneo. 

Besides the series mentioned above, the United States National 
Museum contains the following: One male from east Sumatra, one 
male and one female from Banka, three males and three females from 
Borneo (only two of each sex adult) and one male from Selangor. 

The series from Borneo is not sufficient to show whether there is 
any average difference in size between it and the mainland series. 
There seems to be no constant difference in color. 

In the series of males before me, a narrow border around the bill is 
caerulean blue in seven specimens, but with the mentum scheele green 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 138, 1923. 
» Kungl. Svanska Vet.-Akad. Ilandl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 110, 1916. 
" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, no. 3, p. 161, 1931. 
>« Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 261, 1934. 



186 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

in nine and entirely green in one; the difference is probably due to age. 
All the males have the bases of the lilac feathers of the forehead scarlet 
or apricot bufi" subbasally. The females diffei from the males in 
having the forehead scarlet like the throat and the Hlac of the crown 
more restricted. 

A young female not long from the nest collected by Dr. Abbott on 
Banka, June 8, is lettuce green, with bluish feathers around the bill; 
belly empire yellow; under tail coverts the same, with a greenish wash; 
breast lightly washed with empire yellow ; tail as in the adult. Another 
immature, sexed male of about adult size collected on the same island 
by Dr. Abbott, June 20, is sunilar but a deeper green; the abdomen 
washed with green and more of a green wash on the under tail coverts ; 
a couple of red feathers still in sheath are appearing on the left side in 
the malar region. One or two feathers on the throat and one or two on 
the breast are tinged with golden. Evidently the red of the adult does 
not appear until the young reach adult size. 

Gaiidner's " record from the Petchaburi District is the northern- 
most record in Siam known to me. In Tenasserim it has been found 
farther north. Robinson and Kloss ^^ say that farther south in Penin- 
sular Siam it is a common forest bird. 

Eight males from the Malay Peninsula measure: Wing, 125-141 
(130.9); tail, 110.5-119 (115.2); culmen, 45-52 (46.7). Two males 
from Borneo: Wing, 129.5-135; tail, 114.5-117; culmen, 45-47 mm. 
Three females from the Malay Peninsula: Wing, 122-129 (126.5); 
tail, 112-118.5 (115.2); culmen, 47.5-49 (48.2) mm. Two females 
from Borneo: Wing, 119-120; tail, 112-114; cuhnen 46-47 mm. 

Family CORACIIDAE: Rollers 

CORACIAS AFFINIS McQclIand 

Coracias affinis McClelland, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1S39, p. 164, 1840 (Assam). 

One female, Ban Nam Kien, Nan, April 21, 1930; one female, 
Aranya, July 13, 1930; three males, three females, and one unsexed, 
Bangkok, March 7 ana October 18, 1924, September 12, October 27, 
ana December 26-29, 1925; one male, Pak Chong, June 25, 1934; two 
males, Muang Kanburi, April 15 ana September 11, 1928; one male, 
Nong Khor, Sriracha, February 8, 1927; one female, Sakeo, near 
Krabin, May 6, 1928. 

This species has a rather wide range, occurring from Assam and 
eastern Bengal through Burma ana Yunnan to Siam, Camboaia, 
Cochinchina, Annam, Laos, ana Tonkin. In Siam it has been taken 
nearly all over the country and extends down Peninsular Siam as far 
as Patani. 



«■ Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siaru, vol. 1, p. 150. 1915. 
's Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 139, 1923. 



iJlIlDS FKOM SIAINI AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 187 

Herbert ^^ found it nesting m central Siam from March to April 
and describes the nest and eggs. In Peninsular Siam it is said to be 
only a migrant. 

Parrot ^^ separated the Siamese bird on the strength of a single 
unsexed specimen naming it Coracias offinis theresiae. Robinson and 
Kioss ^^ state that the principal character of tlie race is not borne out 
by the considerable series examined by them. 

I have not examined any birds from Assam, but I have before me 
two adult males and four females from Yunnan. There is not much 
difference in color between these and the series from Siam. The 
Yunnan bu'd has a more brownish-drab chest and breast; there is 
some difference in size, however, the more northern bii'd being larger. 
There is no difference in size or color between the sexes. 

Two males and four females from Yunnan measure: Wing, 194.5- 
207 (199.5); culmen, 36.5-42 (40) mm. Six males and six females 
from Siam: Wing, 177-191 (185.2); culmen, 32.5-38 (34.9) mm. 

This species has been placed as a race of Coracias benghalensis by 
many recent ornithologists, but in my opinion it is too distinct from 
that species to be so treated. 

EURYSTOMUS ORIENTALIS ORIENTALIS (Linnaeus) 

Coracias orientalis Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 12, p. 159, 1766 (India 
orientali = Java) . 

One male, Hin Lap, eastern Siam, September 30, 1932; one male, 
Pang Sok, eastern Siam, August 26, 1926; one male, Pak Chong, 
May 9, 1925; one female. Lam Ivlong Lang, Pak Chong, June 16, 1925; 
one female, Tha Chang, Pak Chong, March 19, 1927; two females, 
Nong Klior, Sriracha, November 9, 1926, February 11, 1927; one 
male and one female, Ban Sadet, Sriracha, May 31 and June 2, 1925; 
one male, Huey Yang, Sriracha, July 31, 1932; one male, Sakeo, near 
Ki-abin, May 7, 1928; one male, Lamton Lang, May 30, 1934; one 
female, Kao Seming, Krat, October 15, 1928; one female, Lem Sing, 
March 16, 1930; one male, Sai Yok, Kanburi, September 22, 1929; 
one male, Pran, April 2, 1931; one male, Bandon, January 6, 1927; 
two females, Tha Lo, Bandon, January 13, 17, 1931; four males, 
Sichol, Bandon, June 25, 1929, May 20 and 23, 1930; three males and 
two females, Nakon Sritamarat, September 12, 13, 1924, September 
26-October 6, 1926; one female. Ban Peng Sao, Nakon Sritamarat, 
no date; one male, and one female, Pak Bayoon, July 4, 1929; one 
male and one female, Patalung, July 5, 1929; one female, Yala, 
Patani, February 1, 1931. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected five males and one female in Trang 
(Prahmon, February 21-April 5, 1896; Tyching, July 19, 1896; Traug 

«• Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6, p. 300, 1924. 
» Verii. Orn. Ges. Bayern, vol. 8, p. 113, 1908. 
" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6, p. 119, 1923. 



188 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

(no date), 1896, and February 23, 1899); one male and one female, 
Tenasserim (10 miles north of Victoria Point, January 5, 1900, and 
Bok PAnn, February 13, 1900); and one male and one female, Packa 
Hiver, Trengganu, September 25, 26, 1900. He gives the colors of 
the soft parts as follows: Bill red, tip black, gape yellow; feet red, 
claws black; iris dark brown. 

The range of this form extends from Burma and Siam east to Cam- 
bodia, Cochinchina, Annam, and Laos, and south through Peninsular 
Siam to Singapore, Java, Borneo, and the Philippines. 

In Siam it apparently is commoner in the southern districts than in 
the north, as Dr. Smith secured no specimens there, though it is re- 
ported from that part of the country. All of Dr. Smith's and Dr. 
Abbott's specimens apparently belong to this form. 

Herbert's collector took a set of three eggs at Ajmthia, April 12,^^ 
and another set of two eggs at the same place two weeks later. 

EURYSTOMUS ORIENTAUS CALONYX Sharpe 

Eurystomus calonyx Sharpe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1890, p. 551 (Nepal). 

Typical specimens of this form can easily be distinguished from the 
resident Siamese race by having the primary coverts and outer 
secondaries azurite blue instead of black, with little or no blue; the 
Siamese form is darker above also. 

Eurystomus orientalis calonyx breeds in Korea, Manchuria, north 
China, and middle China and migrates south in winter to the Sunda 
Islands and the Malay States. Authentic specimens of this race 
seem to have been taken but rarely in Siam, where, of course, it ia 
only a winter visitor. Gyldenstolpe ^^ records it from Pak Koh in the 
north; Robinson and Kloss ^* have recorded it from Trang in Penin- 
sular Siam, and they ^^ record a male from Tung Pran, Tukuatung, 
western Siam, taken February 14. Chasen and Kloss ^^ give it for 
the Raheng District, and one of their specimens from this collection 
is now in the United States National Museum. Robinson and 
Kloss ^^ have also recorded it from the Province of Puket, Peninsular 
Siam, and Ogilvie-Grant ^^ from Patani. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam. vol. 6, p. 301, 1924. 

M Kungi. Svenslca Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 118, 1916. 

X Ibis, 1911, p. 32. 

»» Journ. Nat. nist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 119, 1923. 

"Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, 1928, p. 165. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 95, 1919. 

4« Fasciculi Malayenses, pt. 3 (Birds), p. 110, 1905. 



BIRDS FROM SI AM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 189 

Family UPUPIDAE: Hoopoes 

UPUPA EPOPS SATURATA Lonnberg 

Upupa epops saturata Lonnberg, Ark. for Zool., vol. 5, no. 9, p. 29, 1909 (Kjachta, 
Mongolia) . 

Gyklenstolpe ^^ took a female at Koh Lak, December 11, 1914; 
Kloss ^° mentions that Williamson has two birds in his collection that 
probably belong to this form, one from Bangkok and the other from 
southeastern Siam, and there is a specimen in the Federated Malay 
States Museum from Taiping, Perak (date not given). 

The form ranges from the Yenesei eastward to Manchuria and 
northern China, south to Tibet, Yunnan, and Fohkien; on the approach 
of winter it migrates to southern China, Siam, Burma, Assam, and 
India. 

It is a lighter-colored bird than U. e. longirostris. The longer 
crest feathers usually have a white subterminal spot before the black 
tip. It is somewhat larger. Either it is not a common winter visitor 
to Siam or it is overlooked. 

UPUPA EPOPS LONGIROSTRIS Jerdon 

Upupa longirostris Jerdon, The birds of India, vol. 1, p. 393, 1862 (Burma). 

One female, Chieng Dao, January 28, 1932; one female, Muang Pai, 
December 27, 1932; one male, Mae Hong Sorn, January 7, 1933; 
one male, Udon, February 18, 1929; one male, Korat, March 28, 
1929; one male, Knong Phra, Pak Chong, April 15, 1929; two young 
males, Pak Chong, May 6, 1925; one female, Muang Kanburi, Septem- 
ber 11, 1928; one male, Kive Noi, Kanburi, September 20, 1929; one 
female, Bo Ploi, Kanburi, September 26, 1929; one male, Pran, May 
26, 1928; three males and one female, Sam Roi Yot, November 8-9, 
1932; four males, Koh Lak, June 12-24, 1933. 

This form ranges from Assam and Burma to Siam and eastward 
at Laos, Tonkin, Annam, Cochinchina, and Cambodia. 

In Siam proper it seems to be fairly well distributed over the whole 
country, but in Peninsular Siam it must be rather scarce. It reaches 
Patani on the east of the Peninsula and Perils on the west coast and 
has been known to straggle as far as Klang, Selangor. Robinson *' 
records it from Koh Samui, Bandon; Robinson and Kloss ^ from 
Pulo Panjang and a couple of islands on the east side of the island 
of Puket. De Schauensee *^ states that the form is rather common 
on the plains of northern Siam, less so in the mountains. 

«« Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 5fi, no. 2, p. lU, 1916. 
" Ibis, 1918, p. 93. 

<i Joiirn. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 5, p. 145, 1915. 
« Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, 1919, p. 96. 
« Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Pliiladelphia, vol. 86, p. 264, 1934. 
33527—38 13 



190 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

It can be distinguished from the other form that sometimes straggles 
to Siam in the winter by having no subterminal white spot below the 
black tip of the longer crest feathers. Also, it is a darker bird. 

One of the specimens from Koh Lak is immature. It is nearly full 
grown and only differs from the adult in being somewhat lighter in 
color. The bill is considerably^ shorter, however. 

Family BUCEROTIDAE: Hornbills 

BUCEROS RHINOCEROS RHINOCEROS Linnaeus 

Bitcems rhinoceros Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 104, 1758 (India; 
Malacca**). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected one male and one female, Endau River, 
eastern coast of Johore, July 11, 1901. He gives the colors of the 
soft parts as: Male — iris deep red, eyelids and surrounding skin 
black; upper mandible, distal half white, basal half yellow, becoming 
red toward base; lower mandible, distal two-thirds w^hite, basal 
third yellow; bases of both mandibles black; upper surfaces and sides 
of casque red, posterior surface black, front surface deep yellow, a 
narrow black line on sides separates the basal half of the two colors 
and is continued back between casque and upper mandible, the casque 
translucent and waxy in appearance, as if modeled in wax; feet pale 
yellowish green, somewhat dusty, claws pale horn brown, the tips 
black; weight, 5^ pounds. In the female the iris is pearly white, 
eyelid black, surrounding naked skin dusky red; bill and casque 
similar to that of the male, but no narrow black line separates the 
red and yellow on sides of casque or extends up between the casque 
and upper mandible; posterior surface of casque red, not black; the 
red of the casque not so intense as in the male; naked skin of abdomen 
and under sides of wings dusky greenish; inside of mouth brick red; 
feet and tarsi as in the male; weight, 4}^ pounds. 

This species ranges from Sumatra and Billiton to the Malay States. 
Apparently there are no records of this hombill for Peninsular Siam. 
It may occur occasionally in Patani. 

Robinson *^ states that it is the commonest of the large hornbills in 
the south of the Peninsula. 

A larger race, B. r. silvestris Vieillot, with a differently shaped 
casque occurs in Java, and another form, B. r. borneoensis Schlegel and 
Miillcr, is found in Borneo. 

DICHOCEROS BICORNIS BICORNIS (Linnaeus) 

Buceros hicornis Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 104, 1758 (China; probably 
Indo-China). 

One adult male, Koh Chang, January^ 15, 1926; one adult male and 
one immature female, Nong Khor, Sriracha, November 15, 16, 1926; 

« Hartert, Nov. Zool., vol. 9, p. 543, 1902. 

♦« The birds of the Malay Peninsula, vol. 2, p. 51, 1928. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 191 

one adult male, Huey Yang, Kao Luang, Nakon Sritamarat, October 
9, 1930. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected four males and four females in Trang 
(Tyching, July 25, 1896; Lay Song Hong, November 3-22, 1896; 
Kao Soi Dao, February 2, 1899; Trang, January 27, 1899); one male, 
Pulo Terutau, Langkawi Group, April 6, 1904; two males, Tenasserim 
(Bok Pyin, February 16, 1900; Telok Krang, February 14, 1904). 

Dr. Abbott gives the soft parts as: Iris dark red, eyelid black; 
casque yellow on the sides, deeper on top and tinged with red, espe- 
cially in the middle, base and front black; lower mandible bluish 
white, becoming yellow at tip, black at base and along commissure; 
upper mandible yellow like sides of casque, becoming red at tip, a 
narrow line along commissure, another along culmen, and base black; 
feet leaden or olive-brown, claws black (males). The fem.ale seems 
to differ somewhat: Iris white or gray white; orbital skin dull red; 
casque dull orange yellow, dull red above in front and dark red behind; 
upper mandible dull orange yellow, dark red at tip; lower mandible 
pale yellowish white, a yellow patch beneath near tip; base of bill 
narrowly black; feet pale green, claws bluish homy or greenish leaden. 

The weight of six males is given as 5.75 to 7.5 pounds, average 6.63; 
two females: 4.75 and 5 pounds. 

The form ranges from India south of the Himalayas east to Burma, 
Siam, and Indo-China and south through Peninsular Siam to the 
Malay States. In Siam it has been taken nearly all over the country 
and on many of the islands off the coast. A smaller form, Dichoceros 
bicornis cristatus (Vieillot), occurs on Sumatra. 

HYDROCISSA CORONATA CONVEXA (Teimninck) 

Buceros convexus Temminck, Nouveau recueil de planches colorizes d'oiseaux, 
livr. 89, pi. 530, 1832 (Java). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected a subadult female at the Rump in 
River, Pahang, June 29, 1902. 

This race ranges from Borneo, Java, and Sumatra to the Malay 
States and Peninsular Siam as far as Patani. 

Bonhote ^® records specimens from Bukit Besar and Biserat, Jalor, 
and Patani. Apparently there are no other Siamese records, but 
farther south in the Malay States it is not an uncommon bird, fre- 
quenting the seacoast near cultivated areas. 

HYDROCISSA MALABARICA LEUCOGASTRA (Blyth) 

Buceros leucogaster Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 10, p. 922, 1841 (Tenas- 
serim) . 

Two males and three females, Nong Khor, near Sriracha, November 
7, 1924, September 26, 1925, November 13 and 15, 1926; one female, 

" Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1901, vol. 1, p. 70. 



192 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Koh Chang, January 15, 1926; one female, Tha Yai, Nakon Srita- 
marat, July 26, 1926; one male, Nakon Sritamarat, July 8, 1928; 
two males and one female, Tha Lo, Bandon, September 15 and 17, 
1931; one male and one female, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, January 5 and 
12, 1934; one male, Hm Lap, eastern Siam, September 30, 1932. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected six males, three females, and one unsexed 
in Trang (Prahmon, March 10-31, 1896; Lay Song Hong, October 23, 
1896; TelibonIsland,March 28, 1896; Trang, January 19 and February 
24, 1899); one female, Pulo Langkawi, December 2, 1899; one male, 
Bok Pyin, Tenasserim, February 19, 1900; and one male, Heifer 
Island, Mcrgui Archipelago, March 6, 1900. 

Dr. Abbott gives the color of the soft parts as (male): Iris dark 
brown, in some cases with another paler ring; bill and casque yellowish 
wiiite, a black patch at the front end of the latter, base of lower 
mandible and back of casque black; orbital skin bkiish white, slaty 
black in front of eye and at posterior angle; naked skin at base of 
lower mandible bluish white; gular pouch slaty; feet plumbeous, 
claws black. Another male has a narrow black line along the com- 
missure. The female does not seem to differ materially from the 
male except the tip of the bill is black and the base of the lower 
mandible has a brick-red spot near the base. The weight of one 
male from Trang is given as 1% pounds. 

No two adult males in the above series have the casque exactly 
the same shape, probably because of age. The majority are evidently 
younger birds, with the casque not fully developed. It probably 
takes more than one year for the casque fully to develop and prob- 
ably longer for it to reach the final stage. The male with the most 
highly developed casque has a large white mark on the iimer web of 
one and a smaller white mark on the outer web of the other central 
tail feather at the tip ; probably this is a very old bird. 

The wings of five fully adult males measure 265, 265, 270, 273, 
and 274 mm. These are all from southern or Peninsular Siam. 
The wing of the male from Heifer Island measures 260 mm. The 
wings of five adult females measure 259, 260, 261, 265, and 265 mm. 
These are also from southern or Penmsular Siam. Neither m the 
male nor the female does the maximum reach Stuart Baker's maxi- 
mum,*' though the minimum is slightly greater. His large specimens 
must be from more northern birds. 

The form ranges from Burma east to Indo-China and south to 
Siam and do\\Ti the Perimsula as far as Kedah. 

Gyldenstolpo *^ reports it quite common throughout the whole 
country. Deignan *^ had only one record for Doi Sutep at 2,000 feet 

*■> The fauna of British India, Birds, ed. 2, vol. 4, p. 290, 1927. 

« Ibis. 1920, p. 586. 

« Joura. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 162, 1931. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE IMALAY PENINSULA 193 

in February. Ogilvie-Grant ®° records it from Patani and S. Perak; 
Robinson ^^ from Lani^kawi, Tern tan, and Butang; de Schauensee *' 
from Khun Tan, Kengkoi, and Nakon Sritamarat. He also saw a 
«mall flock on Doi Sutep. 

HYDROCISSA MALAYANA (Raffles) 

Buceros malayavus Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 13, p. 292, 1822 
(Malacca). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected two males and two females in Trang 
(Lay Song Hong, September 16-December 21, 1896; Trang, Janu- 
ary 22, 1899) and two females, Endau River, eastern coast of Johore, 
July 9, 1901. He gives the soft parts as: Iris dark red (male) or 
dark brown (female); bill ivory white, base black, naked angle of 
jaw black; feet and claws black. 

Apparently there are no previous records for this species in Siam. 
The species ranges from Borneo and Sumatra to the Malay States 
and northward in Peninsular Siam to Trang. 

Two of the above specimens are immature. One is a male from 
Lay Song Hong, Trang, November 14, and the other is a female 
from the Endau River, Johore, July 9. They differ from the adult 
only in the development of the casque and the color of the bill and 
casque, which is brownish black. Apparently it takes some time for 
the casque to reach final development, as another female in which 
the bill and casque are ivory white has the latter not reaching the 
full development of the adult female. 

RHYTICEROS UNDULATUS (Shaw) 
Buceros undulatus Shaw, General zoology, vol. 8, pt. 1, p. 2G, 1811 (Java) 

One immature male, Nong Khor, near Sriracha, November 16, 
1924; one adult female, Koh Chang, January 13, 1926. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected four males and one female in Trang 
(Prahmon, March 3, 1896; Lay Song Hong, November 4-26, 1896); 
two males, Tenasserim (Tanjong Badak, January 6, 1900; Telok 
Krang, February 17, 1904); and two males. Chance Island, Mergui 
Archipelago, December 29, 30, 1899. He describes the soft parts 
as (male): Iris orange, brownish orange-red, red, or brick red; orbital 
skin dull red, reddish purple, pale purplish red; bill dirty bluish white, 
base reddish brown; casque white, brownish posteriorly; grooves 
dark brown; gular pouch yellow with interrupted transverse bar of 
black; feet and claws black. The female is described as differing 
from the male by having the gular pouch blue with a dark transverse 
bar which is interrupted in the middle. The weight of the two males 

M Fasciculi Malayenses, pt. 3, p. 107, 1905. 

" Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 7, p. 150, 1917. 

" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 263, 1934. 



194 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

from Trang is given as 4% and 5 pounds. The two males from 
Tenasserim weighed 5% and 6/4 pounds; the two males from Chance 
Island 5)4 and 5% pounds. 

The immature male collected by Dr. Smith has the bill smooth 
at the base, and the casque is just m the process of forming; otherv^dse 
it is like the adult and of about the same size. Even the dark gular 
bar has begun to form. There are several apparently adult speci- 
mens of this species in the United States National I^luseum that 
have the corrugations at the base of the bill barely indicated, but 
they have the interrupted black bar across the gular pouch. It is 
probable that it takes several years for the bill and casque to reach 
full development. Apparently the presence of the corrugations at 
the base of the bill are not entirely diagnostic. This species is 
evidently much larger than subruficollis. 

R. undulatus ranges from Borneo, Java, and Sumatra to the Malay 
States and northward to Siam, Burma, eastern Bengal, and Assam 
south of the Brahmaputra; east it extends to Cochinchina, Laos, and 
Annam. In Siam it has been recorded from nearly the whole country, 
as well as from a number of islands off the coast such as Koh Kut, 
Terutau, Puket, and Pulo Lontar. Evidently it is the commoner 
of the two species of Rhyticeros occurring in Siam. 

RHYTICEROS SUBRUFICOLLIS (Blyth) 

Buceros subruficollis Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 12, p. 177, 1843 
(vicinity of Moulraein, Tenasserim). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected one male and one female in Tenasserim 
(Telok Krang, February 14, 1904; Telok Besar, February 27, 1904); 
and two males on Domel Island, Mergui Archipelago, Januar}^ 24, 
30, 1904. He gives the soft parts as: Male — iris red or orange-red; 
orbital skin reddish purple; gular pouch yellow; bill dull ivory white 
with a bluish tinge, slightly tinged with brown about middle, becom- 
ing reddish brown at base, a narrow black line at base of lower man- 
dible; casque yellowish ivory, reddish brown at base, bottom of 
grooves black or dark brown; tarsi black in front, dull leaden behind, 
soles gray, and claws black. Female — iris dark orange-brown; throat 
dark blue, crossbar black; bill ivory white, brownish at base; casque 
ivory white, bottom of grooves dark brown. The weight of one 
Telok Krang male is given as 5 pounds; the two males from Domel 
Island as 4K and 4 pounds. 

The species ranges from Borneo and Sumatra to the Malay States 
and northward to Tenasserim, southern Burma, southwestern and 
northern Siam. There are no records of this hornbill from Peninsular 
Siam and there are apparently not many from the Malay States. 



BIRDS FllOM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 195 

Gairdner ^^ records it from the Petchaburi District; Gyldenstolpe " 
reports it from the Meh Lem and states that it is commou in northern 
Siam. It differs from R. undulatus in being smaller and in having the 
base of the bill without grooves. The two specimens from Tenasserim 
have an incipient roughening of the base of the bill, similar to some 
specimens of K. undulatus. 

CRANOBRONTES CORRUGATUS (Temminck) 

Buceros corrugatus Temminck, Nouveau recueil de planches colorizes d'oiseaux, 
livr. 90, pi. 531, 1832 (Pontianak, west Borneo). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected a male at Lay Song Hong, Trang, 
November 4, 1896 and one female on Pulo Rupat, Straits of Malacca, 
March 17, 1906. He gives the colors of the soft parts of the female 
as: Iris brownish gray; bill and casque yellow; brownish at base; 
gular pouch slaty blue; orbital skin pale smaltz blue; feet greenish 
leaden. 

The species ranges from Borneo to Sumatra and the Malay Penin- 
sula as far north as Trang. 

Little seems to be known of this species from the Malay States, 
and there are no previous records for it from Peninsular Siam. 

ACEROS NIPALENSIS (Hodgson) 

Buceros vipalensis Hodgson, Asiat. Res., vol. 18, p. 178, 1829 (Nepal). 

Dr. Smith secured an immature male at Pang Meton (Doi Nangka), 
April 29, 1931, from a flock of seven or eight seen in high trees. 

De Schauensee^** took a pair on Doi Sutep, 5,500 feet, and on his 
third expedition ^^ he took two additional males at the same place at 
4,600 feet. Lowe *^ records it from the Taok Plateau, Tenasserim, 
and from 28 miles southeast of Um Pang, Siam. 

The species occurs in the sub-Himalayas from Nepal through eastern 
Assam and Burma to Laos and Tonkin and south to northern Tenas- 
serim and northern Siam. 

ANORRHINUS GALERITUS CARINATUS (BIyth) 

Buceros carinatus Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 14, p. 187, 1845 (Ma- 
lacca); vol. 16, p. 996, 1847 (description). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected four males, one female, and one unsexed 
in Trang (Lay Song Hong, September 13-November 3, 1896; Kao 
Soi Dao, 1000 feet, January 31, 1899) and one unsexed at Telok 
Besar, Tenasserim, March 1, 1904. He gives the color of the soft 
parts as: Iris dark red; bill, casque, and feet black; naked skin above 

M Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 1, p. 150, 1915. 
M Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Uandl., vol. 50, no. 8, p. 56, 1913. 
»«• Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 81, p. 573, 1930, 
" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 263, 1934. 
M Ibis, 1933, p. 480. 



196 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

and below eye slaty blue and white behind eye; naked throat pale 
blue, white over angles of jaw. 

The female taken at Lay Song Hong is immature, but it is in adult 
plumage. Dr. Abbott records the color of this specimen as: Iris 
orange, a narrow yellow ring externally; bill white, black at base, 
casque yellowish; feet black; naked skin about eye slaty blue; gular 
pouch fleshy white, behind angles of jaw slaty blue. 

Dr. Abbott records the weight of two males as 2K and 2% pounds, 
and of the unsexed specimen from Tenasserim as 2}^ pounds. 

Robinson and Kloss " record it from Kao Ram, 1,200 feet, Nakon 
Sritamarat; Baker ^^ from Tung Song. Ogilvie-Grant ^^ and Baker ^^ 
state that the sexes are alike, but apparently adult sexed females in 
the United States National Museum from Sumatra and Borneo do 
not bear this out. The female is darker than the male and the bill 
horn color (in skin); the casque, the commissure at the base of the 
upper mandible, and the base of the lower mandible only are black, 
varying somewhat in individual specimens. In the adult male the 
bill is entirely black. 

The four males from Trang and one male from Tenasserim are 
darker below than four males from Sumatra. The Tenasserim male 
is darker below than the Trang series. Two males from Borneo 
resemble the Sumatran specimens. The mainland bird seems to be 
somewhat larger also. It seems to me it is well worthy of being 
recognized as a race. 

Four males from Trang measure: Wing, 360-370 (364.5); tail, 
295-330 (315); culmen with casque, 143.5-158 (150.6) mm. One 
male from Tenasserim: Wing, 370; tail, 330; culmen with casque, 
160 mm. Three males from Sumatra: Wing, 346-355 (350.7); tail, 
300-305 (301.7); culmen with casque, 152-159.5 (155.5) mm. 

The range would be the Malay States north through Peninsular 
Siam to southern Tenasserim. Anorrhinus galeritus galeritus (Tem- 
minck) should be confined to Sumatra and Borneo. 

BERENICORMS COMATUS (RaflBes) 

Buceros comatus Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 13, p. 399, 1822 (Sumatra). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took a male at Lay Song Hong, Trang, September 
17, 1896. 

Robinson and Kloss " report this species from Kao Ram, 1,200 feet, 
and Kao Luang, 2,000 feet, Nakon Sritamarat. De Schauensee " 
received an immature male from Nakon Sritamarat. 



" Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 11, p. 59, 1923. 

«8 Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 435, 1919. 

»« Catalogue of the birds in the British Museum, vol. 17, p. 391, 1892, 

«» The fauna of British India, Birds, ed. 2, vol. 4, p. 296, 1927. 

«' Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6, p. 134, 1923. 

" Proc. Acad. Nat. Scl. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 264, 1934. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 197 

These are the only definite records I have seen for Si am. The 
species ranges from southern Tenasserim through Peninsular Siam 
to the Malay States, Sumatra, and Borneo. 

RHINOPLAX VIGIL (Forster) 

Buceros vigil Forster, Indische Zoologie, p. 40, 1781 (Tenasserim). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected one male and two females at Lay Song 
Hong, Trang, September 16, 24, and November 21, 1896. He gives 
the color of the soft parts as: Male — iris dark red; front of casque and 
distal part of beak yellow, rest of casque and bill dark crimson; naked 
skin of neck and back dull dark crimson; feet brownish red, claws 
homy brown at tips, paler toward bases and becoming dull greenish 
horny. Female — similar to the male, chin brown; tliroat pale blue, 
neck bluish white; tarsi brownish leaden behind, brick red in front; 
claws pale yellow-brown, tips brownish black. The weight of the 
male is given as 5K and that of the two females as 5^^ and 6K pounds. 
He notes the male as very thin. 

The species ranges from Borneo and Sumatra to the northern Malay 
States and northward through Peninsular Siam to southern Tenas- 
serim. Robinson and Kloss '^^ state that it is fairly common in heavy 
jungle in the Malay States, but never very easy to obtain. 

Family CAPITONIDAE: Barbets 

CALORAMPHUS FUUGINOSUS HAYI (Gray) 

Bucco hayi Gray, Zool. Misc., 1831, p. 33 (Malacca). 

Three females, Sichol, Bandon, May 19, 1930; one female. Hoi Tah, 
Kao Luang, Nakon Sritamarat, July 18, 1928; three females, Wat 
Kiriwong, Nakon Sritamarat, July 25, 1928. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected seven males, five females, and one 
unsexed in Trang (Lay Song Hong, September 2-3, 1896; Chong, Jan- 
uary 23, 1897); and two males on the Rumpin River, Pahang, June 
10-11, 1902. 

Two of the females collected by Dr. Smith at Sichol have larger bills 
than the rest of the series. They measure 23.5 and 24 mm, while in 
the other females, from farther south, the culmen measures 20-22.5 
mm. There might be a larger race in the north, but for the present 
I prefer to regard the larger bills of the two females as due to individual 
variation. 

All Dr. Abbott's specimens sexed as males have black bills, while 
the females have brown bills, and his notes on colors of the soft parts 
confirm this sexual difference. 

Two males and three females from Sumatra have somewhat more 
reddish throats than the mainland specimens, but the difference is 

M Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Slam, vol. 6, p. 134, 1923. 



198 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

slight. If it is found later that the Sumatra bird is worthy of recog- 
nition, then the name Caloramphus sanguinolentus Lesson ^* is available 
for it. 

The form ranges from Sumatra to the Malay States and northward 
through Peninsular Siam to southern Tenasserim. The northern- 
most record is one from Tasan, Chumporn, Peninsular Siam, reported 
by Robinson and Kloss.^^ 

In Borneo 0. f. Juliqinosus (Temminck) occurs. It is quite differ- 
ent from the mainland representative, having the throat and chest a 
bright vinaceous-rufous instead of having the throat obscurely tinged 
with reddish. 

MEGALAIMA VIRENS VIRENS (Boddaert) 

Bucco virens Boddaert, Table des planches enlumin^ez d'histoire naturelle, p. 53, 
1783 (China). 

Three males and eight females, Khun Tan, October 16-23, 1929, 
August 27-30, 1930, and February 13, 1932 (the altitude on this 
specimen is given as 4,500 feet); one male and one female, Khun Tan 
Mountains, 4,300 feet. May 17, 1933; one female. Pang Meton (Doi 
Nangka), May 3, 1931; two males, Doi Hua Mot, August 13, 30, 1934. 

This series has been compared with six males and two females from 
China (Fukien and Szechwan), and if we allow for season there does 
not appear to be any appreciable difference between the two series. 

Some specimens have yellowish shaft streaks on the hindneck, but 
I believe this is an age character, as several of the birds collected by 
Dr. Smith that have this feature ^re undoubtedly subadult; in one 
it is a light greenish band around the nape rather than streaks; in 
another immature there are yellowdsh-green streaks on the throat. 
Some specimens apparently fully adult retain these streaks on the 
hind neck, however. 

The five males from Siam measure: Wing, 137.5-146 (141.7); tail, 
90-98 (93.6); culmen, 39-43.5 (41) mm. Seven females from Siam: 
Wing, 132-146 (140.5); tail, 78-103 (90.6); culmen, 35-44 (41) mm. 
Six males from China (Fukien, 2; Szechwan, 4): Wing, 143-155 (147); 
tail, 91-108.5 (100.3); culmen, 39-43 (40.7) mm. 

This large barbet has a wide range, extending through southern 
China from Fulvicn and Chekiang to southern Szechwan and Yunnan 
and south through Tonkin, northern Annam, and Laos, to northern 
and western Siam and central and eastern Burma. 

It has been taken in northern Siam by a number of collectors, but 
always in the mountains at moderate elevations. Deignan ^* reports 
that it occurs commonly on Doi Sutep from 2,700 to 5,000 feet; later 

M Rev. Zool., 1839, p. 139. 

«» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 159. 1923. 

M Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 158, 1931. 



BIEDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 199 

Mr. Aagaard ^^ secured one from the summit, 5,600 feet. Gairdner ^* 
took one in the Kaheng District, western Siam. Lowe ^^ reports it 
from 28 miles east of Um Pang. 

Two other forms of this species have been described: 

Megalaima virens marshallorum Swinhoe (northwestern Himalayas east- 
ward to Sikkini). 

Megalaima virens magnijica Stuart Baker (Assam to Manipur, Looshai 
and Chin Hills, hill tracts of Tippera and Chittagong). Of this race I 
have seen no specimens. 

THEREICERYX UNEATUS INTERMEDIUS Stuart Baker 

Thereiceryx lineains intermedius Stuart Baker, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 39, 
p. 19, 1918 (Pahpoon, Burma). 

One male, Doi Angka, December 2, 1928; one immature male, Doi 
Phra Chao, August 2, 1934; one male. Nan, April 16, 1930; two males 
and one female, Ban Nam Kien, Nan, April 21-22, 1930; one female, 
Rumpawapi, March 20, 1929; one female, Mae Hong Sorn, January 
8, 1933; one female, Melang Valley, January 1, 1933; one female, 
Mesuya Valley, January 2, 1933; one female, Ta Fang, January 17, 
1933; one female, Lampang, November 15, 1928; two males, Knong 
Phra, February 25, 1924, April 13, 1929; two males and one female, 
Sakeo, near Krabin, May 7-9, 1928; two males. Pang Sok, August 
15-18, 1926; three males and one female, Pak Chong, February 19, 
1924, May 8, 1925, May 10, 1926, December 22, 1926; one male, 
Chantuk, June 17, 1934; five males, one female, and one unsexed, 
Nong Klior, near Sriracha, September 22-October 1, 1925, March 
19-20, 1926, November 8-10, 1926; one female, Nong Yang, October 
20, 1931; one male, Muang Kanburi, April 12, 1928; one male, Sai 
Yok, Kanburi, September 23, 1929; one male and one female, Bo 
Ploi, Kanburi, September 7-8, 1928; one male, Nongkai, February 18, 
1929; four males and one female, Pran, May 27, June 3, 1928, and 
April 2, 1931. 

Dr. Smith gives the colors of the soft parts as follows: Bare skin 
around the eye bright yellow; bill reddish horn; legs deep yellow; 
iris brown. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected three males and two females in Trang 
(Prahmon, March 22 and April 6, 1896; Tyching, May 29, 1896); 
two fem.ales, at Tanjong Dungun, Trengganu, September 20, 1900. 
He describes the soft parts as: Male — iris brown; orbital skin yellow; 
bill pale fleshj^ brownish; feet dull horn yellow, claws brownish black. 
One female has the iris in two circles, inner brownish red, outer pale 
brown. 



•' Chasen and Kloss, Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 235, 1932. 
«8 Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 109, 1928. 
e» Ibis, 1933, p. 476. 



200 BULLETIN" 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

There seems to be no constant difference in color in specimens 
from northern Siam and Peninsular Siam and very little difference in 
size. There is a gradual diminution in size from north to south, but 
the difference is not great enough to recognize by name, and for this 
reason I place under one name all the specimens of this species from 
Siam. 

Five males from northern Siam (4) and eastern Burma (1) measure: 
Wing, 126.5-132 (128.4); tail, 74-84 (80.6) ; culmen, 29-33 (31.4) mm. 
Ten males from eastern and southeastern Siam: Wing, 120-133 
(125.9); tail, 73-84 (78.6); culmen, 29-32 (30.5) mm. Eight males 
from southwestern Siam (5) and Peninsular Siam (3): Wing, 121-128.5 
(124.7); tail, 72-81 (75.4); culmen, 28-32 (30.6) mm. 

The range of the form is quite an extensive one, being found from 
central and southern Burma southward throughout Siam proper and 
through Peninsular Siam to the Malay State of Trengganu ; eastward 
it extends to Laos, Annam, Cochinchina, and Cambodia. 

The form is not apparently uncommon all over Siam, from the north, 
south throughout Peninsular Siam. Robinson and Kloss ^° say that 
it does not occur in the Federated Malay States. 

There is considerable variation in the above series, from a spec- 
imen with the head, throat, and chest cartridge buff, obsoletely 
streaked with drab, to others in which the head above is almost 
fuscous, with the light streaking almost reduced to shaft streaks and 
the streaks on the chest equally dark. These variations seem to be 
purely individual or to be due to age. There is one young bird col- 
lected by Dr. Abbott that still retains the heel pad tubercles and that 
in size and plumage I cannot distinguish from the adult, so this feature 
must be retained for some time after the bird leaves the nest and their 
use is no longer needed. Dr. Smith took a male in similar condition. 
There are several other specimens in like condition in the collection 
of the United States National Museum, and it is the only way to 
distinguish the young after they become full grown or nearly so. The 
wings of these specimens measure somewhat smaller than the average. 
Count Gyldenstolpe '' has given a figure of the heel pad of this form. 
There are two other form.s of this barbet recognized by Stuart 
Baker," namely, Thereiceryx lineatus lineatus (Vieillot), from Java 
and Bali, and Thereiceryx lineatus hodgsoni (Bonaparte), from the 
Himalayas of India. The latter differs from T. I. intermedius in being 
larger. I have seen no specimens of it. Specimens from northern 
Siam have been assigned to hodgsoni, but I believe incorrectly so. 

'• Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 165, 1923. 
" Ark. for Zool., vol. 11, no. 12, p. 5, 1917. 
" Ibis, 1919, p. 214. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 201 

THEREICERYX FAIOSTMCTUS FAIOSTRICTUS (Temminck) 

Bucco faiostrictus Temminck, Nouveau recueil de planches colorizes d'oiseaux, livr. 
88, pi. 527, May 1831 (Cochinchina). 

Five males and four females, Khun Tan, October 17-23, 1929, 
August 28-September 10, 1930; one male, Doi Phra Chao, August 1, 
1934; one female, Aranya, July 20, 1930; three females, Hin Lap, 
October 1-3, 1932; four males and two females, Pak Chong, February 
17 and May 14, 1925, April 24, 1926, November 30, 1929, June 22-26, 
1934; nine males and six females, Sikeu, near Korat, February 14-15, 
1926; one male and one female, Lamton Lang, May 26, June 2, 1934; 
three males and one female, Sakeo, near Krabin, May 4-5, 1928; 
three males and one female, Nong Yang, November 6-9, 1931; one 
male, Huey Yang, Sriracha, August 1, 1932; two females. Ban Sadet, 
Sriracha, May 29, 1925; one male Nong Khor, near Sriracha, February 
6, 1927; one male Kao Seming, Krat, October 9, 1928; one male, Lem 
Sing, Chantabun, March 16, 1930; two females Kao Sabap, October 
24-28, 1933. 

This large series is fairly uniform. Some specimens have a bluish 
tinge to the lower parts, while in a few specimens they are more 
tinged with yellow, especially on the chest, than in the clear vanderpoel 
green of the chest and abdomen of the majority of the series. The 
bright tufts on each side of the jugulum are sometimes orange and 
sometimes deepen to scarlet with a yellow fringe; sometimes the 
bright tufts are lacking altogether, in which case the examination of 
the heel pad usually indicates such specimens are birds of the year. 

A specimen in the United States National Museum (no. 278323) 
from Daban, southern Annam, has the pileum a lighter brown and the 
huffy streaks are broader than in any specimen in the series from 
Siam or in four specimens from Cochinchina before me. There are 
also some other slight differences that need not be mentioned at this 
time. A recognizable race may occur in this part of its range. 

The form occurs from northern Siam to southwestern Siam and 
eastward to Cambodia, Laos, Cocliinchina, and Annam. In Siam it 
occurs nearly all over the country and as far to the westward as Hat 
Sanuk, southwestern Siam, whence it has been recorded by Robinson 
and Kloss." It does not occur in Peninsular Siam, and the above 
record is also the most southern in this direction. 

The present form is easily distinguished from Thereiceryx lineatus 
intermedins by the yellowish-green auriculars and the bright orange 
or scarlet jugular tufts of the former and numerous other differences 
but the above are sufficient. T. /. praetermissus Kloss is confined to 
Southern China and Tonkin. This form I have not had the pleasure 
of examining. 

« Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6, p. 166, 1923. 



202 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

CHOTOREA MYSTACOPHANES MYSTACOPHANES (Temminck) 

Ducco mystacophanes Temminck, Nouveau recueil de planches colorizes d'oiseaux, 

livr. 53, pi. 315, Dec. 1824 (Sumatra). 
Cyanops myslacophanes aurantiifrons Robinson and Kloss, Journ. Nat. Hist. 

See. Siam, vol. 3, p. 100, 1919 (Nong Kok, Ghirbi, Peninsular Siain). 

Three males, Sichol, Bandon, May 16-19, 1930; one male, Ban 
Kiriwon<]j, Nakon Sritamarat, July 10, 1928; two females, Kao Luang, 
Nakon Sritamarat, July 16-23, 1928 ; two males, Wat Kiriwong, Nakon 
Sritamarat, July 25, 1928; one male, Tha Lo, Bandon, September 25, 
1931; one male Kao Cliong, Trang, September 8, 1933. 

Dr. W. L, Abbott took three males and five females in Trang 
(Kao Nok Ram, 1,000 feet, January 4, 1899; Lay Song Hong, Sep- 
tember 2-November 22, 1896); two females in Trengganu (Dimgun 
River, September 24, and Tanjong Laboha, September 29, 1900); 
two males in Pahang (Rumpin River, May 25, and July 12, 1902); 
and two males in Tenasserim (Bok Pyin, February 15, 1900, and 
Telok Besar, March 18, 1904). He describes the soft parts as: Iris 
brown; bill black (male), black with the base of the lower mandible 
pale fleshy or pale gray (female) ; feet greenish leaden or olive. 

Robinson and Kloss "* state that the characters upon which they 
founded their C. m. aurantiifrons are not stable and cannot be main- 
tained. 

There is a sexual difference in this species. The female differs from 
the male in having the throat light green with light yellow shaft 
streaks instead of scarlet-red; the forehead is a much lighter yellow 
separated from the red occipital spot by a narrow green band; bluish 
green above the eye instead of black; malar spot bluish green instead 
of bright yellow; the blue suborbital and jugular spots much re- 
duced and lighter in color; the red frontal apex spot is present but 
faint. This is quite different from Robinson and Kloss's " remarks 
upon this sex. The above is probably a fully adult female, but there 
are six other females in the series that have a yellow frontal band and 
differ from the one described only in having a broader green band 
separating the yellow frontal band from the red occipital spot. There 
is only one female in the series without a yellow frontal band, and in 
this specimen it is bluish green. All the females have a smaU red spot 
at the frontal apex. Two specimens marked as females have a few 
red feathers appearing on the tliroat and the red spots on each side 
of the chest are more pronounced than in the other females (nos. 
160232 and 160234, Lay Song Hong, Trang, October 30 and November 
6) ; they may be wrongly sexed or very old birds. Several immature 
males in the series show that the adult plumage is acquired early. 
The yellow frontal band is acquired early and even in the youngest is 

'« Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. fi, p. 161, 1923. 
»« Ibid., p. 162. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 203 

broader and deeper in coJor than in the two females mentioned. So 
it may well be very old females have the tliroats slightly tinged with 
scarlet or a few feathers of this color mixed in. 

The form ranges from the southern half of Tenasserim south 
tlu'ough Peninsular Siam to the Malay States, and Sumatra. The 
bird occurring on the Batu Islands, off the western coast of Sumatra, 
has been separated as Chotorea mystacophanes arnpala; and that from 
Borneo as C. m. humei. 

CHOTOREA CHRYSOPOGON LAETUS Robinson and Kloss 

Chotorhea chrysopogon laeius Robinson and Kloss, Journ. Federated Malay 
States Mus., vol. 8, pt. 2, p. 141, 1918 (Bukit Tangga, Negri Sembilan). 

One male, Yala, Patani, January 31, 1931; one female, Kao Luang, 
3,000 feet, Nakon Sritamarat, July 10, 1928; one male. Ban Hoi 
Tah (Nok Koh Chang), Kao Luang, Nakon Sritamarat, July 10, 
1928; one male, Sichol, Bandon, May 19, 1930. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took one male and two females. Lay Song Hong, 
Trang, September 29, November 5 and 22, 1896; one unsexed, Kao 
Soi Dao, 1,000 feet, Trang, February 14, 1899, and one female. Rum- 
pin River, Pahang, May 28, 1902. He describes the soft parts as: 
Iris reddish brown; bill black, base of lower mandible leaden; feet 
pale green, claws dark horn brown or leaden, tips black. 

The above series illustrates the range of this form fairly well. It 
extends from the southern Federated Malay States north to the prov- 
ince of Bandon in Peninsular Siam. 

Chotorea chrysopogon chrysopogon of Sumatra has lighter yellow 
malar patches and C. c. chrysopsis of Borneo is somewhat smaller, 
with bright-yellow tips to the feathers of the forehead and the blue of 
the jugulum extending farther forward, and it is a somewhat brighter 
green. 

CHOTOREA RAFFLESn MALAYENSIS Chasen 

Chotorhea rafflesii malayensis Chasen, Orn. Monatsb., vol. 43, p. 147, 1935 (Ubin 
Island, near Singapore). 

Six males and two females, Bangnara, Patani, May 23, 1924, July 
4-15, 1926; one male and one female, Tha Lo, Bandon, September 
23 and 24, 1931; three males and three females, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, 
January 4-23, 1934. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected three males and one female in Trang 
(Prahmon, April 3, and Lay Song Hong, September 2, 3 and Novem- 
ber 23, 1896); one male, Bok Pyin, Tenasserim, February 14, 1900; 
and two males at the Rumpin River, Pahang, May 28 and June 22, 
1902. He describes the soft parts as: Iris dark brown; bill black; 
feet leaden, claws black. 



204 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

This considerable series from the Malay Peninsula differs from 
Sumatran birds only in having a somewhat lighter blue superciliary 
and throat and smaller bill. It is not a well-marked race, however. 

Six males from Sumatra (2), Banka (3), and Billiton (1) measure: 
Wing, 116-125 (120.2); tail, 63.5-73 (66.3); culmen, 37^0.5 (38.8) 
mm. Ten males from the Malay Peninsula: Wing, 115-125 (120.6); 
tail, 61.5-70 (66); culmen, 35-38.5 (36.6) mm. 

Chotorea rafflesii malayensis ranges from Singapore north through 
Peninsular Siam to southern Tenasserim. The farthest north in Pen- 
insular Siam at which it has been taken is supposed to be opposite 
the island of Puket, but August Muller ^^ gives simply the Peninsula 
of Malacca. Dr. Abbott's specimen from Tenasserim is evidently 
the northernmost record to date. 

In Borneo a closely related form, Chotorea rafflesii borneensis, with 
a still lighter blue throat and superciliary, occurs. C. r. rafflesii is con- 
fined to Sumatra and Banka. 

CYANOPS ASIATICA DAVISONI (Hume) 

Magalaima davisoni Hume, Stray Feathers, vol. 5, p. 108, 1877 (Meetan, southern 
Tenasserim) . 

Five males and three females, Khun Tan Mountains, 3,000-4,300 
feet, November 21, 1928, May 9-16, 1933; three males and six females, 
Khun Tan, 4,000 feet, October 17, 1929, August 27-29, 1930, February 
15-March 3, 1932; two males and two females, Doi Hua Mot, August 
19-29, 1934. 

In the majority of the above series the band across the vertex is 
blue; in two males and three females, which I regard as interme- 
diates, it is black with a strong blue tinge. The records of C. a. 
asiatica from northern Siam are open to question, it seems to me. 

De Schauensee " records davisoni from Chiengrai and Chieng Sen, 
and on his third expedition ^^ he collected additional specimens at 
Chiengdao and at Khun Tan. The northern birds are regarded as 
intermediate between this and the nominate form; Deignan'^ records 
it from Doi Sutep, 2,500-4,000 feet; Chasen and Kloss ^° from the 
Raheng District of western Siam. 

The form extends from Peninsular Burma through western and 
northern Siam to Laos, Tonkin, and northern Annam. 

" Die Ornis Salanga, p. 74, 1882. 

"Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 81, p. 509, 1930. 
'• Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 255, 1934. 
"Joiirn. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Soc. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 158, 1931. 
MJourn. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Soc. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 169, 1928. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 205 

CYANOPS FRANKUNI RAMSAII (Walden) 

Megalaetna rarnsayi Walden, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 4, vol. 15, p. 400, 1875 
(Karennee Hills, Burma). 

Three females, Doi Angka, 7,000-8,000 feet, December 2 and 6^ 
1928; one female, Doi Sutep, 5,600 feet, December 15, 1928; two 
males and three females, Doi Nangka, November 2-10, 1930; April 
24-25, 1931 ; three males and three females. Pang Meton (Doi Nangka), 
April 30-May 4, 1931; six males, tliree females, and one unsexed, 
Doi Hua Mot, August 12-September 2, 1934. 

This considerable series is fairly uniform. The sexes are alike in 
color and size. 

Six males measure: Wing, 99-102 (100.3); tail, 59-62 (60.2); 
culmen, 22-26 (23.7) mm. Nine females: Wing, 97-105.5 (99.5); 
tail, 55-63 (58.9); culmen, 23.5-27 (25) mm. 

The form ranges from the southern Shan States and Burma to 
Muleyit, Tenasserim, and northern and western Siam. 

Gyldenstolpe *^ first reported this form from northern Siam from 
Doi Par Sakeng; Gairdner ^^ took it in the Raheng District, western 
Siam, and it has been taken on Doi Sutep by a number of collectors 
beside Dr. Smith. 

It is evidently a common mountain bird in northern Siam. De 
Schaunensee ^^ states that on Doi Sutep it occasionally is found as low 
as 2,500 feet but abundant above 4,500 feet. 

CYANOPS FRANKUNI TRANGENSIS Riley 

Cyanops franklini trangensis Riley, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 47, p. 116, 
1934 (Kao Nom Plu, 3,000 feet, Trang, Peninsular Siam). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected two males and three females in the 
mountains of Trang (Kao Nom Plu, 3,000 feet, February 22-24, 
1897; Kao Soi Dao, 2,500 feet, February 12, 1899). He describes 
the soft parts as: Iris dark brown or dark red; bill black, leaden at 
base beneath; feet greenish leaden or pale green. 

This form is similar to rarnsayi of northern Siam but has a larger 
heavier bill; the crown spot and throat are a more golden yellow; 
the supra-auriculars, auriculars, sides of neck, and jugulum darker 
and duskier; above and below a darker green. 

The two males and three females measure: Wing, 98-101 (99); 
tail, 55-61 (59); culmen, 26-28 (27) mm. 

The form so far as loiown is confined to the mountains of Trang. 
It may extend to the mountains of Nakon Sritamarat and Bandon. 

81 Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 99, 1916. 

" Chasen and Kloss, Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 169, 1928. 

M Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 256, 1934. 

33527—38 14 



206 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

CYANOPS HENRICI HENRICI (Tenuninck) 

Bucco henrici Temminck, Nouveau recueil de planches colorizes d'oiseaux, 
livr. 88, pi. 524, May 1931 (Sumatra). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took a single male at Lay Song Hong, Trang, 
December 17, 1896. He describes the soft parts as: Iris dark brown; 
bill black; feet pale green. This form has not been recorded from 
Peninsular Siam before. 

Robinson ^* says that this barbet is a low-coimtry bird, occurring 
from Penang south to Johore. It also inhabits Sumatra. 

The single female examined by me from Sumatra is larger than 
the male irom Trang; the blue crown spot is smaller and less bright; 
the yellow forehead duller. It measures: Wing, 97; tail, 53; culmen; 
28 mm. The single male from Trang measures: Wing, 94.5; tail, 
51.5, culmen, 26 mm. 

Five old unsexed specimens from Malacca have the culmen equally 
small or somewhat smaller. If further specimens from Sumatra 
should show that these differences are constant, then the mainland 
form is worthy of recognition as a distinct form, for which the name 
Bucco rubritorquis Peale ^^ would be available. 

A smaller form of the species is found in Borneo. 

CYANOPS INCOGNITA (Hume) 

Megalaima incognita Hume, Stray Feathers, vol. 2, p. 442, 1874 (25 miles north 
of Yea and Karope, Tenasserim). 

One male, Kao Kuap, Krat, December 27, 1929; two females, 
Kao Lem, Chantabun, December 27 and 29, 1930; one female, Kao 
Sabap, November 2, 1933. 

A female in the United States National Museum from the upper 
Tavoy River, Burma, has a bluer throat, more bluish edgings to the 
feathers of the forehead, and darker and more pronounced malar 
and postocular stripes; it also is slightly smaller. Wing, 96; culmen, 
23 mm. 

The two females from Kao Lem measure: Wing, 101-103; culmen, 
24.5-25.5 mm. The male from Kao Kuap: Wing, 108.5; culmen, 
25 mm. The female from Kao Sabap: Wing, 97; culmen, 24 mm. 

De Schauensee ^^ took a male at Chantabun, southeastern Siam, 
April 2, 1933. 

The species ranges from Tenasserim and the northern part of 
Peninsular Siam to southeastern Siam, Laos, Tonkin, Annam, and 
Cambodia. It can readily be distinguished frojn the Cyanops asiatica 
group of forms, with which it has sometimes been confused, b}'- having 

** The birds of the Malay Peninsula, vol. 2, p. 92, 1928. 

ss U. S. Exploring Expedition, vol. 8, p. 133, 1848. 

M Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. S6, pp. 4, 255, 1934. 



BIRDS FROIVr SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 207 

the crown green, the red occipital spot and red forehead much reduced 
in area, a black rictal stripe, and a narrow ring of yellow feathers 
around the eye. It can be distinguished from the Cyanops oorti 
forms by the green instead of yellow crown; bluish instead of yellow 
throat; and a number of other characters. 

MEZOBUCCO DUVAUCELD CYANOTIS (Blyth) 

Bucco cyanotis Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 16, p. 465, 1847 (Arracan). 

Eight males and five females, Khun Tan, August 29-September 10, 
1930; one male, Doi Nangka, November 17, 1930. 

Seven males from northern Siam measure: Wing, 81.5-85 (83.5); 
tail, 44.5-49 (46.7); cuhnen, 17.5-19 (18) mm. Four females from 
northern Siam: Wing, 80-82.5 (80.9); tail, 43-47 (44.9); culmen, 18- 
18.5 (18.4) mm. 

The form ranges from Silvkim to Assam and south through Burma 
to northern Tenasserim and northern Siam and eastward to Laos 
and Tonkin. 

Count Gyldenstolpe ^^ recorded it between Bang Hue Hom and 
Kao Pl3mg, northern Siam; de Schauensee^* from Doi Sutep, 3,000 
feet, and Chengmai. Deign an ^^ says that it is rare on Doi Sutep 
between 3,000 and 5,500 feet. Previously to Dr. Smith's taking 
the form at Khun Tan, Count Gyldenstolpe had collected it at the 
same locality. 

MEZOBUCCO DUVAUCELU ORIENTALIS Robinson 

Mesohucco duvaugli [sic] orientalis Robinson, Ibis, 1915, p. 738 (Ok Yam, Franco- 
Siamese Boundary). 

One female, Sakeo, near Krabin, May 5, 1928; one female, Klong 
Yai, Sriracha, July 24, 1932. 

These two specimens, along with a female from Ok Yam, the type 
locaUty, and a male from Koh Chang, have larger bills and the red 
rictal patch has broader yellow tips to the feathers than M. d. cyanotis. 

De Schauensee,®" with a larger series available for study (from Bua 
Yai, Kon Ken, and Chantabun), has called attention to other differ- 
ences, namely: The ear coverts are tinged with green and there is 
a red band below the blue of the throat. In the series of northern 
birds examined by me this band is sometimes present, however. There 
appears to be Uttle difference in color or size between the sexes. 

One male from Koh Chang and three females from southeastern 
Siam measure: Wing, 80-84.5 (82.4); tail, 41-46 (44.2); culmen, 
20-21.5 (20.9) mm. 

•' Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 50, no. 8, p 61, 1913. 
" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 81, p. 570, 1930. 
•' Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 159, 1831. 
M Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 256, 1934. 



208 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Stuart Baker ®^ records it from Hupbon in southeastern and 
Hinlap in eastern Siam; Robinson ^^ from Koh Chang and Ok Yam. 

The range of the form so far as known is eastern and southeastern 
Siam. It probably extends also into southern Indo-China. 

MEZOBUCCO DUVAUCELII STUARTI Robinson and Kloss 

Mesobucco duvauceli shiarii Robinson and Kloss, Journ. Nat. Hist. See. Siam, 
vol. 3, p. 100, 1919 (Klong Tung Sal, Junk-seylon, Peninsular Siam). 

One adult male, three immature males, two adult females, and 
one immature female, Bangnara, Patani, June 5, 1924, July 8-21, 
1926; two adult males and one inmiature male, Ban Kii'iwong, Nakon 
Sritamarat, July 10-11, 1928; one female, Wat Kiriwong, Nakon 
Sritamarat, July 25, 1928. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected five males, eight females, and one 
unsexed specimen in Trang (Lay Song Hong, August 18-December 17, 
1896; near Kao Nok Ram, December 29, 1898 and January 3-5, 1899; 
Kao Soi Dao, 1,500 feet, February 17, 1899). He gives the soft 
parts as: Iris dark brown; bill black (male), black, leaden beneath 
at base (female); feet duU pale green or olive, claws bro'WTiish black. 

This series differs from M. d. cyanotis of northern Siam in having 
the wing and tail somewhat shorter, the red patches on sides of 
head brighter with Uttle or no yellow mixture in the suborbital spot, 
and the black bases of the feathers of the jugular region showing 
more plainly and forming a more or less well-defined spot. 

The Patani specimens are nearer those of Trang than the Sumatran 
race, M. duvaucelii duvaucelii; in the latter the ear coverts are black, 
the blue of the vertex is deeper and extends farther back, and the 
red markings on the side of head are brighter. M. d. stuarti has 
blue ear coverts with a greenLsli tmge. The Patani birds are, how- 
ever, brighter than Trang specimens. The Bomean race, M. d. 
bomeensis Parrot, also has black ear coverts, lilce that of Sumatra; 
it appears to be slightly larger. Robinson and Kloss ®^ think the 
bird from the Malayan States of the Malay Peninsula belong to the 
Bomean form. I have not examined any specimens south of Patani, 
except four poor specimens from Malacca, which do not appear to 
have the ear coverts black. If the Malayan bii-d should prove to 
be separable from that of Borneo, then S. Baker's name Cyanops 
duvaceli rohinsoni,^^ type from Klang, Selangor, would be available 
for it. Possibly tliis race may reach western Patani. 

The range of M. d. stuarti extends from southern Tenasserim 
through Peninsular Siam south to Patani. The farthest north in 



•I Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol 3, p. 430, 1919. 
•« Ibis, 1915, p. 738. 

•« Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 167, 1923 
«♦ Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 39, p. 20, 1918. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 209 

Siam at which it has been recorded, so far as loiowTi to me, is Robinson 
and Kloss's ^^ record from TapU, Pakchan Estuary, Penmsular Siam; 
Robinson^ records it from Bandon; Robinson and Kloss "^ from 
Kao Luang, 2,000 feet, Nakon Sritamarat. 

Eight males measure: Wing, 74.5-81 (78); tail, 40-43 (41); culmen, 
16.5-19 (17.8 mm). Six females: Wing, 75-79 (77); tail, 38-42 (39.6); 
culmen, 16.5-18 (17.6) mm. 

The immature birds in the above series are of nearly the same 
size as the adult. All are clear green, without any markings. In one 
(marked male) a few blue feathers are beginning to appear on the 
throat, and the black jugular spot is clearly indicated. A single red 
feather is appearing on the right side above the ear coverts, and there 
are two or three blue feathers appearing in the crown. 

Chasen ^^ uses Horsfield's name Bucco australis ^^ for this form 
group. The name belongs to some species of Xantholaema, however. 

XANTHOLAEMA HAEMACEPHALA INDICA (Latham) 

Bucco indicus Latham, Index ornithologicus, vol. 1, p. 205, 1790 (India). 

One male, Melang Valley, December 31, 1932; one female, Mae 
Hong Sorn, January 3, 1933; one male, Rayasothon, March 23, 1929; 
one immature female. Nan, April 15, 1930; four males and one female, 
Bangkok, October 30, 1923, May 19, 1928, September 22, 1930, April 
30 and May 4, 1934; two males, Elnong Phra, April 16, 1929; one male, 
Tha Chang, March 14, 1927; three females and one unsexed, Pak 
Chong, May 9, 14, 1925, December 20, 1926; four females. Pang 
Sok, August 12, 1926; one male, Lat Bua Kao, August 3, 1929; two 
females, Chantabun, May 26, 1929; one male, Rajaguri, April 10, 
1926; one female, Bangnara, Patani, June 3, 1924; one male, Yala, 
Patani, February 1, 1931. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected two adult males, one immature male, 
and one female in Trang (Prahmon, April 6, 1896; Tyching, April 
22, 23, 1896); one female, Champang, Tenasserim, December 13, 1903. 
He gives the soft parts as: Iris brown; orbital skin brick red; bill 
black (male), black with the base fleshy white (female); feet red, 
claws black. 

This form has a wide range, extending from eastern Bengal, Sikkim, 
Nepal, Burma, Yunnan, Laos, Annam, Cochinchina, and Cambodia 
to Siam and south through Peninsular Siam to the northern Malay 
States. In Siam it seems to be generally distributed from the north 
throughout the country. Herbert ^ has found it breeding near Bangkok 
and states that eggs may be found from February to AprU. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 166, 1923. 

w Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 5, p. 94, 1915. 

»' Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 11, p. 60. 1923. 

•' Bull. Raffles Mus., no. 11, p. 137, 1935. 

M Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 13. p. 181 (not 101), 1821 

» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6. p. 299, 1924. 



210 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

The immature female taken by Dr. Smith at Nan, April 15, is 
about half grown. Above it is serpentine green, the wings and tail 
brighter, without the red forehead of the adult; the black crown 
band is barely indicated by darker centers to the feathers of the 
region, making it somewhat duskier than the rest of the head; the 
supraorbital and auricular yellow spots have appeared; the black of 
the sides of the head of the adult is replaced by dusky; the throat is 
light green-yellow; the jugulum grayish olive with a greenish wash; 
remaining underparts reed yellow, the sides and flanks streaked with 
yellowish olive. A slightly older bird collected by Dr. Smith at Pak 
Chong, May 14, has a few red feathers appearing on the jugulum; the 
throat is coming in a deeper yellow, and the chest and abdomen are 
becoming paler. A young male collected by Dr. W. L. Abbott at 
Prahmon, Trang, April 6, is of about the same age as Dr. Smith's 
Nan female; the former is quite different above, being light bice 
green and paler yellow below. 

A number of forms are recognized, including the following: 

Xantholaema haemacephala delica (Parrot) (Sumatra). 
Xantholaema haemacephala haemacephala (Mtiller) (Philippine Islands). 
Xantholaema haemacephala lutea (Lesson) (Ceylon and India generally to 
western Bengal). 

Family PICIDAE: Woodpeckers, Piculets 

PICUS VITTATUS EISENHOFERI Gyldenstolpe 

Picus vitiatus eisenhoferi Gyldenstolpe, Orn. Monatsb., 1916, p. 28 (Pa Hing, 
northern Siam). 

One male. Nan, April 13, 1930; one female, Aranya, April 13, 1930; 
one female. Bung Borapct, June 21, 1932; one male and two females, 
Bangkok, November 16, 1923, March 12, 1924, January 1, 1926; 
four males and three females, Pak Chong, May 5, 11, 1925, November 
16, 24, 1929, June 22, 26, 1934; two males. Lam I^ong Lang, near 
Pak Chong, June 7, 15, 1925; one female, Muek Lek, April 19, 1933; 
three males and one female, Lat Bua Kao, July 29-August 9, 1929; 
one female, Pang Sok, August 19, 1926; one male, Sikeu, near Korat, 
February 17, 1926; one male and one female, Tha Chang, March 20, 
1927; two males and one female, Sakeo, near Krabin, May 5-31, 
1928; one male and four females, Lamton Lang, May 25-June 1, 1925; 
two females, Hupbon, October 26 and November 5, 1931; three males 
and four females, Nong Khor, near Sriracha, September 25, 26, 1925, 
March 21, 23, 1926, February 12, 1927; one male and one female, 
Klong Yai, Sriracha, July 23, 28, 1932; one female, Huey Yang, 
Sriracha, August 4, 1932; one male, Ban Tarn Dam, Sriracha, March 
4, 1930; one female. Ban Sadet, near Sriracha, May 26, 1925; one male 
and two females, Nong Yang, east of Sriracha, October 20-November 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 211 

13, 1931; two males, Kao Sabap, November 3, 16, 1933; one male, 
Kao Seming, Krat, October 17, 1928; one male, Krat, December 20, 
1929; one female, Muang, Kanburi, April 11, 1928; one male, Kwe 
Noi, Kanburi, September 21, 1929; two males and one female, Sam 
Roi Yot, November 7, 8, 1932. Dr. Smith also took a male at Vientiane, 
Laos, February 21, 1929. 

This series shows a good deal of seasonal variation. In the unfaded 
fall specimens the jugulum and foreneck are pyrite yellow, the chin 
Ught drab, the streaks on the breast and belly olive-green, the mantle 
warbler green. By the breeding season the mantle becomes more 
yellowish, the jugulum and foreneck lose the greenish tinge, and the 
streaks on the breast and belly tend to become less green and more 
brownish. 

A young female from Lat Bua Kao, July 29, resembles the adult, 
but the throat and jugulum are drab, the streaks on the breast and 
belly fuscous, and the back is a darker, less yellowish green. Another 
immature female has the streaks on the breast and belly more lightly 
indicated than the Lat Bua Kao specimen and brownish, and the 
jugulum has a yellowish tinge; it is slightly older and was taken at 
Huey Yang, Sriracha, August 4. Three younger females from Pak 
Chong and Lamton Lang, May 27 and June 26, in fresh unworn plum- 
age have the chest mignonette green, the throat drab. The immature 
male acquires an almost adult plumage before the streaks below are 
replaced by olive-green streaked feathers; the pileum is a lighter red 
and the mantle a darker green, however. 

One adult female (no. 306909) has some red-tipped feathers on the 
nape. 

Some specimens have irregular bufly bars on the middle tail feathers 
and shadow bars on the outer tail feathers, but on others these are 
absent. The bars on the middle tail feathers show on the upper side, 
but on the outer tail feathers they show only on the under side. 

The range of this form is from extreme eastern Burma and the 
southern Shan States to Siam proper, Laos, southern Annam, Cochin- 
china, and Cambodia. 

Dr. Smith's collection covers the Siamese range of eisenhoferi fairly 
well, except the north. De Schauensee ^ states that it is not common 
in northern Siam. In eastern, central, southeastern, and southwest- 
ern Siam it is apparently not uncommon. In southwestern Siam it 
has been taken as far south as Hua Hin and Nong Kae ^ and the local- 
ity Sam Roi Yot (Pran River), where Dr. Smith collected specimens, 
is not far off. Apparently it has not been taken in Peninsular Siam. 
Herbert * states that it breeds near Bangkok in February. 

> Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 248, 1934. 

> Williairson, Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 2, p. 319, 1917. 
« Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6, p. 298, 1924. 



212 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

PICUS VITTATUS CONNECTENS (Robinson and KIoss) 

Gecinus vitialus conneciens Robinson and Kloss, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club. vol. 40, 
p. 13, 1919 (Langkawi Island). 

This race was founded upon specimens taken upon Langkawi and 
Dayang Bunting, Langkawi Islands. 

There is a female in the United States National Museum from 
Great Karimon Island collected by Dr. W. L. Abbott, May 28, 1903, 
that agrees with the description of this form. It is more of a grass- 
green above, with scarcely any yellow wash on the rump when com- 
pared with the same sex of Picus vittatus eisenhoferi; below it is more 
buffy on the throat and jugulum, and the chest and belly are less 
heavily streaked with a more brownish olive-green. The wing 
measures 133.5 mm. 

This form very Ukely occurs on some of the Siamese islands such as 
Terutau. Picus vittatus vittatus Vieillot, a smaller and more richly 
colored form, is found in Java, the Malay States, and (?) Sumatra. 

PICUS VIRIDANUS (BIyth) 

Picus viridanus Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 12, p. 1000, 1843 (Arrakan). 
Gecinus weberi Muller, Die Ornis der Insel Salanga, p. 69, 1882 (Salanga). 
Picus viridanus mcridianus Kloss, Ibis, 1926, p. 689 (Lanira, Trang, Peninsular 
Siam) . 

One female, Sichol, Bandon, May 15, 1930; one male, Tha Lo, 
Bandon, September 18, 1931; one male, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, Jan- 
uary 4, 1934. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected the following: one male and four 
females, Trang (Prahmon, February 27, March 13, and April 16, 1896; 
Trang, January 25 and March 3, 1899); and two males in Tenasserim 
(Tanjong Badak, January 12, 1900; Bok Pyin, February 17, 1900). 
He gives the soft parts as: Iris dark reddish brown or dark red; bill 
dull horny black, base of lower mandible yellowish green or yellow; 
feet dull greenish, pale green, or olive green. 

No Burma specimens have been available, except the two from 
Tenasserim collected by Dr. Abbott. All the above series seem to 
belong to one form. 

Four males from Koh Lak, southwestern Siam, south to Trang, 
measure: Wmg 132-143 (137); tail, 94-100 (96.5); cuhnen, 34-36.5 
(35.3) mm. Two males from Tenasserim: Wing, 135.5-138; tail, 
96.5-101.5; culmcn, 34-36 mm. Six females from Koh Lak south to 
Trang: Wing, 128-136 (131.6); tail, 89-100 (95.7); culmen, 31-33 
(32.2) mm. 

If the Peninsular bird should eventually be deemed worthy of recog- 
nition, Miiller's name weberi would be applicable. 

One of the males from Trang has a wing measuring 143 mm, which 
is greater than KIoss's limit for the race, but the other Trang male has 
not. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 213 

The species ranges from Burma, except the extreme northwestern 
part, south to Tenasserim, western, southwestern, and Peninsular 
Siam as far as Patani. Lowe ^ reports it from 28 mOes east of Um 
Pang, Siam, which is about as far north as I have seen any records. 
It is evidently common or fairly so in Peninsular Siam, where it has 
been taken as far south as Patani.^ 

The species can be easily distinguished from Picus vittatus by the 
streaked foreneck and chest and from Picus myrmecophoneus by the 
larger size, darker coloration below, and blackish upper mandible. 

PICUS MYRMECOPHONEUS MYRMECOPHONEUS Stresemann 

Picus myrmecophoneus Stresemann, Verh. Orn. Ges. Bayern, vol. 14, p. 289, 1920 

(new name for Picus striolatus Blyth, 1844; Himalayas). 
Picus xanthopygius Oberholser, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 32, p. 8, 1919 

(not of Bonaparte, 1850). 

One male. Bo Ploi, Kanburi, September 8, 1928. 

This woodpecker is easily distinguished from Picus vittatus forms 
by having the foreneck and chest streaked and from P. viridanus by its 
much lighter underparts and the different pattern of the feathers of 
these parts. In viridanus the feathers of the breast have the shafts 
wliitish, then a broad band of fuscous, then a narrow subterminal 
band of pale yellow. In P. m. myrmecophoneus the feathers of the 
breast have the shafts blackish, then a broad band of light yellow, and 
a subterminal band of blackish, P. m. myrmecophoneus is much 
smaller than P. viridanus or P. vittatus eisenhoferi. 

The specimen collected by Dr. Smith is subadult but differs from 
the adult only in minor details. The red of the head is confined to the 
forehead, with only a few scattering red feathers in the crown and 
nape and the upper mandible is black instead of horny brown. 

The range of this form extends from Ceylon and Peninsular India 
to the Himalayas, eastern Assam, Cliin Hills, Burma, Siam, Cochin- 
china, and Cambodia. This seems to be more or less of a rare wood- 
pecker in Siam. Gyldenstolpe ^ records it from northern Siam ; Chasen 
and Kloss * as Picus viridanus, later corrected to Picus myrmecopho- 
neus,'^ from the Raheng District. Kloss ^° took an adult male at Koh 
Lak, the most southern specimen known to me. It was later acquired 
by the United States National Museum. De Schauensee " took a 
male at Tamuang recorded as Picus xanthopygius. 

A larger race, Picus myrmecophoneus dehrae Baker, inliabits Kumaon, 
Garhwal, Nepal, and upper Pegu. 

« Ibis, 1933, p. 473. 

« Ogilvie-Orant, Fasciculi Malayenses, pt. 3, p. 101, 1905. 

' Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 1, p. 229, 1915. 

« Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 170, 1928. 

e Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 235, 1932. 

"> Ibis, 1918, p. 104. 

» Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 247, 1934. 



214 BULLETIlSr 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

PICUS CANUS HESSEI Gyldenstolpe 

Picus canus hessei Gyldenstolpe, Orn. Monatsb., 1916, p. 28 (Pak Koh, northern 

Siam) . 
Gecinus canus microrhynchus Robtnson and Kloss, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 40, 

p. 12, 1919 (Koh Lak, southwestern Siam). 

One female, Chieng Dao, January 29, 1932; one female, Melang 
Valley, January 1, 1933; one male, Huey Me Sae, December 24, 1932; 
one male, Lomkao, February 20, 1934; one male, Knong Phra, April 
15, 1929; three females, Kwe Noi, Kanburi, September 20, 1929; two 
males, Sai Yok, Kanburi, September 23, 1929; two males and two 
females, Pak Chong, May 9, 1925, December 18, 20, 1926; one male, 
Sakeo, near Krabin, May 8, 1928; one female, Lamton Lang, May 30, 
1934; two females, Lat Bua Kao, July 29, August 9, 1929; one female, 
Chantuk, June 14, 1934; two males, Huey Yang, Sriracha, August 4, 
1932; two males and three females, Pran, May 26, 28, 1928, April 2-4, 
1931. 

Apparently there is little difference between specimens from north- 
ern and eastern Siam, and little or none between the latter and birds 
from southwestern Siam. 

Four males from northern and western Siam measure: Wing, 
151-153 (151.5) ; culmen, 40-41.5 (40.7) mm. Six males from central, 
eastern, and southwestern Siam: Wing, 148-152.5 (150.2); culmen, 
40-42 (41) mm. Five females from northern and western Siam: 
Wing, 144-153 (150); culmen, 35.5-41 (38.4) mm. Seven females 
from eastern and southwestern Siam: Wing, 137-154 (148); culmen, 
37-40.5 (38.9) mm. 

The two smallest male specimens measured are from Huey Yang, 
Sriracha, with wings of 137-141 mm, culmens, 38-39 mm, but there are 
indications in the plumage that they are birds of the year, and their 
measurements have not been included in the averages above. One 
of these males (no. 331880) has the rump orange instead of lemon- 
yellow and the upperparts more of an orange citrine. Both of these 
immature males resemble the adult, except the lowcrparts have only 
the chest washed with a lighter greenish yellow, the belly being gray- 
ish with slightly darker shadow bars; the red on the crown is more 
restricted, as are the black malar streak and black of the nape. 

The form ranges from northern, central, and southern Burma east 
to Siam proper, Laos, Cochincliina, and Annam. In Siam it has been 
recorded from all parts of the country, from the north as far to the 
southwest as Koh Lak. In Peninsular Siam no form of this species is 
known, but in the mountains of the Malay States Picvs canus robinsoni 
(Grant) is found. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 215 

PICUS ERYTHROPYGIUS ERYTHROPYGIUS (Elliot) 

Gecinus erythropygius Elliott, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Paris, vol. 1., Bull., p. 76, pi. 3, 
fig. 1, 1865 (Cochinchina) . 

One male and one female, Udon, March 19, 1929; one female, Sakon 
Nakon, March 11, 1929, one male. Ban Den Miiang, February 25, 
1929; one female, Pak Chong, December 21, 1926; one female. Pang 
Sok, August 15, 1926; one female, Nong Mong, Muang Krabin, 
August 30, 1925; three males and one female, Chantuk, June 13-16, 
1934. 

The four specunens from Chantuk are all bhds of the year with dark 
bills at the base, but not so dark as in nigrigenis; the thi'ee males have 
the throats and sides of neck washed with orange. One male (no. 
313262) has a white postocular streak; the other males have none. 
Three (out of five) females have a white postocular streak. 

This form is easily distinguished from the next (nigrigenis) by its 
horn-colored bill. It ranges from southern Annam and Cochinchina 
to Cambodia, lower Laos, and eastern and southeastern Siam. 

Kloss ^^ records it from Lat Bua Kao ; Gyldenstolpe ^^ from Sakerat. 

PICUS ERYTHROPYGIUS NIGRIGENIS (Hume) 

Gecinus nigrigenis Hume, Stray Feathers, vol. 2, p. 444, 1874 (Tenasserim). 

One female, Doi Angka (lower slopes), December 9, 1928; one male, 
Doi Phra Chao, August 5, 1934; one male and one female. Ban Nam 
Kien, Nan, April 19, 21, 1930; one female, Muang Pai, December 27, 
1932; one male and one female, Mekhan, February 7, 8, 1932; one 
male and one female, Huey Salob, January 3, 1933; one male, Mae 
Hong Sorn, January 5, 1933; one male, Khonka Valley, January 19, 
1933; one female, Mesarieng, January 21, 1933; one female, Wang 
Kien, March 13, 1934; four males and three females, Muang Kanburi, 
April 10-14, and September 10, 1928; two males and one female. Bo 
Ploi, Kanburi, September 26, 1929. 

The red crown patch in the male varies from quite restricted in 
some specimens to one (no. 324155, Bo Ploi, Kanburi, September 26) 
in which the whole pileum, except the forehead, is red. Judged by 
analogy, the latter is a bird of the year, though it appears to be adult. 
In none of the series, except one female, is there a light postocular 
streak. In several of the males the outer tail feather has a grayish 
spot at the tip of varying extent on the underside. 

This form is easily distinguished from erythropygius by its entirely 
black bill. 

The form ranges from Karenni and Tounghoo, Burma, to northern, 
western, and southern Siam. It is a common bird in northern and 

'« Ibis, 1918, p. 102. 

» Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad Handl., vol. 50, no. 8, p. 47, 1913. 



216 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

western Siam and probably reaches southwestern Siam, but I have 
seen no records from this part of the country. 

There is a specimen in the British Museum from Meklong, central 
Siam.^* De Schauensee ^^ says that it is a common bird in dry lowland 
forest, ascending the hills to about 1,500 feet. 

CIRROPICUS CHLOROLOPHUS CHLOROLOPHOIDES (Gyldenstolpe) 

Brachylophus chlorophoides Gyldenstolpe, Orn. Monatsb., 1916, p. 29 (Koon 
Tan, northern Siam). 

One male, Doi Hua Mot, August 24, 1934; four males and three 
females, Khun Tan Mountains, 3,000-4,300 feet, November 21, 1928, 
May 11-17, 1933; five males and four females, Khun Tan, 4,000 feet, 
October 17-22, 1929, August 23-September 6, 1930, March 1, 4, 1932; 
one female, Doi Nangka, November 22, 1930; one female. Pang Meton 
(Doi Nangka), May 2, 1931 ; one male. Khan River, February 8, 1932; 
one male, Huey Salob, January 3, 1933; one female. Ban Nam Kien, 
Nan, April 21, 1930; one female, Wang Kien, Kanburi, March 12, 
1934. 

I have had only one male of Cirropicus chlorolophus chlorolophus for 
comparison. It is more of a yellowish green above; the nuchal crest is 
a deeper yellow; the chest is more of a deep olive, less greenish; the 
red on outer web at the base of the inner primaries is less pronounced; 
the red on the forehead and superciliary is less extensive, and there 
are some other differences. 

C. c. chlorolophoides ranges from the southern Chma and Kachin 
Hills, Burma, south to the southern Shan States and Tenasserim and 
eastward to northern Siam and northwestern Laos. In Siam it is 
apparently common all over the northern part of the country. Dr. 
Smith's specimen from Wankien is from about as far to the southwest 
as the form is known to range. 

C c. chlorolophus (Vieillot) occurs from Sikldm, Bhutan, Assam, and 
the hill tracts of eastern Bengal to the northern Shan States and 
Yunnan. Other forms occur in India. The southern forms are listed 
under conjundus. 

CIRROPICUS CHLOROLOPHUS CONJUNCTUS Riley 

Cirropicus chlorolophus conjundus Riley, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 48, 
p. 53, 1935 (Kao Sabab, southeastern Siam). 

One male, Lat Bua Kao, August 7, 1929; one female. Pang Sok, 
August 26, 1926; one male, Pak Chong, May 5, 1926; one male, 
Lam ton Lang, May 28, 1934; one male, Sakeo, near Krabin, May 8, 
1928; two males and one female, Nong Khor, near Sriracha, November 
23, 1924, September 25, 1925, February 12, 1927; two females, Huey 
Yang, Sriracha, August 1, 4, 1932; one male, Kao Seming, Krat, 
January 2, 1930; one male, Kao Sabap, October 28, 1933. 

i< Catalogue of the birds in the British Museum, vol. 18, p. 68, 1890. 
» Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 249, 1934. 



BIRDS FRO:\I SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 217 

Dr. Smith describes the soft parts of a male from Nong Khor as: 
Iris reddish brown; bill black above, yellow below. 

This form is lighter above and below than C. c. chlorolophoides ; the 
nuchal crest is paler; and it averages somewhat smaller, especially 
the bill. Six males measure: Wing, 127.5-137.5 (132.4); tail, 80-90. 5 
(86.4); culmen, 24.5-26.5 (25.7) mm. Six females: Wing, 125-136 
(131.4); tail, 85-92 (88); culmen, 23.5-26 (24.8) mm. 

Ten males of C. c. chlorolophoides measure: Wing, 131.5-142 (135.8); 
tail, 84-96 (89.9); culmen, 24.5-30.5 (27.8) mm. Ten females: Wing, 
134-140 (136.7); tail, 87.5-100 (94.3); culmen, 25-28 (26.6). 

Two males of C. c. krempji from Trang Bom, Cochinchina, are 
somewhat darker and smaller than C c. conjundus. They measure: 
Wing 126-129; tail, 85-90; culmen, 24.5-26 mm. 

The immature male of Cirropicus chlorolophus has the chest brown- 
ish and the crown as well as the forehead with red tips to the feathers. 
This brownishness of the chest and red on the crown persist some time 
after the birds reach adult size. Judged by this criterion, the male 
from Pak Chong and the male from Kao Seming are immature. The 
chest in the latter is becoming greenish, and it has lost most of the red 
tips to the crown feathers; it was taken January 2. The Pak Chong 
male, taken May 5, has the whole chest and throat olive-brown and 
the bars on the breast and belly lightly indicated hair brown. 

C. c. conjundus is apparently confined to eastern and southeastern 
Siam. It probably ranges into Cambodia also, but I have seen no 
records from there. 

A closely related form, Cirropicus chlorolophus krempji (Delacour 
and Jabouille) occurs in Cochinchina; C. c. annamensis (Meinertz- 
hagen) in southern Annam; C. c. laotianus (Delacour and Jabouille) in 
Tonkin, northern Annam, and northern Laos; C. c. citrinocristatus 
(Rickett) in central Fohkien, China. C. c. rodgeri (Hartert and Butler) 
is an isolated form inhabiting the mountains of Perak. 

CIRROPICUS PUNICEUS CONTINENTIS (Robinson and Kloss) 

Brachylophus puniceus continentis Robinson and Kloss, Journ. Federated 
Malay States Mus., vol. 10, pt. 3, p. 204, 1921 (Tapli, Pakchan Estuary, 
Renong, North Malay Peninsula). 

One male, Kao Luang, Nakon Sritamarat, July 17, 1928; two males, 
Tha Lo, Bandon, September 15, 16, 1931; two males and one female, 
Kao Soi Dao, Trang, January 4-22, 1934; two males, Bangnara, 
Patani, July 5, 8, 1926. 

Dr. Abbott collected two males and four females in Trang (Prah- 
mon, March 23, April 2, 1896; Lay Song Hong, August 18, 31, 1896; 
Trang, February 24, 1899); one female, Dungun River, Trengganu, 
September 22, 1900, and one male, Rumpin Rivei, Pahang, June 21, 



218 BULLETIN 172, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

1902. He describes the soft part as: Iris dark red; orbital skin light 
blue; upper mandible black, lower mandible yellow; feet greenish 
yellow; dull olive, or dull green. 

The form ranges from the Malay States north through Peninsular 
Siam to southern Tenasserim. Robinson and Kloss ^^ record it from 
Tapli and Tasan, northern Peninsular Siam, wldch seems to be about 
the northern limit of its range in Siam. De Schauensee,^^ having for 
study two males from Nakon Sritamarat, questions the validity of 
the form. 

Eight adult males from Peninsular Siam measure: Wing, 126-136.5 
(130.9); culmen, 28-31 (29.6) mm. Five adult males from Sumatra 
(2) and Nias (3): Wing, 123-130 (126.6); culmen, 27-30 (28.6) mm. 

Those measurements indicate an average larger size for the con- 
tinental bird. None of the adult males measured from the continent 
by me has wings as small as those given by de Schauensee, except 
one, and that shows signs of being immature. Its measurements are 
not included, therefore, in those given above. This specimen differs 
from the adult male only as follows: The breast is brownish with 
round, deep, clive-buff spots, and the wings are a deeper red; the wing 
measures 123 mm. The two birds mentioned by de Schauensee may 
not be fully adult. 

Cirropicus puniceus observandus (Hartert), a closely related form, 
inhabits Sumatra, Nias, Banka, and Borneo. C. p. puniceus (Hors- 
field) is confined to Java. 

CALLOLOPHUS MINIATUS PERLUTUS Kloss 

Callolophus mineatus perlutus Kloss, Ibis, 1918, p. 110 (Koh Lak, southwestern 
Siam). 

One male and two females, Pran, May 28, 1928, April 2, 1931. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected one female at Bok Pyin, Tenasserim, 
February 15, 1900, and one male at Telok Besar, Tenasserim, March 
19, 1904. 

This form is a larger form than C. m. malaccensis. 

Three males measure: Wing, 138-142 (140.3); tail, 77-84 (81.3); 
culmen, 28-28.5 (28.3) mm. Three females: Wing, 133-143 (138); 
tail, 78-85.5 (82.8); culmen, 26-29 (27) mm. 

It ranges northward from the Pakchan Estuary through southern 
Tenasserim and southwestern Siam to south-central Siam. 

There is a specimen in the British Museum from Aleklong,^^ which 
is as far north as I have seen any records for Siam. Robmson and 
Kloss '^ assign specimens from Chumporn and Pakchan to the southern 
form. In Tenasserim it is said to go as far north as Tavoy. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Slam, vol. S, p. 174, 1923. 

1' Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 248, 1934. 

'• Catalogue of the birds in the British Museum, vol. 18, p. 124, 1890. 

1' Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 191, 1923. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AXD THE MALAY PENINSULA 219 

CALLOLOPHUS MINIATUS MALACCENSIS (Latham) 

Picus malaccensis Latham, Index ornithologicus, vol. 1, p. 241, 1790 (Malacca) 

Two males, Bukit, Patani, January 23, 1931; one immature male, 
Pak Bhayoon, Tale Sap, July 4, 1929; one immature male, Patalung, 
July 5, 1929; one male, Kao Chong, Trang, September 1, 1933; one 
female, Waterfall, Trang, August 25, 1933 ; one male and one female, 
Tha Lo, Bandon, September 17, 22, 1931; one male, Sicliol, Bandon, 
September 2, 1929. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected the following: Three males and two 
females, Trang (Tyching, May 29, 1896; Lay Song Hong, December 
27, 1896; near Chong, January 25, 1897; Kao Nom Plu, 1,000 feet, 
February 23, 1897; Trang, January 21, 1899); two males and one 
female, Rumpin River, Pahang, June 14, 23, 1902. He describes the 
soft parts as: Iris dark red or brown; upper mandibles black; lower 
bluish white; feet green. 

The two immature males collected by Dr. Smith are much paler 
than the adults, and the bills are shorter; they are about adult size. 

There seems to be little difference in size between the sexes. Ten 
males measure: Wing, 125-130.5 (127.6); tail, 68-79.5 (73.6); culmen, 
25-28 (25.8) mm. Five females: Wing, 128-135 (130); tail, 74-78 
(74.9); culmen, 24-25.5 (24.7) mm. 

This form ranges from the Malay States north to Pakchan Estuary,^, 
whence it was recorded by Robinson and Kloss ^°; it also occurs on 
Sumatra, Banka, and Billiton. 

Callolophus miniatus miniatus (Forster) is confined to Java. 

C. m. dayak Stresemann is found in Borneo. 

C. m. niasensis (Buttikofer) is confined to the island of Nias, off the 
western coast of Sumatra. 

CHRYSOPHLEGMA HUMH HUMH Hargitt 

Chrysophlegma humii Hargitt, Ibis, 1889, p. 231 (Malacca and Klong, Selangor). 

One male and two females, Bangnara, Patani, May 31, 1924, July 
4, 1926; three males, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, December 21, 1933- 
January 1, 1934; one male and two females, Kao Luang, Nakon 
Sritamarat, July 17, 23, 1928; one male, Ban Huey Ta, Nakon Srita- 
marat, July 12, 1928; two females, Sichol, Bandon, May 19, 1930. 

Dr. Smith gives the soft parts of a pair shot at Bangnara, Patani, 
May 31, as: Male — iris reddish brown; bill black; legs light green. 
Female — iris dull reddish brown; bill blacldsh brown above, dark 
blue below; legs dark green. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected the following in the Mala}'- Peninsula: 
Four males and two females, Trang (La}^ Song Hong, September 22, 
30, December 21, 24, 1896; Trang, January 26, 1899; Kao Soi Dao. 

»« Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6, p. 188, 1923. 



220 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONiVL MUSEUM 

1,000 feet, February 20, 1899); one male, the Dindings, Straits of 
Malacca, April 14, 1900; one male and one female, Endau River, east 
coast of Johore, June 28 and July 13, 1901; and one male, and two 
females, Rumpin River, Pahang, June 2, July 11, 22, 1902. 

Dr. Abbott gives the soft parts as: Iris reddish brown, dark red, or 
deep crimson; bill black above, leaden below; greenish at the base of 
lower mandible; feet dull green, pale green, or olive green; orbital 
skin green, dull green, or pale green. 

The male apparently differs from the female only in having the 
malar region dusky with buffy spots (the malar region in the female 
being hazel without spots). A male collected by Dr. Abbott on the 
Rumpin River, Pahang, Jidy 11, has the malar region unspotted and 
the breast and belly olive-brown with a slight citrine wash. It is 
probably a bird of the year. 

This form ranges from southern Tenasserim through Peninsular 
Siam to the Malay States, Sumatra, and Banka. Robinson and 
Kloss ^^ state that it is rare in the northern part of the Peninsula, 
barely reaching Bankasoon, Tenasserim. Judged by the number of 
specimens collected by Dr. Abbott and Dr. Smith, it is probably 
not uncommon in the south. 

Chryso2)hle<jm.a humii saha Chasen and Kloss inhabits Borneo. 

C. mentale (Tcmminck) of Java is larger and quite distinct from the 
forms inhabiting Borneo and the mainland and in my opinion should 
rank as another species. 

CHRYSOPHLEGMA FLAVINUCHA LYLEI Kloss 

Chrysophlegma flavinucha lylei Kloss, Ibis, 1918, p. 110 (Koh Lak, southwestern 
Siam). 

One male, Doi Hua Mot, September 6, 1934; one male and two 
females, Khun Tan, 4,000 feet, October 22, 1929, February 17, 1932; 
two males, Khun Tan Mountains, 3,000-4,000 feet, November 21, 
1928; May 16, 1933; one female, Sobpung, December 21, 1932; one 
male, Kwe Noi, Kanburi, September 21, 1929. 

I have only one male of C . j . flavinucha with which to compare the 
above series. The Siamese specimens have the throat and nuchal 
crest lighter; the back greener; the forehead a darker reddish brown; 
the chest darker; and the breast darker, more of a light citrine drab. 
The increased white on the foreneck in the Siamese race, mentioned 
in the original description, does not hold. 

Chasen and Kloss ^^ record it from the Raheng District, and a male 
from their collection is in the United States National jMuseum; they 
have also recorded it from Doi Sutep, 4,600 feet.^^ De Schauensee ^* 

«' Jouni. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 192, 1923. 
» Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 170, 1928. 
M Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 235, 1932. 
»< Proc. Acad Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 249, 1934. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 221 

found it rather common at Cbiengmai, Metang, and Cliieng Dao. 
It has been reported also from a few other locaUties in northern Siam. 

The form is evidently confined to northern, western, and south- 
western Siam. The records from southern Burma and Tenasserim 
probably belong to this form. I have seen no records south of the 
Island of Puket. 

Chrysophlegmaflavinuchajlavinucha (Gould) occurs in the Himalayas 
east to Assam and south to northern Burma. 

CHRYSOPHLEGMA FLAVINUCHA PIERREI Oustalet 

Chrysophlegtna pierrei Oustalet, La Naturaliste, 1889, p. 44 (lower Cochinchina) . 

One female, Kao Pae Pan Nam, Lomsak, February 18, 1934; one 
female, Aranya, July 14, 1930; one male, Udon, February 18, 1929; 
one female. Pong, Udon, February 17, 1929; one male and one female, 
Lat Bua Kao, July 30, 1929; one female, Sakeo, near Krabin, May 6, 
1928; one male, Ban Ko Tan, March 4, 1929; one female. Ban Nakae, 
March 3, 1929; two females, Pang Sok, August 26, 1926; one male, 
Sikeu, near Korat, February 17, 1926; one male, Ban Tarn Dam, 
March 7, 1930; one male, Lamton Lang, May 28, 1934; one female 
and one immature male, Chantuk, June 14-15, 1934. 

The male of this form is readily distinguished from lylei in being 
lighter below; the foreneck tinged with brown in the spotted area; 
the spotted area of the foreneck extending farther forward, sometimes 
to the mentum on each side and separating the yellow malar region 
from the yellow of the chin; the malar region and chin a lighter yellow; 
upper mandible usually dark to the tip; size smaller. 

The female of pierrei differs from the same sex of lylei in having 
the brown of the tliroat and malar region Ughter and the upper man- 
dible dark throughout. One male pierrei (no. 313255), from Ban 
Ko Tan, has a pale tip to the upper mandible like lylei, but differs 
otherwise. The two females from Pang Sok, August 26 (nos. 308100 
and 308101), have the breast and belly washed with greenish yellow; 
in the remainder of the series these parts are grayish olive. 

Five males oi pierrei measure: Wing, 156-164 (159.8); tail, 110.5- 
125 (117); culmen, 34.5-36.5 (35.7) mm. Six males of lylei: Wing, 
156-173 (166); tail, 108.5-122.5 (115.8); culmen, 36-40 (38.4) mm. 
Nine females ot pierrei: Wing, 150-166 (160); tail, 104-116.5 (111.6); 
culmen, 31.5-37 (34.2) mm. Three females of lylei: Wing, 161-169 
(165.3); tail, 110-119 (113.7); culmen, 32-36 (34.7) mm. 

This form is confined to central, eastern, and southeastern Siam, 
Cambodia, and Cochincliina. It probably occurs also in southern 
Laos. De Schauensee ^^ took a female at Bua Yai, and other collectors 
had previously recorded it from eastern Siam. 

" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 249, 1934. 
33527—38 15 



222 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Chrysophlegma jlavinucha wrayi Sharpe is found in the mountains 
of the Malay States. C. /. annamensis Delacour and Jaboiiille occurs 
from Annam to western Tonldn and western Laos. C.f. styani Grant 
is confined to Hainan and eastern Tonkin. C. /. ricketti Sty an is 
apparently known only from two specimens from central Fohkien, 
China. 

CHLOROPICOIDES RAFFLESI PENINSULARIS (Hesse) 

Gauropicoides rafflesi peninsularis Hesse, Orn. Monatsb., 1911, p. 192 (Malacca). 

One male, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, December 23, 1933. 

This seems to be a rare bird north of the Malay States; at least 
there are few records from the north. The Trang male measures: 
Wing, 142; tail, 101; cuimen, 32 mm. A male from Malacca: Wing, 
143; cuimen, 34 mm. A female from the same place: Wing, 150; 
cuimen, 32.5 mm. 

An adult male from Banka has the breast and belly cinnamon- 
brown, with an olive wash quite different from the dark citrine of the 
Trang male. There is no reddish wash on the rump; wing, 144 mm. 
The different color of the lower parts is hkely due to stain or wear. 

C. r. peninsularis ranges from southern Tenasserim south through 
Peninsular Siam to Singapore. Stuart Baker ^^ records it from Tung 
Song from Herbert's collection; Robinson and Kloss " from Tasan, 
Chumporn; de Schauensee ^^ from Nakon Sritamarat. It is apparently 
more abundant in the Malay States. Most of the specimens in 
collections have come from Malacca. 

Two other races have been recognized: Chloropicoides rafflesi 
rafflesi (Vigors), from Sumatra and Banka, and C. r. borneonensis 
(Hesse), from Borneo. 

The differences in the three races seem to rest principally upon 
size. C. r. borneonensis is small; wing of male in the United States 
National Museum, 133 nun, and of female, 123 mm; but in the other 
two races the differences seem to be average only and somewhat 
doubtful. 

GECINULUS VIRIDIS VIRIDIS BIyth 

Gecinulus viridis Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 31, p. 341, 1862 (Tenas- 
serim). 

One male, Doi Phra Chao, August 6, 1934; one male, Koh Lak, 
June 9, 1933; two males and one female, Pran, April 1, 3, 1931; two 
males and one female, Muang Kanburi, April 11-15, 1928; one male 
and two females, Kwe Noi, Kanbiu'i, September 21, 22, 1929; one 
female, Sai Yok, Kanburi, September 22, 1929; one male, Kanburi, 
May 10, 1934; one female. Ban Kam Pran, Pasak River, October 18, 

»« Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 426, 1919. 
»' Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam. vol. 6, p. 175, 1923. 
«e Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 8C, p. 252, 1934. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 223 

1932; one male and two females, Pak Chong, May 15, 1925, December 
20, 1926, November 21, 1929; one male, Pang Sok, August 26, 1926; 
one male, Lat Bua Kao, July 30, 1929. 

This form ranges from the Shan States, central and southern Burma, 
to northern, southwestern, central, and eastern Siam. Robinson and 
Kloss ^' record it from Tapli, Pakchan Estuary, which is about as far 
to the southwest as it ranges. It is rarely found far away from bamboo 
jimgle. De Schauensee ^° collected specimens at Tamuang, Chanta- 
bun, Kanburi, and Chieng Dao and states that the specimen from 
Cliantabun is slightly darker below than the birds from the three 
other localities. Gyldenstolpe ^^ found it not uncommon at Doi Par 
Sakeng and Kliim Tan, northern Siam. Chasen and Kloss ^^ record 
it from the Raheng District in the western part of the country. 

In the above series specimens in fresh unworn plumage are dis~ 
tinctly green below; as they wear and fade they become quite brown 
on the lowerparts. It is quite necessary when comparing birds from 
different geographic areas to use specimens in fresh plumage. 

HYPOPICUS HYPERYTHRUS HYPERYTHRUS (Vigors) 

Picus hypcryUmis Vigors, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1831, p. 23 (Himalayas). 

One male, Huey Salob, Januarj'^ 3, 1933. 

This foiTQ ranges from Nepal and Sildkim to eastern Assam, western 
Yunnan, and western Szechwan south to eastern Bengal, Manipur, 
and northern Siam. 

Apparently there is only one previous record for Siam, that of 
Williamson for Memaw, Lampang.^^ 

DRYOBATES ATRATUS (BIyth) 

Picus atratus Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 18, p. 803, 1849 (TeDas- 
serim) . 

Two males and three females, Kliun Tan Mountains, 2,000-4,000 
feet, No\ ember 19-23, 1928, May 10, 1933; fom- males and two females, 
Khun Tan, 3,000-4,000 feet, Februarj^ 17-March 2, 1932; one male 
and one female, Doi Sutep (smnmit), December 15, 1928; two males, 
Doi Nangka, April 26, 1931; one male and one female. Pang Meton 
(Doi Nangka), May 4 and 5, 1931; one female, Doi Hua Mot, Sep- 
tember 4, 1934. 

One male, February 22, and one female, February 17, taken at 
Khun Tan are immature, though nearly of adult size. Tlie only 
way they differ from the adults is in having the breast and belly 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 175, 1923. 

'» Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 250, 1934. 

«' Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 92, 1916. 

" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 170, 1928. 

M Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 2, p. 61, 1916. 



224 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

duskier, the red restricted on the under tail coverts, and the crown, 
but not the nape, tinged with carmine. 

No specimens from Burma have been examined. 

The species ranges from the IQiasia Hills to Cachar, Manipur, and 
Burma and south to Tenasserim and northern Siam. De Schauensee ^* 
on his third expedition adds the locality Chieng Dao to the Siamese 
records for the species; it had been previously recorded by several 
authors from Doi Sutep from 4,600 feet to the summit. 

DKYOBATES ANAUS LONGIPENNIS (Hesse) 
Dendrocopos analis longipennis Hesse, Orn. Monatsb., 1912, p. 82 '.Bangkok). 

Two males, Bangkok, August 8, 1924, September 20, 1930. 

The form ranges from upper Burma southward to Tenasserim and 
Siam as far as latitude 12° N.; eastward it extends to Cochinchina 
and southern Annam. 

Deignan ^^ reports it from Chiengmai; de Schauensee ^^ from 
Meklong and Chiengmai; on his third expedition, besides taking it at 
Chiengmai and Bangkok, de Schauensee took a female at Hua Mak; " 
Robinson and Kloss ^^ record it from Koh Lak. Herbert found ^' 
it nesting around Bangkok in January and February. 

The only form of the species with which I have compared the two 
Bangkok males is Dryobates analis mantis Robinson and Kloss *" 
from western Java. The latter is quite ochraceous below and has a 
shorter wing. D. a. analis Bonaparte is confined to the eastern part 
of Java. 

YUNGIPICUS NANUS CANICAPILLUS (BIyth) 

Picus canicapillus Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 14, p. 197, 1845 (Arracan). 

Two males, Doi Angka, 4,000 feet, December 2, 3, 1928; one female, 
Doi Sutep, December 13, 1928; one m.ale and one female, Doi Phra 
Chao, August 2, 5, 1934; one male, Khun Tan IMountaiiis, 2,000 feet, 
November 23, 1928; one female, Khun Tan, August 28, 1930; one 
female, Mekhan, February 7, 1932; one female. Bo Ploi, Kanburi, 
September 26, 1929; one male and one female, Pak Chong, May 7, 
1925; two females, Muek Lek, April 25, 1933; one male and three 
females, Chantuk, June 13, 14, 1934. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took one male and two females m Tenasserim 
(Tanjong Badak, January 6, 1900, March 26, 1904; Bok Pym, Feb- 
ruary 13, 1900). 

«« Proc Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 2,'iO. 1934. 
"Journ. Siam See. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 157, 1931. 
«« Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 81, p. 567, 1930. 
»' Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 250, 1934. 
>« Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol 5, p. 177, 1923. 
«« Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Uist. Suppl., vol 6, p. 323, 1926. 
<« Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 11, p. 53, 1923. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 225 

The three specimens from Tenasserim have the white more restricted 
on the upper parts, wings, and tails than do the specimens from farther 
north, but they are nearer the northern form than to the form occur- 
ring in the southern Malay Peninsula. 

The form ranges apparently from eastern Bengal to the whole of 
Burma, Siam proper, Cambodia, Laos, southern Annam, Tenasserim, 
and probably northern Peninsular Siam. 

Robinson and Kloss *^ record specimens from Tung Pran, Taku- 
atung, and Namchuk, Pakchan Estuary, that probably belong here. 
Robinson *^ records it from Klong Yai, southeastern Siam. It has 
been taken by various collectors in the northern part of the country 
and has been recorded from Doi Sutep as high as 5,500 feet. Just 
how far south it goes in Peninsular Siam is not known; probably not 
south of latitude 10° N. 

YDNGIPICUS NANUS AURITUS (Eyton) 

Tripsurus auritus Eyton, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 1, vol. 16, p. 229, 1845 

(Malacca). 
Jyngipicus canicapillus suffusus Robinson and Kloss, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, 

vol. 40, p. 14, 1919 (Kuala Lumpur, Selangor). 

One male, Bangnara, Patani, July 7, 1926; one male, Bukit, Patani, 
January 27, 1931; one female, Patalung, July 9, 1929. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected the following: Five males and three 
females, Trang (Prahmon, February 21-March 22, 1896; Lay Song 
Hong, October 9, 1896; Naklua, March 3, 1899); one male, Tanjong 
Dungun, Trengganu, September 20, 1900; one male, Tanjong Silantei, 
east coast of Johore, July 27, 1901. He describes the soft parts as: 
Iris reddish brown, brownish red or pink in the males; dark brown 
in the females; bill black, horny blue at base below; feet dull greenish, 
dull leaden, greenish plumbeous, olive plumbeous, or leaden blue. 

In the above series the white barring or spotting averages narrower 
and more restricted above and on the tail than the series from northern 
and eastern Siam; on the whole the streaking below is a little heavier. 
The majority of northern birds have white markings or spots on 
the middle tail feathers while in the southern Peninsula birds the 
middle tail feathers are without white spots or they are much re- 
stricted. There seems little difl'erence in size between northern and 
Peninsular birds, except the bill in the latter averages large. 

Four males from northern Siam and one from Tenasserim measure: 
Wing, 80-86 (82); tail, 35-39 (35.9); culmen, 14-16 (15) mm. Nino 
males from Peninsular Siam and the Malay States (Johore to Trang): 
Wing, 80-86 (82.9); tail, 29-36.5 (33.4); culmen, 15-17.5 (16) mm. 

<i Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 176, 1923. 
« Ibis, 1915, p. 740. 



226 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Just how far north the present form ranges in Peninsular Siam is 
not kno\\Ti at present, but it reaches Ban don. This would give it a 
range from the southern Malay States north to Bandon. 

Besides the localities represented in Dr. Smith's and Dr. Abbott's 
collections, it has been recorded by Robinson *^* from Koh Samui; by 
Robinson and Kloss *^ from Telok Poh and Pulo Panjang; by de 
Schauensee ** from Nakon Sritamarat. I have not examined spec- 
imens from so far north in Peninsular Siam, and possibly these refer- 
ences may represent Y. n. canicapillus or are intermediates. 

BLYTHIPICUS PYRRHOTIS PYRRHOTIS (Hodgson) 

Picus pyrrhotis Hodgson, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 6, p. 108, 1837 (Nepal). 

One male, summit of Doi Sutep, December 15, 1928; one immature 
male. Pang Meton (Doi Nangka), May 4, 1931; one immature male, 
Khun Tan, 4,000 feet, February 14, 1932; one male, Huey Me Lao, 
December 24, 1932; one female, Kao Pae Pan Nam, Lomsak, February 
18, 1934. 

The two immature males difi'er principally from the adult male in 
being dusky blackish below; they are of about adult size. 

The range of this form is from Nepal to eastern Assam south to 
eastern Bengal, Burma, Tenasserim, western and northern Siam, 

Gyldenstolpe *^ took it at Doi Par Sakeng; Chasen and Kloss " 
report it from the Raheng District. De Schauensee *^ collected three 
specimens at Chiengdao and states that it appears to be rare in 
northern Siam. 

The male recorded by Chasen and Kloss from the Raheng District 
is now in the United States National Museum. It is smaller than the 
two males from northern Siam. Wing, 144; tail, 87; culmen, 42 mm. 
Two males from northern Siam measure: Wing, 151-157; tail, 82-91; 
culmen, 46-50 mm. 

A small race, Blythipicus pyrrhotis cameroni Robinson, inhabits the 
Malay States and may extend into Peninsular Siam. B. p. annamensis 
Kinnear inhabits the mountains of southern Annan, Cochinchina, 
Laos, and Tonkin. B. p. sinensis (Rickctt) inhabits southern China, 
and B. p. hainanus (Grant) is confined to Hainan. All the forms of 
the species seem to be mountain birds and for this reason are more or 
less localized. 



"• Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 6, p. 147, 1915. 

♦'Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 101, 1919. 

« Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 250, 1934. 

« Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 93, 1916. 

«• Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 170, 1928. 

*i Proc Acad. Nat Scl. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 251. 1934. • 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 227 

BLYTHIPICUS RUBIGINOSUS HUBIGINOSUS (Swalnson) 

Hemicircus rubiginosus Swainson, The natural history of the birds of western 
Africa, vol. 2, p. 150, 1S37 (western Africa, in error; Malacca). 

Four males and four females, Sichol, Bandon, August 28, 29, 1929, 
May 16-29, 1930; one female, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, January 22, 1934. 
Dr. Smith describes the soft parts as: Iris dull orange; bill greenish 
yellow; feet plumbeous. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected nine males and one female, in Trang 
<Lay Song Hong, August 23-October 1, 1896; Kao Norn Plu, 1,000 feet, 
February 25, 1897; Kao Nok Ram, 2000 feet, January 14, 1899; 
Kao Soi Dao, 1,000 feet, February 12, 1899; Trang, February 5, 1897); 
one male, Endau River, east coast of Johore, June 22, 1901 ; one male, 
Rumpin River, Paliang, May 25, 1902. He gives the following notes: 
Iris dull or blood red; bill yellow, greenish at base; feet dull olive- 
brown. 

Two of the above series (male and female) are immature. The male 
is slightly older than the female. The iris in the male is given as 
reddish brown and in the female as grayish brown; the feet in both as 
brownish black. The two specimens are approaching adult size and 
were collected at Lay Song Hong, Trang, August 23 (female) and 
September 28 (male). 

Dr. Abbott states that it frequents dense jungle in the forest and 
generally keeps in small trees near the ground. 

The form ranges from southern Tenasserim south through Peninsular 
Siam to the Malay States. 

Robinson and Kloss *^ record it from as far north as Tasan, Chum- 
porn. In Sumatra and Borneo a somewhat smaller form, B. r. parvus 
Chasen and Ivloss, occurs. 

MEIGLYPTES TRISTIS GRAMMITHORAX (Malherbe) 

Phaiopicus grammithorax Malherbe, Monographie des picid^es . . ., vol. 2, 
p. 12, pi. 48, figs. 4, 5, 1862 (Malay Peninsula). 

Three males, Bangnara, Patani, July 15, 16, 1926; one female, 
Kao Luang, Nakon Sritamarat, July 17, 1928; two females. Ban 
Kiriwong, Nakon Sritamarat, July 10, 1928; one female, Sichol, 
Bandon, September 5, 1929. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected the following: Two males and six 
females, Trang (Prahmon, April 9, 13, 1896; Lay Song Hong, August 
19 and September 8, 1896; Chong, January 22, 1897; Trang, January 
29, 1987, March 3, 4, 1899); two males and one female, the Dindings, 
Straits of Alalacca, April 15, 1900; one male and one female, Dungun 
River, Trengganu, September 22, 1900; one male, Tanjong Silantei, 
east coast Johore, July 26, 1901; two males and one female, Rumpin 

<9 Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 178, 1923. 



228 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

River, Pahang, June 2-11, 1902; one male and one female, Tenasserim 
(Tanjong Badak, January 7, 1900; Telok Besar, March 18, 1904). 
He gives the soft parts as: Iris dark red or dark brown; bill black; feet 
dirty greenish, leaden, greenish leaden, pale greenish, or dull olive, 
claws black. 

A male (no. 308090) collected by Dr. Smith at Bangnara, Patani, 
July 15, has the throat barium yellow unbarred; the lores, a ring 
around the eyes, and a spot on each side of the nape are barium yellow; 
the barring on the jugulum is narrowly black on a white ground; the 
chest has a band of olive lake across it; the barring on the crown 
somewhat squamate; center of the breast mouse gray; the red malar 
stripe fully developed; otherwise, similar above to the adult, but 
the light markings lighter (very pale yellow) rather than buffy. I 
have seen no description of this plumage, but I think it must be an 
immature just acquiring the adult plumage. The bill is shorter than 
in the average adult. 

In some adults, of either sex, the cheeks and chin become apricot 
yellow with narrow dusky barring; the center of the breast is strongly 
washed with kaiser brown; this plumage is uncommon and in the 
extensive series listed above of grammithorax there are only a pair. 
It probably occurs only in the old birds. 

Specimens from the islands of Borneo and Sumatra average smaller 
than mainland birds and those from the island of Nias seem to agree 
with them. This form has been named Meiglyptes tristis micropterus 
Hesse, of which the range then would be: Borneo, Natuna Islands, 
Sumatra, and Nias. M. grammithorax microterus Oberholser is a 
synonym. M. tristis tristis (Horsfield) is confined to Java. 

Ten males from the Malay Peninsula measure: Wing, 96-103 (98); 
tail, 43-48 (44.6) ; culmen, 17-20 (18.4) mm. Two males from Borneo 
and two from Sumatra: Wing, 84-97 (91.2); tail, 41-45 (43.2); cul- 
men, 16-18 (17) mm. Six males from Nias: Wing, 89-94 (91.6); 
tail, 41.5-44 (42.8); culmen, 10-17.5 (16.9). One male from Tenas- 
serim: Wing, 100; tail, 45; culmen, 19 mm. The females are only 
slightly smaller than the males and confirm the above, and so are not 
given. 

M. t. grammithorax ranges from the Malay States north through 
Peninsular Siam to southern Tenasserim and southwestern Siam. 
It seems to be a common bird throughout the Peninsula. 

MEIGLYPTES TUKKI BRUNNEUS (Eyton) 

Hemicircus brunneus Eyton, Proc. Zool, Soc. London, 1839, p. 106 (Malaya; 
Malacca). 

Two females, Bangnara, Patani, May 27, 1924, July 6, 1926; two 
females, Tha Lo, Bandon, September 20, 1931. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 229 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected the following: one male, Lay Song Hong, 
Trang, September 20, 1896; one male and one female, Tanjong 
Dungun, Trengganii, September 20,1900; one female, Endau River, 
east coast of Johore, June 25, 1901 ; one male, Telok Besar, Tenasserim, 
March 1, 1904, He gives the colors of the soft parts as follows: 
Male (Trang) — iris dark brown ; feet dull green ; upper mandible black, 
lower leaden. A female from Johore — iris dark red; feet dirty leaden; 
a male from Tenasserim: iris deep red; feet brownish olive. 

These differences are probably individual or age variations, not 
sexual. 

Meiglyptes tukki tukki (Lesson), of Sumatra, Banka, Billiton, and 
possibly some other islands near the southeastern tip of Sumatra, 
seems to average darker and more heavily barred, both above and 
below, than the mainland form; it also averages slightly smaller. 

SLx males from the Malay Peninsula measure: Wing, 97-104 
(100.8); tail, 58.5-65 (61.7); culmen, 22-25 (23.5) mm. Six males 
from Sumatra (3), Banka (1), and BilHton (2): Wing, 92.5-100 
(97.3); tail, 57-64 (60.3); culmen, 21-24 (22.4) mm. 

M. tukki hrunneus ranges from the Malay States northward through 
Peninsular Siam to Southern Tenasserim. 

Robinson and Kloss *^ report it from Tasan, Chumporn, and say that 
this is the most northerly record. De Schauensee ^° records it from 
Nakon Sritamarat. 

MEIGLYPTES JUGULARIS Blyth 

Meiglyptes jugularis Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 14, p. 195, 1845 

(Arracan). 

One male, Doi Phra Chao, August 6, 1934; one female, Wangkien, 
Kanburi, March 13, 1934; one male and one female, Nakon Nayok, 
June 9 and 16, 1929; one male, Kao Pae Pan Nam, February 18, 1934; 
one female, Nong Mong, Muang Krabin, August 27, 1925; one female, 
Lamton Lang, June 2, 1934; one male and two females, near Krabin, 
May 3, 9, 1928; one male, Pak Chong, November 24, 1929; four males 
and one female, Hupbon, October 27-November 5, 1931; two males, 
Nong Khor, near Sriracha, November 13, 1924, September 26, 1925; 
one male, Klong Yai, Sriracha, July 25, 1932; two males, Ban Tarn 
Dam, March 5, 6, 1930; two males, Kao Sabap, October 24 and 
November 16, 1933. Dr. Smith also took a female at Ban Keng Sedok, 
French Laos, March 1, 1929, and a male at Doi Kao Lip, Salwin Dis- 
trict, Burma, January 29, 1933. He gives the color of the soft parts 
as: Iris dark brown; bill black; legs dusky blue or dirty gray. 

Tills species ranges from Arracan, Burma, eastward to Tenasserim, 
Siam, Cambodia, Laos, Cochincliina, and southern Annam. 

«• Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 180, 1923. 

•0 Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 251, 1934. 



230 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Gyldenstolpe ^^ records it from Pak Koh, Khun Tan, and Bang 
Hue Pong, northern Siam; Chasen and Kloss *^ from the Ttaheng 
District; Lowe ^^ from 28 miles east of Um Pang; Dr. Smith's series 
covers the remainder of its Siamese range.. 

MICROPTERNUS BRACHYURUS PHAEOCEPS Blyth 

Microplernus phaeoceps Blyth, Proc. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 14, p. 195, 1845 
(Arracan). 

One female, Doi Nangka, November 16, 1930. 

This is the only specimen of this woodpecker collected by Dr. 
Smith in northern Siam. It does not exactly agree with a specimen 
from the Raheng District identified as burmanicus by Chasen and 
Kloss ^* or with a specimen from Thayetmyo, Pegu, the type locality 
of that form. It is darker than the Raheng specimen above, with 
heavier dark bars; below it is much darker, the breast becoming dusky 
with darker sub terminal bars and buffy edgings to the feathers; the 
feathers of the throat have much darker centers and are more widely 
edged with light buff. In the Raheng specimen the centers of the 
throat feathers are the same color as the chest and the edgings only 
slightly paler. 

The Nangka specimen, compared with the one from Thayetmyo, 
has the upperparts more heavily barred; the centers of the throat 
feathers are much darker and the buffy margins broader; the feathers 
of the pileum in the Nangka bird have a dark-brown central stripe 
with lighter edgings, while in the Thayetmyo bird the pileum is a 
dusky brown without any lighter edging to the feathers. 

The female from Doi Nangka measures: Wing, 132; tail, 67; culmen, 
26 mm. The female from Raheng: Wing, 129.5; culmen, 26.5 mm. 

This form apparently ranges from Tenasserim (except the extreme 
southern tip) north to the Shan States and eastward to western and 
northern Siam. 

Deignan ^^ reports it common at Chiengmai, and other collectors 
have found it not uncommon in northern Siam. De Schauensee ^® 
secured specimens at Chiengdao, Tung Sio, and Chiengmai. Gylden- 
stolpe ^^ reports it from Den Chai and Pak Pan and on liis second 
expedition *^ from Doi Par Sakeng and Khun Tan ; Chasen and Kloss *9 
listed it under the name M. b. burmanicus from the Raheng district^ 

" Kunpl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 94, 1916. 

" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 171, 1928. 

M Ibis, 1933, p. 478. 

»* Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 171, 1928. 

" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 157, 1931. 

M Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 251, 1934. 

»' Kunsl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Haudl., vol. 50, no. 8, p. 48, 1913. 

" Kunfcl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 94, 1916. 

'• Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 171, 1928. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 231 

MICROPTERNUS BRACHYURUS WILLIAMSONI Klosa 

Micropternus brachyurus williamsoni Kloss, Ibis, 1918, p. 107 (Koh Lak, south- 
western Siam). 

One female, Koh Lak, June 25, 1933; one female, Pran, April 3, 
1931; one male, Knong Phra, April 16, 1929; one male and three 
females, Pak Chong, May 2, 1926, December 21, 22, 1926; one female, 
Chantuk, June 16, 1934; one male and one female, Pang Sok, August 
14, 24, 1926; one male and one female, Tha Chang, March 19, 1927; 
one male, Nakon Panom, March 8, 1929; one male. Ban Den Muang, 
February 25, 1929; one female, Sakon Nakon, March 15, 1929; one 
male, Klong Yai, Sriracha, July 29, 1932; one male, Kao Sabab, 
November 8, 1933. 

I am not sure that the specimens from eastern Siam, where the 
majority of birds in the above hst come from, really belong to this 
form. They do not agree with the type, but they are nearer to it 
than to phaeoceps. 

The series from eastern Siam is very variable; about two-fifths of 
the specimens have the backs unbarred and the barring on the wings 
much reduced; the throat in some specimens is the same color as the 
chest and the bufl'y edges to the feathers are much reduced, while in 
other specimens the centers of the throat feathers are much darker 
than the chest and the huffy edges to the feathers are broad and 
pronounced. The black barring on the belly is much reduced in the 
majority of the series. The type of williamsoni comes from an 
intermediate locality and the form is intermediate. 

The male from Kao Sabap is quite different from the remainder of 
the series, and it is very doubtful if it belongs here, but I do not know 
where else to place it. The pileum is clove brown, unmarked; it is 
the only specimen in the series so marked, though the female from 
Sakon Nakon approaches it somewhat. 

Eight males from central, eastern, and southwestern Siam measure: 
Wing, 124-131 (127); tail, 61-65 (63); culmen, 24.5-27.5 (25.9) mm. 

The type of williamsoni: Wing, 117.5; tail, 61; culmen, 24 mm. 
One female from Koh Lak and one female from Pran: Wing, 125-128; 
tail, 59-63; culmen, 24.5-27.5 mm. Six females from eastern Siam: 
Wing, 120-129 (124.8); tail, 58-65 (62.2); culmen, 23-26.5 (24.6) mm. 

If my views are correct, the range of williamsoni would be south- 
western Siam through southern Siam to eastern and southeastern 
Siam. 

Baker ^ records specimens from Meklong, Bangkok, and Samkok, 
central Siam. Herbert ^^ reports finding two nests in the Bansakai 
gardens and describes the eggs but unfortunately does not give the 
dates. 



«» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 424, 1919. 

•1 Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 6, p. 323, 1926. 



232 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

MICROPTERNUS BRACHYURUS SQUAMIGULARIS (Sunderall) 

Picus squamigularis Sundevall, Conspectus avium picinarum, p. 89, 1866 
(Malacca). 

One male and two females, Bangnara, Patani, May 16, 27, 1924, 
July 4, 1926; one male and one female, Yala, Patani, February 1, 1931 ; 
one female, Pak Bhayoon, Patalung, July 11, 1929. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected the following: Three males and three 
females in Trang (Prahmon, March 6-31, 1896; Tyching, April 24, 
1896; Trang, January 1 and 21, 1899); one female, Kwala Endau, 
east coast of Johore, June 19, 1901; one male, Telok Besar, Tenas- 
serim, March 18, 1904. He gives the soft parts as: Iris dark brown; 
bill black; feet dull leaden, claws dull black. 

This is a small dark form with the throat dark brown or blackish, 
each feather edged with buffy, giving a squamate appearance to this 
region. It ranges from the Malay States to southern Tenasserim. 

The female collected by Dr. Abbott at Telok Besar, Tenasserim, 
is dark like the Peninsular birds and agrees better with them than 
with the type of M. b. milliamsoni, except in size; it is somewhat 
larger than Peninsular specimens. 

Five males from Patani and Trang measure: Wing, 112-121.5 
(116.9); tail, 55-64 (56.9); culmen, 21-24 (22.5) mm. One male 
from southern Tenasserim: Wing, 125; tail, 63; culmen, 24 mm. 

Eight females (Johore to Patalung): Wing, 113-123 (117.4); tail, 
52-60 (56.4); culmen, 21-24 (22.6) mm. 

Robinson and Kloss ®^ state that specimens from between Bandon 
and Victoria Point are intermediate between this form and william- 
soni, but the only specimen examined by me from southern Tenasserim 
seems to be nearer squamigularis and it is convenient, in my opinion, 
to extend the range to there. 

Robinson ^^ records it from Ban Kok Klap, Bandon; Robinson and 
Kloss list it from Nongkok, Ghirbi,^^ and Kao Luang. 2,000 feet, 
Nakon Sritamarat^*; de Schauensee^^ records four from Nakon Srita- 
marat as M. h. williamsoni, but his measurements are too small and 
his remarks do not agree with the average of the latter. South of 
Nakon Sritamarat, there are numerous records, probably because the 
country has been oftener visited by collectors. 

A still smaller race, M. h. badius (Raffles), occurs in Sumatra, and 
there is a small dark race in Borneo, M. b. badiosus (Temminck). 
M. b. brachyurus (Vieillot) is confined to Java. There are other forms 
in Nias, India, Indo-China, and southeastern China. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6, p. 182, 1923. 

M Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 5, p. 95, 1915. 

•< Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 102, 1919. 

•» Journ. Federated Malay States Mas., vol. 11, p. 60, 1923. 

« Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 252, 1934. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 233 

DINOPIUM JAVANENSE JAVANENSE (LJungh) 

Picus javanensis Ljungh, Kongl. Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 17, p. 134> tab. 6, 1797 

(Java). 

Two males and three females, Bangnara, Patani, May 13, 18, 1924, 
July 3-16, 1926; one female, Bukit, Patani, January 26, 1931 ; one male 
and one female, Patalung, July 5, 9, 1929; one male and one female, 
Nakon Sritamarat, September 27 and October 1, 1926; one male, 
Ban Kiriwong, Nakon Sritamarat, July 9, 1928; one male. Ban Tha 
Yai, Nakon Sritamarat, July 9, 1928; one male, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, 
January 22, 1934; one female, Bandon, January 5, 1927; one female, 
Tha Lo, Bandon, September 24, 1931. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected the following: Five males and three 
females in Trang (Prahmon, March 4-April 10, 1896; Tyching, May 
29, 1896; Lay Song Hong, September 5, 1896; Trang, January 4, 1897; 
Kok Sai, December 29, 1898); one male, Singapore Island, May 18, 
1899; one male and five females, Trengganu (Dungun Kiver, Sep- 
tember 18, 24, 1900; Tanjong Dungun, September 21, 22, 1900; 
Kemamun, October 2, 1900). He gives the soft parts as: Iris dark 
red or brown; feet greenish leaden, olive plumbeous, or leaden; bill 
black, leaden beneath at base. 

Specim.ens from the Malay Peninsula do not seem to differ materi- 
ally from those from western Java or Sumatra. 

Three males from western Java measure: Wing, 132.5-133 (132.8); 
tail, 85-94 (88.7); culmen, 28-30.5 (29) mm. Five males from Su- 
matra and islands off eastern coast: Wing, 130-137 (133.8); tail, 
78-89 (83.7); culmen, 28-30 (28.8) mm. Ten males from the Malay 
Peninsula (Singapore north to Bandon): Wing, 122-140 (134); tail, 
83-93 (86) ; culmen, 26.5-30 (28) mm. One female from eastern Java: 
Wing, 136; tail, 86; culmen, 28 mm. One female from Sumatra (first) 
and one female from the Khio Archipelago: Wing, 128-132.5; tail, 
84.5-84; culmen, 28.5-28 mm. Ten females from Peninsular Siam: 
Wing, 130-139 (134.4); tail, 76.5-89 (84); culmen, 26.5-29 (27.2 mm). 

The range of the form extends from western Java to some of the 
islands off the east coast of Sumatra, Sumatra, and the Malay Penin- 
sula north to about latitude 10° N. Apparently it is a common form 
in the Malay Peninsula from Singapore to the Isthmus of Kra. 

Another form, D. j. exsvl (Hartert), is found in Bali and East Java, 
and a still smaller one, D. j. borneensis (Dubois), occurs in Borneo. 

DINOPIUM JAVANENSE INTERMEDIUM (Blyth) 

Picus (Tiga) intermedius Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 14, p. 193, 184& 
(Ramree Island, Araccan "'). 

One male and one female, Doi Phra Chao, August 2, 4, 1934; one 
male, Doi Angka, December 9, 1928; one female, Mehongsorn, Janu- 

" As restricted by Robinson and Kloss, Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Slam, vol. 5, p. 197, 1923. 



234 bulletitm 172, united states national museum 

ary 6, 1933; one male, Chomtong, November 30, 1928; one male, Ban 
Nam Kien, Nan, April 21, 1930; one male, Tha Fang, January 17, 
1933; one male and two females, Knong Plira, April 10, 12, 1929; one 
male. Ban Mekok, October 20, 1932; one female, Udon, February 16, 
1929; two females, Lat Bua Kao, July 31, August 4, 1929; two males 
and one female, Pak Cliong, May 5, 1925, May 4, 1926; one female, 
Chantuk, June 16, 1934; one female, Bua Yai, February 15, 1929; one 
female, Sakon Nakon, March 10, 1929; one male. Ban Den, February 
25, 1929; one male, Tha Chang, March 16, 1927; one male and one 
female, Pang Sok, August 14, 18, 1926; one female, Sakeo, near Kra- 
bin. May 4, 1928; one female, Nong Mong, Krabin, August 30, 1925; 
one male and one female, Nong Khor, February 7, 1927; one female, 
Nontaburi, March 22, 1924; one female, Wang Kien, near Kanburi, 
March 13, 1934; one male, Muang Kanburi, September 11, 1928; one 
male. Bo Ploi, Kanburi, September 7, 1928; one male and one female, 
Koh Lak, June 24, 1933 ; one female, Sam Roi Yot, November 11, 1932. 
Dr. Smith took a female over the border at Ban Ong, Salwin River, 
Burma, January 13, 1933. 

Dr. VV. L. Abbott collected three females in Tenasserim (Victoria 
Point, January 3, 1900; Tanjong Badak, January 11, 1900; Champang, 
December 14, 1903). 

This form is somewhat larger than D. j. javanense. 

Ten males from Siam proper measure: Wing, 144-156.5 (149.9); 
tail, 88-111 (96.5); culmen, 30-36 (31.7) mm. Ten females: Wing, 
140-151 (145.7); tail, 90-106 (96.9); culmen, 27-30 (28.8) mm. 

The three females from Tenasserim are somewhat larger than Malay 
Peninsula specimens but somewhat smaller than females from farther 
north. In other words, they are intermediate but are nearer the 
northern form as a whole. The three females from Tenasserim meas- 
ure: Wing, 140-142.5 (140.8); tail, 90-96.5 (92.7); culmen, 28.5-29.5 
(29) mm. 

The male and the female taken at Koh Lak, June 24, are both im- 
mature, about two-thirds grown, and resemble the adult male and 
female, respectively, except they are smaller. 

The range of this form extends from southern Tenasserim and 
Peninsular Siam north of latitude 10° N. through Burma and Siam to 
Yunnan and eastward to Laos, Tonkin, Annam, and Cochinchina. 
In Siam proper it is evidently a common bird all over the country 
north of the Isthmus of Kra. Herbert reports taking a set of three 
eggs at Ban Khang, June 14.^^ 

A somewhat smaller form, D.j. rubrojn/giolis (Malherbe), occurs in 
western India. 



•9 Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 6, p. 326, 1926. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 235 

CHRYSOCOLAPTES STRICTUS GUTTACRISTATUS (Tickell) 

Picus guttacristatus Tickell, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 2, p. 578, 1833 

(Borabhum and Dholbhum). 
Chrysocolaptes guttacristatus indo-malayicus Hesse, Orn. Monatsb., 1911, p. 182 

(Puket, southwestern Siam). 

One female, Doi Phra Chao, August 1, 1934; one male and one 
female, Mehongsorn, January 7, 8, 1933; one male, Ta Fang, January 
17, 1933; one male and one female, Aranya, July 17, 1930; one female, 
Lomkao, February 20, 1934; one male, Konken, March 21, 1929; 
two females, Udon, March 18, 1929; one male. Pang Sok, August 23, 
1926; one male, Sikeu, near Korat, February 16, 1926; one male and 
one female. Lam Klong Lang, near Pak Cliong, June 7, 13, 1925; three 
females, Pak Chong, December 19, 1926, April 10 and December 4, 
1929; one female, Kao Lem, December 29, 1930; two females, Hin 
Lap, September 28, 1932; one male and one female, Nong Mong, 
Krabin, August 24, 25, 1925; one female, Sakeo, near Krabin, May 5, 
1928 ; two males, Nong I^ior, near Sriracha, March 23 1926 ; February 
5, 1927; one female. Ban Sadet, near Sriracha, May 26, 1925; one 
female, Huey Yang, near Sriracha, October 2, 1930; one male and one 
female. Ban Tarn Dam, near Sriracha, March 5, 7, 1930; one male, 
Nong Yang, east of Sriracha, October 20, 1931; one male, Lem Sing, 
Chantabun, June 10, 1926; one female, Kao Sabap, November 3, 
1933; one male, Koh Chang, January 5, 1926; one male and two fe- 
males, Kwe Noi, Kanburi, September 21, 1929; one male, Sam Roi 
Yot, November 13, 1932; one female, Sichol, Bandon, May 19, 1930; 
one female. Ban Ku^iwong, Nakon Sritamarat, July 13, 1928; one male, 
Bangnara, Patani, July 7, 1926. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected the following: Six males and three fe- 
males in Trang (Telibon Island, February 25, 29, 1896; Pralmion, 
April 5, 1896; Tyching, June 29, 1896; Lay Song Hong, September 
26, 1896; Trang, February 15, 1897, January 20, 1899); two females in 
Tenasserim (Tanjong Badak, January, 1900; Sungei Balik, February 
26, 1904); one female, Domel Island, Mergui Archipelago, February 
23, 1900. He gives the soft parts as: Iris orange, saffron yellow, pale 
brownish orange, or brownish yellow; bill horny black, or dull black, 
brownish at base of lower mandible; feet dull olive, leaden, or dull 
leaden in the male ; the soft parts in the female do not differ. 

There seem to be little or no color differences between specimens 
from the northern and eastern part of the country and those from 
Peninsular Siam. There is a gradual diminution in size from north 
to south, but it is not constant. 

Four males from the Burma bolder (1) and northern Siam (3) 
measure: Wing, 167-175 (170.4); culmen, 47.5-53 (50.6) mm. Five 
males from eastern Siam: Wing, 156-170 (165.7); culmen, 45-51.5 
(48.8) mm. Nine males from southeastern Siam: Wing, 156-170 



236 BULLETIN" 172, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

(163.4); ciilmen, 41.5-50 (47.3) mm. Nine males from southwestern 
(2) and Peninsular Siam: Wing, 152.5-168 (161.2); culmen, 44-50.5 
(47.9) mm. 

Three females from northern Siam measure: Wing, 163.5-176 
(168.2); culmen, 47-49 (47.8) mm. Nine females from eastern Siam: 
Wing, 161.5-173 (166.9); culmen, 42.5-47 (45.3) mm. Six females 
from southeastern Siam: Wing, 160-167 (163.5); culmen, 41-48 
(45.7) mm. Nine females from southwestern Siam (2), southern 
Tenasserim (3), and Peninsular Siam (4): Wing 160-175 (164.7); 
culmen, 43-49 (46.8) mm. 

It seems inexpedient to recognize more than one form for the whole 
of Siam. I am following Robinson and Kloss ^^ in this respect. The 
range would, then, be eastern Bengal, Assam, Araccan, the whole of 
Burma, and Siam, eastward to Cambodia, Laos, Cochinchina, and 
Annam, and southward in Peninsidar Siam to Patani. 

In Siam it evidently is a common bird all over the country. Robin- 
son ^° records it from Pulo Langkawi, Pulo Terutau, Chong (Trang), 
and Koh Samui; he also gives it for Koh Chang, Koh Klum, and Koh 
Rang."^ It probablj^ occurs on other islands off the coast. 

While the form shows little geographical differentiation, it has con- 
siderable individual variation. A male (no. 332811) from Mehong- 
sorn, January 7, has the breast with the blaclc reduced on the sides 
of the feathers and none on the tip. Another male (no. 332809) has 
the black marldngs on the head and lowerparts verona brown. A 
female (no. 172996) has the inner primaries and secondaries orange 
citrine instead of golden-orange. This seems to be a matter of age 
and indicates a bird not quite adult. There are several immature 
specimens in the series, but none very young. The subadult resembles 
its sex; except in the male the red occurs only on the nape. The fore- 
head and crown are black and spotted as in the female; both sexes in 
this stage have the back washed with scarlet red. 

There is one peculiarity in the series that is new to me. Many of 
the specimens taken in the summer have the rhampotheca at the base 
of the upper mandible flaking off, evidently being shed or molted. 

A smaller race, C. s. chersonesus Kloss, inhabits Johore, Singapore, 
Rhio Archipelago, and Sumatra. Of this form I have examined only 
an apparently adult female from Sumatra. Besides being smaller 
than guttacristatus, the mantle and wing coverts are strongly washed 
with scarlet. C. s. stridus (Horsfield) is confined to Java. Several 
other races occur in India. 



M Journ. NhI. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6, p. 196, 1923. 

" Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 7, p. 161, 1917. 

n Ibis. 1915, p. 730. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 237 

CHRYSOCOLAPTES VAUDUS XANTHOPYGIUS Finsch 

Chrysocolaptes xanthopygius Finsch, Notes Lej'den Mus., vol. 26, p. 34, 1905 
(upper Mahakan River, Dutch Borneo). 

One male, Kao Luang, Nakon Sritamarat, July 13, 1928; one male 
and three females, Kao Chong, Trang, August 27-31, 1933; one 
female, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, December 29, 1933. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected three males and one female at Lay- 
Song Hong, Trang, November 10-11, 1896, January 1, 1897, and 
one male and one female at Tanjong Peniabong, east cost of Johore, 
July 23-24, 1901. 

He gives the soft parts as: Iris orange-red, reddish brown, or 
brownish yellow; upper mandible dark horn brown, lower mandible 
yellow; feet pale yellow brown (males); iris orange brown or brown; 
upper mandible dark horn brown or pale horn brown, lower mandible 
yellov.ish or greenish white; feet leaden or dusky greenish (females). 

In most of the above series the males have the center of the mantle 
white with a slight yellow wash; the rump cadmium, orange. In 
one male from Trang (no. 160191) the rump is cadmium orange 
stained with scarlet red and one or two other males show a slight red 
v/ash on the rump. 

The few specimens examined from Sumatra and Borneo do not 
seem to differ materially from the mainland form. 

Six males from the Alalay Peninsula measure: Wing, 157-166 
(159.8); tail, 79.5-86.5 (82.5); culmen, 43-49 (45.4) mm. Four 
males from Sumatra (2), Banka (1), and Borneo (1); Wing, 163-165 
(163.9); tail, 81-90 (85.5); culmen, 43-46 (44.9) mm.. Six females 
from the Malay Peninsula: Wmg, 154-165 (159.2); tail, 77-91 (83.5); 
culmen, 40-44.5 (42.2) mm. Four females from Sumatra (2) and 
Borneo (2): Wmg, 150-162.5 (154.9); tail, 78-88 (84); culmen, 
39-43 (40.7) mm. 

The form ranges from Borneo, Banka, and Sumxatra to the Malay 
States and Peninsular Siam. Robinson and IQoss ^^ state that a 
male from Lamra, a female from Koh Khau, a male from Chong, 
and a pair from Kao Ram were the sole records for Siam when they 
wrote. 

C V. validus (Temminck) is confined to Java and is quite distinct 
from xanthopygius. The mainland, Sumatran, and Bornean form 
should doubtless be recognized as a distinct species. The only 
specimen I have examined from Java, a female, has the back and rump 
clay color instead of white or yelloMdsh white and seems to be adult. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Slam, vol. 6, p. 197, 1923. 



33527—38 16 



238 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

HEMICIRCUS CONCRETUS SORDIDUS (Eyton) 

Dendropicus sordidus Eyton, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 1, vol. 16, p. 299, 1845 
(Malacca). 

One immature male and one immature female, Waterfall, Trang, 
August 26, 1933; one immature female, Patalung, July 7, 1929. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected an adult male at Lay Song Hong, 
Trang, January 1, 1897, and a male and female, on Singapore Island, 
May 12, 1899. He gives the color of the soft parts in the male from 
Singapore as: Iris pale brownish pink; bill dull leaden, paler beneath; 
feet olive leaden. 

The pair from Singapore has the lower parts suffused with yellow- 
ish citrine, and there is a slight wash of reddish on the breast; the 
adult male collected by Dr. Abbott in Trang largely lacks the yellow- 
ish-citrine suffusion and so looks quite different. 

The immature male collected by Dr. Smith in Trang has the crest 
and pileum ochraceous-tawny, barred narrowly with slate color; 
the breast is grayer than in the adult and is spotted lightly with 
warm buff spots. The immature female collected by Dr. Smith in 
Patalung has the whole head and lowerparts deep gull gray ; the edg- 
ings of the feathers of the back and wing coverts and the rump are 
£ilmost pure white; the crest is small. The second immature female 
-taken by Dr. Smith at the Waterfall, Trang, August 26, 1933, is 
darker and has a light yellowish wash to the breast, back, and rump; 
the crest is short. In neither of these two immature females is the 
crown or crest buff or tipped with crimson as described by Stuart 
Baker ^^; only the immature male has the crest ochraceous-tawny, 
but without any crimson tips. The crimson tip appears only as the 
•immature approaches maturity. 

The few specimens from Borneo examined seem to be darker than 
Malay Peninsula birds. The only adult examined from Sumatra is a 
female; it is dark like Bornean specimens. The wings of two males 
from the Malay Peninsula measure 82-85 mm; three from Borneo: 
81-86 (82.8) mm. 

If the Sumatran and Bornean birds are the same, the name for 
them will be Hemicircus concretus coccoinctopus Reichenbach. 
This would leave the range of //. c. sordidus as follows: The Malay 
States northward through Peninsular Siam to southern Tenasserim. 

Robinson and Kloss ^^ report it rather scarce but widely distributed 
in the Malay Peninsula. They later recorded it from Kao Ram, 
1,200 feet, Nakon Sritamarat.^* 

" The fauna of British India, Birds, ed. 2, vol. 4, p. 83, 1927. 

'• Ibis, 1911, p. 47. 

w Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 11, p. GO, 1923. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 239 

HEMICIRCUS CANENTE CANENTE (Lesson) 

Picus canente Lesson, Centurie zoologique . . ., p. 215, pi. 73, 1830 (Pegu). 

One male and two females, Koh Chang, April 5, 1924, March 10, 
1930; one male and two females, Pak Chong, December 20, 1926, 
November 24, 1929; one female, Aranya, July 16, 1930; one male and 
one female, Kwe Noi, Kanburi, September 24, 1929; one female, 
Pran, April 2, 1931. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected a female at Bok Pyin, Tenasserim, Feb- 
ruary 13, 1900. 

The females as a rule are darker below than the males, and their 
foreheads and crowns are buffy white. The immature is even darker 
below than the female. 

This form ranges from Assam south of the Brahmaputra through 
Burma to southern Tenasserim, northern Peninsular Siam, north to 
northern Siam and eastward to Laos, Cochinchina, and Annam. 
Gyldcnstolpe,^* records it from Ban Hue Hom and Pak Pan and 
later " from Chum Poo and Pak Koh. De Schauensee secured speci- 
mens from Nakon Nayok and Chieng Sen,^^ and later from Chantabun 
and Ron Ken.^^ Robinson and Kloss ^° record it from Tapli, Pakchan 
Estuary, which is about the limit of its range in this direction. Chasen 
and Rloss ^' list a male from the Raheng district. Lowe ^^ met with 
it 28 miles east of Umpang and 28 miles southwest of Kempempet 
and says it is a scarce bird and generally seen in pairs on some dead 
tree. 

H. c. cordatus Jerdon is confined to the Malabar coast and Travan- 
core. 

MULLERIPICUS PULVERULENTUS PULVERULENTUS (Temininck) 

Picus pulverulentus Temminck, Nouveau recueil de planches coloriees d'oiseaux, 
livr. G6, pi. 389, 1826 (Java and Sumatra; type locality fixed by Stresemann 
as Java). 

One male, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, January 9, 1934; one male, Huey 
Yang, Kao Luang, Nakon Sritamarat, October 10, 1930; one male, 
Bandon, January 8, 1927; two males, Tha Lo, Bandon, September 14, 
23, 1931. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected three males and three females in Trang 
(Prahmon, March 3 and April 14, 1896, and Lay Song Hong, August 
25 and October 2, 1896); one immature male, Singapore Island, May 
31, 1899; one female, Endau River, east coast of Johore, June 28, 1901 ; 
two males and one female, in Tenasserim (Sungei Balik, December 

'« Kungl. Svenska Vet-Akad. Handl., vol. 50, no. 8, p. 50, 1913. 
" Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Ilandl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 96, 1916. 
" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 81, p. 567, 1930. 
" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 252, 1934. 
«» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soe. Siam, vol. 5, p. 198, 1923. 
" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 171, 1928. 
" Ibis. 1933, p. 475. 



240 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

3, 1900; Victoria Point, December 5, 1900). He gives the soft parts as: 
Iris blackish brown or dark brown; bill bluish white, black at tip and 
along culmen, becoming horny blue at base; feet dull leaden blue. 

The above series from the Malay Peninsula is considerably darker 
than the series from the northern and eastern part of Siam; they also 
average a little smaller. The three specimens from southern Tenas- 
serim are somewhat lighter than birds from farther south but darker 
than northern individuals as a rule. In fact, they are intermediate; 
on the whole, they go better with Peninsular specimens. 

I have examined no specimen from Java, but specimens from Penin- 
sular Siam and farther south clearly do not belong to the northern form 
and are placed with the Javan form provisionally until specimens 
from there can be exammed. A male from Pulo Bauwal, south- 
western Borneo, does not seem to differ materially from Peninsular 
birds. Two males and a female from Dutch East Borneo are very 
dark, darker than anything from the mainland. Though one male 
was taken February 24 and the other two specimens on November 6, 
all three specimens are molting, and I think they are birds of the pre- 
vious breeding season, but the bird of the year of the northern form, 
harterti, is brownish not blackish. If more ample material demon- 
strates that these differences hold for the Bornean bird, it would take 
Bonaparte's name Hemilophus mulleri. 

A male and two females from the Philippines are browner below; 
the females are from Palawan, but the island is not specified on the 
male, probably Palawan also. 

With Borneo and Palawan left out of the range as doubtful, the 
range of Mulleripicus pulverulentus pulrerulentvs would be Java and 
the Malay Peninsula north to southern Tenasserim, possibly Sumatra. 
Robinson and Kloss ^^ record it from Pulo Langkawi and Pulo Terutau; 
Robinson adds Pulo Lontar ®* and Bankok Klap, Bandon.^^ Appar- 
ently it is not a common bird or else it is wary and difficult to obtain. 

MULLERIPICUS PULVERULENTUS HARTERTI Hesse 

Mulleripicus pulverulentus harterti Hesse, Orn. Monatsb., 1911, p. 182 (Assam, 
Burma to Tenasserim; type from Pya, Upper Chindwin). 

One male, Doi Phra Chao, August 2, 1934; one female, Mekhan, 
February 7, 1932; one male and one female, Sikeu, near Korat, March 

4, 1926; one male, Pak Chong, December 2, 1929; one female, lOiong 
Phra, near Pak Chong, February 25, 1924; one male and one female. 
Lam ton Lang, June 1, 1934; one male, Ban Nong Keng, February 27, 
1929; one male, Nong Khor, near Sriracha, February 9, 1929; one 
female. Ban Tarn Dam, near Sriracha, March 3, 1930. 

M Ibis, ion, p. 47. 

M Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 7, p. 163, 1917. 

*> Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 5, p. 95, 1915. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 241 

The above series is lighter and averages larger than a good series 
from Peninsular Siam. 

Five males from eastern Siam measure: Wing, 235-250 (241.6); 
tail, 139-162 (153.8); calmen, 62-67.5 (64.5) mm. Five females from 
northern and eastern Siam: AVing, 235-242 (238.2); tail, 150-159 
(154); culmen, 58-66 (62.3) mm. 

The form ranges from Oudh, Assam, Burma, and northern Tenas- 
serim to Siam proper, Laos, Cambodia, Cochinchina, and Annam. 

I am somewhat doubtful of the Indo-China records; the only speci- 
men examined in good plumage is a male from Trang Bom, Cochin- 
china (no. 278359). It is a summer-taken specimen, slightly worn, 
and is somewhat darker and a little smaller than this sex in the 
Siamese series. It measures: Wing, 234; tail, 148; culmen, 57.5 mm. 
On geographic grounds it is placed with the northern form for the 
present. 

The bird of the year is lighter than adult specimens and has a rusty 
wash to the plumage, which is retained until after it reaches adult size. 

The form occurs sparingly all over Siam proper. It has been re- 
corded from Hat Sanuk, Rajburi, by Robinson and Kloss.^* This 
must be near the limit of its range in this direction. 

MACROPICUS JAVENSIS JAVENSIS (Horsfield) 

Picus javensis Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 13, p. 175, 1821 (Java). 

One male, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, January 6, 1934; one female, Tha 
Lo, Bandon, September 23, 1931. 

The following were collected by Dr. W. L. Abbott: Four males and 
three females in Trang (Prahmon, April 7, 1896; Lay Song Hong, 
August 20-November 23, 1896; Trang, January 28, 1899); one male, 
Kemamun, Trengganu, October 2, 1900; and one female, Endau 
River, Pahang side, June 21, 1901. He gives the soft parts as: Iris 
yellow, pale yellow, pale greenish yellow; bill black, black with white 
at tip beneath, or black, grayish beneath; feet leaden, dull leaden, 
dirty leaden, or leaden blue; claws dark brown; dark horn blue, or 
blackish leaden. 

This form ranges from Java, Borneo, the Rhio Archipelago, Banka, 
and Sumatra to the Malay States and north through Peninsular Siam 
to southern Tenasserim. 

No specimens from Java have been available for comparison. 
Birds from the Philippines appear to be smaller and break up into a 
number of races. A large race, Macrojpicus javensis buttikqferi Rich- 
mond, is found on Nias and a much smaller form, M. j. parvus Rich- 
mond, on Simalur. 

The few specimens examined by me from Borneo seem to have the 
throat and cheeks on the average more heavily streaked with white 

M Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 198. 1023. 



242 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

than the mainland form. In this respect, they resemble the southern 
Philippine form, Alacropicus javensis suluensis (Blasius), but are large 
like the mainland form. 

Five males from the Malay Peninsula measure: Wing, 223-240 
(230. G) ; tail, 155-161 (159.2) ; culmen, 54-58 (56.4) m.m. Three males 
from Borneo: Wing, 234-238 (235.7); tail, 166-182 (171.5); culmen, 
56.5-61 (58.7) mm. One male from Linga Island, Rhio Archipelago: 
Wing, 222; tail, 160; culmen, 53 mm. Five males from the Malay 
Peninsula: Wing, 216-226 (220.2); tail, 140-160 (153.6); culmen, 
50-54 (51.8) mm. Two females from Borneo: Wing, 224-230; tail, 
153.5-165; cuhnen, 54-55 mm. One female from Sumatra: Wing, 
237; tail, 182; culmen, 54 mm. Two females from Banka: Wing, 
219-230; tail, 165-166; culmen, 51-52 mm. 

This form appears to be not uncommon in the south of the Penin- 
sula, becoming rarer to the northward. The northernmost record I 
have seen is the one of Miiller ^^ for Salanga (Puket), but Dr. Smith 
took it in Bandon and Davison secured specimens in extreme southern 
Tenasserim. 

MACROPICUS FEDDENI (Blanford) 

Mulleripicus feddeni Blanford, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 32, p. 75, 1863 
(Burma). 

One female, Doi Angka, December 9, 1928; one female. Ban Nam 
Kien, Nan, April 18, 1930; three males and two females, Pak Chong, 
April 28 and December 18, 22, 1926; one male, Sakeo, near Krabin, 
May 4, 1928; one male, Chantuk, June 12, 1934; one male, Kwe Noi, 
Kanburi, September 22, 1929; one male, Wang Kien, Kanburi, March 
12, 1934. Dr. Smith also took a female at Ban Tung Kwa Tao, 
Salwin River, Burma, January 12, 1933. 

In my opinion this bird is a species and not a form of M. javensis. 
It is readily distinguished from javensis or any of its forms by the 
broad white rump. As a rule, the throat and posterior cheeks are 
more heavily streaked with white, and the breast is purer white. 

Macropicus feddeni ranges from the Chin and Kachin Hills and the 
northern Shan States, Burma, to northern Tenasserim and practically 
all Siam proper east to Cambodia, Cocliincliina, and southern Annam. 
In Siam it has been recorded by Robinson and Kloss ^* from Koh Lak 
in southwestern Siam, which seems to be about the southern limit in 
this direction. De Schauensee,^^ in recording it from Metang and Bua 
Yai, states that it is uncommon in dry and evergreen forests. 

A pair in the United States National Aluseum from Dalat, southern 
Annam, are somewhat smaller than Siamese specimens. Robinson 
and Kloss have also called attention to this. 



«' Die Ornis der Insel S.ilanga, p. 72, 1882. 

•8 Journ. Nat. Hist. Siam, vol. 5, p. 199, 1923. 

•» Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 253, 1934. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 243 

From descriptions it seems rather lilvely this is a form of Macropicus 
hodgsonii (Jerdon) from the west coast of southern India, but the ranges 
are widely separated. Macropicus forresti (Rothschild) closely resem- 
bles feddeni but is larger and lacks almost entu'ely the white streaks 
on the throat and posterior auriculars; it is found in the high mountains 
of Yunnan and Tonkin. 

Stuart Baker ^° alters feddeni to crawfurdi on the grounds of priority, 
but Picus crawfurdi Gray was given ^^ to an Indian drawing brought 
to England by Mr. Crawfurd, Jr. Hargitt ^^ clauns that the name 
cannot possibly apply to feddeni. 

VIVIA INNOMINATA MALAYORUM (Hartert) 

Picumnus innominatus malayorum Hartert, Die Vogel der palaarktischen 
Fauna, Band 2, Heft 1, p. 937, 1912 (Gunong Ijau, Perak). 

One male, Doi Nangka, November 20, 1930; one male, Doi Hua 
Mot, August 24, 1934. 

This form is said to differ prmcipally from V. i. innominata in being^ 
only a little smaller. The wings of two males from Cachar, India, 
measure 54 mm, the wing of the Nangka male 53 mm, that from Doi 
Hua Mot 56.5 mm; so even size does not seem to hold. In the two 
Siamese males the spots below come farther down on the breast and 
the barring on the sides is less pronounced than in the Cachar males. 
The northern Siamese specimens are probably intermediate, as the 
differences are sHght. I have seen no specimens from the Malay 
Peninsula. 

Gyldenstolpe ^^ records it from Khun Tan. Deignan ^* states that 
it is rather common on Doi Sutep from 2,700-3,500 feet. De Schau- 
ensee ®^ secured it at the same place and at Chieng Dao. There seems 
to be no definite record for Peninsular Siam, where it must occur, 
however, as it occurs in the Malay States. 

The form ranges from eastern Burma and Siam southeast to Tonkin 
and southern Annam and south to the Malay States, Sumatra, and 
Borneo. 

SASIA OCHRACEA REICHENOWI Hesse 

Sasia ochracea reichenowi Hesse, Orn. Monatsb., 1911, p. 181 (Burma). 

One male, Chiengdao, January 29, 1932; one male, Aranya, July 
19, 1930; one female, Tha Chang, March 20, 1927; one female, Lat 
Bua Kao, August 9, 1929. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected a male and a female at Maliwun, 
Tenasserim, March 22, 1900. 

«« The fauna of British India, Birds, ed. 2, vol. 7, p. 319, 1930. 

•I Griffith, The animal kingdom ... by the Baron Cuvier .... Birds, vol. 2, p. 513, fig., 1829 

" Catalogue of the birds in the British Museum, vol. 18, p. 501, 1890. 

«3 Kungl. Svenslia Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 97, 1916. 

M Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Ilist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 158, 1931. 

•' Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 253, 1934. 



244 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

No specimens of the other forms of this species have been available 
for comparison. 

Gyldenstolpe "^ took a male at Doi Par Sakeng; Deignan *^ came 
across it only once in July at Chiengmai; de Schauensee ^^ secured 
specimens at Chieng Rai and Chieng Sen and on his third expedition 
at Tamuang; ^^ Robinson and Kloss ^ record it from Mamoh and 
Tapli, Pakchan Estuary, and Tasan, Chumporn. Apparently, then, 
it occurs nearly all over Siam proper and extreme northern Peninsular 
Siam. 

The form ranges from the Lower Chindwin and southern Shan 
States in Burma south to Southern Tenasserim and east through 
Siam to Laos, Tonkin, and northern Annam. 

SASIA ABNORMIS EVERETTI Hargitt 

Sasia everetti Hargitt, Catalogue of the birds in the British Museum, vol. 18, 
p. 559, pi. 15, juv., 1890 (Lumbidan, Borneo). 

One male, Bukit, Patani, January 24, 1931; one female, Yala> 
Patani, February 2, 1931; one female, Kao Luang, Nakon Sritamarat* 
3,000 feet, July 14, 1928; one female, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, January 12, 
1934; one female, Kao Chong, Trang, September 2, 1933. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected two adult males and one immature 
female in Trang (Rao Soi Dao, February 10, 1899; Prahmon, March 6, 
1896; Tyching, July 3, 1896). He describes the soft parts as: Iris 
red; orbital skin livid purple; upper mandible black, lower mandible 
greenish yellow; feet brownish yellow or orange, claws pale brownish 
horn. 

The only difference between the sexes seems to be that in the male 
the feathers of the forehead are tipped with light cadmium yellow, 
while in the female they are kaiser brown. Apparently there is little 
or no difference in size. 

The immature female collected by Dr. Abbott at Tyching, Trang, 
July 3, is similar to the plate of the type of Sasia everetti, quoted 
above, except the pileum and upper back are a little deeper than 
hair brown, with little or no olive wash; only the ear coverts and a 
narrow line above the eye posteriorly are orange-cinnamon, and the 
lores are blackish. 

There appears to be no difference in color or size between speci- 
mens from the Malay Peninsula, Borneo, and Sumatra. Three 
males from Peninsular Siam measure: Wing, 52-55 (53.3); tail, 
19-22 (20.7); culmen, 12-13 (12.7) mm. Five males from Borneo 
and one from Sumatra: Wing, 49-53 (51.9); tail, 20-23.5 (21); 

»« Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 97, 1916. 
" Journ. Siam Soc. N.it. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 158, 1931. 
»• Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 81, p. 668, 1930. 
•» Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 253, 1934. 
■» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 200. 1923. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 245 

culmen, 12-13 (12.6) mm. Three females from Peninsular Siam: 
Wing, 51-54 (52.7); tail, 19-22 (20.7); culmen, 12.5-13 (12.7) mm. 
One female from Borneo: Wing, 51.5; taU, 21; culmen, 13 mm. 

No specimens from Java have been examined, but cle Schauensee ^ 
claims that Peninsular birds have larger bills. He had only one 
specimen from Java, one from the Peninsula, and three from Borneo. 
He is correct in stating that Bornean and Peninsular birds are the 
same, and presumably he is correct as to the Javan form also. A 
larger series from Java should be examined, however. 

The range of this form extends from Borneo and Sumatra to the 
Malay States and northward through Peninsular Siam to Maprit, 
southwestern Siam, and southern Tenasserim. 

This bird is probably not uncommon, but as it mostly inhabits 
bamboo tliickets it is probably hard to observe, and it is not common 
in collections. It has been taken the full length of the Peninsula. 

Sasia abnormis abnormis (Temminck) is confined to Java. 

JYNX TORQUILLA JAPONICA Bonaparte 

Junx japonica Bonaparte, Conspectus generum avium, vol. 1, p. 112, 1850 
(Japan). 

One female. Bung Borapet, March 29, 1933. 

This form ranges from Japan west to central Asia and south to 
northern India. In winter it migrates to southern China, Tonkin, 
Annam, Cochinchina, Siam, Burma, and the greater part of eastern 
India. 

Several nominal races have been proposed for J. torquilla in recent 
years: 

lynx torquilla chinensis Hesse, Orn. Monatsb., 1911, p. 181 (Tsintau, 

China). 
Jynx torquilla harterli Poljakow, Mess. Orn., 1915, p. 135, 136 (Altai,. 

Jenissei Government). 
Jynx torquilla pallidior Rensch, Abh. Ber. Zool. Mus. Dresden, vol. 16, 

no. 2, p. 40, 1924 (Sungpan, Szechwan). 
Jynx torquilla intermedia Stegmann, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 47, p. 73, 

1927 (Tchita, southeastern Siberia). 

Adequate material is not available to investigate the validity of 
these forms at present, but I do not believe they can be maintained. 
It is too difficult to discriminate the eastern from the western form 
without complicating matters any further. 

This bird is a rather rare winter visitor to Siam. Williamson ' 
recorded a male from Bangkok, April 24, 1916. De Schauensee* 
lists a female from Chiengmai, January 5 ; Deignan ^ records it from 

» Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 253, 1934. 
» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 2, p. 324, 1917. 

* Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 81, p. 568, 1930. 

• Journ. Siam. Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 158, 1931. 



246 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Cbiengmai from October to March and states that in February and 
March 1931 it was almost abundant; Gyldenstolpe ® adds the locaHty 
Khun Tan. 

Family EURYLAIMIDAE: Broadbills 

EURYLAIMUS JAVANICUS PALUDUS Chasen 

Eurylaimus javanicus pallidus Chasen, Bull. Raffles Mus., no. 10, p. 43, 1935 
(Kao Nawng, Bandon, Siam). 

One female, Pang Sok, August 24, 1926; three males and one female, 
Pak Chong, March 3, 1927, June 21, 22, 1934; two males, Hin Lap, 
December 7, 12, 1931; one male, Hupbon, November 8, 1931; one 
male and two females, Nong Khor, near Sriracha, September 25, 1925, 
February 10, 1927; one male, Ban Sadet, Sriracha, June 1, 1925; 
three males, Klong Yai, Sriracha, July 22, 25, 1932; one immature 
male, Kao Bantad, Krat, December 29, 1929; two males and one 
female, Kao Sabap, 3,000 feet, October 30-November 17, 1933; one 
male, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, January 29, 1934. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected one adult male, one adult female, and 
•one immature female, Lay Song Hong, Trang, September 2, 6, 1896. 
He describes the soft parts as: Bill bright blue, distal half of upper 
mandible pale yellowish green, tip and a line along commissure on 
both mandibles black; iris blue; feet pale purplish fleshy. 

The immature female was taken September 2. It is about adult 
size and has just started to acquire the adult plumage. Above it 
resembles the adult, but the back is a brownish black and the yellow 
spots are lighter; the pileum is snuff brown, darker on the nape, with 
very fine light shaft streaks and a vinous tinge in certain lights; the 
lower parts are barium yellow, with dusky edges to the feathers of 
the chest and sides. On the sides of the neck and the center of the 
chest and belly the vinous plumage of the adult is being assumed. 

The above large series from Siam compared with three males from 
eastern Sumatra are paler below, especially the under tail coverts. 
The most striking difference, however, is in the color of the throat 
above the black jugular band; in all the Siamese specimens this region 
has a dull Indian purple sheen, while in the Sumatran males it is 
lacking or much reduced. Above, the Siamese series averages darker 
on the pileum; this difference might not hold in a larger series from 
Sumatra. 

Apparently there is little or no difference in size between the two 
series. Ten males from Siam measure: Wing, 102-111 (107.3); taU, 
58-67.5 (63.9); culmen, 23.5-25.5 (24.5) mm. Three males from 
eastern Sumatra: Wing, 105-109.5 (107.5); tail, 58.5-64 (61.2); 
culmen, 24-25.5 (24.8) mm. 

« Ibis. 1920, p. 606. 



BIRDS FROM SIAIVI AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 247 

Count Gyldenstolpe ^ has recorded it from Khun Tan and Pa Hing 
in the north; Lowe ^ Hsts it from Mewong River, 40 miles west of Um 
Pang, western Siam; Robinson and Kloss® from Kao Luang, 2,000 
feet, Nakon Sritamarat. 

All Dr. Smith's specimens recorded above, except the one from 
Trang, come from eastern and southeastern Siam. It is apparently 
rare in the northern part of its range. 

The range of the form is from east, central, and south Burma to 
the whole of Siam, Laos, Cochinchina, southern Annam, and south 
through Peninsular Siam to the Malay States. 

E. j. javanicus Horsfield, of which no specimens have been available 
for examination, is confined to western and middle Java ; E. j. harterti 
Van Oort to Sumatra and the Rhio Archipelago; E.j. brookei Robinson 
and Kloss to Borneo; and E. j. billitonis Kloss to Billiton Island. 

EURYLAIMUS OCHROMALUS OCHROMALUS Raffles 

Eurylaimus ochromalus Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 13, p. 295, 1822 
(forests of Singapore and interior of Sumatra). 

One male and one female, Sichol, Bandon, August 30 and September 
1, 1929; two males and two females, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, January 16, 
1934. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected two males and two females. Lay Song 
Hong, Trang, September 3 and 21, 1896; one male and one female, 
Victoria Point, Tenasserim, March 29, 1904. He describes the soft 
parts as: Bill blue at base and middle of lower mandible; sides of the 
lower and distal two-thirds of the upper pale green; tip and a line 
along the commissure black; feet pinkish fleshy; iris bright yellow. 

Robinson and Kloss '" report it from Tapli, Pakchan Estuary, and 
Tasan, Chumporn, Peninsular Siam, and say these are the most 
northerly recorded for Siam, but in Tenasserim the form reaches its 
northern limits at Yea, in about latitude 15° N. 

The form ranges from southern Tenasserim south through Penin- 
sular Siam to the Malay States, Sumatra, Banka, and the Natuna 
Islands. 

E. 0. mecistus Oberholser, a somewhat larger form, occurs on Pulo 
Tuanku, Banjak Islands, off the western coast of Sumatra; E. o. 
kalamantan Robinson and Kloss in Borneo. 

CORYDON SUMATRANUS LAOENSIS de Schauensee 

Corydon sumatranus laoensis de Schauensee, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 
vol. 80, p. 555, 1929 (Chiengmai, northern Siam). 

One male, Doi Angka, 2,000 feet, December 8, 1928; one male, 
Khun Tan, October 24, 1929; one female, Huey Salob, January 2, 

' Ibis, 1920, p. 581. 

' Ibis, 1933. p. 282. 

• Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 11, p. 60, 1923. 

» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 203, 1923. 



248 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

1933; two males and three females, Ta Fang, January 17, 1933; two 
males and one female, Hupbon, November 1, 2, 1931 ; two males, Huey 
Yang, Sriracha, August 6, 1932; one male and one female, Nong Yang, 
near Sriracha, October 24 and November 16, 1931; one male and two 
females, Kao Semmg, Krat, October 17, 1928; two females, Kao 
Sabap, November 20, 1933; one male and one female, Sichol, Bandon, 
September 3, 1929, and May 29, 1930; two males and two females, Tha 
Lo, Bandon, September 16 and 28, 1931 ; one male, Kao Luang, Nakon 
Sritamarat, July 17, 1928. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected sLx males and three females, Trang 
(Prahmon, April 8, 1896; Tyching, July 21, 1896; Lay Song Hong, 
August 24-December 5, 1896, and January 1, 1897; near Kao Nom 
Plu, February 27, 1897; Kao Soi Dao, 2,000 feet, February 11, 1899); 
one female, Endau River, east coast of Johore, June 30, 1901. Dr. 
Abbott gives the colors of the soft parts as: Iris dark brown; feet 
black; orbital sldn dull red; bill dull red, fleshy white at base, horny 
blue at tip. 

De Schauensee originally described this bird from three specimens 
with white or very nearly white throats. The United States National 
Museum has a female from Tenasserim and a male from Raheng, 
Siam, in similar plumage. Later these were thought to be individual 
variations, and they probably are; nevertheless on his last expedition 
de Schauensee ^^ secured additional material, and while no more were 
secured lilce the type series, he found upon comparison with Sumatran 
specimens that the northern Siamese bird is separable by its paler 
throat, deeper black plumage, both above and below, and its dusky 
chin and upper throat. The series collected by Dr. Smith confirms 
this. The specimens secured by Dr. Abbott in Trang are intermediate 
but nearer the northern race and for the present are placed -wnth it. 
The Trang birds are blacker than a series from Sumatra; the throats 
average considerably lighter but are darker than northern Siamese 
specimens. The female from Johore resembles Trang specimens. 
Two specimens from Daban, southern Annam, are like the northern 
Siamese skins. 

Two immature males taken by Dr. Smith at Huey Yang, Sriracha, 
August 6, have the throat and chest dusky, only a few pale yellowish 
feathers appearing on the upper throat. The apparently adult birds 
with white or nearly white throats may be birds in their first adult 
plumage. 

The form ranges from northern Siam to Tenasserim and down Penin- 
sular Siam to the Malay States, east to Laos, Cochinchina, and 
northern and southern Annam. It occurs nearly all over Siam proper 
and down Peninsular Siam to Trang or farther. 

11 Proc. Acad. Xat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol, 86, p. 245, 1934. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 249 

The name Corydon sumatranus (Raffles) ^^ is evidently to be used for 
the species. Eurylaimus corydon Temminck ^^ is a nomen nudum 
where first used and was not properly used until about two years later/* 
while in the meanwhile Raffles had named it. 

A dark-throated form from Borneo similar to that of Sumatra has 
been named C. s. brunnescens by Hartert. C. s. sumatranus (Raffles) 
is confined to Sumatra. 

CYMBIRHYNCHUS MACRORHYNCHUS MALACCENSIS Salvador! 

Cymhirhynchus malaccensis Salvadori, Atti Reale Accad. Sci. Torino, vol. 9, 
p. 425, 1874 (Malacca). 

Three males and three females, Bangnara, Patani, May 30, 1924, 
July 5-12, 1926; one female. Ban Peng Sao, Nakon Sritamarat, July 27, 
1928; one female, Pak Bhayoon, Nakon Sritamarat, July 4, 1928; two 
females, Bandon, January 7, 1927; two males and four females, Tha Lo, 
Bandon, September 13-16, 1931; two females, Pran, May 26, 1928; 
April 2, 1931 ; two males, three females, and one unsexed, Muang Kan- 
buri, April 9-11, 1928; three males and three females, Nong Khor, near 
Sriracha, September 23, 1925, February 12, 1927 ; one female. Ban Tarn 
Dam, near Sriracha, March 6, 1930; one male and one female, Sakeo, 
near Krabin, May 3, 1928; four males and one female, Kao Seming, 
Krat, October 10-15, 1928, August 27, 1931 ; one set of four eggs. Ban 
Sadet, May 25, 1925. Dr. Smith describes the soft parts as: Iris 
green; bill greenish blue; legs blue. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected the following: Two males and six 
females, Trang (Tyching, May 29-July 3, 1896; Lay Song Hong, 
September 30, 1896; Chong, January 21, 1897; near Kao Nok Ram, 
January 4, 1899); one male, Packa, Trengganu, September 27, 1900, 
and one female, Bok Pyin, Tenassermi, Februarj^ 11, 1900. He also 
took three sets of three eggs each in Trang, May 29, 30 and June 19, 
1896; all with incubation begun. He describes the soft parts as: Bill 
pale blue, the lower mandible orange, except along the commissure; 
feet leaden blue, soles brownish yellow; iris emerald-green. 

Two of the specimens collected by Dr. Abbott in Trang and the one 
from Tenasserim have the under tail coverts ochraceous-tawny, and 
two others from Trang and the one from Trengganu are similar but 
have a garnet-broMn wash. Strange to say, none in the large series 
collected by Dr. Smith matches them; they have the under tail coverts 
red like the breast. As all the birds from Trang do not possess this 
character, I conclude it is an individual variation. As Robinson and 
Kloss ^° have remarked, there is a progressive increase in the amount 

" Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 13, p. 303, 1822. 

" Nouveau recueil de planches colorizes d'oiseJiux, livr. 22, in text, May 1822. 

«♦ Nouveau recueil de planches colorizes d'oiseaux, livr. 44, pi. 297, described on same leaf with pi. 261, 
March 1824. 
» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 207, 1923. 



250 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

of white in the tail from the southern part of the range toward the 
northern. It is variable, however. 

Chasen and Kloss '® record this broadbill from the Raheng District, 
western Siam ; Lowe ^^ encountered it 40 miles east of Um Pang in the 
same general region ; Kloss ^* records it from Lat Bua Kao in the east. 
These records seem to define the limits of its distribution to the west, 
north, and east in Siam, whence it has been found from the south- 
eastern part of the country westward and south throughout Penin- 
sular Siam. 

The range of the fonn extends from Cochinchina and Cambodia 
westward through the southern half of Siam to Tenasserim and 
down Peninsular Siam to the Malay States. 

C. m. macrorhynchus (Gmelin) has httle or no white in the tail and 
a large bill and is confined to Borneo. 

C. m. lemniscatus (Raflles) occurs in Sumatra and Banka. It is 
similar to the mainland form but has a larger bill; it is doubtfully 
distinct. 

Seven males from Borneo measure: Wing, 96-105 (101.6) ; tail, 82-92 
(86.9); culmen, 24.5-26.5 (25.5) mm. Three males from Banka (1) 
and Sumatra (2): Wing, 100.5-107.5 (102.7); tail, 80-91 (85.3); 
culmen, 24-26.5 (25.3) mm. Four males from Trengganu (1) and 
Patani (3): Wing, 97-105 (101); tail, 76-86 (82.7); culmen, 23.5-24.5 
(24) mm. Four males from Trang (2) and Bandon (2): Wing, 94-101 
(96.6); tail, 76-86 (82.9); culmen, 22-23.5 (22.6) mm. Ten males 
from southwestern (2) and southeastern (8) Siam measure: Wing, 
99-105 (102); tail, 84-90 (87.8); culmen, 22.5-25 (23.4) mm. 

Only one specimen has been available for examination from the 
Malay States (Trengganu), except for some old Malacca sldns. 

SERILOPHUS LUNATUS LUNATUS (Gould) 

Eurylaimus lunatus Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1833, p. 133, 1834 (Rangoon, 
Burma) . 

One male and one female, Khun Tan, September 2, 1030; one 
female, Khun Tan Mountains, 4,300 feet. May 11, 1933; one male and 
two females, Doi Hua Mot, August 13, 27, 1934. Dr. Smith gives 
the soft parts as follows: Bill pale turquoise, pale yellow at the base; 
lower lid pale lemon; legs and feet pale green, nails pearly green; 
iris brown. 

De Schauensee '* assigns specimens from Chieng Dao, northern 
Siam, to S. I. stolidus of Peninsular Siam, but the three above 
specimens do not agree with three from Kao Luang, Nakon Srita- 
marat. They are lighter on the rump and tertials than the Penin- 

i« Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 172, 1928. 

I' Ibis, 1933, p. 282. 

i»Ibis, 1918, p. 114. 

» Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 24fl, 1934. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 251 

sular birds, and if they are not S. I. lunatus they must belong to an 
unnamed form. For the present I prefer to consider them as belong- 
ing to the same form as birds from Burma, though I have not examined 
any from the latter country. 

The form has been taken in northern Siam by several collectors, 
Lowe ^° found it in small parties 28 miles east of Um Pang to the 
Meping River, western Siam; Robinson and I^oss ^^ report it from 
Tapli, Pakchan Estuary, and Tasan, Chumporn, Peninsular Siam, 
which is the limit of its range to the south. They found it in dry 
bamboo jungle at Tapli and in deeper, more evergreen jungle at 
Tasan. Deignan ^^ reports it ranging on Doi Sutep between 2,600- 
4,500, and de Schauensee took his Chieng Dao specimen at 4,000— 
4,600 feet. 

The form ranges from Pegu and Karenni to southern Tenasserim, 
the South Shan States, Burma, and northern, western, and northern 
Peninsular Siam. 

SERILOPHUS LUNATUS STOLIDUS Robinson and Kloss 

Serilophus lunatus stolidus Robinson and Kloss, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 40, 
p. 16, 1919 (Kao Nawng, Bandon, Peninsular Siam). 

Tliree males, Kao Luang, Nakon Sritamarat, July 19, 1928. 

These three specimens agree with the original description in having 
deeper-colored inner secondaries and tertiaries and the drab, less ful- 
vous ear coverts. The rumps are also darker. 

At present this form is loiown only from the middle portion of 
Peninsular Siam (Bandon, Nakon Sritamarat, and Tung Song)'. 

S. I. rothschildi Hartert and Butler, of the mountains of the Malay 
States, has not been available for examination. It is said to have a 
deeper, brighter rump and secondaries than S. I. stolidus. It may 
extend into western Patani. 

SERILOPHUS LUNATUS ELISABETHAE La Touche 

Serilophus lunatus elisabethae La Totjche, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 42, p. 14, 
1921 (Hokovv, southeastern Yunnan). 

One male and one female, Kao Lem, Sankambeng Range, eastern 
Siam, December 28, 1930; one male, Lamton Lang, June 1, 1934, 

The two specimens from Kao Lem agree fairly well with a specimen 
received in exchange from the Paris Museum from North Annam. 
This form is grayer and has a deeper-colored rump and inner flight 
feathers than S. I. stolidus. The specimen from Lamton Lang is not 

" Ibis, 1933, p. 283. 

>' Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 205, 1923. 

» Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 156, 1931. 



252 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

SO deeply colored as the Kao Lem birds and is without the white 
juglar collar; it may not be fully adult. 

The form ranges from southeastern Yunnan and Tonkin to Laos, 
Annam, and eastern Siam. Stuart Baker's ^^ record from Hupbon 
probably belongs here. 

Two other races of this species have been named: S. I. polinotus 
Rothschild from Hainan and S. I. intensus Robinson and Kloss from 
Sumatra. 

PSAUISOMUS DALHOUSIAE DALHOUSIAE (Jameson) 

Eurylaimus dalhousiae Jameson, Edinburgh New Phil. Journ., vol. 18, p. 389, 
1835 (northern India). 

Two males and three females, Khun Tan, October 16, 25, 1929, 
August 26 and September 2, 1930; one male, Doi Hua Mot, August 
24, 1934; one male, Pang Meton (Doi Nangka), April 30, 1931; one 
female, Ivlnm Tan Mountains, 3,000 feet, May 13, 1933; two males 
and one female, Kao Pae Pan Nam, Lamsak, February 18-19, 1934. 
Dr. Smith also secured a male at Pang Wua Yao, eastern Burma, 
January 27, 1933. 

Strange to say, this bh'd has not been recorded from Peninsular 
Siam, though it is well know^n in the Malay States. As yet the form 
has been recorded from Siam only from the northern and western 
parts of the country. 

Chasen and Kloss ^* state that specimens examined by them from 
the Raheng district are somewhat different from birds from Doi 
Sutep, but the United States National Museum received a part of 
this Raheng collection, consisting of five specimens, and they are 
somewhat worn and, allowing for wear, can be matched or nearly so 
by a specimen from Khun Tan. 

I have examined only one specimen from the Malay States, a 
female from Semangko Pass, Selangor-Pahang Boundary. It is more 
of a grass, less yellowish, green than northern birds above and a paler 
green below. It probabl}'^ belongs to the Sumatran form, as Chasen 
and Kloss ^^ have suggested. 

Psarisomus dalhousiae dalhousiae ranges in the Himalayas from 
Kuman east to eastern Assam south through Burma to western and 
northern Siam, Laos, and Tonkin. P. d. ysittacinus (Mliller) inhabits 
Sumatra and probably the Malay States. P. d. borneensis Hartert 
occurs in northwestern Borneo. 

Only one rather poor skin has been examined from India and none 
at all from Sumatra. This Indian specimen has more green at the base 
of the outer tail feathers and the neck tufts have less white than 
northern Siam specimens. It is also a bluer green, but this may be 
due to a^e. 



M Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 419, 1919. 

" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 237, 1932. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 253 

Dr. Smith took an immature female at Khun Tan, September 2. It 
is of about adult size, but it is in a plumage quite different from the 
adult. It may be briefly described as follows: Head green, blackish 
on the nape; lores green; spot in front of eye and patch below eye 
citron yellow; supra-auricular tuft lemon-yellow; auriculars blackish, 
washed with green and light yellow; neck patch picric yellow washed 
with light green; remainder of upperparts green as in the adult; throat 
picric yellow washed with light green; remainder of lowerparts vander- 
poel green; wings similar to the adult; tail peacock green, bluish along 
the shaft of the feathers on the inner web, all but the central feathers 
blackish on the inner web beyond the bluish shaft line. An immature 
male from Doi Hua Mot, August 24, is similar, except that it has a 
few blue feathers on the nape. 

Gyldenstolpe records it from Pa Hing ^^ and from Meh Nja Min ^; 
Deignan -^ states that it is rare on Doi Sutep at 3,500-4,600 feet. 
Lowe ^ found it 28 miles east of Um Pang. 

PSABISOMUS DALHOUSIAE CYANICAUDA Riley 

Psarisomus dalhousiae cyanicauda Riley, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 48, 
p. 54, 1935 (Kao Sabab, southeastern Siam). 

Five males and four females, Kao Sabap, January 8, 1930, November 
16-20, 1933. 

This series differs from a still larger series from northern and western 
Siam in being darker, less yellowish, green above; below the green 
has a more bluish cast; the most pronounced difference, however, is 
in the color of the tail. In specimens from southeastern Siam it is 
near paris blue, while m northern birds it is more of an Italian blue. 
In cyanicauda there is a reduction of the green edging on the outer 
web of the outer tail feathers at the base and it is confined to two or 
three ; in northern skins even the middle tail feather has a green edging 
on the outer web at the base. 

An adult male and female from Dran, southern Annam, in the 
United States National Museum seem to belong here. 

P. d. cyanicauda is more like P. d. psittacinus of Sumatra and the 
Malay States than the northern form. 

This form is evidently confined to southeastern Siam, Cambodia, 
and southern Annam. 

Five males from southeastern Siam measure: Wing, 97.5-102.5 
(100.8); tail, 122.5-135.5 (129.5); culmen, 18.5-19.5 (19) mm. Nine 
males from northern, central, and western Siam and eastern Burma 
(1): Wing, 97.5-106 (101.9); tail, 111-126 (120); culmen, 18-19.5 
(18.8) mm. 

» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Sinm, vol. 1, p. 229, 1916. 

M Kunpl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 66, no. 2, p. 86, 1916. 

" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 156, 1931. 

>• Ibis, 1933, p. 283. 

33527—38 17 



254 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

CALYPTOMENA VIRIDIS CONTINENTIS Robinson and KIoss 

Calypiomena viridis coniinentis Robinson and Kloss, Journ. Federated Malay 
States Mu8., vol. 11, p. 54, 1923 (Tasan, Chumporn, Peninsular Siam). 

Five males and three females, Bangnara, Patani, May 11, 1924, 
July 4-14, 1926; four adult males, one immature male, and three 
females, Sichol, Bandon, August 31-September 3, 1929, May 16 and 
27, 1930; one female, Tha Lo, Bandon, September 20, 1931; two 
females, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, January 1, 1934. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott secured three males and three females at Lay 
Song Hong, Trang, September 2-December 24, 1896; three males and 
two females from the eastern coast of Johore (Endau River, June 26- 
27, 1901 ; Scmbrong River, July 6, 1901 ; and Jambu Luang, August 2, 
1901); two females from the Rumpin River, Pahang, Juno 10-11, 
1902. He gives the soft parts as: Iris blackish brown; upper 
mandible dark horn brown, tip brownish yellow; lower mandible 
greenish lead, tip yellow; feet green. 

There seems to be no difference in size or color between specimens 
from the Malay States and those from Bandon, I have no birds from 
Sumatra for comparison. The wings of 15 males from the Malay 
Peninsula measure 98.5-107 (102.9 ) mm; of four females, 103.5-111.5 
(105.8) mm. 

Four males and five females before me from Borneo are darker, 
less yellowish, green than Malay Peninsula birds; they are also 
smaller. The wings of four males from Borneo measure 94-97 (95.4) 
mm; of five females, 99-105 (101.8) mm. Wliether Bornean birds 
belong with those from Sumatra I cannot decide without material 
from the latter island, but Robinson and Kloss seem to regard the 
birds from these two islands as the same. 

The immature male taken by Dr. Smith at Sichol, Bandon, August 
31, is similar to the adult female but is less yellowish green both above 
and below. It is about adult in size. 

Gyldenstolpe ^' took a female at Hat Sanuk and observed a few more. 
This is its most northern record in Siam. Robinson and Kloss ^" 
record it from Koh Rah, Takuapah; Tapli, Pakchan Estuary, and 
Tasan, Chumporn, and remark that it has been obtained as far north 
in Tenasserim as Amherst. Robinson ^* reports finding a nest with two 
hard-set eggs on Kao Nawng, Bandon, June 25, and gives a description 
of the nest and eggs. 

The range of the form ts from Amherst, Tenasserim, and Hat Sanuk, 
Peninsular Siam, southward through Peninsulnr Siam to the Malay 
States, and it has been recorded from Cochinchina. 

«• Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 60, no. 2, p. 86, 1916. 

«• Journ. Nat. Hist. See. Slam, vol. 5, p. 202, 1923. 

»i Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 5, p. 96, 1916. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 255 

C. V. viridis Raffles is confined to Sumatra and (?) Borneo, A darlier 
form, C. V. siberu Chasen and Kloss, is confined to the Mentawi 
Islands, off the west coast of Sumatra. 

Family PITTIDAE: Pittas 

ANTHOCICHLA PHAYRH PHAYRH Blyth 

Anthocichla phayrii Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 31, p. 343, 1862 (Toung- 
hoo, Burma). 

One male, Pang Sok, eastern Siam, August 19, 1926; one male, and 
two females, Kao Pae Pan Nam, Lamsak, February 18-19, 1934. 

One of the females from Kao Pae Pan Nam is immature. It is 
about full grown. The black head markings of the adult are replaced 
by brown like the back; the chest and sides are spotted or barred with 
black; the back is darker brown than the adult, but the lower parts 
are lighter. 

I have examined no birds from northern Siam, but two males from 
Klong Menao, southeastern Siam, do not seem to differ appreciably. 

Gyldenstolpe ^^ records it from Pak Koh and Khun Tan, northern 
Siam; Robinson ^^ from Ok Yam, Franco-Siamese boundary, and 
Klong Menao, southeastern Siam; de Schauensee ^* also took a female 
at Khun Tan at about 3,500 feet, and found it not so dark as specimens 
from Bolovens, Laos. 

The form ranges from Burma east of Sittoung River, Tenasserim, 
and the Shan States, to northern, eastern, and southeastern Siam 
and southern Laos. 

Delacour has named a form from northeastern Tonkin A. p. obscura, 

PITTA OATESI OATESI (Hume) 

Hydrornis oatesi Hume, Stray Feathers, vol. 1, p. 477, 1873 (Upper Pegu). 

One female. Pang Meton (Doi Nangka), April 30, 1931 ; two females, 
Khun Tan, 3,000 feet, February 22 and 24, 1932; one male, Khun 
Tan Mountains, 3,000 feet. May 12, 1933. Dr. Smith notes the 
colors of the soft parts as follows: Iris brown; bill above dark brown, 
below horn; legs pinkish flesh. 

The male from the Khun Tan Mountains has the throat and chest 
washed with light ochraceous-salmon. 

No specimens are available for comparison. One female from 
Khun Tan has little green on the mantle, it being rusty and showing 
only a greenish wash in certain lights. 

Williamson ^^ records the form from Muang Wan, northern Siam; 

•» Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol 56, no. 2, p. 84, 1916. 
" Ibis, 1915, p. 742. 

«* Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 244, 1934. 
«» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 24, 1918. 



256 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Gyldenstolpe 36 adds the locality Khun Tan; de Schauensee " met 
with it at Chieng Dao, 4,500 feet, and at Chiengmai; Deignan '^ 
records it from Doi Angka. Evidently it is not a common bird in 
northern Siam. 

The form ranges from eastern Burma and the southern Shan States 
to Tenasserim, Pegu, and Arakan and eastward to northern Siam. 
A related form, P. o. castaneiceps Delacour and Jabouille, occurs in 
Tonkin and another, P. o. bolovenensis Delacour, in southern Laos. 

PITTA CAEBULEA CAERULEA (Baffles) 

Myiothera eaerulea Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 13, p. 301, 1822 
(Sumatra). 

One female, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, January 23, 1934. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected one male and one immature female at 
Lay Song Hong, Trang, August 20 and December 2, 189G; and one 
male at Telok Besar, Tenasserim, March 18, 1904. 

The immature female is about half grown and was collected August 
20. It may be described as follows: PUeum clay color, lighter on the 
forehead; feathers of the crown and nape blackish at the base and 
edges, giving a flammulated appearance; hindneck and sides of neck 
clay color, with the black bases of the feathers showing through; 
throat and sides of face cinnamon-buff; a loral streak and postocular 
extending back to the neck blackish; upperparts fuscous; tail, almost 
hidden by the coverts, deep orient blue; chest fuscous-black; breast 
hair brown, the feathers fringed with cinnamon-buff; belly hght buff; 
under tail coverts dusky ; wing coverts dusky drab with a bluish tingo, 
border and tip light buff; primary coverts and primaries fuscous- 
black, the latter dull bluish gray on the outer web, border and tip 
narrowly edged with light buff; outer secondaries similar to the 
primaries; tertials dull grayish blue. 

This is somewhat different from the young described by Stuart 
Baker ^^ but his description is probably taken from older birds. 

Robinson and Kloss *° say that this form is rare in the Malay States 
but becomes commoner farther north, as they secured several speci- 
mens from Trang and record two from Tasan, Chumporn. It breeds 
in the Malay States, however, as Robinson ^' records a half-grown 
young obtained early in November at Pelarit, Perils. Baker " records 
it from Maprit, southwestern Siam, which is about as far north as it 
has been obtained in Siam. 



•• Ibis, 1920, p. 580. 

w Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. PhUadelphia, vol. 86, p. 244, 1934. 
»• Journ. Siam Nat. Uist. Soc. Suppl., vol. 10, p. 64, 1935. 
••The fauna of British India, Birds, ed. 2, vol. 3, p. 448, 1930. 
"Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 220, 1924. 
"Journ. Federated Malay States Miis., vol. 5, p. 20, 191? 
" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 417, 1919. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 257 

The form ranges from Nwalabo Mountain, Tenasserim, south 
through Peninsular Siam to the Malay States and Sumatra. The 
Bornean form has been separated as P. c. hosei Stuart Baker, 

PITTA CYANEA CYANEA BIyth 

Pitta cyanea Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 12, p. 1008, 1843 (Arrakan). 

Two males, one adult, and one immature female, Khun Tan, 
August 24-30, 1930. Dr. Smith also took an adult male not far over 
the border in eastern Burma, January 27, 1933. He describes the 
soft parts as follows: Iris dark brown; bill black; legs pale pinldsh 
flesh. 

The immature female from Khun Tan was taken August 24. It is 
molting from the spotted juvenal plumage into the postjuvenal and 
the change is almost completed. The juvenal plumage is still retained 
on the head, chest, sides of breast, mantle, and wing coverts. 

No suitable material is available for comparison. 

This pitta has been taken in northern, central, and western Siam, 
but it has not been taken farther to the southwest than the Petchaburi 
district, where it has been reported by Gairdner.*^ Herbert reports 
a nest and five eggs found by his collector at Cliiengrak Noi, central 
Siam, June 14, and gives a description of them." 

The form ranges from the sub-Himalayas of Bhutan to eastern 
Assam, Cachar, Tippera, Chittagong, and Manipur to southern 
Tenasserim and east to northern, western, and central Siam. 

PITTA CYANEA AURANTIACA Delaconr and Jabonille 

Pitta cyanea aurantiaca Delacour and Jabouillb, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 48j 
p. 130, 1928 (Bokor, South Cambodia). 

Two females, Kao Bantad, Krat, December 22 and 29, 1929; three 
males and one female, Kao Sabap, October 23-November 22, 1933. 

This form can readily be distinguished from P. c. cyanea by the 
grenadine-red instead of scarlet nape. 

It has been taken also in southeastern Siam by de Schauensee, who 
reports it from Chantaboon," but Kloss took it at Klong Menao many 
years previously.*^ 

The form is confined to southeastern Siam and southern Cambodia. 

In the mountains of southern Annam and mountains of Laos a 
related form P. c. willoughhyi Delacour, is found. It differs from 
aurantiaca in having the blue of the chest more purplish, the chest 
tinged with peach red, and the nape a deeper scarlet even than in 
P. c. cyanea and consequently deeper than in aurantiaca. 

"Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Plam, vol. 1, p. 149, 1915. 

** Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6, p. 29R, 1924. 

" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, pp. 4, 246, 1934. 

« Robinson, Ibis, 1915, p. 742. 



258 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

PITTA MOLUCCENSI9 (MUller) 

Turdus moluccensis Muller, Natursystem, Supplements, p. 144, 1776 (Moluccas, 
error; Tenasserim <'). 

Two males and one female, Lat Bua Kao, July 29-August 11, 1929; 
one male and one female, Pak Chong, May 4, 1926, June 21, 1934, 
one male, Lam lOong Lang, Pak Chong, June 9, 1925; one male, 
Sakeo, near Krabin, May 6, 1926; one immature male, Nong Mong, 
Krabin, August 20, 1925; one male, Lam ton Lang, May 30, 1934; 
two females. Ban Sadet, Sriracha, May 31-Juno 2, 1925; two adult 
males and two immature males, Huey Yang, Sriracha, August 1-7, 
1932; one male, Muang Kanburi, April 16, 1928; one male, Pran, 
May 26, 1928; one male, Koh Lak, June 6, 1933; one male, Kao Soi 
Dao, Trang, January 6, 1934; one female, Yala, Patani, February 2, 
1931. One set of four eggs, Pran, May 29, 1928. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected nine males and four females in Trang 
(Tyching, April 24-July 2, 1896; Chong, January 21, 1897; near base 
of Kao Nom Plu, March 10, 1897); one male, Pulo Langkawi, Decem- 
ber 8, 1899; one female, Pulo Rupat, Straits of Malacca, March 15, 
1906. He also took four sets of eggs in Trang as follows: Three of 
four eggs each, May 29, June 19 and 21; one of five eggs, July 2; six 
eggs from two nests, July 1 1 ; also a nest of five half-fledged young was 
brought to him, June 22 ; these evidently were not saved, as they are 
not among his specimens. All were taken in 1896. He gives the soft 
parts as: Iris dark brown; bill black; feet purplish fleshy. 

This species occurs rather regularly all over Siam ; it is migratory in 
the north and perhaps partially so farther south. Gyldenstolpe ** 
records it from Ban Mehna and Pa Hing, northern Siam. Robinson " 
records it from Pulo Dayang Bunting, Langkawi, and Terutau; pre- 
viously he had recorded it from Koh Samui, ofi" Bandon,«° and there are 
records from all sections of the country. Robinson took a set of five 
hard-set eggs at Ban Kok Klap, Bandon; the date is not given, but 
the party was at this locality between June 29 and July 6. He also 
found nestling birds." Herbert " took a nest and four eggs at Chien- 
grak Noi, central Siam, June 24. 

A male taken by Dr. Smith at Lat Bua Kao, August 11, has molted 
all the feathers of the head and neck at one time and left it perfectly 
bare. The pinfeathers are just coming in. If this is the usual style 
of molt and not accidental, it is rather unusual. 

" Stuart Baker, The fauna of British India, Birds, ed. 2, vol. 3, p. 450, 1930. This seems a very unlikely 
type locality for this early dale. 
" Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 56, no. 2. p. 85, 1916. 
" Journ. Federated Malay States Mus.. vol. 7. p. 167, 1917. 
M Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 6, p. 147, 1915. 
»i Ibid., p. 97. 
" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6, p. 297, 1924. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 259 

The species ranges from Aracan and Pegu to Tenasserim, Burma, 
Siam, Cambodia, Cochinchina, and Laos and south through Penin- 
sular Siam to the Malay States, Sumatra, Borneo, and some of the 
adjacent islands. 

Oberholser " named the bird from the Island of Nias P. m. lepta. 
He evidently founded the form upon size alone and upon two males 
only from Nias and a female from Pulo Tuanku, Banjak Islands. 
No other differences are mentioned in the original description and I 
have found none. Even size in such a small series is not diagnostic 
and for the present this name is better not recognized until more ma- 
terial has been examined. 

The two males from Nias measure: Wing, 119-120; tail, 38-39.5; 
culmen, 25-26 mm. Six males from eastern Sumatra: Wing, 120-130 
(126); tail, 41.5-44 (42.8); culmen, 26.5-28.5 (27.5) mm. One male 
from central Borneo: Wing, 130; tail, 43; culmen, 26 mm. Nine 
males from Langkawi (1) and Trang (8): Wing, 122-129.5 (125.7); 
tail, 40-46 (42.9) ; culmen, 25-28 (26.7) mm. Seven males from south- 
western, central, and eastern Siam: Wing, 118-131 (125.9); tail, 
40.5-50 (43.9); culmen, 24-28 (25.7) mm. 

No birds have been examined from northern Siam. These are evi- 
dently rare in collections. 

PITTA MEGAEHYNCHA Schlegel 

Pitta megarhyncha Schlegel, De vogels Nederlandsch Indie, p. 32, pi. 4, fig. 2, 
1863 (Banka). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott secured a single male in Rupat Strait, eastern 
Sumatra, March 1, 1906, and this is the only specimen of this species 
in the United States National Museum. 

This is a rare bird in Peninsular Siam. Robinson and EJoss " 
record it from Pulo Terutau in March and Pulo Karimon and Pulo 
Bintang, Rhio Archipelago, in August and June and say there is an 
old mounted bird in the Selangor Museum labeled Pahang. Robin- 
son " adds the locality Langkawi, and later Robinson and Kloss ^^ 
record a male from the Pangnga River, Peninsular Siam, and state: 
"Shot among mangroves, outside which this species, at any rate in 
our experience is never found." This may account for its rarity in 
collections. It is similar to P. moluccensis but with a much larger 
bill (36 mm or less). 

The species ranges from Tenasserim south through Peninsular Siam 
to the Malay States, Sumatra, Banka, and the Rhio Archipelago. 
Possibly migratory in the north. 

« Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 60, no. 7, p. 8, 1912. 

M Iliis, 1911, p. 48. 

" Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 7, p. 107, 1917. 

- Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 221, 1924. 



260 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

PITTA GRANATINA COCCINEA Eyton 

Pitta coccinea Eyton, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1839, p. 104 (Malacca), 

One female, Rumpin River, Pabang, July 16, 1902, collected by 
Dr. W. L. Abbott. 

The range of this pitta is from southern Tenasserim southward 
to Singapore. Though it has been taken not uncommonly in the 
Malay States, I have seen no records from Peninsular Siam, but it 
must occur there, however, since it is found in Tenasserim. 

In Borneo the related form, P. g. granatina Temminck, is found. 

PITTA CUCULLATA CUCULLATA Hartlaub 

Pitta cucullata Hartlaub, Rev. Zool., 1843, p. 65 (Malacca). 

One male, Koh Kut, May 24, 1929; one male, Kao Sabap, June 30, 
1931. 

This form very probably occurs nearly all over Siam, but so far 
as Icnown to me it has never been taken in northern or eastern Siam. 
Most of the records come from Peninsular Siam, where it is migratory, 
according to Robinson and Kloss.*^ 

It breeds in southeastern Siam, as Herbert *** reports a set of four 
eggs taken by his collector at Hupbon, June 27, and gives a description 
of the eggs. 

The United States National Museum possesses a male from south- 
west of Laichau, Tonldn, taken May 27. It is varleys green above, 
while the two males from southeastern Siam are hellebore green on 
the upperparts; the pilcum is a brighter, more russet brown, the black 
neck band is broader, and the shoulder patch and rump are a brighter, 
deeper blue, also. It measures: Wing, 109.5; culmen, 23 mm. The 
two males from southeastern Siam measure: Wing, 108-118; culmen, 
21.5-23 mm. 

The range of the present form extends from the IlimaJayas of 
Nepal to eastern Assam, eastern Bengal, Burma, Siam, and Tonkin 
and south through Peninsular Siam to the Malay States and Sumatra. 

In the Nicobars a related form, P. c. abbotti Richmond, is found; 
P. c. hangkana Schlegel occurs on Banka and Billiton. 

PITTA SORDIDA MULLERI (Bonaparte) 

Brachyurus mulleri Bonaparte, Conspectus generum avium, vol. 1, p. 256, 1850 
(Celebes, error; Borneo). 

One male, Bangnara, Patani, July 18, 1926. 

This bird apparently has not been recorded before from Siam or the 
Malay States. It is readily distinguished from P. c. cucullata by 
having the pileum entirely black. 

•' Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Slam, vol. 5, p. 221, 1924. 
M Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6, p. 207, 1924. 



BIRDS FROM SI AM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 261 

The range is Borneo, Java, Banka, and Sumatra; accidental (?) in 
Peninsular Siam. A closely related form, P. s. sordida (Miiller), is 
found in the Philippines and another, P. s. sanghirana Schlcgel, on the 
Sanghir Islands. 

EUCTCHLA GURNEYI (Hume) 

Pitta gurneyi Hume, Stray Feathers, vol. 3, p. 296, pi. 3, 1875 (southern 
Tenasserim) . 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took a male and female in Tenasserim (Sungei 
Balik, February 26 and Telok Besar, March 1904). He gives the soft 
parts as: Iris dark brown; bill black; feet pale fleshy. 

This species occurs rather commonly in Peninsular Siam and has 
been taken from Koh Lak in the north, south to Trang, but not much 
farther, according to Kobinson and Kloss.^^ These authors report 
that more than 30 specimens have been taken ^° in Trang, and it 
has been collected from various points to the northward. Herbert ®^ 
records a set of four eggs taken by his collector at Klong Wang Hip, 
Tung Song, Peninsular Siam, October 9, and gives a description of 
them. 

EUCICHLA IRENA (Temminck) 

Pitta irena Temminck, Nouveau recueil de planches colori6es d'oiseaux, livr. 100, 
text to pi. 591, not figured, 1836 (northern Sumatra). 

One male and two females, Sichol, Bandon, August 29, 31, 1929, 
and May 21, 1930; two males and two females, Kao Chong, Trang, 
August 29-30, 1933; six males and two females, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, 
December 27, 1933-January 28, 1934. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected six males and two females in Trang 
(Prahmon, April 8, 1896; Lay Song Hong, August 20-December 2, 
1896; Kao Nok Ram, January 7, 1899). 

Two males from Sumatra in the United States National Museum 
compared with the mainland series are a deeper, more reddish, brown 
on the back; below, the blue of the breast is brighter and not so dark; 
the red barring on sides of chest is purer. The mainland bird may 
belong to a different race. 

This form ranges from Sumatra to the Malay States and northward 
through Peninsular Siam to Tasan, Chumporn, whence Robinson and 
Kloss " report specimens. Robinson *^ reports taldng a nest with 
three eggs on Kao Nawng, 700 feet, June 10, and gives a description 
and measurements of the eggs. 

This species is sometimes treated as a race of Eucichla guayana, but 
it is so widely different that to so treat it, is to ignore these fundamen- 
tal dissimilarities. 



" Journ. Siam fioc. Nat. Hist., vol. 5, p. 222, 1924. 

•oibis, 1911, p. 49. 

•1 Journ. Nat. Hist. See. Siam, vol. 6, p. 298, 1924. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam. vol. 5, p. 223, 1924. 

M Journ. Federated Malay States Mas., vol. 5, p. 97, 1916. 



262 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Family ALAUDIDAE: Larks 

MIRAFRA ASSAMICA MARIONAE Baker 

Mirafra assamica marionae Baker, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 36, p. 34, 1915 
(Ayuthia, central Siain). 

Two males and one female, Koh Lak, June 5, 1933; one male, 
Potaram, February 4, 1926; three males, Ban Pong, September 17, 
18, 1929; one unsexed, Nong Kae, May 6, 1929; two females, Chieng- 
mai, November 24, 1928; one male and one female, Noan Wat, 
February 14, 1929. 

The only specimen of M. a. assamica available for comparison has a 
longer, heavier bill, less heavily streaked upperparts and chest, and 
the wing is longer. 

The form ranges from Tenasserim through Siam to Assam and east 
to Cochinchina, Cambodia, and southern Annam. It apparently 
occurs all over Siam proper in suitable locaUties and as far to the south- 
west as Koh Lak. 

MIRAFRA JAVANICA WILUAMSONI Baker 

Mirafra cantillans williamsoni Baker, Bull. Brit, Orn. Club, vol. 36, p. 9, 1915 
(Bangkok, Siam), 

Fifteen males and nine females, Bangkok, September 2, 1923, 
February 7, 1924, November 11, 1925, June 23-October 30, 1926; one 
female, Nakon Patom, April 10, 1926; one male, Nong Kae, May 7, 
1929; one male. Bung Borapet, March 25, 1933; one male, Bung 
Tabgrit, March 27, 1933. 

A small series of M. j. javanica is huffier and browner above and 
huffier below and the bills are much heavier than in williamsoni. 

Five immatures were collected by Dr. Smith in June, five in August, 
and one September 6. They are about adult size, none very young. 
The plumage greatly resembles the adult above but is darker and lacks 
the cinnamon-buff edgings; the feathers are more truncate at the tip 
and are narrowly edged with light buff; the crest is short, clove brown, 
the feathers truncate with a narrow huffy fringe; below they are much 
like the adult but Ughter, the chest streaks less clearly defined or 
almost absent. 

Herbert ^'^ states that they breed around Bangkok in May and June 
and as late as the end of July; he describes the nest and eggs. Kloss ^* 
took a single female at Lat Bua Kao. This specimen is now in the 
United States National Museum and is darker below than any speci- 
men in the considerable series collected by Dr. Smith; it is also huffier 
and more grayish above. It may belong to the form described by 
Delacour "^ from Honquan, Cochinchina, as M. j. beavlieui. 

M Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6, p. 217, 1923. 

•• Ibis, 1018, p. 222. 

M L'Oiseau, new .ser., vol. 2, p. 616, 1932. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 263 

The male taken at Nong Kae, May 7, by Dr. Smith almost lacks 
the chest streaks, and the light edges to the feathers above have dis- 
appeared through wear, maldng a quite different looldng bird. 

The range of the form extends from eastern Tenasserim to central 
Siam. 

ALAUDA GULGULA HERBERTI Hartert 

Alauda arvensis herberti Hartert, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 43, p. 149, 1923 
(near Bangkok, Siam). 

Five males, two females, and one unsexed, Bangkok, August 3- 
November 3, 1926. 

Two specimens, taken August 3, are birds of the year but nearly of 
adult size. 

This is a small dark form of skylark that I have been unable to 
compare with A. g. gulgula. 

Williamson " found it resident at Bangkok and procured young in 
April and May. Herbert ^* reports it nesting there from early in May, 
or earlier, to the end of June or into July and described the nest and 
eggs; Kloss^^ reports it from Koh Lak; de Schauensee ^° from Petrieu. 

As far as known, this form ranges from southeastern Tenasserim to 
southwestern and central Siam. 

Family HIRUNDINIDAE: Swallows 

DEUCHON URBICA CASHMERIENSIS (Gould) 

Chelidon cashmeriensis Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1858, p. 356 (Cashmere). 

Two females, Sichol, Bandon, May 17, 1930. 

These two specimens agree fairly well with a pair from the mountains 
of Szechwan, except the throat and chest are more grayish. This 
seems to be a more southern record than any made so far and an excep- 
tionally late date. The wings measure 104.5 and 108 mm, which 
seems to be rather large for the form. Five females from Szechwan 
measure 97-102 (100 mm). Hartert '^ gives 97-104 mm. 

De Schauensee ^^ took specimens on Doi Sutep, where it did not 
occur below 4,500 feet; Deignan ^^ states that it occurs on Doi Sutep 
from November to April. 

The form breeds from the Himalayas of Kashmir through the high 
mountains to western Szechwan to Kansu, China, migrating farther 
south to winter. 



" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 2, p. 205, 1917. 

•» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6, p. 216, 1923. 

" Ibis, 1918, p. 221. 

'« Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 239, 1934. 

" Die Vogel der palaarktischcn Fauna, Band 1, Heft 6, p. 810, 1910. 

" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 81, p. 560, 1930. 

" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 153, 1931. 



264 BULI^TIN 172, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

RIPAHIA CHINENSIS CHINENSIS (Gray) 

Hirundo chinensis Gray, Illustrations of Indian zoology, vol. 1, no. 2, pi. 35, fig. 
3, 1830 (China). 

One male and two females, Hang Turn Kai, January 15, 1933. Dr. 
Smith collected these in holes at night. He also took a male and a 
female at Mehick, Burma, January 13, 1933. 

The only specimens with which I have been able to compare the 
above series arc three males and one female from Luzon, which are 
certainly darker above; below the throat and chest are darker also, 
but the size is about the same. The wings of the four Luzon birds 
measure 83-90 (86.8 mm); the five Burma (2) and Siamese (3) speci- 
mens, 84-91 (88 mm). 

Gyldenstolpe ^* found it common in Chienghai and along some of 
the larger rivers of northern Siam. De Schauensee ^* reports it 
common over the Mekong and Mekoke. Lowe '® records it from 
Um Pang. 

The form breeds practically all over India east to Assam, Burma, 
northern Siam, Laos, Tonkin, Annam, Yunnan, and Formosa. The 
bird found in the Philippines is different and has been named Riparia 
chinenns tantilla Riley." Stuart Baker ^* gives Hirundo chinensis 
Gray as being preoccupied by Hirundo sinensis Gmelin, 1789, but 
under Article 34 of the International Rules of Zoological Nomen- 
clature the two are not homonyms. 

KBIMNOCHEUDON CONCOLOn SINTAUGENSIS Baker 

Krimnochelidon concolor sintaugensis Baker, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 54, p. 24, 
1933 (Sintaug, 6,000 feet, Shan States). 

One adult and one immature male, Doi Nangka, November 10, 
1930, April 28, 1931 ; one adult female, Doi Hua Mot, August 12, 1934. 

The two specimens taken at Doi Nangka were recorded as Krimno- 
chelidon concolor,''^ as the present form had not been separated at that 
time and no specimens were (or yet are) available for comparison. De 
Schauensee ^° secured two specimens at Chiengao, 4,500 feet, January 
12, 17, and one at Chiengniai, 4,500 feet, July 13, These are all the 
Siamese specimens known to me. 

The immature male taken by Dr. Smith at Doi Nangka was col- 
lected April 28. 

The form ranges from the Shan States eastward to Siam, Laos, 
Tonkin, and Annam. 

'« Kungl. Svenslta Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 58, no. 2, p. 83, 1910. 

M Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 81, p. 660, 1930. 

w Ibis. 1933, p. 270. 

" Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 48. p. 147, 1935. 

» The fauna of nritlsh India, Birds, ed. 2, vol. 7, p. 225. 1930 

'• Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 9, p. 155, 1933. 

•• Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 88, p. 237. 1934. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 265 

HYPUROLEPIS JAVANICA ABBOTTI Oberholser 

Hypurolepis javanica abbotli Oberholser, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 98, p. 32, 1917 
(Pulo Mariguan, Anamba Islands). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected the following: Two males and three 
females, Pulo Langkawi, December 1, 8, 1899; three males and two 
females, Mergiii Archipelago (Loughborough Island, January 25, and 
Bentnick Island, March 10, 1900); one female, Packa, Trengganu,- 
September 26, 1900. 

This series agrees fairly well with the typical series from the Anamba 
Islands in color and size. The female from Trengganu is a bird of the 
year, with pale throat, no bay-colored forehead, and the upperparts, 
except the middle of the back, dull fuscous and glossless. 

Williamson *' records it breeding on Koh Sichang, Koh Phai, and 
Koh Phra, Inner Gulf of Siam. Robinson and Kloss *^ obtained a 
male on Pulo Langkawi in June; Robinson*^ records it from Koh 
Muk (Trang), Pulo Terutau, and Pulo Tengah, in addition to Lang- 
kawi, and states that it is a common resident all along the coast of 
the Malay Peninsula; Robinson and Kloss** state that Williamson 
has a male taken at Koh Lak and that it is a common resident every- 
where in open country and on the coast (in the Malay Peninsula 
and southwestern Siam). 

Birds of this genus seem to be partial to the seacoast and small 
islands off the coast. 

The form has a wide range occurring from the coasts of Cambodia 
and southeastern Siam to southwestern Siam, southern Burma, 
Tenasserim, the Malay Peninsula, Anamba Islands, and probably 
some adjacent island groups. 

fflRUNDO RUSTICA GUTTURAUS Scopoli 

Hirundo gutturalis Scopoli, Deliciae florae et faunae insubricae, pt. 2, p. 96, 1786 
(Panay, Philippines). 

Two females, Sakon Nakon, March 11, 13, 1929; one male, Nong 
Khor, near Sriracha, March 3, 1926; one female, Bandon, January 4, 
1927; three females, Koh Tao, Bandon, September 23, 1928; two 
males and one female, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, January 13, 18, 1934. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected the following: One male, Tanjong 
Kalong, Singapore, October 24, 1899; two males and two females, 
Bok Pyin, Tenasserim, February 11, 13, 1900; one male, Victoria 
Point, Tenasserim, December 16, 1900; one female, Packa, Treng- 
ganu, September 26, 1900. 

In the largo series of this form in the United States National 
Museum (mostly migrants), there are a few that have the underparts 

•> Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 23, 1918. 
Mlbis, 1911, p. 50. 

•» Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 7, p. 166, 1917 
** Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 224, 1924. 



266 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

vinaceous-cinnamon or tinged with this color, but they are all appar- 
ently birds of the year, and this color is lost as the breeding season 
approaches and the underparts become white from the chest down- 
ward. Most of the birds listed above are immature and are molting. 
The molt is not completed apparently until the birds reach the 
breeding grounds in x\pril or later. 

Williamson ^' states that this race occurs from August to about the 
middle of May at Bangkok and once on July 23 ; he also found it at 
Klong-Rangsit, May 29, and observed it in fair numbers on Koh 
Phai, July 17; Deignan ^^ writes that it is irregularly common at 
Chiengmai from July to March. Apparently it is a common migrant 
and winter resident all over Siam proper and the Malay Peninsula. 

The form breeds in eastern Siberia and all China and migrates 
south in winter through the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago as far 
as Australia; some winter as far north as southern China and Siam. 

HIRUNDO HYPERYTHRA BADIA (Cassin) 

Cecropis badia Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 6, p. 371, 1853 
(Malacca). 
One male and two females, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, January 4-18, 

1934. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took two males at Prahmon, Trang, March 21, 
22, 1896. He gives the bill and feet as black and iris dark brown. 

Ogilvie-Grant *^ records it from Patani; Robinson and Kloss say ^* 
that it is found only in the neighborhood of precipitous hills and 
cliffs; Robinson ^^ records it as common at Bankok Klap, Bandon, 
and later ^° from Langkawi and Terutau ; Robinson and Kloss from 
Nongkok, Ghirbi, ^^ and Ronpibun, Nakon Sritamarat.^^ 

Robinson ^^ says that this handsome swallow is associated chiefly 
with the precipitous limestone hills and quartzite ridges, which occur 
throughout the Malay Peninsula, but cease at Kuala Lumpur. It 
used to breed near the Klang Gates and Batu Caves near the above 
city in May and June, and in the caves of the Patani States at the 
end of June and in July. 

The form ranges from the state of Selangor northward in the 
Malay Peninsula to about Bandon or a little farther. 

A smaller and duller-colored form, H. h. hypenjthra, is confined to 
Ceylon. 

M Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siain, vol. 2, p. 199, 1917. 

•• Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Uist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 153, 1931. 

fi Fasciculi Malayenses, pt. 3, p. 95, 1905. 

M Ibis, 1911. p. 50. 

M Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 5, p. 98, 1915. 

w Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 7, p. 166, 1917. 

•I Journ. Nat. Uist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 103, 1919. 

M Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 11, p. 60, 1923. 

M The birds of the Malay Peninsula, vol. 1, p. 174, 1927. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 267 

HIRUNDO DAURICA NIPALENSIS Hodgson 

Hirundo nipalensis Hodgson, Jo urn. Asiat. See. Bengal, vol. 5, p. 780, 1836 
(central region of Nepal). 

One male and one female, Doi Angka, 3,500 feet, December 7, 1928. 

These agree better with, specimens from the mountains of Szech- 
wan than with striolata of Java and the Philippines. The wing of the 
male measures 118 mm; that of the female, 118.5 mm. Both speci- 
mens are molting into the breeding plumage, but the process is only 
about half completed. 

This apparently is not a common bird in Siam, and there are few 
records. Williamson ^* first recorded it from Chiengmai as Hirundo 
striolata. De Schauensee ^^ took specimens at Chiengmai and Chien- 
grai in winter that were identified as nipalensis. Deignan ^^ states 
that it is irregularly common at Chiengmai and Doi Sutep to 5,500 
feet between November and July. 

The form breeds in the Himalayas and the high mountains of 
western China and in Fokien, eastern and northeastern China, mi- 
grating south in winter to northern India, Burma, Siam, Tonkin, 
Annam, and Cochinchina. 

HIRUNDO SMITHH FHJFERA Stephens 

Hirundo fill/era Stephens, General zoology, vol. 13, pt. 2, p. 78, 1826 (India). 

Dr. Smith took a female at Ban Tung Kwai Tao, Salwin River, 
Burma, January 12, 1933, and notes it as common. This is only a 
short distance from the Siamese boundary. Deignan " has recorded 
it from the Meping Gorges and on the plain in the Chiengmai region 
from January 28 to February 14, 1936. It has been taken on the 
Mekong in Laos. 

The form ranges from Persia to India, the Shan States, Tenasserim, 
and east to Laos and Annam. 

Family CAMPEPHAGIDAE: Cuckoo-shrikes 

PERICROCOTUS FLAMMEUS ELEGANS McClulIand 

Pericrocotus elegans McClelland, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1839, p. 156 (Khasia 
Hills, Burma). 

Three males and five females, Doi Hua Mot, August 19-30, 1934; 
one female, Doi Phi'a Chao, August 6, 1934; four adult males, one 
immature male, and three females, Khun Tan Mountains, 2,000-4,200 
feet, November 19-23, 1928, and May 18, 1933; eight adult males, 
two immature males, and three females, Khun Tan, 3,000-4,000 feet, 
October 18, 23, 1929, August 25-28, 1930, February 16-March 3, 

M Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 23, 1918. 

»» Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 81, p. 561, 1930. 

•• Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 153, 1931. 

•' Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 10, pp. 99, 134, 1936. 



268 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATION.^L MUSEUM 

1932; one male, Doi Sutep, February 3, 1932; one male, Chiengdao, 
January 29, 1932; one male, Pang Meton (Doi Nangka), May 6, 1931; 
one male, Doi Buak Hua Chang, December 25, 1932; one male and 
one female. Ban Nam Kien, Nan, April 19, 1930; one male, Udon, 
March 18, 1929; one male. Ban Han, Udon, March 17, 1929; one 
male, Aranya, July 19, 1930; two males, Nong Yang, October 20 and 
November 9, 1931; one male. Pang Sok, August 15, 1926; one imma- 
ture male, Lamton Lang, May 26, 1934; one male, Chantuk, June 
12, 1934. 

In the above large series of males, two have the central tail feathers 
entirely black, five have the base of the central tail feathers black, then 
the outer web red for about two-thirds its length to the tip, one has 
the central tail feathers almost entirely red, except for a narrow black 
border on the outer web; the remainder have the exposed surface of 
the central tail feathers on the outer web red. All the males, except 
two, have only two outer primaries without red on the outer web; 
the two exceptions have three outer primaries without red on the 
outer web. 

The only difference apparently between elegans find Jlammifer is the 
average smaller size of the latter, but even tliis is not constant. 

Fourteen males from northern Siam measure: Wing, 90-103 (97.4); 
tail, 78-95 (87.4); culmen, 13-15 (14) mm. One male (no. 311643) 
has a longer wing (103 mm) than the average, but it is approached by 
one or more other males and I am regarding them as only extra 
large specimens. 

I have followed de Schauensee '^ in assigning the above series to 
P. elegans; with the material at hand it is impossible to say whether 
P.f. bakeri La Touche is a synonym. 

Tills is the common minivet over northern and eastern Siam and 
grades in the south into P. J. jiammifer. It ranges from Yunnan to 
northern and eastern Siam and northern Burma; possibly east to 
Tonkin and Laos. 

PERICROCOTUS FLAMMEUS FLAMMIFER Hume 

Pericrocotus Jiammifer Hume, Stray Feathers, vol. 3, p. 321, 1875 (Pakchan, 
southern Tenasserim) . 

Two males, Bukit, Patani, January 24, 1931; one fem^ale, Patalung, 
July 8, 1929; one male, Kao Luang, Nakon Sritamarat, July 21, 1928; 
one male and one female. Ban Kiriwong, Nakon Sritamarat, July 11, 
1928; one male, Kao Chong, Trang, September 6, 1933; one male, 
Bandon, January 6, 1929; one male and two females, Sichol, Bandon, 
May 19, 1930, August 31-September 1, 1929; two males, Tha Lo, 
Bandon, September 23, 24, 1931; one male and two females, Pran, 
April 1, 2, 1931; one male, Nong N^m Kiev/, February 15, 1927; one 

•• Proc. Acad. Nat. 8ci. PhUadelphla, vol. 86, p. 222, 1934. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 269' 

male and one female, Nong Mong, Krabin, August 20, 1925; one 
female, Nong Khor, Sriracha, November 10, 1920; two m.ales, Sakeo, 
near Krabin, May 3, 192S; one immature male, Kao Lem, December 
25, 1930. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected three males, Trang (Prahmon, April 
5, 1896; Chong, January 21, 1897; Trang, March 2, 1809); one male, 
Victoria Point, Tenasserim, March 31, 1900; one male, Tanjong 
Laboha, Trengganu, September 30, 1900. 

Of the 14 adult males in the above series from Peninsular and: 
southeastern Siam, nine have no red on the outer web of the three 
outer primaries, while six have a red spot on the outer web of the 
third outer primary. All have the outer web of the central tail 
feathers red. Four males from southern and southeastern Siam have 
only the two outer primaries with no red on the outer web; the outer 
web of the two central tail feathers is entirely red in all. They are 
more or less intermediate between northern Siamese and Peninsular 
Siamese specimens but are nearer the latter, and I am inclined to 
place them there as Robinson has done.®* 

Eleven males from Penmsular and southwestern Siam measure: 
Wing, 87.5-93 (89.8); tail, 73.5-81 (77.5); culmen, 13-15 (14) mm. 
Four males from southeastern Siam: Wing, 92.5-93 (92.7); tail, 
75-80 (75); culmen, 13-14.5 (13.7) mm. 

The United States National Museum possesses only one male of 
P. J. xanthogaster from Sumatra. It is smaller than flammijer, and 
four of the outer primaries are without red on the outer web. It 
measures! Wing, 77.5; tail, 65; culmen, 12 mm. 

P./. xanthogaster not only occurs in Sumatra and Borneo but also 
in the southern Malay States as far north as the northern boundary 
of Negri Sembilan and Johore. It apparently does not extend north 
to the Siamese territory. P. j. flammijer ranges from the northern 
boundary of Selangor and Pahang north through Peninsular Siam to 
Tenasserim and southwestern Siam and extends eastward through 
southern Siam to southeastern Siam and probably into Cambodia. 

PERICROCOTUS BREVIROSTRIS AFFINIS (McClelland^ 

Phoenicornis affinis McCi^elland, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1839, p. 157, 1840 
(Assam) . 

Two males, Khun Tan, 4,000 feet, February 13, 1932. 

These two males agree fairly well with three males from western 
Yunnan, except the wings are slightly smaller. The wings of the two. 
Siam males measure 86.5 and 90 mm. Three males from Yunnan: 
93, 93.5, and 94. 

•• Birds of the Malay Peninsula, vol. 2, p. 151, 1928. 
33527—38 18 



270 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Count Gyldenstolpe ^ reports it from Doi Nga Chang south of 
Lakorn Lampong under the name P. brevirostris. De Schauensee ^ 
records it from Doi Sutep, 2,500-4,500 feet, December and Chiengsen, 
January. Mr. Aagaard collected both tliis and P. b. negledus on 
Doi Sutep as recorded by Chasen and Kloss.^ Later de Schauensee * 
secured both forms there also, the present one at a lower level, 2,000- 
4,600 feet, December 11-29. 

P. 6. affinis ranges from Assam to western Yunnan, northern 
Burma, and northern Siam. 

De Schauensee* says that it is not a common bird in the north; 
possibly it may be only a winter visitor. 

PERICROCOTUS SOLARIS SOLARIS BIyth 

Pericrocotux Solaris Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 15, p. 310, 1846 (Dar- 
jeeling). 

Six males and four females, Doi Nangka, November 5-20, 1930, 
April 25, 1931; one female. Pang Meton (Doi Nangka), May 5, 1931; 
one male, Khun Tan, 4,000 feet, February 16, 1932; seven males and 
four females, Doi Hua Mot, August 12-September 4, 1934. 

Count Gyldenstolpe * took a few at Khun Tan, recorded as P. s. 
griseigularis ; de Schauensee' took a male at Chiengmai, recorded as 
above; Deignan '' reports it not uncommon on Doi Sutep from 4,600- 
5,500 feet. Apparently it is a common bird in northern Siam. 

The reds in tliis form are flame scarlet or even in some specimens 
orange-chrome, the chin pale gull gray, the throat washed vnth orange 
or a lighter yellow, the cheeks neutral gray. 

The form ranges from Nepal to eastern Assam and northern Burma 
south to northern Siam and Tenasserim. 

PERICROCOTUS SOLARIS MANDARINUS Stresemann 

Pericrocolus Solaris mandarinus Stresemann, Journ. fiir Orn., 1923, p. 363 
(Lung-tau-shan, Kwantung, China). 

One male and one female, Kao Kuap, December 24, 1929. 

This form is apparently new for Siam, unless Count Gyldenstolpe's 
record of P. s. Solaris from Non Luum in eastern Siam should prove 
to be it.* 

The form is quite difl'erent from the bird I am calling P. s. Solaris. 
The reds are brighter, scarlet rather than flame scarlet; the throat 

' Ibis, 1920, p. 571. 

> Proc. Acad. Nat. Sei. Philadelphia, vol. 81, p. 551, 1929. 

' JouTD. Siam Sot. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 242, 1932. 

• Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 224, 1934. 
» Ibis, 1920, p. 570. 

• Proc. Acad. Nat. Scl. Philadelphia, vol. 80, p. 569, 1928. 
' Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Ilist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 147, 1931. 

• rbis, 1920, p. .570. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 271 

and cheeks are a darker gray, the former with a mere trace of a yellow- 
ish wash. In fact, it is more like P. s. montanus of the mountains of 
the Malay States; the latter has a still darker throat and cheeks with 
no yellowish wash at all on the former. 

P. s. mandarinus was described from southern China and has since 
been taken in Tonkin, Laos, and southern Annam, The present 
record extends it to southeastern Siam. 

PEKICROCOTUS CINNAMOMEUS VIVIDUS Baker 

Pericrocotus peregrinus vividus Baker, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 40, p. 114, 1920 
(Altaran River, Burma). 

Two males and one female, Bangkok, August 18 and October 31, 
1924; six marked males (three are probably females), Bo Ploi, Kanburi, 
September 7-9, 1928; one male, Korat, February 16, 1929; one male, 
Rayasothon, March 23, 1929; one male, Chantuk, June 14, 1934. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took two males in the Mergui Archipelago (St. 
Luke Island, January 21, 1900, and Domel Island, January 30, 1904); 
three males, Tenasserim (Tanjong Badak, January 6 and 8, 1900; 
Champang, December 20, 1903). 

This race has been taken in northern, eastern, western, and south- 
western Siam and in Peninsular Siam as far south as Koh Pra Tung, 
Takuapa Inlet.^ 

Herbert '° states that it breeds in central Siam in March and April, 
bometimes as late as June; he gives a description of the nest and eggs. 

De Schauensee," in recording it from Cliiengmai, states that it is 
uncommon in the north. Deignan '^ says it is only a winter visitor 
to Doi Sutep. 

The form ranges from eastern Bengal, Burma, and Siam to Cochin- 
china. A somewhat larger and more brightly colored race occurs in 
Java, Bali, and Sumatra, and there are other races in India and Ceylon. 

PERICROCOTUS IGNEUS IGNEUS BIyth 

Pericrocotus ignnis Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 15, p. 309, 1846 
(Malacca). 

One male, Bangnara, Patani, July 4, 1926. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took an inuuature male, Trang, March 2, 1899. 

The range of the form extends from southern Tenasserim through 
the Malay States to Singapore. Borneo and Sumatra are included 
in the range by most authorities, but it seems to me that upon com- 
parison specimens from these islands \vill prove to be different. A 
male specimen from the island of Palawan in the United States 

•Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 2,'50, 1924. 
'« Journ. Siam Soc. Nal. Hist. Suppl., vol. 6, p. 108, pi. 8 (nest), 1923. 
" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelpliia, vol. 86, p. 225, 1934. 
"Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 10, p. 100, 193G. 



272 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

National Museum has the reds with a more yellow undertone than the 
Patani male. 

For some reason there are few Siamese records. Robinson '^ records 
a pair from Bankok Klap, Bandon; Robinson and Kloss ^* state that 
there is a specimen in Williamson's collection from Bangnara, Patani; 
de Schauensee '^ received three specimens from Nakon Stritamarat 
taken May 21 and 25. 

PERICROCOTUS ROSEUS ROSEUS (VleHIot) 

Muscicapa rosea Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., ed. 2, vol. 21, p. 480, 1818 
(Bengal). 

One female, Sikeu, near Korat, February 16, 1926; one male, Khun 
Tan Mountains, 4,000 feet, November 22, 1928; one female, Doi 
Angka, 2,000 feet, December 8, 1928; one male, Doi Sutep, February 
3, 1932. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected two males and two females at Champang, 
Tenasserim, December 21, 1903. 

The female from Doi Angka is rather large, wing 92 mm, possibly 
a young male. 

Robinson and Kloss ^* took a female on Puket (Junkseylon), Decem- 
ber 19, 1917, and report " that W. J. F. Williamson took an immature 
male at Bangkok, January, 1916; de Schauensee ^^ also took a young 
male at the same place, March 4, and on his second trip to Siam he 
secured specimens on Doi Sutep, 1,500-2,500 feet, in December, and 
males at Chiengrai in January '®; Deignan ^° reports it rather rare on 
Doi Sutep, at 2,700-3,500 feet; de Schauensee ^' on Ms third expedition 
secured a pair at Bua Yai, January 6, 9. 

The form has a wide range, occurring from southwestern China and 
Tonkin, to Siam, Burma, Assam, and southern Tenasserim. 

In Siam it is probably only a winter visitor. 

PERICROCOTUS DIVARICATUS DIVARICATUS (Raffles) 

Lanius divaricatus Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 13, p. 305, 1822 
(Singapore . . . also known in Sumatra). 

One female, Bangkok, April 27, 1934. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took three males and one female, Trang, March 
24, 1896, January 25, 1897, and January 19, 1899; one male, Tclibon 
Island, Trang, February 25, 1896; and one male, St. Luke Island^ 
Mergui Archipelago, January 19, 1900. 

'« Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 6, p. 101, 1915. 

i« Journ. Nat. Hist, Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 249, 1924. 

>• Proe. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, p. 224, 1934. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 105, 1919. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 249, 1924. 

» Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelpliia, vol. SO, p. 509, 1928. 

i» Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 81, p. 551, 1930. 

"Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 147, 1931. 

« Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, p. 225, 1934 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 273 

The gray minivet breeds in Japan and eastern Siberia and migrates 
south in winter through China, Indo-China, Burma, and Siam to the 
Philippines, Peninsular Siam, and the Malay States. In Siam it has 
been found at Bangkok, Paknam, Koh Lak, Trang, and the island of 
Puket." 

Robinson and Kloss ^ state that it is very common in southwestern 
and Peninsular Siam throughout the winter. 

PERICROCOTUS CANTONENSIS Swinhoe 

Pericrocotus cantonensis Swinhoe, Ibis, 1861, p. 42 (Canton, China). 

One male, Kumpawapi, February 17, 1929. 

Robinson and lOoss ^^ secured specimens from Nong Kok, Ghirbi, 
January 5, 1918, and Junkseylon, Peninsular Siam, December, and 
say that they have two specimens from Chong, Trang, that they had 
previously listed as P. cinereus.-^ De Schauensee ^^ lists two specimens 
from Bangkok taken March 2 and 3 ; Count Gyldenstolpe ^^ took a 
single specimen at Bang Hue Hom, northern Siam. 

This minavet breeds in southern China as far west as Szechwan and 
migrates in winter to Indo-China, southern Burma, Siam, and down 
Peninsular Siam as far as Trang. 

VOLVOCIVORA MELANOPTEHA (Ruppel!) 

Ceblepyris melanoptera RDppell, Museum Senckenbergianum, vol. 3, Heft 1, p. 25, 
pi. 2, fig. 1, 1839 (probably New Holland, error; Burma). 

Campephaga avensis Bltth, Catalogue of the birds in the museum Asiatic Society, 
p. 327, 1852 (Arakan). 

Volvocivora intermedia Hume, Stray Feathers, vol. 5, p. 205, 1877 (Tenasserim) . 

Volvocivora koratensis Kloss, Ibis, 1918, p. 193 (Lat Bua Kao, eastern Siam). 

One male and two females, Doi Hua Mot, August 30-September 4, 
1934; one adult male, one adult female, and one immature female, 
Khun Tan Mountains, November 19 and 21, 1928; one immature male 
and one immature female, Khun Tan, September 4, 1930, February 
19, 1932; one immature female, Doi Sutep, December 15, 1928; one 
immature female. Pang Meton (Doi Nangka), May 4, 1931 ; one male, 
Pran, April 3, 1931; one male, Bangkok, January 1, 1925; one male, 
Hupbon, November 2, 1931; one male and one female, Nong Khor, 
November 15, 1924, and November 10, 1926; two males and one 
female, Nong Yang, November 4, 7, 1931 ; one male and three females, 
Kao Seming, Krat, October 13, 1928, January 1, 1930; four males and 
two females, Kao Sabap, January 6, 1930, October 30-November 25, 
1933; one immature female, Koh Chang, January 9, 1926; one male, 

" Gyldenstolpe, Ibis, 1920, p. 570. 

M Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6, p. 250, 1924. 

« Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 100, 1919. 

" Ibis, 1911, p. 55. 

«« Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, p. 570, 1928. 

" Ibis, 1920, p. 670. 



274 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Kao Pae Pan Nam, Lomsak, February 18, 1934; one male, Wang" 
Kien, Kanburi, March 12, 1934. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected an adult male at Bok Pyin, Tenasserim, 
February 15, 1900; wing, 130 mm. 

The female is generally lighter than the male, but some specimens 
marked as females are not different from the males. All specimens 
with barring below, no matter how faint, I believe are young or have 
not entirely acquired fully adult plumage. All the specimens with 
some barring below have three or four of the outer primaries beginning 
with the third or fourth with a large white spot on the inner web 
toward the base. As the birds become older, they get darker, the 
wings a deeper black, and the white spot on the inner webs of the 
primaries seems to disappear. If my supposition is correct that the 
dark birds represent an age character, then it must take several molts 
to reach the fully adult plumage. A female from Nong Yang (no. 
330940) is much lighter than the fully adult bird, the wings are black 
but have a grayish wash on the outward webs of the primaries, and 
the white spot on the inner webs of the primaries commences on the 
second, there is a narrow white interrupted eye ring; and there are 
indications of faint barring on the belly, I presume it is a specimen in 
its second year. All the above specimens have the under tail coverts 
buffy white, except two males (nos. 330941 and 333999) from Hupbon 
and Kao Sabap, and they have them light grayish tipped with wliite^ 

Ten males in the above series measure: Wing, 117-126 (122.8) mm. 

The United States National Museum contains the type of Volvoci- 
vora koratensis Kloss. It is an immature female of the present species 
with faint bars on the belly and the white patch on the inner web of 
the outer primaries beginning with the third; the lower mandible is 
light colored. 

The National Museum also possesses the male from the Raheng dis- 
trict recorded by Chasen and lOoss ^* as Lalage fimhriata indochinensis 
IQoss. It is a gray bird, with the wing washed outwardly with gray 
and the middle tail feathers gray, black toward the tip; the outer 
primaries have the white patch on the inner wob toward the base, 
commencing with the second; there are no bars on the belly. I take 
it to be a bird collected after its second or third molt. Its wing 
measures 118 mm; this is too much for the Jimbriata group, and so I 
place it here for the present. 

It may be that two forms are represented in the above series, 
but I think it best to regard the differences noted as age rather than 
geographic. 

Lord Rothschild ^^ says he has received V. melaschistos and V. 
melanoptera from the same localities and regards them as separate 

M Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 174, 1928. 
» Nov. Zool., vol. 33, p. 300, 1920. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 275 

species for the present, and I am doing the same. One may be migra- 
tory and the other resident. 

V. melanoptera ranges from northern Burma to Siam, French Indo- 
China, and southern China. In Peninsular Siam it has not been 
obtained south of Naihut, near Langsuan, unless Miiller's record from 
Junkseylon of V. amnsis belongs to this form, as recorded by Robinson 
and Kioss.^" 

In southern China the species is migratory, according to La Touche,'* 
and in India and northern Siam it may be also ; it breeds in Tenasserim, 
however. 

VOLVOCIVORA MELASCHISTOS Hodgson 

Volvocivora melaschistos Hodgson, Indian Rev., vol. 1, p. 328, 1837 (Nepal). 

One male, Khun Tan, P'ebruary 13, 1932. 

This specimen is even darker than a typical bird from the Hima- 
layas. Above it is a shining greenish black, grayish on the rump, 
and darker on the wings and tail; below it is dusky neutral gray, 
slightly paler on the under tail coverts; wing, 124 mm. 

Possibly this species is only a migrant. Chasen and Kloss ^^ record 
a male and female from Doi Sutep, 4,600 feet; Deignan ^^ says it is 
fairly common on Doi Sutep from 2,000 to 4,600 feet. The species 
ranges from the Himalayas to eastern Assam, the plains of India 
from latitude 16° N., Burma, and northern Siam. 

VOLVOCIVORA FIMBRIATA CULMINATA (Hay) 

Ceblepyris culminatus Hay, Madras Journ. Lit. and Sci., vol. 13, p. 157, 1844 
(1845) (Malacca). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took an adult male, Trang, February 23, 1899. 
He gives the soft parts as: Iris dark browTi; bill black; feet dull black. 

This specimen is lighter than two males from Sumatra, two from 
Borneo, and one from Siberut Island; the last is not quite adult and 
is somewhat lighter than the Sumatra-Borneo birds, which are adult. 

The two Sumatran males are much darker than the Trang male, 
one having the pileum, cheeks, and throat blackish, the other a deep 
neutral gray. The Trang male is neutral gray, somewhat lighter on 
the belly and rump. 

The male from Trang measures: Wing, 104; tail, 73; culmen, 16 mm. 
Two males from Sumatra: Wing, 92-97; tail, 63-65; culmen, 13.5-15 
mm. Two males from Borneo: Wing, 94-95. 5; tail, 65-66; culmen, 
15.5-16 mm. One male from Siberut Island, western Sumatra: W^ing, 
103; tail, 70; culmen, 15 mm. 

In color the two Bornean males are similar to the lighter of the 
Sumatran males. 



»» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. ."i, p. 253, 1924. 

" A handhook of tiie birds of eastern China, vol. 1, pt. 3, p. 202, 1926. 

M Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 242, 1932. 

M Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 10, p. 101, 1936. 



276 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

From the above material, birds from Sumatra, Borneo, and Siberut 
appear diflerent from the mainland form and should be known as V.f. 
schierbrandi (Pelzeln). 

V. /. culminata can be distinguished from V. negleda by the tips of 
the three outer tail feathers being narrowly tipped with gray (on the 
outer only 6 mm long), while in the latter the tips are white and on 
the outer feather about 12 mm long. 

The Trang specimen is the northernmost record in the Peninsula. 
Robinson and Kloss ^* report a male from Bangnara, Patani, collected 
by Aagaard, July 21. 

This form ranges from Singapore north to Trang. V. f. jimbriata 
(Temminck), a darker form, is confined to Java and Bali. 

VOLVOaVORA NEGLECTA NEGLECTA Hume 

Volvocivora neglecta Hume, Stray Feathers, vol. 5, p. 203, 1877 (southern Tenas- 
serim). 

One male, Bukit, Patani, January 25, 1931; one male, Kao Luang, 
Nakon Sritamarat, July 17, 1928; one male, Tha Lo, Bandon, Sep- 
tember 22, 1931. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected three males and two females, Trang 
(Prahmon, March 5 and 13, 1896; Tyching, May 22, 1896; Kantany, 
January 16, 1897; Trang, December 26, 1898). 

The six males have a wing measurement of 98-105 (102) mm. 

This form varies from slate gray to deep gull gray; the wings and 
tail are black, the latter with a white tip on the outer feathers about 
12 mm long decreasing toward the central pair. 

The lighter-colored specimens appear younger, as a light specimen 
is molting into a darker plumage. 

In my opinion this race does not belong to the Jimbriata group. 

It ranges from soutliern Tenasserim through Peninsular Siam to 
the northern Malay States. 

LALAGE NIGRA NIGRA (Forster) 

Turdus niger Forster, Indische Zoologie, p. 41, 1781 (India; restricted to Singa- 
pore) . 

Lalage nigra brunnescens Baker, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 44, p. 13, 1923 (Klang, 
Malay Peninsula). 

One adult male (unsexed) and three immature males, collected by 
C. Boden Kloss at Tanjong Kalong, Singapore, March 4, May 23, 
and May 29, 1900, were received from Dr. W. L. Abbott. 

The form ranges from Penang in the w^est to Singora on the east 
coast of Peninsular Siam south to Singapore, the Nicobars, Sumatra, 
west and middle Java. 

Williamson ^^ has recorded it from Singora and Patani. Appar- 
entlv it is not a common bird in Siam. 



•♦ Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 254. 1924. 
-" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 2, p. 60, 1918. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 277 

GRAUCALUS JAVENSIS SIAMENSIS Baker 

Graucalus macei siamensis Baker, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 38, p. 69, 1918 
(Mi-nam Kabreu, Siam). 

One female, Doi Hua Mot, September 4, 1934; one female, Doi 
Phra Chao (Mem Sawan), August 3, 1934; three males and one 
female, Khun Tan, 4,000 feet, August 25, 1930, February 25, 1932; 
one male, Udon, February 16, 1929; three males, Muek Lek, April 
26, 1933; one male and one female, Muang Kanburi, April 14 and 
September 11, 1928; one female. Bo Ploi, Kanburi, September 8, 
1928; two males and four females, Pak Chong, February 10 and 
August 22, 1925, May 2, 1926; one not sexed, Tha Chang, Pak Chong, 
March 14, 1927; one male. Ban Tarn Dam, March 7, 1930; one 
female, Nong Khor, November 11, 1926; one male. Pang Sok, August 
18, 1926; one male, Knong Phra, April 15, 1929; one male, Nakon 
Sritamarat, March 11, 1929. 

In the adult male the nasal bristles, the loral streak, and a narrow 
line on the chin are black; the remaining plumage of the body is 
dark gull gray; belly and crissum white; wings blackish edged out- 
wardly with color of the back; middle tail feathers like the back;^ 
outer tail feathers black tipped with grayish white, increasing in 
extent outwardly. The female is like the male, except she is of a 
lighter gray below and lacks the black on the lores, chin, and nasal 
bristles, but the lores are somewhat darker than the head or throat. 
Only the immature of both sexes are lightly barred on the breast and 
belly with narrow bars of dark gull gray or even lighter. 

Eight of the adult males measure: Wing, 168-181 (173.6) mm. 

In the southern Malay States occurs a race that is darker, especially 
about the throat; it also has the white on the belly much restricted 
and almost confined to the crissum. This race is named after the 
Larut Hills — G. j. larutensis Sharpe. It may extend into southern 
Peninsular Siam. 

There is a male specimen (U. S. N. M. no. 304311) from near 
Phong Saly, French Laos, taken June 11. It is in worn plumage 
and resembles siamensis but is darker above and lighter below with 
the whole throat dark like larutensis; it is larger than the latter, 
however. This specimen I have assigned to G. j. larvivorus, the 
Hainan form. It is certainly not G. j. rex-pineti, with which it has 
been compared. 

G. j. siamensis ranges from western Yunnan through Assam and 
Burma to Siam and southern Indo-China; in Peninsular Siam it occurs 
as far south at least as Nakon Sritamarat, where Dr. Smith took a 
male recorded above. 



278 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL IMUSEUM 

GRAUCALUS SUMATRENSIS MESSERIS (Oberholaer) 

Artamides sumatrensis messeris Oberholsek, Journ. Washington Acad. Sci., 
vol. 16, p. 517, 1920 (Trang, Lower Siam). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected the type and one additional male and 
two females in Trang, March 2 and 3, 1899; two females, on Pule 
Tioman, October 14, 1900; and three males on Pulo Bulan, Rhio 
Archipelago, March 17 and 19, 1907. 

This species is much darker than the javensis form group, without 
the black frontal bristles, chin, or lores; the male deep neutral gray; 
the female similar, but the breast and belly with black and white 
bars of about equal width. 

Dr. Richmond recognized this race many years ago and picked out 
a type but apparently never described it. The form is doubtfully 
separable from sumatrensis, of wluch I have seen no authentic 
specimens. 

Family DICRURIDAE: Drongos 

DICRURUS ANNECTANS (Hodgson) 

Buchanga annecians Hodgson, Indian Rev., vol. 1, p. 326, 1836 (Nepal). 

Two immatures, Lat Bua Kao, August 10, 1929; one adult male, 
Pak Chong, April 27, 1926; one adult male, Koh Tao, December 31, 
1926; three immature males and one immature female, Kao Soi Dao, 
Trang, December 20-27, 1933. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected sLx adult males, one immature male, 
and one immature female in Trang (Telibon Island, February 28, 
1896; Prahmon, April 3, 13, 1896; Lay Song Hong, December 14, 30, 
1896; Trang, January 27 and February 4, 1897); one male, the 
Dindings, Straits of Malacca, April 14, 1900; one male, Champang, 
Tenasserim, December 14, 1903. He gives the soft parts as: Iris 
dull or dark red ; bill and feet black. 

This species breeds in the foothills of the Himalaj^as from Nepal to 
Assam, Chin and Kachin Hills, Shan States, and Karen Hills, Tenas- 
serim; it migrates south through Laos, Annam, Cambodia, and Siam, 
and Peninsular Siam to the Malay States, Sumatra, Banka, Java, and 
Borneo. 

In Siam proper it seems to be rare, as there are few records, but in 
the Malay Peninsula it is not uncommon in the winter months, 
especially on islands off the coast. Robinson and Kloss ^^ say that 
out of the immense series of birds that have passed tlirough their 
hands (from the Malay Peninsula) not one is dated between April 20 
and September 22 ; it is a coastal bird and not common inland. Robin- 
son ^^ records it from Klong Menao, southeastern Siam. The scarcity 

» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Slam. vol. 5. p. 341, 1924. 
»' Ibis, 1015, p. 761. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 279 

or lack of records from Siam proper may be due to the fact that most 
of the collecting done there is at a time when the bird is already on its 
winter range farther south. Diegnan ^^ reports it common in the 
lowlands of Nan. 

The species can readily be distinguished from the other black 
drongos of this genus occurring in Siam by its heavier bill and less 
deeply forked tail. 

DICRURUS MACROCERCUS CATHOECUS Swinhoe 

DicruTus cothoecus Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1871, p. 377 (China, Hainan, 
and Formosa). 

Six males and four females, Bangkok, October 2, 4, 1924, October 
27 and November 2, 1925, November 30, 1926; one male, Pol, Korat, 
February 16, 1929. 

This form breeds in Manchuria, northern China, southern China, 
and the mountains of Szechwan and Yunnan in western China. It 
is migratory in the northern part of its breeding range but resident 
in the south. It winters in southern China, Indo-China, Siam, and 
Burma. 

Gyldenstolpe ^^ says it is common in every part of Siam as far south 
as Koh Lak; Robinson and Kloss *° record it from Namchuk and 
Namoh, Peninsular Siam, and Koh Lak, the latter specimen taken 
April 3. It probably occurs all over Siam in the winter, but it is 
hard or impossible to tell what records belong to it and what belong 
to the resident form. 

Five winter males from Bangkok measure: Wing, 140-147 (143.7); 
tail, 136.5-145 (140); middle tail feathers, 105-111 (107.3); culmen, 
21.5-22 (21.7) mm. Five males from China: Wing, 138.5-149 
(143.9); tail, 130-147.5 (135.8); middle tail feathers, 102.5-115 
(110.3); culmen, 20-22.5 (21.4) mm. 

I much doubt that it breeds in Burma, as recorded by Stuart 
Baker.*' 

In a rather largo series of this form examined from China, I have 
never seen in the adult a white rictal spot. 

DICRURUS MACROCERCUS THAI Kloss 

Dicrurus macrocercus thai Kloss, Journ. Federated Malay States Mas., vol. 10, 
pt. 3, p. 208, 1921 (Koh Lak, southwestern Siam). 

The United States National Museum possesses a pair of this form 
collected by C. Boden Kloss, the male at Koh Lak and the female at 
Tachin. 



« Jouru. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl.. vol. 10, p. 169, 1936. 

«• Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 20, 1916. 

<« Journ. Nat Tlist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 341, 1924. 

« The fauna of British India, Birds, ed. 2, vol. 2. p. 358. 1924. 



280 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

It has a shorter whig and culmen than the migrant race, D. m. 
caihoecus and the tail with a deeper fork. The male measuresr 
Wing, 128; tail, 144.5; middle tail feathers, 99; culmen, 18.5 mm. 
The female: Wing, 133; tail, 156; middle tail feathers, 95; culmen, 
18 mm. 

Just what range it has is not well known. Robinson and Kloss ** 
say thej' have it from southern Tenasserim, southwestern and central 
Siam, and southern Annam. De Schauensee ^^ records it from Bang- 
kok and Chiengmai, 

The bird occurring in Java, it seems to me, belongs to a distinct 
species. It is bluish black rather than greenish black and is separated 
from its nearest relative to the north by a wide tract of country. 
It should stand as D. javanus Kloss and is confined to Java. 

DICRUHUS LEUCOPHAEUS DISTURBANS Baker 

Dicrurtis leucophaeus disturbnns Baker, Nov. Zool., vol. 25, p. 293, 1918 (Amherst* 
Tenasserim) . 

Dr. Smith took a single female at Nam Chi Hua, Burma, January 
14, 1933. 

The United States National Museum possesses also two males 
from the Raheng District, western Siam. They are from the collec- 
tion made by Gairdner and reported upon by Chasen and Kloss,** 
who have assigned them to D. I. mouhoti, but they are considerably 
smaller than that form and somewhat lighter in color. 

The two Raheng males measure: Wing, 127.5-132; tail, 123-126.5; 
middle tail feathers, 90.5-93; culmen, 21.5-22 mm. The female 
from Burma: Wing, 131; tail, 132.5; middle tail feathers, 97,5; 
culmen, 21 mm. 

Stuart Baker *** gives the range as the Malay Peninsula, Peninsular 
Burma, and Siam as far north as Bangkok. 

The three birds recorded by Robinson and Kloss** from Koh 
Sak, Hat Sanuk, and Nongkae as D. I. mouhoti, evidently belong^ 
here. The measurement of the wing given by them is small. 

I do not know upon what basis Stuart Baker included the Malay 
Peninsula in the range of this form. 

DICRURUS LEUCOPHAEUS HOPWOODI Baker 

Dicrurus leucophaeus hopwoodi Baker, Nov. Zool., vol. 25, p. 294, 1918 (Dacca). 

One male, summit of Doi Sutep, December 15, 1928. 

Dr. Smith took only this one specimen in northern Siam. It has 
been compared with a series from Yunnan and agrees quite closely. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 342, 1921. 
" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 220, 10.14. 
" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 181, 192S. 
♦» The fauna of British India, Birds, ed. 2, vol. 2, p. 360, 1024 
*• Journ. Nat. Hist, Soc. Siam, vol. 6, p. 342, 1924 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 281 

It measures: Wing, 146; tail, 152; middle tail feathers, 102; culmen, 
23 mm. Six males from northwestern Yunnan measure: Wing, 
143.5-157 (149.6); tail, 145-165 (155.6); middle tail feathers, 95- 
113.5 (105.7); culmen, 22-23 (22.7) mm. Seven females from north- 
western Yunnan and one from southwestern Szechwan: Wing, 145- 
153 (147.3); tail, 141-164.5 (153.2); middle tail feathers, 98-110 
(102.4); culmen, 21.5-24 (23) mm. 

The form has been taken on Doi Sutep by several collectors. 
Robinson and KHoss " record it from Namchuk, Pakchan, and Koh 
Lak, but the measurement of the wing of one of the specimens looks 
conspicuously small. 

This is the largest and darkest of the gray drongos occurring in 
Siam. It breeds in the mountains of southwestern Szechwan, north- 
western Yunnan, northern Burma, Assam, and Bengal, and migrates 
to Tonkin, northern Laos, Annam, and Siam to winter. 

DICRURUS LEUCOPHAEUS MOUHOTI (Walden) 

Buchanga mouhoti Walden, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 4, vol. 5, p. 220, 1870 
(Cambodia) . 

One male, Huey Lao, December 24, 1932; one male, Song Kwe 
Valley, January 20, 1933; two females, Kliun Tan Mountains, 4,000- 
4,400 feet, November 21, 22, 1928; one female, Khun Tan, 3,000 feet, 
February 14, 1932; one female, Pang Meton (Doi Nangka), May 2, 
1931; four males, Kao Seming, Krat, October 12, 13, 1928, December 
29, 1929-January 1, 1930; two males and four females, Koh Chang, 
January 4-11, 1925, March 10, 11, 1930. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took two females in Tenasserim (Tanjong Badak, 
March 15, 1900 and Maliwun, March 25, 1900). Ho gives the soft 
parts as: Iris red or orange-brown; bill and feet black. 

The United States National Museum possesses also one male, 
Koh Chang, one male. Ok Yam, and one female, Koh Klum, south- 
eastern Siam; two males and two females, southern Annam; and one 
male, east-northeast of Phong Saly, Laos. 

The females are darker than the males. 

The above series averages lighter and somewhat smaller than 
hopwoodi, but the differences are not great. 

Two males from northern Siam measure: Wing, 140-141; tail, 
150-151; middle tail feathers, 93.5-95; culmen, 21-22. Five males 
from southeastern Siam, two from southern Annam, and one male 
from Laos: Wing, 138-146.5 (141.4); tail,''^ 138-149 (143.5); middle 
tail feathers, 95-101 (97.2) ; culmen, 21.5-24 (22.9) mm. Four females 
from northern Siam: Wing, 136.5-140 (138); tail, 136-143 (138.3); 
middle tail feathers, 95.5-98.5 (96.6); culmen, 21.5-23.5 (22.5) mm. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 343, 1924. 

" The tails in tiie specimens from southern Annam and Laos are much worn and are not Included. 



282 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Four from southeastern Si am and two from southern Annam: Wing, 
133.5-140 (137); tail, 125-140 (129.4); middle tail feathers, 95-101.5- 
(97.3); culmen, 20-23 (21.8) mm. 

The two specimens collected by Dr. Abbott in Tenasserim are toa 
light colored above for hopwoodi and too large for disturbans and are 
placed here. They measure: Wing, 137.5 and 144.5 mm. 

This form was originally described as being darker above and below 
than leucophaeus, whereas the reverse is the case. Since the type 
may have been an immature specimen, a reexamination of it would 
be desirable. 

This is probably the resident form in northern, eastern, and southern 
Siam, hopwoodi being only an erratic winter visitor. I rather think 
that the majority of the specimens recorded by de Schauensee *^ as 
hopwoodi really belong to this form. The wing measurements given 
are too small for hopwoodi. The records of the forms are so involved 
that without the specimens they are founded upon it would only 
lead to error to try to allocate them. 

This drongo ranges from central and southern Annam to Cochin- 
china, southern Laos, Cambodia, and northern, eastern, and south- 
eastern Siam. 

DICRURUS LEUCOGENIS LEUCOGENIS (Walden) 

Buchanga leucogenis Walden, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., scr. 4, vol. 5, p. 219, 1870 

(Nagasaki, Japan, error; China). 
Buchanga leucogenys cerussata Bangs and Phillips, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 

vol. 58, p. 302, 1914 (Ichang, Hupeh, China). 

One male and one female, Ban Nam Kien, Nan, April 18, 21, 1930; 
one female. Ban Tarn Dam, near Sriracha, March 5, 1930; one 
female, Sriracha, February 4, 1927; one male, Hupbon, November 3, 
1931 ; two females, Kao Seming, Krat, October 11, 15, 1928; one male, 
Kao Sabap, November 4, 1933. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected one female, Tanjong Badak, Tenas- 
serim, March 1900. He gives the soft parts as: Iris red; bill and feet 
black. 

The male from Hupbon and the male from Kao Sabap are light 
colored like a male from Ichang and four males from Szechwanin 
the United States National Museum. All the females are darker, 
with the white facial area much restricted. The females examined 
from China or elsewhere are dark like the Siamese specimens. The 
female from Ban Tarn Dam, March 5, is molting from a darker into 
a somewhat lighter plumage, but the new plumage is still a little 
darker than the adult male. 

Bangs and Phillips named the light-colored form as cited above, 
but I think there is not much doubt that Walden described the light- 



» Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol 86, p. 220, 1934. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 283 

colored bird also and tliat his type came from China and not from 
Japan. 

Beside the specimens collected by Dr. Smith and Dr. Abbott, the 
United States National Museum possesses a female from Koh Kut 
Island, a female from Ok Yam, and an unsexed specimen from Salanga, 
in addition to a small series from western and southern China. 

The species breeds in China and migrates to Indo-China, Siam,. 
and Peninsular Siam to winter. 

Robinson and Kloss ^° state that it is only a winter visitor to Penin- 
sular Siam. De Schauensee ^^ records it from Petrui and Sriracha. 
Apparently there are no records from northern Siam so it probably 
comes into the country from the east or southeast. 

The male is very light gray (gull gray); only the forehead, lores, 
and chin are blackish; the region around the eye and ear coverts is 
white; and the tail above is light gray to the tip. The female is 
darker; the white around the eye restricted; the ear coverts and below 
the eye washed with drab-gray; the tail above often dusky at the tip. 

Two males from Siam and six from China measure: Wing, 140-151 
(148.5); tail, 130-142 (132.9); middle tail feathers, 99-108.5 (104.6); 
culmen, 21-22.5 (22) mm. Five females from Siam, one from Tenas-^ 
serim, and two from China: Wing, 137.5-146 (142.7); tail, 127-141 
(135); middle tail feathers, 100-109 (104.5); culmen, 20.5-22.5 (21.3) 
mm. 

DICRURUS LEUCOGENIS SALANGENSIS Reichenow 

Dicrurus leucoge?iys salangensis Reichenow, Nomenclator Musei Heineani 
ornithologici, p. 69, 1890 (Insula Salanga). 

One male and two females, Bangkok, October 5, 15, and 27 (in three 
different years); one male and one female, Nong Yang, October 20, 24, 
1931; one male, Hupbon, November 5, 1931; one male, Kao Seming, 
Krat, October 15, 1928; one female, Kao Sabap, October 30, 1933. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected one female Lay Song Hong, Trang,. 
December 2, 1896 and one male, Domel Island, Mergui Archipelago,^ 
February 27, 1900. He gives the soft parts as: Iris orange-brown 
(male), dark brown (female) ; bill and feet black. 

This is a much darker bird than D. I. leucogenis. The male is deep 
neutral gray; the forehead and .chin blackish, but the former not con- 
trasting conspicuously with the crown, which is darker than the back; 
the light area surrounding the eye contracted and the region below the 
eye and ear coverts washed with drab; the tail dusky above for some 
distance from the tip. In the female the white is confined to the lores, 
the ear coverts and subocuiar region being gray. There is one female 
from Nong Yang in which the region around the eye is only a little 
lighter gray than the throat. 

M Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 345, 1924. 

•1 Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 8G, p. 22t5, 1934. 



284 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

In the female from Trang and the male from Domel Island the 
region surrounding eye and lores is only a little lighter than the sur- 
rounding region; the throat and chest have a dusky wash; and the 
crown and back are darker than in the southeastern Siamese specimens. 
They may not be the same but evidently are the form upon which the 
name rests, which was described as "regiorte i)arotica cinerea nee alba." 
U the specimens from southern and southeastern Siam should prove 
separable, the name D. I. meridionalis Hachisuka*^ would probably 
be available. D. I. salangensis is so widely different from D. I. leuco- 
genis that it is really debatable whether it would not be better to give 
it specific rank. 

Whether this is a resident form or only a migrant from farther north 
is not known, nor has its breeding range been discovered. It is the 
commoner of the two forms found in Siam during winter. 

Three males from Siam and one male from Domel Island measure: 
Wing, 135-154 (138.7); tail, 122-129 (126.8); middle tail feathers, 
98-103 (97.5); culmen, 21-22 (21.5) mm. Five females from Siam: 
Wmg, 129-141.5 (137.4); tail, 122-130 (124.3); middle tail feathers, 
94-103 (98); culmen, 21-22 (21.4) mm. It is evidently a smaller 
bird with a shorter tail than D. I. leucogenis. 

CHAPTIA AENEA AENEA (VieUIot) 

Dicrurus aeneus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., ed. 2, vol. 9, p. 586, 1817 
(Bengal). 

Two males, Doi Nangka, November 17, 21, 1930; two males and 
two females, Pang Meton (Doi Nangka), April 30 and May 3, 1931; 
one female, Khun Tan, August 26, 1930; two males, Kao Pae Pan 
Nam, February 19, 1934; one male, Hin Lap, October 3, 1932; one 
male and two females, Pak Chong, November 26, 1929, June 20, 1934; 
one male, Sakeo, near Krabin, May 8, 1928; one female, Ban Han, 
Udon, March 17, 1929; one female, Ban Sadet, Sriracha, May 27, 1925; 
one female, Huey Yang, Sriracha, August 4, 1932; three males, Klong 
Yai, Sriracha, July 28, 1932; one male and one female, Nong Yang, 
November 7, 1931; one female. Ban Tarn Dam, March 7, 1930; one 
male, Chantabun, May 27, 1929; two males and three females, Kao 
Sabap, November 4-19, 1933; three males and three females, Kao 
Seming, Krat, October 13, 16, 1928,' January 1, 1930. Dr. Smith 
also took a male in the Kiu Pang Valley, Salwiii District, Burma, 
January 28, 1933. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took a male at Maliwun, Tenasserim, March 24, 
1900. 

Specimens from eastern and southeastern Siam in measurements 
certainly belong with the northern form. How far south to the south- 
west the present form goes I do not know, but probably to the neigh- 

M Dull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 47, p. 66, 1928. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 285 

boihood of the Isthmus of Kra. A female from the Raheng District 
certainly belongs to the northern form. 

Six males from eastern Burma (1) and northern Siam (5) measure: 
Wing, 120-12G.5 (123.5); tail, 110-121 (115.8); culmen, 19-20.5 (19.9) 
mm. Nine males from eastern and southeastern Siam: Wing, 120- 
128.5 (123.8); tail, 110.5-127 (118.9); culmen, 18-21 (19.5) mm. 

I cannot tell whether the bird of the Himalayas is the same as that 
of southern Burma, as no specimens are available from that part of its 
range for comparison. Stuart Baker's ^^ highest measurements are 
certainly higher than anything I have measured from Siam. 

The single male from Tenasserim seems to belong to the same form 
as that of northern Siam. It measures: Wing, 121; tail, 112; culmen, 
18.5 mm. 

The form ranges all over Siam proper apparently. Outside of Siam 
it is found from eastern Bengal to Burma and Indo-China. 

CHAPTIA AENEA MALAYENSIS Blyth 

Chapfia malayensis Blyth (A. Hay MS.), Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 15, 
p. 294, 1846 (Malacca). 

Two m.ales and one female, Sichol, Bandon, September 3, 1929, 
May 15, 24, 1930. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected one male, Prahmon, Trang, April 4, 
1896, and one male, Tyching, Trang, May 28, 1896. He gives the 
soft parts as: Iris dark brown; bill and feet black. 

The above specimens agree fairly well v/ith a small series of six 
males from eastern Sumatra. 

The four males from Peninsular Siam measure: Wing, 117-120.5 
(118.8); tail, 100-110 (107.5); culmen, 18-20 (18.8) mm. The six 
males from Sumatra: Wing, 110-118.5 (114.3); tail, 93*^; culmen, 
17.5-18 (17.8) mm. 

The United States National Museum possesses also an immature 
male, apparently of this form, from southeastern Borneo. 

The form ranges from Borneo, Sumatra, and the Malay States 
northward through Peninsular Siam to about the Isthmus of Kra. 
Robinson and Kloss ^* record it from Tasan, which must be about its 
northern limit. The range given by Stuart Baker ^^ seems to me 
impossible. 

Birds in worn plumage become more or less metallic violet above, 
while specimens in fresh plumage are steely blue. 

i' 1 he fauna of British India. Birds, ed. 2. vol. 2. p. 368. 1924. 

5« Five of the specimens are in molt, and the tails in four are not measured. 

« Journ. N.Tt. Hist. Soc. Siam. vol. 5, p. 346. 1924. 

« The fauna of Briti.sh India. Birds, ed. 2. vol. 2. p. 369. 1924. 



33.-2T— :i8- 



286 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

CHIBIA HOTTENTOTTA HOTTENTOTTA (Linnaeus) 

Corvus hotlentottus Linnaeus, Systema naturae, cd. 12, p. 155, 17G6 (Cape of 
Good Hope, error; south-central Siam, as fixed by Kloss"). 

Three males and three females, Ban Nam Kien, Nan, April 18-22, 
1930; one male, Muang Kanburi, September 10, 1928; one male, 
Kanburi, September, 1929; one female, Wang Kien, near Kanburi, 
March 13, 1934; two females, Bangkok, December 31, 1924, Decem- 
ber 2, 1925; two males, Lomkao, February 21, 1934; five males, five 
females, and two young, Pak Chong, February 22, 1924, May 6, 7, 
1925; March 2, April 29, May 2-9, and December 19, 1926, December 
8, 1929, June 21, 1934; one female, Lam Klong Lang, Pak Chong, 
June 14, 1925; two males, Tha Chang, Pak Chong, March 20,22, 1927; 
one male and one female, Sikeu, near Korat, February 17 and March 
2, 1926; one male, Chantuk, June 7, 1934; one male, Lat Bua Kao, 
August 10, 1929; one male and one female, Muek Lek, April 25, 1933; 
one male and one female, Knong Phra, April 13, 15, 1929; one male, 
Sakon Nakon, March 10, 1929; one male, Kao Sabap, November 20. 
1933; two males, Koh Chang, Januar}' 9, 13, 1926. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected one male and eight females, Bok Pyin, 
Tenasserim, February 13-17, 1900. He gives the soft parts as: Iris 
dark red, reddish brown, or dark brown; bill and feet black. 

This is the resident form, and it apparently occurs all over Siam 
proper, but how far south it extends in the southwest is not well 
known. 

Dr. Smith took a pair of half-grown young at Pak Chong, May 9, 
and an older immature at Lam Klong Lang, June 14. A female taken 
at Bangkok, December 31, has the chin, part of the forehead and 
crown, all the greater wing coverts on the left wing, and the majority 
of the greater wing coverts on tlie right wing white. 

This form has an average shorter wing but longer and heavier bill 
than C. h. brevirostris. 

Ten males from Siam measure: Wing, 161-175 (167.4); tail, 129- 
145.5 (137.6); culmen, 35-37.5 (35.8) mm. Ten females from Siam: 
Wing, 152-167 (159.3); tail, 126-142 (134); culmen, 32.5-36 (34) mm. 

The form ranges from the Indian Peninsula eastward to Siam and 
Indo-China. Dcignan *^ says that in the Chiengmai region it seems 
to be present in cold weather in the dry forest up to 2,500 feel; de 
Schauensee ^^ found it not very common on the lowlands and foothills 
of northern Siam. Dr. Smith secured it only at Ban Nam Kien in 
the northern part of the country. The majority of his specimens 

" Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 10, p. 223, 1921. 
w Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 147, 1931. 
•• Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 220, 1934. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 287 

come from the central, eastern, and southeastern part of the country. 
Apparently it has not been recorded from Peninsular Siam. 

CHIBIA HOTTENTOTTA BREVIROSTRIS Cabanls 

Chibia hrevirosiris Cabanis, Museum Heineanum, Heft 1, p. 112, 1850 (China). 

One male, Doi Nangka, November 10, 1930. 

The chief difference between the resident and winter visitant form 
of this drongo is the shorter and slenderer bill of the latter. 

The Doi Nangka male measures: Wing, 165; tail, 135.5; culmen, 
33.5 mm. 

Eight males from China measure: Wing, 166-181 (171.9); tail, 
135-154 (138.3); culmen, 30-34.5 (32.6) mm. Eight females from 
China: Wing, 161-175 (168.2); tail, 131-145 (138.2); culmen, 31-35 
(32) mm. 

The form breeds all over China and migrates south to winter, but 
just how far is not definitely known. So far only Tonldn and Siam 
have been recorded. 

De Schauensee ^° says that this form replaces the typical one in 
the highlands of northern Siam. His specimens were all taken on 
Doi Sutep, 5,500 feet, in the latter part of December. On his third 
expedition ^^ he took two males at Chiengdao, 4,600-5,000 feet, 
January 12, 14, and a female at Prakanong, in the lowlands of central 
Siam, January 26. Deignan ^^ says that it appears on the summit of 
Doi Sutep in October, 

BHRINGA REMIFER LATISPATULA de Schauensee 

Bhringa remifcr latispatula de Schauensee, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 
vol. 81, p. 475, 1929 (Doi Sutep, northern Siam). 

One male and three females, Khun Tan, 4,000 feet, October 20, 22, 
1929, August 30, 1930, February 19, 1932; one male and one female, 
Khun Tan Mountains, 3,000-4,300 feet. May 12, 18, 1933; one female, 
Sobpung, December 21, 1932; one male, Doi Nangka, November 19, 
1930; one male and one female, Pang Meton (Doi Nangka), May 1, 
3, 1931; three females, Doi Hua Mot, August 13-24, 1934. 

A topotypical specimen of B. r. tedirostris has not been available 
for examination, but as de Schauensee ^^ still believes his race to be 
valid, I recognize it also. 

Only three males and four females in the above series have the outer 
tail feathers suitable to measure. The three males measure: Wing, 
139-144 (141.3); outer tail feather, 498-500 (498.7); spatula, 87-101 
(95.2); middle tail feathers, 120-124 (121.7); culmen, 20.5-21.5 (21) 

w Proc. Acad. Nst. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 81, p. 553, 1930. 
" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadrlphia, vol. 86, p. 227, 1934. 
«» Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Nut. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 148, 1931. 
M Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. PhUadelphia, vol. 86, p. 227, 1934. 



288 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

mm. Four females: Wing, 130-137 (133.9); outer tail feather, 335- 
385 (365); spatula, 80-90 (85.2); middle tail feathers, 110-120 (116); 
culmen, 20-21.5 (20.8) mm. These measurements indicate a bird 
with a longer tail and rackets than B. r. tedirostris, as claimed by the 
describer. 

The range is not well known, but it occurs in northern Siam and 
probably the southern Shan States of Burma and iji northern Tonkin. 

Gyldenstolpe ^* records it from Doi Par Sakeng and Khun Tan ; de 
Schauensee ^^ from Doi Sutep, 2,500-4,000 feet, and Chiengsen; and 
on his third expedition ^^ from Chiengmai and Chiengdao; Lowe^^ re- 
cords it from Umpang and farther eastward ; Deignan ^^ says that on 
Doi Sutep it occurs in the evergreen forest above, 2,500 feet and is 
increasingly common toward the summit. Evidently it is a highland 
bird. 

BHRINGA PERACENSIS PERACENSIS Baker 

Bhringa remifer peracensis Baker, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club., vol 39, p. 18, 1918 
(Telom, Perak-Pahang border). 

This group can easily be distinguished from the remifer group by 
having the racket extending along the shaft for a much longer distance 
and tapered off basally, making a long tapering racket; it is narrower 
also. This great and fundamental difference, in my opinion, is more 
than racial when it is considered that there is a long stretch of country 
between the remifer and peracensis groups in the south and the remifer 
group in the north and the jyeracensis group in southeastern Siam, 
where the genus apparently does not occur. 

B. p. peracensis occurs in the mountains of the Malay States and 
western Siam, where two males have been recorded by Chasen and 
Kloss^^ from the Raheng District. These specimens should be 
reexamined carefully, as they are out of its known range. 

One unsexed specimen of peracensis from Selangor measures: 
Wing, 128; outer tail feather, 470; middle tail feathers, 107; racket, 
173; culmen, 20.5 mm. One male of lejoli from southeastern 
Siam: Wing, 135; outer tail feather, 507; middle tail feathers, 104; 
racket, 265 mm; tip of bill broken. Four females (lefoli) from 
southeastern Siam: Vring, 123-130.5 (128); outer tail feather, 295-393 
(364.5); middle tail feathers, 106-115.5 (110.9); racket, 154-194.5 
(172.6); culmen, 19-21 (20). Three females from southern Annam: 
Wing, 133-135 (134) ; outer tail feather, 440;^° middle tail feather 116.5- 
126.5 (120.7); racket, 148; '" culmen, 20-21 (20.5) mm. 

«* Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 5G, no. 2. d. 22, 1916. 
•5 Proe. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 81, p. 553. 1930. 
M Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 227, 1934. 
«' Ibis, 1933, p. 275. 

« Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 148, 1931. 
«• Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist Suppl., vol. 7, p. 181, 1928. 
'" Only one measured. 



BIRDS FROir SIAIM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 289 

BHRINGA PERACENSIS LEFOLI Delacour and Jabouille 

Bhringa remifer Icfoli Delacaur and Jabouille, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 48, 
p. 133, 1928 (Bokor, 1,000 meters, southern Cambodia). 

One male and one female, Kao Kuap, Krat, December 25, 26, 1929; 
two females, Kao Sabap, 500 meters, November 17, 24, 1933. 

These two specmens have been compared with an unsexed specimen 
of B. J), jyeracensis from Gunong Mengkuang Lebah, Selangor. The 
metallic tips to the feathers of the upper and lowerparts of the latter 
are steely or purplish blue rather than the coppery green of the Siamese 
specimens. The web of the racket does not extend so far along the 
shaft in B. p. 'peracensis; in other words, the racket is shorter. 

The United States National Museum has also a female of this form 
from Klong Menao and three females from southern Annam (Dran 
and Dalat) that I would place here provisionally; they do not seem to 
belong to the Malay form. The range of B. p. lejoli would then be 
southeastern Siam, southern Laos, and southern Annam. 

mSSEMURUS PARADISEUS PARADISEUS (Linnaeus) 

Cuculus paradiseus Linnaeus, Sj^stema naturae, ed. 12, p. 172, 1766 (Siam; Kloss ^* 
restricts it to the region between Ayuthia and the head of the Gulf). 

Dissemurus paradiseus mallomicrus Oberholser, Journ. Washington Acad. Sci., 
vol. 16, p. 518, 1926 (Hastings Island, Mergui Archipelago). 

Three males, one female, and one unsexed, Pran, May 27, June 1, 
1928, April 2, 3, 1931; one male, Rajaguri, April 10, 1926; four males 
and two females, Muang Kanburi, April 9-11, and September 10, 
1928; two immature females. Bo Ploi, Kanburi, September 8, 1928; 
three males and two females, Bangkok, February 4, 6, 1924, December 
19, 1925, September 22, 23, 1930; one unsexed, Nontaburi, March 22, 
1924; two females, Aranya, July 16, 23, 1930; one female. Ban Tawai 
Phra, October 22, 1932; two males. Ban Bua Chum, October 20, 1932; 
one female. Bung Borapet, July 1, 1932; one male, Petchabun, Febru- 
ary 14, 1934; one female, Kao Pae Pan Nam, Lomsak, February 19, 
1934; one male and one female, Ilin Lap, September 28, 30, 1932; five 
males, Pak Chong, November 18, 1925, November 20-December 22, 
1926; five males and two females, Nong Khor, near Sriracha, Septem- 
ber 26-October 1, 1925, November 12, 15, 1926, February 12, 1927; 
two males (one young) and one female, Ban Sadet, Sriracha, May 28- 
June 1, 1925; one male, Klong Yai, Sriracha, July 23, 1932; one male, 
Iluey Yang, Sriracha, August 2, 1932; one male and two females, 
Nong Yang, November 4-9, 1931; one female, Sakeo, near Krabin, 
May 9, 1928; one male and one female, Kao Seming, Krat, October 15, 
16, 1928; one male, Kao Bantad, Krat, December 23, 1929; four males, 
Kao Sabap, October 28-November 26, 1933. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 453, 1919. 



290 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected three males and four females in the 
Mergui Archipelago (Chance Island, December 28, 31, 1899; Lough- 
borough Island, January 25, 1900; Bentinck Island, March 8, 1900; 
Hastings Island, December 11, 1900), 

The length of the outer tail feather and the size and twist of the 
spatula vary enormously and apparently are of httle use in defining 
the various races. The outer tail feather grows for some time, and it 
is difficult to tell without a very close examination whether it has 
reached maturity. The length of wing and the development of the 
crest are the principal characters relied upon to distinguish the forms 
occurring in Siam. 

This form has a moderate crest and is larger than the Malayan form 
but is smaller than the form from the north, and the crest is less pro- 
nounced. To the southwest the present form apparently goes as far 
as the Isthmus of Kra or not quite so far. Eastward it apparently 
extends into southern Indo-China. Dr. Smith took the northern form 
on the Mekong below Vientiane, but whether it is the resident form in 
this part of the country is not definitely known. Gairdner took D. p. 
paradiseus in the Raheng district in western Siam though his birds 
were intermediate. Specimens from southeastern Siam average a 
trifle larger than birds from central and southwestern Siam. 

The series from the Mergui Archipelago collected by Dr. Abbott are 
more or less intermediate between D. p. malayensis and D. p. ijaradi- 
seus, but nearer the latter. They differ hardly sufficiently to be recog- 
nized as an insular race. 

Ten males from central Siam measure: Wing, 150-165.5 (157.4); 
outer tail feather, 318-395 (366.3); middle tail feathers, 134-142.5 
(137) ; culmen 25-27.5 (25.9) mm. Ten males from eastern and south- 
eastern Siam: Wing, 154-166.5 (159.4); outer tail feather, 320-400 
(342); middle tail feathers, 134.5-146 (138.9); culmen, 27-29 (27.5) 
mm. Three males from the Mergui Archipelago: Wing, 155-160 
(157); outer tail feather, 343-425 (382.7); middle tail feathers, 129- 
141.5 (133.5); culmen, 27-29 (27.7) mm. Four females from the 
Mergui Archipelago: Wing, 152-154.5 (152.6); outer tail feather, 
320-345 (330.5); middle tail feathers, 126-133.5 (129.4); culmen, 26- 
27 (26.6) mm. 

A young male taken by Dr. Smuth at Ban Sadet, Sriracha, J\me 1, 
is about halt grown. It resembles the adult but is duller below, though 
a band across the chest has begun to develop metalHc tips to the 
feathers; the spatulae to the outer tail feathers have not cleared the 
sheath yet but already have the characteristic twist; the crest is short 
and feathery; there are no white spots below. 

Several older immature females in the series taken in fall have the 
breast feathers tipped with white. The question arises as to whether 
there is a sexual difference in the immature or whether both sexes have 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 291 

spotted breasts in the first winter plumages that later wear off. I 
am inclined to the latter view. 

This form occurs from southern Tenasserim and southwestern Siam 
north to the Raheng district, western Siam, thence east to eastern and 
southeastern Siam and southern Indo-China. 

Herbert " reports it nesting in central Siam in May with eggs laid 
about the middle of the month; he has one record for June 5 and one 
record of )"oung being fed by the parents on April 29. 

Robinson '^ records D. p. malayensis from Koh Lak, but a female in 
the l.'nited States National Museum from this locality is nearer D. p. 
2)aradiseus. He "* records D. p. paradiseus from Koh Chang, Klong 
Yai, and Klong Menao, southeastern Siam. 

The United States National Museum possesses specimens of D. p. 
paradiseus from Trang Bom, Cochinchina and Daban, southern 
Annam. I think Delacour and Jabouille.^* are in error in assigning 
sj)ecimens from these localities to D. p. malayensis. It would give an 
almost impossible range for the latter, being cut in two by D. p. 
paradiseus. 

DISSEMURUS PARADISEUS RANGOONENSIS (Gould) 

Edolius rangoonensis Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1836, p. 5 (Rangoon, 
Burma). 

Two females, Khun Tan, August 30 and September 2, 1930; one 
male, Doi Hua Mot, August 20, 1934; one male, Muang Pai, Decem- 
ber 27, 1932; one male, Sobpung, December 21, 1932; one male, Ban 
Den Muang, on the Mekong, February 25, 1929; one male, Nakon 
Panom, on the Mekong, March 8, 1929; one immature male and one 
immature female, Lat Bua Kao, August 10, 1929; one female, Ta 
Fang, January 17, 1933. 

This is a larger bird than D. p. paradiseus with a longer and more 
pronounced crest and the twisted spatula at the tip averaging longer. 
The three males measure: Wing, 165-173 (168.7); outer tail feathers, 
335-380 (358.3); middle tail feather, 134-148 (141.7); culmen, 26-29 
(27.8) mm. The female from Ta Fang: Wing, 164; outer tail feather, 
370; middle tail feather, 150; culmen, 30 mm. The two females from 
Khun Tan are immature and have not been measured. 

This form ranges from central and south central Burma to the 
southern Shan States and northern and northeastern Siam. 

The male from Ban Den Muang and the male from Nakon Panom 
agree with the northern specimens. Both localities are on the Mekong 
below Vientiane. The two immature specimens from Lat Bua Kao 

'' Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6, p. 96, pi. 9 (nest), 1923. 

■a Ihiy, 11I28. p. 228. 

T Ibi?. 1915, p 700. 

" Oiseaux I'ludochine Fran^aise, vol. 4, p. 86, 1931. 



292 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

are not old enough to be determined with certainty; the spatula of 
the outer tail feather is long, but there are in the National Museum 
two adult males from this locality, collected by C. Boden Kloss, 
October 17, 19, that apparently belong to this form. These specimens 
are out of the accepted range of the form, ^^^lether they are just 
strays in the nonbreeding season or the resident form in this section 
of the country is for the future to decide. 

The measurements of the few birds handled, except for the wing, do 
not reach Stuart Baker's maximum; ^^ it is quite possible that they 
are not typical. 

De Schauensee " records it from Doi Sutep, 2,500-5,300 feet, 
Chiengmai, and Chiengsen Kao. On his third expedition '^ he secured 
a small series at Chiengmai and Chiengsen and says that it is common 
in northern Siam in the drier types of forest. Deignan ^^ reports it 
common in the evergreen up to 3,500 feet on Doi Sutep, less common 
on the plain in dipterocarpaceous scrub jungle. 

DISSEMURUS PARADISEUS MALAYENSIS (Blyth) 

Edolius malayensis Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 28, p. 272, 1859 (Penang 
and Andamans; type locality restricted to Penang by Kloss *"). 

Dissemurus paradiseus hypoballus Oberholser, Journ. Washington Acad. Sci., 
vol. 16, p. 518, 1926 (Prahmon, Trang). 

Three males and one female, Bangnara, Patani, July 9, 10, 1926; 
one female, Bukit, Patani, January 23, 1931; three males, Kao Sol 
Dao, Trang, January 4-17, 1934; one male and one female, Kao 
Luang, Nakon Sritamarat, July 23, 1928, October 4, 1930; one female, 
Bandon, January 5, 1927; two males and one female, Sichol, August 
31, 1929, May 26, 1930; one male and three females, Tha Lo, Bandon, 
September 15-25, 1931; one male and two females, Koh Pangan, 
July 23, 30, 1931; one male, Koh Samui, off Bandon, August 6, 1931. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected five males and two females in Trang 
(Prahmon, April 1-16, 1896; Trang, January 26, 1899); one female, 
Pulo Langkawi, December 2, 1899; one female, Pulo Adang, Butang 
Islands, December 15, 1899. He gives the soft parts as: Iris red; 
bill and feet black. 

This form is somewhat smaller than D. p. paradiseus, with smaller 
bill, tail, and crest. 

The specimens from Patani are in worn plumage; they are inter- 
mediate between this form and D. p. plaiurus and could with equal 
propriety be placed with one or the other but on the whole are probably 

» The fauna of British India. Birds, ed. 2, vol. 2. p. 37S, 1924. 
" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 8], p. ,554. 1930. 
" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 228, 1934. 
'• Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8. p. 148, 1931. 
•« Ibis, 1918, p. 519. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 293 

nearer malayensis. The same could be said of the specimens from 
Pulo Adang and Pulo Langkawi. As a matter of fact, specuneus of 
D. p. platurus and D. p. malayensis are mucii ahke. The latter has a 
slightly larger crest, but this varies individually and some specimens 
are almost identical. The two could well be merged, but as the speci- 
mens at hand from the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula at my 
command are a little different from those farther north, they are kept 
separate for the present. 

Eight males from Peninsular Siam measure: Wing, 141-151.5 
(145.5); outer tail feather, 270-350 (314.8); middle tail feather, 120- 
136.5 (125); culmen, 23-27 (25.6) mm. Six females from Peninsular 
Siam: Wing, 142-151 (146); outer tail feather, 287-310 (296.4); 
middle tail feather, 113-137 (127.7) ; culmen, 24-25.5 (24.8) mm. 

The form ranges from about latitude 4° S. northward through 
Peninsular Siam to about the Isthmus of Kra and extreme southern 
Tenasserim. 

DISSEMURUS PARADISEUS PLATURUS (Vieillot) 

Dicrurus platurus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., ed. 2, vol. 9, p. 588, 1817 

(locality uncertain: Malacca ^0 • 
Dissemurus paradiseus messatius Oberholser, Journ. Washington Acad. Sci., 

vol. 16, p. 519, 1926 (Singapore Island). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected one male and three females, Singapore 
Island, May 14-29, 1899; one young female, Rumpin River, Pahang, 
May 27, 1902. 

This small series has a slightly smaller crest than D. p. malayensis. 
It is no smaller. The differences are not great and the two could be 
merged without violence. The few specimens examined from Sumatra 
have still smaller crests, and I hardly believe they are the same as the 
Peninsular birds. This would leave D. p. platurus with a rather 
restricted range, being confined to the Malay States south of about 
latitude 4° S. 

The adult male from Singapore, type of D. p. messatius, measures: 
Wing, 153; outer tail feather, 310; middle tail feather, 127; culmen, 
26.5 mm. The adult female from Singapore: Wing, 143; outer tail 
feather, 260; middle tail feather, 127.5; culmen, 27 mm. The other 
two females from Singapore are not fully adult and the measurements 
are not given. 

The young female from the Rumpin River, Pahang, May 27, is 
about half grown. It resembles the adult very closely, except that it is 
duller, more fuscous below, with little or no metallic tips to the feathers. 
The outer tail feathers have emerged from their sheaths beyond the 
spatula, and the latter is curved and folded over as in the adult; 
most of the base of the feather is still to emerge, and the feather con- 

" Robinson and Kloss, Journ. Straits Branch Hoy. Asiat. Soc, No. 81, p. HI, 1920. 



294 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

tinues to grow for some time after it apparently readies maturity. 
Tliis accounts partly for the great dilTerences in the measurement of 
this feather even from the same locality. 

Family ORIOLIDAE: Orioles 

ORIOLUS CHINENSIS DIFFUSUS Sharpe 

Oriolus diffusus Sharpe, Catalogue of the birds in the British Museum, vol. 3. 
p. 197, 1877 (Malabar). 

One female, Pran, April 4, 1931; three males and one female, 
Bangkok, October 29 and November 2, 1923, December 18, 1925, 
April 5, 1926; two females, Pak Chong, November 18, 1925; two males 
and one female, Hin Lap, December 9, 12, 1931, October 2, 1932; one 
male, Ban Nam Kien, Nan, April 18, 1930; one male, Tha Chang, 
March 19, 1927; two males and one female, Nong Yang, November 6, 
IG, 1931 ; one male and two females, Nong Khor, November 14, 1926, 
February 5, 1927; one male and three females, Kao Sabap, January 9, 
1930, October 28-November 8, 1933; one male and two females, 
Kao Seming, Krat, October 11-16, 1928; one male and two females, 
Kao Ban tad, Krat, December 27-29, 1929; two females, Koh Chang, 
January 4, 5, 1926. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected three males in Trang (Prahmon, Feb- 
ruary 24, 29, 1896; Kantany, January 16, 1897); two males and three 
females, Mergui Archipelago (Chance Island, December 28, 1899; 
Loughborough Island, January 25, 1900; Heifer Island, March 6, 1900; 
Hastings Island, December 11, 1900); and two females, Tenasserim 
(Tanjong Badak, January 11, 1900; Champang, December 21, 1903). 
He gives the color of the soft parts in three males from Trang as fol- 
lows: Iris grayish brown, dark brown, or red; bill fleshy purple or 
fleshy pink; feet leaden. 

This form breeds in southeastern Siberia, Manchuria, and China, 
and migrates to Indo-China, Burma, Siam, and the Malay Peninsula 
to winter. 

In Siam proper it is a common winter resident nearly all over the 
country. In Peninsular Siam it is less common from Trang southward. 

Williamson ^^ states that it arrives at Bangkok in October and 
leaves in April. Robinson ^^ records it from Koh Kut, Koh Chang, 
Koh Rang, and Ok Yam. The United States National Museum has 
a male from Koh Si Chang, taken January 25, 1915, by C. Boden 
Kloss. It has been recorded from other islands off the coast of Penin- 
sular Siam also. 



M Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 1, p. 201, 1915. 
« Ibis, 1915, p. 758. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 295 

ORIOLUS CHINENSIS TENUIROSTRIS BIyth 

Oriolus tenuirosiris Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 15, p. 48, 184G (Central 
India). 

One male, Khun Tan Mountains, 2,000 feet, November 23, 1928; 
one female, Doi Nangka, November 17, 1930. 

The above two specimens have been compared with a good series 
from the Likiang Mountains, Yunnan, and the latter seem to have on 
the average somewhat longer bills, but this might not hold in a larger 
Siamese series. The culmens in the two Siamese specimens measure: 
30.5 mm (male); 31 mm (female). The culmens of six males from 
Yunnan measure: 31.5, 32, 32.5, 31, 32, 32.5 mm. The culmens in 
two females from Yunnan: 31.5, 31 mm. 

This race differs from 0. c. dlrffusus in having the back greenish, the 
black nuchal band narrower, and the bill longer and slenderer. 

In Siam it has been taken commonly only in the mountains of the 
north. It was first recorded by Williamson ^* from Doi Nga Chang, 
Lampang. On Doi Sutep it has been taken by several collectors, 
Deignan stating that it occurs there from 3,000 feet to the summit 
from October to February ;^^ this would seem to indicate that it was 
only a winter visitor. Baker ^^ has recorded it from Krabin and 
Klong Bang Lai, central Siam, and apparently these are the only 
records for this part of the coimtry. Lowe ^^ took it 28 miles east 
of Umpang; de Schauensee^^ at Khun Tan, Chiengmai, and Chiengdao. 

The form breeds in the foothills of the Himalayas from Nepal to 
Assam, Burma, and Yunnan, and migrates south to Cachar, Siam, 
and Indo-China to winter. 

ORIOLUS XANTHORNUS XANTHORNUS Linnaeus 

Oriolus xanthornus Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 108, 1758 (America 

error; Bengal). 
Oriolus luteolus thaicaous Hartert, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 38, p. 63, 1918 

(Koh Lak, Southwestern Siam). 

One male, Kao Luang, Nakon Sritamarat, October 10, 1930; one 
male, Koh Lak, June 23, 1933; 11 males (three immature), Pran, 
May 26, 29, 1928, April 2-4, 1931 ; three males, Sam Roi Yot, Novem- 
ber 7, 8, 1932; four males (two immature) and one female, Muang 
Kanburi, April 7-10, September 10, 1928; one male, Kanburi, Sep- 
tember 19, 1929; one male, Kwe Noi, Kanburi, September 24, 1929; 
one male, Wang Kicn, Kanburi, March 12, 1934; one immature male, 
Vichienburi, February 2G, 1934; three males (one immature) and one 
female, Sakeo, near Krabin, May 2-7, 1928; one male, Nong Mong, 
Muang Krabin, August 29, 1925; one male, Sriracha, November 5, 

•< Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 21, 1918. 

«» Jouru. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl.. vol. 8, p. 150, 1931. 

»• Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 208, 1919. 

•' Ihis, 1933, p. 277. 

" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sel. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 232, 1934. 



296 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

1924; one male, Huey Yang, Sriracha, August 5, 1932; three males, 
Nong Ivlior, November 15, 1926, February 5, 12, 1927; one male and 
one female, Nong Yang, November 4, 9, 1931; one male, Pong, Udon, 
February 17, 1929; one male, Kao Seming, Krat, January 2, 1930; 
two males (one immature), Chantuk, June 14, 15, 1934; one adult 
male and one nestling male; Pak Chong, May 4, 1926; one male, Bua 
Yai, Korat Plateau, February 15, 1929; one male, Muek Lek, April 
25, 1933; three males and three females. Ban Nam Kien, Nan, April 
18-23, 1930; one male, Meklian, February 9, 1932; one male, Doi 
Phra Chao, August 4, 1934. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected: Five males (one immature) in Trang 
(Prahmon, February 24-March 17, 1896; Trang, March 4, 1899); 
and one male, Bok Pyin, Tenasserim, February 16, 1900. He gives 
the soft parts as: Iris red or dark red; bill fleshy purple or pinldsh 
flesh color; feet leaden. The immature male had the iris reddish 
brown; bill dull pinldsh, indistinctly blotched with black patches. 

The majority of Siamese specimens have the black extending across 
the tail to the outer feather as a bar, but in some there is no black 
at all on the two outer feathers, and in others it is a mere blotch on 
the outer web. In fact, this feature is very inconstant and variable, 
as is also the color of the back in the male. In some it is sulphine 
yellow, in others almost cadmium yellow. I rather think these differ- 
ences are due to age. A sufficient series from India has not been 
available to test out any differences that might exist between it and 
the populations to the eastward. I am following Stuart Baker ^^ in 
uniting all the mainland birds under one name. 

The nestling taken by Dr. Smith at Pak Chong, May 4, is barely 
out of the nest. It resembles the adult female, but the breast Is 
much lighter, almost white down the center, udth elliptical black 
spots; the mantle is also spotted with black. 

The form is resident all over Siam proper and extends down Penin- 
sular Siam as far as the island of Langkawi, where it has been recorded 
by Robinson. *° 

The whole range extends from India to Assam, Burma, Siam, and 
Indo-China, and south to Tenasserim and Peninsular Siam as far as 
Langkawi. Closely related forms occur in Ceylon and northern 
Borneo. 

ORIOLUS XANTHONOTUS XANTHONOTUS Horsfleld 

Oriolvs xanthonotus Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 13, p. 152, 1821 
(Java) . 

Two males, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, January 7, 19, 1934; two males, 
Sichol, September 5, 1929, May 27, 1930; one male and one female, 
Kao Luang, Nakon Sritamarat, July 14, 19, 1928. 

8» The fauna of British India, Birds, ed. 2, vol. 3, p. 11, 1930. 
«o Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 7, p. 187, 1917. 



BIEDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 297 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected one immature male, Lay Song Hong, 
Trang, December 29, 1896; one male, Trang, February 4, 1897; one 
male, Endau River, eastern coast of Johore, June 28, 1901 ; and one 
male and one female, Rumpin River, Pahang, June 29, 30, 1902. He 
gives the soft parts of the adult males as: Iris red; bill pale fleshy 
brown or orange fleshy; feet dark. In the immature male they are 
given as: Iris pink; bill reddish brown; feet leaden. 

The immature male collected by Dr. Abbott at Lay Song Hong, 
Trang, December 29, is in a plumage hardly differing from the female. 
It is brighter and less yellowish green above ; the pileum duslder, the 
streaks below somewhat narrower, and the bill shorter. It may be 
incorrectly sexed, but if not it would seem to be a rather late date 
for this plumage. 

The form ranges from Java and Sumatra to the Malay States and 
north through Peninsular Siam to southern Tenasserim. 

Robinson and Kloss *^ record it from Tasan. This is as far north 
in Peninsular Siam as I have seen any records. Apparently it is not 
a common bird in the northern part of the Peninsula, and possibly 
it is often overlooked on account of habits. Dr. Abbott has a note 
on one of his specimens that it was shot in heavy forest. This ob- 
servation is confirmed by Robinson. ^^ A number of closely related 
forms have been nam.ed from islands off the western coast of Sumatra, 
Borneo, and the Philippines. 

ORIOLUS TRAILII TRAIUI (Vigors) 

Pastor traillii Vigors, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1832, p. 175 (Himalayas). 

One adult female, Doi Angka, 7,500 feet, December 6, 1928; one 
immature male, Doi Nangka, November 19, 1932; two adult males 
and one adult female, Pang Meton (Doi Nangka), April 29 and May 
4, 1931 ; one subadult male, Doi Sutep, February 3, 1932 ; one immature 
male, Khun Tan Mountains, 3,000 feet, May 12, 1933. Dr. Smith 
records the color of the soft parts in a female as: Iris pale j^ellow; bill 
and feet pale blue ; soles yellow. 

The three immature males are in three stages of plumage. The 
youngest resembles the female, but the back has a brownish tinge and 
some of the feathers of the mantle and middle wing coverts have 
slight fulvous tips; below it is lighter and the blackish streaks are 
narrower; it was taken May 12. The next stage is much darker above 
and below, and there is a slight tinge of maroon on the back. It was 
taken November 19. In the third stage the back is maroon as in the 
adult, but darker, caused by some of the feathers still having narrow 
blackish margins and the white subterminal spot appearing only on 
the upper back and reduced in area. The lower parts are still streaked 

«' Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6, p. 351, 1924. 

" The birds of the Malay Peninsula, vol. 1, p. 272, 1927. 



298 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

black and white, with some of the feathers showing maroon tips; 
otherwise like the adult male. It was taken February 3. 

The two adult females are not alike. One has the back slightly 
washed with maroon ; in the other this wasli is lacking, the back being 
brownish black. In both the central tail feathers are dark and the 
outer webs of the others are like the middle pair. In the adult male 
the middle tail feathers are light acajou red, and only the outer web 
of the outer tail feathers is blackish or has a trace of black at the tips 
on the outer web, except in one specimen, where there is a black border 
on the outer web toward the tip. Apparently the species is variable 
individually. 

The form ranges in the Himalayas from the Sutlej Valley east to 
eastern Assam, Burma, Tenasserim, Siam, Yunnan, Laos, Tonkin, 
and northern Annam. 

It is a mountain species and has been taken so far only in northern 
and western Siam, where it is resident, coming lower down on the 
mountains in the cold season. A number of collectors have taken it 
on Doi Sutep, where it appears to be not uncommon. Deignan ^^ 
says it occurs there in summer between 3,500 and 5,500 feet, in winter 
as low as 2,000 feet. Chasen and Kloss ^* record it from the Raheng 
district at 2,500 feet. Lowe ^^ secured a specimen 35 miles east of 
Umpang, at 2,400 feet, February 4. De Schauensee ^^ took quite a 
series at Chiengmai and Chiengdao, between 3,000 and 5,000 feet, and 
they were most frequently found at 4,000 feet, 

A closely related form, 0. t. robinsoni Delacour, occurs in southern 
Annam, and two other forms are Imown, one in Formosa, the other 
in Hainan. 

ORIOLUS MELLIANUS Stresemann 

Oriolus trailii mellianus Stresemann, Orn. Monatsb., vol. 30, p. 64, 1922 (Kwan- 
tung, China). 

Three males and three females, Kao Sabap, 2,000-3,000 feet, January 
6, 1930, November 8-26, 1933. 

As no description in English is laiown to me, I give a brief descrip- 
tion of the two sexes: 

MaZe.— Head all around and wings black, with a greenish sheen; 
upper and underparts silvery white, the feathers with a subterminal 
arrow-shaped spot of deep hellebore red, mostly concealed; upper tail 
coverts acajou red, with broad silvery white tips mostly concealing 
the red; tail acajou red, lighter on the outer feathers and darker on the 
central pair, each feather narrowly bordered on the outer web and at 
the tip with silvery white, the central pair on both webs, the shafts 
white; under tail coverts acajou red bordered at the tip with silvery 

»3 Journ. Siam. Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 151, 1931. 
»* Journ. Siam. Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 182, 1928. 
" Ibis, 1933. p. 277. 
«« Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 232, 1934. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 299 

white, dusky drab subapically in certain lights; the under side of the 
tail is considerably lighter than the upper and the edging is much 
narrower and pale vinaceous; thighs black. 

Female (no. 334087). — Pileum, hindneck, cheeks, and wings dull 
black, the outer primaries, except the first, with a narrow border of 
pale olive gray; throat white with broad black streaks; chest white 
with broad mouse-gray centers to the feathers; breast and belly white 
narrowly streaked with dull black; back mouse gray with obsolete 
dusky shaft streaks; upper tail coverts madder brown, the feathers 
with a very narrow pale vinaceous fringe; tail hessian brown, lighter 
along the shaft and in certain positions; the outer tail feathers with a 
broad streak along the shaft on the inner web etruscan red, this streak 
occupying most of the inner web on the outer feather but diminishing 
toward the central pair, which lacks it entirely, shafts a little darker 
than the feather; under tail coverts light russet-vinaceous, the feathers 
white at the base and with dusky shaft streaks on the shorter feathers; 
thighs black. 

No two females are alike in the above small series. In another 
female (no. 334089) the back is a lighter gray and the dusky shaft 
markings are broader and more conspicuous; the centers to the chest 
feathers are not so broad and are blackish rather than gray. The third 
female (no. 334088) is intermediate in the color of the back; the crown, 
occiput, and cheeks are dark neutral gray; the forehead is narrowly 
streaked with white; and the blackish streaks on the throat are nar- 
rower than the last. I rather think it is a younger bird than the 
other two. 

The three males measure: Wing, 150-158.5 (153.8); tail, 92.5-99 
(96.3) ; culmen, 25-28.5 (26.3) mm. The three females: Wing, 142-148 
(145) ; tail, 91-98 (94.7) ; culmen, 27-28 (27.3) mm. 

Dr. Smith sent no notes on the colors of the soft parts. In the skin 
the bill is slate gray, light horn color at the extreme tip. 

Oriolus trailii has the body feathers maroon, white subapically, 
while in mellianus the body feathers are silvery white, acajou red 
subapically; in other words, the body coloring in the two species is 
reversed. 

This species was first described from a female, and the male was 
unknown until M. Delncour visited Canton and discovered this sex 
in the collection of the Sunyatsen University and gave a description 
of it along with a description of the adult female and young male.^^ 
These descriptions were taken from specimens collected in the Yaoshan 
Mountains, Kwangsi, China. Mr. Yung ^® states that it is found in 
the Yaoshan Mountains from April to August. It has also been 
taken in winter at Bokor, 3,000 feet, Cambodia.^^ 

»■ L'Oiseaii, vol. H, p. 339, 1930. 

»* Bull. Dept. Biol. Sunyatsen Univ., no. 5, p. 19, 1930. 

»» Dclaeour, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 51, p. 40, 1930. 



300 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Stresemann ^ has given a history of the species as far as loiown, with 
a colored plate of the adult male and a female. The latter does not 
agree with any of the females described above, not even with the one I 
have supposed was somewhat immature. None of the three females 
has the pileum and wings brown as depicted. They are cither slate 
gray or dull black. I surmise that the female depicted must be a still 
younger bird than any I have examined. 

The species evidently breeds in the mountains of southeastern China 
and migrates in winter to Cambodia and to southeastern and south- 
western Siam. Dr. Smith states that he found it rather common on 
hi'^ second visit to Kao Sabap but hard to collect, as it frequented the 
tops of the tallest trees. Dr. Smith ^ has published some notes on the 
habits anti gives the additional localities of Kao Seming, Krat, and 
Ban Thung Luang, Fran River. The last is the first record for south- 
western Siam. 

Family IRENIDAE: Fairy Bluebirds 

IRENA PUELLA PUELLA (Latham) 

Coracias puella Latham, Index ornithologicus, vol. 1, p. 171, 1790 ('India). 

One female, Doi Nangka, November 18, 1930; one male, Pang 
Meton (Doi Nangka), May 3, 1931; two males and one female, Khun 
Tan Mountains, 3,000-4,300 feet, May 12, 18, 1933; eight males and 
two females, Khun Tan, 4,000 feet, October 21, 22, 1929, August 30- 
September 3, 1930, February 17-24, 1932; one male and one female, 
Pak Chong, December 16, 1926; one male. Lam ton Lang, June 1, 1934; 
one male and one female, Kao Lem, December 27, 1930; one male, 
Hupbon, October 31, 1931; eight males and six females, Nong Khor, 
near Sriracha, November 14, 1924, September 30, 1925, March 22 and 
November 11, 1926, February 5, 1927; three females, Nong Yang, 
November 4, 1931 ; two males, Ban Sadet, Sriracha, June 1, 1926; two 
males, Klong Yai, Sriracha, July 24, 28, 1932; one male and one female, 
Ban Tarn Dam, March 6, 7, 1930; one male, Kao Bantad, Krat, 
December 22, 1929; five males and two females, Kao Seming, Krat, 
October 10-14, 1928; two males and one female, Kao Sabap, October 
30, November 6, 1933; two adult males, three immature males and one 
female, Koh Chang, January 6-11, 1926; March 10, 1930; three males 
and one female, Koh Kut, May 22-25, 1929; one female, Sai Yak, 
Kanburi, September 23, 1929; two females, Tha Lo, Bandon, Septem- 
ber 24, 1931 ; three males and two females, Sichol, Bandon, September 
1, 5, 1929, May 18, 1930; one male, Wat Kiriwong, Nakon Srita- 
marat, July 25, 1928; one male, Kao Luang, Nakon Sritamarat. 

1 L'Oiseau, new ser., vol. 1, pp. 201-207, 1931. 

' Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 9, p. 329, 1934. 



BIRDS FROM SI AM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 301 

July 14, 1928; two males, Kao Cliong, Trang, September 1, 9, 1933; 
five males, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, December 31, 1933; January 5, 7, 
1934 ; one male, Patalung, July 7, 1929. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected six males and six females in Trang 
(Telibon Island, February 28, 1896; Prabmon, February 26, March 
6-10, 1896; Tyching, July 22, 1896; Lay Song Hong, November 6 and 
December 18, 1896; Trang, January 3, February 5, 19, 1897; Kok Sal, 
December 28, 1898); three males and one female, Mergui Archipelago, 
1900 (St. Matthew Island, January 16; St. Luke Island, January 21; 
Loughborough Island, January 23); and one male. Red Point, Tenas- 
serim, February 23, 1904. He also took a set of two eggs in Trang, 
February 19, 1897. He gives the soft parts as: Iris red or orange; bill 
and feet black. 

None of the males from the Malay Peninsula in the above series has 
the under tail coverts come within an inch or more of the tip of the tail. 

One of Dr. Abbott's males from Lay Song Hong, Trang, November 
6, is immature. It resembles the female in plumage but is a deeper blue 
and the wings are darker; the rump feathers have the tips of the 
feathers a shining blue, not to the same extent or as deep a color as 
the adult, however. The specimen is of about adult size. 

Four of Dr. Smith's males are immature. They are of about adult 
size and were collected as follovv's: Three in Koh Chang, Januar}^ 11 
and March 10, and one, Khun Tan, February 19. One is like the 
specimen collected by Dr. Abbott; the other three have some scattering 
black feathers appearing on the lower parts, mostly on the throat and 
sides of face; above there are some scattering shining blue feathers 
appearing on the pileum, hindneck, and rump, these feathers being of a 
lighter blue than in the adult, however. 

This form has a wide range, being found in India, Assam, Burma, 
In do-China, Siam and down the Peninsular Siam to Trang or some- 
what farther. In Siam it is evidently a common resident bird all over 
the country and on the islands off the coast. 

IRENA PUELLA MALAYENSIS Horsfield and Moore 

Irena malayensis Horsfield and Moore, A catalogue of the birds in the Museum 
of the Hon. East-India Company, vol. 1, p. 274, 1854 (Malacca). 

Muscicapa cyanea Becbie, Malayan Peninsula, p. 517, 1834 (Malacca); not of 
Vieillot, 1818. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected a male on Singapore Island, May 20, 
1899, and a female at Tanjong Laboha, Trengganu, September 28, 
1900. 

In this form the under tail coverts reach to within a short distance 
of the tip of the tail. It seems to be confined mostly to the Malay 
States. 

.•?r!.527— 38 20 



302 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Robinson and Kloss ^ report it from Pulo Langkawi and Pulo 
Terutau; later * tliey state that tlie latter locality is about the northern 
limit of its range, Ogilvie-Grant ^ records it from Bukit Besar, 2,500 
feet, Patani. 

In Borneo and Sumatra /. p. criniger Sharpe occurs, a form with 
€ven longer tail coverts. 

Family CORVIDAE: Crows, Magpies, Jays 

CORVUS MACRORHYNCHOS ANDAMANENSIS Beavan 

Corvus andamanensis Beavan, Ibis, 1866, p. 420 (Andaman Islands). 

One male and five females, Bangkok, September 26, 1924, Novem- 
ber 6, 1925, January 19 and March 2, 1928, February 6, 1931. 

Dr. W, L. Abbott collected one female, Victoria Point, Tenasserim, 
November 24, 1900, and one male, Domel Island, Mergui Archipelago, 
January 22, 1904. 

The above have been compared with one male and two females 
from the Andamans, with which they agree fairly well. 

The one male and two females from the Andaman Islands measure: 
Wing, 310-335 (326.3); culmen, 57-61 (59.2) mm. Two males and 
five females from central and eastern Siam: Wing, 295-327 (309.3); 
culmen, 53-63 (56.5) mm. One female from Tenasserim: Wing, 310; 
■culmen, 54 mm. The male from Domel Island: Wing, 297; culmen, 
•62 mm. Three females from northwestern Laos in the United States 
National Museum seem to agree with the Siamese specimens. They 
measure: Wing, 295-335 (316.7); culmen, 57-58 mm (one with 
injured bill). 

This crow ranges from the Andaman Islands to Tenasserim, Assam, 
Burma, western, central, northern, and eastern Siam, and north- 
western Laos. It seems to be generally distributed all over Siam 
proper. I have seen no specimens from southwestern Siam, however. 
Herbert ^ reports it a common breeding bird near Bangkok, nesting 
in January and February, though he had a set of five fresh eggs taken 
as early as December 23, and occasionally it may be found with fresh 
eggs at the beginning of March. 

CORVUS MACRORHYNCHOS MACRORHYNCHOS Wagler 

Corvus macrorhynchos Wagler, Systema avium, Corvus, sp. 3, 1827 (Nova 
Hollandia, Nova Guinea, Sumatra, and Java; type in Munich Museum from 
Java). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected two males at Prahmon, Trang, March 
2, 3, 1896, and three males at the Butang Islands (Pulo Nipis, Decem- 
ber 13, 1899; Pulo Adang, March 15, 16, 1899). 

' Ibis, 1911, p. 56. 

< Joiirn. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 264, 1924. 

' Fasciculi Malayenses, pt. 3, p. 88, 1905. 

•« Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6, p. 88, 1923. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 303 

This series agrees fairly well with specimens from Java. The 
five males from the Malay Peninsula measure: Wing, 330-350 
(341.6); culmen, 62-67 (65.2) mm. One male and two females from 
Java: Wing, 330-356 (340.3); culmen, 60-05 (62.3) mm. 

In this form the bill is highly arched, longer and heavier than in 
C. m. andamanensis. 

Just how far north in Peninsular Siam this race extends I do not 
know. Robinson and Kloss ^ record it from Tapli. From there 
southward apparently it is the common and only crow, except in the 
Malay States. 

Its range is Peninsular Siam to the Malay States, Sumatra, Java, 
and the islands east to Sumba and Flores. Robinson ^ records it 
from Koh Samui and Koh Pennan, off Bandon; and from Pulo 
Langkawi and Pulo Telibun.' 

UROCISSA ERYTHRORHYNCHA MAGNIROSTRIS (BIyth) 

Psilorhinus magniroMris Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 15, p. 27, 1846 
(Youmadoug Hills, Arakan). 

One male, Doi Angka, 2,000 feet, December 8, 1928; one male, 
Doi Muso, December 29, 1932; one female, Mae Suya Valley, January 
2, 1933; one female, Muang Pal, December 28, 1932; two males, Pak 
Chong, February 8, 1925, May 2, 1926; two males, Pang Sok, August 
15, 23, 1926; one unsexed, Chantuk, June 15, 1934; one female, Sikeu, 
near Korat, March 2, 1926. Dr. Smith gives the soft parts as: Iris 
brown; bill and legs coral red. 

I confirm de Schauensee's remarks ^^ that both U. e. magnirostris 
and U. e. erythrorhyncha have white tips to the primaries, but that 
in the latter they are smaller. In specimens showing some wear 
they may be nearly worn off. 

U. e. magnirostris is not an uncommon bird in northern and eastern 
Siam. Chasen and Kloss ^^ record it from the Raheng District; 
Keddie '^ from the Meklong, western Siam. 

The form ranges from the hills of Arakan east to Burma, western, 
northern, and eastern Siam. De Schauensee says they are birds of 
the deciduous forests not ranging higher than 2,000 feet in the winter. 
Deignan '^ found them on Doi Sutep to 2,700 feet. 

' Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5. p. 336, 1924. 
" Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. .5, p. 150, 1915. 
•Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 7, p. 188, 1917. 
i« Proc. Acad. Nat. Sol. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 178, 1934. 
" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. ISO. 1928. 
" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol 1, p. 122, 1914. 
"Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 134, 1931. 



304 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

UROCISSA FXAVIROSTRIS ROBINI Delacour (?) 

Urocissa flavirosiris rohini Delacour, L'Oiseau, vol. 11, p. 393, 1930 (Fansipan, 
Tonkin). 

Two immature males, Pak Chong, Jime 20, 1934. 

These two birds belong without much doubt to U. flavirostris , but 
not very likely to the above form. They are placed. here only be- 
cause it is the nearest race geographically. I have no immature 
specimens of any of the forms of U. jlavirostris with which to com- 
pare them but have immature specimens of U. e. magnirostris and 
U. e. erythrorhyncha with which they do not agree. They are nearly 
of adult size, but the tails have not reached their ultimate length. 

They differ from immature U. e. magnirostris in having the breast 
and abdomen baryta j^ellow instead of white; the shafts, the inner 
m.argins, and bases of the primaries beneath baryta yellovv' instead 
of white or pinkish white; the under surface of the tail, shafts of the 
feathers (except in the black subterminal bar), and the tips of tail 
feathers yellow, instead of bluish with white tips; outer margins of 
the primaries at the sinuation chamois instead of light blue; the back 
a duskier less bright blue; the light occipital patch does not extend 
as far forward or as far back and is of a more bluish cast with yellow- 
ish bases to the feathers instead of wldte; the legs are j-ellowish in- 
stead of reddish. The bills are dusky at the base, but the tips are 
becoming horn color. 

They resemble the description by Sharpe ^■* of what he took to be 
young of Urocissa flavirosiris and lie is probably right. 

The queer thing about securing the two above 5'Oung at Pak Chong 
is that U. flavirostris is supposed to be a high-altitude species, and, 
while the village is a mountain one, the elevation would hardly be 
sufficient for a bird of this kind. 

CISSA CHINENSIS CHINENSIS (Boddaert) 

Coracias chinensis Boddaert, Table des planches enlumin^ez d'histoire naturelle, 
p. 38, 1783 (China). 

One male and one female. Pang Ivleton (Doi Nangka), May 1, 2, 
1931; one female, Doi Hua Mot, August 29, 1934; one immature 
male, Khun Tan Mountains, 3,000 feet, May 16, 1933; one male 
Ta Fang, January 16, 1933; one mnle, Sanpaiang, December 20, 
1932; one male, Aranya, July 7, 1930; one mah. Ban Nam Phu, 
February 28, 1934;, one female, Pak Chong, December 8, 1929. Dr. 
Smith gives the color of the soft parts as: Eyelid, bill, and feet red. 

The immature male from the Khun Tan Mountams is of about 
adult size. It resembles the adult, except the breast and abdomen 
are pure white, only the throat and foreneck being washed with light 

'< CataloRue of the birds in the British Museum, vol. 3 p. 73. 1877. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 305 

green. New green feathers are just emerging from their sheaths on 
the pectoral tracts and thighs. 

This jay has been reported nearly all over Siam proper, except the 
southeast, where C. h. hypoleuca seems to replace it. Robinson and 
Hoss ^^ record a male from Hat Sanuk, which is about as far in this 
direction as I have seen any records. De Schauensee ^^ in recording 
it from Chiengrai and Chiengmai, says that during the winter he 
neither saw nor heard birds of this species in the hills. The species 
is not known to be migratory, however. 

The form ranges from the Hunalayas to the extreme east of Assam, 
eastern Bengal, Burma, Tenasserim, southwestern, northern, and 
eastern Siam and east to northern Laos, Tonkin, and northern Annam. 

CISSA HYPOLEUCA HYPOLEUCA Giglloli and Salvador! 

Cissa hypoleuca Giglioli and Salvadori, Atti Reale Accad. Sci. Torino, vol. 20, 
p. 427, 1885 (Thu-Dan-Mot, Cochin-China). 

One male and one unsexed, Nong Khor, November 16, 1926, and 
February 9, 1927; one female, Nong Nam Eew, February 15, 1927; 
one male, Nong Yang, November 13, 1931; one female, Kao Ban- 
tad, December 23, 1929; one female, Kao Sabap, November 13, 1933. 

The above series is assigned to this form with reservations. I have 
had a typical female from Cochinchina for comparison, and the 
Siamese birds are a deeper yellow below with a light greenish wash on 
the throat and chest. The Cochinchina female is cream color below, 
with only a greenish wash on the cheeks. 

De Schauensee " in recording a female from Kao Sabap, has also 
assigned it to this form with reservations. The female collected by 
Dr. Smith at the same place evidently differs somewhat from the one 
he describes in the pattern of the inner remiges. In Dr. Smith's bird 
there is a black band above the blue subterminal band ; the tip is green. 
The unsexed specimen from Nong Khor also has a similar black bar 
on the inner remiges above the blue bar. The remaining specimens 
are without this black bar, however, so it is probably only an indi- 
vidual variation. 

Robinson and Kloss ^* have suggested that Baker's record of a 
juvenile female from Hupbon in Herbert's collection with the under- 
parts brilliant yellow as Cissa chinensis is this species. They are un- 
doubtedly correct. 

C. h. hypoleuca ranges from southern Annam and Cochinchina to 
southern Laos and southeastern Siam. C. h. chauhti Delacour is found 
in central Annam. 



'5 Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc, Siam vol. 5, p. 327, 1924. 
16 Proc. Aoad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, p. 178. 1934. 
1' Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 179, 1934. 
"s Journ. Soc. Nat. Uist. Siam. vol. 5. p. 338. 1924. 



306 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

DENDROCITTA VAGABUNDA KINNEAEI Baker 

DendrociUa rufa kinnenri Baker, The fauna of British India, Birds, vol. 1, ed. 2, 
p. 51, 1922 (Toungoo, Burma). 

Four males, Muang Kanbiiri, April 7, and September 10, 11, 1928; 
one immature female and one immature unsexed. Bo Ploi, Kanburi, 
September 7, 1928, and September 26, 1929; one female, Mekhan, 
February 1, 1932. 

This series is lighter in color both above and below when compared 
with a series from eastern Siam. There are a number of specimens 
from Tenasserim in the United States National Museum, but they 
are all immature birds not suitable for comparison. No material for 
comparison has been available from Burma, so I am following the 
original describer in placing the above series. 

There seems to be little difference in size between the series from 
western and northern Siam and that from eastern Siam. Four males 
and one female from western (4) and northern (1) Siam measure: 
Wing, 145-154.5 (148.8); tail, 212-255 (231.4); culmen, 27-30 (28.2) 
mm. Five males and one female from eastern Siam: Wing, 144- 
157.5 (148.5); tail, 220-235 (228); culmen, 27-30 (28.5) mm. 

The present form ranges over nearly the whole of Burma south of 
the Chin and Kachin Hills down to northern Tenasserim, the Shan 
States, w^estern and northern Siam, and Yunnan. 

Gyldenstolpe ^^ records it from Khun Tan and Pa Hing; Chasen 
and Kloss ^'' from the Raheng District; de Schauensee ^^ from 
Chiengmai, Metang, and Tung Sio, under D. v. sakeratensis. 

DENDROCITTA VAGABUNDA SAKERATENSIS Gyldenstolpe 

DendrociUa rufa sakeratensis Gyldenstolpe, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 41, p. 32, 
1920 (Sakerat, eastern Siam). 

Two males and one unsexed, Pak Chong, February 7, 1925, De- 
cember 21, 22, 1926; one female. Pang Sok, August 23, 1920; one 
male and one female, Nong Mong, Muang Krabin, August 22, 24, 
1925; one male, Udon, February 10, 1929; four immature males of 
various ages, Chantuk, June 14, 16, 1934. Dr. Smith gives the soft 
parts as: Iris dull reddish brown; bill and legs black. 

This series averages darker above and below than the series from 
northern and western Siam previously commented upon, but t.-cre 
seems to be little or no difference in size. 

The immatures taken at Chantuk range from about adult size to 
about half grown. The young resemble the adult but are browner 
on the head, lighter on the breast, and the outer feathers of the tail 
are tipped with cinnamon-buff. This latter character seems to per- 

" Kunsl. Svenska Vet.-Akjid. nandl.. vol. 56. no. 2. p. 17, 1918. 
" Joiirn. Siam Soc. Nat. Uist Suppl., vol. 7. p 180, 192S. 
«i Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 179, 1934. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 307 

sist long after the specimen is apparently adult, and I suspect they 
even breed in this plumage the first year. This fact is mentioned 
since specimens in this stage seem to be browner about the head and 
lighter on the back and breast than older fully adult birds. In 
comparing specimens birds of approximately the same age should be 
used . 

The form ranges from eastern Siam into Laos, Cambodia, Cochin- 
china, and Annam. 

Robinson ^^ reports it from Ban Nong Chim and Ban Buang; 
de Schauensee's ^^ records from Kcngkoi, Bua Yai, and Nakon Nayok 
without much doubt belong to this race also, rather than to the 
northern one. 

Kinnear ^* has clearly shown that the name Corvus rufus Latham 
cannot be used for this species, but that Coracias vagabunda Latham 
must take its place. 

DENDROCITTA HIMALAYENSIS ASSIMILIS Hume 

Dendrocitta assimilis Hume, Stray Feathers, vol. 5, p. 117, 1877 (Hill Tenasserim). 

One male, Doi Nangka, 8,000 feet, December 6, 1928; two females, 
Doi Nangka, November 19, 1930; one male and one female. Pang 
Meton (Doi Nangka), May 1, 2, 1931; one female, Khun Tan, August 
28, 1930. 

This race was first recorded from Siam by Count Gyldenstolpe ^^ 
from Khun Tan, since which it has been reported from Doi Sutep by 
nearly all the collectors that have visited this well-known mountain. 
De Schauensee,^® in recording it from Chiengmai and Chiengdao, 
says that it appears to be a purely mountain bird; all the speci- 
mens taken were at an altitude about 4,500 feet. Chasen and 
KJoss " record it from the Rahcng District; Stuart Baker ^^ from 
Chan Teuk and Krabin in eastern and southeastern Siam, which 
seem very unlikely localities for this form. 

The form ranges from the mountains of Tenasserim north to the 
Shan States and northern Siam; eastern Siam (?). 

CRYPSIRINA TEMIA (Daudin) 

Corvus temia Datjdin, Traitd <516mentaire et complet d'ornithologie, vol. 2, p. 244, 

1800 (Java). 
Cnjpsirhina varians longipennis Neumann, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 55, p. 136, 

1935 (Chantaboon, southeastern Siam). 

One female, Huey Yang, Nakon Sritamarat, October 2, 1930; two 
males and two females, Koh Lak, June 9, 15, 1933; one male, Pran, 

" Ibis. 1931, p. 339. 

" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 178, 1934. 

" Ibis. 1931, p. ."igS. 

" Joiirn. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 1, p. 164, 1915. 

M Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 179, 1934. 

" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. ISO, 1928. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 181, 1919. 



308 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

April 3, 1931; one male and one female, Sam Roi Yot, November 8j 
11, 1932; two females, Muang Kanburi, April 7, 11, 1928; one male, 
Kwe Noi, Kanburi, September 20, 1929; one male and one female, 
Bo Ploi, Kanburi, September 26, 1929; one male and one female, 
Bangkok, February 22 and April 7, 1924; two females, Bung Borapet, 
June 28, 1932; one male, Pasak Eiver, October 20, 1932; one male, 
Ban Tawai Plira, October 22, 1932; three males, LomJvao, Pasak Val- 
ley, February 21, 1934; one male. Ban Nam Kien, Nan, April 19, 
1930; one female, Prae, ApriJ 28, 1930; one male. Ban Chumporn, 
February 25, 1929; one male and one female, Kumpawapi, near Udon, 
March 20, 1929; one male, Hin Lap, December 11, 1931; one female, 
Nong Mong, Krabin, August 24, 1925; one male and one female, Pak 
Chong, December 8, 1929; one male, Gengkoi, October 16, 1932; one 
male, Lem Sing, June 26, 1931. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected one adidt male, two adult females, and 
two young males, Tyching, Trang, IMay 22-June 1, 1896. He gives 
the soft parts as: Iris blue; bill and feet black. 

The two young birds had barely left the nest and were taken June 1. 

Adults of both sexes in fresh fall or v,anter plumage are a dark iri- 
descent coppery oily green. As the breeding season advances, the 
upperparts become more or less steely blue. The young are dull black 
without any gloss, except on the wings, which are greenish like the 
adults. 

I have divided the large series above with some other specimens 
into three geograpliic series, as follows: 

(1) Java, the Malay Peninsula, and southwestern Siam. 

(2) Central and northern Siam. 

(3) Eastern and southeastern Siam and southern Annam. 

Comparing specimens in the same stage of plumage, I find no differ- 
ence in color between the three series and little or no difference in 
average measurements. The tail varies greatly in length and in the 
width of the central tail feathers at the tip, but I am convinced that 
this is either individual or an age character and not geographic. 

Eleven specimens from Java (4) and Peninsular and southwestern 
Siam (7) measure: Wmg, 114-120 (116.5); tail, 109-198 (182.2); cul- 
men, 21-23.5 (22.3) mm. Twelve specimens from central and north- 
ern Siam: Wing, 109-124 (114.5); tail, 173-204 (186.9); culmen, 20-24 
(21.9) mm. Twelve specimens from eastern and southeastern Siam 
(10) and southern Annam (2): Wing, 113.5-122 (118.5); tail, 162-206 
(184.7); cuhnen, 20-23 (21.9) mm. 

I have seen no specimens from Sumatra or Borneo. 

The species ranges from Pegu east to Siam and Indo-China and 
south through Peninsular Siam to Sumatra, Java, and Borneo. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 309 

The bird occurs all over Siam from Patani in soutbern Peninsular 
Siam north to the northern boundary and beyond and east into Indo- 
China. 

De Schauensee ^^ says that it is commonest where there is bam- 
boo, but that it does not ascend the mountains; Herbert ^^ gives it as 
a common nesting bird in central Siam, nesting from late in May to 
early in July, wdtb one record for April and another as late as August. 

GARRULUS LEUCOTIS LEUCOTIS Hume 

Garrulus leucotis Hume, Stray Feathers, vol. 2, p. 443, 1874 (Kj^oukuyat, Salween 
District, Tenasserim). 

One female, Khun Tan> October 17, 1929; one female, Doi Sutep, 
February 3, 1932; one female, Doi Hua Mot, August 21, 1934; one 
male, Mesarieng, January 23, 1933; one male, Ban Han, Udon, 
March 18, 1929. 

The above series has been compared with a small series from the 
mountains of southern Annam. The latter are somewhat worn; and 
if we allow for this there seems to be little or no difference in color 
between the two series and little or none in size, 

De Schauensee ^^ says that during his stay in northern Siam he 
found tliis jay commonly from the plains to the summits of the moun- 
tains, in all types of jungle. Chasen and Kloss^^ record it from 
Raheng, 

The form ranges from the Kachin Hills, northeastern Burma, south 
through the Shan States to Tenasserim, western, northern, and east- 
ern Siam and eastward through Laos and Cochinchina to southern 
Annam. A closely related form, 0. I. oatesi Sharpe, is found to the 
westward in the Chin Hills. 

PLATYSMURUS LEUCOPTERUS (Temminck) 

Glaucopis leucopterus Temminck, Nouveau recueil de planches colorizes d'oiseaux^ 
livr. 45, pi. 265, 1824 (Sumatra). 

One male and one female, Bangnara, Patani, May 13 and June 8, 
1924; one male and one female, Yala, Patani, February 2, 1931; one 
male and one female, Sichol, Bandon, May 26, 1930; two males and 
two females, Tha Lo, Bandon, September 14-25, 1931; two males, 
Kao Chong, Trang, September 5, 1933; three males and one female, 
Kao Soi Dao, Trang, January 1-18, 1934. Dr. Smith gives the soft 
parts as: Iris reddish brown; bill and legs black. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected two males and two females in Trang 
(Lay Song Hong, October 4 and December 28, 1896; Trang, March 2, 
1899); one male and one female, Bok Pyin, Tenasserim, February 11, 

"Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 86, p. 179, 1934 
MJourn. Nat. Uist. Soc. Siani, vol. 6, p. 91, 192.i. 
" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 179, 1934. 
M Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. SuppL, vol. 7. p. 181. 1928. 



310 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

15, 1900; one female, Rumpin River, Pahang, June 22, 1902. He 
gives the soft parts as: Iris deep red, carmine-red, or brown; bLU, 
feet, and claws black. 

There is Httle or no difference in size between the sexes. 

Twent3^-two specimens from the Malay Peninsula and Tenasserim 
measure: Wing, 175-200 (186); tail, 169-200 (181); cuhnen, 29-34.5 
(31.5) mm. Five specimens from Sumatra: Wing, 183.5-206 (195.3); 
tail, 182-201 (188.4); culmen, 29-35 (32.2) mm. 

These measurements indicate that the Sumatran bird may be some- 
what larger, but the difference is hardly great enough to warrant 
separation at this time. 

The species ranges from Sumatra and the Malay States northward 
through Peninsular Siam to southern Tenasserim. 

Robinson and Kloss ^^ record it from Tapli, Pakchan, which is the 
northernmost record known to me. 

Stuart Baker ^* substitutes Glenargus Cabanis, 1851, for Platys- 
murus Reichenbach, 1850. The latter is a name accompanied by a 
cut of the generic characters, certainly of this genus, and it cannot 
summarily be dismissed. Sharpe ^^ fixed the type on Glavcopis leu- 
copterus Temminck, which will have to stand unless there is an earlier 
fixation. 

Family PARADOXORNITHIDAE: Parrotbills, Suthoras 

PSITTIPAKUS GULARIS TRANSFLUVIALIS (Hartert) 

Scaeorhynchus gularis iransfluvialis Hartert, Nov. Zool., vol. 7, p. 548, 1900 
(Guilang, northern Cachar). 

Three males, Khun Tan Mountains, 3,000-4,000 feet, November 21, 
1928, May 18, 1933; one male and two females, Doi Nangka, Novem- 
ber 17, 1930; three males and three females. Pang Meton (Doi Nangka) 
May 1-5, 1931. 

No specimens are available for comparison except of P. g. Jokiensis 
from Fukien, China, to which it bears a close resemblance, but it 
seems to be somewhat smaller and the black of the forehead is nar- 
rower. P. g. laotiana I have not seen, and it is possible that the 
Siamese specimens belong to it. Certainly the underparts are not 
strongly suffused with fulvous as described by Stuart Baker ,^* but are 
nearly entirely white, some specimens with a slight buffy tinge on the 
chest. However, several workers have identified specimens as of this 
race and I tentatively leave it here for the present. The wings of 
five males measure: 87-91 (88.7 mm). Besides the localities repre- 
sented by Dr. Smith's collection, it has been taken by several collectors 

M Jnurn. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6, p. 339, 1934. 

" The fauna of British India, Birds, ed. 2, vol. 7, p. 8, 1930. • 

•5 Catalogue of the birds in the British Museum, vol. 3. p. 90, 1877. 

" The fauna of British India, Birds, ed. 2, vol. 1, p. 118, 1922. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 311 

on Doi Siitep at 4,500-5,500 feet, and Gairdner " secured it in the 
Rabeng District. 

The range of the form is the hills south of the Brahmaputra, Chin, 
and Cachin Hills, and the hills of central Burma and northern Siam. 

Family PARIDAE: Titmice 

PARUS MAJOR AMBIGUUS (Raffles) 

Turdus ambiguus Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 13, p. 313, 1822 

(Sumatra). 
Parus major malayorum Robinson and Kloss, Journ. Federated Malay States 

Mus., vol. 8, pt. 2, p. 226, 1918 (Sungci Kumbang, Korinchi, Sumatra). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took one adult male, one adult female, and one 
immature male at Prahmon, Trang, March 21-27, 1896. 

The male has molted the tail, and the tail in the female is much 
worn and frayed at the tip. The specimens are a deeper gray on the 
flanks than P. m. cinereus of Java. The tail pattern cannot be com- 
pared. There seems to be little or no difference in size. No Sumatran 
specimens are available for comparison. 

The immature male was taken March 27 and is nearly full grown. 
When compared with a slightly younger male of P. m. cinereus, it is 
grayer on the flanks and the yellow tinge is very faint; the white in 
the tail is mostly confined to the outer feather in ambignvs; the second 
outer feather having a mere dot; the white on the second outer feather 
of the tail is quite large and well defined in cinereus. 

This form ranges from Sumatra to the Malay States and northward 
through Peninsular Siam probably to southern Tenasserim. There 
seem to be few records from the mainland. Ogilvie-Grant ^^ records 
it from Patani; Miiller from Salanga (Puket).^^ 

PARUS MAJOR ALTARUM La Touche 

Parus major altarum La Touche, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 43, p. 43, 1922 

(Mengtz, Yunnan). 

One male, Doi Nangka, November 4, 1930; one male, Doi Hua 
Mot, August 12, 1934. 

These specimens have been compared with P. m. tibetanus, which 
altarum greatly resembles, but they are smaller with more of a j^ellow 
tinge on the upper back; and with P. m. artaius to which they are 
nearer in color of the upperparts, but one has the tail pattern of 
tibetanus, that is, the outer tail feather mostly white except for a 
narrow black border on the inner web; second outer tail feather with 
a large white wedge-shaped spot, running up about halfway from the 
tip, shaft black almost to the tip; the next three feathers with smaller 
spots, diminishing toward the central rectrices; wing, 61.5, 63.5 mm. 

»' Cbasen and Kloss, Journ. Siam Soc. Nat Uist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 179, 1928. 
•s Fasciculi Malayonsos. pt. 3, p. 77. 1905 
»» Die Ornis der In.sel Salanga, p. 20, 1882. 



312 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

The male from Doi Hua Mot is molting the tail, and it is too early to 
make out the pattern. 

This race occurs in southeastern Yunnan, northwestern Tonkin, 
northern Laos, and northern Siam. De Schauensee *" secured six 
specimens at Chiengdao, 4,500-5,500 feet, wliich he identifies as P. 
m. commixus, a form confined to southeastern China and having the 
back entirely gray. Deignan *^ gives the additional localities of Doi 
8utep and Doi Angka. 

MACHLOPHUS SPILONOTUS SUBVIRIDIS (Blj th) 

Parus subviridis Blyth, Tickell MS., Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 24, p. 2G5, 
1855 (Tenasserim). 

Five males and two females, Doi Nangka, November 10-19, 1930, 
April 22-May 6, 1931; one female. Pang Meton (Doi Nangka), April 
30, 1931; one male and one female, Doi Hua Mot, August 26, Sep- 
tember 4, 1934. 

A male and female in the United States National Museum are from 
the Langbian Peaks, South Annam. The male, when compared with 
the Siamese series, has the back grayer, less suffused with yellow, 
on the sides of the breast, the yellow is less bright, and the wliite on 
the secondaries and tail is more restricted; the female does not differ 
materially, however. The Langbian Peaks are quite isolated from the 
rest of the known range of the form. 

The wings of five Siamese males measure 76-79 (77.2) mm; the 
wing of the Langbian Peak male, 76 mm. 

The known range of M. s. subviridis is Tenasserim, Burma, northern 
Siam, to Laos and (?) southern Annam. 

^'VTien Count Gyldenstolpe published his list of the birds of Siam, 
only one specimen of this bird had been taken in the country, at Doi 
Ngachang south of Lakorn Lampang,^^ since then it has been found 
not uncommon by several collectors *^ on Doi Sutcp from 3,500 feet 
to the summit, and it will probably be found on other mountains of 
sufficient elevation. 

MELANOCHLORA SULTANEA SULTANEA (Hodgson) 

Parus sultaneus Hodgson, Indian Rev., 1836, p. 31 (Nepal). 

Four males and four females, Khun Tan, October 17, 18, 1929, 
August 25-September 3, 1930; two males, Doi Tin Pata, December 26, 
1932; two females, Melang Valley, December 31, 1932; one male, 
Doi Phra Chao, August 6, 1934. 

« Proc. Acad. Nat. Scl. Philadelphia, vol. 80, p. 180. 1934. 
«" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 10, p. 103, 1936 
« Ibis, 1920, p. 46&. 

« Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 81, p. 528, 1930; vol. 86, p. 180. 1934; Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. 
Hist. Suppl.. vol. 8. p. 135, 1931; p. 246, 1932. 



BIRDS FKOM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 313 

Ko specimens are available from Nei)al or Burma for comparison. 
Count G^ldenstolpe," referring to northern Siamese specimens, says 
they are somewhat intermediate between the Peninsular form and 
that from India. Our measurements of the males seem to bear out 
his remarks, the only difference between the tv/o forms being prin- 
cipally one of size. Five males from northern Siam measure: Wing, 
108-113 (110.2); tail, 90-93 (91.5); culmen, 13-14 5 (13.7) mm. 

The form extends from Nepal through Assam to Burma, northern 
Siam, and Laos. It is said to be common locally in northern Siam. 

MELANOCIILORA SULTANEA FLAVOCRISTATA (Lafresnaye) 

Parus flavocrislatus Lafresnaye, Mag. Zool., CI. 2, pi. SO, 1837 (Isles de la Sonde). 

One male and one female. Waterfall, Trang, August 26, 1933; two 
males and one female, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, December 21, 1933, 
January 8, 1934; one male, Sichol, Bandon, September 1, 1929; one 
male, Tha Lo, Bandon, September 15, 1931; one male and one female, 
Pran, April 1, 1931 ; one immature male. Ban Nam Phu, February 25, 
1934; one male. Pang Sok, August 25, 1920; three males and two 
females, Pak Chong, November 16, 24, 1929; one male. Liken, near 
Korat, February 18, 1926; two males, Nong Yang, November 9, 1931; 
three males and one female, Lamton Lang, May 28-June 2, 1934. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected: three males, Trang (Lay Song Hong, 
September 7, 1S96; Trang, January 3, 1899); and one male and one 
female, Packa, Trengganu, September 27, 1900. 

Tills form gradually becomes larger from the Malay States north- 
ward until it is rather difficult to draw a line between it and the 
northern form, especially as Siamese specimens of the latter are some- 
what intermediate. Specimens from southwestern and eastern Siam 
seem to belong to the smaller Peninsular race. 

Ten males from Bandon (2), southwestern Siam (1), and eastern 
Siam (7) measure: Wing, 102-109 (106.7); tail, 86.5-95 (90.4); 
culmen, 13-14.5 (13.6) mm. Five males from Perak-Pahang border (1 ), 
Trengganu (1), and Trang (3): Wing, 104-107.5 (105.7); tail, 82-87 
(85.4); culmen, 13-14 (13.4) mm. 

The form ranges from Sumatra and the Malay States northward 
through Peninsular Siam and southwestern Siam to eastern Siam. 

Family SITTIDAE: Nuthatches 

CALLISITTA FRONTALIS FRONTALIS (Swainson) 

Sitta frontalis Swainson, Zoological illustrations, ser. 1, pi. 2, 1820 (Ceylon). 

One male. Bo Ploi, Kanburi, September 6, 1929; one male, Doi 
Angka, 4,000 feet, December 3, 1928; one male, Kumpawapi, February 

" Ibis. 1920, p. 468. 



314 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITEiD STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

17, 1929; nine males and four females, Khun Tan, 4,000 feet, Sep- 
tember 26-October 20, 1929, September 8, 19, 1930, February 17- 
March 4, 1932; two immature males. Pang Meton (Doi Nangka), 
May 1, 1931; two males, Doi Hua Mot, August 19 and September 4, 
1934; one male, Ciiiengdao, January 29, 1932; two immature males, 
Khun Tan Mountains, 4,000 feet. May 9, 1933; one male, Kao Pae 
Pan Nam, Lomsak, Februar}^ 19, 1934; one female, Huey Me Sae, 
December 24, 1932; one male, Aranya, July 17, 1930; one male, 
Hupbon, near Sriracha, May 25, 1925; one male, Sakeo, near Krabin, 
May 2, 1928; one male. Pang Sok, August 18, 1926; two males, Tha 
Chang, Pak Chong, Alarch 22, 1927; four males, Chantuk, June 13, 
14, 1934. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took an adult female at Champang, Tenasserim^ 
December 21, 1903, but I cannot match it by an}' female in the above 
Siamese series. It is darker below an.d on the ear coverts and ap- 
proaches C.J. saturatior of the Mala}^ Peninsula of which it is more or 
less of an intermediate. The ranges of C.f.Jrontalis and C.J. saturatior 
probably meet in the near vicinity. 

Unfortunately I have been unable to examine any specimens from 
Ceylon and very few from India proper. 

The range of C.J.Jrontalis is given as practically all India, including 
Ceylon, Burma, and Siam east to Laos, Tonkin, Annam, Cocliinchina, 
and Cambodia. This form apparently occurs more or less com- 
monly all over Siam proper, more especially in the north. According 
to Deignan^^ it occurs on Doi Sutep at 3,500-4,600 feet. 

CALLISITTA FRONTALIS SATURATIOR (Hartert) 

Siita saturatior Hartert, Nov. ZooL, vol. 9, p. 573, 1902 (Gunong Tahan, Pa- 
hang) . 

Three males, Bangnara, Patani, July 10, 1926; one male, Kao 
Chong, Trang, September 1, 1933. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took four males and one female in Trang as fol- 
lows: Prahmon, March 22, 1896; Lay Song Hong, September 7, 1896, 
and November 6, 1896; and Kao Soi bao, 1,000 feet, February 8, 1899. 

All the specimens agree in being considerably darker below and hav- 
ing broader black foreheads than C.J.Jrontalis. 

Count Gyldenstolpe*^ says it has been collected at Bukit Besar, 
Nawnchik, Bandon, Lamra, and on Puket; Robinson*' says it is con- 
fined to the southern two-thirds of the Malay Peninsula. As the 
United States National Museum has typical specimens from Trang, it 
must go considerably north of this point at least. 

" Jonrn. Siam Poc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8. p. 135, 1931. 
*« Ibis, 1920, p. 468. 
« The birds of the Malay Peninsula, vol. 1, p. 260, 1927. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 315 

SITTA CASTANEA NEGLECTA Walden 

Sitla neglecta Walden, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 4, vol. 5, p. 218, 1870 (Karen 
Hills, Toungoo District, Burma). 

One male, Doi Angka, December 2, 1928; one male and one female^ 
Meklian, February 6, 1932; one male, Khonka Valley, January 19, 
1933; one female, Doi Hua Mot, August 30, 1934. 

The range of this form extends from Muleyit Mountain, Tenas- 
serim, through the eastern liill ranges of Burma to western and north- 
ern Siam, Cambodia, and Laos. 

S. c. cimiamoventris has been recorded from northern and eastern 
Siam,** but presumably there must be some error, as two races would 
hardly occur in the same territory unless at different elevations in the 
mountains. 

Chasen and Kloss*^ record S. c. neglecta from the Raheng district, 
western Siam. Deignan*° took one on Doi Sutep, 1,800 feet, in 
June; and Mr. Aagaard*^ took a single male on the summit of the 
same mountain later; De Schauensee" took three males and a female 
at Metang and says that it was found only in lowland jungle where the 
trees reached a good height. 

SITTA EUROPAEA NAGAENSIS Godwin-Austen 

Sitta nagaensis Godwin-Austen, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1874, p. 44 (Naga 
Hills). 

One male, Doi Nangka, November 20, 1930; one male. Pang Meton 
(Doi Nangka), May 5, 1931. 

The form ranges from the mountains south of Brahmaputra, Chin, 
and Cachin Hills to northern Siam, and it has been reported from 
southern Annam, but specimens from tliis region may not be the same. 
Two males from Dalat, southern Annam, in the United States Na- 
tional Museum are more grayish below, the rufous of the flanks is 
lighter, and they are paler above than the Siamese specimens. The 
Langbian Peaks region is rather isolated from the normal range of the 
form. 

De Schauensee*^ found S. e. nagaensis common on the summit of 
Doi Sutep and less so farther down. Deignan^^ found it common on 
the same mountain from 4,500 feet to the sumirdt and saw a pair car- 
rjdng food into a nest hole in May at 5,500 feet. De Schauensee" 
on his third expedition again secured it on Doi Sutep and Chiengdao 
and states it occupies a zone above that at which Sitta magna is found.. 

<8 Oyldenstolpe, Ibis, 1920, p. 467. 

<» Journ. Siam Soc. Kat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 179, 1928. 

»« Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 175, 1931. 

" Chasen and Kloss, Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 247, 1932. 

M Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 182, 1934. 

" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 81, p. .WO, 1930. 

»< Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl.. vol. 8, p. 135, 1931. 

" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 182, 1934. 



316 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

SITTA MAGNA Wardlaw-Ramsey 

Sitta magna Wardlaw-Ramsey, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1876, p. 677 (Karennee). 

One male, Doi Angka, 4,000 feet, December 3, 1928; one male and 
one female, Doi Nangka, November 17, 1930. 

De Schaiiensee^^ found this large nuthatch rather common on Doi 
Sutep, 4,500 feet, where it has since been noted by several recent 
observers. On his third expedition De Schauensee*^ also secured 
specimens at Chiengdao, 4,500-5,000 feet. 

It ranges from the mountains of central Burma to Yunnan and 
northern Siam, at about 4,000 feet or higher. 

Family CERTHIIDAE: Creepers 

CERTHIA DISCOLOR SHANENSIS Baker 

Certhia dincolor shanensis Baker, The fauna of British India, Birds, ed. 2, vol. 7, 
p. 90, 1930 (new name for C. d. fuliginosa Baker, ibid., vol. 1, p. 438, 1922, 
not C. fuliginosa Bechstein, 1811; Loi-pang Nan, Mekong). 

Two males, Doi Angka, 5,000-8,000 feet, December 6 and 7, 1928; 
one immature male, Pang Meton (Doi Nangka), May 4, 1931. 

No specimens of C. d. shanensis from Burma have been available 
for comparison. I have had only one specimen of C. d. discolor from 
Nepal and three specimens of C. d. meridionalis from southern Annam; 
shanensis is less rusty than the latter, with more black on the head 
and back, and below it is lighter, especially on the breast. 

The immature from Pang Meton is about full grown. It differs 
from the adult in being rustier above, with the black markings re- 
duced and the lighter shaft streaks much reduced, almost absent; the 
throat and chest are huffy brown with slight dusky markings, the 
throat with honey-yellow streaks; the belly a light Isabella color; the 
sanford brown of the rump less in extent than in the adult; under tail 
coverts, tail, and wings similar to the adult, but the light exposed 
markings of the latter more rufous. 

The two adult males measure: Wing, 69-70.5; tail, 75.5-79; culmen, 
16-17.5 mm. 

The range of the form extends from the Shan States to Karenni in 
Burma, northern Siam, and the northwest of Tonkin. 

De Schauensee ^^ recorded it from Doi Sutep, 4,500-5,500 feet, as 
C. d. manipurensis, followed by Deignan^^; Chascn and Kloss™ have 
recorded it as shanensis from the same mountain; followed by de 
Schauensee.®^ 

" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 81, p. 530, 1929. 
" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 182. 1934. 
i« Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 81. p. 541, 1930. 
i» Journ. Si'iiu Soc. Nat. His!.. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 141, 1931. 
«« Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 247, 1932. 
« Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 207, 1934. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 317 

Family TIMALIIDAE: Babbling Thrushes 

GARRULAX CHINENSIS PROPINQUUS (Salvador!) 

Dryonastes propinquus Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, ser. 3, vol. 6, p. 6, 
1914 (Thagut, Tenasserim). 

One male, Khim Tan Mountains, 4,000 feet. May 10, 1933; one 
male, Doi Hua Mot, September 4, 1934; one male, Muang Pai, 
December 28, 1932; one male, Kao Lem, December 27, 1930. 

Gairdner ^^ records it from the Petchaburi District; Gyldenstolpe ^^ 
took a female at Khun Tan and saw two at Chienghai. Chasen and 
Kloss ^* record one from the Raheng District; this specimen is now in 
the United States National Museum and is immature. Deignan ^^ 
says it is rare or local on the Chiengmai Plain but can usually be 
found in the scrub to the south of Nawng Haw. De Schauensee ^^ 
took three specimens at Chiengrai and says that it is an uncommon 
babbler in northern Siam. 

The range of the form extends from Tenasserim to western, north- 
ern, and eastern Siam. 

GARRULAX LEUCOLOPHUS DIARDI (Lesson) 

Turdus diardi Lesson, Traits d'ornithologie, p. 408, 1831 (Cochinchina), 

Two males and one female, Koh Lak, June 7-14, 1933; four males, 
two females, and one unsexed, Pran, May 27, June 3, 1928, April 2, 
3, 1931; one male, Sam Roi Yot, November 14, 1932; five males and 
five females, Muang Kanburi, April 7, 8, and September 10, 11, 1928; 
one male and one female. Bo Ploi, Kanburi, September 9, 1928, Sep- 
tember 26, 1929; one male and one female, Sai Yok, Kanburi, Sep- 
tember 23, 1929; two males, Doi Angka, 2,000 feet, December 2, 8, 
1928; two females, Chiengdao, January 29, 1932; one female, Khun 
Tan, October 22, 1929; one male and one female, Ban Nam Kien, 
Nan, April 18, 19, 1930; one male and one female, Prae, April 10, 
1930; one male Mekhan, February 7, 1932, two males; Muang Pai, 
December 27, 29, 1932; one female, Gengkoi, October 16, 1932; one 
unsexed, Lomkao, February 21, 1934; two males and one female, Lat 
Bua Kao, August 9, 11, 1929; sLx males, five females, and one un- 
sexed, Pak Chong, February 17, April 29, May 2, November 20- 
December 21, 1926; one female, Sikeu, near Korat, February 4, 1926; 
one male. Pang Sok, August 14, 1926; one female, Ban Foe Hilom, 
March 3, 1929; one male, Nong Kai, February 18, 1929; two males 
and one female, Nong Khor, near Sriracha, November 19, 1924, 
November 8, 1926; two males, Huey Yang, Sriracha, August 4, 5, 

M Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 1, p. 148, 1915. 

«3 Kungl. Sevenska Vet.-Akad. nandl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 55, 1916. 

M Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. SuppL, vol. 7, p. 175, 1928. 

«5 Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 136, 1931. 

•« Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 88, p. 183, 1934. 

33527—38 21 



318 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

1932; one male and one female, Ban Tarn Dam, March 7, 1930; one 
male, Hupbon, October 26, 1931; two males, Kao Sabap, October 
28 and November 16, 1933; five females, Kao Seming, Krat, October 
11-17, 1928, January 2, 1930. 

In this very large series there are two phases, one in which the 
flanks are strongly hazel and the under tail coverts somewhat darker 
and one in which the flanks are very lightly washed with hazel or 
almost white and the under tail coverts gray. On an average the 
specimens from the east and southeast have the whitest flanks while 
those from the north, west, and southwest have the flanks more hazel 
and less often v/liite, though in Kanburi specimens with strong hazel 
flanks and others with nearly white occur together. It is my belief 
that the birds with hazel flanks are intergrades toward 6. I. berlangeri 
and that the latter does not reach Siam at all. There are specimens 
in the United States National Museum from Raheng in which the 
red-flanked bird has been identified as berlangeri and the white- 
flanked one as diardi. Two such closely related forms would hardly 
be found together, and some other explanation has to be sought. The 
deeply hazel-flanked birds are in the minority. In a pair of speci- 
mens from Tonkin before me the female has the flanks as deeply 
hazel as any specimen from western Siam. 

There are several immature specimens in the series and the flanks 
have only a sliglit brownish tinge. It may be the white flanks are an 
age character, but unfortunately all the immatures in the series are 
from eastern Siam where the form has a tendency to be white-flanked 
anyway. 

Dr. Smith describes the soft parts as: Iris reddish brown; bfll black; 
legs light blue. 

One set of three eggs was taken at Lat Bua Kao, August 9, 1929, 
and one egg at Ban Foe Hilom, March 3, 1929, both with the female 
parent. One set of two eggs was taken at Pran, May 26, 1928, and 
another set of two eggs at Koh Lak, June 14, 1933. 

The eggs are rounded ovate and white with considerable gloss. 
They measure 26.7 by 22.3 to 29.6 by 23.5 mm, the smallest diameter 
going as low as 21.6; the average of the eight eggs is 28.2 by 22.3 mm. 

Gyldenstolpe " reports finding a nest with four eggs at Chum Poo 
on May 2. From the above the form appears to have a long breeding 
season, extending from early in March to early in August, and prob- 
ably somewhat earlier and later. 

Dr. Smith's large series covers the distribution in Siam fairly well, 
which extends from Koh Lak in southwestern Siam northward to the 
northern border and east and southeast into Indo-China. 



« Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 54, 1916. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 319 

GARRULAX PECTORAUS MERIDIONALIS Robinson and Kloss 

Garrulax pedoralis meridionalis Robinson and Kloss, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, 
vol. 40, p. 11, 1919 (Hat Sanuk, Rajburi, Siam). 

One male, Sanpaiang, December 20, 1932; one male, Mesuya 
Valley, January 2, 1933; one female, Mae Hong Sorn, January 5, 1933; 
one female, Ta Fang, January 17, 1933. 

This seems to be a more or less variable race. Of the four specimens 
collected in Siam, three have the ear coverts streaked with black, and 
one has the ear coverts white unstreaked and the pectoral band inter- 
rupted in the center. A specimen received from the Raffles Museum 
from the Raheng District also has the ear coverts unstreaked, and a 
male collected by Dr. Smith from the Ban Un Pai Valley, Burma, has 
unstreaked ear coverts. Stuart Baker *^ describes the ear coverts in 
G. J). 2^ectoralis as black, white or white streaked with black, so it is 
likely that meridionalis will prove equally variable. The latter differs 
from the northern form in being paler above, the underparts more 
strongly suffused with buff, the primaries edged with buffy instead of 
white, and the tips of the outer tail feathers tipped with bufi'y instead 
of white. 

G. ji. meridionalis has been recorded from Doi Sutep as high as 5,000 
feet, but this is exceptional. Gyldenstolpe^^ records it as commonly 
distributed in northern Siam, and it goes as far south as Hat Sanuk 
at least and over the border into Tenasserim. De Schauensee ^° took 
specimens at Chiengmai, Khun Tan, and Chiengdao. 

GARRULAX MONILIGER FUSCATA Baker 

Garrulax moniliger fuscata Baker, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 38, p. 64, 1918 
(Tavoy, Tenasserim). 

Two males, Koh Lak, June 22 and 24, 1933. 

This is a lighter-colored form than mouhoti; more fulvous, less olive- 
brown above than hakeri, with the black subterminal bar on the tail 
narrower. 

The two Koh Lak specimens are in very worn plumage and unsuit- 
able for comparison. The only specimen in fresh plumage examined 
is the male from Raheng recorded by Chasen and Kloss," which differs 
from the northern form as indicated above; Robinson and Kloss " 
report it from Hat Sanuk, near Koh Lak. 

It seems to be confined to western and southwestern Siam and the 
adjacent regions of Burma. 

«s The fauna of British India, Birds, ed. 2, vol. 1, p. 160, 1922. 
"Ibis, 1920, p. 487. 

'0 Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 183, 1934. 
" Journ. Siam Sec. Nat. Hist. Suppl.. vol. 7, p. 176, 1928. 
" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 283, 1924. 



320 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

GARRULAX MONILIGER BAKERI de Schauensee 

Garrulax moniliger bakeri de Schauensee, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 
vol. 87, p. 409, 1935 (Nawng Haw, Chiengmai, northern Siam). 

One male, Huey Me Sae, December 24, 1932; one female, Doi 
Phra Chao, August 4, 1934. 

This form is described as being paler than 0. m. moniliger and 
6. m.juscata. Of the former no specimens are available for comparison, 
and of the latter I have only one male from Raheng suitable for com- 
parison. The Raheng male is more fulvous-brown above and the tips 
of the outer tail feathers are a deeper buff; below there seems to be 
little difference. 

My series is too small for me to judge the distinctness of the present 
form, but as the two specimens available seem to agree Math the 
characters assigned to the race, it is recognized. As the describer says, 
^. m. bakeri is more olive above and on the central rectrices. 

The form, so far as known, is confined to northern Siam, but prob- 
ably extends into the adjacent parts of Burma. Gyldenstolpe '^ re- 
ports it rather common in northern Siam, but other collectors appar- 
ently have not found it so; de Schauensee ^^ took four specimens north 
of Chiengmai (Nawng Haw), where he says it is apparently rare. 
Gyldenstolpe ^^ secured a set of three pale blue eggs at Pak Koh, 
April 16, 1914. The eggs measured 28.5 by 21.2, 28.5 by 21.2, and 
27.6 by 20.7 mm. The nest was placed in a low tree within a bamboo 
jungle and could easily be reached from the ground. 

GARRULAX MONILIGER MOUHOTI Sharpe 

Garrulax mouhoti Sharpe, Catalogue of the birds in the British Museum, vol. 7, 
p. 444, 1883 (Cambodia). 

Two males and one female, Nong Khor, near Sriracha, September 
26, 1925, November 15, 1926; one female, Sikeu, near Korat, March 4, 
1926; one male. Pang Sok, August 24, 1926; one male and one female, 
Knong Phra, near Pak Chong, April 13, 1929 ; two males and one female, 
Lat Bua Kao, August 3-9, 1929; one male, Tha Chang, January 2, 
1931; one female, Huey Yang, Sriracha, August 4, 1932 

All the above specimens come from the eastern part of the country. 

This is a darker and more richly colored form than 0. m. fuseata, 
but it is not strikingly different. It ranges from Cambodia into 
eastern Siam. Robinson and IQoss ^^ say that the Menam is probably 
the western boundary between it and 0. m. fuscata; de Schauensee " 
secured specimens at Bua Yai and Kengkoi. 

■ '« Ibis, 1920, p. 487. 
1* Proc. Acad. Nat Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 184, 1934. 
'• Kiinsl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 55, 1916. 
'• Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5. p. 284, 1924. 
" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 184, 1934. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 321 

GARRULAX STREPITANS Tickell 

Garrulax strepitans Tickell, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 24, p. 268, 1855 
(Tenasserim) . 

Nine males and two females, Khun Tan, 3,000-4,000 feet, October 
2, 1929, August 28-September 8, 1930, February 14-March 4, 1932; 
five males and four females, Doi Nangka, November 3-11, 1930, 
April 25 and May 4, 1931; one male and one female, Khun Tan 
Mountains, 3,000 feet. May 17, 1933; one female, Doi Hua Mot, 
August 14, 1934. 

The above series shows considerable variation. The breast and belly 
vary from neutral gray with a saccardo unber wash on the flanks to 
a snuff brown with a narrow border of gray around the brownish-black 
jugular patch. The pileum varies from mummy brown with the fore- 
head black to a cinnamon-brown with little or no black. 

Williamson ^^ records it from Si-sawad, western Siam; several 
collectors have taken it on Doi Sutep from 3,500 feet to the summit; 
de Schauensee ^^ obtained a small series at Chiengmai and Chiengdao 
and says that it is a bird of high elevations, where it keeps to the 
densest part of the evergreen forest. 

The form ranges from Tenasserim to southwestern and northern 
Siam. 

GARRULAX FERRARIUS Riley 

Garrulax ferrarius Riley, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 43, p. 190, 1930 
(Kao Kuap, near Krat, Siam). 

Two males, Kao Kuap, near Krat, December 27, 1929. 

In the original description this species was compared with 6. 
milleti, a species of the Langbian region of southern Annam. As 
specimens of the latter may not be available to Siamese investigators, 
I give a more complete description oi ferrarius: 

Head, throat, and jugulum clove brown; lores and ear coverts 
black; a white spot on sides of neck posterior to the ear coverts; 
breast and upper back deep quaker drab; lower back, rump, closed 
wing, and flanks olive-brown; tail blackish brown above washed with 
olive-brown. Wing, 124-128; tail, 116-118.5; culmen, 25.5-25; 
tarsus, 41-43; middle toe, 25-26 mm. 

Kao Kuap belongs to a group of mountains the main chain of which 
extends eastward into Cambodia. It seems strange that the nearest 
relative of this species should be G. milhti, a mountain species separated 
from ferrarius by several hundred miles. 

The species was named in honor of Dr. Hugh M. Smith. 

"Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. IC, 191S. 

« Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 184, 1934. 



322 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

TROCHALOPTERON MILNEI SHARPEI Rippon 

Trochalopterum sharpei Rippon, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 12, p. 13, 1901 (Kauri- 
Kachin tract, east of Bhamo, Burma). 

Seven males and nine females, Doi Nangka, November 9, 1930 
(one), and April 22-27, 1931; one male. Pang Meton (Doi Nangka), 
May 5, 1931. 

\Mnle there is no comparative material available, the specimens 
seem to fit the description of this form, which is found in the northern 
Shan States, in the Kachin Hills, Burma, and in Yunnan. 

T. m. vitryi (Delacour) has been described from the Plateau des 
Bolovens, southern Laos. T. m. indochinev sis Delacour was named 
from central Tonkin. T. m. milnei David is a local race occurring 
in the mountains of northwestern Fohkien, southeastern China, and, 
so far as known, is more or less isolated. 

This is another fine race that Dr. Smith was the first to add to the 
Siamese avifauna. It has been previously recorded by me.^° 

TROCHALOPTERON MELANOSTIGMA MELANOSTIGMA (BIyth) 

Garrulax vielanostigma Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 24, p. 268, 1855 
(Mount Muleyit, Tenasserim). 

One male and one female, Doi Angka, 6,500-7,500 feet, December 
1 and 4, 1928; one male, summit of Doi Sutep, December 15, 1928. 

These three specimens differ from a male from Mount Nwalabo, 
Bunna, ramsayi, as follows: The back is more of a deep grayish olive 
rather than brownish ohve; the lowerparts are grayish instead of 
ochraceous-tawny ; the jugulum is darker and very restricted, not 
extending onto the chest; the lores, chin, and throat are more exten- 
sively black; the spot on the greater wing coverts is sudan brown 
instead of sanford brown. 

The specimens do not agree exactly with Stuart Baker's description 
of melanostigma, but I have no material for comparison. 

This species is usually made a form of T. erythrocephalum, but in 
my opinion it belongs to a different form group. 

Deignan ^' reports this form as rather common on Doi Sutep from 
4,600 feet to the summit. 

It ranges in the mountains from Tenasserim northward into the 
Shan States of Burma and in northern Siam. The nearest relative 
appears to be T. m. connedens Delacour of Laos and Tonkin. 

LIOCICHLA RIPPONI RIPPONI (Gates) 

Trochalopterum ripponi Gates, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 11, p. 10, 1900 (Shan 
States, Burma). 

Two males and one female, Doi Nangka, November 12, 1930, and 
April 26, 1931. 

•0 Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 9, p. 155, 1933. 
M Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 174, 1931. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 323 

Delacour ^^ has removed this bird from the genus Trochalopteron to 
Liocichla, where it is better phiced. It differs somewhat structurally 
from the other two known species of the genus (steerii and omeiensis), 
however, in longer, heavier, and more distinctly notched bill and 
heavier feet. 

Delacour ^" leaves ripjjoni as a race of i^hoenicea. This I now 
believe is not correct, judging from a specimen of the latter from 
Darjeeling in the United States National Museum. The color of 
this specimen of phoenicea is quite different from that of ripponi; 
it is prouts brown on the back and lowerparts, while ripponi has the 
back brownish olive and the lowerparts olive lake. The tail feathers 
in phoenicea are differently shaped from ripponi, being rounded at the 
tips instead of truncate. This leads me to doubt whether phoenicea 
really belongs in the same genus, but the specimen examined may 
not be fully adult, though there is no other indication of immaturity. 
The other two races placed in phoenicea — bakeri and wellsi — I have 
not seen, but judged from descriptions wellsi belongs with ripponi 
and bakeri with phoenicea. 

The above specimens taken by Dr. Smith were the first of this 
species to be taken in Siam and were recorded by me.^^ 

L. r. ripponi ranges from the northern Shan States, Burma, through 
northern Siam to northern Laos and Tonldn. L. r. wellsi was described 
from southeastern Yunan. 

POMATORHINUS SCHISTICEPS NUCHALIS Tweeddale 

Pomatorhinus nuchalis Tweeddale, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 4, vol. 20, p. 535, 
1877 (Thayetmyo). 

One male and one female, Muang Kanburi, April 12 and 16, 1928; 
two males and one female, Khun Tan, 4,000 feet, October 20 and 26, 
1929, March 3, 1932; two males, Doi Nangka, November 13 ard 2i, 
1930; one immature female, Wang Kien, March 13, 1934. 

I am following de Schauensee ^^ in the treatment of this form group, 
as it seems to be the latest and best that has been proposed. This 
form differs from klossi in being lighter, more olive-brown above, 
with a little bay wash on the sides of breast, the tail nearly concolor 
with the back, except at tip, and the bill yellow, duskj^ only at the 
extreme base above. 

Dr. Smith also secured a male in the Kiu Pang Valley, Salwin 
district, eastern Burma. This specimen does not differ from birds 
of northern Siam. 



« Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 53, p. 87, 1933. 

" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 9, p. 155, 1933. 

M Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, p. 185, 1934. 



324 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Chasen and Kloss ^° record three males from the Raheng district, 
western Siam, as P. olivaceus olivacevs. Two of these specimens were 
afterward sent to the United States National Museum. They are 
slightly darker and more russet above and on the tails than northern 
Siamese specimens, but in my opinion they are not fully adult, and 
this may account for the difference in color. On the other hand, an 
immature even younger taken at Khun Tan does not differ from the 
adult except in size. It would hardly seem possible that the Raheng 
district would have nvchalis occur to the north and south of it. They 
also record ^"^ olivacevs from Doi Sutep and discredit rvpponi as a 
Siamese bird. In the latter contention they are probably right. 

P. s. nuchalis ranges from northern Tenasserim to western and 
northern Siam. 

POMATORHINUS SCHISTICEPS OLIVACEUS BIyth 

Pomatorhinus olivaceus Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 16, p. 451, 1847 
(Y6, Tenasserim). 

Two males, Muang Kanburi, September 19, 1929, April 8, 1928; 
one male, Bo Ploi, Kanburi, September 26, 1926. 

These three specimens have longer and heavier bills than nuchalis, 
and there is no trace of a bay wash on the sides of the breast. At 
apparently the same locality Dr. Smith also took P. s. nuchalis. 
This I cannot understand, unless one is the resident form and the 
other only a wanderer. 

This form evidently is confined to central Tenasserim and western 
Siam, but just what its exact range is is not known. De Schauensee*' 
secured a pair at Tamuang, March 8. 

POMATORHINUS SCHISTICEPS FASTIDIOSUS Hartert 

Pomatorhinus schisticeps fastidiosus Hartert, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 36, p. 
1916 (Ko-khau, Trang, Peninsular Siam). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected the following: Two males, Kao Nom 
Plu, 3,000 feet, March 3, 1897; one male, Kao Nok Ram, 3,000 feet, 
January 16, 1899; two males, Kao Soi Dao, 2,500 feet, February 12, 
1899, all three localities in Trang. One male from Telok Ivrang, 
February 17, and a female from Meliwun, March 7, 1904, taken in 
Tenasserim by Dr. W. L. Abbott, cannot be distinguished from the 
three males from Trang. The female from Meliwun is very worn 
and much lighter, but this is natural. P. s. olivaceus must range in 
Tenasserim farther to the north. 



w Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 170, 1928. 
M Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. ni.st. Suppl., vol. 8. p. 2-14, 1932. 
•' Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 186, 1934. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 325 

Kobinson *^ records it from Kao Nawng, 1,200 feet to summit, 
Bandon; Robinson and Kloss *^ from Kao Luang, 2,000-5,500 feet, 
Nakon Sritamarat, and Tasan, Chumporn.^" 

Tliis form ranges from Trang north to southern Tenasserim, but 
how far to the southward is not definitely known. 

POMATORfflNUS SCmSTICEPS KLOSSI Baker 

Pomatorhinus niichalis klossi Baker, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 38, p. 9, 1917 
(Klong Menao, Siani). 

Two females, Ban Sadet, Sriracha, May 31, 1925; one female, Nong 
Khor, near Sriracha, November 12, 1926; one male and one female, 
Huey Yang, Sriracha, July 31 and August 5, 1932; one male and one 
female, Kao Bantad, Krat, December 23, 1929; one male, Kao Kuap, 
Krat, December 26, 1929; three males and two females, Kao Seming, 
Krat, October 13-14, 1928, December 31, 1929, and January 1, 1930; 
one male, Krat, December 20, 1929; one female, Ban Tarn Dam, 
March 6, 1930; two males, Hupbon, November 1, 14, 1931; six males 
and one female, Kao Sabap, October 23-November 16, 1933. 

All these localities are in southeastern Siam, from where the form 
extends into the Elephant Mountains of Cambodia. 

It is a deeper and more richly colored form above than nuchalis, 
the tail blackish and the sides strongly hazel; the bill with the black 
base extending farther forward. 

De Schauensee ®^ secured a pair at Chantabun. 

POMATORHINUS FERRUGINOSUS MARIAE Walden 

Pomatorhinus mariae Walden, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 4, vol. 15, p. 403, 
1875 (Tounghoo Hills). 

One adult male and one immature female, Doi Nangka, April 23 
and 25, 1931. 

This record represents an addition to the Siamese avifauna. It 
somewhat resembles P. ochraceiceps ochraceiceps but is darker above, 
the white superciliary is bordered above by blackish, the ear coverts 
are blacker and extend farther posteriorly, the breast and belly are 
light buff, and the bill is shorter and heavier. 

The form extends from the Toungoo and Karen Hills, upper Burma, 
to northern Siam. Delacour *^ has named a race P.J. orientalis from 
central Tonkin. This, judged from the plate,^' represents a form with 
a more reddish-brown back and tail. The above two specimens have 
been recorded previously by me.°* 

8' Journ. Federated Malay Stntes Mus., vol. 5, p. 103, 1915. 

•« Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. U, p. 61, 1923. 

•" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 285, 1924. 

»i Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, p. 187, 1934. 

»J Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 47, p. 159, 1927. 

•' Delacour and Jabouille, Oiseaux I'lndochine Fran^aise, vol. 3, pi. 43, 1931. 

M Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 9, p. 156, 1933. 



326 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

POMATORHINUS OCHRACEICEPS OCHRACEICEPS Waldcn 

Pomatorhinus ochraceiceps Walden, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 4, vol. 12, p. 487, 
1873 (Kareen Hills, Burma). 

One male and one female, Khun Tan, 3,000 feet, February 15, 
1932; one male, Khun Tan Mountains, 3,000 feet, May 13, 1933. 

Williamson ^^ adds the locality Muang Wang. Several collectors ^^ 
have taken it on Doi Sutep, 3,500-4,600 feet. Chasen and Kloss ^'^ 
report it from the Raheng District. 

The range of the form extends from the Karen Hills and Karenni 
Mountains of Tenasserim to northern Siam. 

POMATORHINUS HYPOLEUCUS LAOTIANUS Delacour and Jabouille 

Pomatorhinus tickelli laotianus Delacour and Jabouille, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, 
vol. 47, p. 16, 1926 (Xieng-Khouang, Laos). 

Three males and five females, Pak Chong, eastern Siam, April 24, 
May 5, and August 21, 1926, November 18-24, 1929, June 22, 1934; 
one male, Hin Lap, December 11, 1931; one immature male, Lamton 
Lang, May 28, 1934; two females, Kao Sabap, 2,000 feet, November 
14, 1933; one male, Khun Tan, 3,000 feet, February 22, 1932; one im- 
mature male, Khun Tan Mountains, 3,000 feet. May 11, 1933. 

The culmen in five males measures 39.5-45.5 (42) mm and in four 
females 39-44.5 (41.2) mm. If the specimens are correctly sexed, 
these measurements indicate considerable individual variation. 

I have been unable to compare these with any of the races, except 
hypoleucus and brevirostris, to neither of which thej'' belong. They 
seem nearer to the description of laotianus, to which they are nearest 
geographically also. 

In brevirostris the ear coverts are russet, while in laotianvs they are 
wood brown; the former has a much shorter bill. P. h. tickelli has a 
shorter bill than P. h. laotianus. 

The male from Hin Lap (U. S. N. M. no. 331995) has the supra- 
auricular wliite streaks extending forward to the nostril, forming a 
complete superciliary stripe; the nape and russet postauricular patch 
have some white streaks. It is the only specimen m the series so 
marked. 

The specimen from Khun Tan, northern Siam, agrees with the 
series from eastern Siam, so I presume Gjddenstolpe's record ^* of 
P. h. tickelli from there really^ belongs to laotianus, the latter not 
being described at the time he wrote ; de Schauensee ®^ has also 

»5 Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 16, 1918. 

«» De ?chauensee, Fr )c. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelpliia, vol. 81, p. 532, 1930; ibid., vol. 86, p. 187, 1934; Deig- 
nan, Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 136, 1931; Chasen and Kloss, Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. 
Suppl., vol. 8, p. 244, 1932. 

" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 176, 1928. 

•8 Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 52, 1916. 

•» Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 188, 1934. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 327 

recorded P. h. tickelli from CKiengdao, 4,000 feet. The immature 
male from the Khun Tan Mountains resembles the adult except the 
jugulum is sparsely spotted with sagittate spots and the bill is a little 
smaller (39.5 mm), the upperparts more reddish brown, and the 
flanks washed with hazel. The immature male from Lamton Lang 
is similar, but the jugular spots have almost disappeared. 

The form ranges from Tonkin, northern Annam, and northern 
Laos to eastern and northern Siam. 

EUPETES MACROCERCUS MACROCERCUS Temminck 

Eupetes macrocercus Temminck, Nouveau recueil de planches colori6es d'oiseaux, 
livr. 87, pi. 516, 1831 (Padang, Sumatra). 

One male and one female, Sichol, Bandon, May 15, 1930. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected a male on the Rumpin River, Pahang, 
July 4, 1902. 

Stuart Baker ^ separated the Peninsular Siamese bird as E. m. 
griseiventris, but Robinson and Kloss ^ have questioned the validity. 
The three specimens listed above seem to bear out their remarks 
when compared with two from Sumatra. 

The form occurs m Sumatra and on the Malay Peninsula north to 
Bandon, Peninsular Siam. 

This very peculiar, anomalous bird is an inhabitant of the lowlands 
rarely ascending the hills above 2,500 feet. E. m. borneensis Robin- 
son and Kloss is confined to Borneo. 

TIMALIA PILEATA INTERMEDIA Kinnear 

Timalia pileata iyitermedia Kinnear, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 45, p. 9, 1924 
(Tonghoo) . 

One male and three females, Muang Kanburi, April 9-15, 1928 
one male, Korat, February 14, 1929; one female. Ban Nak, March 
24, 1929; one male, Pak Chong, eastern Siam, November 21, 1929 
four males and two females. Bung Borapet, central Siam, June 24-28 
1932, March 21, 22, 1933; one male. Ban Bua Chum, October 20 
1932. 

Deignan,^ under the name T. p. bengalensis, has recorded this form 
from Chiengmai, and Williamson * has recorded it from Ayuthia, 
Chiengmai, Sriracha, and Nong Kae. De Schauensee ^ has listed it 
from Sriracha and Bung Borapet. 

The range of the form is apparently practically all over Burma 
and Siam, except the Peninsular part, and east into Laos and Tonkin. 

' Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 38, p. 8, 1917. 

» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 284, 1924. 

• Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Uist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 136, 1931. 

< Journ. Nat. Hi.st. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 17, 1918. 

» Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 188, 1934. 



328 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

GAMPSOKHYNCHUS RUFULUS TORQUATUS Hume 

Gampsorhynchus torquatus Hume, Proc. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 1874, p. 107; Stray 
Feathers, vol. 2, p. 446, 1874 (Younzaleen, Salween District, Tenasserim). 

Six males, Khun Tan, 4,000 feet, October 19, 1929, August 28, 1930, 
and February 15-17, 1932; one female, Doi Nangka, November 18, 
1932; one male, Khun Tan Mountains, 3,000 feet, May 13, 1933; one 
male, Kao Pae Pan Nam, Lamsak, February 19, 1934. 

In tliis series the dark jugular band is interrupted in one female from 
Doi Nangka, one male from Khun Tan, and one male from the Kao Pae 
Pan Nam. In a male received from the Raffles Museum from the 
Raheng district there is no dark jugular band at all. The remaining 
males have the jugular band complete. The color of the back extends 
forward onto the nape but is darker and usually mixed with white 
there, though in a few specimens not; the rest of the head is white. 

De Schauensee ^ states that birds from Chiengmai are intermediate 
between torquatus and luciae of Tonkin; his collectors found an adult 
male and an adult female accompanied by fully fledged young at the 
same place in mid-July. 

Deignan ^ says it is once recorded from Doi Sutep, 3,800 feet; not 
uncommon on some hills near Chiengmai. Chasen and Kloss ^ have 
recorded it from the Raheng district, western Siam. 

The form evidently occurs from the Toungoo Hills and Karenni, 
Burma, to northern and western Siam and south to Tenasserim; it 
also occurs in Lower Laos, southern Annam, and Cochinchina. In the 
mountains at the southern end of the Malay Peninsula a larger and 
darker form or species, G. saturatior Sharpe, occurs. It may extend 
into the mountains on the southwestern border of Patani. 

CHRYSOMMA SINENSIS SINENSIS (Gmelin) 

Parus sinensis Gmelin, Systema naturae, vol. 1, pt. 2, p. 1012, 1789 (China, error). 

One male. Bung Borapet, central Siam, June 28, 1932. 

Deignan ^ says this form occurs uncommonly on the plain at 
Chiengmai. To the eastward in Yunnan, C. s. major occurs. It is a 
larger, darker-colored form with a longer tail. 

De Schauensee '° identifies a single male from Chiengmai as C. s. 
major. The specimen from Bung Borapet has been compared with a 
specimen of Chrysomma sinensis major from Mengtsz, Yunnan, the 
type locality of the form, and the latter is considerably larger, with 
a much long-er tail and darker breast. 



« Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 188, 1934. 
' Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 174, 1931. 
« Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 176, 1928. 
• Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol 8, p. 136, 1931. 
•0 Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 188, 1934. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 329 

The Bung Borapet male measures: Wing, 61.5; tail, 77; culmen, 
12 mm. The Mengtsz male: Wing, 70; tail, 98; culmen, 13 mm. 

C. s. sinensis ranges from India proper to Burma and south to 
Tenasserim and northern Siam. 

PELLORNEUM KUFICEPS SUBOCHRACEUM Swinhoe 

Pellorneum subochraceum Swinhoe, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 4, vol. 7, p. 259, 
1871 (Tenasserim). 

Three males, Bangnara, Patani, July 16-20, 1926; one male, Bukit, 
Patani, January 27, 1931; one male, Yala, Patani, January 30, 1931; 
one immature male, Koh Samui, Bandon, August 7, 1931; one male, 
Patalung, July 8, 1929; one male, Rajaburi, April 10, 1926; one male, 
Kwe Noi, Kanburi, September 20, 1929; two males, Muang Kanburi, 
April 12, 1928; three males and two females, Koh Lak, June 6-14, 
1933; one male and one female, Gengkoi, October 16, 1932; one male» 
Ban Manoa Wan, October 21, 1932; two females, Ban Tawai Phra, 
Pasak River, October 22, 1932; three males, Sam Roi Yot, November 
8-11, 1932; one male Kao Pae Pan Nam, Lamsak, February 19, 1934. 

The immature male from Koh Samui has some cinnamon-brown 
feathers scattered through the huffy brown of the back; the pileum is 
considerably darker than in the adult; both sides of the chest and 
flanks are washed with tawny-olive; the fuscous streaks are rather 
narrow and sparse and confined to the jugulum; otherwise similar to 
the adult. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected the following: One male, Prahmon, 
Trang, March 14, 1896; one male and two females, Tyching, Trang 
June 4-July 27, 1896; one male and one female, Trang, February 15 
and March 4, 1897; two males, Bok Pyin, Tenasserim, February 11-12, 
1900; three males and two females, Mergui Archipelago (St. Matthew 
Island, January 17, 1900; SuUivan Island, February 2, 1900; Ross 
Island, March 5, 1900; Domel Island, January 25, 1904). Also two 
sets of three eggs each m Trang, June 4, 1896, and March 4, 1897; 
the first set with large embryos. He gives the color of the soft parts 
as: Iris reddish brown; upper mandible horny brown, lower mandible 
pale fleshy, yellow at the base; feet pale pinkish fleshy. 

The Tenasserim and Mergui specimens seem to be bufiier on the 
chest and flanks and the back more tinged with cinnamon-brown than 
the series from Trang; the Trang series is browner on the back when 
compared with Dr. Smith's Peninsular Siam series, but below the 
two series are much alike. I think the browner backs of the Trang 
series are due to the fresh, unfaded condition of the plumage of Dr. 
Smith's birds. All thi-ee series are less heavily streaked on the chest 
than in the form occurring in northern and eastern Siam. The dif- 
ferences between the three series from the Malay Peninsula are sUght 
and may be seasonal. They are not worth recognizing by name. 



330 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

The form occurring in northern and eastern Siam is more heavily 
streaked on the chest and the pileum is darker brown than in subochra- 
ceum, which ranges from central and southwestern Siam and southern 
Tenasserim south through Peninsular Siam to the Federated Malay 
States. 

PELLOKNEUM RUFICEPS VIVIDUM La Touche 

Pellorneum nipalense vividum La Touche, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 42, p. 17, 
1921 (Hokow, southeastern Yunnan). 

One male, Ban Kiriwong, July 11, 1928; one female, Knong Phra, 
April 10, 1929; two males, Ivliun Tan, August 27-28, 1930; one female, 
Aranya, July 17, 1930; one female. Ban Nam Fien, Nan, April 18, 
1930; one female, Lat Bua Kao, July 31, 1929; two males, two females, 
and one immature, Pak Chong, eastern Siam, February 10, 1925, May 
11, 1925, May 6, 1926, and November 20, 1929; one immature female, 
Tha Chang, near Pak Chong, March 21, 1927; one male, Nong Khor 
near Sriracha, March 19, 1926; one female, Sriracha, April 20, 1934; 
one male, Nong Mong, Muang Krabin, August 24, 1925; one male, 
Hupbun, November 15, 1931. 

This form is darker above and the streaks on the chest are broader 
than in suhochraceum. It apparently ranges from northern Siam 
eastward through eastern Siam to Laos, Tonkin, southeastern Yunnan, 
Annam, Cochinchina, and Cambodia. 

PELLORNEUM RUFICEPS SMITHI Riley 

Pellorneum smithi Riley, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 37, p. 129. 1924 
(Koh Chang Island, southeastern Siam). 

One female (the type), Koh Chang, April 4, 1924; one female 
Kao Sabap, November 7, 1933. 

The type is as much of a puzzle to me now as the day it was 
described. It is much darker than either suhochraceum or vividum, 
both above and below. The type was examined by Bangs and Van 
Tyne, and they say it is very different from any other specimen 
they had seen. They suggest that some of its peculiarities may be 
due to the make of the skin," but this would not account for the 
different color of the upperparts and flanks. 

The back and tail are cinnamon-brown, while in vividum they are 
near saccardo umber; the pileum is deeper and the flanks also. It 
may be only an example of erythrism or may turn out to be a local 
race confined to southeastern Siam. For this reason I am listing 
it separately. 

The female taken at Kao Sabap is almost as dark on the back 
as the type, but below the streaks on the chest are not so broad, 
nor are the flanks so deeply colored, and the breast and belly are 

u Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ., Zool. Ser., vol. 18. no. 3, p. 84, 1931. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 331 

white not buITy; ear coverts not so deeply colored. I am placing this 
specimen, however, with the type with some hesitation. The south- 
eastern corner of Siam contains a number of forms that are not found 
in other parts of the country and that probably extend into the 
adjacent regions of Cambodia. Some of them are known to do so, 
but so far as I know this part of Cambodia has not been well explored 
biologically; the explorations of M. Delacour and colleagues did not 
extend this far northwest. 

DRYMOCATAPHUS NIGRICAPITATUS NIGRICAPITATUS (Eyton) 

Brachypteryx nigricapitata Eyton, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1839, p. 103 (Malacca). 

Four females, Bangnara, Patani, May 10 and 23, 1924, and July 
13, 1926; four adult males, one immature male, and one immature 
female, Sichol, Bandon, August 29-September 1, 1929, and May 
20-27, 1930; one unsexed, Kao Chong, Trang, September 2, 1933. 
Dr. Smith describes the soft parts as: Iris reddish brown; bill black 
above, horn below; legs light brown. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took an adult female and an immature female 
at Lay Song Hong, Trang, August 25, 1896; and an adult male on 
Singapore Island, May 17, 1899. He describes the soft parts as: 
Iris reddish brown or dark red; upper mandible black, lower mandible 
fleshy or bluish white; feet fleshy brown. 

Three stages of plumage are represented by the immature specimens: 
(1) An immature male, not long from the nest, with gray throat and 
forehead and the rest of the body duller than in the adult; (2) throat 
tawny lilce the chest, pileum fuscous, the superciliary becoming gray- 
ish white; and (3) throat white and the rest of the plumage much as 
in the adult. 

Robinson and Kloss '^ report it from Tasan, Chumporn, Peninsular 
Siam and say that this is about the northern limit in the Peninsula. 
The species occurs from Singapore northward through Peninsular 
Siam to southern Tenasserim. 

The few specimens examined from Sumatra are darker above than 
Peninsular birds and belong to the form named D. n. nydilampis by 
Oberholser.^^ 

This bird is generally cited as a race of D. capistratus of Java, but 
the latter is a distinct species in my estimation, with so many diifer- 
ences that it is better to recognize it as such. The form found in 
Borneo, capistratoides, evidently belongs to the same form group as 
the Malay bird. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 292, 1924. 

" Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 74, no. 2, p. 10, 1922 (Banks Island). 



332 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

DRYMOCATAPHUS TICKELLI TICKELLI (Blyth) 

Pellorneum tickelli Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 28, p. 414, 1859 (Am- 
herst, Tenasserim). 

The United States National Museum contains the female of this 
form from Hue Nya Pla, Raheng, 2,500 feet, May 20, 1924, ^^ recorded 
by Chasen and Kloss. 

Robinson and Kloss ^* report it from Renong River, Tapli (Pak- 
chan), and Tasan (Chumporn), all in Peninsular Siam. The form is 
said to extend from Assam south of the Brahmaputra, and south to 
southern Tenasserim and for a short distance farther south into 
Peninsular Siam; eastward it extends to western Siam (Raheng). 

DRYMOCATAPHUS TICKELLI OLIVACEUS Kinnear 

Drymocataphus tickelli olivaceus Kinneak, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 45, p. 11, 
1924 (Bao Ha, Tonkin). 

Three females, Khun Tan, 3,000 feet, October 27, 1929, and Feb- 
ruary 24 and 26, 1932; one female, Kao Pae Pan Nam, Lamsak, 
February 18, 1934. 

The above specimens from Khun Tan are more olive-brown, much 
lighter than either tickelli or australis; below they are lighter, less 
buffy, the chin and throat white like the center of the breast. In 
tickelli and australis the chin is buffy like sides of neck. I have had 
no specimens of olivaceus for comparison, but when placed beside 
tickelli and australis, the Khun Tan birds stand out as quite distinct, 
and if they are not this form they require a name. 

The female from Kao Pae Pan Nam is darker above than the Khun 
Tan specimens but is nearer to this form than to the other two ac- 
credited to Siam. 

Count Gyldenstolpc's record of D. t. tickelli ^^ from Pak Koh 
probably belongs here; Deignan ^^ took a female on Doi Angka, 4,400 
feet, April 19, 1931; de Schauensee ^^ obtained a male at Chiengdao, 
4,000 feet. 

The form evidently ranges from northern and eastern Siam to Laos, 
Tonkin, and northern Annam. 

DRYMOCATAPHUS TICKELLI AUSTRALIS Robinson and Kloss 

Drymocataphus tickelli australis Robinson and Kloss, Journ. Federated Malay 
States Mus., vol. 10, p. 205, 1921 (Ginting Bidei, 2,300 feet, Selangor). 

One male, Kao Luang, 3,000 feet, Nakon Sritamarat, July 20, 
1928; five males, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, December 21-30, 1933. 

" Journ. Siani Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 177, 1928. 

» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5. no. 3, p. 291, 1924. 

i« Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. nandl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 57, 1916. 

1' Rodgers and Deignan, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 47, p. 92, 1934. 

i» Proc. Aoid. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 190, 1934. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 333 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took the following in Trang, Peninsular Siam: 
two males, two females, ane one unsexed, Kao Soi Dao, 2,000-3,000 
feet, February 1-15, 1899; two males and three females, Kao Nok 
Ram, 2,000-3,000 feet, Januar}^ 8-14, 1899; one male and two fe- 
males, Kao Nom Plu, 2,000 feet, February 20-24, 1897. He gives 
the soft parts as: Iris pale brown to brownish red; bill pale horn 
brown above, fleshy white beneath; feet pale brownish fleshy. 

The male from Kao Luang has a longer bill than those from Trang 
but in plumage agrees w4th the Trang series. 

Robmson and Kloss ^^ have added no additional localities, but they 
say this is a more riclily colored race than the typical form. The 
only specimen of the latter possessed by the United States National 
Museum, a female, is more richly colored than australis, however. 

Dr. Abbott took a nest and three eggs at Kao Nom Plu, Trang, 
February 24, 1897. 

GYPSOPHILA CRISPIFRONS ANNAMENSIS (Delacour and Jabouille) 

Corythocichla annamensis Delacour and Jabouille, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, 

vol. 48, p. 131, 1928 (Phuqui, northern Annam). 
Cursonia crispifrons saxatilis Bangs and Van Tyne, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. 

Publ., zool. ser., vol. 18, p. 3, 1930 (Na River at Bac Tan Trai, Tonkin). 

Two males and one female, Hin Lap, December 8, 12, 1931. 

These three specimens do not agree with the descriptions of G. c. 
crispifrons or G. c. annamensis but come nearer to the latter. The 
only specimen of annamensis available for comparison has no white 
on the throat, which is grayish with darker gray streaks. The three 
birds taken by Dr. Smith have the throats white with broad black 
streaks down the centers of the feathers, the white predominating 
over the black, however; the sides of the throat and neck cinnamon- 
buff; breast cinnamon with a grayish tinge on the jugulum and light 
brownish olive on the flanks, each feather with a very narrow whitish 
shaft-streak. 

The plate published by Delacour and Jabouille ^° is a redder brown 
on the wing, rump, and tail than the Hin Lap specimens, the black 
on the throat predominates over the white, there is no cinnamon- 
bufT on the sides of throat, and the chest is dark gray. 

G. c. crispifrons is said to be a very variable bird and the eastern 
representative would likely be also. Certainly the only specimen I 
have handled from Annam is quite different from Delacour and 
Jabouille's plate. These facts considered, the eastern Siamese 
skins can be assigned to G. c. annamensis for the present. The range 
then would be northern Annam, Tonkin, northern Laos, and eastern 
Siam. 



i» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 291, 1924. 
M Oiseaux I'Indochine Franfaise, vol. 3, pi. 46, 19.31. 

33527—38 22 



334 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Whether Williamson's ^^ record of G. crispifrons from the Muang 
Song Forest, Prae, belongs to this form or not, it is impossible to say. 

The two males from Hin Lap measure: Wing, 75-78; tail, 68-70; 
culmen, 17-18 mm. The single female: Wing, 72; tail, 64; culmen, 
16.5 mm. 

CORYTHOCICHLA BREVICAUDATA VENNINGI (Harington) 

Turdinulus hrcvicaudatus venningi Harington, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 33, 
p. 44, 1913 (South Shan States). 

Two males, Fang Meton, Doi Nangka, May 4 and 6, 1931. 

This is a larger form than C. h. leueostida and has the breast and 
belly tawny without any whitish to the center of the breast. It is a 
very distinct form. 

Deignan" obtained three specimens on Doi Angka, 4,900-5,500 
feet, April 22, 26, 1931 ; de Schauensee -^ took two females at Chiengdao 
at 3,000 and 5,000 feet that he identifies as C 6. hrevicaudata, but they 
are probably this form. He had no comparative material and neither 
have I, but my two specimens agree with the description and measure- 
ments of venningi better than thoy do with brevlcaudata. Two closely 
related forms would hardly occur in the same area. Deignan ^* 
records two from Doi Sutep. 

The two specimens collected by Dr. Smith measure: Wing, 66-69; 
tail, 54=(one imperfect); culmen, 16.5-17 mm. De Schauensee gives 
the measurement of the wings of his two females as 66 and 64 mm. 
These are rather small, but they are females. The South Shan States 
are nearer geographically. 

Gj^ldenstolpe -^ records it from Doi Par Sakeng and Deignan ^^ from 
Doi Sutep, 3,800 feet, as hrevicaudata. 

If the above specimens are correctly determined, the range of 
C. h. venningi would then be the southern Shan States, Burma, 
Yunnan, and northern Si am. 

CORYTHOCICHLA BREVICAUDATA LEUCOSTICTA Sharpe 

Corythocichla leueostida Sharpe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1887, p. 438 (Larut 

Mountains, Pcrak). 
Corythocichla hrevicaudata herberti Baker, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 38, p. 10, 

1917 (Tung Song, Peninsular Siam). 

Three males, Kao Luang, 2,000-3,000 feet, Nakon Sritamarat, 
July 19,20, 1928; one male and one female, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, 
December 26, 1933 and January 4, 1934. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siain, vol. 2, p. 59, 1916. 

" Rodgers and Deignan, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 47, p. 91, 1934. 

" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 190, 1934. 

»Uourn. Siam. Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 10, p. 106, 1936. 

» Kungl. Svenska Vet.-.'Vkad. Handl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 58, 1916. 

" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Uist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 137, 1931. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 335 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected two males on Kao Soi Dao, 1,000 feet, 
Trang, February 2 and 16, 1899, and an immature female in the hills 
of Trang, February 16, 1897. He describes the soft parts as: Iris 
clear brown; feet dark fleshy brown. 

The three Trang and three Nakon Sritamarat males have more 
pronounced white tips to the remiges than two typical males from 
farther south (Selangor-Pahang boundary and Gunong Ulu Kali). 
The three Nakon Sritamarat specimens are somewhat grayer than the 
Trang males, but the difference is slight. 

The immature female collected by Dr. Abbott has the feathers of 
the back and pileum edged with mars brown instead of the very dark 
brown, almost black, of the adult; the centers of the feathers are not 
well defined as in the adult, except the shaft streak; the throat as in 
the adult but more restricted; the breast and belly sayal brown with 
dusky and tawny mottling; the spots on the wing coverts and remiges 
very faint and fulvous; the tail as in the adult. It is a young bird 
about half grown. 

The race extends from the Federated Malay States north through 
Peninsular Siam as far as the province of Bandon, where it has been 
recorded by Robinson from Kao Nawng.^^ 

CORYTHOCICHLA BREVICAUDATA COGNATA Riley 

Corythocichla brevicaudata cognata Riley, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 46, 
p. 156, 1933 (Kao Sabab, southeastern Siam). 

One male, Kao Kuap, Krat, December 25, 1929; eight males and 
five females, Kao Sabap, January 7, 1930, November 2, 16, 1933. 

The present form was described as similar to C b. striata, but the 
gray of the throat deeper, the streaks much paler, and the upper- 
parts darker, less rufescent. Wing, 57; tail, 35; culmen, 14; tarsus, 
23; middle toe with claw, 19.5 mm. 

C. griseignlaris Delacour and Jabouille, from Bokor, southern 
Cambodia, is evidently closely related, but it is described as having 
a uniform gray throat and chest, and the published plate, ^^ if anywhere 
near accurate, shows quite a different form — more reddish above and 
on the flanks, lighter on the breast, the cheeks and throat lighter, 
and the latter unstreaked. 

C. b. cognata was originally founded upon three specimens, but 
since then Dr. Smith secured 11 more from Kao Sabap. 

The nine males measure: Wing, 57-61 (59.6); tail, 35-42.5 (39.7); 
culmen, 13.5-15 (14.2 mm.) The five females: Wing, 56.5-58 (57); 
tail, 37-40 (38.3); culmen, 13-14 (13.5) mm. 

I consider de Schauensee's ^® record of Napothera griseigularis from 
Chantaboon to belong to this form. 

'• Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 5, p. 104, 1915. 

" Oiseaux rindochine Fran^aise, vol. 3, pi. 46, 1931. 

» Proc. Acad. Nat. Scil Philadelphia, vol. 86, pp. 3, 190, 1934. 



336 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

It is confined to southeastern Siam, so far as known, but it will 
probably be found to extend into western Cambodia. 

NAPOTHERA EPILEPIDOTA GRANTI (Richmond) 

Turdinulus granti Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 22, p. 320, 1900 (Kaa 

Soi Dao, Trang). 
Turdinulus hutnei Hartert, Nov. ZooL, vol. 9, p. 504, 1902 (Gunong Tahan^ 

1,500 feet, Pahang). 

One male, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, November 30, 1933. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected two males and one immature female in 
the hills of Trang, February 3-20, 1897; and one male and one female, 
Kao Soi Dao, 1000 feet, Trang, February 11, 1899. He gives the 
soft parts as: Iris dark brown; bill dark horn above, leaden beneath; 
feet fleshy brown. 

Two females from Selangor in the United States National Museum 
apparently do not differ from Trang specimens. 

One of Dr. Abbott's specimens is an immature female and was 
collected in the Trang Hills, February 16, 1897. It is of about adult 
size and resembles the adult, except the upperparts are a redder brown 
without streaks or flammulations, the wing spots ochraceous-buffy; 
below there are no streaks, the cheeks are without any stippling, and 
the superciliary is only distinct beyond the eye and is tawny. 

The form evidently extends from the southern Malay States north 
through Peninsular Siam to the mountains of Nakon Sritamarat,^ 
where Robinson and Kloss ^"^ report it fairly common. 

NAPOTHERA EPILEPIDOTA BAKERI (Harington) 

Turdinulus hakeri Harington, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 33, p. 44, 1913 (South 
Shan States, Burma). 

One male, Doi Nangka, November 13, 1930. 

This is a darker, less rufescent bird above than A^ e. granti with 
much darker flanks. It had been previously reported by WilUam- 
son ^' from Muang Wang; de Schauensee ^^ from Doi Sutep and later 
by Deignan from the same mountain, where he says it occurs from 
4,500 to 5,500 feet; ^^ de Schauensee ^* on his third expedition secured 
four males and five females at Chiengmai and Chiengdao. 

The form ranges from the South Shan States, Burma, into northern 
Siam. 



«o Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6, p. 294, 1924. 

»' Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 18, 1918. 

" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 81, p. 532, 1930. 

»» Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 137, 1931. 

M Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 190, 1934. 



BIRDS FROM SIAJVI AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 337 

TUBDINUS MACRODACTYLUS MACRODACTYLUS (Strickland) 

Malacopteron macrodactylum Strickland, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. 13, p. 417, 

1844 (Malacca). 
Turdinus macrodactylus bakeri Hachisuka, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 47, p. 54, 

1926 (Lamra, Trang). 

Two males and three females, Sicliol, Bandon, August 31, 1929, 
May 23-27, 1930; one male, Kao Chong, Trang, September 8, 1933. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected two males and three females in Trang 
(Lay Song Hong, August 26-September 27, 1896, and Trang, January 
25, 1897). He describes the soft parts as: Iris gray brown; bill black; 
lower mandible yellowish at base; feet fleshy brown. 

The series from Trang apparently does not differ from Malacca 
specimens. The specimens from Bandon, however, appear to be 
larger than the Trang birds, the chest and breast a clearer gray, the 
upper parts hghter brown, and the closed wing less chestnut, more of 
an argus brown. Nevertheless, I believe the Trang series are all more 
or less immature; one male is almost adult, and a male from Sichol 
also apparently not fully adult approaches it very closely. 
I^- Robinson and Kloss ^^ have compared a large series from the 
Federated Malay States with six from Trang and find that they do not 
differ essentially. 

The form ranges from the southern Federated Malay States north 
in Peninsular Siam as far as Bandon on the east coast and Ghirbi 
on the west coast. 

MALACORNIS MAGNA MAGNA (Eyton) 

Malacopteron magnum Eyton, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1839, p. 103 (Malaya). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected the following in the Malay Peninsula: 
One male. Lay Song Hong, Trang, Peninsular Siam, September 20, 
1896; one female, the Dindings, Straits of Malacca, April 13, 1900; 
one male and one female, Tanjong Dungun, Trengganu, September 
20, 1902; one male, Rumpin River, Pahang, May 23, 1902. 

He gives the soft parts as: Iris red or brownish red; upper mandible 
black, lower leaden; feet bright lead blue. 

Robinson and Kloss ^^ report it from Tasan, Chumporn, Peninsular 
Siam, which is about the northern limit of its range in Siam. 

The form ranges from the southern end of the Malay Peninsula 
north through Peninsular Siam to southern Tenasserim, Sumatra, and 
Borneo. 

I have shown that Malacornis Gistel should replace Malacopteron 
Eyton (preoccupied).^^ 

» Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 290, 1924. 
«« Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 293, 1924. 
»' Auk, vol. SO, p. 364, 1933. 



338 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

MALACORNIS MAGNIROSTRIS MAGNIROSTRIS (Moore) 

Alcippe magnirostris Moore, Proc. Zool. See. London, 1854, p. 277, 1855 
(Malacca). 

One male, Patalung, July 8, 1929; three males and two females, 
Sichol, Bandon, August 29, 1929, and May 22-28, 1930; three males, 
Kao Luang, Nakon Sritamarat, July 16, 1928 and October 7, 1930; 
three males, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, September 1, December 22 and 
26, 1933. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected the following specimens in the Malay 
Peninsula: Eight males and nine females in Trang (Prahmon, April 
8, 9, 1896; Lay Song Hong, September 15-November 20, 1896; 
Trang, February 3-27, 1897; Kao Nok Kam, 2,000 feet, January 10, 
1899; Kao Soi Dao, 1,000-2,000 feet, February 2-20, 1899); one male 
and one female, Singapore Island, May 17, 26, 1899; one male Tanjong 
Laboha, Trengganu, September 29, 1900; and one male, Rumpin 
River, Pahang, July 3, 1902. He describes the soft parts as: Iris 
brown, yellowish brown, red, brownish red, or dark red; upper man- 
dible dark brown, dull black, or dark leaden; lower mandible pale 
horny blue or pale leaden; feet leaden, pale lavender, or bluish fleshy. 

A female shot by Dr. Abbott at Kao Soi Dao, Trang, Februarj^ 2, 
contained well-developed eggs. 

In the above series a male from Kao Chong, Trang (no. 333941) 
September 1 ; two males from Kao Luang, Nakon Sritamarat, July 
16 and October 7 (nos. 311091 and 333558); and one female, wSichol, 
Bandon, August 29 (no. 324351) are somewhat different from the 
remainder of the series. Above they do not differ from the other 
specimens appreciably, but below they lack the dusky streaks on 
the foreneck and chest. The principal difference, however, is in the 
color of the feet and bill. In the normal adult (in the skin) the bill 
is black above, slaty horn below, and the feet slaty. In the four 
specimens mentioned above, the bill is brown above, yellowish horn 
below, and the feet yellowish horn. I rather think these birds repre- 
sent immature birds just before acquiring the adult plumage. In 
all four specimens the extreme tip of the tail is a lighter hazel and in 
two of the specimens two of the inner secondaries are hazel, standing 
out from the dresdcn brown of the other flight feathers. 

A female shot by Dr. Abbott at Prahmon, Trang, April 9, had the 
iris olive and the lower mandible yellowish. It is a subadult specimen 
with the inner secondaries of the immature still retained. This 
accounts, it seem to me, for the great variation in the color of the 
soft parts as recorded by Dr. Abbott. A plumage approximating 
that of the adult is assumed before the adult color of the eye is at- 
tained. 

The form extends from the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula 
north through Peninsular Siam to southern Tenasserim. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 339 

Robinson and Kloss ^^ record specimens from Tung Pran, Takua- 
tung, and Tasan, Clmmporn. This is as far north as I have seen 
any records for Peninsular Siam. 

MALACORNIS AFFINIS AFFINIS (Blyth) 

Trichastoma affine Bltth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 11, 1842, p. 795 (Singa- 
pore) . 

Four males and one female, and one unsexed, Bangnara, Patani, 
July 14-19, 1926. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected a male on the Rumpin River, Pahang, 
May 30, 1902 He gives the soft parts as bill leaden, brown above; 
feet leaden. 

The species seems to be confined to the southern end of the Malay 
Peninsula and so far has been taken in Peninsular Siam only in the 
Province of Patani. The species has been recorded from Sumatra 
and Borneo, but specimens I have examined from these islands seem 
to be somewhat smaller and with more of a tawny wash above. 

The present species differs from magnirostris in having the pileum 
blacldsh. 

MALACORNIS CINEREA CINEREA (Eyton) 

Malacopteron cinereus Eyton, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1839, p. 103 (Malaya). 

One male, Kao Luang, Nakon Sritamarat, July 19, 1928; one male, 
Sichol, Bandon, August 28, 1929; two males, Kao Soi Dao, Trang^ 
December 24, 1933, January 8, 1934. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected the following: Seven males and six 
females in Trang (Prahmon, April 8, 1896; Lay Song Hong, August 
19-November 9, 1896; Trang, January 25-February 7, 1897; Kao 
Nok Ram, 1,000 feet, January 4, 1899; Kao Soi Dao, 1,000 feet, 
February 8, 1899); two females, the Dindings, Straits of Malacca, 
April 13, 1900; one male, Rumpin River, Pahang, June 22, 1902;^ 
one male, Dungun River, Trengganu, September 22, 1900. He gives 
the soft parts as: Iris brown, grayish brov/n, or dark red; upper man- 
dible brownish black, lower mandible leaden, fleshy at base; feet 
pale fleshy purple; eyelids pale yellowish green. 

This is a smaller species than AI. magna but much like it in color 
above, but without the dusky streaks on the throat and chest. Both 
species have rusty foreheads and black napes. 

The form ranges from the southern end of the Malay Peninsula 
north through Peninsular Siam as far as Bandon. 

Williamson ^^ records it from Patani; Robinson and Kloss ^° from 
Kao Ram, 1,200 feet, and Kao Luang, 2,500 feet, Nakon Sritamarat. 

"Journ. Nr\t. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 293, 1924. 

"Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 17, 1918. 

"Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 11, p. 62, 1923. 



340 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

MALACORNIS RUFIFRONS INUOCHINENSIS (Robinson and Kloss) 

Horizillas rufifrons indochinensis Robinson and Kloss, Journ. Federated Malay 
States Mus., vol. 10, p. 205, 1921 (Trangbom, Cochinchina) . 

One male, Nong Mong, Miiang Krabin, August 27, 1925; one 
female, Sakeo, near Krabin, May 4, 1928; one male, Nong Khor, 
near Sriracha, September 24, 1925; two males, one female, and one 
unsexed, Pak Chong, eastern Siam, May 8 and 14, 1925; two males 
and one female, Lam Klong Lang, Pak Chong, June 10-11, 1925; one 
male, Tha Chang, near Pak Chong, May 18, 1927; one female, Ban 
Tarn Dam, southeastern Siam, no date; one male and one female, 
Kao Bantad, Krat, December 21, 1929; two males and one female, 
Aranya, July 16, 1930; two males and two females, Hupbon, Novem- 
ber 5, 1931; four males and three females, Hin Lap, eastern Siam, 
December 9-11, 1931. 

This series is from eastern and southeastern Siam. The only 
specimen of M. r. riijifrons from Java examined is larger; the tail and 
tail coverts are a brighter and more rufous brown; the piieum is more 
tawny; and there are some other differences. The considerable series 
from Siam seems to fit the description of the Cambodian form, though 
I have no specimens for comparison. 

The form ranges all over French Indo-China, with the exception of 
Tonkin and northern Laos, and westward into southeastern and 
eastern Siam. 

Robinson ^^ recorded it from Klong Menao; and Kloss *^ from Lat 
Bua Kao and Satahip, near Cape Liant, the latter under the name 
Setaria lepidocephala. 

ERYTHROCICHLA BICOLOR BICOLOR (Lesson) 

Brachypteryx bicolor Lesson, Rev. Zool., p. 138, 1839 (Sumatra). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took a male and female, Lay Song Hong, Trang, 
August 21 and November 11, 1896. He describes the soft parts as: 
Iris pale brown; upper mandible dark brown, lower mandible fleshy, 
pale leaden at tip; feet pale fleshy brown. 

Robinson and Kloss ^^ report it from Tasan, Chumporn, Peninsular 
Siam; they had previously ^* reported it as widely distributed and com- 
monest in the central part of the Peninsula. 

The form extends from the southern end of the Peninsula north to 
southern Tenasserim, Sumatra, and Banka. 

While tlie only specimen examined from Sumatra, a female differs 
somewhat from the female from Trang, the differences may be attrib- 
uted to individual variations. A male from Banka Island is some- 



•' Ibis, 1915, p. 748. 

" Ibis, 1918. p. 203. 

« Journ. N.-xt. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 290, 1924. 

« Ibis, 1911, p. 60. 



BIRDS FROM SI AM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 341 

what darker above than a male from Trang and a male from Perak and 
possibly may not be the same. 

Bornean birds have been separated by Hartert as E. h. whiteheadi,*^ 
and the only specimen examined from there bears out the diagnosis; a 
male from Pulo Laut, southeastern Borneo, is brighter and more rufes- 
cent above than the two males from the Malay Peninsula. The 
specimen may represent an insular form or the difi'erences may be due 
to individual variation. 

OPHRYDORNIS ALBOGULARIS ALBOGULARIS (BIyth) 

Setaria albogularis Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 13, p. 385, 1844 (Singa- 
pore) . 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took a single male of this rare species on the 
Rumpkin River, Pahaiig, June 5, 1902. He gives the soft parts as: 
Iris deep red ; upper m.audible black, lower mandible leaden ; feet dark 
leaden. 

Dr. Abbott states that it frequents thick brush in heavy forest, 
keeping close to the ground. 

I have seen no records from Siamese territory, but it will probably be 
found to extend much farther north than it is knov/n to do at present. 
It occurs also in Sumatra. 

This species may be briefly described as: Pileum, lores, and cheeks 
dark neutral gray; a narrow white superciliary from the nostril to 
posterior border of the e3'^e; throat white; a neutral gray band acioss the 
jugulum; middle of the breast and belly white; sides, flanks, and under 
tail coverts cinnamon-buff; back and closed wing cinnamon-brown; 
tail fuscous, the outer webs of the feathers russet. Wing, 71 ; tail, 49; 
culmen, 13.5 mm. 

The rictal bristles are long and stiff, and the white feathers over the 
lores, forming part of the superciliary, are erect and stiff". 

A related form, 0. a. moultoni Robinson and Kloss, is found in 
Borneo. 

AETHOSTOMA ROSTRATUM ROSTRATUM (BIyth) 

Trichastoma rostratum Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 11, p. 795, 1842 
(Singapore) . 

One male and one female, Bangnara, Peninsular Siam, July 17, 1926. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected the following specimens in the Malay 
Peninsula: One male, Trang, January 4, 1897; two males and one 
female, Singapore Island, May 20-26, 1899; one male, Rumpin 
River, Pahang, June 3, 1902. He gives the soft parts as: Iris pale 
brown; upper mandible dark horn brown, lower leaden; feet brownish 
fleshy. 

« Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 36, p. 36, 1915. 



342 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAI. MUSEUM 

The form extends from Singapore north to soutliern Tenasserim, but 
I have examined no specimens north of Trang; the latter do not differ 
appreciably from the Singapore specimens. 

Kobinson and Kloss *^ report two males from Tasan, Chumporn, 
Peninsular Siam, which they say is the first record from Siam. In 
Sumatra and Borneo closely related forms occur. 

MALACOCINCLA ABBOTTI BIyth 

Malacocincla abbotti Bltth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 14, p. 601, 1845 
(Ramree Island, Arakan). 

One male, Bangnara, Patani, July 14, 1926; two females, Tha Lo, 
Bandon, September 13, 20, 1931; two males, Koh Pangan, Bandon, 
August 1, 1931; one male, Koh Lak, June 24, 1933; one male, Pran, 
April 2, 1931; one male, Muang Kanburi, April 16, 1928; one male 
and one female, Bangkok, February 7 and March 8, 1924; five males 
and four females, Pak Chong, eastern Siam, February 5, May 14-15, 
and November 15, 1925, November 16-December 9, 1929; two males 
and three females. Lam Klong Lang, Pak Chong, June 7-14, 1925; 
two males. Lam ton Lang, June 1, 1934; one male and one female, 
Lat Bua Kao, eastern Siam, August 6, 1929; one male and one female, 
Sakeo, near Krabin, May 4-5, 1928; one female, Nong Mong, August 
24, 1925; one male, Sikeu, near Korat, March 1, 1926; two males and 
one female, Hupbon, November 5, 14, 1931 ; one male and one female, 
Nong Khor, near Sriracha, September 25, 1925; one female. Ban 
Tarn Dam, Sriracha, March 4, 1930; one female, Klong Yai, Sriracha, 
July 24, 1932; three males and one female, Kao Seming, Ki'at, Decem- 
ber 31, 1929-January 1, 1930; one male, Kao Bantad, Krat, December 
22, 1929; two males, Kao Lem, Chantabun, June 7, 1926 and Decem- 
ber 28, 1930; three males and one female, Koh Kut, May 20 and 23, 
1929; four males and one unsexed, Kao Sabap, October 25-November 
7, 1933; two males and one female, Knong Phra, AprU 9-10, 1929- 
January 2, 1931; one male. Ban Kam Pran, Pasak River, October 
18, 1932. 

Dr. Smith took two sets of three eggs each at Pak Chong, Maj'' 14, 
1925. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected the following: Four males and one 
female, Trang, April 2, 1896, February 8-10, March 8, 1897, and 
February 23, 1899; one male and two females, Pulo Langkawi, Decem- 
ber 6, 1899 and November 5, 1903; one male, Pulo Terutau, November 
10, 1903; one female, Tanjong Laboha, Trcngganu, September 28, 
1900; four males and two females, Tenasserim (Tanjong Badak, 
January 7-12; Victoria Island, January 5; Bok Pym, February 11; 
Chaduquat Point, Pakchan River, December 19; all in 1900); five 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 292, 1924. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 343 

males and five females, Mergiii Archipelago (Sullivan Island; February 
2 and January 4; St. Alattliew Island, January 14, 16; St. Luke Island, 
January 19; Loughborough Island, January 23; Ross Island, March 5; 
Heifer Island, March 6; Bentinck Island, March 10; all except one in 
1900, this exception being a female collected with a nest and two eggs 
on Sullivan Island, January 4, 1904). Beside the nest just men- 
tioned, he collected another nest and two eggs in Trang, March 8, 1897. 

He describes the soft parts as: Iris pale brown, olive-brown, or 
yellowish brown; bill dark horn brown, blackish or dark leaden above, 
leaden, leaden blue or bluish white below, paler near tip; feet pale 
brownish fleshy or pale fleshy. 

The series from Tenasserim and the Mergui Archipelago seem to 
have a little more russet tinge to the upperparts and average slightly 
larger than the series from the Malay Peninsula from Bandon south. 
I have seen few birds from the Federated Malay States, however. 

The differences are slight and hardly worth recognizing by name. 
The eastern and southeastern Siamese series agree with the series from 
Peninsular Siam in size and color rather than with Tenasserim birds. 
The single male from Koh Lak and the two males from Lamton Lang 
are much worn and considerably lighter than the remainder of the 
series. 

The above large series represents the Siamese range of this bird 
quite satisfactorily, except there are no specimens from northern 
Siam. The species has quite an extensive range, extending from 
Nepal, Sikkim, Assam, and Burma to the Malay Peninsula, Siam, 
and Cambodia. 

In the Malay States a form of Malacocincla sepiaria is found. 
Several races described as forms of M. abbotti are really forms of M. 
sepiaria. It is very doubtful if any form of M. abbotti occurs south of 
the Malay Peninsula. 

THRINGORHINA STRIOLATA GUTTATA (BIyth) 

Turdinus guttatus (Tickell MS.) Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 28, p. 414, 
1859 (Muleyit). 

One male, Kao Luang, Nakon Sritamarat, 4,000 feet, July 20, 1928. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took six males, four females, and one unsexed 
in Trang, as follows: hills at 1,000 feet, March 2 and 3, 1897; Kao 
Nok Ram, 2,000-3,000 feet, January 8-15, 1899; and Kao Soi Dao, 
1,000-2,000 feet, February 5-18, 1899. He gives the soft parts as: 
Iris dark brown or dark red; orbital skin dark blue; bill dark horny, 
leaden blue, or black above; leaden beneath; feet fleshy brown. 

Chasen and Kloss record it from Hue Nya Pla, in the Raheng Dis- 
trict, western Siam,*^ and one of the specimens, a male, was acquired 

«' Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 177, 1928. 



344 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

by the United States National Museum. 

The form ranges from the Federated Malay States north through 
the Malay Peninsula to the mountains of Peninsular Burma and 
western Siam. 

The Raheng male mentioned above is less rufous and Ughter above 
and the bill seems to be longer when compared with a series of males 
from Trang. Six males from Trang measure: Wing, 64, 72, 67, 70, 
72, 68.5; culmen, 18, 19, 18.5, 19, 18, 18.5 mm. The Ptaheng male: 
Wing, 70; culmen, 20 mm. 

STACHYRIS LEUCOTIS LEUCOTIS (Strickland) 

Timalia leucotis Strickland, Jardine's Contributions to ornithology, p. 63-10, 
pi. 12, 1848 (Malacca). 

Tvv'o males and one female, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, December 28^ 
1933, January 1, 1934. 

Dr. Abbott took two males and three females at Kao Soi Dao, 1,000 
feet, Trang, Peninsular Siam, February 2 and 4, 1899. He gives the 
soft parts as: Iris dark or blackish brown; upper mandible black, 
lower mandible leaden; feet fleshy brown with an olive tinge. 

The species ranges from the southern end of the Malay Peninsula 
as far nortii as Trang; a closely related form, S. I. goodsoni Hartert, 
occurs in Borneo. 

Owing to the thick heavy bill and heavy feet of this bird, it seems 
it had better be placed in Thringorhina than in Stachyris, but it is 
left here lor the present. 

STACHYRIS NIGRICEPS COLTARTI Harington 

Stachyris nigriceps coltarti Harington, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 33, p. 61, 1913^ 
(Margherita, Assam). 

One male and one female, Doi Nangka, November 3 and 16, 1930. 

De Schauensee *^ took a female on Doi Sutep, 4,500 feet, and both 
Deignan *^ and Chasen and Kloss ^^ have since reported it from there, 
De Schauensee *^ on his third expedition took two males in the south- 
ern Shan States and a female at Chiengmai, which he assigns to S. n. 
davisoni though he thinks they may be intermediate. My two speci- 
mens from Doi Nangka are certainly not davisoni or dipora, and if not 
coltarti they must be close to it. I have not had a specimen of the 
latter to examine, however. 

The form is tawnier than dipora, and the supra-auricular black 
streak is broader and more pronounced. 

This race ranges from Assam south of the Brahmaputra through 
western Burma to the mountains of northern Siam. 



«s Froc. Acad. Nat. Sci Philadelphia, vol. 81, p. 532. 1930. 
" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Siippl., vol. 8, no. 3, p. 137, 1931. 
«« Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Uist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 244, 1932. 
«' Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 191, 1934. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 345 

The two specimens from Doi Nangka (female first) measure: Wing, 
59-61; tail, 51-54; ciilmen, 16.5-17 mm. Seven males and two fe- 
males from Trang (dipora): Wing, 56-62 (58.9); tail, 41-52 (46.5); 
culmen, 14.5-16.5 (15.3) mm. Four males and one female from 
Selangor and Linga Island (damsoni): Wing, 55-62 (59.2); tail, 
44.5-49 (47.4); culmen, 15-16.5 (15.7) mm. 

STACHYRIS ^fIGRICEPS DIPORA Oberholser 

Stachyris nigriceps dipora Oberholser, Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 74, no. 2, 
p. 7, 1922 (Kao Soi Dao, Trang). 

Three males, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, December 22-30, 1933. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected four males and two females in Trang 
(Kao Nok Kam, 2,000-3,000 feet, January 9-16, 1899; Kao Soi Dao, 
2,000 feet, February 2, 1899; and hills of Trang, 1,000 feet, February 
18, 1897). He gives the soft parts as: Iris pale brown, brownish 
yellow, or dull yellow; upper mandible dark horny or black, lower 
mandible leaden blue at base; feet dark leaden or greenish leaden. 

The above series is paler above and below than a series of four males 
and one female of davisoni from Selangor and Linga Island, Rhio 
Ai"chipelago. While the differences are sHght, they seem to be fairly 
constant in the specimens examined. 

S. n. davisoni is likely confined to the Malay States, and the present 
form ranges from Trang northward to southern Tenasserim. Robin- 
son and Kloss ®^ record it from Tapli and Tasan, which is as far north 
as there are any records from Peninsular Siam. 

STACHYRIS NIGRICOLLIS ERYTHRONOTUS (BIyth) 

Timalia enjthronotus Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 11, p. 793, 1842 
(Singapore Island). 

One female, Buldt, Patani, January 24, 1931. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected the following: One male, Prahmon, 
Trang, Ajml 8, 1896; one male, Trang, January 3, 1897; one male, 
Rumpin River, Pahang, Jidy 12, 1902; one female, Endau River, east 
coast of Johore, July 10, 1901; one unsexed. Province of Wellesley, 
Straits Settlements (purchased, no date). He gives the soft parts as: 
Iris red; bill black, base of lower mandible leaden blue; feet black. 

The above series averages darker above than four males from 
Borneo and one male from eastern Sumatra; below there is little or 
no difference. It is not a well-marked race. 

There seems to be little difference in size, except that the mainland 
form seems to have a somewhat larger bill. Two males, two females, 
and one unsexed from the Malay Peninsula measure: Wing, 66-74 
(69); tail, 46-54 (49.6); culmen, 18-19 (18.4) mm. Four males from 

»' Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 196, 1924. 



346 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Borneo and one male from Sumatra: wing, 65-74 (69.9); tail, 47-54 
(50.8); culmen, 17-18 (17.6) mm. 

The form ranges from the Malay States north to Trang and Nakon 
Sritamarat. Williamson" records it from Bangnara, Patani; Robin- 
son and Kloss " say it is rare in Trang; de Schauensee^^ collected a 
pair in Nakon Siritamarat. 

STACHYRIS POLIOCEPHALA DILUTA Robinson and Kloss 

Stachyris poliocephala diluta Robinson and Kloss, Ibis, 1918, p. 587 (Taiping, 
Peark). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took a female at Lay Song Hong, Trang, August 
31, 1896, and another female with a nest and three eggs in Trang, 
March 8, 1897. He gives the soft parts as: Iris straw yellow; upper 
mandible dull black, lower mandible leaden; feet greenish leaden. 

The form occurs from the southern end of the Malay Peninsula 
north to Trang and Nakon Sritamarat. Robinson and Kloss ^^ report 
it rare in Trang. De Schauensee ^^ secured a male in Nakon Srita- 
marat. 

Three specimens from Borneo are somewhat darker than three 
from the Malay Peninsula. No specimens from Sumatra have been 
examined. 

STACHYRIS MACULATA PECTORALIS (BIyth) 

Timalia pedoralis Blyth, Journ. Asiat. See. Bengal, vol. 11, p. 793, 1842 
(Malacca). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took the following in the Malay Peninsula: Three 
females, Lay Song Hong, Trang, December 30, 1896; four males, 
Endau River, eastern coast of Joliore, June 22-28, 1901; two males, 
Rumpin River, Pahang, May 27 and June 29, 1902. He gives the 
soft parts as: Iris brownish yellow or straw yellow; orbital sldn and 
naked skin on neck blue; upper mandible black, lower mandible 
leaden at the base; feet leaden. 

Beside the differences pointed out by Robinson and Kloss, ^^ the 
present series seems to be on an average less heavily spotted below 
than either Sumatran or Bornean specimens. 

There seems to be little or no difference in size. Three males and 
two females from Sumatra and one male and two females from Borneo 
measure: Wing, 76-85 (81.2); tail, 64-70.5 (66.7); culmen, 19-20.5 
(19.9) mm. Six males and four females from the Malay Peninsula: 
Wing, 78-85 (80.9); tail, 62-69 (65.9); culmen, 18.5-20.5 (19.7) mm. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 17, 1918. 

« Ibis. 1911, p. 62. 

«» Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 192, 1934. 

•« Ibis, 1911, p. 62. 

" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 192, 1934. 

" Ibis, 1918, p. 587. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 347 

The form ranges from the southern end of the Malay Peninsula 
north to Trang in Peninsular Siam. 

STACHYRIDOPSIS CHRYSAEA CHRYSOPS (Richmond) 

Stachyris chrysops Richmond, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 15, p. 157, 1902 
(Kao Nom Plu, Trang, Peninsular Siam). 

Besides the type taken by Dr. W. L. Abbott on Kao Nom Plu, 3,000 
feet, Trang, Februarj^ 22, 1897, the United States National Museum 
contains only two females, from Semangko Pass, Selangor-Pahang 
Boundary. 

This form is duller on the back, dark citrine, rather than citrine of 
assimilis; it is also much duller yellow below and on the pileum. 

The race ranges from the southern Malay Peninsula north to 
southern Tenasserim and probably farther north. 

STACHYRIDOPSIS CHRYSAEA ASSIMILIS (Walden) 

Stachyris assimilis Walden, in BIyth's Catalogue of mammals and birds of Burma, 
p. 116, 1875 (Karennee, Burma). 

Three males and one female, Doi Nangka, November 16, 1930, and 
April 23-27, 1931; five males. Pang Meton (Doi Nangka), April 29- 
May 6, 1931; two males, Doi Hua Mot, August 30, 1934. 

This form is brighter, the back more citrine rather than dark-citrine 
of chrysaea; the lowerparts and pileum are a brighter, deeper yellow. 

Deignan ^^ records it as uncommon on Doi Sutep from 5,000 to 
5,500 feet, and it probably occurs on other mountains of northern 
Siam. De Schauensee ^° took it at Chiengmai and Chiengdao. 

The form ranges from the southern Shan States, Burma, to northern 
Siam. 

CYANODERMA ERYTHROPTERA ERYTHROPTERA (Blyth) 

Timalia erythroptera Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 11, p. 794, 1842 
(no locality given, but probably Singapore). 

Three males and two females, Bangnara, Patani, July 14-18, 1926; 
one male, Yala, Patani, January 31, 1931 ; one male, Patalung, July 7, 
1929; one male and one female, Tha Lo, Bandon, September 23-28, 
1931; three males and three females, Sichol, Bandon, August 28-31, 
1929, May 19-27, 1930; one male, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, January 15, 
1934. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott has sent the following specimens from the Malay 
Peninsula: one male and two females, Lay Song Hong, Trang, Septem- 
ber 3-20, and December 14, 1896; one male, Prahmon, Trang, March 
24, 1896; two males and one female, Trang (no other locality), Febru- 
ary 9, 1897, December 28, 1898, and January 29, 1899; one female, 
Singapore Island, May 20, 1899; one male, the Dindings, Straits of 

"Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 137, 1931. 
M Proc. Acad. Nat. Sol. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 191, 1934. 



348 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Malacca, April 14, 1900; one female, Tanjong Dungun, Trengganu, 
September 21, 1900; one male, Dungun River, Trengganu, September 
21, 1900; one male, Tanjong Laboha, Trengganu, September 29, 
1900; one male, Endau River, eastern coast of Johore, July 18, 1901. 
He gives the soft parts as: Iris dark red or brownish red; bill black 
above, dark blue below at the base; naked sldn about the eyes and the 
angles of the jaws dull blue; feet pale olive fleshy or pale greenish 
brown. 

Both the series collected by Dr. Smith and that of Dr. Abbott vary 
in the depth of color above and below individually. The throat, 
face, and forehead vary from a deep neutral gray to dark dull gray; 
the back from russet to cinnamon-brown. The light-colored birds are 
either females or immature, though in fully adult specimens there is 
little or no difference in color between the sexes. I think the variation 
due to age, though I have not seen specimens from the northern part 
of its range. 

The form ranges from the southern end of the Malay Peninsula 
north through Peninsular Siam to southern Tenasserim. Closely re- 
lated forms have been described from Sumatra, Banka, Banjak, and 
Batu Islands, and Borneo. Robinson and Kloss " record specimens 
from Tung Pran, Mamoh, Tapli, and Tasan, wliich are apparently 
near the northern limit ot its range in Peninsular Siam. 

MIXORNIS GULARIS GULARIS (Horsfleld) 

Timalia gularis Horsfield, Zoological researches in Java, no. 3, pi. and text, 
1822 (founded upon Motacilla gularis RafRes MS.; Sumatra). 

Prinia pileata Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 11, p. 204, 1842 (Malay 
Peninsula). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took two males and two females on Singapore 
Island, May 12-31, 1899; one male, Tanjong Laboha, Trengganu, 
September 29, 1900; one male, Pulo Adang, Butang Island, West 
Malay Peninsula, December 17, 1899. He gives the soft parts as: 
Iris dull browTi or yellowish brown; naked skin about the eye dull blue; 
bill black above, leaden blue beneath; feet oUve or greenish. 

The series from Trang and Yala, Patani, are intermediate between 
gularis and connedens, being somewhat darker on the back than the 
latter and a Httle heavier streaked on the throat, but on the whole 
nearer connedens. 

Robinson and Kloss "^ say that this Malayan form extends north- 
ward to Patani; this must be just along the southern border. Dr. 
Abbott took a specimen on Pulo Adang, an island to the west of 
Langkawi; otherwise the form seems to be confined to the JMalay 
States. 

« Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 298, 1924. 
M Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 300, 1924. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 349 

M. g. gularis is darker above than connectens, with a more heavily 
streaked throat. 

MIXORNIS GULARIS CONNECTENS KIoss 

Mixornis rubricapilla connectens Kloss, Ibis, 1918, p. 207 (Malay Peninsula, 

about lat. 10° N.). 
Mixornis gularis chersonesophila Oberholser, Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 74, 

no. 2, p. 3, 1922 (Trang, Lower Siam). 
Mixornis gularis archipelagica Oberholser, Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 74, 

no. 2, p. 4, 1922 (Domel Island, Mergui Archipelago). 
Mixornis gularis invelerata Oberholser, Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 74, no. 2, 

p. 5, 1922 (Koh Kut, southeastern Siam). 

One male and two females, Yala, Patani, January 30, 1931; two 
males, Kao Luang, Nakon Sritamarat, October 4, 1930; one male, 
Singora, June 29, 1929; two males, Koh Samui, August 7, 1931; one 
male and one female, Pran, southwestern Siam, April 1, 1931 and 
May 28, 1928 ; two males, Nong Yang, November 16, 1931 ; two females, 
Hupbon, November 5, 1931 ; one male, Kao Seming, Krat, October 16, 
1928; one male, Lem Sing, Chantabun, March 16, 1930; one male, 
Koh Kut, May 22, 1929; one male, one female, and one unsexed, Koh 
Chang, April 1, 1924, and January 16, 1926; one male, Kao Sabap, 
October 27, 1933. Dr. Smith collected a set of three eggs at Pran, 
May 28, 1928, with the parent. 

The two specimens from Pran are not typical but incline to 
sulphur e a. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took nine males and three females in Trang, 
Peninsular Siam, as follows: Prahmon, February 21-22, 1896; Tyching, 
April 29 and May 27, 1896; Telibon Island, February 25, 28, 1896; 
near Chong, January 20, 1897; and "Trang", January 4-March 9, 
1897. He also took the following sets of eggs with nests: Three eggs, 
Tyching, April 29, 1896; three eggs, Trang, February 14, 1897; three 
eggs, Trang, March 9, 1897. He gives the soft parts as: Iris dark 
brown, brownish yellow, greenish or yellow; upper mandible blackish 
brown or black; lower mandible yellowish olive or dull plumbeous; 
feet fleshy brown, olive or olive-plumbeous. 

On first sight the Trang series seems to be quite different from 
specimens to the north and south of it, but I find there is a seasonable 
change of plumage. The fall and early-winter specimens are a deep 
yellow, wliich fades badly during the breeding season. The Trang 
series is in breeding plumage and is much lighter than fall birds to the 
north and south of it. There are a few breeding birds in Dr. Smith's 
series and they agree with the Trang specimens. The Koh Kut and 
Koh Chang birds in Dr. Smith's series do not differ essentially from 
the Trang series; they are a little more worn and a little more faded. 
The type of inveterata is in fresh winter plumage and is rather yellow 
below, but it can be matched by specimens from Peninsular Siam. 

33.'J27— 38 23 



350 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected, in 1900, two males and five females in 
the Mergui ArcMpelago (St. Matthew Island, January 14; Domel 
Island, February 27; Bentinck Island, March 9-10; High Island, 
December 31) and a male at Tanjong Badak, Tenasserim, January 
7, 1900. This is the series upon which the name M. g. archipelagica 
cited above was founded. I am inclined to lump these with connect 
tens also. They can be matched in plumage by birds from southeastern 
Siam; the bills average a httle larger, but there is not sufficient difTer- 
ence to warrant a new race. 

Three males from Mergui and Tenasserim measure: Wing, 55-62.5 
(59.2); tail, 47-54 (51.3); culmen, 14.5-15 (14.8) mm. Eight males 
from Trang: Wing, 58-62 (60.2); tail, 49-57 (52.5); culmen, 14-15 
(14.5) mm. Ten males from northern Peninsular and southeastern 
Siam: Wing, 55-61 (57.6); tail, 48-54.5 (50.7); culmen, 13-14.5 
(14) mm. 

The form ranges from Patani in Peninsular Siam north to southern 
Tenasserim, the Mergui Arcliipelago, extreme southern Siam to 
southeastern Siam, Cambodia, Cochinchina, and southern Annam, 

Herbert ^^ found it breeding around Bangkok in May and June 
and has described the nest and eggs. 

MIXORNIS GULARIS SULPHUREA (Rippon) 

Stachyridopsis sulphurea Rippon, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 11, p. 11, 1900 

(Nameket, southern Shan States). 
Mixornis sumatrana minor Gyldenstolpe, Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., 
vol. 56, no. 2, p. 60, 1916 (Pak Koh, northern Siam). 

One male, Muang Kanburi, western Siam, April 15, 1928; one not 
sexed, Doi Angka, 4,000 feet, December 3, 1928; three females, Khun 
Tan, October 23 and 27, 1929; five males and three females. Baa 
Nam Kien, Nan, April 18-20, 1930; two males, Aranya, July 17, 
1930; two males. Lam Klong Lang, Pak Chong, June 5, 1925; one 
female, Pak Chong, eastern Siam, November 19, 1929; one female, 
Nong Mong, Muang Krabin, August 8, 1925; one female, Sikeu, near 
Korat, March 4, 1926; two males and one female, Hin Lap, eastern 
Siam, December 6, 193 1 , October 1 , 1932 ; one immature male, Gengkoi. 
October 16, 1932. 

This series covers the range of this form fairly well as far as Siam ia 
concerned. De Schauensee " found it at Chiengmai, Chiengrai, and 
Chiengsen, and later at Chiengdao. Deignan " says it is common on 
the plain at Chiengmai and ascends Doi Sutep to 3,500 feet. 

The range of the form is from the southern Shan States, Burma, 
and southern Yunnan south into western, northern, and eastern 
Siam and east to western Laos. My statement for the last locality 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6, p. 92, 1923. 

" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 81. p. 533. 1930: vol. 86, p. 192, 1934. 

M Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Uist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 137, l£3l. 



BIRDS FROM SIAJNI AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 351 

is founded upon a single specimen collected by Dr. Smith at Ban 
Keng Sadok, March 1, 1929; since this was first written de Schauensee 
also reports it from Laos. 

This form is more lightly colored on the head and back, and the 
dark shaft streaks of the throat and chest are very fine and almost 
obsolete. 

ALCIPPE NIPALENSIS FBATERCULA Rippon 

Alcippe fratercula Rippon, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 11, p. 11, 1900 (hills of 
southern Shan States). 

One male and one female, Doi Angka, 5,000-8,000 feet, December 4 
and 5, 1928; four males and two females, Doi Nangka, November 3-17, 
1930, and April 25-26, 1931 ; one unsexed. Pang Meton (Doi Nangka), 
May 2, 1931; nine males and one female, Doi Hua Mot, August 20- 
September 6, 1934; one female, Khun Tan Mountains, 3,000 feet, 
May 10, 1933. 

The series from Doi Hua Mot are molting and the gray of the pileum 
is much faded. 

De Schauensee ^^ took a large series at Chiengmai and Chiengdao 
and says that it is an excessively common bird in the mountains of 
northern Siam above 4,000 feet; it has been taken on Doi Sutep by 
several collectors. 

The form ranges from the Bhamo Hills and Shan States, Burma, to 
Tenasserim and northern Siam. 

This form resembles the Chinese races (yunnanensis, hueti, and 
davidi) rather than the nominate form, which is whiter below. A. n. 
fratercula is quite distinct from A. n. peracensis. The lower parts in 
the former are cinnamon-buff instead of being almost white with only a 
slight buffy wash on chest and flanks. 

ALCIPPE NIPALENSIS PERACENSIS Sharpe 

Alcippe peracensis Sharpe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1887, p. 439 (Larut Moun- 
tains, Perak). 

One immature male. Ban Hui Ta, Kao Luang, Nakon Sritamarat, 
July 12, 1928. 

This specimen differs from the adult from the Malay States in 
having the pileum washed with brown; in lacking the black stripe on 
each side of the head; and in having the chest and flanks washed with 
grayish. It is probably an immature of this form, as the chest and 
belly are white. Possibly it represents an undescribed form. 

The form has not been recorded from Siam before. 

The race ranges from the mountains of the Malay States northward 
to Nakon Sritamarat. Very probably it will be found on other 
mountains of Peninsular Siam when they have been better explored. 

»« Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, p. 103, 1934. 



352 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

ALCIPPE NIPALENSIS EREMITA Riley 

Alcippe nipalensis eremila Riley, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 49, p. 25, 1936 
(Kao Seming, Krat, southeastern Siam). 

One male and one female, Kao Seming, Krat, October 16, 1928; one 
male and two females, Kao Sabap, 2,000 feet, November 16, 17, 1933. 

This series is similar to A. n. peracensis of the Malay Peninsula but 
is lighter brown on the back and tail; the pileum a lighter gray; the 
black line on each side of the crown and nape broader and a deeper 
black; the under tail coverts and thighs much lighter; the feet (in the 
skin) are deep grayish olive instead of tawny and the bill averages 
larger. 

Two males and two females of A. n. peracensis measure: Wing, 
64-65.5 (64.7); tail, 64-66.5 (65); culmen, 11-12 (11.7) mm. Two 
males aud three females of A. n. eremita: Wing, 65-68.5 (66.7); tail, 
59-65 (61.9); culmen, 12-13 (12.5) mm. A pair of paratypes of 
A. n. annamensis: Wing, 58-63; tail, 61-64; culmen, 10.5-11 mm. 

The pair of A. n. annamensis differ from A. n. eremita in being paler 
on the back and tail, the chest tinged with grayish, whereas in the 
latter the throat is whitish and the chest light buff; the bill in anna- 
mensis is smaller. It seems to be a good form and is probably con- 
fined to the mountains of southern Annam. 

A. n. eremita is probably confined to the mountains of southeastern 
Siam and Cambodia. 

Delacour and Jabouillc^^ record A. n. peracensis from southern 
Laos. The record probably belongs to A. n. eremila. 

Birds of this form group are mountain-inhabiting, and there is a 
long stretch of country between the range of A. n. peracensis and A. n. 
eremita where the species does not occur. 

ALCIPPE POIOICEPHALA HARINGTONIAE Hartert 

Alcippe haringtoniae Hauteut, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 25, p. 10, 1909 (Bhamo, 
Upper Burma). 

Four males and one female, Khun Tan, October 28, 1929, Septem- 
ber 6 and 9, 1930, and March 4, 1932. 

De Schauensee *^ took two males at Chieng Sen and says that it 
replaces A. nipalensis fratercula in the lowland forests; on his third 
expedition ^^ he took a small series at Chiengdao and Khun Tan and 
changed his former identification from haringtoniae to magnirostris, 
but without comparison. I likewise have no specimens for compari- 
son, but the specimens before me do not agree with S. Baker's descrip- 
tion of magnirostris J° The coronal stripes are blackish, and the chin 
and throat are not whitish but the same color as the rest of the under- 



•' Oiseaux Tlndochine FMnfaise, vol. 3, p. 29S, 1931. 
«' Proc. Aoacl. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 81, p. .533. 1930 
«" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. S6, p. 193, 1034. 
'0 Tne fauna of British India. Birds, ed. 2, vol. 1, p. 280, 1922. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 353 

parts, ocliraceoiis-buff. Gyldenstolpe ^' records it as A. p. magnirostris 
from Kao Plyng and Doi Par Sakeng. 

If correctly determined, then A. p. haringtoniae would range from 
northeastern Upper Burma south into northern Siam. 

ALCIPPE POIOICEPHALA DAVISONI Harington 

Alcippe phaeocephala davisoni Harington, Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, vol. 
23, p. 453, 1915 (Tavoy; Mergui and the south). 

One male and one female, Kao Luang, 3,000 feet, Nakon Sritamarat, 
July 14, 1928; one female, Pran, April 1, 1931; two males, Kao Sol 
Dao, Trang, September 9 and December 26, 1933. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected the following: Seven males and five 
females in Trang (Kao Soi Dao, 2,500 feet, February 10, 12, 1897; 
Kao Nom Plu, 2,000-3,000 feet, February 20-24, 1897; slopes of Kao 
Song, 2,000 feet, March 1, 1897; Kao Nok Ram, 2,000-3,000 feet, 
January 10-12, 1899); two males, Tenasserim (Victoria Point, Janu- 
ary 3, 1900; Telok Krang, February 17, 1904); three males and one 
female, Mergui Archipelago (St. Matthews Island, January 14, 15, 
1900; Sullivan Island, February 4, 1900). He gives the soft parts as: 
Iris dark brownish gray; bill dark horny brown above, pale leaden 
beneath; feet pale brownish jfleshy. 

A specimen shot on Kao Soi Dao, February 12, contained nearly 
mature eggs. 

In this form the nuchal dark stripes are absent or practically so. 

This form extends from Trang, Peninsular Siam, north to south- 
western Siam and southern Tenasserim; perhaps somewhat farther 
north and south. 

ALCIPPE CINEREA CINEREA BIyth 

Alcippe cinerea Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 13, p. 384, 1844 (Singapore). 

Four males and two females, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, December 28-30, 
1933. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took five males and two females in Trang (Lay 
Song Hong, September 10, 189G; Kao Nom Plu, 1,000 feet, February 
23, 1897; Hills, 1,000 feet, February 25, 1897; and Kao Soi Dao, 
1,000 feet, February 8-20, 1899). He records the soft parts as: 
Iris pale brownish gray; upper mandible dark brown, lower bluish, 
yellow at the base; feet leaden. 

One female had nearly mature eggs and was taken on the Trang 
Hills, February 25. 

The form ranges from Sumatra to the Malay States and northward 
through Peninsular Siam to Bandon, where it has been recorded by 
Robinson.''^ 



" Ibis, 1920, p 482 

'" Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 6, p. 105, 1015. 



354 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Three other forms have been described from islands to the westward 
and to the southeast. 

The form is readily distinguished from the two other species of the 
genus occurring in Peninsular Siam by the light grayish throat and 
chest, becoming white on the breast and belly; there are no dark nuchal 
stripes. 

MACRONUS PTILOSUS PTILOSUS Jardine and Selby 

Macronus ptilosus Jaedine and Selby, Illustrations of ornithology, pi. 150, 1835 
(Malacca). 

Five males and one female, Bangnara, Patani, July 11-21, 1926; 
three males, Sicliol, Bandon, May 28, 1930. 

Two of the males from Sichol have the under mandible yellow, 
instead of black, and are probably birds of the year. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected the following in the Malay Peninsula: 
four males, Rumpin River, Pahang, May 25-June 25, 1902; one male, 
Endau River, Pahang, June 27, 1901; one male, Tanjong Dungun, 
Trengganu, September 21, 1900; one male and one female, Dungun 
River, Trengganu, September 22, 1900. He describes the soft parts 
as: Iris brownish red; naked skin about eye pale blue; naked skin on 
sides of throat dark blue; bill black; feet black or brownish black. 

The form occurs from Sumatra to the Malay States and northward 
in Peninsular Siam to Bandon. A somewhat lighter colored form, 
M. p. reclusus Hartert, occurs in Borneo; and another, M. p. minor 
Riley, in Banka. 

Ten males from the Malay Peninsula measure: Wing, 64-70 (67.2); 
culmen, 15-17 (16) mm. Five males from Sumatra: Wing, 66.5-71 
(67.7); culmen, 15.5-17 (16.2) mm. 

This is a curious little brown bird with long decomposed flank and 
rump feathers with stiffened shafts; on the sides of the neck on each 
side there is a large bare tract with a patch of white, downy, decom- 
posed feathers in the center; the throat is black and the pileum burnt 
sienna. 

KENOPIA STRIATA (BIyth) 

Timalia striata Blyth, Journ. Asiat. See. Bengal, vol. 11, p. 793, 1842 (Malay 
Peninsula). 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected the following in Trang, Peninsular Siam: 
two adult males and two immature females. Lay Song Hong, Septem- 
ber 12-December 5, 1896; two males, hills of Trang, February 3 and 4, 
1897; one male and one female, "Trang", February 6 and 27, 1897. 
He gives the soft parts as: Bill black, whitish at base of lower man- 
dible; feet pale pinkish fleshy. 

Two of the specimens are immature and were taken September 12. 
They are more than half grown, but the tails are not far bej'ond the 
coverts. They resemble the adult above, except that the black on the 
pileum is restricted and more chocolate-brown than black; below the 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 355 

sides of the cbest have 9 few dusky mottlings and the flanks and under 
tail coverts have a brownish wash; otherwise white. A single speci- 
men from Borneo appears to be a little darker above than the Trang 
series. 

The five adults from Trang measure: Wing, 61.5-66 (63.7); culmen, 
13.5-14.5 (13.8) mm. A single male from Borneo: Wing, 68; culmen, 
14 mm. 

The sexes are alike and apparently do not differ in size, judged 
from a single female. 

The species ranges from Borneo to the Malay States and northward 
in Peninsular Siam to Trang. 

ANUROPSIS MALACCENSIS MALACCENSIS (Hartlaub) 

Brachypteryx malaccensis Hartlaub, Rev. Zool., 1844, p. 402 (Malacca). 
Anuropsis malaccensis driophila Oberholser, Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 74, 
no. 2, p. 9, 1922 (Kao Soi Dao, Trang). 

One male and two females, Sichol, Bandon, August 28, 19, 1929, 
May 27, 1930. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected one male and one female at Kao Soi Dao, 
1,000 feet, Trang, February 2, 19, 1899; two males, Singapore Island, 
May 12, 14, 1899; one male and one female, the Dindings, Straits 
of Malacca, April 13, 15, 1900; one male and one female, Rumpin 
River, Pahang, May 27, and June 2, 1902. He gives the soft parts as: 
Iris dark or dull red; upper mandible black or horn brown, lower 
mandible leaden; feet pale fleshy brown or pinkish fleshy. 

Apparently there is little or no difference between the sexes in size 
or color; 

The specimens from Trang and Bandon average a trifle paler above 
than the series from the Malay States, but the difference is very slight 
and might disappear in a larger series. In fact, individual specimens 
that are almost exactly alike can be picked out of either series. In 
my opinion, the differences are too slight to recognize by name. There 
is little or no difference in size. 

Seven specimens from the Malay States (four males and three 
females) measure: Wing, 62-72 (67); culmen, 15-17 (16.2); tarsus, 
27-30 (28.2); middle toe and claw, 19-21 (20) mm. Five specimens 
from Trang and Bandon, two males and three females: Wing, 61-70 
(65.2); culmen, 15-16.5 (15.7); tarsus, 26-30 (27.7); middle toe and 
claw, 19-21 (20) mm. 

This form ranges from the Malay States northw^ard in Peninsular 
Siam to Bandon. Robinson and Kloss ^' have recorded it from 
Trang; Baker ^* from Tung Song; de Schauensee " from Nakon 
Sritamarat. 



» Ibis. 1911, p. 60. 

'• Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 187, 1919. 

'• Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 191, 1934. 



356 BULLETIlSr 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

In Peninsular Siam there are few records. This may be more 
apparent than real, as Dr. Abbott in his notes says that it keeps near 
the ground in dense underbrush in the forest. It is a short-tailed, 
dull-colored, long-legged bird and evidently spends most of its time 
on the ground and is easily overlooked. In the Malay States it is 
probably more abundant. 

Several closely related forms have been named from Sumatra and 
from islands off the west coast of that island. A darker, more richly 
colored form is found in Borneo. 

PSEUDOMINLA CASTANECEPS CASTANECEPS (Hodgson) 

Minla castaneceps Hodgson, Indian Rev., vol. 2, p. 33, 1838 (Nepal). 

Two males, Doi Angka, 8,000 feet, December 5, 1928; six males 
and two females, Doi Nangka, November 10-12, 1930, April 22-24, 
1931 ; one male, Doi Hua Mot, August 17, 1934. 

The only specimen of castaneceps from India with which the above 
series has been compared has a lighter-brown pileum, and the brown 
patch at the base of the inner primaries is much lighter also. 

The form extends from Sikkim east to Assam north of the Brah- 
maputra, Burma, south to Tenasserim, and northern Siam, and 
northwest Tonkin. 

Lowe ^^ took one 50 miles southeast of Umpang; de Schauensee " 
secured one at Chiengmai, 5,500 feet. 

In the mountains of the Federated Malay States P. c. soror (Sharpe) 
occurs. This form may occur also on some of the mountains of 
Peninsular Siam. It is said to differ from typical castaneceps in its 
larger size, darker olive-brown upper side, and deeper and more 
chestnut edging to the quills. 

HETEROPHASIA PICAOIDES CANA (Riley) 

Sibia picaoides carta Riley, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 42, p. 166, 1929 

(Doi Angka, Siam). 
Heterophasia picaoides burmanica Ticehurst, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club. vol. 55, 

p. 19, 1935 (Taok Plateau, Burma). 

Two males and one female, Doi Angka, 5,000-7,500 feet, Decem- 
ber 4 and 6, 1928; one male and one female, Doi Sutep, 5,500 feet, 
December 15, 1928; two males and one female, Doi Nangka, Novem- 
ber 12, 1930, and April 25-26, 1930; two males and one female. Pang 
Meton (Doi Nangka), May 1-3, 1931; one male, Doi Ilua Mot, 
August 27, 1934. 

This was originally described as "similar to Sibia picaoides pica- 
oides, but a clearer, purer, and less brownish gray, especially below; 
the bill smaller." These differences hold with the larger series before 
me. 



" Ibis, 1933. p. 266. 

n Free. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86. p. 194, 1934. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 357 

Since it was originally described, this form has been reported from 
Doi Sutep by several naturalists and has been taken in the moun- 
tains of French Laos, Tonkin, and northern Annam. It is a moun- 
tain form and probably occurs on other high mountains throughout 
northern Siam and probably into adjacent territory in Burma. 

LEIOPTILA MELANOLEUCA LAETA de SchauenBee 

Leioptila melanoleuca laetn de Schauensee, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 
vol. 81, p. 470, 1929 (Doi Sutep, 4,500 feet, northern Siam). 

One male and one female, Doi Sutep, December 14 and 15, 1928; 
three males and one female, Doi Angka, 7,500 feet, December 6, 1928; 
three males and one female, Doi Nangka, November 2-12, 1930. 

This form has been taken at the type locality by several collectors, 
and de Schauensee ^^ on his third expedition took a series there and 
at Chiengdao and has gone into some details in defense of the race, 
which seems to be a good one. 

LEIOPTILA ANNECTENS SATURATA Walden 

Lioptila saturata Walden, Ibis, 1875, p. 352 (Karennee, Burma). 

One male, Doi Sutep, December 15, 1928; four males and one 
female, Doi Nangka, November 10-12, 1930, April 22, 26, 1931; one 
male, Doi Hua Mot, August 12, 1934. 

De Schauensee ^^ first reported this form from Doi Sutep, and it 
has since been taken there by several subsequent collectors; later 
de Schauensee **" took a series there above 5,000 feet. 

I have been unable to compare Dr. Smith's specimens with typical 
material, and there are some discrepancies between them and Stuart 
Baker's description. 

The form ranges from the eastern hills of Burma south to Karenni 
and eastward through northern Siam to upper Tonkin. 

STAPHIDIA STRIATA STRIATA (Blyth) 

Jxulus striatus Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Sec. Bengal, vol. 28, p. 413, 1859 (10 miles 
west-northwest of Mount Mooleyit, Tenasserim) . 

One male and two females, Khun Tan, 4,000 feet, August 30, 1930, 
and February 18, 1932; two males. Pang Meton (Doi Nangka), May 1, 
1931 ; two males, Doi Nangka, November 19, 1930. 

De Schauensee,^' Deignan,^^ and Chasen and Kloss ^^ have recorded it 
from Doi Sutep, 3,500-5,500 feet, and Chasen and Kloss ^* from the 
Raheng district of western Siam. 



*« Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 194, 1934. 

'« Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 81, p. 53.^ 1930. 

80 Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 195, 19.34. 

«i Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 81, p. 535, 1930; vol. 86, p. 195, 1934. 

•» Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 138, 1931. 

" Jouin. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 245, 1932. 

•• Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 176, 1928. 



358 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

The form ranges from the mountains of Tenasserim north to eastern 
Burma and northern Siam. 

SIVA STRIGULA CASTANICAUDA Hume 

Siva castanicauda Hume, Stray Feathers, vol. 5, p. 100, 1877 (Moolyit, Tenas- 
serim) . 

Four males and two females, Doi Angka, 8,000-8,400 feet, December 
5,6,1928. 

This form is said to range all over Burma from Tenasserim to the 
Chin and Kachin Hills, and southward it extends to northern Siam. 

Specimens of S. s. yunnanensis in fresh unfaded plumage are not 
strikingly different. The pileum is brighter, the mantle browner, and 
the rufous on the middle tail feathers somewhat deeper 

Deignan *^ paid a visit to Doi Angka and took a male at 8,400 feet, 
April 8, 1931. 

A form also is found in the Malay States — S. s. malayana Hartert. 

SIVA CYANOUROPTERA OATESI Harington 

Siva cyanouroptera oatesi Harington, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 33, p. 62, 1913 
(Byingyi Mountain, Shan Plateau, Burma). 

Six males and one female, Doi Nangka, November 10-17, 1930; 
April 25, 1931 ; one immature male, Doi Hua Mot, August 30, 1934. 

The adults have been compared with a single specimen of S. c. 
cyanouroptera. They are a lighter brown on the mantle; the white 
tips to the inner remiges are reduced almost to the vanishing point; 
the pileum is darker. 

The immature male from Doi Hua Mot is quite different from the 
adult. The pileum is drab without any blue, except for a faint line 
above the white superciliary; back a little lighter than the pileum; 
rump cinnamon-buff; wings similar to the adults but with more white 
edging on the inner feathers; the closed tail is quaker drab with a blue 
tinge near the base; lower parts white, with a slight grayish tinge 
anteriorly, but much lighter than the adult. It is about adult size 
and unique in plumage. 

So far as known, this form is confined to the Shan Plateau, Burma, 
and northern Siam. 

De Schauensee,*^ Deignan," and Chasen and Kloss *^ have recorded 
it from Doi Sutep, 4,600-5,500 feet; de Schauensee ^^ on his third expe- 
dition took it also at Chiengdao at 4,500 feet. 

" Proc. Biol. Soc. Wa-ohington, vol. 47, p. 91, 1934. 
M Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 81, p. 535, 1930. 
« Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 138, 1931. 
•« Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 245. 1932. 
« Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86. p. 196, 1934. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE Mi\X,AY PENINSULA 359 

SIVA SORDIDIOR SORDIDIOR Sharpe 

Siva sordidior Sharpe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1888, p. 276 (Batang Padang 
Mountains, Perak). 

One male and three females, Kao Luang:, 3,000-4,000 feet, Nakon 
Sritamarat, Peninsular Siam, July 14-20, 1928. 

Robinson and EHoss ^° have assigned Kao Nawng, Bandon, and 
Kao Luang, Nakon Sritamarat, specimens to Siva cyanouroptera sordi- 
dior Sharpe described from the mountains of Perak, but they say the 
identification is doubtful, as the specimens upon which the records 
rest are in bad shape. They say also that sordidior is not very 
strongly differentiated from S. c. sordida Hume. I have not been able 
to examine a specimen of the latter, but sordidior in my opinion is not a 
form of cyanouroptera at all, but a distinct species of which orientalis of 
southern Annam is a form. 

S. s. sordidior and S. s. orientalis differ from the cyanouroptera forms 
in lacking the white superciliary; in having blue of pileum dull and 
very barely perceptible in certain lights; outer margins of inner 
primaries and all the secondaries almost white or barely tinged with 
bluish; white on the inner margins of the outer tail feathers, more 
restricted; blue of tail dull and showing only in certain lights basally; 
tail slightly darker grayish brown like the back. 

S. s. sordidior ranges from the mountains of the Malay States north 
to Bandon. 

ERPORNIS ZANTHOLEUCA ZANTHOLEUCA Hodgson 

Erpornis zantholeuca Hodgson, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 13, p. 380, 1844 

(Nepal). 

One female, Bo Ploi, Kanburi, September 26, 1929; two females, 
Doi Nangka, April 25, 1931; one male, Doi Hua Mot, August 27, 
1934; one male, Khun Tan Mountains, 3,000 feet. May 10, 1933; 
one female, Khun Tan, August 29, 1930; two males, Aranya, July 16, 
17, 1930; two males, one female, and one unsexed, Pak Chong, Febru- 
ary 17, May 9, and November 15, 18, 1925; one male, Tlia Chang, 
Pak Chong, March 22, 1927; three males. Lam Klong Lang, near 
Pak Chong, June 3-14, 1925; one male and two females Hin Lap, 
December 9, 11, 1931; one male, Lamton Lang, June 1, 1934. 

Quite a number of the above specimens have slight remains on the 
back and nape of an earlier plumage, which is tawny-olive and mixed 
in with the yelloM^sh citrine of the succeeding plumage. It occurs 
on specimens taken from May 10 until the latter part of August, but 
there is one specimen collected as early as March 22, and another 
collected April 25, -svith the nape tawny-olive. The latter (no. 
330550), from Doi Nangka, has the lores and a ring around the eye 
massicot yellow and is unique in the series in this respect. 

'o Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6, p. 302, 1924. 



360 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

I have seen no specimens from Nepal or Burma but have a specimen 
from Fokien of griseiloris, and it most certainly is not that form, which 
has the lores, cheeks, and underparts decidedly gray; in the present 
form, they are grayish white. 

De Schauensee ^' compared a male from Khun Tan wdth a female 
from Assam and states they agree perfectly. The specimens from 
eastern Siam agree w^th those from northern Siam. 

Ten males from northern, central, and eastern Siam measure: 
Wing, 61-70 (64.9); tail, 41-47 (43.6); culmen, 12-13 (12.2) mm. 
Seven females: Wing, 61-66 (63.5); tail, 41-43 (41.8); culmen, 11.5- 
12.5 (12) mm. 

The present form ranges from Nepal, Assam, and Burma to northern, 
central, and eastern Siam. 

Deignan ^' found it on Doi Sutep from 2,700-4,000 feet. I do not 
believe tliis is primarily a mountain bird, however, but ranges dowTi 
to sea level. 

ERPORNIS ZANTHOLEUCA INTERPOSITA Hartert 

Herpornis xaniholeuca interposita Hartert, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 38, p. 20, 
1917 (Temangoh, Upper Perak). 

One female, Bangnara, Patani, May 10, 1924; one male, Kao Sol 
Dao, Trang, December 30, 1933; one female. Waterfall, Trang, 
August 25, 1933; one male, Kao Luang, 2,000 feet, Nakon Sritamarat, 
July 16, 1928. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected six males and three females in Trang 
(Prahmon, April 10, 1896; Lay Song Hong, September 10-December 
20, 1896; Kao Nok Ram, 2,000 feet, January 16, 1899; and Trang, 
February 3, 7, 1897); four males and one female, Mergui Archipelago 
(St. Matthew Island, January 15, 1900; SulHvan Island, February 3, 
4, 1900; Domel Island, February 23, 1900); and one female, Rumpin 
River, Pahang, June 11, 1902. He describes the soft parts as: Iris 
brown or gray brown; upper mandible pale horn brown, lower pale 
flesh}^; feet pale fleshy or fleshy white. 

A female shot b}-- Dr. Abbott in Trang, February 3, contained 
nearly mature eggs. 

This form is distinguished from the northern race {zantholeuca) by 
the longer, heavier bill, averaging slightly grayer below, the upper 
parts more yellowish, and the underside of the tail darker wdth the 
inner margins of the feathers with less yellow. 

Seven males from Peninsular Siam measure: Wing, 64-74 (68.3); 
tail, 41-48 (44.3); culmen, 13-14 (13.6) mm. Four males from the 
Mergui Archipelago: Wing, 68-72 (70.2); tail, 43.5-46.5 (45.2); 
culmen, 13-14 (13.7) mm. Six females from the Malay Peninsula: 

»i Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 196, 1934. 
M Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 138, 1931. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 361 

Wing, 62.5-68 (64.9); tail, 38.5-42.5 (40.7); culmen, 13-14 (13.3) mm. 
One female form the Mergiii Arcliipelago: Wing, 66.5; tail, 43; 
culmen, 13.5 mm. 

This form ranges from southern Tenasserim south through Penin- 
sular Siam to the Malay States. 

It occurs throughout Peninsular Siam. Robinson ^^ records it from 
Langkawi and from Kao Nawng, Bandon;^* Glydenstolpe ^* records 
a specimen from Koh Lak Paa; Robinson and Kloss *^ from Renong 
River; Tasan, Chumporn; and Hat Sanuk; Grant ^^ from Patani, 

ERPORNIS ZANTHOLEUCA CANESCENS Delacour and Jabouille 

Erpornis xantholeuca canescens Delacour and Jabouille, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, 
vol. 48, p. 132, 1928 (Bokor, 1,000 meters, southern Cambodia). 

One male, Hupbon, November 5, 1931; one male, Nong Khor, near 
Sriracha, September 26, 1925; four males, Kao Sabap, November 1-17, 
1933; one male, Kao Kuap, Krat, December 24, 1929. 

This small series of males from southeastern Siam differs from the 
series from northern and eastern Siam in being less yellowish above 
and the pileum and nape with a grayish cast, not the same as the 
color of the back. De Schauensee ^^ has also referred specimens from 
Chantabun and Sriracha to this form. 

The seven males measure: Wing, 62-69 (67.3); tail, 42.5-49 (45.6); 
culmen, 11.5-13 (12.2) mm. 

The form ranges from Cambodia to southeastern Siam. Two other 
forms occur in southern China and one in southern Annam. 

CUTIA NIPALENSIS NIPALENSIS Hodgson 

Cutia nipalensis Hodgson, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 5, p. 774, 1836 (Nepal). 

One male and three females, Doi Nangka, November 6, 1930; one 
male. Pang Meton (Doi Nangka), May 1, 1931. Dr. Smith describes 
the soft parts as: Iris reddish brown; bill above black, below dark 
blue; legs deep yellow. 

Deignan,^^ Chasen and Kloss,^ and de Schauensee ^ report it from 
Doi Sutep, 5,500 feet. 

The form ranges from Nepal to eastern Assam and south through 
Burma to northern Siam and northwestern Tonkin. 



w Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 7, p. 179, 1917. 

'< Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 5, p. 107, 1915. 

•» Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. C2, 1916. 

M Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 303, 1924. 

" Fasciculi Malayenses, pt. 3, p. 80, 1905. 

" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 190, 1934. 

•' Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 138, 1931, 

' Journ. Siam. Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 245, 1932. 

> Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 196, 1934. 



362 



BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PTEBUTHIUS AERALATUS AERALATUS Tickell 

Pteruthius aeralatus Tickell, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 24, p. 267, 1855 
(Tenasserim). 

Two males, Doi Angka, 4,000 feet, December 3, 1928; ten males and 
six females, Khun Tan Mountains, 4,000-4,500 feet, November 21-22, 
1928, October 16, 1929, August 24-September 2, 1930, February 27- 
March 4, 1932, May 12-15, 1933; five males and five females, Doi 
Nangka, November 3-21, 1930, April 24, 28, 1931; one male and two 
females. Pang Meton (Doi Nangka), May 4, 1931; two males and 
one female, Doi Kiew Koh, December 25, 1932; one male, Doi Mana, 
December 30, 1932; five males and five females, Doi Hua Mot, 
August 12-September 27, 1934; three males and one female, Kao 
Luang, 4,000 feet, Nakon Sritamarat, July 20, 1928. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected three males and two females, Kao Nom 
Plu, 3,000 feet, Trang, February 20-26, 1897. He gives the foft 
parts as: Iris grayish blue; bill black above, leaden blue beneath; feet 
pale pinkish fleshy. 

The six males and three females from Peninsular Siam when com- 
pared with the large series from northern Siam in the case of the males 
are somewhat darker on the mantle and back, and in the case of the 
females the pileum is a dingier gray and the white tips to the primaries 
more reduced. The Peninsular birds are also smaller, but whether 
the differences are sufficient to found a race upon, I am doubtful. 

Table 3. — Average measurements of Pteruthius aeralatus 



Specimens 



Ten males from northern Siam 

Six males from Peninsular Siam 

Ten females from northern Siam 

Three females from Peninsular Siam 



Wing 



Mm 
79 
74.6 
80 
73.8 



Tail 



Mm 
65.4 
60 
56.5 
48.7 



Culm en 



Mm 
14.7 
14.3 
14.7 
14.3 



The young male at first resembles the female. The tail and wing 
then become like the adult male, then the back. The black of the 
head apparently is not acquu'ed until much later; one young male has 
begun to turn black on the auriculars. All the young males have the 
under tail coverts washed with light yellow, but how long this is 
retained is uncertain. 

Recently authors generally have been treating aeralatus as a form 
of P. flaviscapis of Java, but in my opinion the latter is distinct 
enough to rank as a separate species. There are two additional races 
of aeralatus on the continent, however: P. a. ricketti, of southern and 
southwestern China, a larger and grayer bird below than aeralatus, 
and P. a. annamensis, of the Langbian Plateau, southern Annam, 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 363 

differing from aeralatus in the absence of the black edges to the 
innermost remiges and the reduction of the white tips to the primaries. 
P. a. cameranoi occurs in Sumatra. 

P. a. aeralatus ranges from eastern Burma south tlirough northern 
Siam and Tenasserim to the Federated Malay States; eastward it 
extends to Cambodia, eastern Tonkin, northern Laos, and northern 
Annam. 

In Peninsular Siam apparently it occurs only on mountains of 
sufficient elevation. Beside the localities where it was taken by Dr. 
Abbott and Dr. Smith, Robinson ^ reports it from Kao Nawng, above 
2,000 feet, Bandon; in northern Siam, Deignan * reports that on Doi 
Sutep it is found from 3,500 to 5,500 feet. It has also been taken on 
Doi Nga Chang and at Chiengdao and probably occurs on all the 
mountains in the north. Though I have seen no records from eastern 
Siam, it probably occurs there. 

PTERUTHIUS AENOBARBUS INTERMEDIUS (Hume) 

Allotrius intermedius Hume, Stray Feathers, vol. 5, p. 112, 1877 (central Tenas- 
serim Hills). 

One male, IQiun Tan, October 20, 1929; one male, Doi Nangka, 
November 12, 1930; two males and three females, Doi Hua Mot, 
August 19-26, 1934. 

Deignan ^ found it once on Doi Sutep, 5,300 feet. De Schauensee ' 
states that it is not a common bird in northern Siam. 

This form occurs from the eastern hills of Burma and Tenasserim 
through the mountains of northern Siam to Laos and Tonkin. P. a. 
laotianus has been described from Xieng-Khouang, Laos; P. a. 
indochinensis from Djiring, southern Annam; and P. a. aenobarbus 
from Java. 

MESIA ARGENTAURIS GALBANA Mayr and Greenway 

Mesia argentauris galhana Mayr and Greenway, Proc. New England Zool. 
Club, vol. 17, p. 3, 1938 (Doi Angka, Siam). 

One female, Doi Angka, 4,000 feet, December 4, 1928; one male 
and one female, Doi Nangka, April 24, 1931; three males and two 
females, Pang Meton (Doi Nangka), May 1-4, 1931. 

It has been recorded from Doi Sutep by de Schauensee,^ Deignan,' 
and Chasen and Kloss.^ Deignan says it occurs between 5,000 and 
5,500 feet. 

The form ranges from the Southern Shan States to northern Siam. 

• Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 5, p. 107, 1915, 
« Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 138. 1931. 
•Journ. Slam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 175, 1931. 

• Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 197. 1934. 

' Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 81, p. 53(3. 1930; vol. 86, p. 197, 1934. 
' Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 139, 1931. 

• Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 246, 1932. 



364 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

MESIA ARGENTAURIS TAHANENSIS Ven 

Mesia argcntauris tahanensis Yen, Science Journ. (Sun Yat-Sen Univ.), vol. 6, 
no. 2, p. 63, 1934 (Mount Tahan, Pahang). 

Two males, Kao Luang, 3,000 feet, Nakon Sritamarat, July 14, 
1928. 

These two specimens when compared with four males from north- 
ern Siam are more of a buffy citrine on the back, and tlie collar on 
the hindneck is a deeper yellow; below there is little or no difference. 
A male and a female from the Semangko Pass, Selangor-Pahang 
boundary, when compared sex for sex with northern specimens have 
the hindneck collar a much deeper yellow also. The two jnales from 
Kao Luang are not so deep a yellow in the hindneck collar or on the 
throat and chest as the Semangko male. 

The United States National Museum possesses a male from Sikkim 
that in the color of the hindneck collar and the throat approaches the 
Semangko male; the back lacks the buffy citrine of the more southern 
bird, however, and in this respect approaches the northern Siamese 
series but is even grayer. In measurements the Kao Luang m.ales 
agree with northern specimens. As a matter of fact they are some- 
what intermediate, but probably they had better be placed with the 
southern form for the present. 

Seven specimens from northern Siam (four males and three females) 
measure: Wing, 76-80 (77.9); tail, 69-73 (70.6); culmen, 14-15.5 
(14.7) mm. Two males from Kao Luang: Wing, 81, 81 ; tail, 74, 74; 
culmen, 15, 15.5 mm. One male (first) and one female from Semangko: 
Wing, 74, 71; tail, 69, 71; culmen, 14, 14 mm. 

M. a. tahanensis was reported from Kao Nawng, Bandon, above 
3,000 feet, by Robinson ^° and from Kao Luang, between 3,000-5,800 
feet, Nakon Sritamarat, by Robinson and Kloss.^' In the high 
mountains of the Malay States apparently it is more abundant and 
more widely distributed. 

The form ranges from the mountains of the Malay States north- 
ward to the mountains of Bandon, Peninsular Siam. 

A form occurs in the mountains of Tonkin, one in southern Annam, 
one in Sumatra, and two in Burma. 

Family PYCNONOTIDAE: Bulbuls 

AETHORHYNCHUS LAFRESNAYEI LAFRESNAYEI (Hartlaub) 

lora lafresnayei Hartlaub, Rev. Zool., 1844, p. 401 (Malay Peninsula). 

Two males, Bangnara, Patani, July 10 and 18, 1926; one male, 
Yala, Patani, January 30, 1931; one female, Bukit, Patani, no date; 

'• Journ. Federated Malay States Miis., vol. 5, p. 107, 1915. 
•' Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. II, p. 62, 1923. 



BIRDS FROM SIAIM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 365 

two females, Huey Yang, Kao Luang, Nakon Sritamarat, October 1 
and 6, 1930; one male and one female, Tha Lo, Bandon, September 
14 and 25, 1931; one male, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, December 21, 1933; 
one male. Waterfall, Trang, August 24, 1933. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took three males and four females in Trang, 
February 13, 1897, December 30-31, 1898, January 5 and 27, 1899. 
He gives the color of the soft parts as: Iris dark brown; bill leaden 
blue, culmen black; feet leaden blue. 

All the males in this series have the upperparts strongl)^ washed 
with black, even those taken in winter, but, with the exception of one 
taken by Dr. Abbott, December 30, not quite so strongly as the 
July specimens. The specimens collected by Dr. Smith from Pran, 
southwestern Siam, northward and eastward in Siam, are all yellowish 
green above, with little or no blackish wash, no matter whether 
taken in the breeding season or not; in some the inner web of rectrices 
have more or less black and they have been assigned to the next 
race, mnotatus, rectrices of the males of the Peninsular birds being 
entirely black in breeding specimens at least. 

The seven males from Peninsular Siam measure: Wing, 67-75 (71.8) ; 
culmen, 20-22 (21.1) mm. Eight females: Wmg, 67.5-72 (69.7); 
culmen, 20-22 (20.6) mm. 

Robinson and Kloss ^^ record this race from the northern end of 
Peninsular Siam as far as Hat Sanuk, southwestern Siam, but remark 
that the specimens show very little black above. From this I gather 
they are more or less intermediate between this and the next race 
{innotatus). 

The range of A. I. lajresnayei is from the Malay States north through 
Peninsular Siam to possibly southern Tenasserim, but just how far 
north is not known. Dr. Smith took A. I. innotatus as far south as 
Koh Lak, which is a few miles east of Hat Sanuk. 

Robinson and Kloss '^ record A. I. lafresnayei from Tung Pran, 
Renong River, Mamoh, Tapli, Tasan, and Hat Sanuk. These 
records probably represent its northern limit. 

AETHORHYNCHUS LAFRESNAYEI INNOTATUS (BIyth) 

lora innotata Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 16, p. 472, 1847 (Arracan). 

Two males and two females, Pran, May 26, 1928; April 1-4, 1931; 
three males, Koh Lak, June 7-22, 1933; six males and two females, 
Pak Chong, May 14-16, 1925, November 19-December 8, 1929; one 
female. Lam Klong Lang, Pak Chong, June 5, 1925; two males and 
one female, Tha Chang, Pak Chong, March 20, 1927, January 2, 1931 ; 
two males and one female, Sikeu, near Korat, Februarj^ 8, March 1 

"Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 259, 1924. 
33527—38 24 



366 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL. MUSEUM 

and 4, 1926; one female, Lat Bua Kao, August 7, 1929; one female, 
Hupbon, November 5, 1931; one male and two females, Hin Lap, 
October 1 and December 10, 1931; one male, Kumpawapi, February 
17, 1929; one male and one female, Aranya, July 16, 17, 1930; one 
male, Kao Seming, Krat, October 16, 1928; one male, Kao Sabap, 
November 3, 1933. 

In the above series, the males have little or no black on the upper- 
parts at any season. They are serpentine green above, the pileum 
more yellowish. Below the yellow is less bright than in A. I. lafresnayei 
and the tail is yellowish citrine, the outside rec trices sometimes with a 
little black on the inner web, never all black as in the Malay race; 
bills a little smaller than the latter. 

Ten males of innotatus measure: Wing, 68-73 (70.4); culmen, 
19-21.5 (19.7) mm. Ten females: Wing, 66-70 (68.1); culmen, 
18-20.5 (19.2) mm. 

The present form ranges from Arracan, Burma, through northern 
Tenasserim to southwestern, central, eastern, and southeastern Siam, 
French Laos, Tonkin, and northern and central Annam. 

In Cochinchina, southern Cambodia, and southern Annam A. I. 
xanthotis occurs. It is more yellowish on the back than innotatus, 
and e\ddently does not reach to northwestern Cambodia as the two 
specimens taken near the border in southeastern Siam seem to belong 
to the northern race though somewhat more yellowdsh on the pileum. 

De Schauensee ^^ took a male at Chiengsen, January 9, and remarks 
that it seems to be a rare bird in northern Siam. This is the only 
record I have seen from the northern part of the country. 

AEGITHINA TIPHIA TIPHIA (Linnaeus) 

Motacilla tiphia Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 186, 1758 (Bengal). 

Two males and one female, Bukit, Patani, January 26 and 27, 1931 ; 
one female, Singora, June 29, 1929; one female, Nakon Sritamarat, 
September 21, 1896; one male and one female, Pran, April 1, 1931; 
three males, Koh Lak, June 9-14, 1933; three males and five females, 
Muang Kanburi, April 10-15, 1928; one female, Aranya, July 14, 
1930; 13 males and eight females, Bangkok, January 18 and March 
11, 1924, October 26-December 31, 1925, April 8-June 26, 1926, 
September 20-23, 1930, May 12, 14, 1934; one female, Lomkao, 
February 20, 1934; one female. Bung Borapet, June 22, 1932; one 
male, Doi Angka, lower slopes, December 9, 1928; one male and one 
female, Chiengmai, November 25, 1928; two males and one female, 
Nan, April 14-23, 1930; two males. Ban Nam Kien, Nan, April 18-22, 
1930; two males and one female, Prae, April 11, 1930; one male and 
one female. Ban Tai Yai, July 8-9, 1928; one male, Knong Phra, 

n Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 81, p. 536, 1930. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 367 

April 12, 1929; one female, Lat Biia Kao, July 31, 1929; one male and 
one female, Pak Chong, December 22, 1926, and November 29, 1929; 
one male, Tlia Chang, March 17, 1927; one male, Bua Yai, Korat 
Plateau, February 15, 1929; one female, Muek Lek, April 26, 1933; 
one male, Chantuk, June 12, 1934; one male, Sriracha, April 19, 
1934; one female, Kao Seming, Krat, October 12, 1928. 

Dr. W. L, Abbott took the following in the Malay Peninsula: Five 
males and three females, Trang (Prahmon, February 21-March 24, 
1896; Tyching, April 24, 1896; Kantany, January 16, 1897; Trang, 
January 21, 1899); one male and two females, Trengganu (Dungun 
River, September 19, 1900; Tanjong Dungun, September 20 and 21, 
1900); one male, mouth of Rumpin River, Pahang, May 20, 1902. 
He gives the color of the soft parts as: Iris white or grayish white; 
bill leaden blue, culmen black; feet plumbeous or leaden blue. 

In this large series there are very few males with much black on the 
upperparts, and when present it is confined mostly to the pileum and 
nape. There seems to be little or no difference between Peninsular 
Siam specimens and those from farther north. The male collected by 
Dr. Abbott in Pahang should represent A. t. singapurensis Chasen 
and Kloss,'* but in the series from Bangkok there is a male that has 
even more black. Dr. Oberholser described this dark bird from Banka 
as A. t. micromelaena,^^ and, if worthy of recognition, the latter name 
will have to be used. 

The male from Pahang measures: Wing, 64; tail, 46.5; culmen, 
15 mm. Four males from Banka: Wing, 59-63 (61.5); tail, 44-45.5 
(44.9); culmen, 15-17 (15.6) mm. Seven males from the Malay 
Peninsula, north of the Federated States: Wing, 61-65 (62.4); tail, 
43-47 (44.8) ; culmen, 15-16 (15.3) mm. Ten males from Siam proper: 
Wing, 60-67 (63.8); tail, 43-53 (47.5); culmen, 14.5-16 (14.8) mm. 

De Schauensee ^^ states that specimens from northern Siam have 
paler throats and backs than birds from Bangkok southward. My 
series of males from northern Siam is a small one and does not show 
the deeper yellow throat of the southern bird; possibly the backs of 
the northern specimens average somewhat paler, but birds can be 
picked out of my series from the Malay Peninsula that are just as 
pale. I believe the deeper yellow throats are due to age, as there are 
a number in my series that are molting from a lighter to a deeper 
yellow throat, and this also applies to the color of the back. At first 
the young male resembles the female, the darker back of the fully 
adult male being acquired only after several molts. 

The present form extends eastward from Bengal to Burma, Assam, 
Siam, and Indo-Cliina, except the north; southward it extends down 

'« Bull. Raffles Mus.. no. 5, p. 85, 1931. 

" Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 76, no. 6, p. 7, 1923. 

i» Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 199, 1934. 



368 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONiVL MUSEUM 

Peninsular Siam to Trengganu; specimens from Singapore and the 
southern end of the Mahxy Peninsula are doubtfully separable. 

AEGITHINA VIRIDISSIMA VIRIDISSIMA (Bonaparte) 

Jora viridissima Bonaparte, Conspectus generum avium, vol. 1, p. 397, 1850 
(Sumatra and Borneo; restricted to Sumatra). 

One female, Bukit, Patani, Januarj^ 23, 1931. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott took a female on Pulo Langkawi, December 3, 
1899. 

This form occurs from southern Tenasserim south tlirough Penin- 
sular Siam to Singapore, Cochinchina, and Sumatra. Other forms 
occur in the Natunas, Anambas, and Borneo. 

Robinson and Kloss record it from Trang *'^ and Junkseylon 
(Puket) '^; Robinson ^^ from Pulo Terutau; Kloss ^° from Koh Lak; 
de Schaueusee ^* from Nakon Sritamarat. 

CHLOROPSIS AURIFRONS AURIFRONS (Temminck) 

Phyllornis aurifrons Temminck, Nouveau recueil de planches colorizes d'oiseaux, 
livr. 81, pi. 484, fig. 1, 1829 (district Pallemberg, Sumatra; error; India). 

One male, Doi Nangka, lower slopes, December 9, 1928; one male, 
Nan, April 16, 1930; one male. Ban Nam Kien, Nan, April 21, 1930; 
one male, Mesuya Valley, January 2, 1933 ; one male, Mae Hong Sorn, 
January 8, 1933. 

De Schauensee ^^ records it from Chiengmai, Doi Sutep, 2,000 feet, 
Chiengrai, and IVIechai; all localities in northern Siam. Deignan ^^ 
gives it as common on Doi Sutep, 1,100-2,500 feet; Chasen and Kloss ^* 
record it from Raheng, western Siam. Two of the latter (male and 
female) upon which the record was founded were later acquired by the 
United States National Museum. 

The range of the form is from the Himalayas of Garhwal and Simla 
to eastern Assam, the hill country of north and northeastern India, 
the whole of Burma and north and western Siam; it has been recorded 
from central Siam, but the records are doubtful. 

I'Ibis, 1911, p. 55. 

IS Jouni. Nat. Uist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 106, 1919. 

" Jouru. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 7, p. 171, 1917. 

»» Ibis, 1918. p. 197. 

>' Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 200, 1934. 

" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 81, p. 537, 1930. 

« Jouru. Siam Soc. Nnt. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 139, 1931. 

" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 174, 1928. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 369 

CHLOROPSIS AURIFRONS INORNATUS Klos3 

Chloropsis aurifrons inornatus Kloss, Ibis, 1918, p. 198 (Lat Bua Kao, eastern 
Siam). 

One male, Sikeu, near Korat, March 16, 1926; two males, Pak 
Chong, June 20, 26, 1934; one male and one female, Cliantiik, June 
12, 14, 1934; one male. Ban Nakae, Maich 4, 1929; one male, Lat 
Bua Kao, August 10, 1929; one male and one female, Lem Sing, 
Chantabun, June 9, 1926; one male. Ban Manoa Wan, October 19, 
1932; one male. Ban Mekok, October 20, 1932; one male, Muang 
Kanburi, September 10, 1928; one male, Wang Kien, March 13, 1934; 
one male, Sam Roi Yot, November 13, 1932; one male, Koh Lak, 
June 15, 1933. 

The male from Sikeu and the male from Lat Bua Kao have a yellow 
fringe below the black of the throat but not nearly so pronounced as 
in typical aurifrons. 

De Schauensee ^^ records C. a. inornatvs from Nakon Nayok and 
says that it replaces the northern form in southern Siam, and on his 
third expedition he took specimens at Konken, Kengkoi, and Tamu- 
ang.^* Kloss ^^ records it from Koh Lak; Robinson and Kloss ^^* from 
Koh Lak and Hat Sanuk. 

The form ranges from southern Tenasserim north through south- 
western Siam to southern and eastern Siam, Laos, Cambodia, Annam, 
and Cochinchina. 

The males of this form difl'er from t^^pical aurifrons in lacking or 
having the yellow surrounding the black throat patch much reduced. 

CHLOROPSIS HARDWICKII HARDWICKII Jardine and Sslby 

Chloropsis hardwickii Jardine and Selby, Illustrations of ornithology, vol. 2, 
pt. 7, Appendix, p. 1, 1830 (Nepal). 

Seven males and one female, Khun Tan Mountains, 2,000-4,200 
feet, November 19-23, 1928, May 13, 15, 1933; four males and two 
females, Khun Tan, October 18-21, 1929, August 23-27, 1930; four 
males and three females, Doi Nangka, November 17, 1930; one female, 
Pang Meton (Doi Nangka), May 1, 1931; one male, Doi Kiew Koh 
Ma, December 25, 1932; three males and two females, Doi Hua Mot, 
August 12-24, 1934. 

I do not think the above series represents typical harckvickii nor 
does it agree with the description of malayana. Only two Indian male 
specimens have been available for comparison and they difl'er con- 
siderably from tlie fine scries of Siamese males; the pileum is olive- 
ocher with a slight greenish wash, while in the Siamese series the pileum 

" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 81, p. 5.17, 1930. 
M Proc. Arad. Nat. Sci. Philadelplim, vol. 80. p. 200, U>31. 
" Ibis, 1918, p. 198. 
"• Jourri. Nat. IJist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 2G0. 1924. 



370 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

is strongly washed with greenish, the frons and a border to the black 
throat patch being reed yellow. 

Ten adult males from Siam measure: Wing, 87-9G (92.9); culmen, 
19.5-20.5 (19.9) mm. Six adult females from Siam: Wing, 82-88 (86); 
culmen, 18.5-20 (19.3) mm. The wing in these seems to average less 
than in the measurements given by Stuart Baker ^^ and he does not 
segregate the se.xes. My measurements show the female to be con- 
siderably smaller. 

The only female of malayana examined is from the Semangko Pass, 
Selangor-Pahang boundary. The wing is no smaller (85 mm) than 
in the Siamese series, but the lesser v/ing coverts are a deeper blue and 
the primary coverts are washed with blue, while in the northern form 
there is little or no blue wash. The culmen in this specimen measures 
17 mm, which is smaller than in northern birds. 

A male in the United States National Museum from near Laichau, 
Tonkin, more nearly resembles the Indian bird than that from Siam, 
but the yellow of the pileum is lighter and has more of a greenish wash 
than the former; wing, 91 mm. 

Chasen and Kloss,^^ in commenting upon a male from Doi Sutep, 
have likewise noted the intermediate character of the Siamese bird, 
as has also de Schauensee ^° in writing upon a series from Chiengmai, 
Khun Tan, Chiengdao, and the southern Shan States, but he believes 
the northern Siamese bird to be nearer malayana than hardwickii. He 
apparently did not make a direct comparison with either. It seems 
best to leave the northern Siamese race with the nominate form for the 
present. 

C. h. hardwickii ranges from the Himalayas at Simla east to eastern 
Assam and south through P»urma to the Shan States and Tenasserim 
and east through northern Siam to Laos, Tonkin, and northern Annum. 

CHLOROPSIS COCHINCHINENSIS COCHINCHINENSIS (Gmelin) 

Turdus cochinchinensis Gmelin, Systema naturae, vol. 1, pt. 2, p. 825, 178J) 
(Cochinchina). 

Seven males and one female, Kao Luang, Nakon Sritamarat, July 
14-20, 1928; one female, Patalung, July 7, 1929; three males and one 
female, Sichol, Bandon, August 31-Septembcr 1, 1929; six males and 
three females, Tha Lo, Bandon, September 18-27, 1931; two males, 
Kao Soi Dao, Trang, December 23, 1933, January 23, 1934; one male. 
Waterfall, Trang, August 26, 1933; two males and one female, Hup- 
bon, near Sriracha, May 25, 1925, October 31-November 3, 1931; one 
male and one female, Sikeu, near Korat, February 16, 1926; one 
female, Nong Khor, near Sriracha, November 15, 1924; tv^o males and 

»« The fauna of British India, Birds, ed. 2. vol. 1, p. 349, 1922. 
" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 242, 1932. 
"> Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 200. 1934. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 371 

one female, near Krabin, May 2-8, 1928; one male and three females, 
Kao Seming, Krat, October 10-16, 1928, January 2, 1930; three males, 
Kao Sabap, October 24 and 30, 1933; one female. Lam Klong Lang, 
Pak Chong, June 4, 1925; one male and one female, Fak Chong, 
November 15, 1925 and November 19, 1929; one male, Pran, April 1, 
1931 ; four males and three females, Nong Yang, October 20-Noveniber 
16, 1931; one male, Hin Lap, November 6, 1931; four males and one 
female, Khun Tan, 3,000 feet, August 25-September 7, 1930, February 
16, 1932; one male and one female, Aranya, July 13, 1930; one male, 
Mae Hong Sorn, January 3, 1933; one male, Meserieng, January 20, 
1933; one male, Muek Lek, April 17, 1933. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected the following specimens in the Malay 
Peninsula Region: Seven males and five females, Trang (Lay Song 
Hong, September 8-November 15, 1896; Tyching, July 3, 1896; 
Prahmon, February 22 and March 3, 1896; Kao Soi Dao, 1,500 feet, 
February 15, 1899; near Kao Nok Ram, January 5, 1899; Kao Nok 
Ram, 3,000 feet, January 15, 1899; Trang, January 4, 27, 1897); one 
male, and four females, Mergui Archipelago (Bentinck Island, March 
8, 1900; Heifer Island, March 6, 1900); one female, Victoria Point, 
Tenasserim, March 31, 1900; one male, Maliwun, Tenasserim, 
March 25, 1900. 

There is an average difference between a series from northern and 
eastern Siam and a series from Peninsular Siam. The Peninsular 
series has a more j^ellowish tinge to the upper back and the blue on the 
wing is deeper; the average size is a little greater. 

Ten males from eastern and northern Siam measure: Wing, 82-86.5 
(83.9); culmen, 16-17 (16.5) mm. Ten males from Peninsular Siam: 
Wing, 83-88.5 (85); culmen, 17-19 (18) mm. 

While these differences are average, yet individual specimens from 
either series can be picked out that exactly or nearly match in size 
and color. 

This form ranges from south of the Brahmaputra in Assam south 
through Burma and northern Siam down Peninsular Siam to about 
latitude 6'^ 30' N.; eastward it extends to Cambodia, Cochinchina, 
Laos, and Annam. Apparently it is a very common bird all over Siam 
proper and in Peninsular Siam. The present form is distinguished 
from icterocephala by having the crown greenish and the yellow on 
the side of neck less extensive. 

CHLOROPSIS COCHINCHINENSIS ICTEROCEPHALA (Lesson) 

Phyllornis iderocephalus Lesson, Rev. ZooL, 1840, p. 1G4 (Sumatra and Borneo). 

One male, Bangnara, Patani, July 4, 1926. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected one female, Packa, Trengganu, Sep- 
tember 27, 1900, and two immature males, Rumpin River, Pahang,, 
June 9 and 21, 1902. 



372 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

This form can be distinguished from cocJiinchinensis by having the 
pileum more extensively yellow, with little or no greenish wash. 
It ranges from Sumatra through the Malay States north to about 
latitude 6° 30' N. and barely reaches Peninsular Siam in Patani. 

CHLOROPSIS SONNERATI ZOSTEROPS Vigors 

Chloropsis zoster ops Vigors, in Raffles's Memoir of Sir Thomas Stamford RafHes, 
p. 674, 1830 (Sumatra). 

One male, Bangnara, Patani, May 17, 1924; two males, Tha Lo, 
Bandon, September 21, 1931; one rriale and two females, Kao Soi 
Dao, Trang, December 28, 1933, January 6, 1934. Dr. Smith gives 
the soft parts as: Iris dark brown; bill black; legs Ught blue. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected the following: Six males and three 
females, Trang (Prahmon, March 5 and 9, 1896; Lay Song Hong, 
November 28, 1896; Trang, February 5 and 8, 1897, January 1 and 
3, 1899; Kao Soi Dao, 1,000 feet, February 14, 1899); two females, 
the Dindings, Straits of Malacca, April 13 and 16, 1900; one female, 
Victoria Point, Tenasserim, March 31, 1900. He gives the soft parts 
as: Iris dark brown; bill black (male); black, lower mandible whitish 
at base (female) ; feet leaden. 

The series of seven adult males from the Malay Peninsula are 
slightly less yellowish green above and below than four males from 
Sumatra and one from Banka. Four males from Borneo are more 
yellowish green above and below even than the Sumatran series. 
The difference between the Sumatran and the mainland bird is 
slight. 

Seven males from Peninsular Siam measure: Wing, 99-103 (101); 
culmen, 20-22.5 (21.3 mm). Four males from Sumatra and one 
from Banka: Wing, 97.5-102 (99.3); culmen, 20.5-22 (21.2 mm). 
Four males from Borneo: Wing, 100-102 (101); culmen, 21-22 
(21.4 mm). 

This form ranges from Banka and Sumatra north through the 
Malay States and Peninsular Siam to southern Tenasserim. 

Robinson ^^ records it from Pulo Telibun, Trang, and Pulo Lontar; 
Robinson and Kloss ^^ from Kao Ram, 1,200 feet, Nakon Sritamarat, 
and later from Tung Pran, Takuatung, Koh Pra Tung, Takuapa, 
and Namchuk, Pakchan.^^ 

C. s. sonnerati Jardine and Selby ^* is confined to Java and C. s. 
viriditectus Hartert to Borneo. 

" Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 7, p. 171, 1917. 
« Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 11, p. CI, 1923. 
»' Journ. Nat. HLst. Soc. Piam, vol. 5, p. 261, 1924. 

" Illustrations of Ornithology, .ser. 1, vol. 1, pt. 1, p. [19], 1826 (India et insulis); vol. 2, text to pi. 100, 
183n (Jiiva). 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 373 

CHLOROPSIS CYANOPOGON SEPTENTRIONALIS Robinson and Kloss 

Chloropsis cyanopogon seplentrionalis Robinson and Kloss, Journ. Nat. Hist. 
See. Siain, vol. 3, p. 107, 1918 (Nong Kok, Gliirbi, Peninsular Siam). 

Two females, Pa taking, July 18, 1929; three males, Tlia Lo, 
Bandon, September 18-27, 1931; one female, Sichol, Bandon, May 
19, 1930. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected two males at Prahmon, Trang, Febru- 
ary 22 and March 23, 1896, and one male, near Chong, Trang, Jan- 
uary 24, 1897. He gives the soft parts as: Iris dark brown; bill 
black; feet plumbeous. 

The above series of males differs from two males of C. c. cyanopogon 
from Sumatra in being somewhat smaller and in having the foreheads 
tinged with yellow and the black throat patch bordered below with 
yellow. 

Six males from Peninsular Siam measure: Wing, 80-83 (80.7); 
culmen, 15-17 (15.9 mm). Two males from Sumatra: Wing, 81, 85; 
culmen 17, 17 mm. 

This form ranges from southern Tenasserim south through Penin- 
sular Siam to about Kedah. To the north Robinson and Kloss ^^ 
record it from Tapli, Pakchan, and Tasan, Chumporn. 

CRINIGER TEPHROGENYS TEPHROGENYS ( Jardine and Selby) 

Trichophorus tephrogenys Jardine and Selby, Illustrations of ornithology, vol. 3, 
pt. 9, pi. 127, 1833 (supposed to be India; type fixed by Hartert "as Malacca). 

Three females, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, December 24, 28, 1933, 
January 1, 1934; two females and one unsexed, Kao Chong, Trang, 
August 27, September 8, 1933. 

Dr. Abbott collected eight males and two females in Trang (Lay 
Song Hong, August 31 and September 5, 1896, January 1, 1897; 
Chong, January 23, 1897; Kao Nok Ram, 1,000 feet, January 4, 1899; 
Trang, January 3-February 7, 1897); one male and one female, 
Rumpin River, Paliang, May 23 and June 21, 1902. He gives the 
soft parts as: Iris brown, pale brown, reddish brown or brownish red; 
upper mandible dark brown or dull black, lower mandible leaden; 
feet pale brownish fleshy. 

The range of this form is from southern Tenasserim south through 
Peninsular Siam to Singapore. Ogilvie-Grant " records it from 
Patani; Robinson and Kloss ^* from Ronpibun and Kao Ram, 1,200 
feet, Nakon Sritamarat; later ^* they say it has often been confused 
with ochraceus in the past but that there is no occasion to do so at the 
present day if correctly named material is compared. 

M Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 202, 1924. 

" Nov. Zool., vol. 9. 1902, p. 558. 

>' Fasciculi Malayenses, pt. 3. p. 86, 1905. 

»« Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 11, p. 61, 1923, 

«• Journ. Nat Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 268, 1924. 



374 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

C. t. tephrogenys has the breast and belly amber-yellow, the former 
with streaks of grayish white; under tail coverts mustard yellow. C. 
ochraceus has only the center of the breast light naples yellow; the 
sides light brownish olive; the under tail coverts cinnamon-buff. The 
latter is darker above and more brownish ; the former more citrine. 

CRINIGER TEPHROGENYS ANNAMENSIS Delaconr and Jabouille 

Criniger tephrogenys annamensis Delacour and Jabouille, Bull. Brit. Orn. 
Club, vol. 45, p. 32, 1924 (Laobao, Quangtri, Annam). 

One male, Kao Lem, December 26, 1930. Wing, 108; culmen, 
19 mm. 

This male agrees fairly well with a specimen of this race from 
Daban, southern Annam, except that the breast and belly are some- 
what deeper yellow. This form should not be confused with C. t. 
henrici of the north, which is a larger bird with the underparts aver- 
aging paler. 

C. t. annamensis ranges from Annam to Laos, Cambodia, and 
eastern Siam. 

This is the first and only record for Siam known to me. 

CRINIGER TEPHROGENYS HENRICI Oustalet 

Criniger henrici Oustalet, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 1896, p. 185 (southern 
Yunnan and northern Tonkin). 

One male and two females, Khun Tan, October 22, 1929, August 
28 and September 5, 1930; one male, Huey Me Sae, December 24, 
1932; one female, Khun Tan Mountains, 3,000 feet, May 10, 1933; 
one male, Doi Hua Mot, August 29, 1934. 

The male from Huey Me Sae is a deeper yellow below than the 
Khun Tan male. The above series agrees with a small series from 
northern Tonkin. 

The form ranges from the northeastern Shan States to southern 
Yunnan, Kwangsi, northern Siam, Laos, and Tonkin. Rothschild ""• 
says that C. t. grandis Baker is a synonym. 

Gyldenstolpe *• found it fairly common in bamboo and evergreen 
forests in northern Siam, and on his second expedition *^ he secured 
specimens at Khun Tan, Bang Hue Pong, and Doi Par Sakeng. De 
Schaucnsee *^ took a series at Chiengmai and Chiengdao. 

CRINIGER OCHRACEUS OCHRACEUS Moore 

Criniger ochraceus Moore, in Horsfield and Moore, A catalogue of the birds in 
the Museum of the Hon. East India Company, vol. 1, p. 252, 1854 (Tcnas- 
serim) . 

Criniger sordidus Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 22, p. 320, 1900 (Khaw 
Soi Dow, Trang, Peninsular Siam). 

« Nov. Zool., vol. 33. p. 306, 1926. 

*i Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 50, no. 8, p. 24. 1913. 
" Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Ilandl., vol. 56, no. 2, p. 67, 1916. 
" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 201, 1934. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 375 

Criniger salangae Sharpe, A hand-list of the genera and species of birds, vol. 3, 
p. 316, 1901 (new name for Criniger cabanisi Muller, not of Sharpe). 

One adult male and one immature male, Koh Chang, April 4, 1924 
and March 10, 1930; one female, Koh Kut, May 22, 1929; six males 
and one female, Nong Khor, near Sriracha, September 22-26, 1925, 
March 24, 1926; one male, Kao Seining, Krat, October 12, 1928; two 
males, four females, and one unsexed, Kao Sabap, Chantabun, 
January 6-9, 1930, October 24-November 3, 1933; one male, Nong 
Yang, November 4, 1931; two males and one female, Hupbon, 
November 2-15, 1931. 

The following specimens collected by Dr. W. L. Abbott are in the 
United States National Museum: Six mules and three females, 
Trang (Kao Nom Plu, 1,000 feet, February 23, 1897; Kao Nok Ram, 
2,000 feet, January 11-14, 1899; Kao Soi Dao, 3,000 feet, February 1, 
1899; two with only "Trang," February 3, 1897, and January 28, 1899); 
two males, Pulo Langkawi, December 2 and 8, 1899; four males, 
Mergui Archipelago (St. Matthew Island, January 17, 1900, and 
December 24, 1903; Sullivan Island, February 2, 1900; Ross Island, 
March 5, 1900); three males and one female, southern Tenasserim 
(Victoria Point, January 3 and March 31, 1900; Tanjong Badak, 
Januarys 7 and 10, 1900). He gives the soft parts as: Iris dark brown; 
bill leaden, dark above; feet fleshy brown. 

It will be noted that Dr. Smith's series came from southeastern 
Siam, while Dr. Abbott's came from southern Tenasserim and Penin- 
sular Siam. There appears to be little or no difference in color between 
the two series. The Peninsular series may average a trifle smaller. 

De Schauensee ^* records the form from Chiengmai, and Deignan ** 
records it from Doi Sutep, 3,000-3,500 feet, but this is more or less 
of a lowland form and Dr. Smith did not collect it in northern Siam. 
Count Gyldenstolpe *^ gives it as of general distribution throughout 
Siam proper. 

The form is found from southern Tenasserim through Peninsular 
Siam to the Malay States, southern and southeastern Siam to Cochin- 
china, and south Annam. 

In the mountains of the Malay States, from Perak to Negri Sembilan 
and Pahang, a larger darker form occurs, one so different, in fact, that 
it could very well rank as a species. It has been named C. o. sacculatus 
Robinson.^^ There is a possibility that it may be found in western 
Patani. 



" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 80, p. 508, 1928. 
" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 139, 1931. 
" Ibis, 1920, p. 494. 
''Ibis, 191S, p. 746. 



376 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

CRINIGER BURMANICUS Gates 

Criniger hurmanicus Gates, The fauna of British India, Birds, vol. 1, p. 256, 
1889 (Lower Burma). 

Recorded by Cliasen and Kloss/^ from the Raheng District, from 
where it had previously been recorded by Barton. 

One of the specimens recorded by Chasen and K!loss was later 
acquired by the United States National Museum through Dr. W. L. 
Abbott. It is not a form of tephrogenys, as they say, but a distinct 
species, related to flaveoius of the Himalayas and bartelsi of Java. 

The Raheng specimen is a female and very peculiar. The crest is 
unusually long; the throat and jugulum are white; the ear coverts, 
lores, forehead, and pileum are white with a slight brownish wash, the 
white showing through; the crest feathers drab ; lightly tipped with cit- 
rine; back citrine; upper tailcoverts a little lighter than the tail; tail 
brussels brown; breast, belly, and under wing coverts lemon-yellow; 
closed wing dresden brown with a yellowish wash; wing, 100 mm. 
There are some long hairlike feathers springing from the upper back, 
but specimens of bartelsi also have them. 

A specimen oi jlamolus resembles burmanicus in color, but crest is 
not so long and is of an entirely different color, dresden brown. C. 
hurmanicus gives the impression of having an almost white head. 

The range of C. burmanlcus is the hills east of the Salwin from 
Yametkin to Moulmein in Tenasserim eastward into western Siam. 

Lowe ^° reports finding it quite plentiful 30 miles east of Umpang. 

lOLE OLIVACEA OUVACEA Blyth 

lole olivacea Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 13, p. 386, 1844 (Singapore). 

One male, Tha Lo, Bandon, September 14, 1931. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected the following: One male, Prahmon, 
Trang, April 8, 1896; three males and one female. Lay Song, Hong, 
Trang, September 17, November 12, December 23, 1896, and January 
2, 1897. He gives the soft parts as: Iris grayish white; upper 
mandible dull black, lower mandible dull flesh; feet fleshy brown. 

This form occurs from Singapore northward to Bandon, Penin- 
sular Siam, and on some of the islands in the vicinity of the Straits 
Settlements. 

IDLE OLIVACEA CINNAMOMEOVENTRIS Baker 

lole virescens cinnamomeoventris Baker, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club. vol. 38, p. 16, 
1917 (southern Tenasserim). 

One male and one female, Sicliol, Bandon, September 4, 5, 1929; 
one male, Khun Tan Mountains, 4,300 feet. May 12, 1933. 

<» Journ. Siam. Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl , vol. 7, no, 3. 1028, p. 17-1. 
w Ibis, 1933, p. 267. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 377 

Dr. VY. L. Abbott collected three males and two females in the 
Mergui Archipelago in 1900 (Sullivan Island, February 4; Domel 
Island, February 23 and 27; Bentinck Island, March 12); two males, 
Trang (Chong, January 21, 1897; and Kao Nok Ram, January 4, 
1899). He gives the soft parts as: Iris gray, dark gray, or grayish 
white; upper mandible horn brown, low^er mandible pale leaden; 
feet pale fleshy brown. 

This form ranges from northern Siam south through Peninsular 
Siam to Trang, where it occurs along with olivacea, and it is a question 
whether it is a form of that species, belongs to some other form group, 
or is only a winter visitor. It can be distinguished from olivacea by 
being more yellowish below, with the under tail coverts clay color 
instead of straw yellow; the upper parts are huffy olive rather than 
light brownish olive; the bill is smaller, culmen about 17 mm. Culmen 
in olivacea, 18-19.5 mm, 

Robinson and Kloss ^' also found the two forms in Trang. 

The specimen from the Khun Tan Mountams agrees better with 
this race than any other occurring in Siam. It is in fresh plumage; 
through some accident it has lost its tail and is acquiring a new one, 
which is about half grown. The only differences between it and 
Peninsular specimens are the slightly grayer throat and larger bill of 
the former. The culmen in the male from Ivhun Tan Mountains 
measurs 17.5 mm. 

This extends the range of this form to the northward and into the 
territory occupied by propinqua; to the southward it occurs along with 
olivacea and brings up the question of whether these three forms should 
not be treated as species. 

lOLE OUVACEA PROPINQUA (Oustelet) 

Criniger propinquus Oustalet, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Paris, ser. 4, vol. 5, p. 76, 1903 

(Pamoii, Tonkin). 
Criniger lonnbergi Gyldenstolpe, Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 50, 

no. 8, p. 24, 1913 (Bang Hue Horn, northern Siam). 

One male, Doi Angka, December 3, 1928; one male and two females, 
Khun Tan, 4,000 feet, August 29 and September 7, 1930, February 25, 
1932; one male. Fluey Me Sae, December 24, 1932; one male, Sakeo, 
near Krabin, May 7, 1928; tw^o females, Hupbon, November 3 and 5, 
1931 ; four males and one female, Hin Lap, December 6 and 10, 1931; 
one male, Amphar Klong, Chantabun, Jtrnuary 4, ] 930; two males and 
a female, Kao Scming, Krat, October 10, 15, 1928; throe males, two 
females, and one unsexed, Kao Sabap, November 14-25, 1933. 

This series seems to agree with Cochinchina specimens examined, 
which are few and in rather poor condition. They are somewhat 
darker above than Siamese specimens, but when better material is 

»' Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Slam, vol. 8, p. 266, 1924. 



378 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

available from Tonkin, the Siamese and Tonkin races will likely be 
found to be the same. 

This form is quite different from cinnamomeoventris. The back is 
dull citrine rather than buffy clive; below the breast and belly are 
streaked with a clearer, deeper yellow; the under tail coverts are 
ochraceous-tawny rather than clay color. 

This is so different from the olivacea group that I am inclined to 
believe it belongs to a different species. 

This form ranges apparently from the Shan States, Burma, and 
Yunnan through northern Siam to Tonkin, Cocliinchina, Laos, and 
Cambodia. 

Deignan " found it to range on Doi Sutep from 2,000 to 3,500 feet; 
Aagaard " took a male on the same mountain at 4,600 feet. Dr. 
Smith's series illustrates the range of the species in Siam fairly well. 
In eastern and southeastern Siam it probably occurs at lower ele- 
vations. 

TRICHOLESTES CRINIGER CRINIGER (BIyth) 

Brachypodius (?) criniger Blyth (A. Hay MS.), Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 14, 
p. 577, 1845 (Malacca). 

One female, Sichol, Bandon, September 1, 1929; three males and two 
females, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, December 22-30, 1933. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected two males and one female at Lay Song 
Hong, Trang, August 15 and September 28 and December 24, 1896. 
He gives the bill as leaden, black along the culmen; feet pale greenish, 
fleshy or pale fleshy brown, claws horn brown. 

This form ranges from southern Tenasserim south tlirough Penm- 
sular Siam to Singapore and some of the islands of the China Sea as far 
as the Natunas. In Peninsular Siam it has been recorded from as far 
north as Tapli, Pakchan, and Tasan, Chumporn, by Robinson and 
Kloss.'* Closely related forms occur in Sumatra and Borneo. 

This genus is remarkable for the long hairlike feathers springing 
from the center of the upper back just below the nape. The feet seem 
to be very weak for a bird of its size. 

Apparently it is rare in the northern part of its range, becoming 
commoner in the south. 

ALOPHOIXUS PHAEOCEPHALUS (Hartlaub) 

Ixos (Trichixos) phaeocephalus Hartlaub, Rev. Zool., 1844, p. 4C1 (Malacca). 

One female. Ban Huey Ta, Kao Luang, Nakon Sritamarat, July 12, 
1928; one female, Sichol, Bandon, May 26, 1930. 

" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 140, 1931. 

" Ibid., p. 242. 

M Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 5, p. 272, 1924. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 379 

Dr. W. L, Abbott collected the following specimens in the Malay 
Peninsula: three males and four females, Trang (Prahmon, April 8 
and 10, 1896; Lay Song Hong, December 21, 1896, and January 1^ 
1897; Trang, January 27, 1897; Kao Soi Dao, 1,000 feet February 11, 
1899); two males and one female, Trengganu (Tanjong Laboha, 
September 29, 1900, and Tanjong Dungun, September 21, 1900); one 
male, Endau River, east coast of Johore, June 26, 1901; one male, 
Rumpin River, Pahang, June 20, 1902. He gives the soft parts as: 
Iris clear brown, dark brown, or dark red; bill blackish, lower mandible 
leaden; feet pale fleshy brown or dull orange. 

The species ranges from southern Tenasserim south through 
Peninsular Siam to Singapore, Sumatra, Banka, and the Natuna 
Islands. 

Robinson and Kloss ^^ record specimens from Tasan, Chumporn, and 
this appears to be the northern limit in Peninsular Siam; they have 
also recorded ^^ it from Kao Ram, 1,200 feet, Nakon Sritamarat. It 
is uncommon in the north but commoner in the southern part of its 
range. A closely related form is found in Borneo. 

MICROSCELIS PSAROIDES CONCOLOR (BIyth) 

Hypsipetes concolor Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 18, p. 816, 1849 (Ten- 
asserim) . 

Two males and two females, Doi Angka, 6,000-8,000 feet. Decern-- 
ber 4-6, 1928; seven males and eight females, Khun Tan, 3,000-4,300 
feet, October 23, 1929, February 16-March 1, 1932, May 10, and 12,, 
1933; four males and five females, Doi Nangka, November 18, 20,, 
1930, May 1-5, 1931; two males, Doi Hua Mot, August 26, 29, 1934;: 
one male, Doi Sutep, February 3, 1932. 

This form is very different from psaroides from the Himalayas but 
is linked to it evidently by nigrescens of Assam. 

M. p. concolor has a wide range occurring from Tenasserim, eastern 
Burma, Yunnan, and northern Siam, southeastward to Laos, Tonkin^ 
and Ann am. 

Specimens from Yunnan seem to average slightly darker above,, 
while the few examined from southern Annam are on the whole some-.- 
what lighter, though individual specimens can be picked out of the? 
fine Siamese series that match the southern Annam birds, yet there 
are none so dark as the darkest Yunnan specimen. These are very- 
variable birds, and it is unsafe to set up races on the strength of a 
few specimens. 

One of the females from Doi Nangka, May 2, is immature and 
quite different from an immature female previously described txoTt\ 
Yunnan.^^ 



« Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. .■;, p. 272, 1924. 

w Journ. Federated Malay St(ite.s Mus., vol. 11, p. 61, 1923. 

»' Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 70, art. 5, p. 22, 1926. 



380 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

It is a younger bird and may be described as follows: Above fuscous- 
black mixed with dark mouse gray, becoming a much lighter gray on 
the rump; cliin and cheeks deep quakcr drab with some fuscous feath- 
ers mixed in ; throat whitish the feathers tipped with drab ; remaining 
underparts neutral gray, the chest with some scattered fuscous feath- 
ers, the belly with some white down the center forming a line; wings 
fuscous-black, the feathers bordered narrowly on the outer edges 
with light cinnamon-drab; tail above dark quaker drab. 

Apparently this is not an uncommon bird in northern Siam. It 
has been taken previously on Doi Sutep and Khun Tan. On his third 
expedition de Schauensee ** secured a series at Chiengmai, Chiengdao, 
and IQum Tan; Lowe ^^ reports it from 28 miles east of Um Pang, 

CERASOPfflLA THOMPSONI Bingham 

Cerasophila thompsoni Bingham, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, vol. 5, p. 358, 
1900 (Loi San Pa, 6,500 feet, southern Shan States); Ibis, 1903, p. 592, pi. 12, 

One immature male, Doi Nangka, April 26, 1931; one immature 
male, Doi Hua Mot, August 22, 1934. 

The adult is a gray bulbul with the head and neck white; the under 
tail coverts chestnut; the bill and feet red in life; wing about 88 mm. 
Superficially it resembles another bulbul, M. leucocepkalus, also re- 
ported from the mountains of Siam and also gray in one of its plum- 
ages, with a white head and neck and red bill. The latter is a much 
larger bird; wing about 115 mm; wdthout chestnut under tail coverts. 

C. thompsoni is rare in collections. So far the immature is believed 
to be undescribed. The description of the above immature male from 
Doi Nangka is as follows: Alouse gray, lighter below, head and neck 
white, two bands of deep mouse gray from the nostrils over the head 
to the nape; another narrow gray stripe on each side from the lores 
over the eye separated from the gray band from the nostril by a 
narrow white line; rictal streak gray; the flight feathers washed out- 
wardly along the outer web with dark olive-buff; belly washed with 
olive-buff; under tail coverts avellaneous. 

The second male is similar, but older, the gray on the head is 
more irregular; some of the primaries have been replaced by new and 
dark brownish black feathers without the olive-buff edging. 

De Schauensee ^° took a male on Doi Sutep, 5,500 feet, December 
30, 1928. Deignan ^' collected one of a pair in March 1931 at the 
same place. Later ^^ he took two at 3,800 feet on Doi Sutep, May 13 
and 14, 1935; and one on Doi Angka, 5,000 feet, September 8, 1935. 

5' Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 201, 1934. 

"Ibis, 1933, p. 268. 

«> Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 81, p. 539, 1930. 

«' Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 140, 1931. 

*' Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 10, pp. 65, 109, 1935-36. 



BIRDS FRO]\t SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 381 

The species was described from the southern Shan States, Burma. 
The range has since been expanded to east central Burma and north- 
ern Siam. It seems to be a shy mountain species. 

IXOS HILDEBRANOI (Hnme) 

Hemixus hildebrandi Hume, Stray Feathers, vol. 2, p. 508, 1874 (Youngzaleen 
River, Salween District, Teiiasserim) . 

One male, Kao Lem, December 26, 1930; one male, Pang Meton, 
Doi Nangka, May 2, 1931 ; one male, Klmn Tan, 4,000 feet, February 
15, 1932; one male, Doi liua Mot, August 13, 1934. 

The United States National Museum has a pair from Phong Saly, 
Laos, that seem to agree with the above Siamese birds, 

Ixos hildebrandi ranges from the Salween and Karen Hills north 
into northern Siam and eastward into Laos. 

Williamson *^ records it from Muang Wang, northern Siam. De 
Schauensee ^* collected a series at Chiengdao and says it appeared 
very irregularly but that when it did occur it was in large flocks. 
Deignan ^* recorded it from Doi Sutep, 2,700-3,500 feet, under the 
name Pycnonotus hainanus. 

Ixos Jlavala of the Himalayas has the pileum gray, while in hilde- 
brandi it is black. Ixos davisoni has the pileum brown and the back 
a lighter brown. /. Jlavala and /. hildebrandi have gray backs. So 
far as known, the three do not intergrade and are sufficiently distinct 
to stand as species. 

IXOS MACCLELLANDI TICKELU (BIyth) 

Hypsipetes tickelli Bltth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 24, p. 275, 1855 (interior 
of Tenasserim). 

Two males, Doi Angka, 7,000 feet, December 6, 1928; one male, 
lOiun Tan, August 24, 1930; two males, Doi Hua Mot, August 23, 
September 1, 1934. 

De Schauensee '^'^ found it common on Doi Sutep, 4,500 feet; 
Deignan " gives it from the same mountain from 2,700 to 5,500 feet. 
Aagaard also took it there at 4,600 to 5,500 feet; ^^ Chasen and Kloss 
also record it from the Raheng District.^^ De Schauensee ^^ on his 
third expedition took a series at Chiengmai and Chiengdao. 

The form occurs from Karenni and the hills of east-central Burma 
to Muleyit, Tenasserim, and western and northern Siam. 

M Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 19, 1918. 

" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 202, 1934. 

"Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hi.st. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 141, 1931. 

" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 81, p. 539, 1930. 

" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 140, 1931. 

'* Chasen and Kloss, Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 242, 1932. 

M Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl. vol. 7, p. 174, 1928. 

'» Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 202, 1934. 

.33527—38 25 



382 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

IXOS CANESCENS Riley 

Ixos canescens Riley, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 46, p. 155, 1933 (Kao 
Kuap, Krat, southeastern Siam). 

One male and one female, Kao Kuap, Krat, December 24 and 26, 
1929. 

The form was described as similar to Ixos griseiventer (Robinson 
and Kloss) of southern Annam, but the pileum a lighter brown with 
the shaft streaks reduced and less conspicuous; the back much darker 
citrine; the tail above dusky toward the tip not citrine for its whole 
length; tail below dusky instead of citrine; under tail coverts darker; 
the chest a more brownish gray and the shaft streaks much reduced 
in width and cartridge buff instead of grayish white. Wing, 94; 
tail, 91.5; culmen, 20.5; tarsus, 18; middle toe with claw, 16.5 mm. 
This is a description of the male. 

The female measures: Wing, 92; tail, 86; culmen, 20; tarsus, 18; 
middle toe with claw, 16.5 mm. 

Ixos griseiventer and Ixos canescens do not belong to the same form 
group as tickelli but are distinct species. 

Dr. Smith took only two specimens of canescens. Its range is 
probably confined to southeastern Siam and northwestern Cambodia. 

IXOS MALACCENSIS MALACCENSIS (Blyth) 

Hypsipetes malaccensis Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 14, p. 574, 1845 
(Malacca). 

One not sexed, Kao Soi Dao, Trang, January 16, 1934. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected the following specimens in the Malay 
Peninsula: Six males and two females, Trang (Prahmon, April 9, 
1896; Lay Song Hong, September 8 and November 15, 1896; near 
Chong, January 24, 1897; Kao Soi Dao, 2,000 feet, February 12, 
1899, and just "Trang", February 3, 1897, January 5 and 24, 1899); 
one male, the Dindings, Straits of Malacca, April 13, 1900; one male, 
Rumpin River, Pahang, June 7, 1902. He describes the soft parts 
as: Iris pale brown; bill brownish black, pale near base of lower 
mandible; feet fleshy brown, claws horn brown. 

The form ranges from the Straits Settlements north through Penin- 
sular Siam to southern Tenasserim. 

Robinson and Kloss '^ record it from Peninsular Siam as far north 
as Tasan, Chumporn; Robinson ^^ records it from Pulo Telibun, 
Trang; and Kao Nawng, Bandon "; Robinson and Kloss '* from Kao 
Nok Ram, 1,200 feet, Nakon Sritamarat; Baker ''^ from Tung Song. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Slam, vol. 5, p. 265, 1924. 
'« Jonrn. Federated Malay States Miis., vol. 7, p. 173, 1917. 
" Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 5, p. 102, 1915. 
N Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 11, p. 61, 1923. 
M Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 196. 1919. 



BIRDS FROIM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 383 

IXOS CINEKEUS CINEREUS (Blyth) 

lole cinerea Bltth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 14, p. 573, 1845 (Malacca). 

One adult iinsexed, Kao Luang, 3,000 feet, Nakon Sritamarat, July 
14, 1928. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected five males and three females in Trang 
(Kao Norn Plu, 2,000-3,000 feet, February 20-26, 1897; Kao Soi Dao, 
2,000 feet, February 11, 1899; and Trang, January 21 and 28, 1899). 
He gives the soft parts as: Iris dark red (male) or dark brown (female); 
bill black; feet dark fleshy brown. 

This form occurs from Nakon Sritamarat south to Johore and 
Sumatra. Ogilvie-Grant ^^ records it from Patani; Baker" from 
Tung Song; Robinson and Kloss from Trang ^^ and Kao Nok Ram 
and Kao Luang, 2,000 feet, Nakon Sritamarat.^^ 

ALCUBUS STRIATUS (Blyth) 

Trichophorus striatus Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 11, p. 184, 1842 
(Himalaj'as, probably Darjeeling). 

One male, Doi Angka, 8,000 feet, December 6, 1928; one male and 
one female, Doi Nangka, April 27 and November 10, 1930; one 
female. Pang Meton (Doi Nangka), May 1, 1931; one male, Doi Hua 
Mot, September 1, 1934. 

Only two old unsexed specimens have been available for comparison, 
one from Nepal and one from Darjeeling. From these the Siamese 
specimens differ in the color of the crest. In the Indian birds it is 
olive-brown, while in those from Siam it is buffy olive. In the 
Siamese birds the lower back, rump, and wings are more greenish 
yellow and the edges of the feathers of the chest are grayish rather 
than brownish. There are other slight differences, but whether these 
would hold in a larger and better series of the Indian bird is problem- 
atical. 

Deignan ^° reports it uncommon on Doi Sutep at 5,500 feet, and 
later Aagaard secured it at the same place and elevation.^' De 
Schauensee reports it an uncommon bird in northern Siam, inhabiting 
the summits of the mountains.^^ 

The range of the species is from the Himalayas of Nepal to Assam 
and south through Burma to Manipur, Tenasserim, northern Siam, 
Yunnan, and northern Laos and northwest Tonkin. It is a mountain 
bird of high elevations, not descending below 4,000 feet in India even 
at the cold season. 



" Fasciculi Malayenses, pt. 3, p. 88, 1905. 

" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 194, 1919. 

" Ibis, 19U, p. 56. 

'» Journ. Federated Malay States Mus., vol. 11, p. 61, 1923. 

w Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 140, 1931. 

•' Chasen and Kloss, Journ. Slam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 243, 1932. 

M Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 202, 1934. 



384 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

MOLPASTES CAFER KLOSSI Gyldenstolpo 

Molpastes atricapillus klossi Glydenstolpe, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 41, p. 12, 
1920 (Koon Tan, northern Siam). 

One female, Chiengmai, November 26, 1928; one male, Doi Angka, 
3,000 feet, December 7, 1928; one male, Khun Tan Mountains, 2,000 
feet, November 2, 1928; one male, one female, and one unsexed, Khun 
Tan, October 20, 1929, and September 3, 1930; one female, Mae Hong 
Sorn, January 7, 1933; one male and one female, Pak Chong, February 
7, 1925, and April 29, 1926; one female, Nong Mong, Aluang Krabin, 
August 21, 1925; one female, Bua Yai, February 15, 1929. 

The small series from northern Siam compared with an equally 
small series from China {chrysorrhoides) averages grayer, less brown 
above, and the tails above are a deeper less brownish black. The 
Chinese form is somewhat larger also. 

The four birds from eastern Siam are brown above like chrysorrhoides 
but smaller even than northern Siamese specimens. They are inter- 
mediate in size but come nearer klossi, and so are placed here for the 
present. 

Two males, one female, and four unsexed from China measure: 
Wing, 91-102 (96.2); culmen, 17-18 (17.4) mm. Three males and 
three females, northern Siam: Wing, 88-95 (91.3); culmen, 15.5-17 
(16.1) mm. One male and three females, eastern and southeastern 
Siam: Wing, 84-90 (86.5); culmen, 15-17.5 (16.4) mm. 

This form evidently ranges from northern Siam to eastern, south- 
eastern, and western Siam and eastern Tenasserim. 

De Schauensee ^ reports it from Chiengmai, Doi Sutep, 4,500 feet, 
Chiengrai, and Chiengsen. He says in northern Siam it is a rare and 
local bulbul; on his third expedition ^* he secured specimens at Nakon 
Nayok, Metang, Khun Tan, Chiengdao, Sriracha, and Chiengmai; 
Chasen and Kloss ^ record it from the Kaheng district of western 
Siam, and three specimens from this collection are now in the United 
States National Museum. Robinson and Kloss **' say that W. J. F. 
Williamson obtained a series from Sriracha on the eastern side of the 
Inner Gulf of Siam. 

XANTHIXUS FLAVESCENS VIVIDUS Baker 

Xanthiscus flavescens vivida Baker, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 38, p. 16, 1917 
(Salwin District, Tenasserim). 

Three males and three females, Khun Tan, 4,000 feet, November 20, 
1928, February 22-March 4, 1932; one male, Doi Angka, December 3, 
1928; one male and one female, Doi Nangka, April 26, 27, 1931 ; three 

M Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 81, p. 540, 1930. 
M Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 86, p. 205, 1934. 
M Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 7, p. 175, 1928. 
" Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 6, p. 277, 1924. 



BIRDS FROM SIAM AND THE MALAY PENINSULA 385 

males, Doi Hiia Mot, August 24, 29, 1934; one male and one female, 
Ban Ta Pai, December 23, 1932. 

Kloss,*^ trusting to memory, thinks vividus Baker is a synonym of 
flavescens Blyth. Only one specimen of X. f. jlavescens Blyth from 
Assam and one of X. j. sordidiis Robinson and Kloss from southern 
Annam have been examined, and they are both quite distinct from 
the northern Siam form. Under the circumstances it is advisable to 
leave the latter where previous authors have placed it for the present, 
under Stuart Baker's name. X.J. vividus is a brighter, more yellowish 
bird on the breast and belly. 

Tw^o of the males from Doi Hua Mot are immature, but have nearly 
acquired the adult plumage; the squamate feathers are coming in on 
the forehead and crown. 

The form ranges from the Kachin Hills, Shan States, and south- 
eastern Burma to northern Siam. 

Williamson *^ records it from Doi Nga Chang, Lampang, and de 
Schauensee ^* secured it on Doi Sutep and later at Chiengdao and 
Khun Tan. 

OTOCOMPSA JOCOSA ERYTHROTIS (Bonaparte) 

Ixos eryihrotis Bonaparte, Conspectus generum avium, vol. 1, p. 265, 1850 (Java; 
error; probably Malacca). 

Two males and four females, Bangnara, Patani, May 9 and 19, 
1924, July 4-21, 1926; five males and four females, Bukit, Patani, 
January 21-27, 1931; two females, Yala, Patani, February 1-2, 1931; 
two males, Patalung, July 9, 1929; one male, Pak Bhayoon, July 11, 
1929; one female, Haad Yai, July 12, 1929; one male and one female, 
Nakon Sritamarat, September 26-27, 1926; one male, Kao Luang, 
Nakon Sritamarat, July 21, 1928; one male. Ban Ta Yai, July 9, 
1928; three males and one female. Bung Borapet, June 19 and 28, 
1932, March 24, 1933; one male, Petchabun, February 14, 1934; two 
males and two females. Nan, April 14, 15, 1930; four males, four 
females, and one unsexed, Ban Nam Kien, Nan, April 20-22, 1930 
one female, Lampang, November 17, 1928; one male and one female 
Chiengmai, November 24, 26, 1928; one male. Pang Meton (Doi 
Nangka), May 2, 1931; one female, Doi Hua Mot, August 29, 1934 
four males, Prae, April 10, 11, 1930; two males, Muang Pai, Decem- 
ber 28, 1932. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott collected the following specimens in the Malay 
Peninsula: Five males and three females, Trang (Prahmon, April 1, 
1896; Lay Song Hong, December 10, 1896; Chong, January 23, 1897; 

" Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, p. 243, 1932. 

M Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. 3, p. 19, 1918. 

»• Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 81, p. 639, 1930; vol. 86, p. 202, 1934. 



386 BULLETIN 17 2, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

near Kao Nom Plu, February 19, 1897; Trang, February 11 and 
March 7, 1897) ; and one female, Victoria Point, Tenasserim, January 3, 
1900. He also took a nest and three eggs at Trang, March 7, 1897. 
He describes the iris as dark brown, bill and feet black. 

No constant differences in color can be detected between specimens 
from Peninsular Siam and those from northern Siam. Sex for sex, 
the birds increase in size from the south toward the north, but the 
differences are slight so far as Siam is concerned. Specimens from 
French Indo-China seem to agree with Siamese birds in size and color. 

Ten males from Peninsular Siam measure: Wing, 78-8G (82.3); 
tail, 78-87 (82.3); culmen,